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Full text of "Annual report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration"

BOSTOISI 
PUBLIC 
UBl^RY 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 

JAMES J. DAVIS. Seaetary 

BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

COMMISSIONER GENERAL 
OF IMMIGRATION 

TO THE SECRETARY OF LABOR 



<» 



FISCAL YEAR 
ENDED JUNE 30 



1923 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1923 



r* I i0T 



SUPERLNTENDPNT OF QOCUBSEm^ 



IIA'. ^x-i 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED^FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

15 CENTS PER COPY 



PURCHASER AGREES NOT TO RESELL OR DISTRIBUTE THIS 
COPY FOR PROFIT.— PUB. RES. 57, APPROVED MAY IL, 1922 



CONTENTS. 



Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration 1 

The per centum limit act of 1921 1 

Some comparative statistics 7 

Countries of last permanent residence 8 

Races or peoples 9 

Emigrant aliens 12 

Rejection at ports of arrival 13 

Deportation after landing 14 

Smuggling and surreptitious entry 15 

The Mexican border situation 16 

Smuggling from Cuba ._ 20 

Canadian border 23 

Montreal 23 

Buffalo 24 

Detroit 25 

Winnipeg 25 

Seattle . 26 

Immigration from Canada and Mexiqo 27 

Oriental immigration 29- 

Alien seamen 30 

Alien stowaways 31 

Reorganization of the immigration field service 31 

Financial statement 37 

Personnel 37 

TEXT TABLES. 

Table I. — Immigration quota allotted to specified countries or regions of birth 
and the number of aliens admitted and charged against such quota allotments, 

fiscal years ended June 30, 1922 and 1 923 5 

Table II. — Immigration quotas allotted to specified areas, and the number of 
aliens admitted and charged against such quota allotments, fiscal years 

ended June 30, 1922 and 1923 6 

Table III. — Immigrant aliens admitted by principal sources, in fiscal years 

specified 8 

Table IV. — Immigrant aliens admitted to the United States during the fiscal 

years ended June 30, 1914, 1922, and 1923, by races or peoples 10 

Table V. — Immigrant aliens admitted by principal races or peoples in fiscal 

years specified 10 

Table VI. — Number and per cent of aliens rejected at specified places during 

the fiscal year ended June 30, 1923 13 

A. GENERAL IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION (Tables I to XXIV-A). 

Table I. — ^Aliens admitted, departed, debarred, and deported, and United 
States citizens arrived and departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1922 and 

1923, by ports 40 

Table II. — Net increase or decrease of population by arrival and departure 

of aliens, fiscal years ended June 30, 1922 and 1923, by months 41 

Table III. — Net increase or decrease of population by arrival and departure 

of aliens, fiscal years ended June 30, 1922 and 1923, by countries 42 

Table IV. — Net increase or decrease of population, by admission and departure 

of aliens, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by races or peoples 44 

III 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page. 
Table V. — Intended future permanent residence of aliens admitted and last 

permanent residence of aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by 

.States and Territories 45 

Table VI. — Occupations of aliens admitted and departed, fiscal year ended 

June 30, 1923 46 

Table VII. — Sex, age, literacy, financial condition, etc., of immigrant aliens 

admitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by races or peoples 48 

Table VII-A.— Sex, age, and length of residence in the United States of 

emigrant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by races or peoples. 51 
Table VII-B. — Conjugal condition of immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal year 

ended June 30, 1923, by races or peoples 52 

Table VII-C — Conjugal condition of emigrant aliens departed, fiscal year 

ended June 30, 1923, by races or peoples 54 

Tal)le VII-D. — Sex, age, and length of residence in the United States of 

naturalized citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, 

by races or peoples 56 

Table VII-E. — Sex, age, and length of residence in the United States of 

native-born citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, 

by races or peoples 57 

Table VIII. — Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by 

countries of last permanent residence and races or peoples 58 

Tal)le VIII-A. — Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by 

countries of intended future permanent residence and races or peoples 62 

Table VIII-B. — Naturalized citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended 

June 30, 1923, by countries of intended future permanent residence and 

races or peoples 66 

Table VIII-C. — Native-born citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended 

June 30, 1923, by countries of intended future permanent residence and 

races or peoples 70 

Table IX. — Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by 

States of intended future permanent residence and races or peoples 71 

Table IX-A. — Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by 

States of last permanent residence and races and peoples 74 

Table IX-B. — Naturalized citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended 

June .30, 1923, by States of last permanent residence and races or peoples 77 

Table I X-C— Native-born citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended 

June 30, 1923, by States of last permanent residence and races or peoples 80 

Table X. — ^Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal j^ear ended June 30, 1923, by 

occupations and races or peoples 81 

Table X-A. — Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by 

occupations and races or peoples 86 

Table X-B. — Naturalized citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended 

June .30, 1923, by occupations and races or peoples 90 

Table X-C. — Native-born citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended 

June 30, 1923, by occupations and races or peoples 94 

Table XI. — Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by 

States of intended future permanent residence and occupations 96 

Table XI-A. — Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by 

States of last permanent residence and occupations 102 

Table XI-B. — Immigrant aliens admitted during tlie fiscal year ended June 30, 

1923, by States of intended future permanent residence and ports of entry. . . 108 
Table XII. — Immigrant aliens admitted during specified periods, January 1, 

1922, to June 30, 1923, by races or peoples and sex 112 

Table XII-A. — Emigrant aliens departed during specified periods, January 1, 

1922, to June 30, 1923, l)y races or peoples and sex 113 

Table XIII. — Sex, age, literacy, financial condition, etc., of nonimmigrant 

aliens admitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by races or peoples 114 

Table XIII-A. — Sex, age, and length of residence in United States of uonemi- 

grant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by races or peoples. . . 116 
Table XIV. — Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1899, to 

1923, l^y races or peoples 117 

Table XIV-A. — Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1899 

to 1923, by countries 119 

Table XIV-B. — Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 
1923, by races or peoples 121 



CONTENTS. 



Table XIV-C — Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 

1923, bv countries 122 

Table XV.— Total immigration, 1820 to 1923 124 

Table XV-A. — Net increase of population by arrival and departure of aliens, 

fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 1923 125 

Table XVI . — Aliens debarred from entering the United States, fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1923, by races or peoples and causes 126 

Table XVI-A. — Aliens debarred and aliens deported after entering, 1892 to 

1923, by causes 130 

Table XVI-B . — Permanent residents of contiguous foreign territory applying 
for temporary sojourn in the United States refused admission, fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1923, by causes 132 

Table XVII. — -Aliens deported to countries whence they came, after entering 
the United States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by races or peoples and 
causes 133 

Table XVIII. — Appeals from decisions under immigration law, applications 
for admission on bond without appeal, applications for hospital treatment, 
and applications for transit, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by causes 137 

Table XVIII-A. — Appeals from decisions under immigration law, applications 
for admission on bond without appeal, applications for hospital treatment, 
and applications for transit, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by ports 138 

Table XIX. — Deserting alien seamen, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by ports. 139 

Table XX. — Alien stowaways found on board vessels arriving at ports of the 
United States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by ports 139 

TaV)le XXI. — ^Comparison between alien arrivals and head-tax settlements, 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1923 140 

Table XXII. — Aliens admitted to continental United States from insular 
United States, during the fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 1923, inclusive, 
by ports 140 

Table XXII-A. — Immigrant aliens admitted to continental United States from 
insular United States and to insular United States from other insulars and 
from mainland (continental United States), by ports, fiscal year ended June 
30, 1923 141 

Table XXIT-B . — Nonimmigrant aliens admitted to continental United States 
from insular United States and to insular United States from other insulars 
and from mainland (continental United States), by ports, fiscal vear ended 
June 30, 1923. ..... ." ' 141 

Table XXIII . — Aliens certified by surgeons as physically or mentally defective, 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, showing sex, age, class of defect, and dispo- 
sition, by diseases or defects 142 

Table XXIII-A. — Aliens certified by surgeons as physically or mentally de- 
fective, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, showing races or peoples, by diseases 
or defects 144 

Table XXIII-B. — Aliens certified by surgeons as physically or mentally de- 
fective, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923. showing organ or portion of body 
affected, by diseases or defects 146 

Table XXIV. — Aliens granted hospital treatment under sections 18 and 22 of 
the immigration law, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by races 148 

Table XXI V-A. — Aliens granted hospital treatment under sections 18 and 22 
of the immigration law, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by ports 149 

B. JAPANESE IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION (Tables A to F). 

Table A. — Japanese aliens applied for admission, admitted, debarred, deported, 
and departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1922 and 1923 150 

Table B . — Increase or decrease of Japanese population by alien admissions and 

departures, fiscal years ended June 30, 1922 and 1923, by months 150 

Table C. — Occupations of Japanese aliens admitted and departed, fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1923 ". . . . 151 

Table D. — Statistics of immigration and emigration of Japanese, collected l:)y 
the United States Government, compared with those reported by the Japanese 
Government, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923 151 

Talile E. — Japanese alien arrivals in continental United States, fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1923, showing various details bearing on the Japanese agree- 
ment 152 

Table F. — Japanese alien arrivals in Hawaii, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, 
showing various details bearing on the Japanese agreement 155 



VI CONTENTS. 

C. CHINESE IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION (Tables 1 to 6). 

Page. 

Table 1 . — Summary of Chinese seeking admission to the United iStates, fiscal 
years ended June 30, 1918 to 1923, by classes 157 

Tal)le2. — Chinese seeking admission to the United States, fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1923, by classes and ports 158 

Taljle 3. — Cliinese claiming American citizenship by birth, or to l)e the wives 
or children of American citizens, admitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, 
by ports .* 160 

Table 4. — Appeals to department from excluding decisions under Chinese- 
exclusion laws, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by ports 160 

Table 5. — Disposition of cases of resident Chinese applying for return certifi- 
cates, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923 160 

Table 6. — Miscellaneous Chinese transactions, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, 
by ports 161 



REPORT 

OF THE 

COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Department of Labor, 
Bureau of Immigration, 

Washington, June 30, 1923. 

Sir: The fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, was the second complete 
year during which the so-called quota limit act of May 19, 1921, was 
in operation, and because of various important developments believed 
to be wholly or in part attributable to that law the records of the 
Immigration Service during the 12 months under consideration are 
of unusual interest and significance. 

In the first place, the number of immigrant aliens admitted reached 
a total of 522,919 during the year, compared to 309,556 such admis- 
sions in the fiscal year 1922, an increase of 213,363. This gain was 
almost entirely due to increased immigration from British North 
America and Mexico, which countries are not within the scope of the 
quota limit law, and to the fact that natives of north and west 
European countries used 90 per cent of their allotted quotas in the 
year just ended, compared with only 46.4 per cent in the preceding 
fiscal year. 

Another interesting development of the past year was the large 
numerical and proportional decrease among emigrant aliens leaving 
the country when compared with the record of former years. The 
total number of departures of this class in the year just ended was 
only 81,450, as against 198,712 in the fiscal year 1922, and an annual 
average of 288,578 in the five pre-war years 1910-1914. The record 
of the year in this respect seems to indicate a most unusual degree of 
stability among our recent immigrants, which subject will be dis- 
cussed at greater length elsewhere in this report. 

Another, and in this instance a most troublesome, development of 
the year has been the growing tendency of inadmissible European 
aliens to attempt to enter the country surreptitiously, which in turn 
appears to have led to increased activities on the part of professional 
smugglers engaged in the business of assisting such aliens to enter 
over the land and water boundaries. This and various other phases 
of the work of the fiscal year will be commented on in some detail 
following a discussion of the quota-limit law and of the statistical 
records of the 12 months under consideration. 

THE PER CENTUM LIMIT ACT OF 1921. 

The fiscal year just ended was the second during which the so-called 
per centum limit immigration act of May 19, 1921, was in operation, 
and because of this the statistical records of the Immigration Service 
are peculiarly interesting and significant. The law is still new, and 

1 



2 IJEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 

there is so much evidence that its purpose and provisions are not fully 
understood that a brief discussion of what it is and of the events 
which led to its enactment by Congress may be appropriate at this 
time. 

Perhaps it is not very generally realized that the per centum limit 
law marked the beginning of actual restriction or limitation of immi- 
gration to the United States from Europe, Africa, Australasia, and a 
considerable part of Asia. The Chinese exclusion act of 1882, the 
passport agreement with Japan which became effective in 1908, and 
the "barred zone" provision in the general immigration law of 1917 
had already stopped or greatly reduced the influx of oriental peoples, 
but so far as others, and particularly Europeans, were concerned, all 
applicants who met the various tests prescribed in the general law 
were admitted. This general law, first enacted in 1882 and several 
times revised and strengthened, was and still is based on the principle 
of selection rather than of numerical restriction. It is probably true 
that the provision barring illiterate aliens from admission, which was 
added to the general law in 1917, was intended as a restrictive meas- 
ure rather than a quality test, but in its practical effect it was only 
another addition to the already numerous class of alleged undesirables 
who were denied admission, and ol^viously could not be relied upon 
actually to limit the volume of immigration. 

The immigration act of 1882, which, as already indicated, was the 
first general law upon the subject, provided for the exclusion from 
the United States of the following classes only: Convicts, lunatics, 
idiots, and persons likely to become a public charge. This law under- 
went more or less important revisions in 1891, 1893, 1903, 1907, and 
1917, until the last-mentioned act, which is the present general immi- 
gration law, denies admission to many classes of aliens, including the 
following: Idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics, insane 
persons; persons who have had one or more attacks of insanity at 
any time previously; persons of constitutional psychopathic infe- 
riority; persons \\dth chronic alcoholism ; paupers; jDrofessional beg- 
gars; vagrants; persons afflicted with tuberculosis in any form or 
with a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease; persons certified 
by the examining physician as being mentally or physically defective, 
such physical defect being of a nature which may affect the ability 
of the alien to earn a living; persons who have been convicted of or 
admit having committed a felony or other crime or misdemeanor 
involving moral turpitude; polygamists, or persons who practice 
polygamy or believe in or advocate the practice of polygamy; an- 
archists and similar classes; immoral persons and persons coming for 
an immoral purpose; contract laborers; persons likely to become a 
public charge; persons seeking admission within one year of date of 
previous debarment or deportation; persons whose ticket or passage 
is paid for with the money of another or who are assisted by others to 
come, unless it is affirmatively shown that such persons do not belong 
to one of the foregoing excluded classes; persons whose ticket 
or passage is paid for by any corporation, association, society, munici- 
pality, or foreign government, either directly or indirectly; stowa- 
ways; children under 16 years of age unless accompanied by one or 
both of their parents; persons who are natives of certain geographi- 
cally defined territory; aliens over 16 years of age who are unable to 
read some language or dialect; certain accompanying aliens, as 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 6 

described in the last proviso of section 18 of the act; and persons who 
have arrived in Canada or Mexico by certain steamship lines. Per- 
sons who fail to meet certain passport requirements were added to 
the excluded classes in subsequent legislation. 

Obviously it would be difficult to find, or even to invent, many 
other terms denoting individual undesirability which might be added to 
the foregoing list, but, as already pointed out, the general law is essen- 
tially selective in theory, for even its most rigid application with re- 
spect to the excludable classes above enumerated could not be 
depended upon to prevent the coming of unlimited numbers of aliens 
who were able to meet the tests imposed. 

Even a casual survey of congressional discussions of the immigration 
problem during the past quarter of a century demonstrates very clearly 
that while the law makers were deeply concerned with the mental, 
moral, and physical quality of immigrants, there developed as time 
went on an even greater concern as to the fundamental racial char- 
acter of the constantly increasing numbers who came. The record of 
alien arrivals year by year had shown a gradual falling off in the 
immigration of northwest European peoples, representing racial 
stocks which were common to America even in colonial days, and a 
rapid and remarkably large increase in the movement from southern 
and eastern European countries and Asiatic Turkey.' Immigration 
from the last-named sources reached an annual average of about 
750,000 and in some years nearly a million came, and there seems to 
have been a general belief in Congress that it would increase rather 
than diminish. At the same time no one seems to have anticipated 
a revival of the formerly large influx from the ''old sources," as the 
countries of northwest Europe came to be known. 

This remarkable change in the sources and racial character of our 
immigrants led to an almost continuous agitation of the immigration 
problem both in and out of Congress, and there was a steadily growing 
demand for restriction, particularly of the newer movement from 
the south and east of Europe. During the greater part of this period 
of agitation the so-called literacy test for aliens was the favorite 
weapon of the restrictionists, and its widespread popularity appears 
to have been based quite largely on a belief, or at least a hope, that it 
would reduce to some extent the stream of " new" immigration, about 
one-third of which was illiterate, without seriously interfering with 
the coming of the older type, among whom illiteracy was at a minimum. 

Presidents Cleveland and Taft vetoed immigration bills because 
they contained a literacy test provision, and President Wilson vetoed 
two bills largely for the same reason. In 1917, however, Congress 
passed a general immigration bill which included the literacy pro- 
vision over the President's veto, and, with certain exceptions, aliens 
who are unable to read are no longer admitted to the United States. 
At that time, however, the World War had already had the effect of 
reducing immigration from Europe to a low level, and our own entry 
into the conflict a few days before the law in question went into 
effect practically stopped it altogether. Consequently, the value of 
the literacy provision as a means of restricting European immigration 
was never fairly tested under normal conditions. 

The Congress, however, seemingly realized that even the compre- 
hensive immigration law of 1917, including the literacy test, would 
afford only a frail barrier against the promised rush from the war- 



4 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

stricken countries of Europe, and in December, 1920, the House of 
Representatives, with little opposition, passed a bill to suspend 
practically all immigration for the time being. The per centum 
limit plan was substituted by the Senate, however, and the sub- 
stitute prevailed in Congress, but it failed to become a law at the time 
because President Wilson withheld executive approval. Neverthe- 
less, favorable action was not long delayed, for at the special session 
called at the beginning of the present administration the measure was 
quickly enacted, and, with President Harding's approval, became a 
law on May 19, 1921. This law expired by limitation June 30, 1922, 
but by the act of May 11, 1922, its life was extended to June 30, 1924, 
and some strengthening amendments were added. 

The principal provisions of the per centum limit act, or the "quota 
law," as it is popularly known, are as follows: 

The number of aliens of any nationality who may be admitted to 
the United States in any fiscal year shall not exceed 3 per cent of the 
number of persons of such nationality who were resident in the 
United States according to the census of 1910. 

Monthly quotas are limited to 20 per cent of the annual quota. 

For the purposes of the act, "nationality" is determined by 
country of birth. 

The law does not apply to the following classes of aliens: Govern- 
ment officials; aliens in transit; aliens visiting the United States as 
tourists or temporarily for business or pleasure; aliens from countries 
immigration from which is regulated in accordance with treaties or 
agreement relating solely to immigration, otherwise China and Japan; 
aliens from the so-called Asiatic barred zone; aliens who have resided 
continuously for at least five years in Canada, Newfoundland, Cuba, 
Mexico, Central or South America, or adjacent islands; aliens under 
the age of 18 who are children of citizens of the United States. 

Certain other classes of aliens who are counted against quotas are 
admissible after a quota is exhausted. The following are included 
in this category: Aliens returning from a temporary visit abroad; 
aliens who are professional actors, artists, lecturers, singers, ministers 
of any religious denomination, professors for colleges or seminaries, 
members of any recognized learned profession, or aliens employed 
as domestic servants. 

So far as possible preference is given to the wives and certain near 
relatives of citizens of the United States, applicants for citizenship, 
and honorably discharged soldiers, eligible to citizenship, who served 
in the United States military or naval forces at any time between 
April 6, 1917, and November 11, 1918. 

Transportation companies are liable to a fine of S200 for each alien 
brought to a United States port in excess of the quota and where such 
fine is imposed the amount paid for passage must be returned to the 
rejected alien. 

The quota limit law is in addition to and not in substitution for 
the provisions of the immigration laws. 

In the annual report for the preceding fiscal year it was pointed 
out that the operation of the per centum limit law had necessitated 
the introduction of a new, although limited, series of immigration 
statistics which, for the following reasons, are not comparable with 
existing statistics: 



KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 5 

1. In the quota law figures country of birth rules, whereas country 
of last permanent residence is regarded as country of origin in our 
ordinary immigration tables. 

2. Both immigrant and nonimmigrant aliens may appear in quota- 
law statistics, or, by reason of exemptions already referred to, arriv- 
ing aliens of both classes may not be counted against quotas at all, 
or, in other cases, after a quota is exhausted. 

For example, during the fiscal year just ended 335,480 aliens were 
charged to the various quotas, while a total of 522,919 immigrant 
aliens were admitted during the same period, or an excess of 187,439. 
However, this difference is readily accounted for by the fact that 
during the fiscal year 117,011 immigrant aliens were admitted from 
British North America, 63,768 from Mexico, 13,181 from the West 
Indies, and smaller numbers from other sources, only a minor part 
of such immigration being subject to the provisions of the quota law. 

With this explanation there is presented a table showing operations 
under the quota law during the past two fiscal years: 

Text Table I. — Immigration quotas allotted to specified countries or regions of birth 
and the number of aliens admitted and charged against such quota allotments, fiscal 
years ended June 30, 1922 and 1923. 



Country or region of birth. 



1923 



Quota. 



Number, 
admitted. 



Quota. 



Number, 
admitted 



Per cent of quota 
admitted. 



1923 



1922 



Albania 

Armenia 

Armenia (Russian) . . 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulaaria 

Czechoslovakia 

Danzig, Free City of. 

Denmark 

Finland 

Fiume, Free State of. 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Italy 



288 



Luxemburg 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland (including Eastern Galicia) 

Portugal (including Azores and Madeira 
Islands) 

Rumania 

Russia (including Siberia) 

Esthonian region 

Latvian region 

Lithuanian and Memel regions 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yueoslavia 

Other Europe (including Andorra, Gibral- 
tar, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, 
and San Marino; and ilemel and lee- 
land for 1922) 

Palestine 

SjTia. 



Turkey (European and Asiatic, including 
Sm^Tna region; and Turkish-Armenian 
region for 1923) 



230 

7,451 

1,563 

302 

14,357 

301 

5,619 

3,921 

71 

5, 729 

67, 607 

3,294 

5,638 

75 

42,057 

92 

3,607 

12, 202 

31,146 

2,465 
7,419 

24,405 

1,348 

1,540 

2,460 

912 

20, 042 
3,752 

77, 342 
6,426 



57 
928 



288 



230 

7,35S 

1,563 

295 

14,3.57 

263 

5,226 

3,921 

67 

5,034 

49, 258 

3,294 

5, 638 

59 

42, 057 

92 

3,607 

12, 202 

29, 730 

2,465 
7,419 

24,405 

241 

1,513 

2,460 

912 

19, 867 
3,752 

77,342 
6,426 



86 
57 

928 



2,388 



288 
1,5.S9 



7.451 

1,563 

302 

14,282 

301 

5,694 

3,921 

71 

5,729 

68, 0.59 

3.294 

5,638 



42,057 

92 

3,607 

12,202 

25, 827 

2,520 

7,419 

34,284 



912 
20, 042 
3,752 

77, 342 
6,426 



86 

56 

906 



656 



280 
1,574 



4,797 

1,581 

301 

14, 248 

85 

3,2S4 

3,038 

18 

4,343 

19, 053 

3,447 

6,035 



42,149 

93 

2,408 

5, 941 

26, 129 

2,486 

7,429 

28, 908 



888 

8,766 

3,723 

42,670 

6,644 



144 

214 

1,008 



100.0 



100.0 

98.8 

100.0 

97.7 

100.0 

80.5 

93.0 

100.0 

94.4 

87.9 

73.0 

100.0 

100.0 

78.6 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

95.5 

100.0 

100 

100 
17.9 
98.3 

100 

100 
99.1 

100 

100 

100 



100 
100 
100 



97.0 
99.0 

' '64*4 
101.2 
99.6 
99.8 
28.2 
57.6 
77.5 
25.3 
75.9 
28.0 
104.7 
107.2 



100.2 
101.1 
66.8 

48.7 
101.1 

98.6 
100.1 
84.4 



97.4 
43.8 
99.2 
55.2 
103.5 



167.4 
382. 1 
166.9 



111.2 



6 PEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Text Table I. — Immigration quotas allotted to specified countries or regions of birth 
and the number of aliens admitted and charged against such quota allotments, fiscal 
years ended June 30, 1922 and 1923 — Continued. 



