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Full text of "Annual report of the Commissioner of Fisheries to the Secretary of Commerce for the fiscal year ended .."

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



REPORT 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES 
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES 

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1927 

WITH 

APPENDIXES 



HENRY O'MALLEY 

Commissioner 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON 

1928 



"n^ 



C. 






'^ 




CONTENTS 



Pugf 
Report of the CoxMmissioner of Fisheries for the fiscal year ended 

Junk 30. 1!)27. By Henrj- O'Malley. (Document No. 1017. Issued 

Xovember 23. 1927) i-xxxni 

Abtificiai. propagation of pike perch, yellow perch, and pikes. By 

Glen C. Leach. (Document No. 1018. Issued May 23, 1927) 1-27 

Examination of the summer fishekies of Pamlico and Core Sounds, 

N. C, WITH speciajl reference to the destruction of undersized 

fish and the protection of the gray trout, Cynoscion reualis 

(Bloch and Schneider). By Elmer Higgins and .lohu C. Pearson. 

(Document No. 1019. Issued June 10. 1927) 29-65 

Prepar.vtion of fish for canning as sardines. By Harry R. Beard. 

(Document No. 1020. Issued July 11. 1927) G7-223 

Alaska fishery and fur-seal industries in 1926. By Ward T. Bower. 

(Document No. 1023. Issued August 2, 1927) 22,1-336 

Fishery industries of the United States, 1926. By Oscar E. Sette. 

(Document No. 1025. Issued January 25. 192g) 337-i83 

Trade in fresh and frozen fishery products and related marketing 

considerations in greater St. Louis, Missouri. By R. H. Fiedler. 

(Document No. 1026. Issued January 25, 1928) 485-514 

Progress in biological inquiries. 1926. Including proceedings of 

the divisional conference, January 4 to 7, 1927. By Elmer Higgins. 

(Document No. 1029. Lssued January 25. 192S) 515-681 

Propagation and distribution of food fishes, fiscal yuar 1927. By 

G'.en C. Leach. (Document No. 1033. Issued June 6. 1928) 683-736 

Statistics of the catch of cod off the east co.\st of North 

America to 1926. By Oscar E. Sette. (Document No. 1034. Issued 

May 29, 1928 1 737-74% 

10967»— 28 iii 



31177 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



HEADQUARTERS STAFF, 1926-27 



Conwvissioner 

Henky O'MAULErr 

Deputy Cormmlssioner. — Lewis Radcliffe. 
Assistdnts in Charge of Divisiotis: 

Office. — Irving H. Dunlap. 

Fish culture. — Glen C. Leach. 

Inquiry Respecting Food Fishes. — Elmer Higgins. 

Fishery Industrien. — Oscar E. Sette. 

Alaska Service. — Ward T. Bower. 
Architect and Engineer.- — George A. Schneider. 
Accountant. — Charles W. Scudde2j. 

Superintendent Central Station and Aquaria. — L. G. Hakron. 
Editor. — Anna B. Brown. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES ^ 



CONTENTS 

Page 

International relations "^ 

Northern Pacific halibut convention ii^ 

Fisheries convention with Mexico iv 

North American committee on fishery investigation v 

Great Lakes fisheries ^^^ 

Upper Mississippi River wild life and fish refuge act vii 

Propagation and distribution of food fishes vin 

Cooperative fish-cultural work viii 

Relations with States and foreign governments ix 

Propagation of Pacific salmons ix 

Marine species of the North Atlantic coast X 

Anadromous fishes of the Atlantic coast ^ 

Commercial fishes of interior waters ^i 

Salvaging fishes from overflowed regions xi 

Fishes of interior waters xn 

Distribution of fish xil 

Commercial fisheries and fishery industries xiii 

Review ^m 

General statistics xni 

Mackerel statistics xiv 

Canned fishery products and by-products xrv 

Trade in frozen fish xv 

New England vessel fisheries xv 

Fisheries at Seattle, Wash xv 

Shad and alewife fisheries of the Potomac River xv 

Florida sponge fishing xvi 

Fisheries of Maryland and Virginia xvi 

Fisheries of the Pacific Coast States xvii 

Fisheries of the Great Lakes xvii 

Technological investigations xvii 

Biological investigations xix 

Fishery research xix 

Investigations of the fisheries of the North Atlantic xx 

Investigations of fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts xxi 

Oyster investigations xxn 

Fisheries of the Pacific coast and Alaska xxrv 

Fisheries of the interior xx\ 

Pathology and experimental fish culture xxvii 

Alaska fisheries service xxvm 

Administration of fishery laws and regulations xxvin 

Salmon hatcheries xxix 

Special studies and investigations xxix 

Products of the fisheries xxix 

Alaska fur-seal service xxx 

General activities xxx 

Seal herd xxx 

Take of sealskins xxx 

Marking of reserved seals xxxi 

Sales of sealskins xxxi 

Foxes XXXI 

Fur-seal skins taken by natives xxxii 

Fur-seal patrol xxxii 

Protection of sea otters, walruses, and sea lions xxxii 

Vessel notes xxxii 

Appropriations xxxiii 

^ Bureau of Fisheries Document No. 1017. j 



ii report to the secretary of commerce 

Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Fisheries, 
Washingto7i, Jvly i, 1927. 
Hon. Herbert Hoover, 

Secretary of Commerce. 

Dear oNIr. Secretary: I have the honor to submit the following 
siimmarv of the major operations of the Bureau of Fisheries during 
the hscal year ended June 30, 1927. 

Perhaps the most noteworthy development of the year has been the 
growing appreciation of and expressed need for expansion of modern 
scientific research in the solution of fishery problems. This is shared 
by men in the fishery industries confronted by the many problems in 
the taking, merchandising, and distribution of fish and fishery prod- 
ucts ; by State and other officials interested in determining the condi- 
tion and trend of each fishery and the need for and character of regu- 
lations necessaiy for the husbanding and wise use of our fishery re- 
sources; by Federal, State, and private agencies confronted with 
problems of large-scale fish propagation, the prevention of losses by 
fish diseases, and the development of the science of aquiculture ; and 
by the thousands of organizations and individuals interested in hav- 
ing good fishing and enjoying the use of lakes and streams for 
recreational pursuits. It is believed that the bureau's present pro- 
gram of ])ractical research and applied science is accomplishing much 
in inspiring confidence in and dependence on modern science for the 
solution of problems in fish culture, fishery administration, and tech- 
nology. This also applies to the important duty of regulating and 
conserving the highly valuable fisheries of Alaska. 

The concern felt for the future of such fisheries as those for shad, 
sturgeon, whitefishes, and lobsters, and the appreciation of the value 
of scientific research as a basis for wise administration of fishery 
resources, has caused demands to be made wholly beyond the scope of 
the scientific staff to cope with ; and the same is true of demands for 
assistance from the bureau's technological staff in solving the prob- 
lems of the commercial fishermen. 

The bureau produced 6,481,073,000 fish and eggs for stocking vari- 
ous waters, an increase of more than 1,000.000,000 over the preceding 
year and the greatest production in the history of the bureau. Fifty- 
five cooperative fish nurseries assisted in rearing more fish from the 
fry stage to a length of 3 or 4 inches. Greater cooperation with State 
commissions helped to make this an unusually successful year ; never- 
theless present facilities are wholly inadequate for meeting the in- 
creasing demand for the trouts, basses, and sunfishes. 

In 192G the fishery industries experienced one of the most success- 
ful years in their history. The vessel landings at New England ports, 
which averaged about 170,000,000 pounds for the five-year period — 
1920 to 1924— had increased to nearly 217,000,000 pounds in 1925 and 
made a furtlier increase to over 238,000,000 pounds in 1926. In large 
measure this growth is due to the growing demand for fish packed as 
fillets and steaks and to the unusually large catches of mackerel, 
which in 1926 exceeded 60,000,000 pounds. Landings of haddock 
(the principal fish sold in package form) averaged 73,000,000 pounds 
for the five-year period — 1920 to 1924 — increasing to nearly 92,000.000 
pounds in 1925 and to more than 94,000.000 pounds in 1926. 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES IH 

A record ynxck of salmon was canned in Alaska, amounting: to 
319,000,000 pounds, valued at $40,000,000, representin<r an increase of 
105.000,000 pounds as compared with 1925. In California the pro- 
duction of canned sardines was the larf»;est in the iiistory of that 
industry, amounting- to over 100,000,000 pounds, valued at $7,807,000. 
The total pack of salmon was 359,450,000 jwunds, valued at $56,219,- 
000;' of canneil sardines in INIaine and California, 143,415,000 pounds, 
valued at nearly $14,535,000: and the total value of canned fishery 
products and fishery by-products approximated $100,000,000. Our 
annual fisherv harvest "now exceeds 3,000,000,000 pounds, valued at 
$109,000,000 to the fishermen. 

Highly efficient service on the part of the bureau's personnel has 
made possible the record of achievements given in this report, 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

XORTHERX PACIFIC HALIBUT CONVENTION 

Under the terms of the convention with Great Britain, ratified 
October 21. 1924, provision is made for an international fislieries 
commission, whose duty it is to have made a thorough investigation 
into the life history of the Pacific halibut and to make recommenda- 
tions as to what regulations are deemed necessary for the preservation 
and development of this fishery. The scientific staff, under the able 
direction of Will F. Thompson, has vigorously prosecuted the work 
and completed the first phase of it, which relates to the development 
of means and methods of research, the crystallization of plans of 
procedure, and beginning the active prosecution of such work. A 
preliminary report has been made to the commission. 

A thorough statistical study has been made of market landings and 
fishermen's logs. From the pilot-house logs of the fishing vessels a 
record has been obtained of the vessels' movements, the amount of 
gear fished day by day, the locality of capture, and the estimated 
Aveight of the fish taken. For 1926, recorcts were taken for nearly 
260,000 units of gear, ^vhich took 19,400,000 pounds of halibut, or 35 
per cent of the total Pacific coast catch. These records indicate a 
shifting of the center of fishing operations from Hecate Strait in 
1910 to Portlock Bank in 1926. The log records also are valuable as 
a measure of abundance of the fish supply and the rate of decline of 
the catch. In Hecate Strait, for example, the catch of fish per skate 
of gear in 1906 was 450 pounds, declining to 143 pounds in 1914 and 
47 pounds in 1926. The evidence is plain that the southern and 
older fishing banks are becoming steadily less productive and that 
the proportionate number of smaller fish in the catch is increasing. 

Xearly 9,000 halibut have been tagged. Of the fish tagged on the 
southern banks in 1925 and 1926, about 16 per cent have been recov- 
ered. The migrations on these banks appear small, the average extent 
of movement being less than 20 miles. The evidence indicates that 
the immature fish do not migrate to any extent. On the offshore 
banks of the Gulf of Alaska and on the Aleutians, where the fish are 
more mature, indications are that the mature fish become more migra- 
tory. Thirty-three fish recovered from nearly 1,800 fish released 
averaged 275 miles, with 865 miles as the maximum. This enables us 



IV REPOKT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

to get an idea of the exceeding complexity of the problem and the 
need for painstaking research to establish the facts. 

The scientific staff has collected a fund of information along bio- 
logical lines, which later will be found to be of great use when there 
has been opj^ortunity to work over it thoroughly. This includes 
racial measurements, rates of growth, study of the eggs and larvae of 
the halibut and their drift with the currents, and effectiveness of large 
and small gear and their effect on the fisher}'. The biological results 
fully corroborate the results obtained from tagging, as far as migra- 
tion is concerned, but, of course, present many other facts. Intensive 
laboratory work must follow to bring out these facts. 

On February 23, 1927, the fishing schooner Scandia, under charter 
by the commission, was hurled onto a reef half a mile off Kodiak 
Island, in the midst of a high sea and a blinding snowstorm, and 
wrecked. Through the prompt and courageous action of the cap- 
tain and crew of the seine boat Duncan /, the scientific staff and 
crew of 15 men were saved, but the equipment and gear were lost. 
The loss of the Scandia was the climax of an exceedingly hard 
winter, during which the halibut investigations had been conducted 
with great difficulty, much of the work having been done virtually 
in intervals between storms. The catch of Pacific halibut (United 
States and Canada) in 1926 was 53,780,389 pounds, as compared 
with 49,843,967 pounds in 1925, an increase clue to more intensive 
fishing. 

FISHERIES CONVENTION WITH MEXICO 

The convention between the United States and Mexico to prevent 
smuggling, and for certain other objects, which was ratified on 
March 18, 1926, contained a section devoted to the fisheries, quoted 
in full in the last annual report. Upon the initiative of the United 
States Government, the convention was terminated on March 28, 
1927, or at the end of a year after it came into effect. During the 
life of the International Fisheries Commission, provided for under 
the terms of the treaty, a program of scientific investigations was 
drafted and preliminary investigations were begun. 

A study of the record of the California Fish and Game Commission 
with respect to the receipts of fish from waters off the coast of 
Mexico, 1920-1925, inclusive, disclosed that of the total landings 
of the catch from the waters off both coasts at California ports the 
following percentages came from waters off the coast of Mexico : 
Yellowfin tuna, 79; spiny lobster, 70; black sea bass, 48; barracuda, 
33; skipjack, 33; white sea bass, 26; bonito, 25; and yellowtail, 21. 
The investigative program, therefore, was to concern mainly these 
species. 

Statistics of the fish, mollusks, and crustaceans landed in Cali- 
fornia during the calendar year 1926, as reported hy the California 
Fish and Game Commission, show 371,648,275 pounds, of which 
23,058,741 pounds were taken in Mexican waters. During the year 
about 750 American fishing boats operated off the coast of Lower 
California, Mexico, with 11 vessels, of 75 to 100 tons each, acting as 
tenders, and 4 or 5 barges. The investment of American capital 
in boats, fishing gear, and cannery capacity dependent upon the 
Mexican supply of fish is estimated at $10,000,000, exclusive of the 
investment in fresh-fish markets. 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES V 

Although most of the fish of the Mexican coast are caught outside 
tlie 3-mile limit, it is necessary for the boats to enter IMexican terri- 
torial waters for shelter and to take sardines and other small varie- 
ties used in the live-bait operations. Also, the safest and most direct 
course for home brings the boats within 3 miles of the shore and 
under Mexico's jurisdiction. Therefore it is necessary for American 
fishermen to clear for Mexico rather than for the "high seas," to 
take out Mexican fishing permits, and pay the export fees on dutiable 
fish in observance of that countrj^'s regulations. 

When the canneries and fresh-fish markets of the United States 
first began to draw upon the marine life off the coasts of Mexico, 
that country considered this resource of relatively little importance. 
Difficulties arose in the administration of fishery affairs, unfortunate 
practices crept in, and general dissatisfaction with existing condi- 
tions increased. When these matters were brought to the attention 
of the central Government, interest was aroused in the fisheries. 
More stringent regulations were put into effect, and higher rates of 
duty were imposed. It was this unsettled state of affairs that led 
Mexico to propose the fisheries section to the convention under 
discussion. 

The abrogation of the convention came before the constructive 
program planned could accomplish any real benefits. There is 
urgent need for the adoption of a program of conservation that will 
insure the perpetuation of this important resource. This must be 
preceded by scientific studies to disclose the condition and trend of 
each fishery as a basis for the adoption of regulatory measures. 
There is also need for an impartial agency to prevent dissension and 
to promote harmonious working agreements between the two coun- 
tries in the handling of fishery matters.- 

NORTH AMERICAN COMMITTEE ON FISHERY INVESTIGATION 

This committee, composed of delegates from Canada, Xewfound- 
land, and the United States, held tAVo meetings during the year — one 
at St. Johns, Newfoundland, on July 9, 1926, and the other at Wash- 
ington, D. C, on April 28, 1927. 

The fisheries statistics of the various countries that fish the banks 
of the northwestern Atlantic are being correlated so as to make it 
possible to follow the entire fishery of the banks of that region. A 
summary of the total annual catches of cod of the region taken bj' 
Newfoundland, France, Portugal, Canada, and the United States 
during the past 40 years or more shows that the cod fishery has fur- 
nished about 1,000^000,000 pounds of fish annually, ranging from 
850,000,000 to 1,350,000,000 pounds. Although there have been con- 
siderable fluctuations, these have been upward as much as downward, 
so that there is no evidence of any definite decline in the fishery or 
of any depletion of the stock. 

Studies of the cod off the coast of the United States reveal that 
fish that live off Cape Cod in the summer migrate to the New Jersey 
coast during the winter and return in the spring. Fish tagged at 
Mount Desert, Me., have been found to move chiefly eastward to both 
coasts of Nova Scotia, only an occasional one moving westward and 
reaching as far as Cape Cod, 

2 Baaed on a report by Miss Geraldine Conner, American secretary. 



VI REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

Growth studies of the cod in Canadian waters indicate that the 
scales do not grow in the same degree as the fish throughout the 
year, but grow^ relativel}^ more rapidly at one time and relatively less 
rapidly at another. Of 275 cod tagged off Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 
1925, and 3,747 off Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 1926, more of the 
former lot w^ere recaptured in the following year than during the 
year in which they were tagged, being retaken only along the coast 
and at no great distance, but going more to the southwestward (nearly 
to Liverpool, Nova Scotia) in the second year. The Shelburne cod 
showed very little movement, and that chiefly to the eastward, going 
as far as Liverpool, Nova Scotia, during the season, but reaching 
farther eastward (to Halifax) during the succeeding winter. 

Investigations of the haddock of the Canadian coast reveal that 
the haddock population of the Bay of Fundy, particularly of the 
New Brunswick shore, failed to receive any considerable number of 
young for a series of years, with a resultant decline in the fishery. 
Then the young came in suddenly, and in a ^^ear or two the fishery 
greatly increased and has continued at a high level. 

The haddock grows more rapidly in the early years of its life in 
the warm water of Passamaquoddy Bay, NeW' Brunswick, than in the 
cold w'ater on the outer coast of Nova Scotia near Lockeport ; but this 
rapid growth falls off in later years in the warm water more than 
in the cold. The rapid growth of the year is limited to the months 
August to October. In 1926 2,540 haddock were tagged near Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia. They show^ed very little movement southwest- 
ward along the coast but considerable movement northeastward, as 
far as Halifax and Sable Island Bank — twice as far as the cod tagged 
simultaneously with the haddock. 

The Canadian investigations of the mackerel have shown that it 
spawns in negligible amount in the Bay of Fundy and without suc- 
cess in producing fr}'', and on the outer coast of Nova Scotia the eggs 
fail to develop into fry. In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, however, 
spawning is extensive and very successful. Late in the summer the fry 
are to be found passing out of the gulf, around Cape Breton Island. 
The eggs have been found to require warm water for successful de- 
velopment. Studies of the mackerel of the Canadian coast reveal 
evidence of differences between those of southwestern Nova Scotia 
and those of the Gulf of St. Law-rence. In 1925 and 1926, in Cana- 
dian Avaters, 2,382 mackerel were tagged. The returns from those 
tagged at Yarmouth show a movement northeastward to the Gut of 
Canso, northward into the Bay of Fundy, and westward to the coast 
of Maine. Fish tagged at the Magdalen Islands in 1925 showed a 
movement to Prince Edward Island in the same season, and in the 
next 5'ear some of them returned to the coast near Halifax and in 
Massachusetts. 

Mackerel tagged in 1925 at various points from Buzzards Bay, 
Mass.. to Casco Bay, Me., spread in both directions along the coast 
from the point of tagging but did not migrate far. In the following 
year those recaptured were taken on the whole to the southwest, 
along the coast from where they had been tagged the previous year, 
one tagged on the coast of Maine being taken at Fire Island, N. Y. 
One of the mackerel tagged oft' Delaware and Maryland in 1926 was 
recaptured several months later near Cape Cod. 



BUBEAU OF FISHERIES VII 

GREAT LAKES FISHERIES 

The evidence at hand clearly indicates a decline in the (ii-eat Lakes 
fisheries, so marked as to cause grave concern for the future of these 
fisheries. The very existence is threatened of the bluefin in Lake 
Superior, the blackfin in Lake Michigan, the bloater in Lake Ontario, 
and the sturgeon in all the lakes. In less than half a century the 
catch of whitefish has declined from 21,000,000 to 4,000,000 pounds, 
and the sturgeon from 7,500,000 })ounds to less than 100,000 pounds 
per aniuun. The aggregate catch has been maintained at a fairly 
fixed level by the substitution of more rough fish as the supply of the 
choicer species declined, and by greatly increasing the number and 
effectiveness of the units of gear employed. 

The problem of fisheries administration is a most difficult one, in 
view of the fact that jurisdiction is divided between eight States and 
a Canadian Province. The questions are not alone State, but na- 
tional and international. Jurisdiction over Lake Michigan is divided 
between four States; that over Lake Erie between four States and 
the Province of Ontario. There is a growing appreciation of the 
need for a better understanding of the problems and of better laws 
and their enforcement. Under such a division of authority it is 
difficult to get concerted action. 

At the invitation of the Governor of Ohio to representatives of the 
States bordering Lake Erie, the Province of Ontario, and this bureau, 
a conference was held at Columbus, Ohio, on February 16, 1927. The 
purpose of the conference was to attempt to secure coordinated action 
in conserving the fisheries of Lake Erie. Resolutions were adopted, 
which, if enacted into law, Avould afford greater protection to the 
fisheries. Subsequent progress toward the enactment of such meas- 
ures holds forth little hope of immediate action to meet the serious 
situation that exists. 

At the call of the Governor of Michigan on March 3, 1927, at 
Lansing, a conference of fishery officials from the States bordering 
the Great Lakes and from the bureau was held to consider ways and 
means for conserving the Great Lakes fisheries. Only measures of 
general application to all the lakes were considered, and proposals 
with respect to fishing gear, sizes of fish, and the taking of spawn 
were made by the several States and the Province of Ontario. 

UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER WILD LIFE AND FISH REFUGE ACT 

Regulations for the administration of the upper Mississippi River 
wild life and fish refuge act of June 7, 1924, were signed and issued 
jointly on June 24, 1927, by the Secretary of Agriculture and the 
Secretary of Commerce. These regulations prescribe the conditions 
under which hunting, fishing, and other recreational activities will 
be permitted. Areas of overflowed bottom lands along the Missis- 
sippi in the States of Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, from 
Rock Island, 111., to Wabasha, Minn., are being acquired by the 
Department of Agriculture as rapidly as possible. 

There are many sloughs and bayous within the limits of the reser- 
vation, some of which are navigable to boats of light draft, which 
may be utilized for growing fishes for restocking streams, and to be 
inoculated with the glochidia of the fresh-water mussels, thus helping 
to perpetuate this important industrv. 
62489—27 2 



VIII EEPORT TO THE SECRETAEY OF COMMERCE 

PROPAGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD FISHES 

The fish-cultural operations of the bureau present a picture of 
yearl}^ production being increased to meet a constantly growing de- 
mand. The increase in the number of applications received has been 
greater than the increase in facilities for production. 

During the past year no new hatcheries have been put in operation, 
so that the larger output has been brought about by redoubling efforts 
to utilize present facilities to their utmost capacity. The general 
conviction that fish 3 or 4 inches long or larger are essential for the 
successful repopulation of our waters has resulted in an intensive 
effort to produce more fish of this class. The output of commercial 
food fishes has been increased materially, particularly on the Atlantic 
coast. 

COOPERATIVE FISH-CULTURAL WORK 

The older conception of the division of fish culture as an agency for 
delivering so many fish upon order, as if this were a manufactured 
product the ultimate disposition of which was of little interest to 
the manufacturer, is disappearing. The real task is to restock the 
Avaters, and cooperative efforts are doing much to accomplish this. 

The outstanding work along this line has been the cooperation with 
the sportsmen's clubs, which have received fr}^ for rearing to finger- 
ling size. Fifty-five of these nurseries are in operation, the majority 
in Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. Many more are awaiting completion 
of arrangements or are under consideration. In many cases the clubs 
are holding the fish received in the spring of 1926 for liberation this 
autumn at an age of 18 months. A new project has been undertaken 
this year, which exceeds in magnitude the leading nursery projects of 
last year. The Utica chapter of the Izaak Walton League of America 
has taken over a discontinued commercial hatchery at Barneveld. 
N. Y., which the bureau is operating. An initial stock of over 200,000 
young fish has been supplied, and the project will be conducted so as 
to produce eggs from a brood stock of adult fish. 

The bureau also has furnished advice to individuals and clubs 
desirous of raising fish individually. Further cooperation has been 
effected bj^ the utilization of privately owned or controlled waters 
as egg-collecting stations. The bureau's employees take eggs from 
bodies of water in vvhich a stock of fish has become established, the 
owner receiving a sufficient quantit}^ to maintain the stock, A num- 
ber of lakes in Colorado have yielded a fair quantity of rainbow 
and brook trout eggs under such arrangements. 

An output of 6,481,073,000 fish and eggs represents the greatest 
production in any year since the bureau began its fish-cultural activi- 
ties. Increased collections of four marine species — cod, haddock, 
pollock, and winter flounder — are largely responsible for the increase 
of over 1,000,000,000 more than the figures of last year. Large yields 
were obtained in some of the other classes, including an appreciable 
increase in the output of game species. The failure to equal the 
records of past j^ears in the production of fingerlings is due to a 
shortage in one of the important groups — the Pacific salmons — and 
to limited collections from the Mississippi River. Inasmuch as all 
fish from the latter source are of fingerling size, limited collections 
make themselves evident in this class. 



BUBEAIT OF FISHERIES IX 

As an imiioation of the relative proportions of the various classes 
of fishes of this total, it may be pointed out that it included 5,473,- 
378.000 fry and ejrgs of commercial marine species, 120,213,000 of 
the commercially important Pacific salmons, 548,535,000 of the com- 
mercial species of interior waters, and 247,313,000 of the anadromous 
forms, also of commercial sianificance. The (jame fishes were repre- 
sented by 51,523,000 trout and salmon and 30,222,000 of the warm- 
water pond species. 

RELATIONS WITH STATES AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS 

Cooperation with the various States has been an important part 
of the bureau's fish-cultural work. The bureau has been of assist- 
ance by furnishing the advice and supervision of its experienced 
employees, by assigning eggs and fry to the States, and by assisting 
in the collection of eggs. The States have reciprocated by permit- 
ting the collection of adult brood fish, allotting funds for carrying 
on work of joint benefit, and by assisting in the distribution of fish. 
The Bureau of Fisheries and the States of Vermont and Pennsyl- 
vania operated the Swanton (Vt.) pike-perch station jointly. Over 
1,000.000 trout eggs were incubated for the State of West Virginia 
at the AVhite Sulphur Springs (W. Va.) station. Similar relations 
have been maintained wdth the State of South Dakota. The propa- 
gation of buffalo fish in conjunction with the State of Louisiana 
was undertaken. The bureau furnished the services of a man for 
shad propagation undertaken by the State of New Jersey. Exten- 
sive cooperative work has been initiated in Arkansas, where suitable 
areas have been taken over as nurseries for bass and other pond fish. 
Ponds have been stocked, and a number of others are being prepared 
for this purpose. 

A total of 84,586,000 eggs was furnished to 24 States during 1927 
The pike perch, 3'ellow perch, whitefish, and cisco comprised 
61,900,000 of this number, while the remainder consisted of various 
species of trout and salmon. 

Arrangements have been perfected with the United States Forest 
Service whereby improved distribution practices wnll be followed and 
rearing ponds established. Generous allotments of fish and eggs 
have been made for stocking waters in the forest areas, notably in 
Wyoming and in the Sawtooth National Forest in Idaho. Inspec- 
tions have been made of pond sites in the Ouachita National Forest 
and the Unaka National Forest. 

Bequests for the shipment of eggs of various species to foreign 
governments have been complied with as far as possible." This in- 
cluded the distribution of 2,227,000 eggs and 19,500 fish to five coun- 
tries, Canada, Costa Kica, Italy, and Switzerland receiving rainbow 
trout, while Japan was assigned rainbow trout and whitefish. 

PROPAGATION OF PACIFIC SALMONS 

The work in the Pacific States and Alaska has been marked by im- 
provements at certain points. It has been the rule to hold a maxi- 
mum number of fingerlings at each station throughout the season, 
planting when for lack of space it has been absolutely essential to 
dispose of some of the stock. 



X EEPOKT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

Light has been thrown on the problem of power dams in salmon 
streams by a study of the operation of a fish ladder in the Baker 
River near Concrete, Wash. The dam, over 200 feet high, has a fisli 
ladder of the common Cail type, together with a mechanical elevator 
for hoisting cars of fish over the crest. As a result of practical ex- 
periments it is expected that the science of developing a satisfactory 
fishway Avill be advanced materially. 

In Alaska continued destruction of predatory trout has resulted 
beneficially in the vicinity of Afognak and Yes Bay. At the Yes Bay 
(Alaska) station the fingerlings have been placed in feeding ponds, 
from which they are permitted to work out gradually. It is believed 
that they become better adapted to conditions in natural waters in 
this way than bj^ a sharp transition from the hatchery to the lake. 
Not until the entire hatch of salmon fry can be reared to fingerling 
size will the maximum benefit be attained from these fish-cultural 
operations. 

MARINE SPECIES OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC COAST 

Operation of the bureau's marine stations at Woods Hole and 
Gloucester, Mass., is contingent upon commercial fishing operations 
in the vicinity. Cod, haddock, and pollock eggs are taken largely 
by spawn takers on the fishing vessels. Only a small percentage of 
the eggs is obtained by independent spawn-taking operations con- 
ducted by the bureau. A substantial increase over the previous 
season's figures for this work resulted. Minute variations in the 
water, particularly in its specific gravity, affected the success of 
artificial incubation, and in such cases it has been found necessary 
to plant the fertilized eggs on the fishing grounds. Concomitant 
with the augmented market utilization of haddock, the number of 
eggs of this species handled by the bureau has been more than 
doubled. The hatching of winter-flounder eggs has been centered 
largely at the Boothbay Harbor (Me.) station, and the collection 
has been increased by about 800,000,000 over that of last year. The 
station makes its own collection of brood fish, operating in near-by 
w^aters. For the first time in a number of years the Boothbay Harbor 
station has handled cod eggs. As difficulty was encountered in incu- 
bating the eggs at the hatchery, the majority were fertilized and 
planted on the adjacent spawning grounds. 

ANADKOMOUS FISHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST 

This work comprises the hatching of shad, river herring, and 
Atlantic salmon, with such propagation of yellow perch as may be 
carried on in conjunction with the shad operations. The decline in 
the catch of shad has limited the bureau's efforts in this field to the 
stations at Bryans Point, ISId., and Edenton, N. C. An increased 
number of eggs was obtained by unusual effort at Bryans Point. The 
take of shad and herring eggs in Albemarle Sound waters was negli- 
gible, in spite of a heavy run of fish. The run of shad was pre- 
ponderantly of male fish, and very few of the females yielded ripe 
eees. 



, BUREAU OF FISHEEIES XI 

There is the ever-increasing possibility of a light run of fish, due to 
overfishing, pollution, obstructions, etc., and the further chance that 
no eggs can be secured, even though the fish may be obtainable. The 
same situation applies in general to the propagation of the river her- 
ring. Shad work conducted on the Delaware River in cooperation 
AN ith the State of New Jersey yielded very few fish, and no eggs were 
obtained. Previous to the opening of the shad season on the Potomac 
a large number of yellow perch were hatched at the Bryans Point 
station. A blizzard in IVIarch destroyed the fishermen's nets and 
seriously curtailed the output of the species in Albermarle Sound. 
A number of Atlantic-salmon eggs, obtained through exchange from 
Canada, were hatched and the fry distributed in Maine waters. 

COMMERCIAL FISHES OF INTERIOR WATERS 

Whitefish, cisco, lake trout, and pike perch, the main species sup- 
porting the extensive commercial fisheries of the Great Lakes, are 
tlie objects of attention in this field. As the eggs are secured as a by- 
product of the commercial fisheries, any adverse weather which 
retards fishing restricts the take of eggs. The A^arious species fre- 
quent different localities and have different spawning periods, so that 
the causes that diminish collections of one species do not affect the 
others necessarily. There was an increase in the collection of lake 
trout and cisco eggs as compared with 1926. Whitefish and pike- 
perch collections declined in comparison with the previous year. 
Resumption of the practice of penning whitefish at some of the Great 
Lakes stations has effected a salvage of eggs that would otherwise be 
lost. A marked increase in the percentage of hatch has followed sucii 
practice. Where the eggs are taken by the bureau's experienced 
employees better quality is assured than when the fishermen them- 
selves take and care for the eggs. The action of the conferences called 
in Ohio and Michigan urging that the taking of spawn by the fisher- 
men in a proper manner be made a requirement of law should prove 
beneficial in increasing the output of the stations and in saving the 
fisheries from further depletion. 

Pike-perch operations at Swanton, Vt., were not as satisfactory as 
heretofore, low water making the penning of adult fish difficult. 
Work with this species on the Great Lakes was successful, however. 
Hatching of buffalo fish at Plaquemine, La., was a virtual failure. 

SALVAGING FISHES FROM OVERFLOWED REGIONS 

Unusualh' low water during the spawning season, when the fish 
normally would migrate to the marginal areas and become land- 
locked, acted as a barrier to such movements. Later in the season, 
when seining operations have been conducted in other years, high 
water hindered the rescue work, so that it was difficult to obtain the 
fish that migrated. As a consequence, the collection of fish from this 
source was very small and a considerable number of applications for 
them were left unfilled. 



XII REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE ^ 

FISHES or INTERIOR WATERS 

Waters well stocked with sport fishes are an important asset to any 
community, attracting anglers, and thus bringing wealth into the 
commimit}^ in many ways. Good trout streams are especially sought 
after. The bureau finds it necessary to obtain a large percentage of 
its brook-trout eggs from commercial producers, but most of the 
rainbow and other trout eggs have been secured from wild fish or 
from hatcher}^ brood stocks. The bureau's collecting stations for 
rainbow eggs in the Meadow Creek (Mont.) territory and the Lost 
Creek and Sage Creek (Wa'o.) fields were notablj^ successful, while 
other smaller projects of a similar nature in the Kocky Mountain 
territory have been developed. The Meadow Creek field also yielded 
an increased number of Loch Leven trout eggs during the past year, 
this immigrant having become more firmly established in the esteem 
of the angling fraternity. A station for collecting rainbow eggs was 
<^stablished in New Hampshire during the past season under the 
supervision of the Nashua (N. H.) station. The White Sulphur 
Springs (W. Va.) station has a fine brood stock of rainbow trout, 
and the fish have yielded eggs of excellent quality. 

Statistics of the collection of black-spotted trout eggs in the Yel- 
lowstone National Park cover parts of two fiscal years. The close of 
the spawning season brought a harvest of eggs surpassing that of the 
previous year, but not equal to the standard set during the early 
years of the operations. Glacier Park, as well as the Yellowstone, 
has received the attention of the bureau. 

The operation of the bureau's pond stations, situated chiefly in 
the Southern States, has resulted in an output surpassing all previous 
records at several points, particularly at the Cold Spring (Ga.), 
Tupelo (Miss.), and San Marcos (Tex.) stations. The Louisville 
(Ky.) station is of especial interest in that it is particularly success- 
ful in the production of small-mouthed bass, a species unusually diffi- 
cult to raise in hatcheries. Some slight damage, not of a serious 
nature, was suffered at the Mammoth Spring (Ark.) station from 
spring floods. The superintendent of the Cold Spring (Ga.) sta- 
tion reported considerable success in feeding adult pond fish on 
shrimp heads, a waste product of a coastal fisheries, 

DISTRIBUTION OF FISH 

The carrying capacity of the fish-distribution cars has been in- 
creased greatly through the introduction of improved equipment, 
which has made it possible to handle the increased output of the 
hatcheries. During the fiscal year these cars traveled 63,300 miles, 
and detached messengers covered 363,565 miles. 

Tlie construction of at least one more steel distribution car is abso- 
lutely necessary for handling the increased output of fish, as well as 
for economy and safety in making the distribution. The cars and 
messengers are now carrying twice as many fish in a single shipment 
as were carried 10 years ago, so that there is little opportunity for 
effecting further savings by larger shipments. 



BUEEAU OF FISHERIES XIII 

COMMERCIAL FISHERIES AND FISHERY INDUSTRIES 

REVIEW 

According to the most recent statistics available, the fisheries and 
fishery industries of the United States and Alaska employ about 
190,000 persons; their properties are valued at about $210,000,000; 
the annual sales of fish and fishery products by fishermen are about 
3,000,000.000 pounds, for which they receive about $109,000,000; and 
the output of canned fishery products and by-products is valued at 
nearly $100,000,000. 

With but one important exception, in 1926 the fishery industries 
may be said to have experienced one of the most successful years. 
Vessel landings at New England ports were the largest on record; 
Seattle landings were better than in the previous year; and the fish- 
canning industry had the most valuable output in recent years. 

The exception to the generally successful conditions was the men- 
haden industry. In recent normal years this industry has an output 
valued at more than $6,000,000. In 1926 the value was less than 
$3,500,000, and the resulting condition in this industry is most acute. 
This is a repetition of what happened in 1924 and is most likely to 
be repeated frequently as long as no remedial steps are taken. The 
reduced output was due, of course, to a failure in the supply of men- 
haden, and the resultant loss was far greater than ordinarily would 
be expected, as the operating costs are about as high for a $3,500,000 
output as for a $6,000,000 output. The reason for the high operating 
costs in poor years is the failure to foresee such a condition. 

It is necessary to keep on full crews at the plants and on the 
vessels in order to take care of the large catches, which in poor jesirs 
fail to materialize. This condition might be remedied by investiga- 
tions of the fluctuations of menhaden, which would permit forecasting 
the extent of the supply, and technological research to develop more 
efficient methods in the menhaden plants. These two projects are 
considered of great importance. Unfortunately, no work on the 
fluctuations and only a little work on technological processes have 
been possible with the present personnel and funds. 

The bureau's work most directly touching upon the fisheries indus- 
tries is prosecuted by its division of fishery industries. The opera- 
tions of this division include the collection, compilaton, and publica- 
tion of statistics, technological research, and the dissemination of 
practical information to the industry. 

GENERAL STATISTICS 

During the past year statistics on the landings of fish at the ports 
of Boston and Gloucester, Mass., Portland, Me., and Seattle, Wash., 
were collected and published monthly. Statistics of the cold-storage 
holdings of fish were collected by the Bureau of Agricultural Eco- 
nomics in the Department of Agriculture and were published monthly 
by the Bureau of Fisheries as in previous years. Statistics of canned 
fishery products and by-products for the year 1926 were collected 
and published early in 1927, and those on the production, holdings, 
and consumption of animal and vegetable oils in the fishery indus- 



XrV REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

tries Avere collected quarterly and furnished to the Bureau of the 
Census for pubhcation as in previous years. The annual canvasses 
of the shad fisheries of the Potomac and Hudson Rivers were made 
as usual. 

The States of Maryland and Virginia were canvassed for general 
statistics on the personnel, investment, and yield of the fisheries and 
fishery industries for the year 1925, and, with their publication, sta- 
tistics of this nature are available on the various geographical sec- 
tions, as follows : Xew England States, 1924 ; New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsvlvania, and Delaware, 1921; Marvland and Virginia, 1925; 
South Atlantic and Gulf States. 1923; Pacific Coast States, 1922; and 
the Mississippi Eiver and Great Lakes, 1922. 

As the result of State activities, there are available annual sta- 
tistics on the production of the Pacific Coast States for the years 
1922 to 1925, inclusive, and of the Great Lakes for the years 1913 to 
1925, inclusive. Statistics on persons, investment, and yield of the 
fisheries of Connecticut also are available for the years 1924, 1925, 
and 1926. Li these cases original collections were made by the States, 
and the compilations of the various sections were made by the Bureau 
of Fisheries. It is to be hoped that more States will undertake work 
of this nature, for it is on properly collected statistics that we must 
depend for the facts necessary for the proper conservation of our 
commercial fisheries. The States, with their direct jurisdiction over 
the fisheries, are the logical agencies for the collection of such 
statistics. 

MACKEREL STATISTICS 

The collection of special statistical data on the mackerel fishery 
was continued during the past year. A preliminary analysis of these 
statistical and biological data indicates that the causes of fluctuations 
in the mackerel fisheries are due primarily to variations in the success 
of reproduction from year to year. Thus the unusually large runs of 
mackerel in 1925, 1926, and the early season of 1927 have been due to 
the unusually" large numbers of mackerel spawned and hatched in 
one year, provisionally determined to be that of 1923. Very few 
mackerel of other year groups M^ere found in the catch, indicating 
that the other spawning seasons have been much less successful than 
that of 1923. 

CANNED FISHERY TRODLCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS 

The canned fishery products and by-products of the United States 
and Alaska amounted to $98,326,350 in value in 1926. The output 
of canned fishery products was valued at $86,193,240, and that of by- 
products was valued at $12,133,110. The total is the largest in 
recent years, exceeding 1925 by 3 per cent and 1921 by 79 per cent. 
The increase is due chiefly to the larger pack of canned salmon in 
Alaska. Among the canned products, salmon, as usual, was the most 
important item, contributing 65 per cent of the total value ; sardines 
Avere next, Avith 17 per cent ; the tuna followed, with 6 per cent ; and- 
03'sters, shrimp, clams, and miscellaneous products contributed the 
remaining 12 per cent. 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES XV 



TKADE IX FROZEN FISH 



The holclinfis of frozen fish in 1926 Avere someAvhat loss durin<r the 
first seven months and considerably more diirin<z; the last five montlis 
of the year than in the [)revioiis year, varying between 1G,154:,0U2 
pounds in April to 75,034,255 pounds in November. The average 
monthl}^ holdings during the year amounted to 45,906,270 pounds, an 
increase of 4.13 per cent, as compared with the average monthly hold- 
ing in 1925, and was above the five-year average by 11.71 per cent. 

NEW ENGLAND VESSEL FISHERIES 

Statistics of the New England vessel fisheries at Boston and Glou- 
cester, Mass., and Portland, Me., collected by the bureau's local agents, 
have been published monthly. Two annual bulletins were issued — 
one showing the catch b}^ fishing grounds and the other by months. 
The total landings by vessels at these ports in 1926 was the largest on 
record, amounting to 238,426,223 pounds of fish, having a value to 
the fishermen of $9,068,573. This was an increase over 1925 of 9.94 
per cent in the quantity and 11.74 per cent in the value of the 
products. 

The principal species, in the order of their value, were haddock, 
94,060,734 pounds, valued at $3,082,924; cod, 78,218,703 pounds, valued 
at $2,647,479; mackerel, 36,232,655 pounds, valued at $1,406,485; hali- 
but, 3,430,957 pounds, valued at $671,150; swordfish, 2,441,679 
pounds, valued at $492,629; and flounders, 6,778,965 pounds, valued 
at $324,398. Compared wdth the previous year, there was consid- 
erable increase in both the quantity and value of cod and haddock and 
a large increase in the quantity and value of the catch of mackerel and 
swordfish. 

The total catch of mackerel by the American fishing fleet in 1926 
Avas 304,490 barrels fresh and 5,380 barrels salted, an increase over 
the previous year of 100,529 barrels fresh and a decrease of 7,062 
barrels salted. 

FISHERIES AT SEATTLE, WASH, 

In 1926 the quantity and value of fishery products landed at 
Seattle by fishing and collecting vessels was 32,418,430 pounds, 
valued at $3,598,741. 

The catch b}^ fishing vessels, which consisted largely of halibut, 
amounted to 13,371,610 pounds, valued at $1,896,677. Compared with 
the previous year, this is an increase of 2.9 per cent in quantity and 
19 per cent in value of the products landed. The fish landed by col- 
lecting vessels amounted to 19,046,820 pounds, valued at $1,702,064, 
an increase of 9.5 per cent in quantity and 25 per cent in value. 

SHAD AND ALEWIFE FISHERIES OF THE POTOMAC RIVER 

In 1926 the shad fishery yielded 336,662 shad that weighed 1,034,206 
pounds, valued at $217,461 to the fishermen. This is an increase over 
1925 of 65 per cent in number, 48 per cent in weight, and 33 per cent 
in value. While the catch is not large, compared with many of the 

62489—27 3 



XVI REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

former years for which statistics are available, the fishery has, never- 
theless, registered substantial increases since the exceptionally poor 
year 1924. 

The catch of alewives amounted to 13,795,84:8 fish, weighing 
5,518,930 pounds, valued at $55,366 to the fishermen. The catch 
shows an increase over 1925 of 76 per cent in number, 76 per cent in 
weight, and 48 per cent in value, and, with the exception of 1924, is 
the largest catch on record since 1909. 

FLORIDA SPONGE FISHIXG 

In 1926 the quantity of sponges sold at the sponge exchange, 
Tarpon Springs. Fla., was 367,745 pounds, valued at $666,093. of 
which 235,143 pounds, value dat $592,367, were large wool; 26,073 
jjounds, valued at $36,502, small wool; 55,205 pounds, valued at 
$22,682, yellow; 49.233 pounds, valued at $13,441, grass'; and 2,091 
pounds, valued at $1,101, wire. It is estimated that sponges to the 
value of $50,000 were sold outside of the exchange at Tarpon Springs. 
Compared Avith 1925, there was a decrease in the production of 66,927 
pounds, or 15.4 per cent, in quantity, and $49,004, or 6.9 per cent, in 
value. 

FISHERIES or MARYLAND AND VIRGINIA 

Compilation of the statistics of the fisheries of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia in 1925 was completed during the fiscal year and published in 
summary form as Statistical Bulletin No. 745. The results show 
that the fisheries of these States gave employment to 39,091 persons, 
of whom 25,856 were engaged in fishing operations, 9,671 in the 
wholesale fish trade, and 3,564 in the canning, saltipg, smoking, and 
by-products industries. The investment amounted to $19,322,844, of 
which $10,635,397 Avere invested in vessels, boats, fishing apparatus, 
and shore and accessory property used by the fishermen; $4,259,205 
in property and cash capital in the wholesale fi.shery trade; and 
$4,428,242 in property and cash capital in the canning, salting, smok- 
ing, and by-products industries. The products of the fisheries of 
these two States amounted to 333.205,769 pounds, valued at $13,~ 
948,060. The products of the canning and other fishery industries 
had a value of $4,936,664. 

Oysters, with a production of 60,264,932 pounds, or 8.609.276 
bushels, valued at $6,021,606, were the most important fishery product 
of these States. Other important products were shad, 7,363,856 
pounds, valued at $1,636,879; menhaden, 150.492.623 pounds, valued 
at $1,434,706; crabs, 29.600,605 pounds, valued at $1,249,497; croaker, 
25,252.156 pounds, valued at $711,416; squeteagues, 13,924.659 pounds, 
valued at $668,296; and clams, 1,190^272 pounds, or 148,784 bushels, 
valued at $468,784. 

Comjiared with 1920, the last available statistical report, there was 
a decrease of 5 per cent in the number of persons engaged; an increase 
of 5.7 per cent in the amount of capital invested; and a decrease of 
37.2 i)er cent in the quantity, Avith an increase of 9.5 per cent in the 
value of the products landed by the fishermen. 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES XVII 

FISHERIES OF THE PACIFIC COAST STATES 

Durin<r the past year statistics, as collected by the Pacific Coast 
States, were com])iled and supplemented by the bureau's agents. 
These comj^ilations included 1924 and 1925, and, with the statistics 
already jiublished. there are available four successive years' data, 
from h)'2'2 to 1025, inclusive. 

On the basis of the most recent year, 1925, the fisheries of the 
Pacitic Coast States employed 16,856 fishermen, 673 vessels of 13,361 
tons, and 5,42-4 motor boats. The total yield amounted to nearly 
611,000,000 pounds, valued at nearly $24,600,000. This is the largest 
yield on record. 

The salmon fisherv, bv far the most important in value, yielded 
139,848,020 pounds, valued at $10,149,961. Next in importance was 
the tuna fishery, which produced 54,776,970 pounds of albacore, tuna, 
skipjack, and bonito, valued at $4,558,183. Third in importance was 
the halibut fisheiy, with 19,256,185 pounds, valued at $2,177,125. The 
sardine fishery ranked fourth, with 315,294,986 pounds, valued at 
$2,087,756. 

The total vield has increased successively from 405,000.000 pounds 
in 1923 to 4f4.000,000 in 1924 and to 611,000,000 in 1925.' The value 
increased from $19,000,000 to $20,000,000 and to $25,000,000 in these 
same years, respectively. Most of the increased poundage Avas 
achieved in the sardine fishery, which almost doubled its vield during 
the three years. The sudden spurt in value between 1924 and 1925 
is due to the unusually large catches of salmon and tuna. 

FISHERIES or THE GREAT LAKES 

With the cooperation of the Tariff Commission, statistics of the 
yield of the Great Lakes fisheries originally collected by the States 
were compiled for the vears 1913 to 1925, inclusive. During this 
period the United States yield fluctuated between 68,000.000 and 
109,000,000 pounds. The average yield during the first half of this 
period (1913 to 1919) was 94,195.000 pounds per year, while during 
the last half (1920 to 1925) it was only 78,161,000 pounds. This 
marked decline has been especially noticeable among some of the 
most valuable and most sought-for fishes, principally whitefish, her- 
ring, chubs, ciscoes, and sturgeon. 

TECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

In its technological work the Bureau of Fisheries is endeavoring 
to improve present practices and to develop new^ equipment, methods, 
and products within the fisheries industries and to bring about proper 
utilization of wastes and by-products. Investigations are made and 
science applied to the various problems. Results are then made 
available to the industry, and their application is directed until they 
become an integral part of the same. The fisheries industries offer 
a very fruitful field for work of this nature. Rapid progress in in- 
dustry (and this applies particularly to the fisheries industries) de- 
pends largely upon such w^ork, combined with the application of 
sound business principles. 



XVIII REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

Work to date has been confined largely to four major lines of re- 
search — utilization of by-prodncts, nutritive value of fish and shell- 
fish, preservation of nets, and improvements in merchandising fresh 
fish. 

A method was worked out for decreasing losses of the protein and 
oil contained in press liquors now discarded in the manufacture of 
fish meal and oil. The method produces a better oil and should help 
materially in diminishing pollution from these liquors in our coastal 
waters. In this connection a careful study of the menhaden industry 
was made, which revealed that certain steps should be taken to lessen 
production costs and improve the products, the results of which have 
been given to the industry. 

With the increasing demand for fillets, the cjuantity of waste that 
is collecting in certain fish markets has become considerable — suffi- 
cient to enable profitable by-products industries to be prosecuted with 
the development of suitable methods for handling the gluey waste 
from such fishes as cod and haddock. Such a method has been 
worked out, and the results of this work are being made available to 
those in the industry unable to overcome the present difficulty. 

The bureau has issued a document on the nutritive value of fish 
and shellfish, with chapters by experts on the chemical composition, 
mineral- constituents, vitamins, oils, and fats, and protein value of 
aquatic foods. This has been very helpful in creating a better reali- 
zation of the place of fish and shellfish in the diet. To add to our 
knowledge of the value of the proteins in fish, the bureau is conduct- 
ing an investigation at Johns Hopkins University under the direc- 
tion of Dr. E. V. McCollum, which indicates that the proteins in 
herring and haddock have high nutritive value, comparable with 
meat. Extensive tests are now in progress regarding the nutritive 
and corrective values of selected grades of fish meals, as demonstrated 
by rat-feeding experiments. 

Large-scale practical tests with copper oleate and copper paint mix- 
ture net preservatives have been conducted at points on the coast of 
North Carolina, Virginia, and New Jersey, in which trap nets and 
purse seines were used. In addition, experiments with a large number 
of new preservatives are in progress at the Beaufort (N. C.) station. 

Perhaps the most fertile field for experimentation lies in improve- 
ments in the methods of handling fresh fish from the place of capture 
until the jiroduct reaches the consumer. Holding or ripening meat 
improves its quality; the opposite is true of fish. The bureau has 
made a most important contribution to this branch of industry 
through the issuance of a handbook on the refrigeration of fish. 
This includes a history of the industry and important scientific j^rin- 
ciples involved; changes that take place in the fish in the fresh state 
and during freezing and holding; design, construction, and equip- 
ment of fish freezers; practical freezing methods; methods of brine 
freezing; transportation of frozen fish; and many other points essen- 
tial to the proper understanding of the industry, its problems, and 
the product as a food. 

Experiments are now in progress to improve the quality of fish 
as landed by the fishing vessels and to reduce overhead expense 
througli the adoption of labor-saving devices. 

The bureau also is arranging to provide research associate facili- 
ties, whereby firms or groups having special technological problems 



BLTItEAU OF FISHEBIES XIX 

to solve will furnish the investigator and pay his salary and inci- 
dental expenses, the investi<ration to be carried on under the direction 
of the bureau's ex[)erts and the bureau's ecpiipnient to be used so far 
as avaihible. The bureau reserves the ri<xht to nud^e public the results 
of all such cooperative investigations. 

Because of the extreme difliculties confronting the menhaden indus- 
try, particular attention is being given to the problems of that indus- 
try, especially to the possibilities of developing improved methods 
of manufacture that will cut down the extremely heavy labor cost of 
present practices, yield high-grade oil and meal, and obviate losses 
in the process of manufacture. 

p4)och-nuiking progress characterized developments in the fishery 
industries. ]\Luhine processes are being developed; cleaning and 
cutting machinery, mechanical conveyers, and packing machines are 
replacing liand labor. The packing of fresh fish in cartons and pack- 
ages permits of its wider distribution by retail grocery stores and is 
tending to distribute sales more evenly throughout the week. The 
value of carbon dioxide ice for icing refrigerator cars, as well as for 
preserving smaller shipments, is being demonstrated; and the de- 
velopment of means of freezing fish rapidly wdth brines indicates 
that such methods are rapidly approaching a state of perfection that 
will permit of their use in the large-scale production of frozen fish 
required by this important branch of fresh-fish preservation and 
distribution. 

BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 
FISHERY RESEARCH 

A brief survey of the year's work shows gratifying progress in 
many fields. The culmination of many years of salmon investiga- 
tion in the formulation of a successful plan of protection of the sal- 
mon fisheries of Alaska and the promise of reliable forecasting of 
future years' runs is one of the most satisfying results of the efforts 
of the fisheries investigators. Oyster investigations have been ex- 
panded and are yielding fruits of inestimable value to a great indus- 
try reaching from Cape Cod to Texas. N^ot only have immediately 
applicable recommendations with regard to oyster culture been offered 
to the several States, but fundamental investigations on the biology 
of the oyster itself have been conducted, which will make possible a 
greater production of this valuable mollusk. 

Notable progress also has been made in the conquest of fish diseases 
which have seriously curtailed the output of the many fish hatcheries 
scattered throughout the coimtry. These investigations in the pathol- 
ogy of fish and exi^erimental fish culture have gone far to increase 
the effectiveness of hatcheries and eventually may place the farming 
of fish in ponds upon a successful and lucrative basis. 

The enthusiasm and energy of the investigators have been stimu- 
lated materially by a conference of the entire staff of the division of 
scientific inquiry held in Washington, D. C, in January. 

As in previous 3'^ears, many States have cooperated with the 
bureau's investigators, thus making possible a more effective and more 
extensive investigation than would otherwise be possible. Joint in- 
vestigations bv the bureau and the State governments include work 



XX REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

on the oysters in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Missis- 
sippi, and Texas; salmon investigations in California, Oregon, and 
AVashington ; a study of food supply in lake waters in Michigan and 
Wisconsin; and mussel investigations in Arkansas. 

Following is a brief resume of the results of the more important 
activities of the division : 

INVESTIGATIONS OF THE FISHERIES OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC 

Tagging operations in the summer of 1926 were continued from 
August to October, the total number of cod, haddock, and pollock 
tagged amounting to 4,235. The work was carried on from the fish- 
eries steamer Albatross II, chiefly in the waters south of Cape Cod, 
on Georges Bank, and off Mount Desert, Me. The tagging work was 
resumed in April, 1927, the program including further tagging on 
Georges, Browns, and Fippenies Banks as well as on the inshore 
grounds in Massachusetts Bay and along the coast of Maine. Three 
cruises were made before the close of the fiscal year, during which 
3,602 cod, pollock, and haddock were tagged, bringing the total of the 
fiscal year 1927 up to 7,817, and for the entire experiment since 1923 
to 43,699. The recapture of tagged fish during the present season has 
been satisfactory, but a greater proportion is expected during the 
autumn and winter. 

During the spring operations an otter trawl was used with consid- 
erable success, even on rocky grounds, for taking the smaller cod and 
securing a better representation of the immature members of the 
population: An extensive collection of scales has been taken; many 
of them have been studied, and the intensity of fishing and the size 
and age composition of the stock on the grounds has been determined. 

In order to determine further the interdependence of the various 
fishing banks, studies of the abundance and distribution of cod eggs 
in Massachusetts Bay have been continued, and a report covering 
the observations made during 1924 and 1925 from the Fish Hawk 
has been completed. 

Through extensive observations of the commercial run of mackerel 
at several of the major ports, an understanding of the composition of 
the mackerel stock entering the commercial fishery has been gained. 

The studies of the spawning areas also have been continued. Ob- 
servations on the southern fishing grounds, from Long Island to 
Delaware, were made during the spring of 1927, and through system- 
atic tow-net collections of eggs and larvse an attempt is being made 
to discover the relative success of spawning each j^ear. At the same 
time the tagging experiments to trace the migrations of the fish have 
been continued, and it is confidently expected that through the early 
detection of successful spawning years, and from knowledge of the 
biology of th« fish and its habits, the extent of future runs may be 
predicted. 

Both fresh and salt water smelts are being studied. The salt-water 
smelts are suffering rapid extermination, and these studies of life 
history and habits, as interpreted by modern methods of fishery 
research, will provide the basis for definite recommendations for 
regulation of the fishery. In addition, extensive collections of trouts 
and chars, made in many localities through North America, are re- 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES XXI 

oeivin*^ attention with a view to distinguishing the many races and 
speciiically determining which are most satisfactory for continued 
artificial propagation. 

INVESTIGATIONS OF FISHERIES OF THE SOUTH ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTS 

Fisheries investigations in the South Atlantic region are being cen- 
tered at the Beaufort (N, C.) biological station. The fisheries receiv- 
ing particular attention at present are those for mullet, other shore 
fisheries, the scallop, oyster, and terrapin. Tagging mullet to deter- 
mine the limits of its migration was extended somewhat, about 1,000 
fish being tagged and liberated in the vicinity of Beaufort, with 
results that corroborated last year's findings. Studies on the cape 
mullet to determine their origin and importance in maintaining the 
stock of local fish are also receiving attention. 

During the past year systematic tow-net collections were made, 
both inside the sound, in the vicinity of Beaufort, and offshore 
toward the Gulf Stream, to aid in studying the spawning periods and 
localities and the early development of the more important commer- 
cial fishes of that region. Previously unlaiown larvse of the spot, 
croaker, graj' trout or squeteague, menhaden, pigfish, and many other 
species were taken. 

The scallop investigations begun in 1925 were continued. The 
scallop fishery is of considerable importance, the only producing 
grounds in the South being in the vicinity of Beaufort, N. C. The 
yield is subject to considerable fluctuation, however, and the investi- 
gations aim to determine the intensity of fishing that can be practiced 
without completely depleting the beds. The rate of growth and the 
abundance of the new generations and the mortality of the adults 
have been determined accurately, and a basis for regulation has been 
established. New beds were discovered recently, and conditions fav- 
oring growth in other localities have been examined. 

Experiments in terrapin culture at Beaufort, initiated more than 
25 years ago, have resulted in developing a practical method of culti- 
vation, which now is followed extensively. The State of North 
Carolina is cooperating with the bureau by furnishing breeding 
adult terrapin and by hatching thousands of young terrapin for 
distribution in the marshes. A closed season of five years was estab- 
lished in 1925 for the protection of the terrapin, and it is believed 
that the extended program of restocking waters will restore the North 
Carolina terrapin fishery to a productive condition within a few 
years. Many of the adult terrapin provided by the State in 1925 to 
form the brood stock of the station began laying in the summer of 
1927. 

Investigation of the shore fisheries of Texas has been continued 
vigorously in both field and laboratory. Fisheries on the coast of 
Texas are in a very backward state, due, according to different views, 
to depletion or to lack of development. State authorities have 
attempted to protect the fish on the spawning grounds. During the 
past year investigations have been designed to discover the exact 
spawning areas and also the outstanding facts of the life history 
of the important commercial sea fish — spotted trout, drum, and red- 
fish — and a report on the subject is being prepared. In addition, a 
study of the fish fauna of the entire Texas coast is being made. 



XXII REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

OYSTER INVESTIGATIONS 

The oyster investigations vrere extended considerably during the 
last fiscal year and were as follows: (1) Experiments for increasing 
the collection of spat; (2) study of the factors controlling setting: 
(3) study of the spawning of the oj^ster; (4) surveys of natural 
oyster beds and reefs; and (5) study of the drill, chief enemy of the 
oyster. 

Inasmuch as the principal cause of the decline of the oyster indus- 
try in northern waters has been the inabilitj^ to obtain a yearly crop 
of seed oysters, the purpose of experiments carried on at Milford 
Harbor, Conn., and Wareham River and Wellfleet, Mass., has been 
to discover a practical method of producing this annual suppW. A 
new method for the control and production of seed oysters has been 
developed, which consists essentially in the establishment of spawn- 
ing beds in bays, harbors, and river mouths, and the planting of 
crates filled with shells in the vicinity of oyster beds for the collec- 
tion of set. 

The crates were triangular in shape, of spruce lath, having a 
capacity of 2 bushels, and each covering an area of 2 square feet. 
They were planted in various formations on the tidal flats, so as to 
determine their efficacy as seed collectors and the effect of their posi- 
tion and arrangement on the uniformity or intensity of the set. In 
Milford Harbor 300 crates collected an average of 2,000 spat per 
bushel of oyster shells. Fiftj^ crates were set in Wareham River. 
Mass., and yielded from 1,900 to 45,000 spat per bushel. Setting- 
occurs here between tide marks and was found to be heaviest about 
11/2 feet above the bar on which shells are planted by the local oyster 
men. In Wellfleet 97 crates were planted, and, though no set of com- 
mercial importance occurred, the crates in Herring River collected a 
fairly good set, ranging from 1,200 to 2,800 per bushel. 

Additional experiments and observations on the factors controlling 
setting have been undertaken in Long Island Sound by means of 
drift bottles, tide gauge, current meter, and spat collectors. 

The following practical applications of the experiments can be 
made: (1) In certain localities the oysters can be induced to spawn 
by adding sperm to the water, and (2) for successful spawning the 
oysters should be planted on the spawning grounds as densely as 
possible. 

At the request of the States, surveys of the oyster grounds were 
made in Massachusetts, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, 
Mississippi, and Texas, to ascertain the practical measures suitable 
for each region that should be adopted in order to prevent further 
depletion of the natural reefs and to maintain or, if possible, to 
increase the production of o3^sters. 

It has been found that in certain regions in Massachusetts, as, for 
example, Wareham River, Onset Harbor, and Centerville River, the 
production of seed oysters can be increased considerably by adoption 
of a new method of spat collection and by restocking the depleted 
oyster beds (Centerville River). The other localities (Waquoit, 
Cotuit, and Chatham) are suitable as oyster-growing grounds only. 

In South Carolina oyster production can be increased by trans- 
planting seed oysters from the tidal flats to the bottoms below low- 
water mark, where setting does not occur. It has been recommended 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES XXIII 

to return a greater quantity of shells to the natural beds, to extend 
the beds b}' planting shells on adjacent firm bottoms, to restore the 
depleted 03'ster beds by planting seed and adult oysters, to collect the 
set on brush and shells planted on tidal flats, and to transplant it on 
suitable bottoms below low-water mark. 

The surve}' of Texas waters covered the region from Corpus Christi 
to Galveston and has shown that oyster reefs in these coastal waters 
produce enormous quantities of oysters, some of which have little 
market Aalue. It was recommended that the overcrowded reefs be 
used as the source of an almost unlimited supply of seed oysters, and 
to plant them on the bottoms of the following bays : Aransas, ]\Ies- 
quite, Lavaca, north of Sandy Point, Kellers, Karaiikawa Reef, Tres- 
palacios, and Matagorda betw^een Portsmouth and Pallacios Points. 

The Avork in North Carolina consists chiefly in a hydrographic 
study of Pamlico Sound with reference to oyster culture. The 
temperatures, salinities of the water, sedimentation and shifting of 
the bottom, and the distribution of the oyster set have received par- 
ticular attention throughout the entire year. One of the most serious 
problems in planting oyster shells is the danger of the set being 
smothered Avith sand or silt by shifting currents. Studies on sedi- 
mentation and currents, therefore, are designed to cliscoA-er the areas 
Avliere cultch can be planted safely and Avhere producing beds can be 
extended by artificial means. The State of North Carolina has co- 
operated acti\^ely by furnishing a A-essel for this research Avork. 
Some of the studies Avere conducted at the Beaufort biological labora- 
tory and some in the soils laboratory of the University of North 
Carolina. 

In ]Mississippi Sound and in Mobile Bay obserA^ations on the hydro- 
graphic conditions that affect oyster culture in that region haA^e been 
under Avay throughout the year. Experiments on the use of brush as 
spat collectors have been undertaken on a large scale, and favorable 
results through the coming groAving season are anticipated. Present 
observations in Mississippi Sound tend to shoAv that the productiAC- 
ness of oyster beds can be increased by the planting of shells and 
brush in order to utilize the abundant natural set. 

Because of the extensiA^e depredations of the drill in the oyster 
beds of Chesapeake Bay, a study is being carried on at Norfolk, Va. 
(where a temporary laboratory has been established), with a A'icAv to 
finding an efficient method for combatting this pest. A thorough 
study of the life history of the drill is under way, including field and 
laboratory observations on the spawning habits, feeding habits, 
migrations, and distribution of the animals. If the abundance of 
the oyster drill in Chesapeake Bay can be reduced, a saA'ing of thou- 
sands of dollars to the oyster industry will be effected. 

A number of minor surA^eys and inspections of oyster grounds haA^e 
been made. At the request of the National Research Council, obser- 
vations Avere made in the vicinity of Tampa and Key Largo, Fla., for 
the purpose of determining whether conditions there Avere suited to 
the cultivation of the Japanese pearl oyster. Black "Water Sound, 
Palmasola Bay, and Largo Sound Avere found to be suitable for 
experiments in artificial pearl culture. 

At the request of the Alabama Fish and Game Commission, a brief 
surA'ey of the oyster bottoms in Mobile Bay was made during April, 
1927, to determine the abundance and character of OA'ster irroAvth on 



XXIV EEPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

the natural reefs, and particularly as to whether or not dredp-inc: 
oysters on certain reefs would be harmful. Observations indicated 
that dredging north of the line extending from Alabamaport to Fish 
River not only w^ould do no harm but would improve the condition of 
the reefs and increase their jDroductiveness, provided the culling laws 
were observed. 

FISHERIES OF THE PACIFIC COAST AND ALASKA 

Besides successfully discharging the duties of protecting and 
administering the salmon fisheries of Alaska, based on present knowl- 
edge of the life histories and biology of the various species, the 
bureau is making rapid progress toward a more complete understand- 
ing of the factors that regulate the abundance of salmon from year 
to year and in checking the depletion. The salmon fisheries of 
Alaska depend upon five distinct species of wide distribution, each 
of which is represented by an independent, self-perpetuating colony 
in every stream that afl'ords suitable conditions for its existence. 
Each colony is independent of all others, and, inasmuch as it secures 
no recruits from adjacent streams, its maintenance depends on an 
adequate spawning reserve to produce the eggs for succeeding genera- 
tions. The regulatory function of the Bureau of Fisheries, therefore, 
consists in adopting and enforcing regulations of the fisheries that 
will permit a sufficient number of adults to reach the spawning 
grounds of each salmon stream throughout the region. 

A program of investigation was adopted in 1921 with the purpose 
of discovering how large a spawning reserve is necessary, and this 
program has been followed assiduously and has been extended under 
the auspices of the Pacific Salmon Investigation Federation to in- 
clude the entire salmon fisheries on the Pacific coast. The essential 
part of the problem is to ascertain the complete returns from spawn- 
ing colonies of known size. The Karluk and Chignik Rivers have 
been selected because of favorable natural conditions in which to 
conduct the studies. Weirs have been constructed, and investigators 
have been stationed at them to make necessary observations, and it is 
confidently expected that a reliable basis for the prediction of the 
magnitude of future runs of salmon will be developed. A report on 
this subject has been prepared. 

In order to determine the migration routes of fish, extensive tagging 
experiments have been continued for several years. A rejjort cover- 
ing these operations in Alaska in 1926 adds much to our knowledge 
of the routes of travel of the ealmon from the sea to their spawning- 
grounds and indicates the source of supply. Plans have been made 
for the spring and summer of 1927 to extend the tagging of salmon 
caught by trolling in the ocean. The work will be conducted by 
representatives of the bureau in Alaska and various State authorities 
along the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. Specific 
studies on Karluk Lake have been instituted to determine the reason 
for the unusually rich production of salmon in the Karluk River 
system. 

During the past 10 years the Bureau of Fisheries, in coo])eration 
with the Oregon Fish Commission, has conducted markinir experi- 
ments as a means of studying the life history of the salmon in the 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES XXV 

Columbia River. Fingerlings have been marked by removing various 
fins and liave been liberated under varying conditions in the river. 

The herring fishery of Ahiska has been receiving greater attention 
recently. The growing use of herring for food and manufacture 
into oil and meal has aroused considerable anxiety concerning the 
danger of depletion. Biological investigations of the herring begun 
in the spring of 1925 have been continued, and extensive studies of 
the segregation of the various races have been made. In addition to 
the studies of the physical proportions of the fish as a means of dis- 
tinguishing the racial units of the fish population, which were made 
last year, a tagging program has been undertaken. During the 
spring of 1927, 3,000 herring were tagged, and studies of the early 
development were begun hj making tow-net collections of larval 
herring. 

The only other subject of detailed study by the bureau was the 
razor clam. Studies have been conducted on representative beds 
throughout the Pacific coast, and several reports already have been 
published outlining the general features of the life history of this 
clam. During 1926 and 1927 a comprehensive study on rates of 
growth, according to latitude, on the Pacific coast has been in prog- 
ress, and data of direct use in regulating the fishery in Alaska have 
been collected. Thorough annual observations of the more important 
beds are made and the trend and abundance of the resource accu- 
rately determined, and regulations governing the fishery in Alaska 
for the following year are drawn up in accordance with actual needs. 

FISHERIES OF THE INTERIOR 

The investigations of the inland fisheries are centered at the fish- 
eries biological laboratory at Fairport, Iowa, for the Mississippi 
River district, and at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 
for the Great Lakes. Investigations at Fairport are concerned chiefly 
with the artificial propagation of fresh-water mussels, which provide 
the raw material for the manufacture of pearl buttons and novelties, 
and with studies on the pond culture of fresh-water food fishes. 

The most important work along this line conducted at the Fairport 
laboratory in recent years consists in developing a nutrient solution 
that serves as a medium for the growth of larval mussels without 
passing a period of parasitic life on the gills of various fishes. In 
addition to the trough-cultural methods devised as a result of earlier 
studies, great numbers of fish rescued from overflowed lands in the 
Mississippi Basin are infected with the glochidia of mussels before 
they are returned to the river. This work of the bureau has re- 
ceived enthusiastic support from the button industry, as the increas- 
ing cost of labor and the scarcity of raw materials are proving a 
serious handicap to the industry. 

The process of rearing larval mussels in a nutrient solution, evolved 
by Dr. Max M. Ellis, of the University of Missouri, promises greatly 
to simplify the propagation work of the bureau and tremendously 
increase the output of juvenile mussels at an age and stage of develop- 
ment that virtually insure survival. Moreover, it will permit their 
being planted in areas suited to their rapid development, and which 
can be controlled, thus making mussel farming on an extensive scale 



XXVI REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

possible. Plans are being made for adapting the laboratory process 
to large-scale operations. 

At the request and with the cooperation of the Arkansas Game and 
Fish Commission, a brief survey was made of the more important 
rivers in Arkansas for the purpose of devising a more satisfactory 
code of fishery regulation to prevent overfishing and permit full 
utilization of productive mussel beds. A plan of alternately opening 
and closing certain sections was devised to afford maximum protec- 
tion with minimum loss or inconvenience to the industry. Surveys 
of portions of the vipper Mississippi River and certain rivers in Vir- 
ginia also were made during the year to determine the state of the 
resource, so that recommendations for regulations could be made. 

The need has been felt for more complete knoAvledge of the growth 
of commercialh' valuable mussel shells in order that localities where 
growth is rapid might be stocked heavily with the more valuable or 
more rapidly growing species. Satisfactory methods for determin- 
ing age were worked out, and studies of the rates of growth of several 
important species were completed. A report on this W'ork has been 
submitted. 

An investigation begun by Dr. R. E. Coker in 1914 was taken up 
again by him and completed. This w^as a study of the effects of the 
dam at' Keokuk. Iowa, on the fish population above and below the 
dam. A report that contributes much to our knowledge of the fish of 
this region has been completed. 

A brief investigation of the pollution of the upper Mississippi 
River was conducted during the fall of 1926 at the request of the 
Joint Interim Committee of the States of Wisconsin and Minnesota. 
Plans were made for a joint sanitary and biological survey of the 
upper Mississippi River b}^ the Public Health Service and the health 
departments of the States and the Twin Cities, and the bureau was 
requested to conduct the biological survey. Due to lack of funds 
and the short time available for completion of the report, only a 
limited program was undertaken. The abundance and character of 
the bottom life and of the plankton of the river were determined at 
various stations over a distance of about 200 miles, and observations 
on the fish life were made at the same time. A report of the findings 
showed that during the summer and fall the effects of pollution from 
the Twin Cities extends down the river for about 85 miles. Through- 
out this distance fish life suffered greatW and in areas of extreme 
pollution was entirely absent. 

Plans for extending the investigations of the commercial fisheries 
in the Great Lakes, made possible through additional appropriations 
by the last Congress, have been made. In 1927 and 1928 the work 
will be confined to studies of conditions on Lake Erie to ascertain, if 
jDOSsible, the factors involved in the presumed depletion of certain 
species; to obtain an understanding of the nature of all biological 
and economic problems that affect the commercial fishing industry of 
the Lakes; to study the biolog}^ of the more important commercial 
and game fishes: and to acquire reliable data essential to drafting 
rational and uniform regulations for the fisheries of Lake Erie and, 
so far as may be applicable, of the other Great Lakes. 

An agreement providing for extensive cooperation between investi- 
gators of tlie bureau and of the State of Ohio has been made for the 
conduct of experimental fishing, the study of the commercial catch, 



BUEEAU OF FISHERIES XXVII 

and studies on the environment of the fishes in Lake Erie. The State 
of Ohio -will provide investifrators to carry on a series of biological 
studies on the conditions of fish life in the lake. The bureau's staff, 
-uorkino; in cooperation, will study the biological aspects of commer- 
cial fishing-. In addition to these studies, the economic aspects of the 
regulation of fishing gear and the type of legislation required to 
restrict abuses in the fishery will be considered. The State depart- 
ment of agriculture, division of fish and game, will furnish and 
operate a vessel for the conduct of this work. 

PATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL FISH CULTURE 

Three important lines of investigation are being followed in the 
field of aquiculture — (1) pond culture of warm-water fishes, (2) ex- 
perimental trout culture, and (3) pathology of fishes. Experiments 
in the production of basses and other food fishes of the Mississippi 
River region have been carried out in the ponds at the Fairport 
biological station in an attempt to increase the food supply through 
fertilization of the waters and to increase the production of fish 
through proper handling of the fish themselves. Detailed chemical 
and biological examinations of the ponds are carried on throughout 
the growing season to determine the conditions most favorable to fish 
growth ; and an attempt is being made to develop a measure of pro- 
ductiveness by which natural pond and swamp areas throughout the 
country may be determined, so that those suited for the production of 
fish may be stocked and conditions in others improved. Experiments 
in producing forage fish, such as the black-head minnow, have been 
markedh" successful, and the advisability of using forage fish as food 
for bass was clearly evidenced by a considerablj^ increased yield of 
healthy fish. Through cooperation hj the division of fish culture, 
arrangements were made to begin the pond-cultural experiments on a 
larger scale at the Neosho (Mo.) fish-cultural station; and in addi- 
tion to cultivating largemouth bass, experiments in the rearing of 
smallmouth bass and trout were undertaken here in the spring of 
1927. 

The work at the Holden (Vt.) experimental fish hatchery has been 
devoted to the solution of problems arising in the culture of several 
species of trout. Feeding experiments have been conducted for sev- 
eral 3^ears, in which the value of various diets for trout fry has been 
determined. In an attempt to develop a superior brood stock, selec- 
tive breeding experiments have been undertaken. A stock of select 
brood trout has been secured from various places and tagged for 
future identification. The eggs from the various types of fish were 
segregated and the young reared in separate pools. It is believed 
that such qualities as rapidity of gi'owth, strength and vitality of 
young, resistance to disease, and fecundity can be improved materially 
in hatchery-reared trout. The capacity of the experimental hatchery 
at Holden has been increased b}- additional ponds and raceways, and 
the whole station has been brought up to a high level of efficiency. 

Closely related to the work on pond culture and experimental trout 
culture is the study of fish diseases. Heavy annual mortality at the 
Holden station has been overcome through treatment of diseases and 
parasites, and a study of the cestodarian parasites of bass has been 
undertaken at the Fairport station and at the Neosho (Mo.) hatchery. 



XXVIII REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

The isolation of several microorganisms that cause diseases in fish 
and the devising of methods of control were accomplished during the 
past year, and reports on this work are ahuost completed. Through 
the conquest of disease, it is anticipated that a marked increase in the 
output of the many State, Federal, and private hatcheries throughout 
the country will result, for fish culturists generally are recognizing 
the fact that fingerlings held in hatcheries for a long time have a 
greater chance of survival after planting than those planted in the 
fry stage. To avoid heavy losses in many hatcheries, the fish are 
planted in early stages of development and thus fall prey to many 
enemies when least able to care for themselves. Reducing hatch- 
ery diseases, therefore, will increase the output of fingerling fish, and 
hence the effectiveness of fish-cultural stations. 

ALASKA FISHERIES SERVICE 
ADMINISTRATIOiSr OF FISHERY LAWS AND REGULATIONS 

In administering the fisheries of Alaska in 1926 there was no 
marked departure from the general conservation policy adopted upon 
passage of the act of June 6, 1924, which expanded the authority of 
the Secretary of Commerce to denote the time, place, and manner of 
commercial fishing operations. During the progress of the season's 
operations some extensions of the regulations were necessary to pre- 
vent overfishing in certain places and to meet unusual conditions that 
arose. The Commissioner of Fisheries was in Alaska during much 
of the active salmon-fishing season to give immediate attention to 
necessary changes in the regulations. 

The act of June 18, 1926, reenacting and expanding section 1 of the 
act of June 6, 1924, further broadened control over the fisheries of 
Alaska by giving the Secretary of Commerce authority to permit the 
taking of fish or shellfish, for bait purposes only, at any or all seasons 
in any or all Alaskan Territorial waters. This made possible more 
satisfactory regulatory measures for the taking of herring for bait 
purposes in the halibut fishery. 

Under date of December 22, 1926, there was a general revision of 
the fisheries regulations to be efi^ective in 1927. The chief change 
was the closing to commercial fishing for salmon of 14 localities, in 
addition to the 99 previously closed. Three of the latter were opened 
part of the season, and in two others fishing with limited gear was 
permitted in specified periods. 

With few exceptions, the 1,200 or more streams ascended by salmon 
had good escapements to the spawning grounds. The constant aim 
and purpose is to secure full compliance with that part of the act of 
June 6, 1924. which declares it to be the policy of Congress that there 
shall be an escapement to the spawning grounds of at least 50 per 
cent of the runs of salmon. The effect of the existing regulations 
upon the escapement can be gauged satisfactorily by maintaining 
weirs, through which salmon can be counted, and then checking the 
results with the commercial take of salmon in the vicinity. In 1926 
such weirs were maintained in eight streams in Alaska. Additional 
weirs will be constructed from time to time as funds and facilities 
permit. 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES XXIX 

There was a further expansion in 1926 of the patrol for the protec- 
tion of the fisheries of Alaska and the enforcement of the laws and 
regulations. Identified with this work were 13 regular and 145 tem- 
porary employees, exclusive of those on the bureau's 11 vessels and 
the V2 chartered boats, or an increase of 13 persons and 2 vessels 
over the previous season. In addition, a number of small launches 
were used for varying periods. This expanded patrol was of par- 
ticular value as a deterrent to violations, for with few exceptions 
there was satisfactory observance of the fishery laws and regula- 
tions. Before another season the bureau will have added two new 
patrol vessels to its Alaskan fleet, both of which will be capable of 
oifshore duty when necessary. 

SALMON HATCHERIES 

The Federal Government operated fish hatcheries at Afognak and 
on McDonald Lake, at Avhich 52,010,000 red-salmon eggs were col- 
lected in 1926. In addition, several million steelhead-trout and hump- 
back-salmon eggs were secured. Two privately owned hatcheries 
took 41,420,000 red-salmon eggs, and in addition one of them ob- 
tained 6,640,000 humpback-salmon eggs. 

The Alaska Territorial Fish Commission maintained hatcheries at 
Ketchikan, Cordova, and Seward. At the Ketchikan hatchery 
3,337,760 red-salmon eggs, 1,660,000 humpback-salmon eggs, and 
2,000,000 king-salmon eggs were collected and received. At the 
Seward hatchery 3,164,000 red-salmon eggs were collected. No 
eggs were taken at the Cordova station in 1926. 

SPECIAL STUDIES AND INVESTIGATIONS 

During the season of 1926, 13,530 salmon were tagged and released 
for the purpose of securing further information in regard to migra- 
tion routes. Scientific investigations of the life history of the salm- 
ons were conducted in various parts of Alaska, chiefly in the Kar- 
luk Elver region. Extensive observations were made on various 
salmon-spawning grounds to determine the adequacy of the salmon 
escapement and to supplement the information obtained at the count- 
ing weirs. Conditions were generally satisfactory, but in some in- 
stances the number of spawning salmon appeared to be insufHcient. 

Additional scientific studies were made in regard to the herring 
and clam fisheries. 

PRODUCTS or THE FISHERIES 

The pack of canned salmon in Alaska was the larges*. in the his- 
tory of the Territory, amounting to 6,652,882 cases. Compared with 
the preceding year, the pack of red salmon increased more than 100 
per cent, humpbacks about 58 per cent, cohos over 25 per cent, and 
kings about 5 per cent. The pack of chums decreased about 16 per 
cent. The increase in the pack was due largely to a greater take of 
red salmon in western Alaska and of humpbacks in central Alaska. 

The total value of the manufactured fishery products of Alaska in 
1926 was $54,669,882. The value of the catch to the fishermen was 
approximately $14,500,000. 



XXX REPOET TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

The entire Alaska fishery industry gave employment to 28,052 per- 
sons, as compared with 27.685 persons in 1925, and represented an 
investment of $74,557,522. 

The extent and condition of the Alaska fisheries in 1926 and of the 
activities of the bureau under the laws and regulations for the pro- 
tection of the fisheries are covered in detail in the annual report of 
the Alaska service for that j^ear.^ 

ALASKA FUR-SEAL SERVICE 

GENERAL ACTIVITIES 

Activities at the Pribilof Islands during the year continued in 
general along the lines heretofore followed. The take of sealskins 
was satisfactory, exceeding somewhat that of the previous year, and 
the usual. annual computation showed a substantial increase in the 
size of the herd. A sufficient number of 3-year-old males was marked 
and reserved for future breeding requirements. Foxing operations 
progressed satisfactorily. 

Good progress was made in the construction of new buildings and 
in other improvements, including roads. The new buildings are 
largely to replace former structures, which through age have de- 
teriorated so that they can no longer be kept in repair. The desira- 
bilitj^ of shortening seal drives and the advantages to be derived from 
the use of motor-driven vehicles make suitable roads a matter of much 
importance. 

Food, fuel, clothing, shelter, and medical and educational facilities 
were provided 341: native inhabitants of the islands. The issues of 
food and other necessaries of life were supplemented by cash pay- 
ments on the basis of 75 cents for each sealskin and $5 for each fox 
skin taken, in return for which the natives perform the general work 
at the islands. Additional small payments were made for certain 
special services. A staff of white employees supervises all work at 
the Pribilof Islands. 

Through the courtesy of the Xavj' Department, the general supplies 
for the fiscal year 192f were transported from Seattle to the Pribilof 
Islands by the United States steamer Vefjta, and the sealskins were 
shipped from the islands on that vessel. The bureau is also indebted 
to the United States Coast Guard for many services rendered by 
vessels on the fur-seal patrol. 

SEAL HERD 

On August 10, 1926, the Pribilof Islands fur-seal herd was com- 
puted to contain 761,281 animals. This was an increase of 38,231, 
or 5.29 per cent over the corresponding figure for 1925. 

TAKE OF SEALSKINS 

In the calendar year 1926 there were taken on the Pribilof Islands 
22,131 fur-seal skins, of which 16,231 were from St. Paul Island and 
5,900 from St. George Island. This was an increase of 2,271 over 
the number taken in 1925. 

» Alaska Fishery and Fur-Seal Industries in 1926. By Ward T. Bower. Appendix IV. 
Report United States Commissioner of Fisheries for 1927, pp. 225-336, 1.5 figs. Bureau of 
Fisheries Document No. 1023. Washington. 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES XXXI 

MARKING OF RESERVED SEALS 

In 1926 the buioau marked 9,565 3-year-old male seals to be re- 
served for a future breeding stock, of Avhich 7,558 were on St. Paul 
Island and 2,007 on St. George Island. In addition to the seals 
marked, there were remaining at the end of the year the 3-year-old 
males that never were taken up in driving operations. The method 
of marking was to clip a patch of fur from the upper part of each 
animal so that it might readily be distinguished thereafter. 

SALE OF SEALSKINS 

In the fiscal year 1927 two public-auction sales of fur-seal skins 
taken on the Pribilof Islands were held at St. Louis, Mo. The first 
sale was held on October 11, 1926, when 6,767 black dyed, 1,250 log- 
Avood-brown dyed, 54 golden-chestnut dyed, and 3 dressed skins, a 
total of 8,074, were sold at a gross price of $308,844. At the same time 
181 Japanese fur-seal skins were sold for $4,402, of which 151 were 
dyed black and 30 were raAv salted. These 181 skins were the United 
States Government's share of sealskins taken by the Japanese Gov- 
ernment in 1924 and 1925. In 1926 the Government received 132 
skins as its share of Japanese sealskins. There were also sold one 
confiscated sealskin (black dyed) and four pieces of confiscated 
dressed and dyed sealskin for $42. 

At the second sale, held on May 23, 1927, 11,611 black dyed, 1,52G 
logwood-broAvn dved, and 91 faulty skins, a total of 13,228, were sold 
at a gross price of $436,566.20. 

Special sales of sealskins in the fiscal year 1927 consisted of 68 
raw salted, 50 black dyed, and 7 logwood-brown dyed skins at a gross 
price of $4,324.04. All were taken at the Pribilof Islands. 

FOXES 

Fox feeding was coiitinued on both St. Paul and St. George Islands 
in the winter of 1926-27. Specially prepared food was used, and in 
addition preserved seal meat was fed on St. George Island. 

There Avere sold at ptiblic auction on October 11, 1926, at St. Louis, 
Mo.. 465 blue-fox skins taken at the Pribilof Islands. The gross 
price realized was $24,740. Three hundred and forty of these skins 
were taken in the season of 1924-25, and 125 in the season of 1925-26. 
There were also sold at the same sale, for $1.50, three skins taken from 
foxes that died in course of shipment from the Pribilofs. 

In the season of 1926-27, 118 blue and 27 white skins were taken 
on St. Paul Island and 610 blue and 3 white skins on St. George 
Island, a total of 758 skins. During the season of 1926-27, 125 males 
and 108 females were marked and released for breeding purposes on 
St. Paul Island and 205 males and 202 females on St. George Island. 
The stock actually reserved for breeding was larger, because a con- 
siderable number of animals are never caught at all. In order to 
improve the herds on each island, 10 pairs of foxes from St. Paul 
were released on St. George Island, and a similar transfer was made 
from St. George Island to St. Paul Island. 



XXXII EEPOET TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

FUR-SEAL SKINS TAKEN BY NATIVES 

By the provisions of the North Pacific Sealing Convention of July 
7, 1911, natives of the Pacific coast may. under certain restricted 
conditions, take fur seals at sea. Before sealskins secured under these 
conditions can enter into commerce, they must be authenticated as 
having been taken lawfully. One thousand and seventy-five seal- 
skins taken in the sealing season of 1926 have been authenticated by 
the Government, 40 of which were taken in the ofTshore waters of 
southeast Alaska and 1,035 from waters off the coast of Washington. 
Through the courtesy of the Interior Department, the latter skins 
were authenticated by the superintendent of the Xeah Bay Indian 
Agency. 

FUR-SEAL PATROL 

An adequate patrol of the waters frequented by the Pribilof 
Islands fur-seal herd was maintained by vessels of the United States 
Coast Guard, supplemented in southeast Alaska by one of the 
bureau's fishery patrol vessels. 

PROTECTION OF SEA OTTERS, W^^LRUSES, AND SEA LIONS 

The protection of sea otters, walruses, and sea lions was along the 
usual lines. The killing of sea otters is prohibited at all times, both in 
Territorial and extraterritorial waters. The extreme scarcity of this 
valuable and formerly numerous animal will necessitate years of 
thorough protection to enable its reestablishment in even limited 
numbers as compared with its abundance of former times. The 
present regulations prohibit the killing of walruses and sea lions in 
Alaskan waters until April 30, 1928, except for purposes of securing 
food or clothing ; and in the case of sea lions, except as may be neces- 
sary for the protection of property or while such animals are actually 
engaged in the devastation of runs of salmon. 

VESSEL NOTES 

The investigation of the fisheries of the Gulf of Maine, in which the 
Halcyon has been employed, was undertaken this year b}' the Alha- 
fross 11^ the former vessel having been laid up. The reconditioning 
of the latter steamer was sufficiently advanced to permit of her going 
to sea early in August, and the investigation was carried on as con- 
tinuously as available funds would allow. The steamer cruised 4,291 
miles and made 69 oceanographic stations, and 7,785 fish were caught, 
tagged, and liberated. Some faults have developed in the ventilating 
system, but these will be corrected during the coming year. 

The Gaiinet and the Halcyon were not operated, but the other two 
steamers and motor vessels carried on the usual fish-cultural and bio- 
logical work on the Atlantic coast and interior waters. 

In the fiscal year 1927, 11 vessels of the Alaska service cruised 
more than 67,000 nautical miles. Of these, the Brant made over 
17,000 miles and the Eider about 11,000 miles. 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES XXXIII 

In addition to general patrol work in the waters of southeastern 
and central Alaska, the Brant was detailed during part of the winter 
to certain duties of!" the coast of California. This vessel, which is 100 
feet in length and equipped with a 225-horsepower Diesel engine, 
was built in 19i2G and has proved a highly satisfactory addition to the 
fleet. 

The Elder continued as local tender for the Pribilof Islands, with 
base at Unalaska, and rendered some service in connection with 
salmon-fishery conservation. 

In southeastern Alaska the Widgeon, Mw^e, and Auhlet were en- 
gaged on fishery protective work. The Kittivmhe was similarly 
employed in the Cook Inlet region, the Blue Wing in the Kodiak sec- 
tion, the IhU at Chignik, the Merganser in the Alaska Peninsula 
region, the Scoter on Bristol Bay waters, and the Tern on the Yukon 
River. 

The Petrel was at Seattle, Wash., pending arrangements for the 
installation of a new engine. The Red Wing, a power vessel approxi- 
mately 40 feet in length, acquired by transfer from the Department 
of Agriculture, will be used in the Kodiak region after certain 
alterations. 

An additional vessel for the Alaska service, which has been given 
the name Teal, was under construction at North Bend, Oreg., at the 
close of the fiscal year 1927. This vessel is to be 78 feet in length 
and 18 feet in breadth and will have a 150-horsepower full Diesel 
engine. The Teal will be assigned to duty in coastal waters of 
central Alaska. 

APPROPRIATIONS 

The regular appropriations for the bureau for the fiscal year 
1927 aggregated $1,814,253, as follows: 

Salaries, office and field $688,378 

Miscellaneous exi)enses : 

Administration 3, 000 

Propagation of food fishes 427, 000 

Maintenance of vessels 120,000 

Inquiry regarding food fishes 57, 475 

Fishery industries 25, 000 

Protecting sponge fisheries 2, 500 

Protecting seal and salmon fisheries of Alaska 340, 000 

Upper Mississippi River fish-rescue station 25, 000 

Power vessel for Alaska fisheries 50, 000 

Nashua (N. H.) fish hatchery repairs 25,000 

Establishment of auxiliary stations : 

Georgia 30,000 

Colorado 20,000 



1, 814, 253 
Very truly yours, 

Henry O 'Mallet, 

Com/missioner of Fisheries. 

o 




ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION OF PIKE PERCH, YELLOW PERCH, 

AND PIKES ^ 



By Glkn C. L&\ch, A.ssi.sfaiil in- Char ge of Fish Vulture 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Pike perches 1 

Description 1 

(Tcographical distribution 3 

Economic value, food and game 

qualities 3 

Feeding habits 4 

Spawning habits and spawn-tak- 
ing 4 

Penning adult fish for collection 

of spawn (i 

Eggs 10 

Development and care 1(( 

Preventing cohesion 14 

Mortality 16 

Transportation 17 

Planting the fry IS 



Page 

Yellow perch 19 

Description and range 19 

Food and game qualities 20 

Commercial importance 21 

Spawning season and character of 

eggs 21 

Artificial propagation 21 

Pikes 22 

Description 22 

Geographical distribution 24 

Range 24 

Weight 25 

Distinguishing marks 26 

Food, habits, and rate of growth- 26 

Artificial propagation 27 



PIKE PERCHES 



DESCRIPTIOX 



The pike perches (Stizostedion) incliirle the largest members of 
the perch family inhabiting American waters. They may be dis- 
tinguished readily from other fresh-water fishes by the long, rather 
pike-like body, with two dorsal fins, the first consisting of spines 
and the second of soft, segmented rays. The presence of a spinous 
dorsal serves as a ready means of distinguishing the pike perches 
from the pikes (family Esocidse), wdiich include the pickerel and 
muskellunge. The pikes have but a single dorsal fin of soft rays 
situated on the posterior part of the body. As the pike perches are 
members of the perch family, it is advisable to adopt this name and 
thus overcome much of the confusion of the species of the two fami- 
lies. Three species are found in our waters — the yellow pike perch 
{Stizostedion vitreum), the blue pike perch (^S'. glaucum), and the 
sauger or sand pike perch {/S. canadense gr-isewm). Of the three, 



1 Appendix I to the Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries for 1927. B. F. 
Doc. Xo. 1018. 

This document represents a revision and enlargement of the chapters on " Muskellunge " 
and "Yellow Perch" from A Manual of Fish Culture, based on the methods of the 
United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, with Chapters on the Cultivation of 
Oysters and Frogs, in the Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 
1897 (revised edition published in 1900). 



2 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

the yellow pike perch is the most abundant and important 
commercially.' 

The body of the yellow pike perch is rounded instead of being com- 
pressed, the greatest width being about three-fourths of the greatest 
depth. The body is elongate, not as elevated as it is in the yellow 
perch, the greatest depth being about one-fifth of the distance from the 
tip of the snout to the base of the tail fin. The length of the head, 
from the tip of the snout to the hind margin of the gill cover, is con- 
tained about three and one-fourth times in the total body length, ex- 
clusive of the tail fin. The snout, measured from its tip to the 
anterior margin of the orbit, is contained about three and one-half 
times in the length of the head, and is rather larger than the hori- 
zontal diameter of the orbit (the latter contained about four and 
one-half to five and one-half times in the head). The mouth is 
rather large, the gape extending to approximately imder the middle 




Fiu. 1. — Stlzuiiiedion vitrcum. Yellow pike perch 

of the eye. The jaws are provided with brushlike bands of small 
teeth, and in addition some comparatively long canine teeth. The 
two dorsal fins are separated, the first consisting of 12 or 18 spines 
(frequently one or two spines more or less), while the second dorsal 
consists of 19 to 22 soft rays. The anal fin has two spines and 11 
or 12 soft rays. The dorsal begins over the base of the pectoral, 
and the base of the ventral fin is but a little distance behind. The 
anal is placed entirely under the second dorsal. The tail fin is 
forked. The scales are rather small, there being about 90 oblique 
rows from the gill opening to the base of the tail. 

The body is of a yellowish color, blotched with darker shades. 
The second dorsal fins usually are spotted, the small sj^ots frequently 
being arranged in more or less regular rows. The first dorsal is 
irregularly blotched or spotted, and there is always a definite dark 
blotch on the membrane connecting the last two or three spines. 

The blue pike perch was formerly considered a color variety of the 
yellow, but it never reaches so large a size and matures earlier. The 
body is grayish blue in color, Avithout yellowish mottlings, and the 
lower fins are bluish white instead of yellow. The eyes are larger 
and close set. 



= A Check-list of the Fishes of the Great Lakes and Tributary Watei-s. with Nomen- 
clatorial Notes and Analytical Keys, by Carl L. Hubbs. University of Michigan, Museum 
of Zoology, Miscellaneous Publications No. 15, July 7, 1926, p. 58. 



PTKF.R AND PTKE PERCH 6 

Tlio siiu<zor is distin^nislied from the otlier species by tlie larger 
iininber of pyloric civca — .") to 8 (instead of 3) — its fewer doi'sal rays 
(17 to 19), and absence of black blotch at the posterior end of the 
spinous dorsal. 

The yellow pike perch attains a maximum size of 40 pounds, the 
average beinii" from 5 to 10 pounds. The blue pike perch occasionally 
may reach a weight of T) jx^unds, but avei'ages under 1 pound. The 
sauger seldom exceeds a length of IS inches and a Aveight of 2 pounds. 

The yellow form usually is found in the larger streams, and in the 
Great hakes seeks Avater io to 40 feet deep, while the blue foi'ui pre- 
fers water -^0 to 7') feet deep. 

GEOGUAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION " 

The pike perch prefers clear water, Avith rock, gra\^el, sand, or 
hard-clay bottom. It is not often found in streams or lakes A\'ith 
bottoms of mud. The center of its abundance is Lake Erie, though 
it is one of the most AA^idely distributed of our fresh-Avater fishes. Its 
range extends along the Atlantic seaboard from Connecticut as far 
south as Xorth Carolina ; thence to the northern portions of Ala- 
bama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Arkansas on the south, Avith Kansas, 
Nebraska, the Dakotas, and the Assiniboine RiA^er its western limits 
and the Hudson Bay its northern boundary, 

OA-er the greater part of this A'ast area it is fairly abundant, and 
in all of the AA^aters of the Great Lakes region, the Mississippi Basin, 
and the southern portion, at least, of the Hudson Bay system it is 
commercially important. In New Hampshire, Connecticut, NeAV 
Jersey, and eastern Pennsyh'ania it is not indigenous. Its adapt- 
ability to suitable new waters is shown by its acclimatization in the 
Susquehanna and DelaAAare RiA-ers in Pennsyh^ania and in many 
small lakes in Michigan, where it has multiplied rapidly and is a 
great favorite with anglers and epicures. 

The range of the sauger is less extensiA'e. It extends from the Red 
RiA'er of the north and the Assiniboine RiA^er through the Great 
Lakes region, Avest to the upper Missouri and south to Arkansas and 
Tennessee. 

ECONOMIC A'ALUE, FOOD AND GAME QUALITIES 

The pike perches are among the most A^aluable of the fresh-water 
fishes. The foUoAving table shows the number of pounds and the 
value of the pike perches taken in the Great Lakes region during 
1922 : 



Lake 



Superior- 
Michigan 

Huron 

St. Clair- 
Erie 



Pounds 



23,298 

132, 948 

1, 260, 374 

38, 620 

22, 357, 996 



Value 



$3,268 

21, 185 

171, 102 

5,741 

1, 285, 399 



Lake 



Ontario 

Lake of the Woods and 
Rainy Lake 

Total 



Pounds 



153,850 
831, 558 



24, 798, 644 



Value 



$29, 637 
71, 761 



1, 588, 093 



^ The blue pike pnrch has only recently been described as a distinct species, and its 
geographical distribution, habits, etc., have not as yet been definitely diflEerentiated from 
those of the yellow form. 



4 tr. S. BlTREAtf OF FISHERIES 

Throiifrboiit its range it is taken nearly the year round, and in 
spite of the zeal with which it is pursued, on account of its fine 
food qualities and the ease with which it is captured, it appears to be 
maintaining its numbers well, a condition that may be attributed, 
perhaps, to its hardiness and the facility with which it responds to 
artificial cultural methods. 

As a table article it ranks high. The smaller fish are delicious 
fried, broiled, or boiled, while the larger ones, weighing from 5 to 
15 pounds, are excellent when baked. The flesh is firm and well 
flavored, even in the warmest weather. Few fish stand shipment, 
holding, or freezing better than pike perch. It is not so well adapted 
to salting as some species, but this is not important, as the demand 
for it is so great that the supply is always disposed of fresh or 
frozen. The abdominal cavity is comparatively small and the head 
medium, so that little loss occurs in dressing. The bones are some- 
what numerous, but they are generally large and easily separated. 
The gray and yellow varieties are considered superior to the blue 
for food, and are also better game fish. 

The i^ike perch, although capricious, is readily caught with baited 
hook, artificial fly, spoon, etc., and deserves high rank as a game fish. 
About 100 tons are taken annually wnth hook and line through the 
ice about the Bass Islands, Lake Erie; large quantities are also 
thus caught near Buffalo, N. Y., in Saginaw Bay, Mich., and else- 
where. In ice fishing small minnows are generally used, the bait 
being taken near the bottom. 

FEEDING HABITS 

Although the pike perch is predaceous. observations would seem 
to show that it devours fewer desirable species than any other 
predatory fish. Its main food in Lake Erie the year round is a 
small cyprinoid, usually called lake shiner, wdiich abounds in these 
waters, with occasionally craAvfish in the winter and the larvae of 
insects and the insects themselves in the warmer months. A pike 
perch weighing IGi/o pounds has been caught containing a bullhead, 
which, in its partly digested condition, weighed 9 ounces. The 
stomachs of hundreds have been opened at all seasons of the year 
and under various conditions, and the examinations have as yet failed 
to disclose one containing a whitefish, black bass, or other valuable 
fish. Usually the stomach was empty, so far as the unassisted eye 
could discover, except for a thick, tough, greenish-yellow slime. 

The pike perch does not generally inhabit the depths of waters 
frequented by the black bass, preferring the deeper portions of the 
shallow parts of the lake. Excepting the blue-pike variety, it is not 
found in deep water, which is the home of the Avhitefish during all 
the year except for a short period in the fall during its reproductive 
migrations. And even the blue pike does not inhabit the deep waters 
where, the whitefish and cisco spend most of their lives. 

SPAWNING HABITS AND SPAWN-TAKING 

The pike perch is not a nest-builder, as are the basses, and sunfishes. 
The female discharges her spawn in shoal watert^, the male follow- 
ing and emitting milt in proximity to the eggs. The spawning time 



PTKES AND PIKE PERCH 5 

varies frreatly in dillVivnt localities, extentlin*:: from the last of 
jSIairh with the yellow and ^lay varieties to the latter part of May. 
The blue pike luis not been hatched by lish-culttirists, and compara- 
tively little is known of its spawning- habits. 

The work of collectin<»: e<i<2;s for artificial propat<ation generally 
be<>ins about the lOth of Aj^ril and extends to the 25th of that month. 
The eiiiis are oblainetl fic^n fish taken by commercial fishermen. 
Half or more of these are hatched into vi<>orous fry and deposited 
in i)ublic waters, and but for this work all the ejLjgs thus saved would 
go to the mai'ket in the abdomens of the fish and be entirely lost. 

The pike perch develoi^s a greater number of eggs in pi-oportion 
to its weight than the whitefish, and but a small percentage of them 
are fertilized under natural conditions. The eggs are 0.08 inch in 
diameter and average about 150,000 to a fluid quart. About 90,000 
eggs would probably be a fair average per fish for l^ake Erie, and 
as the spawning fish will average about 2 pounds each, 45,000 eggs 
to the pound weight of fish would approximate the true figures. 

As the spawning time approaches spawn-takers are stationed at 
the various points on the lake where nets are to be fished. A spawn- 
taker accompanies the fisherman on his trips to the nets and examines 
the catch for ripe fish. His equipment is the same as that for white- 
fish,* except that he takes a quantity of SAvamp muck or cornstarch 
for use in preventing adhesion of the eggs. After he has selected 
and stripped a fish, it is returned to the fisherman. The eggs, after 
being fertilized, are either shipped directly to the hatchery or to 
some central collecting station. 

