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Full text of "Annual report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration"

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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
COMMISSIONER GENERAL 
OF IMMIGRATION - - 1928 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 

JAMES J. DAVIS. Secielaiy 

BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

COMMISSIONER GENERAL 
OF IMMIGRATION 

TO THE SECRETARY OF LABOR 

FISCAL YEAR 
ENDED JUNE 30 



1928 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON 

1928 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

25 CENTS PER COPY 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Report of t he Commissioner General of Immigration 1 

Immigration 4 

Volume — Chief source — Admissions — Distribution — Rejections 4 

Aliens rejected 8 

Immigration from Canada 8 

Immigration from Mexico 10 

Aliens inleigible to citizenship 11 

Seamen 11 

Administrative fines 13 

Chinese 14 

Return permits 16 

Deportations (expulsions) 17 

Reentry permits (including Chinese) 19 

Visa petitions 20 

Immigrant students 20 

Personnel 21 

Field service 21 

Immigration border patrol 22 

Financial statement 22 

Border patrol 23 

Border patrol transportation 25 

Citizenship and the alien 25 

Ellis Island 26 

Administrative problems 28 

Field 28 

Legislation recommended 28 

Conclusion 32 

APPENDIX— STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION (TABLES 1 TO 115) 

(All tables cover the fiscal year ended June 30, 1928, unless otherwise indicated) 

Table Page 

1. Aliens admitted, departed, debarred, and deported, and United 

States citizens arrived and departed, fiscal vears ended June 30, 

1927, and 1928, by ports 1 35 

2. Net increase or decrease of population bv admission and departure of 

aliens, fiscal years ended June 30, 1925, 1926, 1927, and 1928, by 

semiaimual periods and months 36 

3. Net increase or decrease of population, by admission and departure 

of aliens, fiscal years ended June 30, 1927 and 1928, by countries. _ 38 

4. Net increase or decrease of population by admission and departure 

of aliens, by race or people, sex, and age periods 40 

5. Intended future permanent residence of aliens admitted and last 

permanent residence of aliens departed, by States and Territories. _ 41 

6. Occupations of aliens admitted and departed, by classes 42 

7. Immigrant aliens admitted, by race or people, age, and conjugal con- 

dition 44 

8. Immigrant aliens admitted, by race or people, sex, and age 45 

9. Immigrant aliens admitted, by race or people, sex, and conjugal 

condition 46 

10. Nonimmigrant aliens admitted, by race or people, age, and conjugal 

condition 47 

11. Immigrant aliens admitted, b}' race or people, money shown, who paid 

passage, and whom going to join 48 

12. Nonimmigrant aliens admitted, by race or people, money shown, who 

paid jjassage, and whom going to join 49 

III 



IV CONTENTS 

Table Page 

13. Literacy condition of immigrant aliens admitted, by race or people, 

and sex 50 

14. Literacy condition of nonimmigrant aliens admitted, by race or 

people, and sex 51 

15. Emigrant aliens departed, by race or people, age, and conjugal con- 

dition 52 

16. Emigrant aliens departed, by race, or people, sex, and age 53 

17. Emigrant aliens departed, by race or people, sex, and conjugal condi- 

tion 54 

18. Emigrant aliens departed, by race or people, and length of residence 

in the United States 55 

19. Nonemigrant aliens departed, by race or people, age, and conjugal 

condition 56 

20. Nonemigrant aliens departed, by race or people, and length of resi- 

dence in the LTnited States 57 

21. Naturalized citizens permanently departed, by race or people, sex, 

age, conjugal condition, and length of residence in the United 
States 58 

22. Native-born citizens permanently departed, by race or people, sex, 

age, conjugal condition, and length of I'esidence in the United 
States 59 

23. Aliens admitted and departed, and United States citizens perma- 

nently departed, by classes, age, sex, and conjugal condition 60 

24. Immigrant aliens admitted, by race or people, and countries of last 

permanent residence 62 

25. Emigrant aliens departed, by race or people, and countries of intended 

future permanent residence 68 

26. Naturalized citizens permanently departed, by race or people, and 

countries of intended future permanent residence 74 

27. Native-born citizens permanently departed, by race or people, and 

countries of intended future permanent residence 77 

28. Immigrant aliens admitted, by race or people and States of intended 

future permanent residence 78 

29. Emigrant aliens departed, by race or people and States of last per- 

manent residence 81 

30. Naturalized citizens permanently departed, by race or people and 

States of last permanent residence 83 

31. Native-born citizens permanently departed, by race or people and 

States of last permanent residence 85 

32. Immigrant aliens admitted, by ports of entry and States of intended 

future permanent residence 86 

33. Immigrant aliens admitted, by occupations and race or people 90 

34. Emigrant aliens departed, by occupations and race or people 94 

35. Naturalized citizens permanently departed, by occupations and race 

or people 98 

36. Native-born citizens permanetly departed, by occupations and race 

or people 100 

37. Immigrant aliens admitted, by occupations and countries of last 

permanent residence 101 

38. Emigrant aliens departed, by occupations and countries of intended 

future permanent residence 108 

39. Immigrant aliens admitted, by occupations and States of intended 

future permanent residence 114 

40. Emigrant aliens departed, by occupations and States of last per- 

manent residence 120 

41. Immigrant aliens admitted, by race or people and country of birth. _ 126 

42. Immigrant and nonimmigrant aliens admitted, and emigrant and 

nonemigrant aliens departed, showing countries of last or intended 
future permanent residence, by sex 132 

43. Immigrant aliens admitted during specified periods, January 1, 1927, 

to June 30, 1928, by race or people and sex 134 

44. Nonimmigrant aliens admitted during specified periods, January 1, 

1927, to June 30, 1928, by race or prople and sex 135 

45. Emigrant aliens departed during specified periods, January 1, 1927, 

to June 30, 1928, by race or people and sex 136 

46. Nonemigrant aliens departed during specified periods, January 1, 

1927, to June 30, 1928, by race or people and sex 137 



CONTENTS 



47. Immigrant and nonimmigrant aliens admitted by classes under the 

immigration act of 1924, as amended, with comparative per cents, 

as specified 138 

48. Aliens admitted under the immigration act of 1924, as amended, by 

classes and country or area of birth 139 

49. Aliens admitted under the immigration act of 1924, as amended, by 

classes and race or people 144 

50. Aliens charged to the quota, bv nationality, under the immigration 

act of 1924, and admitted-_I 147 

51. Aliens debarred from entering the United States, by race or people, 

causes, and sex 148 

52. Aliens debarred from entering the United States, showing number 

rejected at the land border stations and at the seaports of entry, 

by causes and sex 150 

53. Aliens debarred from entering the United States, showing number 

rejected at the land border stations and at the seaports of entry, 

by race or people and sex 151 

54. Alien applicants for admission at the seaports and land border ports, 

showing number admitted and debarred and per cent of applicants 
debarred, by race or people 152 

55. Permanent residents of contiguous foreign territory applying for 

temporary sojourn in the United States, refused admission, by 
causes 153 

56. Aliens deported (under warrant proceedings) after entering the United 

States, by race or people, and causes 154 

57. Aliens deported (under warrant proceedings) after entering the United 

States, bv race or people, and countries to which deported, as speci- 
fied : _- 158 

58. Aliens certified by surgeons as physically or mentally defective, by 

race or people, sex, age, class of defect, and disposition 162 

59. Aliens certified by surgeons as physically or mentally defective, show- 

ing sex, age, class of defect, and disposition, by disease or defect. _ 164 

60. Aliens certified by surgeons as physically or mentally defective, show- 

ing organ or portion of body affected, by disease or defect 166 

61. Aliens certified by surgeons as physically or mentally defective, by 

disease or defect, and race or people 168 

62. Aliens certified by surgeons as physically or mentally defective, by 

organ or portion of body affected , and race or people 172 

63. Appeals from decisions under immigration law, applications for ad- 

mission on bond without appeal, applications for hospital treat- 
ment, and applications for transit, by causes 176 

64. Appeals from decisions under immigration law, applications for 

admission on bond without appeal, applications for hospital treat- 
ment, and applications for transit, by ports 177 

65. Aliens granted hospital treatment under sections 18 and 22, by race 

or people 178 

66. Aliens granted hospital treatment under sections 18 and 22, by ports- 178 

67. Comparison between alien arrivals and head-tax settlements 179 

68. Alien stowaways found on board vessels arriving at ports of the 

United States, by ports or districts 179 

69. Japanese aliens applied for admission, admitted, debarred, deported, 

and departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1927 and 1928 180 

70. Increase or decrease of Japanese population by alien admissions and 

departures, fiscal years ended June 30, 1927 and 1928, by months, 180 

71. Occupations of Japanese aliens admitted and departed 181 

72. Miscellaneous Chinese transactions, by ports 182 

73. Aliens admitted to continental United States (mainland) from insular 

possessions, and to insular possessions from mainland and from 
other insular possessions, by ports 182 

74. Arrivals in and departures from the Philippine Islands, fiscal vears 

ended June 30, 1927 and 1928, as specified 183 

75. Aliens admitted to and aliens departed, debarred, and deported from 

the Philippine Islands, fiscal years ended June 30, 1927 and 1928, 

by classes, as specified 184 



VI CONTENTS 



COMPARATIVE STATISTICS 
Table 



76. Net increase of population, bv admission and departure of aliens, 

fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 1928 185 

77. Net increase of population, by admission and departure of aliens, 

calendar years 1918 to 1927 185 

78. Nonimmigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 

1928, by principal countries of last permanent residence 186 

79. Nonemigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 

1928, by principal countries of intended future permanent resi- 
dence 187 

80. United States citizens permanently departed, fiscal years ended June 

30, 1918 to 1928, by principal countries of intended future per- 
manent residence 187 

81. Immigration to the United States, 1820 to 1928, by years 188 

82. Immigration to the United States from northern and western Europe, 

southern and eastern Europe, Asia, Canada and Newfoundland, 
Mexico, West Indies, and other countries, during specified periods, 
1820to 1928 190 

83. Immigration to the United States during specified periods, 1820 to 

1928, by countries 192 

84. Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1911 to 1928, 

by countries of last permanent residence 194 

85. Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 1928, 

by countries of intended future permanent residence 197 

86. Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1899 to 1928, 

by race or people 200 

87. Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 1928, 

by race or people 203 

88. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, showing 

comparative per cent of total, by race or people, fiscal years ended 

June 30, 1911 to 1928 205 

89. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, with excess 

admissions or departures and number departed for every 100 
admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1921, to 1928, as specified, 
by country of last or intended future permanent residence 206 

90. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, with excess 

of admissions or departures and number departed for ever}- 100 
admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1921 to 1928, as specified, by 
race or people 208 

91. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, with excess 

of admissions or departures and number departed for every 100 
admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1921 to 1928, as specified, by 
States of intended future or last permanent residence 210 

92. Immigrant aliens admitted, with comparative per cent, bv sex, fiscal 

years ended June 30, 1871 to 1928 212 

93. Emigrant aliens departed, with comparative per cent, bv sex, fiscal 

years ended June 30, 1908, to 1928 " 213 

94. Immigrant aliens admitted during specified periods, fiscal years ended 

June 30, 1921, to 1928, by countries of last permanent residence 

and sex 214 

95. Emigrant aliens departed during specified periods, fiscal years ended 

June 30, 1921 to 1928, by countries of intended future permanent 
residence and sex 215 

96. Comparative per cent of sex of immigrant aliens admitted and emi- 

grant aliens departed during specified periods, fiscal years ended 
June 30, 1921 to 1928, by countries of last or intended future per- 
manent residence 216 

97. Immigrant aliens admitted during specified periods, fiscal years ended 

June 30, 1921 to 1928, by race or people and sex 218 

98. Emigrant ahens departed during specified periods, fiscal years ended 

June 30, 1921 to 1928, by race or people and sex 219 

99. Comparative per cent of sex of immigrant aliens admitted and emi- 

grant aliens departed during specified periods, fiscal years ended 

June 30, 1921 to 1928, by race or people 220 

100. Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1916 to 192S, 

by occupational groups, and comparative per cent 222 



CONTENTS Vn 

Table Page 

101. Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1916 to 1928, 

by occupational groups, and comparative per cent 223 

102. Alien applicants for admission to the United States, fiscal years ended 

June 30, 1911 to 1928, showing comparison of the number debarred 

at the seaports and at the land border ports, as specified 224 

103. Aliens debarred from entering the United States, showing compara- 

tive per cent of total debarred, bv race or people, fiscal vears ended 

June 30, 1916 to 1928. as specified 225 

104. Aliens debarred and deported, by causes, 1S92 to 1928 227 

105. Aliens deported from the United States after landing, showing com- 

parative per cent of total deported, bv race or people, fiscal vears 
ended June 30, 1916 to 1928, as specified 229 

106. Aliens deported (under warrant proceedings) after entering the 

United States, fiscal years ended June 30, 1911 to 1928, by causes, 

and showing principal groups by comparative per cent 230 

107. Aliens admitted under the immigration act of 1924, as amended, by 

classes, fiscal years ended June 30, 1925 to 1928, with comparative 

per cent, as specified 232 

108. Immigrant ahens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1910 to 1928, 

showing sex, age groups, and conjugal conditions, as specified 233 

109. Nonimmigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1910 to 

1928, showing sex, age groups, and conjugal conditions, as specified^ 234 

110. Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1910 to 1928, 

showing sex, age groups, and conjugal conditions, as specified 235 

111. Nonemigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1910 to 1928, 

showing sex, age groups, and conjugal conditions, a^s specified 236 

112. Aliens admitted to continental United States (mainland) from insular 

possessions, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 1928, by ports 237 

113. Aliens departed from continental United States (mainland) to insular 

]30ssessions, and from insular possessions to continental United 
States and other insular possessions, fiscal years ended June 30, 
1919 to 1928, as specified _- 237 

114. T'nited States citizens arrived in continental United States (main- 

land) from insular possessions and in insular possessions from con- 
tinental United States and other insular possessions, fiscal years 
ended June 30, 1920 to 1928, as specified --- 238 

115. Filipinos, and Chinese and Japanese citizens, arriving in and departing 

from Hawaii, fiscal years ended June 30, 1922 to 1928, as specified.. 238 



REPORT 

OF THE 

COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



Department of Labor, 
Bureau of Immigration, 

Washington, June 30, 1928. 
Hon. James J. Davis, 

Secretary qf Labor. 

Sir: In the introduction to the last annual report there were dis- 
cussed in a general way the functions of the Bureau of Immigration 
and the immigration field service and the multitudinous problems 
with which they are called upon to deal. The year just closed did 
not differ essentially in these respects from the one preceding. 

For the benefit of the uninitiated a brief outline of the functions 
of the Immigration Service may be of interest. Aliens naturally 
fall into two major classifications — those who seek to enter and those 
who are already here. Those of the class first mentioned must apply 
at regularly designated immigration ports of entry and there be 
civilly and medically examined. These ports are distributed along 
our coasts and borders. Prior to 1921 when the first quota law was 
enacted or, perhaps more accurately, prior to 1924 when the last 
quota law was enacted, the great bulk of immigration poured through 
our seaports, and Ellis Island, New York Harbor, was the great portal 
— the gateway through which the immigrant entered the land of 
opportunity. The land border ports were of secondary importance. 
If the expressions ''Ellis Island" and "Immigration" were not 
synonymous, one could hardly think of the one without thinking of 
the other. Ellis Island was the great outpost of the new and vigor- 
ous Republic. Ellis Island stood guard over the wide-flung portal. 
Ellis Island resounded for years to the tramp of an endless invading 
army. Its million or more immigrants a year taxed its resources to 
the utmost. It was the target of the demagogue, the sob-story writer, 
the notoriety seeker, and the occasional fault-finding busybody puffed 
up with conceit, who meeldy submitted to every form of official 
surveillance in his own country, accepting the same as a matter of 
course, but felt it unbefitting his dignity on entering free America to 
conform without protest and criticism to reasonable and necessary 
immigration regulations. Ellis Island is freed of this inundating horde 
and largely freed of carping critics, but Ellis Island has lost its proud 
place in the general immigration scheme. Its million or more im- 
migrants yearly have shrunk to several hundred thousand. 



Z REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

A great change has been taking place along our borders; steadily 
are they approaching a place of first importance in the scheme of 
things from an immigration standpoint. The fiscal year just closed 
witnessed a movement back and forth across these frontiers made up 
of citizens and aliens aggregating 53,000,000 entrants. Many of 
these, of course, were commuters, visitors, excursionists, etc. The 
tremendous impetus given to travel by the automobile and the 
opening of myriad new roads have been the chief contributing factors. 

Immigration officers at interior points in the United States are 
concerned chiefly with the aliens in our midst. To these officers falls 
the duty of investigating and bringing about the deportation of 
undesirables. So greatly have the demands upon the resources of 
the service increased in each direction — that is to say, in the interior 
and along our borders — that it has been necessary largely to skele- 
tonize the organization. This situation is portrayed in a measure 
in a letter hereinbelow quoted, addressed by the department to a 
certain person who has urged the enlargement of the inspection 
force at a relatively small station: 

I have your letter of the 15th instant, concerning the situation along the 
Canadian border, and note your remarks as to the breaking down of the immigra- 
tion organization by reason of inadequate personnel. The situation along the 
Canadian border, from a personnel standpoint, is one which has given me deep 
concern. No one could be more anxious than I am to have the personnel rein- 
forced to a point that would insure the proper inspection of aU arriving aliens in 
an orderly and expeditious manner. That the traveling public is entitled to 
this service goes without saying. 

The situation at Trout River is not an isolated one, and the same or similar 
conditions prevail at numerous points along the entire Canadian border. Our 
officers in charge are almost driven desperate in their endeavors to stretch their 
personnel to provide some semblance, at least, of inspection at the various 
points. Of course, if Trout River were the only point where such conditions 
existed, it would be a very simple matter to take care of it. We are doing all 
that is humanl}^ possible with the force available. 

Travel by means of automobiles has grown by leaps and bounds. The tourist 
traffic across our northern border of residents of Canada, no less than residents 
of the United States, is assuming tremendous proportions. New highways are 
being continually built, or old ones improved, and nearly every community along 
the Canadian border is interested in the opening of such arteries of travel. 
Travelers seriously protest against detouring even for a few miles in order to 
pass through the regular recognized inspection ports. The traffic is not con- 
fined to daylight hours, but continues on almost uninterruptedly through the 
night. The same situation is true of excursionists traveling by vessels. Cham- 
bers of commerce, tourist agencies, hotels, and transportation interests are all 
inviting people to travel, and so long as people are prosperous in this country 
and in Canada, and particularly in this country, they will respond to the lure 
of the open road and the big outdoors. It is estimated that nearly 50.000,000 
people crossed our borders last year. This does not mean 50,000,000 different 
persons, but simply that counting each successive entry of the same individual 
as a separate transaction there were approximately 50,000,000 entrants. This 
figure, of course, embraces all classes — commuters, tourists, visitors, transits, 
and immigrants. 

We foresee these needs in formulating our estimates and in making our represen- 
tations in support thereof, but we can not prove a need in advance of its actual 
existence. In other words, it is not convincing to say what we anticipate; 
we are compelled to wait until the need materializes, and it is too late, gener- 
ally, for relief to be afforded in that fiscal year. Then, too, there are the con- 
tingencies that can not be humanly foreseen, the discovery of unexpectedly 
large numbers of deportable aliens, or the apprehension of unusually large num- 
bers of aliens seeking clandestinely to enter. So closely do we figure in esti- 
mating our financial needs that by the time the funds become available they are 
more frequently than not found inadequate. It is almost impossible for the 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 6 

Appropriations Committee and the Bureau of the Budget to keep pace with the 
ever changing and increasing demands, without granting a hirger appropriation 
than is proven necessary at the time appropriations are determined upon. So 
far the bureau has not been granted sufficient money with which to take care of 
unusual and unforeseen emergencies. In short we are, generally speaking, 
anywhere from six months to a year behind the procession. 

i might add in this connection that the problem of handling aliens arriving by 
air is coming on apace, so that in addition to our seaport and laorder control 
problems we are right now confronted with the problem of opening many new 
ports of entry for aliens arriving by aircraft. 

The foregoing means one thing and one thing only; we have simply 
got to have the men or else we can not enforce the law. 

Particular stress is laid on the fact^ — sought to be made clear in 
last year's report — that our immigration laws are designed primarily 
for the welfare not only of our citizens but of those aliens who have 
lawfully taken up their residence in our midst. Just as self-preser- 
vation is the first law of nature amongst individuals, so it is amongst 
nations. Our first concern, therefore, must be for those who are 
here; in short, for our own country. As said before — 

It is not nearly so cruel, if cruelty it be, to reject the ones who threaten our 
well-being, as it would be to subject those in our midst, who are healthy, happ}-, 
prosperous, and law-abiding, to the danger of unfair competition with its inevi- 
table train of lowered living standards and other devitalizing processes. By 
every means within our power we strive, in seeking to effectuate the purposes of 
immigration legislation, to avoid as well the causing of unnecessary suffering. 
By every means the bureau is seeking to emphasize and to impress upon our 
officers the need of the employment — along with firmness — of kindness, courtesy, 
and consistent helpfulness in their every contact and relationship with the alien 
who seeks by fair and honest means to come to or remain in this country. 

Heretofore the enactment of legislation designed to permit mem- 
bers of families to be rejoined in the United States has been recom- 
mended. Happily, needful legislation along this hne has been en- 
acted, but in deahng with the ahen husbands of American women 
exemption from quota limitations has been confined to cases where 
the marriage occurred prior to June 1, 1928. No such limitation is 
imposed upon the alien wives of American men. American women 
are entitled to no less consideration in this respect than American 
men. 

The operative date of the so-called national-origin plan of quota 
limitations upon immigration was, by resolution of Congress at the 
last session, again postponed for a year. 

The problems and difficulties which theretofore attended the en- 
forcement of the immigration act as a whole, and the provisions of 
the immigration act of 1924 in particular, dealing with the exclusion 
of aliens ineligible to citizenship, so far as American Indians born in 
Canada are concerned, were disposed of April 2, 1928, by congres- 
sional enactment recognizing the right of such aliens to pass the bor- 
ders of the United States. 

As in the preceding year, the outstanding accomplishment of the 
Immigration Service during the fiscal year just closed is the increase 
in the number of ahens, found to be therein unlawfully, who were 
removed from the United States. This is dealt with in more or less 
detail elsewhere in this report under the caption "Deportations" 
(expulsions). 



4 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

IMMIGRATION 
VOLUME— CHIEF SOURCES— ADMISSIONS— DISTRIBUTION— REJECTIONS 

The tables of immigration statistics presented in the appendix are 
so arranged as to furnish, in convenient form, figures for use by those 
interested in the statistical phases of the immigration problem. 

In the tables showing the number of aliens admitted by classes 
under the immigration act of 1924 three general terms are used, 
namely, nonimmigrant, nonquota immigrant, and quota immigrant. 
These terms, as defined by the act, are based largely on the calling 
of the arriving alien, whereas the terms immigrant and nonimmigrant 
as used in the regular immigration tables are based on the arriving 
ahen's last or intended future country of residence. 

The inward and outward movements of aliens are not unlike the 
tides. Restlessly humanity ebbs and flows. The ebb and flow vary 
from year to year, rarely, however, without a substantial accretion. 
This accretion during the fiscal vear covered by this report amounted 
to 226,275 persons; in 1927, to"^ 284,493; in 1926, to 268,351, and in 
1925, to 232,945. 

Statistically speaking, the inward movement is, in the main, di- 
vided into immigrants and nonimmigrants, the outward movement 
into emigrants and nonemigrants. The immigrant comes to us to 
stay; the emigrant goes from us to stay. The nonimmigrant either 
comes to us to stay but temporarily or is returning to us to resume an 
unrelinquished domicile. The nonemigrant goes from us with the 
intention of returning to his home here. However, if an alien came 
to us as a nonimmigrant, he is treated as a nonemigrant upon de- 
parture, regardless of intentions. 

Again statistically speaking, the past fiscal year witnessed the 
entry of 307,255 immigrant and 193,376 nonimmigrant aliens, making 
a total of 500,631 ahens admitted. There left the United States 
77,457 emigrant and 196,899 nonemigrant aliens, or a total of 274,356, 
resulting in a net increase in the alien population of 226,275 persons 
and an excess of immigrants over emigrants of 229,798. 

There were 18,839 ahens denied admission, and alien seamen to 
the number of 1,118,999 were examined, making a total of 1,638,469 
ahens, aside from visitors and regular border crossers, who were 
accorded immigration inspection. The number of all classes inspected 
in the previous fiscal year, exclusive of visitors and regular border 
crossers, was 1,701,842. The number of the same classes inspected 
in the year 1926 was 1,547,335. 

Of the 307,255 immigrant ahens admitted in 1928, the countries of 
northwestern Europe, principally Germany, the Irish Free State, 
Great Britain, and Scandinavia, contributed 116,267, or 37.9 per cent, 
and southern and eastern Europe, 42,246, or 13.7 per cent. Immigra- 
tion from Europe as a whole dropped from 168,368 in 1927 to 158,513 
in 1928. The shrinkage, with one exception, was distributed propor- 
tionally amongst the countries which constitute the principal sources 
of overseas immigration. The exception noted was Italy, which sent 
17,297 immigrants in 1927 and 17,728 in 1928. Immigration from 
South America and the West Indies also showed a slight increase, 
but the number of immigrants coming from countries of the Western 
Hemisphere as a whole dropped from 161,872 in 1927 to 144,281 in 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATIOlSr 5 

1928. While Canada and Mexico continue to furnish a large propor- 
tion of present-day immigrants, each country (notwithstanding the 
natives of each are exempt from quota hmitations in common with 
the independent countries of Central and South America) sent a 
decreased number of immigrants in the past year, the decrease amount- 
ing to 8,352 in the case of Canada and 8,705 in the case of Mexico 
as compared with the year 1927 when 81,506 immigrants came from 
Canada and 67,721 from Mexico. 

Over two-thirds of the 307,255 immigrant ahens admitted during 
the past year were from 16 to 37 years old, 73,092 being from 16 to 
21 years of age, 95,727 from 22 to 29 years of age, and 42,642 from 
30 to 37 years of age. Children under 16 years of age numbered 
49,680, or 16.2 per cent of the total; adults from 38 to 44 years of 
age numbered 19,371, and 26,743 were 45 years of age or over. 

The ratio of male immigrants to female immigrants was about 7 
to 6; 14,559 females and 12,184 males gave their age as 45 years or 
over. The number of male immigrants dropped from 194,163 in 
1927 to 165,977 in 1928, a decrease of 14.6 per cent, while the number 
of female immigrants remained fairly stationary, 141,012 entering in 
1927 and 141,278 in 1928. 

The immigrant aUens admitted represented ahnost every imaginable 
calhng. Those claiming no occupation predominated, 125,092 being 
of this class, consisting mainly of women and children. Teachers, 
numbering 2,391, led in the professional group; 1,655 aliens were 
recorded as engineers, 1,327 as electricians, and 1,130 as members 
of the clergy. Clerks and accountants numbered 15,122; carpenters, 
masons, plasterers, plumbers, iron and steel workers, and others in 
the building trades, 10,843; other skilled workers numbered 32,963; 
common laborers, 36,218; 24,161 were farm laborers, 28,751 were 
servants, 8,773 were farmers, and 3,378 were merchants and dealers 
seeking new opportunities in the United States. 

As usual, over one-half of the new arrivals, or, to be exact, 156,658, 
or 51 percent, settled in States of the North Atlantic group; 67,741, 
or 22.1 per cent, in the North Central States; 5,023, or 1.6 per cent, 
in the South Atlantic States; 38,697, or 12.6 per cent, in the South 
Central States; and 39,136, or 12.7 per cent, in the Western States 
and outlying possessions. 

The newcomers exhibited a preference for New York, Texas, 
Michigan, Cahfornia, Massachusetts, Ilhnois, Pennsylvania, and New 
Jersey, in the order named, over four-fifths of the immigrants giving 
these eight States as their intended future permanent residence. 
New York State drew 87,503, Texas 36,698 (mainly from Mexico), 
Michigan 25,872, Cahfornia 23,344 (mainly from Mexico), Massachu- 
setts 20,461, Ilhnois 19,165, Pennsylvania 17,950, and New Jersey 
15,967. An interesting sidehght is shed upon the foregoing figures 
by the following facts: Over one-fifth, or 7,484 out of 33,597, of the 
Enghsh race, chose New York State for their home; 7,122, Michigan; 
5,458, Massachusetts; 2,838, California; 1,298, Maine; 1,238, Penn- 
sylvania; and 1,392, Washington. 

The French immigrants admitted during the past year, numbering 
17,963, nearly all of whom came from Canada, stayed close to the 
border after coming into the United States. New York State, with 
4,192, was the destination of the largest number, followed by Mas- 
sachusetts with 2,957, Michigan with 2,431, Maine with 1,507, 
Connecticut with 1,085, and New Hampshire with 1,065. 



6 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOISTER GEIvTERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Over two-fifths, 23,078 out of 54,157 of the German immigrants, 
settled in New York State. New Jersey received 5,602, Ilhnois 5,133, 
Pennsylvania 4,304, Michigan 2,470, Ohio 2,360, Wisconsin 2,153, 
and California 1,687. 

Of the 11,639 Hebrew immigrants, 7,100 settled in New York, 759 
in Illinois, 752 in Pennsylvania, 655 in Michigan, and 498 in New 
Jersey. 

Of a total of 38,193 Irish immigrants, 16,550 settled in New York, 
4,934 in Massachusetts, 3,453 in Michigan, 2,711 in Pennsylvania, 
2,227 in Illinois, and 2,155 in New Jersey. 

New York claimed the lion's share of the 18,740 Italian immigrants 
admitted last j^ear, 7,554 settling in that State. The coal mines and 
steel industries of Pennsylvania attracted 3,025 to the Keystone 
State. New Jersey received 1,538, Illinois 1,269, and Massachusetts 
1,074. 

As in former years, Mexicans as a rule gave Texas, California, or 
Arizona as their destination. Out of the total of 57,765 of such immi- 
grants, 35,615 designated Texas; 11,003 designated California, and 
4,944 named Arizona. A negligible number designated the Northern 
States as fields of future endeavor. To the uninitiated these figures 
would be misleading. It is a fact well known, to the immigration 
officers at least, that these destinations are merely stepping-stones, 
so to speak. These people, in response to the call of higher wages, are 
constantly moving northward and eastward from the southern tier of 
States mentioned into the interior of the United States, some almost 
immediately after entry and others after a sojourn of a few months — 
or at most after a year or two — in the States named, leaving their 
places to be filled by newcomers. 

Of the 18,664 Scandinavians (Norwegians, Swedes, and Danes), 
5,325 settled in New York State and the balance largely in Illinois, 
Minnesota, Washington, and California. 

The Scotch scattered. Of the 23,177 immigrants of this race 
admitted during the year, 5,485 were destined to New York, 5,120 to 
Michigan, 2,861 to Massachusetts, and 1,788 to New Jersey. 

The other races or peoples principally making up our immigration 
were destined mainly as follows: African (black), to New York, 
Massachusetts, and Florida; Dutch and Flemish, to Michigan, New 
York, New Jersey, lUinois, and California; Greek, to New York, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Massachusetts; Polish, to New York 
Michigan, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and New Jersey; Slovak, to Penn- 
sylvania, New York, and Ohio; Spanish American, to New York and 
California; and Welsh, to Pennsylvania, New York, and Michigan. 

Applicants for admission 

Aliens whose cases were pending beginning of fiscal year 1928 1, 564 

New applicants during the year 519, 471 

Cases finally disposed of (aliens coming for permanent or temporary 
residence or to resume unrelincjuished domicile) : 

Admitted on primary inspection 471, 140 

Admitted after temporary detention (without board of special 

inciuiry hearing) 6, 470 

Admitted by board of special inquiry 21, 255 

Rejected by' board of special inquiry without appeal to department. 16, 135 
Rejected bV board of special inquiry l)ut appealed to department — 

Appeal sustained (alien admitted) 1, 766 

Appeal denied (alien debarred) 2, 704 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION 7 

Died (after arrival and before final action taken) 14 

Escaped : 

From custody of immigration officers 13 

From custody of others 43 

Aliens whose cases were pending at close of fiscal year 1928: 

Before board of special inquiry 891 

On appeal to department 310 

On appeal to court 7 

In hospital for treatment 19 

Awaiting primary inspection and others 268 

SUMMARY 

Cases pending beginning of fiscal year 1928 1, 564 

New applicants during the j-ear 519, 471 

Total applicants . 521, 035 

Aliens admitted during the year: 

On primary inspection 477, 610 

'By board of special inquiry 21, 255 

On appeal to department 1, 766 

Total admitted 500, 631 

Aliens rejected during the year: 

By i)oard of special inquiry without appeal to 

department 16, 135 

On appeal to department 2, 704 

Total rejected 18, 839 

Aliens who died or escaped 70 

Cases pending at close of fiscal year 1928 1, 495 

Total applicants 521, 035 

Alien stowaways found on hoard vessels arriving from foreign ports 



Chinese 



Japanese Others 



Total 



Stowawavs whose cases were pending beginning of fiscal year 
1928 - 



New cases during the year: 

Found by immigration officers - 

Found by customs officers 

Reported by vessels 



Total 

Admitted: 

By board of special inquiry 

On appeal to department 

Debarred: 

By board of special inquiry without appeal. 
On appeal to department 

Escaped (after found or reported) : 

From custody of immigration officers 

From custody of others 

Cases pending at close of fiscal year 1928; 

Before board of special inquiry 

On appeal to department 



1 

91 

69 

1,127 



1,: 



15 [ 1,147 



116 

96 

1,171 



1,394 

1 
10 

1,239 



Alien seamen applying for admission 

Admitted : 

By board of special incjuiry 28 

On appeal to department 3 

Debarred : 

By board of special inquiry 8 

On appeal to department 3 



8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Miscellaneous transactions at land border stations 

Number of aliens handled coming temporarily: 

Cases pending beginning of year 566 

Admitted on primary inspection 7, 447, 515 

Admitted after temporary detention, without BSI hearing 1, 120 

Admitted by board of special inquiry 6, 597 

Rejected by board of special inquiry (alien debarred without 

appeal to department) 5, 223 

Rejected by BSI but appealed to department — 

Appeal sustained (alien admitted) 82 

Appeal denied (alien debarred) 441 

Cases pending close of year — 

Before board of special inquiry 220 

On appeal to department 47 

Applicants refused examination on account of inability or unwilling- 
ness to meet head tax requirements 28, 126 

Applicants referred to board of special inquiry from border stations, 

and who failed to apply for examination 1, 397 

Applicants inspected at railway stations and wharves at interior 
points in foreign contiguous territory, who failed to appear for 

board of special inquiry examination 989 

Aliens debarred or deported within one year who again applied for 

admission and were refused examination 1, 562 

Aliens referred to United States consul for visa 47, 202 

United States citizens, returning to United States to resume residence 
therein : 

Formerly residents of Canada 8, 433 

Formerly residents of Mexico 1, 440 

Visitors: 

United States citizens returning after a temporary stay in a for- 
eign contiguous territory 19, 837, 881 

Illiterate aliens, border residents, granted special crossing privi- 
lege under department dispensation 363 

Aliens to whom visitor's head tax certificates were issued — 

Transferred to permanent manifest 9, 809 

Returned to foreign contiguous territory 27, 041 

Pending close of year 11, 925 

Transits admitted, payment of head tax not required 610, 719 

ALIENS REJECTED 

Of the 18,839 aliens rejected upon arrival over six-sevenths were 
excluded at land-border ports, 13,600 on the Canadian border, 2,805 
on the Mexican border, and the balance at seaports. The effective- 
ness of the system of presifting aliens abroad through the assistance 
of technical advisers to American consuls is reflected in the percentage 
of rejections at the seaports. In the fiscal year 1928 less than seven- 
tenths of 1 per cent of the total applicants for admission at all the 
seaports were rejected, or 2,434 out of 357,823 applicants. At New 
York, the port of landing for the bulk of the arrivals from overseas, 
the rejections were 1,140 out of 292,244, or three-tenths of 1 per 
cent. The major portion of the rejections at the seaports was due 
to the absence of proper visas under the immigration act of 1924, 
the persons affected being largely stowaways and seamen seeking 
permanent residence in the United States. 