Country or region of birth. 


1923 


1922 


Per cent of quota 
admitted. 


Quota. 


Number, 
admitted. 


Quota. 


Number, 
admitted. 


1923 J 1922 


Other Asia (including Cyprus, Hedjaz, 
Iraq (Mesopotamia), Persia, Rhodes, 
and any other Asiatic territory not in- 
cluded in the barred zone. Persons born 
in Asiatic Russia are inckided in the 
Russia quota) 


81 
122 
279 

sn 

121 


81 
122 
279 

80 

118 


81 
122 
279 

80 

65 


528 
195 
279 

88 

S3 


100 
100 
100 
100 

97.5 


651.9 


Africa 


159.8 




100 




110 


Atlantic islands (other than Azores, Ca- 
nary Islands, Madeira, and islands adja- 
cent to the American continents) 


127.7 


Total 


357,803 


335,480 


356,995 


243,953 


93.8 1 6S.3 













The real significance of the data shown in the foregoing compilation 
will be more readily comprehended by a study of the following table 
in which are compared the quota allotments of, and the number of 
aliens admitted from, northern and western Europe; southern and 
eastern Europe, including Asiatic Turkey and "Other Asia," and 
certain other sources subject to the quota law, during the two fiscal 
years under consideration: 

Text Table II. — Immigration quotas allotted to specified areas, and the number of 
aliens admitted and charged against such quota allotments, fiscal years ended June 30, 
1922 and 1923. 





1923 


iQoo Per cent of 
^^^^ quota admitted. 


Areas. 


Quota. 


Number 
admitted. 


Quota. 


Number 
admitted. 


1923 \» 1922 

i 


Northern and western Europe 


197,555 

159,646 

602 


177,943 

156,938 

599 


198,082 

158,367 

546 


91,862 

151,446 

645 


90 

98.3 

99.5 


46.4 


Southern and eastern Phirope, including Asiatic 


95.6 


Africa, Australia, New Zealand and other 


118,1 








Total 


357,803 


335,480 1 356.995 


243,9.53 1 93.8 


68.3 















The chief significance of the foregoing figures lies in the fact that 
while in the fiscal year 1922 only 46.4 per cent of the combined quotas 
of northern and western European countries was exhausted, 90 per 
cent of the total allotment was utilized in the past fiscal year, the 
increase in numbers being from 91,862 in 1921-22 to 177.943 in 
1922-23. Table I shows that the quotas of the United Kingdom, 
Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Switzer- 
land were either completely or practically exhausted, the German 
quota being the only one of this group which reached the end of the 
fiscal year with any considerable balance. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 7 

On the other hand the quotas of the southern and eastern European 
and Near East group were substantially exhausted in both years, the 
small increase in 1922-23 being due to the fact that more favorable 
conditions surrounding the immigration of natives of Russia made 
possible the coming of increased numbers of that nationality. 

As already explained, the law provides that not more than 20 per 
cent of a q^uota allotment may be admitted in any month, and it has" 
been judicially determined that adherence to a monthly allotment is 
as mandatory as in the case of an annual quota. While this provision 
has resulted in more or less confusion at times and has necessitated 
the rejection of considerable numbers of otherwise admissible aliens, 
nevertheless the experience of the past two years has amply justified 
the wisdom of fixing a monthly limit. Under the present plan, 
however, it is possible to admit a full year's quota of any nationality, 
and consequently all nationalities subject to the law, within the 
first five months of a fiscal year. As a matter of fact several of the 
nationalities concerned did completely exhaust their quotas for the 
fiscal year 1923 in November. Fortunately for the Immigration 
Service applications for admission under some of the larger quotas 
were better distributed. The Russian quota, for example, was not 
exhausted until April and that of the United Kingdom until May. 

The trend of immigration during the last few months of the fiscal 
year, however, indicates that most of the quotas, large and small, 
for the fiscal year 1924 may be exhausted early in November. This 
naturally suggests the advisability of decreasing the monthly limit 
somewhat in order to insure a better distribution throughout the 
year. 

The quota limit law has created new and in some instances difficult 
problems for the Immigration Service, as it has intensified already 
existing problems, particularly that of preventing illegal entries over 
the land boundaries and at seaports. On the whole, however, its 
administration has been attended with fewer difficulties than during 
the preceding fiscal year, and if the law were amended in some 
particulars it is doubtful whether any other equally eft'ective method 
of restricting immigration could be devised that would present fewer 
administrative difficulties or cause less hardship to aliens or incon- 
venience to their friends in the United States. 

SOME COMPARATIVE STATISTICS. 

Turning to the regular statistical record of the year, as distinguished 
from the quota records above discussed, it should be explained that 
under the bureau's practice aliens entering and leaving the country 
are each divided into two general classes, as follows : An-iving aliens 
whose permanent domicile has been outside the United States, who 
intend to reside permanently in the United States, are classed as 
immigrant aliens; departing aliens whose permanent residence has 
been in the United States, who intend to reside permanently abroad, 
are classed as emigrant aliens; alien residents of the United States 
making a temporary visit abroad and aliens residing abroad 
making a temporary trip to the United States are classed as non- 
emigrant aliens on the outward journey and nonimmigrant on the 
inward. 



5 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

With this explanation there is presented a brief statistical sum- 
mary which shows the entire inward and outward alien movements 
during the last two fiscal years, and the net additions to the alien 
population of the country resulting therefrom.* 





Fiscal 
year 1923. 


Fiscal 
year 1922. 


Immigrant aliens 


522,919 

150, 487 


309, 556 




122, 949 






Total admitted 


673,406 


432,505 






81,4.50 
119,136 


198 712 




146,672 






Total departed 


200,5.86 


34.5,384 






472,820 


87, 121 







It is perhaps unnecessary to point out the great proportionate 
increase in the net alien population in the year just ended or to refer 
again to the decreased number of emigrant aliens leaving the country 
for permanent residence elsewhere. These are the outstanding 
features of the table. 

From the description above given it will be noted that the term 
"immigrant aliens" represents true or real immigration, as the term 
"emigrant aliens" means true or real emigration, and accordingly 
these classes are largely the basis of the discussion which follows : 

COTJNTBIES OF LAST PERMANENT RESIDENCE. 

Owing to the numerous changes in the boundaries of various 
countries and the creation of new countries resulting from the World 
War, it is no longer possible to make satisfactory comparisons be- 
tween present and pre-war immigration from Europe or the Near 
East on the basis of country of origin. The next table, however, 
presents some interesting comparisons between immigration from 
specified sections of Europe and the Near East and from other sources 
in the fiscal years 1914, 1921, and 1923. The year first mentioned 
represents a fairly normal pre-war year in the matter of immigration 
into the United States; the second, a postwar year during which 
there was no numerical limit on European immigration, while in 
1922-23 the quota limit law was in force. 



Text Table III.- 



-Immigrant aliens admitted by principal sources, in fiscal years 

specified. 



Source. 


Number admitted. 


Percent of total. 


1922-23 


1920-21 


1913-14 


1922-23 


1920-21 


1913-14 


Northern and western Europe 


156,429 
153,674 
117,011 
63,768 
32,037 


138, 551 
525,548 
72,317 
30.758 
38,054 


164, 133 
915,974 
86,139 
14,614 
37,620 


29.9 
29.4 
22.4 
12.2 
6.1 


17.2 
65.3 
9.0 
3.8 
4.7 


13.4 


Southern and eastern Europe and Turkey. . 
British North America 


75.2 
7.1 


Mexico 


1.2 


Other countries 


3.1 






Total 


522,919 


805, 228 


1,218,480 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







* For more detailed statistics see Table III, p. 42. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 9 

It will be noted that in 1913-14 and also in 1920-21 a large major- 
ity of our immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe and 
Turkey. In the first-named year 75.2 per cent, or more than three- 
fourths of the total number admitted, came from such countries, 
Italy, Russia, Hungary, Austria, and Greece being the principal 
sources. Italy sent 283,738 and Russia 255,660 immigrants in that 
year compared to only 153,674 admitted from the entire region under 
consideration in the year just ended. On the other hand, the contri- 
bution of northern and western European countries, while numerically 
greater than in either of the post-war years, was only 13.4 per cent 
of the total in 1913-14 compared to 17.2 and 29.9 per cent of the 
total in 1920-21 and 1922-23, respectively. Increased immigration 
from British North America and Mexico is also a noteworthy feature 
of the past year's record. 

RACES OR PEOPLES. 

Since 1899 all aliens admitted to the United States have been 
classified in the bureau's statistics under the head of "Races or 
peoples" as well as by country of origin. Accordingly there is a 
continuous record of 25 years which is based on the racial rather 
than the political or geographical status of admitted aliens and, there- 
fore, not at all afi'ected by shifting political boundaries, newly created 
countries, or changed place of residence on the part of the aliens 
themselves. Thus an Englishman is counted as such whether he 
comes from England, Canada, or China. The value of this classifica- 
tion is clearly apparent when it is considered that during the past 
fiscal year the aliens admitted from Turkey in Asia included only 
158 persons of the Turkish race compared with 658 Armenians, 631 
Syrians. 417 Hebrews, 179 Greeks, and 140 of various other races or 
peoples, and what is true of Turkey is true in some degree of every 
other country from which immigrants come.^ 

The number of immigrant aliens of the various races or peoples 
admitted during the fiscal years 1914, 1921, and 1923 is shown in 
the following table: 

6 Table VIII, pp. 58 to 61, shows the number of immigrant aliens admitted in the fiscal year ended Jim e 
30, 1923, by country of last permanent residence and races or peoples. 



10 TEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 

Text Table IV. — Immigrant aliens admitted to the United States during the fiscal 
years ended June 30, 1914, 1921, and 1923, by races or peoples. 



Race or people. 



Fiscal rear. 



1922-23 1920-21 1913-14 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian (Czech) 

Bulgarian, Serbian, and Montenegrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Rumaman 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, Danes, and Swedes) 

Scotch 1 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cuban) 

Other peoples 

Total 



9,873 

10,212 

1,743 

7,700 

4,017 

11,035 

1,523 

930 

12,813 

353 

54, 627 

4,233 

24, 122 

24, 168 

31,S28 

119,036 

39, 056 

27,459 

195,037 

7,531 

61 

829 

9,377 

29, 603 

13 

21.146 

18, 856 

5,925 

2,887 

958 

25,812 

24,649 

35,047 

27,448 

3,325 

5,105 

353 

1,748 

1,553 

3,237 



522,919 



805,228 



8,447 

7,785 

9,928 

15,084 

2,354 

37,284 

3, .539 

5,149 

12,566 

172 

51,746 

12,805 

18, 166 

79,871 

45,881 

138,051 

33,898 

44,802 

251,612 

8,941 

152 

21,584 

44,538 

13,089 

1 

122,657 

9,647 

24,070 

44,957 

36,727 

36,053 

18,997 

25,819 

11,064 

1,544 

9,023 

2,693 

2,558 

1,396 

3,830 



1,218,480 



In the next table the foregoing figures are condensed into four 
specific groups which illustrate even more clearly the change that 
has occurred in the character of our immigration under the quota 
limit law. 

Text Table V. — Immigrant aliens admitted by princij)al races or peoples in fiscal 

years specified. 



Race or people. 


Number admitted. 


Per cent of total. 


1922-23 


1920-21 


1913-14 


1922-23 


192(^21 


1913-14 


Northern and western Europe 


274,507 
162,695 
62,709 
23,008 


206,995 

537, 144 

29,603 

31,486 


253,855 

921, 160 

13,089 

30,376 


52.5 

31.1 

12.0 

4.4 


25.7 

66.7 

3.7 

3.9 


20.8 


Southern and eastern Europe and Turkey. 


75.6 
1.1 




2.5 






Total 


522,919 


805,228 


1,218,480 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







In 1913-14, which, as already stated, was a fairly typical pre-w^ar 
immigration year, 75.6 per cent of the 1,218,480 immigrant aliens 
admitted from all sources were of the varied racial stocks indigenous 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 1 1 

to southern and eastern Europe and Turkey and only 20.8 per cent 
were of north and west European peoples. All but 3.6 per cent of 
the total, therefore, were European stock, including a relatively 
small number, mostly Armenians, Syrians, Hebrews, and so-called 
Ottoman Gfreeks, who came from Turkey in Asia. The number of 
Mexicans recorded as admitted in 1913-14 was relatively insignificant, 
being only about 1 per cent of the total, and the remainder, including 
Chinese, Japanese, African (black), Cuban, Spanish American, etc., 
was only 2.5 per cent of the whole immigration of the year. 

Then came the World War, and it was not until the fiscal year 1921 
that immigration from Europe was resumed to any considerable 
extent, and even then some of the principal sources of pre-war years, 
including Russia, Austria, and Hungary, were still largely shut off from 
the United States so far as immigration was concerned. In the fiscal 
year last mentioned a total of 805,228 immigrants were admitted to 
the United States and of this number 537,144, or 66.7 per cent of the 
whole, were of races or peoples peculiar to south and east Europe 
and Asiatic Turkey, Italians (north and south) leading with 222,496, 
followed by 119,036 Hebrews, 35,047 Slovaks, 27,448 Spanish, 21,146 
Poles, and 18,856 Portuguese. In fact, it seemed very clear that 
wherever possible immigration was rapidly approaching pre-war pro- 
portions and there was every indication that as time went on the 
influx, especially from the south and east of Europe and the Near 
East, would reach even greater proportions than ever before. As 
explained elsewhere, it is very evident that this prospect was what 
led Congress to enact the quota limit law of May 19, 1921. 

Any attempt to estimate the effect of the quota law in the matter 
of checking immigration from Europe during the past two fiscal years 
would of necessity be largely speculative. It is known, however, 
that hundreds of thousands have been prevented from coming, and 
probably this is literally true even of some countries alone. Fol- 
lowing the destruction of Smyrna, for example, and the exile of a 
million, more or less, Armenian and Greek residents of Turkey, it 
was commonly reported that had it not been for the quota law a 
considerable proportion of these refugees would have come to the 
United States. The bureau was advised that in the spring of 1923 
there were 150,000 persons in Greece alone who desired to emigrate 
to the United States, and it is said that the number in Italy who would 
come if they could greatly exceeds even this estimate. Undoubtedly 
many of the reports of this nature which have reached the bureau 
are exaggerated, perhaps greatly so in some instances, but however 
that may be it seems very certain that except for the quota limit 
law immigration from Europe and Asiatic Turkey during the past 
fiscal year would have been far in excess of any year in our history. 

Turning for a moment from speculation as to what might have 
happened, it is of interest to note to what extent operations under 
the quota law have fulfilled the evident purpose of Congress in enact- 
ing it; this purpose, as already suggested, having been to materially 
lessen the tide of immigration from the so-called new sources without 
unduly interfering with the normal movement of northwest Euro- 
pean peoples into the United States. The answer seems to appear 
when comparison is made of the records of the years 1913-14 and 
1922-23, as presented in the two tables next foregoing. These 

63750—23 2 



12 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

tables, and particularly the latter, show not only a numerical decrease 
of 758,465 in the newer immigrant types in the year just ended but 
that the proportion of these peoples in the total immigration fell 
from 75.6 per cent in 1913-14 to 31.1 per cent in 1922-23. On the 
other hand, while there was only a small increase in numbers among 
northwest European peoples or racial stocks they formed 52.5 per 
cent of all our immigration in 1922-23 compared with only 20.8 per 
cent of the whole in 1913-14, and considering the two European 
groups alone the proportion of old-type immigrants was practically 
63 per cent of the total. In pointing to these facts it will, of course, 
be understood that the bureau is not commenting on the relative 
merits of the various alien peoples or groups composing our immi- 
gration, but rather that it is merely attempting to show from 
statistical records to what extent the quota limit law has met the 
purpose of Congress as that purpose is understood. 

EMIGRANT ALIENS. 

The tendency of the foreign born to return to their homelands in 
large numbers is a phase of the immigration problem which has been 
widely discussed in recent years, and, although official records are 
not available prior to 1908, it is known from other sources that during 
the past 25 years approximately one-third of those who came sooner 
or later left the country. This class is known in immigration statis- 
tics as "emigrant aliens," and, as already explained, it includes 
"aliens whose permanent residence has been in the United States 
who intend to reside permanently abroad." During the 15 fiscal 
years 1908-1922, a total of 9,426,821 immigrant aliens were admitted 
to the country and 3,416,735 emigrant aliens departed, the average 
annual number being 628,455 and 227,782, respectively, or 100 emi- 
grant aliens to every 276 immigrant aliens. Of course the 15-year 
period under consideration included the World War years, when both 
mimigration and emigration conditions were abnormal, but on the 
whole the above figures are fairly representative of the inward and 
outward movement of aliens during the past quarter of a century. 

In the fiscal year just ended, however, only 81,450 emigrant aliens 
left the United States, or 100 to every 642 immigrants admitted, 
which, as stated at the beginning of this report, represents an unusual 
degree of stability or permanency compared with former years. 
Several causes appear to have contributed to this result. In the 
first place, an increase in alien departures has invariably accom- 
panied periods of industrial depression in this country, and in view 
of this it may be assumed that the favorable employment conditions 
which prevailed in the United States practically throughout the past 
year played a somewhat important part in stabilizing immigration. 
It is also probable that uncertainty as to existing conditions in the 
homelands influenced many to sta}" in this country who othervnse 
would have returned, and it is certain that in very many instances 
foreign-born residents remained here because of tne fear that once 
they were out of the country the operation of the quota law might 
make it difficult for them to return if they desired to do so. It is 
quite possible, too, that the greatly increased proportion of north- 
west Europeans among admitted immigrants during the last two 
years contributed somewhat to the result under discussion, for such 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIOITER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 13 

peoples have always become permanent settlers to a much greater 
extent than have the more recent immigrant races. 

The following races or peoples, only, contributed more than 3,000 
emigrant aliens each during the year just ended: Italian (south), 
21,029; English, 7,979; Polish, 5,278; Chinese, 3,788; Spanish, 3,193; 
and Greek, 3,060.^ 

REJECTION AT PORTS OF ARRIVAL. 

A total of 694,025 immigrant and nonimmigrant aliens applied for 
admission to the United States during the fiscal year just ended, and 
of these 20,619, or 2.9per cent, were rejected for the following causes:^ 

Likely to become a public charge 8. 230 

Under per centum limit law (excess quota) 2, ^'80 

Unable to read 2, 095 

Stowaways 1, 929 

Physical disease and defects 1, 606 

Contract laborers 1, 409 

Without proper passport 462 

Criminals 364 

Under Chinese exclusion act 321 

^Ienta,i diseases and defects 265 

All other causes 1, 249 

Probably no other phase of immigration work attracts more wide- 
spread attention or causes so much unfavorable comment as do the 
rejection and deportation of aliens applying for admission at ports of 
entry, and yet of those who so applied in the fiscal year just ended 
only 1.3 per cent were rejected at seaports and 6.6 at stations on the 
land boundaries, and at New York, which is always the storm center 
of criticism in this regard, only 1.1 per cent of the aliens applying 
during the past year were turned away. The next table shows such 
rejections by certain ports and districts. 

Table VI. — Number and per cent of aliens rejected at specified places during the fiscal 

year ended June 30, 1923. 





Number 
apply- 
ing. 


Number rejected. 


Per cent of re- 
jections. 


Ports or districts. 


Per cent- 
um limit 
law. 


Other 

causes. 


Total. 


Per cent 
rc'ected. 


Per cent- 
um limit 
law. 


Other 
causes. 


New York . 


389,497 
18,488 

2,903 
16,235 

7,410 
14,348 

5,290 

6,430 
13,227 

3, 863 


1,253 

140 

2 

9 

42 

10 


2.857 

318 

150 

184 

506 

274 

250 

104 

61 

90 

10,063 

3,082 


4,110 
458 
152 
193 
548 
284 
250 
115 
72 

. 98 
11,146 

3,193 


1.1 
2.5 
0.5 
1.2 
7.4 
1.9 
4.7 
1.8 
0.5 
2.5 
8.2 
3.9 


30.5 
30.6 
1.3 
4.7 
7.7 
3.5 


69.5 


Boston (district) 


69.4 




98.7 


Jacksonville, Fla. (district) 

Other Atlantic and Gulf ports. . 


95.3 
92.3 
96.5 


Seattle 


100.0 




11 
11 

8 


9.6 


90.4 


Canadian Atlantic ports 


15.3 1 84.7 
8.2 91.8 


Canadian land boundary 

Mexican land boundary 


135,222 1,083 
81,052 111 


9.7 90.3 
3.5 96.5 


Total 


694,025 


2,680 


17,939 


20,619 2.9 


13.0 i 87.0 













1 For further details see Table IV, p. 44. 

• For further details see Table XVI, pp. 126-129. 



14 J'.EPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

It will be readily noted from the above table that there is a wide 
discrepancy in the percentage of rejections at the principal seaports, 
like New York, Boston, and San Francisco, and at the land bound- 
aries, particularly that of Canada. This, it may be explained, is 
mostly due to the fact that aliens applying; for ocean passage at 
foreign ports are medically inspected by the transportation interests, 
while there is practically no preliminary weeding out process in the 
case of those applying for admission from foreign contiguous terri- 
tory. Under the immigration law steamship lines are required to 
return rejected aliens free of cost and in many such cases fines ranging 
from S25 to ^200 are imposed on the lines, which are also compelled, 
in some cases, to reimburse the rejected alien for the cost of bis 
passage to the United States. New penalties have been added and 
old ones increased from time to time, and when it is considered that 
at New York only 1.1 per cent, and at all seaports only 1.3 per cent, 
of all applicants are rejected, and only a small part of these for 
medical reasons, it must be conceded that the present system is at 
least reasonably effective. 

However, it v;ill be seen that 13 per cent of all rejections during the 
year, and approximately 30 per cent of those at New York and 
Boston, were so-called excess-quota cases arising under the per 
centum limit or quota law of May 19, 1921. In this connection it is 
believed that a fairly simple amendment to the law, requiring that 
quotas shall be counted abroad rather than at Ignited States ports, 
would reduce the number of rejections for this cause to a minimum. 

DEPORTATION AFTER LANDING. 

The deportation of aliens found to be unlawfully in the country is 
becoming increasingly difficult, due largely to the fact that existing 
requirements of foreign nations make it necessary to obtain a pass- 
port for each alien ordered deported. In most instances representa- 
tives of the various nations in the United States require documentary 
evidence of citizenship before granting passports or visas and this 
causes much delay and frequently necessitates considerable corre- 
spondence with the governments of the countries concerned. Approx- 
imately 750 cases of this nature are now under consideration. A total 
of 3,601 aliens were deported under warrant proceedings during the 
year, compared with 4,345 during the fiscal year 1922.^ Some of the 
principal causes of deportation were as follows: 

Likely to become a public charge 1. 188 

Criminala 304 

Mental diseases or defects 319 

Prostitutes, procurers, and other immoral classes 299 

Unable to read 262 

Ei\tered without inspection 229 

Under per centum limit act 151 

Under Chinese exclusion act 115 

Other causes 704 

The practice of conveying aliens in groups to ports from which 
deportation takes place has been successfully continued. During the 
fiscal year there were eight coast-to-coast deportation parties; seven 
such parties from Chicago to New York; five from Kansas City to 

» For details see Table XVII, p. 133. 



KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION, 15 

the Mexican border, and several smaller parties were conveyed to or 
from the Canadian and Mexican borders.^ Approximately 2,500 aliens 
under orders of deportation were conveyed to various ports of depar- 
ture in these parties. 

In this connection it is desired to call attention to a saving of 
approximately S20,000 that has resulted from agreements w^ith 
different carriers under which guard service for deportation parties 
is furnished by such earners without additional cost, which expense 
was formerly borne by the Immigration Service. 