The inner membranes of the egg are delicate and easily ruptured, 
and the greatest care is necessary, from the taking of the spawn to 
the hatching of the fry, and especially until they are cushioned by 
the filling of the m.embranes Avith water. 

The fish should be wiped so that slime will not drip into the spawn- 
ing pan, as a very small portion wnll clog the micropile and prevent 
impregnation. The female is grasped firmly in the left hand just 
forward of the tail, with the back of the hand downward, the fingers 
outward and the thumb above and pointing upward, the head of the 
fish being held between the spawm-taker's right wrist and body, the 
right hand grasping the fish from below, just back of the pectoral fins, 
the fingers inw^ard, the thumb outward. The anterior portion of the 
abdomen is thus firmly grasped and the pressure brought to bear on 
the eggs in the ovaries of the fish. A woolen mitten on the left hand 
allows a firmer grasp on the slippery body than is possible with the 
bare hand. The fish is now at an angle of 45°, the body forming a 
modified crescent, with the vent within 2 or 3 inches of the bottom of 
the pan. This position throws the pressure on the abdomen and 
facilitates the opening of the vent and the flow of the eggs. Gentle 
pressure is now maintained as long as the eggs come freely and in a 
fluid stream, probably over half of them being procured before the 
hand is moved, but when the flow slackens, and not until then, the 
hand should be moved slowdy toward the vent without releasing the 
pressure and only fast enough to keep the eggs flowing in a continu- 
ous stream. When this stops the hand should be replaced and the 

^Artificial Propagation of Whitefish, Grayling, and hake Trout. By Glen C. Leach. 
Appendix III, Report. U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1923 (1923). Bureau- of Fisherie.s 
Document No. 949, 32 pp., 42 figs, W^ashington. 



6 U, S, BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

process repeated until all the good eggs are procured. If the eggs 
do not start readily they should not be taken. 

As soon as one female is stripped the milt is added, care being taken 
all the time to allow no water in the pan until the lot is finished or 
until the pan is half or two-thirds full of eggs. If males are abun- 
dant one is stripped for each female, and one for every two or three 
females in any event. When the pan is about half full, and before 
any water is added, the eggs are very thoroughly and carefully 
stirred with the outstretched, spread fingers, enough water is added 
to cover the eggs nicely, the whole being mixed again with the fingers 
and allowed to stand for two minutes. Next the milt of one or two 
more males and a little water are added, the mixture is stirred as 
before, and again allowed to stand for five minutes. 

Impregnation can not take place unless the milt and eggs come into 
perfect contact, and as the milt dies two minutes after w^ater is added, 
and as the eggs will not become impregnated after having been in 
water six minutes, it can readily be seen that the egg^ and milt must 
be thoroughly and quickly mixed, both before and after the water is 
added. A tablespoonful of muck solution or cornstarch is now 
stirred into the mass and a pint of water added. The water is 
poured off after standing, and this process is repeated every half 
hour, as described on pages 15 and 16, 

After the adhesion has subsided the eggs are placed in a keg nearly 
fdled with water, and stirred every half hour, with a change of water 
at least every hour from the time the eggs are taken until they are 
delivered at the station. The stirring is thoroughly, but gently, done 
with a dipper, care being taken that the dipper does not strike the 
sides or bottom of the keg. 

The eggs should never be exposed to the sun, and the water sur- 
rounding newly taken eggs should preferably be kept between 40° 
and 50° F., though experience has shown that even 35° is not 
harmful. Of course, all sudden changes of temperature should be 
avoided. 

PENNING ADULT FISH FOR COLLECTION OF SPAWN 

The plan of holding, in pens or other inclosures, adult fish taken 
prior to the spawning season has been tried with some success. This 
may be done to insure a sufficient and definite number of spawners, 
the collection of which during the fishing season is frequently inter- 
rupted by stormy weather or other causes. The method is sometimes 
followed at collecting stations where commercial fishing for the 
species is not followed and where many of the fish taken for cultural 
purposes have not fully matured their sexual products. 

Contrary to expectation, pike perch proved more difficult to han- 
dle in this manner than most of the other species to which the 
method has been applied. Perhaps the higher water temperature 
at the time the work is conducted is an influence. The fish must not 
be crowded either while being transported or at any time during 
their confinement. Where injuries have occurred fungus is likely 
to set in much earlier than with the whitefish, and on this account 
great care is necessary in handling pike perch, as Avell as to prevent 
injury to eggs in the ovaries. AYhile the male whitefish can be held 



PIKES AND PIKK PERCH 7 

aiul usotl repeatedly for two or three days, the pike perch can be 
used but once. When hehl for several days, especially late in the 
season, the milt comes from the fish thickened, as if taken from a 
dead Hsh, and is far from bein<r at its best. However, this is true 
to a irreat extent with the lish taken fresh from the nets late in the 
season. Females that do not " ripen " within two or three days 
are likely not to fui-nish e^gs at all, and if held even two or three 
days late* in the season may yield eggs that will not hatch. 

At the Put in Bay (Ohio) station pike perch are obtained in the 
same manner as whitefish — from the pound nets of the fishermen. 
They are sometimes taken directly into the tanks on board the 
steamer from the pound when it is raised, but more often are dipped 
into supplemental nets by an employee of the bureau, who accom- 
panies the fishermen when the pound is lifted, and are held until 
they can be picked up at leisure by the steamer. This permits the 
gatherino; of fish from many nets, while if they were taken directly 
from the pound only one lifting boat could be followed at a time 
and comparatively few fish collected. The supplemental nets are 
placed at each .pound net where fish are expected. They are 3 feet 
in diameter and 7 feet in depth, and are held open at top and bottom 
by rings of half-inch iron, the bottoms being provided with pucker- 
ing strings to close them. The top ring is fastened to the outhaul 
stake and rim line of the pound, the lower one hanging free and 
acting as a weight to hold the end in place and also serving to keep 
the net open so that the fish will have plenty of room and not be 
scaled by chafing against the meshes. When thus located, the sup- 
plemental net is in a convenient position for receiving the fish when 
the pound is lifted. Rowboats transfer the fish in tubs to the 
steamer, where they are placed in tanks and transported to the pens. 
There they are counted and assorted as to ripeness. 

The pens or live boxes used in the pike-perch work are the same as 
those used for whitefish. Stationary live boxes, supported by piling 
have been used, but as the water at Put in Bay becomes too warm for 
this the boxes are now made so that they can be towed like a raft into 
open waters, where the current is more vigorous and the temperature 
more uniform. Another advantage gained by this method is that an 
equal depth of water is maintained in the live boxes, the rise and fall 
in this section varying from 4 to 5 feet in a single day, according to 
the direction and velocity of the wind and the atmospheric pressure. 
The boxes are 16 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet deep, divided into 
two equal compartments 8 feet square, provided with false bottoms 
controlled by standards running in guides at the ends. The stand- 
ards are pierced by inch holes at intervals of 6 inches, so that the 
false bottoms may be held at any desired place. 

The pens, in groups of five, are fastened, end on, between booms, 
and the whole thus forms a raft. The booms are made of 4 by 8 
hemlock joists, 2 feet apart on the outside, trussed at frequent inter- 
vals by diagonal cross braces and ties, on top of which are placed two 
tiers of 1-foot wide hemlock planks, thus making the booms, when 
completed, 52 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 1 foot deep, and quite strong 
and rigid, capable of withstanding seas of considerable violence. At 
38258°— 27 2 



8 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

each end and between all the crates are placed 2-foot plank walks, 
giving ample room for working on all sides, which is a great con- 
venience in handling fish and procuring eggs, especially in stormy 
weather. Tlie pens are now made of boards 3 inches wide, nailed 
11/4 inches apart, which gives sufficient space for free circulation of 
Avater. The lumber is dressed on all sides and all inside corners are 
rounded, as the fish injure their noses on square corners in their 
attempts to escape. All parts of the pens are interchangeable and 
easily taken down for storage, being held in place by 4-inch log bolts. 
The pens are fastened to the booms by log bolts 6 inches long. 

Much depends on the work of transporting either whitefish or pike 
perch from the nets to the pens, not only in moving the fish with the 
least possible injury but in the saving of time, so that gi'eater num- 
bers may be penned and the risk of holding the fish in the supple- 
mental nets may be minimized. Tow cars have been used, but they 
retard the speed of the steamer fully one-half, and tanks on the 
decks of the steamers have therefore been adopted. It is better to 
have several smaller tanks than one large one, as the fish can be 
dipped more readily from the small tanks and the water is not so 
violently agitated during rough weather. A convenient size is about 
6 feet long, 4 feet wide, ancl 3 feet deep. The tank has two lids, 
submerged about an inch, arranged to open crosswise of the center 
and held by lugs below and by pins above. The lids are made of 
3-inch boards nailed firmly upon cleats on the upper side, with 
about one-fourth-inch space intervening. This prevents slopping in 
any weather when fish should be handled. The tank is smooth and 
has no obstructions inside. A 2-inch hole at the bottom at one end 
is provided for drawing off water, and one of the same size is made 
within 3 inches of the top for an overflow, when fresh water is being 
added. Fresh water must be furnished, the amount varying with the 
number of fish. This can be supplied with a donkey pump, the hose 
being carried from one tank to another as required. With three 
tanks of the dimensions given above, six or seven hundred pike perch 
of average size can be transported. 

For coating these tanks inside, as well as all tanks and troughs 
about the hatchery, coal tar with about one-third its bulk of good 
spirits of tiu-pentine, free from benzine, is applied as hot as it can be 
made. Tliis forms a smooth, hard, strong, impervious coat, which 
lasts well and is cheaper than asphaltum varnish. 

The use of a proper dip net in handling the fish is of great impor- 
tance. The splitting of fins and removing of scales is to be avoided 
as far as possible where any species of fish is to be penned. The 
scales of the pike perch are not so easily abraded as those of the 
whitefish, but it suffers even more as the result of injuries, owing to 
the higher temperature of the water at the time it is penned. The 
ideal net would be made of cofferdam rubber of suitable thickness, 
]:)erforated at frequent intervals so as to permit the free discharge 
of the Avater — that is, a rubber net — but where many are necessarily 
in use and subject to rough handling, especially in freezing weather, 
their expense would be considerable. The hoop of the net used at 
the Put in Bay station is of three-eighths-inch spring steel wire, that 



PIKES AND PIKE PERCH 9 

InMUiT tho stifTost ami stronjrost material of its weight obtainable. It 
is hont in tho form of a parallelo<>:i-am 2*2 inches lono; and 20 inches 
wide, with I'ounded corners. This is fastened into an ash handle 
about 6 feet- lon<i:. The ba*; is of cider-press cloth (which is made 
of Iar<re, soft, twisted thread, loosel}'^ woven), with each alternate 
thread over a considerable space in the center of the net pulled out. 
The bag is fastened to the hoop with small copper wire, as twine is 
soon cut off in working aroimd the nets and pens. The bag of the 
net is 8 or 10 inches, for if much more is given it will let the fish 
form a pocket against the Avire and prevent an easy discharge. 

Netting of 1-inch mesh and large thread has proved to be a fail- 
ure, the tails of many fish being split by it. It is believed that net- 
ting with a very small mesh and the largest thread that can be 
woven will do the Avork well, the greatest objection being the knots, 
which injure tender sjDecies. 

A frame made like a stretcher, with gunny cloth tacked on in such 
a manner as to bag about 2 feet, is convenient for holding fish 
preparatory to spawn-taking. It should be about 6 feet long and 3 
feet wide, making the bag 3 by 4 feet, with handles 1 foot long at 
each end. 

A gate made of light stuff as long as the pens are wide (8 feet) 
and 2 feet deep, coA^ered by ordinary netting drawn taut and fas- 
tened by small staples, is useful in sorting the fish in the pens. The 
false bottom is lifted and fastened in place with the pins. There 
will now be about a foot of water over the floor and 1 foot of the 
top of the pen will be out of water. Beginning at one side, the gate 
is gently moA'ed along until the fish are all confined in a sufficiently 
restricted space. The}^ are sorted, the ripe fish placed in the 
" stretcher " preparatory to stripping them, the medium in a tub to 
be taken to the proper pen, and the hard fish, which, it is assumed, 
will be in the majority, are put back over the gate into the pen from 
which they were taken. 

The pens are numbered and a careful memorandum kept of the fish, 
the number of males and females received from and turned back to 
the fishermen each day, the number stripped, and the number in 
each pen. 

All unnecessary noise near the pens must be avoided, especially jars 
or discharge of firearms, and no one should go near them except in 
the performance of duty. The quieter fish are kept and the less and 
the more gently they are handled the greater the chances of procuring 
a large number of good eggs, while the opposite course will cause 
many '' plugged " females and failure generally. In transferring 
the fish from one net or receptacle to another it is preferable to handle 
only one at a time, except when they are small. 

Fish, particularly females, taken from a depth of from 30 to 35 
feet often come to the surface of the water in the pens and can not 
descend, owing to the expansion of air in the swimming bladder. 
The pressure may be relieved without injury by inserting a small- 
sized aspirating needle, at an angle of about 45°, through the flesh 
of the fish into the bladder, about half Avay between the middle of the 
spinous dorsal and the lateral line. The air can be heard escaping 
and when the sound ceases the needle may be removed. 



10 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



EGGS 
DEVELOPMENT AND CARE 



When the eggs arrive at the hatchery they are held in 15-gaIlon 
cans for about 24 hours, with a gentle stream of water flowing into 
each can, this being considered better practice than to place them at 
once in hatching jars, as the motion is too violent for the green eggs. 
AVhile thus held they are stirred every half hour. Kegs or cans, 
half filled with eggs, may be carried if properly cared for. 

For the handling of all eggs except those intended for shipment 
15-gallon pine kegs, painted on the outside, with iron hoops and iron 
drop handles, are preferred to tin cans at the Put in Bay (Ohio) 
station. They are cheaper and lighter than the cans, also more dur- 




FiG. 2. — rike-perch battery, I'ut in Bay, Ohio 



able and convenient. The eggs are in full view when being stirred 
and when water is poured off or added. The most important point, 
however, is that the kegs retain the water at a more even tempera- 
ture, being less affected by heat and cold than are the cans. All 
dishes and implements with which the eggs come in contact should 
be thoroughly scalded and cleaned at the beginning and at the close 
of each egg-taking season. 

For hatching pike-perch eggs, the open-top Downing or Chase 
jar generally is used. After the eggs have remained in the cans or 
tubs for the required length of time, as previously mentioned, they 
are measured into the jars by means of a dipper. The jar is first filled 
with water and a shallow funnel, with an outlet extending well into 
the water, is inserted, so that the water will stand as high in the 
funnel throat as possible. In this way the eggs are not subjected to 
a fall from the dipper to the jar. 



PIKES AND PIKE PERCH 



11 



The jars are then phiced on the battery. Tin tubes are inserted 
in the jars and connected with faucets that supply the water by 
rubber tubes. For convenience and economy of space and water, 
the hatching jars are arran<!:ed in tiers, constituting what is known 
as a battery. A Downing jar in operation and one showing tlie 
coUecting tanks and battery at the Put in Bay (Ohio) hatchery 
are shown in Figures 2 and 3. 

The troughs of the battery usually are constructed of white pine 
or cypress P/o inches thick. If it is necessary to make the troughs 
longer than the usual cuts of lumber the joints should be squarely 
butted, and these and all other joints in the troughs should be put 
together with white lead. At the splice a patch is placed on the 
inside of each trouirh and screwed to the two ends, white lead being 




Fig. 3. — General view of pike-perch batcliery, showing method of removing fry from tanks 

used freely underneath. The ends of the troughs are rabbeted in 
place, and the side pieces are nailed to the bottom. At one end of 
each trough, in the bottom, is a fi/^-inch hole supplied with a plug, 
for 'use in cleaning the troughs. At the alternate ends of each 
trough, commencing at the top, is a saw cut li^ inches deep and 6 
inches wide, into which is fitted a galvanized iron or tin overflow 
spout to conduct water to the trough next below. The length of 
the troughs varies according to the size of the battery. Their inside 
dimensions are IOI/2 inches deep and 8 inches wide. 

At the proper distance apart, along the sides of the troughs, are 
holes for the wooden faucets; for ease in manipulating the jars 
these holes should be 7^/4 inches on centers and 3 inches above the 
inside bottom of the trough. The best faucets are the Crandell with 
the tin key. The faucet is connected with the tin tube by a piece 
of rubber tube 8 or 10 inches long and one-half inch in diameter. 
The tin tube is seven-eighths inch in diameter and 20 inches long; 



12 V. S. BUREAU OP FISHERIES 

three short legs are soldered to the lower end to hold the tube above 
the bottom of the glass jar. 

The troughs are placed one above another at a proper distance to 
accommodate the type of jar 'used. They are held together by a 
support made of 4 by 4 inch timbers, so placed that a row of six 
jars can be accommodated between each set of stanchions. At the 
Put in Bay hatchery there are six rows of jars, making 36 jars be- 
tween each set of stanchions. This type employs the stagger sys- 
tem in placing the jars on the battery, by which method each jar 
of the top row supplies the jar immediately underneath. The 
troughs are held together in the stanchions by one-half inch bolts, 
Avith nuts and washers at each end, which also act as supports to 
the trough. 

Beginning at the top trough, the water supply enters one end and 
supplies each jar on the top row, which in turn discharge into the 
trough next below. The surplus water passes through the tin over- 
flow at the opposite end and into trough No. 2, wliich projects from 
8 to 10 inches beyond the top trough at one end. This alternate 
S5^stem is continued until the water finally is conducted into the 
receiving tank situated at the end of the battery. 

This tank is 24 inches deep, 3 feet wide, and of sufficient length 
to receive the water from two batteries. Provision is made at one 
end of the tank for a screen and an overflow for the diversion of 
part of the water. The water remaining passes into a series of fry 
tanks arranged at right angles to the receiving tank, connection 
between them and the fry tanks being made by means of a 2-inch 
pipe set 1 foot beloAv the surface of the water and provided with a 
stopcock. At the Put in Bay hatchery four fry tanks, set in series 
of two. receiA'e their water supply from the retaining tank. Each fry 
tank is j^rovided with a screen near its lower end, and a similar con- 
nection is made between the fry tank and the receiving tank. The 
fry tanks are 24 inches high, 3 feet wide, and usually 16 feet long. 

Pike-perch eggs are lighter than many others, and as they hatch 
in comparatively warm water they become fungused very soon 
after death. The hatchery water supply, therefore, should be clear. 
If it contains any considerable amount of sediment the defective 
eggs soon will become so loaded with it* that they will attain the 
same specific gravity as the living ones and sink in the egg mass, 
forming lumps that can be removed only by screening, which is 
always more or less injurious. Even the live eggs w^ill become coated 
with it, interfering with the proper working of the jars. Where 
clear water is used, the fungused eggs remain buoyant, float on top 
of the egg mass, and can be removed easily without loss or injury 
to the living ones. 

With a water temperature above 55° F., and a moderately turbid 
water supply, it is difficult to maintain a proper circulation in the 
jars. I"^nder such conditions fungus develops on the dead eggs so 
rapidly that it is impossible to prevent their mixing to some extent 
w4th the good eggs. The small percentage of living eggs contained 
in the mass of dead ones must then be drawn off and either planted 
in suitable outside waters or held in separate jars, known in fish- 
cultural ])arlance as hospital jars, until incubation is completed, only 
a comparatively small number of eggs being placed in each jar. 



PIKES AND PIKK PKRCIt 13 

In order to secure perfect cleanliness, it is advisable, once or twice 
a year, to treat the Avhole system of troughs and pipes through 
which the water runs with a clear solution of chloride of lime, 
befrinning with the su])ply tanks, which should be washed thor- 
oughly inside, and following down until all have been cleansed, 
opening each faucet or cock during the procedure. In this way the 
system is freed at small expense from Infusoria and other forms, 
which at times are very troul)les()me and more or less destructive 
to the eggs. This work should be done just before whitefish eggs are 
to be placed in the jars in the fall, and again in the spring as soon 
as the whitefish eggs and fry are all disposed of and before the 
pike-perch eggs are received. If these periods overlap, one battery 
at a time can be treated. After treatment the tanks must be w^ashecl 
thoroughly and the whole system flushed for an hour or more. For 
this purpose chloride of lime is much more effective than common 
lime. The preparation is made by dissolving 5 pounds of chloride 
of lime in 10 gallons of water, and after it has settled the clear solu- 
tion is decanted and added to approximately ten times its bulk. 

When the eggs are placed in the jars 24 hours after taking, allow- 
ance is made for some additional swelling. Accordingly 3i/^ quarts 
of eggs are placed in each jar upon setting them up. These will 
swell to 4 or 41/0 quarts at the end of three days, and this is the 
amount that can be worked to best advantage. The eggs are manip- 
ulated with the least possible amount of water that will keep them in 
motion throughout. More than this is harmful and will cause rup- 
tured yolks. The jars are inspected daily, and any that are working 
too fast or irregularly are adjusted. 

The eggs are semibuoyant and very adhesive. A single, large, 
spherical oil drop floats at the top of the yolk mass. The germinal 
disk is on the side of the yolk. The first cleavage of the disk ordi- 
narily takes j)lace in five or six hours in a water temperature of 
45° to 50° F. Unequal division of the disk is rare, though it some- 
times occurs, while with the whitefish and many other species 
inequality of cleavage is the almost universal rule. 

In a water temperature of 45° to 50° the fonii of the embryo may 
be distinguished under a low-power magnifying glass within four 
days, and at the end of the sixth day the eye spots usually can be seen 
b}^ the unassisted eye. By this time the pigment cells or color stars 
also may be seen with a microscope of low power, as well as the pul- 
sations of the heart and the coursing of the blood through the vessels, 
the red corpuscles being distinguishable. 

At this stage any monstrosities, malformations, and other deform- 
ities may be discovered easily. These consist of embryos with 
double heads (the most common form), more than the normal number 
of eyes, curved spines, and various others, some so slight as to be 
scarcely discernible. 

The eggs hatch in from seven days at a mean water temperature 
of about 57° to 28 days at about 40°. At a temperature of about 
48° the eggs will hatch in 18 to 20 days and produce vigorous, 
healthy fry. 

As the fry of the pike perch are about three-sixteenths inch in 
length, very fine brass-wire cloth is required to hold them in the 
tanks. The screens in use at the several pike-perch hatcheries are 



14 tJ. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

made of brass-wire cloth, 60 meshes to the inch, tacked to a heavy 
frame. The cloth is pulled very tight before being fastened, so 
that it will present a smooth surface to the air or water jets. Tlie 
screens should never be painted. The screen frames are held in 
place by bolts that pass through the frames and into the projecting 
cleats in the trough. 

It is exceedingly important that these screens be kept clear of the 
accumulation of egg shells and impurities in the water. This is 
accomplished preferably by means of air jets, although at some sta- 
tions water jets are used. The air jet can easily be arranged for by 
installing an air pump and carrying the connecting pipe along the 
side of each tank on the inside of the screen, thence at right angles 
parallel to the screen and about 1 inch distant from it. Half-inch 
galvanized iron pipe is used in the construction of air jets. The 
cross pipe should be perforated on one side with holes one-thirty- 
secondth inch in diameter and 3 inches apart, the perforations open- 
ing toward the screen and upward at an angle of about 45°. When 
the air is turned on an apparently solid mass of bubbles will rise 
along the whole surface of the screen. 

With such an arrangement the screen will need no attention for 
hours or even days at a time, whereas without air jet one or more 
men must be employed to keep the screen clear. Moreover, many of 
the fry are unavoidably killed by being forced against the screens 
and by the men in keeping the screens free. The thorough aeration 
of the water indirectly accomplished by use of the air jet is very 
beneficial when large numbers of fry are passing over, and twice as 
many can be handled in troughs thus equipped. 

The construction of a Avater jet is very similar to that described 
above except that a somewhat larger pipe is used and the holes in 
the cross pipe are larger. The water-jet system for keeping screens 
clear is not considered as efficient as is the air jet, one of the princi- 
pal objections being that it adds more Avater in the trough without 
materially increasing the aeration. 

The absorption of the food sac is governed by the period of incu- 
bation and by the water temperature. If 28 days have been required 
the sac will be absorbed in from five to six days, while if a shorter 
period, say 14 days, has been required approximately 10 days will 
elapse before the sac has disappeared entirely. Within a day or tAvo 
after its complete absorption cannibalism Avill begin. 

PREVENTING COHESION 

Many experiments have been made from time to time to determine 
the best means for overcoming the tendency of pike perch eggs to 
cohere. This may be accomplished by stirring the eggs constantly 
from the time water is added until it fills the egg, Avhen cohesion 
ceases. Time is lost, however, and a large percentage of the yolks 
inevitably are ruptured. Another method is to alloAv the eggs to 
agglutinate and stand thus until fully Avater-hardened, afterwards 
separating them by gently rubbing betAveen the hands ; but this also 
sacrifices time. 

The date of the first use of foreign inert substances to prevent 
cohesion is uncertain. Fine clay dust and clay in solution have been 



PIKES AND PIKE PERCH 15 

used with success, and experiments with starch also have given good 
results. In each case the action is entirely mechanical. Having 
been found elective, cornstarch probably is more generally resorted 
lo than any other substance, and most fish-culturists find it satisfac- 
tory and readily obtainable. Silt or swamp muck is strongly recom- 
mended for this purpose by the supei'intendent of the bureau's Put 
in Bay (Ohio) station. The following is his description of the 
method employed by him in its preparation and use : 

In the spriug of 1895 finely divided, washed, and screened swamp muck was 
tried at Put iu Bay and has been used ever since, and recently with complete 
success, owing to a ch:injie in the method of application. The plan pursued 
up to 1899 was to add uuick to the water in the kegs into which the eggs were 
poured after impregnation, and to wash them quickly. The washing was done 
quickly in order to prevent cohesion. This was effective, but it involved the 
use of too much muck, which was removed from the water with some difficulty 
and which smothered the eggs if left in too long in any quantity. Further- 
more, it was ditficult to get exactly the right quantity of the mixture. Careful 
experiments were therefore made in using the muck in the pan immediately 
after impregnation had taken place, and satisfactory results were obtained. 
At the present time the eggs are allowed to stand in the milt for about 10 
minutes, with sufficient water barely to cover them, and are carefully stirred 
once or twice in the meantime. Then a tablespoonful of the muck mixture, 
of tlie consistency of thick cream, is added. Next the pan is nearly filled with 
water and the contents thoroughly stirred. It is then allowed to remain un- 
disturbed for half an hour while another pan is being filled. Without moving 
pan No. 1 more than is necessary, the surplus water is poured off, the pan 
again filled, stirred, and left as before, while pan No. 2 is treated like the 
first. If the boat rocks so as to endanger the safety of the eggs it is better 
to pour them carefully into the keg and let them stand there, keeping only 
about an inch of water over them and pouring the water off and adding fresh 
water at intervals of not more than half an hour. 

The important thing in preventing cohesion is to leave the eggs undisturbed 
until the particles of muck or the spermatozoa, in case the eggs are held in 
the milt witliout the addition of muck, have settled. The comparatively clear 
water is then poured off and a fresh supply added, at which time the eggs 
are gently agitated. It will be observed that most of the muck particles will 
have settled in one minute, the water becoming measurably clear. If the eggs 
are held in the milt, the water being very milky from the mixture, the water 
will become comparatively clear in three or four minutes. This is because 
the spermatozoa are slightly heavier than the water and settle to the bottom. 
In either case it is important to retain the particles in the remaining water 
and eggs until cohesion has ceased, in order to keep the eggs separated, for 
although the particles of muck or the si>ermatozoa, as the case may be, are 
adhei-ent, sticking to the surface of the egg, they are easily washed off, thus 
permitting the eggs to come into contact and become fastened together. Aside 
from the washing off, the area of the egg membrane becomes constantly 
greater, removing the particles farther and farther from each other until 
finally the .surfaces meet and cohesion takes place. This will not occur if the 
muck particles or the milt are left until cohesion has ceased or until the egg 
has become virtually filled with water — that is, has finished swelling. 

While the eggs are soft and not cushioned by the absorption of water, the 
greatest care possible will not prevent the rupture of a considerable percentage 
of the sacs where the old method of constant working to prevent cohesi((n is 
pursued. By holding the eggs iu the milt — which is better than the old way 
and requires less labor, but is not to be compared with the muck process — or 
by using muck, with reasonable care in all other directions, the loss may be 
measurably reduced. 

The preparation of the muck solution is very simple, but should be carefully 
conducted, as follows : 

At a suitable place in a swamp a depression is dug, whicli quickly fills with 
water. Muck is now susi^ended in this water by thorough Ideating and stirring 
until most of the muck particles are freely divided. Care is taken not to get 



Ig U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

the mixture too thick, as the sand will not settle out, nor can the mixture be 
screened freely. This is poured through a screen placed across a washtub 
until the tub Is full, when the debris is knocked off the top of the screen and 
another tub is filled. The partially clear water is poured oif of tub No. 1, 
it is again filled with muck, and this is continued until there are a few quarts 
of muck of the consistency of cream in the bottom of the tubs. The tubs are 
next filled with water, which is agitated thoroughly, and then allowed 
to stand a few seconds to give the particles of sand time to settle. The 
contents of the tubs are then emptied into kegs or cans, when the water may 
be poured off in an hour or more. This leaves quite a thick mixture of even 
consistency, as shown under the microscope. It should be free from sand, 
which would collect in patches in the bottom of tlie jars and interfere with 
the working of the eggs. 

It is very necessary that the muck be now thoroughly cooked or scalded, 
otherwise Infusoria will develop on the eggs, causing much inconvenience and 
some loss. Finally, the muck is drained off, dried in any desired form, and 
held ready for use. It should be prepared before the egg-collecting season 
begins. The screen is about 20 by 30 inches and is made by tacking to a 
wooden frame a fine wire cloth of 40 meshes to an inch. The finest mesh that 
will let small particles of muck through is best. The cloth is bagged down 
somewhat, with the tack heads up, in order to present a smoother surface for 
the quick cleaning of the screen. 

MORTALITY 

With most species of fish that have been propagated artificially 
it is possible to secure a high percentage of fertile eggs, and the loss 
during incubation is slight. Under ordinary conditions such losses 
are frequently, perhaps generally, less than 10 per cent. The eggs 
of the pike perch are an exception, and most fish-culturists no doubt 
woidd agree that a 50 per cent hatch is a successful one. 

This phase of fish culture frequently has been made the ground 
for investigation, but in all fairness it may be said that it has 
received but little detailed study and that no definite conclusion 
as to the causes of the unusually high death rate has ever been 
reached. The first cause of the remarkable mortality has been very 
generally ascribed by practical fish-culturists to failure of the eggs 
to fertilize, rather than to death of the eggs in the course of develop- 
ment. The assumption has been that a properly fertilized egg in- 
variably would segment and develop normally, but this assumption 
has not been supported by certain investigations. 

The methods of handling the brood fish and eggs are, in the main, 
very much alike at all stations where the pike perch is propagated. 
The less important details may vary to suit varying conditions or 
to meet the whims of the individual fish-culturist. It is highly 
probable that the admittedly crude but thus far unavoidable pro- 
cedure of adding and actively stirring foreign matter with the eggs 
to prevent cohesion results in their injury, and the necessity for the 
utmost care in the application of this treatment can not be emj^ha- 
sized too strongly. Franz Schrader and Sally Hughes Schrader,'^ 
investigators for the Bureau of Fisheries, seem to disprove the 
theory that failure of imj^regnation is a direct cause of any large 
percentage of loss among pike-perch eggs. 

These investigators point out that in the artificial insemination of 
the pike perch the eggs are immersed in milt that is but slightly 

E Mortality in Pike-Peroh Eggs in Ilatfherles. By Franz Schrader and Sally Hughes 
Schrader. Appendix V, Report U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries for 1922. Bureau of 
Fisheries Document No. 920, 11 pp., 23 flgs. Washington, 1922. 



PTKES AND PIKE PERCH 17 

diluted. The chance of a normal ripe egg remaining unfertilized 
therefore must be extremely small. Their studies further tend to 
show that failure of the eggs to se<rment is not necessarily related 
to lack of impregnation. They hold that it is impossible, even after 
8 hours, to designate eggs as unfertilized when the absence of seg- 
mentation is taken as a criterion. The conclusions reached by these 
investigators may be summarized as follows: 

The generally* accepted theory that the high death rate in pike- 
perch eggs is due to lack of impregnation is unwarranted. The 
present methods of preventing cohesion of the eggs are responsible 
for a portion, but not all, of the losses. Approximately 50 per cent 
of the losses that occur in the eggs during incubation are due to 
the same agency that manifests itself in abnormal development. 
The cause in all probability is to be found in the practice of retaining 
adult fish in artificial inclosures for the development of eggs and 
sperm. 

TRANSPORTATION^ 

Shipment of pike-perch eggs a great distance can not be made 
successfully owing to the short incubation period. For short-dis- 
tance shipments, as from a field or collecting station to the main 
station, the eggs ordinarily are carried in kegs or cans of water. 

Where long distances are involved, the conventional shipping case 
or some modification of it is used, the eggs being spread in thin 
layers on trays, which are then stacked in a suitable container. The 
fundamental advantage of the case is that it gives sufficient insula- 
tion to maintain the eggs at an even temperature throughout the 
journey and protects them from any severe shock or concussion. 

The egg trays in general use are 14 inches square inside and are 
constructed of material three-fourths inch thick by seven-eighths 
inch wide, the bottoms being covered with linen scrim or heavy 
cheesecloth. The egg cases are constructed of %-inch pine lum- 
ber and are built large enough to accommodate the tray and an 
inner compartment, in which the trays are placed. This inner com- 
partment has a 2-inch space between it and the outer case, which is 
filled with ground cork or other suitable insulating material. An air 
space of one-half inch is provided between the stack of trays and the 
inner compartment, also, the trays being held in place by means 
of a %-inch strip nailed in the middle of all four sides of the 
compartment. 

In packing a shipment of eggs the trays are thoroughly soaked in 
cold w^ater. The proper amount of eggs is then measured upon each 
tray, these having previously been covered with mosquito bar several 
inches wider than their outside dimensions. The eggs are carefully 
distributed over the surface of the tray, and the mosquito bar is 
brought in and lapped over the top of the eggs. Unless the ship- 
ments is to be in transit for a day or more it is not necessary to use 
moss. When moss is used it is placed betw^een the eggs and the 
wooden frame of the tray, and frequently some of it is scattered 
over the top of the eggs, the mosquito bar preventing it from com- 
ing in direct contact with the eggs. The best moss for this purpose 
is known as sphagnum. It is well soaked in water before placing it 



18 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

upon the trays and the surplus water removed by squeezing a bunch 
of it between the hands. 

When packed, the trays of eggs are placed upon a tray filled with 
moss, the upper tray of eggs also being covered with a tray of moss. 
The entire stack is then covered with an ice hopper, preferably of 
galvanized iron and with small drainage holes along the outer edge 
of bottom. Best results will be had if a block of ice, rather than 
chopped ice, is fitted into the ice hopper. 

PLANTING THE FRY 

In order to prevent loss from the fry preying upon each other, 
whenever practicable they should be planted before the sac is fully 
absorbed, but not for three or four days after hatching, since if they 
are so held they, gain strength, and if they are to be transported 
some distance they become better fitted to withstand the hardships 
of a long journey. But with large numbers, running into hundreds 
of millions, lack of space makes it necessary to liberate them almost 
as fast as hatched. Darkening the tanks prevents cannibalism, but, 
owing to the absence of food and possibly to the darkness, the fry 
become weak and light colored in a day or two and will not stand 
transportation. They must, therefore, be transported before the 
sac is fully absorbed or large numbers will be lost by either canni- 
balism or starvation. 

During the season of 1899 the water pumped from the lake for 
the supply of the fry tanks at the Put in Bay station literally teemed 
with Crustacea, such as Cyclops, Diaptomus, Daphnia, Alonopsis, 
etc., but at first, after the food sac was absorbed, the fry refused 
to partake of these, their supposed natural food, and preyed on each 
other instead. Three or four days later, however, a few hundred 
fry held for experimental purposes devoured these Crustacea greed- 
ily and throve upon them as long as the supply lasted. When can- 
nibalism was at its height 50 fry were placed in a tin pan with 
myriads of Crustacea. In 10 minutes there were six cases of canni- 
balism. In each case one of the fry seized the tail of another and 
sw^allowed all it could. Close watching failed to discover any of 
these fry attempting to seize one of the Crustacea. It was also 
discovered that neither the fry of the whitefish nor of the pike perch, 
when later they began to feed on the Crustacea, would touch a 
Diaptomus, although the most showy of all the Entomostraca 
present and resembling very strongly the Cyclops, with which it is 
closely related. When a hungry fry would, as if by accident, seize 
a Diaptomus it would at once reject it and go about showing un- 
mistakable signs of discomfort. Contrary to the general belief, the 
fry do not always die from the effects of eating other fry. The 
swallowed portion may be digested and the head and attached tis- 
sues finally rejected. 

It has been customary to employ the same method in planting 
pike-perch fry as in planting whitefish fry; that is, the fry are 
dipped from the fry tanks of the hatching battery into cans or kegs 
and transported on a steamer to the points selected, where the cans 
are lowered into the water and the young fish allowed to swim out. 



PIKES AND PIKE PERCH 19 

Towaril tlic c'loso of the season of 18!)9 an experiment was made 
of cariTinji" fry to the i)lantin<j: ^rounds in a tank on board the 
steamer. The tanlv hehl 400 "za lions, and was therefore e(iual in 
capacity to forty 10-<2:allon cans; but it was found in practice that 
a half more fry could be carried in this way, with a giv^en amount 
of water, than in cans, as there was a continual stream going in 
through hose connected with a deck pump and out through screened 
siphons, whereas with cans some must stand while the water in 
othei's is being changed. Moreover, it is impossible to get a maxi- 
mum number of fry in each can, so that some cans are carried with 
fewer fry than they should contain, while experience soon taught 
how many could be handled safely in the tank. 

The fry were drawn from the fry tanks in the house direct to the 
tank on the steamer through a 1-inch rubber hose acting as a siphon, 
the suction end being held near the air supply, where fry collect in 
largest numbers. This required 10 to 15 minutes, while by the old 
method of dipping the fry into tubs and then distributing them into 
the kegs on board it would have taken more than an hour. This 
saving of time is very important when fry are hatching rapidly. 
Another advantage is that by passing the hose about close to the bot- 
tom of the tank nearly all the shells are removed with the fry, thus 
keeping the tanks comparatively clean. Examinations showed that 
the fry were not injured by passing through the hose, which is also 
an advantage over dipping them out with scoops. 

On arriving at the field of planting, the fry and water are dis- 
charged through a section of hose about 10 feet long, leading from 
the bottom of the tank. The steamer is kept at a slow speed at the 
time, and the transfer of the fry to the water is accomplished as 
gently, at least, as would be the case in emptying them from kegs. 
Considerable time, as well as much hard work, is saved by this 
plan, and so far there appears to be no objectionable features in it. 

YELLOW PERCH 
DESCRIPTION AND RANGE 

The yellow perch {Perca favesceiis) is one of the best known and 
most abundant fresh-w^ater fishes of the Atlantic and North Central 
States. It is one of the most strikingly marked of our common 
fresh-water fishes, though, like all fishes, it is subject to wide varia- 
tion in color and markings. The general body color is golden yel- 
low, the back greenish, and the belly pale. On the sides six or 
eight dark, broad vertical bars usually extend from the back to 
below the axis of the body, but, as stated, the colors and markings 
are greatly influenced by its environment. Sometimes the yellow 
is very bright, at other times pale; the bars are prominent in cer- 
tain instances and indistinct in others. There is at times a cop- 
pery, reddish, or purple wash on the head and sides. The lower 
fins are largely red or orange, and in breeding males these colors 
frequently are brilliant. Some of the various names by which the 
fish is designated are American perch, raccoon perch, red perch, ring 
perch, and striped perch. It may attain a length of 10 to 14 inches 



20 



U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHERIES 



and a weight of 1 to 2 pounds, though the average is probably 
somewhat lower. 

The natural range of the yellow perch is from Nova Scotia to 
North Carolina in coastwise waters and throughout the Great Lakes 
region and the upper Mississippi Valley. It is primarily a fish of 
small lakes and ponds but is also found in streams in many parts 
of its habitat. Through the agency of man it has been successfully 
transplanted in nonindigenous waters and its geographic range thus 
greatly extended. At the present time it inhabits various lakes in 
Washington, California, and other western States, and is also found 
in the Ohio River. 




Fig. 4. — Perca flavescens. Yellow perch 



FOOD AND GAME QUALITIES 

The food qualities of the yellow perch are not surpassed by those 
of any of the fresh- water, spiny-rayed fislies with which it is usually 
classed. The flavor and texture of the flesh of all fishes, particu- 
larly the fresh- water species, vary with the environment. No fish 
can attain its highest excellence as to either food or game qualities 
in warm, sluggish, turbid waters. Taken from the clear, cool waters 
of a deep lake or pond, the flesli of the yellow perch will compare 
favorably with that of either species of black bass, the rock bass, or 
the pike perch. 

As a game fish the yellow perch has much to recommend it. Its 
small size precluded its being a great fighter, and because of this it 
may be taken by even the most inexperienced fisherman. It may be 
captured with hook and line at almost any season of the year and 
with any sort of bait. It will rise freely on occasion to the artificial 
fly or trolling spoon, and if angled for in cold, clear water at a depth 
of 25 to 40 feet a 1-pound fisli will make a fight that is well worth the 
time of the angler. Perhaps its most commendable feature is that it 
afiords sport to women and children, who are often not sufficiently 
venturesome to seek the larger species of game fishes. Many inland 
summer resorts are rendered more attractive because the women and 
children find themselves able to bring in good strings of delicious 
yellow perch. 



PIKES AND PIKK PERCH 21 

COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE 

Throufrhout most of its riiii<re the yellow perch occupies an im- 
portant place in the connnercial nshei-ies and is hi<2;hly esteemed. 
From the (freat Lakes, the Potomac liiver, and the smaller lakes of 
the upper INlississippi Valley large quantities are taken every year 
by means of fyke nets, gill nets, trajxs, seines, and lines and find a 
i-eady market. The annual catch approximates 5,70(),0()0 pounds, 
valued at $384,000, about 86 per cent being credited to the Great 
Lakes. 

SPAWNING SEASON AND CHARACTER OF EGGS 

The spawning season of the yellow perch occurs on a rising water 
temperature in late summer or early spring. In the Potomac Kiver 
this fish spawns in February, March, or April, depending upon 
climatic conditions. The eggs, which are of a light color and semi- 
transparent, are remarkable from the fact that when deposited they 
are joined together in a greatly elongated, ribbonlike mass. One 
end of the mass, corresponding to the anterior end of the roe, is 
larger than the other end and bluntly forked. The length of the 
string varies from 2 to 7 feet, depending upon the size of the fish, 
but it may be much compressed lengthw^ise because of its arrange- 
ment in regular transverse folds, like the sides of a bellows. Upon 
deposition the eggs are in loose, globular form, but after being fer- 
tilized and water-hardened the mass becomes many times larger 
than the parent fish. It is recorded that a female yellow perch under 
observation in an aquarium deposited a string 88 inches long, 4 inches 
wide at one end, and 2 inches wide at the other. The w^eight of this 
mass after fertilization was 41 ounces avoirdupois, while the w^eight 
of the fish shortly before it had spawned was only 24 ounces. 
Throughout the entire length of the string there is a cavity, its 
walls being formed by the delicate membrane surrounding the eggs. 
Small apertures occur in this column at irregular intervals, their 
purpose apparently being to permit the free circulation of water to 
facilitate incubation. 

At the Cape Vincent (N. Y.) hatchery, where a careful count 
was conducted, a quart of green eggs was found to number approxi- 
mately 100.000, while the number per quart, after being fully swollen, 
was reduced to 36.000. These figures can not be adopted as standard, 
however, since there is a wade variation in the size of the eggs taken 
in different regions. 

The incubation period in a mean water temperature of 47° F. covers 
about 27 days. The egg sac is absorbed in about five days. 

ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION 

The source of egg supply of this species consists principally of 
adult fish procured from market fishermen and allowed to spawn 
naturally in tanks of running water or in floating boxes or pens. 
These boxes are made of seven-eighths-inch material and are about 
8 feet long, 4 feet Avide, and 4 feet deep. In their construction a 
solid board, to form the bottom, is fastened to four corner posts. 



22 U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHEKIES 

The lowest of the tiers of boards that form the sides and ends of a 
box are nailed close against the bottom, but a 1-inch space is left 
between the remaining boards. In a stream that has an appreciable 
current it is advisable to cover the sides and ends of the boxes with 
wire cloth five meshes to the inch to prevent the eggs being washed 
through the openings. 

During flood in many rivers and streams strings of yellow-perch 
eggs may be found suspended from sticks and bushes along the 
banks. As the waters recede the eggs are exposed to the elements 
and soon die. Large quantities of eggs are collected annually from 
such places in the Missisquoi River in Vermont and are incubated in 
the bureau's Swanton (Vt.) hatchery. 

At the Bryans Point (Md.) hatchery on the Potomac River and at 
some other stations of the bureau where the propagation of yellow 
perch is conducted two methods are employed in developing the eggs, 
the one in more general use being to incubate them in jars similar to 
those used in the hatching of whitefish eggs. Owing to the great 
tendency of yellow-perch eggs to swell, and to their lightness as com- 
pared with the eggs of shad or whitefish, it has been found advisable 
to apportion them in jars at the rate of only about 2 quarts to a jar. 
In some instances a wire screefi of fine mesh is placed in the overflow 
of the jars. Great care must be exercised in regulating the floAv of 
water in the jars, as the current caused by too much Avater will force 
the eggs to the top, where they will either clog the outlet screen or, 
in the absence of a screen, will pass out into the fry trough. 

At several of the hatcheries wire hatching baskets suspended in 
a neighboring river or stream, are successfully used lor the incuba- 
tion of yellow-perch eggs. These baskets are cylindrical, about 15 
inches in diameter and 20 inches long. They are made of fine-mesh 
wire cloth and are provided with a hinged door having a catch or 
lock, to guard against loss of eggs during incubation. About 3 
quarts of eggs are placed in each basket, the door is fastened, and the 
basket is suspended in the water by means of floats or stakes. 

A simple float, in a stream that is subject to sudden changes in 
water level, is made of a 2-inch plank, 12 inches wide and from 10 
to 12 feet long, into which nails have been driven alternately at 
intervals of 1 foot on each side. After tying the baskets to the nails 
the plank is anchored in a suitable spot w^here there is no danger of 
the baskets touching the bottom. The apparatus should be inspected 
by an attendant at least once a day, and each basket gently raised 
and lowered several times to free the eggs from adhering sediment. 

PIKES 
DESCRIPTION 

The muskellunge, pike, and pickerels are all pikes in a generic 
sense. There are other fishes belonging to entirely different families 
and, therefore, structurally different and distinct from the true 
pikes, which, unfortunately, have the local names of pike and 
pickerel. The most common species thus designated belong to the 
perch family. The spinous dorsal fin possessed by these fishes 
readily distinguishes them from the true pikes. They are more 
properly designated as pike perch, wall-eyed pike, sauger, etc. The 



riKF.S AND PIKE PERCH 



23 



" pilce " part of these names, however, sio;nifies only a resemblance, 
yet in certain localities the i:»ike perch is called "pike" and in others 
'"jMckerel." Tliis is alt()<2:other iinfoi'tunate, as it has caused regret- 
table confusion, particuhirly in compilin*):: statistics of the fisheries. 
The true pikes are characterized by having a rather long, broad, 
flattish snout; a large mouth extending about halfway the length 
of the head; the lower jaw is longer, and both jaws are ]:)rovided 
with broad bands of teeth, which are coarse and rough, like wool 







Fig. 5. — Esox nmsquinonijti. Muskalonge 




-/' s* 




•^^^^ 



Fig. G. — Fjkox luchis. Pike 



mmmmmm 





Fig. 7. — Es-ox (Ii'c'niiliiiedtii'' 



rickci-. 



cards, and more or less movable. The dorsal and anal fins are situ- 
ated near the tail and are similar and opposite. The ventral fins 
are abdominal. 

The preceding characters serve to distinguish the pikes from the 
pike perches, and the following will distinguish them from all other 
fishes having abdominal ventral fins. 

Body with ordinary scales; back without adipose fin but with a 
single dorsal fin made up of soft rays and not preceded by free 
spines; anal fin without distinct spines; tail forked; pectoral fin 
situated below the median line of the body, from tip of snout to 



24 tr. fl. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

base of tail; head more or less scaly; gill membranes not attached 
to the prolongation of the body forward between the gill openings; 
no barbels; maxillaries distinct; upper jaw not protractile, that is, 
its forward end is firmly joined to the snout; both jaws provided 
with sharp teeth, varying in size and arranged in broacl bands; 
snout somewhat prolonged and depressed. 

The pike family includes one genus only — Esox. The pikes are 
inhabitants of the fresh Avaters of the temperate parts of Europe, 
Asia, and America. The pike proper {Esox lucius) inhabits all 
three continents and is the only representative of the family in other 
than the North American continent. In North America there are 
now recognized five species, including the pike. These are the pike 
{Esox hiciu-s), the muskellunge {E. iimsqulnongy) ^ the eastern 
pickerel {E. reficulatus) , the banded pickerel {E. anvericanus) ^ 
and the little pickerel {E. vermiculatus) . 

The species vary in appearance among themselves, according to 
locality, age, size, and sex, but it is only in the muskellunge that 
subspecies have been designated, and these have been pronounced 
distinct species by some ichthyological authorities.*' 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

Owing to confusion of local names, mistaken identifications, and 
the scant knowledge of the fishes of some regions, it has not been 
easy to decide positively regarding the exact geographical distribu- 
tion of the muskellunge and the pike in America. The most gen- 
erally loiown form of the spotted muskellunge is native to all the 
Great Lakes, the upper St. Lawrence River, Lake Champlain, cer- 
tain streams and lakes tributary to the Great Lakes, and a few 
lakes in the upper Mississippi Valley; also in Canada north of the 
Great Lakes. It does not seem at all abundant anywhere, as the 
number taken each year in any one of the lakes is small. It is, 
perhaps, most common in Lakes Michigan and Erie and among the 
Ten Thousand Islands.^ 

The barred muskellunge is best laiown from Chautauqua Lake, 
though specimens have been reported from a few places in the Ohio 
drainage — for instance, in Lakes Conneaut and La Boeuf, Pa., the 
Mahoning River, and the Ohio at Evansville. The spotless form 
is found in a number of small lakes in northern Wisconsin and 
Minnesota. 

RANGE 

In North America the range of the common pike {Esox lucius) 
extends across the continent from the Labrador Peninsula to Alaska, 
northward to beyond the Arctic Circle, and southward to the St. 
Lawrence and Great Lakes Basin. It is found also in some waters 
in the United States south of the Great Lakes, as northern New 
York and the Mississippi and its tributaries, but it does not occur 
in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, or (except by introduction) in 
that part of New England east of the Green Mountains. 

s American Pood and Game Fishes. Bv David Starr Jordan and Barton Warren Ever- 
mann. fTlie pilies. pp. 233-240.] New Yorli, 1902. 

' Tlie Fishes of North and Middle America. By David Starr Jordan and Barton Warren 
Eveniinnn. Bulletin, United States Museum, No. 47, pt. 1. [The pikes, pp. 624-630.] 
Washington, 189(i. 



VTKV.^ AND PIKK PERCH 25 

Tho cjislorn ])ickerel (A\ retindatus) luis a comparatively limited 
natural livoiirapliifal distribution. It is believed ori<>:inally to have 
been restricted to tlie fresh ^vaters of the Atlantic seaboard, being; 
coinuionly found everywhere east and south of the Alle<i;heny Moun- 
tains froin southwestern Maine to Florida. Aided by man, its range 
has been extended throuaiiout the southern half of Maine and even 
farther north into the lower w^aters of the St. John River, into 
New Brunswick, and elsewhere. It has been reported in Missisquoi 
Bay. in the St. Lawrence River, and in one locality in Lake Ontario. 

The banded j)ickerel {E. ainencanus) is somewhat more restricted 
in range, being found only in lowland streams and swamps east of 
the Allegheny JNIountains, from Massachusetts to Florida, the west- 
ernmost record being from Escambia River at Flomaton, Ala.^ The 
most northern locality from which it has been reported is Lake 
Bomoseen, Vt., but it is not known that it is indigenous there. 

The range of the little pickerel {E. verrmculatus) is the valleys 
of the Ohio and Mississippi and streams flowing into the Great 
Lakes,^ extending thence southward to the Tennessee, Escambia, 
and White Rivers," and, according to Evermann and Cox,^*^ to the 
Neuse River on the Atlantic slope. 

WEIGHT 

The muskellunge has been said to reach a weight of 100 pounds or 
more,^^ but the maximum w^eight is probably not often above 80 
pounds and the average not over 25 or 30 pounds. The pike varies 
from 5 to 50 pounds in weight. In the larger lakes of Canada it 
attains a weight of 35 pounds or more. In the Lake St. John region 
it sometimes attains a weight of 20, 30, and even 40 pounds. One 
was taken in Lake Tschotogama in 1890, which weighed 49 pounds, 
and another in 1891 of 47 pounds. Forbes ^- stated that the average 
weight of the pike in Illinois waters is not over 5 pounds, but a 
specimen w^eighing 261/4 pounds was reported by Doctor Jordan to 
have been caught in the Kankakee, and Tomlin ^^ wrote that speci- 
mens have been taken in Michigan and along the bays connecting 
with the north shore of Lake Superior that weighed as high as 20 
pounds. Eastern pickerel weighing as high as 8 pounds have been 
authentically reported, but such size is uncommon and fishes ac- 
counted large will not usually exceed half that weight. Two and 
three pound pickerel are about the average in waters of ordinary 
suitability to the fish. However, bodies of water differ in respect 
to their suitability, and in some the largest fish will not exceed a 
pound while in others much larger fish are common. The banded 
pickerel rarely exceeds a foot in length or a pound in weight. Her- 

'' See Note 7 on preceding page. 

*> The Maskalonge of the Ohio Basin. By Tarleton H. Bean. Transactions, American 
Fisheries Society, pp. 145—151. Appleton, 1902. 

» The Fishes of Ulinois. By Stephen Alfred Forbes and Robert Earl Richardson. 
Natural History Survey of Ulinois, State Laboratory of Natural History. The pikes, 
pp. 205-209. Danville, 1908. 

'» History and Present State of Ichthyology of New Brunswick. By Philip Cox. Bul- 
letin, Natural History Society of New Brunswick, No. XIII, pp. 62-75. St. .lohn, 1896. 

11 The Fishes of North and Middle America. By David Starr .lordan and Barton 
Warren Evermann. Bulletin, United States Museum, No. 47, pt. 1. (The pikes, pp. 
624-630.) Washington, 1896. 

1- The Fishes of Illinois. By Stephen Alfred Forbes and Robert Earl Richardson. 
Natural History Survev of Illinois, State Laboratory of Natural History. (The pikes, 
pp. 205-209.) Danville, 1908. 

I'The Pike. By W. David Tomlin. In American Game Fishes, pp. 367-380. Chicago 
and New York, 1892. 



26 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

bert" said that a pound was o;reatly above the average weight, 
which was probably not more than one-half pound. Similarly, the 
general statements "regarding the size of the little pickerel are that it 
never attains a length of over 12 inches. 

DISTINGUISHING MARKS 

The genus Esox is divisible into three groups according to the 
squamation of the sides of the head, which easily separates the 
muskellunge, pike, and pickerels. The species may readily be iden- 
tified in the following manner: 

In the muskellunge the cheek, as well as the lower half of the gill 
cover (operculum), is without scales; with the pike the cheeks are 
entirely scaled but the lower half of the gill cover is without scales ; 
all the pickerels have the gill covers and cheeks entirely scaled. 

FOOD, HABITS, AND RATE OF GROWTH 

The feeding habits of these fishes are similar; they all subsist 
largely upon other fishes. The muskellunge lurks among weeds or 
old tree tops that have fallen into the water, and will lie there for 
hours, perfectly motionless, awaiting his prej^ Like all animals of 
prey, it is solitary in habit. Its breeding places are where the logs, 
stumps, and driftwood are thickest in shallow water, or flowage 
where dead limbs, logs, and brush have accumulated. It is said to 
begin to spawn a few days after the ice is out, and continues until 
the latter part of April in shallow water from 10 to 15 feet deep, 
on muddy bottom, usually going into the bays. 

In spring and summer the pike haunts shallow inlets with weedy 
bottoms and shores overgrown with reeds and rushes. Toward 
autumn it betakes itself to precipitous, stony shores, wdiich it again 
forsakes when winter is at hand and the inlets freeze. Most of the 
pike then return to their summer stations, but the larger ones seem- 
ingly follow the shoals of other fishes to the depths, being seldom 
caught during the winter in shallow water. 

Not much has been written concerning the breeding habits of the 
American pike, and it is necessary to rely for information mainly 
upon what has been published respecting the European fish, which 
is specifically identical with habits supposed to be much the same. 
In the spring, before there is open water in the lakes, the pike com- 
mence to approach the shores, and breeding individuals, in particu- 
lar, repair to those parts of the shore having inlets. When the spring 
is so far advanced that the lakes are free of ice, the brooks clear, and 
the low-lying meadows about the shores are under water, the larger 
pike make their way to those inundated places and begin to spawn. 
The spawning is of long duration, its season depending upon the age 
of the fish, the young spawning first. When these have finished the 
middle-sized pike begin, and the oldest and largest spawn last of all. 
In Illinois the pike spawns in March, selecting shore water about 1^^ 
feet in depth ; the eggs hatch in about 14 days. The rate of growth is 
about as folloAvs, depending on the amount of food available: Pike 
1 year old. 10 to 12 inches; 2 years old, 14 to 16 inches; 3 years old, 
22 to 24 inches ; 6 years old, 39 inches ; 12 years old, 53 inches. 

'■'Frank Forestor's Fish and Fishing. By Henry William Herbert. (Esocidae, pp. 
217-236.) London, 1849. 



PIKES AND PIKE PERCH 27 

The eastorn jMckerol has more or less tlie same feediiifj and spawn- 
inji' habits as the pike. Its rate of growth is about as follows: One 
year old, 4.5 inches, weight about 0.5 ounce; 2 years old, 7 inches, 
weight 1.5 ounces; 3 years old, 10 inches, weight 4 ounces; 4 years 
old, 13 to 14 inches, 8 to 12 ounces; 6 years old, 20 inches, weight 40 
ounces. 

The pikes are valued greatly as game fishes, and there is in the 
United States a considerable fishery for them. The commercial 
catch is about 680,000 j^ounds per annum, valued at $58,000. 

ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATIOX 

The bureau has had but little interest in the propagation of the 
pikes, confining its efforts to some limited experimental work. They 
are now handled solely in connection with rescue operations. Other 
agencies, however, have been and are engaged in the culture of these 
species. 

The State of Pennsylvania has been most prominent in the propa- 
gation of the pickerels and between the years 1905 and 1910 turned 
out a large number of fry. The eggs of the pickerels are deposited 
in strings, as are those of the yellow perch, and the same methods 
of incubation are applicable. Jars were utilized by the Pennsyl- 
vania Fish Commission, and the only serious difficulty appeared to 
lie in the proj)er regulation of the water flow to. prevent clogging 
or smothering. 

While the eggs can be taken from the ripe fish and fertilized arti- 
ficially, the inability to find a sufficient number of ripe males and 
females at one time and the difficulty of feeding penned fish during 
their protracted spawning season have necessitated a reliance upon 
naturally spawned eggs for the main supply. These simply are col- 
lected from the spawning grounds by means of a scap net, placed in 
cans, and transferred to the hatchery. The incubation period varies 
from a week to 10 days, depending upon temperature. The eggs 
can as readily be handled in floating boxes and ordinary egg trays 
will serve for transferring them. Attempts to remove the debris 
and silt have an injurious efi'ect. 

The tiny fry must be distributed shortly after the disappearance 
of the food sac. 

The culture of the muskellunge has been carried on by the New 
York Conservation Commission at its Chautauqua hatchery for some 
30 years." The process differs from that employed in Pennsylvania, 
in that eggs are secured by stripping the adult fish. These ripe indi- 
viduals are captured by means of pound nets set in Lake Chautaqua 
in the spring. Incubation is carried on in jars of the Chase type. 
Conditions prevailing in this region generally cause a longer incuba- 
tion period, ranging from a minimum of about 12 days to a maximum 
of 20 days. The temperature ranges are from 50° to 60° F. Immedi- 
ate distribution after the absorption of the yolk sac is the practice 
with the muskellunge, as with the other species. The time required 
for this development is about 12 days. Little is known of the stages 
between this period and a length of 2 to 3 inches. 

"Culture of the Maskinonge ("Muskellunge"). Bv Emmeline Moore. In Fifteenth 
Annual Report, New York State Conservation Commission, 1925 (1926), pp. 131-138, 
figs. 1-6. Albany. ^*^ ' 

o 



i 



EXAMINATION OF THE SUMMER FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND CORE 
SOUNDS, N. C, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE DESTRUCTION OF 
UNDERSIZED FISH AND THE PROTECTION OF THE GRAY TROUT 
CYNOSCION REGALIS ^BLOCH AND SCHNEIDER)^ 



By Elmer Higgins, In charge, Division of Scientific Inquiry, and John C. 
Pearson, temporary assistant, United States Bureau of Fisheries 



CONTENTS 

Page 

lutrodviction 29 

Decline of the fisheries 29 

The problem 31 

Summary 31 

The fishery 32 

Methods of fishing 33 

Pound netting 33 

Long-haul seining 35 

Methods of investigation 37 

Composition of the catch 41 

Species taken 41 

Sizes of fish 43 

Selective action of fishing gear 47 

Destruction of undersized fish . 50 

Effect of gro^\'th on marketability 55 

The problem of conservation 55 

Life history of the gray trout 57 

Spawning 57 

Growth 58 

Age at maturity 59 

Migrations 61 

Effect of present fishery regulations 61 

Remedial measures 62 

Recommendations 65 

INTRODUCTION 2 

DECLINE OF THE FISHERY 

Many persons interested in the fishing industry of North Carolina 
are convinced that the supply of food fish in the waters of that State 
is insufficient to meet the demand. Despite the increase in catching 
power, brought about by the introduction of power vessels, the 
use of modernized gear, and the improvement of methods of refriger- 
ation and distribution, the total yield of the fisheries of the State 
has not shown a corresponding increase during the past 45 years. 
The occasional statistics collected by the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries indicate that the average annual yield since 1880 of all 
aquatic food products, including fresh and salt water fish, moUusks, 
crustaceans, turtles, etc., but omitting nonfood fish, such as men- 
haden, has been 37,600,000 pounds. The total yield in 1880 amounted 

1 Appendix II to the Report of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries for 1927. B. F. Doc. No. 1019. 

2 The original report on this investigation was read by permission of the United States Commissioner 
of Fisheries, before the North Carolina Fisheries Commission Board at their regular meeting, Dec. 8, 1925, 
at Morehead City, N. C. The present paper contains all of the subject matter of the first report, together 
with some supplementary material resulting from further analysis of the original data. 

29 



30 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIE.S 

to 32,249,000 poimds. This production rose to a maximum of 52,- 
924,000 pounds in 1897, but since that time the available statistics 
show a continual though gradual decline mitil the period from 1918 
to 1923, when the annual yield approximated 31,000,000 poimds, 
or about the same amount as that produced at the beginning of the 
period for which we have records. While the decline in total yield has 
not been disastrous to the industry, several important species have 
suffered serious decline. The most important of these are the shad 
and the mullet, although bluefish and striped bass also have shown 
a marked reduction. The total yield has been maintained only by 
the increased utilization of the cheaper and less desirable varieties 
of fish and by an increased intensity of fishing and improved methods 
of production. 

This unsatisfactory trend of the fisheries of the State was forcibly 
pointed out by Dr. Hugh M. Smith in 1907,^ when he asserted that 
the condition of the industry demanded the thoughtful consideration 
of the fishermen and lawmakers. He declared that: 

The fisheries may be expected to deteriorate — 

(a) Through failure of the State to provide prompt and adequate protection 
to those fishes which begin to show a decrease in abundance. The history of the 
sturgeon is an unmistakable indication of what will eventualh" happen to the 
shad, alewives, striped bass, and other species unless ample provision is made for 
the survival of a sufficient percentage of the annual run until spawning has ensued. 

(6) Because of unnecessarily wasteful methods, such as the capture of larger 
quantities of food fishes than can be utilized or disposed of to advantage and the 
useless destruction of larger numbers of fishes of no present market value but of 
prospective importance. 

(c) Owing to careless methods of packing and preserving the catch, and failure 
to keep abreast of the progress of the times in matters affecting the shipment and 
sale of fish. 

The wisdom of his predictions is attested by the present condition 
of the fisheries, for the decline in abundance actually has occurred, 
and many of the conditions that caused this decline still remain to 
be remedied almost 20 years since the original warning. 

The general shortage of fish has increased the rivalry between the 
operators of two dominant types of gear operated in Pamlico and 
Core Sounds — pound nets and haul seines — and endless discussion 
concerning the effects of these nets on the fish supply has resulted. 
As early as 1883, L. H. Hardy, a North Carolinian, wrote to the 
United States Fish Commissioner as follows: * 

We have in Carteret County, N. C, a great many fish, and our people live 
by catching and selling them. For the last four years our waters, both in the 
sounds and ocean, have been obstructed by Dutch nets (pound nets), which 
have proved very destructive to our fish. Thousand of fash too small to be 
serviceable are caught by these nets and suffered to remain in them until they 
are dead and then turned out to drift upon the shore in numbers that would seem 
incredible to relate. * * * Thus millions of good fish are being destroyed 
yearly that are not worth a cent while so small. * * *. 

In 1912, C. H. Sterling, a fish dealer of Washington, N. C, said: ^ 

As to the pound nets, dragnets, and seines, some man has said that the pound 
nets are the root of all evils. I think he is mistaken. I have seen seines pull 
in hundreds of small fish that a pound net would not catch. 



3 Fishes of North Carolina, by Hugh M. Smith. North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, 
Vol. II, p. 412. Raleigh, 1907. 

* Bulletin, U. S. Fish Commission, for 1884, p. 317. 

5 Report of the Fisheries Convention held at New Bern, N. C, Dec. 13, 1911. North Carolina Geo- 
logical and Economic Survey, Economic Paper No. 29, p. 37. Raleigh, 1912. 



FISHEKTES OK PAMLK'O AND CORE SOUNDS 31 



111 1909, J. H. Potter, of Beaufort, N. C, said: 



6 



I have been engaged in the fish business for 30 years. I coninienc'ed before 
the first pound nets were set in North CaroUna, and was instrumental in putting 
in the first pound net. I have seen that net destroy more fish than have been 
cauglit in North CaroUna since. 

THE PROBLEM 

As a result of this controversy there has arisen a general feeling 
that wasteful practices existed in these fisheries, which were in part 
responsible for the shortage of the fish supply. Many proposals for 
the regulation of the various types of gear have been offered by one 
faction or the other, and it was recognized by the State authorities 
that some regulation was necessary. Because of strong sectional 
feeling, it was impossible for the fishing interests to agree upon a 
method of regulation, and it finally became apparent that, in the in- 
terests of future constructive regulations, a comprehensive, impartial, 
investigation should be conducted. Three problems were presented 
for consideration: 

1. To find the actual composition of both the pound-net and long- 
haul seine catches throughout the entire summer fishing season and 
the degree of competition between the two types of gear. 

2. To ascertain the amount of destruction caused by taking under- 
sized food fish by each type of gear. 

3. To find a method of protecting imdersized fish until they became 
valuable to the fishermen, to the fish dealers, and to the people of 
North Carolina. 

With these problems in mind, the Bureau of Fisheries, with the 
full cooperation of the North Carolina Fisheries Commission, under 
Commissioner J. A. Nelson, undertook an extensive survey of these 
fisheries. Too much credit can not be given to Captain Nelson for 
the excellent assistance i-endered. The launch Neuse, w4th crew 
under the able handling of Capt. J. R. Morris, was detailed to the 
field work, and the financial burden of its operation, as well as half of 
the incidental cost of the investigation, was borne by the State. 

SUMMARY 

The findings of this investigation may be summarized as follows: 

1. Many lines of evidence indicate that the fisheries of North 
Carolina are undergoing depletion. 

2. Wasteful methods in the fisheries are believed to be a contribut- 
ing cause to the exhaustion of the supply. Pound nets and long-haul 
seines both have been accused as responsible for the decline in 
abundance. 

3. Pound nets are stationary gear operatkig on deep muddy bot- 
toms. Long-haul seines are dragged over shallow sandy bottoms. 

4. The catch of pound nets consists chiefly of gray trout or sque- 
teague {Cynoscion regalis) and starfish or harvest fish {Peprilus alepi- 
dotus). The catch of long-haul seines consists chiefly of croakers 
{Micropogon undulatus), spots {Leiostomus xanthurus), and spotted 
trout {Cynoscion nehvlosus) . Hence there is little competition between 
the two types of gear. 

5. The tw^o types of gear are highly selective in their action, pound 
nets catching smaller sizes of all species than do long-haul seines. 

' Report of the Fisheries Convention held at New Bern, N. C, Dee. 13, 1911. North Carolina Geological 
and Economic Survey, Economic Paper No. 29, p. 184. Raleigh, 1912. 



32 U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHERIES 

6. The average monthly destruction of undersized fish by long- 
haul seines is: Spotted trout, 4 per cent of the total number of that 
species caught; croakers, 8 per cent; and spots, 17 per cent. The 
average monthly destruction of undersized fish by pound nets is: 
Gray trout, 31 per cent; starfish, 59 per cent; butterfish, 6 per cent; 
croakers, 35 per cent; and spots, 51 per cent. 

7. Pound nets are highly destructive; long-haul seines are not un- 
duly destructive of undersized fish. 

8. The greatest wastage of all pound-net fish occurs in June. 

9. The greatest wastage of gray trout occurs in June and July 
and is most extensive on the northwest side of Pamlico Sound. 

10. Two-year-old gray trout are less than legal size during June 
and July, but by August thej^ have grown so that most of them are 
legally marketable. 

11. Certain facts concerning the life history of the gray trout, as- 
certained in the course of this investigation, may guide our efforts 
at conservation. These are — 

(a) Spawning in 1925 reached its height by June 1 and was com- 
pleted by August 10. 

(b) Gray trout approximately 5 inches long in June are believed to 
be 1 year old; when 8 inches long, 2 years old; when 10 inches long, 
3 years old. 

(c) Gray trout spawn for the first time when 3 years old. 

(d) Immature fish remain in the sounds during the spring, summer, 
and fall. 

12. The present regulation establishing minimum size limits does 
not operate to conserve the fishery, for many are destroyed in order 
to market the few. 

13. Regulations increasing the size of mesh in pound nets or es- 
tablishing areas closed to pound-net fishing are undesirable. 

14. A closed season on pound netting in Pamlico Sound, from the 
end of the shad season until August 1, would prevent the destruction 
of undersized gray trout and protect the spawning fish. This regu- 
lation is recommended. 

THE FISHERY 

The fishery with which this investigation is concerned is conducted 
chiefly by pound nets and long-haul seines during the summer season, 
beginning in the latter part of May and continuing into November. 
The duration of the fishing season, however, depends upon the 
weather, for the gear is frequently destroyed by storms during 
October and is not replaced. Six species constitute the bulk of the 
catch, which consists, in order of their importance, of squeteague or 
gray trout, croakers, spots, spotted trout, starfish or harvest fish, and 
butterfish. All of these species are taken by both types of gear 
but in different quantities. While the same species are taken by 
other types of gear, such as stake gill nets, drop gill nets, and short- 
haul seines, by far the greater part is taken by the two gears under 
consideration. 

The total yield of these species in the six counties surrounding 
Pamlico and Core Sounds amounted in 1923 to 8,225,000 pounds, 
valued at $337,475, or 58.5 per cent by weight of the total yield of 
all aquatic food products in the State.^ The gray trout was the most 

' For detailed statistics of yield and valuation see Fishery Industries of the United States, by Oscar E . 
Sette, p. 369 £f . Appendix II, Report United States Commissioner of Fisheries for 1925 (1926) . Washington. 



FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND CORE SOUNDS 33 

important ot" this yield and amounted in the same year to 2,954,000 
pounds, or 21 per cent of the total yield of aquatic food products; 
croakers, 2,208,000 pounds, or 15.7 per cent; spots, 1,751,000 pounds, 
or 12.5 per cent; spotted trout, 845,000 pounds, or 6 per cent; starfish 
or harvest fish, 519,000 pounds, or 3.7 per cent; and butterfish, 
298,000 pounds, or 2.1 per cent. 

METHODS OF FISHING 

Pound netting. — The pound net is a type of stationary fishing gear 
that operates by directing the fish into inclosures or traps by means 
of leads. While the principle of pound netting is always the same, the 
actual setting and arrangement of the gear varies in different locali- 
ties. A typical pound-net rig used in the summer fisheries of Pamlico 




Fig. 1.— Pound-net fishing. Setting a net. The crib or pound is at theleft; the men in the boat are 
setting the heart, and the lead extends oil to the right 

Sound and many of its tributaries consists of lead, heart, and pound. 
The lead is 175 to 300 yards long, having a depth of 17 to 20 feet, 
made of cotton webbing of 12-inch stretched mesh. It is supported 
in the water by stakes (pine poles) about 18 feet apart. This lead 
ends at a 9-foot opening into the heart — a semipound, which is 
usually 30 yards on each side, of the same depth as the lead, and made 
of webbing of a stretched mesh of 5 inches. At the end of the heart 
opposite the lead opening is a tunnel 20 feet square at the heart, 
tapering into a 34-inch square exit into the pound proper. This 
tunnel is about 12 feet long of 4-inch stretched mesh and the ends are 
held open by 3^-inch iron-bar frames. The pound proper, into which 
the tunnel leads and which the fish finally enter, is about 27 feet 
square, having a depth of about 16 feet (depending upon the depth of 
water in which the gear is set), a stretched mesh of 234 inches, and is 
supported at each corner and at varying intervals by stakes. All 
parts of the rig, with the exception of the pound itself, must touch 
bottom and, of course, must rise above the level of the water for at 



34 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



least a few inches. The sides of the pound are usually at least 1 foot 
above the water level so as to prevent the trapped fish from jump- 
ing over. (See figs. 1 to 3.) 




Fig. 2.— Pound-net fishing. 



When the fish are gathered into one corner of the net the catch is 
bailed into the boat with dip nets 



As many as 8 or 9 pounds are sometimes set in a continuous row or 
stand, so that the entire distance covered by the leads, hearts, and 




Fig. 3.— Pound-net fishing. CuHing the catch. It is not feasible to sort the catch on the fishing 
grounds. All culling is done at the shore station when the fish are sorted for sale. Hence 
undersized fish are dead when discarded 

pounds may be nearly 2 miles in length. Usually a stand consists of 
not more than four pounds, for this is the maximum that can be 
handled easily by the average pound-net crew. 



FISHERIES OF FAMI.irO AND CORE SOUNDS 35 

A pouiul-net crow usually is made up of two mumi, l)ut somctinies 
thive, manning an open power boat, 25 feet long, 6 to 7 feet wide, 
and having a speed of about 7 miles an hour. The fishermen usually 
eamp on some island or point within an hour's run from their nets, 
returning home only for the week-ends. 

The pound net is fished bj' running the boat nearly over one side 
of the pound into the inclosure, and by means of a hook a side of the 
pound is raised and brought on board. The sides and bottom of the 
pound are then gradually taken up to the surface of the water until 
the fish are gathered or bunted into a small section of the side, from 
which they can be bailed into the boat. The entire process does not 
take the experienced fishermen more than 10 minutes in good weather, 
but hours are sometimes consumed in clearing the nets of small fish 
that have become gilled in the meshes. After fishing all their pounds 




Fig. 4. — Luug-haul ^fining. The seine has been removed and the men are now hauling the bunt 
net. The bunt net is used to inclose the fish so that they may be landed. Finer mesh and heavier 
twine in this net prevent the fish from rushing the net and escaping or becoming gilled in the meshes 

the fishermen return to their camp and weigh and sell the catch to 
waiting buy boats sent by various wholesale fish dealers. 

Pound nets are set in the deepest waters of Pamlico Sound, which 
are from 16 to 20 feet in depth. The gear is always set on a muddy 
bottom because of the necessity of a good holding ground for the 
stakes and because the fishermen believe that fish gather on this 
muddy bottom to feed. 

Long-haul seining. — This is a method of fishing in which a seine is 
dragged between tw^o power boats for a cei-tain distance and then 
landed by hand in shallow- water. 

The nets consist of eight sections, each 150 yards long, and 12 feet 
deep, made of cotton w^ebbing of a 3-inch stretched mesh. At the 
ends of each section are fastened 8-foot wooden staffs, leaded at the 
lower ends. A bunt net, 125 yards long and 100 to 125 meshes deep, 
with a mesh of 23^ inches, is also a part of the equipment. The more 
efficient boats are 30 to 40 feet long, drawing not more than 3 feet of 

37501—27 2 



36 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



water, and are powered with 16 to 20 horsepower engines. Each 
power boat has a crew of three men and tows a skiff about 20 feet 
long, which carries half of the nets. 

In fishing the seine, the power boats first come together, join the 
ends of the sections of the seine, and commence to run in opposite 
directions, letting out the nets, section by section, until all eight 
seines — four from each tow skiff — have been let over the side. The 
seine is then slowly hauled in a shallow semicircle for approximately 
three-fourths of a mile. When the power boats reach the shallow 
water they come together and the staffs at the ends of the seines are 
fastened together, thus making a circle about 1,200 yards in circum- 
ference. (See figs. 4 and 5.) 




Fig. 5. — Long-haul seining. The haul is here completed and the men are bailing the catch from the 

bunt net into the boats 

After the circle is completed, two men in each of the tow skiffs 
untie the staffs that fasten the end pair of nets, the power boats 
take the ends of the second pair on each side, one at a time, and con- 
tinue hauling to "cut out" or to remove the nets from the circle. 
Similarly, the second pair are replaced by the third pair, and the third 
pair by the fourth, so that the circle finally is reduced to a single 
pair of nets, each 150 yards long. The bunt net is then fastened to 
the farther staff of one of the last pair of nets and is laid out in the 
position of one of the fourth pair while that net is taken into the 
skiff. The remaining fourth seine is then hauled by power or by 
hand, depending on the depth of water, past the inward staff, until 
the two staffs of the bunt net are brought together. The final 
hauling of the net is performed by hand while one man holds down the 
lead line with his foot so as to keep the gap completely closed at the 
bottom. When the bunt net has been pulled in far enough (depending 
on the quantity of fish taken) hauling on the cork line is stopped and 
the lead line is hauled past the staff until all of it is landed in the skiff. 
This completed, the fish are secured beyond danger of escape, and 
they are easily bailed into one of the skiffs. Everything is landed 
except sharks and stingrays or occasional catches of large drum. 



FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND CORE SOUNDS 37 

A niodilicatioii of this method of hauling, called "swiping," is 
practiced by a few crews. This consists in merely laying out the 
nets, surrounding a given area of water, and then taking them in. 
Thei-e is no hauling done except to close the ends of the nets. This 
method is employed chiefly to save the expense of fuel used in hauling, 
which usually takes from three to four houi-s, but this is not the 
common practice. 

The haul must be on a clean bottom, wdth the tide, and usually 
with the wind, otherwise the boats could not pull the seines because 
of the accumulating amount of floating grass. It must be made in 
a place where shallow w^ater is at least a mile away and in which the 
nets can be removed both by- power and by hand. Such shallow 
water in North Carolina generally consists of sandy shoals, and the 
suitable hauls are so w^ell known and recognized that several crews 
frequently await their turns to fish a productive ground. Owing to 
the gradual process by w^hich the nets are removed, the small fish 
apparently have time to escape. Often fish can be seen forcing the 
nets before the bunt net has been put out, and the presence of large- 
sized gilled fish in the pairs of seines removed by power indicates 
that the fish are attempting to- escape during the cutting-out process. 
The bunt net serves a necessary purpose in preventing the frightened 
fish from rushing the net and gilling or escaping, and also serves to 
protect the fishermen from the attacks of stingrays, which are of 
frequent occurrence in the catches. 

Owing to the relatively high cost of equipment for this type of 
fishing, which is valued at about S4,000, and to the relatively small 
number of haul areas available, there were not more than 25 crews 
operating in Pamlico and Core Sounds in the summer of 1925. Each 
crew^ usually sells to the buy boat of a fish dealer, who is under agree- 
ment to take the season's catch. The nets usually are laid out at 
about 6 o'clock in the morning, and the catch is aboard the buy boat 
by 2 or 3 o'clock in the afternoon. Some of the crews do not land 
their catch until later in the afternoon, while others, more energetic, 
may sometimes make two hauls in a single day, ending their last 
haul in the dark. 

METHODS OF INVESTIGATION 

To determine the actual composition of the catches of the two 
types of gear, it is obviously necessary to visit personally the vari- 
ous fishing areas and to inspect the unsorted catches of fish when 
taken. Representative areas should be chosen for examination, and 
the study should be continued during the whole fishing season. 

In the sampling of the pound-net catch a route was selected cov- 
ering as nearly as possible representative portions of Pamlico Sound, 
no pound n,etting being carried on in Core Sound; but choice of locali- 
ties w^as limited by the fact that pound nets are fished only in the 
early morning, five days a week. (See fig. 6.) On this account, and 
on account of the distances to be covered, but one pound-net station 
could be visited daily. The following localities were visited regu- 
larly once each week, with the exception of one station that was 
discontinued because of lack of fish: Lupton, with 15 to 20 stands 
of nets set off Cedar Island; Brant Island, wilih 6 to 8 stands of nets 
off the mouth of the Neuse River along Brant Island Shoal; Gull 



38 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Rock, with 10 to 12 stands set along Gull Shoal; Portsmouth, with 
1 to 12 stands about Royal Shoal (this place was visited during only 
one month because of discontinuance of fishing); and Point of Marsh, 
with 4 stands set along Brant Island Shoal. The only pound-net 
localities of any importance that remained were Ocracoke, with 6 
stands, Hatteras, with 2 stands, Englehard, with 3 stands, and Stumpy 




Point, with 20 stands. Lupton represented the southern end of the 
sound, Brant Island and Point of Marsh the western and central parts. 
Gull Rock the northwestern side, and Portsmouth the eastern part. 
The distance around the whole route was nearly 200 miles. Approxi- 
mately 200 pound-net catches were sampled. Only a very few 
stations were omitted from the weekly visitation, and this was 
because of adverse weather conditions when very little fishing was 
carried on even by pound netters. 



FISHEKIES OP' PAIMLICO AND COKE SOUNDS 39 

LoiiiT-liaul scitio (ishino- is conducted chiefly in the southern and 
western i)!U-ts of Fiunlico Sound aud in the northern half of Core 
Sound. Moreover, this Jisliing is regulated greatly by weather con- 
ditions, so that the taking of samples was necessarily more irregular 
than was the case with pound nets. How^ever, experience showed 
that samples could be procured more or less regularly while en route 
from one pound-net station to another, and since noon is the cus- 
tomary time for long haulers to end their fishing for the day, samples 
usually were secured as soon as the fish had been bailed into the 
skill's. Samples were taken at varying intervals m virtually all the 
long-haul localities, 44 samples in all being studied. 

Taking a random sample of about 50 pounds of uncuUed fish from 
each of three crew^s of pound-net fishermen, a total amount of ap- 
proximately 150 pounds of fish was secured from each locality every 
week. The average daily catches of the crews seemed to be from 
300 to 600 pounds of market fish to the crew, with the exception of 
Monday's catches, which were always larger than those of any other 
day because the pounds usually are not fished either Saturdays or 
Sundays. Personal observations were taken each morning on the 
majority of the catches brought in, and any unusual catch, both as 
to quantity and quality of fish taken, was noted. 

A different problem was presented in obtaining samples of t:he 
catch of long-haul seines because of the variation in both quantity 
and quality, which ranged from 500 to 1,500 pounds of marketable 
fish. When the catch consisted chiefly of large fish, somewhat 
larger samples were taken than was the case when the catch was 
made up of small fish. In general, from 50 to 100 pounds of fish 
constituted the sample. 

In obtaining all samples no hand selection was permitted, all fish 
being bailed, uncuUed, into a large bucket container by the fisherman, 
under the personal inspection of the investigator. The samples, 
once obtained, were sorted according to species, the species of scrap 
fish, such as pinfish and menhaden, alone being unseparated. The 
weights of certain food species and also the weights of scrap fish in 
the samples were secured. Each specimen of food-fish species was 
carefully measured on a rule constructed for the purpose,^ each fish 
sexed, and the spawning or resting condition of the fish was noted. 
Scales were taken from many fish for the ultimate purpose of deter- 
mining the age composition of the catch. Over 26,000 pound-net 
fish and 2,500 long-haul fish were thus measured during the 20 weeks, 
from the middle of June until the first of November, spent in actual 
field operations. 

In analyzing the data collected by these means, length-frequency 
tables w^ere constructed from the measurements of the samples ob- 
tained. While each sample was originally tabulated separately, 
frequency tabulations for the day were made for the three samples 
together.^ The day samples w^ere then combined by months, by 
simple addition, and these monthly frequencies were then reduced to 
a percentage basis. In so far as the unweighted samples are repre- 
sentative, the actual composition of the commercial catch is accu- 
rately portrayed; but, because of the varying number of samples 
taken ki the different months, it was deemed advisable to weight the 

' The measurement of length used in this work is the projection of the distance from the snout, or point 
of the mandible, to the end of the middle rays of the caudal fin. 



40 



U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHERIES 



monthly frequencies to a constant number. Thus the conditions in 
each locality are represented by 12 separate samples taken on four 
occasions in each month. 

The conclusions concerning the actual or total destruction of 
undersized fish, however, are subject to some criticism, from the fact 
that the total amount of the commercial yield at any time during the 
season is unknown. It is presumed that the fishery has a normal 
cycle of abundance, reaching a maximum at some period and dying 
away to a final end. Since the sampling was uniform throughout the 
season and the results are not weighted according to the total yield, 
a distortion of facts would occur from overemphasizing the early and 
late parts of the season, when the yield is presumably smaller, and 
underemphasizing the middle part of the season, when the maximum 
yield is supposed to occur. There are no statistics in North Carolina 
that can be used to weight our figures according to the total yield, 
and since it was not feasible, because of conditions in the field, to col- 
lect these figures at the time of the investigation, it is impossible to 
estimate the magnitude of this error. The authors believe that this 
error is negligible, however, because of evidence based on records of the 
catch of pound-net fishermen at Gidl Rock. The actual yield of three 
different crews was obtained throughout the entire season. Since the 
nets are fished irregularly in this locality daily yields could not be 
obtained, but a table of total yield during each weekly period from 
each of the three crews was constructed. (See table 1.) During the 
period from June 28 to October 31, when all three crews were working 
without interruption, the average weekly yield does not vary more 
than 1,000 pounds, ranging between 2,000 and 3,000 pounds. If this 
condition obtains throughout Pamlico Sound, it is likely that maxi- 
mum production is reached as early in the season as all the gear is 
installed and continues at a horizontal level until the removal of gear 
in early November. 

Table 1. — Pound-net catch of three fishermen at Gull Rock, N. C, in 1925, weekly 

totals of marketable fish 



Date 



June 7-13 

June 14-20 

June 21-27 

June28-July 4.. 

July 5-11 

July 12-18 

July 19-25 

July 26- Aug. 1.. 

Aug. 2-8 

Aug. 9-15 

Aug. 16-22. 

Aug. 23-29 

Aug. 3a-Sept. 5. 

Sept. 6-12 

Sept. 13-19 

Sept. 20-26 

Sept. 27-Oct. 3_ 

Oct. 4-10 

Oct. 11-17 

Oct. 18-24 

Oct. 25-31 

Nov. 1-7 

Nov. 8-14 

Nov. 15-21 



Total- 



Crew 
No. 1 



Pounds 
1,219 
2,483 
2,398 
4,478 
5,126 
3,077 
5,200 
1,828 
2,439 
3,049 
4,304 
2,958 
2,669 
3,385 
2,602 
1,834 
3,480 
2,802 
3,213 
3,523 
1,102 
303 
224 



63,596 



Crew 
No. 2 



Pounds 

708 

1,453 

1,065 

2,507 

2,242 

1,155 

1,599 

1,092 

1,561 

1,651 

2,072 

222 

2,766 

1,299 

1,926 

2,913 

889 

1,720 

1,375 

1,163 

288 

380 



32,028 



Crew 
No. 3 



Pounds 



244 
1,650 
1,812 
1,673 
1,818 
1,657 
2,400 
2,837 
2,469 
3, ia3 
3,372 
1,052 
3,110 
3,799 
3,439 
2,921 
3,701 
2,605 
1,810 
435 
628 
549 

48,164 



Total 



Pounds 
1,927 
3,936 
3,707 
8,635 
9,180 
5,906 
8,617 
5,577 
6,400 
7,537 
8,845 

6, 363 
8,807 
5, 736 

7, 538 
8,546 
7,808 
7,443 
8,289 
7, 291 
3,200 
1,118 

852 
549 



Average 



Pounds 



2,878 
3,060 
1,969 
2,872 
1,859 
2,133 
2,512 
2.948 
2,121 
2,936 
1,912 
2,513 
2,849 
2,603 
2.481 
2, 763 
2,430 
1,067 



FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND CORE SOUNDS 41 

Since no further refinement in the analysis of the data is feasible, 
and since, on the basis of this evidence, the yield of the fishery appears 
to be quite uniform, it is believed that the conclusions drawn are not 
unwarranted because of the possible error of the method. This view 
is further supported bj^ the internal evidence of uniformity of the data; 
for it appears, as is shown in the following tables, that the important 
features of the data are consistent among themselves. 

COMPOSITION OF THE CATCH 

As indicated in a previous paragraph, the yield of the pound nets 
and long-haul seines in Pamlico and Core Sounds comprises more than 
three-fifths of the aquatic food produced in North Carolina, and the 
species that make up this great catch, in order of importance, are the 
sea trout, croakers, spots, starfish, and butterfish. This estimate of 
relative importance is based upon the total weight of each species 
landed in the markets annually; but, from the point of view of wise 
regulation of the fishery, the total amount of fish landed is of less 
significance than the amounts actually caught, and in this case the 
disparity between the two figures is surprisingly great, for a tremen- 
dous waste of immature fish occurs in these fisheries. From the same 
point of view, the weight of the fish caught is of less significance than 
are the numbers of individuals taken, for an individual specimen, 
regardless of how young or how small it may be, barring the normal 
mortality occasioned by its enemies in the sea, has the potentiality of 
developing to a size that is of real value either to man as food or to 
the species as the brood stock of the future supply. 

In the following discussion, therefore, the relative abundance of the 
different kinds of fish and of the various sizes representing each species 
is determined by calculating the percentage by number and not by 
weight in the entire unsorted catches of food fish in the different nets. 
Hence the following figures represent more fully the real stock of fish, 
as caught, than would any analysis of the catch as marketed. Let us 
examine the records, then, to discover what kinds of fish are caught by 
each type of gear and the relative importance of each species in the 
total catch. 

SPECIES TAKEN 

The following species, arranged in the order of importance, were 
observed in the catches of long-haul seines during the season. The 
common names are those in most general use in this locality. Those 
marked wdth an asterisk are marketed; all others are discarded as 
trash fish. 

FISH TAKEN IN LONG-HAUL SEINES IN PAMLICO AND 
CORE SOUNDS, N. C, 1925 

*Spotted trout Cynoscion nebulosus. 

*Gray trout Cynoscion regalis. 

*Croaker Micropogon undulatus. 

*Spot Leiostomus xanthurus. 

*Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. 

Pinfish Lagodon rhomboides. 

Menhaden Brevoortia sp. 

*Starfish Peprilus alepidotus. 

*Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculai us. 

*Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. 



42 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 

Perch Bairdiella chrysura. 

*Hogfish Orthopristis chrysopterus. 

Stingaree Dasyatis say. 

c, .£ u f Galeichthys milberti. 

Sea catfish \Felichthyl felis. 

Garfish Tylosurus marinus. 

*Mullet Mugil cephalus. 

*Pompano Trachinotus carolinus.' 

*Sheepshead Archosargus probaiocephalus. 

*Sea mullet Menticirrhus sp. 

*Flounder ParaUchth^s sp. 

Toadfish Opsanus tau. 

Bur fish Chilomycterus spinosuis. 

Puffer Spheroides maculatus. 

*Rockfish Roccus lineatus. 

The following species, arranged in order of importance, were ob- 
served as occurring in the pound nets. The common names are 
those in most general use in this locality. Those marked with an 
asterisk were marketed, if large enough; all others were discarded as 
trash fish. 

FISH TAKEN IN POUND NETS IN PAMLICO SOUND, N. C, 1925 

*Gray trout Cynoscion regalis. 

*Starfish Peprilus alepidotus. 

*Croaker Micropogon undulatus. 

*Spot Leiostomus xanthurus. 

*Butterfish Poronotiis triacanthus. 

Menhaden Bre voortia sp. 

Pinfish 1 Lagodon rhomboides. 

*Flounder Paralichthys sp. 

*Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. 

*Porgy Chaetodipterus faber. 

*Spanish mackerel Scomber omor us maculatus. 

Cutlass fish Trichiurus lepturus. 

Lookdown Selene vomer. 

Sea catfish Galeichthys milberti. 

Stingaree Dasyatis say. 

Eel Anguilla rostrata. 

Nanny shad Dorosoma cepedianum. 

Garfish Tylosurus marinus. 

*Mullet Mugil cephalus. 

Olbacore Caranx hippos. 

Threadfish Alectis ciliaris. 

*Pompano Trachinotus carolinus. 

Sergeantfish Rachycentron canadus. 

*Spotted trout Cynoscion nebulosus. 

White perch Bairdiella chrysura. 

*Tripletail Lobotes surinamensis. 

*Hogfish Orthopristis chrysopterus. 

*Sheepshead Archosargus probaiocephalus. 

*Red drum Scisenops ocellatus. 

*Sea mullet Menticirrhus sp. 

* Black drum Pogonias croriiis. 

Foolfish Monacanthus hispidus. 

p rr (Spheroides maculatus. 

runer [Lagocephalus Isevigatus. 

Bur fish Chilomycterus spinosus. 

Sea robin Prionotus sp. 

Remora Echeneis naucrates. 

Toadfish Opsanus tau. 

Hogchoker Achirus fascial us. 

Hairy back Opisthonema oglin um. 



FISHERIES OF PAIMLICO AND COEE SOUNDS 



43 



Table 2 shows the composition, by species, of the catch of the 
pound nets and hmg-haul seines throiit^hout the season. The aver- 
age composition in each localit}'^ for each month is taken and 
from these figures the average composition for the season is calcu- 
lated. Starfish constitute 45 per cent of the catch of pound nets, 
gray trout 40 per cent, spots and butterfish each 5 per cent, and 
croakers 4 per cent, while spotted trout are not taken in any appre- 
ciable quantity. Other species are taken, but in such insignificant 
quantities that they are omitted from consideration. 

Long-haul seines, however, fail to catch many starfish or butter- 
fish. Their catch consists of 38 per cent croakers, 18 per cent each 
spots and spotted trout, 7 per cent gray trout, and 19 per cent 
mixed fish, comprising many species in small but varying quantities, 
most important of which are bluefish, Spanish mackerel, and red 
drum. 

Table 2. — Composition of catch of different gear, by species, in Pamlico and Core 
Sounds, N. C, 1925. {In per cent, by number) 





Gray 
trout 


Spotted 
trout 


Star- 
fish 


Butter- 
fish 


Croaker 


Spot 


Mixed 


Total 


POUND NETS 


39.1 
40.8 
32.3 
34.3 
53.3 




35.7 
38.6 
58.4 
59.1 
35.2 


9.4 
7.4 
4.0 
2. 1 

.8 


8.0 
8.1 
2.0 
1.8 
2.3 


7.9 
5.0 
3.2 
2.8 
8.3 






July 








August .. 








September 








October 
















Average for season. - 


40.0 




45.4 


4.7 


4.4 


5.4 




99.9 








LONG-HAUL SEINES 

July- 


2.4 
7.5 
10.4 
7.6 


15.6 
10.6 
21.4 
24.0 






55.9 
44.1 
28.4 
22.9 


20.3 
20.4 
12.3 
19.0 


6.0 
13.8 
27,3 
29.0 




August .. . . 








September . 








October 
















A verage for season 


7.0 


17.9 






37.8 


18.0 


19.0 


99.7 











It is therefore apparent that the two types of gear supplement each 
other — pound nets yielding the valuable gray trout in large quantities, 
and long-haul seines providing spotted trout, w^hich is highly prized. 
Starfish and butterfish would be absent from the markets if pound 
nets were not fished, and while both types of gear take croakers 
and spots, these fish form a larger percentage of long-haul seine 
catches than do any other species. Neither is there competition 
between the two types of nets in the locality fished, for the pound 
nets are confined to the deeper waters of Pamlico Sound and its 
tributaries, where the muddy bottoms are so soft that it is difficult to 
drag seines, while the long-haul seines operate on the shallow, sandy 
bottoms of Pamlico and Core Sounds, where conditions are unfavor- 
able for pound netting. It would seem that both types of gear are 
desirable and necessary for yielding a balanged supply of fish to the 
markets. 

SIZES OF FISH 

The sizes of fish taken in the pound nets in Pamlico Sound are 
presented in Tables 3 to 7 and Figures 8 to 13 showing the length 
frequencies of the various species, month by month, during the 
season. Gray trout taken in pound nets range in size from 5.5 to 



44 



U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHEKIES 



23.6 inches. One abundant size group is evident in this range, con- 
sisting of fish that are in all probability more than 2 years of age — that 
is, in their third year. The older groups are represented but scatter- 
ingly, and by the end of the fishing season a smaller size group also 
appeai-s in moderate numbers. Starfish taken range in length from 
2 to 8.3 inches and consist of two distinct sizes, which in all probability 
are separate year classes. The group of larger fish is taken during 
June and July, and the smaller size becomes abundant in August, 
September, and October, during which time the larger fish are absent. 
Butterfish range in length from 2.4 to 8.3 inches and constitute but 
one clearly marked size group. Spots range in length from 3.9 to 
9.5 inches and are readily divided into two distinct size groups. 
The larger fish are more abundant in June and July and the smaller 
ones in August and September. Croakers range in length from 5.1 
to 15.8 inches, but, as has been noted in other investigations, are 
separated with difficulty into distinct size groups. It is probable that 
two major size groups can be distinguished, but from our records it is 
difficult to assign ages to these groups. All sizes of fish are taken 
throughout the season, but the larger fish are notably reduced in 
relative abundance during October. 

Table 3. — Length frequencies of 9,497 gray trout taken in pound nets in Pamlico 
Sound, N. C, 1925, all localities. {In -per cent of total numberY 



Length, 
centimeters 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Length, 
centimeters 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


14 








0.09 

.29 

.20 

.62 

1.05 

1.24 

.71 

.77 

1.46 

5.01 

10.15 

14.68 

12.73 

8.53 

7.65 

6.11 

6.26 

3.89 

4.14 

3.12 

2.60 

2.77 

1.73 

l.U 

.69 


0.08 
.23 
.75 

2.47 

4.39 1 

4.40 1 
3.25 1 
1.21 

.65 
.72 
4.09 
7.08 : 
10.41 
9.52 
6.54 
5.63 
5.02 
5.19 
3.81 
3.79 
3.37 
2.63 
2.19 
1.58 
1.79 


39 


0.18 
.06 


0.97 
.33 
.18 
.15 
.11 
.16 
.02 


0.31 
.49 
.08 
.12 
.13 
.21 
.37 
.08 

"MB 


0.88 
.40 
.20 
.48 
.27 
.05 
.10 
.05 
.10 
.06 
.06 
.11 


1.15 


15 


0.27 

.64 

.85 

3.65 

8.68 

13.62 

15.78 

10.20 

4.20 

3.79 

7.19 

7.94 

7.33 

4.32 

3.20 

1.61 

2.18 

.67 

.17 

.84 

.91 

.18 

.31 

1.10 






40 . . 


1.06 


16 






41... 


1.36 


17 


0.11 

.33 

1.25 

3.94 

10.27 

13.92 

11.54 

8.58 

6.24 

7.14 

8.28 

6.05 

4.79 

3.23 

2.88 

2.03 

1.81 

1.36 

1.11 

1.25 

.54 

1.27 


"o."i7 

.66 

1.87 

7.79 

13.51 

18.20 

12.38 

8.98 

6.75 

6.19 

5.51 

4.20 

3.45 

1.87 

1.85 

1.23 

1.42 

.77 

.79 

.29 


42 




1.05 


18 


43 




.94 


19 


44 




.72 


20.. 


45 




.78 


21 


46 




.26 


22 


47 




.03 
.04 


.38 


23 . ' 


48 




.16 


24 


49 


.05 


.18 


25 


50.. 


.03 




.22 


26 . 


51 




.30 


27 


52 




.03 
.03 






.18 


28 


53 








.22 


29 . 


54 








.06 
.06 




30 


55 




i 


.06 


31 


581 






.08 


32 


59 








.04 


33 


60 








.08 


34 


Total 










35 


99.92 


100.00:100.02 


99.96 


100. 01 




Number of fish. 




37 


1,202 


2,377 1,678 


2,218 


2, 022 


38 . 













• Indicates break in continuity of table. 

Table 4. — Length frequencies of 13,308 starfish taken in pound nets in Pamlico 
Sound, N. C, 1925, all localities. {In per cent of total number) 



Length, centi- 
meters 



June 



5 




6 ! 


7 1 


8 


9 


0.16 
1.33 
7.21 
15.90 
25.24 
27.04 
13.65 


10 


11 


12 


13 . 


14 


15 



July 


Aug. 


0.11 


0.34 


.20 


1.67 


.76 


6.08 


1.89 


10.24 


1.96 


12.07 


.15 


20.79 


2.12 


11.23 


6.34 


2. .39 


11.38 


3.84 


22.40 


8.12 


27.39 


12.12 



Sept. 



Oct. 



0.03 

.18 
1.37 

10. 05! 

23. 20 
24.40 
25.75 
10.37 

1.16 

1. 
.96 



Length, centi- 
meters 



I June 



6.23 

2.03 

.91 

.14 

.06 



Total - 99.90 



Number of fish.. 1,115 



July 



13.86 

7.54 

2.81 

.64 

.38 



99.93 



2,576 



Aug. 



6.61 

2.49 

1.01 

.58 

.22 

.02 



100.02 



3,650 



Sept. 



4,291 



Oct. 



.16 
.14 
.11 



.04 
.12 



1,876 



FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND COKE SOUNDS 



45 



T.xBLE 5. — Length frequencies of 1,184 butterfish taken in pound nets in Pamlico 
Sound, N. C, 1925, all localities. {In per cent of total number) 



Length, centi- 
meters 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Length, centi- 
meters 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


6 


0.43 
1.72 










16 


9.01 
14.60 
7.72 
3.00 


29.90 

9.90 

4.65 

1.41 

.20 


41.30 

19.85 

3.50 

1.56 

.78 


41.10 

26.40 

9.20 

1.84 

.61 


19.45 












17 


41.68 


8.. . 


1.72 
3.43 
2.58 










18 


30.58 


9 


1 






19 


5.53 


10. 


0.40 








20 




11. 


7. 72 1. 21 
5. 58 2. 83 
13.30 4.85 
17.17 13.54 
12.02 .m92 


0.39 






21 




.20 




12 






Total 












13 


2.34 

5.84 

24.46 


3.07 
6.14 
11.68 


"2." 78 


100.00100.01100.02 


100. 04 


100. 02 




Number offish.. 




15. 


233I 495 257 


163 


36 

















Table 6. — Length frequencies of 1,101 spots taken in pound nets in Pamhco 
Sound, N. C, 1925, all localities. {In per cent of total number) 



Length, centi- 
meters 



June 



12 


1.15 


13 ::: 


14.. 


4.60 


15 16.75 


16 17.80 


17 


14.94 


18 . 17.23 


19.. 13.78 





July 



0.38 

.38 

.38 

1.53 

3.03 

2.27 

6.44 

15.90 

25.38 

17.43 



Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 

1 


"i'ig 


"6." 63 


"6." 60 


2.98 


6.92 


2.08 


11.90 


7.54 


11.01 , 


14.28 


14.45 


9.82 : 


10.72 


18.23 


13.40 


3.57 


16.98 


21.12 


9.52 


9.43 


6.84 


18.45 


4.40 


6.84 



Length, centi- 
meters 



Total 

Number offish.. 



June 



10.34 
3.45 



100. 04 



July : Aug. 



12.12 

10. 61 

3.41 

.38 

.38' 



100.02 



9.52 
8.33 
7.14 
1.19 
1.19 



Sept. 



5.66 
6.92 
5.66 
2.52 
.63 



99.97 



159 



Oct. 



