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Full text of "Annual report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration"

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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

COMMISSIONER GENERAL 
OF IMMIGRATION 

TO THE SECRETARY OF LABOR 



FISCAL YEAR 
ENDED JUNE 30 

1914 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFHCE 

I9J5 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 

BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

COMMISSIONER GENERAL 
OF IMMIGRATION 

TO THE SECRETARY OF LABOR 



^ 



FISCAL YEAR 
ENDED JUNE 30 



1914 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1915 






A 



REPORT 



COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



U. S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Immigration, 

Washington, July 1, 1914. 
Sir : There is herewith submitted the annual report of the Bureau 
of Immigration for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914. The detailed 
tables and data, including the reports of commissioners and inspectors 
in charge of the several immigration districts, are annexed hereto. 
In addition wiU be found the report of ex-Commissioner General 
T. V. Powderly, now Chief of the Division of Information; that of 
Mrs. Kate Waller Barrett, special agent of the bureau, coverhig 
special investigations in Europe; and a report filed by Mr. W. W. 
Husband, special immigrant inspector, regarding immigration from 
eastern Europe, each document containing important information 
and valuable suggestions on the subjects treated. The reports of 
the commissioners and inspectors in charge, as well as those made by 
Mr. Powdeily, Mrs. Barrett, and Mr. Husband, are inserted for 
general information. 

ADMISSIONS AND REJECTIONS. 

Immigration, judged from the results of the year, has apparently 
reached the million mark permanently, and unless some affirmative 
action is taken by the Federal Government to restrict it, or steps are 
taken by European and other nations to reduce the steady stream of 
persons leaving the various countries of the Old World, we need 
hardly expect that the number annually entering the United States 
wiU hereafter fall far below 1,000,000. During the last fiscal year 
1,218,480 souls have immigrated to the United States, 20,588 more 
than were shown for the previous year and only 66,869 less than the 
total shown for 1907, the banner year in immigi^ation. Comparison 
of the record of emigrating aliens with that of immigrating aliens 
shows that 633,805 left the United States, so that the net increase in 
population by the immigration was 769,276. It was 815,303 in 1913 
and 401,863 in 1912. 

the immigrant fund. 

I discussed the "Immigrant fund" in some detail in my report for 
1913 (pp. 30-44), and need not dwell upon the matter here further 
than to reiterate what was then said and again to suggest that the 
money collected from the ahens as head tax should be used (1) to 
protect the people of the United States from the evils of unregulated 
or insufficiently regulated immigration; (2) to provide protection and 

3 



4 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

comfort for alien immigrants; and (3) to relieve the various States 
of the burden of maintaining aliens in their public institutions and 
the communities of the menace of having in their midst the criminal 
and immoral classes. The immigration act of 1907, like all previous 
immigration laws, contemplated that the funds collected as head tax 
on aliens should be kept intact and used in the enforcement of the 
law. In Ime with this policy — adherence to which is recommended — 
moneys collected from immigrants have by direction of the legislative 
branch of the Federal Government been employed in enforcing Chi- 
nese and other exclusion laws and agreements. Formerly, however, 
Congress made annual appropriations up to $500,000 for the enforce- 
ment of the Chinese-exclusion laws, but it later concluded that those 
expenses should be drawn from the immigrant fund, and still later, 
when that fund was abolished, the annual appropriation for the gen- 
eral support of the Immigration Service was drawn upon and still 
continues to meet this expense. The consequence is that the Chinese 
and other exclusion laws and agreements, as well as the general immi- 
gration act, are not being enforced to the extent they should be in 
order to accomplish the objects in view when the same were enacted 
and agreed upon by the law-making power. 

There may be no objection, of course, to the payment of the ex- 
penses of enforcing the exclusion laws out of the immigration appro- 
priation, but the one appropriation should be made large enough to 
meet the purposes in view from the standpoint of aU the laws govern- 
ing this bureau in order to fully meet all conditions that may arise. 
Sufficient flexibility should exist in such appropriation laws to aUow 
the bureau to meet emergencies constantly arising and to use its 
funds to the best and most economical ends. 

As to the effectiveness of the law in selecting immigrants, it should 
be observed that the bureau was able, even with the equipment at 
hand, to exclude from the country 33,041 ahens, wliich was 2.3 per 
cent of the number (1,436,122) applying for admission; in other 
words, the debarments are 6G§ per cent greater for 1914 than for 
1913. These w^ere excluded mainly on the following grounds: 
Likely to become a public charge, 15,745; afflicted with physical or 
mental defects affectmg abihty to earn a living, 6,537; afnicted with 
tuberculosis or with contagious diseases, 3,257; afflicted with serious 
mental defects, 1,274; and contract laborers, 2,793. 

To do the work represented by the results above briefly indicated 
and shown in more detail hereinafter, and in addition enforce the 
Chinese and other exclusion laws, which without doubt are among the 
most difficult statutes to enforce with even a reasonable degree of 
effectiveness, the bureau was allowed appropriations aggregating 
$2,645,000. It has been possible to accomplish so much as has been 
done oifly because the employees of the bureau at Washington and 
throughout the country have been working constantly and earnestly 
for the thorough administration of the bureau's affairs. The strain 
to which a large number of our officers have been subjected, with 
hard work and long hours, has been so great at timer, as to be almost 
unbearable, service extending with many officers quite often on an 
average of 12 to 14 hours and on some occasions even more per day, 
and it is only a question of a short time, if present conditions continue, 
when the service wtlU suft'er the great loss that must result from the 
breaking down of its force. The Government of the United States 



REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 5 

should set the example in the treatment of its employees, both with 
respect to wages and hours of labor. The force should be reorgan- 
ized and graded, and no employee should be requii^ed to work more 
than six days in a week. 

But all the efforts that are being made to secure a reasonable 
enforcement of the law are not producing the desired results. This 
must be obvious to all who will study the statistics and observe the 
ahens now entering at our ports. Even the existing law, inadequate 
and cumbersome as it is in many respects, could and should be made 
to exclude many more than 2.3 per cent of such aliens as are now com- 
ing to our shores. As a matter of fact, the country is not obtaining 
the results that should follow from a reasonable and just administra- 
tion of our laws; not because strenuous efforts to that end are not 
being made, but because the funds and men available are wholly 
insufficient to meet the situation. If the money for the enforce- 
ment of these laws was being drawn from the general fund of the 
Treasury and the taxpayers of the country burdened thereby so that 
the plea of economy might with some show of reason be raised in this 
connection, there might then be some excuse for limiting appropria- 
tions for this bureau to the extent lately practiced. But every 
penny spent for the support of the Immigration Service comes out of 
the pockets of the immigrants, and there is now accumulated in the 
Treasury (or ought to be if it has not been used for purposes other 
than that for which collected) about $10,700,000, some of which 
should be used to bring about a proper enforcement of the law in the 
future. 

DIVERSION OF FUNDS TO RELIEVE INDUSTRIAL CENTERS. 

If any diversion of the fund constituted of the head tax collected is 
permitted, it might be in the direction of protection to the immigrants 
after landing and in the efl'ort to relieve industrial centers by secur- 
ing emplojTiient for the surplus labor found therein, whether native 
or foreign, either on farms or in other rural occupations or in set- 
thng people on lands. The disposition of any part of the fund per- 
mitted by law for this j3urpose with authority to loan or advance 
or use the same, under such restrictions as Congress may provide, 
could be confided to the board proposed in connection with farm loans, 
reference to which is made hereinafter. As suggested in my last 
report, this use of the funds could be justified on the ground that 
congested conditions in our cities and in industrial centers are the 
result of the concentration therein of our own people from the in- 
terior sections of our country and of numerous aliens who come 
from foreign lands. Thus any relief secured would be for the mutual 
benefit of all, and as the movement progressed the result would be 
greater care in avoiding renewal of congested conditions and greater 
efforts to provide immediate measures to remove the causes therefor, 
whether consisting of domestic conditions or of the influx of laborers 
from abroad. 

DEFECTIVE ALIENS. 

The defects for which aliens are excluded under the law fall into 
three classes — the physical, mcluding loathsome and dangerous con- 
tagious diseases and all ailments and deformities that may affect 



6 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

earning capacity; the mental, including insanity, idiocy, imbecility, 
feeble-mindedness, epilepsy, and all mental defects that may have 
like effect; and the moral, including sexual immorality, crimi- 
nality, and anarchism. Whatever views may be entertained regard- 
ing necessity for a more restrictive law, hardly anyone would con- 
tend that the law should be made any less strict than it is con- 
cerning the exclusion of defective aliens or should be given any less 
rigid application to concrete cases; practically all are agreed on the 
desirability of the strict exclusion of defective ahens. Of special 
and general interest, therefore, are the figures showing what has been 
accomplished toward the keeping out or putting out of the country 
of aliens who fall below the standards set in the law. 

During the past year 14,582 such aliens have been returned to the 
country of origin, 12,494 of whom were debarred from entering and 
2,088 of whom were arrested and expelled from the country. Those 
debarred were divided into 3,257 with grave physical defects, 1,274 
with grave mental defects, 6,537 with physical or mental defects not 
so serious but affecting abihty to earn a living, and 1,426 morally 
defective. Those arrested and deported were divided into 355 
physically, 871 mentally, and 862 moraUy defective. (See Tables 
XVII and XVIII, pp . 1 04 and 110.) These results should be compared 
with the figures for the previous year, during which 10,629 aliens phys- 
icaUy, mentally, or morall}?^ below the legal standard were returned to 
the country of origin, 8,999 of whom were excluded at the ports and 
1,630 of whom were arrested and expelled. The 12,494 rejected in 
the past year constituted about 38 per cent of the total number 
debarred, while the 8,999 rejected in 1913 constituted 45 per cent of 
the total number debarred in that year. The 2,088 arrested and 
deported during the past year on grounds of defectiveness constituted 
45 per cent of the total expulsions, while the 1,630 arrested and 
deported on such grounds in 1913 were about 47 per cent of the total 
expulsions for that year. 

It is important to exclude or expel the physicaUy defective, still 
more important that those mentally below the standard shall be kept 
out, and of paramount importance that the morally degenerate shall 
not be permitted to lower American standards of life. It is well, 
therefore, to give some special consideration to the showing made 
during the year with regard to the mental and moral defectives. 

During the past fiscal year 1,274 aliens suffering from serious 
mental defects were debarred at the ports. Of these, 14 were idiots, 
172 insane, 68 imbeciles, 25 epileptics, and 995 feeble-minded. In 
the preceding year 753 aliens with serious mental defects were 
debarred — 18 idiots, 175 insane, 54 imbeciles, 23 epileptics, and 483 
feeble-minded. It will be observed that there was a very marked 
increase in the number of feeble-minded excluded. And there were 
expelled from the country during the year 871 aliens suffering with 
serious mental defects, 91 of whom it was found had been so affected 
at the time of entry, divided into 62 insane, 4 imbeciles, 16 epileptics, 
and 9 feeble-minded; and 780 of the 871 deported became public 
charges within three years after entry by reason of the development 
of such deficiencies the underlying causes of which existed prior to 
entry, divided into 737 who became insane and 43 whose public- 
charge status was due to other similar causes. The corresponding 



REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 7 

figures for 1913 were 113 insane, 12 epileptics, 3 imbeciles, 15 feeble- 
minded, 514 who became insane, and 19 who became otherwise 
mentally defective from existing causes — a total of 676 expulsions on 
mental grounds. Medical science has demonstrated that many, if 
not all, of these serious deficiencies are handed down from generation 
to generation, with steady increase in the strain; so that the impor- 
tance of rejecting and expelhng aliens of this class, even to the extent 
shown to have occurred, can hardly be overstated. The law on this 
subject should be even more strict; and the bureau urgently recom- 
mends that legislation supplementary to the excellent provisions of 
the existing law be enacted at an early date, so that the people of 
this country may be fully protected against the introduction here 
from abroad of additional strains of latent but none the less dangerous 
cerebral deficiencies, as well as against the introduction of such strains 
actually developed into acute stages. Why should our difficulties on 
this score, already sufficiently great, be increased by immigration ? 

In connection with the foregoing, attention should be directed to 
the amount of the fines collected from the steamship companies 
under section 9 of the law for bringing to our ports aliens afflicted 
with loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases, tuberculosis, or 
certain mental defects (idiocy, imbecility, or epilepsy). Fines have 
been assessed in 366 cases in the past year, the amount collected being 
$36,600. 

It has already been remarked that the exclusion and expulsion of 
the mentally defective is of paramount importance. The detection of 
these classes is also most difficult. Wise, therefore, is the provision 
of the law that allows the sexually immoral to be deported without 
time hmit, and the law should be the same with regard to criminals 
and anarchists. There should be no room in this country for the 
moral degenerates of foreign lands. The bureau has been exerting 
special efforts to carry out the law concerning these classes, and feels 
that the officers in the service are entitled to commendation for the 
results achieved, when due allowance is made for the inadequacy of the 
means afforded it with which to enforce the law. Reference to Tables 
XVII and XVIII (pp. 104 and 110) shows that 380 immoral women, 
254 procurers, 5 persons supported by the proceeds of prostitution, 755 
criminals, 31 polygamists, and 1 anarchist were rejected at the ports, 
and 392 immoral women, 154 procurers, 155 persons supported by the 
proceeds of prostitution, 157 criminals, 1 polygamist, and 3 anarch- 
ists were expelled from the country — a total of 2,288, divided into 
1,340 sexually immoral, 912 criminals, 32 polygamists, and 4 anarch- 
ists. The corresponding figures for 1913 were 367 immoral women, 
253 procurers, 4 persons supported by the proceeds of prostitution, 
808 criminals, 40 polygamists, and 2 anarchists were debarred; 330 
immoral women, 121 procurers, 100 persons supported by the pro- 
ceeds of prostitution, 124 criminals, 2 polygamists, and 4 anarchists 
were expelled — a total of 2,155 aliens, divided into 1,175 sexually 
immoral, 932 criminals, 42 polygamists, and 6 anarchists. It is 
hardly necessary to say, so obvious is the fact, that these figures, 
notwithstanding they show an increase over the work along these 
fines done in the preceding year, really cover no more than a mere 
''scratching of the surface so far as the sexually immoral classes are 
concerned. 



8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The best the bureau could do with the money and men availa])lo 
for the purpose was to cause the arrest to be made in many cases dis- 
co verea by or disclosed to it in the regular course of business, without 
putting forth any special efforts to ''clean up" the country or even 
sections thereof. I estimate, and in so doing consider myself exceed- 
ingly conservative, that $1,000,000 could be spent in ridding the 
country of sexually immoral aliens, and that even after a judicious 
expenditure of that amount there would still be some work to do along 
the same line. And how could that much of the $10,700,000 now 
accumulated in the Treasury from immigration revenues be more use- 
fully spent than in ridding the country of these classes ? Not only the 
citizenry, but the aliens of correct life and principles, so many of whom 
are yearly coming into our midst, would immeasureably benefit. Emi- 
nently fitting would it be to spend some of the money contributed 
by admitted ahens in making the country a better place of residence 
for all now here, native and foreign, and for the countrymen of the 
latter who may follow them in seeking the El Dorado of their hopes. 

One of the best means of breaking up the entry to the United States 
of the sexually immoral classes, so far as such entry partakes of the 
cornmercial elements of the so-called white-slave traffic, is the prose- 
cution of the importers. This has been done at the instance of the 
bureau during the past year in 44 such cases, in 29 of which conviction 
occurred. For more particulars regarding these prosecutions, see 
the reports of the various commissioners and inspectors in charge 
(pp. 189-355). 

This subject, so far as it affects the treatment and arrest and depor- 
tation of women and girls sometimes the prey of importers, is dealt 
with elsewhere in this report. 

ALIENS EXCLUDABLE OR SUBJECT TO DEPORTATION ON ECONOMIC 

GROUNDS. 

Economic conditions and safeguards are responsible for the exist- 
ence in the law of the provisions requiring the exclusion and expulsion 
of paupers, persons likely to become a public charge, contract laoorers, 
induced immigrants, and assisted immigrants. It has been con- 
sidered that a sound economic poficy in the interest of the public 
demands that the taxpayers of the United States shall be saved the 
expense of maintaining the indigent of other countries whose indi- 
gency is in no sense chargeable to conditions existing here ; hence the 
provision that paupers and those likely to become such shall be 
excluded and that those who become pubhc charges from prior 
existing causes within three years after entry shall be sent back to 
the countries directly or indirectly responsible for them. A sound 
poUcy also requires that the American standard of living and wages 
shall be maintained ; hence the provisions regarding the exclusion and 
expulsion of contract laborers and induced and assisted immigrants. 

The time limit in these cases should be extended to at least five 
years, as contemplated by the measure now pending before the 
Senate. While there may be a difference of opinion on the question 
of entirely removing the limit from the statute, three years is too 
short a period in which to allow the removal from the country of 
these economically undesirable classes. 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION." 9 
ALIENS LIKELY TO BECOME PUBLIC CHARGES. 

About 48 per cent of all the aliens rejected at our ports during 
the past year, or 15,745, were debarred because deemed likely to 
become pubUc charges. Moreover, during the past year 1,091 
aliens — public charges — were expelled under deportation proceedings, 
while 1 ,356 others were so expelled because it was found that at the 
time of entry they were likely to become inmates of public institu- 
tions — a total of 2,447 (Table XVIII, p. 110). The corresponding 
statistics for the previous year were: Debarred, 7,941 (40 per cent 
of aU rejected); expelled 1,976, divided into 714 who had become 
public charges and 1,262 who were Hkely to become such at time 
of entry. It wiU be noted that the debarments on this ground 
increased about 98 per cent and the expulsions about 24 per cent. 

ALIEN CONTRACT LABORERS. 

The most important §ingle event of the year with resj^ect to tliis 
subject was the handing down by the Supreme Court of its decision 
(232 U. S., 647) upholding the law and sustaining the cu-cuit court of 
appeals in the assessment of a fine of $45,000 against Grant Bros. 
Construction Co., a concern which attempted to supply itself with 
45 needed laborers by importing them from Mexico. This case had 
been bitterly contested, and the decision is a distinct victory for 
the bureau and the law with the enforcement of which it is charged. 

Another famous case disposed of during the year by compromise 
was that against the Dwight Manufacturing Co., of Boston and 
Chicopee Falls, Mass., and Alabama City, Ala., which was settled on 
the basis of the payment by the company of $50,000. These two 
cases alone brought into the United States Treasury almost twice 
the sum annually set aside, under section 24 of the law, for the em- 
ployment of special officers to enforce the afien contract-labor pro- 
visions. In numerous other cases smaller sums were collected either 
by fine or compromise, so that it may be safely asserted that, even 
aside from the fact that these provisions, like all the others of the 
statute, are enforced with money collected as head tax from admit- 
ted aliens, the alien contract-labor law is self-supporting through the 
fines which persistency in enforcing the law results in collecting, 
although, with a more adequate appropriation, work of a preventive 
nature would ultimately reduce violations thereof, so that the amount 
of fines collected would be diminished. 

Of course the work of excluding and expelling contract laborers, 
as weU as that of bringing to punishment violators of the law, has 
gone on as usual. Thus 2,793 aliens were excluded and 51 expelled 
during the year (Tables XVII and XVIII, pp. 104 and 110), com- 
pared with 1,624 excluded and 54 expelled in the preceding year. 
But a few examples like the Grant Bros, and the Dwight Manufac- 
turing Co. cases will do more to break up violations of the law than 
any number of exclusions and expulsions could be expected to 
accomplish in that direction; therefore the bureau is always espe- 
cially anxious to have guilty parties convicted, and congratulates 
the force assigned to such work whenever some prominent violator is 
brought to a deserved punishment. 



10 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
INDUCED AND ASSISTED IMMIGRATION. 

These classes to a certain extent overlap those of contract laborers 
and those likely to become a public charge. The policy of the law is 
opposed to induced immigration, and any alien actually assisted to 
migrate is put under the burden of showing affirmatively and satis- 
factorily that he does not belong to one of the directly excluded 
classes. Many of the 15,745 excluded as likely to become a public 
charge and of the 2,79-3 excluded as contract laborers (Table XVII) 
belonged to the induced and assisted classes. Doubtless many 
others who were admitted ought to have been excluded on one ground 
or another because members of such classes; but it is not an easy 
matter to ascertain that inducements have been held out and assist- 
ance rendered, coaching on these points being readily and frequently 
availed of to circumvent the law and defeat our officers. Immigra- 
tion, to be healthful in the full sense, should be voluntary — should 
neither be induced nor assisted. One of the most difficult as well as 
important tasks confronting the bureau is the carrying out of the 
spirit of the law in this regard, for the procurement of tangible evi- 
dence, however suspicious cases may appear, is often practically 
impossible. As to the amount of assistance prevailing in our immi- 
gration, see Table XVII (p. 104), and comment thereon (p. 30). 

IMMIGRATION FROM THE FAR EAST. 

I believe it is quite generally conceded that immigration from the 
Far East is detrimental to the welfare of the United States; not 
because it has heretofore been so extensive in numbers, but because 
of its peculiar effect upon the economic conditions and the possi- 
bilities of an almost unlimited increase in volume if left unregulated 
and unchecked. Our oriental-immigration problem, arising more 
than a quarter of a century ago, has never been satisfactorily solved ; 
the exclusion laws need many amendments, not in purpose but in 
prescribed method. The Hindu propaganda, as yet in its infancy, is 
calculated to give much trouble unless promptly met with measures 
based upon and modeled to take advantage of our past experience in 
trying to arrange practicable and thorough but at the same time 
unobjectionable plans for the protection of the country agamst an 
influx of aliens who can not be readily and healthfully assimilated by 
our body politic. Moreover, other possibilities in this dnection exist, 
and it would be the part of wisdom for us to meet them in advance, 
so as to avoid many of the difficulties and embarrassments that have 
arisen in controlling oriental immigration so far as such immigration 
has developed. It is only necessary to consider the history of immi- 
gration from Europe to realize how extensively Asiatic immigration 
may be cultivated and exploited, and what a menace to our economic 
conditions these possibilities may become. 

IMMIGRATION FROM THE NEAR EAST. 

Immigration from the Near East has not as yet attracted much 
attention, largely because it has merged into European immigration 
and has developed along somewhat similar lines. It may reasonably 
be expected that western Asia will be developed and exploited more 



KEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 11 

and more completely by transportation companies whose business 
])rofits are dependent to a considerable extent upon filling the steerage 
quarters of their ships. (See in this connection report of W. W. Hus- 
band, given in Appendix V, particularly that part appearing at p. 400.) 

ALIENS EMPLOYED ON VESSELS. 

This matter was discussed in considerable detail in the report for 
1913 (pp. 26-29), and it is not necessary to again go over the same 
ground. Another year's experience only emphasizes the necessity 
for legislation to cover this loophole in our immigration safeguards, 
and the bureau hopes that the legislation pending in Congress affecting 
this subject may be enacted, as it will materially aid in the enforce- 
ment of our immigration laws and bring relief long desii'ed.^ 

IMMIGRATION FROM INSULAR UNITED STATES. 

Separate statistics are presented on this subject this year for the 
first time. They have been collected since the taking effect of the 
act of February 20, 1907. (See Tables XXIV to XXVII, pp. 132- 
140.) Within the term "insular United States" as used in the 
above-mentioned tables and in this section of the report are in- 
cluded the Territory of Hawaii and the possessions of Porto Rico 
and the Philippine Islands. It will be observed that 15,512 aliens 
came to continental from insular United States during the seven 
years covered — 10,948 from Hawaii, 3,950 from Porto Rico, and 
614 from the Philippines — and that of these, 10,740 landed at San 
Francisco, 3,910 at New York, and 631 at Seattle, corresponding 
approximately with the numbers from the said three divisions of 
insular United States (Table XXIV). Until the annexation of 
Hawaii, admitted as a Territory in 1898, the United States was all con- 
tinental, such islands as were included in the domains being so close to 
the mainland as to be considered to all intents and purposes as a part 
thereof. From the fu-st it has been recognized that the addition to 
to our country of territory purely insular introduced new elements 
into the immigration problem, and with regard to all except Porto 
Rico special provisions have been placed m our laws with the intent to 
safeguard the mainland against the islands being used as a "stepping- 
stone" thereto. Porto Rico, being already weU populated with a 
people indigenous to the soil and needing only to be given oppor- 
tunities for development, has caused less trouble than the other islands 
from an unmioTation standpoint, though representations have been 
made that owing to local conditions certain immigration thereto from 
adjacent islands and elsewhere should be proliibited or made subject to 
strict regulation. Aliens coming from Porto Rico have been handled 
with a fan- degree of success imder rule 14, but those coming from Ha- 
waii and the Philippines have given the service a great deal of trouble, 
the former with regard to the admission of aliens to the Territory 
and their subsequent migration to the continent, and the latter 
with respect to the coming of aliens to the mainland from the Philip- 
pines only, the Immigration Service having nothing to do with 
respect to the admission of aUens to these possessions. 

' See also comment on Tables XX and XXI, p. 30, and reports of commissioners at Boston, New York 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Seattle, and San Francisco, pp. 212, 223, 234, 247, 299, 317. 



12 REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

It has been regarded as desirable in the past to encourage the set- 
tlement in Hawaii of European ahens and correspondingly to dis- 
courage the settlement there of aliens from the Orient, the idea being 
that the former does and the latter does not tend toward the "Ameri- 
canization" of the Territoiy, which already has a large Asiatic popu- 
lation. Under this poHcy, availing themselves of the exception in 
favor of States and Territories to the "induced immigration" clauses 
of the law contained m section 6 of the act of 1907, the board of 
immigration of Hawaii has induced many Europeans, especially 
Spaniards, Portuguese, and Russians, to migrate to the Territory. 
During the said period, however, many of these have left Hawaii and 
come to the mainland — 2,860 Spaniards, 2,414 Portuguese, and 1,010 
Russians (Table XXV), or about 57 per cent of the number immi- 
grating. This failure to retain their immigrants secured through the 
exercise by the Federal Government of a very liberal pohcy is believed 
to be due to the fact that the conditions of work and labor are unsatis- 
factory and the standard of Wages too low. As soon as these Euro- 
peans learn that much better conditions prevail on the continent 
they exercise the privilege, which can not be denied them under 
the existing law, of moving thereto. AUen laborers from China 
and Japan settled or settling in Hawaii have no such privilege, the 
Chinese-exclusion laws and the Japanese provisions of the immigra- 
tion act of 1907 regarding laborers with hmited passports being 
directed against their doing so. It is worthy to be seriously noted, 
however, that with respect to other Asiatics the law contains no such 
provisions, so that Hindus, Lascars, and others may soon commence 
if they please to use Hawaii as a stepping-stone to the continent. 
This should be remedied without delay, not only by placmg them in 
the same category as the laborers above mentioned but also by 
prohibiting their landing in that Territory. 

The thorough "Americanization" of Hawaii is a matter which 
demands serious consideration and careful and prompt action. It 
never will be accompHshed, in my judgment, under the present 
incomplete, haphazard methods. Conditions should be made such 
as to invite the proper kind of laborers to go to Hawaii from our own 
country if possible, and laws should be enacted that would induce 
them to remam there as part of a happy and contented population; 
anything less than tliis is not fair to Hawaii or to the mauiland, 
especially so much of the latter as is nearest to that Territory. In 
this connection attention is called to the fact that of the 15,512 
ahens shown to have come from insular United States to the main- 
land during the past seven years, 8,867 gave their final destination 
on the continent as Cahfornia (Table XXVII). Incidentally it 
might be noted that 2,360 gave their destination as New York, 
another State which receives under existmg conditions extensive 
immigration directly from foreign countries. 

The Philippines are too distant to be used with the same facility 
and frequency as Porto Rico and Hawaii as stepping-stones to the 
United States. Hence although only 014 aliens are shown (Table 
XXIV) to have come thence during the past seven years, 551 of 
whom landed at Seattle, nevertheless the PhiUppines are open to be 
used (and the attempt has already been seriously made so to use 
them) by aliens who would be excluded at our home ports as Ukely 
to become public charges to gain the advantage of being examined 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 13 

at a port where, on the assumption that they entered — as they usu- 
ally do not — to remain in the PhiUppines, they will not be so closely 
scrutinized or required to come up to so high a standard as would be 
the case were they applying at a mainland port. For example, the 
Hindus, having shown a decided inchnation to come to our countiy, 
were imitating in many ways the wily methods of some Chinese to 
gain admission. For economic reasons, and because of these rea- 
sons, the same if not greater objection has been made to their coming 
than was raised against their Chinese neighbors on the north. On 
this account the Immigration Service undertook to the fullest extent 
the enforcement of the laws so as to exclude, as likely to become public 
charges or on other grounds when shown to exist, those of this race who 
came under the objections raised. This action deflected them to 
the Philippine Islands in their efforts to break into continental United 
States. . 

Ascertaining that passage had been engaged for many of these 
people for the Pacific Coast States and for States as far east as Min- 
nesota, steps were taken, by the adoption of new rules governing the 
admission of aliens coming from the Philippines and by other methods, 
to protect the country from what appeared then to be a determina- 
tion to introduce another race agitation on the Pacific coast by the 
influx, miless checked, of great numbers of these people. The sub- 
sequent attitude of their leaders in British Columbia and in the 
United States, and their ready ability to raise any amount of money 
required to litigate with the Government, confirms this belief. It 
was a fortimate circumstance that the courts sustained the bureau in 
its contention, and further good fortune — as with all the efforts put 
forth under the law only about 50 per cent of those applying could 
be denied admission — was found in the readiness of all steamsliip 
companies plying between oriental and PhiUppine ports and the 
Pacific ports of the United States and British Columbia not to engage 
in the traffic pending consideration of exclusion measures in Congress. 
They have kept the faith and are entitled to credit therefor. I cheer- 
fully concede it and am anxious that the record shall bear evidence 
of the value of their work, for the West would now be engaged in 
another race problem had not these great aids come at the oppor- 
tune moment. This situation has given and still gives the bureau 
serious concern, for — ^while so far the department has been sustained 
by the courts in ordering such Hindus deported to the country of 
origin on the ground that they were likely to become public charges 
at the time of entering the Phihppines — should they come to the 
United States it remains to be seen whether the higher courts will 
uphold the lower on the points in dispute, and if it should finally be 
held that admission to the Phihppines is a bar to action excluding 
them therefrom on the ground stated the situation will be revived 
in most of its serious aspects. 

As both the Philippines and Porto Rico are merely insular posses- 
sions of the United States, and wliile their citizens are not citizens of 
the United States nor yet aliens within the meaning of our immigra- 
tion laws (Gonzales v. Wilhams, 192 U. S., 1), there can be no«doubt 
of the constitutional right of the Government to prohibit the emi- 
gration thence to the mainland of ahens admitted thereto; and 
Hawaii, although it is a Territory and its citizens are citizens of the 
United States, has been regarded by Congress when passmg the 



14 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Chinese-exclusion laws and the provision of the immigration law 
regarding laborers' limited passports as in the same category as the 
Philippines and Porto Rico. This entire subject of continental immi- 
gration from insular United States is subject to control by Congress, 
which in my judgment should at a very early date proceed to its regu- 
lation if the situation herein but very briefly and inadequately por- 
trayed is to be satisfactorily met and adjusted. 

The foregoing constitutes but a resume of the year's work, mainly 
in the nature of an explanation of the statistical and other matter 
presented in connection with this report, with recommendations and 
such comments here and there as were warranted by the importance 
of the subjects considered. As most of these were discussed in last 
year's report, and as it is my purpose to present at this time for your 
consideration certain new proposals which are of special importance, 
I shall content myseK for the present with reference to and reiteration 
of the suggestions made therein and the views then expressed. 

PROPOSED PLAN FOR TREATMENT, ARREST, AND RETURN TO THEIR 
NATIVE COUNTRIES OF WOMEN AND GIRLS EXCLUDED OR ORDERED 
DEPORTED. 

Learning that Mrs. Kate Waller Barrett, M. D., D. Sc, president of 
the National Council of Women and the National Florence Crittenton 
Missions, was to visit Europe m May and June this year to attend, at 
Rome, Italy, the quinquennial session of the International Council of 
Women, of the press committee of which she is chairman, I requested 
the department to commission her to represent the bureau in said 
council. As she proposed to have certain conferences with European 
organizations of women similar to those over which she presides in this 
country regarding the enforcement of the international agreement — to 
which this Government and most of the nations of Europe are signa- 
tories — concerning the arrest and return to the country whence they 
came of persons, including women and girls, guilty of certain immoral 
acts, she was also authorized to represent the bureau in those confer- 
ences. The appointment was promptly made, and the department has 
at all times not only evinced great interest in the labors assigned to 
this distinguished lady, but offered every faciUty for conducting this 
important investigation. Mrs. Barrett's report is published as Appen- 
dix IV, to which special attention is requested, particularly to the 
recommendations therein contained. 

It was fortunate for our country that the services of Mrs. Barrett 
were enlisted in the study and consideration of questions among the 
most important of those to which the attention of the department and 
bureau is constantly directed, as she, by virtue of her many gifts and 
her labors in humanity's cause, occupies a leading place among the 
world's greatest benefactors. 

From a study of the subject, the experience of the bureau in the 
past, and application thereto of the views set forth in said report, it 
is recommended that in the treatment, arrest, and return to the 
country whence they came of women and girls guilty of immoral acts 
changes be made so as to accomplish: (1) A more kindly and con- 
siderate handling of the cases than has been practicable by a system 
under which sucli cases were handled in the main like other deporta- 
tions; (2) the avoidance to the fullest extent possible of the incarcera- 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 15 

tion of women and girls in jails or other similar places and the holding 
of them, where suitable immigration stations are not available, in the 
houses of philanthropic and rehgious societies, preferably of the 
nationality or religious sect of the alien; (3) the return of the aliens 
to their native country at times and under circumstances which will 
make it possible, either directly or through societies in this country in 
constant communication with related or similar societies abroad, to 
see that the women and girls are brought under proper surveillance 
and influence when landed on the other side. This in order that, to 
the fullest extent practicable, deportation shall result, not in afford- 
ing means for further degradation of the alien, but rather in at least 
placing her in the way of opportunities for reformation. 

Until this plan is fully worked out in all its details it is desirable 
that all officers in charge shall give their personal attention thereto. 
Some qualified woman among the employees of each station should 
be selected to look after the welfare of such women and girls of the 
character above mentioned as may be in detention or under examina- 
tion in warrant proceedings. Female employees so selected should be 
required to submit reports to the bureau periodically. The incar- 
ceration in jail of women and girls charged with immorality should be 
discontinued unless authorized by the bureau as a result of a report 
as to the circumstances of each case. "WTien at our stations or other 
places under the jurisdiction of the bureau their custody should be 
confided exclusively to female employees. 

Timely and wise suggestions are made by Mrs. Barrett that "pending 
investigation and deportation such women and girls be placed in the 
hands of some private philanthropy which has given assurance to the 
bureau of its practical value as a cooperative agency, such organiza- 
tion to be of the nationality and religion of the alien if possible, and 
full particulars of the case and such data as to character and ante- 
cedents of the woman or girl as can be gathered to be at once sent 
to the Commissioner General, who shall take up directly the corre- 
spondence with the national committee in the country to which the 
woman or girl belongs. 

"The national committee, of course, should be furnished with all the 
facts in regard to such a case, so that it may investigate the condi- 
tions under which the woman or girl will be forced to live after her 
return. If this were done the Commissioner General would have 
information that would enable him to decide what is the best dispo- 
sition to be made of the case. 

"If the woman or girl is detained at an immigration station at 
which there are no women employees, the commissioner in charge of 
the station could at once place himself in communication with some 
private organization, preferably of the same nationality and religion 
as the woman or girl, such organization to be asked to take charge 
of the case until other provision could be made for the care and dis- 
position of the alien." 

In this connection it is also suggested by Mrs. Barrett that the 
Bureau of Immigration should confer with the officers of the leading 
private organizations representing different international groups in the 
United States and ascertain which are willing to cooperate with the 
Government in assisting women of their own nationaHty held for 
deportation. 



16 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

A woman or girl whose case has been investigated in the manner 
suggested and by the methods now proposed would, if ordered de- 
ported, go to the country to which she belongs, after notice has been 
given to the officers of the national organization of women of that 
country, thus insuring to her proper care and attention after her 
arrival there. 

This method of treatment on our part is justified from a humani- 
tarian standpoint and also in the mutual interest of all the nations 
that have joined in the treaty affecting the subject. 

In order to expect and be entitled to the assistance of the nations 
parties to said treaty and of organizations of women in ferreting out 
the culprits responsible for the coming of many of these women and 
girls to this country, and to obtain, in other ways described by Mrs. 
Barrett in her report, opportunity for work of a helpful and reforma- 
tory character, the efforts toward these ends should commence* 
immediately on taking a woman or girl into official custody and con- 
tinue until she is deported. It is thought also that our Government 
would thus be in position to receive aid of organizations in this 
country which have hitherto been backward in this movement, 
owing to lack of organized effort at home and abroad properly to care 
for unfortunate women and girls during and subsequent to their 
apprehension. 

With aU these elements working in unison the evils aimed to be 
reached by our laws and the said treaty will receive such a check as 
to minimize, if not entirely remove, their cause in the United States. 
One thing is certain, that by reason of the system proposed a greater 
number of the men who are responsible for the bringing of such 
women and girls here will be apprehended and punished, and if 
possible deported. 

To effectuate a thorough and complete organization of the system 
proposed the appointment of a woman employee at each of the prin- 
cipal stations is advisable; each of such stations should be visited 
in furtherance of the objects of the plan, helping our officers to 
install the same and in bringing the organizations of women at such 
places into sympathetic cooperation with the bureau and the depart- 
ment. I recommend that this course be pursued. In my judgment 
this phase of the bureau's work is of paramount importance, and too 
much attention can not possibly be given to opportunities for work of 
a humane and reformatory character that arise almost as a necessary 
incident to the duty of removing aliens of this kind from the country. 

DISTRIBUTION OF LABOR. 

In the annual report for the fiscal year 1913 brief reference was 
made to the subject of distribution of immigrants and attention was 
caUed to the three main difficulties that were then thought to interfere 
with the success of an undertaking of this kind. These were: (1) The 
labor required is to a considerable extent merely seasonal and usually 
neither aliens nor natives care to go any great distance to accept 
temporary employment, even though high wages are offered; (2) oppor- 
tunities for using any plans having in view the distribution of foreign 
laborers are always more or less open to the objection that labor 
conditions, already uncertain in many ways, are disturbed by any 
action that involves artificial interference with the "natural opera- 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 17 

tion" of the law of supply and demand; (3) in many sections of the 
country in need of immigration to aid development of agriculture 
and promote other industrial pursuits, the desire seems to be for 
settlers who will invest in lands and establish homes rather than for 
laborers. Hitherto the activities of the Division of Information 
(a designation, by the way, which does not clearly indicate its object; 
division of employment and cUstribution would be preferable) have 
been employed at the Washington office, with branches at New York 
and Galveston, and thus demands for laborers as well as requests for 
employment coming in greater proportion from' distant States had 
to be served at too long a range from the sources of information 
available. 

With the plans herein suggested in full operation and with a 
noticeable change in sentiment in agricultural districts, there is 
foundation for the belief that the difficulties above referred to, if not 
overcome, will be greatly minimized. 

During the year much time has been devoted to the study and 
consideration of questions affecting employment and methods calcu- 
lated to furnish laborers to those needing them on farms and in other 
rural occupations, and an opportunity to labor to those applying 
therefor, open to all citizens and residents of the United States, male 
or female, native or foreign born. 

PUBLICITY A VITAL NECESSITY. 

In January last upon application of the New Yorker Staats- 
Zeitung, the first and only one received, requesting permission to 
print free of charge all opportunities offered to Germans for labor on 
farms, orders were given for compliance therewith. Though the 
publication of these opportunities still continues, the bureau has the 
result of the first three months, in which 516 were offered and publica- 
tion thereof made once a week in said journal. Of that number 283 
were known to have been filled with aid thus afforded. 

The favorable outcome of this experiment suggested the extension 
of such publicity so as to cover all newspapers published in the great 
centers of population, no matter in what language printed. The 
cooperation incUcated by the replies of the newspapers so far at hand 
promises great results. As publicity is a vital necessity to insure 
success for the new movement, all eft'orts to enlist the press should be 
continued ; and in addition a weekly bulletin should be issued by the 
bureau and mailed to each newspaper printed in the United States 
and daily telegraphic communication inaugurated with the journals 
published in the large cities. In this way it is believed that a new 
department of information as important in a news sense as that 
recording the daily reports of the Weather Bureau may be created 
hj the press for the benefit of its patrons, the growth of the sections 
tributary to each populous center, and the general interest of all, 
employer and employee alike. 

EACH STATE ULTIMATELY A LABOR-DISTRIBUTION DISTRICT. 

The operations of the division should be enlarged and made coex- 
tensive, in so far as continental United States is concerned, with those 
of the Immigration Service. The mainland for the present should be 
60629°— 15 2 



18 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

divided into zones, with headquarters respectively at tlie executive 
offices of the immigration districts in each zone. Ultimately to 
attain better cooperation with State and local authorities each State 
should be constituted a labor-distribution district. The commis- 
sioner or inspector in charge should be authorized to name at least 
one of the members of his force or as many more as may be necessary 
or can be spared from other duties to attend to the work of distri- 
bution. As the plan develops and appropriations are made for the 
I)urpose, additions to meet increasing demands and the establishment 
of headquarters in each State can be made. Tlius established the 
entire comitry will receive the benefits heretofore possible at only 
New York and in a Umited degree at Galveston anci Washington. 

COOPERATION OF THE POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT AND DEPARTMENT 

OF AGRICULTURE. 

It is suggested that the cooperation of the Post Office Department 
and the Department of Agriculture be requested, that of the former 
with a view to estabhshing at each post office in the United States a 
depository for blanks, so that those desiring farm and other laborers 
on the one hand and those desiring employment on the other may 
apply for blanks to be filled out and transmitted under Government 
frank to the central office, thus initiating the effort to comply with 
the desires of the applicants; and that of the latter with a view to 
utifization of the field force and its representatives throughout the 
country in furtherance of the objects of the proposed plan. Three 
or four bureaus of the Department of Agriculture have extensive 
official connections with agriculturists in every section, with repre- 
sentatives in nearly every county in the United States. The total 
nmnber of its officers and representatives in the field serving in va- 
rious capacities is in excess of 170,000; and I am infomied that the 
services of all of them might be secured, not only to enUst farmers 
in the movement but to carry on investigations of special cases, 
obtaining information regarding farmers who apply for farm help 
and in many other ways in an advisory capacity to aid the department 
and bureau in their respective districts. Nothing more need be said 
to show how useful cooperation in these two directions can be made. 

SEASONAL EMPLOYMENT. 

Labor to meet the requirements of seasonal employment could be 
secured in part, during college and school vacations, from teachers 
and students (incidentally many of the latter class who are working 
their way to secure an education would be greatly assisted and 
accommodated by this system, as no time would be lost in seeking 
work), and in part — in fact, in my judgment to almost any extent 
desired — from mines, mills, and manufacturing plants the managers 
of which would no doubt often gladly allow vacations to their employ- 
ees for that purpose, adopting a system of rotation, so that a number 
of the employees could go at one time and others in their turns later, 
and so on to the end of the season. This would tend to relieve the 
shortage of help, particularly in agricultural industries; would pro- 
vide a change from indoor to outdoor labor for numbers of the classes 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 19 

above named ; would be beneficial in an educational sense as well as 
from the viewpoint of health; and besides the experience so gained 
might not only be the means of directing their thoughts and ambi- 
tions toward the more healthful countiy life, but also might lead to 
the making of investments in country property. 

As a largo number of our teachers and workmen are known to have 
savings-bank deposits, it is not by any means an illusion to say that 
such contact with country life and its diversified industries would 
lead to investments and aid in the building up of happy rural com- 
munities. 

This method of supplying help in seasonal occupations would have 
an advantage' over all other, both for the Government and the em- 
ployer, viz, at the conclusion of the season there would not be an idle 
mass of ])eople in the connnunities in which they have found tem- 
porary employment, nor would they flock therefrom to congested 
centers to continue in idleness or seek employment in what might bo 
an oversupplied labor market. 

Cortauily this system is worth a trial, one with a will and force be- 
hind it that will drive it onward to success. Of course problems are 
presented that will have to bo solved. They can be solved, however; 
all that is required is a trial and determined effort. One problem 
appears at first glance: How could we transport the people who vol- 
unteered for seasonal and other labor? The ordinary method of 
transportation is, of course, always open; but excursions no doubt 
coidd be so arranged that those taking part therein could bo taken from 
one initial point to a central place in the labor field and returned at 
the conclusion of their employment. 

This system would not, either in its proposal to supply seasonal 
and permanent labor on the farms or in furnishing labor for work in 
rural communities, tend to disturb labor conditions or to interfere 
with the natural operation of tho law of supply and demand. 

GOVERNMENT FARM LOANS OR RURAL CREDIT SYSTEM IN LABOR- 
DISTRIBUTION MOVEMENT REVOLVING FARM-LOAN FUND FOR DE- 
PARTMENT OF LABOR USE OF PUBLIC DOMAIN AND RECLAMATION 

DISTRICT LANDS PROPOSED. 

Perhaps one of the greatest inducements that can be offered a man 
who will accept labor on a farm is tho hope that ultimately he can 
secure one of his own and estabhsh a homt^ The thought is suggested 
that no better service can be rendered if either of the farm-loan bills 
now pending in Congress is enacted than to provide that a part of tho 
funds that may bo appropriated or provided to estabhsh a system of 
Government loans to farmers shall be assigned to the Department of 
Labor to be used in connection with the work of distribution pursuant 
to terms prescribed by tho proposed law. The Secretary of Labor, 
the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Postmaster General — the re- 
spective executive officers of the departments cooperating in tho plan 
above set forth for the employment and distribution of farm and other 
labor — could bo authorized by the proposed farm-loan law to constitute 
a board to consider and make loans on satisfactory security. Another 
plan that suggests itself is to make a direct appropriation from the 
National Treasury or transfer a portion of the moneys in the immi- 



20 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

grant fund, or of the moneys collected from immigrants, and con- 
stitute the same a permanent revolving farm-loan fund of the 
Department of Labor for aiding people applying for labor on farms 
in acquiring lands for the establishment of homes and carrying on 
farm operations thereon. The same officers could constitute a board 
for the disposition and care thereof under such terms as Congress 
might prescribe. 

The members of a board so constituted under either of the above 
propositions would possess ample facilities and exceptional oppor- 
tunities — particularly the Department of Agriculture— through their 
respective staffs and field officers, including postmasters, to examine 
and report on the quality of land offered as security; ascertain the 
value thereof; determine whether terms of loans are observed; collect 
interest; and attend to such other details as may be necessary. From 
the standpoint of economy no better method could be devised, as all 
overhead charges would be avoided, the officers who would be 
employed being already in the service and under salary. The extra 
expense involved would not be large, as one or the other of the depart- 
ments interested would probably have a representative in most 
counties of the United States. The Post Office Department certainly 
would have one or more of its force in each county, and always at 
the county seat, where all records involving real estate transactions 
are kept. 

It might also be advisable to consider in connection with the fore- 
going, in order to provide opportunities for settling laborers upon 
lands, that portions of the public domain as well as lands included in 
reclamation districts now offered for entry or sale by the Govern- 
ment be reserved under methods prescribed by Congress for disposi- 
tion by such a board. 

These features are commended to the special consideration of the 
tlepartment. In connection with the suggestion made elsewhere in 
this report that a part of the immigrant fund or of the moneys col- 
lected from immigrants be used in an effort to relieve industrial cen- 
ters by securing employment for laborers on farms, etc., they may 
contain the elements calculated to insure success in the labor distri- 
bution plan now proposed to be inaugurated under the authority of 
the Department of Labor, i. e., to furnish means the lack of which 
has militated against success of other similar efforts in the past. 

SMUGGLING AND SURREPTITIOUS ENTRY OF ALIENS. 

Enforcement of the exclusion laws along the borders and even the 
coast fines and along the lakes and rivers near our boundaries has 
always been and still is a difficult undertaking. With the best 
methods that can be devised and the best force that can be selected 
it will so continue as long as the Government has to deal wath men 
who make a profession of smuggling and also with people so desirous 
of entering the country without inspection that to attain their object 
they will readily assume any risk and pay high prices for the services 
rendered them, no matter how trivial. 

To appreciate the magnitude of the labor involved as well as the 
responsibilities imposed upon this bureau and its officers, it is only 
necessary to glance at a map of the United States and note the mileage 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 21 

of our borders and coast lines. And yet — take the northern border, 
nearly 4,000 miles in length, and the southern, not quite so exten- 
sive, with innumerable points offering opportunities in the night or 
even the day time for smugglers to ply their vocation and for aliens, 
even unaided by guides, to cross the boundary — comparatively few 
inspectors were specially assigned to the herculean task of guarding 
these frontiers; and as to the number of such officers engaged, the 
same situation relatively existed on our coasts, lakes, and rivers. 

In March last the bureau, with the approval of the department, 
reorganized this branch of the service, assigning thereto additional 
men throughout the country, including necessary equipment such 
as boats, etc., for service on the coasts, lakes, and rivers. Even this 
addition met the situation only in a limited degree. The utmost was 
done, however, considering the state of our funds. The new system 
has been tested sufficiently to justify a favorable judgment as to its 
efficiency, both as to the apprehension of violators of the law and as 
a preventive measure where put into force. Its scope is general, dis- 
regarding immigration district lines, thus avoiding clash of authority 
among officers of the respective districts; yet — and properly so, as 
the main force assigned thereto forms part of the personnel of each 
district organization — it possesses sufficient flexibility to permit full 
cooperation throughout the service. Its continuance and extension 
is strongly urged, but it is suggested that executive management be 
confided to the Commissioner General and that all orders issue under 
his signature. It has to its credit since its inauguration the institu- 
tion of proceedings against 75 persons found engaged in illegal impor- 
tation of contraband Chinese, 63 of whom were arrested — 32 have 
been convicted, 30 are awaiting trial, 1 has been discharged — and the 
rest are fugitives from justice. During this period, as a result 
directly or indirectly of its operations, over 400 alleged contraband 
aliens have been apprehended. It has met with success all along our 
boundary lines and has broken up the haunts that harbored smugglers, 
and wliile some of them have sought new scenes they have been fol- 
lowed and watched. With the meager office force engaged and 
insufficiently equipped, the success achieved thus far speaks volumes 
for the ingenuity, ability, and bravery exhibited by our officers in the 
field and at our stations; for it must be remembered that danger is 
an element ever present in this work. 

It should be emphasized that while all this may be said of the new 
system it can not be asserted that it is complete, nor extensive enough 
to cope with the organized efforts on the part of those who engage in 
the business of bringing aliens into this country contrary to law. 

This contraband traffic and illegal entry of aliens can only be broken 
up by a general and complete organization of border patrol and by 
active measures calculated to seek out, arrest, and deport all who are 
in the United States in violation of law, treaties, and agreements. 
This work should be pursued without cessation in the interior as well 
as on the boundaries. Every alien who enters without right to the 
privilege, determined by inspection as provided by law and regula- 
tions, and every person who aids or abets liim in his illegal acts 
should be made to feel the rigor of the law by prompt action and ener- 
getic prosecution. 



22 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The way to break up smuggling is to make it unprofitable and dan- 
gerous to engage in the business; the way to stop surreptitious entry 
of aliens is to make it certain that arrest and expulsion will follow. 
No half-way measures will give beneficial results. 

The present organization should be made to cover all sections and 
places where conditions perimt access to our boundary. More officers 
and better equipment are absolutely necessary both for land and sea 
service, so as to equal if not surpass at all times the means employed 
by the violators of our law. 

UNITED STATES IMMIGRATION SERVICE SIGNAL CORPS. 

It is strongly urged that part of the increased force suggested for 
the purposes above described be organized and equipped as an Immi- 
gration Service Signal Corps, following whenever practicable the plans 
adopted by the Signal Corps of the United States Army, and that 
Congress be requested to provide for such organization and the estab- 
lishment of stations on our borders and coast lines, with the necessary 
equipment, so as to meet the necessities of the Immigration Service 
in patrolling the same. The coast-line service might with advantage 
be conducted in cooperation with the Signal Corps of the United States 
Army. As the United States Customs Service is enforcing the customs 
laws and regulations on our boundaries, it may be possible to secure 
the cooperation of the Treasury Department in the effort to obtain 
legislation that will furnish such a valuable and effective adjunct in the 
work of detecting and punishing smugglers who violate immigration 
laws and also those who break the customs laws and regulations. 

The cost of additional organization and equipment required for the 
Immigration Service Signal Corps would, of course, have to be borne 
by this bureau unless by cooperation with the Treasury Department 
some equitable division thereof could be arranged. 

Pending action by Congress on this recommendation it is suggested 
that investigation be made in all sections and places needing additional 
force and equipment, and that plans and estimates for the system 
as above proposed be outlined and prepared for submission to the 
Department, particular attention being given first to those parts of 
the two borders and the coast lines now in urgent need of better 
protection. 

The existing system, with the additions above suggested and its 
sphere of operations extended to meet all necessities, would afford 
the bureau an ideal service and one that when fully organized and in 
working order would not only increase the efficiency of this branch of 
our work to the maximum, but would aid in a gi*eat degree in con- 
vincing lawbreakers that the Government was in earnest. 

PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES— COOPERATION WITH STATE AND 
MUNICIPAL LABOR BUREAUS. 

Many complaints reach the bureau regarding the perpetration of 
injustice and fraud by private employment agencies engaged in 
interstate business. In order to protect applicants for employment 
from such injustice and fraud and guard the pubfic welfare, private 



REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OE IMMIGRATION. 23 

employment agencies doing business in more than one State should 
by Federal laws be placed under the supervision of the Department 
of Labor. Closer observation and strict regulation by the Federal 
Government will be followed by similar efforts on the part of States 
and municipalities in regulating such agencies doing business withm 
their jurisdictions. Active cooperation with State, county, and city 
labor bureaus would be advisable, indeed would seem to be a vital 
necessity. Immediate steps should be taken to detail one or more 
representatives of the bureau on work of organization and visitation 
to all immigration stations on the mainland and to every labor bureau, 
whether State, county, or city, estabhshed and maintained under 
public authority. 

LOCAL STATIONS— PLAYGROUNDS AND AMUSEMENTS. 

I regret that owing to my desire to present some new features 
attention to local station matters has for the time been postponed. 
In general it can be said that marked improvement is shown all along 
the line. This is apparent from the creditable record made and also 
from an inspection of the reports of the commissioners and inspectors 
in charge, herewith presented. One matter, however, in which the 
bureau is greatly interested, which, indeed, is one of its most ambi- 
tious designs, viz, so to arrange detention quarters as to afford to all 
inmates the maximum comfort within its power to provide, should 
be impressed upon all of our officers. To this end open spaces should 
l)e provided wherever practicable and playgrounds for children 
established when room is obtainable therefor — even ground space 
assigned for adults if possible. Lines of amusements for young and 
old will readily suggest themselves to our force, and to them I commit, 
with assurances of the support of the bureau, the inauguration of 
methods which wiU produce an ideal service, not only witli the point 
of view of reacliing a just and reasonable administration of our laws 
but in the humanitarian sense as well. 

MARRIAGES AT OUR STATIONS. 

There are perplexing matters that constantly arise in local admin- 
istration that should be weeded out as soon as sufficient study of 
conditions will permit a proper and permanent solution. These, too, 
I should have been pleased to have considered in detail. One of such, 
against which protests have been made and wliich the bureau has 
fully investigated, should be met by positive action. Fortunately 
neither the immigration laws nor other statutes intervene; practice 
only gave it life, and regulation should destroy it once and for aU. 
I have reference to the practice of permitting marriages at our 
stations. The marriage of aliens, where both parties to a union are 
applicants for admission or where one is a resident and the other 
such applicant, should be discontinued throughout the service, and 
no party thereto should be admitted as the wife of a resident who 
has not consummated marriage with such resident entirely and com- 
pletely in the country in which marriage is alleged or claimed to have 
taken place. 



24 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

THE BURNETT BILL. 

The respective committees in charge of the Burnett Immigration 
Bill, pending in the Senate of the United States, incorporated therein 
many new provisions and administrative features suggested by the 
Department of Labor from the experience of this bureau in dealing 
with the many phases of immigration which if enacted will materially 
aid in solving many of the vital problems and settling many c[uestions 
which have impeded the department and bureau in administering 
and executing the laws. Favorable action thereon would place upon 
the statute books a system calculated, with reasonable appropriations 
for its enforcement, to insure just treatment to all comers, the maxi- 
mum of efficiency in administration, and many benefits for the general 
welfare of the country. 

In conclusion, Mr. Secretary, permit me to express the thanks of 
all in the service and my sincere appreciation of the able counsel and 
wise guidance with which you have at all times favored the bureau. 

A. Caminetti, 
Commissioner General. 
Hon. W. B. Wilson, 

Secretary of Labor. 



APPENDIX I 



STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION 



25 



APPENDIX I. 

STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION. 



The tables covering immigration statistics are here presented. 
They are so arranged as to furnish in convenient form a basis of cal- 
culation for reference and for use by those interested in studying and 
discussing the statistical side of the immigration f)roblem. The fol- 
lowing items of special interest shown by the figures are deserving of 
particular notice and comment. 

It should be explained, in the first place, that in the classification 
of aUens the terms (1) immigrant and emigrant, and (2) nonimmigrant 
and nonemigrant, respectively, relate (1) to permanent arrivals and 
departures, and (2) to temporary arrivals and departures. In com- 
piling the statistics under this classification the following rule is 
observed: Arriving ahens whose permanent domicile has been outside 
the United States who intent! to reside permanently in the United 
States are classed as immigrant ahens; departing aliens whose per- 
manent residence has been in the United States who intend to reside 
permanently abroad are classed as emigrant ahens ; all alien residents 
of the United States making a temporary trip abroad and all ahens 
residing abroad making a temporary trip to the United States are 
classed as nonemigrant ahens on the outward journey and nonimmi- 
grant aliens on the inward. 

Table I is a concise statistical summary of the work of the year, 
with the arriving and departing ahens classified in the manner above 
described, and showing also the arriving and departing United States 
citizens and the number of aliens debarred at the ports and expelled 
after entering the country. Immigration for the year was 1,403,081 
ahens (1,218,480 immigrant and 184,601 nonimmigrant), a decrease 
of 24,146 compared with the prececUng year — the immigration for 
1913 having been 1,427,227, made up of 1,197,892 immigrant and 
229,335 nonimmigrant ahens. Kejections for the year amounted to 
33,041 ahens, or 2.3 per cent of the apphcants, compared with 19,938, 
or 1.4 per cent of apphcants, for the previous year. In the past year 
4,610 aliens were arrested and expelled from the country, compared 
with 3,461 for the previous year, an increase of 33| per cent. 

The net increase or decrease of population as the result of immi- 
gration and emigration of aliens is shown by Tables II to IV, the 
fiscal years 1913 and 1914 being compared by months, by countries, 
and by races. In the past fiscal year 1,218,480 immigrant ahens and 
184,601 nonimmigrant aliens, a total of 1,403,081, were admitted, and 
during that period 303,338 emigrant ahens and 330,467 nonemigrant 
ahens, a total of 633,805, departed from the United States, The net 
increase in population, therefore, resulting from immigration and 
emigration of ahens was for the year 769,276. To make an absolutely 
correct statement as to increase in population along these fines it 
would be necessary to know the number of citizens of the United 
States who have emigrated during the year — an item of information 
not to be gathered from any existing records. The net increase cor- 
responding with the foregoing for the fiscal year 1913 was 815,303. 

27 



28 REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table V, giving the intended future permanent residence of aliens 
admitted and the last permanent residence of aliens departed during 
the fiscal year would be more interesting even than it is if its contents 
were based upon something more definite and rehable than the asser- 
tions of the aliens concerned — open to change so far as they refer to 
an intent and to errors of other kinds as well. 

The occupations of ahens entering and leaving the United States 
are concisely but interestingly presented in Table VI. Shown sepa- 
rately as immigrant and nonimmigrant, emigrant and nonemigrant, 
ahens, the occupations of those arriving and departing are classified 
by general divisions — professional, skilled, and miscellaneous. Of 
common unskilled laborers 248,729 (226,407 immigrant and 22,322 
nonimmigrant) entered, and 274,307 (176,642 emigrant and 97,665 
nonemigrant) departed, as against arrivals of members of the skilled 
trades aggregating 201,389 (173,208 immigrant and 28,181 nonimmi- 
grant), and departures of the same aggregating 85,666 (35,160 emi- 
grant and 50,506 nonemigrant). These figures might be compared 
with those shown in the last report for 1913, to wit: Unskilled laborers 
arriving, 251,542 (220,992 immigrant and 30,550 nonimmigrant); 
unskilled laborers departing, 278,115 (191,604 emigrant and 86,511 
nonemigrant); skilled laborers arriving, 192,978 (160,108 immigrant 
and 32,870 nonimmigrant) ; skilled laborers departing, 74,449 (31,563 
emigrant and 42,886 nonemigrant). But in considering the figures 
regarding unskilled laborers, it must be remembered that a great 
many — doubtless the vast majority — of those recorded as "farm 
laborers" really come here to be ordinary unskilled laborers and with 
no intention of pursuing here the occupation heretofore followed 
abroad and naturally given as their personal avocation when called 
upon to answer the questions on the manifest. It will be noted that 
314,305 ''farm laborers" entered (288,053 immigrant and 26,252 non- 
immigrant), and that 22,428 such departed (3,806 emigrant and 18,622 
nonemigrant), compared with 368,718 (320,105 immigrant and 48,613 
nonimmigrant) entering and 34,491 (3,948 emigrant and 30,543 non- 
emigrant) departing in the fiscal year 1913. 

Tables VII to XII-a are, from a statistical point of view, the most 
important of all those presented, for they cover and furnish various 
interesting details concerning immigrant ahens admitted and emigrant 
ahens departed; in other words, they deal with the true immigrant 
and true emigrant. Some of the more important items are deserving 
of special notice. 

Thus Table VII shows with respect to the 1,218,480 immigrant 
ahens admitted that 981,692 were between the ages of 14 and 44, 
158,621 were under 14, and 78,167 were 45 or over. The correspond- 
ing figures for 1913 were 1,197,892 admitted; 986,355 between 14 
and 44, 147,158 under 14, and 64,379 were 45 years of age or over. 
Of those admitted, 260,152 (170,145 males and 90,007 females) could 
neither read nor write and 3,074 (1,393 males and 1,681 females) could 
read but not write. These figures do not include ahens less than 14 
years of age. In the year 1913, 269,988 of those admitted could 
neither read nor ^vrite and 5,326 could read but not write, a total of 
275,314, against a total of 263,226 for the past year. A more lucid 
way of presenting this, however, is to say that 26.2 per cent of all 
immigrant ahens admitted in 1913 were ilhterate, compared with 24.8 
per cent in 1914. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



29 



The total amount of money shown by admitted immigrant aUens 
to the inspection officei*s was $42,553,266, or an average of $35 per 
person. There is, of course, no way of determining how much of 
this was money sent the ahens by relatives already located in the 
United States. Of those admitted, 737,079 showed amounts of less 
than $50 each, while 172,394 showed $50 or over each; so that of 
909,473 able to demonstrate the possession of funds, over 81 per cent 
had less than $50 each. 

It was claimed by 770,245 of the aliens admitted that they had paid 
their own passage, while it was conceded by 436,343 that their passage 
had been paid by relatives and by 11,892 that theirs had been paid 
by persons not related to them. These figures understate rather than 
overstate the facts, for they are based on assertions made by appli- 
cants, and the fact that the law imposes on assisted ahens the burden 
of showing eligibihty to land constitutes an incentive to falsification. 
But even these figures show that 37 per cent of the aUens admitted 
were assisted to reach the United States. In 1913 the percentage 
was 32. 

Table VII-a is the counterpart of Table VII. It shows that a total 
of 303,338 emigrant aliens (242,208 males and 61,130 females) departed 
during the past year. With respect to 17,819 of these it was not 
possible to keep a fully detailed record, as they left across the Canadian 
border. It is shown, however, that 13,1 17 were less than 14 years old, 
256,044 w^ere from 14 to 44, and 34,177 were 45 years of age or over; 
201,018 had resided in the United States less than 5 years, 53,675 
from 5 to 10 yeare, 12,948 from 10 to 15 years, 1,398 from 15 to 20 
years, 2,878 over 20 years, and the length of United States residence 
of 31,421 is unknown. 

Table ATI-b gives the conjugal condition of admitted immigrant 
aliens and Tables VIII to XII furnish various interesting details 
regarding immigrant and emigrant ahens, while considerable data of 
interest regarding nonimmigrant and nonemigrant ahens are supphed 
in Tables XIII to XIV-a, Tables XV and XVI being devoted to 
comparisons for past years. 

The series composed of Tables XVII, XVII-a, XVII-b, and 
XVIII deals with ahens refused admission and returned from the 
ports and ahens apprehended within the country and deported. 
They also deserve detailed comment. 

It win be observed from Table XVII that diu-ing the year there 
were turned back at the ports 33,041 ahens, or about 2.3 per cent 
of the total number applying for admission. The principal grounds 
on which these rejections occurred are shown in the following com- 
parative statement: 



Cause of rejection. 



Idiots 

Imbeciles , 

Feeble-minded persons 

Insanity (including epileptics) 

Likely to become a public charge 

(including paupers and beggars) 

Afflicted with contagious diseases 

Afflicted with tuberculosis 

Physically or mentally defective 

Criminals 

Prostitutes and other immoral aliens. 

Procurers of prostitutes 

Contract laborers 



1907 



6,866 
3,822 



341 

18 

1 

1,434 



20 
45 
121 

184 

3,741 

2,847 

59 

870 

136 

124 

43 

1,932 



18 
42 
121 
167 

4,458 

2,308 

82 

370 

273 

323 

181 

1,172 



16 
40 
125 
198 

15, 927 

3,033 

95 

312 

580 

316 

179 

1,786 



1911 



12 

26 
126 
144 

12,048 

2,735 

111 

3,055 

644 

253 

141 

1,336 



10 

44 
110 
133 

8,182 

1,674 
74 

2,288 
592 
263 
192 

1,333 



18 
54 
483 
198 

7,956 

2,457 
107 

4,208 
808 
367 
253 

1,624 



995 
197 

15,784 

3,143 

114 

6,537 

755 

380 

254 

2,793 



30 EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XVII-a compares, by causes of rejection, aliens debarred 
dui-ing the years 1892 to 1914, inclusive, while Table XVII-b deals 
with a separate phase of rejections arising from the necessity of some- 
times refusing to admit residents of foreign contiguous territory 
who claim to be coming for temporary purposes, 2,014 such rejections 
having occurred in the past year. 

Table XVIII covers aliens expelled from the country, divided into 
the three general classes — ''Deportation compulsory within tlu'ee 
years," "Deportation compidsory wdthout time Umit," and "Public 
charges within one year after entry, frcmi subsequent causes," and 
under such general classification into specific causes for deportation. 
The total number of aliens expelled on departmental warrants was 
4,610, compared with 3,461 in 1913. All but 30 of these were ahens 
of the mandatorily excluded classes, these 30 having been deported 
by their own consent. Only 215 ahens were deported who had been 
in the United States more than three years, all of whom were of the 
sexually immoral classes. Of the remaining 4,365 expelled aliens, 
2,028 were members of the excluded classes at the time ol entry, 1,091 
had become public charges from causes existing prior to entry, 
130 had become prostitutes after entry, 61 were jfound to be sup- 
ported by or receiving the proceeds of prostitution, and 1,055 had 
entered without inspection. Of the 215 who had been here more 
than three years, 108 were immoral women, 13 were procurers, and 
94 were being supported by the proceeds of prostitution. 

Tables XIX and XIX-a show the appeals and applications for 
admission under bond. Appeals from excluding decisions to the 
number of 8,584 were reviewed by the bureau and submitted to the 
department for final decision. Of the aliens involved, 1,909 were 
admitted outright, 905 admitted on bond, and 5,770 ordered deported 
by affirming the decision of the board of inquiry. Dissenting board 
members took 73 appeals from admitting decisions. Of the aliens 
involved in these, 28 were admitted outright, 8 admitted on bond, 
and 37 deported. Direct applications for adnnssion under bond 
were made in 81 instances, the cases not being technically appealable, 
52 of which applications were granted and 29 denied. 

Table XX shows the number of ahen seamen reported by masters 
of vessels to have deserted in ports of the United States during the 
year. These figures are far from accurate and therefore do not 
"adequately portray the possibilities for violation of the immigration 
law, arising from the fact that the law does not afford a practicable 
means of keeping track of aliens who come to our ports as seamen — 
many, of course, bona fide, but others for the very purpose of breaking 
past the barriers of the immigration law. Even greater difficulty 
exists regarding Chinese seamen, whose desertion and remaining here 
constitute a violation of both the immigration and the exclusion laws ; 
for the incentive to use the "seamen claim" is greater in their case 
than in the case of ahens generally. At least 30,000 Chmese seamen 
entered oiu" ports during the year; and it has been no smaU under- 
taking to endeavor to prevent their remaining in the country. 

Table XXI shows 787 stowaways were brought to our ports in the 
past year. Stowaways should, except in rare mstances, be excluded 
because of the irregular manner in which they come. 

Table XXII is one of the most important statements, for it shows 
the amount of revenue produced for the Government by the immigra- 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 31 

tion act. Of the 1,403,081 aliens admitted, 1,273,223 were subject 
to the $4 head tax, so that during the year the service collected 
$5,092,894. The conduct of the service has cost about $2,600,000. 
On this subject see also the statement on page 5, showing how 
much is now accumulated to the credit of the service in the Treasury. 

In Table XXIII there is furnished a comprehensive statement of 
passengers departed from the United States during the fiscal year. 

Tables XXIV to XXVII are presented this year for the first time. 
They cover aliens who, after being admitted to the insular possessions, 
have come to the mainland since the act of 1907 took effect. As 
this subject is discussed in detail in the text and is being taken up 
statistically for the fii'st time this year, comment upon the statistics 
here is not required. 

Table XXVIII, covering cases of hospital treatment, appeared in 
the report for 1913 as a statement inserted in the text (pp. 10-15). 
The subject of hospital treatment no longer demands the particular 
notice then given it ; therefore the table is now inserted in the statisti- 
cal appendix. Its showing may be very briefly commented u})on.^ 
It will be observed that at New York only 55 aliens were treated in 
hospital, against 45 for the preceding year; at Baltimore 28, against 
25 for tne preceding year; at Boston 2, against 4 for the preceding 
year; at Philadelphia 39, against 54 for the preceding year; at New 
Orleans 1, against 4 for the preceding year; at Galveston 1, against 
1 for the preceding year; at San Francisco 571, against 873 for the 
preceding year; and at Seattle 205, against 361 for the preceding year. 
The bureau's constant effort has been to reduce these cases to a 
minimum, for the reasons of sound policy explained in its last report. 
How well it has succeeded, with the support given it by the depart- 
ment, is shown by the figures compared above. Moreover, its belief 
that a rigid policy in this regard would materially reduce the number 
of applications has been fully justified by the results. If it is known 
that the return to country of origin for treatment is going to be 
enforced, afflicted aliens will not come or be brought to our ports in 
any considerable numbers, and the aliens themselves and the travehng 
public generally will benefit from the lessening of hardships and of the 
chances of being infected aboard ship. The present policy shoidd 
therefore be continued. 

Tables A to F cover certain special data regarding aliens of Japa- 
nese nationality. The Japanese Government issues to its subjects 
when emigrating limited passports. This brings laborers from that 
country within the provisions of section 1 of the immigration act and 
the President's proclamation issued in pursuance thereof and creates 
the necessity for presenting certain special statistics in their cases 
in addition to including them in the general tables kept in pursuance 
of the provisions of law appHcable to all aliens. 

To make comparison convenient, the plan followed in previous 
reports in presenting comment on the statistics regarding Japanese 
immigration is again adopted here. 

Table A shows an increase in the number of Japanese admitted to 
both the continent and the Territory of Hawaii. However, the 
figures shown by said table should be compared also with those for 
1908, the first year the system under the proclamation and rule 11 
of the immigration regulations and the understanding with Japan 

I In addition to the hospital treatment listed there were 75 at Honolulu. 



32 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

became operative, in which year 9,544 Japanese were admitted to 
continental United States and 8,694 to Hawaii, with 643 debarred 
at the ports of the former and 60 at the ports of the latter. In 1911 
the corresponding figures were 4,282, 2,159, 46, and 34, while those 
for 1912 were 5,358, 3,231, 103, and 63, respectively, and those for 
1913 were 6,771, 4,901, 88, and 180. Those for the past year were 
8,462, 4,554, 142, and 131. Therefore the number of Japanese 
admitted to the mainland and Hawaii, respectively, in 1914, was 25 
per cent more for continental United States and 7 per cent less for 
Hawaii than the number shown for 1913. 

Table B furnishes a means of comparing the immigration and emi- 
gration of Japanese in 1913 with that of the past year, by months. 

Table C gives in some detail the occupations of Japanese who have 
entered and left the country during the year, divided roughly into 
professional, skilled, miscellaneous (which includes common laborers), 
and those having no occupation (including women and children). 
The total number admitted to the mainland for each of these classes, 
respectively, is 311, 380, 4,298, and 3,473; to Hawaii, 188, 99, 
3,530, and 737. 

A comparison of the records of Japanese immigration and emigra- 
tion kept by the bureau with similar records compiled by the Japa- 
nese Grovernment is given in Table D. The variation between tnis 
and other tables is partially explained by the fact that this table is 
compiled from records of embarkation and debarkation, whereas the 
others relate to entries and departures recorded at United States ports. 

Table E shows that during the past year 8,604 Japanese applied for 
admission to continental United States, of whom 8,462 were ad- 
mitted and 142 debarred. Of the total number applying, 8,350 were 
in possession of proper passports and 254 were not. Of the 8,350 
holding proper passports, 8,259 were fomid on examination to belong 
to the classes entitled by the understanding to receive passports and 
the remaining 91 not to fall within such classes. The 8,259 entitled 
to passports consisted of 3,774 former residents, 3,824 parents, wives, 
and children of residents, and 661 new arrivals, who were non- 
laborers, together with no settled agriculturists. The 91 in possession 
of passports, although apparently not entitled thereto, were found to 
be laborers and not to be former residents, parents, wives, or children 
of residents, or settled agriculturists. Of the 8,604 applying for 
admission, 5,161 were males and 3,443 were females. Of those 
applying for admission on the claim of relationship, 25 were "par- 
ents," 784 were ''children," and 3,015 were "wives" of residents. 
Of the passports presented 1,449 gave the holders' occupation as of a 
nonlaboring character, 252 gave such occupation as laboring, and 
6,649 failed to state occupation. This table also furnishes other inter- 
esting pertinent details regarding the passports and the aliens pre- 
senting them, which it is not necessary to emphasize in the text. 

Information similar to the above regarding the Territory of Hawaii 
is supplied by Table F. Durmg the year 4,685 Japanese applied at 
Honolulu, 4,554 of whom were admitted and 131 debarred. AH but 
8 of the 4,685 applicants had passports. Of the 4,677 holding pass- 
ports, 4,460 were entitled thereto under the definitions set forth in 
the table and 217 were found upon examination not to fall within 
such definitions. Of the 4,460 entitled to passports, 1,212 were 
former residents and 3,248 were parents, wives, or children of resi- 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 33 

dents. The 217 not entitled to passports consisted of 46 laborers and 
171 nonlaborers who were neither former residents nor parents, wives, 
or children of residents. 

Of the total number of Japanese, 13,016, shown by Tables E and F 
to have been admitted to the country during the year, 7,694 were non- 
laborers and 5,322 were laborers. 

Tables 1 to 8 supply special data regarding aliens of the Chinese 
race, the collection of which (in addition to data concerning aliens of 
said race compiled under the general law and included in the regular 
immigration tables) is made necessary by the fact that there is a 
special law dealmg with aliens of said race. 

In Table 1 is presented a comparison between the number of Chinese 
applying for admission during the years 1909 to 1914, inclusive. In 
the past year 5,773 Chinese were admitted, as compared with 5,662 
in 1913, 5,374 in 1912, 5,107 in 1911, 5,950 in 1910, and 6,395 in 1909, 
the admissions for the past year being 2 per cent greater than for the 
preceding year, 7.4 per cent greater than for 1912, 13 per cent greater 
than for 1911, 3 per cent less than for 1910, and 9.7 per cent less than 
for 1909. In the past year 410 Chinese were deported, as against 
384 in the preceding year, 400 in 1912, 692 in 1911, 969 in 1910, and 
564 in 1909. 

In Table 2 will be found a statement of the disposition, preliminary 
and final, of every application of a Chinese for admission. New 
appUcations to the number of 5,947 were made during the year and 
445 were pending from the previous year, a total of 6,392, Of these, 
5,695 were admitted at the ports, 77 by the department on appeal, 
and 1 by the courts, a total of 5,773, while 410 were deported and 209 
remain pending. The recapitulation by ports given at the bottom of 
Table 2 shows that 4,018 Chinese arrived at San Francisco, 1,109 at 
Seattle, 369 at Vancouver, and 718 at Honolulu, the balance being 
scattering cases at ports of less importance. 

Of the section 6 exempt classes, 669 appHed for admission, com- 
pared with 559 in the preceding year. Of these classes only 15 were 
deported. The applicants were composed of 185 merchants, 324 
students, 17 teachers, and 32 travelers, together with 111 officials 
who are for convenience placed in this class. The number of ''stu- 
dents" applying decreased from 345 in 1913 to 324 in the past year. 

It is also shown by Table 2 that 855 domiciled merchants applied 
for readmission, 52 cases having been pending from the previous 
year, making a total of 907, of whom 881 were admitted and 20 
deported, while 6 remain pending. Of those claiming to be "minor 
children of merchants," 674 entered and 125 were deported. Of 
''wives of merchants," 148 applications were considered, 133 being 
admitted and 5 deported; while of "wives of natives," 138 applica- 
tions were considered, in 122 of which admission was ordered and in 
2 deportation effected. 

Table 3 contains a special discussion of the "United States citizen" 
class, which falls into two general divisions — (1) those of native birth 
and (2) those born abroad of native-born parents. Of these "citi- 
zens" there were admitted 2,098 (about 36 per cent of all Chinese 
entering), of whom 1,373 belong to the first and 725 to the second. 
In 1913 the corresponding figures were 1,553 and 495, respectively. 
The 1,373 belonging to the first division are segregated further into 
49 of whose claimed departure from this country there was no record 
60629°— 15 3 



34 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

(raw natives), and 1,324 of whose departure there was a record 
(returning natives). Of the latter, status had been determined pre- 
.viously in 1,155 and was determined for the first time in 169 cases. 
The number of Chinese adjudicated ''citizens" for the first time, there- 
fore, was 943, compared with 968 for the previous year, 585 for 1912, 
534 for 1911, and 1,295 for 1910. In this connection it should be 
noted from Table 6 that of the Chinese arrested and brought before 
courts or court commissioners during the past year 122 were dis- 
charged, practically all on the claim of birth in the United States. 
The corresponding figures for 1913, 1912, 1911, and 1910 are 117, 
108, 156, and 190, respectively. It should also be noted from Table 2 
that 122 alleged wives of natives were admitted, compared with 126 
in 1913, 88 m 1912, 80 in 1911, and 110 in 1910. Adding these 
several sets of figures relating to admissions as United States citizens 
and wives of citizens, it wiU be observed that the total is 5,544, or 
an average of 1,108 per year for the five years compared. 

Table 4 shows that during the past year 250 appeals of Chinese 
were considered by the department, in 173 of which the decisions of 
the officers of the ports were sustained and in 77 overruled. 

Table 5 presents a concise summary of the granting of return cer- 
tificates to Chinese residents of this country who applied for the privi- 
lege of going abroad with the assurance of prompt admission on 
return. Applications for these certificates to the number of 3,238 
were submitted, cUvided into 1,349 natives, 1,093 exempts, and 796 
laborers, of which applications the officers at the ports of proposed 
departure granted 3,021 and denied 217. Of those denied, 79 
appealed, 16 of the appeals being sustained and 63 dismissed by the 
bureau. During the year, therefore, return certificates were refused 
in 201 cases (of which 106 were natives, 76 exempts, and 19 laborers) 
and granted in 3,037 cases (1,243 natives, 1,017 exempts, and 777 
laborers). 

Tables 6 and 7 are compiled from statements furnished by United 
States marshals. During the year 225 Chinese were arrested on 
judicial warrants, compared with 191 in 1913 and 616 in 1912. There 
remained pending from the previous year 268 cases, so that the total 
number of cases considered was 493. These were disposed of as 
follows: In 18, Chinese died or escaped; in 122, the court or com- 
missioner ordered defendants' discharge; in 131, deportation was 
ordered; and 222 cases remain pending. 

In connection with these tables, attention should be directed to 
Table XVIII (p. 108), from which it will be observed that during 
the last fiscal year 748 afiens of the Chinese race were arrested and 
deported under the immigration law without resort to the provisions 
of the exclusion laws. Incidentally these figures explain why there 
has been a decrease in arrests of Chinese before United States com- 
missioners from 616 in 1912 to 191 in 1913 and 225 in 1914. 

Table 8 furnishes some interesting items of information that can 
not conveniently be furnished in the same form in the preceding 
tables.* 

1 In connection with the foregoing regarding enforcement of the Chinese-exclusion laws, see reports of 
the commissioners at Montreal, Seattle, and San Francisco and of the supervising inspector, El Paso. 
(Appendix IH, pp. 189-212, 299-312, 317-327, 339-355.) 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



35 






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36 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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37 



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38 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table IV. — Net increase or decrease of population by arrival and departure of aliens, 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, by races or peoples. 



Race or people. 



Admitted. 



Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 



Nonim- 
migrant 
aliens. 



Total. 



Departed. 



Emi- 
grant 
aliens. 



Nonemi- 
grant 
aliens. 



Total. 



Increase 
(+)or 
decrease 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian (Czech) 

Bulgarian, Servian, and Monte- 
negrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slavonian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herze- 
go vinian 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French , 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew : 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

lathuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, 
Danes, and Sw edes) 

Scotch 

Slovak. 

Spanish 

Spanish American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cuban) 

Other peoples 

Not specified i 



8,447 
7,785 
9,928 

15,084 
2,354 

37,284 
3,539 

5,149 

12,566 

172 

51,746 

12,805 

18,166 

79, 871 

45,881 

138,051 

33,898 

44,802 

251,612 

8,941 

152 

21,584 

44,538 

13,089 

1 

122,657 

9,647 

24,070 

44,957 

36,727 

36,053 
18,997 
25,819 
11,064 
1,544 
9,023 
2,693 
2,558 
1,396 
3,830 



4,011 
127 
503 

2,236 
1,218 
1,629 
3,337 

180 

4,005 

51 

34,679 

1,351 

5,852 

18,791 

3,110 

4,825 

10,372 

7,614 

19,706 

4,075 

13 

636 

2,477 

3,990 

8 

5,738 

977 

920 

3,619 

5,686 

11,236 

8,859 
1,381 
5,701 
1,978 

654 
93 

938 
1,572 

453 



Total 

Admitted in and departed from 
Philippine Islands 



1,218,480 
4,408 



184,601 
8,238 



12,458 

7,912 

10,431 

17,320 

3,572 

38,913 

6,876 

5,329 
16, 571 
223 
86,425 
14,156 
24,018 
98,662 
48,991 

142,876 
44,270 
52,416 

271,318 
13,016 
165 
22,220 
47,015 
17,079 
9 

128,395 
10, 624 
24,990 
48, 576 
42,413 

47,289 
27,856 
27,200 
16,765 
3,522 
9,677 
2,786 
3,496 
2,968 
4,283 



1,805 
1,250 
1,011 

5,780 

2,059 

14,440 

947 

878 

2,252 

143 

11,187 

2,941 

2,930 

11,977 

11,266 

6,826 

4,689 

12,663 

72, 767 

794 

43 

5, 522 

14,254 

1,670 

2 

35,028 

1,848 

3,837 

17,491 

5,049 

8,073 

3,923 

11,786 

3,214 

542 

1,200 

890 

395 

677 

1,470 

17,819 



3,129 

861 

1,027 

3,779 
3,643 
6,260 
5,960 

707 

7,066 

188 

59,965 
3,288 
7,246 

26,494 
9,494 
7,568 

14,409 

14,400 

39,329 
8,109 
32 
2,255 
6,785 
2,497 
2 

19,061 
2, 156 
2,557 

11,916 
7,378 

19,221 
13,268 
4,681 
6,593 
2,460 
1,909 
622 
1,086 
2,049 
1,017 



10 
38 
20 
14 
19 
27 
112 
8 

7 
21 

4 

54 

4 

6 

29 

12 

27 
17 
16 
9 
3 
3 
1 
1 
2 
2 
17 



1,403,081 
12,646 



303,338 

768 



330,467 
9,138 



633 
9 



7,524 
5,801 
8,393 



-I- 7,761 

- 2,130 
+ 18,213 

- 31 

-I- 3,744 

4- 7,253 

- 108 
+ 15,273 
+ 7,927 
-I- 13,842 
-h 60,191 
+ 28,231 
4-128,482 
-f- 25,172 
+ 25,353 
+159,222 
+ 4,113 
4- 90 
4- 14,443 
4- 25,976 
4- 12,912 
4- 5 
4- 74,306 
4- 6, 620 
4- 18,596 
4- 19,169 
4- 29,986 

4- 19,995 

4- 10,665 

4- 10,733 

4- 6,958 

4- 520 

4- 6, 568 

4- 1,274 

4- 2,015 

4- 242 

4- 1,796 

- 17,819 



4-769,276 
4- 2,740 



1 Departed via Canadian border. Reported by Canadian Government as Canadians. 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



39 



Table V. — Intended future permanent residence of aliens admitted and last permanent 
residence of aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, by States and Territories.^ 



State or Territory. 



Admitted. 



Immigrant Nontomi- 
-!--• aC 



Departed. 



Emigrant 
aliens. 



Nonemi- 
grant 
aliens. 



Alabama. 
Alaska... 



Arizona 

Arkansas , 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho . 



Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Ijouisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missoini 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Philippine Islands 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Outside United States. 
Unknown 2 



1,450 



Total 1 , 218, 480 



32 
4 

33 
1 
1 
6 

5 

1 

105 

14: 



4 
74 

5 
184 



142 

104 

1,246 

30 

3,993 

328 

2,239 

90 

312 

2,874 

147 

1,102 

184 

6,612 

768 

786 

232 

93 

322 

292 

470 

8,647 

3,025 

1,432 

56 

82C 

420 

360 

97 

335 

5,167 

85 

29,140 

53 

292 

3,253 

77 

632 

9,685 

19 

738 

1,313 

29 

200 

91 

1,963 

297 

206 

234 

1,828 

564 

1,114 

142 

89,912 



277 

78 

560 

44 

8,049 

1,079 

7,571 

370 

405 

1,961 

121 

747 

270 

23, 637 

4,544 

1,469 

421 

178 

531 

673 

1,313 

15,983 

10,809 

3,402 

47 

2,744 

723 

520 

288 

1,545 

13,983 

320 

76,017 

73 

405 

16,472 

215 

907 

55,217 

11 

969 

2,821 

43 

183 

108 

927 

965 

516 

330 

2,638 

3,357 

4,731 

350 



31,421 



184,601 



303,338 



108 

118 

269 

34 

7,913 

882 

3,420 

109 

262 

2,644 

107 

2,821 

326 

12, 536 

1,270 

1,457 

378 

158 

374 

541 

475 

12,972 

5,144 

3,620 

99 

1,855 

1,045 

549 

226 

661 

6, 551 

107 

38,937 

68 

658 

7,552 

64 

1,225 

16, 726 

6 

279 

2,746 

52 

276 

104 

484 

731 

355 

201 

3,542 

999 

1,874 

303 

184,254 



330,467 



1 For permanent residences of aliens arriving In and departing from the Philippine Islands, see Tables 
IX, IX-A, XIV, and XIV-a. 

2 Left United States via Canadian border. Figures reported by Canadian Government. 



40 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table VI. — Occupations of aliens admitted and departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914. 





Admitted. 


Departed. 


Occupation. 


Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Nonim- 
migrant 
aliens. 


Emi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Non- 

Bmi^ant 

aliens. 


PROFESSIONAL. 

Actors 


1,019 
384 

1,144 
228 

1,143 

1,931 
296 
621 

1,356 
428 
504 
663 

2,578 

2,306 


1,055 
329 

1,056 
241 
305 

2,375 
689 
489 
494 
738 
889 
294 

1,542 

1,495 


257 

87 

288 

26 

132 

422 

36 

92 

296 

102 

138 

94 

466 

437 


1 669 


Architects 


527 


Clergy 


1,251 


Editors 


262 


Electricians 


454 


Engineers (professional) 


2,989 
865 




Literary and scientific persons 


518 


Musicians 


846 


Officials (government) 


741 


Physicians . . . 


1,220 


Sculptors and artists 


394 




1,921 


Other professional 


1,586 








14,601 


11,991 


2,873 


15, 243 






SKILLED. 

Bakers . . 


4,298 

3,656 

5,181 

647 

186 

3,685 

438 

15,755 

41 

1,125 

124 

16,876 

9,431 

1,684 

725 

1,406 

995 

1,637 

432 

3,102 

2,676 

5,185 

7,722 

1,954 

791 

741 

1,933 

7,770 

4,178 

72 

424 

425 

761 

1,283 

623 

11,694 

11,210 

1,071 

1,036 

27,403 

355 

878 

1,047 

75 

273 

770 

3, 186 

312 

335 

5,601 


612 

475 

531 

45 

58 

430 

99 

2,391 

3 

928 

50 

4,938 

793 

1,001 

69 

539 

53 

399 

127 

141 

1,109 

2,521 

1,176 

666 

126 

53 

122 

1,434 

622 

46 

105 

181 

183 

231 

39 

363 

792 

416 

234 

1,355 

30 

240 

77 

57 

37 

89 

493 

33 

46 

1,623 


507 

553 

424 
25 
29 

348 

123 

1,930 

5 

462 

9 

1,907 

498 

266 
67 

280 
60 

350 

77 

41 

1,079 

709 

668 

6,776 

60 

15 

88 

10, 162 

432 
26 
40 

114 
76 

123 
25 

432 
1,027 

565 

181 

2,246 

29 

773 
77 
14 
19 
37 

350 
17 
50 

989 


1,016 




747 


Blacksmiths 


807 


Bookbinders 


83 




99 




716 




200 


Carpenters and joiners 


4,795 
4 




1,849 




24 


Clerks and accountants 


7,755 




985 




1,010 
135 


Furriers and fur workers . . 


Gardeners 


868 




90 




769 




251 




104 




2,523 




1,941 




1,698 




1,208 




188 


Millers . .. 


58 




177 




7,733 




1,158 


Pattern makers . . . . 


102 




130 




362 


Plumbers . . . . . 


354 




397 




90 




353 




1,287 




632 


Stonecutters . 


514 


Tailors 


2,209 




75 




1,105 




145 




40 




73 




91 




8% 




30 




122 




2,508 








173,208 


28, 181 


35, 160 


50,506 







I For occupations of aliens arriving in and departing from Philippine Islands, see Tables X and X-A. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



41 



Table VI. — Occupations of aliens admitted and departed, fiscal year ended June SO, 

1914 — Continued. 





Admitted. 


Departed. 


Occupation. 


Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Nonim- 
migrant 
aliens. 


Emi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Non- 
emigrant 
aliens. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 

Agents 


1,057 

300 

1,211 

288,053 

14,442 

1,122 

595 

226,407 

390 

16,505 

144,409 

15,965 


1,622 

802 

196 

26,252 

4,678 

301 

475 

22,322 

784 

11,067 

15,873 

7,092 


176 
102 
162 

3,806 

7,399 

345 

144 

176,642 

86 

5,623 
18, 208 

4,815 


2,128 


Rank-flrs 


1,378 
447 


D ray men, hackmen, and teamsters 


Farm laborers 


18,622 
10,350 


Farmers . 


Fishermen 


612 


Hotel keepers ... 


590 




97,665 
1,164 


Marmfaptiirers , 


Merchants and dealers 


15,314 
23,087 
12,817 


Servants 


Other miscellaneous 






Total miscellaneous . . ... 


710,456 


91,464 


217,508 


184, 174 






No occupation (including women and children) 


320,215 


52,965 


47,797 


80,544 




Grand total 


1,218,480 


184,601 


303,338 


330,467 





42 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table VII. — Sex, age, literacy, financial condition, etc., of immigrant 



Race or people. 



Num- 
ber ad- 
mitted. 



Male. 



Female, 



Under 

14 
years. 



14 to 44 
years. 



45 
years 

and 
over. 



Literacy, 14 years and over. 



Can read 

but can not 

write. 



Male. 



Fe- 
male, 



Can neither 

read nor 

write. 



Male. 



Fe- 
male. 



Total. 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Mo- 
ravian 

Bulgarian, Servian, 
and Montenegrin. 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slo- 
venian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bos- 
nian, and Herze- 
govinian 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish : 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russ- 
niak) 

Scandinavian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish American . 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (e.x- 
cept Cuban) 

Other peoples 

Total 

Admitted in Phil- 
ippine Islands 



8,447 

7,785 

9,928 

15,084 
2,354 

37,284 
3,539 



5,149 

12, 566 

172 

51,746 

12, 805 

18, 166 

79,871 

45,881 

138,051 

33, 898 

44,802 

251,612 

8,941 

152 

21,584 

44, 538 

13,089 

1 

122,657 

9,647 

24,070 

44,957 

36, 727 

36,053 

18, 997 

25,819 

11,064 

1,544 

9,023 

2,693 

2,558 

1,396 
3,830 



4,901 
6,533 

5,367 

13,465 
2,052 

26,877 
2,452 



4,437 

7,737 

163 

28, 920 

7,582 
10, 404 
44, 821 
40, 207 
74, 905 
16, 793 
33,552 
184,270 

3,292 

58 

12,282 

27,517 

6,584 



72, 837 

6,260 

19, 748 

38,010 

23, 590 

22, 996 

10, 332 

15, 009 

8,758 

1,032 

6,391 

2,591 

1,651 

818 
3,553 



3,546 
1,252 



1,619 
302 

10, 407 
1,087 



712 

4,829 

9 

22,826 

5,223 

7,762 

35,050 

5,674 

63, 146 

17, 105 

11,250 

67, .342 

5,649 

94 

9,302 

17, 021 

6,505 

1 

49, 820 

3,387 

4,32: 

6,94' 



718 
538 

1,972 

689 
144 

'3,511 



206 

2,400 

2 

8,060 

1,115 

3,170 

13,520 

1,848 

30, 113 

2,482 

4,775 

32, 936 

438 

8 

2,040 

6,356 

4,409 



-4> 
17 



13, 137 

13, 057 

8,665 

10, 810 

2,306 

512 

2,632 

102 

907 

578 
277 



15, 767 
1,338 
1.232, 

2,680 
3,068 
2,938 
4,232 
1,198 

245 

1,110 

47 

443 

150 
92 



1,218,480 798,747 
4,049 3,550 



419,733 
499 



158,621 
816 



7,426 
6,960 

7,482 

13, 737 
1,736 

31,701 
2,685 



4,722 

9,229 

161 

37, 393 

11,460 

12,917 

60, 008 

42, 264 

98,236 

29, 479 

38, 106 

201,428 

8,037 

135 

19, 059 

33, 445 

7, 358 

1 

103, 201 

7,769 

18, 672 

41,939 

32,579 

31,. 345 

13, 886 

19, 998 

9,180 

1,187 

7,533 

2,602 

1,905 

1,101 
3,630 



303 

287 

474 

658 

474 

2,072 
366 



221| 

9371 

9'. 

6,293: 

230 
2,079; 
6, 343 
1,7691 
9, 702: 
1,937 
1,921 
17,248; 

466 
9 

485 
4,737 
1,322 



3,' 

540 
4,166 

875 

1,468 
1,640 

2,173: 

1,589' 
686 1 
112 
380 
44 
210 

145 
108 



981,692 
3,086 



78, 167 
147 



17 

4 

21 

56 

13 

202 

7 

6 

58 

3 



278 
6 
12 



429 
5 
36 



1,380 
1,767 



2,768 
12 



5,549 
26 



2,134 

116 

23 

107 

45 

812 

1,295 

6,456 

7,613 

218 

1,861 

74, 516 

355 

2 

4,389 

1,902 

1,429 



403 
849 

50 

515 
158 

2,307 
22 



228 
90 



162 

37 

288 

1,596 

2,450 

13,591 

123 

606 

29,032 

1,067 

22 

4,612 

1,467 

1,928 



1,805 
2,116 



3,291 
170 

7,874 



2,366 

217 

23 

301 

91 

1,133 

3,024 

8,920 

21,490 

359 

2,473 

103,626 

1,425 

24 

9,708 

3,380 

3,405 



862 

2 

3 

21 



17, 589 
2,950 
5,961 

11,692 

8,454 

105 

36 

1,482 

1,293 

3 

2,458 

1,649 

7 

26 
1,617 



14, 463 
1,830 
1,605 
3,133 

4,668 

38 

40 

950 

544 

14 

1,491 

38 

10 



72 



33, 425 
4,790 

14,905 

13,208 

155 

, 85 

2,455 

1," 

17 

3,956 

1 I — 

18 

34 
1,693 



1,393 



1,681 



170, 145 



90,007 



263,226 
250 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
'. aliens admitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, by races or peoples. 



43 



Money. 


By whom passage was paid. 


Going to join 


- 


Aliens bringing— 


Total 






Other 






Neither 






amount 
of money 


Self. 


Relative. 


than 
self or 


Relative. 


Friend. 


relative 






nor 


S50 or over. 


Less than 
«50. 


shown. 






relative. 






friend. 