The work of deporting aliens unh"a\"fully in the country could be 
greatly extended if ample funds were available. It has seemed to 
the bureau, however, that its first duty under the immigration law 
was to prevent further illegal entries so far as possible, and because 
of multiplied efforts to circumvent the quota limit law this is be- 
coming a most difficult task. The bureau v/ould be glad if it could 
detail officers to make a systematic canvass of penal and other public 
institutions throughout the country with a view to the deportation of 
alien inmates who may be unla'\\^ully in the country. The law 
provides, and even directs, that such an inquiry shall be made from 
time to time, but this has not been feasible for the reason stated. 
Immigration officers visiting such institutions in the course of their 
regular duties are able in many instances to make rather cursory 
investigations as to foreign-born inmates, but otherwise the service 
has to depend very largely upon officials of such institutions for 
information as to possible deportation cases confined therein. A 
thorough canvass of this nature, however, would involve a con- 
siderable initial expenditure, and, if even moderately successful, 
resulting deportations vrould add greatly to the cost. However, it 
is hoped that at least a limited inquiry in this regard may be under- 
taken during the coming fiscal year. 

SMUGGLIJIG AND SUEKEPTITIOTJS ENTRY. 

Alien smuggling has been a most troublesome phase of the immigra- 
tion problem ever since the enactment of the first Chinese exclusion 
law, and for a good many years such operations were largel}^ con- 
fined to bringing aliens of that race into the country. With the 
development of the general immigration law, however, the practice 
spread to other aliens of the diseased and otherwise inadmissible 
classes, and as the law became more complex the prevention of 
smuggling and surreptitious entry by other means became cor- 
respondingly difficult. Smuggling diseased aliens, largely of Near 
East races, over the Mexican border became a business of consider- 
able proportions, and following the passport agreement with Japan 
the illegal entry of natives of that country via Mexico was a per- 
plexing problem for several years. Then came the literacy test, an 
increased head tax and its extension to peoples of foreign contiguous 
territory, war-time passport requirements, and finally the quota 
law, making a combination of restrictions which inevitably promoted 
the alien smuggling industry and furnished new and multiplied 
incentives to illegal entry. 



16 r.EPORT or the commissioner general of immigration. 

THE MEXICAN BOEDER SITUATION. 

The long-established routes from southern Europe to Mexican 
ports and overland to the Texas border, formerly patronized almost 
exclusively by diseased and criminal aliens, are now resorted to 
by large numbers of Europeans who can not gain legal admission 
because of passport difficulties, illiteracy, or the quota law. Un- 
doubtedly a good many succeed in getting into the country in 
this way, but the hardships and dangers encountered by the aliens, 
the excessive cost, and finally the vigilance of our officers on the 
border have apparently tended to make the route unpopular, and 
while it is still used to a considerable extent the situation, so far as 
Europeans are concerned, seems to be fairly well in hand. 

It is difficult, in fact impossible, to measure the illegal influx of 
Mexicans over the border, but everyone agrees that it is quite large. 
United States territory immediately adjacent to the boundary has 
been a natural habitat of the Mexicans from the beginning, and resi- 
dents of the borderland in Mexico, particularly of the laboring 
class, for a long time moved back and forth across the dividing 
line practically at will. Illiteracy is common among them and com- 
parative poverty is widespread, but until the general law of 1917 
was enacted these conditions were not serious barriers to their legal 
admission into the United States. Under that law, however, 
illiterates are denied admission, and a head tax of S8 per person 
is assessed, and these barriers have naturally stimulated illegal 
immigration to such an extent that, as already stated, it is not 
possible even to estimate the number of Mexicans who enter the 
country without inspection over the long and largely unguarded 
stretches of border that lie between stations of our service. 

Until within quite recent years comparatively few Mexican la- 
borers got beyond the border States, but during the war they were 
taken in considerable numbers to the Middle Western States, where 
many of them were left without employment by the industrial 
depression which followed. It is said that most of these eventually 
returned to Mexico or the Southwest, but the demand for common 
labor in the North and East during the past year brought large 
numbers into industrial centers in Pennsylvania and elsewhere as 
substitutes for European laborers whose unlimited admission had 
been checked by the quota law. 

Thus it will be seen that the laws referred to created a complicated 
problem for the Immigration Service on the Mexican border, and 
because of this the following extracts from the annual reports of 
officers in charge of the three border districts are of unusual interest. 

Commenting on the illegal and attempted illegal entry of Euro- 
peans, the inspector in charge of the San Antonio district, which 
mcludes the greater part of the Texas frontier, says in part: 

These aliens for the most part are inadmissible to this country and highly unde- 
sirable as residents. Among them are anarchists, criminals, and radicals -who have 
been unable to secure vis^s from American consuls in Europe to enable them to 
secure steamship passage. There are likewise among them, aliens who probably would 
be admitted to this country were they to apply at a seaport in the regular manner. 
Many of this latter class, however, are destined to this country through Mexico as a 
result of misinformation. There are certain unscrupulous persons in Europe who 
receive a commission for the sale of steamship tickets to Mexico. These people dis- 
seminate false information regarding Mexico and give the impression that it is an 
easy matter for aliens to enter the United States over the land boundary, whereas 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 17 

they would find difficulty in entering at a seaport. These so-called agents also secure 
fraudulent passports for their \dctims, for which they charge an additional fee. These 
aliens, upon arrival in Mexico, immediately become inadmissible to the United States 
over the land boundary because of the inhibitions of the last pro\iso to section 23 
of the immigration act. 

Once these aliens land in Mexico, they proceed to the border and almost invariably 
fall into the hands of the professional smuggler. There is now, and has been for 
years, a band of criminals on this border, known in the smugglers ' jargon as" coyotes, " 
who gain a livelihood by preying upon persons desiring to enter the United States. 
Since the increase in number'of European aliens desiring to enter from Mexico these 
smugglers have reaped large financial benefits, for a majority of that class of aliens have 
ample funds to pav well "for any assistance rendered them to enter illegally, and it 
has been reported that several European aliens have offered as high as $1,000 to anyone 
who would get them past the border and enable them to reach their destination in 
the eastern part of the United States. The very fact that they were willing to pay 
that amount is convincing evidence of their undesirability, for they could proceed 
to a seaport and apply for admission in the regular manner at much less cost. 

The Mexican border smuggler is an extremely dangerous person to deal with. He 
goes " armed to the teeth " and does not hesitate to fire upon officers at sight. A num- 
ber of Federal and State officers have been killed on this border in the recent past by 
these smugglers, and it has been more luck than anything else that many of our men 
have not Iseen killed. There is hardly a week goes by that they are not fired upon. 

In this district, there are thousands of miles of winding, twisting river front, trav- 
ersing for the most part a lonely, almost uninhabited section of the country, cov- 
ered with dense brush. "V^Tien our officers penetrate this_ territory in search of con- 
traband aliens and their smugglers, they carry their lives in their hands. The " coy- 
otes" are ever on the alert and know full well that if they kill any of our men, they 
can make their escape back to Mexico without fear of apprehension, for once they 
get a start of 10 feet into the dense brush they are virtually lost to their pursuers. _ 

So far we have mentioned only the ordinary border "coyote" who has engaged in 
petty smuggling for years. All the evidence that we have been able to gather recently 
has pointed strongly to the probability that the large financial rewards for the smug- 
gling of European aliens on this border are attracting a higher type of criminal— men 
with brains. Reliable information has been received to the effect that there is now 
in existence a far-reaching organization that takes the alien from his home in Europe, 
secures a passport for him (a fraudulent one, if necessary), purchases his steamship 
passage to Mexico, places him on the ship, arranges for his entry into Mexico at 
Vera Cruz or Tampico, conducts him north to the Rio Grande, and delivers him into 
the United States — all for a fixed price. These smugglers, unlike the border " coy- 
otes, " take an interest in the welfare of the contraband aliens and give them every 
possible advice as to what course they should pursue upon reaching this country. 
One of their practices is to destroy any false passports as well as any documentary 
evidence that might involve anyone criminally or show that the aliens themselves 
were ever in Mexico. 

This more intelligent type of smuggler is a cause for real apprehension. Our 
activities during the past few months have resulted in checking to a great degree the 
work of the border "coyotes." We have instituted criminal proceedings against the 
ringleaders, some of whom have been convicted, and the cases of others are pending. 
We have given wide publicity, through the press and otherwise, to our work in this 
district in connection with the prevention of smuggling, and this, together with the 
capture of many of the most notorious smugglers, has had its good effect. The coming 
of the higher type of smuggler, however, naturally causes some concern. It means 
a battle of wits between our officers and the smugglers, and as conditions now stand 
it must be admitted that the odds are in fa^-or of the smuggler. The topography of 
this section of the country is peculiarly well adapted for smuggling purposes. The 
many miles of river front afford ample opportunity for the aliens to cross almost at 
will. Once they reach the American side, it becomes a game of hide and seek and, 
in the dense undergrowth, the chances are in favor of the hider. By concealing 
themselves during the day and traveling at night these contraband aliens gradually 
make their way from the border and reach the open country where, once they pass our 
last lines of defense, the chance of their apprehension is practically eliminated. If 
this traffic in contraband aliens is to be checked to any great degree, we will have to 
concentrate our attack in the immediate vicinity of the border, and to do this will 
require just one thing^ — more men. 

There are little, if any, restrictions with respect to immigrants arriving in Mexico, 
and it is an easy matter for aliens of anarchistic tendencies, or, in fact, any kind of 
criminal, to enter that country and make it a mere way station on their journey to 



18 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 

the United States. These aliens know that they would in all probability be detected 
and refused admission if they should apply at a seaport of the United States and so 
they naturally choose the easier route through Mexico. They are coming to this 
country for a definite purpose and are well supplied with monev. They are going 
to get in by any possible means, and, with our present small force, it can not be denied 
that it is not exceedingly difficult of accomplishment if they place themselves in the 
proper hands. 

The supervisor in charge of the El Paso district comments in part 
as follows: 

No evidence was brought to light of organized efforts to effect the entry of con- 
traband Chinese aliens during the year. There were a few sporadic attempts at illegal 
entry by Chinese aliens, but, so far as could be ascertained, these aliens were un- 
assisted by professional smugglers. 

The few seemingly concerted movements of Japanese to break through our border 
lines were frustrated by the prompt and vigorous action of immigration officers. The 
failure of these attempts has, for the time being, had a discouraging effect on aliens 
of this race, but experience has convincingly demonstrated that they are always 
alert and waiting to seize an opportunity to renew activities. 

The situation with reference to Mexican aliens has been about the same as it generally 
is. As long as the law requires payment of head tax and forbids the entry of illiterates, 
physically afflicted and diseased aliens, and industrial conditions in Mexico remain 
what they are and have been for several years last past, there will be a large proportion 
of Mexicans without means to pay head tax,, or otherwise excludable, to attempt 
unlawful entry in order that they may find work in the United States. As previously 
reported to the bureau the inspection force at ports of entry — and this is particularly 
true of El Paso, Tex., and Nogales, Ariz. — is not sufficient to handle all arrivals daily 
during the seasonal influx of Mexican laborers, with the result that it is oftentimes 
necessary for hundreds, even thousands, of them to wait for days and weeks before 
their turn at immigration inspection arrives. In the meantime their slender resources 
become exhausted, and, though walling to stand inspection and pay head tax, they 
are forced to resort to illegal entry in order to avoid starvation. It is again represented 
that the money thus lost to the Cjovernment from head-tax sources would, if collected, 
more than pay the expenses of the officers needed to keep the inspection work current. 
In support of this statement attention is invited to the fact that during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1919, when the old Mexican border district had the largest force 
of its history, provided because of the extra work of enforcing the war-time passport 
regulations, head-tax money in the sum of $250,132 was collected, while during the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1921, with the force reduced to the minimum, the sum of 
but $216,008 was collected on accovmt of head tax, with a larger flow of Mexican 
immigrants, these particular years being selected for the reason that the conditions 
then existing make them ideal for comparison. 

The problem of stopping the inflow of European aliens subject to the quota law 
has almost entirely displaced the Chinese smuggling with which the border service 
had to contend for so many years. As indicated elsewhere herein the number of 
European aliens arrested in this district annually increases, and the prediction is 
made that I he situation in this respect will grow worse instead of better the longer the 
percentage act remains in force. It is possible, even probable, that for the hundreds 
arrested after illegal entry thousands entered the country from Mexico \\-ithout being 
detected and safely reached interior points. There is no good reason why they should 
not have done so. The few immigration men available for preventive work are wholly 
—pitifully — insuflScient even to discourage the rush of proscribed aliens, the number 
of whose arrivals is ever gradually increasing. These aliens enter in small groups 
and scatter, trusting — as is all too often true — that if a few of them fall into the hands of 
the officers, the others will escape. If in possession of money they enlist the aid of 
smugglers; otherwise they enter unassisted. They proceed to the interior on passenger 
and freight trains, by automobiles, and on foot. 

When Chinese smuggling was rampant on this border, a force at least approximating 
that required to cope with the situation was available. There were river guards to 
apprehend, if possible, the aliens and smugglers in the act of illegal entry; mounted 
men to pursue if the aliens eluded the vigilance of the officers at the points of crossing 
and proceeded overland by wagon or automobile; men to open and insi)ect freight 
cars before they left the border towns, and men to inspect all passenger trains leaving 
such towns. All these constituted the first lino of defense. The second line of defense 
consisted of inspectors at strategical interior points on all railroads running north from 
the border, where another opening of freight cars and a thorough inspection of both 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 19 

passenger and freight trains occurred. The officers at these points likewise covered 
the highways for Chinese traveling afoot, by wagon, or in automobiles. 

It was found that smugglers accompanying aliens from the border unloaded them 
from trains — both passenger and freight — and detoured them around the inspection 
points. Third and even fourth lines of defense were therefore established on some 
of the railroads at points farther removed from the border. 

With this almost impregnable defense but few of the contraband Chinese — as com- 
pared with the greater numbers of European aliens — succeeded in running the gauntlet 
and reaching their interior destination. 

The force is about the same numerically as it was in the days of Chinese smuggling, 
but it has been necessary to add to the number of those engaged on port work for the 
reason that the requirements of the present immigration laws have more than doubled 
the work of inspecting an arriving alien who regularly presents himself as an applicant 
at a port of entry. This strengthening of the force at ports of entry has been at the 
expense of preventive work since no additional officers were pro\'ided, because of 
the smallness of the immigration appropriations; and, as above indicated, even with 
such additional assistance at the ports, the force is now inadequate to keep abreast of 
the work of inspecting arriving aliens. 

Thus, contemporaneously with the decrease in Chinese smuggling operations, there 
was necessarily a discontinuance of most of the interior inspection stations, and to-day 
this district does not have a sufficient number of officers and employees to inspect 
passenger trains, and freight- train inspection work is out of the question. It would 
be inadvisable to state in a public report of this character just how few mounted men 
there are to guard more than 750 miles of border, and how few inspection points there 
are in this important stretch of territory comprising several thousand square miles. 
Those improperly interested learn these facts all too soon, and it would be almost 
criminal to subject the few^ — wholly loyal — officers and employees engaged on this 
work to the additional jeopardy which would be theirs by reason of such publicity; 
and they are constantly in jeopardy because of the fewness of their numbers. The 
smugglers on this border now travel armed with deadly weapons, and shoot to kill 
rather than be apprehended and imprisoned. Officers seldom should be detailed to 
work on the line in parties of less than four, but the limited number of mounted men 
available practically necessitates that they work in pairs in order that tjiey may 
cover the greatest amount of territory possible. During the year. Mounted Guard 
Charles Gardiner was shot and killed by smugglers, and on another occasion Mounted 
Guard Birchfield was severely beaten, wliile his partner, Mounted Guard Olds, was 
shot and badly wounded by contraband aliens. It is probable that none of these 
unfortunate occurrences would have happened had there been a sufficient force to 
permit the sending of more than two mounted men on a detail. It is not right to 
subject the mounted guards to that unnecessary hazard, which a few dollars judiciously 
expended for the salaries of additional officers would make preventable in large 
measure; and in simple justice to them a larger force should be provided. But, aside 
from tliis consideration, the means should be supplied of properly enforcing the law 
if it is to mean anything and not become a nullity. The expenditure of vast energy 
and huge sums of money in guarding the portals at Elhs Island against the entry of the 
proscribed seems a vain and futile thing so long as the back-yard gate swings loosely 
on its hinges. 

The inspector in charge of the Los Angeles district, which includes 
the southern portion of California and part of Arizona, says: 

For a decade or more prior to the year just closed the organized smuggling of aliens 
into this district was confined almost exclusively to the illegal introduction of orien- 
tals — Chinese and Japanese. The reason for this is found in the fact that oriental 
smuggling only was remunerative to the smugglers. The enactment of the 3 per cent 
legislation led a great many south European excess-quota aliens to seek illegal entry 
via Mexico. At first these apparently took a more direct route from Vera Cruz and 
Tampico, Mexico, to the Mexican border of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, but 
during the last six months, and doubtless under expert ad\ice and guidance, several 
hundred of these have taken a more circuitous route across the Mexican Republic to 
the Pacific coast port of Mazatlan, whence they have proceeded by steamer to the 
Mexican seaport of Ensenada, located a short distance south of the California-Mexican 
line. Ensenada has consequently become the rendezvous of smugglers operating 
overland by automobile and undoubtedly in fishing boats, which have an almost 
unlimited number of safe landing places upon the California coast. Against this 
smuggling by automobiles the bureau has some defenses in the way of mounted guards 
of this sei-vice stationed at strategic points on automobile highways in southern Cali- 



20 ItEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

fomia. To be sure, the number of these guards is pitiably insufficient, there being 
but 14 in all southern California. However, since the removal from commission of 
the immigration patrol launches, more than a year ago, no defense whatever has been 
available as against smuggling by sea, and the tighter the lines are held on the land 
the more surely will smugglers and their cargoes of orientals and excess-quota aliens 
seek the line of least resistance and proceed by boat without fear of practical inter- 
ference. The not inconsiderable success in combating both oriental and European 
smuggling activities during the year just closed has been due to ceaseless \dgilance 
upon the part of the bureau's field officers and the carefully cultivated cooperation 
of local officers. As the bureau well knows, however, not even an approximately 
effective organization against the illegal introduction of aliens into this country by 
land and sea can be hoped for until Congress makes sufficient appropriation for a 
defensive force on land and sea. 

Another disturbing development of the year was the discovery that airplanes are 
undoubtedly being used to convey inadmissible aliens from Mexico to points several 
hundred miles into the interior of this country. It is not believed that this method 
has reached any alarming proportions, mainly for the reason that it is of necessity 
an expensive and somewhat dangerous means of transportation, though one smuggler, 
using this means of transportaiton, is alleged to have boasted that he had successfully 
landed over 200 contraband Chinese. The almost limitless number of landing 
fields, natural and artificial, make it impossible to defend against this aiiplane 
smuggling without swift pursuit planes manned by the Government's own officers. 
After money and men have been supplied to defend against automobile and boat 
smuggling, the acquisition of defense scout planes will have to be considered. The 
practical answer to all this, of course, is that a border patrol, a coast guard, and air- 
plane equipment should be organized and financed, the whole to be directed by a 
single Government agency for the enforcement of all Federal statutes relating to the 
importation of aliens, merchandise, intoxicating liquors, and narcotics. 

SMUGGLING FROM CUBA. 

The presence in Cuba of considerable numbers of Chinese and Euro- 
peans and the far-reaching system that had been organized for the 
purpose of smugghng them into the United States was commented 
upon at some length in the last annual report. Such efforts hare been 
continued throughout the year just ended, and while it is probably 
true that a good many aliens, both Chinese and European, have suc- 
ceeded in breaking through our thin and widely scattered line of 
defense, it is a pleasure to report that our officers, especially in the 
Jacksonville (Fla.) district, have had most gratifying success in appre- 
hend mg smugglers and smuggled aliens. In this connection the in- 
spector in charge of that district says : 

The efforts of the entire force of this district have been concentrated during the 
past year to combat the continued attempts of aliens to gain surreptitious entry from 
Cuba. Tabulated figures on page 3 of this report show actual transactions under 
warrant proceedings, practically all of which are of the class of aliens under discussion, 
and the number apprehended (626) shows this to have been a red-letter year from a 
smuggling standpoint. This was not unexpected, for, as stated in the last annual 
report, the number of Chinese aliens passing in transit to Cuba, the quota limit law, 
passport regulations, and the law requiring a residence in Cuba of five instead of one 
year to gain exemption from the quota law, have contributed to the increasing 
attempts to gain admission without regard to legal obstacles. 

The actual arrests of 626 aliens, practically all of whom were smuggled in from 
Cuba, indicate that the incentive for gaining admission to this country by way of 
Cuba is very great, and while this district does not flatter itself that it has been suc- 
cessful in apprehending all of the aliens who gained surreptitious entry, it does feel 
that with the limited force we have we have achieved remarkable success, and this 
is due to the untiring and ceaseless efforts and teamwork of all of the officers in this 
district. In connection with this matter I do not feel that I would be doing justice 
to the immigration force at Tampa, Miami, and Key West if I did not make special 
mention of the extraordinary effort which the officers at these ports have put forth in 
order to accomplish the results shown. Special mention in connection with this 
matter should be made in commendation of the force at Tampa, and also the force at 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 21 

Miami, as the greater part of the smuggling and apprehensions have occurred udthin 
the territory immediately under the jurisdiction of these tMO offices. 

It is noteworthy that for reasons for a long time not understood there appeared to 
have been a sudden cessation of Chinese smuggling, and while it was feared for some 
time that new tactics were being employed whereby Chinese aliens were successfully 
eluding our officers, it now appears that this let-up was due to the more profitable 
and ready supply of aliens of other nationality who paid cash at time of embarka- 
tion, while the Chinamen continued to operate on a C. 0. D. basis. There is some 
force behind a belief that these difficulties have been adjusted and that we may 
soon expect a resumption of Chinese smuggling to some considerable extent. 

The same officer makes brief references in his annual report to a 
considerable nmnber of cases in which smugglers were criminally 
prosecuted, and these references are of such absorbing interest, and 
so clearly illustrate the nature of the work done by the Immigration 
Service on the Florida coast, that some of them are here presented: 

On December 26, 1922, 21 aliens, principally Italians, and 4 Chinese aliens were 
smuggled into the United States near Marathon, Fla., by the gasoline launch Juanila. 
The aliens were apprehended and practically all have been deported. The vessel 
was abandoned by the smugglers and brought to Key West, Fla.. by the Coast Guard 
Serx-ice. It is now in possession of the customs service with libel proceedings 
pendin?. 

On June 12, 1923, one William W. Sherman, a naturalized United States citizen, 
smuggled into the United States nine Spanish and three Greek aliens at Fort Taylor, 
Fla." He was given a preliminar\^ hearing before the United States commissioner at 
Key West, Fla"., and held under SI, 500 bond for appearance at the next term of the 
Federal com-t. Action pending into 1924. 

On August 8, 1922, one Manuel De Castro, a United States citizen, and an alien, 
one George Babos, illegally landed 11 aliens at Long Key and Marathon, Fla. Prosecu- 
tion followed under section 37 of the Criminal Code of the United States and section 
8 of the immigration act. De Castro was sentenced to one year and one day in the 
Federal penitentiary at Atlanta, Ga., and Babos was given a sentence of 30 days in 
the county jail in addition to the time already spent in jail. At the termination of 
his jail sentence he was deported to Cuba on departmental warrant. 

On October 18, 1922, William R. I^IcCarthy (white), master, and Matthew Lowe 
(nearo), engineer of the Alice, smuggled into the United States at Miami four Bahama 
negroes. They were tried under section 37 of the Criminal Code and section 8 of 
the immigi-ation act, convicted, and the master, McCarthy, was sentenced to three 
years, and the engineer, Lowe, to two years in the Federal penitentiary at Atlanta, 
Ga. An appeal to the circuit court of appeals was made and their cases were pending 
at the close of this year. 

As the result of the 11 aliens having been smuggled into the United States at Tar- 
pon Springs, Fla., on December 11, 1922, one Soterios Tagalds was indicted under 
section 8 of the immigration act, but his case did not come up for trial during this 
fiscal year. Warrants were also issued for six members of the crew of the vessel 
involved, but their cases likewise have nexer been disposed of. 