6.25 
10.42 
6.55 
3.87 
1.19 



100. 00 



336 



Table 7. — Length frequencies of 942 croakers taken in pound nets in Pamlico 
Sound, N. C, 1925, all localities. {In per cent of total number) 



Length, centi- 
meters 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Length, centi- 
meters 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


13.. 


0.82 
1.23 
4.53 
8.65 
11.50 
15.63 
9.05 
4.94 
2.06 
2.88 
4.94 
7.40 
4 94 
6.17 
4.12 
2.47 










29 . . 


2.88 
1.65 
L23 
L23 
.41 
.41 


4.63 
1.09 
2.18 
.82 
1.64 
.54 
.54 
.27 
.54 
.54 


5.66 
1.89 
.94 
3.78 
1.89 
.94 
.94 
.94 
.94 


4.90 
3.92 
4.90 
1.96 


0.81 


14 








0.81 
.81 
4.03 
5.65 
6.45 
12.09 
12.90 
11.29 
11.29 
8.86 ' 
6.65 
3.23 
4.84 
2.42 
4.03 


30.. 


1.62 


15... 


0.27 
.54 
1.36 
6.26 
6.80 

12.00 
7.08 
5.45 
6.54 

11.70 
9.54 
7.08 
4.90 
7.35 


L89 
.94 

'ii.'si 

.94 
9.43 
12.25 
12.25 
4.72 
1.89 
9.43 
6.60 
1.89 
8.50 


"0.'98 
3.92 
7.85 
3.92 
6.86 
12.72 
10.79 
6.86 
.98 
4.90 
3.92 
13.72 
4.90 


31 




16.. 


32 


.81 


17 


33 




18. 


34 


1.96 


.81 


19.. - 


35.. 


.81 


20 


36 


.41 
.41 




21 


37 




.81 


22 


38 




23 


39 










24. 


40 . 




.27 








25 


Total 










26. 


99.96 


99.93 


99.96 


99.96 


100. 02 


27 


Number of fish.. 




28 


243 


367 


106 


102 


124 







In the long-haul seine catches (Tables 8 to 11) but scattering speci- 
mens of gray trout are found. Those caught range in length from 
9.8 to 25.6 inches, and the more abundant sizes consist of fish that 
are in all probability more than 3 years old. The spotted trout taken 
range in length from 9.1 to 27.2 inches, but the size groups are not 
readily distinguished. The spots caught are from 4.3 to 10.6 inches 
in length. These also represent older fish than those taken in the 
pound nets, except in October, when the older fish are notably lacking; 
the same sizes are caught by both gears. Croakers range in length 
from 5.9 to 16.2 inches, and, as in the pound-net catches, the larger 
fish are abundant in the earlier part of the season but virtually absent 
in October. 



46 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Table 8. — Length frequencies of 210 gray trout taken in long-haul seines, 1925, 
all localities. {In per cent of total number) 



Length, centimeters 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Length, centimeters 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


25 


2.02 
2.02 
3.03 
3.03 
9.09 
8.08 
7.07 
8.08 
5.05 
9.09 
5.05 
7.07 
2.02 
5.05 
7.07 
2.02 




41 




2.60 
1.30 
5.20 


5.88 


26 


3.90 
9.09 
6.50 
2.60 
2.60 
6.50 
2.60 
5.20 
9.09 
7.79 
10.39 
5.20 
1.30 
3.90 
5.20 


2.94 

8.82 
8.82 

"""a 82 

2.94 
2.94 
2.94 
11.77 
14.70 
2.94 
2.94 
2.94 

a 82 


42 _ 


4.04 
2.02 
1.01 


5.88 


27 


43 


2.94 


28 


44 




29 


45 






30 


46 - 


4.04 
1.01 
1.01 
1.01 


2.60 




31 


47 




32 


48 


'"i'm 

2.60 
1.30 


2.94 


33 


49 




34 


50 




35 


55' 






36 


65 ' - 


1.01 




37 

38 


Total 






99.99 


100. 06 


99.97 


39 -... 

40_-.. 


Number offish 




99 


77 


34 



1 Indicates breali in continuity of table. 

Note.— Only 15 specimens secured during the month of July. 

Table 9. — Length frequencies of 460 spotted trout taken in long-haul seines, 1925, 
all localities. {In per cent of total number) 



Length, centimeters 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Length, centimeters 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


23 








2.67 
2.67 
2.67 
3.34 
2.67 
2.67 
3.34 
2.00 

""".'67 

""i."34 

.67 

a 00 

a 00 

7.33 
9.34 
6.00 

a 00 

6.66 
9.34 
4.66 


46--. - 


.90 
5.41 

.90 
1.80 


1.67 

""5." 65 


.72 
2.88 

.72 
1.44 

.72 
2.16 


2.67 


24 








47 


2.00 


25 








48 


.67 


26 


0.90 
.90 
3.61 
3.61 
7.21 
6.30 
9.00 
6.30 
3.61 
9.80 
5.41 
3.61 
1.80 
6.30 
4.51 
3.61 
1.80 
2.71 
2.71 
1.80 






49 




27 






50 . 


.67 


28 - 






51 


.90 


""i."67 


1.34 


29 


1.67 
3.44 

"3." 44 
a 34 
6.66 
a 34 
11.68 
a 34 
6.66 
a 34 
3.44 
.5.00 
5.00 

"'i."67 
5.00 


2.88 
1.44 
5.04 
7.91 
11.51 
a 63 
a 63 
9.35 
7.91 
9.35 
4.32 
2.16 
4.32 
3.60 


52- 




30 


53 




.72 




31 


54 .. - . 




1.67 




32 


55.-- 








33 


56- 


.90 








34 


57 








35 


58 




1.67 
1.67 




.67 


36 


59 


.90 
.90 
.90 




37 


60 


.72 




38 


61 




39 


681 




.72 
.72 




40 


69 - 


.90 






41,.- 


Total 




99.91 


100. 37 


100. 01 




42 -- 


100. 06 


43 


Number offish 




111 


60 


139 




44 


150 


45 -- 









1 Indicates break in continuity of table. 



Table 10. — Length frequencies of 586 spots taken in long-haul seines, 
all localities. {In per cent of total number) 



1925, 



Length, centimeters 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Length, centimeters 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


11 . 






0.81 




22--- - 


11.10 

6.17 

.61 


3L61 
11.61 
2.58 


25.00 
12.10 
2.42 


a 96 


12 






23 --. 


4.14 


13 


61 
L23 






2.07 
.69 

4.83 
12.40 
21.40 
14. 50 
17.90 

4.83 

5.52 


24 


.69 


14 






25- 


. 65| . 81 
.65; - 


.69 


15 




2.42 

4.84 
a 06 
6.45 
3.23 
10.50 
23.40 


26 




.69 


16 .. 






27 








.69 


17 .. - 


2.46 
10.50 
11.72 
20.40 
35. 20 


4.53 
5.16 
4.53 
14.20 
24. 52 


Total -- 










100.00 


100.04 


100.04 




18 


100. 00 




Number offish 




20 


162 


155 


124J 145 


21 











FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND CORE SOUNDS 



47 



T.VBLK II. — Length frequencies of 1,303 croakers taken in catches of long-haul seines, 
1925, all localities. {In per cent of total number) 



licngth, centimeters 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct.i 


Length, centimeters 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct.i 


15 . - 




0.91 
.46 
.91 

3.20 

7.30 i 

16.45 

18.70 

16. 90 

14.60 

8.67 

2.74 

4.10 

.91 

.46 

.46 

.91 


31 


4.94 

3.30 

1.92 

.82 


4.22 8.50 




16 -1 




32 


1.58 
1.06 

"".'26 


4.40 
2.35 
2.64 

""."88 


.91 


17 






33 




18 






34 


.91 


19 


0.27 
1.37 
3.02 
3.84 
5.50 
7.42 
9.34 
12.60 
18.94 
11.00 
9.05 
5.76 


"6.'26 
1.32 
2.37 
9.50 
11.61 
12.66 
17.94 
11.87 
8.18 
9.50 
7.39 


0.29 

2.35 
3.23 

10.85 
8.50 
8.80 
5.87 
7.92 
8.80 
5.57 

12.60 
4.99 


35 - 


.46 


20 


36 


.55 
.27 




21 


37. 




22 


38.- 




.59 
.29 
.29 
.29 




23 ... 


39 








24 


40 




.26 




25 


41 . 






23 


Total 








99.91 


99.98 


100. 00 




27 


99.96 


28 


Number of fish 




364 


379 


341 




29 


219 


30- 









' Includes collections on Nov. 2. 

These data are all presented graphically in Figures 8 to 13, and for 
the benefit of the average practical reader, unfamiliar with graphical 
methods of analysis, Figure 7 is given to illustrate the method of 
construction of these curves and to make more complete the mental 
picture they are intended to convey. 

SELECTIVE ACTION OF FISHING GEAR 

It will be noted above that the size of fish taken in pound nets 
differs materially from those taken in the long-haul seines. Not 
only do pound nets catch the smaller fish, such as butterfish and 
starfish, which seldom appear in the catches of the long-haul seines, 
but the long-haul seines catch spotted trout, drum, rockfish, and 
other large species not frequently taken in pound nets. The sizes of 
fish of the same species are uniformly larger in long hauls than in 
pound nets. Thus, the maximum size of gray trout taken in long- 
haul seines is 2 inches greater than those taken in pound nets. The 
maximum size of spots is 1.1 inches greater, and the maximum size 
of croakers is 0.4 inch greater. The same disparity in sizes is shown 
in the minimum sizes taken, pound nets taking smaller fish of all 
species than are ever caught in quantities by long-haul seines. There 
is, therefore, a very evident selection of different sizes of fish by the 
two types of gear, which is more clearly illustrated by Figures 8, 11, 
and 12, showing the length frequencies of fish of the three species 
caught most abundantly by the two methods. Figure 8 shows the 
size composition of gray trout, and while the curve for the long-haul 
seine catch is quite irregular, due to the relatively small numbers it 
represents, it is quite apparent that fish under 25 centimeters in 
length seldom are caught by this gear. If we assume that the 
abundant size group found at 24 centimeters in August represents 
the 2-year-old fish, it is apparent that only fish 3 years and more of 
age are caught by long hauls. As the 2-year-old fish grow through 
the summer, the number of this group taken by the long hauls in- 
creases; but in all months of the season the older fish are taken in 



48 



V. S. BUEEAU OF FISHEBIES 



far greater relative abundance by long hauls than by pound nets. 
The same kind of size selection is shown by the catch of spots in 
Figure 11. If ages are assigned provisionally to the prominent size 
groups as shown in the graph, it is apparent that the Ill-group is 
taken far more abundantly in the early part of the season by long- 
haul seines than by pound nets. As the I and II groups grow, how- 
ever, increasing amounts are taken by the long hauls until in October, 



LENGTH 

CM. 

8 




BUTTERFI5H, STATION A" 




JUNL5 


JUNEI2 JUNEZO , JUNE 26, TOTAL 


PERCENT 


— 


1 


- 




1 


.8 


9 


1 


— 


1 




3 


2.3 


10 


li 


1 


1 


— 


4 


3.1 


1 1 


mi 


II 


1 




9 


7.0 


12 


III 


III 


II 


mj 


13 


lO.I 


13 


tHlIHJII 


rwmj 


Wl 


II 


Z9 


22.5 


14 


mj II! 


iHimj 1 


mjmjii 


mjiiii 


40 


31.0 


15 


II 


mil 


rHJi 


m 


19 


14.7 


16 


1 


1 


II 


III 


7 


5.4 


17 


1 


1 


- 




3 


2.3 


18 


- 


— 


1 


- 


1 


.8 


19 _ 
TOTAL 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





35 ~ 


36 


31 


27 


129 


100.0 


a: 














iao 






, 












/ 


y 1 




Z5 














z 






/ 








_l 






/ 








< 






/ 








1— 














? 20 


















1 








ii_ 






1 








o 






1 








1- 






1 








z; 






j 








S 10 




J 












y^ 










oe 




/ 












,,,^ 


X 






^ 




CM. i 


i 9 1 


II 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 


8 




TOTAL LENGTH OF fISH. 





Fig. ".—Illustrating method of tabulating length frequencies and con- 
structing curves. At station A 35 butterfish contained in the gross 
sample obtained from the pound-net catch of one crew were measured 
and their lengths tallied on the record sheet opposite the correponding 
length in centimeters, as in the first column. On succeeding visits 
to this station (on June 12. 20, and 26) the butterfish taken were 
measured and tabulated. The total number of flsh occurring at each 
centimeter length was then determined by adding together the samples, 
as shown in the total column. The number of fish at each length was 
reduced to a percentage of the total number, as shown in the per cent 
column, and comprise a length-frequency table corresponding to 
Tables 3 to 11. These figures were then used to plot the curve here 
shown by placing points at the corresponding heights on the vertical 
scale over the proper lengths on the horizontal scale. Fictitious and 
not actual figures have been used in this illustration 

when the majority of the fish are above 15 centimeters in length, 
virtually equal numbers of the I and II groups are taken by both 
gears. 

Figure 12 illustrates the catch of croakers. As was said before, the 
separate-age groups can not be distinguished readily, but it is again 
apparent that the larger fish are taken more abundantly by long- 
haul seines throughout July, August, and September, and that the 
smaller group appears in numbers only when the fish have grown 
beyond 19 centimeters in size. 



FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND CORE SOUNDS 



49 



No direct observations on the causes of this selection in sizes were 
made in the course of the investigation. It may be remembered, 
however, that pound nets operate in different localities than do long- 
haul seines and upon bottom of different character. It must also 
be remembered that the size of mesh used in the seines is much 




Fig. 8.— Length frequencies of gray trout from pound nets and long-haul seine catches in Pamlico 
and Core Sounds, N. C, 1925. The heavy vertical line is placed at the legal minimum size 
limit. 

greater than that used in the crib of the pound net, and both of 
these factors, in all probability, are responsible. But whether this 
selection by pound nets and long-haul seines is due to the segregation 
of the size of fish according to the depth of water and character of 
bottom, or whether it is due to differences in size of mesh and in the 
method of operating the nets, is of little practical importance. That 



50 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



long-haul seines tend to catch more of the larger sizes of fish and 
that pound nets take greater quantities of the younger and smaller 
fish are facts of great importance. From this evidence alone, and 
unless counteracted by other undesirable features not discovered by 
this investigation, this selection of the larger species and of the larger 
fish in each species would warrant the encouragement of long-haul 
seining as being more efficient and less harmful to the fish supply 
than pound-net fishing. 




CM 



Fig . 9. — Length frequencies of starfish (harvest fish) 
g in pound-net catches in Pamlico Sound, 1925 



Fig. 10.— Length frequencies of butterflsh in 
pound-net catches in Pamlico Sound, 1925 



DESTRUCTION OF UNDERSIZED FISH 

The Fisheries Commission Board of North Carolina has enacted 
regulations that prohibit the marketing, possession, or the unneces- 
sary destruction of various commercial fish below a certain size. 
Rule 12, passed December 11, 1923, and published in "Orders, Rules, 
and Regulations" of the Fisheries Commission Board in 1925, pro- 
vides the following minimum size limits: Gray trout, 9 inches; 
spotted trout, 11 inches; croakers, 8 inches; spots, 7 inches. Size 
limits are assigned also to other species not taken by pound nets or 
long-haul seines. Starfish and butterfish have no legal minimum 



FISHERIES OF PA^ILICO AND CORE SOI'NDS 



51 



size limit, but a very eli'ective market limit of about 5 inches is placed 
upon these species by the dealers, for fish below this size are virtually 
worthless and are refused by the fish buyers. 

The provisions of this rule regarding; marketing or possession are 
undoubtedly well enforced in this State and are accepted without 



5 6" 7" 8 9 10 II 

CM.IO 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 2 




8 20 22 24 26 



Fig. 11. — Length frequencies of spot in pound-net and long-haul seine catches 
in Pamlico and Core Sounds, N. C, 1925. The heavy vertical line is placed 
at the legal minimum size limit 

protest by the fishing interests. Whether or not the third provision 
of the rule, concerning unnecessary destruction, is effective may be 
seen by an examination again of Tables 3 to 11, which show relative 
numbers of the various sizes of each species caught by the different 
kinds of gear. Table 12 summarizes the percentage, by number, of 



52 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



unmarketable fish — that is, fish below the legal or marketable size 
limit taken in the pound nets and long-haul seines during 1925. 
From the averages of destruction in different months it may be seen 
that long-haul seines waste no gray trout that are unmarketable, 



7 8 9 10 12 14 

L8 2 22|24.2 6 28 30. 32 34 36 38 




CM.I4 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 



Fig. 12.— Length frequencies of croaker in pound-net and long-haul seine catches 
in Pamlico and Core Sounds, N. C, 1925. The heavy vertical line is placed 
at the legal minimum size limit 



while pound nets waste, on the average, 30.6 per cent of the catch. 
Long-haul seines waste 4 per cent of the catch of spotted trout; 
pound nets destroy 59 per cent of the catch of starfish and 5^ per 
cent of the catch of butterfish. 



FISHERIES OF PAMLECO AND CORE SOUNDS 



53 



T.\BLE 12. — Percentage (by number) of unmarketable fish, Pamlico and Core 
Sounds, N. C, 1925, all localities 



Species 


June 


July 


-A^ug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Average 


LONG-HAUL SEINES 

Gr;iv trout - 






1.8 
1.6 
4.3 

41.4 
13.5 
4.4 
27.2 
30.3 










14.0 
29.2 
41.4 

18.2 
97.2 

42.7 
58.0 









4.0 






.3 

4.5 

24.0 
65.0 
.4 
24.5 
44.6 


2."6" 
16.1 

11.4 
95.4 


23.5 
64.7 


8.4 


Spot - - 




16.6 


POUND NETS 

Grav trout _ - 


57.9 
24.6 
23.2 
56.4 
55.2 


30.6 


Starfish. 


59.1 


Butterfish 


5.6 




34.9 


Spot... 


50.6 







Long-haul seines waste 8}^^ per cent of the catch of croakers, while 
pound nets waste 35 per cent. Long-haul seines destroy 163^ per 
cent of the catch of spots, while pound nets destroy 50^ per cent. 
Long-haul seines also take appreciable numbers of mixed fish, but 
the numbers of each species is so small and variable that the per- 
centage of destruction of small fish, such as rock or striped bass, 
drum, bluefish, and sheepshead, has not been reduced to exact figures; 
but of the total number approximately 12 per cent are below market- 
able or legal limit and are thus destroyed. It can be seen that long- 
haul seines destroy but small quantities of fish that are too small to 
market, while pound nets, on the other hand, are extremely destruc- 
tive. A simple average of the percentage of waste by pound nets of 
each species shows a destruction of more than 36 per cent; but this 
is far under the real destruction of all fish taken, when it is con- 
sidered that the destruction of the most numerous species — starfish — 
amounts to almost 60 per cent for the season. 

The figures of size composition given in Tables 3 to 11 represent 
the size of fish landed in the boats. All of the fish below the legal 
or marketable size limit, indicated by the heavy vertical line in 
Figures 8 to 14, are utterly destroyed and wasted, for culling of 
these small fish from the marketable catch is not attempted in the 
case of the pound-net fishing until the boats have returned with the 
catch to the market places or waiting buy boats. They are then 
scooped up, sorted, and thrown overboard, where they float upon 
the water in great quantities, afl^ording food only for gulls and 
crabs. (See fig. 3.) 

Table 12 further shows that the destruction of the various species 
by pound nets varies throughout the season. The greatest destruc- 
tion of gray trout occurs in June and declines through July and 
August, reaching the lowest point in September, with a slight increase 
in October. The destruction of starfish falls from June to July, but 
increases rapidly until the tremendous waste of 97 per cent occurs 
in October. Butterfish are wasted in appreciable quantities only in 
June, but the wastage of spots and croakers appears to be virtually 
constant throughout the season, with somewhat greater waste 
occurring in both species in June. The tremendous waste of croakers 
and spots is deplorable, but these species represent only 4 and 5 
per cent, respectively, of the total season catch of the pound nets, 



54 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 



while trout and starfish represent 40 and 45 per cent, respectively. 
Hence further consideration of undersized fish will be limited to a 
consideration of the pound-net catch of gray trout and starfish. 

The previous figures, based upon observations at Portsmouth, 
Lupton, Brant Island, Gull Rock, and Point of Marsh, apply to the 
average conditions over the whole of Pamlico Sound. There is con- 
siderable variation, however, in the relative destruction of gray trout 
and starfish in the various localities. Table 13 gives the percentage 
destruction of small gray trout taken in pound nets in Pamlico Sound, 
according to month and locality. 

Table 13. — Percentage destruction of undersized gray trout by pound nets in 
Pamlico Sound, N. C, 1925, according to locality and month 



Locality 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 




29.36 
50.46 
77.73 


25.30 
54.38 
43.99 
29.94 
53.16 










25.68 
16.50 
14.88 
38.93 


4.92 

6.29 

6.83 

27.76 


10.42 


Brant Island - 


28.40 


Point of Marsh _ 


20.43 


Gull Rock -. 


74.17 


13.28 






Average _ — 


57.93 


41. 35 


24.00 


11.45 


18.13 



In the month of June the smallest fish are taken at Brant Island 
and Gull Rock, the number of unmarketable fish reaching 78 and 74 
per cent, respectively w^hile at Lupton virtually 50 per cent of the 
catch is below legal size. At Portsmouth less than 30 per cent are 
unmarketable, the bulk of the catch coming from the older spawning 
fish. In July the amount of destruction at Brant Island and Gull 
Rock has fallen somewhat and is exceeded by the destruction at Lup- 
ton, which amounts to 54 per cent. The amount of destruction at 
Portsmouth still remains low, although the preponderance of spawn- 
ing fish is somewhat reduced. In August the destruction in all locali- 
ties has fallen below 40 per cent, with the highest figure at Gull Rock. 
Fishing at Portsmouth has been discontinued until the very end of 
the season, but records are so scattering that they do not appear in 
our study again. The destruction at Gull Rock still remains high, 
but has fallen in September to about 28 per cent. This amount of 
destruction is largely due to the incoming of the smaller year class 
of trout, which scarcely appears in the catches at other localities. 
The total destruction at the other three pound-net localities is 5 or 
6 per cent. In October the larger sizes of fish are relatively more 
important in all localities. The fish remaining below the legal limit 
have increased, however, to 20 and 28 per cent at Point of Marsh and 
Gull Rock, due to the increasing abundance of the youngest year 
class taken in commercial gear. If it can be assumed that conditions 
at Gull Rock are typical of the northwest side of Pamlico Sound, we 
may conclude that this region supports a population of very small 
fish with but a scattering of the larger sizes. The destruction of fish 
in this locality is, therefore, more severe than at any other place. 
Only the larger sizes are taken in the fishery at Portsmouth in June 
and July, hence the destruction of small fish there amoimts to very 
little. 



FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND CORE SOUNDS 55 

EFFECT OF GROWTH ON MARKETABILITY 

Figure S shows the eomposition of the catch of gray trout in pound 
nets in all localities for the various months. The heavy vertical line 
at 28 centimeters marks the legal minimum size limit. It may be 
seen that in June two well-marked size groups are present in the range 
of sizes, one with a mode at about 21 centimeters and another with 
a mode at about 26 centimeters. The group above 23 centimeters 
is, of course, composed of marketable fish, while the smaller group lies 
entirely below the legal limit and these fish are wasted. In July the 
group of the smaller fish has grown to a modal or average length of 
22 centimeters, when the larger members of this group are now beyond 
the nunimum limit. In August the modal size of the same group has 
reached 24 centimeters, and in September more than 25 centimeters, 
with increasing percentages above the minimum size limit. Thus the 
decreasing destruction of the gray trout from June to September is 
explained by the growth of the most numerous year class, which 
passes from an unmarketable to a marketable size in the period of 
rapid grow^th during the summer. In October the percentage destruc- 
tion rises somewhat because of the fact that the next younger age 
group has reached a size of 14 to 23 centimeters in length, which is 
large enough to be taken by the pound nets. They apparently are 
not very numerous, however, for they amount to but 18 per cent of 
the total number of fish taken. 

The size composition of starfish taken in the pound nets during the 
season is shown in Figure 9. Here it may be seen that in June the 
market limit of 5 inches falls almost in the middle of an abundant 
3'ear class with a mode at about 13.5 centimeters, hence the destruc- 
tion of unmarketable fish is relatively great. This group has grown, 
however, by July so that but few remain below the limit. For some 
reason the smaller fish are not taken during the month of July, but in 
August a smaller size group becomes relatively abundant and the 
larger group diminishes in importance. Since this smaller group con- 
sists of fish from 5 to 12 centimeters in length, they are worthless in 
the market and hence are discarded from the catch. In September 
and October the catch consists almost entirely of this smaller year 
class, which apparently does not grow sufficiently to pass the mini- 
mum market limit. Hence, the destruction of this species reaches 
95 and 97 per cent, respectively, in the latter months of the season. 

THE PROBLEM OF CONSERVATION 

It is now plainly evident that grossly wasteful and uneconomic 
practices exist in the pound-net fishery in North Carolina. From 
our records and from the statistics published by the State authori- 
ties it is not possible to estimate with any accuracy the total number 
of pounds of fish wasted, nor can any valuation be placed upon them, 
since they are all unmarketable. Despite this fact, the destruction 
of immature and unmarketable fish is a real economic loss to the 
fishery, and means should be devised to safeguard the supply against 
unnecessary strain, particularl}^ when it is remembered that the 
supply is insufficient to meet the demand. Of the 8,225,000 pounds 
landed in Pamlico and Core Sounds in 1923, the landings of the two 
species of sea trout amounted to 27 per cent, butterfish 2.1 per cent, 



56 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 



starfish 3.7 per cent, croakers 15.7 per cent, and spots 12.5 per cent. 
With the exception of spotted trout, these species bring the fishermen 
from 2 to 4 cents per pound. Spotted trout, however, are more in 
demand, bringing the fishermen S to 12 cents per pound. The trout, 
therefore, are a staple market fish in North CaroUna; and although 
starfish are subject to a greater destruction of undersized fish, gray 
trout must be considered of greatest value as a natural resource. 




Fig. 13. — Length frequencies of spotted trout in long-haul seine catches in Pamlico and Core 

Sounds, N. C, 1925 

We are faced, therefore, with the problem of affording the gray 
trout maximum protection from wasteful and excessive exploitation, 
at the same time disrupting as little as possible the operations of the 
fishing industry. The protection of the species, however, depends 
upon many facts in the life history and habits of the fish, which must 
be considered in drafting effective regulations. 



FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND CORE SOUNDS 



57 



LIFE HISTORY OF THE GRAY TROUT 

111 outlining the life history of the gray trout it niust be admitted 
at the start that our knowledge is extremely fragmentary and quite 
inadequate in many directions. No complete or convincing study has 
been made of the details of the life history and habits of this species. 
The most useful contributions to our knowledge have been made by 
Taylor,^ Welsh and Brcder,^*^ and Hildebrand and Schroeder." 

in the present investigation no attempt has been made to study the 
life history of the trout by means of scales, for it was felt that the 
major objects of the mvestigation would be served by employing 
less involved methods. All our discussions, therefore, concerning 
age and rate of growth, age at first maturity, etc., are subject to 
revision when more exact determinations of age are possible. Ex- 
tensive collections of scales from the fish studied in this investigation 
have been retained for that purpose for subsequent treatment. 

Spawninq. — As has been noted by other authors, the spawning 
period of the gray trout occurs during the summer months, from 
May to September. Welsh and Breder state that the great majority 
of the fish spawn between the middle of May and the middle of 
June and that the season appears to be little affected by latitude. 
Spawning occurs from the Carolinas to Cape Cod. 

Table 14 presents our data concerning the relative number of 
spawning fish among all mature females ^^ taken in pound nets in 
Pamlico Sound. When our investigation began in the second week 
of June virtually all mature females were found to be in a spawning 
condition; that is, the eggs were large and distinct and the ovaries 
greatly swollen. In only a few, however, were free-running, ripe eggs 
discovered. Although there is variation among the different localities, 
it can be seen from the column of averages that the percentage of 
spawning fish fell rapidly during the season, from 100 per cent in early 
June to by the end of the first week in August. This indicates that 
spawning in Pamlico Sound reached its height during June and was 
completed for that season by August 10. These facts are represented 
graphically in Figure 14. 

Table 14. — Percentage of spawning females among all mature females in pound- 
net catches, Pamlico Sound, N. C, 1925. {Average by weeks) 



Junea-13 

June 15-20 

June 22-27 

June29-July 4. 

July 6-11 

July 13-18 

July 20-25 

July 27-Aug. 1 . 

Aug. 3-8 

Aug. 10-15 



Date 



Ports- 
mouth 



100 
100 
99 
98 
100 



Lupton 



Brant 
Island 



100 

58 

60 

43 

29 

12 

4 

3 





Point of 
Marsh 



Gull 
Rock 



Average 



9 The Structure and Growth of the Scales of the Squeteague and the Pigflsh as Indicative of Life History. 
By Harden F. Taylor. Bulletin, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, Vol. XXXIV, 1914 (1916), pp. 285-330, Pis. 
I^LIX, 8 text figs. Washington, 1916. 

»f Contributions to Life Histories of Sciaenidae of the Eastern United States Coast. By William W. Welsh 
and C. M. Breder, jr. Bulletin, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, Vol. XXXIX, 1923-24 (1924), pp. 141-201, 60 
figs. Washington, 1923. 

" Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Bv Samuel F. Hildebrand and William C. Schroeder. Bulletin, U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries, Vol. XLIII, 1927, Part I. (In press.) 

12 Mature fish, as shown in Table 15, are never less than 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) in length. 



58 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



We have no observations upon the exact locaUties of spawumg, but 
the fish are supposed to spawn in open water. They are known to 
spawn in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, where the fish assemble 
in fairly deep water and spawn on the bottom. The fertilized eggs 
immediately float to the surface and are freely distributed by tidal 
currents. (Welsh and Breder.) It is not known whether con- 
ditions inside Pamlico Sound are favorable for spawning. Some 
slight evidence indicates, however, that the spawning individuals 
leave the inland waters and spawn in the Atlantic Ocean. Thus a 
scarcity of mature specimens was noted in June in experimental 
pound-net catches made in Beaufort Harbor in 1913 to 1916, and the 
early-spring run of large specimens is well recognized by the fisher- 
men in the vicinity of Ocracoke Inlet. Figure 14 indicates that only 
ripe individuals were taken in the Portsmouth pound-net fishery 




JUNL 

1925 



30 10 

July 



20 30 10 

August 



20 



Fig. 14. — Percentage of spawning gray trout among all mature females occurring in pound-net 
catches in Pamlico Sound, N. C, 1925, computed by weeks during June, July, and August 

until early July, when fishing operations were abandoned at that 
place. The proportion of spawning females is greater here than at 
any other locality in the sound, and it may be supposed that the 
outward migrating schools are intercepted by the nets at this locality. 
Growth. — We have no knowledge of the early life of the trout in 
Pamlico Sound until they have reached the size large enough to be 
taken in the pound nets — -that is, 14 centimeters in length. Some 
collections (Hildebrand) in the vicinity of Beaufort, N. C, however, 
include specimens ranging from 50 to 120 millimeters in length on 
August 1 and from 70 to 135 millimeters by October 15. Welsh and 
Breder also estimate that the length of trout at Cape May, N. J., is 
from 10 to 13 centimeters during their first winter. The smallest 
sizes taken in the pound nets in Pamlico Sound have a modal size 
of about 18 centimeters in October. We believe, therefore, that 



FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND CORE SOUNDS 59 

these fish are in their second year (T-trroup) and thus roughly agree 
with tlie estimate l)y Welsh and Breck^- of 21 centimeters in the 
second winter. By reference to Figure 5 the first size group in our 
length-frequency studies has a modal length of 21 centimeters in 
June. These fish, therefore, are the next older year group — the II- 
group — and are in their third year. Growth of this age group very 
clearly progresses to 22 centimeters in July, 24 centimeters in August, 
25 centimeters in September, and to somewhat more than 26 centi- 
meters in October. Welsh and Breder estimate that this group 
reaches a length of 28 centimeters in the third winter, and this is in 
fairly close agreement with our observations. 

The next older year class in our series appears in June to have a 
modal length of approximately 26 centimeters. This figure, how- 
ever, ma3' be somewhat lower than the true average of the age group 
because of the evident selection of the smaller sizes in pound-net 
catches. The growth of this group can not be satisfactorily followed 
through the season because of the selective action of the fishing 
gear. An abundant size group occurs in the long-haul seine catch, 
which approximates 30 centimenters in length in August, and an 
estimate of growth during this period may therefore be made. 
Welsh and Breder estimate that a length of 33 centimeters is attained 
by the fourth winter, and this again agrees fairly well with our pro- 
visional estimate of age. This group, therefore, is the Ill-group and 
in the fourth year. 

Based on these estimates by various authors, together with the 
imperfect evidence afforded by the separation of the length-frequency 
curves into distinct groups, the following estimate of size and age 
of the gray trout m Pamlico Sound appears to be warranted: 

Age Midwinter size 

V2 year 11 centimeters (4.3 inches). 

I}y4 years 21 centimeters (8.3 inches). 

2H years 28 centimeters (11 inches). 

3}/2 years.--"- 33 centimeters (13 inches). 

Age at maturity. — Observations as to the state of maturity of the 
sexual products were made in all of the fish measured in this investi- 
gation. Trout containing swollen ovaries, in which the eggs were 
distinctly granular and which would obviously spawn during the 
present season, were considered mature, as w^ell as those in which 
spawning was under way or in which the ovaries were partially 
spent. All others were considered immature. The males were not 
considered in this study, since it is difficult to judge the condition of 
the male organs. Some error occurred by classing fully spent fish 
with the immature, but since spent fish were early recognized and 
relatively scarce during the month of July the records for that 
month are reasonably accurate and a determination of maturity at 
each size is possible. Table 15 presents the relative maturity of 
female gray trout taken in pound nets in Pamlico Sound during 
July, in which the number of mature females at any size is shown 
as a percentage of all fish at corresponding sizes. These data are 
presented graphically in Figure 15, in which the average obtaining 
in the whole sound is shown superimposed upon a curve of length 
frequency of all fish taken. It is plainly evident that of the II- 
37501—27 3 



60 



S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 



group but a relatively small percentage are mature females, but that 
the Ill-group is composed chiefly of mature females in July. From 
the appearance of the frequency curve it seems that there are but 
few of the older year classes present in the sounds; hence the future 
supply must depend chiefl}^ upon the spawning of the 3-year-old fish. 
This condition differs from that reported by Welsh and Breder at 
Cape May, N. J., where the majority of the spawning fish were from 
4 to 6 years old and the 5-year-old fish were the most numerous. 





% 

1 b 




/\ 






I 
1 














/ \ 
















% 




1 








! 










100 


/: \ 
















1 
1 


\ 
















30- 




1 


\ 


















Kn 


1 n 


TT * 


















70 


>- 


1 
1 


Immat 


\ 






Maturl 










fif) 


3 


1 ' 


\ 




/ y 


^ 














1 




\ 


i 


1 


A 










50 




1 
1 




\ 


/ 


1 ^ 


^ \ 










40 


^ 5 


1 






/ 














" § 


1 






\J 


f 


\ 










30 


'" J 


1 






h 


1 




\ 
\ 








70 


/ 






y 








\ 










/ 






/ 








\ 


/^, 






10 


/ 














\ 


-^ \ 






n 
















' v~ 




1 


6 18 20 22 


24- 26 28 30 32 


3 


CM 


Ltt16TH 




8 






10" 






12 







Fig. 15. — Relative maturity of female gray trout in Pamlico Sound, N. C, in July, 1925. 
The heavy curve rising from to 100 represents the number of mature females occurring 
at any size, expressed in per cents of the total number of fish at that size. The length frequency 
curve of both males and females combined is superimposed. These data indicate that the 
Il-group (fish in their third year) are largely immature, while of the Ill-group nearly all 
are mature, and that the fish larger than 27 centimeters in length are all mature females. 

Table 15. — Percentage of mature female gray trout occurring at any size in pound- 
net catches, Pamlico Sound, N. C, July, 1925 ' 



Length, centimeters 


Lupton 


Ports- 
mouth 


Brant 
Island 


Gull 
Rock 


Point of 
Marsh 


Average 


17 














3.5 

5.7 
13.1 
46.7 
91.7 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 






11.1 
23.6 
26.7 
33.7 
51.0 
86.3 
94.9 
100.0 
100.0 







18 , 








8.9 
11.0 
11.0 
29.6 
64.4 
90.8 
100.0 
100.0 









19 - . - . 









20 ... 



40.0 
30.8 
58.4 
80.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 




2.8 


21 





5.6 
35.3 
66.7 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


15.1 


22 


14.8 


23 


24.4 


24 


58.5 


25 


81.8 


26 


97.1 


27 


100.0 


28 


100.0 







1 Because of the difPculty (under the conditions obtaining in the field) experienced in determining the 
sex of the younger immature individuals, the percentage of mature females is calculated on the basis of the 
frequency of both males and females together. 



FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND CORE SOUNDS 61 

Mi(iration$. — Very little is known regarding the migrations of the 
gray trout. Welsh and Breder report that in the Chesapeake and 
Delaware regions the fish appear in April, move up the bays until 
brackish water is encountered, and then turn back and move seaward, 
spawning just within or near the mouths of the larger estuaries. 
After spawning, the fish return to the ocean, remaining near the 
coast until July or August, when they again seek the bays and sounds. 
No such distinct routes of migration have been recognized in Falmico 
Sound; however, there is some evidence to indicate a westward 
movement of the larger fish from Ocracoke Inlet, but our stations are 
not close enough together to determine the route of travel. It is 
well known that fish become very scarce early in November, and it is 
supposed that they return to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Regarding the movements of the gray trout (weakfish) in northern 
waters, Bigelow and Welsh remark '^ that "it is now generally as- 
sumed that their autumnal migration takes place to avoid falling 
temperature and that they either move offshore to pass the cold 
season on the continental edge, or southward." While a considerable 
southward migration of fish in the region about Cape Cod and Long 
Island Sound is quite conceivable, it seems less probable that such 
movement occurs on the Carolina coast where Gulf Stream temper- 
turesand shallow bottoms are within easy reach of the coast. 

The records of fish taken at Gull Rock indicate that here is a 
concentration of the smaller sizes of trout. Not only are the larger 
age groups very scarce, but the average size of the younger fish is also 
less than in other localities. Some have argued that this is a distinct 
race of the species, which is localized in Hyde and Dare Counties on 
the northwestern side of Pamlico Sound, but we have no evidence 
to support this contention. Our measurements indicate the presence 
of the Il-group and in all probability of the I-group throughout the 
season. The Ill-group is present early m the season but dwindles in 
importance as the season progresses. Whether or not this reduction 
in number is due to their migration to the sea or to their destruction 
by fishing gear is a question difficult to answer. It may be confidently 
stated, however, that the immature fish that are present in the 
sounds in the spring remain in inside waters throughout the entire 
fishing season. 

EFFECT OF PRESENT FISHERY REGULATIONS 

Regulations establishing minimum size limits are ordinarily enacted 
by the various States theoretically as conservation measures to protect 
the immature fish. Since the supply of fish in North Carolina waters 
is inadequate to meet the demand, it is but common sense to seek to 
prevent the useless waste of the present supply. But minimum size 
limits are actually designed to protect the dealer from the necessity 
of accepting from the fishermen fish too small to market profitably. 
Little attention is given to the protection of the species, for the limits 
are not placed high enough to protect the fish until they reach a 
spawning size. Whatever may be the merit of this principle, the 
present 9-inch minimum limit in North Carolina does not operate as a 



13 Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. By Henry B. Bigelow and William W. Welsh. Bulletin, V. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries, Vol. XL, 1924 (1925), Part I, p. 275. Washington. 



62 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



conservation measure in this way, because, as shown in Fig:ure 15, 
trout do not spawn until the third year, when they average more than 
10 inches long in June. It is plainly evident, therefore, that where 
pound nets operate any minimum size limit is entirely ineffective, 
offering no protection whatever, for fish of all sizes above b}/2 inches 
are taken freely, marketable sizes are selected and sold, and the re- 
mainder, which constitute, as we have seen, more than half by number 
of the total catch of trout, are destroyed. ^^ 

These small 2-year-old fish should be saved, for, although too small 
to be of value in the markets in June and July, their growth is so rapid 
that they are marketable by August, and they are really of desirable 
size by October. Table 16 shows the increase in length and weight of 
these 2-year-old trout during the fishing season. The lengths, in 
centimeters and inches, are the observed modal lengths of this year 
class caught in pound nets, as shown by Figure 5. The weights are 
calculated according to the formula by Crozier and Hecht.^^ While 
the length increases only 26 per cent from June to October, the weight 
increase during that period amounts to 101 per cent. In other words, 
while length increases only one-fourth, the weight of 2-5^ear-old fish 
more than doubles during the growing season. It is highly desirable, 
therefore, that the small fish destroyed during June and July receive 
full protection until August and September, when they have reached 
a marketable and commercially valuable size. Since the imposition 
of a minimum size limit is both ineffective and wasteful, let us con- 
sider what other means are available for protecting the species. 

Table 16. — Growth in length and weight of 2-year-old grarj trout 







Length 




Weight 


Month 


Centi- 
meters 


Inches 


Per cent 
increase 


Grams 


Ounces 


Per cent 
increase 


June - - 


21.0 
22.0 
24.0 
25.5 
26.5 


8.3 

8.7 
9.5 
10.1 
10.5 




81.2 
93.4 
121.3 
145.4 
163.2 


2.8 
3.3 
4.3 
5.1 

5.8 




July 


5 
14 
21 
26 


15 


August 


49 


September. . 


79 


October. 


101 







REMEDIAL MEASURES 



The only regulations that afford any promise of protection to the 
gray trout are (1) limits upon size of mesh in the nets fished, (2) the 
establishment of closed areas prohibiting fishing where immature 
fish congregate in greatest numbers or where spawning occurs most 
abundantly, and (3) designation of closed seasons prohibiting fishing 

'* It is claimed that culling of the catch in such manner that undersized fish are promptly returned to the 
water uninjured is generally practiced by trap and pound net fishermen on the Great Lakes, and similar 
care is exercised by certain conscientious fishermen in the C'hesapeake Bay (Ilildebrand and Schroeder). 
No attempt is made in North Carolina to save the undersized fish, for culling takes place at the base of 
operations, where the marketable fish are sold miles from the fishing grounds. Because of such local con- 
ditions as the prevailing weather and the unseaworthy construction of boats, it is unlikely that culling at the 
time of capture could be successfully practiced. But even if such culling were practicable, it would be 
impossible strictly to enforce the present minimum size limit so as to insure the return of undersized fish 
alive to the water. 

'5 ("orrelations of Weight, Length, and Other Bodv Measurements in the Weakflsh, Cynoscion regalis. 
By William J. Crozier and Selig Hecht. Bulletin, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, Vol. XXXIII, 1913 (1915), 
pp. 139-148, 4 flgs. Washington, 1914. 



FISHERIES OF PAMLK^O AND CORE SOUNDS 63 

by pound nets during tlio i)iirt of th(^ year when immature fisli are 
most abundantly taken and (luriuj:; the height of the spawning 
season. 

It has been suggested that increasing the mesh in the cribs of the 
pound nets from 1^8 to 13^ inches or more would permit the escape 
of the smaller fish of all species and thus permit fishing at all times of 
the year with a minimum of wastage. This suggestion, however, is 
vigorously opposed l\v the fishermen on the grounds that any increase 
in size of mesh would permit the gilling of such quantities of the 
smaller fish in the meshes of tlie net that it would be impossible to 
operate. They contend that removing the gilled fish from the cribs of 
the nets would consume so much time that pound-net fishing would no 
longer be practical and that the nets would be destroyed by sharks 
feeding upon the gilled fish. Furthermore, it is unlikely that a slight 
increase in the mesh of the cribs would effect the release of the 
smaller sizes in appreciable quantities, for a gray trout from 5 to 6 
inches in length can readily be passed by hand through meshes of a 
1 1 s-inch pound net, but these small fish follow the lead of the net, 
which is 12 inches or more stretched mesh, and are readily caught. 
If this method were at all feasible, the mesh should be increased so 
as to permit the escape of trout up to 12 inches in length in order 
to protect the fish until one year's spawning has occurred. Such a 
regulation would practicall}" destroy the pound-net fishery, however, 
for our measurements show that relatively few fish exceeding that 
length are taken in the Pamlico Sound pound nets. It is not likely, 
therefore, that limits upon the size of mesh employed in pound nets 
would ever be an effective means of protecting the gray-trout fishery 
from depletion. 

It is fairly well established that certain areas in Pamlico Sound 
are nurseries for the younger fish. Our records indicate that fishes 
taken on the northwest side of the sound are not only smaller repre- 
sentatives of the year groups but are composed of the younger classes, 
the older fish being notably lacking. Thus, Hyde and Dare Counties, 
including the pound-net areas of Stumpy Point, Englehard, Gull 
Rock, and Pamlico River, may be designated as nursery grounds 
and closed to commercial fishing. The presence of uniformly larger 
fish, most of which are in spawning condition, from May until July 
may be noted in the vicinity of Ocracoke Inlet, and the same con- 
ditions probably obtain at Hatteras as well. Protection may be 
afforded to the spawning stock by prohibiting pound-net fishing in 
these areas, but such regulations could hardly be considered desirable 
when the interests of the fishing populations are considered. Since 
pound netting is the chief industry of the people in these districts, 
the prohibiting of this form of fishing would work extreme hardship. 
Unless more satisfactory methods of protection can not be devised, 
such oppressive measures should be avoided. 

The most promising method of protecting the species is that of 
imposing closed seasons. The most destructive period of fishing 
throughout the sound area is in the early months of the summer, 
when, as has been shown, a maximum w^astage of gray trout of 78 
per cent and 55 per cent, respectively, in June and July occurs in 
certain districts. This tremendous waste of potentially valuable 
fish could be overcome by imposing a closed season on all pound-net 
fishing in Pamlico Sound from the end of the shad season, in May, 



64 U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHERIES 

to the 1st of August. In this way the abundant supply of 2-year-old 
trout would be permitted to grow to marketable size. Our records 
also show that spawning is at its height during this same period, and 
the 3-year-old fish, as well as those still older, would be protected 
until after the year's crop of eggs had been laid. Such a regulation 
should apply to the whole sound area, for while relatively few of the 
smaller fish are destroyed near the inlets, the protection to the spawn- 
ing fish is equally desirable, and while few spawning fish are taken 
on the northwest side of the sound, the reckless destruction of the 
immature should be prevented.^® 

Not only would this closed season tend to build up the fishery by 
increasing the stock of spawning fish and by insuring the depositing 
of spawn unmolested, but the increase in weight of the marketable 
fish thus protected would largely offset the economic loss resulting 
from inactivity of the fishermen during the closed season. We have 
no means of calculating accurately the gross amount of undersized 
trout caught and wasted in Pamlico Sound during the months of 
June and July. We do know, however, that it is a very great amount. 
Based on figures of the yield of fishermen at Gull Rock, given in 
Table 1, the weight of fish destroyed may be estimated at approxi- 
mately 200,000 pounds. There is no evidence that these young 
fish leave the sounds during the season, so that if they were permitted 
to escape capture and to grow until August, September, and October, 
and if we assume that one-third of these young fish were caught in 
each of these months, they would weigh, when caught, approxi- 
mately 331,000 pounds. Based upon this crude estimate, these 
fish, if permitted to remain in the water until the latter part of the 
season, would add to the income of the fishermen in this district more 
than $10,000. 

This restriction would afford the same protection to the small 
fish of other species that are wasted during this period, such as butter- 
fish, croaker, and spot, and would permit the spawning of starfish 
and butterfish, which spawn at the same time of year as the gray 
trout. The regulation would be easy to enforce, is favored by the 
fishermen themselves in preference to the alternate remedy of an 
increased mesh, and is opposed only by those who are opposed to 
any regulations whatever. 

The arguments opposed to this plan of regulation are based upon 
selfish motives of personal gain. It may be argued that the imposi- 
tion of the closed season during June and July would result in the 
loss of markets by the wholesale dealers of this region. The pound- 
net fisheries of Virginia produce virtually the same class of fish as 
those taken in Pamlico Sound. It is said that if pound-net fish 
are not available during June and July Virginia dealers will supply 
the trade and thus capture the regular customers. While such 
contentions must be given careful consideration, the argument loses 
force when we remember that great quantities of trout, spot, butter- 
fish, and starfish are produced in the lower Chesapeake Bay during 

16 Following the presentation of this report on Dec. 8, 1925, the North Carolina Fishery Commission 
Board adopted a rule establishing the closed season from May to Aug. 1, in accordance with the plan herein 
recommended. Because of the dissatisfaction of certain interests, the board rescinded the rule at the April 
meeting, and provision was made for a public hearing on the question of pound-net regulation at the next 
regular meeting. On Aug. 16, 1926, before about 100 fishermen and dealers, the outstanding results of the 
investigation were again presented and the board passed a rule establishing a closed season ending June 1. 
Since the pound-net fishing for summer fish seldom starts before May 20, the gray trout thus receive only 
•;10 days' protection! 



FISHERIES OF PAMLICO AND COEE SOUNDS 65 

April and May, when Pamlico Sound fish are not produced, and it is 
not apparent why this trade is not already captured by the Virginia 
dealers during these months. Moreover, it is said that conditions 
in the pound-net fishery of Chesapeake Bay closely parallel those 
m Pamlico Sound, and if this be true it can only be a matter of time 
until the facts will be ascertained and similar remedies applied. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

We have seen that the supply of fish in North Carolina does not 
equal the demand, that wasteful practices exist in the pound-net 
fishery, and that the establishment of a closed season for all pound- 
net fishing in the sound during the months of June and July would 
correct these wasteful practices and tend to increase the fish supply. 

With the facts discovered and impartially published, it now 
remains for the people of North Carolina to decide, through the 
agency of the Fisheries Commission Board, how long they shall 
permit such wasteful and destructive exploitation of the public 
resources to continue. The importance of sales in June and July 
for the benefit of the few must be balanced against the importance 
of maintaining the fisheries for all time for the benefit of all. 

We therefore recommend that such closed season be established 
to meet the demand of the fishermen to "put more fish in the sounds. " 

o 



PREPARATION OF FISH FOR CANNING AS SARDINES 



By Hahky R. Beard 
Chief Technologist, United States Bureau of Fisheries 



Introduction 68 

Commercial methods of preparing the flsh.. 69 

Cahfornia methods - 69 

Products 70 

Food value... 72 

Preparation of flsh by the frylng-in-oil 

method 73 

Preparation of fish by ways other than 

frying in oil 85 

Maine methods 88 

Foreign inethods__ 89 

American dilliculties 90 

General considerations 90 

Technological considerations 90 

Experimental part 92 

General summary 93 

Changes in oil used for frying sardines 94 

Introduction 94 

Previous work bearing on tlie problem.. 94 

Experiments 95 

Frying 95 

Changes in quantity and composition.. 97 

Chemical and physical changes 98 

Mechanical and chemical treatment 99 

Discussion. . - 99 

Methods of improvement 99 

Eliminating frying in oil 102 

Methods of preparing the fish 103 

Introduction 103 

Frying in oil 103 

Cooking in brine 104 

Experimental results 105 

Procedure recommended 106 

Recommendations regarding equip- 
ment 106 

Steaming 107 

Experimental results 108 

Procedure recommended 109 

Raw packing 110 

Experimental results HI 

Procedure recommended . 112 

Storing and shipping tests 1 114 

Experimental results 114 

Discussion 115 

Application of experimental results to 

the Maine industry 116 

Partially drying the fish 116 

Introduction 116 

The role of drying in the preparation of 

the fish 117 

General principles of dehydration 117 

The problem 120 

Experiments _ 121 

Moisture removed from raw and steamed 

fish by different drying conditions 121 

Relation of size to the drying rate 121 

Temperature of the fish as a factor in 

drying 122 

Commercial sardine driers... 124 

Rapid drying of fish before cooking... 125 

Discussion.. 127 

Application of experimental results 127 

Recommendations 127 



Page 
Experimental part— Continued. 

New process for preparing the fish 129 

General considerations 129 

High-temperature, high-velocity air as a 

means of preparing the fish. 130 

Experimental preparation of California 

pilchards. 130 

Equipment and procedures 131 

Determination of the best conditions for 

preparing the fish 132 

Quality of products... 136 

Storing and shipping qualities of the 

packs 137 

Experimental preparation of Maine her- 
ring 137 

Equipment and procedure 137 

Determination of the best conditions for 

preparing the fish 138 

Quality of products 140 

Storing and shipping qualities of the packs.. 141 
Application of the experimental results to 
commercial operations in California 

and Maine 141 

Recommendations for cooking, drying, 

and cooling.. 141 

Equipment recommended for preparing 

and handling pound-oval fish. 144 

Equipment recommended for preparing 

and handling quarter-oil fish 151 

Further recommendations regarding 

equipment 155 

Production and equipment costs for pre- 
paring California pound-oval fish 155 

Production and equipment costs for pre- 
paring Maine quarter-oil fish 157 

Commercial development 159 

Application of expeiimental results to com- 
mercial operations in other localities 159 

Advantages and disadvantages.. 16o 

Appendix _. 161 

Changes in oil used for frying sardines 161 

Frying experiments _ 161 

Methods of preparing the fish 170 

Notes applying to the table 170 

Storage and shipping tests 190 

Partially drying the fish _ 191 

Apparatus 191 

Procedures 191 

Experimental data 192 

New process for preparing the fish 203 

Summarized specifications for equipment.. 217 
Estimate of equipment and fuel require- 
ments for preparing California pound- 
oval flsh 219 

Continuous cooking and cooling unit... 219 

Cooking unit using trucks 221 

Estimate of equipment and fuel require- 
ments for preparing Maine quarter-oil 

and three-quarters mustard flsh 222 

Cooking unit using individual flake car- 
riers 222 

Cooking unit using trucks 223 



' Appendix III to the Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries for 1927. 
nological Contribution No. 34. 



B. F. Doc. 1020. Tech- 



67 



68 U. S. BtlREAtT OF riSHERIES 

INTRODUCTION 

The sardine industry dates back to about 1845, when the first 
sardine canneries were established in France." Since then sardine 
canning has developed on a large scale in Spain, Portugal, Norway, 
and the United States, and to a small extent in England, Canada, 
Chile, India, Sweden, and Algeria.^ The following quotation gives 
an idea of the relative importance of production in the different 
countries: ^ 

For the decade 1904 to 1913 the average annual world pack is estimated at 
approximately 175,000,000 pounds. Of this amount the United States produced 
about 34 per cent, Spain 26 per cent, Norway 17 per cent, France and Portugal 
each 11.5 per cent. Production in other countries is negligible. 

Sardine canning is an important part of the fishery industry of 
the United States. In 1926 over 3,800,000 cases were packed, having 
a value in excess of $14,500,000 (Table 1). These figures place this 
industry next to that of salmon canning in importance and, exclud- 
ing Alaska salmon, first among the canned fishery products of the 
United States. This industry, too, can be expanded greatly, not 
only in the United States but throughout the world, there being 
large quantities of herring, pilchards, and like fishes suitable for 
canning as sardines from which to draw. In time this expansion 
undoubtedly will take place, largely as an economic necessity, to 
help meet the increasing world demand for cheap food of high pro- 
tein content. Certain packs of sardmes, as will be pointed out later, 
do meet this need. 

American canned sardines, however, encounter very keen compe- 
tition, and if we are to capture and hold our share of the world mar- 
kets our products must be high in quality as well as low in price. 
The Bureau of Fisheries took cognizance of these facts and since 
1920 has been conducting research upon the preparation of fish for 
canning as sardines, making available fundamental scientific infor- 
mation heretofore lacking upon this important subject and working 
toward the development of better and cheaper methods of preparing 
the fish. This document is a report of the investigations made in 
this field. 

These investigations were for the most part carried out in the 
bureau's experimental laboratory at San Pedro, Calif., and in neigh- 

2 Much confusion exists concerning the term "siirdine." Various chjpeoid fishes throughout the world 
are called sardines, as well as the caiHied |)roducts prepared from these fish. In the United States the Cali- 
fornia pilchard and the Atlantic sea herring are used by sanline caimers; in Norway the brisling, or sprat, 
and the sea herring: and in France, Spain, and I'ortugal the European pilchard and also the sprat. In 
certain foreign countries the term "sardine" has been restricted to canned European iiilchards. How- 
ever, the general concept of the tenn "sardine" refers to a kind of fish commonly known a.s a pilchard, 
and to all the individuals living in nature that are similar in structure, ajipearance, and habit and are 
generally recognized as a single kind. Siiecialists have noted ditlerences in the members of this group 
from ditferent are:us, and these have been the basis for dividing the groups into species, subspecies, and 
races, without general agreement as to which of the true classes the individuals from different geographical 
areas belong. Geographically, they are found on the Atlantic coast of Europe, in the Mediterranean, 
and on the Pacific coasts of North and South America. Japan, Australi;i, New Zealand, and South Africa. 
They all belong to a homogeneous group similar in structure, growth, and habits but quite ditferent from 
other members of the herring family. It is believed, therefore, that for the uses of commerce and for all 
I)ractical i)uri)oses the term "sardine" can not with propriety be restricted to members of this group from 
a single geographical area. The TTnited States Bureau of Chemistry holds that the term can be applied 
to any small clupeoid fish, providing the name "sardine" is accomi)anied by the name of the country or 
State in which the fish are taken or jtrepared and with a statement of the nature of the ingredients used 
in preserving or flavoring the fish. Differences in Quality of the several species of herring canned as sar- 
dines in the several tountries, if subjected to equally excellent treatment and uniformity of method in 
packing, are largely matters of individual taste and preference. 

' A summarized history of sardine canning in ditferent countries, including the United States, is given 
in the following document: Tariff Information Survey on Sardines. Published by the U. S. Tariff Com- 
mission, Washington, I'.t25. 

« Page 17 of the pai)er referred to in footnote 3. 



CANNINOr SARDINES 



69 



horiiii^ sardine canneries during the four canning seasons beginning 
in 1920. Methods in Maine were studied in 1922 and 1928, and in 
1924 experiments were made in Eastport. Assistance from without 
the bureau aided very materially in carrying on this research. Dur- 
ing a lajise in congressional support tlie California Fish and Game 
Commission met the total expense of the investigation upon changes 
in oil used for frying sardines and later contributed some toward 
the study of methods of preparing the fish. The cooperation fur- 
nished by the sardine canners was especially helpful. A large part 
of the experimental work w^as carried out in their plants. In this 
respect the Seacoast Canning Co. (now the Seacoast Packing Cor- 
poration) and the Van Camp Sea Food Co., both of East San Pedro, 
Calif., and the Blanchard Manufacturing & Canning Co., of East- 
port, Me., were most helpful. 

COMMERCIAL METHODS OF PREPARING THE FISH 

Inasmuch as this paper deals with research directed toward im- 
proving methods of preparing fish for canning as sardines, an outline 
is given here of the important methods that have been and are now 
being used for this purpose. Since the methods of the California 
industry have never been described in detail, they w411 be described 
here. Some experimental data are included and discussed in this 
section in order to avoid having to repeat parts of the description in 
a later section. 

CALIFORNIA METHODS 

Sardines were first canned in California in 1890.^ Extensive 
development, however, did not take place until the World War 
period. The first big year was 1917, when the pack increased to 
over 1,190,000 cases from the previous high mark of 166,000 cases in 
1916. The pack remained at this hi^h level for four years. In 
1921, however, post-war deflation had a disastrous effect on the 
industry, as shown in Table 1. Since then lost ground has been 
regained steadily, and in 1926 the industry's largest pack was pre- 
pared. 

Table 1. — Sardine pack of the United States, 1921-1926 



Year 


Maine 


California 


Cases 1 


Value 


Cases -' 


Value 


1921 - 


1,399,507 
1,869,719 
1,272,277 
1,899,925 
1,870,786 
1,717,537 


$3,960,916 
5, 750, 109 

5, 288, 865 
7,191,026 
6,716,701 

6, 727, 388 


398, 668 
715, 364 
1,100,162 
1,367,1.39 
1,714,913 
2, 093, 278 


$2, 340, 446 


1922 


3,361,480 


1923 


4, 607, 931 


1924 _ -_ 


5, 445, 573 


1925 


6, 380, 617 


1926 


7, 807, 404 







' Converted to standard basis of one hundred }^-pound cans per case. 
' Converted to standard basis of forty-eight 1-pound oval cans per case. 

Sardine canning is confined to three localities, namely, Monterey, 
San Pedro and immediate vicinity, and San Diego. An idea of the 
relative importance of these districts and of the general composition 

' For a good history of the industry see: "Historical Review of the California Sardine Industry." By 
Will F. Thompson. California Fish and Game, vol. 7, pp. 195-206. Sacramento, 1921. 



70 



TJ. S. BUREAtT OT FISHERIES 

Statistics for the Maine 



of the packs can be obtained from Table 2 
pack are given for purposes of comparison." 

Table 2. — Sardine pack of the United States, 1926 









Product 


California (pilchards) 


Product 


Maine (herring) ' 


Mon- 
terey 
district 


San 
Pedro 

dis- 
trict 


San 
Diego 

dis- 
trict 


Total 


In olive oil, quarters 

am cans). 
In cottonseed oil, 

ciuarters (100 cans). 
In mustard: 

Quarters (100 


Cases 
57, 674 

1, 282, 967 

117,517 

163, 595 

23, 802 

1, 645, 555 
1,717,537 


Value 
$394, 474 

5, 042, 572 

537, 382 
629, 821 
123,139 

6, 727, 388 


J^-pound oval (48 

cans). 2 
1 -pound oval (48 
cans): 
In tomato sauce. 

In mustard 

Soused 


Cases 
29,841 

1,056,301 
70, 222 

1,929 
16,125 

2,835 

496 
1,177,749 


Cases 

809, 038 

32, 302 

3,285 

1,406 

15, 982 
862, 013 


Cases 
2,725 

49,941 

5, 103 

244 

i3,"988 

4,966 

76, 967 


Cases 
32,566 

1,915,280 

107, 627 

5,458 

17, 531 

16,823 

21,444 

2,116,729 
2,093,278 


Value 
$101, 693 

6, 992, 473 

402, 193 

19,417 


Three-quarters 
(48 cans). 
In other sauces, quar- 
ters (100 cans). 2 

Total 


In other sauces.. 
M-Pound square (100 

cans) .3 
H-pound square (100 
cans) .* 
Total- 


65,991 
136, 441 

89,226 

7, 807, 404 




Total (standard 
cases).' 




eases).' 













1 Includes 1 small factory in Massachusetts. 

2 I>argely in tomato sauce. 

3 Largely in olive oil. 

< Includes the pack of fl-ounce round cans, 100 to the case: also a few cases of No. 10 cans, 6 to the ease. 
Both packs have been converted to the basis of 3^-pound cans, 100 to the case. 

' Represents the various-sized cases changed to the uniform basis of one hundred '^-pound cans to the 
ease for Maine herring and forty-eight 1-pound oval cans to the case for C-alifornia pilchards. 

The canning season in Monterey usually begins in July or August 
and runs into February or March. In San Pedro canning usually 
begins in November and continues well into March. The canning 
season in San Diego for large fish roughly corresponds to that for 
vSan Pedro. The canning of small fish, however, is continued through- 
out the spring. In general, the canning of large fish starts as soon 
as the fish begin to get fat and ends when they get to be lean. 

The fish used for sardine canning is a pilchard (Sardina c^rulea). 
It is a true sardine, in the sense understood by scientists, and is very 
similar to the pilchards canned in Europe.^ 



PRODUCTS 

Ordinarily 90 per cent or more of the sardines prepared in Cali- 
fornia are of the so-called "pound-oval" pack. A can of this 
product usually contains 4 to 10 large-sized pilchards, packed with 
spiced tomato sauce in a flat oval can containing normally 15 oimces, 
of which approximately 13^ ounces are sauce. 

Small fish are canned in San Diego. They are usually put up with 
olive oil in regular key-opening "quarter-oil" and "half-oil" cans, 
holding 3}/2 and 7 ounces, respectively. At times as many as 25 
and as few as 4 fish are packed in a quarter-oil can, about 8 to 12 

6 The survey referred lo in footnote 3, p. 68, gives e.\tensive statistical comparisons of the various branches 
of the world sardine iiidtislry. 

7 The (ish used I hruiij.'liout the world for sardine canning are listed in the following article: "The sar- 
dine of California," by Will F. Thompson. California Fish and Game, vol. 7, pp. 193-194. Sacramento, 
1921. 



CANNING SARDINES 



71 



IxMiiij tlio usual nuinhor. The half-oil product is pre])aro(I from larger 
fish.' 

Other products arc put out in small quantities. Half-pound oval 
cans are used at times for smaller (ish. Other sauces placed in the 
can include (in addition to tomato sauce) mustard, souse (vinegar 
and spices), and soy for the orientals. Fancy packs are prepared by 
making fillets of sardines and by smoking to add the delicate flavor 
obtained in that manner. 

The California industry is quite different from any other important 
sardine industry in the following respects: The pack consists for the 
most part of large fish in tomato sauce rather than small fish in oil. 
The can used is oval in shape and holds about 1 pound of contents. 
Canning j)racticall.y has been secondary in importance to the manu- 
facture of fish meal and oil from whole fish and cannery offal. The 
State law never has required the canners to pack all the fish they 
have taken. The liberal excess that has been allowed has been 
taken advantage of for the manufacture of these products. Inas- 
much as there is more profit in the manufacture of fish meal and oil 
than in sardine canning, every effort has been made to expand this 
branch of the industry. To do this it has been necessary, in order 
to comply with the State law, to can more fish. To get rid of this 
canned fish the price has had to be lowered — low enough, in fact, to 
stimulate a large foreign demand, especially in the Orient, for pound- 
oval sardines. In some places this product has supplanted the 
cheaper grades of canned salmon; in fact, in 1925, for the first time, 
exports of canned sardines exceeded canned-salmon exports. 

Whatever advantages or disadvantages the policy discussed above 
may have in the long run, it has brought about large-scale production 
and wide distribution of California pound-oval sardines. Adjust- 
ments are bound to come in the future, which will have their effect 
on the industry. In time pound-oval sardines must sell at a price 
that is based on their own cost of production. Production of fish 
meal and oil can not continue to dominate canning. Table 3, taken 
from the twenty-ninth biennial report of the California Fish and 
Game Commission, summarizes the use to which pilchards are put 
in California. 

Table 3. — California cannery, fish-flour, and edible-oil plant production, season 
June 1, 1925, to May 31, 1926 



District 



Monterey 

San Pedro 

San Diego 

Northern California. 



Total, all districts 

Deduct fish used for other pur- 
poses _.. 



Fish used by canning 
plants. 



Cases 

1-pound 

oval cans 

per ton 



15. G 
16.3 
16 
16 



15.9 



Tons flsh 
received 



69, Oil 

61,992 

5,214 

248 



136, 465 
8,247 



128, 218 



Tons fish 
used for 
canning 



48, 587 

49, 192 

3,940 

194 



Tons fish 

used for 

meal an(J 

flour 



19, 832 

12, 800 

1,274 

54 



Tons offal 



16, 193 

16,643 

1,312 

65 



101, 913 33, 960 34, 213 

Add other sizes, 1-pound ovals 

Equal to total cases, 1-pound ovals.. 



Cases 
l-iwund 

ovals 
paclfed 



937, 014 

968, 495 

66, 074 

3,892 



1, 97.5, 475 
65,382 



2, 040, 857 



72 



U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHEEIES 



Table 3. — California cannery, fish- flour, and edible-oil plant production, season 
June 1, 1925, to May 31, i9^(5— Continued 



District 


Cascj^ 

other sizes 

packed 


Other sizes 
equivalent 

to cases 

of 1 -pound 

ovals 


Meal, 
tons 


Ratio 

per ton, 

meal 


Oil, 
gallons 


Gallons 
oil per 
ton of 

offal and 
fish 


Tons of 
fish used 
for other 
purposes 


Monterey 


37,220 
16, 492 
16,373 


35, 956 
16, 361 
13,065 


16,393 

5,962 

467 

20 


5.7 

5 

5.5 

5.5 


1, 110, 983 

6.%, 817 

43, 995 

2,629 


30.8 
22.4 
17 
24.1 


'6,248 


San Pedro . . . 


'1,729 


San Diego 


*270 


Northern California 












Total, all districts. 


70, 085 


65, 382 


12, 842 


5.3 


1,816,424 


26.6 


8,247 



1 262 tons fish flour produced, not included in meal production. 

2 592 tons used for salting purposes, 4,468 tons used for manufacturmg fish flour, 1,188 tons used for manu- 
facturing edible oil. 

3 1,729 tons used for manufacturing edible oil. 
* 270 tons used for manufacturing edible oil. 

For the past few years California pound-oval sardines have sold 
at the factory for about S3. 50 to $4 per case of 48 cans. At this price, 
which little more than covers production costs, it is evident why this 
product is finding a good market. In the United States, for instance, 
individual cans sell for 10 to 20 (usually about 15) cents. It is 
difficult to get more food value for the money. For this price one 
gets about 1 pound of high quality protein and oil ready for imme- 
diate consumption and in a form that keeps in any climate until used. 
In many places throughout the world there is a big demand for such 
a product as California pound-oval sardines. If the price can be 
kept low the demand is sure to increase. Although the market for 
pound-oval sardines in tomato sauce has not been large in the United 
States, this product has, to a large degree, supplanted similar im- 
ported articles. It should be possible, however, to increase the 
demand considerably if the likes and dislikes of American consumers 
were studied and if the product were properly advertised. 

FOOD VALUE 

Canned sardines, like other fish, both fresh and preserved, are ex- 
cellent food, being especially rich in good quality protein and fat. 
Although no oil is added to the can with the sauce, pound-oval 
sardines generally contain about as much fat as the average run of 
sardines that have been packed in oil. Since representative analyses 
of pound-oval sardines have not been published, several are given in 
Table 4.* 



* For extensive data on the compositionloflqunrter-oil[sardines see: "ThelMaine Sardine Industry." By 
F. C. Weber, II. W. Houghton, and J. B. Wilson. U. S. Department of Agriculture Bufletin No. 9(B, 
126 pp. Washington, 1921. 

Similar data for European sardines are given in the following paper: "Metliods of fish canning in Eng- 
land." By J. Johnstone. Fishery Investigations: Series I— Freshwater Fisheries and Miscellaneous, 
Vol. II, No. 1, 25 pp. London, 1921. 



CANNIXn SARDINE?; 



73 



Table 4. — Several ancdijses sliowing the composition of California pound-oval 

sardines 





Composition, by weight 
(in grams) 


Chemical composition (in per 
cent of total) 


Sample 


Total 
con- 
tents 

of can 


Meat 


Sauce 


Oil 


Mois- 
ture 


Pro- 
tein 


Fat 


Ash 


Unde- 
ter- 
mined 


R:uv fisli (portion used for canning) ■ 










59.97 
59.00 
61.25 
62.30 
62.00 
61.70 


17.63 
20.38 
20.75 
23. 10 
24.29 
24.01 


20.66 
15.33 
13.08 
9.79 
8.19 
8.93 


1.87 
3.22 
3.74 
3.24 
3.51 
3.81 




Canned in "souse" sauce '. 


468 
472 
470 
502 
482 


390 
379 
371 
412 
403 


60 
75 
79 

77 
67 


18 
18 
20 
13 
12 


2 07 


Canned iu tomato s;mce ^ _ _ 


1 18 


Do.i 


1 57 


Canned iu mustard sauce * 

Canned iu tomato sauce ' 


2.01 
1.55 



' From "A Comparative Study of the Chemical Composition of the Sardine (Sardina cxrulea), from 
California and British Columbia." By D. B. Dill. Ecology, vol. 7 (1926), pp. 221-228. Brooklyn. 

2 .\ualyses made by the Nutrition Department, University of California, for one of the California 
canuers. 




Vu.. 1.— Unloading pilchards at California sardine cannery 



PREPAR.\TION OF FISH BY THE FRYING-IN-OIL METHOD 

Sardines are canned in modern packing establishments situated on 
the water front close to the fishing grounds. The size of the plants 
varies greatly. Some are able to handle only a few tons of sardines 
a day, while others can easily care for 150 tons in the same period 
of time. Most plants make extensive use of mechanical equipment. 

The methods described here are representative of those generally 
used in California in the preparation and canning of fried pound-oval 



74 



TT. S. BUREAr or FISHERIES 



sardines. These methods, therefore, will be given in detail, followed 
by a few general statements concerning the preparation of the fish by 
other processes. In this connection it is to be kept in mind that the 
methods given here are subject to considerable variation in the many 
canneries. These differences, however, are only difl'erent means of 
attaining the same end. 

Description of a process is generally made clearer if it is treated 
according to the steps into which it naturally divides itself. This 
plan is used here. 

Receiving.^ — The fish are shoveled from the boats into a mechanical 
hoist, ^*^ which raises them to an elevated platform, where they are 




Fig. 2.— Scaling. Tiie fish are passing through a revolving drum, covered with coarse wire screen. 
They are also being washed. The fish are next ilained to holding tanks in the plant. This view 
also shows the fish market wharf in Monterey and Monterey Bay in the background 

weighed. Water and gravity then carry the fish from the weighing 
vat into the cannery proper. 

Scaling. — The first operation in preparing sardines for canning is 
to scale them. This is accomplished by passing them through a 
large cylinder of heavy screening, which is rotated in a tilted posi- 
tion. Most of the scales are removed by the rubbing of the fish 
against each other and against the screen wall of the cylinder. 
Water is sprayed on the fish at the same time to help remove the 
scales and to wash the fish. The sardines next go to supply tanks, 

* For a good description of fishing methods and gear see "Methods of Sardine Fishing in Southern Cali- 
fornia." By Elitier lligginsand Uarliin H Holmes. California Fish and Game, vol. 7, pp. 219-237. Sacra- 
mento, 1921. .\lso"l'urseSeine.s for California .Sardines." By \V. L.^cofield. /6id, vol. 12 (1926), pp. 16-19. 

'" For a description of an improved method of removing the fish see "Speeding the discharge of bulk fish." 
Anon. Fishing Uazette, review uumber, 1926, pp. 55-56, New York, 



CANNING SARDINES 



75 



whicli (Hsrharp:o upoTi \hc cut (ins:; tables. In soiiio plants tlio fish 
are scaled airaiu after heinsi; cut. 

Cutting. — Cuttino; is done largely l\v hand. In San Pedro all this 
work is done by Japanese women. Some plants have recently 
started to use machines that are fed by hand.'^ 

The cutting operation by hand is carried out as follows: The fish 
is held, belly down, on the cutting; board. One cut with a sharp 
knife is made almost throujrh tbe body, well back from tbc head. 
A sidewise motion with the knifc^ then tears the head ])ortion from 
the fish, pulls out the entrails, and forces all refuse throuii;h a hole in 
the table. At the same time the other hand drops the "cut" fish 
in.to a bnclvct. The cutliM's do all this so rapidly that one can hardly 




Fig. 3. Hand culling. The lisli from the holding tanks are fliuued to tables as needed 

see wdiat they really are doing. The refuse from this operation 
goes to the by-products plant, where the oil is removed and the 
residue made into fish meal. 

Brining. — In California large pilchards for the pound-oval pack 
are usually brined 60 to 90 minutes in 85 to 100 per cent saturated 
solutions of common salt (NaCl). Small fish for the quarter-oil 
pack are kept from 10 to 30 minutes in 40 to 80 per cent saturated 
brine. Each canner has his own preferences, and in the end each 
accomplishes more or less the same result. In general, the stronger 
the solution, and also the smaller the fish, the shorter the time 
needed for them to take up a given amount of salt. The real purpose 
of brining is to salt the fish. This step at times is omitted w^hen the 
fish are canned in a watery sauce such as tomato, mustard, or vine- 

" Machines are described in U. 8. Patents No. 1544986, July 7, 1925, and No. 1599807, Sept. 14, 1926. 



76 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



gar. The sauce, if made salty enough, will in time impart its flavor 
to the fish. Oil does not do this. Brining removes some water from 
the fish and tends to make the flesh firmer and skins tougher, due 
both to extraction of water and to the coagulating effect salt has on 
proteins. vSoluble proteins, especially blood, are removed to some 
extent, causing a loss of valuable food material. Removal of blood, 
however, tends to whiten the flesh, and this is considered desirable. 
Brining probably has some preserving efl'ect that helps toward keep- 
ing the fish in good condition until they are cooked. 

Some data on the loss in weight brought about by brining are 
shown in Table 5. The loss in weight for large-oval size fish in 100 




Fic. 4.— Machine cutting 

per cent saturated brine ran from 1.46 per cent for 90 minutes to 
2.94 per cent for 240 minutes immersion. Most of this loss unques- 
tionably was water. Weber (see footnote, p. 72) made an extensive 
study of brining and salting Maine herring. California pilchards 
undoubtedly behave in a very similar manner. 

Table 5. — Loss in weight in Calijornia pilchards, due to brining {100 per cent 
saturated salt solution at 64-4° F-) 



Time (minutes) 


Original 

weight 

of sample 

(grams) ' 


Per cent 
loss in 
weight 


Time (minutes) 


Original 

weight 

of sample 

(grams) i 


Per cent 
loss in 
weight 


90 .- 


989. G 
928.3 
989.5 


1.4fi 
1.47 
1.95 


135 


938.8 
964.3 
964.3 


1.95 


105- 


150 


1.97 


120 


240 


2.94 









1 Eight large pound-oval pilchards used in each case (large excess brine used), fish blotted with dry towel 
each time before being weighed. 



CANNING SARDINES 



77 



J)rj/iiip. — Experieiico hns shown tlijit sonio form of (Iryiiiij; is noccs- 
sjiry hoforo the fish aro phiccd in hot oil. Orifjinally dryino; was 
done in the sun and wind, but now artificial driers are used. Those 
used in the California industry, althouf:;h they vary greatly in size 
and design, are all tunnel driers, so named because a long, narrow 
room or tunnel is used to confine the air that is forced or draw» 
through it. This air first passes over steam coils, then comes in 
contact with the fish spread loosely over wire flakes or belts. Some 
of these drying chambers arc as large as 3 feet wide, 8 to 10 feet high, 
and 50 to 75 feet long, and handle as much as G tons of "cut" fish 
per hour. 

The fish usually are handled on endless wire belts. One carries 
them to the top of the drier and drops them upon another, which 




Fig. 5.— California pilchards before and after being "cut" 

carriers them through it. They then fall on a belt traveling in the 
opposite direction. A set of such belts, placed one below the other, 
repeats this operation several times before the fish leave the drier 
(see fig. 8). In some driers but one long belt is used and in others 
tiers of flakes containing the fish are wheeled on trucks through the 
chamber. This latter type of drier is used for fish that have been 
steamed and that can not be tumbled about in the same way as raw 
fish. 

The time of drying is controlled by changing the speed of the belts 
or the rate of putting in and taking out trucks. Temperature is the 
other factor under control. This is regulated by changing the amount 
or pressure of the steam in the heating coils. Ordinarily the fish 
are dried about 30 to 60 minutes in air having a temperature of 



78 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

90 to 120° *^ and a velocity of 500 to 1,500 feet per minute, losing 
about 3 to 6 per cent in weight in the process. 

The warm air moving about the fish removes the water and 
toughens the skins so that they will not break when placed in hot 
oil or when handled during packing. Although probably it is neces- 
sary for some water to be removed from the fish, the actual amount 
is of secondary importance. The drying conditions and the amount 
of water removed vary so greatly among canneries that it is evident 
that these factors are secondary to skin toughening.*^ 

Frying in oiZ.— This step consists of submerging the dried fish 
(held in flat wire baskets) in a vat of cottonseed or other oil kept at a 
temperature of 220 to 260° (usually about 230°) for 7 to 15 minutes 



^^H 


■L. ■- 




'-'■'m^r ^^^M 




|r- J^- 


•^'•-' ^ ''W^M'^^J^Bl^^K- 


Jyy^. B 


H^^^^^H^^^L-'i 


M 


^^S^^^HhJ^^B 




^^^^^l^^a 


1^^^ 


^^^^^^^^^^H 






■ 








^^m 


^^H^^t. '^ fT ^M^^^^^^^^^l 


^^^07 '"^'sE 




1 


M^Bj^.^ ''^^1b 



Fig. 6.— Brining the fish. On the left are shown the tanks in which the "cut" fish are placed. Part 
of the dryer is shown on the right 

for large pound-oval and 3 to 10 minutes for quarter-oil fish. Frying 
usually is considered complete when the backbone can be pulled out 
easily and shows no redness. Considerable water is cooked from 
the fish. Much of this is vaporized, but some settles and mixes with 
the water under the steam coils, carrying with it soluble extractives 
from the fish. The heat also renders some oil from the fish, which 
mixes with the cooking oil. 

The following figures show the losses in weight that took place in 
one cannery that prepared small oval-sized fish for canning. The 
calculations were made on the weight (371 ounces) of "cut," brined 
fish used for the experiment: 

" .\11 temperatures are given in °F. 

" This and other matters discussed in this paragraph are considered in detail, pp. llSand 117. Table 9, 
p. 125, gives details on drying conditions in several plants. 



CANNINO RARDINER 



79 



Drvinp; 55 minutes, average air temperature 100°, and velocity 
about 500 feet per minute, 6.5 per cent. 

Frying 9 minutes, average oil temperature about 230°, plus 
9 minutes draining, 7 per cent. 

Draining, IS hours, 7.1 i)er cent. 

The total loss was 20.6 per cent. This is larger than usual. For 
large ovals the loss in various canneries probably will run around 
12 to 18 per cent. In the two experimental runs on frying oil, 
described in the first part of this document, a total of 3,711 pounds 
of oval-sized sardines were cooked in oil 8 minutes at 230° and drained 
8 minutes over the frying vat. The average loss in weight during 
frying was 7.7 per cent. 




Fig. 7. — Drying. 



Fish from the brine tanks are flumed to the conveyors shown in the foreground. 
See Figure 8 for detailed plan of operation 



Cooking the fish destroys autolytic enzymes and partially steri- 
lizes the fish, so that under ordinary conditions they keep in excellent 
shape one or two days, and even longer, while waiting to be packed. 

A cross-sectional sketch of a typical fry bath is shown in Figure 10. 
The baskets of fish are drawn through the oil by an endless-chain 
conveyer, or they are lifted in and out of the oil by hand. The oil is 
heated by means of steam coils placed in the lower part of the oil 
just below the place where the baskets travel. Underneath the 
coils (yet not touching them) is water, on which the oil floats. This 
water is placed there to take care of particles and body juices coming 
from the fish, as they, being heavier than oil, sink. The control of 
temperature is accomplished by regulating the steam supply. The 
speed at which the conveyer is run determines the time the fish 
remain in the oil. 



80 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



At the start of a run the bath is filled with sufficient fresh cotton- 
seed oil to cover the fish. Frying is continued in this same oil, 
sometimes for weeks, with such additions and subtractions as be- 
come necessary, until, in the judgment of the operator, the oil is no 
longer fit for use. It is then thrown away or sold as a low-grade oil. 
Judgment on the stopping point is quite varied; the operator is 
influenced at times by the saving effected by prolonging the use of 
the oil. Usually, after a day of frying is completed, the oil is sepa- 
rated from the water and placed in tanks and the fry bath is cleaned. 
Daily (or at less frequent intervals) the oil is given some sort of 
cleansing treatment in some canneries. 

Draining. — The baskets of hot fish coming from the cooking vat 
are stacked, several deep, on a truck and set aside to cool and drain 




UtIINi TUNNEL 



iL 



¥ 







nriui TUNNtL 




riSH nSM kUNlTANK 








(} i 




X 










o 




o 










\ 

— UYOUml iriU SCHtll COHVWOW 

/ 




n 




^() 


y^ ^'^— 1 








I 


n 




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1 







LONGITUDINAL SECTION 
Fig. 8. — Diagram of a typical California sardine dryer 

until they are to be packed (usually next day). Stacked in this 
manner they cool but slowly, and this facilitates draining. Much 
liquid runs from the fish; some of this is oil but most of it'is water 
containing dissolved proteins. The losses of valuable extractives 
here and in frying are considerable. Upon standing, the fish become 
firm and the skins are further toughened. The oil covering the fish 
tends to dry (in the sense that linseed oil dries), and this makes the 
skins tough and rubbery. This oxidation of the oil, however, 
detracts from its palatability. 

Packing. — -After sufficient cooling the baskets of sardines are 
placed on the packing table, where women discard the broken fish 
and pack the others into cans. These cans come through a chute 
from a different part of the plant to the packing tables. The filled 
cans are then placed on a belt conveyer, which carries them in a 



CANNING PARBTNES 



81 



steady stroain under a nieclianical sauce distributer, vvhioh adds the 
correct amount of tomato sauce to each can. In some |)lants sauce 
is added to the cans l)efore the fish are packed into them. 




Fig. 9.— Fryiug in oil. Fish froin I lie dryft' fall inlu haskits iihin-d in the oil, and are couvcyeil 
mechanically through the vat. See Figure lu for plan of operation 




A. Baskefi of Fiih. 

. 0,1. 

C. SUcmCo.l,.- 

D. W»t.r. 

E. Con.eyor. 

Fig. 10.— Diagram of typical California fry bath 



Exhausting. — When cold sauce is added to the cans, they are 
heated before they are sealed to prevent trouble later. Plxplanation 
of this is easily given. Cans sealed cold on a cold day contain cold 

40619°— 27 2 



82 



IT. S. BUBEAU OF FISHEKIES 




Fig. 11.— Cooling and draining. Large fish usually stand overnight for this purpose. Note con- 
tainere at ends of trucks for catching oil and water draining from the fish 




Fl(i. 12.— Filling (.-auj with t.aiicL'. Euiply cans (rum tlie loft slide down the chute A, passing under 
the sauce distiibutor B, which places a measured quantity in each can. The cans then go to the 
packers. A small puiup on the tank elevates sauce to the supply tank E 



CANNING SARDINES 




Fig. 13. -racking. JMeu empty baskck offish on the tables as needed. Cans with sauce in thera 
are obtained from the upper conveyor A, and when filled are weighed and then placed on the 
lower conveyor B, which carried them to the sealing machines. C is the exhaust box shown in 
Figure 14 




Fig. 14.— Exhausting the cans. The filled cans from the packing tables pass through the machines 
B, which lightly crimp lids on them. The cans next enter the exhaust box C at D. E is a stock 
of filled cans ready for exhausting 



84 



U. S. BUREAU OP FISHERIES 



air, and later, when a hot day comes, the air expands and the cans 
swell. Before sealing, the cans and contents should be heated to 
drive out some of the air, for, if sealed hot, a [martial vacuum will 
exist in the cans when they cool. Addition of hot sauce, followed 
by immediate sealing, is one way of warming the cans and contents. 
Another method, more widely used, is to exhaust the filled cans by 
heating them with "live" steam for about five minutes. This 
heating usually is accomplished by conveying the cans through a 
narrow chamber, into which the steam is turned. 

Sealing. — The cans are conveyed from the steamer (exhaust box) 
to an automatic sealing machine, which places a cover on the can 
and then seals it on. The can carries a flange, which fits into a 
groove in the lid, having an extended edge bent downward. In 




Fig. 15. — Sealing the cans. Exhausted oans are leaving the exhaust box at A and arc pas.sing through 

the sealing machines B 

sealing, the flange of the can and edge of the lid are interlocked so 
as to form a double seam. The groove in the lid carries a very thin 
layer of rubber compound, which serves as a gasket between the 
seams. In some plant's the can is sealed in two operations — one 
machine just crimps the cover to the can and another seals the can 
after it comes out of the exhaust box. 

Processing. — Sterilization of the contents of the cans is necessary 
to insure their keeping qualities; in addition, more cooking is required 
to soften the bones. Proper heat treatment accomplishes both of 
these steps at one time. 

Trucks containing cans from the sealing machines are wheeled into 
large steel retorts, where the cans are heated with steam under 
pressure. Various temperatures are used in this step. Usually, 



CANNING SARDINES 



85 



howovor, n toinporatnrp of 240° for ono and ono-lialf hours is docMiiod 
sulliciont. WIumi the steam is turnod off, the pressure inside the 
retort is maintained by compressed air until the cans have been 
partially cooled by water. This procedure prevents the cans from 
bulging, due to greater pressure inside than outside the can. 

The cans are then washed in a cleaning solution and allowed to 
dvy. In some factories the cans are next sent through a machine 
(hat lacquers them to prevent rusting. They are then placed in 
temporary storage for a few days, after which they are labeled, 
eitlier by hand or machine, and boxed. 

Quarter-oil pack. — Small fish are prepared for the quarter-oil pack 
in the same general manner as large fish, except the frying time is 




Fig. 16.— Processing. The sealed cans are placed in baskets and stacked on trucks, as shown. This 
facilitates handling them in and out of the retorts. This view also shows sterilized cans from 
the retorts beini: placed in a hot soap solution for washing 

shortened slightly. Quarter-pound cans are usually processed about 
three hours at 212 to 214° and half-pound cans three and one-half 
hours at the same temperatures. Higher temperatures and shorter 
times also are used. 

PREPARATION OF FISH BY WAYS OTHER THAN FRYING IN OIL 

Instead of being cooked in hot oil, some fish are prepared by being 
cooked in steam or in hot brine. In the past some fish also have 
been packed raw.^^ 

Steaming. — Large-oval sized fish are cleaned, brined, and dried as 
for frying in oil. They are then spread on wire flakes. Since the 



» A section of this document (pp. 103 to 116) is given over to the consideration of these methods as 

substitutes for frying in oil. 



86 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 




Fig. 17.— Lacquering tlu' cans. .\.s soon as tlic hot cans from the washer are diy, they are passed 
through a machine that covers them with a thin layer of lacquer to prevent rusting. The lacquered 
cans are placed in large crates for cooling 




Fig. is. — Testing and storing. When the cans are cool they are stored in stacks. After several 
days' storage defective cans are detected easily, when the cans are again handled 



OANNTNO PATtnTNE?^ 



87 




Fig. 19. — Labeling the. cans 




t'u;. I'u.— Hoxing 



88 TJ. S. BtTREAX^ OF FISHERIES 

cooked fish tend to stick together, they are placed so as not to touch 
each other. The flakes are next placed on a truck and wheeled into 
a retort or steam chest and cooked with steam under slight pressure 
for 15 to 30 nunutes. They are then removed and allowed to stand 
and cool, after which they are packed. 

At times the dried fish are packed raw into cans, which are inverted 
on wire flakes and steamed. 

Brine cooTcing. — This process is the same as frying in oil, except 
that the fish are cooked in hot brine and not brined before being 
dried. A saturated solution of common salt boils at 227°. This 
gives a cooking temperature close to that ordinarily used for frying 
in oil. 

Raw-packing. — In this process the fish are brined, or brined and 
dried, then packed raw into the cans with sauce, exhausted, sealed, 
and processed. Results have been so unsatisfactory, commercially, 
that few fish now canned are prepared in this way. 

MAINE METHODS 

Only an outline is given here of the methods that have been and 
are now being used in Maine. There are a number of papers'^ that 
give a history of the industry and describe the methods used in the 
past. Present methods are described in detail by Weber (see foot- 
note, p. 72). 

The fish used is the sea herring (Clupea Jiarengus). The supply 
for canning for the most part comes from weirs on the coasts of Canada 
and Maine. The fish are transported to the canneries in water-tight 
tanks or wells aboard the fishing boats. When placed in tanks at 
the weirs the fish are mixed with salt or brine, the amount being varied 
according to the size of the fish and the time it will take for the boat 
to reach the cannery. Ordinarily about 200 to 500 pounds of salt 
to a hogshead (about 1,200 pounds) of fish is used. This salt brines 
the fish and also aids in keeping them in good condition. At the 
factory the fish are weighed or measured and flumed to storage tanks, 
where they may or may not be brined further. 

From the tanks the fish are flumed to a conveyer, which carries 
them to a mechanical flaking machine. This machine spreads the 
fish quite evenly upon wire flakes. The flakes are placed in trucks 
and run into a steam chest, into which steam at a pressure of 80 to 100 
pounds is turned for 8 to 15 minutes. The chests are not tight but 
are so constructed as to permit considerable escape of steam. The 
trucks of fish then go to a large drying room, where they are subjected 
to the action of warm air. Time, temperature, and air velocity vary 
greatly in different factories. Usually the time is about 60 minutes. 
The temperature ordinarily used is about 100° to 120°, and the veloc- 
ity about 300 to 1 ,000 feet per minute. After drying, the trucks stand 
until cool. The flakes of fish are then given to the packers. 

ij "The Sardine Industry." By R. Edward Earll. The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United 
States, See. V, Vol. I (1887), pp. 489-524. Washington. "The American Sardine Industry in 1886." By 
R. Edward Earll and Hugh M. Smith. Bulletin, tJ. S. Fish Commission, Vol. VII, 1887 (1889), pp. ICl- 
192. Washington. "The Herring Industry of the Passamaquoddy Region, Maine." By Ansley Hall. 
Report, U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, 1896 (1898), pp. 475-479. Washington. "The Preser- 
vation of Fishery Products for J\)od." By Charles H. Stevenson. Bulletin, U. S. Fish Commission, 
Vol. XVIII, 1898 (1899), pp. 335-5f)3 [sardines, pp. 526-537]. Washington. "The Packing of American 
Sardines." By H. H. Hansen. Original communications. Eighth International Congress of Applied 
Chemistry, vol. 18, pp. 131-138. Washington, 1912. 



CANNING SARDINES 89 

Tho packers now remove the heads from the fish with shears or 
piiicli them off as tliey pack. The packed cans are placed on flat 
trays and cottonseed oil is added to them, a tray at a time, by an 
oiling machine. At times mustard sauce is added to the cans instead 
of oil. They then pass through the sealing machine. 

In most plants quarter-oil cans arc processed in boiling water for 
one and one-half to two hours. Steam retorts are coming into use. 
After processing the cans are cleansed by shoveling them about in 
sawdust or by washing them with a cleaning solution. 

Most of the pack consists of quarter-oils. Large quantities of 
the so-called "three-quarters" mustard pack are prepared. The 
preparation of this pack is virtually identical with that for quarter- 
oils. In fact, the larger fish seldom are separated from the smaller 
ones, all being prepared together. The larger fish are then packed in 
three-quarters cans (contents 10 ounces) with mustard sauce. These 
cans are processed about two hours in boiling water. 

The process just described is the one used for "standard" goods. 
Fancy packs usually are fried in oil, as already described under 
"California methods." These packs often are put in olive oil. 
Some fish are smoked also before being canned. 

Years ago the fish were cooked in Ferris-wheel type ovens over 
coke fires. Crackers still are cooked in this kind of oven. This and 
other equipment, emplo3dng similar cooking conditions, have not 
proved satisfactory. The natural draft of the furnace did not create 
enough velocity to get rapid heat transfer from the air to the fish or to 
put enough heat in the cooking chamber to prepare the fish quickly 
unless high air temperatures were used. Such temperatures, besides 
scorching the fish and oxidizing the oil, caused excessive loss of oil 
and sticking of the fish to the wire flakes. 

FOREIGN METHODS 

In France, Spain, and Portugal sardines '® are prepared by the 
frjang-in-oil process.'' This process was first developed by the 
French and is now widely used in California and to some extent in 
Maine. Details of the process are described under "California 
methods," pages 73 to 85. 

A translation of the description given by Gruvel '* of the Nor- 
wegian process for preparing quarter-oil sardines follows: 

Immediately after arriving at the cannery the small sprat, or brisling, are 
placed in 20° brine for about a quarter of an hour. When this is completed, 
from 20 to 30 of the fish are placed at one time upon a metal rod. A machine 
is used for tliis purpose. The fish are placed head foremost into cavities in a 
wooden frame. A lid is then lowered,, which holds the fish in place, while a 
heavy wire is threaded through a hole in the frame, catching all the fish a little 
below the eye. Thirty such rods are prepared and placed in a wooden frame 
where they are retained by lateral notches. These 30 rods contain around 600 
fish. The frames are placed one above another in a smoke oven. In order to 
get an even smoking, the frames are moved from the lower part of the oven, 
near the burning sawdust, to higher places, and eventually removed from the 
top. New frames take their places and are so moved from tlie bottom to the 
top. An oak fire is used, burning sufficiently for three things to be accomplished: 

'« Immaturp European pilchards (Snrdim piJchnrdus pilrhardus and Sardina piMardiix sardina) are used. 

1' The following paper ^ives an e.xcpneiit ciescription of French methods: "The French Sardine Industry." 
By Hugh M.Smith. Bulletin, U.fS. Fish Commission, Vol. XXI, 1901 (1902), pp. 1-26,8 pis. Washington. 

IS " En Norwege ITndustrie des P6ches." By A. Gruvel. Office Scientifique et Technique des PSches 
Mantimes. Notes et Memoires, No. 16, p. 60. Paris, 1922. 



90 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 

First, the drying of the fish; second, a sUght cooking; and third, a sHghtly 
accentuated smoking. The duration of this operation is from 45 to 60 minutes. 
When smoking is completed, eacli frame is placed horizontally in a special 
apparatus, where a hand-operated triangular knife advances and cuts the heads 
off the fish, which drop on a moving curtain running to the packing tables. The 
heads are removed from the wires and are used for making meal and oil. 

The methods used in other countries are similar to those already 
described. 

AMERICAN DIFFICULTIES 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

Information as to how to prepare high-quality sardines has not 
been lacking. There are but few canners who do not know how to 
prepare such products. What is needed is information that will 
permit high-quality sardines to be packed cheaply. 

Maine and California sardines for the most part have been pre- 
pared to fill the big demand that exists in the United States and 
elsewhere for cheap sardines. Buyers generally have been more 
interested in price than in quality, provided quality was passably 
fair. This buying practice has led to ruinous competition, in which 
quality frequently has suffered in the race to meet prices. These 
conditions have been more acute in Maine than in California, where 
to some extent canners have been able to rely on by-products for 
profits that they have sacrificed on canned fish. 

The serious effects of this ruinous competition upon the canners 
and the markets for their products are being realized and definite 
steps are now being taken to correct matters. 

American canners undoubtedly will continue to prepare sardines 
largely for the low-price field. Quality, however, will have to be 
considered more important than it has been in the past. Research, 
therefore, should be carried out with the view of furnishing informa- 
tion that will be helpful in producing better sardines at low cost. 
This idea was constantly kept in mind in planning and carrying out 
the research reported upon in this document. A disheartening 
factor faces anyone who plans to carry out research for the sardine- 
canning industry. It may be possible to produce helpful informa- 
tion only to find that it is not used to imxprove quality but rather to 
lower prices still further. If quality is overlooked and competition 
for quantity production at the lowest cost continues as strong as it 
has in the past, this will happen. 

TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 

The production of good-quality sardines depends upon a few 
well-defined factors: (1) the quality of the fish themselves, includ- 
ing their condition, handling, and cleaning; (2) the preparation of 
the fish for canning; (3) the materials placed in the can with the fish; 
(4) the canning procedure itself; and (5) the chemical and physical 
changes that take place within the can during processing and later 
storage. 

It was decided at the start of the investigation that the field covered 
by (2) — the preparation of tlie fish for canning — offered the greatest 
opportunities for research. The publication by AVeber (see footnote, 
p. 72) on the Maine sardine industry was the only report of scientific 



CANNING SARDINES 01 

work alono; this lino that had l)oen puhlishod.'^ It appeared evident 
that once the principh's uiuhMlvini,- this step were known it wonhl he 
possihle to niak(> iniprovenicnts in existing processes and to deveU)p 
new and l^etter ones. Research, therefore, was confined to this fiehk 

The most important difficulties of a technological nature that 
faced the California industry when the investigation started were 
connected with frying in oil. An excellent product can be prepared 
in this way. The process, however, has some rather serious dis- 
advantages. It is time-consuming and costly to carry out properly — 
so costly, in fact, that American canners generally have been unable 
to carry it out as it should be done. It was because of these facts 
that the Maine canners turned to other ways of preparing the fish, 
finally ending with the steaming process, which serves their needs 
better than the frying, although it is also unsatisfactory in some ways. 
The greatest trouble with the frying process has been with the oil 
used for cooking the fish. This problem, because of its importance, 
was the first to be studied. It is discussed in detail in the next 
section. The difficulties encountered in the steaming process are 
discussed in another section. 

It will be helpful to consider very briefly what is Imown about the 
other factors mentioned, upon which the production of good-quality 
sardines depends, and to point out where there is most need for re- 
search. 

1. The fish themsehies, including their condition, handling, and 
cleaning. — It is generally realized that the quality of the final pack 
can be no better than the raw materials from which it is prepared. 
The condition of many kinds of fish varies considerably throughout 
the year. A number of studies have been made that give information 
upon these variations in some of the fish used for sardine canning. ^° 

Much that will help keep the fish in good condition from the time 
they are caught until cooked undoubtedly can be learned through 
research. Weber (see footnote, p. 72) did some work along this 
line.^^ 

Ai though machines are now used for cutting the fish, there is need 
of much study in this field to bring about further improvements. 

» The following papers have been published by the writer on this subject since the investigation was 
begun. "Changes in oil used for frying sardines." Fish and Game Commission of California, Circular 
No. 1, 8 pp. Sacramento, 1922. Also, Fishing Gazette, vol. 39, No. 11, pp. 32-34, 63, and 65. New York, 
1922. "Some considerations concerning the canning of sardines." Transactions, American Fisheries 
Society, 53d Annual Meeting, 1923, pp. 122-150. Hartford. "Drying of fish for canning as sardines." 
Pacific Fisherman, vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 9-10. Seattle, 1924. "New method of preparing .sardines." Pacific 
Fi.sherman, vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 12-14. Seattle, 1925. " Methods of preparing sardines." Canning Age, 
vol. 7, pp. 979-987, New York, 1926. "A new process is perfected for canning sardines." Ibid., vol. 8, 
pp. 413-420 and 423. 1927. 

20 " The food value of the herring." By T. Milrov. Twenty-fourth annual report for 1905 (1906), Fishery 
Board tor .Scotland, pt. 3, pp. 8:^-107; twenty-fifth annual report for 1906, pt. 3, pp. 197-208. Glasgow, 1<»07. 
" Den Franske Industris kamp mot de Norske sardiner." By Johan Hjort. Aarsberetning vedkommende 
Norges Fiskerier for 1912; 4 de Hefte, pp. 445-560. Bergen, 1913. " Seasonal variations in the chemical 
composition of herrings, etc." By James Johnstone. Reports, Lancashire Sea-Fisheries Laboratory, for 
1914 (191,5). pp. 154-161; 1917 (1918), pp. 13-59; 1918 (1919), pp. 36-63; and 1919 (1920), pp. 10-23. "The fat con- 
tent of Irish Sea herring." By James Johnstone. Transactions, Liverpool Biological Society, vol. 29, pp. 
216-223. Liverpool, 1915. Paper by Johnstone. See footnote 8, p. 72. "A chemical study of the California 
sardine {Sardinia cseruka)." By D. B. Dill. Journal of Biological Chemistrv, vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 93-103. 
Baltimore, 1921. Paper by Dill. See note. Table 4, p. 73. 

" Although research was not carried out in this field during the course of the investigation reported 
upon in this document, attention should be called here to a procedure that probably will prevent much 
of the deterioration that takes place in the fish from the time they are caught until used. 

Small Maine herring, especially when their intestines contain much food (usually the so-called "red 
feed"), deteriorate rapidly, causing much waste of valuable fish. SmaU pilchards behave Quite similarly 
in California. In fact, large fish also deteriorate quite rapidly In both places, although not so quickly as 
the small ones. 

Weber showed that Maine herring, salted and carried in a layer 2J'2 feet deep in the hold of the boat, 
heated considerably in being carried to the cannery. One lot of fish, half of which it was estiniatfil con- 
tained red feed, rose in temperature from 51° to 74.3° in 3 hours. Another lot, 90 per cent of which con- 
tained feed, ro.se from 51° to 99.5° in 10>2 hours. During the experiment the air temperature did not rise 



92 U. S. BUREAtT OF FISHERIES 

2. This has already been discussed. 

3. The material is placed in the can vnth the Jish. — Oil, sauce, and 
other flavoring ingredients, including those added by smoking, have 
considerable influence on the quality of the final pack. The use of 
oil is well understood. It seems probable, however, that a study of 
sauces from the standpoint of their blending qualities and how well 
the public likes the various kinds will yield information that might 
aid materially in popularizing large fish canned in sauces in the 
United States. 

4. The canning jprocedwe itself. — The various steps (packing, 
exhausting, sealing, and processing), have been quite well worked 
out. Considerable information on these subjects has been pub- 
lished. Although little of it refers directly to fish canning, much of 
it can be applied to this field. There is need for bacteriological 
studies to show how to sterilize canned sardines more effectively. 
Some papers have been published on this subject ^^ and others will 
follow when certain work now in progress by two or three agencies 
is completed. 

