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Full text of "Annual report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration"

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ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



JOMMISSIONER GENERAL 
OF IMMIGRATION 



TO THE 



SECRETARY OF LABOR 



FOR THE 



FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 



1913 





WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

J9I4 



/ 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMISSIONER GENERAL 
OF IMMIGRATION 



TO THE 



SECRETARY OF LABOR 



FOR THE 



FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 



1913 




-^rtV^ 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1914 









REPORT 

OF THE 

COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Department of Labor, 
Bureau of Immigration, 

Washington, July 1, 1913. 
Sir: On the date of this report, July 1, 1913, I have occupied the 

Eosition of Commissioner General of Immigration for one month only, 
•uring 11 months of the fiscal year covered Hon. Daniel J. Keefe 
was the incumbent of said office. It was my intention to ask Mr. 
Keefe either to sign this report jointly with me or himself make a 
separate report covering the period of his incumbency; but before 
the text could be prepared Mr. Keefe had left the United States for 
an extended tour in the Orient and Europe. The best I can do under 
the circumstances is to call attention to the fact that most of the 
work mentioned and accomplishments shown were done and attained 
during his able and effective administration, and to give place herein 
to some of the views heretofore expressed by him regarding important 
phases of the enforcement of the several laws under which the bureau 
and service operate. In this connection there is inserted as Appendix 
IV (pp. 257-260, post) a statement made by him when retiring from 
office, to winch attention is directed for his views on the subjects 
treated therein. 

During the past fiscal year immigration to the United States, 
amounting to 1,197,892 aliens, has been much larger than in any 
fiscal year since 1907, and has been less than that shown for said 
year, the total for which was 1,285,349, by only 87,457, and exceeded 
that for the fiscal year 1912 by 359,720 and the average per year 
from 1908 to 1912 by 339,295. When it is remembered that during 
a considerable portion of the year a war was in progress in which a 
very large percentage of the able-bodied men of Turkey and the 
Balkan States were engaged, the number of immigrants entering this 
country seems the more remarkable. The year's net increase in 
population from immigration is 815,303, as compared with a net 
increase for the preceding year of 401,863, and for 1911 of 512,085. 
The aliens have not only come, but have remained in larger numbers 
than heretofore. 

It was found necessary and possible under the provisions of the 
immigration law to exclude 19,938 aliens during the year, amounting 
to 1.38 per cent of the total number (1,447,165) applying for entry. 
The principal grounds of rejection were: Likely to become a public 
charge, of which class 7,941 were excluded; afflicted with physical 
or mental defects affecting ability to earn a living, 4,208; contract 



4 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

laborers, 1,624; afflicted with contagious diseases or tuberculosis, 
2,564; and afflicted with serious mental defects, 753. 

Simultaneously with the rejection at the ports of the number of 
aliens above mentioned belonging to classes declared by the law to be 
inadmissible, it has been necessary to remove from the United States 
at considerable expense and trouble 3,461 aliens found here in viola- 
tion of law. This total was composed principally of 714 who became 
public charges within three years after landing, 464 who entered 
without inspection, 1,262 who were likely to become public charges 
at time of entry, and 55 1 who belonged to the immoral classe at times 
of entry or engaged in immoral practices after landing. 

When it is remembered that the foregoing results, in addition to 
other important labors of the bureau, have been accomplished during 
the past year with an appropriation of $2,225,000 (only about 53 
per cent of the amount collected as head tax on admitted aliens 
during the year), and that therefore the force of inspectors, doctors, 
interpreters, and other employees available to the service has neces- 
sarily been kept at a number wholly inadequate properly to perform 
the work required, no one can fail to realize that the year's results 
have been secured only by the most painstaking and thorough 
administration and constant application of the employees of the 
service to the particular duties assigned them. 

This bureau, in its present situation, may be likened to a great 
manufacturing plant, fully equipped, with the major cost of opera- 
tion fixed and unavoidable and with an output limited by failure to 
utilize its powers of production owing to insufficiency of funds to 
secure all the labor and material required to attain its maximum 
capacity. An institution so conducted operates at a loss, just as our 
service is doing, notwithstanding its thoroughness of organization and 
ability to approximate maximum efficiency in administration. 

Increased appropriations and a larger force of officers in the several 
stations as well as at the main office, and more Public Health sur- 
geons, with the necessary interpreters, to make possible a thorough 
inspection and a more strict enforcement of the law, are as important 
considerations in the effort to deal with immigration problems as the 
passage of new laws. New laws, no matter how well drawn, will not 
in the future, any more than such have in the past, accomplish the 
end sought unless necessary appropriations are made available for 
exercising the ample powers of the bureau to lessen the opportunity 
for the entry, as well as to facilitate the deportation, of the phys- 
ically, mentally, and morally defective. 

The full exercise of the powers of the bureau through the means 
above suggested would effectively regulate immigration, even under 
existing laws, as it would debar more aliens on primary inspection as 
well as after examination by boards of special inquiry, check illegal 
entries, and deport all hi the country not entitled to remain. 

As a consequence immigration would be much reduced, directly 
through these methods and indirectly by preventing the coming of 
those not clearly admissible who, warned thereby, would not risk the 
expense and loss of time required to come to our ports of entry. The 
latter are not deterred now, owing to the small percentage of debar- 
ments. 

The congested conditions in our cities, the result mainly of the 
concentration of our own people from interior sections and that of 



REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 5 

the numerous aliens who come from foreign lands, requires attention. 
The "back-to-the-land" movement has not had any appreciable 
effect in correcting the unfavorable conditions, labor and other, that 
often disturb our populous centers. 

Regulation of and reduction in volume of immigration from foreign 
lands are the ready expedients to remedy, particularly in the cities, 
an already difficult situation. 

We can not by law prevent our people from flocking to the cities, 
nor can we under the existing system, in order to overcome the same 
tendency in a large majority of immigrants, direct them after landing 
to certain localities where they may remain. We can, however, regu- 
late their coming. 

But how and in what way ? 

Some advocate the "illiteracy test," which, notwithstanding all 
that can be offered in its favor, has also, it must be conceded, its 
drawbacks. 

After all, manhood should be the test of admission and would 
constitute the ideal way of sifting immigration so as to admit none 
except altogether desirable aliens with the requisite physical, mental, 
and moral qualifications. 

As a rule the admitted aliens must, because of lack of knowledge 
of the English language and of existing conditions, earn their liveli- 
hood by manual labor. It is important, therefore, that they should 
be physically sound. In the bureau's judgment, the adoption of a 
physical test similar to that which recruits for the Army undergo 
would insure a suitable standard. The fact that more than 6,000 
applicants during the past 12 months were rejected as physically 
unfit under the existing law, notwithstanding that the requirements 
thereof and the funds and facilities for its enforcement were wholly 
inadequate, indicates that the physical standard now prevailing is 
far below what it should be. 

Irrespective of whether or not the illiteracy test is adopted, the 
standards of the law regarding physical and moral qualifications 
should be materially raised and the machinery for their enforcement 
extensively improved. 

Only in the event of more physicians and interpreters being pro- 
vided for the Public Health Service can the present law regarding 
mentally defective aliens be effectively administered. This subject 
is further considered later in this report. 

Except that section 2 of the present law should be made to apply to 
male as well as female aliens of the sexually immoral classes, and should 
otherwise in its provisions relating to the sexually immoral be brought 
into exact agreement with section 3, the law has been made suffi- 
ciently strict in its requirements regarding the sexually immoral. 
But criminals and anarchists are not reached as effectively as they 
should be. With regard to both the three-year limitation on the Gov- 
ernment's right to deport should be removed from the law; and with 
respect to criminals, rejection should be predicated upon the alien's 
having committed a crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude, 
rather than upon his having been convicted of or admitting its com- 
mission. Many members of the criminal classes come to the United 
States who have not been convicted or even indicted or arrested, 
though guilty, or of whose conviction no record can be produced by 
immigration officials; hence the necessity for this amendment. 



6 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Moreover, the law should provide for the deportation at any time 
of any alien who becomes an anarchist or commits a crime involving 
moral turpitude subsequent to his admission to the United States, 
and the definition of the term "anarchist" in the law should be made 
broad enough to include all aliens who advocate the destruction of 
property. 

STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION. 1 

The statistical tables form Appendix I of this report (pp. 37-148). 
These tables are so arranged and the data therein supplied is so exten- 
sive and detailed in its character that almost any branch of the immi- 
gration problem can readily be studied, in so far as affected by statis- 
tics, by carefully perusing and comparing the results indicated by 
them. The information furnished in several of these tables is worthy 
of particular note in the text. Some of the more important items 
have been mentioned, but are repeated for the sake of comparison 
with others here given. 

Tables I to V show, among other things, the following: Immigration 
for the past fiscal year amounted to 1,197,892, which is more than the 
total for the preceding year (838,172) by 359,720 aliens. The increase 
has occurred principally hi the months from July to November, 1912, 
each of those months recording more than 50 per cent increase, and 
June of last year, 91 per cent. Some increase was shown, however, 
for each month of the year, the smallest being 6 per cent in March, 
1913. In addition to the 1,197,892 aliens of the immigrant class 
above mentioned, 229,335 of the nonimmigrant class entered, making 
a total of 1,427,227. The departures during the year embraced 
611,924 aliens, 308,190 of whom were of the emigrant and 303,734 of 
the nonemigrant class. The net gain in population by immigration, 
therefore, was 815,303, as compared with 512,085 for the fiscal year 
1911, and 401,863 for the fiscal year 1912. While immigration has 
increased in the past year 43 per cent over the total for the preced- 
ing year, the rejections (shown by Table XVII) for 1913 were 19,938 
as compared with 16,057 for 1912, an increase of only 24 per cent, or, 
to make a more accurate and lucid comparison, 1.55 per cent of ap- 
plying aliens were rejected in 1912, while in 1913 only 1.38 per cent 
were rejected. 

Table VI shows the occupations of aliens entering and leaving the 
country in three groups — professional, skilled, and miscellaneous. 
Of common, unskilled laborers, 251,542 (220,992 immigrant and 
30,550 nonimmigrant) entered and 278,115 (191,604 emigrant and 
86,511 nonemigrant) departed, as against arrivals of members of 
skilled trades aggregating 192,978 (160,108 immigrant and 32,870 
nonimmigrant) and departures of the same aggregating 74,449 
(31,563 emigrant and 42,886 nonemigrant). 

Information with respect to sex, age, literacy, financial condition, 
how passage was paid, and whether coming to join a relative or 
friend are given in Table VII with respect to admitted aliens; while 

1 In the classification of aliens the terms (1) immigrant and emigrant and (2) nonimmigrant and non- 
emigrant, respectively, relate (1) to permanent arrivals and departures and (2) to temporary arrivals 
and departures. In compiling the statistics under this classification the following rule is observed: 
Arriving aliens whose permanent domicile has been outside the United States who intend to reside per- 
manently in the United States are classed as immigrant aliens; departing aliens whose permanent resi- 
dence has been in the United States who intend to reside permanently abroad are classed as emi giant 
aliens: all alien residents of the United States making a temporary trip abroad and all aliens residing 
abroad making a tempoary trip to the United States are classed as nonemigrant aliens on the outward 
journey and nonimmigrant on the inward. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OE IMMIGRATION. 



there are given in its counterpart, Table VII a, data regarding sex, 
age, and how long in the United States with respect to emigrant 
aliens leaving the country. 

Of the total number of immigrant aliens admitted (1,197,892), 
808,144 were males and 389,748 females; 986,355 were between the 
ages of 14 and 44, while 147,158 were under 14 and 64,379 were 45 
or over. 

Of those admitted, 269,988 (185,872 males and 84,116 females) 
could neither read nor write and 5,326 (2,842 males and 2,484 females) 
could read but not write. This does not include any aliens under 14 
years of age. The percentage of admitted aliens shown by these 
figures to have been illiterate is, therefore, 26 per cent. 

The total amount of money shown to inspection officers by arriving 
aliens was $40,890,197, or an average of about $34 per person. There 
is no way of determining what portion of this consisted of money 
sent applicants by relatives or friends in this country. Of those 
admitted 755,097 showed amounts of less than $50 each, so that 
of those able to demonstrate the possession of money, namely, 
906,917, about 83 per cent had in their possession less than $50 each. 

Of the aliens entering, 811,151 claimed to have paid their own 
passage, while 375,947 admitted that their passage had been paid by 
relatives and 10,794 admitted that it had been paid by persons other 
than relatives. From this information (known not to be absolutely 
correct) it appears that over 32 per cent of the total number admitted 
were assisted to reach this country. 

Table XVII shows that during the year 19,938 aliens were refused 
admission. The following comparative statement as to the principal 
grounds on which they were rejected is prepared for convenience and 
as a continuation of a similar illustration given in previous reports: 



Cause of rejection. 



Idiots 

Imbeciles 

Feeble-minded persons 

Insanity (including epileptics) 

Likely to become a public charge (including 

paupers and beggars) 

Afflicted withcontagious diseases 

Afflicted with tuberculosis 

Physically or mentally defective 

Criminals 

Prostitutes and other immoral aliens 

Procurers of prostitutes , 

Contract laborers 



189 

6,866 
3,822 



341 

18 

1 

1,434 



20 
45 
121 

184 

3,741 

2,847 

59 

870 

136 

124 

43 

1,932 



18 
42 
121 
167 

4,458 
2,308 
82 
370 
273 
323 
181 
1,172 



16 

40 

125 

198 

15,927 
3,033 
95 
312 
580 
316 
179 
1,786 



12 
26 
126 
144 

12,048 

2,735 

111 

3,055 

644 

253 

141 

1,336 



10 
44 
110 
133 

8,182 

1,674 
74 

2,288 
592 
263 
192 

1,333 



1913 



18 

54 

483 

198 

7,956 

2,457 
107 

4,208 
808 
367 
253 

1,624 



Table XVIII covers aliens expelled from the country, segregated 
into the three general classes, "Deportation compulsory within three 
years," "Deportation compulsory without time limit," and "Public 
charges within one year after entry, from subsequent causes," and 
under such general classification into specific causes for deportation. 
The total number of aliens expelled on deportation warrants was 3,461 , 
compared with 2,456 in 1912. All but 8 of these aliens were of the 
mandatorily excluded classes, said 8 having been deported by their 
own consent. Only 79 aliens were deported who had been in the 
United States more than three years, all of whom, of course, belonged 
to the sexually immoral classes. Of the remaining 3,374 expelled 



8 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

aliens, 2,019 were members of the excluded classes at time of entry, 
714 had become public charges from causes existing prior to entry, 
116 had become prostitutes after entry, 61 were found to be sup- 
ported bv or receiving the proceeds of prostitution, and 464 had 
entered without inspection. Of the 79 who had been here more than 
three years, 36 were immoral women, 4 were procurers, and 39 were 
being supported by the proceeds of prostitution. 

Tables XIX and XIX a cover appeals and applications for ad- 
mission under bond. During the year 6,947 appeals from excluding 
decisions were reviewed by the bureau and submitted to the depart- 
ment for final decision, 2,130 of the aliens being admitted outright, 
678 admitted on bond, and 4,139 ordered deported by affirming the 
decision of the board of inquiry. Dissenting board members took 55 
appeals from admitting decisions, in 34 of which the aliens were 
admitted outright, 2 admitted on bond, and 19 deported. In 101 
instances aliens applied direct for admission on bond, the cases not 
being technically appealable, 68 of which applications were granted 
and 33 denied. 

SOURCES OF IMMIGRATION. 

Referring to Table III (pp. 40, 41), it will be found that 182,886 
immigrant aliens came from northern and western Europe during 
the past year, divided as follows: Belgium, 7,405; Denmark, 6,478; 
France, 9,675; German Empire, 34,329; Netherlands, 6,902; Nor- 
way, 8,587; Sweden, 17,202; Switzerland, 4,104; England, 43,363; 
Ireland, 27,876; Scotland, 14,220; Wales, 2,745. The total of these 
figures constitutes about 15 per cent of the entire immigration. On 
the other hand, 896,553, or about 75 per cent, came from eastern 
and southern Europe and western Asia, divided as follows: Italy, 
265,542; Russia (principally southern), including Finland, 291,040; 
Austria, 137,245; Hungary, 117,580; Greece, 22,817; Turkey in 
Europe, 14,128; Turkey in Asia, 23,955; Portugal, 14,171; Spain, 
6,167; Bulgaria, Servia, and Montenegro, 1,753; Roumania, 2,155. 

Attention should also be directed to the fact that immigration 
from Asia (not including the extreme western portion included in the 
foregoing figures) amounted to 11,403, constituted of 8, 281 from Japan, 
2,105 from China, 179 from India, and 838 from other portions of Asia. 
This is 1 per cent of the total immigration. In 1912 this class of 
immigration was 1; in 1911, 0.8; in '1910, 0.8; in 1909, 0.7; in 
1908, 2.4; in 1907, 2.5; and in 1906, 1.4 per cent of the total immi- 
gration shown for those respective years. People from these sec- 
tions are of such widely different racial type from the main stock of 
our population that racial assimilation is extremely difficult, and, 
in addition, the races to which they belong are incapable of assimi- 
lation in the political sense, members thereof not being eligible for 
naturalization. 

ALIENS WITH PHYSICAL, MENTAL, OR MORAL DEFECTS. 

In a few respects immigration has been regarded in laws hereto- 
fore passed as undesirable on economic grounds. These economic 
reasons are discussed hereinafter. Aside from these grounds the 
existing law excludes from the country only those who do not attain 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 9 

certain physical, mental, or moral standards. Illustrations of this 
consist of the inclusion in the excluded classes of aliens suffering 
from loathsome and dangerous contagious diseases, from insanity, 
imbecility, epilepsy, or feeble-mindedness, and those who are morally 
defective in the sense of being anarchists, criminals, or sexually 
immoral. 

Under section 9 of the act a fine of $100 is assessed against any 
steamship line that brings to the United States an alien afflicted with 
a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease, tuberculosis, or certain 
mental defects (idiocy, imbecility, or epilepsy). This fine has been 
assessed in 302 cases in the past year, the sum collected being $30,200, 
of which $28,300 was on account of loathsome or dangerous contagious 
diseases, $600 on account of tuberculosis, and the balance on account 
of the mentally defective. 

During the past year 10,629 aliens physically, mentally, or morally 
below the legal standard have been returned to the coimtry of origin. 
Of these, 8,999 were excluded at the ports, divided into 2,564 with 
grave physical defects, 753 with grave mental defects, 4,208 with 
physical or mental defects not so serious but affecting ability to earn 
a living, and 1,474 morally defective. There were arrested and 
expelled from the country 1,630 such aliens, divided into 272 physi- 
cally, 677 mentally, and 681 morally defective. See Tables XVII and 
XVIII (pp. 106-113). In 1912, 6,653 aliens physically, mentally, or 
morally below standard were returned, 5,427 of whom were rejected 
at the ports and 1,226 arrested within the country. The 5,427 
defectives rejected in 1912 constituted 34 per cent of the total number 
debarred, while the 8,999 rejected at the ports during the past year 
constituted 45 per cent of the total number debarred. Those shown 
to have been rejected for grave physical causes, viz, 2,564, are divided 
into 107 for tuberculosis and 2,457 for loathsome or dangerous con- 
tagious diseases; the corresponding figures for 1912 being 74 and 1,674. 

Regarding mentally defective aliens the statistics show that during 
1913, 753 aliens suffering from serious defects of that nature were 
turned back at the ports, divided into 18 idiots, 175 insane, 54 
imbeciles, 23 epileptics, and 483 feeble-minded. The corresponding 
statistics for 1912 were 10 idiots, 105 insane, 44 imbeciles, 28 epileptics, 
and 110 feeble-minded, a total of 297. What the rejection of even 
this comparatively small number of the mentally defective means to 
the country can hardly be overstated. Yet it can readily be under- 
stood that here is a field in which much more might be accomplished 
if Congress would only furnish sufficient funds to make the examina- 
tion for mental defects more thorough. This must be accomplished, 
if at all, by detailing more Public Health surgeons to the duty of 
examining aliens for mental defects, and by providing the law and 
the means for more complete opportunity for observation for mental 
defects either before embarkation or on shipboard. 

Attention has been directed in previous reports to a misapprehen- 
sion regarding one provision of the law that relates to physically 
defective aliens. There seems to be a somewhat common impression 
that an alien suffering from a physical defect can not be excluded 
from the country unless there is evidence indicating that he is likely 
to be come a public charge. Those who hold this view overlook the 
fact that the act of 1907 contained a new excluded class, described 



10 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

therein as persons who are found to be, and are certified by the exam- 
ining surgeon as being, mentally or physically defective to an extent 
that interferes with their earning a livelihood. It will be noted that 
of this class 4,208 were rejected in 1913, compared with 2,288 in 1912. 1 

The criminal and the sexually immoral classes of aliens constitute a 
particularly difficult element to handle successfully under the law. It 
may be seen by examining the statistics (Table XVII) that 808 
"criminals," 367 immoral women, 253 procurers of women, and 4 
persons supported by the proceeds of prostitution were rejected in 
1913; also (Table XVIII) that 124 "criminals," 330 immoral women, 
121 procurers of women, and 100 persons supported by the proceeds 
of prostitution were apprehended in the country and deported. The 
total is 2,107, compared with a total of 1,457 for 1912, and 1,555 for 
1911. 

Anarchists are even more difficult to detect; but it is shown (same 
tables) that during the past year 2 were rejected and 4 arrested and 
deported. Although these numbers are small, it is commonly known 
that there are many alien anarchists in the United States. Such 
aliens are usually familiar with the provisions of the immigration 
law and keep under cover for three years after entry. When the 
limitation has run against the Government often their presence 
becomes known. The three-year limitation has been removed from 
the law in so far as the sexually immoral classes enumerated in section 
3 of the act are concerned (Bugajewitz v. Adams, 228 U. S., 585) ; and 
the bureau suggests like action concerning the anarchist, the criminal, 
and also all of the sexually immoral classes named in section 2 of the 
act, thus making it possible for the Immigration Service to remove 
them to the country of origin whenever apprehended. In this con- 
nection it should be remarked that 79 of the sexually immoral aliens 
deported during 1913 could not have been expelled from the country 
except for the removal from the law of the three-year limitation; and 
now that the Supreme Court has passed upon the question it will be 
possible materially to increase deportations in cases of this kind. 

Wherever possible, efforts have been made to prosecute those who 
have been connected with the importation and exploitation of the 
sexually immoral classes; and in this respect, as well as with regard 
to the expulsion of the aliens from the country the efforts of the 
immigration officials have been rewarded with a marked degree of 
success. 

HOSPITAL TREATMENT. 

Section 19 of the immigration act specifies that — 

"no alien certified * * * to be suffering from tuberculosis or from a loathsome 
or dangerous contagious disease other than one of quarantinable nature shall be 
permitted to land for medical treatment thereof in any hospital in the United 
States, unless with the express permission of the Secretary of (Commerce and) 
Labor." 

The words "unless with the express permission of the Secretary of 
(Commerce and) Labor" were not contained in the act of 1903. 
Section 37, as it appeared in the act of 1903, was a reasonable measure, 
allowing the Secretary to exercise discretion with regard to the deten- 

i In connection with the foregoing so much of the report of the commissioner at New York as relates to 
the physically and mentally defective should be read. (Appendix III, pp. 180-1S7.) 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 11 

tion and treatment of wives and minor children of aliens who had 
declared their intention to become citizens provided it appeared that 
the disease with which afflicted had been contracted on shipboard wliile 
en route to this country; but as this section was worded in the act of 
1907, and with the change above noted in section 19, as it appeared 
in that act, a situation has been created which frequently causes 
embarrassment . 

The law absolutely prohibits the admission to this country of aliens 
afflicted with a disease of this class, and penalizes the steamship lines 
if they bring to a United States port an alien so afflicted when it 
appears that the disease might have been detected by competent 
medical examination at the time of foreign embarkation. The spirit 
and intent of the law are opposed to the bringing of such diseased 
persons in the ships on which travel those who arc physically sound, 
and the dictates of common humanity as well object to such ac- 
tion on the part of steamship lines. All afflicted aliens should be cured 
beyond doubt before they are allowed to start on a journey to this 
country. Yet, the provisions in sections 19 and 37 above mentioned 
are distinctly calculated to encourage physically defective aliens to 
come to the United States in the hope of escaping detection at the 
port, or, if detected, of being allowed treatment here until cured on 
the plea that undue hardship is involved in deportation. This 
practice has a tendency to make steamship officials careless in the 
conduct of the medical examination on the other side. Appre- 
ciating this paradoxical condition of the law, and the severe hardship 
which results to the aliens, as well as the danger of spread of contagion 
resulting to the entire country, the bureau has always endeavored to 
reduce to a minimum cases in which hospital treatment is allowed. 
Liberality in such cases might be exercised when the treatment would 
be of short duration and the expense slight; but generally the diseases 
most frequently encountered (trachoma, favus, tinea tonsurans, 
etc.) are of such a stubborn nature that the doctors will not even 
venture an approximate estimate of the time required to effect 
a cure. Sometimes treatment is continued for many months with 
no appreciable effect upon the patient. All the wliile the expenses 
are accumulating, and, as in most instances the aliens' relatives or 
friends are in ordinary circumstances, the burden becomes very 
onerous. Besides in many cases, as the nature of the disease is such 
as not to require the patient to remain in bed, he soon becomes 
impatient and restless, and as a consequence is a disturbing element 
where quiet should prevail for the welfare of others who are bedridden. 
As the purpose of the Public Health Service is to detect disease rather 
than treat the afflicted excepting under unavoidable circumstances, 
treatment should not be allowed unless most urgent reasons are 
shown to exist for not returning the alien to the country whence he 
came. If treatment is given, it should be only in hospitals at the 
immigration stations under the direct supervision of the Public 
Health surgeons. 

With a view clearly to illustrate this matter, the bureau has com- 
piled from reports submitted by the officers in charge of the principal 
ports of entry the table following showing the hospital-treatment 
cases arising during the past fiscal year. 



12 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Cases in Which Hospital Treatment Was Granted under Sections 19 and 37 
op the Immigration Law, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913. 

NEW YORK. 



Aliens. 


Race- 


Age. 


Sex. 


Disease. 


Length 
of treat- 
ment. 


By whom 

expenses 

paid. 


Final disposition. 


1 2 


Syrian 

Hebrew 

Hungarian . . 

Hebrew 

Italian 

do 

Syrian 

German 

Syrian 

Hebrew 

do 

do 

Italian 

do 

do 

Polish 

Italian 

Hebrew 

Swedish 

Armenian. . . 

Hebrew 

Greek 

Armenian. . . 

Syrian 

Armenian. . . 

Hebrew 
do 

Syrian 

do 

Arabian 

Italian 

do 

Brazilian 

Italian 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Italian 

do 

Syrian 

Lithuanian . 

Hebrew 

Italian 


Yrs. 
9-6 
16 
8 
7 
11 
13 

11-10 

52 
11 
20 
22 

9 
15 
10 
11 

4- 

6 
20 
24 
22 

3 

6-7 

17 

7 
21 

7 
17 

20 
13 

9 
9 
24 

8 
20 
14 

9 
15 

9 

9 
37 
29 


M.,F... 
F 




M. 
11 
11 

7 
16 
4 
4 

{'! 

1 

12 
2 
3 
13 
2 
5 
1 
5 

2 
1 
2 
5 
6 
10 
1 
4 
2 
1 
5 

5 

4 

5 
4 
1 

7 
1 
1 
11 
6 
7 

3 


D. 

15 
15 
19 
24 
11 
16 
25 
26 
11 

5 
12 
20 

9 
27 
29 
28 
22 
19 
16 
18 
20 

2 

1 

22 

20 

24 

3 

28 

3 
17 

26 
6 

4 

24 
17 
17 
25 

14 

25 

6 

20 


Father 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

|..do 

Husband. . 

Father 

Relatives . 
...do 

Father 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Relatives . 

Husband.. 

Father 

...do 

...do 

Relatives . 

Father 

Relatives . 

...do 

...do 

Red Cross 
Society. 

Relatives . 

Father, 
Govern- 
ment. 

Father 

...do 

Brazilian 
consul. 

Relatives . 
...do 

Father 

...do 

...do 

Relatives . 

Father 

Husband.. 

Relatives . 


Futile; deported. 




do 




F 

M 


Tinea tonsurans. . . 
do 


Futile; deported. 




F 


...do 


Futile; deported. 




F 

M 






do 


Do. 




F 


do 


Do 




M 

M 

F 














do 


Do. 




F 

F 

F 


Tinea tonsurans.. . 


Under treatment. 
Do. 




do 






F 


do 


Do. 




M 

F 

F 


Tinea tonsurans. . . 


Futile; deported. 




do 


Do. 




F 


...do 


Do. 




F 


...do 


Do. 




M 

F 

F 


Tinea tonsurans. . . 


Futile; deported. 




do 






F... 


...do 






F 


...do 


Do. 




M 


...do 


Do. 




F 


...do 


Do. 




F 


...do 






F 


do 


Futile; deported. 




M.... 


...do 






F 


...do 


deported. 




M 


...do 


Do. 




M 

M 

F 


Gonorrhoea 


Cured and admitted. 




do 


Do. 




M 


do 


Do. 




F 


....do 


Do. 




F 


do 


Do. 




M . 


...do . 


Do. 




M... 


...do 


Do. 




F... 


...do 


Do. 




M... 


...do 


Payment defaulted; 








deported. 



BALTIMORE. 



1 1 


Hebrew 

do 

do 

do 

German 

Hebrew 

do 

German 

Polish 

Hebrew. . . . 

Polish 

Bohemian... 
Polish 

do 

German 


8 

11 
10 

rn,9 

\ 6 
10,5 
9 
/15, 11 

I 9 

10,8 

35 

/ 8,7 

I 4 

26 

6,4 

6 

11,7 
20 


F 

M 




21 

18 
11 

18 

8 
9 

10 

7 

12 

11 

2 
8 

9 
3 


13 

16 
16 

29 
21 

2 
18 


Pare nts 
and bonds- 
men. 

Father 

Friends . . . 

do 

Father 

...do 

...do 

Friends... 
...do 

Father 

Husband . . 

Father 

Pare nts 
and bonds- 
men. 

Father and 
bondsmen. 
Father 


Under treatment. 


1 1 


do 


Cured and admitted. 


1 1 


M 


...do 


Do. 


1 3 


J2F.,1M 

M.,F... 
M 


do 


Do. 


i 2 




Do. 


i 1 


do 


Do. 


i 3 


J2M.,1F 

M.,F 
F 

J2F.,1M 

F 

F 

M 

M 

M 


do 


Do. 


i 2 


.do 


Do. 


1 

3 
1 


do 

Tinea tonsurans.. . 


Do. 
Under treatment. 
Do. 


2 




Cured and admitted. 


1 




Under treatment. 


2 
1 


Tinea tonsurans. . . 


Do. 
Cured and admitted. 









1 Pending from last year. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



13 



Cases in Which Hospital Treatment Was Granted under Sections 19 and 37 
op the Immigration Law, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 



BOSTON. 



Aliens. 


Race. 


Age. 


Sex. 


Disease. 


Length 
of treat- 
ment. 


By whom 

expenses 

paid. 


Final disposition. 


i 1 

1 


English . . 
S yrian 

Hebrew, , 
Portuguese. . 


Yrs. 
5 

11 

11 

8 


M 

M 

F 


Tinea tonsurans. . . 


M. D. 
5 2 

3 7 

10 21 
10 13 


Father.... 
Mother 

Father 

...do 


Cured and admitted. 
Payment defaulted; 
deported. 


1 


do 


1 


M 


Tinea tonsurans. . . 


Futile; deported. 



PHILADELPHIA. 



1 1 


Polish 

do 

Hebrew 

do...... 

Italian 


40 
9 

8 
8 
20 

16 

11 

7 

6 

18 

30 

6 

11 

3 

2 

17 

15 

10 

10 

11 

20 

27 

10 

10 

10 

16 

28 

11 

10 

19 

10 

45 

8 

19 

11 

3 

9 

43 

15 

28 

33 

10 
7 

22 
17 
14 
9 
8 
30 
30 
25 

8 

9 

14 


F 

F 




16 
16 
24 
16 


Husband.. 

Father 

do 

Brother . . . 
Relatives . 

Sister 

Brother . . . 

Father 

Uncle 

Father 

Self 

Mother 

Uncle 

do 

do 

Father 

do 

do 

dc 

do 

Cousin 

Husband.. 

Father 

do 

do 

Brother... 
do 

Mother 

Brother . . . 
do 

Uncle 

Daughter . 

Brother... 

Friend 

Father 

do 

do 

Wife 

Father 

Cousin 

Brother-in- 
law. 

Uncle 

do 

do 

do 

Father.... 

do 

do 

Husband.. 
...do 

I n tended 
husband. 

I n tended 
s t e pfa- 
ther. 

Father 

Mother 




1 1 


do 


Do 


1 1 


M 


do 


Do 


1 1 


M 


do 


Do 


1 


M 

M 

F 




Escaped from hos- 
pital, surrendered 
by bondsmen, and 
deported. 






16 
24 
17 
19 
10 
18 
17 
13 
24 
24 
19 
17 
10 
17 
15 
14 
12 
15 
16 
23 
20 
17 
15 
15 
18 
17 
14 
16 
20 
19 
19 
18 
15 
14 
24 
17 

17 
17 
15 
15 
16 
16 
19 
9 
16 
19 

19 

15 
12 


1 Polish 


do 


Do 




M 


do 


Do 




Armenian. . . 

Hebrew 

German 

Syrian 

German 

do 

do 

Polish 

do 

Hebrew 

do 

do 

do 

Polish 

Hebrew 

do 

Polish 

Italian 

Russian 

Hebrew 

do 

do 

Italian 

Hebrew 
do 

German 
do 

Hebrew 

Polish 

German 

Syrian 

Polish 

German 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Lithuanian . 
do 

Hebrew 

do 

Polish 

German 

do 

Polish 

Italian 


M 


do 


Do 




M 


....do 


Do 




M 


do 


Do 




M 


do 


Do 




F 


do 


Do. 




F 


do 


Do 




M 


do 


Do 




M 


do 


Do 




F 


do... 


Do 




F 


do... 


Do 




M 


do... 


Do 




F 


do 


Do 




F 


do... 


Do 




F 


...do... 


Do 




M 


do 


Do 




M 


...do... 


Do 




F 


do... 


Do 




M 


..do... 


Do 




M 


...do... 


Do 




M 


...do... 


Do 




F 


...do... 


Do 




M 


do 


Do. 




F 


...do 


Do 




M 


do 


Do. 




F 


do... 


Do. 




M 


...do... 


Do 




F 


do 


Do. 




F 

M 


do 

do 


Do. 
Do. 




M 


do 


Do. 




M 


do... 


Do 




M 


do 


Do. 




F 


do 


Do. 




M 


do 


Do 




M 


do... 


Do 




M 


do 


Do. 




F 


do 


Do. 




M 


do 


Do. 




M 


...do... 


Do 




M 


do 


Do. 




F 


do 


Do. 




F 


...do... 


Do 




F 


....do 


Do. 




F 


do 


Do. 




F 


do 


Do. 




F 


do 


Do. 









1 Pending from last year. 



14 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Cases in Which Hospital Treatment Was Granted under Sections 19 and 37 
of the Immigration Law, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

NEW ORLEANS. 



Aliens. 


Race. 


Age. 


Sex. 


Disease. 


Length 
of treat- 
ment. 


By whom 

expenses 

paid. 


Final disposition. 


11 


Hebrew 

do 


Yrs. 
15 
15 
16 
16 


F 

M 


Trachoma 


M. D. 
12 

3 12 
5 15 

6 


Father 

...do 

...do 

...do 




il 


do 




1 


M 


...do 


Do 


1 


M 


do 













GALVESTON. 



Bohemian. 



Trachoma. 



Son-in- 
law. 



Cured and admitted. 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



' 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Aliens treated for uncinariasis (hookworm): 2 

Japanese 


96 

339 

6 

10 
12 


377 
20 


473 


Chinese 


359 


Hindu 


6 


Aliens treated for trachoma: 2 

Japanese 


11 
2 


21 


Chinese 


14 






Total 


463 


410 


3 873 







SEATTLE. 



Aliens treated for uncinariasis (hookworm): 

Japanese 


41 

21 

1 


296 


337 




21 


Hindu 




1 


Aliens treated for trachoma: 

Japanese 


2 


2 








Total 


63 


298 


3 361 







1 Pending from last year. 

2 Average length of treatment for trachoma, 1.8 weeks; for uncinariasis, 1.5 weeks. 

3 In two of the above cases the same patient was treated for both trachoma and uncinariasis. 

From an analysis of the figures for New York, which may be said 
to represent average conditions, it will be observed that of the 42 cases 
reported (involving 45 aliens) 18 were cured and the aliens landed, 
while 16 are still under treatment, and in 8 cases treatment was found 
to be futile or the relatives became unable or unwilling to bear further 
expenses. The average length of time required to effect a cure in the 
18 cases wherein that result was attained was 4 months. Among the 
cases still pending 1 has now been treated for over 16 months; 2 for 
over 12 months; 2 from 10 to 12 months; and 6 for 5 months or more, 
and it is impossible to state how much longer treatment will have to be 
continued in order to effect cures; while 6 of the 8 cases deported 
had been under treatment from 5 to 11 months. The above clearly 
shows that in many of the cases it would have been more satis- 
factory to all concerned to have insisted that the aliens return to 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 15 

their native countries for treatment, where it can be secured at home 
or in public clinics at a less cost than at our hospitals. When the 
privilege of undergoing treatment has once been accorded and the 
funds available to the aliens or their friends have been exhausted, the 
service finds itself in a somewhat embarrassing position, and the aliens 
are much worse off than they would have been had their petition been 
denied. Moreover, denial of such petitions materially aids good 
administration by discouraging aliens and steamship lines from taking 
action which produces these embarrassing cases. 1 

It will be noted that at Philadelphia, where 55 cases of trachoma 
were under treatment during the year, "cures" were effected much 
more rapidly than elsewhere. In most of those cases the "grattage 
operation" for the "radical cure" of trachoma was performed. Sur- 
geons located at other ports do not advocate the use of said operation; 
and the bureau, from all the information it has so far been able to 
obtain, is exceedingly skeptical concerning these so-called cures. 

ALIENS EXCLUDABLE OR SUBJECT TO DEPORTATION ON ECONOMIC 

GROUNDS. 

Aliens who by the terms of the law fall under this heading consist 
of those found on arrival to be paupers, persons likely to become a 
public charge, contract laborers, induced immigrants, and assisted 
immigrants. Unlike those discussed under the two preceding head- 
ings, they are undesirable principally for economic reasons, ranging 
all the way from interf erence with labor conditions in this country to 
becoming a burden on the taxpayers thereof. 

One of the chief objections to an abnormally large immigration is 
the effect it has upon the American standard of wages and living 
obtaining among the laboring classes, both skilled and unskilled. 
As the economic welfare of a country must be measured ultimately to 
a very large degree by the success of its laboring classes, it is a 
patriotic appreciation of this axiom rather than selfishness that makes 
the laboring elements and those interested in their behalf, advocates 
of restriction of immigration. 

PAUPERS AND ALIENS LIKELY TO BECOME PUBLIC CHARGES. 

The rejection of paupers and persons likely to become public 
charges is based upon the principle that the State and municipal gov- 
ernments in this country ought not to maintain, at the expense of 
their taxpayers, the indigent and destitute belonging to other coun- 
tries. In the view of the law it makes no difference whether the 
aliens are actually paupers when they are brought here or become 
such within so short a tune after entry as to show that their destitu- 
tion here is the result, not of local conditions and environment, but 
of their own inherent inability to maintain themselves. Formerly 
the period within which deportation to country of origin could be 
effected if an alien became a public charge was fixed at one year. 
Since 1903 it has been fixed at three years. In view of the extent to 
which immigration has increased, even three years falls considerably 
short of what might be regarded a reasonable time limit within 

1 In connection with the foregoing, so much of the repcrts of the commissioners at New York and Balti- 
more as relates to hospital treatment should be read (Appendix III, pp. 180-187 and 194-199). 



16 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

which it could be held that the public-charge status was the result 
of conditions existing prior to entry; and the bureau has suggested 
on several occasions that the time should be increased. It should 
be raised at least to correspond to the period of residence required 
under the naturalization law, to wit, five years. 

In the fiscal year 1913, 7,941 aliens, or about 40 per cent of the 
entire number rejected, were excluded at United States ports as likely 
to become public charges, compared with 8,152, or 51 per cent, in 
1912 (Table XVII, pp. 106-109). Moreover, in 1913, 714 aliens who 
had become public charges were arrested and deported, while 1,262 
others were removed from the country on the ground that they were 
likely to become public charges at the tune of admission (a fact not 
then discovered)— a total of 1,976 (Table XVIII, pp. 110-1 13). Under 
rule 24 of the immigration regulations 8 aliens were removed to their 
native countries at their own request and in accordance with authority 
conferred by the statute upon the Commissioner General to extend 
assistance and protection to admitted aliens (Table XVTII, pp. 110- 
113). The advantages derived from this rule are that the communi- 
ties in which the aliens have become public charges are relieved of 
the burden of their maintenance, and simultaneously the desire of the 
alien to be repatriated is satisfied. These were, of course, cases in 
which it appeared that the causes of the aliens' distress had arisen 
subsequent to entry. 

ALIEN CONTRACT LABORERS. 

The debarment during the past fiscal year of 1,624 alien contract 
laborers (Table XVII, pp. 106-109) compared with 1,333 in 1912, and 
the arrest and expulsion from the United States of 54 such aliens 
(Table XVIII, pp. 110-113), compared with 31 in 1912, is only a very 
meager indication of the good work which has been done under the 
provision of law relating to this subject. 

If space permitted, there could be incorporated at this point (as 
was done in several of the former reports of the bureau) a number 
of concrete illustrations showing not only the facts that led to the 
deportation of the aliens involved, but valuable results attained in 
the courts, where many prosecutions and suits have been brought, 
with varying but on the whole satisfactory results. No pains are 
spared with a view to see that these provisions of the law relating 
to contract laborers are given effect to the end that the protection 
Congress has provided shall be extended to the laborers, skilled and 
unskilled, resident in this country. There are now engaged exclu- 
sively upon the work of enforcing these particular provisions of the 
law 16 inspectors, employed in accordance with section 24 of the 
immigration act, and, of course, all of the regular inspectors enforce 
said provisions as well as the other provisions of the law. 

It should be stated here that during the past fiscal year fines have 
been collected under the alien contract labor provisions which almost 
equaled the $50,000 specially appropriated for this purpose under 
section 24 of the act. 

It is sometimes found advisable in cases in which suit has been 
instituted to recover the statutory penalty for violating the alien 
contract labor provisions to compromise with the defendants. In 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 1'7 

agreeing to compromises of this nature all the facts are carefully 
considered and the compromise is not authorized unless this bureau, 
with the approval of the Secretary and the Department of Justice 
conclude that substantial justice will be administered. The principal 
determinative factors are: (a) Whether the violation was deliberate 
and premeditated, or unintentional and technical; (b) whether the 
sum offered in compromise practically equals the statutory penalty, 
less the expense which the Government would have to incur m press- 
ing the suit to trial; (c) whether the case is in such condition, with 
respect to possibility of introducing evidence, etc., as to make a com- 
promise advisable from the Government's point of view. In illus- 
tration of this, the bureau might mention the case of Francis Willey 
& Co., a manufacturing concern of New England, by which a number 
of aliens were imported, the suit against which was compromised by 
accepting the sum of $20,000 from the firm, a number of the aliens 
involved being deported. 

INDUCED IMMIGRATION. 

Vigilance to prevent the entry of the induced classes of immigration 
has not been relaxed in the least during the past year; and many of 
the 7,941 shown (Table XVII) to have been excluded as likely to 
become a public charge, as well as of the 1,624 rejected as contract 
laborers, fell within said classes. But, notwithstanding the continu- 
ous efforts to detect cases of this kind, it is confidently believed that 
many of the aliens who gain admission really belong to the induced 
classes. The inducement is not always an offer of employment by a 
transportation company or others selfishly intending to exploit the 
immigrant, but frequently is merely the extension of financial assist- 
ance — mentioned more particularly under the next heading — or the 
raising of false hopes in the alien's breast, or even an incident to 
efforts, not of the alien himself but of some person or organization 
interested in him. And here is found the origin of one of the most 
difficult tasks of the Immigration Service, as it is not always possible 
to show by the actual production of evidence that the inducement to 
the immigrant has been an offer or promise of employment. If our 
immigration is to be kept upon a natural, unstimulated plane — and 
such is the evident purpose and spirit of the law — the law must be 
made to reach these branches of induced immigration as well as that 
induced directly by a promise of employment. In other words, our 
immigration should be voluntary — the result of a personal desire on 
the part of the alien to better his condition — and all inducements to 
immigrants not strictly of a family nature should be discouraged or 
absolutely prohibited. 

ASSISTED IMMIGRATION. 

If a corporation, association, society, municipality, or foreign 
Government assists an alien to immigrate, by either direct or indirect 
means, the alien is excluded by the terms of the law. Assistance by 
an individual merely operates to place the alien in a situation where 
his proofs of eligibility to enter must be of an affirmative and satis- 
factory nature. The law regards assisted immigration as undesirable, 
7686°— 14 2 



18 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

not only because assistance is another means and method of induce- 
ment, but because, generally speaking, the fact that an alien has to 
be assisted to meet the comparatively small expense involved in 
immigrating under modern conditions carries with it an imputation 
of penury and undesirableness. Nevertheless, a great deal of the 
present-day immigration is of this assisted character. Thus of the 
aliens who entered during the past fiscal year, 811,151 claimed to 
have paid their own passage, while 375,947 stated that their passage 
had been paid by relatives, and 10,794 that it had been paid by 
persons other than relatives. In the previous fiscal year the corre- 
sponding figures were 536,802, 289,657, and 11,713. While informa- 
tion obtained as this is can not be regarded as absolutely reliable, the 
percentage of inaccuracy therein is not sufficient to destroy the value 
of the figures, and it may be safely assumed that the statistics under- 
state rather than overstate the number of aliens assisted. It will be 
observed that according to these figures over 32 per cent of the immi- 
gration during the past year was assisted, compared with 36 per cent 
in the fiscal year 1912; 33J per cent in 1911, and 25 per cent in 1910. 

So far as the figures given above merely illustrate the kindness 
and philanthropy of aliens living in this country in sending for 
relatives or friends poorly situated abroad, they constitute a cred- 
itable fact; but that is not the principal pomt involved, which is 
that they show that a considerable part of our immigration is of a 
class that could not migrate at all unless aided by relatives or friends 
already here or by others interested to obtain the services of the 
aliens at wages lower than the American standard. Of course, where 
the assistance is extended by an individual, exclusion is never based 
solely on that fact, but the assisted alien is merely required to make 
an affirmative showing, which frequently he can easily do. But 
where the assistance is rendered by a corporation or other like con- 
cern or is merely a part of a plan to induce and stimulate immigra- 
tion, it is given great weight in enforcing the law, and is usually 
considered sufficient of itself to exclude. 

Assistance of immigration and inducement thereof are clearly re- 
lated subjects, and if our immigration is to be kept upon a healthful 
voluntary plane assistance other than that of a strictly family nature 
should be prohibited, and even where an alien located here sends for 
a relative and pays his passage, admission, if otherwise admissible, 
should occur only upon a very clear showing that the alien will be able 
to get along in the United States, or upon bond in proper instances 
where any doubt exists. 

NATURALIZATION. 

Under the act of Congress establishing the Department of Labor the 
branch of the Government service charged with the duty of enforcing 
the naturalization laws, which was formerly a division of this bureau, 
has been made a separate bureau, the title of the chief thereof 
having been changed to Commissioner of Naturalization. The prac- 
tice heretofore obtaining of publishing the report of that officer as 
an appendix to the report of this bureau is of course abandoned, and 
for information regarding all naturalization questions reference should 
be had to the report of the Commissioner of Naturalization, which, 
under the law, will be published separately. The bureau proper, at 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 19 

any rate, never took an active part in the enforcement of those laws, 
but left the conduct of the division almost entirely to the supervision 
of the chief thereof, and the provision of law constituting the division 
a separate bureau is welcomed as a wise adjustment of the public 
business. 

DISTRIBUTION OF IMMIGRANTS. 

With respect to the distribution of aliens, attention is directed to 
the report of the Chief of the Division of Information, printed as 
Appendix II hereof. This is a very important phase of the immigra- 
tion problem. There can be no question but that many of the evils 
that grow out of our present excessive immigration would be remedied, 
or at least alleviate of, if the congestion of aliens in our large centers of 
population could be broken up. Distribution of admitted aliens, 
therefore, even from this standpoint, is a thing much to be desired. 
Moreover, there are still certain sections of the United States that need 
accretions to their population, especially of laboring classes, more 
particularly of those who will work on the farms. If some detailed 
plan could be devised whereby aliens could be directed to those places 
without disturbing labor conditions elsewhere, a great good would 
be accomplished. Three chief difficulties exist, however, to the 
success of plans of this kind: (1) The labor required is to a consider- 
able extent merely seasonal, and usually neither aliens no more than 
natives care to go to any great distance to accept temporary employ- 
ment even though high wages are offered; (2) opportunities for using 
any plans having in view the distribution of foreign laborers are always 
more or less open to the objection that labor conditions, already un- 
certain in many ways, are disturbed by any action that involves arti- 
ficial interference with the "natural operation" of the law of supply 
and demand; (3) in many sections of the country in need of immi- 
gration to aid development of agricultural and promote other indus- 
trial pursuits, the desire seems to be for settlers who will invest in 
lands and establish homes rather than for laborers. 

It will be seen from the report of the Chief of the Division of 
Information that, along certain conservatively restricted lines, con- 
siderable has been accomplished, despite the aforementioned diffi- 
culties, toward placing admitted aliens advantageously to themselves 
and to others concerned. 

JAPANESE IMMIGRATION. 

The general provisions of the immigration law apply to Japanese 
in the same manner as to all other aliens. Separate statistics are 
kept of Japanese only so far as some special provisions of the law 
regarding alien laborers leaving their native countries with passports 
of a limited natureniake the keeping of such statistics necessary and 
desirable. A proviso to section 1 of the immigration act authorized 
the President, whenever satisfied that passports issued by any foreign 
Government to its citizens to go to any country other than the 
United States are being used for the purpose of enabling the holders 
to come to the continental territory of the United States to the 
detriment of labor conditions therein, to refuse to permit such 
foreign laborers to enter the continental territory of the United 



20 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

States. The President's proclamation on this subject was reissued, 
in slightly revised form, on February 24, 1913, and reads as follows: 

Whereas, by the act entitled "An act to regulate the immigration of aliens into the 
United States," approved February 20, 1907, whenever the President is satisfied that 
passports issued by any foreign Government to its citizens to go to any country other 
than the United States or to any insular possession of the United States or to the Canal 
Zone, are being used for the purpose of enabling the holders to come to the continental 
territory of the United States to the detriment of labor conditions therein, it is made 
the duty of the President to refuse to permit such citizens of the country issuing such 
passports to enter the continental territory of the United States from such country or 
from such insular possession or from the Canal Zone; 

And whereas, upon sufficient evidence produced before me by the Department of 
Commerce and Labor, I am satisfied that passports issued by certain foreign Govern- 
ments to their citizens or subjects who are laborers, skilled or unskilled, to proceed to 
countries or places other than the continental territory of the United States, are 
being used for the purpose of enabling the holders thereof to come to the continental 
territory of the United States to the detriment of labor conditions therein; 

I hereby order that such alien laborers, skilled or unskilled, be refused permission 
to enter the continental territory of the United States. 

It is further ordered that the Secretary of (Commerce and) Labor be, and he hereby is, 
directed to take, through the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization, such measures 
and to make and enforce such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry this 
order into effect. 

For purposes of easy comparison the plan followed in previous 
reports in presenting comment on the statistics regarding Japanese 
immigration is again adopted here: 

Table A shows an increase in the number of Japanese admitted to 
both the continent and the Territory of Hawaii. However, the 
figures shown by said table should be compared also with those for 
1908, the first year the system under the proclamation and Rule 
11 of the Immigration Regulations and understanding with Japan 
became operative, in which year 9,544 Japanese were admitted to 
continental United States and 8,694 to Hawaii, with 643 debarred 
at the ports of the former and 60 at the ports of the latter. In 1911 
the corresponding figures were 4,282, 2,159, 46, and 34; while those 
for 1912 were 5,358, 3,231, 103, and 63, respectively, and those for 
1913 are 6,771, 4,901, 88, and 180. Therefore, the number of Japa- 
nese admitted to the mainland and Hawaii, respectively, in 1913 was 
about 71 and 56 per cent of the number for the year 1908, and about 
26 and 52 per cent, respectively, more than the number, shown for 
1912. 

Table B furnishes a means of comparing the immigration and 
emigration of Japanese in 1912 with that of the past year, by 
months. 

Table C gives in some detail the occupations of Japanese who have 
entered and left the country during the year, divided roughly into 
professional, skilled, miscellaneous, which includes common laborers 
and those having no occupations (including women and children). 
The total number admitted to the mainland, for each of these classes, 
respectively, is 309, 301, 3,477, and 2,684; to Hawaii, 209, 126, 
4,062, and 504. 

A comparison of the records of Japanese immigration and emigra- 
tion kept by the bureau with similar records compiled by the Jap- 
anese Government is given in Table D. The variation between this 
and other tables is partially explained by the fact that this table is 
compiled from records of embarkation and debarkation, whereas the 
others relate to entries and departures recorded at United States ports 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 21 

Table E shows that during the past year 6,859 Japanese applied 
for admission to continental United States, of whom 6,771 were 
admitted and 88 debarred. Of the total number applying, 6,715 
were and 144 were not in possession of proper passports. Of the 
6,715 holding proper passports, 6,673 were found on examination to 
belong to the classes entitled by the understanding to receive pass- 
ports and the remaining 42 were found on examination not to fall 
within such classes. The 6,673 entitled to passports consisted of 
2,837 former residents, 3,083 parents, wives, and children of residents, 
and 739 new arrivals, who were nonlaborers, together w T ith 14 settled 
agriculturists. The 42 in possession of passports, although appar- 
ently not entitled thereto, were foimd to be laborers and not to be 
former residents, parents, wives, or children of residents, or settled 
agriculturists. Of the 6,859 applying for admission, 4,087 were 
males, and 2,772 were females. Of those applying for admission 
on the claim of relationship, 44 were "parents," 642 were "children," 
and 2,397 were "wives" of residents. Of the passports presented, 
1,192 gave the holders' occupation as of a nonlaboring character, 184 
gave such occupation as laboring, and 5,339 failed to state occupa- 
tion. This table also furnishes other interesting pertinent details 
regarding the passports and the aliens presenting them, which it is 
not necessary to emphasize in the text. 

Information similar to the above regarding the Territory of Hawaii 
is supplied by Table F. During the year 5,081 Japanese applied at 
Honolulu, 4,901 of whom were admitted and 180 debarred. All but 
12 of the 5,081 applicants had passports. Of the 5,069 holding pass- 
ports, 4,902 were entitled thereto under the definitions set forth in 
the table and 167 were found upon examination not to fall within 
such definitions. Of the 4,902 entitled to passports, 1,281 were 
former residents and 3,621 were parents, wives, or children of resi- 
dents. The 167 not entitled to passports consisted of 20 laborers 
and 147 nonlaborers who were neither former residents nor parents, 
wives, or children of residents. 

Of the total number of Japanese shown by Tables E and F to have 
been admitted to the country during the year (11,672), 6,237 were 
nonlaborers and 5,435 were laborers. 

In connection with the statistics similar to the foregoing furnished 
in the last annual report, particular attention was directed to the 
fact that 4,328, or over 50 per cent, of the Japanese admitted during 
1912 were females. During the past year 5,484, or 47 per cent, of 
those admitted were females. The following contained in the last 
annual report on this subject needs to be repeated and emphasized: 

Many of these were what are known as "proxy" or "photograph" brides, i. e., 
women who have been married, under a custom existing and recognized as legal in 
Japan, to men living in this country whom in many instances they have never seen, 
the marriage being arranged between the heads of the families of the bride and bride- 
groom. Of the aliens treated in hospital for dangerous contagious diseases, men- 
tioned under a previous heading of this report (p. 7), 681 were Japanese females, 1 
the majority of whom were "proxy" or "photograph" brides. Passports are given 
tnese women on the ground that they are coming to continental United States to join 
a husband, the arrangement with Japan contemplating that where a Japanese laborer 
is migrating for the purpose of joining a member of his immediate family the pass- 

1)ort may be issued. Most of the women, while they do join the husband, are farm 
aborers and immediately become colaborers with their husbands on the farms where 

1 The figures for this year are 684. 



22 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

the latter are employed or which they are conducting. As these " proxy " or "photo- 
graph" marriages would not, of course, be recognized as valid in any of the States 
of this country, the men to whom these women are going are required to meet them 
at a seaport and go through a ceremony of marriage legal in the United States. * * * 
But the bureau feels that two facts growing out of this situation should not be over- 
looked by those interested in the economic phases of the immigration problem: (1) 
The practice of furnishing the passport to these women and admitting them on the 
basis of the passport and a marriage performed at the port opens the way for the intro- 
duction into continental United States of large bodies of common laborers — females, 
it is true, but none the less competitors of the laborers of this country; and (2) this 
practice must necessarily result m constituting a large native-born Japanese popula- 
tion — persons who, because of their birth on American soil, will be regarded as Ameri- 
can citizens, although their parents can not be naturalized, and who, nevertheless, 
will be considered (and will probably consider themselves) subjects of the Empire 
of Japan under the laws of that country, which holds that children born abroad of 
parents who are Japanese subjects are themselves subjects of the Japanese Empire. 1 

CHINESE EXCLUSION. 

To understand and appreciate how inadequate are the so-called 
Chinese-exclusion laws to prevent the entry of Chinese laborers to 
the United States it is only necessary to examine and analyze the 
statistics on this subject furnished in Tables 1 to 8 (pp. 142-148). 
All possible under existing law is done to prevent the entry of Chinese 
not entitled to be in the United States; but despite these efforts 
Chinese laborers are constantly gaining admission, in the guise of 
"minor sons of merchants," "students," "natives," or "sons of 
natives." There is no doubt that a considerable number of those 
shown by the tables to have entered under these designations were, 
as a matter of fact, not what they claimed to be, but laborers desirous 
of earning a livelihood here despite the prohibition of the law. When 
the laborer is old or ignorant, or otherwise unable fraudulently to 
assume a "lawful" status, smuggling across the land boundaries or 
from ships on which they are employed as "seamen" is resorted to. 
There seems to be no lack of money with which to carry out these 
schemes, however costly they may be. Under these circumstances, 
it can readily be seen that the enforcement of the law becomes a very 
difficult matter. 

In Table 1 a comparison is made between the number of Chinese 
applying for admission during the years 1908 to 1913 inclusive. 
In the past year 5,662 Chinese were admitted, as compared with 
5,374 in 1912, 5,107 in 1911, 5,950 in 1910, 6,395 in 1909, and 4,624 
in 1908, the admissions for the past year being 5.3 per cent greater 
than for the preceding year, 11 per cent greater than for 1911, 4.8 
per cent less than for 1910, 11 per cent less than for 1909, and 22 per 
cent greater than for 1908. In the past year 384 Chinese were de- 
ported, as against 400 in the preceding year, 692 in 1911, 969 in 1910, 
564 in 1909, 364 in 1908, and 259 in 1907. 

i The foregoing views of Commissioner General Keefe seem to the signer of this report especially 
significant, for they are the result of the retiring Commissioner General's experience in the enforcement of 
the law and are in exact accord with the writer's observations, both before and since his induction into 
office. The writer desires, however, to state that he does not agree with the notion that any such marriage 
is binding upon the United States in the administration of immigration laws; and also that there is no 
treaty with Japan, or other arrangement whatsoever, that provides for the recognition by the United 
States of the so-called marriage of a woman in Japan with a man who may be in the United States at the 
alleged date of the same. The doctrine of lex loci, in his judgment, is not applicable to cases of this kind 
for the above reason, as well as that such marriage is not consummated entirely and completely in the 
country permitting it, as it is apparent that a part of the so-called marriage is initiated in one jurisdiction 
or nation, and it is completed in another and entirely foreign jurisdiction or nation. Further comments 
on this, as well as other matters connected with Japanese immigration, is deferred owing to his brief incum- 
bency. 



EEPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 23 

In Table 2 will be found a statement of the disposition, preliminary 
and final, of every application of a Chinese for admission. New 
applications to the number of 6,250 were made during the year, and 
242 were pending from the previous year, a total of 6,492. Of these 
5,594 were admitted at the ports, 67 by the department on appeal, 
and 1 by the courts, a total of 5,662, while 384 were deported, 1 
escaped, and 445 remain pending. The recapitulation by ports given 
at the bottom of Table 2 shows that 3,896 Chinese arrived at San 
Francisco, 1,286 at Seattle, 407 at Vancouver, and 797 at Honolulu, 
the balance being scattering cases at ports of less importance. 

Of the section 6 exempt classes, 559 applied for admission, com- 
pared with 809 in the preceding year. Of these only 28 were de- 
ported. The applicants were composed of 122 merchants, 345 
students, 33 teachers, and 19 travelers, together with 40 officials 
who are for convenience placed in this class. The number of 
"students" applying increased from 247 in 1911 to 477 in 1912, but 
in the past year dropped back to 345. No one would dispute the 
propriety and advisability of permitting young men of the Chinese 
race to obtain a higher education in tins country, provided the privi- 
lege is so safeguarded as to prevent its abuse. But this claim of a 
student status, now adopted much more frequently than formerly, 
is often used as a mere cloak for the introduction into this country, in 
violation of the spirit of the law, of young Chinese laborers. The 
difficulty is that many of these so-called students have actually been 
engaged in study in China, and it is really intended by them, and by 
the good but often misled people who take an interest in having them 
brought to this country, that they shall enter institutions of learn- 
ing in the United States; indeed, they usually do take up a course 
of study after arrival here, but soon leave the institution in which 
placed and remove to distant localities, where they enter laboring 
pursuits or join relatives or clansmen who are engaged in conducting 
stores or restaurants, and live with them and attend the public day 
or night schools, Working for their living during such time as they 
are not intermittently engaged in study. The law never intended 
that young Chinese laborers should come to this country for any 
such purpose as this, and the bureau is determined that, to the fullest 
extent possible, such evasions of the law shall be prevented. 

It is shown by Table 2 that 1,011 domiciled merchants applied for 
readmission, 14 cases having been pending from the previous year, 
making a total of 1,025, of whom 986 were admitted, 13 deported, 
and 1 escaped, while 26 remain pending. Of those claiming to be 
"minor sons of merchants," 583 entered and 86 were deported. Of 
"wives of merchants," 179 applied, 155 being admitted and 6 de- 
ported; while of "wives of natives," 158 applications were consid- 
ered, in 126 of which admission was ordered and in 9 deportation 
effected. 

Table 3 contains a special discussion of the "United States citizen" 
class, which falls into two general divisions — (1) those of native birth 
and (2) those born abroad of native-born parents. Of these there 
were admitted 2,048 (about 36 per cent of all Chinese entering), of 
whom 1,553 belong to the first, and 495 to the second. In 1912 the 
corresponding figures were 1,396 and 258, respectively. The 1,553 
belonging to the first division are segregated further into 241 of whose 
claimed departure from this country there was no record (raw natives), 



24 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

and 1,312 of whose departure there was a record (returning natives). 
Of the latter, status had been determined previously in 1 ,080 and was 
determined for the first time in 232 cases. The number of Chinese 
adjudicated "citizens" for the first time therefore was 968, compared 
with 585 for the previous year, 534 for 1911, and 1,295 for 1910. In 
this connection, it should be noted from Table 6 that of the Chinese 
arrested and brought before courts or court commissioners during 
the past year 117 were discharged, practically all on the claim of birth 
in the United States. The corresponding figures for 1912, 1911, and 
1910 are 108, 156, and 190, respectively. It should also be noted 
from Table 2 that 126 alleged wives of natives were admitted, com- 
pared with 88 in 1912, 80 in 1911, and 109 in 1910. Adding these 
several sets of figures relating to admissions as United States citizens 
and wives of citizens, it will be observed that the total is 4,356, or 
an average of 1,089 per year for the four years compared. Thus it 
may be demonstrated that the number of United States citizens of 
the Chinese race is increasing at a very rapid rate, although persons 
of the Mongolian race can not acquire citizenship by naturalization. 

The present law permitting United States commissioners to make 
citizens should be repealed. American citizenship is a proud privilege 
of inestimable value and of the highest dignity and should not be 
granted except upon clear evidence of right thereto and the title to 
same passed upon either by a court of record or by the Bureau of 
Immigration, with the approval of the Department of Labor. 

Table 4 shows that during the past year 245 appeals of Chinese 
were considered by the department, in 178 of which the decisions of 
the officers of the ports were sustained and in 67 overruled. 

Table 5 presents a concise summary of the granting of return certifi- 
cates to Chinese residents of this country who applied for the privilege 
of going abroad with the assurance of prompt admission on return. 
Applications for these certificates to the number of 3,163 were sub- 
mitted, divided into 1,261 natives, 1,055 exempts, and 847 laborers, 
of which applications the officers at the ports of proposed departure 
granted 2,996 and denied 167. Of those denied 55 appealed, 10 of the 
appeals being sustained and 45 dismissed by the bureau. During 
the year, therefore, return certificates were refused in 157 cases 
(of which. 75 were natives, 62 exempts, and 20 laborers) and granted 
in 3,006 cases (1,186 natives, 993 exempts, and 827 laborers). 

Tables 6 and 7 are compiled from statements furnished by United 
States marshals. During the year 191 Chinese were arrested on 
judicial warrants, compared with 616 in the fiscal year 1912. There 
remained pending from the previous year 371 cases, so that the total 
number of cases considered was 562. These were disposed of as 
follows: In 12, Chinese died or escaped; in 117, the court or com- 
missioner ordered defendants' discharge; in 165, ' deportation was 
ordered; and 268 cases remain pending. Table 7 shows that, as in 
previous years, most of the arrests were made in districts contiguous 
to the land boundaries or readily reached therefrom. That deporta- 
tion orders were obtained in so large a percentage of the cases as here 
shown (59 per cent of those actually brought to trial) is due mainly 
to this fact; for experience has demonstrated that it is extremely 
difficult to obtain orders of deportation in the cases of Chinese arrested 
at interior points, where it is not easy to persuade a United States 
commissioner that a Chinese has entered the country in violation of 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 25 

law, or, even if the Government is successiul in proving such a case 
before a commissioner, in the interim between the issuance by him of 
an order of deportation and the rehearing of the case (de novo) before 
a district judge, the Chinese manage to manufacture enough evidence 
to insure discharge. It is recommended, for the reasons above set 
forth, that all proceedings of tins nature shall be conducted in the 
United States courts or by the Bureau of Immigration, with the 
approval of the Department of Labor. 

In connection with these tables, attention should be directed to 
Table XVIII (pp. 110-1 13), from which it will be observed that during 
the last fiscal year 409 aliens of the Chinese race were arrested and de- 
ported under the immigration law without resort to the provisions of 
the exclusion laws. These figures show that the decision finally 
obtained in 1912 from the Supreme Court of the United States, to 
the effect that Chinese, like all other aliens, who enter surreptitiously 
are subject to deportation by the administrative process provided in 
the general immigration laws (Wong You v. United States, 223 U. S., 
67), is now producing most valuable results. Incidentally, also, these 
figures partly explain why there has been a decrease m arrests of 
Chinese before United States commissioners from 616 in 1912 to 
191 in 1913; i. e., this decrease, so far as it is not offset by the increase 
in arrests of Chinese under the administrative process from 185 in 
1912 to 409 in 1913, is due largely to the discouragement of smuggling 
operations incident to the more summary and effective enforcement 
of the law possible under the administrative method of arrest, hearing, 
and deportation. To justify proceeding under the immigration law, 
however, it must appear that three years have not elapsed since the 
alien Chinese entered unlawfully, and a full measure of success in the 
enforcement of the exclusion laws need not be expected unless and 
until Congress adopts the recommendations so often urged by the 
bureau, that those laws be consolidated with the general immigration 
act, and the three-year limitation on the right to deport removed in 
so far as it affects Chinese. 

When the limitations of the existing law are understood and appre- 
ciated, a review of the year's work is not altogether discouraging, not- 
withstanding the disclosures of the statistics regarding the admission 
of Chinese claiming American citizenship, already alluded to, so many 
of which claims are false in the belief of our officers, but the Govern- 
ment, owing to the peculiar conditions surrounding cases of this 
kind, often finds itself helpless. 

Table 8 is presented this year for the first time. In it are furnished 
some interesting items of information that can not conveniently be 
furnished in the same form in the preceding tables. The only items 
thereof needing any special comment are those regarding Chinese 
granted the privilege of proceeding through the United States, in bond, 
in transit to nearby countries. Such privilege was allowed 2,944 
Chinese and denied 270 during the year. As many Chinese secure 
this privilege with the ulterior purpose of gaining unlawful entry to 
the United States from the near-by country to which ostensibly emi- 
grating, it may soon become necessary materially to curtail said 
privilege and to hedge it about with additional safeguards. 1 

1 In connection with the foregoing regarding enforcement of the Chinese-exclusion laws, see reports of 
the commissioners at Montreal, Seattle, and San Francisco and of the supervising inspector, El Paso (Ap- 
pendix III, pp. 167-178, 224-236, 237-242, and 250-255.) 



26 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

CERTIFICATES OF RESIDENCE. 

Copies of the certificates of residence issued under the registration 
acts of 1892 and 1893 are on file in the bureau. Verification was had 
of the certificates presented by the 847 Chinese laborers shown by 
Table 5 to have applied for return certificates during the year and of 
many others desired for use as evidence in cases pending in court or 
elsewhere, and it was necessary to furnish for like purposes a large 
number of certified copies of duplicate certificates or of applications 
therefor, while under the provisions of rules 20 and 21 of the Chinese 
regulations applications for certificates of residence were considered 
and disposed of as follows: 

Cases pending 95 

Cases reopened 12 

Applications 175 

Total 282 

Duplicate certificates of residence issued 127 

Original certificates found 2 

Applications denied 79 

Applications dropped 23 

Applications pending 51 

Total 282 

ALIENS EMPLOYED ON VESSELS. 

The employment of aliens on vessels entering United States ports, 
whether such vessels are of American or foreign register, has always 
led, directly or indirectly, to numerous and flagrant violations of both 
the immigration and the Chinese-exclusion laws. It will be observed 
by referring to Table XX (p. 116), that a record has been secured dur- 
ing the past year of the desertion in United States ports of 9,136 alien 
"seamen." In the fiscal year 1912 a record was made of the deser- 
tion of 6,384. These figures are not complete by any means; nor is 
it possible to state how many of these deserters reshipped, although 
it is true, of course, that many of them did, for the bona fide sailor 
does not usually desert with any intent of remaining in the United 
States otherwise than as a coastwise seaman. But the difficulty arises 
out of the fact that many aliens who, by reason of being diseased or 
otherwise objectionable, can not enter in regular manner, ship or are 
deliberately shipped for & consideration by conniving petty ships' 
officers, for the purpose of evading inspection under the law, availing 
themselves of this ready means of landing at our ports undetected. 
It must be remembered also that Chinese (and other Asiatics as well) 
are now extensively used to man both steam and sailing vessels. Dur- 
ing the year from 35,000 to 40,000 Chinese sailors entered United States 
ports, and while the regulations require the giving of bonds if such 
sailors are allowed shore leave in our ports, the rule is honored in the 
breach as much as in the observance, and in several judicial districts 
the decisions of the courts have been such as to make its enforcement 
very difficult. 

This subject of deserting foreign seamen calls for very careful con- 
sideration by Congress, and as there are now pending before that body 
several bills affecting the matter directly or indirectly, the bureau 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 27 

offers the following comment upon it, for in its various phases and 
ramifications it touches the enforcement of the immigration and 
Chinese-exclusion laws, and the "seamen's bill," on the one hand, and 
the immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws, on the other, can not be 
properly enforced unless their terms are brought into substantial and 
practical accord. 

One of the main purposes of the now pending seamen's bill is to 
place laborers who earn their livelihood by following the sea in a sit- 
uation where, by eliminating the element of practically involuntary 
servitude that attaches to the sailor's calling under the laws and cus- 
toms that have gradually hedged him about, he will be accorded better 
treatment and better wages and his calling be made more responsive 
than at present to the economic principle of supply and demand. Its 
purpose is not limited as to either place or time, but is of world-wide 
applicability. In other words, the broad and underlying purpose of 
the seamen's bill — the basis upon which rest all of the minor advan- 
tages that it would secure for seafaring men — extends to all quarters 
of the globe, because the occupation affected is not limited to any 
particular country, but is the primary element in sea industries, just 
as the tilling of the soil is the primary element in land industries. 

The unloosening of the seafaring man's bonds — bonds that are the 
result of so extending the "common hazard" principle of life on the 
high seas as to have it apply where it is not necessary, i. e., while 
the vessel is in port — and the bringing of the occupation within reach 
of the rules that govern in all other lines of labor — so far as possible 
when the "common hazard" principle is accorded its necessary and 
proper field of action, i. e., the vessel while actually on the high 
seas — are objects worthy of the Nation that has always stood for 
liberty, on sea as well as on land, and is becoming more and more 
interested in the commerce of the world, which can not be carried on 
successfully and with a proper regard for the Nation's ultimate welfare 
unless the men whose personal manual labor is the basis thereof 
are treated in a fair and equitable manner. Therefore, so much of 
this subject as affects the immigration, alien contract labor, and 
Chinese-exclusion laws of this country must be adjusted upon broad 
lines; otherwise a destructive conflict between the several laws will 
arise. 