For the unlawful landing of 48 aliens at Caseys Key, near Sarasota, Fla., on Janu- 
ary 16, 1923, one Santos Garcia was tried in the Federal court and conxdcted under 
section 8 of the immigration act. The jury in bringing in a verdict of guilty recom- 
mended leniency on the part of the court, and a sentence of one year and one day 
at the Federal penitentiary at Atlanta, Ga., was imposed. 

On the same date, January 16, 1923, William A. Hood, alleged master of an auxiliary 
schooner, name unknown, 'smuggled into the United States, near Naples, Fla., a 
party of 36 aliens. He was tried and conxicted under section 8 of the immigration 
act, the jury quickly bringing in a verdict of guilty, and a sentence of three years in 
the Federal penitentiary at Atlanta, Ga., was imposed, which sentence and other 
circumstances were very gratifying to our service, since this was not the first offense 
of which Hood was guilty, he haxing stated on the witness stand, testifying in his 
own behalf, that he had smuggled 29 Chinese aliens into the United States on April 
22, 1922, and he was also identified as being the party who was in charge of 17 aliens 
surreptitiously landed at or near Boca Grande about one month prior to date of trial. 

In connection with the surreptitious entry of 20 aliens at St. Petersburg, Fla., on 
April 29, 1923, immediate action was taken against Cecilio Rodriguez, Albert Olsen, 
and Frederick Anderson. They were brought to trial, each pleading guilty to a 
violation of section 8 of the immigration act. Sentences of but two months each in 
the county jail at Tampa, Fla., were imposed. Deportation proceedings were insti- 



22 IlEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

tuted against Cecilio Rodriguez and his deportation has been effected. The ring- 
leader in this particular smuggling operation appears to be Phillip M. Licata. Action 
against him is still pending, it being the plan to secure a direct indictment at the next 
meeting of the Federal grand jury. 

On Mav 20, 1923, Alfonso Gonzales, Manuel Menendez, Manuel Rodriguez, and 
Enrique Rodriguez, members of the crew of the American launch Millie, by which 
some 40 aliens were smuggled into the United States at Marco Island, near Caxambas, 
Lee County, Fla., were arrested and charged with violation of section 8 of the immi- 
gration act, convicted, and in each case, with the excev'tion of Alfonso Gonzales, 
who was given a sentence of one year and one day in the Federal penitentiary at 
Atlanta, Ga., sentences to pay a fine of §100 each were imposed. Leniency in all 
these cases was requested, as it was found that the second named took part in an 
enterprise in the 'nature of a schoolboy's prank and that the last two Avere stranded 
sailors in Cuba, who availed themselves of this opportunity to ccme to the United 
States as members of the crew of this vessel. A warrant has been issued for the arrest 
of Joe Licata under section 37 of the Criminal Code in connection with the surrepti- 
tious entry of 40 aliens at Tarpon Springs, Fla., during Mav, 1923, but at the close 
of the fiscal vear the marshal's office had been unable to take him into custodv. 

On June 23, 19123, three United States citizens, Bas Whidden, J. C. Cash, and Walter 
Scott, also aliens Rafael Figueroa, Manuel Garcia, Antonio Avero, Juan Gutierrez, 
Rafael Ginoria, and Hermegildo Duarte, smuggled into the United States at Grove 
City, Fla., nine aliens. They were tried and convicted imder section 8 of the immi- 
gration act, but as sentences were imposed during fiscal year 1924, their cases were 
considered as pending at the close of June 30, 1923. 

As a result of the apprehension of 18 Chinese aliens by the Norfolk office, near Peters- 
burg, Va., in August, 1922, investigations were conducted in this district which dis- 
closed that these alien Chinese were landed at St. Petersburg, Fla., and conveyed 
north by motor trucks. Convictions, very gratifying to our service, in the case of four 
smugglers, were secured in the Norfolk district and will of course be fully reported by 
the Norfolk office. 

On October 4, 1922, three Chinese aliens were apprehended at Tampa, Fla., it 
developing that they had been smuggled into the country. As a result of an investi- 
gation which followed, T. J. Schipmanand W. H. Godwin were indicted for a conspiracy 
to violate section 8 of the immigration act by concealing or harboring or attempting to 
conceal or harbor said alien Chinese. These cases have not come up for trial and 
defendants are now out on bail in the sum of $2,000 each. 

The commissioner of immigration at New Orleans is of the opinion 
that no appreciable numbers of aliens have been smuggled in through 
that port, and cites the following instances of the attempted smug- 
gling of Chinese. 

Eleven Chinese were smuggled through this port on two vessels arriving from Cuban 
ports within the year. Eight arrived on one vessel and three on another. The ships 
arrived one day apart and the Chinese were successfully landed without the knowledge 
of officers of the service. An anonymous telephone re])ort of the incident was received 
two days after the Chinese had landed. * * * An immediate investigation was set 
on foot, and it was soon learned that a party of Chinese had left New (Orleans for New 
York the previous evening over the Southern Railway, and that tickets had been sold 
for another, due to leave that night, over the same road for the same destination. The 
bureau was requested by wire to intercept the first party upon arrival of the train in 
Washington. This was done, and the Chinese were removed from the train at Balti- 
more and were, with one exception, subsequently deported to Cuba. Officers of this 
port were present at the terminal station when the second jiarty was due to depart and 
took into custody six Chinese laborers, all of whom held tickets to New York. They 
admitted that they had been smuggled in from Cuba; that the party apprehended at 
Baltimore had also been brought in from Cuba, and that a Chinese crewman named 
Chung Fook had made all the arrangements, and was to receive $750 for each man 
safely landed in New York. The six apprehended here were finally deported to Cuba. 

The commissioner also refers to the Cuban situation in part as 
follows : 

Many European aliens reaching Cuba, being unable to obtain transportation to the 
United States on account of illiteracy or exhausted national cjuotas, i)ay large sums to 
be smuggled into this country. In some instances applicantp have arrived at this port 
holding Cuban passports and return transportation. They claim to be naturalized 
citizens of Cuba, coming to the United States for a temporary stay on business or for 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOISrER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 23 

pleasure. '^Tien the alien has been carefully examined and the inconsistencies of 
the story he tells are pointed out, a confession usually follows. It seen-s that on the 
advice of some unknown person in Habana, Cuba, the alien has been provided with 
a genuine I'uban passport for .?40 or .?;50; that his ticket has been purchased for him 
by the stranger, and that his story has been repeated to him several times in order that 
he may be able to pass immigration officers here. Other aliens who are able to speak 
English are sent over as citizens of the United States. Their transportation is bought 
by the stranger and their names appear on the citizen's manifest. The stranger in 
Cuba who makes these arrangementp and prepares the aliens to deceive United States 
immigration officers usually chargesa large fee for his services, and the alien is usually 
returned to Cuba in a frame of mind to make trouble for the stranger who relieved him 
of his funds. 

CANADIAN BORDER. 

The illegal entry of aliens from Canada, in common with all land and 
sea boundaries, has increased with the advent of more restrictive 
laws. This is true to some extent of the Canadians themselves, but 
it is especially true of Europeans, who in increasing numbers appear 
to be seeking entry into Canada with the real purpose of getting them- 
selves into a more advantageous position for entry under the quota 
law, or of evading that and other laws altogether. The fact that the 
Canadian immigration act is very similar to our own law so far as 
excluded classes are concerned affords a degree of protection against 
certain kinds of undesirables that is entirely lacking in the case of 
European aliens who enter illegally from Mexico or Cuba, but it can 
not well prevent at least a limited number of such aliens from coming 
to the United States in violation of the quota and other provisions of 
our laws. As in the case of Mexico, the Canadian boundary is inade- 
quately protected from an immigration standpoint, but on the whole 
the reports of border officers in charge, although not always opti- 
mistic, nevertheless fail to indicate that the law has been violated to 
any alarming extent by illegal entries during the past year. 

Following are some comments from annual reports of officers in 
charge with respect to alien smuggling and the surreptitious entry of 
aliens over the northern boundary: 

MONTREAL. 

The past year has been one of the most active in the history of this district in the 
matter of prosecutions for smuggling operations, and the officers are entitled to no 
small commendation for their effective work in many localities in apprehending 
smugglers and their unlawful cargoes of aliens, particularly when it is considered that 
the officers have been occupied long hours in carrying out their ordinary work * * * 
Passport regulations and quota restrictions have continued to result in thousands of 
aliens coming to Canada from Europe, believing that they would have less difficulty 
in gaining entry to the United States from that country, either by lawful or unlawful 
methods. In the event of applications for entry being denied, or of the alien being 
informed by those with whom he comes in contact that no good purpose would be 
accomplished by applying in the lawful manner, it is then generally his next thought 
to accept the suggestions of unscrupulous smugglers, taxi drivers, or bootleggers that 
no trouble will be had in driA-ing into the country by night in an automobile. Aliens 
just landed in Canada are particularly susceptible to the urgings of tlieir cwn country- 
men who have already resided in Canada for some years, and yield to their persuasions, 
if indeed any urging is necessary. 

The smuggling of liquor, it is reliably stated, is not now so lucrative a business 
as formerly by reason of the activities of the smugglers operating along the Atlantic 
coast, who are able to deliver intoxicants in the larger cities along the coast at a lower 
price than can the smuggler take in liquor from Canada. Consequently it would 
appear reasonable that men in this unlawful trade should not infrequently augment 
their probable profits by having one or more aliens ride with them as passengers, 
suitable compensation to be made upon safe arrival of the latter in some interior point 



24 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

in the United States. Tlie smugglers continue to use high-powered automobiles, are 
generally hea\dly armed, and the duty of an immigrant inspector is not infrequently 
fraught with considerable danger to his life and person in ordering the smuggler to 
stop and submit to search. 

It appears also to be a growing practice for smugglers of long experience to convey 
aliens to a point very near to the international boundary, and there leave them to 
their own devices and efforts to gain surreptitious entry, or to direct them to proceed 
to the nearest United States town or city, the smuggler to proceed unaccompanied 
through the proper route, and after gaining entry, to pick up his former companions — 
aliens — in the country and take them farther inland. Several instances of this nature 
have been discovered during the past year and prosecutions resulted. * * * 

I must also mention the hearty and continued cooperation eiven this service by the 
Dominion immigration authorities at Ottawa in detecting and breaking up some notori- 
ous international smuggling gangs, and I can only repeat what was said last year \vith 
regard to gratefulness to local. State, other Federal authorities, and loyal citizens 
who rendered assistance and were in part responsible for the success of our efforts, 
consideration being had of the limited protection our service affords to a border con- 
sisting of several thousand miles, a greater part of which is settled, and in many locali- 
ties densely so, and the ways and means of entry countless in number. * * * 

The very busy season existing in this district during the summer and fall months 
has necessitated all officers being on duty at long periods of time. However, despite 
this fact, all have endeavored earnestly to prevent the unlawful entry of Chinese to 
the United States to the best of their ability. Rumors have reached the bureau's 
officers from time to time of the proposed entry of Chinese, and as a result officers have 
guarded highways all night upon these occasions, with a \'iew to thwarting any illegal 
efforts of this nature. The large number of persons engaged in the illegal transporta- 
tion of liquor to the United States would undoubtedlv justifv the impression that 
aliens of the Chinese race are being smuggled into the United States as well as aliens 
of other races. The opinion is held, however, that traffickers in liquor hesitate about 
taking Chinese into the country, for they are well aware of the fact that, if caught, 
punishment will likely be much more severe than though they were engaged merely 
in the unlawful entry of intoxicants or of aliens of other races. This, it is confidently 
believed, acts to some extent as a deterrent. 

The cooperation of other Government officers has been had and will undoubtedly 
continue. Additional officers would be necessary, howcA-er, if it were to be impossible 
for Chinese to be taken into the country, and these officers would require some means 
of conveyance and of pursuit in the event of a party passing the officer. Some danger 
is necessarily attached to the preventing of smuggling operations, but no accidents 
ha-\'e occurred during the past year. 

The payment of rewards is advocated as in previous reports, using the proceedings 
of bond forfeitures for this purpose. It goes \\'ithout saying that the cooperation and 
assistance of farmers and other residents of the border to^^ms and countrysides could be 
enlisted if it was general information that any suspicious movements of aliens or 
Chinese where observed and reported would be suitably rewarded in the event of the 
arrest and couAdction of the smugglers. The practice of advertising conspicuously 
the payment of rewards in the event of the arrest and conviction of lawbreakers, is in 
general practice in many private industries and in the financial world and would 
result favorably, it is believed, if adopted by the service. 

BTJFFALO.I 

Despite the extensive water boundary, smuggling of aliens, when indulged in, is 
found to be confined to the comparatively short Niagara River section, ^'igilance 
on the part of the bureau's officers has now resulted in the reducing of this illegal 
traffic to an almost imperceptible minimum, and the prompt action of this service 
in instituting prosecution proceedings against apprehended smugglers has served 
in a measure as a deterrent. It may safely be said that the smuggling of aliens in 
district No. 5 has, through the alertness of the officers of this service and the coopera- 
tion of the police and Department of Justice officials, been confined to sporadic and 
widely scattered acts by individuals, the operations of gangs, as in some districts, 
having been eliminated. So far as this district is concerned there is notliing to 
indicate that the smuggling of liquor and of aliens are combined, and so far as is known 
the latter traffic is confined to a few persons whose identity is known to this service and 
whose actions are accordingly subject to continual scrutiny. It is a rather regrettable 
commentary upon law enforcement to note that on one occasion one of these known 
smugglers, when apprehended and convicted, was given but a nominal fine and the 
entirely inadequate punishment of one day in jail, neither of which could be expected 
to in any way deter him from again engaging in violations of our law. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 25 

DETROIT. 

The existing restrictive immigration measures seem to attract those disposed to 
engage in the smuggling business. All sorts of subterfuges are resorted to for the 
purpose of accomplishing the entrance of inadmissible aliens. With several ferry 
and train lines in close proximity, aliens debarred coming by one line quickly resort 
to another, with the hope that through the knowledge acquired from the fb-st exaniina- 
tion they may deceive an inspector of another line unfamiliar with their case. Witha 
ferry line at Detroit carrying 500,000 passengers a month, a thorough inspection is 
manifestly impossible in handling the seething, pressing crowds, where each individual 
resents the losing of time and few of whom are in a mood to receive graciously the 
interrogatories of the examining officer. Inspectors must make quick use of all their 
resources in their efforts to promptly determine the status of each passenger included 
in this turbulent mass of humanity surging forward for quick passage through the gates. 
It is not strange that hundreds succeed in evading the law. Under these conditions 
the smuggling of aliens, even through the regular channels, may become comparatively 
easy of accomplishment, particularly where the undesirable is Americanized in 
appearance. For those who would find it futile to attempt entry through the regular 
channels, there exists many points along the lengthy stretch of river which constitutes 
the international boundary line where unlawful entry can be accomplished by small 
boat during the summer or by ice in the winter time. Patrol boats operated either 
by other Government departments or by the local police have not been adequate to 
check the situation. Such boats would necessarily have to be equipped for speed 
and sufficient in number to compete with the well-equipped outfits operated by the 
professional smugglers. 

In connection'with this subject the following interesting comment is quoted from 
report of the inspector in charge at Port Huron: "During the past winter the St. 
Clair River for practically its entire length was an ice bridge, and at many points 
down river jitney busses were in operation between Michigan and Ontario. Many 
aliens availed themselves of the opportunity of walking across the ice and smuggling 
themselves into this country, thereby entering unlawfully. Many were apprehended, 
but as we have only four officers in the nearly 40 miles of river front, it can be readily 
understood how impossible it was to properly guard against the illegal entries of the 
kind described. As above stated, we apprehended quite a large number of such 
cases, but I am satisfied that a still larger number succeeded in evading us. There 
is no organized effort at smuggling Chinese or other aliens in this district * * *. " 

It should be understood that the smuggling of Chinese acrossthe Canadian border 
in this district is by no means under control. Our limited official staff has not made 
it possible to give the situation adequate attention, and it is somewhat doubtful in 
my mind whether the results procurable would justify the necessary financial expendi- 
ture to more carefully patrol the border. The attention now given toward the pre- 
vention of smuggling is necessarily in addition to the regular details of our inspectors, 
to whom much credit is due for the interest taken. The vigilance of our own officers 
has been supplemented by the cooperation of employees of other Federal departments, 
particularly the Federal prohibition officers. Also we have the earnest support of 
the Metropolitan police force of greater Detroit. Careful observation and study of 
this important problem has led to the conclusion that the larger results are accom- 
plished by having one or more inspectors available for continuous attention to the 
prevention of smuggling. Officers worthy of such a detail should be qualiiied in 
tact and discretion and be capable of establishing worth-while contacts with those 
on both the Canadian and American sides of the border from whom information of 
value might be securable in time to be utilized to advantage. 

WINNIPEG. 

While illegal entries through this district have been more numerous during the 
past six months than ever before, and while we are constantly receiving reports 
which would indicate that certain parties throughout the district are from time to 
time indidging in smuggling operations, we have been unsuccessful in our efforts to 
apprehend any of such persons, although our officers have worked night and day 
in the attempt. There appears to be no organized system of smuggling by any indi- 
vidual or set of individuals. Our investigations indicate that persons seeking to 
evade immigration requirements proceed on their own initiative and usually without 
the aid of any outside party. In some instances farmers and others living in near 
proximity to the international boundary are approached and found not adverse to 
accepting from $10 to $20 to convey aliens into the United States, but there appears 
to be no one making a business of it. * * * The question of the smuggling of 



26 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 

aliens into the United States is one that, with present day means of travel, is becoming 
more complicated each year. With the wide stretches of open country found in this 
district, interspersed by good wagon roads at intervals seldom in excess of 1 mile, 
it is an utter impossibility to effect anything like an efficient preventive system 
through apprehension of aliens at the border point. We endeavor to secure the 
cooperation of farmers, railway men, State and municipal officials, and county sheriffs. 
These parties have rendered us an abundance of assistance, and it is to be regretted 
that we are not in a position to grant them some small remimeration for their services. 
The solution of the smuggling and illegal entry problem is, as is perhaps chronic in 
other immigration problems, more money. 

SEATTLE. 

The percentage act or quota law has increased the surreptitious entries across the 
land border. There has been, too, an increase in the number of apprehensions of 
aliens who smuggle across the land border, but from reports received it is clear that 
far too many inadmissible aliens have successfully smuggled across the land border 
and reached the interior of the country. The fact is that considering the amount 
of routine port-of-entry work at the land border stations there is still an insufficient 
force available to prevent the smuggling of aliens * * *. 

In his comment on the Mexican border situation, elsewhere quoted, 
the supervisor iti charge of the El Paso district refers to the interesting 
fact that the examination of aliens who apply for legal admission at 
El Paso and other border ports has become the chief work of a force 
of officers which was organized primarily to prevent the illegal entry 
of Chinese. This is also true of the Canadian border, and there are 
officers still in the service who were Chinese inspectors on that frontier 
in the days when the preventing of the smuggling of Orientals from 
Canada was one of the most important and difficult of all immigration 
problems. Later Canada enacted a law which greatly reduced the 
number of Chinese admitted to the Dominion and this, together with 
the vigilance of our border force, eventually reduced the traffic to its 
present limited proportions. 

As the necessity for constant warfare against the illegal entry of 
Chinese was diminished, more and more attention was given to regu- 
lating lawful immigration from Canada and Mexico until at the 
present time nearly all of our officers on the northern boundary, and 
a large majority of those stationed on the Mexican border as well, are 
employed in examining applicants who in never-ending streams seek 
legal admission at established ports of entry. 

In other words, what was once a mobile border guard has become 
a force of examiners at fixed stations. On the whole, this is a grati- 
fying development, because it seems to show that among the peoples 
of Canada and Mexico there exists a rather wholesome respect for 
our immigration laws, and it mav be reasonably expected that this 
will continue unless it so happens tliat a limit is put upon the numbers 
who may come from those countries. However, there are already a 
good many Europeans in both countries who want to come to the 
United States but whose legal admission is prevented or greatly 
delayed by the quota limit law, and indications are that the num])er 
is constantly increasing. As elsewhere pointed out in extracts from 
reports of our border officers in charge, the smug";ling in of these 
Europeans has already become quite a serious problem, and there is 
general agreement that it will become increasingly serious as time 
goes on. In fact there is every indicaticm that we are even now in 
the midst of a situation that diflers from the Chinese smuggling days 
already referreKl to only because the aliens concerned come frtun 
Europe and the Near East rather than from China. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 27 

To the Bureau of Immigration this clearly suggests the necessity of 
reviving, or rather creating, a border guard or patrol to perform 
purely police work in the prevention of alien border running. It 
seems very certain that the present force of immigration officers on 
the land borders can do little in addition to handling aliens seeking 
legal admission, and this being the case innumerable avenues of 
illegal entry will necessarily be left unguarded. The writer has per- 
sonally inspected a 70-mile stretch of border in the Montreal district 
which has as many as 25 unguarded highways leading from Canada, 
and another stretch of 30 miles with fully 10 such highways. This 
is typical of much of the entire Canadian land boundary, and, as the 
inspector in charge at Detroit has pointed out, the river boundaries 
often afford even more convenient means for illicit traffic in aliens. 

You will recall that some time ago, upon the recommendation of 
the Commissioner General, you addressed the heads of various other 
departments which, for one reason or another, are concerned with 
border problems, with a view to promoting cooperation between 
Government agencies in that regard. Similar suggestions from other 
sources eventually resulted in the formation of an interdepartmental 
committee which has discussed somewhat the general problem of 
border control. A subcommittee representing the Immigration 
Service and other agencies chiefly concerned then discussed the situa- 
tion in greater detail and unanimously recommended that a Federal 
border guard ought to be created and charged with the duty of 
policing the ])order for the benefit of all interested branches of the 
Government. No definite action has resulted, but the bureau and 
its officers in charge of the various districts concerned are united in 
the conviction that the creation of a force of well-paid men, especially 
(jualified for police work of the peculiar nature involved, is the only 
solution of the border problems, at least so far as the Immigration 
Service is concerned. 

IMMIGRATION FROM CANADA AND MEXICO. 

One of the outstanding features of the year just ended is the largely 
increased immigration from British North America and Mexico, 
apparently due in large measure to the demand for industrial workers 
in the United States, which demand was not fully supplied from 
Europe as in former years, obviously because of numerical limitations 
imposed by the quota act of May 19, 1921. 

The trend of immigration from these two sources in recent years 
is sho^^^l herewith: 



Fiscal year. 


British 

North 

America. 


1 
Mexico. Fiscal year. 


British 

North 

America. 


Mexico. 


1912 


55,990 
73,802 
S6,139 
82,215 
101,551 
105,399 


23,238 1918 


32,452 

57,782 
90,025 
72,317 
46,810 
117,011 


18 524 


1913 


11,926 • 1919 


29,818 
52,361 
30,7.58 
19,551 
63,768 


1914 


14,614 1920 


1915 


12,340 : 1921 


1916 


18,425 ' 1922 


1917 


17,869 1923. . 









63750—23- 



28 kEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 

The greatly increased immigration from these two sources during 
the year just ended was successfully handled without increasing the 
inspecting force at the various ports of entry, but it is needless to 
say that at times the resources of the service were greatly overtaxed, 
applicants for admission often being compelled to wait several days 
before they could be inspected. 

In the case of Mexico the number of legal admissions during the 
past fiscal year far exceeds any previous recorded influx from that 
country with the exception of the fiscal year 1920 when, as the table 
shows, 52,361 immigrant aliens were admitted. In this connection 
it will be recalled that during and immediately following the war 
period considerable numbers of Mexican laborers were admitted, 
under an emergency order which waived the head tax, contract 
labor, and illiteracy provisions of the law. Such admissions were 
for temporary periods only, but so far as the records indicate many 
of the laborers never returned to Mexico. The order in question 
was undoubtedly justified under the pressing circumstances that 
existed at that time, but from the stancfpoint of immigration regula- 
tion the experiment was not very gratifying for reasons stated in the 
following extract from the annual report of the supervisor in charge 
of the El Paso district. 