5. The chemical and physical changes that taJce place mithin the can 
during processing and later storage. — Were more known concerning 
these changes in canned fishery products and the factors causing 
them it might be possible, in a measure, to control them so as to 
enhance the quality of the products. ^^ 

EXPERIMENTAL PART 

The experimental work reported upon in this paper and its appli- 
cation are of greatest interest and value to those actively engaged in 
the sardine-canning industry and to those who contemplate entering 
upon such work. Since but few of these people are technically 
trained, an endeavor has been made to present the material in the 
main part of the document in such a way as to be understandable to 
all. Most of the experimental data and technical discussions thereof, 

above 68°. It is evident that the temperature of the outside air was not sufficient to account for the changes 
in temperature that occurred in the fish. The water temperature undoubtedly was about 51°, since it 
must have been approximately the same as the temperature of the fish when they were removed from it. 

Weber says in regard to these experiments: "The rise in temperature of masses of fish in bulk is caused 
by decomposition changes due to bacterial growth, by far the greater part of which takes place in the 
viscera and contents. As the temperature of the mass of fish rises and approaches the optimum tempera- 
ture favorable to bacterial growth, it is evident why the decomposition of feedy fish proceeds at times 
so rapidly." 

His recommendations for improving matters follow: "Where practicable it would be desirable to install 
some method of refrigeration on all boats used to haul the fish long distances. Boats thus c(|uipped not 
only greatly extend the fishing radius, but also bring the fish to the canneries in a condition far superior 
to that of fish carried in salt. The decomposition due to ' heating,' which was found to occur in large 
masses of fish during transportation, can be retarded by shipping them in small bulk at low temperature. 
Small compartments, permitting the circulation of cold air, are necessary in boats equipped with refrigera- 
tion devices." 

In my opinion the way to get the necessary cooling effect is to use sea water. All the cooling that i.s 
necessary probably can be obtained at any time of the year from sea water ofl the coast of eastern Maine. 
At the time Weber carried out his experiments the .sea water was about 51°. Had a small amount nf fresh 
sea water been sprayed continuously over the fish and been pumped off at the bottom of the hold their 
temperature probably could have been kept close to that of the water and spoilage greatly retarded. Two 
small rotary pumps driven by the power plant in the boat and a small amount of piping and carpentry work 
is all the equipment needed. 

The bureau expects to carry out experiments along this line in the near future. What evidence is now 
available indicates that they will be successful. Sardine canners in Monterey preserve "cut" fish by 
circulating cold sea water over them. (See p. 151.) Menhaden steamers now successfully preserve their 
catch by circulating refrigerated sea water over them. (See " Refrigeration as applied to the menhaden 
industry." By Robert S. Taylor. Annual review number of the Fishing Gazette, January, 1926. New 
Yoi k.) Use of naturally cold or refrigerated sea water should tie helpful in preserving fresh fish wherever 
they have to be kept for prolonged periods, especially when massed in large bulk. 

" "The bacteriology of swelled canned sardines." By W, Sadler. American Journal of Public Health, 
vol. 8, pp. 216-220. Chicago, 1918. "A bacteriological study of sardines." By Maud M. Obst. Journal 
of Infectious Diseases, vol. 24, pp. 158-169. Chicago, 1919. 

" Maturation in canned fish is discussed by Weber and by Johnstone. (See footnote, p, 72.) 



OANXINCr SARDINES 03 

wlucli must, of (•()His(\ 1)(' iiu'liicled, have been placed in tlio Appendix 
for r(\-i(ly icfoivnco i)y tho few wlio will also want to consider them. 

GENERAL SUMMARY 

Followins; is a summary of tlie (experimental work reported upon 
in tiiis doeument and of tlie results obtained: 

1. Tlie nature of the change in composition and properties of oil 
used for frying sardines was determined. 

2. These changes are largely due to the presence of varying quan- 
tities of fish oil and to the action of air and heat upon the oil in the 
cooking vat. 

3. Fry-bath oil gets into the final pack, lowering quality, especially 
when the oil has seen much use. 

4. Waj^s are shown to diminish frying costs and the bad effects 
from frying in oil. 

5. Attempts to reclaim used fry-bath oil by mechanical and chem- 
ical treatment were unsuccessful. It is improbable that a satisfactory 
cheap method will be developed. 

6. Although further improvement in the frying procedure probably 
can be made, certain difficulties will continue to be troublesome. For 
this reason attention was turned to the study of substitute methods of 
preparing the fish instead of continuing work on frying in oil. 

7. The following substitute methods were studied and procedures 
developed and compared with frying in oil: (o) Brine cooking, 
(b) steaming, and (c) raw packing. 

8. Packs prepared by the various processes withstood extended 
storing and shipping tests about equally well. 

9. All the processes produced excellent packs of pound-oval sar- 
dines. When the advantages and disadvantages of each were com- 
pared it did not seem as though any of them could supplant frying in 
oil, unless it be the raw-packing process, and this possibility 
depends upon shortening the time needed for drying the fish. 

10. Study of the behavior of the fish under different drying condi- 
tions showed, however, that the drying time can not be shortened 
materially in this process. 

11. In other respects excellent results were obtained from the 
drying study. It showed how fish may be dried for cooking in oil 
or by some other method in much less time and consequently with 
less equipment than had been done. 

12. The drying data obtained now enables drying procedures and 
equipment to be planned on a scientific basis. 

13. A new process for quickly preparing both large and small fish 
was devised, using rapidly moving hot air to simultaneously dry, 
cook, and, if desired, smoke the fish. The cooked fish can be cooled 
quickl}^ in a blast of cold air and packed immediately afterwards. 

14. The new process obviates the diflRculties incident to frymg in 
oil and produces as good (in most cases better) packs of California 
and Maine sardines as any other process and at less cost. 

15. Details regarding equipment and operating_Uonditions are 
given, with recommendations. /'rsG ^ ^ AT 




94 tT. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHANGES IN OIL USED FOR FRYING SARDINES 
INTRODUCTION 

In the first section of tliis document a description is given (pp. 73 
to 85) of the method employed in preparing sardines in Cahfornia 
by the frying-in-oil process. Further information will be found on 
pages 103 and 104. At the time this mvestigation was started (1920) 
virtually all California sardines were being prepared in this way. 
This procedure also was followed to some extent in Maine. Condi- 
tions have changed little since then. 

Continued use of the oil for frying sardines causes it to gradually 
become dark in color and viscous. Eventually the oil becomes al- 
most black when viewed even through relatively thin layers, and 
when cold almost as viscous as molasses. It also acquires a disagree- 
able odor and flavor, both of which are characteristic. Although 
these changes take place gradually, they become quite pronounced 
within a few days. 

When such oil is used for frying, it has a bad effect on the cooked 
fish. A quantity of this oil necessarily adheres to them and is car- 
ried out of the vat. Part of the oil drains away while the fish cool, 
waiting to be packed, yet some remains and gets into the cans; 
except when the cooking oil has seen little use, this is undesirable. 
It would be too expensive, however, to put a new batch of oil mto 
the vat, so frying is continued. Where ordinary precautions are 
observed in handling the oil it is improbable that it ever gets insani- 
tary, but conditions do become undesirable and at times very much so. 

Undoubtedly frying-in-oil difficulties were the most important 
ones of a technological nature met by the California industry. They 
were of considerable industrial significance because of the large 
quantity of oil used for this purpose. In 1920 over 50,000,000 
pounds of sardines were fried in California. 

PREVIOUS WORK BEARING ON THE PROBLEM 

As far as it has been possible to determine, no results of any in- 
vestigation on the frying of sardhies has yet been published, other 
than a summary (see footnote, p. 91) of this particular study. 
Weber (footnote, p. 72) mentions corn oil as having been used some 
years ago in Maine for frying sardines. The oil gave off a disagree- 
able odor and foamed badly when used. At that time, however, 
commercial corn oil was not as highly refined as it is to-day. Several 
articles were found giving some data on oils used for frying pur- 
poses. Morgan and Cozens ^^ give a good summary of these articles. 

The literature on vegetable, animal, and fish oils is voluminous. 
It is quite well summarized in many places, however. Lewkowitsch ^^ 
gives the best summary. A series of articles by Hepburn ^^ furnishes 
a good discussion of the changes that take place in oil. Since, in 
the present report, cognizance must be taken of the natural changes 
that take place in the oils, these are briefly described below: 

" " Changes in physical and ehemiral constants of fats used in frying a standard dough." By Agnes F. 
Morgan and Ella R. Cozens. Journal of Home Economics, vol. 11, pp. 394-402. Baltimore, 1919. 

2» " Chemical technology and analysis of oils, fats, and wa.xes." By J. I. Lewkowitsch and O. H. War- 
burton. 6th edition. Vol. I. London, 1921. 

2" "A critical study of the natural changes occurring in fats and oils." By J. S. Hepburn. Journal, 
Franklin Institute, vol. KiS (1909), i)p. 365-384 and 431-456; vol, 109 (1910), pp. 22-54. Philadelphia. 



CANNING SAH DINES 95 

Orjjanisnis (bacterin, molds, and yoasts) art upon oils and <2;ivc 
rise to changes in their composition, the main change being an in- 
crease in acidity. The enzyme lipase occurs in the seeds of many 
plants and in some animals. It acts on oils (in the presence of 
moisture), splitting them into free fatty acids and glycerin. 

On exposure to air oils are oxidized, giving rise to a number of 
changes. The most important one is the development of a rancid 
taste and odor. Some oils thicken and eventually become solid; 
this takes place in air and Is called drying. Sardine oil exhibits this 
jihenomenon. 

Light and heat ))roduce polymerization of the fats (visually indi- 
cated by thickening of the oil). They accelerate the action of mois- 
ture on oils, giving rise to increased acidity. Oxidation changes are 
similarly accelerated. 

Rancidity in oils may be looked upon as being due to the formation 
of free fatty acids by enzymes in the presence of water and the sub- 
sequent action of oxygen and light on the free fatty acids. Fats and 
oils kept fully protected from light, air, and moisture will keep in- 
definitely in their original condition. 

Sardine canners have used methods of one nature or another in 
an endeavor to improve their oil during use. These efforts usually 
have been of a mechanical nature — washing with water and fdter 
pressing or centrifuging. At times fuller's earth and other similar 
substances have been used on the oil. It is safe to say that none of 
these methods (although all are helpful) have been very successful. 
Chemical methods of recovering used oil have been tried but they 
have been found to be expensive and unsatisfactory. 

Discussion with canners elicited many conflicting suggestions as to 
the nature and causes of the changes that take place in frying oil. 
It was generally believed, however, that more or less fish oil gets 
into the cottonseed oil and causes trouble. 

This lack of knowledge made it clear that in stud^^ing the problem 
it would first be necessary to determine the exact nature of the 
changes that take place in the oil and the factors that contribute 
thereto. With such information at hand, the problem would resolve 
itself into a study of means to eliminate the objectionable factors, if 
possible, or to devise a better method of accomplishing the same 
end. This was the path followed. 

EXPERIMENTS 



Two runs of frying tests were carried out in order to obtain accurate 
information concerning the changes that take place in oil used for 
frying sardines. Each run consisted of tests on two lots of oil. 

The equipment used in these tests consisted of two small vats, 
or fry baths, as they are usually called, 14i^ by 10}/^ by 9^ inches, 
inside dimensions, with steam coils midway of their depth. 

Procedure and data, firfit run. — Large, fat, California pilchards were 
prepared for fr3nng by being scaled, headed, and eviscerated, then 
dried for 60 minutes in air having a velocity of about 500 feet per 
minute and a temperature around 100°. Most of the fish were brined 
45 minutes in an 85 per cent saturated salt solution before being 



96 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 



dried. Accurate account was kept of the weight of fish before and 
after frying. Individual lots of fish were cooked 8 minutes in oil 
having a temperature close to 230° and were allowed to drain over 
the bath 8 minutes before being removed and weighed. 

Enough water was added to each bath, so that it came almost to 
the bottom of the steam coil. At the beginning of the experiment an 
excess of oil was used; later, however, just enough oil was floated 
on the water to a little more than cover the basket of fish immersed 
in it. 

In order to identify the two lots of oil, the baths are referred to as 
bath I and bath II. The oil in bath I was not treated, except that it 
was separated from the water and "foots" ^^ after a day of frying. 
Most of the oil in the "foots" was recovered by placing them in a 



100 




10 15 

HOURS 

Fig. 21.— InciTii.se in fisli-oil content of oil used for frying fat fish. Data obtained from 
Table 20, p. 166 

bottle and heating for an hour or so in boiling water. The clear oil 
hat formed was then floated ofT and added to the other oil. 

In bath II the oil was separated similarly, then returned to the 
bath with enough clean water to cover the steam coil. In this manner 
the water was boiled by the steam, and this caused the oil and water to 
form an emidsion. In order to break the emulsion, water was run 
out until the steam coil was in the emulsion. Steam was then turned 
on and this caused the emulsion to "break." Further heating drove 
the remaining water out of the oil. 

Fifty cubic-centimeter samples of oil were taken from each bath 
after a batch of fish had been fried. From bath II an extra sample 
frequently was taken after the oil had been cleansed. These samples 
were placed in corked bottles and later examined and analyzed. 
Equal quantities of the same batch of cottonseed oil were placed in 

" The layer of oil and water emulsion that forms between the oil and water. 



CAXXINC; SA HI) INKS 97 

cikIi hiitli. The two lots of oil were treated in a similar manner, 
excejU for the cleansiiiii; *2;iv"en the oil in bath 11. 

The run was stopped long before the oils had reached a condition 
where they coukl no longer be used, because sudicient data and 
samples for i)ractical purposes had been collected. It was also 
apparent that any figure that might have been obtained concerning 
tiie maximum (juantity of sardines that could be fried per gallon of 
oil used would depend on so manj^ varying factors that it w^ould 
have only very limited application. In this run 226 pounds of 
large, fat sardines in the "round" were fried per gallon of cotton- 
seed oil used. Out of a period of 28 days frying was carried on 

14 days. The actual time of frying, however, covered approxi- 
mately 53 hours. ^^ 

Procedure and data, second run. — This experiment was carried out 
to gain information as to the practicability of using oils other than 
cottonseed for frying i)ound-oval sardines. Olive oil at times had 
been used for frying fancy quarter-oil sardines, apparently with 
good results, but its cost would be prohibitive for frying pound-oval 
sardines. Weber (footnote, p. 72) mentions that corn oil w^as used 
.vears ago in Maine wdth poor results. The quality of this oil has 
been much improved since then, so that better results undoubtedly 
would be obtained. Should it have advantages, a suitable grade 
for frying purposes could be obtained at a price nearly equal to 
that of cottonseed oil. 

The use of a hydrogenated oil, such as Crisco or similar products, 
seemed practicable, provided it could be purchased cheaply enough. 
A fat of this nature does not oxidize as rapidly as cottonseed oil. 

In this run corn oil (Mazola) and Crisco were used. The pro- 
cedure followed was the same for both lots as that followed in the 
first run for bath I. Frying v-v^as continued until the daily oil 
losses became marked, clue to the cooking of lean fish'. 

In this run 510 pounds of prepared sardines per gallon of oil were 
fried in each bath. Actual frying time was 46 hours, carried out 
during a period of 36 days.-^ 

CHANGES IN QUANTITY AND COMPOSITION 

Data kept on the change in the quantity of oil in the two runs 
of frying tests show that the oil content remained approximately 
constant for days at a time when large, fat fish were being fried. 
For a short period, when the fish were very fat, the oil content 
increased. Late in the season the sardines became very lean and 
the oil losses then became very marked. 

Cooked fish when removed from the bath carry considerable oil 
with them, which is mechanically held on the surface, under the 
skin, in the body cavity, and soaked in the flesh. Experiments 
actually show that lean fish remove much oil in this way; fat fish 
must do likewise. It is evident, then, that when the oil content of 
the bath remains constant or increases oil must cook out of the 
fish. Under such conditions the sardine-oil content of the bath 
must increase. 

2' Detailed data on the quantity of fish fried and oil used are given in Tahles 13 and 14, pp. 161 and 102. 
29 Complete fjuantitive data concerning the amount of fish fried and oil used are given in the Tables 

15 and 16, pp. 162 and 163. 

40619°— 27 3 



98 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

It was not possible to determine with any degree of accuracy 
how rapidly the sardine-oil content of the frying oils increased dur- 
ing use by analyzing the samples of oil collected from time to time 
during the frying tests. The oils had been heated and exposed to 
the air for a long time, during which period much oxidation must 
have taken place. Such changes make the usual methods of analysis 
impracticable. 

A good idea concerning the change that must take place in the 
composition of oil used for frying sardines and the way in which 
it takes place can be obtained by using certain experimental data 
in connection with a series of calculations. These calculations are 
based partly on assumptions. They are reasonable ones, however, 
and the conclusions reached must be quite close to conditions actually 
attained in practice. The results of such calculations are very 
helpful in indicating ways in which frying can be improved. This 
work is summarized below.^'' 

When fat sardines are fried in cottonseed oil some oil cooks out 
of them and mixes with the oil in the bath. They leave more of 
this oil in the bath than they remove from it, and in this way the 
amount of sardine oil in the bath continues to increase. Th e rate 
of increase is rapid at first but lessens' as frying continues. Never- 
theless, it is not long before the frying oil is almost all fish oil. The 
nature of this change in composition is shown in Figure 21. Other 
calcidations show that the fish-oil content of a given quantity of 
frying oil increases less rapidly the larger the size of the individual 
units cooked at one time. An example will illustrate: If a ton of 
fish sufficiently fat to keep the oil content of the bath constant is 
fried 4 poimds at a time in 12 pounds of oil the fish-oil content of 
the frying oil will be less than if the same quantity of fish is cooked 
in units smaller than 4 pounds each. Still other calculations show 
that w^ien the fish are fat enough to cause the oil in the fry bath 
to increase the percentage of fish oil increases less rapidly if the 
oil in the bath is allowed to increase than if the excess oil is removed 
as it collects. The application of these findings to improving frying 
procedures is discussed later. 

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHANGES 

Examination of the oil samples from the frying experiments showed 
that the oils gradually darkened with use, becoming red in color. 
At the end of both experiments the oil appeared almost black when 
viewed through thick layers. However, thin layers about an inch 
in thickness showed a deep red color. The viscosity of the oils 
increased greatly with use. The longer the oil was used the more 
unpleasant it became, acquiring a tallowy, paintlike odor and taste, 
both of which are characteristic and hard to describe. The free 
fatty-acid content of the oils increased but slightly, going from 
about 0.1 to 0.6 per cent in each lot of oil.''^ The oils became only 
slightly rancid. Everything taken into considei-ation, it can not be 
said that they became insanitary — merely impalatable. 

As far as the examination went, the oils remaining from the two 
runs (four lots) seemed to be quite comparable in quality; that is, 

30 Actual calculations are given on pp. 164 to 167. si More complete data are given in Table 25, p. 168. 



CANNING SARDINES 99 

(ho changes tliat take placo in frviiig oil with iiso appearod to have 
taktMi phiee to about tlio sanio oxtciit in each case. 

The viscosity of the oils can be laid to oxidation and polymeriza- 
tion changes, and the odor and taste can reasonably be laid to the 
presence of lish oil and to oxidation products of this oil and cot- 
tonseed oil. The cause of the deep red color was assumed to be 
the action of oxygen and heat on sardine oil. To prove this, a 
number of heating tests, in air and away from air, were run on 
cottonseed, Alazola, Crisco, and sardine oils, alone and on mixtures 
of each of the first three with the last. The following results were 
obtained: When heated at 230° in air only the sardine oil darkened 
apjireciably, becoming redder in color the longer it w^as heated. 
Other things being equal, the more surface exposed the darker the 
oil became. All samples became viscous and the acidity increased 
slightly. Sardine oil and mixtures of sardine oil with the other oils 
accjuired a color, taste, and odor cpiite comparable to oils that had 
been used for frying sardines. Samples heated in the absence of 
air were not changed appreciably.^- 

MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENT 

Mechanical treatment by w^ashing the oil during the first run of 
frying experiments did not pay for the trouble; the improvements 
were scarcely noticeable. A few of the oi'dinary methods used in 
purifying oils w^ere tried on fry-bath oil. The methods of treatment 
included fuller's earth, superheated steam, oxidizing agents, hydro- 
gen according to Schuck's method,^^ and dilute caustic solution. 
(Experiments described on pp. 167 to 170 in the Appendix.) All meth- 
ods gave more or less negative results. The caustic treatment im- 
proved the color of the oil but not the taste. This, however, like 
the other chemical methods, is wasteful of oil and expensive to carry 
out. 

DISCUSSION 
METHODS OF IMPROVEMENT 

There is a big demand for canned sardines that sell at a low price. 
Competition for this business is very keen. In order to help keep 
production costs low, a batch of cooking oil is used much longer 
than it should be. This lowers frying costs, but, as has been show^n, 
undesirable changes take place in the oil and some of the oil gets 
into the canned product, lowering its quality more or less, accordmg 
to how much use the oil has had. Any improvement in the frying 
procedure that tends to keep the oil in better condition will improve 
the quality of the canned product. 

Betterment can take place along several lines, namely, (1) pre- 
venting or minimizing undesirable changes that take place in the 
oil, (2) treating "old" oil so as to remove its objectionable proper- 
ties, (3) using better suited and cheaper oils for frying, and (4) 
minimizing the amount of frying oil that gets into the can with the 
fish. There is also the possibility of getting around the difficulties 

" Data on the tests are given in Tables 26 to 28, pp. 168-169. 

" "Process for deodorizing fatty oils." By W, P, Schuck. Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, 
Tol. 16, pp. 608-609. New York, 1918. 



100 tr. S. BUREAU OF FISIIEEIES 

of frying in oil by developing a substitute method of preparing the 
fish for canning. These subjects are discussed below in the light of 
the experimental results. 

Minimizing undesirahle clianges. — The changes that take place in 
frying oil have been shown to be due largely to the action of the 
oxygen of the air upon the heated oil. Fish oil is affected more by 
oxidation than cottonseed oil. It darkens quickly, becomes viscous 
more rapidly, and when oxidized is more unpleasant as to taste and 
odor. It would be advantageous, therefore, to keep the fish-oil con- 
tent of the frying oil as low as possible and to do whatever is prac- 
ticable to prevent oxidation of the frying oil. Fish oil can not be 
kept out of the frying oil, and oxidation changes probably can not 
be prevented in a practical manner, so the difficulties can not be 
completely eliminated. There are ways, however, in which improve- 
ments can be made. 

In a typical fry bath, for example, a layer of oil 6 inches deep 
may be spread out in a vat 50 by 3 feet. With such a large surface 
of heated oil exposed to the air in proportion to the amount of oil 
in the vat, it is no wonder that oxidation takes place so rapidly. 
These changes can be lessened considerably by placing an inexpensive, 
removable cover on the vat, leaving the ends open whei'c the baskets 
of fish enter and leave the oil. Steam coming from the fish will 
collect in the inclosed space, excluding air. One canner agreed to 
try this and found that the oil remained in better condition when 
the cover was used. The blanket of confined steam over the oil 
also minimized temperature variations in the oil and lowered the 
amount of steam used in running the vat. In order to further con- 
serve steam, the whole exposed surface of the cooking vat should be 
well insulated. 

It is important in constructing a fry bath to build it so that the 
smallest possible amount of oil can be used. The vat should be but 
slightly wider than the baskets that pass through it, and they should 
move as close together and as near to the steam coils as possible. 
The coils should be placed so as to aid in permitting the use of the 
minimum amount of oil. Only enough oil should be used to cover 
the fish as they pass through the vat. Had these precautions been 
taken in constructing many of the fry baths now in use it would be 
possible to use as much as 1 to 3 barrels of oil less in filling them, 
with a saving at the time of filling of possibly $50 to $150. By 
taking these precautions, too, the oil in the vat that gets into the 
canned product will, in the long run, be in better condition than 
otherwise. The main reason for this follows: A given lot of fish w411 
mechanically carry away a certain amount of oil, which has to be 
replaced either by oil from the fish or by adding oil, no matter how 
much there is in the vat. The amount removed, however, will be a 
greater part of the total oil the less oil there is in the vat. It is an 
advantage for the oil replacements to be as large a part of the total 
oil as possible, because the more rapidly it is replaced the better the 
quality of the oil in the vat and the longer the time before it will 
have to be discarded entirely. 

Using the minimum amount of oil also keeps the fish-oil content 
of the frying oil from increasing as rapidly as it would otherwise. 
Calcuhitions show this to be true for all cases except where the oil 
content of the bath is increasing, as it does when very fat fish are 



CANNING SARDINES 101 

fried. Then, if the only considonition is to keep the fisli-oil contout 
at its lowest, the oil should he allowed to increase as inucli as con- 
ditions permit and as Ion*:; as such a condition exists. Although it 
has been shown that usually it is best to keep the lish-oil content of 
frying oil as low as possible, in this special case undoubtedly it w^ould 
be better to remove the excess oil as it collects and fry in the mini- 
mum amount of oil because of the distinct advantages that come 
from rapid oil replacements. 

The second run of frying experiments furnishes an example of the 
beneficial results to be obtained from an application of the principles 
discussed here. In the second run almost twice the quantity of fish 
was fried per gallon of oil used as in the first, yet final oil con- 
ditions were comparable. In the second run there were approxi- 
mately twice the oil replacements there were in the first run and less 
time for the simultaneous action of high temperature and air. It 
can hardly be argued that different oils were used in the second run, 
because fish oil is soon the main oil in any case where fat sardines 
are fried. 

Improping the quality of "old" oil. — It wonld be a distinct advantage 
were it possible to prevent objectionable properties from developing 
in frying oil by frequently treating the oil or by removing objection- 
able substances as they are formed. Experiments along these lines 
were unsuccessful. Apparently little is to be expected from such 
attempts when one realizes that there is only one sure method of 
removing the taste and odor from fish oil — namely, hydrogenation — 
and this is impracticable with a contaminated, oxidized oil. 

It is advisable, however, to handle this oil properly during use. 
When frying is completed, the oil should be separated from the 
**foots" and water and stored in a clean tank, preferably away from 
the air. The ''foots" should be heated gently to "break" the emul- 
sion and the clear oil obtained added to the other oil. More oil can 
be obtained from the remaining "foots" by boiling the water out of 
them. This oil should not be used for frying, as it is likely to be of 
poor quality. The frying vat should be cleaned, of course, and fresh 
water added when it is used again. Some canners claim that it pays 
to centrifuge the frying oil. Undoubtedly this is helpful, as it 
removes water and finely divided particles from the oil. 

Using better-suited and cheaper oils. — There are oils and fats more 
suitable in many ways for frying purposes than cottonseed oil. Since 
oxidation changes are the main ones that take place in oil used for fry- 
ing sardines, it would appear better to use an oil that is especially 
resistant to oxidation. In the experiments such an oil was used — 
namely, Crisco, a hydrogenated oil. No better results were obtained 
from its use, however. It is easy to explain this behavior. When 
fat fish are fried, it is not long before the oil first placed in the fry 
bath has been replaced by fish oil. The Crisco did not remain in 
the vat long enough for its desirable properties to show up. Under 
such conditions it makes little difference what kind of oil is used for 
frying, providing it stands up reasonably well under use and has no 
objectionable flavor or odor. When lean fish are cooked, however, 
it would be well to use an oil that is resistant to oxidation, since this 
is the main oil always in the cooking vat, losses being made up by 
adding new oil. 



102 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

There is one rather serious disadvantage in using a fat that is solid 
at ordinary temperatures. It is difficult to handle unless hot, and 
that which is carried out of the vat solidifies on the fish and gives 
an undesirable appearance to them. Some canners tried cocoanut 
oil, which is solid at ordinary temperatures, and found this to be the 
main objection to it. 

It is possible to lower frying costs by using a cheaper oil than 
cottonseed oil. Since it is but a short time until almost pure fish oil 
is being used when fat fish are fried, there is little reason why high- 
grade fish oil should not be used in the first place. Whenever avail- 
able, it is considered cheaper than cottonseed oil. Except for the 
solid nature of hydrogenated fish oil, it would make an especially 
valuable frying oil. 

In an endeavor to get around the expense for frying oil, one canner 
at least packing pound-oval sardines at times took fish oil from his 
by-products plant for cooking purposes, using a new lot each day. 
It was claimed that the fish were in good shape for canning, having 
been cooked in fresh oil, and that so little damage was done to the oil 
that it sold for the same price as other oil from the by-products 
plant. Another canner, packing quarter-oil sardines, cooked fish in 
new olive oil for a few hours, then removed it from the cooking vat, 
and used it in packing the fish. These developments are very inter- 
esting. I have been imable actually to observe the results obtained 
and therefore can give no more than an opinion as to what results 
are to be expected. High-grade fish oil should make a good cooking 
oil. I believe, however, that an oil good enough for this purpose 
will, even in one day, undergo changes that probably will lower its 
quality more than enough to offset any advantage gained by using 
it. If the oil is not high-grade to start with, it will lower the quality 
of the prepared fish. As for cooking in olive oil and then using the 
oil for packing purposes, it is probable that the changes that take 
place in the oil will detract enough from its value as a packing oil to 
minunize any advantage gained. 

Lessening the amount of frying oil that gets into the canned product. — 
An improvement in the results obtained from frying can be brought 
about by lessening the amount of frying oil that gets into the can 
with the fish. Improving draining conditions will help to do this. 
It is customary to stack the baskets of cooked fish several deep, one 
on top of another. The oil and water that drain out of one basket 
run down over the fish below. It would be better, in order to facili- 
tate draining, to have under each layer of baskets some sort of drip 
pan to protect the other fish and to convey the drippings away. 

Attempts have been made to remove at least a good part of the 
frying oil from fried fish by steaming them. I am not familiar with 
the actual results obtained. 'I do not think, however, that such a 
procedure would do enough good to pay for the extra trouble and ex- 
pense involved, 

ELIMINATING FRYING IN OIL 

The research has shown ways in which frying in oil can be im- 
proved and cheapened but not how the difficulties met can be over- 
come. It is improbable that further research will do this, although 
other improvements probably would follow from such work. Even 



CANNING SAK DINES 103 

after such improvempnts as can be made are effected, frying oil will 
continue to taivc on undesirable properties, and very likely it will con- 
tinue to be used lont^er than it should be, because in this way fr^nng 
can be cheapened still further. "Old " oil will continue to get into the 
canned product as before and be equally objectionable. Because of 
these facts, it did not seem best to continue the investigation in this 
field. Instead, it seemed more practical to endeavor to avoid frying 
in oil by the use of some other process of preparing the fish, which 
would, if possible, produce better and cheaper sardines. The rest of 
this document deals with the endeavors along this line. 

METHODS OF PREPARING THE FISH 
INTRODUCTION 

The study upon changes in oil used for frying sardines showed that, 
although very helpful improvements in the frying procedure can be 
made, certain difficulties probably will continue to be troublesome. 
For this reason elimination of the necessity of cooking in oil as a step 
in the preparation of sardines for canning presented a most desirable 
field for investigation. This was especially true in California, where, 
at the time of planning this particular work (1921), considerable 
interest was evident (yet little was known) as to methods of accom- 
plishing this end. Little, too, was known about how well fish pre- 
pared in other ways than cooking in oil w^ould withstand shipment and 
storage. No commercial attempt with a substitute method had yet 
been satisfactory. Cooking in oil had already been eliminated by 
most canneries in Maine because a steamed pack was cheaper to pre- 
pare. Steaming, however, as done there, was generally believed to 
be unsuitable for California. 

In this investigation three substitute methods of preparing the fish 
for making California pound-oval and quarter-oil packs were studied. 
Procedures were developed for each of them and packs were prepared, 
stored, and shipped. These substitute methods ordinarily are referred 
to as cooking in brine, steaming, and raw packing. In order that these 
methods may readily be compared with frying in oil, the advantages 
and disadvantages of the latter process are discussed first. 

FRYING IN OIL 

The steps involved and the changes that occur in frying in oil are 
described in detail in the introduction (pp. 73 to 85). The advan- 
tages and disadvantages of this process are summarized here for com- 
parison with those of other processes. 

Advantages. — The cooking-in-oil process, especially as a means of 
preparing fish for the pound-oval pack, is as nearly "foolproof" as 
one can reasonably expect any process to be. A wide variety of con- 
ditions in the various steps of preparation can be depended upon to 
prepare the fish so that they will give a pack of at least fair quality. 
Because of this, the canneries are able to operate almost wholly with 
unskilled labor. 

The lubricating eflFect of the cooking oil prevents serious sticking 
of the fish to each other and to the wnre baskets. They can be stacked 
quite thickly in baskets, and this enables a large quantity of cooked 



104 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

fish to be handled easily and stored in a small space until the most 
convenient time for packing arrives. 

The tough skins and firm fish produced by the process permit 
relatively rough handling, thus facilitating their being packed in cans. 

A most important consideration is the rapid and efficient way in 
which water is removed from the fish by the hot oil. Equipment 
for frying is relatively inexpensive and does not take up excessive 
floor space. Frying tends to make the fat content of the canned 
product uniform. It adds oil to lean fish and removes some oil 
from fat fish. 

Disadvantages. — The most serious objection to cooking in oil is 
the bad effect it has upon quality. If new oil could always be used 
this objection would not be serious. Where cottonseed oil or some 
similar oil has been used it has been economically impossible to 
change the oil frequently. Consequently, when "old" frying oil 
finds its way into the can it imparts its characteristic disagreeable 
taste and odor to the fish, darkening them and the oil and sauce in 
the can. Evidence indicates that such a pack is not digested as 
easily as one in which the ''old" oil is absent. 

Cooking large quantities of fish in oil and subsequently handling 
them and caring for the oil and equipment are at best very dis- 
agreeable undertakings. The fumes that come from cooking vats, 
especially as the oil gets "old," are unpleasant to most people. 

Considerable labor must be expended in handling the fried fish. 
The baskets of cooked fish are stacked and moved to the cooling 
room. Next day they are moved to the packing tables, unstacked, 
emptied, stacked again, moved once or twice, unstacked, and filled 
with fish for frying. 

Oil for cooking purposes amounts, in the long run, to a considerable 
item of expense. Upon inquiry several canners stated what their 
cost for cottonseed oil was per case of pound-oval fish cooked. Some 
claimed a cost as low as 5 cents and others as much as 15 cents. 
One packer of fancy quarter-oil sardines said it cost him 30 cents a 
case, and yet he was not changing his oil as often as is desirable. 
The expense of caring for the oil and equipment is considerable. 
The oil and extractives removed from the fish are excellent food and 
should go into the can. 

COOKING IN BRINE 

In October, 1920, E. B. Gross, then of Field & Gross (Inc.), Monte- 
rey, told me that at some time in the past he accideiitly had cooked 
fish in a hot salt solution instead of the customary hot oil. The 
fish appeared to him to be better and more palatable than fried 
fish. When packed with tomato sauce they produced an excellent 
product. Although some of his customers also considered the fish 
better, he did not continue preparing his product in this way because 
of the general demand for fried-in-oil sardines. Later, however, 
during the 1922-23 season Mr. Gross began to prepare fish by this 
process and has continued to do so since then. 

In December, 1920, Arthur W. Wells and I packed some sardines 
that were prepared by cooking them in brine. Later in the season 
Mr. Wells prepared other packs in a similar manner with very 
good results. The next season (1921-22) I made a study of this 



CANNING SARDINES 105 

method of proparing; tlio fisli.''^ Tho general results of this work are 
discussed lieiv. 

In tliis section and elsewhere in (his (h^eunuMit ])roee(lures are out- 
lined for ('ai'ryinii; <tu( certain ste])s in tlie pre])aration of the fish for 
canning. It will he noted that these directions seldom are explicit. 
It is not practicahle to make them so, as too many widely varying 
factoi-s enter into the matter. The fish may be small or large, 
lean or fat, good or in poor condition, and fish falling into two or 
more of these classes may be mixed together, so that it does not 
pay to separate them. Alany other factors also must be considered. 
The sauce for packing maybe thick or watery; an important con- 
sideration is the sort of final product desired. One canner may 
desire the fish to be especially dry and firm and another may wish 
them otherwise. Knowledge gained from actual experience alone 
will teach how best to modify the method of preparation so as to 
obtain the desired result. 

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 

The first experimental packs were prepared for canning in the same 
way as fried fish, except that they were cooked in a boiling, 100 per 
cent saturated salt solution instead of in oil. Excellent results were 
obtained in this way. Experiments, however, to determine the best 
conditions for preparing the fish were not carried out at that time. 

Cooking in a strong salt solution brings about changes in the fish 
similar to those brought about by cooking in hot oil. The tempera- 
ture of boiling brine is aboiit 227° (if saturated). This is almost as 
high as the average temperature of the oil used in many cases for 
frying. Fish, therefore, cook approximately as cpiickly as they do 
in the oil. Some fat is rendered and water and soluble extractives 
removed as in oil. In addition, the strong salt solution abstracts 
water by osmosis. 

The experiments showed that it is advisable to toughen the skins 
by drying the fish before cooking them in brine, as is done before 
frying fish in oil. 

The fish should not be brined, because salt diffuses into the tissues 
during cooldng and some brine clings to the fish when they are 
removed from the cooking vat. The more concentracted the solution 
and the smaller the fish the more pronounced is the salting effect. 
Cooking in saturated brine salts pound-oval size fish about the right 
amount. Quarter-oil fish, however, have such a large surface, 
compared to their size, that they easily become too salty when cooked 
in strong brine. Lowering the concentration of the cooking solution 
prevent* excessive saltness. Rinsing with fresh water does likewise. 
Both of these practices, however, are to be avoided. Lowering the 
concentration also lowers the boiling point of the solution, and the 
fish do not cook as quickly or lose water as readily as when high 
concentrations are used. Rinsed fish tend to stick to each other and 
to the wire baskets more than unrinsed ones. 

Tressler ^^ showed that impurities, such as calcium and magnesium 
compounds in salt (sodium chloride), used for curing fish produced 

" Data on the experiments and packs produced are summarized in Table 29, p. 171. 

""Some Considerations Concerning the Salting of Fish." By Donald K. Tressler. Appendix V, 
Report U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1919 (1921). Bureau of Fisheries Document No. 884, 55 pp., 
8 figs. Washington, 1920, 



106 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

marked differences in the quality of the salted product. Cooking 
solutions were used which had been made from salts containing as 
high as 10 per cent by weight of calcium and of magnesium chlorides. 
Except for having a slightly sharper taste, no material difference was 
noted between fish cooked in these solutions and those cooked in pure 
sodium chloride. 

Several packs of brine-cooked fish were prepared. In some cases, 
for purposes of comparison, similar packs were prepared from the 
same lot of fish by the regular cooking-in-oil process. These packs 
showed that cooking in brine, when carried out properly, produces 
an excellent pound-oval pack at least equal in quality to the fried-in- 
oil product. The brine-cooked packs would have been better, as far 
as flavor and appearance go, had the fried pack been cooked in 
"old" oil. Very good quarter-oil packs were produced, except that 
all were too salty. The process is not suitable for small fish. 

PROCEDURE RECOMMENDED 

Brine cooking is best suited for preparing fish for the California 
pound-oval and the Maine three-quarters mustard packs. It is 
best to use "cut" fish that have not been brined or otherwise salted. 
The skins should be toughened by drying in the same way as fish 
are prepared for cooking in oil.^*^ The dried fish should be scattered 
in wire baskets not more than two or three deep and cooked in a 
saturated salt solution kept at or near the boiling point (about 227°). 
Vigorous boiling should be avoided, as it tends to move the fish about 
and causes brusmg. Cooking for 6 to 12 minutes (depending on the 
result desired) should be enough; however, cooking should be at 
least sufficient to enable the backbone to be removed easily and show 
no uncooked blood. The baskets of fish then should be stacked and 
set aside to drain and cool, preferably over night. The amount of 
salt in the final pack can be controlled by varymg the amount of 
salt in the sauce. 

RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING EQUIPMENT 

Ordinary galvanized-iron cooking vats and wire baskets used for 
cooking fish in oil also can be used for brine cooking. The hot brine, 
however, soon removes the zinc from the iron, which then rusts 
badly. It is preferable to use either Monel metal or heavily tinned 
copper for all metal parts. These combinations of metals (Monel 
metal being an alloy) are very resistant to hot brine. 

Heavily tinned copper equipment was used in the expernnents 
with excellent results. In addition, concentrated brine was kept in 
the cooking vat for over two years. The metal appeared to be in 
excellent condition at the end of this time. 

ADVANTAGES 

Cooking in brine, like frying in oil, furnishes a rapid and efficient 
way of removing water from the fish. 

Cooking equipment, although more expensive than for frying in 
oil, is still relatively inexpensive and does not take up excessive 
space. 

>' Details described on pp. 125 to 129. 



CANNING SARDINES 107 

The cookiiis; solulion costs little and tluM-ofore can bo chaiif^od 
froqueiitly. Even when this is done the expense will be considerably 
less than for oil. 

Brining is eliminated, thus saving one step usually carried out in 
preparing iisli by frying in oil. 

The oil that cooks out of the fish is of good quality and can be 
recovered and sold. 

Most important, cooking in brine obviates the bad effects brought 
about wlieu fish are cooked in "old" oil. 

DISADVANTAGES 

The process is not suitable for preparing small fish for the quarter- 
oil pack. 

It is frequently advantageous to brine fish quite heavily in order to 
keep them until it is convenient to cook them. This can not be done 
with fish that are to be brine cooked. 

Since fish float in strong brine, baskets with tops must be used to 
keep the fish submerged. Compared with cooking in oil, this means 
more trouble. 

The skins of brine-cooked fish tend to break and stick to each other 
and to the basket much more than is the case with fried fish. For 
this reason less fish per basket must be cooked. 

As with fried fish, considerable labor must be expended in handling 
the brine-cooked product. 

There is a material loss of valuable extractives and oil from the 
fish in brine cooking, as there is in cooking in oil. 

STEAMING 

Steam cooking has been practiced on a commercial scale in Cali- 
fornia on numerous occasions. Results usually have been unsatis- 
factory, however, and especially so during the World War period, 
when large quantities of steamed fish were put up in round cans. In 
general, in preparing fish by this method the skins have broken badly 
during steaming, especially where they touched the wire flakes, and 
after being cooled the fish have tended to stick to the flake and to 
each other. The packs produced have been of poor quality and have 
not stood up well under ordinary storage and shipment. The cans 
usually turned out to be slack-filled and to contain considerable 
water, and the fish themselves were soft, with tender, easdy broken 
skins. 

Soon after the war a canner in Santa Cruz had considerable success 
in selling a product prepared by packing the fish in oval cans, invert- 
ing them on wire flakes, and cooking the fish wdth steam. For some 
reason, apparently other than the quality of the pack prepared, 
this company soon discontinued operations. Later, a canner in 
Monterey began to steam cook fish and still continues to do so with 
much success. The process used is essentially the same as the one 
recommended here as having proved best by experiment. The 
development of the process by this canner and my experiments were 
independent of each other. At present no other canner makes a 
practice of canning steamed fish in California. 

Experiments were carried out to learn not only how to prepare a 
good pack of steamed fish having satisfactory shipping and keeping 



108 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 

qualities, but how to minimize the difRculties that had been met in 
preparing the fish for canning. The general results of these experi- 
ments are discussed here.^'' 

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 

Brining. — During cooking much steam condenses on the fish and 
some juices run from them. These liquids remove salt, necessitating 
heavy brining if the cooked fish are to retain enough salt to flavor 
them. The heavy brining also helped a little in toughening the skins 
of the fish. Other than this, it had no pronounced effect upon the 
manner in which the fish withstood steaming. 

Drying. — It is advisable to toughen the skins by drying before 
steaming the fish. In the experiments this helped considerably in 
preventing breakage, both during steaming and later when the fish 
were packed. Drying also removes some water, and this aids in 
getting the fish in good condition for canning. 

Cooked fish lose considerable water when they stand on flakes 
exposed to the air for several hours. Ten lots of various-sized 
steamed fish, some partially dried after steaming, lost, when allowed 
to stand overnight on different nights, from 7.1 to 14.2 (average 
10.9) per cent of their original weight before being steamed. Under 
similar conditions 16 lots of fish that had been cooked in a current of 
hot air averaged 6 per cent loss in weight. 

Most people connected with sardine canning believe that partially 
dried fish absorb water when exposed to air containing much mois- 
ture, as on a rainy day. Weber makes this mistake. On page 58 
of his paper (see footnote, p. 72) he writes of dried fish, particularly 
on rainy days, absorbing enough water to make their handling 
difficult. The only way partially dried, steamed fish can become 
moist from water in the air is for vapor to condense upon them. 
This can not take place unless the temperature of the fish is below 
the air temperature, and this seldom happens in sardine-canning 
practice. What really takes place is this: The surface of fish com- 
ing from the drier is dry to the touch and remains so as long as water 
is removed from the surface faster than it diffuses from within. 
When the relative humidity of the air is high, as on a rainy day, a 
condition is soon reached in which water diffuses to the surface more 
rapidly than it is removed. The fish then appears as if it had taken 
up water from the air. Even under such adverse conditions the fish 
continues to lose some water upon standing. 

Some experiments were carried out on the drying of steamed fish 
of sizes suitable for the half-oil and quarter-oil packs. Complete 
data are given in Table 31, page 180. The drying of steamed fish is 
discussed in detail elsewhere (pp. 121 to 129). 

Steaming. — Cooking with steam removes some water from the 
fish. Even when "wet" steam at 212° and atmospheric pressure 
were used there was some loss in weight. With "wet" steam under 
pressure the loss was greater and in a current of superheated steam 
still greater. In "wet" steam the loss in weight comes from the 
cooking effect, which renders some oil, destroys the cellular structure, 
and thus causes juices to drain from the fish. Superheated steam 

8' Details are given in Table 30, p. 175. 



CAN\\l.\(! SAHDINES 109 

;ils() h;is a proudimcod drvinp; oiroot, nMiu)\iii.ii; watcM" from llio (Isli in 
tho sajuo way that liot air ddos. 

In one series of experiineuts the oil aiul extractives that drained 
from the fish during steaming were caught, dried, and weighed. If 
the assumption is made that the fisli were 40 per cent fat and dry 
soHds (a high figure), tlien from 3 to 8.3 per cent of the fat and dry 
soHds were removed during steaming in these tests. 

PROCEDURE RECOMMENDED 

Large pilchards for the pound-oval pack should bo brined heavily 
(one and one-half to three hours) in a saturated salt solution. Brin- 
ing can be eliminated if extra salt is added to tho tomato sauce. 
Fish to be packed in oil, however, must be brined. The skins of the 
fish should be toughened by chying in the same w^ay as for frying in 
oil (pp. 125 to 129). 

The dried fish should be spread on wire flakes for steaming. To 
prevent sticking, they should not touch each other. If the flakes are 
not oily from being used, a little oil spread upon them will help to 
prevent excessive sticking. The fish should be steamed for 15 to 30 
minutes under conditions that will assure moisture being removed 
from them. Cooking in a retort under about 5-pound pressure, with 
good escape of steam from the petcock, is satisfactory. In a steam 
chest, where steam can escape and the cooking therefore is done at 
atmospheric pressure, the steam should be turned into the chest at 
boiler pressure, and it should be allowed to escape quite freely from 
the cooker. Reduction of the steam pressure from that of the 
boiler to that of the atmosphere superheats the steam, and this helps 
to remove water from the fish. A little experimenting will show 
what steaming conditions give best residts. 

The fish also ma}^ be steamed in the can. Dried fish should be 
used for this purpose, and the can should be slightly overfilled, as 
the fish shrink during steaming. The cans should be inverted on 
wire flakes during steaming, so that liquids w^ill drain from the cans. 
After cooking, hot sauce should be added to the cans, and they 
should be sealed while hot. This sealing while hot eliminates regular 
exhausting. 

Fish steamed on flakes should stand until cold, or they should 
be cooled by blowing cool air over them. They are then ready for 
packing. 

Fish steamed before pacldng also should be packed quite tightly 
into the cans, as they may shrink somewhat when sterilized. Thick 
sauce should be used, and this will take up any water that cooks 
out of the fish in the retort. 

It is important that the procedure used remove sufficient water 
from the fish. The experiments on steaming do not tell how much 
■water should be removed, but later experiments do.^^ For the 
pound-oval pack in tomato sauce there should be a loss in weight of 
10 to 15 per cent. Most of this loss, of course, is water. If drying, 
steaming, and cooking in air do not dry the fish enough they should 
stand in air until dry enough or be dried artificially. Steaming, 
however, can be carried out so as to remove enough water. 

3* Experiments with the new process reported upon in the last section of this document. 



110 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

For the quarter-oil and half-oil packs the loss in weight should 
be 20 to 30 per cent. Artificial drying after steaming is necessary 
to bring about this loss. Drying before steaming can be dispensed 
with if the damage caused by steaming undried fish is not excessive. 

ADVANTAGES 

The steaming process has one big advantage over cooking in oil — 
the quality of the pack is not likely to be lowered by the presence 
within the can of any objectionable product, such as "old" frying 
oil. 

Steamed fish spread out on flakes cool more quickly than baskets 
of fried fish and therefore can be packed sooner. 

DISADVANTAGES 

Compared with frying in oil, steaming requires a little more labor, 
especially from having to place the fish carefully upon the flakes. 
The cooked fish are more troublesome to handle, and a given quantity 
of steamed fish requires more storage space than an equal quantity of 
fried fish. 

Skin breakage is greater than when the fish are fried, and more 
extractives and salt are removed from the fish. 

Although definite figures are not at hand, steaming undoubtedly 
is wasteful of fuel. 

RAW PACKING 

Packs of sardines in California and Maine at times have been 
prepared by packing from raw fish. Usually the fish have been given 
some sort of preliminary treatment in order to get them into con- 
dition for canning. Results, however, have been so unsatisfactory 
generally that no canner in California or Mame makes a practice of 
canning raw fish. The packs produced have stored and shipped 
poorly as a rule. The cans have turned out to be slack filled, with 
far too much water in them, and the fish themselves have been too 
soft. 

Although raw packs are not produced by the regular sardine 
canners, in British Columbia some large, fat pilchards are put up 
raw, without sauce or oil, in pound-tall cans. On the east coast of 
the United States alewives are canned in a like manner in No. 1 and 
No. 2 cans. These products are good foods. They find only a limited 
market, however, partly because they are judged by standards for 
canned sardines. When packed raw, they have the same disadvan- 
tages and therefore are subject to the same criticism as are the 
ordinary raw-packed sardines. 

It seemed obvious that good results could be obtained in packing 
sardines raw if enough water were removed from the fish before they 
were canned. Experiments were carried out with this idea in mind, 
followed by research aimed at bettering the method of preparing the 
fish for canning.^^ Most of the research reported upon in the next 
section of this document, under the heading "Partial drying of the 
fish," was performed as a part of the research on this problem. A 
general summary of the results of all these experiments follows : 

3» The results of this work, other than the special drying experiments, are summarized in Table 32, p. 182. 



CANNING SARDINES 111 

EXl'KUIMKNTAL RESULTS 

Tho oxporiinonts oloarly show that g;ood packs of pound-oval 
sardines in tomato sauce can be prepared by packin<i; tlie fish raw if 
suflicient water be lirst removed l)y brinin<j; and diyiiii^:. Satisfac- 
tory results were not obtained by packing untreated lish or fish that 
have been l)rined only. 

Brining, aside from salting the fish, helps prepare them for canning 
by removing some water. It is advisable to brine the fish as 
long and in as strong a solution as possible in order to take full 
advantage of this dehydrating effect. Two to three hours in satu- 
rated brine is about as long as large "ovals" can be brined without 
taking up too much salt. 

Satisfactory results were obtained in preparing large fish for the 
pound-oval pack by drying two hours in air having a temperature 
of 95° to 105° and a velocity of about 500 feet per minute. These 
fish, of course, had been brined heavily. After drying they were 
packed firmly into cans and lightly salted thick sauce added. Two 
hours' drying under these conditions did no more than remove the 
minimum of water, and at times it failed to do this. 

During the 1921-22 sardine season good packs of pound-oval 
sardines were prepared consistently by the raw-packing process. 
These packs when properly prepared were better than packs produced 
by the other processes. The flavor of the fish was excellent, little 
besides water having been removed from them. The appearance 
was very good, the fish being always bright in color and the skins 
intact. The physical condition of the fish generally was not quite 
as good as were similar packs of fried fish, for the reason that more 
water had been removed by the frying process. Preliminary tests, 
however, showed that the product obtained was virtually as good in 
stormg and shipping qualities as were fried-in-oil packs. 

It is a real disadvantage, however, to have to dry fish two h'ours 
or longer. Large and relatively expensive equipment is needed in 
order to do this. Raw packing would be much more feasible if the dry- 
ing could be done in less time. It was not possible to tell how well 
the drying was being done or to know what could be expected, since 
no information upon the behavior of the raw fish under various 
drying conditions was available. Experiments, therefore, were car- 
ried out to furnish this information and to learn, if possible, how to 
shorten the drying period. Much valuable information was obtained 
from these experiments. Complete data are given and the results 
discussed in another section. Here it is sufficient to summarize 
only those results that apply to this problem. 

The experiments indicate clearly that little can be done to hasten 
drying in preparing the fish to })e packed raw. Increasing the 
temperature of the drying air will do this, but the fish soften badly 
and oil is rendered from them. This change is undesirable; it gives 
a soft fish, and during drying the fish break when they drop from 
one run to the next in the continuous driers. 

On several occasions raw packs were prepared from fish that had 
stood in the air about 21 hours. Some of these fish had been brined 
and dried; others had been brined only and had to be dried before 
being packed. The fish kept well and packed satisfactorily. Un- 
doubtedly it would be better not to dry the fish until just before 



112 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

they are to be canned. Warming the fish in the drier hastens bacterial 
and autolytic activities, which probably continue at a greater rate 
than it does in fish that have not been warmed, although the warmed 
fish may soon return to the temperature they had before being dried. 

It was necessary to find out liow well the fish keep over night, 
because the packing of prepared fish into cans is usually done by 
women who work only in the daytime. In southern California, for 
instance, the fish usually arrive at the canneries between midnight 
and 9 or 10 o'clock in the morning. The fish are unloaded, cut, and 
brined as soon as possible. Under ordinary conditions fish to be 
packed raw could be prepared and be ready for packing early in the 
morning, and a steady supply furnished throughout the day. There 
are times, however, when fish arrive late in the day or early in the 
evening. These fish must be preserved until the next day before 
they can be packed. If they are fresh and if they are cut and brined 
sufficiently, both the experiments and general experience by the 
canners show that they keep well over night, or even longer, in the 
brine tanks. The air temperature at night on the coast of southern 
California in winter, when sardines are canned, seldom goes above 
60° and may drop as low as 32°. Should higher temperatures prevail 
or the fish be in poor condition a layer of cracked ice on a tank of 
brined fish would aid greatly in keeping them. Conditions for keeping 
fish in Monterey are excellent. A supply of clean, cold, sea water is 
always available, and if run over the fish in tanks keeps them in 
excellent condition for from 24 to 48 hours. 

Experiments upon the preparation of fish for the quarter-oil pack 
were limited in extent. It is evident, however, that a good pack can be 
obtained by preparing small fish in the same general way as large 
fish for the pound-oval pack, except considerably more water (20 to 
30 per cent) must be removed from the small fish. This can be done 
by drying, but, except in the case of very small fish, it is a slow 
process, just as it is a slow process to remove less water from large 
fish. 

One difficulty was met with raw-packed fish in oil that is not 
encountered with fish that have been cooked. Some of the packs 
(not all) when opened contained small masses of what apparently 
was coagulated protein. This detracted somewhat from the appear- 
ance of the product. It seemed that this substance was present only 
when the fish were not real fresh or had softened considerably during 
their preparation for canning. This coagulable substance undoubt- 
edly drains during cooking from fish that are cooked before being 
canned. It was not noticed, however, in the tomato-sauce packs, 
probably because its presence was hidden by the red sauce. 

PROCEDURE RECOMMENDED 

Pound-oval sized fish, to be canned raw with tomato sauce, should 
be "cut" and then brined in a saturated salt solution as long as 
possible (about two to three hours) without making the final product 
too salty when packed in a very lightly salted or unsalted tomato 
sauce. 

The brined fish next should be dried with air having an average 
temperature of 95° to 115° and a velocity of 1,000 feet, or more, 
per minute (preferably 1,500 to 2,000) for two to three hours. The 



CANNING SARDINES 113 

t (Mil porn turo slioulil bo kopt low 0Ti(Hii2:h to provont tho fish from 
hocoinini:; vory soft niul to kooj) imicli oil from })oiii<i; rendered. 
Experienee with the kind of equipment used and witli different drymg 
conditicMis and sizes of fish is necessary to determine tliese in any 
indivichial case. At least 6 to 8 per c(>nt of water (i)referably more) 
should be removed from the fish by drying. Generally speaking, less 
water has to be removed from fat fish than from lean ones to obtain 
satisfactory results. This is because fat fish contain less water than 
lean ones. A fish analyzhig 16 per cent fat may analyze about 64 
per cent water, while a lean fish contahimg 1 per cent of fat may con- 
tain 78 per cent water. 

Drying can be accomplished v/ith least expenditure of labor in a 
continuous multiapron, tumbling drier. Recommendations with 
regard to this kmd of drier are given on pages 127 to 129. These 
and the general notes given in that part of this document apply 
equally well here. 

The fish should be packed tightly into the can as they will shrink 
somewhat when sterilized. A very lightly salted, thick, tomato sauce 
should be used, and this will take up the water that cooks out of the 
fish in the retort. 

The regular process used in sterilizing fried fish is sufficient for 
raw-packed products. 

Fish for the quarter-oil pack should be prepared in the same 
general way as for the pound-oval pack, except that much more water 
should be removed from them. The process, however, is not as 
satisfactory for preparing fish for the quarter-oil as for the pomid-oval 
pack. 

ADVANTAGES 

Fish properly prepared for raw packing are in almost perfect 
physical condition. Little other than water having been removed 
from them, appearance, flavor, and food value are conserved to the 
fullest extent. 

The yield in cases per ton of fish handled is tgreater with this 
process than with any of the others. 

DISADVANTAGES 

The time required to prepare fish for canning when packed raw is 
much greater than for any other process. This is a distinct disad- 
vantage, as large units of relatively expensive drying machinery are 
needed to handle the fish. 

Fish to be packed raw must be canned within a reasonable length 
of time after being caught. They can not be prepared and then kept 
two or three days until it is convenient to can them. 

During drying the fish are heated to and kept for a considerable 
period at a temperature favorable for bacterial and autolytic activity. 
The changes brought about in fresh fish by the acceleration of such 
activity are not objectionable; in fact, they are not noticeable. 
They might be, however, if fish that are a little stale are used. At 
times fish that have been out of the water for some time and are not 
in the best of condition are received at the cannery. Nevertheless, 
they are still hi fair condition for canning and will give a good product 
if prepared quickly. In any of the processes where the fish are 

40619°— 27 4 



114 tJ. S. BUEEAU OF FISHERIES 

cooked they are barely warmed during the short drying period, and 
decomposition ceases when the fish are cooked. 

STORING AND SHIPPING TESTS 

In considering the merits of any process account must be taken of 
the storing and shipping quahties of the packs produced. The 
product must stand up well. Pound-oval sardines prepared by 
frying in oil proved excellent in this respect. In the average canner's 
mind, however, it seems very doubtful whether packs produced by 
methods other than frying in oil would be satisfactory. The raw- 
packed and steamed sardines produced during the World War period 
were poor in this respect. Many of these packs became a mushy 
mass when handled in the same way as fried sardines. Although 
these bad results undoubtedly were due to improper preparation of 
the fish, nevertheless it was necessary to prove that properly prepared 
products would stand up well before the canners would even con- 
sider using any process other than frying in oil. The various packs 
were therefore subjected to rather severe storage and shipping tests 
in comparison with similar fried-in-oil packs^ many of which were 
prepared from the same lots of fish, both by regular canners and in 
the laboratory. The general results of this work are discussed here.^° 

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 

In general, all packs withstood the storing and shipping tests about 
equally well, whether prepared by frymg in oil or otherwise, provided 
they were properly prepared for canning. On the other hand, when 
the necessary precautions were not taken to get the fish into good 
physical condition for cannmg, they disintegrated more or less. 

Only a very few cans from the dift'erent packs definitely spoiled — 
that is, "swelled" from the formation of putrefactive gases. During 
the third year of storage a large number of cans of pound-oval, 
tomato-sauce sardines did "swell," due to the formation of hydrogen, 
probably from the action of the acids in the sauce upon the metal of 
the cans. In other ways the contents appeared to be normal. 

The fish, however, had acquired a slightly bitter taste, probably 
due to metal salts. Most cans hi every pack that was 3 years old 
were affected. It was noticed, too, that as time went on the cans 
became quite badly "detinned." Fish packed in oil, however, did 
not acquire the bitter taste, nor did the cans "detm" to a pronounced 
degree. 

Occasionally among normal cans of the different packs that were 
2 to 3 years old there was found a can in which the fish had softened 
badly, otherwise the contents appeared normal. In extreme cases 
the outline of the individual fish could hardly be distinguished. I 
can give no explanation for this action. Probably it was due to 
some sort of bacterial activity. 

« Details of the tests made with the various packs are given on p. 190. 



CANNING SARDINES 115 

DISCUSSION 

Tho oxj^orinioiital work has shown how oxcollont packs of pound- 
oval sardines, havins; <2;ood stoi'ln*; and shijipinji; quaHtics, can be pre- 
pared in ways other than by cookins:: hi oil. These processes — 
namely, steaming, brine-cookine;, and raw-packing — have been com- 
pared with the frying-in-oil process and the advantages and disad- 
vantages of each pointed out. The general results of the study, 
however, taken as a whole, need to be discussed. 

In the first place, a few statements can be made that are in the 
nature of conclusions. In some ways they seem so obviously true as 
to require no proof. They are substantiated, however, by experi- 
mental data given in this section, and are proven further in the last 
section of this document. 

1. The preparation of fish for canning as sardines is essentially a 
process of removing excess water and of getting the fish mto good 
physical condition. 

2. As far as the storing and ship])ing qualities of a pack are con- 
cerned, it makes little difference by what process the fish are prepared 
for canning, provided they are in good condition and packed firmly 
into the can, and provided sufficient water has been removed so that 
the fish will not shrink badly and give up an undue amount of water 
when sterilized. 

3. The best product will be given by that process that adds no 
objectionable foreign substance to the fish (such as "old" fry-bath 
oil), that removes the least amount of oil *^ and soluble extractives, 
and that best preserves the original appearance of the fish and leaves 
them in the best physical condition for canning. 

Of course, quality of pack must be considered in relation to the 
cost of production, and proper cognizance must be taken of these 
factors when methods of preparing the fish are considered. Under 
certain circumstances a small addition in cost is secondary in impor- 
tance to a gain in quality, while under other circumstances cost of 
production must be kept down even if quality has to be sacrificed 
somewhat. It is highly desirable that a process be developed that 
will produce fish of the best quality at the lowest cost. This, as 
stated before, was set as the ulthnate goal of the line of research 
considered in this document. 

The processes experimented with do get around frying-in-oil diffi- 
culties, and although they will, in the long run, produce better packs 
of sardines than does frying in oil as now carried out commercially, 
it does not seem to me that any one of them has sufficient additional 
advantages to enable it generally to supplant that process. 

When the fish are properly prepared, raw packing produces the 
best pack. The difficulty in getting enough w^ater out of the fish 
and the amount of equipment and time required to prepare them 
probably will prevent this process from becoming widely used, if at 
all. Brine cooking does not appear to be adapted to southern 
California conditions, under which it is advisable to brine the fish 
as an aid in preserving them until they are to be cooked. Besides, 

« Some believe that as much as possible of the natural oil in the fish should be removed, contending 
that a better pack is produced in this way. Gencnil practice among canners does not seem to confirm this. 
Maine and Norwegian canners prefer fat fish for their quarter-oil packs, and California canners cease opera- 
tions when oval-size fish become lean. My own experience has convinced me that the natural oil in the 
fish, unaffected by outside influences, adds considerably to the flavor, texture, and food value of the fish. 



116 V. S. BUEEAU OF FISHERIES 

the process is not well suited to small fish. In Monterey, where 
conditions are different, there are possibilities for this process to be 
developed into a good substitute process for frying in oil. The 
steaming process offers possibilities of being developed into a good 
substitute process if a procedure is developed that will j^ermit the 
preparation of pound-oval sardines as cheaply as they can be prepared 
by frying in oil. 

Research on ways of carrying out the brine-cooking and steaming 
processes and on the development of the right kind of equipment 
probably would yield good results. This, however, did not seem to 
be the best path for further research. Instead, the investigation 
was continued upon the development of a new process having the 
desired advantages. This research is covered in the section entitled 
"New process for preparing the fish." 

APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS TO THE MAINE INDUSTRY 

In Maine it has been customary to prepare the better grades of 
sardines by the frying-in-oil process and the "standard" grades by 
steaming. Frying in oil has been found to be unsatisfactory for the 
same reasons that obtain in California, and steaming is objected to 
because it removes so much salt, oil, and soluble extractives and 
because the fish frequently break badly when cooked. 

Although the research on methods of preparing the fish for canning 
as sardines applies directly to California pilchards, the results should 
apply almost equally well to the preparation of Maine herring. 
Maine's three-quarter mustard pack is very similar in character to 
the California pound-oval pack in tomato sauce. The bulk of the 
total pack, however, consists of quarter-oil sardines. 

The results of the study on methods of preparing the fish indicates 
no process that would better conditions in Maine. Frying and 
steaming, as well as baking in Ferris-type ovens, have already 
])roved unsatisfactory. It seems doubtful, therefore, if further 
research on the methods already studied would lead to information 
of much value to the Maine industry. This is another reason why 
work was continued upon the development of a new process. 

PARTIALLY DRYING THE FISH 
INTRODUCTION 

In the section "Methods of preparing the fish," under the heading 
"Raw packing" (p. 110), it was pointed out that for the raw-packing 
method to supplant frying in oil it would be necessary for the long 
drying period to be shortened. The primary reason for undertaking 
the investigation described in this section was to learn, if possible, 
how to do this. A secondary reason was to gain information of 
value in improving existing drying methods used by sardine canners. 
The results of this research, as applied to the raw-packing process, 
have been discussed previously. This section of the document is 
devoted to a general discussion of drying and of the experimental 
results of the investigation and their application to commercial 
practices. 

Partial dehydration is an important step in the preparation of 
fish for cannino; as sardines. So far the removal of some water from 



CANNING SAJIDINES 117 

raw or steamed Hsli ]\v subjoctinji; tluMii to the action of movinc; warm 
air has been found to he an essential step in all commercial methods 
of in-eparins; the (ish. The principles undcrlyinji this step and their 
practical application are, in general, unknown to sardine cannors. 
Then, too, the behavior of raw and steamed fish under various drying 
conditions has not yet been worked out. Accurate knowledge of 
this latter point is necessary to permit application of the fundamental 
principles of air drying to the designing of apparatus and to the 
improving and cheapening of this necessary step in the preparation 
of the fish.^- 

THE r6lE of drying IN THE PREPARATION OF THE FISH 

In Maine, in order to obtain a satisfactory product, it is necessary 
partially to dry the fish after they have been steamed. Partial dry- 
ing prior to some form of cooking presents a somewhat different 
problem from the drying of steamed fish or fish to be canned raw. 
In the latter cases the problem is essentially one of moisture removal. 
In the former case the most important thing is to get the fish into 
good physical condition for withstanding the rest of the preparation 
for canning. It is a process of toughening the skins and of removing 
surface water and some internal combined moisture, so that the fish 
Avill withstand frying, steaming, or cooking in brine with minimum 
damage. The actual amount of water removed is of secondary 
importance and may vary somewhat v/ithout detriment to the final 
pack, especially if plans are laid to remove more or less water in the 
subsequent preparation. In the frying process, for example, a study 
of different cannery procedure shows considerable variation in the 
amount of water removed by drying, yet the final product of each 
plant is satisfactory. The large amount of water removed by frying 
and draining overnight tends to equalize small differences in loss of 
moisture due to drying. In this study of partial dehydration it is 
important to keep these ideas in mind. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DEHYDRATION 

A good imderstanding of the fundamental principles of air drying, 
on the part of the sardine canners, will be of much assistance in im- 
proving drying conditions in the industry. For this reason part of 
what is known about air drying and its application to drying fish is 
explained here. 

Air is a combination of gases that, when dry, can take up or associate 
with itself a definite quantity of water vapor for each temperature 
at which it may be. The quantity of water vapor that can be taken 
up by a given weight of dry air increases very rapidly with rising 
temperature. For instance, 1 pound of dry air at a temperature of 
122° can take up 7.4 times as much water as an equal amount of air 
at 62°, and at 182° the amount is 62 times that at 62°. This example 
indicates why it is possible on a rainy day, when the temperature is, 
say, 62° and the air is already saturated with moisture, to heat the 
air b}^ passing it through a steam coil and then to have it take up 
moisture from wet fish. Contrary to popular opinion, heat does 
not dry air; it only makes it possible for it to associate more mois- 

« The various kinds of drying apparatus used by the California sardine canners are described on pp. 

77-78. 



118 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

tiire with itself, duo to its change in temperature. If the air after 
heating were cooled to its original temperature (62°), it would again 
become saturated; and if cooled further, water would immediately 
begin to condense from it. The temperature at which water vapor 
begins to condense from air that is being cooled is kno\\'Ti as the dew 
point — in this case 62°. If in this example, however, after heating the 
air it had been allowed to take up some water from wet fish before 
being cooled, the dew point would have become higher; and, with cer- 
tain limitations, the more water it had taken up the higher the dew 
point would have been. In fact, it is actually possible for so much 
water to be taken up in the first part of a tunnel full of fish that when 
the air later strikes cold fish just entering the far end of the tunnel it 
will condense on them. This must be avoided, of course. 

Fractions of the total amount of water vapor that can be present 
in air at a given temperature are expressed as "per cents relative 
humidity." For example, saturated air has a "relative humidity" 
of 100 per cent and half -saturated air 50 per cent. 

Air is heated to increase its moisture-absorbing capacity. Another 
reason for warming the air is to furnish the heat needed to vaporize 
the water that is to be removed. It takes much heat to change 
water to vapor (steam) at the boding pomt; yet it takes virtually 
the same quantity to change water to vapor at lower temperatures. 
In drying, the warm air that strikes an object furnishes this heat. 
Were it not furnished, a body from which water can evaporate 
freely would soon become so cool that the rate of evaporation would 
become negligible. 

Air in contact with a wet object soon becomes saturated, and if 
evaporation is to proceed this air must be replaced. This is done 
by contmuously blowing air thj'ough the drier. This air conveys 
heat to the object and carries away the water that has vaporized. 
Increasing the temperature of the drying air causes a marked increase 
in the drying rate, and this is also true for increased air velocit}'". 
An idea of the effect of changing the intensity of these factors can be 
gained from the following comparisons, which are based on relations 
given in Tables 6 and 7. If, from a definite water surface and in a 
given time, air blowing at the rate of 250 feet per minute wiU evaporate 
1 pound of water with the temperature of the air and water at 72°, 
then at a temperature of 1.32° 6.75 pounds will be removed; and if 
at this higher temperature the air velocity is increased to 1,000 feet 
per minute the amount of water evaporated will be 9.25 pounds. 

Due to limitations set by the substance being dried, such increases 
in drying seldom are realized by bettering drying conditions. The 
temperature of the drying air may have to be kept low, so that the 
temperature of the substance itself will not rise to a point where 
undesirable changes take place or the substance ma}^ give up its 
moisture so slowly that the cost of maintaining a high air velocity 
will not be justified. 

The amount of moisture in the drying air also has its effect on the 
drying rate. Except where modified by other influences, the higher 
the humidity the lower the drying rate. 



CANNING SARDINES 119 

Table 6. — Relative evaporation rate from water surfaces, due to air motion ^ 



Air 



StUl... -. 

250 feet per minute veloc- 
ity. 

800 feet per minute veloc- 
ity. 



Area of water 
surface 


Rate of 
evapo- 
ration 


25 square feet.. 
do 

Any area 


1.5 
3.5 

4.5 



Air 



1,000 feet per minute ve- 
locity. 

2,500 feet per minute ve- 
locity. 

4,000 feet per minute ve- 
locity. 



Area of water 
surface 



Any area. 

do.... 

do.... 



Rate of 
evapo- 
ration 



4.8 
8.1 
12.6 



1 From " Iligh-Temperature Drying." By Burt B. IlarrLson. American Society of Heating and Venti- 
lating Engineers' (.luide for 1922, p. 50. New York. 

Table 7. — Relative evaporation rate from water surface, due to heat ' 



Temponiture of water and air, °F. 


Relative 
rate of 
evapo- 
ration 


Temperature of water and air, °F. 


Relative 
rate of 
evapo- 
ration 


32 


1 
2 
4 
8 
16 


132. 


27 


52 


152 


44 


72 -- 


175 


71 


92 


195 


135 


112 


212 


165 









• From p. 51 of paper referred to in Table 6. 



An effect known as "casehardening" frequently is encountered in 
drying substances that give up their moisture slowly. This is 
brought about by such rapid drying of the surface of the material 
that further drying is hindered. This usually is prevented by using 
high-humidity air. 

Smce the nature of the material to be dried has its influence on the 
method and rate of drying, it is important to consider partial dehydra- 
tion of fish with this idea in mmd. The fish are usually taken out of 
the brine or steam chest and placed in the drier. These fish are cov- 
ered with more or less free water, which is removed easily. The rest 
of the water, however, is within the cells that make up the flesh of the 
fish. This water must reach the surface and vaporize before it can be 
removed. In fact, water not only has to reach the surface of the fish, 
but, after vaporizing, it must pass through a stationary film of air 
surrounding the fish. The water passes through the fish and water 
vapor through this film of air by a process known as "diffusion." The 
rate of diffusion is slow, but it increases as the temperature of the fish 
is raised. Decreasing the thickness of the air film also increases 
diffusion. It likewise increases the rate of heat transfer from the air 
to the fish, because heat also must pass through the film. The thick- 
ness of this film of air is decreased as the air velocity over the fish is 
increased. However, if the rate of diffusion is slow, increased air 
velocity will have little effect in increasing moisture loss other than 
that brought about by greater heat transfer to the fish at the higher 
velocity. 



120 



tr, S. BUEEAIT OF FISHERIES 



The more technical aspects of drying will not be discussed here, nor 
will a review of the literature on drying (which is large) be taken up.*^ 
jMuch research has been carried out on air drying in connection with 
the chemical and allied industries and in the fruit and vegetable 
dehydrating field. Many of the papers deal with the reaction of 
various substances to varying drymg conditions and may include a 
discussion of the principles of air drying. Others discuss drier design, 
a subject treated but briefly in this article. Some experimenting on 
rather complete moisture removal has been done, but apparently no 
study has ever been made of partial dehydration of fish as applied to 
the sardine-canning mdustry. This problem will be shown to be 
somewhat different from more complete dehydration. 




KiG. 22. — Experimeutal drying equipment 



THE PROBLEM 



The problem with respect to partial dehydration of raw and 
steamed fish for canning as sardines is, first, to determine, by experi- 
ment, the behavior of the fish under different drying conditions. 
With these data in hand, and having determined just what the 
function of drying is in the different methods of preparing the fish 
and the extent to which it should be carried out, one will be able to 
apply that which is already known on air drying to improving and 
cheapening this important step. 



" The technical side of air drying is thoroughly covered in the following papers and boolcs: "The rate of 
drying solid materials." By \V. K. Lewis. Journal of Industrial and Engineering (^hemistry, vol. 13, 
pp. 427-432. Easton, Pa., 1921. "The theory of atmospheric evaporation with special reference to com- 
partment driers." By \V. U. (^arrier. Ibid., pp. 432^38. "The compartment drier." By W. H. Carrier 
and A. E. Stacey, jr. /ftit?., pp. 438-447. "Tunnel driers." By (iraham B. Ridley. /feVd., pp. 453-460. 
"High-temperature drying." By Burt S. Harrison. American Heating and Ventilating Engineers' Guide 
for 1922, pp. 49-60. New York. "The temperature of evaporation." By W. H. Carrier, /bid., pp. 61-82. 
"Principles of chemical engineering." By William H. Walker, Warren K. Lewis, and William H. 
McAdams. Chap. XVL New York, 1923. "Industrial drying, the apparatus and how it works." By 
Lueien Buck. Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, vol. 29, pp. 626-631. New York, 1923. "Fan 
Engineering." By W. U. Carrier. 2d ed. Buffalo, N. Y., 1925. 



CANNING SARDINES 121 

EXPEKlMr:NTS 

The dryinc: apparatus used in the experiments is shown in Figure 
22. Its operation is described and the procedures followed in the 
experiments are given in (he Appendix (pp. 191 and 192). 

MOISTURE REMOVED FROM RAW AND STEAMED EISH BY DIFFERENT DRYING 

CONDITIONS 

The factors influencing the drying rate of an object are the hu- 
midity and temperature of the air, its effective velocity, and the 
physical and chemical properties of the substance being dried. These 
factors, then, are the ones that must be studied with respect to the 
partial dehydration of raw and steamed fish. By varying one factor 
and making the others (including the fish, as nearly as possible) 
constant it is possible to get an idea of the effect of each. Many 
valuable data were obtained from experiments of this nature. ''^ 

These data show that increasing the temperature of the drying 
air brings about a marked increase in the amount of water removed 
from both raw and steamed fish, and this is also true to a lesser 
extent for increased air velocity. These results were expected. 
Increasing the amoimt of moisture in the drying air, however, gave 
somewhat unexpected results, in that this caused but little decrease 
in the rate of moisture removal, provided the humidity was not 
raised enough to cause some condensation to take place on the fish. 
It is evident from these experiments that moisture difi^usion is so 
slow that even with high-humidity air the drying effect at the surface 
of the fish is sufficient to remove the water as rapidly as it comes to 
the surface. 

Considered from the standpoint of time, moisture removal, in 
partially drying the fish, is relatively rapid at first, after which it 
declines to a more nearly uniform rate. 

Under similar conditions steamed fish lose water more rapidly 
than raw ones. The flesh of steamed fish has been cooked, and this 
destroys its cellular structure, freeing water and making the fish 
much more porous. Therefore, moisture diffusion, being easier, 
takes place more rapidly. With steamed fish, too, greater advantage 
can be taken of the more rapid diff'usion at higher temperatures. 
The danger of harming cooked fish by overheating is not so great 
as with raw ones. 

RELATION OF SIZE TO THE DRYING RATE 

Drying conditions being ec[ual, small fish lose water more rapidly 
than large ones. Small fish offer, per unit of weight, a greater 
surface fi'om which evaporation can take place than do larger ones. 
Further, diffusion in small fish takes place more readily because, 
being small, they heat quickly and the bulk of the moisture is nearer 
the surface in small fish than it is in larger ones. 

** Table 35, p. 193, contains all the data. 



122 



U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHEEIES 



TEMPERATURE OF THE FISH AS A FACTOR IN DRYING 

The temperature of the raw fish is an important factor in drying. 
It is of importance from the very beginning of the operation. The 
fact that higher fish temperatures increase the drying rate by hasten- 
ing moisture diffusion has already been noted. Acting against this 
favorable result are the undesirable changes that take place in the 
fish if they are heated too much. In such a case the flesh softens, 
and if the fish are fat oil is rendered. Even partial cooking may 
take place. It is necessary, then, to know something concerning 
the conditions under which these changes take place if they are to 
be avoided. 

EJfect of air temperature upon the condition of the fish. — Raw fish 
usually have about the temperature of outdoor air when placed in the 
drier. In the drier warm air strikes them and gradually raises their 
temperature almost to that of the drying air. Evaporation of water 
retards this heating by using much of the heat taken up by the fish. 
In Table 8 are given data that illustrate changes in temperature 
when large pilchards are dried at different temperatures and the 
effect of heat upon the fish.*^ 

In actual practice the fish behave quite similarly to the way they 
did in the experiments covered by Table 8. Most canners do not 
want the fish to soften much or become oily during drying, conse- 
quently they seldom employ a drying temperature greater than 110°. 
A few, however, shorten the drying time to about 30 minutes and use 
air at slightly higher temperatures. 

Experiments indicate that the undesirable changes take place 
rapidly only after the fish attain a temperature of 95° to 100°. Good- 
quality, large, fat pilchards can be dried with air having a temperature 
up to 95° for at least 3 hours without bad effects. An hour at 105° 
to 110° and 30 minutes at 115° to 120° are about as long as the fish 
can be heated at these temperatures without much change. These 
statements should be approximately true for air velocities of about 
500 to 1,500 feet per minute. 

Table 8. — Tempei-ature rise in large, fat, Calijornia pilchards, and the effect of 
heat on the condition of the fish 



Experi- 
ment 


Air 
tom- 
Iiera- 
ture, 

° F. 


Air 
veloc- 
ity, feet 

per 
minute 


Temperature of fish, ° FA 
(time in minutes) 


Condition of fish 


No. 


Start 


30 


60 


90 


120 


End of 1 hour 


End of 2 hours 


102b_ 


95 

9.5 
105 

105 
115 

115 


634 

f>02 
616 

602 
602 

5X0 












Firm 


Firm; very little oil 


103a 

103b 

104c 

102a 


60 
61 

63 


80 
94 


90 
100 


92 
102 

102 


93 
103 

103 


do 

Good condition 

do 

Softened somewhat; 

some oil rendered. 
do 


rendered. 
Do. 
Softened somewhat; 
some oil rendered. 
Do. 
Soft; oil rendered. 


103(1 


62 


100 


109 


112 


112 


Do. 



1 Taken about }4 inch under the skin at thickest part of body— "cut" flsh used. 

The softening that takes place probably is brought about mainly 
by autolytic changes in the flesh of the fish. 

*• More complete data on changes in temperature are given in the Appendix (p. 203). 



CANNING SAKDINES 123 

Cause of slow drying 07? rainy days. — Driers handling raw fish at 
tinios show a iiiarko(i diniinution in their ahihty to dry the fish satis- 
factorily. This usually takes place on a rainy day, and the claim is 
always made that there is too much water in the air for good drying. 
This is not a logical explanation, because the experiments have 
shown that the amount of moisture in the drying air has little eft'ect 
upon tlie drying rate of fish that are being partially dehydrated 
when there is no condensation on the fish. Further investigation 
showed that the slackening in drymg referred to here is brought 
about by fish entering the drier at a lower temperature than the 
dew point of the drying air. The dew point of the air in the drier 
can be no higher (and it may be lower) than that of the air outdoors 
when it may be raining and tlie temperature is at, say, 60°. This 
outside air is saturated with moisture at this temperature; its dew 
point is 60°. This air may be heated, but its dew point will still 
remain at 60°. Now, if this air strikes fish that have a temperature 
of 50° it will not remove water from them; in fact, some small part 
of the air will be cooled to a temperature below its dew point, and 
water will condense upon the fish. In a few minutes, however, the 
warm air strilving the fish will raise their temperature above 60°, and 
then evaporation will commence. 

AMiere the drying time is short (say, 30 to 45 minutes) and the 
temperature of the drying air is low (95° to 100°), and where perhaps 
the velocity also is low (500 feet per minute), the slackening in drying 
is considerable. Under such conditions (they prevail in many com- 
mercial installations) it takes a good many minutes to heat the fish 
to a temperature where drying can take place. 

WTien confronted by such circumstances as these, the operator 
usually raises the temperature of the drying air until he gets the 
results ordinarily attained in the usual length of time. This works 
quite well, because the higher temperature heats the fish quickly and 
tends to cause more rapid drying. Another way to get around this 
difficulty is to see that the fish that enter the drier have a tem- 
perature high enough to prevent moistin-e from condensing upon 
them. The temperature of the fish can be raised easily, when they 
are brined, by warming the brine before it is placed on the fish. 
This worked nicely in small-scale experiments and should do likewise 
with large quantities of fish. The temperature of the brine must not 
be too high, however, because this tends to soften the fish; nor should 
the fish enter the drier at too high a temperature. In this case 
additional heating by the air causes the fish to soften too much. 
This difficulty was encountered when an attempt was made to hasten 
drying by first heating the fish with w^arm brine, so that moisture 
diffusion would be rapid from the very beginning of the drying 
period. The more rapid diffusion brought about in this way, how- 
ever, caused greater moisture loss from the heated fish. 

Recirculation of the drying air. — The amount of air leaving the 
drier, which may be used again, depends largely upon the tem- 
perature of the entering fish themselves. It has just been shown 
that when the temperature of the fish entering the drier is below the 
condensation point (dew point) of the water vapor in the drying air 
drying is delayed. When this condition exists, it is inadvisable to 
recirculate any of the exhaust air, as it would increase the moisture 



124 U. S. BUEEAXJ OF MSHEMES 

content of the drying air and slacken drying still further. Most of 
the time such conditions do not pi-evail and it is possible to use part 
of the air again. 

It is safe to return to the fan and through the drier a little less 
air than an amount that, when added to fresh air, will cause con- 
densation on the fish. In practice it is easy to regulate recirculation 
by observing the fish and cutting down the amount of air returned 
to the fan if there is any slackening in the drying. Although recircu- 
lation increases the humidity of the air, it will have little effect on 
the drymg. Partial drying of the fish can be carried out about as 
well in air having a high humidity as in drier air, providing no con- 
densation of moisture takes place on the fish. 

Rapid drying has been shown to depend on vigorous circulation of 
as warm air as possible through the drier. In order to keep the 
temperature from falling much through the drier, a large excess of 
heated air is used. In the case of most driers now in use for partially 
drying fish for canning as sardines (and undoubtedly the same will 
be true for future installations), the air leaving the drier is still quite 
warm and has absorbed only a part of the moisture that it is able to 
take up. Operating costs can be lowered by recirculating as much 
of this air as possible. 

COMMERCIAL SARDINE DRIERS 

In the California industry accurate operating data were collected 
on most of the commercial sardine driers in use during the 1922-23 
season. Many of these data are given in Table 9. It will be observed 
that drying conditions varied greatly and that temperatures from 
75° to 120° and air velocities from 339 to 1,676 feet per minute were 
used. The drymg time varied from 28 minutes to about 2 hours, with 
moisture losses on large fish running from 3.8 to 10.7 per cent. In 
all cases raw fish were being dried for cooking in oil, brine, or steam, 
and in each instance the skins were so conditioned that the fish 
cooked satisfactorily without undue breakage. These observations 
again call attention to the fact already discussed — that to prepare fish 
for cooking it is necessary only to toughen the skins of the fish and 
to remove a little water from them. 



i 



CANNING SARDINES 



125 



Table 9. — Examples of operating condUions employed in Reveral California sardine 

driers, season 1922-23 



Plant 


Entering 
air tem- 
perature, 
°F. 


Drop in 
tempera- 
ture 
through 
drier, °F. 


Velocity 
in, feet 

Ijer 
minute 


Velocity 
out, feet 

per 
minute 


Time in 
minutes 


Per cent 
loss in 
weight 


Size of fish 


B. t. u. 

of heat 
used per 

pound 

of fish 
handled 


Ai.. 

B> 


119 
107 
96 
120 
75 
97 

109 
115 
109 
101 
102 


10 

27 

4 

23 

■10 
15 

24 
11 

8 
12 

6 


1,360 

257 

1,676 


901 
914 
781 
519 
532 
488 

321 
738 
401 


28 
55 
35 
70 
105 
120 

90 
31 
41 
124 
75 


3.8 
6.5 
4.7 
6.0 
10.7 
9.4 

3.4 
6.8 
6.6 
10.6 
6.1 


Large "ovals" 

do 


399 
190 


03 

D... 


do 

do 


820 
556 


E 


1,503 


Medium "ovals".. 




F 


do 




O* 

H 


339 


do 

Small "ovals" 




IS 




do 




J« 


357 
1,445 


Large ' ' quarter oils " 
Large "ovals" 




K 


833 











1 Air for this drier was drawn from the flsh-packing room. When these data were obtained, the dew 
point of the air entering the drier was 70° and the temperature of the fish entering the <irier about 55°. The 
fish, therefore, had to be warmed in the drier to 70° before any drying took phue. Had air from outside 
(the dew point of which was 55°) been u.sed, drying would have commenced almost immediately. 

2 Fan drew air through steam coils, then over nsh. More air was drawn in through cracks in the housing 
of the drier than entered through tlie steam coUs. 

3 Cross section of this drier gradually diminished in size from where air entered to where it left. Leakage 
was so great through the drier housing that only 10 per cent of the air reached the far end of the drier. 

* Too little air for the quantity of fish handled. 

« Fully 20 to 30 per cent of the air being sent through this drier escaped through an open space where it 
could do no good at all. 

6 The method of handling the fish in this drier permitted but little of the large amount of air being handled 
to strike the fish. 

These data on California sardine driers do not adequately describe 
conditions. They really are much worse than outlined, because 
account is not given here of wide variations in many other contributing 
factors. There are big opportunities for improvement in this field. 
These are covered in part in the next section, and the whole subject 
is thoroughly discussed later. 

A great many data were not collected on the operation of sardine 
driers in Maine. Enough installations were examined and sufficient 
information obtained, however, to show that the knowledge gained 
from the California experiments can be applied to improving pro- 
cedures and equipment in Maine. It is evident, too, that the oppor- 
tunities for betterment are large. This subject is taken up later. 

RAPID DRYING OF FISH BEFORE COOKING 

Some one of the widely varying sets of conditions made use of by 
the California canners in preparing fish for cooking must be better 
than the rest, when judgetl from the standpoint of cost and results 
obtained. It is possible, too, that some new set of conditions might 
even be better for the purpose. This proposition was studied and a 
way found in which to prepare fish for cooking in much less time, and 
consequently with less ec[uipment than previously. This result can 
be obtained by using vigorous air circulation, combined with higher 
air temperatures, than have been used for this purpose. 

These conditions cause very rapid drying to take place. When 
they are used, however, it is necessary to shorten the drying period 
in order to prevent undesirable changes in the fish, such as softening 
and rendering of oil, due to the high air temperature used. 



126 



tf. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



In the experiments a number of frying tests were run at different 
times durino; two seasons upon fish that had been prepared for frying 
by various drying conditions. Some information on these experi- 
ments is given in Table 10. These results furnish further evidence 
of the wide variety of conditions that can be used successfully to 
prepare fish for cooking in hot oil. They show, too, that higher 
temperatures and shorter times than those used by California sardine 
canners are practical. 

When the air temperature is raised too high, the wires of the flake 
or moving apron become so hot that they cook the skin of the fish 
wherever they touch it. The marks made are quite prominent, and 
when the fish are placed in hot oil the sudden tension brought about 
in the skin tears it apart at these marks. No trouble was encountered 
from this source when the air temperature was around 140°. It is 
not advisable to use air having a temperature much above this, 
especially if the velocity is high. High air velocities intensify the 
effect of temperature, due to the greater heat transfer brought about. 
It is necessary, however, to use a relatively high velocity because this 
hastens drying. 

Table 10. — Frying tests with California pilchards dried under different conditions 
[Temperature of oil, 230° to 240° F.; time, 7 to 10 minutes] 



Drying 

experiment 

No. 


Size of fish 


Air 
tem- 
pera- 
ture, 

° F. 


Veloc- 
ity in 

feet 

per 
second 


Time 

in 

minutes 


Per 

cent 

loss in 

weiglit 


Notes on frying test 


109c 

110a -- 


Large "ovals" 

do 


115 
150 
150 
149 
150 

140 
IGO 
180 
200 

170 

152 
142 

ICO 

140 
140 
140 


646 
623 
623 
646 
646 

900 
900 
900 
900 

900 

900 
900 

1,400 

1, 400 
1,4(X) 
1,400 


30 
15 
15 
10 
10 

15 
10 
5 
5 

10 

10 

15 

12 

12 
12 
12 


3.5 
3.5 
3. 1 
3.3 
3.5 

3.9 
3.0 
2.7 
2.9 

3.2 

3.4 

4.3 


Fried satisfactorily. 
Do. 


110b 


do 


Do. 


llle 

Hid -- 


Medium "ovals" 

do 


Do.i 
Do. 


130a 

130b 


Medium large "ovals". 
do 


Slfins broke. 2 
Fried satisfactorily. 


130c 

130d 


do 

do 


Do. 
Do. 


131a 


Medium "ovals" 

do 


Skins broke in hot oil, start- 


131b 


ing at flake marks. 
Do. 


131c 


do 


Fried satisfactorily. 


Feb. 14, 1924 


Large "ovals" 

.... do 


Slvins broke in hot oil, start- 


Do 




ing at flake marks. 
Fried satisfactorily. 


Do 


do.. 




Do. 


Do. - 


...do 


Do.i 











1 Made good canned product. 



2 Why some of tlie skins broke can not be explained. 



In later experiments in connection with a new method of preparing 
the fish for canning considerable experience was obtained in toughen- 
ing the skins of large and small California pilchards and Maine 
herring. In these experiments air having a temperature close to 140° 
and a velocity from 1,400 to 2,000 feet per minute was used, the time 
being 10 to 15 minutes. Excellent results were obtained with these 
conditions. Although none of the fish were fried, it was evident that 
they would have stood up well under such treatment. 



CANNING SAK DINES 127 

DISCUSSION 

In one respect the \v(^rk upon dryings; was not successful — a way 
to dry fish rapidly for the raw-packin<i; process was not found. In 
other ways, however, excellent results were obtained. The effects of 
various drying; con(Utions upon raw and steamed fish undergoing par- 
tial dehydration were determined. This is important information, 
because without it the fundamental principles of air drying can not be 
ap])hed adequately to bettering and cheapening processes and 
equipment. 

This investigation, considered in connection with earlier studies, 
has furnished the basis for a new method of preparing the fish for 
canning. Undoubtedly this is the most important result of the 
drying research. 

APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 

The principal reasons for the unsatisfactory conditions existing 
in the drying of fish prior to cooking are: (1) Uncertainty as to 
just what should be accomplished by the drying process, (2) the 
lack of information upon the behavior of the fish under various 
drying conditions, and (3) the designing of drying equipment by men 
unqualified for such work. Even competent drying engineers 
can not properly design equipment and devise processes without 
adequate information. This is now available. 

Although the experimental results have not been published except 
in summarized form, they and the general subject of drying have been 
discussed with all California canners and many of the packers in 
Maine. Defects in equipment and procedures have been pointed out, 
and help has been lent in designing new driers. In many instances 
material improvements have come about in this way. 

The experimental drying results obtained upon California pilchards 
apply equally well to Maine herring. For this reason correct applica- 
tion of these results should assist materially in preparing better 
quarter-oil sardines from steamed fish. It is especially important 
that the steamed fish be well dried before they are packed into the 
cans. In Maine the fact that vigorous eft'ective air circulation is 
needed if drying is to take place rapidly is being realized, and changes 
are constantly being made toward this end. 

The experiments have shown how both large and small fish can 
be prepared for cooking in from 10 to 15 minutes. Adoption of 
this procedure, along with the use of properly designed and operated 
drying equipment, should accomplish much toward bettering and 
cheapening the preparation of fish for cooking in hot oil or by some 
other method. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

It is firmly believed that a canner's best interest will be served 
by having a qualified drying engineer's cooperation in planning and 
erecting drying equipment. This seems expensive, but in the end 
it is cheapest. Such work as this requires technical knowledge and 
experience that no canner or anyone in his employ is likely to have. 
Each installation usually is a problem in itself and more frequently 
than not requires special handling if satisfactory and efficient opera- 
tion is to be attained. For this reason no attempt is made here 



128 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 

to furnish detailed plans and specifications for a typical sardine 
drier. There are presented, however, in this paper sufficient data 
to enable engineers to design drying equipment for preparing fish for 
cooking in hot oil, hot brine, or steam. Information also is given 
that should enable a canner to operate such equipment with the best 
results. 

The following recommendations of a technical nature are made 
regarding the equipment : 

1. Air velocity. — About 2,000 feet per minute throughout the 
free spaces of the equipment. 

2. Air temperature. — Desirable possible variation in entering air, 
90° to 160°. Permissible drop in temperature under operating 
conditions when entering air at 150°, about 20°. Average operating 
temperature should be about 140°. 

3. Air quantity. — Sufficient to meet conditions imposed in 1 and 2. 

4. Drying time. — Fifteen minutes; means to be provided for 
varying speed of conveyer so that time can be varied from 10 to 30 
minutes as desired, 

5. Heat supply. — Any approved method of heating the air is 
satisfactory, the cheapest to install and operate being preferred. 
Direct products of combustion from gas and oil fired furnaces operating 
without smoke are satisfactory. 

6. Type of equipment. — Similar to the regular California "multi- 
apron" drier described elsewhere in this publication. In passing 
from one "apron" to another a fall of 8 to 10 inches or less is satis- 
factory for pound-oval size fish. Means should be provided for 
recirculating some or almost all of the air that leaves the drier, as 
desired, same to be easily controlled. 

7. Weight oj fisli per unit oj drying surface. — Assume that each 
square foot of wire screen surface in use at any one time for holding 
fish will handle 1.8 to 2 pounds of "cut" fish. (See p. 155.) 

It will be necessary for the canner to furnish data upon the size 
(if different than given above) and quantity of fish to be handled per 
hour, the space available for the drier, and the manner in which the 
fish are to be handled to and from the drier. 

It is not advisable to attempt to outline detailed instructions for 
preparing the fish. Their size and condition and other factors are 
constantly varying. To meet this variation changes must be made 
in drying conditions. Just what to do under the various circum- 
stances must be learned by experience. In general, however, the 
air velocity and temperature used should be as high as possible, so 
that the drying tune can be reduced to a minimum. The air velocity 
can not be increased much above 2,000 feet per minute without 
encountering difficulty from the fish being blown about. Caution 
must be used in raising the temperature of the air. If the wires 
touching the fish get too hot, they tend to cook the skins, and when 
these fish are placed in hot oil the skins will break badly. Little 
trouble will be met if the air temperature does not rise much above 
140°. As much of the air leaviug the drier as possible should be 
recirculated, otherwise there will l)e excessive heat losses. 

The efficiency and capacity of driers now in use can be increased 
greatly by mak ng such changes as will permit the drying conditions 
recommended above to be realized. I have never examined a 
commercial sardine drier that prepares fish for frying in oil that 



CANNING SARDINES 129 

roiild not have boon ohaii'xod so as to i)ioi)arc at least twice as many 
fish por unit of time as it was preparing. In some cases it would 
have boon necessary only to have incieascd the air temperature and 
the speed of the conveyei-s; in others extensive improvements would 
have boon necessar3^ The cost of these, however, would be much 
less than to have to purchase additional equipment when production 
has to be increased. 

Often the packer himself can do much by studying his drier in 
the light of the information given in this paper and by making such 
changes as he can. In general, however, where present operation is 
very unsatisfactory or where production is to be increased materially 
it will pay to get the assistance of a drying engineer to make or at 
least point out the changes that should be made. 

The above recommendations apply equally to small and large 
California pilchards or Maine herring, where these are to be dried 
prior to being cooked. 

Fish that are first steamed and then dried can not be tumbled 
after being cooked. It is necessary for them to be dried on 
the flakes on which they were cooked. In Maine, where this pro- 
cedure is practiced, the trucks containing the flakes are run into the 
drier, and there the fish are subjected to the action of moving warm 
air. This procedure, as now practiced, undoubtedly can be im- 
proved greatly. The drying time can be shortened and the labor 
required for handling trucks can be lessened. The best drying 
conditions should be determined and used in a contmuous type of 
truck drier. It is not possible to make definite recommendations 
upon these points without first carrying out some research along 
these lines. It was not advisable, however, to spend time on this 
work. Although better procedures undoubtedly could be worked 
out, it would only be found that the fish could not be prepared as 
well or as quickly as by the new process described in detail in the 
next section of this document. 

Much can be done to improve the drying qualities of units now 
operating in Maine by increasing the air velocity and in many cases 
the temperature. The air velocity, however, must be effective; 
that is, the air should go between the flakes, where it can strike the 
fish. These changes will bring about better drymg and probably 
permit the drying time to be shortened considerably. 

If a new drier for handling steamed fish should be built, a drying 
engineer should be engaged to design the equipment. His work will 
include a small amount of research to determine the best set of 
drying conditions. It would be much better, however, to install a 
combined cooker and dryer for carrying out the new process men- 
tioned above and to cook and dry at the same time. 

NEW PROCESS FOR PREPARING THE FISH 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

Research up to this point clearly showed that the preparation 
of the fish for canning consists mainly in removing excess water and 
in getting the fish into good physical condition for canning. The 
process should add to the fish no objectionable foreign element nor 
should it remove valuable substances from them. In general, aside 

40619°— 27 ^5 



130 U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHERIES 

from removing blood by brining and distribution of salt throughout 
the fish by this method, that process of preparation that comes 
nearest to removing only water from the fish is best. 

In addition to considerations as to quality of the product, there 
arises, of course, the important question of production costs. These, 
if possible, should be lowered. 

Frying in oil, as now practiced, adds objectionable oil from the 
fry bath to the final product, unless the oil in the fry bath is changed 
frequently, and the cost of doing this as often as is advisable is 
prohibitive. Frying also removes considerable oil, salt, and soluble 
extractives from the fish. The loss of these valuable substances is 
especially high when fish are steamed. Fish are also likely to break 
up more or less during the steaming operation. In Maine it is 
generally conceded that steaming detracts from the quality of the 
fish. 

Research has shown how improvements can be made in these two 
processes. It has not shown, however, how the difficulties men- 
tioned can be eliminated. Other processes do not have these dif- 
ficulties, but they do not offer sufficient other advantages over 
present practices to enable them to supplant those now used in 
Maine and California. 

In the first paragraph of this section an outlme was given of what 
should constitute an ideal process for preparing the fish. As far as 
quality goes, the raw-packing process comes nearest to meeting 
these demands, both from a theoretical standpoint and from the 
results of experiments when applied to the preparation of fish for 
the pound oval pack. The process falls down otherwise; it takes too 
long to remove the necessary water from the fish. Drying research 
indicated that this time can not be shortened materially. Other 
information gained from this study, with that from the other inves- 
tigations, did point the way to a new process*^ for preparing the fish, 
which not only lacks the disadvantages of frying in oil and steaming 
but possesses a number of commercially important advantages over 
the old methods. This new process is discussed first from a theo- 
retical standpoint. 

HIGH-TEMPERATURE, HIGH-VELOCITY AIR AS A MEANS OF PREPARING 

THE FISH 

Air-drying is accomplished in the following manner: Moving 
warm air striking the fish furnishes the heat needed to vaporize the 
water and then carries this water vapor away. After surface water 
is vaporized more can be removed only after it has diffused from 
within to the surface. It will thus be seen that the rate of moisture 
loss depends upon how rapidly this dift'usion takes place. The 
higher the temperature of the fish the more rapid is the diflFusion. 
The obvious thing to do, then, to bring about rapid drymg, is to heat 
the fish as ciuickly as possible to as high a temperature as is practi- 
cable and to keep this temperature until the desired amount of 
water has diffused from the fish and been removed by the current of 
air. The rapidity of heating depends on the rate of heat transfer 

<'This process is covered bv the following patents: United States No. 15,')3296, Sept. 8, 1925; Spain, No. 
15.335, May 27, 1925; France, No. 597059, Nov. 12, 1925; Portugal, No. 14135, Nov. 26, 1925; Canada, No 
260084, Apr. 27, 1026; and Great Britain. No. 241169, Nov. 30, 1926. Norwegian patent allowed (appli- 
cation No. 32745, Apr. 7, 1925) but no patent number yet available. 



CANNING SARDINES 131 

from the air to the fish. Rapid hoat transfer can bo indiirod })y 
niakinii; tho toinporatiirp difl'orenre between the fish and the air lar(!;e 
and by ushii; hiirli-velocity air to decrease llie thickiu^ss of the sta- 
tionaiy lihn of air suri'cnnidiiit:; (he fisli. Thiiiiiinsj; this (ihn not ordy 
increases lieat transfei' but facilitates inoisliii'e removal. Therefore, 
air having as higli a temperature and velocity as practical)le should 
be used. Temperatures suflicient to cook the fish can be used, and 
this also aids drying, because cookmg liberates water from the cells 
of the fish and makes its removal easy. Due to the excellent drying 
conditions that prevail at the surface of the fish, the tendency is for 
the water to evaporate immediately and leave soluble products 
behind. This should keep the skin tough and dry, so that relatively 
small losses of juice and oil take place. While the fish are being 
cooked it should be possible to smoke them lightly simply by adding 
smoke to the drying air. The smoking effect should be accelerated 
hj high air velocities in the same way that heat transfer is accelerated. 
Hot fish must be cooled before they can be packed in the cans. 
It should be possible to do this quickly and effectively by blowing 
cool, outdoor air over them. Such air will take away heat from the 
fish in proportion to its velocity and coolness; therefore, the tempera- 
ture should be as low and the velocity as high as practicable. It will 
now be shown how well this theory works out in practice. 