If the condition and wages of American seamen are to be improved 
and raised, it is necessary that, either simultaneously or as a close- 
following result, the condition and wages of European seamen shall 
also be improved and raised; and if American and European seamen 
are to be benefited in this manner, there is no escape from the con- 
clusion that aliens from Asiatic countries following the sea must be 
allowed the same chance to bring themselves and their part of the 
seafaring occupation up to the same level. Unless this is done, the 
Chinese, Japanese, and Lascar seamen, already great in numbers, 
and now working for lower wages than the white sailor, will not only 
continue to render service for less recompense, but will crowd the 
labor market, and eventually push the seamen who demand higher 
compensation out of the seafaring occupations. Moreover, the 
owners of the vessels on which the sailor must find employment 
would adopt the flag of the country in which they could man their 
vessels at the lowest rate, and a further purpose of the seamen's bill, 
the building up of a merchant marine, would be defeated. 



28 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

It seems rather immaterial how many alien sailors come to our ports, 
provided they are free from mental or physical disease, and provided, 
if they belong to any class regarded under our immigration law and 
policy as undesirable, they come here about their business only and 
depart. The chief difficulty in this connection arises from the Chinese, 
for laborers of that race are absolutely excluded from admission into 
the United States, and that very fact increases the incentive for, and 
the profit to be gained from, their surreptitious entry to the country, 
and one of the favorite modes of entering surreptitiously is to adopt 
the guise of a seaman. To a certain extent, also, seamen of other 
Asiatic races fall into the same category as the Chinese. 

So far as the European is concerned, while the law has been exten- 
sively violated in the past by European aliens of inadmissible classes 
falsely claiming to be seamen, the difficulty of controlling the situa- 
tion with respect to them is by no means as great as that arising in 
the cases of Asiatics. 

The European phase of the seamen question, in so far as it affects 
the immigration law, it is believed can readily be met by inserting 
in that law a provision requiring that all alien seamen arriving at 
United States ports shall be examined in substantially the same man- 
ner and, of course, for the same purpose as alien passengers are 
examined, the department to be given a broad discretion for the 
adoption of regulations having in view the prevention of violations of 
the immigration law without undue interference with navigation or 
conflict with the purpose of the seamen's bill. By this means, 
provided Congress furnished sufficient appropriations for the employ- 
ment of the necessary additional inspectors and medical examiners, 
the principal objects of the immigration law, to wit, the prevention of 
the admission of aliens physically or mentally deficient, could be 
effected with respect to seamen almost as thoroughly as with respect 
to passengers, and violations of that law by the entry of other ex- 
cluded classes (such as contract laborers, persons likely to become 
a public charge, etc.) could be materially curtailed, especially if the 
authority to promulgate regulations included authority to require 
detailed descriptions or even photographs of sailors to be used in 
identifying those who might enter, despite the efforts of the immigra- 
tion officers to prevent, and later be found unlawfully in the country. 

To allow the liberty of movement on the part of Asiatic sailors 
necessary to the accomplishment of the objects of the seamen's bill, 
and at the same time prevent evasion and violation of the immigra- 
tion policy of this country regarding such aliens, is a much more 
difficult undertaking than that last above mentioned. If the policy 
is to be maintained, the law excluding certain classes of Asiatic 
laborers on the ground that they are such must be rigidly enforced. 
There are in many of our cities, particularly on the Pacific coast, 
large colonies of these foreigners. As soon as such an alien escapes 
into the country he goes to one of these colonies, and once there, 
it is practically impossible to discover him and effect his deporta- 
tion* If a law were enacted requiring all Asiatics lawfully here to 
have in their possession a certificate of identification, those who 
entered unlawfully would not have such a certificate, and would 
thus be identified as subject to deportation. Then if the provisions 
of law regarding arrest and deportation were strictly enforced, the 
introduction of the Asiatic into the country by surreptitious methods 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 29 

would soon become too expensive to be profitable, and it would be 
almost, as easy to control this phase of the proposition as that regard- 
ing Europeans. 

In the bureau's judgment, therefore, this matter should be ap- 
proached in its every ramification from a broad point of view; that is 
to say, the seamen's bill ought not to be modified either within itself or 
by legislation dealing with immigration so as to prevent its operating in 
a world-wide manner, and the immigration law ought to be so worded 
as to permit of the most thorough accomplishment of its provisions 
dealing with both Europeans and Asiatics that is possible, and in so 
far as it relates to the latter should be made more effective by requir- 
ing the registration of all such aliens now in the country. To accom- 
plish this the bureau suggests that a section reading as follows should 
be inserted in whatever hnmigration measure is eventually passed by 
Congress after the committees of the two Houses have used the various 
bills before them hi preparing a composite draft of new legislation : 

Section — . That aliens arriving at United States ports as employees of vessels 
shall be examined under the provisions of this act and of the act hereby amended, in 
accordance with rules prescribed by the Commissioner General of Immigration, with 
the approval of the Secretary of Labor, to prevent violations of the immigration law 
and at the same time avoid, so far as possible, interference with navigation and com- 
merce and conflict with the purpose of the act of Congress approved , entitled 

"An act to abolish the involuntary servitude imposed upon seamen in the merchant 
marine of the United States while in foreign ports and the involuntary servitude 
imposed upon seamen in the merchant marine of foreign countries while in ports of 
the United States, to prevent unskilled manning of American vessels, to encourage 
the training of boys in the American merchant marine, for the further protection of 
life at sea, and to amend the laws relative to seamen." The rules adopted under 
this section shall be such as may be deemed necessary to insure a proper enforcement 
of the various provisions of the act hereby amended and the provisions of this act 
excluding from the United States Asiatic laborers, and include the requirement 
that masters of vessels shall furnish detailed personal descriptions and photographs 
of all aliens employed on vessels arriving in United States ports for the use of immi- 
gration officials in identifying such aliens in the event they attempt to remain per- 
manently in the United States: Provided, That nothing in this act or the act hereby 
amended shall be construed to deny to aliens who are bona fide seamen the privilege 
of going ashore or of being discharged in United States ports, so long as they are not 
afflicted with idiocy, imbecility, feeble-mindedness, epilepsy, insanity, tuberculosis, or 
a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease, nor to deprive such aliens of the privilege 
of hospital treatment when entitled thereto under any provisions of existing law. 

REPORTS OF COMMISSIONERS AND INSPECTORS IN CHARGE. 

There are submitted herewith, as Appendix III (pp. 165-255), the 
reports (or extracts therefrom) of the commissioners of immigration 
and inspectors in charge of the 22 districts into which, for convenience 
of administration, the United States are divided. They should be 
carefully perused by all who are interested in the immigration problem 
or in the enforcement of the important laws having in view the regu- 
lation and restriction of immigration. The following four in par- 
ticular are interesting: That of the commissioner at New York (pp. 
180-187) because through that port over 70 per cent of the aliens 
enter; that of the commissioner for Canada (pp. 167-178) and that 
of the supervising inspector for the Mexican border (pp. 250-255) 
because the control of immigration from and through these contigu- 
ous countries is the most difficult and diverse, and in some respects 
the most important, part of the work done under the bureau's super- 
vision; and that of the commissioner at San Francisco (pp. 237-242) 
because that is the largest Pacific station and the principal port for 



30 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

the admission of aliens from the Orient. The interest that attaches 
to these reports, however, is due merely to said peculiar facts and the 
magnitude of the work performed under the direction of the signers ; 
at other ports and interior stations just as important work is being 
done, some of it of a similar and other of a quite dissimilar nature. 
All the reports should be read, therefore, to gain a really compre- 
hensive view of the affairs of the service. The work done in the 
interior is well illustrated, but not fully shown, by the reports of the 
inspectors in charge of districts Nos. 11 and 13, with headquarters at 
Chicago and St. Louis, respectively (pp. 210-215 and 217-219). 

Hon. William Williams, twice commissioner of immigration at 
New York, whose resignation was recently tendered to take effect 
at the close of the fiscal year, is regarded by the bureau and recog- 
nized everywhere as an authority on immigration. The bureau is 
glad once more to be able to insert in its annual report his views on 
certain phases of the intricate problem with the application of the 
law to which it is constantly engaged. And it is the bureau's desire 
to call very particular attention to all that is said in his report, re- 
produced in full (pp. 180-187). At various points herein Mr. Williams's 
report and those of the other commissioners and inspectors in charge 
are cited in support or explanation of points made by the bureau; 
therefore no extended digest of them is here attempted. 

"THE IMMIGRANT FUND." 

"The immigrant fund" was created by section 1 of the original 
immigration act approved August 3, 1882 (22 Stat., 214), assessing 
a duty of 50 cents "for each and every passenger not a citizen of the 
United States who shall come * * * to any port within the 
United States," and providing that 

The money thus collected shall be paid into the United States Treasury, and shall 
constitute a fund to be called the immigrant fund, and shall be used, under the direc- 
tion of the Secretary of the Treasury, to defray the expenses of regulating immigra- 
tion under this act and for the care of immigrants arriving in the United States, for the 
relief of such as are in distress, and for the general purposes and expenses of carrying 
thi? act into effect. 

In upholding the above-quoted provision of law, the Supreme Court, 
in December, 1884, in its decision of the "Head-money cases" (112 
U. S., 580) pointed out (pp. 590-594) that said provision constituted 
a "valid exercise of the power to regulate commerce with foreign 
nations"; and, in answer to the contention (p. 594) that in passing 
the law Congress was exercising the taxing power conferred by sec- 
tion 8 of Article I of the Constitution, and that the exercise thereof 
was subject to all the restraints and qualifications thereto attached, 
the Supreme Court said (pp. 595-596) : 

If it were necessary to prove that the imposition of this contribution on owners of 
ships is made for the general welfare of the United States, it would not be difficult 
to show that it is so, and particularly that it is among the means which Congress may 
deem necessary and proper for that purpose; and beyond this we are not permitted to 
inquire. 

But the true answer to all these objections is that the power exercised in this instance 
is not the taxing power. The burden imposed on the shipowner by this statute is 
the mere incident of the regulation of commerce — of that branch of foreign commerce 
which is involved in immigration. The title of the act, "An act to regulate immi- 
gration," is well chosen. It describes, as well as any short sentence can describe it, 
the real purpose and effect of the statute. Its provisions, from beginning to end, 
relate to the subject of immigration, and they are aptly designed to mitigate the evils 



REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 31 

inherent in the business of bringing foreigners to this country, as those evils affect 
both the immigrant and the people among whom he is suddenly brought and left to 
his own resources. 

It is true not much is said about protecting the shipowner; but he is the man 
who reaps the profit from the transaction, who has the means to protect himself and 
knows well how to do it, and whose obligations in the premises need the aid of the 
statute for their enforcement. The sum demanded of him is not, therefore, strictly 
speaking, a tax or duty within the meaning of the Constitution. The money thus 
raised, though paid into the Treasury, is appropriated in advance to the uses of the 
statute and does not go to the general support of the Government. It constitutes a 
fund, raised from those who are engaged in the transportation of these passengers and 
who make profit out of it, for the temporary care of the passengers whom they bring 
among us and for the protection of the citizens among whom they are landed . 

By the sundry civil appropriation act of August 18, 1894 (28 Stat., 
391), the "head tax" was increased to $1. By the immigration act 
of March 3, 1903 (32 Stat., 1213), said "tax" was increased to $2, 
the integrity and purpose of the "immigrant fund" being maintained 
therein in the following language : 

The money thus collected shall be paid into the United States Treasury and shall 
constitute a permanent appropriation to be called the "immigrant fund," to be used 
under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury to defray the expense of regulat- 
ing the immigration of aliens into the United States under this act, including the 
cost of reports of decisions of the Federal courts and digests thereof for the use of the 
Commissioner General of Immigration, and the salaries and expenses of all officers, 
clerks, and employees appointed for the purpose of enforcing the provisions of this act. 

By the immigration act of February 20, 1907 (34 Stat., 898), the 
"head tax" was increased to $4, and the "immigrant fund" was 
made to include also moneys collected as "fines and rentals," as 
follows : 

The money thus collected, together with all fines and rentals collected under the 
laws regulating the immigration of aliens into the United States, shall be paid into 
the Treasury of the United States, and shall constitute a permanent appropriation to 
be called the "immigrant fund, " to be used under the direction of the Secretary of 
Commerce and Labor to defray the expense of regulating the immigration of aliens 
into the United States under said laws, including the contract labor laws, the cost of 
reports of decisions of the Federal courts, and digest thereof for the use of the Com- 
missioner General of Immigration, and the salaries and expenses of all officers, clerks, 
and employees appointed to enforce said laws. 

But by the appropriation act approved March 4, 1909 (35 Stat., 945, 
981-2), the "immigrant fund" was abolished, and the "head tax" 
receipts are now covered into the Treasury in the same manner as 
other "revenue receipts." While the tax did not quite pay expenses 
in some of the early years of Federal control of immigration, the 
Immigration Service has always, on the average, been more than 
supported by the "immigrant fund;" the "regulation of immigra- 
tion" has not cost the taxpayers of the United States anything. 
Since the abolishment of the "immigrant fund" the service has be- 
come a revenue producer, and the regulation of immigration has had 
to be accomplished, as best it could be, on such annual allowances 
from the Treasury as Congress has seen fit to make. The theory 
upon which the "tax" was originally created and has been from 
time to time increased, and one of the grounds on which the assess- 
ment was upheld by the Supreme Court is that the money is col- 
lected, not as a revenue for the support of the Government in general 
but as a fund held in trust by the Government to be expended for 
the protection of the country from the evils of an unrestricted immi- 
gration and to provide for the comfort and convenience of detained 



32 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



aliens. While the head tax is paid by the transportation companies, 
it of course comes out of the pockets of the aliens themselves. 

Now, let us see to what extent the moneys collected as "head 
tax" have been used to discharge the trust and to what extent, on 
the other hand, such moneys have been converted to uses other than 
the enforcement of the law and the protection of aliens. This is 
clearly shown by the following table, in which round but approxi- 
mately correct figures are given : 

Statement op Receipts and Expenditures for the Immigration Service during 
the Following Fiscal Years. 



Fiscal year. 



Rate. 



Receipts. 



Expendi- 
tures. 



Deficiency. 



Balance. 



1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 



Total, 20 years. 
Net balance... 



$225, 

315, 

451, 

317, 

326, 

421, 

576, 

619, 

806, 

1,416, 

1,599, 

2.0S2, 

2,290, 

2, 782, 

3, 442, 

3,300, 

4, 227! 

3,759! 

3,457; 

4,818, 



328. 26 
113.16 
503. 68 
170. 31 
644. 47 
457. 64 
688. 50 
463. 60 

399. 67 
515. 14 
472. 25 
873. 50 
901.56 

103. 68 
330. 57 
068. 52 
285.43 
174. 97 
010.91 
505. 28 



S258, 

278, 

290, 

359, 

275, 

288, 

1, 103, 

905, 

1,023, 

826, 

1,296, 

1,508, 

1,571, 

1,645, 

2, 657, 

3, 237, 

2, 759, 

2,841, 

2,927, 

'2,898, 



788. 18 
060. 96 
424. 65 
327. 83 
809. 32 
002. 26 
867. 25 

487. 05 
941.69 
314.66 
SOS. 85 
901. 13 
280. 01 
373. 21 
779. 86 
669. OS 
671. 08 
330. 31 
009. 99 

754. 06 



$33, 459. 92 



42, 157. 52 



§37,052.20 
161,079.03 



527, 178. 75 
286,023.45 
217,542.02 



50,835.15 
133,455.38 



590, 
302, 
573, 
719, 

1, 136, 
784, 
62, 

1,467, 
917, 
530, 

1,919, 



200. 48 
663.40 
972. 37 
621.55 
730. 47 
550. 71 
399. 44 
614. 35 
844. 66 
000. 92 
751. 22 



37,236,011.10 



28,954,601.43 



1,106,361.66 



9,387,771.33 
8,281,409.67 



1 Estimated. 



Prior to 1907 appropriations for the enforcement of the Chinese- 
exclusion laws were made from "moneys in the Treasury not other- 
wise appropriated." From 1907 to 1911, inclusive, annual appro- 
priations of $500,000 were made for this purpose, the money, how- 
ever, being taken from the immigrant fund, and said amounts were 
practically exhausted each year in paying the expenses of enforcing 
the exclusion laws; while in 1912 and 1913 no specific amount was 
named, all of said expenses were paid out of the immigrant fund 
and no doubt were approximately the same as in previous years. 

It will be observed that during the 20 years covered by the above 
statement there has accumulated in the Treasury (or should have 
accumulated if not used for other purposes) $8,281,409.67, all of 
which has come out of the pockets, not of the taxpayers of this 
country, but of aliens who were applying for admission. Also that 
over $3,000,000 of the amount expended has been used in enforcing 
the Chinese-exclusion laws — a purpose which, while indirectly related 
to the regulation of immigration, was not in contemplation when the 
fund was created. It is not difficult to support, on the_ basis of these 
figures, an argument to the effect that a proper and judicious expend- 
iture of even half of this accumulated surplus would in no way 
be to the disadvantage of the people of the United States and the 
aliens of the right sort concerned, but on the contrary would place 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 33 

the country in much better condition in so far as the presence here 
of the morally, mentally, and physically undesirable is concerned, 
and would simultaneously afford to the aliens seeking admission 
better protection and greater comfort than we can extend to them 
under existing conditions. 

Why should this money, so urgently needed for the proper enforce- 
ment of the law, be retained in the Treasury or devoted to uses never 
intended and to which, in fairness to those from whom collected 
and to those supposed to be protected by its collection and proper 
expenditure, it ought not to be devoted? In this connection the 
reports of the various commissioners and inspectors in charge should 
be read, for they show under what dreadful handicaps the officers of 
the service have been proceeding in their efforts to make the law 
reasonably effective and to extend to the aliens who must be inspected 
at least fairly decent treatment and accommodation. The following 
facts shown by some of the reports demonstrate that the implied 
trust connected with this "head tax" has not been observed in 
either letter or spirit : 

Commissioner Williams points out (Appendix III, pp. 180-187) that 
while at the Ellis Island station many improvements have in recent 
years been made in the buildings and plant funds are still very 
urgently needed for several important improvements and for the 
upkeep in a business-like manner of the buildings, grounds, and 
equipment of the station, and that "Even with the best of facilities 
the work at Ellis Island will always be a difficult one to transact, 
and the executive officers should not be hampered by the lack of 
any tools they may require." The commissioner for Canada (Id., 
pp. 167-178) shows that the lack of funds has been such that "for 
many months our staff of help at the seaports has been inadequate 
to meet the needs of the situation, and as a consequence at times 
our service has all but broken down"; that "long hours of duty 
have almost invariably characterized the inspection at Quebec and 
Halifax, the officers at these ports on numerous occasions having 
been compelled to work 36 consecutive hours with no period for 
rest, and on account of the mental and physical exhaustion which 
must result from such a strain it is obvious that it has been simply 
impossible to enforce that careful inspection of aliens which the 
immigration laws and regulations and the interests of our country 
demand"; that "during recent months, owing to the congestion at 
Quebec, aliens held for board of special inquiry hearing have been 
compelled to undergo detention in the crowded hospitals for periods 
of from six to eight davs before their cases could be heard, and thus 
for the prompt inspection that should have been accorded arriving 
aliens was substituted what amounted to annoying hardships, which 
were keenly felt particularly in the cases of women and children, 
who, wearied from weeks of travel from their foreign homes, were 
anything but prepared cheerfully to endure such vexatious delay"; 
that in the district under his control it has been impossible with the 
money and men allowed him properly to enforce either the immigra- 
tion or the Chinese-exclusion laws. 

Quotations might be made from many other reports, some of which 
appear in Appendix III, to illustrate the bureau's point, which is that 
the greatest impediment to a proper enforcement of the law is the 

7686°— 14 3 



34 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

very one which, in view of the fact that the service is not only self- 
supporting but a producer of extensive revenues for the Government, 
would the least be expected to exist; to wit, the lack of sufficient 
funds, men, and facilities to properly and humanely enforce the law. 
Especially surprising is this in view of the fact that in the very body 
from which there came, as recently as last February, a most emphatic 
demand for immigration legislation of a much more restricted nature 
than the existing law, lies the power to make, from funds which are 
collected from the aliens themselves sufficient provision for a thor- 
oughly effective and at the same time humane application of the law 
and regulations affecting aliens. 

When aliens must be held at our ports unreasonable periods of time 
before their cases can be passed upon, and often detained in inade- 
quate and uncomfortable quarters; when officers, who are efficient, 
painstaking, conscientious men, are required to work long hours daily 
and Sunday, often under conditions that would not be tolerated even 
by one of our ' ' soulless corporations ; " when improvements and correc- 
tions in practice obviously needed must go unmade ; and when steps 
clearly demanded to meet some new or changing condition must be 
left untaken — all because the money necessary has not been pro- 
vided — when conditions of this kind confront the bureau, is there not 
sufficient excuse for a feeling of discouragement ? And let it not be 
forgotten, as has already been shown, that ample financial provision 
to meet the conditions here portrayed could be made by Congress 
without one cent of cost being charged against the taxpayers of the 
United States, the money collected from the aliens as head tax being 
more than sufficient to pay all expenses of conducting the service 
properly and with appropriate regard for the aliens and those who are 
attempting to carry out the repeatedly expressed desire of Congress 
that immigration shall be "regulated." 

In the bureau's opinion the "immigrant fund" was intended to be 
used and should be used for the following objects: (1) To protect the 
people of the United States against the evils of unrestricted or un- 
regulated immigration; (2) to provide protection and a reasonable 
degree of comfort for alien immigrants; (3) to relieve the various 
States of the burden of maintaining aliens in their public institutions, 
and communities of the economic social menace of having in their 
midst aliens of the classes described by the law as undesirable, espe- 
cially the mentally or morally defective or degenerate. 

NEW IMMIGRATION STATIONS. 

Stations, for which provision was made by Congress some time ago 
for the ports of Galveston, New Orleans, and Charleston, have been 
completed. Those at Galveston and New Orleans have been occupied 
iind are being put to the use for which intended; but, as no immigra- 
tion comes to Charleston, it has not been necessary to put the station 
there to any use, and it is standing idle and unoccupied, but protected 
as fully as possible from decay and deterioration in value by employ- 
ing two watchmen to guard it day and night. 

With regard to the proposed new station for Boston, the bureau 
regrets to report that after plans had been prepared by the Office of 
the Supervismg Architect, it was found that the money available was 
not sufficient. The Secretary of the Treasury has been requested to 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OE IMMIGRATION. 35 

endeavor to secure an additional appropriation, and also to have 
authorized the transfer of that now existing to the Treasury Depart- 
ment, so that the delays and embarrassments arising from having the 
work controlled by one department and the appropriation therefor 
by another may be avoided. 

At Gloucester City, N. J., where the new Philadelphia immigration 
station has been occupied for some time, a landing pier is being con- 
structed. It is proposed to place on said pier an inpsection building, 
but the erection of said building can not be undertaken unless and 
until a further appropriation is made by Congress. 1 

CONCLUSION. 

There is no field of endeavor in which "standing still" would be 
"moving backward" more truly than in the enforcement of the stat- 
utes regulating immigration. The difficulties inherent in the ad- 
ministration of these laws are so great and so constantly changing 
with change of conditions or circumstances that eternal vigilance and 
ready inventiveness are required if the varying and often astute or 
even cunning schemes for the defeat of the purposes of the laws are 
to be met with even a reasonable degree 01 success. Many of the 
details of administration must of course be left to the officers exer- 
cising supervisory powers throughout the service, and in turn by 
them to their subordinates. Fortunate indeed is the bureau in having 
on the whole, so able and conscientious a corps of officers and em- 
ployees as has gradually been built up, improved, and fitted into 
proper places of responsibility and duty. To the untiring and ably 
directed efforts of the individuals who man and officer the service, 
supplemented, as they so thoroughly are, by the work of the Public 
Health surgeons, is due so large a measure of success as has heretofore 
attended the bureau's endeavors. It is the well directed, intelligent, 
conscientious, and patriotic manner in which the individual officer 
has performed his individual duty which produces progress in the 
aggregate results of the year, that makes it possible to claim that there 
has been no "standing still," or "marking time," but, on the con- 
trary, constant improvement in the enforcement of the law. 

The foregoing is written, however, with the full realization that 
the accomplishments of the past — whether of the remote or the 
immediate past — notwithstanding the fact that there has been a 
constant evolution of improvement, have fallen far short of the ideal. 
It is the constant striving for quick and all-inclusive improvements 
and attaining thereby only slow and nonextensive betterment of 
methods and results which, to some extent at least, explains the note 
of pessimism pervading some of the reports submitted to the bureau, 
for instance those of the commissioners at Montreal and San Fran- 
cisco (Appendix III, pp. 167-178 and 237-242). When officers in 
charge of districts become discouraged, as a result of their compara- 
tivelylimited observation of the administration and operation of the 
laws, is it any cause for wonder that the bureau, wherein to a large 
extent centers the work of the entire service, is sometimes inclined to 

1 See also reports of commissioners of immigration at Boston, Philadelphia, and New Orleans, and in- 
spector in charge at Galveston (Appendix III, pp. 178-180, 190-194, 201-205, and 205-207. 



3G REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

become pessimistic ? The slow, ii sure, progress, the criticism so often 
encountered as the reward for earnest efforts exerted under adverse 
conditions, and the proneness of those from whom commendation and 
assistance rightfully ought to come to withhold their financial and 
sometimes even their moral support when most needed, all tend to 
discourage if we allow our consideration of the matter to become too 
restricted — to cover too short a time to be fair to ourselves and the 
conditions under consideration. But when the condition of the serv- 
ice to-day is compared, not with its condition on yesterday, but with 
the situation shown by previous reports to have existed four, three, 
or even two years ago, and proper allowances made for adverse con- 
ditions, the bureau is confident that all others, like itself, must find 
some cause for gratulation, and also for somewhat optimistic anticipa- 
tions for the future. 

Respectfully submitted. 

A. Caminetti, 
Commissioner General. 

To Hon. W. B. Wilson, 

Secretary of Labor. 



APPENDIX I 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



37 



38 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



39 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table IV. — Net Increase or Decrease of Population by Arrival and Depar- 
ture of Aliens, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, by Races or Peoples. 



Race or people. 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian 
(Czech) 

Bulgarian, Servian, and Mon- 
tenegrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slavonian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and 
Herzegovinian 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian . . .- 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, 
Danes, and Swedes) 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish- American 

Syrian , 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cuban). . 

Other peoples 

Not specified i 



Total 

Admitted in and departed from 
Philippine Islands 



Admitted. 



Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 



6,634 
9,353 

11,091 

9,087 
2,022 
42, 499 
3,099 

4,520 

14,507 

188 

55,522 

12, 756 

20, 652 

80,865 

38, 644 

101,330 

37,023 

42, 534 

231,613 

8,302 

64 

24,647 

30, 610 

10,954 

11 

174,365 

13,566 

13,451 

51,472 

30,588 

38, 737 
21,293 
27,234 
9,042 
1,363 
9,210 
2,015 
2,820 
1,171 
3,038 



1,197,892 
4,408 



Nonim- 
migrant 
aliens. 



3,100 
201 

761 

996 
1,465 
2,255 
3,022 

255 

4,239 

45 

44,540 

2,164 

5,857 

CO, 899 

2,289 

4,496 

11,080 

11,637 

32, 735 

3,370 

10 

882 

2,951 

4,541 

16 

10,842 

1,065 

1,329 

6,908 

8,817 

12,913 

10,141 

1,860 

5,975 

2,046 

809 

117 

1,102 

1,131 

474 



229,335 
8,238 



Total. 



9,734 
9,554 

11,852 

10,083 
4,382 

44,754 
6,121 

4,775 

18,746 

233 

100,062 

14, 920 

26,509 

101,764 

40, 933 

105, 826 

"-4S, 103 

54,171 

263,453 

11,672 

74 

25,529 

33,561 

15, 495 

27 

185,207 

14,631 

14, 780 

58,380' 

39,405 

51,650 

31,434 

29,094 

15,017 

3,409 

10,019 

2,132 

3,922 

2,302 

3,512 



1,427,227 
12,646 



Departed. 



Emi- 
grant 
aliens. 



1,671 
676 

871 

13,525 
2,250 

10, 209 
1,264 

849 

2,145 

213 

10, 794 

3,053 

4,019 

11,871 

31,556 

6,697 

4,-458 

10, 995 

79,057 

733 

44 

3,276 

11,496 

910 

4 

24, 107 

1,583 

3,156 

10,548 

5,327 

9,291 

4,118 

9,854 

3,181 

457 

797 

1,297 

298 

584 

1,118 

19,838 



308,190 
768 



Nonemi- 
grant 
aliens. 



2,385 
357 

757 

5,359 
3,499 
3,726 
6,128 

521 

5,619 

122 

61,168 

3,071 

6,218 

23,160 

19,321 

4,841 

13,256 

14,335 

40,075 

7,707 

19 

1,343 

4,596 

1,883 

16 

11,705 

1,916 

2,022 

8,910 

7,038 

14,211 

12,302 

3,237 

5,503 

1,980 

1,335 

681 

1,073 

1,382 

957 



303, 734 
9,138 



Total. 



4,056 
1,033 

1,628 

18, 884 
5,749 

13,935 
7,392 

1,370 

7,764 

335 

71,962 

6,124 
10,237 
35, 031 
50, 877 
11,538 
17,714 
25,330 
119,132 

8,440 
63 

4,619 
16,092 

2,793 

20 

35,812 

3,499 

5,178 
19,458 
12,365 

23,502 

16, 420 

13,091 

8,684 

2,437 

2,132 

1,978 

1,371 

1,966 

2,075 

19,838 



611,924 
9,906 



Increase 

(+)or 

decrease 

(-)■ 



+ 5,678 
+ 8,521 

+ 10,224 

- 8,801 

- 1,367 
+ 30,819 

- 1,271 

+ 3,405 
+ 10,982 

- 102 
+ 28, 100 
-f 8, 796 
+ 16, 272 
+ 66, 733 

- 9,944 
+ 94, 2S8 
+ 30,389 
+ 28,841 
+144,321 
+ 3,232 
+ 11 
+ 20,910 
+ 17,469 
+ 12,702 
+ 7 
+149,395 
+ 11,132 
+ 9,602 
+ 38,922 
+ 27,040 

+ 28,148 
+ 15,014 
+ 16,003 



6,333 
972 

7,887 
154 

2,551 
336 

1,437 
19,838 



+815,303 
+ 2,740 



1 Departed via Canadian border. Reported by Canadian Government as Canadians. 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



43 



Table V. — Intended Future Permanent Residence of Aliens Admitted and 
Last Permanent Residence of Aliens Departed, Fiscal Year Ended June 
30, 1913, by States and Territories. 1 



State or Territory. 



Alabama. 
Alaska.. . 



Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 



Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Philippine Islands 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Outside United States. 
Unknown" 



Admitted. 



Immigrant 
aliens. 



101 
59 
18 



Total 1, 197, 892 



4 

63 

1 

4 

182 



17(1 
618 
945 
353 

■>:: 

673 
138 
SKI 
717 
352 
787 
837 
682 
060 
005 
666 
663 
761 
774 
624 
168 
674 
192 
693 
415 
504 
796 
266 
000 
230 
358 
758 
531 
429 

285 
1)117 
ills 
994 

744 
17 
894 
678 
258 
641 

MS 

214 

932 
608 
B22 
313 
472 
091 
160 



Nonimmi- 
grant 
aliens. 



107 

89 

1,020 

49 

4,107 

372 

2,529 

103 

319 

2,353 

127 

1,123 

142 

7,449 

832 

588 

249 

90 

309 

307 

504 

9,155 

3,391 

1,457 

40 

937 

464 

370 

87 

311 

5,589 

84 

31,903 

66 

259 

3,745 

103 

587 

11,897 

12 

601 

1, 296 

3b 

171 

102 

2,835 

318 

236 

180 

1,698 

634 

1,149 

123 

126, 731 



229, 335 



Departed. 



Emigrant 
aliens. 



375 

106 

613 

56 

8,120 

1,664 

6,259 

242 

354 

2,520 

158 

682 

385 

24, 178 

3,860 

1,387 

595 

176 

423 

655 

1,146 

17,070 

7,529 

2,933 

41 

3,386 

955 

695 

402 

1,622 

12,401 

246 

83, 608 

80 

229 

13,238 

235 

1,385 

43,836 

2 

741 

2,593 

53 

196 

134 

806 

1,349 

557 

407 

2,827 

3,492 

4,037 

505 



46,646 



308, 190 



Nonemi- 
grant 
aliens. 



210 

114 

228 

34 

7,938 

1,030 

2,791 

56 

275 

2,216 

196 

3,011 

376 

10,932 

892 

1,237 

357 

131 

240 

483 

461 

12, 503 

3,970 

2,732 

39 

2,196 

869 

696 

321 

723 

5,671 

140 

32, 577 

68 

463 

6,244 

68 

1,297 

12,501 

5 

286 

1,848 

48 

255 

113 

435 

890 

292 

241 

3,239 

935 

1,557 

294 

177,010 



303, 734 



i For permanent residences of aliens arriving in and departing from the Philippine Islands, seo Tables 
IX, IXa XIV, and XIVa. 
2 Lelt United States via Canadian border. Figures reported by Canadian Government. 



44 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table VI. — Occupations of All Aliens Admitted and Departed, Fiscal Year 

Ended June 30, 1913. l 



Occupation. 



PROFESSIONAL. 



Actors 

Architects 

Clergy 

Editors 

Electricians 

Engineers (professional) 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientific persons. 

Musicians 

Officials ( Government) 

Physicians 

Sculptors and artists 

Teachers 

Other professional 



Total professional . 



SKILLED. 



Bakers 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Blacksmiths 

Bookbinders 

Brewers 

Butchers 

Cabinetmakers 

Carpenters and joiners 

Cigarette makers 

Cigar makers 

Cigar packers 

Clerks and accountants 

Dressmakers 

Engineers (locomotive, marine, and stationary) . 

Furriers and fur workers 

Gardeners 

Hat and cap makers 

Iron and steel workers 

Jewelers 1 

Locksmiths 

Machinists 

Mariners 

Masons 

Mechanics (not specified) 

Metal workers (other than iron, steel, and tin) . . 

Millers 

Milliners 

Miners 

Painters and glaziers 

Pattern makers 

Photographers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers 

Printers 

Saddlers and harness makers 

Seamstresses 

Shoemakers 

Stokers 

Stonecutters 

Tailors 

Tanners and curriers 

Textile workers (not specified) 

Tinners 

Tobacco workers 

Upholsterers 

Watch and clock makers 

Weavers and spinners 

Wheelwrights 

Woodworkers (not specified) 

Other skilled 



Total skilled 160, 



Admitted. 



Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 



911 
299 

1,051 
207 
941 

1,917 
290 
493 

1,254 
365 
508 
676 

2,389 

2,168 



13,469 



Nonim- 
migrant 
aliens. 



757 
330 

1,023 
228 
328 

2,457 
638 
512 
495 
763 
933 
333 

1,510 

1,395 



11,702 



749 

554 

761 

52 

64 

597 

119 

3,089 

5 

906 

35 

5,492 

737 

1,091 



65 

441 

107 

180 

1,115 

2,399 

1,731 

573 

142 

68 

124 

2,121 

765 

51 

113 

264 

290 

293 

66 

373 

1,036 

428 

303 

1,626 

47 

287 

84 

43 

46 

83 

623 

40 

70 

1,870 



32,870 



Departed. 



Emi- 
grant 
aliens. 



333 
97 
335 
28 
103 
408 
42 
73 
284 
98 
137 
139 
484 
364 



475 

537 

292 

25 

29 

298 

62 

1,529 

4 

760 

9 

1,804 

482 

158 

80 

196 

45 

263 

89 

28 

817 

696 

616 

6,758 

47 

11 

71 

8,280 

366 

33 

48 

85 

76 

114 

24 

217 

838 

606 

254 

1,850 

40 

711 

72 

12 

14 

51 

457 

15 

50 

1,169 



31,563 



For occupations of aliens arriving in and departing from Philippine Islands, see Tables XI and XI a. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



45 



Table VI. — Occupations of All Aliens Admitted and Departed, Fiscal Year 
Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 





Admitted. 


Departed. 


Occupation. 


Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Nonim- 
migrant 
aliens. 


Emi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Non- 
emigrant 
aliens. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 


1,148 

293 

933 

320, 105 

13, 180 

1,174 

315 

220,992 

454 

13,919 

140,218 

14,396 


1,646 

736 

236 

48,613 

5,197 

251 

328 

30, 550 

776 

11,391 

18,686 

7,368 


136 

72 

140 

3,948 

6,120 

261 

106 

191,604 

66 

5,979 

16,220 

3,654 


1 914 




1 302 
























86 511 




1 132 




14 248 


Servants 


20, 187 
10,748 


Other miscellaneous 


Total miscellaneous 


727, 127 


125, 778 


22S,306 


176 646 






No occupation (including women and children) 


297, 188 


58,985 


45,396 


70,467 




Grand total 


1,197,892 


229,335 


308, 190 


303 734 







46 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table VII. — Sex, Age, Literacy, Financial Condition, etc., of Immigrant 



Race or people. 



African (black) . . 

Armenian 

Bohemian and 
Moravian 

Bulgarian, Ser- 
vian, and Mon- 
tenegrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slo- 
venian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bos- 
nian, and II er- 
zegovinian 

Dutch and Flem- 
ish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (North).. 

Italian (South).. 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander. . . 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian. 

Ruthenian (Russ- 
niak) 

Scandinavian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish - Ameri- 
can 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (ex- 
cept Cuban) 

Other peoples 

Total 

Admitted in Phil- 
ippine Islands . . 



Num- 
ber ad- 
mitted. 



6,634 
9,353 

11,091 



9,087 
2,022 

42, 499 
3,099 



4,520 

14,50 
1S8 
55,522 
12,756 
20,652 
80, 865 
38,644 

101,330 
37,023 
42, 534 

231,613 

8,302 

64 

24, 647 

30,610 

10,954 

11 

174,365 
13,566 
13,451 
51,472 

30, 588 
38,73 
21,293 
27, 234 
9,042 

1,363 
9,210 
2,015 
2,820 

1,171 
3,038 



1,197,892 
4,408 



Sex. 



Male. 



3,691 

7,~~~ 

6,328 



7,834 
1,692 



31,590 
2,126 



3,938 

9,471 

184 

31,320 

8,219 
11,620 
45,974 
35,143 
57,148 
19,072 
32, 428 
176,472 

3,157 

15 

16,069 

16,637 

6,359 

115,7 
8,696 
10,373 
45,636 

18,980 
25,243 
11,545 
16,242 
7,240 

978 
6,177 
1,866 
1,771 

655 
2,585 



Female. 



2,943 
1,460 



4,763 



1,253 
330 



10,909 
973 



582 

5,036 

4 

24,202 

4, 537 

9,032 
34, 891 

3,501 
44,182 
17,951 
10,106 
55,141 

5,145 
49 

8,578 
13,973 

4,595 

3 

58,593 

4,870 

3,078 

5,839 

11,608 
13,494 

9,748 
10, 992 

1,802 

385 
3,033 

149 
1,049 

516 
453 



08,144 389,748, 147,158 
3,865 543 964 



Age. 



Under 

14 
years. 



14 to 44 
years. 



565 

718 

2,006 



560 
1S9 

3, 422 
396 



159 

2,675 

1 

8,915 

888! 

3,831 

15,450 

1,269 

22,378 

2,543 

4,248 

27,302 

437 

13 

1,760 

5,670 

3,048 



years 
and 



17,253 

2,301 

992 

1,747 

2,365 
3,038 
3,521 
4,205 
926 

203 

1,341 

70 

443 

125 
185 



5,804 
8,309 

8,539 



8,044 
1,530 

37,362 
2,368 



4,168 

10, 896 

181 

40,296 

11,651 

14,402 

59, 627 

36,591 

72, 218 

32, 441 

36, 645 

190, 795 

7,290 

51 

22,438 

22,410 

6,931 

8 

152,988 

10,366 

10,539 

48,906 

27,250 
34,056 
15,406 
22,048 
7,568 

1,065 

7,448 
1,903 
2,128 

938 
2,751 



265 

320 



546 



483 
303 

1,715 
335 



61 
6,311 

217, 
2,419 
5,788 

784 

6,734 

2,039 

1,641 

13,516 

575 



449 
2,530 

975 

3 

4,124 

899 
1,920 

819 

973 

1,643 

2,366 

981 

548 

95 
421 

42 
249 

108 
102 



986,355 64,379 
3,323 121 



Literacy, 14 years and over. 



Can read 

but can not 

write. 



Male. 



23 
11 
36 
62 
10 
222 
12 
18 
49 



491 

6 
13 



1,597 
4 



2,842 



Fe- 
male 



18 

5 

25 

103 



24 



1,579 
8 
2 

28 

36 
15 

5 
11 

5 

2 
2 



Can neither 
read nor 

write. 



Male. 



1,835 
50 



2,510 
16 

6,679 
16 



1,851 

157 

23 

13' 

43 

919 

1,929 

7,164 

6,563 

176 

1,974 

75, 256 

548 

3 

5,826 

1,177 

1, 



31,308 

4,562 
3,191 
14, 792 

6,746 

60 

39 

1,985 

1,059 

3 
2,359 
1,203 

5 

10 
1,034 



2,484185,872 
682 



Fe- 
male, 



239 
115 



2,368 
22 



JOS 



123 

26 

342 

2,059 

1,558 

10,099 

142 

563 

24, 146 

1,876 

9 

4,420 

1,271 

1,657 



17,152 
2,398 
1,185 
2,837 

4,453 
31 
43 

1,273 
398 

10 

1,769 

75 

8 

3 
199 



84,116 
158 



Total. 



930 
2,257 



2,940 
221 

9,082 
39 



2,066 

233 

23 

301 

85 

1,322 

4,153 

8,732 

16,980 

348 

2,557 

99,461 

2,424 

12 

11,178 

2,463 

3,692 



51,636 
6,972 
4,3S§ 

17,757 

11,294 

116 

91 

3,291 

1,482 

17 
4,134 
1,278 

14 

15 
1,237 



275,314 
840 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 47 

Aliens Admitted, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, by Races or Peoples. 



Money. 


By whom passage was paid. 


Going to join 




Aliens bringing— 


Total 

amount of 

money 

shown. 






















Other than 






Neither 






Self. 


Relative. 


self or 
relative. 


Relative. 


Friend. 


relative 






nor friend. 


S50or 


Less than 














over. 


$50. 
















1,059 


4,494 


$167, 191 


4,884 


1,497 


253 


4,317 


847 


1,470 


786 


7,215 


260, 074 


7,881 


1,412 


60 


7,142 


2,089 


122 


1,923 


5,822 


455, 907 


6,638 


4,388 


65 


8,680 


2,150 


261 


1,153 


6,831 


307, 147 


7,709 


1,351 


27 


4,493 


3,866 


728 


571 


1,180 


69,784 


845 


1,074 


103 


1,189 


513 


320 


2,661 


34,883 


1, 066, 699 


34,898 


7,434 


167 


28,310 


12,973 


1,216 


1,820 


576 


164,944 


1,922 


1,152 


25 


974 


258 


1,867 


334 


3,770 


128,967 


4,046 


448 


26 


2,816 


1,542 


162 


3,815 


5,501 


745, 603 


8,699 


5,626 


182 


9,646 


3,723 


1,138 


145 


21 


41,878 


169 


15 


4 


32 


75 


81 


22. 101 


15, 769 


4,352,365 


33,580 


20,357 


1,585 


33, 838 


10,356 


11,328 


1,861 


9,238 


470, 932 


8,708 


3,587 


461 


7,128 


4,823 


805 


6,533 


6,373 


1,332,572 


11,981 


7,988 


683 


13, 758 


2,524 


4, 370 


19,285 


32, 526 


4, 309, 865 


46,501 


32, 959 


1,405 


59, 192 


15,417 


6,256 


3, 403 


31,751 


1,230,553 


35, 790 


2,838 


16 


25,423 


12,323 


898 


7,805 


41,536 


2,307,345 


36,423 


64,400 


507 


94, 591 


4,837 


1,902 


7,121 


23,006 


1,985,703 


22,852 


13,689 


482 


30, 588 


3,262 


3,173 


6,977 


26,968 


1,437,640 


33,305 


8,948 


281 


31,857 


9,012 


1,665 


17, 697 


168,463 


5,93S,521 


175,817 


55,391 


405 


219, 102 


11,043 


1,468 


3,578 


3,644 


290,635 


1,630 


6,600 


72 


6,802 


439 


1,061 


8 


24 


1,219 


7 


56 


1 


54 


4 


6 


1,166 


17,916 


504, 884 


13,833 


10, 681 


133 


22, 796 


1,747 


104 


2,644 


18,686 


775, 515 


18,530 


11,979 


101 


25,353 


4,545 


712 


1,134 


3,620 


189,873 


5,102 


5,675 


177 


5,361 


711 


4,882 


7 


2 


3,360 


6 


3 


2 


2 


2 


7 


7,839 


130,569 


4,033,440 


119,633 


54,306 


426 


155, 011 


17, 785 


1,569 


953 


8,549 


292, S24 


7,260 


6,046 


260 


10,823 


2,270 


473 


685 


10,582 


^__316 r 465 


10,639 


2,771 


41 


9,443 


3,654 


354 


2,054 


44,397 


1,279,412 


45, 628 


5,538 


306 


29,898 


20,573 


1,001 


690 


24,349 


627,904 


22, 971 


7,526 


91 


25,511 


4,448 


629 


8,003 


25, 190 


2,084,546 


29, 124 


8,959 


654 


24,496 


10, 065 


4,176 


7,397 


7,580 


1,775,314 


13,689 


7,291 


313 


13,960 


3,714 


3,619 


1,575 


19,879 


627,518 


19,834 


7,352 


48 


24,287 


2,690 


257 


2,740 


3,673 


439, 783 


6,455 


1,393 


1,194 


3,867 


2,238 


2,937 


1,021 


119 


130,231 


807 


462 


94 


324 


243 


796 


1,207 


5,231 


305, 762 


6,383 


2,817 


10 


7,925 


1,055 


230 


180 


1,564 


65,356 


1,791 


220 


4 


1,504 


398 


113 


1,105 


854 


190,225 


1,746 


1,037 


37 


1,878 


573 


369 


496 


404 


82,968 


838 


305 


28 


661 


150 


360 


288 


-2,342 


99,273 


2,597 


376 


65 


1,899 


983 


156 


151,820 


755, 097 


40, 890, 197 


811,151 


375,947 


10,794 


954, 931 


179,920 


63,041 


1,867 


1,895 


43,589 


2,658 


1,662 


88 


1,808 


5S7 


2,013 



48 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



49 



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50 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table VII b. — Conjugal Condition of Immigrant Aliens 

[Abbreviations: S., single; 



Race or people 



Males. 



Under 
14 

years 
(to- 
tal).! 



14 to 44 years. 



M. 



W. 



Total. 



45 years and over. 



M. W. D. Total. 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian . 

Bulgarian, Servian, and 
Montenegrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slovenian. . . 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, 
Herzegovinian 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (North) 

Italian (South) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) . . . 

Scandinavian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish-American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cu- 
ban) 

Other peoples 



Total . 



237 


2,478 


413 


4,110 


1,008 


3,263 


295 


3,108 


162 


782 


1,684 


14,382 


218 


1,354 


98 


2,082 


1,337 


4,713 


1 


111 


4,503 


15, 197 


460 


5,837 


1,922 


5,488 


7,767 


22,234 


755 


24, 097 


11,186 


27, 072 


1,281 


14,559 


2,210 


16, 994 


14,356 


78,351 


280 


1,448 


6 


7 


887 


11,548 


2,857 


4,486 


1,608 


2,557 



8, 603 

1,200 

528 

880 

1,145 

1,566 

1,766 

2,052 

508 

121 

766 

43 

201 

62 



4 

61,555 

3,612 

2,443 

20, 296 

8,304 

20, 115 

6,099 

6,398 

4,208 

643 

3,963 

1,144 

946 

394 
1,554 



861 
3,168 
1,764 

3,961 

461 

13, 992 

347 

1,564 

2,854 

59 

8,372 

1,775 

2,752 

12, 736 

9,672 

15,539 

2,181 

11,869 

74,517 

979 

2 

3,346 

7,396 

1,605 

2 

42,533 

3,379 

5,529 

23, 658 

8,667 

2,649 

2,459 

7,167 

2,094 

142 

1,177 

648 

463 

139 

869 



75,061 



407, 936 



283,347 



97 
11 

15 

42 

7 

190 

32 
102 
144 

51 
140 

75 

131 

343 

4 



211 
40 
64 

102 
37 
55 
56 
28 
29 
4 
58 
4 
11 

3 

7 



3,349 
7,302 
5,049 

7,120 
1,243 

28, 472 
1,712 

3,661 

7,611 

177 

23,764 

7,644 

8,346 

35, 132 

33, 820 

42, 762 

16,816 

28, 994 

153,212 

2,433 

9 

14,911 

11,958 

4,221 

6 

104,300 

7,032 

8,040 

44, 056 

17, 008 

22, 822 

8,617 

13, 594 

6,331 

789 

5,198 

1,796 

1,420 

536 
2,430 



16 
5 
12 

15 
1 

47 
27 

7 

64 

1 

368 

17 

178 

234 

35 

53 

226 

109 

322 

8 



19 

19 

18 

11 

230 

188 

7 

58 

8 

13 

4 

18 

1 
5 



80 
158 
229 

377 

286 

1,344 

147 

162 

416 

5 

2,333 

83 

981 
2,572 

510 
2,793 

602 
1,047 
8,161 

418 



26 



350 

15 
192 
262 

23 
352 
147 

68 
421 

18 



241 

1,715 

404 

2 

2,691 

416 

1,705 

654 

799 

546 

811 

551 

312 

56 

169 

21 

111 

51 
61 



lis 
29 
81 
25 
17 
78 
163 
38 
31 
4 
31 



2,349 



693, 693 



2,497 



34,020 



2,856 



105 
178 
271 

419 

287 

1,434 

196 

179 

523 

6 

3,053 

115 
1,352 
3,075 

568 
3,200 

975 
1,224 
8,904 

444 



271 
1,822 

530 

2 

2, 809 

464 
1,805 

697 

827 

855 
1,162 

596 

401 
68 

213 
27 

150 

57 
66 



39,390 



1 None divorced; 62 married, as follows: Bohemian and Moravian, Bulgarian, Servian, and Monte- 
negrin, Croatian and Slovenian, Dalmatian, Bosnian, Herzegovinian, Dutch and Flemish, French, 
Lithuanian, Mexican, Roumanian, Scandinavian, Scotch, Slovak, and Welsh, 1 each; Portuguese^; Eng- 
lish, 4; Greek and Polish, 5 each; German, 6; Hebrew, 7; and Italian (South), 19; and 3 widowed— -Hebrew, 
Italian (South), and Scandinavian, 1 each. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



51 



Admitted, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, by Races or Peoples. 
M., married; W., widowed; D., divorced.] 



Females. 


Single females. 


Under 
14 


14 to 44 years. 


45 years and over. 










years 
(to- 
tal).* 






















14-21 


22-29 


30-37 


38-44 






















years. 


years. 


years. 


years. 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 










328 


1,719 


635 


100 


1 


2,455 


29 


60 


71 




160 


761 


725 


173* 


60 


305 


459 


476 


71 


1 


1,007 


1 


63 


84 




148 


340 


95 


17 


7 


998 


2,245 


1,181 


63 


1 


3, 490 


3 


150 


122 




275 


1,507 


632 


94 


12 


265 


215 


660 


45 


4 


924 


3 


45 


16 




64 


153 


56 


6 




27 
1,738 


22 
5,005 


264 
3,619 


1 
264 


"2 


287 
8,890 


1 

15 


12 
171 


3 
95 




16 

281 


16 
3,330 


6 
1,446 






200 


29 


178 


299 


317 


40 




656 


16 


66 


57 




139 


157 


111 


28 


3 


61 


316 


182 


9 




507 




6 


8 




14 


160 


138 


18 




1,338 


1,195 


2,054 


32 


"4 


3,285 


20 


271 


120 


'2 


413 


573 


451 


130 


41 


4,412 


1 

8,398 


3 

7,661 






4 

16, 532 












1 

2,885 








462 


11 


444 


1,642 


1,171 


1 


3,258 


3,446 


1,531 


536 


428 


3,163 


800 


43 


1 


4,007 


13 


50 


38 


1 


102 


1,922 


1,040 


172 


29 


1,909 


3,238 


2,688 


126 


4 


6,056 


120 


575 


370 


2 


1,067 


1,637 


1,032 


423 


146 


7,683 


13,926 


9,962 


553 


54 


24,495 


243 


1,384 


1,075 


11 


2,713 


8,412 


4,190 


1,032 


292 


514 


1,517 


1,194 


60 




2,771 


3 


118 


95 




216 


1,006 


450 


52 


9 


11,192 


18,159 


10, 436 


813 


48" 


29,456 


32 


1,822 


1,666 


ii 


3,534 


15,015 


2,861 


245 


38 


1,262 


13,597 


1,855 


172 


1 


15, 625 


191 


422 


451 




1,064 


7,746 


4,665 


933 


253 


2,038 


3,228 


4,321 


100 


2 


7,651 


23 


196 


197 


r 


417 


1,839 


1,124 


223 


42 


12,946 


16,077 


20, 754 


751 


1 


37,583 


123 


2,610 


1,877 


2 


4,612 


10,658 


4,412 


795 


212 


157 


296 


4,556 


4 


1 


4,857 


1 


111 


18 


1 


131 


251 


35 


8 


2 


7 
873 


5 
5,919 


37 

1,520 






42 
7,527 












2 

4,311 


3 

1,449 






88 




2 


70 


106 




178 


143 


16 


2,813 


4,825 


5,046 


541 


'46 


10, 452 


9 


354 


340 


5" 


708 


3,596 


957 


237 


35 


1,440 


785 


1,726 


199 




2,710 


12 


188 


245 




445 


543 


165 


54 


23 


8,650 


1 
34, 269 


1 
13,549 






2 

48, 688 


21 


1 

656 






1 
1,255 


1 
28,534 








870 




577 


1 


5,159 


498 


78 


1,101 


1,849 


1,396 


85 


4 


3,334 


29 


209 


196 


1 


435 


1,305 


422 


96 


26 


464 


712 


1,529 


244 


14 


2,499 


3 


76 


36 




115 


404 


276 


27 


5 


867 


2,873 


1,873 


104 




4,850 


3 


80 


39 




122 


2,016 


788 


64 


5 


1,220 


7,459 


2,516 


267 




10,242 


1 


88 


57 




146 


6,399 


906 


120 


34 


1,472 


9,184 


1,928 


118 


4 


11,234 


147 


351 


289 


T 


788 


5,083 


3,212 


676 


213 


1,755 


4,385 


2,257 


145 


2 


6,789 


189 


579 


436 




1,204 


1,444 


1,972 


754 


215 


2,153 


4,732 


3,496 


225 


1 


8,454 


4 


150 


231 




385 


4,055 


622 


47 


8 


418 


556 


658 


23 




1,237 


11 


78 


58 




147 


291 


200 


49 


16 


82 


151 


113 


12 




276 


4 


12 


11 




27 


81 


45 


18 


7 


575 


1,003 


1,017 


230 




2,250 


4 


84 


120 




208 


807 


168 


24 


4 


27 


58 


45 


4 




107 




6 


9 




15 


42 


14 


2 




242 


378 


324 


6 




708 


9 


63 


27 




99 


140 


172 


47 


19 


63 


279 


109 


13 


1 


402 


9 


29 


13 




51 


140 


105 


23 


11 


96 


157 


150 


14 




321 


1 


19 


16 




36 


107 


45 


3 


2 


72,097 


172, 655 


112,908 


6,897 


202 


292, 662 


1,739 


12,867 


10,340 


43 


24, 989 


117,670 


43,595 


8,962 


2,428 



1 None divorced; 40 married, as follows: Armenian, Dutch and Flemish, French, Irish, Japanese, Rus- 
sian, and Scotch, 1 each; Greek and Mexican, 2 each; Hebrew and Magyar, 3 each; English and German, 
4 each; Italian (South), 5; and Polish, 10; and widowed — Hebrew, 1. 



52 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



53 




5 3 Si 
wHDO 



54 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



55 



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57 



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93 



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94 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XIII. — Sex, Age, Literacy, Financial Condition, etc., op Nonimmigrant 



Race or people. 



African (black) . . . 

Armenian 

Bohemian and 
Moravian 
(Czech) 

Bulgarian, Ser- 
vian, and Mon- 
tenegrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slo- 
venian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bos- 
nian, and Her- 
zegovinian 

Dutch and Flem- 
ish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (North)... 

Italian (South)... 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander. . . 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russ- 
niak) 

Scandinavian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish-A merican 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Ind ian 
(other than 
Cuban) 

Other peoples 

Total 

Admitted in Phil- 
ippine Islands . . 



Num- 
ber ad 
mitted. 



3,100 
201 



76] 



996 
1,465 



2,255 
3,022 



255 

4,239 

45 

44, 540 

2,164 

5,857 

20, 899 

2,289 

4,496 

11,080 

11,637 

32,735 

3,370 

10 

882 

2,951 

4,541 

16 

10,842 

1,065 

1,329 

6,908 

8,81 

12,913 

10, 141 

1,860 

5,975 

2,046 

809 

117 

1,102 



1,131 
474 



229,335 
8,238 



Male. 



2,157 
166 



898 
1,437 



1,802 
2,060 



226 

3,038 
42 

28,992 
1,448 
3, 426 

12,462 
2, 165 
2,923 
4,697 

10,087 

29, 235 

3,031 

8 

628 

1.627 

2, 621 

8,011 

766 

1,040 

6,290 

6,624 

7,303 

6,252 

1,279 

4,710 

1,356 

607 

100 

774 



687 
373 



161, 771 
7,797 



^Fe- 
male. 



943 

35 



453 

962 



29 

1,201 
3 

15, 548 

716 

2,431 

8,437 

124 

1,573 

6,383 

1,550 

3,500 

339 

2 

254 

1,324 

1,920 

9 

2,831 

299 

289 

618 

2,193 
5,610 
3,889 

581 
1,265 

690 

202 
17 

328 



444 
101 



67,564 
441 



Under 

14 
years. 



154 
300 



434 

1 

4,136 

115 

361 

2,437 

56 

617 

404 

529 

1,474 

13 



109 

433 

614 

2 

1,119 

40 

94 

349 

960 
610 
759 
187 
402 
256 
140 
10 
70 



17, 651 
205 



14 to 
44. 



2,674 
167 



910 

770 



1,955 
2,191 



228 

3,382 

35 

33,363 

1,979 

4,477 

15,423 

2,147 

3,405 

9,391 

10,463 

28, 581 

3,022 

9 

742 

2,232 

3,170 

14 

9,204 

867 

1,096 

6,282 

7,321 

11,322 

7,660 

1,572 

4,690 

1,441 

592 

102 



859 

396 



185,649 
5,947 



45 and 
over. 



255 
19 



52 
04S 



140 
531 



423 

9 

7,041 

70 

1,019 

3,039 

86 

474 

1,285 

645 

2,680 

335 

1 

31 

286 

757 



519 
158 
139 

277 

536 

981 

1,722 

101 

883 

349 

77 

5 

- 153 



26,035 
2,086 



Literacy, 14 years and 
over. 



Can read 

but can 

not write. 



Male. 



13 
6 

124 



211 



Fe- 
male 



114 



Can neither 

read nor 

write. 



Male. 



520 
10 



326 

20 



34 

8 

93 

6 

28 

289 

277 

158 

29 

560 

12,519 

198 



177 

106 

530 

1 

2,243 
338 
321 

1,832 

2,349 

8 

4 

164 

839 

5 

94 

20 

4 



24,679 
1,486 



Fe- 
male. 



11 
1 

93 
5 

14 
275 

43 
181 

37 

68 
1,382 

99 



97 

070 



732 

131 

96 
110 

Ml 

5 
11 
61 
29 



5,441 
57 



EEPOBT OF COMMISSIONEK GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 95 

Aliens Admitted, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, by Races or Peoples. 



Money. 



AMens bringing — 



$50 or 
over. 



739 



301 



250 
362 



389 
1,370 



1,862 

47 

23,789 

484 

4,048 

10,560 

785 

1,427 

4.745 

3,569 

6,833 

2,463 

5 

187 

636 

959 

10 

1,759 

311 

165 

891 

472 
4,259 
5,751 

294 
2,966 
1,586 

363 
61 

550 



674 

21S 



86,245 
2,904 



Less 
than $50. 



1,762 
117 



701 
833 

1,617 
624 



173 

1,213 

4 

10,300 

1,407 

762 

4, 
1,452 
1,646 
4,929 
6,787 
21,773 

712 
3 

454 
1,633 
1, 



7,275 
469 
981 

5,278 

6,559 

6,751 

2,514 

1,312 

1,690 

62 

185 

115 

323 



313 

It!) 



Total. 

amount of 

money 

shown. 



99,955 
5,342 



$88,435 
10,266 



75,298 



54,109 
94,444 



90,225 
160,513 



24,537 

312,793 

6,773 

2,987,822 

92,873 

579, 149 

1,990,796 

159,661 

318,006 

751,483 

621,222 

1,428,894 

281,193 

950 

48,787 

130,759 

121,757 

4,135 

411,788 

51,533 

40,995 

223,958 

205,087 
723,569 
737,696 
68,307 
579,864 
198,932 
203,453 
12,298 
88,073 



88,076 
28,056 



14,096,570 
42,614 



By whom passage was paid. 



Self. 



2,458 
166 



583 



830 
1,327 

1,909 
2,025 



231 

3,052 

39 

31,369 

1,764 

4,075 

14,328 

2,118 

2,668 

8,978 

10,200 

28,583 

2,990 

8 

584 

1,958 

3,065 

6 

7,977 

779 

991 

5,639 

6,006 

10,456 

7,305 

1,504 

4,750 

1,270 

538 

96 

865 



820 
373 



174,683 
7,727 



Rela- 
tive. 



486 

34 



337 
971 



22 

1,078 

4 

10,844 

337 
1,185 
5,736 

130 
1,781 
1,572 
1,249 
3,926 

340 
2 

284 

966 

1,416 

6 

2,699 

275 

316 
1,164 

2,607 
1,636 
2,220 

347 
1,065 

640 

267 
20 

187 



284 

79 



,878 
354 



Other 

than 

self or 

relative. 



26 



109 

2 

2,327 

63 
597 
835 

41 

47 
530 
188 
226 

40 



14 
27 
60 
4 

166 
11 
22 

105 

204 

821 

616 

9 

160 

136 

4 

1 

50 



7,774 
157 



Going to join- 



Relative. 



1,093 
125 



397 
352 

1,377 
1,174 



132 

1,899 

4 

16,469 

961 

1,395 

9,434 

1,302 

3,265 

6,340 

6,690 

27,227 

822 

4 

750 

2,182 

2,236 

6 

8,741 

742 

922 

3,758 

6,572 

5,808 

3,987 

1,529 

1,146 

266 

408 

37 

421 



370 
138 



Friend. 



Neither 
relative 

nor 
friend. 



120,942 
712 



343 

40 



n.i 



340 
708 



744 
121 



81 

1,101 
13 

5,528 

1,015 

525 

3,587 

639 

488 

1,088 

3,686 

3,362 

692 

1 

105 

510 

116 



1,640 
182 
305 

2,386 

1,934 

3,180 

1,438 

287 

545 

214 

77 

21 

202 



37,651 
862 



1,664 
36 



139 



259 

ID,-) 



134 

1,727, 



42 

1,239 

28 

22,543 

188 

3,937 

7,878 

348 

743 

3,652 

1,261 

2,146 

1,856 

5 

27 

259 

2,189 

10 

461 

141 

102 

764 

311 

3,925 

4,716 

44 

4,284 

1,566 

324 

59 

479 



616 

23o 



70,742 
6,664 



Admitted 
in Phil- 
ippine 
Islands. 



6,634 



23 

74 
451 



53 
172 
4 
2 
18 
21 



228 
11 
1 
6 
4 
1 
3 

101 
4 
12 



311 
3 
5 
10 



16 
,238 



96 



BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



w 
< 

< 

2 



K 



W 



s ° 

fe P-l 

°« 

3° 
H CO 

H O 

H ►" 
1-1 CO 
55 w 

Pot 






S-o, 



3t» 






CO .rtrttO 



gffi 



CO iO iH iC w o 



S"S 



NCOOOHiOCO'MiOCl»NOHiOCOI'OC5iOH03>Oi»Ol , CN«Ci'OHrr005'J' 
OOI"HHO(D!00 0!iOf'-0'XiHy.CCiMOO f- -r f ^h dC. O CC OJ O O ^-i 00 t^ l~- 00 



OhMOOhhiCWO cDOO-a'iOCOi'WNrr ^r 

tjT co i£ co*" -rr od o 



-COOOCOiOiOOCOGOiO 

t-T*hT co r-Tr>^co co"*c<r ^r"-H > 



£o 



lOior-cN^ot^CNco 



• »-l CO CN 00 CO u?j 



HOCONOOiOiOO 
N H (M ?0 h iO o o 

COf-t .-H 






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OCN CO^FCO 



ss: 



OWCOf-^iCINNOanOCOCOOO 
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iONiHNCO O **r CO CO t-H 



lO^iCOOliO'ONOONCONNN'rMOOCTiaifOHNb.Ol 

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OcOTTOCO^t^OOOCN HO) 

Of COio" CO'CN'iOTp' 



N t>. H CO ■* O t^ O h rf O 

CM "T COt-HH 



OOlNOHCOiOCOONCO 



OHHCO(NMNH1< t*- 



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iCI-ClCi r ~J -- :~ — ' ' 

•h CO CM M H CO O) '5 N 



COMMt^MCMn'CNNHOOOCOtC'Cv^OCOCMCN^t^OCMH^Cft^NrtOiOC^O 



• i— t cm oo Oi r- co co •— i co co i - 'or > c o. i - or or o o co co t< 



'OHOCOiflCOHOt 



HiHWCO'J'iOCOiHM WcNOCOCNOOfOSi-»CO CO CO t-H OCO'CtiOfOiCt*^ CO 



»H t-H rH t-1 ©HHlOh 



CONWh t-h 



H lONH 



g^ 



- COCO CO 00 t-I 



COHCOcNcOOCNCOiOOOwCNfiOifTrrtUj^ 

iH rj" Ci O CO N W W^ C CC CO *T Ol H "O C O i.O CN "•* I 

CN CN CM CO CO CO O <— I O CO CO CO CO OS CO OS HiOl 



MCNCNCOcOcOiOr-iOCN^iO 

oioooiHC.wrot^H'^ 

COCNCMt^hOCOcOMH 



oo co co ti co T-i co oo O co r-- cm — < -r r- -r os *o o »o co co <—i or. os or: cn co os t~- co oo »q co io os 

HOOOlH'OiOl- or: ^h y; -o CO q.O^'^COCHM'^H OS I - ~ CO CO 0<: 00 00 O0 iO CO 



OMCOOCNCN^'^Tl'HClCOOOOiOCOiOO'.CNh' t- i I 



NiONOOiiOfOI^iO' 



Tp lOCN^r^GOCOi— i CN iO CO »-« CO i-h O-H^- iGOiOCNOsCNT'T-HtH 

TT i— I >-H HtHCO i-H t-I 



0)«HP5i0>0rti0 , THQNOHOM!DiO000) 
tT H tO f -* O) Tf 



<r^r-*-rco»ocNiooiotooot— t— ioi— <iH 
■ 'X' or -; © r. o -r or cn nhth cn 

(NH CO hcOCOtPCOhINNH 



COHCMOiHHmCOO^COCONHiOrt^HOtN 
OCOOOt^t^OiCOCN^H I- -r O) C- O ^ CO H 00 H 
CO CNH -f O iO iOOS^OSCO<<T'COl--CNeN 

cn *h *-h of oo ^'i>r^' T r""'-r 



'NCCOtDO'-i^HMcO 
■ ©IOCS HCOCONCO'V... 
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Tf a> co co h 

(NOOOiOO) 
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Cm 

o 
w 



M 



3 ft 

►7 CD 



Os co io o or •-" o or re -r: — re o o. -o jT oj -r — ■-. — - © co ro © o »o or r.iOLOCocONTt<M< 

CONNQONW'OftOHOiNNONTl'MXr.HCO-rC.HO. X or :0 t - CO r- rr OS CN rf 
COCO'^rHrrCNO'fl'HiHiO'HNHOCOCOcOt*^ 1— 'CM HCOOOTOt--cOfOMO 

i-? loco co ^ ^ os"cn co -^r oo co'io^CM'to^co' hm t-h" os T-7'T-""ao"io afi- Cn'-^t-h't-c 

CO t-Ht-H HCO 



5 »o io io os o ci r i —> c i -_: i - w -o ci -r lo ce i - o t-h -r- os to hohdhcohocco'/^ 

3MN«*Ti'Hi0C0Hr4OCNHC00CCNC0OI-- CO uri 00 I>-OSOOSOCMCOCNiOOSCO 
r U^COCO"cC> t£ i-Tco'cO CO oT-r'cO'^'o't^' t-htt^ ^-T^cn co'r^'^'cN co*"io"^h ^h" 

CO CN ^-1 i-H H T .—I t-1 -H 




BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



97 



-f i-H 


X 


CO 






216 

804 

1,193 

569 










00.-CN 


oo 

CN 


o 

CO 




COCNCN 


— 


00 


t-IIOCPH 
rt OH 


of 


CN 

CO 


OOWOU5 
■fl-CCCOO 


00 

o 


CN 

CO 


CONOOO 

osoo 

COi-h rtCN 


o 
I- 


CD 


«-< cor^o 


CO 

-r 

m 


o 
cn" 


630 

864 

1,081 

838 


cn 

8 


O 
CO - 


HOCN« 


CO 


00 
CO 




CN -^ CN CN 

CO 00 CN ~-» 
CNlOrt 


CO 


o> 


c. r-. ~ i- 

CO t~ 00 00 


5 

CN 


CO 

CO 

oo~ 


681 
1,073 
1,382 

957 


CO 

g 

:- 


00 
CO 

oT 


X 

V 




I 

■2 

■- 

— 

- 

CD 

CJ 

■y 
c 

= 

% 

a 


CZ 

a 

c 
c 
c 

fi. 
C 
-= 


1 
4 




c 
E- 




— 
C 
o 

5 

M 
CO 

.£ 

p 

- 
— 

- 


— 
3 

1 

1 


4 



fc 



K 



•adomg; jtj^ox 



•ado-mg aaq^o 



•raopSarg pejran 



rH coco ^NocO't ooo mom co»oo> 

T CO CO CNWCOCNCN C»«^ CO CO CO CO O ft 



•adoing; ut ^a^jnx 



•ptrejaazjiAig 



•uapajig 



•spaB^sj oil 
-ait3g; puu £xewe^ 
Sinpnpui 'urcdg 



•aiiduia nmssriy; 



■OTUBnmo}! 



■spuBjsi 9J0ZV 
pire apjaA QP adi33 
gtnpnput 'eeSniioj 



•^bauo^; 



•spaBpaqja^i 



•BjnrpjBg prre ^n 
-oig Suipnioni '£xe)i 



•aoaaao 



•ajidrag xremiao 



"BDISIOJ 

Smpnptn Y aatre.ig 



•jjuBnraaQ 



•oiSana^uoH pnu 



•umiSiaa 



•XibSotijj 



r-l CN CM CO 



•■Buisny 



02 

.si's | 



a 

•s.§ 

•si 



7686°— U- 



.s i S'C g S o 9 d"":^ 
s 3^33 s 5 c Z Z,~y.- 



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CD 

CDT3 

.as 

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Ml 

W3.S 

- = >- 

S -3 rf i 



S o>"* 






CD-S 
MOO 



98 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



13 
CO 

3 

a 

a 

3 
I 

o 

a 

co 

3 

O 
U 

<D 

U 

-a 

03 

T3 

a 
.g 

"o 

■• 

*C 

o 
O 


•edomg; ]b;ox 


nn CM 


a 


II CM CO »0 

HCSiO 




c 

00 


CO 
CO 


t - 


342 

98 

2,053 

611 

1,093 

972 

1,683 

176 

2 


3 

CO 

oi 




Oi-l 
001O 
CO^IO 






•gdojTi^ jamo 






30 


<-> 








CM 


CM 








CO CM 










1 ■»• II CO 




•mopSm-j pgijnfi 




(N M 


CM L-i 00 -H 
CO OOCOlO 




o 

CM 


lO «Nf OlOMOffl • 

i-( CM r~i CO *r rH -P CM CO • 

CO 00 i-l CO CO "3 r-C • 


co r~co »o 

00 | Of-- <N 

CO O) t- ^H 


•Qdomg ui Xasi-mx 


CM 




CM 


















CO 

01 






"* 




.-< >oco 




•puBpazjiMs 




rH : 


lO -H 








"- 1 






co co io t~ r~ in cm • 


00 Cft OS CO 
CM 3 


•napaMS 




rt : 


CO 

o 


















(N 00 CM 

CM 


CM 




t* rH CO CM 
CO '"'CM 


•spuBisj orj 
-9iBg puB Xjbubo 
Suipnpur 'uredg 








CM 
CM 








^ 


| 






C» t^COCMt^CM '• 
CO »0 CM O 

CO *r 


CM OCM CO 
^H CO CO 
rH «^CO 


•andrag; UBissny; 








co cm 

lO 








CM 








COCO Ol^r 00CM • 
CM IM •» 


CM COO O 

r* on 

t- C0H 


•Bitreumoa 








00 

cm 


















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CM CM 


•spu«[sj gjozy 
ptre opJ3A ^P 9dcj 
Saipniotn 'i^Srujoj 








W i-H 
CO 


** 


CO 


-o 














■^1 -^1 




CO Nr tt 

Tt< COl-H 




■^bauon 








a> II ■-( 

CO 

01 








w 




•^ 


t- 




CM COH • 


lt~ cftoo 
CO o» 
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•SptTBlJ9q}9>£ 








00 
CM 
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-11 


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"■* 


COCM f O CO 
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00 O 00 CO 
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"BiutpjBg pnB £\i 
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lO ' 


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HO 


CM 






CM 






-H CM-W" OOlOi-llO . 
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-H <"!-» O 
CM O0 CO i-l 
CM OS CM 


•9099.10 


cm 




OS 
CM 




















CM y-l 




CM Cs CO -* 
CO CO -H 


•gjidmg; uBinjao 




CO • 


00 OOOCM 
CO r-li-H 

■o 
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kfj 


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t-h ■* 00 00 CO lO ^H CM CM '< 


co co o r* 

CO i-H IO CO 
CM lOt~ 

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•boisjoo 
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io ! 