1,176 


5,834 


8200,671 


5,916 


2,279 


252 


5,955 


964 


1,528 


735 


6,191 


229,817 


6,179 


1,547 


59 


6,154 


1,494 


137 


1,576 


5,171 


404,968 


5,794 


4,073 


61 


7,978 


1,729 


221 


1,485 


12,272 


469,461 


13, 126 


1,904 


54 


6,902 


7,251 


931 


594 


1,265 


98, 676 


1,194 


1,021 


139 


1,300 


785 


269 


2,578 


28,525 


1,084,631 


29,392 


7-706 


186 


26,596 


9,790 


898 


1,813 


781 


168,924 


2,291 


1,220 


28 


1,298 


399 


1,842 


327 


4,440 


149,368 


4,578 


545 


26 


3,345 


1,661 


143 


3,861 


3,970 


748,556 


7,002 


5,357 


207 


8,422 


2,838 


1,306 


132 


23 


24, 602 


146 


15 


11 


53 


37 


82 


22,312 


14,348 


4,332,732 


30, 923 


19, 159 


1,664 


30, 166 


8,937 


12,643 


1,955 


9,005 


447, 118 


7,762 


4,529 


514 


7,964 


4,122 


719 


6,308 


5,510 


1,265,444 


10,833 


6,671 


662 


11,419 


2,514 


4,233 


21,146 


32,266 


4,621,022 


47,632 


30,884 


1,355 


59, 748 


13,263 


6,860 


6,490 


33,662 


1,644,425 


41,, 205 


4,633 


43 


32,314 


12,543 


1,024 


10, 647 


54,105 


3,032,445 


44,747 


92, 826 


478 


130, 184 


5,009 


2,858 


7,446 


20, 286 


1,673,875 


20, 156 


13,312 


430 


27,503 


3,006 


3,389 


8,191 


26, 871 


1,506,014 


34,779 


9,617 


406 


33,596 


9,486 


1,720 


23, 429 


173,344 


6,381,764 


175, 801 


75,259 


552 


238,982 


10,602 


2,028 


4,237 


3,243 


345,308 


1,729 


7,145 


67 


7,296 


711 


934 


55 


51 


3,928 


24 


122 


6 


108 


33 


11 


1,056 


15,249 


427,564 


9,182 


12, 259 


143 


20,268 


1,202 


114 


4,131 


28,512 


1, 157, 855 


28,965 


15,394 


179 


36,999 


5,663 


1,876 


1,336 


6,849 

1 

90, 170 


291,673 

35 

2,910,837 


4,827 

1 

69,768 


7,940 


322 


6,798 

1 

111,321 


1,078 


5,213 


6,' 389 


52,433 


456 


9,' 957 


i,'379 


771 


6,671 


200, 828 


4,330 


5,297 


20 


8,293 


1,131 


223 


i^IZL 


19,496 


643, 192 


19,513 


4,474 


83 


17,399 


5,780 


891 


2,914 


37,096 


1,573,416 


37,011 


7,726 


220 


28,887 


14,688 


1,382 


1,200 


30,317 


778,679 


26,547 


10, 030 


150 


30,061 


5,674 


992 


8,407 


21,923 


2,043,329 


25,812 


9,423 


818 


23, 176 


8,669 


4,208 


7,454 


6,314 


1,529,827 


12, 105 


6,552 


340 


11,889 


3,264 


3,844 


2,138 


16,642 


622, 810 


17,975 


7,774 


70 


22,929 


2,554 


336 


3,755 


4,601 


552,812 


7,719 


1,766 


1,579 


4,560 


2,987 


3,517 


1,073 


93 


166, 578 


843 


545 


156 


394 


292 


858 


1,106 


5,468 


302,238 


6,456 


2,543 


24 


7,488 


1,291 


244 


230 


2,279 


77, 447 


2,015 


666 


12 


1,834 


799 


60 


1,107 


680 


193,378 


1,608 


910 


40 


1,665 


495 


398 


625 


421 


87,005 


951 


400 


45 


722 


216 


458 


488 


3,134 


160,014 


3,408 


387 


35 


2,158 


1,368 


304 


172,394 


737,079 


42,653,266 


770, 245 


436,343 


11, 892 


984, 125 


164,282 


70,073 






















44 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



45 



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46 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table VII-b. — Conjugal condition of immigrant aliens 
[Abbreviations: S., single; M., married; 



Race or people. 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian 

Bulgarian, Servian, Montene- 
grin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, Herze- 
govLnian 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthcnian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish American 

Sjrian . .^ 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cuban) . 

Other peoples 



Males. 



Un- 
der 14 

years 
(to- 
tal).! 



344 

298 
982 

342 
118 

1,782 
267 

112 
1,226 



14 to 44 years. 



4,035 

561 

1,587 

6, 845 

1,048 

15,172 

1,179 

2, 4491 

17, 365 

291 

4 

1,028 

3,167 

2,175 



7,816 

689 

633 

1,090 

1,345 

1,565 

1,513 

2,100 

636 

131 

620 

31 

246 

79 

47 



Grand total 80, 918 377, 231 288, 222 2, 705 



3,285 
3,354 
2,506 

4,960 

796 

11, 487 

1,508 

2,223 

3,796 

97 

14, 027 

5,125 

5,005 

21,380 

25, 889 

35,903 

12, 797 

17, 060 

78, 025 

1,597 

38 

8,662 

5,062 

2,143 



37, 106 
2,720 
3,356 

16, 449 
7,989 

18, 077 

5,656 

4,167 

4,975 

694 

4,237 

1,587 

895 

477 

2,121 



M. 



1,102 
2,709 
1,638 

7,502 

667 

11,781 

456 

1, 

2,147 
57 

7, 510 

1,745 

2,513 
12,885, 
11,772 
19,047 

1,820; 
12, 549 
77, 120 

1,032 
15 

2,305 
15,372 

1,553 



D. Total. 



25, 427 

2,525 

11,684 

19, 624 

12, 881 

2,457 

2,098 

7, 545 

2,622 

140 

1,252 

939 

379 

177 

1,296 



208 
31 
91 

163 
72 

171 
69 

131 

414 
1 



4,410 
6,086 
4,160 

12,534 
1,464 

23, 352 
1,981 



4,121 

5,980 

154 

21, 749 

6,901 

7,611 

131 34,441 

1 37,734 

111 55,132 

2! 14,688 

-J 29,740 

155,559 

2,630 

53 

10,990 

20, 591 

3,765 



11 



62, 701 
5,274 
15, 193 
36, 186 
20,936 
20,592 
7, 

11,766 
7,632 
837 
5,570 
2,530 
1,283 
658 
3,425 



59 668, 2i; 



45 years and over. 



S. M. W. D. Total. 



16 
5 
10 

17 
1 

55 
28 

6 

76 

1 

411 

22 

184 

310 

77 

70 

234 

122 

373 

5 



58 
15 
22 
31 
26 
233 
197 
14 
62 

5 
18 

7 
22 

4 
10 



115 
139 
196 

525 

469 

1,610 

160 

191 

414 

7 

2,356 



2,896 
1,309 
4,044 

552 
1,174 
10, 395 

356 
1 

215 
3,581 

512 



2, 151 

259 

3,756 

671 

1,256 

502 

689 

1, 

389 

57 

149 

23 

78 

74 



2,853 43,360 3,370 



77 
16 

7 

41 

1 

366 

12 
171 
324 

39 
480 
138 

67 
577 

10 



147 
149 

225 

589 

470 

1,743 

204 

204 

531 

9 

3,136 

120 
1,206 
3,535 
1,425 
4,601 

926 
1,363 
11,346 

371 
1 

264 
3,759 

644 



2,320 

297 

3,922 

734 

1,309 

839 

1,011 

1,143 

490 

64 

201 

30 

122 

81 

81 



29 49,612 



1 None divorced; 75 married, as follows: Chinese, Dutch and Flemish, Mexican, Russian, Slovak, and 
Spanish American, 1 each; French, Irish, Roumanian, and Spanish, 2 each; Bohemian and Moravian, 
English, and Ruthenian (Russniak), 3 each; Croatian and Slovenian, Finnish, Polish, and Scotch, 4 each; 
German, Magyar, and Portuguese, 5 each; Hebrew, 9; Italian (south), 12; and widowed, German, 1. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



47 



mmitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, by races or peoples. 
|W., widowed; D., divorced.] 



Females. 


Single females. 


Tin- 




14 to 44 years. 






45 years and over. . 










der 14 
vears 
















1 


14 to 
21 


22 to 

20 


30 to 
37 


38 to 






















44 


(to- 
tal).2 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


years. 


years. 


years. 


years. 


374 


2,152 


738 


126 




3,016 


21 


65 


70 




156 


994 


866 


215 


77 


240 
990 


435 
2,123 


387 
1,150 


52 




874 
3,322 


2 
4 


71 
131 


65 
114 




138 
249 


347 
1,470 


75 
540 


9 
86 


4 


46 


3 


27 


347 


351 


792 


58 


2 


1,203 


3 


42 


24 




69 


225 


109 


15 


2 


26 
1,729 


28 
4,765 


244 
3,345 






272 
8,349 


""io 


3 
211 


1 
107 


i 


4 
329 


22 
3,157 


6 
1,371 






237 


2 


204 


33 


221 


299 


368 


37 




704 


9 


81 


72 




162 


160 


105 


24 


10 


94 


386 


207 


8 




601 


2 


7 


8 




17 


185 


166 


30 


5 


1,174 


1,223 


1,994 


29 


3 


3,249 


. 26 


263 


117 




406 


568 


465 


147 


43 


2 
4,025 


3 

7,974 


3 

7,207 


1 

452 


...... 


7 
15, 644 












2 
2,697 






1 


403 


1,625 


1,128 


1 


3,157 


3,212 


1,517 


548 


654 


3,524 


989 


45 


1 


4,559 


20 


50 


40 




110 


2,035 


1, 238 


216 


35 


1,583 


2,711 


2,441 


149 


5 


5,306 


118 


456 


297 


2 


873 


1,263 


909 


399 


140 


6,675 


14,926 


9,881 


696 


64 


25,567 


245 


1,423 


1,125 


15 


2,808 


S, 652 


4,676 


1,246 


352 


800 


2,472 


1,948 


110 




4,530 


8 


199 


137 




344 


1,539 


847 


73 


13 


14,941 


27, 728 


14,296 


1,013 


67 


43, 104 


36 


2,842 


2,214 


9 


5, 101 


22, 960 


4,393 


310 


65 


1,303 


12,813 


1,795 


182 


1 


14, 791 


198 


402 


411 




1,011 


7,2S3 


4,395 


SSO 


255 


2,326 


3,492 


4,737 


137 




8,366 


23 


301 


234 




558 


2,021 


1,108 


230 


43 


15,571 


20,200 


24,800 


867 


2 


45,869 


141 


3,289 


2,470 


2 


5,902 


13,093 


5,378 


915 


214 


147 


307 


5,098 


2 




5,407 


2 


86 


7 




95 


256 


3r 


12 


1 


4 
1,012 


13 
6,312 


69 
1,660 






82 
8,069 


7 


6 

98 


1 

116 


1 


8 
221 


10 
4,521 


2 
1,600 


1 
173 




97 




18 


3,189 


6,365 


5,662 


793 


34 


12,854 


11 


532 


433 


2 


978 


4,857 


1,261 


196 


61 


2,234 


1,217 


2,083 

1 

11,587 


293 




3,593 

1 

40,500 


24 


283 


371 




678 


848 


265 


80 


24 


7,951 


28,070 


840 


3 


36 


676 


655 


2 


1,369 


23, 192 


4,32i 


492 


65 


649 


1,370 


1,063 


60 


2 


2,495 


23 


91 


129 




243 


939 


356 


54 


21 


599 


1,063 


2,131 


269 


16 


3,479 


1 


162 


81 




244 


661 


360 


38 


4 


1,053 


3,423 


2,192 


137 


1 


5,753 


3 


86 


52 




141 


2, 424 


S72 


113 


14 


1,335 


8,356 


2,857 


429 


1 


11,643 


6 


70 


83 




159 


7,242 


905 


104 


15 


1,503 


8,706 


1,936 


100 


11 


10, 753 


154 


367 


276 


4 


801 


4,657 


3,020 


823 


206 


1,425 


3,880 


2,053 


141 


4 


6,078 


182 


518 


461 


1 


1,162 


1,269 


1,751 


685 


175 


2,132 


4,736 


3,201 


294 


1 


8,232 


5 


174 


267 




446 


3,918 


710 


83 


25 


562 


694 


807 


47 




1,548 


15 


99 


82 




196 


309 


253 


56 


16 


114 


197 


143 


10 




350 


6 


28 


14 




48 


96 


70 


23 


8 


490 


888 


877 


198 




1,963 


5 


58 


115 


1 


179 


700 


158 


26 


4 


16 


25 


45 


2 




72 




10 


4 




14 


17 


6 


2 




197 


323 


284 


15 




622 


11 


47 


30 




88 


118 


135 


56 


14 


71 


295 


134 


14 




443 


6 


33 


24 


1 


64 


114 


118 


41 


22 


45 


109 


91 


5 




205 


3 


13 


11 




27 


61 


32 


14 


2 


77,703 


183,954 


121,296 


7,991 


234 


313,475 


1, 769 


14,898 


11,846 


42 


28, 555 


125542 

1 


46,272 


9,588 


2,552 



2 None divorced; 45 married, as follows: Bohemian and Moravian, Dutch and Flemish, French, Irish, 
Japanese, Lithuanian, Magyar, Scotch, and Slovak, 1 each; Portuguese and Scandinavian, 2 each; Croatian 
and Slovenian, German, and Italian (north), 3 each; English and Polish, 4 each; Hebrew, 7; and Italian 
(south), 8; and widowed, 5, as follows: Hebrew, Italian (north), and Italian (south), 1 each; and 
English 2. 



48 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 



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51 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGEATION. 



53 



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54 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 



55 






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57 



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KEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



59 



T«< •MNt-i 



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EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



61 



3 

o 


1,805 

1,250 

1,011 

5,780 

2,059 

14, 440 

947 

878 

2,252 

143 

11,187 

2,941 

2,930 

11,977 

11, 266 

6,826 

4,689 

12,663 

72,767 

794 

43 

5,522 

14,254 

1,670 

2 

35,028 

1,848 

3,837 

17,491 

5,049 

8,073 

3,923 

11,786 

3,214 

542 

1,200 

890 

395 

677 

1,470 

17,819 


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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 73 



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75 



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KEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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78 



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79 









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81 



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92 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XIII. — Sex, age, literacy , financial condition, etc., of nonimmigrant 





Num- 
ber 
ad- 
mit- 
ted. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Literacy, 14 years 
over. 


and 


To- 
tal. 


Race or people. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Un- 
der 
14 
years. 


14 to 

44 

years. 


45 
years 
and 
over. 


Can read 

but can 

not write. 


Can neither 

read nor 

write. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


African (black) 


4,011 
127 

503 

2,236 
1,218 
1,629 
3,337 

180 

4,005 

51 

34,550 

1,351 

5,852 

18, 791 

3,110 

4,825 

10,372 

7,614 

19,835 

4,075 

13 

636 

2,477 

3,990 

8 

5,738 

977 

920 

3,619 

5,686 

11,236 

8,859 

1,381 

5,701 

1,978 

654 

93 

938 

1,572 
453 


2,866 
108 

263 

2,089 
1,197 
1,219 
2,226 

162 

2,770 

44 

20,857 

731 

3,361 

11,171 

2,858 

2,890 

4,077 

6,222 

16, 846 

3,707 

13 

429 

1,346 

2,276 

7 

3,889 

750 

714 

3,212 

4,072 

6,584 

5,250 

853 

4,570 

1,344 

484 

82 

593 

931 
352 


1,145 
19 

240 

147 

21 

410 

1,111 

18 
1,235 

7 
13,693 

620 
2,491 
7,620 

252 
1,935 
6,295 
1,392 
2,989 

368 


165 
5 

51 

77 

8 

180 

341 

11 

426 

'2,'829 
106 
370 

1,910 
104 
863 
408 
490 

1,350 
42 


3,482 
112 

400 

2,078 

605 

1,295 

2,457 

154 

3,125 

45 

24,945 

1,215 

4,408 

14,119 

2,855 

3,472 

8,676 

6,622 

16,784 

3,682 

13 

518 

1,793 

2,734 

4, 424 

814 

711 

3,226 

4,364 

9,701 

6,548 

1,072 

4,507 

1,427 

530 

82 

686 

1,204 
372 


364 
10 

52 

81 
605 
154 
539 

15 

454 

6 

6,776 

30 

1,074 

2,762 

151 

490 

1,288 

502 

1,701 

351 


10 


18 


880 
14 

5 

347 
13 

216 
21 

50 
30 

8 

58 

4 

32 

207 

282 

176 

30 

268 

6,425 

114 


177 

1 

3 

35 
16 
70 
26 

4 
12 

'""'60 

3 

24 

174 

78 

231 

31 

51 

1,092 

53 


1,085 
15 

8 

382 
30 
290 

48 

54 

43 

8 

127 

10 

57 

387 

361 

409 

64 

320 

7,522 

167 


Armenian 


Bohemian and Moravian 
(Czech) 






Bulgarian, Servian, and Mon- 
tenegrin 






Chinese 


i 

4 


i 


Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 


Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Her- 
zegovinian . 


Dutch and Flemish 


1 




East Indian 


English 


2 
1 
1 
2 

2 

i 

5 


7 
2 

4 

1 

3 


Finnish 


French 


German 


Greek 


Hebrew 


Irish 


Ttalinn (nnrfli) 


Italian (south) 


Japanese 








Lithuanian ... 


207 

1,131 

1,714 

1 

1,849 

227 

206 

407 

1,614 

4,652 

3,609 

528 

1,131 

634 

170 

11 

345 

641 
101 


78 
394 
572 

'"'962 

38 

75 

207 

890 

596 

612 

193 

355 

200 

80 

5 

104 

132 

18 


40 
290 
684 
1 
352 
125 
134 
186 
432 
939 
1,699 
116 
839 
351 

44 

6 

148 

236 
63 


10 

1 
5 


2 
8 


86 

88 

344 


59 

74 
478 


157 
163 
835 


Magyar 


Mexican .... 




Polish 


39 

i 

7 

99 

4 


18 
1 
2 

7 


934 

321 

159 

1,032 

1,451 

10 

21 

72 

664 

7 

64 

14 

1 

25 
33 


452 

85 

63 

95 

569 

5 

20 

37 

39 

11 

46 

3 

6 

16 
4 


1,443 

407 

225 

1,134 

2,126 

19 

41 

109 

708 

19 

111 

17 

7 

43 
37 


Portuguese 


Roumanian 


Russian 


Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian 




Slovak 






Spanish 


3 

i 


2 
1 


Spanish-American 


Syrian 


Turkish 


Welsh 






West Indian (other than 
Cuban) 


1 


1 










Total 


184,601 


123,415 


61, 186 


15,247 


145,264 


24,090 


201 


78 


14,506 


4,203 


18,988 




Admitted in Philippine Islands 


7,484 


7,056 


428 


163 


5,405 


1,916 










1,007 











REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 93 

aliens admitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, by races or peoples. 



Money. 


By whom passage was paid. 


Going to join- 


Not 
going to 

join 
relative 
or friend. 




Aliens bringing— 


Total 
amount 

of 
money 
shown. 


Self. 


Relative. 


Other 

than 

self or 

relative. 


Relative. 


Friend. 


Admitted 
in Phil- 
ippine 
Islands. 


$50 or 
over. 


Less 
than $50. 




690 

48 

209 

272 

193 

309 

1,383 

36 

1,995 

49 

21,571 

428 

3,903 

10,230 

1,129 

1,451 

4,722 

2,749 

5,182 

3,069 

7 

165 

561 

1,013 

891 

232 

165 

733 

374 

3,896 

5,400 

293 

2,806 

1,468 

324 

47 

505 

1,036 
269 


2,480 
92 

178 

1,810 

837 

1,055 

687 

122 

970 

5 

5,661 

691 

735 

4,183 

1,736 

1,597 

4,469 

3,937 

12,568 

642 

6 

328 

1,336 

1,260 


$96, 193 
11,258 

42,634 

84,1% 
23,655 
68,966 
131,670 

13,263 

325,370 

6,870 

2,621,629 

75,851 
528,022 
1,947,175 
207, 767 
274,895 
700,309 
433, 174 
888, %6 
353,804 
592 

37,565 
112,668 
123, 478 
650 
219,276 

51,390 

36,094 
168, 212 
117,450 
653,216 
638, 872 

53,994 
388,503 
380, 728 
133, 770 
9,817 

72,631 

155,288 
76,896 


3,176 
109 

363 

2,000 
1,149 
1,286 
2,058 

156 

2,772 

46 

23,042 

910 

4,037 

13,093 

2,873 

2,488 

7,808 

6,381 

15,643 

3,609 

13 

391 

1,576 

2,555 

7 

3,761 

475 

708 

2,941 

3,616 

8,224 

6,351 

1,006 

4,521 

1,244 

469 

78 

647 

1,117 
354 


725 
17 

129 

235 

48 

335 

1,168 

23 

1,099 

2 

9,668 

390 
1,204 
4,875 

230 
2,293 
2,102 
1,092 
4,033 

375 


110 
1 

11 

1 

21 

8 

111 

1 

134 

3 

1,840 

51 

611 

823 

7 

44 

462 

141 

159 

91 


1,679 

86 

329 

1,116 

300 

1,098 

1,418 

112 

1,801 

4 

13, %6 

762 

1,570 

8,322 

1,909 

3,569 

6,163 

4,851 

17,500 

758 

3 

549 

1,868 

2,011 


321 

18 

% 

987 
684 
449 
164 

41 

817 

3 

2,930 

458 

483 

3,152 

856 

560 

877 

1,717 

1,280 

1,434 

2 

65 

344 

181 


2,011 
23 

78 

133 

234 

82 

1,755 

27 

1,387 

44 

17,654 

131 

3,799 

7,317 

345 

6% 

3,332 

1,046 

1,055 

1,883 

8 

22 

265 

1,798 

8 

286 

112 

58 

505 

115 

3,475 

4,067 

44 

3,695 

1,519 

239 

34 

404 

884 
245 










6,107 






10 

86 
401 


55 
155 




13 

8 


166 


242 

869 

1,317 


3 

32 

118 

1 

48 

15 

13 

53 

91 

1,138 

386 

11 

320 

217 

16 

2 

63 

48 
35 










3,416 

528 

619 

2,449 

3,481 

5,190 

1,849 

803 

1,327 

107 

190 

81 

196 

195 
133 


1,929 

487 

199 

625 

1,979 

1,874 

2,122 

364 

860 

517 

169 

13 

228 

407 
64 


4,654 

755 

628 

1,955 

4,176 

5,268 

3,817 

1,178 

1,305 

244 

331 

39 

417 

444 
122 


798 

110 

234 

1,159 

1,395 

2,493 

975 

159 

701 

215 

84 

20 

117 

244 

86 




111 


21 


10 

47 


257 


2 
4 




31 


79,810 


67,949 


12, 266, 757 


133,053 


44,308 


7,240 


97,077 


26,709 


60,815 


7,484 






















1 















94 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 






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>0 '^ !>• CO CO i-H 00 CD ^ CO 



Ol'^OcOCOOt^'^ 
00— .t^COCDCMCMO 
t^OwcOC 



5 O lO CO UO 1— I 40 



OCO CO-t^O OOOOit- 



r=<.^ ;:;c^ 



CO ^ ^ 



CMh-CDCOrHiOCMCM 



. -rt* OJ •i' >-< ■— I CO CO 00 O t-- 1-H 



'^ 00 00 o 



'05 CO '^ o o 



lOcDi—idOO'CM'^ i-HOO 
CM i-H rt* 05 CO 00 O >0 00 UO 
TtiiOO'c^OOOOit^ coo 



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CO 05 O: CO 
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Sj 3 3 a g ^ § g O g.§.^S;?;?05 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 103 
Table XVI. — Total immigration each year, 1820 to 1914- 



Period. 


Number. 


Period. 


Number. 


Year ended Sept. 30— 

1820 


8,385 

9,127 

6,911 

6,354 

7,912 

10, 199 

10, 837 

18,875 

27, 382 

22,520 

23,322 

22, 633 

60,482 

58,640 
65,365 
45, 374 
76,242 
79,340 
38,914 
68,069 
84,066 
80, 289 
104,565 
52, 496 

78, 615 
114,371 
154,416 
234, 968 
226,527 
297,024 
310,004 

59,976 

379,466 
371,603 
368, 645 
427, 833 
200, 877 
195, 857 
112, 123 

191,942 
129,571 
133, 143 
142,877 
72,183 
132, 925 
191,114 
180,339 


Year ended June 30— 

1866 


332, 577 


1821 


1867 


303, 104 


1822 


1868 


282, 189 


1823 


1869 


352, 768 


1824 


1870 r 


387, 203 


1825 


1871 


321,350 


1826 


1872 


404, 806 


1827 


1873 


459, 803 


1828 


1874 


313,339 


1829 


1875 


227, 498 


1830 


1876 ^ 


169, 986 


1831 


1877 


141,857 


Oct. 1, 1831, to Dec. 31, 1832 


1878 


138,469 


Year ended Dec. 31 — 


1879 


177, 826 


1833 


1880 


457, 257 


1834 


1881 


669,431 


1835 


1882 


788, 992 


1836 


1883 


603,322 


1837 


1884 


518,592 


1838 


1885 


395, 346 


1839 


1886 ... 


334, 203 


1840 


1887 


490, 109 


1841 


1888 


546, 889 


1842 


1889 


444,427 




1890 


455,302 
560,319 
579,663 
439, 730 


Year ended Sept. 30— 


1891 


1844 


1892 


1845 


1893 . 


1846 


1894 


285,631 


1847 


1895 


258, 536 


1848 


1896 


343, 267 


1849 


1897 


230, 832 


1850 


1898 . 


229, 299 
311,715 


Oct. 1 to Dec. 31, 1860 


1899 . . 


Year ended Dec. 31 — 


1900 


448, 572 


1851 


1901 . .. 


487, 918 


1852 


1902 


648, 743 


1853 


1903 


857, 046 


1854 


1904 


812, 870 


1855 


1905 


1,026,499 


1856 


1906 


1,100,735 
1,285,349 


Jan. 1 to June 30, 1857 


1907 


Year ended June 30— 


1908 


782, 870 


1858 


1909 


751,786 


1859 


1910 


1,041,570 


1860 


1911 


878 587 


1861 


1912 


838, 172 


1862 


1913 


1,197,892 
1,218,480 


1863 


1914 


1864 






1865 


32,027,424 







104 BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XVII. — Aliens debarred from entering the United States, 













as 




Loathsome or 


dangerous 






















contagious 


diseases. 






ca 














3 
g 














.0 




^ 


















1^ 


a' 


3 












3 












a,£3 


fl 


•2 












ft 












13 a> 


8 


S' 








s 


« 1 


Race or people. 






'6 




to c3 




§ 








a) 




E 
8 




.9 


1 


1 


ft 
ft 




.a 

3 


3 


.2 

° 

3 

3 









PI 
.2 

© 

a 


2 

3 

C3 


j2 


"3 
.-a 




^ 


fe 


W 


E-i 


H 


^ 


P-4 





Ph 


fL, 


iJ 








5 




6 






6 




13 






211 








4 


1 








118 


1 


3 






207 


Bohemian and Mo- 




















1 


1 










12 




1 






57 


Bulgarian, Servian, 
































1 


2 




1 




1 


54 


2 


5 






914 














1 




51 




10 






21 


Croatian and SIo- 


















1 


.... 


27 




3 





2 


89 
3 


2 


2 


1 




279 
25 




Dalmatian, Bosnian, 






























5 










7 




1 






65 












1 




1 


9 










75 


















19 

32 

25 

5 

104 
71 

222 
12 
44 

427 


"3' 
3 

27 

""4 

27 


4 

13 

2 

5 

20 

26 

44 

5 

7 

87 






115 

1,126 

144 

525 

668 

881 

1,055 

518 

270 

1,945 


English 


1 


3 


13 


7 


27 
4 
5 

17 
6 
9 

29 
2 

11 


""2 


21 

1 
13 
13 
2 
4 
7 
2 
12 


2 


3 




French 




1 
6 


3 
21 

40 
65 
29 
23 
523 


2 

"" i 

....„ 


"io' 


6 

1 


German 




Greek 






3 


14 
1 
3 

26 








" i 
1 


1 






Italian (south) 


1 










3 


1 




2 


127 




10 






32 
















3 

81 
28 
172 
261 
4 
30 
110 










1 

97 

24,2 

1,267 

783 

108 

480 

1,003 








2Q 
6 
14 

87 
5 
1 

20 












"'i' 
3 

3 


12 
13 

77 
28 
8 
13 
24 










1 
1 

4 


"'3' 
2 


2 
2 
8 
2 












5 

1 


""i 


8 
5 

1 


2 
1 


1 


Polish 










3 












3 




1 


Ruthenian (Russ- 














1 

1 
1 
3 
1 


44 
4 
6 

13 

2 


1 

""i' 


7 

14 
7 
1 






42 
23 

8 
28 
76 

3 
203 
28 


1 


10 
9 

7 






413 
245 
437 

99 
237 

28 
535 
256 

36 








2 
6 

1 
1 
1 
1 




























8 


3 








2 

1 










8 




6 
4 


1 

4 

1 


4 
















2 














West Indian (ex- 










































1 






7 


Other peoples 


2 
14 




2 




1 




2 


28 


7 


2 






338 






Total 


68 


995 


25 


172 


4 


110 


2,565 


102 


476 


28 


11 


15, 745 


Debarred fromPhil- 


ippine Islands 








1 








58 




1 






80 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
fiscal year ended June 30. 1914, by races or peoples and causes. 



105 



o 5 oj 
© o g 

^£?>> 
||| 

a o— 


1 

o 

1 

o 

o 


6 
<a 

B 

.2 • 

.9 
i 

a 
< 


8 

<« ^ 

s| 
1 

1:3 


i 

a 
■0 

.a 
a 

■< 


"3 
.9 




.9 
1 

1 


•a 

1 

< 


•2 
.9 

il 

a- 

a a 

f 


£ . 

t- a 
00 

c.£; 
< 


E B 

II 

ftgg 
< 


i 

§ 

.a 
1 

■e.2 

P< 


6 
9 

IS 

|. 

.|| 

V 
a 


1 

"3 



1 

1 

B 
S. 

■a 

1 


12 

62 

24 

143 

1 

204 

1 

26 
15 

6 

49 

16 

26 

200 

857 

838 

47 

195 

1,948 

4 


15 
9 

13 

117 


12 

5 

3 
3 


22 
14 

2 
22 


4 
5 


20 
1 

2 
5 






9 


1 


3 






339 

415 

118 

1,275 
410 

703 
35 

117 
175 

160 

1,808 

226 

884 

1,375 

2,184 

2,506 

832 

747 

6,001 

273 

4 

270 

680 

2,097 

1,896 

187 

959 

1,596 

917 

414 
668 
285 
475 

39 
919 
376 

55 

18 
603 


















1 




1 




























4 


322 


70 


48 
2 


3 
1 


24 


3 


14 

1 

4 
6 






1 
2 






















6 
2 


1 

4 








2 
9 








47 
11 

269 

20 

125 

103 

161 

20 

81 

138 

586 

1 


i' 

11 
2 
9 
30 
29 
37 
6 
8 
81 






6 

2 
57 

3 
32 
37 

1 
27 
17 

4 
14 

1 











2 








81 


44 

'"'35' 
26 
74 
45 
13 
14 
61 


29 
1 

42 
23 
14 
44 
25 
2 
34 


67 
7 
37 
63 
17 
35 
25 
26 
197 




34 

1 
14 
31 

2 
17 
15 

4 
14 

5 






1 






















































































87 




54 
















39 
275 

10 
489 

28 
286 
140 
279 

32 
17 
98 
50 

""62' 
14 

2 
52 


3 

8 
91 

90 
22 
80 
234 
51 

50 
93 
8 
70 
2 
6 
55 
10 

'"i54" 


3 

31 

139 

25 

1 

1 

2 

9 

2 
12 
3 

8 

1 

22 

2 


4 
13 
117 
27 

1 

19 
15 
18 

10 
16 
15 
14 

""36' 
1 


8 

6 

14 

3' 

13 
19 

6 
16 

i' 

1 
5 
4 
2 

1 


3 
51 

6 
42 

6 
32 
20 
18 

8 
15 
16 

1 






















6 

107 

16 


1 


4 

65 

9 










1 




























2 
5 
2 

6 
16 




i 

3 

2 

2 
11 
















1 














































1 




1 
1 
2 


















6 

2" 

1 
1 


17 
8 




3 




1 








1 




1 








2 
4 


4 
4 












4 




1 


1 


















6,537 


2,793 


508 


718 


330 


755 


31 


1 


380 


5 


254 


92 


322 

68 


33,041 


207 





























106 REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XVII-a. — Aliens debarred and aliens deported after entering , 1892 to 1914, by causes. 





d 

s 
1 


Debarred from entering. 


Year ended June 30— 


-2 


'3 

6 


■a 

.9 

a 
i 

£ 


ft 
■ft 


a 

O 

ft 

m 

a 

03 

c 


§ 
o 

.23 3 
55 o 

0) 

3 


Hi 


<s 

.a 

"3 
a 
o 

'•& 

£ 

ft 


i . 
o| 

II 

3 
wft 

&a 
ft 


Surgeon's certificate of 
defect mentally or 
physically which may 
aflfect alien's ability to 
earn a living. 


% 

& ■ 

1 

1 



1892 


579,663 

439,730 

285,631 

258,536 

343,267 

230, 832 

229,299 

311,715 

448, 572 

487,918 

648,743 

857,046 

812,870 

1,0'26,499 

1,100,735 

1,285,349 

782, 870 

751, 786 

1,041,570 

878,587 

838, 172 

1, 197, 892 

1,218,480 


4 

3 

4 

6 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

6 

7 

1 

16 

38 

92 

29 

20 

18 

16 

12 

10 

18 

14 








17 

8 
5 




80 
81 
15 




1,002 

431 

802 
1,714 
2,010 
1,277 
2, '261 
2,599 
2,974 
2,798 
3,944 
5,812 
4,798 
7,898 
7,069 
6,866 
3,710 
4,402 
15,918 
12,039 
8,160 
7,946 
15,756 




932 


1893 . . 










518 


1894 










553 


1895 










694 


1896 








10 
6 
12 
19 
32 
16 
27 
23 
33 
92 
139 
189 
159 
141 
169 
111 
105 
175 
172 


'""e" 

8 
5 
15 
15 
2 
4 


2 

1 

258 

348 

393 

309 

709 

1,773 

1,560 

2,198 

2, '273 

3,822 

2,900 

2,382 

3, 123 

-2,831 

1,733 

2,562 

3,253 


31' 

56 

9 

9 
22 
10 
28 




776 


1897 










328 


1898 










417 


1899 










741 


1900 










833 


1901 










327 


1902 










275 


1903 










1,086 


1904 










1,501 


1905 










1,164 


1906 










2,314 


1907 










1,434 


1908 


45 
42 
40 
26 
44 
54 
68 


121 
121 

125 
126 
110 
483 
995 


25 
26 
29 
33 
28 
23 
25 


870 

370 

312 

3,055 

2,288 
4,208 
6,537 


1,932 


1909 


1,172 


1910 


1,786 


1911 


1,336 


1912 


1,333 


1913 


1,624 


1914 


2,793 









Debarred from entering— Continued. 




Year ended 
June 30— 


■1 

Md 
■11 

§-§ 
ftq 

al 


< 


^^ 


S2.1 

03 a 

a> 03 
i^-ft 

t, S 

<» 03 ^^ 

■d g 03 
a 3 ft 

t3 


» 

< 


■3 

.a 
.1 



1 
1 
"o 

ft 


i2 

I 
a 
< 


Ii 

^§° 
28a 

ft 


Aliens who procure or 
attempt to bring in 
prostitutes and fe- 
males for any immoral 
purpose. 


13 

ft-B 

«l 

ftO 

ft 
3 
CO 


■i 



ft-H 
t2 

ftq 


q 


§ 


£ 

3 



q 
« 

o3 
13 

I 

* 



1892 






23 


26 
12 
8 
4 






80 










2,164 

1,053 

1,389 

2,419 

2,799 

1,617 

3,030 

3,798 

4,246 

3,516 

4,974 

8,769 

7,994 

11, 879 

12, 432 

13,064 

10,902 

10, 411 

24, 270 

22, 349 

16, 057 

19, 938 

33, 041 


637 


1893 


















577 


1894 












2 










417 


1895 






1 














177 


1896 




















238 


1897 






3 

79 
82 
2 
50 


1 

2 

8 

4 

7 

9 

51 

35 

44 

205 

341 

136 

273 

580 

644 

592 

808 

755 
















263 


1898 




















199 


1899 




















263 


1900 










7 

3 

3 

13 

9 

24 

30 

18 

124 

323 

316 

253 

263 

367 

380 










356 


1901 


















363 


1902 


















465 


1903 






9 
38 
19 


"3' 

5 
10 

6 
24 
134 
57 
38 
40 
31 


i 

1 
1 

"2 

"5' 

"i 
2 
1 










547 


1904 .... 






3 

4 

2 

1 

43 

181 

179 

141 

192 

253 

254 








779 


1905 










394 
122 

160 
190 
413 
819 
605 
350 
333 
322 


845 


1906 


180 
134 
168 

206 
315 
359 
226 
357 
508 








676 


1907 






...... 

5 

7 
4 
5 


60 

272 
81 
59 

27 
50 
48 
92 


995 


1908 


88 
138 
296 
549 
395 
492 
718 


54 
34 
34 
116 
94 
129 
330 


2,069 


1909 


2,124 


1910 


2,695 


1911 


2,788 


1912 


2,456 


1913 


3,461 


1914 


4,610 







REPOET OF COMMISSIONEK GENEEAL OF IMMIGEATION. 



107 



Table XVII-b. — Permanent residents of foreign eontiguous territory applying for 
temporary sojourn in the United States rejfused admission, fiscal year ended June 30, 
1914, by causes. 



Cause. 



Idiots 

Imbeciles 

Feeble-minded 

Epileptics 

Insane persons 

Tuberculosis (noncontagious) 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases 

Professional beggars 

Paupers, or likely to become public charges 

Surgeon's certificate 

Contract laborers 

Accompanying aliens (under sec. 11) 

Under 16 years of age and unaccompanied by parent 

Assisted aliens 

Criminals 

Prostitutes and females coming for any immoral purpose 

Aliens who are supported by or receive proceeds of prostitution. 
Aliens who procure or attempt to bring in prostitutes and 

females for any immoral purpose 

Under passport provision, section 1 



Total. 



Canadian 
border. 



505 

6 

7 

15 

32 

12 

24 

27 

1 

24 
1 

760 



Mexican 
border. 



162 
3 
694 
3 
38 
103 
75 



1,243 



Boston, 
Mass. 



Total. 



5 

5 

11 

9 

5 

1 

253 

3 

1,210 

9 

45 

118 

107 

12 

27 

113 

5 



14 

2,014 



108 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Oa:i0i0^01C0"^(M^«01l-^«5rJ<i;0'<J«-<J*t^00O0i^H>(^ CO 



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papnpxe jo sjaqraara ibjox 



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109 



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112 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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60629°— 15- 



114 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
Table XX. — Deserting alien seamen, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, hy -ports. 



New York, N. Y 4, 767 

Boston, Mass 606 

Philadelphia, Pa 1, 047 

Baltimore, Md 231 

Portland, Me 6 

Newport News, Va 113 



Norfolk, Va. 

Savannah, Ga 

Key West, Fla.... 
Wilmington, N. C. 
Charleston, S. C... 

Brunswick, Ga 

Jacksonville, Fla.. 
Femandina, Fla.. 
Portlnglis, Fla... 
Boca Grande, Fla . 



126 

94 

4 

3 

72 

11 

23 

15 

3 



Tampa, Fla 20 

Pensacola, Fla 176 

Mobile, Ala 237 

New Orleans, La 718 

Galveston, Tex 349 

Gulfport, Miss 305 

Pascagoula, Miss 2 

San Fransisco, Cal 227 

Portland, Oreg 344 



Seattle, Wash. 

San Diego, Cal 

Los Angeles, Cal. . 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 
San Juan, P. R 



164 
7 

31 

29 

9 



Total 9,747 



Table XXI. — Alien stowaways found on hoard vessels arriving at ports of the United 
States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, by ports. 



NewYork,N.Y... 

Boston, Mass 

Philadelphia, Pa... 

Baltimore, Md 

Portland, Me 

Newport News, Va. 

Norfolk, Va 

Savannah, Ga 

Miami, Fla , 

Wilmington, N. C. 

Charleston, S. C 

Brunswick, Ga 

Tampa, Fla 

Pensacola, Fla 



396 

56 

75 

51 

2 

3 

5 

9 

2 

1 

5 

1 

3 



Mobile, Ala 

New Orleans, La. . . 

Galveston, Tex 

Gulfport, Miss 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Seattle, Wash 

Alaska 

San Diego, Cal 

Los Angeles, Cal. . . 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 
San Juan, P. R 



Total. 



12 

35 

16 

2 

48 

35 

2 

3 

8 

7 

5 

787 



Table XXII. — Agreement hetiveen alien arrivals and head-tax settlements, fiscal year 

ended June 30, 1914. 

Immigrant aliens admitted 1, 218, 480 

Nonimmigrant aliens admitted 184, 601 

Aliens debarred 33, 041 

Aliens from Porto Rico, Hawaii, and Guam 2, 918 

Died 255 

Erroneous head-tax collections : 2, 569 

Head-tax payments pending from previous year 138, 585 



Exempt from head-tax payment, as follows: 

In transit. 88, 643 

One-year residents of Cuba 8, 550 

One-year residents of British North America 62, 320 

One-year residents of Mexico 18, 176 

Domiciled citizens of British North America, Mexico, and 

Cuba (rule 1, siib. 3c) 14,036 

Government officials 1, 215 

Arrivals in Hawaii 7, 265 

Arrivals in Porto Rico 3, 720 

Exemptions on accoimt of aliens debarred 28, 667 



1,580,449 



Total exempt 232,592 

Head-tax payments pending at close of year 74, 633 



307, 225 



Aliens on whom head tax was paid ^1, 273, 224 

Amount of head tax collected during year $5, 092, 894 



1 One alien arrived prior to July 1, 1907, on whom .$2 was collected; 1,273,223 aliens were taxed at $4 
each. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 115 

Table XXII-a. — Refunds of head tax, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, by causes. 

United States citizens 670 

Aliens in transit 75 

Destitute alien seamen 15 

Aliens deported 10 

Foreign diplomats 9 

Mexican refugees 2 

Residents of Porto Rico 2 

Not specified 46 

Total number on whom head tax was refunded, at $4 each 829 

Amount refunded ; $3, 316 



116 



IJEl'ORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table XXIII. — Passengers departed from the 

[In the absence of law requiring masters of vessels departing from the United States for foreign countries to 
deliver to collectors of customs returns of all passengers embarking on such vessels, reliance is had upon 
the courtesy of the agents of steamship and packet lines for information on the outward passenger move- 
ment. It IS probable, however, that the departures given embrace the entire passenger movement 
from the United States to foreign countries.] 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 
14 

years. 


14 

years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


North German IJoyd... 


From Baltimore, Md., to — 
Bremen 


2,664 
149 


2,106 
128 


558 
21 


96 
2 


2,56*' 
147 


238 


2,426 
149 


Hamburg- American 


Hamburg 




Total Baltimore 

From Boston, Mass., to— 




2,813 


2,234 


579 


98 


2,715 


238 


2,575 


Allan 


1,809 

124 

5,896 

1,738 

140 

1,177 

62 

464 

60 

1,185 

19 

257 

9 

7 

4 

2 

18 

11 

287 

1 

3,586 

6,203 

819 

3 

1,587 

249 


956 

69 

3,430 

534 

72 

736 

36 

224 

46 

1,035 

16 

178 

3 

7 

4 

1 

10 

8 

196 

"2,"3i6 

5,455 

321 

1 

1,055 

193 


853 

55 

2,466 

1,204 

68 

441 

26 

240 

14 

150 

3 

79 

6 


172 

2 

351 

16 

16 

59 

7 

29 

2 

56 

i-i 

1 


1,637 

122 

5,545 

1,722 

124 

1,118 

55 

435 

58 

1,129 

19 

243 

8 

7 

4 

2 

18 

11 

269 

1 

3,348 

5,982 

792 

3 

1,453 

237 


658 

99 

1,579 

243 
84 

289 
59 

464 
15 
49 

""i29 
9 

4 

2 
18 
11 
90 

' 'i,'657 
461 
117 
3 
144 
24 


1,151 

25 

4,317 

1,495 

56 

888 

3 

45 

1,136 
19 

128 

7 

""197 

1 

2. 529 

5,742 

702 

"1,443 
225 


Cunard 


Fishguard . 




Ijiverpool 




Queenstown 


Hamburg American 


Boulogne 




Hamburg 




Plvmouth 


lyeyland 




Navigazione Generale 


Genoa 


Italiana. 


Naples 




Palermo 


Red Star 






Dover 


Russian American 


Rotterdam 


United Fruit Co 


Costa Rica 








Cuba 


1 

8 

3 

91 

I 

1,270 

748 

498 

2 

532 

56 


is 

""238 
221 
27 

""134 
12 


Warren 


British West Indies. . . 
Liverpool 


White Star 


Genoa 




Gibraltar 




Liverpool 




Naples 




Queenstown 








Azores 




Madeira 




Total Boston 

From Brunswick, Ga.,to— 




25,717 


16, 902 


8,815 


1,.375 


24,342 


5,608 


20,109 




1 


1 






1 


1 






From Canada (.Vtlantic 
seaports) to — 
Glasgow 






Allan 


777 

154 

2,500 

249 

282 

275 

4 

2,180 

6 

20 

103 

373 

102 

57 

807 

6 

1,292 


609 

135 

2,149 

173 

239 

217 

4 

1,664 

6 

17 

89 

281 

62 

47 

631 

2 

887 


168 
19 

351 
76 
43 
58 


50 
7 
100 
21 
14 
16 


727 

147 

2,400 

228 

268 

259 

4 

2,013 

6 

19 

99 

359 

97 

57 

762 

6 

1,183 


197 
11 

245 

113 

21 

63 

1 

301 

2 

5 
69 
39 
25 
162 

4 

305 


580 

143 

2,255 

136 

261 

212 

3 

1,879 

6 

18 

98 

304 

63 

32 

645 

2 

987 




Havre 




Liverpool 




London 


Canadian Northern 


Avomnouth 




Bristol 








Liverpool 


516 


167 




London . 




Naples 


3 
14 
92 
40 
10 
176 

4 

405 


1 
4 
14 
5 

45 

109 




Trieste 


Cunard 


London 




Plymouth 




Southampton 


Donaldson 


Glasgow 


Compagnie Generale 

Transatlantique. 
White Star Dominion.. 


Havre 


Liverpool 




Total Atlautrtc sea- 
ports of Canada. 

Via Canadian border sta- 
tions- 
Canada 




9,187 


7,212 


1,975 


553 


8,634 


1,563 


7,624 


By land 


93, 888 


a5, 146 


28, 7 12 


11,451 


82, 437 


93, 888 









REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



117 



United States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914- 

[In the absence of law requiring masters of vessels departing from the United States for foreign countries to 
deliver to collectors of customs returns of all passengers embarking on such vessels, reliance is had upon 
the courtesy of the agents of steamship and packet lines for information on the outward passenger move- 
ment. It is probable, however, that the departures given embrace the entire passenger movement 
from the United States to foreign countries ] 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 








14 

years 
and 
over. 












14 
years 
and 
over. 






ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


1,842 


829 


1,013 


361 


1,481 


1,315 


527 


4,506 


2,935 


1,571 


457 


4,049 


1,553 


2,953 


10 


9 


1 


10 






10 


159 


137 


22 


12 


147 




159 








1,852 


838 


1,014 


371 


1,481 


1,315 


537 


4,665 


3,072 


1,593 


469 


4,196 


1,553 


3,112 


819 


384 


435 


247 


572 


519 


300 


2,628 


1,340 


1,288 


419 


2,209 


1,177 


1,451 


174 


72 


102 


11 


163 


164 


10 


298 


141 


157 


13 


285 


263 


35 


4,481 


2,585 


1,896 


935 


3,546 


2,990 


1,491 


10,377 


6,015 


4,362 


1,286 


9,091 


4,569 


5,808 


897 


582 


315 


220 


677 


326 


571 


2,635 


1,116 


1,519 


236 


2,399 


569 


2,066 


440 


196 


244 


54 


386 


419 


21 


580 


268 


312 


70 


510 


503 


77 


1,451 


906 


545 


321 


1,130 


889 


562 


2,628 


1,642 


986 


380 


2,248 


1,178 


1,450 


207 


102 


105 


14 


193 


207 




269 


138 


131 


21 


248 


266 


3 


779 


365 


414 


70 


709 


779 




1,243 


589 


654 


99 


1,144 


1,243 




20 


19 


1 


17 


3 


12 


H 


80 


65 


15 


19 


61 


27 


53 


148 


130 


18 


130 


18 


10 


138 


1,333 


1,165 


168 


186 


1,147 


59 


1,274 


3 


2 


1 


2 


1 




3 


22 


18 


4 


2 


20 




22 


79 


25 


54 


21 


58 


59 


20 


336 


203 


133 


35 


301 


188 


148 


21 


13 


8 


4 


17 


21 




30 

7 


16 

7 


14 


5 


25 

7 


30 


7 


107 


68 


39 


2 


105 


107 




111 


72 


39 


2 


109 


iii 




23 


16 


7 




23 


23 




25 


17 


8 




25 


25 




204 


111 


93 




204 


204 




222 


121 


101 




222 


222 




10 


7 


3 




10 


10 




21 


15 


6 




21 


21 




430 


166 


264 


65 


365 


350 


80 


717 


362 


355 


83 


634 


440 


277 


28 


10 


18 




28 


27 


1 


29 


10 


19 




29 


27 


2 


2,507 


1,201 


1,306 


444 


2,063 


1,696 


811 


6,093 


3,517 


2,576 


682 


5,411 


2,753 


3,340 


2,127 


913 


1,214 


561 


1,566 


1,574 


553 


8,330 


6,368 


1,962 


782 


7,548 


2,035 


6,295 


584 


280 


304 


152 


432 


236 


348 


1,403 


601 


802 


179 


1,224 


353 


1,050 


4 


3 


1 




4 


3 


1 


7 


4 


3 




7 


6 


1 


522 


292 


230 


349 


173 


111 


411 


2,109 


1,347 


762 


483 


1,626 


255 


1,854 


36 


12 


24 


32 


4 


5 


31 


285 


205 


80 


44 


241 


29 


256 


16, 101 


8,460 


7,641 


3,651 


12,450 


10,741 


5,360 


41,818 


25,362 


16,456 


5,026 


36, 792 


16,349 


25,469 


13 


8 


5 




13 


13 




14 


9 


5 




14 


14 




499 


177 


322 


71 


428 


457 


42 


1,276 


786 


490 


121 


1,155 


654 


622 


45 


18 


27 


11 


34 


34 


11 


199 


153 


46 


18 


181 


45 


154 


809 


565 


244 


147 


662 


622 


187 


3,309 


2,714 


595 


247 


3,062 


867 


2,442 


390 


159 


231 


22 


368 


371 


19 


639 


332 


307 


43 


596 


484 


155 


19 


10 


9 


14 


5 


5 


14 


301 


249 


52 


28 


273 


26 


275 


105 


57 


48 


11 


94 


87 


18 


380 

4 

2,807 


274 

4 

1,966 


106 


27 


353 

4 

2,454 


150 

1 

710 


230 
3 


627 


302 


325 


186 


441 


409 


218 


841 


353 


2,097 
















6 
22 


6 
19 






6 
19 


4 


6 


2 


2 




2 




2 




3 


3 


18 


21 


8 


13 


7 


14 


15 


6 


124 


97 


27 


11 


113 


20 


104 


82 


40 


42 


23 


59 


44 


38 


455 


321 


134 


37 


418 


113 


342 


71 


38 


33 


18 


53 


58 


13 


173 


100 


73 


23 


150 


97 


76 


104 


61 


43 


15 




55 


49 


161 


108 


53 


15 


146 


80 


81 


667 


289 


378 


77 


590 


579 


88 


1,474 


920 


554 


122 


1,352 


741 


733 


9 


4 


5 


1 


8 


8 


1 


15 


6 


9 


1 


14 


12 


3 


1,045 


457 


588 


91 


954 


904 


141 


2,337 


1,344 


993 


200 


2,137 


1,209 


1,128 


4,495 


2,187 


2,308 


696 


3,799 


3,650 


845 


13,682 


9,399 


4,283 


1,249 


12,433 


5,213 


8,469 


68,597 


46,309 


22,288 


14,756 


53,841 


68,597 




162, 485 


111,455 


51,030 


26,207 


136,278 


162,485 





118 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 


Line of vessels. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 
14 

years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin 


Steer- 
age. 


Canadian Aust r a 1 i a n 


From Canada (Pacific sea- 
ports) to— 
Australia 


381 

134 

12 

1,157 

11 

40 

109 


254 

97 

9 

1,135 

9 

25 

91 


127 
37 

3 
22 

2 

15 
18 


17 

i7 

i 


364 
134 
12 
1,140 
11 
40 
108 


268 
116 

11 

117 

8 

33 
106 


113 
18 
1 
1,040 
3 
7 
3 


Royal MaO. 


New Zealand 


Canadian Pacific 


Fiji 




Hongkong 




Kobe 




Shanehai 




Yokohama. . 




Total Pacific sea- 
ports of Canada. 

From Galveston, Tex., 
to— 




1,844 


1,620 


224 


35 


1,809 


659 


1,185 


Booth 


18 
34 
985 
8 
10 
5 
2 
5 


12 
11 
790 
4 
9 
3 
1 
5 


6 
23 
195 

4 
1 

2 

1 


1 
3 
41 
1 
1 

i 


17 
31 
944 

7 
9 
5 
1 
5 


18 
34 
150 
8 
4 
4 
2 
5 


""'835 

6 

1 


Ley land 


Do 


North German Lloyd... 


Bremen 




Southampton 




Spain 




Cuba 


Norway-Mexico Gulf... 


Christiania 


United Steamship Co. . . 


Cuba 




Total Galveston 

From Honolulu, Hawaii, 
to— 








1,057 


835 


232 


48 


1,019 


225 


842 


Canadian Australian 


116 
59 

7 
115 
61 

4 
402 
427 

5 
494 

5 
164 
717 

4 

7 
1,274 


75 

42 

5 

68 

42 

4 

387 

305 

2 

359 

4 

152 

500 

4 

5 

849 


41 
17 
2 
47 
19 


10 
5 

is 


106 
54 

7 
100 
61 

4 
402 
377 

5 
478 

5 
160 
714 

4 

6 
1,239 


90 
45 

5 
81 
45 

3 
16 
76 

3 
79 

4 
20 

7 

1 

7 
104 


26 

14 

2 

34 

16 

1 

386 

351 

2 

415 

1 

144 

710 

3 

"'i,'i76 


Royal Mail. 


New Zealand 


Oceanic 


Pacific islands 

British North America 




Pacific islands 


Pacific Mail 


15 

122 

3 

135 

1 

. 12 

217 


50 

16 

4 

3 




Kobe 




Nagasaki 




YnVnham.i 




Miscellaneous 


Toyo Kisen Kaisha 


Hongkong ... 




Kobe 










2 
425 


1 
35 




Yokohama 




Total Honolulu 

From Key West to— 
Cuba 




3,861 


2,803 


1,058 


139 


3,722 


586 


3,275 


Peninsular and Occi- 


6,880 
57 


5,042 

48 


1,838 
9 


708 
3 


6,172 
54 


2,935 


3,945 
57 


dental. 
Sailing vessels 


British West Indies . . . 

Total Key West 

Via Mexican border sta- 
tions to- 






6,937 


5,090 


1,847 


711 


6,226 


2,935 


4,002 


Compania Navi^ra del 


2,680 
18 


2,237 
15 


443 
3 


191 
3 


2,489 
15 


1,225 
18 


1,455 


Pacifico. 
Miscellaneous 






Total Mexican bor- 
der. 
From Miami, Fla., to- 
British West indies. . . 

Do 




2,698 


2,252 


446 


194 


2,504 


1,243 


1,455 


Peninsular and Occi- 
dental. 
Saunders 


541 

1,108 
1,237 


379 

897 
876 


162 

211 
361 


14 

39 
114 


527 

1,069 
1,123 


124 
""549 


417 

1,108 
688 


Sailing vessels 


Do.. 




Total Miami 




2,886 2,152| 734 


167 


2,719 


673 


2,213 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 119 

States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 








14 
years 
and 
over. 












14 
years 
and 
over. 






ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


177 


113 


64 


34 


143 


129 


' 48 


558 


367 


191 


51 


507 


397 


161 


29 


23 


6 




29 


25 


4 


163 


120 


43 




163 


141 


22 


2 


2 




1 


1 


2 




14 


11 


3 


1 


13 


13 


1 


414 


336 


78 


25 


389 


161 


253 


1,571 


1,471 


100 


42 


1,529 


278 


1,293 


19 


7 


12 




19 


19 




30 


16 


14 




30 


27 


3 


122 


57 


65 


25 


97 


102 


20 


162 


82 


80 


25 


137 


135 


27 


129 


71 


58 


5 


124 


129 




238 


162 


76 


6 


232 


235 


3 


892 


609 


283 


90 


802 


567 


325 


2,736 


2,229 


507 


125 


2,611 


1,226 


1,510 


2 
25 


1 
11 


1 
14 


1 
5 


1 
20 







20 
59 


13 

22 


7 
37 


2 
8 


18 
51 


20 
59 




25 






997 


543 


454 


188 


809 


554 


443 


1,982 


1,.333 


649 


229 


1,753 


704 


1,278 


37 


7 


30 


( 


30 


37 




45 


11 


34 


8 


37 


45 


















10 

8 


9 
3 


1 
5 


1 
3 


9 
5 


4 

7 


6 


3 




3 


3 




3 




1 
















2 
13 


1 
9 


1 

4 


1 
3 


1 
10 


2 
13 




8 


4 


4 


3 


5 


8 






1,072 


566 


506 


207 


865 


629 


443 


2,139 


1,401 


738 


255 


1,884 


854 


1,285 


7ti 


48 


28 


2 


74 


67 


9 


192 


123 


69 


12 


180 


157 


35 


17 


12 


5 




17 


15 


2 


76 


54 


22 


5 


71 


60 


16 


7 


5 


2 




t 


4 


3 


14 


10 


4 




14 


9 


5 


308 


151 


157 


37 


271 


262 


46 


423 


219 


204 


52 


371 


343 


80 


72 


42 


30 


3 


69 


62 


10 


133 


84 


49 


3 


130 


107 


26 


12 


9 


3 




12 


11 


1 


16 


13 


3 




16 


14 


2 


148 


92 


56 


42 


106 


64 


84 


550 


479 


71 


42 


508 


80 


470 


108 


49 


59 


101 


7 


14 


94 


535 


354 


181 


151 


384 


90 


445 


7 


1 


6 


1 


6 


6 


1 


12 


3 


9 


1 


11 


9 


3 


249 


122 


127 


131 


118 


122 


127 


743 


481 


262 


147 


596 


201 


542 


9 


4 


5 


2 


7 


9 




14 


8 


6 


2 


12 


13 


1 


82 


52 


30 


20 


62 


39 


43 


246 


204 


42 


24 


222 


59 


187 


344 


168 


176 


338 


6 


5 


339 


1,061 


668 


393 


341 


720 


12 


1,049 


1 




1 




1 


1 







4 


1 




5 


2 


3 


8 


5 


3 




8 


8 




15 


10 


5 


1 


14 


15 




581 


317 


264 


436 


145 


140 


435 


1,855 


1,166 


689 


471 


1,384 


250 


1,605 


2,029 


1,077 


952 


1,113 


910 


8^5 


1,194 


5,890 


3,880 


2,010 


1,252 


4,638 


1,421 


4,469 


12,687 


7,969 


4,718 


797 


11,890 


12,011 


676 


19,567 


13,011 


6,556 


1,505 


18,062 


14,946 


4,621 


8 


8 






8 




8 


65 


56 


9 


3 


62 




65 








12, 695 


7,977 


4,718 


797 


11,898 


12,011 


684 


19,632 


13,067 


6,565 


1,508 


18,124 


14,946 


4,686 


690 


538 


152 


63 


627 


680 


10 


3,370 


2,775 


595 


254 


3,116 


1,905 


1,465 


40 


34 


6 


1 


39 


40 




58 


49 


9 


4 


54 


58 




730 


572 


158 


64 


666 


720 


10 


3,428 


2,824 


604 


258 


3,170 


1,963 


1,465 


869 


450 


419 


65 


804 


752 


117 


1,410 


829 


581 


79 


1,331 


876 


534 


77 


46 


31 


37 


40 




77 


1,185 


943 


242 


76 


1,109 




1,185 


114 


72 


42 


41 


73 


100 


14 


1,351 


948 


403 


155 


1,196 


649 


702 


1,C60 


568 


492 


143 


917 


852 


208 


3,946 


2,720 


1,226 


310 


3,636 


1,525 


2,421 



120 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGEATIOK. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers departed from the United 





Ports of departm-e and 
destination. 


Aliens. 


Line of vessels. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Hubbard Zemurray 


From Mobile, Ala., to— 
Honduras 


5 

34 
29 
13 


5 
14 
27 

9 






5 

26 
29 
12 


5 

34 
29 
13 




Orr Laubenheimer . . . . . 
Seeberg 


British Honduras 

British West Indies . . . 
Miscellaneous 


20 
2 
4 


8 

i 


Miscellaneous 




Total Mobile 

From New Bedford to— 
Cape Verde Islands. . . 

Total New Bedford. 

From New Orleans, La., 
to— 
Nicaragua 




81 


55 


2(1 


9 


72 


81 




Tramp 


449 


404 


45 


11 


438 




449 






449 


404 


45 


11 


438 




449 


Bluefields 


134 

279 

40 

32 

74 
22 
185 

221 

86 

29 

801 

202 

97 

189 

559 

173 

278 

162 

5 


97 
194 
34 
20 

43 

11 

130 

148 

63 

23 

615 

136 

55 

113 

399 

133 

204 

125 

4 


37 
85 
6 
12 

31 
11 
55 

73 
23 
6 

186 
66 
42 
76 

160 

40 

74 

37 

1 


10 

11 

4 
4 

10 
3 
14 

22 
21 

3 
55 
17 
24 
22 
59 
21 
15 

7 


124 
268 
36 

28 

64 

19 

171 

199 

65 

26 

746 

185 

73 

167 

500 

152 

203 

155 

5 


130 
51 

32 

74 
22 
29 

131 
1 

12 
467 
202 

97 
189 
559 
173 
278 
162 
3 


4 

228 

40 

■'■"156 

90 

85 

17 

334 

2 


Campagnie Generals 


Havre 


Transatlantique. 


Miscellaneous 


Hubbard Zemurray 

Steamship Co. 
Leyland 


Honduras 


Liverpool 




London 


Navigazione Generale 


Palermo 


Italiana. 
North German Lloyd... 

Norway Mexico Gulf. . . 


Bremen 


Miscellaneous 

Christiania 


Southern Pacific Co. . 


Cuba 


United Fruit Co 


British Honduras 

Costa Rica 




Cuba 




Guatemala....' 




Honduras 




Panama 


Vaccaro 


Honduras 


Miscellaneous 


Miscellaneous 




Total New Orleans. . 

From Newport News, Va., 
to— 
Christiania 




3,568 


2,547 


1,021 


322 


3,246 


2,612 


956 


Norway Mexico Gulf. . . 


1 




1 




1 


1 




From New York, N. Y., 
to— 
Cherbourg 


American 


4,217 

468 

7,507 


3,694 

322 

6,334 


523 

140 

1,173 


94 
21 
193 


4,123 

447 

7,314 


241 

222 

1,416 


3,976 

246 

6,091 




Plymouth 




Southampton 




Glasgow 


12,060 

3,505 

20 

2,791 

55 

1,023 

3 

5,003 

5,578 

8,768 

54 

36 

103 

316 

29 

400 

1 

33,000 

4,448 

6,827 

289 

109 

30, 309 

196 


8,670 

1,644 

17 

2,500 

46 

553 

3 

4,510 

5,341 

6,873 

53 

27 

80 

140 

17 

257 

28,' 357 

3,060 

4,920 

213 

85 

23,022 

167 


3,384 

1,861 

3 

291 

9 

470 


643 

100 

1 

115 

1 
64 


11,417 

3,405 

19 

2,676 

54 

959 

3 

4,921 

5,516 

8,458 

54 

34 

99 

303 

26 

364 

1 

32, 256 

4,251 

6,313 

274 

104 

29,206 

188 


4, 066 
1,018 

is 

""i,'623 

"'"'364 

733 

658 

1 

18 

59 

49 

29 

400 

1 

5,604 

3,696 

206 

48 

38 

6,999 

21 


7,994 

2,487 
20 

2,778 
55 

3 

4,639 

4,845 

8,110 

53 

18 

44 

267 

'27 ,'396 
752 
6,621 
241 
71 
23,310 
175 




Londonderry 




Messina 








Palermo 


Atlantic Traiisport 


London 






Naples 


493 

237 

1,895 

1 

9 

23 

176 

12 

143 

1 

4,643 

1,388 

1,907 

76 

24 

7,287 

29 


82 

62 

310 

2 

4 
13 
3 

36 

"'744 

197 

514 

15 

5 

1,103 

8 




Patras 




Trieste 




Algiers 




Azores 


Booth 


Brazil 


Clyde 


British West Indies. . . 
Do 




San Domingo 


Compaguie Generale 

Transatlantique. 
Canard 


Bordeaux. 


Havre 


Fishguard 




Fiume 




Genoa 




Gibraltar 

Liverpool 

Madeira 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 121 

States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 

years. 


14 

years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 
14 

years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


39 
43 
35 
39 


28 
22 
13 
20 


11 
21 
22 
19 


1 

10 
4 
1 


38 
33 
31 
38 


39 
43 
35 
39 





44 

77 
64 
52 


33 

36 
40 
29 


11 
41 
24 
23 


1 
18 
4 
2 


43 
59 
60 
50 


44 
77 
64 
52 




156 


83 


73 


16 


140 


156 




237 


138 


99 


25 


212 


237 




8 


5 


3 


7 


1 




8 


457 


409 


48 


18 


439 




457 


8 


5 


3 


7 


1 




8 


457 


409 


48 


18 


439 




457 


211 
55 


164 
27 


47 
28 


21 
17 


190 
38 


210 
20 


1 
35 


345 

334 

40 

198 
156 
36 

262 

383 

91 

35 

2,283 

402 

246 

453 

1,083 

714 

3,838 

482 

7 


261 
221 
34 

142 
72 
19 

173 

228 

67 

27 

1,620 

282 

153 

273 

796 

544 

2,531 

380 

6 


84 

113 

6 

56 
84 
17 

89 

155 

24 

8 

663 

120 

93 

180 

287 

170 

1,307 

102 

1 


31 

28 
4 

33 
29 
12 

68 
48 
24 
9 

180 
37 
33 
39 
98 
78 

246 
41 


314 

306 
36 

165 
127 
24 

194 

335 

67 

26 

2,103 

365 

213 

414 

985 

636 

3,592 

441 

7 


340 
71 

198 
156 
36 

53 

270 

2 

18 

1,766 

402 

246 

453 

1,083 

714 

3,838 

482 

5 


5 
263 
40 


166 
82 
14 

77 

162 

5 

6 

1,482 

200 

149 

264 

524 

541 

3,560 

320 

2 


122 
29 

8 

43 

80 

4 

4 

1,005 

146 

98 

160 

397 

411 

2,327 

255 

2 


44 
53 

6 

34 

82 

1 

2 

477 

54 

51 

104 

127 

130 

1,233 

65 


29 
19 
9 

54 
26 
3 
6 
125 
20 
9 

11 
57 
231 
34 


137 
63 
5 

23 

136 

2 

"i,'357 
180 
140 
247 
485 
484 
3,329 
286 
2 


166 
82 
14 

24 
139 

I 

1,299 

200 

149 

264 

524 

541 

3,560 

320 

2 


53 
23 
4 

""i83 


209 

113 

89 

17 

517 

"""2 








7,820 


5,282 


2,538 


716 


7,104 


7,521 


299 


11,388 


7,829 


3,559 


1,038 


10,350 


10, 133 


1,255 


4 

1,448 
1,040 
3,092 

6 
4,102 
2,032 

4 
259 

9 
2,504 


3 


1 




4 


4 




5 


3 


2 




5 


5 




800 

672 

1,694 

3 

2,131 

1,076 

3 

164 

4 

1,081 


648 

368 

1,398 

3 

1,971 

956 

1 

95 

5 

1,42;? 


437 
127 
564 

"i,'267 

611 

3 

207 

188 


1,011 

913 

2,528 

6 
2,895 
1,421 

1 
52 

2 
2,316 


858 

476 

2,387 

6 

2,910 

972 

1 

16 

' "2," 504 


590 
564 
705 

'i,'i92 

1,060 

3 

243 

9 


5,665 

1,508 

10,599 

6 

16,162 

5,537 

24 

3,050 

64 

3,527 

3 

5,876 

5,906 

10,993 

57 

49 

183 

436 

35 

775 

7 

47,763 

9,653 

7,963 

509 

221 

43, 208 

296 


4,494 

994 

8,028 

3 

10,807 

2,720 

20 

2,664 

50 

1,634 

3 

4,951 

5,565 

8,033 

54 

33 

142 

202 

20 

530 

2 

36,594 

6,222 

5,500 

298 

135 

30,858 

217 


1,171 

514 

2,571 

3 

5,355 

2,817 

4 

386 

14 

1,893 


531 

148 
757 

"i,'856 
711 

4 
322 

8 
252 


5,134 

1,360 

9,842 

6 

14,312 

4,826 

20 

2,728 

56 

3,275 

3 

5,381 

5,779 

9,334 

57 

39 

177 

336 

32 

698 

4 

42,843 

9,171 

6,626 

435 

211 

39,421 

264 


1,099 

698 

3,803 

6 

6,976 

1,990 

1 

29 

' 3, '527 

""8i2 

1,035 

1,555 

4 

23 

129 

88 

35 

775 

7 

14,960 

8,552 

415 

198 

148 

12,378 

95 


4,566 

810 

6,796 

■9,' 186 
3,547 

23 
3,021 

64 

3 


873 

388 

2,225 

3 

13 

80 

120 

6 

375 

6 

14,763 

5,205 

1,136 

220 

112 

12,899 

100 


441 

224 

1,160 

1 

6 

62 

62 

3 

273 

2 

8,237 

3,162 

580 

85 

50 

7,836 

50 


432 

164 

1,065 

2 

18 

58 

3 

102 

4 

6,526 

2,043 

556 

135 

62 

5,063 

50 


413 

125 

1,349 

8 

2 
87 

« 

3 

4,176 

285 

823 

59 

5 

2,684 

24 


460 

263 

876 

3 

5 

78 

33 

6 

334 

3 

10,587 

4,920 

313 

161 

107 

10,215 

76 


448 

302 

897 

3 

5 

70 

39 

6 

375 

6 

9,356 

4.856 

209 

150 

110 

5,379 

74 


425 

86 

1,328 

8 

10 
81 

'5,'467 

349 

927 

70 

2 

7,520 

26 


925 

401 

2,960 

3 

16 

41 

234 

15 

245 

5 

11, 169 

3,431 

2,463 

211 

86 

12,350 

79 


495 

187 

1,659 

io 

6 

100 

3 

77 

3 

4,920 

482 

1,337 

74 

10 

3,787 

32 


5,064 
4,931 
9,438 
53 
26 
54 
348 

32,863 

1,101 

7.548 

311 

73 

30,830 

201 



122 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers departed from the United 



Jjlne of vessels. 



Ports of departure and 
destination. 



Aliens. 



Num- 
ber. 



Sex. 



Male. 



Fe- 
male. 



Under 

14 
years. 



14 
years 
and 
over. 



Class. 



Cabin. 



Steer- 



Cunard— Continued. 



Fabre. 



Hamburg American 



Hellenic 

Holland America 

Italia 

Lamport & Holt 

La Veloee 

Lloyd I taliano 

Lloyd Sabaudo 

Mimson 

National Steam Navi- 
gation Co. 



Navigazione Generate 
Italiana. 



New York & Cuba Mail 



From New York, N. Y., 
to — Continued. 

Mes.sina 

Monaco 

Naples 

Patras 

Palermo 

Queenstown 

Trieste 

Alexandria 

Algiers 

Miscellaneous 

Lisbon 

Marseille 

Naples 

Spain 

Villefranche 

Algiers 

Azores 

Boulogne 

Cherbourg 

Genoa 

Hamburg 

Plymouth 

Southampton 

Gibraltar 

Naples 

Other Mediterranean 

I)orts. 
British West Indies . . . 

Colombia , 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Haiti 

Panama 

Naples , 

Palermo 

Piraeus 

Boulogne , 

Plymouth 

Rotterdam 

Genoa 

Messina 

Italia 

Palermo 

Argentina 

Brazil 

British West Indies. . 

Uruguay 

Genoa 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

Genoa 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

Genoa 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

Cuba 

Palermo 

Piraeus 

Other Mediterranean 

ports. 

Genoa 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

British West Indies.. 

Cuba 

Mexico 



25 

7 

10, 175 

1,561 

111 

1,622 

1,167 

74 

24 

50 

190 

493 

12,675 

27 

6 

5 

82 

4 

1,022 

441 

37,457 

426 

571 

53 

5,868 

155 

342 
73 
109 
215 
153 
241 
893 
42' 

5,942 
698 
102 
16, 138 
263 
294 

2,928 
540 

1,235 
761 
147 
59 
614 
350 

4,533 
609 
655 
690 

5,59' 

1,038 
422 
231 

2,586 

445 

89 

329 

4,409 
284 

1,102 
715 
8,638 
1,298 
373 
4,70 
1,166 



24 

4 

8,779 

1,503 

100 

633 

1,035 

40 

12 

21 

180 

398 

11,222 

23 

1 

3 

71 

1 

599 

293 

26,345 

297 

383 

38 

5,266 

146 

172 
60 
75 
144 
107 
176 
800 
363 

5,618 

431 

54 

12,318 

191 

268 

2,603 
442 
969 
597 
71 
45 
40' 
300 

3,960 
490 
486 
612 

5,075 
874 
334 
216 

2,358 

392 

60 

281 

4,211 
236 

736 
640 

7,860 
1,113 

192 
3,597 

856 



1 

3 

1,396 

58 

11 

989 

132 

34 

12 

29 

10 

95 

1,453 

4 

5 

2 

11 

3 

423 

148 

11,112 

129 

188 

15 

602 

9 

170 

13 

34 

71 

46 

65 

93 

64 

324 

267 

48 

3,820 

72 

26 

325 

98 

266 

164 

76 

14 

20' 

50 

573 

119 

169 

78 

522 

164 

88 

15 

228 

53 

29 

18 

198 

48 

366 
75 
778 
185 
181 
1,110 
310 



273 
12 
1 
7 
23 
2 
1 
5 



13 
317 



30 

13 

1,722 

16 

26 

2 

162 

1 

23 

4 
11 

9 
10 
14 
30 

7 
100 
36 

5 
657 

9 

3 
63 
16 
77 
51 
15 

3 
30 

8 
94 
13 
30 
22 
106 
22 
17 

5 
60 

8 
10 
14 
43 
11 



140 
29 



350 
101 



24 

7 

9,902 

1,549 

110 

1,615 

1,144 

72 

23 

45 

190 

480 

12,358 

27 

5 

5 

81 

4 

992 

428 

35, 735 

410 

545 

51 

6,706 

154 

319 
69 
98 
206 
143 
227 
863 
420 

5,842 
662 
97 
15,481 
254 
291 

2,865 
524 

1,158 
710 
132 
56 
584 
342 

4,439 
596 
625 
668 

5,491 

1,016 
405 
226 

2,526 

437 

79 

315 

4,366 
273 

1,070 
707 
8,498 
1,269 
354 
4,357 
1,065 



895 
226 



304 

100 

50 

24 

50 

17 

194 

1,478 

1" 

5 

5 

15 

4 

1,001 

260 

5,269 

426 

571 

35 

278 

56 

340 

73 

109 

215 

153 

235 

12 

135 

934 

430 

102 

2,174 

66 

11 

250 



384 
104 

20 
20' 

15 
264 

75 
209 

28 
296 

94 

96 



70 
11 
89 
157 
645 
45 

369 
3 

476 
114 
351 
3,261 
991 



25 



9,280 
1,335 
HI 
1,318 
1,067 
24 



173 

299 

11,197 

10 

1 



67 



21 

181 

32,188 



18 

5,590 

99 



6 

881 

292 

5,008 

268 



13,964 
197 
283 

2,678 
453 
739 
3 
43 
39 
40' 
335 

4,269 
534 
446 
662 

5,301 
944 
326 
231 

2,516 
434 



172 

3,764 

239 

733 

678 

8,162 

1,184 

22 

1,446 

175 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 123 
States, fiscal year ended June SO, 1914 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 








14 
years 
and 
over. 












14 
years 
and 
over. 






ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 
















25 
74 


24 
39 


1 
35 


1 
3 


24 

71 


74 


25 


07 


35 


32 


3 


64 


67 






4,560 


1,815 


2,751 


985 


3,581 


3,519 


'1,047 


14,741 


10,594 


4,147 


1,258 


13,483 


4,414 


'16,' .327 


117 


75 


42 


44 


73 


85 


32 


1,678 


1,578 


100 


56 


1,022 


311 


1,367 


14 


9 


5 


8 


6 




14 


125 


109 


16 


9 


116 




125 


1,327 


718 


609 


288 


1,039 


""hu 


813 


2,949 


1,351 


1,598 


295 


2.654 


""sis 


2,131 


288 


138 


150 


59 


229 


219 


69 


1,455 


1,173 


282 


82 


1,373 


319 


1,136 


277 


96 


181 


20 


257 


272 


5 


351 


136 


215 


22 


329 


322 


29 


104 


31 


73 


6 


98 


104 




128 


43 


85 


7 


121 


128 




145 


50 


95 


IS 


127 


145 




195 


71 


124 


23 


172 


195 




36 


25 


11 


7 


29 


31 


5 


226 


205 


21 


7 


219 


48 


""i78 


551 


237 


314 


70 


. 481 


539 


12 


1,044 


635 


409 


83 


961 


733 


311 


2,444 


1,240 


1,204 


1,347 


1,097 


1,352 


1,092 


15,119 


12, 462 


2,657 


1,664 


13, 455 


2,830 


12,289 


16 


9 


7 


6 


10 


16 




43 


32 


11 


6 


37 


33 


10 


39 


17 


22 


1 


38 


39 




45 


18 


27 


2 


43 


44 


1 


20 


10 


10 


2 


IS 


20 




25 


13 


12 


2 


23 


25 




36 


25 


11 


11 


25 


22 


"u 


118 


96 


22 


12 


106 


37 


si 


36 


7 


29 




36 


36 




40 


8 


32 




40 


40 




3,153 


1,545 


1,608 


""m 


2,973 


3,145 


8 


4,175 


2,144 


2,031 


""2i6 


3,965 


4,146 


29 


1,128 


470 


058 


84 


1,044 


1,116 


12 


1,569 


703 


806 


97 


1,472 


1,376 


193 


22,384 


11,578 


10, 806 


6,349 


16,035 


12,411 


9,973 


59,841 


37,923 


21,918 


8,071 


51,770 


17,680 


42, 161 


1,134 


670 


464 


54 


1,080 


1,134 




1,.'')60 


967 


593 


70 


1,490 


1,560 




1,501 


855 


646 


75 


1,426 


1,501 




2,072 


1,238 


834 


101 


1,971 


2,072 




72 


38 


34 


6 


66 


68 


4 


125 


76 


49 


8 


117 


103 


22 


1,570 


690 


880 


490 


1,080 


1,041 


529 


7,438 


5,956 


1,482 


652 


6,786 


1,319 


6,119 


64 


31 


33 


1 


63 


63 


1 


219 


177 


42 


2 


217 


119 


100 


529 


294 


235 


32 


497 


529 




871 


466 


405 


55 


816 


869 


2 


71 


58 


13 


6 


65 


71 




144 


118 


26 


10 


134 


144 




87 


61 


26 


11 


76 


87 




196 


136 


60 


22 


174 


196 




455 


298 


157 


30 


425 


455 




670 


442 


228 


39 


631 


670 




162 


124 


38 


24 


138 


162 




315 


231 


84 


34 


281 


315 




552 


373 


179 


22 


530 


552 




793 


549 


244 


36 


757 


787 


6 


128 


79 


49 


111 


17 


7 


"m 


1,021 


879 


142 


141 


880 


19 


1,002 


53 


34 


19 


49 


4 


34 


19 


480 


397 


83 


56 


424 


169 


311 


276 


190 


86 


205 


71 


163 


113 


6,218 


5,808 


410 


305 


5,913 


1,097 


5,121 


1,438 


495 


943 


104 


1,334 


1,412 


26 


2,136 


926 


1,210 


140 


1,996 


1,842 


294 


553 


224 


329 


47 


506 


553 




655 


278 


377 


52 


603 


655 




6,460 


3, 236 


3,224 


2,470 


3,990 


3,995 


'2,' 465 


22,598 


15,554 


7,044 


3,127 


19, 471 


6,169 


16,429 


145 


84 


61 


73 


72 


55 


90 


408 


275 


133 


82 


326 


121 


287 


42 


27 


15 


32 


10 


5 


37 


336 


295 


41 


35 


301 


16 


320 


598 


365 


233 


349 


249 


94 


504 


3,526 


2,968 


558 


412 


3,114 


344 


3,182 


104 


63 


41 


88 


16 


31 


73 


644 


505 


139 


104 


540 


118 


526 


1,247 


902 


345 


170 


1,077 


1,010 


237 


2,482 


1,871 


611 


247 


2,235 


1,506 


976 


791 


503 


288 


133 


658 


688 


103 


1,552 


1,100 


452 


184 


1,368 


1,072 


480 


69 


29 


40 


28 


41 


59 


10 


216 


100 


116 


43 


173 


163 


53 


41 


25 


16 


15 


26 


26 


15 


100 


70 


30 


18 


82 


46 


54 


394 


224 


170 


214 


180 


158 


236 


1,008 


631 


377 


244 


764 


365 


643 


66 


48 


18 


43 


23 


4 


62 


416 


348 


68 


51 


365 


19 


397 


1,237 


764 


473 


638 


599 


298 


939 


5,770 


4,724 


1,046 


732 


5,038 


562 


5,208 


Ul 


91 


50 


99 


42 


31 


110 


750 


581 


169 


112 


638 


106 


644 


243 


130 


113 


148 


95 


139 


104 


898 


616 


282 


178 


720 


348 


550 


77 


41 


36 


73 


4 


10 


67 


767 


653 


114 


95 


672 


38 


729 


807 


444 


363 


534 


273 


240 


567 


6,404 


5,519 


885 


640 


5,764 


536 


5,868 


177 


82 


95 


137 


40 


43 


134 


1,215 


956 


259 


159 


1,056 


137 


1;078 


195 


102 


93 


69 


126 


126 


69 


617 


436 


181 


86 


531 


222 


395 


26 


14 


12 


22 


4 




26 


257 


230 


27 


27 


230 




257 


377 


199 


178 


252 


125 


""i22 


255 


2,963 


2,557 


406 


312 


2,651 


""i92 


2,771 


63 


46 


17 


50 


13 


11 


52 


508 


438 


■70 


58 


450 


22 


486 


226 


134 


92 


26 


200 


226 


...... 


315 


194 


121 


36 


279 


315 




43 


25 


18 


37 


6 


32 




372 


306 


66 


51 


321 


189 


"isi 


169 


102 


67 


118 


51 


93 


76 


4,578 


4,313 


265 


161 


4,417 


738 


3,840 


28 


21 


" 


23 


5 


" 


21 


312 


257 


55 


34 


278 


52 


260 


619 


338 


281 


318 


301 


350 


269 


1,721 


1,074 


647 


350 


1,371 


719 


1,002 


92 


53 


39 


74 


18 


19 


73 


807 


693 


114 


82 


725 


56 


751 


1,450 


919 


531 


741 


709 


341 


1,109 


10,088 


8,779 


1,309 


881 


9,207 


817 


9,271 


230 


156 


74 


145 


85 


55 


175 


1,528 


1,269 


259 


174 


1,354 


169 


1,359 


865 


504 


361 


35 


830 


831 


34 


1,238 


696 


542 


54 


1,184 


1,182 


56 


5,250 


3,609 


1,641 


275 


4,975 


4,974 


276 


9,957 


7,206 


2,751 


625 


9,332 


8,235 


1,722 


1,206 


851 


355 


77 


1,129 


1,182 


24 


2,372 


1,707 


665 


178 


2,194 


2,173 


199 



124 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers departed from the United 



Line of vessels. 



North German Lloyd 



Norwegian American . . 



Panama 

Quebec Steamship Co . 



Red Cross 
RedD.... 

Red Star. 



Royal Dutch West In- 
dian Mail. 



Royal Mail Steam Pack- 
et Co. 



Russian American 

Scandinavian American 



Sicula Americana 

Spanish , 

Trinidad 

United Fruit Co. 



Uranium . . . 
White Star. 



Ports of departure and 
destination. 



From New York, N. Y. 
to — Continued. 

Bremen 

Cherbourg 

Genoa 

Gibraltar 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

Plymouth 

Algiers 

Bergen 

Christiania 

Christiansand 

Copenhagen 

Stavenger 

Panama 

Bermuda 

British Guiana 

British North America 
British West Indies . 
Danish West Indies. 
French West Indies. 
British North America 
Dutch West Indies... 

Venezuela 

Antwerp 

Dover 

Plymouth 

British Guiana 

British West Indies.. 

Dutch Guiana 

Dutch West Indies... 

Haiti 

Venezuela 

Cherbourg 

Southampton 

Bermuda 

British West Indies.. 

Colombia 

Cuba 

Panama 

Libau 

Rotterdam 

Christiana 

Christiansand 

Copenhagen 

Genoa 

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo 

Spain 

Cuba 

Mexico 

British West Indies . . 

British Honduras 

British West Indies. . 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Panama 

Rotterdam 

Cherbourg 

Genoa 

Gibraltar 

Liverpool 

Naples 

Plymouth 

Queenstown 

Southampton 



Aliens. 



Num- 
ber. 



Sex. 



Male. 



41,229 

999 

879 

56 

571 

9,537 

1,159 

908 

9 

2,824 

1,088 

437 

34 

352 

231 

1,585! 

76 

33 

519 

88 

27 

528 

105 

229 

22,612 

139 

33 

9 

109 

11 

12 

24 

13 

10 

105 

953 

434 

74 

105 

116 

12,883 

3,831 

3,140 

1,346 

3,430 

70 

411 

3,000 

1,130 

1,038 

136 

53 

277 

14 

333 

207 

94 

2 

146 

30 

488 

4,219 

4,697 

252 

28 

17,562 

3,474 

1,742 

4,726 

13, 156 



30,665 

603 

603 

42 

527 

8,663 

1,030 

628 

6 

1,536 

571 

226 

20 

242 

194 

807 

41 

15 

291 

35 

15 

319 

80 

161 

17,306 

75 

17 

6 

63 

9 

11 

13 

6 

4 

53 

495 

287 

46 

75 

84 

10,553 

3,29' 

1,480 

675 

1,696 

51 

369 

2,636 

854 

963 

96 

39 

173 

8 

195 

146 

61 

2 

95 

16 

355 

3, 

3,971 

18' 

22 

13,087 

3,145 

1,272 

1,642 

10,219 



Fe- 
male. 



10,564 

396 

276 

14 

44 

874 

129 

280 

3 

1,288 

517 

211 

14 

110 

37 

778 

35 

18 

228 

53 

12 

209 

25 

68 

5,306 

64 

16 

3 

46 

2 

1 

11 

7 

6 

52 

458 

147 

28 

30 

32 

2,330 

534 

1,660 

671 

1,734 

19 

42 

364 

276 

75 

40 

14 

104 

6 

138 

61 

33 



51 
14 

133 

531 

726 

65 

6 

4,475 

329 

470 

3,084 

2,93" 



Age. 



Under 

14 
years. 



1,358 
37 
30 



10 

227 

42 

14 



7 
6 
123 
4 
1 
32 
5 



23 
5 

16 

833 

3 



3 

5 

1 

5 

55 

36 

5 

9 

10 

585 

91 

100 

35 

128 

7 

5 

125 

54 

20 

13 

5 

42 

1 

12 

16 

4 



18 

2 

25 

122 

107 

6 

1 

705 

72 

60 

48 

457 



years 
and 



39, 871 

962 

849 

56 

561 

9,310 

1,117 

894 

9 

2,757 

1,034 

425 

34 

345 

225 

1,462 

72 

32 

48' 

83 

2' 

505 

100 

213 

21,779 

136 

33 

9 

100 

10 

12 

21 

8 

9 

100 

898 

398 

69 

96 

106 

12,298 

3,740 

3,040 

1,311 

3,302 

63 

406 

2,875 

1,076 

1,018 

123 

48 

235, 

13 

321 

191 

90 

2 

128 

28 

463 

4,097 

4,590 

246 

27 

16, 857 

3,402 

1,682 

4,678 

12, 699 



Class. 



Cabin. 



4,829 

999 

484 

41 

6 

840 

9 

90 

5 

434 

244 

29 

6 

25 

105 

1,585 

51 

33 

210 

49 

13 

528 

105 

229 

1,991 

139 

33 

9 

109 

11 

12 

24 

13 

10 

105 

953 

340 

74 

101 

112 

1,587 

374 

566 

102 

846 

14 

23 

137 

113 

143 

123 

53 

276 

14 

332 

207 

94 

2 

146 

30 

488 

177 

1,002 

79 

20 

5, 

413 

1,140 

685 

3,431 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 125 
States, fiscal year ended June SO, 1914 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 








14 
years 
and 
over. 












14 
years 
and 
over. 






ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer 
age. 


ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


19,022 


9,931 


9,091 


6,769 


12,253 


11,065 


7,957 


60, 251 


40,596 


19,655 


8,127 


52, 124 


15,894 


44,357 


4,009 


1,972 


2,037 


205 


3,804 


4,009 




5,008 


2,575 


2,433 


242 


4,766 


5,008 




1,323 


585 


738 


210 


1,113 


1,207 


iie 


2,202 


1,188 


1,014 


240 


1,962 


1,691 


511 


156 


73 


83 


9 


147 


156 




212 


115 


97 


9 


203 


197 


15 


46 


24 


22 


34 


12 




46 


617 


551 


66 


44 


573 


6 


611 


2,991 


1,529 


1,462 


809 


2,182 


2,6i9 


972 


12,528 


10, 192 


2,336 


1,036 


11,492 


2,859 


9,669 


142 


88 


54 


101 


41 


19 


123 


1,301 


1,118 


183 


143 


1,158 


116 


1,185 


3,010 


1,737 


1,273 


102 


2,908 


3,010 




3,918 


2,365 


1,553 


116 


3,802 


3,917 


1 


61 


29 


32 


5 


56 


61 




70 


35 


35 


5 


65 


66 


4 


3,062 


1,856 


1,206 


652 


2,410 


757 


2,305 


5,886 


3,392 


2,494 


719 


5,167 


1,191 


4,695 


1,280 


720 


560 


331 


949 


484 


796 


2,368 


1,291 


1,077 


385 


1,983 


728 


1,640 


285 


169 


116 


128 


157 


28 


257 


722 


395 


327 


140 


582 


57 


665 


34 


14 


20 


15 


19 


6 


28 


68 


34 


34 


15 


53 


12 


56 


460 


290 


170 


101 


359 


76 


384 


812 


532 


280 


108 


704 


101 


711 


4,731 


3,153 


1,578 


576 


4,155 


4,463 


268 


4,962 


3,347 


1,615 


582 


4,380 


4,568 


394 


7,493 


3,301 


4,192 


268 


7,225 


7,493 




9,078 


4,108 


4,970 


391 


8,687 


9,078 




59 


35 


24 


5 


54 


53 


6 


135 


76 


59 


9 


126 


104 


31 


474 


228 


246 


25 


449 


474 




507 


243 


264 


26 


481 


507 




270 


154 


116 


86 


184 


201 


69 


789 


445 


344 


118 


671 


411 


378 


47 


26 


21 


19 


28 


30 


17 


135 


61 


74 


24 


111 


79 


56 


10 


6 


4 




10 


9 


1 


37 


21 


16 




37 


22 


15 


1,844 


953 


891 


94 


1,750 


1,844 




2,372 


1,272 


1,100 


117 


2,255 


2,372 




57 


47 


10 


2 


55 


57 




162 


127 


35 


/ 


155 


162 




114 


85 


29 


8 


106 


114 




343 


246 


97 


24 


319 


343 




7,656 


3,871 


3,785 


3,315 


4,341 


4,082 


3,574 


30,268 


21,177 


9,091 


4,148 


26, 120 


6,073 


24,195 


393 


171 


222 


34 


359 


393 




532 


246 


286 


37 


495 


532 




48 


23 


25 


5 


43 


48 




81 


40 


41 


5 


76 


81 




21 


17 


4 


2 


19 


21 




30 


23 


7 


2 


28 


30 




94 


66 


28 


15 


79 


94 




203 


129 


74 


24 


179 


203 




22 


17 


5 




22 


22 




33 


26 


7 


1 


32 


33 




3 
9 
2 


3 
9 






3 
9 

1 


3 
9 
2 




15 
33 
15 


14 

22 
6 


1 

11 
9 


3 

6 


15 
30 
9 


15 
33 
15 










2 


1 




25 


7 


18 




25 


25 




35 


11 


24 


1 


34 


35 




169 


77 


92 


8 


161 


169 




274 


130 


144 


13 


261 


274 




10,405 


4,511 


5,894 


295 


10,110 


10,405 




11,358 


5,006 


6,352 


350 


11,008 


11,358 




261 


161 


100 


25 


236 


259 


2 


695 


448 


247 


61 


634 


599 


96 


57 


38 


19 


9 


48 


57 




131 


84 


47 


14 


117 


131 




380 


239 


141 


57 


323 


379 


1 


485 


314 


171 


66 


419 


480 


5 


166 


116 


50 


10 


156 


. 161 


5 


282 


200 


82 


20 


262 


273 


9 


1,699 


870 


829 


1,556 


143 


587 


1,112 


14,582 


11, 423 


3,159 


2,141 


12,441 


2,174 


12,408 


456 


231 


225 


296 


160 


211 


245 


4,287 


3,528 


759 


387 


3,900 


585 


3,702 


2,795 


1,369 


1,426 


966 


1,829 


802 


1,993 


5,935 


2,849 


3,086 


1,066 


4,869 


1,368 


4,567 


1,029 


538 


491 


434 


595 


162 


867 


2,375 


1,213 


1,162 


469 


1,906 


264 


2,111 


3,311 


1,683 


1,628 


1,047 


2,264 


1,182 


2,129 


6,741 


3,379 


3,362 


1,175 


5,566 


2,028 


4,713 


14 


8 


6 


11 


3 


6 


8 


84 


59 


25 


18 


66 


20 


64 


59 


33 


26 


38 


21 


13 


46 


470 


402 


68 


43 


427 


36 


434 


361 


212 


149 


264 


97 


89 


272 


3,361 


2,848 


513 


389 


2,972 


226 


3,135 


285 


164 


121 


242 


43 


55 


230 


1,415 


1,018 


397 


296 


1,119 


168 


1,247 


63 


31 


32 


32 


31 


40 


23 


1,101 


994 


107 


52 


1,049 


183 


918 


24 


11 


13 


5 


19 


24 




160 


107 


53 


18 


142 


147 


13 


2 


2 






2 


1 


1 


55 


41 


14 


5 


50 


54 


1 


214 


153 


61 


27 


187 


214 


491 


326 


165 


69 


422 


490 


1 


5 


1 


4 




5 


5 


19 


9 


10 


1 


18 


19 




1,178 


677 


501 


40 


1,138 


1,178' 


1,511 


872 


639 


52 


1,459 


1,510 


i 


277 


197 


80 


8 


269 


2771 


484 


343 


141 


24 


460 


484 




207 


136 


71 


3 


204 


207 


301 


197 


104 


/ 


294 


301 




83 


46 


37 


1 


82 


83' 


85 


48 


37 


1 


84 


85 




92 


59 


33 


2 


90 


92 


238 


154 


84 


20 


218 


238 




39 


33 


6 




39 


39 


69 


49 


20 


2 


67 


69 




1,334 


940 


394 


38 


1,296 


1,334 


1,822 


1,295 


527 


63 


1,759 


1,822 




498 


252 


246 


282 


216 


1921 306 


4,717 


3,940 


777 


404 


4,313 


369 


4,348 


3,321 


1,893 


1,428 


504 


2,817 


2,647 674 


8,018 


5,864 


2,154 


611 


7,407 


3,649 


4,369 


272 


107 


165 


50 


222 


2371 35 


524 


294 


230 


56 


468 


316 


208 


44 


17 


27 


1 


43 


41 3 


72 


39 


33 


2 


70 


61 


11 


9,932 


5,379 


4,553 


1,597 


8,335 


7,178! 2,754 


27, 494 


18, 466 


9,028 


2,302 


25,192 


12,864 


14,630 


1,107 


501 


606 


225 


882 


898 209 


4,581 


3,646 


935 


297 


4,284 


1,311 


3,270 


2,006 


1,188 


818 


202 


1,804 


1, 7721 234 


3,748 


2,460 


1,288 


262 


3,486 


2,912 


836 


3,984 


2,058 


1,926 


1,070 


2,914 


1,472 2,512 


8,710 


3, 700 


5,010 


1,118 


7,592 


2,157 


6,553 


7,121 


4,231 


2,890 


1,097 


6,024 


4,527 


2,594 


20,277 


14,450 


5,827 


1,554 


18,723 


7,958 


12,319 



126 REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 


Line of vessels. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


White Star— Contd. 


From New York. N. Y., 
to— Continued. 
Alexandria 


117 
12 

45 

77 


78 

8 

20 

42 


39 

4 

25 

35 


6 

3 

6 


Ill 
12 
42 
71 


55 

7 
28 
72 


62 
5 

17 
5 
















Total, New York.... 

From Philadelphia, Pa., 
to— 
Glasgow 




444,274 


346, 129 


98, 145 


15,203 


429, 071 


86, 795 


357,479 


Allan 


49 

76 

2,909 

423 

1,092 

26 

157 

2,475 

115 

34 

79 

1,111 

40 

17 

60 

526 

42 

28 

59 

1,207 

64 

62 

43 

1 


29 

45 

1,952 

102 

731 
24 

143 
2,290 

108 
23 
67 

992 
35 
12 
58 

478 
39 
18 
54 
1,128 
57 
31 
26 
1 


20 

31 

957 

321 

361 

2 

14 

185 

7 

11 

12 

119 

5 

5 

2 

48 

3 

10 

5 

79 

7 

31 

17 


2 

6 

222 

59 

2 

49 

i 

5 

36 
1 

2 

10 

i 

21 
2 
2 


47 

70 

2,687 

423 

1,033 

26 

155 

2,426 

115 

33 

74 

1,075 

39 

17 

58 

516 

42 

28 

58 

1,186 

62 

60 

43 

1 


21 
43 

651 
62 

187 

5 

67 
7 
9 
1 

31 

io 

22 

io 

2 
33 

62 

43 


28 

33 

2,258 

361 

905 

26! 