IMMIGRATION FROM CANADA 

Immigration from Canada has decreased from year to year since 
the present quota law becam.e effective July 1, 1924, requiring visas 
of all immigrants seeking admission to the United States. In 1925 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 9 

immigration through Canadian border land ports was 102,496; in 
1926,91,786; in 1927, 81,982; and in 1928, 73,605. The successive 
decreases were 98,338, 10,710, 9,804, and 8,377, a total drop in immi- 
gration during the four years of 127,229. In 1924, the peak year 
of immigration from Canada, 200,834 immigrants came in over the 
northern land border. 

During the fiscal year covered by this report 73,154 immigrants, 
who gave Canada as their last pei'manent residence, were admitted to 
the United States, mainly at the land-border stations, comparatively 
few newcomers from that country entering at our seaports. Of this 
number 62,229, or 85.1 per cent, were of the English, French, Irish, 
and Scotch races. 

In the same period 72,616, or 98.6 per cent, of the 73,605 immigrants 
coming in via the Canadian border gave Canada as their last per- 
manent residence; and 99.3 per cent of the immigrants giving Canada 
as their last permanent residence came in over the northern land 
border. Therefore it may be stated that with few exceptions all the 
immigrants admitted from Canada came in via the Canadian border 
and all the immigrants coming in that way gave Canada as their last 
permanent residence. 

As in the case of the Mexican border, hundreds of thousands of 
aliens and citizens residing on either side of the boundary, mainly in 
towns contiguous thereto, cross and recross daily or periodically on 
social or business errands. Treating each entry of these regular 
"crossers" as a separate transaction, and adding thereto all other 
transactions, the total volume of entrants during the past year is 
estimated at approximately 26,000,000. The examination of these 
regular "crossers" is greatly facihtated by the use of identification 
cards. 

About one out of every seven immigrants admitted along the 
Canadian border was a child; 11,009, or 15 per cent of the total for 
the past vear, being under 16 years of age, w^hile 17,045 ranged in 
age fromle to 21 years, 21,181 from 22 to 29 years, 10,111 from 30 
to 37 years, 5,450 from 38 to 44 years, and 8,809 from 45 to 55 years 
and over. The male immigrant aliens numbered 39,397 and the 
female 34,208; the single males, 25,283; single females, 20,069; 
married males, 13,309; married females, 12,196; widowers, 740; 
widows, 1,813; male divorced, 65, and female divorced, 130. Among 
these immigrants 18,730 gave skilled occupations, 6,510 were common 
laborers, 2,838 were farm laborers, 4,127 servants, 3,181 farmers, and 
5,072 were of the mercantile and miscellaneous classes. The number 
hsted as having no occupation, largely women and children, was 
29,263. Only 3,884 gave a professional occupation. 

About four-fifths of the newcomers entering from Canada settled 
in States along the border. Michigan received the largest number, 
18,294; New York State, 14,096; Massachusetts, 10,830; Washing- 
ton, 3,716; Maine, 3,453; Connecticut, 1,637; New Hampshire, 
1,371; Vermont, 1,415; Minnesota, 969; and North Dakota, 379. 

About four-fifths of the immigrant ahens admitted at Canadian 
border-land stations during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1928, were 
born in Canada. The major portion of the remainder were found 
to be natives of European countries, principally Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

15S69— 28 2 



10 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION" 

IMMIGRATION FROM MEXICO 

The number of Mexican aliens admitted to the United States during 
the past fiscal year was 61,622 — 57,765 immigrant and 3,857 non- 
immigrant — a decline of 19,017 from the previous year when 80,639 
aliens of this race entered the country. The number of Mexican im- 
migrants dropped from 66,766 in the year 1927 to 57,765 in 1928, a 
decrease of 13.5 per cent; 47,686 were over 16 years of age and 10,079 
were children under 16 years of age; 37,965 were males and 19,800 
females. The single immigrants numbered 32,209, married 22,882, 
widowed 2,637, and divorced 37. Unskilled workers continued to 
predominate; 19,964 Mexicans admitted last year gave their occupa- 
tion as that of common laborer, 4,989 were farm laborers, and 2,065 
were servants. The professional class numbered 1,013, skilled workers 
5,725, commercial and miscellaneous classes 1,715, and 22,294 were 
listed as having no occupation. 

In the past fiscal year a total of 62,374 aliens (61,622 of whom were 
Mexicans) were recorded in immigration statistics as entering the 
United States by way of the Mexican border. Hundreds of thousands 
of aliens and citizens residing on either side of the boundary, mainly 
in towns contiguous thereto, cross and recross daily or periodically 
upon social or business errands. Treating each entry of these 
"crossers" as a separate transaction, and adding thereto all other 
transactions, the total volume of entrants is estimated to have been 
approximately 27,000,000 for the past year. As on the Canadian 
border, the examinations of these regular "crossers" is greatly facili- 
tated by the use of identification cards. 

While Mexican immigrants generally give one of the several border 
States as their destination, a large proportion of these newcomers 
eventually find their way into the interior of the country where their 
labor is in demand by industries and agricultural interests. In short, 
the border States are to a very large extent mere stepping-stones. 
The vacancies thus created are being continually filled by newcomers. 
The drop in Mexican immigration during the past year was contrar}' 
to all expectations. A substantial increase had been confidently ex- 
pected. Various causes contributed to the decrease. Agricultural 
prosperity along the west coast of Mexico, with its resultant demand 
for labor at good wages, kept many Mexicans at home in that region. 
The lumber industry in the northwestern part of the United States is 
reported to have released a great many workers. These in turn were 
absorbed by other industries and by agriculture to such an extent that 
the demand for Mexican labor was substantially curtailed. The 
sugar-beet sections of the North and Northwest are reported to have 
curtailed largely their acreage, with resultant lessening of the demand 
for Mexican labor. The usual seasonal demand for labor on the part 
of railroads in the Southwest did not materialize. At El Paso, 
notably, many immigrants, upon arriving at the border and learning 
the true condition of affairs, returned to their homes in the interior. 
Many of them had to be assisted by the Mexican Government. In 
view of these adverse conditions the curtailment of Mexican immi- 
gration was, as hereinabove indicated, surprisingly small. 



REPOT^T OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 1 1 

ALIENS INELIGIBLE TO CITIZENSHIP 

The number of aliens ineligible to citizenship entering the country 
during the past year was 15,983. Of the total number admitted, 7,99G 
were Chinese, 193 East Indians, 7,712 Japanese, 70 Koreans, and 12 
Pacific Islanders; 837 entered as Government officials, their families, 
attendants, servants and employees; 1,909 as visitors for business or 
pleasure; 6,732 as returning residents; 424 as students; and 85 as 
ministers or professors and their wives and children; 5,132 as transits; 
and 864 to carry on trade under existing treaties. 

SEAMEN 

As indicated in the last annual report, the problem confronting the 
service in the control of alien seamen is the most difficult and vexa- 
tious with which it has to deal. As the immigration laws have been 
tightened up from time to time, the problem has been correspondingly 
accentuated. Particularly is this true since the adoption of the 
numerical limitation policy as expressed by the acts of 1921 and 1924. 
As has been previously pointed out, seamen occupy a privileged posi- 
tion in the scheme of things; commerce must not be unduly ham- 
pered, seamen come and go largely at will, and the crux of the problem 
is to prevent aliens gaining a foothold in this country in the guise of 
seamen. 

Sections 19 and 20 of the 1924 act are a decided improvement upon 
similar provisions contained in the immigration act of 1917. They 
are more definite and explicit and place a much greater responsi- 
bility upon vessels, their owners, agents, etc. Transportation com- 
panies now face a penalty when they allow the escape from a vessel 
of a mala fide seaman who has been ordered detained on board. 
The penalty is sufficiently severe to assure the adoption of every 
reasonable precaution. No longer do alien seamen leave their vessels 
in the numbers they formerly did before an immigration officer goes 
aboard to conduct his examinations. The difficulty still exists, and 
probably always will exist, of determining with accuracy whether a 
given alien employed on a vessel may be trusted to go ashore and later 
to leave the country by the same or another vessel in the pursuit of 
his calling. Immigration officers can not arbitrarily order the holding 
of alien seamen on board as mala fide; on the contrarj^, they must 
show reasonable cause for such action; the development of evidence 
showing bad faith is at best a difficult task. The most that can be 
expected in this respect is that examining officers will exercise dili- 
gence and good judgment, making such inquiries and investigations 
as the circumstances in each individual case warrant. 

In the foregoing connection the following tabulations will doubtless 
prove of interest. 



12 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Vessels boarded and alien seamen examined, including United States citizens serv- 
ing as seamen 



District 



Vessels boarded 



From 
foreign 
ports 



Coast- 
wise 



Total 



Alien 

seamen 

examined 



United 
States 
citizens 
serving 
as sea- 
men on 
vessels 
boarded 



All districts... 

New York, N. Y... 

Boston, Mass 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Baltimore, Md 

Portland, Me 

Norfolk, Va... 

Jacksonville, Fla 

New Orleans, La 

Galveston, Tex 

San Francisco, Calif 

Portland, Oreg 

Seattle, Wash 

Los Angeles, Calif.. 

Alaska 

Honolulu, Hawaii.. 

Porto Rico , 

Great Lakes 



27, 088 



4,389 



31, 477 



1,118,999 I 257,490 



5,426 

1,569 

1,130 

738 

346 

733 

2,151 

2,563 

1,144 

504 

345 

2,846 

3,368 

1,096 

381 

1,299 

1,449 



379 
19 
606 
8 
230 
435 
794 
609 
478 



403 



406 
13 



5,426 

1,948 

1,149 

1,344 

354 

963 

2,586 

3,357 

1,753 

982 

345 

2,846 

3,771 

1,096 

390 

1,705 

1,462 



517, 471 
67,280 
29, 060 
17, 967 

6,194 
29, 376 
62, 695 
69, 616 
44,487 
17, 582 
11, 646 
90, 152 
56, 352 

8,992 
36, 988 
27, 007 
26, 134 



73, 946 

12, 200 
7, 855 
6, 859 

728 

1,327 

32, 607 

33, 072 

15, 913 

4,321 

1,908 

13, 441 
23, 780 

4,172 
6,184 
15, 149 
4,028 



Alien seamen deserted, ordered held on board vessel, escaped, removed from vessel , 
certified for contagious disease, and removed to hospital for treatment, as specified 





.Mien seamen 




Deserted 


Ordered held on 
board vessel 


Es- 
caped 
after 
being 
ordered 

de- 
tained 

on 
vessel 


Re- 
moved 
to im- 
migra- 
tion 
station 
or else- 
where 
for safe- 
keeping 
pending 
depar- 
ture of 
vessel 


! Dis- 


District 


Chi- 
nese 


Japa- 
nese 


Others 


Total 


Under 
section 
20, im- 
migra- 
tion act 
of 1924 


Not on 
visaed 

crew 

list 


Certi- 
fied for 

loath- 
some or 
danger- 
ous con- 
tagious 
disease 


and 
other 
seamen 

re- 
moved 
to hos- 
pital for 
treat- 
ment 


All districts 


206 


70 


12,081 


12,357 


17, 272 


3,295 


105 


448 


1,424 


1,532 


New York, N. Y 

Boston, Mass 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Baltimore, Md 


143 

1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
10 
24 


28 
1 

1 
...... 

-- 

8 

12 

13 

1 

...... 


8,043 
388 
906 
430 
102 
753 
241 
356 
341 
195 
115 
70 
99 
3 
27 
12 


8,214 
390 
908 
431 
105 
756 
242 
358 
352 
227 
127 
91 
108 
(i 
30 
12 


409 
212 
100 

38 

40 
768 
161 

81 
170 
310 
409 
263 
C, 785 
703 
6, 760 

63 


565 

300 

37 

22 

24 

707 

54 

306 

114 

359 

1 

222 

468 

"'"lie" 


25 
18 
9 
9 

i" 

1 
1 

2 

.. 

28" 
3 
1 


33 

21 

76 

.. 

79' 
68 
19 

6 
43 

4 
94 


480 
176 
117 
106 
51 
62 
51 
176 
70 
3 
34 
2 
60 


659 
129 
114 
105 


Portland, Me 


g 


Norfolk, Va 


27 


Jacksonville, Fla 

New Orleans, La 

Galveston, Tex 


26 
185 
41 


San Francisco, Calif 

Portland, Oreg 


3 
60 


Seattle, Wash 


8 
8 
3 


23 


Los Angeles, Calif 

Honolulu, Hawaii 


108 


Porto Rico 


1 


31 

5 


31 


Great Lakes 

























REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 13 

ADMINISTRATIVE FINES 

During the past fiscal year fewer cases of proposed fines came before 
the department for determination than in the preceding year. It 
may be stated with assurance that this has been due very largely to 
the preinspection of aliens abroad and the exercise of greater care 
upon the part of steamship companies in the booking of immigrants. 

As against $378,360 in fines imposed in the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1927 (exclusive of S79,000 which proved uncollectable), the past 
fiscal year witnessed the imposition of $314,960 in fines, $63,000 of 
which had not been collected at the close of the period covered by 
this report. 

Summary of fines imposed, act of 1924: 

$2o6 fines (physically and mentally defective cases) $5, 250 

$1,000 fines (sec. 16 cases) ' 94, 000 

$1,000 fines (sec. 20 cases) 118, 000 

$1,000 fines (sec. 26 cases, illiterates) 30, 000 

$1,000 fines (sec. 26 cases, diseased, insane, etc.) 47, 000 

Passage money ordered refunded to aliens in above 

cases ' $10, 895. 78 

Summary of fines imposed, act of 1917: 

$10 cases (improper manifesting, etc.) 15, 260 

$200 cases (sec. 9 cases, diseased) 400 

$300 cases (sec. 18) 4, 200 

$50 cases (sec. 35, diseased seamen cases) 650 

Passage money ordered refunded to aliens in above 

cases 108. 00 

Summary of fines imposed, act of 1922: 

$200 cases (bringing aliens in excess of quota) 200 

Total 314,960 

In addition to the above, under the act of 1924, 56 actions, aggre- 
gating $14,600, were directed under section 27, which have or will 
come before the courts, 9 of these actions being by way of libel 
against the steamships involved and the balance in personam against 
the owners, masters, agents, or consignees. 

Foifeiture of bonds 



Payment of bond 




Involving aliens admitted: 

Against becoming a public charge 

Departure after temporary admission 

Involving bail bonds: 

Under warrant of arrest. 

Under warrant of deportation 



While under war- 
rant of— 



Failure to appear when wanted, after being released on own recognizance 

Escapes from: 

Immigration officers - 

others - --- 




14 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

TT^n'fs of habeas corpus 





Involving exclusion 


Involving deportation 


Cases pending beginning of year 


91 
541 

372 

57 

7 


88 
292 

58 

34 

2 




New cases during the year 




Pending close of year, before: 

District courts 




Circuit courts 




Supreme Court 










Sus- 
tained 


Dis- 
missed 


With- 
drawn 


Sus- 
tained 


Dis- 
missed 


With 
drawn 


Cases disposed of during year on immigration charges: 
Criminal 




1 

5 

35 


io" 


9 

7 
13 

\ 

2 

28 


36 
29 
63 
14 
3 
15 
39 




Immoral 







Act of 1924 


15 


11 


Publican. 


4 


Mental or physical defect (excluding publican) 

Chinese exclusion law 


3 
29 
3 


11 

72 
6 


3 




All others 


4 







Criminal and civil actions 



Violation of— 


Cases 
pending 

June 
30, 1927 


Cases 
insti- 
tuted 


Con- 
vic- 
tions 


Ac- 
quit- 
tals 


Dis- 
mis- 
sals 


Aggregate amount of 
fines and length of 
imprisonment 


Cases 
pendina; 

June 
30, 192? 


Act of Feb. 5, 1917: 

Sec. 4 


14 

1 

161 

18 


145 
12 

310 
--- 

1 
2 

188 
43 
190 


113 
3 

227 
3 
11 


5 
--- 


21 

2 
105 

1 
3 

1 

1 

29 

8 

30 


$2,200; 52 years.. 


20 


Sec. 5 


$1,150; 3 months 

$42,200; 155 years 

$1,500 


g 


Sec. 8 


115 


Sec. 10 


14 


Sec. 16 


$6.50; 2J4 years 


1 


Sec. 31 


3 
43 

36 
33 
43 




3 


Sec. 32 


4 

172 
33 
136 


2 

7 


$2,700 


40 


Act of Mav 26, 1924: 

Sec. 22 


$1,500; 36 years 


21 


Sec. 27 


$6,400; 1 year 


35 


18 U. S. C, 88, 91,99 


$8,000; 90 years.. 


60 




$66,300; 336M years 




Total. 


352 


906 


702 


38 


201 


317 









Number of persons assisting aliens to enter the United States illegally ' 


Violation of— 


Cases 
pending 

June 
30, 1927 


Ar- 
rested 


Con- 
victed 


Ac- 
quitted 


Dis- 
missed 


Aggregate amount 
fines and length 
imprisonment 


of ^3*6^ 
f pending 

1 June 

30, 1928 


Act of Feb. 5, 1917: 

Sec. 4 


6 


101 

3 

310 

1 

48 
20 
151 


65 

2 

227 

1 

32 

15 

108 


5 


17 
1 


$2,143; 30 years 

$1,050; 3 months 


20 


Sec. 5 




Sec. 8 


161 


24 1 105 


$42,200; 155 years 


115 


Sec. 16 






$250; 1 month 

.$900; 7 years 

$900; 1 year 

$5,100; 74 years.. 




Act of May 26, 1924: 
Sec. 22 


5 
2 
26 


.. 


9 
4 
20 


12 


Sec. 27 . 


i 


18 U. S. C, 88, 91,99 


47 




$52,543; 267Ji years. 




Total 


200 


634 


450 


31 


156 


197 



1 Number of smuggled aliens involved, 1,445 



CHINESE 

The number of Chinese applying for admission to the United 
States shows little variation from year to year. In the fiscal year 
1928, 7,996 Chinese aliens were admitted as compared with 8,305 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 15 

in the fiscal year 1927. Of those who were admitted in the fiscal 
year 1928, 4,653 were Chinese passing in transit through the United 
States, while 5,142 so entered in the fiscal year 1927; 398 temporary 
visitors were admitted as compared with 403 of this class in the pre- 
vious fiscal 3^ear; 1,919 resident Chinese reentered after temporary 
visits abroad as compared with 1,814 in the previous year; and 572 
merchants were admitted as compared with 500 in the previous year. 
Exclusive of transits, temporary visitors, and returning residents, 
1,026 Chinese entered the United States during the fiscal year 1928. 
Only Chinese ministers of a recognized religious denomination, pro- 
fessors for colleges or seminaries, together with their wives and 
children, and resident Chinese were admitted to remain permanently. 
While students and merchants are admitted for an indefinite period, 
both classes are permitted to remain only so long as they maintain 
their status as students or merchants. Only five ministers or pro- 
fessors were admitted during the past fiscal year. 

In regulating Chinese immigration it becomes necessary to apply 
the general immigration laws, the Chinese exclusion acts, and the 
so-called quota act of 1924. Under the Chinese exclusion acts and 
the treaty of 1880 the exempt classes are described as teachers, 
students, merchants, officials, and travelers for curiosity or pleasure. 
The act of 1924 narrows the class of teachers to those teachers who 
are professors in colleges or seminaries, removes students and mer- 
chants from those entitled to unqualifiedly permanent residence, and 
restricts merchants to those who are coming for the purpose of 
engaging in trade in accordance with a present existing treaty of 
commerce and navigation. Since students and merchants who 
entered initially after July 1, 1924, do not acquire an unqualified 
domicile in the United States, they are no longer permitted to reenter 
on the basis merely of previous residence in the United States after 
temporary absence abroad. 

The great majority of persons of the Chinese race seeking admission 
claim the right to enter by virtue of alleged United States citizenship. 
Although ineligible to citizenship by naturalization, Chinese as well 
as other persons born in the United States are citizens thereof and 
the children of citizens are likewise citizens. In past years thousands 
of Chinese have been released by the courts as citizens and other 
thousands have been admitted at the ports of entry upon the basis of 
claimed birth in the United States. Those Chinese who now seek 
admission as citizens are for the most part alleged sons and daughters 
of Chinese whose citizenship has been judicially determined or 
administratively determined at ports of entry. The most difficult 
task confronting immigration officers is the determination of the 
question of relationship. Since China is the birthplace of these 
applicants, it is difficult to determine the truth or falsity of asserted 
relationship. The immigration officers are compelled to subject the 
applicant and the witnesses to long detailed examinations covering 
not only the question of relationship but all matters of common knowl- 
edge between the applicant and his witnesses, concerning which a 
knowledge or a lack of knowledge would show whether the applicant 
had in fact been a member of his alleged father's household and had 
resided in the home and village in China as claimed. 

The decision of a board of special inquiry upon the questions 
involved is made final by statute, except that an appeal to the 



16 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Secretary of Labor is authorized. The decision of the Secretary of 
Labor is final on appeal. However, the courts have shown an 
increasing tendency during the past fiscal year to set aside the decision 
of the Secretary in habeas corpus proceedings. Most of the dis- 
agreements in the testimony of the applicant and his witnesses on 
which excluding decisions are based relate to matters collateral to 
the issue, as obviously the applicant would not present witnesses to 
testify in his behalf who would disagree with him on the point at issue, 
namely, as to whether he is the child of a citizen of the United States. 
While the courts are not permitted to weigh the evidence or to dis- 
charge an alien because in their opinion the decision was wrong, cer- 
tain of the district courts and circuit courts of appeals have held that 
there was no substantial evidence on which the decision was based, 
and that therefore the decision was arbitrary. The question of the 
right of the courts so to discharge applicants after rejection has not 
been carried to the Supreme Court of the United States, although 
a number of cases are pending in which such action may be taken. 
The question of whether relationship may be determined by examina- 
tion concerning collateral matters having no direct bearing upon 
relationship is a vital one, affecting not only individual Chinese 
applicants for admission but the maintenance of the only procedure 
which has been found effective in arriving at the truth. 

The time has now been reached when the grandsons of Chinese 
born in the United States are old enough to apply in large numbers for 
admission as citizens. The United States Supreme Court held in the 
case of Chin Yow v. United States that such persons were not citizens 
and must be classed as aliens unless their fathers had resided in the 
United States. This decision is a most salutary one. 

Administratively the principal difficulty now attending the con- 
sideration of applications of Chinese for admission is the long delay 
consequent upon the lengthy and detailed examination necessary for 
a determination of these cases. Every effort is exerted to shorten the 
period of detention without sacrifice of thoroughness. Substantial 
improvements in this respect have been effected at some of the ports, 
particularly Boston. 

While the present statutes effectively check the entry of Chinese 
aliens through regular channels, those who are inadmissible still seek 
surreptitious entry through the ports and over the land borders, and 
many gain entry in the guise of seamen, declaring it to be their purpose 
to reship foreign and thereafter deserting and taking up residence in 
this country. This method of entry, however, is not peculiar to 
Chinese; on the contrary, is practiced by all races. 

RETURN PERMITS 

Return permits are issued to Chinese of the exempt classes who have 
been previously admitted for permanent and unrestricted residence. 
During the fiscal year 1928 such permits were issued to 472 of this 
class, 53 were denied, and 145 extensions of previously issued permits 
were granted. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



17 



Chinese arrested {Chinese exclusion acts) 

Cases pending beginning of year (including aliens awaiting deportation on 

appeal) 116 

Arrested during the year (new cases) 81 

Cases disposed of: 
Deported— 

On order of United States commissioner 49 

On court order 17 

Discharged — - 

On order of United States commissioner 17 

On court order 15 

Died, 1; escaped, 1; forfeited bail, 6; pending, 91. 

DEPORTATIONS (EXPULSIONS) 

During the year just closed 11,625 aliens were disposed of through 
the institution of deportation proceedings. Of this number, 7,313 
were deported at the expense of the immigration appropriation, 2,032 
were deported at the expense of the steamship lines which brought 
them to the United States, 887 were permitted to ship one way 
foreign as members of crews of departing vessels, and 1,393 were 
permitted to depart voluntarily at their own expense. 

Of the 11,625 aliens in respect of whom deportation proceedings 
were instituted, 5,021 returned to Europe, 2,511 to Canada, 2,934 to 
Mexico, 532 to other countries in the Western Hemisphere, 529 to 
Asia, and 98 to Africa, Australia, and the Pacific islands. 

Deportations by months were as follows : 



Govern- 
ment 
expense 



Steam- 
ship 
expense 



Re- 
shipped 



Departed 
volun- 
tarily 



Total 



July 

August 

September 
October... 
November 
December. 
January... 
February.. 

March 

.\pril 

May 

June .-. 

\ 



347 
909 
605 
610 
661 
613 
474 
614 
632 
515 
471 
862 



7,313 



218 
258 
142 
172 
146 
195 
120 
129 
148 
211 
83 
210 



2,032 



39 



887 



83 
94 
87 
133 
105 
138 
102 
120 
141 
134 
160 



1,393 



700 

1.346 

901 

932 

1,030 



933 
950 
951 
766 



1,; 



11,625 



Ninety deportation parties were moved during the year. These 
group movements saved many thousands of dollars as compared with 
the expenses incurred under the old system of removing aliens indi- 
vidually or in small parties as they became completely ready for de- 
portation. In addition to the economies thus effected, the amount 
of which in the nature of things can not be definitely determined, 
approximately $628,920 was saved by permitting aliens under de- 
portation to sign up as members of crews of vessels proceeding foreign 
and in permitting others to pay their own passage or voluntarily 
depart across the land borders. These savings are set forth in detail 
in the subjoined summary. 

Of the 887 aliens who were permitted to reship one way foreign as 
members of crews in lieu of deportation, 793 had had previous ex- 
perience as seamen while 94 were without such experience. 



18 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION" 



Warrant cases 
[Items indicate number of aliens involved] 

Warrant cases investigated in connection with warrant proceedings: 

In penal institutions 10, 286 

In hospitals and almshouses 2, 818 

At large 67, 273 

Total /. 80,377 

Warrants of arrest: 

On hand by field officers beginning of year unserved 1, 782 

Received by field officers during the year 14, 862 

Total warrants of arrest . 16, 644 

Served in penal institutions 2, 701 

Served in hospitals and almshouses 1, 090 

Served at large 10, 201 

On hand by field officers, unserved, close of year 872 

Returned to department, canceled 1, 780 

Total warrants of arrest 16, 644 

Warrants of deportation: 

On hand by field officers beginning of year 5, 375 

Received by field officers during the year 13, 041 

Total warrants of deportation 18, 416 

Executed, aliens removed — 

Shipped foreign one way 887 

Paid own passage; departed from seaports 843 

Departed voluntarily across land border 550 

Departed across land border. Government expense 3, 626 

Deported via seaports at Government expense 3, 687 

Deported via seaports at steamship expense 2, 032 

On hand by field officers close of year, unexecuted 5, 920 

Returned to department, canceled 871 

Total warrants of deportation 18, 416 

Summary 



Warrant of deportation issued: 

Deported at expense of immigration appro- 
priation— 

From seaports 

Across land boundary 

Deported (ocean voyage at expense of steam- 
ship companies) 

Permitted to ship foreign one way, as a com- 
pliance with warrant of deportation 

Departed— paying own passage— as a compli- 
ance with warrant of deportation 

Departed voluntarily across land border as a 
compliance with warrant of deportation 

Total 

Subject to deportation; voluntarily departed; 
warrant of deportation not issued: 

Shipped foreign one way ' 

Paid own passage ^ 

Departed across land border s 

Total 

Grand total. 




Savings to appropriation 



At $100 per capita $88, 700 

At $100 per capita 84,300 

At $20 per capita 11,000 

$184,000 

At $100 per capita 16, 400 

At $100 per capita 41,100 

At $20 per capita 387,420 

444,920 

628,920 



' Warrant of arrest issued in respect of 74 aliens— not in respect of 90 aliens. 

2 Warrant of arrest issued in respect of 82 aliens— not in respect of 329 aliens. 

3 Warrant of arrest issued in respect of 312 aliens— not in respect of 19,059 aliens. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 19 

REENTRY PERMITS (INCLUDING CHINESE) 

A reentry permit is issued to an alien upon application if it is found 
that when he last entered the United States he was legally admitted 
for permanent residence. The permit does not give the alien uncon- 
ditional right of reentry. He is subject to examination upon reentry 
and must meet all the requirements of the immigration laws. The 
reentry permit is merely evidence that the holder is returning from a 
temporary absence abroad to resume an unrelinquished lawfully 
acquired domicile, and relieves the applicant of the necessity of 
securing an immigration visa. 

Reentry permits are good for one year from the date of issuance. 
The validity of a permit may be extended, upon a satisfactory show- 
ing, for a period or periods not to exceed six months each. A fee of 
$3 is charged for the issuance of each permit and for each extension 
thereof. 

The use of reentry permits bv aliens is increasing yearly; 66,354 
were issued in the year 1925, 104,666 in 1926, and 102,195 in 1927. 

At the close of the preceding fiscal year 4,219 applications were 
pending, which with the applications received during the past yeeir 
made a total of 117,794. Of this total, 113,977 were granted, 2,103 
in which no record of the legal admission could be found were denied, 
leaving 1,714 applications pending at the close of the year. 

There were 9,110 extensions granted during the fiscal year 1927 
and 10,731 during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1928. 

The total amount of money transferred to the disbursing clerk for 
deposit in the Treasury due to the issuance of permits and the grant- 
ing of extensions thereof was $374,124. This amount represents an 
excess of $40,209 over that so transferred during the previous fiscal 
year, due to the fact that 11,782 more permits were issued and 1,621 
more extensions granted. 

Failure of aliens to comply with the instructions appearing on the 
application blanks necessitated the return of 10,442 applications for 
correction, amplification, etc., in addition to which 922 applications 
were received too late to be acted upon prior to the date given for 
departure. In manj^ cases the information on the application rela- 
ti^'e to the place and date of arrival and the name of the vessel on 
which the alien came is found to be erroneous. This necessitated 
further correspondence with the alien and the port. During the year 
53,678 letters were written. In addition thereto, 119,311 other 
pieces of mail were sent out, including 114,599 applications sent to 
ports for verification and 1,403 cases in which the Bureau of Natural- 
ization was furnished advices in connection with petitions for natural- 
ization. The number of pieces of mail received during the year, 
including applications returned from ports, was 254,563. The return- 
permit division was organized when the present act of 1924 became 
effective. At first some little difficulties were encountered in settling 
upon a proper accounting system for money received for the permits 
and extensions thereto. However, with the help of the Comp- 
troller General's Office a very much improved accounting system has 
been inaugurated and is now in operation in this division. 



20 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

VISA PETITIONS 

During the past fiscal year 38,460 petitions were filed by American 
citizens for issuance of immigration visas in behalf of wives, unmar- 
ried children under the age of 21 years, husbands, and parents, an 
increase of approximately 4,300 over the preceding year, and approx- 
imately 14,600 over a similar 12-month period of two years ago. Of 
the petitions filed this year, 33,675 were approved and 3,210 rejected. 
It was impossible to act upon the remainder, owing to the omission 
from the petitions of essential data or absence of evidence justifying 
favorable action. 

On May 29, 1928, Senate Joint Resolution No. 5 was signed by the 
President, placing children between the ages of 18 and 21, of American 
citizens, upon a nonquota basis instead of upon a preference basis 
within the quota merely as formerly. The husbands of American 
citizens, where marriage occurred prior to June 1, 1928, were also 
placed in the nonquota class. This measure removed many from 
the preferential list to the nonquota list, thus moving upward the 
names of many parents of American citizens for whom petitions already 
had been filed. 

As in the previous fiscal year, the largest number of petitions filed by 
naturalized citizens were from those who have recently acquired such 
citizenship. 

IMMIGRANT STUDENTS 

During the fiscal year 1,816 aliens were admitted to the United 
States as nonquota immigrant students, making a total of 7,031 
aliens so admitted since the immigration act of 1924 went into effect. 
Of this total, 2,256 have to date completed their studies and left the 
country. During the 4-year period 206 warrants have been issued 
with a view to the deportation of students who have failed to compl}^ 
with the conditions stipulated at the time of admission. 

During the past fiscal year 117 schools have received full approval 
as institutions of learning for immigrant students, making a total of 
1,279 schools so accredited. 

During the past year fewer students admitted were found unable, 
because of insufficient knowledge of the English language, to enter 
the schools to which destined. This is accounted for by the greater 
care exercised by schools in the issuance of letters of acceptance, due 
doubtless to a fuller realization that, once a student is accepted and 
enters the country upon the strength of such acceptance, the schools 
are morally obligated at least to exert every effort to enroll the student 
and aid him in overcoming his language deficiencies as rapidly as 
possible. At a meeting of the College Entrance Examination Board 
of New York City last spring, a committee was appointed to render 
a report upon the feasibility of holding examinations in English for 
prospective students at certain foreign centers in June of each year, 
the findings of such examinations to be made available for the use 
of consular officers as well as the guidance of the colleges in issuing 
letters of acceptance. If such a practice is established, it is believed 
many students will be saved the embarrassment of being refused h\ 
a college after arrival in the United States. 

It may be said in this connection that a sufficient staff is not avail- 
able to the bureau to maintain a satisfactory check upon the status 
of aliens admitted as immigrant students, the bureau being compelled 
to rely very largely upon the schools to report any defections. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENEEAL OF IMMIGRATION 21 



PERSONNEL 

FIELD SERVICE 

Number of employees, by class, on the rolls on July 1, 1927, and June 30, 1928 



Title 



Commissioner 

Assistant commissioner... 