EXPERIMENTAL PREPARATION OF CALIFORNIA PILCHARDS 

Experiments with the new process, as applied to the preparation of 
California pilchards for canning, were conducted throughout the 
1923-24 sardine season, first in a small way in the laboratory and 
later on what may be termed a fairly large scale. Near the end of 
the season's work, during the period March 10 to 15, 1924, the process 
w^as demonstrated to those canners who accepted a general invitation 
given for this purpose. A small amount of additional experimental 
work was done in Monterey in December, 1924.^^ 

EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURE 

The first experiments were carried out in the drier that had been 
used m the drying experiments. (Fig. 22, p. 120.) In order to get a 
temperature high enough to cook the fish all the air in the drier was 
recirculated continuously. Heat was furnished by steam coils, over 
which the air passed, and by gas flames placed under the pipes leading 
to the tunnel and from it to the recirculating duct. In this way air 
temperatures up to 222° were obtained. 

Coolmg the air was accomplished by turning off all heat and sending 
air at room temperature through the drier, none of which was recir- 
culated. Cooling was slow, due to so much heat being retained by 
the drier itself. Later experiments were carried out with the cooker, 
drier, and cooler shown in Figure 23. The products of combustion 
from a gas-fired furnace were drawn by suction from the fan through 
a pipe (A) leading to the air-mixing chamber (B). A slide on top 
of the mixing chamber (C) allowed as much cold air as desired to be 
drawn into the fan and mixed with the hot air. The fan for handling 

" Detailed data covering the experiments are given in Table 42, p. 204. 



132 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



cold air is also shown. In this apparatus 8 flakes of fish could be 
coolved and 12 cooled at one time. 

In the experiments with the small equipment only enough fish to 
fill a pound-oval can could be prepared at one time. In the experi- 
ments with the larger equipment one flake (30 by 30 inches), holding 
about 10 pounds of "cut" fish, usually was used, although frequently 
3 to 6 such flakes were cooked. The fish were weighed before and 
after drying, precautions being taken to see that similar samples were 
used wherever comparisons were being made.*^ The fish used were 
cut and brined at one of the canneries, and the packs were exhausted 
and processed in the same place. Usually cans of the fried-in-oil 
pack prepared in the canneries from the same lot of fish were 




Fic. 2i!.— Air-mixing chamber, fans, and housing, California experimental cooker and cooler 

obtained for comparison purposes. Unless a statement to the con- 
trary is made, the discussion here refers to the preparation of large fish 
for the pound-oval pack. 

DETERMINATION OF THE BEST CONDITIONS FOR PREPARING THE FISH 

The first experiments were made with the idea of learning the prac- 
ticability of preparing the fish in the manner proposed and of 
determining how much water should be removed from them. In 
preparing the raw packs a moisture loss of 8 to 10 per cent gave good 
results when fat fish and thick sauce were used. In those experi- 
ments it would have been better, however, to have removed more 
water from the fish. In the experiments with the new process it 
was soon learned that a loss in weight of 13 to 16 per cent (exclusive 

** In general, the same precautions were taken as in the drying experiments. See pp. 191-192. 



CANNING SARDTNKi^ 



138 



of brlninp;) was siiffioioiit. Largc-oviil fish tlint lost If) per cent in 
woiirht (lui'iiiii: preparation g"ave up no nioro water wiien sterilized 
tlian (lid the i-(\uular run of fried-in-oil fish. 

Tlie pi'(>iiininaiw expeiinients sliowed that the process offered much 
promise aiul that it produced an excellent product. Research was 
then directed to the determination of the best and most pi-actical 
conditions for removing the necessary anu)unt of water from the 
fish. 

The factors influencing moisture loss are the same as those dis- 
cussed in the drying experiments, namely, air temperature, velocity, 
and humidity, as well as the size of the fish and the time of 
exi)osure to the drying air. The results of experiments involving 
these factors are discussed below. 

Air ten] pen it lire. — The effect of increasing the air temperature 
upon loss of moisture is well illustrated by the results given in Table 
11.^^ According to these results, and assuming that 13 to 15 per 
cent loss in weight is sufficient for a good oval pack, it takes about 
four times as long to prepare such fish for canning at 175° and twice 
as long at 220° as at 307°. Still higher temperatures dry the fish 
moi'e rapidly, as shown by the loss at 392°. Such temperatures as 
this, however, proved unsatisfactory because the fish browned and 
stuck to the flake excessively and much oil was rendered, which 
then oxidized badly. With an air velocity of about 1,300 feet per 
minute, satisfactory results were not obtained at temperatures much 
above 300° to 325° for oval-sized fish. This range of temperatures 
proved best in the experiments. Undesirable changes in the- fish 
were not excessive, yet the advantage of rapid moisture removal 
was obtained. 

Table 11. — Loss in iiieight of medium "pound-oval" pilchards in air at different 
temperatures. Velocity 1,300 feet per minute 



E.xperiment 


Air tem- 
perature, 

°F. 


Time in minutes 


Experiment 
No. 


Air tem- 
perature, 


Time in minutes 


No. 


15 


30 


60 


15 


30 


CO 


150a 


175 
200 
210 


""'a' a 


8.2 
11.2 


13.4 
17.4 


150c 


220 

307 

1392 


"'u'h' 

20.0 


13.5 


22.0 


150b 


168a_... 

157c . 




166b 



















• Air velocity 1,000. 

The results attained at various temperatures depend to a con- 
siderable extent upon the air velocity. 

Other factors. — The effect upon the moisture loss of increasing the 
air velocity, the temperature remaining constant at 325°, is illus- 
trated by the following losses in weight brought about in 15 minutes 
in large oval-size fish by the stated air velocities: 600 feet per minute, 
9.7 per cent; 1,400 feet, 13.7 per cent; and 2,000 feet, 14.4 per cent. 
The fish subjected to the lowest velocity were not as well cooked as 
the others, showing that heat transfer had not been as great in that 
case as in the others. Further work was not done along this line 
with California pilchards. The experiment was repeated, however, 

« Selected from Table 42, p. 204. 



134 U. S. BtrfiEAtT OF JPISHEEIEg 

with Maine herring and yielded similar results. The results to be 
obtained from high air velocities are too well known to require more 
than confirmation here/° 

Inasmuch as drying is being accomplished at temperatures above 
the boiling point of water, the amount of water vapor (steam) in 
the drying air will have little efiect upon the rate of moisture loss 
from the fish. It has already been shown that increasing the 
humidity of the air has little effect upon the drying rate of fish that 
are being partially dehydrated, provided no condensation takes 
place on them.^^ 

The following data from experiments 156b to 156e, Table 42, p. 208, 
illustrate the effect of time upon moisture removal from large, fat, 
oval-size pilchards by air having high temperature (300") and veloc- 
ity (1,400 feet per minute): 10 minutes, 12.3 per cent loss in weight; 
15 minutes, 18.8 per cent; 20 minutes, 20.5 per cent; and 30 minutes, 
25.3 per cent. In these experiments the fish cooked 30 minutes, 
browned, and stuck to the flake excessively. Other experiments 
showed that 15 minutes is about as long a time as is advisable to 
subject large "ovals" to an air temperature of 300° to 352°. How- 
ever, more time can be used if the temperature be lowered. Air 
velocity has its effect, too, as high velocity tends to intensify tempera- 
ture effects. 

Small fish naturally dry more rapidly than larger ones. They heat 
through more rapidly and consequently are aft'ected by the application 
of heat to a greater extent than are larger fish. It was necessary, 
therefore, to use lower air temperaturesfor quarter-oil fish in order to 
keep them from browning and sticking excessively. The subject of 
correct procedures for quarter-oil fish is discussed under the Maine 
experiments. 

SticMng offish to flakes and to eacJi other. — In preparing the fish they 
had a tendency to be marred by the flake upon which they were cooked 
and to stick both to the flake and to each other. During cooking the 
fish softened and the weight of the fish pressed the skin firmly against 
the hot wires of the flake. Large fish, of course, were pressed more 
firmly than small ones, and they actually did mar to a greater extent. 
The gluey substances in the skins dried and caused them to stick to 
the flakes and to each other. Fat fish did not stick as much as lean 
fish, and when the flake was oily this helped materially to prevent 
sticking, as did the use of clean flakes. The higher the air tempera- 
ture used the greater was the tendency of the fish to stick. 

When the flakes of fish were removed from the cooker, and also from 
the cooler, it was noticed that the fish usually had a tendency to stick 
to the flakes more than after they had stood for a short time. This 
behavior can be explained as follows: When the fish are removed from 
the current of air in the cooker their surface is dry. However, water 
continues to difl'use to the surface of the fish, where it is not removed 
as readily as it is when they are in the current of air, and this water 
softens the gluey substance that holds the skins to the flake. This 

* See the discussion on moisture diffusion, p. U9, also Talile Sri, p. 103. If the results shown here are 
compared with moisture losses for similar velocities at lower temperatures, it will he noted that at the 
higher tcinixMatures, where diffusion is relatively rapid, the effect of increased air velocity on moisture 
loss is more proiKJunced than at the lower temperatures. 

'■' See the di.scu.ssion on p. 121. Experiments KlTa and 138a, Table 42, p. 204, furnished additional evi- 
dence at a higher temperature. 



CANNING SARDINES 135 

softening: effort is particularly noticeable when the relative humidity 
of the air is hi<::ii.''- 

The question naturally arises as to how serious this stickinfj proved 
to be. Plxperinicnts wcie carried out with the new process through- 
out the 1923-24 season in San Pedro without spcM-ial piecautions being 
taken to ])i-event sticking other than to use relatively clean flakes. It 
was necessary, however, to place the fish on the flakes so that they did 
not touch each other. Under these conditions neither breakage nor 
marring from the flakes was particularly serious, except at the very 
end of the season, when very lean fish were cooked. There was some 
breakage (at times more than others), but on the whole it was little 
greater, if any, than that which occurred with fried fish. Even should 
breakage be more pronounced than with fried fish, this should detract 
but little from the selling cjuality of the final product. An occasional 
flake mark is less objectionable to most people than the presence of 
"old" frying oil. 

It was found that the sticking of lean fish to the flakes could be 
prevented by toughening the skins of the fish by drying in the same 
way as the skins are toughened for frying in oil. This was done by 
treating the fish with air that had a velocity of about 1,400 feet per 
minute and a temperature of about 140° for nearly 10 minutes. At 
the end of about sLx mmutes the fish were shifted about on the flake 
so that the part in contact with the wires would have a chance to 
dry; otherwise, toughening the skins would have done little or no 
good. This treatment virtually eliminated sticking, both with 
medium "ovals" and quarter-oil fish. In fact, it was unnecessary 
to place these fish on the flake so as not to touch, as they tended 
to stick to each other but slightly. These experiments were carried 
out at the end of the sardine season in San Pedro, when fat fish or 
even those with a small amount of fat are seldom to be found. It 
was not possible, therefore, to try the effect of drying upon fat fish 
at that time. In experiments the following season at Monterey 
dried fat fish behaved about the same as untreated fish. It seems 
as though drying is really helpful only wdth very lean fish. Further 
experiments were not carried out. The experimental results reported 
upon here and their application are discussed in a later section. 

Drippings from the fish. — During cooking a small amount of juice 
and oil (if the fish are fat) drips from the underside of the fish, where 
they are in contact with the flake. Drying is not so efficient there, 
and gravity also tends to concentrate any free liquor at that place. 
Dripping was more pronounced with large fish than with small ones. 
This is natural, as large fish contain, in proportion to their size, as 
much water as small ones but less surface, per unit of weight, from 
which water can evaporate. 

It was more pronounced, too, when the fish were very fat and had 
been "cut." In any case, however, the amount of protein and oil 
lost in this way w^as small. The excellent drying conditions that 
prevail virtually all over the fish cause water to evaporate as soon as 
it reaches the surface and leave the dissolved substances behind. 
One naturally would expect the loss of oil from fat fish, cooked by the 
new process, to be large. It is not, however, because the action of 

s^Aithough the following procedure is not recommended, being unnecessary, it would be possible to 
humidify the air used for cooling the fish in order to minimize sticking. There is one drawback, however— 
nsh cooled in this way would be sUghtly sticky to handle. 



136 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

the hot air draws the skin tightly about the flesh and holds the oil 
under it. 

Although the drippings were small in amount, they caused trouble. 
They fell on the fish below and dried, leaving unsightly marks. The 
protein, including blood, left dark stains. The oil dried (oxidized) 
in the sense that paint does, turning dark in color. In fact, it actually 
baked on the skin as enamel is baked on an automobile fender in an 
oven. Some fat fish, upon which the marks were quite pronounced, 
did not lose the marks very soon after canning. At the end of a year, 
when examined, most of the marks had disappeared, but the oil in 
the can showed that the dark oil had mixed to some extent with the 
light yellow oil from the fish. 

It was a simple matter to prevent these difficulties. A drip pan 
was placed under the fish and this protected those below. 

Cooling. — In the experiments large "oval" fish, direct from the 
cooker, always were cooled sufficiently to be handled for packing in 
15 minutes, when placed in the large cooler and treated with outdoor 
air having a velocity of about 1,400 feet per minute and a tempera- 
ture ranging from 65° to 80°. In experiments 159a and 163a fish 
were cooked, cooled in this way, and given to a girl to pack as they 
were removed from the cooler. No difficulty was encountered. 

QUALITY OF PRODUCTS 

Fish prepared by the new process were excellent, both before and 
after canning. Their physical condition was equal to and their 
appearance and taste better than the general rim of fried fish. The 
bad effects that frying in "old" oil has upon quality were absent, 
of course (p. 104). These conclusions were drawn from the residts 
obtained from at least 95 different cooking experiments spread out 
over the entire 1923-24 sardine season in San Pedro, Calif. A few 
lots were also prepared in Monterey during the next season. The 
fish from 40 of these experiments were canned, and of this number 27 
were compared with commercial packs of fried fish put up in a regular 
sardine cannery from the same lots of fish as were used in the experi- 
ments. In one experiment enough fish were prepared to make 304 
cans and in another 289 cans. 

Most of the work was done upon the preparation of fish for the 
pound-oval pack. Of the experiments, however, 10 were upon fish 
for the quarter-oil pack, 5 lots of which were canned. These experi- 
ments were very successful and show the possibilities the new process 
holds out to producers of quarter-oils in California. 

In one experiment fillets from large, oval-size, fat fish were used. 
They cooked rapidly, lost much water, and were excellent, except 
for two drawbacks. The exposed flesh darkened and the oil, not 
being held in the fish and protected by the skin, oxidized considerably. 
This oxidized oil gave a sort of "biting taste," which persisted when 
these fish were canned. It was more pronounced when the fish were 
canned in oil than in tomato sauce. The latter seemed to mask the 
taste considerably. Lowering the air temperature, although it did 
not prevent oxidation, bettered matters. '^^ 

'^ Part of the information given in this paragraph was obtained from some experiments not reported 
upon here. It would be possible to blow over the fish air from which most of the oxygen had been re- 
moved by combustion. Oxidation could be kept at a minimum in this way, and this should give a better 
product. 



CANNING SARBTNES 137 

The (larkonino- of exposed flesh montioned above also took place 
with "cut" fish where the head iiad been removed from the body. 
The darkening was more pronounced than with fried fish. It was 
not, however, objectionable. One would hardly notice the difference 
in the canned product. 

STORING AND SHIPPING QUALITIES OF THE PACKS 

Prior to the time work was begim upon the new process enough 
had already been learned from experiments on the storing and 
shipping qualities of pound-oval sardines not to require similar tests 
with packs prepared by the new process. The physical condition of 
the fish when packed was excellent. It has already been shown that, 
so far as the shipping and storing qualities of a pack are concerned, 
it makes little dift'erence by what process it is prepared, providing 
it is properly prepared.''^ However, a good test of the new process 
has been made. Many of the packs so prepared have now (October, 
1926) been in storage over two and one-half years and have been 
shipped by boat from San Pedro, Calif., to Washington, D. C. 
Results have been entirely satisfactory; all the packs have stood up 
as well as those prepared by the frying process. 

EXPERIMENTAL PREPARATION OF MAINE HERRING 

Experiments were carried out in Maine during September, 1924. 
From September 22 to 26 the process was demonstrated to those 
canners who took advantage of a general invitation given for this 
purpose. 

It was not necessary for the work to be extensive in Maine, as the 
process had been given a thorough trial and the groundwork laid in 
California. What was needed was to prove that the process was 
suitable and practicable for preparing Maine herring for the quarter- 
oil and three-quarters mustard packs and to determine the best 
conditions for doing this. A discussion of the general results ob- 
tained from the experiments follows.^^ 

EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURE 

The equipment used is pictured in Figure 24. Heat was furnished 
by a bed of glowmg coke. The suction of the fan di-ew the products 
of combustion from the furnace into a small mixmg chamber, where 
they mixed with cool air and were then blown through the tunnel 
over two flakes (30 by 30 inches) placed one following the other. A 
damper in the pipe leading from the furnace to the mixing chamber 
controlled the amount of furnace gases that were drawn into the 
mixing chamber. Another damper on top of the chamber allowed 
mixture of as much cold air as was desired, and another between 
the chamber and the fan controlled the quantity of gases entering 
the timnel. These controls permitted the use of air at any desired 
temperature and velocity up to the capacity of the fan. 

Smoke for smoking the fish was made from hardwood sawdust in 
a box back of the fan. The flue from this box was placed over the 

M See pp. 114-n5. « Detailed data are given in Table 42, p. 204. 



138 



U. S. BUREAU OP nSHEEIES 



cold-air entrance to the mixing chamber, where suction from the fan 
drew in the smoke. It then mixed with the hot air and was blown 
over the fish. 

The other fan forced cool outdoor air through the other tunnel, 
which was used as a cooler. A damper on the inlet side of the fan 
controlled the quantity of air entering the fan and tunnel. 

The two flakes together handled about 10 to 20 pounds of fish, 
according to their size and how thickly they were spread out. The 
fish were obtained from the canneries and had already been brined. 
They were weighed before and after drying, precautions being taken 
to see that similar samples were used wherever comparisons were 
being made. After cooking, the fish were compared with some of 
the same lot prepared in the cannery by the regular steaming process. 
After canning and processing, which was done in the cannery, the 
products were again compared. 




:4. — Maine exijeriineutal cooker and cooler 



The discussion that follows refers to the })reparation of small fish 
for the quarter-oil pack unless a statement to the contrary is given. 

DETERMINATION OF THE BEST CONDITIONS FOR PREPARING THE FISH 

Weber (see footnote, p. 72) and his associates, in their bulletin 
(pp. 51 to 58) on the Maine sardine industry, give experimental 
evidence on the amount of water removed from the fish prior to the 
time they are canned. They conclude that satisfactory results will 
be obtained if the raw fish lose about 15 per cent in weight in being 
prepared for canning. This seems to be a little low for a good quarter- 
oil pack, although for some ''standard " packs it probably is sufficient. 
It is certainly too little for fancy California quarter-oil sardines. 
For this pack a loss of about 25 per cent is desirable. ^"^ In Maine 

M See Table 42, p. 204, experiments 147, 148, and 179, for data on California quarter-oils, California 
packers want very little water in the can with the fish. 



CANNING SARDINES 139 

it sopms as if tlio loss slioukl bo ai'oiind IS to 25 per cont. This was 
tho standard folIt)\v(>d in tho o.\|)(Miin(Mits, and with oxcoIKmiI rosnlts.^^ 

The projiaration of the lish for the throc-quartcM's mustard pack 
is coniparahlo to tlio i)rrparati()n of fish for tho pound-oval pack in 
tomato sauco, and lish that are satisfactorily pi'oparcd for one should 
bo suitable for the other. A 13 to 16 per cent loss in weight is 
sufficient for these packs if a thick sauce is used. It will be noted 
that it is recommended that less water be removed from the fish for 
this pack than for the quarter-oil pack. This view is based on ade- 
quate experimental evidence, and it difl'ers from that of Weber and 
his coworkers on this subject. They contend that fish to be packed 
in mustard sauce need to be dried to a greater extent than those to 
be packed in oil. 

This question of how much water shall be removed from the fish is, 
in the end, one for the individual packer, who must decide the kind 
of pack he desires and then dry his fish accordingly. No attempt is 
made here to do other than outline the safe limits and to show how 
such losses, as well as larger and smaller ones, can best be brought 
about. 

The first trials plainly showed that the new process was entirely 
suitable and practicable for the preparation of Maine herring. The 
best conditions for doing this, therefore, were determined, followed 
by the preparation of a number of packs with diflferent kinds of fish 
to prove that the same results could be obtained consistently. Other 
experiments were made in order to learn if fancy grades of sardines 
could be prepared by this process from Maine herring. The results 
of these experiments are described below. 

Air temperature. — Several results are given in Table 12, which 
show the effect of air temperature upon moisture removal. With a 
velocity of about 1,900 feet per minute, a temperature of 275° to 
300° gave best results. This temperature and velocity caused about 
the right loss of weight in various quarter-oil size fish and sufficient 
loss in three-quarters mustard fish in about 15 minutes. A higher 
air temperature caused excessive browning, oxidation of oil, and 
sticking to the flakes. Such results as these were quite pronounced 
wdth air at 356°, although the velocity was lowered to 800 feet per 
minute. 

Other factors. — In one experiment (No. 185) medium large quarter- 
oil fish were cooked 15 minutes at 275° with air having different 
velocities. The per cent loss in weight at the different velocities 
was: 18.2 per cent at 2,000 feet per minute, 16.2 at 1,400, and 12.1 
at 700. The fish prepared at the lowest velocity were, in fact, not 
fully cooked, as red blood showed along the backbone. ^^ 

No experiments were made upon the effect of moisture content of 
the drying air, fish size, and drying time upon moisture removal 
from the fish. These subjects are considered on pages 133 and 134, 
and the discussion also applies to the handling of Maine herring. 

" Experiments 45 and 47, Table 31, p. 180, give some data on commercial losses. 
** See p. 134 for similar data on large flsh. 



140 



V. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Table 12. — Loss iti weight of " quarler-oil" herring in air at different temperatures. 
Velocity 1 ,900 feet per minute 



E.xperinent No. 


Air tem- 
perature, 

op 


Time in 


minutes 


E.xperiment No. 


Air tem- 
perature, 
°F. 


Time in minutes 


15 


20 


15 


20 


182a 


225 
250 
275 
300 
275 




12.0 
20.4 
19.7 
24.6 


187b 


300 

325 

275 

1356 


24.8 
30.0 
22.0 
25.0 




182b 




187c 




182c 




206b 




182d... . . 




206a. . 




187a 


19.4 













1 Air velocity 800. 

(SmoH?!//.— Extensive smokins; experiments were not carried out. 
Enough, however, were made to show that the method employed was 
entirely practicaL A good flavor and light brown color were given 
to small and medium-size quarter-oil fish simply by adding hard- 
wood smoke to the hot air used in cooking the fish. The high- 
velocity air brought about rapid smoking. Other conditions being 
equal, large fish will smoke more slowly than the smaller ones. 

In the experiments the concentration of the smoke was not as 
high as it should have been. The smoke generated was discarded 
after it had passed over the fish once. In a correctly designed 
plant most of the air that passes over the fish will be recirculated. 
This will quickly build up and maintain a heavy concentration of 
smoke, which will cure the fish rapidly. Nevertheless, the experi- 
ments made were quite successful. 

Sticking to the wire jiaJces and to each other. — Maine herring did not 
tend to stick to the flakes and to each other to as great an extent as 
California pilchards did. Throughout the experiments the fish were 
spread upon the flakes, even for fancy packs, in the same general 
manner as they are spread by the flaking machine. Many of the 
fish, therefore, touched other fish. There was some marring and 
some breaking. It was no greater, however, than that obtained with 
steamed fish. For "standard" goods and ordinary fancy packs no 
problem is presented. For very fancy goods it probably would pay 
to place the fish on the flakes, as now and then a tail will become 
glued to the skin of another fish and be broken oft' if they are 
scattered about. 

Toughening the skins of the fish prior to their being cooked had 
little, if any, beneficial effect as far as preventing sticking is concerned. 

Drippinqs from the fish. — As with California pflchards, dripping 
occurred (although only to a small extent) with quarter-oil fish. 
It probably would have been advisable, however, had one flake been 
cooked over another to protect the lower flake with a drip pan. 

Cooling. — Most of the fish cooked were placed in the cooler and 
treated with outdoor air having a velocity of about 2,000 feet per 
minute and ranging in temperature from 65° to 70°. In all cases they 
cooled sufficiently to be handled for packing in 10 to 15 minutes. 

QUALITY OF PRODUCTS 

Fish prepared by the new process were better in appearance and 
taste both before and after canning than fish from the same lots pre- 
pared by the steaming process. Steaming removes much salt, oil, 



» CANNING SARDINES 141 

and soluble extractives — the very substances that pve flavor to the 
fish. The ne\t' process retains virtually all of these substances. 
Steamed fish llattoned on the flakes and had a washed-out appearance. 
Those prepared by rapidly moving hot air retained much of their 
original appearance. The skins were toughened and slightly 
wrinkled, like fried fish. There were not as many cracked and belly- 
blown fish obtained as when the fish were steamed. This was espe- 
cially noticeable when heavily salted or *'feedy" fish were cooked. No 
direct comparisons with fried fish were made, but it is certain that 
the product would, in the long run, as in California, be better because 
of the absence of the usual bad effects of frying in oil. 

Some excellent fancy packs were prepared — packs that would com- 
pete, on a quality basis, with the best of imported goods from France 
and Norway. 

Forty-one cooking experiments were conducted. The fish from 20 
of these were canned, and of this number 7 were compared with packs 
of steamed fish prepared from the same lots of fish. Both small and 
large fish were experimented with, also lean and fat ones, all with 
equally good results. 

STORING AND SHIPPING QUALITIES OF THE PACKS 

Some of all the packs prepared have now (October, 1926) been in 
storage more than 2 years. Many of the cans have been shipped to 
the Pacific coast and back, as well as elsewhere. The new packs 
have stood up just as well as those prepared by the steaming process. ^^ 
This should furnish adequate experimental proof of the shipping and 
keeping qualities of the pack for those who might have doubts in 
this matter. 

APPLICATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS TO COMMERCIAL OPERA- 
TIONS IN CALIFORNIA AND MAINE 

Small-scale tests with the process were very successful, as evi- 
denced by the experiments. The best conditions for preparing the 
fish w^ere worked out, and it was shown that such conditions produced 
excellent products. There remains to be explained, however, how 
large-scale commercial operations can be carried out successfully 
and how practical this proposition will be. 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COOKING, DRYING, AND COOLING 

In the experiments certain conditions uniformly produced excellent 
results in preparing one or several flakes of fish. The same results 
are certain to be obtained with any number of flakes, one or a 
thousand, if each individual flake is subjected to these same condi- 
tions. These conditions are taken up here. In a following section 
ways for handlmg the flakes and treating them in the desired manner 
are shown and discussed. 

'* All of the packs were put up in cans having no gasket on the covers where the lid is double-seamed to 
the body of the can. If no gasket is used, an absolutely tight seam is not assured, and it is a well-known 
fact that fish put in such cans do not keep well over a long period of time. In the experiments the cans 
were stored in a room where the temperature probably never went below 60° nor above 90°. Few cans ac- 
tually spoiled, but a large number of them " wept " — that is, oil escaped from the double seam, making quite 
a mess. When the packs were about 1J4 years old it was noticed that the fish in most of the cans had ac- 
quired a rather strong, fishy taste. The use of gaskets and correct processing temperatures and times will 
virtually obviate these difficulties. The 1926 season saw the general adoption of gaskets. 



142 XJ. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES ' 

Air velocity. — Throughout the free spaces over and under the flakes 
of fish the velocity should be as high as can be used wfthout the force 
of the air moving the fish. A velocity of at least 2,000 feet per 
minute can be used without difficulty, and it is recommended that 
the velocity be this or slightly higher. Even higher velocities would 
be desirable, and it may be possible to use them up to about 2,500 
feet per minute for cooking large oval-size fish. Small quarter-oils, 
however, tend to be blown about when the velocity is much greater 
than 2,000 feet per minute. 

In addition to increasing moisture loss there are two important 
advantages m usmg high-velocity air that have not yet been discussed: 

1. Large quantities of heat are needed to raise the temperature of 
the flakes and fish and to vaporize the water. Now, the higher the 
air velocity, the greater is the amount of air, and consequently heat, 
that can be put into a given space per unit of time. A tunnel does 
not have to be nearly as large, then, to handle a given quantiy of fish 
at a velocity of, say, 2,000 feet per minute as at 1,000. Size and cost 
of equipment can be kept down in this way. ()f course, the same 
quantity of heat can be put into the tunnel with low-velocity ail' 
by raising its temperature. This, however, proved unsatisfactory. 

2. Air, especially when mixed with considerable water vapor, 
makes a light gas when heated to about 300°. Bemg light, it is hard 
to force it through a long tunnel evenly because of its tendency to 
rise and collect at the top. The higher the velocity, however, the 
less trouble there is in this respect. 

Air temperatures. — In addition to high velocity, the air should 
have as high a temperature as possible. In this way the fish can be 
prepared most quickly. For large, pound-oval sardines a temperature 
around 300° should be used for preparing the fish, with an air velocity 
of 2,000 feet per nimute. These conditions remove about the right 
amount of water from the average run of fish in about 15 mmutes. 
For quarter-oil fish the same velocity and time are about right, but a 
temperature around 275° is better. Three-quarters mustard fish 
are prepared satisfactorily at either temperature. Exact recom- 
mendations can not be given in either case, as it is necessary to vary 
the temperature and tune to meet difl'erent conditions. The fish 
may be extra large, rather small, or niLxed, and they may be lean or 
fat. Difl'erent canners have difl'erent ideas as to how dry they wish 
their fish to be. All of these conditions can be cared for easily. A 
little experience, which can be gained quickly, is all that is necessary 
to enable an operator satisfactorily to meet the various conditions 
as well as the time factor. 

In large-scale operations it will not be practicable to maintain the 
same temperature throughout the tunnel or chambers in which the 
fish are cooked. The air will enter at one end, say, of a tunnel full 
of fish, and go out the other. The temperature wiU drop as it 
passes through, due to the heat that has been taken from the air by 
the fish, the flakes, and the rest of the equipment. Under operating 
conditions this drop in temperature will be quite uniform. A drop 
of 50° to 75° is not too much for good results if an average tempera- 
ture of 275° to 300° is maintained. For example, in the case of a 50*^ 
drop the air will enter the tunnel, say, at 325° and leave at 275°, 
giving an average temperature of 300°, The flakes of fish will pass 



CANNING SARDINES 143 

in at onp ond and out the other, so that they will bo su])]ected to the 
average temperature. These conditions will give the (k'sired results. 

Time. — As high air velocity and tenij)eratuie as i)racticahle have 
been reconmuMuled in order that the lish can be cooked and dried in 
the shortest possible time. Economy of time is important. It leads 
to many savings, among which the saving in quantity of equipment 
required is very important. About 15 minutes is sufficient even for 
very large pound-oval fish and for quarter-oil fish when prepared 
with air at the velocity and temperature recommended above. Here, 
again, exact recommendations can not be made for reasons already 
stated. It will l)e found, however, that the time can not be extended 
much over 15 minutes without undesirable changes taking place in 
the fish, unless the temperature is lowered. 

Some canners may not wish to remove as much vv^ater from their 
fish as will be taken out in 15 minutes under the above conditions. 
In this case the time can be shortened sufficiently to give the desired 
result. It is to be remembered, too, that cooked fish lose considerable 
w^ater when they stand on flakes exposed to the air for several hours 
(p. 108). Under some circumstances advantage can be taken of this 
fact to shorten the cooking period a little or to increase total moisture 
loss. If the trucks of cooked fish are allowed to stand a few hours 
they will cool and also dry to an appreciable amount. In fact, these 
effects can be accelerated by forcing a good draft of air through the 
cooling room. 

Hiwiidity. — In commercial operations, in order to conserve heat, 
a large part of the air that passes over the fish should be recirculated; 
that is, it should be returned to the fan, niLxed with more hot air, and 
again sent over the fish. This will increase the moisture content of 
the air in the cooker. Part of the air (probably not more than 10 
per cent) must be discarded, however, to carry out of the cooker the 
water that evaporates from the fish. The exact amount that can be 
recirculated will vary with different conditions and must be deter- 
mined by experience. It will be very easy to control recirculation, 
and no difficulty will be met. 

Moisture loss. — Average size pound-oval fish and three-quarters 
mustard fish, prepared according to the recommendations given 
above, will lose about 13 to 16 per cent in weight. This is about 
right for fish that are to be packed in fairly thick sauce. Average 
size quarter-oil fish will lose about 20 to 25 per cent in weight. 

In practice a packer should vary his drying conditions some in order 
to get the exact results desired. In doing this it will pay to deter- 
mine what loss in weight occurs, as this gives a good index to actual 
results. The loss is easy to determine, using ordinary kitchen 
scales. Weigh a flake of fish before and after cooking and from these 
weights subtract that of the flake. This gives the weight of the fish 
before and after cooking. The difference between these is the loss. 
The loss divided by the weight of fish taken, multiplied by 100, gives 
the per cent loss in weight. 

Drippings from the fish. — Drip pans are needed whenever large, 
fat fish are being cooked; although it may turn out that they are not 
needed for quarter-oil fish, it is much safer to include them in equip- 
ment for preparing the fish. 

Minimizing breakage.— KoiW fish can be handled quite roughly 
without injury; for instance, they can be dropped 8 to 12 inches from 



144 U. S. BTJEEAU OF FISHERIES 

run to run in a multiapron drier. Cooked fish, especially when hot, 
can not be treated in this way. The fall would cause serious breakage, 
and shifting of the fish about on the wire screening would cause 
excessive breaking and marring of the skins. Cooked fish should 
remain on the flake untd removed, one by one, for packing. 

In order to prevent breakage, California pilchards should be 
placed on the flake so as not to touch each other. Breakage due to 
the fish sticking to the flake will not be serious, except with very lean 
fish. Toughening the skins by drying before cooking prevents lean 
fish from sticking but does little good with fat fish. This procedure, 
therefore, is not recommended unless large quantities of lean fish are 
to be prepared. In this case the skins should be toughened by 
drying in the same way as for frying in oil.^° A small drier for doing 
this could be placed so as to empty dried fish into the machine for 
spreading, as described in a later section. In any case the flakes 
should be kept clean, as this helps prevent sticking. Oiling the flake 
lightly with a cheap heat-and-oxygen-resisting oil, such as coconut 
oil or a hydrogenated oil, will be particularly helpful, too, when 
sticking does become troublesome. 

Only with fish for very fancy packs need extra precautions be taken 
in handling Maine herring. The flaking machine spreads the fish 
evenly enough if operated correctly. 

Cooling.— The coolest outdoor air obtainable should be used for 
cooling the fish, and it should be blown over them at as high a velocity 
as possible (2,000 to 2,200 feet per minute, at least), just as in cooking, 
so as to get the maximum heat transfer from the fish to the air.^^ If 
the fish are cooled to about 80°, they can be handled without difficulty. 
During the sardine season in Monterey and San Pedro the temperature 
of outdoor air seldom rises this high. With high-velocity air at 80°, 
large "ovals" can be cooled to about 80° in 15 minutes. Along the 
coast of Maine out-of-door air is almost always cool. 

EQUIPMENT RECOMMENDED FOR PREPARING AND HANDLING POUND-OVAL FISH 

The frying-in-oil process is not a continuous one. As carried out 
in California, the fried fish are kept overnight to cool and drain. 
Much labor is expended in handling the fish as frequently as they 
must be handled, and excessive floor space is required for storing 
them overnight. A real saving in cost of production can be efl'ected 
through the use of such equipment as will handle the fish continu- 
ously, from brine tanks to the cans, and thus complete the process in 
a short time and with little expenditure of labor. The equipment for 
carrying out the new process, illustrated in Figure 29 and described 
below, will accomplish these ends if operated as recommended. 

The equipment and plan of operation are described here as apphed 
to the handling of California pound-oval fish. The handling of 
quarter-oil fish and the use of other equipment and plans of operation, 
both for quarter-oil and pound-oval fish, are taken up later. 

These discussions on equipment endeavor only to outline practical 
ways of carrying out the process. Any canner who puts in equipment 
should cooperate with well-qualified drying engineers in doing so, for 

9" This procedure is described on pp. 125 to 129. 

M It will not pay to cool air for this purpose by refrigeration, but in commercial practice conditions might 
arise which would make it practicable to cool the air by humidifying it with a spray of sea water or by 
passing it over coils through which sea water is circulated. 



CANNING SARDINES 



145 



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146 



U. S. BLTEEAIT OF FISHERIES 



the reasons stated in the discussion on drying (p. 127). The wide 
experience that such men have had in handhng similar problems 
undoubtedly will lead to improvements in the equipment described 
here. 

General scheme of operation. — The raw fish are conveyed from brine 
tanks to a series of moving flakes, one following another, so as to form 
an almost continuous surface upon which the fish are spread mechan- 
ically; then they are more carefully arranged by hand. The flakes 
next pass into the cooker and are conveyed back and forth, as illus- 
trated, the flakes, of course, always remaining in virtually a horizontal 
position to prevent the fish from being thrown from them. From the 
cooker the flakes go to the cooler, where they are conveyed in a like 




Fig. 2G.— Maine flaking machine 

manner. The fish are now ready to be packed and next pass between 
two rows of packers, who obtain their fish from the moving flakes. 
The empty flakes then pass through a mechanical scrubber and an 
automatic oiler, after which they are ready to receive another supply 
of fish. The various steps involved in preparing the fish are discussed 
below. 

Spreading the fish. — The fish can be scattered over the flakes quite 
evenly, either by the means now used in California®^ or by a Maine 
flaking machine (fig. 26). The flaking machine will serve the purpose 
better, as it places no fish on the open spaces between the flakes. 
Since the fish are already quite evenly spread, one or two girls can 
quickly arrange them to prevent touching as the flakes pass in front 
of them. 

Coohing and cooling. — Air for cooking can be heated in a number of 
ways. Electrical heating, except for its prohibitive high cost, would 



•' Figure 7, p. 79, illustrates this procedure. 



CANNING SARDINES 147 

bo most sntisfurtorv. Tho nir can also bo hoalod by passinjz; Itovor 
pipos, throusli which hisrli-prossuro sloain, hot oil, or combustion 
gasos arc circulated. Of those tho last probably is most satisfactory. 
Another type of heater heats tho air l)y mixing with it the products 
of condmstion from a furnace burning oil or gas. Hard coal or coke 
can also be used, but not very satisfactorily. If correctly d(>signod 
and operated with good grade fuel, even ordinary fuel oil, this type 
of furnace gives very high fuel efficiencies, operates with negligible 
odor and smoke, and will not damage the fish. It is recommended 
that this type of furnace be used if gas at a low enough price to make 
its use feasible can not be obtained. Several companies manu- 
facture and guarantee such furnaces. They are not dangerous to 
operate and should not materially increase fire insurance rates on 
the plant in which they are located. 

In the California plants, either oil or natural gas is used for fuel, 
being cheaper than coal. In Maine, however, heat units can be 
purchased in the form of coal at about half their cost in the form of 
oil. Tliis should be considered in planning equipment, as it may 
turn out to be advisable for this reason to heat the air by passing it 
over high-pressure steam coils or through a heat interchanger, coal 
being used as the fuel. 

Heat from the furnace is mixed with the recircidated air and blown 
through the cooker by the fan, as shown in tho diagram. The 
temperature of the air in the cooker can be controlled by hand or 
automatically, w^hichever is more desirable. Such controls as this 
have proved very satisfactory. 

One method of handling the flakes so that they will remain in a 
virtually horizontal position throughout their passage through the 
cooker and cooler is illustrated in Figure 27. 

Details in regard to chains, sprockets, guides for the chains and 
flakes, and the best method of driving the unit should, of course, 
be handled by an engineer versed in these matters. Chain manu- 
facturers are in a position to handle such details. Two pomts in 
particular should be kept in mind in handlmg the flakes. At the 
ends of the conveyer, where the flakes change from one level to 
another, through shafting can not be used because the flakes pass 
between the sprockets. At other places, however, it can be used. 
It is particularly necessary for the two chains to run evenly, other- 
wise the flake carriers or flakes will get out of line and cause difficulty. 
Chain manufacturers can show how to make the two chams run 
evenly. "Take-ups" for the two chains should be geared together 
so that each chain will be taken up in the same amount. 

Rollers can be placed on the flakes so that they can be conveyed 
directly on the chains. It will be much better, however, to use a 
light metal framework as a carrier upon which the flakes are placed. 
This permits light-weight, inexpensive flakes to be used. Either 
system allows the flakes to be removed as they come from the cooler. 
At times it may be desirable to remove some flakes and keep them 
on trucks for a time instead of sending them directly to the packers. 

In designing- the cooker the upper runs of flakes should be spaced 
a little farther apart than the lower ones, if the fish enter at the top. 
Should they enter at the bottom the arrangement should be reversed. 
This spacing can be made by using different sized sprockets, or 
preferably by having the line of flakes move down a slight incline, 



148 



U. S. BUREAU OP FISHERIES 



from one sprocket to the next, at the other end of the tunnel. Tlie 
following arrangement is suggested for 12 lines of flakes in a tunnel 
12 feet high; 18 inches for the first line and 16, 14, three 12, and six 
10 for the others. The purpose of such an arrangement is to give 
more air to the cooler flakes in order to raise the temperature of the 
fish quickly, so that rapid moisture loss will be brought about. A 
few well-placed baffles over each line of flakes (and this applies to 
the cooler, too) should be provided to assure good air distribution. 

In the cooler, however, the lines of flakes should be spaced equally. 
Although drip pans are not needed under all the lines Per catching 



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SECTION A:B. 

Fig. 27.— Plan for handling flakes 

drippings, some means of dividing the main tunnel into smaller 
ones, through which each line of flakes passes, should be used. For 
mstance, should there be 12 lines of flakes in the cooler, the fish 
would be treated with 12 different lots of cool air. This arrange- 
ment should be very effective. 

In the cooker any mixing of the air that passes over one line of 
flakes with that of another (for instance, around the sides of the 
drip pans) will be helpful, in that it will tend to equalize the tem- 
perature throughout the cooker. In the cooler, however, the par- 
titions that separate the various lines should be tight enough to 
prevent much mixing of air, as better cooling will be effected if air 



CANNING SARDINES 149 

that liMs boon warinod in ono lino (loos not mix with the coolor air in 
tho noxt. 

Tlio air that has boon warmod by passinij ovor tho first lino or 
two of flakt^s in the ooolor can bo used for intake air for the furnace. 
Some heat can be recovered in this way. 

PacTcing. — So far as I am able to discover, sardines have not yet 
been packed from moving flakes. I see no important reason why 
this could not be done, especially with fish for the pound-oval pack. 
Packers could be placed alongside the moving flakes, each having a 
small platform a little above the flakes for holding the can to be 
packed, or the boards that cover moving parts on each side of the 
flakes could be used for this purpose. Fish could be selected from 
those in front of the packer in the same way that they are selected 
from a stationary flake. Conveyors for empty and full cans could 
be placed over the moving flakes on a higher level than the packing 
platform. These details will have to be worked out for each instal- 
lation, to fit the plant and the general ideas of those in charge. 

It will be argued that the first packers will pick out all the big fish 
when they are paid for piecework. This is true, but this tendency can 
be controlled to a great extent by proper supervision. When the fish 
are badty mixed, however, they usually are packed according to size in 
order to enable the canner to furnish packs containing a definite 
number of fish per can. The system of packing recommended here 
will aid in doing this, as certain packers can pack fish of a given size. 

At the end of the packing line one or two packers will be needed to 
care for any inequalities in the amount of fish that comes through from 
time to time. Since they will be idle part of the time, they must 
work on a time basis. 

In planning the packing line about 6 to 10 feet of free space should 
be left between the end of the cooler and the first packer for removing 
and replacing flakes. Each packer will require about 2 feet of space 
and will, on the average, pack about 43^2 cases of "oval " fish per hour. 
The surface of the flakes should be about 32 inches off the floor. 
Flakes 30 by 30 inches should be used. It will not inconvenience 
a packer to reach to the middle of a flake of this size, even if 4 to 6 
inches between the packer and the edge of the flake is taken up by the 
conveying system. A flake of this size is handled easily, too, when off 
the conveyer. A larger flake offers an important advantage — if it 
could be used it would lower equipment costs. 

Should packing from moving flakes prove unsatisfactory to any 
canner, or should he prefer in the first place to have the fish packed 
from stationary flakes, this can be done as follows: Over the line of 
moving flakes, for the distance used by the packers, there can be 
placed a conveyer system similar to that used in California and Maine 
for keeping the packers supplied with baskets or flakes of fish and for 
carrying away the empty containers. (See fig. 25.) The packers can 
be placed at tables on both sides of the conveyer, just as at present. 
When a packer needs a flake of fish, she will take it from the conveyer 
C (or at ^, if possible), which carries it to the end of the conveyer at 
D. At D an operator places the flakes that were not removed from A 
on the conveyer B. At the point D, too, the empty flakes are returned 
to the flake carriers. The conveyer B is so designed as to move the 
flakes forward only as rapidly as they are removed. This kind of 
a conveyer is in regular use in California and in Maine. Conveyer A 



150 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

is designed to supply fish as rapidly as needed. .Conveyer B, then, 
serves only to care for inequalities in the removal by the packers of 
flakes from conveyer A. 

Cleaning and oiling the flalces. — The flakes should be kept clean. 
At times it probably will be advisable to scrub them after each time 
or two they are used. This can be done easily and inexpensively by 
passing them through a mechanical scrubber. This scrubber can 
consist of two revolving brushes, upon which a strong cleaning solu- 
tion is sprayed. The flakes should then be rinsed in a spray of water. 

Just before the flakes receive fish they should be oiled, whenever 
this is necessary. A number of simple automatic contrivances can be 
devised to do this. One that would serve well can be made in the 
form of a perforated drum covered with fairly heavy felt or wicking 
material, through which the oil or fat contained in the lower half of 
the drum passes, in the same way that oil passes through a lamp wick. 
The drum can rest on the flakes and be left free to revolve so that it 
moves with the flakes, spreading a thin film of oil over their surface as 
they pass under the drum. A small steam cod should be placed so 
as to dip into the oil in the bottom of the drum. This will liquify a fat 
that is solid at ordinary temperatures. 

General considerations. — It is necessary to consider how well the 
method just described for handling the fish fits into the general plan 
of operations that must be followed in a sardine cannery. Conditions 
in southern California (San Pedro) are considered first. 

Except in emergencies, the fish must be packed during the daytime, 
when women packers are obtained most easily and cheaply. Assum- 
ing that the packers work 10 hours, equipment must be provided for 
handling the desired amount of fish in that number of hours. Of 
course, such equipment would also be avadable for overtime work. 

As a rule, the fishing boats go out in the evening and return between 
midnight and dawn.^-^ Usually some fish are available as early as 
5 or 6 a. m. Generally, most of the boats are in by 9 to 10 a. m. 
There are exceptions, however, and when these occur the fish have to 
be cared for just the same. At certain periods moonlight interferes 
with night fishing, in which case the boats either do not fish or go out 
early in the morning and return by noon or early afternoon. 

When the fish are prepared by the frjang-in-oil process, it makes 
no particular dift'erence when they arrive. Generally, unloading and 
cutting start soon after the first boat arrives and are continued until 
all the fish have been cut and sent to the brine tanks. As soon as the 
tanks of fish have been brined the excess brine is drained off and the 
fish remain in the tanks until used. Drying begins as soon as the first 
brined fish are ready. Drying, frying, stacking, and storing of fried 
fish is continued until all the catch has been disposed of. The follow- 
ing morning the packers begin packing the fish that were prepared on 
the previous day. 

This method of handling the fish tends to minimize deterioration 
in the factory, inasmuch as cooking is begun soon after the first fish 
arrive. In the proposed method the fish are not cooked until just 
before they are packed. Because of this it will be necessary at times 
to keep uncooked fish in the tanks for several hours until cooking 

83 Fishing methods are described in detail by Higgins and Holmes; see paper referred to in footnote 9, 
p. 74. 



CANNING SARDINES 151 

can be started. Tills will happoii inlri^quontly, bocaiise, as stated 
above, the fish usually arrive at the eaiuiery in the early morning 
and eookinj; can begin at 6 or 7. a. m. Fish that arrive in the after- 
noon, however, will have to be kept until the next morning before 
cooking can begin. Except in rare cases, no difnculty should be en- 
countered in keeping the fish. California pilchards that are in good 
condition keep well if they are "cut," brined fairly heavily, and allowed 
to remain in the tanks until after the brine has drained from them. 
Winter nights in San Pedro are generally cool, the temperature very 
seldom going over 60°. In exceptional cases, when the weather 
might be very warm or the fish in poor condition when received, 
crushed ice could be spread over the fish in the tanks. This would 
hardly be necessary more than three or four times a season. 

In Monterey no trouble at all is experienced in keeping good- 
quality cut fish 24 hours or even longer at any time of the year. It 
is only necessary to keep them in the tank and circulate water from 
the bay over them. This water is always quite cool. Such fish 
need not be brined at first. If the sea water does not brine them 
sufficient!}^, they can be covered with a stronger salt solution for a time 
just prior to being used. This procedure probably would work 
equally w^ell in San Pedro in the winter if fresh sea water were 
available. 

It is warmer in San Diego, and consequently it is a little more 
difficult to keep fish in good condition there than in San Pedro. In 
San Diego, how^ever, where the pack is small, equipment probably 
will be preferred which does not include a cooler or special arrange- 
ment for expediting packing operations. Plans for operating under 
these conditions are given later. 

EQUIPMENT RECOMMENDED FOR PREPARING AND HANDLING QUARTER-OIL, FISH 

Theequipment andplan of operation discussed above apply equally 
well and with the same advantages to the handling of quarter-oil 
fish. There is some doubt in my mind, however, as to how w^ell 
packing from moving flakes would work out for quarter-oil fish. 
Packing from stationary flakes, which the packers remove from the 
conveyer, of course, ofl'ers no difficulty as far as actual packing is 
concerned. 

At present trucks are used almost exclusively in Maine for handling 
flakes of fish. Most of the fish are steamed, and this way of handling 
the fiakes has worked best for the purpose. Most of the Maine 
canners probably w^ould w^ant to follow present practices as far as 
possible. This can be done by using a cooker without special cooling 
and packing equipment. The fish can be flaked as they are now, 
and go directly into the cooker, as shown in Figure 25 (p. 145). The 
flakes coming out of the cooker can be placed in trucks and then 
handled as at present. 

Trucks for handling flakes in tlie cooker.-— The fish can also be 
cooked on flakes in trucks. A simple type of cooker for doing this is 
shown diagrammatically in Figure 28. This particular unit holds 
eight trucks in the main part of the tunnel. At each end there is a 
vestibule w^ith double doors, holding two trucks each. Assuming that 
the unit is operated so that it takes 15 minutes to prepare the fish, then 
eight trucks will pass through the main part of the tunnel every 15 



152 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



minutes. When operating at capacity two trucks will be placed in one 
vestibule and two removed from the other about every 4 minutes. 
While doino; this the door between the vestibule and the main tunnel 
must be kept closed, after which it should be opened and the outer 
door closed. The conveyer that carries the trucks is moved forward 
by compressed air or by some other means about one truck length 
at a time, instead of moving continuously. This method of handling 
gives plenty of opportunity for loading and unloading between the 
times when the trucks move. 

Several canners have raised this question: "Why not use two 
tunnels, emptying and filling one while fish are being prepared in the 
other? The air supply can then be shifted and the process repeated 
for the other tunnel." This is impracticable; it is not possible to get 
uniform results in this way. If the air temperature is right for the 
fish in the first truck, each succeeding lot will be treated with cooler 
and cooler air. Much heat is removed from the air by each truck 
of fish. If the air temperature is raised sufficiently so that the last 
truck is treated with air at the right temperature, the fish on the 



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Fig. 28. — Plan for cooker, using trucks 

first trucks will be greatly overcooked. For uniform results the 
trucks should pass progressively through the tunnel, so that all fish are 
subjected to the same range of temperature. 

The purpose of two doors on each vestibule is to prevent excessive 
loss of heat due to escaping air and to make it possible for a man to 
push the trucks into the vestibule. 

It will be noted that the tunnel is considerably wilder than the 
trucks. This is necessary when more than three or four well-loaded 
trucks are used, to permit enough air to pass through the tunnel. 
Correctly designed and spaced air baffles are necessary at mtervals 
m the free space on each side of the trucks to deflect the air, first 
from one side through the trucks and then back again; otherwise it 
would take the path of least resistance, and most of it would go along 
the sides of the trucks. Baffles also are needed where the air enters, 
to deflect it in a straight path through the tunnel (not shown in the 
figure). 

Trucks should enter at the end where the hot air enters. In this 
way the fish will be heated to a high temperature where rapid moisture 



CANNING 8ARDINES 



153 



diffusion takes place, nioro quickly than if they enter at the other 
end. The drop in air temperature in a tunnel of given size will not 
have to be as great if air is handled in this way. 

Another plan of handling the trucks so as to prevent loss of heated 
air where the trucks enter and leave the cooking tunnel is shown in 
Figure 29. A and B are two vestibides so arranged on a platform 
with rollers that the whole can be shifted from the position shown 
(CD) to the position DE, and back again, as desu-ed. Trucks of 
fish as loaded are run into A. When full, and as soon as all the trucks 
in B have moved into the cooker F, the door G is closed and AB is 
moved to tiie position DE, after which G is again opened. While 
the trucks are passing from A to F, more trucks are loaded in B at 
E. The vestibules A and B slope towards F, so that the trucks move 
into F as fast as there is room for them. 

In F the trucks continue to roll forward, down a slight incline, to 
E, where they are picked up by a conveyer and carried up an incline 
at the desired speed and out of the cooker at /. The hot air is blown 
through the tunnel in the same direction that the trucks move. This 



czr^z^-zr^^sz/i^zjzsirj 



T ;t— - 

ii 1 1 

II ' I 

,L 1 I 



I 

] rl 

I 'I 

' l| 

I 1 



F 



I 6. 



,: -H. 



Fig. 29 



air can be handled in such a way as to prevent much loss of air at /, 
although the tunnel is open at this point. A window in the end of 
the tunnel at D and a light somewhere in the tunnel near G will 
enable the operator to know when more trucks should be placed in 
the cooker. 

One firm of drying engineers suggested the use of a cooker in which 
the air is blown at right angles to the direction in which the trucks 
are conveyed. Equipment of this sort is used extensively in drying 
substances where the drying time usually is long and the air velocity 
low. It can be changed, however, to make an excellent cooker. 
In Figure 30 is shown a plan of operation that will give good results. 
The trucks A are made with two solid sides, BB. As they enter 
and leave the cooker they pass through a vestibule, GG, just the size 
of the trucks and a little over one truck width in length. The two 
solid sides prevent loss of air. In the center of the cooker a similar 
arrangement divides it into two parts, through which the air is made 
to travel in different directions in order to give all trucks more or less 
similar heat treatment. If high-pressure steam is used for heating 



154 



S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 



the air, coils can be placed in front of the fan at C, between the trucks 
at D and at E. Fresh air can be made to enter at H and leave at / or 
elsewhere in the housing;, as desired. If a furnace is used, heat can 
enter at H. The air will have to be correctly baffled along the sides 
at C and E to get uniform air movement through the trucks. 

This system can be used with one or two lines of trucks. More 
than two lines of trucks, even with high-velocity air, will not give uni- 
form cooking on all trucks. As it is, with only two trucks, the fish 
on the edges facing D will not be cooked quite as well as those on 
the outer edges, unless coils are placed at D. This difference, how- 
ever, will give no trouble. 

Trucks for holding the flakes should be of metal and as lightly 
constructed as practicable. Under each flake there should be a 




nri 







3 



L. 



Fig. 30 



light-weight, rigid, removable drip pan, which will not sag. The 
pan should be but j^ or }/i inch deep, so as to interfere as little as 
possible with the flow of au' between the flakes. 

The flakes must be spaced on the truck so as to allow sufficient 
air at the right velocity to pass between them. For quarter-oil 
sardines a spacing of about 33^2 inches should be enough for each 
flake and its drip pan. The pan takes up about 34 inch and the flake 
about 1 inch, leaving 21.^ inches, which should be proportioned so as 
to have 1 inch of space under the flake and 1 \i inches above the fish. 
For pound-oval fish a 4-inch space should be sufficient. It probably 
will be possible to get along with less free space, especially with the 
type of cooker shown in Figure 30. Possibly, too, drip pans may be 
unnecessary with quarter-oil fish. The above recommendations are 
safe ones, however. 



CANNliSfG SARDINES 155 

FURTHER RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING EQUIPMENT 

The desio;n and construction of such equipment as has been dis- 
cussed here, so that it will function in the desired manner, should 
ofl'er no particular didiculty to di'yinii" and conveying engineers quali- 
fied for such work. It is very imi)ortaut, however, that they be 
competent, otherwise serious didiculties are certain to arise. The 
data needed by such engineers has already been given. To these 
must be added the amount of fish to be handled per hour, the weight 
of fish to be handled per flake or per square foot of flake surface, and 
the space available for the outfit. 

The amount of fish that can be handled on a flake varies greatly 
with the size of the fish. The larger they are the greater the weight 
that can be placed on the flake. The amount of fish, "cut" or 
"round," that can be handled per square foot of flake surface varies 
from about 0.8 to 2.4 pounds. The first weight applies to quarter-oil 
fish (8 to 10 per can) and the second to the largest oval-size fish (4 per 
can). For small to medium sized "ovals" (6 to 10 per can) the 
weight is about 1.8 to 2 pounds. For the general run of "quarter- 
oils," as they are flaked in Maine, the weight is about 1 pound. 

In the appendix (p. 219) specifications in regard to operating con- 
ditions for handling either small or large fish are summarized in 
convenient form, ready for submission to drying engineers. Reliable 
engineers will be ready to guarantee to fulfill these requirements. 
From these data approximate operating costs are determined. These 
calculations indicate how^ the experimental data are applied and give 
an idea of the approximate size of the unit. 

Equipment should be designed so as to permit considerable varia- 
tion in the operating conditions. This is especially important in the 
first units of a new line of equipment. The specifications referred 
to were made with this idea in mind. 

PRODUCTION AND EQUIPMENT COSTS FOR PREPARING CALIFORNIA POUND-OVAL FISH 

Approximate estimates of production and equipment costs for 
handling 5 tons of pound-oval fish per hour are given below and com- 
pared with estimates for preparing the fish by the frying-in-oil 
process. The experimental equipment was not large enough, nor 
was it constructed in such a way as to enal)le production costs to be 
obtained from actual operations, nor has a large enough unit yet been 
built from which data upon these costs, as well as those for the equip- 
ment, can be obtained. The equipment and production costs con- 
sidered are only those having to do with handling the fish after they 
are brined and until they are given to the packers to put into cans; 
other costs should be the same as they are now. 

Fuel. — For a properly constructed plant the fuel oil required per 
case should not be great-er than 0.5 gallon. The cost, then, when oil 
is $1.50 per barrel of 42 gallons, is 1.8 cents per case.''* The actual 
amount of fuel used in preparing fish by the frying process is not 
available. Canners do not keep separate fuel costs for the various 
uses to which steam is put in their plants. The calculations indicate, 
however, that at least 77 per cent as much fuel is required for pre- 
paring the fish by the frying-in-oil process as by the new one. The 

«< Calculations given on pp. 219-221. 



156 V. S. BTTREAIT OF FISHERIES 

cost on this basis, then, is 0.77 x 1.8, or 1.4 cents. In CaHfornia fuel 
oil or natural gas is used for generating steam. 

Power. — In connection with the estimate upon equipment costs 
made by a firm of drying engineers and discussed later, it was esti- 
mated that the total power required for a 5-ton unit would be about 
50 horsepower. This will take about 38 kilowatts of electricity per 
hour. At 3 cents per kilowatt hour, the cost is $1.14, or for 110 cases 
(22 cases per ton of fish prepared), about 1 cent per case. It is 
assumed that the cost for the frying process is 0.5 cent per case. 

Frying oil. — Whatever the cost for frying oil may be, it will be 
saved. It is assumed that this amounts to 5 cents per case. If a 
canner uses a good grade of cottonseed oil and changes his oil at least 
twice a season and takes into account the oil added to make up for 
losses when the fish are not very fat, the cost will be this much at least 
and probably more. If the oil is changed frequently enough for the 
fish to })e cooked at all times in good oil, the cost will be far greater. 

Labor. — For preparmg the fish and delivering them to the packers 
there will be required one operator, two girls at 30 cents per hour 
each to arrange the fish after they have been flaked by the machine, 
and one extra packer at 50 cents per hour, most of whose time will 
be wasted. Excluding the operator, the cost comes to $1.10 per hour, 
or 1 cent per case. For the frying-in-oil process there are required 
one operator for the drier and fry bath, two men for the fry bath 
(one at each end to handle baskets of fish), two men to move trucks 
of fish to the coolmg room and to supply trucks of empty baskets for 
the fry bath, two men to move trucks of cooled fish from the cooling 
room to the packing tables and to remove trucks of empty baskets, 
one man to feed baskets of fish to the conveyer supplying the packing 
tables, and one man to care for empty baskets from the convej'^er. 
Excludmg the operator, there are required eight men at 40 cents per 
hour, totaling $3.20, or 2.9 cents per case. 

The cost of an operator will be about the same for either process and 
can be left out of consideration. Incidental labor for cleaning, han- 
dlmg oil, and lor other such purposes will be considerably less for the 
new process; however, in these calculations it is assumed to be equal 
for both processes and therefore is not included in the calculations. 

Equipment. — A 5-ton per hour unit for continuous cooking, cooling, 
and packing is estimated to cost about $25,000 to $30,000, and for a 
unit half as large about $15,000 to $18,000. This estunate was made 
by a firm of drying engineers for one of the canners and is for a com- 
plete unit, erected, ready for operation. The same equipment can 
be obtamed at less cost if tlie engineers only furnish plans and super- 
vise construction and the canner himself purchases materials in the 
open market and furnishes his own labor. 

It is estimated that a drier, fry bath with oil storage and cleaning 
equipment, frying baskets, trucks, conveyer for furnishing the 
packers with baskets of fish, and boiler capacity in excess of other 
requirements will cost about $15,000 to $18,000 if furnished by equip- 
m en t m an u f ac t urers . 

Less floor space will be required by the new process ^^ than for 
frying in oil. The equipment itself requires no more floor space than 
present equipment. A space, however, at least 40 feet square, now 

'5 For details in regard to approximate space required see p, 221, 



CANNlXd RAKDINES 157 

used for cooling, need not ho j^rovidiMl for the new process. However, 
extra space equal to about oiu'-tliiid of the above will be re(juired m 
the brininij room for extra brine tanks not needed in the fryint^ proc- 
ess. It will be recalled that all the lish may have to be held for a 
time in the brine tanks when the new pro('(>ss is used.'''^ 

Discussion. — It is realized that tlie estimates given are only 
approximations. They are liberal ones, however, being high, it is 
believed, for the new process and low for the frying-in-oil process. 
In the absence of accurate data, they are useful in gaining some idea 
as to what actual costs probably will be. Production-cost items 
taken up above total 3.8 cents for the new process and 9.8 cents for 
frying in oil, a dilierence of 6 cents per case in favor of the new 
process. 

Production costs, however, should not be considered alone; there 
is also quality, wliich is very important. Fish prepared by the new 
jH'ocess are better than the general run of fried fish, and if sold in a 
market where quality commands a premium they will sell not only 
more readily but for a better price. It is believed the improved 
quality of the product would in the long run justify the adoption of 
the process in plants now equipped for frying m oil. 

PRODUCTION AND EQUIPMENT COSTS FOR PREPARING MAINE QUARTER-OIL FISH 

Approxmiate estimates of production and equipment costs for 
handling 3 hogsheads (3,600 pounds) of "round" quarter-oil fish on 
the flakes, or 4 hogsheads (4,800 pounds) if the "cut" portion only 
is cooked, are given below and compared with estimates for preparing 
the fish by the steaming process. Costs considered are only those 
liaving to do with handling the fish after they are brined and until 
they are given to the packers to put into cans; other costs should be 
the same. Cooking only is considered, and it is assumed that the 
fish are handled on trucks. 

Fuel. — Fuel required should not be greater than 0.75 gallons per 
case when "round" fish are handled, or 0.6 gallons of fuel oil per case 
for "cut" fish." The cost, then, when oil is 8 cents per gallon, is 6 
and 4.8 cents per case, respectively. For the steaming process, when 
coal is $7.25 per long ton (0.324 cents per pound), the estimated cost '^^ 
is 7.9X0.324, or 2.5 cents per case for preparing " round" fish and 
5.9X0.324, or 1.9 cents per case for "cut" fish. The figures 7.9 
and 5.9 represent the amount of coal, in pounds, required to prepare 
a case of fish. If high-pressui-e steam coils or a heat interchanger 
are used for heating the air, coal being the fuel, the costs for the new 
process should be no greater than for the old. 

Power. — It was estimated by a firm of drying engineers that the 
total power required for cooking the fish would be about 20 horse- 
power. This is about 15 kilowatts of electricity per hour. At 3.5 
cents per kilowatt-hour the cost is 52.5 cents. For "round" fish it is 
0.7 cent per case and for "cut" fish 0.53 cent. It is assumed that 
the cost for the steaming process is 0.4 and 0.3 cent per case, respec- 
tively, for handling "round" and "cut" fish. 

Labor. — For preparing the fish and placing them on the conveyer 
that leads to the packers there will be required 1 operator, 1 man to 
feed flakes to the flaker, 1 man to place full flakes in the trucks, i to 

« See p. 150. «' Calculations are piven on pp. 222-223. «'' See p. 223. 



15B tT. S. BUEEAXT OF FISHERIES 

load and unload the cooker, 1 to supply with flaJces the conveyer 
leading to the packing tables, 1 to remove empty flakes from the con- 
veyer, and 1 to move trucks and flakes about. T^e 2 men on the 
flaking machine will spend about half their time for this purpose, too. 
This totals (exclusive of the operator) 6 men. At 35 cents per ma.n 
per hour, this amounts to $2.10, or 2.8 cents per case for preparing 
"round" fish and 2.1 cents for "cut" fish. 

To prepare the same quantity of fish by the steaming process 
requires 1 operator, 1 man to feed flakes to the flaker, another to 
remove them and place them in trucks, 1 man to move the trucks 
in and out of the steam chest, 2 to handle the trucks through the 
dryer, 1 to supply the conveyer leading to the packing tables with 
flakes, 1 to remove empty flakes from the conveyer, and 1 to move 
trucks and flakes about. The 2 men on the flaking machine w41I 
spend about half their time for this purpose also. This totals 
(exclusive of the operator) 8 men. At 35 cents per hour per man, 
this amounts to $2.80, or 3.7 cents per case for "round" fish and 
2.8 cents for preparing "cut" fish. 

If continuous cookmg and cooling equipment to handle single 
flakes were used, G men less than are necessary in the steaming process 
would be required. This would be a savmg in labor of 2.8 cents per 
case in preparing "round" fish and 2.1 cents in preparing "cut" 
fish. 

Equipment. — A unit that employs trucks to cook 3 hogsheads of 
"round" fish per hour is estimated to cost about $9,000 to $12,000, 
includmg trucks, drip pans, and flakes. 

The discussion on page 156, in regard to the estimate given there, 
also applies here. 

It is estimated that steam chests, a drier, trucks, and flakes for 
steaming the fish, mcluding boiler capacity in excess of other require- 
ments, will cost about $6,000 to $8,000 if furnished by equipment 
manufacturers. 

Less floor space will be requu-ed for the new process.^'' The space 
now required for steaming the fish can be saved. 

Discussion. — Although the estimates given are only approxuna- 
tions, it is believed that they are liberal ones, being high for the new 
process and low for the steaming process. 

Production-cost items discussed above total 9.5 cents for preparing 
"round" fish by the new process and 6.6 cents for steaming, if oil 
is used for fuel, giving a difference of 2.8 cents per case in favor of 
the old process. For preparing "cut" fish the totals are 7.4 cents 
for the new and 5 cents for the old, a difference of 2.4 cents in favor 
of the old process. Continuous cooking and coolmg would make 
costs about equal. 

The savings effected by the new process over frying in oil will be 
considerable. It costs at least 20 to 30 cents per case for frying in 
oil in preparing quarter-oil fish, and then results are not satisfactory. 
One canner stated that his oil cost was about 35 cents per case, and 
yet he did not consider that he changed his oil as often as necessary. 

For smoked fish there should be a marked saving over present 
practices. It will cost much less than 1 cent per case extra to smoke 
fish by the new process. The old method requires special equipment 
for doing this and the process is a slow one. 

89 For details in regard to approximate space required, see p. 223, 



CANNING SARDINES 159 

Tlio now process should ^/ivc a slightly better yield in cases per 
hogshead of (ish, and this will lower costs somewhat. 

The new process appears to be a little more expensive than steam- 
ing. Any additional expense, however, is moie than offset by the 
gahi in (piality over steamed fish, and this gain is a marked one. It 
is firmly believed to be suflicient to warrant general adoption of the 
process, although the change involves scrapping old equipment and 
purchasing relatively expensive new equipment. 

COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 

At the conclusion of the experimental work in Maine the equip- 
ment used was purchased by an indivudal who started to prepare 
quarter-oil sardines by the process. In 1925 this equipment was 
enlarged and used throughout the year. Two other concerns, one 
in Maine and one in Canada, put up similar equipment and pre- 
pared sardines during that year, and all canned again during the 1926 
season. These operations proved conclusively that excellent sar- 
dines can be prepared consistently by the new process. Unfortu- 
nately, however, in each case the equipment used was small and 
modeled after the experimental unit used in Maine, so that little 
that had not already been proved was demonstrated, as far as equip- 
ment goes. 

One big drawback to the process that has already been referred to 
is that it requires relatively expensive equipment, different from any 
now being used. Naturally, there is reluctance upon the part of 
the canners to scrap old equipment and purchase new until there is 
positive proof that the venture wiU be successful, both from a tech- 
nical and a business viewpoint. Even where there is no old equip- 
ment to be cast aside, there is the same hesitancy and for similar 
reasons. Although plans for conducting the process are based on 
sound engineering principles, and the cost data show that operating 
expenses are reasonable, such information seems to have little weight 
with the canners. They want to see a commercial plant in suc- 
cessful operation before they will be convinced as to the com- 
mercial possibilities of the process. The individual canner feels, 
too, that if he puts in equipment his competitors will profit, without 
expense, by any mistakes he makes and by improvements that 
naturally will follow the building of the first unit. 

Means have not been available for giving a large commercial 
demonstration. Fortunately, however, one of the largest canners in 
Maine erected a semicommercial unit for trying out the process 
during the 1926 season. Their trials proved satisfactory, and they 
are gomg to install in their largest plant equipment for preparing their 
fish by the new process. The unit is to be large enough to prepare 
fish for about 1,500 cases of quarter-oil sardines in 10 hours' opera- 
tion. This installation should demonstrate fully the commercial 
possibilities of the process. Once this has been accomplished, it is 
beheved that its general adoption will be but a matter of time. 

APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS TO COMMERCIAL OPERA- 
TIONS IN OTHER LOCALITIES 

Sardine canners the world over undoubtedly are faced with es- 
sentially the same problems in preparing their fish. The experi- 
mental results obtained with pilchards and herring in the United 



160 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

States must be very similar to those that would be obtained elsewhere, 
both with the same kinds of fish and with others that are suitable 
for canning as sardines. For this reason the principles worked out 
from the experiments and the recommendations given apply in 
general elsewhere. The new process offers fully as many advantages 
to foreign producers of sardines as to those in this country. 

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 

The more important advantages and disadvantages of the new 
process are summarized below: 

ADVANTAGES 

The quality of the fish prepared is excellent, giving in the long run 
a better product than frying in oil or steaming. The process adds 
no foreign product such as old fry-bath oil, which detracts from the 
quality of the- final product; nor does it remove large amounts of 
oil and soluble extractives (including salt previously added in brining) 
as steaming does. The loss of these substances detracts considerably 
from the flavor and food value of the product. 

The process is rapid, cooking and drying the fish in 15 minutes or 
less, which is a fourth to a fifth the time now oi'dinarily used in 
Maine and California. By combining cooling in a blast of cool air 
with cooking, the fish can be cooled, ready for packing, in about 15 
minutes, making the whole preparation, including packing, continu- 
ous. In California this eliminates the usual overnight cooling and 
draining for pound-oval fish. 

While the fish are being cooked and dried they can also be lightly 
smoked at slight additional cost, giving a much more rapid and labor- 
savmg process for preparing smoked sardines than any now used. 

Less labor is required for preparing the fish than for the processes 
now practiced. Use of the continuous cooking, cooling, and packing 
process developed should effect savings in labor. 

The new process will prevent the disagreeable odor that prevails 
in a factory where fish are fried in oil, and will also eliminate most of 
the oil that is unavoidably spread about the factory. 

Space required for preparing the fish is less than that for any 
other process. 

The cost of preparing the fish on a large scale by the new process 
will be less than for frying in oil and possibly no greater than for 
steaming, as carried out in Maine. 

DISADVANTAGES 

Adoption of the new process in existing factories requires the 
scrapping of most of the equipment actually used in preparing the 
fish and the installation of relatively new equipment. It is believed, 
however, that the advantages to be gained from the new process are 
sufficient to warrant such action. In new factories installation of the 
new equipment will be but little more expensive. 

The cost of preparing Maine herring may be a little greater than 
by the steaming process. 

Flake marks upon the fish will tend to be more pronounced with 
the new process than with frying in oil. 



APPENDIX 

In this section are placed tables and technical discussions that, for 
reasons given on page 92, were not included in the main body of the 
document. 

CHANGES IN OIL USED FOR FRYING SARDINES 

FRYING EXPERIMENTS 

Frying tests. — Data covering the first and second tests are given in Tables 13 
to 16. 

Changes in quantity and composition. — It is important to know how rapidly 
the fish-oil content of frj'-bath oil increases during use. Chemical analyses of the 
oil can not be depended upon to give an accurate index of the increase. Oxida- 
tion changes in frying oil make inaccurate the usual analytical procedures that 
can be used for determining fish oil in cottonseed oil. The increase, when large, 
fat fish are fried, must be rapid, because the oil content of the bath remains 
constant or increases for long periods of time, even with large quantities of mixed 
oil being carried from the bath by the cooked fish. This oil is mechanically held 
on the surface, under the skin, in the body cavity, and soaked into the fish. Oil 
that replaces that carried out of the bath can only come from the fish. 

Table 13. — Frying data — First run of frying experiments 



^ 






Bath I 


Bath II 


Date, 1921 


Time of frying 


Weight of fish 
before frying 


Weight of fish 
after frying 


Weight of fish 
before frying 


Weight of fish 
after frying 


Jan. 13 1 


Hours 
3 
2 
2 
1 
3 

4 
3 
4 
6 
5 

3 
4 
3 

5 


Minutes 

40 
30 
30 


.50 
15 
55 




20 
30 
30 


Pounds 
13 
16 
18 
14 
26 

36 
27 
29 
46 
72 

49 
72 
75 
93 


Ounces 
8 
7 
7 
6 
13 

7 
3 
12 
11 
15 

10 

13 

8 


Pounds 
10 
14 
15 
12 
23 

30 
23 
24 
39 

67 

44 
67 
70 
85 


Ounces 
12 

13 
6 
1 

5 
11 
12 
11 

1 

12 
2 
15 
10 


Pounds 
13 
15 
19 

15 

27 

40 
22 
29 
46 

72 

47 
74 
75 
93 


Ounces 
12 
14 
7 
4 
6 

11 
5 

14 
8 


10 
6 
11 

5 


Pounds 
11 
13 
16 
12 
23 

34 
19 
25 
40 

67 

43 
68 
70 

87 


Ounces 
4 
8 
4 


Jan. 14 -- 


Jan. 15 


Jan. 17 


14 


Jan. 18 


9 


Jan. 19 -. 


3 


Jan. 20 


10 


Jan. 24 2 .__ 





Jan. 28 


o 


Feb. 1' 


13 


Feb. 2-. 





Feb. 3.. 


14 


Feb. 4< 


7 


Feb. 9 


3 






Total--. 


53 





593 


8 


529 


15 


594 


1 


533 


11 







' The dried sardines were weighed by the bucketful. After frying they were placed in buckets and 
weighed again. 
2 Part of the fried fish had been brined. 
' All fish now being brined. 
< Fish were now weighed in the fry basket before and after frying. 



40619°— 27- 



161 



162 IT. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

Table 14. — Oil data — First run of frying experiments 





Bath I 


Bath II 


Date, 1921 


Weight of oil after 
frying (includes 
samples) 


Samples 
taken 


Weight of oil after 
frying (includes 
samples) 


Samples 
taken 


Oil 
cleaned 


Jan. 13 .^ 


Pounds 
21 


Ounces 
11 


Ounces 


Pounds 
21 


Ounces 
11 


Ounces 


No. 


Jan. 14 






No. 


Jan. 15 














No. 


Jan. 17 1-. 






3.2 






3.2 


Yes. 


Jan. 18 










No. 


Jan. 19 














No. 


Jan. 202 


24 


3 


3.2 


23 


3 


3.2 


Yes. 


Jan. 24— 


No. 


Jan. 28 ' 






1.6 






1.6 


Yes. 


Feb. 1 - - - 










No. 


Feb. 2- 






1.6 
1.6 
3.2 
1.6 






1.6 
1.6 
1.6 
1.6 


Yes. 


Feb. 31 


13 
13 
12 


7 
10 
13 


14 
1.5 
13 


15 

7 

7 


Yes. 


Feb. 4 . 


Yes. 


Feb. 9 *_ 


Yes. 







' Oil separated from "foots," which were thrown away. 

2 After the oil had been weighed the amount of oil in each bath was reduced to 16 pounds. 

3 "Foots" were separated by placing them in a bottle. Salt was added at times. The bottle was then 
kept in boiling water until the " break "occurred. The oil was floated off the water and remaining "foots." 

* Oil was much darker and more viscous than at the start. The emulsions formed were more permanent. 
' "Foots" were boiled to get the water out. They were then allowed to stand. The recovered oil was 
added to the original batches of oil. This treatment gave a very dark oil from the "foots." 

Table 15. — Frying data — Second run of frying experiments 



Date, 1921 



Feb. 11-.- 
Feb. 15--. 
Feb. 16-- 
Feb. 17-- 
Feb. 18-- 

Mar. 4 

Mar. 6 

Mar.7_.- 

Mar.8 

Mar. 9 

Mar. 10-- 
Mar. 16_.- 
Mar. 17... 
Mar. 18... 

Total 



Time of frying 



Hours \Minutes 



Bath I (Crisco) 



Weight of fish 
before frying 



Weight of fl,sh 
after frying 



Pounds 


Ownces 


Pounds 


89 


12 


83 


85 


8 


80 


96 


2 


91 


KM 


4 


100 


111 


12 


105 


131 


1 


120 


104 


13 


96 


120 


12 


113 


120 


13 


114 


28 


9 


27 


72 


8 


68 


21 


15 


20 


117 


8 


106 


61 


2 


57 


1,266 


7 


1,185 



Ounces 
14 
7 

3 
4 

7 
6 
2 



Bath II (Mazola) » 



Weight of fish 
before frying 



Pounds 
87 
86 
92 
104 
112 

128 
103 
118 
121 



72 
23 
116 
62 



1,257 



Ounces 
12 
7 
11 
3 
4 

5 

14 
1 
2 

2 
3 
10 
6 



Weight of fish 
after frying 



Pounds 

82 
80 



106 



110 
113 

26 

66 
21 
107 
59 



1,177 



Ounces 
1 

14 
5 
7 

15 



CANNING SARDINES 163 

T.vBLE 10. — Oil (lata — Second run of frying experiments 





Bath I (Crisco) 


Batli II (Mazola) 


Date, 1921 


Weiplit of oil after 
fryiiis; (includes 
samples) 


Samples 
taken 


Weight of nil after 
fiyiiiK (indudes 
samples) 


Samples 
taken 


Feb. U ' 


Pounds 
}6 


Ounces 



Ounces 
1.6 
1.6 
1.6 
1.6 
1.6 

1.6 
1.6 
1.6 
1.6 


Pounds 
16 


Ounces 



Ounces 
1.6 


Feb. 15 


1 6 


Feb. 16 










1 6 


Feb. 17 


15 


13 


15 


11 


1.6 


Feb. 18 


1.6 


Mar. 4.. . .. 


13 


15 


14 


8 


1 6 


Mar. 6 « 


1.6 


Mar. 7 3 


12 
11 


11 
15 


13 
12 



3 


1.6 


Mar. 8 * .... 


1 6 


Mar. 9 s 




Mar. 10 8....! 


10 


11 


1.6 


11 


6 


1.6 


Mar. 16 '... _.. 




Mar. 17... 


12 
11 


12 
12 


1.6 
1.6 


13 
12 


f. 
13 


1.6 


Mar. 18 » 


1.6 







1 Oil separated from "foots" by heating them, with or without adding salt, until the "break" occurred. 
The oil was then floated off. Remaining "foots" discarded. 

2 Oil in Bath I darker than oil in Bath II. Bath I had been harder to keep down to 230°. 

' The oil in Bath I continued to heat more rapidly. The oils were changed to see if the heating was due 
to the baths or to the oil. Data given correspond to the oils just as if no change had been made. Mazola 
tends to foam more than Crisco. 

* Oil changed again. Two days of testing showed that Bath I heated the oil contained in it more rapidly 
than did Bath 11. 

» Oils still changed. This was done so that the oil normally contained in Bath II could have the effect 
of greater heat for a few days. 

* ' ' Foots ' ' in Bath I about twice as large as those in Bath II. This was a daily occurrence. 

" Three pounds of each oil were added to the baths before starting to fry on this date. There were then 
12 pounds 11 ounces of oil in Bath I (not counting samples). 
' Not counting samples there remained 10 pounds 9 ounces of oil in Bath I. 

That much oil doe.s cook out of fat fish ha.s been proved by experiment. WTien 
such fish are cooked in a saturated salt solution at a temperature and for a time 
comparable to frying in oil, considerable bright yellow oil is rendered from them 
and rises to the surface. Most of the fat in the California pilchard is just below 
the skin and next to the lining of the body cavity, positions from which it is 
easily rendered by heat. 

An index of the amount of oil removed from the bath by large, very lean 
fi.sh was found in the following manner: Part of a sample of such fish was boiled 
in brine for a long time to ascertain what quantity of oil would cook out of them. 
Only a trace appeared. Another part of the sample was prepared for frying in 
the usual manner, cooked 8 minutes in cottonseed oil kept at 230°, and allowed 
to drain 8 minutes. Data for this experiment are given in Table 17. 

An idea of the amount of sardine oil that gets into frying oil during the cooking 
of a batch of large, fat sardines was determined as follows: A sample of 20 large, 
fat sardines was ])repared for frying and was divided into two parts, one part of 
which was fried for 8 minutes at 230° and not allowed to drain over the frying 
oil. This cooked part and the other (uncooked) part were analyzed for fat 
content. Moisture was determined by drying the finely divided samples in an 
air oven at 230°. Slight errors entered here, due to oxidation changes; however, 
as both samples received the same treatment results are comparable. Fat in 
the dry samples was extracted by anhyflrous ether in Knorr extractors; the 
extracted fat was then dried and weighed. Data are given in Table 18. In- 
cluded in the table are data on lo.sses in weight in preparing the fish. 

Table 17. — Oil carried from the fry hath by lean California pilchards 



Oil before frying... 

Oil after frying. .... 

Oil draining from fish 

Oil loss (including drainings) 

Oil loss (not including drainings). 
Sardines before frying 



Grams 



3, 942. 000 

3, 773. 500 

51.500 

168.500 

117.000 

3, 329. 500 



Sardines after frying.. 

Oil loss (including drainings) in units 
per uniti of fish fried 

Oil loss (not including drainings) in 
units per unit of fish fried 



Grams 



3, 108. 500 
0.050 
0.035 



' In this case grams per gram of fish fried. 



164 It. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

Table 18. — Changes in oil content of fat California pilcliards in frying ^ 



Sample 



Before frying 

After frying 

Oil loss from bath to fish 

Oil loss from bath to fish, per units of fish fried- 



Weight, 
gfams 



1,263 
1,167 



Per cetit 
tnoistiire 



60.9 

58.2 



Per cent 
fat 



11.2 
13.6 



Weight 

of fat 
in fish, 
grams 



141.5 
158.7 
17.2 
0. 0136 



1 In preparing the fish for frying, 20 fish, weighing 4,210 grams, lost 37.9 per cent in weight in being 
butchered, 0.1 in brining, and 3.3 in drying, calculated on the original weight. On the same basis the loss 
in frying in 10 fish which were fried was 4.4 per cent. 

In this experiment the oil removed from the bath per unit of fish fried was 
0.0136 (0.0136 gram per gram of fish fried). These fish were not allowed to 
drain 8 minutes over the bath, as was done in the experiment with lean fish 
(Table 17). Had they been allowed to drain, undoubtedly as much oil (and 
probably more, since the fish were very fat) would have drained from them as 
did from the lean fish (0.015 unit of oil per unit of fish fried). Such fish as these 
would give up a little more oil than they remove, thus causing the oil in the bath 
to increase with use. Pure cottonseed oil (1,475 grams) was used for frying the 
1,263 grams of fisli. After frying there remained approximately 1,458 grams 
of oil (1,475 grams minus 17 grams carried out by the fish). The sardine-oil 
content of this oil was determined by calculation from the iodine numbers of 
pure sardine and cottonseed oils and the mixed oil after frying. The sample of 
sardine oil analyzed was obtained from fat fish by boiling them in brine. Deter- 
minations were made by the Hanus method. Scott ™ describes this method and 
the method of calculation used in determining the sardine-oil content. The 
results of this determination, given in Table 19, show that the cottonseed oil 
after frying, contained 4 per cent, or 58.3 grams, of sardine oil. This gives a 
loss of at least 0.046 unit of sardine oil from the fish to the bath for each unit 
fried. The loss was more, however, because some sardine oil was removed as a 
part of the mixed oil carried out of the bath by the cooked fish. Oxidation of 
the oil during the heating period tended to lower the iodine number of the mixed 
oil, and this in turn tended to lower the calculated amount of sardine oil. This 
tendency, however, was small, the oils being heated, in all, less than 1 hour. 

Table 19. — Fish-oil content of cottonseed oil used in frying one lot of large, fat 

California pilchards ' 



Oil 



Iodine number 



Average 



Sardine --. 

Cottonseed, before frying. 

Cottonseed and sardine, after frying. 



160.0 
107.5 
109. 5 



160.0 
107.0 
109.2 



160.0 
107.2 
109.3 



• 1,263 grams fish fried in 1,475 grams of oil — 1,458 grams left after frying. 



Calculation : 



100 (109.3-107.2) 



= 4 per cent sardine oil. 



160.0-107.2 

It has been shown experimentally that a sample of large, lean fish, which would 
give up no oil in the fry bath, removed about 0.035 unit of oil from the bath for 
each unit of fish fried 8 minutes in oil at 230° and allowed to drain over the oil 
in the bath for 8 miiuites. It is very probable that large, fat fish fried in the same 
manner would mechanically carry out of the bath an equal (|uantity of oil. If 
this is true, and if it is assumed that the oil content of the bath remains constant, 
then 0.035 unit of oil must cook out of the fish per unit fried. Oil does cook 
out of the fish and mix with the oil in the bath, for it has just been shown that 



'" Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis. 
York, 1922. 



By WUfred W. Scott. 3d ed., vol. 2, pp. 112&-1130. New 



CANNING SAEDINES 165 

0.040 unit of sardine oil remained in the frying oil for each unit of large, fat 
lisii cooked inuier conditions similar to those used in cooking the lean fisli. It 
is possible, by using the figiu'e (0.035) for the amount of oil that cooks out of 
the fish in the bath and the amount of oil removed from the bath, to make 
calculations that show at least how rapidly the sardine-oil content of frying oil 
nuist increase when large, fat sardines are fried, the oil content of the bath 
remaining constant. Use of a value larger than 0.035 would give figures showing 
a more rapid increase. 

The average amount of sardines fried at one time in the second run of frying 
experiments was about 4 pounds. Calculations were made, therefore, on 
4-pound units. It was also assumed that the quantity of oil in the bath remained 
at 12 pounds. The amount of oil that cooked out of each 4 pounds of sardines 
was taken as 0.035 pound X 4 = 0.140 pound. The same amount of mixed oil 
was assumed to be mechanically carried out of the bath by each 4 pounds of 
sardines fried. After cooking the first unit there would be 12.14 pounds of oil 
in the bath. Mixing of the oils would be quite complete, due to the action of 
steam coming from the fish and bubbling constantly through the oils. On 
lifting the fish out of the oil a quantity of the mixed oils would be carried out of 
the bath. Part of this would return during the draining period and the rest 
(0.140 pound) would be permanentlv removed. The fish oil left in the bath 
would be 12.0X0.140/12.140. The "fraction (12.0/12.140) of the amount of 
fish oil in the bath would remain after each unit was removed. In general — 

Let a = pounds of fish oil that cook out of the fish for each unit cooked. 

6=fraction of fish oil remaining in the fry-bath oil left behind after 
each unit is cooked and removed. 
Xn = pounds of fish oil in the bath after n units of fish have been cooked 
and removed. 

X, = ha. 

X., = h {ha + a)=a (fe2 + b). 

X3=6 [h {ha^a) + a\ = a {h^ + y^-\-h). 

Xi^a (¥^W + ¥ + h). 

Xn = a [&- + />n-i + ;)n-2 4- . . . +b°-(''-2)-f6°-(''-i)J or X^ = X^.x + ah^. 

The last ecjuation shows that each succeeding calculation can be made by 
adding a/)° to A'„_i. In this case afe° is only fcXctfe""'. Each succeeding unit 
can therefore be found by adding log. h to log. a6"~\ then finding the number 
that corresponds to this sum and adding this number to the preceding value 
of Xn_! to get the new value of Xn- If a number of these calculations are 
made, it will be seen that log. ab° — log. a6°~' is constant for the different values 
of n. This difference, when successively added to the logarithm of ah, gives 
the succeeding logarithm of afe°. The value of this logarithm is then added to 
the value of X„_i to get Xn. In finding the value of Xn the calculations are 
simplified by multiplying the difference in the logarithms mentioned above 
by n-1 and adding it to the first logarithm. The difference is then successively 
subtracted (algebraically) from this new logarithm. This gives a list of 
logarithms. The numbers that correspond to these logarithms are then written 
down and added to get the value of Xn. This mode of attack, used with the aid 
of a tabulating adding machine, greatly simplifies calculations. The eciuation 
and method of calculation developed is applicable to other problems where the 
amount of oil in the bath remains constant. 

The values used in this set of calculations are given below. The results of the 
calculations are listed in Table 20. 

n = 200 

a=0.140 (log. a = 9.1461-10) 

b=j|^ (log. b = 9.9950-10) 

log. a6--log. a?>°-'=: 0.0050 

Another set of calculations was made, assuming the same conditions to exist, 
except that 1-pound units were taken. Results are shown in Table 21. 

Other calculations along similar lines were made, which show the effect on 
the sardine-oil content of fry-bath oil when the oil content of the bath increases. 
Two such calculations were made — one to show how the increase takes place if 



166 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



the oil content of the bath is allowed to increase and the other to show the effect 
of removing the increase after each unit is fried, so as to keep the oil content 
constant. It was assumed that 0.180 pound of oil cooked out of each 4 pounds 
fried, and that 0.140 pound was removed by each 4 pounds fried. Enough of 
these calculations are given in Tables 22 and 23 to show the trend of affairs. 

It is realized that these calculations are partially baserl upon assumptions 
and approximations, yet it is felt that they are not far from the truth; if anything, 
they are too low. In any case, they accurately show the nature of the changes 
that take place and clearly indicate how the sardine-oil content of the frying 
oil can be kept at a minimum. Experimental evidence tending to substantiate 
these calculations follows: 

Table 20. — Calculated fish-oil content of fry-bath oil 
[Four-pound units fried; oil content constant at 12 pounds] 



Frying time in 
hours 


Pounds 
of fish 
fried 


Pounds 
of fish 
oil in fry- 
bath oil 


Per cent 

fish oil in 

fry-bath 

oil 


Frying time in 
hours 


Pounds 
of fi.sh 
fried 


Pounds 
of fish 
oil in fry- 
bath oil 


Per cent 

fish oil in 

fry-bath 

oil 


0.125 


4 
8 
12 
16 
20 
40 
80 


0.138 
.275 
.410 
.544 
.676 
1.314 
2.484 


1.2 
2.3 
3.4 
4.5 
5.6 
10.9 
20.7 


3.750 


120 
160 
200 
400 
600 
800 


3.526 
4.454 
5. 280 
8. 235 
9.890 
10. 816 


29.4 


0.250- - 


5.000 

6.250 


37. 1 


0.375 


44.0 


0.500 


12.500 -.-. 


68.6 


0.625 


18.750 


82.4 


1.250 


25.000 --- 


90.2 


2.500.- 











Table 21. ^Calculated fish-oil content of fry-bath oil 
[One-pound units fried; oil content kept constant at 12 pounds] 



Frying time in 
hours 


Pounds 
of fish 
fried 


Pounds 
of fish 
oil in fry- 
bath oil 


Per cent 

fish oil in 

fry-bath 

oil 


Frying time in 
hours 


Pounds 
of fish 
fried 


Pounds 
offish 
oil in fry- 
bath oil 


Per cent 

fish oil in 

fry-bath 

oil 


5 


4 0. 139 
8 .276 
12 -412 


1.2 
2.3 
3.4 


20 


16 
20 
40 


0.546 
.679 
L319 


4.6 


1.0 


2.5 - 


5.7 


1.5- - - 


5.0- . - - 


ILO 













Table 22. — Calculated fish oil content of fry-bath oil 
[Four-pound units fried; oil content increasing from 12 pounds at start] 



Pounds 
fried 



Calculations 



(0.180) 12.0 

12. 040X X = 

12.180 12.040 

(0.177+0.18) 12.0 

12. 040X X = 

12.180 12.040 

(0. 352+0. 18) 12. 

12. 040X X — = 

12. 180 12. 040 

(0. 524+0. 18) 12. 

12. 040X X = 

12. 180 12. 040 



Pounds 

sardine 

oil in 12 

pounds of 

fry-bath oil 



.352 



.694 



CANNING SARDINES 



167 



T.\BLE 23. — Calculated fish-oil cotdcul of fry-halh oil 

[Four-pouutl units frieil; oil content kept at 12 poumls by roinoving aciujniulated cxcos.s after each 

unit is Iriod] 



Pounds 
fried 



Calculations 



(0.180) 12.0 
12. 040X X- 



12.180 12.040 

(0. 177+0. 18) 12. 

12. OlOX X -= 

12. 180 12. 040 

(0. 352+0. 18) 12. 

12. 040X X = 

12. 180 12. 040 

(0. 524+0. 18) 12. 

12. (>40X X = 

12. 040 12. 040 



Pounds 

sardine 

oil in 12 

pounds of 

fry-bath oil 



.352 



.694 



The sardine-oil content of the frying oil remaining after 800 pounds of sardines 
had been fried per 12 pounds of oil used (Bath I, second run of frying experiments, 
Tables 15 and 16), was 45 per cent, being calculated from the iodine numbers of 
the remaining oil and the pure constituents. This value is low because o.xidation 
changes took place to a considerable extent, which lowered the iodine number, 
and this in turn lowered the calculated result. This value is half the correspond- 
ing calculated value given in Table 24, but the oil diminished 21 per cent during 
the frying period. Results are not comparable, therefore, but it is shown that the 
increase of sardine-oil content of frying oil is rapid even when the sardines give up 
less oil to the bath than they remove. 

Chemical and physical changes. — Tables 25 to 28 give data on the changes that 
took place in the oils used in the frying and heating tests. 

Chemical treatment. — Chemical treatment of fry-bath oil was tried in an en- 
deavor to develop methods for improving the oil during use and for recovering 
the "old" oil. In undertaking these experiments it was realized that a suitable 
method would have to l)e rapid and inexpensive. A study was made of the 
various methods used in purifying oils, and the most promising of these was then 
tried on "old ' ' fry-bath oil. This phase of the subject could have been studied to 
much greater extent, but the hopelessness of this line of endeavor was cjuite 
apparent. 

Table 24. — Fish-oil content of oil remaining in Bath I, second run of frying tests, 

after frying, March 10 



Oil 


Iodine 
number 


Sardine 

Pure Crisco 


160.0 
74.2 
113.0 


Frying oil. 





Calculation : 



100 (113.0-74.2) 
(160.0-74.2) 



=45 per cent sardine oil. 



168 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 



Table 2b.— Free fatt'j-acid content of fry-bath oil samples from the first and second 
runs of frying experiments ^ 



Run 


Date, 
1921 


Per cent, 
Bath I 


Per cent, 
Bath II 


Run 


Date, 
1921 


Per cent, 
Bath I 


Per cent, 
Bath II 


First.. 


Start. 
Jan. 17 
Jan. 18 
Jan. 20 
Jan. 21 
Jan. 29 
Feb. 2 
Feb. 3 
Fell. 4 
Feb. 9 

Start. 
Feb. 11 
Feb. 15 


0.1 
.2 
.2 

.2+ 

.2+ 

.3+ 

.4+ 

.4+ 

.4 

.6 

.2+ 

.2+ 

.3+ 


0.1 

.1+ 

.1+ 

.2+ 

.2+ 

.3+ 

.4+ 

.4 

.5 

.6 

.1 

.1 

.2 


1 

1 Second— Contd. 
Do 


Feb. 16 
Feb. 17 
Feb. 18 
Mar. 4 
Mar. 6 
Mar. 7 
Mar. 8 
Mar. 10 
Mar. 17 
Mar. 18 


.3+ 

.5 

.5+ 

.5 

.5 

.5 

.5 

.6 

.6+ 

.6+ 




Do 


2 


Do 


Do- 


.2+ 

.2+ 
3 


Do 


Do. 


Do 


Do 


Do 


Do 

1 Do 


3 


Do 


.3+ 
5 


Do 


1 Do. 


Do 


Do 


5 


Do 


Do 


.5+ 
.5+ 


Second 


j Do 


Do_ 




Do 









' Analyses conducted as follows: Sample taken with pipette, which delivered 8.6 grams of oil. Hot 
neutral alcohol (50 c. c.) was added and the acidity neutralized with N/10 sodium hydroxide, using phe- 
nolphthalein as an indicator. Percentage of free fatty acids calculated as oleic acid. 



Table 26. — First set of heating tests on oils used in frying sardines. 

viscosity comparisons ^ 

COLOR 



Color and 





6 
a 

to 

i 

o 

o 
O 


6 

"o 


6 
d 
O 


c5 

d 

§ 
CO 


Color comparison of sample with original sample ^ 


6 


Apr. 15 


Apr. 22 


Apr. 27 (1921) 


a 
6 
m 


Open to air 


Closed to 
air 


Open to air 


Closed to air 


Open to air 


Closed to 

air 


1 


200 








No change. 

--.do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 


No change - 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 


Slightly 
lighter. 

-.do 

...do 

Reddish . - 

Dark yel- 
low. 

...do 

...do 

do.' 


Slightly lighter 

Same 

Very slightly 
darker. 

Same . . 


Same 

Very slightly 
lighter. 

do 

Red . 


Same. 


2 
3 


200 


200 


200 
100 

100 
100 

.50 


Do. 

Slightly 


4 






darker. 
Same. 


5 


100 






do 

do... 

Slightly lighter 


Reddish tinge 

do 

do 

do.3 


Do. 


6 

7 


100 


100 


Do. 
Slightly 


S 


150 




lighter. 

















' Samples to be exposed to air were placed in 2.50-cubic centimeter beakers with glass stirring rod. Other 
samples were placed in the same sized bottles, having ground glass stoppers. Beakers and bottles were 
then partly buried in the sand or a sand bath placed on an electric hot plate and the oils kept at a tempera- 
ture of 212 to 240° F. Ten cubic-centimeter samples were taken at the beginning of the run and at three 
other times. 

2 Heating began on .\pr. 14, 1921. .^.11 original samples were yellow in color. Colors were observed in 
12 cubic-centimeter test tubes, each of which held slightly over 10 cubic centimeters of oU. 

3 Lighter than sample 5. 

VISCOSITY 



Rough visual comparison of the viscosities of the oils heated to April 27 showed 
the following: Pure oils, in order of decreasing viscosity, 4, 2, 3, and 1 the same; 
mixed oils, 8, 5, 6, and 7. 



CANNING SARDINES 



1G9 



Table 27. — Samples from first set of heating tests on oils used in frying sardines. 
Per cent free fatty acids in sainples at end of test ' 



Sample No. 


Original 
sample 


Heated 
in air 


Heated 

away 

from air 


Sample No. 


Original 
sample 


Heated 
in air 


Heated 

away 

from air 


1 


0.1 
0.1 
0.3 
0.7 


0.7 
(1.4 
1.0 
1.2 


0.3 
0. l-h 
0.9 
1.0 


5 


0.4 
0.4 
0.5 
0.4 


0.7 
0.8 

0^7 


5 




6 


5 


3 




6 


4 


8 











' See Table 25 for method of analysis. 

Table 28. — Second set of heating tests on oil used in frying sardines ' 
[Color comparison of heated oils with oils not heated] 2 



Sample No. 


Composition of oil 
sample 


Sample heated 2 days in 
vacuum 


Sample heated 2 
days in air 


Sample heated 7 


Cotton- 
seed 


Sardine 


days in air 


J 


20 




Same 




Slightly darker.3 
Red.< 





20 
10 


Very slightly darker 


Reddish 

do.6 


3 


10 


do 


Do 6 











• Samples were placed in 250 cubic-centimeter beakers. This made a shallow layer of oil in each. One 
set of samples was heated 2 days under 25 inches of vacuum at 212° to 240° F. Another set was heated 2 
days, and still another 7 days in air at the same temperature. 

2 All samples were light yeUow at the beginning. 

3 Very viscous, having dried to a sticky film. 

* Not quite as viscous as sample 1. 
' Not as dark as sample 2. 

6 Not as dark red as sample 4; not quite as sticky a film as in sample 1. 

The action of fuller's earth and of finely divided carbon from kelp (Kelpchar) 
was tried. Ten per cent of the decoloring material was added, with stirring, 
to the oil, which was kept at 176°. This process was carried out for 15 minutes, 
and then the oil was filtered. It was expected that the decolorizing material 
would remove (hy adsorption) the coloring matter dissolved in the oil. This, 
however, was not the case, as the oil was not lightened in color. It was decided, 
therefore, that the color was possibly a molecular characteristic of part of the 
fish oil and not a dissolved pigment. In such a case it would be useless to try 
to remove the color in this manner. 

A sample of partially "spent" fry-bath oil was kept at 300° to 350° for 2 hours 
while steam was bubbled through it. The oil became darker in color, while the 
taste and odor remained the same. 

About 2 per cent of sodium dichromate, dissolved in a minimum, amount of 
water, was added to partially "spent" fry-bath oil and the whole emulsified. 
A quantity of hydrochloric acid, chemically equivalent to the amount of sodium 
dichromate used, was added to the sodium dichromate solution-oil emulsion and 
the whole thoroughly mixed. The mixture was then heated for a short time at 
130° to 140°. The oxygen liberated in the reaction acted on the oil and its 
impurities, turning the whole very dark in color. Water was then added and the 
whole emulsified. Even standing for several days did not help in breaking the 
nuiddy emulsion, so further attempts were not made. 

The method used commercially in purifying cottonseed oil was tried. "Old" 
fry-bath oil was emulsified with a slight exoe.ss of sodium hydroxide (one-fifth 
normal) over that needed to neutralize the free, fatty acids present. The mixture 
was then heated a little, water added, emulsified, and boiled. Salt (to help in 
breaking the emulsion) was added to the boiling emulsion, after which the mixture 
was placed in a bottle and heated in boiling water until the emulsion was broken. 
Part of the oil was poured off, washed with water, dried, and the improvement 
in color, taste, and odor observed. The taste and odor remained about the same; 
the color, however, was considerably improved. A second treatment of the 
refined oil improved the color still more. 



170 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



In settling the emulsion separated into three layers. On top was the cloudy- 
oil and on the bottom an alkaline solution, very dark in color, appearing as if a 
large part of the color had concentrated there. Between the two layers was a 
small amount of apparently unbroken emulsion. The lower acjueous layer was 
alkaline in reaction, and on addition of acid fatty acids separated out, which were 
chocolate in color. The soap in this alkaline solution was salted out by calcium 
chloride. This cleared the solution and gave a very dark brown-colored soap. 