152 

2,408! 

108; 

25 

78 

1,080 

40 

7 

60 

504 

42 

18 

57 

1,174 

64 

i 




British North America 
Liverpool 






Hamburg American 

Italia 
















Palermo 












Naples 




Palermo 


Llovd Italiana 


Genoa 




Messina 




Naples 






Navigazione Generale 
Italiana. 


Genoa 






Naples 






Red Star 




United Fruit 


British West Indies . . . 
Do 






Total Philadelphia.. 

From Portland, Me., to— 
Glasgow 








10, 695 


8,443 


2,252 


421 


10, 274 


1,266 


9,429 


AUau 


1,180 

763 

1,299 

3,117 


930 

615 

921 

2,575 


250 
148 
378 
542 


77 

64 

150 

208 


1,103 

699 

1,149 

2,909 


258 
180 
434 
605 


922 

583 

865 

2,512 








London 




Liverpool 




Total Portland, Me.. 

From Porto Rico to— 
France 




6,359 


5,041 


1,318 


499 


5,860 


1.477 


4.882 


Compagnie Generale 
Transatlantique. 


69 

49 

68 

64 

63 

7 

309 

55 

38 

449 

264 

30 

6 

9 

3 

26 

205 

3 

537 


48 

37 

46 

39 

36 

2 

189 

40 

25 

332 

189 

17 

6 

6 

1 

20 

108 

2 

320 


21 
12 
22 
25 
27 
5 

120 
15 
13 

117 
75 
13 


'I 

15 

11 

8 

1 

38 

5 

3 

37 

23 

8 


57 

43 

53 

53 

55 

6 

271 

50 

35 

412 

241 

22 

6 

9 

3 

24 

178 

2 

475 


46 

43 

43 

41 

11 

7 

197 

31 

14 

345 

167 

17 

4 

8 

3 

20 

127 

3 

303 


23 
6 
25 
23 
52 

""'ii2 

24 
24 
104 
97 
13 
2 
1 

6 

78 

""'234 


Spain 


Cuba 




Danish West Indies. . . 
French West Indies.. . 
Haiti 


Compagnie Generale 
Transatlantique de 


Santo Domingo 




Spain 




Cuba 




Mexico 




Panama 


Donald . 


Santo Domingo 


3 
2 
6 
97 
1 
217 


2 

27 

1 

62 


Hamburg American 


British West Indies . . . 
Danish West Indies... 
Haiti 




Santo Domingo 


Herrera 


Cuba 


220 
321 
66 
7 
120 
250 


159 
234 

48 

6 

87 

170 


61 

87 
18 
1 
33 
80 


21 

25 
26 

2 

25 


199 
296 
40 
7 
118 
225 


150 
165 
57 
7 
108 
196 


70 
156 

9 

12 

54| 


Pinillos 


Santo Domingo 

Spaia 




Cuba 


Red D 


Dutch West Indies 

Venezuela.. 





BEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 127 
States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 








14 

years 
and 
over. 












14 
years 
"and 
over. 






ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


394 


168 


226 


20 


374 


374 


20 


511 


246 


265 


26 


485 


429 


82 


79 


33 


46 


3 


76 


79 




91 


41 


5C 


3 


88 


86 


5 


97 


40 


57 


7 


90 


93 


4 


142 


6C 


82 


10 


132 


121 


21 


27 


19 


8 


2 


25 


27 




104 


61 


43 


8 


96 


99 


5 


234, 991 


126, 248 


108, 743 


56, 096 


178, 895 


159,056 


75, 935 


679,265 


472,377 


206,888 


71,299 


607,966 


245,851 


433,414 


24 


16 


8 


9 


15 


17 


7 


73 


45 


28 


11 


62 


38 


35 


42 


26 


16 


17 


25 


33 


S 


118 


71 


47 


23 


95 


76 


42 


1,436 


580 


856 


372 


1,064 


982 


454 


4,345 


2,532 


1,813 


594 


3,751 


1,633 


2,712 


342 


152 


190 


73 


269 


166 


176 


765 


254 


511 


73 


692 


228 


537 


891 


356 


535 


168 


723 


726 


165 


1,983 


1,087 


896 


227 


1,756 


913 


1,070 


5 


3 


2 


4 


1 




5 


31 


27 


4 


4 


27 




31 


18 


8 


10 


15 


3 




18 


175 


151 


24 


17 


158 


5 


170 


179 


92 


87 


156 


23 


13 


166 


2,654 


2,382 


272 


205 


2,449 


80 


2,574 


8 


5 


3 


7 


1 


1 


7 


123 


113 


10 


7 


116 


8 


115 


10 


6 


4 


6 


4 


4 


6 


44 


29 


15 


7 


37 


13 


31 


6 
99 


2 
56 


4 
43 


6 
90 






6 
89 


85 
1,210 


69 
1,048 


16 
162 


11 
126 


74 
1,084 


1 
41 


84 


9 


10 


1,169 


2 
3 


1 
3 


1 


2 
3 






2 


42 
20 


36 
15 


6 
5 


3 
3 


39 
17 


is 


42 




3 


7 


3 
64 


2 
30 


1 
34 


3 

41 






3 
36 


63 
590 


60 
508 


3 

82 


5 
51 


58 
539 


50 


63 


23 


28 


540 


3 
5 


1 
4 


2 
1 


3 
5 






3 

2 


45 
33 


40 
22 


5 
11 


3 
5 


42 

28 


n 


45 




3 


20 


10 


7 


3 


9 


1 


4 


6 


69 


61 


8 


10 


59 


6 


63 


88 


50 


38 


81 


7 


5 


83 


1,295 


1,178 


117 


102 


1,193 


38 


1,257 


4 
334 


1 
113 


3 
221 


4 
23 






4 


68 
396 


58 
144 


10 
252 


6 
25 


62 
371 


""396 


68 


311 


334 




229 


127 


102 


8 


221 


229 




272 


153 


119 


8 


264 


272 




1 




1 




1 


1 




2 


1 


1 




2 


1 


1 


3,806 


1,641 


2,165 


1,105 


2,701 


2,559 


1,247 


14,501 


10,084 


4,417 


1,526 


12,975 


3,825 


10,676 


32 


20 


12 


10 


22 


19 


13 


1,212 


950 


262 


87 


1,125 


277 


935 


15 


9 


6 


2 


13 


13 


2 


778 


624 


154 


66 


712 


193 


585 


227 


141 


86 


18 


209 


113 


114 


1,526 


1,062 


464 


168 


1,358 


547 


979 


119 


63 


56 


19 


100 


54 


65 


3,236 


2,638 


598 


227 


3,009 


659 


2,577 


393 


233 


160 


49 


344 


199 


194 


6,752 


5,274 


1,478 


548 


6,204 


1,676 


5,076 


11 


5 


6 


3 


8 


10 


1 


80 


53 


27 


15 


65 


56 


24 


5 


3 


2 




5 


5 




54 


40 


14 


6 


48 


48 


6 


37 


23 


14 


8 


29 


15 


22 


105 


69 


36 


23 


82 


58 


47 


23 


16 


7 


6 


17 


22 


1 


87 


55 


32 


17 


70 


63 


24 


10 


4 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


73 


40 


33 


13 


60 


16 


57 


1 

849 


1 
538 






1 
688 


""405 


1 
444 


8 
1,158 


3 

727 


5 
431 


1 

199 


7 
959 


7 
602 


1 


311 


161 


556 


12 


9 


3 


3 


9 


8 


4 


67 


49 


18 


8 


59 


39 


28 


16 


/ 


9 


9 


7 


12 


4 


54 


32 


22 


12 


42 


26 


28 


230 


111 


119 


97 


133 


210 


20 


679 


443 


236 


134 


545 


555 


124 


149 


105 


44 


19 


130 


97 


52 


413 


294 


119 


42 


371 


264 


149 


5 


3 


2 




5 


3 


2 


35 


20 


15 


8 


27 


20 


15 


7 


5 


2 




7 


7 




13 


11 


2 




13 


11 


2 


191 


158 


33 


IS 


173 


49 


142 


200 


164 


36 


18 


182 


57 


143 


3 


2 


1 


2 


1 


3 




6 


3 


3 


2 


4 


6 




33 


26 


7 


1 


32 


32 


1 


59 


46 


13 


3 


56 


52 


7 


73 


49 


24 


26 


47 


56 


17 


278 


157 


121 


53 


225 


183 


95 


3 
378 


3 
239 






3 
342 


3 
153 


""225 


6 
915 


5 
559 


1 

356 


1 
98 


5 

817 


6 
456 




139 


36 


459 


70 


42 


28 


29 


41 


1 


69 


70 


42 


28 


29 


41 


1 


69 


658 


417 


241 


156 


502 


174 


484 


878 


576 


302 


177 


701 


324 


554 


1,129 


761 


368 


201 


928 


235 


894 


1,450 


995 


455 


226 


1,224 


400 


1,050 


37 


15 


22 


17 


20 


30 


7 


103 


63 


40 


43 


60 


87 


16 


31 


20 


11 


8 


23 


17 


14 


38 


26 


12 


8 


30 


24 


14 


50 


27 


23 


/ 


43 


42 


8 


170 


114 


56 


9 


161 


150 


20 


169 


126 


43 


22 


147 


135 


34 


419 


296 


123 


47 


372 


33 li 


88 



128 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers departed from the United 





Ports of departure and 
destination. 


Aliens. 




Num- 
ber. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


14 
years 
and 
over. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


Sailing vessels 


From Porto Rico to— Con. 

British West Indies... 
Danish "West Indies... 
Dutch West Indies 

Total Porto Rico 

From Providence, R. I., 
to— 
Lisbon 


7 
17 
10 


7 
10 
10 






7 

16 
10 


6 
10 
2 


1 
7 
8 




7 


1 










3,272 


2,194 


1,078 


359 


2,913 


2,131 


1,141 

508 

19 

1,041 

635 


Fabre 


521 

24 

1,062 

685 


464 

20 

943 

436 


57 

4 

119 

249 


19 

2 

17 

49 


502 

22 

1,045 

636 


13 

5 

21 

50 




Marseille. .. 




Naples 




Azores 




Total Providence 

From San Francisco to — 
Panama 




2,292 


1,863 


429 


87 


2,205 


89 


2,203 

""i26 

3 

9 

1,599 

82 

32 

2 

560 

2 

14 

1 

138 

4 

21 

44 

21 

712 

172 

52 

4 

1,504 

215 

139 

60 


Aroltae 


2 

1 

2 

5 

11 

471 

7 

46 

1,755 

94 

51 

26 

978 

6 

62 

2 

299 

10 

39 

91 

57 

847 

193 

56 

67 

2,604 

501 

330 

197 


2 

i 

2 

1 

332 

5 

33 

1,704 

82 

40 

15 

885 

4 

41 

""216 

6 

31 

72 

43 

810 

164 

45 

44 

2,228 

366 

235 

134 






2 
1 
2 

5 

11 

453 

7 

42 

1,737 

94 

51 

23 

965 

3 

49 

2 

277 

10 

34 

89 

51 

840 

192 

54 

56 

2,594 

479 

305 

173 


2 

1 

2 

5 

11 

351 

4 

37 

156 

12 

19 

24 

418 

4 

48 

1 

161 

6 

18 

47 

36 

135 

'\ 
63 
1,100 
286 
191 
137 


New York and Pacific.. 


Chile 


1 

1 

3 

10 

139 

2 

13 

51 

12 

11 

11 

93 

2 

21 

2 

83 

4 

8 

19 

14 

37 

29 

11 

23 

376 

135 

95 

63 


is 

4 

18 

3 

13 
3 
13 

22 

5 

i 

7 
1 
2 
11 
10 
22 
25 
24 




Panama 




Peru 




San Salvador 








New Zealand 


I'acific Mail 


Pacific Islands 

Hongkong 




Kobe 




Nagasaki 




Shanghai.. .. 




Yokohama 




Costa Rica 




Guatemala 




Honduras 




Mexico 




Nicaragua 




Panama 




Peru 




San Salvador 


Yoyo Kisen Kaisha 


Hongkong 

Kobe 

Nagasaki 


Union 


Shanghai 

Yokohama 

Australia 

New Zealand 






Pacific Islands 

Total San Francisco. 
From Seattle, Wash., to — 




8,810 


7,541 


1,269 


209 


8,601 


3,300 


5,510 


Blue Funnel 


519 

75 

6 

3 

2 

8 

85 

668 

26 

40 

906 

55 

340 

10 

22 

329 


517 

72 

5 

1 

2 

7 

74 

569 

18 

30 

815 

55 

296 

7 

21 

307 


2 
3 

1 
2 




519 

75 

6 

3 

2 

8 

83 

661 

25 

33 

904 

55 

340 

10 

22 

327 


38 

2 

2 

3 

29 
100 

27 

296 

1 

15 

1 

2 

13 


519 

37 

4 

3 

5 

56 

568 
26 
13 

610 
54 

325 

9 

20 

316 


Great Northern 






Kobe 




Nagasaki 




Shanghai 




Yokohama 


1 

11 
99 

8 
10 
91 


2 

7 
1 
7 
2 


Nippon Yusen Kaisha. . 


Hongkong 




Kobe 




Moji 




Shanghai 






Osaka Shosen Kaisha. . . 


Hongkong 




Kobe 


44 
3 
1 

22 


2 




Moji 




Nagasaki. . . . 




Yokohama 




Total Seattle 

From Tampa, Fla., to— 
Honduras 




3,094 


2,796 


298 


21 


3,073 


529 


2,565 


Sailing vessels 


11 


5 


6 


3 


' 


' 


8 







REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMICRATION, 129 
States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 — Continued. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 








14 
years 
and 
over. 












14 
years 
and 
over. 






ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


18 


8 


10 


6 


12 


10 


8 


25 


15 


10 


6 


19 


16 


9 


15 


13 


2 


1 


14 


12 


3 


32 


23 


9 


2 


30 


22 


10 


2 


2 






2 


2 




12 


12 






12 


4 


8 












4,215 


2,738 


1,477 


841 


3,374 


1,753 


2,462 


7,487 


4,932 


2,555 


1,200 


6,287 


3,884 


3,603 


111 


94 


17 


38 


73 


10 


101 


632 


558 


74 


57 


575 


23 


609 


15 


7 


8 


1 


14 


13 


2 


39 


27 


12 


3 


36 


18 


21 


131 


69 


62 


109 


22 


18 


113 


1,193 


1,012 


181 


126 


1,067 


39 


1,154 


281 


163 


118 


162 


119 


48 


233 


966 


599 


367 


211 


755 


98 


868 


538 


333 


205 


310 


228 


89 


449 


2,830 


2,196 


634 


397 


2,433 


178 


2,652 


10 


7 


3 




10 


10 




12 


9 


3 




12 


12 




3 


2 


1 




3 


3 




4 


2 


2 




4 


4 




16 


5 


11 


2 


14 


16 




18 


6 


12 


2 


16 


18 




29 


17 


12 


4 


25 


27 


2 


34 


19 


15 


4 


30 


32 


2 


5 


4 


1 


1 


4 


5 




16 


5 


11 


1 


15 


16 




718 


479 


239 


53 


665 


633 


85 


1,189 


811 


378 


71 


1,118 


984 


205 


10 


7 


3 




10 


8 


2 


17 


12 


5 




17 


12 


5 


125 


104 


21 


7 


118 


117 


8 


171 


137 


34 


11 


160 


154 


17 


1,538 


1,085 


453 


89 


1,449 


838 


700 


3,293 


2,789 


504 


107 


3,186 


994 


2,299 


141 


65 


76 


44 


97 


132 


9 


235 


147 


88 


44 


191 


144 


91 


67 


42 


25 


2C 


47 


64 


3 


118 


82 


36 


20 


98 


83 


35 


154 


69 


85 


24 


130 


154 




180 


84 


96 


27 


153 


178 


2 


415 


239 


176 


108 


307 


357 


58 


1,393 


1,124 


269 


121 


1,272 


775 


618 


6 


4 


2 


2 


4 


3 


3 


12 


8 


4 


5 


7 


7 


5 


46 


33 


13 


6 


40 


34 


12 


108 


74 


34 


19 


89 


82 


26 


13 


9 


4 


2 


11 


13 




15 


9 


6 


2 


13 


14 


1 


279 


217 


62 


25 


254 


244 


35 


578 


433 


145 


47 


531 


405 


173 


39 


29 


10 


5 


34 


32 


7 


49 


35 


14 


5 


44 


38 


11 


60 


34 


26 


5 


55 


53 


7 


99 


65 


34 


10 


89 


71 


28 


220 


160 


60 


20 


200 


161 


59 


311 


232 


79 


22 


289 


208 


103 


34 


25 


9 




34 


31 


3 


91 


68 


23 


6 


85 


67 


24 


744 


440 


304 


61 


683 


537 


207 


1,591 


1,^50 


341 


68 


1,523 


672 


919 


90 


43 


47 


51 


39 


47 


43 


283 


207 


76 


52 


231 


68 


215 


46 


24 


22 


26 


20 


29 


17 


102 


69 


33 


28 


74 


33 


69 


235 


119 


116 


47 


188 


232 


.3 


302 


163 


139 


58 


244 


295 


7 


681 


375 


306 


424 


257 


529 


152 


3,285 


2,603 


682 


434 


2,851 


1,629 


l,a56 


336 


237 


99 


42 


294 


253 


83 


837 


603 


234 


64 


773 


539 


298 


99 


60 


39 


28 


71 


68 


31 


429 


295 


134 


53 


376 


259 


170 


144 


103 


41 


8 


136 


109 


35 


341 


237 


104 


32 


309 


246 


95 


6,303 


4,037 


2,266 


1,104 


5,199 


4,739 


1,564 


15, 113 


11,578 


3,535 


1,313 


13,800 


8,039 


7,074 


94 


93 


1 


7 


87 


2 


92 


613 


610 


3 


7 


606 


2 


611 


267 


148 


119 


8 


259 


166 


101 


342 


220 


122 


8 


334 


204 


138 


49 


28 


21 


13 


36 


49 




55 


33 


22 


13 


42 


51 


4 


13 


4 


9 


11 


2 


2 


11 


16 


5 


11 


11 


5 


2 


14 


2 


1 


1 




2 


2 




4 


3 


1 




4 


4 




17 


9 


8 


2 


15 


16 


1 


25 


16 


9 


2 


23 


19 


6 


103 


56 


47 


8 


95 


76 


27 


188 


130 


58 


10 


178 


105 


83 


120 


63 


57 


84 


36 


45 


76 


788 


632 


156 


91 


697 


145 


643 


20 


7 


13 


10 


10 


15 


5 


46 


25 


21 


11 


35 


15 


31 


97 


42 


55 


20 


77 


88 


9 


137 


72 


65 


27 


110 


115 


22 


140 


67 


73 


65 


75 


93 


47 


1,046 


882 


164 


67 


979 


389 


657 


9 
49 


9 
25 






9 
12 


1 
6 


8 
43 


64 
389 


64 
321 






64 
352 


2 
21 


62 


24 


37 


68 


37 


368 


8 


3 


5 


2 


6 


2 


6 


18 


10 


8 


2 


16 


3 


15 
















22 
365 


21 
328 


1 
37 


23 


22 
342 


2 
21 


20 


36 


21 


15 


21 


15 


8 


28 


344 


1,024 


576 


448 


288 


736 


571 


453 


4,118 


3,372 


746 


309 


3,809 


1,100 


3,018 


3 


3 






3 


2 


1 


'' 


8 


6 


3 


" 


' 


9 









60629°— 15 9 



130 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIII. — Passengers departed from the United 
RECAPITULATION. 



Ports of departure and means of transportation. 



Aliens. 



Num- 
ber. 



Sex. 



Male. 



Fe- 
male. 



Age. 



Under 
14 

years. 



14 

years 
and 
over. 



Class. 



Cabin 



Steer- 
age. 



Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Brunswick, Ga 

Canada ( Atlantic seaports) 

Canadian border stations 

Canada ( Pacific seaports) 

Galveston, Tex 

Honolulu , Hawaii 

Key West, Fla 

Mexican border stations 

Miama, Fla 

Mobile, Ala 

New Bedford, Mass 

New Orleans, La 

Newport News, Va 

New York, N. Y 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Portland, Me 

Porto Rico 

Providence, R.I 

San Francisco, Cal 

Seattle, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Total 

Steamships 

■ Sailing vessels 

By land 

BY YEARS. 

1910 380, 418 

1911 518, 215 

1912 615, 292 

1913 611, 924 

1914 - 633, 805 



2,813 
25,71 
1 
9,187 

93,888 
1,844 
1,067 
3,861 
6,93' 
2,698 

2,r 

81 

449 

3,568 

1 

444,274 

10, 095 

6,359 

3, 272 

2,292 

8,810 

3,094 

11 



2,234 
16,902! 

II 

7,212 

65, 146. 

1,620' 

835 

2, 8031 

5,090 

2,252; 

2, 152) 

551 

404; 

2,547 



579 

8,815 



98 
1,.375 



346, m 
8,443i 
5,04l| 
2, 1941 
1,863 1 
7,541 
2,796 
5 



633,805 



483,265 



538, 577 

1,340 

93, 888 



417, 162 

957 

65,146 



1,975 

28,742 

224 

232 

1,058 

1,847 

446 

734 

26 

45 

1,021 

1 

98, 14,5 

2,252 

1,318 

1,078 

429 

1,269 

298 

6 



553 

11,451 

35 

48 

139 

711 

194 

167 

9 

11 

322 



150,540 



121,415 

383 

28, 742 



279, 896 100, 522 
400,294 117,921 
480,7321.34,560 
477,769|134,]55 
483,265150,540 



15, 203 
421 
499 
359 
87 
209 
21 
3 



2,715 

24,342 

1 

8,634 

82, 43' 

1,801 

1,019 

3,722 

6,226 

2,504 

2,719 

72 

438 

3,246 

1 

429,071 

10, 274 

5,860 

2,913 

2,205 

8,601 

3,073 



238 

5,608 

1 

1,563 

93,888 

659 

225 

586 

2,935 

1,243 

673 

81 



2,575 
20,109 



7,624 



1,185 
842 
3,275 
4,002 
1,455 
2,213 



2,612 
1 
86, 795 
1,266 
1,4 
2,131 

3,300 

529 

3 



449 
956 



357, 479 
9,429 
4,882 
1,141 
2,203 
5,510 
2,565 



31,915 601,890 



205, 903 



427,902 



20, 343 

121 

11,451 



22,942 
27, 175 
28,593 
30,368 
31,915 



518,234 

1,219 

82, 437 



111,445 
570 

93,888 



427, 132 
770 



357, 476 
491,040 
586, 699 
581,556 
601,890 



141,789 238,629 
172,485 345,730 
188,550 426,742 
230,496!381,428 
205, 9031427, 902| 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



131 



States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 — Continued. 

RECAPITULATION. 



Citizens. 


Total. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 


Num- 


Sex. 


Age. 


Class. 








14 

years 
and 
over. 












14 
years 
and 
over. 






ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age. 


ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Under 

14 
years. 


Cabin 


Steer- 
age. 


1,852 


838 


1,014 


371 


1,481 


1,315 


537 


4,665 


3,072 


1,593 


469 


4,196 


1,553 


3,112 


16, 101 


8,460 


7,64] 


3,651 


12,450 


10,741 


5,360 


41, 818 


25,362 


16,456j 5,026 


36,792 


16,349 


25, 469 


13 


g 


5 




la 


13 




14 


9 


5 




14 


14 




4,495 


2,187 


2,308 


696 


3,799 


3,650 


845 


13,682 


9,399 


4,283 


1,249 


12, 433 


5.213 


8,469 


68,597 


46,309 


22,28J 


14, 756 


.53,841 


68, 597 




162,485 


111,455 


51,030 


26, 207 


136, 278 


162, 485 




892 


609 


283 


90; 802 


567 


325 


2,736 


2,229 


507 


125 


2,611 


1,226 


1,510 


1,072 


566 


506 


207 


865 


629 


443 


2,139 


1,401 


738 


255 


1,884 


854 


1,285 


2,029 


1,077 


952 


1,113 


916 


835 


1,194 


5, 890 


3,88( 


2,010 


1,252 


4,638 


1,421 


4,469 


12,695 


7,977 


4,718 


797 


11,898 


12,011 


684 


19,632 


13,067 


6,565 


1,508 


18, 124 


14,946 


4,686 


730 


572 


158 


64 


666 


720 


10 


3,428 


2,82^ 


604 


258 


3,170 


1,963 


1,465 


1,060 


568 


492 


143 


917 


852 


208 


3,946 


2,720 


1,226 


310 


3,636 


1,525 


2,421 


156 


83 


73 


16 


140 


156 




237 


138 


99 


25 


212 


237 




8 


5 


3 


7 


1 




8 


457 


409 


48 


18 


439 




457 


7,820 


5,282 


2,538 


716 


7,104 


7,52i 


299 


11,388 


7,829 


3,559 


1,038 


10,350 


10, 133 


1,255 


4 


3 


1 




4 


4 




5 


S 


2 




5 


5 




234,991 


126, 248 


108,743 


56,096178,895 


159,056 


75, 935 


679,265 


472,377 


206,888 


71,299 


607,966 


245,851 


433,414 


3,806 


1,641 


2,165 


1, 105: 2, 701 


2,559 


1,247 


14,501 


10,084 


4,417 


1,526 


12,975 


3,825 


10,676 


393 


233 


160 


49 344 


199 


194 


6,752 


5,274 


1,478 


548 


6,204 


1,676 


5,076 


4,215 


2,738 


1,477 


84ll 3,374 


1,753 


2,462 


7,487 


4,932 


2,555 


1,200 


6,287 


3,884 


3,603 


538 


333 


205 


310 


228 


89 


449 


2,830 


2,196 


634 


397 


2,433 


178 


2,652 


6,303 


4,037 


2,266 


1,104 


5,199 


4,739 


1,564 


15,113 


11,578 


3,535 


1,313 


13,800 


8,039 


7,074 


1,024 


576 


448 


288 


736 


571 


4.53 


4,118 


3,372 


746 


309 


3,809 


1,100 


3,018 


3 


3 






3 


2 


I 


14 


8 


6 


3 


11 


5 


a 










368, 797 


210,353 


158,444 


82, 420 


286,377 


276,579 92,218 


1,002,602 


693, 618 


308,984 


114,335 


888,267 


482, 482 520, 120 


300,039 


163,938136,101 


67,616 


232, 423 


207,855 92,184 


838,616 


581, 100 


257,516 


87,959 750,657 


319,300 519.316 


161 


106 55 


48 


113 


127 


34 


1,501 


1,063 


438 


169 


1,332 


697 


804 


68, 597 


46,309 22,288 


14,756 


53,841 


68, 597 




162, 485 


111,455 


51, 030 


26, 207 


136, 278 


162,485 




342, 600|201, 950 140,650 


57,847 


284,753 


254,251 


88,349 


723, 018 


481,846 


241, 172 


80, 789 


642, 229 


396,040 


326,978 


349,471^211,644 137,827 


69, 717 


279, 754 


263,585 


85,886 


867, 686 


611,938 


255, 748 


96,892 


770, 794 


436,070 


431.616 


353,890 208,666145,224 


74, 117 


279, 773 


275, 149 


78,741 


969, 182 


689,398 


279,784 


102,710 


866, 472 


463,699 505,483 


347, 702 204, 568 143, 134 


71,646 


276,056 


278, 782 


68,920 


959,626 


682,337 


277, 289 


102, 014 


857,612 


509,278 450,348 


368, 797 210, 353 158, 444 82, 4201286, 377 


276, 579 92, 218 


1,002,602 


693,618 


308,984 114,335 


888, 267 


482,482.520,120 

1 



132 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONEE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXIV. — Alien arrivals from insular United States, by ports, 1908 to 1914, 

inclusive. 



Port. 


Num- 
ber. 


Year of arrival. 


From 
Hawaii. 


-From 
Porto 
Rico. 


From 
Philip- 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


pme 
Islands. 


New York 


3,910 

37 

3 

10, 740 

631 

191 


440 


423 
2 


579 
2 


616 
3 


548 
7 


610 
11 
3 

2,268 
460 
59 


694 
12 




3,910 

37 

3 




New Orleans . 




Galveston 




San FrancLsco 


912 
6 


896 

7 


1,591 
17 
9 


1,076 
28 
63 


1,402 
99 
24 


2,595 
14 
36 


10,682 
80 
186 


58 


Seattle 


551 
5 


Total 










15, 512 


1,358 


1,328 2,198 


1,786 


2,080 


3,411 


3,351 


10,948 


3,950 


614 



BEPOKT OF COMMISSIONEK GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 133 



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EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



135 



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o i---_2_2 ?° ° 5 ~ S S aa^i^ci-^^ 
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136 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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en '«^ 
J ^ 



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^ 8 



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a M 



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REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 



137 



1 

& 


CO rt .MOt^ -^t^ ^(Mrtin ^-fl! ococo t-:.-ico cou- 
'^'-^ cf -< co" 




3 


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CS CM rt t^cOCOrt^cOCO — CDCO-HCO r-tOO oooooicoiNri coS 

CO IM-r .-H^T-I rH .1 i-l CO rt 


CO 
CO 




CO 


j-'^s 


-(T-lOO 

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T-HOlTtiCOCOUICOt^ 
lOCO CO <-t 




t^ 




CD 


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CD 


Irtrt coco 

;COCO^^ 


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gas 


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other 
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Amer- 
ica. 


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CMrt 










CO 


British 
North 
Amer- 
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100 W—lT-C 










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f-l C0>O 


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Islands, 
not 
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fied. 


















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r^ 


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Aus- 
tralia, 
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mania, 
and 
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CD -^ CO CO 




cD-a<<N 

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05 


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c 

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138 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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3 e fc £ »-gj3 i-°^| So fell g go g,g.&;.3:2iSi 



ciig's c.s3^2-S 2 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



139 






if 



ai5 



5. a 



§■3 



s 



M e<l 00 -H i-H 









S=5 



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•<-<PQ pq oo;j 



140 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



•lElOX 


tOiOiC(NU5tOt~M«l — 
f-H o r^ -^ t— »— t c^ 


— l-HOt^>OOi<J<i*CS 
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co" 


1 


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COCO t^.- 

co" 




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OOM 

cou- 




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U5 


am apis'jno 




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2 s§ 


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co"~ 


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r-<CD 


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CO 


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M 
















































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auiddii md 














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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



141 



"3 
o 


h- 

s 


t^ «M00 CO 
lOM 00 


fgiOOl 


coooc^ 


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not 

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fied. 


■«• t^i-< 


to 


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CO c-<c^ to-*- 


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d 

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t^ iO 


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to 00 




00 

in 


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to 


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1-H N CO CO --H :D lO 


to OS t^ to CM 




s S'^- 


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CM 


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1 


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to 


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to CO 






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n 


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1 

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c 
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142 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 




ISIIilll 



^§■090"; 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENEEAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



143 



Table A. — Japanese applied for admission, admitted, debarred, deported, and departed, 
fiscal years ended June 30, 1913 and 1914- 



1913 



Continen- 
tal United 
States. 



Hawaii. 



1914 



Continen- 
tal United 
States. 



Hawaii. 



Applications for admission 

Admitted 

Debarred from entry. . 

Deported after entry 

Departures 



6,859 

6,771 

88 

61 

5,647 



5,081 

4,901 

180 



2,793 



8,604 

8,462 

142 

153 

6,300 



4,685 

4,554 

131 



2,603 



Table B. — Increase or decrease of Japanese population by immigration and emigration, 
fiscal years ended June 30, 1913 and 1914, by months. 



Month. 



1912-13. 

July 

August 

September , 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 

1913-14. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Continental United States. 



Admitted. 



650 
646 
380 
624 
580 
626 
332 
385 
497 
663 
654 
734 



6,771 



710 
551 
495 
642 
510 
510 
730 
925 
745 
944 
738 
962 



Departed. 



273 
256 
532 
718 
919 
764 
513 
387 
280 
400 
396 
209 



Increase (-f) 

or de- 
crease (— ). 



5,647 



329 
507 
483 
991 
954 
1,109 
333 
274 
272 
453 
340 
255 



6,300 



+ 377 

+ 390 

- 152 

- 94 

- 339 

- 138 

- 181 

- 2 
+ 217 
+ 263 
-I- 258 
+ 525 



Admitted. 



328 
410 

385 
466 
565 
612 
411 
399 
367 
283 
337 
338 



1,124 



4,901 



+ 381 



+ 44 

+ 12 

- 349 

- 444 

- 599 
-t- 397 
-t- 651 
-f 473 
+ 491 
+ 398 
+ 707 



+2, 162 



306 
420 
567 
373 
405 
374 
400 
403 
244 
412 
346 
304 



4,554 



Departed. 



437 
259 

246 
259 
226 
332 
136 
76 
137 
137 
215 
333 



2,793 



Increase ( -I- ) 

or de- 
crease (— ). 



191 
233 
390 
239 
206 
190 
232 
62 
109 
164 
365 
222 



2,603 



- 109 

+ 151 

+ 139 

+ 207 

+ 339 

+ 280 

-t- 275 

+ 323 

-f- 230 

+ 146 

+ 122 



-2,108 



+ 115 

+ 187 

+ 177 

+ 134 

+ 199 

4- 184 

-t- 168 

+ 341 

-f- 135 

+ 248 

- 19 

-t- 82 



+1,951 



144 EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table C. — Occupations of Japanese admitted and departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914. 



Occupation. 



PROFESSIONAL. 



Actors 

Architects 

Clergy 

Editors 

Electricians 

Engineers (professional). 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientific 

persons 

Musicians 

Officials (government). . 

Physicians 

Sculptors and artists 

Teachers 

Other professional 



Total professional. 



SKILLED. 



Bakers 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Blacksmiths 

Brewers 

Butchers 

Cabinetmakers 

Carpenters and joiners. . 

Clerks and accountants . 

Dressmakers 

Engineers (locomotive, 
marine, and station- 
ary) 

Gardeners 

Hat and cap makers 

Iron and steel workers. . 

Jewelers 

Machinists 

Mariners 

Masons 

Mechanics (not specified) 

Metal workers (other 
than iron, steel, and 
tin) 

Milliners 



Continen- 
tal United 
States. 



Hawaii. 



311 



277 



27 


17 


6 


1 


'""i" 




2 




1 


1 


2 


3 


12 


6 



188 



Occupation. 



SKILLED — continued . 



Miners 

Painters and glaziers 

Pattern makers 

Photographers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers 

Printers 

Saddlers and harness 

makers 

Seamstresses 

Shoemakers 

Stokers 

Stonecutters 

Tailors 

Tinners 

Watch and clock makers. 
Weavers and spinners. . . 
Other skilled 



Total skilled. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Agents 

Bankers 

Draymen, hackmen, and 

teamsters ' 

Farm laborers 

Farmers 

Fishermen 

Hotel keepers 

Laborers 

Manufacturers 

Merchants and dealers. . . 

Servants 

Other miscellaneous 



Total miscellaneous 

No occupation (includ- 
ing women and chil- 
dren) 



Grand total. 



Continen- 
tal United 
States. 



380 



5 
20 

2 

517 

1,171 

67 

163 

862 

4 

557 

99 

831 



4,298 



3,473 



8,462 



19 



383 



18 
14 

1 

191 

1,940 

13 

189 

1,525 

5 

528 



4,882 



758 



6,300 



Hawaii. 



4 
3,296 

3 
13 

3 
24 

1 
103 
53 
29 



3,530 



737 



4,554 



472 

2 

15 

2 

1,283 



110 
30 
38 



1,S60 



467 



2,603 



REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



145 



Table D. — Statistics of immigration and emigration of Japanese, collected by the United 
States Government, compared with those reported by the Japanese Government, fiscal 
year ended June SO, 1914. 



From Japan. 


Reported 

by 

Japan. 


Reported 

by 

United 

States. 


To Japan. 


Reported 

by 

Japan. 


Reported 

United 
States. 


To Hawaii 


4,820 
8,065 


4,451 
8,053 




3,903 
6,689 




To continental United States.. 


From continental United 

States 


6,100 


Total 


112,885 


112,504 


Total 




210,592 


18,696 







1 Embarked within the year. 
60629°— 15 10 



2 Debarked within the year. 



146 EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENEKAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table E. — Japanese arrivals in continental United States, fiscal year ended 





Came from— 


In possession of proper 
passports. 




1-5 


X) 
03 

o 


6 
V. 


1 

3 


'B 

a 

3 
O 

o 

u 

s 

o 


Entitled to passports 
under Japanese agree- 
ment: Former resi- 
dents. 




§ 
o 


i 


o 




8,115 


64 


152 


220 


53 


2,257 


1,517 


3,774 




Admitted: 

Male 


4,614 
3,414 


32 
2 


130 


212 
5 


46 

7 


2,039 
211 


1,497 
17 


3,536 
228 






Total 


8,028 


34 


130 


217 


53 


2,250 


1,514 


3,764 




Debarred: 

Male ... 


75 
12 


27 
3 


22 


3 




6 

1 


3 


9 

1 












Total 


87 

158 
8,115 


30 


22 


3 




7 


3 


10 






1 


i 


3 




181 
4 

2,180 

6 

32 

37 

2 


1,503 

6 

7 

i 


181 
4 

3,683 

12 

39 

37 

3 


Children under 14 without occupation . . . 


Came from— 

Japan ' 








64 












152 












220 


'""53 


Other countries 


















Resided in continental United States: 

After Jan. 1 , 1907 


3,672 
11 


17 

5 


21 

73 


38 

8 


7 


2,219 
38 


1,512 
5 


3,731 
43 


Prior to Jan. 1, 1907 




Total former residents 


3,683 


22 


94 


46 


7 


2,257 


1,517 


3,774 




How related to resident: 
Parents 


25 

3,015 

783 
















Wives 
















Children 


1 


1 




i 
















Total parents, wives, and children of 


3,823 


1 


1 




1 
















Kind of passport: 

Limited to United States 


7,883 
5 

120 
41 

3,244 

3,334 

791 

353 

155 

99 

57 

16 


16 


39 


22 
23 

136 
16 

1 
7 
11 
25 
15 
9 
11 

107 
11 

143 
2 
52 


14 

1 

24 
6 

11 
3 
4 

i 

25 
1 

28 
15 
2 


2,219 

31 
5 

898 
854 
225 
112 
51 
37 
19 

39 

22 

412 

5 

1,840 


1,514 

3 

649 
736 
57 
29 
16 
10 
6 

8 
6 

68 

176 

1,273 


3,733 

2 

34 

5 

1,547 

1,590 

282 

141 

■ 67 

47 

25 

47 
28 

480 

181 

3,113 


Limited to other countries. 


Limited to United States and other 


1 


3 




Passports dated during— 


i 


3 

2 

1 

1 


First month preceding. . ... 
















Prior to sixth month, but not before Mar. 
14,1907 


10 
6 

5 
6 
6 


18 
15 

7 

1 

34 


Prior to Mar. 14, 1907 


Occupations mentioned in passports: 


1,266 

228 

0,555 




Occupations not mentioned in passports 



142 nonlaborers and 33 laborers held passports limited to Hawaii, Canada, or Mexico; 1 laborer held 
passport not genuine; 32 nonlaborers and 42 laborers claimed to have lost or left passports he.Id at time of 
departure from Japan; 5 nonlaborers and 59 laborers were not in possession of any kind of passport at time 
of leaving Japan; 2 nonlaborers were diplomats holding no passports and 1 nonlaborer holding no passport 



KEPOET Oi" COMMiaSIOJSrEfi GENEEAL OF IMMIGEATION. 



147 



JuTie 30, 1914, showing various details hearing on the Japanese agreement. 



In possession of proper passports— Continued. 


Without proper 
passport. 


With and without 
proper passport. 


Entitled to passports under Japa- 
nese agreement — Continued. 


Not entitled to passport: Not former 
residents, parents, wives, or children 
of residents, nor settled agricultur- 
ists-laborers. 


Total with proper 
passports. 


i 

o 


% 
Si 


t 
o 


■a 

o 

•A 


k4 

3 




Parents, wives, 

and children of 

residents. 


Not former residents, par- 
ents, wives, or children of 
residents, nor settled agri- 
culturists— nonlal )orers. 


o 

M 
ft 

o 

T3 

a 

n 

o 


1 

O 

15 


i2 


3 

g 




1 

•a 

o 


(-4 

3 


3 

o 


t 
o 

i 

o 


3,705 


119 


3,824 


661 


8,259 


91 


6,623 


1,727 


8,350 


101 


153 


1254 


6,724 


1,880 


8,604 


582 
3,111 


87 
32 


669 
3,143 


026 
34 


4,831 
3,405 


67 
17 


3,246 
3,357 


1,652 
65 


4,898 
3,422 


85 
6 


51 


136 
6 


3,332 
3,362 


1,702 
66 


5,034 
3,428 


3,693 


119 


3, 812 660 


8,236 


84 


6,603 


1,717 


8,320 


91 


51 


142 


6,694 


1,768 


8,462 


2 
10 

12 




2 
10 


1 


12 
11 


7 


9 
11 


10 


19 
11 


9 
1 


99 
3 


108 
4 


18 
12 


109 
3 


127 
15 










12| 1 


23 


7 


20 


10 


30l 10 


102 


112 


30 


112 


142 


2,965 
153 

3,705 


119 


2,965 
153 

3,824 


2 3, 148 
1 158 




3,148 
158 

6,355 

9 

34 

194 

31 


1,694 
8 
8 
2 
15 


3,148, 2| 

158 ll-- 


2 

i 

66 
47 
110 
24 

7 


3, 150 1 3. 150 




159 

6,360 

25 

92 

213 

34 


1,755 
39 
60 

7 

1Q 


159 


470 
3 
2 

157 
29 


7,977 

15 

41 

194 

32 


72 
2 
1 
2 

14 


8,049 

17 

42 

196 

46 


5 

16 
58 
19 

3 


61 
31 
52 
5 
4 


8,115 
64 








152 








220 








53 








at, 












3,731 
43 




2,219 
38 


1,512 
5 


3,731 
43 


12 
20 


12 
34 


24 
54 


2,231 1,524 
58 SQ 


3 755 












97 


























3,774 




2,257 


1,517 


3,774 


32 


46 


78 


2,289 


1,563 


3 852 














20 

2,984 
701 


5 
31 

83 


25 
3,015 

784 




25 
3,015 

784 




20 

2,984 

701 


5 
31 
83 


25 
3,015 

784 






20 

2,984 

703 


5 
31 

83 


25 










3,015 






2 


2 


786 








3,705 


119 


3,824 




3,824 




3,705 


119 


3,824 


2 





3 707 


119 


3,826 






_ .,.„., — 


3, 702 


119 


3,821 


384 
27 

206 
44 

149 

183 

72 

65 

28 
22 
18 

120 

4 

474 

2 

185 


7,938 
29 

243 
49 

3,228 
3,304 
800 
376 
170 
108 
68 

173 
32 

1,443 

188 

6,628 


36 


6,305 
29 

240 
49 

2,535 

2,516 

735 

341 

150 

97 

58 

165 
26 

1,374 

9 

5,240 


1,669 

44 
14 

724 
831 
72 
39 
21 
12 


7,974 












29 

284 
63 

3,259 
3,347 
807 
380 
171 
109 








1 


3 




3 


41 
14 

31 
43 

7 
4 
1 

1 














1 







1,488 
1,479 
438 
164 
71 
38 
21 

6 


44 
52 

8 
6 
4 
1 

4 


1,532 
1,531 
446 
170 
75 
39 
25 

6 






1 






"- 1 








i 


1 1 














! 








1 1 


10 68 








1 




3 
1 

6 
64 
21 


11 

7 

75 

243 

1,409 


1(6 
33 

1,449 

252 

6,649 

1 








1 










1 




488 

2 

3,215 


1 

3 

115 


489 

5 

3,330 


















1- 


























was a resident of the United States; 4 laborers and 4 nonlaborers holding no passports were ciiizens of 
Canada: 1 nonlaborer holding no passport was a servant of a United States citizen; 1 nonlahorer not in 
possession of a passport was bom en route; and as to 15 nonlaborers and 12 laborers the reason for not being 
in possession of proper passports are not known. 



148 EEPOET or COMMISSIOis^EE GENEKAL Or IMMIUKATION. 

Table F. — Japanese arrivals in Hawaii, fiscal year ended June 





Came 
from— 


In possession of passports. 




d 

03 


i 

a 

3 

8 
o 


Entitled to passports under Japanese 
agreement. 


■ 


Former residents 
of Hawaii. 


Parents, wives, 
and children of 
Hawaiian resi- 
dents. 




o 
.o . 

03 OT 

o 

2: 


03 


"3 
o 


o 
1 


h-5 


3 

o 


Total admitted and debarred 


4,684 


1 


308 


904 


1,212 


534 


2,714 


3,248 




Admitted: 

Male 


1,965 

2,588 


""i 


200 
107 


688 
203 


888 
310 


210 
316 


702 
1,914 


912 
2,230 


Female 




Total 


4,653 


1 


307 


891 


1,198 


526 


2,616 


3,142 




Debarred: 

Male 


53 

78 




1 


10 
3 


11 

3 


5 
3 


28 
70 


33 

73 


Female 








Total 


131 




1 


13 


14 


8 


98 


106 




Housewives without other occupation 


236 
271 




54 
72 


5 


54 

77 


180 
172 


" "ie 


180 

188 


Children under 14 without occupation 




Resided in Hawaii: 

After Jan. 1, 1907 *. 


943 

268 

1,211 

179 
2,059 
1,010 


1 


231 

77 


713 
191 


944 

268 








Prior to Jan. 1, 1907 
















Total former residents 


1 


308 


904 


1,212 
















How related to resident: 

Parents 








7 
217 
310 


172 

1,842 

700 


179 
2,059 
1,010 


Wives 










Chfldren 




















Total parents, wives, and children of residents . . . 


3,248 










534 


2,714 


3,248 












Kind of passport: 

Limited to Hawaii. . . 


4,672 
2 
3 

1,967 
2,307 
203 
89 
58 
30 
10 
13 

75 
4,602 




308 


904 


1,212 


534 


2,714 


3,248 


Limited to Hawaii and United States 


Limited to other countries 
















Passports dated during— 

Month covered by this report 




101 
121 
44 
18 
9 
9 
2 
4 

29 
279 


429 
415 
28 
12 
8 
4 
3 
5 

904 


530 
536 
72 
30 
17 
13 
5 
9 

29 
1,183 


222 
254 
27 
12 
13 
5 
1 

5 

529 


1,175 
1,428 
63 
22 
15 
6 
1 
4 

'2,'7i4 


1,397 

1,682 

90 

34 

28 

11 

2 

4 

5 
3,243 


First month preceding 


Second month preceding 


Third month preceding 


Fourth month preceding 


Fifth month preceding 


Sixth month preceding ... 


Occupations mentioned in passports: 


Occupations not mentioned in passports 









' 1 nonlaborer and 6 laborers were not in possession of any kind of passport at time of leaving Japan and 
1 laborer was a servant returning from Vancouver with his master. 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 149 

30, 1914, showing various details hearing on the Japanese agreement. 



In possession of passports— Continued. 


Without passport. 


With and without pass- 
port. 


Entitled to pass- 
ports under Jap- 
a n e s e agree- 
ment— Contd. 


Not entitled to pass- 
port. 


Total with pass- 
ports. 


1 

1 
•A 


£ 


03 


3 



i2 

o:> 

■a 



i 





Total entitled to 
passports. 


Not former resi- 
dents, nor par- 
ents, wives, or 
children of resi- 
dents. 


£ 

o 


o 






o 


I 


t 

o 


o 
^ . 


i 

03 


1 
o 




r) 

1 



842 


3,618 


4,400 


171 


46 


217 


1,013 


3,664 


4,677 


1 


7 


18 


1,014 


3,671 


4,685 


410 
423 


1,390 
2,117 


1,800 
2,540 


133 
34 


31 
13 


164 

47 


543 
457 


1,421 
2,130 


1,964 

2,587 




1 

2 


1 
2 


543 
457 


1,422 
2,132 


1,965 
2,589 


833 


3,507 


4,340 


167 


44 


211 


1,000 


3,551 


4,551 




3 


3 


1,000 


3,554 


4,554 


C 
3 


38 
73 


44 

76 


3 

1 


1 

1 


4 
2 


9 

4 


39 
74 


48 
78 


1 


4 


5 


10 
4 


43 
74 


53 

78 










9 


111 


120 


4 


2 


6 


13 


113 


126 


1 


4 


5 


14 


117 


131 


234 
244 


""'2i 


234 
265 


2 
5 


i 


2 

6 


236 
249 


""'22 


236 
271 








236 
249 


22 


236 








271 










231 

77 


713 
191 


944 
268 








231 

77 


713 
191 


944 
268 








231 

77 


713 
191 


944 














268 
















308 


904 


1,212 








308 


904 


1,212 








308 


904 


1 212 
















7 
217 
310 


172 

1,842 
700 


179 
2,059 
1,010 








7 
217 
310 


172 

1,842 

700 


179 
2,059 
1,010 








7 
217 
310 


172 

1,842 

700 


179 














2 059 














1,010 














534 


2,714 


3,248 








534 


2,714 


3,248 








534 


2,714 


3,248 














842 


3,618 


4,460 


166 
2 
3 

27 
65 
37 
23 
12 
5 
2 


46 

13 
24 

4 
2 
1 

1 
1 


212 
2 
3 

40 
89 
41 
25 
13 
6 
3 


1,008 
2 
3 

350 

440 

108 

53 

34 

19 

5 

4 

72 
941 


3, 664 

1,617 
1,867 
95 
36 
24 
11 
5 
9 

3 
3,661 


4,672 
2 
3 

1,967 
2,307 
203 
89 
58 
30 
10 
13 

75 
4,602 












































323 

375 

71 

30 

22 

14 

3 

4 

34 
808 


1,604 

1,843 

91 

34 

23 

10 

4 

9 

'3,'6i8 


1,927 
2,218 
162 
64 
45 
24 
7 
13 

34 

4,426 


































































































38 
133 


3 
43 


41 
176 







































150 



REPORT OF COMMISSlOHv^ER OEXERAT. OP T:\rMIGRATlON. 



Table 1. — Summary of Chinese seeking cdmission to the United Slates, fsml years ended 
June 30, 1909 to 1914, by classes. 





1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


Class alleged. 


o 
1 


-d 

o 

P. 

n 


■a 

ft 
W 


■d 


a 

n 


■d 

(3 


1 
1 

< 


"d 

a 


-d 

1 

< 


■d 

a 






•d 

1 
•0 

< 


"2 



p. 
s> 
Q 


03 


i 

a 


■d 

1 

ID 




United States citizens 
Wives of United 

States citizens 

Returning laborers. . . 
Retumitig merchants 

Other merchants 

Members of mer- 
chants' families 


2,53{> 

- 98 
950 
947 
292 

1,242 
161 
27 
14 
82 
52 


254 

2 
3 

20 
19 

237 
6 


10 

"5' 

10 

. . . 


2,109 

110 

1,037 

869 

228 

1,029 
268 
83 
24 
145 
48 


490 

14 
12 
31 

29 

332 

31 

3 

1 

'26' 


5 
.... 


1,639 

80 
1,113 

1,092 
199 

559 
213 
52 
32 
87 
41 


284 

5 
19 
33 

28 

259 
25 

'39' 


1,756 

88 

1,103 

1,093 

170 

558 
413 
80 
33 
47 
33 


170 

5 

1 

18 
8 

133 

20 

7 

1 

1 

36 




2,171 

126 

1,036 

986 

105 

738 
370 
19 
33 
38 
40 


121 

9 
5 
13 
16 

92 
11 


.... 


2,201 

122 
1,000 

881 
180 

807 

338 

29 

17 

110 

88 


139 

2 

7 
20 

7 

130 
5 




3 








1 






Officials 


1 




Miscellaneous 


23 .... 


116 




97 


Total 


6,395 


564 


31 


5,950 J969 


6 


5,107 


692 


5,374 


400 


2 


5,662 


384 


1 


5,773 


410 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAI, OF IMMIGRATION. 



151 



Si, 

s 



^ 



=^ 



o 



SaSBO IBJOJj 



"mox 



■Rjjnoo ojojgg 






5rt 1-1 .-lOi-i 



■«r ^H CO •-< r-( 



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•<r • ^ cot^ o ^ 



■siajoadsm eiojag; 



•padeosa 



"Wox 



•9[era8^ 



•9IBH 



•I^iox 



•aiBtaa^ 



•8IEK 



"S'^anoo iCg 



•laara^JBdap ^g 



•aiopgdsm jf g; 



•siinoo if q 
passiinsip s^iijVi 



"luaraiiBdap Aq 
passitasip siBaddv 



•aiojogdsni ^g 



'TOO J, 



■£I6T 'T ^inr Sujpnag 



■SUOI^EOIldd'E 419^ 



*0 05CO »0 ^ t* O 



05C^t^Ot^iO»OOCO 



CO • c^ 



»-(c^o^OfO-^oooir-ooo 
oc^ot»ccco^^colMrtrtOO 

CQ ^ O QO ^ *-i XI CO ^^ 



COt^^ • INOtC 



t^ t^ Ci »o ^^ c^ 



CON • N^>0^ CO 



t^OO0i0500C0»O0it^OC 
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rpcoco i-iC^« C<1 



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t^ O CO 

to rt CO 



tOiO t^ ■ 1^ o 



If to CO »c to C^ CO 

O Oi CO o ^ 



<N O 00 U5 t~. lO CO 
»0 IN to O CS 

looto 1-1 CO 



Cfli-llOC^t^CiCO-HCO 



i:;^' 



OOOiOOt^iOOitO^OX^ 
1-1 O^ IN to CMt-1 



C^ 0000 1 r-1 OtO 



tOi-iOt*-^OS _ 

t^tDO C^l CO • CS 1-1 

to or^ 1-1 CO 



■= S S ,; M H 

o_o o a fl >a 
<^ a a 5i3 ? c3 

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••T3 „ c c <= 3 3 ,.. 



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fe 3 2? o o £ 



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^ CO j^ •' 

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eg c3 



152 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table 3. — Chinese claiming American citizenship admitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 

1914, by ports. 



Port 



Foreign- 
born 
children 

of 
natives. 



Native born. 



No record 

of 
departure 
(known as 
"raw na- 
tives"). 



Record of departure 
(known as "return- 
ing natives"). 



Status as 
native born 
determined 
by U. S. 
Govern- 
ment 
previous to 

present 
application 
for admis- 
sion. 



Status not 
previously 
deter- 
mined. 



Total. 



San Francisco, Cal 

Seattle, Wash 

New York, N.Y 

Vancouver, British Columbia. 
Mexican border 



Total continental United States. 
Honolulu, Hawaii 



Grand total . 



BY WHOM ADMITTED. 



Inspection officers . 

Department 

Courts 



641 
40 



22 



657 
272 



28 



126 
4 



709 
16 



1,059 
96 



684 

40 

1 



49 



169 



168 
1 



1,389 

320 

1 

161 

4 



1,875 
223 



2.098 



2,055 

42 

1 



Table 4. — Appeals to department frovi excluding decisions under Chinese-exclusion latvs, 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, by ports. 



Action taken. 


San 
Fran- 
cisco, 

Cal. 


Seattle, 
Wash. 


Hono- 
lulu, 
Hawaii. 


New 
Or- 
leans, 
La. 


Van- 
couver, 
British 
Colum- 
bia. 


Mon- 
treal, 
Can- 
ada. 


Total. 




185 


40 


2 


1 


20 


2 


250 






Disposition: 


57 
128 


11 
29 


2 


i 


7 
13 


2 


77 




173 







Table 5. — Disposition of cases of resident Chinese applying for return certificates, fiscal 

year ended June 30, 1914. 





Applica- 
tions 
submitted. 


Primary disposition. 


Disposition on appeal. 


Total 

number of 

certificates 

granted. 


Total 
number of 


Class. 


Granted. 


Denied. 


Sustained. 


Dismissed. 


certificates 
finally 
refused. 


Native born 

Exempt classes. .. 


1,349 

1,093 

796 


1,233 
1,012 

776 


116 

81 
20 


10 
5 

1 


39 

21 

3 


1,243 
1,017 

777 


106 
76 
19 






Total 


3,238 


3,021 


217 


16 


63 


3,037 


201 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 153 

Table 6. — Action taken in the cases of Chinese persons arrested on the charge of being in 
the United States in violation of laiv, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914. 

CASES BEFORE UNITED STATES COMMISSIONERS. 

Until order of deportation or discharge : 

Arrests 225 

Pending before hearing at close of previous year 120 

Total 345 

Disposition : 

Died 1 

Forfeited bail 5 

Discharged 84 

Pending before hearing at close of present year 81 

Ordered deported 174 

After order of deportation : 

Ordered deported 174 

Awaiting deportation or appeal at close of previous year 14 

Total 188 

Disposition : 

Escaped 2 

Deported 72 

Awaiting deportation or appeal to United States district courts at close 

of presentyear 18 

Appealed to United States district courts 96 

CASES BEFORE TJNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTS. 

Until order o. aeportation or discharge : 

Appealed to United States district courts 96 

Pending before trial at close of previous year 85 

Total 181 

Disposition: 

Died 1 

Forfeited bail 4 

Discharged . 36 

Pending before trial at close of present year 75 

Ordered deported 65 

After order of deportation: 

Ordered deported 65 

Awaiting deportation or appeal to higher courts at close of previous year 19 

Total 84 

Disposition: 

Escaped 2 

Deported 50 

Awaiting deportation or appeal at close of present year 8 

Appealed to higher courts 24 

CASES BEFORE HIGHER UNITED STATES COURTS. 

Until order of deportation or discharge : 

Appealed to higher United States courts 24 

Pending before trial at close of previous year 17 

Total 41 



154 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Until order of deportation or discharge — Continued. 
Disposition : 

Died 2 

Discharged 2 

Pending before trial at close of present year 26 

Ordered deported 11 

After order of deportation: 

Ordered deported 11 

Awaiting deportation at close of previous year 13 

Total 24 

Disposition: 

Died 1 

Deported 9 

Awaiting deportation at close of present year 14 

RECAPITULATION OF ALL CASES. 

Arrests 225 

Pending at close of previous year, including those awaiting deportation or appeal . 268 

Total 493 

Disposition : 

Died, escaped, and forfeited bail 18 

Discharged 122 

Deported 131 

Pending at close of present year, including those awaiting deportation 

or appeal 222 

Summary of action taken in the cases of Chinese arrested, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, 

by months. 



1-1 




ft 




i 




d 


i 


^ 




03 


d 


< 


M 


C 


"A 


« 


1-5 


p^ 


S 


< 


"^ 


i-> 


27 


14 


11 


13 


If) 


17 


30 


12 


39 


20 


9 


17 


1 




7 


2 




1 




1 




2 


3 


1 


9 


6 


IS 


4 


10 


16 


9 


6 


12 


6 


14 


12 


9 


27 


2 


12 


8 


12 


16 


11 


4 


14 


4 


12 



Arrests made 

Died, escaped, and lorfeited bail 

Discharged 

Deported 



225 

18 

122 

131 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OENERAL OF IMMIORATIOlSr. 155 

Table 7. — Chinese arrested and deported, fiscal years ended June 30, 1911 to 1914. by 

judicial districts. 





1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


Judicial district. 


Arrests. 


Deporta- 
tions. 


Arrests. 


Deporta- 
tions. 


Arrests. 


Deporta- 
tions. 


Arrests. 


Deporta- 
tions. 
















3 










4 
6 












4 
1 
58 
20 
3 
5 


1 




2 




5 

1 

2 

30 










1 




12 
5 

1 
1 


13 

27 
6 

10 
5 


24 
17 
4 

7 


2 

18 
2 

8 


12 
1 


2 




g 








9 
9 
1 
6 

8 


1 
















3 


























2 

1 


1 
1 


6 

1 
1 


2 
1 


3 


Maryland - 


2 








6 
3 


1 






















3 

1 
1 
1 












































1 
4 


1 






1 










1 
1 










1 
2 




2 








2 
















1 




















2 
3 
6 






1 
1 




2 

1 
2 
43 
2 

7 




3 

1 

1 
10 


2 
























27 
1 
2 


13 
1 


7 


22 


9 


6 








5 
1 


1 
1 
5 




8 
1 
1 






1 






1 








6 




1 




1 
1 
1 










South Dakota 
























3 


1 














2 






8 
3 
1 


4 





1 
1 










2 

1 




1 


1 




1 
















2 


1 












1 






EasterQ Washington 


1 
5 

1 
















7 

2 


7 
5 


8 

4 


5 

e' 

42 
33 


2 

1 

3 

27 

57 


2 
4 
4 
4 
62 


4 




9 


Utah 




Northern California 


23 

172 

1 

85 

56 

8 

4 


13 
135 

1 
74 
65 
9 
3 


49 
170 


25 
120 


9 




50 








52 
23 
19 


49 
27 
20 


10 
3 
4 


11 
6 
3 


6 

7 
6 


3 


New Mexico 


5 


Northern Texas 


3 






Eastern Texas 


6 

137 

2 


6 
69 










Western Texas 


157 
8 


168 
5 


10 
1 

2 


6 


8 


25 






First AlasVa. 










Porto Rico 




■■■■■]-- 






4 


4 




1 "1 










Total 


669 


522 


616 


397 


191 


165 


225 


131 







156 REPOET OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table 8. — Miscellaneous Chinese transactions, by ports, fiscal ycu ended June 30, 1914. 



' Class. 


San 
Fran- 
cisco, 
Cal. 


Se- 
attle, 
Wash 


Hono 
lulu, 
Ha- 
waii. 


Mon- 
treal, 
Can- 
ada. 


Van- 
cou- 
ver, 
B.C. 


New 
York, 
N.Y. 


Mex- 
ican 
bor- 
der. 


New 
Or- 
leans, 
La. 


Bos- 
ton, 
Mass. 


Phil- 
adel- 
phia, 
Pa. 


Gal- 
ves- 
ton, 
Tex. 


To- 
tal. 


United States citizens (Chi- 


1,485 

2,125 

241 

2,373 

57 
637 

1 

269 

782 

35 

2 


320 
711 
63 

11 


228 
4-12 
35 


"'3' 
3 

761 

26 


161 
171 

24 


1 

106 
17 

150 

,3 

23 

2 


5 
3 



612 


3 

122 

2 
33 


1 

4 
2 






2,201 


Alien Chinese admitted 






3,572 


Alien Chinese debarred 

Chinese granted the privi- 
lege of transit in bond 
across land territory of 


21 


1 


410 

4,029 

88 


Chinese denied the privilege 
of transit in bond across 
land territory of the 








Chinese granted the privi- 
lege of transit by water. . . 

Chinese denied the privi- 
lege of transit by water.. . 

Chinese laborers with re- 
turn certificates departing 

Chinese merchants with re- 
turn certificates departing 

Chinese students with re- 
turn certificates departing 

Chinese teachers with re- 












093 
















3 


370 

160 

9 

222 


260 
41 
2 
2 

24 


2 
2 


102 
<3 
2 












1,001 


1 
3 












1,029 
53 






















4 


Native-born Chinese with 
return certificates depart- 
ing 1'i7 




121 


1 












1,325 




1 















WAVE OF IMMIGRATION into the United States, FROM ALL COUNTRIES, during the past 95 YEARS. 



Sgg*j£akJg£g£g!Bas°8«e««,^g£g«gga8*a£^9Sggsassggg 



MOO.OOO 



100,000 



to rv o 0) o - 



♦ kft <0 N QO 0> o 



2 = 2i22 




1.300.000 



1,200.000 



1,100.000 



1.000.000 



900,000 



800,000 



700,000 



600000 



500,000 



400000 



aoftooo 



100.000 



^loa 'o'^c '^^'^ ^?5TO Z2633 5l64b4g374 79340 66069 80289 52496 11437 1 234968297074 379466 368645 2w)a 117)23 129571 142877 I3291& 



1870 1 1872 ' 1874 ' 1876 I 1878 jl880jie82 ^ia«4_|^86_[J88ejJ890JJ892__;_l8j94j_l896 
3M7Te3ll550 459551 237499 141857 iTTSK 869431 603327 395346 490I0S4444I7 """" ^-.-riJ,,.,,^ o. 



;334?03[S468eq'455302;S796S3;28^63l|343267;2?9299J44«S72;648743; 

. _-- . , _I894JJ896_;J89" '"" ' '""^ ' 

73^3258536 230832 



1811 1823 1825 1827 iMs'lSl msFTs^ 1^7 115? Tsir Ts'-S' 'Ims VMTTe'w b'sT'TsIS^ *i8S issr ISSs' 7a^^^^ 18861887 1888 1891 1893,1896 IB97 1889 '9°'^j-J!^*,^'"\;^'""b^" 
ARRIVALS 1820 TO 191^ 32,027,-424 ESTIMATED ARRIVALS 1776 TO 1820. 250.000 ^^^^^903 

\tgratt4m for tke yean rgjr_ is^j^ fg^o, iSsj, represent respectively I 

nth and 6 maniA periods, wfUU u month periods for iJu>%e yean \ 

1 ihe grafKte r4preietUation / 



156 B ^94 

Tables.- |^ 



OF IMMIGRATION 




APPENDIX II. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF 
THE DIVISION OF INFORMATION. 



157 



APPENDIX n. 
REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE DIVISION OF INFORMATION. 



Department of Labor, 
Bureau of Immigration, 
Division of Information, 

Washington, August 1, 1914. 

Sm: Herewith is submitted for your consideration the annual re- 
port of the Division of Information for the year ended June 30, 1914. 

It is deemed advisable, owing to the wider field of activity entered 
upon during the 12 months just closed, to refer briefly to some of the 
causes leading up to the establishment of the division and the efforts 
made in past years to carry out the intent of Congress when it created 
the division. 

The division was established July 1, 1907, under authority given 
in section 40 of the immigration act of February 20, 1907, in this 
language: 

It shall be the duty of said division to promote a beneficial distribution of aliens 
admitted into the United States among the several States and Tenitories desiring 
immigration. Correspondence shall be had with the proper officials of the States and 
Territories, and said division shall gather fi-om all available soiu'ces useful information 
regarding the resources, products, and physical characteristics of each State and Ter- 
ritory, and shall publish such information in different languages and distribute the 
publications among all admitted aliens who may ask for such information at the 
immigrant stations of the United States and to such other persons as may desire the 
same. 

In order to obtain useful information from all available sources, the 
division corresponded with the governors and principal officers of all 
the States and Territories; with all the leading manufacturers and 
employers of labor whose addresses could be obtained; with all of the 
labor organizations and farmers' associations then existing, thi'ough 
theu' national officers; and in every way which was suggested as 
likely to bring results the division endeavored to obtain the informa- 
tion suggested by the statute. Some of the State officials responded 
very generously; others have not as yet made reply to the letters 
sent to them, although they have been corresponded with at frequent 
intervals. 

A bulletin containing a synopsis of the information received was 
prepared and submitted to the then Commissioner General, who 
approved of it and submitted it to the Division of Publications for 
advice as to the best means of publishing it in different languages. 
It was then discovered that no appropriation was available to defray 
the expense of publication in the different languages. 

After a brief experience in the effort to impart information ver- 
bally to arriving immigrants at Ellis Island, it was discovered that 
they were in no mood on being admitted to accept suggestions or 
advice from anyone. Many of them declared that they had been 
informed before leaving Europe that they must be on the lookout for 

159 



160 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION". 

all who approached them with a view to assisting them in any way. 
They were worried, anxious, in a hurry to land, and in no frame of 
mind to receive or appreciate a tender of information or assistance 
from anyone. As a consequence it would be a waste of time and 
money to place lengthy bulletins in their hands. It was decided, 
after conferring with the commissioner of immigration at Ellis Island, 
that the best way to reach arriving aliens would be to establish a 
branch of the division in New York City and prepare a brief notice 
directing their attention to it, to be handed to immigrants on the 
ferryboat between Ellis Island and New York City. This was 
accordingly done. It will be noted that the statute provided that 

fmblications be distributed " among all admitted aliens who may ask 
or such information." The intent of Congress in providing for such 
a course of procedure has never been made known to the Division of 
Information, for it is not probable — and scarcely possible — that a 
stranger entering a foreign country, unacquainted with the language 
of that country, will know anything about such information as the 
division might have to offer. Consequently no inquiries are made 
either for any of the bulletins or other information which the division 
had or has to oif er. 

During the first year of the existence of the Division of Information 
it was given a good deal of pubUcity through the newspapers and in 
this way incurred the hostility of a great majority oi employment 
agencies throughout the United States that saw in it a possible rival, 
and the division was instructed to go as quietly about its work as 
possible. 

On October 14, 1908, the following letter of instructions was issued 
to all commissioners of immigration and inspectors in charge in the 
Immigration Service: 

To aid the Division of Information of the Bureau of Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion in promoting a beneficial distribution of arriving aliens and others, as provided 
by act of Congress, it is directed that active cooperation be extended to the said 
division and the same measure of attention given to the work of this branch of the 
service as is accorded other immigration work. 

It is directed that one employee, whose name is to be sent to the division as early 
as possible, be detailed to take charge of information and distribution work at each 
station; to receive and distribute documents; to keep and mail to the division on 
proper blanks a comprehensive record of all applicants for information and of those 
who are directed to employment, and to perform such other duties as circumstances 
may require. It is understood that the person so designated shall devote as much of 
his timCj under the direction of his superior officer, as may be necessary, and such 
designation shall not relieve him for the remainder of his time from the performance 
of his other duties. 

The fullest measure of assistance is expected and required. 

Respectfully, F. H. Larned, 

Acting Commissioner General. 

Approved : 

Oscar S. Straus, Secretary. 

With the exception of the immigrant inspector in charge at Gal- 
veston, Tex., but little notice was taken of the letter issued by the 
department. A plan was prepared and submitted to the Commis- 
sioner General for the guidance of such officers as would be designated 
to take up the work of the Division of Information, but no action was 
taken thereon. 

During the fiscal year 1910 a rumor was industriously circulated 
that steamship companies and large employers of labor in the United 
States who were interested in stimulating immigration had advertised 



EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 161 

the Division of Information throughout Europe, and several employ- 
ers were named as deeply interested in the movement. Inquiry of 
the most painstaking character failed to disclose evidence of any kind 
tending to prove the truth of the rumor, and up to the present time 
no alien coming to the United States has ever asked a question con- 
cerning the Division of Information or in any way indicated that he 
knew of its existence. 

It appears, however, that one of the employment agencies of New 
York City, which was subsequently abohshed by act of the State 
Legislature, had repeatedly stated that the Division of Information 
was being advertised abroad and that such advertising stimulated 
immigration. The purpose of making such a statement is so apparent 
that it needs no comment. 

During the year 1910 the Chief of the Division of Information 
visited Great Britain and France with a view to familiarizing him- 
self with the operation of the British labor exchanges act of 1909 and 
the French exchange bureau. While in those countries he made 
careful inquiry as to whether government officials, steamship com- 
panies, or others knew of the existence of the Division of Information, 
and could not discover that it had ever been brought to their atten- 
tion. 

The chief of the division in the various annual reports recom- 
mended the estabhshment of branches of the division in Chicago, St, 
Louis, and other places, but no favorable action was ever taken on 
those recommendations. Perhaps the time was not yet ripe or senti- 
ment sufficiently crystallized to caU for the estabhshment of addi- 
tional branches of the Division of Information. 

In the meantime several of the States created immigration bureaus 
and proceeded to cooperate with the Division of Information. So 
satisfactorily did this work progress that on July 5, 1911, the division 
addressed a letter, of which the following is a copy, to the various 
States and Territories engaged in the work indicated : 

The Division of Information, Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization, Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor, is considering the desirability and feasibility of endeav- 
oring to arrange a conference at such time and place as will be most satisfactory to 
those concerned, the members of which shall include one or more officials from each 
State having a board of immigration, free employment office, or other similar agency, 
and a representative of the division. 

It would be the purpose of such a conference to try by discussion and exchange of 
ideas to formulate a plan for the better distribution of immigrants and other residents 
of tliis country, through the cooperation of the States with the division. For in- 
stance, if each State were to report to the Division of Information the exact conditions 
with respect to the "resources, products, and physical characteristics" of said State 
and follow this up at stated intervals with reports showing the demand for labor or 
the unemployment of labor, the division, having all the reports in its possession, 
would be m a position to direct settlers, homeseekers, and unemployed to localities 
in need of them. 

This letter is written for the purpose of ascertaining your views in respect to the 
holding of such a conference, and if you are favorably inclined to such a plan, whether 
you or some one to represent you or your State would probably attend. In any event 
I would be pleased to receive yoxir suggestions on the subject, including a statement 
of your preference as to the date and place of the proposed conference. 

With but one exception all the States and Territories acknowledged 

that letter and agreed to participate in a conference or approve of its 

work. Accordmgly a call was issued ; Washington, D. C. , was named 

as the place of meeting; and November 16, 1911, the date. When 

60629°— 15 11 



162 KEPORT OF COMMISSIONEE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

the conference was called to order the States of Arkansas, Califor- 
nia, Colorado, Delaware, lUinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Mary- 
land, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, 
New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, 
Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, and the Territory 
of Hawaii were represented, and the concensus of opmion was that 
each State and Territory should have a bureau of information coop- 
erating with the National Government in providing the information 
to citizens and resident ahens who desired to change their residence 
or improve their condition. 

While the Division of Information has adhered closely, or as 
closely as possible, to the lines indicated by statute, it has done far 
more than to merely supply information. It has created a healthy 
pubhc sentiment on the subject of bringing the man who wants land 
to the land, and in favor of bringmg the man who needs employment 
in touch with the man in need of his labor. 

It is doubtful if to-day anyone can be found who, after giving con- 
sideration to the question, wiU contend that the scope of the Division 
of Information should not be enlarged so that the men and women 
of labor throughout the United States may be furnished with accu- 
rate up-to-date information concerning labor conditions in aU parts 
of the country. 

A perusal of the tables herewith submitted, which give the number 
of applications for information, the number distributed to places of 
employment, the races or nationaUties of those so distributed, and 
the States to which they were directed, will show that fewer apphca- 
tions were received and fewer persons directed to employment than in 
former years. The reason for this is plainly stated in the report- — 
at the end of this appendix — of the inspector in charge of the distri- 
bution branch, United States Barge Office, New York City. 

As in former years, the number applying for information shows a 
preponderance of Germans, the number of that nationality applying 
being 4,039; the next in number being the Poles with 1,973. The 
Russians are next with 1,315, the Finnish following with 1,291, the 
Swedish 1,184, and Danish with 1,154. American citizens, native 
and naturahzed, to the number of 2,344 were applicants for informa- 
tion. Here it is well to again direct attention to the act of February 
20, 1907, which says that the information obtained by the division 
may not only be given to admitted ahens but "to such other persons 
as may desire the same. " This language is broader and enables the 
division to go further than that part of the law which restricts its 
activity to the imparting of information to admitted ahens "who 
may ask for the same.'' Citizens and resident aliens of the United 
States need not inquire for such mformation as the division has to 
give, for if their wants are communicated to the division in any way 
efforts are j)ut forth to supply the needed information, and in con- 
versation with Members of Congress who took part in the debates 
preceding the passage of the act of February 20, 1907, the Chief of 
the Division oi Information was informed that the intent m passing 
the act was in reahty to supply everybody who might need it with 
information concerning industnal conditions throughout the United 
States. 

The tables are as follows: 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



163 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OK IMMIGRATION. 



167 



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168 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 169 

The report of the inspector in charge of the branch of the division 
in New York City, heretofore referred to, so fully coincides with 
the views of the Division of Information that it is presented in full 
at the close of this appendix with approval of the recommendations 
contained therein. 

Under the instructions from the Commissioner General, given on 
May 11, a report on "the advisability of having employment agen- 
cies of all kinds engaged in interstate business placed under the juris- 
diction of the Department of Labor" was submitted. That report, 
with renewal of recommendations, follows: 

June 9, 1914. 
The Commissioner General, 

Bureau of Immigration, Department of Labor: 

Followiiig instructions contained iu yours of May 11, I herewith present a 
report on " the advisability of having employment agencies of all kinds engaged 
in interstate business placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of 
Labor." 

I have believed, ever since the division of information was established, that 
employment agencies conducting an interstate business should be subject to 
Federal jurisdiction. That belief became conviction when some cases in which 
fraud was practiced on workingmen were brought to my attention as chief of 
the division and it was found that we were powerless to afford relief to the 
injured parties or to punish the offenders. 

It may be well to cite an instance or two by way of illustration. 

In July, 1908. the division received a communication from the Chicago League 
for the Protection of Immigrants complaining of ill treatment and alleged rob- 
bery of a number of laborers. From that letter I quote the following : 

" On April 14, 1908, an employment agency iu this city — W. C. Dean, 102 East 
Van Buren Street— collected $14 apiece from 51 men and 2 women (all Hun- 
garians and unable to speak English) and sent them to Leslie, Ark., to work on 
the Missouri & Northern Arkansas Railroad, which is being built between Leslie 
and Seaxcey [Searcy], Ark. When they reached the place where the work was 
going on the foreman laughed at them and told them he had work for no such 
number as that. He finally took 14 men and 1 woman. The rest, having no 
money, started to walk back. They scattered and tried to get M^ork on the 
way. Most of them finally reached Chicago, demanded their money back from 
the agent, but did not get it. Thus far I have been unable to get it for them, 
although I have taken the matter up with our State officials, because the agent 
says there was work for them there and the contractors (Burke & Joseph) 
ordered the men. I feel sure there is an understanding between the contractors 
and the agent iu this city. These Hungarians made no olficial complaints ; 
they warned a man not to register with Dean's agency and told this story. He 
reported it to me. Some Bulgarians have had a similar experience, and the 
agency still ofi'ers to send 30 to 40 men a week to Leslie. 

" I have written you about this because it is typical of what is happening 
here right along and shows the need of a new bureau here in Chicago, and also 
because I am in hopes you may be able to get some information for us, as [so] 
that these Hungarians may recover their money and damages." 

In April. 1909, J. Eads How, representing the national committee for the 
unemployed, in commenting on the need for Federal supervision of employ- 
ment agencies, reported as follows: 

" Thomas Cleary, a well-built Irishman in the prime of life, walked and 
' beat his way ' back from Louisiana, weak with hunger, and reported having 
been sent from here there by the Koenig Labor Agency, with 10 other men, to a 
IH'Ospective job at an unknown point in that State. While Cleary managed to 
work his way back over the 700 or more miles which he had been shipped, his 
companions, not so fortunate, were arrested in the State of Arkansas, and, being 
without visible means of support, are now working out fines in the stone 
quarries with ball and chain attachment. 

" William Connors, of equal ability to accomplish hard labor, was shipped by 
the same agency from their Chicago headquarters to work on the Rook Island 
system in Iowa. This time the job existed but had been fully furnished with 
men several days previously, and still men were being sent there ; and the 
authorities of the small town adjacent were making it as unpleasant as possible 



170 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

for the peuuiless strangers thrust upon them, and drastic measures were re- 
sorted to to get rid of them." 

lu August, 1909, the Saudusky Portland Cement Co., of Syracuse, lud., wrote 
the division complaining of a New York agency. The following extract from 
their letter tells its own story : 

" We are writing you from the fact that recently we were in correspondence 
with a concern that title themselves as the American-European Labor Ex- 
change, 119 St. Marks Place, New York, N. Y., who agreed to send us 10 new- 
comers or greenhorn Roumanian laborers, of which we have a few in our 
employ at the present time. We advanced to these people the necessary money 
to pay their fee of $2 each, and also the $14.20 each for railroad fare, amount- 
ing to $16.20 each, and they in turn sent us 10 men of the wise kind of for- 
eigners, who were laborers of different nationalities who have been in the coun- 
try for several years knocking about from place to place in different positions, 
and, although all of them arrived here, three of them never even came to the 
factory, and one pulled out after he had worked two or three days ; in which 
case you realize that these fellows were only after somebody to pay their fare so 
that they could reach Gary or Chicago, and believe the labor agency obtained our 
money under false pretenses when they stated they would send us newcomers, 
all of which were to be German-speaking Roumanians, but instead send us 
some Roumanians, Hungarians, Slavs, etc., who had been in the country for 
several years. Nearly all of them could speak English and were simply trying 
to get out of New York at somebody else's expense." 

Investigation of these and other cases wherein workingmen were deceived to 
their injury by employment agencies resulted in securing no measure of relief 
or abatement of the practice of directing men from one State to another on 
misrepi'esentation. The fraud may now be practiced with impunity, since the 
transaction is not completed in one State and the court of initial proceeding 
has no jurisdiction in the State to which the men are sent. Even though ade- 
quate relief could be afforded through the courts, the victims are without funds 
and therefore unable to secure redress. 

Unscrupulous employment agents are at least impartial in their operations; 
they will as cheerfully relieve a citizen of his money as though he were a 
newly arrived alien. 

In a recent publication of the North American Civic League for Immigrants I 
find this language : 

" Wherever the distribution of labor has been left in private hands for their 
own profit, misrepresentation, fraud, and other dishonest practices have been 
found. States and municipalities have for years endeavored to regulate employ- 
ment agencies. But the jurisdiction of the State or city does not extend beyond 
its boundaries, and local authorities are helpless when the fraud occurs in an 
interstate transaction where laborers are sent from one State to another." 

The cases cited may be duplicated by the hundred, but they are quite suffi- 
cient to illustrate the need of an extended protecting hand that will cast its 
shadow over and across State lines to prevent conscienceless employment agents 
from wronging industrious workmen and protect the latter in their quest for 
employment. 

On receipt of your letter of instruction, I wrote Dr. Prentis, inspector in 
charge at Chicago, requesting that he provide such facts as were easily and 
quickly obtainable. From a report made to him by Inspector Hogan I quote : 

" I beg to report that there were a total of 362 labor agencies in the State 
of Illinois, each paying an annual license fee of $50. The fee for registering an 
applicant for a position is $2. There is no limit to the amount chargeable for 
the selling of a job or position. There has been considerable complaint with 
reference to abuse or overcharging for positions furnished applicants. The 
abuses exist largely amongst agencies operated by foreigners dealing with 
foreigners, many of whose complaints are never divulged. 

" From Mr. Nathan Elmer, in charge of the Freeland Labor Agency, 102 
South Canal Street, Chicago, I am informed that there are about 200.000 
positions filled in the interstate feature of the labor agencies of Illinois, about 
85 per cent of which are filled by the Chicago agencies. The next largest 
offices doing interstate business in the State of Illinois are at East St. Louis. 
They supply only about 2 or 3 per cent. The charges for procuring positions 
or jobs of an interstate nature range from $1 to $10, average charge being 
about $4 according to Mr. Elmer. Mr. Elmer, whom I believe to be one of 
the most reliable of the labor agents, expressed the opinion that the work 
should be handled by the Federal Government, in order to maintain a more 
rigid inspection. He stated that the abuses are usually practiced by smaller 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION, 171 

and unreliable agencies, many of whom have no regular office or domicile where 
they may be located and observed. 

" It is seemingly possible that were the interstate feature of employment 
agencies handled by the Federal Government it would be the source of con- 
siderable additional revenue as well as productive of very much more satisfac- 
tion than exists at the present time, although of course it is to be expected that 
the labor agencies would oppose Federal agencies handling the matter direct. 
They naturally would be in favor of Federal supervision or regulation, which 
of course it would seem would not be productive of the desired results." 

State lines, so far as the employment agent is concerned, have disappeared 
and are known to him only as aids in obtaining the fee which he may exact 
from the applicant who registers with him and who may be directed to another 
State where employment may or may not await him. 

The most cordial relations now exist between the employment and immigra- 
tion bureaus of the various States and the Division of Information, and I feel 
warranted in saying that these bodies will cheerfully cooperate with the De- 
partment of Labor in safeguarding working men and women from fraud and 
loss at the hands of careless or dishonest employment agents. 

The law should make it an offense punishable by fine or imprisonment, or 
both, for an employment agent to send men from one State to employment in 
another without a license from the Department of Labor. 

Each agent so licensed should be required to make weekly reports of all in- 
terstate business to the Di^•ision of Information, giving names, nationalities, 
occupation, and wages of all men directed across State lines; also the names and 
addresses of firms or individual employers to whom workmen were directed. 

Every State employment agency should have jurisdiction over all private em- 
ployment agencies in the State. Through an arrangement with those State 
agencies they could be designated as representatives of the Department of Labor 
and through them the Division of Information could place such workmen as 
applied to it for information concerning that State. 

My best information is that the employment agencies of New York City warn 
applicants against calling at the distribution branch of this division. They also 
represent themselves, in some instances, as being authorized to act for the 
Division of Information. 

Private employment agencies charge fees ranging from $2 to $10 for their 
services, but give no guaranty of employment. No contract or memorandum 
of agreement entered into to establish liability or insure reliability of statement 
is given or handed to the person engaged and sent forward except in rare 
instances. Under Federal supervision the interests of the workmen directed to 
employment could be safeguarded in this respect. 

Once employment agencies doing an interstate business are under the super- 
vision of the Department of Labor, and all State commissions, bureaus, and 
boards of immigration are cooperating with the Department of Labor, uniformity 
of practice and action may be established. A uniform system of blanks, recoi'd 
cards, and reports may be adopted, and then it will be possible to determine 
the causes of unemployment among the men and women willing to work who 
apply at the exchanges. A card can be devised on which the name, age, occu- 
pation, citizenship, place of last employment, and cause of unemployment may 
be entei-ed. A card should be filled out for each applicant, whether placed or 
not, and on properly arranged forms reports sent weekly to the Division of In- 
formation for compilation, study, and investigation. 

Under the general powers conferred by the statute which created the Depart- 
ment of Labor, the Secretary may do all that is herein suggested without addi- 
tional legislation other than a supplementary act giving the Department of 
Labor the required supervision of employment agencies doing interstate business. 

In connection with the foregoing I respectfully direct your attention to the 
British labor-exchange act of 1909, a copy of which may be found in my report 
on foreign labor exchanges, dated January 31, 1911. Under that act general 
authority is conferred on the British Board of Trade to establish labor ex- 
changes and take over private exchanges, the details, rules, and regulations to 
be framed and adopted by the said board of trade. 

It would appear that the passage of a law broad enough in its terms to enable 
the Secretary of Labor to meet emergencies as they arise and take steps to 
regulate them would be preferable to an act which would attempt to provide 
for everything arising in the management of labor employment agencies and 
exchanges. 

T. V. POWDERLY, 

Chief of Division. 



172 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Evidence tending to show the necessity for placing employment 
agencies doing interstate business under the control of the Depart- 
ment of Labor accumulates every month. It would appear that if 
no action is deemed advisable on the various bills before Congress 
looking to the establishment of an employment bureau, an act, 
brief and comprehensive, should be passed in line with the sugges- 
tions contained in the report just quoted. 

HELP FOR THE HARVEST FIELDS. 

For several years at the opening of the harvest season in the 
wheat-growing States appeals have come for help to gather the 
crop, but until this year no real practical steps were taken to direct 
men to the places where they were needed. 

On May 25 Charles L. Daugherty, State labor commissioner, Okla- 
homa City, Okla., telegraphed Hon. W. B. Wilson, Secretary of 
Labor, as follows: 

Would it be possible for you to communicate the needs of tbis State by way 
of men for tbe wheat harvest through any of the official channels of the State 
Department? We will need from twelve to fifteen thousand men at from two to 
two and one-half dollars per day with board, to help harvest our wheat and 
thrash same, and 85 per cent of men so employed will be given employment in 
this State by the farmers in handling the various forage crops, which promise 
a big yield at this time, thereby guaranteeing from four to six months' steady 
work. The State will maintain free employment offices at Oklahoma City, 
Enid, Alva, Woodward, Frederick, and other points in the State to help dis- 
tribute the men, and any publication you can give this matter through your 
department will be greatly appreciated by the citizens of this State. 

On receipt of that telegram the Secretary of Labor directed that 
everything possible be done to inform those in need of employment 
throughout the United States of the call coming from the State of 
Oklahoma. Under the direction of the Secretary a copy of that 
telegram was embodied in a bulletin which notified persons inter- 
ested in obtaining work of the kind specified to apply to any of the 
State free employment offices in the cities named in the foregoing 
telegram. Postmasters were requested to post the bulletin in a con- 
spicuous place and to have public attention called to it through the 
press. 

Immediately following the publication in the press of the needs 
of Oklahoma, the States of Kansas, Missouri, and South Dakota 
appealed for help, and on June 4 a bulletin, of which the following 
is a copy, was sent out by the Division of Information : 

postmaster : plkase post this in a conspicuous place and have public atten- 
tion called to it through the press. 

United States Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Immigration, 
Division of Information, 
Washington, June ■//, J914- 

NOTICE. 

harvest hands wanted in the middle west. 

The Division of Information of the Bureau of Immigration, U. S. Department 
of Labor, has received telegrams from Kansas, Missouri, and South Dakota con- 
cerning the need of harvest hands in those States, in addition to the request 
from Oklahoma which appeared in bulletin dated May 27, 1914. 



EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 173 

Persons interested in obtaining worli of tliis kind sliould apply to the offices 
in the States named. 

It will be necessary for those desiring work to defray their own expenses 
to the place of employment. 

KANSAS. 

40,000 men needed : wages will range upward from $2 per day and board, 
average probably $2.50. Large percentage of men will be needed for from 
90 to 120 days. Men can go direct to towns in wheat belt in central and west- 
ern Kansas and be distributed to farmers by local organizations, or write to 
W. L. O'Brien, director. State free employment bureau, Topeka, Kans., for 
directions. 

MISSOURI. 

30,000 men needed ; wages $2 to $3.50 per day according to experience, class 
of work and conditions: three to six months' work, beginning about June 15. 
Apply to State free employment offices at St. Louis, Kansas City, or St. Joseph, 
or write to John T. Fitzpatrick, labor commissioner, Jefferson City, Mo., for 
directions. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Harvest help needed beginning about July 15 ; wages $2 to $3.50 per day and 
board. Considerable of the former wheat acreage is now in alfalfa and corn, 
and help will be needed, through husking. Apply to Charles McCaffree, com- 
missioner of immigration, Pierre, S. Dak. 

Inquiries at once began to flow into the division concerning the 
opportunities for employment in the States named, and applicants 
presented themselves in person at the office of the Division of In- 
formation in Washington and at its branch office in New York City. 
Upward of a hundred persons called on the Chief of the Division 
of Information, and of that number 63 stated their intention to go 
to the West, defraying their ow-n expenses. 

The principal inquiry made by every one who applied was as to 
whether the Government or the States in question would defray 
transportation expenses. The one drawback to the immediate filling 
of every demand coming from the harvest fields was lack of trans- 
portation, and if some means can be devised to advance a loan to 
responsible men in need of employment during the harvest season 
there need be no fear of loss through lack of help to harvest the 
crops in future years. 

On June 24, on notice from the States indicated, the following 
bulletin was sent out and posted as were the others : 

POSTMASTER : PLEASE REMOVE FROM YOUR BULLETIN BOARD THE NOTICES DATED MAY 
27, 1914, AND JUNE 4, 1914, REGARDING THE NEED FOR HARVEST HANDS, AND SUB- 
STITUTE THIS BULLETIN, GIVING THE LATTER THE SAME PUBLICITY AS PREVIOUS 
BULLETINS. 

U. S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Immigration, 
Division of Information, 
Washington, June 2Jf, 1914- 

NOTICE 

regarding harvest HANDS. 

The State officials in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri have notified this 
di\asion that a sufficient number of men have proceeded to those States to meet 
the demands for help in the harvest fields, and South Dakota advises that 
many applications are being received for work in that State. 

All persons are accordingly advised not to proceed to any of these States with 
the expectation of procuring work in the harvest fields without first communi- 
cating with and securing definite assurances of employment from one of the 



174 REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

following officials : W. L. O'Brien, director State free employment bureau, To- 
peka, Kans. ; Charles L. Daugherty, State labor commissioner, Oklahoma City, 
Okla. ; John T. Fitzpa trick, labor commissioner. Jefferson , City, Mo.; Charles 
IMcCaffree, commissioner of immigration, Pierre, S. Dak. 

It has not been possible to estimate just how many men responded 
to the call for help, but sufficient is known to warrant the division in 
saying that through the publicity given under direction of the Secre- 
tary of Labor at least 75,000 who otherwise would not have known of 
the opportunities wended their way to the wheat-growing States 
and were employed during the harvest season in gathering in the 
crops. This transaction taking place so close to the end of the fiscal 
year makes it impossible to include the full details in this report, for 
at this time all of the States have not yet made complete reports to 
the Division of Information. It may not be amiss to include part of 
a letter received since the close of the fiscal year, as follows: 

I beg to advise that the results obtained from the publicity given by your 
department and this department, so far as attracting the attention and getting 
the number of harvest hands out in Missouri, was a huge success. For a very 
limited time a great volume of workers were wending their way over and across 
the State to the harvest fields. The approximate number of harvest hands used 
in this State during the harvest, from the best source of information that I have, 
namely, the board of agriculture, farm advisers, and crop reporters, was from 
30,000 to 35,000. 

A sufficient number of men having applied to the farmers of the 
other States for employment following publication of our bulletins, 
it is safe to assume that the number stated, 75,000, is a conservative 
estimate of those who would not have known of the opportunities 
for employment in the wheat-growing States had it not been for the 
work done through the Division of Information by direction of the 
Secretary of Labor. 

The call for help came just when the need for the men manifested 
itself. No time was to be lost. The action taken in response to the 
call was prompt and effective ; and it is gratifying to be able to state, 
even though full reports are not yet obtainable, that success attended 
the effort put forth in behalf of the farmers of Oklahoma, Missouri, 
Kansas, and South Dakota. 

SALEM FIRE, 

On June 25, 1914, a disastrous fire swept away the manufacturing 
and tenement portions of Salem, Mass., and although the work of 
providing employment for the idle and homeless of Salem was not 
completed until after the close of the last fiscal year it may not be 
inappropriate to report the action taken and something of the results 
obtained. Perhaps a comprehensive way of stating the result would 
be to incorporate the report of the Chief of the Division of Informa- 
tion, which will explain what was done and how it was accomplished. 

July 28, 1914. 
The honorable the Secretary of Labor 
(Through official channels). 
Sib: As per instructions contained In your letter of July 14, 1914, and ver- 
bally imparted to me prior to my departure on the 15th, I proceeded to Salem. 
Mass., and performed the duties assigned to me. 

That this report may be comprehensive and of value for future reference I 
deem it proper to include in it the correspondence which led up to my detail 
on so important a mission. 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 175 

A groat lire, which destroyed many factories, business houses, and homes 
in Salem. Mass.. occurred June 25, 1914. 

Early in July a letter, copy next following, was presented through Repre- 
sentative [Augustus P.] Gardner, of Massachusetts: 

"Hon. William B. Wilson, 

"Secretary of Labor, 

"Washington, D. G. 

" Deae Sir : As a result of the recent conflagration at Salem, Mass., in which 
many factories were destroyed, large numbers of men and women have been 
thrown out of employment. 

" These people were for the most part employed in the boot and shoe and 
cotton industries, and it has occurrred to me that you have data in your 
department which would assist in locating jobs for some of these people. 

" Congressman Gardner has kindly offered to present this letter to you in 
person, and I trust that you may, be able to give us some information which 
would lead to the finding of reemployment for some of these people in localities 
either in or not far removed from New England. 

" I am writing you as a member of the committee which has been formed to 
seek occupations for those who are without it and who have been in many 
cases burned out of house and home. 

" Thanking you in advance for any information you may be able to give 
me, I am, 

" Very truly, yours, John L. Saltonstall." 

On receipt of that letter the following telegram, prepared by you, was wired 
to 95 manufacturers of boots and shoes in Massachusetts and other New 
England States: 

" Great fire at Salem has destroyed mills in that city. Thousands of boot 
and shoe workers are homeless and idle. Can you give any of these people 
employment if they apply? If so, how many? Please wire answer." 

A telegram similar in all respects, save that the words "textile workers" 
were substituted for " boot and shoe workers," went the same day to 218 manu- 
facturers of cotton textiles. 

Immediately following the telegram indicated a letter embodying the same 
information was mailed by the Division of Information to 600 manufacturers of 
boots and shoes and to TOO manufacturers of textile fabrics located in the New 
England States, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland. 

The general president of the United Textile Workers of America, located at 
Fall River, Mass., and the general president of tlie Boot and Shoe Workers' 
Union, with headquarters at Boston, were apprised of the action taken by you 
and requested to offer suggestions in connection therewith. Both of these offi- 
cials were also notified of your action in detailing me to proceed to Boston and 
requested to cooperate in the work in hand. 

A telegram addressed by you to Alfred W. Donovan, chairman of the State 
board of labor and industries of Massachusetts, relative to the unemployment 
situations at Salem, was referred to Charles F. Gettemy, director of the bureau 
of statistics of Massachusetts. That official, in response to your telegram, 
stated that he had authorized the free employment bureau, through Walter L. 
Sears. sui:>eriutendent, to assist in alleviating conditions at Salem. 

Prior to my departure from Washington a telegram as follows came from 
Beverly, Mass. : 
" Secretary Wilson, 

"Department of Labor, 

"Washington, D. C. 

"Estimate Salem labor situation as follows: About 3,500 thrown out of em- 
ployment by fire. Of this number there remain in Salem about eleven hundred 
textile workers, half of whom are women. There are about 1.000 boot, shoe, and 
leather workers still here, and 400 who were employed in miscellaneous occu- 
pations. If there is any information you can give us, kindly reply to Wm. H. 
Reed, jr., secretary of relief committee, employment bureau, Phillips School, 
Salem, Mass. 

" J. L. Saltonstall." 

On reaching Salem on the morning of the 16th I proceeded to the Phillips 
School, where I found Mr. William H. Reed, jr., and a corps of assistants facing 
a very difficult problem, one which presented several angles, all of them per- 



176 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

plexing. To house, provide susteuauce, aud secure employmeut for 3,000 home- 
less, workless families was a task calling for the highest order of ability, 
patience, and knowledge of human nature and funds sufficient to finance the 
carrying out of the plans. 