CO U"OHHIO 
CO -N 


CM 


i-H O C3> Tf CO CO r^ CO OS CM 
rtHNCC 


-N OSCM 05 
CO OiCO 
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"3fJBniII9Q 






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cot* 


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ssl 


IflM -N 


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CM 


















CI 












co 
CO 


-J-CM 

CO 




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CO 
CM 


w 






1-1 








T)< rt CO CM CO CM '■ 
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1 «» | 

CO 
CO 


iflip CM 
■* OS 
CM 


•ijBSanu 




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eft 

CO 














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CMrt-O" 








1 "1 


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1-1 TT 




■BTJisny 




CM i 


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1C3 


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W5 CO ■«■ CM CM -H '• 
00 —I ; 


OS 

3 1 


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I 

In 

O • 
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is 

1 


a 

l 

c 

j 

i 
i 

i 

e 


h 
!l 

i i 


i i 

> . 

£C 

1 c 

I 

S3 


a 
P 
c 

3 

c 
E- 


1 

a 
c 


1 




i.2 

. c 

;< 

i t 

(J 

•i 
If 


A 
-.< 

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2 
153 
O 


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EH 


Z 

'i 

< 


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1 
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^^ 


t 

<~ 

c 
C 

c 
p 

a 

1 

* 

c 

s 

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c 

p. 


4 

Z 
a 

J 
I 

PC 


- 

- 

i 

E 
< 

£ 


1 


a 

£ 

- 
1 


! 

a 


z 
e 

< 

5 


d 
5 

c 

O 


e 




a 
5 


B 

c 


CO 
CD 

.s 

ft 
ft 

3 
fl 
Ph 

.g 

— 

i| 

~ — 





REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



99 



•6 

<o 

a 
3 

d 

o 

I 

s 

a 

CO 

s 

CD 

f- 

CO 

H 

3 

3 

T3 
<D 
•O 

a 
<o 

_d 

o 

_cc 

i 

o 
O 


-si aniddinqd 
at pajjirapv 














CO 


ooco 


r 




IO COCMt^. 


CO 




■CO 


CO CD CD 
CO 


CM 


00 
CD 


1H O 

00 


•eiBraaj 


2,959 
408 
392 

35 

106 

820 

1,253 

58 

2,223 
260 
161 

18 

70 

2,824 

361 
137 
116 

22 
9,128 

10 


SO 

CO 

CI 


00 »C "T 00 CN 


CM 


00 >C5 


•8IBK 


8,444 
825 
990 

170 

263 

1,664 

3,531 

470 

19, 932 

664 

1,207 

38 

113 

11,296 

1,699 
588 
290 
195 
19, 581 
199 


OS 

■ - 

CM 


00 CO O «H 
NNOOOOS 
CM CO -H i-4 


CO 

- 


t^ OS 

-Ji CO 
CM O 


•[BJOJ pUBJO 


11, 403 
1,233 
1,382 

205 

369 
2,484 
4,784 

528 

22, 155 

924 

1,368 

56 

183 

14, 120 

2,000 
725 
406 
217 
28, 709 
209 


~ 
?l 
IO 

co' 
OS 


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101 



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102 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 103 



** .-< CO 

coco 


t— lO 


t— 


lO^ 


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CO 


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407 
249 

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377 
2, 080 
5,017 
4,024 

22, 495 

1,087 

745 

198 

175 

13,235 

1,778 
704 
415 
572 
25,511 
83 


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588 
3,177 
7,278 
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25,260 

1,494 

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276 

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2,031 

1,026 

613 

605 

37,496 

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104 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



a i-H n. ci as cs 



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N- CN ^f COOMH OOiHOOcOCOiOiOOl'TOCH © io O HtPCOOOI C CM CI O CO iO CO O) H ^ 

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i-i cn h "* ^ c r: CO' co cn co h cn cm oo cn <n co cn cn 



HNCO CN N CN ^f 
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CN CO <— I W lO IN »C CO CM CD HCMH t- rH i-4 CO H C-l 

CO OS HH CO CO CN CO NCOOOcOHCOOONNONXOOCONOJ'OffiCjHH OS hh O O CO O t- -f O O 

CI OS CO hh O N CN hh CJ h '-o -f 00 :o O GO ci o«^cich- OO CCCMO CO i-i N- CO r _ CI CI O ^ CO 

O CN •— I CN Ol hh co N iO N O I'' CO' O X CO ■* N >0 ^ t — CO O HOOOHCO NOhCOiOCCOhiO 

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(■^HHCOCOXOSH lOOHiOOOCH'HOO 



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OHOOCOdcMHNO^cO COO OOCNOOO ^ OO'tOOOONCOO 



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COOiMOSHOtHCMrtN 



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EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 105 
Table XVI. — Total Immigration each Year, 1820-1913. 



Teriod. 


Number. 


Period. 


Number. 


Year ended Sept. 30 — 

1820 


8,385 
9,127 
6,911 
6,354 
7,912 
10, 199 
10, 837 
18,875 
27,382 
22, 520 
23,322 
22, 633 
60,482 

58,640 
65,365 
45,374 
76, 242 
79,340 
38,914 
68,069 
84,066 
80, 289 
104, 565 
52, 496 

78, 615 
114,371 
154, 416 
234, 968 
226, 527 
297,024 
310,004 

59,976 

379,466 
371,603 
368, 645 
427, 833 
200, 877 
195, 857 
112, 123 

191,942 
129,571 
133, 143 
142,877 
72, 183 
132, 925 
191,114 
180,339 


year ended June 30— 

1866 


332,577 


1821 


1867 

1S6S 


303, 104 


1822 


282, 189 


1823 


1869 


352, 768 


1824 


1870 


387, 203 


1825 


1871... 


321,350 


1826 


1872. . . 


404, 806 
459, 803 


1827 


1873 


1828 


1874 


313,339 


1829 


1875 


227,498 


1830 


1876. . . 


169, 986 


1831 


1877 


141,857 


Oct. 1, 1831, to Dec. 31, 1832 


1878 


138,469 




1879 . 


177, 826 


1833 


1880 


457, 257 
669,431 


1834 


1881 


1835 


1882 


788,992 


1836 


1883... 


603,322 


1837 


1884 


518,592 


1838 


1885 


395,346 


1839 


1886 


334,203 


1840 


1887 


490, 109 


1841 


1888... 


546,889 


1842 


1889 


444,427 


Jan. 1 to Sept. 30, 1843 


1890 


455,302 


Year ended Sept. 30— 

1844 


1891 


560,319 


1892 


579,663 


1S45. . 


1893 


439, 730 


1846. . 


1894 


285,631 


1847 


1895 


258,536 


1848... 


1896 


343,267 


1849. . 


1897 


230,832 


1850. . 


1898 


229, 299 


Oct. 1 to Dec. 31, 1850 


1899 


311,715 




1900 


448,572 


1851 


1901 


487,918 


1852 


1902 


648,743 


1853 


1903 


857, 046 


1854 


1904 


812,870 


1855 


1905 


1,026,499 


1856 


1906 


1, 100, 735 


Jan. 1 to June 30, 1857 


1907 


1,285,349 




1908 


782, 870 


1858 


1909 


751, 786 


• 1859 


1910 


1,041,570 


1860 


1911 


878, 587 


1861. . 


1912 


838, 172 


1862. . 


1913 


1,197,892 


1863 






1864... 


30,808,944 


1865 











106 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XVII. — Aliens Debarred from Entering the United States, 





t3 


i 

a 
fl 
fl 


•6 

<s 

6 
a 


£ 
p. 

o 

a 

P. 


ill 

® w O 

£ >>S 

(3 O 

fl ©ti 


3 



I 

a 



3 



5 

.59 


3 

3 

Eh 


Loathsome or dangerous 
contagious diseases. 


u 

OJ 

W 

ti. 
<s> 

fl 
"3 

3 
,0 

•£ 

Ul 

Ph 




P. 

3 


a 

fl 

3 
Ph 

03 

© 
3 c 

fl-g 



>> 
"3 


Race or people. 


A 

3 


•a "g 

0.0 



.a 
3 
H 


3 


fl 


03 
E- 


i 

03 


fl 







2 
2 




2 

1 
5 

1 




2 


10 
50 

8 

40 
50 

88 


"2 


14 
5 
2 

5 
6 
5 
1 






162 
85 
37 

121 

12 

144 

6 

21 
63 
159 






1 
1 








l 










Bulgarian, Servian, Monte- 


3 






2 

1 

1 




















3 


9 


l 


3 

1 

1 






1 






Dalmatian, Bosnian, Herze- 




4 
3 




1 

5 

18 

12 

9 

8 

106 

45 

132 

9 

41 

283 

171 

1 

73 

19 

149 














1 
3 
10 


3 

"2 

2 

19 

.... 

14 


3 

20 
10 
1 
2 
12 
17 
38 
5 
8 
54 
15 






















4 


1 


19 

2 

5 

11 

14 

39 

16 

12 

181 


3 
"2" 


25 
2 
3 

16 


1 






752 








72 
334 
403 
343 
447 
358 
131 
1,139 

33 




2 


3 
3 




10 
5 
7 
5 

10 
3 

13 


2 

1 


1 




Greek 








! 

4 
18 


"5" 

1 
3 


9 

28 
3 
24 

1 


1 


1 

1 


"2 








2 
4 






1 
























10 
3 
6 


"3" 


2 
2 
5 






2 


3 

4 
58 






68 
105 

743 






1 
1 




1 

2 








4 


5 






Polish.. . 




8 


61 
2 
1 
11 
39 
6 
2 
7 
5 


1 


8 
2 




4 


349 
6 
16 
63 
22 
10 
9 
28 
29 


4 

"2 

4 

.... 

.... 


19 

1 
2 
6 
2 
12 
4 
1 
2 
1 
6 
1 
1 
2 
1 






563 

82 

101 

276 

161 

1^3 

241 

47 

93 

14 

337 

50 

19 

5 

61 












.... 


1 




1 

1 
1 
6 
9 










"2 
1 

1 


4 
2 
9 
6 
3 












1 
















1 


1 


















1 












2 
1 

1 
1 
2 








Syrian 

Turkish 




1 


5 

1 








156 
14 
1 


.... 














Welsh . . 




1 
1 
2 


















2 




10 


3 




















Total 


18 


54 


483 


23 


175 

1 


2 


105 


2,047 
72 


61 

.... 


349 
16 


10 


5 


7,941 
33 


Debarred from Philippine 






-.-)-- 













REPOET OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 107 
Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, by Races or Peoples and Causes. 



Surgeon's certificate of defect 
mentally or physically 
which may affect alien's 
ability to earn a living. ' 


E 

(D 

t- 

o 

£> 

in 

o 

a 
o 
o 


•§ 

a . 

MO 

li 

P m 

03 
Pi 

a 

c 
< 


k 

6/0 I- 
c3 03 
_ & 
o >> 
«•= 

.« 03 

2 ft 

l§ 

a 
P 


i 

1 
< 


.23 
03 

5 


03 
bo 
>, 
"o 

Ph 


1 


a 

o 
° oj 

05 O 
"ol ft 

s| 

c 2 

030 

sa 
Is 

1o M 

S-9 

Ph 


Sft 

o o 
ftto 

P.-3 

P <D 

to « 

O 

© o 
b ■- 

03 p, 

o <o 

si > 
£ & A 

W 0>.8 

p >-« 

u t- — 

< 


Aliens who procure or attempt 
to bring in prostitutes or 
females for any immoral 
purpose. 


to 

a 

o 

> 

o 

sj 

<§ 
ft 

IH 

■a 


13 


* 

to 3 

9 s 
•2.2 
f 3 

1- 
p< 
t- 


P 


•d 
1- 

03 
£1 
O 

■e 

"3 


Eh 


© 

.9 
p. 
.& 

1 

Pi 

1 




10 
48 
16 

68 


5 

135 

44 


6 
5 
1 

1 


10 
9 
2 

8 


3 
4 

1 


8 
2 
4 

4 






2 

1 
3 

2 


l 


5 






242 

348 

83 

302 

402 

494 

17 

51 

162 

236 

..1,189 




















3 
1 








1 












333 


73 


176 
3 

14 

12 
8 
51 

37 
114 
732 
401 

38 

140 

1,186 


13 

38 
23 
56 
13 
32 
20 
32 
6 
27 
95 
302 


4 
1 

2 
~2 

24 

5 
17 
12 
33 
8 
5 
62 


9 

2 

4 

2 

1 

46 

2 

29 

20 

25 

23 

8 

15 

65 

1 




26 






4 
2 

1 

8 




4 
















6 
22 

8 
13 

3 

9 
10 

3 
13 


3 

8 

1 

58 

7 

34 

66 

16 

32 

25 

23 

246 






















8 








3 
1 








58 




55 

1 

35 

31 

1 

18 
10 

4 
27 




39 

11 

28 

13 
21 






2 






117 
563 
868 

1,251 

1,224 
575 
492 

3,657 

268 

2 

216 

269 

1,349 
























1 




































1 










47 
1 




58 
























34 

96 

3 


13 
71 


2 
2 

87 


5 
3 
56 


2 

1 
1 


1 

24 




1 










6 
90 


1 


2 
64 































428 

12 

117 

91 

128 

17 

23 

67 

22 

3 

51 

8 

7 

1 

39 


124 

34 

8 

176 

12 

8 

36 

2 

268 


22 
2 
3 
2 
7 
5 
4 
4 
4 


24 

16 
3 
9 

14 
4 

14 
3 

10 
2 

36 
5 
2 
1 
4 


7 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
8 

1 

4 

1 

2 


89 






16 




14 






1,741 

163 

277 

691 

427 

259 

400 

178 

441 

25 

650 

97 

41 

14 

157 




5 
16 
36 
30 

8 
15 
13 
















3 
4 
4 
9 

18 
2 
2 
2 


l 


2 
6 
2 

7 










1 


















































3 






1 


1 
3 

2 
1 
1 












8 
4 
4 


21 
1 
2 


21 
9 












1 






1 














1 






1 






1 
5 










15 


1 


3 






2 














4,208 


1,624 


357 


492 


129 
1 


508 


40 


2 


367 
3 


4 


253 
4 


48 


333 
64 


19, 938 


1 










1"" 







Iuclude hereunder only cases not comprehended in causes 1 to 13. 



108 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XVII a. — Aliens Debarred and Aliens Deported after Entering, 

1892-1913, by Causes. 





a 

o 

s 

s 

J— t 


Debarred from entering. 


Year ended June 30 — 


•3 


o 
CD 

.Q 

a 


<d 

r 

'e 

A 

a 
a 


o 
ft 

CD 
ft 


a 
o 

<s> 

ft 

CD 

d 

B 




o 
3 

a 

o 
"S o 

.S'3) 

B 

a 

»H • 

CD 

-Q 

3 


3 ./ 
8| 

|| 

O to 

If 

18 


c3 
tX) 
64 
CD 

X! 

R 
.o 

•2 
o 

Ut 

Ph 


A 

-P to' 
o ® 

>,« 

■»■§ 

si 

to" ft 

cd © 

2*3 
5 ° 

cci o 

Ph 


Surgeon's certificate of 
defect mentally or 
physically which may 
affect alien's ability to 
earn a living. 


u 

o> 

o 

"3 
a 

CO 

g 

a 
o 
O 


1892 


579, 663 

439,730 

285,631 

258,536 

343, 267 

230, 832 

229,299 

311,715 

448, 572 

487,918 

648,743 

S57,046 

812,870 

1,026,499 

1,100,735 

1, 285, 349 

782, 870 

751,786 

1,041,570 

878,587 

838, 172 

1,197,892 


4 
3 
4 
6 

16 
38 
92 
29 
20 
18 
16 
12 
10 
18 








17 
8 
5 




80 
81 
15 




1,002 
431 
802 
1,714 
2,010 
1,277 
2,261 
2,599 
2,974 
2,798 
3,944 
5,S12 
4,798 
7,898 
7,069 
6,866 
3,710 
4,402 
15,918 
12,039 
8,160 
7,946 




932 


1893 








518 


1894 








553 


1895 








694 


1896 








10 
6 

12 
19 
32 
16 
27 
23 
33 
92 
139 
189 
159 
141 
169 
111 
105 
175 


6 
8 
5 
15 
15 
2 


2 

1 

258 

348 

393 

309 

709 

1,773 

1,560 

2,198 

2,273 

3,822 

2,900 

2,3S2 

3,123 

2,831 

1,733 

2,562 


3l" 
56 

9 

9 

22 
10 




776 


1897 










328 


1898 










417 


1899 










741 


1900 










S33 


1901 










327 


1902 










275 


1903 










1,086 


1904 










1,501 


1905 










1,164 


1906 










2,314 


1907 










1,434 


1908 


45 
42 
40 
26 
44 
54 


121 
121 
125 
126 
110 
483 


25 
26 

29 
33 
28 
23 


870 

370 

312 

3,055 

2,288 
4,208 


1,932 


1909 


1,172 


1910 


1,786 


1911 


1,336 


1912 


1,333 


1913 


1,624 









Debarred from entering— Continued. 




Year ended 
June 30 — 


a 

a 

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Aliens who procure or 
attempt to bring in 
prostitutes and fe- 
males for any immoral 
purpose. 


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1892 






23 


26 
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80 










2,164 

1,053 

1,389 

2,419 

2,799 

1,617 

3,030 

3,798 

4,246 

3,516 

4,974 

8,769 

7,994 

11,879 

12,432 

13,064 

10,902 

10,411 

24, 270 

22,349 

16,057 

19,938 


637 


1893 


















577 


1894... 












2 






1" 


417 


1895 . 






1 














177 


1896... 




















238 


1897 






3 

79 

82 

2 

50 


1 

2 

8 

4 

7 

9 

51 

35 

44 

205 

341 

136 

273 

580 

644 

592 

808 














263 


1898 


















199 


1899... 










1 








263 


1900. . 










7 
3 
3 
13 
9 

24 
30 
18 
124 
323 
316 
253 
263 
367 










356 


1901 


















363 


1902 .. 


















465 


1903 






9 
38 
19 


1 

"*3 

5 
10 

6 
24 
134 
57 
38 
40 


.... 

1 
1 

"2 

"5 
"2 

2 










547 


1904... 






3 

4 

2 

1 

43 

181 

179 

141 

192 

253 








779 


1905 










394 
122 
160 
190 
413 
819 
605 
350 
333 


845 


1906 .. 


180 
134 

168 
206 
315 
359 
226 
357 








676 


1907 






1 
5 

7 
4 


60 
272 
81 
59 
27 
50 
48 


995 


1908 


88 
138 
296 
549 
395 
492 


54 
34 
34 

116 
94 

129 


2,069 


1909 


2,124 


1910 


2,695 


1911 


2,788 


1912 


2,456 


1913 


3,461 







EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 109 

Table XVII b. — Permanent Residents of Foreign Contiguous Territory 
Applying for Temporary Sojourn in the United States Refused Admission, 
Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, by Causes. 



Cause. 



Canadian 
border. 



Mexican 
border. 



Boston, 
Mass. 



Total. 



Idiots 

Imbeciles 

Feeble-minded 

Epileptics 

Insane persons 

Tuberculosis (noncontagious) 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases 

Professional beggars 

Paupers, or likely to become public charge 

Surgeons' certificates 

Contract laborers 

Accompanying aliens (under sec. 1 1) 

Under 16 years of age and unaccompanied by parent 

Assisted aliens 

Criminals 

Anarchists 

Prostitutes and females com in g for any immoral purpose 

Aliens who aresupported by or receive proceeds of prostitution. 
Aliens who procure or attempt to bring in prostitutes and 

females for any immoral purpose 

Under passportprovision, sec. 1 



Total. 



247 
10 

1 

12 
15 

8 
29 

1 
35 
26 



499 



ls4 
4 
872 
1 
100 
106 
103 



1,012 



1 

275 

4 

1,124 

11 

L62 

us 

118 

8 

33 

1 

127 

32 

60 
5 

2,118 



110 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. Ill 



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112 REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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Dalmatian, Bosnian, Herzego- 

vinian 

Dutch and Flemish 


French 

Greek 

Irish 

Italian (North) 

Italian (South) 

Japanese 


- to 

3 a 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 113 









CM '^Hr-H ■ -f CM (N 



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114 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 115 



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116 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table XX. 



-Deserting Alien Seamen, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, by 
Ports. 



New York, N. Y 2,272 

Boston, Mass 614 

Philadelphia, Pa 1,471 

Baltimore, Md 328 

Portland, Me 40 

New Bedford, Mass 

Providence, R. I 

Norfolk, Va 130 

Savannah, Ga 138 

Key West, Fla 4 

Tampa, Fla 104 

Pensacola, Fla 237 

Mobile, Ala 348 

New Orleans, La 673 

Galveston, Tex 318 

San Diego, Cal 25 

San Francisco, Cal 879 



Portland, Oreg 336 

Seattle, Wash 249 

Gulfport, Miss 412 

Charleston, S. C 92 

Pascagoula, Miss 29 

Newport News, Va 177 

Los Angeles, Cal 15 

Port Arthur, Tex 110 

Brunswick, Ga 17 

Wilmington, N. C 

Jacksonville, Fla 47 

Fernandina, Fla 25 

Honolulu, Hawaii 28 

San Juan, Porto Rico 16 

Boca Grande 2 

Total 9,136 



Table XXI. — Alien Stowaways Found on Board Vessels Arriving at Ports 
op the United States, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, by Ports. 



New York, N. Y.... 

Boston, Mass 

Baltimore, Md 

Philadelphia, Pa — 

Portland, Me 

New Bedford, Mass. 

Norfolk, Va 

Savannah, Ga 

Miami, Fla 

Key West, Fla 

Tampa, Fla 

Pensacola, Fla 

Mobile, Ala 

New Orleans, La. . . 



367 

21 

37 

41 

5 



19 
19 



Galveston, Tex .... 

San Diego, Cal 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Seattle, Wash 

Gulfport, Miss 

Charleston, S. C 

Newport News, Va. 
Los Angeles, Cal. . . 
Port Arthur, Tex... 
Jacksonville, Fla... 
Fernandina, Fla. . . 
Honolulu, Hawaii.. 



6 

10 

56 

40 

9 

2 



Total. 



660 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 117 

Table XXII. — Agreement Between Alien Arrivals and Head-Tax Settle- 
ments, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913. 

Immigrant aliens admitted 1, 197, 892 

Nonimmigrant aliens admitted 229, 335 

Aliens debarred 19, 938 

Aliens from Porto Rico, Hawaii, and Guam 381 

Died 340 

Erroneous head-tax collections 2, 421 

Head-tax payments pending from previous year 86, 351 

1,536,658 

Exempt from head-tax payment, as follows: 

In transit 91, 877 

One-year residents of Cuba 7, 599 

One-year residents of British North America 55, 644 

One-year residents of Mexico 13, 936 

Domiciled citizens of British North America, Mexico, and 

Cuba (Rule 1, sub. 3c) 16, 821 

Government officials 1, 419 

Arrivals in Hawaii 7, 675 

Arrivals in Porto Rico 2, 129 

Exemptious on account of aliens debarred 17, 225 

Total exempt 214, 325 

Head-tax payments pending at close of year 138, 585 

352,910 

Aliens on whom head tax was paid 1,183,748 

Amount of head tax collected during year $4,734,992 



118 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the 

[In the absence oflaw requiring masters of vessels departing from the United States for foreign countries to 
deliver to collectors of customs returns of all passengers embarking on such vessels, reliance is had upon 
the courtesy of the agents of steamship and packet lines for information on the outward passenger 
movement. It is probable, however, that the departures given embrace the entire passenger move- 
ment from the United States to foreign countries.] 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Line of vessels. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


North German Lloyd... 
United Fruit Co 


From Baltimore, Md., to — 


1,883 
1 


1,310 

1 


573 


94 


1,789 
1 


270 
1 


1,613 


British West Indies. . . 

Total Baltimore. . 

From Boston, Mass., to — 
Glasgow 








1,884 


1,311 


573 


94 


1,790 


271 


1.613 


\llan 


1,264 

55 

5,515 

1,685 

112 

10 

2 

446 

17 

725 

28 

32 

1 

389 

26 

1,988 

7,524 

651 

1 

1,608 

133 


637 

1 

32 

3,122 

466 

62 

3 

2 

210 

15 

649 

12 

18 

1 

259 

24 

1,235 

6,329 

250 

1 

1,020 

113 


627 
6 
23 

2,393 

1,219 

50 

7 


120 

2 

289 
11 
1 
3 


1,144 

7 

53 

5,226 

1,674 

111 

2 

413 

15 

699 

27 

31 

1 

363 

25 

1,872 

7,301 

644 

1 

1,510 

130 


463 

47 

1,669 

235 

53 

10 

2 

443 

53 

32 

1 

172 

14 
681 
440 
100 

111 
41 


801 

8 

3.S46 

1,450 

59 

3 

17 

672 

28 

217 

12 

1,307 

7,084 

551 

1 

1,497 

92 




Boulogne 








Liverpool 






Hamburg-American 


Hamburg 


Plymouth 




Gibraltar 






236 
2 
76 
16 
14 


33 
2 
26 

1 
1 








Naples 


United Fruit Co 


British West Indies.. . 
Costa Rica 






White Star 


Genoa 


130 

2 

753 

1,195 

401 


26 

1 

116 

223 

7 












Naples 














588 
20 


98 
3 




Madeira 




Total Boston 

From Brunswick, Ga., to- 
British West Indies . . . 

From Canada (Atlantic 
seaports) to — 
Glasgow 




22,219 


14,461 


7,758 


963 


21,256 


4,574 


17.645 




1 




1 




1 


1 






638 

324 

1,687 

105 

713 

16 

93 

1,765 

31 

2 

7 

79 

146 

877 

3 

1,381 


503 

303 

1,341 

75 

593 

16 

76 

1,385 

31 

7 
45 
83 
711 

1 

1.007 


135 
21 

346 
30 

120 


40 
2 

78 
5 
45 


598 
322 
1,608 
100 
668 

ie 

81 

1,68 J 

31 

1 

7 

7e 

137 

836 

I 

1,264 


153 
22 

194 

48 
77 

6 
333 

2 

33 

73 

164 

3 

309 


485 

302 

1,493 

57 

636 

16 

87 

1,432 

31 

7 

46 

73 

713 

1,072 
















Bristol 








Bristol 


17 
380 


12 

80 




Liverpool 










2 


1 








London 


34 

63 

166 

2 

374 


3 
9 
41 

117 




Southampton 




Glasgow 


Compagnie Generate 
Transatlantique. 


Havre 


Liverpool 




Total Atlantic sea- 
ports of Canada. 

Via Canadian border sta- 
tions to — 
Canada 




7,867 


6,177 


1,690 


433 


7,434 


1,417 


6,450 




129,862 


97, 25C 


32,612 


13, 692 


116, 17( 


129, 862 





REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 119 

United States, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913. 

[In the absence of law requiring masters of vessels departing from the United States for foreign countries to 
deliver to colletors of customs returns of all passengers embarking on such vessels, reliance is had upon 
the courtesy of the agents of steamship ana packet lines for information on the outward passenger 
movement. It is probable, however, that the departures given embrace the entire passenger move- 
ment from the United States to foreign countries.] 



Citizens. 








Total. 








Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 








14 
years 
and 
over. 












14 
years 
and 
over. 






ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 
14 

years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


1,855 


867 


988 


425 


1,430 


1,303 


552 


3,738 
1 


2,177 
1 


1,561 


519 


3,219 
1 


1,573 
1 


2,165 






















1,855 


867 


988 


425 


1,430 


1,303 


552 


3,739 


2,178 


1,561 


519 


3,220 


1,574 


2,165 


595 


275 


320 


160 


435 


3S0 


215 


1,859 


912 


947 


280 


1,579 


843 


1,016 


55 


21 


34 


5 


50 


55 




62 


22 


40 


5 


57 


62 




106 


63 


43 


7 


99 


90 


16 


161 


95 


66 


9 


152 


137 


24 


4,292 


2,568 


1,724 


837 


3,455 


2,693 


1,599 


9,807 


5,690 


4,117 


1,126 


8,681 


4,362 


5,445 


873 


542 


331 


175 


698 


291 


582 


2,558 


1,008 


1,550 


186 


2,372 


526 


2,032 


382 


197 


185 


65 


317 


208 


174 


494 


259 


235 


66 


428 


261 


233 


38 


20 


18 


1 


37 


38 




48 


23 


25 


4 


44 


48 




5 


2 


3 




5 


5 




7 


4 


3 




7 


7 




1,106 


411 


695 


70 


1,036 


1,106 




1,552 


621 


931 


103 


1,449 


1,549 


3 


4 
135 


4 
71 






4 
68 


108 


4 
27 


21 

860 


19 
720 


2 
140 


2 
93 


19 

767 


161 


21 


64 


67 


699 


75 


45 


30 


8 


67 


74 


1 


103 


57 


46 


9 


94 


74 


29 


36 


27 


9 


1 


35 


36 




68 


45 


23 


9 


66 


68 




71 


61 


10 




71 


71 




72 


62 


10 




72 


72 




506 


200 


306 


77 


429 


433 


73 


895 


459 


436 


103 


792 


005 


290 


60 


23 


37 


3 


57 


57 


3 


86 


47 


39 


4 


82 


71 


15 


1,433 


714 


719 


333 


1,100 


1,075 


358 


3,421 


1,949 


1,472 


449 


2,972 


1,756 


1,665 


3,111 


1,435 


1,676 


745 


2,366 


1,615 


1,490 


10, 035 


7,764 


2,871 


968 


9,667 


2,055 


8,580 


413 


217 


196 


121 


292 


135 


278 


1,064 


467 


597 


128 


936 


235 


829 


3 




3 




3 


3 




4 


1 


3 




4 


3 


1 


515 


311 


204 


329 


186 


74 


441 


2,123 


1,331 


792 


427 


1, 696 


185 


1,938 


25 


16 


9 


14 


11 


4 


21 


158 


129 


29 


17 


141 


45 


. 113 


13,839 


7,223 


6,616 


3,01S 


10,821 


8,551 


5,288 


36,058 


21,684 


14,374 


3,981 


32,077 


13, 125 


22,933 


3 


3 






3 


3 




4 


3 


1 




4 


4 




638 


262 


376 


82 


556 


557 


81 


1,276 


765 


511 


122 


1,154 


710 


566 


63 


30 


33 


8 


55 


42 


21 


387 


333 


54 


10 


377 


64 


323 


912 


623 


289 


146 


766 


641 


271 


2,599 


1,964 


635 


224 


2,375 


835 


1,764 


181 


68 


113 


20 


161 


157 


24 


286 


143 


143 


25 


261 


205 


81 


96 


44 


52 


31 


65 


69 


27 


809 
16 
104 


637 
16 
84 


172 


76 


733 
16 
86 


146 

8 


663 
16 


11 


8 


3 


6 


5 


2 


9 


20 


18 


96 


375 


183 


192 


133 


242 


257 


118 


2,14C 


1,568 


572 


213 


1,927 


59C 


1,550 


2 


2 






2 




2 


33 

2 

7 

129 


33 

7 
65 






33 

1 

7 

116 


2 
72 


33 






2 


1 


















7 


50 


20 


30 


10 


40 


39 


ii 


64 


13 


57 


190 


89 


101 


34 


156 


131 


59 


336 


172 


164 


43 


293 


204 


132 


374 


121 


253 


66 


308 


348 


26 


1,251 
3 

2,427 


832 
1 

1,463 


419 
2 

964 


107 
226 


1,144 
3 

2,201 


512 
3 

1,069 


739 


1,046 


456 


590 


109 


937 


760 


286 


1,358 


3,93S 


1,906 


2,032 


645 


3,293 


3,003 


935 


11,805 


8,083 


3,722 


1,078 


10,727 


4,420 


7,385 


90, 129 


63,836 


26,293 


16,763 


73,366 


90, 129 




219, 991 


161,086 


58,905 


30,455 


189, 536 


219,991 





< V 



120 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 




From Canada (Pacific sea- 
ports) to — 


402 

90 

14 

864 

1 

1 

24 

18 

160 


265 
64 
11 

839 
1 

17 

15 

109 


137 
26 
3 
25 


27 
2 

9 


375 

88 

14 

855 

1 

1 

22 

18 

149 


323 

74 

13 

84 

1 

1 

24 

15 

138 


79 

16 

1 

780 

3 

22 


Royal Mail. 


















1 

7 
3 
51 


2 

11 
















Total Canadian Pa- 
cinc. 

From Galveston, Tex., to — 
Liverpool 




1.574 


1,321 


253 


51 


1,523 


673 


901 


Booth 


32 

9 

840 

7 


20 

6 

675 

6 


12 

3 

165 

1 


4 

2 

30 


28 

7 

810 

7 


32 
9 

114 


726 
7 




do , 


North German Lloyd... 






Cuba 






16 


12 


4 




16 


10 


6 


United Fruit Co 




















Panama 


1 

2 


1 
2 


... 




1 

2 


1 
2 




United Steamship Co . . . 


Cuba 






Total Galveston 

From Honolulu, Hawaii, 
to- 









907 


722 


1S5 


36 


871 


168 


739 




109 

26 

10 

170 

41 

2 

480 

432 

2 

525 

147 

795 

1 

9 

1,280 

3 


61 

12 

8 

91 

30 

2 

457 

329 

2 

367 

133 

568 

1 

6 

872 

2 


48 
14 
2 
79 
11 


13 
2 

10 
1 


96 

24 

10 

160 

40 

2 

480 

423 

2 

490 

147 

792 

1 

9 

1,258 

2 


87 
21 

7 
149 
33 

2 
24 
12 

2 
64 
32 

3 

3 

100 
3 


22 
5 
3 

21 

8 

456 
420 

461 

115 

792 

1 

6 

1,180 


Royal Mail. 




Pacific Islands 

British North America 




Pacific Islands 




23 
103 


9 














158 

14 

227 


35 
3 


Toyo Kisen Kaisha 














3 

408 
1 


22 
1 








British West Indies. . . 

Total Honolulu 

From Jacksonville, Fla — 






4,032 


2,941 


1,091 


96 


3,936 


542 


3,490 




3 




3 




3 


3 






From Key West to — 

British West Indies. . . 


Peninsular & Occi- 
dental. 


78 

7,180 

3 

109 


47 
5,105 

1 
85 


31 

2,075 

2 

24 


3 

863 

2 

2 


75 

6,317 

1 

107 


57 

2,618 

3 

38 


21 
4,562 

71 








British West Indies. . . 

Total Key West 

Via Mexican border sta- 
tions to — 






7,370 


5,238 


2, 132 


870 


6,500 


2,716 


4,654 




1,631 
72 

7 
324 


1,310 

53 

2 

4 

230 


321 

19 

5 

3 

94 


115 
11 

21 


1,516 
61 

303 


947 

72 

324 


684 


Pacifico. 
Ensenada Transporta- 
tion Co. 


do 


do 












Total Mexican bor- 
der. 




2,041 


1,599 


442 


147 


1,894 


1,357 


684 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 121 
States, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


164 
47 
20 

190 
10 


101 
36 
11 

153 
6 


63 
11 

9 
37 

4 


21 
1 
1 

20 
5 


143 
46 
19 

170 
5 


132 
41 
16 

84 
10 


32 
6 
4 

106 


566 

137 

34 

1,054 

11 

1 

68 

33 

211 


366 
100 
22 
992 
7 

39 

27 
135 


200 

37 

12 

62 

4 

1 

29 

6 

76 


48 
3 
1 

29 
5 

14 

28 


618 

134 

33 

1,025 

6 

1 

54 

33 

183 


455 
115 

29 
168 

11 
1 

68 

30 
169 


Ill 

22 

5 

886 


44 
15 
51 


22 
12 

26 


22 
3 

25 


12 
17 


32 
15 
34 


44 
15 
31 


20 


3 

42 


541 


367 


174 


77 


464 


373 


168 


2,115 


1,688 


427 


128 


1,987 


1,046 


1,069 


22 

2 

749 

1 

2 

19 
2 

15 
1 

14 


9 
403 

6 
2 

14 
1 

11 


13 
2 
346 
1 
2 

13 


6 

129 
1 

10 


16 

2 

620 


22 

2 

497 


252 
1 


54 

11 

1,589 

8 

2 
35 

2 
15 

2 
16 


29 

6 

1,078 

6 

18 
2 

14 
2 

13 


25 

5 

511 

2 

2 

17 


10 

2 

159 

1 

10 


44 
9 
1,430 
7 
2 

25 
2 

15 
2 

13 


54 

11 

611 

2 
29 

2 
15 

2 
16 


978 
8 


2 
9 
2 

15 
1 

11 


2 
19 

2 
15 

1 
14 


6 


1 




1 






3 


3 


3 


3 




827 


446 


381 


149 


678 


574 


253 


1,734 


1,168 


566 


185 


1,549 


742 


992 


50 

17 

2 

252 

197 
117 

23 

336 

135 

319 

1 

26 

555 

3 


32 

11 

1 

124 

51 

3 

129 

65 

17 
161 

72 
159 

21 

272 

2 


18 

6 

1 

128 

22 

1 

68 

52 

6 

175 

63 

160 

1 

5 

283 

1 


3 

1 

42 
3 
2 

59 
116 

162 

29 

303 

3 

441 

1 


47 

16 

2 

210 

70 

2 

138 

1 

23 

174 

106 

16 

1 

23 

114 

2 


47 
17 

2 

208 

66 

4 
96 

15 

176 
113 
6 
1 
7 
131 
3 


3 

44 

7 

101 
117 
8 
160 
22 
313 

19 
424 


159 

43 

12 

422 

114 

6 

677 

549 

25 

861 

282 

1,114 

2 

35 

1,835 

6 


93 

23 

9 

215 

81 

5 

586 

394 

19 

528 

205 

727 

1 

27 

1,144 

4 


66 

20 

3 

207 

33 

1 

91 

155 

6 

333 

77 

387 

1 

8 

691 

2 


16 
3 

52 

4 

2 

59 

125 

187 

29 
306 

3 

463 

2 


143 

40 

12 

370 

110 

4 

618 

424 

25 

664 

253 

808 

2 

32 

1,372 

4 


134 

38 

9 

357 

99 

6 

120 

12 

17 

240 

145 

9 

1 

10 

231 

6 


25 
5 
3 
65 
15 

557 

537 

8 

621 

137 

1,105 

1 

25 

1,604 


2,110 


1,120 


990 


1,165 


945 


892 


1,218' 


6,142 


4, 061 ] 2,081 


1,261 


4,881 


1,434 


4,708 
















3 




3 


J 3 


3 




















196 

12,961 

1,494 

22 


89 

7,926 

892 

16 


107 

5,035 

602 

6 


17 

711 

14 

4 


179 

12,250 

1,480 

18 


188 

12, 223 

1,489 

1 


8 
738 

21 


274 

20, 141 

1,497 

131 


136 

13, 031 
893 
101 


138 

7,110 

604 

30 


20 

1,574 

16 

6 


254 

18,567 

1,481 

125 


245 

14,841 

1,492 

39 


29 

5,300 

5 

92 


14,673 8,923 


5,750 


746 


13, 927 


13, 901 


772 


22,043 


14, 161 


7,882 


1,616 


20,427 


16, 617 


5,426 


697 

17 

80 

38 

374 


573 

14 

58 
31 
289 


124 
3 

22 

7 
85 


51 
2 
5 

15 


646 

15 

75 
38 
359 


681 

17 

80 
38 
374 


16 


2,328 

89 

87 

45 

698 


1,883 

67 

60 

35 

519 


445 

22 

27 

10 

179 


166 

13 

5 

36 


2,162 

76 

82 

45 

662 


1,628 

89 

87 
45 
698 


700 


1, 206J 965 


241 


73 


1,133 


1,190 


16 


3,247 


2,564 


683 


220 


3,027 


2,547 


700 



122 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII.— Passengers Departed prom the United 



Aliens. 



Line of vessels. 



Ports of departure and 
destination. 



Peninsular & Occi- 
dental. 

Saunders 

Sailing vessels 



Hubbard Zemurray . 
Orr Laubenheimer . . 



Seeberg 

United Fruit Co. 



From Miami, Fla., to — 
British West Indies.. 



Num- 
ber. 



Sex. 



Male. 



Fe- 
male. 



.do. 
.do. 



Total Miami. 



From Mobile, Ala., to— 

Honduras 

do 

Guatemala 

British West Indies. 
Honduras 



fiO 



949 
1,035 



Total Mobile. 



Fabre . . 
Tramp. 



Blueflelds 

Compagnie Generate 

Transatlantique. 
Hamburg-American. . . 

Leyland 



From New Bedford, Mass., 
to— 
Cape Verde Islands. . . 
do 



Total New Bedford. 

From New Orleans, La., 
to— 

Nicaragua 

Havre 



2,049 



1,540 



Age. 



Class. 



Under 
14 

years. 



y ea ^ s Cabin. 
and 



171 
311 



509 



221 
2S2 



186 



Mi 



Norway-Mexico Gulf . . 

Rio Grande S. S. Co... 
Southern Pacific Co. . . 
Texas Transport & Ter- 
minal Co. 
United Fruit Co 



Mexico 

West Indies. 

Bremen 

Liverpool.. . 

London 

Rotterdam. . 
Christ iania . 



Nicaragua. 

Cuba 

Havre 



453i 



50 



92 
112 



Vaccaro.. . 
Vogeman.. 
Not stated . 



Norway-Mexico Gulf . 



American . 
Anchor. . . 



British Honduras. 

Costa Rica 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Honduras 

Christiania 

Not specified 



Total New Orleans. 

From Newport News, Va. 
to— 

Mexico 



21 

19 
4 

19 

1 

5 

569 

49 

167 

76 

595 

137 

20 

277 

192 

2 

3 



2,453 



Atlantic Fruit Co... 
Atlantic Transport. 
Austro- American . . . 



From New York, N. Y. 
to— 

Cherbourg 

Plymouth 

Southampton 

Genoa 

Glasgow 

Londonderry 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

British West Indies . 

London 

Lisbon 

Naples 

Patras 



1 

10 
8 
2 

14 

1 

4 

458 

35 

120 

51 

409 

97 

19 

227 

134 

2 

2 



902 

938 



1,900 



Steer- 



34 

886 



1,568 



20' 
275 



121 
144 



11 


4 


11 


3 


2 




5 


4 


1 





111 

14 

47 
25 
186 
40 
1 
50 
58 



7,182 

302 

5, 

10,912 

3,156 

255 

3,682 

458 

8 

814 

4 



6,672 

200 

4,219 

7, 
1,297 

23: 

3,384 

352 

7 

397 



221 
282 



113 
35 



202 



1 

16 
4 

15 

1 

5 

539 

45 

155 

70 
540 
11 

20 
253 
171 



503 



5 
344 



167 

7(1 
595 
13 

20 
277 
192 



2,251 



2, 880 2, 594 
16,767' 16,409 



510 

102 

867 

1 

3,049 

1,859 

*3 

298 

106 

1 

417 

1 

286 

358 



82 
22 
155 



7,100 
280 
4,931 
9 
10,401 
3,067 
246 
3,591 
421 
8 
759 
4 
■ 2,_ 
851 16,682 



2,041 



225 
40 



369 
184 
991 



3,7 

953 



22 



814 



158 
1,311 



6,813 
118 

4,095 
9 

7,204 

2,203 
255 

3,660 
457 



2,722 
15,456 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 123 
States, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 
14 

years. 


14 
years 
and 
o ver. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


177 

SO 
33 


90 

56 
23 


87 

24 
10 


8 

27 
19 


169 

53 
14 


168 

5 
21 


9 

75 
12 


242 

1,029 
1,068 


128 

834 
747 


114 

195 
321 


13 

74 
116 


229 

955 
952 


199 

68 
408 


43 

961 
660 


290 


169 


121 


54 


236 


194 


96 


2,339 


1,709 


630 203 


2,136 


675 


1,664 


107 

48 

4 

9 

16 


82 
30 
3 
3 
12 


25 
18 
1 
6 
4 


7 

1 

2 


100 

48 

4 

8 

14 


107 

48 

4 

9 

10 




137 
81 
7 
24 
26 


102 
47 
4 
12 
16 


35 
34 
3 
12 
10 


9 
7 

2 
6 


128 

74 

7 

22 
20 


137 
81 
7 

24 
26 




184 


130 


54 


10 


174 


184 




275 


181 


94 


24 251 


275 




5 
3 


4 
1 


1 

2 


4 
1 


1 
2 




5 
3 


226 
285 


190 
268 


36 
17 


18 208 

8 277 




226 
285 


8 


5 


3 


5 


3 




8 


511 


458 


53 


26 485 




511 


200 

48 

1 

444 


147 

22 

1 
264 


53 
26 


14 
21 


186 
27 

1 

436 


196 

18 

1 
444 


4 
30 


328 
201 

1 
459 

1 
43 
57 
17 
21 

3 

17 

1,961 

63 

391 

314 

1,113 

506 

65 

5,332 

505 

2 

8 


239 
134 

1 

272 

1 

17 

24 

7 
15 

2 

12 

1,370 

45 

28J) 

211 

789 

388 

60 

3,576 

370 

2 

7 


89 

67 


21 
30 


307 
171 

1 
449 

1 
37 
48 
15 
16 

3 

16 

1,821 

55 

359 

293 

1,027 

467 

63 

5,020 

456 

2 

7 


309 
53 

1 

459 
1 
43 
57 
17 
12 
2 
17 
1,586 
12 

391 

314 
1,113 

506 

65 

5,332 

505 

6 


19 
148 


180 


8 


187 


10 




22 

38 

13 

2 

2 

12 

1,392 

14 

224 
238 
518 
369 
45 
5,055 
313 


7 
16 
5 

1 

8 

912 

10 

160 
160 
380 
291 
41 
3,349 
236 


15 

22 

8 
1 
1 
4 
480 
4 

64 

78 
138 
78 
4 
1,706 
77 


2 

e 

2 

i 
i 

110 

4 

20 
15 
31 
19 
2 
288 
28 


20 

32 

11 

1 

2 

11 

1,282 

10 

204 
223 

487 
350 
43 

4,767 
285 


22 
38 
13 
2 
2 
12 
1,242 
3 

224 

238 
518 
369 
45 
5,055 
313 


150 
11 


26 

33 

10 

6 

1 

5 

591 

18 

111 
103 
324 
118 
5 
1,756 
135 


6 
9 
2 
5 

1 
140 

8 

32 
21 
86 
39 
2 
312 
49 


9 

1 

375 
51 

2 


5 


5 






5 


5 




1 


1 


2 










8,955 


6,010 


2,939 


572 


8,383 


8,760 


195 


11,408 


7,822 


3,586 


774 10,634 


10, 801 


607 


1 




1 




1 


1 




4 


2 


2 


1 


3 


4 




1,279 
294 

1,710 


762 

187 

1,018 


517 
107 
692 


415 
37 
393 


864 

257 

1,317 


660 

255 

1,197 


619 

39 

513 


8,461 

596 

6,796 

9 

15,256 

5,089 

274 

4,073 

547 

10 

2,313 

5 

3,427 

17,338 


7,434 
387 

5,237 
8 

9,920 

2,276 
243 

3,633 
408 

1,014 

3 

2,845 

16,771 


1,027 

209 

1,559 

1 

5,336 

2,813 

31 

440 

139 

3 

1,299 

2 

582 

567 


497 
59 

548 

1,544 

652 

23 

367 

114 

162 

282 
315 


7,964 

537 

0,248 

9 

13,712 

4,437 

251 

3,706 

433 

10 

2,151 

5 

3,145 

17,023 


1,029 

439 

2,188 

6,965 
1,979 

32 

5 

2 

2,313 

475 
1,685 


7,432 
157 

4,608 
9 


4,344 

1,933 

19 

391 

89 

2 

1,499 

1 

547 

571 


2,057 

979 

11 

249 

56 

617 

251 
362 


2,287 
954 

8 
142 
33 

2 
882 

1 
296 
209 


1,033 

563 

14 

276 

77 

107 

210 
230 


3,311 

1,370 

5 

115 

12 

2 

1,392 

1 

337 

341 


3,257 
1,026 

10 

4 

2 

1,499 

317 
374 


1,087 

907 

19 

381 

85 

1 
230 
197 


8,291 
3,110 

274 
4,041 

542 
8 

5 
2,952 
15,653 



124 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination- 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 




From New York, N. Y., 
to — Continued. 
Trieste 


5,830 

26 

17 

160 

364 

22 

419 

31,187 

4,586 

4,935 

406 

78 

22, 821 

145 

3 

10, 938 

2,592 

1,675 

639 

77 

5 

85 

204 

5,855 

9,606 

3,721 

6 

13 

4 

127 

26 

564 

250 

33 

22, 422 

7,547 

366 

129 

8 

5 

364 

73 

89 

229 

227 

245 

10 

15 

6 

16 

786 

685 

143 

11,506 

598 

254 

4,728 

494 

958 

770 

18 

64 

554 

199 

4,225 

446 

628 

442 

5,664 

805 

26 

44Sl 


4,592 

23 

15 

119 

179 

12 

298 

27, 550 

3,170 

3,300 

279 

66 

17, 003 

122 

9,785 

2,570 

605 

559 

34 

4 

34 

185 

5,735 

8,434 

3,684 

4 

6 

3 

101 

14 

317 

152 

20 

15,011 

6,726 

238 

75 

5 

4 

207 

55 

55 

152 

161 

191 

5 

13 

5 

15 

748 

368 

82 

8,671 

426 

218 

4,353 

429 

737 

573 

10 

51 

386 

177 

3,816 

359 

446 

388 

5,157 

633 

26 

340 


1,238 
3 
2 
41 

185 

10 

121 

3,637 

1,416 

1,635 

127 

12 

5,818 

23 

3 

1,153 

22 

1,070 

80 

43 

1 

51 

19 

120 

1,172 

37 

2 

7 

1 

26 

12 

247 

98 

13 

7,411 

821 

128 

54 

3 

1 

157 

18 

34 

77 

66 

54 

5 

2 

1 

1 

38 

317 

61 

2,835 

172 

36 

375 

65 

221 

197 

8 

13 

168 

22 

409 

87 

182 

54 

507 

172 


167 

11 
22 

37 
466 

135 

355 

21 

1 

810 
6 
1 

229 

4 

20 

9 

1 

4 
3 
19 
303 
9 

3 

4 
3 

27 

10 

6 

910 

217 

10 

30 
4 

14 
17 
14 
22 
3 
2 

1 
10 

29 
6 
465 
25 
13 
83 
12 
55 
80 

5 
15 

7 
84 
20 
30 
14 
135 
28 


5,663 

26 

17 

149 

342 

22 

382 

30, 721 

4,451 

4,580 

385 

77 

22,011 

139 

2 

10, 709 

2,588 

1,655 

630 

76 

5 

81 

201 

5,836 

9,303 

3,712 

6 

10 

4 

123 

23 

537 

240 

27 

21,512 

7,330 

356 

122 

8 

5 

334 

69 

75 

212 

213 

223 

7 

13 

6 

15 

776 

656 

137 

11,041 

573 

241 

4,645 

482 

903 

690 

18 

59 

539 

192 

4,141 

426 

598 

428 

5,529 

777 

26 

426 


553 

3 

5 

109 

95 

22 

419 

5,396 

3,892 

138 

88 

32 

6,572 

33 

3 

774 

162 

343 

69 

65 

5 

85 

40 

273 

797 

310 

6 

13 

4 

35 

26 

559 

235 

28 

4,507 

266 

366 

129 

5 

352 

73 

89 

229 

227 

245 

10 

3 

2 

46 

581 

143 

2,136 

158 

22 

258 

49 

354 

320 

7 

26 

160 

7 

194 

36 

172 

6 

293 

60 

75 


5,277 
23 
12 
51 

269 

25, 791 

694 

4,797 

318 

46 

16, 249 

112 

10, 164 

2,430 

1,332 

570 

12 

164 
5,582 
8,809 
3,411 

92 

5 

15 

5 

17,915 

7,281 

8 
12 

12 

6 

14 

740 

104 

9,370 
440 
232 

4,470 
445 
604 
450 
11 
38 
394 
192 

4,031 
410 
456 
436 

5,371 
745 
26 
373 










Booth 




Clyde 


British West Indies. . . 
do 


Compagnie Generale 
Transatlantique. 


Santo Domingo 

Havre 






Fiume 


















































Fabre 
































Hamburg-American 








































British West Indies. . . 








Cuba 












Santo Domingo 












Piraeus 






























Lamport & Holt 


Argentina. 




Brazil 




British West Indies . . . 
Uruguay 


















Lloyd Italiano 


Genoa 


















Lloyd Sabaudo 




icsl 


22 



REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 125 
States, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 
14 

years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


1,483 


766 


717 


869 


614 


695 


788 


7,313 


5,358 


1,955 


1,036 


6,277 


1,248 


6,065 


3 


1 


2 




3 


3 




29 


24 


5 




29 


6 


23 


14 


10 


4 


4 


10 


10 


4 


31 


25 


6 


4 


27 


15 


16 


193 


163 


30 


6 


187 


185 


8 


353 


282 


71 


17 


336 


294 


59 


137 


81 


56 


65 


72 


75 


62 


501 


260 


241 


87 


414 


170 


331 


5 


3 


2 




5 


5 




27 


15 


12 




27 


27 




395 


311 


84 


36 


359 


395 




814 


609 


205 


73 


741 


814 




11,631 


6,807 


4,824 


2,936 


8,695 


6,710 


4,921 


42,818 


34,357 


8,461 


3,402 


39,416 


12, 106 


30, 712 


5,429 


3,255 


2,174 


388 


5,041 


5,042 


387 


10, 015 


6,425 


3,590 


523 


9,492 


8,934 


1,081 


990 


497 


493 


818 


172 


121 


869 


5,925 


3,797 


2,128 


1,173 


4,752 


259 


5,666 


410 


192 


218 


101 


309 


298 


112 


816 


471 


345 


122 


694 


386 


430 


145 


51 


94 


7 


138 


135 


10 


223 


117 


106 


8 


215 


167 


56 


10, 660 


6,283 


4,377 


2,065 


8,595 


5,522 


5,138 


33,481 


23,286 


10, 195 


2,875 


30, 606 


12, 094 


21,387 


46 


22 


24 


11 


35 


39 


7 


191 


144 


47 


17 


174 


72 


119 


2 


1 


1 


2 




2 




5 


1 


4 


3 


2 


5 




4,303 


1,769 


2,534 


872 


3,431 


3,390 


913 


15,241 


11.554 


3,687 


1,101 


14,140 


4,164 


11.077 


35 


28 


7 


11 


• 24 


25 


10 


2,627 


2,598 


29 


15 


2, 612 


187 


2,440 


1,470 


758 


712 


336 


1,134 


543 


927 


3,145 


1,363 


1,782 


356 


2,789 


886 


2,259 


143 


68 


75 


43 


100 


103 


40 


782 


627 


155 


52 


730 


172 


610 


314 


138 


176 


8 


306 


314 




391 


172 


219 


9 


382 


379 


12 


33 


7 


26 


2 


31 


33 




38 


11 


27 


2 


36 


38 




203 


87 


116 


12 


191 


203 




288 


121 


167 


16 


272 


288 




32 


20 


12 


12 


20 


19 


13 


236 


205 


31 


15 


221 


59 


177 


488 


241 


247 


73 


415 


419 


69 


6,343 


5,976 


367 


92 


6,251 


692 


5,651 


1,839 


927 


912 


1,153 


686 


791 


1,048 


11,445 


9,301 


2,084 


1,456 


9,989 


1,588 


9,857 


43 


26 


17 


23 


20 


30 


13 


3,764 


3,710 


54 


32 


3,732 


340 


3,424 


9 


4 


5 


2 


7 


5 


4 


15 


8 


i 


2 


13 


11 


4 


44 


21 


23 


1 


43 


44 




57 


27 


30 


4 


53 


57 




11 


4 


7 




11 


11 




15 


i 


8 




15 


15 




48 


34 


14 


19 


29 


25 


23 


175 


135 


40 


23 


152 


60 


115 


61 


24 


37 


5 


56 


61 




87 


38 


49 


8 


79 


87 




2,084 


897 


1,187 


131 


1,953 


2,082 


2 


2, 648 


1,214 


1,434 


158 


2,490 


2,641 


7 


819 


338 


481 


67 


752 


807 


12 


1,069 


490 


579 


77 


992 


1,042 


27 


40 


19 


21 




40 


40 




73 


39 


34 


6 


67 


68 


5 


14,786 


7,387 


7,399 


3,881 


10,905 


9,441 


5,345 


37, 208 


22, 398 


14,810 


4,791 


32,417 


13,948 


23,260 


1,980 


948 


1,032 


821 


1,159 


1,125 


855 


9,527 


7,074 


1,853 


1,038 


8,489 


1,391 


8,136 


1,203 


623 


580 


70 


1,133 


1,203 




1,569 


861 


708 


80 


1,489 


1,569 




350 


179 


171 


13 


337 


350 




479 


254 


225 


20 


459 


479 




18 


7 


11 




18 


18 




26 


12 


14 




26 


18 


8 


11 


7 


4 


1 


10 


11 




16 


11 


5 


1 


15 


16 




472 


271 


201 


32 


440 


472 




836 


478 


358 


62 


774 


824 


12 


36 


31 


5 


2 


34 


36 




109 


86 


23 


6 


103 


109 




215 


135 


SO 


7 


208 


215 




304 


190 


114 


21 


283 


304 




358 


232 


126 


45 


313 


358 




587 


384 


203 


62 


525 


587 




178 


153 


25 


17 


161 


178 




405 


314 


91 


31 


374 


405 




644 


435 


209 


19 


625 


644 




889 
10 
27 


626 
5 
21 


263 
5 
6 


41 
3 

4 


848 

7 

23 


889 
10 
12 




U 


8 


4 


2 


10 


9 


3 


15 


1 

1 


1 


1 


1 






1 

1 


7 
17 


6 
15 


1 

2 


1 
1 


6 
16 


2 




i 




15 


29 


17 


12 


24 


5 


5 


24 


815 


765 


50 


34 


781 


51 


764 


1,376 


495 


881 


138 


1,238 


1,349 


27 


2,061 


863 


1,198 


167 


1,894 


1,930 


131 


509 
5,719 


234 
2,979 


275 
2,740 


37 

1,783 


472 
3,930 


509 




652 
17, 225 


3 If 
11,050 


336 

5,575 


43 

2,248 


609 
14,977 


652 
6,230 




4,094 


1,625 


10, 995 


273 


157 


116 


129 


144 


154 


119 


871 


583 


288 


154 


717 


312 


559 


19 


11 


8 


13 


6 


7 


12 


273 


229 


44 


26 


247 


29 


244 


551 


309 


242 


339 


212 


240 


311 


5,279 


4,662 


617 


422 


4,857 


498 


4,781 


77 


50 


27 


54 


23 


44 


33 


571 


479 


92 


66 


505 


93 


478 


886 


610 


276 


121 


765 


739 


147 


1,844 


1,347 


497 


176 


1,668 


1,093 


751 


829 


559 


270 


178 


651 


676 


153 


1,599 


1,132 


467 


258 


1,341 


996 


603 


12 


7 


5 


1 


11 


11 


1 


30 


17 


13 


1 


2S 


18 


12 


43 


35 


8 


2 


41 


39 


4 


107 


86 


21 


7 


100 


65 


42 


24C 


128 


112 


126 


114 


146 


94 


794 


514 


280 


141 


653 


306 


488 


19 


15 


4 


10 


9 


7 


12 


218 


192 


26 


17 


201 


14 


204 


658 


363 


295 


394 


264 


258 


400 


4,883 


4,179 


704 


478 


4,405 


452 


4,431 


103 


55 


48 


79 


24 


48 


55 


549 


414 


135 


99 


45C 


84 


465 


15C 


68 


82 


105 


45 


82 


68 


778 


514 


264 


135 


643 


254 


524 


73 


37 


36 


5! 


U 


5 


68 


515 


425 


90 


73 


442 


11 


504 


615 


352 


263 


iK 


17S 


167 


448 


0,27£ 


5,50£ 


770 


572 


5,707 


46C 


5,819 


179 


108 


71 


124 


55 


17 


162 


984 
26 
643 


741 
26 
432 


243 


152 


832 

26 

510 


/ 1 
170 


907 
26 


195 


92 


103 


111 


84 


95 


ioo 


211 


133 


473 



126 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Lloyd Sabaudo — Con. 


From New York, N. Y., 
to — Continued. 


212 

3,526 

584 

175 

25 

26 

1,515 

71 

7,676 

3 

1,114 

561 

9,541 

1,017 

599 

314 

3,955 

1,185 

34,626 

1,121 

921 

77 

348 

9,869 

1,149 

1,079 

15 

283 

1,652 

50 

549 

28 

122 

50 

469 

1 

84 

238 

14, 106 

172 

30 

19 

203 

16 

16 

50 

8 

11 

56 

673 

340 

103 

88 

127 

7,766 

4,069 

3,198 

1,602 

3,053 

67 

476 

3,946 

1,614 

18 

216 

999 

196 

38 

205 

8 

380 


189 

3,119 

467 

112 

25 

26 

1,190 

71 

7,444 

2 

797 

507 

8,705 

888 

599 

174 

2,972 

837 

25, 423 

720 

631 

55 

313 

8,946 

993 

780 

9 

209 

813 

39 

286 

11 

54 

18 

286 

1 

58 

170 

10, 173 

97 

25 

10 

129 

13 

11 

36 

6 

5 

31 

379 

181 

69 

58 

97 

6,135 

3,421 

1,634 

927 

1,561 

54 

399 

3,502 

1,255 

18 

216 

912 

141 

29 

121 

2 

233 


23 

407 
117 
63 


1 
138 
36 
26 


211 

3,388 

548 

149 

25 

26 

1,430 

71 

7,620 

2 

1,063 

550 

9,366 

1,001 

599 

284 

3,671 

1,082 

33,410 

1,076 

886 

73 

338 

9,674 

1,115 

1,059 

15 

264 

1,509 

45 

524 

26 

117 

48 

448 

1 

75 

223 

13,554 

165 

29 

19 

192 

16 

16 

45 

7 

10 

49 

643 

320 

97 

83 

123 

7,385 

3,951 

3,088 

1,552 

2,944 

66 

463 

3,797 

1,555 

18 

216 

979 

165 

36 

188 

1 361 


61 

10 

175 

2 

33 
2 

824 

1 

301 

18 

422 

77 

293 
2,830 
1,073 
5,322 
1,110 

508 
59 
20 

678 

63 

1,079 

14 

170 

1,652 

21 

222 
28 
58 
21 

469 

1 

84 

238 
2,063 

172 
30 
19 

202 
16 
16 
50 
8 
11 
56 

673 

329 
99 
85 

124 

934 

272 

661 
97 

718 
10 
26 

120 

141 

173 
153 
33 
203 
8 
379 


215 

3,462 

574 

23 

26 

1,482 

69 

6,852 

2 

813 

543 

9,119 

940 

599 

21 

1,125 

112 

29,304 

11 

413 

18 

328 

9,191 

1,086 

1 
113 

29 
327 

64 

29 

12,043 
1 

11 

4 

3 

3 

6,832 

3,797 

2,537 

1,505 

2,335 

57 

450 

3,826 

1,473 

18 

216 

826 

43 

5 

2 

i 
















gation Co. 










325 


85 










232 
1 
317 
54 
836 
129 


56 
1 
51 
11 
175 
16 






Navigazione Generate 


















New York & Cuba Mail. 


British West Indies . . . 


140 

983 

348 

9,203 

401 

290 

22 

35 

923 

156 

299 

6 

74 

839 

11 

263 

17 

68 

32 

183 


30 

284 

103 

1,216 

45 

35 

4 

10 
195 
34 
20 

19 

143 

5 

25 
2 
5 
2 

21 






North German Lloyd... 






































Quebec Steamship Co. . . 




British Guana 

British West Indies. . . 




Danish West Indies. . . 
French West Indies. . . 






Red D 


Dutch West Indies 


26 

68 

3,933 

75 

5 

9 

74 

3 

5 

14 

2 

6 

25 

294 

159 

34 

30 

30 

1,631 

648 

1,564 

675 

1,492 

13 

77 

444 

359 


9 

15 

552 

7 

1 

11 

5 
1 
1 

7 

30 

20 

6 

5 

4 

381 

118 

110 

50 

109 

1 

13 

14S 

59 
















Royal Dutch West In- 
dian Mail. 


British Guiana 

British West Indies . . . 

Dutch Guiana 

Dutch West Indies 

Haiti 




Santo Domingo 


Royal Mail Steam 








British West Indies . . . 
Colombia 
















Rotterdam 




























Palermo 


















87 
55 

9 
84 

6 
147 


2C 

31 

1 

Vi 

e 

19 












British West Indies . . . 

British Guiana 

British West Indies . . . 


United Fruit Co 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 127 
States, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Ag 


e. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male 


Under 

14 
years 


14 
years 
"and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 
14 

years. 


14 
years 
and 
over 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age 


26 


11 


15 


25 


1 




26 


238 


200 


38 


26 


212 




238 


405 


236 


169 


342 


63 


55 


350 


3, 931 


3,355 


576 


480 


3,451 


116 


3,815 


106 


57 


49 


92 


14 


10 


96 


690 


524 


166 


128 


562 


20 


670 


335 


201 


134 


60 


275 


335 




510 


313 


197 


86 


424 


510 




2 


1 


1 


2 




1 


1 


27 

26 
1,821 


26 

26 

1,367 


1 


2 


25 

26 

1,453 


3 
47 


24 
26 


306 


177 


129 


283 


23 


14 


292 


454 


368 


1,774 
















71 
7,918 


71 
7,603 






71 

7,698 


2 
966 


69 


242 


159 


83 


164 


78 


142 


100 


315 


220 


6,952 


3 

466 


3 
245 


"22i 


3 
228 






3 
193 


6 
1,580 


5 
1,042 


1 

538 


4 
279 


2 
1,301 


1 

574 


5 


238 


273 


1,006 


41 


30 


11 


31 


10 


13 


28 


602 


537 


65 


42 


560 


31 


571 


1,260 


732 


• 528 


770 


490 


449 


811 


10, 801 


9,437 


1,364 


945 


9,856 


871 


9,930 


135 


75 


60 


91 


44 


45 


90 


1,152 

599 

1,363 


963 
599 
734 


189 


107 


1,045 

599 

1,286 


122 
1,285 


1,030 
599 


1,049 


560 


489 


47 


1,002 


992 


57 


629 


77 


78 


5,675 


3,725 


1,950 


300 


5,375 


5,403 


272 


9,630 


6,697 


2, 933 


584 


9,046 


8,233 


1,397 


1,370 


915 


455 


116 


1,254 


1,315 


55 


2,555 


1,752 


803 


219 


2,336 


2,388 


167 


17,440 


9,203 


8,237 


5,644 


11,796 


10, 928 


6,512 


52, 066 


34,620 


17,440 


6,860 


45, 206 


16,250 


35, 816 


3,236 


1,666 


1,570 


163 


3,073 


3, 227 


9 


4,357 


2, 386 


1,971 


208 


4,149 


4,337 


20 


1,223 


556 


667 


208 


1,015 


1,135 


88 


2,144 


1,187 


957 


243 


1,901 


1,643 


501 


124 


55 


69 


7 


117 


122 


2 


201 


110 


91 


11 


190 


181 


20 


38 


21 


17 


30 


8 


7 


31 


386 


334 


52 


40 


346 


27 


359 


3,038 


1,454 


1,584 


976 


2,062 


1,972 


1,066 


12, 907 


10, 400 


2,507 


1,171 


11,736 


2,650 


10, 257 


179 


109 


70 


135 


44 


29 


150 


1,328 


1,102 


226 


169 


1,159 


92 


1,236 


2,106 


1,269 


837 


102 


2,004 


2,106 




3,185 


2,049 


1,136 


122 


3,063 


3,185 




34 


14 


20 


7 


27 


34 




49 


23 


26 


7 


42 


48 


1 


7,176 


4,817 


2,359 


849 


6,327 


6,838 


338 


7,459 


5,026 


2,433 


868 


6,591 


7,008 


451 


7,929 


3,576 


4,353 


319 


7,610 


7,929 




9,581 


4,389 


5,192 


462 


9,119 


9,581 




56 


33 


23 


3 


53 


55 


1 


106 


72 


34 


8 


98 


76 


30 


275 


147 


128 


97 


178 


185 


90 


824 


433 


391 


122 


702 


407 


417 


514 


225 


289 


18 


496 


514 




542 


236 


306 


20 


522 


542 




82 


54 


28 


19 


63 


60 


22 


204 


108 


96 


24 


180 


118 


86 


14 


10 


4 




14 


12 


2 


64 


28 


36 


2 


62 


33 


31 


1,666 


861 


805 


113 


1,553 


1,666 




2,135 


1,147 


988 


134 


2,001 


2,135 




5 


4 


1 




5 


5 




6 


5 


1 




6 


6 




45 


36 


9 


6 


39 


45 




129 


94 


35 


15 


114 


129 




112 


87 


25 


9 


103 


112 




350 


257 


93 


24 


326 


350 




6,135 


3,028 


3,107 


2,151 


3,984 


3,925 


2,210 


20, 241 


13,201 


7,040 


2,703 


17,538 


5,988 


14,253 


418 


182 


236 


32 


386 


418 




590 


279 


311 


39 


551 


590 




22 


12 


10 




22 


22 




52 


37 


15 


1 


51 


52 




13 


10 


3 


1 


12 


13 




32 


20 


12 


1 


31 


32 




114 


74 


40 


21 


93 


114 




317 


203 


114 


32 


285 


316 


1 


21 


17 


4 




21 


21 




37 


30 


7 




37 


37 




5 


3 


2 


1 


4 


5 




21 


14 


7 


1 


20 


21 




12 


11 


1 


1 


11 


12 




62 


47 


15 


6 


56 


62 




1 

3 

156 


1 
3 
82 






1 

3 

153 


1 

3 
156 




9 

14 

212 


7 

8 

113 


2 
6 
99 


1 
1 

10 


8 

13 

202 


9 

14 

212 










74 


3 




9,289 


4,122 


5,167 


289 


9,000 


9,289 




9,962 


4,501 


5,461 


319 


9,643 


9,962 




422 


234 


188 


41 


381 


417 


5 


762 


415 


347 


61 


701 


746 


16 


70 


44 


26 


1 


69 


70 




173 


113 


6C 


7 


166 


168 


4 


242 


149 


93 


31 


211 


242 




33C 


207 


123 


36 


294 


327 


3 


443 


297 


146 


33 


410 


435 


8 


57C 


394 


176 


37 


533 


559 


11 


1,059 


525 


534 


905 


154 


331 


728 


8,825 


6,660 


2,165 


1,286 


7,538 


1,265 


7,560 


669 


321 


348 


473 


196 


256 


413 


4,738 


3,742 


996 


591 


4 147 


528 


4,210 


2,243 


1,122 


1,121 


832 


1,411 


683 


1,560 


5,441 


2,756 


2,685 


942 


4,498 


1,344 


4,097 


924 


525 


399 


410 


514 


97 


827 


2,526 


1,452 


1,074 


460 


2,066 


194 


2,332 


2,827 


1,480 


1,347 


849 


1,978 


1,103 


1,724 


5,88C 


3,041 


2,838 


958 


4,922 


1,821 


4,059 


14 


8 


6 


12 


2 


3 


11 


81 


62 


IE 


13 


68 


13 


68 


74 


40 


34 


63 


11 


11 


63 


55C 


439 


111 


76 


474 


37 


513 


486 


275 


211 


428 


58 


52 


434 


4,432 


3,777 


655 


577 


3,855 


172 


4,260 


365 


205 


160 


314 


51 


68 


297 


1,979 

18 

216 

1,132 


1,460 

18 

216 

989 


519 


373 


1,606 

18 

216 

1,052 


209 
277 


1,770 
18 




















216 


133 


77 


56 


60 


73 


104 


29 


143 


80 


855 


20 


7 


13 


3 


17 


2C 




216 


148 


68 


- 34 


182 


173 


43 


3 


2 


1 




3 


3 




41 


31 


1C 


2 


3S 


36 


5 


186 


146 


40 


17 


169 


186 




391 
8 


267 
2 


124 
6 


34 
6 


357 
2 


389 

8 


2 


772 


429 


343 


36 


736 


772 




1,152 


662 


490 


55 


1,097 


1,151 


1 



128 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENEEAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


United Fruit Co.— Con. 


From New York, N. Y., 
to — Continued. 