The removal of color in this case appeared to be adsorption of the colored 
material by the soap solution as it appeared from the emulsion. It might have 
been a case of selective reaction between the hydroxide and the red-colored oil. 
This is in line with the statement given on page 169. The question is an interesting 
one l)ut hard to settle definitely from the information at hand. 

Schuck (see footnote, p. 99) claims that oils that have been burnt in use and 
have absorbed the odor of fish can be sweetened, brightened, and deodorized by 
his process. His method consists of blowing hydrogen for about 20 minutes 
through the oil, which is heated to about 520°. A small amount of hydrogenation 
is claimed to take place. "Old" fry-bath oil was treated in this manner with 
negative results. The oil used was freed from moisture by heating; then it was 
treated. The resulting oil had a burnt taste and odor and was much darker in 
color. It is possible that the procedure was not carried out under as favorable 
conditions as were Schuck 's experiments. It is more probable, however, that 
his claims can not be verified on "old" fry-bath oil. 

METHODS OF PREPARING THE FISH 

A large number of experiments were made, and almost an equal number of 
packs were prepared during the course of the investigation on methods of pre- 
paring the fish. Storing and shipping tests also, were made with the prepared 
packs. Detailed data covering these experiments, packs, and tests are given here 
in tabular form (Tables 29 to 32). The general discussion upon this work is in 
the main body of this report. 

NOTES APPLYING TO THE TABLES 



Unless otherwise stated in the tables, the fish used were pilchards (Sardina 
cserulea) caught off the coast of southern Claifornia, in good canning condition, 
and of the size ordinarily used for the pound-oval pack. The fish had been scaled 
and the heads and entrails removed before they were prepared for canning. 

Unless otherwise stated, "brine" means a 100 per cent saturated solution of 
salt (sodium chloride) at ordinary air temperature. "Brined" means that the 
fish were immersed in such a solution. 

"Dried" means (unless data to the contrary are given) that the fish were 
scattered on a wire flake and subjected to the action of a current of air having a 
temperature of about 100° to 110° and a velocity of about 500 feet per minute. 

"Raw pack" indicates that the fish were sealed into the cans without first 
having been cooked. 

Except where statements to the contrary are given, canning consisted of the 
following steps: The prepared fish were packed into pound-oval cans with 
tomato sauce. In the case of fried fish they were allowed to stand overnight 
before being packed into the cans. The product Avas then exhausted by means 
of "live" steam or by adding hot tomato sauce. The cans were then sealed while 
hot and processed 1^ hours at 240° with steam in a retort. 

In most of the experiments results were checked by comparing the product 
obtained with a similar product prepared by the standard fried-in-oil process. 



CANNING S.\H DINES 



171 



m 

3 

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a 
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Urine cooking i)repared a 
product (iiiii parable in 
quality with the fried- 
in-oilfish; pixjr windition 
ofskins was probably due 
to their not being tough- 
ened by drying. 

Urine cooking produced an 
excellent pack of tomato- 
sauce sardines. 


In dry -salting fish the pres- 
ence of impurities, such 
as ciilcium and magne- 
sium chloride, produces 
differences in the final 
product; this experiment 
shows that the presence 
of these impurities makes 
little dilTerence in brine 
cooking except to increase 
the salty taste; pure or 
nearly pure sodium chlo- 
ride probably would be 
best for cooking purposes. 




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Regular commercial 
pack put up by 
regular canner. 

After drying stood 
18 hours, air tem- 
perature 60 to 70°, 
then packed. 

After brining stood 
18 hours, then dried 
and packed. 

With olive oil in quar- 
ter-pound cans. 

do 

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processed 165 min- 
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8 at 230°...- 




188 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 





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190 



U, S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



STORAGE AND SHIPPING TESTS 

The canned fish were stored on a platform near the roof of a shed in San 
Pedro, Calif. In summer the heat would become almost unbearable. At night 
it would be quite cool. In winter the air temperature probably went at times 
as low as 40° and as high as 90°. Beginning in July, 1924, storage was in the 
Fishery Products Laboratory, Washington, D. C. The air temperature of the 
laboratory probably never went below 60° nor above 90°. 

The following shipping tests were made: 

1. Cans wrapped only in paper, three to the package, and shipped via parcel 
post from San Pedro, Calif., to Washington, D. C, and return. These cans 
received very rough treatment, as they always returned with large dents in them. 

2. Cans packed in regular cases and shipped as freight in January, 1923, from 
San Pedro to New Orleans, La., and return, one way being by boat through the 
Panama Canal and the other by railroad. 

3. Shipment in regular cases from San Pedro to Washington by boat. 

4. Cans placed under rear seat of a Ford automobile and carried from San 
Pedro to San Diego, Calif., and return, a total distance of about 270 miles. 

Table 33 indicates the tests made upon the various packs. The general 
results obtained are discussed on pages 114 and 115. 



Table 33. 



-Storing and shipping tests made with the experimental packs of Cali- 
fornia pilchards 





Storage tests 


Shipping tests 


Pack No. 


12 months 
in San 
Pedro 


12 months 
in San 
Pedro 

and 12 in 

Washing- 
ton 


24 months 
in San 
Pedro 
and 12 in 
Washing- 
ton 


1 


2 


3 


4 


18 


X 








X 
X 






19 . - . 




X 
X 


X 


X 
X 




20. _ 








42 to 43 


X 




X 
X 


X 
X 




44 




X 
X 


X 
X 




47 to 48 








57 to 58 


X 










60 




X 


X 




X 




63 and 65 


X 








67 to 69 




X 




X 


X 




71 


X 






X 
X 




72 to 73 




X 




X 




74. . 


X 








79 




X 
X 




X 
X 




79 to 83 






X 


X 


X 


85, 87 to 89 


X 
X 
X 







91, 93 to 95 














98 to 115, 119 




- 










120 to 121 - 




X 






X 




122 to 126 


X 
X 










128 to 132 














133 




X 




X 


X 




134, 136 to 138 


X 
X 








140 to 143 








X 
X 

X 






144 




X 








145 












146 






X 




X 
X 
X 




149 to 155 




X 
X 








157, 160 to 166 ... 























CANNING SARDINES 191 

PARTIALLY DRYING THE FISH 
APPARATUS 

Tlio apparatus used in drying is pictured in Figure 22, page 120. The plan of 
fliis drier is the same in j^rineiple as that shown in Figure 25, page 145, except 
that lieat was furnished l)y steam coils; there was no cooler and no mechanical 
method for handling flakes. Air velocity was controlled by the operation of a 
damper leading to the blower. Other dampers made it possit)le to recirculate 
all or any part of the air that had gone through the drier. The temperature of 
the air was controlled liy regulation of the quantity and pressure of the steam 
that entered the coils, and the humidity was raised, when desired, by recirculating 
part of the air, cither with or witluMit the addition of steam, on the intake side 
of the blower. The drier was first designed to handle a tier of four flakes and 
was so operated at first. Later, to get higher velocities, it was necessary to 
send all the air over and under just one flake. 

A standardized Short and Mason anemometer was used for obtaining the air 
velocities, and wet and dry bulb thermometers were used for indicating the 
temperature of the air and its relative humidity. These were placed always 
in the same place — where they encountered the full velocity of the air — and 
in the case of the thermometers, at some distance back from the steam coils 
and just in front of the fish. The a.ir temperatures, as obtained, are quite 
accurate, but the readings of the wet-bulb thermometer are undoubtedly high — • 
probably 3 to 6 per cent. Carrier, in the American Heating and Ventilating 
Engineers' Guide (see footnote, p. 120), shows that such errors exist and that 
they are more pronounced at lower air velocities. The air velocities, too, being 
taken at the most favorable place, are a Httle higher than the average for the 
cross section used. The variations in velocity during any one series of runs, 
while studying one variable, are due to experimental errors. In taking these 
air velocities the anemometer was placed in position right after the fish were 
put in and was removed immediately after they were taken out. Due to this 
procedure, the time intervals were never exactly the same. On the whole, 
during any one run the temperature and humidity remained quite constant 
although there were frequent small variations, which were ciuickly corrected. 

These errors, however, are not important here, since the experiments are, for 
the most part, comparative ones, in which case most of the errors tend to cancel 
each other. Then, too, the experimental results are only used for the purpose 
of showing general tendencies and not for the detection of fine differences in 
behavior. 

PROCEDURES 

In studying the effect of varying any one drying factor care was taken to use, 
wherever possible, like-sized fish, all of which had the same preliminary treat- 
ment. The supply to be used in a given experiment, consisting possibly of 
several runs of the drier, was placed in a large bucket with holes in the bottom, 
from which the fish were removed as needed, weighed, and arranged on the flake, 
always in the same general manner. The fish were weighed again immediately 
after being removed from the drier. They were then returned or discarded, 
as conditions demanded. Although precautions might be taken which would 
assure cjuite comparable drying conditions in any one experiment, the changes 
that take place in fish that have stood for several hours might seriously interfere 
with the experiment. These changes can be ignored if they make little difference 
in the amount of water removed from the fish by similar drying conditions during 
the time the experiment is in progress. Several series of runs of the drier were 
made in order to get information on this point. The results, given in Table 34, 
indicate no great difference in the amount of water removed from fish that have 
stood varying lengths of time. The variation shown is not pronounced nor is 
it constant; in fact, the experimental error itself might well be greater. In 
view of these facts, this variation will not be considered in the experiments 
unless the differences in the amount of water removed in the experiments under 
consideration are quite small. 



192 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Table 34. — Effect upon the drying rate of holding raw California pilchards for 
different periods of time (all other variables constant) 



Ejcperiment No. 


Elapsed 
time in 
hours 
since 
start of 
experi- 
ment 


Per cent 
loss in 
weight 


Experiment No. 


Elapsed 
time in 
hours 
since 
start of 
experi- 
ment 


Per cent 
loss in 
weight 


96a 



4 

26 



3.7 
4.1 
3.8 
4.5 
4.7 


118a 




4 


1 


10.3 


96b 


l]8d 


10.3 


96c 


118b 


9.7 


I03h 


118c 


9.2 


103c 











Steamed fish were cooked for the stated time in steam at 212°. No record 
was kept of the pressure of the steam turned into the cooker. It varied at times 
from 5 to 40 pounds. After steaming the fish were weighed immediately and 
placed in the drier. They were then handled in the same manner as raw fish. 

EXPERIMENTAL DATA 

With the exception of some additional material in Table 31, the complete 
experimental data are given in Table 35. In the subsequent handling of these 
data only those under discussion are given in the tables, reference being made 
to the original data by number and letter. 






CANNING SARDINES 



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> 1^ o o 







12.7 

11.6 
9.0 
10.7 


10.2 
7.4 
9.0 

9.1 
6.7 
8.3 










1,075 
308 
656 

638 
255 
952 



t^ r^ h- 10 ici 10 

CO CO CO cC CO CO 



to «C »0 CO CO CO 



OiOSOS OOOOQO 



COCOt-^ lOCM^ 

16 ^ t^ t-J ^ -rfi 

CO lOGO 1^ OlCO 

cocoes C^CS CO 



CANNING SARDINES 



197 



SEE 






E E E a 



ES 



t/5 y! trt w5 



o o 

■o-o 
a a 



» 



■^^ o;^^ 0;^ o^ 0^"^ 
, dl Oh Pi Ph 



Sq SqS .S$o;S, 



ft 



2 s 



OO^ OO OOO OOOiOS <o 










20.4 


«t^C««00O lt^« OJl^Ot" 1 1 111 II III llll 1 1 
OOJOJO-*M iO-< c^o«o 1 1 III II III llll 1 1 


6.7 
6.1 
6.1 
6.7 

10.1 

8.1 

6.8 

7.0 

7.7 

8.8 
7.1 
8.6 
6.3 

8.1 
10.6 

10.2 
14.0 

7.4 
5.7 

10.5 
13.0 
11.3 

7.9 
6.5 

3.7 


8.0 
11.2 


liiiMO i>CO >0(NOO 1 1 ill — lO Os-*-< — lOOCOO I CO 

iiiir-;>d i^id id^cc-«5 1 1 I'l'ri^viaixinmt-^t-^ 'id 


5.4 
6.6 
10.9 



s z 



^ :^ S S 



cc 04 r^ o to »o o o 



gocii^ 
CO CO -^ 



t^ r- QC oo 05 i-< o •-< »-< ,-<,—( 

cococo^ to CO CO CO CO CO cc 



Oi Oi C^Oh* OSCD COOi^ OiM'tOr* »o w 

.y-, .^ -.^ -^ -,-K .-, ..^ .-^ .^ .A. iO <X> CD lO to CO 



to to O CO CD to to to 



to to (c CO cc o o o o o 

OJiMC^C^ -H <N (N c5 CN W 



^ (N 



GO GC C^ O oo OO —I '—"OOO on O to r^- 00 

'-' --H CO<N -—( CO CO •-« CO "CO ^ 



^^SS jOpcOCOCO COCDr^OO »OtO COCOO to oo 00 to to lOtOOCN CO Oi 



COOM oo OO 
Oi ^ CO .-< Oi Oi 



28 S8; 



cc 0000 Tj* o 

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t- 00 O 3> t~ 



C<5 N CO IM 



»0 00 CD COi-H O^O -^ <N IM -^ 00 .-H 
WCOCO ^-^ C^COt^ COCOCOO CO fO 



'H i-H (M 



C3 .O CC.C o 






: ; 






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cc tC 


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a .a 
























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c. . & . c . c-c^ c . 


a . a. 




ft .a . 




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O 1 










o 


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-fcjf~-+_i--*^»O^_5_;4.;00 




CO 


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6>Sm£i^ 


J=o6j2 








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b£*o h£oo 

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b£^ b£t^ 

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^tfco^bf 




w 1 




^ ; 


S 1 




3 ; 






v^ 


> 
o 


; : 






c:g? = Ss:S = S = 


^S& 


C 


^E&E 


feg^ 


fj 


cr 1 




C 1 


c 1 










3 
"a 


a 

3 

•3 


code 


u.EGEa:ESZ:tt2 


o a o 


bi 


erage 
ngra 
erage 
ngra 


c3 be 03 


Ui 

bn 


— do 


\% 


Z-. o d 

•3 ■«,■«, 


y 1 

a o o 


c 

■a 














>._ >.- 






E ; 






S ; 

M 1 




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<; < < -< -^ 


< < 




-^ ■< 


-< <1 






■A 1 




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CO 1 1 1 1 


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CO 


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jj o d G d 
a 13 Ts t: 13 


a X) 




o o 

T3 t3 


C o 
0. -o 




coo 




OOO 


OOO 

•o-co 


c 
■n 


03 


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TfTfTj^ I0t0t0»0 CD h* 



198 



V. S. BUREAU OF TISHERIES 



as o 





1 

o 


Temperature of fish entering 
drier, 105° F. 

Spread very thickly on flake. 

Maine herring used in experi- 
ments 134 to 136. 
Spread very thickly on flake. 

Do. 


1 

.s| 

5a 

o'"' 

a 
S 


g 




§ 




§ 




g 




g 


5.2 


§ 




•o 


3.3 

7. 7 
3.9 

8.3 
5.6 
6.6 
7.3 


o 


1 T»< Tf 1 1 cc t^ 03 c^i -"^ 1 uz m ill. 
1 CO cc 1 1 «■ <N e-i CO «■ 1 id 00 . i 1 1 


a 

_o 

c 
8 


Ve- 
loci- 
ty, in 
feet 
per 
min- 
ute 


1,060 

1,060 
1,060 

900 

900 
900 
900 
900 

900 
900 
900 

1,400 
1,400 

1,900 
1,900 
1,900 
1,900 


Vapor 
pressure, 
inches of 
mercury 


0.55 

.87 
.87 


Dew- 
point 
tem- 
pera- 
ture 


61.5 

75 
75.5 


Per 
cent 
rela- 
tive 
hu- 
mid- 
ity 


t^ CDCC 11111 111 II III! 

-ti-n 1 1 1 1 I 111 11 iiii 


Wet- 
bulb 
tem- 
pera- 
ture 


K §§ i i i i 1 iii i i iiii 


Dry- 
bulb 
tem- 
pera- 
ture 


§ 22 i §s§i §HS § § § § 3 S 


» o a 


Grams 
269 

348 
702 

495 

307 
304 
298 
308 

502 
418 
490 

Ounces 
91 

96 

72 
178 

96 
124 


d 

O 


Medium "ovals" 

Large "ovals" 

do-. 

do 

do 

do.. 

Medium "ovals" 

do.... 

do 

Small "ovals"..- 

Medium-small "quar- 
ter-oils." 

Medium-large "quar- 
ter-oils." 
do 

do 

Medium "quarter-oils" 


1 




1923 
Nov. 27 

...do 

-.-do...- 

Dec. 7 

...do-... 

...do 

...do 

...do 

1924 
Jan. 7-.- 
...do..... 
...do 

Apr. 17 
...do 

Aug. 10 
...do 

Aug. 11 
...do..... 




Ex- 
peri- 
ment 

No. 


127b 

128a 
128b 

129a 

130a 
130b 
130e 
130d 

131a 
131b 
131c 

132a 
133a 

134a 
134b 
135a 
136a 



CANNING SARDINES 



199 



Effect of change in ivnter-vapor pressure of the air on the dr^jing rate of raw and 
steamed fish. — Except where inodilied l)y the nature of the material being dehy- 
drated, the rate of drying depends upon tlie difTerence in vapor pressure of the 
Avater vapor at the surfaee of the suhstanee undergoing dryiTig and tluit of the 
water in tlie air."' Tlie larger tiiis ditferenee tlie greater th(> rate of drying 
should i)e. If all other conditions of th(^ experiment are kept constant and tlie 
humidity is increased, this difference in vapor ]iressure will be decreased, and t)y 
comparing the amounts of water removed from the fish an idea will be obtained 
as to the effect of this variation. 

The results obtained from experiments of this nature are given in Table 36. 
They show that there is a tendency for the amount of water removed from raw 
fish to decrease as the vapor pressure of the moisture in the drying air is increased. 
The difTerence in the total amount of moisture removed, however, is quite small, 
even under the rigorous conditions maintained in some of the tests. Only a small 
part of the moisture removed from the fish was free moisture. Evidently the 
difTusion of the combined moisture to the surface is so slow that the increased 
vapor pressure of the drying air has little elTect upon the escape of this moisture 
to it. The experimental evidence is not as complete for steamed fish, but a similar 
tendency is shown. 

Effect of change in air temperature upon the drying rate of rain and steamed fish. — 
Other conditions being equal, an increase in the temperature of the drying air 
brings about an increase in the rate of moisture removal from the fish. This 
conclusion can be drawn from the data given in Table 37. The w^armer the air 
the greater will be the heat transfer from it to the fish in a given time. The 
higher temperature of the fish then causes a more rapid diffusion of water to the 
surface, where it can be removed by the drying air.^- Increases in the tempera- 
ture of the fish are taken up in the following section. 

Table 36. — Effect of change in water-vapor pressure of the air upon the drying rate 
of raw and steamed California pilchards" 

RAW FISH 



Experiment No. 


Vapor 
pressure 

in 
inches of 
mercury 




Per cent loss in 


weight (time in minutes) 


15 


30 


CO 


90 


120 


95a... ... 


0.38 
.(59 
.32 
.00 
.44 
.79 

1.13 
.27 
.50 
.83 
.44 

0.44-1.5 

.52 

.52 

. 52-1. 33 

. 53-1. 42 






4.7 
4.5 
5.0 
5.1 
4.4 
4.2 

4.3 

4.8 
4.5 
4.5 
5.3 

4.4 






95b 










101b ... 








7 


lOlc 








7 


104a 




3.2 


5.2 
5.1 

5.0 
5.8 
5.3 
5.2 


6 


104b'' . 




6 


1040* . 




3.3 
3.8 
3.4 
3.5 


5 8 


105a 




6 5 


]05b .. _ 




6 3 


105^ _ 




5 7 


108a 






108b <* 










lU9a 




3.9 
3.5 
3.1 
3.5 






109c 










109d« 










109b' 
















1 




STEAMED 


FISH 






li2e . 


0.62 
1.98 
.36 
1.29 
2.04 






14. 5 


20.4 
19.8 
17.8 
16.8 
18.6 






112d 


9.4 
9.4 
9.2 


13.9 
12.9 






114a 






114b 






114c 


13.2 













" All other variables were constant in each e.\periment. There may be great variation, however, between 
various e.xperiments. 

<• Experiments 104b and 104c were begun at the same vapor pressure, which was increased gradually within 
30 minutes to given value. 

"■ Experiment 105c was begun at 0..33 vapor pressure, which was increased gradually within 30 minutes to 
the value indicated. 

<' Vapor pressure for 108b was as follows: Beginning, 0.44; 12 minutes, 0.89; 27 minuter, 1.1; 37 minutes, 
1.50. The increase was gradual. 

' Experiments )09d and 109b were begun with a vapor pressure of 0.52 and were then increased to the values 
indicated. Condensation upon the fish was prevented by keeping the dew-point temperature of the air 
always a little lower than the temperature of the fish. 



"I This is shown to be true in the papers referred to in the footnote on p. 120. 

"2 Increased diffusion, due to temperature changes in the object being dried, is discussed by Lewis and 
Carrier in the papers referred to in the footnote on p. 120. 



200 



U. S. BITREAU OF FISHERIES 



Table 37. — Effect of change in air temperature upon the drying rate of raw and 
steamed California pilchards ' 



RAW FISH 





Vapor 
pressure 
in inches 
of mer- 
cury 


Temper- 
ature, 
°F. 




Per cent loss in weight (time in minutes) 




Experiment No. 


10 


15 


20 


30 


60 


120 


91a 


0.34 
.47 
.52 

.52 

.32 
.45 
.60 

.33 
.30 

.35 
.49 

.71 

.39 

.55 
.74 

.35 
.39 

.31 
.33 
.32 
.60 

.44 
.45 

.40 
.55 
.55 
.73 

. 52 
!52 
.52 
.52 

.76 
.70 
.70 
.76 

..56 
.52 
.67 

.45 
.50 

.45 
.60 
.50 

.60 
.50 
.47 
.62 


90 
102 
110 
120 

90 
100 

no 

92 
120 

90 
100 
112 

95 
105 

no 

90 
95 

71 
95 
115 
115 

95 
115 

95 
105 
105 
115 

115 
115 
150 
150 

149 
150 
106 
175 

96 
110 
162 

90 
110 

90 
100 

no 

100 

no 

140 
164 










3.8 
4.6 
4.0 
4.0 

5.3 
4.5 

4.7 

3.9 
4.4 

4.4 
4.6 
4.7 

4.3 
4.3 
4.6 

4.2 
4.2 

3.6 
4.6 
5.0 
5. 1 

4.9 

5.4 

4.2 
4.5 
4.7 

4.7 




91b 












91c 












91 d 












93a 












93b 












93c 












94a 












94b 












98a 












98b 












98c 












99c 












99b 2 












99a 2 












100a 












100b 












lOld 












101a 












101b 












101c 












102 b 








3.0 
3.9 

3.1 
3.2 
3.5 
3.4 

2.6 
2.6 
3.5 
3.1 


0.8 


102a 








8 5 


103a 








5.9 


103b 




1...: 


0.2 


103c 








6.6 


103d 3 








7.8 


llOe 










llOd 












110a 












11 Ob 












111c 


3.3 

3.5 
2.9 
3.9 

5.4 
6.0 
10.9 










Hid 












Ilia 












111b 












122a 




8.0 
11.2 


10.2 
14.0 






1 22b 








122c 








123b 


4.0 
5.1 

0.9 
8.1 
9.4 

3.8 
5.1 
7.0 
7.0 




5.7 
7.4 

10.5 
11.3 
13.0 

0.5 
7.9 






123a 










124a 










124c 










124b 










125b 










125a 










125d 










125c 

























1 All other variables except the vapor pressure were constant in each experiment. In Table 30 it was 
shown that an increase in the vapor pressure tends to lower the drying rate slightly. The vapor pressures 
in these experiments increase with the temperature; they therefore tend to prevent an increase in the 
amount of water removed by air at higher temperatures. 

2 In experiments 99a and 99b the fish entered the drier at a temperature below the dew-point tempera- 
ture of the air. Drying in the.se runs, therefore, w;ks slackened somewhat, due to condensation on the fish. 

3 In experiment 103d the fish entered the drier at a temperature below the dew-point temperature of 
the air. Drying, therefore, was slackened somewhat, due to condensation on the fish. 



CANNING SARDINES 



201 



Tablk 37. — Effect of change in iiir teinpcratarc upon the drying role of raw and 
steamed California pilchards — Continued 



STEAMED FISH 





Vapor 
pressure 
in inches 
of mer- 
cury 


Temper- 
ature, 
°F. 


Per cent loss in weight (time in minutes) 


Exi>erinient No. 


10 


15 


20 


30 


60 


120 


112a 


0.45 
.60 

1.10 
.62 

.45 
1.10 
2.44 

.44 
.74 


90 
100 
120 
166 

93 
120 
166 

92 
110 
130 




6.8 
7.0 

8.5 




9.5 
9.3 
11.0 
14.5 

9.8 
11.7 
12.8 

12.3 
13.7 
12.2 


13.0 
12.7 




112b 








112c 








112e 






20.4 

13.0 
16.3 
17.2 

17.8 
18.4 
17.4 




113a _ 




7.5 
8.5 
9.0 

9.1 
10.1 
9.2 






113b 








113c 








115a 








115b 








115c 

















I 



Effect of change in air velocity upon the drying rate of raw and steamed fish. — Data 
indicating the nature of the change in the drying rate of the fish, due to increased 
air velocity, are given in Table 38. It will be seen that increasing the air velocity 
brings al)out only a small increase in the moisture loss. Lewis, and also Carrier, 
in the Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemi.stry (see footnote, p. 120), 
show that where the rate of diffusion of moisture within an object, to the surface, 
is slow increased air velocity has little effect in increasing moisture removal other 
than that increase that is brought about by greater heat transfer from the air 
to the object at the higher velocity. This undoubtedly explains the experimental 
results. 

Change in drying rate of raw and steamed fish xvith respect to lime. — In Table 39 
an analysis is made of the data from various experiments, indicating the nature 
of the change in the drying rate with respect to time. It will be seen that the 
rate of moisture removal at first is relatively rapid, after which it slows down to a 
more or less uniform rate. This, of course, covers only the range of time investi- 
gated. During the first interval of time the free moisture on the surface of the 
fish and the most accessible combined moisture is removed. Following this 
the only water removed is that which reaches the surface by the relatively slow 
process of diffusion. 

Table 38. — Effect of change in air velocity upon the drying rate of raw California 

pilchards 



Experiment 
number 


Velocity 
in feet 

per 
minute 


Per cent loss in weight 
(time in minutes) 


Experiment 
number 


Velocity 
in feet 

per 
minute 


Per cent loss in weight 
(time in minutes) 


30 


60 


90 


30 


60 


90 


97c 


110 
429 
667 
308 
656 
1,075 
255 


........ 

5.5 
6.5 
4.1 


2.5 
4.1 
4.9 
7.4 
9.0 
10.2 
6.7 




117a 


638 
952 
575 
575 
968 
968 


5.9 
5.3 
6.1 
6.1 
6.7 
6.7 


9.1 
8.3 
9.7 
9.2 
10.3 
10.3 


U. 6 


97b 




n7c 


10.7 


97a 




118b 




116b 




118c 




116c 




118a 




116a 




118d 




117b 


9.0 







202 



U. S. BUREAU OF TISHERIES 



Table 39. — Change in drying rale oj raw California pilchards with respect to time 
[Average difference for experiments included] 





Experiments included 


Intervals of time 


Length of 
intervals, 
minutes 




First 


Second 


Third 


Fourth 


102-106 --- 


3.4 

8.8 
5.2 


1.2 
3.2 
2.8 


0.9 

2.7 
2.1 


1.0 
2.0 
2.0 


30 


112-115 


15 


119-120 - - 


15 







Effect of fish size upon the drying rate. — The data given in Table 40 plainly show 
(when considered as a whole) that large fish lose their moisture more slowly than 
small ones when dried under identical conditions. 

Temperature rise in fish being dried. — Numerous data upon the temperature 
rise in fish undergoing drying were obtained during the course of the experiments. 
These are given in Table 41. The temperatures were obtained by placing the 
bulb of a thermometer about one-eighth of an inch under the skin of a fish at 
its thickest part. The fish was then kept in the path of the drying air. Readings 
were taken from the stem of the thermometer, which extended through the 
drier housing. 

Table 40. — Effect of fish size upon the drying rate.^ 





Average 
weight of 

individ- 
ual fish in 
grams 


Per cent loss in weight (time 


in minutes) 


Experiment No. 


10 


15 


20 
11.2 


30 


45 


60 


122b 


11 
18 
19 
31 
38 

39 
40 
44 
55 
59 

72 
90 
92 
92 
96 

99 
101 
111 
112 


6.6 


""""9.4 


14.0 
13.0 
10.6 
7.9 
8.1 

7.4 
10.1 
8.6 
8.8 
8.1 

6.3 
7.1 
7.7 
6.7 
6.8 

6.7 
7.0 
5.3 
6.5 






124b 






121b - - 






125a 




5. 1 




! 


121a - - - - - 






123a 




5.1 
7.3 
6.0 
5.5 
5.0 

4.0 
4.2 
5.0 








119a . - - --- 


12.7 
10.9 
11.0 
10.0 

8.2 
8.5 
10.0 

""""8.'9' 


14.8 


120c- 


13.0 


120a 


12.9 


119b ..- 


12.0 


120d 


10.4 


120b - 


10.7 


119e 


11.6 


118a - - - 


10.3 


119c 










118d 








10.3 


119d - 




4.5 




10.7 


117c 


8.3 


116a . _ - . - . 








10.2 













' All other variables were constant, except for small, negligible variations in vapor pressure, 
however, in addition to differences in weights, were, in a number of cases, from different lots. 



The fish. 



CANNING SARDINES 203 

Table 41. — Temperature rise in fish being dried 





Size of fish 


Air 
tein- 
pcrn- 
ture 
° F. 


Air 
veloc- 
ity in 
feet 
per 
min- 
ute 


Temperature iu ° F. (time in minutes)' 


Exprriimnit 
No. 


Start 


5 


10 


15 


20 


30 


45 


60 


90 


120 


93a 

93b.. 

93c 

Feb. 2, 1923...- 


Large "ovals". 

do 

do..... 

do 

do 

do 


90 
100 
110 
120 

92 
120 
100 
100 

95 
105 
116 
116 

105 
95 
90 
95 

90 
95 
95 
95 

115 
115 
71 

95 
105 
115 

105 
105 
105 

115 
115 
150 
150 

90 
110 
162 

190 
200 

275 


174 
174 
174 
174 

174 
174 
174 
174 

673 
6.53 
641 
641 

627 
619 
619 
649 

619 
649 
632 
617 

618 
618 
615 

602 
616 
580 

588 
610 
602 

613 

587 
623 
623 

1,000 
1,000 
1,111 

900 
900 

2,000 


56 
58 
64 
66 

56 
60 
57 
70 

75.2 
75.2 
75.2 
00.8 

59 
59 
61 
61 

75 
75 
62 
62 

64 
64 
65 

60 
61 
62 

62 
62 
63 

.55. 4 
62 
63 
63 

66 
68 
73 

62 
63 

70 






05 
69 
75 
82 




70.5 
76 


76.5 
80 


80 
86 
99 
106 

77 
107 
85 
91.5 

89.6 
98.6 
109.4 
93.2 

95 

87.8 

78 

88 

80 

88 
86 
85 


























63 


92.5 
67 


101 














94b 












()5a 


do 

do... 

do... 

do 










76 








t'ib 






78 








Feb 14 1923 
















Do 


















Do 


do.. 

do 

Medium large 

"ovals" 

do 


















Do 


















99b 






















99c 


















100a 


do 


















100b 


do-... 

do 


















Feb 16 1923 


















Do 


do 




















do 


















Do 


do 




















do..-.. 

do 








94 








112 


















110 


lOld 


do 














68 

90 
100 
109 

97 
99 






103a 


Large "ovals", 
do 










80 




92 
102 
112 

101 
101 
102 


93 


103b 










ia3 


103d 


do.— 










100 

88 
90 
94 




112 


104a 


do 

do— 
























104c 


do 










im 


108b 


do 

do 












109.4 














88 








110a 


do 


70 

75 
85 
110 

'io4' 


84 
80 

79 
93 
125 

110 
132 

210 


96 
92 

83 
98 












110b 


do 














122a 


Small " quar- 
ter oils" 

do 


85 
100 


88 
100 














122b 










122c 


do 










Nov. 27, 1923.. 


Medium 
"ovals" 

Small "ovals". 

Medium "quar- 
ter oils" 






158 
180 




176 






Dec 3 1923 


154 
220 


)67 






Sept. 26, 1924.. 

























• Taken about 14 inch under skin at the thickest part of body ("cut" fish used). 

NEW PROCESS FOR PREPARING THE FISH 

Detailed data on the various experiments carried out on California pilchards 
[and Maine herring are given in Table 42. 



204 



U. S. BUEEAXJ OF MSHEKIES 



CO O 



a' 



•15> <» 











3 

"3 

Ut 

a 
O 


New process produced 
as good a pack as fry- 
ing in oil; tendency 
shown for flake marks 
to mar appearance of 
fish; blast of cool air 
cooled fish so that 
they could be packed 
soon after being 
cooked. 


Cooking in humid air 
gave about same re- 
sults as when dry air 
was used. 


New process produced 
better pack, due to 
absence of bad effects 
from frying in oil; 
skins marred some by 
process; cooking 30 
minutes at 200°, plus 
standing in air over- 
night, removed about 
as much water from 
the fish as 60 minutes' 
cooking and drying 
did. 










T3 

a 
a 

C3 

a 

°2 

II 

a 


Very good; no different 
from 168 except sauce 
less liquid. 

Very good 




Good; physical condi- 
tion comparable to 173, 
except for flake marks; 
better than 174 be- 
cause of absence of fry- 
bath oil. 

Same, firmer than 169... 

About same as 170 

About 8 cubic centime- 
ters liquid in can. 
Good 




P-i B-^ 


2 S 




Ol O .^ C^ CO 




C3 
■^ 

•a 

bO 

a 

B 
B 

g 

■a 

B 

C3 

b£ 

a 
3 

c£ 
a 
S, 

Q 


1 


Fish in excellent shape; 

cooked as well as fried 

fish; skins showed flake 

marks. 
Commercial fried pack 

put up by regular can- 

ner. 


During cooking humidity 
was run up almost to the 
saturation point by 
turning steam into the 
air; fish about the same 
as in 137a. 


Fish in excellent shape but 
tended to stick to flake, 
which was quite dirty. 

Good; flake marks well de- 
fined on skins; some 
skins broken. 
do 

Same, canned without 
sauce. 

Commercial fried pack 


■» 

a 

u 

I2 

bo 

"§? 

O.Q 

O 


i^B-ei 


Ol 1 
Ci 1 


■^ 


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to 


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I .i: 3 1 1 I 

1 <; ; 1 ; 


a 
1 

< 


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dnggg 


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00 00 r^' CO 1 




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CO 1 1 1 1 

a d o o o 

Q ; ; ; i 






«ii 


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CO CO CO CO CO 


03 

O 



CANNING SAEBTNES 



205 



>>^ © ""3 A =^o 2 

•^ «S.S g.E'~.S 

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■i* S m '" o 41 2 

s £ i =: §-§5:^ ? =^ 



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206 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



s.S 
^o 

il 

Si. s 

I 

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S "^ 









t*q 





M 


lil sar- 
ed by 

high- 
process- 

more 
h than 
re proc- 


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03 

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■c— .s 

£9° 

at. a 






,ir tem- 
greater 
weight, 
s being 




"3 


2§=« -ScS 






he higher the a 
perature the 
was the loss in ' 
other condition 
equal. 




"3 
a 


ood quarte 
dines prod 
new procei 
temperature 
ing remov 
water from 
low-tempera 
essing did. 


ill 










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g 


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"So 

Si 
gp. 

s 


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ery good; 8 

centimeters 

can. 

ery good; 01 

cubic cent 

water in ca 


ppearance 
very good; 
water in ca 
ot as good 
bath oil pr 










K 


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CANNTNa BARDTNES 



207 



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go 
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208 



U. S. BUREAtT OF FISHERIES 





1 

•g 

a 

0) 

O 


Temperature of 300° in- 
stead of 200° removes 
moisture from flsh 
much more rapidly; 
thirty minutes at 300° 
evidently too long; a 
good flow of cool air 
cooled flsh suflTiciently 
for packing in 15 min- 
utes; high air temper- 
ature increased ten- 
dency of fish to stick 
to flake. 


The higher the temper- 
ature (other condi- 
tions equal), the more 
moisture was removed 

frnm the fish- .•?9<J° for 


III 

u^-^a 

^ 03 03 


Other conditions equal, 
the higher the velocity 
the greater the mois- 
ture loss. 








to 

a 
a 

g 

o o 

If 

•g 






PL, a-" 






1 

tan 

a 
a 

a 

a 
a 

t£ 

a 
§ 

o 
t£ 
a 
'>> 

Q 


1 
o 


Physical condition good; 
skins browned some- 
what; stuck badly to 
flakes. 
do 

Physiail condition good; 
stuck somewhat to flakes. 

Physical condition good; 
stuck somewhat to flake, 
but hardly at all to 
woven-wire belting. 

Good; would make a good 
pack; probably would be 
better to remove more 
water from the flsh. 


[The higher the tempera- 
ture the more tendency 

J for the fish to crack, turn 
brown, and stick to the 
flake; bad at 392°; not 
bad at 329°. 


Good; not as well cooked 

as 158b and 158c. 
Tendency to darken and 

stick to flake shown. 
Tendency more p r o - 

nounced than in 158b 

yet etlects not serious. 


Total 

per 

cent 

loss in 

weight 


1 00 ' 1 > J 

1 cq 1 1 1 J 




C3 

o 


15 minutes, air 78°.. 

15 minutes, air 80°.. 
do. 

do 

do 




Per 

cent 

loss in 

weight 


2,5.3 
20.5 

18.8 
12.3 


4.2 

16.4 
20.0 


9.7 
13.7 
14.4 


Time 

in 
min- 
utes 


g §S 2 S 


lO »C lO 


lO L-^ lO 


Air 
ve- 
locity 
in feet 
per 
min- 
ute 


1,400 

1,400 
1,400 

1,400 
1,400 


1,000 

1,000 
1,000 


600 
1,400 
2,000 


Air 
tem- 
pera- 
ture, 

°F. 


8 SS 2 2 


ci con 


c5 S c3 

CO CC CO 


.a 
.2 


Large, fat 

do 

do 

do 

do... 


> 

" o 


d 
"^1 






1924 
Feb. 15 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 


00 


d 


...do 

...do 

...do 




Ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


03 X; o -O m 

CO CD CD «0 O 


■5 S 


o 

2 


158a 
158b 
158c 



CANNING SARDINES 



209 



>>'o t^'^ *=5 

5; O C _^ 

'" -_ -^ "^ Iri 

££^'* "3 

o u S '^ t: o 

!£ u CbcCra a. 



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<i quart 
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pid anr 
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dirty fl 


ti o 




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th 

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red w 
juice 
h, an 
sticki 
d. 

nditio 
tickin 


11 

3.n 


akes cove 
oil and 
marred fis 
was some 
looked goo 
xcellent co 
clean; no s 


H 


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CANNING SARDINES 219 

SUMMARIZED SPECIFICATIONS FOR EQUIPMENT 

Equipment for carrj-ing out the process should meet the following require- 
ments: 

OPERATING CONDITIONS 

Air velocity. — For cooking and cooling, 2,000 to 2,200 feet per minute through- 
out the free spaces over and under the fish, when operated at capacity and at 
average working temperature. 

Air temperature. — For cooking, desired possible variation in entering air, 
200° to 100°; permissible drop in temperature, operating at desired velocity 
and capacity, 50° to 75°; average working temperature, 300° for California 
pound-oval fish and 275° for Maine quarter-oil fish. For cooUng, assume 
outdoor air to he at a maximum temperature of 80°. 

Air quantity. — For cooking, sufficient to meet the conditions specified above, 
and for cooling, enough to cool the fish to 85°. 

Time. — Above requirements are based on the fish being in the cooker 15 
minutes and for the same length of time in the cooler, and that the flakes or 
trucks are handled as specified below. Speed of conveyer handling trucks or 
individual flakes to be under control, so that the time when the fish are in the 
cooker and cooler can be varied, as desired, from 10 to 30 minutes. 

Water to he evaparated. — For equipment to prepare California pound-oval fish 
assume a 16 per cent loss in weight, due to evaporation, with a maximum weight 
of 2.4 pounds of fish per square foot of flake surface, or 15 pounds per flake. 
For Maine quarter-oil fish assume a 25 per cent loss, with a maximum weight 
of 1.3 pounds per square foot, or 8.125 pounds per flake (this corresponds to a 
16 per cent loss from three-quarters mustard fish flaking 2 pounds per square 
foot. 

Other factors. — Recommendations given in regard to the following items on 
the pages indicated are to be followed: 
Heating air, page 146. 

Recirculation of air and control of humidity, page 143. 
Continuous cooking, cooling, and packing equipment, pages 141 to 151, 

and equipment using trucks, pages 151 to 154. 
Conveying single flakes, page 147. 
Drip pans, page 143. 

As far as practicable, all parts of the equipment should be fireproof and well 
insulated, according to the usual practice for high-temperature installations. 

ESTIMATE OF EQUIPMENT AND FUEL REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARING 
CALIFORNIA POUND-OVAL FISH 

CONTINUOUS COOKING AND COOLING UNIT 

Quantity offish to be handled. — Five tons per hour of "round," small to medium 
pound-oval pilchards, the "cut" portion only to be cooked. 

Number of flakes required. — Data used: Fish in cooker, 15 minutes and same 
time in cooler; "cut" portion, 66 per cent of "round" weight; weight of "cut" 
fish per sc^uare foot of flake surface, 2 pounds, or 12.5 pounds per 30 by 30 inch 

flake; weight of fish in cooker at one time is 0.66X j or 1,650 pounds, and 

the number of flakes is ^2 5 ' o^ 132. Same number of flakes required for 

cooling. 

Heat required by cooker. — Calculations made on a per-hour basis. Data used: 
Temperature of fish, flakes, and other ironwork entering cooker, 50°; leaving, 
300° for all iron and 220° for the fish (their temperature goes no higher) ; weight 
of flakes, 9 pounds each; weight of flake carrier and chain required for each carrier, 
28 pounds; specific heat of iron, 0.13, and of water vapor at 300°, 0.47; specific 
heat of fish, 0.8; latent heat of evaporation of water at 212°, 970 B. t. u.; maxi- 
mum weight of fish, 2.4 pounds per square foot of flake surface, or 15 pounds per 
flake, with a 16 per cent loss in weight due to evaporation. For calculating 
heat loss from cooker housing, it is assumed that the housing is 12.5 feet high, 
3.5 feet wide, and 36 feet long, outside dimensions (1,152 square feet of exposed 
surface, not including ends) with a loss of 0.5 B. t. u. per square foot per hour 



220 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

per degree difference in temperature between the inside and outside of cooker, 
the temperature gradient being 300° less 50°, or 250°. Heat required for 
heating the iron, 4X132X37X250X0.13, or 634,920 B. t. u.; for heating the fish 
4X132X15X170X0.8, or 1,077,120 B. t. u.; for evaporating water and heat- 
ing the evaporated water from 220 to 300°, 4X132X15X0.16X970, phis 
4X132X15X0.16XcS0X0.47, or 1,276,830 B. t. u.; and for loss through cooker 
housing 1,152X0.5X250, or 144,000 B. t. u.; giving a total of 3,132,870 B. t. u. 
Air supply required for cooker. — Data used: Temperature of air entering cooker, 
337.5°; drop in cooker, 75°; and cubic feet of dry air required to give one B. t. u. 
in dropping 1° at 300°, 78.5. (An equal volume of water vapor at 300° and 
atmospheric pressure gives up about the same amount of heat in dropping 1°. 
It is about half as heavy as dry air, but its specific heat is twice as large. The 
amount of water vapor in the air, tlierefore, is not considered in these api^roxi- 

, 1 ^- X .• • J • 3,132,870X78.5 o o^n .^^■. u- r ^ 

mate calculations.) Air required is yr > or 3,279,071 cubic feet 

per hour, or 54,651 cubic feet per minute. 

Size of cooker required. — Assume that the flakes pass from one end of the tun- 
nel to the other twelve times, six times in each direction; that the tunnel is 3 feet 
wide and 12 feet high, inside dimensions, giving a cross section of 36 square feet; 
and that the flakes, fish, chains, flake carriers, and drip pans take up 8.5 square 
feet, leaving 27.5 square feet, or 76.4 per cent of the total cross section free area. 
This free area will handle 55,000 cubic feet of air per minute at a velocity of 2,000 
feet per minute. In each of the 12 runs there must be 11 flakes. A tunnel 36 
feet long will handle this number of flakes easily. 

Amount of air to he recirculated. — Data used: Volume of 1 pound of water 
vapor at 300° and atmospheric pressure, 42 cubic feet. Maximum amount of 
water to be removed from the fish per hour is 4X132X15X0.16, or 1,267.2 
pounds. Under the assumed conditions, this is 1,267.2X42, or 53,222 cubic feet 
of vapor. If the water-vapor content of the air passing through the cooker 
should be allowed to build up to 20 per cent by volume, or 655,814 cubic feet, 
but 8. 1 per cent would have to be discarded to remove the water vapor as rapidly 
as it collects. At least 90 per cent, and undoubtedly more, can be recirculated 
without difficulty. 

Total heat required. — It is assumed that heat losses through housing for intake 
and recirculation ducts, furnace, blower, and other parts of equipment, is twice 
the amount for the cooker housing — 2X144,000, or 288,000 B. t. u. — and that 
10 per cent of the air that leaves the cooker is discarded, plus an additional 
5 per cent to care for other losses. An approximate value for the heat lost in 
discarding 15 per cent of the air is obtained as follows: Assume the loss to be 15 
per cent of the air supply required at 300°, the specific heat of air to be 0.24, the 
volume of air per pound at 300° to be 19.1 cubic feet, and that the air had been 

heated from 50° to 300°. This heat loss, then, is 0.15X^^^y^X0.24X250, or 

1,545,112 B. t. u. This value, plus the conduction loss given above (288,000 
B. t. u.), plus the heat required for the cooker (3,132,870 B. t. u.), is 4,965,982 
B. t. u. 

Fuel required. — It is assumed that fuel oil weighing 7.9 pounds per gallon and 
having a calorific value of 18,500 B. t. u. per pound is used, and that 80 per cent 

4 965 982 
conversion is effected in the furnace. Oil required is iQcnoyn q ==335.5 pounds, 

or 42.4 gallons per hour. The fish wiU give at least 22 cases per ton, or 110 

42 4 
cases for the 5 tons cooked. ^^ Fuel oil per case is -tJk or 0.385 gallon. To be 

safe, it is assumed 0.5 gallon per case is required. 

Fuel required for preparing the fish by the frying-in-oil process. — Calculations 
are made on a per-hour basis. It is assumed that the amount of heat required 
per pound of fish dried is 190 B. t. u. (data for drier. B, Table 9, p. 125) ; that an 
additional 8.5 per cent loss in the original weight of the "cut" fish takes place 
in the fry bath, due to evaporation of water; that the fish enter the oil at 100° 
and leave at 220°; and that 50 per cent of the heat units in the fuel are utilized 
(a high figure for cannerv practice). The heat required for drving the "cut" 
portion (66 per cent of the "round" weight) of 5 tons of fish is 10,600X0.66X 190, 
or 1,254,000 B. t. u.; for evaporating water is 10,000X0.66X0.085X970, or 

" A ton of good-ciuality "round" fi.sh .should give about 1,320 pounds of "cut" fish, and at least 1,082 
pounds of fish ready for the can. Allowing 15 ounces of prepared fish per can (a high figure), the yield 
is 1,154 cans, or 24 cases. 



CANNING SARDINES 221 

544,170 B. t. u.; for hejitiuR the fish is 10, ()00X0.()6X 120X0. S, or 633,600 

B. t. u.; giving a total of 2,431, 770 B. i. u. Fuel required is ,4^1 ^','/, "g ^ 262.9 

IojQUUX 0.0 
33 3 
pounds, or 33.3 gallons per hour. The fuel oil per case is Vik- or 0.303 gallons. 

This is 79 per cent of the fuel required for the new process. In this calculation, 
however, no account is taken of the large heat losses that take place in the frj'ing 
vat. 

Heat to be removed by cooler. — ^Data used: Temperature of fish entering cooler 
220° and of all iron 300°; weight of fish, 13.5 pounds per flake (90 per cent of 
weight entering cooker); temperature of fish and iron leaving cooler, 85°; and 
the specific heat of air 0.24, and of iron, 0.13. The heat to be removed per hour 
from the iron is 4X132X37X215X0.13, or 546,031 B. t. u., and from the fish 
4X132X13.5X135X0.8, or 769,824 B. t. u., giving a total of 1,315,855 B. t. u. 

Air required for cooling. — It is assumed that the cooler is the same in size as 
the cooker; that the flakes pass from one end to the other 12 times, as in the 
cooker, that the 12 lines of flakes are evenly spaced from top to bottom, with 
partitions to prevent the air passing over one line from mi.xing with that of the 
ne.xt; that the free area is the sam3 (27.5 scjuare feet) as in the cross section of 
the cooker, with the same air velocity, only at an entering temperature of 80°; 
that at 80°, 56.2 cubic feet of dry air will take up 1 B. t. u. in being heated 1°; 
and that the average rise in temperature of the air passing over the different lines 
of flakes is 25°. Under these conditions the quantity of air passing through the 
cooler is sufficient, as is shown by the following calculations: Air passing 
through the cooler is 27.5X2,000X60, or 3,300,000 cubic feet per hour. This 

much air takes up, in rising 25°, ' -„ ' — X25, or 1,467,971 B. t. u. The amount 

that must be removed is 1,315,855 B. t. u. 

Packing space. — It is assumed that each packer will pack 43^ cases of "oval" 
fish per hour; that 2 feet of space is required for each packer; that 6 feet of 
free space should be left between the cooler and first packer and between last 
packer and where the flakes are elevated to the upper level; and that 22 cases 
per ton of small to medium "ovals," prepared, will be obtained, or 110 cases 

per hour. Number of packers required is ^--r = 25. Space, however, should be 

allowed for 5 additional packers as a safety measure. Space required is 30 X 
2 = 60 feet, or 30 feet, since they work on both sides of the moving flakes. Total 
space required, then, is 30 + 6 + 6 = 42 feet. 

Total weight conveyed. — It is assumed that each flake carrier takes up 2.75 
feet (33 inches) of lineal space; that each carrier weighs S pounds and each 
flake 9 pounds; that the cliain required for each flake weighs 20 pounds; and 
that the amount of fish per flake is 15 pounds. Number of flakes on conveyer 

42 + 42 + 24 
is 132 in cooker, 132 in cooler, outside on conveyer o^t^ = 40; giving a 

total of 304, of which 14, it is assumed, will have no fish on them. Total weight, 
then, is 290X (8 + 9 + 20+ 15) + 14 (8 + 9 + 20) = 15,598 pounds. Total chain 
required is 2X304X2.75=1,672 feet. 

Space occupied by unit. — Total length is about 100 feet, 40 feet of the length 
being 25 feet wide, 35 feet long, and 10 feet wide, and the rest 7 feet wide, including 
space for packers on both sides of conveyer. Height is 27 feet. 

COOKING UNIT USING TRUCKS 

The following calculations apply to a unit using trucks, including only a cooker 
to handle 5 tons of fish under the same conditions as given above. The flakes, 
heat, air, and fuel required are assumed to be the same as given in the above 
calculations. 

Number of trucks required. — It is assumed that each truck is 6 feet high and 
that 15 flakes, each taking 4 inches of space, are placed on each truck. Number 
of trucks needed is 9. 

Size oj cooking tunnel. — It is assumed that each truck is 6 feet high and 32 
inches square; that the trucks are spaced 6 inches apart in the tunnel; that 6 
inches of space are required in the tunnel above the trucks for the conveyer; 
and that the tunnel used is similar to the one shown in Figure 28, p. 152. Length 

1 "^ ^i/ f^O -1— f\^ 

of tunnel, then, including vestibules, is , ^ ' or 41 feet 2 inches. Height 



222 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

is 6 feet 6 inches. The width can bo approximated as follows: About 27.5 
square feet of free area for passage of the required amount of air is needed. If 
it is assumed that 50 per cent of the cross section occupied t^y the truck (top of 
tunnel to bottom) is free area, this amounts to 2.67X6.5X0.5, or 8.7 square feet. 
There must be provided, then, on the sides of the trucks, 18.8 square feet of free 

18 8 
area. Since the tunnel is 6.5 feet high, this amounts to ~n-r, or 2.80 feet of 

width. The baffles hinder air movement somewhat, so let it be assumed that the 
tunnel must be 3.5 feet wider than the trucks, or 6 feet 2 inches in all, inside 
dimensions. The free area should be spaced equally on both sides of the trucks. 
The outside dimensions of the tunnel are about 42 feet by 6 feet 8 inches by 7 
feet high. 

Space occupied by unit. — Total length is about 42 feet, width about 30 feet, 
and height 8 feet. 

ESTIMATE OF EQUIPMENT AND FUEL REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARING 
MAINE QUARTER-OIL AND THREE-QUARTERS MUSTARD FISH 

COOKING UNIT USING INDIVIDUAL FLAR-E CARRIERS 

Quantity of fish to be handled.— Three hogsheads (3,600 pounds) of "round," 
quarter-oil fish on the flakes, or 4 hogsheads (4,800 pounds) if the "cut" portion 
only is cooked. 

Number of flakes required for cooker. — Data used: Fish in cooker 15 minutes; 
weight of fish per square foot of surface 1 pound, or 6.25 pounds per 30 by 30 

inch flake. Flakes required, MX /. ^^. = 144. 

Heat required by cooker. — Calculations made on a per-hour basis. Data used: 
Temperature of fish, flakes, and other ironwork entering cooker 40°, leaving 275° 
for all ironwork and 220° for the fish; weight of flakes 9 pounds each and of carrier 
and chains for each flake 23 pounds; specific heat of iron 0.13, of water vapor 
at 275°, 0.47, and of fish 0.8; latent heat of evaporation of water at 212°, 970 
B. t. u.; maximum weight of fish to be handled, 2 poimds per square foot of flake 
surface, or 12.5 pounds per flake. However, for calculating the heat required 
for evaporating water, a maximum weight of 1.3 pounds per square foot of flake 
surface, or 8.125 pounds per flake, with a 25 per cent loss in weight due to evapora- 
tion, is assumed; and for calculating heat loss from cooker housing it is assumed 
that the housing is 11.5 feet high, 3.5 feet wide, and 38 feet long, outside dimen- 
sions (1,140 square feet of exposed surface, not including ends), with a loss of 
0.5 B. t. u. per square foot per hour per degree difference in temperature between 
the air inside and outside of the cooker, the temperature gradient being 275°, 
less 40°, or 235°. 

Heat required for heating the iron is 4X144X32X235X0.13, or 563,098 
B. t. u.; for heating the fish, 4X144X12.5X180X0.8, or 1,036,800 B. t. u.; for 
evaporating water and heating the evaporated water from 220 to 275°, 4X144X 
8.125X0.25X970, plus 4X144X8.125X0.25X55X0.47, or 1,165,144 B. t. u.; 
and for loss through cooker housing, 1,140X0.5X235, or 133,950 B. t. u.; giving 
a total of 2,898,992 B. t. u. 

Air supply required for cooker. — Data used: Temperature air entering cooker, 
312.5°; drop in cooker, 75°; and cubic feet dry air required to give one B. t. u. 

in dropping 1° at 275°, 76. Air required is -' -^ > or 2,937,645 cubic 

feet per hour, or 48,961 cubic feet per miiuite. 

Size of cooker required. — It is assumed that the flakes pass from one end of the 
tunnel to the other 12 times — 6 times in each direction; that the tunnel is 3 feet 
wide and 11 feet high, inside dimensions, giving a cross section of 33 square feet; 
and that the flakes, fish, chains, flake carriers, and drip pans take up 8 square 
feet, leaving 25 square feet, or 75.8 per cent of the total cross section, free area. 
This free area will handle 50,000 cubic feet of air per minute at a velocity of 
2,000 feet per minute. In each of the 12 runs there will have to be 12 flakes. A 
tunnel 38 feet long will handle this niunber of flakes easily. 

Amount of air to be recirculated. — It is assumed to be at least 90 per cent. A 
similar calculation to that given on page 220 will show this to be true. 

Total heat required. — It is assumed that heat losses through housing for intake 
and recirculation ducts, furnace, blower, and other parts of equipment is twice 
the amount for the cooker housing — 2X133,950, or 267,900 B. t, u.; and that 



CANNING SARDINES 223 

10 per ccu\ of fho air leaving llio cooker is (Hscarclcd, plus an additional 5 per 
cent to eare for other losses. An api>ro\iniate value for the heat lost in dis- 
carding 1.5 per cent of the air is obtained as follows: Assume the loss to be 15 
per cent of the air supply required at 275°, tlie specific heat of air to be 0.24, the 
volume of air per pound at 275° to be 18.3 cubic feet, and that the air had been 

heated from 40 to 275°. The heat loss, then, is 0.15 X-^^'|-X 0.24X235, or 

1,358,059 B. t. u. This value, plus the conduction loss given above, (267,900 
B. t. u.), plus the heat required for the cooker (2,898,992 B. t. u.), is 4,524,951 
B. t. u. 

Fuel reqiiircd. — It is assumed that fuel oil weighing 7.9 pounds per gallon and 
having a calorific value of 18,500 B. t. u. per pound is used, and that 80 per cent 

4 524 951 
conversion is eflfected in the furnace. Oil required is f o'^ nny n q ~305.7 pounds, 

or 3S.7 gallons per hour. Three hogsheads (3,600 pounds) of quarter-oil fish 
will give at least 75 cases and probably more nearly 90 cases. If the "cut" por- 
tion only is cooked, 4 hogsheads will be handled, yielding a minimum of 100 

38 7 
cases. The oil per case, then, is -yi-=0.516 gallon in the former instance 

38.7 
and -TTjW-=0.387 gallon in the latter. In order to be sure to be on the safe side, 

it is assumed that 0.75 gallon per case is required when 3 hogsheads of "round" 

fish are cooked, and 0.6 gallon when 4 hogsheads of "cut" fish are handled. 

Fuel required for preparing the fish by the steaming process. — Calculations made 

on a per-hour basis. It is assumed that the amount of heat required to prepare 

fish by this process is the same as for the new process. Probably it is more, as 

steaming and drying are both very wasteful of heat. The heat required is 

4,524,951 B. t. u. per hour. It is further assumed that coal costing $7.25 per 

long ton and having a calorific value of 15,000 B. t. u. per pound is used, and that 

50 per cent of the heat units in the coal are made use of. Coal required, then, 

. 4,425,951 ^^^ ^ ^ .r n M u • ^u- -590 

IS ~Tr, nnrT' Or 590 pounds. On the per case basis this is y^^' or 7.9 pounds 

590 
of coal per case for cooking "round" fish, and ,^^' or 5.9 pounds per case for 

"cut" fish. 

Total weight conveyed. — It is assumed that each flake carrier takes 2.75 feet 
(33 inches) of lineal space; that each carrier weighs 8 pounds and each flake 9 
pounds; that the chain required for each flake weighs 15 pounds; and that the 
amount of fish per flake is 12.5 pounds. Number of flakes on conveyer, 144 in 
cooker and about 21 out, or 165 in all, 11 of which, it is assumed, will have no 
fish on them. Total weight, then, is 154X (8 + 9+15+12.5) + 11X (8 + 9+15) = 
7,205 pounds. Total chain required is 2X165X2.75 = 907.5 feet. 

Space occupied. — Total length is about 75 feet, 40 feet of the length being 25 
feet wide and the rest 10 feet wide. Height is 15 feet. It is assumed that the top 
and bottom lines of flakes will extend about 6 flake-lengths out of the cooker 
housing. This space, however, is cared for in the above estimate. 

COOKING UNIT USING TRUCKS 

The following calculations apply to a unit using trucks for cooking 3 hogs- 
heads of "round" cjuarter-oil fish under the same conditions as given above. 
The flakes, heat, air, and fuel required are assumed to be the same as in the above 
calculations. 

Number of trucks required. — It is assumed that each truck is 6 feet high and 
that 18 flakes, each taking 3.5 inches of space, are placed in each truck. Number 
of trucks needed, 8. 

Size of cooking tunnel. — If the same assumptions are made here as those given 
on page 221 under this same heading and the calculations made, it will be found 
that the tunnel required is about the same size as the one for handling California 
pound-oval fish, only 3 feet 2 inches shorter. 

o 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES IN 1926 



By Ward T. Bower, Administraliue Offi<er 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction. 226 

Visit of the Commissioner of Fisheries and 

other oflicials to Alaska 227 

Fishery Industries. 228 

Al:v:ka fisheries legislation 22,-< 

New fishery reguhitions 229 

Alaska fishery operations in areas leased 

for fur farming 247 

Afognak Reserve 247 

Annette Island Fishery Reserve 248 

Alaska fishery intelligence service 248 

Stream marking 248 

Stream guards _ 248 

Vessel patrol 249 

Complaints and prosecutions. 2.'il 

Rohbery of fish traps 252 

Territorial license tax 252 

Bristol Bay district 253 

General report of season's operations 254 

Patrol 254 

Runs of salmon 255 

Togiak operations - - 256 

Destruction of predatory fishes 256 

Tikchik Lakes district 257 

Examination of the Snake River Lake 

system 259 

Inspection of lliamna and Lake Clark 

spawning areas in 1926 261 

Kuskokwim River 265 

Yukon River 265 

Karluk salmon count 265 

Alitak salmon count 266 

Chignik salmon count 267 

Morzhovoi salmon count 267 

Thin Point Lagoon salmon count 268 

Ugashik salmon count 269 

Anan salmon count 269 

Salmon tagging 269 

Salmon life-history studies 270 

Observations on the escapement of salmon. 270 

Hatcheries 272 

Extent of operations 272 

Afognak 272 

McDonald Lake 273 

lleckman Lake (Fortmann) 273 

Hugh Smith Lake (Quadra) __ 274 

Territorial hatcheries 274 

Hatchery rebates 274 

General statistics of the fisheries 275 

Salmon 277 

Catch and apparatus 277 

Canning 279 

Changes in canneries 279 

New canneries 280 

Canneries not operated 281 

Total canneries operated 281 

Losses and disasters 284 

Statistics . 384 

Pack in certain districts 288 

Mild curing 290 

Pickling 291 

Fresh salmon 292 

Freezing 292 

Dry-salting, drying, and smoking 292 

By-products 293 

Herring 294 

Statistical summary 296 



Page 
Fishery Industries— Continued. 

Halibut 297 

Cod 299 

Statistical summary 299 

Whales 300 

Clams 301 

Shrimp 301 

Crabs 302 

Trout 302 

M iscellaneous fishery products ... 302 

Fur-Seal Industry 303 

Pribilof Islands 303 

General administrative work 303 

Visit of representative of Japanese Gov- 
ernment 3o3 

Purchase and transportation of supplies. . 304 

Power schooner Eider 305 

Roads 305 

New buildings and other improvements. 306 

St. Paul Island.. 306 

St. George Island 307 

By-products plant 307 

Nati ves 307 

Census 307 

Medical services 308 

Schools 308 

Attendance at Salem Indian Training 

School, Chemawa, Oreg.. 308 

Savings accounts 309 

Payments for taking sealskins 309 

Payments for taking fox skins 310 

Fur-seal herd 310 

Quota for kiUing 310 

Killings of seals 310 

Age classes of seals 312 

Reserving operations 312 

Computation of fur-seal herd 313 

Shipment of fur seals to Steinhart 

Aquarium 314 

Development of fox herds on Pribilof Is- 
lands 314 

Feeding 314 

Fox-trapping season of 1926-27 314 

Reindeer 315 

Fur-seal skins 315 

Shipments 1 315 

Sales 315 

Disposition of fur-seal skins taken at 

Pribilof Islands 326 

Shipment and sale of fox skins 327 

Fur-seal patrol 328 

United States Coast Guard 328 

Bureau of Fisheries 328 

Sealing privileges accorded aborigines 329 

Japanese sealskins delivered to the United 

States 329 

Seized sea-otter skins 329 

Sesquicentennial at Philadelphia 329 

Computation of Fur Seals, Pribilof 

Islands, 1926 330 

Bulls.. 330 

Six-year-old bulls. 331 

Average harem .._._. 332: 

Pups and cows . -4..--. -38* 

Complete computation __!,.. . 334 



' Appendix IV to the Report of the U. S. Co n-nijsioner of Fisheries for 1927. B. F. Doc. 1023. 

225 



INTRODUCTION 



The bureau's work in Alaska includes two quite ditferent fields of 
activity — first, the conservation of the fishery resources, and, second, 
the protection and utilization of the fur-seal herd of the Pribilof 
Islands. These two industries are of growino; importance, and the 
bureau's conservation work and scientific stucly have expanded cor- 
respondingly. The Commissioner of Fisheries was in Alaska during 
the greater part of the active salmon-fishing season of 1926 and gave 
his immediate attention to the problems at hand. 

The fisheries regulations were carefully revised in the winter of 
1925-26, and amendments were issued during 1926 to meet contin- 
gencies that arose from time to time. An adequate patrol was main- 
tained on all the important grounds throughout the active fishing 
season, and it is believed that violations of the laws and regulations 
were reduced to a minimum. Eleven patrol vessels owned by the 
bureau and more than 200 persons participated in this work. An 
excellent sea-going vessel, 100 feet in length, named the Brant, Avas 
built and added to the Alaska fleet. Weirs were maintained in eight 
important salmon streams, at which the fish escaping to the spawn- 
ing grounds were counted and the relation of escape to catch estab- 
lished. Two salmon hatcheries were operated. 

Scientific investigations of the salmon, herring, and clams were 
conducted. Surveys were made of many of the more important 
salmon-spawning waters, particularly in the Bristol Bay region, for 
the purpose of determining the sufficiency of the regulations to bring 
about an adequate escapement of breeding fish. Through the prac- 
tical application of such scientific studies the bureau is striving to 
maintain this great resource without impairment while permitting 
the use of the balance for the benefit of the American people. De- 
tailed statistics of the fisheries were collected and analyzed, the 
principal results being published herein. Generally the fisheries 
were in a very satisfactory condition. The pack of 6.652,882 cases 
of canned salmon was the largest in the history of the Territory. 

At the Pribilof Islands 22,131 fur-seal skins were taken, an in- 
crease of 2,271 over the preceding year. To provide for future I 
breeding stock, a reserve of 9,565 3-year-old males Avas marked. A' 
computation made of the herd indicated that it contained 761,281 
animals, an increase of 38,231 over the number in 1925. The work 
of replacing worn-out buildings, chiefly houses occupied by natives, 
was continued, and good progress w^as made in the construction of 
much needed roads. A very satisfactory patrol of waters of the 
North Pacific Ocean, including Bering Sea, was carried on by the 
United States Coast Guard. 

As in the past, management of the blue-fox herds at the Pribilof 
Islands was incidental to sealing work. The foxes on both St. Paul 
226 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FITR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 227 

aiul St. (xoorire Islands wore fod durin*:: the periods when sufficient 
food eonhl not be obtained by the animals unaided. In the foxinf^ 
season of lO'JG-'JT. 118 blue and 27 white pelts were secured on St. 
Paul -Island and (UO blue and H white pelts on St. Geor<re Island, 
a total of 758 and an^increase of 83 over the previous season. An 
ample reserve of foxes was marked and released for future breeding 
stock. 

Durinir the year two public auction sales of fur-seal skins were held 
at St. Louis by the <lej)artnient's selling agents. At one of these sales 
fox skins from the Pribilofs also were sold. 

Acknowledgment is made of the assistance rendered by members 
of the bureau's staff in the compilation and preparation of this 
document. 

VISIT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES AND OTHER 
OFFICIALS TO ALASKA 

Commissioner O'^NIalley was in Alaska during much of the active 
salmon-fishing period in the summer of 1926, giving personal atten- 
tion to the important work of conserving the valuable aquatic re- 
sources of that Territory. The commissioner was thus able to give 
immediate consideration to modifications of the fishery regulations 
necessary because of developments of importance during the fishing 
season. The value of prompt and authoritative administrative action 
in this matter is obvious. 

The commissioner devoted most of his time to southeastern Alaska, 
with its multiplicity of fishery problems, but an extensive trip also 
was made to central Alaska, including Cordova, Seward, Anchorage, 
and Fairbanks. The bureau's new patrol vessel Brant was utilized 
much of the time for cruising in Alaskan waters. This vessel sailed 
on its initial voyage from Seattle on July 9, and in addition to 
Commissioner O'Malley there was aboard Congressman Milton W. 
Shreve, who accompanied the commissioner on a tour of inspection 
of the fisheries of Alaska lasting several weeks and extending as 
far as Fairbanks. 

Lawrence Kichey, of the office of the Secretary of Commerce, was 
in Alaska for nearly a month in the summer of 1926, giving attention 
to various fishery matters, including particularly an examination of 
salmon-spawning waters tributary to Cook Inlet. Mr. Richey pro- 
ceeded on the Brant as far west as Seward and returned on that 
vessel wnth Commissioner O'Malley to Seattle, arriving there on 
September 15. 

Through inadvertence, the visit of United States Senator C. C. 
Dill, of Washington, to the Pribilof Islands in 1925 was omitted from 
the corresponding report for that year. Senator Dill was at St. 
Paul Island on July 1 and 2, 1925, observing sealing operations. 
Transportation from Seward to the Pribilofs and return to Seward 
was afforded by the United States Coast Guard cutter Haida. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES 



As in corresponding reports for previous years, the Territory of 
Alaska is here considered in the three coastal geographic sections 
generally recognized, as follows: (1) Southeast Alaska, embracing 
all that narrow strip of mainland and the numerous adjacent islands 
from Portland Canal northwestward to and including Yakutat Bay ; 
(2) central Alaska, the region on the Pacific from Yakutat Bay 
westward, including Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet, and the 
southern coast of Alaska Peninsula, to Unimak Pass; and (3) 
western Alaska, the north shore of the Alaska Peninsula, including 
the Aleutian Islands westward from Unimak Pass, Bristol Bay, and 
the Kuskokwim and Yukon Rivers. These divisions are solely for 
statistical purposes and do not coincide with areas established in 
departmental regulations. 

Detailed reports and statistical tables dealing with the various 
fishery industries are presented herewith, and there are also given 
the important features of certain subjects that were the objects of 
special investigation or inquiry. 

ALASKA FISHERIES LEGISLATION 

■ Under date of June 18, 1926, the President approved an act amend- 
ing the fisheries act of June 6, 1924. This modification of the law 
made possible the promulgation of regulations liberalizing the con- 
ditions under which halibut fishermen may secure herring for bait at 
times when commercial fishing for herring for other purposes is pro- 
hibited. The text of the amendment is as follows : 

AN ACT TO AMEND SECTION 1 OF THE ACT OF CONGRESS OF JUNE G, 19 24, 
ENTITLED "aN ACT FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE FISHERIES OF ALASKA, 
AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES " 

Be it enacted by the ISenate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress a,ssenihied. That seftion 1 of the act of Congress 
of June 6, 1924, entitled "An act for the protection of the fisheries of Alaska, 
and for other purposes," is amended so that it will read as follows : 

"Section 1. Tliat for the purpose of protecting and conserving the fisheries 
of the United States in all waters of Alaska the Secretary of Commerce from 
time to time may set apart and reserve fishing areas in tuiy of the waters 
of Alaska over wiiich the United States has jurisdiction, and within such areas 
may establish closed seasons during which fishing may he limited or prohibited 
as he may prescribe. Under this authority to limit fishing in any area so set 
apart and reserved the Secretary may (a) fix the size and character of nets, 
boats, traps, or other gear and appliances to be used therein; (b) limit tlie 
catch of fish to be taken from any ai-ea ; (c) make such regulations as to time, 
means, methods, and extent of fishing as he may deem advisable. From and 
after the creation of any such fishing area and during the time fishing is pro- 
hibited therein it shall be unlawful to fish therein or to operate therein any 

228 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 229 

boat. stMiu'. trap, or other jiear or apparatus for tho purpose of takiui; fish; 
and from and after the creation of any sucli lishins; area in which limited lishinf? 
is permitted sucli tishini; shall he carried on only duriiij; tlie time, in the 
manner, to the t'xtent. and in conformity with such rul(>s and rej^ulations as 
the Secretary prescribes under the authority herein jLciven : Provided, Tliat every 
sueli rejrulation nuule by the Secretary of Conunerce shall he of general appli- 
cation within the particular area to which it applies, and that no exclusive or 
several right of fishery shall be granted therein, nor shall any citizen of the 
United States be denied the right to take, prepare, cure, or preserve fish or 
shellfish in any area of the waters of Alaska where fishing is permitted by the 
Secretary of Commerce. The right herein given to establish fishing areas and 
to iiermit limited fishing therein shall not apply to any creek, stream, river, 
or other bodies of wiiter in which fishing is prohibited by specific provisions 
of this act. Itut the Secretary of Commerce through the creation of such areas 
and the establishment of closed seasons may further extend the restrictions 
and limitations imposed upon fishing by specific provisions of tliis or any other 
act of Congress: Provided further. That the Secretary of Commerce is hereby 
authorized to permit the taking of fish or shellfish, for bait purposes only, at 
any or all seasons in any or all Alaskan Territorial waters. 

'■ It shall be unlawful to import or bring into the Territory of Alaska, for 
purposes other than per.sonal use and not for sale or barter, salmon from waters 
outside the jurisdiction of the United States taken during any closed period 
provided for by this act or regulations made thereunder." 

Approved, June 18, 1926. 

NEW FISHERY REGULATIONS 

The reo^ulations for the protection of the fisheries of Alaska, issued 
December 5, 1925, were amended by the following reo^lations isstied 
by the Acting Secretary of Commerce under the dates indicated : 

[Fehrmry ,S, 192G] 

SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA AREA 

Herring flithery. — Commercial fishing for herring is permitted during the 
period from February 10 to March 31, 1926, both dates inclusive, in waters oi)en 
to fishing, provided that during this period such fishing shall not be conducted 
on the actual spawning grounds of herring. 

COPPER RIVER AREA 

Clam fishery. — The taking of clams for commercial purposes is prohibited 
from 6 o'clock postmeridian July 15 to 6 o'clock postmeridian August 31 in 
each calendar year. 

ALASKA PENINSULA AREA 

Salmon fishery. — Regulation No. 1 is amended to read as follows : " In the 
waters of Nelson Lagoon, and thence along the coast to Cape Seuiavin, includ- 
ing Herendeen Bay, Port MoUer, and waters open to fishing off the mouths of 
Bear and Sandy Rivers, the 36-hour closed jieriod for salmon fishing prescribed 
by sectifm 5 of the act of June 6, 1924, is hereby extended to include the 
periods from 6 o'clock postmeridian of Tuesday of each week to 6 o'clock 
antemeridian of Thursday of each week and from 6 o'clock postmeridian of 
Friday of each week to 6 o'clock antemeridian of Saturday of eacli week, 
making a total weekly closed period in these waters of 84 hours, which shall 
be effective throughout the entire salmon fishing season of each year." 

[March 15, 1926] 

BRISTOL BAY AREA 

Salmon fishery. — Regulation No. 1 is amended to read as follows: "Com- 
mercial fishing for salmon shall be conducted .solely by drift gill nets and 
stake nets. The use of all other forms of fishing gear is prohibited. Com- 



230 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

mercial fishing for salmon with stalie nets shall be limited to beach areas 
between high and low water marks and shall be confined to the following 
places: (a) Nushagak Bay, (b) along the beach in front of Koggiung Indian 
village on Kvichak Bay, (e) along the beach on the east and west side of 
Egegik near the Indian village, (d) along the beach on Ugashik Bay near the 
Indian village below the Alaska Packers' Association cannery. The total 
aggregate length of stake nets used by any individual shall not exceed 75 
fathoms, measi^red on the cork line." 

Regulation No. 10 (a) is amended to read as follows: "All commercial 
fishing for salmon is prohibited as follows : Nushagak Bay. all waters north 
of 59° north latitude, except that stake nets limited to beach areas between 
high and low water marks wall be permitted north of 59° north latitude to the 
old prohibitive markers located at Snag Point." 

AI.ASKA PEXINSTJLA AREA 

Hcrrnuj fishery. — 1. Commercial fishing for herring is prohibited in the period 
from January 1 to May 31, both dates inclusive, and from December 1 to 
December 31, both dates inclusive, in each calendar year. 

2. During the period from June 1 to October 1, both dates inclusive, com- 
mercial fishing for herring is prohibited in all waters closed throughout the 
year to salmon fishing. 

3. The closed season herein siiecifled for herring fishing shall not apply to 
any boat taking not to exceed 60 barrels of herring in any calendar week 
in waters otherwise open to fishing. 

4. Gill nets used in catching herring shall not be of smaller mesh than 
3 inches stretched measure. 

5. No one shall place, or cause to be placed, across the entrance of any 
lagoon or bay any net or other device which will prevent the free passage at 
all times of herring in and out of said lagoon or bay. 

[June 7, 1926] 

PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND AREA 

Salmon fishery. — Regulation No. 8 (e) prohibiting all commercial fishing 
for salmon in the waters of Port Fidalgo east of 146° 20" west longitude is 
hereby amended to permit such fishing in these waters in each calendar year 
prior to 6 o'clock postmeridian July 9. 

REGULATION EFFECTIVE IN EACH AREA 

Steelhead fishery. — Commercial fishing for steeihead trout shall be subject 
to the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercial fishing for 
salmon. 

[June 25, 1926] 

COPPER RIVER AREA 

Salmon fishery.- — Commercial fishing with nets of mesh less than 8i/^ inches 
stretched measure between knots is prohibited from 6 o'clock postmeridian 
June 28 to 6 o'clock postmeridian July 10 in each calendar year within 2 
statute miles outside the mouth of each stream, except Eyak River and Moun- 
tain Slough. In all waters of this area through July 10 of each year the 
weekly closed period provided by law is hereby extended to include the period 
from 6 o'clock antemeridian of Saturday of each week until 6 o'clock post- 
meridian of the Monday following, making a weekly closed period of 60 hours. 

BERING RIVER AREA 

Salmon fishery.- — Commercial fishing with nets of mesh less than S^/^ inches 
stretched measure between knots is prohibited from 6 o'clock postmeridian 
June 28 to 6 o'clock postmeridian July 10 in each calendar year within 2 
statute miles outside the mouth of each stream. In all waters of this area 
through July 10 of each year the weekly closed period provided by law is 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 231 

hereby extended to include the period from 6 o'clock antemeridian of Saturday 
of each week until G o'clock postmeridian of the Monday followinjj;, making a 
weekly closed period of 60 hours. 

IJtily 1, 1926] 

KODIAK AREA 

Herring fishery. — Regulation No. 3 is amended to read as follows : " The 
closed seasons herein specified for commercial herring fishing shall not apply 
to the taking of herring for bait purposes in waters otherwise open to fishing." 

COOK INLET AREA 

Herring fishery. — Regulation No. 4 is amended to read as follows : " The 
closed seasons herein specified for commercial herring fishing shall not apply 
to the taking of herring for bait purposes in waters otherwise open to fishing." 

PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND AREA 

Herring fishery. — Regulation No. 2 is amended to read as follows : " The 
closed seasons herein specified for commercial herring fishing shall not apply 
to the taking of herring for bait purposes in waters otherwise open to fishing." 

SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA AREA 

Herring fishery. — Regulation No. 3 is amended to read as follows : " The 
closed seasons herein specified for commercial herring fishing shall not apply 
to the taking of herring for bait purposes in waters otherwise open to fishing." 

ALASKA PENINSULA AREA 

Herring fishery. — Regulation No. 3 of supplementary order No. 251-12--2, 
Issued March 15, 1926, is amended to read as follows : " The closed seasons 
herein specified for commercial herring fishing shall not apply to the taking of 
herring for bait purposes in waters otherwise open to fishing." 

[July 6, 1926] 

COPPER RIVER AREA 

Salmon fishery. — Commercial fishing with nets of mesh less than S^/^ inches, 
stretched measure, between knots is prohibited from 6 o'clock postmeridian 
July 6 to 6 o'clock postmeridian July 10 in each calendar year within 2 statute 
miles outside the mouths of Eyak River and Mountain Slough. 

[July 14, 1926] 

BRISTOL BAY AREA 

Salmon fishery. — Regulation No. 5, prohibiting commercial fishing during the 
remainder of each calendar year after 6 o'clock postmeridian July 25, is 
hereby amended to prohibit such fishing after 6 o'clock postmeridian July 23. 

The 36-hour weekly closed period provided by law is hereby extended to 
include the period from 6 o'clock postmeridian of Saturday until 6 o'clock 
postmeridian of the Monday following, making a weekly closed period of 48 
hours. The weekly closed period of 60 hours for certain waters of Kvichak 
Bay remains in effect. 

[Atigust 10, 1926] 

COOK INLET AREA 

8alm,on fishery. — The heart walls and the bottom strip of wire of the pots of 
all hand traps shall be removed during the closed period for commercial salmon 
fishing from 6 o'clock postmeridian August 10 to 6 o'clock antemeridian Au- 
gust 25 of each calendar year. 

48765—27 2 



232 U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHERIES 

[August 2G, 1926] 

RESURRECTION BAY AREA 

Salmon fiftherij. — Regulation No. 3. prohibiting commercial fishing for salmon 
within 1.700 yards of the mouths of Bear Creek and Resurre<tion River, is 
hereby amended so that after August 29. 1926, such fishing is prohibited within 
1,000 yards of the mouths of these streams. 

[Octoher 6, 1926] 

COOK INLET AREA 

Herring fishery. — Regulation No. 1 is amended to read as follows : " Comn.er- 
cial fishing for herring is prohibited during the period from January 1 to 
July 14. both dates inclusive, in each calendar year. Commercial fishing for 
herring, except by set and drift gill nets, is also prohibited from October 15 
to December 31, both dates inclusive, in each calendar year. Commercial fish- 
ing for herring in Halibut Cove Lagoon is limited to set gill nets not exceeding 
50 fathoms in length, hung measure. All such nets shall l)e anchored in a 
substantial manner not less than 100 yards apart. Nets operated within areas 
marked at the north and south ends of Halibut Cove Lagoon shall be anchored 
at right angles to the line joining the markers. Nets operated between these 
areas shall be anchored in a general direction paralleling the shore line." 

Revised reo;ulations covering: the fisheries of Alaska vreve issued 
by the Secretary of Commerce under date of December 22. 1926, 
as follows: 

By virtue of the authorit.v vested in the Secretary of Commerce, fishing areas 
are hereby set apart and regulations governing fishing therein are made effec- 
tive, as follows : 

I. YUKON-KrSKOKWIM AREA 

The Yukon-Kuskokwim area is hereby defined to include all territorial coastal 
and tributary waters of Alaska from Cape Newenham northward to the parallel 
of 64 degrees north latitude. 

1. In the Yukoii-Kuskokwim area all commercial fishing for salmon is pro- 
hibited at all times: Provided, That this prohibition .shall not prevent the taking 
of fish for local food requirements or for use as dog feed. 

II. BRISTOL BAY AREA 

The Bristol Bay area is hereby defined to include all territorial coastal and 
tributary waters of Alaska extending from Caiie Menshikof to Cape Newenham. 

Sahnon fisherg. — 1. Commercial fishing for salmon shall be conducted solely 
by drift gill nets and stake nets. The use of all other forms of fishing gear 
is prohibited. 

2. Commercial fishing for salmon with stake nets shall be limited to beach 
areas between high and low water marks and shall be confined to the following 
places : 

(a) Nushagak Bay. 

(&) Along the beach in front of Koggiung Indian village on Kvichak Bay. 

(c) Along the beach on the east and west side of Egegik near the Indian 
village. 

(d) Along the beach on Ugashik Bay near the Indian village below the 
Alaska Packers Association cannery. 

3. The total aggregate length of stnke nets used by any individual shall not 
exceed 75 fathoms measured on the coi-k line. 

4. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon fi.shing boat, or in 
use by such boat, shall not exceed 200 fathoms hung measure. 

5. King salmon nets shall have a mesh of at least 8i/^ inches stretched meas- 
ure between knots, and red salmon nets shall have a mesh of at least 5I/2 inches 
stretched measure between knots as measured when actually in use. No red 
salmon nets shall be over 28 meshes deep. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAI. INDUSTRIES, 1926 233 

(!. Pricir to (! oVhu-k Miitoiiicridiaii .luiu' 24 in ciu-h year couiiiu'rciMl lishiiij^ 
for salnitin witli nets of ini'sli less Hum ^\i, iticlios st rctclu'd luoasiiro betweeir 
knots is proliiliited. 

7. Cdniiiu'rcial Hshinsr for salmon is jiroliihircd diirint; the rcniaintit'r of each 
calendar yoar after (i o'clock postnioridian July 2'A. 

8. The trailinji of wch behind any lishinti boat is prohibited above the 
markers fixinij' closed walers. 

9. The use of motor-propelled tishinj; boats in catching salmon is prohibited. 

10. The use of smelt nets is prohibited in localities where young salmon are 
mijrratiui;. 

11. In the waters of Kvichak Bay between the line extendins across the bay 
from the marker on a hi.uli point on the east bank of Prosper Creek, about 
KX) yards above the Koggiung- Cannery of the Alaska Packers' Association, to 
the marker on the opposite side, the course beins; about north, 44 degrees west, 
masiietic, and the line extending across the bay from the marker at Gi-aveyard 
I'oint, near the mouth of Graveyard Creek, to the marker on the oi)posite side 
between the mouths of Squaw and Russian Finn Creeks, the course being 
about north. 4S degrees west, magnetic, the 8G-hour weekly closed period for 
salmon fishing prescribed by section 5 of the act of June (>, 1924, is hereby 
extended to include the ijeriod from 6 o'clock postmeridian of Saturday of each 
week to G o'clock antemeridian of the Tuesday following, making a weekly 
closed period of 60 hours. 

12. All commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited as follows : 

(a) Togiak Bay: All waters north of a line from Right Hand Point to 
Tongue Point. 

(b) Nushagak Bay: All waters northward of a line from Bradford Point 
through the southern end of Williams Island to a point on the opposite shore 
near the old cannery site of the Alaska Packers Association south of Kanulik 
village, except that stake nets limited to beach areas between high and low 
water marks will be permitted north of 59 degrees north latitude to the old 
prohibitive markers located at Snag Point. 

(c) Kvichak Bay: All waters above a line extending at right angles across 
Kvichak Bay from the marker on a higii point on the east bank of Prosper 
Creek, about 700 yards above the Keggiung Cannery of the Alaska Packers 
Association, to the marker on the opposite side, the course being about north, 
44 degrees west, magnetic. 

(d) Ugashik River and Bay: All waters above a line extending at right 
angles across said river 500 yards lielow the moutli of King Salmon River. 

Steelhead fishery. — Commercial fishing for steelhead trcmt shall be subject to 
the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercial fishing for 
salmon. 

III. ALASKA PENINSULA AREA 

The Alaska Peninsula area is hereby defined to include all territorial coastal 
and tributary waters of the Alaska Peninsula from Cape Menshikof on the 
Bering Sea shore and extending in a southwesterly direction to Unimak Pass, 
thence in a northeasterly direction along the Pacific side of the Alaska Penin- 
sula to Castle Cape (Tuliumnit Point). The waters of Unimak, the Sanak, the 
Shumagin, and all other adjacent islands are included. 

tialmon fishery. — 1. In the waters of Nelson Lagoon, and thence along the 
coast to Cape Seniavin, including Nelson Lagoon, Herendeen Bay, Port Moller, 
and the fishing grounds off the Bear, Sandy, and Ocean Rivers, the 36-hour 
closed period for salmon fishing prescribed by section 5 of the act of June 6, 
1924, is hereby extended to include the periods from G o'clock antemeridian of 
Wednesday of each week until 6 o'clock antemeridian of the following Thursday, 
and from 6 o'clock antemeridian of P"'riday of each week until 6 o'clock 
antemeridian of the following Saturday, making a weekly closed period in these 
waters of 84 hours, which shall be effective throughout the entire salmon fishing 
season of each year. 

2. In all other waters of this area the 36-hour closed period for salmon 
fishing prescribed by section 5 of the act of June 6, 1924, is hereby extended to 
include the period from 6 o'clock postmeridian of Wednesday of each week 
until 6 o'clock postmeridian of the Thursday following, making a weekly closed, 
period of GO hours: Provided, That this extension of 24 hours closed period 
each week shall not be effective after 6 o'clock antemeridian of July 25 in each 
year. 



234 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

3. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon fishing boat, or in use 
by such boat, shall not exceed 200 lathoms hung measure. 

4. The use of floating traps for the capture of salmon is prohibited. 

5. The use of any trap for the capture of salmon in the waters between Cape 
Menshikof and Cape Seniavin is prohibited. 

6. With the exception of Unga Island, in the waters of which trap fishing for 
salmon is permitted, the use of traps for the capture of salmon is prohibited 
in the waters of the Shumagin Islands, the Sanak Islands, and all other islands 
lying between or adjacent to these two groups. 

7. In all waters along the shores of the Alaska Peninsula west of the longi- 
tude of Cape Aliaksin, and in the waters of Unga Island, the distance by most 
direct water measurement from any part of one trap to any part of another 
trap, shall not be less than 1 statute mile. 

8. The use of any trap for the capture of salmon is prohibited in the waters 
of False Pass (Isanotski Strait) within lines determined by markers erected 
for that purpose. 

9. The use of purse seines for the capture of salmon is prohibited, except 
that (a) in the waters of the Shumagin Islands seines not to exceed 100 
fathoms in length and 150 meshes in depth may be used, and (&) purse seines 
are permitted in waters open to commercial fishing between Lagoon Point and 
Cape Seniavin. 

10. In Port Heiden waters the catch of red salmon shall not exceed 35,000 in 
any calendar year. 

11. Commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited during the remainder of each 
calendar year after 6 o'clock postmeridian August 20. 

12. All commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited in Morzhovoi Bay east of 
163 degrees 5 minutes west longitude prior to July 25 in each year. 

13. All commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited in Cold Bay within a line 
extending from the eastern extremity of Thin Point to a point at 55 degrees 
2 minutes north latitude and 162 degrees 25 minutes west longitude prior to 
July 25 in each year. 

14. All commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited, as follows : 

(a) Within 1 statute mile of the mouths of Bear, Sandy, and Ocean Rivers. 

( b ) Thin Point Lagoon : All waters within the lagoon and its stream and 
within a distance of 500 yards outside the entrance to the lagoon. 

(g) Stepovak Bay and Balboa Bay: All waters of these bays and of their 
branches and arms, excepting Orzinski (Orzenoi) Bay, within a line from the 
outer extremity of Kupreanof Point to the outer extremity of Cape Aliaksin. 
In Orzinski (Orzenoi) Bay beach seines only may be used, and the catch of red 
salmon shall not exceed 25.000 in any calendar year. 

((f) All waters between Kupreanof Point and Cape Ikti. 

Steelhead fishery. — Commercial fishing for steelhead trout shall be subject to 
the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercial fishing for 
salmon. 

Herring fishery. — 1. Commercial fishing for herring is prohibited in the period 
from January 1 to May 31, both dates inclusive, and from December 1 to Decem- 
ber 31, both dates inclusive, in each calendar year. 

2. During the period from June 1 to October 1, both dates inclusive, commer- • 
cial fishing for herring is prohibited in all waters closed throughout the year to 
salmon fishing. 

3. The closed seasons herein specified for commercial herring fishing shall 
not apply to the taking of herring for bait purposes in waters otherwise open to 
fisliing. 

4. Commercial fishing for herring, except for bait purposes, is prohibited 
from 6 o'clock postmeridian of Saturday of each week until 6 o'clock anteme- 
ridian of the Monday following. 

5. Gill nets used in catching herring shall not be of smaller mesh than 3 
inches stretched measure. 

6. No one shall place, or cause to be placed, across the entrance of any lagoon 
or bay any net or other device which will prevent the free passage at all times 
of herring in and out of said lagoon or bay. 

Clam fishery. — It is prohibited to take for commercial purposes any razor 
clam measuring less than 41/2 inches in total length of shell. Possession of any 
razor clam of less than this length will be regarded as prima facie evidence 
of unlawful taking. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 235 

IV. AI.KITTIAN 1SI./\NI)S AKKA 

Tlio AU'utiaii Islands area is lioreby dotiiiod to iiichuU' all territorial foa.stal 
and tributary waters of the Aleutian Islands westward of and including 
I'niniak Pass. 

1. The total aji-^iretrate length of jji'l lu'ts on any salmon fishinfr boat, or in 
use by sueh boat, shall not exceed 200 fathoms buna: measure. 

2. Commercial fishini; for salmon is i)roliiblted durin.ii; the i)eriod from 6 
o'clock postmeridian Auirust 20 to G o'clock postmeridian October 1 in eacb year. 

3. The use of traps and i)urse seines for the capture of salmon is prohibited. 
Steclhead fixhery. — Commercial fishinp; for steelhead trout shall be subject to 

the provisions of law and tlie rejiulations applicable to commercial fishing for 
salmon. 

V. CHIGNIK A1!EA 

The Ch'gnik area is hereby defined to include the territorial coastal and 
tributary waters of Alaska along the mainland shore from Castle Cape 
(Tuliumnit Point) to Cape Kumnik. 

SaliiKiii pshcry.-T-l. The use of jturse seines and floating traps for the capture 
of salmon is prohibited. 

2. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon fishing boat, or in 
use by such boat, shall not exceed 200 fathoms hung measure. 

3. The use of motor-propelled gill-net boats in catching salmon is prohibited,. 

4. The take of salmon Viithin waters in which the runs are tributary to the 
Chignik lUver shall not exceed 50 per cent of the total run as determined at 
the weir in Chignik River operated by the Bureau of Fisheries. 

5. Commercial fisliing for salmon is prohibited prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian 
June 15 and after 6 o'clock postmeridian September 15 in each year. 

6. Commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited in the waters surrounding 
Xakchamik and Chankliut Islands. 

7. The distance by most direct water measurement from any part of one 
trap to any part of another trap shall not be less than 1 statute mile, except 
in Cli'gnik Lagoon, where there sliall be a distance interval of not less tlian 
10 statute miles laterally between any two traps on the north shore or on 
the south shore of Chignik Lagoon. Chignik Island sliall be considered as a 
part of the south shore of the lagoon. 

Steclhead fislien/. — Commercial fishing for steelhead trout shall be subject 
to the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercal fishing 
for salmon. 

Clam fisher i/. — It is prohibited to take for commercial purposes any razor 
clam measuring less than 4% inches in total length of shell. Possession of 
any razor clam of less than this length w'll be regarded as prima facie 
evidence of unlawful taking. 

VI. KODIAK AREA 

The Kodiak area is hereby defined to include the waters of the mainland 
shore extending from Cape Douglas southwestward to Cape Kumnik and 
the territorial coastal and tributary waters of Alaska surrounding Kodiak and 
adjacent islands, but excluding the waters embraced within tlie Afognak 
Forest and Fish Culture Reserve established by presidential proclamation 
of Decemlier 24. 1892. 

Salmon fishery. — 1. The use of purse se'nes and floating traps for the 
capture of salmon is prohibited. 

2. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon fishing boat, or 
in use by .such boat, shall not exceed 200 fathoms hung measure. 

3. Commercial fishing for salmon in Alitak Bay and all its branches within 
a line from Cape Trinity to Cape Alitak prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian June 
15 in each year is prohibited. 

4. Commercial fishing for salmon within a line from Cape Trinity to Cape 
Alitak shall be conducted solely by beach seines and ti-aps, but no fishing for 
salmon shall be permitted inskle a line from Bun Point tln-ough Turn Island 
at the entrance of Moser Bay to Akhiok village. 

5. The take of salmon within waters in which the runs are tributary to 
Olga Bay shall not exceed 50 per cent of the total run as determined at the 
weirs on tributary waters of Olga Bay operated by the Bureau of Fisheries. 



236 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

6. Commercial flshiiifr for salmon in Karluk waters, extending from Cape 
Karluk to Cape Kuliuk, prior to G o'clock antemeridian June 5 and after 6 
o'clock postmeridian Septemt)er 15 in each year is prohibited. The take of 
salmon in these waters shall not exceed 50 per cent df the total run as de- 
termined at the weir in Karluk River operated l)y the Bureau of Fisheries. 

7. Commercial fishing for salmon between Cape Karluk and Cape Uyak, 
except by beach seines, and between Cape Uyak and Uyak Postoffice, except 
by beach seines and gill nets, is jirohibited. 

8. Commercial fishing for salmon in East Arm, Uganik Bay, within a line 
from Mink Point to Rock Point and including the sand spit locally known as 
" The Packer's Spit," is prohil)ited prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian July 21 in 
each calendar year. 

9. Commercial fishing for salmon in all waters of Kizhuyak Bay within a 
line from Kekur Point to Inner Point is prohibited prior to 6 o'clock ante- 
meridan July 21 in each calendar year. 

10. Commercial fishing for salmon in all waters of Kiliuda Bay within a line 
from Right Cape to Left Caiie is prohibited prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian 
July 21 in each calendar year. 

11. The distance by most direct water measurement from any part of one 
trap to any part of another trap, except in those waters of Alitak Bay in 
which the runs are tributary to streams wheie counting weli's ai*e maintained, 
shall not be less than 1 statute mile. 

12. The use of traps for the capture of salmon is prohibited in all waters of 
Kodiak Island and adjacent islands eastward and northward from Gull Point, 
Ugak Bay, to Inner Point, Kizhuyak Bay. 

13. All commercial fishing for salmi.n is prohibited, as follows : 

(a) Western shore of Kodiak Island: All waters along the western shore 
of Kodiak Island between Cape Alitak and Cape Karluk. 

(b) Karluk River: All waters within Karluk River and within 100 yards 
of its mouth where it breaks through Karluk Spit into Shelikof Strait. 

(c) Kaflia Bay, on north slujre of Shelikof Sti-ait : All waters within a line 
from Cape Ugyak to Cape Gull. 

{(1) Eagle Harbor, on northeast side of Ugak Bay, sfAitheastern .'•bore of 
Kpdiak Island : All waters within the harbor. 

SteeUiead fishery. — Commercial fishing for steelhead trout shall be subject 
to the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercial fishing 
for salmon. 

Herring fishery. — 1. Commercial fishing for herring is prohibited during the 
period from January 1 to July 14. both dates inclusive, and from October 15 
to December 31, both dates inclusive, in eacli calendar year. 

2. During the period from July 15 to October 1, both dates inclusive, com- 
mercial fishing f(jr herring i,s prcjhib ted in all waters closed throughout the 
year to salmon fishing. 

3. The closed seasons herein specified for commercial herring fishing shall 
not apply to the taking of herring for bait purposes in waters otherwise open 
to fishing. 

4. Commercial fishing for herring except for bait purposes is prohibited 
from 3 o'clock postmeridian of Saturday of each week until 6 o'clock ante- 
meridian of the Monday following. 

5. Gill nets used in catching herring shall not be of smaller mesh than 2^/4 
inches stretched measure. 

6. No one shall place, or cause to be placed, across the entrance of any 
lagoon or bay any net or other device which w 11 prevent the free passage 
at all times of herring in and out of said lagoon or bay. 

Clam fishery. — It is prohibited to take for commercial purposes any razor 
clam measuring less than 4^/^ inches in total length of shell. Possession of 
any razor clam of less than this length will be regarded as prima facie evi- 
dence of unlawful taking. 

VII. COOK INI.ET AREA 

The Cook Inlet area is hereby defined t^y include Cook Inlet, its tributary 
Avaters, and all adjoining waters north of Cape Douglas and west of Point 
Gore. The Barren Islands are included within this area. 

Saliiion fishery. — 1. C( nimercial fishing for salmon is prohibited from 6 
o'clock postmeridian, August 10, to 6 o'clock antemeridian, August 25, and 
lor the remainder of each year after 6 o'clock iwstmeridian, September 30. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 237 

'2. Tlu' list' of imi-st' st-iiu's and llualiii.u traps for the capture of siilmuu is 
proliibited. 

3. The distance by most direcl water nicasurenienr from au.v luu't of one 
trap to any part of another trap sliall not be less tlian 2,r)(lil) feet. 

4. Twenty-tive feet of tlie lieart walls on each side next to tlie pot and 
tlie bottom strip of wire of the pots of all hand traps shall be removed 
diuinjr the closed season for commercial salmon li-shinj;- from (> o'cbick ijost- 
meridian. August U). to (i o'chxk antemeridian. August 25, of each calendar year. 

5. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon tishing boat, or 
in use by such boat, shall not exceed 200 fathoms hung measure. 

0. All commercial tishing is prohibited, as follows: 

{a) Within 2 statute miles of the moutlis of Kasilof and Keuni Kivers, and 
witliin 1 statute mile of all other salmon streams. 

(6) Turnagain Arm and Knik Arm: All waters above a line fi-om Point 
I'ossession to the western limit of the closed area around tlie mouth >f tlie 
Susitna Kiver. 

{(•) rhinik Inlet. Kamishak Bay: All waters within tlie inlet. 

( (I ) Kachemak Bay : All waters above a line from Indian Island to a point 
on the opposite shore one-half mile below the mouth of iSwift Creek. 

Htcrlhcad flxhcTif. — Commercial fishing for steelhead trout shall be subject to 
the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercial fishing for 
salmon. 

Herring fi-sherif. — 1. Conmiercial fishing for herring is prohibited during the 
period from January 1 to July 14. both dates inclusive, in each calendar year. 
Commercial fishing for herring, except by set and drift gill nets, is also pros 
liibited from ()ct(;ber l.~» to December 31. both dates inclusive, in each calendar 
year. 

2. Commercial fishing for herring in Halibut Cove, including the waters 
within a line from the light on Ismailof Island to the outermost point on 
Glacier Spit, is limited to gill nets. 

3. Commercial fishing for herring in Halibut Cove Lagoon is limited to set 
gill nets not exceeding 50 fathoms in length, hung measure. All such nets 
shall be anchored in a substantial manner not less than 100 yards apart. 

4. Nets operated within areas marked at the north and south ends of Halibut 
Cove Lagoon shall be anchored at right angles to the line joining the markers. 
Nets operated between these areas shall be anchored in a general direction 
paralleling the shore line. 

o. The closed seasons herein specified for commercial herring fishing shall 
not apply to the taking of herring for bait purposes in waters otherwise open 
to fishing. 

6. Commercial fishing for herring, except for bait purposes, is prohibited from 
6 o'clock iwstmeridian of Saturday of each week until 6 o'clock antemeridian 
of the Monday following. 

7. The maintaining of a herring pound or the dumping of offal and dead 
herring in the waters of Halibut Cove and Lagoon is prohibited. 

8. Gill nets used in catching herring shall not be of smaller mesh than 3 
Inches stretched measure. 

9. No one shall place, or cause to l)e placed, across the entrance of any 
lagoon or bay any net or other device which will prevent the free passage at 
all times of herring in and out of said lagocvn or bay. 

CI<itn fishery. — It is prohibited to take for commercial purposes any razor 
clam measuring less than 41/. inches in total length of shell. Possession of 
any razor clam of less than this length will be regarded as prima facie evidence 
of unlawful taking. 

VIII. KESURRECTlON BAY AKEA 

The Resurrection Bay area is hereby defined to include all territorial coastal 
and tributary waters of the Gulf of Alaska betw-een Point Gore on the west 
and Cape Fairfield on the east. 

Salmon fi.sherit. — 1. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon 
fishing boat, or in use by such boat, shall not exceed 200 fathoms hung measure. 

2. No set or anchored gill net shall exceed 30O yards in length, and each 
shall be set in substantially a straight line: Provided, That not to exceed 20 
yards of each net may be used as a hook. Only one such hook is permitted on 
a net. There shall be a distance interval of at least 200 yards, both endwise 
and laterally, at all times between all set or anchored gill nets ojierated. 



238 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

3. King salmon nets shall have a mesh at least 81/2 inches stretched measure 
between knots, and red salmon nets shall have a mesh at least 5^2 inches, 
stretched measure between knots, as measured when actually in use. 

4. Prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian June 6 in each year, commercial fishing for 
salmon with nets of mesh less than Sy^ inches stretched measure between knots 
is prohibited. 

5. Commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited during the remainder of each 
calendar year after 6 o'clock postmeridian September 23. 

6. In the waters of Resurrection Bay, within a line from Cape Resurrection 
to the western side of Bear Glacier at its mouth, the 36-hour closed period for 
salmon fishing prescribed by section 5 of the act of June 6, 1924, is hereby 
extended to include the period from 6 o'clock postmeridian of Friday of each 
week until 6 o'clock antemeridian of the Monday following, making a weekly 
closed period of 60 hours: Provided, That this extension shall not be effective 
aftei' August 23 in each year. 