Supervisor... 

District director -- -- 

-\cting district director 

Assistant district director 

Superintendent - 

Plant engineer 

Draftsman. 

Inspector in charge 

Technical adviser 

Immigrant inspector 

Part-time inspector 

Clerk 

Interpreter --- 

Guard 

Laborer 

Janitor - 

Matron 

Charwoman 

Engineer, fireman, deckhand, mechanic, etc. 




Total. 




2 

24 
1 
13 
1 
1 
1 

71 

29 

800 

49 

410 

67 

174 

91 

22 

35 

22 

118 



2 

24.8 

.6 

12.6 

1 

1 

1 

70.4 

25.6 

811.5 

62.6 

403.4 

66.7 

173.8 

91.3 

21.8 

33.4 

21.7 

116.5 



1,949 I 1,949.7 



Minimum number of employees on the rolls during the year, 1,906 
on July 1, 1927. 

Maximum number of employees on the rolls during the year, 1,963 
on November 1, 1927. 

The amount expended for salaries of the immigration field force 
during the fiscal year 1928 is $3,748,713.41. 

Separations from the field service 





Resigned 


Dismissed 


Dis- 
continued 


Transferred 
to— 


Died 


Re- 
tired 




Title 


With 
prej- 
udice 


With- 
out 
prej- 
udice 


During 
Under proba- 
charges tional 
period 


With 
prej- 
udice 


With- 
out 
prej- 
udice 


Border 
patrol 
force 


Other 
Gov- 
ern- 
ment 
services 


Total 








i 








2 j 


2 






2 1 1 
22 12 






1 
10 




4 


Immigrant inspector 


8 


2 




2 

' 4 

23 

22 

5 

9 


2 


5 


2 


65 
4 






6 
55 










1 
3 

1 
5 

1 
1 
1 


...... 


30 


Clerk 




2 


1 


6 


7 


96 










6 






6 

4 


1 
1 


2 





1 




29 








2 


8 










1 






2 


















2 






2 






2 








4 










1 










2 




















1 






1 








2 








4 


















1 


Wireman 




















1 


Total 


8 


98 


15 


6 


3 


71 


18 


9 


20 


13 


261 







Turnover, approximately 13.3 per cent. 



22 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOXER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



IMMIGRATION BORDER PATROL 

Number of employees, by classes, on the rolls on July 1, 1927, and June 30, 192S 



Title 



July 1, 
1927 



Average 
force 
June 30, I carried 



1928 



on rolls 

fiscal 
year 1928 



Supervisor 

Assistant superintendent . 

Chief patrol inspector 

Senior patrol inspector 

Patrol inspector 

Motor mechanic 

Clerk 

Laborer... 

Janitor. 



1 

4 

29 

134 

525 

13 

23 



166 

504 

15 

22 

3 

2 



1 

4.3 

28.9 

156.7 

516.5 

13.7 

22.6 

2.3 

.1 



731 



746.1 



Minimum nmiiber of employees on the rolls during the vear, 731 
on July 1, 1927. 

Ma.ximum number of employees on the rolls during the year, 776 
on November 1, 1927. 

The amount expended for salaries of the border patrol force during 
the year 1928 was $1,342,249.54. 

Separations from the immigration border patrol service 





Resigned : Dismissed 


Discon- 
tinued 
with- 
out 
preju- 
dice 


Trans- 
Trans- , ferred 






Title 


With- 
out 

preju- 
dice 


With On 


During 
proba- 
tional 
period 


ferred to 

to other 
Immi- Gov- 
gration ern- 
Serv- ment 
ice depart- 
ments 


Died 


Total 


-Assistant superintendent ... 




1 
1 






1 




o 


Chief patrol inspector. 


1 
6 

55 
1 
5 








6 




- 


Senior patrol inspector. 


3 5 

17 26 

1 






15 




29 


Patrol inspector 


22 


2 


11 4 


2 


139 


Motor mechanic 


9 


Clerk.- 




4 


1 1 




11 










Total 


68 


20 33 


22 


6 


34j 5 


2 


190 







Turnover, approximately 25.4 per cent. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

Appropriation for the conduct of the Lmmigration Service and the administration of 

the immigration laws 

For the enforcement of Iraas regulating immigration into the United 

States $4, 985, 000 

For coast and land border patrol 1, 600. 000 

For physical maintenance and upkeep of immigration stations 50, 000 

For salaries. Bureau of Immigration 91, 840 

Total 6. 726, 840 

i 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 23 

The net amount expended during the year for all purposes, after de- 
ducting refunds to the appropriation for expenditures not properly 
chargeable to the Government, was S6, 690, 100.82, leaving an unex- 
pended balance of, $36,739.18. 

Balanced against the expenditures mentioned, there was collected, 
as hereinafter shown, the sum of .$3,959,409.56, making the actual net 
cost of operation $2,730,691.26. 

Income and sources thereof 

Head tax reported by customs districts $3, 231, 792. 70 

Administrative fines 203, 171. 78 

Reentry permits and extensions 374, 124. 00 

Bonds forfeited and paid without suit 148, 323. 90 

Sale of exclusive privileges (feeding, money exchange, etc.) 1, 166. 00 

Sale of Government property 263. 78 

Miscellaneous collections 248. 33 

Coin-box collections, Ellis Island, Boston, Philadelphia 319. 07 

Total 3, 959, 409. 56 

BORDER PATROL 

The fiscal year covered by this report is the fourth one since the 
creation of the immigration border patrol. Beginning July 1, 1924, 
with an appropriation of a million dollars and a personnel of 472 
employees, the organization has been expanded to a total of 747 
members, consisting of 1 supervisor, 6 assistant superintendents, 28 
chief patrol inspectors, 166 senior patrol inspectors, 504 patrol in- 
spectors, 15 motor mechanics, 22 clerks, 3 laborers, and 2 janitors. 
During the year last past it operated on an appropriation of $1 ,600,000. 
Transportation equipment consists of 267 automobiles and 13 trucks. 
In addition to these, 15 saddle horses and 7 pack horses are pro- 
vided under a system of allowances to indi^^dual patrolmen. The 
outstanding accomplishment of the immigration border patrol for the 
past year was the apprehension of 25,534 persons of all kinds found 
engaged in unlawful activities. Of this number, 23,896 were turned 
over by patrol officers to examiners of the Immigration Ser\^ce. Out 
of this total, 18,000 were smuggled aliens and 330 were found to be 
smugglers of aliens. There were turned over to the Customs Service 
871 persons; to the Prohibition Unit, 105 persons; to State and mu- 
nicipal authorities, 538 persons; and to other branches of the Govern- 
ment, 124 persons. Seizures were made of 671 automobiles at an 
estimated value of $291,919, and of 314 other conveyances at an 
estimated value of $69,802. Liquor aggregating 353,392 quarts esti- 
mated at a value of $386,692 and miscellaneous contraband goods 
valued at $25,451 were seized by patrolmen and delivered to the 
appropriate governmental agencies concerned. 

In the preceding fiscal jesir 12,098 smuggled ahens were appre- 
hended. The past fiscal j^ear witnessed an increase of 50 per cent 
in the number of such aUens taken into custody. While the total 
personnel of the organization underwent a contraction as compared 
with the pre\-ious year, the total number of actual patrolmen was 
increased and it was possible to add 35 additional automobiles. 



24 REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION" 

In the four years of the organization's existence seven border pa- 
trohiien have lost their Hves in encounters with outlaws, two of the 
fatalities having occurred during the past fiscal year. 

There is appended hereto detailed tabulation of the activities and 
accomplishments of the border patrol as well as tabulated statement 
showing transportation equipment. 

Activities of immigration border patrol during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1928 

Miles patrolled, total 5, 242, 107 

By motor 4, 550, 938 

By railroad 203, 925 

Bv horse 64, 799 

By boat 15, 033 

Bv airplane 116 

Afoot 407,296 

TRAINS, BUSSES, ETC, EXAMINED, AND PASSENGERS THEREON INTERROGATED 

Number of Number of 

conveyances passengers 

Total 700,578 1,039,382 

Freighc trains 66, 612 50, 875 

Passenger trains 78,500 94,659 

Automobiles 487, 779 736, 097 

Busses 39,384 99,269 

Boats 15, 891 29, 264 

Other 12, 412 29, 218 

Pedestrians interrogated 345, 721 

Investigations conducted 6, 153 

Warrants of arrest served 238 

Smugglers of aliens captured 330 

Smuggled aliens captured 18, 000 

Aliens turned back (Canadians, 243; Mexicans, 195; others, 208) 646 





Persons 
appre- 
hended 


Seizures , 


Delivered to- 


Automobiles 


other convey- 
ances 


Liquor 


Miscel- 
laneous 




Num- 
ber 


Esti- 
mated 
value 


Num- 
ber 


Esti- 
mated 
value 


Quantity 

(in 
quarts) 


Esti- 
mated 
value 


band, 

estimated 

value 


Total . . . 


25, 534 


671 


$291,919 


314 


$69,802 


353,392 


$386, 692 


$25, 451 




Immigration 


23,896 

871 

105 

19 

34 

69 

I 

1 

538 


29 
535 

44 
1 
3 


19, 695 

224, 009 

22,190 

500 

2,000 


2 

304 

2 


4,300 

64, 767 

265 






25 




333, 513 
11, 167 


363, 834 

7,582 


10, 253 

1,563 

627 


Prohibition 

Narcotics 


Justice 






171 


186 


1 


Army and Navy 


1 


30 


371 


Agriculture 


1 


200 






40 


Coast Guard 


1 
4 


100 
340 


978 
7,563 


. 2,080 
13,010 




State and municipal . 


58 


23, 325 


12,571 





Total estimated value of seizures, $773,864. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 25 

BORDER PATROL TRANSPORTATION 

Automobiles, 267; trucks, 13; horse allowances (15 saddle horses; 7 pack 
horses), 22. 

Equipment purchased during fiscal year 1928 

Chevrolet touring cars 25 

Ford touring cars 10 

Chevrolet sedans 53 

Ford sedans 4 

Whippet sedans 26 

Star sedans 8 

Chevrolet truck 1 

Ford truck 1 

Total 128 

Gross cost, $86,008.65. 

Old equipment turned in on purchase of new cars 

Ford cars 96 

Ford truck 1 

CMC trucks 2 

Motor cycles 6 

Total 105 

Allowance on turned in equipment, $11,746.88. 
Net cost of new equipment, $74,261.77. 

CITIZENSHIP AND THE ALIEN 

Last year this report emphasized the close relationship between 
immigration and citizenship and endeavored to make it plain that 
good citizenship could not be expected to result from a poor quality 
of immigration. It is true, as then pointed out, that we have by legis- 
lation sharply curtailed the volume of immigration flowing to us from 
the Old World, but no numerical limitation has been placed upon 
the volume which may flow generally from the countries of the West- 
ern Hemisphere. It was pointed out that it does not necessarily 
follow that an alien found admissible under existing laws will make a 
good citizen. Certain inhibitions are laid down by the statutes 
against the admission of aliens, but in actual operation they are nega- 
tive rather than positive. We say that a man mentally or physically 
unfit or with a criminal record may not enter; that one who is likely 
to become a public charge may not enter; but existing legislation does 
not definitely provide a means to determine whether the applicant is 
good citizen material; whether he possesses those qualities and those 
conceptions of the obligations attaching to citizenship which are so 
essential to the maintenance of national virility. Existing immigra- 
tion law has often been referred to as being selective. It is not select- 
ive within the generally accepted meaning of the word. This country 
is not permitted by its statutes to say whom it wants. It merely 
declares by its statutes whom it will not have. In other words, a 
candidate for admission to the United States may be physically fit, 
without criminal record, possessed of sufficient means to offer a reason- 
able guaranty against becoming a public charge, and still possess none 
of the attributes essential to the building and maintenance of a whole- 
some citizenry. With the exception of aliens nationals of the countries 

15869—28 3 



26 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOXER GEXERAL OF IMMIGRATIOX 

lying contiguous to our own, candidates for admission must as a pre- 
requisite present passports issued by the authorities of the countries 
to which they owe allegiance. It is wholly within the power of these 
countries to grant or withhold these passports; thus is the selection of 
the candidate primarily within the control of those countries. If these 
candidates with passports are not found to be laboring under any of the 
specific disqualifications enumerated by our immigration laws, they 
may come to this country within the numerical limitations imposed— 
"first come, first served." 

As previously indicated, it is believed that the examinations at our 
ports of entry should go further than the law now appears to contem- 
plate, and that Congress should require appropriate tests to determine 
whether alien applicants for permanent admission are good citizen 
material and authorize the rejection of those found to be otherwise. 

ELLIS ISLAND 

The island now known as "Ellis Island" was at one time known as 
"Kioshk," or "Gull Island." 

As early as 1807 the Federal Govermnent decided to enlarge the 
works on Governors Island, to erect a powerful marine battery on 
the northwest point of that island, extend the works on Ellis Island, 
and erect a strong fort with two or three tiers of guns on the Battery. 

In connection with other Government forts, a circular battery 
mounting 14 heav}" guns is mentioned as being built here. 

For the improvement of the harbor defense, a circular battery was 
erected on Ellis Island at a very early date, probably previous to 1807. 

The property was ceded by the State of New York to the United 
States Government in 1808 and was used for many years as a storage 
place for ammunition. 

For some years previous to 1855 and for some ye&TS subsequent 
thereto the island was commonly known as "Oyster Island," and the 
following description concerning it is taken from "Valentine's Manual" 
of the city of New York, 1855: 

This little island, laying along the oyster banks of the Jersey shore, has from 
the earliest times, since the settlement of the Dutch, been known bj^ the name it 
still bears. It was always a desert island until it came into the possession of the 
United States, and was a common resort of parties from the city for oyster feasts, 
for which it was famous in times of the Dutch. At one period, about a century 
since, this island was dubbed "Bucking" Island. The States ceded it to the 
United States at the same time -^vith Governors and Bedloes Islands, and with 
the same reservations. It has been known, at different periods, by the names of 
"Ellis Island" and "Gibbet Island," the latter appellation beiiig given, it is 
assumed, because of its use at times as a place of execution of State criminals. 
Among those hanged at this place was the pirate Gibbs. 

It is stated in Governor Tompkins's papers in regard to Ellis Island 
that arrangements were to be made with a \1t. Ellis, the owner of 
the lands at Ellis Island, for the conveyance of said lands, and this 
is where the name "Ellis Island" comes from. 

Immigration arri\'ing at this port prior to April 20, 1890, was under 
control of the State, and aliens were received at Castle Garden, now 
used as an aquarium by the city of New York. When the Federal 
Government assumed charge, aliens were delivered to the Barge 
Office, at the Battery, where inspection occurred and detained aliens 
were accommodated until buildings were available on Ellis Island. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATIOX 



27 



About January 1, 1892, -this station was used for the first time for 
immigration purposes. The main buildings, of frame construction, 
were destroyed by fire on June 15, 1897, after which work was resumed 
at the Barge Office and continued there until the semifireproof new 
buildings were ready for occupancy in December, 1899. Since then, 
until inspection was inaugurated in European countries, practically 
all arriving aliens other than fii-st and second class have been brought 
here for examination. 

The original island covered an area of 3.3 acres. It has been 
added to from time to time and at present has an area of approxi- 
matel}' 21 acres. 

Not inappropriately, some of the fill originally used to enlarge the 
island came from foreign countries as ballast in ships built before 
water ballast tanks were adopted. The Gcvernment during the 
World War permitted dumping at designated places about the island. 

There are now 27 buildings, including hospitals and power houses. 
The quarters occupied by detained aliens consist of large, light, well- 
ventilated rooms with floors and dados of Dutch or white glazed 
tile. A covered porch is available for recreation in stormy weather, 
while in pleasant weather a playground supplied ^^'ith equipment for 
games and entertainment for both children and adults, is provided. 
Dormitories are also of white tile, and each person is allotted a white 
enameled single bed with woven-wire spring, good quality mattress, 
pillow, blankets, and clean linen. Bathrooms have built-in porcelain 
tubs as well as showers. Two well-equipped laundries are in opera- 
tion daily. 

The hospital, operated b}- tiie United States Public Health Service, 
is equipped with, modern apparatus required for the approved methods 
of treatment. It is rated by the American Medical Association as a 
class A hospital. 

The subjoined list gives the number of alien arrivals at this port, 
by fiscal yeai-s, since the Federal Government assumed control of 
immigration. It will be observed that the 10 j^ears ending June 30, 
1914, averaged 872,235 a year. 

During the spring and earl}' summer of 1907 arrivals averaged 
more than 5,000 each week day for a period of 100 consecutive days. 



Fiscal year 


Arrivals 


Fiscal year 


.\rrivals 


i Fiscal year 


Arrivals 


1890 


364, 086 
448. 403 
445, 987 
343, 422 
219, 046 
190, 928 
263. 709 
180. 556 
178, 748 
242, 573 
341, 712 
388. 931 
565, 983 
631, 885 


1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 


606, 019 

809, 847 

925, Oil 

1, 123, 842 

689, 474 

733, 267 

912, 026 

749, 642 

726, 040 

1, 044, 457 

1, 008, 750 

243, 370 

176, 611 , 

160, 105 


1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 


55, 191 


1891 

1892 -•_. 

1893 

1894. .- 


62, 306 
334. 310 
652. 909 
279 598 


1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 


391,316 
421, 785 
24i;319 
271.371 
300. 136 


1900 

1901 


1928 

Total 


294, OSS 


1902 

1903 


18,018,759 







28 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GEXERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

As may be readily inferred from what lias been previously said, 
Ellis Island, due to diminished immigration, presents something of an 
economic problem. The buildings are larger than needful to accom- 
modate present-day immigration. The overhead generally in the 
maintenance of this tremendous plant is a heavy item of expense. 
However, so many practical difficulties would be encountered in any 
attempted change of base, such action would be of questionable 
expediency and wisdom. Ellis Island as it is to-day is the best 
equipped and operated immigration station in the world. 

ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS 
FIELD 

Our greatest problems and difficulties arise from an inadequate 
field force of inspectors and clerks. As has been pointed out in the 
•earlier pages of this report, the control along the Canadian border 
in particular is breaking and threatens virtual collapse unless the 
forces are substantially increased. The number of immigrant 
inspectors available for duty in the interior of the United States is not 
sufficient properly to investigate and proceed for the removal of 
deportable aliens, including those who have secured admission in 
the guise of visitors and abuse the privilege by remaining in violation 
of the express limitations placed upon immigrants by the quota act. 

Again it is urged that consideration be given to the question of 
designating certain of the more important coast and land border 
ports as schools for the training on the job of immigrant inspectors 
and border patrol inspectors, and, w^ith this in view, that probational 
appointees be initially assigned to such places and thereafter to 
other stations as need of their services thereat arises, such reas- 
signments to be made only after the new appointee has satisfactorily 
completed his period of probation. Probationers failing to measure 
up to the requirements should be promptly dropped from the rolls 
at the training points. A system of training of this sort would not 
only make for fixed standards of efficiency and uniformity of practice, 
but would obviate the necessity of assignmg green, inexperienced, 
untrained men to new jobs or vacancies where but little, if any, 
opportunity is afforded to give them special attention. Such a 
system would require a comparatively small increase in the personnel. 
Vacancies at the training points, resulting from the transfer of trained 
personnel, would be immediately filled by the appointment of new 
probationers. Field officers generally find the new appointees of 
relatively little value for the first six months or longer. In fact they 
are more frequently than not a distinct liability, especially where, 
as is almost invariably the case, the field staft' is functioning with a 
minimum number of employees. 

LEGISLATION RECOMMENDED 

Last year legislation along various fines and for various pm'poses 
was recommended. Some of these recommendations have been 
acted upon. Those that have not are renewed with certain changes 
and additions as follows: 

First. That the exemption from the operation of the ilfiteracy 
inhibition as set forth in section 3 of the immigration act of 1917 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 29 

reading "All aliens who have been lawfully admitted to the United 
States and who have resided therein continuously for five years and 
who return to the United States within six months from the date of 
their departure therefrom" be broadened so as to provide that aUens 
holding vahd unexpired reentry permits shall not be excluded because 
of illiteracy, and that subdivision F of section 10 of the immigration 
act of 1924 be so amended as to harmonize with the amendment of 
section 3 of the act of 1917 as proposed. 

Second. That statutory grounds for both exclusion and deporta- 
tion be broadened, and that the whole body of law deaUng with 
immigration be codified in the manner and for the reasons set forth 
in the annual report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1926. 

Third. That section 8 of the immigration act of 1917 be amended 
to provide a specific penalty for the offense of harboring and conceal- 
ing smuggled ahens. This amendment is necessitated by decisions 
of certain courts that this clause of section 8 is inoperative because 
Congress did not in clear language provide a penalty for the offense. 

Fourth. That aliens deliberately entering the United States surrepti- 
tiously be made subject to criminal prosecution. 

Fifth. That if the Congress should not see fit to make it a criminal 
act for aliens generally surreptitiously to enter the United States, 
then that it make it a crime at least for the criminal, diseased, 
immoral, and anarchistic classes so to enter, and in any event to 
penahze by imprisonment the surreptitious reentry of any alien 
previously excluded or deported. 

Sixth. That natives of countries of the Western Hemisphere be 
brought within the quota provisions of existing law and that section 
4 (c) thereof be repealed. Immigration from this source stands no 
less in need of limitation than the immigration from the Old World. 
The design of the present law obviously is to permit peoples of the 
stocks from which we are chiefly descendant to come to us in reasona- 
ble nmnbers. The unhmited flow of immigrants from the Western 
Hemisphere can not be reconciled with the sharp curtailment of 
immigration from Europe. 

Seventh. That omission from section 15 of the immigration act of 
1924 of authority to require bond in appropriate cases in connection 
with the admission of immigrant students be remedied. LiberaUty 
should be extended to those who seek to avail themselves of our 
educational institutions, but at the same time there should be author- 
ity, in the interest of good administration, where that course is 
desirable, to exact a bond of immigrant students admitted, condi- 
tioned for their departure from the United States. The present 
situation works to the disadvantage of the alien in obUging the port 
officials to exclude in a doubtful case, whereas, if bond were possible, 
doubts might be resolved in favor of the applicant in many instances 
without jeopardy to the accomplishment of the general purposes of 
the act. 

Eighth. That a nonquota status in the issuance of immigration 
visas be authorized in favor of the dependent parents over 60 years 
of age of citizens of the United States. The number who would 
benefit by this modification of existing law is not large and considera- 
tions of humanity fully support the recommendation. The Congress 
has recently extended a nonquota status to the husbands of American 
citizens, but with the proviso that marriage shall have occurred 



30 REPOr.T OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

prior to June 1, 1928. No such limitation, however, is imposed 
upon the ahen wives of American citizens. Legislation is strongh^ 
recommended which will place American citizen wives and American 
citizen husbands on an absolute equahtj^ in the is.suance of nonquota 
visas. That in the issuance of visas the vdves and unmarried children 
under 21 years of age of ahen residents of the United States who were 
lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence be 
given priority of preference over immigrants who are skilled in agri- 
culture and the wives and dependent children under the age of 18 
years of such immigrants skilled in agriculture, if accompanying or 
following to join them. 

Ninth. That legislation be enacted authorizing the seizure and 
forfeiture of vehicles and vessels used to import ahens into the United 
States in violation of the provisions of the immigration laws, or to 
transport them thereafter pursuant to such illegal importation; and 
to permit the Immigration Service to make use of such vehicles and 
vessels after they have been ordered forfeited by the courts. 

Tenth. That the law be amended so that refund of passage money 
be not made, as it now is, to an ahen who by his own fraud and 
deceit has prevailed upon a steamship company to brng him, although 
inadmissible, to a United States port. 

Eleventh. That a general discretion with regard to the excluding 
provision of the immigration laws be vested in the Secretary of Labor 
to readmit expatriated native and naturahzad citizens. 

Twelfth. That authority be granted the Commissioner General of 
Immigration to admit, with the approval of the Secretary of Labor, 
stepchildren of American citizens. 

Thirteenth. That legislative authority be granted, to be exercised 
within the discretion of the Commissioner General of Immigration 
with the approval of the Secretary of Labor, to legalize the residence 
of aliens who arrived prior to July 1, 1924, in meritorious cases, by 
means of nunc pro tunc examinations to be held by immigrant in- 
spectors coupled with a physical and mental examination by officers 
of the United States Public Health Service. The problem of the 
decent and law-abiding alien in our midst who has formed ties of 
various sorts (often including families) whose original entry was 
attended by irregularity — possibly a failure of the officers to inspect, 
or incompleteness of record, or perhaps unwitting and wholly innocent 
failure to submit himself for inspection at the proper time and place — 
is a real and difficult one. Many such aliens deserve some special 
consideration. Perhaps they desire to leave the country and return; 
but, in the absence of a proper record of legal permanent admission, 
no relief can be accorded them. If they depart from the country 
the}^ must in returning thereto be subject to all the restrictions im- 
posed upon initial entrants. They can not become United States 
citizens, and the presence in the United States of this unassimilated 
element is undesirable in the extreme. 

Fourteenth. That provision be made for the reimbursement of immi- 
gration officers and employees for the expenses incurred by them in 
the moving of their families and household and personal effects pur- 
suant to official transfers in the line of duty to points within and 
without the United States. Ever-changing conditions in the Immi- 
gration Service render it imperative that personnel shall be shifted 



KEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER CffiNEEAL OF IMMIGRATION 31 

about with considerable frequency. For an officer or eniplovee to 
be forced in the hne of dut}' to move his family and household and 
personal effects, all at his own expense, is absolutely unjust and seri- 
ousl,y curtails moliility. It also is recommended that legislation be 
enacted ecjuitabh* to compensate immigrant inspectors required to 
perform overtime duty in connection with the examination of arriving 
aliens. 

Fifteenth. That adequate buildings be provided for the care of 
aliens detained in deportation proceedings. At present such aliens 
are largely confined in jails. 

Sixteenth. That the Secretary of Labor be given broader powers to 
admit aliens in cases of hardship — political refugees, artists and in- 
tellectual geniuses, and wives of aliens admitted for permanent resi- 
dence prior to July 1, 1924, who have declared their intention to 
become citizens of the United States. With wise limitations and 
restrictions this power can be safely conferred without danger of abuse. 

Seventeenth. That appropriate adaptability tests be authorized, 
with a view to determine whether an alien applying for admission to 
the United States is good citizen material and that authority be given 
to exclude from admission those failing in such tests. 

Eighteenth. That a more liberal provision than that afforded by 
the compensation act ])e provided for the widows and orphans of those 
in the border patrol killed in line of duty, and that the same safe- 
guards be thrown about the members of the border patrol and the 
same immunities extended to them as are accorded any and all other 
Federal law-enforcement officers the performance of whose duties in- 
volves hazards to life, including the right of trial in Federal courts 
and defense at the hands of United States attornej^s. 

Nineteenth. Statistics continue to show that a very substantial 
volume of alien visitors, or nonimmigrants, is admitted each year. 
These aliens are not presumed to stay here permanently, and with 
the careful scrutiny given their cases by the American consuls abroad, 
assisted by technical advisors and by administrative officers at the 
ports of entry, it is doubtful that any considerable proportion is 
abusing the privilege to evade the quota. However, the number is 
sufficientl}^ large to w\arrant a more careful check-up on them than is 
possible at the present time with the force available. To do this 
work properly, to insure departure of those who should depart, an 
additional inspection and clerical staff is recommended. The efforts 
of such a staff undoubtedly would have a salutary effect as a deterrent 
and at the same time do much to educate the public in a feature of 
the law that is not clearly understood. A system of keeping check 
on overstayed visitors in this country would likewise enable the de- 
partment more intelligently and satisfactorily to pass upon applica- 
tions for extensions of temporary admission. 

Twentieth. That Congress sufficiently increase its appropriation 
to the bureau to make possible stricter enforcement of the immigra- 
tion laws, inasmuch as in recent years the immigration question has 
become one of the Nation's greatest problems. The available force 
is doing w^onderful work in the enforcement of the present law, but 
naturally a larger force would be in a better position to enforce this 
very popular law. 



32 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

CONCLUSION 

I wish to pay tribute to the inteUigence, loyalty, and devotion to 
duty of the field and bureau personnel, which have made possible the 
discharge during the past year of the great responsibilities imposed 
upon the bureau by the immigration laws. I desire also to thank you 
and the other officials of the department for the sympathetic and 
helpful aid at all times extended. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Harry E. Hull, 

Commissioner General. 



APPENDIX 



STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION 



33 



APPENDIX— STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION 

Table 1. — AlUtts admiiied. departed, debarred, and deported, arid United .St/ites 
citizens arrired and departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1927 and 1928, by 
ports 



1927 



Miens admitted 



Immi- 
graEt 



Xon- 

immi- 
grant 



Total 



United 

States Aliens 

citi- de- 

zens barred Emi- 
arrived grant 



Aliens departed United Aliens 

States de- 

citi- p«rted 

rens after 

Total de- land- 

paned ing' 



Non- 
emi- 
grant 



.yipcns -..335.175 202.S2I3.53&.001 37S.520 15.75.5 73. 366 ISO. 142 2.53. -508 369.7s.S 11.66-; 

Atlantic, total 



ISa 116-150. SB) -SSa 955 3S4. 915 2.007 62. 3fB 124.427 196. 63tr 325,397 3.061 



Xew York, X. Y 



16.5. .510 132. 2&3 2&7. 793 269. OK 



Boston. Mass &.OsO 

Philadelphia. Pa 100 

Baltinore. Md 4-5 

Canadian Atlantic 2,952 



4.224 1Z304 



Portland. Me. 

Xe-ss" Bedford. Mass 

Providenc*. R. I 

Xewport Xews. Va 

Xorfolk. Va 

Savannah. Ga 

Miami, Fl3_ 



9! 

6: 

1.6591 

8' 

11 

9 

110 

Kev West. Fla 1.593 



Other Atlantic. 



24 



173 

40 

3.^44 

14 

106 

2,188 

5 

15 

U 

1.710 

6.206 

21 



273 
85 

6,796! 
23i 
112' 

3.847 
13 
26 
20 

1.820 

7,799 
45 



7,251 

370 

69 

10,427 

11 

55 

1.839 

4 

420 

12.050 

33.350 

35 



1.319 


55. 53S 107. 754 


153.292 


265.508 


93 


3,730 


4.149 


7.879 


7,967 


119 


7 


30 


37 


193 


139 


37 


9 


46 


154 


33 
3 


839 


2,772 


3y6Ui 


9,412 


14 ! - ' 




21 


659 


272" 


931 


463 


38 




I 




o 


102. 




1 


1 


4 


9 




4 
1.809 


4 
Z182 


20 


39 


373 


ia235 


46 


1.020 


7.625 


8.645 


31.426 



Gulf of Mexico, total— 1.700 4.833 6.533, 10,240 



360 



589 Z 932 1521 9.998 



Tampa. Fla 

Pensacola. Fla 

Mobfle. Ala 

Xew Orleans. La 

Galveston. Tex 

Other Golf 



520 1, 566 Z 086 

1 2 3 

34 68 1(B 

903 3,021 3.924 

240 176 416 



175 



304 

9,278 
578 



26 
U . 
12 
353 
43 



322? 



3 21| 24: 

376 2.1241 Z500 
202 473 675 



9.433 
444 



Pacific, toial 



San Francisco. Calif 2.512 7,539 ia051 8.065 

Ponland. Oreg 6 9 15 5 

Seattle, Wash 1.011 2,583 3.594 3.154 

Canadian Pacific 203 a 112 1315 1.499 

Mexican border seaports 67S 709 1.387 2. .507> 



Land border, tola! 14S. r^S 2S. 371 176, 959 la 612 Ic^ 544 3. 924 32. C»35 35^ 932 11. 510 



Canadian border Si. 9S2 13.43S 9-5,430 

Meiic-an border 6<!i. "TOfi 14.9.33 Si. 539 



Others, total. 



. 830 5. 191 



6.467 



-Vlaska 

Hawaii 

Porto Ric-o. 



34 
192 

135 



132 
3,109 
1.589 



166 
3.301 
l.r24 



47 
3.230 
4,255 



32 
40 
28 



8' 1 9. 

644 4.798 5.442 
135 1,668 1,803 



4.22S 

3.9I» 



1.961 
162 
2K- 
161 
12S 
23 
21 
23 
3S 
87 
30 
38 



730 



91 
18 
39 
342 
220 
20 



4.410 13,952 18,362 15,230 644 5,563 14.308 2a IH 14.746 51S 



296 i 725 7,637 la 352 7. 3S9 234 

4 13 86 99 20 35 

195 2,085 L 845 3.931 2.4CS 9S 

72 465 2.518 Z 983 i. ISO 34 

77 574 ZS2 Z:%. 3.754 127 



.331 



9.176 14.€iS6 1.614 22.73-5 24.349 11.109 4,024 
1.436 1.95S Z310 9.273 11. -5S3 401 3.307 



. 254 8. 137 22 



1 These aliens are iacladed amcng aliens departed, they haviag entered the United 
illegally, at the pons indicated, and later deported. 



>taies. legally or 



35 



36 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONEI? GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



Table 1. — Aliens admitted, departed, deb rred, and deported, and United States 
citizens arrived and departed, fiscal years 1927 and 1928, by ports — Continued 



Port 



All ports 

Atlantic, total. 



New York, N. Y 

Boston, Mass 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Baltimore, Md 

Canadian Atlantic. . 

Portland, Me 

New Bedford, Mass_ 

Providence, R. I 

Newport News, Va.. 

Norfolk, Va 

Savannah, Ga 

Miami, Fla 

Key West, Fla 

Other Atlantic 



Gulf of Mexico, total.. 



1928 



Aliens admitted 



Immi- 
grant 



Non- ' 

immi- < Total 
grant 



307,255 193,376 500,631 430,955 18,839 



United 
States 
citi- 
zens 
arrived 



Aliens 

de- 
barred 



Aliens departed 



United Aliens 
States de- 



Emi- 
grant 



■7. 457 



169,577,154,940 324,51; 



157, 887 

5,680 

96 

52 

2,208 

6 

2 

2,064 

3 

11 

5 

79 

1,453 

31 



1,804 



Tampa, Fla 472 

Pensacola, Fla 3 

Mobile, Ala 31 

New Orleans, La 1 1,045 

Galveston, Tex 251 

Other Gulf 2 



Pacific, total i 3,933 



San Francisco, Calif I 2,312 

Portland, Oreg... I 4 

Seattle, Wash ! 522 

182 
913 



133, 217 291 

5,695 11 

222 

45' 

4, 882 7 

10 

57i 

2, 273 4 

3| 

16 

11: 

1, 716 1 

6, 754 8 

39 1 



4, 529: 6, 333 



1, 360' 

1 

72 

2,868 
228 



1,832 

4 

103 

3,913 

479 

2 



14,336, 18,269 



Canadian Pacific 

Mexican border seaports 

Land border, total 



131, 526 



7,745 

5 

2,458 

3,335 

793 



10, 057 

9 

2,980 

3,517 

1,706 



386,370] 1,575 64,653 



299, 272 

10, 986 

262 

69 

13, 818 

9 

21 

2,170 

280 

296 

16 

14,415i 

44. 645 

111 



1,140 
99 
89 
79 
21 
6 



60, 626 

1,287 

33 

4 

1.029 



11, 303 



297 
2 

169 
9,829 
1,006 



14, 780 



6,943 
5 
2,306 
1,662 
3,864 



13, 716|145,242I 8,506 



Canadian border ' 73,605 

Mexican border 57, 921 



Others, total. 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Porto Rico- 



.59 

82 

274 



9,2031 82,868 
4,453 62,374 



7,063 
1,443 



5,855 



113 
3,354 
2,388 



6,270 



172 
3,436 
2,662 



9,996 



15 
4,012 
5,969 



236 
.... 