187 
88 


141 
48 


46 
40 


11 
1 


176 

87 


187 
88 






Costa Rica 










626 

6,998 

5,055 

176 

8 

15, 155 

4,955 

1,044 

3,350 

6,775 

102 

16 

20 

62 


438 

5,890 

4, 425 

139 

7 

11,487 

4,522 

796 

1,207 

5,153 

61 

7 

18 
30 


188 

1, 108 

630 

37 

1 

3,668 

433 

248 

2,143 

1,622 

41 

9 

2 

32 


50 

238 

88 

4 

672 
68 
35 
48 
230 
2 
1 

9 


576 

6,760 

4,967 

172 

8 

14,483 

4,887 

1,009 

3,302 

6,545 

100 

15 

20 

53 


624 

297 

878 

29 

4 

5,261 

346 

638 

560 

2,469 

65 

13 

6 

58 


2 

6,701 

4,177 

147 

9,894 

4,609 

406 

2,790 

4,306 

37 

3 

14 

4 






White Star 


















































Total New York 

From Norfolk, Va., to — 




398, 442 


318,111 


80, 331 


12, 293 


386, 149 


78, 649 


319, 793 


Norway-Mexico Gulf. . . 


23 
2 


16 
2 


7 


2 


21 
2 




23 
2 


do... 




Total Norfolk 

From Philadelphia, Pa., 
to- 
British North America. 








25 


18 


7 


2 


23 




25 


Allan 


31 

36 

2,040 

305 

7 

64 

1,074 

39 

124 

1,944 

79 

11 

36 

967 

24 

17 

85 

869 

41 

39 

128 

1,543 

86 

112 

92 

5 


15 

11 

1,205 

86 

2 

50 

578 

30 

112 

1,776 

66 

8 

31 

916 

21 

14 

70 

794 

31 

31 

112 

1,390 

66 

37 

63 

4 


16 

25 

835 

219 

5 

14 

496 

9 

12 

168 

13 

3 

5 
51 

3 

3 
15 
75 
10 

8 
16 
153 
20 
75 
29 

1 


9 
156 
2 
1 
8 

53 
1 
3 

54 
4 

2 

14 

1 
5 

21 
1 
1 
7 

47 
5 

11 
4 


31 

27 

1,884 

303 

6 

56 

1,021 

38 

121 

1,890 

75 

11 

34 

953 

24 

16 

80 

848 

40 

38 

121 

1,496 

81 

101 

88 

5 


17 

28 

615 

57 

7 

7 

268 

2 

32 

1 
1 

12 
1 
4 

6 

14 

30 

9 

112 

92 


14 

8 

1,425 

248 

57 

806 
37 

124 
1,912 
79 
10 
35 

955 
23 
13 
85 

863 
41 
25 

128 

1,513 

77 

5 












Atlantic Fruit 


British West Indies.. . 
























































Navigazione Generale 














Red Star 






British West Indies . . . 






Total Philadelphia.. 
From Portland, Me., to — 




9,798 


7,519 


2,279 


410 


9,388 


1,315 


8,483 


Allan 


768 

8 

338 

737 

3,312 

1 


547 

6 

239 

570 

2,646 

1 


221 
2 

99 
167 
666 


78 

43 
51 
227 


690 

8 

295 

686 

3,085 

1 


232 
2 

159 

207 

890 

1 


536 

6 

179 

530 

2,422 
























Total Portland, Me.. 

From Portland, Oreg.— 
Not stated 








5,164 


4,009 


1,155 


399 


4,765 


1,491 


3,673 




1 


1 






1 


1 





REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 129 
States, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex 


Age 


Class 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Undr 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


288 

291 

3 

1,585 

995 

2,055 

148 

29 

7,213 

1,297 

999 

2,736 

4,004 

335 

76 

36 

89 


183 

162 

3 

1,083 

518 

1,157 

71 

16 

4,084 

563 

602 

1,472 

2,412 

134 

31 

19 

37 


105 
129 


19 
14 


269 

277 

3 

1,504 

279 

1,650 

113 

26 

6,124 

1,029 

882 

2,073 

3,401 

312 

69 

33 

82 


288 

291 

3 

1,584 

341 

1,532 

107 

24 

5,308 

993 

859 

1,107 

2,761 

321 

76 

35 

89 


1 

654 

523 

41 

5 

1,905 

304 

140 

1,629 

1,243 

14 

1 


475 

379 

3 

2,211 

7,993 

7,110 

324 

37 

22,368 

6,252 

2,043 

6,086 

10,779 

437 

92 

56 

151 


324 

210 

3 

1,521 

6,408 

5,582 

210 

23 

15,571 

5,085 

1,398 

2,679 

7,565 

195 

38 

37 

67 


151 
169 


30 
15 


445 

364 

3 

2,080 

7,039 

6,617 

285 

34 

20,607 

5,916 

1,891 

5,375 

9,946 

412 

84 

53 

135 


475 

379 

3 

2,208 

638 
2,410 

136 

28 

10,569 

1,339 

1,497 

1,667 

5,230 

386 

89 

41 

147 




502 

477 

898 

77 

13 

3,129 

734 

397 

1.264 

1,592 

201 

45 

17 

52 


81 

716 

405 

35 

3 

1,089 

268 

117 

663 

603 

23 

7 

3 

7 


690 

1,585 

1,528 

114 

14 

6,797 

1,167 

645 

3,407 

3,214 

242 

54 

19 

84 


131 

954 

493 

39 

3 

1,761 

336 

152 

711 

833 

25 

8 

3 

16 


3 

7,355 

4,700 

188 

9 

11,799 

4,913 

546 

4,419 

5,549 

51 

3 

15 

4 


195, 094 


104, 802 


90,292 44,927 


150, 167 


140,114 


54,980 


593, 536 


422,913170,623 


57, 220 


536,316 218,763 374,773 


4 
1 


4 
1 




4 






4 


27 
3 


20 
3 


7 


6 


21 

3 1 


27 


1 


1 


2 












5 


5 




4 


1 


1 


4 


30 


23 


7 


6 


24 1 


29 


23 

15 

1,474 

199 
15 
35 
1,560 
10 
17 

192 

12 

12 

11 

50 

3 

8 

15 

88 

14 

' 17 

19 

196 
13 

535 

304 


9 

9 

569 

89 

4 

12 

668 

3 

11 

99 

12 

6 

7 

33 

2 

7 

4 

45 

4 

15 

10 

105 

7 

174 

194 


14 

6 

905 

110 

11 

23 

892 

7 

6 

93 

6 

4 

17 

1 

1 

11 

43 

10 

2 

9 

91 

6 

361 

110 


4 

293 
45 

5 

260 

4 

15 

150 

10 

6 

10 

43 

6 
14 
77 
14 

5 
19 
134 
13 
44 

7 


19 

8 

1,181 

154 

15 

30 

1,300 

6 

2 

42 

2 

6 

1 

7 


19 

10 

1,144 

114 

15 

34 

1,290 

3 

25 
1 
2 
1 
6 


4 

5 

330 

85 

1 

270 

7 

17 

167 

11 

10 

10 

44 

3 

15 
85 
14 
6 
19 
143 
13 


54 

51 

3,514 

504 

22 

99 

2,634 

49 

141 

2,136 

91 

23 

47 

1,017 

27 

25 

100 

957 

55 

56 

147 

1,739 

99 

647 

396 

5 


24 

20 

1,774 

175 

6 

62 

1,246 

33 

123 

1,875 

78 

14 

38 

949 

23 

21 

74 

839 

35 

46 

122 

1,495 

73 

211 

257 

4 


30 

31 

1,740 

329 

16 

37 

1,388 

16 

18 

261 

13 

9 

9 

68 

4 

4 

26 

118 

20 

10 

25 

244 

26 

436 

139 

1 


4 

16 

449 

47 

1 

13 

313 

5 

18 
204 
14 
6 
12 
57 
3 
7 

19 
98 
15 
6 
26 
181 
18 
55 
11 


50 

35 

3,065 

457 

21 

86 

2,321 

44 

123 

1,932 

77 

17 

35 

960 

24 

18 

81 

859 

40 


36 
38 

1,759 

171 

22 

41 

1,558 

5 

57 
1 
3 
2 

18 
1 

12 

9 


18 

13 

1,755 

333 

58 

1,076 

44 

141' 

2,079 

90 

20 

45 

999 

26 


2 
1 
11 


8 
3 


13 
100 
948 

55 


12 


11 


50! 25 
121 


31 
147 


62 


53 


1,558 

81 

592 

385 

5 


83 

9 

647 

396 


1,656 
90 


491 
297 


535 
304 


5 


















4,837 


2,098 


2,739 


1,188 


3,649 


3,578 


1,259 


14, 635 


9,617 


5,018 


1,598 


13,037 


4,893 


9,742 


25 
2 
47 
30 
128 


21 

2 

29 

19 

88 


4 


2 


23 
2 
43 
29 
107 


14 

38 
20 

42 


11 
2 
9 

10 
86 


793 

10 

385 

767 

3,440 

1 


568 

8 

268 

589 

2,734 

1 


225 
2 
117 
178 
706 


80 

47 
52 
248 


713 

10 

338 

715 

3,192 

1 


246 
2 
197 
227 
932 
1 


547 
8 


18 
11 
40 


4 
1 

21 


188 

540 

2,508 






















232 


159 


73 


28 


204 


114 


118 


5,396 


4,168 


1,228 


427 


4,969 


1,605 


3,791 
















l| 1 






1 


1 





7686°— 14 — 



130 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Compagnie Generale 


From Porto Rico to — 


14 


8 


6 


3 


11 


13 


1 






Danish West Indies. . . 
French West Indies. . . 


11 

4 
4 
131 
45 
35 
464 
104 
12 


6 
2 
3 

79 
30 
29 
334 
77 
10 


5 

2 

1 

52 

15 

6 

130 

27 

2 


19 
7 
3 

36 
5 
5 


11 

4 

4 

112 

38 

32 

428 

99 

7 


9 

2 

2 

55 

16 

19 

350 

41 

9 


2 
2 
2 

76 
29 
16 
114 
63 
3 


Compagnie Generale 
Transatlantique de 


Santo Domingo 


Italy 


















Santo Domingo 


6 

17 

3 

122 

5 

143 

153 

133 

2 

156 

65 

128 

3 

20 

44 


6 
8 
3 

67 
3 

96 
100 

96 

2 

110 

51 

90 
2 

12 

26 






6 

11 

3 

106 

5 

123 

135 

120 

2 

151 

59 

120 

3 

19 

44 


1 

17 
3 

7 5 7 

85 

106 

64 

2 

133 

65 

128 

3 

9 

44 


5 

45 

58 
47 
69 

23 
11 


Hamburg American 


9 


6 


British West Indies . . . 
Danish West Indies. . . 




55 
2 
47 
53 
37 


16 

20 
18 
13 




Santo Domingo 




Santo Domingo 

Santo Domingo 




46 

14 

38 

1 

8 
18 


5 
6 
8 

1 


Red D 


Dutch West Indies 






British West Indies . . . 
Danish West Indies. . . 
Dutch West Indies 

Total Porto Rico 

From Providence, R. I., 






1,824 


1,250 


574 


171 


1,653 


1,258 


566 




281 

274 

1,174 

520 


219 

254 

1,055 

319 


62 
20 
119 
201 


11 
3 

26 
27 


270 

271 

1,148 

493 


12 

36 

4 

58 


269 

238 

1,170 

462 
















Total Providence 

From San Francisco to — 
Chile 




2,249 


1,847 


402 


67 


2,182 


110 


2,139 




3 


2 


1 


1 


2 


3 












403 

22 

15 

1,952 

106 

44 

93 

928 

3 

33 

9 

195 

16 

91 

3 

49 

846 

151 

81 

62 

2,575 

681 

280 


297 

16 

12 

1,867 

90 

32 

58 

819 

2 

22 

9 

111 

10 

77 

2 

34 

784 

126 

70 

45 

2,267 

499 

200 


106 

6 

3 

85 

16 

12 

35 

109 

1 

11 

84 

6 

14 

1 

15 

62 

25 

11 

17 

308 

182 

80 


32 

13 
1 

3 
17 
9 

2 
1 

27 
2 
5 

3 
8 
1 

5 
18 
59 
25 


371 

22 

15 

1,939 

105 

41 

76 

919 

3 

31 

8 

168 

14 

86 

3 

46 

838 

150 

81 

57 

2, 557 

622 

255 


274 
11 
15 

191 
30 
19 
89 

329 

28 

7 

117 

15 

39 

2 

42 

164 

19 

11 

58 

1,017 

420 

168 


129 
11 

1,761 

76 

25 

4 

599 

3 

5 

2 

78 

1 

52 

1 

7 

682 

132 

70 

4 

1,558 

261 

112 
















Kobe 




Nagasaki 






































Toyo Kisen Kaisha... 




Kobe 








Shanghai 












Total San Francisco. 




8,641 


7,451 


1,190 


232 


8,409 


3,068 


5,573 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 131 
States, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 








14 
years 
and 
over. 


















ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 

years 
and 
over. 


Cabin 


Steer- 
age. 


6 


4 


2 


2 


4 


5 


1 


20 


12 


8 


5 


15 


18 


2 


6 


2 


4 


2 


3 




6 


6 


2 


4 


3 


3 




6 


6 


2 


4 


4 


2 


6 




17 
4 


8 
2 


9 
2 


4 


13 

4 


15 
2 


2 
2 


1 


1 






1 


1 




5 


4 


1 




5 

334 


3 

152 


2 

260 


281 


166 


115 


59 


222 


97 


184 


412 


245 


167 


78 


8 


3 


5 


2 


6 


7 


1 


53 


33 


20 


9 


44 


23 


30 


16 


10 


6 


7 


9 


15 


1 


51 


39 


12 


10 


41 


34 


17 


273 


119 


154 


102 


171 


250 


23 


737 


453 


2C4 


138 


599 


600 


137 


90 


59 


31 


10 


80 


61 


29 


194 


136 


58 


15 


179 


102 


92 


2 


2 






2 


2 




14 


12 


2 








3 


3 
4 


3 
4 






3 
4 


3 
3 


1 


3 
10 
17 


3 
10 

8 






3 
10 
11 


3 

4 
17 
















9 


6 




26 


22 


4 




26 


26 




29 


25 


4 




29 


29 




37 


22 


15 


13 


24 


33 


4 


159 


89 


70 


29 


130 


110 


49 


5 


5 






5 


5 




10 


8 


2 






10 

161 




195 


137 


58 


21 


174 


76 


119 


338 


233 


105 


41 


297 


177 


342 


222 


120 


59 


283 


119 


223 


495 


322 


173 


77 


418 


225 


270 


408 


252 


156 


71 


337 


55 


353 


541 


348 


193 


84 


457 


119 


422 


4 
92 


4 
47 






4 
34 


4 

86 


6 


6 

248 


6 
157 






6 
185 


6 
219 




45 


58 


91 


63 


29 


30 


19 


11 


3 


27 


30 




95 


70 


25 


9 


86 


95 




170 


107 


63 


29 


141 


168 


2 


298 


197 


101 


37 


261 


296 


2 


3 


3 






3 


3 




6 


5 


1 




6 


6 




39 


33 


6 


1 


38 


38 


1 


59 


45 


14 


2 


57 


47 


12 


2 


1 


1 




• 2 


2 




46 


27 


19 




46 


46 




2,049 


1,249 


800 


444 


1,605 


1,095 


954- 


3,873 


2,499 


1,374 


615 


3,258 


2,353 


1,520 


31 


15 


16 


20 


11 


4 


27 


312 


234 


78 


31 


281 


16 


296 


62 


27 


35 


28 


34 


42 


20 


336 


281 


55 


31 


305 


78 


258 


132 


68 


64 


93 


39 


19 


113 


1,306 


1,123 


183 


119 


1,187 


23 


1,283 


219 


130 


89 


107 


112 


66 


153 


739 


449 


290 


134 


605 


124 


615 


444 


240 


204 


248 


196 


131 


313 


2, 693 


2,087 


606 


315 


2,378 


241 


2,452 
















3 

18 


2 

11 


1 


1 
4 


2 
14 


3 

18 




18 


11 


7 


4 


14 


18 






405 


263 


142 


36 


369 


367 


38 


808 


560 


248 


68 


740 


641 


167 


11 


7 


4 




11 


10 


1 


33 


23 


10 




33 


21 


12 


* 40 


34 


6 


2 


38 


40 




55 


46 


9 


2 


53 


55 




1,339 


920 


419 


78 


1,261 


741 


598 


3,291 


2,787 


504 


91 


3,200 


932 


2,359 


167 


81 


86 


43 


124 


163 


4 


273 


171 


102 


44 


229 


193 


80 


30 


13 


17 


10 


20 


21 


9 


74 


45 


29 


13 


61 


40 


34 


348 


154 


194 


48 


300 


348 




441 


212 


229 


65 


376 


437 


4 


435 


229 


206 


78 


357 


407 


28 


1,363 


1,048 


315 


87 


1,276 


736 


627 


2 


2 






2 


2 




5 


4 


1 










37 


22 


15 


2 


35 


33 


4 


70 


44 


26 


4 


66 


61 


9 


21 


18 


3 




21 


19 


2 


30 


27 


3 


1 


29 


26 


4 


214 


153 


61 


25 


189 


177 


37 


409 


264 


145 


52 


357 


294 


115 


20 


15 


5 


1 


19 


18 


2 


36 


25 


11 


3 


33 


33 


3 


306 


227 


79 


15 


291 


237 


69 


397 


304 


93 


20 


377 


276 


121 


23 


18 


5 




23 


16 


7 


26 


20 


6 




26 


18 


8 


16 


12 


4 


1 


15 


16 




65 


46 


19 


4 


61 


58 


7 


792 


500 


292 


63 


729 


542 


250 


1,638 


1,284 


354 


71 


1,567 


706 


932 


97 


51 


46 


35 


62 


86 


11 


248 


177 


71 


36 


212 


105 


143 


33 


17 


16 


15 


18 


20 


13 


114 


87 


27 


15 


99 


31 


83 


159 


80 


79 


29 


130 


159 




221 


125 


96 


34 


187 


217 


4 


555 


281 


274 


334 


221 


421 


134 


3,130 


2,548 


582 


352 


2,778 


1,438 


1,692 


539 


346 


193 


69 


470 


423 


116 


1,220 


845 


375 


128 


1,092 


843 


377 


92 


61 


31 


13 


79 


57 


35 


372 


261 


111] 


38 


334 


225 


147 


5,699 


3,515 


2,184 


901 


4,798 


4,341 


1,358 


14,340 


10,966 


3, 374J 


1,133 


13,207 


7,409 


6,931 



132 KEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. . 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 




From Seattle, Wash., to— 


















Do 


102 

29 


94 
23 


8 
6 




102 
29 


14 
2 


88 
27 














4 

149 

561 

17 

39 

8 

586 

739 

49 

291 

11 

4 

7 

317 


4 

136 

486 

12 

24 

6 

530 

738 

49 

265 

9 

3 

2 

303 






4 

147 

557 

17 

30 

8 

581 

738 

49 

287 

11 

4 

7 

317 


1 
40 
30 

5 
36 

234 

5 

8 

7 
17 


3 

109 

531 

12 

3 

8 

352 

739 

44 

283 

11 

4 

300 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha. . 




13 
75 

5 
15 

2 
56 

1 


2 

4 

9 

5 
1 


























Do 




Kobe 


26 
2 
1 
5 

14 


4 




















Total Seattle 

From Tampa, Fla., to- 
British West Indies 




2,913 


2,684 


229 


25 


2,888 


399 


2,514 




1 


6 
1 


1 




7 
1 


5 


2 

1 














Total Tampa 


















8 


7 


1 




8 


5 


3 



RECAPITULATION . 



Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Brunswick, Ga 

Canada (Atlantic seaports) 

Canadian border stations 

Canada (Pacific seaports) 

Galveston, Tex 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Key West, Fla 

Mexican border stations 

Miami, Fla 

Mobile, Ala 

New Bedford, Mass 

New Orleans, La 

Newport News. Va 

New York,N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Portland, Me 

Portland, Oreg 

Porto Rico 

Providence, R.I 

San Francisco, Cal 

Seattle, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Total 

Steamships 

Sailing vessels 

By land 

BY YEAKS. 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 



480,902 

1,160 

129,862 



380,418 
518,215 
615,292 
611,924 



1,311 
14,461 



6,177 

97,250 

1,321 

722 

2,941 



5,238 
1," " 

1,540 

51 

453 

1,806 

2 

318,111 

18 

7,519 

4,009 

1 

1,250 

1,847 

7,451 

2,684 

7 



477,769 



379,698 

821 

97,250 



279,896 
400,294 
480,732 
477,769 



573 

7,758 

1 

1,690 

32,612 

253 

185 

1,091 

3 

2,132 

442 

509 

40 

50 

647 

1 

80,331 

7 

2,279 

1,155 



134, 155 



101,204 

339 

32,612 



100,522 
117,921 
134,560 
134, 155 



963 



433 

13,692 

51 

36 

96 



870 

147 

149 

14 

21 

202 

1 

12,293 

2 

410 

399 



574 


171 


402 


67 


1,190 


232 


229 


25 


1 





30,368 581,556 



16,576 

100 

13,692 



22,942 
27,175 
28,593 
30,368 



464,326 

1,060 

116,170 



357,476 
491,040 
586, 699 
581,556 



78 



230,496 



100, 195 

439 

129,862 



141,789 
172,485 
188,550 
230,496 



1,613 
17,645 



6,450 



901 

739 

3,490 



4,654 

684 

1,568 



503 
412 



319,793 

25 

8,483 

3,673 



566 

2,139 

5,573 

2,514 

3 



381,428 



380,707 
721 



238,629 
345,730 
426,742 
381,428 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 133 

States, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 
14 

years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


1 

82 
7 

38 

6 

132 

78 
6 

46 


1 
49 

1 
17 

3 
79 
40 

3 
25 






1 
71 

1 
26 

5 
119 
22 

1 
31 


45 
3 

38 

6 

100 

31 
1 

34 


1 

37 

4 

32 

47 
5 
12 


1 

184 

36 

38 

10 

281 

639 

23 

85 

8 

686 

944 

56 

324 

15 

4 

13 

342 


1 

143 

24 

17 

7 

215 

526 

15 

49 

6 

588 

942 

55 

281 

11 

3 

4 

315 






1 

173 

30 

26 

9 

266 

579 

18 

61 

8 

640 

942 

53 

298 

13 

4 

9 

330 


59 
5 

38 

7 

140 

61 
6 

70 

297 

5 

l l 

13 
22 


1 


33 
6 

21 
3 

53 

38 
3 

21 


11 
6 

12 
1 

13 

56 
5 

15 


41 

12 

21 
3 

66 

113 

8 

36 
2 

98 
2 
1 

43 
4 
1 
9 

27 


ii 

6 
12 

1 
15 
60 

5 
24 

46 
2 
3 

26 
2 

4 
12 


125 
31 

3 

141 

578 

17 

15 

8 


100 

205 
7 
33 
4 


58 
204 

6 
16 

2 


42 
1 
1 

17 

2 


41 
1 
3 

22 
2 


59 
204 

4 
11 

2 


63 

9 
3 


37 

205 

7 

24 

. 1 


389 
944 

51 
307 

12 
4 


6 
25 


2 
12 


4 
13 


4 
12 


2 

13 


6 
5 


20 


320 


776 


518 


258 


204 


572 


344 


432 


3,689 


3,202 


487 


229 


3,460 


743 


2,946 


3 
3 
1 


2 
3 
1 


1 




3 
3 
1 


2 
3 
1 


1 


10 

4 

1 


8 
4 
1 


2 




10 
4 
1 


3 
1 


3 

1 






















7 


6 


1 




7 


6 


1 


15 


13 


2 




15 


11 


4 



RECAPITULATION. 



1,855 

13,839 

3 

3,938 

90,129 

541 

827 

2,110 


867 

7,223 

3 

1,906 

63,836 

367 

446 

1,120 


988 
6,616 


425 

3,018 


1,430 

10,821 

3 

3,293 

73,366 

464 

678 

945 


1,303 

8,551 

3 

3,003 

90,129 

373 

574 

892 


552 

5,288 

935 

168 

253 

1,218 


3,739 

36,058 

4 

11,805 

219,991 

2,115 

1,734 

6,142 

3 

22,043 

3,247 

2,339 

275 

511 

11,408 

4 

593,536 

30 

14, 635 

5,366 

1 

3,873 

2,693 

14,340 

3,689 

15 


2,178 

21,684 
3 
8,083 
161,086 
1,688 
1,168 
4,061 

14, 161 

2,564 

1,709 

181 

458 

7,822 

2 

422,913 

23 

9,617 

4,168 

1 

2,499 

2,087 

10,966 

3,202 

13 


1,561 

14,374 

1 

3,722 

58,905 

427 

566 

2,081 

3 

7,882 

683 

630 

94 

53 

3,586 

2 

170,623 

5,018 
1,228 


519 
3,981 

1,078 

30, 455 

128 

185 

1,261 

1,616 
220 
203 
24 
26 
774 

57, 220 
6 

1,598 
427 


3,220 

32,077 

4 

10, 727 

189,536 

1,987 

1,549 

4,881 

3 

20,427 

3,027 

2,136 

251 

485 

10, 634 

3 

536,316 

24 

13,037 

4,969 

1 

3,258 

2,378 

13,207 

3,460 

15 


1,574 

13, 125 

4 

4,420 

219,991 

1,046 

742 

1,434 

3 

16,617 

2,547 

675 

275 

10,801 

4 

218, 763 

1 

4,893 

1,605 

1 

2,353 

241 

7,409 

743 

11 


2,165 
22, 933 


2,032 

26,293 

174 

381 

990 


645 

16, 763 

77 

149 

1,165 


7,385 

1,069 

992 

4,708 


14,673 

1,206 

290 

184 

8 

8,955 

1 

195,094 

5 

4,837 

232 


8,923 

965 

169 

130 

5 

6,016 

104, 802 

5 

2,098 

159 


5,750 

241 

121 

54 

3 

2,939 

1 

90,292 

2,739 
73 


746 
73 
54 
10 
5 

572 

44,927 

4 

1,188 

28 


13,927 

1,133 

236 

174 

3 

8,383 

1 

150, 167 

1 

3,649 

204 


13,901 

1,190 

194 

184 

8,760 

1 

140,114 

1 

3,578 

114 


772 
16 
96 

8 
195 

54,980 

4 

1,259 

118 


5,426 

700 

1,664 

511 
607 

374, 773 

29 

9,742 

3,791 


2,049 
444 

5,699 
776 

7 


1,249 
240 

3,515 

518 

6 


800 

204 

2,184 

258 

1 


444 
248 
901 
204 


1,605 
196 

4,798 
572 

7 


1,095 
131 

4,341 

344 

6 


954 

313 

1,358 

432 

1 


1,374 

606 

3,374 

487 
2 


615 

315 

1,133 

229 


1,520 
2,452 
6,931 
2,946 
4 


347, 702 


204, 568 


143,134 


71,646 


276,056 


278, 782 


68,920 


959,626 


tiN2.;«7 


277,289 


102,014 


857,612 


509, 278 


450,348 


257,506 

67 

90,129 


140, 683 

49 

63,836 


116,823 

18 

26,293 


54,859 

24 

16, 763 


202, 647 

43 

73,366 


188,620 

33 

90,129 


68, 886 
34 


738, 408 

1,227 

219,991 


520, 381 

870 

161,086 


218,027 

357 

58,905 


71,435 

124 

30,455 


666,973 

1,103 

189,536 


288, 815 

472 

219,991 


449,593 
755 


342,600 
349,471 
353,890 
347, 702 


201,950 
211,644 
208,666 
204, 568 


140, 650 
137, 827 
145, 224 
143, 134 


57, 847 
69,717 
74,117 
71,646 


284,753 
279, 754 
279, 773 
276,056 


254, 251 
263,585 
275, 149 

278, 782 


88,349 
85,886 
78, 741 
68,920 


723,018 
867,686 
969, 182 
959,626 


481,846 
611,938 
689, 398 
682,337 


241,172 
255,748 
279, 784 
277, 289 


80,789 
96, 892 
102, 710 
102,014 


642,229 
770,794 
866,472 
857,612 


396,040 
436,070 
463,699 
509, 278 


326,978 
431,616 

505,483 
450, 348 



134 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XIII. — Passengers Departed from the United 

TOTAL PASSENGERS DEPARTED, 1890-1909. 





Cabin passengers. 


Year ended 
June 30— 


Under 12 years of age. 


12 years of age and over. 


Total 
cabin. 




Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1890 


5,297 
5,604 
5,717 
5,503 
7,622 
5,828 
5,111 
6,418 
10,315 
7,646 
7,757 
6,965 
8,235 
8,544 
8,798 
13,008 
13,489 
11,200 


4,099 
3,756 
3,706 
3,727 
4,834 
3,812 
3,780 
4,624 
7,443 
6,326 
5,277 
4,994 
6,112 
6,231 
6.060 
8,336 
8,181 
7,581 


9,396 
9,360 
9,423 
9,230 
12,456 
9,640 
8,891 
11,042 
17,758 
13,972 
13,034 
11,959 
14,347 
14,775 
14,858 
21,344 
21,670 
18, 781 


66,130 
65,056 
61,763 
57,904 
70,864 
64,887 
54, 533 
76, 106 
87,041 
84, 853 
91,308 
99,432 
109,469 
119,287 
125,340 
130, 276 
136,981 
136,781 


30,359 
32,692 
33,966 
27,995 
38,611 
38,366 
31,130 
41,099 
51,096 
49,739 
53,770 
57,293 
60,797 
67,146 
74,471 
73,273 
78, 130 
89,238 


96,489 
97,748 
95,729 
85,899 
109,475 
103,253 
85,663 
117,205 
138, 137 
134,592 
145,078 
156,725 
170, 266 
186,433 
199,811 
203,549 
215,111 
226,019 


105,885 
107,108 
105, 152 

95,129 
121,931 
112,893 

94,554 
128, 247 
155,895 
148, 564 
158,112 
168, 684 
184,613 
201,208 
214, 669 
224,893 
236,781 
244,800 


1891 


1892 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1898 l 


1899 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


1905 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 





1 For 1896 and 1897 no figures are available. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 135 



States, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

TOTAL PASSENGERS DEPARTED, 1890-1909. 



Passengers other than cabin. 


















Total 


Under 12 years of 


age. 


12 years of age and over. 




passengers 














Total other 
than cabin. 


departed. 
















Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 






8,698 


7,532 


16, 230 


83,110 


32,914 


116,024 


132, 254 


238, 139 


9,268 


6,004 


15, 272 


89,034 


35,092 


124, 126 


139,398 


246,506 


9,999 


5,969 


15,968 


96,834 


38, 602 


135, 436 


151,404 


256, 556 


8,352 


5,444 


13, 796 


88,315 


33, 384 


121,699 


135, 495 


230,624 


15, 798 


9,307 


25, 105 


112,941 


52, 794 


165, 735 


190, 840 


312,771 


17,257 


10,612 


27,869 


123,845 


64,951 


188, 796 


216, 665 


329,558 


10,001 


5,789 


15, 790 


78, 621 


36, 446 


115,067 


130, 857 


225,411 


8,836 


6,447 


15,283 


78, 061 


34,417 


112,478 


127, 761 


256,008 


13,906 


9,095 


23,001 


78,230 


36, 268 


114,498 


137, 499 


293,394 


10,968 


8,042 


19,010 


96, 797 


42,353 


139, 150 


158, 160 


306,724 


12,067 


8,256 


20,323 


99,966 


48,359 


148, 325 


168, 648 


326,760 


13,395 


9,082 


22, 477 


132, 894 


51,206 


184, 100 


206,577 


375,261 


18,249 


13,086 


31,335 


209, 191 


83, 065 


292, 256 


323,591 


508,204 


22, 104 


15,335 


37,439 


210, 270 


87, 234 


297, 504 


334,943 


536, 151 


16,591 


11,144 


27,735 


179,869 


74, 464 


254,333 


282,068 


496, 737 


25, 704 


16, 203 


41,907 


214,997 


88,085 


303,082 


344,989 


569,882 


63,751 


27,430 


91,181 


378, 246 


168, 478 


546, 724 


637,905 


874, 686 


30, 249 


17,400 


47, 649 


199, 851 


94, 152 


294,003 


341,652 


586,452 



136 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table A. — Japanese Applied for Admission, Admitted, Debarred, Deported, 
and Departed, Fiscal Years Ended June 30, 1912 and 1913. 



Applications for admission 

Admitted 

Debarred from entry . . 

Deported after entry 

Departures 



1912 



Continen- 
tal U. S. 



5,461 

5,358 

103 

35 

5,437 



Hawaii. 



3,294 

3,231 

63 



2,593 



1913 



Continen- 
tal U. S. 



6,859 
6,771 



5,647 



Hawaii. 



5,081 

4,901 

180 



2,793 



Table B. — -Increase or Decrease of Japanese Population by Immigration 
and Emigration, Fiscal Years Ended June 30, 1912 and 1913, by Months. 



Month. 



1911-12 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April. 

May 

June 

Total 

1912-13 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Continental United States. 



Admitted. 



354 
509 
466 
319 
370 
287 
399 
329 
367 
561 
538 
859 



5,358 



650 
646 
380 
624 
580 
626 
332 
385 
497 
663 
654 
734 



6,771 



Departed. 



269 
397 
471 
621 
1,037 
782 
405 
348 
373 
136 
256 
342 



5,437 



273 
256 
532 
718 
919 
764 
513 
387 
280 
400 
396 
209 



5,647 



Increase(+) 

or de- 
crease (— ). 



+ 85 

+ 112 

- 5 

- 302 

- 667 

- 495 

6 

- 19 

- 6 
+ 425 



+ 



282 
517 



+ 377 

+ 390 

- 152 

- 94 

- 339 

- 138 

- 181 

- 2 
+ 217 
+ 263 
+ 258 
+ 525 



+ 1,124 



Hawaii. 



Admitted. 



181 
327 
240 
228 
210 
244 
280 
187 
336 
331 
349 
318 



3,231 



328 
410 
385 
466 
565 
612 
411 
399 
367 
283 
337 
338 



Departed. 



158 
282 
352 
395 

79 
146 

73 
109 
126 
378 

58 
437 



2,593 



2,793 



Increase(+) 

or de- 
crease (—). 



+ 23 

+ 45 

- 112 

- 167 
+ 131 

+ 98 

+ 207 

+ 78 

+ 210 

- 47 
+ 291 

- 119 



638 



437 


_ 


109 


259 


+ 


151 


246 


+ 


139 


259 


+ 


207 


226 


+ 


339 


332 


+ 


280 


136 


+ 


275 


76 


+ 


323 


137 


+ 


230 


137 


+ 


146 


215 


+ 


122 


333 


+ 


5 



+ 2,108 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 137 

Table C. — Occupations or Japanese Admitted and Departed, Fiscal Year 

Ended June 30, 1913. 





Continental 

U.S. 


Hawaii. 


Occupation. 


Continental 
U.S. 


Hawaii. 


Occupation. 


•6 

CD 

1 

■a 
< 


T3 
CD 

s< 

CD 
P 


T3 

CD 


•6 

CD 
U 
C3 
P. 
co 
R 


•6 

CD 
1 

-a 
< 


Pi 

a> 
P 


T3 
< 


CD 
I 

P 


PROFESSIONAL. 


6 

9 
30 
20 

5 
73 

3 

9 


7 

4 
19 
21 

5 
68 

2 

5 
1 

50 
16 
6 
40 
15 


15 


8 


skilled— continued . 
Millers 


1 
3 

2 

8 












10 
4 
10 








13 
4 


9 


Painters and glaziers. . .. 


4 


1 


Editors 


3 






1 


Engineers (professional) . 


2 




Plumbers 




1 
6 
1 

15 
29 


1 
3 

6 

30 








11 

13 

7 

23 


1 




3 
1 

14 


1 

1 

6 










2 




Tailors 


23 


Officials (Government).. 


56 
19 
11 
53 
15 


Tinners 


1 




Watch and clock makers . 


1 


2 


3 

7 
3 


2 


Sculptors and artists 






47 
110 


13 

S 


Other skilled 


55 


83 


1 


Other professional 


Total skilled 

miscellaneous. 




301 


357 


126 


93 


Total professional 


309 


259 


209 


46 


17 
23 

2 
472 
927 

23 

118 

542 

5 

483 

82 
783 


12 
25 

227 

1,886 

35 

140 

1,211 

6 

492 

78 

365 


1 




SKILLED. 


6 
33 


6 

39 

1 






1 








Barbers and hairdressers . 


4 
12 


7 
6 


Draymen, hackmen, and 


5 

3,725 

7 

14 

4 

29 

2 

101 

118 

56 


4 




1 

14 
78 
2 

9 
20 




572 


Carpenters and joiners. . 


17 

75 
2 

8 

37 

1 


26 
16 

5 
1 
1 


18 
14 
1 

7 
2 




2 






8 






5 


Engineers (locomotive, 


Laborers 


1,520 


marine, and station- 






ary) 


Merchants and dealers. . 


117 


Gardeners 


46 




Other miscellaneous 

Total miscellaneous 

No occupation (includ- 
ing women and chil- 


44 




3 
3 
5 
2 






2 
3 
5 






3,477 


4,477 


4,062 


2,319 












1 
3 


1 
1 

1 


2,684 


554 


504 




Masons 




Mechanics (not specified) 

Metal workers (other 

than iron, steel, and 

tin) 






335 


1 






Grand total 




6,771 


5,647 


4,901 


2,793 











Table D. — -Statistics of Immigration and Emigration op Japanese, Collected 
by the United States Government, Compared with Those Reported by the 
Japanese Government, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913. 



From Japan. 


Reported 

by 
Japan. 


Reported 
by U. S. 


To Japan. 


Reported 

by 
Japan. 


Reported 
by U. S. 




5,358 
6,465 


4,925 
6,400 




4,410 

6,682 


2,782 


To continental U. S 


From continental LT. S 

Total 


5,378 






Total 


111,823 111.325 


2 11,092 


■8,160 













i Embarked within the year. 



2 Debarked within the year. 



138 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table E.— Japanese Arrivals in Continental United States, Fiscal 

Japanese 





Came from — 


In possession of proper 
passports. 




4 

03 

l-S 


03 

is 

03 

w 


03 

•a 

03 

a 

03 

o 


d 
o 

V. 

1 


03 

o 
3 


.2 


3 
o 

CJ 

u 

■a 
O 


Entitled to passports 
under Japanese agree- 
ment: Former resi- 
dents. 




14 

0) 
u 

o 

JO 

03 

■a 

o 


o 
O 

03 


"3 

o 

Eh 




6,381 


87 


46 


76 


232 


37 


1,661 


1,176 


2,837 




Admitted: 


3,608 
2,721 


66 
14 


29 
3 


59 
3 


221 
10 


29 
8 


1,506 
153 


1,154 
21 


2,660 
174 






Total 


6,329 


80 


32 


62 


231 


37 


1,659 


1,175 


2,834 




Debarred: 


42 

10 


6 

1 


13 
1 


13 
1 


1 




2 


1 


3 
















Total 


52 


7 


14 


14 


1 




2 


1 


3 




Housewives without other occupation. 
Children under 14 without occupation. 
Came from — 


2,425 
160 

6,381 


8 
2 




2 


7 
1 


3 


146 
5 

1,561 
14 

6 
16 
56 

8 


1,161 
2 
5 

8 


146 

5 

2,722 
16 
11 

24 
56 

8 








87 














46 














76 














232 


37 
























Resided in continental United States: 
After Jan. 1 , 1907 


2,712 
11 


16 


10 

7 


11 
22 


50 
22 


11 
1 


1,621 
40 


1,165 
11 


2,786 
51 


Prior to Jan. 1, 1907 






2,723 


16 


17 


33 


72 


12 


1,661 


1,176 


2,837 




How related to resident: 


44 

2,387 

614 




















6 

28 


1 


1 




3 
































Total parents, wives, and chil- 


3,045 


34 


1 


1 




3 
















Kind of passport: 


6,142 

1 

154 

44 

2,312 

2,602 

742 

345 

150 

87 

56 

47 


75 20 


27 
1 


37 
47 

119 
9 

14 
26 

22 
19 

11 
8 

95 
10 

167 
45 


14 
6 

3 

12 
4 
1 
1 

5 

18 
8 

4 


1,616 
13 

28 
4 

694 
563 
184 
87 
43 
22 
18 

29 
21 

463 
17 

1,181 


1,176 

515 

544 

57 

24 

11 

8 

1 

E 

33 
131 

1,012 


2,792 
13 

28 
4 

1,209 
1,107 
241 
111 
54 
30 
19 

36 
30 

496 
148 

2,193 


Limited to other countries 

Limited to United States and 


1 
2 

72 
6 


1 

5 




Passports dated during — 

Month covered by this report 








1 


1 










1 
1 
1 

11 
13 

2 
1 

25 






1 




Prior to sixth month, but not be- 
fore Mar. 14, 1907 




11 
13 

8 

7 

11 


Prior to Mar. 14, 1907 


Occupations mentioned in passports: 


956 

166 

5,219 


41 
2 

35 




Occupations not mentioned in 





i 18 nonlaborers and 25 laborers held passports limited to Hawaii, Canada, or Mexico; 2 laborers held 
passports not their own; 25 nonlaborers and 13 laborers claimed to have lost or left passport9 held at time 
of departure from Japan; 10 nonlaborers and 41 laborers were not in possession of any kind of passport at 



REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 139 



Year Ended June 30, 1913, Showing Various Details Bearing on the 
Agreement. 



In possession of proper passports— Continued. 


Without 

proper 

passport. 


With and without 
proper passport. 


Entitled to passports under Japanese 
agreement— Continued. 


Not entitled to passport: Not for- 
mer residents, parents, wives, or 
children of residents, nor settled 
agriculturists — laborers. 


Total with proper 
passports. 


o 
u 
o 

£2 
_03 

a 

o 


u 

u 

o 

03 


o 
Eh 


i 

1 

a 
o 


£ 

o 

X! 

03 

►J 




Parents, wives, and 
children of residents. 


3 c 

■1 

^§ 

CO 


Not former residents, par- 
ents.wives, or children of 
residents, nor settled agri- 
culturists— nonlaborers. 


o 
a 

a 

Ph 

o 

X) 

a 

CD 

"3 
o 

Eh 


0) 

o 
£1 

03 

"3 

O 


g 

ca 


3 
o 

E-i 




a 

o 

03 

i 

o 


fa 
O 
fit 
03 


"Si 

o 




§ 




2,905 


178 


3,083 


14 


739 


6,673 


42 


5,319 


1,396 


6,715 


63 


81 

11 
2 


H44 


5,382 


1,477 


6,859 


468 
2,423 


76 
102 


544 
2,525 


14 


697 
41 


3,915 
2,740 


26 
15 


2,685 
2,617 


1,256 
138 


3,941 
2,755 


60 
2 


71 

4 


2,745 
2,619 


1,267 
140 


4,012 
2,759 


2,891 


178 


3,069 


14 


738 


6,655 


41 


5,302 


1,394 


6,696 

9 
10 


62 

1 


13 


75 


5,364 


1,407 


6,771 


4 
10 




4 
10 




1 


8 
10 


1 


7 
10 


2 


65 
3 


66 
3 


8 
10 


67 
3 


75 
13 








14 




14 




1 


18 


1 


17 


2 


19 


1 


68 


69 


18 


70 


88 


2,288 
156 

2,868 
32 

1 
1 


178 


2,288 
156 

3,046 

32 

1 

1 


14 


10 
2 

533 

29 

8 

3 

156 

10 


2,444 
163 

6,315 
77 
20 
28 
212 
21 


26 
1 
6 

9 


2,444 
163 

4,976 
75 
15 
20 
212 
21 


1,365 
3 

11 

8 

9 


2,444 
163 

6,341 
78 
26 
28 
212 
30 


1 




1 


2,445 
163 

4,979 
75 
24 
45 
232 
27 


1,402 
12 
22 
31 

10 


2,445 
163 


3 

"*9 
25 

20 
6 


37 

9 

11 

23 

.... 


40 

9 
20 

48 
20 

7 


6,381 

87 

46 

76 

232 


3 




3 




37 












2,786 
51 




1,621 
40 


1,165 
11 


2,786 
51 


21 
5 


3 
7 


24 

12 


1,642 
45 


1,168 
18 


2,810 












63 
























2,837 




1,661 


1,176 


2,837 


26 


10 


36 


1,687 


1,186 


2,873 


33 

2,294 
578 


11 
103 
64 


44 

2,397 

642 






44 

2,397 

642 




33 
2,294 

578 


11 
103 
64 


44 

2,397 

642 






33 

2,295 

578 


11 
103 
64 


44 






1 


.... 


1 


2,398 






642 














2,905 


178 


3,083 






3,083 




2,905 


178 


3,083 


1 




1 


2,906 


178 


3,084 








2,904 


178 


3,082 


14 


395 
42 

249 
53 

135 
232 


6,283 
55 

277 
58 

2,391 
9. «3n 


32 

9 
1 

19 
8 
3 
2 
1 
2 
1 

3 
3 

6 

24 

12 


4,929 
55 

277 
58 

1,811 

2,006 

673 

337 

156 

88 

62 

157 


1,386 

9 
1 

599 
632 
79 
31 
14 
12 
3 

14 


6,315 
55 

. 286 
59 

2,410 
2,638 
752 
368 
170 
100 
65 

171 
41 

1,192 
184 

5,339 














































1 

973 
1,207 
382 
185 
77 
32 
27 

22 


65 
80 
19 
5 
2 
2 


1 

1,038 

1,287 

401 

190 

79 

34 


9 
4 
1 






































106 1 749 
65l 366 
36 ifio 






































34 
16 

107 

8 

406 
1 

332 


98 
64 

168 
38 

1,186 
160 

5,327 














2 9Q 














3 


25 














29 12 














272 
6 

2 627 


5 

173 


272 
11 

2,800 


12 
2 


1,153 
24 

4,142 


39 
160 

1,197 























































time of leaving Japan; 3 nonlaborers were diplomats holding no passport and 1 nonlaborer holding no pass- 
port was a resident of the United States, and as to 6 nonlaborers the reason for not being in possession ol 
proper passports are not known. 



140 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 







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142 REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table 1. — Summary op Chinese Seeking Admission to the United States, Fis- 
cal Years Ended June 30, 1908-1913, by Classes. 





1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Class alleged. 


1 


•6 

o 

u 

o 
p. 


•6 
1 


■6 



c 


■0 

c 

C9 


■ri 

Hi 


•6 


u 

p. 


■6 

03 


■6 



1 


•d 

U 

O 


■6 
1 


■6 

u 


p. 


•6 


73 

1 


•6 




p. 


•d 
& 

S3 




•o 


<2 


"9 


© 




•O 







•V 


IS 


■a 







T3 









< 





< 


(A 


w 


< 


(A 


M 


< 


tt 


< 


tt 


ft 


<< 


O 


X 


United States citizens 


1,609 


127 


2,530 


254 


16 


2,109 


490 


5 


1,639 


284 


1,756 


170 


1 


2,171 


121 




Wives of United 


































States citizens 


37 


2 


98 


2 




110 


14 




80 


5 


88 


5 




126 


9 




Returning laborers. . . 


883 


36 


950 


3 




1,037 


12 




1,113 


19 


1,103 


1 





1,036 


5 




Returning merchants 


773 


55 


947 


20 


5 


869 


31 




1,092 


33 


1,093 


18 


1 


986 


13 


i 


Other merchants 


216 


11 


292 


19 




228 


29 




199 


28 


170 


8 




105 


16 




Members of mer- 


































chants' families 


806 


128 


1,242 


237 


10 


1,029 


332 




559 


259 


558 


133 




738 


92 






157 
13 

23 

83 
24 


3 
"2 


161 

27 
14 
82 
52 


6 




268 
83 
24 

145 

48 


31 
3 
1 

"26" 


.... 


213 

52 
32 
87 
41 


25 
'39' 


413 

80 
33 
47 
33 


20 
7 
1 
1 

36 




370 
19 
33 
38 
40 


11 














1 












Miscellaneous 


23 




116 




Total 


4,624 


364 


6,395 


564 


31 


5,950 


969 


6 


5,107 


692 


5,374 


400 


2 


5,662 


384 


1 







REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 143 



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144 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table 3. — Chinese Claiming American Citizenship Admitted, Fiscal Year 
Ended June 30, 1913, by Ports. 



Port. 



San Francisco, Cal. 

Seattle, Wash 

Baltimore, Md 

New York, N. Y.. 
Vancouver, B. C... 

Montreal, Can 

Mexican border 



Total continental United States . 
Honolulu, Hawaii 



Grand total . 



BY WHOM ADMITTED. 



Inspection officers . 
Department 



Foreign- 
born 
children 

of 
natives. 



435 
19 



484 
11 



495 



479 
16 



Native born. 



No record 

of 
departure 
(known as 
"raw na- 
tives"). 



79 
162 



Record of departure 
(known as "returning 
natives"). 



Status as 
native born 
determined 

by U. S. 
Government 
previous to 

present 
application 
for admis- 
sion. 



Status not 
previously 
determined. 



578 

291 

6 

1 

139 

2 



1,017 
63 



240 
1 



1,080 



1,078 
2 



194 

38 



232 



230 
2 



Total. 



1,272 
318 
6 
1 
171 
3 
3 



1,774 
274 



2,048 



2,027 
21 



Table 4. — Appeals to Department from Excluding Decisions Under Chinese- 
Exclusion Laws, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, by Ports. 



Action taken. 


San 
Fran- 
cisco, 

Cal. 


Seattle, 
Wash. 


Hono- 
lulu, 
Hawaii. 


Mexi- 
can 
border. 


New 
York, 
N. Y. 


Van- 
couver, 
B.C. 


Mon- 
treal, 
Canada. 


Total. 


Number of appeals 


136 


31 


39 


3 


1 


33 


2 


245 






Disposition: 


43 
93 


5 
26 


4 
35 






15 

18 


2 


67 




3 


1 


178 







Table 5. — Disposition of Cases of Resident Chinese Applying for Return 
Certificates, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913. 





Applica- 
tions 
submitted. 


Primary disposition. 


Disposition on appeal. 


Total 

number of 

certificates 

granted. 


Total 
number of 


Class. 


Granted. 


Denied. 


Sustained. 


Dismissed. 


certificates 
finally 
refused. 


Exempt classes. .. 


1,261 
1,055 

847 


1, ISO 
990 
826 


81 
65 
21 


6 
3 

1 


28 
10 

7 


1,186 
993 
827 


75 
62 
20 






Total 


3,163 


2,996 


167 


10 


45 


3,006 


157 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 145 

Table 6. — Action Taken in the Cases of Chinese Persons Arrested on the 
Charge of Being in the United States in Violation of Law, Fiscal Year 
Ended June 30, 1913. 

cases before united states commissioners. 

Until order of deportation or discharge : 

Arrests 191 

Pending before hearing at close of previous year 163 

Total 354 

Disposition : 

Discharged 71 

Pending before hearing at close of present year 120 

Ordered deported 163 

After order of deportation : 

Ordered deported 163 

Awaiting deportation or appeal at close of previous year 35 

Total 198 

Disposition: 

Deported 103 

Awaiting deportation or appeal to United States district courts at close 

of present year 14 

Appealed to United States district courts 81 

CASES BEFORE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTS. 

Until order of deportation or discharge: 

Appealed to United States district courts 81 

Pending before trial at close of previous year 139 

Total 220 

Disposition : 

Forfeited bail 11 

Discharged 45 

Pending before trial at close of present year 85 

Ordered deported : 79 

After order of deportation: 

Ordered deported 79 

Awaiting deportation or appeal to higher courts at close of previous year 5 

Total 84 

Disposition: 

Deported 47 

Awaiting deportation or appeal at close of present year 19 

Appealed to higher courts 18 

CASES BEFORE HIGHER UNITED STATES COURTS. 

Until order of deportation or discharge : 

Appealed to higher United States courts 18 

Pending before trial at close of previous year 6 

Total 24 

Disposition: 

Discharged 1 

Pending before trial at close of present year 17 

Ordered deported 

7686°— 14 10 



146 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

After order of deportation: 

Ordered deported 6 

Awaiting deportation at close of previous year 23 

Total 29 

Disposition: 

Escaped 1 

Deported 15 

Awaiting deportation at close of present year 13 

RECAPITULATION OF ALL CASES. 

Arrests 191 

Pending at close of previous year, including those waiting deportation or appeal. . 371 

Total 562 

Disposition: 

Died, escaped, and forfeited bail 12 

Discharged 117 

Deported 165 

Pending at close of present year, including those awaiting deportation 

or appeal 268 

SUMMARY OF ACTION TAKEN IN THE CASES OF CHINESE ARRESTED, FISCAL YEAR 
ENDED JUNE 30, 1913, BY MONTHS. 








>> 

"3 

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m 


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O 


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o 

o 

A 


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12 
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13 
34 


10 

1 

5 
3 


13 
1 
2 
6 


19 


20 


19 


15 


10 
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17 
3 


26 

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17 
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27 


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5 

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8 


191 




12 




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8 


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22 


17 
3 


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16 


117 




165 







REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 147 

Table 7. — Chinese Arrested and Deported, Fiscal Years Ended June 30, 1909- 
1913, by Judicial Districts. 





1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Judicial district. 


Arrests. 


Deporta- 
tions. 


Arrests. 


Deporta- 
tions. 


Arrests. 


Deporta- 
tions. 


Arrests. 


Deporta- 
tions. 


Vermont 




1 






4 
























1 




4 
1 
58 
20 
3 
5 


1 


6 




2 












Northern New York 


36 
5 


15 
3 

6 


12 
5 

1 
1 


13 
27 

6 
10 

5 


24 

17 
4 

7 


2 

18 
2 
8 


5 

12 

1 


Eastern New York 


4 
1 
2 
1 
1 
8 
4 
6 
1 
2 












1 








3 
























2 

1 


1 
1 


6 
1 
1 


2 




3 

2 
2 


2 




1 


District of Columbia 






South Carolina 












Eastern Virginia 






3 








Northern Georgia 


1 












Southern Florida 






1 








Middle Alabama 


























1 
1 














1 
4 


1 






1 




8 


6 




1 
1 








1 

2 




2 








2 








Middle Tennessee 










1 
3 
1 
1 
10 




Northern Ohio 


1 




1 
1 




2 
1 
2 
43 
2 
7 




2 


Southern Ohio 










Indiana 












Northern Illinois 


22 


1 


27 
1 
2 
1 


13 
1 


7 


22 








3 

21 
7 
1 
1 


2 

6 


5 
1 


1 
1 
5 














6 
















Eastern Wisconsin 




















1 
1 
1 

8 
3 
1 












South Dakota 


















7 


7 








3 


1 




4 




1 
1 




Idaho 


13 


7 


2 

1 






1 
































1 






5 

8 
8 


1 
4 
2 


1 
5 
1 










Western Washington 


7 
2 


7 
5 


8 
4 


5 


2 
1 






Utah 


1 
29 
19 
1 
302 
93 
32 
18 












6 
42 
33 


3 


Northern California 

Southern California 


13 

20 


23 

172 

1 

85 

56 

8 

4 


13 

135 

1 

74 
65 
9 
3 


49 

170 


25 

120 


27 
57 




349 
73 
29 
18 


52 
23 

19 


49 
27 
20 


10 
3 

4 


11 




6 


Northern Texas 


3 








6 

137 


6 
69 






Western Texas 


272 


226 

1 

1 

25 


157 


168 


10 


6 








3 

30 
















8 


5 


2 




1 
2 


























Total 


977 


825 


669 


522 


616 


397 


191 


165 







148 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table 8. — Miscellaneous Chinese Transactions, by Ports, Fiscal Year Ended 

June 30, 1913. 



Class. 


San 
Fran- 
cisco, 

Cal. 


Se- 
attle, 
Wash. 


Hono- 
lulu, 
Ha- 
waii. 


Mon- 
treal, 
Can- 
ada. 


Van- 
cou- 
ver, 
B.C. 


New 
York, 
N.Y. 


Mex- 
ican 
bor- 
der. 


New 
Or- 
leans, 
La. 


Balti- 
more, 
Md. 


Phil- 
adel- 
phia, 
Pa. 


To- 
tal. 


United States citizens (Chinese) 


1,372 

2,012 

170 

966 

128 
620 

81 
346 
723 

11 

1 

875 


318 

859 

61 

2 


296 
402 
81 


3 

7 
9 

587 

23 


172 
171 
34 


2 
31 
14 

373 

7 

22 

1 


6 
5 
3 

216 
2 




7 




2,176 


Alien Chinese admitted 


3,487 




6 

124 

30 
30 


4 


2 


384 


Chinese granted the privilege of 
transit in bond across land ter- 
ritory of the United States 

Chinese denied the privilege of 
transit in bond across land tsr- 
ritory of the United States 


2,268 






188 


Chinese granted the privilege of 


2 








676 


Chinese denied the privilege of 












82 


Chinese laborers with return cer- 


349 

250 

10 

2 

267 


271 

56 

1 

5 

44 


1 
3 


98 

49 

4 










1,064 


Chinese merchants with return 


o 


1 








1,080 


Chinese students with return cer- 








31 


Chinese teachers with return cer- 


I 






8 


Native-born Chinese with return 


1 


134 


1 


1 








1,323 













APPENDIX II 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF 
THE DIVISION OF INFORMATION 

FOR THE 

FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1913 



149 



REPORT 

OF THE 

CHIEF OF THE DIVISION OF INFORMATION. 



Department of Labor, 
Bureau of Immigration, 
Division of Information, 

Washington, July 1, 1913. 

Herewith is submitted the annual report of the Division of Infor- 
mation for the year ended June 30, 1913. 

As in former years, tables are presented showing a part of the 
activities of the division. They give the number applying in person 
for information, the number directed to opportunities, the callings of 
those applying, together with their races and the States to which they 
were directed. 

Table I deals with those applying directly at the branches of 
the division. As in former years many applicants stated that they 
represented groups all the members of which could not find it con- 
venient to call in person. 

While these tables do not deal with those applying by mail for 
information concerning the purchase, rental, or character of lands, 
the number so applying is considerable and constantly increasing. 
Such correspondence is turned over to the State, or group of States, 
concerning which inquiry is made and the writers so informed. They 
are also supplied with the division's bulletin of Agricultural Oppor- 
tunities which relates to the locality indicated by the correspondent. 

In this connection it is worthy of mention, and consideration also, 
that correspondence received from residents of Euporean countries 
indicate a growing desire to know more about the opportunities for 
the agriculturist in the United States. Those who write for them- 
selves and in behalf of groups of their fellow countrymen are, appar- 
ently, of an exceptionally industrious class. In nearly every instance 
they are men who own theirf arms, but wish to dispose of them, migrate 
to and invest in farm lands in the United States. As a rule the 
writers express a preference for some particular State, group of 
States, or locality near good markets. They also indicate what 
kind of crops they have been accustomed to growing. They state 
explicitly that they wish to migrate to the United States to engage 
in agriculture, the amount of capital they possess, and how well 
equipped they are to prosecute the work in this country. Under 
existing law no encouragement can be extended to those residing 
abroad to come to the United States for the purpose indicated, but 
their letters are referred to the officials of the States most likely to 
offer the inducements they seek. These inquiries come principally 
from Germans, Hollanders, Poles, and Belgians. The writers 
possess means, the fruit of agriculture, and should prove desirable 

151 



152 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

acquisitions to the rural population of this country. In all probabil- 
ity such people will migrate anyway, and it would be far better to 
direct them to the place and the kind of land they desire than have 
them waste time and means in seeking the proper locality after 
landing here. The following is a translation of a letter received in 
May from Piotrowska, Russia Poland : 

We take the liberty of writing to you for information in regard to farm lands which 
we wish to purchase for cash in the United States of America. There will be about 
207 prospective settlers who would be ready to start to emigrate to America, North or 
South, in next fall. We would like to know the laws governing settlers of foreign 
birth. Also we would like to get information as to the kind of land there is for sale, 
where, price per acre, whether for cash or installment plans. Please give us the prices 
in dollars and rubles. We would also like to know whether the section of the country 
where the land is for sale is inhabited. The majority of us would like to buy land and 
own it. * * * We would also like to know whether there is any difficulty of hiring 
farm hands and what the current wages are. 

If the officials of the various States have given the required infor- 
mation as suggested by the division, it is probable this country will be 
the gainer, for those who are far-seeing enough to settle the question 
of where the right kind of land may be had before migrating will 
undoubtedly make good farmers and citizens. 

Others writing from foreign countries state, among other things, 
what capital they possess. A resident of Bavaria writes that he has 
8,000 marks ($1,904) with which to buy land here.^ 

It appears that the bulletins of the division, which dwell briefly 
on the agricultural opportunities of the United States, have found 
their way to agriculturists in Europe, and as a result 1>he advantages 
of farm life in the United States are being considered abroad. 

Reference to Table I will show that among foreigners the Germans 
lead all others in applying for information, 2,411 having applied in 
person. The Poles come next, with 2,268 applicants. Spain fur- 
nishes 1, 125, while Swedish applicants number 1,306. Information was 
given to 2,552 native-born citizens of the United States. Many of 
these, as in former years, represented groups of men who could not 
apply in person. The number of naturalized citizens applying was 
534, makmg a total of 3,086 citizens who sought the aid of the 
division in obtaining information concerning agricultural or common- 
labor opportunities. 

Among those who went direct to places indicated by the division, 
the Polish and German are in the lead among foreigners, but American 
citizens furnish the largest number of those directly benefited. See 
Table III. 

It is gratifying to be able to say that the number of complaints 
received from those directed by the division was less than in former 
years, and in each case the cause was traced and a satisfactory remedy 
applied. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 158 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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160 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

It is the opinion of the Division of Information that on July 1, 
the date of this report, no man, able and willing to work, need be out 
of employment in the United States, for the demand for farm labor- 
ers, common laborers, and other kinds of workers was much more in 
evidence than the supply. 

It happens every year, however, and at various times during the 
year, that men of a given calling are idle in one locality while work- 
men of that calling are needed elsewhere. This is due to two causes: 
Lack of information among the idle workingmen and the employers 
who need them, and lack of means to defray transportation expenses 
in getting from the place of idleness to a place of employment. 

One of the best means of "promoting a beneficial distribution of 
admitted aliens" would be to keep American workmgmen constantly 
and profitably employed. By promptly notifying men who are 
thrown out of work where it may be had, the opportunities for the 
alien are increased and his presence in this country need not be 
regarded as a menace to American workingmen. 

In 1882, when what is now called the new immigration was on its 
initial move to the United States, the statement was made that the 
unemployed in this country numbered 2,000,000. Each year since 
then that same number of unemployed is given as current. These 
figures tell little and explain nothing. They are unreliable and at 
best only guesswork. 

No real, intelligent effort has ever been made to ascertain the num- 
ber out of work and the causes of unemployment. This can and 
should be done. It can be made possible for the Division of Informa- 
tion to state at any time the number of unemployed, and where they 
are unemployed; also the number that may obtain employment, and 
where it may be had throughout the United States. 

The Government does excellent work in indicating to manufac- 
turers where they may find markets for the finished product. The 
Government has not as yet undertaken the much easier and equally 
as important task of providing the manufacturers' partner in pro- 
duction — the workman — with information which may keep him 
steadily employed. 

The promotion of a beneficial "distribution of admitted aliens" is 
not, as many believe, solely in the interest of the aliens. It would 
not be beneficial to the United States to have any considerable num- 
ber of the aliens who are admitted remain in idleness or sell their 
\abor in ruinous competition with American workingmen. The 
Division of Information is in no way responsible for the presence of 
the alien in this country, for, up to the hour of landing, the division 
can have no dealings with him; but after he lands he should not be 
permitted to wrong himself and others through ignorance of oppor- 
tunities about which he can know nothing, but which could be made 
known to him on landing and afterwards, when he will be in a more 
receptive mood than when, anxious and worried, he is passing 
examination for admission. 

Thousands of immigrants go at once, on being admitted, to locali- 
ties where their labor is not in demand and have to remain indefi- 
nitely awaiting employment. Even if not educated in our language 
or their own, they are surely intelligent, and it would be a reflection 
on that intelligence to attribute their remaining idle in one place to 
being at work in another to choice or a previous knowledge of exist- 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 161 

ing conditions. It came under the personal observation of the chief 
of this division that a number of aliens passing through Ellis Island 
were destined to a certain locality in Pennsylvania where they could 
not obtain employment without displacing others. Such as these 
furnish a supply for the labor agent, the employment agent, and the 
padrone to direct later on, and it is a well-known fact that many of 
these, through collusion with corporation foremen, practically sell the 
same workmen over and over again for a fee of $1 or $2 a head. This 
can not be other than detrimental to American labor. 

EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES. 

The Division of Information believes that every private employ- 
ment agency, every agent for a corporation, and every other person 
directing men to employment across State lines, should be subject to 
the supervision of this division. 

A Federal Weather Bureau, receiving its information from many 
sources throughout the world, is enabled to inform the inhabitants 
of the United States of coming storms and other changes in the 
weather. The work of the Weather Bureau was not deemed neces- 
sary at first and not appreciated until long after that bureau was in 
operation. It is just as important to all the people of the United 
States, and more especially the working people, that changes or 
coming changes in industrial life should be speedily and accurately 
recorded. 

BRANCHES OF THE DIVISION. 

The division wishes to commend the New York branch for the 
effective and practical manner in which not only admitted aliens and 
other residents are directed to opportunities for employment, but 
also for the assistance it thus renders employers of agricultural and 
common laborers hi obtaining necessary additional help. Before this 
report goes to press the New York branch of the division will have 
moved to quarters in the new United States Barge Office, Battery 
Park, near South Ferry, New York City, and it is believed that the 
facilities afforded by the new location will increase the usefulness and 
efficiency of that office. 

There should be a branch of the Division of Information in every 
industrial center in the United States. Through cooperation with 
the Post Office Department this can be successfully done and without 
great expense. 

The Division of Information can at the present time, through the 
assistance rendered by the Post Office Department, state the labor 
requirements of the farmers of the United States. A system of postal- 
card inquiry, inaugurated some years ago, enables the division to 
keep in touch with agriculturists, and details of their wants may be 
made known to applicants for positions on farms. 

CITIES AND TOWNS. 

In each city and town of sufficient population to maintain a post 

office a daily registration of those out of work should be made withou t 

expense to the unemployed. Registration should consist of such detail 

as to enable an employer to make selection. Employers in need of 

7686°— 14 11 



162 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

workmen could register their needs at the same place. By this means 
and part of the time of a single clerk in the post offices, the tide of the 
unemployed could be turned toward places of employment. 

A classified list of names of unemployed workmen, giving occupa- 
tions and such other details as might be necessary, exhibited for pub- 
lic inspection at the post office, would enable the employer to secure 
help and also give employed workmen an opportunity of notifying 
idle men of opportunities for employment. The unemployed could 
in this way first advertise his need in his own locality, then have a 
record sent on to a State information bureau and also to the Division 
of Information of the Bureau of Immigration. 

Through the cooperation of labor unions and brotherhoods the 
danger of directing men to points where strikes or lockouts might be in 
progress or contemplation would be obviated, and these organizations 
could materially assist in furnishing accurate information concerning 
unemployment of others as well as of their own members. 

NEW INDUSTRIES. 

At present when a new industry or enterprise is about to begin 
operations advertisements appear in the papers of different cities 
stating the number and kind of workmen required. It frequently 
happens, and this division has had abundant evidence of it, that more 
than double the number of men advertised for apply. Many of these 
give up employment and at much expense travel to the place indicated, 
only to be disappointed in not securing work and to find themse^es 
financially embarrassed as well. All this can be avoided by a proper 
system of registration and notification. 

The details of the plan above referred to can be worked out in a 
short time and, when perfected, it will be possible to prevent any 
considerable number of men remaining idle for any great length of 
time in any part of the United States. 

Employers throughout the United States are supplied through 
labor agencies with information concerning the laying off or dismissal 
of workmen in then lines of business. Business foresight appears 
to require this. Those in need of workmen know from day to day 
where men of the class they require are out of work. Workingmen 
who lose their positions through dull times in one locality have no 
ready means of ascertaining, without loss of time and money, just 
where they may be needed. The plan herein suggested will change 
this. 

PREPAID TICKETS. 

The sending of money abroad to defray the expenses of aliens 
emigrating from Europe and the prepaid ticket are responsible for 
much of the crowding of already overpopulated industrial centers. 

Though difficult of proof, the charge has been made that labor 
agents enlist the aid of aliens in this country to induce the coming 
of relatives, or alleged relatives, to the United States, and in this 
way endeavor to evade the immigration laws. 

The sending of money and prepaid tickets should be subject to 
Federal supervision. Where the end in view is legitimate no harm 
may follow the sending of money or prepaid tickets. Where a doubt 
exists, the sender may prove to be a violator of the immigration laws. 



BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 163 

With the record of money advanced and prepaid tickets filed with 
the Bureau of Immigration, and the destination of intending immi- 
grants known, it will be an easy matter for the Division of Information 
to tell what conditions exist in the place designated, and the attention 
of the aliens directed to other points if deemed best. 

BULLETINS OF THE DIVISION. 

Tire work of translating the bulletins into foreign languages 
progresses slowly, owing^ to lack of sufficient appropriation, to pay 
for the work. These bulletins are growing in favor, but the demand 
for their publication in many languages can not readily be complied 
with for the reason stated. The Polish edition is nearly ready. 
Inquiries for it are numerous and becoming more so. 

When these bulletins in foreign languages are ready for distribution 
they should be read to immigrants aboard ship en route to the United 
States. They may be the means of turning many agriculturists 
toward the land and away from crowded centers. 

It is a well-authenticated fact that hundreds of thousands of immi- 
grants were farmers in Europe; it is natural to suppose that they 
would prefer following agriculture hi the United States. Two causes 
combine to prevent this. One is lack of funds, the other lack of infor- 
mation concerning the agricultural possibilities of this country. That 
immigrants come here with their pockets bursting with money is a 
fallacy. They are driven here, in the main, by economic necessity, 
and their capital is a combination of ambition, muscle, and hope. 
All three are good, but not sufficient to make a farm productive. To 
educate them as quickly as possible in the ways of this country and 
as to its superiority over others in its agricultural opportunities would 
seem to be the part of wisdom, if not of necessity. The work of 
reclaiming our immigration and turning its attention to the land 
can not be done in a day or a year, but it can and should be done. 
One great cause of the high cost of living, so much complained of, is 
the drift from farm to city. To increase the number of producers of 
foodstuffs and keep the stream of idle city workers at low ebb by 
properly directing them to employment is the sanest and best way 
of solving the high-priced food problem. 

Men who were farmers in Europe and save their earnings with 
which to buy land would more willingly buy cheap, productive land 
in the United States than high-priced land elsewhere, and to the end 
that they may invest their savings in land here they should be fully 
and frequently informed of what the various States have to offer to 
one in earnest in his desire to till the soil for a livelihood. With a 
branch of the division in each industrial center, always open and 
ready to impart information, it is probable that the greater part of 
the vast amount of money taken abroad each year by aliens returning 
to Europe would be invested in land in the United States. 

The port of entry is not the only place to tell the alien about the 
United States. Every industrial center should have its representative 
of this division prepared to tell alien and citizen the things they do not 
know about farm life in this country. 

Many men who came to the United States with but little money 
and who were directed to the land as farm laborers by this division 



164 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

have invested their savings in American land and now own or are 
paying for farms of their own. The man who lacks capital, but who 
knows how, will often succeed where the man who has plenty of 
money to invest may fail because he does not know how. 

FARM TESTING STATIONS. 

The tendency of American life is away from the farm. The first 
object the immigrant's eyes focus on is the skyscraper, the many- 
storied factory, or the coal mine. Nothing to indicate that agri- 
culture is carried on here is disclosed to the immigrant on landing. 
The Chief of the Division of Information has for years entertained 
the opinion that no immigrant whose occupation is shown by the 
manifest to be a farmer or farm laborer should be allowed to pass final 
examination inside of a week after arrival and that during his stay he 
should be required to demonstrate his ability to work on a trial farm 
to be stationed near the immigrant station. Such a plan, fully 
worked out in detail, would serve a double purpose — test the immi- 
grant's industrial fitness and enable him to learn something about the 
United States, for each evening should be devoted to giving lantern- 
slide lectures on subjects which would educate the new arrival and 
stimulate the desire to become the owner of "a piece of land." 

The information gathered by this division pertaining to agricultural 
opportunities could be given these probationers at our gates. 

A DIVISION OF GENERAL INFORMATION. 

Inquiries come to the Division of Information on every conceivable 
subject. They come from all parts of the country and are of such 
importance to the writers, who are entitled to the information they 
seeK, that they should receive full consideration and prompt attention. 

People residing away from Washington are unfamiliar with the 
official titles of the many divisions, bureaus, offices, and departments, 
and the respective scope and duties of each, and do not know therefore 
just which one should act upon the matters submitted by them. 
Owing to its title, they naturally infer that ours is a divisionof general 
information. Knowing where each inquiry may obtain proper 
attention and reply, this division forwards the letter to the place 
where the citizen may secure the information he seeks. The division 
performs this service now as a matter of necessity because the work 
is forced on it, due to its designation as a division of information. 
It is therefore suggested that the title of this division be changed to 
Division of General Information, its scope and duties enlarged as 
suggested in the foregoing, and publicity given to the fact that 
inquiries may be addressed to it on general matters as well as on the 
subjects with which it deals at present. 

Respectfully, T. V. Powderly, 

Chief of Division. 

Hon. A. Caminetti, 

Commissioner General of Immigration. 