7. Commercial fishing for salmon within 1,700 yards of the mouths of Bear 
Creek and Resurrection River is prohibited. 

Steelhead fishery. — Commercial fishing for steelhead trout shall be subject 
to the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercial fishing 
for salmon. 

Clam fishery. — It is prohibited to take for commercial purposes any razor 
clam measuring less than 4i/^ inches in total length of shell. Possession of any 
razor clam of less than this length will be regarded as prima facie evidence of 
unlawful taking. 

IX. PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND AREA 

The Prince William Sound area is hereby defined to include all territorial 
coastal and tributary waters of the Gulf of Alaska between Cape Fairfield on 
the west and Point Whitshed on the east. 

Salmon fishery. — 1. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon fish- 
ing boat, or in use by such boat, shall not exceed 200 fathoms hung measure. 

2. No salmon fishing boat shall carry or operate more than one seine of any 
description, and no additional net of any kind shall be carried on such boat. 
No purse seine shall be less than 125 meshes nor more than 200 meshes in 
depth, nor less than 90 fathoms nor more than 150 fathoms in length measured 
on the cork line. For the purpose of determining depths of seines, measure- 
ments will be upon the basis of SVo inches stretched measure between knots. 
No extension to any' seine in the way of leads will be permitted. 

3. No set or anchored gill net shall exceed 300 yards in length and each shall 
be set in substantially a straight line: Proinded. That not to exceed 20 yards 
of each net may be used as a hook. Only one such hook is permitted on a 
net. There shall be a distance interval of at least 200 yards both endwise and 
laterally at all times between all set or anchored gill nets operated. 

4. The use of traps and beach seines for the capture of salmon is prohibited 
in the waters along the western coast, from the outer point on the north 
shore of Granite Bay (known as Granite Bay Point) to the light on the south 
shore of the entrance to Port Nellie Juan. 

5. The 36-hour closed period for salmon fishing prescribed by section 5 of the 
act of June 6, 1924. is hereby extended to include the period from 6 o'clock 
antemeridian of Saturday of each week until 6 o'clock antemeridian of the 
Monday following, making a weekly closed period of 48 hours : Provided, That 
this extension shall not be effective after 6 o'clock antemeridian August 23 in 
each year. 

6. Commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian 
June 6 and after 6 o'clock antemeridian September 21 in each year. 

7. Commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited in the period from 6 o'clock 
antemeridian August 5 to 6 o'clock antemeridian August 23, in each year, except 
in the waters along, the western coast, from the outer point on the north shore 
of Granite Bay (known as Granite Bay Point) to the light on the south shore 
of the entrance to Port Nellie Juan. 

S. The distance by most direct water measurement from any part of one 
trap to any part of another trap shall not be less than 1% statute miles. 

9. Commercial fishing for salmon in the waters of Port Fidalgo east of 146 
degrees 20 minutes west longitude is prohibited after 6 o'clock antemeridian 
July 11 in each year. 

10. All commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited, as follows : 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 239 

(«) C\)iistaiitiiu' Harbor: All wafers above a line at right angles across the 
liarbor at prominent shore-line jwiuts about I14 statute miles from the mouth 
of the large salmon stream llowing into the northeast arm of the liarbor. 

(6) Port Etehes : All waters within 1 statute mile of the mouth of the 
salmon stream tlowing into the head of I'ort Etehes. 

((•) Boswell Bay. indenting Minehinbrook Island: All waters in the bay 
west of 14C degrees 8 minutes west longitude. 

(d) Twin Lalve Creek: All waters witliin 1.0<X) yards of the mouth of Twin 
Lake Creek tlowing into the southeast arm of Simp.son Bay. 

(c) Robe River, Lowe River, and other unnamed streams flowing into Port 
Valdez in the immediate vicinity of Valdez : All waters within 1,000 yards of 
the mouths. 

(/) Billys Hole, tributary to Long Bay, between Valdez Arm and Unakwik 
Inlet : All waters within a line from Point Scott to Point Hook and passing 
just westward of Observation Island. 

(y) Unakwik Inlet, indenting mainland on north shore of Prince William 
Sound: All waters north of an east and west line passing through the northern 
side of the entrance to Jonah Bay. 

(h) Coghill River, tributary to College Fiord: All waters within 2,000 yards 
outside of the mouth of the river. 

(i) Long Bay, tributary to Culross Passage: All waters within the bay. 

(;■) Gumboot Creek, on northwest shore of E.shamy Bay: All waters within 
1,000 yards of the mouth of tlie creek. 

(k) Eshamy Lagoon and its tributary waters: All waters within the lagoon 
and its tributaries and within 100 yards outside the narrows at the entrance to 
the lagoon. 

(I) Jackpot Bay: All waters within a line extending at right angles across 
its mouth 2,000 yards below the mouth of the red salmon stream emptying^ 
into the bay. 

(m) Port Bainbridge : All waters in the middle north arm of Port Bain- 
bridge. 

(») Bay of Lsles, indenting east shore of Knight Island: All waters within 
the west arm of the bay. 

Steelhead fishery. — Commercial fishing for steelhead trout shall be subject 
to the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercial fishing 
for salmon. 

Herring fishery. — 1. Commercial fishing for herring is prohibited during the 
period from January 1 to June 9, both dates inclusive, and from November 1 
to December 31, both dates inclusive, of each calendar year. 

2. The closed seasons herein specified for commercial herring fishing shall 
not apply to the taking of herring for bait purposes in waters otherwise open 
to fishing. 

3. Commercial fishing for herring, except for bait purposes, is prohibited 
from 6 o'clock postmeridian of Saturday of each w^eek until 6 o'clock ante- 
meridian of the Monday following. 

4. During the period from June 25 to October 1, both dates inclusive, com- 
mercial fishing for herring is prohibited in all waters closed throughout the 
year to salmon fishing. 

5. Gill nets used in catching herring shall not be of smaller mesh than 2^/4 
inches stretched measure. 

6. No one shall place, or cause to be placed, across the entrance of any 
lagoon or bay any net or other device which will prevent the free passage at 
all times of herring in and out of said lagoon or bay. 

Clam fi.'ihery. — 1. It is prohibited to take for commercial purposes any razor 
clam measuring less than 41/2 inches in tot.il length of shell. Possession of 
any razor clam of less than this length will be regarded as prima facie evidence 
of unlawful taking. 

2. The taking of clfims for commercial jiurposes is prohib'ted from 6 o'clock 
postmeridian July 15 to 6 o'clock postmeridian August 31 in each calendar year. 

Crab fishery. — Dungeness crab {Cancer mayister). No female of this species 
shall be taken at any time, and no male of this species measuring less than 
6H inches in greatest width shall be taken for commercinl purposes. 



240 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

X. COPPER RIVER AREA 

The Copper River area is liereby detined to include all territorial coastal 
and tributary waters of Alaska between Point Whitshed on the \vest and 
Point Martin on the east, including Egg Islands and the other islands between 
these points. 

Salmon, fishenj. — 1. Commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited from 6 o'clock 
postmeridian July 10 to 6 o'clock antemeridian August 10 in each year. 

2. Prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian May 20 in each year commercial fishing 
with nets of mesh less than 8^/2 inches stretched measure between knots is 
prohibited. 

3. From May 20 to July 10. both dates inclusive, the 36-hour closed period 
for salmon fishing prescribed by section 5 of the act of June 6, 1924, is hereby 
extended to include tlie period from 6 o'clock antemeridian of Saturday of 
each week until 6 o'clock antemeridian of the Monday following, making a 
weekly closed period of 48 hours. 

4. Except as specifically permitted herein, commei'cial fishing for salmon 
shall be conducted solely by drift gill nets. 

5. Prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian August 10 in each calendar year the total 
aggregate length of drift gill nets on any salmon fishing boat, or in use by 
such boat, shall not exceed 250 fathoms hung measure : Provided, That during 
the per.od from o'clock antemeridian May 20 to 6 o'clock postmeridian May 
31 any gill net boat on the Copper River fiats may carry and operate not to 
exceed 100 fathoms of net of mesh not less than 8% inches stretched measure 
between knots in addition to 250 fathoms of smaller mesh net. 

6. Prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian August 10 in each calendar year commer- 
cial fishing for salmon by means of gill nets attached to anchored boats or 
other anchored floating equipment is prohibited. 

7. Commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited within 500 yards of the Grass 
Banks, except that after 6 o'clock antemeridian August 10 in each calendar 
year such fishing is permitted within 500 yards of the Grass Banks by means 
of gill nets and stake nets not exceeding 350 fathoms each in length : Provided, 
That all stakes used in connection therewith shall be removed at or before 
the end of the fishing season. All fishing is prohibited at all times witliin the 
sloughs and within 500 yards of their mouths. 

Steelhead fishery. — Commercial fishing for steelhead trout shall be subject 
to the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercial fish.ng 
for salmon. 

CJam fishery. — 1. It is prohibited to take for commercial purposes any razor 
clam measuring less than 41/4 inches in total length of shell. Possession of any 
razor clam of less than this length will be regarded as prima facie evidence 
of unlawful taking. 

2. The taking of clams for commercial purpo.ses is prohibited from 6 o'clock 
postmeridian July 15 to 6 o'clock postmeridian August 31 in each calendar year. 

Crah fishery. — Dungeness crab (Cancer mayister) . No female of this, species 
shall be taken at any time, and no male of tliis species measuring less than 
6% inches in greatest width shall be taken for commercial purposes. 

XI. BERING RIAER AREA 

The Bering River area is hereby defined to include all territorial coastal and 
tributary waters of Alaska between Point Martin on the west and Cape Suckling 
on the east. 

Salmon fishery. — 1. Commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited from 6 
o'clock postmeridian July 10 to 6 o'clock antemeridian August 10 in eacli year. 

2. Prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian June 1 in each year commercial fishing with 
nets of mesh less than 8^/2 inches stretched measure between knots is pro- 
hibited. 

3. From June 1 to July 10. both dates inclusive, the 36-hour closed period 
for salmon fishing prescribed by section 5 of the act of June 6, 1924, is hereby 
extended to include the period from 6 o'clock antemeridian of Saturday of 
each week until 6 o'clock antemeridian of the Monday following, making a 
weekly closed period of 48 hours. 

4. Except as specifically jiermitted herein, commercial fishing for salmon shall 
be conducted solely by drift gill nets. 

5. Prior to 6 o'clock antemeridian August 10 in each calendar year the total 
aggregate length of drift gill nets on any salmon fishing boat, or in use by 
such boat, shall not exceed 250 fathoms hung measure. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 241 

(i. Prior to (» oClotk iuitt'incridiun Aujiiist 10 in each calciHlar year comiiierc-ial 
lishinj: for salmon by moans of sjill nets attat-hod to anchorod boats or other 
anchored floatinj: eiiuipment is prohibited. 

7. After 15 o\-h)ek antemeridian An;iust 10 in each caleiKhir year commercial 
fishinj: for salmon is itermitted by means of .uill nets and stake nets not ex- 
ceedinir ;i50 fathoms each in lenjith : I'rovUUd. That all stakes used in connec- 
tion therewith shall be removed at or before the end of tlu' lishintc season. 

Strclhrad fis-hcrt/. — Commercial lishini,' for steelhead trout shall be subject 
to the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercial tishing 
for salmon. 

Clam fi>iherif. — It is prohibited to take for commercial purposes any razor 
elam measuring less than 414 inches in total length of shell. Possession of 
any razor clam of less than this length will be regarded as prima facie evidence 
of unlawful taking. 

XII. S()ITHE.\STEK.\ ALASKA AREA 

The Southeastern Alaska area is hereby defined to include all territorial 
coastal and tributary waters of Alaska extending from Dixon Entrance on the 
south to and including Yakutat Bay on the north. 

Sahtion fiiihcrji. — This area is subdivided into the following districts, wherein 
regulations shall be' eft'ective as follows : 

Yakutat district. — All waters of this area west of the one hundred and 
thirty-eighth meridian of west longitude. 

1. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon fishing boat, or in 
use by such boat, shall not exceed 250 fathoms hung measure. 

2. The distance by most direct water measurement from any part of one trap 
to any part of another trap shall not be less than IV2 statute miles. 

3. No salmon fishing boat shall carry or operate more than one seine of any 
description, and no additional net <)f any kind .shall be carried on such boat. 
No purse seine shall be less than 200 meshes nor more than 800 meshes in 
depth, nor less than 150 fathoms nor more than 250 fathoms in length measured 
on the cork line. For the purpose of determining depths of seines measure- 
ments will be upon the basis of 31/2 inches stretched measure between knots. 
No extension to any seine in the way of leads will be permitted. 

4. The 36-hour closed period for salmon fishing prescribed by section 5 of the 
act of June 6, 1924. is hereby extended to include the period from 6 o'clock 
postmeridian of Friday of each week until 6 o'clock antemeridian of the 
Monday following, making a weekly closed period of 60 hours. 

5. Commerical fishing for salmon in Dry Bay is prohibited prior to June 1 
in each year. 

6. All commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited, as follows : 
(«) Ankau Creek and Inlet. 

{b) Akwe or Aliquay River. 

(c) The " Basin '" above Dry Bay. 

Icif Strait-Cross Sound district. — All waters of this area north of the fifty- 
eighth parallel of north latitude and east of the one hundred and thirty- 
eighth mei'idian of west longitude. 

1. The total aggregate^ length of gill nets on any salmon fishing ])out, or in 
use by such boat, shall not exceed 250 fathoms hung measure. 

2. The distance by most direct water measurement from any part of one 
trap to any part of another irap shall not be less than IVj statute miles. 

3. Traps and purse seines are prohibited in Lynn Canal and contiguous 
waters north of 58 degrees 26 miiiutes north latitude. 

4. No salmon fishing boat shall carry or operate more than one seine of 
any description, and no additional net of any kind shall be carried on such 
boat. No purse seine shall be less than 200 meshes nor more than .300 meshes 
in depth, nor less than 150 fathoms nor more than 250 fathoms in Jength 
measured on the cork line. For the purpose of determining depths of seines 
measurements will be upon the basis of 'SV2 inches .stretched measure l)etwePn 
knots. No extension to any seine in the way of leads will be permitted. 

5. Commercial fishing for salmon, except by trolling, is prohibited for the 
remainder of each calendar year after 6 o'clock postmeridian August 6: 
I'rorided. That such fishing may be carried on by gill nets from 6 o'clock 
antemeridian September 5 to 6 o'clock posl meridian October 15 in waters open 
to fishing. 

6. Commercial fishing for salmon in Lynn Canal and contiguous waters 
north of the south end of Kochu Island is prohibited, except that in these 



242 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

closed waters, including Chilkat Inlet outside of a line from Green Point 
passing across the southern shore of Pyramid Island and Chilkoot Inlet 1,000 
yards outside the mouth of Chilkoot River, such fishing is permitted by gill 
nets from 6 o'clock antemeridan September 5 to 6 o'clock postmeridian October 
15 in each year. 

7. Commercial fishing for salmon, except by gill nets, is prohibited in Dundas 
Bay north of 58 degrees 21 minutes north latitude. 

8. Commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited in Port Frederick, northern 
shore of Chichagof Island, south of an east and west line through Inner Point 
Sophia : Proxnded, That trolling will be permitted in these waters from Nov- 
ember 1 to June 1, both dates inclusive. A portion of the waters closed is in 
the central district. 

9. All commercial fishing for salmon is proliibited, as follows : 

(a) Glacier Bay: All waters within a line from Point Carolus to Point 
Gustavus. 

(ft) Taku Inlet: All waters to the eastward of a line beginning on the 
shore northward of Taku Point at 133 degrees 59 minutes west longitude, 
thence running due north to the opposite shore, thence following the shore 
line to the mouth of the Taku River. 

Central district. — All waters of this area between, the fifty-seventh and fifty- 
eighth parallels of north latitude. 

1. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon fishing boat, or in 
use by such boat, shall not exceed 250 fathoms hung measure. 

2. The distance by most direct water measurement from any part of one 
trap to any part of another trap shall not be less than 1 statute mile. 

3. No salmon fishing boat shall carry or operate more than one seine of any 
description, and no additional net of any kind shall be carried on such boat. 
No purse seine shall be less than 200 meshes nor more than 300 meshes in 
depth, nor less than 150 fathoms nor more than 250 fathoms in length measured 
on the cork line. For the purpose of determining depths of seines measure- 
ments will be upon the basis of 3V2 inches stretclied measure between knots. 
No extension to any seine in the way of leads will be permitted. 

4. Commercial fishing for salmon, except by trolling, is prohibited for the 
remainder of each year after 6 o'clock postmeridian August 11. 

5. All commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited, as follows : 

(fl.) Port Houghton, indenting mainland: All waters in Sanborn Canal. 

(ft) Portage Bay. north end of Kupreanof Island: All waters within the 
bay and all waters within 1 statute mile outside the entrance to the bay. 
A portion of the waters closed is in the southern district. 

(c) Gambler Bay, east coast of Admiralty Island: All waters west of 134 
degrees west longitude. 

(d) Wilson Cove, southwestern shore of Admiralty Island: All waters within 
the cove. 

(e) Whitewater Bay, southwestern shore of Admiralty Island: All waters 
within a line from Point Caution to Woody Point. 

if) Chaik Bay, southwestern shox'e of Admiralty Island: All waters east 
of 134 degrees 29 minutes west longitude. 

(<7) Warm Spring Bay, eastern shore of Baranof Island: All waters within 
the bay. 

(/() Kelp Bay, east coast of Baranof Island: All waters in Middle Arm. 
and all waters in South Arm west of 134 degrees 57 minutes west longitude 

(i) Hanus Bay, northeast shore of Baranof Island: All waters in the bay 
south of a line from Point Hanus to Point Moses. 

(j) Sitkoh Bay, southeast shore of Chichagof Island: All waters within 
1,000 yards of the mouths of all salmon streams. 

(fc) Basket Bay, east coast of Chichagof Island: All waters within the 
bay. 

{I) Tenakee Inlet and Freshwater Bay: All waters within a line from North 
Passage Point to South Passage Point. 

(m) Salt Lake Lagoon. Takanis Bay, southwest shore of Yakobi Island: All 
waters in the lagoon and within 500 yards of its mouth. 

Stikine River district. — All waters within a line from Babbler Point on the 
mainland to Woronkofski Point on Woronkofski Island, thence to Middle Craig 
Point on Zarembo Island, thence to Peint Howe on IMitkof Island, thence to 
Frederick Point on Mitkof Island, thence across Frederick Sound to Horn 
Cliffs on the mainland, thence along the mainland to Babbler Point. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL. INDUSTRIES, 1926 243 

1. Coininoi\ial lishiiig for salmon shall be conducted solely by trolling and by 
drift gill nets which shall not exceed 250 fathoms in length each. 

2. Conunercial fishing for salmon, except by trolling, is prohibited during the 
period from o'clock postmeridian June 10 to 6 o'clock postmeridian June 30 
in each year. 

3. The 3G-hour closed period for salmon fishing prescribed by section 5 of 
the act approved June G, 1924, is hereby extended to include the period from 
6 o'clock antemeridian of Saturday of each week to 6 o'clock antemeridian of 
the Monday following, making a weekly closed period of 48 hours. 

Prince of Wales Island district. — All waters of the west coast of Prince of 
Wales Island and adjacent islands from Cape Chacon northward to Point 
Baker, and within a line from Point Baker to Point Colpoys, thence to Middle 
Craig Point on Zarembo Island, thence to Woronkofski Point on Woronkofski 
Island, thence to Babbler Point on the mainland, thence to Watkins Point on 
Cleveland Peninsula, thence following the watershed between Ernest Sound 
and Behm Canal to and including Lemesurier Point, thence to Tolstoi Point 
on Prince of Wales Island, thence following the watershed on Prince of Wales 
Island to Cape Chacon. 

1. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon fishing boat, or in 
use by such boat, shall not exceed 250 fathoms hung measure. 

2. The distance by most direct water measurement from any part of one 
trap to any part of another trap shall not be less than 1 statute mile. 

3. Traps are prohibited in Tuxekan Passage between 55 degrees 46 minutes 
north latitude and 55 degrees 52 minutes north latitude, and in all waters 
within one-half statute mile of the southern point of Tuxekan Island. 

4. No salmon fishing boat shall carry or operate more than one seine of any 
description, and no additional net of any kind shall be carried on such boat. 
No purse seine shall be less than 200 meshes nor more than 300 meshes in 
depth, nor less than 150 fathoms nor more than 250 fathoms in length, measured 
on the cork line. For the purpose of determining depths of seines measurements 
will be upon the basis of 31/2 inches stretched measure between knots. No ex- 
tension to any seine in the way of leads will be permitted. 

5. Commercial fishing for salmon, except by trolling, is prohibited from 6 
o'clock postmeridian August 22 to 6 o'clock postmeridian September 14 in each 
year, and for the remainder of each year after 6 o'clock postmeridian October 
15 ; and in addition commercial fishing for salmon, except by trolling, is pro- 
hibited in all waters of the west coast of Prince of Wales Island and adjacent 
islands from Cape Chacon northward to Point Baker, thence eastward to Point 
Colpoys from January 1 to 6 o'clock postmeridian July 14 in each year. 

6. All commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited, as follows : 

(a) Thorne and Tolstoi Bays, indenting the eastern shore of Prince of 
Wales Island : All waters within a line from Tolstoi Point to Thorne Head. 

(6) McHenry Inlet, southwest coast of Etolin Island: All waters within 
1,000 yards of the salmon streams emptying into the head of McHenry Inlet. 

(c) Rocky Bay, west coast of Etolin Island: All waters within 1 statute 
mile of the head of the bay. 

(d) Thorns Place, indenting the southwestern shore of Wrangell Island, 
Zimovia Strait. 

(e) Olive Cove, indenting the northeastern shore of Etolin Island. 
(/) Anita Bay, opening into Zimovia Strait, Etolin Island. 

(y) Barnes Lake, at head of Lake Bay, northeast coast of Prince of Wales 
Island : All waters in Barnes Lake and within 50 yards outside its entrance. 

(7f) Whale Passage, northeast coast of Prince of Wales Island: All waters 
within 1,000 yards from mouths of all salmon streams. 

(i) Salmon Bay, northeast coast of Prince of Wales Island : All waters within 
the bay and all waters within 1 statute mile of the mouth of the bay. 

(/) Red Bay, north shore of Prince of Wales Island: All waters south of a 
true east and west line pas.sing through the north shore of Dead Island. 

(fc) Hole in the Wall, west coast of Prince of Wales Island: All waters 
within the outermost points of the cove. 

( / ) Shipley Bay, west coast of Kosciusko Island : All waters east of 133 
degrees 32 minutes 30 seconds west longitude. 

(m) Sarkar Cove, west coast of Prince of Wales Island, tributary to El 
Capitan Passage : All waters inside of a line across the entrance. 

(n) Naukati Bay, west coast of Prince of Wales Island: All waters within 
the bay. 



244 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

(o) Staney Creek, west coast of Prince of Wales Island: All waters within 
1 statute mile of the mouth of the creek. 

ip) Troiadero Bay, west coast of Prince of Wales Island: All waters in the 
bay east of a true north and south line passing through the eastern extremity 
of the peninsula just south of Copper Mine. 

( q ) North Bay, northeast coast of Dall Island : All waters within 1.000 yards 
of the mouths of all salmon streams. 

(r) Kas(;ok Inlet, southern coast of Sukkwan Island: All waters within 1 
statute mile of head of inlet. 

(s) Hetta Inlet, west coast of Prince of Wales Island: All waters north of 
a line running east, magnetic, from Eek Point to the opposite shore. 

(t) Nutkwa Lagoon, we.st coast of Prince of AVales Island: All waters within 
the lagoon and within 500 yards of the foot of the rapids at the outlet of the 
lagoon at mean low water. 

Southern district. — All waters south of the fifty-seventh parallel of north 
latitude, exclusive of the Stikine River and Prince of Wales Island districts 
herein described. 

1. The total aggregate length of gill nets on any salmon fishing boat, or in use 
by such boat, shall not exceed 250 fathoms, hung measure. 

2. The distance by most direct water measurement from any part of one trap 
to any part of another trap shall not be less than 1 statute mile. 

3. No salmon fishing boat shall carry or operate more than one seine of any 
description, and no additional net of any kind shall be carried on such boat. No 
purse seine shall be less than 200 meshes nor more than 300 meshes in depth, 
nor less than 150 fathoms nor more than 250 fathoms in length, measured on the 
cork line. For the purpose of determining depths of seines, measurements will 
be upon the basis of SV2 inches, stretched measure, between knots. No exten- 
sion to any seine in the way of leads will be permitted. 

4. Commercial fishing for salmon, except by trolling, is prohibited from 6 
o'clock postmeridian August 18 to 6 o'clock postmeridian Sept,ember 14 in each 
year, and for the remainder of each calendar year after 6 o'clock postmeridian 
October 15. 

5. All commercial fishing for salmon is prohibited, as follows: 

(0) Hidden Inlet, indenting mainland: All waters in the inlet north of 55 
degrees north latitude. 

(6) Fillmore Inlet, indenting mainland: All waters east of 130 degree- 30 
minutes west longitude. 

{(•) Ray Anchorage, east coast of Duke Island: All waters in Ray Anchorage. 

(d) Very Inlet, indenting mainland: All waters within the inlet. 

(c) Boca de Quadra, indenting mainland: All waters within 1 statute mile of 
the mouth of Sockeye Creek. 

if) George Inlet, southern coast of Revillagigedo Island: All waters north 
of a line from Bat Point to Tsa Cove. 

(17) Smeaton Bay. indenting mainland: All waters in Wilson and Bakewell 
Arms east of 130 degrees 40 minutes west longitude. 

(h) Rudyerd Bay, indenting mainland: All waters in the north arm within 2 
statute miles of the mouths of all salmon streams. 

((■) Walker Cove, indenting mainland, tributary to Belim Canal: All waters 
within a line from Ledge Point to Hut Point. 

(/) Chickamin River: All waters within a line from Fish Point to Trap 
Point. 

(fc) Yes Bay. Cleveland Peninsula: All waters within the bay and all waters 
outside the entrance within 1,000 yards of a line from Bluff Point to Syble 
Point. 

(1) Shrimp Bay, west coast of Revillagigedo Island: All waters east of a 
line running south from Dress Point to the opposite shore. 

(«() Traitors Cove, west coast of Revillagigedo Island: All waters of the 
cove within a line 50 yards outside the neck of the salt-water lagoon. 

(«.) Naha and Moser Bays, west shore of Revillagigedo Island: The waters 
of Long Arm and Moser Bay inside of a line from Cod Point to the opixisite 
shore at 131 degrees 40 minutes west longitude and the waters of Naha Bay 
inside of a line extending due north from Cod Point. 

(0) Moira Sound, east coast of Prince of Wales Island: All watei's in 
South Arm, Frederick Cove, Kegan Cove, and within 1.000 yards of the mouths 
of all salmon streams in Johnson (Vive. 

(it) Cholmondeley Sound, east coast of Prince of Wales Island: All waters 
in Dora Bay and Sunny Cove. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 245 

(q) Skdwl Ann. Prince of Wales Isliiud : All watcMs within ;i line from 
Old Kasjian villaiie to Kliay.Viun Point. 

(/•» Kasaan l>a,v. oa.'^t coast of Prince of Wales Island: AH waters north of 
a liin> from Sandy Point to the east shore of the bay. 

(.si Pradlield Canal: AH waters of P.radtield Canal between a line from 
Point Warde to the ixiint at the east side of the entrance to Fools Inlet and a 
north and south line at 181 deirrees 47 minutes west lonijitude. 

(M Blake Channel: All waters of P.lake Channel scmth of 56 degrees 14 
minutes 80 seconds north latitude. 

(u) Wrangell Narrows: All waters between Point Alexander and Prolewy 
Point. 

(r) Barrie Creek, north of Point Barrie, southwest shore of Kupreanof 
Island : All waters within 1 statute mile of the mouth of the creek. 

(ir) Hamilton Bay. west coast of Kupreanof Island: All waters east of 133 
degrees 4!) minutes west longitude. 

(x) Three Mile Arm, east coast of Kuiu Island: All waters within 1.000 
yards of the mouths of all salmon streams. 

iy) Seclusion Harbor, east coast of Kuiu Island: All waters within the 
outermost points of the harbor. 

(z) Port Beauelerc, southeastern coast of Kuiu Island : All waters within 
1,000 yards of the mouths of all salmon streams tributary to Port Beauelerc. 

(aa) Affleck Canal, southeastern coast of Kuiu Island: All waters within 
1,000 yards of the mouths of all salmon streams tributary to Affleck Canal. 

(bb) Tebenkof Bay, west coast of Kuiu Island: All waters in north arm 
of bay. 

(cc) Bay of Pillars, west coast of Kuiu Island: All waters in south arm 
of bay. 

(dd) Security Bay, northwest shore of Kuiu Island: All waters within 1,000 
yards of all salmon streams. 

(ee) Saginaw Bay. northwest coast of Kuiu Island: All waters of the bay 
inside of a line beginning at the point of land at the northwest side of the 
entrance to Halleck Harbor and passing in a southwesterly direction at right 
angles to the general trend of the bay to the opposite shore. 

(ff) Red Bluff Bay, east coast of Baranof Island: All waters in the bay; the 
waters of Falls Creek Ba.v are included. 

{(/(/) Gut Bay, east coast of Baranof Island: All waters of the bay. 

(hh) Redfish Bay, southwest shore of Baranof Island: All waters above a 
true east and west line passing through the southern end of the Second 
Narrows. 

{ii) Still Harbor, west coast of Baranof Island: All waters in the harbor. 

(jj) Port Banks, off Whale Bay, west coast of Baranof Island : All waters in 
Port Banks. 

(kk) Redoubt Bay, west coast of Baranof Lsland : All waters within 1,000 
yards of the mouth of the stream flowing from Redoubt Lake. 

Steclhrnd fishery. — Commercial fishing for steelhead trout .shall be subject to 
the provisions of law and the regulations applicable to commercial fishing for 
salmon. 

Herrinf/ flsJiery. — 1. During the period from June 1 to October 15, both dates 
inclusive, commercial fishing for herring is prohibited in all waters closed 
throughout the year to salmon fishing. 

2. Commercial fishing f<ir herring is prohibited during the period from 
January 1 to May 31, both dates inclusive, and from October 1 to December 
31, both dates inclusive, in each calendar year. 

3. The closed seasons herein specified f<;r commercial herring fishing shall 
not apply to the taking of herring for bait puqioses in waters otherwise open 
to fishing. 

4. Commercial fishing for herring, except for bait purposes, is prohibited 
from 6 o'clock iiostmeridian of Saturday of each week until 6 o'clock anteme- 
ridian of the Mcmday following. 

5. No one shall place, or cause to be placed, acro.ss the entrance to any 
lagoon or bay any net or other device which will prevent the free passage at 
all times of herring in and out of said lagoon or bay. 

G. All commercial fishing, including bait fishing, for herring is prohibited 
throughout the year in the waters of Kanalku Bay, Admiralty Island. 

Clatn fishery. — It is prohibited to take for commercial purposes any razor 
clam measuring less than 41/2 inches in total length of shell. Possession of 



246 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

any razor clam of less than this length will be regarded as prima facie evidence 
of unlawful taking. 

Shrimp flsheri/. — Commercial fishing for shrimps is prohibited in the period 
from March 15 to April 30, both dates inclusive, in eacli year. 

Crab fishery. — Dungeness crab {Cancer mafiister) . No female of this species 
shall be taken at any time, and no male of this species measuring^ less than 
6V2 inches in greatest width shall be taken for commercial purposes. 

GENE21AI. REGULATIONS 

By virtue of the authority conferred by the acts approved June 6, 1924. and 
June 26, 1906. the following regulations shall be effective in all waters of 
Alaska, including the special areas already described above : 

1. During closed periods all salmon traps within the areas affected shall be 
closed in accordance with the method prescribed by section 5 of tlie act of 
June 6, 1924, and in addition the .spillers of all driven traps shall be raised to 
within 4 feet of the capping and the spillers of floating traps shall be raised 
to within 4 feet of the surface within 36 hours after the beginning of any 
seasonal closed period. Within 36 hours after the beginning of any seasonal 
closed period the tunnels from pots to spillers of all traps shall be entirely 
disconnected. In respect to traps not provided with spillers, the requirements 
in regard to spillers shall apply to the pots. 

2. All persons engaged in fishery operations are warned to give due regard to 
all markers erected by the Department of Commerce. 

3. In waters where a rack or weir is maintained by the Bureau of Fisheries 
for the purpose of counting salmon ascending to the spawning grounds, records 
of the catch of salmon shall be furnished daily by all oiJerators to the local 
representative of the Bureau of Fisheries in charge, and uiwn notification by 
the Commissioner of Fisheries or his authorized representative tliat an exces- 
sive proportion of the run is being taken so that the escapement of any species 
is less than the 50 per cent specified by section 2 of the act of June 6, 1924, all 
commercial fishing operations shall at once be discontinued and shall not be 
resumed until permission tlierefor is granted by the Commissioner of Fisheries 
or his duly autliorized representative. And if in any year it shall appear that the 
run of salmon in such waters has diminislied, there shall be required a corre- 
spondingly increased escapement, and upon notification by the Commissioner 
of Fisheries or his authorized representative all commercial fishery operations 
shall cease and shall not be resumed until such increased escapement has been 
secured. 

4. The driving of salmon downstream and the causing of salmon to go outside 
the protected area at the mouth of any salmon stream are expressly prohibited. 

5. During the inspection of the salmon fisheries by the agents and repre- 
sentatives of this department, they shall have at all times free and unobstructed 
access to all canneries, salteries, and other fishing establishments and to all 
hatcheries. 

6. All persons, companies, or corporations owning, operating, or using any 
stake net, set net, trap net, pound net. or fish wheel for taking salmon or other 
fishes shall cause to be placed in a conspicuous place on said trap net, pound 
net, stake net. set net. or fish wheel the name of the person, company, or cor- 
poration owning, operating, or using same, together with a distinctive number, 
letter, or name, which shall identify each particular stake net, set net, trap net, 
l)ound net, or fisli wheel, said lettering and numbering to consist of black 
figures and letters, not less than 6 inches in length, painted on white ground. 

7. If in the process of curing salmon bellies the remaining edible portion of 
the fish is not used, such action will be regarded as wanton waste within the 
meaning of section 8 of the act of June 26, 1906, and those who engage in this 
practice will be reported for prosecution as provided for in the act. 

8. These regulations do not apply to the Afognak Reservation, fishing within 
which is prohibited, except by resident natives, by the terms of the law and 
Executive order creating it. 

9. The taking of salmon for fox feed shall be considered as commercial fish- 
ing and subject to all of the limitations in respect thereto. 

10. Any increase in the amount of fishing gear employed or any expansion 
of fishery operations in any district in any season shall, in the discretion of the 
Secretary of Commerce, result in the immediate imposition of such additional 
restrictions as may appear necessary. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 247 

11. These re.irulations sliall bo subject to such change or revision by the 
Secretary of Commerce as may appear advisable from lime to time. They shall 
be in full force and effect immediately from and after January 1. 11127. 

ALASKA FISHERY OPERATIONS IN AREAS LEASED FOR FUR FARMING 

The act approved July 3, 19-20, conveys authority to the Secretary 
of the Interior to lease, under certain conditions, public lands in 
Alaska for fur farniino; and for other purposes. The act contains 
items of application and interest in connection with fur-seal and 
fishery matters, as follows : 

* * * this Act shall not be held nor construed to apply to the Pribilof 
Islands, declared a special reservation by the Act of Congress approved April 
21, 1910: And provided further. That any permit or lease issued under this Act 
shall reserve to the Secretary of the Interior the right to permit the use and 
occupation of parts of said leased areas for the taking, preparing, manufactur- 
ing, or storing of fish or fish products, or the utilization of the lands for purposes 
of trade or business, to the extent and in the manner provided by existing laws 
or laws which may be hereafter enacted. 

The foretroing exempts the Pribilof Islands from the provisions of 
the act. The law, however, has bearing in respect to fishery opera- 
tions on shore Avithin the leased areas. Permits are necessary from 
the Secretary of the Interior to use any such leased areas in connec- 
tion with the fishery industry. In addition, permits will be necessary 
from the Secretary of the Interior in the case of fish traps extending 
from the shore lines of such leased areas. As bearing upon this 
matter, the position has been taken that leases by the Department of 
the Interior for fur farming will not prevent the driving or extension 
of fish traps from the shore lines of such leased areas, provided they 
are proper imder the fishery law's and regulations, but permission to 
place and operate such traps must be secured from the Secretary of 
the Interior. 

AFOGNAK RESERVE 

Salmon-fishing permits for Afognak waters were granted to 76 
natives and residents of Afognak Island and certain adjacent islands 
during the season of 1926. Operations were carried on at eight 
localities and were under the supervision of a fisheries warden. All 
fishing was by means of beach seines with the exception of one gill 
net, wdiich w^as operated for a short time at Malina Bay. Fishing 
began June 15 except at Little Afognak and Paramanof Bay, where 
it was not permitted until June 22. No fishing for red salmon 
w^as permitted at Litnik Bay. The total commercial catch was 
297,738 salmon, an increase of 103.371 over the catch in 1925. The 
catch of cohos increased 1,078, humpbacks 62,498, and reds 41,063, 
w'hile the catch of chums decreased 1,255 and kings 13. The entire 
catch of salmon was sold to the Kadiak Fisheries Co., Katmai 
Packing Co., and Kodiak Island Fishing & Packing Co. Prior to 
the opening of the fishing season all streams were marked 500 yards 
off their mouths and no fishing was permitted above the markers. 

A weir for fish-cultural purposes was maintained at Litnik River 
below the Afognak hatchery. Counting of ascending red salmon 
began June 1 and was discontinued August 28, when it was decided 
to close the weir in order to prevent the ascent of cohos to the lake. 



248 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

The total number of red salmon counted through the weir was 
22,250, with a small number still below the weir when counting 
was discontinued. 

ANNETTE ISLAND FISHERY RESERVE 

The Annette Island Paclring Co. again operated in the Annette 
Island Fishery Reserve in 1926 under its lease from the Department 
of the Interior. Data regarding fishery operations have been 
furnished by the Bureau of Education of that depai"tment, which 
administers the affairs of the reserve for the benefit of the Metlakatla 
Indians residing there. 

In 1926 the total number of fish taken from traps within the 
reserve was 928,308 of all species, on which royalties amounting to 
$10,050.65 were paid. The case tax on canned salmon under the 
Territorial law, which is payable to the Metlakatla Indians, amounted 
to $2,852.51; trap fees on eight traps, at $200 each, amounted to 
$1,600; and rental of cannerv buildings was $3,000. In addition, 
$40,055.51 was paid to 174 natives for labor, $3,850.90 for lumber 
and piling, and $12,056.08 for fish taken by seines, making a grand 
total of $73,465.65 disbursed by the Annette Island Packing Co. 
to the natives for 1926 operations. The corresponding disburse- 
ments during the preceding year were $61,348.22. 

ALASKA FISHERY INTELLIGENCE SERVICE 

As has been the practice for several years, the bureau continued 
to report by telegraph to the important points in southeastern and 
central Alaska the prices of fresh fish (chiefly halibut) at Ketchikan. 
During the closed season on halibut the service was discontinued, as 
the quantities of other fresh fish sold are negligible during that 
period. 

STREAM MARKING 

The chief feature of the marking of streams each season to show 
waters not open to fishing consists of the replacement of markers that 
have disappeared or become defaced. In the course of this work addi- 
tional streams also are measured and marked, and in the near future 
all of the districts will have been covered. As changes are made in a 
few instances in the limits of areas closed by regulations, the markers 
are changed accordingly. It is a large undertaking to mark more 
than a thousand streams and thereafter to renew and. maintain the 
markers each season. 

STREAM GUARDS 

The bureau employed 141 men as stream guards in 1926. Of these, 
84 were stationed in southeastern Alaska, 36 in central, and 21 in 
western Alaska. The period of employment ranged from two to five 
months. 

In southeastern Alaska 31 furnished their own launches and were 
assigned to patrol larger bodies of water or in the vicinity of several 
streams. Some of the otlier guards who were stationed at camps on 
shore provided themselves with rowboats, in some cases having out- 
board motors. Four guards were placed on chartered patrol boats 
and two were detailed to assist in tagging salmon released from traps. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 249 

In oontial Alaska 14 <»uar(ls. of whom 5 fiirnislicd thoir own boats, 
were stationed at varions points in the lierin«; River, Copper River, 
and Prince William Sound distiicts, (i in Cook Inlet, 1) in the Kodiak- 
Afo<rnak district. '1 at Chi«rnik, and ") in the Ikatan-Sluima«!;in district. 

In western Alaska 11). of whom one furnished his own boat, were 
in Bristol Bay and one each on the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers. 

There were also five special employees engaged in scientific work, 
one on herring in central Alaska, three on salmon investigations in the 
central district, and one tagging troll-caught salmon in southeastern 
Alaska. 

In addition there were 5 statutory employees of the bureau in 
southeastern Alaska, 9 in central, and 3 in western. Theie were also 
32 persons on the bureau's vessels and 21 on the 12 boats chartered 
in the various districts. 

The foregoing makes a grand total of 216 persons identified w^ith 
fishery-protective work in Alaska in 1926, as compared with 185 in 
1925. * 

VESSEL PATROL 

Eleven vessels ow^ned by the bureau were operated in fishery-patrol 
work in Alaska in 1926. Of these the Brant was used in south- 
eastern and central Alaska ; the Widgeon, Murrc, and Auklet in 
southeastern Alaska; the Kittiirake in Cook Inlet and Prince 
William Sound; the Sea Gull on Copper River flats; the Blue Wing 
at Kodiak and Afognak Islands; the Ibis at Chignik; the Merganser 
in the Ikatan-Shumagin region; the Scoter in Bristol Bay; and the 
Tern on the Yukon River. The Petrel was out of commission dur- 
ing the season on account of a defective engine. The ^Sea Gull was 
destroyed by fire on June 18. 

The Brant was an important addition to the Alaska fleet. This ves- 
sel was launched at North Bend, Oreg., on June 3 and on July 9 sailed 
from Seattle for Alaska. It is the largest of the bureau's Alaska 
vessels, being 100 feet in length, 21 feet in breadth, and of sturdy 
and seaworthy construction capable of offshore duty under all 
weather conditions. A 225-horsepower full Diesel engine gives a 
normal cruising speed of about 101/2 knots. The ve -sel has modern 
and complete auxiliary equipment, including wireless, and comfort- 
able accommodations for six persons in addition to the crew of nine. 

A small power vessel, the Red Wing, was transferred to the bureau 
from the Department of Agriculture for use in the Kodiak-Afognak 
district, but on account of the necessity of installing another engine 
was not in commission during the season. This vessel is approxi- 
mately 40 feet in length and about 11 feet in breadth, of heavy 
seaworthy type, and has sleeping accommodations for five persons. 

Launch No. 4-^, assigned to the Afognak hatchery, was used dur- 
ing part of the season in connection with the fishery patrol in the 
Kodiak-Afognak region. During the early part of July the Eider 
transported Dr. C. H. Gilbert from Ikatan to Seward. 

The following chartered vessels were used in fisheries patrol: 
Gloria, Munelet, Diana, Iglop. Valkyrie., and Ainenca First in 
southeastern Alaska; Pilot, Prospector, and King U~109 in Prince 
William Sound ; Auk in the Ikatan-Shumagin district ; and RoMn 
on the Kuskokwim River. Nine small boats in Bristol Bav were 



250 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 




ALASKA J-ISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 251 

operated by the hiiieiui in predatory-fish destruction and salmon- 
patrol durin<i tlie season in that district. In addition, in the south- 
eastern district the T-JiO'i was chartered for work in ta<^»>^ing troll- 
cau<iht salmon. 

COMPLAINTS AND PROSECUTIONS 

During' the season of 11>2G four salmon traps were seized in south- 
eastern Alaska for illeoal fishin*:: durin<>" the weekly closed period. 
A trap of the Northwestern Fisheries Co., near Porpoise Island, was 
seized on June 27. Subsequently it was condemned and sold for 
$1,375. and the watchman was fined $100 and costs of $13. A trap of 
P. E. Harris & Co., near Hawk Inlet, and one of the Alaska Pacific 
Fisheries, near Funter Bay. were seized on July 11. On trial the 
watchmen were found not guilty, but the traj^s were still in the 
custody of the United States marshal at the end of the season. A 
trap of Libby, McNeill & Libby, near Douglas Island, was seized at 
6.53 p. m., August 6, for fishing in the closed season. In the previous 
year the season for fishing ended at midnight, August 6, but this year 
it was advanced 6 hours to 6 p. m. Some misunderstanding occurred 
regarding this change, in view" of which fact and as seizure was made 
so close to the new earlier ending for the year's fishing the case was 
dropped. 

Final court action has not been taken in the case of a trap seized in 
1924 from the Alaska Pacific Fisheries, and the case is still pending. 

In the southeastern district, also, five boats, with crews of seven men, 
were arrested for trolling on Sunday near Biorka Island. On trial 
at Sitka, the members of the crews were fined $10 each and costs of 
$1.45. The boats were returned to the owners. The Mary F, a 
salmon purse seiner, was seized for fishing inside the closed waters at 
Hawk Inlet. Following condemnation proceedings, the boat was sold 
for $575. The Rainier and Kotor^ salmon seine boats, w'ere seized on 
September 20 for fishing within 100 yards of each other at the head of 
Keete Inlet. On trial the crews, who were all Indians, pleaded guilty 
and were fined $10 each and costs of 46 cents. The boats and gear 
were released. The Silver Wave and 902 T ^ also salmon seiners with 
Indian crews, were seized on September 27 for fishing within 100 
yards of each other near Hydaburg. On trial all pleaded guilty and 
the four members of the crew of the Silver Wave were fined $15 each 
and costs of 92 cents. The boats and gear were released. The 
Empress and Mildred II, herring seine boats, were seized on July 10 
for fishing within 100 yards of each other at Bay of Pillars. As it 
appeared that the boats originally were properly located but had 
drifted closer together, the seiners were cautioned regarding future 
operations and their boats were released. 

Various reports of illegal herring fishing during the closed seasons 
and also of unlawful halibut fishing were received but on investiga- 
tion could not be substantiated, and no action was taken by the 
bureau. 

In the Copper River district prosecutions were instituted against 
the Cordova Packing Co. and the Pioneer Packing Co. for having 
in their possession undersized clams. Fines of $25 each were imposed 
on the companies. Two fishermen were fined $5 and $10 for fishing 
in closed waters of the Copper River flats. In a case brought against 



252 U- S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

the Pioneer Sea Foods Co. by another fisherman for setting a net 
within the prohibited distance of another net, the company was 
found not guilty of the charge. 

Tlie jSt. Nicholas and C ommodore were seized on July 8 for illegal 
commercial herring fishing during the closed season at Port Chatham 
in the Cook Inlet region. On trial the defendants in the case, Ivan 
Botica, James C. Kelley, and S. Feinson, pleaded guilty and were 
fined $100 each. The boats and gear were released. 

In a case originating in 1924 against Libby, McNeill & Libby for 
illegal fishing of a trap during the weekly closed period, which was 
disposed of in 1926, the company was fined $50 on each of four 
counts. 

In the Kodiak district two fishermen were arrested for fishing on 
Sunday in Raspberry Strait. On trial they pleaded guilty and one 
was fined $100 and the other $10. The gear seized was released to 
the owners. 

In the Bristol Bay district two fishermen for Libby, McNeill & 
Libby were arrested for fishing in closed waters and were fined $50 
each and costs. Two independent fishermen were arrested on the 
same charge but released with a warning, and the case against an- 
other independent fisherman w^as dismissed, as it was shown he had 
been fishing for dog feed. 

ROBBERY OF FISH TRAPS 

There still continue to be complaints of robbery of fish traps in 
southeastern Alaska. A number of the larger canning companies 
established a patrol of 17 launches and a few other companies took 
similar action individually to protect their traps in 1926. While a 
number of cases of this so-called piracy were reported but few ar- 
rests were made. 

It is believed that the holding of the court in the trial of the case 
of United States v. Val Klemm et al., at Ketchikan. Sejjtember 16 
and 17, 1926, will do much to curtail the extensive robbing of fish 
traps hereafter. The defendants were sentenced to three years in 
the Federal penitentiary. The following is extracted from the 
charge by Judge Reed to the jury in this case : 

When fish are inipounclert — that is, inclosed — in a tiaj) and separated from 
the sea by said trap, so that they are in the actual personal or constructive 
possession of a person, they become subject to larceny, and any person who 
takes, steals, and carries away fish that have been impounded in a trap, with 
intent to convert them to his own use and deprive the owner and possessor 
thereof, is guilty of larceny. When fish are impounded in a trap belonging to 
any person, he lias a special property in them by reason of having the fi-h im- 
pounded in a trap. 

It is said that prior to this case the impression had prevailed gen- 
erally that trap operators had no legal rights in fish alive in the 
traps until they were actually removed from the water. 

TERRITORIAL LICENSE TAX 

Fisheries license taxes were collected by the Territory under the 
general levenue law of 1921, as amended in 192H and 1925. A state- 
ment from AV. (i. Smith, Territorial treasure)-, under date of April 
14, 1927. gives the collections made to that date for the year 1926. 



AT .\SKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 



253 



It was stated that collootions uruler the several schedules were fairly 
complete, with the exception of pack taxes due from a few of the 
smaller canneries and salteries and those due from certain of the 
larger salmon canneries on net income, as well as approximately 
$10,()0() outstandin*; under the wdiale oil and fertilizer tax schedule. 

Fishcrif liccnsr taxes collected bif Tcrriton/ for fiscal i/car ended Decemher .U, 



Schedule 


Division 
No. 1 


Division 
No. 2 


Division 
No. 3 


Total 


Salmon canneries (pack) _ 


$156, 535. 05 




.$434, 496. 27 

290.58 

3, 769. 17 

510.00 

11.90 

1,021.04 

54, 827. 26 

5, 149. 00 

2, 590. 00 


$591, 031. 32 
290 58 


Clam canneries 




Salteries. . 


2, 240. 84 

1, 820. 00 

6, 187. 76 

25, 968. 34 

111,899.10 

757.00 

6, 265. 00 


$36.10 


6,046. 11 
2, 330. 00 
6, 199 66 


Cold-storage plants ._ 


Fresh-fish dealers. 




Fish-oil works and fertilizer and flsh-meal plants 




26, 989. 38 


Fish traps 




166 726 36 


Gill nets 


16.00 
' "" 


5 922 00 


Seines 


8 855 00 






Total 


311,673.09 


52.10 


502, 665. 22 


814, 390. 41 
35 610 06 


Salmon canneries (net income), not possible of segrega- 
tion as to judicial division.. ... - 












Total collections 






850, 000. 47 







On January 25, 1926, the United States Supreme Court refused 
the petition of the Pacific American Fisheries for a rehearin^r of 
the case involving the validity of the Alaska graduated pack tax 
on canned salmon, and the decision of that court on December 7, 
1925, upholding the Territory's right to levy such a tax stands. 

BRISTOL BAY DISTRICT 

Operations in the Bristol Bay region during the season of 1926 
consisted primarily of the enforcement of the Alaska fishery laws 
and regulations, collection of data relating to commercial fishing 
for and packing of salmon, observation of the salmon run and es- 
capement to the spawning grounds, construction and operation of a 
calmon-counting weir on the Ugashik River, and the destruction of 
predatory fishes. The work was organized by Agent Dennis Winn 
and was under his personal supervision until the 1st of June, when 
Mr. Winn returned to his duties in southeastern Alaska, and Warden 
A. T. Looff assumed full charge. 

Agent Dennis Winn and 20 special employees secured in the States 
Avere transported to the Bristol Bay district in May on vessels of the 
Alaska Packers Association, Alaska-Portland Packers Association, 
Columbia River Packers Association, Naknek Packing Co., Red 
Salmon Canning Co., and Libby, McNeill & Libby. These, to- 
gether with one patrolman employed locally. Warden A. T. Looff, 
and the engineer of the /Scoter, who had remained in the district over 
the preceding winter, comprised the Bristol Bay force for the 1926 
season. Supplies and other equipment for the bureau's use also 
were transported to Bristol Bay on vessels of the above companies. 
At the end of the season return transportation to the States was 
furnished by them for 12 men, while 10 others left via Kanatak and 
Iliamna Lake, passage being secured on regular transportation 
i^ teamers. 



254 



U, S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Immediately on arrival of the crews work was begun on putting in 
order all boats and other equipment at the bureau's marine ways at 
Naknek, and a party of 10 men, headed by Henry McFadden, was 
detailed to the installation of a salmon-counting weir in the 
Ugashik River. This w^ork is discussed in the special section on 
salmon weirs. Markers at the mouths of all salmon streams also 
were inspected and placed in proper condition. Prior to the open- 




FiG. 2. — Shallow-draft patrol boat, Bristol Bay 

ing of the red-salmon season at 6 a. m., June 26, preparations were 
made for the patrol of the commercial fishing grounds, Mr. Looff's 
report on operations during the season is as follows : 

GENERAL REPORT OF SEASON 's OPERATIONS 



The patrol vessel Scoter, nine launches, and one rowboat were used in the 
patrol of the waters of Bristol Bay during the fishing season of 1926. These 
boats cruised a distance of 11,546 miles. Three cases of violation of the 
Alaska fisheries laws and regulations were reported and tried before the local 
United States commissioner, two cases being b.v boats owned and operated 
Independently by local Alaskans and the third by Libby, McNeill & Libby. 
The patrol fleet was assigned to the various sections of Bristol Bay, as follows : 

/ i/ash'k River and Bay. — Launch A"o. 5, John Monson and Z. V. Hurt ; 
launch No. li. C. M. Hatton and Arthur Larsen ; and launch No. S, Henry 
McFadden and P. E. Hamm, when not engaged in connection with operation 
of the Ugashik weir. 

Egegik. — Clarence Olsen with a rowboat. 

NaTcnek River. — Launch No. 2, Alf Christensen and Ivan Merchant. 

Kvichak Bay between Naknek and Kogglnng. — Launch No. 7, Gus Severson 
and Arthur Mesford. 

Kvichak River. — Launch No. 1, Henry LoofC and Charles Turner, and O. B. 
Millett with his own launch. 

Nushagak Bay and River. — Launch No. 3, Eric Fenno and W. J. Kelly. 

Igushik River. — Launch No. ^, Hector McAllister. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 255 

The patrol boat Scoter, with Warden A. T. Looff on board, patrolled all 
waters of Bristol Bay. 

In conjunction with the patrol, data were collected in regard to the extent 
of fishing operations and the run of salmon in the various rivers. In all, 909 
fishing boats were oi>erated by the canneries and 36 by independent fishermen, 
local whites, and natives, who owned the boats and gear and sold their catch 
to the canneries. These local residents operated 100 stake nets, of which 20 
were for commercial purposes, the catch being sold to the canneries; the 
remaining nets were for local food and dog feed. 

The Nushagak section was the only one in which commercial fishing for 
king salmon was carried on before the beginning of the red season. A patrol 
was begun there June 1, while in other sections it was established shortly 
before the opening of the red-salmon season. The red salmon began to 
appear in all rivers on June 5, and native stake nets took fair numbers during 
the period preceding the opening of the commercial fishing season, but in no 
place did a real run occur before June 26. 

RUNS OF SALMON 

Kvichak River. — At the opening of the season, at 6 a. m. on June 26, few fish 
were in evidence and catches were light. The escapement during the weekly 
closed period, from 6 p. m. June 26 to 6 a. m. June 28, was small, as few fish 
were running. On June 28 catches were small and few fish were in evidence. 
This condition continued until the beginning of the weekly closed period, at 
6 p. m. July 3. On July 4 a heavy run struck in, and a good escapement 
occurred during the closed period. 

When fishing was resumed on July 5, large catches were made, and the run 
continued heavy on July 6. when the canneries placed their boats on a limit. 
On July 7 and 8 the run fell off and the boat limit was removed. On July 9 the 
run increased again, but on July 10 it fell off, and it continued light during 
the weekly closed period, from 6 p. m. July 10 to 6 a. m. July 12. A heavy run 
again struck in on July 12 but fell off a little on July 14. From July 15 the 
run was light until the end of the season, at 6 p. m. July 23. 

During the heavy runs almost the entire catch consisted of red salmon, 
but fiom July 15 there was a steady increase in the percentage of chums, 
until by July 21 they constituted fully 40 per cent of the catch, the remainder 
being nearly all reds, with a few humpbacks and silvers. 

Naknek River. — On the opening date catches were small for the most part, 
and few fish were noticed jumping in the river. A good run struck in on June 
27, and a good escapement occurred during the weekly closed period. On June 
28 good catches were made from the outer fishing grounds, in the vicinity of 
the mouth of the Egegik River, but few were in evidence around the mouth 
of the Naknek River. Fishing continued good on the outer grounds, .and on 
July 3 a heavy run struck in and a heavy escapement occurred during the 
weekly closed period, from 6 p. m. July 3 to 6 a. m. July 5. 

When fishing was resumed on July 5 the heavy run was still on. and by 
July 6 the canneries began to fly limit flags. The run continued heavy until 
July 13, on which date few fish were in evidence around the mouth of the 
Naknek River, although good catches were reported by Naknek boats fishing 
in the upper Kvichak Bay waters. A heavy escapement took place during the 
weekly closed period from 6 p. m. July 10 to 6 a. m. July 12. On July 14 few 
fish were in evidence and catches were small, this condition continuing until 
July 19, when a small run of fish appeared. A fair escapement occurred during 
the weekly closed period, but when fishing was resumed on July 19 the last 
small run was over and very light catches were made to the end of the season. 

Egegik River. — A heavy run of fish appeared on the opening date (June 26), 
which continued until July 10. when a slight falling off was noticed. Few fish 
were in evidence until July 11, but on July 12 a heavy run came again, con- 
tinuing until July 20, after which the run fell off to almost nothing. The 
escapement of salmon up the Egegik River was enormous. 

Ugashik River. — Very few fish were in evidence on the opening date, all 
flsh in evidence in the river ; but from June 30 to July 3 good catches were 
noted during the weekly closed period, and most of the fleet lay at anchor on 
June 28 because of rough weather. On June 29 catches were small, with no 
flsh in evidence in the river: but from June 30 to July 3 good catches were 

48765—27 3 



256 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

made north of Cape Greig, though few fish appeared in the river. A fair escape 
meut occurred during the weekly closed period, from 6 p. m. July 3 to 6 a. m. 
July 5. On July 5 good catches were made north of Cape Greig, and a heavy 
run of fish entered the river on the 6th and 7th. On July 8 the run into the 
river fell off. but good catches continued to be made on the fishing grounds out- 
side. A heavy run again struck in on the 13th. continuing until the 16th, when 
it began to fall off, very few fish being in evidence after July IS. 

Nushagak River. — At the opening of the season very few fish were in evidence 
and only light catches were made. A fair escapement occurred during the 
weekly closed season, but on June 28 a heavy run struck in on the Flounder 
Flat fishing grounds, and heavy catches were made. This run appeared only 
on Flounder Flat, and no large catches were reported from any other quarter 
on this date. On the 29th the run was again light everywhere, and only fair 
catches were reported until a heavy run again struck in on Flounder Flat on 
July 3. Several boats delivered 3.0(K1 fish between the time when the run 
started and the beginning of the weekly closed period at 6 p. m. A heavy 
escapement took place during the closed period. 

When fishing was resumed on July 5, it was reported that the run was 
light on the outer fishing grounds, but good catches were made on the upper 
grounds. A good run set in on July 6 and continued until the 15th when a 
noticeable decline took place. On July 16 many humpback salmon appeared 
with the red salmon. No heavy run occurred after that date, although good 
catches of red salmon were made up to the end of the season. 

Igushik River. ^Catches were small at the opening of the season and no 
salmon were noticed in the river. During the weekly closed period a few 
fish were seen jumping in the river. On June 28 and 29 light catches were 
made, and on June 30 a fair run occurred, but it was slack on July 1 and 2. 
A heavy run of fish began on July 3, and a good escapement occurred during the 
closed period. The heavy run was still on when fishing was resumed on July 
5 and continued until the 14th, when it fell off, though fair catches were made 
until the 17th. A fair escapement occurred during the closed period, from 6 
" p. m. July 17 to 6 a. m. July 19, after which few fish were in evidence and 
catches were small. 

TOGIAK OPERATIONS 

Exploratory fishing operations were carried on by the Alaska Packers Asso- 
ciation in the Togiak section of the Bristol Bay district. For this purpose the 
schooner Mctha Nelson, was towed to Togiak Bay and anchored off the north 
end of Hagemeister Island for use as a salmon-salting station. Two fishing 
boats were transferred from the company's allotment in the Nushagak section 
to carry on oi>erations at Togiak. Fish also were bought from independent 
native fishermen, who operated two fishing boats. All fishing was carried on 
by drift gill nets, and great difiiculty was experienced in using this type of 
gear effectively on account of the clearness of the water and the many rocks. 
The writer was unable to visit the section during the fishing season but made 
a trip later. Fishennen reported that a fair run of red and chum salmon 
passed up the Togiak River during the fishing season. The pack of the Met ha 
Nelson was 170 barrels of reds and 40 barrels of chums. 

DESTRUCTION OF PREDATORY FISHES 

As the full force was engaged in preparation for the patrol and the con- 
struction of a salmon-counting weir in the Ugashik River, it was not possible 
to do any work in destroying predatory fishes liefore the opening of the com- 
mercial fishing .season. On July 31. at the close of the season. H. B. Looff 
and an assistant started up Egegik River, stopping at the rapids below the 
outlet of Becharof Lake and the head of Little Becharof Lake investigating^ 
a number of tributary streams en route. Camp was made on Aiigust 9 at 
Crooked Creek, but fishing for Dolly A'arden trout proved unsuccessful, due to 
the great numbers of salmon and the quantity of salmon spawn in the streams. 
The run in this section is thought to have been the largest foT many years, 
judging from reports received from the oldest resident natives. 

Camp was moved to Ugashik Creek on August 13, where salmon were found 
in much smaller numbers and trout were plentiful. Hand lines were used and 
good catches made. After the Ugashik weir was dismantled on August 25 
the men engaged on that work began fishing for Dolly Varden trout between 



I 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 257 

the upper aiul lower Ugashik Lakes. This work was continued witli Kood 
results until August 29. when camp was moved to Ugashik Creek and the work 
continued where Mr. Looft" had heen oiwrating. Mr. Looff and his assistant 
then returned to Becharof Lake to make a survey of the spawning grounds and 
store all equipment for the winter. Fishing was continued at Ugashik Creek 
until Septendter 10, when equipment was stored and both parties left for 
Kanatak to take passage for the States. 

As a result of these operations 19,687 Dolly Varden trout were destroyed, 
all but 8(> of which were taken in the Ugashik district. Dolly Vardens were 
found spawning from the latter part of August until the latter part of September 
in the smaller tributaries, in most cases near their sources. 

TIKCHIK LAKES DISTRICT 

Hon. Frank A. Waskey, the first Delegate to Congress from 
Alaska, has written two veiy interesting letters to Agent Dennis 
Winn in regard to fishery conditions in the Tikchik Lakes, which 
form a part of the headwaters of the Nushagak River, Bristol Bay 
district. Mr. Waske}^ has been a resident of the district many years 
and has taken a keen interest in conditions there. His assistance 
was regarded as very valuable in connection with Warden A. T. 
Looff's investigation of the Tikchik Lakes district in the fall of 1923. 
The following extracts from Mr. Waskey 's letters contain pertinent 
and valuable information: 

I believe it was during the summer of 1921 that you [Agent Winn] questioned 
me near Dillingham as to whether many red salmon spawned in the Tikchik 
Lakes. I answered that the number was negligible. You thought, I believe, 
that these lakes may have been an important spawning ground for red salmon 
in times past and probably had potentialities for the future. I was quite sure 
at the time that these lakes and their tributary and outlet waters were impor- 
tant as spawning grounds only for humpback salmon. Since that time I have 
been compelled by several lines of evidence to change the opinion then held. 

This evidence consists partly of what I have been told by the Tikchik natives 
regarding the quantity of red salmon formerly spawning in these waters, and 
particularly in the Tikchik River proper. If you will refer to the map which 
accompanies the report of Mr. A. T. Looff,^ who visited a portion of the Tik- 
chik country in 1923, you will note the mouth of the Tikchik River, which 
flows into the northeast corner of Lake Nuyakuk. The Nuyakuk River, which 
on mo.st maps is erroneously called the Tikchik River, flows from the southeast 
corner of Lake Nuyakuk and enters the Nushagak River at the village of 
Koliganek, about 70 miles below. The Tikchik River heads in two unmapped 
and almost unknown lakes, named Uppnuk and Nishlik. These lakes are not, 
and I believe never wei'e. important salmon lakes, but the Tikchik River itself 
is to-day a producer of red-salmon fry in great numbers. 

Incidentally it should be mentioned that the geographical nomenclature of 
the Alaskan Innuit is always descriptive. The word Tikchik is a conniption 
of an Innuit word which means " stink," and was so applied to this river 
because each summer for a time after the red salmon had spawned the water 
was so offensive in taste and smell that the natives then residing there could 
not use it for any domestic purpose. As it is a matter of common knowledge 
that the primitive Alaskan native is not overfastidious in such matters, one 
can imagine what a great quantity of dead salmon there must have been to 
so pollute the waters of this quite large and swift stream. 

To-day the most used spawning beds in the river commence at a point about 
5 miles above Lake Nuyakuk and continue almost without interruption for 25 
miles or more to beyond the point where the two streams from Lakes Uppnuk 
and Nishlik join. A few red salmon spawn in the lower 5 miles of the Tik- 
chik. as do great quantities of humpback salmon every other year. A few 
red salmon also reach each of the two lakes mentioned. 

= Published in Alaska Fishery and Fur-Seal Industries in 1924. B. F. Doc. 992, pp. 



258 U- S. BUEEAU OF FISHEKIES 

The second line of evidence from which one may deduce that there is truth 
in what the natives claim for the Tikchik in former years is what I have been 
told by credible eye witnesses of the way in which the Nushagak River was 
fished in the early days of the salmon industry in Bristol Bay. It was stated 
that for many years after canning operations began the Nushagak River was 
regularly fished as far upstream as Angel Bay, 30 miles above the present 
limit stakes. 

The third line of evidence is what I personally observed in 1925, when I 
know that there was a very large run of red salmon into the Tikchik Lakes 
in comparison with the escapement of recent years. I would estimate that 
more than 500,000 red salmon entered Lake Nuyakuk during 1925. During 
July and early in August I heard reports from both white men and natives 
of the unprecedented number of red salmon ascending Nushagak River. When 
I ascended it on August 20, spent and dead red salmon were to be seen in 
numbers from Portage Creek up. The first considerable number of live red 
salmon were found in a nearly dry slough 6 miles above the village of Ekwok, 
80 miles above Snag Point, where 110 red salmon were counted in one spawning 
group. 

The Nushagak River, from head of tidewater below Portage Creek to 
Koliganek 150 miles above Snag Point, is an anastomosing stream, with two 
or more main channels paralleling roughly the flood plain, which is from 2 to 
5 or more miles wide. Within this tlood plain there is a veritable network 
of cross sloughs connecting the several main channels. From the point where 
spawning red salmon were first observed to the mouth of the Nuyakuk, a dis- 
tance of about 70 miles, red salmon were observed in the nearly dry cross 
sloughs wherever there was a heavy seepage from the gravel above. 

The edges of the river and the bars everywhere were covered with dead 
and dying humpbacks. This year's run of humpbacks is even larger than that 
of 1920. A few dead chum and king salmon also were seen. According to 
the natives at the several villages along the river, the run of chum salmon 
was light, except very early in the season. The king run was less than usual, 
and the silver run so far is very light. The native caches were already full 
of dried fish, mostly reds, but they were still taking a few reds chiefly with 
spear. 

The size of these reds is particularly noticeable. My observation of the 
Wood River reds this summer was that they were larger than usual, and these. 
Nushagak reds are noticeably larger than those of the Wood River. The 
number of reds spawning below Koliganek, 70 miles from Lake Nuyakuk, 
came as a great surprise to me. It is known that a few red salmon spawn 
each year in Wood River below Aleknagik Lake. The writer assumes that 
these river-hatched fish form a part of the fingerlings which reach salt water 
as one-year fish. 

The writer has for many years been a purchaser of dried salmon for dog 
feed at various points in western Alaska. I know of no dried red salmon that 
are superior in fiesh or oil to those taken above the rapids of Nuyakuk Rivel 
and from Nuyakuk Lake during the height of the run. I have seen fish taken 
from Lake Nuyakuk as bright and firm as salt-water fish. All this is mentioned 
that you may better realize the value of a worth-while effort to restore this 
run of red salmon. 

******* 

For your information I am submitting herewith estimate of red salmon that 
spawned in Nushagak River below Koliganek and in Nuyakuk Lake and a 
rough guess at the number of such fish passing other points during the 1926 
season. While the numbers submitted do not, except in detached instances, 
represent actual counts, yet I feel that the figures are worthy of consideration, 
particularly as I have in all instances made liberal deductions from the original 
totals. Had this run of red salmon not been so almost unbelievably large, 
and to me so unexplainable, I would not have taken the trouble to attempt an 
estimate of the number of fish. Neither would I have had the presumption 
to present these figures to you as in any way reliable. But this run is so great 
that I can not but feel that the Bureau of Fisheries should have some cognizance 
of it: 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 259 

Estimated mimbor of red sahnon — 

Spawninj: in Nusliasak l{iver bolow Koligaiiek 120, 000 

Spawning in lower .'!0 miles of Nuvaluili River SO, 000 

rassins: into Nuval<nlv I.al<e 900,000 

rassinc into Mnlchatna River 40,000 

Passing up Nushagak River above Koliuanek 50,000 

Spawiiini; in tributaries of the Nushagak between the Mulchatna River and 

Koliganek 10,000 

Total - 1, 200, 000 

I respectfully sucuest that .v(m have an observer on the Tikchik waters 
durinsr 1927. and that (luring both 1927 and 1928 you arrange to have linger- 
lings taken at various points along the Nushagak River, this for the purpose of 
cheeking my report of the number of ascending red salmon during the present 
season as well as for scientitic study. I believe that examinations of scales 
from the descending flngerlings and the ascending mature fish, taken over a 
series of years from well above tidewater, within the Nushagak River, may add 
not a little to the known facts regarding red salmon. Such a study might also 
confirm the belief that the salmon originating in the distant Tikchik waters are 
much superior in size, color, and flesh to the Wood River salmon. 

With regard to the run of humpbacks, I hesitate to put on paper my esti- 
mated figures. I have never seen in any part of Alaska anything to equal the 
numbers of dead and dying salmon in the water and stranded along the shores, 
islands, and bars of the Nushagak and Nuyakuk Rivers from August 23 to 
September 5. At any time prior to September 1 many ascending humpbacks 
were to be seen. I shall content myself with stating one fact concerning the 
pre.seut year's run of humpback salmon. For any given mile of shore line of 
the Nushagak River, from Koliganek to Portage Creek, a distance of approxi- 
mately 95 miles, over 5.000 humpbacks were stranded. This, you will under- 
stand, is for one shore line only of the channel or of the islands ; some of the 
island bars were literally covered with the carcasses of the spent humpbacks. 
The above figure of 5,000 per mile was arrived at by actual count of the fish 
for distances of 1,000 feet at various points along the river and by many 
observations and counts over shorter distances. At the same time many 
floaters were in the river. Even larger numbers were to be found in 65 out of 
the 70 miles length of the Nuyakuk River. Conditions in the lower 30 miles of 
the Nuyakuk River were similar to those on the channels and islands of the 
Nushagak. While the upper end of the Nuyakuk is chiefly one channel, the 
number of dead flsh per mile was probably in excess of the number per mile 
in the anastomosing part of the Nuyakuk. 

It would seem that if the descending flngerlings from this run of humpback 
salmon at all coincide with the descending red flngerlings from the run of 1925 
or 1926, then the probable great number of humpback flngerlings would be a 
potent factor in increasing the number of red flngerlings that will escape their 
natural enemies while en route to the sea. 

EXAMINATION OF THE SNAKE RIVER LAKE SYSTEM 

The Snake River Lake system is the smallest of the four important 
lake systems tributary to Nushao;ak Bay. It consists of a small 
pflacier-fed lake almost surrounded by mountains, known as the 
Snake River Lake, and the Snake River, which flows through an 
extensive swamp, known as the Snake River Marsh, into Nushagak 
Bay. An attempt was made by Warden A. T. Looff, in August and 
September. 1925, to explore this water system; and again in Febru- 
ary, 1926. he set out for the Snake River Lake, traveling by dog team 
direct from Dillingham to the lake. Warden Looff's reports on 
these two trips are as follows : 

In making the trip to the Snake River district by boat the writer left Nu- 
.«;hagak with a power skiff at 9 a. m. on August 29, 1925, and arrived at the 
edge of the Snake River flats at noon. After waiting two hours for the tide 
the flats were crossed and the mouth of the river entered at 3 p. m. Camp 
was made at 10 p. m. at a point about 60 miles up river, as it was too dark 
to see further. The following day the trip was continued. At 1 p. m. clear 
water was reached, and about a mile farther shallow water was encountered 



260 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



at the foot of the Snake River rapid, which extends for a distance of about 
4 miles below the outlet of the Snake River Lake. The remainder of the 
day was spent in making an examination of the rapid and attempting to take 
the boat through, but this proved impossible and camp was established at the 
foot of the rapid. The crest of one of the largest tides of the season was 
barely perceptible at the foot of the rapid. While en route up the river its 
course was mapped and the work checked on the return trip. 

On September 1 the writer walked to Snake River Lake and examined 
red-salmon spawning grounds along the southeast shore. From the outlet 




of the lake for a distance of about 6 miles along the east shore it was estimated 
that about 30,000 red salmon were spawning in exceptionally good gravel. 
This subsequently proved to be the most suitable spawning area in the lake. 

Having heard from natives at Nushagak that Snake River Lake has two out- 
lets, an attempt was made on September 2 to enter it by ascending the west 
branch of Snake River. This branch was ascended for a distance of about 30 
miles, when it had become so small that all hope of entering the lake by it 
was abandoned. After walking a short distance up along the stream to get 
a better view of its headwaters, the return trip was begun at noon on Sep- 
tember 3, and Nushagak was reached at 11 a. m. the following day. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 261 

Oa the next trip Id Siuike River Lake the writer left Dillinj?ham by dog 
team at S.30 a. m. February 4, 1926. and reached a point on the east shore 
of the lake, about 2 miles jibove its outlet, at 1 p. m. The shore was then fol- 
lowed in a northwesterly direction for about 3 miles and a base camp estab- 
lished. The foUowini; forenoon was spent in fishing for Dolly Varden trout 
through the ice near camp. 13 being caught. During the afternoon a tribu- 
tary entering Snake River Lake on the north shore about 4 miles above the 
lake outlet was examined by walking up a distance of about 3 miles. This is 
the largest tributary and is about 5 miles long, with its source in the moun- 
tains. In its lower reaches the stream has an average width of 15 feet and 
an average depth of 2 feet. For the first mile it has a good gravel bottom, 
but farther up it is rocky. 

On February 6 the writer left camp with a dog team at 7 a. m. and, 
driving oa the ice, followed the north shore to the head of the lake, thence 
along the south shore to a point opposite the camp, returning across the lake 
and reaching camp at 3.30. The average depth of the ice was 12 inches. 

On February 7 a heavy snowstorm, with high wind, occurred, and the day 
was spent in camp. On February 8 the writer left camp at 9 a. m. and 
drove across the lake to the point on the south shore, where work had been 
left off two days before. The trip was then coatinued along the south shore, but 
about 3 miles above the outlet open water was encountered. After an un- 
successful attempt to encircle this open water he returned to camp. The 
mapping of the district was completed with this trip, and on February 9 the 
return to Dillingham was made. 

A general description of the district is as follows : Snake River Lake is 
about 13 miles in length, with an average width of about 4 miles. It is 
almost entirely surrounded by high mountains, which are especially steep 
along the south shore, where many very small streams flow into the lake. 
A number of small tributaries also enter along the north shore. Only one 
native family lives in the district, and it remains there only duriag the winter 
season. 

The distance from the outlet of Snake River Lake to the mouth of Snake - 
River, as the crow flies, is only about 20 miles, but following the meanderings / 
of the stream it is fully 100 miles. Excepting about 4 miles of rapids imme- 
diately below the outlet of the lake, the river winds in most amazing loops 
through an extensive swamp region to Nushagak Bay. On the map of the 
district, which is submitted, many of the lesser loops of the river are not 
shown, but the general trend is correct. 

INSPECTION OF ILIAMNA AND LAKE CLARK SPAWNING AREAS IN 192 6 

In the fall of 1926 Agent Dennis Winn made a trip over the 
district covered by him in 1925. His report on this inspection was 
as follows : 

For the purpose of making the annual inspection of the spawning areas in 
the Iliamna and Lake Clark districts the writer left Juneau on August 17, 
1926. proceeding on i-egular commercial steamer to Seward, thence via the . 
Alaska Railroad to Anchorage, from which place transportation was furnished 
by the bureau's patrol vessel Kittiwake to Iliamna Bay via Seldovia. Iliamna 
was reached on August 23, and the following morning the survey of the 
spawning grounds of Iliamna Lake was begun with the launch Marie R. 
On account of heavy wind, harbor was made for the night in Goose Bay. 
Some salmoa were noted spawning near its entrance, and a few thousand 
spawners were seen along the shores of the bay and the lake shore near its 
entrance. 

The first objective was the locating of a satisfactory site for a counting 
weir. Leaving Goose Bay in heavy weather on the morning of August 25, 
calls were made at Newhalen River camps, where the natives reported an 
extremely heavy run. All were through fishing and had their fish stored in 
winter quarters. Four families of reindeer men had put up 190 bundles 
(7,600 salmon) ; one reindeer man at Eagle Bay had put up 27 bundles (1,080 
salmoa), and 120 bundles (4,800 salmon) were dried at roadhouse portage for 
home use and dog feed. Red salmon were seen breaking water over the entire 
lower Newhalen, but the water was too discolored for intelligent estimating. 



262 U- S. BUKEAU OF FISHERIES 

From signs and the reports of native fishermen it is thought that the run 
here must have been an exceptionally large one. 

After the storm subsided an inspection was made of several locations in the 
Kvichak River, as far down as Horseshoe Bend, which were not suitable for 
weir purposes. At the- entrance to Kaskonak Flats a feasible and suitable 
location was found for the weir, and measurements and depths were secured. 
Good numbers of humpbacks were seen spawning over the flats. They appear 
to be increasing perceptibly each year. The return was then made to the lake, 
and, on account of bad weather, refuge was taken in Big Mountain Island 
Harbor for the night. 

The following morning a trip was made to Belinda Creek, where two families 
of reindeer natives were camped. Their cache contained about 130 bundles 
(5,200 red salmon), or about the same amount that they usually put up in 
good years. Few fish were seen in the small creek, and it is believed that the 
natives take nearly its entire yield for their home use. Weather conditions 
were unfavorable for landing at Kokhonak Creek, but a trip was made up 
Copper River with Evinrude and dory, the water being very low. More 
spawning than formerly was in progress in the lower reaches of the river and 
slightly less in the upper reaches in comparison with good years. The escape- 
ment compared favorably with 192.3 and was slightly in excess of that year, 
but in no way equal to 1922 and considerably less than 1921. Good spawning 
was in progress, and the available area was fairly well covered, which, taken 
in connection with the numbers dead on the bars and beaches, shows conclu- 
sively an ample seeding. No extensive schoolings were noticed in this district. 
Some excess seeding was evidenced by small lots of early eggs being dug up by 
late spawners, but this was not extensive. Numerous bear trails, with fresh 
tracks, were seen, but no animals were encountered. A white family living on 
Copper River dried 30 bundles (1,200 salmon) for dog feed. An outstanding 
feature of the run here was the large size of the salmon in comparison with 
last year. It was estimated that about 200,000 red salmon had spawned, or 
about 25 per cent over 1923. This, however, is only about 70 per cent of 
1921. 

On returning to Kokhonak Creek, weather was favorable and it was entered 
with the launch. Water was also low here, and the river could be crossed on 
the bars at practically any point. There were not as many dead spent fish 
as at Copper River, but there was a considerable number dead along the shores. 
Compared with Copper River, greater numbers of spawners were seen all 
along the stream. The si)avvniing areas were well covered, and practically the 
entire stream bottom was worked over by the salmon. No loss was noted from 
overseeding, but loss from this cause will occur later, due to the numbers, 
schooling in the eddies along the river in addition to those already on the 
spawning grounds. Every eddy and hole along the stream bank and back 
of large rocks in the stream contained schools of a few hundred to several 
thousand red salmon. The large size of the salmon here was noticeable, too, 
and measurements were made of many dead specimens, which were 28, 29, 
and 30 inches long. Fishing camps had been established by several families 
of reindeer natives on the side of the bluff where the creek empties into the 
lake. Their catch for home consumption and dog feed was 157 bundles (6,280 
salmon). No fishing was being carried on at the time of this visit. The 
estimated escapement into this stream was 250,000 red salmon, or 20 per cent 
over that of 1923, which is considered ample and comparable with the escape- 
ment of 1921. 

Shelter from rain and high winds was taken for the night in Kokhonak Point 
Harbor. On the morning of August 29 a start was made to Woody Islands, 
but the wind increased and refuge was taken in Chekok Harbor. In the after- 
iloon the trip was continued to the Woody Island Lakes. With the exception 
of 1922, spawning here has always been small. More salmon were noted in the 
island lakes and also along the shoreline in Iliamna Lake than for the last 
three years. The season is early here, and estimates were based on the dead 
fish on the shores after spawning. It is thought that about 2,000 red salmon 
had spawned or were spawning in the lakes and entrance, which is comparable 
with 1923. The night was spent in Goose Bay. 

An investigation was next made of Chekok Creek and the spring ponds 
tributary thereto. A few salmon were spawning in the creek mouth, and several 
small schools were seen ascending the stream. A beaver dam, with fresh 
workings, was found about three-fourths mile upstream. It was about 50 feet 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 263 

long, with an opening? about 4 feet wide. It liad no eft'ect on the ascent of the 
salmon and no action was taken at tlie time. It is probable that the beavers 
and also the barrier will be entirely removed in the spring, when it will be 
permissible to take beaver for tur. The large spring pond about 3 miles up 
Chekok Creek contained about 800 red salmon, and about 200 more were 
schooling at the entrance. The main stream was very sparsely seeded. It is 
thought that not over 5,000 red salmon entered this stream, including its 
tributaries. 

All of the streams along this northwest shore, including Pedro Bay, Knutson 
Bay, Kiuuey Creek, and the small streams in the vicinity of Roadhouse Portage 
and Eagle Bay, received their quota of spawning salmon. These streams, with 
the exception of Kinney Creek, are small but important, with from 1,000 to 2,000 
red salmon each. Mr. Kinney reported the greatest run in his district since 
lUlS, but observations did not bear this out. The run in this locality was 
comparable with 1923. 

A trii) was made to Newhalen River to arrange for packers over the portage 
to Lake Clark. Arrangements were also made for a boat on the Newhalen side 
of the portage for a trip upriver. The trip over the portage was made on 
August 31 in heavy rain, and camp was established on the Newhalen side with 
everything wet and disagreeable. 

On September 1 the trip was continued to Tarnalia Point. On the way 
upriver salmon were noted in good numbers breaking w^ater for a few miles in 
the lower and upper reaches of the river, and on the return trip, on September 
6, red salmon were appearing over the entire stream. Some good schools were 
noticed in the river, but the water was too badly discolored for an intelligent 
estimate of their number. 

Many new fish villages had been established along the river, but all were 
deserted at the time of this visit. The heavy early run permitted the natives to 
get their supply of salmon cured for home use and dog feed near the beginning 
of the season, after which they moved back to their winter quarters at 
Nondalton. All reported the heaviest run since 1922, and possibly even larger 
than that year. On the trip up the lake some salmon were noted schooling at 
various points along the south shore, and large schools were in the vicinity of 
Tarnalia Point. Tarnalia Creek had broken into the lake over the fl^ts through 
several channels, which seemed to hold more attraction for the salmon, as there 
were large schools at each channel mouth. Before breaking into channels, this 
stream was not suitable for spawning salmon. No spawning was noted in the 
east or upper portion of the lake, although in the west or lower end it was 
nearly over. All local families on the lake had discontinued fishing and removed 
their nets from the water, having obtained sufficient salmon for their own use. 
Locals along the west end of the lake had dried 140 bundles (5,600 salmon) for 
home use, and at the lower end of the lake they had 708 bundles (28,320 
salmon). 

Continuing the trip to the head of Little Lake Clark, a stop was made at 
Current Creek. This stream has changed its bed many times over the flat 
valley extending back several miles from its outlet and enters the lake through 
several small channels along about Mj mile of shore line. No salmon were seen 
in the vicinity, but spawning here is not extensive, and only near the head- 
waters several miles back is any spawning possible. The salmon had not 
reached here yet. 

The streams at the head of Little Lake Clark and Big River, at the entrance 
to Lake Clark, were in flood, but no salmon had as yet made their appearance 
this far up the lake. Along the north shore and beginning a few miles from 
Little Lake Clark, salmon were breaking occasionally. Brown Carlson, at 
whose home the night was spent, stated that the fish had reached his place 
only about two weeks before, and they were only then en route to the head of 
the lake. Observations bore out this statement. Mr. Carlson had obtained 
all the fish needed for home use and dog feed in a few days. He regarded 
the run as the best since 1918. 

The north shore was inspected as far as Kegik Creek on September 3, and 
salmon were noted breaking in numerous places along the lake shore. Kegik 
Creek w^as also in flood and discolored. Salmon were seen outside, but none in 
the stream, though possibly they had passed up to Kegik Lake. Two beaver 
dams, one partly and the other entirely complete, w^ere found about 2 miles 
above the outlet. They were about 300 feet long and backed the water over 
about half a mile of flat, but the height of the water offered no barrier to the 
salmon. However, as the water spilled evenly over the entire length of the 

48765—27 4 



264 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

dam, it was thought the ascent would be difficult in low water, and a section 
of about 30 feet was broken out. Beaver workings were noted in all streams 
throughout the flats. It is believed that the opening of the beaver season in 
the spring will remove this menace to the ascent of sahnou, but all streams 
where beaver are reported should be inspected each year. 

On September 4 a trip was made over the portage to Kegik Lake. More sal- 
mon were in evidence here than ever had been noted before. Almost the entire 
west shore or head of the lake was well covered with salmon. Around the 
mouth of the four small creeks it was estimated there were 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 
and 10,000 red salmon, respectively, and salmon also were milling along the 
lake shore between the streams preparatory to spawning, and were jumping in 
the lake over a quarter of a mile from shore. None had entered the creeks as 
yet or had begun spawning. It was estimated that at least 50,000 red salmon 
were in sight from the shore, which, of course, does not represent all the salmon 
that entered the lake, but only the early fish. This is a late-spawning area, and 
salmon had reached it only two weeks before. Also, no check was possible 
around the lake, as the sides are almost perpendicular bluffs. The return was 
made to Tarnalia Point and the portage reached on September 6. 

Only a casual inspection was made of Taziminia, but apparently there was 
an adequate supply of salmon for thoroughly seeding the 8 miles of river avail- 
able for spawning below the falls. 

Return was made by way of the portage to Iliamna Lake, and thence by 
launch to Iliamna Village. A rumor was investigated that some local white 
men contemplated beaver farming, using salmon streams for the purpose. 
Those interested were advised that the idea should not be encouraged, as such 
operations will not be permitted. 

More salmon were reported in Pile Bay tributaries than for the past six 
years. The numbers were not large, but the increase is most encouraging. Red 
salmon in Iliamna River were not numerous — fewer than in 1923 but more than 
in 1921. It was estimated that about 10,000 salmon spawned in the stream. 
Local whites and natives had dried 407 bundles (16,280 red salmon) for home 
use and dog feed. 

The inspection as a whole was very satisfactory and encouraging. The 
escapement was the best since 1918, with the exception of 1922, and except 
in a few areas the numbers were considered adequate for proijer seeding. 
Not all of the available area was covered, however, and some good areas were 
but sparsely covered, as compared with other good years. Certain areas will 
receive ample numbers one year and few another, while other areas are satis- 
factorily seeded every year ; although a year like 1925 would be an exception 
to this latter rule, as there were not enough salmon to cover the grounds of 
any area. As the result of observations year after year it appears that even 
in a satisfactory year, such as this, as much suitable area remains vacant as 
is used for spawning. 

It is believed that Lake Clark received the larger portion of the escapement 
this year, while in 1921, 1922, and 1923 the greater bulk of the escapement 
appeared to center in Iliamna Lake. Returns from this year's spawning will 
also probably be better because the water in the lakes was low, with consequent 
less likelihood of the water receding and leaving the spawning beds bare, as 
occasionally occurs. The streams emptying into Iliamna Lake also were low 
and securely bedded, thus eliminating most of the shallow sloughs, where in 
some years great losses undoubtedly occur when the water recedes after the 
eggs are deposited, and leaves them dry. 

Throughout the district the local whites and natives took their full supply 
of salmon early when the fish were good, and discontinued fishing, except for 
occasional fresh salmon for themselves and their dogs. Rehabilitation of the 
runs has also caused the reestablishment of fishing camps by the natives. Sev- 
eral camps had been located at Kokhonak Creek and along the Newhalen River, 
and one near the mouth of the Kegik River on Lake Clark. Camps and vil- 
lages formerly existed at these places but were discontinued, primarily on 
account of scarcity of salmon. The total number of red salmon dried by local 
whites and natives in the Iliamna and Lake Clark districts was 1,909 bundles 
(76,360 fish). Probably the number used fresh and the few barrels salted 
would bring the total catch to 100,000 salmon, which is about the average 
number used in years when salmon are plentiful. 

One feature, which the natives reported had never occurred before, was 
the appearance of humpback salmon along the north shore of Iliamna Lake. 
A few were seen near the Iliamna-Newhalen portage, and natives had taken 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 265 

several in red-salmoii iiots. Tlicre could not have been a larf;e iminlHT, but it 
is deomod possible that both humpback and silver salmon are increasing in 
numbers as a result of the short commercial tishing season, which ends before 
either of these si>ecies mak(>s its ajun-arance in niunbers in liristol I?ay. A 
closer check on this matter will be ]iossibl«> next year throu.i;h the installation 
of a counting weir in the Kvichak Kiver. A decided increase in the number 
of humpbacks spawning on the Hats is apparent from the bureau's insi>ections 
in other years and also from the reports of launch operators who have been 
navigating the river for many years. 

KUSKOKWIM RIVER 

All commercial fishinfr for salmon for export from Alaska was 
prohibited in the Kiiskokwim Kiver and the area off its mouth. 
Stream Guard Charles McGonagal was again stationed on the river 
during the fishing season to observe operations. No violations of 
the law or regulations were reported. Operations included only 
the salting of red salmon and the drying of chimis for dog feed. 
The amounts of these products were 31 barrels of pickled reds 
and 479 tons of dried chums. There were 15 whites and 155 
natives engaged in the fishery. Apparatus in use consisted of 25 
wheels, 124 gill nets of 6,200 fathoms, and miscellaneous small boats. 

YUKON RIVER 

Fishing in Yukon River waters for export from Alaska is pro- 
hibited, but operations were carried on as usual to supply local 
needs and particularly the market for dried salmon for dog feed 
throughout the interior of Alaska. Inspector C. F. Townsend and 
one stream guard were on duty at the fishing grounds throughout 
the season. Reports indicate that the season was unusually favorable 
for the preparation of an excellent product, and that the run of 
kings was the heaviest in years. An unusually heavy run of hump- 
backs occurred, and there was also a fair run of chums. On account 
of extremely high water, the catch of salmon on the Tanana River 
was small. 

Products of the Yukon and Tanana fisheries were as follows : 
381/^ barrels of pickled chums, 911^ barrels pickled kings, 600 pounds 
kippered kings, 97,164 pounds dried kings, and 723,000 pounds dried 
chums. Apparatus consisted of 188 wheels, 50 gill nets of 769 
fathoms, 1 launch, and a ninnber of small boats; 32 wliites and 228 
natives were engaged in the fishery, 

KARLUK SALMON COUNT 

Counts of ascending spawning salmon were made at a weir in the 
Karluk River, located at approximately the same position as in 
preceding seasons. The weir was completed by May 14, and the 
first fish passed through on May 20. A considerable run began on 
June 2, and counting was continued through October 14, when 
2,533,412 red salmon, 5.917 kings, 15,071 humpbacks, and 18,254 
cohos had been counted through. After the 1st of October the run 
of red salmon fluctuated and appeared to be about over; but after 
orders had been given for the removal of the weir more reds appeared 
in the river, and a considerable number had not yet ascended when 
counting was discontinued. 



266 U- S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

The departmental regulations prohibited commercial fishing for 
salmon in Karluk waters before 6 a. m. June 15 and after 6 p. m, 
September 15, and in addition from August 21 to September 5 the 
weekly closed period in the district was extended from 6 p. m. Sat- 
urday to 6 a. m. Wednesday of each week in order to permit a larger 
percentage of the red salmon to escape. The commercial take of 
red salmon from the Karluk run Avas 2,131,616, or 46 per cent of 
the total. Ray S. Wood was in charge of counting operations at the 
Karluk weir, under the direction of H. H. Hungerford. 

A special study of the run at Karluk was made during the season 
by Dr. W. H. Rich. A large migration of red salmon fingerlings 
down river was noted in May, June, and July. Approximately 
47,000 of the early migrants were marked by clipping two fins. A 
temporary web weir was constructed about 8 miles below Karluk Lake, 
more particularly for the handling of humpbacks if they ascended in 
any considerable numbers; but as the run was very small there was 
no great need of this supplementary weir, and its operation was 
discontinued. On July 19, 100 ascending red salmon were marked 
at the lower weir by attaching a piece of white tape to their tails. At 
the upper weir 52 of the salmon thus marked were noted, the time of 
ascending the intervening 16 miles varying from 2 to 9 days. Some 
of the marked salmon probably lost the tape and others may have 
passed through the weir unnoticed. 

ALITAK SALMON COUNT 

Weirs chiefly for counting red salmon were again maintained in 
two streams tributary to Olga Bay. The one at the upper station 
was completed on May 16 and the cannery-station weir on May 20. 
Red salmon began to ascend on May 22 and continued until Septem- 
ber 30, when the weirs were remoyed. There were also a few red 
salmon that had not ascended at that time. At the upper station 
the escapement was 789,947 reds and at the cannery station 105,142 
reds, a total of 895,089. In addition, 10,866 cohos and 663 humpbacks 
were counted through the upper station weir and 2,900 cohos and 
8,327 humpbacks through the cannery-station weir, a total of 13,766 
cohos and 8,990 humpbacks. As these latter species spawn chiefly 
elsewhere, the counts at the weirs do not indicate the total escape- 
ment. There is also a run of red salmon into Horse Marine Lagoon, 
where no counting weir is maintained. It was estimated that ap- 
proximately 25,000 red salmon spawned in the lake and streams at 
its head, which bring the figures for the total escapement of reds in 
Alitak Bay waters to considerably over 900,000. 

Commercial fishing in Alitak Bay and its tributary waters was pro- 
hibited prior to 6 a. m. June 15, to Avhich time there had been an 
escapement of 80,537 red salmon. The conmiercial catch approached 
the recorded escapement on July 31, and a trap in Moser Bay was 
ordered closed at 6 p. m. on July 31. Another trap in the same waters 
was closed at 6 p. m. August 7, and both remained closed until 6 a. m. 
August 16. The total reported catch of red salmon in the district 
was 323,596. No commercial fishing was carried on after Septem- 
ber 18. 

Homer H. Whitford was in charge of operations for the bureau. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 267 

CHIGNIK SALMON COUNT 

Work on the erection of the weir in Cliignik River was begun on 
April 30 at a point about '20 rods above its location in the preceding 
year, where the water was from 2 to 5 feet in depth and the river 
about 450 feet wide. An unusually large migration of red-salmon 
fingerlings was noted during the construction of the weir and con- 
tinued into August. 

Ked salmon began to pass through the weir on June 1, but did not 
come in considerable numbers untd June 8. At no time during the 
season was there a large run. As a result of a flood, the river became 
roily, and the weir was so damaged that counting of fish was dis- 
continued from June 20 to July 6, M^hen repairs were completed. 
Estimates were made of the daily escapement during this period. 
Counting was discontinued on September 25, as the water again be- 
came too roily to see the fish and the run virtually was over. The 
total number of red salmon that passed through the weir was 960,314. 
In addition, 1,682 kings and 78,923 coho salmon were counted. 
There was a good run of humpbacks, which spawned along the wdiole 
length of the river. 

On June 15 commercial fishing by the three canneries that have 
fished this district in past seasons began, in addition to which the 
Salmon King^ a floating cannery, anchored at Chignik on June 17 
and fished from June 18 to July 15. By departmental regulations, 
no commercial fishing is permitted after September 15. On account 
of the large percentage of the run of red salmon which was being 
taken, the four traps in Chignik Lagoon were closed on July 3 for 
the remainder of the season, and three traps in Chignik Bay were 
closed during a part of the fishing season. The total commercial 
catch of red salmon from the Chignik run was 440,989. The work 
at Chignik was under the immediate supervision of Warden Charles 
Petry. 

MORZHOVOI SALMON COUNT 

The counting of salmon ascending to spawning grounds was in- 
augurated at Morzhovoi Bay in 1926 by the construction of a weir 
on a stream about one-fourth mile above the point where it flows 
into the middle lagoon. The w^eir was 42 feet long over all and 
crossed the stream at a point where the banks were about 7 feet 
high with an average water depth of 2 feet. The pickets were driven 
into the ground for a distance varying from 18 to 36 inches, and a 
trench was dug along the lower face of the weir on the upstream 
side, against which sod was packed, with gravel over it to weight 
it. Two braces were placed in the center of the weir, one on each 
side of the channel, and the capping anchored to them on one end 
and to mud sills on each shore end, firmly embedded in the abrupt 
banks. Assistance was rendered by the King Cove cannery of the 
Pacific American Fisheries in transporting materials for the weir. 

The weir was completed on May 8, and a stream guard was sta- 
tioried there on June 18, but salmon did not begin to pass through 
until June 22. None but reds passed through until August 17. The 
last red was counted on August 30 and the weir was removed on 
September 3, a total of 13,590 reds, 3 kings, and 176 cohos having 



268 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

passed through. Cohos were still running at the time the weir was 
removed. Some red salmon spawned in the stream below the weir. 
This work was under the supervision of Assistant Agent L. G. 
Wingard. 

THIN POINT LAGOON SALMON COUNT 

Salmon counting was inaugurated in 1926 at Thin Point Lagoon 
by the construction of a weir at the lake outlet above the lagoon. 
Considerable trouble was experienced in finding a suitable site on 
account of the short course of the stream that flows from the lake 
into the lagoon. The site selected was in the lake itself, where a 
V-shaped weir, about 150 feet long, was erected, the ends touching 
the lake shore and extending out into the lake. It w^as protected by 
a small point that extends into the lake. The water was shallow, 
from 6 to 30 inches, except in one deeper hole, and the current was 
sluggish, except in a northeasterly wind. During the season the 




Fig. 4. — Sahiioii-ciiiiiitiiii; wt-ir, Uj;as>liik Kivei' 

extremely warm weather melted Frosty Peak Glacier to such an 
extent that the stream flowing from it broke a new channel into Thin 
Point Lake and deposited a considerable amount of sediment at the 
outlet and along the left shore lead of the weir. No damage was 
done to the weir, but the resulting discoloration made it difficult to 
see and count the salmon. 

The weir was completed by July 1, and the first red salmon were 
counted through on July 10, the last on August 28. The total 
escapement counted was 8,772 reds and 57 cohos. Some cohos were 
still in the lagoon when the weir was removed on September 1 and 
would probably ascend later. The escapement was regarded as poor 
as compared with other years. Many fish perished on the flats, due, 
it is thought, to the low water and the silt from the glacial stream, 
which clogged their gills. 

The work at this place was under the supervision of Assistant 
Agent L. G. Wingfard. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 269 

UGASHIK SALMON COUNT 

A salmon-counting weir was erected in the Ugashik River in 1926. 
Agent Dennis Winn selected the site in the previous season, and the 
weir was constructed about 50 miles up the river, a short distance 
below the outlet of the first Ugashik Lake. At this point the river 
is 770 feet wide, with an average depth of 3 feet. The bottom is 
gravel, and the water is perfectly clear. The largest tides from 
Bristol Bay barely reach the weir. Immediately below the weir site 
the river widens into a shallow mud-bottomed lagoon, below which 
the water is too badly discolored to permit counting the fish. 

The weir consists of a picket fence on stringers, supported by 
tripods for about 360 feet across the main current of the river, with 
a 6- foot wire-netting fence, about 370 feet long, to the eastern bank 
and another about 40 feet long to the west bank, with a wing to 
permit the passage of boats up and down the river along the west 
bank. Six counting gates were built in the weir for the passage of 
salmon. 

The first red salmon passed through on June 15, although not all 
of the counting gates were erected until June 20. The run con- 
tinued through August 12, when the dismantling of the weir was 
begun. The total count of salmon was 786,775 reds, 278 chums, 17 
humpbacks, 46 kings, and 27 cohos. 

•Henry McFadden was in charge of operations at this weir during 
the season. 

ANAN SALMON COUNT 

In 1926 a weir for the counting of salmon was again installed in 
Anan Creek. It was completed Slay 12, and a few steelhead trout 
made their appearance at that time, but the run of humpback salmon 
did not begin until June 12. From that date until August 31 a total 
of 121,780 humpbacks passed through the weir. In addition, 106 
kings, 586 reels, 835 cohos, 75 chums, and 647 steelhead trout were 
counted during the time the w^eir was operated. 

Walter J. Larson was in charge of the erection of the weir as 
well as of counting operations. 

SALMON TAGGING 

With a view to throwing further light on migration routes and to 
develop other information, the tagging and releasing of adult salmon 
was again undertaken in southeast Alaska in 1926. The total number 
tagged was 13,530, of which 13,082 were from traps and 448 were 
troll-caught fish. 

The numbers of salmon tagged and released from traps, and the 
localities where operations were carried on, were as follows : Tree 
Point, 650 fish; Kanagunut Island, 844; Gravina Island, 659; Point 
Colpoys, 1,036; Cape Bendel, 3,297; Marble Bluffs, 999; Inian 
Islands, 2,000; Stephens Passage, 1,499; Cape Chacon, 500; and Cape 
Muzon, 1,598; a total of 13,082. Of these, 2,297 were red salmon, 
820 chums, 614 cohos, and 9,351 humpbacks. Warden A. J. Suomela 
was in immediate charge of this work. 

In order to secure data in respect to the trolling industry, Hugo 
W. Frederickson, a temporary employee, was engaged to tag and 



270 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

release troll-caught salmon in the Baranof Island refjion of southeast 
Alaska in 1926. As a result, 448 salmon, of which 360 were cohos 
and 88 kings, not seriously injured when caught, were tagged and 
released. 

Complete returns on recaptures have not been received, but a 
separate report on the work will be published. 

SALMON LIFE-HISTORY STUDIES 

Important studies of the life history of the Pacific salmons, partic- 
ularly the red salmon, were continued in Alaska in 1926 bv Dr. C. 
H. Gilbert, of Stanford University, Calif., and Dr. Willis H. Rich, 
chief investigator of salmon fisheries, assisted by Seymour P. Smith. 
This work was conducted chiefly in the Karluk region. It included a 
thorough survey of Karluk Lake and the marking of approximately 
47,000 young red salmon migrating from Karluk Lake to the sea. 
Extensive collections of scales of salmon were made in various parts 
of Alaska for scientific study in relation to life-history problems. 
These activities are covered fully in another publication. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE ESCAPEMENT OF SALMON 

The act of June 6, 1924, states that it is the intent and policy of 
Congress that in all waters of Alaska in which salmon run there 
shall be an escapement of not less than 50 per cent thereof. Accord- 
ingly, in various parts of Alaska observations were made during the 
progress and at the conclusion of salmon runs of 1926 to secure 
information as to the escapement to the spawning grounds. 

Generally speaking, surveys showed that satisfactory numbers of 
salmon ascencled the streams for breeding purposes, although there 
were occasional exceptions, including more particularly the Copper 
River. Some changes in the regulations regarding fishing opera- 
tions Avere made during the season to insure adequate escapements to 
the spawning grounds. 