210 
1, 223 

4 



260 



31: 

i. 

23 

157| 
44 1 

V. 



6 
399 
261 



Non- 
emi- 
grant 



Total 



citi- 
zens 
de- 
parted 



ported 
after 
land- 
ing > 



196, 899 274, .356 429,575 11,625 



135,050199,703 378,307; 2,892 



115, 852|176,478 300,669 



6,477 
56 



7, 764 10, 277 
101 

5! 9' 28 

2,821[ 3,850 11,878 



10 

705 



1,851 

7,266 

2 



10 
941 



427 



2,061 

S, 489, 
6 



637 

4 

12, 658 

41, 009 

14 



2,886 3,576i 11,702 



173 



197 



135 



17 

2, 056 

640 



470: 5,932' 14,499 20,431| 15,885 



175! 

ll 

152' 

611 

81 



2,592 
4 

2,171 
600 
565 



16, 405| 5, 542 



23, 

2, 455 

9011 



45 

10, 537 

985 



7,210 

30 

1,823 

3,269 

2,167 



9, 802' 
34 j 
3,994 
3, 869 
2, 732 



2,001 

152 

176 

121 

58 

11 

8 

23 

29 

55 

27 

37 

53 

141 



580 



34 
290 
160 

40 



593 



7, 352 
20 
2,220j 
1,275 
5, 018 



257 

45 

134 

5 

152 



38,210 43,7521 15,310 



13, 6001 
2, 805' 



2, 230' 
3,312 



640 



2 
510 
128 



26,864 29,094i 
11,346 14,658i 



14, 778' 
532 



6, 254 6, 894, 8, 371 



4, 1931 
2,061 



2;. 
4. 703 1 
2, 1891 



3. 558 
4,813 



7,533 



4,118 
3,415 



1 These aliens are included among aliens departed, they having entered the United States, legally or 
illegally, at the ports indicated, and later deported. 

Table 2.^Net ivcrease or decrease of population by admission and departure of 
aliens, fiscal years ended June 30, 1925, 1926, 1927, and 1928, by semiannual 
periods arid months 



Month 



Fiscal year, total. 

Six months, total 

July 

.\ugust 

September 

October.. 

November 

December 



Admitted 



Immi- Nonim- 
grant migrant 



294, 314 164, 121 



147, 737 84, 955 



11,661 
23,290 
27, 941 

27, 402 
29, 345 

28, 098 



11,112 
13, 966 
20, 057 
17,822 
12, 386 
9,612 



Total 



458, 435 



232, 692 



22, 773 
37, 256 
47, 998 
45, 224 
41,731 
37, 710 



Departed 



Emi- 
grant 



92, 728 



57. 631 



Nonemi- 
grant 



Total 



Increase 

(+)or 

decrease 

(-) 



132, 762 225, 490 , +232, 945 



77.672 I 135,303 j +97,389 



8,493 
8,633 
8.671 
8,941 

S. 605 
14. 288 



15, 747 
14, 738 
14, 580 
12, 067 
9, 645 
10. 895 



24, 240 
23, 371 
23, 251 
21,008 
18, 250 
2.5, 183 



-1,467 
+ 13,885 
+24, 747 
+24, 216 
+23, 481 
+ 12,527 



EErOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION" 



37 



Table 2. — Net increase or decrease of population by admission and departure of 
aliens, fiscal years ended June SO, 1925, 1926, 1927, and 1928, by semiannual 
periods and months — Continued 



1925— Continued 



Month 



Admitted 



Immi- 
grant 



Six months, total 146, 577 



January | 20,952 

February i 20,913 

March.. i 26,619 

AprU I 26,744 

May _ 26,045 

June I 25,304 



Nonim- 
migrant 



79, 166 



9,915 
12, 997 
14, 345 
16, 905 
16, 124 



Total 



225, 743 



29, 832 
30, 828 
39, 616 
41, 089 
42, 950 
41, 428 



Departed 



Emi- 
grant 



35, 097 



6,183 
4,087 
4,993 
5,684 
8,403 
5,747 



Nonemi- 
grant 



55,090 



7,873 
6,127 
6,759 
9,708 
11, 859 
12, 764 



Total 



Increase 

(+)or 

decrease 

(-) 



90, 187 



14, 056 
10, 214 
11,752 
15, 392 
20, 262 
18, 511 



+135, 556 



+15, 776 
+20, 614 
+27, 864 
+25, 697 
+22, 688 
+22, 917 



1926 



Fiscal year, total... 304,488 



Six months, total i 144, 148 



July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December.. 



Six months, total. 



January.. 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Fiscal year, total. 
Sis months, total. 



July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 



Six months, total. 



January.. 
February. 
March... 

April 

May 

June 



Fiscal year, total. 
Six months, total. 



July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December.. 



Six months, total . 



January . . 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



22, 283 
29,286 
35, 297 
34,528 
30, 756 
December 23,805 



18, 590 
22, 421 
26, 721 
28,685 
26, 642 
21. 089 



160, 340 



19, 072 

20, 041 
29,504 
33, 400 
33, 533 
24, 790 



191, 618 496, 106 76, 992 



9,813 I 243,961 46,592 



14, 177 
17,052 
23, 081 
19, 427 
14, 860 
11.216 



32, 767 
39, 473 
49, 802 
48, 112 
41, 502 
32. 305 



91, 805 j 252, 145 



10, 661 
10, 632 
15, 182 

17, 557 
19, 244 

18, 529 



29, 733 

30, 673 
44, 686 
50, 957 
52, 777 
43, 319 



7,539 
7,200 
7,674 
6,555 
8,840 



30, 400 



5,286 
3,232 
3,457 
4,989 
5,861 
7,575 



150, 763 



81, 020 



17,715 

12, 978 
12, 485 

13, 264 
11,915 
12, 663 



9,743 



9,795 
8,451 
8,982 
10, 780 
13, 660 
18, 075 



227,755 +268,351 



127, 612 



26, 499 
20, 517 

19, 685 

20, 938 
18, 470 

21, 503 



100, 143 



15, 081 
11,683 
12, 439 
15, 769 
19, 521 
25, 650 



+ 116,349 



+6, 268 
+18, 956 
+30, 117 
+27, 174 
+23, 032 
+10, 802 



+152, 002 



+14, 652 
+18, 990 
+32, 247 
+35, 188 
+33, 256 
+17, 669 



1927 



335, 175 202, 826 



175, 955 



159, 220 



18,804 
21, 695 
29, 868 
33, 034 
31,819 
24,000 



112,290 



16, 096 
20, 467 
25, 680 
22, 059 
16, 185 
11,803 



90, 536 



9,219 
10, 379 
16,370 
17,310 
20, 899 
16, 359 



638, 001 



288,245 



38, 379 
49, 753 
60, 977 
56, 587 
46, 941 
35,608 



73, 366 



42, 779 



7,052 
7,376 
6,634 
5,377 
6,859 
9,481 



249,756 30,587 



28,023 
32, 074 
46,238 I 
50,344 
52, 718 
40,359 



3,928 
3,949 
4,244 
4,185 
6,148 
8,133 



180, 142 I 253, 508 



93,528 



17, 970 
15,410 
16,392 
13, 803 
13, 078 
16, 875 



136, 307 



25, 022 
22, 786 
23,026 
19, 180 
19, 937 
26, 356 



6,614 i 117,201 



+284, 493 



+151, 938 



+13,357 
+26, 967 
+37, 951 
+37, 407 
+27, 004 
+9, 252 



10, 053 
12,085 
13, 502 
14,391 
16, 978 
19, 605 



13,981 

16,034 I 

17,746 

18,576 

23,126 

27,738 



+132, 556 

+14,042 
+16,040 
+28, 492 
+31,768 
+29, 592 
+12, 621 



1928 



307,255 j 193,376 



164,665 I 106,474 



500, 631 



271, 139 



23,420 
28, 418 
31, 000 
31,719 
27, 758 
22, 350 



15, 973 
19,011 
25, 619 
21, 578 
13, 841 
10, 452 



142,590 I 86,902 



18, 146 
20, 888 
26, 270 
30, 709 
26, 158 
20, 419 



8,579 
10, 393 
14, 348 
17, 982 
17,814 
17, 786 



39, 393 
47, 429 
56, 619 
53,297 
41, 599 
32, 802 



229, 492 



26, 725 
31, 281 
40, 618 
48, 691 
43, 972 
38,205 



77,457 I 196,899 



44,535 



9,230 
6,322 
7,625 
6,402 
5,871 
9,085 



107, 136 



18, 509 
17, 014 
16,885 
16, 424 
16,886 
21,418 



32, 922 



5,323 
4,708 
4,931 
4,515 
6,240 
7,205 



89, 763 



15,632 
10, 070 
12, 242 
12, 553 
19, 272 
19,994 



274, 356 



151,671 



27, 739 

23, .336 

24, 510 
22, 826 
22, 757 
30,503 



122, 685 



20, 955 
14, 778 
17, 173 
17,068 
25, 512 
27, 199 



+226, 275 



+119,468 



+11,654 
+24, 093 
+32, 109 
+30,471 
+18,842 
+2,299 



+106, 807 



+5, 770 
+16, 503 
+23,445 
+31,623 
+18,460 
+11,006 



38 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOIiTER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATIOX 



Table 3. — Net increase or decrease of 'population, by admission and departure of 
aliens, fiscal years ended June 30, 1927 and 1928, by countries 



Country of last or intended future 
permanent residence ■ 



All countries. 



Europe, total 

Albania 

Austria.. 

Belgium 

Bulgaria... 

Czechoslovakia 

Danzig, Free City of 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France, including Corsica -. 

Germany 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland: 

England 

Northern Ireland.. 

Scotland 

Wales 

Greece 

Hungary 

Irish Free State 

Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia... 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Luxemburg 

Netherlands. 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal, including Azores, Cape 
Verde, and Madeira Islands 

Rumania 

Russia 

Spain, including Canary and Balearic 
Islands. 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Turkey in Europe 

Yugoslavia 

Other Europe ^ 



Asia, total. 

Armenia 

China. 

India 

Japan 

Palestine 

Persia 

Syria 

Turkey in Asia.. 
Other Asia3 



Aliens admitted 



Immi- 
grant 



America, total 

Canada 

Newfoundland 

Mexico... 

Cuba. 

Other West Indies 

British Honduras 

Other Central America. 
Brazil 

Other South America... 

United States *. 

Other America ^ 



Others, total. 



Egypt 

Other Africa. 



335, 175 



lfi8, 368 



243 

1,016 
764 
222 

3,540 
223 

2,505 
139 
438 

4,405 
48, 513 

9,990 

491 

12,611 

1,068 

2,089 

813 

28,054 

17,297 

403 

770 

111 

1,733 

6,068 

9,211 

567 
1,270 
1,183 

429 
8,287 
2,121 

216 
1,190 

388 



Nonim- 
migrant 



202, 826 



Total 



Aliens departed 



538, 001 



39,096 



3,( 



13 

1,471 

102 

723 

464 

33 
590 

60 
213 



161,872 



81, 506 

3,074 

67, 721 

3,020 

999 

108 

1,663 

1,089 

2,688 



1,266 



228 
292 



3 

548 
579 

73 
345 

25 
646 

27 

147 

3,893 

5,877 

13, 681 

134 

2,347 

342 

239 

242 

754 

2,609 

31 

67 

16 

1,092 

1,654 

339 

186 
219 
319 

721 
865 
883 

61 
102 

30 



207, 464 



7,171 



1 

3,995 

388 

2,312 

171 

19 

100 

16 

169 



151,057 



15, 999 

540 

5,586 

10, 261 

4,492 

116 

2,323 

518 

3,584 

107, 616 

22 



246 
1,564 
1,343 

295 
3,885 

248 
3,151 

166 

585 
8,298 
54,390 

23,671 

625 

14, 958 

1,410 

2,328 

1,055 

28,808 

19, 906 

434 

837 

127 

2,825 

7,722 

9,550 

753 
1,489 
1,502 

1,150 
9,152 
3,004 

277 

1,292 

418 



Emi- 
grant 



73, 366 



55, 402 



237 

468 

482 

130 

2,276 

6 

536 

14 

536 

1,637 

4,748 

4,994 

165 

1,441 

44 

3,130 

841 

1,049 

17, 759 

21 

314 

13 

456 

1,786 

2,650 

2,347 

1,248 

239 

2,178 

1,115 

594 

24 
1,911 

13 



Nonemi- 
grant 



180, 142 



38, 837 



10,840 6,007 



14 

5,466 

490 

3,035 

635 

52 

690 

76 

382 



312, 929 



5,502 



97 

428 



97, 505 

3,614 

73, 307 

13,281 

5,491 

224 

3,986 

1,607 

6,272 

107,616 

26 



20 
4,179 
126 
1,205 
142 
33 
185 
74 
43 



11,303 



1,953 

487 

2,957 

1,598 

2, 134 

20 

701 

209 

1,244 



6,7£ 



654 



325 
720 



8 

330 

484 

20 

543 

3 

608 

13 

313 

3,501 

5.777 

14, 592 

119 

1,579 

87 

259 

278 

806 

2,751 

10 

92 

8 

1,127 

983 

470 

476 
233 
211 



1,008 
808 

11 
308 

22 



Increase 

(+) or 

Total 'lecrease 



253,508 ; +284,493 



94,239 I +113,225 



5,779 



3,315 
238 
1,932 
109 
20 
65 
24 
67 



245 
798 
966 
150 
2,819 
9 
1,144 [ 
27 
S49 
0,138 I 
10,525 I 

19,586 i 

284 
3,020 1 
131 ' 
3,389 i 
1,119 ' 
1,855 
20, 510 
31 

406 I 
21 • 
1,583 
2,769 
3,120 

2,823 

1,481 

450 

3,177 
2,123 
1,402 

35 
2,219 

35 



11,786 



29 

7,494 

364 

3,137 

251 

53 

250 

98 

110 



+1 
+766 
+377 
+145 

+1,066 
+239 

+2,007 
+139 
-264 

+3, 160 
+43, 865 

+4, 085 

+341 

+11,938 

+1, 279 

-1,061 

-64 

+26, 953 

-604 

+403 

+431 

+106 

+1, 242 

+4,953 

+6, 430 

-2, 070 

+8 
+1, 052 

-2, 027 

+7,029 

+1,602 

+242 

-927 

+383 



-946 



130,851 ! 142,154 



28,889 

739 

4,511 

11,424 

4,247 

131 

2,148 

540 

4,494 

73,728 



30,842 
1,226 
7,468 

13, 022 
6,381 
151 
2,849 
749 
5,738 

73,728 



-15 

-2,028 

+126 

-102 

+384 

-1 

+440 

-22 

+272 



+170, 775 



+66, 663 

+2, 388 

+65, 839 

+259 

-890 

+73 

+1, 137 

+858 

+534 

+33, 888 

+26 



4,675 5,329 



66 
289 



373 



+1,439 



+23 
+347 



1 Residence of a year or more is regarded as permanent residence. 

2 Comprises Andorra, Gibraltar, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, and San Marino. 

3 Includes Afghanistan, Arabia, Bhutan, Iraq (Mesopotamia), Muscat, Nepal, Siam, Siberia, and 
"Asia, not specified." 

« "United States" under nonimmigrants covers aliens returning to this country to resume residence 
therein after a temporary stay abroad; and under nonemigrants covers aliens departing for a visit abroad 
with the intention of returning within one year to renew permanent residence in this country. 

5 Comprises Greenland and the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



39 



Table 3. — Net increase or decrease of population, by admission and departure of 
aliens, fiscal years ended June SO, 1927 and 1928, by countries — Continued 



Country of last or intended future 
permanent residence 



Australia, including Papua, Tasma- 
nia, and appertaining islands 

New Zealand, including appertaining 
islands 

Other Pacific islands * 



All countries. 



Europe, total 

Albania 

Austria.- 

Belgium. 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 

Danzig, Free City of 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France, including Corsica 

Germany 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland: 

England 

Northern Ireland.. 

Scotland 

Wales 

Greece... 

Hungary 

Irish Free State 

Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia... 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Luxemburg 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal, including .Yzores, Cape 

Verde, and Madeira Islands 

Rumania 

' Russia 

Spain, including Canary and Bale- 
aric Islands 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Turkey in Europe... 

Yugoslavia 

Other Europe 2 

Asia, total. 

Armenia 

China 

India.. 

Japan 

Palestine 

Persia 

Syria 

Turkey in Asia 

Other Asia ' 



1927 



-Miens admitted 



Immi- 
grant 



464 



248 
34 



Nonim- 
migrant 



307, 255 



158, 513 



263 

1,277 
698 
158 

3,571 
224 

2,473 
136 
473 

4,438 
45, 778 

7,338 

724 

11,085 

1, 535 

2,328 

857 

24, 544 

17, 728 

258 

531 

106 

1,843 

5,660 

8,755 

584 
1,376 
1,254 

455 
8,051 
1,994 

242 
1,386 

390 



3,380 



America, total 

Canada 

Newfoundland 

Mexico 

Cuba.. 

Other West Indies 

British Honduras 

Other Central America. 

Brazil 

Other South America... 

United States < 

Other -\merica s 



21 
1,320 
102 
550 
554 

50 
604 

59 
220 



144. 281 



73, 154 
2,127 

59, 016 
3,012 
1,046 
31 
1,720 
1,213 
2,953 



3,541 



1,219 
217 



Total 



4,005 



1,467 
251 



Aliens departed 



Emi- iNonemi- 
grant grant 



379 i 3,032 



129 
34 



1,144 
144 



Total 



3,411 

1,273 
178 



1928 



193, 376 



43, 477 



7 
565 
673 

46 
428 

12 
803 

32 

230 

4,096 



15,681 

179 

2,430 

430 

313 

832 

738 

2,703 

74 

63 

13 

1,121 

1,562 

450 



149 
220 
312 



946 
82 
74 
35 



6,78 



3 

3,458 

450 

2, 425 

152 

12 

89 

17 

180 



137, 335 



14, 346 

569 

5,490 

9,404 

5,334 

135 

2,490 

604 

3,615 

95, 338 

10 



500,631 I 77,457 



201, 990 57, 185 



270 
1,842 
1,371 

204 
3, 999 

236 
3,276 

168 

703 
8,534 
52, 266 

23, 019 

903 

13, 515 

1,965 

2,641 

1,689 

25, 282 

20, 431 

332 

594 

119 

2,964 

7,222 

9,205 

733 
1,596 
1,566 

1,261 
8,935 
2,940 

324 
1,460 

425 



90 

580 

485 

110 

2,070 

1 

540 

11 

585 

2,030 

6,645 

6,039 

185 

1,498 

39 

2,461 

920 

1,115 

17, 324 

55 

319 

18 

514 

1,686 

3,071 

1,358 

1,002 

426 

1,983 

1,282 

726 

38 
1,941 

38 



10, 166 1 6, 073 



24 

4,778 

552 

2,975 

706 

62 

593 

76 

400 



281,616 



87, 500 
2,696 

64, 506 

12, 416 
6, 380 
166 
4,210 
1,817 
6, 568 

95, 338 
19 



18 

4,364 

156 

1,085 

77 

23 

245 

61 

44 



13, 620 



2,529 

532 

3,957 

1,953 

2,291 

19 

739 

139 

1,461 



196, 899 



39, 849 



403 
529 

41 
501 

25 
621 

13 

402 

3,493 

5,692 

15, 208 

51 

1,652 

72 

352 

577 

1,062 

2,689 

24 

47 

19 

1,186 

965 

350 

524 
223 
260 

912 

1,019 

700 

20 
190 

19 



5,917 



3 

3,384 

209 

2,009 

97 

14 

85 

23 

93 



146, 391 



29, 426 

688 

7,660 

9,911 

5,111 

124 

2,281 

226 

3, 600 

87, 353 

11 



274, 356 



97, 034 



983 

1,014 

151 

2,571 

26 

1,161 

24 

987 

5,523 

12, 337 

21, 247 

236 

3,150 

HI 

2,813 

1,497 

2,177 

20, 013 

79 

366 

37 

1,700 

2,651 

3,421 

1,882 
1,225 



2,301 

1,426 

58 

2,131 

57 



11,990 



21 

7,748 
365 
3, 094 
174 
37 
330 
84 
137 



160,011 



31, 955 

1,220 

11,617 

11,864 

7,402 

143 

3,020 

365 

5, 061 

87, 353 

11 



Foot notes 2, 3, 4, 5 are identical for the same countries as on page 38. 

s Comprises Nauru, New Guinea, Samoa, Yap, and "Pacific islands, not specified. 



40 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOliTER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



Table 3. — Net increase or decrease of population, hy admission and departure oj 
aliens, fiscal years ended June SO, 1927 and 1928, hy countries — Continued 











1928 






Country of last or intended future 
permanent residence ' 


Aliens admitted 


Aliens departed 


Increase 




Immi- 
grant 


Nonim- 
migrant 


Total 


Emi- 
grant 


Nonemi- 
grant 


Total 


(+) or 

decrease 

(-■) 


Others, total 


1,081 


5,778 


6,859 


579 


4,742 


5,321 


-t-1, 538 




Egypt 


215 
260 
385 
193 

28 


142 

596 

3,675 

1,191 

174 


357 

856 

4,060 

1,384 

202 


19 
122 
325 
100 

13 


67 

306 

3,218 

1,022 

129 


86 

428 

3,543 

1,122 

142 


+271 
+428 
+517 
+262 
+60 


Other Africa 


Australia and appertaining islands... 
New Zealand and appertaining islands. 
Other Pacific islands ' 





9 Comprises Nauru, New Guinea, Samoa, Yap, and " Pacific islands, not specified." 

Table 4. — Net increase or decrease of population by admission and departure of 
aliens, fiscal year ended June SO, 1928, by race or people, sex, and age periods 



Race or people 



Aliens admitted 



Immi- 
grant 



Total 307,255 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian (Czech) 

Bulgarian, Serbian, and Montenegrin. 

Chinese 

C'"oatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzego- 

vinian 

Dutch and Flemish 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German _ 

Greek 

Hebrew 

I'ish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian _ 

Maeyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish _ 

Portuguese 

Rumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak).. 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, Danes, 

and Swedes) 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish , 

Spanish American 

Syrian , 

Turkish 

Welsh... 

West Indian (except Cuban) , 

Other peoples 



Male... 
Female. 



SEX 



Under 16 vears... 

16 to 21 years 

22 to 29 vears 

30 to 37 years 

38 to 44 years 

45 years and over . 



956 

1,062 

1,248 

531 

931 

938 

2,058 

95 

2,880 

38 

33, 597 

544 

17, 963 

54, 157 

2,848 

11, 639 

38,193 

2,653 

16, 087 

522 

22 

326 

1,112 

57, 765 

2 

4,238 

844 

443 

1,249 

411 

18, 664 

23, 177 

2,197 

1,018 

3,490 

613 

143 

1,723 

394 

484 

165, 977 
141,278 

49, 680 
73, 092 
95, 727 
42, 642 
19, 371 
26, 743 



Nonim- 
migrant 



193, 376 



2,698 
253 

1,109 
664 

7,065 
909 

6,633 

180 

3,723 

155 

41, 500 

1,350 

8,380 

22,188 

2,919 

3,737 

7,107 

5,160 

17,688 

7,190 

48 

341 

2, 051 

3,857 

10 

2,308 

2,398 

562 

1,265 

91 

11, 359 

11,513 

1,294 

6,635 

4,691 

660 

186 

942 

2,104 

653 

115, 973 
77, 403 

10, 172 
10, 508 
44, 453 
47, 735 
32, 301 
48, 207 



Total 



500, 631 



3,654 
1,315 
2,357 
1,195 
7,996 
1,847 
8,591 

275 

6,603 

193 

75, 097 

1,894 

26, 343 

76, 345 

5,767 

15,376 

45, 300 

7,813 

33, 675 

7,712 

70 

667 

3,163 

61, 622 

12 

6,546 

3,242 

1,005 

2,514 

502 

30, 023 
34, 690 
3,491 
7,653 
8,181 
1,273 
329 
2,665 
2,498 
1,137 

281, 950 
218,681. 

59, 852 
83, 600 
140, 180 
90, 377 
51, 672 
74, 950 



Aliens departed 



Emi- Nonemi- 
grant grant 



77, 457 



789 

47 

1,327 

1,396 

4,300 

534 
1,282 

361 
1,084 

106 
8,780 

647 
1,915 
8,086 
2,525 

253 

1,649 

1,626 

15, 834 

1,055 

39 

351 
1,024 
3,873 
3 
3,046 
1.430 

908 

642 
59 

3,767 

2,268 

746 

2, 578 

1,720 

232 

116 

85 

785 

189 

54, 786 
22, 671 

3,500 
3,176 
16, 977 
20, 841 
16,124 
17, 839 



196, 899 



Total 



274, 366 



1,556 
107 

1,884 
832 

6,057 
441 

7,006 

764 

3,896 

107 

49,660 i 

2,113 

8,615 

20, 272 

1,829 

1,698 

7,476 

3,158 

14, 600 

9,614 

64 

403 

1,621 

9,198 

9 

2,762 

1,977 

928 

1,121 



12,170 

10, 053 

711 

6,385 

4,854 

457 

135 

.518 

2,132 

726 

118, 678 
78, 221 

10,201 
10,835 
45, 308 
48, 685 
33, 652 
48, 318 



2,345 
154 
3,211 
2,228 
9,367 
975 



1,125 

4,980 

213 

58, 440 

2,760 

10,630 

28, 358 

4,354 

1,951 

9,125 

4,784 

30, 434 

10, 669 

103 

754 

2,646 

13, 071 

12 

5, 808 

3,407 

1,836 

1, 763 

149 

16, 937 

12, 321 

1,457 

8,963 

6,574 

689 

261 

603 

2,917 

916 



173,464 
100,892 



13, 701 
14,011 
62, 286 
69, 526 
48, 676 
66, 157 



Increase 

(+)or 

decrease 

(-) 



+226, 275 



+1, 309 

+1,161 

-864 

-1,033 

-1,361 

+872 

+303 

-850 

+1,623 

-20 

+16, 657 

-866 

+15,813 

+47, 987 

+1,413 

+13, 425 

+36, 175 

+3, 029 

+3, 241 

-2, 957 

-33 

-87 

+618 

+48, 661 



+738 
-166 
-831 
+761 
+353 

+14, 086 

+22, 369 

+2, 034 

-1,310 

+1,607 

+584 

+78 

+2, 062 

-419 

+222 

+108,486 
+117,789 

+46, 161 
+69, 589 
+77, 896 
+20, 851 
+2, 996 
+8, 793 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIOXER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



41 



Table 5. — Intended future permanent residence of aliens admitted and last per- 
manent residence of aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1928, by States 
and Territories ^ 



state or Territory 



Total. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado... 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia... 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

M assachuset ts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon. -. 

Pennsylvania 

Philippine Islands 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island • 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Te.xas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Virgin Islands . . ^ 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin. 

Wyoming 

Outside United States. 



Immi- 
grant 



Admitted 



Nonim- 
migrant 



307, 255 



211 
107 

5,081 

114 

23, 344 

776 

5,569 
213 
803 

1,413 

208 

132 

433 

19, 165 

1,930 

1,291 
713 
271 
771 

3,671 

1,099 
20, 461 
25, 872 

2,870 
190 

1,730 
818 
745 
188 

1,584 

15, 967 

623 

87, 503 

308 

876 

8,292 
331 

1, 699 

17, 950 

4 

189 

2,422 
109 
366 
111 
36, 698 
528 

1,531 

312 

1 

5,034 
558 

3,891 
179 



193, 376 



82 

29 

176 

63 

5,894 

164 

2,132 

59 

485 

2,177 

129 

1,938 

74 

5,796 

613 

273 

75 

84 

286 

120 

434 

6,381 

3,968 

449 

84 

480 

98 

156 

27 

145 

7,060 

75 

38, 477 

464 

54 

3,242 

41 

420 

7,248 

10 

686 

763 

24 

34 

60 

749 

125 

84 

182 

11 

1,316 

414 

810 

55 

98, 101 



Total 



500, 631 



Departed 



Emi- 
grant 



77, 457 



293 

136 

5,257 

177 

29, 238 

940 

7,701 

272 

1.288 

3,590 

337 

2,070 

507 

24, 961 

2.543 

1,564 

788 

355 i 

1,057 

3,791 

1,533 

26,842 

29, 840 

3,319 

274 

2,210 1 

916 

901 I 

215 

1,729 I 

23,027 

698 I 
125,980 i 
772 ! 
930 ' 
11,534 
372 
2,119 
25,198 
14 '. 
875 
3,185 
133 
400 
171 
37, 447 
653 
1,615 
494 
12 
6,350 
972 
4,701 
234 
98, 101 



34 

19 

495 

7 

5,121 

116 

1,152 

26 

234 

1,286 

67 

510 

52 

3,802 

390 

127 

169 

29 

307 

27 

142 

2,603 

3,071 

337 

38 

322 

122 

80 

31 

45 

3,454 

148 

39, 966 

44 

60 

2,726 

45 

347 

5,117 



111 

248 

22 

27 

32 

2,252 

64 

12 

93 

5 

1,142 

282 

470 

29 



Nonemi- 
grant 



196, 899 



44 

31 

162 

20 

6,964 

85 

1,103 

47 

303 

1,046 

49 

2,756 

107 

4,984 

469 

283 

129 

58 

227 

140 

329 

5,351 

3,851 

450 

39 

594 

134 

157 

56 

145 

4,045 

108 

36, 735 

226 

133 

2,792 

37 

378 

5,070 

1 

625 

481 

17 

27 

44 

3,166 

116 

74 

100 

8 

1, 325 

289 

780 

66 

no, 143 



Total 



274, 356 



78 

50 

657 

27 

12, 085 

201 

2,255 

73 

537 

2,332 

116 

3,266 

159 

8,786 

859 

416 

298 

87 

534 

167 

471 

7,954 

6,922 

787 

77 

916 

256 

237 

87 

190 

7,499 

256 

76, 701 

270 

193 

5,518 

82 

725 

10, 187 

1 

736 

729 

39 

54 

76 

5,418 

180 

86 

193 

13 

2,467 

571 

1,250 

95 

110, 143 



1 Residence of a year or more is regarded as permanent residence. 
15869—28 4 



42 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



Table 6. — Occupations of aliens admitted and departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 

1928, by classes 



Occupation 



All occupations 

Professional, total 

Actors 

Architects 

Clergy 

Editors 

Electricians 

Engineers (professional) 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientific persons 

Musicians 

OfBcials (Government) 

Physicians.. 

Sculptors and artists... 

Teachers 

Other professional 

Skilled, total 

Bakers 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Blacksmiths 

Bookbinders 

Brewers 

Butchers 

Cabinetmakers 

Carpenters and joiners 

Cigarette makers. 

Cigar makers 

Cigar packers 

Clerks and accountants 

Dressmakers 

Engineers (locomotive, marine, and sta- 
tionary) 

Furriers and fur workers 

Gardeners 

Hat and cap makers 

Iron and steel workers 

Jewelers 

Locksmiths 

Machinists 

Mariners 

Masons 

Mechanics (not specified) 

Metal workers (other than iron, steel, and 

tin) 

Millers 

Milliners 

Miners 

Painters and glaziers 

Pattern makers. 

Photographers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers 

Printers 

Saddlers and harness makers 

Seamstresses 

Shoemakers 

Stokers 

Stonecutters _ 

Tailors 

Tanners and curriers 

TextUe workers (not specified) 

Tinners 

Tobacco workers 

Upholsterers 

Watch and clock makers 

Weavers and spinners 

Wheelwrights. 

Woodworkers (not specified) 

Other skilled 



Admitted 



Departed 



Immi- 
grant 



307, 255 



10,931 



196 

237 

1,130 

30 

1,327 

1,655 

131 

346 

627 

478 

454 

132 

2,391 

1,797 



Nonim- 
migrant 



58, 928 



1,489 

1,128 

839 

75 

10 

1,066 

168 

4,615 

11 

146 

23 

15, 122 

1,437 

810 

119 

735 

75 

1,857 

270 

1,985 

2,032 

1,093 

1,377 

3,888 

517 

211 

318 

1,830 

1,681 

80 

206 

249 

557 

631 

163 

1,328 

1,190 

264 

168 

1, 695 

82 

195 

298 

12 

159 

218 

689 

19 

149 

5,649 



193, 376 



21, 985 



1,337 

560 

1,977 

185 

398 

3,671 

1,014 

1,444 

976 

3,262 

1,340 

712 

3,228 

1,881 



29, 293 



724 

711 

258 

24 

10 

402 

99 

2,636 

2 

488 

16 

7,377 

692 

1,122 

162 

459 

42 

597 

186 

248 

965 

2,495 

1,101 

1,317 

153 

64 

164 

860 

808 

37 

120 

97 

204 

307 

45 

312 

695 

259 

96 

813 

49 

77 

53 

31 

55 

93 

300 

5 

47 

1,416 



Total 



Emi- 
grant 



500,631 I 77,457 



32,916 



1,533 

797 

3,107 

215 

1,725 

5,326 

1,145 

1,790 

1,603 

3,740 

1,794 

844 

5,619 

3,678 



3,644 



280 

75 
376 

14 
160 
668 

80 
159 
177 
245 
207 

76 
564 
563 



88, 221 



2,213 

1,839 

1,097 

99 

20 

1,468 

267 

7,251 

13 

634 

39 

22, 499 

2,129 

1,932 

281 

1,194 

117 

2,454 

456 

2,233 

2,997 

3,588 

2,478 

5,205 

670 

275 

482 

2,690 

2,489 

117 

326 

346 

761 

938 

208 

1,640 

1,885 

523 

264 

2,508 

131 

272 

351 

43 

214 

311 

989 

24 

196 

7,065 



10,524 



292 

249 

86 

10 

1 

181 

128 

1,159 

6 

321 

6 

2,238 

219 



62 

176 

3 

326 

52 

13 

632 

706 

255 

511 

153 

103 
23 

573 

232 
14 
32 
74 
82 
57 
3 
46 

255 
11 
28 

361 
9 
16 
34 
2 
23 
12 

182 

2 

54 

451 



Nonemi- 
grant 



196, 899 



18, 386 



1,265 
444 

1,483 
157 
411 

3,201 
779 
913 
868 

2,173 

1,454 
358 

2,829 

2,051 



28, 765 



682 
559 
242 

20 

10 

362 

254 

2,532 

15 
433 

41 
8,776 



571 

175 

831 

34 

616 

220 

118 

1,414 

1,808 

624 

1,374 

358 

107 

116 

986 

668 

43 

101 

234 

212 

171 

12 

153 

360 

60 

57 

732 

21 

59 

69 

24 

70 

44 

588 

4 

113 

1,043 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



43 



Table 6. — Occupations of aliens admitted and departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 
1928, by classes — Continued 



Occupation 



Admitted 



Immi- 
grant 





Miscellaneous, total... 112,304 



Nonim- 
migrant 



Total 



Departed 



Emi- 
grant 



Nonemi- 
grant 



Total 



A gents , 

Bankers 

Draymen, hackmen, and teamsters. 