APPENDIX III 

REPORTS OF COMMISSIONERS AND 

INSPECTORS IN CHARGE OF 

DISTRICTS 



165 



REPORTS OF COMMISSIONERS AND INSPECTORS IN CHARGE 

OF DISTRICTS. 



REPORT OF UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION FOR 
CANADA, IN CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 1, COMPRISING ALL CANA- 
DIAN SEAPORTS AND THE ENTIRE CANADIAN BORDER. 

As in previous reports of like character, the aliens examined have been so classified 
as to show at a glance the character of immigration being received via Canada. 

Class A. Aliens manifested on board steamships and examined at ports of 
arrival under the immigration laws of the United States: 

Number examined at Canadian Atlantic seaports 47, 647 

Number examined at Canadian Pacific seaports 916 

Total 48, 563 

Percentage debarred at Atlantic seaports, 0.70. 
Percentage debarred at Pacific seaports, 0.00. 
Causes for exclusion : 

Feeble-minded 6 

Insane 2 

Tuberculosis 1 

Trachoma 18 

Favus 1 

Other dangerous contagious diseases 6 

Likely to become public charges 105 

Surgeon's certificate 60 

Contract laborers 62 

Accompanying aliens 8 

Under 16 years 29 

Assisted aliens 

Criminals 17 

Prostitutes 10 

Procurers 8 

Total 333 

Class B. Aliens coming originally to Canada and who sought entry to the 
United States within 1 year from date of arrival: 

Total number examined 14, 132 

Total number debarred 895 . 

Percentage debarred, 6.33. 
Class C. Aliens who entered Canada via United States ports and aliens from 
the United States who sought reentry thereto within 1 year: 

Total number examined 16, 304 

Total number debarred 878 

Percentage debarred, 5.37. 
Class CO Aliens claiming residence of more than 1 year in Canada, but who 
were unable to give satisfactory proof thereof: 

Total number examined 2, 666 

Total number debarred 209 

Percentage debarred, 7.84. 

167 



168 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Class D. Aliens who applied for admission to the United States after a resi- 
dence of more than 1 year in Canada, the transportation companies being 
exempt from payment of head tax as to this class: 

Total number examined 11, 311 

Total number debarred 804 

Percentage debarred, 7.11. 
Class E. Citizens of Canada entering the United States for permanent resi- 
dence: 

Total number examined 44, 701 

Total number debarred 1, 936 

Percentage debarred, 4.33. 
Aliens debarred at border stations, but not included in above figures, who 

applied for admission to the United States for a temporary sojourn 499 

Total number examined at border stations 89, G13 

Causes for exclusion: 

Idiots. 8 

Imbeciles 13 

Feeble-minded 35 

Epileptics 12 

Insane 53 

Tuberculosis 80 

Trachoma 440 

Favus 3 

Other dangerous contagious diseases 65 

Professional beggars 5 

Paupers 5 

Likely to become public charges 3, 035 

Surgeon's certificate 127 

Contract laborers 405 

Accompanying aliens (sec. 11) 63 

Under 16 years 169 

Assisted aliens 121 

Criminals 228 

Polygamists 5 

Anarchists 2 

Prostitutes, etc 186 

Procurers, etc 144 

Receiving proceeds of prostitution 6 

Passport provision, section 1 11 

Total 5,221 

Chinese examined 838 

Number debarred ' 58 

Percentage debarred, 6.92. 

For the year covered by this report 2,008 aliens were refused examination owing to 
nonreceipt of guaranty of payment of head tax. There were also 1,161 returned 
from the border for board of special inquiry hearing who failed to present themselves 

for such examination, and these two classes may very properly be added to the number 
debarred. 

Grand total of border class debarred 8, 448 

Percentage debarred, 9.02. 

Grand total examined 142, 183 

Grand total debarred 8, 781 

Percentage of grand total debarred, 6.17. 

Number of United States citizens returning after residence in Canada 54, 497 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 169 

For handy comparison of immigration to Canada with the records of immigration 
to our own country, the following table is appended through the courtesy of Bon. 
W. D. Scott, superintendent of immigration. Ottawa. Canada: 

Total Immigration* to Canada from all Sources. Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 

1913. by Months. 



Year and month. 



July 

August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December.. 



January.. 
February . 
March..'.. 

April 

May 

June 



Total. 



British. 



13,399 
11,824 

13, 189 
10, 166 
6,316 
3,062 



2,634 
3,202 
16,831 
25,566 
31,371 
37,365 



164,928 



Conti- 
nental, etc. 



8,340 

7,734 
7,501 
6,545 
6,006 
4,200 



3,238 
3,574 
13,659 
28,459 
27,517 
24,927 



From 
States. 



12,557 

13,309 
10, 450 
10, 481 

7. 895 

5,763 



5,028 
5,572 
14,611 
19,260 
14.247 
11, 491 



141,700 



130,664 



Total. 



34,296 
32,867 
31, 140 
27, 192 
20, 217 
13,025 



10,900 
12, 348 
45, 101 
73,2S5 
73,138 
63,783 



437,292 



Occupations of Immigrants Admitted into Canada from the United States. 
Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, by Months. 



Year and month. 



Farming 
class. 



Common 
laborers. 



Skilled 
laborers. 



Female 

servants. 



Not 
classified. 



Total. 



1912 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



3,271 
3,694 
2,483 
2,297 
2,138 
1,621 



1,130 
1,607 
6,763 
7,481 
3,860 
3,296 



39,641 



3,566 
4,528 
3,936 
3,750 
2,491 
1, 1S4 



1,044 
1.672 
2,918 
3,798 
3,095 
2,263 



34,245 



3,376 
3,799 
2,027 
2,430 
1,479 
1,687 



1,713 
1,221 
3,166 

4,7S0 
4,225 
3,195 



33,09S 



387 
183 
274 
323 
295 
136 



202 
194 
162 
299 
328 
346 



1,957 
1,105 
1,730 
1,681 
1,492 
1,135 



939 
878 
1,602 
2,902 
2,739 
2,391 



12,557 
13,309 
10, 450 
10, 481 
7,895 
5,763 



5,028 

5.572 
14,611 
19,260 
14,247 
11,491 



20,551 



130, 664 



170 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The following table shows the immigration movement from the United States to 
Canada, and from Canada to the United States, for the last two fiscal years: 



Month. 



Pending from previ- 
ous year 



1911. 

July 

August 

September... 

October 

November. . . 
December 



1912. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Total. 



Canada to the United States. 



United 

States 

citizens. 



2,752 
2,633 
3,176 
4,058 
5,994 
3,680 



2,249 
1,956 
2,486 
3,202 
2,667 
3,464 



38,317 



Canadian 
citizens. 



3,126 
3,705 
3,609 
4,164 
4,039 
2,867 



2,842 
2,723 
3,290 
2,993 
4,236 
3,042 



42,649 



Other 
aliens. 



2,055 
2,968 
2,256 
2,452 
3,160 
2,335 



1,574 
1,527 
1,619 
2,164 
2,280 
2,566 



26,977 



Total. 



7,933 
9,306 
9,041 
10, 674 
13, 193 
8,882 



6,665 
6,206 
7,395 
10,359 
9,183 
9,072 



107,943 



United States to Canada. 



United 

States 

citizens. 



Canadian 
citizens. 



7,055 
11,719 
7,921 
7,414 
5,476 
3,689 



2,830 
3,884 
12,555 
15, 779 
11,317 
8,312 



97,951 



1,656 
1,954 
1,447 
1,396 
1,322 
1,280 



964 
1,179 
1,820 
2,183 
2,894 
19, 991 



3S.0S6 



Other 
aliens. 



2,301 
3,346 
2,116 
1,446 
1,315 
710 



547 
689 
1,877 
3,532 
3,890 
3,445 



25,214 



Total. 



11,012 
17,019 
11,484 
10, 256 
8,113 
5,679 



4,341 
5, 752 
16, 252 
21,494 
18, 101 
13, 748 



143,251 



1913. 



Pending from previ- 
ous year 



1912. 

July 

August 

September... 

October 

November. .. 
December 



1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Total . 



3,735 
3,384 
4,235 
5,619 
7,273 
6,139 



3,139 
3,493 
3,538 
4,496 
4,452 
4,994 



54, 497 



3,042 
3,073 
4,118 
4,641 
4,674 
3,761 



2,975 
2,628 
3,146 
4,903 
4,055 
3,672 



44,701 



20 



2,880 
3,564 
3,727 
4,041 
4,420 
3,678 



2,629 
2,452 
2,726 
3,926 
4,990 
5,360 



44,413 



9,657 
10,021 
12,080 
14,301 
16, 367 
13,578 



8,743 
8,573 
9,410 
13, 325 
13, 497 
14,026 



143,611 



7,553 
8,603 
6,894 
6,886 
5,166 
3,739 



3,235 
3,726 
10,851 

13,847 
9,345 
7,815 



S7.660 



1,902 
1,753 
1,276 
1,511 
1,323 
1,252 



890 
926 
1,690 
2,430 
2,494 
1,832 



19, 279 



3,102 
2,953 
2,280 
2,084 
1,406 
772 



903 
920 
2,070 
2,983 
2,408 
1,844 



23, 725 



12,557 
13,309 
10, 450 
10, 481 

7,895 
5,763 



5,028 

5,572 
14,611 
19, 260 
14,247 
11,491 



130,604 



Note. — Above figures show applications for admission to the United States, but do not include aliens 
arriving at Canadian seaports having United States destinations. 



It will be observed from the foregoing that a total of 142,183 aliens sought entry to 
the United States through and from Canada during the past year, an increase of 98 
per cent at the seaports, of 27 per cent at border ports of entry, and of 42 per cent 
in citizens of the United States who, after residence in Canada, have returned to 
resume residence in their own country. Heavy immigration to North America 
generally, augmented steamship service to Canadian ports by the regular lines, and 
the introduction of a steamship service by the Canadian Pacific and Austro-Americana 
Lines from Mediterranean ports direct to Quebec and Montreal are the principal 
causes for the unusual increase in immigration to the United States via Canadian 
seaports. 

The increase in the number shown to have entered the United States after resi- 
dence in Canada, however, is not so easily accounted for. Reference to the Dominion 
records shows that during our last fiscal year transoceanic immigration to Canada 
totaled 306,628. There has been the suggestion of immigrants coming to Canada in 
unassimilable numbers and of a money stringency in that country retarding develop- 
ment enterprises, thus lessening demand for workmen, but to what extent these 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 171 

alleged conditions have stimulated migration to the United States of aliens previously 
resident in Canada must be left to conjecture. The movement has been neither 
spasmodic nor sectional in character, but has been general throughout the year 
and quite evenly distributed as regards border ports of entry to the United States, 
and it would therefore seem that at least a portion of such influx must be attributed 
to the steady enlargement of steamship service to Canada, bringing, as such service 
no doubt does, many aliens of the roving, prospecting class, who are never satisfied 
to remain in one country until they have tried conditions in the other. 

As to the fitness of aliens arriving at Canadian seaports destined to the United 
States, exclusions for medical reasons amount to but one-fifth of 1 per cent of the 
number examined, while exclusions for other causes represent one-half of 1 per cent 
of such number. From this satisfactory showing it will be seen that the various 
Canadian steamship lines with which our department is in agreement have exercised 
care with regard to the class of immigrants allowed to embark on their steamers. * * * 

The agreement under which we are working (and the ends of good administration 
as well) contemplate that our Government shall at all times supply sufficient help to 
render possible the prompt examination of arriving aliens having United States desti- 
nations, but the fact is that for many months our staff of help at the seaports has been 
inadequate to meet the needs of the situation, and as a consequence at times our 
service has all but broken down. Long hours of duty have almost invariably character- 
ized the inspection at Quebec and Halifax, the officers at these ports on numerous 
occasions having been compelled to work 36 consecutive hours with no period for rest, 
and on account of the mental and physical exhaustion which must result from such a 
strain it is obvious that it has been simply impossible to enforce that careful inspection 
of aliens which the immigration laws and regulations and the interests of our country 
demand. 

From this inadequacy of force still another unfortunate situation has arisen against 
which the steamship lines, arriving aliens, and finally the Dominion Government 
have entered vigorous protest, viz, our inability to examine immigrants promptly 
on arrival. During recent months, owing to the congestion at Quebec, aliens held for 
board of special inquiry hearing have been compelled to undergo detention in the 
crowded hospital for periods of from six to eight days before their cases could be 
heard, and thus for the prompt inspection that should have been accorded arriving 
aliens was substituted what amounted to annoying hardships, which were keenly 
felt, particularly in the cases of women and children, who, wearied from weeks of 
travel from their foreign homes, were anything but prepared cheerfully to endure 
such vexatious delay. 

By the vote of a substantial majority of its Members and with no little enthusiasm, the 
last Congress passed a new immigration bill, which failed to become law only by reason 
of Executive veto. The debates attending passage of the new law left no room for 
doubt that the support given the measure was due almost entirely to new features 
calculated to restrict immigration. When we consider the fact that, owing to lack of 
help and funds, the restrictive features of the present immigration act have not been 
fully taken advantage of for several recent years, present enthusiasm for gr??'rv 
restriction is difficult to comprehend, and as to the desire of Congress further to r:. !. tt 
immigration, the futility of such legislation to that end is obvious unless such lr. . u.3 
enforced, a condition simply unattainable under the present limited-funds pv : :. 

In this connection, alluding to the district under my own control, owing to the 
constant and ever-annoying drawback of inadequate help, it has been an impossibility 
to enforce the immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws and regulations as I believe 
Congress intended they should be enforced. As a result of immigration, Canada is 
now adding to its population (less the number outgoing) at the rate of 450,000 souls 
per year, approximately two-thirds of this influx being from transoceanic countries. 
As our records will show, there are thousands of such aliens constantly seeking access 
to -'the United States, despite any advantages Canada may have to offer. For the 
purpose of our immigration laws, aliens of this class are immigrants precisely as if 
they were landing at New York, and their examination should be as carefully con- 
ducted as at any other point of ingress; but to illustrate how insufficient help and lack 
of funds operate in the inspection of aliens entering the United States along the Cana- 
dian border, I may state that during the eight months subsequent to August, 1912, 
no less than 54,000 passengers entered the United States at one point by ferry, shortage 
of help rendering it impossible to question even one of these aliens as to his status under 
the immigration laws. 

It seems needless to dwell upon the inefficiency of an inspection system whereby 
the Government expends no inconsiderable amount of money to enforce the immi- 
gration laws at one point and at the same time maintains a wide-open door but a short 
distance away. An analogous situation would be presented by the enforcement of 



172 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

proper inspection at the port of J\~ew York, leaving the port of Philadelphia an un- 
guarded gateway for all the aliens who might care to enter. 

As to the importance of strengthening and protecting our border inspection, one 
has but to consult the tables herewith transmitted, which show that practically 9 per 
cent of all aliens seeking entry at the boundary are debarred, whereas at the four 
principal Atlantic seaports of the United States, according to the bureau's records 
for recent years, the number debarred has represented but 1^ per cent of the total 
arrivals. 

Adverting to conditions above described existing at Canadian ocean ports, so far 
as our own service is concerned, it may also be said that there is scarcely an important 
substation on the border where employees are not required to observe hours of duty 
never contemplated in present-day Government service. The department already 
having been the recipient of numerous petitions looking to a termination of such 
practice, and in view of the situation portrayed, it is earnestly hoped that steps may 
be taken to provide such additional help as the constantly growing importance of the 
Canadian border branch of the bureau's service may demand. 

It is gratifying to know that it is the purpose of the new department to contend 
for an Immigration Service that will be efficient throughout, and in this connection 
it is my personal belief that nothing would be more conducive to the strengthening 
and betterment of our inspection work than a radical change in the present policy 
relating to promotions, so that officers of ability who are doing conscientious work 
might be assured that promotions will be made on the basis of merit and length of 
service, and that advancements would not be left to the uncertainties of change in the 
service caused by death, dismissal, resignation, or transfer. It is generally conceded 
that the matter of selecting prospective citizens of the United States at the gateways 
of the Nation is a serious and important work, and that our inspection system should 
aim at the highest possible standard. It would involve no great task, however, to 
show that the present policy with regard to promotions has operated to retard rather 
than to stimulate efficiency; hence my earnest conviction that a change should be 
urged. 

There are at present employed in this district 182 inspectors. As a large majority 
of the inspectors employed are now in the lower-salaried grades, and as the changes 
from those grades must be decidedly more numerous than from the higher grades 
(this condition also holding good as regards interpreters and clerks), it will be seen 
that promotion prospects for those employed in the lower grades are anything but 
encouraging, and it would seem that no further comment is necessary to support my 
contention that the present policy pertaining to promotions does not make for efficiency 
in the service. In most instances appointees enter the Immigration Service having 
in view permanency in such employment, and in justice to such employees, and as 
an incentive to intelligent and conscientious endeavor, it would seem of the greatest 
importance that some plan be devised as to promotions that will eliminate the element 
of doubt and uncertainty, and that will place faithful officers of the bureau in a position 
to determine without longer delay whether or not it is for the interests of themselves 
and the families dependent upon them for support that they continue their connection 
with the Immigration Service. 

The border inspectors have earned special commendation for the important work 
done in the way of preventing violations of the immigration, Chinese, and white- 
slave acts by, in many instances, accomplishing the arrest and prosecution of the 
offenders. The following table gives the number of arrests made, cause for arrest, 
and termination of each case: 

Civil Actions and Prosecutions Concluded during the Fiscal Year Ended 
June 30, 1913 (Other than those Relating to Chinese Cases). 

[Table only includes those where the Government was sustained.] 

NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK. 



Name of defendant. 


Section violated. 


Result. 




3, immigration act 

do 


Pleaded guilty; sentence suspended and defendant 
turned over to military authorities for prosecu- 
tion for desertion. 


George Saunders 




8, immigration act 

do 


Pleaded guilty; fined $50. 




Pleaded guilty; fined $500. 







REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 173 

Civil Actions and Prosecutions Concluded during the Fiscal Year Ended 
June 30, 1913 (Other than those Relating to Chinese Cases) — Contd. 

WESTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK. 



Name of defendant. 



Ilarry Patterson . 



Tomasso Giannacono 

Bernardo Giannacono 

Elmer E. Smith 

George Smith 

Charles Lemontchek 

Juzeffa Derasz 

Frank Charles Ter Reace. 



Nicola Pantaleo. 
Jan Spinalski. . . 

John Mates 



Section violated. 



3, immigration act.. 



do 

do 

8, immigration act 

3, immigration act 

79. Federal Penal Code. 

3, immigration act 

do 



8, immigration act 

3 and 8, immigration 

act. 
do 



Result. 



Pleaded guilty; 9 months Erie County Peniten- 
tiary. 

Forfeited $1,000 bond. 
Do. 

Pleaded guilty; fined $25. 
Do. 

Pleaded guilty; fined $50. 

Pleaded guilty; sentence suspended. 

Pleaded guilty; fined $1 and sentenced to 6 months 
Erie County Penitentiary. 

Pleaded guilty; fined $50. 

Pleaded guilty; sentence suspended. 

Do. 



EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN. 



Emma Foubert 

Edward Hill 

Chas. S. Phillips 

Herbert L. Newcomb. 

Ignate Van Middel 

J. L. Grant 

Stojan Boric 

Gaston Cardinal 

Maxim Motylinska 



Emil Neiriucx 

Chas. H. A. Anderson. 
William Menary 



Sadie Nail or Mall. 



3, immigration act 

White-slave traffic act 

3, Immigration act 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do.. 

.do. 



Pleaded guilty; 2 years Detroit House of Correc- 
tion. 

Pleaded guilty; 2 years Federal Prison, Leaven- 
worth, Kans. 

Pleaded guilty; 9 months Detroit House of Cor- 
rection. 

Convicted; 16 months Federal Prison, Leaven- 
worth, Kans. 

Pleaded guilty; 6 months Detroit House of Cor- 
rection. 

Pleaded guilty; 2 years Federal Prison, Leaven- 
worth, Kans. 

Pleaded guilty; 6 months Detroit House of Cor- 
rection. 

Pleaded guilty; 60 days Detroit House of Correc- 
tion. 

Pleaded guilty; 3 months Detroit House of Cor- 
rection. 
Do. 

Convicted; 4 years Detroit House of Correction. 

Pleaded guilty; 4 months Detroit House of Cor- 
rection. 

Pleaded guilty; 3 months Detroit House of Cor- 
rection. 



WESTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN. 


George Sullivan 


3, immigration act Convicted; 1 year and 6 months Federal Prison, 

Leavenworth, Kans. 


DISTRICT OF MINNESOTA. 




White-slave traffic act. 






Leavenworth, Kans. 


DISTRICT OF VERMONT. 


Charles Anderson 


3, immigration act 


Pleaded guilty; 7 months Chittenden County Jail, 
Burlington * Vt. 




WESTERN DISTRICT OF WASHINGTON. 


Ercole del Grande 


79, Federal Penal Code. 


Pleaded guilty; fined $100. 





174 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Prosecutions Concluded during the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913, for 
Chinese Smuggling, in Violation op Section 8 of the Immigration Act and 
Section 11 of the Chinese Exclusion Act, Handled by Officers in the Mon- 
treal Jurisdiction. 

district of vermont. 



Name. 



Result. 



Charles Buffa 

Yeolande R. Brown (alias 

Q. R. Maggie). 
Bert Smith 



Pleaded guilty; sentenced to 2 months in jail. Judge Martin. 
Convicted on two offenses; sentenced to 2 years' imprisonment in Atlanta 

Penitentiary. Judge Martin. 
Convicted; sentenced to 3 months in jail. Judge Martin. 



EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN. 



George Copp 

Fred O'Neill 

Ovla Latour, alias " Bay 
City" Latour. 

John Geiser 

Harry Freeman 

William Anderson 

Jack Clydesdale 

Franklin T. Hargrave 

John Humphrey 

Robert Haskins 

Charles Rose 

Jack McGraw, alias Bertrand. 

Edward Dunibrd 

Percy (alias Philip) Deneau. . . 

Ray McLean, alias Lounsbury 
Lee Ah Hoon 

Roy Beckerson 



Convicted; sentenced to pay a fine of $1,000. Judge Sessions. 
Convicted; sentenced to pay a fine of $100; in jail 3 months awaiting trial. 
Judge Sessions. 
Do. 

Convicted ; sentence suspended . Judge Sessions. 
Convicted; sentenced to 6 months in jail. Judge Sessions. 

Do. 
Convicted; sentenced to 6 months' imprisonment with hard labor. Judge 

Sessions. v 

Convicted; sentenced to 13 months' imprisonment at Leavenworth 

Penitentiary. Judge Tuttle. 
Convicted on 2 offences; sentenced to 4 years' imprisonment in Detroit 

House of Correction and to pay fine of $2,000. Judge Tuttle. 
Convicted ; sentence suspended. " Judge Tuttle. 

Do. 
Convicted; sentenced to 5 months' imprisonment in Detroit House of 

Correction. Judge Tuttle. 
Convicted; sentenced to 6 months' imprisonment in Detroit House of 

Correction. Judge Tuttle. 
Convicted; sentenced to 2 years' imprisonment in Detroit House of 

Correctionand to pay SI ,000 fine. Judge Tuttle. 
Do. 
Convicted; sentenced to 1 year's imprisonment and to pay $1,000 fine; 

jail sentence suspended upon payment of fine. Judge Tuttle. 
Convicted; sentence suspended. Judge Tuttle. 



Prosecutions for Chinese Smuggling Pending at Close of Fiscal Year, 

June 30, 1913. 



Northern New York. 
Eastern Michigan 



7 

6 

The foregoing table is not, of course, intended to represent all the smuggling with 
which our officers have had to contend, for in many instances aliens who set out to 
effect unlawful entry to the United States proceeded upon their own initiative and 
without leaders, in which event, when arrests were made, deportation, not prosecution, 
was the result. 

In this connection, along practically the entire northern border officers of the bureau 
meet with much trouble in arranging for the temporary detention of aliens who sur- 
reptitiously enter the country pending receipt of department warrant authorizing 
arrest. The only aid at all available is derived from local police officers, who * * * 
arrange for the temporary commitment of such aliens to local jails. It may be said, 
however, that in most instances such assistance to our service is_ rendered with re- 
luctance through fear of legal complications, and as the matter is one of a strictly 
Federal character, it would seem that our department's officers should be relieved 
of the necessity of constantly calling upon sheriffs and police officers to assist in the 
detention of aliens whose examination by immigration officials is surely contemplated 
under the present immigration law, and for whose temporary detention pending 
receipt of warrant the authority should be made clear and unequivocal in any new 
immigration legislation that may be enacted. The heavier the immigration to 
Canada, the greater need for an amendment to our law such as is suggested in the 
foregoing, and it is earnestly hoped that the bureau may be pleased to urge adoption 
of the change recommended. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 175 

Of the warrants of arrest issued by the department during the past fiscal year, 
officers in this district served no less than 848, and the aliens involved were disposed 
of as follows: 

Pending July 1, 1912 178 

Reported during year 966 

Total 1, 144 

Deported from United States ports 285 

Deported from Canadian ports 78 

Deported to Canada 208 

Warrants canceled 235 

Pending June 30, 1913 220 

Deported by other districts to Canada 118 

Total 1,144 

Of the foregoing, 253 male and 110 female aliens were deported to trans-Atlantic 
countries for the following causes: 

Insane 84 

Public charges 134 

Criminals 49 

Entered without inspection 20 

Prostitutes 51 

Procurers 25 

Total 363 

Divided as to occupations, our records show the following: 

Laborers 217 

Domestics 75 

Mechanics 8 

Professional 10 

Not given 41 

Clerks 8 

Prostitutes 4 

Total 363 

LITERACY. 

Can read and write 250 

Can not read or write 105 

No record 8 

Total 363 

These figures indicate but meagerly the Government funds expended and the time 
spent by our officers in investigations, travel, and handling of clerical work which 
execution of the above-mentioned warrants involved, all of such expense and labor, 
to my mind, constituting unassailable support of the contention that our inspection 
of aliens at tune of entry to the country is not what it should be. Economically, 
it seems far from good management to * * * admit aliens at the ports only later 
to expel them at heavy expense and with increased hardship. * * * 

During the past year 433 citizens of the United States residing in Canada were 
found to be deportable under Dominion laws, and the following are the causes prompt- 
ing expulsion of these citizens from Canada: 

Criminals 277 

Procurers 7 

Prostitutes 16 

Insane 42 

Public charges 85 

Illegal entry 2 

"Industrial Workers of the World " 4 

Total 433 



176 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Regarding citizens of our own country who are ordered deported from Canada, and 
who are helpless because of physical or mental defects, and arranging for their proper 
care in the United States constitutes one of the most difficult problems that this office 
has to deal with. Frequently cases are presented where the dependent has been 
absent for many years from the State of which once a citizen, affording basis for the 
claim by the particular State that citizenship has been relinquished, no settled resi- 
dence in any State having subsequently been acquired. As a citizen of the United 
States, deportation within the period prescribed by the Canadian act must be assented 
to, and a suitable institution to which to return such dependent must be found, in 
which quest it may be taken for granted no encouragement or aid is received from 
any State in the United States, the practice being, regardless of how many different 
States the dependent may have.resided in before crossing into Canada, for each State 
to vie with the other in disclaiming or shirking all responsibility with regard to any 
such dependent. 

The question may be asked, Is this really an immigration matter? Possibly not, 
but it devolves upon immigration officers to pass upon the question of citizenship, 
and in cases of insanity, illness, and infancy, protection to helpless citizens precludes 
desertion of such dependents immediately upon their reaching United States terri- 
tory, hence necessity for an investigation in each instance which will show the actual 
State and county to which the dependent should be delivered. 

From previous figures it will be observed that 32G citizens of Canada were deported 
from the United States during the fiscal year just past, our deportation orders being 
enforced only after the Canadian authorities, as the result of investigation, had assented 
thereto. The following shows the causes for deportation and the occupations of those 
deported : 

Criminals 58 

Procurers 25 

Prostitutes 81 

Insane 49 

Public charges 92 

Entered without inspection 21 

Total 326 

Laborers 132 

Domestics 90 

Mechanics 2 

Professional 10 

Not given .- 68 

Clerks 15 

Prostitutes 9 



Total 326 

LITERACY. 

Can read and write 247 

Can not read or write 44 

No record 35 



Total 326 

THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE CHINESE-EXCLUSION LAWS. 

As to the conditions outlined in the foregoing with regard to regular immigration, 
their counterpart is found in connection with our efforts to enforce the Chinese exclu- 
sion laws along the northern border. 

During the twelve months ending June 30, 1913, 8,122 Chinese entered Canada. 
Of this number 7,760 were admitted upon payment of the $500 capitation tax; the 
remainder entered as members of the exempt classes named in the Dominion act 
relating to Chinese. The Dominion census of 1911 shows a Chinese population of 
27,000. In the past three years 23,866 Chinese have been admitted to Canada, 18,809 
being taxable, and yielding a revenue of more than nine millions to the Dominion 
Government. No one familiar with the line of employment followed by the Chinese 
would be likely to maintain that this large number of Chinese found ready and profit- 
able employment in Canada. The fact is, in their determination to get into the United 
States in defiance of law, Canada is but a vantage ground for the Chinese; and, as 
thousands effect entry to Canada yearly, it is obvious that in its efforts to enforce the 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 177 

exclusion laws along the Canadian border, the bureau has on its hands a task of gigantic 
proportions, demanding very serious consideration. 

Referring to Chinese who are admitted to Canada, it has often been facetiously 
remarked that "Canada gets the head tax and the United States gets the Chinese." 
At the present rate of admissions to Canada and on account of inadequate help in our 
service to check the operations of the smugglers, I feel we may reasonably expect a 
more disquieting verification of the above-quoted saying than has ever manifested 
itself in the past. The operations of the smugglers now involve the use of fast motor 
boats, high-power automobiles, and bonded freight cars, to cope with which means 
of smuggling, officers especially fitted for the work should be provided, for, while the 
bureau is already maintaining quite a numerous force of help in this district, it is of 
course well known that there are less than a half-dozen officers whose entire time is 
devoted to enforcement of the Chinese exclusion laws, the efforts of other inspectors 
being necessarily devoted to the inspection of aliens coming within the terms of our 
immigration laws who seek entry to the United States in a lawful manner. 

Until the Dominion Government regulates the introduction of Chinese into Canada 
by the adoption of laws more restrictive in character than those now in use, the above 
described will be the conditions with which our Government will have to deal along 
our northern border, and, if it be the intention of the department to render thoroughly 
effective our Chinese-exclusion laws, then additional inspectors and a more generous 
allotment of funds for this work are a necessity. 

EXAMINATION OF CHINESE AT VANCOUVER. 

June 30, 1913, ended the second statistical year of enforcement of the exclusion 
laws under an agreement entered into between the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. 
and the United States Government, whereby all Chinese from the Orient destined 
to the United States via Canadian border ports arriving on said transportation com- 
pany's steamers are inspected by United States officers at Vancouver, British Colum- 
bia, instead of, as formerly, at the eastern border ports and later at Boston, Mass. 

As conditions at Vancouver have continued very much the same (except for a slight 
decrease in the number of applicants) as during the previous year, and as the practical 
working of the law was covered in the report of last year, it is not deemed necessary 
to enter now into a further discussion thereof. The methods employed in handling 
Chinese applicants at Vancouver differ very little, if any, from those employed at 
Chinese ports of entry in the United States, and all rights and privileges there accorded 
them can be taken advantage of at the former port. As during the previous year, no 
Chinese found inadmissible to the United States by our officers at Vancouver have 
been allowed by the Canadian Government to resort to payment of the $500 head tax 
and thereby secure admission to Canada, from which country surreptitious entry could 
later be made into the United States; neither have the requirements of the law as to 
deportation failed of enforcement in respect of Chinese who, after exhausting their 
rights before the department, were of the class to be returned to the country whence 
they came. 

While there has been a small decrease in the number of Chinese applying for admis- 
sion at Vancouver during the last year, when compared with the previous year, a 
large proportion of the same appears in the so-called "son cases." In my previous 
report comment was made upon the large number of "sons" applying for admission, 
it being felt at that time that this condition was due to the fact that Vancouver was 
a newly organized port and interested parties were taking advantage of that fact. 
The decrease in this class of cases has tended to prove that our suspicions were correct, 
as it would now seem that no special effort is being made to divert this class of immi- 
gration to the above port, it having been found that the inspection there is no less 
rigid than at the ports in the United States. 

Somewhat of an increase will be noted in the number of Chinese women applying 
for admission. However, after a very careful examination in each case, we were 
satisfied that the claim set forth was bona fide, except in a very few instances when 
denial was entered, but in each case, upon appeal to the department, the applicant 
was allowed to land. There have, though, been several Chinese women deported from 
Vancouver under the immigration law during the past year for the reason that they 
were certified by the medical examiner as being afflicted with a dangerous contagious 
disease. No "raw natives" have been admitted during the past year, and but few 
section 6 applicants have applied. Those of the latter class have all been promptly 
admitted. 

In the handling of Chinese business at Vancouver our officers come into close con- 
tact with those of the Dominion immigration service, and their assistance in con- 

7686°— 14 12 



178 EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

suiting old Canadian records of prior landings of Chinese has on many occasions been 
found of material value to this office, and we have thus been able to furnish officials 
of our service in the United States with information which they would otherwise find 
it difficult to secure. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway Co.'s officials have continued to carry out the terms 
of the agreement made with the Government in all its details, and our relations with 
this company have been most pleasant. This company has recently added to their 
trans-Pacific service two vessels of considerably greater carrying capacity than the 
three now in operation, and there is no doubt that the number of Chinese applicants 
at Vancouver will thereby be increased in the near future. 

******* 

The second year of the existence of Vancouver as a United States port of entry for 
Chinese has only tended further to demonstrate the wisdom of the plan from an 
administrative standpoint and appears to have fully justified the arrangement. 

******* 

John H. Clark, 

Commissioner. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION AT BOSTON, IN CHARGE 
OF DISTRICT NO. 2, COMPRISING THE NEW ENGLAND STATES. 

The annual report of the New England district for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1913, is the record of a district containing, in respect to volume of immigration, the 
second, fifth, and sixth ports of the United States. The total inward passenger 
movement, aggregating 119,811, represents an increase of 45 per cent over the pre- 
ceding year, while an increase of 50 per cent is denoted by the total of 100,585 in 
relation to alien passengers. Appended to this report, also, are the usual statistical 
statements showing, among other matters, the year's record of penalties incurred by 
steamship companies under section 9 and an account of aliens landed under the pro- 
visions of sections 19 and 37 for hospital treatment. The report of the Chinese divi- 
sion follows in due course. 

IMMIGRATION STATIONS. 

The problem of conducting the business of the port of Boston in the quarters which 
have been rented during the past 10 years becomes increasingly difficult. These 
quarters form p<trt of the second or top story of a wooden building (sheathed on the 
outside with tin) used for the purposes of a steamship clock. The administrative 
offices, detention rooms, and dormitories, which were prepared for occupancy at con- 
siderable expense to the Government, are mainly of wooden construction. An attempt 
was made to protect the detention quarters by reinforcing the floors and stairways 
with concrete, which, it is believed, might delay materially the progress of a fire. 

The task of keeping the premises in a sanitary condition becomes harder as the 
building ages. With a demand for accommodations which the detention quarters 
were never intended to meet the problem grows complex. We are unprovided with 
conveniences comparable to those afforded second-class passengers on trans- Atlantic 
liners. 

In spite of the fact that the Boston immigration station long since proved inade- 
quate to meet local demands, we are constantly under the necessity of caring for 
detained aliens arriving at the subport of Providence. This is only an additional 
reason for regret, however, that no appreciable progress has been made toward erecting 
a new immigration station on the site purchased at East Boston several years ago 

A modern steamship clock is in process of construction at Providence, which is 
intended to provide suitable facilities for inspection purposes. At present, however, 
the inspection of immigrants is conducted aboard ship under conditions which are 
conducive neither to comfort nor efficiency. 

An earnest attempt was made last winter by the Board of Trade at Portland, Me., 
to secure adequate quarters for detained aliens. It seemed impossible, however, to 
obtain a suitable building for use during the comparatively limited season of immi- 
gration at that subport. Better success is hoped for next year. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 179 
ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION. 

The subject of illegal immigration, with special reference to stowaways and desert- 
ing seamen, was treated at some length last year. The abuses to which reference was 
made continue and doubtless will continue until stopped through effective legislation 
by Congress. 

The number of stowaways discovered this year, totaling 28, is the smallest on record. 
Of these, 7 were Americans and 21 aliens. There is no reason to suppose that the 
number of alien seamen, 636, reported by masters of vessels as deserting duiing the 
year, actually represents the total desertions. A total of 137 seamen presented them- 
selves at this office for inspection, 15 of whom declared their intention to remain 
ashore. 

DETENTIONS. 

Cases brought before the boards of special inquiry at Boston numbered 9,266, or 
about 19 per cent of the total alien arrivals. The number of aliens actually deported, 
397, represents seven-tenths of 1 per cent of the immigrant alien arrivals or six-tenths 
of 1 per cent of the total aliens. 

The nightly average number of occupants in the detention quarters at Boston was 
67, an increase of nearly 50 per cent over the preceding year. The highest average 
for any one month occurred this year, as last, in June. But the average for June, 
1912, was only 88 as compared with 121 for 1913. The month of January shows the 
lowest average in 1913 as well as 1912. 

PUBLIC CHARGES. 

A very important part of our duties consists of the investigation of violations of the 
immigration laws and the expulsion of such aliens as are found, any time within three 
years after landing, to be illegally in the United States. It is clear, however, that a 
proper observance of those sections of the law concerning public charges implies a 
reasonable degree of cooperation among Federal, State, and local authorities. The 
common interests of the community obviously demand the removal of alien criminals 
and public charges to the countries of which they are citizens. But the initial steps 
in the removal process must usually be taken by the local authorities; and it is a 
careless public, indeed, which permits the continuance of the prevailing indifference 
among local officials charged with the care of the delinquent and defective classes. 
The results now achieved in ridding the country of "undesirables" are only a sugges- 
tion of what might be accomplished by efficient coordination of the various govern- 
mental agencies. But even the highest degree of efficiency will be unavailing fairly 
to meet the issue under the handicaps presented by the existing law. The problem 
can never be satisfactorily solved until the law is amended to provide for the expulsion 
of aliens who demonstrate their "undesirability" at any time within five years after 
arrival. 

BOND CASES. 

Enforcement of the provisions of the so-called school bonds, which are sometimes 
accepted to permit the landing of children under 16 years of age unaccompanied by 
parents, is attended with constant friction. Among the provisions of the school bond 
is one specifying the submission of quarterly reports of school attendance until the 
alien reaches the age of 16. Seldom, however, are the reports furnished voluntarily. 
It often becomes necessary to enter into a protracted correspondence with the bonds- 
men or persons responsible for the alien's care. Sometimes an officer is specially 
detailed to investigate the conditions under which the child is living and to ascertain 
whether or not it has been placed at work unsuited to its years. On several occasions 
there has been no alternative to enforcing the conditions of the bond but by deporting 
the alien involved. 

Occasionally a child under 16 years of age unaccompanied by either parent, but 
going to a close relative who satisfies the immigration officers of his trustworthiness, 
is deemed a "meritorious case " and allowed to land without bond. A recent investi- 
gation in a New England mill city, however, of a group of five such cases, demon- 
strates the need of great care in dealing with alien children. In only one of the five 
cases were the conditions found to be satisfactory. Two of the aliens, both girls, were 
at work in the mills; one was serving as a domestic in the home of her relatives, one 
had disappeared altogether and, as was subsequently learned, had proceeded to 
California with relatives shortly after arrival — the New England address being ficti- 
tious; the fifth alien was attending school according to agreement. 



180 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

It would not be difficult to point out abuses in connection with, ordinary public- 
charge bonds which are accepted by the Government to permit landing in certain 
cases of aliens who are decrepit or diseased. It is believed that the new form of bond 
recently adopted, which provides for a limited degree of surveillance in the case of a 
bonded alien during a period of one year after landing, will prove of advantage. 

FIELD INVESTIGATIONS. 

According to the existing method of inspecting arriving immigrants, it is often 
desirable to make a second inspection at the proposed destination. This is particu- 
larly the case in reference to young women, children, and groups of men going to a 
single address. Practical experience demonstrates the need of this second inspection 
also to cover affiants from whom are received affidavits in behalf of immigrants destined 
to remote sections of the country. New England has a large Canadian population and 
at some seasons the demand for investigations of cases of aliens entering the United 
States from Canada is most insistent. Under existing conditions the burden of proof 
in doubtful matters too often is placed upon the Government. Cases of suspected 
contract labor, immorality or other delinquencies, concerning which direct evidence 
is lacking, are perforce landed and, owing to pressure of routine business, may be lost to 
sight. It is believed that a considerable proportion of such aliens are actually in the 
country in violation of law. 

The solution of the problems suggested in the foregoing paragraph may be met by 
the creation of a permanent field force for continuous investigation. The regular 
or routine work of the port must take precedence over outside matters; anr 1 during 
busy seasons of immigration it is entirely impracticable to spare men for special details, 
no matter how great the need. 

CHINESE. 

Investigations of Chinese have been made in 376 cases. Of these 204 were applica- 
tions for return certificates, 71 were applications for entry (on which reports were made 
to other officers in charge), and 101 were miscellaneous investigations. Moreover, it 
was necessary during the year to keep watch over 1,459 Chinese laborers who came 
into the ports of the district as employees of vessels. Four of these "seamen " escaped, 
bonds given on account of three of them being forfeited. 1 

PERSONNEL. 

The difficulties of supervising several widely separated ports of entry with the 
limited force at my command were mentioned in last year's report. Great praise is 
due the personnel in this district for the spirit in which it has met the extraordinary 
demands of the year 1913. In spite of a remarkable expansion of business there has 
been no corresponding increase in the number of employees. Under the circum- 
stances our force has resembled a small army overwhelmed by superior numbers, and 
it has been impossible at times thoroughly to enforce the statutes. 

Geo. B. Billings, 

Commissioner. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION AT NEW YORK, IN 
CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 3, COMPRISING NEW YORK AND NEW JER- 
SEY, AND THE IMMIGRATION STATION AT ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK 
HARBOR. 

As a result of another period of heavy immigration there have been inspected 
under the immigration law at the port of New York approximately 1,033,000 aliens 
dining the past fiscal year. The practice has continued of inspecting those traveling 
as first and second cabin passengers on the vessels between the quarantine station 
and the dock, ordering to Ellis Island such of them as were not "clearly and beyond 
a doubt entitled to land" or could not be conveniently and fully inspected on board. 
Of these there were a large number, composed mostly of second-cabin passengers, 
many such passengers requiring quite as careful inspection as do those traveling in 
the steerage, commonly known as immigrants. All of the latter were brought to 
Ellis Island for inspection as a matter of course. On a great many days during the 
last year the arrivals at Ellis Island have numbered from four to five thousand, taxing 
to the utmost its facilities for examination and detention. Over 60,000 cases have 

i Other details regarding Chinese transactions in the New England district are shown in the bureau's 
report. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 181 

been considered by boards of special inquiry. Many additional cases were "tempo- 
rarily detained," usually for the receipt of funds, to verify addresses, or to hear from 
relatives. The monthly percentages of exclusions have been as high as 1.90 and as 
low as 1, the variations being due principally to the differences in the classes of immi- 
grants brought during the several months. In considering such figures it must always 
be borne in mind that they alone do not furnish a correct index of the work of the 
service in keeping ineligible aliens out of the United States, for they fail to show the 
large numbers of such aliens who refrain from taking ship through knowledge of the 
fact that under the prevailing standards of inspection they would be unable to secure 
admission. 

It is impracticable here to do more than indicate some of the larger matters arising 
out of or related to the peculiar and interesting work done at Ellis Island, and tbat is 
all that this report purports to do. Some of these matters were so fully dealt with in 
the last annual report that nothing further will be said concerning them here. This 
is true as to "Cabin passengers and the immigration law," "Fraudulent use of ships' 
articles to land ineligible aliens," "Alien criminals," "Fraud and deceit practiced 
by and on behalf of immigrants," and "Reports of Ellis Island cases." 

THE MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF IMMIGRANTS. 

The officers of the Public Health Service are required to " certify for the information 
of the immigration officers and boards of special inquiry any and all physical and 
mental defects and diseases" observed by them in arriving immigrants. The magni- 
tude of this task as applied to some eight or nine hundred thousand immigrants a year 
speaks for itself. Some of these defects are obvious, but many of them can be detected 
only upon thorough and painstaking examinations. Included in these are arterio 
sclerosis, chronic progressive diseases of central nervous system, double hernia, loco- 
motor ataxia, psoriasis, lupus, valvular disease of the heart, varicose veins, and poor 
physical development and numerous other physical defects, which while not being 
grounds for exclusion per se (as are loathsome and dangerous contagious diseases) yet 
when present in aggravated form seriously affect the immigrant's ability to earn a 
living and thus operate to bring him within one of the excluded classes. Hence it is 
of great importance that where these defects exist they be detected. A thorough 
physical examination of immigrants ought to be regarded as a very necessary incident 
to a correct enforcement of the law, in fact without such examination there can be no 
real enforcement of the same. The conduct of examinations necessary to disclose 
mental defects is usually even more difficult than where physical defects are con- 
cerned. For both kinds of examinations it goes without saying that there must be 
an ample corps of medical officers with adequate quarters in which to do their work, 
yet there are at Ellis Island only 26 medical officers. The number should be at 
least 60. Nor will these officers be in a position to conduct mental examinations 
in a thorough-going manner until they are able (as is not now the case) to com- 
mand the services of interpreters. The statute excludes idiots, imbeciles, insane per- 
sons and feeble-minded persons, and it is often a most delicate task to ascertain whether 
or not an immigrant comes within one of these classes, especially where the question 
is as to feeble-rnindedness. It is well to realize that Ellis Island is not as fully equipped 
as it should be to do this work thoroughly. Nothing is gained by closing one's eyes 
to this fact, on the contrary, a great deal of harm is done. In the face of every effort 
on the part of the executive authorities to prevent the entry of the insane and the 
feeble-minded, unquestionably a number of immigrants of this class do enter the 
country every year who would be detected and excluded if the medical officers were 
able to conduct a more comprehensive examination. A word as to the feeble-minded. 
Not only are they likely to become a public charge on the community, but they are 
also quite likely to join the ranks of the criminal classes. In addition they may leave 
feeble-minded descendants. Many immigrant children who are feeble-minded or 
mentally backward may be found in the public schools of our large eastern cities. In 
both of my last annual reports (to which I refer) I dealt with this subject, with the 
result that numerous chambers of commerce throughout the United States passed 
resolutions calling upon Congress to furnish the executive authorities with all means 
necessary to enable them to execute the law. These means, however, are in part still 
lacking. 

THE INSPECTION OF IMMIGRANTS BY IMMIGRANT INSPECTORS. 

Correctly and promptly to "inspect" an immigrant is an art of which not all of the 
officials known as immigrant inspectors are masters. Under this term is included 
both what is known as primary inspection and examination by boards of special 
inquiry. To inspect means to view closely and critically; and to do this as to some 



182 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

900,000 immigrants a year under a statute which requires the detection of such diffi- 
cult matters, amongst others, as pauperism, likelihood of becoming a public charge, 
what physical defects will affect ability to earn a living, criminality and contract 
labor, is a task truly gigantic, calling for industry, intelligence, ability to examine 
and cross-examine with a view to ascertaining relevant and (what is almost equally- 
important) omitting irrelevant facts, some knowledge of human nature, and constant 
exercise of sound judgment. This work would be difficult enough if it could be done 
through the medium of the English language, in place of which "it must be performed 
through some forty foreign languages and dialects; also it is usually done under heavy 
pressure, especially during periods when the monthly arrivals are from 80.000 to 100,- 
000. The work of the boards of special inquiry is perhaps even more difficult than 
that of the primary inspectors. Annually they dispose of over 60,000 cases. Often 
8 boards are in session, calling for the services of 24 inspectors (in addition 
to clerks, stenographers, interpreters, and messengers). It is believed that a correct 
execution of the immigration law, with its indefinite tests applicable to human 
beings, calls for work as difficult as that required of any executive officers in any 
country; and yet the inspectors available both for primary inspection and special 
inquiry duty are too few, with the result that they are required to work too rapidly 
and sometimes during too long hours. Also the primary inspectors are burdened with 
too many clerical duties while "inspecting" immigrants; for instance, they are, for 
lack of proper assistance, required to make corrections in long hand on the manifests 
for as many as six hours a day, thus rendering it impossible for them to put their 
whole mind on the larger matters before them. And yet these men are executing a 
statute which the Supreme Court has declared to be one of "police and public secur- 
ity." (Japanese Immigrant Case, 189 IT. S., 86, 97.) We have here another instance 
of Congress creating the work, but persistently neglecting to furnish many of the facili- 
ties required for its correct execution. 

While our immigrant inspectors as a body are able, conscientious, and intelligent, 
yet it is not unnatural that there should be amongst them some who lack the peculiar 
talent necessary to inspect immigrants. This is something for which civil-service 
examinations alone do not determine their fitness. They are a very proper pre- 
liminary, but those who, having passed them, become immigrant inspectors should 
thereafter be subjected to frequent tests by experienced officers with a view to deter- 
mining whether or not they are really doing inspection work and are able and willing 
to assume the responsibility for exercising the judgment which the statute calls for, 
or whether (when acting as primary inspectors) they are principally engaged in regis- 
tering the immigrant's answers, often at the outset false, to the questions on the 
manifest; or (when sitting on boards of inquiry) whether they fail to do independent 
thinking and merely join an the decisions suggested by others. The men who are found 
fit and competent to do real inspection work should receive better remuneration 
than is now given men of this class. 

There is a general impression that the primary inspector errs only by passing the 
unfit. He is just as likely to err the other way and through unwillingness or inability 
really to inspect to delay the admission of the eligible immigrant and transfer to the 
board of special inquiry work which he should do. In this connection I desire to 
point out something that is very often overlooked, namely, that the protection which 
the immigrant receives against improper exclusion is infinitely greater than that 
which the Government receives against improper admission, for an immigrant can 
be excluded only as a result of the concerted action of a number of officials, whereas a 
single official has power to admit. If this be right, it is a most convincing argument 
in favor of placing none but competent and reliable officials at primary inspection 
work. • If a proper number of inspectors were available I should be in favor of placing 
two at each line, one of them charged with the power to act as examining inspector 
and the other to be there to exercise the statutory privilege which every inspector has 
of challenging an admission at primary inspection, which privilege, through lack of 
officials, is now exercised only a few times in each year. 

THE EXPULSION OP ALIENS ALREADY IN THE UNITED STATES. 

This occurs under sections 20 and 21 of the immigration law. Concerning the same 
the Supreme Court has said that "the power to exclude aliens and the power to expel 
them rest upon one foundation, are derived from one source, are supported by the 
same reasons, and are in truth but parts of one and the same power," and that "depor- 
tation is the removal of an alien out of the country simply because his presence is 
deemed inconsistent with the public welfare." (Fon Yue Ting v. United States, 
149 U. S., 698.) 

The law and procedure applicable to this class of cases is widely different from that 
applicable to aliens seeking admission, but the two have this in common, that they 
both cast upon the authorities a great deal of difficult and delicate work. Aliens who 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 183 

have become established here resent being disturbed in their residence and are 
often in a position to command the sympathy and support of their neighbors. The 
statute is silent as to any hearing to be granted before expulsion occurs, but under a 
decision of the Supreme Court they are entitled to and always receive one. Of this 
hearing it has been said (Japanese Immigrant Case, 189 U. S., 86): 

"It is not necessarily an opportunity upon a regular set occasion and according to 
the form of judicial procedure, but one that will secure the prompt, vigorous action 
contemplated by Congress and at the same time be appropriate to the nature of the case 
upon which such officers are required to act." 

During the past year there have occurred over 1,100 such hearings, and they have 
related to insane persons, criminals, inmates of reformatories, persons who have be- 
come public charges, prostitutes, and others found in the United States in violation 
of law. Deportation was subsequently ordered by the department in about 90 
per cent of these cases. Sometimes the conduct of the hearings is simple, but often 
it is complicated, partly through the efforts of counsel for the alien to treat it as a judi- 
cial trial, whereas, in fact, it is merely an executive hearing, and to introduce matter 
which is irrelevant or inconclusive upon the only issue, which is whether the alien 
should be deported. It is not usually practicable for the commissioner to preside 
in person at these hearings and it is necessary for him to delegate this duty to some 
official who has a grasp of the nature of these proceedings and who will act with fair- 
ness to both sides and yet with firmness, so that they may be kept within proper 
limits and a record created which shall on its face justify the action subsequently 
taken thereon. 

This office has frequently called attention to a serious defect in one of the statutory 
provisions relating to this subject, namely, that which limits the expulsion of those 
who become a public charge to cases due to a "cause existing prior to landing." 
The language quoted places upon the Government a burden of proof which it should 
not be called upon to sustain. In the cases of those who have come down with insanity 
and become public charges in insane asylums it is often impossible for the Govern- 
ment to learn the original cause of the insanity. It is usually without means of ascer- 
taining their mental condition abroad or their heredity, and it is likely to have arrayed 
against it relatives and friends who are desirous that the aliens remain in the United 
States at public expense. At least the burden of proof should be shifted, so that all 
aliens becoming public charges within a given period (five years preferable to three 
years, as now provided) should be subject to deportation, unless it can be affirmatively 
shown on their behalf that the cause arose subsequent to landing. The principal 
sufferers from the objectionable phraseology of the present law are the many State 
and municipal institutions throughout the country which are burdened with the 
care of aliens who are unable to support themselves or whom it is necessary to hold in 
confinement in hospitals, jails, and elsewhere. If these institutions were to unite 
in an effort to induce Congress to change the law to meet the requirements of the situa- 
tion, it can hardly be doubted that such effort would be crowned with success. 

DEFECTS IN THE LAW. 

There is great lack of precision on the part of those who speak of the law as defective. 
The layman who says that it is usually means that in his opinion it fails to designate 
enough classes of immigrants as excludable. He has no knowledge of the defects 
which inhere in the administrative machinery of the law and render it difficult for 
administrative officers to exclude those who under the terms of the law as it is are sub- 
ject to exclusion. There will always be differences of opinion (many of them honest) 
as to whether or not there should be additional excluded classes. That is a subject 
which concerns primarily the legislators. But there can be no honest differences of 
opinion as to the necessity for perfecting the machinery through which the present 
law is to be enforced. My last annual report mentioned a number of the defects of 
this class which I shall not repeat here. They will be found discussed in that report 
under the headings "Mentally defective immigrants," "Fraudulent use of snip's 
articles to land ineligible aliens," "Alien criminals," and "Important defects in the 
law." Legislators perform only a part of their duty when they place laws on the 
statute books without providing executive officers with adequate means to enforce 
them. The machinery for the collection of customs duties is far more complete 
than that through which the immigration authorities are expected to enforce a much 
more difficult and delicate law. Speaking for myself, I have never been able to see 
why the differences of opinion as to whether or not there should be more excluded 
classes should be permitted to delay remedying the obvious defects in the adminis- 
trative machinery of the present law. With these defects cured and adequate appro- 
E nations a great deal could be accomplished for the benefit of the country under this 
iw (excellent so far as it goes) which is now necessarily left undone. 



184 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

HOLDING IMMIGRANTS WITH LOATHSOME AND CONTAGIOUS DISEASES FOR HOSPITAL 

TREATMENT. 

The law excludes immigrants of these classes from admission, yet their resident 
relatives frequently urge that they be held at Ellis Island for cure and not deported. 
It is easy to phrase these requests in language which will appeal to one's sympathies, 
but there is another side to this matter to which executive officials must give serious 
consideration. The diseases usually involved are trachoma and tinea tonsurans 
(ringworm of scalp), and as a rule these are either ineradicable or they yield to treat- 
ment only after a very long period. In the meantime the patients, who are in other 
respects bodily sound, become discontented; in fact, almost from the start they make 
bad hospital patients, and as time goes on confinement becomes more and more irk- 
some. They become a disturbing element and add to the difficulty of maintaining 
hospital discipline. Their relatives employ physicians who, acting the part of advo- 
cates, often seek to raise false or irrelevant issues with the Government medical offi- 
cers. In many cases the hospital expenses become burdensome to the relatives, who 
after a while decline to make further payments. As a matter of fact it has often hap- 
pened that after six months the same relatives who at the outset were most anxious 
to have the executive authorities stretch their discretionary powers to the limit to 
save the immigrant from deportation change their attitude and beg to have him 
returned to his home country. 

Petitions for hospital treatment are addressed to the discretion of the department, 
and there are now being held at Ellis Island for treatment under its orders 14 
cases of the foregoing character. Some of them have been under treatment as long as 
10 months without cure having been effected, and unless in the meantime deporta- 
tion occurs several may be here another year. Each case of this class held for treat- 
ment invites attempts to bring here other immigrants with loathsome and contagious 
diseases in the hope that the executive authorities may be induced to show them a 
similar favor. Indeed, it is extremely difficult to know where to draw the line with- 
out showing partiality. 

This office does not desire to take the position that no case of loathsome or contagious 
disease should ever be held for treatment, but in its opinion no case should be held 
which does not come within the plain terms of section 37 of the law. This would ex- 
clude holding any case where our medical officers have declared that treatment will 
at best be prolonged and tedious, with the final outcome uncertain, and this would 
be in accordance with the intent of the law. Abroad is the place where cure in such 
cases should be effected, if it can be effected at all. If the presence here of the dis- 
eased person's relatives is to be made the test of detention, an easy way is indicated 
to embarrass the authorities. The healthy members of the family have merely to 
come here first, leaving the diseased member to come later with some friend, and that 
this course has been frequeatly pursued for the express purpose of bringing pressure 
to bear on the authorities the records amply show. In considering this subject the 
importance must be borne in mind of not permitting the hardship of individual cases 
to break down a correct administration of the law — though it is very questionable 
whether it is really a hardship to an immigrant to refuse to detain him at Ellis Island 
for nine months or a year with the possibility of eventual deportation even after such 
lengthy detention. 

ADDITIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS TO PLANT. 

In each of my last three annual reports much has been said on this important subjec I;. 
Partly out of specific appropriations and partly out of the general allotment many 
additions and improvements to the plant have been made during the last three years. 
The main building in particular has undergone numerous and important changes. 
A fine new story has been erected on its west wing, the special inquiry detention 
room has been completely remodeled and eight appropriate board rooms now exist 
where formerly there were only three. The information office, to which thousands 
come every year from New York City and elsewhere to inquire concerning immigrants, 
has been quadrupled in size and the new area tiled and wainscoted so that it presents 
an attractive appearance. Immigrants marked for "temporary detention" are now 
for the first time held in a large and well ventilated room, which has been newly 
floored, partly wainscoted, and provided with adequate and modern toilets. Adjoin- 
ing this room is an open courtyard, which has been cemented and made available 
for the reception of detained immigrants out of doors during warm weather. The 
registry or main inspection floor has been completely remodeled in appearance by 
removing the pipe railing partitions along which immigrants had to pass and sub- 
stituting therefor appropriate benches, also by removing the stairway, which created 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 185 

a large opening in the middle of the floor, and installing a new one at the easterly end. 
At the same time the medical offices have been removed from this floor, the whole 
of which is now available for the inspection of immigrants, its capacity therefor having 
been thus doubled. New medical offices have been created on the ground floor, 
and while for lack of space they are still far from being what they should be, yet 
they are at least four times as large as the former ones and of better appearance. The 
whole main building has been rewired 'within and repointed without, the steam- 
heating apparatus has been repaired at an expense of $40,000, the old copper roof 
has been replaced with a new one of tile, and a new passenger elevator has been instal- 
led . A number of further changes have been made in the main building which need 
not be recited here. Improvements elsewhere consist in the installation of a new 
and more powerful electric apparatus in the power house, a new floor, wainscoting 
and ceiling, an automatic oiling system, a new hot-water circulating system, and 
an ash conveyor. 

Near the powerhouse there have been erected a complete ice plant and a garbage 
crematory. The oldest hospital building has been repointed. Much dredging has 
been carried on, the great quantity of silt deposited by the waters surrounding Ellis 
Island rendering it necessary frequently to dredge our channels. Approximately 
$50,000 have during the last three years been spent for this purpose. A most important 
contract now being executed concerns the erection at a cost of $115,000 of a cement 
sea wall with granite facing at a section of Ellis Island. Eventually it will be desir- 
able in the interest of economy thus to encase the three islands, the life of the existing 
crib work above high water being very limited. An improvement of the first order 
will be the erection of an additional story on the dormitory building with outside 
porches at a cost of $350,000. Bids for this work were recently opened and the contract 
will be awarded shortly. This improvement will greatly ameliorate the conditions 
in both the day and night quarters of detained immigrants and permit the substitu- 
tion of two-tier for three-tier beds. Continued effort has been made to add to the 
attractive appearance of the grounds by setting out additional privet hedges and hardy 
plants. A small greenhouse has been erected by our own mechanics from old material, 
so that the Government is now able to propagate nearly all of the flowering plants 
needed for beds. The recent sundry civil bill makes appropriations for several 
important improvements, including a new story on the east wing of the main building, 
a fireproof carpenter shop, paint shop, and bakery, renovation of interior of the old 
hospital, and inclosure in glass of long passageway connecting the various units of 
the contagious disease hospital plant on No. 3 island. Two important additions for 
which Congress still declines to grant appropriations, though repeatedly urged to 
do so, are (a) for the creation of quarters in which cabin passengers may be detained 
(so that they need not be confined with what are commonly known as immigrants — 
many of them persons of filthy habits); and (6) an additional ferryboat; these are 
matters which have been specifically mentioned in both of my two last annual reports 
and I refrain from repeating what is there said concerning them. Since the Govern- 
ment derives a large annual revenue from aliens arriving at New York (this year over 
$3,800,000) there is no reason why Congress should refuse to grant for the use of Ellis 
Island any reasonable appropriation requested. Even with the best of facilities 
the work of Ellis Island will always be a difficult one to transact, and the executive 
officers should not be hampered by lack of any tools they may require. It is unfortu- 
nate that so few legislators visit Ellis Island during the periods of great pressure. 
Were they to do so they would obtain a realizing sense of the vast amount of business 
which must be dispatched, and it is hardly to be supposed that they would thereafter 
withhold any necessary appropriations. 

In closing this topic I desire to mention two things: (a) The Ellis Island plant is 
a costly one, subject to extraordinary wear and tear and, owing to the situation of 
Ellis Island, its buildings are exposed to the action of the weather to a greater extent 
than are most Government structures. A great deal more money should be spent 
on general upkeep than is now the case under the inadequate appropriations available 
for general maintenance and repairs. While the condition of the plant is on the whole 
good, yet a great many things are necessarily left undone which would be done if 
it belonged to private individuals intent on maintaining it at the highest condition 
of efficiency, all of which is in the end poor economy; (6) we have always experi- 
enced great difficulty in securing temporary draftsmen to assist our regular force in 
preparing the plans and specifications for extraordinary improvements. There 
seems to be a great lack of properly trained men who will accept short terms of employ- 
ment at the salary which the department has thus far been willing to pay. The 
result is poor work, which must be gone over at great trouble by the chief engineer 
and superintendent of repairs before bids can be solicited thereon. This in turn 
means delay where expedition is often important. 



186 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

CLEANLINESS AND SANITATION. 

I know of no other Government institution where the maintenance of cleanliness 
is a more important consideration than at Ellis Island, and no effort is spared to bring 
this about. But the problem is a difficult one, not only because of the thousands of 
immigrants and other persons who pass through or come to Ellis Island daily, but (prin- 
cipally) because it is so often necessary to detain overnight from 1,200 to 1,800 immi- 
grants, many of them possessing low standards of living and habits which are truly 
filthy. The most difficult portions of Ellis Island to keep clean are, therefore, the 
rooms in which immigrants of this type are detained. These rooms have tile flooring 
and wainscoting, and a large force of laborers is engaged in cleaning them as many 
times a day as seems necessary, including scouring them with hot water and disin- 
fectants at least once each day. Their condition, all things considered, is remarkably 
good. Blankets used by immigrants are cleaned and disinfected daily. From time 
to time, however, some one discovers that a detained immigrant has been bitten by 
vermin and critics proceed to blame the immigration authorities for allowing vermin 
to exist in the detention quarters, overlooking the fact that they do not originate here 
but are brought by immigrants both on their persons and in their baggage, some of 
which contains perishable food. Considering the characteristics of many of the 
people who occupy the detention rooms every night, it is rather surprising that 
complaints of this nature should be as rare as they are. One thing is certain: So long 
as immigration continues certain classes of immigrants will continue to arrive with 
vermin, and the question before the Government is how far it will go in its efforts to 
exterminate such vermin. I think it should adopt all reasonable means to do so. 
One such means is to compel detained immigrants to take baths appropriate to exter- 
minating the vermin on their bodies and by fumigating their clothing and baggage at 
the same time. To carry out these measures a special plant will be required. It 
can and should be erected. With such a plant in existence the likelihood of trans- 
mission of disease would be reduced to a minimum, detained immigrants accustomed 
to cleanliness would not run the risk of contamination from immigrants of filthy 
habits, and complete cleanliness could be maintained in all detention rooms. 

PROTECTION OF IMMIGRANTS. 

The statute makes it the duty of the immigration authorities to protect immigrants 
"from fraud and loss. " This is a high duty and the opportunity to perform it should 
be regarded as a privilege. Few persons are more contemptible than those who will 
exploit the ignorant immigrant, and yet an immense amount of such exploitation 
occurs, particularly by the immigrants' own countrymen in the United States. 
Until widely different facilities are provided by Congress it will be beyond the 
power of the immigration authorities to afford the immigrant much protection after 
he is landed, though in the long run most protection of this character must come from 
State and municipal authorities, some of whom could advantageously display more 
zeal than they do in the welfare of our newcomers. But prior to the time when they 
leave the control of the Federal authorities the latter have various opportunities to 
afford them protection. During years of heavy immigration those who pass through 
Ellis Island may bring with them as much as $30, 000, 000, and there are 
various devious ways in which they will be relieved of a portion thereof unless great 
vigilance is exercised on their behalf by the commissioner and his subordinates. 
One of the ways in which, in the past, this has occurred was through the false mission- 
ary, who, after receiving immigrants at Ellis Island, thereafter conducted them to 
boarding houses where they were detained unnecessarily at high charges and sub- 
jected to numerous other impositions. To these matters reference has been made in 
my annual reports of 1909, 1910, and 1911. Now the false missionary has been ban- 
ished, and it is not believed that any missionary now at Ellis Island would act in a 
manner detrimental to an immigrant. Furthermore, the practice gradually instituted 
during the past four years of detaining here those whose inspection can not be com- 
pleted until some responsible person shall call for them, or until addresses can be 
verified or corrected, works very well indeed and has reduced materially the number 
whom it is necessary to send to mission houses. 

At Ellis Island there are many contractors or privilege holders with numerous 
employees. One of the most important is the contractor for the privilege of furnishing 
food, and in times past much exploitation of immigrants has occurred through mal- 
administration of his office. The best guaranty that the Government can have that 
they shall receive proper meals, that the boxes of food sold them shall contain full 
measure, and that they shall neither be overcharged therefor nor forced to buy exces- 
sive amounts is the presence here of a contractor of standing and character. But it 
is desirable also that the food furnished at meals be frequently tasted and the contents 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 187 

of the boxes frequently investigated (both before and after they have been sold) 
by Government agents in order that the authorities shall have positive and direct 
knowledge of what is done under the contract. Twice (in 1902 and again in 1909) the 
present commissioner found that the food furnished immigrants at meals was bad 
and that they were systematically overcharged for the contents of the boxes. The 
action taken against the then privilege holders is a matter of record. Similarly 
it has twice been found that the contract for the delivery of immigrants' baggage was 
being maladministered, a subject upon which this office in 1902 - and 1911 had 
occasion to make some pointed remarks. 

There are other ways in which immigrants may be imposed upon at Ellis Island. 
It is now a large place, and sometimes it may be necessary to permit as many as 
2, 000 persons to come here in one day in connection with the arriving immigrants. 
Notwithstanding the exercise of all reasonable care some unscrupulous strangers find 
their way to the island, and while there, as well as on the ferryboat, seek in various 
ways to exploit the ignorant immigrant bound for New York. A class of person who 
does little credit to his profession is the lawyer who charges immigrants or their rela- 
tives (often recent immigrants themselves) exorbitant sums for services he does not 
render, and who sues out writs of habeas corpus in bad faith and where there is no chance 
of success. Happily most of the "guides" and "runners" who used to waylay the 
immigrant at the Barge Office have been driven to cover, and this is due in part to the 
establishment by the North American Civic League for Immigrants of its excellent 
guide and transfer system at Ellis Island. 

It is not the purpose hereof to do more than point out the great necessity for the 
exercise of vigilance at many points if Ellis Island is to be what it should be, namely, 
a place where justice under the law shall be done both to the people of the United 
States and to the immigrants and where the latter shall receive proper general treat- 
ment and protection against extortion. While, as already stated, most of the protec- 
tion required after landing should properly come from State and municipal authori- 
ties, yet the immigration authorities should at least be put in a position where from 
time to time they may send out officials on the trains, even to considerable distances 
from New York, so as to obtain accurate knowledge at first hand of what happens to 
the immigrants on their journey westward and whether or not they reach their desti- 
nations safely. There is a great opportunity for evil-minded persons to deflect from 
their destinations some classes of immigrants, particularly young girls. Again, 
many girls arrive with addresses of improper places, some of which we uncover by 
timely investigations, but many of them necessarily pass unnoticed. Officials have 
occasionally been sent out on trains by this office and their reports filed, but the prac- 
tice should become an established one, and that can only be in case of larger appro- 
priations. 

CONCLUSION. 

While the duties of the commissioner at Ellis Island are purely executive, yet it 
is impossible for anyone to hold this position for a number of years without forming 
an opinion as to whether or not the present law reaches all undesirable aliens who 
seek to enter this country. That this is not the case must be the inevitable conclu- 
clusion of any disinterested observer; nor is this surprising when the low requirements 
of the law are considered. It is good so far as it goes, but excludes only manifestly 
objectionable classes, such as idiots, imbeciles, the insane, paupers, persons likely 
to become a public charge, persons with loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases, 
persons whose physical or mental defects prevent them from earning a living, crim- 
inals, procurers and prostitutes. At the same time that the requirements of the law 
are low, a large portion of the immigrants are from backward races and from the poorer 
classes of some of the poorer countries in Europe ; the best laborers and artisans of the 
best countries and races are not coming to us in large numbers. To enact a statute 
which shall reach the undesirables now permitted to enter the country will be no easy 
matter. Many of them are illiterate, but others are not. Still less is it possible to 
state accurately what proportion of the present immigration is made up of such unde- 
sirables, though it is belieA r ed to be small as compared with the number of immi- 
grants of the right sort who are coming to our shores. It is precisely because the 
undesirable minority comes as a part of and is mingled with a lot of desirable immi- 
grants that it fails, unfortunately, to attract the attention it deserves and is thus still 
permitted to enter. The writer is one of those who believe that in determining 
what additional immigrants we shall receive, we should remember that our first duty 
is to our own country. These are matters which I discussed at some length in my 
last annual report under the heading "Some aspects of immigration," and another 
year's experience confirms me in the correctness of the views therein expressed. 

William Williams, Commissioner. 



188 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

REPORT OF CHINESE INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 3, COM- 
PRISING NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY. 1 

I have the honor to submit my report covering the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913, 
appending for statistical purposes three schedules, marked A, B, and C, respectively, 
showing the disposition of cases arising under the jurisdiction of this office during 
the said period. The work of this office in enforcing the Chinese exclusion law 
may be considered as of two classes, administrative and judicial. 

Schedule A appertains to cases included in the administrative class, and shows 
that there were 47 applicants for admission at this port, of whom 33 were admitted 
and 14 denied admission, 13 of the latter number being actually deported and 1 await- 
ing deportation at the close of the year; also, that the privilege of transit through the 
United States was granted to 398, and the departure verified of 744 to whom a like 
privilege was granted at other ports. In addition to the work involved in connection 
with these cases, Schedule B shows that there were 10 applications for return certifi- 
cates for departure via this port (the small number being by reason of the fact that 
we have no direct line of vessels leaving this port for China), while there were 297 
applications for return certificates filed in and investigated by this office for depar- 
ture via other ports and investigations made in 201 cases where Chinese were apply- 
ing for admission to the United States at other ports, making a total of 555 cases of 
this character, necessitating the examination of from 1,200 to 1 ,500 witnesses. 

In the judicial class may be included the cases covered by Schedule C, which 
shows the disposition of cases of Chinese persons arrested in this district upon the 
charge of being unlawful residents, and from which it will be noted that there were 
36 arrests made during the year, which, with the 26 pending from the previous year, 
make a total of 62 considered by the courts, of which number 11 were discharged, 19 
actually deported, 20 pending, and 12 awaiting deportation at the close of the year. 
Of the latter 12 cases, however, only 1 defendant is in custody, the other 11 having 
been released several years ago upon their personal recognizance and nominal bail 
through an arrangement entered into by their counsel and the United States attorney 
at Buffalo w T hereby they were used as witnesses against the parties who assisted in 
smuggling them into the United States, since which time no further action has been 
taken in their cases. 