In order that the required number of laborers might be obtained to carry on the 
necessary agricultural, mining, and railroad track work during the war and thereafter, 
pending economic readjustment, the department made a special ruling wai^•i.ng the 
head tax, contract labor, and illiteracy provisions as to alien laborers imported from 
Mexico for employment in the three occupations designated. The figures indicate 
that at the close of the fiscal year preceding that for which this report id made there 
were 8,622 of such aliens so imported through Mexican border ports— the majority 
through ports of district No. 25 — still employed in the United States. Six hundred 
and eighty-four of the aliens imported under the departmental exceptions were 
recorded as having returned to Mexico during the fiscal year covered by this report, 
this figure including those deported on departmental warrant; 16 of them were reported 
as having died in the United States, and 2 as having become American citizens by 
marriage. The department has already been fully advised as to the difficulty ex- 
perienced in having the importers effect the departure from the United States of the 
remaining laborers originally imported under the departmental exceptions. WTiile 
some of the importers have in the utmost good faith endeavored to live up to their 
undertaking with the Government and return such laborers to Mexico without expense 
to it, many, if not most of them, have neglected or flatly repudiated their obligations 
in that respect, and it seems highly probable that with the lapse of time they will 
grow even more unmindful of the benefits which accrued to them from the Govern- 
ment's indulgence and exhibit a greater degree of indifference and remissness in the 
matter of disposing of these laborers in accordance with the terms of their contract 
with the Government. 

Immigration from Mexico is almost entirely made up of Mexicans, 
62,672 of the 63,768 immigrant aliens admitted from that source in 
the past year being of that race. Under section 23 of the immigra- 
tion law aliens arriving at water ports in foreign contiguous territory 
are debarred from entering the United States for a period of two 
years unless the transportation lines bringing them to such ports have 
entered into a certain agreement with the United States as also pro- 
vided in section 23 of the law. None of the transportation companies 
operating to and from ports of Mexico have entered into such an 
agreement, and in consequence there can be no legal immigration 
from Europe and other sources to the United States through that 
country, although, as already pointed out, there are many who 
choose that route with a view to gaining illegal entry. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL, OF IMMIGRATION. 29 

On the other hand, the Hnes operating to Canada long ago entered 
into the prescribed agreement so that Hahfax, St. Johns, Quebec, 
Montreal, Vancouver, and Victoria are essentially United States 
ports so far as immigration is concerned. United States irnmigration 
stations are maintained at the ports named and 11.399 immigrant 
aliens were admitted there in the past fiscal year, while many others 
who had come to Canada within two years also entered the country 
at land border ports. Immigrants admitted from Canada reflect 
the mixed population of the Dominion, the movement during the 
year ended including 39,295 English, 30,438 French, 17,045 Scotch, 
12,000 Irish, 4,486 Hebrews, and smaller numbers of other peoples, 
chief!}" of European origin. 

ORIENTAL IMMIGRATION. 

There was a slight decrease in the number of immigrant aliens of 
the Chinese race admitted during the vear, the total being 4,074 in 
1922-23, compared with 4,465 in the fiscal year 1922. The number 
of Chinese emigrant aliens leaving the country, however, decreased 
from 6,146 in 1921-22 to 3,788 in the year just ended, so that an 
indicated loss of 1,681 in the population of orientals through immi- 
gration and emigration was turned into a small gain in 1922-23. 

The record in that respect since the fiscal year 1912 is shown iii 
the followina: table: 



Fiscal year (ended June 30). 


Chinese 
immi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Chinese 

emigrant 

aliens. 


Fiscal year (ended June 30). 


Chinese 
immi- 
grant 
aliens. 


Chinese 

emigrant 

aliens. 


1912 


1,608 
2,022 
2,354 
2,469 
2,239 
1,843 


2,549 
2,250 
2,059 
1,959 
2,148 
1,799 


1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 


1,576 
1,697 
2,148 
4,017 
4,465 
4,074 


2 239 


1913 


2,062 
2 961 


1914 


1915 


5253 


1916 


6 146 


1917 


3 788- 







It will be recalled that during the fiscal year 1922 great difficulty 
was experienced in connection with a considerable number of Chinese 
applicants who were afflicted with a disease which made their exclu- 
sion mandatory. In this connection the commissioner of immigra- 
tion at San Francisco, at which port a majority of the Chinese apply,, 
comments as follows in his annual report for the year just ended : 

It is of interest to note the marked decrease in the number of orientals excluded as 
afflicted with dangerous and loathsome contagious diseases, wliich we feel is due to 
an exercise of a more intensive and careful medical inspection abroad by transporta- 
tion interests or an increasing practice on the part of such applicants to travel first 
class and avoid the stringent medical inspection involving examination for parasitic 
diseases prevalent in Asiatics. 

The following extract from the same report is particularly gratifying- 
to the bureau, indicating as it does an earnest effort on the part of 
the commissioner to make the inadequate immigration station at San 
Francisco more comfortable for the considerable number of aliens 
constantly and unavoidably detained there. The commissioner says: 

This port is largely engaged in the handling of orientals ; their stays in detention are 
indefinite, and with a view to making it as pleasant as is consistent, a playground is 



30 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOXEK (iENEKAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

being prepared where Ave hope to install some recreation paraphernalia. This will 
permit of our emptying the Chinese rjuarters, giving them proper airing and cleaning, 
and will be more healthful to the Chinese, who are prone to lie in their bunks through 
a greater part of the day to the detriment of their own liealth and the cleanliness of 
the quarters. Efforts are also being made to create an atmosph(>re of freedom to the 
end that all transactions may be facilitated. 

The number of Japanese inimigrant aliens admitted fluring the 
past year was 5,652, compared with 6,361 in the previous fiscal 
year. In fact, the numbers of this race admitted in 1922-28 was the 
smallest since the fiscal year 1910-11. On the other hand, the num- 
ber of Japanese emigrant aliens leaving the countrv decreased from 
4,353 in the fiscal year 1922 to 2,844 in the year fust ended. The 
records of admissions ami departures since 1912 follows: 



.Fiscal year (ended June 30). 


Japanese 

inunigrant 

aliens. 


Japanese 

emigrant 

aliens. 


1912 


6,172 
8,302 
8,941 
8,609 
8,711 
8,925 


1,501 
733 
794 
825 
780 
722 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 





Fi.scal year (ended June '40). 



Japane.'^c 

immigrant 

aliens. 



Japanese 

emigrant 

aliens. 



1918.... 10,168 1,558 

1919 1 10,056 2,127 

1920 ' 9,279 i 4,2.38 

1921 ' 7,531 4,3.52 

1922 6,361 4,353 

192.3 '. 5,652' 2,844 



Immigration from the so-called Asiatic barred zone which was 
created under the immigration act of 1917 is negligible, only 156 
East Indians having been admitted during the past year. This 
seems to indicate that a movement from India, wiiich at one time 
gave prt)mise of becoming an important factor in our immigration, 
has been stopped almost at its beginning. 

ALIEN SEAMEN. 

Under c^uite recent legislation the examination and, so far as the 
laws permit, the control of alien seamen arriving at United States 
ports became a duty of the Immigration Service, and some measure 
of the burden is indicated by the fact that in the year just ended 
officers of the bureau boarded 26,818 vessels and inspected 1,018,069 
seamen. Another phase of the same problem is that of deserting 
seamen, which term is used to describe alien seamen who in one way 
or another and for various causes leave their ships in United States 
ports either for the purpose of reshipping foreign on another vessel, 
or, as happens in many cases, remaining in the United States. In 
the fiscal year just ended such desertions reported reached a total of 
23,194 at all ports and 14,734 at the port of New York alone. In the 
previous fiscal year only 5,879 desertions were reported for all United 
States ports. It is not possible to learn how many of these seamen 
do reship foreign, this being the ostensible purpose for which they 
land. In normal years it is probable that a majority of them do 
reship sooner or later, but it is Known that during the year just ended 
large numbers permanently deserted to take advantage of superior 
wage conditions in the United States. It is probably true also that^ 
considerable numbers who thus deserted used this means of over- 
<'oming restrictions imposed l\v the immigration laws and particu- 
larly the quota limit act. In any event, the problem is becoming 
increasingly serious. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. ol 

ALIEN STOWAWAYS. 

During the past year the service was called upon to deal with the 
cases of 2,605 stowaways, which was an increase of 886 over the 
number handled during the previous fiscal year. The greatest 
increase of stowaways from any one country is represented by those 
coming from Germany, of which there were 291 during 1923 as com- 
pared with 120 during the previous year. The general increase in 
the number of this class of aliens is undoubtedly due to quota restric- 
tions and the financial stringency in certain of the European countries. 

REORGANIZATION OF THE IMMIGRATION FIELD SERVICE. 

In order to effect a closer cooperation between the Bureau of 
Immigration in Washington and its field service, promote economy 
and efficiency, and a more direct supervision of the work of the service, 
a readjustment of district boundaries was made on January 1, 1923, 
based upon a careful consideration of geographical aspects and trans- 
portation facilities. Among other things, the reorganization resulted 
in the creation of a limited num])er of new districts and, in connec- 
tion therewith, a supervisory staff, consisting of three or more immi- 
gration officers, to act as representatives of the department and 
])ureau in visiting the various districts with a view to making recom- 
mendations along the lines above set forth. 

The location of district headquai'ters and district boundai'ies are 
as follows: 

DISTRICT SO. 1. 

Title of Offukk in CHAiuiE ('om-missioner of Immigration". 

Location of Headquarters Montreal, Canada. 

BounJariifi. — To include that part of tlic State of Maine lyin? east of meridian (18 
and north of parallel 45; the countie? of Carroll, Grafton, and Coos in the State of 
New Hampshire; that part of the State of Vermont Ivins; north of the counties of Wind- 
ham and Bennin<rton; that part of the State cf New York lying north of the counties of 
Warren, P^ilton, Oneida, and Oswego, and that part of Herkimer Coiintv Iving north of 
Black Creek and il ill Creek. 

Also to include that part of the southern peninsula of the State of Michigan lying- 
north of the counties of Alcona, Oscoda, Crawford, Kalka.ska, Grand Traverse, and 
Benzie; and that part of the northern peninsula of the State of Michigan lying east of 
the counties of Baraga and Iron. 

District No. 1, in addition to the territory within the United States, shall have juris- 
diction and control over the ports of Halifax, Yarmouth, St. John, Quebec, and all 
Canadian interior stations within the contiguous Canadian territory. 

DISTRICT vo. 2. 

Title of <Jfficer in Charce Inspector in Charge. 

Location op Headquarters Portland, Me. 

Boundaritsi. — To include that part of the State of Maine Iving west of meridian 68 
and south of parallel 45; the counties of Belknap and Stratford in the State of New 
Hampshire and the township of Portsmouth in the county of llockingham. State of 
New Hampshire. 

DISTRICT no. 3. 

Title of Officer in Charge Co.mmissioner of I.mmigration. 

Location of Headquarters Boston, Mass. 

BoundarifK. — To include the States of Massachusetts and Rhode Island; the State of 
Connecticut, except the county of Fairfield; the county of Rockingham in the State 
of New Hampshire, except Portsmouth Township and the counties of Hilleboro, 



32 KEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Cheshire, Sullivan, and Merrimack: and that part of the >^tate of Vermont lying soiitli 
of the counties of Windsor and Rutland. 

DISTRICT NO. I. 

Title ok ()h'!''icek i.v Charge Commissioner ok I\i\ii(iKATio\. 

Location or Headquarters Ellis Island, New York Har- 
bor, N. Y. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of New York lying south of the coun- 
ties of Essex and Hamilton and that part of the county of Herkimer lying south of 
Black Creek and Mill Creek and east of Oneida County and east of the counties of 
Madison, Chenango, and Broome: and that part of the State of New .lersey lying north 
of the counties of Ocean, Burlington, and Mercer except the township of Upper Free- 
hold in the county of Monmoutli. 

di.stkict xo. :.. 

Title of Okkker in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location ok Headquarters Buffalo, N. Y. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of New York lying west of the coun- 
ties of Delaware, Otsego, Herkimer, and south of the counties of Lewis and Jefl'erson; 
the counties of McKean, Warren, Erie, ('rawford, and Mercer in the State of Penn- 
sylvania; and that part of the State of Ohio lying north of the counties of Mahoning, 
Carroll, Tuscarawas, Holmes, Knox, and Morrow, and east of the counties of Crawford, 
Seneca, Sandusky, and Ottawa. 

distkkt no. (j. 

Title of Officer in Charge... Commissioner of Lmmigration. 
Location of Headquarters... Philadelphia Immigration Station. 

(tloucester City, N. J. 

Boundaries.— To include that part of the State of New Jersey lying south of the 
counties of Monmouth, Middlesex, Somerset, and Hunterdon, and the township of 
Upper Freehold in Monmouth County; the State of Delaware; and all that part of 
the State of Pennsylvania lying east of the counties of McKean, Elk, Clearfield. Blair, 
and Bedford. 

district no. 7. 

Title op Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters _. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Boundaries. — -To include that part of the State of West \'irginia lying north of 
parallel 38 and west of meridian 80; that part of the State of Pennsylvania lying west 
of the counties of Fulton, Huntingdon, Center, Cameron, and Potter, and south of 
McKean, Warren, and Crawford; and that part of the State of Ohio lying south of the 
counties of Mahoning, Stark, and Wayne and east of meridian 82. 

DIS'l'iUCT NO. 8. 

Title of Officer in Charge Commissioner of iMMKiRATioN. 

Location of Headquarters Baltimore, Md. 

Boundaries. — To include the entire State of Maryland; the District of Colunihia; all 
that part of the State of Virginia lying north of parallel SS; and that part of the State 
of West Virginia lying east of meridian 80. 

|)1sti;ii'I' no. i). 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in (HAiKiF,. 

Location of Headquarters Norfolk, Va. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Virginia lying south of parallel 
38; that part of the State of West \'irginia lying south of parallel 38 and east of meridian 
82; and those parts of the Slates of Tennessee and North Carolina lying east of merid- 
ian 82. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 33 

district no. 10. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Jacksonville, Fla. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of South Carolina lying east of merid- 
ian 82; that part of the State of Georgia lying east of meridian 82 and south of parallel 
32; and that part of the State of Florida lying east of meridian 8.5. 

district no. 11. 

Title op Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Detroit, Mich. 

Boundaries. ^To include that part of the State of Ohio lying west of the counties 
of Erie, Huron, Richland, and north of the counties of Morrow, Marion, Hardin, 
Anglaize, and Mercer; that part of the southern peninsula of the State of Michigan 
lying south of the counties of Alpena, Montmorency, Otsego, Antrim, and Leelanau, 
except the counties of Berrien and Cass; and that part of the State of Indiana lying 
east of the counties of St. Joseph, Marshall, and Fulton, and north of the counties of 
Fulton, Wal^ash, Huntington, Wells, and Adams. 

district no. 12. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Boundaiies. --To include those parts of the States of- Virginia and West Virginia lying 
west of meridian 82; that part of the State of Ohio lying west of meridian 82 and south 
of the counties of Wayne, Ashland, Richland, Crawford, Wyandot, Hancock, Allen, 
and Van Wert; that part of the State of Indiana lying south of the counties of Allen, 
Whitley, Kosciusko, Fulton, Cass, Carroll, Tippecanoe, and Warren; and that part 
of the State of Kentucky lying east of meridian 88. 

disttict no. 13. 

Title op Oppicer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Atlanta, Ga. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Georgia Ijing north of parallel 32 
and west of meridian 82; those parts of the States of South Carolina and North Carolina 
lying west of meridian 82; that part of the State of Tennessee lying west of meridian 82 
and east of meridian 88; and that part of the State of Alabama Hdng east of meridian 88 
and north of parallel 32. 

district no. 14. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of He.\.dquarters Chicago, III. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Indiana lying north of the counties 
of Vermilion, Fountain, Montgomery, Clinton, Howard, and Miami, and west of the 
counties of Wabash, Kosciusko, and Elkhart; the counties of Cass and Berrien in the 
State of Michigan; all that part of the State of Wisconsin Ijdng south of the counties of 
Florence, Forest, Oneida, Lincoln, Taylor, and Vernon, and east of the counties of 
Clark, Jackson, and Monroe; that part of the State of Iowa hing east of the counties 
of Winneshiek, Fayette, Delaware, Linn, Johnson, Washington, Henry, and Lee; 
and that part of the State of Illinois Ijing north of the counties of Hancock, McDon- 
ough, Mason, Logan, Demtt, Piatt, Douglas, and Edgar. 

district no. 15. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters St. Louis, Mo. 

Boundaries. — -To include that part of the State of Kentucky lying east of meridian 
88; that part of the State of Illinois lying south of the counties of Vermilion, Cham- 

gaign, McLean, Tazewell, Fulton, Warren, and Henderson; the counties of Lee, 
[enry, Van Buren, Jefferson, Davis, Wapello, Appanoose, and Monroe in the State 
of Iowa; and all that part of the State of Missouri lying east of meridian 93. 



34 ItEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

district xo. 16 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location op Headquarters Memphis, Tenn. 

Boundaries.— 'Vo include that part of the State of Alabama lyino; north of parallel 32 
and west of meridian 88; that part of the State of Tennessee l>'ino; west of meridian 88; 
that part of the State of Arkansas lyins; east of meridian 93; that part of the State of 
Louisiana hdng east of meridian 93 and north of parallel 32; and that part of the State 
of Mississippi lyins^ north of parallel 32. 

dlstrict no. 17. 

Title of Officer in Charge Commissioner of Immigr-vfion. 

Location op Headquarters New Orleans, La. 

Boundarirx. — To include that part of the State of Florida l>dni; west of meridian 
85; those ]>arts of the States of Alabama and Mississippi hdng south of parallel 32; and 
that ]iart of the State of Louisiana lying south of parallel 32 and east of meridian 93. 

district no. 18. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location op Headquarters Winnipeg, Canada. 

Bnnndarics. — To include that part of the northern peninsula of the State of Michigan 
lying west of the counties of Dickinson and Marquette; that part of the State of Wis- 
consin Ijing north of the counties of Price, Sawyer, Washburn, and Burnett: that part 
of the State of Minnesota hing north of the counties of Pine, Aitkin, Cass, Hubbard, 
Becker, Mahomet, and Norman; and that part of the State of North Dakota lying north 
of the counties of Cass, Barnes, Stutsman, Kidder, Burleigh, Oliver, Mercer. Dunn, 
and McKenzie. 

district no. 19. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Minneapolis, Minn. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Wisconsin hang north and west of 
the counties of Crawford, Richland, Sauk, Juneau, Wood, ilaratlion, Langlade, Oconto, 
and Marinette, except the counties of Douglas, Bayfield, Ashland, and Iron; that 
part of the State of Minnesota lying south of the counties of Carlton, Itasca, Beltrami, 
(Jlearwater, and Polk; that part of the State of North Dakota hing south and east of 
the counties of Traill, Steele, Griggs, Foster, Wells, Sheridan. ^IcLean, Mountrail, 
and Williams; that ])art of the State of South Dakota lying north and east of the coun- 
ties of Minnehaha, Turner, Hutchinson, Douglas, Charles Mix, Gregory, Tripp, Mel- 
lette, Washabaugh, Pennington, Meade, and lUitte; and that part of the State of Iowa 
lying west, north, and east of the counties of Allamakee, Fayette, Bremer, Butler, 
Franklin, Wright. Humboldt, Pocahontas, Buena Vista, O'Brien, and Osceola. 

district no. 20. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location op Headquarters Omaha, Nebr. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Iowa lying west, north, and south 
of the counties of Appanoose, Monroe, Wapello, Jefferson, Henry, Louisa, Muscatine, 
Cedar, Jones, Dubuque, Clayton, Winneshiek, Chickasaw, Floyd, Cerro Gordo, Han- 
cock, Kossuth, Palo Alto, Clay, and Dickinson; that part of the State of South Dakota 
lying south and west of the counties of Moody, Lake, McCook, Hanson, Davison, 
Aurora, Brule, Lyman, Jones, Jackson, Haakon, Ziebach, Perkins, and Harding; and 
that part of the State of Nebraska lying north and east of the counties of Scotts Bluff, 
Morrill, Garden, Keith, Lincoln, Frontier, and Redwillow. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 36 

district no. 21. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Kansas City, Mo. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Arkansas lying north of parallel 
36 and west of meridian 93; that part of the State of Missouri lying west of meridian 
93; that part of the State of Kansas lying east of meridian 100; and that part of the 
State of Oklahoma lying east of meridian 100 and north of parallel 36. 

district no. 22. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters San Antonio, Tex. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Louisiana north of parallel 32 and 
west of meridian 93; that part of the State of Arkansas h'ing west of meridian 93 and 
south of parallel 36; that part of the State of Oklahoma lying south of parallel 36; 
and all that part of the State of Texas lying east and south of meridian 100( parallel 
31, and meridian 102, except the counties allotted to New Orleans (La.) District No. 17. 

district no. 23. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Helena, Mont. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Wyoming lying north of parallel 
44; that part of the State of Montana lying south of parallel 4S and east of meridian 
115; and that part of the State of Idaho lying east of meridian 115 and north of 
parallel 44. 

district no. 24. 

Title of Officer in Ch.^rge Inspector in Charge. 

Location op Headquarters Denver, Coi.o. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Kansas lying west of meridian 100; 
that part of the State of Nebraska lying west and south of the counties of Furnas, 
Gosper, Dawson, Custer, Logan, McPherson, Arthur, Grant, Sheridan, Box Butte, 
and Sioux; that part of the State of Wyoming lying south of parallel 44 and east of 
meridian 109; and the State of Colorado. 

district no. 2.5. 

Title of Officer in Charge Supervisor. 

Location of Headquarters El Paso, Tex. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Texas lying west and north of 
meridian 102, parallel 31, and meridian 100; that part of the State of Oklahoma lying 
west of meridian 100; the State of New Mexico; and that part of the State of Ari- 
zona lying east of meridian 114. 

district no. 26. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Spokane, W^ash. 

Boundaries.— To include all that part of the State of Montana lying north of parallel 
48 and also that part lying west of meridian 115; that part of the State of Washington 
lying east of meridian"l20; that part of the State of Oregon lying east of meridian 120 
and north of parallel 44; and that part of the State of Idaho lying north of parallel 44 
and west of meridian 115. 

district no. 27. 

Title of Officer in Charge Lnspector i.v Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Boundaries. — To include the State of Utah; that part of the State of Wyoming lying 
west of meridian 109 and south of parallel 44; that part of the State of Idaho lying south 
of parallel 44; and that part of the State of Nevada lying north of parallel 37 and east 
of meridian 117. 



36 IIEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

district no. 28. 

Title op Officer in Charge Commissioner of Immigratiok. 

Location of Headquarters Seattle, Wash. 

Boundaries. — To include all that part of the State of Washington lying west ol 
meridian 120 except the counties of Klickitat, Skamania, Clarke, Cowlitz, and 
Wahkiakum and the townships in the county of Pacific bordering on the Columbia 
River in the State of Washington. 

district no. 29. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location op Headquarters Portland, Oreg. 

Boundaries. — To include all that part of the State of Oregon lying south of parallel 
44 and also that part lying west of meridian 120; the counties of Klickitat, Skamania, 
Clarke, Cowlitz, and Wahkiakum and the townships in the county of Pacific bordering 
on the Columbia River in the^State of Washington. 

district no. 30. 

Title of Officer in Charge Commissioner of Immigration. 

Location of Headquarters San Francisco, Calif. 

Boundaries. — -To include that part of the State of Nevada lying west of meridian 
117; that part of the State of California lying north of the counties of San Luis Obispo, 
Kern, and San Bernardino and west of meridian 117. 

district no. 31. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Los Angeles, Calif. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Arizona lying west of meridian 
114; that part of the State of Nevada lying south of parallel 37; and that part of the 
State of California lying east of meridian 117 and south of the counties of Inyo, Tulare, 
Kings, and Monterey. 

district no. 32. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Ketchikan, Alaska. 

Boundaries. — To include the Territory of Alaska. 

district no. 33. 

Title of Officer in Charge Commissioner of Immigration. 

Location of Headquarters San Juan, P. R. 

Boundaries. ^To include the Territory of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 

DISTRICT no. 34. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Boundaries. — To include the Territory of Hawaii. 

district no. 35. 

Title of Officer in Charge Inspector in Charge. 

Location of Headquarters Galveston, Tex. 