I learned that in addition to the responses to your telegrams and letters re- 
ceived at the Department of Labor in Washington a large number of employers, 
anxious to hasten the relief work, had wired and were every day writing to 
Salem direct instead of making known their wants and intentions through the 
Department of Labor. I should say that perhaps 200 manufacturers had 
answered your appeal by writing to Mr. Reed or to some one whom they knew 
in Salem. 

It is estimated that of the 40,000 people that made up the population of Salem 
approximately 12,000 were workers, and of this number some 3.500 lost employ- 
ment as a direct result of the fire of June 25. This statement applies to con- 
ditions which existed immediately following the fire and before you were called 
upon to aid and in response to that call had sent out the appeal for help for 
those in need at Salem. 

A third of Salem, some 253 acres, was burned; about 3,000 homes, mostly 
tenements, and 46 manufactories or industrial plants covered this area before 
the fire. 

The 3,500 thrown out of work were for the most part French Canadians, 
Poles, Italians, Greeks, Russian Jews, and a few other non-English-speaking 
people. 

The following is a list of 20 plants which were totally destroyed ; also the 
number employed by each : 

Employees. 

Marston & Brooks 300 

Hodgdon Durand 75 

E. S. Woodbury 100 

M. Shortwell & Son 50 

D. Glover & Son 90 

Amei'ican Toy Co 50 

Highland Tanning Co 50 

P. J. Smith Counter Co 100 

Pitman & Brown Co 100 



Emploj'ees. 

Naumkeag Steam Cotton Co 1, 500 

Wilkinson Counter Co 300 

Arthur T. Way 175 

Carr Leather Co 100 

Patrick Creeden Co 150 

Martin Shribman Co 50 

Chas. H. Carey Co 25 

Charles H. Keefe 100 

Dane Machine Co 25 

Marrs Bros. Leather Co 25 j 

P. A. Field Shoe Co 305 I Total 3, 670 

So far as I could ascertain, the Naumkeag Steam Cotton Co., the largest 
concern in the city, employed before the fire 1,500 people. These represented 
about one-half the unemployed on the 16th of July. 

The problem at the time I arrived in Salem diffiered materially from that 
immediately after the fire. Homeless, workless, aud in many cases moneyless, 
the workers were panic-stricken. Relief was quickly rushed to Salem from all 
parts of the country, and the conditions were not only less severe but were 
becoming easier evei'y day. 

I found Mr. Reed in charge of a registration and transportation department, 
and, though deluged with applications for work and relief, was systematically 
attending to the many details promptly and satisfactorily. 

The Massachusetts State Free Employment Bureau, under the superintend- 
ency of Mr. Walter L. Sears, was represented at Salem by Francis E. Deady, 
an energetic, active, and very competent young man, who was rendering great 
aid and to whom I am indebted for much valuable information. 

I discovered that so far as taking part in the routine work of directing 
men to places of employment was concerned, my services were unnecessary, 
and I devoted most of my time to investigating conditions in and adjoining the 
fire district. 

After a discussion of the situation with Messrs. Reed and Deady it was 
decided that a duplicate copy of all requests for workers received at the 
Department of Labor in Washington should be sent to the free employment 
bureau at Boston. In this way the latter office, with its experienced staff of 
employees, could conduct the business of directing worlvers to such places as 
would be opened for them in response to your telegrams and letters without 
incurring the risk of sending two men to fill the same vacancy. 

On the ISth, after a conference with INIr. Senrs at his office in Boston, I 
wired the Assistant Chief of the Division of Information to "prepare two 
copies future bulletins of opportunities for Salem. Send one to Reed, the other 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENEEAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



177 



to Walter L. Sears, superintendent free emi^loyment office, Boston." During 
one hour at Mr. Reed's desk in Salem he had arranged to place five of those 
called for in response to your telegram. 

Inquiry elicited the information that the greater number of the unemployed 
now remaining in Salem are non-English-speaking, unskilled workers. The 
difficulty in placing these lies in the fact that since their arrival in this country 
they have been emploj^ed in the factories of Salem, have not attempted to learn 
English, and are naturally timid about leaving there to accept employment 
elsewhex'e. 

In addition to this I discovered, on what I regard as reliable ground, that 
the French-Canadian business men are urging their countrymen not to leave 
Salem even temporarily for fear that they may not return. The Salem 
relief fund, which on July 19 had grown to about $550,000. and so noted in the 
press, was pointed, to by these merchants and others as evidence that the vic- 
tims of the fire would be cared for in any event, and in consequence they 
need not leave Snlem. 

Rumors of all kinds as to the rapid building up of the factories were on every 
tongue; and these, too, were potent in halting many who might otherwise leave 
Salem. The 12.000 who lost their homes through the fire found shelter with 
relatives, friends, or acquaintances in many instances. Those who did not 
were cared for at two camps, one known as Bertram Field, the other Forest 
River Park. Just before I arrived in Salem the Bertram Field Camp was 
closed. Its temporary occupants were the Americanized French and others 
who could speak English. They have gone to Lowell, Lawrence, Ipswich. Pea- 
body, Beverly, and other near-by towns. Some have gone to cities outside the 
State. At the Forest River Camp some 192 families were located, representing 
817 individuals. It is expected that this camp will be closed before the end 
of the month. 

The careful, painstaking effort of the Salem relief committee, under Mr. 
Reed's supervision, to handle the problem of unemployment has met with a 
fair degree of success and each day the situation grew less tense. 

In response to your telegram Mr. John Golden, president of the United 
Textile Workers of America, called me on the long-distance phone from Fall 
River to say that he had just returned to that city and was then about to leave 
for Albany, N. Y., on official business. He further assured me that he had 
confidence in the officials of the Free Employment Bureau of Massachusetts, 
and would be satisfied with any arrangement I might make with that office. 

I called at the office of the Boot and Shoe Workers' Union, but found none 
of the officials present. At the free employment bureau I leai'ned that a repre- 
sentative of the Boston Central Labor Union was one of the staff, and as all 
matters relating to trade unions would pass before him I felt that no need 
existed for calling on the Boot and Shoo Workers' Union to appoint a repre- 
sentative to cooperate with me. 

From the time your telegrams and letters went out the situation at Salem 
began to brighten, and now there exists no reason why any boot or shoe worker 
or textile worker need remain idle in Salem, for the railroads are cooperating 
with the relief committee in providing transportation for all who find employ- 
ment elsewhere, while the positions offered in response to your appeal far out- 
number the skilled workers who were thrown idle by fire. 

The answers received in response to your telegrams and letters show a most 
gratifying result, for the number of opportunities thus secured for the Salem 
textile and boot and shoe workers is approximately as follows : 



July 14 213 

July 15 77 

July 16 71 

July 17 77 

July 18 171 



July 20 551 

July 21 27 

July 28 75 



Total 1,262 



I have no means of determining just how many responded to your appeal by 
sending to Salem direct for workers, but judge that the number must be between 
three and four hundred. It is safe to assume, therefore, that your call for 
help for the homeless, idle workers of Salem was responded to by the opening 
of not less than 1,500 places into which they could fit and retain their standing 
as producers. 

As to the unskilled male portion of the fire sufferers, the work of clearing 
away the debris and preparing for the rebuilding of Salem is rapidly taking up 
their time and attention. 

60629°— 15 12 



178 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

I regard the situation at Salem as gratifying. Tlie number of idle men and 
women lias rapidly dwindled since July 14. The directing of workers has been 
systematically carried forward. The situation is now well in hand, and the 
wisdom of your course in opening the door of relief to stricken Salem has been 
amply demonstrated. 

T. V. POWDERLY, 

Chief of Division. 

Since the filing of that report it has been estimated that all who 
were in need of employment were taken care of, and in this connec- 
tion the division takes pleasure in stating that the cooperation of 
the Free Employment Bureau of .Massachusetts with the DiA'ision 
of Information was prompt, willing, and effective. Under the able 
management of that bureau every application for help was at once 
honored and men sent forward to places of employment. It is 
gratifying to report that the most cordial relations exist between the 
Massachusetts Employment Bureau and the Division of Information. 

PUBLICITY. 

On January 24, 1914, the inspector in charge of the New York 
distribution branch advised the division that the New Yorker Staats- 
Zeitung, a newspaper published in the German language, had ex- 
pressed a willingness to publish, free of cost to the Government or 
to applicants, brief notices of such opportunities for securing em- 
ployment as might come to the Division of Information. The facts 
were submitted to the Secretary of Labor in a memorandum by the 
Commissioner General of Immigration on January 30, with the 
recommendation that the plan of cooperation be approved, and with 
the statement that, in his opinion, the same course could be pursued 
with respect to other large centers of population as well as New 
York City. The Secretary approved the plan, so far as it applied 
to farm labor. Accordingly the New York distribution branch fur- 
nishes each week to the New Yorker Staats-Zeitung a list of oppor- 
tunities for agricultural work available to Germans and the Staats- 
Zeitung publishes the information with such additional comment as 
it cares to make. 

As a result of the publicity thus given by the Staats-Zeitung, dur- 
ing the first six months of its operation, 1,174 Germans applied to the 
distribution branch for agricultural work, of whom 630 were directed 
to definite employment on farms. These workers were distributed 
to 23 different States at an average monthly w\age of $23.23, in addi- 
tion to board and lodging. In other words, through this single 
avenue of publicity and for but one nationality 630 persons have 
been placed at farm work, for which they receive, in the aggregate, 
a monthly compensation of $14,634.90, in addition to board and 
lodging. 

The success of this new plan of publicity was so marked that its 
extension to other newspapers and other cities was deemed advisable. 
Hence on June 13, 1914, the following letter was sent to all of the 
leading foreign-language newspapers in the United States, and a 
similar letter was sent to all of the leading American daily news- 
papers in the larger centers of population: 

The Division of Information of the Bureau of Immigration, Department of 
Labor, has been engaged in the work of promoting a beneficial distribution 
of aliens admitted to the United States, as directed by law, and. in addition, 
under its general powers, a like distribution of residents and citizens of the 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. l79 

United States wlio wish to avail themselves of opportunities for labor afforded 
through its Instrumentality. For this purpose the Division of Information, as 
part of the Bureau of Immigration, was established. This division has been 
in receipt of applications from farmers and others resident in every State of 
the Union, offering to hire men and women of the nationality and exi^erience 
designated, often giving terms and other information ; and so far as the means 
of publicity have permitted the division has brought these to the attention of 
persons seeking farm and other employment, whether residents or aliens ad- 
mitted at our immigration stations. Many have in this way secured employ- 
ment outside of the industrial centers of the country. The division has sought 
in the past, and is now desirous of availing itself of every avenue offered by 
State, county, or municipal authority, or otherwise, to secure publicity and fur- 
ther this work. The managers of the New Yorker Staats-Zeitung, a newspaper 
printed in New York City in the German language, patriotically offered to 
establish, free of charge to the Government or to applicants, a department In 
their journal devoted to the publication of such farm-employment opportunities 
as came to the Division of Information in the manner above stated. An experi- 
ence of 90 days in this entirely new field of publicity discloses the fact that 
during said period 516 Germans responded, and of that number 2S3 are known 
to have been placed at remunerative employment. The applicants have been 
located in 20 different States, New York and New Jersey receiving the greater 
part, due largely to the small cost of transportation from New York City, 
although Wisconsin, credited with 35, Michigan with 12, and. Illinois with 9, 
received a substantial proportion of those so placed. 

The average wage of those accepting employment was $24.01 per month, in- 
cluding board and lodging. In other words, through this single channel of 
publicity for one nationality alone, there has resulted in three months the plac- 
ing of 283 Germans on farms where they have become producers. 

From the success that has attended this undertaking, it is believed that with 
the cooperation of the foreign-language newspapers generally, and with distribu- 
tion branches established at the principal ports of entry and the leading cities, 
with officers in charge as now maintained at New York City, the results attained 
would far exceed even the gratifying showing which the first experiment has 
demonstrated. 

If your publication is willing to cooperate as above indicated, please advise 
the bureau to that effect. The inclosed envelope for reply will require no 
postage. 

A. Caminetti, 
Commissioner General. 

Approved : 

W. B. Wilson, 

Secretary of Labor. 

The time intervening between the date of sending out these letters 
and the preparation of this report has not been sufficient to enable all 
of the papers to give proper consideration to the matter and make 
reply. Notwithstanding this fact, favorable responses have been re- 
ceived from 25 newspapers printed in foreign languages and 20 
printed in the English-language newspapers. The papers are dis- 
tributed in 20 different cities as follows: Washington, Baltimore, 
New Orleans, Galveston, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, Milwaukee, 
Detroit, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, 
Boston, New York, Brookl}^, Buffalo, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh. 

It is believed that when sufficient time has elapsed the number of 
papers agreeing to cooperate will be greatly increased. Based on 
what has been accomplished through the publicity furnished by one 
paper, the New Yorker Staats-Zeitung, it is safe to predict that the 
results following the cooperation with this greatly increased number 
of papers, and with the establishment of a sufficient number of dis- 
tribution branches to make that cooperation effective, will be of far- 
reaching benefit alike to the farmers who are in need of additional 
help and to those in congested districts who desire to secure employ- 
ment on farms. 



180 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



DISTRIBUTION ZONES. 

It may not be inappropriate to discuss at this time a plan which 
is now in contemplation, and which in all probability will be put 
into operation before this report is in print, having for its object 
the dividing of the United States into distribution zones. The con- 
templated number of zones, the headquarters thereof, the territory 
embraced in each zone, and the subbranches are set forth in the 
following table : 



Zone 
No. 



Headquarters. 



Territory. 



Subbranches. 



Boston, Mass 

New York City, distribution 
branch (and Elhs Island, 
N. Y.). 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Baltimore, Md 

Norfolk, Va 

Jacksonville, Fla 

New Orleans, La 

Galveston, Tex , 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Chicago, 111 , 

MinneapoUs, Minn 

St. Louis, Mo 

Denver, Colo 

Helena, Mont , 

Seattle, Wash 

Portland, Oreg 

San Francisco, Cal 

Los Angeles, Cal 



Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Maine 
New York, New Jersey, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Connecticut. 

Peimsylvania, Delaware, West Vir- 
ginia. 

Maryland , 

Virginia, North Carolina 

Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South 
Carolina. 

Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, 
Teimessee. 

Texas, New Mexico 

Ohio, Kentucky 

Illinois, Indiana, Mictdgan, Wiscon- 
sin. 

Minnesota, North Dakota, South 
Dakota. 

Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Iowa. 

Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Utah 

Montana, Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

Northern California, Nevada 

Southern CaUfornia, Arizona 



Providence, Portland. 
Buffalo. 



Pittsburgh. 



Savaimah, Mobile, Birming- 
ham, Charleston. 

Gulf port, Miss.; Memphis, 
Tenn. 

Albuquerque. 

Detroit. 



Kansas City, Mo.; Des Moines, 

Iowa. 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Moscow, Idaho. 



Fresno, Sacramento. 
San Diego; Tucson, Ariz. 



The intention is to designate officials of the Immigration Service 
already on duty in the cities named to attend to the work of distri- 
bution. In this way it is hoped to extend the work of the division as 
now carried on at its distribution branch in New York City to every 
State in the Union. It will furnish a means for making effective the 
publicity afforded by the newspapers as outlined earlier in this re- 
port; it will tend to relieve the congestion in industrial centers and 
awaken interest in farm life and rural occupations generally. It is 
not intended to limit the activities of these distribution offices to 
aliens, but our own citizens, male and female, are to be given an equal 
chance. 

In this connection it is also hoped, through cooperation with the 
Post Office Department, to effect an arrangement whereby every post 
office in the United States will become an agency for the distribution 
of the blanks of this division, so that farmers who desire additional 
help in the fields, farmers' wives who require workers in the homes, 
and men and women seeking employment on farms or in rural com- 
munities can apply at any post office for a blank on which to make 
application, said blank, when filled out and signed, to be mailed 
under Government frank to the division of information and the sub- 
stance thereof transmitted by the division in the form of bulletins to 
the appropriate distribution office or offices for attention. Notices to 
the effect that these blanks may be had on request from the postmas- 
ter will be posted in a conspicuous place in each post office. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 181 

Furthermore, this plan will overcome one of the great difficulties 
encountered in the distribution of labor as heretofore carried on, in 
that the distance from the point of distribution to the employer was 
in many instances entirely too great. Under the new system every 
part of a zone will be within a reasonable distance from the head- 
quarters or a branch office in such zone. 

The extension of the work of the division to include the distribu- 
tion and employment of labor throughout the United States, as out- 
lined above, can only be accomplished with the cooperation and ap- 
proval of the Secretary of Labor and the Commissioner General of 
Immigration, and the Division of Information is particularly pleased 
to be able to record the fact that both of these officials generously and 
actively support this proposed enlargement of the scope of the duties 
of the division and have practically directed that the plan be put 
into operation. 

In conclusion, the division hopes to be able in its next annual report 
to record the fact that it has secured the cooperation of farmers' or- 
ganizations in directing harvest hands to where they may be needed, 
and that arrangements shall have been entered into with the various 
railroad companies to provide transportation to workers at reduced 
rates. 

In this connection it should be noted that some complaints have 
been registered regarding the treatment received by harvest hands 
and the long hours they were required to work. These matters are, 
however, subject to future action, and it is expected that the next re- 
port will record a satisfactory settlement of all disputed questions. 
Respectfully, 

T, V. POWDERLY, 

Chiefs Division of Information. 
Hon. A. Caminetti, 

C omTThissioner General of Immigration. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE OF DISTRIBUTION BRANCH AT 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Chief, Division of Information, 

Bureau of Immigration, Washington, D. C: 

I have the honor to report that during the fiscal year July 1, 1913, to June 
30, 1914, applications for information were received from 19,091 persons, as 
noted in monthly reports forwarded to the division. Of this number it is posi- 
tively known that 3,243 accepted employment at points to which they were 
directed. Of these 3,243, 68 per cent were directed to agricultural pursuits, 
27 per cent as common laborers in rural districts and villages, and the remain- 
ing 5 per cent were made up of miscellaneous help who accepted work as do- 
mestics, factory hands, porters, marine firemen, etc. Less than 2J per cent of 
all those who accepted employment remained in large cities. No attempt was 
made to cater to city employment, every effort being directed toward removing 
applicants from congested centers to the rural districts. Detailed statistics 
have been forwarded monthly to the division showing nationality, occupation, 
wages, and States to which directed. 

In point of numbers who found work through information furnished, the 
total for this fiscal year is the smallest in the history of the branch. I am, 
however, convinced that the numbers who profited by the information given, 
but concerning whom we have not definite knowledge as to the final results, 
exceed any previous year. The falling oft in numbers may be accounted for in 
part by the fact that the branch moved from the old quarters at 17 Pearl Street, 
where it was located a number of years, and the additional fact that said old 
quarters were immediately occupied by the labor bureau of the New York 



182 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

State Department of Agriculture and the Immigrant Free Labor Bureau, two 
organizations engaged in the placing of men free of charge. Naturally, many 
men who knew of the address as one at which information could be obtained 
free of charge did not seek further when they found what they desired through 
the new occupants. Another reason for the shortage is due to the fact that 
hundreds of men who are usually employed on public works and improvements 
went to the farms this year because of lack of work on such works and im- 
provements. 

Our present quarters are admirably suited to the work, being located at the 
most convenient point in the city for transportation facilities and in a section 
which unemployed men have been accustomed to frequent for many years 
when seeking employment. Being located as we are in a Federal building 
effects a saving in rent of more than $1,800 per annum and gives us quarters 
infinitely better than we had and more accessible to immigrant and resident 
applicants. It will take some time to make the new address well known, but 
this is being rapidly accomplished through the very friendly cooperation of the 
press, especially the Staats-Zeitung of this city and Zgoda, the official organ 
of the Polish National Alliance. 

One of the difficult problems in this work is the securing of reliable and 
definite information, information which can be given out with positive assur- 
ance as to its accuracy and fullness. Employers and employees alike are in 
many instances prone to sins of omission rather than commission. There is 
rarely a misstatement of facts by employers, but frequently conditions or re- 
quirements are not mentioned if not attractive. This causes no end of trouble 
to us and disappointment and expense to employers and employees. Employees 
unless questioned closely by one acquainted with the kind of work they are 
to do will frequently give wrong impressions as to ability, leading to disap- 
pointment and dissatisfaction, and this in spite of warnings that they will not 
be employed if they misrepresent their qualifications. To prevent this in so 
far as is possible, we require the applicant's statement as to experience, 
ability, and employment desired prior to giving information as to opportunities 
available. Having secured his statement, we select the opportunity for which 
he seems best fitted and as a rule get satisfactory results. Some applicants, 
however, are well coached and will answer readily all questions concerning 
farm work, for instance, when they know positively nothing of the work. To 
properly handle such a case a practical demonstration farm would be necessary. 
The average man does not seem to realize what farming is. It is neither a 
science nor a trade, but both combined ; and the idea that any man with proper 
physical development can properly do farm work is a myth. It must be learned 
as any trade or scientific calling must be learned. 

Because of the real nature of farm woi'k, cooperation with certain organiza- 
tions is difficult, as some of the workers of these organizations are ignorant of 
the requirements of farm work. They frequently refer to us men who have 
never seen a farm except from the window of a train ; or will send a man of 
40, who was born on a fanu (so stated), omitting to mention that he has lived 
in the city since the age of 10; or the poor fellow who has contracted tuber- 
culosis in the factory and whose physician recommends out-of-door life, taking 
no note of the danger of infection should he be sent to the farm ; or the pa- 
roled convict whom no one in the city will employ, and so on. 

In contrast to the above are the very highly satisfactory results obtained 
from cooperation of certain newspapers and mission societies. The New Yorker 
Staats-Zeitung has for some months past been publishing free of all charge 
bulletins of opportunities available through the Division of Information. This 
paper reaches Germans of all classes, and we have found the applicants re- 
sponding through this publicity most satisfactory. The results have proved 
the wisdom of such publicity and the fact that among the city employed as 
well as among the unemployed at large are to be found many competent men 
who are anxious to enter and follow agricultural pursuits. I have forwarded 
weekly reports of the results of this cooperation. I am of the opinion that 
when all of our newspapers take up this matter of giving information to the 
public the results will be immediately noticeable and beneficial to all concerned. 

Closer cooperation with the station at Ellis Island would, in my opinion, lead 
to better results. Certain aliens embark for the United States seeking employ- 
ment, with no definite address. Such aliens are furnished with an address by 
some agent abroad to meet the manifest requirements — often that of an employ- 
ment agency, more frequently that of some so-called banker. These men have 
no relatives or friends in the United States, or, if they have, they do not know 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 183 

where they are located. Other inmiigrants lose the addresses of their friends 
in transit; in other cases the addresses are old, and the relatives or friends 
have moved to parts unknown to the alien or immigration authorities; still 
others destined to friends or relatives in the interior have not sufficient funds 
for the inland transportation, and the persons to whom they are destined can 
not or will not forward the necessary amount for travel. Such aliens, if other- 
wise eligible to land, very frequently are admitted to the care of one of the 
various mission societies which have representatives at the station. Such 
societies are doing good work, and the aliens discharged to their care seldom 
come to grief; but, in my opinion, all such cases should first be called to the 
attention of this branch before being admitted to any society, in order that they 
may be immediately directed to work, whenever practicable, thus saving 
expense and valuable time and avoiding the dangers which may be encountered 
in the city of New York as well as the temptation to remain in the great city 
until funds are exhausted. This last named frequently happens, and hundreds 
of good men — at least the wrecks of what were good men — are to be found 
washing dishes in restaurants, portei's in saloons, and other similar work in 
the city, brought to their present condition through not having sufiicient funds 
to go to the better employment for which they were once fitted and being forced 
to accept such nearer at hand employment as was available. 

There is an ever-present reception committee of watchful crooks waiting 
for each unattended prosperous-looking immigrant who emerges froni the 
barge ofiice, where he lands in New York, and the work of separating him 
from his worldly goods is a matter of but a few short pleasant moments to 
these parasites who constitute the committee referred to. These men work 
in the vicinity of the barge office, usually in Battery Park and near-by streets, 
through which the immigrants must pass, and carry on a regular trade of petty 
thieving, robbing the ignorant immigrants of anything they can lay their hands 
on. A case which came to my attention in June of this year is that of a Scotch 
woman who was stopping at one of the mission houses while trying to secure 
employment. She went to Battery Park, and while reading her paper placed 
her purse beside her on the bench. It was stolen and with it her last penny. 
In this condition she was referred to this branch and placed as a domestic the 
same day in the country home of a gentleman personally known to me. 

Another case, which happened in the latter part of May of this year, was 
that of a German and his wife who w^ere stopping at one of the mission houses 
while waiting for employment. They did not place their money in the safe of 
the home as advised. One afternoon they went to a moving-picture show in 
the lower end of the city and upon their return the husband reported that his 
pocket had been picked at the show and all his money, $600, taken. With 
such good pickings and easy subjects it is small wonder that the number of 
these nimble-fingered conscienceless rascals grows no less. 

The " dropped-pocketbook " swindle is practiced almost daily; the old games 
of " selling excursion boats " and " pai'k privileges for fruit stands " less 
frequently, but regularly. It seems to be without the jurisdiction of the immi- 
gration authorities to protect the landed immigrants from these rogues, and 
the police are not always successful in looking after their welfare. Therefore 
it might be well to use preventives Instead of cures by directing the alien to 
actual work instead of places where he can only seek work, and in such a way 
as to avoid the dangers which do exist. Such immigrants as are referred to 
this hranch and directed by us to employment rarely see New York, except 
from the deck of the ferry which takes them from Ellis Island to their trains. 

Transportation as a stumbling block to distribution is properly recognized as 
one of the most difficult obstacles to overcome in the bringing about of a proper 
adjustment of supply and demand of labor. While New York groans under 
the burden of feeding and housing its thousands of idle men, Kansas may be 
crying aloud for help in her wheat fields to save the crops from destruction. 
But, assuming that the idle man has been given the information that his 
services are wanted, how can he reach the work? Hundreds of solutions have 
been offered and rejected; the only solution which presents itself to me as one 
which does not carry with it the possibility of injustice, swindling, or one of 
the other many objections usually raised against proiwsed plans, is to have 
the man who wants the job get himself to it and at as reasonable cost as pos- 
sible, then have the employer for whom he has worked satisfactorily reimburse 
him for the expense in whole or in part after his services have terminated. To 
help such a plan along I would suggest that the transportation lines be per- 
mitted — not compelled or even requested — to issue through the United States 



184 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Department of Labor special rates to workingmeu when traveling to positive 
employment. An act based upon the following would in my opinion serve the 
purpose and safeguard all interests : 

" Section 1. That railway and steamship lines and other common carriers 
may issue to certain workers herein mentioned special reduced rates of trans- 
portation under rules and regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of the 
United States Department of Labor, who is hereby empowered and authorized 
to make such rules and regulations, and that all existing laws are hereby 
modified to meet the provisions of this act in so far as they may conflict with 
the provisions thereof or its administration : Provided, That said rates shall be 
regularly filed with the Interstate Commerce Commission in the same manner 
and form as is required by the law for other passenger rates; but that the 
granting of such reduced rates shall be entirely voluntary on the part of any 
railway, steamship line, or other common carrier. If granted, however, they 
shall be binding for the period agreed upon by said companies and the Sec- 
retary of the United States Department of Labor. 

" Sec. 2. That such reduced rates may be allowed only on written order of 
an authorized official of the United States Department of Labor, designated by 
the Secretary thereof, which official shall positively assure himself that the 
ti'aveler is in reality a resident of the United States, or, if alien, that he or she 
has been legally admitted to the United States by proper authority and is a 
person seeking legitimate employment to which he or she is being directed by 
a proper agent or agency, recognized as such by the United States Department 
of Labor, to positive employment at a specifically named address : Provided, 
That dependent members of the immediate family of such person seeking and 
proceeding directly to such employment may in the discretion of the afore- 
named representative of the United States Department of Labor accompany 
said traveler at sarpe reduced rate; or if the person seeking and being directed 
to employment proceed alone, then said dependent members of his or her im- 
mediate family may, in the discretion of the representative of the United States 
Department of Labor, travel later at the reduced rate, if still in effect, to join 
said person, said dependent members to include wives, dependent children, or 
dependent husbands or parents only. 

" Sec. 3. That for the purpose of the administration of this act the Secretary 
of the United States Department of Labor may in writing designate and em- 
power any official of the United States Department of Labor or bureaus under 
said department to issue orders for said reduced-rate transportation : Provided, 
That all officials so designated shall be of the classified civil service and bonded 
to the United States in an amount to be determined by the Secretai'y of the 
United States Department of Labor, but to be in no case less than $1,000, pre- 
miums for said bonds to be paid by the United States Department of Labor, 
which. payment is hereby authorized, said bond to cover all financial loss to the 
United States, to persons seeking employment, or to transportation companies, 
through error or fraud on part of bondee in the execution of duties in ordering 
said reduced rates, but not to apply to payment of fines imposed for violation 
of this act: Provided further. That if any such representative orders reduced 
transportation in violation of the provisions of this act, and the transportation 
so ordered is used in whole or in part, his bondsman shall be liable for the 
difference between the regular and reduced fare, which difference shall be 
paid to the transportation company furnishing the reduced transportation, such 
reimbursement not to relieve said representative from punishments provided 
for violations of this act. 

" Sec. 4. That any person who shall knowingly issue, cause to be issued, or 
be a pai'ty to the issue of such reduced transportation for the xise of any person 
or persons not of the classes by this act entitled to use the same, or for any 
purpose not provided by this act, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and if con- 
victed shall be punished for the first offense by a fine of not less than $10 nor 
more than $100. or imprisonment at hard labor for less than ten days nor more 
than one hundred days, or both. 

" Sec 5. That any person other than those heretofore specified as being per- 
mitted to use such reduced transportation who uses such transportation, or 
any persons of the classes named as permitted to use such transportation who 
uses such transportation for any purpose other than the purposes designated 
shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall if convicted be punished for the 
first offense by a fine of not less than $10 nor more than $100, or imprisonment 
at hard labor for not less than ten days nor more than one hundred days, or 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 185 

both. Further, that second offense of violation of either section 4 or section 5 
shall be punished by either maximum fine or imprisonment therein named, and 
that violations subsequent to the second offense shall be punished by both 
maximum fine and maximum imprisonment mentioned in said sections. 

"Sec. G. That reduced transportation issued as provided in this act shall 
be stamped on each ticket and coupon * Special Rate, United States Depart- 
ment of Labor,' and that such tickets or orders may not be redeemed in whole 
or in unused part except upon written order of the United States Department 
of Labor who issued the order for the said transportation. 

" Sec. 7. That trafficking in said reduced transportation, the buying or selling 
of the same except upon written order of a duly designated representative of 
the United States Department of Labor, the having in possession by any 
person not legally and by this act entitled to use or issue same, are each and 
all forbidden, and that violation of this section shall be a misdemeanor, and 
in cases w^here conviction is obtained shall be punished in the same manner, 
amounts, and degrees as prescribed in sections 4 and 5 of this act. 

" Sec. 8. That this act shall be administered by the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor; all violations thereof shall be called by representatives of the 
said Department of Labor to the attention of the Department of Justice, 
which shall prosecute the offending parties, and district attorneys shall bring 
proper action for such reported violations in the United States courts having 
jurisdiction. 

" Sec 9. This act shall be effective immediately upon passage." 

To make a success of this work, I believe it to be necessary that the plan 
to establish additional branches of the division, now under consideration by 
the department, be put in operation immediately. I am convinced that the 
establishment of numerous subbranches should follow as soon as possible in 
order that efficient information service may be established and maintained 
throughout the land. I recommend the greatest possible publicity to the work 
of the division in order that employers and employees may alike benefit from 
the services rendered, also the fullest cooperation with responsible newspapers, 
societies, and agencies who make no charge to employees for services rendered. 

In my opinion the Federal Division of Information should be the clearing 
house for information of all kinds of interest to employers, employees, and all 
workers. It should collect and promptly and efficiently give the greatest pos- 
•sible publicity to this information, to the end that every employer in need of 
help may without delay or unnecessary expense know just where such help 
is available, and every idle man be able to ascertain, without undue trouble, 
expense, or delay just where his services are needed and to whom to apply 
for the work wanted. This may be brought about by a close cooperation with 
State and municipal bureaus and agencies, with employers' associations, and 
with other like bodies which are in a position to keep in close touch with the 
local needs. Just as important is the keeping of men posted as to where their 
services are not needed. Daily bulletins should in my opinion be issued cov- 
ering in a general way, but as specifically as practicable, conditions of the 
labor market in every section of the country. These bulletins should be given 
to the daily press and also posted in conspicuous places in all public Federal 
buildings. They should include the address of the nearest branch of the Di- 
vision of Information, to which application may be made for detailed infor- 
mation concerning existing opportunities for employment. 

The steps now being taken by the department to divide the country into dis- 
tricts with a large and efficient branch of the division in each district, each 
branch to be in charge of several subbranches for the local needs and reporting 
daily to its main branch all details of the work by exchange of carbons of all 
correspondence as well as reports as to all local changes in the labor situation 
is timely and should prove most beneficial. 

Actual placements of men and filling of opportunities should in my opinion 
be made by the State, municipal, and other bureaus established for that purpose, 
the Federal bureau requiring, in return for the information furnished these 
bureaus, statistics of results following such cooperation. 

I heartily approve of the recommendation to establish a registration system 
consisting of blanks to be filled out by applicants desiring employment or em- 
ployers desiring help of any kind, said blanks to be kept on hand at all post 
offices of the United States for free distribution and to be forwarded officially 
by the postmasters to the division in all cases where the applicant deposits same 
with the postmaster, franked envelopes addressed to the nearest main branch of 



186 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

the division to be furnistiecl postmasters by the division for this purpose. In 
every post office I would place conspicuously a notice advising of the existence 
and purpose of such blanks. 

In closing this report I beg to call attention to the very efficient services of 
my associates in the work of this branch and to recommend tangible recognition 
of said services. The cost of living for years past has been and still is advanc- 
ing rapidly while salaries remain the same, with the result that the younger 
men hesitate to assume family responsibilities and the older ones with families 
find themselves overcome by the constantly increasing expenses with no increase 
in income with which to meet them. There is one man in my office who receives 
$60 per month and from this amount must support himself and his aged mother. 
With his rent paid, he has but a trifle over $1 per day to buy food, clothes, 
medicines, etc., for two persons. I have in a previous communication requested 
an increase in his salary, and hope that it may be granted ; also that the other 
members of my force may receive increases commensurate with their work and 
such as will offset the increased cost of living which is with us in fact. 

C. L. Gbeen, Inspector in Charge. 



APPENDIX III. 



REPORTS OF COMMISSIONERS AND 

INSPECTORS IN CHARGE OF 

DISTRICTS. 



187 



APPENDIX III. 

REPORTS OF COMMISSIONERS AND INSPECTORS IN CHARGE OF 

DISTRICTS. 



REPORT OF UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION FOR 

CANADA, IN CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 1, COMPRISING ALL CANA- 
DIAN SEAPORTS AND THE ENTIRE CANADIAN BORDER. 

I beg to submit the following report i^ertainiiig to immigration matters in 
district No. 1 for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 : 

Class A. Aliens manifested on board steamships and examined at ports of 
arrival under the immigration laws of the LTnited States: 

Number examined at Canadian Atlantic seaports 46,959 

Number examined at Canadian Pacific seaports 1, 384 

Total 48,843 

Percentage debarred at Atlantic seaports. 1.84. 
Percentage debarred at Pacific seaports, 0.21. 

Regarding aliens shown in above figures as seeking entry to the United States 
at Canadian Atlantic seaports and Canadian Pacific seaports the following 
summary will show the manner in which their cases were disposed of: 

Admitted on primary examination 45.109 

Admitted by board of special inquiry 2,053 

Admitted outright on appeal 76 

Admitted on bond 104 

Total admitted 47, 342 

Admitted by board of special inquiry 2,070 

Debarred by board of special inquiry 1,049 

Examination not completed 72 

Total held for board of special inquiry 3. 191 

Admitted outright on appeal 76 

Admitted on bond 104 

Debarred on appeal 195 

Total appeals decided 375 

Causes for exclusion : 

Imbeciles 1 

Feeble-minded 14 

Insane 7 

Tuberculosis 4 

Trachoma 56 

Favus 2 

Other dangerous and contagious diseases 8 

Likely to become public charges 628 

Contract laborers 71 

Section 11 14 

LTnder 16 years, unaccompanied 40 

Assisted aliens 1 

Criminals 19 

Prostitutes 2 

Procurers 1 

Passport provision, section 1 1 

Total 869 

189 



190 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Class B. Aliens coming originally to Canada, and who sought entry to 
the United States within 1 year from date of arriA'al : 

Total number examined 20.966 

Total number debarred 2,185 

Percentage debarred. 10.42. 
Class C. Aliens who entered Canada via the United States and aliens 
from the United States who sought reenti'y thereto within 1 year : 

Total number examined 16,515 

Total number debarred 1,465 

Percentage debarred, 8.87. 
Class CC. Aliens claiming residence of more than 1 year in Canada, but 
who were unable to give satisfactory proof thereof: 

Total number examined 3,824 

Total number debarred 564 

Percentage debarred, 14.74. 
Class D. Aliens who api^lied for admission to the United States after 
a residence of more than 1 year in Canada, the transportation lines 
being exempt from payment of head tax as to this class: 

Total number examined 17.909 

Total number debarred 2, 295 

Percentage debarred, 12.81. 
Class E. Citizens of Canada entering the United States for permanent 
residence : 

Total number examined 45, 893 

Total number debarred 3,083 

Percentage debarred, 6.71. 
Aliens debarred at border stations, but not included in above figui'es, 
who applied for admission to the United States for temporary 
sojourn 760 

Total number examined at border stations 105, 867 

Regarding aliens shown in above figures as seeking entry to the United States 
at Canadian border ports of entry, the following summary will show the 
manner in which their cases were disposed of: 

Admitted on primary examination 55,473 

Admitted by board of si^ecial inquiry 39,891 

Admitted outright on appeal M59 

Admitted on bond ^17 

Total admitted 95, 364 

Admitted by board of si>ecial inquiry 39.891 

Debarred by board of special inquiry ^10,352 

Examination not completed 151 

Total held for board of special inquiry 50, 394 

Admitted outright on appeal 159 

Admitted on bond 17 

Debarred on appeal 1,306 

Total appeals decided 1,482 

Causes for exclusion : 

Idiots 5 

Imbeciles ■ 6 

Feeble-minded 35 

Epileptic 13 

Insane 48 

Tuberculosis 88 

Trachoma 587 

Favus 30 

Other dangerous and contagious diseases 86 



1 Included in above as debarred. 

3 Includes 176 aliens subsequently admitted on appeal. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 191 

Causes for exclusion — Continued. 

Beggars 24 

Paupers , 11 

Likely to become public charges 6,610 

Surgeon's certificate — 

Physically defective 44 

Mentally defective 32 

Contract laborers , 1, 495 

Section 11 57 

Under 16 years, unaccompanied 228 

Assisted aliens 323 

Criminals 289 

Polygamists ^ 3 

Prostitutes 193 

Procurers 142 

Passport provision section 1 20 

Receiving proceeds of prostitution 3 



Total 10,352 



Chinese examined 988 

Number debarred 53 

Percentage debarred, 5.36. 

For the year covered by this report 3,013 aliens were refused examination, 
owing to nonreceipt of guaranty of payment of head tax. There were also 
1,535 returned from the border for board of special inquiry hearing who failed 
to present themselves for such examination ; also 1,586 referred to board of 
special inquiry from railway stations and wharves at interior points in Canada 
where the bureau's ofiicers are located who likewise failed to present themselves 
for examination, and these three classes may very properly be added to the 
number debarred. 

Grand total of border class debarred 16,486 

Percentage debarred, 14.72. 

Grand total examined 161,332 

Grand total debarred 17,408 

Percentage grand total debarred, 10.78. 

Number of United States citizens returning from Canada 44,013 

During the past year, as will be noted above, 48,343 aliens destined to United 
States points were examined by our officers at Canadian seaports. These flgui'es 
practically duplicate the arrivals for the fiscal year previous. While aliens 
arriving by the Canadian lines continued satisfactory from a health point of 
view, yet it will be noted that exclusion at the Canadian ports increased more 
than 100 per cent. Officers on duty at these ports, in accordance with the 
bureau's wishes, have exercised extreme care in the examination of aliens 
coming before them. 

Where applicants destined to congested centers were without reason- 
able funds, and without relatives or friends at destination capable of assisting, 
boards of special inquiry have been resorted to, and this more careful pro- 
cedure has resulted in the debarment of a much greater percentage of appli- 
cants than has characterized the work of inspection at Canadian ports in the 
past. 

During the earlier portion of the past fiscal year our service met with no 
end of trouble because of large numbers of aliens being booked to Quebec and 
Montreal who were in reality destined to points in the United States. For a 
considerable length of time aliens of this class continued to come by every 
steamer, until it became necessary to appeal to the steamship officials, the 
Dominion immigration service, and local consuls representing countries whence 
such aliens came to aid our service in putting an end to the fraudulent mani- 
festing of these passengers. Drastic action was required to destroy the prac- 
tice. Upon arrival of steamers all aliens booked to Canada were closely ques- 
tioned by the Canadian authorities as to real destination. If found improperly 
manifested immediate deportatiou was resorted to, and as soon as foreign 
booking agents became aware that this policy would prevail at Canadian ports 
our troubles from fraudulent manifesting came to an end. 



192 BEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
ALIENS EXAMINED AT BORDER PORTS. 

The number of aliens examined at border ports of enti*y during the last fiscal 
year was 17,254 in excess of the number handled in any year previous, the total 
being 105,867. There were pei-iods during the year at certain localities along 
the border where the aliens excluded equaled 25 per cent of the number 
examined. As will be seen by the tables above, the rejections at the border 
for the entire year — 14.72 per cent — have never been so numerous. Labor con- 
ditions in Canada were unsatisfactory practically during the entire year. 
Large numbers of laborers had wintered in Canada unemployed, with the expec- 
tation of readily finding work in the spring ; but their services being uncalled 
for, an exodus to the United States of thousands of these workmen was a con- 
dition with which our oQicers suddenly found themselves confronted. 

It will not be diflicult to understand the perplexities which attended the 
inspection of aliens at the border ports when consideration is given to the facts 
that hundreds of such applicants were of a class whose admission would have 
involved little or no risk had they not been practically without funds and had 
not the labor markets at points of intended destination appeared already to be 
fully supplied. The exclusion of laborers because of lack of funds and scarcity 
of employment in the United States naturally aroused some complaint, but the 
course pursued by our inspectors would seem but a reasonable and proper 
exercise of the power conferred upon immigration officers in the act defining 
the status of such officers, for in determining whether an alien applicant for 
admission to the country will be likely to suitably maintain himself it would 
seem of the utmost importance that members of boards of special inquiry care- 
fully weigh all information procurable relative to industrial and labor condi- 
tions at the given destination of those examined. 

DISTRIBUTION OF ADMITTED ALIENS. 

In its letter of May 29. containing instructions pertaining to the preparation 
Of annual reports, the bureau has particularly invited comment from its various 
officers in charge upon the subject of proper distribution of admitted aliens. 
Touching this subject only briefly, in response to the bureau's invitation for 
comment on the question of how best to accomplish the distribution of admitted 
aliens so as to prevent the congestion in urban centers, it seems doubtful 
whether any one plan can be devised that will provide the complete relief de- 
sired, but it is firmly believed that much advantage can be gained by resorting 
to all three of the plans here noted : 

1. Adoption of the Federal labor-exchange system, similar to that now in use 
throughout Germany and England. 

2. Cooperation between the bureau's officer in charge of the division of dis- 
tribution and its commissioners of immigration and the officer or officers of the 
various State governments having charge of immigration matters, to the end 
that a practicable plan may be devised whereby admitted immigrants may be 
moved to those interior localities where help is in demand. 

3. Stimulate distribution to the more sparsely settled portions of the country 
among arriving immigrants themselves by a vigorous dissemination among 
steamship officials, booking agents. American consuls abroad, and similar for- 
eign officials residing in the United States of the information that henceforth 
it will be the policy of our Government to rigorously apply the " likely to become 
a public charge " provision of the immigration law to arriving aliens who may 
be destined to urban centers already congested and where unemployment is 
known to exist. 

ENFORCEMENT OF ALIEN CONTRACT-LABOR LAWS. 

Because of the cordial support given them by the department, the bureau's 
officers in this district have been enabled during the past year to do work of 
a highly satisfactory character in the way of enforcing our alien contract-labor 
laws. As regards aliens seeking entry to the United States in consequence of 
" offers," " promises," or " agreements," or because of having been " assisted," 
" encouraged," or " solicited " to migrate for the purpose of taking employment, 
the observance of a policy requiring officers to discriminate in favor of the 
alien whose occupation might be more mentnl than manual, thus rendering the 
law effective against aliens following the pursuits common to manual laborers, 
to a very large degree robbed the alien contract-labor law of its vitality, and 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



193 



in addition gave rise to no end of criticism because of tlie discrimination re- 
ferred to. Under present instructions, however, our oflBcers are made to feel 
that it is the desire of the department that the alien contract-labor laws be 
made to apply with equal strictness to all aliens seeking entry to the country, 
except those specifically exempted in the act itself. 

By reference to page 189 it will be seen that as regards aliens of class A 
(arrivals at Canadian seaports having United States destinations) the number 
excluded as contract laborers was comparatively small, but the table next 
hereafter given will afford a fairly good idea as to the work which our officers 
have in hand to prevent violations of the contract-labor laws along the Canadian 
border, where no less than 1,570 aliens were excluded for the cause mentioned 
during the past fiscal year. 

Table showing number of aliens debarred as coming to the United States in 
violation of the alien contract labor laws, the number of said aliens who 
appealed, and the disposition of said appeal cases. 



Ports. 



Total aliens 
debarred 
as alien 
contract 
laborers. 



Total who 
appealed. 



Total ad- 
mitted on 
appeal. 



Total 
whose ap- 
peals were 
dismissed. 



Atlantic seaports: 

Quebec, Province of Quebec. 
Halifax, Nova Scotia 

Total Atlantic seaports 

Border stations: 

Buffalo,N. Y 

Blaine, Wash 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Detroit , Mich 

Eastport, Idaho 

Duluth, Minn 

International Falls, Minn 

Halifax, Nova Scotia 

Houlton, Me 

Montreal, Canada 

Lewiston, N. Y 

Marcus, Wash 

Newport , Vt 

Niagara Falls, N. Y 

Oroville , W'ash 

Port Huron, Mich 

Portal, N. Dak 

Quebec, Province of Quebec. 

St. John, New Bnmswick 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich 

Sweet Grass, Mont 

Sumas, Wash 

Vancouver, British Columbia 
Victoria, British Columbia. . . 

Winnipeg, Manitoba 

Yarmouth, Nova Scotia 

Total border 

Grand total ■ 



75 



175 
40 

3 
70 
15 

2 
16 
18 

8 
272 

9 

1 
45 
111 
13 
56 
75 

4 
15 
35 
12 
45 
215 
14 
219 

7 



43 



1,495 



1,570 



23 



27 



167 



1 No transactions at Pacific seaports. 

Percentage of appeals sustained, 5.97. 

There are but two substations in this district having inspectors employed by 
virtue of authority contained in section 24 of the immigration law, namely, 
Buffalo and Detroit. 

The inspector (sec. 24) assigned to duty at Buffalo has displayed unusual 
intelligence and energy in the performance of his official duties, and his work 
in consequence has been of an effective and satisfactory character. Said officer 
was actively identified during the year with the investigation of 34 separate 
important contract-labor cases, though such cases afford no index to the as- 
sistance which he cheerfully rendered in connection with general immigration 
work. 

60629°— 15 13 



194 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



' Of these 34 cases, one case was settled in court for $1,500, three are pending 
in court, one for $1,000 and one for $9,000, and in one a compromise for $500 
and costs was agreed to. 

At Detroit experience liad thus far with the extra help authorized by section 
24 of the immigration law can not be said to have been of a satisfactory char- 
acter. The incumbent in the position mentioned is practically a new appointee 
and has yet to become thoroughly acquainted with the work for which apiwinted. 

It is believed that with greater experience this officer's services will become 
more valuable, in which event the inspector in charge at Detroit will suffer less 
of a handicap in the matter of help for investigations that are so necessary when 
attempted infractions of the alien contract-labor law are being dealt with. 

Twenty alien contract-labor cases were investigated at the Detroit office, with 
only fair results. 

INVESTIGATIONS. 

Referring to the instructions contained in the bureau's letter of May 29, 
relative to officers in charge furnishing data concerning " number of investiga- 
tions made regarding alien applicants," the following tal>le will show the amount 
of work of this character performed by inspectors in this district during the 
past year. 

To avoid duplication I have not undertaken to supply, separately, data con- 
cerning investigations conducted in connection with Chinese applicants, for the 
reason that all such data will be supplied by the officers in charge of districts 
whence applications for investigations emanated. 

Report of investigations conducted concerning alien applicants for admission, 
miscellaneous investigations, and investigations reqtiested made hy officers in 
district No. 1 covering the fiscal year 191 Jf. 





Investigations made. 


Investigations requested made. 


Ports. 


Investiga- 
tions 
concerning 
alien appli- 
cants for 
admission. 


Miscellan- 
eous inves- 
tigations 
conducted. 


Total inves- 
tigations 
conducted. 


Favorable 

report 
received. 


Unfavor- 
able report 
received. 


Total inves- 
tigations 
requested 
made. 


Buffalo.N. Y 


76 


91 
2 


167 

2 

1 

1 

1 

95 

10 

141 

37 

9 

1 


5 


4 


9 








i" 








Blaine, Wash 


1 

1 
60 
10 


1 


1 


2 


Clayton, N. Y 






Chiarlotte, N. Y 


35 








Cape Vincent, N. Y 


1 




1 


Detroit Mich 


141 

28 






Duluth, Minn . . . . 


9 
9 
1 








Eastport, Idaho 


13 


5 1 is 














84 
3 


91 
3 


175 


International Fails, Minn 


9 


17 
4 


26 

4 


6 


Montreal, Canada 




137 


118 


265 


Malone, N. Y 


3 


8 
29 


11 

29 

3 

1 

16 
15 
10 














3 








Nyando, N. Y 


1 








Niagara Falls, N. Y 


16 


2 
3 
6 

489 
2 

i 

4 


2 


4 


Ogdensburg, N. Y 


15 


3 


Port Huron, Mich. 


10 


6 
150 


12 






639 


St. John, New Brunswiclc 








2 




5 


99 


104 




1 




1 


5 


Van Buren, Me 




1 
2 


1 
2 

23 




Waddington, N. Y. 














23 


16 
4 


16 
1 


32 


Victoria, British Columbia . 




5 




2 
3 




3 




Winnipeg, Manitoba 




73 


48 


121 








Total 


332 


383 


715 


844 


446 


1,300 







REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 195 
PROSECUTIONS FOR VIOLATIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION LAWS. 

The tabulation next following gives the information asked for by the bureau 
for annual report purposes, regarding prosecutions in this immigration district 
for the past fiscal year. 

An interesting feature of the prosecutions under section 3 of the immigration 
act in tlie following tables is that no less than six of the cases represent the 
prosecution of immoral women because of reentering after i:)revious deportation. 
AVhile the sentences imposed in this class of section 3 cases have not been par- 
ticularly drastic, ranging from 10 days to 9 months and averaging only about 
4 months, it is believed that they were sufficiently severe to have a salutary 
effect for the future. 

During the past fiscal year no cases of importation for purposes of prostitu- 
tion, where proof of that fact could be obtained sufficient to warrant prosecu- 
tion for that cause under section 3, were handled in this jurisdiction. The 
cases prosecuted, other than those of returning immoral women above alluded 
to, represent couples who were coming to the United States to live together, 
either for a short time or permanently. Some of tliese cases involved those who 
were deserting their own spouses and families for the illicit purpose mentioned 
and the aggravated circumstances in some instances where the importer had suc- 
ceeded in breal\ing up a theretofore happy home circle accounts for the severity 
of some of the sentences imposed. In other cases both parties seemed equally 
at fault, and. the circumstances indicating that no permanent residence in the 
United States was intended, but light sentences were given. 

It is also apparent from the following tables that there is a decided variance 
in different judicial districts as to the seriousness with which violations of sec- 
tion 3 are regarded. An offense for which Congress has imposed a maximum 
penalty of $5,000 fine and 10 years imprisonment seems to be treated by some 
courts as of no more gravity that would be a charge of disorderly conduct in a 
police court. There is also the disposition in some jurisdictions to regard very 
lightly those violations of section 3 where prostitution is not involved. Since the 
decision of the United States Supreme Court showing that importation for 
immoral purposes other than prostitution violates the statute, releases on sus- 
pended sentences or exceedingly light fines or jail sentences which result quite 
frequently in some districts seem painfully inadequate. Without doubt justice 
should be tempered with mercy in some cases, but to follow this practice to 
too great an extent leads to the conclusion that the law can be violated with 
comparative impunity and has a depressing effect upon the bureau's officers 
who are zealously trying to enforce the law. 

There were two cases under section 6 of the white slave traffic act, in both 
instances the offenders receiving one year and one day imprisonment at hard 
labor. Only one of these involved traffic in prostitution ; the circumstances in 
the other case were such, however, by reason of involving the seduction of a 
young girl, as to make the sentence imposed one that was richly deserved. 

As in the past, those desiring to import women or girls for immoral pur- 
poses have not been lacking in a multitude of devices to accomplish their un- 
lawful purpose. The officers in this jurisdiction are vigilant, and the prosecu- 
tions under section 3 set forth below show that the bureau's inspectors have 
been successful in bringing about the punishment of a number of offenders ; 
the subjoined tables, too, represent only a small portion of the cases in which 
the plans of these immoral persons have been thwarted, although the evidence 
obtainable was not sufficient to justify prosecution. 

Civil actions and criminal prosecutions concluded during the fiscal year ended 
June 30, lOl'i, other than those relating to Chinese cases. 

[This table only includes cases where the Government was sustained.] 

DISTRICT OF VERMONT. 



Name of defendant. 


Section violated. 


Result. 


Julian Gamelin 


3, immigration act 


Pleaded guilty; 6 months. 
Do. 


Emile Dubois 


do 


Sebastiano Scandura 


8, immigration act 


Pleaded guilty; $60 and costs. 
Pleaded guilty; $120. 
Do. 


Levi Groteau 


4'and Sjlmmigration act 

do 


H. W.Chase 









196 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENEEAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Civil actions and criminal jyrosecutions conclwded during the fiscal year ended June 30, 
i914, other than those relating to Chinese cases — ^Continued. 

NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK. 



Name of defendant. 


Section violated. 


Result. 


Peter Vechie 


6, white-slave traffic act 


Convicted; 1 year and 1 day. 
Pleaded guilty; 60 days. 
Pleaded guilty; 1 year and 1 day. 
Pleaded giiilty; $50. 
Convicted; 2 years and 3 months. 
Forfeited $1,000 bail. Subsequently ar- 
rested; pleaded guilty; sentence suspended. 
Pleaded guilty; 1 year and 1 day. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence suspended. 


Matteo Mongeluzzi 


Gordon Martin 


do 


AVencelaus Gregoire 


do. .. 


Giuseppe Stupillo 


do.... 


Sam Flemma 


do 


John White 


6, white-slave traffic act 


Walter Snow 


Alfred Stone 


do 


David Latour 


3 and 8, immigration act 


Pleaded guilty; $250 and 1 year and 9 months. 





WESTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK. 



Alexander Dakicz 

Fred'k Reavly Grainger. 

Domenick Milszak 

James Vincent McKee... 

Salvatore Morabite 

Leonardo Caro 

Johan Fritz 

Fiori D'Agostino 

Joseph B. Cholodienko.. 



3, immigration act 

8, immigration act 

3, immigiation act 

do 

8, immigration act 

do 

3 and 8, immigration act. 

3, immigration act 

3 and 8, immigration act. 



Pleaded guilty; $1 and 10 days. 

Pleaded guilty; $15. 

Pleaded guilty; $10 and 1 day. 

Do. 
Pleaded giiilty; $25 and 1 day. 

Do. 
Pleaded guilty; $25; committed in default 

of payment. 
Convicted; $25; remitted. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence suspended. 



EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN. 



Anna M. Burr 

Jane Sterling 

Martin Kelly 

Capt. Peter Ekbert 

Samuel Collins 

Norman Woodward 

Henrietta Ruth Barton. 

Laurence Harlow 

Dora Reid 

Oscar Mergaert 

Margaret Rankin 

George Turcott 

Jennie Beattie 

Anna Neubauer 

Ralph C. Connable 

Owen Brooks 

Joseph Dice 

S. McKirdy 

Dragica Viikevic 

August Simrak 



8, immigration act 

do 

3, immigration act , 

8 and 18, immigration act. . 

3, immigration act 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

8, immigration act 

do 

3, immigration act 

do 

do 

do 



Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 

Do. 

Do. 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 

Do. 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 
Pleaded guilty 

Do. 



$100. 

$250. 

8 months. 

$100. 

3 months. 



1 year. 
10 days. 

3 months. 
9 months. 

4 months. 
3 months. 

; .51,000. 
$500. 

6 months. 
1 year. 
3 months. 



WESTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN. 



Worcester Lumber Co. 



4 and 5, immigration act. . . 



Compromised; $1,000. 



DISTRICT OF NORTH DAKOTA. 



Napoleon Longtin. 
Nathan Steinart. . 



4 and 5, immigration act 

8, immigration act 



Pleaded guilty; S25. 

Pleaded guilty; $10 and 3 days. 



WESTERN DISTRICT OF WASHINGTON (NORTHERN DIVISION). 



Sherman Nickaefl 


8, immigration act 


Convicted; 1 year and 1 day. 


Peter Markov 


do 


Do. 


Dris DzansolofI 


....do 


Do. 


Jakob Russiefl 


....do 


Do. 


Pete Mankofl 


do 


Pleaded guilty; 9 months. 


Alessandro Tanucci 


do 


Pleaded guilty; $150. 









HEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 197 

Prosecutions pending June 30, 1914 : 

Section 3, immigration act I 5 

Sections 4 and 5, immigration act 10 

Section 8, immigration act 4 

All but one of tlie cases under sections 4 and 5 mentioned above are ciA'il 
suits, and the total penalties sued for aggregate $35,000. 

Prosecutions attempted, but unsuccessful, year ended June 30, 1914 : 

Section 3, immigration act 3 

Section 4, immigration act 1 

Section 8, immigration act 7 

Section IS, immigration act 1 

Action under section 4 above mentioned was civil in character; all the others 
were criminal prosecutions and only include those cases in which indictment 
had been procured but prosecution was not successful. The above table does not 
include a number of cases where the facts were presented to United States 
attorneys for consideration as to prosecution, but where such action was deemed 
inadvisable; neither does it include cases presented to United States commis- 
sioners where defendants were not held for grand juries, or where, if held, 
the grand juries failed to indict. 

Writs of habeas corpus in immigration cases, year ended June 30, 1914 : 

Number applied for 6 

Number granted 5 

Number denied ^ 1 

Writs sustained 3 

Writs dismissed .! 1 

Writs withdrawn 1 

DEPORTATIONS WITHIN THREE YEARS OF ENTRY. 

The attention of the bureau is particularly invited to the appended tables 
showing the number of aliens who, within three years from date of landing, 
were returned during the past year, under department warrant procedure, to 
the countries whence they came. 

Deported via An<erican ports during fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 : 

Males 318 

Females 177 

Total 495 

Causes : 

Criminals 33 

Procurers 31 

Prostitutes 48 

Insane 71 

Public charges ^- 274 

Public charges, tuberculosis 24 

Dangerous contagious disease 8 

Alien contract laborers 5 

Polygamist 1 

Deported via Canadian ports during fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 : 

Males 106 

Females 29 

Total 135 

Causes : 

Criminals 4 

Alien contract laborer 1 

Procurers 4 

Prostitutes- 5 

Insane i 21 

Public charges 92 

Public charges, tuberculosis 8 



198 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Deported to Canada during fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 : 

Male^ 207 

Females 122 

Total 329 

Causes : 

Criminals 42 

Alien contract laborers IS 

Procurers 18 

Prostitutes 44 

Insane 17 

Public charges 155 

Entry uninspected 32 

Dangerous contagious disease 3 

Deported to Canada via otlier districts during fiscal year ended June 30, 
1914: 

Males 65 

Females - 47 

Total 112 

Causes : 

Criminals 14 

Alien contract laborers 2 

Procurers 4 

Prostitutes 18 

Insane 15 

Public charges 56 

Illegal entry - 3 

Summary of deportations fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 : 

Pending July 1, 1913 222 

Reported during year 1,562 

Total 1,784 

Deported from United States ports 495 

Deported to Canada 329 

Deported from Canadian ports 135 

Deportetl by other districts to Canada 112 

Warrants applied for and not issued 25 

AVarrants canceled 356 

Pending June 30. 1914 332 

Deportations from Canada to the United States for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1914: 

Deported- 381 

Pending 44 

Cases dropped — either not United States citizens or released by Cana- 
dian authorities before their citizenship could be established 129 

Total 554 

Causes : 

Procurers 1 

Prostitutes 15 

Insane 38 

Public charges 104 

Entry uninspected- 20 

Criminals 1 203 

Including 222 cases pending July 1, 1913, and 332 cases not entirely disposed 

of at the close of the fiscal year just past, no less than 1,784 cases were given 
attention by officers in this district, the actual deportations numbering 
1.071. It will be noted that 112 of the above depoi'tations were made to Canada 

by officers identified with other immigration districts, after arrangements had 

been made with the Dominion Grovernment by this office whereby these depor- 



EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 199 

tatious were made possible. Wbeu we consider tlie cost of caring for the 
above large number of aliens pending their final disposal, the labor and expense 
Involved in the hearings and investigations required under the immigration 
act, and finally the outlay of Government funds necessary to accomplish de- 
portation, these tables seem to present a most convincing argument in favor of 
the tightening of immigration inspection throughout the entire service. 

During the year covered by this communication the Dominion immigration 
authorities reportetl 554 citizens of the United States who had been found de- 
portable under Canadian law. Deportation was actually accomplished in 381 
of these cases. Tlie uudeported represent cases (a) where the person whose 
deportation was sought had escapetl; (b) whose prison sentence had expired, 
discharge being necessary before investigation as to claims to United States 
citizenship could be completed; and (c) persons allowed to remain in Canada 
upon production of guaranty of support satisfactory to the Dominion author- 
ities. 

As stated in previous reports, the deportation of United States citizens from 
Canada presents one of the most difficult problems with which this office has to 
deal, especially where the person deported is insane or requires continuous 
public support. The work involved in arranging for public institutions to which 
members of the above class may be taken by the Dominion officials is infinitely 
greater than is the effort to arrange for the deportation of aliens from our own 
country, and it is therefore felt that this office has actually been called upon to 
deal with 2,338 deportation cases during the past year. 

JAPANESE AND HINDU IMMIGRATION. 

In its letter directing preparation of this report, the bureau suggested : 
" Japanese and Hindu immigration should be covered specially by reports from 
ports and stations where these subjects are of particular significance." 

So far as this district is concerned, the inspection of Hindus and Japanese is 
confined exclu.sive]y to the British Columbia end of the district, and the inspec- 
tor in charge at Vancouver was therefore called upon for reports which would 
place before the bureau the exact situation, so far as our service is concerned, 
with regard to aliens of the Hindu and Japanese races, such reports being as 
follows : 

" In considering the question of emigration of Japanese from the Province 
of British Columbia it will be necessary, in a sense, to discuss it from an eco- 
nomic viewpoint, due to the fact that the Japanese residents of this district, of 
which there are about 11,000, have entered into the business life of the Prov- 
ince to such an extent that they have supplanted the white race and at the 
present time strenuous efforts are being made to overcome this and restore the 
white man to the position he occupied previous to the coming of the Japanese. 

" One of the principal industries of this Province is the curing and canning 
of salmon and herring. The herring trade, in catching, curing, and exporting, 
has been entirely monopolized by Japanese, and in the salmon Industry prac- 
tically all of the fishing is done by Japanese. To do this they have been re- 
quired to become Canadian citizens, and by reason of their industry practically 
control all of the fishing Incident to supplying the canneries with salmon, the 
canneries being owned and controlled by white men. 

" A large number of Japanese also follow the mercantile pursuits and the 
number engaged in these lines is constantly increasing. 

"The Japanese is a law-abiding individual. In most instances he brings 
his wife and family to Canada, establishes a home, and in so far as his in- 
dustry is concerned can not be considered undesirable. From the viewpoint 
of his becoming a part of the people of the community and becoming assimi- 
lated with the other races, he is a decided failure, for he has his own colony in 
the city and very few Japanese live outside It. Japanese schools are maintained 
and, while a few of the Japanese children attend the public schools, the majority 
of them attend these Japanese schools, where the language and ideals of the 
race are perpetuated. In every Japanese colony will be found a Japanese 
association made up of leading business men of the colony, and this organization 
looks after the interests of its countrymen and uses every legitimate means 
to advance the interests of the Japanese. 

" During the last three or four years there has been very little immigration 
of Japanese from British Columbia to the United States, due to the fact that 
each applicant is required to meet all the requirements of the immigration law, 
and very few are able to do this. Previous to the year 1907 a large number of 
Japanese laborers who had been issued passports to the United States migrated 
to Canada, they no doubt giving their destination at the time the passports 
were issued as some place in the United States. They were sold tickets to 



200 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Vancouver or Victoria, Canada, and there caused to disembark by the trans- 
portation companies, later applying for admission to the United States. The 
reason the transportation companies did this was to prevent their being re- 
quired to transport the applicant to Japan in the event of his being debarred at 
a United States ocean port, for in the event of the applicant not being admitted 
he would only be returned to Canada, the last country from which he came, 
thereby saving the transportation companies considerable money and also still 
allowing the alien to remain on the American Continent. A large number of 
this class were debarred and remained in Canada, and it is not an infrequent 
occurrence for these Japanese to apply for admission at the present time with 
a passport issued to the United States, but very few of them are able to pass 
inspection and they therefore remain in Canada. 

" It is generally conceded by any person who has given any attention to the 
question that unrestricted Japanese immigration to the United States is not 
desirable, and Congress in its wisdom has seen fit to place certain restrictions 
upon it, thereby removing any danger of any great number migrating direct; 
but outside of the Japanese laborers who hold passports limited to Canada who 
come under this congressional restriction, no restriction is placed other than 
that provided, for in the general immigration law. Consequently, there are a 
very large number of Japanese laborers who have resided in Canada for a num- 
ber of years who hold passports In which the original destination is given as the 
United States. 

" Besides those above mentioned there are about 6,000 Japanese who are 
citizens of Canada who also do not come under the congressional restriction 
placed upon the admission of Japanese generally. It can readily be seen that, 
although the United States is protected from the immigration of Japanese to this 
country from Japan by special treaty, no restrictions other than those found in 
the general immigration law can be applied against approximately two-thirds of 
the 11,000 Japanese residents of British Columbia if for any reason they should 
decide to migrate to the United States. The citizenship granted to Japanese by the 
Canadian Government carries with it very few rights or privileges as compared 
with naturalization in the United States, as the only privilege received is that 
of securing a fishing license. Citizenship which does not grant full privilege 
can not be looked npon as of much importance, and the desirability of such an 
alien as an immigrant to the United States must be handled from the viewpoint 
of his still being a Japanese. 

" The migration of Japanese to the United States direct from Japan through 
this jurisdiction comprises only such Japanese as hold passports destined to the 
United States, and the number is comparatively small. 

" The question of migration of Hindus from British Columbia to the United 
States is at the present time of such vital importance that it is felt that special 
consideration should be given it, due to the fact that there are residing in 
British Columbia at the present time from three to four thousand Hindus, the 
great majority of whom are employed as laborers in various sawmills of the 
Province and in clearing land for corporations having large holdings in this 
Province. Practically all of these people are conti-oUed by a few of the better- 
educated Hindus and are exploited by them in any manner which will produce 
the most revenue for the exploiter. 

"Although a very strong prejudice exists against the Hindu here, he is never- 
theless industrious, and I am informed by a local Hindu who is considered 
reliable that out of 3.500 residing in the Province only about 400 are idle, but 
my Informant states that there is a strong probability that the number without 
work will increase in the near future, as there is a movement on foot to replace 
Hindu labor with white labor. The officers of various municipalities in the 
Province are cooperating and. are endeavoring to formulate a polic.y by which 
contracts for supplies will be given only to such corporations as employ white 
labor. If it becomes possible for them to do this, there will be a large number of 
Hindus, as well as other Asiatics, thi'own upon the labor market, and it will be 
then that the question of Hindu immigration to the United States from British 
Columbia will assume such proportions as to require strenuous action, for the 
Hindus at the present time are aware that to secure legal admission to the 
United States it is necessary for them to meet all the requirements of the immi- 
gration laws, and it has been found from past experience that very few of them 
are able to do this. Therefore, knowing that they will be unable to secure 
admission legally, their next step will be to enter surreptitiously across the 
international border, many miles of which, stretching from the Pacific Ocean to 
the Rocky Mountains, by reason of the present small inspection force are 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION, 201 

unguarded. The records will show that quite a number of Hindus have 
attempted surreptitious entry and have been apprehended ; some of these have 
been returned to Canada and others lo India. 

"An attempt has been made in the past by the Canadian immigration depart- 
ment to debar Hindus coming from India. Several decisions have been made by 
the courts which have nullified to a great extent the excluding sections of the 
Canadian immigration law, and as a result thereof the local Hindus have not 
only been clamoring for, but have been endeavoring to force, the admission to 
Canada of the wives of Hindus already residing here, but up to the present 
time they have been able to make no progi'ess in this matter. 

"At the present time there is lying in the harbor of Vancouver a vessel which 
was chartered by a wealthy Hindu and which brought a party of 370 Hindus 
to Vancouver for the express purpose of testing the excluding provisions of the 
Canadian immigration laws with reference to Hindus. The matter has created 
intense feeling against East Indians; mass meetings have been held, and such 
a strong prejudice has been worked up as to make attacks upon Hindus by 
whites a frequent occurrence. By reason of the intense feeling aroused no 
Hindus are attempting to leave the Province, but, on the contrary, it is reported 
that quite a number of Hindus from the Pacific Coast States of the United 
States are surreptitiously coming to Canada for the purpose of assisting their 
countrymen. In the event the courts establish the right of the Hindu to 
migrate to Canada, the local Hindus openly claim that thousands of their 
countrymen will come to British Columbia. In the event of the courts deciding 
against the Hindu in the test case the feeling against the race will be so strong 
as to cause many of them to leave the Province. Very few of them will be able 
to migrate to India and the only other place for them to go will be to the United 
States. If it is found that they are not admissible under the United States 
immigration laws, it is felt that there will be a general attempt to secure 
admission surreptitiously. 

" From the above it can readily be seen that whichever way the question is 
decided in Canada it will have a material effect on the question of Hindu emi- 
gration to the United States from this vicinity. For if it is decided in favor 
of the Hindu, the population of that class no doubt will be increased enor- 
mously, and our service will be put to the necessity of fighting back the hordes 
which will migrate to Canada ; if decided against the Hindu, he will be practi- 
cally forced to leave the Province, and in that event our service will be com- 
pelled to make an effort to prevent the thousands who reside here from securing 
admission. Regardless of the fact that he may be a good laborer his racial 
characteristics and methods of living make him a person with whom the white 
race will not assimilate or associate, for his social condition as found in 
British Columbia is such as demands considerable adverse critici-sm. A number 
of them have been convicted of crimes against children and large numbers for 
perjury. They are constantly in court, bringing action against one another, and 
stop at no degree of perjury to attain their ends. In fact, in one case which 
was brought in the local court, it was proven that a charge of attempted 
murder which had been brought by a Hindu against a local resident was the 
result of a conspiracy entered into by the Hindu with some of his countrymen 
in which one of the Hindus went so far as to inflict a gunshot wound upon his 
own person to prove that the local resident had made the attempt. He was 
sustained in this by his countrymen, although it was conclusively brought out 
at the trial that the defendant in the case was nowhere in the vicinity at the 
time the act took place. This is only an instance of what this class will do, and 
a large number of other instances of a similar nature could be cited. He is 
consequently an undesirable immigrant in a country where it is desirable to 
secure the migration of a class of immigrants which in the course of time will 
assimilate and build up one strong virile people. 

" In closing, this office feels that it can not too strongly call attention to the 
fact that the immigration of the Hindu is undesirable, for the mere fact that 
practically all of the Hindus are employed at the present time in this Province 
while a very large percentage of the white men are unemployed proves con- 
clusively that their admission would be detrimental to the interests of the labor- 
ing classes. They will take whatever work is offered at whatever wages they 
can secure, as their methods of living are such as to make it possible for them 
to live at a very low cost. In fact a local attorney in a case before the court 
stated, referring to Hindus, ' They can live nicely on 25 cents per day, and all 
they make over that is saved, the greater proportion of it being sent to India.' 
I would therefore strongly recommend that the inspection force on that por- 



202 EEPOET OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

tiou of the international boundary line from the Pacific to the Rocky Mountains 
be strengthened to such an extent as to make it possible to keep a proper super- 
vision over the avenues by which surreptitious entry is possible." 

KEPOBT CONCERNING CHINESE ENTERING THE UNITED STATES THROUGH AND FROM 
CANADA FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1914. 

Table 1. — Appeals to department from excluding decisions under Chinese^ 
exclusion laws, year ended June 24, 191^, (it Vancouver, British Columbia. 

Pending at close of previous year 7 

Appealed 22 

Total 29 



Disposition : 

Sustained (admitted) 7 

Dismissetl (rejected) 14 

Withdrawn or disposed of by means other than departmental de- 
cision 5 

Pending at close of current year 3 

Table 2. — Investigations requested regarding departure of applicants and essen- 
tial trips by their alleged fathers, year ended June 24, 1914. Chinese 
division, Vaivcouver, British Columbia. 



Port. 



Number. 



Verified. 



Not veri- 
fied. 



San Francisco 

Seattle 

Tampa, Fla. . 

Total. . . 



Table 3. — Summary of Chinese seeking admission to the United States at Van- 
couver, British Columbia, year ended June 24, 1914, by classes. 



Class. 



Deported. 



United States citizens 

Wives of United States citizens 

Returning laborers 

Returning merchants 

Other merchants 

Members of merchants' families 

Students 

Travelers 

Miscellaneous 

Total 




Table 4. — Disposition of cases of resident Chinese applying for return certifi- 
cates, year ended June 24, 1914, at Vancouver, British Columbia. 



Class. 


Appli- 
cations 
sub- 
mitted. 


Primary disposi- 
tion by officer in 
charge. 


Disposition on ap- 
peal. 


Total 
number 

of cer- 
tificates 
granted. 


Total 
number 

of cer- 
tificates 

finally 
refused. 


Pend- 




Granted. 


Denied. 


Sus- 
tained. 


Dis- 
missed. 




Native born 


148 
61 
119 


125 
51 
103 


23 
10 
16 


4 

2 

1 


7 
4 

7 


129 
53 
104 


14 
6 
13 


5 




2 




2 








Total 


328 


279 


49 


7 


18 


286 


33 


9 







Total number of Chinese departing without making provision for return, 295. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



203 



Table 5. — Applicants for admission, by classes, showing investigations requested 
of the different ports, year ended June 2Jt, 191.'/. Chinese division, Van- 
couver, British Columbia. 



Ports. 


Natives. 


Sons of 
natives. 


Wives 
of 

natives. 


Mer- 
chants. 


Mer- 
chants' 
sons. 


Mer- 
chants' 
wives. 


Mer- 
chants' 
daugh- 
ters. 


Section 
6. 


Mis- 
cella- 
neous. 


Total. 




2 
6 

1 


11 
13 


1 

2 


3' 


2 
4 
1 


1 


1 






18 








28 


Philadelpliia 

Baltimore 










• 2 


1 
2 


1 












2 




1 














3 


St. Louis 






1 

1 










1 


Helena 


















1 


Portland 










1 








1 


Seattle 


2 






1 








1 


4 


San Francisco 






2 






1 


3 


Cleveland, Oliio . . 




1 










1 






















Total 


12 


28 


4 


4 


11 


2 


1 


1 


1 


64 



Table 6. — Nature of report and disposition of applicants, by ports, year ended 
June 24, 1914. Chinese division, Vancouver, British Columbia. 

BOSTON. 





No. 


Favor- 
able. 


Unfavor- 
able. 


Neither. 


Report 
not yet 
received. 


Disposition of applicant. 


Class. 


Admit- 
ted. 


Deported. 


Pending. 


Natives 


2 
11 

1 
2 
1 
1 






2 
8 
1 
1 
1 
1 




2 
7 
2 






Sons of natives 


1 


1 


1 


3 


I 


Wives of natives 




Merchants' sons 




i 




1 




Merchants' wives 








Merchants' daughters 
























Total 


18 


1 


2 


14 


1 


13 


4 


1 






NEW YORK. 


Natives 


6 

13 

2 

3 

4 


4 
1 




2 
11 
2 

1 
4 




6 
9 
2 
3 
2 






Sons of natives 




1 


2 


2 


Wives of natives 






Merchants 


2 











Merchants' sons 






2 














Total 


28 


7 




20 


1 


22 


2 


4 








PHILADELPHIA. 


Natives 


1 
1 






1 
1 




1 






Merchants' sons . . 











1 
















Total 


2 






2 




1 




1 














BALTIMORE. 


Sons of natives 


1 
1 






1 
1 




1 

1 






Wives of natives 
























Total 


2 






2 




2 


















CHICAGO. 


Natives 


1 
2 


1 








1 
1 






Sons of natives 




2 






1 














Total 


3 


' 




2 




2 

















^04 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATTION. 



Table 6. — Nature of report and disposition of applicants, by ports, year ended June 24, 
1914. Chinese division, Vancouver, British Columbia — Continued. 



ST. LOUIS. 





No. 


Favor- 
able. 


Unfavor- 
able. 


Neither. 


Report 
not yet 
received. 


Disposition of applicant. 


Class. 


Admit- 
ted. 


Deported. 


Peniing. 


Merchants' sons 


1 






1 






1 

















• 






HELENA. 












Merchants' sons 


1 






1 






1 

















PORTLAND. 



Merchants' wives. 



CLEVELAND, OHIO. 



Sons of natives 1 



SEATTLE. 



Natives 


2 
1 

1 






2 

1 

1 






2 




Merchants 








1 
1 




Wife of United States inter- 
preter 
























Total 


4 






4 




2 


2 















SAN FRANCISCO. 



Merchants' sons 


2 
1 




1 1 






2 




Section 6 merchant 


1 




1 












Total 


3 
^4^ 


1 


1 1 




1 


2 






Grand total . . 


10 


3 49 


2 


45 


12 


7 







Table 7. — Cases returned for further investigation, year ended June 24, 1914. 
Chinese division, Vancouver, British Columbia^. 



Port. 


Natives. 


Sons of 
natives. 


Wives of 
natives. 


Mer- 
chants. 


Mer- 
chants' 
sons. 


Mer- 
chants' 
wives. 


Mer- 
chants' 
daugh- 
ters. 


Total. 


Boston 


1 


2 
3 

1 






I 
1 


1 


1 


6 


New York 


1 


1 


6 


Cleveland 








1 


Philadelphia 








1 






1 


Chicago 




1 










1 




















Total 


1 


7 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


15 



Table 8. — Number of Chinese rejected, number admitted on appeal, and numher 
deported, year ended June 2't, 191Jf. Chinese division, Vancouver, British 
Columbia. 



Class. 


Admitted 
on appeal. 


Rejected 
at port. 


Dejjorted. 


Native born 




3 

10 
3 
1 
2 

10 


4 


Other citizens 


5 


7 




1 






1 


Other merchants 




2 


Merchants' children 


2 


9 






Total. .. . 


7 


29 


24 







Total applicants, 369 ; percentage finally deported, 6.5. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



205 



Table 9. — Chinese miscellaneous report, year ended June 2-'f, 191J{. 

British Colunibia. 



Vancouver, 



United States citizens (Chinese) admitted 161 

Alien Cliinese admitted 171 

Alien Cliinese debarred 24 

Chinese laborers with return certificates departing 101 

Wife of deceased merchant with return certificate departing 1 

Chinese merchants with return certificates departing 43 

Exempt (United States interpreter) 1 

Chinese students with return certificates departing 2 

Chinese, exempt (missionary), with return certificate departing 1 

Native-born Chinese with return certificates departing 121 



Table 10.- 



-Recapitulation of work performed in Chinese division, Vancouver, 
British Columbia, year ended June 24, 1914, by classes. 





Applications. 


Disposition. 




a 
& 

1 


! 

p. 

o 

•a 
1 


3 
o 

Eh 


Prelimi- 
nary. 


Final. 


Pending at 
close of cur- 
rent year. 


Class allegod. 


Rejected. 


Admitted. 


.2 

03 

a 
K 

Q 


1 
.1 
1 

<D 

m 


1 

1 






1 


■a 

li 


1 
8 

1 


1 

PQ 




6 

1 


i 



1 




Native born 


135 

8 

33 

95 

33 

16 

4 

14 

8 

1 

5 


2 

""e 
'"'h' 

4 


137 

8 
39 
95 
33 
16 

4 

19 
12 

1 

5 


3 


1 


133 

8 

23 

92 

32 

14 

4 

5 

8 

1 

5 




132 


1 
8 
1 
1 

"■4" 
1 

"4 


133 

8 

28 

92 

32 

14 

4 

7 

8 

1 

5 


4 








Citizens' wives 








Other citizens 

Returning laborers 

Returning merchants. .. 


10 
3 

1 
2 


5 

1 


5 


27 
91 
32 
14 


7 
1 
1 
2 


2 
2 


2 


4 
2 


Other merchants 








Merchants' wives 








Merchants' children 

Students 


10 


7 


2 


6 
8 
1 
1 


9 


2 


1 
4 


3 

4 


Travelers 












Miscellaneous 




























Total 


352 


17 


369 


29 


14 


325 


7 


312 


20 


332 


24 


6 


7 


13 




Recapitulation: 

Citizens 


168 
184 
269 
83 
25 

33 

3 

128 

4 


8 
9 
2 
15 
4 

6 

1 

1 


176 
193 
271 
98 
29 

39 

3 

129 

5 


13 

16 
8 

21 
2 

10 

2 
1 


6 

8 

2 

12 

5 

1 


156 

169 

263 

62 

23 

23 

1 
127 

5 


5 
2 

■y 

5 


159 
153 
260 
52 
23 

27 

1 
126 

5 


2 

18 
3 
17 

1 
1 


161 
171 
263 
69 
23 

28 

1 

127 

5 


11 
13 
6 

18 
2 

7 

2 
2 


2 
4 
2 
4 

2 


2 

5 

....„ 

4 

2 


4 
9 
2 
11 
4 

4 


Aliens 


Residents 


New arrivals 

Section b cases 

Foreign -bom chil- 
dren of natives 

Native bom- 
No record of depar- 
ture 


Status previously 
determined 









Status not pre- 
viously deter- 
mined 





















206 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table 11. — Report of disposition of Chinese seeking udinission to the United 
States at the port of Montreal, Canada, year ended June 24, 1914, by classes. 





New 
applica- 
tions. 


Disposition. 




Preliminary. 


Final. 




Rejected. 


Admitted 

by in- 
spectors, 
male. 




Class alleged. 


By in- 
spectors. 


Appeals 

dis- 
missed 

by 

depart- 
ments. 


Deported 
male. 


Mfirf^>ifirit and native bnm 


1 
1 
1 

2 

1 


1 
1 


1 
1 




1 


Other citizens 




1 


Rptnrning mprchants 


1 

2 












Travelers 


1 




1 









Total 


6 


3 


2 


3 


3 






Recapitulation: 


2 

4 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 


2 

1 
1 
2 

1 

1 
1 


2 




2 


Aliens 


3 
3 


1 


Residents 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


1 


New arrivals 


2 


Section 6 cases 




1 


Foreign-bom children of natives 




1 


Native bom, status not previously determined . . 




1 







Percentage of applicants rejected and deported, 50. 



Table 12. — Appeals to department from excluding decisions under Chinese- 
exclusion laws, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, at the port of Montreal, 
Canada. 

Appealed (dismissed, rejected) 2 

Table 13. — Chinese miscellaneous report, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, 

Montreal, Canada. 

Alien Cbinese admitted 3 

Alien Chinese debarred 3 

Chinese granted the privilege of transit in bond across land territory of 

the United States 761 

Chinese denied the privilege of transit in bond across land territory of 

the United States 26 

Chinese merchants with i-etuin certificates departing 2 

Chinese students with return certificates departing 2 

Table 14. — Disposition of Chinese applicants at Montreal, Canada, for the privi- 
lege of transit through the United States during the fiscal year ended June 
30, 19H, hy months. 



Month. 



July 

August 

September. 
October. .. 
November. 
December . 



January . . 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



1914. 



Number of 
applicants. 



87 
82 
138 
161 
94 
19 



5 
27 
48 
117 



Number 
admitted. 



87 
81 
135 
161 
93 
13 



5 
25 
45 
111 



761 



Number 
rejected. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



207 



Table 15. — Report of ijnhsecutions for Chinese sinugglutg instituted hy officers in 
district No. 1 during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914. 

DISTRICT OF VERMONT. 



Name. 


Result. 


W. B. Cobb 


Pleaded guilty; sentenced to 9 months in jail. Judge Martin. 
Pleaded guilty; sentenced to 1 year and 1 day in penitentiary. 

Judge Martin. 
Awaiting action of grand jury. 




Norman S. Dunn 







NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK.i 



Burt Gillette ' Pleaded guilty; sentence suspended. Judge Ray. 

Stephen A. Murray Defaulted bail. 

Harry White Pleaded guilty; sentence suspended. Judge Ray. 

Lee Sam Pleaded gui'ty; $1,000 fine. Judge Ray. 

Judd Clark Pleaded guilty; sentence suspended. Judge Ray. 

Duncan J. Johnston I Pending since 1910; convicted and sentence suspended. Judge 

Ray. 

John Slattery Do. 

Frank Schrier Do. 

NgYukChing ' Indicted; pending. 

Chin Sin Kai Do. 

DaTld Mitchell Pending since 1910; convicted and sentence suspended. Judge 

Ray. 
Ward Toland , Pending since 1911; convicted and sentence suspended. Judge 

Ray. 



WESTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK.2 



Gustave Winkler 

Mclvin Tucket 

John Obert 

George Schwartzenberg 

Thomas O'Brien 

Joseph McElroy 

Edward Geenan 

Carl Wilson 

Richard Bleakley 

Orman L. Weaver 



Pleaded guilty; $75 fine. Judge Hazel. 

Pleaded guilty; sentenced to 6 months in jail. Judge Hazel. 

Do. 
Pleaded guilty; sentenced to 1 year in jail. Judge Hazel. 
Indicted; awaiting trial. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN.^ 



George Latour 

John Rogers 

Lee Poy 

John Geiser 

William Anderson 
Walter Wilcox 



Convicted of 3 separate offenses (1 pending since 1911 and 1 

pending since 1912) and sentenced to an aggregate of 3 years 

m the Detroit House of Correction. Judge Tuttle. 
Convicted and sentenced to 6 months in the- Detroit House of 

Correction. Judge Tuttle. 
Convicted and sentenced to 3 months in the Detroit House of 

Correction. Judge Tuttle. 
Pleaded guilty; sentenced to 2 years in the Detroit House of 

Correction. Judge Tuttle. (Sentence suspended for 1 oflense 

pending since 1913.) 
Pleaded guilty; sentenced to 2 years in the Detroit House of 

Correction. Judge Tuttle. 
Convicted and sentenced to 30 days' imprisonment and $100 

fine. Judge Tuttle. 



WESTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN.* 



Doc Wing. 



Indicted for bribery in connection with Chinese arrest; await- 
ing trial. 



1 Cases pending from previous years which have not yet been completed : Joseph La 
Barge, Fred S. Santwer. 

- Prosecutions for Chinese smuggling, 3. 

^ Cases pending from previous years which have not yet been completed : Guy McEnteer, 
Frank Wilbur, Dan Etherington, Frank West. 

* Prosecutions for Chinese smuggling, 4. 



208 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table 15. — Report of prosecutions for Chinese smuggling instituted by officers in district 
No. 1 during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 — Continued. 

WESTERN DISTRICT OF WASHINGTON. 



Name. 


Result. 


George Nelson 


Pleaded guilty; sentenced to 5 months' imprisonment. 
Indicted; awaiting trial. 


Peter J. McGregor 







RECAPITULATION. 





Vermont. 


Northern 
New 
York. 


Western 
New 
York. 


Eastern 
Michigan. 


Western 
Michigan. 


Western 
Wash- 
ington. 


Total. 


Prosecutions pending from pre- 
vious years 




7 

7 
9 

4 




6 

6 
6 

4 






13 


Prosecutions instituted during 
year 


3 
2 

1 


10 

4 

6 


1 


2 

1 

1 


29 




22 


Pending at close of fiscal year 
1914 


1 


17 







Table 16. — Disposition of cases of Chinese arrested under immigration warrants 
by officers in District No. 1 during the fiscal year ended June SO, 191^. 

Pending before the department June 30, 1913 3 

Pending before courts on habeas corpus, June 30, 1913 12 

Arrested under department warrants during the fiscal year 73 

Deported under department warrants during the fiscal year — 44 

Taken before courts on writs of habeas corpus 15 

Writs of habeas corpus dismissed 1 

Writs of habeas corpus allowed 4 

Aliens discharged by order of courts 3 

Warrants canceled by the department 2 

Oases in which immigration proceedings dropped and aliens rearrested under 

Chinese-exclusion laws 3 

Cases pending before courts on writs of habeas corpus 21 

Cases pending before the department or inspectors 15 

Table 17. — Disposition of cases of Chinese arrested upon United States commis- 
sioners' icarrants by officers in District No. 1 during the fiscal year ended 
June 30, WUf. 

Pending June 30, 1913, before circuit court of appeals 2 

Arrested upon commissioners' warrants during year 14 

Deported 4 

Discharged 4 

Cases appealed to district court 6 

Appeals dismissed by courts 2 

Cases pending before commissioners " 2 

Cases pending before district court 6 

June 30, 1914, terminated the third year of the enforcement of the Chinese- 
exclusion law under an agreement entered into between the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Co. and the department whereby all Chinese from the Orient en route 
to the United States via the Canadian boundary arriving on said transporta- 
tion company's steamers are examined by our officers at Vancouver. 

No material change has been noted during the past year in either the char- 
acter or volume of our work, and generally speaking conditions have remained 
practically the same. The total number of Chinese applying for admission 
very nearly corresponds with the number applying during the preceding year. 
As in the past, no Chinese found not entitled to enter the United States have 
been permitted by the Canadian officials to enter Canada upon payment of the 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 209 

$500 head tax assessed upon Chinese laborers by the Dominion Government, 
thus precluding the possibility of their surreptitious entiy into the United 
States at a later date. Rejections have been slightly less than during the 
previous yeai", which is due to the fact that we have had a little better class 
of applicants. But three Chinese of that class known as " raw natives " made 
application, one of whom was admitteti and the other two deported. 

A slight but steady increase has been noted in the number of Chinese de- 
parting who have had their cases favorably passed upon. Those who have 
made no i>rovision for return also continue to depart through this port in large 
numbers. Many of the latter class are well along in years and presumably 
were registered laborers, but rarely are we able to secure their certificate of 
residence. Thej' claim either that they never had such a certificate or that it 
has been lost or destroj-ed. Quite a few of those departing without provision 
for return, however, are comparatively young Chinese who state that they never 
had any papers, and it is believed that in a majority of such instances they 
entered the United States unlawfully. 

A new Canadian immigration building, which has been under consideration 
for the past two years or more, is now in actual course of construction, work 
having been started on the same about two months ago. This building is to 
be located but a short distance from the present one, and an arrangement has 
been made by the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. for the United States Chinese 
force to have ample quarters on the top floor. It is anticipated, however, that 
it will be at least a year before the new building is ready for occupancy. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway Co. has continued to carry out in a perfectly 
satisfactory manner the terms of the agreement entered Into with the Gov- 
ernment, and our relations with the representatives of this company are of 
the most pleasant. 

CHINESE SMUGGLING. 

Referring to another part of this report which pertains to the arrest and 
conviction of persons charged with having violated the immigration and Chinese- 
exclusion laws, it will be observed that in certain localities along the boi'der 
Chinese smugglers have been especially active during the past year. The results 
of our efforts to prosecute these offenders suggest that our inspectors have not 
been altogether idle. 

Enforcement of the Chinese-exclusion laws along the Canadian border was 
placed under the control of this oflice July 1, 1909. Notwithstanding there was 
a border line of some 4,000 miles to cover, across which Chinese could be smug- 
gled at almost innumerable points, thei'e were not to exceed a half dozen in- 
spectors allowed exclusively for Chinese work. 

The Canadian census of 1911 showed the Chinese population of Canada to be 
27,000. Since the taking of the 1911 census an additional 25,000 Chinese have 
been admitted to Canada upon payment of the $500 head tax. It is a well- 
known fact that the objective point of large numbers of Chinese who effect entry 
to Canada is the United States, and the presence of so many 'Chinese in Canada 
has proven a veritable harvest for the Chinese smugglers. Yet, notwithstanding 
this situation, and the fact that the danger of Chinese smuggling from Canada 
has increased a hundredfold since July 1, 1909, owing to inadequate appro- 
priations the department has found itself unable to increase our force of 
Chinese inspectors even by a single appointment, and for the enforcement of 
the Chinese-exclusion laws, so far as this disti'ict is concerned, we have been 
compelled to depend almost entirely upon officers employed in regular immi- 
gration work, whose time was already more than employed in the inspection 
of other aliens coming within the terms of the regular immigration act. Almost 
invariably when these officers have been called upon to assist in the enforce- 
ment of the Chinese-exclusion laws it has meant extra hours of duty for such 
employees, all of which have been contributed without quibble or complaint and 
oftentimes at the risk of losing health and even life itself. 

Arrest and punishment for the crime of burglary and like offenses constitute 
no permanent check against the commission of those crimes, and it may be 
taken for granted that the arrest and prosecution of some of the criminals 
engaged in the smuggling of Chinese will by no means put an end to that 
practice. So long as the present situation in Canada with regard to Chinese 
prevails, so long as the smuggling business continues so financially alluring, 
and so long as light fines and suspended sentences characterize the action of 
some of the Federal courts in dealing with Chinese smugglers who are shown 

60629°— 15 14 



210 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

to have been chronic offenders and to accomplish whose arrest and conviction 
the hardest kind of work and a large expenditure of Government funds were 
required, just so long may we look for Chinese smuggling along the northern 
border. 

If it be the intention of the Government to continue its present policy, then 
to even approximate enforcement of the laws relating to Chinese within this 
immigration district it is difficult to see how the service is to escape a con- 
tinuous and expensive campaign, and rational procedure would seem to demand 
immediate strengthening of the border force of insi^ectors so that it will be 
sufficient as to numbers, such employees to be so trained and instructed as to 
present an aggressive, militant body of officers at all times able to checkmate 
the movements of the smugglers who are, by the way, never lacking in either 
daring or resources. The present policy contemplates the maintenance of police 
and detective power along more than 6,000 miles of land boundary. In order 
to acquire information that may lead to the arrest of Chinese smugglers 
the bureau's officers are forced to become the associates of the very scum of 
the underworld and to resort to methods of procedure that are often far from 
complimentary to any self-respecting Government service. 

The alternative to the above would be the adoption by Congress of the 
infinitely more practicable, far less expensive, and more dignified plan of 
directing reregistration of all Chinese now in the United States, all arrivals 
thereafter, excepting members of the exempt classes, to be speedily returned 
to the country whence they came. Reregistration by districts or States, with 
carefully drafted rules requiring those registered when moving from one district 
or State to another to report such change of residence to the proper district 
officer, would place the bureau in a position promptly to locate those of the 
unregistered class by the periodical checking of registration lists. 

The adoption of some such scheme as that of reregistration and immediate de- 
portation of all unregistered Chinese laborers after a specific date would soon 
put an end to Chinese smuggling, for Chinese would quickly tire of paying the 
$500 head tax to effect landing in Canada, and thereafter the substantial fee 
to the smuggler, only to be deported upon entry to the United States. If the 
legislative branch of our Government is desirous of putting a stop to the con- 
stant incoming of the Chinese laboring class, it would seem imperative that 
provision in law should be made for the immediate reregistration of all 
Chinese now in the United States, and the prediction is made that once it be- 
comes known that Chinese laborers, other than those accounted for in registra- 
tion records, found in the United States are to be expelled with celerity, the 
financial attractiveness of the Chinese-smuggling business and the trade of 
criminals who now fatten on the profits of smuggling will soon cease. 

IMMIGRATION BUILDINGS. 

An unusually commodious and well-appointed fireproof immigration building 
has just been erected and put into use at Quebec by the Canadian Government. 
By arrangement with the Canadian Government and Canadian steamship lines, 
strictly first-class accommodations were provided in the above building for the 
examination of arrivals destined to the United States, and as soon as pro- 
vision can be made for supplying furniture and other equipment for the various 
offices set aside for the use of our officers the latter will be in a position to 
boast of facilities for the examination of immigrants second to none on this 
continent. 

At the port of Halifax the Canadian Government is now engaged in the 
erection of an immigration building which will practically duplicate the mag- 
nificent structure at Quebec, and it is expected that the Halifax building will 
be ready for occupancy within a few months. The members of our own serv- 
ice will be allotted quarters in the new building at Halifax that should in 
every way meet the needs of the service in the work of examining aliens 
coming to that port destined to the United States. 

As reported under the heading " Chinese entering the United States through 
and from Canada," a new immigration building is also under process of con- 
struction at A''ancouver in which space will be set aside for the use of the 
bureau's employees stationed at that port, and it should be stated that in the 
Vancouver building care has been observed to provide proper facilities for the 
handling of aliens of the Chinese race who patronize the steamships of the 
Canadian Pacific Steamship Co. to the above port. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



211 



Progress has been made also iu arranging for suitable buildings for immi- 
gration purposes supplied by transportation lines at various ports of entry along 
the border, the quarters provided iu the new Michigan Central Railroad sta- 
tion at Detroit being especially worthy of mention. The question of other 
buildings at important border points is now under discussion with the lines in- 
volved, and every effort will be made to have the buildings asked for supplied 
within the current year. 