During the past year, as during the previous fiscal year, no Chinese submitted to 
arrest at the Canadian border for the purpose of having their alleged citizenship passed 
upon by United States commissioners, as had been the custom for years prior to that 
time. This, of course, is accounted for by reason of the Wong You decision of the 
Supreme Court holding that Chinese are amenable to the general immigration laws 
and that they could therefore be taken into custody upon warrants of arrest issued by 
the Secretary and deported to the trans-Pacific or trans-Atlantic port of original 
embarkation, on the ground of having entered the country without inspection. Not- 
withstanding this decision, however, in a number of cases in which the Chinese had 
entered the country from Canada and were therefore taken into custody upon Secretary's 
warrants and later ordered deported to China, writs of habeas corpus were secured; 
and while the district court dismissed them, the circuit court for the second circuit, 
on appeal, recently reversed the action of the lower court, sustaining the writs on the 
ground that while there was sufficient evidence to show that the petitioners had entered 
the country unlawfully from Canada and were therefore illegally within the United 
States, they could not be deported to China for the reason that there was no evidence 
in the record to show that they originally embarked from that country for the United 
States, and directed that the warrants of deportation be amended to deport them to 
Canada. We will be unable to carry out the mandate of the court to deport them to 
Canada, for the reason that that country requires a $500 head tax, and hence I presume 
we will be compelled to file complaints and have the cases finally passed upon by a 
United States commissioner. I understand that the Attorney General has under 
consideration at the present time the question of applying to the Supreme Court for 
a writ of certiorari for a review of this decision, and unless it is reversed I am reason- 
ably certain that the conditions, at least in the Northern District of New York, of 
Chinese submitting to arrest and having their cases established before United States 
commissioners by fraudulent testimony to the effect that they were born in the United 
States, will soon be revived, as the Chinamen will naturally be instructed by the local 
attorneys and "steerers" engaged in this work to stand mute, knowing that we will 
then be unable to establish the fact that they embarked from China. This situation 
I feel can be effectually met only by new legislation. 

i The magnitude of the work in district No. 3 necessitates conducting the Chinese separately from 
the immigration portion thereof. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 189 

This office is also called upon to verify the arrival and departure of all vessels at 
this port having aboard Chinese crews, of which during the past year there were 239, 
having aboard 4,277 Chinese. Of this number 39 escaped, and while the circumstances 
of each case were investigated by this office and reported to the United States attorney 
for the proper district, we were invariably advised that in view of decisions rendered 
in both the Southern and Eastern Districts of New York the facts were not considered 
sufficient to warrant the prosecution of the master. As the bureau knows, United 
States Judge Hand, sitting in this district, has held that the Chinese exclusion law 
does not apply to seamen, and while United States Judge Chatfield, in the Eastern 
District, has held to the contrary, United States Judge Veeder, in that district, follow- 
ing the decision of Judge Chatfield, has held that it is necessary for us to show an 
actual landing, which is almost impossible, and, further, that being a penal statute, it 
should be construed strictly, and consequently it would be necessary to establish that 
the act was committed with the knowledge of the master. The present statute is 
therefore inadequate, and I can not too strongly urge the necessity of new legislation, 
imposing a fine upon the owners, agents, masters, etc., for every alien chinaman 
brought into this port on their vessels as a member of the crew and who is not aboard 
at the time of departure. 

All of the officers serving under my direction have been faithful in the performance 
of their duties, and I have received the hearty cooperation of each, which accounts 
for the results obtained. 

H. R. Sisson, Inspector in Charge. 



Schedule A.— Applicants for Admission to and the Privilege of Transit 
Through the United States at the Port of New York, N. Y., Fiscal Year 
Ended June 30, 1913. 





Before inspector. 


Before Department. 


Summary. 


Class. 


Appli- 
cants. 


Admit- 
ted. 


Denied. 


Ap- 
pealed. 


Sus- 
tained. 


Dis- 
missed. 


Admit- 
ted. 


De- 
ported. 


Await- 
ing de- 
por- 
tation. 




2 
1 
4 

14 
7 
1 

11 


2 
1 
4 
12 
7 

7 










2 

1 
4 
12 

7 




































2 


1 




1 


2 










1 








1 












7 






11 


1 




1 


10 


1 






Total 


47 


33 


" 


2 




2 


33 


13 


1 







Applicants for transit by land 373 

Applicants for transit by water 25 

Transits passing out 744 



Schedule B. — Table Showing Disposition of Cases of Resident Chinese 
Applying for Return Certificates at the Port of New York Under Rules 
13, 15, and 16, During the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913. 





Class. 


Before inspector. 






Applica- 
tions sub- 
mitted. 


Granted. 


Denied. 


Pending. 


Natives 


3 

7 


2 
3 




1 


Exempts 




4 










Total 


10 


5 




5 











1 1 Chinese holding naturalization paper; 10 stowaways. 



190 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Schedule C. — Table Showing Number and Status of Chinese Arrest Cases 
in the District of New York and New Jersey During the Fiscal Year 
Ended June 30, 1913. 





Before 


Before 




Before circuit 




Summary. 




commissioner. 


district court. 




court of appeals. 










































i 








CO 

S3 
o 








































o 








o 






















•a 


•o 
























cj 


Commissioner. 




















5 


w 










■G 


cd 




g 

o 








a 




2 








— 


7" 


CM 


• 




1 




M 


cm 


^ 




a 


(m 


» 


~ 






CO 
















-■ 


33 








-- 


a 
























- 


7, 






■— 
o 


cd 


fl 


ct 




f-< 




a 


G 


A 




c3 


o 


a> 


— 






CO 


o 
a, 




a 
I 


c 




•a 
o 

b£ 


cd 
o 




o 

M 

.5 


■a 

o 

"3 




9 

9 


G 

.a 

E 


be 

.9 


o 

^- 
1 


-. 




o 

cj 


3 

c 


o 
"3 


T3 

jr. 

.9 


— 

CD 

b/. 

03 


•6 


o 
be 

.9 


CD 

— 

.a 




•a 

a 


to 


•- 




T5 




c 


a 


03 


a 


G 


cd 

— 


03 




fe 


73 

G 


'3 


CJ 

.a 


3 
P. 


■a 

c 


3 




QJ 


Ui 








a> 






O 












O 


o 














Pm 


< 


H 


M 


o 


Ph 


Pn 
1 


5 
1 


H 

6 
1 


o 

4 
1 


1 


Ah 
1 


Pi 
1 


5 


H 
6 


1-1 

3 


Hi 


Ph 

3 


i ! 

211 


3 


M 

13 

1 


Ph 

12 
1 


«i 


Shields, J. A 


7 


18 
2 


25 
2 


3 


14 
1 


8 
1 




Keating, G. P 


11 


Block, L. W 


J 


1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
5 
1 

36 


2 
4 
2 
2 
2 
2 
6 
1 

48 


1 

2 
2 

"i 

9 


1 

2 






























1 
2 
2 
2 

1 


1 
2 






Mills, B.H 
































Benedict, B. L 
































Morle, R 




2 

*2 
3 
1 

26 


"i 

"*3 

13 




2 


2 




2 














































1 
2 

4 




Cochran, J. G 




1 


2 

1 
I 


2 
1 

1 

13 


1 

6 




2 
1 




















1 


















2 




Joline 


















1 


Total 


12 


3 


1 


1 


5 


6 


3 




3 


12 


11 


19 


20 


12 



i This case awaiting deportation June 30, 1912, was appealed to circuit court of appeals during fiscal 
year 1913. 

2 These Chinese not in custody, 10 having been released on personal recognizance and 1 awaiting 
action on bond. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, PHILADELPHIA, IN 
CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 4, COMPRISING PENNSYLVANIA, DELA- 
WARE, AND WEST VIRGINIA. 

I respectfully submit herewith report of the workings of the immigration service 
at this port and in this district during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913: 

arrivals. 

There were examined and inspected during the year 68,424 persons from foreign 
ports who arrived at the port of Philadelphia. This number includes cabin as well 
as steerage passengers, and is itemized as follows: 

First-cabin arrivals, 621; second-cabin arrivals, 8,659; and steerage arrivals, 59,144. 

This number includes 4,019 United States citizens; 997 aliens in transit; 32 tourists; 
158 citizens of Canada, Cuba, and Mexico; 15 returning cattlemen; 23 bird men; 
4 diplomatic officers; and 32 persons who arrived ae passengers for the purpose of 
reshipping outbound as members of crews. Also 420 aliens who were excluded on 
arrival, and deported. However, in addition to this total number, there were 1,471 
alien seamen who deserted at this port. 

departures. 

During the fiscal year 7,658 emigrant aliens, 2,285 nonemigrant aliens, and 4,837 
United States citizen3 departed from this port, making a total of 14,780. 



BOARDS OF SrECIAL INQUIRY. 



Seven thousand three hundred and forty-five persons were before the board of special 
inquiry, and, in addition to this number, 7,342 persons were temporarily detained for 
minor causes, making a total of 14,687. 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 191 

In connection with these cases, there were prepared, executed, and forwarded to 
the bureau, under instructions from the bureau, 42 bonds that aliens shall not become 
public charges, Form 554; 52 children's bonds, with school and public-charge clauses, 
Form 579; and 51 bonds for hospital treatment in institutions other than those main- 
tained by the Immigration Service, Form 578. 

Four hundred and twenty aliens were excluded by board of special inquiry and 
deported. 

FINES. 

One hundred and thirty-seven fines, in the sum of $100 each, amounting to $13,700, 
were imposed upon the steamship companies for bringing in the following mentally or 
physically afflicted aliens: 

(1) Mental afflictions: 

Imbecility 2 

Idiocy 1 

(2) Tuberculosis 1 

(3) Other loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases: 

Syphilis 1 

Trachoma 132 

when the existence of the disease or disability might have been detected by com- 
petent medical examination at the port of foreign embarkation, and so certified by the 
United States Public Health Surgeon. 

In addition to this number fines were imposed in 3 cases of trachoma, but were later 
refunded — 2 on account of United States citizenship being proven and 1 on account 
of it being shown that the alien's father had declared his intention to become a United 
States citizen. 

CASES OF ALIENS ACCORDED HOSPITAL TREATMENT. 

Hospital treatment was granted under sections 19 and 37 of the immigration laws 
in 51 cases; this number does not include 4 cases pending from the previous fiscal year. 



DESERTING AND DISCHARGED SEAMEN. 

A complete record of all deserting and discharged seamen was kept by this office. 
Said record shows that 1,471 alien seamen deserted at this port during the fiscal year 
(exclusive of United States citizens); and that 413 discharged seamen were inspected, 
each person being examined under oath and given a medical examination by a public 
health surgeon before being released, 44 of them desiring to remain in this country, 
and 369 stating that they intended to reship. 

I am informed that many seamen sign on at foreign ports for the purpose of deserting 
when they come to aUnited States port, so that they can sign on another vessel here, as 
the wages paid to seamen signed on in the United States are greater than those paid 
to seamen signed on in most foreign ports, and I am of the opinion that this method 
of entry into the United States, under the present regulations regarding seamen, is 
being employed by many aliens who are ineligible to be admitted. 



MEDICAL INSPECTION OF ARRIVING ALIENS. 

Of the total number of aliens examined on arrival, also seamen examined either for 
the purpose of landing to reship or for the purpose of remaining in the United States, 
the Public Health surgeon on duty at this station keeping no separate record of alien 
passengers and seamen examined, 2,359 were certified for or noted as having physical 
or mental defects, 283 of whom were deported. 

During the fiscal year there were 104 cases of diseased and injured aliens treated by 
the Public Health surgeons at the detention house at this station. There were also 1 
childbirth and 6 deaths, the causes of the latter were as follows: 

Pneumonia, following measles (children) 4 

Pleuro-pneumonia (adult) 1 

Convulsions (infant) 1 

HOSPITAL GASB8. 

There were reported to this office by the various hospitals as receiving treatment 
297 aliens. These were fully investigated. In numerous cases the aliens' landing 
could not be verified, or the cost of care and maintenance in the hospital was paid by 



192 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

the alien or relatives or friends, or they did not appear to be proper subjects for treat- 
ment under the Immigration Laws and Regulations, and the hospital authorities were 
so advised. However, those cases were reported to the bureau in which, after inves- 
tigation, the facts warranted such procedure, and 79 public charges were deported on 
instruction? contained in warrants issued by the department. 

This number does not include hospital cases arising in the Pittsburgh district, which 
are treated separately in this report. 

DEPORTATIONS. 

Of the total number of arrivals at this port during the fiscal year there were 420 aliens 
excluded and deported. With the exception of the North German Lloyd arrivals, 
these excluded aliens were deported from this port. 

******* 

There were 208 aliens deported under departmental warrants of deportation, issued 
as a result of investigations conducted by this office — 114 via this port, 84 via the port 
of New York, 7 via the port of Baltimore, 1 via the port of Norfolk, 1 via the port of 
Boston, and 1 via Toronto. This number does not include the deportations arising in 
the Pittsburgh district, which are treated separately in this report. 



CONTRACT LABOR. 

There were 24 cases (invo.ving 124 aliens) of suspected violations of the contract 
labor law investigated in this district during the fiscal year, 19 cases prior to the admis- 
sion of the aliens, they being detained at port of arrival pending investigation at 
destination, and 5 cases subsequent to the admission of the aliens, as a result of which 
2 aliens were deported. 

"WHITE-SLAVE" TRAFFIC, PROSTITUTES, AND PROCURERS. 

There were 85 cases of prostitution, importation, and immorality investigated by this 
office during the fiscal year. As a result of these investigations 51 warrants of arrest 
were issued by the department, and 29 aliens deported, exclusive of 1 alien who died 
while under order of deportation . This does not include cases arising in the Pittsburgh 
district, which cases are included under beading "Pittsburgh sub-station." 

This number, when compared with that for the previous fiscal year, shows an 
increase of over 30 per cent in cases investigated, over 100 per cent in warrants of 
arrest executed, and almost 300 per cent in deportations of prostitutes and importers 
effected. This increase should be ascribed to the hearty cooperation of this office 
with the local office of the Bureau of Investigations of the Department of Justice, 
whose increased activity dining the past fiscal year developed many of the cases. 
The number of deportations of prostitutes could have been still further increased, but 
several cases offered opportunity for testing a policy of giving them another chance 
to demonstrate their fitness to remain in the United States, and it must be said that, 
with the exception of two or three, they are doing so. * * * It is believed that 
the action of this office in securing the deportation at Government expense of a number 
of prostitutes who had been in the United States for a period longer than three years 
. has caused a considerable number of foreign prostitutes to seek other employment. 

During the year there were 2 prosecutions brought against procurers or importers. 
Each received a sentence of one year imprisonment and $100 fine. 

GENERAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

Miscellaneous investigations to the number of 170 were conducted by this office 
during the fiscal year. This number includes cases of alleged criminals, persons likely 
to become public charges, persons who entered the United States without inspection, 
etc., and alleged to be in the United States in violation of law, reported to this office 
direct, or referred to this office by the bureau or other stations, and also includes cases 
of aliens detained at other ports pending investigation in this district as to their eligi- 
bility to be admitted. It does not include cases arising in the Pittsburgh district. 

PROSECUTIONS. 

During the fiscal year there were instituted by this office the following prosecutions 
in connection with immigration cases, in which decision was rendered favorable to the 
Government: 

(1) Case of Piotr (Peter) Czeslicki, for having brought one Helene Dombek into 
the United States for immoral purposes; sentenced to one year's imprisonment and 
fine of $100. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF ' IMMIGRATION. 193 

(2) Case of Donato Scarano, for having imported and harbored one Matilda Tartaglia 
for immoral purposes; sentenced to one year's imprisonment and fine of $100. 

(3) Prosecution of the International Mercantile Marine Co. and the North German 
Lloyd Steamship Co. for permitting escape of aliens from detention house; fine 
of $100 imposed. 

(4) Prosecution of Theodore Rzepski, steamship agent, subornation of perjury in 
connection with the case of Mateusz Ciupak and Maryanna Gryzb; reprimanded 
by the United States commissioner and discharged. 

(5) Prosecution of Pavlo Lesciak, for having imported one Kataryna Krawczuk 
for immoral purposes; held by United States commissioner, but United States attorney 
agreed to defendant's offer of self-deportation at own expense. 

PITTSBURGH SUBSTATION. 
******* 

(1) Investigations prior to admission of aliens. — These investigations usually origi- 
nate at the various ports of entry, and are conducted with a view to determining 
the admissibility of the applicants for admission. There were 238 cases of this class 
investigated during the year. 

(2) Invcstigatioris subsequent to admission of aliens . — There were 313 investigations 
subsequent to the admission of the aliens, consisting of 141 public-charge or hospital 
cases and 172 cases of alleged illegal entry, such as suspected alien contract laborers 
entered without inspection, aliens afflicted with loathsome or contagious diseases, 
persons of alleged immoral character, prostitutes, procurers, criminals, persons likely 
to become public charges at the time of entry, etc. 

There were 128 aliens deported during the year from the Pittsburgh district — 91 
via New York, 27 via Philadelphia, and 10 via Baltimore. Following are the causes 
of deportation: 

Alien contract laborers t 2 

Entered without inspection 4 

Criminals 2 

Pulmonary tuberculosis 17 

Favus ! 2 

Likely to become public charge at time of entry 41 

Prostitutes 13 

Procurers 2 

Insanity 22 

Other mental conditions 7 

Pregnancy 1 

Physical conditions 6 

Syphilis 7 

Other causes 2 

Total 128 

This number does not include 11 American-born children accompanying alien 
parents who were deported. 

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION AND PROJECTED IMPROVEMENTS IN STATION. 

Since last report the new detention building was opened and occupied, although 
not_ entirely equipped at the time, August 19, 1912, and after nearly a year's ex- 
perience in caring for detained aliens, including emergency hospital treatment, it 
is more than gratifying to be able to report the success of the new arrangements. The 
new detention building is absolutely sanitary, and, while it was an entirely new 
proposition for this office to assume the care and responsibility of aliens, yet by earnest 
effort and constant work all difficulties have been met and overcome, so that at the pres- 
ent time it can be safely said that the detained aliens are being cared for at the Philadel- 
phia Immigration Station in the best possible manner. * * * An emergency dis- 
infecting plant has been in operation for the purpose of disinfecting blankets after the 
departure of detained aliens, and emergency hospital rooms have been fully equipped. 
The services of an additional commissioned officer of the United States Public Health 
Service, who resides in Gloucester City, and who is available day or night, have been 
secured. A nurse has also been detailed for duty at the station, also an assistant 
nurse. Experience has shown that certain changes are imperatively necessary — in- 

1 Includes 1 case deported after having been admitted for hospital treatment. 
7686°— 14 13 



194 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

etallation of an electric light plant, ice plant, elevator, suitable disinfecting plant, 
laundry facilities, and additional plumbing and heating facilities, and sinking an 
artesian well — and recommendations along these lines will be duly submitted for the 
approval of the bureau. Since the opening of the detention building all aliens who 
are excluded or who must be detained temporarily pending investigation after in- 
spection at the respective piers of the trans-Atlantic steamship lines, which are located 
on the Pennsylvania side, have been delivered by the steamship companies at the new 
detention house, using special ferryboat to Gloucester City and suitable busses from 
Gloucester Ferryhouse to this station. Owing to the failure of the contractor to 
finish the new pier at the station within the contract period (and even at the close of 
the fiscal year it was still unfinished), this system of delivering detained aliens is still 
continued, but as soon as the pier is completed the special ferryboat carrying the de- 
tained aliens will land them on the pier of this station, thus avoiding the transfer by 
busses from the Gloucester ferry, through the streets, to this station. 

It is very much to be regretted that the Supervising Architect's Office could not see 
its way clear to prepare plans for the inspection building to be erected upon the new 
pier until an additional appropriation of $15,000 was secured from Congress, and it is 
hoped that every effort will be made by the department to secure the needed amount 
in order that the completion of the entire plant may not be retarded, or at least placed 
on a working basis, so that the inspection of arriving aliens may be made at this station 
instead of, as now, at the several wharves of the trans-Atlantic lines on the Pennsylva- 
nia side. 

The cordial relations which have heretofore existed between the officials of the cus- 
toms service at this port and this office still continue. I desire to especially commend 
the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service for his valuable as- 
sistance in the establishment of emergency hospital quarters in the detention build- 
ing by detailing an assistant surgeon to reside in Gloucester City and by the appoint- 
ment of a nurse and an assistant nurse for hospital duty. 

In closing this report it is very gratifying to be able to state that the rank and file of 
the employees at this station have by their faithful, earnest, and efficient work been 
of inestimable assistance in making the new station (so far as completed) an undoubted 
success. 

Jno. J. S. Rodgers, Commissioner. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, BALTIMORE, MD., IN 
CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 5, COMPRISING MARYLAND AND DISTRICT 
OF COLUMBIA. 

There is submitted herewith annual report of the port of Baltimore for fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1913: 

INWARD PASSENGER MOVEMENT. 

United States citizens (including 5 stowaways) 1, 106 

Alien passengers 33, 912 

Alien stowaways 41 

Alien deserters 328 



Total arrivals 35, 387 

DEPORTATIONS. 

Likely to become public charge - 74 

Favus 12 

Trachoma 34 

Other loathsome contagious diseases - 21 

Surgeon's certificates 45 

Contract laborers 4 

Section 11 (guardians) 15 

Convicted of crime 5 

Immoral purpose 2 

Assisted aliens 1 

Under 16 years of age 3 

Prostitute I 

Feeble-minded I 

Tuberculosis. 1 

Insane 1 

Total 220 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 195 



APPEALS. 



Number of cases forwarded to bureau on appeal, including applications for spe- 
cial permission for hospital treatment. 1 113 



Appeals sustained, aliens admitted outright 2 23 

Appeals sustained, aliens admitted, school bond 11 

Appeals sustained, aliens admitted, st raighi 1 >ond 12 

Total admitted 46 



Applications for treatment granted 7 

Application for treatment denied, alien deported 1 

Appeals denied, aliens deported 53 

Cases pending close of fiscal year 6 

Total 67 

******* 

As against 15 cases for the previous year, there was granted during the fiscal year 
just closed special permission for hospital treatment in 7 cases, involving 11 aliens, 

2 of whom were suffering with favus, 5 with ringworm of scalp, and 4 with trachoma! 
The 2 favus cases have been cured and admitted; 2 of the trachoma were cured and 
admitted and 2 are still under treatment; all 5 certified for ringworm of scalp are 
still under treatmeut, very slow progress toward a cure having been effected. 

At the close of last year there were undergoing treatment in the hospitals of Balti- 
more, Md., Pittsburgh, Pa., Chicago, 111., Columbus, Ohio, and Dickinson, N. Dak., 
8 cases, involving 14 aliens. Of this number, during the year 13 have been landed, 
leaving Sure Gecht. at Pittsburgh. Pa., the only pending case from the fiscal year 
closing June 30, 1912. In this girl's case there has been some difficulty in obtaining 
prompt payment of the hospital expenses. In addition to the pending Gecht case at 
Pittsburgh, it will be noted that the following cases are still under treatment: Marta 
Zirotzki, at Jackson, Mich.; Solomon children, Stanislaw Bialek, Barszis children, at 
Baltimore, Md. 

It is interesting to note the expense involved in the treatment of the various dis- 
eases, and there are tabulated hereunder some of the cases where the cost has been large : 

3 Solomon children (pending) $1, 728 

3 Katz children (cured) ' 869 

Berl Talpis (cured) 517 

2 Barszis children (pending) 390 

Itzig Sobelmann (cured) 281 

Stanislaw Bialek (pending) 270 

The Solomon case is a striking example of the enormous expense which is likely to 
be encountered by interested relatives and friends when they undertake to guarantee 
the payment of the cost of treatment. 

The hospitals of this city are loth to accept cases of favus and ringworm of the scalp 
and, as stated in my last annual report, generally refuse to receive them. I under- 
stand that the Hebrew Hospital, where the Solomon children are, would be very glad 
to be relieved of their care, as other patients object to being in the same hospital with 
such diseases. 

* * * * * * * * 

Another year's experience but emphasizes tne madvisability of granting hospital 
treatment except in cases of exceeding merit, where the assurances for payment are 
beyond question. 

Another feature of the hospital cases, which it seems almost impossible to make the 
interested relatives and friends understand, is that payments must be made 15 days 
prior to the expiration of the time the last remittance covers. Practically, without ex- 
ception, every time a payment is due it is necessary, in order that the hospital charges 
may be promptly paid, to write (what should be needless) letters urging the parties to 
comply with the requirements of the bond. 

I would like to say at this point that, in my judgment, much of the suffering and 
distress caused by these cases would be obviated if the steamship companies were 
required to make a more efficient and careful medical inspection prior to embarkation. 

1 In addition to the 113 cases forwarded there was 1 case (covering 3 aliens) transmitted in which the 
following action was taken by the department: One alien admitted outright, one alien admitted on school 
bond, one alien deported. 

2 Included in the 23 cases admitted outright are the following: One feeble-minded landed bv department, 
one favus landed by department, one alien admitted upon adoption. 



196 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

CHINESE TRANSACTIONS. 

Total cases investigated 59 

At Washington: 

Merchants 13 

Natives 10 

Laborers 2 

Students 1 

Wives and minor children of merchants 4 

Total 30 

At Baltimore- 
Merchants 3 

Natives 9 

Laborers 14 

Sons of natives 2 

Duplicate certificates 1 



Total 29 

There were 11 Chinese seamen brought to this port under bond to reship and 15 
taken from Baltimore to other ports under bond for the same purpose. 

During the year there were 4 Chinese arrest cases taken before United States com- 
missioners, of whom 2 were returned to the jurisdiction of this office for the action of 
the board of special inquiry, and deported; the other 2 are still pending, 1 in Balti- 
more before the United States commissioner and 1 in Washington before the United 
States court. 

There arrived 95 vessels with a total of 1,370 Chinese seamen members in crew, all 
of whom were checked in and out and descriptive lists prepared, being an increase 
over last year of 29 ships and 499 seamen. Quite a number of investigations have been 
made of matters referred to this office from other districts. One Chinese seaman died 
in a local hospital. 

******* 

Four Chinese stowaways were brought to this port from Jamaica and deported 
thereto. These 4 Chinese were evidently smuggled aboard fruit steamers at Jamaican 
ports by stevedores loading bananas, but were discovered by the captains before 
reaching the United States and reported as stowaways. Masters of these fruit steamers 
are fully aware of the penalty imposed in Chinese smuggling cases and I believe their 
ships are now thoroughly searched before leaving foreign ports to avoid legal pro- 
ceedings should any smugglers be discovered by us upon arrival. A strict watch has 
also been kept by the immigration officers here, the customs officials cooperating with 
us in this respect, and steamers have been searched for Chinese and stowaways. 



FINES IMPOSED. 

For violation of section 9, bringing diseased aliens to the United States, there were 
9 cases certified to the collector of customs, and the amount involved. $900, was covered 
into the Treasury. 

One conviction was secured under section 24 for perjury before a board of special 
inquiry in connection with the landing of an alien. 

STOWAWAYS. 

Total number of stowaways arrived 46 

United States citizens arriving as stowaways 5 

Alien stowaways landed 4 

Alien stowaways deported ■''' 

Alien stowaways escaped ' 

Total alien stowaways arrived U 

While negro stowaways from the West Indies continue to come, their prompt exclu- 
sion and deportation has largely discouraged the practice. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 197 
DESERTING ALIEN SEAMEN. 

There were boarded and inspected during the year 1,024 vessels; 328 seamen were 
reported as having deserted, of which number 42 were apprehended. As stated in pre- 
vious annual reports, statistics with regard to alien seamen prove of very little value, 
for it is a known fact that many seamen desert when by so doing they can reship to 
advantage and avoid being caught or identified as deserters, and there is yet to be 
devised a practical way or method by which they may be traced. It is claimed that 
over 95 per cent of deserting seamen reship for various reasons. 

******* 

MEDICAL INSPECTION. 

Baltimore is fortunate in having an able, painstaking and congenial medical exam- 
iner who is always willing to cooperate in every way for the prompt and efficient 
dispatch of the public business of the port. 

******* 

There were 454 aliens detained in the detention house and local hospitals for obser- 
vation, care, and treatment, this being an increase over the previous year of nearly 
50 per cent. It is obvious that the entire time of one surgeon is taken up in visiting 
the detention house and hospitals in order that the aliens may be promptly certified 
or released, as the circumstances warrant. * * * 

As set forth in my last report, the small capacity of Suydenham Hospital, of Balti- 
more, for the care of cases of infectious diseases leaves no other alternative but to treat 
them at the detention house, as no other hospitals in Baltimore accept such cases. 

DETENTION HOUSE. 

The detention house at Locust Point is kept in as cleanly and sanitary condition as 
possible, when we consider the habits and absence of hygienic standards of the ma- 
jority of the aliens necessary to detain. Good and wholesome food is served, and there 
have been no complaints during the past year worthy of consideration. 

LANDING STATION. 

Passengers are still disembarked at the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad pier, Locust 
Point, generally known as the "Landing station." The pier is kept clean; and while 
the registration floor is ample for our needs, we should have more space for detention 
rooms and for a second board of special inquiry. The pier is, however, more or less 
of a "fire trap," it being of wooden construction, with corrugated iron sides and no 
exterior fire escapes or adequate provision for getting out in case of fire. 

SPECIAL-INQUIRY CASES. 

_ There were approximately 1,604 special-inquiry cases tried by your boards, exclu- 
sive of rehearings which oftentimes develop situations requiring investigations that 
result in voluminous records. This is an increase of nearly 400 cases over last year. 

The operation of the law with respect to children under 16 years of age, unaccom- 
panied by either parent, has been widely circulated by the steamship companies and 
their subagents, with the result that fewer children are detained. 

In the matter of affording treatment to diseased aliens, where certification makes 
exclusion mandatory under the law, I am quite satisfied the clear-cut position taken 
by the new administration has materially decreased much unprofitable correspond- 
ence, with advantages to this office in the prompt disposal of such cases, and also 
eventually as beneficial to the aliens themselves. 

Just how many aliens traveling as man and wife, although not lawfully married, 
enter the United States every year is difficult to estimate, but every effort is made to 
determine the bona fides of the marital relationship. 

******* 

HABEAS CORPUS CASES. 

During the year the records show there were two cases in which writs of habeas 
corpus were taken out in behalf of aliens, as follows: 

Noach Katz, aged 21, Russian Hebrew; certified for favus; excluded and ordered 
deported; on the day deportation was to be effected this office was served with a writ, 
returnable two days thereafter; the case came on tor a hearing before Judge Rose, in 
the United States district court; writ was dismissed and alien deported. 

Chaim Moische Batlin, aged 20, Russian Hebrew; excluded as assisted alien and 
physically defective; appealed to department and deportation ordered; writ of habeas 
corpus taken out June 10, returnable June 11: Judge Rose continued hearing until 
June 16, 1913, at which time writ was dismissed and deportation effected. 



198 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The attitude of our Federal judge with regard to writs of habeas corpus is becoming 
so well known that attorneys are rather reluctant to take cases of this character 
before him. 

WARRANT CASES. 

There were handled 40 warrants of arrest and 56 warrants for deportation. State 
and city officials, charitable associations, missionaries, and others, reported numer- 
ous cases where they thought deportation should occur. All were fully looked into, 
but in many instances the facts developed proved the aliens to have been in the 
United States over three years, and therefore warrants could not be asked for. 



PERSONNEL. 

On June 30, 1908, under the former commissioner, considered an economical execu- 
tive, the force numbered 24, with a total immigration of 32.29G. Since then there 
has been a gradual reduction in the number of inspectors, interpreters, etc., until I 
am at the present time reduced to 17 employees, with a total immigration of 35,387. 
During these five years there has been a steady tightening up and a more strict inspec- 
tion required, entailing longer hearings before the Boards of Special Inquiry, whose 
cases have increased approximately 33 per cent. Boarding of vessels has increased 
24 per cent; verifications of landing, 40 per cent, and immigration 49 per cent. This 
work at times has severely taxed every employee, we having been on various occasions 
at the Locust Point Dock* four miles from the center of the city, from 7 in the morning 
until 8 and 9 o'clock at night. 



WHITE-SLAVE TRAFFIC. 

There have been practically no cases of white-slave traffic, in the usually accepted 
term, under the immigration laws. The nearest were the following: 

Alien woman, inmate of house of prostitution in Baltimore; reported to this office; 
found to have been in United States less than three years; deported. The keeper of 
the house, in the United States over five years, likewise deported, but at expense of 
our appropriation. 

A young woman was brought to Baltimore from Philadelphia by a pimp; woman 
arrested by this department and man by Department of Justice; man was sentenced 
to but three months' imprisonment owing to girl's refusal to tell all she knew; girl was 
deported at New York expense of our appropriation, having been here over three 
years. A brother of this girl, who seemed horrified at her having anything to do with 
the pimp, was himself, prior to his sister's deportation, sentenced to 18 months in 
the Eastern Penitentiary, Philadelphia, for violating the Mann white-slave act. 

The Federal white-slave act and the Maryland State pandering act are still being 
vigorously enforced and the convictions secured have had a most beneficial effect. 

This office continues to receive the support and cooperation of the Department of 
Justice and the local police officials, and it is believed that the coming year may be 
productive of still greater results in the purifying of the moral atmosphere. 



The figures will show that immigration through Baltimore has increased almost 
50 per cent, and the demand for passenger accommodations on westbound vessels from 
Bremen has been so great that two of the North German Lloyd steamers have returned 
from Baltimore practically in ballast in order to relieve the congestion at Bremen, 
and the local agents of the North German Lloyd predict a heavy immigration. 

Coming principally from Northern and Eastern Europe, via Bremen, the general 
quality of immigration through this port is good and has improved somewhat over last 
year, there being a large percentage of women and children coming to join husbands 
and fathers who have been successful here and intend to make the United States 
their permanent home. Families prefer to come to Baltimore for the reason that, 
while the steamers are slower and fares consequently less, they are disembarked, 
inspected by both the immigration and customs officials, procure their steamship 
tickets and food, and are entrained on one floor. This advantage has been largely 
advertised, to the benefit of the port. 

Practically, this port does not get first-cabin passengers, receiving only second- 
cabin, third-class, and steerage. Therefore, while the amount of money per capita 
brought makes a fair average it can never hope to compare with those where the 
large liners bring so many wealthy first-cabin passengers. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION". 199 

That there are undesirables admitted because we are unable to exclude them under 
the present law is conceded by all students of immigration — backward races and those 
of a low order of intelligence, difficult of assimilation with our own people. A more 
rigid statute with respect to physical examination would, in my opinion, go far toward 
solving this serious problem. Who can say the part this tremendous influx of aliens 
landed during the fiscal year is to play in the future of our country? 

NEW SITE FOR IMMIGRATION STATION. 

It is my pleasure to report that at last Baltimore has an ideal site for an immigration 
station, the War Department having turned over to the Treasury Department a portion 
of the grounds of Fort McHenry for that purpose and of which I am now the custodian. 
In this connection I quote from my last annual report: 

" My understanding is that eventually the fort will be turned over to the city of 
Baltimore. Might it not be well to take this matter up with the War Department 
with a view of obtaining the necessary land that is absolutely needed if the port of 
Baltimore is to hold her own as a place of entry for alien passengers?" 

At the close of the fiscal year, June, 1912, the bill for the sale of the site purchased 
at Locust Point was pending in the Senate. It was enacted during the year and the 
Treasury Department will no doubt now sell it. 

Owing to the efforts of the Maryland Representatives, the War Department, as 
stated above, ceded for our use a strip of the Fort McHenry land, facing on the main 
water channel, of sufficient size upon which to erect a pier, office buildings, detention 
quarters, and hospital. There is yet to be provided an outlet from this site to the 
nearest city thoroughfare, but this has already been taken up and can unquestion- 
ably be arranged. 

The most urgent need is for the hospital building, and if at the same time the office 
building could be erected, our present quarters in the Stewart Building could be 
vacated and the Government saved $3, 000 per annum rental. 

******* 

In closing I wish again to commend the officers and employees at this station for 
their fidelity and application to their duties and painstaking care in the performance 
of the same. 

Bertram N. Stump, 

Commissioner. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 6, COMPRISING 
VIRGINIA AND NORTH CAROLINA, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT NOR- 
FOLK. 

The following is a brief report of the transactions of the immigration service in the 
sixth district: 

At this station (Norfolk), where there is but little immigration, the greater part of 
the work is corifined to seamen, European and Asiatics. During 1913 1,271 foreign 
vessels arrived at Norfolk and 900 at Newport News, a total of 2,171 , or 35 less than 1912. 
Among this number were many with Chinese aboard, and other aliens — such as those 
excluded at ports south of Norfolk — the vessels on which they were being deported 
stopping at Norfolk for coal. All of these classes had to be checked on departure of 
the vessels. There is a great deal of such work to be done here. 

From the foregoing vessels 307 seamen deserted, 177 at Newport News and 130 at 
Norfolk — 9 less than in 1912. It is to be noted that, while Newport News had 571 
vessels less than Norfolk, they had 47 more deserters. This condition is due to a 
determined effort here to bring desertions down to a minimum, a work which will be 
carried out at Newport News should the occasion arise'. 

The passenger movement in this district is confined to one line from Norway. The 
admission of aliens in this district, counting those arriving as seamen (together with 
those brought by the above-mentioned line) was 390, an increase of 13 over 1912. The 
collections of head tax in accordance therewith totaled $1,500, an increase of $120 
over 1912. 

There were 18 exclusions, or about 4£ per cent of arrivals. 

There were 17 department warrants of arrest executed, 11 aliens being deported 
for the following causes: 

Likely to become a public charge at time of entry (1 under 16) 5 

Insane prior to landing 3 

Prostitute I 

Entered for immoral purpose I 

Procurer (male) 1 



200 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Five warrants were canceled after hearing and one warrant not served on account 
of disappearance of alien. 

Arriving United States citizens totaled 71. 

The arrival of Chinese seamen during the past year has been unprecedented. On 
185 vessels there arrived 3,351 Chinese, and there were in port at Norfolk one day 
(June 27) 6 foreign vessels with a total of 144 Chinese. Of this great number but 3 
escaped during the year and these were apprehended. 

We have been exceptionally fortunate in keeping Chinese crews intact and not 
having one escape. Twenty-four hours is the longest period a Chinese seaman has 
been at large. It would not be exact justice to say that fortune favored us entirely 
in the apprehension of Chinese deserters; the modus operandi calls for quick and 
effective action, to wit, the master of the vessel concerned is called to the office with 
his agent and requested to authorize the payment of $50 reward. A complete descrip- 
tion of the deserter is given in the hrst paper published after the desertion takes place, 
and a great number of typewritten descriptions are immediately prepared by this 
office and distributed at the various railroad and steamship agencies and to private 
detectives. Every patrolman is telephoned to on his beat. The result has been, so 
far, that with so many strings out the deserter will come to a point of contact, and 
that in a comparatively short time. 

There were 5 preinvestigations made in the cases of departing Chinese, of which 1 
was disapproved. 

The Chinese population in this district is growing all the time and I feel sure that 
some of those who come here have been made to feel that the chances of staying are 
good should they be brought into court. 

There were no fines under section 9, and but one fine under section 15. 






I want to say a word for the faithful and efficient support given the inspector in 
charge by the force here. It has been all that could be reasonably expected. 

W. R. Morton, 

Inspector in Charge. 

REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 7, COMPRISING 
SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, FLORIDA, AND ALABAMA, WITH HEAD- 
QUARTERS AT JACKSONVILLE. 

I 
r In accordance with the usual custom, I have the honor to inclose, in tabulated form, 
a report of the principal immigration transactions in this district for the fiscal year 1913, 
the same having been prepared from data contained in reports submitted to the Jack- 
sonville office by officers stationed at the various subports in district No. 7. 

Immigration Transactions in District No. 7, during Fiscal Year 1913. 





Aliens 
admitted. 


'3 

s © 

a a 

a g 
t>- 2 


-a 

a 

.a 


« a 

a® 

■o a 

03 > 

Is 

o a 


■d 
§ 

a 
© 

< 


03 

is 

03 

O 
03 


a 

03 <v 

w o> 

a 

.8 

< 


03 » 

"^ o 

5 

M 


Fines. 


Ports. 


as 
as 


o tfi 


o 

Eh 


PI 
O 

o 


B 
o 

en 




4 

1,165 

1.312 

1,344 

82 

13 

10 


2 
2 
3 




3.140 

1,526 

1,289 

125 

2 





2 

1 



1 


4 

4,305 

2,838 

2,633 

207 

15 

10 

7 

2 

3 

2 

4 


22 

1 14, 627 

270 

1,886 

302 

3 

25 
30 
8 
7 





38 
15 
16 
15 
5 

3 






26 

18, 970 

3,123 

4,^5 

524 

23 

35 

40 

10 

10 

2 

4 




l 

8 
2 

1 
1 








1 

4 

19 
5 

3 

1 

4 


47 

4 



104 

363 

92 

246 

138 

20 

3 

25 



$12 

4,124 

11,140 

2,880 

400 

52 

40 

28 



8 

8 

16 



$100 

100 















$120 




10 




30 




60 







Pensacola 


20 














Fernandina 





Port Inglis 









Total 


3,941 


6,086 


10, 030 


17, 180 


92 


27, 302 


20 


37 


1,042 


18, 708 


200 


240 







Note.— Fines under Section 9 segregated as follows: (1) Mental afflictions, 1000; (2) tuberculosis, $000; 
(3) other loathsome or dangerous contagious disease, $200. 



REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 201 

It will be seen from this report, as compared with the report for the fiscal year 1912, 
that there is a considerable increase in the number of alien arrivals and also in the 
number of United States citizens arriving — the total inward passenger movement for 
district No. 7 for the fiscal year L913 being 27,302. 

Wh< 'ii the volume of business done in this district is taken into consideration, I am 
sure that the bureau will agree with me that the service in this district has been eco- 
nomically administered. 

The special attention of the bureau is called to the increase in immigration business 
at the port of Key West. The business at that port is rapidly on the increase, due to 
the fact of the completion of the Florida East Coast Railroad to that point, and also to 
the direct passenger service during the winter season between Key West and the Canal 
Zone. There are only two immigration officers stationed at Key West, and the appoint- 
ment of another inspector for duty at that port will be an absolute necessity by the 
first of October next. Even at the present time, which is regarded the dull season at 
Key West, there is, by regular schedule, a passenger boat from Havana, Cuba, arriving 
at Key West every day in the week except Sunday. 

******* 

No aliens have been admitted in this district for hospital treatment under the 
provisions of section 19 or section 37. 

Under the Chinese-exclusion laws, 18 investigations have been made during the 
year, and it has been necessary to check in and out of the various ports and prevent 
violations of law by 2,058 Chinese seamen. 

I am gratified to state that the relations existing between this office and the immi- 
gration officers throughout the district have been pleasant and harmonious for the 
entire year. 

Thos. V. Kirk, 
Inspector in charge. 

REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, NEW ORLEANS, IN 
CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 8, COMPRISING LOUISIANA, MISSISSIPPI, 
ARKANSAS, AND TENNESSEE. 

In submitting my report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913, I am much im- 
pressed with the belief that the actual operation of a modern and thoroughly equipped 
station at New Orleans is a marked advancement toward a solution of, and will in the 
near future play an important part in, the economic and industrial as well as social 
problems involved in the question of immigration and alien distribution. From in- 
formation at hand, the new order of affairs has already caused much comment, and it 
is believed will attract many of those contemplating migrating to this country to select 
this as a port of entry. 

There is still another phase attached to the inauguration of this new and modern 
method of receiving aliens at Southern ports that appeals strongly to me, and is, 
I believe, worthy of consideration. It will prove an object lesson and an educa- 
tional feature to those heretofore unacquainted with the immigration laws and the 
manner pursued by our service in handling aliens. Having been so closely identified 
in and intimately connected with its development, I have kept in constant touch 
with the intense interest its construction has created amongst the people in the terri- 
tory embraced in this district, from which I feel warranted in expressing the belief 
that many of those heretofore antagonistic to immigration are now awakening to the 
belief that what is most needed is people to populate lands now idle and vacant, and 
immigration will thenceforth prove an important factor in this particular form of 
development. * * * 

******* 

The classes of aliens needed in this country at this time are the agriculturist, the 
home seeker, the dairy and truck farmer. The problem of curtailing immigration to 
this country and its distribution is one of the most vital and live questions before the 
people to-day. It is a subject that has its friends and foes. It is quite evident the 
present immigration law does not satisfactorily fulfill its intended mission, and we are 
striving to bring about a solution of this question through new and additional legis- 
lation. In my opinion, the greatest feature of all i? not so much the reduction of im- 
migration as the proper distribution and strict examination, the separating the 
wheat from the chaff. * * * 

We have arriving in this country approximately 1,000,000 aliens annually, the great 
majority passing through the port of New York. It is admitted the facilities at that 



202 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

port for handling this enormous influx are inadequate, in lack ox space, inspectors, 
surgeons, and the like. Still, let all of the deficiencies be supplied, would the prob- 
lem be solved? I very much doubt it. Would it not be much more effective to limit 
each steamship line to a certain number of passengers yearly, .and to arbitrarily limit 
the number that should be permitted to pass through any one port? Take the period 
of June 9-27, this year, there passed through the port of New York 36,785 steerage pas- 
sengers. Give proportionately to Galveston, New Orleans, and other ports with immi- 
gration stations a pro rata from this enormous number of aliens, and why should not 
their examination be much more thorough and the country at large profit thereby? 
Would not such legislation at least tend to reduce to a minimum the evils that now 
exist? And would not the class of aliens seeking admission to these shores improve 
accordingly? 



STATION — CONSTRUCTION AND PLAN. 

The station proper is situated on the west bank of the Mississippi River, in the 
limits of the city of New Orleans, but some 3 miles below its commercial center. 
Its construction is on the unit sysl em , and is composed of three units — the immigration 
building proper, containing primary examination hall, information room, doctor's 
office and laboratory, railroad ticket office, money exchange, railroad and State 
agents' and missionary societies' rooms, and toilets. The administration building 
is the left wing on entering, and contains the executive offices, two board rooms, 
witness rooms, private hearing rooms, attorney's consultation room, showers, lockers, 
and toilets. The right wing, known as the detention quarters, contains male and female 
dormitories, two private wards, matron's quarters, roof garden, dining hall, kitchen, 
pantry, cold storage, employees' dining room, infirmary, and strong room, and ample 
toilet facilities. 

The construction of the building is fireproof, being composed of brick and rein- 
forced concrete. The entrance to the main building for aliens is through a long 
runway, or pier, leading to the dock, thus affording easy access without recourse to 
stairs. In front of the property is located a dock 450 feet long, with a steel shed 
extending over most of its length. In the main examination hall 200 aliens can be 
accommodated at one time. Along the runway and dock there is sufficient space to 
properly handle at least 2,000 persons. Sleeping quarters are provided for 144 persons, 
and under emergency 150 may be quartered overnight. In the dining halls 75 
aliens may be seated at one time. Ventilation throughout the entire plant is excel- 
lent, and all sanitary requirements have been carefully provided. 

Since the opening of the station we have examined 369 steerage passengers, 48 
of whom were detained; 14 detentions under warrant, and 99 Chinese in transit. 
From March 15 to June 30 there were 998 first-class passengers entering the port, 
who were examined on shipboard. 

As a result of the station, the Sea Navigation Co. (Ltd.), of Budapest, Hungary, 
will shortly operate a passenger line to this port; and, in September, a committee 
from the various States comprised under district 8 will proceed to New York for 
consultation with the steamship conferences, with the view of diverting certain 
lines to New Oilcan-. 



STATISTICS REGARDING NEW ORLEANS. 

Immigrant aliens admitted 1, 446 

Nonimmigrant aliens admitted ] , 941 

3, 387 

Aliens debarred 62 

I >eserting alien seamen 673 

Section 41 66 

Aliens from Porto Rico 3 

Total aliens arrived ... 4191 

United States citizens: 

Male 5, 832 

Female 2, 802 

8, 634 

Total inward movement 12, 825 

Total arriving vessels 1, 350 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 203 

Emigrant aliens departing 516 

Nonemigrant aliens departing 1 , 933 

United States citizens departing 8, 955 

Total outward movement . .... .. 11,404 

Number of board of special inquiry cases . ... 148 

Appeals from decisions of boards of special inquiry 17 

Alien seamen discharged to reship 3, 960 

Number of vessels arriving 710 

Number of passenger vessels arriving 636 

ALIEN STOWAWAYS ARRIVING. 

Admitted 6 

Excluded 24 

Total . . 30 

.Miscellaneous investigations 17 

FINES. 

For improper manifesting . $450 

For bringing diseased aliens : 

Trachoma $200 

Carcinoma (cancer) 100 

300 

Total 750 

DEPARTMENTAL WARRANTS. 

Pending at close of fiscal year 1912 34 

Received during fiscal year 1913 72 

Total . . 106 

Canceled 57 

Deported 20 

Pending at close of year 29 

In addition to the above it has been necessary to dispose of 21 applications made 
by Chinese for admission at the port of New Orleans; to pass upon the cases of 276 
Chinese passing through New Orleans in transit; to check in and out and prevent the 
landing of 3,187 Chinese seamen; and to make a large number of other investigations 
connected with the enforcement of the Chinese exclusion laws at the ports of and 
within Immigration District No. 8. 

SMUGGLING. 

There is no denying the fact that the patrol boat formerly used in these waters 
did much to reduce and keep under control smuggling, both of Chinese and otheraliens. 
The moral effect alone of this little cutter proved sufficient to repay the service and 
country three times over its value in original cost and maintenance. If a city is 
policed but indifferently, quarters less frequented by municipal guards will develop 
a class of criminals that will soon be beyond control. Just so, in a section situated 
as is Louisiana and the southern coast of Mississippi, where waterways are in abun- 
dance, fairly in viting the irregular trader to carry on his vocation, if proper means 
are not furnished to safeguard the coast and waterways and keep in control these 
evaders of the law, disregard for the law will become more manifest and abuses increase 
in landing of immigrants. 

In a former report I was careful to elaborate on the conditions to be found along 
the coast of Mississippi and Louisiana. I went thoroughly into this question, descrip- 
tively and practically, supplementing my opinions by maps, charts, and data which 
were indisputable. It is not a question where any doubt can possibly exist — it is 
simply a matter staring one in the face of controlling or condoning a situation. If 
those who are suspected of carrying on this illicit traffic know that they are under 
constant surveillance, they will be cautious, and in turn become inactive. But 
permit the fact to become known that we lack the means of combating them on an 
equal footing, and they are ready to resume operations. 



204 REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
THE CONTRACT-LABOR LAW. 

It seems very generally conceded throughout the service that the contract-labor 
law is constantly being violated, and that under the present law it is impossible to 
prevent the entrance of many aliens coming under promise or agreement to perform 
labor. It is not believed, however, that violations of this law are so frequent at this 
port, comparatively speaking, as they are perhaps at some others, where examining 
officers are necessarily compelled to work hurriedly on account of the great volume 
of business to be disposed of in a given time. Aliens arriving at New Orleans are 
carefully examined in every instance, and it follows that a better opportunity is 
afforded to detect violations of the contract-labor law, or discover other facts that may 
exist rendering them inadmissible. Undoubtedly aliens enter at this port as a result 
of encouragement or promise of employment, as it is impossible to detect all such 
cases. Many aliens who have been induced to come are thoroughly posted concerning 
the law and are prepared for any grueling ordeal to which they may be subjected, 
with the result that, in most instances, it is impossible to find facts sufficient to warrant 
exclusion. The detection of such cases becomes more difficult, seemingly, from day 
to day, as a result of the campaign of education among aliens of all nationalities with 
regard to the provisions of the law. 

We have succeeded in working up a case in this district involving a number of 
Swedes, who seem to have been induced to come to this country to accept employ- 
ment at Moss Point, Miss. Suit for recovery of the penalty provided by section 5 
of the act is being instituted, and there appears to be good reason to hope for the best 
results. The aliens involved entered through the port of New York and proceeded 
direct to Moss Point, and were immediately placed at work by the company by whom 
imported. 

An investigation has also been conducted in connection with Greek shoe shiners 
in Nashville, Tenn., within the past few weeks; and while it appears from the facts 
obtained that some of these boys were imported for the purpose of engaging in the 
work they are now doing, it was found impossible to secure evidence that would 
warrant the prosecution of the importer or justify the deportation of the aliens. 

The subject of contract labor is a very broad one, and undoubtedly will require 
additional legislation before the evil sought to be remedied can be controlled. 

WHITE-SLAVE TRAFFIC 

The past year has been one of extreme importance in activities under the white- 
slave laws. Fifteen prosecutions in the Federal court alone are reported. In addi- 
tion, the State white-slave law has been actively supported and has proven extremely 
beneficial in effect throughout this district. 

An inspector from this office has been assigned to this particular duty, and I am 
pleased to report that his activities have met with considerable success, and the num- 
ber of foreign prostitutes registered in this city has materially decreased. I am of 
the opinion, however, that in other large cities in this district, should the appropria- 
tion warrant, considerable good could be accomplished and many cases of importance 
developed. I have particularly in mind Memphis, Nashville, and Chattanooga, in 
Tennessee, and Shreveport, La. 

DESERTING ALIEN SEAMEN. 

The number of deserting alien seamen apprehended, admitted, and deported 
shows a decrease from that of last year, owing principally to the fact that the patrol 
boat formerly at this port has been withdrawn. Forty-five were admitted on apjilica- 
tion, and over 40 warrants of arrests issued in such cases, most of whom were later 
admitted. Of those apprehended, 1 was excluded on account of trachoma, and 
another, a Spaniard, for poor physique and as likely to become a public charge. It 
is earnestly hoped and recommended that the patrol boat at this port will be restored 
at an early date, as the services of such an agency is of the greatest importance, and 
its need and usefulness as logical as the mounted patrol on the Mexican border. 

DIVISION OF INFORMATION. 

Over 238 persons of various nationalities were given employment through the 
agency at this office, at compensations varying from straight p p r diem of $1 to $2 up 
to $45 per month, including board and lodging. 

The work of this division has been very satisfactory and of considerable value. 
The inspector having this work in charge has been diligent and active. Thanks are 
also due to the secretary of the Louisiana State Board of Immigration for the valuable 
assistance he has rendered to this branch of the se v vice. 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



205 



SUBPORTS. 

GULITORT. 

******* 

The Gulfport office has reached a high standard of efficiency, owing to the industry 
and intelligent activities of the inspector in charge. It is hoped that the high standard 
of efficiency and results will be sustained in the future. 

A new railroad project is about to be launched in Mississippi, having a terminal 
at Gulfport, thus bringing additional rail facilities to the port, which, it is reported, 
will have as a connecting link steamship lines in the banana trade, with the added 
possibilities of passenger business from certain Central American ports. 

PASCAGOTTLA. 

Records and a personal inspection at this port and its immediate territory disclosed 
a condition of a most gratifying nature. Shipping, it is true, remains about equal 
to past years, but, through the constant painstaking, energetic efforts of the inspector 
in charge, illegal entries have been reduced to a minimum, and his territory stands 
to-day as clean as is possible under existing conditions. 



CONCLUSION. 

In closing this report it gives me pleasure to be able to say that the officers and 
employees in. this district have performed the duties assigned to them during the 
past year in a very satisfactory and efficient manner; and I am glad to share with them 
any credit due the district for results accomplished. 

Finally, I wish to thank the bureau for the unvarying support and hearty coopera- 
tion accorded me in my efforts to administer the affairs of the service at New Orleans 
during the past year, and trust that my efforts in this respect may meet with its 
approval. 

S. E. Redfbrn, 

Commissioner. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 9, COMPRISING 
SO MUCH OF TEXAS AS IS CONTIGUOUS TO GALVESTON, THE DIS- 
TRICT HEADQUARTERS. 

I hereby submit the following brief summary of the work of this office for the fiscal 
year 1913: 





1912 


1913 


Increase 
(+) or de- 
crease (— ). 




4,758 

311 
859 
346 


5,468 
281 

1,263 
249 


+ 710 




- 30 




+ 404 




- 97 






Total 


6,274 


7,261 


+987 







Aliens deported: 

Likely to become public charges. 
Accompanying aliens (sec. 11). . . 

Contract laborers 

On medical certificates — 

Trachoma 

Venereal diseases 

Favus 

Insanity 

Mentally defective 



4-3 

1 



Tuberculosis. 
Total 



96 

2 

104 

32 

1 



1 
1 

11 
1 

249 



206 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Fines imposed by the department on account of: 

Mental afflictions 

Aliens with tuberculosis 

Other loathsome and dangerous contagious diseases- 
Trachoma 

Venereal bubo 

Nonmanifesting 



Total 

Fines pending at close of fiscal year . 



1912 



$2, 100 



40 



1913 



$100 

3,900 
100 
180 



4,230 



1,040 



No aliens were landed for hospital treatment under authority vested in the Secre- 
tary in sections 19 and 37 of the immigration law, but one case remained pending from 
last year, in which treatment was continued until August 8, 1912. 

The seamen question is still a matter that entails a great deal of work of a most 
unsatisfactory nature, and there appears to be an increase in the number of desertions, 
as, while during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, there were 277 desertions reported 
at this port and 54 at Port Arthur; during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, 318 
were reported here and 110 at Port Arthur. However, in this connection it might Jbe 
well to call attention to the fact that while during the former fiscal year 560 foreign 
vessels were boarded at the port of Galveston, 799 were boarded dining the latter fiscal 
year; and this is especially important as showing the large percentage of increase in 
the class of work our boarding officer was called upon to perform, not only on account 
of the large number of vessels, but also due to the fact that at present a great many 
Chinese crews enter this port, requiring checking in and out, while up until compara- 
tively recently very few foreign vessels entering this port carried Chinese crews. 

The careful, painstaking, and thorough medical examination of arriving aliens by 
our medical surgeon is highly appreciated by this office, as it is realized that he is not 
only a very competent and experienced medical officer, but that he is by training, 
experience, and temperament especially and peculiarly fitted for this class of work. 

There has been considerable delay in the opening of the new immigrant station here, 
due to the defects in the water main and telephone cable between the station and the 
city of Galveston; but the water main was finally repaired, and money secured from 
the Treasury Department, through the Marine-Hospital Service, for the repair of the 
telephone cable, and everything put in readiness for the opening of the station upon 
the arrival of the North German Lloyd S. S. Cassel, July 8, 1913, with 744 aliens. ^ 

With the assistance of the watchmen amd laborers detailed for duty at the station a 
great many improvements and alterations in same have been made at a comparatively 
moderate cost, so that it is believed, for the money expended, the station will prove 
one of the most practical and best-arranged stations we have in the service, though the 
location is not at all satisfactory. 

While the running of the station will largely increase the amount of funds needed for 
this district, it must not be overlooked that during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, 
there was collected at this port $22,560 in head tax and $4,280 in fines, and the indica- 
tions are that a much larger amount will be collected here during the present fiscal year. 

While the work connected with the division of infoimation entails considerable cor- 
respondence, the resultsJiave not been very satisfactory, only 33 persons having been 
directed to employment through said agency during the last fiscal year. 

I again beg leave to urge upon the department the importance of bulkheading and 
filling in around the station, not only as a measure of protection for same, but espe- 
cially with the view of insuring as far as possible the safety of detained aliens and 
others in case of high, water and fire at the same time. 

During the year there was no material change as regards Chinese in district No. 9 
from the conditions reported for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, for, as previously 
stated, the Chinese in this district are, with very few exceptions, old-time residents 
who are provided with genuine certificates of residence and who not only travel but 
little within the district, but very rarely make trips outside of the district. 

Very few rumors; were received indicating that any Chinese were attempted to be 
smuggled into the United States through this district. However, there was one such 
attempt made by certain seamen on the S. S. Alabama, of the Gulf Coast Fruit & Steam- 
ship Co., which arrived at this port on April 14, 1913, which attempt was frustrated by 
our officers, The four Chinese involved were taken into custody and four seamen who 
were implicated in attempting to smuggle the Chinamen into this country were duly 
apprehended and indicted by the Federal grand jury, and when the hearing came up 
pleaded guilty and were sentenced to six months each in the Fort Bend County, Tex., 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 207 

jail, in addition to the two months that they spent in jail prior to sentence in this city. 
It is believed that this is the only attempt made to smuggle Chinese into the United 
States through this district within recent years, and the fact that the smugglers were 
apprehended and received punishment will have a very salutary effect upon others 
who might desire to enter into the Chinese smuggling business. 

Formerly very few Chinese crews entered this port, but during the last year a large 
number of ships haA'e arrived with Chinese crews and the handling of the Chinese 
seamen, under their present status, is most unsatisfactory and at times very annoying. 

While rule 7, Chinese regulations, provides that shore leave shall not be granted 
Chinese seamen at ports of the United States except upon the giving of a bond with ap- 
proved security in the penalty of $500, the decision of the Federal courts as to the status 
of Chinese seamen is so different in different districts that it is not always possible to 
get the Chinese to put up bonds, and in some instances even the captains of vessels 
authorize their Chinese seamen to take shore leave without the furnishing of said bonds. 

In conclusion, it gives me pleasure to express my appreciation of the cordial support 
given me by the officers and employees stationed in this district and of their active 
and intelligent interest in the effective enforcement of the immigration laws. 

Alfred Hampton, 
Inspector in Charge. 

REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 10, COMPRISING 
OHIO AND KENTUCKY, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT CLEVELAND. 

I beg to submit the following report of operations for District No. 10 during the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1913. While the bulk of the work in this district during 
the year past has been in connection with the arrest and deportation of aliens unlaw- 
fully here, there has been an increasing number of miscellaneous investigations and 
inquiries of varied sorts. The work in general is of such a varying nature that it is 
well-nigh impossible to indicate adequately by any set of figures the actual amount of 
work performed and the effort expended by the officers and employees in discharging 
their duty. This is accounted for largely by the fact that many investigations take a 
wide range of inquiry and painstaking effort in order to accomplish the desired results, 
while conclusions in other cases of similar nature may be reached with comparative 
ease. 



STATEMENT OF ACTION UPON WARRANT CASES. 

Warrant cases pending at beginning of year 26 

Applications for warrants of arrest during year 217 

Warrants received after requests by other offices 13 

Total 256 

DISPOSITION. 



Class. 


U 

M 

jg! 


& 

o 
m 


Died. 

Not located. 


"qj oj 
t-. 
a 

? 

V 
GO 


■d 

a 

u 

a 

eS 
O 


T3 
O 

o 

O 


bO 

3 
•a 

s 

Ph 


3 

o 










3 

1 
4 
15 
3 


3 
9 
14 
59 
20 
1 
4 


i 

4 
8 
2 


7 










10 


Tuberculosis 




2 


3 

6 


2 


27 




3 


93 






1 . 


26 










1 


Criminals 






2 


2 


3 
2 

4 
3 
4 

1 
1 


11 




2 
1 






4 


Prostitutes 






12 

B 

1 

10 
5 
3 


1 
2 
1 
2 

2 
1 


18 




2 


1 


L5 








13 












4 


Employed in house of prostitution 










11 














Entry without inspection 




1 


1 




:: 


8 


Convicted under section 3 




1 
















Total 


6 


3 


4 11 


5 


47 


156 


24 


256 







208 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

There has been a considerably smaller number of Chinese cases handled during the 
past fiscal year than in years previous. This is unaccounted for, but I have been 
informed that many of the older Chinese are now returning to China without prepara- 
tions for return. 

The following indicates approximately the cases of the various classes handled : 



Cleve- 
land. 



Cincin- 
nati. 



Toledo.! Total. 



Laborers; preinvestigation for visit to China 

Natural born; preinvestigation for visit to China. 
Merchants; preinvestigation for visit to China. . . 
Wives and minor children, merchants; arriving.. 

Natural born ; investigation for readmission 

Miscellaneous 

Son of native; arriving 

Student (arriving) 



11 

1 

6. 

5 
13 

1 

1 



CHINESE ARREST CASES. 

Under immigration law: 

Pending; at beginning of year 1 

Arrested during year 3 

4 

Deported 2 

Escaped 1 

Pending, United States Supreme Court 1 

Under Chinese exclusion law: 

Pending at beginning of year 2 

Arrests during year 5 

7 

Deported 2 

Pending in district court 4 

Pending in circuit court of appeals 1 

The best reference I can make to the efficiency of the service in this district as at 
present organized is to compare the work with that of previous years, the warrant cases 
being taken as a basis therefor. 

During the fiscal year of 1910, there were 95 warrants handled in this district; during 

1911, 126; during 1912, 190; and for the year just closed, 256. Although the proportion 
of warrants to deportations is about the same for 1912 and 1913, the ratio of deportations 
is higher for these years than previously. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910, 
there were 47 aliens deported from this district; during 1911, 72; during 1912, 120; and 
during the fiscal year closing the aggregate is 156 aliens. It will therefore be noted 
that with the same number of officers and employees, the number of aliens deported 
during the year ending June 30 was more than three times greater than for 1910, 
more than twice the number for 1911, and 33J per cent increase over 1912. And, 
parenthetically, it may be of interest to the bureau to know that for the calendar year 

1912, the deportations for this district exceeded 200. 

During the year investigations have been made at Cleveland in 194 cases where 
relatives or friends of detained aliens have called voluntarily, or with telegrams 
from the detained aliens, 15 investigations in similar cases at Toledo, and 51 at Cin- 
cinnati. At Cleveland there have been 117 investigations made at the request of 
officers at ports or of the bureau, in cases of arriving aliens; at Toledo 7 such investiga- 
tions, and at Cincinnati 11. There have been 18 bond cases handled in the district 
in the cases of detained aliens. 

Primary-inspection data has been sent to Montreal, or other border office, in the 
cases of 22 aliens who have entered the United States without the proper inspection 
at the border. Twenty investigations have been made concerning United States 
citizens in Canada whom the Dominion authorities have sought to deport back to 
this country. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 209 

This office has been instrumental in securing indictments against 5 persons during 
the fiscal year, 1 under the white-slave law, 3 of prostitutes returning to the United 
States after deportation, and one for importing a woman for an immoral purpose. 
The white-slave case was that of Davis Freedman; two of the returning prostitutes 
were given suspended sentences in the workhouse and were deported, in the third 
case that of Josephina Drago, an indictment was secured and a temporary plea of not 
guilty given in court when the department vacated the original order by which the 
alien was deported and thus restored her to the status she enjoyed before deportation, 
consequently the indictment was nolled. The alien was ordered released upon 
her own recognizance, reports to be made quarterly by this office, but within two or 
three weeks after her release she left for parts unknown and is now said to be living 
in adultery with an Italian named John Monaco. The conviction for importing a 
woman for immoral purposes was that in the case of John Cerko. This alien is now 
serving a.sentence in the penitentiary at Moundsville, W. Va., and has been ordered 
deported at the expiration thereof. 

Examinations of aliens for "certificates of arrival" for naturalization purposes 
have been made during the year as follows: At Cleveland, IS; at Toledo, 3; and at 
Cincinnati, 4. It may be worthy of note to say that the courts in Cleveland have held 
that the so-called certificates of arrival issued by this office are not sufficient to comply 
with the requirements of the naturalization act. 

Miscellaneous unclassified investigations have been made in 110 instances. Of 
course, as regards the latter, there are hundreds of inquiries coming into the three 
offices of this district and minor investigations made of which no file or record is kept. 
These cover inquiries as to almost every phase of the immigration problem and matters 
outside the service itself, the latter ranging from the name of the secretary to the 
name or location of some American consul in Zanzibar. An endeavor is always made 
to give the inquirer the best information at hand. 

******* 

Investigations have been conducted in 9 separate cases in which 62 aliens were 
involved as suspected contract laborers. Department warrants of arrest were issued 
in 7 cases, resulting in 3 deportations. Three warrants were by request canceled by the 
department. Depositions of the 3 aliens involved were taken and suits entered against 
the importers, which are now pending in the United States Court for the Northen 
District of Ohio. After the depositions had been taken and the aliens released upon 
their own recognizance they went to Canada. It was found desirable to have the 
warrants canceled in order that the men may return and appear as witnesses against 
the importers without fear of deportation to England. One warrant case in which 
proceedings were instituted against the importer is also pending. Action looking 
toward the deportation of the alien involved was deferred by the department pending 
a decision by the court. These four cases will come up for trial during the fall term of 
court. 

During the month of June the Cleveland and Buffalo Transit Co. inaugurated a 
steamship service between this city and Port Stanley, Ontario, with four arrivals 
weekly. This work has been handled by our office at some inconvenience since it 
necessitates trips to the dock at a very early hour in the morning and also at night. 
The inspectors have handled this work, however, in addition to their regular duties, 
and the inspection data reported to the Montreal office, and will be taken up in the 
statistical reports of that office. 

I understand that some of the officials have been advocating an annual meeting of 
commissioners and inspectors in charge of districts, and it would seem that such 
meetings would be highly beneficial, and would go far toward a coordination of efforts 
and systematizing of work, which the sendee now lacks. 

In conclusion I beg to say a word in behalf of the faithfulness and devotion of the 
various officers and employees of this district to their duties and to the service in gen- 
eral. Our work requires unusual tact, patience, and resourcefulness, and while we 
are all liable to an occasional mistake, I am confident there is no district similarly 
situated whose officers outrank our force in loyalty and all-around ability. 

J. A. Fluckey, 

Inspector in Charge. 

7686°— 14— 14 



210 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 11, COMPRISING 
ILLINOIS, INDIANA, MICHIGAN, AND WISCONSIN, WITH HEAD- 
QUARTERS AT CHICAGO. 

I have the honor to submit the following report concerning the work of District 
No. 11 during the fiscal year 1913. 

The following table shows the classification and action taken in 288 public charge 
cases investigated during the year: 

Public Charges. 





Re- 
ported. 


Action taken. 


Cause. 


De- 
ported. 


Not 
deported. 


Pending. 




88 

26 

3 

3 

118 


55 
11 
1 
2 


26 
13 
2 


7 




2 








1 




52 


53 


13 








Total 


238 


121 


94 


23 







Not Deported — Reasons. 

Landing not verified 5 

Sufficient grounds for issuance warrant of arrest not established 40 

Department canceled warrant of arrest 17 

Time limit expired before deportation proceedings instituted 2 

Death 2 

United States citizens 1 

Returned Europe prior to termination deportation proceedings 10 

Deportation deferred indefinitely 1 

Kept under surveillance for period and warrant canceled 9 

Escaped prior to execution warrant of deportation 2 

Left institution before issuance warrant of arrest 3 

Alien unable to travel without danger to life and warrant canceled 1 

Left State after proceedings instituted 1 

Total 94 

In addition to the foregoing, the following 168 cases have been investigated for the 
purpose of ascertaining whether the facts justified the institution of deportation 
proceedings: 





Class. 


Action taken. 




Investi- 
gated. 


De- 
ported. 


Not 
deported. 


Pending. 


Prostitutes, procurers, etc. 




127 
2 
39 


69 
2 
21 


49 

14 


9 





4 








Total 


168 


92 


63 


13 







1 Children dependent for their support upon arrested aliens. 

Not Deported — Reasons. 

Not located 3 

Department canceled warrants of arrest 25 

Sufficient grounds not established for issuance warrant of arrest 21 

Kept under surveillance for period and warrant canceled 4 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 211 

Landing not verified 6 

Returned Europe prior to termination deportation proceedings 3 

United States citizens 1 

Total 63 

******* 

It should be understood that the foregoing does not include deportations from the 
Chicago district by Canadian border offices and the St. Louis station. 

******* 

In addition to work in connection with deportation cases, investigations have been 
made in 794 miscellaneous cases, consisting principally of cases of aliens detained at 
sea and land border ports. 



INVESTIGATIONS. 

Laborers, departing 51 

Merchants, departing 10 

Natives, departing 32 

Students, departing 5 

Traveler, departing 1 

Minor son of native, departing I 

Merchant status preinvestigated, account application of wife or minor son 

for admission 3 

Natives, arriving 2 

Merchants, returning 2 

Applications for duplicate certificates of residence 6 

Application for duplicate certificate of identity 1 

Investigations at the request of other cities 38 

Examination of application for Chinese interpreter 1 

Total 153 



CASES IN COURT. 

Arrest cases pending July 1, 1912 50 

Arrests 27 

Total 77 



DISPOSITION OF CASES. 

Ordered deported by United States commissioners 9 

Discharged by United States commissioners 3 

Ordered deported by department 12 

Ordered deported by United States district courts 21 

Discharged by United States district courts 19 

Case dismissed by United States district court because of death of defendant. . 1 

Ordered deported by Circuit Court of Appeals 3 

Forfeited bond 2 

Deported on department warrant 7 

Deported on court order of deportation 22 

CRIMINAL CASES. 

Convicted of personating the proper holder of certificate of residence " 2 

HABEAS CORPUS CASES. 

Appealed by Government (reversed by Circuit Court of Appeals) 1 

Appealed by alien (affirmed by Circuit Court of Appeals) 1 

Application for writ denied by United States District Court 1 

Cases pending July 1, 1913 20 



212 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

ARRIVING IMMIGRANTS. 

The past year has shown a still greater increase than the previous year in the number 
of requests received from ports of entry for investigations concerning arriving aliens. 
Particular attention has been given to ascertaining the living conditions and general 
environments at addresses to which aliens are destined. The necessity for the exer- 
cise of care in this respect is considered quite essential in cases of unaccompanied 
female aliens, as well as children under sixteen years of age not accompanied by 
either parent or guardian. It has been the policy of the office to determine, if possible, 
Avhether such aliens are to be under the surveillance of a responsible person of 
decent character. Not infrequently a false claim of relationship is made by arriving 
aliens with the hope of facilitating admission. 