Boundaries. — To include that part of the State of Louisiana lying west of meridian 
93 and south of parallel 32; and that part of the State of Texas lying south and east of 
the counties of Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Houston, Madison, Grimes, Waller, Austin, 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOISTER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 37 

Colorado, Lavaca, De Witt, Goliad, Bee, Live Oak, Jim Wells, and north of the 
county of Kleberg. 

district no. 36. 

Title of Officer in Charge Chinese Inspector in Charge. 

LocATio.v OF Headquarters United States Barge Office, 

New York, N. Y. 

Extent nf (ihirirl . — New York and New Jersey. Chinese matters only. 
FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

The Congress appropriated S3,300,000 for the enforcement of the 
laws regulating immigration into the United States during the fiscal 
year 1923, and $138,000 additional for the upkeep of immigration 
stations, or a total appropriation of S3,438,000. 

The gross amount expended during the fiscal 3^ear 1923 for all pur- 
poses, including salaries and repairs and maintenance of immigration 
stations, was $3,631,944.76. The dift'erence between the total appro- 
priation and the gross expenditures represents expenditures not con- 
templated by the statute as an ultimate charge against the United 
States, which were subsequently repaid to the Government. 

The total revenue derived from the enforcement of the immigration 
laws during the fiscal year 1923 and turned into the general fund of 
the United vStates Treasury was $4,651,180.83, and the net revenue 
to the Government for the year was $1,019,236.07. 

The following table shows the various sources of income and the 
amounts collected under each head : 

Head tax collected at ports of entry .S4, 285, 306. (iO 

Head tax through Bureau of Naturalization 24, 256. 00 

Head tax voluntarily paid 3, 808. 00 

Immigration fines 201, 219. 77 

Forfeiture of l)onds 126, 088. 13 

Miscellaneous collections 10, 502. 33 

Total 4, 651, 180. 83 

PERSONNEL. 

It gives mo peculiar pleasure to refer to the loyal work of the 
officers and stiiff of the Immigration Service during the year, both 
in the bureau and in the field. There has been a very considerable 
increase in the amount of work required in nearly all districts, and 
this has been creditably accomplished with little or no additions to 
the force and in some instances even with a decreased personnel. 
It has been possible to increase somewhat the compensation in some 
of the grades, especially that of guards, who are now assured of regular 
promotions to a fixed maximum wage if merited, and as the year 
closes a smiilar plan has been adopted for clerk-stenographers and 
clerks in the field service, and for inspectors up to a certain financial 
limit. It is believed that the plan can be extended to at least one 
other OTade in the field service durmg the coming year. It is the 
hope that eventually everyone entering the Immigration Service, 
especially in the grade of inspector, can be assured that efficient 
service will bring regular promotions to a reasonably adequate maxi- 
mum salary. During the past month a civil-service examination for 



38 ItEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

the grade of immigrant inspector was lield, such examuiation being 
designed to bring into the service oHicers who are pecuUarly qualified 
for the important work to be perfonned. 

Tiie bureau desires to make grateful acknowledgment of tlie inval- 
uable contribution wiiich oihcers of the United States Public Health 
Service have made to the cause of proper unmigration regulation 
during the year, and, finall}', to express to you and other olhcials of 
the department the sincere tlianks of the bureau for 3'our lielpful 
and sympathetic interest in the Immigration Service. 
Respectfully, 

W. W. HUSBAM), 

Commissioner Generals 
' Hon. James J. Davis, 

^Secretary of Labor. 



APPENDIX 



STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION 



39 



40 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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42 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIGIsrER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 






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63750—23- 



44 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table IV.— Net increase or decrease of population, by admission and departure of aliens, 
fiscal rjear ended June SO, 192S, by races or peoples. 



Race or people. 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and MoravianCCzech) 

Bulgarian, Serbian, and Monte- 
negrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Her- 
zegovinian 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south ) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Rumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, 
Danes, and Swedes) , 

Scotch , 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cuban) 

Other peoples 



Admitted. 



Total 

Male 

Female 

Admitted in and departed from 
Philippine Islands 



Immi- j Nonlm- 
grant. j migrant. 



7,554 
2,396 
5,537 

1,893 
4,074 
4,163 
1,347 

571 

5,804 

156 

60, 524 
3,087 

34,371 

65,513 
4,177 

49,719 

30,386 
9,054 

39, 226 

0, 652 

104 

1,828 

6.922 

62, 709 
14 

13,210 
2,802 
1,397 
4,316 
1.168 

37,630 

38,627 

6,230 

3,525 

1,990 

1,207 

237 

1,622 

1,467 

650 



522,919 
307,522 
215,397 



Total. 



5,589 
190 
S36 

335 
7,811 

300 
7,240 

136 

2,942 

79 

29, 784 

522 

6,939 

10,066 

953 

2,616 

5, 126 

3, 973 

11,669 

5,919 

34 

331 

772 

13,279 

28 

3, 272 

1,425 

207 

935 

119 

6,873 
6,010 

398 
6,749 
3.456 

783 
74 

638 
1,712 

367 



150, 487 
95, 940 
54,547 

10,277 



13,143 

2,586 
6,373 

2.228 
11.885 
4.463 

8.587 

707 

8, 746 

235 

90, 308 

3,609 

41,310 

75,609 

5, 130 

52, .3.35 

35, 512 

13,027 

50, 895 

11,571 

138 

2,159 

7,691 

75,988 

42 

16,482 

4,227 

1,604 

5, 281 

1,287 

44,503 
44,637 
6,628 
10, 274 
5,446 
1.990 
311 
2,260 
3,179 
1,017 



Emi- 
grant. 



Departed,. 



Nonemi- 
grant. 



673,406 
403,462 
269, 944 

16,966 



1,525 

69 

1,716 

1.864 

3.788 

233 

751 

201 
1,2.52 

113 
7,979 

445 
1,896 
2.217 
3,060 

413 

1,511 

2,538 

21,029 

2,844 

55 

1,109 

1,039 

2,479 

6 

5,278 

2,721 

1,098 

1,611 



2.936 

1,129 

3S7 

3, 193 

1,071 

651 

124 

66 

716 

308 



81,450 
54,752 
26,698 

1,077 



2,834 
106 
824 

.597 

7.127 

63 



363 

2,741 

62 

.33,521 

1,062 

6,919 

5,844 

744 

914 

3,6.54 

2,652 

7,688 

s,328 

66 

325 

637 

1,422 

17 

1,831 

X76 

,525 

969 

38 

6,496 
4,219 

211 
3,936 
2,742 

596 
65 

245 
1,814 

261 



Total. 



Increase 
(+) or 
decrea>;e 

(-). 



4,359 

175 

2, 540 

2.461 

10,915 

296 

6,550 

.561 

3,993 

175 

41.500 

1..507 

8,815 

8,061 

3,804 

1,327 

5. 165 

5,190 

28.717 

11.172 

121 

1,434 

1,676 

3,901 

23 

7,109 

3,597 

l,6'i3 

2,580 

67 

9,432 
5, .348 
59S ; 

7, 1--9 ; 

3,813 I 

1,247 I 

189 j 

311 I 

2,530 

572 



119,136 
74, 184 
44,952 



200, 586 
128,936 
71,650 



14,631 1 15,708 



-(-8.784 
-H2.411 
-f 3, 8.33 

-233 

-t-970 

-(-4,167 

+ 2.037 

-hl43 

-f4.753 

-f60 

+ 48.S08 

-i-2,102 

4-32,495 

H-67.548 

-t-1.326 

+ 51.008 

+30,347 

+7.837 

+22, 17.S 

+399 

+ 17 

+ 725 

+6.018 

+ 72.087 

+ 19 

+ 9.373 

-*-630 

-19 

+ 2,701 

+ 1,220 

+ 35,071 

+39, 289 

+ 6.030 

+3.145 

+ 1.633 

+743 

+ 122 

+ 1.949 

+649 

+ 445 



+ 472,820 
+274,526 
+ 198,294 

+ 1,258 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 45 



Table V. — Intended future permanent residence of aliens admitted and last permanent 
residence of aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 192-3, by States and Territories.^ 





Admitted. 


Departed. 


state or Territory. 


Immigrant 
aliens. 


Non- 
immigrant 
aliens. 

43 

23 

1,801 

32 

5,918 

191 

1,293 

52 

334 

1,878 

71 

1,898 

58 

3,460 

380 

320 

217 

74 

422 

526 

322 

5,070 

1,789 

482 

33 

411 

121 

195 

69 

.304 

3.697 

201 

21.847 

46 

49 

1,460 

99 

307 

3,581 

23 

399 

623 

35 

40 

60 

8.475 

141 

99 

130 

11 

1.046 

203 

468 

105 

79,555 


Emigrant 
aliens. 

44 

69 

395 

19 

7,524 

287 

1.639 

67 

370 

1.464 

62 

442 

106 

4.582 

457 

290 

124 

69 

391 

159 

325 

7,300 

2,413 

648 

37 

•175 

238 

218 

(w 

97 

3.288 

78 

32, 228 

41 

134 

2,725 

69 

446 

6,316 

6 

194 

1,027 

18 

71 

43 

1,325 

254 

53 

134 

5 

1,327 

482 

720 

90 


Non- 
emigrant 
aliens. 


Alabama 


385 

219 

8, 952 

202 

39,093 

1,471 

9,554 

473 

1,.356 

3,020 

451 

2.565 

750 

35,612 

4,430 

3,861 

1.451 

510 

1,027 

9,322 

2,483 

41,602 

37,0.34 

7,975 

343 

3,735 

1,982 

2.018 

325 

5,452 

25, 274 

1,055 

1.30, 142 

289 

1,.534 

17,455 

5-5 

4,178 

36, 834 

6 

229 

6,426 

160 

893 

359 

45, 198 

1,061 

2,101 

1,324 

23 

11,004 

1,582 

7,089 

525 


22 


Alaska 


26 


Arizona . . . 


25 




9 


California 


4.064 


Colorado ... 


113 


Connecticut 


388 


Delaware . . . 


16 


District of Columbia 


121 


Florida 


702 


Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho.. 


26 

3,024 

65 


Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana . . 


1.728 
141 
221 
33 
33 
120 


Maine 

Maryland 


51 
130- 


Michigan 

Mississippi 

Montana 

Nevada ' 


2,421 

1.035 

480 

14 

236 

87 

11? 

47 

52 


New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York . . . 


977 

27 

11,914 




26 


North Dakota 


50 


Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Or.'Eon . . . . ' 


800 
28 
298 




1,364 


Porto Rico ... . . . . 


8 
417 




268 


.South Carolina 


U 


South Dakota 


48 


Tennessee 


55 


Utah 


126 
11? 


Vermont 


16 


Virginia 

Virgin Island.s 1 


147 


Washington [ 


1,146 




90' 


Wisconsin 1 

Wvoming 

Outside United States ! 


231 

66 

85,368 










Total 1 


522,919 


150,487 


81,450 


119,136 



1 For permanent residences of aliens arriving in and departing ''rom the Philippine Islands see Table* 
IX and IX-A. 



46 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
Table V I . — Occupations of aliens admitted and departed, fiscal year ended Ju ne SO, 19 J.] . ' 



Ofiiipalions. 



PROFE.SSION'AL. 

Actors 

Arcnitects 

Cleriry 

Kditors 

Electricians 

iingineers (professional; 

Lawyers 

Literary and sclent iic persons 

Musicians 

OflRcials (Go> ernment) 

Ph} sicians 

Sculptors and artists 

Teachers 

Other professional 

Total 

SKILLED. 

Bal^ers 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Blacksmiths 

Bookbinders 

Brewers 

Butchers 

Cabinetmakers 

Carpenters and joiners 

Cigarette makers 

Cigar makers 

Cigar packers 

Clerks and accountants 

Dressmakers 

Engineers (locomotive, marine, and stationary) 

Furriers and fur workers 

G ardeners 

Hat and cap makers 

Iron and steel workers 

Jewelers 

Locksmiths 

Machinists 

Mariners 

Masons 

Mechanics (not specified) 

Metal workers (other than iron, steel, and tin).. 

Millers 

Milliners 

Miners 

Painters and glaziers 

Pattern makers 

Photographers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers 

Printers 

Saddlers and harness makers 

Seamstresses 

Shoemakers 

Stokers 

Stonecutters 

Tailors 

Tanners and curriers 

Textile workers (not specified) 

Tinners 

Tobacco workers 

Upholsterers 

Watch and clock makers 

Weavers and spinners 

Wheelwrights 

Woodworkers (not specified) 

Other skilled 

Total 



Departed. 




2,928 


764 


235 


2.59 


1,89S 


422 


266 


193 


2,296 


237 


108 


93 


1.S3 


17 


10 


20 


33 


9 


3 


6 


2,055 


306 


181 


155 


370 


59 


64 


66 


12,305 


1,556 


518 


946 


39 


8 


1 


3 


269 


1,244 


223 


849 


8 


19 


3 


3 


16,470 


5,359 


1,505 


4,125 


4,189 


617 


262 


316 


2,817 


731 


113 


436 


271 


65 


15 


47 


900 


332 


134 


168 


238 


23 


10 


12 


4, 076 


•233 


75 


143 


278 


lOS 


35 


70 


1,952 


59 


11 


5 


4,418 


540 


351 


469 


6, 288 


4,840 


385 


1,108 


3,276 


513 


181 


205 


4,644 


996 


314 


386 


764 


90 


11 


50 


309 


30 


12 


14 


632 


104 


35 


64 


5,423 


905 


803 


494 


2, 550 


377 


183 


171 


237 


14 


2 


9 


343 


108 


29 


45 


503 


131 


18 


74 


1,197 


112 


43 


100 


930 


173 


58 


8.5 


226 


18 


4 


o 


2,074 


257 


74 


87 


3,307 


500 


376 


1.59 


729 


275 


48 


111 


521 


57 


17 


26 


5,559 


692 


4S9 


357 


164 


31 


6 


16 


351 


70 


7 


53 


512 


38 


23 


29 


27 


34 


2 


10 


208 


3t 


17 


16 


345 


60 


34 


28 


1,930 


403 


460 


353 


62 


4 
24 




1 


2S3 


i7 


19 


4,826 


1,294 


510 


797 


106,213 


24,892 


8,281 


13,256 



» For occupations of aliens admitted and departed from Philippine Islands, see Tables X and X-.v. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 47 

Table VI. — Occupations of aliens admitted and departed, fiscal year ended June SO, 192S — 

Continued. 





Admitted. 


Departed. 


Occupations. 


Immi- 
trrant 
aliens. 


Xonim^mi- 
prant 
aliens. 


Emii;rant 
aliens. 


Xonemi- 
erant, 
alien-s;. 




MI.SCELLANEOUS. 

Agents 


1,461 

118 

943 

25,905 

12,503 

2,165 

187 

83,552 

320 

8,856 

52,223 

20,346 


1,436 

811 

155 

4,759 

3,713 

436 

213 

14,043 

976 

17,338 

9, .530 

10,012 


130 

95 

54 

943 

1,705 

60 

35 

32,912 

84 

2,546 

3,507 

3,321 


889' 


Bankers 


836 


Dravmen, hackmen, and teamsters 


95 


Fann laborers 


1,72« 


Farmers . . . 


2 STB 


Fishermen 


a4& 


Hotel keepers 


149 


Laborers 


13,803 


Manufacturers 


852 


Merchants and dealers 


14, 2S>!> 
6,038 


Servants 


Other miscellaneous 


11,446 






Total.... .. . 


208, .579 


63, 422 


45,392 


53 113 






No occupation (including women and children) 


191,585 


48,0.59 


25,240 


42,944 


Grand total 


522,919 


150,487 


81,450 


119,13& 







48 IJEPOnT OF THE COMMISSION KR GENERAL OK IMMIGRATION. 









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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION, 



49 



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50 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 









So e» •* « N o t^ 
rt f— 05 « m lo «) 



JOSErir'r' 



"5M -i « •— 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



51 



Table VII-a. — Sex, age, and length of residence in the United States of emigrant aliens 
departed, fiscal year ended June -SO, 192 i. by races or peoples. 



Sex. 



Race or people. 



1 Num- 1 
jber de-! 
' part- j 
I ed. 



Male. 



Fe- 
male. 



1,525 
69 



1,716 



751 

201 

1, 252 

113 



.Vfrican (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Mo- 
ravian 

Bulgarian, Serbian, | 

an 1 Montenecrin | 1, 864 

Chinese | 3,788 

Croatian and Slovenian! 233 

Cuban , 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, 
and Herzegovinian. 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 

English i 7,979 

Finnish I 445 

French I 1,896 

German I 2,217 

Greek ' 3,060 

Hebrew 413 

Irish 1,511 

Italian (north) 2,538 

Italian (south) 21,029 

Japanese ' 2, 844 

Korean j 55 

Lithuanian ' 1,109 

Magyar i 1,039 

Mexican ' 2,479 

Pacific Islander ' 6 

Polish 5,278 

Portuscuese 2,721 

Rumanian 1, 098 

Russian 1,611 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 29 
Scan(iina\-ian (Nor- 
wegians, Danes, and I 

Swedes) ' 2,936 

Scotch 1,129 

Slovak 387 

Spanish 3 193 

Spanish American 1 , 071 

Syrian ' 651 

Turkish ! 124 

Welsh I 66 

West Indian (except i 

Cuban) i 716 

Other peoples 308 



721 
62 

943 

1,400 

3,625 

179 

475 

113 

703 
105 

3,562 
255 
990 

1,189 

2,701 
281 
584 

1,899 
16, 197 

2,043 
45 
715 
541 

1,477 
5 

3,36i 

1,933 
708 

1, 259 
21 



1,476 
.514 
241 

2,629 

675 

482 

104 

35 



804 
7 

773 

464 

163 

54 

276 

88 

549 

8 

4,417 
190 
905 

1,028 
359 
132 
927 
639 

4,832 

801 

10 

394 

498 

1,002 
1 

1,917 
788 
390 
352 



1,460 
615 
143 
564 
396 
169 
20 
31 

432 



Age. 



Total 81,4.50 54,752 26,698 

Departed from PhiUp- 1 I 

pine Islands ! 1,077 I 900 177 



Under 

16 1 

years. 



175 
2 

93 

62 

26 

2 

133 

4 

116 

3 

707 

15 

124 

100 

85 

25 

53 

lae 

940 
43 



years. 



23 
70 
474 
1 
179 
113 
61 
51 



108 
109 

18 
178 
150 

43 
6 



45 
years 
and 
over. 



4,539 
85 



1,162 
59 

1,139 

1,311 

1,6.52 

174 

510 

134 

862 

77 

5,267 

353 

1, 178 

1, 4S2 

2,016 

248 

1,102 

1,920 

15,266 

2,114 

37 

854 

652 

1, 657 

5 

3, 865 

2,148 

755 

1,250 

21 



2,191 

706 

269 

2,591 

821 

449 

97 

44 

553 
201 



188 
17 

484 

491 

2,110 

57 

108 

63 

274 
33 
2,005 
77 
594 
635 
959 
14T 
358 
512 
4, 823 
687 
18 
232 
317 
348 



Continuous residence in the United 
States. 



Not 
over 

5 
years. 



1,234 
469 
282 
31') 

8 



1,144 
25 

419 

365 

1,414 

.}6 

681 

50 

816 

41 

5,451 

115 

1,173 

760 

1,5.52 

197 

651 

914 

10,320 

1,360 

10 

71 

163 

1,492 

5 

529 

1,397 

238 

284 

3 



57, 183 
904 



637 1,459 

314 827 
100 i 85 

424 2, 746 

100 932 

159 180 

21 52 



14 



54 



546 
151 



5 to 10 10 to 15 
years, years 



19,728 138,608 



88 



253 
29 



791 I 
686 ' 
97 
106 

87 

233 

29 

1,417 

179 

302 

775 

1,020 

138 

411 

941 

6,4-'X) 

682 

13 

521 

511 

639 

1 

2,718 

848 

559 

952 

13 



768 
184 
151 
282 
105 
278 
50 



112 
94 



15 to 20 
years 



507 

309 

70 

44 

49 
131 

37 
6.54 
108 
236 
325 
357 

43 
248 
430 
2,762 
304 
8 
363 
244 
199 



163 

418 

20 

9 

7 
34 

6 

208 

25 

76 

165 

104 

18 

78 

160 

1,009 

354 

18 

116 

90 

46 



Over 

20 
years. 



1,380 
351 
239 
275 



375 
59 

111 

109 
19 

132 
18 



24,136 1 10, 988 



4-50 

78 

49 

83 

5 



172 

29 

25 

28 

4 

42 

2 

2 

7 
12 



21 
3 

73 

38 

961 

10 

11 



38 



249 
18 

109 

192 
27 
17 

123 
93 

538 

144 

6 

38 

31 

103 



201 
47 
13 
17 



162 
30 
15 
28 
11 
19 
2 
2 

16 
28 



4,276 3,442 



52 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table VII-b. — Conjugal condition of immigrant aliens 
[Abbreviations: S.. single; M., married; 





Males. 


Race or people. 


Under 
16 

vears 




16 to 44 years. 




45 years and over. 








1 


1 














(to- 
tal).' 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


African (black) 


439 


2,125 


707 


20 


2 


2,854 


22 


Ill 


10 




1 
143 


Armenian 


286 


390 


235 


2 




627 


13 


81 


11 




105 


Bohemian and Mo- 
























ravian 


396 


1,106 


1,208 


9 


1 


2,324 


14 


131 


15 




160 


Bulgarian, Serbian, 
























and Montenegrin. . 


222 


287 


399 


4 




690 


5 


66 


5 




76 ' 


Chinese 


379 


931 


1,412 


3 




2,346 


4 


509 


1 




514 ' 


Croatian and Slove- 








! 














nian 


352 
187 


662 
553 


884 
95 


2 
2 


1 


1,549 
6.50 


6 
12 


110 
32 


16 
4 




132 1 

48 ' 


Cuban 


Dalmatian .Bosnian, 




32 


129 


123 


1 


253 


3 


17 






20 


Dutch and Flemish . 


693 


1,492 


907 


19 1 6 


2,424 


53 


223 


44 


4 


324 


East Indian 


2 
6,034 


87 
13, .557 


49 
10,334 


3 .... 
249 1 21 


139 

24, 161 


1 
394 


2 
2,768 






3 

3,589 


English 


418 


9 


Finnish 


170 


714 


416 


4 


1 


1,135 


18 


65 


7 




90 


French 


4,442 


8,533 


3,990 


137 


5 


12,665 


146 


1,456 


260 


3 


1,865 


German 


3,975 


19,603 


K,316 


70 


36 


28,025 


269 


1,728 


233 


19 


2,249 


Greek 


316 


500 


409 


9 


1 


919 


28 


194 


17 




239 


Hebrew 


6,973 


9,960 


4,173 


74 14 


14,221 


81 


2,176 


371 


4 


2,632 


Irish 


1,749 


10,231 


3,052 


99 3 


13,385 


257 


866 


191 


3 


1,317 


Italian (north) 

ItaUan (south) 


666 


2,956 


1,787 


21 4 


4,768 


39 


236 


28 


1 


304 


2,715 


9,474 


12,440 


82 3 


21,999 


109 


1,635 


188 




1,932 


Japanese 


528 


688 


840 


6 2 


1,536 


10 


397 


17 


i 


425 




8 
195 


23 
245 


19 

188 




42 
437 


4' 


5? 




3 
58 


Lithuanian 


3 




3 .... 


Magyar 


894 


1,230 


949 


18 




2,199 


11 


194 


18 




223 


Mexican 


5,671 


18, 132 


19,090 


385 




37, 608 


130 


2,278 


319 


i 


2,728 


Pacific Islander 


1 


4 


2 






6 












Polish 


1,855 
182 
176 
428 


1,709 
992 
226 

1,186 


2,654 
692 
225 
683 


30 
14 
5 
13 




4,393 

1,701 

456 

1,883 


52 
8 
4 

30 


435 
76 
47 

191 


33 
5 
3 

13 


.... 