For handy comparison of immigration to Canada with records of immigra- 
tion to our own country, the following table is appended through the courtesy of 
Hon. W. D. Scott, superintendent of immigration, Ottawa, Canada : 

Total immigration to Canada, continental and other sources, for the 12 months 

ended June 30, 191^. 



Year and month. 



British. 



Conti- 
nental, 
etc. 



From 
United 
States. 



Total. 



1913 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1914 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



14,804 
12,975 
9,115 
7,664 
3,593 
1,356 



362 
1,520 
5,923 
10,032 
10, 343 
7,115 



85,802 



16,854 
9,165 
6,208 
5,519 
3,451 
3,537 



1,610 
1,620 
5,864 
13,654 
13,411 
7,316 



9,042 
9,681. 
9,159 
7,450 
5,942 
4,268 



3,398 
3,468 
10, 124 
11,748 
8,965 
7,573 



88,209 



90,818 



40,700 
31,821 
24, 482 
20, 633 
12,986 
9,661 



5,870 
6,608 
21,911 
35,434 
32, 719 
22,004 



264,829 



Occupations of immigrants admitted into Canada from the United States, fiscal 
year ended June 30, 191 ). 



Year and month. 



Farming 
class. 



Common 
laborers. 



SkiUed 
laborers. 



Female 
servants. 



Not 
classified. 



Total. 



1913 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1914 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



2,471 
3,568 
3,431 
2,307 
1,865 
1,356 



1,029 
1,174 
5,664 
5,900 
3,165 
2,298 



34,228 



1,769 
1,910 
1,833 
1,337 
941 
683 



531 
590 
1,233 
1,707 
1,678 
1,108 



2,461 
2,111 
2,108 
1,875 
1,512 
1,191 



976 
913 
1,683 
2,727 
2,407 
2,246 



342 
902 
234 
279 
216 
180 



150 
152 
206 
237 
269 
363 



1,999 
1,190 
1,553 
1,652 
1,408 



712 
639 
1,338 
1,177 
1,446 
1,558 



15,320 



22,210 



3,530 



15,530 



9,042 
9,681 
9,159 
7,450 
5,942 
4,268 



3,398 
3,468 
10, 124 
11,748 
8,965 
7,573 



90,818 



212 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The following tables show immigration movement from the United States to 
Canada and from Canada to the United States for the last two fiscal years : 



Month. 



From Canada to the United States.^ 



United 

States 

citizens. 



Cana- 
dian citi- 
zens. 



Other 
aliens. 



Total. 



From the United States to Canada. 2 



United 

States 

citizens. 



Cana- 
dian citi- 
zens. 



Other 
aliens. 



Total. 



Pending from pre- 
vious year 



1912. 

July 

August 

September... 

October 

November . . . 
December 



1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



3,735 
3,384 
4,235 
5,619 
7,273 
6,139 



3,139 
3,493 
3,538 
4,496 
4,452 
4,994 



3,042 
3,073 

4,118 
4,641 
4,674 
3,761 



2,975 
2,628 
3,146 
4,903 
4,055 
3,672 



2,880 
3,564 
3,727 
4,041 
4,420 
3,678 



2,629 
2,452 
2,726 
3,926 
4,990 
5,360 



9,657 
10,021 
12,080 
14,301 
16,367 
13,578 



8,743 
8,573 
9,410 
13,325 
13,497 
14, 026 



7,553 
8,603 
6,894 
6,886 
5,166 
3,739 



3,235 
3,726 
10,851 
13,847 
9,345 
7,815 



1,902 
1,753 
1,276 
1,511 
1,323 
1,252 



890 
926 
1,690 
2,430 
2,494 
1,832 



3,102 
2,953 
2,280 
2,084 
1,406 
772 



903 
920 
2,070 
2,983 
2,408 
1,844 



Total. 



54,497 



44,701 



44,413 



143,611 



87,660 



19,279 



23,725 



Pending from pre- 
vious year 



1913. 

July 

August 

September . . . 

October 

November... 
December 



1914. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



4,051 
3,876 
4,380 
5,032 
5,131 
4,901 



2,545 
2,476 
2,583 
3,280 
2,936 
2,822 



3,126 
3,405 
4,527 
5,027 
5,414 
4,238 



2,780 
2,317 
2,974 
4,602 
3,929 
3,543 



6,339 

7,701 
6,827 
6,116 
6,886 
5,885 



3,067 
2,668 
2,915 
3,561 
3,412 
3,748 



13,516 
14,982 
15, 734 
16,175 
17,431 
15,024 



8,392 
7,461 
8,472 
11,443 
10,277 
10,113 



6,003 
7,039 
6,776 
5,043 
4,180 
2,805 



2,174 
2,220 
7,498 
7,699 
5,195 
4,396 



1,615 
1,435 
1,259 
1,443 
983 
971 



787 
774 
1,615 
2,611 
2,600 
2,325 



1,424 

1,207 

1,124 

964 

779 
492 



437 

474 

1,011 

1,438 

1,170 

852 



Total. 



44,013 



45,893 



59,214 



149, 120 



61,028 



18,418 



11,372 



12,557 
13,309 
10, 450 
10,481 
7,895 
5,763 



5,028 
5,572 
14,611 
19, 260 
14,247 
11,491 



130,664 



9,042 
9,681 
9,159 

7,450 
5,942 
4,268 



3,398 
3,468 
10, 124 
11,748 
8,965 
7,573 



90,818 



1 Figures show applications for admission to the United States, but do not include aliens arriving at 
Canadian seaports having United States destinations. 

2 Figures show admissions to Canada, but do not include those arriving at United States seaports hav- 
ing Canadian destinations. 

John H. Clark, Commissoner. 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION AT BOSTON, IN CHARGE 
OF DISTRICT NO. 2, COMPRISING THE NEW ENGLAND STATES. 



While this report is submitted to me for signature, it should be said that the 
year which it covers closed before my appointment as commissioner took effect. 
iMy predecessor in office resigned soon after the close of the fiscal year and 
before this report was prepared. 

The total of arriving aliens at the port of Boston during the year just closed, 
81,440, shows a substantial increase over the record of 66,827 for the preceding 
year; while the total passenger arrivals for 1913, aggregating 79,272, was far 
surpassed in 1914 by a record of 96,334. Immigation for the entire district, on 
the other hand, shows a slight diminution in 1914 as compared with 1913, the 
totals of arriving aliens being, respectively, 102.421 and 107,118. Table 1, in 
the statistical division of this report annexed, shows the variations for the two 
years at the ports of Boston, Providence, Portland, and New Bedford. 

During the past year four new lines have established a trans-Atlantic passen- 
ger service at the port of Boston. An intermittent service has been maintained 
by one or two other lines which may eventually establish a regular traffic. 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 213 
ADDITIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS AT IMMIGRATION STATIONS. 

We have in past years referred to the inadequate office facilities at ttie Bos- 
ton immigration station. Desli room is at a premium ; tlie corridors are piled 
high with filing cabinets; stationery and other supplies are packed away in 
corners here and there where space may be found. The space used for hearings 
by the boards of special inquiry is an interior room with no direct access to 
the open air. In warm weather esi^ecially the lack of ventilation constitutes a 
positive hardship to the members of the boards who are obliged to sit hour 
after hour in a close, hot room. The waiting room used by relatives and 
friends who call for the detained immigrants is similarly located. 

We dislike to contemplate the havoc that might be, and probably would be, 
wrought by a fire if once started in the immigratioA station. The three small 
iron safes now installed in the offices accommodate but a part of the current 
records. A fire undoubtedly would mean the complete destruction of all records 
of immigration at this port since the Federal Government assumed charge. In 
the event of a conflagration we should probably be compelled to confine our 
efforts to saving the lives of immigrants in the detention quarters. 

The antiquated buildings which serve as quarters for an immigration station 
at the port of Boston were described in last year's report. The problem of con- 
ducting an increasing business at this station becomes more complicated, not 
to say hopeless, with each succeeding year. 

The monthly average number of occupants in the detention quarters had in- 
creased a year ago nearly 50 per cent over the preceding year. For the fiscal 
year just ended, however, we have to report a further increase of almost exactly 
50 per cent over the record for the fiscal year 1913. Thus the monthly oc- 
cupancy for 1912 averaged 46 ; for 1913, 67 ; and for 1914, 131. The difficulty 
of maintaining cleanly and sanitary conditions in a wooden building crowded 
with immigrants, many of whom are quite unfamiliar with modern standards, 
may be better imagined than described. 

The medical officer in charge of the station refers in his annual report to the 
fact that the detention quarters and their appurtenances are kept in a mechan- 
ical state of cleanliness that never fails to elicit favorable comment from 
visitors. But in spite of such efforts, he adds, the partitions and ceilings, 
which are constructed of matched boards, " have now finally become hope- 
lessly infested with vermin." Referring to the dormitories, the medical officer 
speaks of the insanitary conditions and the efforts made to prevent morbidity 
among the inmates. " For considerable periods during the past year the num- 
ber of detained passengers held at the station has averaged over 200, and from 
time to time the limit of sleeping capacity has been practically reached. 
Catarrhal affections, bronchitis, and tonsilitis or septic sore throats have been 
constantly prevalent in spite of the fact that persons showing symptoms of 
throat trouble are always immediately removed from the station. Slight 
wounds or scratches received by inmates or immigration employees working 
about the station almost invariably become infected. During the winter at 
least one probable case of typhus fever was removed from the station under 
circumstances pointing to possible infection in the station itself. Twice during 
the winter it was deemed advisable to remove all the inmates of the station to 
the local (municipal) quarantine station and clean them and subject their 
clothing to steam disinfection. In the meantime the detention quarters them- 
selves were disinfected so far as it was possible to do so." 

Occasional complaints and protests on the part of the detained immigrants 
are to be expected. Not long since a gentleman addressed his Congressman in 
behalf of a sister-in-law who had recently passed through the station. The 
complaint charged that the girl had been detained three weeks without oppor- 
tunity to secure a change of clothing ; and that while she had been kept from 
her belongings the rats had had no difficulty in gaining access to and despoiling 
the baggage. Here, certainly, was double cause for complaint. We explained 
that the baggage room is located in a separate building so that it is necessary 
to send an employee with every detained alien who desires any part of his 
baggage, and that a limited force of employees often prevents prompt com- 
pliance with the desires of those detained. We also referred to the impossibility 
of guarding effectually against rodents. Our letter stated that " the building 
in which we are housed is old, the interior of wood construction, and it is 
located on a wharf where rats congx*egate in great numbei's. Every effort is 
made to make detained aliens comfortable and to protect their baggage. But, 
owing to the handicaps of scarcity of help and inadequate quarters under which 



214 REPORT or COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

we labor, it is a matter of congratulation that complaints are not more 
numerous." 

A few months ago a family of detained aliens was reported by one of the 
surgeons as showing " in general no tendency to cleanliness, with the result that 
their clothing has been found alive with vermin. This has caused numerous 
complaints on the part of other inmates trying to keep clean with our limited 
facilities." Occasionally, indeed, tlie environment here proves to be literally 
intolerable. In such cases the detained immigrant, in preference to availing 
himself of the right of appeal, with the consequent necessity of further deten- 
tion, elects to return by the first available steamer. Cases of this nature occur 
more frequently among English-speaking aliens. 

Such conditions can scarcely lay claim to tlie term civilized. What must be 
the impressions of our prospective citizens toward the Government that meets 
them with this welcome to the promised land? The Government can hardly 
excuse itself on the plea that the immigrants come of their own volition and 
not at the Government's invitation. The aliens come in good faith, with the 
knowledge that they must pass the governmental inspection. It is through no 
choice of their own that they become our involuntary guests. The primary 
dictates of humanity point the need of radical reform in existing conditions and 
standards. There is no sufficient reason why Congress should not be willing 
to expend for the proper enforcement of the immigration laws at least the 
amount collected from head tax on immigrants. As a matter of fact, less than 
half that amount is ordinarily consumed. 

But there is a brighter side. The erection of a modern immigration station 
at the port of Boston was authorized by an act of Congress aiDproved February 
23, 1909. The sum of $100,000 was appropriated, a part of which was sijent for 
a site in East Boston. By reason of a proposed change in the harbor line the 
original site was exchanged for another, which involved an additional payment. 
In succeeding years the sum of $275,000 was added to the original appropria- 
tion, making a total of $375,000. Plans were eventually prepared. In June, 
1914, somewhat over five years from the date of the authorizing act, the Gov- 
ernment is advertising for proposals to erect the station. 

At Providence an immigration office was established January 1, 1914, by 
the transfer to that port of the inspector formerly in charge at New Bedford. 
The office is located in a small, unfinished room on the fourtli floor of the 
Federal building. No office furniture, filing or index cabinets have yet been pro- 
vided. In submitting his reiwrt for the year the inspector in charge expresses 
the hope " that the necessary authority will be granted to fit up an office that 
will be in keeping with the dignity due the department and expected by the 
public in the case of an immigration office." It appears that Providence during 
the past year has attained fifth rank among ports of the United States in re- 
spect to volume of immigration. 

The Rhode Island State authorities, in cooperation with the municipality, have 
erected a fine, modern dock in the hope of securing the establishment of of an 
immigration station with a permanent force of employees. Under existing con- 
ditions all aliens refused landing, with the exception of those sent to the local 
hospitals, are removed by train to Boston and thence transferred in barges to 
the immigration station here. 

Conditions at Portland remain the same as heretofore. There is no immediate 
prospect, at least, of the establishment of an immigration station at Portland, 
where, indeed, the fiuctuating conditions may not warrant the investment. 

MEDICAL INSPECTION OF IMMIGRANTS. 

From the report submitted by the medical division at this station, we have 
excerpted a number of items which possess more than ordinary interest. 

The conditions affecting medical inspection at Boston have changed mate- 
rially during the past year. This is not due so much to increase in volume as 
to change in character of immigration and to the difficulties of maintaining an 
efficient medical inspection under the peculiar local methods of conducting the 
passenger traffic. These methods are necessitated by the lack of an adequate 
immigration station and the practice of performing the primary inspection at 
a number of widely scattered steamship docks. A total has been reached in a 
single day of 3,500 passengers on several ships docking at different points, and 
the problem of covering this wide area with a limited force has been a serious 
one. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 215 

And yet the medical inspectors play a most important role in the passenger 
traffic of the port, since the proper utilization of the docks and passenger ter- 
minals depends primarily upou the expedition with which the medical insi)ection 
of arriving aliens can be made. The speed of the immigration inspection is de- 
pendent entirely upon the number of immigrants per hour that can be supplied 
by the medical inspection. Even the stevedores can not begin their work on 
cargo until the docks are cleared of steerage passengers; and when, as fre- 
quently happens, the medical inspection is made on shipboard, the deck is not 
cleared until the last passenger has beeu passed by the medical inspectors. 

But the weakness of the present medical inspection at Boston is due to the 
lack of adequate provisions for making what may be called the secondary ex- 
amination in the case of those individuals who, at the pxnmary examination, 
are recognized and detained as abnormal. The lack is general in its nature. 
There is in the first place an insufficiency of medical inspectors. For interpret- 
ers in the mental examination of immigrants reliance must be had upon other 
immigrants who speak English or upon such interpreters connected with the 
Immigration Service as can be spared from time to time. Finally, there are no 
hospital accommodations at the immigration station. It thus becomes neces- 
sary to transfer a large proportion of those cases requiring extended examina- 
tion, physical or mental, to various local hospitals and to depend uix)n the 
staffs of those institutions for the actual examinations. And in spite of the 
various makeshifts to overcome existing handicaps, tardiness in completing the 
medical examination of arriving immigrants has been a subject of frequent and 
justifiable complaint. 

Statistics for the year show that 4,558 aliens were certified for "conditions 
specifically calling for exclusion under the immigration laws or for conditions 
which do, permanently or temporarily, affect the ability of individuals to earn a 
living." These figures represent 8 per cent of the second-cabin and 5 per cent 
of steerage aliens. It is interesting to note that of the total of 4,558 so certified 
all but 473 were landed; 446 were deported and 27 were pending at the close 
of the fiscal year. 

During the year 533 cases were distributed for treatment among seven differ- 
ent hospitals in this vicinity regularly utilized for such purpo.se. As compai'ed 
with the previous year there is a marked increase in the number of aliens certi- 
fied as insane or feeble-minded, as well as in the number of cases of trachoma, 
syphilis, and favus. 

DESERTING SEAMEN. 

The problem of deserting seamen continues in the foreground, and under the 
existing law there appears to be slight hope of its solution. The number of 
deserters reported by the masters of departing vessels affords little clue to the 
facts. In some cases, where desertions are relatively few, it is probable that 
correct returns are made. In other cases a partial list may be submitted, while 
in still other cases apparently no attempt is made to furnish the Immigration 
Service with reports of alien seamen who desert their vessels. 

An interesting illustration is afforded by a recent experience in the case of a 
deserting seaman that was under investigation. In the absence of any record 
at this office of desertions from the vessel by which he arrived recourse was had 
to the files of the local consul, where it was discovered that no less than 22 sea- 
men, including the one in question, had deserted from the same vessel. There 
is reason to believe that desertions are on the increase. Nor is there doubt that 
the practice on the part of inadmissible aliens of entering the country in the 
guise of deserting seamen long since assumed the proportions of a wholesale 
business. 

LEGAL ASPECTS OF IMMIGRATION. 

We have been somewhat embarrassed this year through the attitude of the 
United States district court here in matters affecting the administration of the 
immigration laws. Writs of habeas corpus have been granted in medical cases, 
especially those of mental defectives, and the court has held that it is within its 
jurisdiction to pass upon the correctness of the findings of the board of special 
inquiry, and that it may examine an alien and overrule the medical diagnosis 
made by officers of the Public Health Service. A specific example is cited by 
the medical officer in charge at this station, as follows : 



216 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

" Simon Sitner, an easily demonstrable mental defective, certified as feeble- 
minded and subsequently reported as feeble-minded by a medical board and 
actually used during his period, of detention at the immigration station for the 
purpose of demonstratnig mental defectiveness to visiting students in psychiatry, 
was found by the court, after examination and on the testimony of physicians 
employed by the alien's relatives, to be a ' normal person ' and thereupon ordered 
admitted into the country." 

The one case that has reached the circuit court of appeals (entitled In re 
Felix Petkos) has been decided favorably to the Government's views. In its 
decision the court of appeals brings out three important points: (1) In order to 
debar an alien as " having a physical defect which may aifect ability to earn 
a living," the medical certificate in the case must contain the words " which 
may affect ability to earn a living," or equivalent words; (2) if a court decides 
that a proper hearing under the immigration law has not been given by this 
service, the case is to be returned to us by the court in order that the improper 
action may be remedied; (3) a court has no right to release an alien because 
the hearing befoi-e this service has not in its opinion been proper. 

CONTRACT LABOR. 

In this district there are two section 24 inspectors employed for the enforce- 
ment of that portion of the immigration act which excludes contract laborers. 

Some important work in the enforcement of the contract labor provisions of 
the law has been accomplished. A number of investigations in cases of groups 
of aliens held by boards of special inquiry at New York, Boston, Montreal, and 
other ports disclosed activities on the part of padrones which show that they 
continue to be an important factor in the employment of alien laborers. With a 
view to developing some effective method of dealing with the situation in this 
district, one of the section 24 inspectors suggests that a directory be compiled 
of all active "connnunitj^ agencies," such as bankers, steamship agents, grocers, 
saloon keepers, boarding-house keepers, etc., for use by the inspectors at Ellis 
Island and at other ports of entry. He is of the opinion that the compilation 
of this directory could be undertaken incidentally to their other work by the 
contract-labor inspectors without material expense. He believes that such a 
list would be of much assistance in giving the names and addresses of parties 
under suspicion as the mediums for exploiting foreign laborers. 

Another section 24 inspector believes, as a result of his experience, that there 
are many more violations of the contract-labor laws by aliens from Canada 
than is generally supix)sed. He suggests the advisability^ of admitting sus- 
pected groups of aliens occasionally, with the view of following them up and 
possibly securing evidence that could not be obtained before admittance, which 
would implicate the importers as well as the laborers. 

Little success has been obtained by the section 24 men in attempts to appre- 
hend contract laborers at the time or arrival, since in nearly all cases it appears 
that real violators of the law are well informed concerning its provisions. 

WHITE-SLAVE TRAFFIC. 

The work of suppressing the so-called white-slave traffic in this district has 
suffered by reason of the more or less constant necessity of using the total 
available force of inspectors in routine duty. There has been, however, a 
marked decrease in the number of complaints of violations of law, probably 
due to the increased activity in the campaign against vice conducted by the 
State and municipal authorities. 

A State commission during the past year conducted an investigation of mat- 
ters appertaining to the white-slave traffic. In spite of the fact that there are 
no restricted, regulated, or tolerated districts or sections confined to this vice in 
Massachusetts, the commission found a number of parlor houses of prostitu- 
tion doing open business. In the larger cities the most flagrant open expres- 
sion of commercialized vice is in connection with certain disorderly cafes or 
saloons habitually frequented by known prostitutes. The methods of suppres- 
sion in general appear to be pursued with vigor. Available statistics, in addi- 
tion to the records of arrests by police at the different cities, show a minimum 
number of prostitutes amenable under the immigration laws within the statu- 
tory limit of three years. It is obvious, however, that a considerable number 
of alien prostitutes who have been in the United States more than three years 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 217 

are frequenting these questionable cafes practically unopposed by the local 
authorities. Owing to our inadequate facilities for detention and our inade- 
quate force for assignment to this work, practically no arrests of such aliens 
have been made in this district. 

By reason of the peculiar local conditions this district becomes at times the 
dumping ground for violators of the law driven from Canadian towns, as well as 
from New York City. The inspector who has been in charge of white-slave 
investigations believes that the rendezvous frequented by this class should be 
subjected to constant and vigilant espionage by the Immigration Service, since 
in the absence of any systematic regulation or segregation but little information 
is available from local authorities. 

CHINESE DIVISION. 

The work in general of the Chinese division is shown by the tabular state- 
ments appended to this report. 

We desire to call attention to the cooperation extended by the force of cus- 
toms guards on duty day and night at the various docks in Boston. During 
the year only two Chinese were found attempting to smuggle ashore from 
steamers arriving from foreign ports. One of these was apprehended at night 
by a customs guard; the other was found on a boat hidden in a barrel and 
deported as a stowaway. It is felt that this system of guarding foreign 
steamers, especially at night, which has been in force at this port for the past 
two years, has served as an effectual deterrent to many who might otherwise 
successfully violate the law regarding the illegal entry of Chinese. 

VERIFICATIONS OF LANDING. 

At the port of Boston during the past year we have verified or attempted 
to verify considerably in excess of G,000 landings. The record would have been 
much greater if it had been found practicable with our limited force to co- 
operate with the State authorities in the enforcement of a new school-attend- 
ance law requiring all minors under 21 years of age. engaged in gainful occu- 
pations, to secure an educational certificate. As evidence of age upon which 
to base the certificate many alien minors sought the immigration records. The 
demand for certificates of registry, however, became so insistent that we were 
obliged in self-defense either to secure aditional help or to decline the requests 
for certificates. The latter was the alternative finally adopted by the bureau, 
to which the matter was referred. 

One of our most important duties under the immigration law is the relief of 
the community or State from the burden of supporting defective or delinquent 
aliens of certain classes who may be deported at the expense of the steamship 
company at any time within a period of three years from the date of landing. 
In view, therefore, of the immense sums expended by the people of this country 
upon the care and maintenance of citizens of other countries it seems worth 
while to strengthen, so far as practicable, the weaker parts of the administra- 
tive machinery by which it is intended to relieve this pressure upon the public 
treasuries. The increasing burden of alien public charges gives prominence to 
the important work of verifying landings, since deportation at the expense of 
the transportation company is predicated upon a certificate of arrival which 
shall clearly indicate the steamship company responsible. The verification of 
landings consequently becomes one of the fine arts of the Immigration Service. 

The ignorance of local authorities concerning the immigration laws is prob- 
ably .surpassed by their lack of familiarity with the spelling and pronunciation 
of foreign names. Each of these defects in the official intelligence has a direct 
bearing upon the problem of alien public charges. For not only are numerous 
deportable cases being supported at public expense, but in many cases an 
attempt to secure expulsion is thwarted by failure to verify a landing through 
inability to submit the alien's proper name to the immigration authorities. 

BONDS AND BONDSMEN. 

The rule which became effective during the past year of requiring at the 
expiration, resi>ectively. of periods of six months and one year after date of 
landing reports showing the location and occupation of aliens admitted on 
public-chai-ge bonds has proved a step in the right direction. An illustration 



218 BEPOKT OF COMMISSIONEE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

of the value of this rule is afforded by the case of a Lithuanian family consist- 
ing of a mother, aged 30, and two children, one aged 3 years and the other 4 
months, the older child being certified to have " shortness, weakness, and 
atrophy of right leg from disease of hip joint." The father had been in the 
country 10 mouths. The family was landed, after appeal to the department, 
upon the giving of the usual public-charge bond in the case of the afflicted 
child. At the expiration of six months the usual notice was sent to the sureties 
reminding them of the necessity for submitting a report showing the present 
conditions and residence of the bonded child. In the absence of response a 
second notice was sent which brought a reply from one of the bondsmen that 
suggested the need of further inquiry. An investigation disclosed the fact that 
the afflicted child had been placed in a local institution for treatment, and that 
a bill of $61 had already been contracted of which only $3 was paid. The case 
is still under consideration at the close of the fiscal year. 

CONCLUSION. 

In the foregoing comments we have several times intimated the need of 
further legislation to strengthen the present laws. We have also referred to 
the necessity of greatly increased facilities, both in men and . equipment, to 
provide for the proper enforcement of the existing statutes. 

The defects in the present law are well known to all persons familiar 
with the subject of immigration. The absence of provisions relative to alien 
seamen, of provisions permitting the expulsion of aliens on account of crimes 
committed in this country (other than those relating to sexual immorality), 
the lack of adequate provisions for the detection of alien criminals on arrival, 
the inadequacy of the provisions relative to expulsion of undesirable aliens as 
well as for the protection of worthy immigrants after arrival — these are some 
of the weaknesses in the existing law which would be immensely strengthened 
by the enactment of the so-called Burnett bill, which for some time has been 
before Congress. W6 believe that the Burnett bill should be passed without 
delay. We also believe that the present attitude of Congress regarding the 
support of the Immigration Service should be materially modified. 

In view of the fact that the Commission on Industrial Relations, appointed by 
the President, is giving consideration to the subject of labor bureaus and the 
distribution of labor and has secured the testimony of the superintendent of 
the State free employment offices of Massachusetts, it has not seemed desirable 
at this time to make further investigation. 

Appended are the statistical statements. 

Table I. — Arrivals at New England ports. 





1913 


1914 


Increase 
(-f)or 


Port. 


Passengers. 


Aliens. 


Passengers. 


Aliens. 


decrease 
(-)of 
aliens. 


Boston 


79, 272 

26, 624 

12, 752 

1,163 


66,827 

26,422 

12,752 

1,117 


96,334 
7,973 

11,514 
2,164 


81,440 
7,846 

11,016 
2,119 


+14,613 
18 576 


Portland . 


Providence 

New Bedford 


- 498 
+ 1,002 


Total 


119,811 


107, 118 


117,985 


102,421 









Table II. — Arrivals at Boston, 1913 and 191.'i. 



Years. 


Passen- 
gers. 


United 

States 

citizens. 


Immi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Non- 
immi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Alien 
stowa- 
ways. 


Cattle- 
men. 


Aliens 
deported. 


1913 


79, 272 
96,334 


12,284 
14,894 


54,560 
69,329 


11,819 
11,085 


21 

57 


161 

78 


397 


1914 


891 







REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 219 
Table III. — Fines under section 9. 



Port. 


Dangerous 

or 

loathsome 

contagious 

disease. 


Tubercu- 
losis. 


Mental 
defects. 


Boston 


25 
2 


2 


2 


Providence ' 











No fines for improper manifesting. 

Table IV. — Gases landed for hospital treatment. 

Uaffaa, Bertha, age 14, female, Hebi-ew, tractioma. 

Time estimated for cure. 6 mouths or more ; actual time, 4 months. 

Expenses, $60.47. 
Shapiro, Henry, age 16, male, Russian Hebrew, trachoma. 

Time estimated for cure, possibly 6 months; actual time, 5 months. 

Expenses, $171.21. 

Miscellaneous statistical matter. 



Boston. 



Provi- 
dence. 



New- 
Bedford. 



Portland. 



Total number of passengers examined 

Number of aliens examined 

Number of aliens admitted on primary iaspoction 

Number of aliens held for board of special inquiry 

Number of aliens admitted by board of special inquiry 

Number of aliens rejected by board of special inquiry '. 

Number of aliens finally deported " 

Number of aliens who appealed from decision of board of steam- 
boat inspectors 

Number of aliens admitted outright on appeal 

Number of aliens admitted on bond 

Number of aliens denied admission on appeal 

Seamen: 

Deserting, reported by masters of vessels 

VoluDtarily apprehended seeking admission to United 
States 

Examined seelimg discharge from vessel to reship on other 

vessels in foreign trade 

Stowaways 

Niunber died before final disposition 



96,322 
81,440 
74,876 
6,564 
5,409 
1,155 
891 

723 
159 
105 
459 

616 

12 

199 

65 

5 



11,514 

11,016 

9,775 

1,241 

988 

246 

173 

154 
47 
26 
81 



2,164 

2,119 

1,916 

203 

163 

40 

28 

28 
12 



7,973 
7,846 
7,441 
405 
270 
135 
133 

41 



(0 



1 145 seamen applied for admission with the regular immigrants at time of arrival, were manifested, and 
are included in the number of aliens examined. 

INVESTIGATIONS. 

1. Alien applicants. — By reference to our card index we find a list of some 
255 requests from officers in charge of other stations for investigations in this 
district relating to alien applicants for admission. These figures, however, do 
not convey an accurate idea of the actual number of investigations made. The 
American commissioner at Montreal, for example, refers to this office for inves- 
tigation of citizenship cases of alleged American citizens who have become 
inmates of penal or charitable institutions in Canada. It is the rule that such 
a case involves several investigations before the fact of citizenship can be 
determined in one way or the other or before the Canadian authorities are 
.satisfied; but our records are credited only with the one original investigation. 
Again, the commissioner for Philadelphia or the supervising inspector for the 
Mexican border may submit request for an investigation of several applicants — 
Syrians, Armenians, or Turks — located perhaps in the same town or in different 
localities of the State. Nevertheless, our record is cretiited with but one inves- 
tigation for the group. 

2. Additional investigations. — It is impracticable to give an accurate state- 
ment of investigations other than those relating to alien applicants. We find 
specific record of some 30 investigations of a general nature, including a num- 
ber regarding economic or labor conditions at various manufacturing centers. 
This record does not, of course, include investigations requested directly of the 



220 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 



section 24 inspectors, nor does it refer to matters of strictly local consequence 
such as missing baggage. Innumerable inve.stigations are undertaken in con- 
nection with alleged public charges, criminals and other lawbreakers, as well 
as in warrant cases, no statistics of which are compiled. 

Statistics of warrant cases. 

These statistics relate only to warrant cases originating in this district No 
account has been taken of cases originating in other districts, even though 
deportation was effected through ports of this district. 

Warrants applied for 337 

Causes : 

Phthisis 9 

Tuberculosis 25 

Insane 140 

Likely to become a public charge 41 

Syphilis 2 

Pregnancy 4 

Without inspection 13 

Other physical defects 33 

Other mental defects 25 

Prostitutes 9 

Escaped aliens 6 

Deserting seamen 4 

Criminals 7 

Immoral 9 

Procurers ^ 5 

Stowaways 1 

Contract labor 4 

Total 337 

Issued, by States: 

Massachusetts 204 

Connecticut 94 

Rhode Island 19 

Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont 20 

Total 337 

Warrants issued 337 

Warrants served _ 303 

Warrants canceled — 77 

Warrants executed 228 

Warrants pending 30 

Statistics of Law Division — Proceedings instituted. 





Criminal (act and section violated). 


Civa. 


Disposition. 


Section 
11, 1882. 


Section 
9, 1888. 


Section 
3, 1907. 


Section 
8, 1907. 


Section 
18, 1907. 


Section 

79, 
Penal 
Code. 


On 
bonds. 


Section 
19, con- 
tract. 


MASSACHUSETTS DISTRICT. 




4 

1 


1 


1 


1 








Discharged by United States com- 










Discontinued by United States com- 




1 

1 

1 












Pending before United States corn- 


















1 
1 




1 




1 












Filed 


1 






3 

2 










2 
1 




2 

1 
3 




2 


1 


VEEMONT DISTRICT. 







































KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 221 

In the cases of 9 aliens (including Chinese) petitions for writs of habeas 
corpus have been filed in the United States district court and the following 
actions have been had in those cases : Aliens landed by district court 2, in one of 
which the circuit court of appeals has overruled the lower court and iu the other 
an appeal is now pending before the circuit court of appeals; the district court 
has released 4 aliens, in which cases its decision is still pending; petitions dis- 
missed by district court 2; petition withdrawn 1. 

Cases in which the United States attorney advised against proceeding are not 
included in the above table. The figures indicate the violations, not the num- 
ber of defendants. Where jirosecution might have been under more than one 
section, only the most apparent violation is indicated. The 6 section 18 cases 
relate to aliens who escaped from the custody of steamship companies in which 
proceedings were undertaken. 

The following explains the nature of the work in connection with the enforce- 
ment of the Chinese exclusion law performed during the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1914: 

Cases investigated. 

Seeking admission at Boston : 

Students 5 

Native (raw) 1 

Laborer 1 

Total 7 

Rejected 2 

Admitted 5 

Number finally deported 2 

Seeking admission at other ports : 

Court natives 3 

Raw natives 1 

Children of natives 42 

Wife of native 1 

ChiWren of merchants 7 

Wife of merchant 1 

Additional evidence in appeal cases 17 

Laborer 1 

Applications for return certificates through other ports {preinvestigations) . 



Class. 


Applica- 
tions. 


Granted. 


Refused. 


Natives 


109 
54 
13 


79 
56 
14 
1 
12 


6 


Laborers 


2 


Merchants 




MLssionary 




Students 


3 









1 Departed through Boston. 

MisccUancous. 

Unlawful residence 27 

Duplicate certificates of residence 2 

In transit 1 

Aiding and abetting unlawful entiy of Chinese 3 

Verification of McGettrick certificates 7 

Verification of Johnson certificates 14 

Vei'tification of Young certificate 1 

Verification of United States District Court of Vermont certificate 1 

Additional evidence in api>eal cases, applicants for return certificates 20 

Surveillance of section 6 students 7 

Surveillance of sons of natives 3 

Stowaway 1 

Smuggling operations 9 



222 REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Cases before United States district courts. 

Until order of deportation or discharge: 

Appealed to United States district courts during present year 5 

Pending before trial at close of previous year 3 

Total cases 8 

Bailed on appeal to United States district courts during year 4 

Disposition — 

Pending before trial at close of present year 6 

Ordered deported (department warrant cases remained to com- 
missioner of immigration) 1 

After order of deiwrtation : 

Awaiting deportation or appeal to higher courts at close of previous 
year 1 

Disposition — 

Awaiting disposition or appeal at close of present year 1 

Cases before higher United States courts. 

After order of deportation : 

Awaiting deportation at close of present year 1 

Chinese seamen. 

Arriving in port 1,630 

Escaped from vessels ^3 

Department icarrants. 

Pending at close of previous year • 2 

Applied for 3 

Issued * 7 

Served 6 

Canceled 2 

Executed 1 

Pending June 30, 1914 6 

Action taken in the cases of Chinese persons arrested on the charge of being 
in the United States in violation of law, fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 : 

Cases before United States commissioners. 

Until order of deportation or discharge: 

Arrests made during present year 9 

Pending before hearing at close previous year 4 

Total cases 13 

Bailed on bond during year 7 

Disposition — 

Discharged 3 

Pending before hearing at close of present year 3 

Ordered deported 7 

After order of deportation : 

Ordered deported during present year 7 

Disposition — 

Escaped (defaulted bail) 1 

Deported 1 

Appealed to United States district courts 5 

1 Case of 1 reported ; captain held by United States commissioner for Federal grand 
jury, which found no bill. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



223 



KECAPirULATION OF ALL CASES. 

Arrests made during present year 9 

Pending at close of previous year, including those awaiting deportation 
or appeal 9 

Total- cases 18 

Disposition : 

Died, escaped, and forfeited bail 1 

Discharged -- — 3 

Deported ^ 3 

Pending at close of present year, including those awaiting deporta- 
tion or appeal 11 

Summary, hy months, of action taken in the cases of Chinese arrests, fiscal year 

ended June 30, lOl'i. 



Month. 



July 

August 

September. 
October — 
November . 
December. . 

January 

February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Arrests 
made 
during 
present 
month. 



Died, 
escaped, 

and 
forfeited 

bail. 



Dis- 
charged. 



Actually 
deported. 



Total. 



1 These were department warrant cases remanded to commissioner of immigration, Boston. 

Chinese persons arrested, deported, and discharged, fiscal year ended June 30, 
WUi, hy judicial circuits. 



District. 


Arrested. 


Deported. 


Dis- 
charged. 


Forfeited 
bail. 




3 
5 
1 










1 2 
1 


3 


1 













' These were department warrant cases remanded to commissioner of immigration, Boston. 

Respectfully submitted. 

H. J. Skeffington, Commissioner, 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION AT NEW YORK, IN 
CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 3. COMPRISING NEW YORK AND NEW 
JERSEY, AND THE IMMIGRATION STATION AT ELLIS ISLAND, NEW 
YORK HARBOR. 

During the year ended June 30, 1914, 1.009,854 aliens arrived at this port. 
Of these, 834,274 were admitted on primary inspection and 175.580 either held 
for special inquiry or temporarily detained. Approximately 70,000 were held for 
special inquiry and 23,162 were exclude<l. Of these latter, 1,231 were admitted 
on appeal and 720 on bond, the cases of 116 being still pending at the close of 
June. 



> Two of these were department warrant cases remanded to commissioner of immigration, Boston. 



224 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Tlie year presented some very unusual features. During the months of July, 
August, and September immigration was heavier than in the same season of 
any preceding year, and the indications were that all records would be ex- 
ceeded. The decrease during the latter six months, which is usually the 
heaviest period of immigration, was correspondingly great, so that the total 
arrivals for the year were approximately 42,000 less than the preceding one. 
Yet the number of ineligibles was disproportionately high, the available force 
being taxed to the utmost promptly and properly to handle the situation. The 
deportations for the entire year were 10,588, or 55 per cent in excess of that 
during the year ended June 30, 1913, when but 10,709 of those seelilng admis- 
sion were returned to the countries whence they came. 

During the year the department authorized hospital treatment in the cases 
of 41 aliens afflicted with dangerous or loathsome contagious diseases, and 
there were 15 aliens of this class detained in hospital from the preceding year. 
I wish to repeat what has been said as to the inadvisability of holding such 
cases for treatment. The friends and relatives of the afflicted persons usually 
have very limited means, and the diseases involved are extremely difficult to 
cure. The necessarily prolonged and tedious detention results often in great 
hardship to those already domiciled here, and in some instances almost, if 
not complete, pauperization. I have reported several such cases. There are 
now such excellent facilities abroad for treating such diseases as trachoma, 
favus, tinea tonsurans, etc., that it is usually no kindness to hold the afflicted 
persons here at the expense of their relatives. Cure could be accomplished 
abroad as quickly and with less expense, although the Government rate is 
only such as to make the hospital self-supporting. While there may be extraor- 
dinary cases in which as a matter of humanity requests for detention and 
treatment should be granted, any leniency in this respect seems to be but an 
inducement to interested persons to attempt to bring here diseased aliens. 
Notwithstanding the fact that fines have been imposed whenever the limitations 
of the law have been met, there has been a gradual increase in the number of 
immigrants afflicted with dangerous or loathsome contagious diseases; in fact, 
the number which arrived during the year just closed is double that of 1912. 
A table is submitted showing those held for treatment during the past year, 
their nationality, length of time treatment was accorded and final disposition.^ 
Fines were imposed in such cases aggregating $17,000, a total almost three 
times as great as that shown for the preceding year. 

Fines aggregating $2,940 were assessed against various steamship companies 
for failure properly to manifest arriving aliens. The steamship companies 
usually furnish reasonably accurate and complete manifests, but there has been 
delay in a number of instances in supplying the coupons as to departing 
passengers. 



During the year 974 alien seamen were discharged and examined at this port. 
It always has been a difficult task to secure accurate data as to deserting sea- 
men. The lack of adequate legislation renders it almost impossible for the 
Immigration Service properly to control this very important element which we 
know is entering the country. During the past six months the larger steamship 
companies have, as a result of personal solicitation, furnished more complete 
information upon this subject. From January to June, inclusive. 1,905 alien 
seamen were reported as having deserted. What percentage of these men 
abandoned their calling and remained in the United States it is impossible to 
say. That many aliens who felt that they were unable to pass the inspection 
as immigrants endeavored to enter the country under the guise of seamen has 
long been known. A recent case in point was that of the bark Fido. Informa- 
tion had been received that a shipping master at a South American port had 
placed aboard that vessel some aliens who were not bona fide seamen, and when 
the bark reached New York a careful investigation was made. Two men were 
found who were not seamen, although their names appeared upon the articles. 
One was a Russian Hebrew who had been certified for several defects and 
deported from New York two years ago. He had never been a seaman, but after 
being deported had gone to South America and. by paying a sum of money to an 
agent there, been shipped on the Fido. He had some relatives here, and they 
voluntarily returned him to Russia. The second alleged member of the crew 
was found to have trachoma. He had never been a seaman. Appropriate notice 

1 Included in bureau statistical Table XXVI I I-a, p. 142. 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 225 

was served upon the master of the boat to iireveut the landing of the diseased 
man, but the latter nevertheless made his escape and an indictment is now pend- 
ing against the consignees of the vessel. 

STOWAWAYS. 

During the past year 394 alien stowaways were apprehended, and with very 
few exceptions were deported. As to any who were admitted exceptional cir- 
cumstances existed. 

ESCAPES. 

Considering the great number of aliens who arrive at this port the escapes 
have been exceedingly few, totaling but seven from vessels throughout the year. 
Four of the cases were reported to the United, States attorney for suitable action. 
In the other three cases the circumstances were such as to indicate the impracti- 
cability of a successful prosecution, the ascertained facts absolving the steamship 
companies concerned from blame. In addition to the seven escapes from vessels, 
two aliens escaped from the Ellis Island hospital. One of these voluntarily 
returned and was deported. The other one has been placed under arrest and 
ordered deported. 

IMPROVEMENTS. 

During the past year the boarding division has moved into its new offices at 
the barge office. When that building was constructed special attention was 
given to the furnishing of suitable quarters for the Immigration Service, with 
the result that they are more adequate and better in all resi>ects than any we 
previously had at the New York landing. 

The new story on the baggage and dormitory building is nearing completion. 
It will be ready for occupancy early in November. In it double-tier beds will 
be substituted for the three-tier heretofore used. The latter have proved cum- 
bersome, extremely difficult to keep in repair, and unsatisfactory in many 
respects. The new quarters will provide much more satisfactory accommoda- 
tions for the detained steerage passengers. We are still without suitable ac- 
commodations for such cabin passengers as it is necessary to detain, and dur- 
ing periods of normal immigration these average slightly in excess of 100 a 
day. It is to be regretted that up to the present time Congress has not made 
the necessary appropriation for this much needed improvement. 

The old hospital building has been renovated, new floors and modern and 
sanitary plumbing installed. 

In the contagious-disease hospital group the connecting corridor has been 
inclosed in copper and glass, thereby affording needed protection from the ele- 
ments to the patients and the hospital staff. 

Additional electric tie lines connecting the contagious-disease hospital group 
with the main power plant have been installed, thereby providing sufficient 
light and power for that important unit of the station. 

The first section of the new concrete, granite-faced sea wall was completed. 
The old cribwork is rapidly decaying, and it is important that additional ap- 
propriations for the extension of this work be made without delay. By utiliz- 
ing the ashes from the power plant, ferryboat, and cutter we have filledin back 
of the new sea wall, thereby saving several thousand dollars which otherwise 
would have been expended for scow service and the purchase of fill. 

Plans and specifications were prepared for the new carpenter shop, bakery, 
and storage building, and the contract ha§ been awarded. The erection of this 
building will eliminate the serious fire risk which has existed by reason of the 
necessity of storing highly combustible materials in wooden structures and the 
use of an inadequate and inflammable building as a bakeshop. 

The installation of a forced-draft system in the power house has also been 
contracted for. It is anticipated that its installation will result in a material 
saving in the operation of this plant. 

A high-pressure steam drip return trap system throughout the station has 
also been provided. There is no doubt that this will result in an additional 
saving in the furnishing of heat and power. 

Although the appropriation made for an additional story on the main building, 
whereby it is hoped to gain at least some of the much-needed additional space 
for the medical inspection, was less than the estimate, plans and specifications 
were drawn, and it may be possible to construct an addition within the limits 

60629°— 15 15 



226 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

set by Congress. This will relieve to a great extent the congestion heretofore 
existing in the medical division, with resulting difficulty in the proper per- 
formance of this important part of the inspection. 

The necessity for a covered way connecting islands Nos. 2 and 3, both hospital 
islands, is obvious to anyone who will insi)ect present conditions. It is not 
creditable to this Government to have sick children exposed to the elements and 
the spray from the bay while being transported across the present open walk. 
Several "times Congress has been asked for an appropriation of $60,000 for the 
construction of a concrete, fireproof corridor connecting these islands, the dis- 
tance being approximately 500 feet. 

The necessity for suitable accommodations for detained cabin passengers was 
previously referred to. There can be no wonder that such passengers complain 
when placed in the present detention rooms, though they be the best Congress 
has given us. The attention of Congress has been called to this very much 
needed addition to our plant on several occasions, but without result. 

The plank walks adjoining the landing docks are in very bad repair, and 
should be replaced by concrete, the area to include that now intervening be- 
tw/een the former pierhead line and the new granite sea wall. An appropria- 
tion of $20,000 was requested for this purpose, but was not made. The present 
walks are so badly decayed that it is almost impossible to repair them, and to 
replace them with suitable wooden flooring will cost nearly as much as the 
concrete, whereas the latter will be a lasting improvement. 

The floor of the main inspection hall is composed of an asphalt preparation, 
has been in use for 14 years, and is now full of indentations and cracks which 
render it extremely difhcult to keep clean and sanitary. It is surprising that 
it has lasted so long, subjected to the hard usage given it by the millions who 
have passefl through this station. 

Additional improvements whereby economies can be effected in the operation 
of our steam plant are also possible and should be made. 

MEDICAL INSPECTION. 

Attached is a summary of the work of the medical division during the year 
just closed.^ Of the 16,588 deported under all provisions of the law, 8,858 were 
certified to have some mental or physical defect. The 10,485 inmates of the 
hospitals represented a diversity of ailments, defects, or injuries, and the diffi- 
culty of caring for them was increased by the many languages spoken and the 
almost appalling ignorance and superstition of many of the patients. But 30 
medical officers were assigned to the task of inspecting over a million aliens 
and conducting the hospitals. This was an increase of 4 over the preceding 
year, but by no means the number required for this most important part of 
the inspection of innnigrants. 

Since the beginning of the service diphtheria, measles, and scarlet fever 
have developed among detained children, the contagion being distributed by 
those infected aboard ship. Upon the advice of the chief medical officer that 
the most infectious period was during the early stages of the diseases, arrange- 
ments were made whereby the temperature of all detained children under the 
age of 12 was to be taken each morning by our matrons. Since the inauguration 
of this practice in November last and the si)eedy removal to the hospital for 
observation of all children having a temperature higher than normal, the 
number of cases of infection has been materially reduced and unquestionably 
much good has resulted, not only as a preventive, but by reason of the prompt 
treatment given those actually affected. 

TRANSFER BOATS. 

Until almost a year ago it was the practice of the steamship companies to 
transport their sick passengers from the respective piers to Ellis Island aboard 
the barges and boats used to convey the others. The accommodations for the 
sick were very inadequate and inappropriate. By reason of representations 
made by this office considerable improvement has been made and the danger 
of spreading contagion materially reduced. Even yet these accommodations are 
not what they should be, and I am of the opinion that the steamship companies 
should be required to supply a separate boat, suitably equipped, for bringing 
to this station aliens suffering from infectious or contagious diseases. 

1 Not printed because of lack of space. 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 227 

DEPORTATION OF ALIENS ALREADY IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The work of removiug from this country those who have gained admission 
in violation of law or become public charges from causes existing prior to land- 
ing has greatly increased. During the year just closed this office investigatetl 
1,376 such cases. Of these the department ordered the deportation of 743 
persons and 189 were pending at the close of the year. As to 127 the warrants 
were canceled after due investigation. Of the remaining 104 a number had 
died in the public institutions in which they were confined or had absconded. 
The following list contains the details as to those deiwrted : 

Insane 399 

Public charges (from other causes) 219 

Epileptics 9 

Entered without inspection ^ 28 

Immoral and prostitutes 49 

Procurers 7 

Criminals 13 

Feeble-minded > 5 

Under 16 8 

Living off the proceeds of prostitution 4 

Professional beggars 2 

As the bureau is aware, much detail is involved in every such case, and it 
is often difficult to secure the facts. Hundreds of other cases, which have 
been investigated at inland ix)iuts, are brought to New York for deportation. 
The total of those expelled through this port during the past year was 2,050. 

In the course of our work it becomes necessary to refer numerous cases to 
the L'nited States attorney for prosecution or an expression of opinion as to 
whether further legal action should be taken. Details as to the number of 
such cases, their nature, and the result are shown in the following table : 

Gases referred to the United States attorney from July 1, 1913, to June 30, WlJt. 



Number. 


Class. 


Result. 


2 




Recovered, $1,000; 1 pending. 
Pending. 
Do. 


4 


School bonds 


3 




4 


Contract-labor cases 


1 pending; 3, United States attorney 
recommended no action. Also re- 
covered $3,000 in the Ritz-Carlton 
case, which was instituted in the fall 
of 1912. 

Pending. 
Do. 


1 




2 




2 


Prosecution under section 8 


1 pending; 1 dismissed. 
Pending. 

Defendant pleaded guilty; Mayer, J., 
suspended sentence. 

1 defendant fined $75; 1 defendant 
fined $25; 1 defendant's sentence sus- 
pended. 

United States attorney recommended 
no prosecution. 

2 United States attorney recommended 
no prosecution; 1 defendant pleaded 
guilty and sentenced to 30 days. 


1 


Prosecution under section 18 


1 


Prosecution under section 19 


3 

1 

3 


Prosecution fraudulent use of naturalization certifi- 
cate. 

Prosecution importing woman for immoral purpose. . . 

Prosecutions for perjury 


1 


Order to show cause 


62 










writs withdrawn, 1 writ sustained. 
Warrant cases— 5 writs dismissed, 2 
writs withdrawn. 



You will note that of the 62 writs of habeas corpus sued out as to aliens in 
our custody 61 were dismissed or withdrawn, and but 1 sustained. It affords 
me pleasure to report the unfailing assistance and support given this service 
by the United States attorney for the southern district of New York. 

One of the mo.st important cases was that of Max Wax. For some time past 
he had been engaged in the nefarious business of smuggling into the United 
States diseased and otherwise ineligible aliens, many of whom had been de- 
ported when they first applied for admission. He had a well-organized band 
of conspirators located at the Canadian ports along the border, at Boston, and 



228 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

at Philadelphia. By reason of the fact that the people imported in this manner 
were here in violation of law and well aware of that fact, the difficulty of 
obtaining satisfactory evidence was materially increased. One of our inter- 
preters, having located some of these people, energetically pursued the matter 
until he was in possession of sufficient facts to present it to the United States 
attorney. The assistant attorney who took charge of it pursued it with unusual 
activity with the result that four indictments were returned against Wax. He 
was tried and found guilty as to three of them and sentenced to 15 months in 
the Atlanta Penitentiary, where he is now confined. The fourth indictment, 
which relates to his importing women for immoral purposes, is still pending 
against him. The evidence obtained indicated that Wax and his confederates 
had imiwrted a great many ineligible aliens and i-eceived from $150 to $500 in 
each case. In addition, he had obtained like sums from residents who feared 
that their relatives might have difficulty in securing admission, but who, when 
they came, wei'e found eligible to land. 

Those deported by the Government are but a small percentage of the ones 
who have failed to succeed here. There are thousands of others who have not 
been able to withstand the competition encountered in this new land of promise. 
They do not, however, fall within the provisions of the law authorizing deporta- 
tion after landing has been secured. Many are returned by charitable organiza- 
tions and thousands by the consuls of some of the countries whence they 
originally came. For instance, one of the consuls repatriated during the 
calendar year 1913 over 5,000 persons and during the first six months of the 
calendar year 1914 approximately 2,500. Another consul during the year 
July 1, 1912, to July 1, 1913, returned over 1,000, and during the year ended 
June 30, 1914, nearly 1,800. 

As the bureau is well aware, we have some very difficult cases to handle, 
and the difficulty is not lessened by the fact that one's sympathies may be 
aroused. Yet there is another side to this question, and more real hardship 
occurs in many instances where admission is permitted than if deportation 
were directed at the time of application for entry. Among those arrested 
and deported are many cases in which it was reasonable to suppose that 
family ties were sufficiently strong to have the relatives domiciled here extend 
whatever assistance the new arrival might require; but, as your records will 
show, sons and daughters admitted to go to parents have been placed in public 
institutions; parents going to children have been expelled from the latter's 
homes within a short period; and brothers and sisters have declined to sustain 
the burden imposed upon them by their newly landed relatives. 

An important item of our work is the receipt and delivery, where possible, 
of remittances and letters sent here for immigrants. The following statement 
concisely shows what occurred in this respect daring the year just closed: 

Remittances received, 25.678, amounting to $643,092.83. 

Remittances returned, 4,160, amounting to $103,201.64. 

Remittances delivered, 21,518, amounting to $539,891.19. 

Railroad tickets received, 557. 

Letters for aliens, 12,851. 

Letters for aliens returned, 5,492. 

Letters for aliens delivered, 7,359, containing $27,178.28. 

Deposits made by immigrants for safekeeping, 1,866, amounting to $176,898.06. 

Immigrants should not be brought here unless in possession of sufficient 
means to meet immediate needs, and the Government should not be burdened 
with the receipt, custody, and, where possible, delivery of remittances and rail- 
road tickets. Trans-Atlantic carriers should see to it that their passengers are 
properly equippetl in this respect before embarkation. 

Of recent years much has been said in reference to white slavery, and the 
allegation made that newly arrived immigrant girls were fi'equently victims. 
There is no question but that alien women are involved in prostitution, but I 
know of but one instance where innocent immigrant girls were so involved. 
Even they were not imported for that purpose, and had been here for several 
months before they fell into the clutches of procurers. These procurers, the 
Ferenczys, were indicted by the local authorities under a New Yoi'k State 
statute and convicted, the man being sentenced to from 7 to 15 and the woman 
to from 10 to 15 years in State prison. An officer of this service made the in- 
vestigations and secured the evidence which enabled the local authorities to 
take action. The two girls were returned, after the trial, to their relatives 
abroad and, strange as it may seem, contrary to their desires, they showing a 
disinclination to relinquish the life into which originally they had been forced. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 229 

We bear occasional reports that immigrant girls have not reached their desti- 
nations promptly or have disappeared. A few months since a list of women be- 
tween the ages of 17 and 21 was taken at random from the manifests of dif- 
ferent vessels and an investigation made to ascertain whether they could be 
located. They were of different nationalities and had gone to different points 
in New York City or adjacent territory. They were all found, although not with- 
out some difficulty in a few instances. The experience was reassuring, since it 
indicated that the majority of people are willing to help girls situated as were 
these, rather than to prey upon them. An inexperienced investigator probably 
would have been unable to locate a number of these particular girls, owing to 
the inclination of those having knowledge of them, or of the immigrants them- 
selves to withhold information. In the course of the investigation referred to 
the Government officer was a number of times informed by persons interrogated 
that they had never heard of the girls, when, as a matter of fact, the girls were 
present in the room at the time. After ascertainment of the truth, effort was 
made to determine the motive, and it was usually suspiciousness. One girl 
said that she had had a bad dream the night before, and when two strangers 
asked for her (there were two of our officers present) she feared something evil 
was going to happen to her. This merely illustrates the necessity of anyone 
making inquiries as to newly arrived immigrants being acquainted with their 
peculiarities and their too frequent desire to conceal the facts or supply mis- 
leading information. Our numerous investigations have shown that it is not so 
much the possibility of girls being led astray as it is the inclination of em- 
ployers to exploit them which need give us concern. I have submitted numerous 
specific instances where young girls and boys have been grossly imposed upon 
by employers — almost invariably their fellow countrymen — paid a mere pittance 
for exceptionally long hours of drudgery, and broken under the strain. Not 
often have the girls resorted to immorality, but frequently the boys have become 
petty thieves or pickpockets, and when their relatives who should have looked 
after them from the time of the landing endeavored to give belated supervision 
thej' have found themselves unable to control the situation. 

Appeals were filed in reference to 6.639 aliens, and the cases of 30 others in 
which appeals had been filed were otherwise disposed of. In the cases of 4,542 
the appeals wei-e dismissed and as to 720 others the filing of a bond was I'e- 
quired. Many of these bonds concerned children under 16 years of age, and, in 
addition to requiring that they should not become public charges while in the 
United States, there was the further provision that they be sent to school until 
16 years of age. We have had much difficulty in securing the rei>orts called 
for by these bonds, and in many instances those who should have had the 
interests of the children at heart have endeavored to evade their obligation 
and placed them at employment often unsuited to their years or physique. 
Likewise when physically defective applicants have been admitted on bond by 
reason of the presence here of near relatives, we have found many instances 
where the relatives almost inmiediately took steps to have them placed in 
some charitable institution at public expense, ignoring both their moral and 
legal obligations in the matter. 

INMATES OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. 

The States and large cities to which newly arrived immigrants go in large 
numbers justly complain of the burden placed upon their public institutions by 
those who become inmates thereof. This applies to almshouses, hospitals, in- 
sane asylums, and correctional institutions. Owing to lack of appropriation, 
the department was compelled to cease paying the maintenance charges even 
as to such aliens as have been found here in violation of law and ordered de- 
ported. It is but equitable that the Federal Government should bear its por- 
tion of these expenses, and when it is borne in mind that the head tax collected 
usually exceeds by two or more millions of dollars the appropriations made for 
the maintenance of the Immigration Service the resi^ective State, county, and 
municipal institutions seem to have well-founded ground for complaint. One 
element which has been a considerable drain upon charitable institutions of 
Greater New York is diseased alien seamen. Conceding that by reason of 
treaties and the maintenance of commerce some latitude should be accorded 
persons following this occupation, it does not seem reasonable that the respective 
municipalities sliould be burdened with their maintenance and treatment, but 
that their employers, the steamship companies, which are morally bound, should 
be legally compelled to bear this expense. 



230 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

CLEANLINESS. 

With the completion of the new dormitory quarters we shall have more 
adequate facilities for bathing than have heretofore existed. It is optional 
with the immigrants whether they avail themselves thereof. It does not seem 
to me to be an unusual requirement that each alien who is detained here over- 
night should be compelled first to bathe and have his clothing disinfected. 
Certainly this would be a proper sanitary measui'e and unquestionably an addi- 
tional safeguard to the health of others held here and to the communities to 
which the passengers ultimately go. 

DISTRIBUTION. 

For years past the subject of properly distributing newly arrived immigrants 
has been discussed. My years of observation and experience in this office in 
attempting to place able-bodied men eligible to land but without sufficient means 
to reach their original destination have convinced me that little can be ac- 
complished at the time the immigrants apply for admission. If able to go to 
their original destinations, they will go. It is only after they have reached 
their friends or relatives, had a short visit with them, and learned of the condi- 
tions there prevailing that they can be persuaded to go elsewhere. The hope 
of placing the vast army of new arrivals where their services are needed rests 
upon the Federal bureau of distribution and the respective State, county, and 
municipal employment agencies, with the cooperation of the public press. Many 
attempts have been made by States, through a representative sent to Ellis 
Island, to persuade the new arrivals to go inland. The representations as to 
farm lands, need of labor, and good living conditions have fallen upon deaf 
ears, and all States which have tried the experiment have abandoned it within 
a short period. 

SUNDAY CLOSING. 

I have suggested to the bureau the desirability of closing this station to all 
public business on Sunday. There has been much agitation and legislation for 
a six-day week and an eight-hour day. Surely from the viewpoint of efficiency 
there can be no doubt as to the desirability of this. The peculiar requirements 
of this service render it impracticable to arrange a schedule whereby each 
officer and employee may have every seventh day off duty. Even when the 
entii'e force is available, it is inadequate properly and promptly to inspect the 
new applicants. In these days of express steamers departures from other 
ports can be so set that there need be few or no arrivals on Sunday. The 
slight inconvenience or alleged hardship to the passengers in being compelled to 
wait a few additional hours before being inspected could be retluced to a 
minimum. In addition to the question of efficiency, there is a broader moral 
question involved. There is much agitation as to the lack of observance of the 
Sabbath, and many denominations are expending thousands of dollars for home 
missions. Is it to be wondered at that these efforts have little effect when the 
Federal Government sets the example of disregarding the Lord's Day? 

Byron H, Uhl, 
Acting Commissioner. 

Report of Chinese Inspector in Charge, District No. 3, Comprising New 

York and New Jersey.^ 

I have the honor to submit the following report covering the administration 
of the Chinese-exclusion law in district No. 3 for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1914: 

applicants for admission. 

During said period 124 Chinese applied for admission at this port. While 
this number is more than twice that of the preceding year, it is small in com- 
parison with the number seeking entry at the Pacific ports, due to the fact that 
there is no line of vessels plying direct between China and New York, the 

iThe magnitude of the work in district No. 3 necessitates conducting the Chinese 
separately from the immigration portion thereof. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION, 



231 



applicants Iiere, generally si>eaking, being those of the higher class who have 
been engajied in business in Europe or temporarily residing there and officials 
traveling to juul from their respective stations. 

The following table shows the various classes and the disposition of the 
cases : 



Class. 



Number 
of appli- 
cants. 



Admit- 
ted. 



Denied. 



American citizen (native) 

Officials 

Section 6, travelers 

Section 6, merchants 

Section 6, students 

Retuniuig merchant 

Returning students 

Theatrical performers (under bond) 
Stowaways 

Total 



107 



All of these applicants were admitted upon primary inspection except 1 
theatrical performer and 16 stowaways, who were rejected, and ns no appeals 
were taken were returned to the countries whence they came. 

APPLICANTS FOR RETURN CERTIFICATES. 

Applications for return certificates, all of which were ■ granted, were sub- 
mitted in the cases of 9 Chinese contemplating visits to Europe, departing via 
this port, dividetl as follows: Natives, 2; merchants, 2; students, 4; laborer, 1. 
In addition thereto, applications for return certificates in behalf of Chinese 
departing for China via other ports were filed in 218 cases, as follows: Niitives. 
95; students. 4; merchants, 47; laborers. 72. Total number of cases of this 
character, 227. in which, of course, decisions were rendered at the various 
ports of proposed departure. 

MISCELLANEOUS INVESTfGATIONS. 

There were 214 cases referred to this office from other districts for investi- 
gation, of which 122 were applications for admission and the other 92 applica- 
tions for return certificates. Also, five applications for duplicate certificates 
of residence were forwarded by the bureau for investigation and report. 

TRANSITS. 

Six hundred and eighteen Chinese appli,ed at this port for the privilege of 
passing through the United States to other countries. The privilege was 
granted to 605. of whom 405 departed overland and 200 by water, and was 
refused the other 13 applicants on the ground that they were afflicted with a dan- 
gerous contagious disease. In addition, the departure was verified of 783 
Chinese to whom this privilege was granted at other ports. 

ARRESTS UNDER THE CHINESE-EXCLUSION ACT. 



Complaints against Chinese charging unlawful residence were filed before 
United States commissioners in 49 cases, which, with the 33 pending from the 
previous year, made a total of 82 cases considered by the courts, of which 31 
were discharged, 15 deported. 1 died, and 14 were awaiting deportntion at the 
close of the year. Only 3 of the defendants in the last-mentioned 14 cases are 
in custody, however, the other 11, as stated in my previous rejiort, having been 
released several years ago upon their personal recognizance and nominal bail 
by the consent of the Ignited States attorney at Buffalo. N. Y., by whom they 
were used as witnesses against the persons who smuggled them into the United 
States. I have attempted repeatedly to have these cases disposed of, but with- 
out success. 



232 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
The following table shows in detail the status of the cases: 





Before commissioner. 


Before district court 


Before circuit court 
of appeals. 




Summary. 










































CO 

s 
a 



































•o 


ri 
















-g 



































fl 


0) 










-a 


■n 




fl 










a 


































OJ 




1-H 

















n 


05 










o 

01 


CO 

Fl 






03 


2 


2 



en 






a 

C3 







1 








05 

in 








Ml 

a 


.g 






•a 




S 
o 


.3 


.a 




O 

a 


p 



H 



a 




bt! 
.3' 







9 




1 







.a 


t 







"a 

M 


^ 
^ 




■§ 


g 


C3 


o 




w 


^ 


•d 


a 


^ 




■o 


ft 


s 


^ 


■^ 


•0 

III 


03 






ft 


-o 


"H 


% 


















































^ 


< 


H 


M 


O 


« 


Ph 


dH 


<! 


H 


o 





PL, 


Plh 


<1 


Eh 


H-l 


h4 


PL, 


-^ 


P 


Q 





Ph 


< 


Shields, J. A 


8 


24 


32 


17 


10 




5 




4 


5 






5 


3 




3 


?. 


1 






18 


8 




10 




Houghton, C. S... 




5 


5 




2 




r 


































3 


7. 


Cochran, J. G 


1 1 
3 


8 
3 


9 
6 


3 
3 


4 
3 




2 


2 


4 
3 


6 
4 


1 

3 


5 


















8 
3 


1 




2 
4 




Stockton, R...... 


1 




3 


3 






3 






Joline 








































1 
2 11 


"i 


1 

"2 

?! 








Keating, G. P 

Moody, E. H 




1 
2 
3 


1 

2 
3 


1 

"i 










2 


1 
2 


"2 


... 


1 


















211 


2 
2 




















Carpenter, J. D... 




























1 








Wright, W. A.... 
Lawrence, E. C. .. 


"i 


1 

"i 

1 


1 

1 
1 
1 




1 


































1 










1 




































Wilson, R 


... 


"i 


1 
































1 




Semple, E. R 




































1 


Total 


13 


49 


62 


25 


25 


1 


11 


6 


13 


18 


6 


5 


7 


3 


3 


6 


~2 


1 


3 


12 


31 


15 


1 


21 


14 



1 One case pending close of 1913 before Commissioner R. M. Cahoon transferred. 

2 These Chinese not in custody, 10 having been released on personal recognizance, 1 awaiting action on 
bail. 

While the results of these proceedings were not as satisfactory as those of 
the preceding year, the cases were more difficult to handle, as instructions have 
apparently been issued to the Chinese throughout the district that when ap- 
proached by ofHcers concerning their lawful residence, if they are unable to 
produce documentary evidence they should stand mute. This procedure pre- 
vents the procurement of statements which might be used in rebuttal upon the 
trial of the case and affords them an opportunity to obtain witnesses and pi"e- 
pare a defense without fear of contradiction upon our part. Furthermore, the 
District Court for the Eastern District of New York reversed the finding of the 
commissioner in all cases brought before it, holding that the complaints were 
not sufficient, as they simply alleged that the defendants were Chinese laborers 
not holding certificates of residence; and this decision, from which an appeal 
has been taken and which we hope to have reversed, has rendered it practically 
useless for us to make arrests in that judicial district. 

ABBESTS UNDEE GENEBAL IMMIGEATION ACT. 

Departmental warrants of arrest were applied for in seven cases upon the 
ground that the Chinese in question entered without inspection in violation of 
section 36 of the act of February 20, 1907. In one of these cases the warrant 
was not issued because the entry could not be verified, and in the other six cases 
the warrants were issued and duly servol but only one warrant of deportation 
was executed. The other five cases were pending at the close of the year. 

WBITS OF HABEAS COBPUS. 

Writs of habeas corpus were served in three cases, the defendants therein hav- 
ing been delivered at this office from Chicago for the purpose of embarking via 
the Southern Pacific Steamship Line en route to San Francisco for deportation 
to China upon departmental warrants. In two of these cases, wherein it was 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 233 

alleged that the hearings accorded the aliens under the warrants were unfair, 
the writs were dismissed and the aliens subsequently deported, while in the 
other case the writ was sustained and the alien discharged upon the ground 
that the evidence did not show that he had entered the United States within 
three years. 

SMUGGLING. 

Information having been received from the American consul at Kingston, 
Jamaica, that certain persons suspected of being interested in the smuggling 
of Chinese into this country were becoming unusually active ni that respect 
and that investigation showed that a large number of unemployed Chinese were 
in Jamaica simply awaiting an opportunity to stow away on vessels bound for 
New York, all vessels arriving from that port have been carefully searched and 
some kept under surveillance, with the result that 16 Chinese were apprehended, 
some while leaving the vessels and others hidden in various unfrequented places 
on board. Owing to the size of these vessels and the fact that on an average 
two or three of them arrive here each week, the precautions taken to prevent 
the entry of these Chinese have required the services of every available officer 
and the cooperation of the customs service, and while undoubtedly some have 
succeeded in landing. I believe we have the situation well in hand. 

CRIMINAL PROSECUTION. 

Proceedings for smuggling in violation of section 11 of the Chinese-exclusion 
act and conspiracy to violate section S of the Immigration act were Instituted 
and results obtained as follows: 



Name. 



Hans Petersen... 

John Petersen... 
Ernest Webster. 

Mark Yick Hee.. 

Lee Chung Ho... 

Charley Mun 

Hugh LaBad 

Fletcher Dennis. 



Result. 



Pleaded guilty; sentenced to 6 months' imprisonment in the New York Coimty 
penitentiary. 
Do. 

Pleaded guilty; sentenced to 3 months' imprisonment in the New York County 
penitentiary. 

Convicted; sentenced to 6 months' imprisonment in the New York County pen- 
itentiary and a fine of $100. Appealed. 

Convicted; sentenced to 5 months' imprisonment in the New York County pen- 
itentiary and a fine of $100. Appealed. 

Convicted; sentenced to 60 days' imprisonment in jail and a fine of $100. 

Pleaded guilty; sentence suspended. 
Do. 



The lack of severity in imposing sentences in these cases is discouraging 
in view of the difficulty experienced in securing the evidence necessary for 
conviction, the Chinese apprehended invariably refusing to render any 
assi-stance in this respect; and it would seem that when persons are "caught 
in the act" the full penalty should be inflicted. I therefore feel that the 
statutes applicable to these cases should provide for a minimum sentence as 
well as a maximum. 

SEAMEN. 

Two hundred and one vessels, having aboard 3,975 Chinese seamen, arrived 
at this port. Of this latter number 27 disappeared or escaped, and while 
in each instance an investigation was conducted and a report filed with the 
United States attorney in the proper district, we were invariably advised that 
in view of decisions rendered in the southern and eastern districts of New 
York the facts were not considered sufficient to warrant the px'osecution of 
the master. 

A-s I have previously reported, if the law with respect to seamen is to be 
enforced in this district, new legislation is necessary, as in the southern 
district of this State the courts have held that the Chine.se-exclusion law does 
not apply to seamen, and in the eastern district it has been held that it does 
apply, but that it is necessary to show the actual landing of the Chinese and 
that it was effected with the knowledge of the master. It is practically im- 
possible to secure such evidence, and in my opinion the only way the difficulty 



234 REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

can be overcome is by a statute requiring tbat owners, agents, or masters 
employing labor of this kind deposit with the collector of customs upon arrival 
at any port in the United States a bond of $500 conditioned upon the departure 
of each Chinese seaman aboard the vessel. 

When the large area used for docking purposes at this port and the further 
fact that many of these vessels clear at daylight are taken into consideration, 
it will be realized that the verification of tlie arrival and departure of these 
Chinese requires a great deal of work and causes irregularity of liours. 

CONCLUSION. 

The work above outlined was handled by the 13 officers assigned to this 
station, and had not the heartiest cooperation prevailed the results shown 
could not have been attained. 

H. R. SissoN, Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, PHILADELPHIA, IN 
CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 4, COMPRISING PENNSYLVANIA, DELA- 
WARE. AND WEST VIRGINIA. 

I respectfully beg leave to submit herewith report of the workings of the 
Immigration Service at this port and in this district during the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1914 : 

EXAMINATION OF ALIENS WHO APPLIED FOR ADMISSION ARRIVALS. 

Aliens from foreign ports to tlie number of 60,483 arrived at the port of 
Philadelphia and were examined and inspected as required by the several ;icts 
of Congress. This number includes 2S2 aliens in transit, 22 alien tourists, 130 
citizens of Canada, Cuba, and Mexico, 45 persons who arrived as passengers 
for the purpose of reshipping outbound as members of crews, 25 birdmen, 7 
workaways, and 74 stowaways (including 21 Chinamen), and also includes 
744 aliens debarred on arrival and deported. It does not include 3,354 United 
States citizens w^ho arrived at this port from foreign ports, nor 1.063 seamen 
who deserted their ships at this port during the year. 

Of the 60.483 aliens who were inspected during the year 53,320 were ad- 
mitted on primary inspection. This number includes 8,143 persons who were 
temporarily detained on account of indefinite or illegible addresses, awaiting 
receipt of funds, arrival of friends to whom destined, etc. 

BOARD OF SPECIAL INQUIRY. 

Seven thousand one hundre<l and fifty-seven aliens were held by the examin- 
ing inspectors for hearings before boards of special inquiry, of whom 5,916 were 
admitted. 

REJECTIONS. 

Eight hundred and ninety aliens were rejected by boards of special inquiry. 
Of this number 210 were mandatorily excluded, and 6S0 had the right of ap- 
peal under the immigration laws and regulations. 

ADMISSIONS ON APPEAL AND BOND. 

One hundred and fifty-four aliens were admitted outright on appeal, and 85 
were admitted on bond conditioned otherwise than for hospital treatment. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



235 



ADMITTED FOB HOSPITAL TREATMENT. 



Thirty-nine cases arose durinfj tlie year in which aliens were accorded hos- 
pital treatment under sections 19 and 37 of the immigration laws, as follows: 



Race. 



Age. 


Sex. 


11 


M. 


30 


V. 


18 


V. 


20 


i\ 


10 


M. 





F. 


25 


F. 


8 


F. 


18 


F. 


.58 


M. 


17 


Al. 


3 


M. 


20 


Al. 


10 


M. 


47 


F. 


20 


M. 


5 


M. 


r^ 


F. 


11 


F. 


31 


F. 


25 


F. 


4 


M. 


50 


M. 


28 


F. 


30 


F. 





M. 


4 


F. 


10 


M. 


17 


F. 


25 


M. 


25 


M. 


24 


F. 


19 


F. 


26 


F. 


55 


F. 


48 


F. 


11 


M. 


5 


M. 


3 


M. 



Disease. 



Length 
of treat- 
ment. 



By whom 

expenses 

paid. 



Disposition. 



Hebrew... 

Polish 

Hebrew... 
Ruthenian 

Polish 

Armenian. 



Syrian. 



.do. 
.do. 



Polish... 
Hebrew. 
....do.. 
English . 



Italian. . 
Hebrew. 



Armenian. 



Hebrew. 
Syrian . . 

do. . 

Polish... 
....do.. 



Hebrew 

Polish 

Armenian. . 

Syrian 

do 

do 

Hebrew 

German 

Lithuanian . 



Hebrew. 
German. 



Hebrew.. . 
....do.... 
....do.... 
Armenian. 

do 

Hebrew.. . 



Trachoma 
..do. 
..do. 
..do. 
..do. 
..do. 



.do.. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
-do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
-do. 



.do. 
.do. 



do 

do 

do 

Lupus 

do 

Ringworm. 



M.D. 

.. 26 

.. 16 

1 22 
.. 26 

2 .. 
1 C 



1 19 



5 23 
1 23 
3 6 



Father . . . 
Husband. 
Father... 
Husband. 
Father... 
...do 



Husband.. 



Father... 
Brothers. 



Daughter 
Parents . . 
Father... 
Sister 



Brother. 



..do. 
..do. 



Father.. 



..do 

Uncle 

Husband. 

..do 

Father... 



Children . 
Husband. 

..do 

Father... 

..do 

..do 

Brother.. 

Uncle 

Brother- 
in-law. 

Husband. 
B r 1 her- 

in-law. 
Husband. 

Son 

...do.... 
Father... 

..do 

...do 



Cured. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Released as cured; reexam- 
ined by Public Health 
Service surgeon at Bos- 
ton, Mass., and certified 
as having trachoma; ar- 
rested, placed again in 
• Medico-Chirurgical Hos- 
pital, Philadelphia, for 
treatment, and still ta- 
mate there. 
Cured; reexamined at stated 
intervals for evidence of 
recurrence. 
Do. 
Cured, but to report for sub- 
sequent examinations for 
recurrence. 
Do. 
Do. 
Still receiving treatment. 
Cured, but to be subse- 
quently examined for re- 
currence. Has left United 
States. 
Cured, but to report for sub- 
sequent examination for 
recurrence. 
Do. 
Do. 

Eyes cicatricial, but to re- 
port for subsequent exami- 
nations. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Still imdergoing treatment. 
Eyes cicatricial, but to re- 
port for subsequent exami- 
nations. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Stai undergoing treatment. 
Eyes cicatricial, but to re- 
port for subsequent exami- 
nations. 
Still undergoing treatment. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Cured. 
Still imdergoing treatment. 



236 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



DEPORTATIONS. 

Seven hundred and fifty aliens were deported during the year. This includes 
6 pending from the previous fiscal year, and is a percentage of 1.24. 

FINES ASSESSED UNDER SECTION 9. 

Fifty-two fines, in the sum of $100 each, were imposed on the steamship com- 
panies for bringing to this port the following physically and mentally afflicted 
aliens : 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases (trachoma), 50. 

Mental defects (idiocy), 2. 

SEAMEN (OTHER THAN CHINESE). 

The records of this oflice show that 1,06.3 seamen deserted at this port during 
the fiscal year. This number includes 31 alleged United States citizens. 

In addition to the above. 362 seamen were inspected at this office, 20 for the 
purpose of remaining in the United States and 342 stating that they intended 
to reship. In this connection I might state that by an arrangement between this 
office and the various consuls the latter require a seaman to produce a certificate 
from this oflice before he is paid ofC or discharged. 

CHINESE SEAMEN. 

There arrived at this port during tlie year 122 ships, having 1.897 Chinese 
members of crews. These Chinese seamen are inspected on arrival, and their 
departure is checked by officers from this station. There were also four Chinese 
seamen landed at this port, under bond, for transfer to other vessels. 

MEDICAL INSPECTION OF ARRIVING ALIENS. 

Of the total number of aliens examined on arrival, the United States Public 
Health surgeons on duty at this station certified 2,099 as having physical or 
mental defects, 348 of whom were deported. 

During the fiscal year there were 875 aliens treated by the United States 
Public Health surgeons at the detention house at this station for diseases and 
injuries, totaling 1.300 treatments. There were 3 cases of childbirth, and 1 
death due to lobar pneumonia. 

VESSELS BOARDED. 

Officers at this port boarded and exaninied 1..3S1 steam and 59 sailing vessels 
during the fiscal year. 

DEPARTURES. 

During the fiscal year 8,090 emigrant aliens, 2,605 nonemigrant aliens, and 
3,806 United States citizens departed from this liort, a total of 14.501. 

THE PREVENTION OF UNLAWFUL ENTRY. 

Stowaways {other than Chinese). — Sixty-six stowaways arrived at this port 
during the fiscal year, 13 of whom proved to be United States citizens and 7 
bona fide seamen. The latter were allowed to ship out on foreign ships. Of the 
remainder 4 were admitted by board of special inquiry and 42 were debarred, 
41 of whom were deported, 1 having escaped. 

Chinese s^oi«fft(;ays.— Twenty-one Chinese stowaways arrived here dui'ing the 
year, all of whom were deported. This matter is treated more at length under 
heading " Chinese smuggling operations." 

Chinese smuggling operations. — Smugglers of Chinese via the water route 
have been active at this port during the past year. Two important attempts 
were fimstrated. The more notable attempt was made by members of the crew 
of the P.ritish steamship Chisnnel\ who brought 15 contraband Chinese to this 
port from a Mexican port, having hidden them away in the hold (water tanii) 
of the ship. The boatswain and two sailors belonging to the ship's crew, all 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 237 

Chinese, were prosecuted; tlie boatswain was given a sentence of one year in 
prison, and the two sailors received a sentence of three mouths each. 

The other attempt at smuggling Chinese into the United States at this port 
was made by one James L. Gorman, an American, who shipped as a sailor on 
the fruit ship Catharine Citneo and attempted to bi'ing in at this port two con- 
traband Chinese (stowaways) from Port Antonio, Jamaica. The scheme was 
detected and frustrated, and Gorman was prosecuted. He pleaded guilty. The 
court, in sentencing him to only 30 days in prison and a fine of $100, considered 
his poor physical condition, which indicated that he had but a few months 
longer to live. 

THE ARREST OF ALIENS ( OTHER THAN CHINESE) AND EXPULSION FROM THE COUNTRY. 

Application was made for 254 warrants of arrest in this district, as follows : 

Likely to become public charges 96 

Entered without inspection 19 

Entered or imported for immoral purposes 15 

Moral turpitude 13 

Prostitutes 6 

Insane 40 

Tuberculosis 24 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases 6 

Idiots, imbeciles, or weak-minded persons 5 

Epileptics 3 

Other physical defects 22 

Contract laborers 4 

Beggar 1 

Total 254 

Pursuant to said applications, 235 warrants were issued by the depax'tment, 
as follows : 

Likely to become public charges 80 

Entered without inspection 19 

Entered or imported for immoral purposes 14 

Moral turpitude 13 

Prostitutes 5 

Insane 40 

Tuberculosis 24 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases 6 

Idiots, imbeciles, or weak-minded persons 5 

Epileptics 3 

Other physical defects 22 

Contract laborers 3 

Beggar ^ 1 

Total 235 

Of this number 216 were served or executed, as follows: 

Likely to become public charges 74 

Entered without inspection 9 

Entered or imported for immoral purposes 14 

Moral turpitude 13 

Prostitutes 4 

Insane 40 

Tuberculosis 23 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases 5 

Idiots, imbeciles, or weak-minded persons 5 

Epileptics 3 

Other physical defects ^ 22 

Contract laborers 3 

Beggar 1 

Total 216 



238 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONEE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

After consideration by the department. 73 warrants were canceled or filed, 
as follows : 

Likely to become public charges 23 

Entered without inspection 16 

Entered or imported for immoral purposes ; 7 

Moral turpitude 5 

Prostitutes 2 

Insane 3 

Tuberculosis 9 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases , 2 

Other physical defects 5 

Contract laborer 1 

Total 73 

Warrants to the number of 148 resulted in the deportation of 179 persons, 
as follows : 

Warrants. Persons. 

Likely to become public charges 55 82 

Entered without inspection 3 3 

Entex'ed or imported for immoral purposes 6 10 

Moral turpitude 5 5 

Prostitutes 2 2 

Insane 35 35 

Tuberculosis 14 14 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases 2 2 

Idiots, imbeciles, or weak-minded persons 5 5 

Epileptics 3 3 

Other physical defects 17 17 

Beggar 1 1 

Total ' . 148 179 

Warrants still pending, 15, as follows : 

Likely to become public charges 3 

Entered or imported for immoral purposes 1 

Moral turpitude 3 

Prostitutes 1 

Insane 2 

Tuberculosis 1 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases 2 

Contract laborers 2 

Total 15 

DEPORTATIONS. 

As a result of warrant proceedings, there were deported from this port during 
the year 152 aliens, as follows : 

Likely to become public charges 87 

Insane 25 

Tuberculosis 10 

Procurers 9 

Idiots, imbeciles, or weak-minded persons 7 

Moral turpitude 4 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases 3 

Other physical defects 3 

Prostitutes 2 

Entered without inspection 1 

Ctmtract laborer 1 

Total '152 

1 Does not include 5 American-born children accompanying parents. 



EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



239 



This number includes aliens delivered here from other districts for deporta- 
tion under departmental warrants, which aliens arrived at this port and were 
deported hence. However, the above number does not include 17 aliens who 
were deported from other ports, 5 from Halifax and 12 from Boston, on ships 
which touched this port en route foreign, in which cases the departure of the 
aliens from this port was verified by officers from this station. 

There were conveyed to other ports for deportation under departmental 
warrants : 

To New York : 

Likely to become public charges 45 

Insane 26 

Tuberculosis 13 

Other physical defects 3 

Entered without inspection 3 

Loathsome or dangei'ous contagious diseases 2 

Idiots, imbeciles, or weak-minded persons 2 

Procurer . 1 

Moral turpitude 1 

'96 

To Baltimore : 

Likely to become public charges _* 7 

Other physical defects 2 

Insane 1 

Procurer 1 

11 

To Niagara Falls — Likely to become public charges 3 

To Montreal — Likely to become public charge 1 

To Boston : 

Likely to become public charge 1 

Procurer 1 

Total 113 

THE ARREST AND EXPULSION FROM THE COUNTRY OF CHINESE ALIENS. 

Application was made for departmental warrants for the arrest of 6 Chinese 
aliens in this district on the ground that they had entered the United States 
without inspection. Said warrants were issued and served. After considera- 
tion by the department, deportation was ordered in each case; 5 of the Chinamen 
have been deported and 1 is still being held pending perfection of arrangements 
for deportation. 

Sixteen Chinamen were arrested in this district in proceedings before United 
States commissioners for having been found in the United States in violation of 
section 13 of the Chinese-exclusion act. Six of these Chinamen were ordered 
deported, which order has been executed in each instance; 7 were discharged 
by the United States commissioner; and 3 cases are still pending. 

INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE PURPOSE OF DETERMINING WHETHER ALIENS (OTHER THAN 
CHINESE) ARE ADMISSIBLE. 

This refers to investigations made in this district in connection with the ad- 
missibility of aliens detained at seaports on arrival pending the ascertaining of 
conditions at destination. Following is a list of such cases investigated by this 
office: 



Port of arrival. 



New York... 

Montreal 

Boston 

Quebec 

Niagara Falls 
Winnipeg 



Cases. 


Aliens. 


16 


39 


13 


16 


6 


14 


6 


7 


3 


4 


1 


' 



Port of arrival. 



Baltimore. . 

Buffalo 

El Paso.... 

Total 



Cases 



Aliens. 



89 



' Does not include 2 American born cbildren accompanying parents. 



240 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The above does not include investigations made in this district in connection 
with the admissibility of aliens detained at this port, no list being liept of such 
investigations. 

MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATIONS FOB THE PURPOSE OF DETERMINING WHETHER OR 
NOT ALIENS (OTHER THAN CHINESE) ARE LEGALLY IN THE UNITED STATES. 

There were 587 investigations of this nature made during the year, as follows : 

Likely to become public charges 355 

Entered without inspection 112 

Prostitutes and immoral women 45 

Moral turpitude 20 

Procurers and importers 16 

School-bond investigations 8 

Citizenship 7 

Under 16 4 

Assisted aliens 3 

Contract laborers 3 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious diseases 2 

Insane , 1 

All others 11 

Total 587 

This does not include cases in which warrant proceedings were instituted. 

INVESTIGATIONS FOB THE PURPOSE OF DETEEMINING WHETHER OR NOT CHINESE 
ALIENS ARE ADMISSIBLE, ETC. 

Chinese preinvesUgations. 

Preiuvestigations made . — 33 

Applications by merchants for return certificates 16 

Certificates granted 11 

Certificates refused 5 

Applications by laborers for return certificates 11 

Certificates granted 6 

Certificates refused 4 

Application pending 1 

Applications by students for return certificates granted 2 

Applications for return certificates by alleged native-born Chinamen 4 

Certificate granted 1 

Certificates refused 3 

It will be noted by comparison with the report for the preceding fiscal year 
that there has been a remarliable falling off in the number of applications for 
preiuvestigations of claimed status of alleged merchants, domiciled laborers, and 
native-born Chinamen. This is doubtless due to the fact that during this fiscal 
year the former Chinese interpreter, whose conduct is now under investigation 
in connection with malfeasance in oflice, was absent from this station the 
greater portion of the year. 

Of the 4 native-born cases of preinvestigation, only 1 was approved. 

INVESTIGATIONS REGARDING CHINESE APPLICANTS. 

Six investigations were made regarding Chinese applicants, as follows: 
Four alleged minor sous, of whom 2 were admitted and 2 denied admission; 
2 alleged uative-born Chinamen entering, of whom both were admitted. 

This year there were only half as many minor-son cases investigated by this 
office as in the preceding year, and only 2 out of 4 gained admission. It would 
appear that most of the minor-son cases are based on fraud, more so in that 
the claimed status of the alleged father is in most instances fraudulent, but 
strongly sustained by perjured Chinese testimony, firm membership, juggling, 
and frame-up, and that in few cases the claimed relatiouship really exists. 
" Minor sous " as a rule do not remain long in the exempt class, but. after a 
brief stay in the stores in which the alleged fathers claim membership, disap- 
pear from sight and doubtless find their way into laundries. 



REPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 241 
CIVIL SUITS. 

There were two civil suits disposed of during tlie fiscal year. 

Suit was brought against the sureties on the bond of one Flaviano Cariteno, 
who was admitted under bond conditioned for his treatment in hospital for 
pulmonary tuberculosis and the provisions of the bond not complied with. 
Proceedings were discontinued on payment by the defendants of the Govern- 
ment's expenses and court costs. 

The suit instituted against the Logan Iron & Steel Ck). for importing an alien 
in violation of the alien contract-labor law was compromised by payment of 
$500 by the company. 

CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS. 

Attention is called to the following prosecutions which were terminated dur- 
ing the year: 

1. Prosecution of Ho Kow, Kok Kum, and Leoug Sam for attempting to smug- 
gle Chinese stowaways into the United States in violation of section 11 of the 
Chinese-exclusion act of May 6, 1882, as amended and added to by the act of 
July 5, 1884. Ho Kow was sentenced to one year in prison and Kok Kum and 
Leong Sam to three months each. 

2. Prosecution of Joseph L. Gorman for attempting to smuggle Chinese stow- 
aways into the United States in violation of section 11 of the Chinese-exclusion 
act of May 6. 1SS2, as amended and added to by the act of July 5, 1884. De- 
fendant pleaded guilty and was fined $100 and sentenced to serve 30 days in 
jail. 

3. Prosecution of Nazareno Alussio for inducing one Maria Peluzzo to come 
to the United States from Italy under promise of marriage. After arrival he 
refused to marry her but induced her to live with him in immoral relationship, 
afterward turning her over to another man for the same purpose. He was tried 
in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, 
the court susijending sentence on condition he would marry the girl, which he 
did in the presence of the court. 

4. Prosecution of Amin Laham for violating the Mann White-Slave Act of 
June 25, 1910, he having brought a girl named Adal Shaheen Abdalla to the 
United States and maintained immoral relations with her. Defendant pleaded 
guilty and was sentenced to nine months' imprisonment. 

5. Prosecution of Francis W. Breuil for importing one Petra Lopez for im- 
moral pui-poses. A warrant for his arrest was issued by the United States 
commissioner at Philadelphia, but he was not apprehended and is now a fugi- 
tive from justice. 

HABEAS CORPUS. 

In two instances habeas corpus proceedings were resorted to in behalf of 
aliens, as follows: 

1. Case of Cilia Sheves, or Ciila Selves, who arrived at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, February 4, 1913, and entered the United States at Detroit, Mich., Feb- 
ruary 6, 1913, accompanied by husband and two children. She was admitted 
to the Philadelphia General Hospital on ]March 5, 1914, sufi'ering from insanity. 
Warrant proceedings were instituted and the alien was ordered by the depart- 
ment to be deported. Habeas corpus proceedings were instituted by the hus- 
band, as a re.sult of which Judge Thompson, in the United States District Court 
for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, sustained the writ and released the 
alien. The department then canceled the warrant proceedings. On June 22. 
1914, the alien was again admitted to the Philadelphia General Hospital suf- 
fering from the same affliction — insanity. Warrant proceedings were again in- 
stituted, but, while the alien has again been ordered deiwrted, execution of the 
order has been deferred owing to the political situation in Europe. 

2. Case of aliens Roman, Ewa. Paraskawa. Wasylie, Olga, and Marie Ivanoff, 
gypsies, who arrived at this port on April 15, 1914, per steamship Merion, and 
were excluded by a board of special inquiry as persons likely to become public 
charges. Habeas corpus proceedings were instituted, but in an opinion by Judge 
Dickinson, District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Penn- 
sylvania, the writ was dismissed and the aliens remanded into the custody of 
this office. An appeal was taken to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals 
pending disposition of which the aliens were released under bond. 

(30629°— 15 16 



242 BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

CONTRACT LABOR. 

There were 12 cases of suspected or alleged violations of the alien contract- 
labor law investigated by this office during ths fiscal year. Investigation failed 
to disclose such violation in any of the cases, with the possible exception of the 
case of the Susquehanna Silk Mills Co., which is still pending. 

The matter of the suit against the Logan Iron & Steel Co. for importing a 
contract laborer has been mentioned under item of " Civil suits," supra. 

WHITE-SLAVE CASES. 

The cases of 49 prostitutes and women imported for immoral purposes and 
13 importers and panderers were investigated during the year, resulting in the 
issuance of 22 warrants of arrest and ultimately in the deportation of 11 aliens. 
This number includes only notorious or flagrant cases and does not include all 
cases in which aliens entered the country or were brought here for immoral 
purposes. 

In this connection attention is called to the case of Amin Laham, convicted 
of violating the Mann White-Slave Act ; also to the prosecution of Nazareno 
Alussio and Francis W. Breuil, importers, mentioned under the heading of 
" Criminal prosecutions," supra. 

There has been a marked decrease in the number of cases of this nature 
arising in this district during the past year. It is believed this is due mainly 
to the many deportations of foreign prostitutes last year, among whom were a 
number who had been in the United States for long periods of time, which liad 
the effect of driving many out of the business and causing tliem to seek honest 
employment. Other contributing causes were the breaking up of the " red-light " 
district in Philadelphia by quarantine and other methods, which di'ove many 
prostitutes to other cities, and the activities of the local office of the Bureau of 
Investigation, Department of Justice, with which this office is cooperating in 
cases coming within this scope. 

PITTSBURGH SUBSTATION. 

The Pittsburgh substation and the district covered by it were part of district 
No. 4, under the jurisdiction of this office, from the beginning of the fiscal year 
until November 30, 1913. at which time it was made an independent office, 
termed district No. 19, and so continued to the end of the fiscal year (although 
with the beginning of the present fiscal year it was again covered into this 
district), for which reason the report of that district for the fiscal year is sub- 
mitted separately, being attached hereto. 



Report of the Work Performed by the Pittsburgh Substation During the 
Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1914. 

investigations. 

Cases other than those in which warrants were requested. 

Investigations made regarding alien applicants for admission into 
the United States: 

Suspected alien contract laborers 5 

Others 212 

217 

Investigations in cases where provisions of school bonds were disre- 
garded 3 

Examination of aliens applying for citizenship papers whose land- 
ing could not be verified by naturalization officers : 

Certificates issued 22 

Certificates denied 5 



Pending 6 



27 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



243 



Investigations iu cases reported with a view to deportation in which 
no ground for deportation could be found, failed to verify, died, or 

returned by friends, etc 1 

Pending : 10 

Investigations alleged violations of alien contract-labor law 

Miscellaneous cases 

Total 

Investigations resulting in warrant proceedings. 

Warrant cases pending beginning of fiscal year 7 

Warrants applied for during year 161 

Warrants received from other districts for execution 4 

Total warrant cases 

Warrants executed 127 

Warrant cases pending end of year 23 



152 

13 
29 



441 



Warrant cases disposed of other than those executed and pending. 

Subsequent cases. 

Cases in which deportation was ordered under rule 24 

Case where alien departed prior to receipt of authority for deportation. 
Number of aliens actually deported under rule 24 (5 cases) 



172 

150 
22 



G 

1 

'12 



Table showing number of warrants ^ applied for, issued, served, canceled, etc., 
segregated under grounds for arrest. 



Grounds upon which warrants issued. 


Pend- 
ing. 


Ap- 
plied 
lor. 


Is- 
sued. 


Served. 


Can- 
celed. 


Re- 
ferred 

to 
other 
dis- 
trict. 


Exe- 
cuted. 


Pend- 
ing. 


Likely to become public charge at time of entry. . 


4 
3 


51 

67 

4 

18 
2 

8 

7 
2 

2 


47 

67 

4 

18 
2 
8 

7 
2 

2 


44 

67 

4 

15 
2 
5 

6 

2 

2 


6 


1 


40 

63 

4 

11 

2 
2 

1 
2 


5 
6 


Insane within 5 years, not public charges 


Prostit utes prior or subsequent to landing or com- 
ing for immoral purpose 








7 


Procurers 










Entered without inspection 




4 

3 

1 




3 


Convicted of or admitting the commission of 
crime or misdemeanor, etc 




2 


Violation of alien contract-labor laws 






Entered United States after being debarred as 
aUen contract laborers 
















Total 


7 


161 


157 


147 


21 


1 


127 









1 These aliens are counted in with the regular deportations and are shown in the table 
of aliens deported. 

2 Each warrant is counted as 1 regardless of the number of aliens named in the warrant. The total of 
127 warrants executed represents 168 aliens deported. 



244 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Aliens deported during the fiscal year 1914, by races or peoples and causes. 
[Deportation compulsory within 3 years.] 





Members of excluded class at time of entry. 




Race or people. 




Loathsome or 
dangerous conta- 
gious diseases. 


.Q 

a 

03 
© . 

as 
.s-g 

3 


S2 
£ 

o 

C3 

1 

a 

6 


•i 

a 
5 


Mil 
111 


Aliens who procure or at- 
tempt to brine in pros- 
titutes or females for 
any immoral purpose. 


Total. 


.S9 

1 
1 

5 


C3 

a 

o 


1 

o 


English 


1 








8 
2 
2 
8 
2 
4 
1 
9 


2 




1 


1 


13 
2 
3 

10 
4 
5 
1 


Finnish 










French 
















1 


German 


1 
1 






1 








Hebrew 




1 










Irish : 


1 










Italian (north) 
















Italian (south) 




1 








1 






11 


Magyar 










3 
1 




3 


Polish 


1 








9 
1 
1 

5 




1 




12 


Ruthenian 


1 












Roumanian 
















1 


Slovak 


















5 


Scotch 










1 








1 


Servian 










1 

3 








1 


Turkish 


















3 






















Total 


4 


3 


1 


1 


57 


3 


2 


5 


2 










Public charges from causes existing prior to entry. 