In connection with investigations at interior points to which aliens are destined, 
it has been noted that a uniform policy does not prevail at the different ports of arrival. 
It would appear that if the practice of having these investigations made is worthy of 
the time and labor involved it should be generally followed. There would doubtless 
be no difference of opinion as to the importance of examining officers at the ports of 
arrival being placed in possession of reliable information concerning the conditions 
under which inexperienced aliens are to live. With respect to cases of the class 
referred to, department's Form 547 (sworn statement submitted by relative of arriving 
immigrants) is now extensively used by relatives and friends in anticipation of the 
arrival of aliens. There would appear to be some doubt, however, whether the form 
referred to serves as reliably and completely as first-hand investigations made by 
immigrant inspectors upon request of the officer in charge at the port of entry after the 
alien has actually arrived and applied for admission. Form 547 provides for detailed 
information concerning both the expected immigrant and the relative or friend 
executing the statement, which is subscribed to under oath. When this statement 
is submitted, this office undertakes to verify the relationship claimed, as well as 
income, property holdings, and savings. Should there arise doubt concerning living 
conditions, investigation is made with reference thereto. It has been noted that a 
large number of relatives appear at this office to make use of Form 547, in response 
to telegraphic notifications sent from the port of entry by the steamship office of the 
line bringing the detained alien. It is believed that signing under oath a statement 
such as provided for in Form 547 serves to impress the person signing with a moral 
responsibility that serves for the protection of the Government and contributes to a 
more careful supervision of the alien, particularly in the case of children under sixteen. 

An astonishing situation concerning living conditions in Chicago among immigrants 
has recently been brought to light with reference to Armenian laborers, a large number 
having been found occupying a building of 13 rooms, the size of each room being 
6 by 8 feet, with a storeroom on the first floor 25 by 30 feet. From 3 to 5 men were 
sleeping on wooden beds in each of the small rooms, while from 20 to 30 men slept on 
the floor of the storeroom. Also, at South Deering in a storeroom 25 by 40 feet there 
were found 15 beds, with 2 tables for eating purposes and a cookstove. It is unneces- 
sary to state that at both of these places a condition of squalor existed. The presence 
of immigrants living under such a standard discredits both the men themselves and 
the Government. The situation may well be regarded as a disgrace to the community. 
Any concern or individual employing laborers living under such conditions might 
well give serious consideration to providing suitable housing accommodations for its 
employees. 

Further, concerning alien children under 16 years of age, my attention has been 
called, through the work of private agencies, to the fact that school attendance of 
immigrant children is sadly neglected. It is believed that cooperation with State 
authorities, whereby the latter might be supplied with the names and destination of 
immigrant children, might result in a more complete school attendance. 

DEPORTATIONS. 

This branch of the work presents an interesting study. There are seen tne tragic 
failures of men and women in their attempts to make themselves self-supporting. 
Defective physical equipment renders not a few incapable of success; others succumb 
to the development of mental defects and, becoming hopelessly insane, are returned to 
be cared for by the country of which they are citizens. Another unfortunate deserving 
of our sympathy is the tubercular immigrant who begins life in the new country full 
of hope and with bright prospects, but is forced finally to give way to the insidious 
progress of that dread disease, the germs of which lay dormant in his system when he 
first landed on Americar soil. It then becomes necessary to return him to his home 
country. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 213 
' ' WHITE-SLAVE TRAFFIC. ' ' 

In dealing with the sexually immoral class, not infrequently there develops evi- 
dence, in the process of deportation, of an appalling character, showing the influences 
which have resulted in the tragic wrecking of human lives. We consider it fortunate 
that it has been possible to remove from this immigration district, and particularly 
from Chicago, a number of men found operating extensively in commercial prostitu- 
tion. It is encouraging also that convictions have been secured calculated to lessen 
the number caring to risk their freedom by engaging in this nefarious traffic. The 
establishment of a morals court in Chicago has served to assist the Government in the 
application of the immigration laws; also, valuable assistance has been given through 
the cooperation of the bureau of investigation of the Department of Justice; likewise, 
by other organizations working for the betterment of moral conditions. Disappoint- 
ment has been met with in the failure to deport prostitutes by reason of their marriage 
to United States citizens subsequent to their arrest and prior to being given a hearing. 
The purposes of the immigration law have in this manner been defeated in a number 
of aggravated cases. Such marriages invariably are contracted for the sole purpose 
above indicated, and do not serve to cause the women in the cases to discontinue the 
practice of prostitution. There would seem to be a serious need of legislation intended 
to make it impossible for a woman of the confirmed prostitute class to obtain citizen- 
drip in the manner indicated, either by marriage to a native or naturalized citizen of 
the United States. 

. SURREPTITIOUS ENTRY OF ALIENS. 

Recent developments appear to show Chicago the first destination of aliens who 
have succeeded in eluding the vigilance of the border inspectors at the north of this 
district and have accomplished surreptitious entry. It may reasonably be assumed 
that such aliens belong to the inadmissible class and may be regarded as totally 
undesirable. Effort is being made to disclose the plans followed in accomplishing 
unlawful entrance in this manner. 



ADMINISTERING THE CHINESE-EXCLUSION LAW. 

The work performed in this district during the last fiscal year in connection with 
the investigation of Chinese applying for return certificates as lawfully domiciled 
laborers, or members of the exempt classes, presents no unusual features. A smaller 
number of these applications were filed than during the preceding fiscal year. It is 
not believed that this is to be accounted for upon the basis of a decreased Chinese 
population. As the investigations in the past in this district have been conducted 
with great care and many frauds were detected on that account, it is my belief that 
the Chinese with fraudulent claims have, to a considerable extent, filed their appli- 
cations at other ports, where their antecedents were not known and where, on that 
account, their cases would more likely pass inspection. It is a practice prevalent 
among Chinese, and particularly among laborers posing as merchants and those who 
claim American nativity, to go to the larger ports, such as San Francisco and Seattle, 
and there, with the aid of the local Chinese, establish fraudulent claims as members 
of the exempt classes or as natives. It is my opinion that an effort should be made, 
by close questioning of applicants and by cooperation between the various districts, 
to determine whether they are residents of districts where they make application, 
and if it be shown that they had recently come from another jurisdiction, the matter 
should be referred for investigation to the place of their former residence. • 

A total of 77 cases of arrested Chinese have been handled during the year. We 
were successful in all Chinese cases brought before the Circuit Court of Appeals 
during the year, both under the exclusion act and on habeas corpus. This court 
rendered an opinion in the case of United States v. Sue Lung of great value in our 
work and of far-reaching effect. This opinion is not only in accord with other 
decisions of the same court upon the question of the finality of the decision of the 
Secretary in warrant proceedings, but is of peculiar value in that it hole's that a state- 
ment made by an arrested alien before he has consulted friends or counsel is of greater 
weight than his testimony given at the hearing, after he has been advised by an 
attorney. We have met with success in the cases handled before United States 
commissioners. The most difficult situation to meet in connection with the prosecu- 
tion of Chinese cases before the courts in Chicago is found in the district court. The 
calendar of this court is always overcrowded, and this situation has been aggravated 
during the past year because of an unfilled vacancy on this bench. On this account 
it has been found difficult to bring Chinese cases to trial. Last spring some 58 c 



214 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER. GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

had accumulated before the district court. In order to dispose of them a special cal- 
endar was made up. Three outside judges heard the cases. * * * Out of the cal- 
endar, more were ordered deported than where discharged. Our experience each year 
demonstrates more clearly that a thoroughly effective enforcement of the law through 
the courts is next to impossible, especially in a congested center. The long delays, 
which appear to be inevitable when cases are appealed, gives time for the coaching 
of witnesses and for the arrested Chinese to become conversant with the English lan- 
guage. It will, of course, continue to be necessary to bring a certain class of cases 
under the exclusion law before the courts, but our experience shows that in such 
cases as can be brought before the department under the immigration law much more 
satisfactory results follow. The department has ordered 12 Chinese deported during 
the past year and none discharged. More Chinese were deported during the present 
year than the preceding one, there being a total of 29 deportations. 

The smuggling of Chinese from the border points into Chicago is still carried on, and 
doubtless so long as there is a law prohibiting their entry a way will be found to enter. 
It is, of course, impossible to cover all the avenues of entry through so large a center 
as Chicago, especially when it is taken into consideration that only one inspector 
devotes his attention entirely to the Chinese work in this district; but, judging from 
the statements contained in Chinese letters seized in the various raids and on the 
persons of those who have recently arrived, it is apparent that Chinese realize their 
entry is not without danger of apprehension. I believe that more inspectors should 
be assigned to Chinese work in this city and at the border point of Detroit, which is 
the principal place of entry for those destined to Chicago. The Chinese population 
of this city is so large that practically the only limit upon the number of arrests made 
is the ability of the officers and the courts to dispose of the cases. With a considerable 
volume of office work necessary in the handling of applications and investigations, 
only a fraction of the time of the officer assigned to Chinese work can be given to the 
enforcement of the law in the field . 

I believe that, considering the situation as a whole, the administration of the exclu- 
sion law in this district is well in hand. 

CONTRACT LABOR. 

Activities directed toward the enforcement of the contract labor laws have been 
attended with extreme difficulties. However, investigations made at the request of 
different ports of arrival have resulted in the exclusion of many aliens coming under 
inducements or solicitations to perform labor. Important investigations involving 
the cause and method of immigration of large numbers of laborers coming from certain 
quarters of Europe and destined to the same general locality in this country are now 
in progress and give promise of disclosing evidence of value. A close study of con- 
ditions indicates the possible existence of an invisible system whereby employers are 
now supplied with alien laborers direct from Europe. 

One of the most conspicuous contract labor cases handled in this district was that of 
the Wilson Bros., of Woodstock, Ontario. This is a Canadian ship timber concern 
and is found operating extensively in Wisconsin and West Virginia. During the 
progress of the investigation the company admitted bringing to the United States 29 
Canadian workmen from the Province of Quebec, Ontario. The return of all of these 
men was accomplished and a satisfactory monetary settlement seemed with the con- 
cern involved in their importation. The publicity given this case so stirred certain 
other employers as to cause a hasty exit to Canada of a considerable number of aliens 
who had migrated under similar conditions. 

Another noteworthy case was that of Superintendent Cochrane, of the Kewanee 
Boiler Works, Kewanee, 111. The superintendent wrote a former employee, one 
Alidor Wanchet, in Belgium, telling him "to bring as many men as he could, up to 
50," and offering $2 per day. Wanchet, subsequent to the sending of this letter, 
arrived at Ellis Island accompanied by 23 alien workmen, all of whom were excluded. 
The evidence in the case is now before the proper United States attorney. 

In our last report we referred to inquiry being made into the conditions under which 
numerous Greek boys were employed in Chicago and other cities in this district. 
Attention given this situation, we believe, has served to diminish the number of 
victims of a padrone system, notwithstanding it having been found impossible^ to 
secure evidence of a character necessary to convict certain proprietors of shoeshine 
establishments, hotels, restaurants, and other branches of business employing Greek 
boys. It was ascertained that wages had been withheld from boys and that they 
were made to submit to conditions of living that were disastrous to the proper develop- 
ment of the individual. We were successful in securing for a number of such boys 
suitable employment where living wages would be promptly forthcoming. Good 
results have followed this humane effort. 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 215 

CONCLUSION. 

The diversified nature of the work required of officers at the Chicago station makes 
it essential that such officers be persons of ability and training. It is important also 
that officers be qualified and disposed to take the initiative in disclosing violations of 
law. The work to be accomplished is by no means routine and officers inclined only 
to interest themselves in regular duties are apt to be a burden to the station. Not all 
officers may be qualified along the same lines but each may develop work along par- 
ticular lines in which they possess aptitude. It has been our effort to maintain a 
high degree of efficiency. p L p RENTIS 

Inspector in < 'hnrge. 

EEPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 12, COMPRISING 
MINNESOTA AND NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA, WITH HEAD- 
QUARTERS AT MINNEAPOLIS. 

I beg to submit the following summarized report of immigration work, district 
No. 12: 

DEPORTATION CASES. 

Deportation cases pending in local office or before the department at close of fiscal 

year ended June 30, 1912 31 

(Deportations ordered, 14; awaiting final department decision, 8; warrants 
of arrest issued but not served, 2; warrants of arrest served, but hearings not 
completed, 3; cases pending in local office before submission to department, 4.) 
Aliens reported during the year for investigation and deportation 115 

Total cases considered 146 

DEPORTATION CASES NOT REPORTED TO DEPARTMENT AND DISPOSITION OF SAME. 

Awaiting additional evidence before submission of cases to bureau 9 

Cases dismissed because of expiration of time limit 12 

Cases dismissed because of insufficient evidence 14 

Died before report to department 2 

Committed suicide 1 

Dismissed account American citizenship 1 

Aliens nut located in district 1 

Cases dismissed and deported by friends 2 

Referred to Duluth office 2 

Referred to Chicago office 1 

Total 45 

DEPORTATION CASES REPORTED TO DEPARTMENT AND DISPOSITION OF SAME. 

Deportations accomplished during fiscal year (including 3 delivered by Chicago 

office) 36 

Deportations ordered but not accomplished at close of present fiscal year, June 30, 

1913 (including 6 carried over from previous year) 16 

Deportations ordered but not accomplished at close of present fiscal year — aliens, 

Leavenworth Penitentiary ; warrants to St. Louis office for execution 2 

Deportation warrant issued to Des Moines office — alien escaped and reported to 

Minneapolis 1 

Deportation warrants canceled by Secretary 2 

Deportation warrants canceled by death 2 

Arrest warrants issued but not served at close of present fiscal year 2 

Arrest warrants served, but hearings not submitted to department at close of fiscal 

year 4 

Arrest warrants served, decision on hearings not received from department at 

close of year 1 

Arrest warrants canceled by Secretary after hearings 27 

Arrest warrants canceled by Secretary without hearings, on recommendation 1 

Arrest warrants canceled on issuance of bonds 2 

Arrest warrants issued to Minneapolis office and referred to Duluth 2 

Arrest warrants denied by Secretary 3 

Total 101 

Total deportations from district No. 12 51 



216 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The foregoing report, by comparison with the one for fiscal year ended June 30, 1912, 
shows a decrease in the Minneapolis office of 21 deportations. Reports of deportations 
from this district by the Duluth and Winnipeg offices also show a decrease of 22, 
making a total decrease of 43. 

Investigations to the number of 134, exclusive of those made with respect to a large 
number of local affidavits (Form 547) submitted prior to arrival of aliens, were 
conducted. 

There has been a notable increase in the number of immigration examinations for 
naturalization purposes. However, 29 such cases were ending in this district at close 
of year. Most of the applicants live in remote or sparsely settled sections, and it is 
very uncertain when such cases will be reached, official business seldom, if ever, 
taking an inspector to those neighborhoods. This new branch of immigration work 
has added considerably to the volume of local correspondence. At times it is very 
difficult to make applicants realize that such examinations are accorded by this 
service as an accommodation, and that no expense can be incurred therefor. Such 
examinations, moreover, are seldom satisfactory to the examining officer, as there is 
little or no corroborative evidence obtainable as to time and port of entry . Certificates 
of arrival (Form 526) are necessarily based on applicant's sworn statement. Occa- 
sionally these examinations develop the fact that applicant deserted from ship's crew 
or came under an assumed name . 

CONTRACT LABOR. 

Three contract-labor cases from last year, which had been set for trial, weredismissed 
by the Government, two by direction of the department and one by direction of the 
district attorney. 

One contract-labor case in Iowa was continued from term to term. The bureau 
recently directed a reinvestigation of this case. 

So far as I can ascertain (or believe) there are few violations of the contract-labor law 
in this district. This is primarily an agricultura 1 district , with iron mining in northern 
Minnesota and principal manufacturing industries in Minneapolis, St. Paul, and 
Duluth, the three largest cities. 



Preinvestigations have been made in 28 cases, and investigations of arriving Chinese 
in 6 cases. In addition 8 miscellaneous investigations have been conducted. 
******* 

Of three arrested Chinese in Minnesota whose appeals from commissioners' decisions 
were pending June 30, 1912, two were discharged by the United States district court, 
and one, failing to perfect appeal to United States circuit court of appeals, stands 
ordered deported (effective on filing mandate 60 days from June 20, 1913). 

Sue Lung, arrested at Duluth, Minn., under Chinese exclusion law, was ordered 
deported, appealed, appeal dismissed, and later deported under previous immigration 
warrant, originally issued to Chicago office. (Effective on decision of Circuit Court 
of Appeals from District Court, Northern District of Illinois.) 

Other Chinese arrested during last fiscal year in Minnesota under exclusion law- 
discharged, 3; ordered deported, 1; appealed to district court and pending, 1. 

In this connection would state that the district judges and commissioners in 
Minnesota (with the exception of one commissioner) are seemingly inclined to favor 
the defendants in Chinese exclusion proceedings, and it is almost impossible to obtain 
an order of deportation. With this apparent antagonism to the present Chinese 
exclusion law, it is almost useless to make any arrests in this district. The cases 
which we have lost this year were believed to be unusually good ones. In our opinion, 
the testimony for defendant, while uncontradicted, has not been sufficiently con- 
clusive to warrant discharge. Similar opinion was expressed in annual report for 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1911. 

Chas. W. Seaman, 

Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 217 

REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 13, COMPRISING 
MISSOURI, IOWA, KANSAS, AND OKLAHOMA WITH HEADQUARTERS 
AT ST. LOUIS. 

I have the honor to submit herewith a report of the transactions of this office covering 
particularly all important investigations, inquiries, etc., coming before the central 
office at St. Louis and our branch offices at Kansas City and Des Moines, relating to 
immigration and Chinese cases arising in the thirteenth district and referred to our 
offices from other districts, during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913. 

Owing in part to the nature of the work and still more to the smallness of our official 
and clerical force, it is impossible to record in formal manner all of the multitudinous 
items of business transacted by our officers, but the more important are regularly 
recorded and systematically filed, and while the greater number are cases which upon 
investigation develop little importance they are handled merely by memoranda. 

Approximately 2,600 case3 have had the attention of this office during the past 
fiscal year, while very many other cases of minor importance have been passed upon 
in the district by our branch offices and our inspectors in the field. The transactions 
of particular importance are set forth in statistical form on the following pages: 

IMMIGRATION CASES INVESTIGATED DURING FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1913. 

A total of 218 cases were reported to the St. Louis office for deportation by the 
State, county, and municipal authorities of the district during the year, concerning 
which the following shows the classification and action taken: 



Cause. 


Report- 
ed. 


Deport- 
ed. 


Not de- 
ported. 


Pend- 
ing. 


Insane 


39 

2 

15 

162 


25 
1 
9 

55 


6 

6 
83 


8 




1 


Tuberculosis 






24 








Total 


218 


90 


95 


33 







From other sources there were reported 382 cases which have been investigated 
with a view to deportation proceedings. These are classified and recorded as follows: 



Class. 


Investi- 
gated. 


Deport- 
ed. 


Not de- 
ported. 


Pend- 
ing. 




110 
35 
39 
27 
8 

140 

23 


."4 
14 
14 
10 
2 
21 

1 


52 
21 
18 
15 
4 
108 


24 








7 


Illegal entry 


2 


Insane 


2 




11 


Warrants of deportation received for aliens sent to United States 
penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kans., from other districts. . . . 


22 






Total 


382 


96 


218 


68 







NOT DEPORTED. 

Above-mentioned cases were not deported, for the reasons set forth below: 

Aliens not apprehended 33 

Insufficient grounds for institution of warrant proceedings 139 

Evidence insufficient for deportation, though warrant of arrest issued 36 

Alien left country before service of warrant of arrest 2 

Died 2 

United States citizen 6 

Total 218 



218 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

DEPORTATIONS. 

Aliens deported whose cases were pending at close of last fiscal year 20 

Aliens deported, current fiscal year cases 186 

Aliens act ually deported, current fiscal year 206 

In addition to above-mentioned deportation cases, special investigations have 
been made in 462 cases of importance, and there were between 1,200 and 1,500 cases 
of minor character which required more or less investigation but which were not 
formally recorded. 

Departing Chinese 17 

Arriving Chinese 4 

Applications for duplicate certificate 2 

Other investigations 22 

Total 45 

Cases in court. 

Cases pending July 1, 1912 : Before United States district courts 1 

Arrests: 

For being unlawfully in the United States 3 

For being unlawfully in the United States (immigration warrants) 1 

■ 4 

Total 5 

Disposition of cases: 

Ordered discharged by United States commissioners 1 

Pending before United States district courts on appeal 2 

Deported t 2 

RECAPITULATION OP CASES INVESTIGATED DURING FISCAL YEAR. 

Reported by State, county, and municipal authorities for deportation 218 

Reported otherwise than above for deportation 382 

Miscellaneous immigration cases 462 

Chinese cases 45 

Court cases 5 

Total recorded cases 1, 112 

Minor investigations requiring careful consideration and more or less outlay of 

time and effort, but not recorded in official files, approximately 1, 500 

Grand total — all cases passed upon 2, 612 

The foregoing resume of official transactions in the thirteenth district shows a 
large increase in immigration work and a very slight increase in Chinese work over 
previous years. While there is a large Chinese population in the thirteenth district 
and it is well known that a considerable number — possibly 200 or 300 — of Chinese de- 
part each year for China, very few file applications for return certificates or preinves- 
tigation of status with onr offices, although it is well known that the greater number of 
them expect to return and do return to this sect. on. For some reason these Chinese 
prefer to leave the country without credentials or take their chances in being certi- 
fied as residents of other districts, the latter being a well-established custom, as is 
generally recognized. The actual work in this district in Chinese cases constitutes 
a very small percentage of the volume of our business, and immigration cases of various 
classes predominate to an enormous degree. 

The number of cases actually referred to our officers involving inquiry, examina- 
tion, investigation, correspondence, deportation proceedings, etc., is constantly 
increasing and during the past year has greatly exceeded our past record. Our 
deportations during %.e past year numbered 206, with a considerable number of cases 
pending on July 1, 1913, ancl the prospect is that deportations for the ensuing year 
will run nearer 300. Inquiries from ports of entry requiring investigation, the pass- 
ing upon affidavits prepared by the friends and relatives of detained aliens, and 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 219 

work of this character, which is urgent and compelling, occupies a large portion of the 
time of our officers and employees. 

I can not too highly commend the faithful and zealous efforts of the inspectors 
assigned to this district and the employees of this office, whose earnest devotion and 
cheerful compliance with the unusual demands upon them have rendered possible 
the results attained. 

At this point I respectfully and most urgently renew my request and recommen- 
dation for the transfer or appointment of two capable and experienced immigrant 
inspectors for immediate service in this district, to be assigned primarily to the St. 
Louis office, and for the appointment or transfer to the branch office at Kansas City 
of a capable clerk and stenographer. 

The work at Kansas City is of immense importance and constantly increasing. 
Local conditions are such that at least all of the time of one inspector is required 
for investigations which necessitate absence from the office more than half the time, 
while the number of callers at the office is so great that considerable confusion, loss 
joi time, and extra work are caused by the closing of the office in the absence of the 
inspector. Moreover, the expenses for clerk hire and stenographic services are very 
heavy, while of course, the inspector's work is hampered by the necessity for employ- 
ing outside stenographers, as at present. By all means there should be a clerk and 
stenographer on duty in the office at all times. 

I have endeavored in previous reports and special requisitions, as well as in my 
very pleasant personal conferences with the officials of the bureau at Washington, 
to impress the great need of the services of two additional inspectors for this office. 
As a matter of fact, I very seldom have the assistance of an inspector for local St. 
Louis work and am obliged, in addition to conducting our voluminous correspondence 
and directing all the office affairs, to handle all local examinations and investigations 
personally. This is cheerfully done to the limit of my capacity, but it is utterly 
impossible for one man to handle all such work, hence many cases must be neglected, 
and at all times there is the unpleasant and unfortunate condition of a mass of back 
work, much of which rightfully demands prompt and careful attention in justice 
to the persons involved and the interests of the Government. Without egotism I 
frankly say I do not believe that it is physically and mentally possible for any officer 
personally to handle a greater volume of business than is transacted by the inspector 
in charge under this constant and growing pressure. 

* * * * * * * 

The erection of an office at Des Moines during the past fiscal year was a measure 
which I long have hesitated to recommend because of the paucity of our working 
force and because comparatively very few cases arise at Des Moines calling for local 
investigation, although there is a very large and growing business to be handled in 
the State of Iowa. I think I am safe in saying that since Inspector Stretton has been 
assigned to Des Moines he has not been in that city one-sixth of his time. In Iowa 
the governor, board of control, the heads of -numerous State institutions, and the 
police authorities generally report cases arising at various points in the State, all 
calling for prompt action, and mostly at points distant from the Des Moines office. 
For these reasons there is no present need of a clerk or stenographer for the Iowa 
office, but at times — as, for instance, at the date of this report — I have been obliged 
to assign three inspectors to work at various points in that State. 

******* 

I respectfully renew a previous recommendation that the bureau issue for the 
information of all its field officers and others interested a monthly or weekly bulletin 
containing decisions and opinions which have the force of instructions as to methods 
of procedure, together with special and general orders, matters of departmental 
interest and suggestions, recommendations and bits of information which wdl tend 
to acquaint the field with the bureau's plans and intentions, its progressive methods 
and new developments in practice. Great good would result from the greater com- 
munity of interest and the harmonization and systematization which would be 
prompted by such publication. 

James R. Dunn, 
Inspector in ( '/i<ir</< . 



220 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 14, COMPRISING 
COLORADO, WYOMING, NEBRASKA, AND UTAH, WITH HEADQUAR- 
TERS AT DENVER. 

There is herewith submitted the annual report of immigration and Chinese trans 
actions in the fourteenth district for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913: 

Alien prostitutes: 

Pending June 30, 1912 4 

Arrested 9 

Deported 4 

Discharged _. 6 

Pending June 30, 1913 3 

Procurers : 

Pending June 30, 1912 1 

Arrested 2 

Discharged 1 

Deported 1 

Supported by proceeds of prostitution: 

Pending June 30, 1912 6 

Arrested 27 

Discharged 5 

Deported 18 

Pending June 30, 1913 10 

Eight of the above-pending cases, named as follows, have also been indicted and 
tried for violating the ''White-slave traffic act," and are now serving terms in the 
Federal penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kans. (warrants of arrest and orders of de- 
portation were forwarded to St. Louis office for execution when their terms expire) : 
Paul Gaye, Gazasimos Couloubis, James Theodorsan, Juan Mendez, Harry Loukas; 
Paul Onf ant alias Verne Gabriel; Joseph Edward Rapken alias Joe Edwards; Anthe- 
nasios Kaimenakis. 

Oreste Paganini, another one of the pending cases, is now serving a term in the 
Federal penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kans., for impersonating a Government officer. 
(Warrant of arrest and order of deportation were forwarded to St. Louis office for 
execution.) 

White-slave traffic act: 

Pending June 30, 1912 6 

Arrested 5 

Convicted 3 

Discharged 1 

Deported 1 

Pending June 30, 1913 8 

Insane aliens: 

Pending June 30, 1912 3 

Arrested - 4 

Discharged 1 

Deported G 

Alien public charges: 

Arrested 7 

Deported 7 

Criminal record prior to entry: 

Pending June 30, 1912 1 

Arrested 2 

Deported 1 

Pending June 30, 1913 2 

One of tbe above aliens now serving a term in Federal penitentiary at Leavenworth, 
Kans., to be deported after his term expires. 

Contract labor cases: 

Arrested 31 

Discharged 31 

Investigated 280 

Surreptitious entry: 

Arrested 1 

Discharged 1 

Investigated 3 

Miscellaneous 167 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 221 
CHINESE TRANSACTIONS. 

Chinese persons: 

Arrested 6 

Deported 1 

Discharged 5 

Application for laborer's return certificate 31 

Application for merchant's return certificate 5 

Investigations for admission of alleged sons of domiciled merchants 4 

Investigations for admission of domiciled merchants 1 

Investigations for admission of alleged natives or children of alleged native born. 6 

Certificates forwarded to the bureau for cancellation 11 

Applications for duplicate certificates 7 

Preinvestigation of native born 8 

Investigations for other offices 11 

Miscellaneous investigations 33 

Louis Adams, 

Inspector in charge. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 15, COMPRISING 
MONTANA AND IDAHO, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT HELENA. 

I submit herewith report of work done by this office during the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1913: 

It will be noted that there is again a falling off in the number of cases of immoral 
aliens handled; but in view of the fact that it has, during the past year, been thor- 
oughly settled that the three-year limit in this class is abolished, this falling off is due 
to but one cause, and that is that these aliens are becoming less numerous each year. 
If we had more cases to report, the showing on paper of the amount of work done 
would be greater, of course, than it is; biu with the falling off in the number of cases 
comes the fact that it requires more work to discover and develop a case, so that the 
amount of work done by the officers is approximately the same. In the deportations 
reported under "Illegal entry" (not otherwise classified) I would say that 2 were aliens 
who admitted having committed a crime before entering; 2 were wanted by their 
own government as fugitives, and 2 had been convicted of crime in this country. 

The number of Chinese arrests reported is small and the results very unsatisfactory; 
but until a law is passed authorizing these cases to be handled by departmental war- 
rants the result will always be so unsatisfactory as to raise a question whether it is 
advisable to make an arrest except where it is practically forced upon us. 

The number of investigations for certificates of arrival, Form 52fia, for naturaliza- 
tion purposes, have materially increased this year and will probably continue to in- 
crease. The great number of former American citizens who went to Canada in past 
years, attracted by cheap land, are now beginning to return to take up land in this 
section of the United States. This number will unquestionably increase for the next 
few years, as it seems to be common report among them that the lands of this section 
of the country are better adapted to farming than those of Canada. These aliens, 
having been once American citizens, are quite apt to be careless of inspection upon 
their entry, many of them apparently thinking that they still retain their American 
citizenship. Owing to the great distances between immigration stations and customs 
offices along the northern border of Montana quite a few aliens drive over the line 
rather than go to the trouble and expense of shipping their goods by rail through a 
regular customs or immigration port. Without doubt this class of work will continue 
to increase until all the agricultural land of Montana is settled upon. 

Status of Immigration Cases (Other than Chinese), Fiscal Year Ending June 

30, 1913. 

PROCURERS. 

Criminal proceedings instituted fiscal year 2 

Convicted 2 

Deportation proceedings: 

Pending deportation June 30, 1912 (warrant issued; 1 

Proceedings in progress June 30, 1912 1 

Cases handled fiscal year 6 

Total 8 



222 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Deportation proceedings — Continued. 
Disposition — • 

Deported 3 

Pending deportation June 30, 1913 1 

Proceedings in progress June 30, 1913 3 

Lack of evidence for warrant process 1 

Total 8 

PROSTITUTES. 

Proceedings in progress June 30, 1912 2 

Investigations fiscal year 14 

Total 16 

Disposition: 

Deported 3 

Pending deportation June 30, 1913 3 

"Warrant arrest or deportation canceled 3 

Lack of evidence for warrant pr< >cess 7 

Total 16 

PUBLIC CHARGES. 

Deportation proceedings in progress June 30, 1912 2 

Cases handled fiscal year , 4 

Total 6 

Disposition: 

Deported «. 3 

Lack of evidence for warrant process 3 

Total 6 

ILLEGAL ENTRY. 

Pending deportation June 30, 1912 (warrant issued) 3 

Under investigation June 30, 1912 2 

Cases handled current fiscal year 30 

Total 35 

Disposition: 

Deported 8 

Under investigation June 30, 1913 8 

Warrant arrest or deportation canceled 11 

Escaped ' 2 

Lack of evidence for warrant proceedings 5 

Not apprehended 1 

Total 35 

NATURALIZATION. 

Certificates arrival, Form 526a: 

Pending investigation June 30, L912 1 

Cases of current fiscal year 66 

Total 67 

Disposition — 

Certificates granted or issuance recommended 41 

Under investigation June 30, 1913 23 

Referred to other districts 1 

Application withdrawn 2 

Total 67 

1 From city or county jails. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 223 

VARIOUS. 

Referred to or from other districts for data ' 29 

Unclassified 2 

Total 31 

Total immigration 165 

Status of Chinese Cases Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1913. 

cases in court. 

Arrests made during fiscal year 3 

Disposition: 

Discharged by United States commissioners 2 

Pending before United States commissioners 1 

Total 3 

DEPARTMENT WARRANT PROCEEDINGS. 

Cases fiscal year (warrant canceled) 2 

INVESTIGATIONS. 

Laborers : 

Pending investigation June 30. 1912 3 

Cases of fiscal year .' 52 

Total 55 

Disposition — 

Departing 48 

Duplicate certificates residence 4 

'Investigations pending 3 

Total 55 

Merchants: 

Pending investigation June 30, 1912 1 

Cases of fiscal year 24 

Total 25 

Disposition — 

Departing 18 

Returning 1 

Sons applying for admission 3 

Sons applying for preinvestigation status 1 

Investigations pending 2 

Total 25 

Natives : 

Pending investigation June 30, 1912 1 

Cases of fiscal year 17 

Total IS 

Disposition — 

Departing " 14 

Applying for admission 1 

Sons applying for admisssion 3 

Total . 18 

Total Chinese 103 

!Not otherwise included. 



224 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Status of Investigations Under "White Slave Act" Fiscal Year Ending 

June 30, 1913. 

Pending prosecution June 30, 1912 (indictment returned) 3 

Cases handled fiscal year 15 

Total 18 

Disposition: 

Criminal proceedings — 

Held to Federal grand jury by United States commissioners 6 

United States district court — 

Convicted 8 

Pending prosecution June 30, 1913 (indicted) 1 

Total 9 

Investigations made which, when completed, would not justify com- 
plaint 3 

Referred to Department of Justice for investigation 3 

Referred to or from other districts for investigation l 3 

Total 18 

Lorenzo T. Plummer, 

Inspector in charge. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, SEATTLE, IN CHARGE 
OF DISTRICT NO. 16, COMPRISING THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

In submitting my report of the work of the immigration service in this jurisdic- 
tion for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, I wish to say in the beginning that there 
has been the most perfect cooperation from officers throughout the district, and by 
combined harmony and energy and singleness of purpose we have the pleasure of 
reviewing a year of accomplishment with the least possible expenditure of money. 
It has been our constant aim to accomplish as much as possible with the least possible 
expenditure, and we find much satisfaction in reviewing our work to find that our 
aim has been rewarded by much success. Our union of purpose and effort has been 
to so conduct the work of this jurisdiction, under the general supervision of the Wash- 
ington authorities, to the end that the aim of the law would be satisfied to the limit 
of possibility, namely, to accomplish all possible consistent with the allotted amount 
of funds. We are much indebted, of course, to the supervising authorities at Wash- 
ington for direction in general, and in many special knotty problems arising from 
time to time in particular cases for the degree of efficiency shown in the work of our 
officers. 

character of immigration. 

The Chinese and Japanese comprise the chief bulk of immigration through this 
district. A few of a substantial class of Russians arrive from time to time, almost 
uniformly of the admissible classes. Other European arrivals are admitted occasion- 
ally only, there being few of such arrivals. The Hindus are arriving from the Philip- 
pine Islands, and in numbers to cause more or less apprehension; this is a matter, 
however, of sufficient importance for special attention further on in this report. It 
may be of interest to note that there are no Hindu laborers admitted through this 
district, excepting those arriving from the Philippines. Our officers have most 
effectively applied the existing law as against the admission of Hindu laborers arriv- 
ing from their native country, and so effective has been the application of the law 
that there are no more arriving. 

hospital treatment. 

The question of hospital treatment, which for a time it seemed would completely 
overtax the capacity of our building, seems to have been favorably adjusted to such 
an extent that we are now able to accommodate all who are certified. Arriving aliens 
suffering from the disease known as "hookworm," or unicinariasis, were permitted 

1 Not otherwise included. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 225 

to receive treatment in the immigration building and when all the arrivals Mere 
examined here for this disease for the first time it was found that the number certified 
to be so afflicted as compared with the number of arrivals was very great. This was 
presenting a serious problem when the matter was favorably adjusted through the 
bureau bringing about the arrangement whereby aliens are examined for this particular 
disease before embarkation. The matter has been so satisfactorily adjusted that 
no further serious problem is anticipated because of this disease. The prevalence 
of this disease, however, has caused difficulties in more ways than one. For a time 
it was thought that the disease should most always be detected by careful examina- 
tion before embarkation, and our medical examiner at this port, acting upon this 
belief, certified in a number of cases that the presence of the disease could have been 
detected by a careful medical examination before embarkation, upon which certifi- 
cate, of course, action was taken looking toward the collection of fines from the 
steamship companies bringing the aliens. It was finally determined that this, as a 
general rule, was unjust to the steamship companies for the reason that even after 
the most skillful examination just prior to embarkation the presence of this disease 
might be detected at the port of arrival. This being the case, the medical examiner 
has been slow to certify that the disease in any particular case could have been detected 
before embarkation, which accounts for the small number of fines as compared with 
the number certified as having the disease. It seems that the medical examiner is 
slow to determine and decide whether the presence of the disease might have been 
detected even after the most skillful 'examination just before the date of embarka- 
tion. However, should the percentage begin to increase materially over that of the 
present our medical examiners might feel that it was due to lack of proper medical 
examination prior to embarkation, and they might, in such event, determine to make 
certificates adverse to the steamship companies material interests. 

IMMIGRATION BUILDING. 

In August, 1912, there was completed certain changes in our immigration building 
which included one additional large room and which has proven of much benefit in 
accommodating greater numbers, and also in making proper segregation in certain 
cases which seemed almost impossible before the changes and added rooming accom- 
modations. However, this building is utterly inadequate to properly accommodate 
the service at this station, and in this I am satisfied that the bureau and department 
are in full accord with my views. It seems that this is an important matter that should 
be most energetically urged upon Congress at the very earliest practicable moment. 
Upon the opening of the Panama Canal, should immigration increase through this 
port to any considerable extent it will be a physical impossibility to make this building 
do at all. While the increase in immigration upon the opening of the canal is problem- 
atical, yet it is the part of wisdom, it seems to me, to be prepared for an increase of a 
few thousand each year at least. I am not anticipating any very great increase, but 
it is only reasonable to presume that there will be a slight increase, and with our pres- 
ent accommodations we are illy prepared for any increase whatever. The Seattle 
harbor is in process of reconstruction at the present time and an early appropriation 
by Congress for a new immigration building here will enable our service to get a proper 
location at reasonable figures. It is quite an item to be located satisfactorily from a 
viewpoint of expense as well as general convenience for all parties concerned. I can 
not too strongly urge vigorous action looking to an early appropriation for the location 
and erection of a suitable immigration building at this port. It will save much incon- 
venience, expense, and embarrassment in the near future. Quick action in this 
matter is imperative if Congress considers the interest and welfare of our service in 
this district. 

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION. 

The work of the district has increased in both volume and efficiency. Each officer 
has accomplished a little more and with a greater degree of skill. It is but just and 
fair to our officers who have rendered such valuable service to take proper notice of it 
in this report. This district has enjoyed every blessing that results from full, loyal, 
and forceful cooperation; the full measure that is the product of perfect harmony; 
this, together with the direction and support from Washington, allows us to point with 
pride to the accomplishments of the past year. Our officers have often been taxed to 
the limit in order to do what was necessary to be done within the required time and 
with the required skill, but to their credit it may be said no failure has been recorded — 
none made to record. The character of the work which confronts our officers in this 
district often requires the most careful thought and greatest skill in finally determining 
what action to take. 1 1 often takes much research to determine all thi tacts necessary 

768(>°— 14 15 



226 KEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

to aacertain the exact status of a case as well as much skill in making the research. 
To properly appreciate the work of the district there must be taken into account not 
only the volume of work but also the character of the work, with emphasis on the 
character. When this is emphasized and the few officers who are employed in doing 
it there is much room for congratulation. 

UNLAWFUL ENTRIES. 

One phase of our work which makes but little show and yet is very important is the 
efforts of our officers to prevent unlawful entries from Canada. The figures will show 
that this number is comparatively very great. The number of aliens apprehended 
and returned to Canada by the few officers we have indicates two things, namely, that 
our officers are very active and that their presence and activity prevents an invasion 
of undesirable aliens — aliens who add nothing desirable to our life. To prevent 
undesirable immigration at every point is certainly of the highest degree of importance. 
It is the sifting process which must be a prominent factor in determining the future 
of our national life. A part of this process is in apprehending after unlawful entry as 
well as at the port upon application for entry. While our officers have returned a 
creditably large number of unlawful entries, it is only an index to the number which 
would be silently recorded by mingling with our people and finally leaving a lasting 
impress upon the character of our industrial and social fabric, and that which would 
tend to lower rather than to elevate; retard rather than hasten the goal of our standard, 
were it not for the deterrent effect of the presence of the officers as well as the important 
results of their activity. The energy and skill of these officers is worthy of mention 
and results in the satisfaction of feeling that this important task is in the care of those 
who are highly trustworthy in every sense. While this work does not require the 
same character of skill as other work of immigration officers it does require a certain 
character of skill and diplomacy which the officers assigned to duty there possess in a 
high degree, and hence the flattering record each has made for himself. 

UNDESIRABLE PERSONS. 

The question of certain undesirable persons who require much of our time and 
attention is as old as man, and I presume will be a question as long as man is, or at 
least as long as he is constituted as he is. So long as human nature remains as at 
present there will doubtless be those who, for hire, will act as go-between for male and 
female who seek unlawful cohabitation. The procurers and prostitutes are as old as 
human history and we presume that time will not efface them. This being the case, 
it is an ever-present evil which will require ceaseless attention in order to prevent the 
undermining of the social fabric. There possibly is no other evil so far-reaching or 
so deadly in its ultimate results, and consequently there is no other evil which requires 
such constant vigilance. We have left no leaf unturned that would aid in the detec- 
tion and apprehension of those responsible for this blighting evil. While the record 
speaks volumes it is only a poor index to the labor which has been spent in an attempt 
to keep at the lowest possible ebb this loathsome blight so far as this district is con- 
cerned. Constant attention to this one evil should never cease. To cease activity 
against this social crime or to permit it to abate in the least is incompatible with any 
desire of suppression, for our only hope of even comparative suppression is tireless 
pursuit. It is true that burglaries are often prevented by noise. This is by reason 
of the fact that crime is always afraid of detection and therefore trembles at noise or 
light; for this reason as much noise as possible should follow the result of the activities 
of our officers. Persons of normal minds naturally take more pleasure in preventing 
crime than in apprehending it. Carrying out this idea I deem it wise to have pub- 
lished broadcast the net results of the activities of our officers in the suppression of 
this particular evil, the results so far as it relates to the number of prosecutions, con- 
victions, etc., of those engaged in this unlawful practice. The more difficulties 
thrown in the way of crime checks it just so much, and every check, however small, 
does some good. 

STOWAWAYS. 

Year after year we are required to spend much time and money in preventing the 
landing of stowaways. Some of the steamship companies cooperate with us in trying 
to prevent the landing of the stowaway, but others do not. It seems to me, as I have 
said before, that it should be made the duty of the steamship companies to detect 
these people and to deliver them, upon arrival, to the immigration officials. The 
company's officials in charge of a vessel should know who is on board. These officials 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 227 

are in absolute charge and control and they should be expected to detect the presence 
of stowaways more easily than any other person, and as a matter of fact they can. 
Were the law so amended that responsibility would attach immediately upon the 
apprehension of a stowaway by an immigration officer there is no doubt in my mind 
but the stowaway would have little chance of ever landing. The officers of the ves- 
sels should be required to apprehend and deliver to the immigration officers, upon 
arrival, all stowaways, or at least before they are apprehended by our officers. Should 
they be apprehended by our officers a fine should attach at the discretion of the Sec- 
retary. The question of the fine in any event, in my judgment, should be left to the 
Secretary and not to the court. Had the Secretary full power to assess fines in such 
cases there would be few stowaways landed. By reason of the fact that as the law 
now is there is little chance of penalizing anyone connected with the landing of stow- 
aways, there is little or no effort on the part of the officials of the steamship com- 
panies to put a stop to the business; hence it requires constant vigilance on the part 
of our officers, while little or no attention is paid to it by those directly responsible. 

THE ANARCHIST. 

In my judgment there is no more important question confronting our people than 
the question of anarchy. That the anarchist is among us and silently but steadily 
and surely laying his plan3 of destruction there can be little doubt. The outspoken 
enemies of all forms of organized government are those, most always, who have been 
in this country more than three years. The anarchist of foreign birth, and most all 
are, remains very quiet, as a rule, until the time limit protects him from deportation, 
and then he is loud and boisterous and begins his maniac cry against all forms of 
organized government; excepting, perhaps, some form of government suggested to him 
through his unbridled, formless, hallucinari, and degenerate brain, which is always 
incapable of logical thought. In my judgment, there is no room in this country for 
this class of mental degenerates, and there should be no time limit to their deportation. 
We doubtless all welcome those who are willing to reason with us on the question of 
the form and limits of government, but he who seeks to destroy rather than to aid in 
construction has no place in the affairs of men. He is a dangerous criminal and each 
country should take care of its own criminals. There should be no time limit to the 
deportation of these criminals, because of their dangerous character, and should one 
remain in hiding. sufficiently long to become naturalized he should, at the first symp- 
toms, be shorn of his cloak and forthwith deported. If this destructive type of human- 
ity, if such characters can be regarded as human in the strictest sense, found no com- 
fort or protection from any source it would at least aid in suppressing the scourge. 

SMUGGLING. 

So long as the immigration question is a live one, just so long will the question of 
smuggling also be a live one. Restriction of immigration necessarily means that there 
are those who do not fill all the requirements necessary for admission; in other words, 
they do not meet the full measurement required by the law for aliens entering this 
country; consequently, for some cause enumerated in the law, there are those who 
are eliminated. By this process of elimination there are a great many who can not 
lawfully enter, and hence the constant attempt to make successful entry by smug- 
gling. There are doubtless many who enter each year in this way whom our officers 
are unable to apprehend. As heretofore referred to in this report, our officers appre- 
hend a great many who attempt unlawful entry by land, but the more difficult prob- 
lem which constantly confronts us is the smuggling by water. While our officers at 
the various Sound Stations do all possible to keep smuggling via this avenue at the 
minimum, it is doubtless true that there is more or less of this unlawful traffic carried 
on. The most effective way, of course, would be a vessel commanded by our officers 
which could stand the weather among the islands at all times and be in the waters 
at that place constantly. A properly constructed vessel for this purpose would be 
the most, if not the only effective method, of entirely eliminating this unlawful 
traffic, or keeping it to the lowest possible minimum. It is problematical, however, 
whether the added expense would be justified, for we must depend on rumor in a 
very large degree as to the number securing unlawful entry in this manner. With 
our present efforts and equipment there is nothing left unturned to prevent the 
smuggling of those not entitled to lawful entry, and it is probable that but little 
added expense would be justified in making a more complete defense against this 
unlawful traffic. 



228 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

THE HINDU. 

It is the generally accepted idea, as I understand it, that immigration should be so 
regulated that those arriving will not lower our standards of life; that no internal dis- 
sensions or troubles will result by their admission, but that ultimately those admitted 
will be an added blessing. This being the case, it is for Congress to so frame laws 
relating to this most important subject that only those who will ultimately aid rather 
than retard our progress can be admitted. In this connection I wish to again refer 
to those arriving here from certain Asiatic territory that threatens trouble from the 
time of arrival. I am open to argument on any debatable question, but to my mind 
there is no debatable ground so far as the admission of the Hindu is concerned. If 
his presence here can add aught but trouble, I am unable to see in what possible Avay. 
In the first place, he is caste ridden to such an extent that he is unyielding in all his 
manners, customs, etc. He is almost absolutely aloof in all things with one exception, 
and that is the question of securing possession of the dollar. In order to secure this 
he underbids all of our laboring people to such an extent that he can undermine them. 
As a matter of fact, he stands little show of work except by underbidding other laborers, 
for as a rule employers of labor refuse to employ the Hindu laborers excepting at a low 
wage. The Hindu stands little or no chance for work at the same price as our laborers 
and consequently he becomes a professional underbidder, and herein lies one of the 
chief dangers of his presence. He adds to labor disturbances as a natural consequence. 
In this connection I wish to quote from the brief of an attorney of this city, which was 
offered in behalf of certain Hindus who were applying for admission at this port. 
This attorney, who was using his efforts to convince the Washington authorities that 
his Hindu clients would not become a charge on the public, said, in part, "In the 
East a man might perhaps not be able to make it go, and an American, who requires 
more money to live on, might not be able to keep his head above the water with so 
small an amount of money, but with these Hindus things are entirely different. They 
eat fruit and vegetables, all of which they can get very cheaply. Their life in India 
has led them to keep together, and they all live together in one or two houses, and 
they have one of their party do their cooking for them, and he gets no salary, and by 
buying in large quantities the cost of their vegetables is small. They can live nicely 
on 25 cents per day, and when they make $2 they can save $1.75," etc. This is a true 
statement, made by an attorney friend of the Hindus. Imagine our laboring classes 
coping with a Hindu laborer who can and does, according to his attorney friend, live 
on 25 cents a day. I have no reason to doubt the correctness of the statement. 

I will close my remarks on this subject by quoting my answer to that part of the 
attorney's brief: "The fact that Hindus now in this country are securing employment 
by undermining their fellow-laborers of other nationalities is only brewing trouble 
for the near future, and the ultimate result will be that the Hindu will be out of work 
and a charge on the public. The attorneys for these aliens call attention to the fact 
that they can live nicely on 25 cents a day and they save money and send it home. 
These attributes, which it must be admitted they possess, do not endear them to the 
American people . ' ' 

SEAMEN. 

Aside from Japanese laborers, I do not believe that there are many aliens of the 
inadmissible classes accomplishing entry through this district under the guise of 
seamen. Approximately 27 per cent of the alien seamen who left their ships in this 
district during the past fiscal year were Japanese, and I have no doubt that the 
greater part, if not all of them, deserted with the intention of remaining in the United 
States rather than reshipping in the course of their pursuit, as is the custom of sea- 
men of other races. 

Chinese seamen are giving some trouble, but during the year there were but three 
desertions. Beginning with the change in the form of Government of their country, 
they have maintained that they should be treated in the same manner as seamen of 
other races. They object to the surveillance which is maintained over them and 
contend that they are entitled to all privileges granted seamen, including shore leave. 
The shipping concerns have so far managed to hold their crews by employing special 
watchmen for the purpose of keeping them on board their vessels. 



The following is a detailed statement of the work performed in this jurisdiction 
during the last fiscal year: 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OE IMMIGRATION. 229 

Inward Passenger Movement. 



: Male. 


Female. 


Total. 




1,224 

1.931 

625 

92 

24 


1,180 

89 

176 

8 

14 


2,404 




2,020 




801 




100 


Aliens whose cases are pending either before this office or the bureau 


38 








5,363 











The inward passenger movement for the year 1913 exceeded that of the year 1912 
by 1,006. The increase was largely due to the arrival of a greater number of Japanese. 
The increase in the number of Japanese alone was 787. 

Of the 2,404 immigrant aliens admitted, 1,723 were Japanese; 600 males, and 1,123 
females. 

Of the 2,020 nonimmigrant aliens admitted, 1,256 were Japanese; 1,199 males, and 
57 females. 

Of the total (2,979) Japanese arrivals, 1,420 were former residents. 

During the current fiscal year there were 517 Japanese proxy brides arrived; during 
the fiscal year 1912 there were 511 arrived, or an increase of 6 proxy brides. 

ARRIVALS FROM INSULAR POSSESSIONS. 
[Not included in statistics.] 
Of the total 438 arrivals from insular possessions, 406 were East Indians. 

STOWAWAYS. 

Total number of stowaways for the year, 45; Japanese 30, Chinese 7, others 8. 
Outward Passenger Movement. 





Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Emigrant aliens departed 

Nouemigrant aliens departed 


580 

2,104 

518 


53 
176 
258 


633 

2,280 
776 






Grand total 






3,689 











Of the 633 emigrant aliens departed, 175 were Japanese, 141 males, and 34 females. 
Of the 2,280 nonemigrant aliens departed, 1,561 were Japanese; 1,416 males, and 
145 females. 

Debarred Aliens. 





Males. 


Females. 


Total. 




32 

56 

2 

1 

1 


3 
5 


35 




61 




2 






1 


Welsh 




1 










92 


8 


100 







230 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

ALIEN SEAMEN. 

Vessels arrived 1, 348 

Alien crew (Chinese, 13,353; other, 12,986) 26, 339 

Certified by marine hospital surgeon 54 

Certified seamen, deserting 1 

Deserting seamen ! 249 

Discharged (admitted to the United States) 326 

Discharged (passed to follow their vocation ) 525 



WARRANTS OF ARREST RECEIVED. 

Issued during the fiscal year 1913 183 

Issued in previous years executed during the fiscal year 11 

Total handled 194 

WARRANTS OF ARREST — DISPOSITION. 

Executed 163 

Unexecuted June 30, 1913 12 

Canceled . . . . . 18 

Sent to other districts for execution 1 

Total. 194 

ACTION ON WARRANTS (IF ARREST EXECUTED DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1913. 

Deportation ordered 131 

Release ordered 22 

Pending before department 2 

Pending before this office 8 

Total. 163 

Orders of deportation entered 131 

Orders of deportation canceled 2 

Released on recognizance after order of deportation entered 2 

Orders of deportation forwarded other districts for execution 2 

6 

Net orders of deportation 125 

DEPORTATIONS. 

Net orders of deportation issued during the fiscal year 1913, based on arrests made 
during that year 125 

Orders of deportation, based on arrests made previous years, executed during the 
fiscal year 1913 33 

Total 158 

Deportations direct from this district - 53 

Deportations from Atlantic United States seaports 47 

Deportations from Canadian seaports 11 

Deportations from all other seaports 4 

Orders of deportation, based on arrests made during the fiscal year 1913, pending 

June 30, 1913 43 

Deported after landing, arrests made in this district 158 

Deportations through this district, arrests made in other districts 6 

Grand total of all deportations 164 

i Of the 249 deserting seamen. 65 were Japanese. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 231 

PROCURERS, ETC. 

Deported 10 

Awaiting deportation 10 

Released 1 

Orders of deportation forwarded other districts 2 

Arrests during the fiscal year 1913 23 

PROSTITUTES, ETC. 

Deported 8 

Awaiting deportation 1 

Released 5 

Pending before this office 2 

Arrests during the fiscal year 1913 16 

Procurers arrested during previous years deported during the fiscal year 1913 1 

Prostitutes arrested during previous years deported during the fiscal year 1913. . 2 



CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS. 

Fifty-seven prosecutions have been instituted for violations of penal provisions of 
the immigration and white slave traffic acts. Convictions have been had in 34 cases, 
defendants were acquitted or indictments dismissed in 13 cases, and the balance are 
pending at the close of the year. 

BOARD OF SPECIAL INQUIRY CASES HELD AND THE ACTION TAKEN THEREON. 

Admitted by board 431 

Excluded by board 417 

Cases held during the year 848 

APPEALS FROM DECISION OF BOARD OF SPECIAL INQUIRY. 

Sustained 1 

Dismissed 4 

Referred back for action under the Chinese exclusion act on account of Nakashima 

decision 1 

Appeals taken 6 

CHINESE TRANSACTIONS. 

During the year just closed 1,276 applications for admission were considered, an 
increase of 203 over the previous year, and 1,081 applications of domiciled Chinese 
for return certificates, a decrease of 38. The increase in arrivals was due entirely to 
returning domiciled Chinese, a larger number than usual having been called home 
last year on account of the unsettled conditions then existing in China. A slight 
decrease in the number of "new arrivals" will be noted. 

******* 

Departing Chinese to whom there were issued return certificates all took passage at 
the port of Seattle, except one who boarded a steamer of the Osaka Shosen Kaisha 
Line at Tacoma. Blue Funnel steamers, while entering at Tacoma, all clear from 
Seattle. Those Chinese leaving without first securing return certificates are not 
included in this report. 

APPLICATIONS FOR ADMISSION. 

, Disposed of as follows: 

Admitted 1, 177 

Passed in transit 3 

Returned 61 

Died 1 



232 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Pending: 

Awaiting deportation 6 

On appeal to department 4 

Before inspectors 23 

Before court on writ 1 

Total cases of all classes before commissioner during fiscal year 1, 276 

DIVISION BY CLASSES. 

Laborers: 

Cases pending from previous year 3 

Applications for admission current year 437 

Total 440 

Disposed of as follows — 

Admitted 430 

Returned 5 

Awaiting return 5 

'Petal 440 



Increase over 1912, 79. 

Domiciled merchants, etc.: 

Cases pending from previous year 1 

Applications for admission current year 209 

Total 210 

Disposed of as follows — 

Admitted 205 

Returned 3 

Pending before inspectors 2 

Total 210 

Increase over 1912, 02. 

As practically all domiciled exempts now have their status determined under rule 
15 of the regulations, before departure from the country, it follows that but few of this 
class are denied admission on return. Occasionally it is discovered that analleged 
exempt secured his return certificate through fraud, and consequently admission is 
denied him if he seeks to reenter the country. As a rule, however, these frauds are 
discovered before the person returns, and notice of inadmissibility is then sent to him 
in China. 

AMERICAN-BORN CHINESE (CITIZENS). 

Gradually this class, together with the wives and children of its members, has be- 
come the most important of all in connection with the enforcement of _ the exclusion 
law. and the indications are that the movement of 'citizens'' is in its infancy ._ The 
thousands of Chinese who were adjudged citizens by United States commissioners, 
by the courts, and by this service some years since are now bringing to this country 
their alleged children, who under section 1993 of the Revised Statutes are also citizens. 
These applicants are often married men, so in time their children born abroad may 
also come in as citizens, and so on ad infinitum. Citizens are also bringing in their 
wives, hence the number of children actually born in the United States is on the 
increase. It has been the practice for some years to secure from each applicant, for 
future use, a description of his family. For a time this plan worked well, but its 
purpose has now been defeated in many instances; the Chinese appreciating the situ- 
ation provide themselves in their testimony with a family of boys and thus lay a 
foundation for future admissions. It is remarkable how many "citizens" living in 
the Eastern States, principally in Boston and vicinity, testify to their having three^ 
boys and no girls in their families. No doubt collusion exists among these persons.* 
These are principally Chinese who entered the country surreptitiously some years 
ago via Canada and northern New York and who on arrest were found to be American- 
born bv certain United States commissioners, on testimony adduced by unscrupulous 



■REPORT OF COM MlssiuNKR GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION". 2B3 

attorueys and others. Here is presented a question for the consideration of the 
bureau. Citizens admitted may be classified as follows: 

Cases pending from previous year 7 

Applicants for admission current year 350 

Total before commissioner 357 

Disposed of as follows: 

Admitted - 318 

Returned 25 

Pending on appeal to department 3 

Pending before inspectors 11 

Total 357 



Further subdivisions: 

"Raw" natives: 

Admitted 1 

Returned 8 

Total 9 

Record of departure — prior landing: 

Admitted 291 

Returned 2 

Pending 1 

Total 294 

Prior residence — status not determined: 

Admitted 7 

Returned 3 

Pending 1 

Total 11 

Children of citizens: 

Admitted 19 

Returned 12 

Pending 12 

Total 43 



357 

Increase over 1912, 70. 

"SECTION 6." EXEMPTS. 

The number of "section 6" applications decreased from 141 in 1912 to 130 in 1913. 
All were admitted, except 1 rejected medically and 31 paroled to a Presbyterian 
clergyman of this city. Not one altered certificate was found, though in previous 
years a number were detected. 

The movement, originated in 1912 by certain profit-seeking Americans to bring 
alleged students to this country for a consideration, landing guaranteed, and which 
resulted in an increased number of applications, as heretofore reported, has not made 
much headway the past year, though a number of persons are still working along the 
same line. _ The failure of the movement is due to the careful inspection of all applica- 
tions for vise by special officers of this service now attached to the offices of the con- 
suls at both Hongkong and Canton, and to the fact that the Chinese Government 
itself, judging from reports received, has undertaken to see that "section 6" papers 
are issued only to bona fide students, and that a suitable guaranty is given that the 
applicant will remain a student for a certain length of time in this country. Of the 
students admitted 28 are to be supported by the Canton Government; all spoke 
English and were destined to different leading educational institutions in this country : 
those attending a school in the West are to receive $800 gold a year for expenses: 



234 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

those going to the universities in the Middle West, $900, and those going to eastern 
colleges, §960. The recipient of assistance is required to pay back but half of the 
money advanced if on completion of his education he return to Canton Province to 
settle; if he settle elsewhere he must repay all within 10 years. 

EXEMPTS OTHER THAN "SECTION 6." 

The number of applications of this class was the same as in 1912; there was, how- 
ever, a decrease in the number of minor sons of exempts presenting themselves, and a 
corresponding increase in the number of wives and minor daughters, as follows: 

Cases pending from previous year 10 

Applications for admission current year 126 

Total 136 

Disposed of as follows: 

Admitted 98 

Returned 27 

Awaiting return 1 

Pending on appeal before department 1 

Pending before inspectors 9 

Total 136 

This class may be further divided as follows: 

Minor sons of merchants: 

Admitted 51 

Returned 22 

Awaiting return 1 

Pending before department 1 

Pending before inspectors 8 

Total 83 

Minor daughters of merchants admitted 7 

Wives of merchants: 

Admitted 21 

Returned 2 

Pending before inspectors '. 1 

Total 24 

Wives of citizens: 

Admitted 10 

Returned 3 

Total 13 

Miscellaneous admissions 9 

TRANSITS. 

By land 1 

By water 2 

Total 3 

There was during the year but one application for release on bond by a Chinese of 
the exempt class, pending final determination of right to enter the United States. 



WRITS OF HABEAS CORPUS. 

During the past year but one case was taken into court on writ of habeas corpus, that 
of Mac Fock. Mac Fock is a Chinese who entered the country surreptitiously in 1896; 
he was arrested, and on hearing before United States Commissioner McGettrick was 
discharged as an American citizen. Recently, on return from a visit abroad, he 



REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. k 2f>5 

admitted on examination that he was bom in China and that his crossing the line at 
Riehford, Vt., was his original entry into the United States. The excluding decision 
of this office being sustained by the department on appeal, the court was petitioned 
to stay deportation, on the ground that the status of the applicant was res adjudicata, 
he having been found to be an American citizen by a court of competent authority, 
which decision had never been set aside and, therefore, can not now be ignored by the 
immigration authorities. The matter has not yet been heard. 

ARRESTS UNDER THE EXCLUSION LAW. 

Cases pending July 1, 1912 1 

Arrests during fiscal year 5 

Total 6 

Disposed of as follows: 

Deported 2 

Discharged 2 

Pending before court on appeal 2 

6 

It has been deemed inadvisable to make arrests under the exclusion law unless 
reasonably sure that a claim of citizenship will not be set up as a defense. There seems 
to be in the country a large number of young Chinese who claim birth in the United 
States and who have never had their status passed on by this service or the courts. 
These Chinese are probably unlawfully here, but in a hearing before a United States 
commissioner they are very likely to be discharged as citizens on evidence which 
would not be accepted by this service. It is a fact that certain persons of this class 
when refused return certificates have invited arrest on the charge of being unlawfully 
within the United States. The status of a citizen is very valuable to a Chinese, hence 
he will pay much money to secure one, employing attorneys of standing and influence 
to defend him. To effectively rid the country of contraband Chinese the enforcement 
of the law should be placed in the hands of the Secretary and arrests made on depart- 
ment warrants. A number of Chinese who had entered without inspection within 
three years were arrested under the general immigration law. These were surrep- 
titious entries from Canada apprehended near the border. 

PREINVESTIGATED CASES. 

A phase of the work which is of much importance is the investigation of applications 
for return certificates of those desiring to go abroad temporarily. Under the regula- 
tions according privilege of having their status predetermined many Chinese laborers 
who are without certificates of residence undertake to qualify either as domiciled 
merchants or as citizens. These persons are believed to have gained admission origi- 
nally as stowaways or by surreptitious entry from either Canada or Mexico, and conse- 
quently, being unable to show by parol evidence a lawful residence here, attach 
themselves to some mercantile establishment for a short time and then apply for a 
return certificate as a domiciled exempt, this class not being required under the law 
to show affirmatively a lawful residence in the country, it being sufficient if the appli- 
cant prove by two witnesses other than Chinese that he has been a merchant for the 
previous year and has not performed any manual labor except such as was incident to 
his business. Under the law, therefore, contraband laborers are able to gain a status 
to which they are not entitled, and one which enables them later to bring in their 
wives and minor children, after which they can again become laborers without fear 
of arrest. Many applicants admitted as "minor sons," though actually laborers, join 
this class on reaching their majority so as to visit China, a laborer's return certificate 
being denied them on the ground that they were originally admitted to join their 
fathers in some exempt pursuit. 

In addition to the class just referred to there are a large number of Chinese in the 
country between the ages of 21 and 35 who claim to have been born here and never 
to have been out of the country. Some of these young men are believed to have 
been admitted at one time as "minors," but the majority of them are surreptitious 
entries. Being without documentary proof of birth they undertake to establish their 
claimed status by parol evidence, and it is remarkable how much assistance they can 
get from white persons, some of whom accept compensation therefor. Chinese of 
this class on getting into the country usually Americanize themselves as much as 



236 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



possible in dress and by attending some mission school for a time to learn English 
and to make the acquaintance of white persons whose assistance they may later need. 
An instance is recalled of a young Chinese about 27 years of age who claimed citizen- 
ship and who presented as a witness in his behalf a white woman, of Portland, Oreg., 
a public-school teacher and a mission worker. This woman swore that she had known 
the applicant since his childhood, having taken a number of eastern visitors to China- 
town to see him when a baby in his mother's arms, which was a rare sight for them, 
and to have kept track of him ever since. The truth as to the original entry having 
been gleaned from other sources, the applicant on being confronted with it confessed 
that he was born in China and that he first came to this country when about 15 years 
of age, entering surreptitiously from Canada, and that he had never seen the woman 
referred to until he attended her class in the mission school about one year after entry. 
Applications for return certificates under rules 13, 15, and 16 of the regulations 
to the number of 1,081 were handled. 



Respectfully, 



Ellis De Bruler, 

Commissioner. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT No. 17, COMPRISING 
THE STATE OF OREGON, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT PORTLAND. 

I submit herewith annual report for district 17 for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1913: 

The immigration service at Portland, Oreg., still occupies rooms in the Railway 
Exchange Building, at an annual rental of $2,028. The new Federal building, to 
which our service will be assigned, has been projected, but beyond acqusition of land 
for same nothing has been done and it will be several years no doubt before said 
building is commenced and completed. 

While there are several plans on foot for the establishment of foreign passenger lines 
at this port, none has yet materialized. 

During the fiscal year just passed there entered this district 178 steam and sailing 
vessels, carrying 4,809 alien seamen, 8 alien stowaways, 151 seamen claiming Ameri- 
can citizenship, and 1 stowaway claiming American citizenship. Of these there 
were: 

Immigrant aliens admitted 50 

Nonimmigran t aliens admitted 2 

Alien seamen deserted 426 

Head tax collected and covered into the general fund $1, 536 

Fines under section 9 of the immigration law, aggregating $200, were inflicted in 
the cases of two alien seamen, a Chinese and a Japanese, who were certified as being 
afflicted with trachoma, which disease might have been detected by means of a com- 
petent medical examination at the port of embarkation. 

Departmental warrants were issued for the arrest of 70 aliens (including Chinese) 
as follows: 



Entered without inspection 

Iusane from prior causes 

Admits crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude prior to entry and 

entered without inspection 

Likely to become public charge at time of entry 

Imported woman for immoral purpose 

Prostitutes 

Women who entered the United States for immoral purpose 

Likely to become public charge at time of entry and entered without inspection 

Found public charge in United States from causes existing prior to entry 

Insane within five years previous to entry and likely to become public charge at 

time of entry 

Connected with management of house of prostitution 

Anarchist 

Total 



Warrants 

of ar- 
rest issued. 


Warrants 

of de- 
portation 
issued. 


9 


6 


24 


16 


4 


3 


4 


4 


2 


1 


9 


5 


3 


2 


11 


6 


1 


1 


\ 




2 


1 







REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 237 

Of above deportations, 16 cases were from the Oregon State Insane Asylum, 1 from 
the State Tuberculosis Sanitarium, 9 were inmates of the Oregon State Penitentiary, 
3 were Chinese who entered without inspection and were arrested under immigration 
law, and 2 were Japanese deserters from vessels in Portland Harbor. Shortage in our 
district allotment during the latter part of the current year curtailed to some extent 
activity in the arrest and prosecution generally of certain classes, such as prostitutes, 
Chinese, etc. * * * 

During the year there were made the subject of investigation 269 Chinese cases. 
* * * # * * * 

Forty-five steamers carrying Chinese crews called at this port during the past year 
and remained for periods of from one to three weeks. The total number of Chinese 
crewmen brought on these vessels was 1,248. Three of this number deserted and were 
not apprehended. During the same period 30 Japanese crewmen deserted the vessels 
which brought them to this port. 

The use of Form 547 by local residents desiring to bring their relatives and friends 
to this country from abroad has materially increased, the number of said forms filed 
and investigated by this office during the fiscal year amounting to 85. Careful in- 
vestigation of these cases involves much time and research and requires the almost 
constant attention of one inspector. 

In common with other Pacific coast ports, Portland expects much activity along 
immigration lines with the opening of the Panama Canal. While the results of this 
great event can not be safely predicted, it is not believed that the local influx from 
Europe by way of the canal will be felt for some years, or until a readjustment of condi- 
tions is effected. At the outset the new route will no doubt be used principally for 
the importation of unskilled labor employed by railroads, irrigation and water-power 
projects, lumbering enterprises, etc. From such there is always a fluctuating demand 
for foreign help, varying with the seasons. 

Local employment agencies report a constant call for the newly arrived unskilled 
and green immigrant laborer. This demand will no doubt be promptly exploited by 
agents familiar with the profitable traffic. The certainty of securing directly and at 
first hand laborers fresh from Europe will make such enterprises exceedingly attrac- 
tive, and great care and discrimination should be exercised in admitting bodies of 
newcomers of this class. The Pacific Coast States desire most of all agricultural immi- 
grants, and are striving here and abroad to attract the attention of this element. The 
greatest fear of the coast communities is the establishment of slums and lower social 
standards through an overwhelming influx of the unlettei'ed and unskilled common 
laborer. Much will depend upon the manner in which the Immigration Service, as 
represented at its western ports, handles the situation. The bureau, no doubt, out 
of its experience, will evolve standard qualifications for admission, but must at the 
same time see that the application of these standards is exactly uniform at each of the 
six Pacific coast ports of entry. 

J. H. Barbour, 

Inspector in Charge. 

REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, SAN FRANCISCO, IN 
CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 18, COMPRISING NORTHERN CALIFORNIA 
AND NEVADA AND THE ANGEL ISLAND IMMIGRATION STATION. 

I have the honor to submit the following report regarding transactions under the 
immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws at San Francisco and in District No. 18: 

APPLICATIONS FOR ENTRY. 

New applications of Chinese for admission to the United States at this port fell off 
during the year, but so slightly as to be insignificant. Indeed, in work under the 
laws relating to the exclusion of Chinese, the year developed little of the unusual 
and disclosed little more than what may be regarded as the routine movement of 
people of the Chinese race to and fro through this port. Of a total of 3,750 applications 
for admission considered during the fiscal year, only 220, or 6 per cent, were primarily 
denied admission. Of these 170 were deported, only 4.5 per cent of the total number 
applying for admission. 

The number of alleged merchants' and natives' children applying for admission 
during the year showed substantial increase, but presented the possibly significant 
feature of a large addition in the percentage of children of tender years. This might 
indicate that those who are entitled or plan to bring their families to the United States 



238 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OE IMMIGRATION. 

are exhausting their supply and must now bring forward the youngest members of 
their families. If this theory be correct, it would seem that a falling off in the arrivals 
of this class might be expected before a great while, unless the older "children" who 
have entered in the last few years themselves start a new influx — the children of sons 
of natives and the children of sons of merchants who have acquired a mercantile 
status after their entry. 

This office feels that many of the cases which are dependent upon a mercantile 
status would fall if a really searching investigation as to the honesty of the claim of 
mercantile pursuit were in each instance conducted. Collateral circumstances, 
especially those surrounding "country" cases frequently indicate that rigid inquiry 
would disclose fraud on the part of alleged fathers in so far as their claims to be a 
merchant is concerned. Such inquiries, however, are absolutely prohibited by the 
limited number of officers available for investigating work; and, while we feel almost 
certain that the law is being violated in this class of applications, we can do but 
superficial work under present conditions with respect to force and funds. 

Section 6" applications have, on the whole, been much more satisfactory than 
during the previous year, the department's firm attitude toward "personally con- 
ducted " student parties having had a good effect. Toward the end of the fiscal year, 
however, a new form of undertaking presented itself in a number of applications for 
admission of students who in preparation and appearance fully qualified but, when 
closely questioned as to the arrangements made for then maintenance, acknowledged 
that they expected by various methods to work their way through college. Investi- 
gation indicated a considerable movement of this character supported in most instances 
by missionaries and teachers connected with semicharitable institutions. 

Applications of alleged citizens, while in their number presenting high figures, have 
been very largely confined to "prior-landed" and "court-record" cases, and, while 
during the year we considered only four applications of what has come to be known 
as "raw native" cases, one only of those four was granted admission. 



The total number of Chinese appeal cases considered by this office during the year 
was 199, only 124 of which, however, were passed upon by the department, the 
others having been withdrawn, reopened, or being still pending at the end of the fiscal 
year. Of the 124 passed upon by the department, this office's excluding decision was 
affirmed in 85 cases and decisions in favor of the applicants were rendered in 39, or 31 
per cent. To say that the procedure which has been built up in the handling of appeal 
cases is remarkable is mildly expressing it. It permits of importunity, reexamination, 
reconsideration, etc., from the very inception of the case until it reaches the appellate 
authority; and the records, when final action is recorded, are often little more than a 
mass of conflicting opinion with no real basis for certain judgment. It would seem 
that more satisfactory and expeditious judgment of cases would be reached if hearings 
to attorneys were absolutely confined to that granted by the commissioner's office at 
the time the case is to be passed upon at the port of entry. This appears to be the 
logical time and place for the hearing and consideration of anything which is to be 
offered on behalf of an applicant, and any hearings granted at other periods in the 
procedures are ill-timed, illogical, and confusing. 