1 


520 
90 
55 

234 


Portuguese 


Rumanian 


Russian 


Ruthenian (Russ- 


niak) 


222 


173 


188 


1 


1 


363 




23 


3 


1 


27 


Scandinavian (Nor- 




wegians, Danes, 






















and Swedes^ 


1,522 


19,261 


4,818 


87 


9 


24, 175 


322 


925 


104 


1,357 


Scotch 


3,088 


10, 996 


7,713 


150 


7 


18, 866 


262 


1,672 I 


219 > 2 


2,155 


Slovak 


529 


1,019 


1,782 


6 


1 


2,808 


15 


137 


10 ,.... 


162 


Spanish 


188 


1,760 


698 


14 




2,472 


36 


97 


19 .... 


152 ' 


Spanish American. . 


205 


782 


167 


5 


2 


956 


17 


42 


5 .... 


64 1 


Syrian 


189 


241 


112 


6 




359 


5 


48 


5 .... 


58 i 




28 


48 


26 


1 




75 




5 




5 


Welsh 


145 


424 


297 


U 


1 


733 


17 


71 


13 |.... 


101 


West Indian (except 
















1 






Cuban) 


93 


406 


137 


5 




548 


7 


36 


6 [.... 49 


Other peoples 


66 


151 


137 


2 




290 


3 


26 


4 j.... 33 


Total 


46,241 


142,986 


92,353 


1,572 


129 


237,040 


2,407 


19, 160 


2,618 ; 56 24,241 



' None widowed or divorced; 14 married, as follows: German, 4; Mexican, 3; EngUsh and French, 3 each; 
and Hebrew, Rumanian, and Scandinavian, 1 each. 



r.EPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



53 



admitted, Jiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by races or peoples. 
W., widowed; D., divorced.] 



Females. 




Single females. 




Under 




16 to 44 years. 




45 years and over. 










16 
years 
















16 to 
21 


22 to 

29 


30 to 
37 


38 to 




















44 


(to- 
tal).2 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


years. 


years. 


years. 


years. 


586 


2,321 


842 


131 


.... 


3,294 


31 


110 


97 




238 


970 


990 


284 


77 


286 


486 


369 


89 




945 


3 


51 


93 




147 


293 


162 


25 


6 


388 


1,440 


594 


48 


11 


2,093 


11 


84 


79 


2 


176 


813 


502 


87 


38 


185 


276 


348 


25 


1 


650 


3 


42 


25 




70 


133 


113 


25 


5 


55 
390 


73 
925 


665 
660 






738 
1,631 


„ 


40 
61 


2 
40 


1 


42 
109 


35 
412 


32 
421 


5 
85 


1 


44 


2 


7 


174 


92 


137 


^ 


2 


235 


5 


25 


22 


1 


53 


52 


25 


H 


4 


30 


143 


73 


9 




225 


1 


3 


7 




11 


55 


68 


17 


3 


633 


539 


867 


30 


'i4' 


1,450 


28 


158 


87 


"7' 


280 


195 


225 


86 


33 


2 
6,203 


3 
7,030 


6 
9,290 






9 
16, 791 






1 
1,248 


ii' 


1 
3,746 


2 
2,876 


1 
2,698 


'i,"622' 




"443' 


'28' 


' '488' 


'i,'999' 


"434 


193 


992 


381 


34 


4 


1,411 


23 


43 


22 




88 


406 


390 


155 


41 


4,713 


4,571 


4,162 


189 


17 


8,939 


198 


1,044 


498 


"y'l 1,747 


2,576 


1,422 


382 


191 


4,081 


17,161 


6,505 


554 


160 


24,380 


490 


1,135 


1,155 


53 ; 2,833 


7,657 


6,908 


1,978 


618 


293 


1,699 


471 


38 


1 


2,209 


4 


79 


118 


. . . . ! 201 


643 


926 


119 


11 


6,927 


8,838 


5,.517 


591 


49 


14,995 


46 


2,040 


1,872 


13 1 3,971 


5,545 


2,877 


348 


68 


1,893 


8,209 


2,406 


160 


6 


10, 781 


258 


511 


487 


5 ! 1,261 


3,944 


3,124 


819 


322 


581 


1,264 


1,209 


.50 


3 


2,526 


18 


95 


96 


. . . . ! 209 


426 


655 


146 


37 


,2,508 


4,035 


4,461 


191 


3 


8,690 


48 


671 


660 


3 


1,382 


1,913 


1,701 


349 


72 


407 


233 


2,328 


9 


1 


2,571 


3 


156 


25 


1 


185 


181 


33 


16 


3 


6 
240 


4 

448 


35 
331 






39 
796 


" "e' 


5 
44 


1 
52 


. . . 


6 
102 


'"'226' 


4 
193 






"ie" 


.... 


"'"36' 


5 


848 


1.197 


1,129 


114 


16 


2,456 


15 


146 


137 


i 


302 


641 


437 


94 


25 


5, .383 


2,196 


6,480 


971 




9,647 


47 


693 


931 


1 


1,672 


1,236 


697 


194 


69 


3 
1,712 


2 
1,816 


'2,"382' 


1 
83 


"3' 


3 

4,284 






1 
206 


::;: 


1 
446 


1 

977 


""m 


1 
105 




"ie' 


"224' 


"""33 


152 


255 


.305 


16 


1 


577- 


10 


38 


52 


.... 


100 


136 


90 


21 


8 


168 


191 


273 


28 


3 


495 


1 


28 


18 




47 


114 


65 


10 


2 


407 


451 


695 


57 


5 


1,208 


9 


111 


66 




186 


236 


166 


44 


5 


221 


94 


201 


12 




307 


1 


12 


15 




28 


62 


30 


1 


1 


1,431 


5, 854 


2,210 


101 


24 S, 189 


228 


434 


278 


16 


956 


2,486 


2,287 


801 


280 


3,030 


5,161 


4,340 


232 


10 9, 743 


247 


K70 


622 


6 


1,745 


1,953 


2,146 


783 


279 


537 


1,149 


838 


.59 


7 2.053 


5 


74 


62 




141 


726 


372 


38 


13 


178 


164 


277 


12 


2 455 


14 


40 


26 




80 


58 


65 


33 


8 


176 


303 


174 


40 


2 519 


10 


28 


32 




70 


126 


128 


39 


10 


163 


182 


157 


20 


359 




25 


54 




79 


118 


55 


8 


1 


25 


49 


.39 


10 


98 




3 


3 




6 


33 


14 


2 




159 


173 


212 


10 


2 397 


■ "l6' 


43 


34 




87 


65 


79 


20 


9 


137 


421 


133 


19 


573 


14 


29 


24 


67 


183 


177 


41 


20 


71 


49 


102 




1 159 


1 


19 


10 


1 31 


26 


19 


2 


2 


45,575 


80,489 


61,604 


4,447 


380 146,920 


2,299 


11,213 


9,2.58 


132 


22,902 


38,524 


30,998 


8,226 


2,741 



2 None divorced; 1 widowed, Hebrew; and 24 married, as follows: Mexican, 10; Italian (south), 4; Eng- 
lish and Japanese, 2 each; and French, Hebrew, Italian (north), Polish, Slovak, and Syrian, 1 each. 



54 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



Table VII-c. —Conjugal condition of emigrant aliens 
[Abbreviations: S., single; M., married; 





Males. 1 

1 


Race or people. 


Under 

16 
years 
(to- 
tal).' 


16 to 44 years. 


45 years and over. 




S. 


M. 


w. 


D. 


Total. 


S. 


M. 


1 
W. 1 D, 


Total. 


African (black) 


84 
2 

38 

32 
13 


274 
30 

194 

448 
741 

58 
236 

37 
246 

44 
1,071 
105 
416 
476 
607 

69 

260 

681 

4,247 

666 

21 
217 

96 
668 
4 
567 
439 
139 
313 

3 

780 

164 

40 

1,314 

425 

186 

46 

14 

117 
99 


279 
15 

368 

543 

792 

75 
107 

32 
243 

28 

1,229 

93 

206 

328 

1,153 

96 

133 

746 

7,634 

773 

8 

305 

207 

364 


5 

1 

5 

7 


.... 


558 
4A 


9 
2 

32 

50 

258 

6 
11 

14 
39 
11 

168 
14 
97 

103 
50 
9 
78 
68 

295 
66 
9 
28 
12 
37 


66 
12 

278 

310 
1,817 

3« 
46 

24 

89 

19 

670 

34 

183 

193 

829 

90 

69 

308 

3,220 

502 

6 

137 

179 

122 


4 .... 


79 
14 

335 

370 
2,079 

46 
63 

42 
141 
31 

898 
50 
302 
332 
886 
104 
164 
399 
3,697 
573 
16 
171 
202 


Bohemian and Mora- 
vian 


3 570 


24 

10 
4 

6" 

4 
13 

60 


1 
1 


Bulgarian, Serbian, 

and Montenegrin. . 

Cliinese 




998 
1,533 

133 


Croatian and Slove- 






Cuban 


68 

2 
72 

1 
340 

6 
63 
44 
53 
11 
20 
60 
495 
28 


1 




344 


Dalmatian, Bosnian, 




69 

490 

73 

2,324 

199 

625 


Dutch and Flemish. 
East Indian 


i' 

23 
1 
2 

8 
2 

6' 

13 

123 

2 


1 
.... 



"l 


EngUsh 




2 '..... 
22 .... 
36 .... 

7 .... 

16 "i" 


French. . 


German 


1 813 
.... 1,762 
1 166 
1 400 
.... 1,440 
1 i 12,005 
1 1.442 




Hebrew 


Irish 


Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 


22 

182 

5 

1 

6 

11 

30 


1 






29 
529 


Lithuanian 


i5 
32 
232 
1 
75 
68 
34 
32 


7 
4 
24 




Magyar 


....! 307 
....i 1.056 


Mexican 


189 






4 

2,351 

1,555 

468 

968 

15 

1,102 

313 

159 

2,187 

546 

351 

84 

22 

216 
149 


Polish 


i,745 

1,105 

319 

647 

12 

318 
146 
116 
866 
120 
160 
32 
8 

97 
49 


37 
11 

9 
8 


2 
.... 


87 
16 
19 
26 



144 

44 

7 

71 

11 

11 

5 

2 

4 
5 


803 
279 
177 
222 

5 

144 
82 
66 

265 

43 

95 

11 

4 

24 
40 


44 
15 
10 
11 

1 

24 
15 


i 1 935 

.... 310 
206 

....1 259 

.... 6 

.... 312 

.... 141 


Portuguese 




Russian 


Ruthenian (Russ- 
niak) . 


Scandinavian (Nor- 
wegians, Danes, 
and Swedes) 

Scotch 


62 

60 

9 

98 

74 

24 

3 

6 

38 
25 


4 
3 

2 

1 
5 
6 


.... 


Slovak 




i 73 




8 
1 
1 
1 

1 

2 

1 




344 


Spanish American. . 
Syrian 


....1 55 

107 

17 

7 

30 
46 


Turkish 


Welsh 


West Indian (except 
Cuban) 


2 
1 




Other peoples 


Total 


2,320 


16,558 


21,497 


331 


15 


38,401 


1,918 


11,502 


606 


5 1 14,031 






! 1 



• None widowed or divorced; 1 married, German. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL, OF IMMIGRATION. 55 



departed, fiscal near ended June 30, 19i.i, by races or peoples. 
W., widowed; D., divorced.) 



Females. 


Single females. 


Under 




16 to 44 years. 




45 years and over. 










16 
years 














16 to 

21 


22 to 
29 


30 to 
37 


38 to 




















44 


(to- 
tal).' 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


S. 


M. 


W. 


D. 


Total. 


years. 


years. 


years. 


yean. 


91 


215 


370 


19 




()04 


14 


70 


25 


109 


66 


88 


46 


15 




.i,5 


4 

185 








4 
569 


24 


2 

87 


1 
38 


....1 3 
....I 149 


1 
20 


3 

100 






367 


16 




46 


19 


30 


■K) 


257 


in 


....! 313 


i 


87 


28 


2 } 121 


13 


16 


15 


2 


13 
2 


44 
2 


74 
38 


1 
1 


....; 119 

41 


■i 

1 


28 
10 






31 
U 


11 

1 


28 


5 
1 










05 


69 


96 


1 


....[ 166 


3 


33 


9 


45 


42 


16 


8 


3 


2 


21 


42 


2 


65 


4 


14 


3 


...:■ 21 


2 


10 


6 


3 


44 


100 


268 


4 




372 


23 


91 


19 


....i 133 


28 


37 


18 


17 


2 
367 


2 
1,260 


2 
1,025 






4 
2,943 


' 282' 


1 
640 


1 
184 


....: 2 

1 i 1,107 


1 
146 


1 

548 






55 




357 


209 


9 


64 


86 


4 




154 




13 


7 


27 


5 


22 


24 


13 


61 


237 


292 


23 




553 


129 


117 


45 


1 292 


49 


95 


58 


35 


56 


262 


388 


15 


4 669 


iV 


152 


70 


1 ' 303 


39 


109 


76 


38 


32 


39 


214 


1 




254 




71 


2 


....: 73 


13 


21 


5 




14 


34 


44 


3 




82 


1 


28 


1 


36 


12 


19 


2 


i 


33 


488 


196 


17 




702 


93 


67 


32 


.... 192 


31 


222 


167 


68 


46 


90 


379 


11 




480 


9 


79 


25 


....] 113 


22 


40 


16 


12 


445 


504 


2,673 


83 




3,261 


32 


895 


198 


1 ! 1,126 


167 


225 


73 


39 


15 


39 


632 


1 




672 


4 


108 


2 


....! 114 


17 


14 


4 


4 


•• 


2 
33 


6 

286 






8 
325 


...... 


2 

44 


■■T^ 


..... 2 

....j 61 


4' 


2 
12 






6 




11 


6 


38 


62 


269 


14 




345 


9 


69 


37 


.... 115 


10 


34 


11 


7 


242 


200 


358 

1 

1,259 


43 




601 

1 
1,514 


15 


85 


59 


....[ 159 
I 


101 


68 


23 


8 


164' 


224 


30 




22 


224 


53 


....] 299 


32 


99 


66 


27 


45 


90 


493 


9 




593 





124 


21 


....! 150 


26 


39 


14 


11 


27 


60 


213 


13 




287 


2 


59 


15 


....' 76 


23 


23 


10 


4 


19 


49 


232 


1 .... 


2.S2 


5 


39 


'. 


....; 51 


U 


25 


12 


1 


46 


1 
64S 


5 
418 




6 
1,089 


141 


1 
137 


1 
46 


2 
1 325 


i 58 


1 
299 






22 


1 


192 


99 


49 


213 


169 


11 




393 


50 


79 


43 


1 173 


32 


72 


65 


44 


9 


23 


84 


3 




110 


1 


19 


7 


27 


/ 


11 


5 




>« 


122 


273 


9 .... 


404 


13 


55 


12 




SO 


39 


49 


25 


9 


76 


156 


110 


9 i.... 


275 


/ 


24 


14 




45 


61 


58 


27 


10 


19 


21 


74 


3 




98 


2 


44 


6 




52 


7 


9 


3 


2 


3 

1 - 


6 
10 


7 
10 






13 

22 


'"'i' 


4 

5 






4 

7 


i ^ 


2 
6 


1 

1 




2 




1 





3 


47 


146 


185 


6 .... 


337 


13 


27 


S 


48 


26 


77 


33 


10 


23 


10 


41 


1 .... 


52 


4 


9 






13 


5 


5 














2,219 


5,781 


12,536 


449 1 16 


18,782 


1,010 


3,643 


1,036 


8 j 5,697 


1,131 


2,505 


1,426 


719 



' None divorced; 1 widowed, Portuguese; and 4 married, as follows: 3 English and 1 Spanish American. 



56 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 




C> CO 



OS 



IS C^"t<C ^ 



oo-« rr — ' 



O o3 



o O 



t^tCtf^-«'^-»'^(Oco—'Os^rO'^coooc^cOT '•.'^c^t^c*<cc^H 



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c^ r^ r: 'X »-' c^ -r o tc <r> cs 



' rr ^ rr ^ ^O-- >-': -^ • -*» r* c» Oi c: ; oo 



^»CTt--OC;0'voci-»i.':i^f-tm'vrc'**rcMi-<^o»r»'vr-»-«-rQCf 






I- 1- F- M ^ CC O 



C^ N ,-1 — ( 



rcc^ oco^^»C^cccO'-'C^« -T cs 



x r^ C- ■■'^ :/: ' 



cC »— re C^ " »r: re <N ^^ C re O -r tT' O LC lO ^ ?'■ ^ — I 



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■^ c^x ^-icc^^^c^-^r-r^^coicrr-r' 



o — ocrc-^oi^rcootcotr-r-c-c— -coitpcvioc — ooii'trrcsi^^-cu^^cric^o^- 



£ ot -- r^ ^ c^: 



2 5 o 









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,S — " S? Oh ft. Oi DJ Di •/. x X y: a. ■/. 






REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



67 





§2 


SSg^ IS 1 






o 


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m 


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5 


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58 I'EPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



•iiBiuBnmn 


NrH 


^ .t~ 


• -"^ : 




^ «- 


5;; : ;" : 2 :3 

o • • • 


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1,142 

15,367 

1,549 

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Bulgaria 


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Yugosla\-ia (Serb, Croat, and 
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EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 59 



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60 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION, 



•mox 


8,103 

5,914 

1,590 

392 

13,840 
4,523 
3,644 
4,380 

48,277 
3,333 

46,674 
3,150 

11,745 

26,538 

2,384 
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17,916 
3,349 
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1,182 

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62 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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64 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



■moj. 


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156 

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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATTOJST. 



65 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 67 









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68 EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



IBjox 



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REFOr.T OF THl-; (^)MMISSIONER GliNERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 69 



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70 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL, OP IMMIGRATION. 



Table VIII-c. — Native-horn citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended June SO, 
1923, by countries of intended future permanent residence and races or peoples. 



Country of intended future permanent residence. 


African 
(black). 


Caucas- 
ian. 


Chinese. 


Japanese. 


Total. 


Austria 




70 
275 
140 

11 
983 

68 






70 


Hungary 








275 


Belgium 








140 


Bulgaria 








11 


Czechoslovakia ! 






983 


Denmark 








68 


Finland 




59 






59 


France, including Corsica 




451 

450 

337 

5,106 

78 

150 

2,769 

% 
279 
839 
129 
126 

56 

22 






451 


Germany 








450 


Greece 








337 


Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia 








5,106 


Netherlands 








78 


Norway 








150 


Poland 








2,769 
96 


Portugal, including Cape Verde and Azores Islands. . . 








Rumania 








279 


Russia 








839 










129 


Sweden t 






126 








56 


Turkey in Europe 






22 


England 1 


849 

157 

91 

5 






849 








157 


Scotland i 






91 








5 

496 

18 


Yugosla\'ia (Serb, Croat, and Slovene Kingdom) 




496 
18 


















1 






14,110 






14,110 










China 




1,309 
446 
265 
177 
135 


1,005 




2,314 


Japan 




841 


1,287 








265 


Turkey in Asia 








177 










135 












Total Asia 




2,332 


1,005 


841 


4,178 










1 1.59 






160 


Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. . . . 




57 

10 

7,803 

1,017 






57 










10 


British North America 


10 






7,813 
1 047 
1,147 








Mexico 


10 


1,136 
689 

1,617 
112 




1 


South America 




689 


West Indies 


117 






1,734 








112 














138 29. 072 


1,005 


842 31.057 






' 







REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 71 



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72 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONEK GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



CO " " 






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P.EPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OEXEEAL OF IMMIGRATION. 73 






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74 j:eport of the commissioner general of immigration. 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



75 



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76 r.EPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



3 


11 


1,525 

69 

1,716 

1,864 

3,78S 

233 

751 


201 
1,2.T2 

113 
7,979 

445 
1,896 
2,217 
3,060 

413 

1,511 

2,538 

21,029 

2,844 

55 

1,109 

1,039 

2,479 

6 

5,278 

2,721 

1,098 

1,611 

29 


2,936 

1, 129 

387 

3,193 

1,071 

651 

124 

66 

716 

308 

81,450 


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Irish 


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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRAnON. 



77 



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78 BEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GEISTERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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V. 











REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 79 



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REPORT OK THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 







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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 81 



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d 
a 
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82 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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87 



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89 






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63750—23- 



92 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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94 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table X-c. — Native-horn citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended June SO, 1923, 
by occupations and races or peoples. 



Occupation. 



African 

(black). 



Cau- 
casian. 



Chinese. 



Japanese 



PEOFESSIONAt. 



Actors 

Architects 

Clergy 

Editors 

Electricians 

Engineers (professional) 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientific persons. 

Musicians 

Officials ( Government) 

Physicians 

Sculptors and artists 

Teachers 

Other professional 



Total. 



SKILLED. 



Bakers 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Blacksmiths 

Bookbinders 

Brewers 

Butchers 

Cabinetmakers 

Carpenters and j oiners 

Cigar makers 

Clerks and accountants 

1 ressmaKcrs 

Engineers (locomotive, marine, and stationary). 

Furriers and fur workers 

Gardeners 

Hat and cap makers 

Iron and steel workers 

Jewelers 

Machinists 

M ariners 

Masons 

Mechanics (not specified) 

Metal workers (other than iron, steel, and tin) . . 

Milliners 

Miners 

Painters and glaziers 

Pattern makers 

Photographers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers 

Printers 

Seamstresses 

Shoemakers 

Stokers 

Stonecutters 

Tailors 

Tanners and curriers 

Tinners 

Tobacco workers 

Watch and clock makers 

Weavers and spinners 

Wheelwrights 

Woodworkers (not specified) 

Other skilled 



Total. 



47 
12 

732 
7 
86 

207 
27 
49 
55 
63 
94 
21 

406 

182 



19 

23 

21 

3 

1 

23 

5 

60 

2 

578 

11 

127 

3 

3 

2 

16 

3 

73 
31 
11 
103 
6 
2 

98 

16 

1 

3 

3 

14 

25 

3 

20 

4 

5 

27 

2 

2 

3 

1 

23 

1 

5 

170 

1,552 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL, OF IMMIGRATIOlSr. 95 

Table X-c. — Native-born citizens permanently departed, fiscal year ended June SO, 1923, 
by occupations and races or peoples — Continued. 



Occupation. 


African 
(black). 


Cau- 
casian. 


Chinese. 


Japanese. 


Total- 


MISCELLANEOUS. 




171 

52 

21 

779 

1,660 

2 

11 

457 

55 

306 

324 

1,448 






171 


B ankers 








52 


Draymen, hackmen, and teamsters 


2 






23 


Farm laborers 


1 
5 




780 


Farmers 


2 




1 667 


Fishermen 




2 


Hotel keepers 








11 


Laborers 




565 
1 

114 
13 
96 




1 022 








56 


Merchants and dealers 






420 


Servants 


16 
2 




353 


Other miscellaneous 


2 


1 548 






Total 


22 


5,286 


795 


2 


6 105 






No occupation (including women and children) 


110 


20,246 


177 


839 


21,372 


Grand total 


138 


29,072 


1,005 


842 


31,057 



















96 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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98 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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13 (0 

II 






REPOET OF THE COMMISSIOlSrEE GENERAL OF IMMIGEATIOISr. 



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100 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



t^ C4 1-- -^ ■* -^ eo o »c r^ c^ io^ 



1-1 C^M >-l 



c^ Oi05 00 cQic r-o COO t-^ oo *-< r^ o eo t^ r^ »rt ^ 

o>oocs-H crom 55 ■>>' — oo cq * c^ o « o> ■» 



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KEPOBT OF fHE COMMISSIOlSrER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 101 

















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102 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



•(N •« -rt-* 



(N • • W .-hCS ■-< 






C? to lO 



t^io-H— (-Hi-ioc^r-iOTtic^e^^i-i 
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(0<N -^ ocoos lO — < ^ oq-*^ icgcj t^ 



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■a oi2 o a-S M.Sf.Sf^ £ a 3 a « o g o « « « 



i«5 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 103 



f~ S 



*- 












































CO 








rtCM 




s 


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to 


I 




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to 


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to 




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104 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



6 

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106 PEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAI^ OF IMMIGRATIOISr. 



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108 I.'EPORT OF THE (COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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e^r*co c^ c^i CD 05 lo 05 CO o c<i c^ o 00 00 c^ 

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112 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 






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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 113 



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124 T.EPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 
Table XV. — Total immigration, 1820 to 1923. 