Farmers _ 

Farm laborers 

Fishermen 

Hotel keepers... 

Laborers 

Manufactm-ers 

Merchants and dealers 

Servants 

Other miscellaneous 



1,222 

107 

767 

8,773 

24, 161 

951 

93 

36, 218 

165 

3,378 

28,751 

7,718 



Ko occupation (including women and 
children).. 125, 092 



7,326 ; 189,630 



41, 233 



78, 113 



4,012 

1,313 

196 

3,881 

5,407 

514 

555 

17,825 

1,472 

18, 083 

15, 226 

8,842 



64,772 



5, 234 

1,420 

963 

12, 654 

29, 568 

1,465 

648 

54,043 

1, 637 
21,461 
43, 977 
16, 560 



160 

143 

26 

1,523 

241 

114 

169 

29,396 

126 

2,284 

4,253 

2,798 



2,031 

1,473 

189 

4,261 

1,052 

468 

446 

27, 260 

1,317 

17, 121 

12, 542 

9,953 



189, 864 



22, 056 



71, 635 



119,346 



2,191 

1,616 

215 

5,784 

1,293 

582 

615 

56, 656 

1,443 

19, 405 

16, 795 

12, 751 



93, 691 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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3, 429 

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Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian (Czech) 

Bulgarian, Serbian, and Montenegrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Ilerzegovinian 

Dutch and Flemish 

Kast Indian 

Knglish 

Finnish 

French 

Oorman 

< ireok. 

llobrow 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican... 

l';icinc Islander 

I'olish 

I'ortuguese 

Rumanian 

Uussian 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, Danes, and Swedes) 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Si)anish 

Sjianish American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cuban) 

(Hher peoples 



52 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GEXEEAL OF IMMIGRATION 



53 






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54 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION" 

Table 17. — Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 192S, by race or 
people, sex, and conjugal condition 

[For total by race, see Table 18] 





Conjugal condition 


Race or people 


Male 


Female 




Total 


Single 


Mar- 
ried 


Wid- 
owed 


Di- 
vorced 


Total 


Single 


Mar- 
ried 


Wid- 
owed 


Di- 
vorced 


Total 


54, 786 


22, 358 


31,480 


} 910 


38 


22, 671 


8,789 


12, 404 


1,452 


26 






A frican (black) 


358 
35 

916 

1,139 

4,049 

456 

875 

224 
648 
104 

4,786 
391 
965 

4,366 

2,184 
184 
802 

1,201 

13. 826 

753 

30 

229 

630 

2,709 
1 

2,191 

1,176 
625 
476 
46 

2,506 
1,229 

581 
2,193 
1,069 

162 
98 
57 

290 

166 


160 
16 

211 

373 

1,000 

167 

516 

96 

340 

72 

2, 515 

178 

562 

2, 599 

1,103 

60 

556 

439 

3,213 

299 

17 

107 

172 

1,785 

1 

517 

483 

144 

153 

4 

1,525 
625 
88 
1,130 
745 
72 
50 
29 
151 
85 


193 

18 

679 

742 

3,044 

271 

343 

125 

298 

29 

2, 159 

204 

391 

1,686 

1,073 

115 

287 

733 

10, 371 

454 

13 

113 

433 

866 


i 5 

t 1 

1 25 

23 

3 
17 
14 

3 
9 
3 

106 
9 
12 

77 

8 

9 

19 

28 

239 


1 

1 
2 

1 
2 

.. 
g- 
-- 

-- 
3 


431 

12 

411 

257 

251 

78 

407 

137 

436 

2 

3,994 

256 

950 

3,720 

341 

69 

787 

425 

2,008 

302 

9 

122 

394 

1,164 

2 

855 

254 

283 

166 

13 

1,261 

1,039 

165 

385 j 

651 1 

70 

18 

28 

495 i 
23 


174 
2 

128 

54 

75 

11 

175 

43 

122 

1 

1,730 

107 

479 

1,878 

52 

22 

523 

77 

371 

62 

3 

26 

82 

495 

1 

168 

63 

72 

38 

1 

606 
425 

40 
128 
306 

18 
5 

10 

208 

8 


235 

7 

246 

173 

171 

60 

203 

85 

282 

1 

2,049 

134 

406 

1,668 

276 

36 

232 

321 

1,452 

238 

6 

83 

260 

542 

1 

595 

179 

182 

121 

11 

597 
540 
114 
231 
323 

44 
7 

15 
264 

14 


22 
3 

37 

29 
5 

7 
27 

9 

28 




Armenian.. 




Bohemian and ^Moravian 
(Czech) 




Bulgarian, Serbian, and Mon- 




Chinese 




Croatian and Slovenian 


"2 


Dalmatian*, Bosnian, and 
Herzegovinian . 




Dutch and Flemish 




East Indian 




Knglish . .. 


214 
15 
63 

171 
13 
11 
31 
26 

184 
2 


I 






French 

German... 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish... 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 


2 
3 

1 
1 


Korean 


:::::::::::::: 






9 
23 

55 


2 

3 


13 
51 
126 




Magyar 


1 


Mexican . 


1 


Pacific Islander 




Polish 


1,601 
676 
456 
311 
41 

946 

583 

485 

1,046 

319 

88 

47 

25 

137 

79 


70 
17 
22 
10 
1 

35 
19 
8 
17 

4 1 
2 ' 
1 1 
3 
2 
2 


3 
3- 
2 

2" 

i' 


91 
11 
29 

7 

1 

56 

73 

11 

24 

22 

8 

6 

3 

22 

1 


1 


Portuguese . . 


I 


Rumanian . 








Kuthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, 


2 


Scotch 


1 


Slovak . 




Spanish.. 


2 


Spanish American 




Syrian . . . 




Turkish 

Welsh 




West Indian (except Cuban).. 
Other peoples. . . 


1 







REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



55 



Table 18. — Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1928, by race or 
people and length of residence in the Jjnited States 

[For total race by sex, see Table 10] 





Num- 
ber de- 
parted 


Length of residence 


in the United States 


Race or people 


1 to 5 
years 


5 to 10 
years 


10 to 15 
years 


15 to 20 
years 


20 to 25 
years 


25 
years 
and 
over 


Total 


77, 457 


51, 771 


11,567 


0,915 


3,546 


1,825 


1,833 






African (black).. 


789 

47 

1,327 

1,390 

4,300 

534 
1,282 

361 
1,084 

106 
8,780 

647 
1,915 
8. 086 
2, 525 

253 

1, 649 

1, 620 

15, 834 

1, 055 

39 

351 
1,024 
3,873 
3 
3,046 
1,430 
•908 

042 
59 

3,767 

2,208 

746 

2,578 

1,720 

232 

116 

85 

785 

189 


473 

25 

889 

075 

1,029 

182 

1,011 

209 

754 

40 

6,430 

371 

1.408 

7,010 

084 

167 

1,130 

845 

11,033 

545 

14 

94 

587 

2,997 

2 

1,463 

805 

521 

307 

26 

3,111 

1,927 

400 

1,076 

1,326 

88 

51 

61 

508 

117 


182 

8 

164 

256 

912 

127 

162 

19 

180 

18 

1,102 

67 

250 

451 

723 

40 

230 

3S6 

2,806 

268 

13 

20 

97 

464 

1 

239 

405 

95 

73 

10 

295 
215 
115 
083 
194 
55 
16 
14 
180 
32 


94 

12 

131 

230 

337 

102 

42 

33 

76 

10 

532 

124 

103 

324 

096 

19 

105 

197 

1,065 

80 

2 

122 

171 

230 


25 

1 

78 

137 

341 

72 

28 

30 

40 

25 

319 

51 

51 

123 

301 

13 

70 

109 

520 

37 

3 

67 

115 

118 


8 

1 

45 

87 

171 

38 

17 

8 

17 

13 

195 

27 

22 

80 

111 

9 

45 

57 

294 

77 

7 

37 

42 

31 


7 








20 


Bulgarian, Serbian, and Monteneerin 


11 


Chinese 


910 




13 


Cuban . 


22 


Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian 

Dutch and Flemish . . 


2 
17 








202 




7 




21 


German 


98 




10 


Hebrew _. 


5 




69 




32 




119 




42 






Lithuanian . 


11 




12 




33 






Polish 


817 
151 
177 
184 
13 

149 
40 
80 
149 
123 
45 
40 
3 
75 
23 


347 

47 

74 

59 

6 

96 
28 
56 
44 
51 
27 
6 
2 
15 
14 


146 

16 

39 

15 

2 

63 
28 
27 
15 
14 
12 
3 
1 
3 
2 


34 




6 




2 




4 




2 


Scandinavian (Norwegians, Danes, and 


53 


Scotch -. 


24 


Slovak 


8 




11 


Spanish American . 


12 




5 


Turkish 




Welsh 


4 


West Indian fexcept Cuban) . . ._ 


4 


Other peoples 


1 







56 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



Table 19. — N oiiemigrant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June SO, 1928, by race 
or people, age, and conjugal condition 

[For total race, by sex, see Table 46] 



Race or people 



Total 

African (black) , 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Mora- 
vian (Czech) 

Bulgarian, Serbian, 

and Montenegrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slove- 
nian.. 

Cuban. 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, 

and Herzegovinian.. 

Dutch and Flemish... 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean.- 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish.. 

Portuguese 

Rumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 
Scandinavian (Norwe- 
gians, Danes, and 

Swedes) 

Scotch... 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except 

Cuban) 

O ther peoples. 



Num- 
ber de- 
parted 



196, 899 



1,556 
10' 



832 
5,057 

441 
7,006 

764 

3,896 

107 

49, 660 

2,113 

8,615 

20, 272 

1,829 

1, 

7,476 

3,158 

14,600 

9,614 

64 

403 

1,521 

9,198 

9 

2,762 

1,977 

928 

1,121 

90 



12, 170 

10, 053 

711 

6,385 

4,854 

457 

135 

518 

2,132 
726 



Age 



Under 

16 
years 



10,201 



112 
20 



21 
302 

9 

874 

18 

227 

1 

3,138 

53 

357 

619 

37 

145 

260 

225 

561 

161 

1 

13 

26 

598 

1 

59 

57 

23 

55 

3 



324 
650 

30 
306 
498 

56 
1 

27 

231 

27 



16 to 21 
years 



22 to 29 
years 



10, 835 



18 
724 

22 

145 

4 

2,110 

56 

695 

894 

52 

247 

474 

183 

326 

383 

2 

10 

36 

1,280 

1 

59 

47 

23 

57 

15 



673 
664 

14 
322 
494 

38 
6 

47 

191 
26 



30 to 37 38 to 44 
years years 



45,308 48,685 33,552 



541 
23 

436 

131 
1,141 

65 
1,622 

188 

849 

37 

8,915 

497 

1,906 

7,137 

370 

411 

2,200 

648 

2,721 

1,602 

18 

54 

275 

2,306 

1 

328 

589 

174 

222 

17 



3,749 

2,356 

127 

1,488 

1,223 

70 

23 

114 

600 
134 



344 
24 

547 

244 
1,557 

1421 
1,450 

223 

1,127 

38 

10,113 

696 

2,074 

4,622 

667 

353 

1,584 

936 

5,124 

2,329 

11 

125 

399 

■ 1, 893 

3 

751 

891 

257 

320 

17 



3,647 
1,930 

253 
2,003 
1, 

130 
53 

102 



225 
11 



232 
945 

106 
1,103 

171 

744 

12 

7,939 

569 

1,293 

2,756 

411 

230 

959 

622 

3,458 

2,106 

11 

124 

352 

1,315 

1 

889 

278 

249 

229 

18 



1,596 
1,298 
165 
1,266 
765 
79 
31 
96 

322 
135 



45 
years 
and 
over 



48, 318 



193 
16 

356 

178 
824 

101 
1,233 

142 

804 

15 

17, 445 

242 

2,290 

4,244 

292 

312 

1, 

544 

2,410 

3,033 

21 

77 

433 

1,806 

2 

676 

115 

202 

238 

20 



2,181 

3,155 

122 

1,000 

788 

84 

21 

132 

380 
192 



Conjugal condition 



Single 



80, 968 



618 
62 



609 



277 
1,031 



Mar- 
ried 



110, 521 



Wid- 
owed 



5,197 



401 
1,206] 



530 
4,009 



136 290 
3, 069 3, 837 



313 

1,498 

49 

20, 695 

949 

4,253 

9,833 

677 

772 

4,324 

1,229 

3,977 

1,834 

13 

142 

466 

4,020 

4 

779 

620 

285 

448 

36 



6,590 
4,473 

153 
2,756 
2,349 

208 
53 

228 

879 
261 



432 

2,291 

53 

27, 169 

1,119 

4,024 

9,933 

1,128 

872 

2,924 

1,854 

10, 334 

7,677 

51. 

253 

984 

4,897 

4 

1,895 

1,321 

601 

651 

52 



5,353 
5,138 

543 
3,511 
2,408 

232 
78 

275 

1,202 
452 



25 
17 

15 
95 

16 

103 

5 

,742 

42 
307 
479 

24 

50 
224 

74 
280 



7 
65 
274 

1 
86 
35 
41 
22 

2 



217 
429 

15 
112 

94 

17 
4 

15 

50 
13 



Di- 
vorced 



213 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



57 



Table 20. — Nonemigrant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1928, by race 
or people and length of residence in the United States 



Race or people 



Num- 
ber de- 
parted 



Total !196, 



110, 143 



African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian (Czech) 

Bulgarian, Serbian, and Montenegrin 

Chinese ] 

Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban .1 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovi- I 

nian 

Dutch and Flemish.. ; 

East Indian i 

English I 

Finnish ] 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean : 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese... 

Rumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, Danes, 

and Swedes) 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish .American 

S yr ian 

Turkish 

Welsh.... 

West Indian (except Cuban) 

Other peoples 



1,556 
107 

1,884 
832 

5, 057 
441 

7,006 

764 

3,896 

107 

49, 660 

2,113 

8,615 

20, 272 

1,829 

1,698 

7,476 

3,158 

14, 600 

9,614 

64 

403 

1,521 

9,198 

9 

2,762 

1,977 

928 

1,121 

90 

12, 170 
10, 053 

711 

6,385 

4,854 

457 

135 

518 

2,132 

726 



Length of residence in the United States 



Less 

than 1 

year 



771 
62 

461 

172 
4,760 

105 
6,779 

312 

2,213 

90 

36, 584 

560 

5,742 

8,942 

649 

1,316 

3,682 

1,367 

4,186 

2,249 

23 

95 

715 

5,330 

9 

558 

665 

261 

662 

53 

4,627 
5,728 

167 
2,902 
4,477 

341 
69 

344 
1,630 

485 



1 to5 
years 



56, 631 



442 
33 
906 
349 
82 
156 
201 

347 

1,125 

8 

10, 078 

1,009 

2,331 

9,725 

436 

245 

2,231 

826 

6,249 

1,795 

14 

101 

447 

2,458 



Stoic 
years 



15, 390 



1,049 
642 
347 
305 

21 

5,782 

3,559 

334 

2,042 

300 

46 

31 

133 

331 

115 



239 

216 
99 

105 
54 
13 

49 

315 

6 

1,805 

147 

304 

796 

378 

77 

837 

462 

2,474 

2,276 

10 

19 

108 

1,081 



507 

88 

59 

4 

774 

446 

98 

1,071 

45 

30 

14 

22 

105 

62 



10 to 15 
years 



7,546 



63 
3 
151 
117 
32 
66 



27 
163 
2 
637 
238 
118 
367 
259 

31 
316 
227 
974 
1,217 
4 
102 
123 
266 



15 to 20 20 to 25 
years years 



3,392 



29 



573 
125 
141 
58 



476 
190 
58 
243 
26 
22 
17 
14 
37 
48 



22 

39 

3 

20 

42 

1 

249 

93 

50 

216 

82 

19 

187 

174 

422 

551 

3 

61 

76 

36 



2,413 



249 

28 

62 

20 

2 

273 

77 

34 

72 

5 

12 
3 
2 
17 



137 

40 

39 

102 

20 

5 

115 

67 

215 

1,057 

8 

21 

44 

25 



24 
14 

1 

143 

34 

15 

32 

1 

4 

1 

1 

2 

3 



25 
years 
and 
over 



1,384 



170 
26 
31 
124 
5 
5 
108 
35 
80 



15869—28- 



58 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 63 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 65 



1 1 IcM 1 


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66 EEPOET OF THE C0MMI5SI0XER GEXEKAI. OF EMMIGEATIOX 



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EEPOP.T OF THE C03I3ILS5IOXEE GEXZRAL OF lilinGRATION 67 





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68 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 69 



1 1 1 .« i . 1 


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232 

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189 


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70 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 71 





1 1 ^ f 1 1 


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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



(pagioads 

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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 73 



i' 


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15869—28- 



74 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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79 






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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGBATIOX 85 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 91 



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98 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL, OF IMMIGRATION 



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EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 107 



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Plasterers 

Plumbers 

Printers 

Seamstresses... 

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108 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGRATION 121 



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Dutch and Flemish.. 

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English 

Finnish 

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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 127 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 129 



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130 EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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132 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



C0CCOl*-l^4O^C0<MecW CC>-HClC^iMi^iMaS'^l:^Oi«CiCO -^fOOfMOSO 



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EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 133 






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134 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION" 






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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 149 



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236 
2,595 

526 
179 
62 
200 
291 

988 

1,647 

215 

214 

112 

72 

10 

'128 

21 

98 

13, 286 
5,553 


Magyar. 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Rumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegi- 
ans, Danes, and Swedes) . 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish.. 

Spanish American 

Syrian.. 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cu- 
ban) 

Other peoples. 

Male.- 

Female 



150 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Tablk 52. — Aliens debarred from entering the United Stdtes, fiscal year ended 
June SO, 1928, showing number rejected at the land border stations and at the 
seaports of entry, by causes and sex 



Cause 



Total. 



Feeble-minded 

Insane, or have been insane 

Epileptics 

Constitutional psychopathic inferiority 

Tuberculosis (noncontagious) ._. 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious disease... 

Surgeon's certificate of mental or physical 

defect (not specified), which may aflect 

alien's ability to earn a living 

Likely to become a public charge ._ 

Coming in consequence of advertisements 

Contract laborers 

Assisted aliens 

Accompanying aliens (under sec. 18) 

Under 16 years of age, unaccompanied by 

parent 

Unable to read (over 16 years of age).. 

Had been deported within 1 year 

Criminals. 

Immoral classes 



Cnder immUjratwn act of W2i 



Under section 17 

Expired immigration visa 

Not a nonimmigrant or nonquota immigrant 
(alien eligible to citizenship), as specified in 
visa. 



Nonimmigrant or nonquota immigrant (alien 
eligible to citizenship) without visa. 

Quota immigrant, without visa 

Alien ineligible to citizenship, with improper 
visa. 

Alien ineligible to citizenship, without visa... 



Num- 
ber de- 
barred 



18, 839 



10 
13 
3 

1 
196 



104 
344 

85 
4 
15 

16 
60 
3 
59 
16 



Land border stations 



Male 



319 



8,041 
8,987 



19 
517 



11, 081 



Female Total 



5,324 t 16,405 



80 



50 

147 

1 

71 



5,265 
5, 262 

1 
61 



20 
149 



2, 499 
2.540 



70 

296 

1 

77 
1 
6 

13 
46 



7,764 
7,802 



Seaports 



Male 



2,205 



197 



253 
1, 1.39 



17 
407 



F emale 



55 



Total; 



2, 434 



105 



277 
1,185 



16 
434 



EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIOXEK GENERAL OF IMMIGUATION 151 

Table 53. — -Aliens debarred from entering the United States, fiscal year ended 
June SO, 192S, showing number rejected at the land border stations and at the 
seaports of entry, by race or -people and sex 



Race or people 


Num- 
ber de- 
barred 


1 

Land border stations 


Seaports 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Total 


18, 839 


11,081 


5,324 


16,405 


2,205 


229 


2,434 




African (black) 


322 

45 

54 

60 

462 

68 

31 

10 

283 

13 

3,390 

131 

1,622 

1,297 

161 

898 

1,590 

251 

402 

84 

8 

62 

236 

2,595 

1 

526 

179 

62 

200 

291 

988 

1,647 

215 

214 

112 

72 

10 

128 

21 

98 


32 
16 

28 

31 

8 

41 

1 

5 

195 

13 

2,127 

79 

1,081 

820 

57 

457 

1,087 

149 

138 

24 


19 
17 
21 
6 
1 
8 
.. 

66 

"i,"i67" 

47 

517 

314 

24 

348 

469 

19 

27 

10 


51 
33 

49 

37 

9 

49 

1 

8 

261 

13 

3,294 

126 

1,598 

1,134 

81 

805 

1,556 

168 

165 

34 


259 

8 

3 

21 

423 

16 

28 

2 

15 


12 

4 
2 
2 
30 
3 
2 
.. 


271 


Armenian 


12 


Bohemian and Moravian (Czech) 


5 


Bulgarian, Serbian, and Herzegovinian 

Chinese 


23 

453 


Croatian and Slovenian 


19 


Cuban _ .. ... 


30 


Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian 

Dutch and Flemish . 


2 
22 


East Indian 




English 


77 

5 

21 

143 

78 

79 

29 

79 

216 

43 

8 

8 

10 

35 


19 

3" 

20 

2 
14 

5 

4 
21 

7 

.. 
9 


96 


Finnish ._ _ 


5 


French 


24 


German .. . 


163 


Greek 


80 


Hebrew . . ..... 


93 


Irish 


34 


Italian (north)... 


83 


Italian (south) 


237 


Japanese 


50 


Korean. _. 


8 


Lithuanian 


38 

189 

1,535 

1 

372 

3 

32 

119 

206 

709 

1,088 

173 

41 

10 

32 

3 

90 

2 

49 


16 

35 

1,016 

'"""125" 

"13" 

60 

85 

242 

522. 

21 

22 

2 

17 

1 

36 

28" 


54 

224 

2,551 

1 

497 

3 

45 

179 

291 

951 

1,610 

194 

63 

12 

49 

4 

126 

2 

77 


g 


Magyar 


12 


Mexican . 


44 


Pacific Islander 




Polish 


23 

172 

14 

17 


6 
4 
3 
4 


29 


Portuguese.. 


176 


Rumanian 


17 


Russian _. 


21 


Ruthenian (Russniak) 




Scandinavian (Norwegians, Danes, and 

Swedes) __. 

Scotch 


35 

28 

21 

146 

87 

18 

5 

2 

12 

19 


2 
9 

" 5' 

13 
5 
1 

7' 

2 


37 
37 


Slovak __i 

Spanish 

Spanish American 


21 
151 
100 


Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 


23 
6 
2 


W^est Indian (except Cuban) .. 


19 


Other peoples 


21 







152 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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REPOKT OF THE COMMISSIOISrER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION" 153 

Table 55. — Permanent residents of contiguous foreign teiritory applying for 
temporary sojourn in the United States refused admission, fiscal year ended 
June SO, 1928, by causes 



Cause 



Total 



Cana- 
dian 
border 



Mexican 
border 



Total... 

Idiots^ 

Imbeciles... 

Feeble-minded .■ 

Insane 

Epileptics ■ 

Constitutional psychopathic inferiority 

Surgeon's certificate of mental or physical defect... 

Tulierculosis (noncontagious) 

Loathsome or dangerous contagious disease 

Chronic alcoholism 

Liliely to become a public charge 

Professional beggars ■ 

Vagrants — 

Contract laborers. 

Assisted aliens 

Accompanying aliens (under sec. 18) 

Under IG years of age, unaccompanied by parent 

Criminals 

Anarchists 

Prostitutes and aliens coming for any immoral purpose 

Aliens who are supported by or receive proceeds of prostitution.. — 

Aliens who procure or attempt to bring in prostitutes or females for any 

immoral purpose 

Had been deported within 1 year 

Unable to read (over 16 years of age) 

Without proper visa under immigration act of 1924 — 



6,527 



19 

16 

22 

31 

145 

23 

205 

3 

2,144 

1 

1 

25 

11 

119 

41 

143 

1 

40 

7 

32 

48 

601 

2,839 



4,912 



13 

15 
17 
27 
41 
22 
42 

1 
1,566 

1 

1 
25 
11 
40 
35 
62 

1 
30 

4 

23 

48 

416 

2,464 



1,615 



1 
5 
4 

104 
1 

163 
2 

578 



186 
375 



15869—28- 



-11 



154 EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



sasodjnd iBJOtnaii jaqjo jo noijn;!} 
-sojd joj noi jBiJOdmi jo noijirjijsojd ;6 ssan 
-isnq 9qi qjiM pajoennoo riaaq aaiABq s« jo 
'iajnoojd b io ajnji jsojd v sij pajiodap naaq 
2niABq J9i}B sajB^g pajinxi aq; n; pnnoj 



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sa^rnijsojd s^oajojd jo s^sissb jo 'sasodjnd 
IBJomrai Sn^ jo; snaiiu io sajnjijsojd ni 
gmjq oj p9}dma}iB j6 pajn oojd oq.vi suaqy 



sajnjijsojd .iq pajnanb 
-ajj XiiBnitqEq aoB[d jaq'jo jo uoijn^rjsojd 
JO asnoq qji.vi pajoanaoo jo 'noijnjijsojd 
JO spaaoojd'aqj paAiaoaj jo ^g ' pa; joddng 



aoijnjijsoJd JO 
sasnoq jo sajBrani jo '^jjna jajjB sairnijsojj 



asodjnd 
IBJomrai S.UV JOJ Snimoo snaiiB jo sajmi^sojj 



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papnini-aiqaa^ 



sanaaqtaj 



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sasnBO puB snoijipnoo iBOisXqd jaqjo 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL. OF IMMIGBATIOiN" 155 



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156 REPORT or THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 





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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 157 



1 ! I ! 1 1 1 : 1 1 : I I 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1^ Icst^o loMccn 1 r~ «5 to t~ .- e~j « j ■ -i 


1 1 \mc-i 1 c> . 1 1 « 1 1 tc 1 rt rt 1 1 (M 1 1 


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exicau 

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otch 

sanish _ 

^rian 

urkish 

elsh 

ther peoples 



->Wi-^<i^pHpHpHKPc(ac»t»orv3M33Ei!>l>0 



158 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 





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Dalmat'nn, Bosnian, 

and Herzegovinian--- 

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English - 

Finnish _ _-. 

French 


30tq 


1 

l£ 
1 c 


Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 


Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 159 



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o r^ t^ t^ c^ —* c^ « cc en 



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164 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION 167 



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disease (not specified) 

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atrophy 

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Poor development, lack of devel- 
opment (not specified)--. 

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tis 

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Senility (physical degeneration inci- 
dent to age) 

Trachoma 

Tuberculosis, , _ 

i; ndersized ..• 

Uncinariasis 

Venereal diseases 



168 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 







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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 169 



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170 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 





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EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 171 









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172 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 







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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 173 



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174 REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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178 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Table 65. — Aliens granted hospital treatment under sections 18 and 22, fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1928, by race or people 





Total 


Chi- 
nese 


Ger- 
man 


He- 
brew 


Ital- 
ian 


Japa- 
nese 


All 
other 


Number granted treatment 


207 


142 


2 


4 


2 


44 


13 






Diseases: 

Trachoma.- 


1 
186 
20 

194 

12 

1 

188 
11 
3 
2 
3 

42 
20 
22 
10 
113 

149 
58 

19 

173 

15 












1 


Uncinariasis _ 


141 
1 

134 

8 








44 

43 
1 


1 


Other diseases __ 


2 
2 


4 

2 
2 


2 
2 


11 


Result of treatment and disposition: 

Cured and admitted 


11 


Still under treatment 


1 


Otherwise disposed of 


1 


Length of treatment: 

Under 1 month 


141 

1 






1 


44 


2 


Under 2 months 


2 


1 


7 


Under 4 months... 


1 




2 


5 to 10 months... 






1 
2 

1 


1 


Still under treatment, length of time not stated 










1 


By whom expenses were paid: 

Parent ... 


36 
10 
10 
3 
83 

107 
35 

17 
120 

5. 


...... 

1 




1 

7 
7 

'"'29" 

29 
15 


4 


Husband 


2 


Self. 


.-... 


1 
1 


3 


Relative.. 


3 


Other 


1 


Sex: 

Male 


1 
1 


3 

1 


2 




Female.. ... ........ 


6 


Age: 

Under 16 years 


2 


16 to 44 years . . 


2 


3 
1 


1 
1 


37 

7 


10 


45 years and over 


1 







Table 66. — Aliens granted hospital treatment under sections 18 and 22, fiscal year 
ended June SO, 1928, by ports 













Result of treat- 












Diseases 


ment and dispo- 




Length of treatmen 














sition 
















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a 


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1 


186 


20 


194 


12 


1 


188 


11 


3 


2 


3 






New York, N. Y.. 


20 
129 

58 


1 


"129" 

57 


19 


16 
120 
58 


3 
9 


1 


2 
129 
57 


10 


3 


2 


3 


San Francisco, Calif 




Seattle, Wash. 




1 
















i 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 179 

Table G7. — Comparison between alien arrivals and head-tax settlements, fiscal 

year ended June 30, 192S 

Immigrant aliens admitted 307, 255 

Nonimmigrant aliens admitted 193, 376 

Aliens debarred 18, 839 

Aliens admitted from insular possessions or mainland 

ports 5,478 

Aliens debarred from insular possessions 40 

Admitted under general order No. 86 1, 958 

Aliens died 14 

Erroneous head-tax settlements 2, 053 

Head-tax cases pending from last vear 46, 150 

575, 163 

Exempt from head-tax payments, as follows: 

In transit (groups) 5, 787 

Other transits (includes 4,649 Chinese in transit 
under bond across land territory of the United 

States) 34, 832 

1-year residents of Canada, Newfoundland, Mexico, 

and Cuba, coming for a temporary stay 8, 577 

Domiciled aliens returning 5, 501 

Government officials and consular passengers 6, 515 

Alien residents of the Philippine or Virgin Islands. _ 1, 253 
Aliens from Porto Rico and Hawaii, who reached 
said islands prior to Julv 1, 1907, or subsequent 

to May 1, 1917 I 1, 781 

Aliens admitted to Porto Rico and Hawaii from 

mainland 2,072 

Under 16 years of age, accompanied by parents 52, 729 

Under general order No. 86 596 

Alien veterans 104 

Exemptions on account of aliens debarred 17, 980 

Citizens erroneously manifested 1, 844 

Total 139, 571 

Head-tax pavments pending at close of vear 38, 565 

178, 136 

Aliens on whom head tax was paid • 397, 027 

Amount of head tax collected during the year $3, 176, 198. 70 

Table 68. — Alien stowaways found on board vessels arriving at ports of the United 
States, fiscal year ended June 30, 1928, by ports or districts 



Total 1,383 



New York, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass 

Philadelphia, Pa- 
Baltimore, Md__ 

Portland, Me 

Norfolk, Va 

Savannah, Ga 

Charleston, S. C. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 

Miami, Fla 

Key West, Fla. . 
Tampa, Fla 



660 
98 

109 
83 
7 
21 
4 
12 
10 
14 
27 
23 



Mobile, Ala 23 

New Orleans, La 131 

Galveston, Tex 32 

Houston, Tex 5 

Port Arthur, Tex 6 

Other Atlantic and other Gulf 

ports 5 

San Francisco, Calif 3 

Portland, Oreg 1 

Seattle, Wash 14 

Los Angeles, Calif 56 

Hawaii 10 

Porto Rico 29 



' 1 alien was taxed at $1, 1 at $2, 19 at $4 each, 397,006 at $8 each, and $71.70 was turned in from old 
accounts. 



180 REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Table 69. — Japanese aliens applied for admission, admitted, debarred, deported, 
and departed, fiscal years ended Jtme SO, 1927, and 1928 ^ 



Continen- 
tal United 
States 



Hawaii 



1928 



Continen- 
tal United 
States 



Hawaii 



Applicants for admission 

Admitted 

Debarred from entry 

Deported after entry 

Departures 



5,527 

5,477 

50 

58 

8.192 



1,707 
1,700 



3,271 



6,012 

5,935 

77 

108 

8,016 



1,784 

1,777 

7 



2,653 



1 Admissions include both immigrant and nonimmigrant aliens, and departures include both emigrant 
and nonemigrant aliens. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1928, 28 Koreans were admitted to Hawaii , 
2 were debarred, and 43 departed therefrom; 42 Koreans were admitted to continental United States, 6 were 
debarred, 5 were deported after entry, and 60 departed therefrom. 

Table 70. — Increase or decrease of Japanese population by alien admissions and 
departures, fiscal years ended June SO, 1927, and 1928, by months ^ 



Month 



Total fiscal year 1927 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April... 

May 

June 

Total fiscal year 1928 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March. 

April 

May 

June. 