TRANSITS. 

During the year almost 1,800 Chinese applied at this port for the privilege of passing 
through "the United States or its waters to foreign territory. Of this number over 200 
were denied the privilege. The larger part of this movement was due to an extraor- 
dinary demand existing in certain parts of Mexico for farm laborers. While this was 
the excuse for the unusually heavy influx, unquestionably a large number of those 
applying for the transit privilege sought only thus to reach a point contiguous to 
United States territory, thereby being enabled easily to smuggle over the borders of 
this country. This fact was fully appreciated by the service; but, on the other hand, 
it was argued that if this Chinese movement were not permitted on American line 
steamers it would be diverted to vessels sailing directly from China to Mexico, the 
American line thus losing the revenues, the Government losing opportunity to secure 
the basis of identification of those who thereafter smuggled into the United States, and 
the cost of the deportation of such smuggling Chinese being visited upon the Govern- 
ment; whereas, if the movement through this port were permitted, deportation could 
be required at the expense of the steamship companies. These were strong reasons, 
and the movement was therefore permitted under restrictions whereby careful arrange- 
ment s were to be made to prevent the dissemination of the disease uncinariasis, or 



REPORT OE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 239 

hookworm, during the trip through the country by the transits, a large percentage 
of whom were afflicted with said disease. Near the end of the fiscal year, however, 
circumstances indicated that unexpected complications would render a liberal atti- 
tude toward the movement impossible and that it would have to be stopped. 

PREINVESTIGATIOXS. 

Over 2,000 preinvestigations were made during the year under rules 13, 15, and 16, 
1,9G3 applications being finally granted and 86 denied. Out of the total number of 
applications 922 were made by Chinese who claimed to haAe been born in the United 
States or to be sons of fathers who were so born. No great percentage of these applica- 
tions, however, were made by Chinese whose cases had not previously had some form 
of investigation and adjudication, and the instances wherein mature Chinese under- 
took to establish a "native" claim without any documentary or other substantial 
evidence of the truth of the claim were more rare than formerly, a result believed to be 
due to this office's action in undertaking prosecutions of fraudulent witnesses in such 
cases. 

MISCELLANEOUS WORK AND GENERAL COMMENT. 

During the year our officers made 2,973 miscellaneous Chinese investigations; they 
checked out4,818 departing Chinese and checked in and out 11,047 Chinese crew men. 
Adding these to the 2,049 Chinese preinvestigations made, the 1,795 "in transit" 
cases considered, and the 3,750 applications for admission which we were called upon 
to dispose of, it is shown that we handled 26,432 transactions under the laws relating 
to Ihe admission of Chinese, an average of about 88 per working day or 500 per week. 

As general comment upon the results achieved in the administration of the laws 
relating to the admission of Chinese, this office feels that considering the limited 
facilities which are at the disposal of the service undue attention is being given to 
the work of handling applications for admission at ports of entry as compared with 
the handling of Chinese who are gaining or have gained entry by surreptitious methods. 
Contemplate the figures referred to in the foregoing, especially those regarding appli- 
cants for admission. 

To achieve the rejection and return to China of 190 Chinese applicants has required 
an enormous volume of work for a whole year by probably 50 inspectors, stenographers, 
interpreters, and watchmen. Meanwhile, observation by those who were equipped 
intelligently to judge of the situation indicates that there are thousands of Chinese 
undisturbed in the United States through surreptitious entry, and that hundreds of 
others are coming in by the same methods each year. A ridicuously small portion 
of the employees whose time is devoted to the handling of Chinese applicants at this 
port alone, if properly organized into what might be termed "arrest crews" and 
assigned exclusively to Chinese arrest work at various points in the country, could 
within a few months make it so unsafe for Chinese who smuggled in that the incentive 
to smuggle would practically be destroyed. 

GENERAL IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION. 

The aliens admitted during the year amounted to 8,935, an increase of over 800 over 
the previous year; and those departing numbered 8,641, practically the same as last 
year. The total passenger movement through the port dming the year approximated 
30.000, a substantial increase over the movement of the last fiscal year. Informal 
statements and reports are persistent that steamship companies and others interested 
are satisfied that with the Panama Canal made fully available within the next year or 
two a large increase of European immigration direct to this coast may be expected. 
Present facilities are at times employed to their maximum in taking care of the work 
handled at this time, and proper consideration for the possibilities demands that the 
service shall not ignore what seems clear to everyone else in the nature of coming 
conditions which will call for greatly increased facilities. 
. During the year 266 aliens were returned to their foreign ports of embarkation. 

JAPANESE. 

The total number of Japanese arriving reach 3,477, an increase of over 25 per cent. 
During the same period the Japanese departing numbered 3,633, or a falling off of 
about 2 per cent. Of the total arrivals during the year, 1.910 were males and 1,567 
females, the former showing an increase of 574 and the latter an increase of 131. The 
total number of Japanese debarred was only 24 — 16 males and 8 females. 



240 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

As will be suggested from the foregoing totals, the Japanese "bride" continues to 
increase in numbers in the United States. Many of them are destined to ranches in 
California, Oregon, and Washington, really to engage as farm laborers. This fact, 
however, does not make them any less the housewives that they say they are to be, 
and practically all such applications for admission are flawless under the immigration 
laws. 

HINDUS. 

The full strength of the immigration laws continued to be applied against East 
Indian arrivals during the fiscal year, and we were called upon to decide only a 
total of 83 applications of people of that race, of whom 46 were admitted and 37 
deported, these figures having no significance other than to show that the immigra- 
tion laws are usually effective against undesirable immigration if fully applied. 
Late in the fiscal year, however, a few Hindus arrived from Manila, P. I., and in 
connection with the handling of their cases it was disclosed that the service was 
soon going to be confronted with a systematic effort on the part of both the transpor- 
tation companies and the Hindus themselves to make the Philippines a "back door" 
entrance to the mainland of the United States. Steps to meet the situation were 
being taken as the year closed. 

ARREST AND DEPORTATION OF IMMORAL CLASSES. 

During the year this office has undertaken deportation in 117 cases of aliens con- 
nected with immoral occupations under the act of 1907 as amended March 26, 1910. 
This was almost double the number of such proceedings inaugurated in the previous 
fiscal year. Of these 75 were completely disposed of during the year as against 37 
the previous year. In 34 cases deportation was accomplished, and 42 cases were 
still pending at the close of the year, the warrants having been canceled in the 
remainder. This is many times the work formerly done in this district, and although 
practically every case has been bitterly fought, our efforts have been so fruitful as 
to have a salutary influence on the general moral standing of the community. The 
Immigration Service is now recognized by those connected with prostitution as a 
serious factor to be dealt with, and, whereas efforts of the service were at one time 
belittled, those aliens who persist in their illegal practices are forced to do so under 
cover against discovery by our officers, with a much smaller number concerned in 
the evils as a result. 

ARREST AND DEPORTATION OP INSANE ALIENS. 

Northern California and Nevada have been relieved of 38 insane aliens during the 
year through the operation of the immigration laws, this number of deportation 
procedures being successful out of 48 undertaken, with 8 cases pending at the close 
of the year. This against only 12 such deportations during the fiscal year of 1911-12. 
The State institutions have only recently come to a full appreciation of the value 
of the immigration law in relieving them of many of their burdens, and we are now 
getting the maximum of cooperation from all State hospitals. There is still much 
that needs attention, however, some of which has been permitted to rest because of 
an insufficient appropriation, some 200 cases of insane Chinese being a conspicuous 
instance of this. 

OTHER ARRESTS AND DEPORTATIONS. 

In "warrant'' cases for illegal entry and under the public charge provisions of 
the statutes, this district has dealt with 95 cases during the year, an increase of almost 
200 per cent. In 64 cases deportation was accomplished, and a total of 78 cases was 
disposed of. with 17 pending at the end of the year. It is noteworthy that with 
each year it is increasingly difficult to meet the importunity and sympathetic obstruc- 
tion which is put forth on behalf of aliens falling within this class, and, when it is 
considered that probably no other district in the United States presents more sharply 
conflicting interests than exist in this district, the showing made in the figures set 
forth is gratifying to those held responsible for results in administrative work. 

All told, 260 immigration warrant cases were undertaken during the year, and 
193 were disposed of — 136 by deportation — with 67 cases still pending at the close 
of the year. The increase in deportations was almost 100 per cent . marking a much 
larger percentage of successful work than the previous year. 

ARREST AM) DEPORTATION OP CHINESE. 

The result of the year's efforts in the deportation of Chinese under court procedure 
was that of a total of 70 cases inaugurated, 44 were disposed of, and of the latter number 






KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 241 

deportation occurred in 28 cases. The contrast between this result and that obtained 
where the immigration law -procedure was followed should be noted. Of a total of 
80 cases instituted under the immigration laws, 45 were deported during the year. 
Total Chinese deportation cases undertaken during the year were 150, in 73 of which 
deportation was accomplished — the largest number for many years in this district. 

It is believed that many Chinese communities in northern California and Nevada 
are teeming with Chinese who have gained illegal entry to the United States and are 
resting secure because the limited facilities of this service prevent their being given 
attention under the law. Of course more attention could be given them with resultant 
neglect of the work now done on Chinese applicants for admission at this station. 
As I have previously indicated in this report, I am of the impression that it would 
be good administration to more equally distribute our Chinese forces on the two 
classes of work. Such a proposal, however, is so revolutionary of the long-established 
practices that I would not feel free to carry it out unless specifically ordered so to 
do by the department. 



PROSECUTIONS. 

A total of 33 criminal prosecutions were considered during the year in this district, 
only 14 being disposed of, 10 convictions being secured. There remained pending 
at the close of the fiscal year 19 cases. No class of work with which this office has 
to deal is subject to such delay, congestion, and injury as a result as that which 
requires the use of the courts. The officers under the district attorney give us every 
cooperation which their facilities afford, but at times are so helpless to meet the 
demands made upon them that it is discouraging and seems useless to institute pro- 
ceedings which it is felt are likely to fail for lack of proper attention. In so far as 
the work of this service is concerned, this could be largely corrected by the assign- 
ment from this service of an officer qualified to handle court cases arising under the 
immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws. Such a suggestion has frequently been 
made by the district attorney's office, and if the department could find some means 
for carrying it out it would surely prove a valuable aid in the effective enforcement 
of the law in this jurisdiction. 



During the year seven fines were certified against incoming vessels for the bringing 
of diseased aliens to this port and nonmanifestation. All fines certified were finally 
assessed, excepting one — a total of $520 presumably being collected. 



HOSPITAL CASES. 

A total of 1,086 persons were in the hospital during the year, for periods varying 
from one day to 13 weeks each. Of the total number, 840 patients were treated for 
uncinariasis, or hookworm, 539 being cured within one week, 756 within two weeks, 
and 806 within three weeks. It will be noted that to this disease a very large part 
of our total hospital treatment is chargeable. Early in the fiscal year the number of 
certifications for the ailment had reached such a high point and the hospital treatment 
applications were so many that it was found necessary in some way to reduce the 
number of patients. Steps taken to meet the situation reduced the average treatment 
days from 1,996 in July, 1912, to 282 in February, 1913, and the highest point since 
reached was 700 in May of this calendar year. Whereas the daily average of hospital 
charges in July, 1912, was $64.40, they fell in the early months of this year to $8 
and $10 and have not since reached over $22.58. The average daily charges for 
the year were $29.32 — the total for the.year, $13,175. The actual cash earnings, how- 
ever, were $13,112.35 and the expenses of maintenance of the hospital $6,085.28. 
The latter sum proved a constant drain on our allotment, and no portion of the earnings 
referred to was returnable to our fund as reimbursement of the expenses incurred. 

CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE WORK. 

The year has seen many improvements at the station, chief among which was the 
completion of a new concrete lavatory and toilet building with the most modern fix- 
tures especially designed to meet the needs of the peculiar class of immigration handl* 1 
at this port. It has met the most crying demand existing and has done more to remo^ 3 
the tenable grounds for criticism of the station than anything else which could lm 3 
been done. 

7686°— 14 16 



242 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Concurrently with the erection of the lavatory building, a 300,000-gallon concrete 
tank for the conservation of surface and spring water was built, with a resultant saving 
in the amount of water to be carried from Sausalito in baiges. As the fresh-water 
storage capacity of the station was only 50,000 gallons, it was also deemed advisable 
to erect two additional 50,000-gallon tanks, thus raising the fresh-water storage capacity 
to a total of 150,000 gallons. That all of these improvements were made has proved 
a most fortunate circumstance, for with the opening of the new lavatory building the 
demand on our water supply unavoidably increased by leaps and bounds. Every 
effort has been made to harbor the supply, but with an increased number of detained 
inmates the consumption has almost doubled. Through protracted negotiation we 
were finally able to arrange for the furnishing of water at 65 cents per 1,000 gallons, 
ultimately to be reduced to 30 cents. The previous price for many months had been 
$1.50 per 1,000 gallons delivered, but, as the use of our cutter Inspector for delivering 
water under the new arrangement also enabled the establishment of a night boat 
schedule between the city and the station, the cost of hauling water was very small 
and the economy in the new arrangement was substantial. 

A further improvement of importance has been the enlargement of the concrete 
powerhouse arid the installation of an additional boiler. While the former boiler 
capacity had not proved insufficient it had been found that the demand made upon 
it would soon put us in the position of having frequently to shut down to make repairs, 
and the increased facilities now provided will undoubtedly prove wise. 

The wharf has been substantially strengthened during the year by the concreting 
of some 60 foundation piles and the mooring facilities greatly improved by the addition 
of spring piles. 

BRANCH OFFICES. 

During the year branch offices have been opened at Sacramento, Eureka, and Mon- 
terey, Cal., with three employees at the first-named and one each at the other two. 
The amount of work conducted through these offices and the expedition with which 
it has been handled have more than proved the wisdom of the action. 

In conclusion, I am pleased to report that our relations with other departments of 
the Government service, with the peace officers of the communities of the district, and 
with the public are pleasant and such as to secure for us a great measure of cooperation. 
We all endeavor to reciprocate. The relations of the employees of the force are har- 
monious, and, considered as a whole, I feel that all employees are giving their duties 
faithful and intelligent attention. 

Samuel W. Backus, 

Commissioner. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 20, COMPRISING 
ALASKA, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT KETCHIKAN. 

I submit the following report of work done in the district of Alaska during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1913: 



Port. 


Aliens 
admitted 
with cer- 
tificates 
No. 524. 


Aliens 
examined 

and ad- 
mitted 

without 
certifi- 
cates. 


Aliens in 

transit 

recorded. 


Aliens 
debarred. 


Aliens 
arrested 
and de- 
ported. 


Citizens 
admitted. 


Aliens 
inspected 
and ad- 
mitted 
but not 
recorded 
in sta- 
tistics. 


Head tax 
collected. 




OS 
16 


359 
33 


11 
30 


5 




1,965 

2,464 
1,600 


1,255 

2,S25 
45 


$68.00 


Skagway and White 




24.00 














1 








4.00 










4 
























Total 


84 


393 


41 


5 


-1 


6,029 


4,125 


96.00 







COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The number of admissions of aliens shows considerable increase over the previous 
year. Aliens in transit recorded in the above table are all Japanese. Aliens debarred 
are all likely to become public charges and excluded as such. Of the aliens arrested 
and deported all were Japanese seat poachers who had served their sentences. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 243 

There were 11 deserting alien seamen at Port Armstrong, a whaling station, and 1 
at Ketchikan. 

Two Chinese persons were arrested under United States commissioner's warrants 
for being unlawfully in the United States. Their cases are still pending. 

There were 3 Chinese in transit from one port in Canada to another. 

One Chinaman made application for a return certificate under rule 13, which was 
granted. 

The principal duty of this office is the inspection of aliens arriving from the south 
from British Columbia at the port of Ketchikan, and from the north from British 
Columbia and Yukon Territory at the summit of White Pass, near Skagway ; and from 
Dawson, Yukon territory, to Eagle, Alaska, and from the Siberian coast and Vladi- 
vostok, Russia, to the port of Nome. This latter port is of least importance, as the 
arrivals, which are very few in number, occur only during the summer season. 

Therefore, it will be seen that there are 3 principal ports of entry from contiguous 
territory with only 2 regularly appointed inspectors to enforce the immigration law 
in the district of Alaska. Both these inspectors are stationed at Ketchikan, where 
the most of the work of the district is being done. The other ports are being covered 
by deputy collectors of customs who are appointed to act as immigrant inspectors. 
Of course, at some of these ports the volume of immigration business is too small to 
warrant appointment of a regular immigrant inspector. 

^ * ^ # * * * 

At the sub port of Nome also has been noted a falling off of business, hence a regular 
inspector was not sent there last summer. 

At the port of Eagle during the summer season the arrivals occur upon the opening 
of the navigation, on or about June, and lasting until about the middle of October. 
During the winter season some aliens arrive on dog sleds. Two prostitutes thus coming 
were excluded and deported to Dawson two winters ago. 

In order properly to enforce the immigration law in Alaska, this office has adopted 
the following plan: One inpsector will make a tour to the interior every summer, 
to wit, on or about the middle of July, or as soon as the navigation opens. He will 
proceed via Dawson, Yukon Territory, to Eagle, Alaska, and there inspect the rush of 
passengers coming from Dawson. Thence, and after the rush is over, he will proceed 
to Nome and remain there, say, about two months. Thus an inspector, being on 
temporary duty either at Eagle or Nome, would be available for urgent duty that may 
arise in the interior of Alaska. At the close of the navigation season he will return 
to his permanent station. In making such tours he will observe how the customs 
inspectors designated as immigrant inspectors are discharging the duties of the Immi- 
gration Service, and at the same time instruct them. 

With reference to the projected improvements in station, I recommend that suit- 
able immigration quarters, with offices and detention rooms, be erected at Ketchikan. 
Past experience has sufficiently demonstrated the wisdom of such recommendation. 
The immigration service in Alaska was established 10 years ago, and since its incep- 
tion there has been expended in rentals for the office quarters about $3,000. At 
present time the rates m rents are steadily increasing. Therefore, in my opinion, 
an appropriation of $10,000 would be a wise investment and of great benefit to the 
service. Or, if this should be impossible, why not cooperate with other branches of 
the Government maintaining offices and paying rent at Ketchikan, to wit, the Cus- 
toms, Forest, Lighthouse, and Postal Services. Such state of facts alone justify 
the erection of a Federal building for the accommodation of those offices, including 
the Immigration Service, in view of the fact that the Department of Justice alone 
owns its offices here. 

Domianus Maskeviczius. 

Inspector in Charge. 

REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, SAN JUAN, P. R., IN 
CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 21, COMPRISING ISLAND OF PORTO RICO. 

I have the honor to submit the following general report of transactions and conditions 
in district No. 21 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913: 

The beginning of this year found business in Porto Rico in a paralyzed condition 
owing to the prevalence of bubonic plague in this island, and immigration was prac- 
tically at a standstill during the first six months of the period covered by this report. 
All transactions, therefore, show a decrease for the year from those of the preceding 
year, while for the period between January 1 and June 30, 1913, an increase is 
visible over the corresponding period of last "year. Immigration is now in a healthy 
condition. The total passenger movement for the year amounted to 8,143, not in- 



244 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

eluding the large number of tourists, both native and alien, who came to remain in 
Porto Rico usually but a few hours and departed by the same ships which brought 
them here. Nor does the above figure include the natives and aliens who arrived 
in and departed from Porto Rico via the mainland of the United States. 

The total alien arrivals in Porto Rico from foreign ports direct during the year were 
2,301, as against 3,336 of last year. The total arrivals from foreign ports, 3,941, as 
against 6,098 last year, show a decrease of 35.3 per cent. 

Inward Passenger Movement. 





Immi- 
grants. 


Nonimmi- 
grants. 




556 
328 


998 


Females 


419 






Total 


884 


1,417 







Aliens departing for foreign countries direct, 1,783; and citizens of the United States 
and Porto Rico so departing, 2,175. 

CHARACTER OF IMMIGRATION. 

Very few Syrians have arrived in Porto Rico during the past year. Spaniards and 
West Indians predominate. Immigration from the islands to the westward is very 
similar in race, customs, and habits to the native race in Porto Rico and easily fuses 
therewith, making no change in standards or economic conditions. Islands to the 
eastward produce African blacks of English, Danish, and French nationalities, who 
are of very low moral standards and who form an undesirable addition to the popu- 
lation of the island. English-speaking women come as servants and find ready em- 
ployment among English-speaking families in Porto Rico at much higher wages than 
are paid native servants, but a large percentage of this immigration from the eastward 
ultimately finds its way to the mainland. 

Spanish immigration is very desirable to Porto Rico in many ways. They are an 
industrious race of a higher moral standard than are the West Indians, but they are 
nearly all merchants or mercantile employees. Virtually, the entire mercantile 
business of the island is in the hands of the Spaniards, who, instead of employing 
Porto Rican young men in their establishments, bring over their young relatives and 
friends from Spain to work in then* stores. Most of these Spanish boys come to work 
under the old Spanish system of compulsory savings and investment, so that there 
is a continuous stream of retired merchants returning to Spain with then fortunes made 
and another stream of young boys beginning at the bottom and gradually working 
up . This is a most excellent system, but it shuts out the Porto Rican young men from 
the mercantile life, as they have no opportunities to learn. Therefore, the poorer 
class must bring their children up either as common laborers or skilled mechanics, 
and the richer class send their children to the States to learn professions, so that the 
island is now oversupplied with young doctors, lawyers, dentists, and civil engineers. 

FINANCIAL CONDITION OF ALIENS. 

Most steamship lines accepting aliens for Porto Rico require a deposit of $50 with 
the purser of the vessel before ticket is sold. This is done colorably to insure that the 
alien will not be rejected for lack of funds, but it is believed that in many cases where 
deportation is effected the expenses of the return voyage is taken out of this deposit 
by the steamship companies. 

Aliens arriving in Porto Rico during the year brought $238,315, or a per capita of 
$103.57. 

MEDICAL EXAMINER. 

The medical examination of aliens at the port of San Juan has been eminently 
satisfactory. At the port of Mayaguez no certifications whatever have been made 
during the past year, which is something remarkable in view of the prevalence of the 
hookworm, venereal diseases, tuberculosis, and trachoma in the West Indies. 

The Syrians have quit using Mayaguez as a port of entry, but there is a large Syrian 
colony in Santo Domingo, many of whom are known to nave trachoma and it would 
be remarkable if the disease has not spread among the Dominicans. The same condi- 
tion exists in St. Thomas. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 245 

DETENTION FACILITIES. 

In this district neither the Government nor any of the steamship companies main- 
tain detention quarters for aliens who are not immediately landed. This is very 
unsatisfactory. Aliens in the temporary charge of steamship companies are some- 
times detained in hotels and sometimes in the homes of their relatives, and at other 
times are practically given their liberty on their promise to return for board hearing. 
Under the peculiar conditions existing in Porto Rico the writer does not see any 
particular harm in this somewhat loose method, except in the cases of diseased aliens, 
criminals, prostitutes, and procurers. Some method should be devised for the actual 
physical detention of these aliens in such a way that they can not do harm to the 
community during the long periods which often elapse between sailings. It is 
believed that steamship companies in San Juan will eventually unite to provide a 
suitable place for the detention of aliens. 

BOARDS OF SPECIAL INQUIRY. 

This district labors under the disadvantage of having but a few immigration officers 
and employees qualified as members of boards of special inquiry, making it necessary 
in almost every case to call upon duly qualified Government officers in other branches 
of the Government service to act as members of the various boards. These outside 
members in nearly all instances respond cheerfully and willingly, and perform their 
duties to the best of their knowledge and ability. There is a noticeable tendency 
toward leniency, however, on the part of most of these gentlemen, they being more 
inclined to be influenced by sympathy for the transgressions or infirmities of the aliens 
than are immigration officers of long experience. There is no particular incentive 
for any of these gentlemen to make an exhaustive study of the immigration laws and 
regulations, decisions and rulings, but, nevertheless, they are due great credit for 
their work on the boards, which, in many cases, is at the sacrifice of their duties in 
other branches or of their personal time. 

During the year 64 aliens were detained for board hearings, 45 of whom were finally 
landed, 17 deported, and 2 were pending at the close of the year. Two aliens pending 
at the beginning of the year were deported. Thirteen aliens appealed from excluding 
decisions, 4 of whom were finally deported by order of the Secretary and 9 landed. 
Seven of the aliens who were landed on appeal were school-bond cases in which the 
boards were obliged to formally vote for exclusion, although feeling that the aliens 
should be admitted under school bond; therefore, the free and untrammeled decision 
of a board of special inquiry has been reversed but twice by the Secretary during the 
year just closed. 

Nineteen aliens were deported during the year as a result of board decisions for the 
following reasons: Admits the commission of crime, 4; under 16, unaccompanied, 4; 
contract labor, 2; likely to become a public charge, 2; tuberculosis, 2; trachoma, 1; 
procurer, 1; insane, 1; assisted alien, 1; accompanying alien, 1. Thirteen excluded 
aliens did not appeal. 



DESERTING ALIEN SEAMEN. 

Most of the deserting alien seamen from foreign ports during the year were from 
small schooners and were natives of the Dutch West Indies. Seventeen in all were 
reported, only one of whom was apprehended, although in all cases the assistance of 
the insular police was solicited in an effort to locate them. 

One class of alien seamen who cause considerable trouble, not only to the Immi- 
gration Service, but to other branches of the Federal Service in Porto Rico, are those 
discharged or deserting from vessels coming from the mainland. There is very little 
opportunity for them to ship back to the United States during certain seasons of the 
year. A great many of these are stranded in Porto Rico and become, for the time, 
professional beggars or public charges. 

Under the present regulations this office can do nothing for these people, unless it 
can be ascertained that their original entry into the mainland of the United States 
was illegal and that the statutory period has not elapsed. If steamship companies 
could be required, by regulation, to return to the mainland all alien seamen left in 
Porto Rico by them, who become public charges or professional beggars, the difficulty 
would be solved, for the reason that at almost any mainland port the seamen could 
find ready employment. 



246 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

WHITE SLAVE CASES. 

Systematic traffic in native and alien women was carried on to some extent from 
and to this island prior to the passage of the act of June 25, 1910, although it was 
always difficult to secure sufficient evidence to warrant prosecution. During the 
preceding fiscal year one conviction was secured under the new law, and since that 
time it is doubtful if the business has been carried on to any great extent, especially 
from other countries to this island. Concubinage, however, is about as common in 
the West Indies as legal marriage, and there are frequently recurring cases of men 
transporting both alien and native women for their own personal use 



HOSPITAL TREATMENT. 

One application for hospital treatment was made at the port of Ponce and was 
granted. However, the alien was unable to secure the bond specified by the bureau 
and was ultimately deported. 

OFFICE QUARTERS. 

The new Federal building, in which the Immigration Service has been assigned 
quarters, is still in course of construction. The Immigration Service now occupies 
very desirable and commodious quarters in the old naval station, San Juan. The 
service also has a good office at Ponce and one at Mayaguez in the customhouses at 
those places. 

SUBPORTS. 

Experienced and competent immigrant inspectors are stationed at the principal 
subports, Ponce and Mayaguez, and at the other subports, where aliens arrive only 
occasionally, the work of this service is performed by customs officers. 

WARRANT PROCEDURE. 

Four aliens were arrested on departmental warrants during the year, one of whom 
was deported and three pending deportation at the close of the year. 

OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES. 

The immigration force in Porto Rico has worked contentedly and harmoniously 
during the past year. The men are experienced and competent, and, above all, 
earnest and enthusiastic in their work. None of them is now seeking transfer to the 
mainland, which is an unusual state of affairs with the force in Porto Rico. Living 
conditions for the Americans in Porto Rico are anything but satisfactory. Rents are 
high, the food required by Americans very expensive, and climatic conditions are 
such that married officers are put to considerable expense from time to time sending 
their families to the States to recuperate. 



COXCLUSIONL 

The most cordial relations exist between this service and all other branches of the 
Federal establishment in Porto Rico. The Immigration Service stands as high in 
public esteem as could well be, considering the restrictive nature of our duties. The 
undersigned is proud of the fact that neither during the year just closed nor during 
any previous year of his administration has an official complaint been made against 
him by anyone. 

Graham L. Rice, 

Commissioner. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 247 

REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 22, COMPRISING 
TERRITORY OF HAWAII, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT HONOLULU. 

I have the honor to submit herewith annual report for the year ending June 30, 1913: 

Aliens admitted 8, 559 

Aliens departed 3, 729 

Excess of admitted 4, 830 

Citizens admitted 1, 242 

Citizens departed 2, 002 

Excess of departures 760 

Alien certificates issued for mainland, 2,398, of which 1,570 were for Spanish and 
Portuguese, being about double the number issued for these races in the preceding 
year. During the year 2,554 Spanish and Portuguese immigrants were brought in by 
the territorial board of immigration. A large number of Portuguese who were citizens 
have departed for the mainland. The tax for territorial assisted immigration has been 
greatly reduced, and to such an extent that there is little likelihood of a shipload of 
aliens being imported in the coining year. The indications are that there will be a 
decrease of Spanish and Portuguese residents. 

The Sugar Planters' Labor Bureau has brought in during the year 5,742 Filipinos 
and are erecting a $25,000 detention station for future arrivals, where Filipinos may 
be kept until physically prepared to go to the plantations. In the month of April 
there were working on the plantations 7,916 Filipinos, of whom only 84 were women 
and 48 minors; 5,362 Spanish and Portuguese, of whom 390 were women and 1,072 
minors; 25,073 Japanese, of whom 1,847 were women and 231 minors; 2,495 Chinese, 
of whom 5 were women and 3 minors; 106 Russians, of whom 21 were women and 15 
minors; 643 Americans; 1,034 Hawaiians; 1,538 Porto Ricans; 1,581 Koreans; all 
others, 299, making a total of 46,047. The Filipinos are rapidly replacing all except 
the Japanese, and their percentage is increasing as compared with the Japanese. 

The percentage of murders, assaults, and thefts committed by Filipinos exceeds that 
of other races. Three were hung to-day. The bringing of these Filipinos is justified 
on the grounds of economic necessity; but many of them are of a low order and social 
defectives, tending to debauch and degrade the social condition of this outmost bound 
of our integral country, which ought to strive to present an attractive and wholesome 
civilization, even though it be at the expense of curbing insatiate greed. It may be 
still possible by scouring the back streets of civilization to obtain some cheaper and 
as objectionable immigration. Recently one prominently connected heretofore with 
recruiting laborers asked me as to the possibilities of Hindus being admitted here. 

In regard to the Filipinos there is a perceptible tendency among them to come to 
Honolulu, and we now see the faint beginnings of a movement toward the mainland, 
which will be accelerated as they become used to our social life. 

During the year 4,860 alien Japanese were admitted, an increase of about 50 per 
cent over lastyear. Of these admitted 1,572 were so-called "picture brides. " Alien 
Japanese departures were 2,546, being 47 less than last year. Excess of arrivals over 
departures, 2,314, as against an excess of 791 last year. This excess is to be accounted 
for by the fact that formerly passports were seldom granted to Japanese laborers who 
had been absent over one year, but now the time limit seems to be practically removed . 
The local Japanese press has demanded that passports be given to any who were here 
before, and without the usual formalities and delay due to consular certification. 
There has been a perceptible increase in able-bodied males. As the issuance of 
passports is restricted to former residents, parent and child, and husband and wife to 
join each other, in order to bring in brothers the aged father or mother is called by a 
son, and after arrival requests are made by the father that his sons in Japan be granted 
passports to join him. 

No further comment is necessary to set forth the remorseless displacement of white 
labor by Asiatics. 

The Japanese press, stimulated by the Japanese Merchants' Association, has con- 
ducted an earnest propaganda to induce laborers to stay in the islands; and its success 
is seen by the excess of arrivals over departures. Of the 82,000 Japanese in the islands, 
those who are not on the plantations, together with the Filipinos, are crowding 
white labor to the water-front, whence, through poverty and privation, having secured 
the means of embarkation, they depart for the mainland. 



248 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

High taxes in Japan and business uncertainty have helped to firmly fix the policy 
to stay in Hawaii. Heretofore the Yokohama Specie Bank has received money to 
transmit to Japan, and made conservative loans to merchants, and refused loans for 
real estate. There has now been established, it is said, through the aid of Mr. Asano, 
president of the Toyo Kisen Kaisha Steamship Co., and Baron Shibusawa of Tokyo, 
a Japanese bank with the fixed policy of encouraging investment here. Japanese 
during the past year have bought a great deal of real estate in the city and in the 
Territory, and native-born Japanese have taken up many homesteads. The shifting 
tide shows that Hawaii will become less of a place where they seek temporary gain 
and more one of permanent residence and profit. 

Certificates of Hawaiian birth are issued by the secretary of the Territory of Hawaii 
for the most part to Japanese and Chinese. A large number of these certificates are 
issued to persons who are alleged to have been born here and left in infancy or when 
they were of tender years. These certificates are issued nunc pro tunc in some 
cases when the beneficiary is supposed to have left here as long as 25 years ago. 

There are Chinese persons in Honolulu now endeavoring to secure the names of all 
Chinese who left here years ago. I am satisfied that there is an organized movement 
to obtain these certificates for use here or at other ports. These certificates of course 
are conclusive upon the Territory as to the citizenship of their possessors. In the 
case of the possessor of one of these certificates who was denied a landing and for whom 
habeas corpus proceedings were taken, Judge Clemons decided adversely to the peti- 
tioner, who has taken an appeal, and the purpose of the attorneys is to carry the case 
to the Supreme Court, seeking to obtain a decision that, these certificates are conclu- 
sive against the United States. The parties who are behind this are wealthy and 
unscrupulous Chinese. These certificates are very valuable for territorial purposes, 
as their possessors are able to homestead on the public lands. 

Chinese aliens: 

Laborers admitted 241 

Exempts admitted 142 

Total admissions 383 

Chinese citizens admitted : 

Hawaiian born 272 

Naturalized citizens 10 

Wives of citizens 30 

Children of citizens 24 

Total 336 

Chinese deported: 

Alleged Hawaiian born 24 

Alleged Hawaiian born on appeal 37 

Laborer 1 

Merchants' wives 5 

Merchants' children 5 

Citizens' children on appeal 2 

Citizens' wives on appeal 4 

Section 6. students 2 

Total 80 

Of the above 10 were certified as having trachoma, and 1 as having gonorrhea. 

Certificates: 

Form 430, native born — 

Granted by officer in charge 46 

Denied by officer in charge 1 

Total 47 

Form 431, exempts — 

Granted by officer in charge 65 

Denied by officer in charge 2 

Denied by department 2 

Total 69 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 249 

( 'ertificatea — -Continued. 
Form 482, laborers — 

I ii anted by officer in charge 279 

Denied by officer in charge 8 

Denied by department 2 

Total 289 

Deportations (other than Chinese) : 

Trachoma 187 

Likely to become public charge 15 

Hookworm 11 

Insane 1 

Unlawfully in United States 1 

Accompanying alien 2 

Total 217 

Chinese 80 

Total deportations for year 297 



Four fines of .$100 each have been covered into the Treasury for bringing in aliens 
with a dangerous contagious disease which might have been detected before embarka- 
tion. One was a case pending from last year, and there is one case now pending. 

In the early part of the year the Japanese consul took up with his Government the 
matter of the examination of aliens on Japanese vessels, with the result that there were 
50 per cent less certifications here for disease. The Pacific Mail Steamship Co. lately 
lias taken action, and on the last boat, over 100 aliens, there was no certification for 
disease. The examining surgeon here has made comparatively few certifications on 
the day of arrival, and many cases are apparently old cases which have been treated 
and break out on the voyage or after a few days detention. 

The strong policy of the present Public Health surgeon is beginning to bear good 
fruit, and the rejection of questionable or possibly dormant cases, or of those who 
may be considered by some surgeons to have arrived at the so-called "benign con- 
dition" is becoming the rule, in view of which ships' doctors will take no chances. 



GENERAL ADMINISTRATION. 

The volume of work has been greater than in former years. In the Chinese depart- 
ment we are greatly hampered by the fact that there are no complete, and in many 
cases no reliable records of departures before annexation. In view of this we have 
a correspondingly abnormal number of "raw native " cases to deal with, and in the face 
of an effort to bring in many of this class our inspectors have worked with zeal and 
persistence. The volume of testimony taken in a given case is larger than heretofore, 
and we have found an increase of bad cases. I am able to assign but one inspector 
exclusively to Chinese work, and in order to finish warrant cases pending he is not 
able to give now over half of his time to the Chinese. As this is the slack season 
in Chinese work I am making an effort to keep the work up with urgent help of the 
other inspectors. There is a large work that ought to be done here under the "white- 
slave act, ' ' on this and other islands. Inspector Brown is exceptionally well informed 
and qualified to handle such cases. I have already asked for another inspector to 
act as boarding officer, and there should be another stenographer to be assigned exclu- 
sively to Chinese work. 

Considering the number of "picture brides," all of whom come before the board 
of special inquiry, and the number of wives and children, and other detained aliens 
who come before the board it will be apparent how much of the time of the clerk 
is taken up by service on the board. I respectfully emphasize the need of an addi- 
tional inspector and stenographer. We are putting all the force and vigor we can 
into the administration of the law. The assurances of prominent citizens or aliens 
or attorneys that a case is good are not considered: the law and the testimony alone 
are conclusive. There is no one in office who states unofficially that what is needed 
is the admission of more Chinese laborers. We are not moved by a desire for public 
praise nor depressed by abuse, and we are highly gratified that in cases where the 
alien and local press have attacked this office we have been sustained by the depart- 
ment. The administration of the law here has been as temperate, kindly, and firm 



250 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

as at other ports. If the added help desired is granted, I am confident that the com- 
ing year will show better and truer results, wider in their influence and beneficial to 
the State. 

Our immigration station was erected eight years ago, on July 4. There have been 
some additions, but little of repairs. I had hoped that it might have been taken 
over by the Quartermaster Department of the Army and a more suitable building 
erected on Sand Island near the quarantine station. However, certain additions and 
alterations are now necessary. 

******* 

A number of habeas corpus cases have been started and some are still pending, 
having been under advisement for over four months. There is a determined and 
self-announced effort to contest in the courts cases denied by the office or the depart- 
ment on the ground that the hearings are not fair. This office and the department 
alike are made the subject of virulent abuse by attorneys in court, to the evident 
delight of their Asiatic clients. To allow such abuse of a coordinate branch of the 
Government is not calculated to inculcate in the oriental mind a respect for our 
Government. We have obtained some favorable decisions, but in others it seems 
to me there has been a broadening of the Nakashima case. The steamship com- 
panies complain of the expense for maintenance of aliens held so long under habeas 
corpus proceedings. Where an appeal to the United States circuit court of appeals 
has been taken the judges have released the petitioner on bail, holding in Chinese 
cases that the provision as to ''no bail " applies only to the time prior to their decision. 
******* 

Richard L. Halsey, 

Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERVISING INSPECTOR, DISTRICT NO. 23, 
COMPRISING TEXAS (EXCEPT DISTRICT NO. 9), NEW MEXICO, 
ARIZONA, AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

There is submitted herewith report covering the administration of the immigration 
and Chinese-exclusion acts in the Mexican border district for the year ended June 30, 
1913. 

ALIEN ARRIVALS OTHER THAN CHINESE. 

During the period covered by this report 85,132 aliens were inspected. Of this num- 
ber 80,510 were admitted on primary inspection. The remainder, 4,622, were held 
for investigation by boards of special inquiry, and of those so detained 1,135 were 
eventually permitted to enter and 3,487 rejected, or 4.095 per cent. Owing to the 
peculiar and it may be said unparalleled conditions obtaining along the Mexican 
border, a bald presentation of figures showing the number admitted and excluded 
would, without some analysis of the character of the immigration thereby represented, 
be incomplete and susceptible of erroneous deductions. Of the total number of aliens 
presenting themselves for admission at the southern frontier the largest proportion is 
at all times naturally composed of Mexicans, forming in the main a vast migratory 
element, which, coming with no definite intention of remaining permanently, adds 
only in a limited degree to the sum total of our permanent population. Such aliens, 
broadly speaking, fall within the class known as nonstatistical, and of the 85,132 
applicants 67,972 belonged to this class, leaving 17,160 who might reasonably be con- 
sidered as potential citizens, or at least permanent residents. Of the 67,972 nonstatis- 
tical applicants 1,612 were debarred, or 2.37 per cent. Of the 17,160 statistical aliens 
1,875, or 10.9 per cent, were rejected. A decided decrease in the number of the latter 
class applying this year, as compared with the year preceding, will be noted, while on 
the other hand the volume of nonstatistical or transitory applicants has more than 
doubled. This striking change in the character of immigration from and through 
Mexico is in a large measure traceable to the continued political unrest in that country. 

During the past year a large number of aliens of the better classes, particularly those 
of the Mexican race, have, as a result of this condition, taken up a temporary abode 
in this country, and while these are in the main, broadly speaking, refugees, and will 
with but relatively few exceptions ultimately return to their native land, records have 
been maintained concerning them. During the fiscal year preceding, out of a total of 
28,288 statistical aliens (including various races) 1,715 were debarred, or 6.01 percent. 
Of these 5.18 per cent were Mexicans and 0.83 percent other races. In the year just 
closed, as previously stated, but 17,160 statistical aliens applied for admission, of which 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 251 

number 1,875 were debarred, or 10.9 per cent, of which 8.2 per cent were Mexicans 
and 2.7 per cent other races. It will be seen that the greatest increase in the number 
of rejections has occurred in the statistical class and that the greater part of said 
increase has been of Mexicans. The net increase in the percentage of rejections of 
statistical aliens this year, as compared with last, is 3.02 per cent Mexican and 1.87 
per cent all other races. As pointed out in the report for the fiscal year 1912, it was 
then difficult to make comparisons of a satisfactory and conclusive character, owing to 
the varied influences had upon immigration by the revolution in Mexico. A similar 
condition has existed practically throughout the entire past year, and while, as the 
figures show, there has been an increase in the number of debarred, as compared with 
the preceding year, it may be said that humane considerations have led to the admis- 
sion of a considerable number of refugees who would doubtless have been more rigidly 
dealt with had they applied as other than such. Taken as a whole, the immigration 
over this border during the past year has not averaged up in quality with that of the 
previous year. 

ILLEGITIMATE IMMIGRATION. 

In each annual report since the establishment of this district more or less discussion 
has been had of immigration under this heading. "With the exception of arrivals of the 
Syrian race there has been an inconsiderable volume of what might be termed illegiti- 
mate immigration during the past year. Information gathered from various sources 
in the past has conclusively demonstrated that the diversion of Syrian immigration 
by way of the Mexican border is largely due to representations made by unscrupulous 
persons located in Marseille, France, and other transoceanic points in effect that the 
same rigid examinations are not conducted on the border as prevail at seaports, and that 
if excluded there always remains the opportunity for the immigrant to enter surrep- 
titiously. Such representations have without doubt had their weight in persuading 
aliens of this race, particularly those physically disqualified, to proceed by the longer 
and more expensive route. During the latter part of the preceding fiscal year the 
practice was inaugurated, and has since been continued with gratifying results, of 
instituting searching investigations at the destinations of these applicants before 
finally taking action in their cases, in consequence of which out of a total of 408 Syrians 
who sought admission 217 were debarred, or a percentage of 53.1, as contrasted with 
22.5 per cent rejected the year previous. Forty-nine of those debarred subsequently 
effected surreptitious entry, of which number 43 were deported. It is unquestionably 
true that the average immigrant of this race seeking entry by way of Mexico is of the 
very lowest and most undesirable type, thus rendering a firm enforcement of the law 
not only justifiable but imperative if hope is entertained of ever teaching these unfor- 
tunates that the Mexican border does not offer an easy means of access to our country. 



REFUGEES. 

The number of alien refugees has been greater during the past year than in the two 
preceding years, and no inconsiderable portion thereof consisted of people possessed 
of some means, intending merely a temporary sojourn if conditions in their native 
country would, within a reasonable period, permit return. Many of these, under- 
estimating the duration of their enforced exile, have found their means insufficient to 
tide them over the period of waiting and have sought employment . Refugees will 
be found in almost every city and town in this district, a considerable number of 
whom are unfit to perform hard manual labor, and as their funds become exhausted it 
will be difficult for them to maintain themselves, and unless conditions in Mexico 
become settled in the near future a satisfactory disposition of the refugees may become 
a serious problem. 

JAPANESE. 

Immigration of Japanese through this district has been practically negligible. Dur- 
ing the year last past 78 applied for admission, of which number 18 were debarred. 
Forty-seven were arrested, 45 of whom were charged with illegal entry and. 2 with 
illegal residence. Of the total number 40 were deported, 2 warrants were canceled, 1 
escaped, and the the cases of 4 remained pending at the close of the year. Practically 
all of the illegal entries were effected over the southern California land boundary, and 
the apprehension of aliens of this race who enter clandestinely continues to engage 
earnest attention. 

Numerous gardens and ranches conducted by Japanese in immediate proximity to 
the southern California boundary afford employment and refuge to the newcomers 
until opportunity presents to proceed to the more thickly populated towns and cities 



252 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

where the chances of arrest are even more remote. In the absence of evidence that 
these aliens are illegally in the country, their stories of long residence, often corrobo- 
rated by their employers, must, perforce, be accepted. On various occasions Japa- 
nese with maps in their possession have been arrested by officers of this district. These 
maps indicate routes of travel from Ensenada to points in California and are almost 
invariably accompanied by detailed instructions, indicating the presence of persons 
in the United States interested in assisting aliens of this race to effect surreptitious 
entry. It is difficult to fasten upon anyone criminal responsibility for the introduc- 
tion of such aliens, as the contraband are rarely directly assisted in crossing the bound- 
ary, but instead rely upon the maps referred to, nor will they, with rare exceptions, 
furnish evidence against the person or persons criminally liable. . 

The officers of this district have been extremely diligent in their efforts to break 
up the smuggling of Japanese, a task which, though fraught with many difficulties, 
has met with encouraging results. 

APPEALS AND BONDS. 
******* 

During the year 321 aliens appealed from the decisions of boards of special inquiry 
or applied for admission under bond, of which number the department directed the 
exclusion of 219 and the admission of 86, leaving 16 pending at the close of the year 

ARRESTS UNDER DEPARTMENT WARRANTS. 

******* 

Including cases pending from the preceding year, there were under arrest during 
the period covered by this report 780 aliens, of which number 647 were actually 
deported; 54 warrants were canceled; 13 aliens escaped, and the cases of 66 were 
pending at the close of the year. A considerable number of aliens found unlawfully 
in the United States in the immediate vicinity of the border were, after having sig- 
nified a desire to return to Mexico, permitted to do so, in some instances the only 
disqualification apparent being that of entry without inspection. It is considered 
that this procedure is in line with good administration, as it not only relieves this 
service of much needless expense, but avoids inflicting hardships incident to arrest 
and detention. 

In the case of practically every alien arrested there is a more or less important 
principle involved, and consideration is at all times had primarily of the mischief 
evidently sought to be remedied by Congress. In other words, quality rather than 
quantity is held to be the chief desideratum. 



PROSECUTIONS. 

******* 

The following brief summary of criminal prosecutions and civil suits instituted for 
violations of either the Chinese exclusion or the immigration laws will be of special 
interest: 



Number 
Criminal. of 

persons. 



Number 
of indict- 
ments. 



Indicted and awaiting trial July 1, 1912 57 

Indicted during fiscal year 1913 70 

Awaiting action by the grand jury, July 1, 1913 | 3 



Total 

Convictions during fiscal year 1913 (involving prison sentences aggregating 27 years 
8 months and 12 days, and fines amounting to $1,922, and bonds forfeited to the 
amount of $1,200) 

Acquittals, or indictments quashed 

Deceased defendants under indictment 

Awaiting trial under indictments 

Awaiting action by the grand jury 

Total 

'Includes 4 defendants who were convicted or acquitted during the fiscal year 1913. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 253 

CIVIL SUITS. 

Pending July 1, 1912 (involving penalties aggregating $76,000) 3 

Instituted during fiscal year 1913 (involving penalties aggregating $41.000) 5 

Total 8 

Tried and verdicts rendered in favor defendants (involving penalties aggregating 
$29.000) '- 3 

Dismissed under instructions of Attorney General (involving penalties aggregating 
$20,000) I 

Pending July 1 , 1913 (involving penalties aggregating $88,000) 4 

As will be seen from the foregoing, the usual success has attended the prosecution 
of offenders against the immigration and Chinese exclusion acts. There is no one 
phase of the work in this district which demands greater skill, perseverance, and 
intelligence than that which has for its object the collection of evidence in contem- 
plated criminal proceedings. In the early history of the district the means employed 
by smugglers to evade detection were more or less crude. With time, however, their 
methods have undergone a marked change. It is a resourceful criminal indeed who 
can for long escape the just consequence of his evil doing. Many persons heretofore 
engaged in violating our laws have realized this, and noting the vigor of the prosecu- 
tions waged against the fraternity have turned their attention to pursuits which, 
if no less unlawful, at least possess the merit of being less dangerous. Those who 
remain among the ranks of the smugglers do so by virtue of refinement of methods, 
which to say the least makes their apprehension an interesting and it may be said 
fascinating study. 

Prosecutions in this district are largely directed against persons in conspiracy to 
violate the laws. The evidence in such cases is usually a matter of slow development, 
often originating with some incident or circumstance apparently trivial and innocent 
in itself but significant and suggestive to the mind of the trained and experienced 
officer. 

While the number of criminal convictions during the year j list past has been slightly 
less than that of the year preceding, the results obtained have been highly satisfactory. 

CHINESE TRANSITS. 

The privilege of transit at border ports was granted 346 Chinese. This is a slight 
increase over the preceding year, due to the hardships attendant upon the continued 
unsettled conditions in Mexico. Transits to the number of 976 passed through this 
district into Mexico. It will be observed that the number of transits who passed 
into Mexico during the past year is more than double that of the preceding year. 
Of the 976 referred to, 646 proceeded to Lower California through Calexico, Cal. 

The passing of Chinese transits into Lower California has been the subject of more 
or less discussion during the past year with both the bureau and the commissioner 
at San Francisco. Investigations so far conducted indicate that this movement is 
fostered by powerful financial interests having as their object the development of 
large tracts of land in Lower California. Events have proven also that a considerable 
number of such Chinese have sought the privilege with the purpose in view of ulti- 
mately effecting surreptitious entry into the United States. Investigations have 
likewise disclosed that the number of transits to Lower California during the past 
year has been greatly in excess of the demand for such labor, in consequence of 
which the unemployed, as the only alternative, are awaiting favorable opportunity 
clandestinely to enter this country. It is reasonably well established that no incon- 
siderable number of such Chinese have proceeded to Lower California under a mis- 
apprehension as to wages paid in that country. These have naturally become dis- 
satisfied and have further augmented the numbers already referred to awaiting 
opportunity to secure illegal entry. Authentic advices have been received since 
the close of the year that from 2,000 to 5,000 additional Chinese are to be brought 
from Hongkong to Lower California. 

It is apparent that a serious problem confronts our officers in the vicinity of Calexico, 
and that only by the most strenuous efforts may we hope successfully to cope with it. 
It is anticipated that a material strengthening of the force in that locality will be 
necessary before the close of the fiscal year 1914 by reason of the conditions described. 



254 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

INVESTIGATIONS (CHINESE). 

The following is a summary of investigations conducted in connection with Chinese 
matters other than those relating to deportation and criminal proceedings: 

Departing laborers (provision for return) 112 

Departing exempts 112 

Departing natives 67 

Returning and initial exempts 105 

Returning natives 60 

Departing laborers (no return provisions) 55 

Duplicate certificates 58 

Suspected alteration or wrongful possession of certificates of residence by 

holders '. 106 

Miscellaneous ■ 104 

Total 779 

******* 
During the year the cases of 272 Chinese were considered by the courts or awaiting 
deportation by virtue of orders issued in the previous year; 59 of these were new 
cases. Of the total first mentioned 53 were discharged ; 83 deported ; 22 were awaiting 
deportation or disposition of their cases on appeal, and 114 were pending at the close 
of the year. Three hundred and forty-six Chinese were arrested under departmental 
warrant during the year, which number added to the 272 above mentioned makes a 
total of 618. 

The benefits resultant from handling Chinese cases under departmental warrants 
have been far-reaching In their effect. It was formerly the custom of many Chinese 
to enter from Mexico without formality and deliberately court arrest, secure in the 
knowledge that a free trip to their native land would be the inevitable result. The 
effect of deporting aliens of this character to Pacific coast points in Mexico has, it is 
believed, gone a long way toward eradicating this evil. While the number of Chinese 
arrested during the past year has fallen off somewhat, as compared with the preced- 
ing year, it is undoubtedly a fact that of the number apprehended a larger propor- 
tion than ever before were desirous of effecting permanent lodgment in this country. 

PENDING CASES. 

Chinese deportation cases pending in the courts within this district number 114, 
of which 80 are in the western district of Texas. Progress has been made during the 
year in reducing the formerly congested calendars, * * * but the results still 
continue far from satisfactory. Administrative proceedings offer a partial remedy 
for this condition, but until such time as it is possible to remove all illegally resident 
Chinese by this means, regardless of length of residence, the law's delays will con- 
tinue to afford a measure of protection to a class of aliens whose expulsion from the 
country should be accomplished in a summary manner. 

CERTIFICATE CHINESE. 

It is gratifying to be able to report that satisfactory progress has been made during 
the year toward breaking up the long standing practice whereby Chinese laborers 
possessed of valid certificates of residence seek to effect return at El Paso after a 
temporary sojourn abroad. During the year 478 Chinese, a majority of whom were 
of the class described , were checked out of El Paso to interior points of the United 
States, as compared with 647 for the preceding year. It is safe to say that practically 
all of those checked out of this district effected surreptitious entry from Mexico, but 
affirmative proof of such entry was lacking. This pernicious practice, forming as it 
does one of the principal sources of revenue of the smuggling ring, will doubtless con- 
tinue, though never again in so flourishing a manner as obtained in the years when the 
only recourse was the commissioners' court. As repeatedly pointed out, Congress 
alone can remedy this condition. It is of interest to note in this connection that cer- 
tificates of residence to the number of 93, as compared with 56 for the year previous, 
have been invalidated and canceled during the year, largely by reason of the de- 
parture and return of their holders without having first made proper provision. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 255 



The enforcement of the provisions of the Chinese exclusion act continues one of 
the most difficult and perplexing problems met with on this border. The same gen- 
eral tactics described in preceding reports are followed by persons interested in 
assisting contraband Chinese to reach the interior of the United States, though, as 
suggested elsewhere in this report, there is a noticeable refinement in the methods 
employed by such persons, and their connection with the actual introduction of the 
Chinese is so remote that evidence justifying criminal prosecution is procured with 
increasing difficulty. The duties of inspectors within this district were never more 
exacting, and to locate and successfully overcome the obscure, unlawful influence 
at work requires energy, earnestness, and intelligence of the highest order. 

The value of the automobile as a fairly safe and rapid means of transporting contra- 
band Chinese from the border to interior points has been recognized by the smu°-°lers 
and the time is not far distant when the service on this border will be virtually power- 
less to cope with them unless it is equally progressive. 

The smuggling of contraband Chinese by water continues a most vexing and diffi- 
cult problem. There is every reason to believe that a considerable number of these 
are being landed at points along the Pacific coast. For a short period during the 
past year this service had at its disposal a small high-power launch which unfortu- 
nately was lost at sea. During the period when this vessel was in commission it is 
believed that the traffic was at a standstill, but since the loss of the Elizabeth persons 
engaged in smuggling by water have had almost full sway. The service can not sat- 
isfactorily handle this situation without proper equipment, and in order to keep 
pace with our needs no reasonable means to that end should be neglected. 

Recommendations heretofore made looking to the purchase of automobiles, a suita- 
ble boat, and to an increase of the clerical force, the necessity for all of which has 
been conceded, are herewith renewed, and it is earnestly hoped that a way may be 
found which will render possible favorable action thereupon. 

In concluding the writer wishes to specially commend the officers and employees 
within this jurisdiction for their loyal support! It is due to their zealous cooperation 
that the very gratifying results obtained in this district have been possible of attain- 
ment. 

F. W. Berkshire, 

Supervising Inspector. 

































BUREAU OP IMMIGRATION 


WAVE OF IMMIGRATION into 


Che United St 


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es, FROM ALL COUNTRIES, during the past 

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1821 1823 1825 182 7 1829 1831 1833 18 


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It ? ,! r4 ° 6 B°« 80289 52496 "4371 234968 237024 379466368645 
33 '« }7 1639 1841 1843 1846 1847 1849 t85> 1863 

ARRIVALS 1820 TO 1912 


6?3;95857iI9I9-42 
54M856 I 1858 
200877 lf2"T?3 129 
1855 1857 (8 

30,808,9 


I860 
STl 1416 
)9 186 

44 


1863 .665 I6C7 1869.67! ,B73 l8 7 S .877 1879 1881 1633 .88* 1B87 1889 189. 1893 1895 .897 1899 -90. ^\^°\^ gfo 

mm 1906 1909 '9'2 

ESTIMATED ARRIVALS 1776 TO 1A20. 250 «™1 



*•** b*tn approximated i"i 



teji 



IMMIGRATION INTO THE UNITED STATES 

FROM THE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES 

AND TOTAL FROM ALL COUNTRIES 

DURING THE PAST 94 YEARS 



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ii 



APPENDIX IV 



OPERATION OF THE PRESENT IMMIGRA- 
TION LAW 



7686°— 14 17 257 



[S. Doc. No. 52, 63d Cong., 1st sess.] 

OPERATION OF PRESENT IMMIGRATION LAW— A STATEMENT IN 
REGARD TO THE OPERATION OF THE PRESENT IMMIGRATION 
LAW PREPARED BY THE RETIRING COMMISSIONER GENERAL 
OF IMMIGRATION. 

The present immigration law has but little effect in reducing or checking the great 
influx of aliens. In fact, it scarcely excludes any except those who are afflicted with 
serious mental of physical defects. Indeed, if it were not for the few debarred on 
these grounds, and the occasional contract laborer, anarchist, criminal, or immoral 
person turned back, the effect of the law would be almost negligible. Notwithstanding 
the mandatory provisions of the law, it has been difficult in the past to deport even 
when the aliens are mentally or physically defective. It has become customary for 
friends or philanthropic societies to appeal in behalf of rejected aliens, and in taking 
such appeals little or no consideration is given to the merits of the cases, the desire 
being in any event to land the alien. The endeavors of all parties concerned are fre- 
quently directed toward persuading the department that the boards of special inquiry 
(composed in each instance of three experienced immigrant inspectors, who personally 
examine and observe the aliens and their witnesses) and the public health surgeona 
(doctors of training and experience whose only interest, of course, is to perform their 
duty) are mistaken in their conclusions, and in the event of their failure to have the 
aliens landed writs of habeas corpus are sought in an effort to have the courts set 
aside the decision of the administrative officers. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1912, 1,033,212 aliens applied for admission, 
of whom only 1.4 per cent were excluded for all causes. Present indications are that 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, there will be approximately 1,375,000 appli- 
cants for admission and that the percentage of exclusions will not exceed that of the 
previous year. This great influx, composed largely of unskilled laborers, undoubtedly 
is due largely to the activities of ticket agents and others, who solicit and induce 
aliens to migrate. 

Notwithstanding the small percentage of rejections, there are those who constantly 
criticize the Immigration Service on every conceivable ground, even to the extent of 
asserting that the law is being so enforced as to reduce the labor supply at a time 
when there is a great demand for labor, especially in connection with agricultural 
pursuits. Much of this criticism is not honest; such as is honest is usually based 
upon ignorance of the law and conditions. Thus those who say the farm-labor sup- 
ply is being interfered with seem to assume that immigrants from southern and 
eastern Europe go on the farms, whereas practically none of them do, although they 
may have been farm laborers in their native countries. As a matter of fact, over 80 
per cent of the immigrants of to-day come from southern and eastern Europe or western 
Asia, and very few of these have any intention of performing or could be induced to 
perform farm work in the United States, and in the main dependence must be had 
upon the 18 or 20 per cent from northern or western Europe for the farmers' labor 
supply, so far as it can be expected to come from overseas. What the bulk of these 
aliens do is either to enter unskilled city occupations or engage in common labor in 
manufacturing, mining, or construction work. As a matter of fact, our immigration is 
poorly assorted in the industrial sense, and unquestionably it is having a disastrous 
effect on American unskilled labor. 

It being obvious that the existing law is not sufficient to meet the serious situation 
from an economic point of view, growing out of the fact that about 80 per cent of our 
immigration is composed of aliens belonging to races not of the same stock as the 
original settlers or the voluntary immigration previous to 25 years ago, it would seem 
to be incumbent upon Congress to adopt an immigration measure that will be sufficient. 

The Burnett-Dillingham bill, passed at the last session of Congress, but vetoed by 
President Taft, wasan excellent measure, not only in the improvements it would have 
effected in the administrative features of the law, but because it contained the illiteracy 
test, a_ provision that would have gone a long way toward reducing the economically 
undesirable portion of our immigration. 

Although I was in favor of the illiteracy test (and undertook to indorse it in my 
last annual report), I am not at all sure it goes far enough in restricting immigra- 
tion of the class against which it is especially directed. At any rate, I am clearly of 

259 



260 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

the opinion that the restriction of immigration of the physically, mentally, and morally 
unsound should be made more thorough, as has been repeatedly suggested in my annual 
reports. The physical standard for male aliens who are to do manual labor should be 
raised to approximate that enforced by the Army and Navy in securing recruits. 
It should also be possible for the United States authorities to exercise a wide discre- 
tion with regard to the admission or rejection of large numbers of aliens who, for 
reasons existing at the time of application or in the locality where the aliens propose to 
go, would be an undesirable addition to the population on economic grounds. 

However, in my opinion, the best suggestion that has yet been made regarding the 
further restriction of immigration is that recently proposed as a substitute for the 
illiteracy test, although I can see no reason why the illiteracy test should not be placed 
in the law simultaneously with it. The suggestion in question is that the number of 
aliens of any nationality, exclusive of temporary visitors, admitted to the United States 
in any fiscal year should be required by law not to exceed 10 per cent of the number of 
persons of such nationality resident in the United States at the time the next preceding 
census was taken, but the minimum number of any nationality admissible in any 
fiscal year should be not less than 5,000. It is not contemplated that this provision 
shall apply to Canada, Newfoundland, Mexico, or Cuba. Nationality under this plan 
would be determined by country of birth, and colonies and dependencies would be 
regarded as separate countries. If there had been admitted from any particular 
country its yearly quota, all aliens of that nationality thereafter applying would be 
rejected unless it should be shown that they were returning from a temporary visit, 
or were coming to join near relatives, or were members of clearly defined professional 
and business classes. 

Analysis of the statistics of foreign population given in the last census and a com- 
parison of the figures representing 10 per cent, respectively, of the various nationalities 
concerned with immigration statistics showing average annual immigration for the 10 
years 1903 to 1912, inclusive, indicates some very interesting results that would flow 
from the adoption of this suggestion, and it is apparent that in the main the reduction 
in immigration that would be accomplished would be constituted of reductions from 
countries of southern and eastern Europe and western Asia. Thus under this plan 
134,312 Italians could come annually, while the average number per year during the 
past decade has been 207,152; from Austria-Hungary, 167,053 could come, against an 
annual average for the past decade of 219,782; from Greece, 10,128, against 20,118; 
from Turkey in Europe, 5,000, against 10,832. On the other hand, 250,133 natives of 
Germany would be entitled to come annually, while the average annual immigration 
of such people during the past decade has been Only 35,139 ; Denmark could send 18, 165, 
compared with 6,971 that have been coming; and the United Kingdom would be 
allowed a maximum of 257,353, against 95,826. 

After four and a half years' connection with the Immigration Service, I feel 
that, while of course somewhat more could be accomplished toward keeping out the 
undesirable if more money and more inspectors and doctors were available, no very 
considerable increase in rejections can be expected unless and until the law is materially 
improved and strengthened. I have been interested and somewhat amused to observe 
in the public press statements asserting or predicting that since the Immigration 
Service has been placed under the new Department of Labor the law will be much 
more rigidly enforced than heretofore — suggestions which usually carry an imputation 
of unfairness. The truth of the matter is that the maximum percentage of rejections 
possible under existing law is so small that, no matter what the desires of administra- 
tive officers might be, it is not possible materially to increase rejections. My term of 
service has covered three months of the new administration. I feel perfectly sure 
that the Secretary of Labor will administer the immigration law in a thorough and 
fair manner, and will wherever proper temper justice with mercy. In this connection 
it is interesting to note that the figures for the several months last past show that the 
percentage of rejections is lower than that shown for the same months of the previous 
year. 

The Immigration Service is thoroughly and efficiently organized, and its employees 
quite generally are of a very high grade and will compare favorably with those in any 
other branch of the Government service, notwithstanding they are charged with the 
performance of very difficult duties, which involve the handling of human beings 
and the application to concrete cases, often of a very complicated nature, of the various 
provisions of the laws on immigration. It has indeed been a great pleasure to me to 
be associated as commissioner general with an organization of such excellence, the 
personnel of which I have learned to respect and honor for their sterling qualities. 

Danl. J. Keefe. 



INDEX 



Page. 

Admission of aliens under bond 8,114 

Admitted aliens, statement relative to 3 

statistics relating to, and departed 37-148 

Admitting decision, appeals from 8 

Age, admitted immigrants 6, 46 

admitted nonimmigrants 94 

emigrants, departing 48 

nonemigrants, departing 96 

Alaska, report of officer in charge 242 

Aliens, immigrant, admitted .... 3, 5, 7, 38, 58, 64, 78 

assisted to migrate 17 

Chinese 22 

debarred at ports of entry 3,7,38 

deported after entry 4,7,110 

distribution of, discussed 19, 151 

emigrants departed 48,55,61,70,84 

induced to migrate 17 

Japanese 19 

(See also Nonimmigrant; Emigrant; and 
Nonemigrant.) 

Anarchists 5,6 

Appeals, to department 8, 114 

causes of debarment 114 

Application for landing on bond 8 

causes of debarment 114 

Appropriation, amount of, for fiscal year 4 

discussed and compared with head tax col- 
lected 30-32 

Assisted aliens 17 

Baltimore, new station proposed 199 

Bond, application for landing on 8 

Boston, proposed new station at 34, 178 

Charleston, new station at 34 

Chinese immigration: 

admission, by classes, since 1907 142 

by classes and ports, this year 143 

appeals from excluding decisions 24, 144 

applications of residents for preinvestiga- 

tion 1 44 

arrested as unlawfully in United States... 24, 

145-147 

citizens of Chinese race admitted 23 , 144 

exempts admitted 23, 143 

miscellaneous transactions, by ports 148 

reports from principal ports of entry and 

districts 176, 213, 231, 236-240, 248 

seamen 26, 28 

transits 25, 148. 189, 238, 253 

Citizens, table showing arrivals and depar- 
tures 130-133 

Commissioners and inspectors in charge, re- 
ports of 29, 165-255 

Conjugal condition of admitted aliens 50 

Contagious diseases, aliens rejected afflicted 

with 7, 106 

aliens afflicted with, deported after entry. . 110 



Contract laborers, discussion of subject 16 

rejected at ports 4,7 

deported after entry 110 

Criminals, law inadequate to reach 5, 6 

rejected at ports 7 

deported after entry 110 

Countries whence immigrants came 8, 40 

Country, last permanent residence admitted 

aliens 52 

future permanent residence departed emi- 
grants 55 

Debarred, at ports 3.7,38 

races and causes 106 

totals since 1892 108 

Decrease or increase in population by immi- 
gration 39, 40, 42 

Deported, aliens in United States in viola- 
tion of law 4,7 

countries to which, by races and causes.. 110-113 

Deserting seamen, by ports 116 

Destination, by States, of admitted immi- 
grants 43 

relative or friend 47 

Diseased aliens, debarred 4, 7, 106 

deported after entry 110 

Distribution of immigration 19, 43, 151 

Districts, reports of officers in charge of. 29, 165-255 

Emigrant aliens departed, during specified 

periods, by races and sex 93 

countries intended residence, by races 55 

occupation and race 70 

occupation and State of last residence 84 

sex, age, length of residence, etc 48 

States of last residence, by races 61 

Epileptics, debarred 7, 106 

deported after entry 110 

Excluded classes, aliens deported after entry 

as members of 8, 110, 112 

Excluded. (See Debarred.) 
Expelled. (See Deported.) 

Favus, debarred as afflicted with 106 

Financial condition of admitted aliens 6, 7, 47 

Fines for bringing diseased aliens 9 

Force, necessity for additional 4 

Foreign contiguous territory, residents of, re- 
fused temporary admission 109 

Galveston, new station 34, 206 

Hawaii, report of officer in charge at Hono- 
lulu 247-250 

table showing details relative to Japanese 

arrivals in 140 

Head tax 30, 1 17 

Hindus 228, 240 

Hospital treatment , of diseased aliens 10-15 

cases at Baltimore 12, 195 

Boston 13 

261 



262 



INDEX. 



Hospital treatment— Continued. 

cases at Galveston 14 

New Orleans 14 

New York 12, 184 

Philadelphia 13, 191 

San Francisco 14, 241 

Seattle 14,224 

Idiots, debarred .' 7, 106 

Imbeciles, debarred 7, 106 

Immigrant aliens admitted during specified 

periods 92 

Immigrant fund 30,117 

Immigration, comparison with other years. .. ^6 

comparison by races \K>?* 

sources of 8 

totals since 1820 105 

(See also Aliens.) 

Immigration stations 34, 

178,184,193,199,202,200,225 
Immoral classes. (See Procurers and Prosti- 
tutes.) 
Increase or decrease in population by immi- 
gration 39,40,42 

Induced immigration 17 

Information, Division of, report of Chief 149 

Inspection, aliens deported as entering with- 
out 8 

Inspectors in charge and commissioners, re- 
ports of 29, 165-255 

Insane, debarred 7, 106 

deported after entry 110 

Japan, report of Government of, on immigra- 
tion to United States 137 

Japanese, discussion of immigration of 19 

admissions, rejections, etc 136 

effect of immigration on populat ion 136 

occupations of, admitted 137 

reports of officers at ports 229, 239, 247, 251 

seamen 27 

variousdetailsconcerningthoseadmitted. 138, 140 

Keefe, Daniel J., former Commissioner < Jen- 

eral of Immigration 3 

statement on operation of present law 259 

Lascar seamen 27 

Literacy, immigrant aliens admitted 6, 7, 46 

Mentally defective aliens, debarred 9, 107 

deported after entry 110 

Money possessed by admitted aliens 7, 47 

Naturalization, new B ureau of 18 

New Orleans, new station at 34, 202 

Nonemigrants departed, sex, age, race, etc. . 96, 101 
Nonimmigrants admitted, sex, age, race, etc. 94, 97 

Occupations: 

admitted aliens, by races 64 

by State intended residence 76 

admitted and departed aliens 6, 44 

emigrant aliens departed, by races 70 

by States last permanent residence 84 

Passage, that of admitted aliens paid by 7, 47 

Passengers departed, this year 118 

since 1890 134 

Paupers, debarred at ports 15, 106 



Philadelphia station 35, 193 

Philippine Islands, aliens admitted to 39, 60 

nonimmigrant aliens admitted to 94, 98 

Physically defective aliens rejected 7, 9, 107 

Polygamists, debarred at ports 107 

Population: 
increase or decrease by immigration, by 

months 39 

by countries, whence came 40 

by races 42 

Porto Rico, report of commissioner at San 

Juan 243-246 

Procurers, debarred at ports 7, 107 

deported after entry 8, 110 

Prostitutes, debarred at ports 7, 107 

deported after entry 8, 110 

Public charges, debarred as likely to be- 
come 3, 7, 15, 106 

deported as 4, 8, 16, 1 10 

Public Health surgeons, necessity for addi- 
tional 5, 9 

Races, admitted aliens 42, 46, 52, 55 

departed aliens 55, 61, 70, 93 

Rejected. (See Debarred.) 

Reports of officers in charge of districts. . 29, 165-255 

Residence, countries of last permanent, of 

aliens admitted 52 

future intended, of emigrant aliens departed. 55 

future, of nonimmigrant aliens admitted 97 

future permanent, of aliens admitted and 

last of, departed 43 

States of future intended, of admitted 

aliens, giving races and occupations . . . 58,76 
States of last permanent, of emigrant aliens 

departed, giving races and occupations 61,84 

Seamen, deserting, by ports 116 

general discussion of subject 26 

Sex, admitted aliens 6,7,46 

emigrant aliens departing 48, 93 

nonemigrant aliens departing 96 

Smuggling, reports of officers regarding 203, 

227,251 
States, of future residence of admitted aliens. 43, 

58,76 
of last permanent residence of emigrant 
aliens departing, giving races and oc- 
cupations 61,84 

Stations, new 34 

reports of officers in charge regarding 165, 

178, 184, 193, 199,202,206,225 

Statistical tables 37-148 

Stowaways, arriving, by ports 116 

reports concerning 179, 196, 200, 203, 226 

Tables, statistical 37-148 

Trachoma, aliens debarred as afflicted with. . 106 

aliens deported after admission 110 

Transits, Chinese 25, 148, 189, 238, 253 

Transportation. (See Passage.) 

Tuberculosis, aliens debarred as afflicted with . 106 

aliens deported after entry 110 

"White-slave" traffic, aliens debarred 107 

aliens deported HO 

reports of officers in charge of districts 192, 

193, 198, 204, 209, 213, 220, 231,240, 246 



o 



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3 9999 06351 »'* 



JUL 14 !9?S 



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