Period. 



Year ended Sept. 30- 

1820 

1821 

1822 

1823 

1824 

1825 

1826 

1827 

1828 

1829 

1830 



Total 10 years, 1821-1830. 



1831 

Oct. 1, 1831, to Dec. 31, 1832. 
Year ended Dec. 31— 

18^3 

1834 

1835 

186 

1837 

1838 

18''9 

1840 



Total 10 years, 1831-1840. 



1841 

1842 

Jan. 1 to Sept. 30, 1843 . 
Year ended Sept. 30— 
1844 



1845. 
18'6. 
18)7. 
1818. 
1849. 
1850. 



Number. 



Total 10 years, 1841-1850. 



Oct. 1 to Dec. 31, 1850. 
Year ended Dec. 31— 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1856 

Jan. 1 to June .30. 1857. 
Year ended June 30 — 

18.58 

1859 

1860 



Total 10 years, 1851-1860. 



1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1,866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 



Total 10 years, 1861-1870. 



8,385 
9,127 
6,911 
6,3.54 
7,912 
10, 199 
10, 837 
18, 875 
27,382 
22, .520 
23,322 



143,439 



22, 633 
60, 482 

58. 640 
65, .'^65 
45.374 
76,242 
79.340 
38, 914 
68, 069 
84,066 



599, 125 



80, 289 

104,, 565 

52, 496 

78, 615 
114,371 
1.54,416 
234,968 
226, 527 
297, 024 
310,004 



1,653,275 



59, 976 

379, 466 
371,603 
368 645 
427, 8'?3 
200, 877 
195, 857 
112, 123 

191,942 
129, 571 
133,143 



2,571,036 



142, 877 
72,183 
132,925 
191,114 
180,339 
332, 577 
303, 104 
282, 189 
3.52, 768 
387,203 



2,377,279 



Period. 



Year ended June 30— 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 



Total 10 years, 1871-1880. 



1881. 

1S82. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



Total 10 years, 1881-1890. 



1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
18%. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 



Number. 



Total 10 years, 1891-1900 3, 687, .564 



1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 



321,3.50 
404,806 
4.59, 803 
313,339 
227,498 
169,986 
141,8.57 
138. •169 
177, 826 
4.57,2.57 



2.812,191 



669. 431 
788, 992 
603,322 
.518,592 
395, 346 
.3.-' 4. 203 
49n,in9 
546, 889 
444,427 
455,302 



5,246,613 



560. 319 
579. 663 
439.730 
285, 631 
2.58. .5"6 
343.267 
230, 8^2 
229. 299 
311,715 
448,572 



487, 
618, 
857, 
812, 
1,026, 

i.ion, 

1,285, 
782, 
7,51. 

1.041, 



918 
743 
046 
870 
499 
735 
349 
870 
786 
570 



Total 10 years, 1901-1910 [ 8,795,386 



1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 



878. 587 
838, 172 
1.197,892 
1.218,480 
3^6,7(0 
2' 8. 8:6 
2'i5,4 3 
110,618 
111,132 
430,0 1 



Total 10 years, 1911-1920 ! 5, 735, 811 



1921. 
1922. 
1923. 



805,228 
309, .-56 
522,919 



Grand tota ; 35,267,8(7 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 125 

Table XV-a. — Net increase of 'population by arrival and departure of aliens, fiscal 
years ended June 30, 1908 to 1923. 



Admitted. 



Iminigrant. 



Nonimini- 
grant. 



Total. 



Departed. 



Emigrant. 



Nonemi- 
grant. 



Total. 



Increase. 



1908 782,870 

1909 751,786 

1910 1,041,570 



1911. 
1912. 
191.3. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 



Total 10 years, 
1911-1920... 



1921. 
1922. 
1923. 



878, 587 
838, 172 
1, 197, 892 
1,218,480 
326,700 
298, 826 
295, 403 
110,618 
141, 132 
430, 001 



805, 228 
309, 556 
522,919 



141, 825 
192, 449 
156, 467 
151,713 
178, 983 
229, 335 
184, 601 
107, 544 
67, 922 
67, 474 
101, 235 
95, 889 
191, .575 



924, 695 

944, 235 

1,198.0.37 

1,030,300 

1, 017, 1.55 

1, 427, 227 

1, 403, 081 

434, 244 

366, 748 

362, 877 

211,8.53 

237, 021 

621, 576 



395. 073 
225, 802 
202, 436 
295, 666 
333, 262 
308, 190 
303. 338 

204. 074 
129, 765 

66, 277 
94, 585 
123. .522 
288, 315 



319, 755 
174, 590 
177, 982 
222, 549 
282, 030 
303, 734 
330, 467 
180, 100 
111,042 
80, 102 
98. 683 
92.709 
139. 747 



714, 828 
400, 392 
380,418 
518,215 
615, 292 
611,924 
633, 805 
384, 174 
240, 807 
146, 379 
193, 268 
216,231 
428, 062 



209, 867 

513, 843 

817,619 

512, 085 

401,863 

815, 303 

769, 276 

50, 070 

125, 941 

216, 498 

18, .585 

20, 790 

193. 514 



5,73.5,811 j 1,376,271 



112, 082 



2, 146, 994 



1, 841, 163 



3,988,157 



3, 123, 925 



172, 935 , 978, 163 
122,949 ' 432,505 
150,487 ; 673.400 



247, 718 
198, 712 
81, 450 



Grand total. . . 9, 949, 740 2, 313, 383 12, 263, 123 i 3, 498, 185 



178, 313 
146, 672 
119, 136 



426. 031 
345, 384 
200, 586 



552, 132 

87, 121 

472, 820 



2,957,611 



6, 455, 796 



5, 807, 327 



126 EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 131 



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132 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL, OF IMMIGRATION. 



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HEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GEiSTERAL, OF IMMIGRATION. 133 



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EEPOE.T OF THE COMMISSIONEK GENERAL OF IMMIGEATIOE'. 135 







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136 PiEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 







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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 137 



1 


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138 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAl, OF IMMIGRATTON. 






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EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 139 



Table XIX. — Deserting alien seamen, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by ports. 
New York, N. Y 14, 734 Mobile, Ala 



Boston, Mass 2,310 

Philadelphia, Pa 1,021 

Baltimore, Md • 1,341 



Portland, Me. 

Norfolk, Va 

Savannah, Ga 

Miami, Fla 

Key West, Fla. . . 
Jacksonville, Fla. 

Tampa, Fla 

Pensacola, Fla 

St. Joe, Fla 



318 

389 

28 

1 

22 

29 

36 

70 

1 



New Orleans, La 

Galveston, Tex 

Port Arthur, Tex 

Gulfport, Miss 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Portland, Oreg 

Seattle, Wash 

Alaska 

I,os Anceles, Calif..., 
Porto Rico 



45 
602 
373 
162 

67 
429 
113 
105 
1 
366 

31 



Total 23,194 



Table XX. — Alien stowaways found on board vessels arriving at ports of the United 
States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by ports. 



New York, N. Y 1, 572 

Boston, Mass 139 

Philadelphia, Pa 177 



Baltimore, Md. 

Portland, Me 

Pro\'idence, R. I. 

Norfolk, Va 

Savannah, Ga 

Miami. Fla 

Key West, Fla. . . 
Fall River, Mass. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Jackson\'ille, Fla. 
Tampa, Fla 



101 
14 

4 
72 
19 

1 
13 

3 

6 
13 

7 



Pensacola, Fla 9 

Mobile, Ala 39 

New Orleans, La 167 

Galveston, Tex 36 

Port Arthur, Tex 29 

Gulfport, Miss 9 

San Francisco, Calif 32 

Portland, Oreg 4 

Seattle, Wash 106 

Los Anwles, Calif 18 

Porto Rico 15 



Total 2,605 



63750—23- 



-10 



140 UEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table XXI. — Comparison between alien arrivals and head-tax settlements, fiscal year 

ended June 30, 1928. 

Immigrant aliens admitted 522, 919 

Nonimmigrant alien admitted 150, 487 

Aliens debarred ." 20, 619 

Aliens from Porto Rico, Hawaii, Virgin Islands, Philippine 

Islands, and mainland 3, 230 

Died 109 

Erroneous head-tax collections 2, 905 

Head- tax pending from previous year 112, 341 

812, 610 

Exempt from head-tax payments, as follows: 

In transit (groups) 1, 129 

Other transits (includes 6,017 Chinese in transit under 

bond across land territory of the United States) 30, 040 

One-year residents of British North America, Mexico, 

and Cuba, coming for temporary stay 6, 181 

Domiciled aliens returning (rule 1, subd. 3 (d), (e), 

and (h) 8, 794 

Government officials. 4, 091 

Alien residents of the Philippine or Virgin Islands 264 

Aliens from Porto Rico and Hawaii who reached said 

islands prior to July 1, 1907, or subsequent to May 1, 

1917 1,667 

Aliens from the mainland 4 811 

Under 16 years of age, accompanied by parents 97, 640 

Exemptions on account of aliens debarred 19, 970 

Citizens erroneously manifested 1, 067 

Returned alien soldiers (public resolution No. 44) 1, 879 

Deserting alien seamen (not apprehended at end of 60 

days, put in statistics) 502 

Total 174, 035 

Head-tax payments pending at close of year 102, 808 

276, 843 

Aliens on whom head-tax was paid ' 535, 767. 00 

Amount of head-tax collected during year $4, 285, 306. 60 

Table XXII. — Aliens admitted to continental United States from insular United States , 
during the fiscal years ended June SO, 1908 to 1928, inclusive, by ports. 



Port. 


Num- 
ber. 


Year of arrival. 


1908 


1909 


1910 1 1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


New York, N.Y 

Philadelphia. Pa 


12,935 

2 

6 

1 

4 

15 

2 

67 

9 

22,678 

9 

800 

1,533 

9 

163 


440 


423 


579 


616 


548 


610 


694 


756 


726 


1,138 






















Newport News, Va... 
Norfolk Va 






















































































New Orleans, La 




2 


2 


3 


7 


11 

3 

2,268 


12 


12 


10 


i 


San Francisco, Calif. . . 

Portland, Oreg 

Seattle, Wash 


912 


896 


1,591 


1,076 


1,402 


2,595 


1,610 


1,673 


1,824 
1 


6 


7 


17 
9 


2S 
63 


99 
24 


460 
59 


14 
36 


10 
40 


21 
62 


4 


Canadian Pacific ports. 
Canadian border ports. 
Mexican border sea- 


63 






















9 


























Total 


38,233 


1,358 


1,328 


2,198 


1,786 


2,080 


3,411 


3,351 


2,437 


2,492 


3,031 







» 207 aliens were taxed at $4 each, 535,559 at $8 each, and 1 alien at $6.60, the latter being a balance due 
and collected from a bankrupt steamship line. 



KEPOKT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 141 



Table XXII. — Aliens admitted to continental United States from insular United States, 
during the fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 1923, inclusive by ports — Continued. 



• 






Year of 


arrival. 






From 
Ha- 
waii. 


From 
Porto 
Rico. 


From 

Philip- 

pine 

lands. 


From 
Vir- 


Port. 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


192.3 


.san 
In- 
land >• . 


New York, N. Y 


1,2S5 


909 


1,058 
1 


1,094 
2 


917 

1 


1,112 
4' 


4 
2 


11,898 




1.033 


Philadelphia Pa 










4 




2 




1 
2 

15 






1 


Norfolk Va ' 


2 












2 
15 

2 
67 

9 


2 




Charle-^ton, S. C 


















2 

'"935" 

2 

19 

179 

5 


















1 
3 

814 

1 

50 

616 
1 
1 


i 

1 

1,384 


'"'906' 


6 

1 

966 

3 

22 
48 


22,"67i' 

6 

130 

1,378 

s 

161 






Galvo'^ton Te\ 










1,826 

2 

3 

134 


607 

2 

670 

155 

1 
2 




Portlan.i , Oreg 


i 


Seattle, Wash 


14 

123 

3 

1 


26 

77 




Canadian Pacific ports 










1.52 










Total 


3,268 


2,398 


2,201 


2,623 


1,957 


2,314 


23,760 


11,997 


1,439 


1,037 







Table XXI I-a. — Immigrant aliens admitted to continental United States from insular 
United States and to insular United States from other insulars and from mainland 
{continental United States), by ports, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923. 



Port. 


From 
Hawaii. 


From 
Philip- 
pine 
Islands. 


From 
Porto 
Rico. 


From 
Virgin 
Islands. 


From 
main- 
land. 


Total. 


New York, N. Y 






56 


165 




221 






1 

2 




1 










2 




1 






58 


Portland, Oreg 1 








1 


1 






61 


62 







18 


18 






i 






Total 


58 


2 .59 


183 


61 


363 











Table XXII-b. — Nonimmigrant aliens admitted to continental United States from 
insular United States and to insular United States from other insulars and from main- 
land {continental United States), by ports, fiscal year ended June SO, 1923. 



Port. 


From 
Hawaii. 


From 
Philip- 
pine 
Islands. 


From 
Porto 
Rico. 


From 
Virgin 
Islands. 


From 
main- 
land. 


Total. 








717 
3 
4 
1 


174 




891 










3 












4 


Galveston, Tex 










1 




867 


41 

2 

22 

14 

1 

7 


[ 


908 










2 












22 




34 
151 








48 










152 








677 
134 


684 








18 


152 












Total 


1,052 


87 


725 


192 


811 


2,867 







142 P.EPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION. 143 



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144 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 145 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL QF IMMIGRATION. 147 



3,095 
14 

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157 

164 
1,268 

74 
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4 
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131 
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148 REPORT or THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION". 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 149 





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150 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONEK GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table A. — Japanese aliens applied for admission, admitted, debarred, deported, and 
departed, fiscal years ended June SO, 1922 and 1923. 



Applications for admission 

Admitted 

Debarred from entry . . 

Deported after entry 

Departm'ps 



1922 



Conti- 
nental 
United 
States. 



9,022 

8,981 

41 

109 

11, 173 



Hawaii. 



3,862 

3,856 

6 

4 

4,105 



1923 



Conti- 
nental 
United 
States. 



,124 
,055 
69 
105 
,393 



Hawaii. 



3,527 

3,516 

11 

4 

2,779 



81 Koreans were admitted in Hawaii, and 49 departed therefrom. 

57 Koreans were admitted in continental United States, 2 were debarred, and 72 departed therefrom. 

Table B . — Increase or decrease of Japanese population by alien admissions and departures, 
fiscal years ended June SO, 1922 and 1923, by months. 





Continental United States. 


Hawaii. 


Month. 


Admitted. 


Departed. 


Increase(+) 

or de- 
crease (— ). 


Admitted. 


Departed. 


Increase(+) 

or de- 
crease (— ). 


1921-22. 
July 


1,037 
463 
685 
924 
518 
475 
523 
563 

1,128 
376 
982 

1,307 


819 

538 

829 

1,289 

1,797 

1,439 

1,007 

568 

922 

1,079 

553 

333 


+218 

-75 

-144 

-:65 

-1,279 

-964 

-481 

-5 

+206 

-703 

+429 

+974 


377 
505 
277 
294 


505 
346 
500 
401 


-128 




+ 159 




-223 




-107 




(') 








(•■> 




1 


(') 




672 
497 
377 


557 
135 
248 


+115 


M'irch 


+362 




+129 


May 






857 


1,413 


-556 






Total 


8,981 


11,173 


-2, 192 


3,856 


4,105 


-249 


1921^-23. 
July 


618 
510 
624 
535 
778 
530 
431 
716 
758 
888 
1,161 
506 


677 
599 
603 
730 
1,397 
969 
687 
479 
506 
801 
469 
476 


-59 

-89 

+21 

-195 

-619 

-439 

-256 

+217 

+252 

+ 87 

+692 

+30 


272 
196 
424 
219 
438 
358 
319 
259 
186 
322 
249 
274 


224 
265 
384 
213 
438 
129 
112 

78 
135 

96 
467 
238 


+48 




-69 




+40 




+6 








+229 




+207 


February 


+181 




+51 


April 


+226 




-218 




+36 






Total 


8,055 


8,393 


-338 


3,516 


2,779 


+737 







' Figures included with those for later months. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GEiSTERAL OF IMMIGRATIOiSr. 151 

Table C. — Occupations of Japanese aliens admitted and departed, fiscal year ended June 

SO, 1923. 





Continental 
T'nited 
States. 


Hawaii. 


Occupation. 


Continental 
United 

States. 


HawaiL 


Occupation. 


■d 


ft 
o 


t3 

< 


•a 

§- 

ft 


1 


ft 


1 
< 


i 
ft 


PROFESSIONAL. 


10 
18 
39 
16 
2 
123 
11 

31 

1 

387 

79 

4 

105 

56 


12 
5 

28 
15 

"'99' 
15 

18 

2 

331 

81 

6 

101 

50 


18 


4 

1 

12 
2 


SKILLED — continued. 
Miners 


5 
3 
13 


1 
3 
7 


3 
1 

1 
2 


2 




Painters and glaziers 

Photographers 


1 




6 




Plasterers 






Plumbers 




1 
10 

1 
1 
5 


2 


Engineers (professional) . 


Printers 


8 


1 


6 
2 
10 
5 


1 

4 1 
1 
9 
7 


Saddlers and harness- 




Literary and scientific 




Seamstresses 


1 
4 


3 
2 
1 
7 

1 

""2 

1 






Shoemakers 


1 


Officials (Government) . . 






Tailors 


17 


18 


12 


Sculptors and artists 

Teachers 

Other professional 




2 


9 
11 


16 
3 


Watch and clock makers . 
Weavers and spinners . . . 
Other skilled 


2 
2 
80 


3 

"'97' 


1 




882 


763 


68 


60 


Total 






432 


466 


141 


170 




5 

27 

2 


11 
21 
4 
1 
1 

14 
137 



29 
49 

1 
1 
1 
8 

26 
2 

12 

1 


1 

8 
6 


4 

4 

2 


MISCELLANEOUS. 




Bakers 


10 
61 

2 

1,027 

446 

72 

71 
358 

12 
898 

56 
775 


24 
62 

"125" 

1,061 

59 

51 

2,067 

16 

877 

61 

537 


3 
9 

13 
1,153 
21 
25 
2 
60 










Bankers 


6 


Brewers - 


Draymen, hackmen, and 
teamsters 










16 


Carpenters and joiners. . . 


5 
91 

30 
59 

1 
1 
2 
6 
45 


51 

29 

1 

6 
2 


46 

78 

3 




2 




23 






24 


Engineers (locomotive, 




4 




1,273 




' Manufacturers 




Gardeners 


Merchants and dealers. . . 


135 
65 
126 


92 


Hat and cap makers 


34 






Other miscellaneous 

Total 


44 










Machinists 






3.788 


4,940 


1,612 


1,518 




1 


3 


No occupation (includ- 
1 ing women and chil- 





Masons 


2,953 


2,224 


1,695 




Mechanics (not specified). 


22 


8 


2 


1,031 


than iron, steel, and 
tin) 


Grand total 




8,055 


8,393 


.3,516 


2,779 


Milliners 


1 



















Table D. — Statistics of immigration and emigration of Japanese, collected by the United 
States Government, compared with those reported by the Japanese Government, fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1923. 



From Japan. 


Re- ^«- i 

ported by P^^^^td'^. 
J^P^°- States. 


To Japan. 


Japan. , g^^^gg_ 




3,548 
7,328 


3,496 
7,044 


From Hawaii 


4,411 2,778 


To continental United States. . 


From continental United 
States 


9,940 6,923 




Total 




Total . 


1 10, 876 


2 10, 540 


2 14,351 19,701 











' Embarked within the year. 
2 Debarked within the year. 



152 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION, 



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154 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOISrER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 



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Boston 
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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. ]50 



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160 REPORl? OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 

Table 3. — Chinese claiming American citizenship by birth, or to be the wives or children 
of American citizens, admitted, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by -ports. 



Port. 



NewYork, N. Y 

Boston, Mass 

San Francisco, Calif 

Seattle, Wash 

Canadian border stations. 
Mexican border stations. . 



Total continental United States . 
Honolulu, Hawaii 



Grand total . 



BY WHOM ADMITTED. 



Foreign- 
bom 
wives 
of 

natives. 



7 

20 

228 

68 



Foreign- 
born 
children 

of 
natives. 



Native born. 



No record 

of 
departure 
(known as 

"raw 
natives"). 



Record of departure 
(known as "returning 
natives.") 



Status as 
native bom 
determined 

by U.S. 
Government 
previous to 

present 
application 

for admis- 
sion. 



323 
64 



387 



Inspection officers. 

Department 

Courts 



382 
4 
1 



222 1 

267 

1,399 

413 

44 

2 



2,347 
52 



2,399 



2,333 

61 

5 



27 



20 
102 
759 
368 
47 
51 



1,347 
263 



1,610 



1,610 



Status not 
previously 
deter- 
mined. 



Total 



102 
413 



515 



509 
6 



249 

391 

2,456 

884 

99 



4,145 
793 



4,938 



4,860 

72 

8 



Table 4. — Appeals to department from excluding decisions under Chinese-exclusion laws , 
fiscal year ended June SO, 1923, by ports. 



Action taken. 



Number of appeals 

Disposition: 

Sustained (admitted) 
Dismissed (rejected).. 



New 
York, 
N.Y. 



24 



Boston, 
Mass. 



San 
Fran- 
cisco, 
CaUf. 



228 



82 
146 



Seattle, ^^^ 
wash. bSr. 



Mexican 
border. 



Hono- ! 
lulu. Total. 
Hawaii. 



39 I 



38» 



136 

25.1 



Table 5. — Disposition of cases of resident Chinese applying for return certificates, fiscal 

year ended June SO, 1923. 





Applica- 
tions 
submitted. 


Primary disposition. 


Disposition on appeal. 


Total 

certificates 

granted. 


Total 

certificate* 




Granted. 


Denied. 


Sustained. 


Dismissed. 


finally 
refused. 


Native born 

Exempt classes... 
Laborers 


2,503 
1,161 
1.097 


2,442 
1,141 
1,092 


61 

20 

5 


20 
6 
1 


34 
8 
2 


2,462 
1,147 
1,093 


4t 

14 
4 


Total 


4,761 


4,675 


86 


27 


44 


4,702 


50 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION. 161 
Table 6. — Miscellaneous Chinese transactions, fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, by ports. 



Class. 


a 

z 


1 
§ 
1 

m 


03 

2 
a, 

P4 


1 


08 


'4 

a 

03 
§ 


•3 

e3 
O 

1 

1 


Seattle, Wash. 

Canadian border sta- 
tions. 


1 


3 

§ 


"3 
1 


United States citizens (Chinese) ad- 
mitted 


244 
286 
107 

1,012 


371 
140 
108 

1 










2,232 

2,660 

230 

1.2.'?5 


931 108 

1,970 55 

195 20 


67 

75 

3 

692 


737 

666 

28 


4,690 

5,868 

706 








5 


11 


Alien Chinese debarred 


11 


4 


Chinese granted the privilege of transit 
In bond across land territory of the 
United States 


143 


568 


309 

97 
619 
291 

29 
5 

52 

734 


2,057 
62 


6 017 


Chinese denied the privilege of transit 
in bond across land territory of the 
United States 






1 i 


64 


Chinese granted the privilege of transit 














1,170 
331 
650 






1,267 
1 380 


Chinese laborers with return certifi- 
cates departing 


85 

108 

2 

1 

22 

6 

227 


14 
17 
2 










6 


9 

38 

1 


322 

44 

5 


Chinese merchants with return certifi- 
cates departing 










1 154 


Chinese merchants' wives with return 
certificates departing 










39 


Chinese merchants' minor cliildren 
with return certificates departing 










' 


6 


Chinese students with return certifi- 
cates departing 












27 

4 

1,548 


16 

1 
2 


3 

5 

42 


2 

2 

262 


122 


Chinese teachers with retujn certifi- 
cates departing 












18 


Native-born Chinese with return cer- 


114 










2,929 

















o 



,.JAN 7 1924 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 
WORCESTER, MASS. 



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3 9999 06351 982 y