Race or people. 


Insan- 
ity. 


Other 
mental 
condi- 
tions. 


Loathsome or 
dangerous con- 
tagious diseases. 


Preg- 
nancy. 


Physi- 
cal 
condi- 
tions. 


Other 
causes. 


Total. 




Tuber- 
culosis. 


Other. 




Bosnian 


1 
3 
1 
1 
4 
4 
1 
2 
2 
4 














1 


Croatian 








1 


3 




7 


English 










1 


Finnish 


1 








2 


4 












4 


Greek 




2 










6 










1 




2 


Irish 


1 


1 
1 

7 








4 












3 






1 




3 




15 


Lithuanian 


1 






1 


Polish 


4 
2 
1 
2 


3 




1 


1 
1 
2 




9 


Russian 









3 


Ruthenian 












3 


Slovak 












2 


Scandinavian 




1 










1 




1 












1 


Syrian 




1 










1 


















Total 


S3 


2 


17 


1 


2 


11 


2 


fiS 





































KEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 245 
Aliens deported during the fiscal year 1911, by races or peoples and causes — Continued. 





Deportation com- 
pulsory within 
3 years. 


Deportation com- 
pulsory without 
time limit. 


Deportation under 
provisions of sec- 
tion 24. 




Race or people. 


Prosti- 
tutes 
after 

entry. 


Entered 
without 
inspec- 
tion. 


Prosti- 
tutes 
and 

females 

coming 
for 

immoral 
pur- 
pose. 


Pro- 
curers. 


Depend- 
ent 
members 

of 
family. 


Physical 
condi- 
tions. 


Total. 








1 








1 








2 


5 




7 








1 




1 




2 








1 


3 




1 
1 








1 










4 


1 


6 






1 




1 




1 










1 


Slovak 










1 


1 
















Total 


3 


2 


3 


2 


9 


3 


22 







In addition to the aliens deiwrted there were four American-born children 
who accompanied their parents. 



CIVIL SUITS. 

Logan Iron & Steel Co. imported an alien from Canada to work in their plant 
at Burnham, Pa. The case was investigated and placed in the hands of the 
United States attorney at Scranton, Pa., and suit brought against the company. 
The case was settletl out of court, the company paying $500 in settlement of its 
liability for importing the contract laborer. 

CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS INSTITUTED. 

Mary Yuhass, alias, etc., deported as a prostitute fj-om Detroit in December, 
1912. Married alleged American citizen two days before deiwrtation. Returned 
to the United States and opeueil up a sporting house. Arrested on departmental 
warrant. Pleaded guilty to violation of sec-tion 3 of the immigration laws, 
served three mouths in jail, and was deported at expiration of sentence. 

Julian Toth, alias Carmandy, case identical with that of Mary Yuhass men- 
tioned above. Alien served three months in jail for violation of section 3 of the 
immigration laws and was deported at expiration of sentence. 

With these two women was associated one Carl Toth. who, after serving four 
months imprisonment for violation of the Maun White-Slave Act, was deiwrted 
at the expen.se of the Government. 

CHINESE INVESTIGATIONS. 

Departmental warrant issued and executed on charge of entering without 
inspection (deported) 1 

Case tried before United States commissioner, alien alleging birth in the 
United States (discharged) 1 

Investigations in cases of alleged smuggling, aliens presumably destined to 
this district 7 

Application for duplicate certificate issued 1 

Investigation of cases of " students" not in school 7 



246 EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Preinvestigations : 

Merchants departing . * 6 

Sons of natives departing L 2 

Native-born Cliinese departing ^12 

Laborers departing ' 14 

Total 34 

Applicants for admission : 

Students entering 1 

Sons of native born 13 

Merchant's minor son 1 

Departed from this district without making provisions for returning to 

the United States 

Miscellaneous Chinese cases additional to the foregoing 8 

Total Chinese cases investigated 33 



15 
10 



Deportations by races and by causes of deportation. 

RACES DEPORTED. 



Bosnian 1 

Croatian 7 

English 14 

Finnish 7 

French 3 

German 21 

Greek 7 

Hebrew 9 

Irish 9 

Italian (north) .5 

Italian (south) 32 

Lithuanian 1 

Magyar 4 

Polish 21 

Russian 3 



Kuthenian 

Roumanian 

Slovak 

Scandinavian 

Scotch 

Syrian 

Servian 

Turkish 



Total 168 

American-born accompanying alien 
parents deported 4 

Total 172 



CAUSES OF DEPORTATION. 



Alien contract laborers *3 

Criminals 2 

Entered without inspection 2 

Insanity 37 

Likely to become a public charge at 

time of entry 57 

Mental diseases other than in- 
sanity 2 

Prostitutes at time of entry 5 

Prostitutes after entry 3 

Prostitutes deported without time 

limit 3 

Procurers 2 

Piocurers without time limit 2 

Pregnancy 2 



Physical conditions 11 

Tuberculosis 20 

Trachoma ' 1 

Syphilis 1 

Other contagious diseases 1 

Subsequent cases : 

Dependent members of family. _ 

Physical conditions 3 

Other causes 2 

Total 168 

American-born accompanying alien 

parents deported 4 



Total 172 



Deportation by ports 
New York "130 | Boston _ 



Philadelphia 21 

Baltimore 6 



1 

Quebec 1 

Canada '13 



1 1 denied. 
23 denied. 

3 2 denied. , . , 

i 2 of these were deported for having entered the United States within 1 year after having been debarred 
as alien contraet laborers. 
■> Includes 4 American-born children, 
t Buffalo and Niagara Falls. 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 247 

Investigations. 

Investigations conducted during tlie year : 

Cases otlier tlinn those in wliich warrants of arrest 
were requested 441 

Warrant cases in wliicb warrants were canceled owing 
to death of alien, inability to locate, insufficient evi- 
dence, etc 22 

Case under rule 24 in which deportation was not effected- I 

464 

Aliens deported as a result of investigations other than those 
enumerated above, including 4 American-born children taken 
with alien parents 172 

Chinese investigations of all classes 84 

Total number of cases for the year 720 

Cases pending 39 

Alien contract labor. 

Investigations in case of alien applicants susi)ected of being alien con- 

ti'act laborers 5 

Investigations subsequent to landing, alleged violations of alien con- 
tract-labor law 13 

Deported 1 

Total cases investigated ^29 

Included in the total of 29 cases investigated is 1 case pending, the record 
having been placed in the hands of the United States attorney with a view to 
prosecution of the importer. 

STATEMENT OF MILEAGE PURCHASED AND USED DURING THE FISCAL YEAR. 

Miles. 

Pennsylvania mileage 115, 866 

Baltimore & Ohio mileage 24,405 

New York Central mileage 8, 561 

Total mileage used !___ 148.832 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, BALTIMORE. MD., 
IN CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 5, COMPRISING MARYLAND AND DIS- 
TRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

There is submitted herewith aimual report of the port of Baltimore for fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1914. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30. 1014, the inward passenger movement 
through the port of Baltimore was as follows: 

Alien passengers examined 40.233 

United States citizens (including S stowaways) 1,079 

Alien stowaways 51 

Deserting alien seamen 235 



Total arrivals 41,598 

An increase over last year of 6,000. Of the alien arrivals 35.983 were admit- 
ted on primary inspection, 4.301 were held for the board of special inquiry, 
of which number 3,804 were admitted and 497 rejected. 

1 The 29 contract-labor cases investigated Involved 115 aliens, some cases referring to 
groups of 5 to 20 traveling together. 



^48 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OE IMMIGRATION. 

DEPORTATIONS. 

Likely to become public charges 96 

Favus 2 

Trachorua 31 

Otlier loathsome contagious diseases 16 

Surgeou's certificates .- 57 

Contract laborers 63 

Section 11 (guardian) 7 

Convicted of crime 7 

Immoral purpose 13 

Assisted alien 1 

Under 16 years 19 

I'eeble-miuded 5 

Tuberculosis 1 

Insane 1 

Importers 2 

Number of aliens finally deported 321 

APPEALS. 

Number of appeals 214 

Aliens involved 383 

Admitted outright 108 

Admitted, school bond 31 

Admitted, public-charge bond 29 

Deported 194 

Admittetl for hospital treatment 21 

Aliens cured and admitted 13 

Cases pending at close of fiscal year 8 

21 

It will be noted that 214 cases were forwarded on appeal as against 113 for 
last year, an increase of over 47 per cent.^ 

It still seems almost impossible to make the relatives and friends understand 
the necessity for prompt remittances in cases of aliens undergoing treatment in 
the hospitals. Almost without exception they fail to make the necessary de- 
posits 15 days prior to the expiration of the period which the previous remit- 
tance covered, and it is necessary each month to urge compliance with the stipu- 
lations of the bond. The usual charge in trachoma and ringworm of the scalp 
and favus cases is $1 a day for each alien for ordinary hospital accommodations, 
but with favus and ringworm there is an additional charge of $2 per application 
of X rays, which must be used to effect a cure. These applications are made 
once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, so that hospital bills mount rapidly 
where two or three children are undergoing treatment. The Zirotzki case is 
still pending at Jackson, Mich. Of the remaining cases, two were cured and 
admittetl and the third was deported. This was the case of Alexander and File- 
mon Borszis (department file 534G2/43). These children were at the St. 
Joseph's Hospital, and time and again that institution asked that they be taken 
away as the older boy was incorrigible and caused a great deal of trouble; 
moreover, the father of the boys became quite indifferent and made no effort 
to assist the bondsmen in paying the bills, and eventually these boys were re- 
turned to the old country after having been under treatment for 8 months and 
19 days. 

I am still of the opinion that it is mistaken kindness in the majority of these 
cases to permit treatment in the hospitals of this country. While the relatives 
are willing enough at the outset to agree to any stipulations or requirements 
exacted by the Government, neverthele.ss, when the payments commence to 
mount up, they become more or less indifferent, and it is difficult to keep the 
accounts from getting in arrears. Again, such aliens make bad hospital patients, 
as aside from the particular disorder for which they are being treated they 
are in good physical condition and the enforced confinement in a hospital ward 
becomes irksome, and they are in a great many instances a source of continual 
annoyance to the hospital authorities. 

From the Public Health surgeon's report hereinafter referred to, it is shown 
that the number of certified dangerous and loathsome contagious diseases is 

1 For list of cases treated in hospital at Baltimore, see p. 142. 



REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 249 

less than last year. I believe tliat if the pending immigration bill becomes a 
law and the fine is increased from $100 to $200 there will be a still further 
reduction. 

CHINESE TRANSACTIONS. 

No Chinese are examined here for admission, as Baltimore is not a port of 
entry for Chinese. There were investigated in the district the following cases : 

Merchants 8 

Laborers 13 

Native-born 21 

Student 1 

Total 43 

Disposition: 

Acted upon favorably 35 

Denied 1 6 

Pending 2 

One department warrant was issued for the arrest of a Chinese but was not 
served, as the man left for parts unknown before he could be apprehended. It 
is hoped that he may be apprehended at a later date. There were 8 Chinese 
arrested and arraigned before United States commissioners as being unlawfully 
in the United States, and disposed of as follows: 

Discharged as native-born citizen of the United States 3 

Deported 1 

Pending 4 

8 

There were 8 investigations made in connection with Chinese cases at the re- 
quest of Pacific coast ports, 1 at the request of the Chicago ofiiee in connection 
with a smuggled Chinese under arrest there on a department warrant, and 1 at 
the request of the Los Angeles office in connection with a prosecution for perjury 
pending there against 2 Chinese. 

Numerous investigations have been made in Chinese laundries upon informa- 
tion furnished to the effect that Chinese would be found there who are unlaw- 
fully in the United States. Three Chinese seamen were granted the privilege of 
hospital treatment under bond, 2 of whom left the United States, and 1 died. 

Two Chinese were accorded the privilege of transit under bond to New York, 
from which port they left for Europe, and 3 seamen were brought here in transit 
under bond from New York for transshipment at Baltimore. 

Seventy-one foreign vessels arrived with a total of 1,059 Chinese members in 
crew, all of whom were checked upon arrival and departure of their respective 
vessels. 

No Chinese stowaways were found during the year, nor did any Chinese sea- 
men escape from vessels at this port. I am gratified to report that no intimation 
as to the smuggling of Chinamen has come to my knowledge during the entire 
year. 

While the number of Chinese cases investigated (43) is less than last year, 
nevertheless we have been busier with Chinese work, as there have been more 
cases before United States commissioners, and further the instructions promul- 
gated by the bureau during the year make necessary a more searching inquiry 
and investigation in connection with Chinese applying for a determination of 
their status. A strict watch has been kept both by this service and that of the 
customs oflicials over the 234 fruit vessels entering this port. All of these fruit- 
ers were carefully searched for Chinese or other .stowaways, and I am satisfied 
that for the present at least Chinese smuggling has been broken up. While we 
have not won all of our cases before United States commissioners, yet the re- 
sults obtained have been such as to warrant the belief that the efforts put forth 
were fully justified. 

STOWAWAYS. 

United States citizens 8 

Alien stowaways deported 50 

Alien stowaways escaped and not apprehended 1 

51 

Total number of stowaways arrived 59 



250 KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Three West Indian stowaways escaped, 2 were apprehended and 1 is still at 
large. The man at large was one of two negroes who got away from the 
American schooner Bayard Hopkins, bringing pineapples here from the West 
Indies. The master and owners of the schooner offered a reward, and every 
effort was made to retake him. The United States attorney, with the approval 
of this office, granted the captain and owners an extension of time, until the 
next return of the schooner to Baltimore, in order that further efforts might be 
made to apprehend the negro. 

How to prevent the coming of these West Indian negroes to the United States 
as stowaways is a serious problem, as it is almost impossible to connect the 
master or members of the crew with having anything to do with their being on 
board ship. As a matter of fact, the masters and crew absolutely deny any 
knowledge of the matter, and as these fruit boats are loaded by negro steve- 
dores in the West Indies it is a very simple matter for them to secrete them- 
selves aboard ship. The captains are undoubtedly confronted with a hard 
proposition, but I am not fully persuaded that they search their vessels as 
thoroughly as they would have us believe. There is ground for this belief, as 
on 1 vessel we found 13 stowaways, 6 in one hatch and 7 in another ; all, of 
course, were deported. Legislation providing an appropriate penalty for hav- 
ing unmanifested aliens on vessels under any circumstances seems to be the 
only solution by which this practice can be broken up. 

DESERTING ALIEN SEAMEN. 

There were boarded and insi>ected 9S1 foreign vessels; 235 seamen were re- 
ported as having deserted their vessels, 117 of whom were apprehended. This 
is a considerable increase over last year in the i)ercentage of deserting alien 
seamen apprehended. However, I can but reiterate what I have stated in pre- 
vious annual reports, i. e., that statistics relating to alien seamen are not of 
much value owing to facility with which they change their names and shift 
from vessel to vessel. These nomads of the sea apparently have an inherent 
disinclination to stick to one ship for any length of time, but are continually 
shifting, no doubt with the idea of obtaining a better berth, and in this prac- 
tice, as is well known, they are aided and abetted by the boarding-house run- 
ners who are interested In having the sailors change vessels for the shipping 
fees involved. 

WARRANT OF ARREST CASES. 

Pending July 1, 1913 2 

Issued during year 26 

Served during year (causes as shown below) 25 

Canceled by department 3 

Executed — deportation accomplished 20 

Pending at close of fiscal year : 

Served and pending 5 

Not served and pending 1 

6 

Persons included in warrants of arrest 37 

CAUSES FOR WHICH WARRANTS WERE ISSUED. 

Convicted of crime and likely to become public charge 1 

Likely to become public charges at time of entry 11 

Likely to become public charges and insane from prior causes 11 

Likely to become i^ublic charges, entered without inspection (3 

Tuberculosis— prior to entry cause 4 

Mitral insufficiency and stenosis, cardiac enlargement and myocardial insuf- 
ficiency, and public charge 1 

Insane and enteretl without inspection 1 

Psoriasis and public charge 1 

Acute nephritis and aortic insufficiency 1 

The number of warrants issued was less than last year. All charitable organ- 
izations have been i)rompt in reporting cases for investigation. At the same 
time it is gratifying to report a decrease in the numl)er of aliens locating in this 
district who become public charges after landing. The number of warrants 
asked for, or issued, however, can in no sense be taken as a measure of the time 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 251 

and effort spent in investigations which develop data and facts insufficient to 
justify the institution of deportation proceedings. Again, Maryland and the 
District of Columbia get a very small proportion of the total immigration into 
the country, and but a low percentage of tliat coming through the port of Balti- 
more; therefore, the pro rata of deportable alien ])ublic charges in the charitable 
institutions of this district is low as compared with other States which have a 
much larger alien population. 

In addition to investigations made at hospitals and charitable institutions, 
numerous miscellaneous cases arise in the local courts, police or magistrates' 
offices, where as a rule it develops that the matter does not come within the 
purview of the immigration law. At the request of officers in charge of other 
districts 30 investigations were made during the year. 

FINES IMPOSED AND COURT CASES. 

Under section 9. for bringing diseased aliens, $G00 in fines were certified, to 
the collector of customs and covered into tlie Treasury. 

Ringworm of scalp (tinea tonsurans) 1 

Trachoma ■ 5 

Total 6 

The Baltimore steamship lines seem to realize the necessity of furnishing 
manifests correctly made out and no occasion arose dui'ing the year for the im- 
position of any fines for improper manifestation. 

Perjury. — Russian girl, aged 22, single, arrived at Baltimore, Md., destined to 
male cousin. Cousin was arrested for perjury and held for the grand jury, 
which dismissed the case. 

Importation -for immoral purposes. — ^Another cas^, extremely interesting, and 
in which the Government was successful in securing a conviction, was that 
involving a Government employee who advertised in a paper of Habana, Cuba, 
for a housekeeper and imported a woman for immoral purposes. Proceedings 
were instituted in the United State;? district court against the man; he was 
indicted, tried, and found guilty, a fine of $100 being imposed. 

Contract labor importer. — A German from Russia arrived and was excluded 
as contract laborer. Civil suit was instituted against importer who accompan- 
ied alien but was later discontinued. 

Extortion by Government employee. — Complaint was made to me that an in- 
terpreter had taken money from three detained women at the detention house 
under promise of securing their release therefor and later had cashed unused 
coupons of railroad tickets of two of the women and returned to them only 
about one-half of the refunded fare. Proceedings were instituted in the district 
court. The interpreter pleaded not guilty and stood trial. He was found guilty 
and sentencetl to GO days in jail. 

Disbarment of attorney. — This was the case of a family in which three of the 
children were allowed hospital treatment for ringworm of scalp. An attorney 
of Chicago, 111., overcharged the relatives for his services and was disbarred by 
the department from further practice in immigration cases. 

HABEAS CORPUS CASES. 

But one habeas corpus case arose in the district, that of Sore Enie or Sarah 
Fischman, which was of interest. The alien, who had been an inmate of the 
Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Baltimore, was found to be mentally unsound, and 
later sent to Bayview Asylum, a public charitable institution. The warrant 
charged her with being a public charge from causes existing prior to entry, 
i. e., insanity. The case was of particular intei'est to the doctors who had seen 
the girl. Her attorneys at the habeas corpus hearing contended that the evi- 
dence was legally insufficient to show that she was insane prior to landing or 
that any causes had been shown to exist to warrant such a conclusion. 

The judge overruled her attorneys on every point raised, ruling, as he has 
consistently done in other immigration cases, that it was not within the province 
of the court to decide as to the sufficiency of evidence where the Secretary of 
Labor had issuetl a warrant of deportation. Cases were cited by the attorneys 
to sustain their contention that the court could go into the facts, but his honor 
said the weight of the holdings were all the other way. An odd feature of the 



252 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

case was that the father of the girl, upon whose testimony the warrant for her 
arrest was secured, as also the warrant for deportation, endeavored to have her 
released on habeas corpus after doing everything he could to assist the Gov- 
ernment in sending her out of the country. 

SPECIAL INQUIRY CASES. 

The number of aliens held for board of special inquiry, including stowaways, 
was 4,301. 

The number of special-inquiry cases have increased enormously, the total 
being nearly twice that of two years ago ; i. e. for fiscal year ended June, 1912, 
approximately, 1,200; 1913, approximately, 1,604; 1914, approximately, 2,269, 
exclusive of rehearings. which form no small portion of the work of the board. 
With only one stenographer it has been extremely difficult at times to keep the 
work of the office in shape to promptly and expeditiously dispose of the public 
business. 

The number of children under 16 years of age unaccompanied by or not going 
to, parents has somewhat diminished. This is due unquestionably to the known 
difficulty of such children gaining admission. Of course, there is a studied 
attempt to evade this provision of law by raising the ages of the children a few 
years, and this is very difficult to detect, as some children 14 or 15 years of age 
have the physique and facial api>enrance of those 17 or 18. In some instances 
the deception is patent and investigations are made to check up the testimony 
of the children and those in charge of them. Between an attempt to reduce the 
children's ages in order to obtain half-fare tickets on the one hand, and an 
endeavor to get around the " under-16-year provision " by increasing their ages, 
the interested relatives are sorely tried. 

Cases of aliens traveling together as man and wife, though not actually mar- 
ried, arise from time to time, but as tliey generally travel second cabin and 
have their storj' well learned it is most difficult to detect them. Apt questions 
are asked wherever circumstances warrant suspicion and every endeavor made 
to satisfy ourselves of the bona fide relationship. 

Another proposition which it is difficult for the Government to combat is that 
of fraudulent affidavits prepared and submitted in connection with aliens apply- 
ing for admission. In some cases it is found that the signers of the affidavits 
have absolutely no knowledge of the contents of the instruments; again, exag- 
gerated statements of their earning capacity are inserted, or misleading decla- 
rations as to the property they own or cash in hand or in bank. 

MEDICAL INSPECTION. 

There is inclosed herewith as a part of my annual report that of the Public 
Health surgeon on the medical examination of aliens. It will be seen that 913. 
certificates were rendered for all causes. 

Feeble-minded 5 

Insanit.v 1 

Trachoma 33 

Tinea tonsurans 17 

Syphilis 1 

Gonorrhea 1 

Tuberculosis 1 

Diseases or defects affecting ability to earn a living 441 

Diseases or defects of lesser degree 414 

As indicating the increasing carefulness of the North German Lloyd Line 
(which brings most of the aliens here), it will be noted from the surgeon's 
report that both the trachoma and ringworm of scalp (tinea tonsurans) cases 
have been decidedly less, although immigration has increased considerably. 

We are handicapped in our medical examination, as the surgeon should have 
an assistant. The method of examining aliens for mental defects has been 
extended, manifested in the increased number of certificates, and this, of 
course, takes more time, the net result of which is that in a given time there 
is a less number of aliens being examined than formerly. Although request 
has been made for additional medical aid. it has not been granted. With one 
medical officer it not infrequently happens that registry inspectors have empty 
aisles, waiting for the sui'geon to complete his examination. Should we have a 
ship with 1,500 to 1,800 on board, their examination would necessarily be greatly 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 253 

prolonged, aud the work of the port can not be as advantageously arranged as 
it could be with an additional medical officer. 

The surgeon calls attention to the inadequate hospital facilities, and this I 
will touch on more fully hereafter under the caption " Detention house." 

OUTWARD-BOUND PASSENGER MOVEMENT. 

Citizens departed 1, 852 

Aliens departed 2, 813 

Total 4, 665 

This is an increase of over 25 per cent in outward-bound passengers over last 
year, all of the increase being due to aliens. The North German Lloyd are put- 
ting larger boats on the Baltimore to Bremen line, some touching at'Southamp- 
ton, England, and the Hamburg-American Line, which has entered the Balti- 
more field, is maliing bid for both inward and outward bound business, so it is 
not unreasonable to believe that the coming year will show a greater flow 
through Baltimore for Europe. 

VERIFICATIONS OF LANDING. 

While the number of verifications furnished for the year is somewhat less 
than last year, the aggregate work of the office was not proportionately de- 
creased. The decrease in verifications was occasioned by the bureau's instruc- 
tions that verifications should only be furnished to naturalization examiners 
and officials of our own service. Therefore, it was necessary to return large 
numbers of applications to the senders, with instructions in the premises. In 
course of time, however, it is reasonable to suppose that the bureau's rule will 
become known and most of such applications cease. Of the 2,631 requests made 
2,237 were verified and 394 could not be found. 

WHITE-SLAVE TRAFFIC. 

For another year Baltimore has been fortunate in not having had any cases 
of white-slave traffic, as the term is generally understood, nor have there been 
any prostitutes found to be here in violation of law. Baltimore has gotten the 
enviable reputation of being a good place for traffickers in this form of vice to 
keep away from. The Federal white-slave act and the Maryland State pander- 
ing act have also produced most beneficial results in this State, and the uniform 
convictions heretofore secured in both the Federal and State courts have been 
most satisfactory. Panderers, pimps, and other gentry of like ilk know that in 
the State courts they can expect little consideration, and less in the Federal 
court. 

LANDING STATIONS. 

Passengers from the North German Lloyd steamers are still being disem- 
barked at the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Pier No. 9. Locust Point, generally 
termed the " Immigration pier." This pier is owned by the above-named rail- 
road company, and the Lloyd Line dock there with freight and passengers under 
a traffic agreement, no other line being allowed except by consent of the Balti- 
more & Ohio. 

During the year the Hamburg-American Line inaugurated a passenger serv- 
ice from Hamburg to Baltimore, and the Pennsylvania Railroad fixed up a land- 
ing station at one of their Canton piers adjacent to Baltimore City. The 
passengers were disembarked on the first floor of the pier and the arrangements 
were very convenient. Unfortunately the pier was burned the early part of this 
year and since then the Hamburg-American passengers have been examined 
aboard ship; a few of the vessels docked at the Baltimore & Ohio pier when that 
railroad was to haul the passengers, and others have been inspected at Western 
Maryland Pier at Port Covington, this city, where the last-named railroad has 
arranged a satisfactory place on one of their piers for the inspection. 

DETENTION HOUSE. 

We are still using the detention house at Locust Point, which is taking care 
of all passengers from the North German Lloyd and Hamburg-American Lines. 
Of course the building was never designed nor intended to be used as a deten- 



254 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENEEAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

tiou house, but it has, nevertheless, been so used for many years. By a liberal 
use of disinfectants and deodorizers it is kept in as sanitary condition as is 
possible, but is far from being satisfactory for the purpose. Wholesome food 
is served and the sleeping accommodations are as good as can be expected under 
the circumstances. Of course, we must take into consideration the f;ict that a 
great many of the aliens have no idea of personal cleanliness as we understand 
it, know nothing of hygienic standards and care less. 

At certain seasons measles cases occur frequently among children of arriving 
aliens, and as the city hospitals refuse to receive them they must be treated in 
a small room attached to the detention house set aside as hospital quarters. 
Among other acute communicable disea.ses during the year thei'e were 155 
measles cases and at times the small hospital room was overcrowded. This 
matter was taken up by me with the Commissioner General, and after confer- 
ences with the steamship agents, the mayor of Baltimore, and other officials 
arrangements were made whereby aliens suffering with the contagious diseases 
of childhood were to be disembarked either at New York or Philadelphia for 
hospital treatment, or when this could not be done the city of Baltimore agreed 
to take c;ire of the situation. To the firm stand taken by the Commissioner Gen- 
eral this fortunate solution of a serious situation was brought about. 

NEW IMMIGRATION STATION AT FORT M'HENRY. 

It was a red-letter day for Baltimore when the House of Representatives, 
under a suspension of rules, on June 29. 1914, passed the bill (H. R. 11625) 
appropriating for the Baltimore immigration station $550,000, and from au- 
thoritative reports received it is believed that no opposition will be met in the 
Senate, so that it is reasonable to hope that early in July the bill will be 
1)11 ssed by the Senate, signed by the President, and this great and needed im- 
provement at last assured to Baltimore. According to plans prepared by the 
Supervising Architect of the Treasury the proposed station here is to be a 
model one, embodying all the best features of those heretofore constructed. 
There is hardly any question as to a great increase in immigration through 
Baltimore when the new station is completed. It will include a pier on the 
main w;iter channel into Baltimore, where all vessels may dock without being 
under obligations to any corporation. It will be an open field, and no favor, 
and I am persuaded that the beneficial results to the port of Baltimore by the 
new station will be quite commensurate with the money expended. Located 
at Fort McHenry, which, by a recent transfer from the War Department, is 
now one of Baltimore's chain of public parks, the new station will not only 
be an ornament to the harbor and city, but a monument to the Government's 
interest in our future citizens. 

The new station will include a receiving building for aliens, hospital, ad- 
ministration building, power house, pier at which the incoming steamers may 
discharge the aliens, and other things acces.sory to the site. 

It is hoped that in starting this improvement preference will be given to the 
hospital building, for which the most need is felt. The detained aliens are 
scatteretl about the city in the various hospitals and at the detention house. 
This is a very inconvenient arrangement, and ranch of the time of the surgeon 
and of my employees would be saved were the aliens all together on one 
reservation. 

WORK OF DISTRIBUTION OF ADMITTED ALIENS. 

As a matter of fact, there is little opportunity afforded to distribute ad- 
mitted aliens. It is generally assumed by the public that a large proportion of 
immigrants immediately go on the farms. While this was no doubt correct as 
to the homeseeker from northern Europe 50 or 60 years ago, it is not true as a 
general statement of present conditions, as the major portion now seek em- 
ployment in the mines, on railroads, and in various other industrial pursuits. 
A number of causes, such as lack of means and inability to speak our lan- 
guage combine to make immigrants seek occupations distasteful to them and 
compel them to take the first job offered. Again, practically all the new- 
comers are ticketed through at the foreign port of embarkation to a final 
destination (either a town or city) in the United States, and it is my opinion 
that the foreign steamship agencies discourage immigrants leaving for the 
United States without having a good street address to some city or town, where 



BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 255 

eacli has a relative or frieud to receive him. Without such au address, and 
with a small amount of money, the chances of being detained and refused 
landing as likely to become a public charge are ever present. For some years 
I have felt that this was one of the reasons why an alien, who in the old 
country was a farmer or farm laborer, enters upon industrial work at once 
upon arrival here, rather than go upon the farm, where he is needed. More 
frequently he does this not from choice, but under a form of restraint. At the 
same time it must be admitted that the rural community is better suited for 
his assimilation of American ideas and manner of living. 

No changes in the force have occurred, although immigration has materially 
increased. The board of special inquiry has had much more work to do, and 
when steamers arrive late in the afternoon the force has been on duty as late 
as 9 p. m., starting again early the next morning, in order that the passengers 
may be promptly disi)osed of. 

The force is not adequate promptly and properly to dispose of a large number 
of arrivals in one day, and it has therefore l>een necessary during the year to 
at times call upon the Philadelphia office for assistance. Also, from time to 
time some of our officers have been detailed to help out the Philadelphia station. 



From the foregoing it will be noted that the work at the port of Baltimore 
has materially increased and the outlook is favorable for its continuance. 
With the Hamburg-American Line in the local field bidding for both inbound 
and outbound immigrant traffic, in competition with the North German Lloyd 
Line, more immigration is bound to flow through the port. The North German 
Lloyd are building special steamers for the Baltimore to Bremen service, and 
the movement of cabin passengers through Baltimore is on the increase. 
Families continue to prefer Baltimore as a port of landing, and the local steam- 
ship agents report that generally 50 per cent of the tickets sold are prepaid 
orders, but at this time they are even exceeding 50 per cent in that resi>ect. 

The prediction for increase of immigration through Baltimore made in my 
last annual report has been borne out by the figures for this year. 

The work of the port has been administered in a practical, businesslike way, 
and every effort has been made to see that the laws and regulations are given 
full effect. The administration of the inunigration laws has ever been found 
to present complexities which must be handled promptly and expeditiously. 

The splendid showing in the economical operation of the station is due to the 
interest taken in and application to their duties by the members of the force, 
all of whom I take pleasure in commending for their cooperation with me 
during the year. 

Bertram N. Stump, Commissioner. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE. DISTRICT NO. 6, COMPRISING 
VIRGINIA AND NORTH CAROLINA, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT 
NORFOLK. 

There is transmitted herewith a brief report of the transactions of the Immi- 
gration Service in the sixth district. 

As has been stated in former reports, and as the bureau is well aware, there 
is but little immigration to this port, despite the fact that there are few ports 
on the Atlantic seaboard where the arrivals of foreign vessels are greater than 
at Norfolk and Newport News. 

During the past year there were 191 aliens examined for admission, of which 
179 were admitted on primaiy inspection and 12 held for boards of special 
inquii-y. Of the latter, 4 wei*e admitted and 8 excluded, or about 4J per cent of 
total arrivals. Head-tax collections for the year amounted to $640, being a 
decrease of $860. This is accounted for by reason of the fact that the Norway- 
Mexico-Gulf Line, which formerly brought passengers to Newport News, dis- 
continued that service in favor of Boston, Mass. It is understood now, though, 
that this line will return to Newport News. 

There arrived in this district 9 stowaways, 15 American citizens, and 242 alien 
seamen as deserters. 



256 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

During the fiscal year 1914, 1,421 foreign vessels were boarded at Norfolk, 
Va., and 831 at Newport News, making a total of 2.252, being an increase of 
81 over last year. Of this number 132 at Norfolk and 85 at Newport News, a 
total of 217, had Chinese seamen aboard, on which were found 4,231 Chinese, 
the greatest number to arrive in this district during one year since the organiza- 
tion of the Immigration Service here, not one of whom escaped from the vessels, 
all being checked on their arrival and on their departure. 

There have been applications for writs of habeas corpus in two cases, both 
of which are still pending in the eastern district of North Carolina. 

Departmental warrants were issued to the extent of 13. Of these 11 were 
served, 4 canceled, 4 executed, 2 are pending but not yet served, and 3 pending 
since service. The causes for which these warrants were issued are as follows : 

Aliens other than Chinese : 

Likely to become a public charge at time of entry 2 

Prostitute 1 

Public charges from prior causes 2 

Unlawful landing 5 

Chinese : 

Unlawful entry (sec. 21, act of Feb. 20, 1907) 3 

There were 8 preinvestigations made in Chinese cases, as follows: 

Exempts (merchants), approved 3 

Laborers, approved 3 

Natives, 1 approved, 1 disapproved 2 

Other investigations were : 

Other than Chinese 8 

Chinese 1 

Miscellaneous, additional to foregoing, of which 2 are pending 48 

Total 57 

There were 3 Chinese arrested and brought before the United States court, of 
whom 2 claimed to have been admitted as minor sons of merchant and 1 as 
the minor son of a teacher. All were dismissed. 

There were 3 fine assessments under section 9, 2 being for loathsome or dan- 
gerous contagious diseases, and 1 for tuberculosis ; a total of $300, all of which 
was finally covered into the Treasury. 

We thought that during 1913 the limit in arrivals of Chinese seamen had 
been reached, but we find that during the past year nearly 100 more have come 
to this port as seamen on various ships. The work of checking these vessels, 
which leave at all hours of the day and night, has been much simplified by the 
addition to this service of a launch. Norfolk is nearly surrounded by water, 
and most of the points at which vessels arrive are either solely I'eached by 
water, or are in such out-of-the-way places that street car service is out of the 
question. We have a well-kept, staunch boat for boarding purposes, at a mini- 
mum cost. It has been the means of saving a great deal of time and expense. 
Whereas before it was necessary for the boarding officer to remain at the 
dock waiting for a chance to get back to the office, he is now able to complete 
his work and return at once, and one man can easily handle all the work. 

Regarding 3 Chinese who were arrestetl at Wilmington, N. C., under section 
6 of the act of May 5. 1892, as amended by section 1 of the act of November 3, 
1893, and discharged by the district judge, 2 were minor sons of merchants and 
1 a. son of a Chinese teacher, all of whom were found laboring as laundrymen. 
It would seem that some action on the part of the bureau should be taken 
toward amending this section, which has been reenacted and which is the law. 
Judge Connor held that there was no law in existence by which Chinese enter- 
ing the country as of the exempt class and thereafter found laboring in the 
United States could be deported, as section 6 states that any Chinese laborer 
" within the limits of the United States who shall neglect, fail, or refuse to 
comply with the provisions of this act * * * shall be deemed and adjudged 
to be unlawfully within the United States," etc. Whatever Congress may have 
meiint. it seems certain that the act, as it is now worded, excludes Chinese 
laborers who were in the United States at the time of the passage of the act 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



257 



only, and makes no provision for tlie exclusion of those who may thereafter 
come to the United States. This is a hig loophole in the law. It is noted that 
the Attorney General reached the couclnsiou that an appeal from Judge Connor's 
decision would not be justified. If it is the general opinion that Congress did 
not intend to leave such a loophole in the law, it would seem that an amendment 
could be easily brought about, and that no time should be lost in so doing is 
apparent. 

It gives me pleasure to express my appreciation of the cooperation given me 
by the men of this district. Their efficient service has enabled the officer in 
charge to carry out the work of the bureau as best we may. 

W. R. MoETON, Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 7, COMPRISING 
SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, FLORIDA, AND ALABAMA, WITH 
HEADQUARTERS AT JACKSONVILLE. 

There is transmitted herewith a summary of the immigration work accom- 
plished in di.strict No. 7 during the fiscal year 1914. The information required 
is submitted in tabulated form, as it is believed this is the most concise way of 
covering practically the entire work. 

Examination of aliens at seaports, not including Chinese. 





Admit- 
ted on 
pri- 
mary 
inspec- 
tion. 


Held 

for 
special 

in- 
quiry. 


Admits 
ted by 
board 

of 
special 

in- 
quiry. 


Reject- 
ed by 
board 

of 
special 

in- 
quiry. 


Admit- 
ted 
out- 
right 

on 
appeal. 


Admit- 
ted 
on 

bond. 


Total aliens admitted. 


Name of port. 


Immi- 
grant. 


Non- 
immi- 
grant. 


Total. 




7 

4,992 

3,694 

3,164 

313 

7 

5 

12 

15 

3 

1 












5 

1,406 

1,429 

1,695 

124 

7 

3 

11 

14 

3 


2 

3,614 

2,273 

1,512 

195 

2 

1 

1 

i' 


7 


Key West 


79 
36 
63 
23 
3 
1 
4 


19 
8 

42 
6 


60 

28 

21 

17 

3 

1 

4 


8 


1 


5 020 


Miami 


3,702 


Tampa 


1 




3 207 


MobUe 


319 


Savannah 






7 


Charleston 






5 








12 


Brunswick 






IS 


Boca Grande 












3 


Femandiaa 












1 


















Total 


12,213 


209 


75 


134 


9 


1 


4,697 


7,601 


12,298 





Name of port. 


United 
States 
citi- 
zens 
ar- 
rived. 


Aliens finally 
deported. 


Total 
inward 
passen- 
ger 
move- 
ment. 


Stowa- 
ways. 


Alien 
seamen 
depon- 
ed. 


Alien 
seamen 
arriv- 
ing. 


Head 
tax. 


Es- 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


capes. 




17 

11,828 

1,405 

2,045 

226 

22 

8 

13 

2 






24 

16,899 

5, 135 

5,272 

562 

32 

14 

29 

17 

3 

1 


2 

3 

12 

12 

5 

4 

1 

2 

U 


23 
4 

27' 

237 

94 

72 

176 

12 

8 

15 

3 


1,310 

507 

2,247 

6,015 

11,867 

4,127 

3,729 

4,623 

681 

928 

618 

697 


$28 

1,996 

14,264 

2,168 

664 

28 

12 

36 






51 
28 
20 
17 
3 
1 
4 


1.01 
.75 
.62 
5.06 
30.00 
16.67 
25.00 








Tampa 








Savannah 


3 


Charleston 




Pensacola 




Brunswick 




Boca Grande 






8 
8 




Femandina 










Port Inglis 


























Total 


15,566 


124 


1.00 


27,988 


42 


671 


37,349 


19,212 


3 



1 One stowaway arrived at Femandina, Fla., from Porto Rico. Head tax was collected on his account. 
60629°— 15 17 



258 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
Arrest and expulsion of aliens. 









Warrants. 


Chinese 


Name of port. 


Applied for. 


Issued. 


Served. 


Can- 
celed, 
other 
than 
Chi- 
nese. 


Exe- 
cuted, 
other 
than 
Chi- 
nese. 


arrested 

before 

commis- 


Other 
than 
Chi- 
nese. 


Chi- 
nese. 


Other 
than 
Chi- 
nese. 


Chi- 
nese. 


Other 
than 
Chi- 
nese. 


Chi- 
nese. 


sioners of 
United 
States 
courts. 


Jacksonville 


2 
1 
3 
13 
21 
1 
4 
1 
2 


i' 

i' 


2 
1 
3 
12 
21 
1 
4 
1 
2 


i' 


2 
1 
2 
8 
17 
1 
5 
1 
2 






2 




Key West 




1 




Miami 




2 

8 
7 
1 
4 




Tampa 




4 

8 




Mobile 










1 






1 












1 




2 












Total 


48 


2 


47 


1 


39 


1 


14 


27 


1 








Grounds on which warrants were issued. 


Name of port. 


Likely to be- 
come public 

charge at 
time of entry 


Prostitution 
and pro- 
curers. 


Entered 
without in- 
spection. 


Under 
16, un- 
accom- 
panied, 

exe- 
cuted. 


Epi- 
lepsy, 

exe- 
cuted. 


Public 
charge 
from 
prior 
causes, 
exe- 
cuted. 


Crimi- 
nals, 
exe- 
cuted. 


Con- 
tract 
labor- 
ers, 




Exe- 
cuted. 


Can- 
celed. 


Exe- 
cuted. 


Can- 
celed. 


Exe- 
cuted. 


Can- 
celed. 


exe- 
cuted. 








1 








1 


1 








Key West 






1 












MiftTni 






1 












1 






4 

2 


2 






2 

8 






2 


2 








4 






1 








1 














3 


1 












1 

1 












1 
































Total 


9 


3 


3 


1 


5 


10 


1 


1 


4 


9 


2 























CHINESE IMMIGRATION. 

Tampa is tlie only Chinese port of entry in this district, and there has been 
only 1 Chinaman, a student, admitted there during the fiscal year just ended. 

Preinvestigations have been conducted concerning 5 Chinese merchants (4 
with favorable and 1 with unfavorable results) and in the cases of 4 Chinese 
claiming native birth (3 with favorable and 1 with unfavorable result). 

SMUGGLING AND UNLAWFUL ENTRY. 

At various times during the year this office has received information from 
confidential sources to the effect that Chinese had embarked at certain foreign 
ports with a view to gaining illegal entry into the United States at some one 
of the various seaports in this district, and three Chinese actually entered at 
Mobile in this manner from the steamship Aim. They were afterwards appre- 
hended and used as witnesses in prosecuting Nils Thomas and Thor Strom, 
members of the crew — the persons who were thought to be responsible for their 
Illegal entry. The evidence furnished was sufficient to cause these men to 
plead guilty. They were prosecuted under section 37 of the Criminal Code and 
section 8 of the immigration law. The sentence imposed was so light that it 
is not likely to produce a deterrent effect upon persons who have an inclina- 
tion to engage in this business. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 259 

The gasoline boat Corinthia has been detailed by the bureau for scout duty 
on the west coast of Florida, with a view to ascertaining whether Chinese 
smuggling operations are being carried on in this territory. This boat is in 
charge of Inspector Isaac H. Vincent, of Key \Yest, Fla., and began scout 
duty June 27. It was put into operation in this district so near the end of 
the fiscal year that it is impossible at this time to tell what the results of this 
cruise will be. 

COURT PROCEEDINGS. 

There have been no court cases of any kind except the one criminal prose- 
cution mentioned above; nor were there any cases in which writs of habeas 
corpus were applied for. 

ESCAPES. 

Other than the three Chinese mentioned under the head of " Smuggling and 
unlawful entry," there were no escapes of aliens from vessels during the fiscal 
year 1914, except three stowaways at Savannah, Ga., in the month of December, 
1913. There being no United States district attorney at Savannah, the immi- 
grant inspector laid the matter before the United States commissioner, who 
advised him that under the circumstances he did not believe there was sufiicient 
ground to justify arrest, as our service was unable to show that the master of 
the vessel was in collusion with the stowaways in effecting their escape. 

WHITE-SLAVE TRANSACTIONS. 

Owing to the limited number of inspectors in this district there has been no 
systematic investigation with a view to ascertaining to what extent the white- 
slave trafiic act has been violated. In this connection it will be seen from 
the tabulated statement above that a number of cases of this kind have been 
handled under warrant proceedings and deportation effected. 

HINDU IMMIGRATION. 

During the year quite a number of Hindu laborers have applied for admission 
at Key West and Tampa, Fla., the majority of them coming from Habana, Cuba, 
and from the Canal Zone. These aliens, when denied admission, almost inva- 
riably appealed their cases, and in every case the excluding decision of the 
board has been sustained by the department. The Peninsular & Occidental 
Steamship Co., which handles practically all of the passenger business coming 
from the Canal Zone and Habana to Key West and Tampa. Fla., has refused, 
except in rare instances, to sell passage to this class of aliens, due to the fact 
that the great majority of them have been unable to establish their right to 
land upon applying for admission at ports in this district. 

CONTRACT LABOR. 

The section 24 inspector stationed at Birmingham. Ala., has made a number 
of investigations relative to violations of the contract-labor law. The majority 
of these investigations did not show a violation of the law. An investigation 
which he made at Ozona, Fla., showed that the Ozona Citrus Growers' Associa- 
tion, through ignorance of the law, were guilty of making an effort to import 
labor from Canada. This company was advised as to the provisions of the law 
and no aliens were imported. 

IMMIGBATION STATION. 

There is but one immigration station in district No. 7. located at Charleston, 
S. C, regarding which the bureau in its annual report for 1913 used the follow- 
ing language: 

u * * * ^g jjo immigration comes to Charleston, it has not been necessary 
to put the station there to any use, and it is standing idle and unoccupied, but 
protected as fully as possible from decay and deterioration in value by employ- 
ing two watchmen to guard it day and night." 

The same conditions still prevail at the Charleston immigration station. 



260 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

RECAPITULATION. 

A glance at the following important items shows a large increase of business 
in this district over all preceding years : 

Total number of aliens applying for admission 12, 422 

Total number of aliens debarred from admission 124 

Total number of aliens admitted 12, 298 

Total number of United States citizens arrived 15, 566 

Total inward passenger movement 27, 988 

Chinese seamen arrived 2, 800 

Alien seamen (not including Chinese) who arrived direct from for- 
eign ports 37, 349 

Head tax collected $19,212 

INVESTIGATIONS IN IMMIGRATION CASES. 

Investigations were conducted in 30 cases of arriving aliens and in 24 miscel- 
laneous cases. 

CONCLUSION. 

In conclusion, it gives me pleasure to express my appreciaton of the hearty 
cooperation furnished our service by the officers detailed to conduct the medical 
examination of aliens. Furthermore, I owe it to the officers stationed in this 
district to state that the relations existing between them and this office have 
been pleasant and harmonious for the entire year, and that the effective enforce- 
ment of the immigration laws could not have been accomplished without the 
intelligent interest which they manifested. 

Thos. V. Kirk, 

Inspector in Charge. 

REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, NEW ORLEANS, IN 
CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 8, COMPRISING LOUISIANA, MISSISSIPPI, 
ARKANSAS, AND TENNESSEE. 

The following l)rief summary of transactions in district No. 8, covering the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, is respectfully submitted: 

inward PASSENGER MOVEMENT. 

As shown by Exhibit A herewith, 5,125 aliens arrived at the port of New 
Orleans during the fiscal year ; 2,628 immigrant and 2,434 nonimmigrant aliens 
were admitted^ and 63 were debarred. Of the immigrant aliens, 1,411 were first 
cabin, 153 second, and 1.064 steerage. Of the nonimmigrant, 2,075 were first 
cabin, 172 second, and 187 steerage. The money brought by these aliens totaled 
$356,298, or about $70 per capita. During the same period 11,177 citizens 
returned through this iwrt. 

During the fiscal year 30 aliens arrived at Galfport, Miss., 25 of whom were 
classed immigrant, 3 nonimmigrant, and 2 were debarred. Two citizens arrived 
at Gulfport during the year. At Pascagoula, Miss., 27 aliens arrived, 18 of 
whom wore classed immigrant and 9 nonimmigrant. Five citizens also arrived 
at that port. 

OUTWARD MOVEMENT. 

Exhibit A also i=hows that 792 emigrant aliens and 2,776 nonemigrant aliens 
departed through the port of New Orleans during the year. Covering the same 
period, 7,820 citizens departed. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 261 
Comparative summary. 



1913 



1914 



INWAED MOVEMENT. 



Immigrant aliens admitted 

Nonimmigrant aliens admitted 

Aliens debarred 

Oovernment officials (sec. 41) 

Chinese transits (not included in statistics). 
Citizens 



Total. 



OUTWARD MOVEMENT. 



Emigrant aliens 

Nonemigrant aliens 

Chtaese transits (not included in statistics). 
Citizens 



Total. 



1,446 

1,941 

62 

66 



8,634 



12, 149 



516 
1,933 



8,955 



2,628 

2,434 

63 

88 

301 

11,177 



16, 691 



792 
2,776 

715 
7,820 



11,404 12,103 



From the foregoing it will be noted that the alien arrivals at New Orleans 
during the fiscal year exceeded those of the previous year by 1,676, or an 
iucrease~of over 48 per cent. At the same time the increase in citizen arrivals 
over the preceding year is shown to be 29 per cent. Of the alien arrivals at 
this port during the year over 75 per cent were cabin passengers, which in a 
measure accounts for the small number of debarred aliens. 

MISCELLANEOUS TEANSACTIONS. 

Exhibit B shows in condensed form transactions under departmental war- 
rants, number and disposition of cases before boards of special inquiry, number 
of passenger and nonpassenger ves.sels arriving, fines for improper manifesting 
and bringing diseased aliens, number and history of cases admitted for hospital 
treatment. 

Exhibit C shows the number of vessels arriving at subports of Gulf port and 
Pascagoula, Miss., during the year, number of seamen arriving, number and dis- 
position of cases before boards of special inquiry, number of seamen placed in 
hospital, and final disposition of such cases. 

CHINESE TRANSACTIONS. 

Exhibit D is a condensed summary of all transactions relating to Chinese 
during the fiscal year, and shows that 301 were admitted in transit, while 715 
who were admitted at other ports passed out at New Orleans. It is shown 
that 4,527 Chinese seamen were in this port during the year on 239 different 
vessels, all of whom departed except 2, who died in the Charity Hospital in 
this city. 

There were 17 Chinese seamen in port at Gulfport, Miss., at the beginning 
of the fiscal year, and, subsequently within the year 79 others arrived. Of 
this number 1 died and 2 were deported by the British consul. The remaining 
ones departed in their capacity as seamen. 

Exhibit D also shows the class and number of investigations conducted 
during the year pertaining to domiciled Chinese desiring to depart and others 
applying for admission at other ports. Nineteen Chinese laborers, refugees 
from Mexico, applied for admission during the year, and were debarred. Two 
of this number, natives of Cuba, were deported to Cuba ; 2 were subsequently 
I>ermitted to pass through the country in transit to Hongkong; 1 was returned 
to Mexico, and 14 are now in detention at this station. Only 1 arrest (de- 
partmental warrant) was made during the year which resulted in deportation. 

CHINESE SMUGGLING. 

Constant vigilance on the part of officers at this station has failed to disclose 
any organized effort at Chinese smuggling through this port during the year. 
In fact the most careful watching and searching of vessels arriving from 



262 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

foreign ports where Chinese could be obtained has been without result, unless 
it can be said that such activity has pi'oduced a deterrent effect. Frequent 
investigations through Chinatown and reiwrts from confidential sources in that 
quarter lead to the conclusion that this port has been comparatively free from 
attempts at infractions of the Chinese exclusion law during the year, and it is 
hoped that continued vigilance will prove as effective the coming year. 

CONTKACT-LABOR LAW. 

All aliens are carefully examined with the object of determining whether 
or not they have been induced to come by promises of employment. The 
comparatively small number of arrivals makes it possible to more rigidly 
examine all applicants, thus affording less opportunity for an alien to enter, 
if for any reason such alien is inadmissible. As stated in former reports, the 
contract-labor law is undoubtedly violated at this ix)rt. as at all other ports 
of the service ; and it would be no less than remarkable if every attempt to 
evade the law in this particular should be detected at any port. 

WHITE-SLAVE TRAFFIC. 

Owing to the results accomplished under this heading during the previous 
year, there has been a very noticeable exodus of undesirable aliens who might be 
handled under departmental warrants from New Orleans. But few cases have 
been handled during the year. When the deterrent effect of the activities of 
officers of the service during 1913 has worn off it is fully expected that another 
crusade will be necessary in this district. 

DESERTING ALIEN SEAMEN. 

Six hundred and thirty-six alien seamen deserted at this port during the 
year, as compared with 673 the year previous. During the year 25 departmental 
warrants issued for the arrest of seamen were disposed of as follows : Can- 
celed, 8 ; deported, 13 ; reshipped. foreign, 3 ; pending, 1. 

It is necessary to point out in this connection that a large majority of desert- 
ing seamen reship foreign, and frequently it is the case that a seaman reported 
as a deserter leaves one ship to immediately sign as a member of the crew of 
another. The seaman question is a vexing one at best, and it is believed that 
it can not be handled satisfactorily under the law as it stands at present. The 
most perplexing and apparently unsolvable problem arises in connection with 
the apparently increasing number of Chinese seamen. Of the large number of 
Chinese seamen in this port not one. perhaps, would be found admissible upon 
examination, but it is impossible with the small force at this station to at all 
times so guard the vessels on which they are employed as to insure their de- 
parture. It is considered indeed fortunate, under all the circumstances, that 
there were no desertions from Chinese crews at this port during the year. 

DIVISION OF INFORMATION. 

Relying on its construction of bureau instructions date July 2. 1913. this 
office inaugurated a system of distribution of natives and aliens through the 
instrumentality of the Louisiana State Board of Immigration, but the system 
was ordered discontinued by the bureau in its letter dated January 19, 1914. 
From January to the end of the fiscal year there were practically no transac- 
tions, therefore the officer in charge of that division has no data of importance 
or interest for tabulation. In lieu of such data the officer in charge presents the 
following : 

" I do wish, however, in connection with my short experience in the affairs 
of the division, to present a few impressions which it is hoped will aid in lead- 
ing to a proper solution of the division's problems in this portion of the country. 
I concur with the division's recommendation ' that an appropriation be asked for 
the establishment of a branch of the division in New Orleans, La.,' as there 
is much to be accomplished in this section, but not without the exclusive atten- 
tion of the officer in charge to that one particular subject. The real object of 
the division should be at once curative and preventive, instead of curative alone; 
by which I mean that it should not wait for the voluntary solicitation of those 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 263 

in need of employment, but rather through its initiative discover the existence 
of persons who are without employment and connect or place them where they 
can both profit themselves and the country. The land opportunities are natu- 
rally grand in the South, and no doubt there are thousands of people who would 
gladly locate in this section for the purpose of farming if they were fully ad- 
vised regarding the opportunities and advantages in this locality. It should be 
a part of the work of the division to see that they are properly informed. There- 
fore, it would seem advisable to place the work in exclusive hands, and through 
the medium of the press inform the public of the readiness of the division to 
aid farmers and employers on the one hand and laborers on the other, thus 
locating and bringing all parties together for their mutual benefit and the wel- 
fare of the country. Under present conditions but little can be accomplished 
along this line, although I have the warmest sympathy and best of wishes for 
the realization of the division's ideals." 

SXJBPORTS OF GULFPORT AND PASCAGOULA. 

The affairs of the service at Gulfport and Pascagoula have been satisfactorily 
administered during the year. The work at these ports consists mainly in the 
examination of alien seamen, searching vessels from foreign ports to prevent 
the illegal entry of stowaways, and to guard the coast against the possible 
operations of smugglers. 

The officers in charge of these subix)rts have been energetic and have per- 
formed their duties efficiently, with the result that there have been few viola- 
tions of the laws along the coast within the year. 

INTERIOR STATION, MEMPHIS, TENN. 

On January 1, 1914, a new station was created in this district at Memphis. 
This seemed necessary in order that a closer and more constant check might be 
kept on the ever changing and increasing number of Chinese in the northern 
cities and towns in this district. 

The officer in charge at Memphis has transacted all business pertaining to 
the service in the northern section of the district since January 1 in a very 
efficient and satisfactory manner, and the wisdom of the action in placing an 
officer at that point has been clearly established. 



The facts stated in the last annual reiwrt regarding the station at New Or- 
leans may be repeated here. The buildings are in first-class condition and the 
grounds are well kept and inviting in appearance. It is believed that the 
present almost perfect condition of the station may be maintained during the 
next fiscal year at small cost. 

MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF ALIENS. 

The two medical examiners assigned to duty in connection with this service 
at New Orleans have performed their work in a highly satisfactory manner 
during the year. They are competent and have cooperated heartily with this 
office in all matters in which their services were necessary. 

CONCLUSION. 

This report should properly have been submitted by former Commissioner 
S. E. Redfern. who was in charge of district No. 8 to the end of the fiscal year, 
and who. together with the officers and employees, is entitled to whatever credit 
may be due for the results accomplished within the year. 

Joseph H. Wallis, Acting Commissioner, 



264 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Exhibit A. 
Inward and outward passenger movements. 



Male. 



Female. 



Total. 



Immigrant aliens admitted 

Nonimmigrant aliens admitted . 
United States citizens arrived... 
Aliens debarred 



1,868 

1,775 

7,501 

57 



760 

659 

3,676 

6 



2,628 

2,434 

11,177 

63 



Total . 



11,201 



5,101 



16,302* 



Emigrant aliens departed 

Nonemigrant aliens departed . . . 
United States citizens departed. 

Total departed 



558 
1,988 
5,282 



234 

788 
2,538 



792 
2,776 
7,820 



7,828 



3,560 



11,388 



Exhibit B. 

misceu^laneous transactions at new orleans, la. 

Departmental wa/i'rants. 

Pending at close of fiscal year 1913 

Received during fiscal year 1914 



29 
41 



Total- 



70 



Canceled 

Deported 

Pending at close of fiscal year 

"Warrants forwarded to New York for execution. 



31 
22 
16 

1 



Aliens deported at New Orleans on warrants issued in other districts 

Board of special inquiry cases : 

Admitted by board of special inquiry 

Rejected by board of special inquiry — 

Mandatorily 23 

With right of appeal 59 



76 



82 



Total 158 

Took appeal 14 



Excluded upon appeal. 

Admitted outright 

Admitted under bond. 



11 
2 
1 



Passenger vessels arriving 

Nonpassenger vessels arriving . 



753 

895 



Total number of vessels arriving 1.648 



Government ofiicials arriving (sec. 41). 
Porto Ricans arriving 



Fines. 



For improper manifesting : 

Inward 

Outward 



85 
38 



$30 
100 



For bringing diseased aliens : 

Trachoma $300 

Tuberculosis 100 



130 



400 



Total. 



530 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 265 

Aliens granted hospital treatment. 

Marian Abraham: Section 19; age, 15; race, Syrian; female; trachoma; 
estimated time to effect cure, indefinite; probably one year. In 
Charity Hospital, New Orleans, La., from July 1, 1912, to Nov. 14, 
1912, 137 days, at $1 per day _ $137. 00 

Alien left Charity Hospital on Nov. 14, 1912, and proceeded to 
Alexandria, La., under instructions to report every 30 days to 
Dr. R. F. Harrell, of Alexandria, until cured. Case still pend- 
ing July 1, 1914. Expenses paid by alien's father. 
Boniface Sandoval: Ex steamship Marietta di CHorgio, Feb. 2, 1913; 
age, GO; male; race, Spanish-American; carcinoma (cancer); alien 
permitted to go to Touro Infirmary, New Orleans, La., for treatment 
at his own expense; alien landed temporarily by virtue of medical 
certificate stating that to debar the alien would incur an unnecessary 
hardship. Departed from the United States per steamship Escondido, 
Dec. 13, 1913. Expenses unknown. 
Siiig Lee: Deserted from steamship Eaicorth on or about Apr. 12, 
1913 ; entered United States without inspection and afflicted with 
secondary syphilis, warrant of arrest issued in his case; detained at 
immigration station. New Orleans, La., for medical treatment from 
May 3, 1913. to July 5. 1913. Departed from the United States per 
steamship Norman Monarch July 5, 1913. Age, 35; race, Chinese; 
male. Expenses paid by steam.ship agent, as follows: 

Confined in parish prison from Apr. 30, 1913, to May 3, 1913 4. 00 

Laundry . 20 

Medicine 4. 00 

Meals at immigration station 47. 75 



55.95 

Georges Hanna Slayman : Ex steamship Louisiana, June 20, 1913; age, 
16; male; race, Syrian; trachoma; estimated time to effect cure, 
four months ; granted medical treatment at immigration station. New 
Orleans, La., beginning June 24, 1913. Expenses paid by alien's 
father. Rule 19 : 

Medical treatment 100. 00 

Laundry 2. 65 

Meals 69. 25 



171. 90 



Alien admitted by board of special inquiry Nov. 4, 1913. 

Olga Leouovich : Ex steamship Koln, Apr. 19, 1914 ; age, 18 ; female ; 
race. Russian ; pregnant ; estimated time for medical treatment, two 
or three months ; placed in Charity Hospital on May 1, 1914, for 
treatment. Expenses paid by steamship company. Gave birth to 
child in Charity Hospital on June 20. 1914. Departed with child 
from the LTnited States per steamship Frankfurt, July 15, 1914. 
Meals at immigration station 9.25 

Maxiliano Molina: Ex steamship Yoro, May 4, 3914; age, 24; male; 
race, Spanish-American; tuberculosis; estimated time to effect cure, 
indefinite: landed for treatment under bond for one year, to reside at 
his stepfather's residence at Metairie Ridge (New Orleans), La. 

Meals at immigration station paid by steamship company 8.00 

Case pending July 1, 1914. 

Exhibit C. 

miscellaneous information at pascagoula, miss. 

Vessels arriving from foreign ports 67 

Vessels arriving coastwise 45 



Total 112 

Seamen arriving on vessels from foreign ports 533 

Seamen arriving on coastwise vessels 694 

Seamen discharged to reship foreign 240 



266 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION AT GULFPORT, MISS. 

Board of special inquiry cases 3 

Rejected, with riglit of appeal ^ 2 

Admitted 1 

Vessels arriving from foreign ports 148 

Vessels arriving coastwise 108 

Total 256 

Seamen arriving: 

From foreign ports 2,578 

From coastwise 2, 037 

Total 4, 615 

Aliens placed in Kings Daughters Hospital (seamen) 33 

Returned on board their vessels 15 

Discharged to reship foreign 2 

Died in hospital 1 

No record of final disposition 3 

Now remaining in hospital 2 

Sent to New Orleans by consul for treatment 2 

Returned home by consul via New Orleans 8 

Exhibit D. 

chinese transactions. 

Transits. 

Arriving at the port of New Orleans by steamship 301 

Departing from the port of New Orleans by steamship 715 

Tcssels loith Chinese in creic. 

In port at beginning of fiscal year 3 

Arrived during fiscal year 236 

Total 239 

Vessels departed during fiscal year 239 

Chinese crews. 

In port at beginning of fiscal year 53 

Arriving seamen 4, 474 

Total 4. 527 

Departing seamen 4, 525 

Died in the United States 2 

Sniport of Gulfport, Miss. 

Vessels in port with Chinese in crew 1 

Arriving vessels with Chinese in crew 5 

Total 6 

Departing vessels with Chinese in crew 6 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 267 

Chinese seamen in port ^ 17 

Ari'iving Chinese seamen 79 

Total 96 

Departing Chinese seamen 93 

Died 1 

Deported 2 

INVESTIGATIONS. 

Merchants ( domiciled ) . 

Departing, preinvestigations 25 

Granted 22 

Denied 1 

Pending 2 

Merchants' reives. 

Preinvestigation 1 

Merchants' sotis. 

Arriving at ports of entry 8 

Laborers. 

Preinvestigations 2 

Granted 2 

Arriving at New Orleans as refugees from Mexico (denied admission) 18 

Applying at New Orleans for admission (denied) 1 

Domiciled laborer's. 

Returning to the United States 1 

Natives. 

Preinvestigations 8 

Granted 5 

Denied 3 

Sons of alleged natives. 

Arriving at ports of entry 3 

Arrests. 

Arrested present fiscal year 1 

Deported 1 

Miscellaneons. 

Duplicate certificates of residence 1 

Other miscellaneous investigations 16 



268 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 9, COMPRISING 
SO MUCH OF TEXAS AS IS CONTIGUOUS TO GALVESTON, THE DIS- 
TRICT HEADQUARTERS. 

I hereby submit the following report covering immigration matters relating 
to disti'ict No. 9 during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914 : 

Aliens arrived, 1913 and 1914- 





1913 


1914 


Increase. 


Number of male aliens arrived 


4,053 
1,945 


4,946 
2,310 


893 


Number of female aliens arrived 


365 






Total alien arrivals 


5,998 
1,263 


7,256 
4,376 


1,258 


United States citizens arrived 


3 113 






Grand total arrivals 


7,261 


11,632 


4,371 





Statistical statement for fiscal year ended June 30, 1914- 

Number of aliens admitted on primary iusi^ection 5, 264 

Number of aliens held for board of special inquiry 950 

Number of aliens detained outside of board of special inquiry 1, 042 

Total aliens accounted for 7, 256 

Number of aliens held for a board of special inquiry 950 

Number of aliens admitted by board of special inquiry 605 

Number of aliens rejected by board of special inquiry 339 

Number of aliens died 2 

Number of aliens who escaped 1 

Number of board of special inquiry cases pending 3 

Number of aliens rejected by board of special inquiry 339 

Appealed 154 

Did not appeal 185 

Number of aliens rejected by board of special inquiry who appealed 154 

Number of aliens admitted outright on appeal 35 

Number of aliens admitted on bond 31 

Number of appeals denied 84 

Number of cases appealed by members of board of special 

inquiry 4 

Number of cases appealed by members of board of special inquiry 

(all sustained) 4 

Number of aliens finally deported *287 

Numher of aliens admitted for hospital treatment. 

One Russian-Hebrew female 36 years old, suffering with trachoma, received 
hospital treatment from July 25 to November 13, 1913, the expenses being paid 
by her husband. She was discharged as cured and was admitted. 

Aliens arrived, 1912 and 19H. 





1912 


1914 


Decrease. 


Increase, 


Immigrant aliens admitted . . 


5,468 
281 
249 


6,709 
260 
287 




1,241 


NnnJTTi mi grant aliens admitted , , . 


21 






38 








Total 


5,998 


7,256 


21 


3 1,258 







1 0.039 per cent. 



2 Net increase. 



REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 269 
Aliens deported, 1913 and 1914- 



Likely to become public charges 

Accompanying aliens (sec. 11) , 

Contract laborers , 

On medical certificates — 

Trachoma 

Dangerous contagious disease (bubo) .. . 

Insane , 

Mentally defective 

Feeble-minded 

Imbeciles 

Tuberculosis 

Not specified , 

As assisted aliens 

Under Iti, unaccompanied 

Coming for an immoral purpose 

Bringing in a woman for immoral purposes. 



Total. 



96 

2 

104 



165 
2 
3 

38 
1 
1 



287 



Fines imposed by the department. 

1913. 1914. 

On account of mental afflictions $100 

On account of aliens with tuberculosis $100 

On account of other loathsome and dangerous contagious dis- 
eases : 

Trachoma 3,900 3,600 

Venereal bubo 100 

On account of nonmanifesting 180 110 

Total 4,280 3,810 

Fines pending at" close of fiscal year 310 

Vessels and erews. 

Seamen : 

Vessels arrived from foreign ports and boarded 805 

Seamen serving on same " 27, 553 

Vessels arrived, with passengers 134 

Passengers carried 11, 651 

Vessels carrying Chinese crews 65 

Chinese in said crews 1,464 

Deserting seamen reportect by masters 293 

Seamen discharged to reship 460 

Stowaways : 

Arrived at tliis port 19 

Admitted 5 

Deported 13 

Escaped 1 



WORK OF THE MEDICAL OFFICERS. 

I desire to emphasize the statements contained in previous reports as to the 
eminently satisfactory services of the surgeon of the United States Public 
Health Service who has had charge of the medical inspection of arriving aliens 
since March 22, 1912. In view of the fact that the surgeon's time was largely 
devoted to other work in connection with the care of marine-hospital patients 
and the construction of the new Federal quarantine station at this port, it was 
necessary to take up with the bureau the matter of making such arrangements 
as would enable him to devote more time to the medical inspection of arriving 
aliens. Under the present arrangement whereby he is medical officer in charge 
at this port, with an assistant, and the probability that an examining medical 
ofiicer will be appointed for Texas City, it is believed that matters will so ad- 
just themselves that the medical work will be satisfactorily attended to. 



270 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
Table showing class of medical certificates issued. 



Class. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Crew. 


Stow- 
aways. 


Total. 


Class A (1) 




8 

40 

329 

48 


1 
2 
1 
2 




9 


Class A (2) 


3 

43 

6 


1 
1 


46 


Class B 


374 


Class C 


56 








Total 


52 


425 


6 


2 


485 







Of the mandatorj^ diseases and defects, trachoma still leads with a total of 
43 certified during the year. As a result of more careful mental examinations 
made possible by the provision of mental-test apparatus. 5 feeble-minded and 
2 imbecile persons wei'e detected since January 1. It might not be amiss in 
this connection to call attention to the preponderance of hernias among our 
aliens; 122 cases were certified for this defect, constituting 1.6 per cent of all 
aliens arriving at this port. 

STATION BUILDINGS, EQUIPMENT, ETC. 

The new immigration station located on Pelican Spit, an artificial island 
formed by the dredgings from the channel, exposed to the elements, while doubt- 
less the best constructed for the money invested and the most suitable for the 
purposes for which designed of any immigration station in the United States, 
yet is not located in a suitable place, nor is it such a sanitary and up-to-date 
building as the importance of Galveston as an immigration port justifies. 

The last two annual reports have carried an urgent recommendation for the 
construction of a protective sea wall around said station, the building of a 
ferryboat and a boarding boat, and other necessary improvements, at an ap- 
proximate cost of $125,000 ; but for some unknown reason up to date no appro- 
priation has been made by Congress for the cari'ying out of the needed im- 
provements. 

Realizing the growing importance of Galveston as an immigration port, our 
department and bureau hesitated as to the advisability of spending any further 
money for improvement of the present immigration station, and strongly urged 
upon the people of Galveston the desirability of having a modern, fireproof, 
sanitary, up-to-date immigration station constructed on a suitable site on Gal- 
veston Island proper ; and while the i>eople here as a whole are heartily in favor 
of such a plan, certain reactionary interests apparently wield such an influence 
that they have succeeded in blocking the whole enterprise. In view of this 
hostile attitude on the part of the aforesaid interests, most naturally our depart- 
ment and bureau do not feel inclined to assist any further in the advancement 
of this enterprise, which would be such an important addition to Galveston and 
the State of Texas. 

The spare time of the watchmen and laborers has been utilized to great 
advantage in making repairs to the building and in carrying out needed im- 
provements, a great deal of work being thus accomplished at a minimum cost. 

WORK OF DISTRIBUTION OF ADMITTED ALIENS. 

While there were 100 applications for farm laborers and 60 applications for 
domestics, only 43 laborers and 3 domestics were directed to employment during 
the fiscal year, owing to the failure of aliens to avail themselves of this means 
of securing employment, the arrivals here invariably having a destination se- 
lected prior to arrival. 

Cooperation with outside agencies is not believed feasible in the distribution 
of admitted aliens, except to the farms, as it is thought the result would be to 
encourage the illegal coming of aliens to this country. 

WARRANTS. 

Number of warrants for aliens applied for 37 

Number on hand at beginning of year 2 

Number received without application 1 

Number received from other stations 2 

Total to be accounted for 42 



EEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 271 



Disposition of warrants. 



Ground of arrest. 


Applied 
for. 


Issued. 


Served. 


Canceled. 


Executed 

(de- 
ported). 


Deporta- 
tion or- 
dered at 
expiration 
of jail sen- 
tence. 


Pending. 


Violation of section 18 


12 
1 
2 
1 

16 

2 

1 
3 

2 
1 
1 


11 
1 
2 
1 

16 

2 

1 
3 

2 
1 
1 


9 
1 
2 
1 

16 

2 

1 
3 

2 

1 
1 


4 
1 


' 






Under 16, unaccompanied 






Prostitutes 


1 




1 


Violation of section 36 






1 


Likely to become a public 
charge at time of entry 


8 
1 


6 

1 

1 
2 

1 

} 


2 




Dangerous contagious disease 
at time of entry 




Convicted of or admitted com- 
mission of crime as misde- 
meanor involving moral tur- 
pitude 






Procurers 


1 
1 






Entered United States for im- 
moral purpose 






Insane at time of entry 

Insane within 5 years 























INVESTIGATIONS. 

Ui'der the above beadiug there is but little to i-eport, as there were compara- 
tively few investigations made by the officers in this district, the work here being 
largely in connection with arriving aliens. While a large number were detained 
pending investigations as to their eligibility to land, the investigations in con- 
nection therewith were made by the officers of other districts upon request by 
this office. 

There has been only one civil suit in this district, that one having been 
brought against the Steele Towing & Wrecking Co., of Galveston, Tex., owing 
to the damage done to our marine telephone cable by one of its boats October 10, 

1913. A verdict was rendered in the Federal court at Galveston, Tex., June 5, 

1914, in favor of the Government for $1,007.58, covering the expenses of repairs 
to the cable and costs of suit. 

There were two cases of procurers. Franz Niedzielski, an alien who arrived 
on the North German Lloyd steamship Breslau April 25, 1913, was admitted 
on primary inspection ; was subsequently arrested on department warrant and 
indicted and tried in the Federal court for the Southern District of Texas for 
violation of section 3 of the immigration act. He was found not guilty and was 
released by the department. The other case was that of Edward Stege, who 
arrived at this port on the North German Lloyd steamship Chemnitz December 
14, 1913, accompanied by tlie alien INIarie Neuman. This alien was boimd over 
for the Federal grand jury by a United States commissioner Janu;iry 5, 1914, 
duly indicted, pleaded guilty, and was sentenced by the Federal judge for the 
southern district of Texas to serve 60 days in the county jail at Galveston, Tex. 
The woman was deported, and the man also at the expiration of his sentence. 

There is still pending in the hands of the United States attorney for the 
eastern district of Texas the matter of the alleged violation of section 18 of 
the immigration laws by the master of the Danish ship PoJarstjcrne at Port 
Arthur. Tex., in connection with the landing of tlie alien L. K. Easmussen. 

There was only one habeas corpus case in this district during the fiscal year, 
that of an alien who was excluded by a board of special inquiry as a person 
likely to become a public charge. This alien subsequently entered this country 
surreptitiously and proceeded to Beaumont, Tex., to his father, who had resided 
in the L'nitcd States some years, and who had taken out his first papers and who 
was arranging to take out his final papers. A warrant of arrest was secured 
for this alien, and when he was taken into custody it was discovered that he 
was afflicted with a malignant form of trachoma. A certificate was furnished 
by our medical officer to the effect that it would require from 8 to 16 months 
or even longer to effect a cure. A warrant of deportation was duly issued in 
the case on tlie grounds that he was afflicted with trachoma at the time of his 
entry and that he entered at a time and place other than that designated by the 
immigration officers, but before this warrant could be executed the attorneys 
for the alien appeared before the Federal judge for the southern district of 
Texas, at Houston, Tex., and secured a writ returnable November 15, 1913, at 
Beaumont before the Federal judge for the eastern district of Texas. 



272 KEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GEISTEEAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The contention was made by the attorneys for the alien that the board of 
special Inquiry was in error in excluding this alien at Laredo, Tex., in January^ 
1913, as the alleged facts upon which was based the excluding decision that 
alien was likely to become a public charge were erroneous. Furthermore, that 
said alien was entitled to hospital treatment, he beiug a minor and his father 
having taken out his first papers. The contentions of the Government were 
fully sustained in a most comprehensive oral decision, and the alien was 
remanded to my custody and duly deported. 

CONTEACT-LABOR WORK, 

There has been but little work along this line during the fiscal year just 
ended. In July, 1913, the services of the section 24 inspector were discontinued, 
and uo officer has been detailed to take his place. 

During recent years groups of Bulgarians, Russians, Servians, and Armenians 
have arrived at this port destined to the packing plants at Fort Worth, Tex., to 
points in California, and other places, undoubtedly coming here in violation of 
the contract-labor laws, but they have invariably been held up pending investi- 
gation of their cases, resulting generally in their beiug returned to the country 
whence they came. The rigid investigations of the cases and the resulting 
deportations have had a most salutory effect on groups of aliens coming here 
in attempted violation of the laws. Only three aliens have been debarred as 
coming in violation of the contract-labor laws, and there have been a few 
scattering investigations of no particular importance. 

WHITE-SLAVE WORK. 

The case of Franz Niedzielski, who was tried in connection with the alleged 
importation of a woman for immoral purposes and found not guilty, has al- 
ready been taken up, and also the similar case of Edward Stege, who was 
found guilty and sentenced to serve 2 months in the Galveston County jail. 

The former case is rather interesting owing to the fact that the alien was 
released, practically on the instructions of the judge, in view of the fact that 
the passage to this country was paid for with funds furnished by the woman in 
the case. 

In consideration of this ruling by the Federal court it was not deemed ad- 
visable to institute prosecution in the case of the alien, Paul Hopf, a German 
who arrived at Galveston, Tex., on the North German Lloyd steamship Chem- 
nitz accompanied by Mrs. Hedwig Ehrlich, alias Mrs. Luise Hopf. Paul Hopf 
was duly deported, while the warrant in the case of Mrs Hedwig Ehrlich was 
canceled, and she was allowed to remain in this country. 

There were several other cases under this heading taken up during the fiscal 
year, but the only other case of special interest, indirectly under the classifica- 
tion, is that of the alien Lettie McCabe, alias Elizabeth Ann McCabe, alias 
Buster McCabe, alias Mrs. Gus L. Buck, who arrived at the port of New York, 
N. Y., on the steamship Olympic September 6, 1911, and who was subsequently 
found practicing prostitution at San Antonio, Tex. On April 24, 1913, a de- 
partmental warrant of arrest was issued, but pending the disposition of the 
case the alien escaped from a hospital at San Antonio where she was detained 
and proceeded to Corpus Christi, Tex., whence she was later conveyed to Bee- 
ville, Tex., by a United States citizen, Gus. L. Buck, a traveling salesman of a 
jewelry firm of Houston, T-ex., who married her for the avowed object of de- 
feating the purposes of the Immigration laws. However, this alien was sub- 
sequently deported. 

TEXAS CITY AND PORT ARANSAS. 

In view of the growing importance of Texas City, Tex., as an immigration 
port it has been deemed necessary to station an inspector there, his services 
also being utilized when there is a rush of work at this station. 

Of course this oflicer is materially handicapped in his work on account of the 
fact that there is no medical examining otficer stationed at that port. The 
bureau has taken steps to secure the services of a medical examiner there, 
and as the recommendation has been made for such an appointment by the 
proi>er authorities it is presumed that in the near future the apiwintment will 
be made. 

The same condition had existed at Port Aransas as regards the difliculty of 
transacting business promptly on account of there being no local medical ex- 
aminer, but a few months ago one was appointed for that port to look after 
the medical inspection of aliens and other Government work, thus relieving an 
embarrassing situation. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 273 



As Stated in previous reports, tlie Chinese residing here and in this vicinity 
are nearly all old-timers, having in their possession certificates of residence; 
and apparently there seems to be no incentive for smuggling Chinese into the 
United States through this district, for there have not been even any rumors 
of attempted violations of the Chinese exclusion laws in this section. 

During the last two years there has been a large increase in the number 
of vessels entering this port with Chinese crews aboard, the number for the 
fiscal year 1914 being Go vessels and 1,465 Chinese seamen. 

There was only one Chinese seaman deserted during said period — ^from the 
steamship Frankb}/. The deserter was promptly apprehended by our officers 
and i-eturned to his ship. 

Outside of the regular routine work of looking into the papers of resident 
Chinese, the principal investigations conducted and made a matter of record 
are as follows : Investigating two Chinese laborers who were granted return 
certificates; one Chinaman granted transit privileges; two cases relative to 
the genuineness of certificates of identity; and one investigation made for an 
outside district. 

The Chinese-seamen question is a most difficult and unsatisfactory one for 
all parties concerned, notwithstanding the change in the regulations regarding 
the handling of this class of aliens. There should be some specific provision in 
the law authorizing immigration officials to take into custody every Chinese 
seaman found on shore who has not given a suitable bond insuring his departure 
from the United States. 

PERSONNEL. 

Owing to the imusual conditions existing at this port as to the arrival of 
aliens in the interest of efficiency and economy certain inspectors render valu- 
able assistance as stenographers and clerks while the watchmen and laborers 
when not otherwise employed utilize their time to great advantage under the 
direction of our capable general mechanic in making necessary repairs and 
improvements to our immigration building. 

While this arrangement has- proved most satisfactory and advantageous to 
the Government — and the interest shown by the officers and employees, with 
very few exceptions, has been most gratifying and their cordial cooperation 
most commendable — yet the failure on the part of the Government to suitably 
compensate many of those men, j^articularly among the watchmen and laborers, 
for faithful and efficient services rendered is very disheartening to those con- 
cerned, most discouraging to myself as officer in charge, and extremely detri- 
mental to the best interests of the service. 

The officers stationed at points outside of Galveston have also been faithful, 
efficient, and attentive to their duties and ready at all times to heartily assist 
by their work and conduct in placing the service in this district on a high 
plane. 

Alfred Hampton, 
Inspector in Charge. 

REPORT OP INSPECTOR IN CHARGE', DISTRICT NO. 10, COMPRISING 
OHIO AND KENTUCKY, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT CLEVELAND. 

The following report is submitted covering the work done in district No. 
10 during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914. 

A careful review of the office records shows that action has been taken by 
the officers of this district in the cases of 1,944 i^ersons during the fiscal year. 
This record does not, of course, cover hundreds of minor investigations and 
answers to verbal inquiries made at the three offices. 

As stated in previous reports, the statistical tables do not adequately account 
for the actual time and labor expended in handling the various classes of cases 
involved. Of the five tables following herein, the first relates to warrant cases 
handled by the Cleveland office, the second to such cases handled by the substa- 
tion at Toledo, the third to such cases handled by the substation at Cincinnati, 
the fourth is a combined statement for the entire district, excepting Chinese 
cases, and the fifth covers Chinese arrest cases under the immigration law and 
the Chinese exclusion law, respectively, as well as statement of Chinese cases 
of various classes. 

60629°— 15 18 



274 KEPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

Statement of Action Upon Warrants of Arbest. 
cleveland office. 

Warrant cases pending at beginning of year 22 

Applications made for warrants of arrest 206 

Warrants received for service, having been applied for by other districts 5 

Total 233 

Disposition. 



Class. 


1 

03 


< 


1 

.2 

< 


o 
1 

.s 

< 


a -t 


i 

o 



u 

03 


i 

■a 

M 

.2 


H 

P. 
1 


1 


Alien contract laborer 
















1 

"i' 

4 
....„ 

1 


1 


Public cliarge 




1 

1 






1 
1 


"n 


6 
16 
76 

5 
26 

5 

2 
10 

7 


8 


Tubercular public charge 




2 

1 


1 

3 


22 


Likely to become a public charge 


6 


102 


Epileptic 


5 


Insanity 


1 

1 










1 

1 

4 

2 
2 
1 


31 


Criminals 










8 


Prostitutes 










6 


Females for immoral purpose 








1 

2 
1 

1 
1 




13 


Procurers 








11 


Receiving proceeds of prostitution 








2 


Contagious diseases 








3 
3 
1 

3 
2 

1 


....„ 


4 


Entry without inspection 


1 








6 


11 


Convicted under section 3 






2 


Under 16 years old 












1 


4 


Feeble-minded 












2 


Professional beggars 














1 


















Total 


9 


2 


3 


10 


2 


30 


166 


11 


233 







TOLEDO OFFICE. 

Warrant cases pending at beginning of year 1 

Applications made for warrants of arrest 20 

Warrants received, for service, having been applied for by other districts 1 

Total 22 

Disposition. 





"d 


i 


•6 
















T3 








o 






<» 


M 




Class. 


+3 


1^ 


o 


O 


s 

ft 


3 


















-< 


^ 


^ 


-< 


o 


^ 


Public charge 


1 






1 




2 












1 


1 








6 


1 


1 


8 


Insanity 








2 




2 


Criminals . 




1 






1 


2 


Prostitutes 




2 


i 
1 


3 


Receiving proceeds of prostitution 






1 








2 


1 




3 










Total 


1 


1 


10 


7 


3 


22 







Of the 10 cases in which warrants of arrest were canceled, 6 refer to a Syrian 
widow and 5 children, in which cancellation was recommended by the examining 
officer, conditions having been found upon hearing to be different than previously 
reported; the remaining 4 cancellations refer to the cases of Balkansky et al., 
released upon departmental instructions owing to conflicting evidence. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 275 



CINCINNATI OFFICE. 

Warrant cases pending at beginning of year 1 

Applications made for warrants of arrest 31 

Warrants received for service, tiaving been applied for by other districts 2 

Total 34 

Disposition. 





■rt 




'6 


•d 










m 




•S 


Ol 


T3 








^^ 


V. 


s 


o 


B 


£P 




Class. 


£5 


t 


5 


o 


O 

ft, 








S- 
^M 


a 


n 


a 






3 


























P= 










^ 


<j 


< 


< 


o 


Eh 


Public charge 










1 




1 


Tubercular public charge 








1 






1 


Liable to become a public charge 


8 






1 


5 


2 


16 


Insanity 










5 




5 


Criminals 










1 




1 


Females for immoral purpose 








1 


1 


Procurers 








1 






1 










i 

2 


1 


2 


Entry without inspection 






1 




3 


Professional beggars 




I 






2 




3 












Total 


8 


1 


1 


4 


17 


3 


34 







Of the nnmber of aliens credited as deported above, one was delivered from 
Connersville, Ind., to London, Ontario, by the Toledo inspector, and seven were 
taken in charge by officers from Cleveland. 

ENTIRE DISTRICT. 

Warrant cases pending at beginning of year 24 

Applications made for warrants of arrest 257 

Warrants received for service, having been applied for by other districts 8 

Total 289 

Disposition. 



Class. 


■a 


ft 
i 

< 


■d 
'•3 

1 
< 


■d 
1 

o 

p 


"a 

§2 
w S 

03 


i 

o 

1 


■d 

1 

& 
■o 

a 
.2 

< 


■■B 

i 

o 


1 


Alien contract laborer 
















1 

""2 

7 

'""3" 

2 

'"'i' 
"'i' 


1 


Public charge 




1 
1 






2 

1 


...... 

19 


8 
16 
82 
5 
33 
6 
3 
10 
7 
1 

1 
4 
5 
1 
3 
2 
3 


11 


Tubercular public charge 




2 
1 


1 
3 


24 


Liable to become a public charge 


14 


126 


Epileptic 


5 


Insanity 


1 
I 










1 
1 
6 
3 
3 
1 

2 


38 


Criminals 








1 


11 


Prostitutes 








9 


Females for immoral purpose 








1 

2 

1 




14 


Procurers 








12 


Receiving proceeds of prostitution 








3 


Employed by, in, or in connection with house 
of prostitution 








3 


Contagious diseases 








1 
2 




6 


Entry without inspection 


r 









6 


14 


Convicted under section 3 






2 


Under 10 years old 












1 


4 


Feeble-minded 












2 


Professional beggars 




I 








4 














Total 


17 


3 


3 


11 


4 


44 


190 


17 


289 







United States bom children accompanying parents, 10. 



276 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
Statement of action in Chinese cases. 



Cleve- 
land. 



Cincin- 
nati. 



Toledo. 



Total. 



Preinvestigatlon for visit to China: 

Laborers 

Native born 

Merchants 

Wives and minor children , merchants; arriving. 

Native born; investigation for readmission 

Miscellaneous investigations 

Son of native; arriving 

Student; arriving 

Miscellaneous Chinese matters 



Total. 



14 



79 



CHINESE ARREST CASES. 

Under immigration law : 

Pending at beginning of fiscal year 1 

Applications made for warrants 4 

Total 5 

Disposition. 



Class. 


De- 
ported. 


Forfeited 
bail. 


Pending. 


Total. 


Entrv without inspection 


1 


1 


1 

2 


3 


Violating Chinese-exclusion law 




2 










Total 


1 


1 


3 


5 







Under Chinese-exclusion law : 

Pending at beginning of fiscal year 5 

Complaints before United States commissioner 12 

Total 17 



Disiwsition. 

Deported 1 

Escaped . 3 

Pending in United States district court 6 

Pending in circuit court of appeals 3 

Pending before United States commissioner 2 

Discharged by United States commissioner 2 



Total. 



17 

In one of the cases of Chinese discharged by commissioner the proceedings 
were dismissed in order that the Chinese alien might be taken into custody un- 
der department warrant. 

The table for the entire district shows a substantial increase in the number of 
warrant cases handled as compared with the previous fiscal year. The figures 
for the five fiscal years showing number of warrants handled and number of 
deportations are as follows : 



Year. 


Warrants. 


Deporta- 
tions. 


1910 




95 
126 
190 
256 
289 


47 


1911 


72 


1912 


120 


1913 


156 


1914 . . 


190 







REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 277 

During the fiscal year investigations have been made by inspectors of the 
Cleveland office in 533 cases of aliens detained at ports of entry where relatives 
or friends have called voluntarily in behalf of said aliens, while 233 such in- 
vestigations have been made at the request of the bureau or other otfices, and 
investigations concerning 269 detained aliens have similarly been made at the 
request of the bureau or other offices in which the feature of alien contract 
labor was involved. At the Toledo substation there were 79 investigations 
made at the request of relatives or friends, 101 at the request of ports of entry 
or the bureau, and 19 additional cases involving contract labor. At the Cin- 
cinnati substation investigations were made in tlie cases of G3 aliens in which 
relatives or friends called voluntarily and 27 at the request of the bureau or 
ports of entry. At Cleveland there were 21 bonds prepared, at Cincinnati 3. 
and at Toledo 2. 

During the fiscal year primary inspection data was furnished the Canadian 
border offices in the cases of 7 aliens who had crossed the border without 
proper inspection. There were investigations made in the cases of 12 alleged 
Unitetl States citizens whom the Canadian authorities desired to deport to the 
United States. There were 48 examinations of aliens made preliminary to the 
issuance of so-called " certificates of arrival " to be used in connection with 
naturalization proceedings, these aliens not having complied with the re- 
quirements of law as to inspection at the time of their entry into the United 
States. There were no civil suits instituted by this office during the fiscal 
year. Four contract-labor cases were pending in the United States district 
court at the beginning of the year, which unfortunately remain in the same 
status. 

As regards writs of habeas corpus, I take some pleasure in reporting that 
only one writ was issued oiit of the total of 294 department warrant cases 
handled, including Chinese. The one writ relates to Woo Mon, alias Woo Jan, 
a Chinese person who departed from and secured readmission at San Francisco 
upon fraudulent evidence. A warrant of arrest was issued charging him with 
being unlawfully in the United States in violation of the Chinese exclusion laws, 
pursuant to section 20 of the act of February 20, 1907. Before the inspector 
could complete the hearing, however, attorneys for the Chinese alien sued out a 
writ of habeas corpus in the eastern district of Kentucky, and hearing thereon 
was pending at the close of the fiscal year. In another habeas corpus case, 
which was pending at the beginning of the year, the Supreme Court dismissed 
the writ and the Chinese alien was deported. This case did not involve any 
important features, the appeal to the Supreme Court having been taken for the 
sole purpose of retarding deportation two or three years. 

One prosecution was had under section 3 of the immigration act, and one 
person was apprehended and turned over to the proper authorities for prosecu- 
tion for violation of the white-slave traffic act. 

Miscellaneous unclassified investigations have been made in 12S cases. At 
the present time there are 3 aliens serving sentences in penitentiaries for whom 
this office holds warrants of deportation to be executed at the expiration of 
their sentences. 

The number of Chinese cases handled is relatively small compared to the 
general immigration work, and while there has been an increase in this work 
over last year, it has not been possible with the small foi'ce of inspectors to 
engage in extensive enforcement of the exclusion law. The investigations that 
have been made, however, serve to convince us that there are very many young 
Chinese within the borders of this district who, having been either admitted 
as members of the exempt classes or smuggled into the United States, are now 
engaged in laboring pursuits and consequently here in violation of law. The 
smuggled Chinese invariably set up the claim of birth in the United States 
and fortify same with concocted evidence of two or three Chinese who were 
familiar with the circumstances of their birth and early boyhood. The courts 
have been .slow to throw out this evidence and order deportations, but only 
in one case during the past fiscal year has a commissioner discharged a China- 
man as a native citizen of the United States. 

The alleged smuggling of Chinese has received considerable attention, but 
owing to the meager information it was possible for the border officers to 
furnish, efforts to apprehend such expeditions in transit through this district 
have proven futile. In one case a Chinese was arrested at Toledo, who claimed 
that he crossed the river from Windsor to Detroit and boarded a passenger 
train leaving the regular terminal in that city. On numerous occasions reports 



278 REPOET OF COMMISSIONEE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

have come to our Toledo office to the effect that parties of Chinese were about 
to euter that citj', and, with the aid of local officers, every avenue of ingress to 
the city was covered, yet no Chinese put in his appearance, and it can not be 
authoritatively said that any actually traversed the district as rumored. 

A careful comparison of the work accomplished in this district this year with 
that of the three officers in the State of Ohio five years ago shows an increase 
of approximately TOO per cent, yet (excepting the expense for alien contract 
labor) there has scarcely been a 10 per cent increase in the amount paid for 
salaries. The force in Ohio on July 1, 1909, consisted of 5 immigrant inspectors, 

1 Chinese inspector, and 1 Chinese interpreter. At present the force for the 
States of Ohio and Kentucky is as follows: Cleveland (district headquarters), 
inspector in charge, 2 immigrant inspectors, 1 immigrant inspector (sec. 24), 

2 clerk-stenographers, and 1 Chinese interpreter ; Toledo, 1 immigrant inspector ; 
Cincinnati, 1 immigrant inspector. The only increase in the force in 5 years 
has been for clerical help. The great increase in the amount of business handled 
has been due to the earnest efforts put forth by the members of the force, and 
by their singleness of purpose and devotion to duties. The bulk of the field 
work has been handled by officers detailed from Cleveland, and these officers 
report thorough cooperation on part of the officials of institutions and others in 
the work of our service. The cities of Columbus, Akron, Canton, Youngstown, 
and Steubenville have contributed considerably to the number of cases handled, 
and were any attemp,t made to scour the district for deportation cases, neither 
the force nor the funds would be one-half sufficient to handle the situation. Ohio 
alone is a vast melting jiot of foreign races, the percentage of foreign-born and 
children of aliens being exceedingly heavy — at Cleveland 76 per cent of the 
population is such. The great tendency here as elsewhere in the district is to 
colonization on part of immigrants. The industrial center, with its regular 
hours of employment, comparatively high wages, cheap though squalid lodgings, 
stews of native flavor, companionship of kin or old neighbor, all tend to bring 
together in particular sections of cities the incoming immigrants, as against 
the strange environments of the rural districts, together with the immigrant's 
inability from lack of language, training, and experience to adapt himself 
to our rural conditions. Those of the general classes now coming must of 
necessity, therefore, remain in a close colony, or at gang labor, for a sufficient 
length of time to adapt themselves somewhat at least to American standards, 
when they drift into less congested districts, either to take up rural residence 
or to acquire a home and establish themselves in business. Many thousands, 
however, have no intention of remaining and ai'e attracted here by our higher 
wages — men who earn from $1.75 to $2.50 per day, yet spend barely 50 cents 
per day, remitting the remainder to their foreign home, to which they later 
return and live in ease. 

Approximately one-thirteenth of the population of the United States reside 
within the States of Ohio and Kentucky, and when this fact is considered and 
the number of inspectors compared with those assigned to other sections the 
amount of work performed by our force does not appear to be any cause for 
apology. 

In addition to usual duties, inspectors at Cleveland have met a steamer from 
Canada at an early morning hour on alternate days. The record of these 
inspections, together with the consequent reports of boards of special inquiry 
incident thereto, have been omitted from this report, as the data has been 
furnished the commissioner of immigration at Montreal to be included in the 
business of the border district. 

J. A. Fluckey, Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 11, COMPRISING 
ILLINOIS, INDIANA, MICHIGAN, AND WISCONSIN, WITH HEAD- 
QUARTERS AT CHICAGO. 

I beg to submit herewith my report with reference to the Chicago district 
(No. 11) for the year ended June 30, 1914. The work in this district during 
the past year has reached proportions unequaled in any previous year, a total 
of 332 aliens having been removed from the district through the process of 
deportation, with 22 aliens under order of deportation awaiting either the con- 
clusion of habeas corpus proceedings or other detaining cause. A total of 774 
cases have been investigated with reference to possible deportation. At the 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 279 

request of tlie various ports of eutry, iuvestigations were made iu the cases of 
1,107 aliens seeiiing admission. The following tables give data in detail regard- 
ing work performed.: 

DEPORTATIONS. 

Criminals 11 

Dangerous contagious disease at time of eutry 1 

Entered in violation of section 36, act of Feb. 20, 1907 3 

Entered without inspection 18 

Persons bringing women for immoral purposes ^ 23 

Women who entered for immoral purposes 22 

Aliens found practicing prostitution 17 

Aliens found receiving, sharing in, or deriving benefit from a part or the 

whole of the earnings of prostitutes 9 

Aliens who have become public charges from causes existing prior to 
landing : 

Insane ^ 75 

Tuberculosis 20 

Leprosy 1 

Other causes_- 84 

■ 180 

Aliens belonging to class likely to become public charges at time of entry 

into United States 17 

Epileptics 2 

Feeble-minded 4 

Idiots 1 

Professional beggars 4 

Under 16 4 

Violation alien contract-labor law 8 

Escaped from other stations 1 

Rule 24 (public charges from physical disabilities arising subsequent to 

landing) 7 

Total 332 

ORDERED DEPORTED AND REMOVAL DEFERRED. 