Continental United States 



Admitted 



547 
506 
457 
474 
435 
381 
206 
375 
441 
637 
456 
562 



Departed 



5,935 



478 
568 
594 
475 
364 
398 
262 
356 
613 
654 
609 
564 



Increase 
(-f) or de- 
crease (— ) 



8,192 



455 
499 
863 
744 
1,122 
769 
620 
614 
658 
607 
615 
626 



8,016 



326 
686 
731 
929 
1,137 
776 
486 
498 
748 
609 
535 
555 



-2, 715 



+92 
+7 
-406 
-270 
-687 
-388 
-414 
-239 
-217 

-F30 
-159 

-64 



-2, 081 



Hawaii 



Admitted 



1,700 



Departed 



187 
149 
176 
287 
117 
173 
79 
72 
119 
96 
99 
146 



1,777 



+152 
-118 
-137 
-454 
-773 
-378 
-224 
-142 
-135 
+45 
+74 
+9 



117 
239 
223 
123 
238 
170 
77 
109 



119 

71 

291 



3,271 



275 
229 
276 
622 
169 
130 
49 
138 
295 
402 
420 
266 



2,653 



209 
215 
302 
221 
197 
114 
75 



318 
333 
581 



Increase 
(+) or de- 
crease (— ) 



-1,571 



-80 
-100 
-335 
-52 
+43 
+30 
-66 
-176 
-306 
-321 
-120 



-876 



-92 

+24 
-79 
-98 

+41 

+56 

+2 

+21 

-199 
-262 
-290 



• Admissions include both immigrant and nonimmigrant aliens, and departures include both emigrant 
and nonemigrant aliens. 
2 Figures for this month included with later month. 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 181 

Table 71. — Occupations of Japanese aliens admitted and departed, fiscal year 

ended June SO, 1928 



Occupation 


1 
Continental 
United States 


Hawaii 


Occupation 


Continental 
United States 


Hawaii 


Ad- De- 
mitted parted 


Ad- 
mitted 


De- 
parted 


Ad- 
mitted 


De- 
parted 


Ad- 
mitted 


De- 
parted 


All occupations 


5,935 


8,016 


1,777 


2,653 


Masons 




1 
6 

1 


13 


2 




Mechanics (not spec- 
ified) 


13 

1 
1 

2 




Professional, 


926 


924 


129 


135 


12 


total 


Metal workers (other 
than iron, steel, and 
tin) 










23 
8 

53 
8 
3 

86 
15 

54 
3 

452 

56 

1 

129 
35 


92 

5 

38 

20 

2 

43 

8 

58 
21 

370 

84 

4 

74 

105 


32 


19 




Architects 


Millers. 






Clergy 


33 

-- 

6 


36 

1 
1 

5 


Miners 


2 
2 
2 
16 






Editors . 


Painters and glaziers. 
Pattern makers 


15 


10 


Electricians 




Engineers (profes- 
sional) 


Photographers 

Plasterers 


8 


2 


4 
1 


Lawyers 


Plumbers 




2 
1 

3" 

1 
22 

1 


3 
3 
2 
2 
4 
4 


5 


Literary and scien- 


9 
3 

4 
5 


11 
2 

4 
9 


Printers 


7 
4 
3 


2 


tific persons 


Seamstresses 




Musicians .. . 


Shoemakers 


2 


Officials (Govern- 


Stonecutters 




ment) - . 


Tailors 


4 


6 


Physicians . 


Tanners and curriers. 
Tinners. 




Sculptors and artists. 


1 

1 




Teachers 


18 
17 


32 
15 


Watch and clock 
makers 


1 


2 

1 

67 




Other professional 


1 




Weavers and spin- 
ners.. 




Skilled, total. - 


399 


487 


197 


189 














Bakers 


4 

11 
1 

1 


1 

19 

1 


13 
4 


8 

15 

5 


Other skilled 

Miscellaneous, 
total 

.\gents 

Bankers 

Draymen, hackmen, 

and teamsters 

Farmers 

Farm laborers 

Fishermen.. 

Hotel keepers 

Laborers 

Manufacturers. 

Merchants and deal- 
ers 

Servants ... 


76 




1 


Barbers and hair- 
dressers 




2,614 


3,780 


744 




Blacksmiths 


1,293 






Butchers 




1 
1 

f36 


56 


21 
38 

3 
313 
658 
70 
56 
225 
12 

789 
52 
377 

1,996 


32 

67 

24 

425 

117 

72 

76 

1,814 

9 

809 

72 

263 

2,825 


7 
4 

18 
41 

375 
15 
3 

138 


g 


Cabinetmakers 






4 


Carpenters and join- 
ers 


8 
1 

155 


4 


20 


Cigar packers 


43 


Clerks and account- 
ants 

Dressmakers 


153 

2 

68 
73 

1 


39 

1 

7 
5 


45 
1 

4 
5 


3 

14 
3 


Engineers (locomo- 
tive, marine, and 


39 
41 


1,062 


stationary) 

Gardeners... 


80 
62 

1 

707 


57 


Iron and steel work- 


77 


ers 


Other miscellaneous. 

No occupation (in- 
cluding women and 
children) 


2 


Jewelers 


1 
3 
7 








Machinists 


8 
27 








Mariners 


3 


1 


1,036 



182 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Table 72. — Miscellaneous Chinese transactions, fiscal year ended June 30, 1928^ 

by ports 



Class 


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'5 

03 


United States citizens (Chinese) admitted 


3,276 

3,347 

436 

4,649 

26 
1,289 

1,592 

147 

12 

20 

3,049 


128 
135 
63 

1,510 


168 
39 
27 










1,581 

1,430 

138 

814 

1 
1,083 

564 

145 

12 

20 

1,300 


1,041 

1,401 

123 

121 

"""39 
588 


102 


1? 


244 




"3 


""5 


5 


388 


16f 27 
27 18 

1,082 734 

18 7 


9q4 


Alien Chinese debarred 


?4 


Chinese granted the privilege of transit in bond 
across land territory of the United States _ 




Chinese denied the privilege of transit in bond 
across land territory of the United States 












Chinese granted the privilege of transit by water.. 












167 




Chinese with return certificates departing: 


152 


5 

1 








5 


278 


Merchants . . . 












1 






















1 












-- .. . 




Native born 


322 123 










1,020 


20 


?64 




' 





















Table 73. — Aliens admitted to continental United States {mainland) from insular 
possessions, and to insular possessions from mainland and from other insular 
possessions, fiscal year ended June 30, 1928, by ports 





From— 


Arriving at— 


Total 


Porto 
Rico 


Virgin 
Islands 


Hawaii 


Philip- 
pine 
Islands 


Mainland 


All ports ... 


5,478 


1,485 


348 


1,470 


103 


2,072 






New York, N. Y . . 


1,643 

3 

1 

2 

946 

16 

78 

521 

1,242 

1,026 


1,479 
3 
1 
2 


158 




6 




Philadelphia, Pa 






Baltimore, Md 










Tampa, Fla 










San Francisco, Calif .... 




894 
10 
54 

512 


52 
6 

24 
9 
6 




Seattle, Wash. 








Canadian Pacific- ._. . . 








Mexican border seaports .. 








Hawaii 






1,236 


Porto Rico 




190 




836 











REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 183 

Table 74. — Arrivals in and departures from the Philippine Islands, fiscal years 
ended June 30, 1927 and 1928, as specified 



Class 



Admitted 



Departed 



Male 



Fe- 
male 



Total; Male 



Fe- 
male 



Total 



Admitted 



Departed 



Male 



Fe- 
male 



Total Male 



Fe- 
male 



Total 



Grand total. 



6, 618 34, 608 32, 899 



4,744 



37, 643 28, 432 



6,991 



35, 423 37, 260 



4, 757 42, 017 



Total from and to 
foreign countries. .. 



Aliens 

Citizens of: 

Continental United 

States.. 

Philippine Islands 

Hawaii.- 

Other insular posses- 
sions 



23,587 



19, 973 



1,138 

2,454 

22 



Total from and to 
United States and 
its insular posses- 
sions 



.^.liens _ 

Citizens of: 

Continental United 

States.. 

Philippine Islands 

Hawaii 

Other insular posses- 
sions 



4,403 



844 
3,465 



4, 498 28, 085 



2, 755 22, 728 



18, 343 



3,113 



21, 456 



1,139 
604 



2,120 



39 



1,292 

787 



2, 277i 

3,058 

22 



6,523 



123 



2,136 
4,252 



15, 407 



987 

1,947 

1 



1,450 



978 
685 



16, 857 



1,965 

2,632 

1 



14, 556 



1,631 



16, 187 



93 



970 

13, 492 

1 



1,329 
253 
2 



140 



2,299 

13, 745 

3 



23, 379 



4,494 



27,87317,795 



3, 242,21, 037 



19, 618 



1,102 

2,634 

25 



2,829 



951 

713 

1 



22, 447il4, 316 



2,053| 1,069 

3,347i 2,407 

26 3 



5,053 2,497 



7,550 



87 



1,059 
3,889 



41 



1,563 

882 



128 



2,622 

4,771 



1,437,15,753 



949 2,018 
856 i 3, 263 
3 



19, 465 



55 



851 
18, 555 



1,515 



1,177 
294 



20, 980 
99 



2,028 
18, 849 



184 REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Table 75. — Aliens admitted to and aliens departed, debarred, and deported from 
the Philippine Islands, fiscal years ended June SO, 1927 and 1928, by classes, 
as specified 



Class 



1927 



Admitted 



Im- 
mi- 
grant 



Total 14,640 



Sex: 

Male-- 

Female 

Age: 

Under 14 years 

14 to 44 years 

45 years and over 

Literacy: 

Can read and write.. 
Can not read or write 

Races: 

Chinese 

East Indian 

English 

German 

Japanese 

Spanish 

All others 

Occupations: 

Professional 

Skilled 

Farmers 

Farm laborers 

Laborers 

Merchants and dealers. 

Miscellaneous 

No occupation 

Last permanent residence 
of aliens admitted and 
future permanent resi- 
dence of aliens departed: 

Europe 

Asia -. 

Philippine Islands 

All others!.. 



12,407 
2,233 



Non- 
immi- 
grant 



Total 



8, 088122, 728 



7,566 
522 



19, 973 
2,755 



2,274 194 2,468 
11,715 7,24018,955 
651 654! 1,305 



Total. 



Races: 

Chinese 

East Indian. 
English 



6.213 
8,427 

10, 991 
111 
319 

89 

2,481 

267 

382 

288 

238 

14 

1,559 

28 

1,383 

922 

10, 208 



530 
14, 017 



93 



3,055 9,268 
5,033 13,460 

6, 911 1 17, 902 
136 
574 
157 
2,914 
373 
672 

681 

415 

17 

1,677 

4,383 

3,494 

1,066 

'87 10, 995 



25 
255 

68 
433 
106 
290 

393 

177 
3 

118 
4,355 
2,111 

144 



85 

383 

7,585 

35 



615 
14,400 
1 7, 585 

128 



Debarred 



205 



204 
1 



Departed 



Emi- 
grant 



1,053 



867 
186 

35 

855 
163 



46 
51 
61 
31 
625 
165 
74 



102 
4 
256 
206 
161 
37 
207 



267 
759 



Non- 
emi- 
grant 



15,804 



14, 540 
1,264 

1,023 
12, 618 
2,163 



13, 869 
69 
518 
84 
661 
180 
423 

249 

287 
6 

107 
8,699 
3,656 

115 
2,685 



334 

1,452 

13, 880 

138 



1928 



Admitted 



Im- 
Total mi- 
grant 



16,85713,475 



15,407111,161 
1,450 2,314 



1,058! 2,373 163 2,536 
13,473 10,663 7,963|18,626 
2,326 439 846' 1,285 



Non- 
immi- 
grant 



Total 



8, 972 22, 447 



8, 457 19. 618 
515 2,829 



13, 915 
120 
579 
115 
1,286 
345 
497 

329 

389 

10 

363 

8,905 

3,817 
152 



6,345 
7,130 

9,353 
119 
213 
130 

3,006 
309 
345 

298 
245 

23 
1,974 

17 
967 
958 



2,892 8,993 



601 

2,211 

' 13, 880 

165 



Deported 



28 



28 



580 
12, 826 



3,186 9,531 
5,78612,916 

7,567|16,920 
36 155 
31l| 524 
83: 213 
404 3, 410 
184| 493 
3871 732 



294 
203 



592 

448 

81 31 

129 2, 103 

5,5761 5.593 

1,8091 2,776 

137 1,095 

816 9,809 



Departed 



Emi- 
grant 



1,063 



820 
243 

159 
763 
141 



27 
50 
67 
31 

577 

235 

76 

79 



Non- 

emi- Total 

grant i 



14,69015,753 



13,49614,316 
1,194 1,437 



927 
11,942 
1,821 



12,849 
77 
462 
103 
584 
122 
493 



204 

409 

8,306 

53 



784 
13, 235 
2 8,306 

122 



Debarred 



218 



213 
5 



346 
207 
13 

280 107 
41; 8,276 
157i 2,807 
36 1 186 
358) 2,753 



340 325 

698 1,389 

....12,874 

25 102 



1,086 
12, 705 
1,962 



12, 876 
127 
529 
134 
1,161 
357 
569 

425 

306 
21 

387 
8,317 
2,964 

222 
3,111 



665 

2,087 

212,874 

127 



Deported 



1 Returning to Philippine Islands after a temporary absence therefrom. 

' Intended to return to Philippine Islands after a temporary absence therefrom. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 185 

Table 76. — Net increase of population, by admission and departure of aliens, 
fiscal years ended June SO, 1908 to 1928 





Admitted 


Departed 




Period or year 


immigrant Ncmnn- 


Total 


Emigrant 


Nonemi- 
grant 


Total 


Increase 


Grand total, 21 
years, 1908-1928. 


11,897.868 I 3,237,730 


15, 135. 598 


3, 895, 517 


3, 758, 133 


7, 653, 650 


7, 481, 948 


1908 


782,870 , 141,825 

751,786 1 192,449 

1,041,570 156,467 


924, 695 

944, 235 

1, 198, 037 


395,073 
225, 802 
202, 436 


319,755 714.828 


209, 867 


1909 .- 


174, 590 

177, 982 


400, 392 
380, 418 


543, 843 


1910 


817, 619 






Total 10 years, 
1911-1920 


5,735,811 1,376,271 


7,112,082 


2, 146, 994 


1, 841, 163 


3, 988, 157 


3, 123, 925 


1911 - 


878.587 151,713 
838, 172 1 178. 983 


1,030,300 

1, 017, 155 

1, 427. 227 

1, 403, 081 

434, 244 

366, 748 

362, 877 

211,853 

237, 021 

621, 576 


295, 666 
333, 262 
308, 190 
303, 338 
204, 074 
129, 765 
66, 277 
94, 585 
123, 522 
288,315 


222, 549 

282, 030 

303, 734 

330, 467 

180, 100 

111,042 

80, 102 

98, 683 

92, 709 

139, 747 


518,215 
615, 292 
611,924 
633, 805 
384, 174 
240, 807 
146, 379 
193, 268 
216, 231 
428,062 


512,085 


1912 


401, 863 


1913 


1,197,892 
1,218,480 
326, 700 
298, 826 
295, 403 
110,618 
141, 132 
430, 001 


229, 335 
184. 601 
107, 544 
67, 922 
67, 474 
101, 235 
95, 889 
191, 575 


815, 303 


1914 


769, 276 


1915 


50, 070 


1916 . 


125, 941 


1917 


216, 498 


1918 . 


18, 585 


1919 


20,790 


1920 


193, 514 






Total 5 years, 
1921-1925 


2, 638, 913 


782, 898 


3,421,811 


697, 397 


716, 839 


1,414,236 


2, 007, 575 


1921 


805, 228 
309, 556 
522. 919 
706, 896 
294, 314 

304, 488 
335, 175 
307, 255 


172,935 
122, 949 
150, 487 
172, 406 
164, 121 

191.618 
202, 826 
193, 376 


978, 163 
432, 505 
673, 406 
879, 302 
458, 435 

496, 106 
538, 001 
500,631 


247,718 
198, 712 
81, 450 
76, 789 
92, 728 

76, 992 
73, 366 

77, 457 


178,313 
146, 672 
119,136 
139, 956 
132, 762 

150, 763 
180, 142 
196, 899 


426,031 
345, 384 
200, 586 
216, 745 
225, 490 

227. 755 
253, 508 
274,356 


552, 132 


1922 


87, 121 


1923 


472, 820 


1924... 


662, 557 


1925 


232, 945 




268, 351 


1927 


284, 493 


1928 ... 


226, 275 







Table 77. — Net increase of population, by admission and departure of aliens, 
calendar years 1918 to 1927 





Admitted 


Departed 




Year ended Dec. 31— 


Immi- 
grant 


Nonimmi- 
grant 


Total 


Emigrant 


Nonemi- 
grant 


Total 


Increase 


Total 10 years, 1918- 
1927 


4,073,633 


1, 643, 652 


5, 717, 285 


1,356,723 


1,452,328 


2,809,051 


2, 908, 234 






1918 


115,916 
247, 358 
708, 562 
563, 905 
381,167 
751, 050 
354, 770 
290, 725 
336, 295 
323, 885 


109, 500 
149. 804 
209, 056 
129, 698 
138, 527 
154, 958 
172, 025 
178, 979 
204, 095 
197,010 


225, 416 
397, 162 
917,618 
693, 603 
519, 694 
906,008 
526, 795 
469, 704 
540, 390 
520, 895 


80. 612 
261,718 
261,721 
245, 978 
115,973 

70, 610 

90. 121 

81, 689 
73, 179 

75. 122 


103, 333 
130, 808 
160, 796 
167, 573 
126, 324 
128, 645 
141,718 
136, 110 
163, 271 
193, 750 


183, 945 
392, 526 
422,517 
413. 551 
242, 297 
199, 255 
231, 839 
217, 799 
236, 450 
268, 872 


41,471 


1919.. 


4,636 


1920 


495, 101 


1921 


280, 052 


1922 


277, 397 


1923 


706, 753 


1924 


294, 956 


1925 


251, 905 


1926 


303, 940 


1927... 


252, 023 







15869—28- 



-13 



186 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOlSrER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Table 78. — Nonimmigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 
1928, by principal countries of last permanent residence 





Period or year 


Number 
admitted 


Last permanent residence 




Europe 


Asia 


Canada 
and 

New- 
found- 
land 


Mexico 


West 
Indies 


Central 
and 
South 
Amer- 
ica 


United 
States 1 


Other 
coun- 
tries 




Grand total, 21 
years, 1908-1928- 

Total 3 years, 1908- 
1910 -. 


3, 237, 730 


713, 677 


150, 080 


245, 308 


77, 424 


256, 060 


98, 755 


1, 633, 182 


63, 244 




490, 741 


88, 609 


9, 623 


37, 038 


5,479 


17, 349 


9,388 


320, 098 


3,157 








1908 


141, 825 
192, 449 
156, 467 


28, 941 
24,667 
35, 001 


3,475 
3,352 
2,796 


12, 560 
13, 895 
10, 583 


1, 574 
1,757 
2,148 


4,270 
5,704 
7,375 


3,231 
3,109 
3,048 


86, 814 
138,915 
94, 369 


960 


1909 


1,050 


1910 


1,147 




Total 10 years, 
1911-1920 






1,376,271 


355,471 


69,416 


108, 124 


36, 099 


104, 697 


42, 185 


636,740 


23, 539 


1911. 


151,713 
178, 983 
229, 335 
184, 601 
107, 544 
67, 922 
67, 474 
101, 235 
95, 889 
191, 575 


38, 354 
58, 782 
93, 078 
55, 107 
16, 571 
11,627 
12, 168 
14, 446 
19, 141 
36, 197 


2,565 
1,939 
1,658 
1,148 
2,273 
1,579 
1, 664 

35, 713 
7,391 

13, 486 


12, 477 
11,556 
14, 165 
15, 459 
9,983 
5,717 
3,982 
3,809 
11,504 
19, 472 


2,066 
1,946 
2,134 
2,410 
2,352 
1,418 
2,266 
5,111 
9,783 
6,613 


7,130 

8,299 
8,591 
9,052 
7,784 
9, 126 

10, 790 

11, 203 
13, 421 
19, 301 


3,720 
3,968 
4,428 
4, 053 
3,279 
3,443 
3,327 
3,891 
4,199 
7,877 


83, 949 
90, 854 
103, 150 
94, 957 
62, 935 
32, 915 
31, 127 
25, 291 
27,287 
84, 275 


1,452 


1912 


1,639 


1913 


2,131 


1914 


2,415 


1915 


2,367 


1916 


2,097 


1917 


2,150 


1918 


1,771 


1919 


3,163 


1920. 


4,354 




Total 5 years, 1921- 
1925 






782, 898 


150, 134 


50, 123 


51,680 


20, 180 


90, 004 


27, 477 


372, 977 


20, 323 








1921. 


172, 935 
122, 949 
150, 487 
172, 406 
164, 121 

191,618 
202, 826 
193, 376 


27, 725 
22, 952 
29, 624 
37, 374 
32, 459 

36, 890 
39, 096 
43, 477 


19, 099 
7,175 
6,516 

10, 066 
7,267 

6,961 
7,171 
6,786 


13, 748 
10, 824 
9,731 
8,598 
8,779 

17,012 
16, 539 
14, 915 


3,904 
3,477 
3,519 
4,553 
4,727 

4,590 
5,586 
5,490 


18, 670 
15, 434 
19, 908 
21, 347 
14, 645 

14,519 
14, 753 
14, 738 


5,814 
4,420 
5,173 
6,118 
5,952 

6,320 

6,541 
6,844 


80, 639 
55,242 
72, 040 
79, 848 
85, 208 

100, 413 
107,616 
95, 338 


3,336 


1922 


3,425 


1923 


3,976 


1924 


4,502 


1925 .'. 


5,084 


1926 


4,913 


1927 


5,524 


1928 


5,788 











' Aliens returning to the United States after a temporary visit abroad for less than a year. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION 187 

Table 79. — Nonemigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 190S to 
1928, by principal countries of intended future permanent residence 





Number 
departed 


Intended future permanent residence 


reriod or year 


Europe 


Asia 


Canada 
and 
New- 
found- 
land 


Mexico 


West 
Indies 

328, 800 


Central 
and 
South 
Amer- 
ica 


United 
States I 


Other 
coun- 
tries 


Grand total 21 
years, 1908-1928_- 


3, 758, 133 


995, 883 


112, 167 


600, 143 


75, 226 


99, 300 


1, 493, 351 


53, 257 


Total 3 years, 1908- 
1910- 


672, 327 


241, 287 


1 
9, 949 46, 694 


6,529 


28, 272 


10, 888 


325, 661 


3,047 






1908- 


319, 755 
174, 590 
177,982 


149, 783 
58, 998 
32,506 


4, 585 6, 597 
2,967 6,689 
2,397 1 33,408 


1,996 

2,558 
1,975 


9,220 
8,984 
10,068 


3,802 
3,470 
3,616 


142, 682 
89, 940 
93, 039 


1,090- 


1909 


984 


1910 


973. 






Total 10 years, 
1911-1920 


1, 841, 163 


438, 936 


58, 418 


377, 112 


38, 245 


146, 760 


43, 722 


716, 641 


21, 329 


1911 - 


222, 549 
282, 030 
303, 734 
330, 467 
180, 100 
111,042 
80, 102 
98, 683 
92, 709 
139, 747 


50,044 
56, 882 
56, 631 
78, 642 
63, 462 
33, 562 
16, 149 
16, 312 
32, 214 
35, 038 


2,000 
1,822 
1,213 
1,395 
1,564 
1,477 
1,473 
35, 938 
6,023 
5,513 


34, 913 
63, 326 
94, 010 
75, 482 
26, 051 
21, 981 
16, 936 
8,575 
11,452 
24, 386 


2,290 
2,231 
2,302 
2,959 
2,111 
2,196 
1, 951 
5, 029 
10, 499 
6,677 


10, 754 
12, 829 
12,410 
14, 444 
14, 276 
13, 634 
16. 335 
14,418 
13, 896 
23, 764 


3,843 
4,229 
4,303 
4,629 
4,453 
4,559 
4,273 
3, 898 
3,323 
6,212 


117, 135 
138, 930 
130, 946 
150, 593 
66, 118 
31, 848 
21, 260 
12, 806 
12, 603 
34, 402 


1,570 


1912... 


1,781 


1913 


1,919 


1914 


2,323 


1915 


2,065 


1916 


1,785 


1917 


1,725 


1918 . 


1,707 


1919 


2,699 


1920- - . 


3,755 






Total 5 years, 1921- 
1925-.- 


716, 839 


201, 858 


26,352 


98, 671 


15, 177 


106, 869 


25, 884 


226, 590 


15, 438 






1921- - 


178, 313 
146, 672 
119, 136 
139, 956 
132, 762 

150, 763 
180, 142 
196, 899 


59, 866 
46, 403 
28, 773 
33, 951 
32, 865 

35, 116 

38, 837 

39, 849 


6,248 
5,310 


21,009 
17. 202 


4, 959 
2,390 
2,403 
2,773 
2,652 

3,104 

4,511 
7,660 


31, 759 
18,656 
16, 727 
21, 636 
18, 091 

16, 206 
15, 671 
15, 022 


6,801 
4,803 
4,397 
4, 835 
5, 048 

5, 268 
7, 313 
6,231 


44, 764 
49, 373 
37, 984 
43, 218 
51, 251 

63, 378 
73, 728 
87, 353 


2,907 


1922-- 


2, 535 


1923 


4,409 1 21.447 


2,996 


1924 


4,937 
5,448 

5,752 
5,779 
5,917 


25, 493 
13, 520 

17, 924 
29, 628 
30, 114 


3,113 


1925 


3,887 

4,015 
4,675 
4,753 


1926 - 


1927- _ 

1928- - -- 



1 Aliens intending to return to the United States after a temporary visit abroad for less than a year. 

Table 80. — United States citizens permanently departed, fiscal years ended Jxme 
SO, 1918 to 1928, by principal countries of intended future permanent residence 



Year 



Number 
departed 



Intended future permanent residence 



Europe 



Asia 



Canada 
and 
New- 
found- 
land 



Mexico 



West 
Indies 



Central 

and 

South 

America 



Other 
coun- 
tries 



Total 11 years, 1918- 
1928 :... 

1918 -. 

1919 - -. 

1920 

1921 - _. 

1922 ,. 

1923 -.- 

1924.- 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 - 



475, 444 



165, 152 



38,911 



186, 377 



21, 630 



29, 235 



31, 259 



1,786 
3,976 
20, 776 
33, 284 
50, 197 
16, 739 
10, 397 
9, 285 
9,678 
5,658 
3,376 



2,333 
2,094 
5,715 
.5, 461 
5,297 
4,566 
3,400 
2,593 
2,376 
3,137 
1,939 



697 
716 
094 
059 
036 
023 
537 
536 
758 
124 
797 



9,015 

2,934 

1,915 

1,766 

1,877 

1,203 

594 

699 

627 

439 

561 



3,818 
2,564 
4,564 
3,547 
2,871 
2, 479 
2,925 
1,975 
2,453 
1,505 
534 



4,957 
5,944 
6,165 
4,010 
3,639 
1,875 
1,561 
1,114 
1,101 
723 
170 



2,880 



392 
315 
335 
264 
281 
375 
247 
227 
189 
200 
55 



188 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



Table 81. — Immigration to the United States, 1820 to 1928, by year.-- 

[No official records were made of the influx of foreign population to this country prior to 1820. Although 
" the number of immigrants arrived in the United States from the close of the Revolutionary War up 
to 1820 is not accurately known, it is estimated by good authorities at 250,000] 

Note —For 1820 to 1867 the figures are for alien passengers arriving; for 1868 to 1903, for immigrants 
arriving'- for 1904 to 1906, for aliens admitted; and for 1907 to 1928, for immigrant aliens admitted. The 
years from 1820 to 1831 and 1844 to 1849, inclusive, are those ending September 30; from 1833 to 1843 and 18.51 
to 1867 those ending December 31; and 1869 to 1927 those ending June 30. The other periods cover 15 
months ending December 31, 1832; 9 months ending December 31, 1843; 15 months endmg December 31, 
1850; and 6 months ending June 30, 1S68. 



Grand total 109 

years, 1820-1928. 37, 240, 634 

1820 8,385 

Total 10 years, 

1821-1830 143,439 

1821 9,127 

1822 6,911 

1823 6,354 

1824 7,912 

1825 10,199 

1826 10,837 

1827 18,875 

1828 27,382 

1829 22,520 

1830 23, 322 

Total 10 years, 

1831-1840 599,125 

1831 22,633 

1832 60,482 

1833 58,640 

1834 65,365 

1835 45,374 

1836 76,242 

1837 79,340 

1838 38,914 

1839 68,069 

1840 84, 066 

Total 10 years, 

1841-1850 1,713,251 

1841 --- 80,289 

1842 104,565 

1843:::: 52,496 

1844 78,615 

1845::::::::: 114,371 

1846 154,416 

1847 234,968 

1848:::::: 226,527 

1849 297,024- 

1850 369, 980 

Total 10 years, 

1851-1860 2,598,214 

1851 379,466 

1852 371,603 



1853 368.645 

1854 427,833 

1855 200,877 

1856 200,436 

1857 251,306 

1858 123,126 

1859 121,282 

1860 153,640 

Total 10 vears, 

1861-1870-"- 2,314,824 

1861 91,918 

1862 91,985 

1863 176,282 

1864 193,418 

1865 248,120 

1866 318,568 

1867 315,722 

1868 138,840 

1869 352,768 

1870 387, 203 

Total 10 vears, 

1871-1880.1 2,812,191 

1871 321,350 

1872 404,806 

1873 459,803 

1874 313,339 

1875:.: 227,498 

1876 169,986 

1877 141,857 

1878 138,469 

1879 177,826 

1880 457, 257 

Total 10 vears, 

1881-1890.". 5,246,613 

1881 669,431 

1882 788.992 

1883 603,322 

1884 518,592 

1885 395,346 

1886 334,203 

1887 490, 109 

1888:::: 540,889 

1889 444,427 

1890 455,302 



EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 189 



Table 81. — I mmigraiion to the United States, 1820 to 1928, by years — Continued. 



Total 10 years, 

1891-1900.". 3,687,564 



1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900- 



560, 319 
579, 663 
439, 730 
285. 631 
258, 536 
343. 267 
230, S32 
229, 299 
311,715 
448, 572 



Total 10 vears, 

1901-1910- 8,795,386 



1901 487,918 

1902 648,743 

1903 857,046 

1904 812,870 

1905 1 , 026, 499 

1906 1, 100, 735 

1907 1.2S5, 349 

1908 782,870 

1909 751,786 

1910 1,041.570 



Total 10 vears, 

1911-1920. 1 5,735,811 



1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 



1921. 
1922. 
1923. 
1924_ 
1925. 
1926. 
1927. 
1928. 



878, 587 
838, 172 
197, 892 
218, 480 
326, 700 
298, 826 
295, 403 
110,618 
141, 132 
430, 001 



Total 8 years, 

1921-1928 3,585,831 



805, 228 
309, 556 
.522, 919 
706, 896 
294, 314 
304, 488 
335, 175 
307, 255 



190 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GEISTERAL OF IMMIGRATION" 



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194 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 









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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 195 



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196 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOISrER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Table 84. — Immigrani aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1911 to 192S, 
by countries of last permanent residence — Continued 



Country of last permanent residence 



All countries 805,228 



Kurope, total 652,364 



Albania ' 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

C zechoslovakia ' 

Danzig, Free City of ' 

Denmark 

Estonia ' 

Finland ' 

France, including Corsica 

Germany _ 

Great Britain: 

England 

Scotland 

Wales 

Greece 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia. 

Latvia ' 

Lithuania ' 

Luxemburg 

Netherlands _ . . 

Norway- _ _. 

Poland I 

Portugal, including Azores, Cape 

Verde, and Madeira Islands 

Rumania 

Russia 

Spain, including Canary and Ba- 
learic Islands 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Turkey in Europe 

Yugoslavia ' 

Other Europe 



Asm, total. 



China 

India 

Japan.. 

Palestine and Syria > 

Turkey in Asia and Armenia. 
Other Asia 



.\merica, total. 



Canada and Newfoundland. 

Mexico 

West Indies __. 

Central America 

South America 

Other America ^ 



Others, total. 



Africa 

Australia, Tasmania, and New Zea- 
land 

Other Pacific islands 

Countries not specified 2 



4,947 

6, 166 

585 

40, 884 



6,260 



3,795 
9,552 
6,803 

33, 431 

15, 954 

1,757 

28, 502 

7,702 

28,435 

222, 260 



25, 034 



4,009 
511 



1922 



309, 556 



216, 385 



5,019 

1, 541 

297 

12, 541 



2,709 



2,767 
4,220 
17,931 

15, 249 
9,018 
886 
3,457 
5,756 
10, 579 
40, 319 



522, 919 



307, 920 



8,103 

1,590 

392 

13, 840 



4,523 



3,644 
4,380 

48,2 

21, 558 

23, 019 

1.182 

3, 333 

5,914 

15, 740 

46, 674 



1, 990 3, 150 

5,292 11,745 
28,635 26,538 



1,950 
10, 287 
17, 143 

665 
6.624 
3,398 
1,660 
6,047 

405 



2,384 
11,947 
17, 507 

841 
17,916 
3,349 
3,743 
6,181 

450 



14,263: 13,705 



4, 406- 4, 986 

3601 257 

6, 716| 5, 809 



11,735; 1,9981 2,183 
901 783, 4701 



1924 



■06, 896 



364, 339 



250 
7, 505 
2, 065 

550 
13, 554 



5,281 
765 
3,662 
6,387 
75, 091 

24, 466 
33, 471 
1, 553 
4,871 
5,806 
17, 111 
56, 246 
1,4"' 
2,369 



22, 065 



6,992 
183 
8,801 
2,946 
2,820 
323 



124, 118; 77, 448 199, 972(318, 855 



72, 317j 46,810117,0111200,690 



30, 758 
13, 774 
2,254 
5,015 



3,712 



1,301 

2,191 
90 
130 



19,5511 63,768 

7, 449I 13, 181 

970 1, 275 

2, 668 4, 737 



1,460 



89, 336 
17, 559 
2,000 
9,270 



1, 322! 1, 637 



520 

I 

855I 
60 
25i 



5481 

711! 
48 
15, 



900 

635 

44 
58 



294, 314 304, 488 



148, 366 1.55, 562 



79 
899 
726 
140 

2,462 
243 

2,444 
131 
480 

3, 
46, 068 

13, 897 

12, 378 

897 

826 

616 

26, 6.50 

6,203 

263 

472 

150 

1,72; 

5,975 

5,341 

619 
1,163 
1, 775 

275 
8,391 
2,043 
263 
724 
144 



3,578 



335, 175 



168, 368 



1.58 

1,102 
718 
175 

2,953 
210 

2,549 
132 
491 

4,181 
50, 421 

10, .599 

13,661 

1. 268 

1, I2I1 

9061 

24,897 

8,253 

298 

636 

127 

1.753 

5, 756 

7, 126 



1,211 
1,766 

326! 
8, 513I 
1, 9941 

210| 
1, 059 

326i 



243 

1,016 
764 
222 

3,540 
223 

2,505 
139 
438 

4,405 
48,513 

9,990 

12,611 

1,068 

2.089 

813 

28, 545 

17,297 

403 

770 

111 

1,733 

6,068 

9.211 

567 
1,270 
1,183 

429 
8, 287 
2,121 

216 
1, 190 

388 



1928 



307, 255 



158, 513 



Total 

8 years, 
1921-1928 



3, 585, 831 



2, 171, 817 



3, 4131 3, 669 



1,937 

65l 
723 

670i 

51] 
132j 



l,751i 
931 

654; 
679| 
37 
199 



1,471 
102 
723 

1.054 

73 

2461 



263 

1,277 
698 
158 

3,571 
224 

2,*73 
136 
473 

4,438 
45, 

7,338 

11,0851 

1, .5351 

2, 3281 

857 

25,268 

17,728 

258 

.531 

106 

1,843 

5,660 

8.755 

584 
1, 376 

1, 254 

455 
8,051 
1, 994 

242 
1, 386 

390; 



993 

29,868 

14, 268 

2,519 

93, 345 

900 

28,744 

1,303 

1.5, 750 

41, 469 

338, 882 

136, 528 

131, 197 

10,146 

46, 527 

28, 370 

177, 225 

414, 980 

2,695 

4,778 

494 

22.468 

59, 905 

209,501 

28,734 
64,213 
,59, 675 

27, 741 
85,263 
25, 847 
14, 206 
45, 958 
7,325 



3, 3801 89, 107 



1,320 
102 
550 

1.058 
80 
270 



141, 496:144, 3931161, 872 144, 281 



32.964! 43,316] 

2, 1061 3, 222j 

1, I99I 1, 374 

2, 470 3, 107i 

4 6 



102,7531 9.3,368 84,580 75,281 



874 



67,721 .59,016 

4, 019 4, 058 

1, 771 1, 751 

3, 777I 4, 166 

41 



26, 872 
1,673 

31, 854 
6,407 

18, 977 
3,324 



1, 120 1, 266 



4161 
46! 