Awaiting expiration prison sentence 5 

Habeas corpus proceedings pending 7 

Removal stayed by department order 6 

Held as witnesses by Department of Justice in connection with prosecutions- 3 

Removal deferred until released by State 1 

Total 22 

Trips made to United States and Canadian Atlantic seaports and Canadian 
interior ix»ints in effecting deiioi-tations 35 

The policy of effecting the conveyance of aliens ordered deported to the port 
of departure through combination parties, so far as the Chicago station has been 
involved, has proven eminently satisfactory and has no doubt contributed ma- 
terially to the economy so earnestly desired by the bureau. The practice serves 
to eliminate many trips from different stations, thereby leaving the service of 
inspectors available, and greatly lessens the number of attendants necessary. 

The Chicago office during the last year investigated 420 additional cases 
wherein we had been credibly informed, or had reason to believe, the aliens were 
in the United States in violation of law. The following table shows the statu- 
toi'y class to which these aliens belonged and reasons why they were not 
deported : 

NOT DEPORTED. 

statutory class. 

Likely to become public charges at time of landing (miscellaneous 

causes) 177 

Tuberculosis 39 

Insane 35 



280 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OE IMMIGRATION. 

Insane before coming to the United States 3 

Sypliilis 1 

Trachoma 2 

Feeble-minded 4 

Entei'ed without inspection 28 

Entered through false and misleading statements 10 

Prostitutes 11 

Alleged prostitutes 19 

Procurers 2 

Importers of women for Immoral purposes 14 

Entered for immoral purposes 33 

Living off proceeds of prostitution 3 

Criminals 21 

Guardian accompanying inadmissible aliens 1 

Under 16 unaccompanied by either parent or guardian 4 

Violation alien contract labor law 9 

Forfeited bond 1 

Public charges from physical disabilities arising subsequent to landing__ 3 

Total 420 

Reasons. 

Sufficient grounds not establishetl for issuance warrant of arrest 120 

Department canceled warrants of arrest 93 

Landing within three-year limit not verified 47 

Informant failed to supply information promised 33 

Not sufficient information to locate aliens 36 

Three-year limit expired 14 

Kept under surveillance for period and warrants canceled 8 

Left United States prior to termination warrant proceedings-- 18 

Left charitable institutions where confined prior to receipt of warrant of 

arrest 17 

Died before termination deportation proceedings 8 

Disappeared while under investigation 3 

Disappeared while I'eleased on own recognizance 4 

Disappeared while released under bond 4 

Escaped from institutions where confined 3 

Unable to travel without danger to life 2 

Permitted to remain under bond 1 

United States citizenship established 2 

Referred to other immigration offices for completion of proceedings 7 

Total 420 

OTHER WORK. 

Investigations made concerning arriving aliens at the request of the 

various ports of arrival 1,107 

Affidavits (Form 547) filed for admission of aliens by relatives and in- 
vestigations made thereon 814 

Investigations made regarding citizenship of persons Canada sought to 

return to the United States 20 

Persons inspected for naturalization purposes 236 

Bonds conditioned for admission of aliens 44 

ALIEN CONTRACT LABOR. 

During the year the activities of the alien contract-labor feature of the work 
have been mainly in the investigation of cases of aliens detained at the various 
ports who were suspected of migrating in violation of the law. These investi- 
gations resulted in unfavorable reports with reference to the cases of a large 
number of aliens. So much time was devoted to port inquiry cases that very 
little time was left for original investigation work. 

During the year fines amounting to about $7,800 have been collected through 
the Department of Justice on information furnished by this office concerning 

importers violating the alien contract-labor law and there are still suits pend- 
ing involving several thousand dollars additional. 



KEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 281 
CHINESE INVESTIGATIONS. 

Laborers, departing 59 

Natives, departing 44 

Appeals G 

Mercliants, departing 11 

Mercliant's wife, departing 1 

Students, departing 5 

Merchant and native status preinvestigated on account of application of 

wife or minor son for adioission 5 

Applications for duplicate certificates of residence 4 

Investigations at tlie request of other cities as well as miscellaneous in- 
vestigations 104 

Investigations as above pending July 1, 1914 2 

Total 235 

CHINESE ARRESTS. 

Cases pending July 1, 1913. 

Before United States commissioners 2 

Before United States district courts 7 

Before United States Circuit Court of Api>eals 6 

Before United States district court (habeas corpus) 1 

Before United States Circuit Court of Appeals (habeas corpus) 1 

Before United States Circuit Court of Appeals (on criminal charge) 1 

Before department (immigration warrants) 2 

Total 20 

Arrests during year. 

For being unlawfully in the United States 10 

Being unlawfully in the United States (immigration warrants) 23 

Brought befoi'e courts on habeas corpus 64 



Total 97 

Disposition of cases. 

Ordered deported by United States commissioner 8 

Discharged by United States commissioner (forfeited bond case dis- 
missed motion of Government, later apprehended at Pittsburgh on immi- 
gration warrant) ' 1 

Ordered deported by department 14 

Ordered deported by United States district court 1 

Ordered deported by circuit court of appeals 6 

Discharged by department 2 

Pending before department (immigration-warrant cases) account appear- 
ing as witnesses in smuggling cases 5 

Immigration warrant cases pending before hearing 4 

Appeal by Chinese to Supreme Court (appeal dismissed) 1 

Deported on department warrant 11 

Deported on court order of deportation 9 

Forfeited bond (after habeas corpus dismissed by .circuit court of ap- 
peals) 1 

Forfeited bond (after circuit court of appeals dismissed appeal from dis- 
trict court) 1 

Disposition of haieas corpus cases. 

Application dismissed by United States district court 5 

Appeal to circuit court of appeals by Chinese 4 

Appeals dismissed by circuit court of appeals 1 



282 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Cases pending June 30, JOl-'i. 

Before United States commissioners (unlawful residence) 3 

Before United States district court (unlawful residence) 10 

Before United States circuit court of appeals (unlawful residence, await- 
ing deportation) 1 

Before United States circuit court of appeals (habeas corpus) 4 

Befoi'e United States circuit court of appeals (criminal charge — deporta- 
tion of this Chinese on order of department stayed pending outcome 
of criminal charge) 1 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE CHINESE-EXCLUSION LAWS. 

The work under the exclusion law in this district presents practically the 
same features from year to year. Approximately the same number of appli- 
cations is filed by laborers, merchants, students, and alleged citizens of the 
United States for preinvestigation of their status as a preliminary to a visit 
abroad. We have found it necessary to report unfavorably on the applica- 
tions of over 30 per cent of the domiciled laborers seeking return certificates. 
Many of these unfavorable reports were caused by the failure of Chinese who 
are without certificates of residence to prove the legality of their residence 
in the United States by parole evidence. In quite a number of cases the 
property or debt qualification on investigation has been shown to be false. 
It is to be regretted that Chinese laborers who are duly registered should be 
required by the law to show the possession of the statutory amount of prop- 
erty. I believe it to be the concensus of opinion among officers of experience 
in the Chinese work that this provision of the statute serves no good purpose 
and merely places a premium upon perjury. 

In most instances where favorable reports have been rendered on the 
applications of departing natives the report has been based on a court or 
commissioner's adjudication of the applicant's status. In only one or two in- 
stances have applicants succeeded in securing return certificates on proof be- 
fore this office of their nativity. Since the change in the rule governing this 
class of applications and the requirement that the native status shall be con- 
sidered res adjudicata only on the production of a certified copy of the docket 
of the commissioner, showing that American nativity was the issue, applications 
of this character have been few in number. The Chinese have found it prac- 
tically impossible to secure native return papers on commissioners' discharges. 

The number of merchants applying for prtinvestigation continues to be so 
small as to be entirely out of proportion to the Chinese population of the dis- 
trict or the number of stores therein. It is believed that numerous laborers 
leave this district and secure merchant's return papers at the larger ports 
through fraudulent applications. 

In former years most of the Chinese arrested were taken under the exclusion 
act and brought before the courts for trial. This year's work shows a consider- 
able decrease in the number of arrests before the courts and an increase in the 
cases brought before the department upon immigration warrants. This feature 
of the work is capable of expansion to an indefinite limit. The Chinese popula- 
tion of Chicago is large, and there are numerous Chinese scattered throughout 
the district. If the force were available for this purpose an investigation of 
the Chinese resident in the district would undoubtedly show a large number 
subject to deportation. There is a pressing need for additional help in the work 
of breaking up smuggling from the borders. Large numbers of Chinese un- 
doubtedly secure illegal entry at Detroit and Buffalo, destined to Chicago, and 
to a lesser degi*ee at more distant points on the Canadian and Mexican fron- 
tiers. The large amount of office work devolving upon our small force assigned 
to Chinese work precluded our giving to the smuggling feature the attention 
that it deserves. As stated in my last annual report, I believe that an addi- 
tional number of inspectoi's should be detailed to this work both at this point 
and at Deti'oit. 

In the cases handled before the courts we have met with a pleasing measure 
of success. In a number of instances application has been made for writs of 
habeas corpus after Chinese have been ordered deported on immigration war<- 
rants, but all applications have been denied. No Chinese have been discharged 
by United States commissioners. Our only difficulty is in bringing to trial cases 
appealed to the United States district court. As pi'eviously reported, the court 
calendar is so congested that cases can not be brought promptly to trial. This 
condition, of course, is beyond our control. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 283 

A number of appeal cases have been decided by the circuit court of appeals 
during the past year, the decisions being unifoi'mly in favor of the Government. 
In most of these no written opinion was rendered. A very valuable decision 
was handed down in the case of Moy Guey Lum against the United States, in 
which the circuit court of appeals held, in construing the provision of the 
statute which provides that the arrested Chinese shall show to the satisfaction 
of the justice, judge, or commissioner his lawful right to be in the United 
States, that it is the duty of the defendant to show " beyond a reasonable 
doubt " the legality of his residence. The defendant in the Moy Guey Lum case 
appealed to the Supreme Court, but the application to said court for a writ of 
certiorari was denied. This decision is in line with, and even goes beyond, the 
considerable number of decisions handed down by our cirbuit court of appeals 
in favor of the Government in Chinese cases. 

The law has been enforced as vigorously and efficiently as the means at our 
command would permit. I believe, however, that there is a field in Chicago and 
vicinity for a much more comprehensive application of the deportation pro- 
visions of the statute than has been possible in the past. 

HABEAS CORPUS. 

The attorneys for arrested aliens in this district continue to attack, by habeas 
corpus proceedings, the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Labor and the finality 
of his decisions in ordering arrested aliens deported. Such proceedings have 
been instituted at Indianapolis. Springfield, Grand Rapids, Milwaukee, and 
Chicago during the past year. This attack has been made both in general immi- 
gration and Chinese cases. The applications for writs of habeas corpus in most 
instances have been denied, and the various district courts have held generally 
that the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Labor is exclusive and his decision 
final, except for a denial of a fair hearing. Our coui'ts have also held uni- 
formly that aliens falling within the provisions of section 3 of the act approved 
March 26, 1910, are subject to deportation without regard to the three-year 
limit. Although the District Court for the Northern District of Illinois in the 
Chomel and Brion cases had previously upheld this construction, which decision 
was affirmed by the circuit court of appeals, the authority of the Secretary of 
Labor to deport a prostitute beyond the three-year limit was again attacked on 
habeas corpus during the present fiscal year in the case of L^nited States ex rel 
Sail Zimmersi^itz v. Prentis. This case was decided in favor of the Gov- 
ernment by the district court, and a subsequent application on the part of the 
alien for a writ of certiorari was denied by the Supreme Court of the United 
States. 

Writs of habeas corpus have been granted by the District Court for the 
Northern District of Illinois in several instances. In one case it appeared that 
a departmental warrant was issued for an alien within the three-year limit. 
The alien, however, w\ns not apprehended until after the expiration of three 
years from the date of his entry. The court held that it was necessaiy that the 
warrant of arrest be executed within the three-year limitation, and accordingly 
he discharged the alien from custody. In another case a Chinese alien whose 
hearing was held in another district w^as surrendered by his bondsmen in Chi- 
cago. He was charged with being connected with the management of a place 
where prostitutes gather. On the hearing of the application for a writ of 
habeas corpus it appeared that no witnesses had been called to testify against 
the alien, but that the order of deiwrtation rested solely upon ex parte affi- 
davits and hearsay evidence. The court held that it was the duty of the ex- 
amining inspector to hear the testimony of witnesses when they were available, 
and that when an order of deportation was based solely upon hearsay and ex 
parte evidence the hearing would not be considered a fair one. Accordingly, a 
writ issued for the purpose of giving the alien the fair hearing w'hich he had 
been denied. The attorneys for the alien demanded the discharge of the alien, 
but this was refused by the court. 

In still another case an alien was discharged on a writ of habeas corpus 
because the record showed that she had entered into a marriage with an Amer- 
ican citizen. It was contended on behalf of the Government that the marriage 
was a pretended one contracted solely for the purpose of evading the operation 
of the immigration law, and that in any event the question of whether or not 
the alien was married to an American citizen was a question of fact for the deter- 
mination of the Secretary of Labor. Doubtless this case will be carried to the 
circuit court of appeals. 



284 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

The marriage of arrested prostitutes to American citizens is becoming a com- 
mon practice. It is apparent ttiat if tlie courts sustain the proposition that 
marriage under these circumstances to an American citizen confers citizenship 
upon the alien prostitute, the deix)rtation of alien prostitutes will be seriously 
interfered with, as it is no difficult task to secure a disreputable citizen who will 
marry a prostitute for a consideration. I believe that a test case involving this 
point should be carried to the higher courts in order that this question may be 
settled. 

PROSECUTIONS. 

Cases presenting evidence of criminal violations of the immigration laws, 
have been exceptionally rare, and in the limited number brought to the atten- 
tion of the appropriate United States attorney it has been the latter's opinion 
in a majority of the cases presented that the circumstances and available facts 
did not justify prosecution. In other cases grand juries did not find the evi- 
dence sufficient upon which to return an indictment. 

In the case of a young Polish girl, where confession revealed an appalling 
revelation of importation for immoral purposes, an indictment against the 
alleged seducer was dismissed for the reason that the girl herself, upon whose 
testimony the success of the prosecution was largely dependent, repudiated her 
confession before the date of trial. In other cases wherein there was not ob- 
tainable sufficient evidence upon which to secure a Federal indictment, convic- 
tions under State laws were obtained through cooperation with local authorities. 

IMMIGRATION STATION. 

In accordance with the bureau's instructions, under date of July 10, 1913, the 
writer, together with the Assistant Chief of the Division of Information, sub- 
mitted to the bureau possible sites for the establishment of the new immigrant 
station in the city of Chicago, as provided by the act of Congress approved 
February 25, 1913. The appropriation authorized by Congress for the new 
station was in the amount of $20,000. covering rent, including heat, furnishing, 
and equipment. On November 4, 1913, the Secretary of the Department, after 
careful inspection of the numerous available premises, selected the Newbury 
Building at 845 South Wabash Avenue as the most suitable location. Accept- 
ance of the owner's proposition for rental of the premises was authorized by 
the bureau under date of December 9, 1913. Extensive alterations and addi- 
tions to the premises were necessary. These were practically completed Jan- 
uary 15, 1914, and on January 28 the general offices at Chicago were transferred 
to the new station, awaiting the bureau's instructions for the opening of the 
station for the additional purposes contemplated by Congress, namely, " the 
protection of the United States and aliens migrating thereto from fraud and 
loss." 

The station comprises four floors and a basement of a substantial building 
about 50 by 90 feet in dimensions. The basement has been divided into apart- 
ments for male and female immigrants and is equipped with rest rooms, shower 
baths, toilet and laundry facilities. The first floor is planned as a receiving 
room for immigrants and their relatives and friends to whom, immigrants may 
be destined. In this room arriving immigrants may be registered and promptly 
discharged. The second floor presents a most practical arrangement for the 
accommodation of the general offices of the Immigration Service for the Chicago 
district. The offices consist of a large general office for the accommodation of 
the inspectors and appropriate executive office rooms, a well-lighted room for 
the clerical force, and two excellent rooms for use in conducting hearings in 
deportation cases and taking evidence and making investigations. The third 
and fourth floors are each fitted as dormitories for the accommodation of 
emergency cases and the detention of aliens under arrest, but against whom it 
is not desired to inflict the odium of confinement in jail. 

The new station is conveniently located to the various terminal railway sta- 
tions at which the larger number of immigrants arrive in Chicago, and is easily 
accessible for Chicago people who may have business at the station. 

As to the practicability of the new work sought to be accomplished by Con- 
gress in the establishment of this station, time and experience combined with 
proper effort on the part of those charged with the performance of the added 
service will determine. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 285 
COOPERATIVE AGENCIES. 

During the past year the Chicago office has profited through the hearty co- 
operation of various local agencies, including the Division of Investigation, 
Department of Justice, the Chicago police department (particularly the city 
inspectors of morals), the juvenile court officials, the Immigrants' Protective 
League, and the Catholic Women's League Protectoi-ate. 

It is noticeable that the public in general evinces an increasing knowledge 
and appreciation of the work of the Government in the administration of the 
immigration laws, and in notable instances in this district practical cooperative 
service has been rendered. 

PERSONNEL. 

The WfOrk of the Chicago district, including the administration of the Chinese- 
exclusion law and the alien contract-labor law, has been accomplished by eight 
inspectors, with the assistance of three stenographers and one interpreter, with 
the occasional employment of local interpreters for short service. The official 
force as a body has given the Government conscientious and intelligent service. 
The amount of work performed presents sufficient evidence of the industry of 
the officers. 

P. L. Prentis, * 
Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE. DISTRICT NO. 12, COMPRISING 
MINNESOTA AND NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA, WITH HEAD- 
QUARTERS AT MINNEAPOLIS. 

I beg to submit the following summarized report for fiscal year ended June 
30, 1914, covering immigration district No. 12, comprising the States of Minne- 
sota, North Dakota, and South Dakota. 

The two former States being on the Canadian border, examination of all 
aliens entering from the Dominion — at Duluth by boat or at the various land- 
border ports — is solely under the supervision of the United States commissioner 
of immigration at ^lontreal. The work of this immigration district, therefore, 
principally consists of (1) arrest of aliens (including Chinese) and expulsion 
from the country, and (2) investigations for the purpose of determining whether 
aliens (including Chinese) are admissible; whether Chinese are entitled to 
return certificates; and other similar investigations. 

DEPORTATION WORK OF DISTRICT. 

As the beneficial work of this service becomes better known throughout the 
district there is a substantial annual increase in the number of aliens reported 
for deportation. This is esi^ecially true of those aliens who have become public 
charges. Naturally a great many cases are investigated which never come to 
the attention of the bureau or department. These are dropped owing to in- 
ability to verify landing, expiration of time limit, insufficient evidence, mortal 
illness, deaths, removal, etc. While no direct result is secured through these 
investigations, they frequently awaken the interest and secure the later co- 
operation of State, county, and municipal officials. It is impossible to estimate 
the value of this educational work or to forecast the beneficial effects. 

During the past fiscal year 64 aliens (including 1 Chinese) wei'e deported by 
the Minneapolis office, grouped as follows: Minnesota, 50; North Dakota. 7; 
South Dakota, 6; Wisconsin (district No. 11), 1. At the close of the present 
fiscal year 15 other aliens wei*e under orders of deportation, awaiting release 
from various penitentiaries and reformatories. 

In addition to these G3 district deportations accomplished by the Minneapolis 
office, the Duluth office deported 30, the Winnipeg office 17, and the Portal 
(N. Dak.) office 1. making a grand total of 111 for the three States of this dis- 
trict. Total district deportations for three preceding years were : 1913. 51 
(Minneapolis 36) ; 1912, 94 (Minneapolis 57) ; 1911, 107 (Minneapolis 60). 

The following table shows in detail the deportation work of the Minneapolis 
office during the past year. The numbers refer to persons rather than warrants, 



286 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

as two or more persons are frequently included in one warrant. Wliile many 
warrants of arrest allege two or more violations, the principal or more serious 
one is selected in each case. 

Deportation cases referred to department and action thereon.^ 



Principal ground. 


Applied 
for. 


Issued. 


Served. 


Can- 
celed. 


Exe- 
cuted 
(de- 
ported). 


Likely to become a public charge at time of entry. . . 
Entered in violation of section 30, withoutinspection, 


34 

22 
29 

2 
3 

1 

3 
2 
1 

2 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 


29 

22 
29 

2 
3 


23 

13 
26 

2 
2 


22 


20 
3 


Public charge from prior causes 


2 


24 


Procured or attempted to bringlnto the United States 


3 


Entered for immoral purposes 




3 


Employed in house of prostitution 








Convicted of felony or crime or misdemeanor before 


3 
2 
1 

2 
1 
1 


3 




4 




2 




Insane within 5 years prior to entry 


1 

2 
1 

1 


1 


Entered in violation of section 18, without inspec- 




1 






1 






1 








Mentally deficient at time of entry. 


1 
1 

1 


1 
1 




2 


Under IG years of age at time of entry 


1 




Entered within 1 year after rejeciion as a contract 




Chinese deported imder exclusion laws 







1 














104 


98 


76 


27 


64 







1 A number of the deportations accomplished were ordered during preceding years. Referring to the 
apparently large number of warrants canceled, attention is called to fact that some of the aliens left the 
district or country before receipt of warrant, while others were discharged after warrant hearing. 

CENTRALIZATION OF DEPORTEES AT CHICAGO. 

Since November, 1913. in conformity with bureau instructions, all Atlantic 
deportees from this district have been turned over to other inspectors at Chi- 
cago for delivery to steamship or immigration authorities at respective ports. 
Even previously the Chicago and Minneapolis offices had worl^ed along the same 
line to a limited extent. To the same end, this office has recently received a 
number of deportees from the Winnipeg and Duluth offices for delivery at 
Chicago. 

IMMIGRATION AND CHINESE COURT CASES. 



During the past year habeas corpus proceedings were brought on behalf of 
two brothers ordered deported by the Secretary of Labor. Cases were decided 
in favor of the Government by the district court. A rehearing having been 
granted by the department in one case, deportation warrant was later canceled. 

At the instigation of the Winnipeg office Franli Nathan Stein was indicted 
by the Federal grand jury at Fargo, N. Dak., for violation of section 8 in secur- 
ing admission of his married sister through false and misleading testimony. 
He later entered a plea of guilty and was sentenced to three days' imprisonment 
and $10 fine. This case will doubtless be included in the Montreal report. 

Siu Tak Sam, Chinese, arrested by the Duluth office under department war- 
rant and ordered deported, recently sought and secured release under habeas 
corpus proceedings before the district court. Surreptitious entry was not in- 
volved in this case. It is believed the Montreal office will carry the case to the 
circuit court of appeals. 

Horn Wah Bing, Chinese, arrested under the Chinese-exclusion laws, was 
ordered deported by a United States Commissioner; appealed to the district 
court, which affirmed the decision ; then apiiealed to circuit court of appeals, 
but did not perfect the appeal and was deported. 

A number of other court cases are now pending in this district, awaiting pre- 
sentation to grand juries, location of witnesses, additional evidence, etc. 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 287 
INVESTIGATIONS PRIOR TO ADMISSION OF ALIENS. 

During the year just closed 101 investigations on behalf of incoming aliens 
were made by this office at the request of the various port authorities — an in- 
crease of 45 investigations over the preceding fiscal year. Each such investiga- 
tion covered one to eight persons. In addition to these requested investigations, 
a very large number of affidavits (bureau form 547) were executed and filed by 
domiciled relatives prior to arrival of aliens. The majority of these were 
investigated and indorsed by this office. 

MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATIONS. 

Claims of 15 alleged American citizens whose deportation was sought by the 
Canadian authorities were reported to this office for investigation, a deci*ease of 
8 by comparison with the preceding year. 

Thirty-six miscellaneous investigations were made during the year in addi- 
tion to several contract-labor cases. 

Seventy aliens who had petitioned for citizenship, but whose entry could not 
be verified, were examined by Minneapolis inspectors. This work, which never 
comes directly to the attention of the bureau, involves considerable time and 
correspondence, and the results are far from satisfactory. Testimony as to 
time and place where aliens entered the United States by land without inspec- 
tion is rarely corroborated. Work of this character has more than doubled 
during the year, 31 examinations showing on last annual report. At least 35 
other petitioners were directed to communicate with this office regarding ne- 
cessity for immigration examination. These cases are still pending. Some of 
these parties have been notified two or more times of opportunity to be exam- 
ined at or near their homes. Others have moved without leaving a forwarding 
address. 

RESULTS OF CHINESE INVESTIGATIONS BY MINNEAPOLIS AND DULUTH OFFICES. 

Laborers. — Eleven applications for return certificates; 10 granted, 1 denied. 
(Includes one investigation account of Chicago.) 

Merchauts. — Seven applications for return certificates; all granted. 

Sons of natives. — Seven seeking admission; 4 admitted; 2 denied; action 
unknown, 1. (Including 2 investigations for Chicago office.) 

Natives. — One claimant denied admission; 5 others requested preinvestigation 
of status ; 4 granted ; 1 denied. 

Domiciled student. — One application for I'eturn certificate denied. 

Two applications were filed for duplicate registration certificate; 1 denied; 
1 pending. 

Two investigations were made at request of American consuls in China. 
These were on behalf of applicants for section 6 certificates as students. 

Gong Don Jung, arrested under Chinese-exclusion law, was discharged by 
United States Commissioner. Wing Lee, whose case was pending before district 
court on appeal at close of last fiscal year, was discharged. Horn Wah Bing, 
who was deported, is referred to above in " Immigration and Chinese court 
cases." 

EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS AFTER ARRIVAL. 

I recently had a long interview on this subject with tlie superintendent of the 
Minnesota State Free Employment Bureau, which maintains offices in Minne- 
apolis, St. Paul, and Duluth. According to last biennial report these three 
offices filled an average of 7.7(X) positions monthly. As pointed out by the 
superintendent, almost all applicants for work are either citizens or residents, 
very few of the recently admitted aliens seeking positions. It is the local 
observation, however, that aliens generally go to work almost immediately 
after arrival, employment being secured through or with others of their race. 
While hundreds of men may be idle here at one time, the newcomer usually 
seeks and finds work of some kind. There is a continuous demand for domestics 
throughout this district. Likewise there is a good demand for farmers and 
agricultural laborers. One difficulty, as explained by the superintendent, is 
that such of his applicants as are willing or J^ble to do farm work seldom have 
sufficient means to reach the prosi>ective employment. On the other hand, 
employers are unwilling to advance transportation, as men using same fre- 
quently leave the train short of destination and procure other work. The 



288 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OE IMMIGRATION. 

men thereby avoid working out tlie price of the ticljet, and the farmer has lost 
his investment. At the time of interview the superintendent was unable to 
advance any suggestions as to cooperation of his bureau with the Division of 
Information. 

The local Jewish societies have rendered exceptionally good service in placing 
and looking after their coreligionists who have come to them through their 
Galveston agency. However, I understand this work will be discontinued in 
the fall. I am of opinion that the present practice of displaying labor bulletins 
in post offices might be extended to advantage, supplemented by daily or weekly 
post cards to such State labor bureaus or employers of labor as might file same. 

Several prosperous agricultural settlements have already been established 
by a number of the races in Minnesota and the Dakotas. These settlements 
in turn attract others of the same race, either from the cities or the old country. 
As one instance only, within the last few years a prosperous Polish settlement 
of 65 families has been established in Mille Lacs County, this State. I am 
reliably informed that almost all of these people went to the farm after work- 
ing and saving in the city. 

MISCELLANKOUS. 

The sum of $2,100 was allotted to this district for the fiscal year 1914. At 
close of June, with a number of small accounts unpaid, the balance was $73.68. 
Under normal conditions the allotment would have been insufficient. 

Local work has been seriously handicapped during the past six months owing 
to the illness of one of the inspectors from January 10 to March 21, followed by 
his indefinite assignment by the bureau to special duty, on which he is still 
engaged. Additional work occasioned by his absence has been willingly per- 
formed by the remaining employees, but it has been impossible to handle some 
important business requiring considerable time and travel. 

I desire to acknowledge the faithful and efficient support given by my asso- 
ciates. Personnel at this station is the same as at time of last annual report. 

During the past year I have received the hearty cooperation of other immi- 
gration officials, especially the inspectors in charge at St. Louis, Chicago, 
Winnipeg, and Duluth, with whom tlais office comes into frequent contact. 

CiiAS. W. Seaman, Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE. DISTRICT NO. 13. COMPRISING 
MISSOURI, IOWA, KANSAS. AND OKLAHOMA, WITH HEADQUARTERS 
AT ST. LOUIS. 

I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the transactions of this 
office, together with general comments on the work of the Immigration Service 
in the thirteenth district for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914. 

The increase in the volume of business handled by the St. Louis office and its 
branches at Kansas City, Mo., and Des Moines, Iowa, is somewhat greater than 
the ratio observed in the several preceding years, and it is apparent that the 
broader publicity given to the work of the Department of Labor and Bureau of 
Immigration has aroused the personal interest of citizens generally as well as 
that of local officials throughout the States, with the result that reports are 
received from far more numerous sources than ever before calling attention to 
alleged violations of the immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws. The amount 
of travel involved on the part of inspectors detailed to pursue investigations at 
such increasingly numerous points necessitates a considerable addition to the 
expenses of administration and accentuates my repeated requests for an increase 
of our working force, both of inspectors and clerks. 

The operations of this ofiice in both immigration and Chinese cases for the past 
fiscal year are briefly stated in the following statistical resume : 

STATISTICAL STATEMENT. 

Warrant proceedings for fiscal year ended June 30, IDU/ (other than Chinese). 

Number of aliens for whom warrants of arrest requested 350 

Number of aliens for whom warrants of arrest i.ssued 345 

Number of aliens for whom warrants of arrest refused by department 5 

Number of aliens on whom warrants of arrest served 320 

Number of aliens for whom warrants of arrest were canceled 31 

Number of warrant cases pending at close of fiscal year 28 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 289 
Deportation proceedings for fiscal year ended June 30,1914 (other than Chinese). 

Number of aliens under deportation orders not removed before close of pre- 
vious fiscal year 25 

Number of aliens ordered deported during fiscal year 284 

Total - 309 

Number of aliens deported during this fiscal year 288 

Number of aliens ordered deported, awaiting removal 21 

Total 309 

Classification and grounds of arrest. 



Waxrant cases. 


1 


1 . 


III 


■3 


03 




is 

i 




H 






■3 


1^ 


■§•05 


•H 




2 





3 
Pi 




3 





1— 1 


^ 


H 





(^ 





w 




a< 


H 




18 


136 


17 


24 


7 


34 


7 


34 


73 


350 


Warrants issued 


18 

18 

4 


132 

127 

11 

5 

114 


17 
17 

"17" 


23 

21 

2 

2 

19 


7 

7 

....„ 


34 
21 
3 
13 

18 


7 
7 
1 
2 
4 


34 

31 

1 

3 

30 


73 
71 
9 
3 
61 


345 


Warrants served 


320 


Warrants canceled 


31 


Warrant cases pending 


28 


Aliens ordered deported 


14 


284 


Aliens ordered deported previous fiscal 






















vear, but unexecuted 


1 
14 


3 
113 


1 
17 










2 
32 


18 
66 


26 


Aliens deported 


18 


7 


17 


4 


288 


Aliens ordered deported awaiting re- 
























1 


4 


1 


1 





1 






13 


21 











General and special investigations. 

Number of aliens on behalf of whom investigations were made concerning 

their applications for admission to the United States 419 

Number of miscellaneous cases investigated in addition to foregoing 414 

In addition to the cases formally recorded there were approximately 3.000 
minor inquiries and investigations handled by the main office and branch offices. 

Court proceedings. 

Number and character of civil suits instituted and results 2 

Ignited States r. John Blair, northern district of Iowa, suit for importation of 
alien contract laborer. Case pending in district court. Fort Dodge. Iowa. 

United States r. John Leisy. eastern district of Nebraska, suit for importation 
of alien contract laborer. Case tried and jury disagreed ; second trial i^end- 
ing in district court, Omaha, Nebr. 

Number and character of criminal prosecutions instituted and 
results 4 

United States r. Bettinger, northern district of Iowa, prosecution for importing 
woman for immoral purpose. Tried in district court at Fort Dodge, Iowa, 
and court directed verdict for defendant. 

Ignited States v. G. Pontos, district of Kansas, prosecution for perjury before 
immigrant inspector in warrant hearing. Grand jury at Leavenworth found 
" not a true bill." 

United States v. J. Heim, eastern district of Missouri, prosecution for perjury 
before inspectors to secure admission of detained alien. Preliminary hearing 
waived and case pending before grand jury at St. Louis, Mo. 

69629*— 15 19 



290 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

United States v. T. Malia, southern district of Illinois, prosecution for import- 
ing woman for immoral purpose, pending before United States commissioner 
at Springfield, 111. Alien not apprehended. 

United States v. E. de Corompa. southern district of Iowa, prosecution for 
violation of the interstate white-slave act. Tried in the district court at Dav- 
enport, Iowa. Alien convicted and sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment 
where he is now resting under an order of deportation. 

Number of cases in which writs of habeas corpus were applied 
for and granted 11 

Gust Jouras, white slaver; writ of habeas corpus sued out in western district 
of Missouri. Writ dismissed in district court ; defendant appealed to Circuit 
Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, where case is now pending. 

Darwish Ramadan and Sam Hassan, white slavers; writ of habeas corpus sued 
out in northern district of Iowa. Now pending in district court at Sioux 
City, Iowa. 

George Hanges, Jim Lamper, Steve Pantza, and Peter Francas, white slavers; 
writ of habeas corpus sued out in northern district of Iowa. Writ sustained 
by district court at Fort Dodge, Iowa, and petitioners discharged. Cases ap- 
pealed by Government to the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, 
where now pending. 

B. Krawza, prostitute; writ of habeas corpus sued out in southern district of 
Iowa and writ sustained by district court at Des Moines, Iowa, and peti- 
tioner discharged. Case appealed by Government to the Circuit Court of 
Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, which court dismissed the appeal because of 
failure of the Government to comply with the court rules. 

Joe Schmoan and Barbara Schmoan, latter imported by the former for immoral 
purpose; writs of habeas corpus sued out in southern district of Iowa and 
writs sustained by district court at Des Moines, Iowa, and petitioners dis- 
charged. Appeal to circuit court of appeals now pending. 

Gee Fount, white slaver ; writ of habeas corpus sued out in northern district 
of Illinois, and case now pending in district court at Chicago. This alien 
was arrested in Des Moines, Iowa, granted hearing there, and released under 
bond. He then removed to Chicago, and when the bonding company was 
called upon to produce him for deportation writ of habeas corpus was served 
on the Chicago office and the case accordingly handled by the Chicago district 
court. 

Chinese court cases. 

Cases pending July 1, 1913, before United States courts 1 

Arrests during current year 3 

Disposition of cases: 

Ordered deported by the United States commissioner 1 

Ordered discharged by United States commissioner 1 

Pending before United States commissioner 1 

Pending before United States district court on appeal 1 

Total 4 

Chinese cases handled under departmental warrants. 

Chinese for whom warrants of arrest requested ^__ 5 

Chinese for whom warrants of arrest issued 5 

Chinese upon whom warrants of arrest served 5 

Chinese for whom warrants of arrest canceled 3 

Chinese ordered deported during fiscal year 2 

Chinese under orders of deportation, not executed before close of previous 

fiscal year 1 

Chinese deported during this fiscal year 2 

Chinese ordered deported, awaiting removal 1 



BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 291 

Chinese investigations. 

Departing Chinese: 

Return certificates, laborers 7 

Preinvestigations — 

Mercliants 11 

Student 1 

Natives 4 

Merchant's son 1 

Total 24 

Arriving Chinese: 

Investigations of — 

Merchant ___. 1 

Merchants' sons 4 

Student 1 

Arriving or returning natives' sons 2 

Total 8 

General investigations : 

Conducted for other offices 7 

Conducted in re application for duplicate certificate of residence 1 

Miscellaneous Chinese 29 

Total 37 

The approximate estimate of 3,000 minor inquiries and investigations, in 
addition to the recorded cases of recognized importance shown in the foregoing 
statements, is by no means overdrawn, and it is only proper to say that the 
number of recorded investigations, as well as the number of arrests and 
deportations, would have been considerably larger but for the unfortunate fact 
that the time of one or more of our inspectors has been lost to such work by 
the necessity for their appearance in the United States courts at various 
points in the district for considerable periods of time, this greatly interfering 
with their regular work. The total of 290 actual deportations (including 2 
Chinese aliens) as against our largest previous record of 206 for the preceding 
fiscal year, is a fair indication of the development and effectiveness of the 
work of our officers and employees, whose faithful devotion to duty I can not 
too highly commend. 

CONTRACT LABORERS. 

As to contract laborers the usual difficulties have been encountered, and, 
although we have warrants for a considerable number and have reason to 
believe that there is gross violation of law by the importation of alien labor 
to this district, I regret that, through the cleverness of the importers and the 
fact that the contract laborers usually are manifested under assumed names 
or adopt aliases after landing, our efforts in dealing with this class of aliens 
have been very' disappointing and measurably unproductive. Only 17 contract 
laborers were actually deported during the year, but it is hoped that better 
results will be obtained hereafter through measures now being undertaken. 

ORIENTAL SOLICITORS. 

An interesting phase of our work has been the apprehension and deportation 
of 7 aliens arrested at various points in the district and technically charged as 
" professional beggars." these being generall.v known as " oriental solicitors." 
As a rule these aliens are Persians, Syrians. Turks, and Chaldeans, and they 
invariably are armed with credentials from alleged bishops and other supposed 
ecclesiastical dignitaries purporting to authorize them to collect moneys 
throughout the world and especially the United States for the erection and 
maintenance of hospitals, schools, orphanages, etc.. in the countries whence 
they come. On the strength of such credentials, and perhaps also their own 
ecclesiastical garb and demeanor, these fraudulent solicitors appear to have 
no difficulty in obtaining letters of introduction and recommendation from 
national, State, and local officials, some of the accumulations which we have 



292 REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

seen comprising very valuable autograph collections. Naturally the display 
of such credentials and autograph letters arouses the interest of the average 
citizen. By such means and by addresses given from various pulpits these 
imposters succeed in collecting enormous amounts of money — vphich in almost 
every instance within my knowledge they have confessed, under oath, have been 
obtained by fraud — for their own personal support and that of their con- 
federates. With few exceptions the indorsements and letters from American 
citizens and officials appear to be thoroughly genuine, but investigation proves 
that the ecclesiastical credentials are absolutely fraudulent, mostly manufactured 
in America and sold or disposed of, for a sharing interest, to the itinerant 
solicitors. 

The wickedness of this fraud appears more flagrant because its victims are 
generally our best citizens and mostly of the religious classes, who assume that 
by their contributions they are aiding in establishing the Christian religion and 
in protecting and educating unfortunate children in benighted lands. I have 
yet to learn of a single one of the indorsers of these oriental solicitors or their 
victimized contributors who has ever discovered the very obvious inconsistency 
in the documents with which they are supplied. In every case the solicitor is 
armed with credentials from an alleged " bishop " or " patriarch " authorizing 
the bearer to collect funds for the saving of the unfortunate victims of " Turkish 
despotism," and also with credentials from the representatives of the state de- 
partment of the Turkish Government or the diplomatic representatives of 
Turkey. 

CRIMINAL ALIENS. 

Among our deportations were included 18 aliens of the criminal class. It 
should be the hope of all interested in the purification of our citizenship to 
prevent the immigration of criminals, whether convicts or fugitives from justice, 
and I believe that especial consideration should be given to this subject. I 
had great hopes that if a new immigration law were finally enacted its provi- 
sions would be such as to render our protection from this class of undesirable 
citizens less difficult. By all means the law should forbid the admission and 
also provide for the deportation of all criminals except those charged with 
purely political offenses, whether they be ex-convicts or persons who have escaped 
trial and punishment for their offenses. The present law debars ex-convicts 
and those who admit the commission of offenses involving moral turpitude. 
The proper phrasing of the law would exclude all who have committed such 
offenses, whether or not confession is made. I note with regret that an 
effort is being made to amend the pending bill in such manner as will greatly 
weaken the measure — that is, in the provision for the exclusion and deporta- 
tion only of those unconvicted criminals who are " justly charged with crime." 
Undoubtedly every experienced officer in our service would testify that under 
the present law his best success in dealing with criminals comes through 
securing confessions of guilt, and heretofore these have been deemed sufficient 
evidence to satisfy the department : but the proposed enactment would tie our 
hands deplorably. Besides the objection of the long delay involved in the in- 
A'estigation in foreign countries of the criminal records of aliens apprehended 
here and the resultant propability of escape before proceedings could be ad- 
vanced sufficiently to hold the culprits, I can imagine no good reason why 
the confession of a criminal should not be considered ample proof of his status, 
or even the testimony of a sufficient number of credible witnesses now resident 
in America who are cognizant of the crime committed prior to the immigra- 
tion of the accused. 

WHITE-SLAVE CASES. 

I wish especially to mention the splendid work of my assistant inspectors in the 
handling of the so-called " white-slave " class of aliens. Of these — prostitutes 
and procurers — we deported 6G and there are several important cases pending. 
The present law applicable to prostitutes and persons found receiving, sharing 
in, or deriving benefit from the earnings of prostitutes, or who frequent or are 
connected with the management of places or resorts habitually frequented by 
prostitutes, etc., has been found by test to be very strong, and the operations of 
your officers in striking at this vicious class of aliens have been wonderfully 
assisted by the present statute. We have experienced but little difficulty in 
pursuing to deportation the cases of numerous aliens involved in the white- 
slave traffic, and the country has indeed been greatly purified by the energetic 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 293 

enforcement of the present law pertaining to tliis class of immigrants. The 
statute is clear and concise and has stood the tests of habeas corpus proceedings. 
In connection with our investigations of white-slave cases there have been 
frequent occasions of violation of the interstate (Mann) act, and in every such 
instance this service has cooperated with the Department of Justice and we 
have worked hand in hand very often. In not a few cases convictions have been 
obtained as the result of evidence adduced by this service and furnished to 
the Department of Justice. A great amount of the time of our inspectors has 
been consumed in attending the United States courts in connection with criminal 
prosecutions arising out of investigations of immigration cases. I am gratified 
at the result of our efforts in the handling of white-sUive cases. 



The Chinese branch of our work in this district as in all others involves 
difficulties which at times appear insurmountable. The rules and regulations 
promulgated by the department for the enforcement of the Chinese-exclusion 
law are as effective, in the main, as can be hoped for in view of existing judicial 
decisions, but tliere is no question as to the farcical character of much of the 
work performed under such rules in dealing with the claims of domiciled 
Chinese, both laborers and the exempt classes. Had the registration of Chinese 
under the acts of 1892 and 1893 been performed with an intelligent understand- 
ing and competent oversight there would have been little difficulty in securing 
the honest enforcement of the law forbidding the influx of Chinese laborers 
since the last year of registration, 1894 ; but it is generally known and admitted 
that certificates of residence were issued in various portions of the United 
States upon totally inadequate proof as to the status of the applicants, and in 
thousands of instances such certificates were obtained, and have been used, 
fraudulently. In almost all sections of the country Chinese laborers appear to 
have found little difficulty in obtaining certificates as merchants, while the 
genuine " merchant " class, under most unwise advice, declined to be registered. 
The very fact that large numbers of Chinese who were domiciled laborers in 
the United States failed or refused to register and subsequently never were 
molested by the Government had a tendency to bring the law into disrepute and 
contempt. Speaking from a very wide experience in dealing with Chinese mat- 
ters, I have no hesitancy in saying that at no time during the past 20 years 
has the Government received the benefit and protection from the registration 
laws to which it was entitled. During this period manifold evils of fraudulent 
importation of Chinese as alleged natives and minor sons of the exempt classes 
have added greatly to the difficulties encountered by immigration officers, and 
I believe that certain measures should be undertaken which would not only 
preserve the integrity of the service but protect lawful Chinese residents in all 
their rights. 

In my opinion there should be a reregistration of all Chinese residents of 
whatsoever class. This work should be done by the Immigration Service under 
instructions far more explicit and capable of enforcement than in the previous 
registration. The number of Chinese residents of the United States at the 
present time would not appear to be a menace to the welfare of the country in 
the view of the most prejudiced opponent of Chinese immigration ; hence I 
would recommend that such registration should include all Chinese now domi- 
ciled in the United States, without regard to the legality of their entry, except 
as to those who are amenable to the immigration law. After such reregistration 
the departure from and return to the United States of any Chinese person hold- 
ing a new and valid certificate of residence should be permitted without regard 
to property rights or claims as at present required. In a few instances Chinese 
laborers seeking return certificates under rhe present law and regulations are 
the actual and bona fide owners of claims or money amounting to more than 
a thousand dollars. It is safe to say that in every such case where the applicant 
honestly intends to leave his money in America to return to, he will have no 
objection to placing the fund in the form of a certificate of deposit not negoti- 
able until his actual return, as sometimes is done, but in the vast majority of 
cases, even although the Chinese laborer may possess money or claims to the 
statutory limit and may declare that no change will occur in the status thereof 
until his return, he actually carries with him to China and there invests or 
lea^■es the funds upon which he has based his claim of a right to return. This 
applies to laborers whose applications have such sufficient basis in fact, but, as 
all of your officers are aware, in 9 cases out of 10 there is no good reason to 



294 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

believe that the testimony of an applicant and alleged debtors as to the existence 
of claims amounting to $1,000 is worthy of credence or would be accepted in 
any other proceedings, and yet the immigration inspectors must spend many 
hours in taking testimony and compiling voluminous records in this class of 
cases wherein there is no possible means of contesting or disproving the palpa- 
bly fraudulent claims. The fraudulent character of the claims set up by appli- 
cants for preinvestigation as merchants seeking to visit China and return 
do not call for further (-omment, but it is my firm belief that in the process 
of a new registration of all Chinese residents the investigations necessarily 
made by the registering officers would establish a permanent i-ecord of the 
present status and occupation of e\ery Chinaman, and thereafter the matter 
of dealing with unregistered Chinese or members of the exempt classes who 
lose such status and become laborers would be comparatively easy, and immeas- 
urable fraud and trickery would be eliminated. 

DEPORTATIONS. 

I take the liberty of expressing my belief in the wisdom of the recent action 
of the bureau in providing for a more economical and common-sense method 
of handling aliens in transit to seaports for deportation. There can be no 
question as to the ultimate economy which this practice will accomplish, and 
I believe that when the system is thoroughly developed it will prove entirely 
satisfactory to the department and greatly promote the efficient treatment of 
a very bothersome phase of our work, and this without injury to our unfortu- 
nate wards, who, with very rare exceptions, may be cared for quite as well 
while en route as under former methods. 

LABOR BUREAUS AND AGENCIES. 

I am strongly in favor of the most general cooperation between the Immigra- 
tion Service and the State, county, and local officials in dealing with all mat- 
ters of mutual interest, and I can see no reason to doubt the feasibility of 
active cooperation with labor bureaus in this section of the country in the 
work of the disti'ibution of admitted aliens. As a rule the trouble is that 
the arriving aliens do not wish to be distributed. They are either destined to 
promised employment or to their personal friends and relatives, and there are 
comparatively few who reach any western city, such as Chicago, St. Louis, 
or Kansas City, which oftentimes are spoken of as distributing points for 
labor, without definite knowledge of their own destinations or the promise 
that they will be met by friends or future employers and taken in charge at 
the railway trains. There are, however, exceptions to this rule, and there are 
many reasons why the Immigration Service should be in close touch with both 
the labor bureaus and those charitable and eleemosynary organizations which 
interest themselves in newly arrived immigrants. 

In my estimation there are somewhat similar and even stronger reasons for 
cooperation with and general oversight of all labor agencies engaged in inter- 
state traffic or dealing with newly arrived immigrants. 

James R. Dunn, 

Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 14, COMPRISING 
COLORADO, WYOMING, NEBRASKA. AND UTAH, WITH HEADQUAR- 
TERS AT DENVER. 

Following is the annual report of immigration and Chinese transactions in 
this (fourteenth) district for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914: 

IMMIGRATION TRANSACTIONS IN THE FOURTEENTH (DENVER) DISTRICT. 

Alien prostitutes. 

Pending June 30, 1913 3 

Arrested 10 

Deported ti 

Discharged 2 

Escaped 1 

Pending June 30, 1914 4 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 295 

Supported hy proceeds of prostitution. 

Pending June 30, 1913 10 

Arrested 33 

Discharged 20 

Deported 20 

Pending June 30, 1914 3 

White-slave traffic act. 

Pending June 30. 1913 8 

Arrested 5 

Convicted 3 

Discliarged 3 

Deported 6 

Pending June 30, 1914 3 

Insane aliens. 

Arrested 4 

Discliarged 1 

Deported 3 

Alien public charges. 

Arrested 5 

Deported 4 

Pending June 30, 1914 1 

Criminal record prior to entry. 

Pending June 30, 1913 2 

AiTested 1 

Deported 2 

Pending June 30, 1914 1 

Contract-labor cases. 

Investigated (no action) 2 

Surreptitious entry. 

Arrested 6 

Discliarged 4 

Deported , 2 

Aliens held at ports of entry. 

Investigated 27 

Other districts. 

Investigated 21 

For Naturalization Bureau. 

Investigated for purpose of naturalization 24 

American citizens in Canadian prisons for Canadian authorities. 

Investigated 7 

Miscellaneous. 

Investigated 96 

Impersonating United States immigration officer. 

Arrested 1 

Indicted (not apprehended) 2 

(One turned over to county authorities, and pleaded guilty to charge 

of receiving money under false pretenses. Sentenced to 30 days in 

county jail.) 



296 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

CHINESE TRANSACTIONS. 

Arrested 6 

Deported 1 

Discharged 5 

Application for laborer's return certiflcate 19 

Application for merchant's return certificate 5 

Investigations for admission of alleged sons of domiciled merchants 1 

Investigations for admission of domiciled merchants 2 

Investigations for admission of alleged natives or children of alleged 

native born 5 

Certificates forwarded to the bureau for cancellation 2 

Applications for duplicate certificates 2 

Preinvestigations of native born 1_ 1 

Investigations for admission of students 4 

Investigations for other offices 5 

Miscellaneous investigations 20 

We have had numerous miscellaneous Chinese Investigations concerning which 
we did not deem the keeping of a record necessary. 

Henry H. Moler, 

Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 15, COMPRISING 
MONTANA AND IDAHO, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT HELENA. 

I hand you herewith the report of work done by this district for the year 
ended June 30, 1914. 

The two criminal proceedings instituted against procurers in which the grand 
jury failed to indict were cases of men bringing women into the United States 
from Canada for immoral purposes in which there were no aggravating cir- 
cumstances. In the one ca^se pending alien is serving a five-year sentence 
in the Montana State penitentiary for assault with intent to kill, committed 
upon the woman whom he brought into this country. 

It will be noted that two warrant cases were instituted against Chinese pros- 
titutes during the past year. In the case pending the woman has been delivered 
to Seattle for deportation and is being held awaiting the department's decision 
on a petition to reopen the case. A petition for writ of habeas corpus in this 
case was denied by the United States district judge at Boise, Idaho. 

It will be noted that while the number is not very large, there has been quite 
an increase in public-charge cases investigated. Whether this increase will 
continue or is only temporary is difficult to say at this time. 

Quite a large proportion of the cases handled, it will be seen from the report, 
have been those of aliens entering without inspection. This is due in a large 
measure to the immense distances between immigration stations along the 
Canadian border in northern Montana. As I stated in my last annual report, 
the unoccupied Government land in the northern section of this State is rapidly 
filling up, and a considerable percentage of the new settlers are families who 
have driven across the line from Canada after proving up on and selling their 
homesteads there. 

It would be such a hardship and inconvenience for them to enter by rail 
through one of our established ports of entry that they can hardly be blamed 
for entering as they do, by driving across the boundary with all their equip- 
ment and effects along the overland trails. During the past year three visits 
have been made to the different county seats in that section of the State, and 
advance notice of these visits have been published in the local papers. This 
has given an opportunity for those who w^ish to do so to present themselves and 
their families for examination under warrant proceedings, and, as the report 
shows, a great many have availed themselves of the opportunity. These aliens 
must become citizens before they can obtain patent to their land, and so it is 
for their interest to have the legality of their residence in the United States 
established as soon as possible. 

In view of the enormous area of this district, it being as large as all of the 
States east of Chicago and north of the Ohio River, and the limited transpor- 
tation facilities, I have arranged with the Commissioner of Naturalization 
that he forward me copies of all letters written by him to aliens in this district 
who apply for certificates of arrival (Form 526a). 



REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 297 

By this arrangemeut we save the aliens a great deal of expense and incon- 
venience without any expense to the Government, as they can be examined by 
one of our ofhcers while he is in their vicinity on regular immigration work. 

I have not given any account of cases under the Mann Act this year. These 
cases ai-e now handled by the special agents of the Department of Justice in 
this district, although this office has made several investigations and done con- 
siderable of this work. The average police officer or county officer does not 
discriminate between these cases and those of aliens, and when a case is i"e- 
ported by one of these officers to us it is necessary that we take some 
action. Otherwise they would lose interest in assisting us in any work. Fre- 
quently these cases develop a violation of the immigration law, but when they 
do not, and can not be handled in connection with some other work so as to 
avoid expense on our part, I see to it that they are properly reported to the 
Department of Justice. 

Chinese work has been about the same as the year preceding. Without doubt 
there are some section 6 students and merchants employed in this district as 
laborers, the same as in other districts, but unless these cases can be handled 
by departmental warrant I believe that it would be practically useless to make 
the arrests. When the average Chinese student, well dressed in citizen's clothes, 
appears before a United States commissioner and tells the story of his attempts 
to obtain an education in this country, the prospects of making the case appear 
to the commissioner in its true light are very slim. 

Both the States of Montana and Idaho maintain immigration bureaus whose 
work is to encourage the immigration into the States of people who desire to 
remain permanently and take up and improve land. As neither of these bureaus 
encourages the immigration of anyone unless he has money enough to purchase 
an outfit for working his homestead and maintaining himself until his land has 
produced a crop, it hardly seems that there could be much cooperation between 
these State agencies and the division of distribution in our bureau. The labor 
market as a very general rule is well supplied here, and while both States are 
anxious for settlers who will come with their families and take up or buy land 
they are not anxious for those who would come solely as common laborers. 
Enough of this latter class get into the State without any State or Federal en- 
couragement. 

I feel that I am thoroughly justified in saying that during the past year the 
officers of this district have worked with an intelligence and loyalty that will 
favorably compare with any like number of men employed either by the Gov- 
ernment or private concerns. 

STATUS OF IMMIGRATION CASES (OTHER THAN CHINESE), FISCAL YEAR ENDED 

JUNE 30, 1914. 

Warrants applied for, present fiscal year 89 

Warrants issued, present fiscal year 87 

Cases pending June 30, 1913, in which warrant issued 12 



99 



Disposition : 

Warrants canceled 42 

Warrants executed, aliens deported 34 

Warrants forwarded to another district 3 

Alien died 1 

Cases pending, warrant issued 19 



DETAILED STATEMENT OF CASES HANDLED. 

Criminal proceedings. 

Instituted current fiscal year 

Disposition : 

Failed of indictment 2 

Convicted 2 

Pending June 30, 1914 1 



99 



298 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Deportation proceedings. 

Pending June BO, 1913 ^ 4 

Instituted current fiscal year 10 

14 

Disposition : 

Deported , 4 

Pending deportation, warrant issued 3 

Referred to anotlier district for deportation 1 

Evidence insufficient for warrant 6 

• 14 

Prostitutes and women entering for immoral purpone. 

Pending deportation June 30, 1913 3 

Instituted curi-ent fiscal year 12 

15 

Disposition : 

Deported 6 

Warrant canceled 3 

Referred to another district for deportation 1 

Evidence insuflicient for warrant 5 

15 

Chinese procurers. 

Warrant issued present year 2 

Disposition : 

Failed to apprehend ] 

Deported 1 

2 

Chinese prostitutes. 

Warrant issued current fiscal yeai* 2 

Disposition : 

Warrant canceled 1 

Pending, alien delivered at port 1 

2 

Public charges. 

Instituted current fiscal year 22 

Disposition : 

. Deported 13 

Died after warrant issued 1 

Warrant canceled 1 

Evidence insuflicient for warrant 6 

Pending, warrant issued 1 

22 

Illegal entry. 

Pending June 30, 1913 8 

Instituted current fiscal year 65 

73 

Disposition : 

Deported 10 

Warrants canceled 37 

Referred to another district 2 

Evidence insufficient for warrant 7 

Pending, warrant issued 14 

Pending, warrant not issued 3 

73 

Naturalisation. 

Total number of applicants for certificates of arrival (form 526a) 158 

Miscellaneous. 

Investigations in cases aliens applying for entry 12 

Investigations at request of other offices 23 



REPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 299 

STATUS OF CHINESE CASES FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1014. 

Cases in court. 

Pending June 30, 1913 1 

Arrests made current fiscal year 1 

2 

Disposition : 

Discharged by United States commissioner 1 

Ordered deported by United States commissioner (de- 
ported witliout appenl) 1 

2 

Department xcarrant proceedings. 

(Tliese cases have been reported on page 298 under headings "'Chinese pro- 
curers " and " Chinese prostitutes." ) 

Investigations. 
Laborers : 

Pending June 30, 1913 3 

Cases of current fiscal year 53 

56 

Disposition — 

Departing, favorable 50 

Departing, unfavorable 2 

Duplicate certificates of residence 4 

56 

Merchants : 

Pending June 30, 1913 2 

Cases of current fiscal year 13 

15 

Disposition — 

Departing, favorable 4 

Departing, unfavorable 2 

Returning, unfavorable 1 

Sons applying for admission, favorable 5 

Sons applying for admission, unfavorable 3 

15 

Natives, 

Cases of current fiscal year 4 

Disposition : 

Applying for admission, favorable 1 

Sons applying for admission, favorable 3 

4 

Chinese investigations at request of other districts. 
Total investigations 5 

Respectfully submitted. 

Lorenzo T. Plummer, 

Inspector in charge. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, SEATTLE, IN CHARGE 
OF DISTRICT NO. 16, COMPRISING THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

I have the honor to submit herewith annual report regarding transactions 
under the immigration laws in District No. 16, for the fiscal year ended June 
30. 1914. 

The inward passenger movement of the current year increased from 5,363 to 
6,473, or 1,110. Japanese arrivals alone increased from 2,979 to 4,035, or 1,056. 



300 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

A detailed report of the inward passenger movement in this district follows; 
Inward passenger movement. 





Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Immigrant aliens admitted 


1,339 

2,386 

664 

134 

12 


1,503 

145 

264 

7 

19 


2 842 


Nonimmijjrant aliens admitted 


2 .531 


United States citizens arrived 


'928 


Aliens del)arred 


141 


Aliens whose eases are pending either before this office or the bureau 


31 


Grand total 






6 473 











Of the 2,842 immigrant aliens admitted, 2,189 were Japanese; 736 males 
and 1,453 females. Of the 2,531 nonimmigrant aliens admitted, 1.846 were 
Japanese; 1,740 males and 106 females. Of the total (4,035) Japanese arrivals, 
2,075 were former residents. The total of Japanese immigrant females admitted 
increased from 1.123 to 1,453, or 330; of these 511 were proxy brides, against 
517 of the preceding year, a decrease of 6. 

The following is a statement of admissions by races : 

Races of immigrants and nonimmigrants admitted. 



Race. 


Immigrant. 


Nonimmigrant. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Japanese 


736 

243 

81 

111 

77 

1 

13 
4 
2 
27 
8 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 


1,453 
25 


2,189 
268 

81 
117 

83 
1 

13 
5 
2 

34 
8 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 


1,740 
436 

54 
9 

44 
1 
5 
6 
3 

41 

16 


106 

7 
1 
4 
2 


1,846 




443 




55 


Russians 


6 
6 


13 


Germans 


46 


Spanish 


1 


Finnish , 






5 


Irish 


1 


5 


11 


Dutch 


3 


English 


7 


11 

8 


52 


Scotch 


24 


East Indians 


r 




North Italians 












2 
1 
1 

1 
3 
7 
1 
1 




2 


Greek 






1 


Polish 






1 


Hebrew 






1 


South Italians 


6 
6 




6 
6 
3 
4 
3 
1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 




3 


French 






7 


Welsh . . 


3 




1 


Servian, Montenegrin, Bulgarian 


4 
3 
1 
1 
1 
2 
3 




1 


West Indian 


















■Dalmatian 










Maevar 




1 




1 














11 




11 




1 






Other peoples 


1 








Cuban 




2 


1 


3 












Grand total 


1,339 


1,503 


2,842 


2,386 


145 


2,531 







REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 301 
Debarred aliens. 



Cause. 


Jap- 
anese. 


Chi- 
nese. 


Eng- 
lish. 


East 
Indian. 


Lith- 
uanian. 


Polish. 


Rus- 
sian. 


Total. 




M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 








55 


1 




















55 

22 
37 

8 
9 


1 


Likely to become a public 






1 


.... 


7 








1 




13 






Passport, provisional, sec. 1 

Dangerous contagious disease 


37 

9 


1 
1 
3 
1 












1 


4 
3 








2 
















1 


Trachoma 1 3 










1 








2 




3 


















1 


Epileptic 1 
























1 
2 




Contract laborer 


1 






















1 






Total 
























44 


6 


62 


1 


1 




9 i.... 

1 


1 




1 


.... 


16 


.... 


134 


7 



Outward passenger movement. 



Emigrant aliens departed 

Nonemigrant aliens departed . . . 
United States citizens departed. 



Grand total.. 



Males. 



576 

2,220 

576 



Females. 



58 
240 

448 



total. 



634 
2,460 
1,024 



4,118 



Of the 634 emigrant aliens departed. 228 were Japanese; 189 males and 
39 females. 

Of tlie 2,400 nonemigrants departed. 1.979 were Japanese; 1,769 males and 
210 females. 

AEKIVALS FROM INSULAR POSSESSIONS. 
[Not included in statistics.] 

A total of 245 passengers arrived from insular possessions. Of this number 
2 were East Indians, against 406 the previous year, a decrease of 404. 

ALIEN SEAMEN. 

Vessels arrived 1,324 

Alien crews ( Chinese 12,383 ; others 13.987) 26,370 

Certified by marine hospital surgeon 136 

Certified seamen, deserting 1 

Certified at San Francisco, deserted in this district 1 

Deserting seamen ^ 165 

Discharged (admitted to the United States) 249 

Discharged (passed to follow their vocation) 378 

STOWAWAYS. 

Total number of stowaways for the year, 35 (Japanese 33, Russians 2). 

EXAMINATION UNDER IMMIGRATION LAWS. 

Aliens examined (including Chinese) 5,545 

Admitted on primary inspection 4,739 

Pending primary cases 15 

Board special inquiry cases 791 

1 Of the 165 deserting seamen, 32 were Japanese and 2 were Chinese. 



302 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Board special inquiry cases 791 

Admitted , 508 

Excluded mandatorily 217 

Excluded with right of appeal 66 

283 

Excluded under immigration act 283 

Deported (1.75 per cent) (not including Chinese) ^85 

Landed on appeal 4 

Landed after hospital treatment 176 

Landed on rehearing i 2 

Pending 16 

Investigations made regarding alien applicants, except Chinese 272 

MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATIONS. 

Public charge cases where no warrant was secured 100 

Prostitute, procurer, etc., cases where no warrant was secured 145 

Naturalization cases 125 

United States citizens which Canada desired to return to United States 52 

Total 422 

In addition to the above there were numerous other investigations made 
which it is impossible to estimate with any degree of accuracy. 

WRITS OF HABEAS COBPUS. 

Applied for 91 I Aliens released 13 

Granted 91 1 Aliens remanded 78 

FINES. 

Failure to furnish the manifest required by section 12 (7 cases) $70 

Bringing diseased aliens in violation of section 9 (4 cases of trachoma) 400 

Total 470 

Aliens apprehended near international boundary after entry without inspection 
and returned to border ports for examination imthmit formal warrant of 
arrest. 



station of officer apprehending alien. 


Border port to 
which returned. 


Total. 


Blaine, 
Wash. 


Sumas, 
Wash. 


Custer Wash 


192 




192 




160 
6 
41 

47 


160 


Everett Wash 


13 


19 




41 




60 

8 


107 




8 








Total 


273 


254 


527 







1 In addition to the 8.5 shown, 56 Chinese were deported under the Chinese exclusion 
iaws, making a total of 141, or 2.54 per cent. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



303 



Cases in which tcarrants of arrest and orders of deportation were issued, etc., 

by causes. 





Warrants of Arrest. 


J. 

M 

c3 
P. 
<U 

•a 
"3 § 

■°a 

C 


Orders of deportation. 




i 
1 

< 


CO 

1 


i 


Served. 


-a 

1 
o 


■d 

0) 


i 

"3 

i 


Executed. 




Cause. 


OS 

.a 


.a| 

3.2 


3 


2 

.a 
1 


•9 t»> 

3.2 




EH 


i 

a 


Procurers 


17 
30 

17 
20 

62 
37 
23 

77 

2 
1 

4 
2 
1 
3 
5 

301 


10 
30 

17 
19 

61 
37 
23 

77 

2 
1 
4 
2 
1 
3 
5 

298 


5 

1 

9 
1 

7 

4 

1 
..... 

..... 
1 


12 
21 

10 

18 

50 
35 
12 

73 

1 

1 
3 
2 
1 
2 
4 


2 
1 

3 

4 

1 
2 


14 
22 

13 
18 

54 
36 
14 

73 

1 
1 
3 
2 
1 
2 
4 


4 
2 

2 

2 

1 
4 


1 
1 

..... 

2 


13 

21 

13 
17 

52 
36 
14 

73 

1 

1 
3 
2 
1 
2 
4 


3 
1 

..... 

1 

"'i' 
1 

1 
..... 


9 
17 

10 

8 

33 
32 
12 

2 


6 
1 

3 

5 

10 
3 
2 


15 
18 

13 
13 

43 
35 
14 

2 


1 




3 


Receiving proceeds of prosti- 
tute 


3 




8 


Likely to become a public 
charge 


18 


Insane 


4 


W ithout inspection 


1 


Hindus— without inspection 


70 


Dangerous contagious dis- 
eases: 














1 
2 
1 

1 
1 
4 


■■■4" 


1 
2 
1 
1 

1 
8 


















1 










Contract labor 






1 


Chinese— without inspection. 














Total 


38 


245 


13 


258 


15 


5 


253 


10 


133 


34 


167 


110 







Note.— In addition to the above, there were 8 Chinese and 7 other aliens arrested in other jurisdictions 
delivered at this station for deportation on warrants secured by other jurisdictions. 

Criminal prosecutions. 



Name. 



Charge. 



Court. 



Disposition. 



CASES PENDING JUNE 30, 
1913. 

Ray Courtemache 



A. A. Plant 

Vernon L. Heathman. 
J. Archie Hess 



Ray Howard. 



Leon S. Becker. 

Wm. Porter 

Al Porter 

James Morrow.. 



B. Aurand. 



A. K. Watson. 
K. Umeda 



K.Ito 

B. K. Sugiura. 
A. H. Young.. 
S. Washio 



Max Holtser.. 
Charles Ryan. 



Violation of white- 
slave traflBc act. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



Conspiracy to violate 
white-slave traffic 
act. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Violation of white- 
slave traffic act. 
do 



United States District 
Court for Western Dis- 
trict of Washington. 

do 

do 

do 



United States District 
Court for Eastern Dis- 
trict of Washington. 

do 

do 

do 

United States District 
Court for Western Dis- 
trict of Washington. 

do 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



United States District 

Court for Oregon. 
do 



Dismissed. 



Pending. 

Dismissed. 

Pleaded guUty; sentence, 

1 year and 1 day, McNeil 

Island. 
Dismissed. 



No true bill. 
Dismissed. 

Do. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence, 
90 days. 

Pleaded guilty; sentence, 
2 years, McNeil Island. 

Forfeited bail. 

Pleaded guilty; sentence, 
30 days. 

Do. 
Acquitted. 

Do. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence, 

30 days. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence, 

1 year. 
Jurj; disagreed twice; dis- 
missed. 



304 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
Criminal prosecution — Continued. 



Name. 



Charge. 



Court. 



Disposition. 



CASES PENDING JUNE 30, 

1913— continued. 



Roy McKinley . . 
Charles Guignon. 
Louis Laroux 



NEW CASES. 



Harry Toy . 



James Williams. 
Carl Laparo 



Bob Armstrong. 



H. E. Fortier... 
James Brerman. 



Bert Mart in... 
Henri Dachat. 



Frank Pavone. 

Max Schwartz. 

W. C. Esling... 



Luman Nolan . . . 
Jas. S. Stephens. 

FredKrebit 

Rossie Miller 

JoeZydman 



Frank S. Boothe. 
J.W.Welch 



Violations of white- 
slave traffic act. 

White-slave traffic act 
and section 3 immi- 
gration act. 

do 



Violation of white- 
slave traffic act. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



Violation of white- 
slave traffic act and 
section 3 immigra- 
tion act. 

Violation of white- 
slave traffic act. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
-do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 

.do. 
.do. 



United States District 
Court for Eastern Dis- 
trict of Washington. 

do 



.do. 



United States District 
Court for Western Dis- 
trict of Washington. 

do..: 



.do. 



.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



Transferred to District 
Court of Oregon. 

United States District 
Court for Eastern Dis- 
trict of Washington. 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



United States District 
Court for Western Dis- 
trict of Washington. 

do 



.do. 



Acquitted. 
Do. 
Do. 



Convicted; sentence, 8 
months and SoOOfine. 

Pleaded guilty; sentence, 

30 days. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence. 

1 year and 1 day, McNeil 

Island. 
Convicted; sentence, 2 

years, McNeil Island. 
Dismissed. 
Convicted; sentence, 2 J 

years, McNeil Island. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence, 

6 months. 
Pleaded guilty to Qrst 

coimt; sentence, 1 year, 

county jail. 

Pleaded guilty; sentence, 
1 year and 1 day, McNeil 
Island. 

Pleaded guilty; sentence, 2 
years, McNeil Island. 

No true bill. 



Pleaded guilty; sentence, 6 

months, county jail. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence, 

SlOO and costs. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence, 3 

months. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence, 6 

months, county jail. 
Pleaded guilty; sentence, 2 

years, McNeil Island. 

Convicted; sentence, 5 
years, McNeil Island. 

Pleaded guilty; sentence, 
60 days. 



CHARACTER OF IMMIGRATION. 



The character of immigration for the past year has been, as heretofore, prin- 
cipally Chinese and Japanese. With the opening of the Panama Canal the char- 
acter of immigration coming to this coast will, in a large measure, be changed 
and the major portion of the immigrants that will arrive at our ports will be 
from European countries. What the probable volume of that immigration will 
be no one can at this time foretell. If it is a tenth part of the number that 
enthusiasts predict it will increase our present annual immigration many fold. 

Compared with I^astern ports, the volume of immigration heretofore arriving 
at the ports of this district has been small indeed. As many immigrants have 
arrived at Ellis Island in a single day as have applied at the ports of the State 
of Washington in an entire year. The Chinese and Japanese immigrants, how- 
ever, are much more difiicult to examine and handle than are immigrants from 
any other country. Chinese and Japanese are the only classes of immigrants 
whose laborers are excluded from admission to this country, the Chinese abso- 
lutely and the Japanese to a limited extent. After passing the ordinary immi- 
gration examination they are also examined under the Chinese and Japanese 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 305 

exclusion i^rovisious of our laws. As roucli time is often consumed in handling 
one Chinese case as it would take in passing upon the rights to admission of a 
hundred immigrants of other nationalities. 

JAPANESE. 

Another year's enforcement of the law shows that the Japanese Government 
is living up to the agreement entered into with this country in the spring of 
1908 regarding the issuance of passports to only three classes of Japanese 
laborers, to wit. " former residents." " parents, wives, and children of residents," 
and " settled agriculturists." 

There is, however, a comparatively large number of Japanese females coming 
to this country. While most of them are coming, ostensibly as housewives, they 
are in reality laborers and become coworkers in the fields with their husbands. 

A Japanese resident of this country who desires to send for a " picture " or 
" proxy " bride is obliged to secure a certificate from the local Japanese consul 
to the effect that he is a proper person and can support a wife. Many of the 
"proxy" brides conclude shortly after arrival that they have made a bad bargain 
and desert their husbands, and sooner or later enter upon an immoral life. 
Realizing this, the consul for this district is endeavoring to discourage the 
bringing of " proxy " brides to the United States. This, no doubt, accounts for 
the fact that although as many females arrived this year as last, fewer of them 
were " proxy " and more of them regular marriages. 

In view of this, I would I'ecommend that competent oQicers who understand 
the Japanese language make investigations occasionally in order to ascertain 
whether or not these " proxy " wives are living with their husbands. They 
might also investigate as to the occupations of recent female arrivals. I believe 
the results would be somewhat surprising. 



There have been but few Hindu arrivals at the ports of this district during 
the past year. It has been the practice for several years to examine very closely 
all Hindu laborers arriving at our ports, and as a result practically all such 
arrivals from India were excluded and returned to their native countrty. They 
then resorted to the practice of first entering the Philippine Islands, and coming 
later to the United States proper. 

The policy of the administration was at that time to admit any alien to the 
mainland who had previously entered the Philippine Islands. The present 
admini.-^tration, very wLsely, we think, regarded their entry to the islands as 
a mere subterfuge, and promulgated the present rules, which have resulted in 
stopping their migration for the time being. 

A few days prior to June 30, 1913, 220 Hindus arrived at Seattle from Manila. 
They were given a very rigid examination. Certificates were produced by 131, 
who were admitted. Eighty-nine were arrested on departmental warrants and 
ordered deported. Writs of habeas corpus were applied for and the learned 
.iudge of this disti'ict decided that the decision of the Secretary of Labor was 
final; that a proper hearing had been granted, that he had no jurisdiction in 
the premises and remanded the aliens to my custody. From this decision an 
appeal has been taken direct to the Supreme Court of the United States, where 
the case is now pending. While I believe the decision of the local Federal 
court will be upheld, it is impossible to forecast a decision on a close question 
with certainty, and I am in hopes that in the near future an absolute exclusion 
law will be passed by Congress somewhat similar to the present law excluding 
Chinese laborers, forbidding the entry of Hindu laborers into either the insular 
cv continental territory of the United States. 

These S9 Hindus were confined in the detention house at Seattle for several 
months, and I am sure that the most ardent advocates for the admission of 
Hindu laborers would become strict exclusionists if compelled to work for a 
long period of time in a small building, such as we have at Seattle, insanitary 
at the best, with a large number of this class of aliens. 

The Hindus are clannish to a degree and are ready and willing to render 
financial assistance to the full extent of their ability to their relatives and 
friends who are in detention. Pending their appeal, they were permitted to go 
at large on furnishing a bond in the sum of $500 each. By the end of December 
all but three had secured their liberty by depositing in cash the sum of $500 

60629°— 15 20 



306 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

each witli some bank or surety company who became surety for their appear- 
ance when wanted. The three who were unable to furnish bond were deported. 

The Hindus are persistent and determined to gain admission to America if it 
is possible to do so. They seem to have no difficulty to obtain all the money 
they want for this purpose. A boatload consisting of several hundred are now 
in the harbor of Vancouver, British Columbia, clamoring for admission to that 
country. Another boatload is reported on the way, and it is rumored that they 
may attempt entry to the United States through one of our Puget Sound ports. 

The steamship companies entering this district have agreed to carry no more 
Hindu laborers for the present, although they could possibly not be required 
to return, at their expense, those who embarked at Manila for the continent 
and who are denied admission here. The safest plan to preclude the possibility 
of a Hindu invasion is for Congress to enact a suitable exclusion law. 

CONTRACT LABOR. 

W. J. McConnell (section 24 inspector), stationed at Moscow, Idaho, is under 
the jurisdiction of this office in the handling of contract-labor matters. His 
district consists of the States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. 
Although he has secured no convictions during the year, he has been actively 
engaged in corresponding and advising with the various labor organizations. 
State, county, and city officials of the district regarding the provisions of the 
contract-labor law, and through his efforts has no doubt prevented many viola- 
tions of the law. 

He has the situation well in hand, and is now investigating a number of 
cases where he hopes to secure convictions. A copy of his report ^ for the year 
will be mailed the bureau under separate cover. 

SMUGGLING. 

Several causes have contributed to the increased number of surreptitious 
entries of aliens from British Columbia into western Washington during the 
last year, the principal cause being the serious depression which has existed 
in our neighboring Province for many months. Thousands have walked across 
the border. Several hundred aliens have been arrested and returned to the 
border ports of Blaine and Sumas for examination. Hundreds of others have 
undoubtedly crossed the border during the nighttime, thus evading our ofiicers. 

We now have a sufficient number of men to take care of the border in west- 
ern Washington during the daytime, but if the border is to be effectively 
patrolled an additional force is needed for night work. Chinese house servants 
in British Columbia are losing their positions in large numbers owing to a 
couple of prominent ladies being recently killed by their servants. As a result 
of this and also on account of the general depression, many Chinese are attempt- 
ing to enter the country unlawfully. We are using our best endeavors, with 
the force of employees available for the purpose, to prevent the entry of 
Chinese into this State. 

My judgment is that the most effective method to stop smuggling is to destroy 
the incentive to smuggling. In addition to watching the land and water borders, 
frequent arrests should be made of those Chinese who are unlawfully here. 
Give them to understand that there is no " haven of rest " anywhere in the 
United States for a lawbreaker. In other words, destroy the profit, and smug- 
gling will soon be reduced to a minimum. Just so long as we say in effect to 
these Chinese, " We will catch you in the act of crossing the border if we can, 
but if you are shrewd enough to evade us there and gain admission to our large 
cities, you are ijerfectly safe," just so long will the traffic continue. 



The last year's work has demonstrated more and more the need for a suitable 
building at the port of Seattle. We have 126 beds in the male quarters. For 
several months the past year we had 89 Hindus in the building. At times we 
had more than 100 Chinese in the house and probably 40 other aliens of all 
classes. About one-third of those detained were obliged to sleep on the floor. 
If the city officials had been advised of this state of affairs, we would probably 
have been instructed to rent an additional building for temporary use. Happily, 

1 Not printed because of lack of space. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 307 

however, the prospects of securing u building are mucli brighter than ever be- 
fore. The Secretary, as w^ell as the Commissioner General, has visited us dur- 
ing the last year and as a result a free site has been tendered the Government 
on which suitable buildings may be erected. 

Bills asking for an adequate appropriation for immigration buildings at 
Seattle have been introduced in both branches of Congress, and if a public build- 
ing bill passes at the present session assurances have been given that buildings 
for our use will be included therein. With the opening of the Panama Canal 
additional quarters will be absolutely required for the proper handling of the 
immigration business at this port. 



Chinese Transactions. 

The following is a brief resum6 of the work done in connection with the en- 
forcement of the Chinese-exclusion laws in this district : 

APPLICATIONS FOR ADMISSION. 

During the year 1,131 applications for admission were considered, a decrease 
of 145, or 11 per cent, from the previous year, and 998 applications of domiciled 
Chinese for return certificates, a decrease of 83, or 8 per cent, from the previous 
year. Of those applying for admission 833 wei'e returning to a former domicile 
and the remainder, 298, were new arrivals. These figures do not include Chinese 
entering the country via Seattle who arrived first at Vancouver, Canada, and 
who were detained there for examination, nor those deiJarting by Canadian 
Pacific steamers (except those first receiving return certificates at this port), 
as transportation companies carrying i>asseugers to foreign contiguous territory 
are not required by law to file passenger lists. The cause of the decrease in 
travel can only be conjectured. It may be that the number of lawfully domiciled 
Chinese in the country who go abroad temporarily is becoming smaller (note 
the decrease of 22 per cent in the number of returning laborers and 12 per cent 
in the number of returning merchants), and that a careful enforcement of the 
law with respect to " new arrivals " is deterring members of this class from 
seeking admission. Returning passengers report that there are hundreds of 
Chinese now at Hongkong anxious to come to America, but who are being 
detained tliere indefinitely by a system of medical inspection now in force which, 
aside from its being expensive to the applicant, is unsatisfactory because the 
certificate which is ultimately secured, showing freedom from disease, is of no 
value on arrival in this country, the holders thereof often being found to be 
afflicted with the very ailment from which they are thus certified to be free. 
Undoubtedly many domiciled Chinese are restrained from visiting their home 
country through fear of being rejected medically on return. Since the promul- 
gation of bureau circular letter of September 16, 1913, directing the medical 
inspection of aliens irrespective of whether they are immigrants or residents, 
a number of applications for return certificates have been withdrawn. 

All Chinese passengers now arrive at and depart from the port of Seattle, 
the Blue Funnel Line heretofore entering its steamers at Tacoma, having re- 
cently moved its general offices to this city. Hereafter all vessels of the line 
named will both enter and clear at Seattle. 

Total applications for admission before commissioner during fiscal year 1. 131 

Disposition : 

Admitted L 031 

Passed in transit 22 

Returned 63 

Pending : 

Awaiting deportation 2 

On appeal to the department 3 

Before inspectors 10 

From the foregoing it will be seen that, omitting the 15 pending cases, 5i 
per cent of all arrivals were returned to China. However, as practically all 
domiciled Chinese now have their status determined before departure from the 
country, the.se may be deducted. There then remain 298 " new arrivals," of 
which 231 were admitted, 53 (18 per cent) actually returned to China, and 14 
cases remain undisposed of. 



308 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION". 

Division by classes. 
Laborers : 

Cases pending from previous year (stowaways) 5 

Applications for admission current year 339 

344 

Disposed of as follows — 

Admitted 339 

Returned (stowaways) 5 

Decrease from 1913, 96, or 22 i>er cent. 

Domiciled exempts (merchants, etc.) : 

Cases pending from previous year 2 

Applications for admission current year 183 

185 

Disposed of as follows — 

Admitted 181 

Returned 3 

Pending 1 

Decrease from 1913, 25. or 12 per cent. 
American-born Chinese (citizens and children of citizens) : 

Cases pending from previous year 14 

Applications for admission current year 339 

353 

Disposed of as follows — 

Admitted 320 

Returned 25 

Pending on appeal to department 2 

Pending before inspectors 6 

Further subdivisions. 

"Raw" natives (new arrivals) returned 5 

Record of departure — prior landing : 

Admitted 272 

Returned 1 

273 

Prior residence — status not determined : 

Admitted 8 

Returned 1 

9 

Children of citizens (new arrivals) : 

Admitted 40 

Returned 18 

Pending 8 

66 

Grand total 353 

The decrease in number of applications is but 4, or 1 per cent. Of all classes 
applying for admission as citizens 25, or 7 per cent, were actually returned. 
There were but 5 applicants of the class known as "raw" natives, and all of 
these were turned back. The only class showing an increased number of appli- 
cants is that of " children of citizens." the increase being from 43 to 66. or 53 
per cent. On the other hand, the percentage of rejections in this class is the 
highest, being 27 per cent. Citizens of all classes admitted were largely those 
whose status had theretofore been determined by either the courts or this 
service. 

"section 6"^ (NEW ARRIVALS). 

Cases pending from previous year '. 2 

Applicants for admission 91 

Total - 93 

Disposed of as follows: 

Admitted 90 

Returned 3 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 309 

The decrease in this case is 29 per ceut, due, it is believed, to the firm stand 
taken by the bureau against the soliciting of so-called students in China by 
Americans who apparently were commercializing the movement, as explained at 
length in last year's report. So far as learned, all such schemes have been aban- 
doned, at least by the persons who heretofore have been operating out of 
Seattle. Of those admitted in parties it has been found that with certain ex- 
ceptions few are bona fide students. Many can not now be located through the 
addresses given at time of admission. Of course, repeated inquiries as to 
present whereabouts and occupation have kept a number of them in school, and 
as a rule such boys have been found living with relatives in some laundry, 
restaurant, or store, and following a laboring pursuit except during the hours 
actually spent in school or in receiving instruction from a private teacher. In 
one instance the I'eport received showed a certain student (?) to be receiving 
instruction one hour a day from a colored man and devoting the remainder 
of the time to working in a restaurant. During the past year there were 36 
applications of " section 6 " merchants from China and 4 from Canada, 39 
students from China and 5 from Canada, and G teachers and 3 travelers from 
China. 

EXEMPTS OTHER THAN "SECTION 6" (NEW ARRIVALS). 

Cases pending from previous year 11 

Applications for admission current year 123 

Total 134 

Disijosetl of as follows : 

Admitted-- 101 

Returned 27 

Awaiting return 2 

Pending on appeal before department 1 

Pending before inspectors 3 

This class may be subdivided as follows : 

Minor sons of merchants (exempts) : 

Admitted 75 

Returned 26 

Awaiting return 2 

Pending before department 1 

Pending before inspectors 2 

Minor daughters of merchants (exempts) admitted 3 

Admitted 3 

Wives of merchants (exempts) : 

Admitted 15 

Returned 1 

Wives of citizens (exempts) : 

Admitted 8 

Pending 1 

Increase fi-om 1913, 1 per cent. This increase occurs in the class known as 
minor sons of merchants. There was a decrease in the number of wives and 
daughters of merchants applying for admission, as well as in the number of 
wives of citizens. The number of these different classes returned amounted to 
13 per cent. 

TRANSITS. 

By land . 11 

By water 11 

Total 22 

There were no applications during the year for landing under bond pending 
final determination of right to enter the United States. 



310 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
APPEALS TO DEPARTMENT (ARRIVALS). 

Pending from previous year 4 

Appealed during current year 46 

Total 50 

Disposition : == 

Dismissed 29 

Withdrawn 7 

Sustained 11 

Pending June 30, 1914 3 

APPEALS TO BUREAU ( PREINVESTIGATIONS) . 

Total appeals 29 

Disposition : 

Sustained by the bureau 1 

Dismissed 26 

Pending , 2 

The increase in appeals to the department was 22 per cent, and was confined 
almost wholly to new arrivals, as domiciletl Chinese now have their status pre- 
determined, and if a return certificate be refused appeal is taken to the bureau 
and its decision accepted as final. Of the 40 cases passed on by the department 
the appellants were successful in 11 instances — that is, 27 per cent of the appeals 
was sustained. Of the 29 applications reviewed by the bureau on appeal from 
decisions denying domiciled Chinese return certificates on which they might go 
abroad temporarily but 1 contestant was successful. 

WRITS OF HABEAS CORPUS. 

The Mac Fock case, pending from last year, has been disposed of and the 
applicant returned to China, the court finding that there exists no authority 
in law for the issuance by a United States commissioner of a certificate of dis- 
charge and that a certificate so issued is not evidence of a judgment ; that, 
as Mac Fock had admitted his being born in China, the certificate of discharge 
issued by the United States commissioner finding him to be a citizen of this 
country must have been fraudulently issued or have been procured through 
perjury, and therefore that the petitioner was not in a position to complain. 

ARRESTS UNDER THE EXCLUSION LAW. 

Cases pending July 1, 1913 2 

Arrests during fiscal year 2 

Total - 4 

Disposition : Deported 4 

As heretofore reported, it is deemed inadvisable to make arrests under the 
exclusion law unless it is reasonably certain that a claim to American citizen- 
ship will not be set up as a defense. If It can be shown that a Chinese entered 
the country unlawfully within three years, application is always made for a de- 
partment warrant, procedure under the exclusion law being simpler and more 
effective before the department than before a T'nited States commissioner. Of 
those arrested, two had been regularly admitted through the port of San Fran- 
cisco, one as a "section 6" traveler and the other as a "section 6" merchant. 
Both of these men were found laboring in a fish cannery. Another one of the 
arrests was that of a Chinese who had entered the country some years since 
surreptitiously and who on hearing presented a certificate of residence belonging 
to another person. The most interesting case, however, was that of Ng Ah Bow. 
This Chinese was arrested September 4, 1912, on the charge of being unlawfully 
within the United States. He was reputed to be a gambler and was said to be 
the person who had shot Charley Moy Kee. of Chicago, in a tong fight in this 
city. Able counsel was retained in the case, and the matter was carried to the 
district court, where, after a delay of some two years, the original order of de- 
portation was affirmed. Notwithstanding the fact that counsel had made a 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 311 

most persistent fight in an effort to have the man discharged, setting up at 
great length the claim that the defendant had been regularly admitted at the 
port of Astoria as the minor son of a domiciled merchant and supporting his 
position with the positive testimony of many Chinese witnesses. Ah Bow ad- 
mitted while detained at this station and just prior to his deportation that he 
had entered the country surreptitiously from Canada about one year prior to 
his arrest, giving in detail all the facts surrounding his entry, thus showing 
that all the witnesses who appeared in his behalf at the hearing before the 
United States commissioner gave perjured testimony. 

To effectively rid the country of contraband Chinese all arrests should be 
made on department warrant. So long as United States commissioners are per- 
mitted to make citizens of Chinese presumably unlawfully within tlie country 
the exclusion laws must remain more or less of a nullity. In a recent arrest 
case a Chinese presented an identification paper showing him to be a former 
resident of Portland. When from the records of this office it was shown that 
the defendant was not the person he claimed to be, his attorney admitted the 
imposition, abandoned the claim, and then set up one of citizenship, introducing 
two Chinese witnesses who swore to knowing that the defendant was born In 
The Dalles, Oreg. On this showing the defendant was adjudged to be an Amer- 
ican citizen. 

PROSECUTIONS. 

In connection with the enforcement of the Chinese-exclusion law there has 
been instituted recently a prosecution for conspiracy which it is believed will 
tend strongly to deter white persons from swearing falsely for Chinese in re- 
turn for a consideration. Three white men and two Chinese have been indicted. 
The plan of the principal, a leading Chinese merchant of this city, seems to 
have been to carry on his partnership books a number of laborers and to take 
them into his store one at a time just prior to the arrival of an alleged minor 
son, and to then attempt on the testimony of certain white men to prove that 
the Chinaman so taken into partnership had been a merchant for the preceding 
year. In the pending case the alleged father, a restaurant worker in Los 
Angeles for some years past, came to Seattle a few weeks prior to the arrival 
of an alleged son and entered the store of the principal. On hearing of the 
application the principal, the alleged father, and the three white witnesses all 
swore positively to the father's having been an active member of the firm in 
question for the period required by the statute. Subsequently, by independent 
inquiry, the truth as to the father's status was learned. The applicant was of 
course rejected and returned to China. The father thereupon returned to his 
restaurant in Los Angeles, at which place he was later arrested. It appears 
that a conviction may be secured, as one of the white men has made a written 
confession to the United States attorney. 

PBEINVESTIGATED CASES. 

Applications for return certificates under rules 13, 15, and 16 of the regula- 
tions to the number of 998 were disposed of as follows : 

Laborers : 

Pending from previous year 33 

Applications current year 418 

Total 451 

Disposition — 

Certificates issued 413 

Certificates refused 32 

Applications withdi'awn 5 

Applications pending 1 

Appeals dismissed by bureau, 7. 
Exempts (merchants, etc.) : 

Applications i>ending from previous year 31 

Applications current year 213 

Total 244 



312 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Exempts (merchants, etc.) — Continued. 
Disposition — 

Certificates issued 205 

Certificates refused 34 

Applications withdrawn 3 

Applications pending 2 

Appeals dismissed by bureau, 8. 
Citizens : 

Applications pending from previous year 32 

Applications current year 271 

Total 303 

Disposition — 

Certificates issued 263 

Certificates refused 28 

Applications withdrawn 7 

Applications pending 5 

Appeals sustained by bureau 1 

Appeals dismissed by bureau 11 

Of the applications enumerated above, 302 arose in this district, of which 

278 were approved and 24 were denied, as follows: 

Laborers : 

Granted 62 

Refused 12 

Exempts : 

Granted 324 

Refused 4 

Citizens : 

Granted 92 

Refused 8 

Total 302 

In connection with arriving Chinese there were made in this State 75 inves- 
tigations, as follows : 

Wives of exempts 10 

Children of exempts 53 

Children of citizens 12 

Total '^5 

During the year there were issued 653 certificates of identity. 
Respectfully, 

Henry M. White, Commissioner. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT No. 17, COMPRISING 
THE STATE OF OREGON, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT PORTLAND. 

Annual report for the fiscal year 1914 of district No. 17, comprising the State 
of Oregon, port of Portland and subport of Astoria, is hereinbelow submitted. 

General and subdivisions under which the bureau seeks to have all annual 
reports itemized, both as to statistical data and matters of general informa- 
tion, have been adhered to, and this office has endeavored to fulfill the require- 
ments thereof categorically and in the order prescribed by the bureau. 

EXAMINATION AT SEAPORTS OF ALIENS WHO APPLY FOR ADMISSION. 

Aliens examined 

Aliens admitted on primary inspection 42 

Aliens held for board of special inquiry - 

Aliens rejected by board of special inquiry ^ 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 313 

Aliens finally deported '2 

Fines assessed under section 9. dangerous contagious diseases 2 

Arrivals of seamen : 

White aliens 3, 355 

Ctiinese 1, 397 

East Indians 430 

Japanese 376 

Total 5,558 

Of above number there deserted from their vessels: 

Aliens other than Chinese 369 

Chinese seamen 3 

Total 372 

Chinese seaman recaptured 1 

Head tax collected $1,572 

PREVENTION OF UNLAWFUL ENTRY AT SEAPORTS AND LAND BORDER PORTS. 



Portland and Astoria, Oreg., are both seaports, but neither enjoys an alien 
passenger business. During the past year, however, 201 vessels, both sail and 
steam, arrived at the two ports named from foreign countries. There seems to 
be no way of preventing the unlawful entry of alien seamen by desertion, and 
372 such entered without inspection. The vessels carrying Chinese crews are 
guarded while in port by watchmen employed at the expense of the vessels. 
All Chinese seamen arriving within this district are carefully identified and 
checked, both upon arrival and departure, by officers attached to this district. 
During the past fiscal year only 3 Chinese seamen deserted out of a total of 
1.397 arrivals, of which 3 deserters 1 was recaptured. 

One Yong Song, Chinese seaman of the British Steamship Queen Mmul, de- 
serted his vessel at Westport, Oreg., October 7, 1913. A criminal charge was 
filed against the master for failure to adopt due precautions and for permitting 
said Chinese to escape. The master pleaded guilty and was fined $500 by the 
district court. This Chinese seaman was recaptured at Astoria and was placed 
aboard the Queen Maud just before the vessel proceeded to sea. The fine was 
not remitted, however. 

Ten Chinese seamen left the British steamship Harlow on September 13, 1913, 
while the vessel was at this port. They were assisted in their escape by two 
white men with a gasoline launch. The launch was captured and the identity 
of the owners ascertained. All the Chinese subsequently returned to the vessel. 
In view of this fact, and of the inability of any witness to identify the white 
men as occupants of the launch at the time of the escape, the United States 
attorney advised that the action be not commenced, and the matter was dropped. 

THE ARREST OF ALIENS (INCLUDING CHINESE) AND EXPULSION FROM THE COUNTRY. 

Aliens {other than Chinese) arrested under immigration laios. 





3 

a 

< 


lib 

SS.o 
§ >- fe 



3 
ft 

go 


if 

0)0 

•3 ft® 


ft 

•sj 

-Si 


4J 

d 

Id 

a 


1 



ft 

.2 

< 


1a» 
ft 

© C3 


a 
1-1 


1 

§ 




■i 




Warrants applied for 




1 
1 

1 


10 
10 
11 
1 

10 


10 
11 
10 
5 


1 
1 
1 


16 
16 
15 
6 
6 


1 
1 

2 

1 


1 
1 

1 
1 


1 

1 


1 
1 
1 


42 


Issued i 


43 


Served - 


42 


Canceled 




14 


Executed 


1 


3 


10 ! i 






28 


Alien permitted to return to coun- 
try whence he came, in lieu of 
deportation 






1 




1 


Alien escaped while en route for 
deportation 






1 










1 


Deportation pending 






3 


3 








1 


7 























^ 2 per cent. 



314 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
Chinese arrested under immigration taxes. 





Entered 

without 

inspection. 


Insane and 

public 
charge from 
priorcau^es. 


Prostitutes. 


Total. 


Warrants applied for 


4 
4 
4 
1 
2 
2 


1 
1 
1 


4 
4 
4 
1 
1 


9 


Issued 


g 


Served 


g 


Canceled 


2 


Executed 


1 


4 


Proceedings peuding 


2 


Dismissed on habeas corpus 




2 


2 











Number of Chinese arrested hefore United States commissioners or courts, and 

results in cases. 

Arrested 4 

Discharged 2 

Deported 1 

Pending . 1 

The investigation at points within tlie country for the purpose of determin- 
ing whether aliens (including Chinese) are admissible, or whether Chinese are 
entitled to return certificates, and other similar investigations, disclose the 
results shown below : 

Number and character of Chinese preinvestigations and results. 



Classification. 



Applica- 
tions filed. 



Approved. 



Denied. 



Merchants departing 

Merchants' wives departing. 

Citizens departing . . . •. 

Laborers departing 

Students departing 

Teachers departing 



Total. 



177 



167 



Number of investigations made regarding alien applicants (other than 

Chinese) 74 

Number of miscellaneous investigations (other than Chinese) 132 

Number of investigations made regarding Chinese applicants 54 

Number of miscellaneous Chinese investigations 56 

Number of cases in which forms 547 were filed and investigations made 90 



Number and chai'acter of criminal prosecutions instituted (for details and 

results, see case of One Yong Song, above) 1 

Number of cases in which writs of habeas corpus were applied for 2 

Number granted 1 

In the case of Chin Gum the writ was sustained and the petitioner discharged. 

Contract-labor tvork. — The inspector at Moscow, Idaho, nominally subordinate 
to the commissioner of immigration at Seattle, is in charge of section 24 work 
in this district. All matters comprehended by said section are referi'ed to him. 

White-slave investigations and prosecutions for this district are in charge of 
a special agent of the Department of Justice attached to the local United States 
attorney's oflice. The Immigration Service in this district cooperates with this 
special agent and tenders him all the facilities within its scope and ability in 
the prosecution of this branch of the work. Under these circumstances no sta- 
tistical data or information as to white-slave work is available. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 315 

There is no Japanese or Hindu immigration to tliis port. This office has 
caused the arrest of several Hindus on a charge of entry without inspection. 
On such occasions it invariably has met with extraordinary opposition by the 
defense. Release on bond is promptly had, and the best legal talent obtainable 
is retained to resist the Government's action. Our greatest difficulty is in find- 
ing trustworthy Hindu interpreters. 

The personnel of district No. 17 has experienced several changes during the 
past year. One inspector of 2 years' service at Astoria and one of 10 years at 
Portland were dismissed for cause. Both vacancies have been filled bj* the 
bureau, effecting a material improvement in the character of the service in this 
district. 

Station buildings, equipment, improvements made, contemplated, or desirable, 
etc. — Headquarters of this district occupy five rooms in the Railway Exchange 
Building at Portland. The subport of Astoria occupies two small rooms in the 
Spexarth Building. Astoria. The present general equipment of both offices is 
ample for all present purposes. No improvements have been made, nor are any 
contemplated or desirable either at Portland or Astoria. 

During the absence of the inspector in charge while fulfilling an assignment 
in the Orient in January, February, and March of this year, the administration 
of the duties of the local office were admirably discharged by the acting inspec- 
tor in charge. I have no criticism to offer of any member of the present local 
force of the Immigration Service. On the contrary, I desire at this time to 
commend each and all for faithfulness, loyalty, and devotion to the Govern- 
ment's interests. 

Work of diiitrlbution of admitted aliens. — Ports through which European immi- 
grants are admitted are so remote from this district and such a comparatively 
small number roach the Northwest that apparently there is no necessity for a 
particular distribution of alien immigrants as such. The Oregon State Immi- 
gration Commission is doing some advertising abroad of the State's resources. 
It also furnishes information in response to inquiries concerning opportunities 
for investment and settlement in the State. 

As to the feasibility and ])rncticability of cooperating with State, county, and 
city labor bureaus established by public authority in the work of distribution of 
admitted aliens, this office of^'ers the following: 

I must confess that I am unable to perceive any plan or scheme whereby alien 
immigrants of various races and nationalities may be persuaded to distribute 
themselves, or be distributed, until there be some volitionary choice on the part 
of such immigrant. Since there can be no compulsion on the part of the Federal 
Government in determining tlie destination or residence of one who comes from 
abroad to settle here, we can do little more than lay certain propositions before 
him and let him make a choice. There is, in this vicinity at least, no State, 
county, or city labor bureau or immigration commission which has a sufficiently 
comprehensive grasp on the subject to enable it at this time to cooperate with 
the Federal authorities in the distribution of alien immigrants. The two do 
not meet on a common ground. The State wants settlers, citizens preferred, or 
lacking these, aliens. All it does, all it can do, is to afford opportunities for the 
purchase of land. It offers no guaranty to the purchaser, nor does it protect 
him from the rapacity of agents, brokers, and others. The average alien immi- 
grant, through contact with the more sophisticated of his own race, has learned 
that he must look out for himself and his own interests; in fact, he has become 
supersuspieious of those who would sell him something. Until a State can exer- 
cise an option on salable lands and can offer them in its own name at reason- 
able prices and terms to intending settlers, there can be little public promotion 
of this kind. 

The State of Oregon is not seeking laborers. The law of supply and demand, 
augmented by private contractors and labor agents acting for their own profit, 
has heretofore effectively answered all the requirements in this respect. The 
average labor bureau, so called, whether it be a State, county, city, or private 
enterprise, finds its principal function in filling jobs of a more or less temporary 
character. Positions offering permanent employment are not, as rule, filled by 
non-English-speaking aliens. Furthermore, an employer does not wish to buy a 
" pig in a poke." 

In my opinion there is but one way to distribute non-English-speaking aliens. 
They must be colonized in sections of their own choice or meeting with their 
approval or they must be induced to settle where there is already a nucleus of 
their own race or nationality. I believe it would be an excellent plan for the 



316 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Immigration Service, through its various offices and officers, to secure a list of 
all so-called colonies, communities, settlements, o-r extension neighborhoods in 
which a foreign element has settled or resides in any considerable number. 
These lists should be supplemented by general and particular information, such 
as geographical location, the size of the community, the language spoken, the 
country, province, or district abroad whence the majority come, the occupations 
engaged in, the opportunity for further accessions, character of the land or 
other physical surroundings, and all else that may suggest itself to the investi- 
gator. These colonies or communities, some old and some new, abound in every 
State. They have come together through natural accretion, and have invariably 
prospered. Very naturally, most of them have preserved throughout the present 
generation their mother tongue and many of the habits, customs, and institutions 
of the motlierland. Some of them resent the intrusion of outsiders, and are 
developed and built up only through natural increase and by the addition of rela- 
tives or close friends of those already here. While such communities, through 
their attitude of self sufficiency and satisfaction do not encourage a general 
immigration of their own liind to their own precincts, they will welcome many 
such who may come of their own volition, and the latter in turn will come and 
settle in such neighborhoods if they but know that a common bond and interest 
will unite them with members of their own race already here and under the 
influence of American Institutions. 

I can not avoid the conclusion that newly arrived immigrants, irrespective 
of race, nationality, or tongue, can not be indiscriminately distributed, and 
therefore an effort must be made to meet them halfway and secure their 
adaptation to our view of life via a modified form of their own. Such a proc- 
ess would obviate any particular cooperation with State or municipal activities. 
An immigrant given a knowledge of or brought into touch with a community 
of natives of his own particular country, province, or district would more 
readily embrace an offer or a chance to identify himself with such a com- 
munity, wherein his latent talent or ability might more quickly expand and 
develop, than in a neighborhood where he will be surrounded by those alien 
to himself. 

This is written with a full realization that foreign colonies in the United 
States are objectionable to social economists. I make a point of distinction, 
however, between the foreign colony in the city and that in the smaller towns 
and in the country. It can not be other than true that large numbers of the 
foreign element now huddled together in colonies in our large industrial cen- 
ters, since they have tasted of the city's oppression, would welcome the oppor- 
tunity to leave the surroundings to which they and their ancestors have never 
been accu.stomed to find a permanent home in a smaller colony of their own 
kin, where they will have room to breathe and to live according to the hopes 
they felt when they left their native land. Thus, the suggestion herein con- 
tained might effect a double purpose, that of deflecting the arriving immi- 
grant from the overcrowded foreign colony in the big city and also that of 
encouraging the denizen of the crowded foreign colony to go onto the land 
or into the smaller manufacturing community. The whole matter resolves Itself 
into an alternative question : Whether we shall by arbitrary means endeavor 
to distribute aliens without their entire sympathy or consent, and fail largely 
in so doing, or whether we shall with greater promise of success guide them 
in paths which their instinct and inherent desires suggest, even though by 
so doing we delay their conversion to American ideals the better part of a 
generation ; for, after all. what do a few years more or less amount to in the 
prospective life of the Republic? Better that the conversion be gradual, and 
better still that it be had in the succeeding generation, born upon our own 
soil and e<lucated in our own institutions. 

In the adoption of the suggestion outlined above, the method best calculated 
to impart this information to 'arriving immigrants or to aliens in the large 
industrial centers could be worked out as the investigation of foreign com- 
munities progressetl. The foregoing has been in the writer's mind for a long 
time, but no opportunity for its expression arose until the bureau's request for 
suggestions was receivetl. I do not believe it would be difficult for investi- 
gators in the various districts to obtain a list of distinctly foreign communi- 
ties and the information suggested in reference thereto. 

J. H. Barbour, Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



317 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, SAN FRANCISCO, IN 
CHARGE OP DISTRICT NO. IS. COMPRISING NORTHERN CALIFORNIA 
AND NEVADA AND THE ANGEL ISL.\ND IMMIGRATION STATION. 

I have the honor to submit annual report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1914: 

There has been an increase in almost every department of the work of this 
district, and much which has been of more than usual interest, especially in 
connection with the efforts of Hindu aliens to gain admission to the United 
States mainland from the Philippines, and the court work and decisions which 
have grown out of the induction into office of a new United States district judge 
and a new personnel in the United States district attorney's office. I inclose in 
duplicate a number of statistical tables and exhibits,^ which tell in figures the 
story of the year's work, and in connection therewith I will endeavor herein 
under appropriate headings to make such comment as will tend to give the 
bureau a complete understanding of what we have undertaken, accomplished, 
and failed in during the year. 

CHINESE APPLICATIONS FOR ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES. 

The total number of Chinese applying for complete admission to the United 
States during the year was .3.832, an increase of 282, or slightly less than S per 
cent. This increase is entirely accounted for in the increase in the two classifi- 
cations " sons of citizens " and " sons of merchants," which increased 175 and 
107, or about 28 and 20 per cent, respectively. The percentages of increase and 
decrease in the various classes of Chinese handled at this port were, in detail, 
as follows : 



Class. 


1913 


1914 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


Natives 


832 

80 

627 

298 

708 

81 

84 

540 

201 

99 


776 
79 
802 
315 
645 
121 
73 
647 
245 
129 


Per cent. 
7 
1.3 


Per cent. 






Sons of citizens 


28 


Laborers 




2.3 


Returning merchants 


9 




Other merchants 


50 


Merchants' wives 


13 




Merchants' children 


20 


Students 




21 


Other classes 




30 









During the year there were landed by the commissioner 3.552 as against 3,344 
the previous year, an increase of 6 per cent: landings by the department were 
57 as against 39, an increase of about 50 per cent; but while the landings by 
both the commissioner and the department increased, the rejections by both 
authorities also increased, the local office having rejected 242 as against 221, 
an increase of 9.5 per cent, and the department having sustained this office in 
rejection orders in 128 cases as against 85 the previous year, an increase of 50 
per cent. Actual return to China or the country whence they came was accom- 
plished in 251 cases as against 170 the previous year, an increase of about 48 
per cent. The actual percentage of deportations of those who applied for 
admission during the year, however, was only 6.5, an increase of 2 per cent over 
the previous year. 

CHINESE LANDED UNDER BOND. 

The privilege of landing under bond has been kept within much more reason- 
able bounds during the year and has been accorded in only a very few cases 
where the purpose of such landing was to test the good faith of the applicant. 
Observation has taught that while there is real need for a " bonding " pro- 
cedure in instances where a temporary landing only is sought, such a procedure 
as a part of the investigation of the merits of an application for permanent 
landing does not work for efficiency and should be employed only in the rarest 
instances. 



1 Lack of space makes the omission of these necessary. 
detail In the text. 



They are commented on in 



318 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

APPLICATION FOR CHINESE RETURN CERTIFICATES AND MISCELLANEOUS WORK UNDER 

THE CHINESE LAWS. 

The total number of applications for return certificates submitted during the 
year were 2,168, of which 2,047 were finally granted and 121 denied. Of these 
totals, 1,025 of the cases considered were claims of American nativity, 957 of 
which were finally given favorable indorsement and 68 denied. This office feels 
that the probing of Chinese claims as to American nativity is not conducted in 
this district with the thoroughness which the importance of the \vork requires. 
The physical limitations against which our force is compelled to labor, however, 
precludes the possibility of more searching investigations without great conges- 
tion. This fact some time ago prompted this office to suggest to the department a 
modification in the rules extending the privilege of preinvestigation to " natives " 
whereby such preinvestigations would be granted to certain classes only and 
not to mature Chinese who could present no record evidence in support of their 
claims. Reference is made to this office's letter proposing the modification 
referred to and the recommendation therein made is renewed. 

A total of 3,580 miscellaneous investigations were made during the year by 
the force of this office, an increase of about 20 per cent. The total Chinese 
departures for the year were 5,210, an increase of about 8 per cent. The work 
of handling these departures, together with that involved in the checking in 
and out of the 12,178 Chinese crew men who came into this port during the 
year — a considerable increase — is due to the volume of which comes to the 
attention of the bureau only once a year, but which demands from our available 
force substantial consideration. 

Speaking in general of the work of handling Chinese applicants for admis- 
sion, the fiscal year just ended has tended toward a more effective enforce- 
ment of the laws. Certain abbreviations of the privileges heretofore accorded 
attorneys representing Chinese have lessened the chances for importunity, have 
simplified procedures, and enabled a more expeditious disposition of the work. 

INWARD AND OUTWARD PASSENGER MOVEMENTS FOR THE YEAR. 

The total passenger movement through this port during the fiscal year was 
approximately 31,122, an increase of 5.7 per cent. These were divided into 
16,009 inward-bound and 15,113 outward-bound passengers. Of the inward- 
bound passengers 10,138 were aliens, as against 9.201 the previous fiscal year, 
an increase of 937, or 10.2 per cent. As the previous year's figures showed a 
less percentage of increase, it will be appreciated that the immigration to this 
port is showing a steady growth which is likely to receive a heavy impetus 
during the next fiscal year, the first in which the Panama Canal will be 
available to traffic. 

DEBARMENTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION LAWS. 

Of the 10,550 aliens arriving ;it this port during the year, 338 were debarred 
and returned to the foreign ix)rts of embarkation. 

INWARD AND OUTWARD MOVEMENTS OF JAPANESE FOR THE YEAR. 

The total number of Japanese arrivals at this iwrt duriug the year was 3.944, 
as against 3,477 the previous year, an increase of 467, or about 13 per cent. 
The departures for the year were 3,844, as against 3,633 the previous year, an 
increase of 211, or 5.8 per cent. Of the total arrivals for the year, 2,099 were 
males and 1,845 were females, the former showing an increase of 173, or about 
9 per cent, and the latter an increa.se of 270. or 17 per cent. The total number 
debarred was only 37 — 31 being males and 6 females. 

The Japanese "bride" has continued to be the predominating factor in the 
Japanese female arrivals during the year, and as the year closed the number of 
that class of arrivals indicated still further increase in the year to come. 

MOVEMENTS OF HINDU ALIENS. 

The applications of Hindu aliens from foreign ports were practically the 
same as during the previous fiscal year, and the policy pursued in handling 
them gave about the same results as in the previous year. The movement of 
Hindus from the Philippines to the mainland, however, starting during the 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 319 

fiscal year of 1913, and increasing during tlie last fiscal year, gave us much 
concern. This is more fully referred to under the heading " Court work for 
the year." 

WORK UNDER THE EXPULSION PROVISIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION AND CHINESE LAWS 

DURING THE YEAR. 

The year has seen the handling of prohably the largest number of immigra- 
tion "warrant" cases ever initiated in this district in a single year — 414 — an 
increase of over 300 per cent as against last year, which in turn showed an 
increase of 200 per cent over the year previous. Deportation was accomplished 
in 134 cases, and 181 cases remained pending at the close of the year. 

Our labors under the deporting provisions of the laws relating to Chinese 
have been most unsatisfactory during the year, and the results achieved do 
not in any sense compare favorably with the results of the previous year, partly 
because of the attitude of the United States district court toward our work and 
partly for the reason that changes in the methods of handling Chinese arrest 
work practically relieved this office of that class of duty near the end of the 
first six months of the fiscal year. 

MOVEMENT OF KOREANS TO THE UNITED STATES. 

A somewhat iiotewortliy movement was that of incoming Koreans, there 
having been 67 applicants of that race during the year (part of them from 
insular territory) as against 12 for the previous fiscal year. Of the total num- 
ber coming, 37 were students, usually arriving on vessels tinder the American 
flag, embarking at Shanghai and thereby laying the foundation for the claim 
that they are not Japanese subjects and therefore are excepted from the require- 
ment as to passports. None of them will admit the status of a laborer, and in 
most instances they state that they left Korea before or about the time that 
Japan assumed sovereignty over Korea and that therefore they are not subjects 
of Japan. In many cases they are what might be termed " working students " 
in that they proceed to different educational institutions and actually pursue 
a student course, but maintain themselves, partially or in whole, by working 
in some capacity near by the school. The movement has not reached a serious 
volume at present, but inquiries now coming to us would indicate that it may 
soon become so large as to require the bureau's special attention. 

HEAD-TAX COLLECTIONS. 

Although head-tax collections for the fiscal year 1913 increased almost 
$9,000, the collections for the year just ended again show an increase in net 
amount of about $3,000, the total sum deposited in the Treasury from that 
source being $37,056. 

ESCAPES FROM VESSELS AND STATION DURING THE FISCAL YEAR. 

The year has seen four escapes from the station and two from vessels in the 
bay after delivery for deportation — the largest number for any year since 
the station opened. "While such instances were regrettable, investigation in 
each instance showed no serious culpability on the part of watchmen and others 
concerned, and it is gratifying to be able to report that in every instance recap- 
ture and ultimate deportation were accomplished in from four days to two 
weeks. In one instance the escape was a stowaw^^y who had three times been 
deported from the United States, and who after his escape, recapture, and de- 
portation at this port in June of this year, again escaped from the ship on 
which he was deported, gaining his complete freedom at San Pedro, Cal., where 
the vessel called on her voyage foreign. 

FINES UNDER SECTION 9 OF THE IMMIGRATION ACT. 

The year has seen the assessment of $4,900 against steamship companies 
plying between this port, the Orient, Mexican, and Central and South American 
points, With $500 more pending at the end of the year. These fines are largely 
the fruit of a change in policy in the handling of aliens afflicted with unci- 
nariasis or hookworm. Prior to the closing months of the last calendar year 
the medical examiners at this station would not certify that hookworm could 



320 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

have been discovered prior to embarliation of aliens found to be afflicted on ar- 
rival at this iK)rt who produced evidence that they had been examined prior to 
embarkation and had been certified free from the disease — this on the theory 
that it was impossible to be certain that the presence of the disease might not 
have been overlooked even with a competent medical examination at the port of 
departure or that the infection had not taken place at such a time in the 
journey as would not have made it discoverable at the port of embarkation, but 
in the closing months of the last calendar year the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. 
adopted a plan of merely examining their prospective passengers prior to em- 
barkation in the Orient and, if they were found to be afflicted with hookworm, 
taking them on board ship for treatment during the journey to the United 
States. As it was apparent from this procedure that in those instances where 
aliens arrived here still afflicted with the disease a competent medical examina- 
tion had discovered its presence prior' to embarkation, a fine of $100 has been 
assessed in each of such cases. The fines have been paid without protest, the 
steamship company manifestly considering it as a charge against the fund which 
accrued to them in their fees for medical treatment given their passengers en 
route, amounting to $30 each. 

While this method of handling passengers afflicted with hookworm would 
appear! to be a violation of the spirit of the law as contained in section 9 of the 
immigration act, it should be said in all fairne.ss that since the practice of treat- 
ing on board ship has been inaugurated the percentage of hookworm certifica- 
tions at this port has fallen very substantially. 

COURT WORK FOR THE YEAR. 

During the year the executions of 102 orders made by the Secretary of Labor 
and by boards of special inquii-y for the deportation of 102 aliens were resisted 
by the institution of habeas corpus proceedings in the courts of this district. 
In two of these instances a United States district judge denied the petitions 
without issuing orders to show cause. The other petitions were all made to 
another United States district judge, who in each case called upon the immigra- 
tion authorities to show cause. Of these aliens, 75 were Hindus who came to 
this port from the Philippine Islands, and who after being landed were im- 
mediately arrested under departmental warrants ; 18 were aliens who had re- 
sided in this country for some time and were also arrested under departmental 
process; 7 were applicants for admission under the Chinese-exclusion laws, in 
whose cases my excluding decisions were affirmed by the Secretary of Labor. 
The remaining 2 were certified by the medical examiner as being afflicted with 
imcinariasis, or hookworm, and the Secretary of Labor refused to allow them 
hospital treatment. 

By far the greatest in importance of the court proceedings referred to were 
those in behalf of the Hindus. Previous to the spring of 1913 East Indian 
applicants at this port had nearly all come directly from Chinese or Japanese 
ports. The apprehension caused by the large numbers of these people that 
were gaining entrance at this port was stilled in 1910, when a stricter enforce- 
ment of the law against them was established, with the result that the number 
of their applications for admission became small. No further apprehension was 
felt from the Hindu until the spring of 1913. when a number arriving in small 
groups presented certificates — issued at Manila under rule 14 — entitling them 
to admission. Every effort was made to induce these aliens to admit, what 
was believed to be the truth, that their original purpose in going to the Philip- 
pines was thereby to obtain entry into the mainland. This they steadfastly 
refused to do, maintaining that they had no thought of coming to the continent 
until after they had been landed in the islands, and that in going to the Islands 
and afterwards coming here they were not otherwise moved than by their indi- 
vidual desires. Some of the cases were sent to the department, but it was 
determined that the applicants were entitled to admission and to residence 
here under the provision of rule 14 as it then existed. The feeling that a 
scheme was on foot whereby it was proposed to use the Philippines as a " back- 
door " entrance to the mainland was voiced in my last annual report. 

In June, 1913, rule 14 was amended so as to read as it appears in the last 
edition of the pamphlet containing the immigration laws and rules. It was 
considered that the Hindu situation could be dealt with by the enforcement of 
the amendments to the rule, among which is the following : 

" If it is found in accordance with subdivision 3 hereof that such aliens 
were at the time of entry into Porto Rico, Hawaii, or the Philippines members 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 321 

of tlie excluded classes or likely to become public charges if tliey proceeded 
thence to the maiulaud, they shall be arrested in accordance with rule 22 on 
either or both of those grounds." 

The number of Hindu applicants from the islands was increasing, and word 
came that thousands were being lauded there. Of those who left the Philip- 
pines in July, 1913, after the promulgation of amended rule 14 and arrived here 
in August, nearly all, it appeared from their own statements, had been farm 
laborers or soldiers in their native country. They told of having migrated to 
Hongkong or some other port on the continent of Asia, of being employed there for 
a time as watchmen, of going thence to the Philippines, of staying there, as a 
rule, for periods ranging from a few days to a few months, and of following there 
the occupation of watchman, or peddler, or no occupation at all. Each was 
possessed of about $50 in gold, and some made extravagant claims of owning 
valuable farm lands in India. No evidence was offered, however, to substan- 
tiate those claims. The majority expressed the intention of becoming farm 
laborers in California, while others said they intended to peddle, but if not 
successful would follow any laboring occupation procurable. They were of a 
low type, and were in no way distinguishable from the great majority of their 
countrymen living on this coast, and against whom there was developing a 
strong prejudice among the people generally because of their uncleanliness, 
their obnoxious habits, their unfitness for labor, etc. It was realized that this 
prejudice, sooner or later, in one way or another, would cause those already 
here to become public charges, and likewise those who were entering if they 
were allowed to remain. The circumstances surrounding the latter justified 
the conclusion that they had concealed fi'om the immigration officials who 
landed them in the Philippines an existing purpose of going to the mainland of 
the United States. It was considered, therefore, that the tests conducted by 
those oflicials were of a character to determine only whether the aliens were 
likely to become public charges in the islands, and not on the continent, where 
entirely different social and climatic conditions and standards of living pre- 
vailed and made necessary a test much more rigid. Accordingly, the applicants 
were landed on the presentation of their certificates, but were immediately 
arrested under departmental warrants charging as follows : 

" That the said aliens are members of the excluded classes, in that they were 
persons likely to become public charges at the time of their entry into the 
United States." 

During the hearings there were filed in behalf of the aliens affidavits made 
for the most part by Hindus who were lessees of farms in California, some of 
whom were of considerable prominence, denying the existence of a prejudice 
against the people of that race, and that any of them would ever become public 
charges in the United States. The affiants also offered employment to the aliens 
under arrest should they be permitted to remain in the country. This office 
then caused an extensive investigation to be made, securing many statements, 
affidavits, and letters by representative men from difi'erent walks of life who 
had come in contact with the Hindus on the coast, which, together with a large 
number of newspaper clippings, went to show that such a prejudice did exist 
and gave reasons therefor. When the Secretary of Labor found that the 
charges in the warrants of arrest had been substantiated, and accordingly 
issued warrants of deportation, writs of habeas corpus were applied for in 
22 cases. The chief contentions of the petitions were (1) that the Secretary 
of Labor could not under the law order the deportation of aliens who had 
been admitted into the Philippine Islands because they later came to the main- 
land, and (2) that there was an abuse of discretion on the part of the Secretary 
of Labor in ordering these aliens deported, because they were not considered as 
individuals but racially as Hindu laborers, and, as such, did not come within 
either the exclusion or expulsion provisions of the law. It is most gratifying 
that the court sustained the Government (200 Fed. Rep.. 700). An appeal has 
been taken to the circuit court of appeals. The court later rendered a deci- 
sion in favor of the Government involving 34 other Hindus coming from the 
Philippine Islands, who were ordei-ed df ported on the same ground; but those 
cases were somewhat differently presented to the court (213 Fed. Rep., 128). 
An appeal from this decision has also been taken to the circuit court of appeals. 

In two of the executive warrant cases in which the action of the Secretary 
of Labor was sustained the decisions of the courts were quite important. One 
is the case of Li Yau Ngan. a Chinese woman, who after being admitted as the 
wife of an American-born citizen of Chinese descent was arrested under a 
warrant in which she was charged with having been found practicing prosti- 

60629°— 15 21 



322 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

tution subsequent to entry. After she had been taken hito custody and formally 
advised of the charge against her, and about two days after her counsel had 
appeared and been recognized in tlie proceedings pending under the warrant, 
an inspector, without notifying counsel that he might be present, without counsel 
being present and without Ijnowledge of counsel, examined two police ofQcers, 
who made statements that were very damaging to the alien. The questions 
asked by the inspector and the answers given by the policemen were taken 
down by a stenographer, who made ti-anscripts of them, which transcripts were 
placed in the record of the case that went to the Secretary of Labor for decision. 
Upon counsel being shown the transcripts, he protested that it was unfair to 
use them against the alien, as he had not been afforded an opportunity to be 
present when the examinations were made, and he requested that he be given 
an opportunity to cross-examine the policemen, which request was refused. 
Under habeas corpus proceedings the ease was heard during the preceding fiscal 
year on a demurrer to the petition interposed by the Government, but was not 
decided until July 2, 1913, when the court handed down a memorandum opinion 
which has not been reported and w^hich in full reads as follows: 

"On authority of the cases of Low Wah Suey v. Backus (225 U. S., 460), 
and the Japanese Immigrant case (189 U. S.. 86), the demurrer must be 
sustained and the writ denied. It is so ordered." 

No appeal was perfected in this case, and the woman has been deported. 

The other case referred to is that of Loo Shew Ung, in which the Secretary 
of Labor being satisfied that the charge upon which the alien had been arrested, 
which substantially was that he had been employed as a cook in a house of 
prostitution, had been proved, issued a warrant for his deportation. The court 
refused to interfere with the execution of the warrant (210 Fed. Rep., 990). 

In two cases that may be considered worthy of mention the court refused to 
interfere with the execution of orders of deportation made under the Chinese- 
exclusion laws. Chun Kim sought admission in December. 1912, as the Chinese 
wife of Hong Lung Yiug, American born. While the record did not disclose 
enough that was unfavorable to warrant rejection and return to China, the 
case was surrounded by circumstances which suggested that she might in fact 
not be the wife of her alleged husband, but a woman brought here for immoral 
purposes. Therefore, in order to give her an opportunity to disclose her true 
character, she was enlarged under a departmental bond and kept under sur- 
veillance. For some months her movements excited suspicion, and when she 
was finally found an inmate of a house of prostitution her application to land 
was denied, which denial was sustained on appeal by the Secretaiy of Labor. 
The point was raised that her release under bond was tantamount to a landing, 
and that an expulsion proceeding and not an exclusion proceeding should have 
been employed against her. The court orally expressed the opinion that it 
was evident that her release was only pi-obationary and for the purpose of 
furnishing this service with additional evidence with which to decide finally 
whether she should be landed. This case is now on appeal before the Supreme 
Court of the United States, where it is understood an effort will be made to 
secure her release on bail, an application for such release having been denied 
by the court before the ca.se went up. Chin Fong, a citizen of China, had been 
a merchant in New York for more than a year, when, in February, 1912, his 
application for a certificate that would entitle him to go to China and return 
to the United States was denied by the Seattle oflice and by the bureau, on 
the ground that his entry into this country some years before had been sur- 
reptitious, and that therefore his unlawful residence could not be cured by 
any occupation in which he might have engaged. Notwithstanding this he soon 
afterwards went to China, and on returning he applied for admission at this 
port as a merchant of New York. My action in denying him admission was 
aflirmed by the Secretary of Labor. The court, in a written decision (213 Fed. 
Rep., 288), held that Chin Fong, being an applicant for admission, was within 
the jurisdiction of the immigration authorities, who had the power to exclude 
him for the reason assigned. Chin Fong has appealed from this ruling. 

Although the court's favoralile rulings in the cases that have been discussed 
in the foregoing, particularly in the Hindu cases, have given this office no little 
inspiration in its difficult task of enforcing the immigration and Chinese laws, 
its unfavorable rulings in other cases, in which it has criticized the department 
and us, have sometimes had a correspondingly depressing effect. 



KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 323 

There will now be recounted some of the most important of the considerable 
number of unfavorable holdings of the court : 

Yep Kim Yuen, a Chinese applicant, claimed to be the son of one Yep 
Lung Ngon, a laborer, who in turn claimed to be the Yep Lung Ngon shown by a 
record of the United States district court of this district to have been adjudged 
by that court in 1890, on habeas corpus, an American-born citizen. It was con- 
ceded that they were father and son, but the Secretary of Labor, upon com- 
paring the photograph of the alleged father with a photograph of the photograph 
in the court record of the Yep Lung Ngon who was adjudged a citizen in 1890, 
reached the conclusion that the alleged father had not had his citizenship 
established by the court as claimed, and consequently ordered the applicant 
excluded upon the ground that the alleged father, being a Chinese laborer and 
not an American citizen, could not, under the law, secure the admission of his 
son. When this case came before the judge, he compared the alleged father 
with the photograph in the court record and heard witnesses on the question 
of identity. In the immigration record that was before the Secretary of Labor 
there was a report by Chinese Inspector and Interpreter Gardner, of this oflice. 
to the effect that after comparing the signature of the alleged father with 
the signature of Yep Lung Ngon in the court recoi'd, he was of the opinion that 
the alleged father was the person before the court in 1890. The court expressed 
itself satisfied as to the identity and ordered the applicant discharged upon 
the theory that the power is inherent in a court to determine the identity of 
the parties to whom its records relate. The judge was sitting in the court that 
decided the case of Yep Lung Ngon in 1890. Again the court took occasion to ex- 
press its views as to the superior value of the opinions of local officers over 
those of the Secretary of Labor in such cases. This case has been appealed. 

Gin Dock, alias Gin Dock Sue, a Chinese subject who departed for China in 
1907 under the name of Young Lung Sop, applied in 1908 for admission at San 
Fi'ancisco as a returning merchant. Because of his failure to establish a mer- 
cantile status, he was denied landing and was about to be deported, when he 
escaped from detention, his whereabouts being unknown to the service until it 
was discovered that he was identical with a Chinaman who called himself Gin 
Dock and who had been arrested under a Unitetl States commissioner's warrant 
charging him with being illegally in the Llnited States. He being at large on 
bail, this ofUce took him into custody upon the theory that he was still an 
applicant for admission, he not having left the country since his escape in 1908, 
and subject to the deportation order entered against him in 1908. A writ was 
applied for, but before the time for hearing had arrived a motion was made 
for the admission of Gin Dock to bail pending result of the habeas corpus pro- 
ceeding. It was argued in behalf of the service that Gin Dock was an applicant 
for admission, who was in the proper custody, and could not, in view of section 
5 of the act of May 5, 1892, be released on bail. In admitting Gin Dock to bail 
and expressing the opinion that, by reason of his uninterrupted residence of 
over five years in the United States, he had the right to have the legality of 
his residence determined by a United States commissioner or judge, the judge 
virtually decided the jurisdictional point involved on habeas coi'pus. The depor- 
tation proceeding before the United States conmiissioner followed, and Gin Dock 
was ordered deported, the habeas corpus proceeding having in the meantime 
been dismissed without a hearing having been had on the petition. An appeal 
from the connnissioner's order is pending before the court. Had the commis- 
sioner discharged the defendant, this office would have again assumed custody 
of him, with the intention of resisting to the last any habeas corpus proceeding 
that might have been instituted -to prevent deiwrtation. 

Kwan So, a Chinese woman, was ordered deported on departmental warrant 
in December, 1912. it having been found that she had practiced prostitution ■ 
since her entry. A writ was applied for, and a United States district judge 
during the first half of 1913. while sitting temporarily in San Francisco, duly 
considered the matter and handed down a written decision, which has only 
recently been reported (211 Fed. Rep.. 772). An appeal to the Supreme Court 
was taken by the alien, but never perfected, and the alien was enlarged on bail. 
Some time after the period allowed for perfecting the appeal had elapsed the 
failure to ijerfect it was discovered, and the warrant of deiwrtation was about 
to be executed, when another petition was filed, and the case was considered 
by another judge upon an immigration record in every respect similar to that 
upon which the first judge rendered his decision. The full record of the case 



324 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

decided by the first judge, together with the written decision of that judge, was 
submitted to the court. It was urged that the court should not consider this 
second petition, inasmuch as another judge had already passed upon the case 
and refused to grant the writ. The second judge nevertheless rendered a deci- 
sion, not yet reported, in which he ordered that the alien be discharged from 
custody upon the ground that there was no evidence upon which the finding of 
the Secretary of Labor could have been based. The department has decided 
not to appeal. 

Gin Nom, alias Wong Tuey Hing, is a Chinese who departed for China in 
December, 1910, having secured, upon application and investigation, a merchant's 
return certificate. Upon his return in September, 1912, he was promptly landed 
as a merchant. A few months later evidence was secured that Gin Nom had 
not only been employed in a restaurant in Tucson, Ariz., ever since his return 
to the United States, but had been so employed during the year before his 
departure, and was therefore a laborer and not a merchant when he secured 
his certificate and departed as a merchant in 1910. He was arrested under 
a departmental warrant, and after he had been accorded a hearing a warrant 
was issued for his deportation, this warrant containing the finding that he 
had been found in the United States in violation of the act of February 20, 
1907, amended by the act of March 26, 1910, in that he was likely to 
become a public charge at the time of his entiy, and in that he secured 
admission by false and misleading statements, thereby entering without 
inspection. The immigration record in this case contained ample evidence 
to show that the alien was subject to deportation under section 21 of the 
immigration law, having last entered within three years and being here 
in violation of the Cliinese-exclusion laws. Although the applicability of 
the said section was not expressly stated either in the warrant or in the 
return to the petition, the assistant United Staes attorney who handled the 
case is positive that he raised the point on oral argument. If he did so, the 
court either ignored or forgot it, for the decision rendered (213 Fed. Rep., 112) 
makes no reference to this section, but states that if the alien is here in 
violation of law, the machinery for his removal is provided by the Chinese- 
exclusion laws, and not the immigration law. Inasmuch as the alien was not 
apprised from the warrant of arrest, or otherwise during the proceeding, that 
it was held against him that he was a person likely to become a public charge 
at the time of his entry, the decision says that the finding to that effect in the 
warrant of deportation must be wholly disregarded. As to the finding of ad- 
mission by means of false and misleading statements, thereby entering without 
inspection, the decision calls attention to rule 3 of the Chinese regulations, 
which provides that Chinese applicants must first be examined under the 
general immigration laws. 

This case will probably not be appealed. 

Lin How, alias Ung King I.,ong, was ordered deported as an alien prostitute, 
as the result of an executive warrant proceeding. The record showed that her 
attorney w-as duly notified that an insi>ector would examine witnesses for the 
Government at a certain time and place and that the attorney might be present. 
The inspector questioned several witnesses, who gave important testimony for 
the Government. At the conclusion of the examination of each the attorney 
asked leave to cross-examine the witness, and the request was each time uncon- 
ditionally and unqualifiedly refused by the inspector. The court decided (213 
Fed. Rep., 119) that the absolute refusal to iiermit the attorney to cross-examine 
the witnesses made the hearing unfair, and the alieu was ordered discharged. 
In this case no appeal has been taken. 

Of the district court's adverse actions, none have caused the service more 
•embarrassment and concern than its liberality in admitting aliens to bail. The 
most serious instance of this has occurred in the cases of prostitues, who dur- 
ing enlargement, as is well known to the service, nearly alwnys resume their im- 
moral life, their attorneys in the meantime, by taking appeals, in which there 
often is no merit, and by the emjiloyment of other dilatory tactics, keeping them 
at large for unconscionable periods of time. The result is that the deportation 
of prostitutes under executive warrants has been practically stopped for the 
time being, and the purpose of the law has been thwarted. 

Repeated protests against this practice have been made to the court, which 
could be persuaded to go no further than to lay down a rule that when a motion 
is made for the bonding of an alien prostitute the court will set a date for the 
hearing on the motion, when the Government will have an opportunity to satisfy 
the court by competent evidence that the alien will probably reengage in prosti- 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 325 

tution if given Iier freedom. The imposition of tliis burden upon the service is 
a new departure. It seems needless to point out laow hopeless it is for us to 
procure evidence of what is the intention of the woman or her procurers should 
she be released. In a recent case the testimony given in court by credible wit- 
nesses that the woman in question, a Chinese, had been rescued from a house 
of prostitution ; that she had confessed to her rescuers that she had been im- 
ported to this country for immoral purposes and had. practiced prostitution since 
coming here; that afterwards, on tlie occasion of her arrest, she was positively 
identified in another city as having been an inmate of a house of prostitution 
there; and that subsequently, while on bail, she was again found in a house of 
prostitution, was held insufficient, though met only by the woman's own denials. 
In striking contrast with the above-described practice in the matter of grant- 
ing immoral aliens freedom under bond is the practice that formerly obtained 
in the northern California district. Then the court refused absolutely to grant 
bail without the approval of this department and the United States attorney. 
For a time the department adopted the iwlicy of disapproving such applications. 
The result was that a considerable number of alien prostitutes were being main- 
tained in custody by this service. In the year 1912, when the end of vexatious 
habeas corpus proceedings on behalf of alien prostitutes seemed, in sight, the 
department came to the conclusion that the expenses of maintaining them was 
too great a burden, and consequently those in custody were permitted to go on 
bail, this notwithstanding the protest of the United States attorney to the 
department. 

WORK OF THE MEDICAL EXAMINERS AND HOSPITAL FORCE. 

The total number of aliens examined by the medical officers of tliis station 
during the fiscal year was 16,924, an increase of more than 4,000 over the pre- 
ceding year. Of this total. 6,2G6 pi-esented such indications of physical ailment 
as required their bringing from arriving vessels to Angel Island for a further 
and more detailefl examination. These more extended examinations resulted 
in specific certifications for about 100 different ailments, the following of which 
seem most noteworthy : 

Cases. 

Beriberi ■- 12 

Conjunctivitis 20 

Cerebrospinal meningitis 5 

Childbirth 2 

Favus 2 

Mumps 46 

Pneumonia 4 

Soft chancre 3 

Scabies 87 

Trachoma 30 

Tuberculosis : 8 

Uncinariasis (hookworm) ^- 500 

Insanity 4 

Observation of beriberi at this station has shown it to be a disease requiring 
a long course of treatment and especial care of the patient to accomplish a 
cure. Because of these circumstances this office is not encouraged to believe 
that it is a disease for which hospital treatment should be granted, excepting 
in cases where undue hardship would clearly result from deportation. 

Of a total of 244 cases held during the year for observation of the eyes 30 
were finally certified as afflicted with trachoma, 20 for conjunctivitis, and the 
remainder were discharged. Of the 30 trachoma cases 22 were granted treat- 
ment by the department, in most instances on the medical examiner's certifi- 
cate that a cure might be possible within 60 days. However, as showing the 
tenability of the medical examiner's opinion that it is exti-emely difficult for a 
physician to give an advance assurance as to the time required to cure tra- 
choma, it may be pointed out that in 7 of the 22 cases treated the period of 
treatment reached or exceeded 12 weeks. 

The five cases of cerebrospinal meningitis arising during the year brought 
the station face to face with most serious problems. The station is absolutely 
deficient in proper facilities for handling this class of diseases, and we were 
forced to throw ourselves on the charity of the San Francisco authorities, who 
consented to take the cases only on personal request and as a personal favor. 



326 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

All detention buildings of the station had to be ceiled and fumigated, and the 
several hundred inmates of the station had to be taken to the quarantine sta- 
tion, three-quarters of a mile away, for fumigation of their persons and be- 
longings. Despite this, the last three cases were apparently the fruit of the 
second case, and death resulted in three of the five cases. 

While no fatalities resulted, some of the difficulties and complications were 
encountered in the handliag of the 46 cases of mumps developing during the 
year. A large number of these case were undoubtedly due to the abence of 
proper isolation hospital quarters, and this office is earnestly of the belief that 
the service will be in an indefensible position as to its hospital facilities until 
the isolation building heretofore repeatedly recommended is provided. 

The total number of hookworm cases treated in the hospital during the year 
was 539 (including 39 cases iu the hospital at the end of the previous fiscal 
year), a reduction of about 36 per cent from the number of cases treated the 
previous year. Of the number treated. 387 were discharged in one week, 
67 the second week, 17 the third week, and in only 5 cases during the 
year did the period of treatment reach or exceed four weeks. The adminis- 
trative problems arising incident to the handling of aliens afflicted with hook- 
worm have been the subject of frequent communications during the year. 

The total " treatment days " for the year In the hospital are 10,664, or an 
average of 29.22. The total hospital earnings for the year were $13,194.50, 
although it should be understood that a small portion of this was for cases 
from which there was no actual income, the patients being held under war- 
rants of arrest. The actual cash earnings were $12,072.25, and the expenses 
of maintenance of the hospital (exclusive of salaries) was $6,401.86, the latter 
amount coming from the district's annual allotment, while the total receipts 
were turned back into the general fund for the expenses of regulating im- 
migration. 

CONSTRUCTION WORK AND ADDITIONS TO FACILITIES. 

During the year this station has spent in the neighborhood of $20,000 on 
construction work and equipment, as follows : 

Concrete addition to power house $5,000.00 

Garbage incinerator 860. 00 

Furnishing and installing boiler (150 horsepower), feed-water heater 

and feed pump in new concrete addition to power house 9,914. 00 

Furnishing and installing one motor-driven salt-water pump, capable 
of delivering 150 gallons of water per minute against head of 150 

pounds per square inch 971.00 

Furnishing and installing new Seabury water tube boiler (175 horse- 
power) in cutter Inspector 2,816.47 

Alterations to detention building, windows enlarged, two additional 
doors provided and stairway constructed from second floor to 

recreation grounds (materials only) 180.57 

Installation only, new propeller on steamship Angel Island 125.00 

Additional machinery, 1 Buss 8-inch jointer, 1 Fay 16-inch planer, 1 

Wright 26-inch band saw 320. 00 

Additional hospital equipment, 48 hospital ward tables and cabinets 

combined - 576. 00 

Additional filing equipment, 10 sections letter-size filing cabinets 103. 50 

Additional equipment for detention quarters, 400 blankets 1,460.00 

Total 22. ,326. 54 

While much the greater part of this was taken from a special appropriation 
for additions and alterations to the station, very considerable items were 
required to be taken from our allotment for the conduct of the work of the 
district, and this fact forced upon us a most rigid system of economy in order 
that we should keep within the amount of our allotment. This was done only 
by foregoing some of the needs which were essential to proper upkeep of the 
station. 

NEEDS FOB THE COMING YEAR. 

In the fiscal year 1913 this district expended a considerable sum on repairs 
to the wharf at Angel Island under instructions from the department for the 
making of such repairs as would keep the wharf in a usable condition for two 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 327 

years. The end of that period is approaching, and it is apparent that further 
expenditures should be. made at no distant date for the concreting of an addi- 
tional number of the supporting piles, at a cost now roughly estimated to be 
$5,000. 

One of the greatest needs of the station at the present time is an isolation 
ward for the hospital, wherein patients afflicted with contagious diseases may 
be kept. The detailed reasons for such a recommendation have already been the 
subject of communications now in the bureau and are further set forth in this 
report under the heading devoted to " HosiMtal work for the year." It is be- 
lieved that a proper structure and. equipment to meet the requirements will cost 
not to exceed $10,000. 

While the growth of "European immigration to this coast incident to the open- 
ing of the Panama Canal is now expected to be slow, it seems certain that some 
increase may be looked for within the present fiscal year. The station is par- 
ticularly equipped for the handling of immigration from the Orient, but can fur- 
nish proper detention quarters for only the most limited number of European 
passengers — in fact, if so many as 30 were brought to the station at one time we 
would not be able to furnish them with such accommodations as they should be 
given. It is therefore recommended that if the situation does not promise an 
early decision as to the future permanent location for the station, the question 
of constructing and equipping an additional detention building or buildings for 
European immigrants, at a cost approximating $30,000, be considered. 

The buildings of the station have not been painted for practically three years, 
and proper upkeep would require an appropriation of $4,000 for that purpose. 

PERSONNEL. 

I am pleased to report that the force in general is working loyally and har- 
moniously for the best interests of the service, and that our relations with the 
officers and employees of other departments of the Government are harmonious 
and pleasant. As a closing word, however, I would request your attention to the 
growing disquietude and discontent throughout the force on the question of 
salaries. We have employees who have long been deserving of increased com- 
pensation and are helpless not only to give them any recognition but even to 
hold out any hope to them. I feel that the obtaining of relief for this situation 
is a matter deserving your best and earliest effort. 

Samuel W. Backus, Commissioner. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 20, COMPRISING 
ALASKA, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT KETCHIKAN. 

There is submitted herewith report covei'ing the administration of the Immi- 
gration Service in this district for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914. 

In order to convey a clear idea of the conditions under which this office Is 
performing its task, that of examining and admitting aliens into the United 
States, some explanation is necessary. 

The examination of aliens arriving from Vancouver and Prince Rupert, 
Canada, is conducted on board of steamships. The steamships arrive at all 
hours of the day and night, and the examination must be accomplished with 
the least possible delay. As a general I'ule the arrivals occur during the night 
hours, between 1 and 6 o'clock in .the morning. Therefore the immigrant in- 
spector must hunt over all the boat and knock at each stateroom in order to 
wake up the passengers for examination. .On gaining admission the aliens are 
examined in their berths. As a matter of course, the surgeon goes first through 
the same performance, then the immigrant inspector follows, reawakening the 
passengers. 

Aliens examined 2, 000 

Admitted on primary inspection . 631 

Held for board of special inquiry 16 

Rejected by board of special inquiry 12 

Admitted by board of special inquiry 4 

Percentage of aliens finally deported, 1.9. 



328 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

By deducting the number of admissions on primary inspection from tlie num- 
ber of aliens examined a difference of 1,369 will result, which is the number 
of transit aliens going from one part of Canada to another. This class of 
aliens constitute the bulk of the work in this district. According to law they 
require as thorough inspection as though they were seeking admission into the 
United States. In certain instances it requires on the part of the immigrant 
inspector sound judgment and common sense to enforce the law in accordance 
with its spirit rather than the mere letter thereof. The condition of the labor 
market in Canada and the requirements of the Canadian immigration law must 
be taken into consideration. By disregarding these elements aliens thus 
admitted at the port of Ketchikan are liable to debarment by the Canadian 
immigrant inspector stationed at the summit of White Pass, British Columbia. 

The immigration movement in this district can aptly be compared to the 
birds of migratory habit; in fall the trend is toward the south, while in 
spring it is toward the north. 

In addition to the transit aliens it is noteworthy that 4,486 United States citi- 
zens arrived who do not come under the immigration law yet whose claim to 
citizenship must be verified. They constitute approximately 70 per cent of the 
arrivals. 

Rejections by boards of special inquiry are accounted for as follows: 

Likely to become a public charge 2 

Contract labor 8 

Prostitutes 2 

Total - 12 

Warrants for aliens applied for 6 

Issued 6 

Served 5 

Canceled 1 

Executed 5 

Causes of arrest : 

Entry without inspection 2 

Living on proceeds of prostitutes 1 

Returning prostitute after being deported 1 

Prostitute 1 

During the year there were two civil suits instituted and convictions had, in 
both instances the culprits pleading guilty; accounted for as follows: 
Landing aliens in violation section 18, fined $200 in the United States com- 
missioner's court at Ketchikan 1 

Returning prostitute in violation section 3, sentenced by United States com- 
missioner to 3 months' imprisonment in the Federal jail at Valdez 1 

Fine of $40 collected for violation of section 15, for improper manifesting — 1 



Two Chinese persons charged with unlawful residence, whose cases were 
pending at the close of the fiscal year 1913 in the United States commissioner's 
court at Ketchikan, were discharged without prejudice. One Chinaman was 
permitted to go in transit through United States territory from one point in 
Canada to another. 

MEDICAL INSPECTION. 

The surgeon has not reported a single case since the establishment of the 
district in 1903. This probably is due to the peculiar conditions under which 
the aliens are being examined, namely, on board of steamships at night and 
while they are lying in their berths. 

CONTRACT LABOR. 

As shown elsewhere in this report, the board of special inquiry excluded eight 
aliens as contract laborers. All but one of these were Ossets coming from 
Prince Rupert, Canada, to work in quartz mines in Juneau. This particular 
class of people began to come into this district from Canada in considerable 
numbers, with the view of finding employment on the proposed Alaska railroad 
construction work. This class of aliens are hard to assimilate. My experience 
in the service leads me to believe that these peoples never move from place to 
place unless some one induces them to do so. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENEEAL OF IMMIGEATION. 329 

WHITE-SLAVE CASE. 

One case was recently reiwrted and is now in tlie course of investigation. 

PERSONNEL. 

The force of the district consists of two regular immigrant inspectors and 
five deputy collectors of customs. The deputy collectors attend to the small 
volume of business at their regular stations where the conditions would not 
warrant an appointment of a regular inspector. In addition, there are five 
deputy collectors of customs, one United States marshal, one deputy marshal, 
two United States commissioners, and one United States district attorney 
designated as members of a board of special inquiry, making a total of 17 em- 
ployees detailed to enforce the immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws in this 
district. 

DOMIANUS MaSKEVICZIUS, 

Inspector in Charge. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, SAN JUAN, P. R.. IN 
CHARGE OF DISTRICT NO. 21, COMPRISING ISLAND OF PORTO 
RICO. 

I have the honor to submit the following report regarding transactions under 
the immigration and Chinese-exclusion laws in this district during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1914. 

The arrival of aliens in Port Rico for the past fiscal year has broken all 
previous records, the increase over last fiscal year being 57 per cent and more 
than 8 per cent over any previous year since the service was established on this 
island. 

INWARD passenger MOVEMENT. 

United States citizens 3, 192 

Aliens 3, 614 

Total 6,806 

OUTWABD PASSENGER MOVEMENT 

United States citizens 4,056 

Aliens 3, 338 

Total 7,394 

Of the 3,614 aliens arriving, 1,205 were immigrants and 2,409 were nonimmi- 
grants. Of the 3,338 aliens departing, 957 were emigrants and 2,381 were non- 
immigrants. 

DETENTIONS. 

Of the aliens arriving from foreign ports and applying for admission, 3,432 
were admitted on primary inspection and 182 were detained for hearing before 
the board of special inquiry, 122 of whom were admitted by the board and 60 
excluded; 23 of those excluded by the board were admitted on appeal to the 
department, as follows: 6 under school bond, 3 under public-charge bond, and 
14 admitted outright. 

DEPORTATIONS. 

Of the total number of aliens applying for admission during the fiscal year, 
33 were deported and 4 were pending at close of the fiscal year. In addition 
to the number of deiwrtations above mentioned there were 6 other deportations, 
as follows: Warrant procedure, 1: warrant procedure pending from last fiscal 
year, 3; board of special inquiry pending from last fiscal year, 2, making a 
grand total of 39 deported during the year. This is exclusive of 4 Chinese 
persons who were deported through court procedure. 



330 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Causes of deportation were as follows : 

Imbecile 1 

Tuberculosis 1 

Likely to become a public charge 9 

Surgeon's certificate 3 

Contract labor 10 

Accompanying aliens 5 

Under 16 ^ 3 

Admit crime 5 

Coming for immoral purpose 1 

Procurer 1 

TotaU 39 



Thirty fines were assessed during the year, 2 under section 9, and 28 for 
improper manifesting. Of the fines under section 9, 1 was for mental defect 
(imbecile) and 1 for tuberculosis, which is still pending. One fine of $100, 
pending from last fiscal year foi- trachoma, was covered into the Treasury this 
fiscal year. 

BOARDS OF SPECIAL INQUIEY. 

There being only three immigrant inspectors in this district, one at San Juan, 
one at Mayaguez, and one at Ponce, it necessarily follows that this service must 
depend on other designated United States officials for service on boards. Such 
officials have invariably responded to our call many times at their inconvenience, 
and this service is much indebted to them, for without their hearty cooperation 
many vexatious delays would necessarily have occurred. 

DETENTION QUARTERS. 

Prior to the fiscal year covered by this report no detention quarters of any 
kind were maintained at any port on the island. Aliens were permitted their 
liberty by the steamship companies on the deposit of a sum of money guarantee- 
ing their appearance befoi'e the board of special inquiry when required, and 
sometimes on the alien's bare promise. No alien evev failed to appear before 
the board when required; however, when he did aiipear he almost invariably 
had been coached as to what answers he should make to the board, the result 
being, especially in cases of aliens who had been held as contract laborers, a 
failure on the part of the Government to make out its case. This system of 
detention, or, rather, lack of detention, permitted criminals, prostitutes, and 
diseased and insane aliens to mingle with the public. I am very glad to be 
able to report that this condition of affairs has been partially remedied, so 
far as the port of San Juan is concerned. At the urgent insistence of the 
Immigration Service the steamship companies have combined at this port, 
secured quarters at the Espanola Hotel for detained aliens, and employed a 
guard, the understanding being that all aliens be detained under guard until 
the board has passed on their cases, after which all those excluded are to be 
cared for as the steamship company elects until the final determination of their 
cases or deportation, except such as in the opinion of the commissioner should 
be segregated from the public. These latter will be held in detention under 
guard. Immigration is very light at the other ports of the island, and while no 
detention quarters are established at any of them, the immigrant inspectors take 
such precautions as are necessary for the prevention of coaching prior to 
examination A noticeable increase in the percentage of exclusions of aliens 
held as contract laborers has resulted. 

DESERTING ALIEN SEAMEN 

Only nine alien seamen were reported as deserting in this district during the 
fiscal year, none of whom were apprehended, although the aid of the police was 
requested to assist in locating them. Under the existing laws regarding seamen 
it is an easy matter for an undesirable alien to enter the country, and no doubt 
many aliens, realizing that they would be refused admission on application in the 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 331 

regular way before the immigration authorities, evade the law by signing on 
vessels as seamen with the intention of deserting on arriving in this country. 
The provisions of the pending immigration bill regarding seamen, if enacted 
into law, will minimize the danger of undesirables entering in this fashion. 

SEAMEN APPLYING FOR ADMISSION. 

Forty-four alien seamen applied for admission during the fiscal year, 43 of 
whom were admitted and 1 deported. 

ALIEN STOWAWAYS. 

Three alien stowaways arrived during the year, one of whom was admitted 
and two deported. 

HOSPITAL TREATMENT. 

No applications were formally made for hospital treatment, although, owing 
to accident and emergency cases, seven aliens were permitted landing upon the 
guaranty of the steamship company and received treatment in the hospital at 
this port, all of whom have departed. One discharged alien seaman was allowed 
to land for treatment at the port of Ponce on the assurance of the acting 
French consul at San Juan that he would care for him and return him to 
France at the expense of the French Government. 

CONTRACT LABOR. 

Ninety per cent of the immigration from Spain to Porto Rico are young men 
coming to Spanish merchants ostensibly on a visit, but really under contract. 
Observation at this port has shown that almost without exception such young 
men, although vigorously denying that they come to work for said merchants, 
may be found behind the counters the next day after admission. Only the men- 
tally obtuse, the truthful, and those ignorant of the provisions of the law in re- 
gard to contract labor are ever deported, the mentally obtuse because by ju- 
dicious inquiry they frequently let out the facts, the truthful because they do 
not lie, and the ones ignorant of the law because they do not realize it would 
be to their advantage to perjure themselves. There being a very small per- 
centage belonging to either of these classes the result is few exclusions and 
deportations. These observations regarding the difficulties encountered in ex- 
cluding contract laborers from Spain apply to the same class from other 
countries. 

Quite a number of aliens from West Indian ports applied for admission at 
this port the past autumn who had left the island in the spring, after the cane- 
grinding season was over, and were returning to the same employer, having been 
promised by said employer prior to their departure that they would be given 
the same position at the same pay in case they returned. Under a ruling of 
the department such aliens were admitted. It is believed, however, that since 
the decision in the Lapina case this service will be able to exclude this class, 
thereby giving the Porto Ricans the benefit of this work. 

MEDICAL EXAMINERS. 

The medical examiners of aliens at this port are men of recognized ability 
in their profession and have had long experience in the Public Health Service. 
Their services have been eminently satisfactory. The medical examiners at the 
other ports of the island have also given satisfaction. 

WARRANT PROCEDURE. 

Two warrants were applied for during the year, both of which were issued 
by the department. The first charged the alien with being illegally in the 
country on the ground that at the time of his entry he was an assisted alien 
and a contract laborei*. This alien was deported. In the other case the alien 
was charged with procuring and importing a woman for an immoral purpose. 
This alien was ordered deported by the department, but sailed foreign before 
the order was received. Three aliens arrested under departmental warrants 
issued June 25, 1913, one charged as procurer, one charged as entering the 



332 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

United States for an immoral purpose, and one charged as being lil^ely to become 
a public charge, pending at the close of last fiscal year, were deported during 
the year. 

HABEAS COKPUS. 

During the year there was only one case in which habeas corpus was sued out 
in behalf of an alien. Guillermo Perez, aged 38, Venezuelan, was arrested on 
departmental warrant dated July 19, 1913, charging him with being unlawfully 
in the country in that he was a contract laborer at the time of his entry, that 
he was an assisted alien, and that he secured his admission by false and mis- 
leading statements. After a hearing in his case he was ordered deported. 
Departmental warrant of dei)ortation was issued on the 27th of August. On the 
15th day of September this office was served with a writ returnable the next 
day. The case came on for hearing before the judge of the United States dis- 
trict court, the writ was dismissed, and the alien deported. 

WHITE-SLAVE CASES. 

Only one case of this kind arose during the year, and in that case the grand 
jury failed to return a true bill against the party charged with having paid the 
passage of and importing an alien woman for an immoral purpose. 

OFFICE QUARTERS. 

This service has been assigned quarters in the new Federal building, into 
which we have just moved. These new quarters consist of four rooms on the 
third floor of the building. These quarters are all that could be desired. 



Two vessels engaged in transporting sugar cane and passengers from Santo 
Domingo to the port of Guanica. P. R., during the months of December, January, 
February, Mar'^h. and April, employed Chines^e crews, one vessel employing nine 
Chinamen and the other five. Four Chinese persons, members of the crew of 
one of these vessels, were found ashore and arrested for being illegnlly in the 
United States, and were ordered depoi'ted to China by the United States com- 
missioner. This case was appealed to the United States district court and 
affirmed as to the order of deportation. The destination was changed, however, 
from China to Santo Domingo. 

During the year one Chinese seaman furnished bond for shore leave, which 
was canceled on his departure from the country. 

Prosecutions for violation of Chinese-exclusion law. 



Defendant. 


Section 
violated. 


Decision. 


Sentence. 


S. H. Cook 


9 
13 


F ound 

guilty. 

...do 


Suspended. 


Lum Yin, Leong Dot, Low Sing, Lum Mee 


Deported. 






Prosecutions other than those relating to Chinese. 


Defendant. 


Section 
violated. 


Decision. 


Sentence. 


Edwin C. Lee 


13 


Found 
guilty. 


Fine $100. 







EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



333 



CHARACTER OF IMMIGRATION. 

Of the 3,577 aliens admitted, the following races were represented, as follows ; 



Race. 



Spanish 

Spanish American 

West Indian 

African (black) . . . 
All others 

Total 



Immi- 
grant. 



78 
161 
279 
166 



1,182 



Nonimmi- 
grant. 



761 
184 
531 
293 
626 



2,395 



Total. 



1,259 
262 
692 
572 
792 



3,577 



It will be noted from the foregoing table that 35 per cent of the aliens arriv- 
ing were Spaniards and that 40 per cent of these were immigrants and 60 per 
cent nonimmigrants. This immigration is composed almost entirely of young 
men of a high mental and moral standard and forms a desirable addition to 
the population of the island. The Spanish Americans and West Indians are 
similar in habits and customs to the native population. The African blacks 
are from the neighboring foreign islands and are about on a par, morally and 
mentally, with the Xegi-o in the States. 

FINANCIAL CONDITION OF ALIENS. 

The 3,577 aliens admitted brought to this country $438,130, or an average of 
$122.50 per capita. 

ALIEN CERTIFICATES ISSUED. 

Certificates were issued covering 632 aliens proceeding from Porto Rico to 
the mainland of the United States under Rule 14, immigration regulations. 

INADEQUATE FORCE. 

With the present limited force this service has been able to give but little 
attention to aliens who may be illegally in the country. An additional in- 
spector should be allowed in this district solely for this work. An additoinal 
inspector should also be allowed the port of San Juan to assist the immigrant 
inspector here and to be available for emergency work throughout the district. 

EXAMINING INSP'fcCTORS. 

Immigrant inspectors on primary inspection are intrusted with great power. 
They can admit or detain. There are 10 chances to 1 that an undesirable 
admitted on primary inspection will not be deported on warrant. For this 
reason examining inspectors should not only possess intelligence of the first 
order but should be good judges of human nature, patient, tactful, and be able 
to approach the alien in a way calculated to win his confidence and elicit the 
truth. A man qualified to fill this position creditably is invaluable to the 
service. They should be selected with great care and handsomely remunerated. 

PERSONNEL. 

The difficulties of supervising the nine ix)rts of entry on this island with only 
three immigrant inspectors can readily be appreciated. The personnel in this 
district are all men who have spent many years in the service and are ener- 
getic, vigilant, capable, and loyal. The demands upon them for the fiscal year 
have been great, but they have responded not only willingly but enthusiastically. 



COURT DECISIONS. 

An important court decision in the case of the United States r. Cook, in the 
District Court of the United States for Porto Rico, on March 30. 1914. touching 
the right of Chinese seamen to land from vessels in tlie United States without 



334 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

making Shore-leave bond, was rendered. S. H. Cook, master of the British 
steamship Norhilda, permitted four Chinese seamen to go ashore in the harbor 
of Guanica without complying with Rule 7, which requires that in such cases 
a bond be given. Said master was charged with violation of section 9 act of 
September 13, 1S8S, and was found guilty by the court. 

The court followed the decision in the case of the United States v Crouch 
rendered April 8. 1911, iu the Circuit Court for the Eastern District of New 
lork. and held that a Chinese seaman is a Chinese person within the purview 
of the exclusion act, and that the immigration authorities are justified in mak- 
ing the rule requiring the master to give bond before giving such seamen shore 
leave, 

GENERAL COMMENT. 

Should the pending immigration bill become a law, its proper enforcement 
will insure the best immigration ; indeed, the present law strictly enforced would 
leave little to complain of. Congress has very clearly expressed the will of 
the people of the United States in regard to immigration, but has provided in- 
sufficient means for its thorough execution. The Immigration Service is under- 
manned, and as long as these conditions obtain the best results can not be had. 

L. E. Evans, Comnvissioner. 



REPORT OF INSPECTOR IN CHARGE, DISTRICT NO. 22, COMPRISING 
TERRITORY OF HAWAII, WITH HEADQUARTERS AT HONOLULU 

I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report for the vear ended 
June 30, 1914. ^ euueu 

Aliens examined k qqo 

Aliens admitted on primary inspection IIIIIIII 3329 

Aliens held for board of special inquiry 2* 638 

Aliens admitted by boards 2' 415 

Aliens rejected by boards '223 

Aliens admitted outright on appeal '_ 2 

Aliens admitted for hospital treatment 75 

deportations. 

Trachoma -j^Qg 

Likely to become a public charge II_IIII 19 

Procurers a 

Contract laborers ~~ WSZ 3 

Hookworm (uncinariasis) IIIII 3 

Gonorrhea '_ ^ 

Chinese, status not proven _" '_"_ 26 

Aliens finally deported ij^ 

Deportations pending, 1913, finally deported: 

Trachoma 26 

Likely to become public charge 22 

Tuberculosis 2 

Hookworm (uncinariasis) 1 

50 

Of the above deportations 49 were Spanish aliens brought by 
and under the care and treatment of the Territorial board 
of immigration. 
Under the agreement of the Territorial board to deport aliens likely 
to become public charges within 3 years after being brought here 
by the board, they have been deported, aliens voluntarily con- 
senting : 



Russians. 



118 



Spanish gj 

Portuguese 28 



Total. 



233 



^ Per cent of deportations, 2.7. 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 335 

CHINESE. 

Chinese examined 724 

Chinese rejected 42 

Chinese admitted outright on appeal 2 

Chinese admitted on bond : 

On habeas corpus 6 

Ou habeas corpus, 1913 3 

Chinese cases pending before courts 9 

Chinese finally deported ^38 

Chinese admitted as citizens : 

Foreign-boru children of natives 15 

Native born — 

No record of departure (raw natives) 20 

Status determined prior to application 99 

Status not determined prior to application 74 

Total citizens admitted 208 

Chinese aliens admitted as exempt : 
Section 6 — 

Merchants 3 

Teachers 4 

Students 6 

Travelers 2 

Editor 1 

Wives of teachers 2 

Children of teachers 2 

Domiciled teachers 3 

Domiciled wives of teachers 2 

Domiciled children of teachers , 3 

Wives of citizens 37 

Domiciled merchants 49 

Wives of domiciled merchants 39 

Children of domiciled merchants 34 

Total admission of exempts 187 

Chinese returning laboi'ers admitted 287 

Chinese cases pending 10 

Applications of Chinese for papers to depart. 

Form 480 (native born) : 

Granted by inspector in charge 22 

Denied by inspector in charge 3 

Form 431 (exempts) : 

Granted by inspector in charge 41 

Denied by inspector in charge 3 

Denied by bureau 2 

Form 432 (laborers) : 

Granted by inspector in charge 239 

Denied by inspector in charge^ 4 

Denied by bureau 1 

Preinvestigations (wife or children of merchants to arrive) : 

Granted by inspector in charge 13 

Granted by bureau 1 

Denied by inspector in charge 4 

Denied by bureau 4 

Citizens denied by inspector in charge 1 

Investigations, cases at other ports 24 

Fines. 

Imposed under section 9 14 

Assessed under section 9 12 

Pending before department 2 

1 Per cent of deportations, 4.5. 



336 REPOKT 01*' COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Court cases. 

Case of Japenese escaped from steamship Hamstead in June, 1913. Settled 
by United States attorney by payment of fine of $100. 

Case of Chinese seamen escaped from steamship Strathesk. Captain arrested ; 
discharged by United States commissioner without penalty. 

Case of bondsman's failure to produce alien procurer ordered deported. Case 
pending. 

Warrant . cases, 1914. 

Warrants applied for 144 

Wai-rauts issued 144 

Warrants served 82 

Warrants canceled 4 

Procurers deported _ 19 

Prostitutes deported 32 

Habeas corpus, released under bond pending further proceedings: 

Procurers 5 

Prostitutes 8 

Vice landlords '. 3 

Discharged on habeas coiinis, prostitutes 2 

Pending before inspector : 

Prostitutes 5 

Procurers 4 

Warrant cases pending from 1913. 

Deported 5 

Pending on habeas corpus 5 

Canceled 2 

Escaped from bondsman 1 

Pending before inspector 1 

STOWAWAYS. 

Deported (Japanese) 7 

Deported (East Indian) 1 

Admitted (English) 1 

ESCAPES. 

Escapes from vessels (seamen) : 

German 6 

Japanese 10 

English 6 

Norwegian 1 

Chinese 1 

Total escapes 24 

SEAMEN. 

Alien seamen (Chinese, 7,025; others, 14,221) 21,246 

PASSENGER MOVEMENT. 

Aliens departed for foreign ports 3,878 

Citizens departed for foreign ports 2,009 

Certificates issued to aliens departing to mainland 2,061 

Citizens admitted from foreign ports 1,047 

FILIPINOS. 

Brought in by Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, not subject to 

contract-labor law 3, 185 

CONTRACT-LABOB LAW. 

There is little to be said concerning the contract-labor law here, inasmuch as 
most of the contract laborers, arriving in numbers that swamp the labor mar- 
ket, are Filipinos who are brought in by the sugar planters' association and 



BEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 337 

are exempt from the coutract-labor law. Several Hindus were denied as con- 
tract laborers who were evidently the advance guard of a movement to be inau- 
gurated from Hongkong, but their deportation has evidently checked it. 

WHITE-SLAVE TKAFFIC. 

In the early part of the year we arrested many in Honolulu's prostitute quar- 
ter. Others tied from Its precincts to avoid arrest, and to our knowledge 10 of 
them fled to Japan, and undoubtedly others of whom we have not heard also 
left for Japan, Until the court changed its rule as to habeas corpus these unde- 
sirable aliens could not be found there, but a number have now returned to 
their old quarters and are plying their trade. Many French have come from 
the mainland to take the places of those arrested. They invariably present cer- 
tificates purporting to show that they are married to American citizens. These 
certificates are mostly of recent date. These women acknowledge having prac- 
ticed prostitution before their marriage, and some that they started again in a 
week after their marriage. We do not know In what manner and by whom they 
were brought from California. It is very diflicult to secure convictions here. 

TERRITORIAL CERTIFICATES OF HAWAIIAN BIRTH. 

Territorial certificates of Hawaiian birth have been issued in a hasty, incon- 
siderate, and wholesale manner. Many have been issued to persons absent in 
Japan and China years after their alleged departure from Hawaii, and they 
have been issued to persons here without inspection of or request for Govern- 
ment records, which would be decisive as to the ex parte allegations on which 
they have been granted. In numerous cases we have found their fraudulent 
character to be readily shown, and we have been forced to the conclusion that 
while they may have some evidential value they are open to question. We have 
had evidence that the desire to take up public laud has been a cause for fraudu- 
lently obtaining these certificates. The department itself has had cases under 
Its review from which it has been made aware of their unfortunate unreliability. 
I have had conferences with the Territorial officials, and recently the issuance 
of the certificates has been discontinued. 

JAPANESE. 

During the year 4,516 alien Japanese were admitted, and the departure of 
alien Japanese were 2,.569, showing an excess of arrivals over departures of 
1,947. There has been an evident extension in the time in which passports are 
issued to former residents desiring to return to the islands. Of the number of 
arrivals, 1,407 were so-called '* picture brides." These are cases of marriage 
between a man who is residing here and who receives a woman who comes as 
his wife on whose face he has never laid eyes. She is usually supplied upon 
the prosiiective husband's requisition to the head of his family, who secures 
her through a middleman. She arrives and goes forth with the husband to 
whom she has been delivered and who usually declares that she will become 
a farm laborer or a servant. Rarely do we find these men declaring that their 
unseen brides will be simply housewives. Usually they lead them forth to the 
plantations, where, stripped of their finery, their worth will be estimated by 
the work they can do. 

LABOR CONDITIONS. 

Labor conditions in the islands have been much disturbed during the past 
year. There has been no enlargement in productive enterprises and there has 
been no further importation of labor by the territorial board of immigration. 
The Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, however, has brought in over 
3,000 Filipinos, who have come accepting a guaranty of a wage that is con- 
siderably below that given to and necessary for the sustenance of white laborers 
under the conditions and prices that obtain in the islands and is also lower 
than the rate of wages that the Japanese will accept. The planters' labor 
bureau has brought in altogether about 13,000 Filipinos, and is continuing to 
import them. The introduction of this large number of Filipinos is resulting in 
the displacement of other labor. The statistics submitted in this report will show 
the excess departure of white persons. Nearly all of the departures for the coast 
have been such. Of Spanish and Portuguese, most of whom were brought here 
by the territorial boai'd of immigration for the ostensible purpose of American- 
izing the islands, there have been departures to the coast of 1.287. The moi'e 
skilled among the Japanese laborers come to the city of Honolulu and by their 

60629°— 15 22 



338 REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

competition have displaced many white laborers. Another cause of discourage- 
ment to white labor in this country is that there is no congressional provision 
that only citizen labor should be employed on Government work performed 
under contract. As a result a large amount of Government work under con- 
ti'act is done by orientals. While the promotion committee is active in endeavor- 
ing to induce citizens to come to these islands, the prospect for their obtaining 
remunerative employment is precarious. The Filipinos who have been brought 
in, as you have been advised in previous reports, are most undesirable. Many 
of them are of a low social order, and the number of them confined in jail for 
various offenses exceed that of any other element in the population. 

HABEAS CORPUS. 

There have been 40 cases of habeas corpus before the United States district 
court, the petitioners in 13 cases being arriving aliens denied admission, and 
in 27 cases aliens arrested on department warrants. The petitions were denied 
in 4 cases, granted in 18 cases, and are pending in the others. In some cases 
the petitioners are admitted to bail and in some released on their own recog- 
nizance. No appeal has been perfected by the Government in any case, and in 
some of them the time for taking an appeal will soon expire. Of those whose 
petitions w^ere denied 2 have been deported and 1 gave notice of appeal, 
but has not perfected it. 

There were 10 habeas coii^us cases pending from the previous year, of which 
all were cases of arriving aliens. Three were denied by the court and de- 
ported, 2 denied and appealed, and 5 granted, and an appeal taken by the 
Government. 

In nearly all of these cases which have been brought before the court techni- 
cal matters have been set forth. To illustrate, it is contended that the alien 
came to Hawaii before annexation and did not enter the United States; that 
there is no verification of landing, when it was impossible to be found, although 
the alien admits he was born in a foreign country and came here ; that there 
is no fair hearing and that the judge should review the decision as to the 
facts found. Undesirable aliens ai*e almost invariably set free with or without 
bonds on writs of habeas corpus. Even after the warrant of deportation has 
been issued the courts have released on the nominal bail of $250 those whose 
bail under the warrant of arrest was fixed at $1,000. Some of the aliens con- 
tinue openly — and undoubtedly many secretly — to practice prostitution. A pros- 
titute in one case said she had to continue her immoral practices in order to 
get money to pay her lawyer, admitting that she was still in the business. Afii- 
davits are made out containing the most brazen falsehoods. In one instance 
the petitioner under oath admitted the falsity of his statement, which he said 
he made by the direction of his counsel who told him he would have to make 
it in order to obtain the writ. 

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION. 

In last year's report extensive repairs and alterations at this station were 
recommended, but, as the Army desires the property, extensive expenditures 
would not be advisable, yet there are some which are imperative. 

During the year suitable quarters, which meet with his approval, have been 
provided on the ground floor for the examining surgeon. I desire to reiterate 
and emphasize the need of improvements in the matter of toilets, as set forth 
in last year's report. Conditions have not improved, and the necessity for 
repairs is still greater. The building should be painted ; it has not been painted 
since it was erected, in 1905. 

Another inspector should be added to the force. No Chinese have been ar- 
rested for being illegally in the country. It is impossible to take up this work, 
which has never been followed up at this station, except in isolated cases which 
have obtruded themselves upon our attention. There are doubtless those who 
are illegally resident here or who do not maintain the status on which they were 
admitted. That nothing has been done along these and other lines which we 
desire to take up can not be attributed to negligence, but is due to our inability, 
owing to the absolute inadequacy of our force. It is respectfully submitted that 
the work shown to have been done by the three inspectors and myself is of 
such an extent as to have taxed all of our time. I have acted as inspector and as 
my own interpreter in the examination of a large part of the arriving Japanese, 
in order that the Interpreters and inspectors might be able to handle the woi'k 
of the board of special inquiry and Chinese cases. The inspectors themselves 
do most of their typewriting while taking evidence. A large part of the time 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 339 

an inspector is absent on boarding duty or in the investigation of other cases 
on this or otlier islands. When an inspector is absent on investigations and an- 
other is absent fi-oni tlie office all day in boarding or checking out vessels the 
condition of affairs in the office is too apparent to need explanation. The offi- 
cers at this station work together in harmony and with exemplary fidelity. We 
regret that one inspector and one clerk now in the office have resigned to enter 
other pursuits and trust that their places may be soon filled. 

Richard L. Halsey, 
Inspector in Charge. 

EEPORT OF THE SUPERVISING INSPECTOR, DISTRICT NO. 23. COM- 
PRISING TEXAS (EXCEPT DISTRICT NO. 9), NEW MEXICO, ARIZONA, 
AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

I have the honor to submit herewith annual reix»rt for district No. 23 (Mexi- 
can border) for the period ended June 30, 1914. 

ALIEN ARRIVALS. 

As has been pointed out in previous reports, the bulk of the immigration into 
this district is composed of aliens coming for temporary sojourn, and who, so 
far as the regulations are concerned, have, properly speaking, no place in 
statistics. As is well known, however, the same inspection is made of this class 
as of those coming for permanent residence. The following table embraces both 
classes : 



Statistical. 


Non- 
statistical. 


17,058 


52,739 


13,925 


51,090 


3,133 


1,649 


907 


407 


321 


183 


1,905 


1,059 


1,564 


1,026 


341 


33 


61 


3 


276 


30 


4 








2,161 


1,239 


14,897 


51,500 



Examined 

Admitted on primary inspection 

Held for hearing by board of special inquiry 

Admitted by board of special inquiry 

Rejected by board of special inquiry (mandatorily) 

Rejected by board of special inquiry (with right of appeal or bond) 

Rejected by board of special inquiry who did not appeal 

Rejected by board of special inquiry who appealed 

Admitted by department on appeal 

Rejected by department on appeal 

Admitted by department on bond 

Debarred 

Admitted 



The 2,161 Statistical aliens and the 1,239 nonstatistical aliens were excluded 
for the following causes : 



Nonstatis- 
tical. 



IJljely to become a public charge 

Trachoma 

Accmopanying alien (sec. 11) 

Under 16 years of age unaccompanied by either parent. . 

Alien contract laborer 

Prostitutes 

Procurers 

Other loathsome or dangerous contagious disease 

Assisted aliens 

Feeble-minded 

Surgeon's certificate certifying mental or physical defect. 

Idiots 

Tuberculosis, contagious " 

Epilept ic 

Passport provision 

Professional beggar 

Imbeciles 

Criminals 

Insane 

Paupers 

Supported by proceeds of prostitution 

Total 



691 
98 

102 
75 
38 
86 
38 
54 



1,239 



Per cent of statistical aliens excluded. 12.G.J. 
Per cent of nonstatistical aliens excluded, 2.35. 
Per cent of all classes of aliens excluded, 4.88. 



340 BEPOKT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OE IMMIGRATION. 

The foregoing table is self-explanatory and extended comment in connection 
therewitli is unnecessary. A comparison of the data therein contained with 
the previous year's report, however, is appropriate. Reference to the latter 
shows 85,132 arrivals as against 69,747 during the current year, a decrease of 
15,335. While it will be noted that the percentage of statistical aliens ex- 
cluded this year is 1.75 greater, the percentage of nonstatistical debarred re- 
mains practically the same. Unlike previous years, immigration during the 
year just passed has been marked by a preponderance of the so-called " better 
classes," particularly among applicants of the Mexican race. These in the 
main, however, come seeking temporary refuge only, with no desire for em- 
ployment. The change noted in the character of immigration is the natural 
and inevitable result of the continued unsettled political, social, and industrial 
conditions in Mexico. It is apparent to those conversant with the situation 
that the war in that country has deprived the peons (who have under normal 
conditions heretofore constituted the major portion of the immigration over 
this border) of the means wherewith to travel, while, on the other hand, these 
same conditions have brought about an exodus, voluntary or involuntary, of 
other classes. 

ILLEGITIMATE IMMIGRATION, 

The only race falling within the class indicated by the above caption which 
has caused any concern is the Syrian. Investigations conducted and informa- 
tion received "from various sources demonstrate that Syrian immigrants are 
deflected through Mexico as a result of representations made to them at trans- 
oceanic points to the effect that less difficulty is experienced in securing ad- 
mission through this district than is the case at seaports. During the year 
357 Syrians applied for admission, of which number 158 were finally admitted, 
187 debarred, and the cases of 12 remained pending at the close of the year; 
54 were admitted on primary inspection, 91 by board of special inquiry, and 
134 were either mandatorily excluded or waived the right of appeal; 66 of 
those excluded appealed, of which number the appeals of 53 were denied and 
13 sustained. 

As illustrating the persistency of Syrians and their determination at all 
hazards to secure admission to the United States, it may be stated that while 
but 231 individuals of this race actually sought to enter, the sum total of 
applications made by them first and last aggregated 357. Sixty-one of the 
foregoing applied two or more times, resulting in 175 applications, each of 
which was considered de novo. Nine of those excluded presented themselves 
at various times, making an aggregate of 33 applications. Eighteen appeals 
grew out of these applications, resulting finally in the admission of all in- 
volved. Twenty-nine of those eventually excluded subsequently effected illegal 
entry, of which number 26 were deported and warrants of arrest issued in 
respect of 3 canceled. A firm enforcement of the law is the only method by 
means of which the migration of aliens through Mexico rejected at European 
ports can be discouraged. 

EEFtlGEES. 

ISIention has been made in the preceding reports of the many complex prob- 
lems arising from the influx of alien refugees. The difficulties in the way of 
a thorough yet humane administration of the law have steadily multiplied. 
Many aliens have been summarily " deported " to the United States whose con- 
tinued presence in Mexico was considered a menace to the interests of the con- 
stituted authorities. . 

One of the most difficult problems in connection with refugees arose during 
October when approximately 8,000 panic-stricken aliens, mainly of the Mexican 
race entered the United States at Eagle Pass, Tex., within a few hours, fleeing 
from the then Federal forces who were reported about to attack the town of 
Piedras Xegras, and who did subsequently occupy the same without resistance. 
It was only by heroic efforts on the part of the officers of this service, ably 
assisted by the Marine Hospital Service and the Army, that these aliens were 
prevented from scattering aimlessly over the country. They were all eventually 
Inspected and those found excludable returned to Mexico. 

A somewhat similar situation, handled in a like manner, arose at Presidio, 
Tex., in January last, when Mexican Federal forces to the number of about 
5 000 accompanied by camp followers and hundreds of civilian refugees, 
crossed into the United States and surrendered to the military of this country. 





KEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 341 

Experiences similar in many respects to those described have repeatedly been 
encountered and similarly dealt with by this service at every port on the 
border. 

JAPANESK. 

The situation in respect of Japanese migration continues very satisfactory. 
During the year 145 aliens of this race applied for admission, and of that 
number 21 were debarred. While this is a slight increase over the number who 
applied during the previous year, such increase undoubtedly ai-ose from neces- 
sities imposed upon a considerable number of representative Japanese by the 
unsettled conditions in Mexico. During the year 67 Japanese were arrested 
on departmental warrants, 58 of whom were dei)orted, 1 escaped, the cases of 
were pending at the close of the year, and warrants in respect of 2 were 
canceled. Of those deported, 53 were prostitutes or persons receiving, sharing 
in, or deriving benefit from the earnings thereof; 13 of the same class, in re- 
spect of whom warrants were issued, evaded arrest. The deportations referred 
to resulted in the obliteration, root and branch, of the oriental "Red Light" 
colony of Fresno, Cal., and dealt the traffic and its wealthy beneficiaries a 
blow from which it is confidently believed they will not recover. 



But one fine was assessed during the year and that under section 9 for 
bringing into the Port of !San Diego, Cal., a Chinese seaman afiiicted with loath- 
some or dangerous contagious disease. Penalty in the amount of $100 against 
the steamer Messina was paid on December 31, 1913. 

DESERTING SEAMEN. 

Seamen to the number of 28 deserted at seaports within this jurisdiction and 
1 was discharged. Of the 28 deserters 6 were apprehended and returned to 
their respective vessels. Chinese seamen to the number of 1,065 arrived at 
Pacific coast ports on 101 ships. Only 1 such seaman deserted, and he was 
apprehended and returned to his vessel. There does not seem to exist within 
this district any systematic evasion of the immigration laws by inadmissible 
aliens in the guise of seamen. Twelve stowaways were discovered, 7 of whom 
were admitted and 5 excluded. 

MEDICAL INSPECTION. 

The medical inspection has been as thorough as the inadequate facilities per- 
mitted. The officers charged with the medical inspection of aliens are perform- 
ing their duty in a conscientious and capable manner. During the month of 
October, 1013, approximately 8,000 alien refugees entered the United States at 
Eagle Pass, Tex., within a few hours. The medical examiner at that point is 
entitled to special commendation for the highly efficient manner in which, under 
the cii'cumstances, he inspected and looked after the health of the aliens, as well 
as the precautions employed by him to prevent the spread of smallpox, which 
broke out among the detained refugees. The officer in question was untiring in 
his efl'orts and displayed ability and unusual resourcefulness. 

DISTRIBUTION OF ALIENS. 

There are no officers of the Division of Information assigned to this district 
for the purpose of furnishing information to arriving aliens and looking after 
their beneficial distribution. Such work as has been possible along these lines 
has been conducted by the regular force, in addition to its routine duties. The 
problem is an important one, viewed from any standpoint, and the conditions 
peculiar to the border render it one impossible of solution by methods employed 
at seaports. In this district the bulk of immigration is composed of aliens of 
the Mexican race, coming for temporary residence wnth employment as track 
laborers on railway lines radiating from the border in view. This subject has 
been exhaustively treated in special reports submitted from time to time and 
comprehensive plans outlined to handle the situation. It is of such magnitude 
as to preclude anything like a satisfactory discussion thereof within the con- 
fines of a report of this character. 



% 

342 EEPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

CONTRACT LABOR. 

As is shown elsewhere in this repoi't, the sum of $62,943.90 has been collected 
as a result of fines and penalties imix)sed against persons or corporations 
charged with violations of the contract-labor provisions of the immigration act. 
While most of the money paid in during the year was derived as a result of 
suits instituted during previous years, two successful actions were concluded 
during the current year. A section 24 officer was assigned to this district be- 
ginning with the current year, and he has given practically his undivided atten- 
tion to this class of work. He has made numerous visits over the district for 
the purpose of getting in close touch with persons interested in the enforcement 
of this particular feature of the law. Reports submitted by him indicate that 
there is no systematic importation of contract laborers into or through this 
district. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 343 




344 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Recapitulation. 





Chinese. 


Other 
aliens. 


From previous fiscal year 


34 

834 


34 


Warrants applied for during current year 


423 






Total 


868 


457 






Warrants issued 


867 


457 


Warrants applied for, not issued 








Total 


868 


457 






Warrants served . . 


866 


426 


Warrants issued, not served 


31 


Warrants applied for, not issued 








Total 


868 


457 






DISPOSITION. 

Deported 


813 
3 
1 
2 
3 
45 
1 


317 


Canceled 


47 


Issued, not served 


31 




4 


Died 


2 


Pending 


56 


Applied for, not issued 








Total 


868 


457 







111 addition to the foregoing, 36 aliens from ottier districts were deported 
tlirongli this jurisdiction, as follows: Seventeen public charges (prior causes), 
1 prostitute, 6 procurers, 2 contract laborers, and 10 entry without Inspection. 

Reference to the annual report for the preceding year shows that 730 war- 
rants were Issued, while for the current year 1.256 were issued, an increase of 
526. In the current year 1,130 aliens were actually deported, while in the 
preceding year 647 were returned, an increase of 483. This increase is due 
largely to the luiusual number of Chinese arrested at or near Calexico, Cal., 
found illegally in the country following transit through the United States from 
China. The large increase noted in the number of arrests accomplished \yithout 
any additional assistance whatsoever has imposed an unusually heavy burden 
upon the officers in this district. While the above table shows that the 855 
aliens arrested were simply charged with entry without inspection, it will be 
noted that 805 of this number were Chinese and. as such, were deportable under 
the provisions of the Chinese-exclusion acts as well as under the immigration 
laws. Mention was made in last year's report concerning aliens found unlaw- 
fully in the United States in the immediate vicinity of the border, who were, 
after having signified a desire to return to INIexico. permitted to do so, it ap- 
pearing in some instances that the only disqualification was that of entry 
without inspection. The same conditions have obtained to even a greater extent 
during the past year, and the same practice has been employed in disposing of 
such cases. This procedure results in a substantial saving of both labor and 
money. 

WHITE SLAVERY (MANN ACT). 

The customary careful attention has been given to the enforcement of this 
act. Strictly speaking, the activities of this service have been largely coopera- 
tive with officials of the Department of Justice. Much information of a valu- 
able character has been referred to such officials and made the basis of success- 
ful prosecutions by them. The results attained by this service under those 
provisions of the said act in connection with which this service has jurisdiction 
are shown elsewhere in this report. 

CHINESE APPLICANTS FOR ADMISSION. 

Returning laborer admitted 1 

United States citizens (status previously determined) 5 

Returning merchant 1 

Exempt (section 6 student) 1 

Total 8 

No applicants for admission were rejected under the provisions of the Chinese- 
exclusion act, and as a result there were no appeals. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 345 

TRANSITS (CHINESE). 

Admitted at Mexican border ports to pass out of the United States at 
other ports 612 

Admitted at San Francisco to pass out of the United States through 
Mexican border ports 2,050 

Total 2, 662 

Of the 612 admitted at border ports 462 departed into Lower California at 
Calexico, Cal., and of the 2,050 admitted at San Francisco 1,955 did likewise, 
making a total of 2,417 entering Lower Califoniia. That many of the Chinese 
proceeding to Lower California sought the transit privilege with an ulterior 
object in view is evidenced by the fact that 564 of the same Chinese were 
arrested during the year, following surreptitious entry. Information in posses- 
sion of this office indicates that from one to two thousand Chinese now residing 
along the west coast of Mexico will be forced out of that section of the country 
into Lower California, and as arrangements have been made since the period 
covered by this report to transport from three to five thousand additional from 
China to Lower California by way of San Francisco, the difficulties which will 
ensue in preventing the lodgment in this country of a large proportion of their 
number are obvious, particularly when the fact is considered that the new 
arrivals will so augment the numbers already in Lower California as to create 
a supply of laborers in that section far in excess of its present and prospective 
requirements. 

INVESTIGATIONS (CHINESE). 

The following is a summary of investigations conducted in connection with 
Chinese matters other than those relating to deportation and criminal pro- 
ceedings : 

Applications for laborer's return certificates : 

Granted 101 

Denied 1 

102 

Applications of departing exempts : 

Granted 148 

Denied 10 

158 

Applications of departing natives granted 68 

Applications of returning exempts : 

Admitted 96 

Denied 20 

116 

Applications of returning natives admitted 58 

Applications for duplicate certificates: 

Granted 29 

Denied 26 

Pending 15 

70 

Miscellaneous 203 

Investigations conducted to determine whether certificates of residence 

were in possession of proper persons, resulting in cancellation thereof — 116 

Total 891 

Thousands of investigations have been conducted in connection with the crim- 
inal work of this district which it is impracticable to tabulate. The result of 
such investigations are shown elsewhere in this report. 

CHINESE ADMITTED AS EXEMPTS FOUND LABORING. 

The officers of this district have kept under close surveillance Chinese landed 
as exempts, and in every case where observation has shown that the alleged 
status was a mere subterfuge employed to secure the landing of a laborer 



346 REPORT OP COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

appropriate steps have been taken to effect deportation, by means of depart- 
mental warrant where possible, otherwise by the institution of judicial pro- 
ceedings. The majority of such cases are alleged sons of merchants, and the 
circumstances under which many of them have been found laboring indicate 
bad faith at the time of entry. In many such cases it would likewise appear 
from circumstantial evidence that the claim of relationship is fictitious and 
was assumed solely for the purpose of securing admission. The difficulty of 
determining the fraud in such cases at the ports of application is realized, for 
as a rule the unlawful status can only be developed by the actions of the appli- 
cants. Thus is emphasized the necessity for the strictest character of sur- 
veillance. While "vigilance" is our watchword in respect of this class of 
Chinese, at the same time care has been observed not to take advantage of an 
alien who was a bona fide exempt at the time of landing and for some time 
thereafter, and subsequently involuntarily became a laborer through business 
reverses or other misfortunes either on his own part or that of the person whose 
status he has acquired. Notwithstanding these precautions and the entire 
fairness and justice with which the law has been enforced, our efforts have 
been strenuously opposed by those interested in a freer admission of the Chinese 
coolie, the powerful Chinese Six Companies lending its assistance to the fight 
and employing the best legal talent available. As a result there are now pend- 
ing in the courts of this district, on habeas coi-pus and by deportation proceed- 
ings under tlie exclusion acts, a number of cases involving the question of the 
right to deport a Chinese landed as an exempt and subsequently found en- 
gaged in laboring pursuits. Most of these cases are pending in southern Cali- 
fornia and Arizona. There is also one such case pending in the Luited States 
District Court for New Mexico and one in the United States District Court for 
the Noi'thern District of Texas. No authoritative decision has as yet been 
rendered, but the different United States attorneys are vigorously prosecuting 
the Government's interests, and it is hoped that within a short time, from the 
haze of uncertainty which now envelops the question, a precedent may issue 
which will serve to clarify the legal atmosphere. 

CEBTIFICATE CHINESE. 

During the past year but 76 Chinese persons were checked out of El Paso 
through the immigration office. Without exception such persons were known 
to be old residents of El Paso or vicinity or individuals who had previously 
been checked into El Paso from some other part of the country. These are 
remarkable figures as compared with those of former years, wlien certificate 
men — those holding good certificates of residence — departed from El Paso by 
the hundreds each year. Foi'merly, owing to the difficulty of presenting to the 
courts sufficiently convincing proof of illegal entry, it was impossible to secure 
deportation of such Chinese unless they were actually apprehended in the act 
of crossing the boundary — a physical impossibility except in relatively few 
instances. Under such circumstances there was no alternative but to check 
the Chinese out of El Paso on presentation of the necessary certificate of resi- 
dence or other documentai-y evidence, and for years El Paso's Chinatown was 
simply overcrowded with certificate Chinese who had effected illegal entry from 
Mexico and were awaiting convenient opportunity to depart to other parts of 
the country. However, following the decision of the Supreme Court of the 
United States in the Wong You case (223 U. S., 67), holding that Chinese were 
amenable to the provisions of the immigration laws, no new Chinese was per- 
mitted to leave El Paso without a thorough investigation of his status, embrac- 
ing his life history, and particularly his residence and travels in the United 
States. These statements, accompanied by photographs, have been forwarded 
to those places where previous residence has been claimed for the purpose of 
developing evidence .showing whether departure for China without return pro- 
vision was made. So far-reaching have been the results that it is literally 
within the truth to say that no Chinese venture to remain in El Paso after 
crossing from Mexico, and none such apply at the immigration office for the 
purpose of being checked out of town. Compared with previous years, El Paso's 
Chinatown now resembles a deserted village. It will be remembered that El 
Paso was formerly the clearing house for all certificate Chinese who had left 
the country without return provision and who, as previously pointed out, con- 
stituted numerically the largest and financially the most profitable element of 
the smugglers' clientele. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 347 

As a result of the activities pursued in this particular direction two conditions 
now obtain: (1) Certificate Chinese no longer remain openly in El Paso after 
illegal entry, but are immediately removed by automobile, freight car, etc. The 
success in overtaking and apprehending contrabands has resulted in the financial 
ruin of at least two notorious Chinese smugglers of Juarez, Mexico, one of whom 
braved indictments pending against him in this district in an attempt to return 
to China with the remnant of his once large fortune, derived from smuggling 
operations ; and the other of whom is now reported to be financially embarrassed 
to such an extent that he is unable to advance expen.se money for his operatives 
and as a consequence has nothing but the most undesirable and least profitable 
business at this time. (2) A large number of certificate Chinamen have been 
forced east and west of El Paso. This is still more satisfactory, as their appre- 
hension is thus made easier by reason of more favorable topogi'aphical condi- 
tions, and in the smaller Mexican towns through which they are forced to pass 
greater opportunity is afforded for observation and the securing of witnesses 
to their recent presence in Mexico. 

While these gratifying results have been accomplished at El Paso, it must not 
be supposed that there is any room for relaxation of vigilance, as greater pre- 
cautions now attend the efforts of the smugglers, requiring more diligent activity 
on the part of the officers. And it is known that the smugglers are waiting 
and hoping with such patience and philosophy as their losses render possible for 
some relaxation of the embargo which will permit a renewal of their formerly 
lucrative traffic. 

Chinese arrests {court cases). 





North- 
ern 
Texas. 


South- 
ern 
Texas. 


East- 
ern 
Texas. 


West- 
ern 
Texas. 


New 
Mexico. 


Ari- 
zona. 


South- 
ern 
Cali- 
fornia. 


Total. 


Cases before United States commis- 
sioners: 
Cases considered- 
Pending close of 1913 








51 
8 


1 
7 


2 
5 


16 
62 


70 


Arrested, 1914 


6 






88 










Total 


6 

2 
4 






59 
21 


8 

1 

6 


7 

3 
4 


78 

7 
50 


158 


Disposition — 






34 


Ordered deported 






32 
3 
3 

16 


96 


Died, escaped, forfeited bond. 






3 


Pending close of 1914 








1 


2 


21 
4 


25 


Awaiting deportation or appeal, 









22 















Cases before United States courts: 
Cases considered- 
Pending on appeal close 1913. 
Appealed, 1914 


1 
4 






29 

48 


1 
1 


1 

2 


12 
14 


44 






169 










Total 


5 
3 






77 


2 

1 


3 

1 
1 


26 

11 
2 
1 

12 


113 


Disposition- 






28 
17 
2 
30 


44 


Reversed 






20 


Died, escaped, forfeited bond. 








3 


Fending close of 1914 


2 






1 


1 


46 










Status and final disposition of all 
cases for fiscal year ended June 30, 
1914: 
Discharged 


2 
3 






38 
25 


1 
5 


4 
3 


9 

50 

1 

1 
33 


54 


Actually deported 






86 


Died, escaped, forfeited bond 






5 
3 
33 


6 










1 

2 


2 

1 


7 


Pending close of 1914 


2 






2 71 










'Grand total 


7 






104 


9 


10 


94 


224 











' Including 20 appealed to circuit court of appeals. 
2 Including 20 pending in circuit court of appeals. 



During the year the cases of 224 Chinese were considered by courts in this 
district, which figure includes those pending from the previous year. It may 
be remarked parenthetically, however, that this figure falls far short of por- 
traying actual conditions in respect of the number of contraband Chinese 



348 EEPOET OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION. 

apprehended when consideration is had of the fact that 866 such aliens were 
proceeded against by departmental processes. Treating these two classes col- 
lectively, it will be observed that the cases of 1,090 contraband Chinese were 
considered. Of these, 899 were deported, 57 discharged by court on warrants 
canceled; 11 died, escaped, or forfeited bond; 7 are awaiting deportation; and 
the cases of 116 are pending. 

While there has been an increase in the number of Chinese deportation pro- 
ceedings instituted before United States commissioners this increase is confined 
mainly to the southern district of California. There have been found in that 
section many Chinese without color of right to residence, in whose cases it 
has been impossible to establish entry within three years. Against such it 
has been nec