529' 



556| 
35 



520 



712 
34 



1,081 



578 
28 



792, 810 

406, 430 

65, 368 

12. 594 

35, 210 

23 



12, 472 



5, 205 

6,654 
385 
228 



'Countries added to th list since the World War are theretofore included with the countries to which 
they belonged. 
2 Prior to 1925 other America included with countries not specified. 



IJEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENEKAL OF IMMIGRATION 197 



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198 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 199 

Table 85. — Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June SO, 1908 to 1928, by 
countries of intended future permanent residence — Continued 



Country of intended future 
permanent residence 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Total 
8 years, 

1921- 

1928 


All countries 


247, 718 


198, 712 


81,450 


76, 789 


92,728 


76, 992 


73, 366 


77, 457 


925, 212 


Europe, total.. 


215, 245 


166, 297 


61,656 


58,988 


75,064 


60,040 


55, 402 


57, 185 


749,877 


Albania ' 








284 
217 
517 
233 
1,568 


334 

466 

459 

208 

2,723 

5 

562 

5 

464 

1,205 

3,646 

6,681 
1,958 
53 
6,574 
875 
1,133 

27, 151 

29 

511 

18 

743 

1,765 

3,721 

3,600 

1,433 

539 

3,982 

1,167 

423 

100 

2,464 

67 


314 

487 

491 

88 

2,301 

1 

691 

15 

519 

1,011 

3,908 

4,921 
1,332 
37 
5,164 
871 
1,059 

19, 980 

58 

408 

7 

379 

2,087 

2,881 

2,926 

1,404 

181 

2,465 

1,150 

486 

30 

2,342 

46 


237 

468 

482 

130 

2,276 

6 

536 

14 

536 

1,637 

4,748 

4,994 
1,441 
44 
3,130 
841 
1,214 

17, 759 

21 

314 

13 

456 

1,786 

2,650 

2,347 

1,248 

239 

2,178 

1,115 

594 

24 
1,911 

13 


90 

580 

485 

110 

2,070 

1 

540 

11 

585 

2,030 

6,645 

6,039 
1,498 
39 
2,461 
920 
1,300 

17, 324 

55 

319 

18 

514 

1,686 

3,071 

1,358 

1,002 

426 

1,983 

1,282 

726 

38 
1,941 

38 


1,259 


Austria.- 


1,399 

1,430 

2,923 

15,452 


579 
1,203 

660 
7,846 


247 

672 

156 

2,074 


4,443 




5,739 


Bulgaria 


4,508 




36, 310 


Danzig, Free City of ' 


13 


Denmark.. . 


922 


690 


511 


510 
11 

360 
1,249 
1,178 

4,361 

827 

60 

7,250 
522 

1,282 

22,904 

67 

335 


4,962 




56 


Finland ' 


2,386 
3,026 
5,263 

7,839 
1,187 
180 
13, 423 
12, 153 
1,905 

48, 192 


1,179 
2,557 
4,362 

6,434 
915 
60 
7,506 
4,307 
2,182 

53,651 


396 
1,507 
1,529 

5,505 

705 

34 

2,988 

895 

1,368 

23,329 


6,425 


France, including Corsica.. 
Germany 


14,222 
31, 279 


Great Britain: 

England 


46, 774 


Scotland . . 


9,863 


Wales .. 


507 


Greece 


48, 496 


Hungary 


21, 384 




11,443 


Italy, including Sicily and 
Sardinia . 


230, 290 




230 










1,887 










56 


Netherlands 


849 

2,406 

42, 572 

5,167 
9,297 
15,229 

3,966 

2,913 

900 

405 

13, 034 

827 


860 

1,427 

33, 581 

5,877 
3,795 
6,407 

6,793 

1,903 

886 

201 

9,733 

703 


482 

946 

5,439 

2,620 
1,169 
2,434 

2,557 

1,179 

546 

125 

2,064 

179 


345 

955 

2,594 

3,357 

1,096 

572 

2,967 
830 
390 
128 

1,991 
28 


4,628 




13, 058 


Poland 1 

Portugal, including Azores, 
Cape Verde, and Ma- 
deira Islands 


96, 509 
27, 252 


Rumania... 


20, 444 
26, 027 


Spain, including Canary 

and Balearic Islands 

Sweden 

Switzerland- 


26, 891 
11,539 
4,951 


Turkey in Europe 


1,051 




35, 480 


Other Europe 


1,901 






Asia, total 


12, 887 


12, 814 


7,593 


6,943 


5,411 


4,931 


6,007 


6,073 


62, 659 






China 


5,451 

281 

4,375 


6,362 

267 

4,368 


3,715 

146 

2,869 


3,847 
161 

2,155 
492 

211 

77 


3,412 
128 

1,212 
479 

89 
91 


2,989 
113 

1,208 
381 

169 
71 


4,179 
126 

1,205 
327 

94 
76 


4,364 
156 

1,085 
322 

79 
67 


34, 319 


India 


1,378 


Japan 


18, 477 




2,001 


Turkey in Asia and Arme- 
nia 


2,534 
246 


1,731 
86 


773 
90 


5,680 


Other Asia 


804 






America, total 


18, 561 


18, 759 


11,615 


10, 227 


11, 561 


11,485 


11, 303 


13, 620 


107, 131 


Canada and Newfoundland 


5,456 
5,705 
5,050 
703 
1,647 


4,480 

6,285 

5,252 

955 

1,787 


2,775 
2,660 
4,183 
550 
1,447 


2,601 
1,926 
4,081 
567 
1,052 


2,580 
2,954 
4,035 
661 
1,331 


2,456 
3,198 
3,839 
566 
1,425 
1 


2,440 
2,957 
3,732 
721 
1,453 


3,061 
3,957 
4,244 
758 
1,600 


25, 849 
29, 642 


West Indies 


34, 416 




5,481 


South America . 


11, 742 




1 


















Other, total 


1,025 


842 


586 


631 


692 


636 


654 


579 


5,545 






Africa 


197 

742 
50 
36 


133 

645 
34 
30 


113 

442 
22 
9 


108 

485 
34 
4 


154 

503 
35 


126 

391 
19 


112 

508 
34 


141 

425 
13 


1,084 


Australia, Tasmania, and 
New Zealand 


4,141 


Other Pacific islands 

Countries not specified 


241 
79 











1 Countries added to the list since the World War are theretofore included with the countries to which 
they belonged. 

2 Prior to 1925 other America included with countries not specified. 



200 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 203 






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204 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIOISrER GElsTEEAL OF IMMIGEATIOJST 205 

T.^BLE 88. — Immigranl aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, showing 
comparative per cent of total by race or people, fiscal years ended June 30 



Kace or people 


Immigrant 


aliens, per cent of 
race 


each 


Emigrant aliens, per cent of each 
race 


19H- 
1915 


1916- 
1920 


1921- 
1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1911- 
1915 


1916- 
1920 


1921- 
1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Total.. 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






.Vfiican (black) 


0.7 
.6 

.9 

1.1 
.2 

2.8 
.4 

.4 

1.3 


2.5 
.4 

.1 

.4 

.1 
.9 

(') 
2.3 


1.4 

.5 
.7 
.9 
.2 

.1 
1.3 


0.3 
.2 

.8 

.1 
. 5 
.2 
.5 

(') 
1.0 


0.3 
.3 

.2 
.3 
.3 

.6 

(•) 
.9 


0.3 
.3 

.. 

.2 

.1 

(') 

.9 
(') 
10.9 

.2 
5.8 
17.6 

.9 
3.8 
12.4 

.9 
5.2 

.2 
(>) 

.1 

.4 
18.8 
1.4 

.3 

.1 

.4 

•I 

6.1 
7.5 

. 7 

.3 
1.1 

.2 

.1 , 

.6 

.2 ' 
.2 


0.5 
.3 

.3 

2.5 
.8 

3.8 
.6 

.3 

:? 

3.6 
I.l 
1.4 
3.9 
5.3 
2.0 
1.3 
4.0 
27.7 

.5 
(') 
1. 1 
4.5 

.3 
9.5 

.6 
1.3 
4.0 
1.4 

2.7 
1.2 
3.5 
1.1 

.2 
.3 

.4 
.1 

-.1 
6.6 


1.0 
.4 

.2 

4.1 
1.6 
1.1 
1.1 

.2 

.9 

.1 

6.8 

.7 

3.3 

1.0 

6.5 

.3 

1.9 

2.0 

29.2 

1.3 

(') 

. 1 

2.2 

7.2 

2.9 

2.0 

3.1 

2 7 

3.7 
1.6 
1.9 
3.3 
.5 
.3 
.3 
.1 

.4 

.6 

2.8 


1.2 
.2 

1.4 

3.0 
3.2 

1.2 

.3 
1.2 
.1 
6.4 
■ . 7 
1.7 
3.0 
5. 5 
.3 
1.4 
4.1 

21.2 
2.1 
(') 
1.6 
2.8 
2.7 

12.2 
3.0 
2.3 
2.5 
.2 

3.0 
1.2 
3.2 
3.5 
1.0 
.6 
.•2 
.1 

.5 
. 5 


1.1 
.1 

1.9 

2.2 
3.7 

.8 
1.7 

.7 
1.3 

.1 
9.0 

.7 
1.7 
5.9 
6.7 

.4 
1.6 
3.9 
22.0 
1.6 
(') 

.6 
1.4 
4.1 
3.7 
3.9 
1.7 

.8 

.1 

5.4 

2.4 

1.1 

3.9 

1.8 

.3 

.3 

.1 

.9 
.4 


1.2 
.1 

2.4 

2.2 

5.6 

.3 

1.3 

.5 
1.4 

.1 
10.2 

.8 
2.4 
7.5 
4.3 

.3 

2.0 

3.0 

21.3 

1.6 

.1 

.5 
1.3 
3.8 
3.7 
3.2 
1.6 

.7 
(') 

5.0 
2.6 
.9 
3.8 
2 4 
.3 
.2 
.1 

10 
.3 


1 


.\riiienian 

Bohemian and Moravian 
(Czech) 

Bulgarian. Serbian, and 
Montenegrin 


.1 
1.7 

. '4 

1 8 


Chinese 


5 6 


Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 


1 7 


Dalmatian, Bosnian, and 
Herzegovinian ... 




Hutch and Flemish 

East Indian 


1.4 
.1 


English.. 

Finnish... 

French 


5.7 
1.0 
2.0 
7.0 
3.8 
9.8 
3.8 
3.5 

18.5 
.8 
(') 
1.8 
2.7 
1.7 

10.4 
1.0 
1.2 
3.2 
2.5 

3.9 
2.2 
2.3 
1.0 
. 1 

.2 
.3 

.1 
.4 


13.1 
1.3 
7.1 
2.0 
5.5 
4.2 
5.6 
1.9 
12.6 
3.7 
(') 

.1 

.1 
10.3 

.9 
3.3 

.2 
1.1 

.2 

5.7 
5.0 
.4 
4.7 
1.1 
.4 
.1 
.3 

. 5 
.6 


11.0 

.6 

5.5 

10.3 

1.7 

10.7 

6.5 

2.1 

12.2 

1.1 

(') 

.2 

1.2 

8.7 

2.4 

1.1 

.4 

.8 

.2 

5.4 

6.4 

2.0 

1.4 

.5 

.4 

(') 

.3 

.2 
.2 


14.5 

.2 

7.3 

19.3 

.5 

3.4 

14.0 

.5 

2.6 

.2 

w 

.1 

.4 
14.0 
1.0 
.3 
.1 
.4 
.2 

fi.4 
9.0 
.1 
.2 

.8 
.2 

(') 
.5 

.1 
.1 


12. 

.2 

5.8 

16.9 

.8 

3.4 

13.3 

.8 

4.7 

.2 

(') 

.2 

.3 

19.9 

1.3 

.3 

. 1 

.4 

.1 

5. 7 
7.6 

.3 

.3 
1.0 

.2 
(') 

.4 

.1 
.1 


11.3 
.8 
2.5 


German ....... 


10 4 


Cireek 


3.3 


Hebrew 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 


.3 

2.1 

2.1 

20.4 

1. 4 


Korean . . 


1 


Lithuanian . 


5 


Magyar 

Mexican 

Polish.. 

Portuguese 

Rumanian. 


1.3 
5.0 
3.9 
1.8 
1 2 


Russian. 

Ruthenian (Ru.ssniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, 

Danes, and Swedes) 

Scotch 


.8 
.1 

4.9 
2 9 


Slovak 

Spanish. .. 


1.0 
3 3 


Spanish .\merican 


2 2 


Syrian 


.3 


Turkish 


2 


Welsh 


. 1 


West Indian (except Cu- 
ban). 


1.0 


Other peoples 


2 


Xot specified 








i 1 











1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



206 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



1^ 

as 

3 > 



Qie 



■V "t c: C 00 






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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 207 






1-1 CO 1-1^ 



GON ic ro M CO 



CO -^ CO— " 00 



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CC COi-i ic o • c^ 

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208 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



OS^ 






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— iicc^'Oc^^.-tr-HCNicoosc^osococv)co3;ao'«*<'-HOO"*QO-^o»o^Ttt osoooo 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 209 



: OS ac ^- »c oi ;55 



CD »0 CO ^ 0> CO 



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210 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOXER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATIOjST 



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C^OaiOCOCOr^OOCO^COTPCOCft:DCMiOiOCOt^COiCO'^OOOCTt'OOiOOCOtO^'--^ 
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iOiOO^CMOOiOO»OCOh- OT}<r-001iX50SCD-H0031iOO^-05CO>OiCOOCMOCMCD 
■^CDC0'^'J^^05r-C0C0CMC0"^O-^O»0"rt<i—i-H"^OOOt^^»0C0CMi00S'^O^ 
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EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 211 



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212 REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONEE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



Table 92. — Immigrant aliens admitted, with comparative per cent, by sex, fiscal 
years ended June 30, 1871 to 192S 





Total im- 
migrants 


Number 


Per cent 


Period 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Grand total 58 years, 1871-1928 - 


29, 863, 396 


19, 037, 546 


10, 825, 850 


63.7 


36.3 


Total, 10 years, 1871-1880 --- 


2,812,191 


1, 725, 148 


1,087,043 


61.3 


38.7 


lg71 


321,350 
404, 806 
459, 803 
313, 339 
227, 498 
169, 986 
141, 857 
138,469 
177, 826 
457, 257 


190,428 
240, 170 
275, 792 
189, 225 
139, 950 
111,786 
92, 033 
86, 259 
111,882 
287,623 


130, 922 
164, 636 
184,011 
124,114 
87, 548 
58, 200 
' 49, 824 
52, 210 
65,944 
169,634 


.59.3 
59. 3 
60.0 
60.4 
61.5 
65.8 
64.9 
62.3 
62.9 
62.9 


40.7 




40.7 


Ig73 


40.0 




39.6 




38.5 


Ig76 \ -- 


34.2 


1877 - --- 


35. 1 


1878 - -- 


37.7 


1879 


37. 1 


1880 - -- 


37. 1 


Total, 10 years, 1881-1890 - 


5, 246, 613 


3,205,911 


2, 040, 702 


61.1 


38.9 


1881 - 


669, 431 
788, 992 
603, 322 
518, 592 
395, 346 
334, 203 
490, 109 
546. 889 
444, 427 
455, 302 


410, 729 
498, 814 
363, 863 
308, 509 
226, 382 
200, 704 
306, 658 
345, 375 
263,024 
281, 853 


258, 702 
290, 178 
239, 459 
210,083 
168, 964 
133, 499 
183,451 
201,514 
181,403 
173,449 


61.4 
63.2 
60.3 
59. 5 
57.3 
60.1 
62.6 
63.2 
59.2 
61.9 


38.6 




36.8 


1883 - 


39.7 




40.5 


1885 


42.7 


1886 


39.9' 




37.4 


1888 - --- - 


36.8' 


1889 - - 




1890 - - 


38.1 


Total, 10 years, 1891-1900 


3, 687, 564 


2,297,330 


1, 390, 234 


62.3 


37.7 


1891 -- - - 


560, 319 
579, 663 
439, 730 
285, 631 
258, 536 
343, 267 
230, 832 
229, 299 
311,715 
448, 572 


354, 059 
361,864 
280, 344 
169, 274 
149,016 
212, 466 
135, 107 
135,775 
195, 277 
304, 148 


206, 260 
217, 799 
159, 386 
116,357 
109, 520 
130, 801 
95, 725 
93, 524 
116,438 
144, 424 


63.2 
62.4 
63.8 
59.3 
57.6 
61.9 
58.5 
59.2 
62.6 
67.8 


36.8- 




37.6 




36.2 




40.7 


1895 ^ — 


42.4 




38.1 


1897 - 


41.5 




40. » 


1899 -- 


37.4 




32.2 




8, 795, 386 


6,141,942 


2, 653, 444 


69.8 


30.2 




487,918 

648, 743 

857,046 

812, 870 

1,026,499 

1, 100, 735 

1,285,349 

782, 870 

751,786 

1,041.570 


331,0,55 
466, 369 
613, 146 
549, 100 
724, 914 
764, 463 
929, 976 
506, 912 
519, 969 
736, 038 


156, 863 
182, 374 
243,900 
263, 770 
301, 585 
336, 272 
355, 373 
275, 958 
231,817 
305, 532 


67.9 
71.9 
71.5 
67.6 
70.6 
69.5 
72.4 

1 64.8 
69.2 

1 70.7 


32.1 


1902 - 


28. 1 




28.5 


1904 - 


32.4 




29.4 




30.5 


lti07 - 


27.6 


1908 - -- 


35.2 


1909 


30.8 


1910 - 


29.3 


Total, 10 years, 1911-1920 


5,735,811 


3,643,385 


2, 092, 426 


[ 63. 5 


36.5 


1911 V- - - 


878, 587 
838, 172 
1, 197, 892 
1,218,480 
326, 700 
298. 826 
295, 403 
110,618 
141, 1.32 
430, 001 


570,057 
529,931 
808, 144 
798, 747 
187,021 
182, 229 
174,479 
61.880 
S3. 272 
247, 625 


308, 530 
308, 241 
389, 748 
419,733 
139, 679 
116,597 
120, 924 
48, 738 
57, 860 
182, 376 


64.9 

! 63. 2 

67. 5 

65.6 

57.2 

61.0 

; 59.1 

1 55. 9 

59.0 

.57. 6 


35.1 
36.8 


1913 --- 


32.5 




34.4 


1915 --- 


42.8 




39.0 


1917 


40.9 




44.1 


1919 -- 


41.0 




42.4 




3, 585, 831 


2. 023, 830 


1,562,001 


, 56.4 


43.6 




805, 228 
309, 556 
522, 919 
706, 896 
294,314 
304, 488 
335, 175 
307, 255 


449, 422 
149,741 
307, 522 
423, 186 
163, 252 
170, 567 
194, 163 
165,977 


355, 806 
159,815 
215, 397 
283, 710 
131,062 
133, 921 
141,012 
141,278 


55.8 
48.4 
.58.8 
59.9 
55. 5 
.56.0 
57.9 
54.0 


44.2 


1922 --- 


51.6 




41.2 


1924 


40.1 






1926 - 


44.0 


1927 


42.1 


1928 - 


46.0 




.. 



KEPOET OF THE COMMISSIOlSrER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION" 213 

Table 93. — Emigrant aliens departed, with comparative per cent, by sex, fiscal 
years ended June SO, 1908 to 1928 



Period 


Total 
emigrants 


Number 


Per cent 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Grand total 21 years, 1908-1928 


3, 895, 517 


3, 095, 436 


800, 081 


79.5 


20.5 






Total 3 vears, 1908-1910 


823,311 


676, 539 


146, 772 


82.2 


17 8 






1908. _ 


395, 073 

1 225, 802 

202, 436 


342,883 
178, 814 
154, 842 


52,190 
46,988 
47, 594 


86.8 
79.2 
76.5 


13.2 


1909 


20.8 


1910 


23.5 






Total 10 vears, 1911-1920 


2. 146, 994 


1, 742, 299 


404. 695 


81.2 


18.8 






1911 


295, 666 
333, 262 
308, 190 
303, 338 
204,074 
129, 765 
66, 277 
94, 585 
123, 522 
288, 315 


238, 922 
275, 970 
251, 808 
242,208 
168, 072 
106, 625 
48, 427 
71, 352 
101. 167 
237, 748 


56, 744 
57,292 
56, 382 
61,130 
36, 002 
23,140 
17, 850 
23, 233 
22, 355 
50,567 


80.8 
82.8 
81.7 
79.8 
82.4 
82.2 
73.1 
75.4 
81.9 
82.5 


19 2 


1912... 


17.2 


1913. 


18 3 


1914_.. 


20.2 


1915 


17 6 


1916... 


17.8 


1917. . 


26 9 


1918 


24.6 


1919 - 


18 1 


1920... 


17.5 


Total 8 years, 1921-1928 


925, 212 


676, 598 


248, 614 


73.1 


26.9 






1921... 


247, 718 
198, 712 
81, 450 
76, 789 
92, 728 
76, 992 
73, 366 
77, 457 


189, 134 
143, 223 
.54, 752 
57, 313 
70, 865 
54, 989 
51, 536 
54, 786 


58, 584 
55, 489 
26, 698 
19, 476 
21, 863 
22,003 
21, 830 
22, 671 


76.4 
72.1 
67.2 
74.6 
76.4 
71.4 
70.2 
70.7 


23.6 


1922 


27 9 


1923.- 


32.8 


1924 


25 4 


1925. 


23.6 


1926 


28 6 


1927 


29 8 


1928 .... 


29 3 







J Sex of 29,708 estimated. This number, leaving the United States via Canadian border, was reported 
by the Canadian Government. 



214 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGEATIOX 

Table 94. — Immigrant aliens admitted during specified -periods, fiscal years ended 
June SO, 1921 to 1928, by countries of last -permanent residence and sex 



Country of last permanent 


5 years, 1921-1925 


1 year, 1926 


1 year, 1927 


1 year 


,"192S 


residence 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 




1, 493, 123 


1, 145. 790 


170, 567 


133, 921 


194, 163 


141, 012 


105. 977 


141. 278 






Europe, total . . . 


921, 832 


767, 542 


76, 191 


79, 371 


91, 205 


77. 163 


78, 279 


80,234 






Albania 

Austria. 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia... 

Danzig, Free City of 

Denmark. 


248 

14.030 

6,193 

1, 134 

40, 926 

108 

13, 202 

545 

6,148 

13,428 

103, 185 

55, 035 
53, 954 
3,564 
23, 254 
11, 175 
44, 002 

241, 230 

730 

1,090 

81 

10, 039 

27,056 

76, 579 

18, 828 
29, 410 
22, 477 

22, 297 
39, 685 
11, 509 

6,920 
19, 392 

4,378 


81 

12, 443 

5,895 

830 

42. 355 

135 

8,015 

351 

8,200 

15,017 

90, 985 

53, 566 
39,886 

2,711 
17, 735 
14, 619 

54, 513 

130, 472 

1,006 

1.751 

69 

7,100 

15. 365 

107. 830 

8.089 
30.946 
32, 995 

4,234 
20, 727 

8,229 

6,618 
22, 931 

1,843 


89 

439 

357 

90 

1,253 

104 

1,626 

54 

176 

2,105 

26, 292 

4,941 

5,937 

753 

187 

355 

12, 605 

3,179 

115 

240 

65 

913 

3,148 

2,679 

405 
492 
621 

189 

4,960 

1,205 

64 

384 

169 


69 

663 

361 

85 

1,700 

106 

923 

78 

315 

2,076 

24,129 

5,658 

7,724 

515 

934 

551 

12, 292 

5,074 

183 

396 

62 

840 

2,608 

4,447 

261 

719 

1,145 

137 
3,553 

789 
146 
675 
157 


143 
518 
358 
135 

1,817 
131 

1,735 

56 

182 

2,257 
28, 573 

5,071 

6,504 

641 

573 

318 

15, 134 

8,397 

157 

354 

58 

916 

3,686 

4,102 

432 
577 
418 

264 

5,705 

1,230 

62 

480 

221 


100 

498 

406 

87 

1,723 

92 

770 

83 

256 

2,148 

19,940 

4,919 
6,107 

427 
1,516 

495 
13,411 

8.900 

246 

416 

53 

817 

2,382 

5,109 

135 
693 
765 

165 
2,582 
891 
154 
710 
167 


109 

563 

336 

87 

1,694 

121 

1,604 

52 

220 

2.178 

24,620 

3,564 

5,474 

871 

410 

351 

12, 289 

6,075 

100 

222 

60 

954 

3,312 

4,187 

344 
537 
473 

279 

5.214 

1,115 

90 

517 

257 


154 
714 
362 

71 

1.877 

103 

86& 

84 


Finland 


253 


France, including Corsica... 


2.260 

21, 158 


Great Britain: 


3,774 


Scotland.. 


5,611 


Wales . 


664 


Greece 


1. 918 




506 




12 979 


Italy, including Sicily and 
Sardinia .. . 


11, 653 




158- 




309 


Luxemburg . 


46 




^ 889 




2,348 


Poland 


4.568 


Portugal, including Azores, 
Cape Verde, and Madeira 


240 




83E» 




781 


Spain, including Canary and 


176 


Sweden 

Switzerland . 


2.837 

879 


Turkey in Europe 

Yugoslavia 

Other Europe 


1.52 
869 
133 








43, 638 


35, 007 


2,286 


1,127 


2,311 


1,358 


1,983 


1,397 






China 


16, 774 
1,056 

13, 166 
1,911 
9,303 
1,428 


5,556 
320 
16, 761 
1,705 
9.484 
1,181 


1,377 

64 

452 

242 

14 

137 


374 

29 

202 

437 

23 

62 


1,045 

68 

490 

514 

15 

179 


426 
34 
233 
540 
58 
67 


860 
71 

376 

465 
27 

184 


460 


India . 


31 


Japan 


174 


Syria and Palestine . . 


593 


Turkey in Asia and .\.rmenia 
Other Asia 


53 
86 








522, 467 


339, 422 


91,444 


52, 949 


99, 890 


61, 982 


85. 072 


59,209 






Canada and Newfoundland.. 
Mexico . 


312, 191 

161, 129 

28. 365 

4,171 

16, 609 

2 


227, 390 

75,248 

25, 704 

3,527 

7,551 

2 


53. 043 

33, 711 

1,907 

726 

2,055 

2 


40, 325 

9,605 

1,315 

648 

1,052 

4 


45, 196 
48, 653 

2,505 
993 

2.543 


39. 384 

19,068 

1,514 

778 

1,234 

4 


40,172 

38. 644 

2,592 

897 

2,765 

2 


35, 109 
20, 372 


West Indies 


1,466 




854 


South America.-. 


1,40) 












Others, total . . 


5.186 


3,819 


646 


474 


757 


509 


643 


438 






Africa 


2,239 

2,627 
183 
137 


1,442 

2.181 
105 
91 


327 

296 
23 


202 

260 
12 


332 

407 

18 


188 

305 
16 


312 

314 

17 


163 


Australia, Tasmania, and 
New Zealand . 


264 


Other Pacific islands 


11 

















EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 215 

Table 95. — Ejnigrant aliens departed during specified periods, fiscal years ended 
June 30, 1921 to 1928, by countries of intended future permanent residence and 
sex 



Country of intended future 


5 years, 1921-1925 


lyear 


,1926 


1 j'ear 


, 1927 


1 year 


1928 


permanent residence 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 




515, 287 


182, 110 


54,989 


22,003 


51, 536 


21, 830 


54, 786 


22.671 








430, 223 


147, 027 


43, 413 


16, 627 


38, 832 


16, 570 


40, 473 


16, 712 






Albania 


593 

1,870 

2,444 

4,006 

21, 139 

3 

1,822 

12 

3,017 

4,837 

9,145 

14, 973 
2,695 

224 
34, 751 
12,438 
2,981 

143, 725 

60 

576 

12 

2,030 

4,006 

63, 709 

15, 665 
12,208 
20, 432 

17, 987 

4,517 

1,943 

873 

23,883 
1,647 


25 

1,038 

1,837 

174 

8,524 

2 
1,373 

4 
1,768 
4,707 
6,833 

15, 847 
2,897 
163 
2,990 
6,314 
4,889 

31, 502 

36 

270 

6 

1,249 

3,493 

24, 198 

4,956 
4,582 
4,749 

2,278 
3,475 
1, 202 
86 
5,403 
157 


294 

283 

261 

82 

1,543 

1 

398 

13 

317 

545 

1,887 

2,371 

650 

20 

4,668 
476 
448 

16, 693 

33 

277 

4 

235 

1,376 

2,062 

2,399 
913 
129 

2,172 

702 

294 

29 

1,797 

41 


20 

204 

230 

6 

758 


223 
264 
254 
118 

1,601 

5 

316 

11 

295 

807 

2,216 

2,436 

646 

27 

2,680 
481 
505 

15, 087 

11 

213 

5 

276 

1,158 

1,934 

1,883 
819 
159 

1,941 

643 

339 

23 

1,448 

8 


14 

204 

228 

12 

675 

1 

220 

3 

241 

830 

2,632 

2,558 
795 
17 
450 
360 
709 

2,672 
10 
101 
8 
180 
628 
716 

464 

429 

80 

237 
472 
255 

1 
463 

5 


86 

331 

263 

98 

1,489 

1 

310 

8 

353 

1,028 

3,506 

3,244 
719 
22 

2,130 
541 
650 

14, 925 

30 

205 

8 

320 

1,208 

2,222 

1,148 
697 
322 

1,740 

810 

418 

34 

1,574 

33 


4 




249 




222 




12 


Czechoslovakia 


581 








293 

2 

202 

466 

2,021 

2,550 
682 
17 
496 
395 
611 

3,287 
25 
131 
3 
144 
711 
819 

527 

491 

52 

293 
448 
192 

1 
545 

5 


230 


Estonia-- .- . -- 


3 




232 


France, including Corsica 

Germanv 


1,002 
3,139 


Great Britain: 

England 


2,795 


Scotland 


779 


Wales - 


17 




331 


Hungary 


379 




650 


Italy, including SicUy and 
Sardinia 


2,399 




25 


Lithuania . 


114 


Luxemburg 


10 


Netherlands 


194 


Norway . . 


478 


Poland 


849 


Portugal, including Azores, 
Cape Verde, and Madeira 
Islands 


210 


Rumania . 


305 


Russia. 

Spain, including Canary and 


104 
243 


Sweden _ 


472 


Switzerland 


308 


Turkey in Europe 


4 


Yugoslavia 


367 


Other Europe 


5 


Asia, total 


38, 981 


6,667 


4,234 


697 


5,315 


692 


5,349 


724 


China .-. 


21, 627 
799 

10,807 

738 

4,550 

460 


1,160 
184 

4,172 
233 
788 
130 


2,809 

86 

833 

286 

166 

54 


180 
27 

375 
95 
3 
17 


3,945 

102 

894 

234 

74 

66 


234 
24 

311 
93 
20 
10 


4,083 

132 

768 

243 

62 

61 


281 




24 


Japan . .. .. 


317 


Svria and Palestine 


79 


Turkey in Asia and Armenia.. 


17 
6 






America, total 


43, 872 


26, 851 


7,004 


4,481 


7,007 


4,296 


8,623 


4,997 






Canada and Newfoundland... 
Mexico 


11, 229 
12, 540 
12, 958 
2,053 
5,092 


6,663 
6,990 
9,643 
1,383 
2,172 


1,631 

2,164 

1,999 

316 

894 


825 

1,034 

1,840 

250 

531 

1 


1,549 

2,139 

1,975 

435 

909 


891 
818 
1,757 
286 
544 


1,996 
2,779 
2,350 
449 
1,049 


1,065 
1,178 


West Indies 


1,894 


Central America.. 


309 


South America. 


551 






















Others, total 


2,211 


1,565 


338 


198 


382 


272 


341 


238 






Africa 


465 

1,570 

! 119 

57 


240 

1,247 
56 
22 


86 

236 
16 


40 

155 
3 


73 

286 
23 


39 

222 
11 


90 

242 
9 


51 


New Zealand . 


183 


Other Pacific islands 


4 


Countries not specified 

















216 REPORT or THE COMMISSIOJJ'ER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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] 5869—28- 



-15 



218 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Table 97. — Immigrant aliens admitted during specified periods, fiscal years ended 
June 30, 1921 to 1928, by race or people and sex 

[For annual total by race, see Table 86] 



Race or people 



Total 

African (black) 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian 

(Czech) - 

Bulgarian, Serbian, and 

Montenegrin 

Chinese 

Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and 

Herzegovinian 

Dutch and Flemish -.. 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew. 

Irish 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south).. 

Japanese 

Korean. 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Rumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, 

Danes, and Swedes) 

Scotch.. 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cuban). 
Other peoples 



5 years, 1921-1925 



Male Female 



1,493,123 1,145,790 



16, 381 
8,312 

9,496 

7,298 
15, 423 
10, 927 

4,001 

1,122 

18, 894 

868 

155, 583 

6,445 

80, 996 

143, 293 

27, 267 

128, 777 

87, 695 

38,099 

209, 620 

12,471 

196 

2,316 

13, 979 

157, 181 

27 

28, 660 

19, 603 

5,631 

11, 896 

3,242 

91, 309 

94, 815 

25,371 

30, 862 

7,585 

5,080 

625 

4,810 

2,900 

4,067 



19, 328 
10,061 

9,572 

6,565 

3,524 

12,711 

1,891 

1,032 

14, 501 

63 

134,516 

8,045 

62, 986 

127, 478 

18, 879 

153, 783 

83,963" 

17, 872 

112, 844 

16, 236 

205 

4,263 

16, 688 

73, 403 

22 

34, 602 

8,534 

5,329 

8,579 

2,605 

49, 935 

72, 887 

28, 050 

6,242 

4,590 

4,611 

447 

3,318 

3,632 

1,998 



1 year, 1926 



Male Female 



170, 567 



388 
189 

1,118 

234 
1,182 

259 
1,079 

31 

1,760 

46 

23, 542 

270 

12, 509 

30, 704 

344 

4,568 

22, 941 

764 

3,200 

425 

39 

123 

447 

33, 304 

2 

1,273 

483 

99 

419 

263 

11,437 

13, 409 

357 

427 

1,501 

184 

18 

845 

171 

213 



133, 921 



506 
552 

1,376 

298 
193 
433 
397 

44 

1,396 

4 

20, 664 

404 

9,728 

27, 971 

1,041 

5,699 

19, 534 

722 

4,688 

173 

13 

270 

629 

9,334 



1,902 
310 
220 
519 
242 

7,981 

13, 889 

177 

272 

1,018 

304 

79 

569 

202 

168 



1 year, 1927 



Male 



194, 163 



415 
263 

1,239 

322 

830 

352 

1,435 

37 

1,713 

47 

20, 768 

278 

10, 396 

33, 142 

864 

5,255 

24,149 

1,433 

7,826 

449 

40 

246 

467 

48, 107 

5 

2,177 

653 

184 

586 

246 

12, 546 
12, 940 
634 
648 
1,923 
302 
39 
775 
188 
244 



Female 



141,012 



540 
720 

1,167 

278 
221 
469 

484 

32 

1,412 

4 

19, 397 

351 

8,917 

23, 445 

1,693 

6,228 

20, 577 

1,204 

8,066 

211 

7 

303 

582 

18, 659 

3 

2,072 

190 

238 

663 

199 



12, 604 
383 
417 
1,262 
382 
73 
525 
193 
152 



1 year, 1928 



Male 



165, 977 



463 
264 

625 

245 

668 

330 

1,551 

46 

1,573 

37 

16, 894 

244 

9,926 

29, 222 

696 

5,311 

19,412 

1,169 

5,637 

358 

19 

107 

501 

37, 965 

2 

2,381 

562 

162 

600 

234 

11,716 

11,454 

1,191 

592 

2,052 

226 

72 

1,016 

192 

262 



Female 



141, 278 



493 



286 
263 



1,307 

1 

16, 703 

300 

8,037 

24, 935 

2,152 

6,328 

18, 781 

1,484 

10,450 

164 

3 

219 

611 

19, 800 



1,857 
282 
281 
649 
177 

6,948 
11,723 

1,006 
426 

1,438 
387 
71 
707 
202 
222 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OP IMMIGRATION 219 

Table 98. — Emigrant aliens departed during specified periods, fiscal years ended 
June 30, 1921 to 1928, by race or people and sex 

[For annual total by race, see Table 87] 



Race or people 



5 years, 1921-1925 



Male Female 



1 year, 1926 



Male 



Female 



1 year, 1927 



Male 



Female 



1 year, 1928 



Male 



Female 



Total.. 

African (black) .-. 

Armenian 

Bohemian and Moravian 

(Czech)_ 

Bulgarian, Serbian, and 

Montenegrin 

Chinese. _ 

Croatian and Slovenian 

Cuban 

Dalmatian, Bosnian, and 

Herzegovinian _ 

Dutch and Flemish.. 

East Indian 

English 

Finnish 

French 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish... 

Italian (north) 

Italian (south) 

Japanese 

Korean 

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Mexican.. 

Pacific Islander 

Polish 

Portuguese. 

Rumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian (Russniak) 

Scandinavian (Norwegians, 

Danes, and Swedes) 

Scotch 

Slovak 

Spanish 

Spanish American 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh 

West Indian (except Cuban).. 
Other peolples 



515, 287 



182, 110 



54,989 



22,003 



51, 536 



21,830 54,786 



4,298 
1,029 

6,287 

17, 633 

21, 357 
7,334 
3,237 

1,608 

4,851 

672 

22, 596 
3,201 
6,247 

12. 179 

34,990 

1,622 

4,182 

22, 857 

121, 840 

10, 752 

161 

8,034 

13, 166 

11,789 

15 

61, 259 

15, 893 

11,819 

14, 697 



11,802 

4,610 

17,437 

21, 151 

4,360 

3,491 

1,463 

329 

1,442 

2,738 



3,760 
58 

3,654 

3,333 

829 

1,350 

1,730 

701 

3,191 

36 

22,286 

1,865 

5,515 

8,707 

3,183 

655 

5,362 

5,881 

25, 797 

4,087 

35 

3,096 

6,705 

6,732 

5 

23, 513 

5,142 

4,529 

2,511 

211 



4,041 
5,136 
3,176 
2,266 
1,014 
96 

216 
1,796 

942 



379 
83 

931 

1,320 

2,746 

468 

763 

368 

574 

65 

3,481 

345 

699 

2,269 

4,694 

225 

563 

2,144 

14,546 

830 

20 

289 

585 

2,131 

1 

2,010 

2,439 

861 

400 

54 

2,673 

1,055 

625 

2,543 

847 

184 

185 

47 

265 

282 



486 



361 
127 
124 
524 

177 

419 

4 

3,454 
215 
578 

2,240 
494 
116 
662 
892 

2,422 

371 

7 

150 

478 

1,027 



813 

550 

441 

181 

11 

1,515 

857 

225 

429 

557 

76 

16 

29 

395 

36 



365 
42 

1,176 

1,229 

3,910 

207 

638 

249 

588 

74 

3,758 

321 

912 

2,636 

2,689 

148 

674 

1,647 

13, 513 

852 

45 

216 

541 

1,978 

4 

1,977 

1,899 

792 

345 

15 

2,269 

962 

547 

2,382 

1,121 

133 

137 

44 

304 

197 



505 
9 

548 

363 
207 
44 
342 

131 
417 

9 

3,691 

256 

849 

2,879 

451 

76 

758 

562 

2,114 

296 

7 
115 
405 
796 

3 
748 
464 
409 
165 

4 

1,409 

968 

146 

399 

671 

70 

29 

21 

450 

44 



358 
35 

916 

1,139 

4,049 

456 

875 

224 

648 
104 

4,786 
391 
965 

4,366 

2,184 
184 
862 

1,201 

13, 826 

753 

30 

229 

630 

2,709 
1 

2,191 

1,176 
625 
476 
46 

2,506 
1,229 

581 
2,193 
1,069 

162 
98 
57 

290 

166 



22,671 



431 
12 



257 

251 

78 

407 

137 

436 

2 

3,994 

256 

950 

3,720 

341 

69 

787 

425 

2,008 

302 

9 

122 

394 

1,164 

2 

855 

254 

283 

166 

13 

1,261 

1,039 

165 

385 

651 

70 

18 

28 

495 

23 



220 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 






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0003030303030)0) 03 03 03 03 03 03 O^ 03 03 03 03 03 C3 03 



228 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GEISTERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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•-t M CO to CO '^ CO •-' "-i 



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t^r-.<NuocDiOOOt-{MCS(Mr-iC^COi— i»-iC0»O(MC^«-i 



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T-(CDOi— loc^ioo-^r— cDcocooo>ooos»ot-^r-c^.-H 

C0'-«(NC0C0(NC0»OC0Tf»O--*'-H,-ii-i^rH(N 



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IM 00 01 O i-i C 



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«C1(M(MCMCM(N<NT» 



Nc5 



00OiOS0tOiO5dOi35OiOiOSO5OiOsO5OiOSOS353iOi 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 229 



O 1 --'-'rJ'wO(MC^) ^'-'iCi-'CS'^i-'OCOOOOOOlCOS eOCOCO«-i'^(©OGO'^ 



^OOfCO'^CC^C^JOO 



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05 i-< CO ICI Oi ■^ i-< 



f-H 00 t^ ^ C^ CO 00 00 CO lO CO CO CO eOOOiO COCCOiC<l-^ 
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o;o to t^ t*Oi N09 sot^ «DO -^t^N oioowr-00 



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*0C'*Hc6id<-i(Nco *Tj*.-Jw ' *oqC^co«-h "od 



§2 8 



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1-1 coo W OS 0000 CO O iCCO CO CO -^CO'-' f-i OS t^ "C CD 

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TT >-< rr C^ CO CO C^l 



ocDco'^^'^fN TfOi^osr^r^t^c^ooeo 



■^»CI^CO'VCOt-H--HiOOCSO COiCCO OOr^I'-OSiO C^t-C^Xi— 'CDCOtT'-hOS 



(M r-H ^ r- OS C^ (N lO CS *0 .-H r-< 00 C^ 



CD TJ« (N CO f-" 



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M (M^ 



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^ CD t^ ■<*« lO 



CO lO C^ 1-H r-t OO CO Tf< 00 CS OS CD 00 »C O lO ■^ CO CO CO CO O W t^ CO OS OS "(J* »0 CO 00 -f OS CD W -^ t>- W N CO 



O 1-* CO lO <— t lO rH 

C^ COi-H 



OS t-* C^ C^ CO iC O t* OS ^ OS CO CO Ol CO CD CD OS C^ ^ ^ W -^ Tt« CD t^ CO i-" CO 



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CD CS CO O CO i-H CS -^ CD t^ Ci CD »C t^ lO lO iC •*?< 00 C^ f- if5 CD CO 00 OS ^ .-h CO OS C^l CD -- i— ' "^ lO 



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CO CO Tj< o --< Tt* ic »o r^ i^ CO 1-^ CO CO Tf o CO »c •«** ic CO lO 00 <-H 

C^ N CI CO O (N 1-H O CD t^ »0 <M -^ OS r^- O CS CD CO CO IM OS 

T-H CO 1-H 1-< IC Tf CO i-H 1-H CO "-H CD O 



t-^COCOOiO Oi-'iOiCOO'HOSt^'^N 
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r-i C^ CO 



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t^ ■<*< C^ r-i 



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a. X X xx'c- ^ ? C 



230 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIOISTER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



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3 

II 












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a, M ->; 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 231 



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other immoral purpo; 


c 


ain student status 

■ than permitted 

xclusion act_. 

xcluded classes _. 

s 

over 16 years of age) . . 
le a public charge, p 
and vagrants. __. 


om causes existing pr 

sically defective at ti 

moral classes 

isses 


and in the T 
een deported ; 
r as having be 
ess of prosti 
rostitution or 


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o 

o. 

3? 


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mained longei 
der Chinese e 
)graphically e 
Iitract laborer: 
able to read ( 


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ional beggars, 
ler causes 

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Qtry 

ntally or phy 

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^>.a= P 



232 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Table 107. — Aliens admitted under the immigration act of 1924, os amended, by 
classes, fiscal years ended June 30, 1925 to 1928, with comparative per cent, as 
specified 





Number admitted, fiscal years ended 
June 30— 


Per cent distribution 


Classes 


4 years, 
1925-1928 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


4 
years 
192.5- 
1928 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


All classes, total . . 


■1,991,824 


1 457,086 


496, 106 


538, 001 


500, 631 


100.00 


100. 00 


100 oc 


inn nn 


100 00 








Nonimmigrants, total 


344, 297 


60,203 


88, 758 


95, 704 


99,632 


17.29 


13.17 


17.89, 17.79 


19.90 


Government officials, their 
families, attendants, servants, 
and employees . . . 


19, 647 
78, 497 
138, 532 

103, 840 

3,781 


1,950 
14, 461 
20, 865 

22, 697 

230 


5,666 
19, 951 
36, 663 

25, 574 

904 


5,683 
22,515 
37, 993 

28, 312 

1,201 


6,348 
21, 570 
43,011 

27, 257 

1,446 


.99 
3.94 
6.96 

5.21 

.19 


.43 

3.16 
4.56 

4.97 

.05 


1.141 1.06 
4.02 4.19 
7.39, 7.06 

i 
5 16' 5 5fi 


1 27 


Temporary visitors for business. 
Temporary visitors for pleasure- 
In continuous transit through 
the United States.. 


4.31 
8.59 

N 
5 44 


To carry on trade under exist- 
ing treaty . 


.18 


.22 


29 






Nonquota immigrants, 
total 


1, 032, 823 


250, 912 


249, 916 


284, 227 


247, 768 


61.85 


54.89 


50 38 


^9. RS 


49 49 








Wives of United States citi- 
zens 2 


34, 690 

61 

27, 886 

338, 798 

607, 387 

3,032 

757 

2,547 
1.094 
2,036 

600 

168 

99 

7,031 

4,647 

913 

1,008 

65 

4 


4,171 


6,810 


10.084 


13, 625 

61 

12, 075 

94, 502 

123, 362 

555^ 

205 

594 
226 
393 

124 
401 
27 

1,816 
61 i 
23 
20 

55 

4 


i 1.75 

1.40 
17.01 
30.49 

.19 

1- 

• .04 
.35 

.33 


{■" 


1.37' 1.87 


2 72 


Husbands of United States 
citizens 


01 


Children of United States citi- 
zens ^ 


3,046 

64, 632 

175, 069 

623 

173 

694 
295 
486 

187 

49 

25 

1,462 

i 


4,344 

83,754 

150, 299 

965 

190 

664 
235 
436 

151 
39 
26 
1,920 
72 
3 
8 


8,421 
95, 910 

158, 657 
889 
189 

595 
338 
721 

138 

40 

21 

1,833 

4,514 

887 

980 

10 


.67 
14.14 
38.30 

.17 
.32 

.06 
.32 


.88 
16.88 
30.30 

.23 
.27 

.04 
.39 

.02 


1.57 
17.83 
29.49 

.20 
.30 

.04 
.34 

1.19 


2 41 


Returning residents ... 


18.88 


Natives of nonquota countries '. 
Their wives 2 


24.64 


Their children ■ 


. 15 


Ministers of religious denomi- 
nations... 




Wives of minsters 


.24 


Children of ministers 

Professors of colleges, acade- 
mies, seminaries, or universi- 
ties 




Wives of professors.. 

Children of professors 

Students . 


.04 
37 


Veterans of the World War <... 
M'ives of veterans < ... 




Children of veterans * 

Spanish subjects admitted into 
Porto Rico 3 ... 


.03 


American Indians born in 
Canada ' 














Quota immigrants, total.. 


614, 704 


145, 971 1 

1 


157, 432 


158, 070 


153, 231 


30.86 


31.94 


31.73 


29.38 


30. 61 



• Does not include 1,349 aliens who arrived prior to July 1, 1924, and were admitted during the fiscal 
year 1925. 

2 Wives and unmarried children born in quota countries. 

3 .\liens born in Canada, Newfoundland, Me.xico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Canal Zone, or 
an independent country of Central or South .\merica. (Only includes aliens admitted under the act of 
1924 as natives of such countries.) 

* .\ct approved May 26, 1926. 
' Act approved .\pr. 2, 1928. 



KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 233 

Table lOS. — Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1910 to 192S 
showing sex, age groups, and conjugal condition, as specified ' 

MALE 



Fiscal year 



16 years of age and over 



Total 



Single 



Married 



Wid- 
owed 



Di- 
vorced 



Under 16 years of age 



Total 



Single ^ar- 



Wid- 
owed 



Total, 19 years. 1910- 
1928 



5,603,564 3,169,901 



2, 363, 087 



68, 597 



1,979 



•99, 726 



799, 070 



1910 674,069 

1911 509,846 

1912 471,991 

1913. 733,083 

1914 717,829 

1915 160,021 

1916- 157,999 

1917 150,075 

1918- - 50,490 

1919 ; 69,573 

1920 ! 205,407 

1921 -I 374,325 

1922 117,761 

1923 -- --.1 261,281 

1924- - i 356,814 

1925 .-' 137,725 

1926 -I 146,655 

1927 ' 167,845 

1928.- .10,775 



355, 699 

302, 374 

276, 771 

410, 433 

380, 084 

95, 559 

84,127 

85, 120 

28, 085 

37, 851 

116, 848 

214,929 

66,002 

145, 393 

200,055 

85, 070 

92, 178 

103, 861 

89, 462 



312, 

202, 

190, 

317, 

331, 

61, 

71, 

62, 

21, 

29, 

84, 

154, 

48, 

111, 

151. 

50, 

52, 

61, 

49, 



5,895 
4,960 
4,491 
5,205 
6,075 
2,421 
2,496 
2,868 
1,225 
2,121 
4,010 
5, 269 
2,683 
4,190 
5,386 
2.406 
2,288 
2,508 
2,100 



143 
89 
54 



48 
47 
54 
30 
53 
83 
74 
95 
185 
278 
134 
138 
164 
144 



61, 969 
60, 248 
57, 940 
75, 061 
80,918 
27,000 
24, 230 
24, 404 
11,390 
13, 699 
42, 218 
75, 097 
31,980 
46, 241 
66, 372 
25, 527 
23, 912 
26, 318 
25, 202 



61,969 

60. 226 
57, 898 
74,996 
80,842 
26, 978 
24, 179 
24, 342 
11,367 
13,631 
42, 172 
75,013 
31,966 

46. 227 
66, 356 
25, 521 
23, 897 
26, 298 
25, 192 



643 



22 




42 




62 


3- 


75 


1 


22 




51 




60 


2 


23 




68 




42 


4 


83 


1 


12 


2 


14 




16 




6 




15 




20 




10 


...... 



FEMALE 



Total. 19 years. 1910- 
1928 3,190,851 



1910 246.992 

1911 250.904 

1912 252,481 

1913 317,651 

1914 342,030 

1915 113,697 

1916- - [ 93,757 

1917 97,861 

1918 38,779 

1919 45,186 

1920- - 142,704 

1921 , 284,290 

1922- 128.085 

1923 169,822 ! 

1924 217.818 

1925 105,867 

1926.. 110,486 

1927- -.. 115,641 

1928 116,800 



1,628,022 



132, 
139, 
141. 
174, 
185, 
56, 
43, 
48, 
16, 
16, 
61, 
146, 
66, 
82, 
94, 
51, 
55, 
56, 
57, 



1,343,451 



101,054 
98, 277 
96, 75U 

125, 775 

136, 194 
49, 021 
42,844 
41,741 
18,836 
23, 810 
68, 122 

114.957 
49. 329 
72.817 

107, 242 
46, 805 
46, 684 
51,309 
51,875 



214,038 



12, 905 
13,317 
13, 866 
17, 237 
19, 837 
7,753 
6,917 
7,720 
3,349 
4,413 
12, 750 
22,411 
12, 125 
13, 705 
15, 860 
7,533 
7,390 
7,629 
7,261 



5,340 



146 
165 
178 
245 
276 
103 
115 
92 
66 
60 
187 
329 
371 
512 
705 
345 
482 
456 
506 



769,071 



58, 540 
57, 589 
55, 760 
72, 097 
77, 703 
25, 982 
22,840 
23,063 
9,959 
12, 674 
39, 672 
71,516 
31,730 
45, 575 
65, 892 
25, 195 
23, 435 
25,371 
24, 478 



768, 317 



58, 539 
57, 584 
55, 729 
72, 056 
77, 653 
25, 953 
22,811 
23,020 
9, 915 
12, 618 
39, 574 
71,419 
31,681 
45, 550 
65, 860 
25, 171 
23, 409 
25, 338 
24, 437 



' For years 1910 to 1917, inclusive, figures cover aliens 14 years of age and over, or children under 14 years 
of age. For total immigrants by years and sex, see Table 92 

15869—28 16 



234 EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONEE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 

Table 109. — Nonimmigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1910 to 
19SS, showing sex, age groups, and conjugal condition, as specified ^ 





All ages 


Under 14 
years of 


Fiscal year 


Total 


Male 


Female 


age (male 

and 
female) 


Total, 8 vears, 1910-1917.. 


1, 144, 039 


776, 936 


367, 103 


84 522 






1910 - .... 


156, 467 
151,713 
178, 983 
229, 335 
184, 601 
107, 544 
67, 922 
67, 474 


111,235 
103, 349 
123, 259 
161, 771 
123, 415 
64,834 
44, 339 
44, 734 


45,232 
48,364 
55,724 
67,564 
61, 186 
42, 710 
23, 583 
22, 740 


8 104 


1911 


9' 171 


1912 


12 248 


1913 


17 651 


1914 


15' 247 


1915.. 


9,996 
6, 339 
5,761 


1916.. 


1917 







MALE 





16 years of age and over 


Under 16 years 


of age 




Fiscal year 


Total 


Single 


Married 


Wid- 
owed 


Di- 
vorced 


Total 


Single 


Mar- 
ried 


Wid 
owea 


Total, 11 years, 
1918-1928 


1,117,089 


408, 920 


683, 528 


23, 196 


1,445 


63, 063 


62, 961 


99 


■i 


1918 


78, 157 
69, 214 
137. 752 
113,424 
73, 505 
88, 885 
107, 257 
99,604 
116,881 
121, 620 
110, 790 


21, 376 
29, 990 
59, 614 
42, 341 
27, 097 
34,023 
37, 718 
34, 998 
41,326 
42, 017 
38, 420 


55, 606 
37, 602 

75, 601 

68, 799 
44, 672 
52, 809 
67, 118 
62, 175 
72, 716 

76, 725 

69, 705 


1,132 
1,555 
2,459 
2,203 
1,654 
1,954 
2,248 
2,271 
2,658 
2,644 
2,418 


43 
07 
78 
81 
82 
99 
173 
160 
181 
234 
247 


3,074 
3,551 
7,603 
7,647 
5, 531 
7,055 
7,150 
5,242 
5,368 
5, 659 
5,183 


3,067 
3,537 
7,581 
7,638 
5,525 
7,052 
7,148 
5,228 
5,360 
5,649 
5,176 


7 

13 
22 
9 
6 
2 
2 
14 
8 
9 
7 




1919 _ 


1 


1920.. .. 




1921. 




1922 




1923- - - 


1 


1924 




1925 




1926 




1927... _ 


1 


1928 









FEMALE 



Total, 11 years, 
1918-1928 .... 


519, 106 


193, 929 


278, 010 


45, 072 


I 
2,095 


60, 159 


60, 046 


108 


5 


191S 

1919 


17, 085 
19, 744 
39, 409 
44, 875 
38, 718 
47, 541 
51,045 
54, 017 
64, 086 
70, 172 
72, 414 


5,750 
6,380 

13, 700 
16, 984 

14, 428 
18, 198 

19, 035 

20, 530 
24, 165 

26, 778 

27, 981 


9,491 
11,319 
22, 280 
24, 168 
20, 766 
25, 153 
27,415 
28, 276 
33, 822 

37, 143 

38, 177 


1,816 
2,016 
3,347 
3,620 
3,390 
4,028 
4,398 
4,934 
5,744 
5,920 
5,859 


28 1 

29 

82 1 
103 
134 
162 
197 
277 
355 
331 
397 


2,919 
3,380 
6,811 
6, 989 
5,195 
7,006 
6,954 
5, 258 
5,283 
5,375 
4,989 


2,914 
3,362 
6,794 
6,973 
5,188 
7,003 
6,941 
5,249 
5,273 
5,367 
4,982 


5 
14 
17 
16 

3 

'I 
10 

8 
6 


4 


1920 




1921.. 




1922. 




1923 




1924 




1925.. . 




1926 




1927 




1928 


1 



I Prior to 1918 separate figures not available showing sex by conjugal condition and age. 
immigrants by years see Table 78. 



For total non- 



EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 235 

Table 110. — Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal year ended June 30, 1910 to 1928, 
showing sex, age groups, and conjugal condition, as specified ' 



Fiscal year 


All ages 


Under 14 
years of age 


Total 


Male 


Female 


(male and 
female) 


Total 8 years, 1910-1917 _ 


1, 843, 008 


1, 486, 874 


356, 134 


90,687 






1910... 


202, 436 
295, 666 
333, 262 
308, 190 
303, 338 
204, 074 
129, 765 
66, 277 


154, 842 
238, 922 
275, 970 
251, 808 
242, 208 
168, 072 
106, 625 
48, 427 


47, 594 

56, 744 

57, 292 
56, 382 
61, 130 
36, 002 
23, 140 
17, 8.50 


13, 741 
15, 889 
13, 026 
13, 245 


1911. 


1912.... 


1913 


1914 


1.3,117 


1915... 


10, 453 
6, 131 


1916 


1917 


5,085 







MALE 



Fiscal year 



16 years of age and over 



Total 



Single 



Married 



Wid- 
owed 



Di- 
vorced 



Under 16 years of age 



Total Single 



Mar- 
ried 



Wid- 
owed 



Total. 11 years, 
1918-1928 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922... 

1923 

1924... 

1925 

1926 

1927. 

1928 



1,050,385 324,046 I 712,524 



66, 284 
97, 291 
232, 338 
183, 444 
138, 241 
52, 432 
55, 425 
68, 642 
53, 297 
50, 028 
52, 963 



13, 558 



33, 530 
27,411 

50, 477 

51, 278 
44, 587 
18, 476 
19, 122 
21, 487 
19, 122 
18, 016 
20, 540 



31, 850 
68, 770 

180, 127 
129, 883 
91, 513 

32, 999 
35,404 
46, 182 

33, 210 
31, 111 
31, 475 



1,098 

1,719 

2,262 

2,105 

937 

881 

944 

937 

867 

910 



36, 480 1 36, 279 201 



5,068 
3,876 
5,410 
5,690 
4,982 
2,320 
1,888 
2,223 
1,692 
1,508 
1,823 



.5, 051 
3,837 
5. 343 
5,645 
4,974 
2,319 
1,884 
2,220 
1,689 
1,499 
1, 818 



FEMALE 



Total, 11 years, 
1918-1928 


310, 508 


80,008 


213, 461 


16, 797 


242 


34, 261 


34, 133 


126 


2 


1918.- .. 


18, 439 
IS. 879 
45, 272 
53, 454 
50, 972 
24, 479 
17, 647 

19, 672 

20. 348 
20, 352 
20, 994 


5,408 
5,657 
10, 972 
11, 120 
9,142 
6,791 
5,160 
5,348 
6,528 
6,761 
7,121 


11, 525 
11,886 
32, 547 
40, 276 
39, 605 
16, 179 

11, 437 
13, 082 

12, 343 
12, 186 
12, 395 


1,496 
1,335 
1,739 
2,032 
2,191 
1,485 
1,034 
1,218 
1,445 
1,370 
1,452 


10 
1 

14 
26 
34 
24 
16 
24 
32 
35 
26 


4,794 
3,476 
5,295 
5,130 
4,517 
2,219 
1,829 
2,191 
1,655 
1,478 
1,677 


4,772 
3,457 
o,277 
5, 111 
4,495 
2,214 
1,828 
2,187 
1,652 
1,472 
1.668 


22 
19 
18 
19 
21 
4 

I 
3 
6 
9 




1919.. 




1920.. 




1921 




1922 


1 


1923.. 


1 


1924. 




1925 . 




1926 




1927 




1928 









' Prior to 1918 separate figures not available showing sex by conjugal condition and age. For total emi- 
grants by years and sex, see Table 93. 



236 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 



Table 111. — Nonemujrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended Jane 30, 1910 
1928, shoiving sex, age groups, and conjugal conditions as specified ' 



to 



Fiscal year 


.A.11 ages 


Under 14 
years of age 


Total 


Male 


Female 


(male and 
female) 


Total 8 years, 191'>-1917 


1, 688, 006 


1, 218, 610 


469, 396 


98, 805 




1910 


177, 982 
222,549 
282, 030 
303, 734 
330, 407 
180, 100 
111,042 
SO, 102 


125, 054 
161, 372 
204, 762 
225,961 
241, 057 
133, 713 
74, 350 
52, 341 


52, 928 
61, 177 
77, 268 
77, 773 


9,910 
U 286 


1911 


1912 . 


15,567 

17 19S 


1913 


1914 


89,410 t 18,798 
46, 387 10, 810 
36,692 9,010 
27, 761 « 301 


1915 . . - 


1916.. 


1917.. 









MALE 



Total 1 1 years, 
1918-1928 I 996,863 



16 years of age and over 



Total Single Married J^^^J 



366, 126 



1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1921 _ 
1922. 
1923- 



78, 955 
67, 768 
91, 096 
118, 108 
92, 265 
69, 968 
1924. I 87,953 



1925- 
1926- 
1927. 



81,913 
88, 944 
106, 294 
1928 i 113,539 



24, 704 
33,004 
32, 109 
45, 179 
33, 472 
24, 691 
32, 266 
27, 316 
29, 639 
39, 413 
44, 333 



618, 405 



53, 709 
34, 112 
58, 040 
71, 794 
57, 695 
44, 264 

54, 595 
53, 597 
58, 053 
65, 175 
67, 371 



Wid- 



Di- 
vorced 



12, 052 



535 

646 

930 

1,182 

1,074 

1,000 

1,069 

983 

1,216 

1,659 

1,752 



Under 16 years of age 



Total Single ^ ^^ 



51,020 1 50,882 



553 
158 
868 
738 
976 
216 
561 
050 
486 
,275 
,139 



2,546 
3,130 
5,848 
6,721 
4,967 
4,210 
4,557 
4,044 
4,482 
5,251 
5,126 



135 



3 



7 I 

27 I 1 
18 I 2 
17 

9 I 

6 : 

4 1 

6 I 

4 

24 ' 

13 



FEMALE 



Total 11 years, 
1918-1928- i 479,636 



1918_ 
1919- 
1920- 
1921- 
1922. 
1923- 
1924- 
1925- 
1926- 
1927- 
1928- 



14, 937 
18, 886 
37, 344 
47, 600 
44, 789 
40, 836 
43, 108 
42, 686 
53, 030 
63, 261 
73, 159 



163, 639 



4,829 
5,641 

12, 245 
15, 826 
15, 300 
14, 725 
14, 413 

13, 994 
17, 725 
22, 481 
26, 460 



294, 045 


21,417 


9,531 


569 


12, 272 


960 


23, 656 


1,424 


29, 949 


1,810 


27, 460 


1,992 


24,177 


1,889 


26, 767 


1,881 


26, 774 


1,877 


32, 868 


2,358 


37, 467 


3,212 


43, 124 


3,445 



535 ! 48,263 



13 
19 
15 
37 
45 
47 
41 
79 
101 
130 



2,238 
2,897 
5,439 
5,807 
4,642 
4,116 
4,334 
4,113 
4,303 
5,312 
5,062 



48, 134 ; 126 



2,235 
2,875 
5,420 
5,793 
4,625 
4,111 
4,328 
4,105 
4,300 
5,293 
5,049 



1 Prior to 1918 separate figures not available showing sex by conjugal condition and age. 
emigrants by years, see Table 79. 



For total non- 



EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION 237 

Tablk 112. — Aliens admitted to continental United States (mainland) from insidar 
posessions, fiscal years ended Jxme 30, 1908 to 1928, by ports 





Number admitted from all insulars 
during— 


Total number admitted, 1908-1928, 
from- 


Port 


To- 
tal, 
3 
years, 
1908- 
1910 


1 

, Total, 
Total.i 5 


Fiscal year— 


1 
Hawaii 51^ 


Philip- 
pine 
Is- 
lands 


Vrigin 

Is- 
lands 






10 

years, 

1911- 

1920 


years. 

fiscal 
years, 
1921- 

1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Grand 
total 


All ports --- 


4.884 


26.455 


12,053 


2,215 


2,517 


3,210 


30,291 1 16,665 


2,422 


1,956 


51, 334 






Kew York. N. Y 


1.442 


8.340 
1 


5,124 

1 
8 


908 
3 
1 


1,057 
...... 


1,643 
3 
1 


16 ' 16,536 

2 6 

11 


15 


1,947 


18, 514 
8 








2 

1 


13 




1 
4 
15 
2 


1 


Norfolk Va 








1 




3 


2 


5 












15 


15 














2 






2 


Tampr. Fla 


, 


1 
1 

10 

2 

5,696 

5 

119 

341 

745 






2 


3 

1 






3 
















1 




4 


56 

7 

16,023 

6 

708 

1,282 

10 


4 

"885' 

""19" 

32 

363 


3 
2 
923 
2 
21 
44 
461 




77 






77 






11 






11 


San Francisco, Calif 

Portland, Oreg 


3,399 


946 

""ie" 

78 
521 


26,488 ..! 1,380 

6 6 

148 i 765 


4 

1 


27, 872 
13 


Seattle, Wash 


30 
9 


913 


Canadian Pacific 

Mexican border seaports 


1,544 

2,087 


242 
12 


1.786 
2.100 



1,236 aliens were admitted to Hawaii and 836 to Porto Rico from continental United States; 6 aliens to 
Hawr.ii from the Philippine Islands; and 190 to Porto Rico from the Virgin Islands, during the fiscal year 
1928. 

Table 113. — Aliens departed from continental United States {mainland) to insular 
possessions, and from insular possessions to continental United States and other 
insular possessions, fiscal years ended June SO, 1919 to 1928, as specified 



Port 


Total 

10 
years, 
1919- 
1928 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


All ports, total . .. 


38, 233 


2,513 


3,472 


4,270 


3,417 


3,364 


3,658 


3,723 


3,997 


4,578 


5,241 






Mainland to insulars, 
total 


17,224 


1,001 


1,667 


1,814 


1,645 


1,481 


1,504 


1,823 


1,871 


2,207 


2,211 






New York, N. Y 


8,730 

3 

36 

4 

6,486 

361 

351 

1,253 


612 


1,020 


977 


861 


740 


735 
1 

7 

1 

581 

57 

4 

118 


818 


920 


986 
2 
5 

1 

799 

64 

47 

303 


1,061 






New Orleans, La. 






7 


3 


4 




5 


5 


Other Atlantic and other Gulf 


"365" 
10 

14 


2 

578 
18 
48 

1 




San Francisco, Calif 


749 
15 
66 


713 

18 

48 

2 


574 
36 
28 
99 


740 
59 
25 

181 


655 
49 
22 

220 


732 


Seattle, Wash 


35 


Canadian Pacific. 

Mexican border seaports 


49 
329 


Insular to mainland, total ' 


19,098 


1,329 


1,592 


2,230 


1,619 


1,716 


1,994 


1,719 


1,918 


2,151 


2,830 


Hawaii to mainland 


10,475 
8,623 


587 
742 


778 
, 814 


1,309 
921 


867 
752 


1,014 
702 


1,267 

727 


926 
793 


1,179 
739 


1,245 
900 


1,303 


Porto Rico to mainland 


1,527 






Insular to insular, total L. 


1,911 


183 


213 


226 


153 


167 


160 


181 


208 


220 


200 


Hawaii to Philippine Islands 

Porto Rico to Virgin Islands 


110 
1,801 


8 
175 


11 
202 


16 
210 


9 

144 


9 
158 


9 

151 


15 
166 


13 

195 


6 
214 


14 
186 



1 Figures covering departures from Virgin Islands or from Philippine Islands to mainland or to insulars 
not available. 



2- 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBBARY 

llllllill ill 

3 9999 06351 983 7 



MAY 7 1929