Southeastern Alaska. — Reports indicate a good escapement of red 
salmon in the Icy Strait region and other parts of the northern por- 
tion of soiiiheastern Alaska. In general, the escapement throughout 
the Wrangell district was less than in the previous year. Tliis was 
especially true in certain sections, notably along the Cleveland Penin- 
sula shore from Lemesurier Point through Union Bay, Ernest Sound, 
Bradford Canal, Eastern Passage, Zimovia Strait, and along the 
Etolin Island shore from Abraham Island to Chicagof Pass. Poor 
catches were made in these waters, and spawning streams examined 
from time to time showed a light escapement. 

Other areas showed marked improvement over 1925, particularly 
Kah Sheets Bay, where an excellent red-salmon escapement 
occurred. In fact, fishermen reported this the heaviest run for the 
last 12 seasons. Sarkar Cove showed up well in respect to both 
reds and cohos. Conditions in Barrie Creek were good, all species 
being on a par Avith 1925. There was a large escapement of hump- 
backs in Petersburg Creek. From Point Baker to Point Colpoys,, 
and through Snow Pass, Kashevarof Strait, and along the east 
coast of Prince of Wales Island in Clarence Strait, the escapement 
generally was good. Along the central and southern shores on. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 



271 



the west coast of the Prince of Wales Island region the escapement 
was excellent, although extreme low water, clue to lack of rain, 
proved a serious hindrance at times to the ascent of spawning 
salmon. This handicap was also true to some extent in nearly all 
streams, especially small streams in the Wrangell district and to 
the south. Kains in the latter part of August relieved this situati(m. 
In the general region centering at Ketchikan, a substantial increase 
in reds over the last few years was observed and a satisfactory 
escapement of this species w^as reported. 

Copper River district. — The escapement of breeding salmon to 
Copper River waters was unsatisfactory. This stream has been 
depleted through overfishing in former years or from other cause, 
and sharp curtailment of fishing through regulatory measures has 
been necessary in order to begin restoration of the runs to their 
former abundance. Apparently this stream is in less satisfactory 
condition than anv other large salmon stream in Alaska. 



\3\%j^^:" -'"i^,. 




Fig. 5. — Spent salmon on spawning beds, western Alaska 

Pinnce WiHiatn Sound district. — Reports indicate that in some 
streams there was a satisfactory escapement of red salmon to the 
spawning grounds. In particular, improvement was noted in the 
Eshamy region. In some sections the escapement seemed to be 
someAvhat less than in previous seasons. The escapement of hump- 
back salmon to spawning beds in some places was satisfactory and 
in others not equal to that of former seasons. Some further restric- 
tions in respect to fishing may be necessary to improve the escape- 
ment to certain waters. 

Cook Inlet distnct. — Investigations showed a bountiful seeding of 
red salmon spawning grounds in certain waters tributary to Cook 
Inlet. In other streams there was a good escapement, although 
salmon experienced difficulty in reaching the spawning beds in some 
places on account of low stages of the water. Certain places showed 
a large escapement of pink and chum salmon. On the whole, the 
escapement of salmon in the Cook Inlet district in 1926 was 
satisfactory. 



272 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Kodiak district. — Generally speaking, there was a satisfactory 
escapement of salmon to spawning grounds in the Kodiak region. 
This was particularly true of the Karluk River, where there was 
an excellent escapement. Other streams showed .improvement over 
former years, although in some cases the runs were not as extensive 
as had been anticipated. 

Alaska Peninsula district. — Investigations of spawning escape- 
ments in the Alaska Peninsula district were made by Assistant 
Agent L. G. Wingard. With the exception of a few places, the 
escapement generally was good. At some points the streams would 
have absorbed larger numbers of sj^awning fish had it not been for 
low stages of the water, which prevented their ascent to the spawn- 
ing grounds. Heavy rains later on improved this condition. 

Bristol Bar/ district. — In August and September Agent Dennis 
Winn made an extended trip over certain imjjortant areas tributary 
to the Bristol Bay district to observe the escapement of spawning 
salmon. The regions visited were substantially the same as those 
covered for a number of years previous, and comparisons with former 
conditions were thus possible. The inspection showed a satisfactory 
escapement of salmon generally throughout the region covered. Ex- 
cept in a few places, the number of salmon that escaped was con- 
sidered sufficient for a proper seeding of the beds. In fact, the 
escapement was considered the best since 1918, with the exception 
only of 1922. 

HATCHERIES 
EXTENT or OPERATIONS 

Salmon propagation in Alaska, exclusive of Territorial activities, 
was carried on at two Government-owned hatcheries, situated at 
Afognak and McDonald Lake, and two privately owned hatcheries — 
that of the Alaska Packers Association at Heckman Lake and the 
Northwestern Fisheries Co. at Hugh Smith Lake, 

Operations of Federal and private hatcheries in Alaska in 1926 



Location of hatchery 



Red or sockeye salmon 



Eggs taken 
in 1925 



Salmon lib- 
erated in 
1925-26 



Eggs taken 
in 1926 



Afognak 

McDonald Lake 

Heckman Lake (Fortmann) 
Hugh Smith Lake (Quadra) 

Total 



11,000,000 
39, 680, 000 
16, 920, 000 
20, 240, 000 



10, 075, 000 
27, 392, 200 
15, 990, 000 
19, 345, 000 



87, 840, 000 



» 21, 250, 000 

2 30, 760, 000 

3 21, 420, 000 
20, 000, 000 



2,802,200 93,430,000 



' Also 2,060,000 steelhead-trout eggs and 4,212,000 humpback-salmon eggs were collected. 

2 Shipped 5,241,130 eyed eggs to Seattle and 1,717,760 to the Territorial hatchery at Ketchikan. 

3 At the Fortmann hatchery 4,183,000 humpback-salmon fry were released in 1925-26 and 6,640,000 eggs 
of this species were taken in 1926. 

AFOGNAK 

At the Federal salmon hatchery at Afognak 10,075,000 No. 1 
fingerling red salmon were distributed from the 11,000,000 eggs 
collected in 1925, a loss of 8.4 per cent. During the month of Aj^ril 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 



273 



2,060,000 steolhead-trout c'<2:<is woi-e collected at Litnik Lake for 
shipment to the States. Of these, 1,023,360 eyed eg<>;s were shipped 
to Seattle on June 2, but a marked rise in the water temperature 
caused the incubation of the remainder of the ego;s to advance so 
rapidly that they could not be shipped. The 850,000 fry resulting 
were deposited in local Avaters durin<>: the month of June. 

The collection of red-salmon eggs began July 27, 192(), and ended 
September 10, with a total take of 21.250,000. A collection of 
humpback-salmon eggs was also made between August 30 and Sep- 
tember 7, in which period 4,212,000 eggs of this species were secured. 
The destruction of predatory trout was carried on throughout the 
greater part of the year, approximately 35,950 Dolly Vardens being 
taken. 




Fig. 6. — McDonald Lake hatchery 



MCDONALD LAKE 



At the Federal salmon hatchery on McDonald Lake 27,392,200 
red -salmon fry and fingerlings were released from March to July, 
1926, from the 39,680,000 eggs taken in 1925. In addition, a ship- 
ment of 8,645,760 eyed eggs had been made to the States in November, 
1925, making the net loss on the total take 9 per cent. 

Egg taking in 1926 began on September 6 ancl ended on September 
29, Avith a total take of 30,760,000 red-salmon eggs. During the 
month of October, 5.241,130 eyed eggs were shipped to Seattle for 
distribution in the State of Washington, and 1,717,760 eyed eggs 
were sent to the Territorial hatchery at Ketchikan. 



HECKMAN LAKE (FORTMANN) 



The Alaska Packers Association liberated 15,990,000 red-salmon 
fry from its Fortmann hatchery on Heckman Lake in 1926, which 
were hatched from 16,920,000 eggs taken in 1925, a loss of 5.5 per 



274 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

cent. In addition, 4,183,000 humpback-salmon fry hatched from 
eggs collected in 1925 were released. In 1926 egg taking began on 
August 24 and ended on November 18, during which time 21,420,000 
red-salmon eggs and 6,640,000 humpback-salmon eggs were taken. 
Notification has been given by the company that after the fry hatched 
from these eggs are released in 1927 the hatchery will be closed. 

HUGH SMITH LAKE (QUADRA) 

The Northwestern Fisheries Co. liberated 19,345,000 red-salmon 
fry from its hatchery near Boca de Quadra in 1926, hatched from 
20,240,000 eggs taken in 1925, a loss of 4 per cent. In 1926 the take 
of eggs was 20,000,000. 

TERRITORIAL HATCHERIES 

Under date of December 3, 1926, Edwin Wentworth, superintendent 
of hatcheries for the Alaska Territorial Fish Commission, submitted 
the following summary of operations at stations in 1926 : 

At Ketchikan hatchery 9,729,000 humpback-salmon fry were liberated from 
11,415,000 eggs — 5,479.000 in the hatchery creek, free-swimming, and 4,250.000 
to Ponds Bay salt-water feeding pond, where 31,470 were marked the latter 
part of July before liberating. 

Of the 2,000.000 eyed chinook eggs received from the State of Washington, 
1,789,000 fingerlings were liberated, ranging from 21/2 to 6 inches in length. 

About 100,000 sockeye fingerlings, hatched from 165,000 eggs, are still being 
held and fed, and at this time some of them will measure 5 inches in length. 

Of 265,000 chum-salmon fry hatched from 320,000 eggs 65.000 were liberated 
in Hatchery Creek and 200,000 were taken to the Ponds Bay salt-water feeding 
pond. 

Following is a record of the eggs collected and received at the Ketchikan 
hatchery in the season of 1926 : 

Sockeye, green eggs from Quadra 1, 320, 000 

Sockeye, green eggs from Ward Cove 300, 000 

Sockeye, eyed eggs from Yes Bay 1,717,760 

Humpback, green eggs from Ward Cove 150,000 

Humpback, green eggs from Lucky Cove 1,510,000 

Chinook, eyed eggs from State of Washington 2,000,000 

At Cordova the sockeye-salmon fry were planted in ponds during March, 
1926; 7,300,000 of these fry were fed in ponds until liberated, the last being 
liberated early in November. There were no eggs collected at the Cordova 
station this year. 

At the Seward hatchery the sockeye-salmon fry from the 4.460,544 eggs 
taken in 1925 were held and fed in inclosures in Grouse Lake and liberated 
on July 14, the number being 4,085,727. In 1926 there were collected at the 
Seward hatchery 3,164,000 sockeye eggs. The number of trout destroyed 
at the two traps near Seward totaled 3,717. At the Grouse Lake trap 472 
sockeye salmon passed through, and at the Bear Lake trap. 7.308. At Robe 
Lake stream trap 11,789 sockeye salmon were tallied through and 26,029 trout 
destroyed. 

HATCHERY REBATES 

The owners of private salmon hatcheries in Alaska, who are also 
packers of canned salmon, receive a rebate on license fees and taxes 
of every nature on their catch and pack of salmon at the rate of 40 
cents per 1,000 king or red salmon fry liberated by them in Alaskan 
waters. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 275 

Rebates credited to private salmon hatcheries, fiscal year ended June 30, 1926 



Owner 


Location 


Red-salmon 
fry liberated 


Rebate 
due 


Alaska Packers Association - 

Northwestern Fisheries Co 




15,990,000 
19, 345, 000 


$6, 396 




7.738 






Total . . .- - -- 


35, 335, 000 1 14, 134 









GENERAL STATISTICS OF THE FISHERIES 

The total number of persons engaged in the fisheries of Alaska in 
1926 was 28,052, or 367 more than in 1925. The total investment in the 
fisheries was $74,557,522, an increase of 11 per cent. The investment 
in the salmon industry was $62,367,459, an increase of $6,965,452 over 
1925. The products of the fisheries were valued at $54,669,882, an 
increase of $14,631,137, or 36.5 per cent. 

Sut)u)iari/ of persons engaged, investment, and products of the Alaska fisheries 

in 1926 



Items 



PERSONS ENGAGED 



Whites 

Natives 

Chinese 

Japanese 

Filipinos 

Mexicans 

Negroes 

Kanakas 

Miscellaneous. 



Total. 



INVESTMENT 

Salmon canning... 
Salmon mild cur- 
ing-- - 

Salmon pickling... 

Salmon drying, 

smoking, and 

dry salting 

Salmon by-prod- 
ucts 

Halibut fishery... 

Herring fishery 

Cod fishery 

Clam fishery 

Crab fishery 

Shrimp fishery 

Whale fishery 

Trout fishery 



Total. 



Southeast Alaska 



Number Value 



7,465 

3,182 

385 

704 

1,414 

156 

10 

33 

27 



13, 376 



PRODUCTS 

Salmon: 

Canned.. cases..' 3, 058,. 055 
Mild cured 

- pounds..! 4,380,000 

Pickled... do j 56,800 

Fresh do ' 2,268,573 

Frozen. ...do 3,769,395 

Dried, smoked, 

and dry salted 

pounds.. 75,018 

Fertilizer .do 936,000 

Oil gallons.- 28,014 



$26, 574, 925 
1,429,652 



109, 570 
3, 491, 892 
3, 805, 571 



28, 956 
315, 752 



Central Alaska 



Number Value 



4,613 
1,095 
311 
577 
656 
85 
34 
21 
4 



7,396 



35,756,318'. 



17,642,766 

1, 042, 367 

4,340 

221,111 

356, 049 



7,263 
25, 348 
11,854 



2, 146, 485 

189, 600 

460, 500 

5,550 

250 



22, 775 

541,300 

24, 990 



Western Alaska 



Number Value 



4,230 
723 
424 
276 
548 
816 
219 
10 
34 



7,280 



$15,728,010 

3,860 

66, 778 



53, 863 

2, 980, 984 

253, 279 

354, 288 

9,318 



$18, 232, 615 



451,063 
3,296 



19, 904, 739 



14, 918, 339 

27, 949 

45, 432 

660 

11 



1, 448, 342 



1,096,300 



1,6621,778,764 

12,991 

9,996| 



189,555 
32, 494 



21,840 



419, 961 



Total 



Number Value 



16,308 

5,000 

1,120 

1,557 

2,618 

1,057 

263 

64 

65 



28, 052 



18,896,4651. 



13,518,899 6,652,882 



4, 569, 600 
1,613,600 
2,274,123 
3, 769, 645 



123, 908! 



208, 050 



1,876,557 

1,477,300 

53, 004 



$60, 535, 550 

1, 433, 512 
256, 333 

32, 494 



109, 570 
545, 755 
808, 395 
253, 279 
354, 288 
38, 274 
315, 752 
871,024 
3,296 



74, 557, 522 



46, 080, 004 

1,070,316 
173, 680 
221, 771 
356, 060 



216, 975 
38, 339 

21, 850 



276 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Summary of persons engaged, investment, and products of the Alaska fisheries 

in 1926 — Continued 



Items 



PRODUCTS— con. 

Halibut: 
Fresh ..pounds.. 

Frozen do 

Herring: 
Fresh for bait 

- pounds.. 

Frozen for bait 

pounds.. 

Pickled for 
food — 
Scotch cure 

pounds.. 

Norwegian 
cure.pounds.. 

Kippered. do 

Spiced do 

Dry salted 

pounds.. 

Meal or ferti- 
lizer, pounds.. 

Oil gallons.. 

Cod: 
Dry salted 

pounds.. 

Stockfish, do 

Tongues. _do 

Frozen do 

Pickled... do.... 

Fresh do 

Whale: 

Oil gallons.. 

Sperm oil. do 

Fertilizer 

pounds.. 

Whalebone 

- pounds.. 

Pickled meat 

- pounds.. 

Clams cases.. 

Crabs: 

Canned. ..do 

Meat.. pounds.. 
Whole in shell 

dozen.. 

Shrimp, .pounds.. 
Trout: 

Fresh do 

Frozen do 

Pickled.. .do 

Sablefish: 

Fresh do 

Frozen do 

Pickled... do 

Rockfishes, frozen 

pounds.. 

Flounders, frozen 

pounds.. 

Smelt, frozen 
-. .pounds.. 

Total 



Southeast Alaska 



Number Value 



4,518,507 
8, 357, 726 



24, 823 
1, 220, 165 



1, 576, 050 

19,400 

450 

6,500 

11,440 

21, 699, 635 

2, 857, 299 



973 



$559, 585 
948, 094 



319 
10, 278 



116, 701 

7,761 
45 
750 

763 

619, 400 
1,273,765 



294 



155, 395 



1, 
490, 



170, 

495, 

16, 

16, 

11, 

14, 



58, 409 

1,349 
195, 828 

5,511 
921 



Central Alaska 



Number Value 



1,514,164 
989, 950 



14,053,180 
15, 300 



1,009,246 
108, 372 



752, 280 

175,415 

3,233 



391, 004 



408, 400 



408, 000 
1,000 



38, 422 



25 
4,250 



2,097 

31,917 

400 



7,635 

22, 668 

930 

511 

326 

1,707 



23,144,668. 



$114,875 
14. 403 



Western .\laska 



Total 



Number Value Number Value 



1,421,729 
1,460 



27, 591 
46, 924 



37, 142 

25, 084 

192 



15, 585 



12,240 
500 



254, 236 

300 

1,488 

70 



414 

3,378 

32 



120,800 



593, 550 
5, 1-50 

2,412,000 

20, 000 

101,278 



17,239,724 14,285,490 



$12, 600 



356, 130 
2.060 

57, 930 

850 

5,063 



, 518, 507 
,871,890 



014, 773 
220, 165 



15, 629, 230 

155, 500 

450 

6,500 

11,440 

22, 708, 881 
2, 965, 671 



752, 280 

175, 415 

3,233 

9,809 

391,004 

973 

,001,950 
5,150 

, 820, 000 

21, 000 

101,278 
38, 422 

25 
159, 645 

1,168 
490,185 

41, 682 

42,512 

400 

170,004 

495, 836 

16, 584 

16, 857 

11,532 

14, 228 



$559, 585 
1, 062, 969 



14, 722 
10, 278 

1,538,430 

21,821 

45 

750 



646, 991 
1,320,689 



37,142 

25,084 

192 

294 

15,585 

20 

601, 171 
2,060 

70, 170 

1,350 

5,063 
254, 236 

300 
59, 897 

1,419 
195, 828 

5,925 

4,299 

32 

7,635 

22, 668 

930 

511 

326 

1,707 

154,669,882 



' These figures represent the value of the manufactured product. It is estimated that the value of the 
catch to the fishermen was api)ro.ximately $14,500,000. The round weight of tlie salmon catch landed 
by the fishermen was appro.ximately 550,900,495 pounds, and the corresponding figures fur herring were 
approximately 144,448,524 pounds. The cod figures given above do not include tlie otYshore catch from 
waters adjacent to Alaska, which amounted to 7,697,085 pounds of dry-salted cod and 14,000 pounds of 
tongues, having a total value of $409,490, landed at ports of the Pacific Coast States. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 277 

SALMON 

In 19:26 the catch of snhiion in Alaska as a whole showed an in- 
crease of nearly 51 per cent over that of 1925, clue chiefly to the 
large run of humpback salmon in central Alaska and of reds in 
the western district. In southeastern Alaska the catch increased 
4.3 per cent, in central Alaska it increased 116 per cent, and in west- 
ern Alaska 143.8 per cent. There was a considerable increase for 
the whole of Alaska in the number of fathoms of seines and the 
number of traps operated, each increasing 17 per cent, while the 
number of fathoms of gill nets used decreased 13 per cent. The chief 
increase in the amount of gear occurred in southeastern Alaska. In 
the central district there was also a considerable increase, but in 
the western district there was a marked decrease in the amount 
of gear used, the number of fathoms of gill net (the chief form 
of apparatus used) being 20 per cent less than in 1925, while this 
district showed the largest percentage of gain in catch. 

In southeastern Alaska operators are adopting more and more 
the use of floating fish traps in place of driven traps ; in this section 
particularly there is a constant increase in the number of inde- 
pendent traps operated by other than salmon canneries, there be- 
ing 95 in 1925 and 141 in 1926. For all of Alaska, out of a total 
of 639 traps used in the salmon industry in 1926, 486 were operated 
by salmon canneries and 153 by individuals and companies not op- 
erating canneries. The comparable total of these independent traps 
in 1925 was 120. The modified regulations effective in 1926 extended 
the lateral distance interval between traps in southeastern Alaska 
south of 58° north latitude from not less than 1,800 feet to a mini- 
mum of 1 statute mile. The lateral distance interval of not less 
than 11/^ statute miles was continued in the southeastern area north 
of 58^ 

CATCH AND APPARATUS 

The total number of seines used in the salmon industry of Alaska 
in 1926 was 632, of which 157 were beach seines and 475 purse seines. 
The beach seines aggregated 18,320 fathoms of webbing and the 
purse seines 81,181 fathoms. The number of gill nets used was 
2,955, having a total length of 296,564 fathoms. There were 254 
driven traps and 385 floating traps — a total of 639. 

Southeastern Alaska was accredited with 409 seines, or a total 
of 72,656 fathoms of webbing, an increase of 26 seines, or 7,589 
fathoms, over the number in 1925 ; also with 184 gill nets, aggregat- 
ing 25,050 fathoms, a reduction of 6 nets but an increase of 4,179 
fathoms, when compared with the quantity used in the previous sea- 
son : and with 114 driven and 367 floating traps, 44 fewer driven traps 
but 119 more floating traps than were operated in 1925. 

Corresponding figures for central Alaska show 210 seines, or 
24,045 fathoms, as compared with 125 seines, or 17,575 fathoms, 
in 1925 ; 993 gill nets, or 55,045 fathoms, as compared with 855 
gill nets, or 47,484 fathoms, in 1925, an increase of 138 nets and 
7,561 fathoms. The number of traps operated was 136 driven and 
18 floating, as compared with 128 and 8, respectively, in 1925. 



278 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



In western Alaska 13 seines, or 2,800 fathoms of webbing, were 
used, an increase over the number shown in *1925 of 3 seines, or 
300 fathoms of webbing. A total of 1,778 gill nets was used, having 
an aggregate length of 216,469 fathoms, a^ decrease of 559 nets, or 
56,077 fathoms in quantity of webbing used. Four driven traps 
were operated, the same number as in 1925. 

Seines caught 22 per cent of the salmon taken in 1926, gill nets 
23 i^er cent, and traps 53 per cent, while lines and wheels took the 
remaining 2 per cent. 




Fig. 7. — Purse-seining for salmon, southeast Alaska 

Percentage of salmon caught in each Alaska district, hij principal forms of 

apparatus 





Apparatus 


Southeast Alaska 


Central Alaska 


Western Alaska 




1925 


1926 


1925 


1926 


1925 


1926 


Seines . 


32 
2 

64 
2 


24 
1 

73 
2 


42 
4 
54 


32 
3 
65 


3 

91 

2 


5 


Gill nets 


91 


Traps 


\ 


Lines 







Wheels 


1 


4 


3 








1 





The total catch of salmon in 1926 was 96,907,627, an increase of 
32,661,236, or 50.8 per cent, over the number taken in 1925. South- 
eastern Alaska showed a gain of 1,716,301, while central Alaska 
gained 17,558,328 and western Alaska 13,386,607. The catch by 
species shows that cohos increased 181,228, humpbacks 18,213,799, 
and reds 15,163,829, while chums decreased 669,642, and kings 227,978. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 



279 



Salmon taken in 1926, hi/ apparatus and species, in each ffcoyrapJiic section of 

Alaska 



Apparatus and species 



Seines: 

Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or pink. 

King, or spring 

Red, orsockeye 



Total. 



QiU nets: 

Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or pink. 

King, or spring 

Red, orsockeye 



Total. 



Traps: 

Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or pink. 

King, or spring 

Red, or sockeye 



Total. 



Lines: 

Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or pink. 

King, or spring 

Red, or sockeye 



Total. 



Wheels: 

Coho, or silver.. 
Chum, or keta.. 
King, or spring.. 
Red, or sockeye. 

Total 



Total: 

Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or pink. 

King, or spring 

Red, orsockeye 



Grand total. 



Southeast 
Alaska 



128, 141 

3, 101, 172 

. 6, 546, 197 

1,503 

362, 385 



10, 139, 398 



166, 317 
63, 066 
36, 494 
17, 679 

250, 082 



533, 638 



493, 617 

2, 829, 926 

25, 363, 662 

15, 147 

1, 420, 135 



30, 122, 487 



390, 318 
5,473 
2,191 

330, 296 
903 



729, 181 



Central 
Alaska 



128,422 
794, 349 

7, 190, 857 
509 

2, 213, 851 



10, 327, 988 



245, 792 
25, 160 

121, 898 
41, 802 

654, 891 



1, 089, 543 



588, 197 

2, 330, 751 

12, 895, 461 

52, 321 

5, 399, 724 



21, 266, 454 



1, 178, 393 

5, 999, 637 

31,948,544 

364, 625 

2, 033, 505 



41, 524, 704 



962,411 

3, 150, 260 

20, 208, 216 

94, 632 

8, 268, 466 



32, 683, 985 



Western 
Alaska 



59, 629 
515,841 

17,406 
503, 037 



1, 095. 913 



15,337 

923, 468 

288, 041 

80, 944 

19, 423, 727 



20, 731, 517 



15,364 



6,519 
161, 667 



183, 550 



2,000 

660, 947 

24,511 

500 



687, 958 



17, 337 

1, 659, 408 

803, 882 

129, 380 

20, 088, 931 



22, 698, 938 



Total 



256, 563 

3,955,150 

14, 252, 895 

19,418 

3, 079, 273 



21, 563, 299 



427, 446 

1,011,694 

446, 433 

140, 425 

20, 328, 700 



22, 354, 698 



1,081,814 

5, 176, 041 

38, 259, 123 

73, 987 

6, 981, 526 



51, 572, 491 



390, 318 
5,473 
2,191 

330, 296 
903 



729, 181 



2,000 

660, 947 

24,511 

500 



687, 958 



2, 158, 141 

10, 809, 305 

52, 960, 642 

588, 637 

30, 390, 902 

96, 907, 627 



CANNING 



CHANGES IN CANNERIES 



The Haines Packing Co. reopened its plant at Letnikof Cove, 
which had been closed in 1925. The Stuart Corporation took over 
the Northland Packinof Co., which operated the plant of the Sun- 
rise Packing Co. at Ketchikan in 1925. The Stuart Corporation 
also operated its floating plant at Ketchikan. The Sunny Point 
Packing Co. purchased all of the property of the Sanborn-Cutting 
Co. at Kake and of the Thlinket Packing Co. at Funter Bay, and 
operated the plants in 1926. The sale by the Thlinket Packing Co. 
of its plant at Funter Bay, which had been operated since 1902, 
marks the retirement of one of the oldest and best known concerns 
in the southeast Alaska canning industry. 



280 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 



The International Packing Co., which in 1925 brought its floating 
cannery into the central district after the discontinuance of opera- 
tions in western Alaska, confined its activities to Ugashik waters and 
Makushin Bay in 1926. Pajoman and Trout built a new plant at 
Iron Creek on Raspberry Island in 1926, with the intention of in- 
stalling cannery machinery, but leased it for herring operations 
instead. L. J. Hull and I. M. Foster, of the Alitak Packing Co., 
acquired the interest of Capt. John T. J,ones in the Robinson Pack- 
ing Co., which operates the floating cannery Azalea in Zachar Bay, 
but continued to operate under the same name. The floating plant 
of the Orca Packing Co. was operated at Pete Dahl Slough on Cop- 
per River flats during the early part of the season and later was taken 




Fig. 8. — Salmon cannery, southeast Alaska 



to Cordova for the humpback and silver salmon runs. The plants 
of the Unakwik Inlet Packing Co. at Unakwik Inlet and the Hem- 
rich Packing Co. at Kukak Bay were again leased and operated by 
the Pacific American Fisheries and the Seashore Packing Co., 
respectively, in 1926. 



NEW CANNEStlES 



A new one-line cannery was built and operated at Nakat Inlet in 
southeastern Alaska by the Tongass Packing Co., which formerly 
operated salmon traps in the district under the name of the Tongass 
Fish Co. 

Six salmon canneries were operated for the first time in the central 
district in 1926. A new plant was that of J. A. Magill, at Anchor- 
age, operating under the name of the Alaska General Fisheries. The 
Cordova Packing Co. prepared a pack of canned salmon at its clam 



AI.ASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 281 

cannorv. Avhich was formerly the salmon cannery of the Hillery 
Scott Co. The Crosby Fisheries (Inc.) [)iii-cliase(l the steamer H. 
B. Lovej&y, renamed it Sa/znon Klng^ and e(|iiipped it as a floating 
salmon cannery, which w'as operated at Chignik and in two localities 
on Kodiak Island during the season. The Kodiak Fisheries Co. 
built a new cannery on Shearwater Bay, Kadiak Island, and the 
San Juan Fishing and Packing Co. put a line of salmon-canning 
machinery in its herring plant at Uganik Bay. The Strawberry 
Point Packing Co. enlarged its clam cannery at Boswell Bay and 
installed additional machinery for the canning of salmon. 

CANNERIES NOT OPBaiATED 

The Alaska Herring & Sardine Co. did not operate its salmon can- 
ner}^ at Port Walter in 1926. The plant of the Beauclaire Packing 
Co. at Port Beauclerc was burned just before the opening of the can- 
ning season, and the plant of the Hoonah Packing Co. at Gambier 
Bay was closed in 1926. 

The Arctic Packing Co. is being dropped from the list of idle 
plants because of the improbability of its being reopened. The Bain- 
bridge Fisheries Co., at Flemming Island, and the Kamishak Pack- 
ing Co., at Kamishak Ba}', are being dropped, as it is reported that 
plants no longer exist at these locations. 

Two plants of the Alaska Packers Association — one on the Naknek 
River and one on Nushagak Bay — were closed in 1926. 

The following canneries were closed during the season of 1926 but 
may be reopened : 

Southeastern Alaska : 

Alaska Hen-ing & Sardine Co Port Walter. 

Alaska Sanitary Packing Co Cape Fanshaw. 

Hoonah Packing Co {hoonah. ^^^ 

Northwestern Fisheries Co {I^tf ^Sa. 

Central Alaska : 

Alaska Packers Association Kasilof. 

Kodiak Island Fishing & Packing Co Seward. 

Northwestern Fisheries Co {orca^^^^' 

Pajoman and Trout Raspberry Island. 

Western Alaska : 

Alaska Packers Association IS^^u^^ ?*^^^* 

\ Nushagak Bay. 

Alaska Salmon Co Kvichak Bay. 

Fidalgo Island Packing Co Herendeen Bay. 

Nelson Lagoon Packing Co Nelson Lagoon. 

Phoenix Packing Co Herendeen Bay. 

TOTAL CANNERIES OPERATED 

There were 132 canneries operated in Alaska in 1926 — 61 in south- 
eastern, 43 in central, and 28 in western — which was 1 less in south- 
eastern, 6 more in central, and 2 less in western than in 1925, a net 
gain of 3 plants. 



282 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Companies that canned salmon in Alaska, number and location of canneries 
operated, and number of traps ovmed by each, 1926 

[New canneries indicated by (*)] 



Company 



Canneries 



Num- 
ber 



Southeast Alaska: 



Alaska Consolidated Canneries. 



Alaska Packers Association 

Annette Island Packing Co 

Astoria & Puget Sound Canning 
Co. 

F. C. Barnes Co 

Bayview Packing Co 

Beegle Packing Co 

Burnett Inlet Packing Co 

Deep Sea Salmon Co 

Charles W. Demmert Packing Co 
Douglas Island Packing Co 

Fidalgo Island Packing Co 

George Inlet Packing Co 

Haines Packing Co 

P. E. Harris * Co.. 

Hetta Packing Co 

Hidden Inlet Canning Co 

Karheen Packing Co 

Libby, McNeill & Libby 

Mountain Point Packing Co... 
Geo. T. Myers & Co 

Nakat Packing Corporation 

New England Fish Co 

North Pacific Trading & Pack 
ing Co. 



Northwestern Fisheries Co 

Pacific American Fisheries 

Peter.sburg Packing Co 

Point Warde Fisheries 

Pure Food Fish Co 

Pyramid Packing Co 

Red Salmon Packers Association. 

Sea-Coast Packing Co 

Seba.stian Stuart Fish Co 

.1. L. Smiley & Co ..-.. 

Starr-Collinson Packing Co 

Straits Packing Co 

Stuart Corporation, The 

Sunny Point Packing Co 

Superior Fisheries Co 

Tongass Packing Co 

Ward's Cove Packing Co 

Central Alaska: 

Alaska General Fisheries 

Alaska Packers Association 

Alaska Year Round Canneries 
Co. 

Alitak Packing Co.. 

Carlisle Packing Co . 



Location 



Boca de Quadra. 

Chomly 

Pybus Bay 

Rose Inlet 

Tenakee 

Yes Bay :. 

/Loring.- 

\Wrangell 

Metlakatla 

Excursion Inlet.. 



Lake Bay 

Bay View (Klawak). 

Ketchikan 

Burnett Inlet 

Port .\lthorp_ 

Bay View (Klawak) . 
Douglas 

(Bay of Pillars 

\Ketchikan 

George Inlet 

Letnikof Cove 

Hawk Inlet 

Coppermoimt 

Hood Bay 

Karheen 

{Ketchikan (floating) . 
Taku Harbor 
Yakutat.. 

Wrangell Narrows. _. 
Chatham 

IHeceta Island 
Hidden Inlet 
Union Bay 
Waterfall... 

f Ketchikan. 

\Noyes Island 

Klawak 



[Boca de Quadra 

Dundas Bay 

•{Hunter Bay 

Kasaan 

IShakan 

Excursion Inlet , 

Petersburg , 

Point Warde 

Ketchikan 

Sitka 

Dry Bay and Situk River (float- 
ing). 

Craig 

Tyee..-. - 

Ketchikan. -. , 

Moira Sound _ 

Skowl Arm 

[Ketchikan (Pioneer plant), float- 

i ing. 

(Ketchikan (Sunrise plant) 

[Funter Bay 

■^Kake 

[Ketchikan 

Tenakee. - 

Nakat Inlet * 

Ward Cove 



1 .\nchorage *. 

[Alitak 

■^Chignik 

iKarluk 

Seldovia 



1 Lazy Bay. 
1 Cordova.. 



Traps 



Driven 



Float- 
ing 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 



283 



CoHi/J(iHiV,s' that canned salmon in Alaska, number and location of canneries 
operated, and number of traps owned by each, 1926 — Continued 

[New canneries indicated by (*)] 





Canneries 


Traps 


Company- 


Num- 
ber 


Location 


Driven 


Float- 
ing 


Total 


Central Alaska— Continued. 

Columbia River Packers Asso- 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

3 

1 

3 

1 
1 

1 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 

7 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

6 

1 
1 

2 

1 

2 


Chignik... 


4 

6 
2 


4" 




ciation. 
Cook Inlet Packing Co.. .. 


Seldovia. . 




Copper River Packing Co 


McClure Bay 




Cordova Packing Co 


Cordova *. 






Chignik and Kodiak Island 

(floating) * 
Valdez 


3 

7 
8 


.. 




Emel Packing Co 


3 


Fidalgo Island Packing Co 


Port Graham 


7 




fAnchorage 


8 




\Drier Bay 






P. E. Harris & Co 


Isanotski Strait 


4 


4 


Hoonah Packing Co 


Bering River 




/Kodiak 




4 


4 




IShearwater Bay * 






Katmai Packing Co 


Uzinki 








W. A. Keller 


Deep Creek 


1 






Kodiak Island Fishing & Pack- 


Uganik Bay . 




ing Co. 
Libby, McNeill & Libby 


Kenai . ... 


18 
2 
5 




18 


Moore Packing Co 


Orca Inlet 


North Coast Packing Co 


Ninilchik 


5 


Northern Light Packing Co 


Mountain Slough 




fOhignik 


3 

9 






Northwestern Fisheries Co 


■{Kenai ... 






iUyak 




Orca Packing Co 


C ordova (floating) 










Ikatan 


5 
9 


4 
1 




Pacific American Fisheries 


■{King Cove. 


9 




Unakwik Inlet 


2 


Pioneer Packing Co 


Cordova 






Pioneer Sea Foods Co 


do 






Robinson Packing Corporation.. 


Zachar Bay 






San Juan Fishing & Packing Co. 


/Evans Bay 


9 

1 






\Uganik Bay *... . . 


I 


Seashore Packing Co... 


Kukak Bay 




Shcpard Point Packing Co 


Shepard Point 


1 
3 


3 




Shumagin Packing Co 


Squaw Harbor 




Strawberry Point Packing Co... 


Boswell Bay * 




Western .\laska: 


fEgegik River 










Kvichak Bay (2) 








Alaska Packers .Association 


■^Naknek River (2) 










Nushagak Bay 










Ugashik River.. 






" 


Alaska Portland Packers Asso- 


fNaknek River 








ciation. 


\Nushagak Bay 








Alaska Salmon Co 


Wood River . 








Bristol Bay Packing Co 


Kvichak Bay 








Carlisle Packing Co 


Kvichak River 








Columbia River Packers Asso- 


Nushagak Bay 








ciation. 
Everett Packing Co 


Herendeen Bay 








International Packing Co 


Ugashik River and Makushin 

Bay (floating). 
fEgegik River 


















Ekuk... 








Libby, McNeill & Libby 


Koggiung 








Libbyville .. 










Lockanok 










Nushagak 








Nakat Packing Corporation, The 


Nakeen 








Naknek Packing Co 


Naknek River 








Northwestern Fisheries Co 


/....do 








\Nushagak 








Pacific American Fisheries 


Port Moller 


4 




4 


Red Salmon Canning Co 


/Naknek River 




LUgashik River 


1 








1 





284 



V. S. BUEEAU OF FISHERIES 



LOSSES AND DISASTERS 



The Beauclaire Packing Co. cannery at Port Beaiiclerc burned on 
June 3. It was reported to have been a total loss, with the exception 
of a few shore buildings. Other losses in southeastern Alaska were 
the power boats Busier^ of the Sunny Point Packing Co., and 
Discovery, of the Fidalgo Island Packing Co., the mess house of the 
Wards Cove Packing Co., and miscellaneous fishing equipment and 
small boats belonging to a number of companies, in all totaling 
approximately $95,000. Seventeen lives were lost — 6 shoresmen by 
disease and 2 each by drowning and by accidents, 3 fishermen were 
drowned, 3 were killed in accidents, and 1 died of disease. 

In the central district the new plant of the Kadiak Fisheries Co. at 
Shearwater Bay was wrecked by a windstorm after the end of the 
fishing season. The loss was estimated at $24,000. The salmon and 




Fig. 9. — Fleet of fishing boats at Ketchikan, Alaska 

clam cannery of the Strawberry Point Packing Co. at Cordova was 
burned on October 18, with a loss of approximately $21,500. Other 
losses in the district consisted of the gas boat Uncle John., belonging 
to the Moore Packing Co., and miscellaneous small boats and fishing 
equipment of a number of companies, totaling in all approximately 
$57,900. Thirteen lives were lost — 1 fisherman and 2 shoresmen were 
drowned and 1 fisherman and 9 shoresmen died of disease. 

In the western district fishing gear valued at $9,547 was lost and 
19 lives were lost — 1 fisherman and 4 shoresmen drowned, 1 fisherman 
and 9 shoresmen died of disease, and 1 fisherman and 3 shoresmen 
were killed accidentally. 

STATISTICS 

In 1926, 132 canneries were operated in Alaska, 3 more than in 
1925. The active investment in the industry was $60,535,550, a gain 
of $6,992,006, or 13 per cent, over 1925. The increase in southeast 
Alaska Avas $949,285, or 3.7 per cent ; in central Alaska $3,787,122, or 
31.7 per cent; and in western Alaska $2,255,599, or 14 per cent. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 



285 



Eniploymeiit was given to 21,900 persons, as compared with 21,805 
in 1925, an increase of 101. White employees increased 80, natives 
340, Filipinos 376, Negroes 9, and miscellaneous (including Kanakas) 
14, while Chinese decreased 131, Japanese 5, Porto Ricans 130, and 
Mexicans 452. 

The total pack of canned salmon was 6,652,882 cases, valued at 
$46,080,004. This was an increase of 2,192.945 cases, or 49 per cent, 
and an increase in value of $14,090,473, or 44 per cent. The output 
in southeastern Alaska increased from 2,802,414 cases to 3,058,055, 
or 9 per cent; central Alaska from 1,052,593 cases to 2,146,485, or 
104 per cent ; and western Alaska from 604,930 cases to 1,448,342, or 
139 per cent. The increase was attributable to the large run of reds 
in western Alaska, combined with the immense run of humpbacks 
in central Alaska. In Alaska as a whole the pack of reds increased 
from 1.059.676 cases to 2,157,087, or 103.6 per cent; kings from 49,978 
cases to 52,476, or 5 per cent; humpbacks from 2,110,593 cases to 
3,338.349. or 58 per cent; and cohos from 161,010 cases to 202,527, 
or 25.8 per cent. The only decrease was in the pack of chums, of 
which species 902,443 cases were packed, as against 1,078,680 in 1925, 
a decrease of 176,237 cases, or 16.3 per cent. 

Persons engaffed in the Alaska salmon-canning industry in 1926 



Occupation and race 


Southeast 
Alaska 


Central 

Alaska 


Western 
Alaska 


Total 


Fishermen: 

Whites 


1,367 
1,329 


962 

319 

1 


2,031 

75 


4,360 


Natives... . ... . . . .. .- 


1,723 


Japanese 


1 


Filipinos 


16 
6 
4 
1 




16 








6 


Kanalias . . 






4 


Miscellaneous ' .. 






1 










Total 


2,723 


1,282 


2,106 


6,111 






Shoresmen: 

Whites . 


2,362 

1,436 

377 

658 

1,383 

145 

8 

29 

7 

17 


1,365 

649 

311 

548 

653 

85 

3 

21 

33 

1 


1,821 
215 
424 
275 
548 
816 
9 

10 
215 

25 


5,548 


Natives .. 


2,300 


Chinese . 


1,112 


Japanese. . ... .. 


1,481 


Filipinos 


2, 584 


Mexicans 


1,046 


Porto Ricans .. .. 


20 


Kanakas r 


60 


Negroes 


255 


Miscellaneous ' .. 


43 






Total 


6,422 


3,669 


4,358 


14,449 






Transporters: 

Whites . - 


706 

44 

5 

14 
5 
1 
1 


384 
31 


120 


1,210 


Natives 


75 


Chinese . . 




5 


Japanese. .. . . .. 


28 
1 
1 


i 


43 


Filipinos . 


6 


Negroes ._ . . 


4 


6 


Miscellaneous' . 


1 










Total .. .. .. 


776 


445 


125 


1,346 






Total: 

Whites 


4.435 

2,809 

382 

672 

1,404 

151 

8 

33 

8 

19 


2,711 

999 

311 

577 

654 

85 

3 

21 

34 

1 


3,972 
290 
424 
276 
548 
816 
9 

10 
219 

25 


11,118 


Natives. 


4,098 


Chinese _. . 


1,117 


Japanese 


1,525 


Filipinos.. . _. 


2,606 


Mexicans... .. ._ ... .. . 


1,052 


Porto Ricans . 


20 


Kanakas . .. .. 


64 


Negroes 


261 


Miscellaneous ' 


45 






Gi;and total 


9, 921 


5,396 


6,589 


21,906 







' Hawaiians, Koreans, etc. 



286 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

Investment in the Alaska salmon-canning industry in 1926 



Items 



Southeast Alaska 



Num- 
ber 



Value 



Central Alaska 



Num- 
ber 



Value 



Western Alaska 



Num- 
ber 



Value 



Total 



Num- 
ber 



Value 



Plants operated , 

Operating capital 

Wages paid-- -. 

Vessels: 

Power, over 5 tons - - 

Net tonnage 

SaOing 

Net tonnage 

Barges 

Net tonnage 

Launches 

Seine boats 

Gill net boats 

Rowboats and skiffs. 
Lighters and scows_-. 

House boats 

Pile drivers --. 

Pile pullers 

Apparatus: 

Purse seines 

Fathoms 

Beach seines 

Fathoms 

Gill nets 

Fathoms 

Traps, driven 

Traps, floating 



401 

,936 

8 

720i 

183 

,900 

114 

367 



56, 252, 982 
9, 252. 959 
4, 135, 858 

2, 794, 340 



90,000 



25,000 



109 

5,423 

3 

5,865 



$3, 866, 646 
5, 962, 332 
2, 976, 136 

1, 364, 773 



28 



125,000 



55, 872, 153 
4, 678, 135 
4,004,284 



90 2,070,617 

23,7171 

5 226,000 
9,450- 



132 



268, 083 

13,064 
3,187 

55, 801 
396, 760 

31, 537 
431, 548 

59,624 

312, 056 



191 
99 
75 
567 
214 
4 
34 



232,298 
11. 777 
17,990 
32, 206 

189, 246 
3,665 

188, 579 



1 
1,116 
137 
161 
31 
21 



1, 152 
'42,'772| 



Total -.- 26,574,925 



1, 526, 354 



63 

6,645 

117 

15, 455 

984 

54, 560 

134 

18 



19, 847 



81, 307 

300 

477. 127 

10, 452 
369, 331 

74, 105 

66, 216 



611 

37, 033 

10 

19, 065 

3 

1,620 

441 

259 

1,258 

1,833 

754 

84 

121 



$15,991,781 
19, 893, 426 
11,116,278 

6, 229, 730 

'"'441,' 000 



25,000 



38, 542 
"7i,'475 



10 11, 500l 474 
2,500 I 81,081 



581, 688 

25, 141 

498, 304 

98, 459 

955, 337 

109, 307 

686, 343 

59,624 

343, 403 



576, 493 
51, 005 



300 

1,577 

206, 100 

4 



15, 728, 010 



1,000 



270, 088 



20,000 



128 

16, 475 

2,744 

285, 560 

252 

385 



40.694 
'384,'335 



1, 478, 341 
1, 577, 359 



18, 232, 615' 60, 535, 550 

I 



Output and value of canned salmon in Alaska in 1926 ^ 



Product 


Southeast Alaska 


Central Alaska 


Western Alaska 


Total 


Cases 


Value 


Cases Value 


Cases 


Value 


Cases 


Value 


Coho, or silver: 
i/i-pnnnd flat 


4,280 

5,328 

86, 781 


$58, 905 

55, 009 

724, 475 


1 
6,074 $58,452 
11,297 101,264 
86,938 688,412 






10,354 
16,625 

175,548 


$117,357 


1-pound flat.-- 






156,273 


1-pound tall . 


1,829 


$14,046 


1,426,933 






Total 


96,389 


838, 389 


104, 309 848. 128 


1,829 


14, 046 


202, 527 


1, 700, 563 






Chum, or keta: 

J/^-pound flat 


1,058 

551 

616, 788 


7,621 


309 1.8,54 






1,367 
48, 982 
852, 094 


9,475 


1-pound flat 


2.755 48,431, 261,527 
3, 076, 825 195, 068 969, 966 






264, 282 


1-pound tall 


40,238 


198, 381 


4, 245, 172 






Total 


618,397 3,087,20l| 243,808 


1,233,347 


40, 238 


198,381 


902, 443 


4,518,929 






Humpback, or pink: 
32-pound flat.-- 


39,832 345,855 20,003 

3,810 24,030 78,351 

2,115,057 11,301,223 1,045,826 


145, 678 

454, 591 

5,541,094 






59, 835 
82, 161 


491, 533 


1-pound flat 






478, 621 


1-pound tall 

Total 


35,470 


175, 056 


3,196,353 


17,017,373 


2, 158, 699 11, 671, 108 1, 144. 180 


6,141,363 


35,470 


175, 056!3, 338. 349 


17,987,527 


King, or spring: 

32-pound flat.-- - 


1, 534 22, 180 
5, 148 60. 694 
3, 997 34, 405 


1,790 
5,702 
16, 191 


28,404 
67, 665 
158, 746 






3,324 

11,125 
38, 027 


50,584 


1-pound flat. 


275 
17, 839 


2.750 
169,402 


131, 109 




362, 553 






Total. 


10,679 117,279 


23,683 


254,815 


18,114 


172, 152 


52, 476 


544, 246 






Bed, or sockeye: 

M-pound flat 


33, 558 
19, 838 


485, 380 
247. 302 


29, 707 

76,966 

523, 832 


464,643 

832, 013 

5, 144, 030 


18,916 

7,525 

1 S^fi 9.FA) 


299, 645 

85, 628 


82, 181 
104. .S29 


1, 249, 668 


1-pound flat 


1,164,943 


1-pound tall 


120,495 1,196,107 


12,573,991 1,970,577 


18, 914, 128 








Total 


173,891| 1,928,789 


630, 505 


6, 440, 686 1, 352, 691 


12,959,264 2,157,087 


21, 328, 739 






Grand total.. 


3,058,05517,642,766 


2,146,485 


14, 918, 339 1, 448, 342 


13, 518, 899|6, 652, 882 


46,080,004 



1 Cases containing i/2-pound cans have been reduced one-half in 
affording fair comparison, all are put upon the basis of forty-eight 1 



number, and thus, for the purpose of 
■pound cans to the case. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 287 

Output of canned .iulinon in Alaska, in cases, 1921 to 1026^ 



Coho, or silver: 
H-pound flat. 
1-pound flat__ 
1-pound tall.- 



4,084 

7,918 

94,553 



Total 106,555 



Chum, or keta: 
.V^-pound flat. 
1-pound flat.. 
1-pound tall.. 



608 



254,887 



Total 255,495 



Humpback, or pink: 

^2-pound flat 

1-pound flat 

1-pound tall 



1,292 



Total. 



King, or spring: 
3^-pound flat. 
1-pound flat.. 
1-pound talL- 



423, 984 



Total. 



Red, or sockeye: 
M-pound flat. 
1-pound flat.. 
1-pound taU.. 



Total. 



Grand total. 



4.061 
19, 192 
21, 741 



1922 



22, 237 

12,099 

141, 657 



175,993 



3,698 

6,185 

556, 035 



565, 918 



42, 736 

30, 879 

1, 584, 808 



1, 658, 423 



3,770 
3,967 
22, 923 



30,660 



60, 831 171, 

71,108 121,449 

l,633,8.59il,777,313 



1,765, 798!2, 070, 6.58 



2, 596, 826 4, 501, 652 



13, 866 

10,151 

140, 090 



1925 



Aver- 
age for 
5-year 
period, 
1921-1925 



8, 0591 

5,403 

170, 139 


7,145 

7,223 

146, 642 



11,078 

8, 559 

138, 616 



164, 107 



6,356 

16 

519, 250 



525, 622 



183,601| 161,010 



346 3, 051 
630 

1,027,5121,075,629 



1,028,48811,078,680 



158, 253 



1926 



Percent- 
age of 
increase 
or de- 
crease in 
1926, as 
compared 
with 5- 

year 
average 



10,354 -6.54 

16, 625 -f 94. 24 

175, 548 +26. 64 



202, 527] +27. 98 



2,812 

1,366 

686, 663 



690, 841 



1,367 
48, 982 
852, 094 



902, 443 



-51.39 

+3, 485. 80 
+24. 09 



+30. 63 



29,363 2l,365i 34,005 25,752 59,835 +132.35 

9,428 13,0951 185 10,717 82,1611 +666.64 

2, 409, 338'2, 566, 823 2, 076, 403J 1, 812, 013 3, 196, 353 +76. 40 



2,448,12912,601,283 



5, 466 1, 501 

7, 281 1 9,500 

25, 596 1 22, 647 



38, 3431 33, f 



121,775 31,947 

159,271 110,352 

1,578,4.501,305,596 



1,859,496:1,447,895 



5,035,69715,294,915 



2, 1 10, 593 1 , 848, 482,3, 338, 349 +80. 60 



2,755 

8,828 

38, 395 



49, 978 



3,511 
9,754 
26, 260 



39, 525 



68, 901 91, 070 

28, 757 98, 187 
962,01811,451,447 



1,059,676 1,640,705 



4,459,937;4,377,805 



3,324 
11, 125 
38, 027 



52, 476 



-5.33 
+ 14.06 
+44. 81 



+32. 77 



82, 181 -9. 76 

104, 329 +6. 26 

1, 970, 5771 +35. 77 



2, 157, 087j +31. 47 



6, 652, 882 +51. 97 



1 The number of cases shown has been put upon the common basis of forty-eight 1-pound cans per case. 

Relative importance of each species of canned salmon within each disttiiGt 

in 1926 



District 


Coho 


Chum 


Hump- 
back 


King 


Red 


Total, 

all 
species 


Southeast Alaska 


Per cent 

3.2 

4.9 

.1 

3.0 


Per cent 

20.2 

11.3 

2.8 

13.6 


Per cent 

. 70.6 

53.3 

2.4 

50.2 


Per cent 
0.3 
1.1 
1.3 

.8 


Per cent 

5.7 

29.4 

93.4 

32.4 


Per cent 
100 


Central Alaska.. 


100 


Western Alaska 


100 


All Alaska 


100 







48765—27- 




288 



IT. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Relative imporiaoice of each district in the production of ea<-h species of 

salmon canned in 1926 



District 


Coho 


Chum 


Hump- 
back 


King 


Red 


Total, 

all 
species 


Southeast Alaska _ . _. 


Per cent 

47.6 

51.5 

.9 


Per cent 

68.5 

27.0 

4.5 


Per cent 

64.7 

34.3 

1.0 


Per cent 
20. 4 
45.1 
34.5 


Per cent 
8.1 
29.2 
62.7 


Per cent 
46.0 


Central Alaska . 


32.2 


Western Alaska ^ . . _ _ . . 


21.8 






Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



Average annual price per case of forty-eight 1-poiind ca»s of salmon. 1916 to 

1926 



Product 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or pink . . _ 

King, or spring 

Red, or sockeye 


$5.34 
3.34 
3.64 
5.36 
6.04 


$8.76 
6.14 
6.44 

10.40 
9.48 


$9.15 
6.27 
6.58 
9.85 
9.44 


$11.27 
6.82 
8.35 
13.13 
12.98 


$9.13 
4.19 
5.47 
10.97 
13.05 


$5.63 
3.68 
4.21 

10.22 
8.96 


$5.47 
3.98 
4.34 
8.08 
9.24 


$5.74 
4.65 
4.86 
8.56 
9.27 


$6.83 
4.68 
4.93 
8.89 
9.53 


$9. 72 
4.44 
5.28 
11.91 
13.12 


$8.40 
5.01 
5.39 

10.37 
9.89 



PACK IN CERTAIN DISTRICTS 

Statisticfe of the salmon pack are again presented for subdivisions 
of the three main districts of Alaska, and comparison is made with 
similar statistics for 1925. These districts are described as follows: 

BAstol Bay. — The Bering Sea shore, east and north of the Ugashik 
River. 

Port M oiler and Herendeen Bay. — Port Moller, Herendeen Bay, 
and Nelson Lagoon. 

Ikatan^^humagm Islands. — False Pass. Ikatan Bay, King Cove, 
and the Shiimagin Islands. 

Chignik. — Canneries located at Chignik. 

Kodiak-Afogtmk Islands*. — Kodiak. Spruce, and Raspberry- 
Islands. 

Cook Inlet. — The shores of Cook Inlet. . 

Prince William Sovnd. — Extends from Resurrection Bay to Point 
Whitshed, except that the pack of fish taken in the Copper River 
district by canneries at and near Cordova is omitted. 

Copper and Bemng Rivers. — Extends from Point Whitshed to 
Bering River and includes the pack by canneries at Cordova from 
fish not credited to Prince AVilliam Sound. 

Yakutat and Dry .^c/y/.— Extends from Yakutat Bay to and includ- 
ing Dry Bay. 

Icy Strait Lynn Canml. — ^West coast of Baranof and Chichagof 
Islands, the shores of Cross Sound, Icy Strait, Lynn Canal, and 
Stephens Passage, soutly to Taku Harbor. Only part of the pack 
at Taku Harbor is credited to this district, as some of it originated 
elsewhere. 

Chatham Strait-Frederick Sound. — Includes part of the Taku 
cannery pack and the Petersburg Packing Co.'s pack, in addition to 
the packs of all canneries on both sliores of Chatham Strait and its 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDl'STRIES, 1026 



289 



lia_\> from Point Auirusta to Cape Oninianev, and thronfjli Frodciick 
Sound and its bays northward to Taku Harhoi'. including:; Kake. 

'Su//i/i('/' Straif-l>t.coii Entrance. — Kxtends southward from Petei's- 
burir and eastward from i*ort lU'auclcic to Cape Chacon and Dixon 
Entrance, and inchides all canneries on the mainland and interven- 
ing islands from the Stikinc River to Portland Canal. 

^yest coasts Prince of Wale» Island. — Territory west and ftonth of 
a line from (\ipe Chacon to Point Baker and Cape Ommaney. 

Pack of canned salmon in Alaska in 1U26, by districts ' 



District 



Coho 



Chum 



Cases I Cates 

Bristol Bay i 1,829! 34,500 

Port Mollerand Herendeen BayJ ' 5,378 

Ikatan-Shumagin Islands i 19,492 i 118,062 

Chignik i 3,466' 25,727 

Kodiak-Afognak Islands \ 18, 335 ^ 33, 324 

Cook Inlet I 18,922 1 7,117 

Prince William Sound 11,457 I 59,938 

Copper and Bering Rivers. i 32,637 

Yakutat and Dry Bay i I9,4i9 218 

Icy Strait-Lvnn Canal.. .1 17.902 ' 122,898 

Chatham Strait-Frederick Sound 7. 960 182. 040 

Sumner Strait-Dixon Entrance.. 37,526 219.532 

West coast, Prince of Wales Island! 13,582! 93,709 



Hump- 
back 



King 



Cases 
13, 271 



227, 757 

35, 765 

252, 907 

31,240 

618, 698 

12 

7,851 

328, 242 

419,404 

1.086,381 

316, 821 



Total ..i 202,527 ■ 902,443 3,338,349 



14,477 
3,637 
2,176 

141 

123 
14,541 

125 
6,577 
5,116 
1.974 

398 
2,981 

210 



Red 



Cas(S 
1 , 300, 752 
51,916 

197,488 
44,203 

230, 009 

122,053 
15,094 
21,681 
15,620 
69,341 
11,807 
70, 233 
6,«90 



Total 



Percent- 
age of 
merease or 
decrease 
from 1925 



Cases 

1,364,829 

60, 931 

564, 975 

109,302 

534, 698 

193,873 

705,312 

60, 907 

48, 224 

540, 357 

621,609 

1,416,653 

431,212 



52,476 2,157,087 6,652,882 



' Pack reduced to the basis of forty-eight 1-pound cans per case. 



+140.13 
+72. 99 

+ 187. 13 
+37. 46 
+76. 51 
+74. 93 

+120. 76 
+37. 22 
+37. 05 
+61. 78 
+37. 70 
-8.59 
-.18 



+49. 17 




Fig. 10. — iMift gi'lnct fishciman at Taku. southeast Alaska 



290 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



MILD CURING 

In 1926 the salmon mild-cure industry of Alaska was maintained 
at about the level of production of the previous year. The industry 
gave emj)loyment to 1,549 persons (1,280 whites and 269 natives), or 
14 more than the number employed in 1925. The investment of 
$1,433,512, which was almost whollv in the southeastern district, was 
$64,913 less than in 1925. 

The total output of mild-cured salmon in 1926 was 4,569,600 pounds, 
valued at $1,070,316, as compared Avith 5,217,600 pounds, valued at 
$1,085,466 in 1925, a decrease of 648,000 pounds in quantity, with a de- 
crease in value of only $15,150. The pack consisted of 738,400 pounds 
of cohos, 76,000 pounds of humpbacks, 800 pounds of sockeyes, and 
3,754,400 pounds of kings. In units of 800-pound tierces, the pack 
consisted of 923 tierces of cohos, 95 tierces of humpbacks, 1 tierce of 
reds, and 4,693 tierces of kings. 

Persons engaged, investment, < and products of Alaska salmon m^ild-curing 

industry in 1926 



Items 


Southeast Alaska 


Central Alaska 


Total 


Number 


Value 


Number 


Value 


Number 


Value 


PERSONS ENGAGED 

Fishermen: 

Whites 


1,202 
260 




4 




1,206 
260 




Natives 
















Total-- -- 


1,462 




4 




1,466 










Shoresmen: 

Whites 


47 
9 








47 
9 




Natives - -- 




















Total 


56 


' 




56 












Transporters: Whites 


27 








27 














Grand total .- 


1,545 




4 




1,549 










INVESTMENT 

Plants operated 


12 


$8,378 
422, 724 

119, 300 


1 


$500 
2,000 


13 


$8,878 


Operating capital . 


424, 724 


Vessels: 

Power, over 5 tons 


23 

458 

802 

301 

3 

1 




23 

458 

803 

303 

3 

1 

1 

6,020 


119,300 


Net tonnage 








Launches 


805,000 
10, 550 
3,350 

150 


1 
2 


500 
210 


805, 500 


Row boats 


10, 760 


Lighters and scows 


3,350 


Apparatus: 

Gill nets (150 fathoms) 






150 


Trap (driven) - 


1 


650 


650 


Lines 


6,020 


60,200 


60, 200 










Total 




1,429,652 




3,860 




1,433,512 












PRODUCTS (founds) 

Coho, or silver - 


738,400 


105, 118 






1 738,400 

2 76,000 
5 3,754,400 

8 800 


105, 118 


Humpback, or pink 


76,000 

< 112, 800 

800 


5,250 

22,649 

50 


5,250 


King, or spring 


3 3,641,600 


937, 249 


959, 898 


Red, or sockeye 


50 










Total 


4,380,000 


1,042,367 


189,600 


27,949 


4,569,600 


1,070,316 







I 



• 923 tierces. 
2 95 tierces. 



3 4,552 tierces. 
* 141 tierces. 



5 4,693 tierces. 
s 1 tierce. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 



291 



PICKLING 

The pickled-salmon industry, which is carried on chiefly in west- 
ern Alaska, showed a considerable increase over recent years. This 
was due primarily to the lar<rer run of red salmon in the central and 
western districts! The AVestward l*acking Co.'s floating saltery, 
which was reported sold at the end of the 1925 season, again operated 
in Bristol Bay in 1926. Both central and western Alaska showed 
increases in the investment in the industry. 

Fewer persons were reported engaged in the industry, but the 
total investment increased from $203,000 in 1925 to $256,333 in 1926. 
Products in southeastern Alaska declined from 94,900 pounds in 
1925 to 56.800 pounds in 1926, while central Alaska increased from 
229,200 pounds to 460,500 pounds and western Alaska increased from 
305,500 pounds to 1,096,300 pounds. The total output in 1926 was 
1,613,600 pounds, valued at $173,680, as compared with 629,600 
pounds in 1925, valued at $84,731, an increase in 1926 of 156 per 
cent in quantity and 105 per cent in value. 

Persons engaged, investment, and products of Alaska, salmon-pickling industry 

in 1926 



Hems 


Southeast Alaska 


Central Alaska 


Western Alaska 


Total 


Number 


Value 


Number 


Value 


Number 


Value 


Number 


Value 


PERSONS ENGAGED 

Fishermen: 
Whites 






21 
14 




34 




55 
14 




Natives 
























Total 






35 




34 




69 














Shoresmen: 

Whites 






1 




19 
13 




20 
13 




Natives... 
























Total 






1 




32 




33 














Grand total 






36 




66 




102 














INVESTMENT 

Plants operated 






6 


$14, 650 
17,008 

11,000 


3 


$104, 125 
68,690 


9 


$118,775 


Operating capital 






85, 698 


Vessels: 

Power,over 5 tons. _ 






2 

45 

17 




2 
45 
18 
19 
43 

4 

29 

1, 845 

1 

100 

36 

3,885 

1 

3 


11,000 


Net tonnage 












Launches 






13,100 


1 
19 
3 
1 


300 

10,950 

300 

1,500 


13,400 


Gill net boats 






10, 950 


Rowboats. - - 






40 
3 

29 

1,845 

1 

100 

9 

485 

1 


2,455 
950 

5,145 


2,755 


Lighters and scows. 






2,450 


Apparatus: 

Beach seines 






5,145 


Fathoms 












Purse seines 






400 






400 


Fathoms 












Gill nets 






970 

"i,"i66" 


• 27 
3,400 


3,390 


4,360 


Fathoms 








Trap, driven 








1,100 


Wheels 






3 


300 


300 














Total 








66, 778 




189, 555 




256, 333 
















PRODUCTS (pounds) 

Coho, or silver 


24,000 


2,300 


48,100 

48,500 

90, 900 

5,800 

267, 200 


8,882 

5,062 

7,160 

596 

23,732 


11,200 

34,700 

6,600 

49,400 

994. 400 


1,044 

2.616 

462 

6,157 

113,629 


83,300 
83,200 
130, 300 
55, 200 
1,261,600 


12,226 


Chum, or keta 


7,678 
9,662 
6,753 


Humpback, or pink 

King, or spring 


32,800 


2,040 


Red, or sockeye 






137, 361 










Total 


56,800 


4,340 


460, 500 


45, 432 


1,096,300 


123,908 


1, 613, 600 


173,680 





292 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



FRESH SALMON 

In 1926 the fresh-salmon business of Alaska represented no inde- 
j)endent investment, being incidental to other phases of the fishery 
industry. The total production was 2,274,123 pounds of all species, 
valued at $221,771, comparable with 2,620,017 pounds valued at 
$223,907 in 1925, a decrease of 13 per cent in quantity but less than 
1 per cent in value. Of this total all but 5.550 pounds, valued at 
$660, was produced in southeastern Alaska. 

Products of the Alaska fresh-salmon industry in 1926 



Species 



Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or piak 

King, or spring 

Red, or sockeye 

Total- 



672, 429 

25,383 

2, 513 

1, 570, 808 

2,990 



2,274,123 



Value 



$39, 692 

1,496 

75 

180. 226 

282 



221.771 



FREEZING 

No independent investment was credited to the salmon-freezing 
business in Alaska in 1926, the operations being wholly incidental 
to other lines of the hshery industry. There was an increase in 
production of 1.197,022 pounds, or 47 per cent, over 1925, the total 
output in 1926 being 3,769,645 pounds, valued at $356,060. as com- 
pared with 2,572.623 pounds, valued at $170,663, in 1925. 

Products of the Alaska frozeH-salmon iiidustrij in 1926 



Si^ecies 


Pounds 


Value 


Coho, or silver 




1, 457, 487 

572, 166 

285 

1,739,707 


$124,719 


Chum, or keta . - -. 


32, 232 


Humpback, or pink .. 


14 


King, or spring _ _. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 


199, 095 








Total - 


3, 769, 645 


356, 060 







DRY-SALTING, DRYING. AND SMOKING 



In southeastern Alaska one concern prepared dry-salted salmon, 
and in central Alaska a number of operators dried small amounts 
of salmon for fox feed. All of these operations were incidental to 
other lines of business. *Ln the fishery of the Yukon. Tanana. and 
Kuskokwim Rivers, which is carried on principally by natives, 
1,778,164 pounds of salmon Avere dried, valued at $207,900; and 
in addition 600 pounds of kippered salmon, valued at $150. were 
prepared. In this western district 42 whites and 383 natives en- 
gaged in the fisherv, and the apparatus used consisted of 210 wheels, 
valued at $21,000; "174 gill nets of 6.969 fathoms, valued at $6,969; 
with 25 skiffs, valued at $2,525, and 2 launches, valued at $3,000; 
a total investment of $32,494, 



ALASKA FrSH?:RY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 293 

Production of drii-tiiiltcd. dried, and .'<innkrd salmon in Alaska, in J92G 



Product 


Southeast 
Ahiska 


Central 


Alaska 


Western 


Alaska 


Tot 


il 




Pounds 

46. 855 
5. 995 
4.498 

11.778 
5. 892 

75.018 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Dry-salted: 


$4. 781 

240 

186 

1,271 

785 






• 


46. 855 
5, 995 
4,498 

11,778 
5, 892 


$4, 781 












240 


Ilumpback. or pink.. 
King, or spring 










186 










1, 271 










785 














Total 


7,263 










75,018 


7,263 














Dried and smoked: 






4.250 

4.000 

13,600 

175 

750 


$325 

400 

792 

70 

75 






4,250 

1,685,000 

13, fiOO 

97, 339 

750 


325 








1, 681, 000 


$195, 755 


196, 155 








792 








97, 164 


12, 145 


12,215 








75 














Total 






22, 775 


1,662 


1, 778, 164 


207, 900 


1,800,939 


209, 562 










Kippered: King, or spring 




1 1 


600 


150 


600 


150 








Grandtotal 


75. 018 


7,263 


22, 775 


1,662 


1,778.764 


208,050 


1, 876, 557 


216, 975 




Fig. 11. — Salnioii-troUiug boats, soutlieast Alaska 
BY-PRODUCTS 

Two companies in southeastern Alaska engaged primarily in the 
preparation of salmon by-products, while three salmon canneries in 
central Alaska manufactured salmon oil and fertilizer as well. The 
investment, credited wholly to southeastern Alaska, totaled $109,570, 
and 35 wliite shoresmen and 3 white transporters were reported en- 
gaged in the industrv. The total production was 1,477,300 pounds of 
fertilizer, valued at $38,339, and 53,004 gallons of oil, valued at $21,- 
850, comparable with 1,432,625 pounds of fertilizer, valued at 



294 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



$41,807, and 40,680 gallons of oil, valued at $18,330, in 1925, or an 
increase of 3 per cent in amount of fertilizer and 30 per cent in quan- 
tity of oil in 1926. 

Production of salmon oil and fertilize)' in Alaska in 1926 



Districts . 


Oil 


Fertilizer 


Southeast Alaska 


Gallons 
28, 014 
24, 990 


Value 
$11,854 
9,996 


Pounds 
936,000 
541,300 


Value 
$25, 348 


Central Alaska. 


12,991 








Total 


53, 004 


21,850 


1,477,300 


38, 339 







HERRING 

The herring industry in Alaska in 1926 suffered a decline in 
comparison with operations in 1925, which were the largest in the 
history of the Territory. The decline in 1926 was due to several 
causes, chief of which was the unexpected failure of herring to 
materialize in anything like normal numbers in the Afognak region, 
where a number of floating plants and shore stations were prepared 
for a large pack. The run in the JPrince William Sound region 
was likewise considerably below expectations. In the Cook Inlet 
region the pack of herring was not notably great. In southeastern 
Alaska the runs were of good proportions, but it is reported that 
the fish averaged considerably smaller size than usual; hence the 
proportion packed for food purposes was smaller, and the number 
used in the manufacture of meal and oil was correspondingly in- 
creased. Market conditions also had important bearing on the 
situation. There was a considerable carry-over from the unprece- 
dentedly large pack of the previous season. 

The use of floating plants in the herring industry has continued 
upon a rather extensive scale. Plants of this character are advan- 
tageous, as the concerns operating them are able to move from un- 
profitable fields to waters where herring are more numerous and 
operations can be conducted more successfully. Of the floating 
plants there may be mentioned the Rosamond (1,035 tons), oper- 
ated by the North American Fisheries; the Esther (222 tons), by 
Ottar Hofstad; the Salvator (385 tons), by Libby, McNeill & Libby ; 
the Donna Lane (1,597 tons), by the Utopian Fisheries Co.; and 
the ZR3 (1,596 tons), by the Nassau Fish Co. (formerly the Atlantic 
& Pacific Packing Co.). The last-named company also operated 
the La Merced (1,342 tons), formerly used by the Alaska Consoli- 
dated Fisheries. Small floating plants were also operated by a 
number of other concerns in various localities. 

There is considerable agitation to prevent the use in southeastern 
Alaska of the increasing!}' large proportion of the herring catch 
for the manufacture of meal or fertilizer and oil; it is computed 
that upward of 90 per cent was so used in 1926. The herring of 
that district, however, are much smaller in size than those of the 
central district, and, except in certain localities and limited seasons, 
are not so suitable for the preparation of food products. All but 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 295 

three of the phiiits manufacturing by-products also prepared food 
products. 

The output of Scotch-cured herring in southeastern Alaska in 1926 
was only l,r)TG,0."JO pounds, or but one-third of the amount prepared 
in the preceding year; while the production of by-products was 
21,699,635 pounds of meal and 2,857,299 gallons of oil, as against 
15,176.646 pounds of meal or fertilizer and 2,061,398 gallons of oil 
in 1925. 

Of the herring packed in central Alaska, approximately 2,500,000 
pounds of Scotch-cured product were prepared in the Prince William 
Sound district, a like amount in the Kodiak-Afognak district, and 
slightly over 9,000,000 pounds in the Cook Inlet region. The Ko- 
diak-Afognak district produced only one-fifth as much as was packed 
there in 1925 ; Cook Inlet produced about 9,000,000 pounds, as against 
10,000,000 in 1925; and Prince William Sound produced 2,500,000 
pounds, as against over 6,000,000 in 1925. 

In southeastern Alaska 20 concerns handled herring. Among the 
larger operators were the following: 

Reduction plants : 

National Fish Co Hood Bay. 

Puget Sound Reduction Co Port Armstrong. 

Saltery : Ness Fish Co Petersburg. 

Saltery and reduction plants : 

Alaska Consolidated Canneries Saginaw Bay. 

Alaska Herring & Sardine Co Little Port Walter. 

Arentsen & Co Big Port Walter. 

Baranof Packing Co Red Bluff Bay. 

Buchan & Heinen Packing Co Port Armstrong. 

Chatham Strait Fish Co New Port Walter. 

Killisnoo Fisheries Killisnoo. 

Marine Packing & Reduction Co Washington Bay. 

Northwestern Herring Co Port Conclusion. 

Storfold & Grondahl Packing Co Washington Bay. 

Warm Springs Bay Packing Co Warm Springs Bay. 

Also four cold-storage plants froze herring for bait. 

In central Alaska operations centered chiefly in three localities, 
namely, Prince William Sound, with 10 operators; Cook Inlet, with 
38 operators; and the Kodiak-Afognak district, with 15 operators. 
In Prince William Sound the following companies operated : 

Reduction plant: Alaska By-Products Co Port Benny. 

Salteries : 

B. F. M. Packing Co Seward. 

Latouche Packing Co Latouche. 

Utopian Fisheries Co Floating plant. 

Saltery and reduction plants : 

Drier Bay Packing Co Drier Bay. 

Everett-Pacific Fisheries Thumb Bay. 

Franklin Packing Co : Port Ashton. 

W. J. Imlach Packing Co Sawmill Bay. 

San Juan Fishing & Packing Co Evans Bay. 

S. Sklaroff & Sons Crab Bay. 

The more important operators in Cook Inlet were the following, 
all of w^hom prepared Scotch-cured herring: 

Colberg Bros Seldovia. 

Crescent Herring Co Do. 

Drier Bay Packing Co Halibut Core. 

Chas. Engstrom Do. 

48765—27 6 



296 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

S. Feinson Seldovia. 

Fidalgo Island Packing Co Halibut Cove and Port 

Graham. 

E. A. Gissberg Halibut CoAe. 

Hanson & Jacobsen Do. 

Hazel Packing Co Floating plant. 

Herring Bay Packing Co Seldovia. 

Ottar Hofstad Floating plant. 

E. Jacobsen Halibut Cove. 

Jacobsen & Stemland : Do. 

Hans Johnson & Co Do. 

Latouche Packing Co Do. 

Libb.v. McNeill & Libby Floating plant. 

Nassau Fish Co Do. 

Norstedt & Co Do. 

North American Fisheries Do. 

Fred M. O'Neill Portlock City. 

Reese & Buvick Halibut Cove. 

E. Sandvick Do. 

San Juan Fishing & Packing Co Tutka Bay. 

Shuyak Packing Co Halibut Cove. 

E. Sivertsou Do. 

S. Sklaroft" & Sons Homer Spit. 

H. Sundsby Halibut Cove. 

Thompson & Sundsby ■ Do. 

Ursin & Co Do. 

Utopian Fisheries Floating plant. 

Fritz Waage Halibut Cove. 

The chief operators in the Kodiak-Afognak district were the 
following, all of whom prepared Scotch-cured herring: 

Karl Armstrong , Three Saints Bay. 

Caw Packing Co ^ Raspberry Island. 

Cre.^cent Heriing Co Shuyak Strait. 

Franklin Packing Co Floating plant. 

Ottar Hofstad Do. 

W. J. Imlach Packing Co Uzinki. 

Kodiak Herring Co Floating plant. 

Nassau Fish Co Do. 

North American Fisheries Do. 

San Juan Fishing & Packing Co Shuyak I.sland. 

Shuyak Packing Co Shuyak Strait. 

S. Sklaroff & Sons Port Williams. 

Svendsou «& Shaw Packing Co Shuyak Island. 

Utopian Fisheries Floating plant. 

George A. Roiinsefell, scientific assistant of the bureau, continued 
throughout 1926 the biological investigation of tlie Alaska herring 
which he had begun in 1925. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY 

The herring industry in Alaska employed 2,101 persons in 1926, 
as compared with 1,839 in 1925. The number of plants increased 
from 54 in 1925 to 61 in 1926. and the investment from $6,108,494 
to $6,808,395, or 11 per cent. The products were valued at $3,554,489 
in 1926. as compared with $3,852,449 in 1925. a decrease of $297,960, 
or slightlv less than 8 per cent. Scotch-cured herring declined from 
33,925.975 pounds in 1925 to 15,629.230. or less than half of the pro- 
duction in the preceding year. Herring for bait decreased from 
7.086,840 pounds in 1925 to 2,234,938 pounds in 1926. Meal or ferti- 
lizer increased 32 per cent in quantity and value, and oil 26 per cent 
in quantity and 32 per cent in value over the production in 1925. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 297 

I'crxouft cnyayvd. invest Dniit. and prodtHtf< of Alaska hvrrintj indnstry in 1926 





Southeast Alaska 


Central Alaska 


Western Alaska 


Total 


It«ms 


Number 


Value 


Number 


Value 


Num- 
ber 


V'aluc 


Number 


Value 


lERSONS ENGAGED 

Fishermen: 
Whites 


282 




378 
8 








660 
16 










8 
















Total 


282 




386 




8 




676 












Shoresmen: 
Whites 


519 

14 
2 
2 




742 
37 




1 
10 




1,262 

61 

2 

2 










Chinese 








Japanese -- - 




























Total 


537 




779 




11 




1,327 












Transporters: 
Whites 


16 




80 

1 








96 

1 
1 


















1 


























Total 


17 




81 




1 
..1 


98 














Grand total 


836 




1,246 




19 




2,101 












INVESTMENT 

Plants operated 


15 


$1,379,768 
1,724,594 

548, 169 


45 


$580, 829 
1, 459, 293 

704, 280 


1 


$11,000 
8,000 


01 


$1,971,597 




3 191,887 


Vessels: 


47 

1,383 

2 

3,550 


82 
6,369 

1 

385 

1 

1,035 

24 
127 
20 

1 
1 

47 

7,690 

4 

510 

325 

15, 235 

2 

15 


129 

7,752 

3 

3,935 

1 

1.035 

31 
174 
39 
15 
3 

93 

16, 490 

4 

510 

367 

15, 935 

2 

15 


1, 252, 449 


Net tonnage 








Barges 


7,000 


9,800 






16,800 










Sailing 




20,000 






20.000 


Net tonnage 












Launches, under 5 


5 
39 
19 
14 

2 

46 
8,800 


10.100 
2.298 
12,014 
26, 733 
2,103 

92, 792 


21, 750 
8,995 

23,475 
2,000 
4,000 

100, 585 


2 

8 


1,600 
400 


33, 450 


Row boats and skifEs. 
Lighters and scows 


11,693 
35. 489 








28, 733 


Pile drivers .. 






6,103 


Apparatus: 






193, 377 


Fathoms 








Beach seines 




3,000 






3,000 


Fathoms -.. 












Gill nets... 






29, 277 


42 
700 


840 


30, 117 


Fathoms 














700 
13,000 


700 


Pounds . 










13,000 














Total 




3,805,571 




2, 980, 984 




21, 840 




6, 808, 395 












PRODl'CTS (pounds) 

Fresh, for bait 


24, 823 
1, 220, 165 

1, 576, 050 

19,400 

450 

6,500 

11,440 

21, 699, 635 

2, 857, 299 


319 
10, 278 

116,701 

7,761 

45 

750 

763 

619,400 

1, 273, 765 


989, 950 


14, 403 






1,014,773 
1, 220, 165 

15,629,230 

155, 500 

450 

6,500 

11,440 

22,708,881 

2, 965, 671 


1" 722 


Frozen, for bait. - 






10, 278 


Pickled for food: 

Scotch cure 


14, 053, 180 
15,300 


1,421,729 
1,460 






1,538,430 
21, 821 


Norwegian 


120, 800 


12,600 


Kippered .. 


45 


Spiced .---_- 










750 


Drv-salted.- 










763 


Meal or fertilizer. . 


1, 009, 246 
108, 372 


27, 591 
46,924 






646, 991 


Oil- ._ . .gallons-- 






1, 320, 689 










Total . ... 




2, 029, 782 




1, 512, 107 




12,600 




3,554,489 











HALIBUT 



A pio.speioiis season was experienced in the Alaska halibut fishery 
in lJ>2f). the quantity of halibut landed being greater than in the 
previous year. Although the season was successful from the stand- 



298 T^- S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

point of production, the gain appears to have come about, in part 
at least, through more intensive fishing and by reason of increased 
operations on farther distant and previously less exploited banks, 
notably in the Kodiak region and northeastward toward Cape St. 
Elias. Grounds to the westward of Kodiak, as far as the Shumagins, 
may soon be the scene of more active halibut fishing, particularly as 
the average catch per skate of gear grows less in waters longer 
fished and closer to ports of delivery. It is probable that an in- 
creased number of vessels will be equipped for these more extended 
operations. 

The annual closed season of three months on halibut, from Nov- 
ember 16 to February 15 (as required by the North Pacific halibut 
treaty, which first became effective in the fall of 192-4), has continued 
to meet with widespread approval. It appears to be a highly con- 
structive conservation measure and beneficial from every angle of 
consideration. 

The International Fisheries Commission continued in 1926 its 
scientific investigation of the Pacific halibut fishery. This impor- 
tant work is under the immediate direction of Will F. Thompson, 
who for years has been prominently indentified with this and other 
marine biological inquiries. The work is progressing satisfactorily 
and has resulted in securing much valuable data. Extensive field 
activities were conducted by a number of scientific assistants, and 
laboratory work was carried on at the commission's headquarters 
at the University of Washington in Seattle. The halibut vessel 
Scandia (79 tons) was chartered and made several important cruises 
from Seattle to British Columbia and Alaskan waters. An impor- 
tant feature of the field work was the tagging and releasing of 
several thousand halibut to determine the extent of their migrations. 
Other of the more important lines which the investigation is taking 
include a study of sj^awning habits, rates of growth, and racial char- 
acteristics, as well as experiments to determine the effectiveness of 
various kinds of gear, particularly different sizes of hooks, and the 
compilation and study of statistical records. Preliminary find- 
ings already have been of great value, and further results of much 
importance will follow. 

Only landings at Alaskan ports are shown in the statistics for 
the Alaska halibut industry, and hence do not represent the entire 
catch from the banks off the coast of Alaska, as a large portion of 
the landings at ports in British Columbia, as well as at Seattle, come 
from those waters. The landings in Alaska totaled 14,390,397 
pounds, valued at $1,622,554, an increase of 3,418,746 pounds and 
$738,171 over 1925, or 31 per cent in quantity and 83 per cent in 
value. The total investment in the halibut industry in 1926 was 
$3,545,755, as compared with $3,503,921 in 1925. Persons engaged in 
the fishery in 1926 numbered 871, an increase of 10 over the preceding 
year. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 299 

Pprsori^ iiigaffCd, investment, (Uid prodiiets of the Atanka halibut fixhcnj in 1926 





Southeast Alaska 


Central Alaska 


Total 


Items 


Number 


Value 


Number 


Value 


Number 


Value 


PERSONS ENGAGED 

Whites 


851 
5 




15 




866 
5 




















Total * 


856 




15 




871 












INVESTMENT 




$373, 330 
1, 021, 872 

1, 800, 000 




$20,000 
33,863 




$393, 330 










1,055,735 


Vessels: 


166 
3,478 
119 
151 
833 




166 
3,478 
119 
151 
833 


1, 800, 000 












249, 500 

6,040 

41, 150 






249, 500 








6,040 








41,150 










Total 




3,491,892 




53, 863 




3, 545, 755 












PRODUCTS (pounds) 


4, 518, 507 
8, 357, 726 


559, 585 
948, 094 






4, 518, 507 
9, 871, 890 


559, 585 




1, 514, 164 


114, 875 


1, 062, 969 






Total 


12,876,233 


1, 507, 679 


1,514,164 


114,875 


14, 390, 397 


1, 622, 554 







COD 

In Alaskan waters cod fishing is conducted both from shore sta- 
tions and by an offshore fleet, which operates entirely from ports in 
the States. In the following statistics Alaska is credited only with 
the operations from shore stations and with vessels that land their 
catches in Alaska or engage in transporting products from the shore 
stations. 

In 1926 the shore-station cod fleet consisted of two vessels — the 
City of Papeete (370 tons), belonging to the Alaska Codfish Co., 
and the El Hurd (25 tons), belonging to A. Grosvold. The offshore 
fleet, which is listed elsewhere, comprised seven vessels of the Union 
Fish Co., two each of the Robinson Fisheries Co., the Pacific Coast 
Codfish Co., and the Alaska Codfish Co., and one belonging to 
Capt. J. A. Matheson. The Progress^ operated last year by the 
Union Fish Co.. was sold; and the Alice^ of the Robinson Fisheries 
Co., was replaced by the John A, operated in 1925 by the Pacific 
Coast Codfish Co. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY 

The cod industry of Alaska gave employment to 94 persons in 
1926, 19 less than in 1925. The decrease was due directly to the 
nonoperation of shore stations by the Union Fish Co. It is said 
that the profitable operation of cod shore stations is becoming in- 
creasingly difficult each year. The investment amounted to $253,279, 
as compared with $467,530 for 1925. Dry-salted, frozen, and fresh 
cod, stockfish, and tongues, aggregating 1,332,714 pounds, valued 
at $78,317. were the products of this fishery. Comparable figures 
for 1925 are 2,853,942 pounds valued at $128,803. The products of 



300 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



the offshore fishery were reported to be T.T11,0?S5 pounds of dry- 
salted cod and tongues, valued at $409,490. The offshore fishery 
employed 348 persons. 

Persons engaged, investment, and products of Alaska cod industry in 19.16 



Items 


Southeast Alaska 


Central Alaska 


Total 


PERSONS ENGAOED 

Fishermen: 

Whites 


Number 


Value 


Number 
87 
5 


Value 


Number 

87 

5 


Value 


Natives 




















Total 






92 




92 














Shoresmen; Whites 






2 




2 














Grand total . . 






94 




94 














INVESTMENT 

Shore stations 






22 


$115,684 
43.005 
23, 414 

15,000 


22 


$115,684 


Operating capital 






43, OO-'i 


Wages paid . 










23, 414 


Vessels: 

Power, over 5 tons 






1 
25 

1 

370 

10 

20 

24 

26 
8,400 

278 


1 
25 

1 

370 

10 

20 

24 

20 

8.400 

278 


15,000 


Net tonnage 








Sailing. 






7,966 


7,966 


Net tonnage 














39, 243 
5,900 
1,325 

1,505 


39, 2-13 


Power dories 




1 


5,900 


Row boats 




1.325 


Apparatus: 

Trawl lines . ._ 




1,505 


Hooks 










237 


237 








Total 






253, 279 




253, 279 












PRODUCTS (pounds) 

Dry-salted cod 






752, 280 

175, 415 

3,233 


37, 142 

25, 084 

192 


752, 280 

175, 415 

3,233 

9,809 

391,004 

973 


37, 142 


Stockfish 






25,084 


Tongues - 






192 


Fiozen 


9,809 


$294 


294 


Pickled. 


391, 004 


15,585 


15, 585 


Fresh 


973 


20 


20 










Total 


10, 782 


314 


1,321,932 


78,003 


1,332,714 


78,317 







Offshore cod fleet in 1920 



Name 


Rig 


Net 
tonnage 


Operators 


Olendale 


Schooner .. 


281 
392 
252 
328 
390 
413 
235 
223 
328 
328 
339 
21 
30 
7 


Alaska Codfish Co., San Francisco, Calif^ 


Maweema 


do 


Do. 


Fanny Dutard 


.do 


J. A Matheson, Anacortes, Wa.sh. 


Charles R. Wilson 


do 


Pacific Coast Codfish Co., Seattle, Wash. 


C. A. Thayer .. 


do 


Do. 




....do 


Robinson Fisheries Co., Anacortes, Wash 


John A 


do- 


Do. 


Golden State 


Power schooner 

Schooner 


Union Fish Co., San Francisco, Cali!. 


Louise 


Do. 


Beulah.. . ... 


.... do 


Do. 


Oahlee 


do 


Do. 


Mary G. 


Power sloop 


Do. 


Pirate 


do 


Do. 


Union Flag 


do 


Do. 









WHALES 



The American Pacific Whaling Co., formerly the North Pacific 
Sea Products Co., operated its plant at Akutan as usual and opened 
a new plant at Port Hobron, Sitkalidak Island, early in the year. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 11)26 



301 



Employment Avas i>iveu to -'524 Avhitcs and 31 natives, and 581 whales 
were taken, consistino- of 179 iinhacks, 383 hiiniphacks, 15 sulphur 
bottoms. L^ sperm, and 2 right whales. 

The investment in the wlialino- industiy of Alaska was $871,024, 
and the products were as follows: l.()01,l)5() oallons of whale oil, 
valued at $001,171 : 5,150 gallons of si)erm oil, vahied at $2,000; 
929 tons of fertilizer from meat, valued at $55,740; 481 tons of bone 
fertilizer, valued at $14,430; 101,278 pounds of pickled meat, valued 
at $5,003; and 21,000 pounds of whalebone, valued at $1,350, a tota) 
vakie of products of $079,814 and an increase of about 9 per cent over 
1925. when products were valued at $024,959. 

CLAMS 

The forecast of a reduction in the output of clams in central Alaska 
because of depletion of the beds, made by H. C. McMillin, scientific 
assistant of the bureau, who was engaged in surveys of the Alaska 
clam beds in 1924 and 1925, was fulfilled in the pack of 1920. (Oper- 
ations were carried on only in central Alaska. Four plants were 
engaged exclusively in canning clams and four salmon canneries 
also handled clams. With the exception of one plant at Kukak Bay, 
all of these were in the so-called "Cordova" district. 

The clam investigation, under w^ay for some time, was continued 
in the season of 1920 by H. C. McMillin in Alaska and elsewhere 
on the Pacific coast. Dr. F. W. Weymouth, of Stanford University, 
has been identified with this undertaking. Observations indicate 
a decreasing daily production on beds that were subject to heavy 
commercial digging before authority was secured l)y law to apply 
adequate conservation regulations. 

The investment in the industry in 1920 was $354,288, and the num- 
ber of persons engaged was 409, of which 392 were whites and 17 
natives. The investment in 1925 was $072,244 and 023 persons were 
engaged in the industry. The output in 1920 was 38,422 cases, con- 
taining 985.050 pounds, valued at $254,230, a decrease of about 52 per 
cent in quantity and 48 per cent in value from 1925, when 75,279 
cases valued at $492,051 were packed. 

Products of the Alanka clam industry in 192H 



Items 


Cases 


Pounds 


Value 


Minced: 


28, 240 
10,080 

7 

95 


677, 760 

302. 400 

336 

4,560 


$174,376 




78, 771 




49 


Whole: 


1,040 






Total --- - 


38, 422 


985. 056 


254, 236 






SHRIMP 









Some attention had been given, in both 1924 and 1925, to the studj 
of the shrimp fishery in southeastern Alaska, but Warden Frank W . 
Hynes was directed to make a thorough investigation during the 
season of 1920. His report has been submitted and, following some 
further investigations, will be published as a separate document. It 
<liscusses in detail the distribution of the shrimp, methods of taking. 



302 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

and the processing of the product, and also contains a brief history 
of the development of the industry in Alaska. The fishery has been 
carried on for but little over 10 years, the first commercial operations 
having been begun in 1915; only one company operated until 1918, 
when three additional concerns entered the field. No great expan- 
sion has occurred in recent years, but it seems probable that the in- 
dustry may continue satisfactorily on the present basis. Three small 
plants were operated in 1926 — two at Wrangell and one at Peters- 
burg, in the vicinity of which places the more important grounds are 
situated. 

The investment in the shrimp industry in 1926 was $315,752, as 
compared with $318,353 in 1925. Of the' total, $7,200 represents the 
value of plants, $233,557 the cost of operations and wages, and $74,995 
value of boats and apparatus. Employment was given to 163 per- 
sons, of whom 31 were whites, 85 natives, 1 Chinese, 30 Japanese, 10 
Filipinos, 5 Mexicans, and 1 negro. Products consisted of 490,185 
pounds of shrimp meat, valued at $195,828, as compared with 519,535 
pounds, valued at $207,315, in 1925, a decrease of approximately 51/2 
per cent in both quantity and value. 

CRABS 

Crab products were prepared at two plants in southeastern Alaska 
(the Alaskan Glacier Sea Food Co., which handled chiefly shrimp, 
and the Northern Sea Food Co., both at Petersburg) and one (the 
Cordova Shellfish Co.) at Cordova, in central Alaska. The invest- 
ment totaled $38,274, and 28 whites, 1 native, and 2 Filipinos were 
employed. Products consisted of 159,645 pounds of cold-packed 
meat, valued at $59,897; 1,168 dozen crabs in the shell, valued at 
$1,419; and 25 cases of i^-pound cans, valued at $300. The total 
value of products in 1926 was $61,616, as compared with $53,357 in 
1925, a gain of 15 per cent. 

TROUT 

Trout operations (except at one plant in central Alaska, having an 
investment of $3,296 and employing 7 whites and 1 native) were in- 
cidental to other branches of the fisheries. The products were as 
follows: Dolly Vardens. 32,377 pounds frozen, valued at $3,447: 
36,652 pounds fresh, valued at $5,303; and 2 barrels pickled, valued 
at $32 ; a total of 69,429 pounds, valued at $8,782 ; steelheads, 10,135 
pounds frozen, valued at $852, and 5,030 pounds fresh, valued at $622, 
a total of 15,165 pounds, valued at $1,474. The total production of 
both species was 84,594 pounds, valued at $10,256, an increase of 59 
per cent in quantity and 67 per cent in value. 

MISCELLANEOUS FISHERY PRODUCTS 

Minor species of fish are taken in small quantities, chiefly in con- 
nection with the halibut fishery. In 1926 such products were as fol- 
lows: Sablefish, 170,004 pounds fresh, valued at $7,635; 495,836 
pounds frozen, valued at $22,668 ; and 16,584 pounds pickled, valued 
at $930; rockfishes, 16,857 pounds frozen, valued at $511: flounders, 
11,632 pounds frozen, valued at $326; and smelt, 14,228 pounds 
frozen, valued at $1,707. All of these products were from southeast- 
ern Alaska. 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY 

PRIBILOF ISLANDS 
GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE WORK 

In the calendar year 1926, 22,131 fur-seal skins were taken on the 
Pribilof Islands, of which 16,231 were taken on St. Paul Island and 
5,900 on St. George Island. Seven thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
three of the sealskins taken were blubbered on St. Paul Island be- 
fore being salted. An ample reserve of 3-year-old male seals for 
future breeding stock was made. Careful attention was given to the 
feeding and general management of the fox herds. The by-products 
plant on St. Paul Island was not operated. Some surplus oil pre- 
pared at the plant in previous years was shipped to the States and 
sold. 

The construction of new concrete dwellings for the natives on St. 
Paul Island was continued. Progress was made on the construction 
of a number of new buildings for general station purposes on both 
St. Paul and St. George Islands, some of the structures being com- 
pleted. Progress was made on road work on both islands. 

The general supplies for the islands were transported from Seattle 
on the U. S. S. Vega, which was made available through the courtesy 
of the Xavy Department. Commercial vessels and the bureau's 
power schooner Eider also transported miscellaneous minor supplies 
at various times. 

An effective patrol was maintained by the United States Coast 
Guard in Bering Sea and in other waters of the North Pacific Ocean 
frequented by the fur seals. While engaged in this work, the Coast 
Guard vessels incidentally rendered valuable assistance to the bu- 
reau in connection with its work on the Pribilof Islands. 

Great Britain and Japan continued the policy of recent years of 
having their shares of sealskins taken on the Pribilof Islands sold 
by the United States Government, which results in the payment to 
them of money instead of the actual delivery of sealskins. 

v^SIT OF repkesentati\t: of Japanese government 

Mr. Keishi Ishino, of the Imperial Fisheries Bureau of Japan, 
visited the Pribilof Islands for the purpose of making general 
observations in regard to sealing matters. Mr. Ishino reached St. 
Paul Island by the Japanese fisheries patrol vessel Hakuho Maru 
on June 20. This vessel left on June 21 for the purpose of making 
various fisheries investigations in Bering Sea and a trip to Unalaska. 
Mr. Ishino remained at St. Paul Island, leaving there for St. George 
Island on the Eider on July 18. On July 30 he left St. George 
Island on the Hakuho Maru and arrived at St. Paul Island the 

303 



304 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



next day, leavinfr on the same day for Japan. Mr. Isliino had 
previously spent some time making observations at tlie Pribilofs in 
the sealing season of 19'23. 

PURCHASE AND TRANSPORTATION OF SUPPLIES 

The general supplies for the Pribilof Islands and for the power 
schooner Eider were shipped from Seattle on the U. S. S. Vega. 
The Vega left Seattle on July 26 and arrived at the Pribilof Islands 
on August 4, a stop having been made at Dutch Harbor to land sup- 
plies for the Eider. Approximately 1.800 tons of general cargo 




Fig. 12.- — Eider on winter trip to Pribilof Islands 

and about 250,000 feet of lumber were discharged at the Pribilof 
Islands in record-breaking time. The vessel left the Pribilofs on 
August 14 and arrived at Bremerton, Wash., on August 21. The 
supplies were purchased at Seattle by Assistant Agent Albert K. 
Brown. 

During the year a number of minor shipments of supplies were 
made to the Pribilof Islands from Seattle. One was taken by the 
Eider on its trip north from Seattle in March. In May approxi- 
mately 30 tons, chiefly perisha])le foodstuft's, were shipped on the 
steamship Victoria to Akutan, where the Eidei' received them. The 
Viofoi'ia took another lot in October, delivery being made to the Eider 
at Unalaska. A few other small shipments were made from Seattle 
and Bellinorham at various times. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 305 

I'OWER SCHOONER " EIDER " 

At the boiiinninii- of the year the Khhv was at Seattle undergoin«»; 
repaiiv. These were ooiiipleted early in March, when the vessel, 
havin<r taken aboard a full car<ro of oeneral stores at Seattle and 
Bremerton, proceeded to Port Townsend, de))arting from that place 
on JNlarch 20 for Alaska. Aftei- makinnj stops at Ketchikan and 
Seward, the EUJev reached head(i[uarters at Unalaska on April 5. 

DuriniT April two trips were made to the Pribilof Islands, one 
via Kintr Cove, where passengers and mail were taken aboard for 
the islands. In May three trips were made to the Pribilofs. Trips 
also were made to King Cove and Akntan, and one into Bering 
Sea in answer to a call for medical assistance from the schooner 
W awana. a cod-fishing vessel from Seattle. 

In June two trips were made to the Pribilof Islands, these trips 
including three calls at Ikatan and one at Akutan. A trip was 
made to Seward in the latter part of June and first part of July. 
J.ater in July and in August the vessel was engaged in transporting 
mail, freight, and passengers between Unalaska and the Pribilof 
Islands. During the latter part of August a trip was made to 
St. Michael: on the return, stops were made at St. Paul and St. 
(ieorge Islands, and Unalaska was reached on September 9. Later 
in September a trip was made to the Pribilof Islands. 

One trip was made to the Pribilof Islands in October, on which 
a full cargo of perishable supplies was transported, these having 
been delivered at Unalaska by the S. S. Victoria. A number of 
Pribilof Islands employees also were transported from Unalaska 
to Akutan at the end of the month for transfer to the S. S. Victofia,. 
In JNovember two trips were made to the Pribilofs, when the land- 
ing of fall supplies was completed. A trip was also made to 
Biorka Island, upon the request of the local United States marshal at 
Unalaska in connection with a criminal case. In December one trip 
was made to the Pribilofs. when a number of foxes were exchanged 
between St. Paul and St. George Islands. 

During the year the Eider traveled 14,400 nautical miles. 

ROADS 

St. Paid Island. — -About 1 mile of the road between the village 
and Zapadni was cleared of rocks and boulders and leveled, so that 
trucks and traciors can reach the Zapadni killing field. In the past, 
when weather conditions made it impossible to use boats to transport 
seal-skins from Zapadni to the village, it Avas necessary to lengthen the 
seal drives in order that the skins might be taken at a place where 
they would be accessible to the village salt-houses. 

Improvements were made to the road between the village and 
lee House Lake, and also to the roads in the village, including the 
building of some new roadway. Work was continued on the road 
from the village to Northeast Point, and the sodding and planking 
of the fill along this road at Halfway Point was completed. 



306 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



At the scoria deposit, near Ice House Lake, sand and vegetation 
was cleared from an area large enough to make available sufficient 
scoria to provide for road requirements for 1927. 

St. George Island. — Considerable work was done on a tractor road 
to North rookery. It is planned to extend the road later to Staraya 
Artil rookery. When completed the road will assist in the short- 
ening of seal drives. 

NEW BUILDINGS AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS 
ST. PAXIL ISLAND 

Ten of the twelve dwellings for the use of natives on St. Paul 
that were begun in 1925 were fully completed and ready for occu- 




FiG. 13. — New concrete residence for white employees, St. Paul Island 

pancy in May, 1926. Two other dwellings, for which the founda- 
tions were completed in 1925, and eight additional new ones were 
brought to the point where they could be completed in the winter 
of 1926-27. The foundations of two more were poured in 1926, 
in order that work might proceed on them early in 1927, regardless 
of whether or not the ground was still frozen. All these buildings 
are for the use of natives and are of concrete construction. 

The laundry building and the meat house for the white employees 
of the station, having reached a point where repairs were no longer 
economical, were torn down and replaced by two new buildings. 
Installation of new equipment was deferred until the winter of 
1926-27. The laundry is to be provided with a hot-water boiler, 



ALASTCA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 307 

ijasoline en<2:iiie, and a washer and dryer; the meat house with a 
Fri«;idaire machine. 

A new building was constructed at Southwest Point for the use of 
natives engaged in feeding and trapping foxes. 

The barn for domestic livestock, which was begun in 1925, was 
completed. It was built and equipped along modern lines. 

An old motor sailer, obtained from the Navy Department several 
years ago, was reconditioned and a 16 horsepower Atlas engine 
"installed. The boat will be available for landing supplies. 

A large amount of work was done in removing vegetation from 
Ice House Lake and sodding its margin. This lake is the source of 
the potable water supply for the village. A windmill was erected 
at one side of the lake, but owing to the shortage of some minor 
equipment it was not placed in operation. At the village a number 
of additional buildings were connected with the general water- 
supply system and an additional hydrant was installed. 

ST. GEORGE ISLA?fD 

The dwelling for white employees, begun in 1925, w^as completed 
and the construction of another was started. The old " Govern- 
ment " house was torn dow n. 

The construction of a new barn, begun previous to 1926, was com- 
pleted and the old barn was demolished. The construction of a new 
warehouse was commenced. 

BY-PRODUCTS PLANT 

The by-products plant on St. Paul Island was not operated in 
1926, there being sufficient products on hand to take care of the 
requirements of the islands for the year. 

A quantity of surplus oil produced at the plant in former years 
was shipped from St. Paul Island in August on the U. S. S. Vega, 
which delivered it at Bremerton, Wash. The oil, which amounted 
to 3,518 gallons, w^as subsequently sold at 371/2 cents per gallon. 
From the gross proceeds ($1,319.25), certain expenses in connection 
with the sale, amounting to $16.82, were deducted and the balance 
($1,302.43) was delivered to the disbursing clerk. Department of 
Commerce, for transfer to the general fund of the United States 
Treasury. 

NATIVES 



The annual census, taken as of December 31, 1926, showed 202 
native residents on St. Paul Island and 142 on St. George Island. In 
addition, a number of natives whose homes are on the Pribilof 
Islands were away temporarily at the Salem Indian Training School 
at Chemawa, Oreg., and elsewhere. 

During the year there were 7 births and 2 deaths on St. Paul 
Island and 5 births and 3 deaths on St. George Island. 



308 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



MEDICAI. SERVICES 



Two physicians were stationed at the islands throughout the year. 
The dentist who entered on duty there in April, 1925, remained until 
the latter part of June, when he Avas compelled to leave on account of 
illness. l)urin«[ the period of his detail he performed services on 
both St. Paul and St. Geor<£e Islands. 



iSt. Paul Island. — The 1925-26 school year bejian on September i-iy 
1925, and closed on April 30, 1926. In the senior school 26 pupils 
were enrolled and in the junior school 28, a total of 54 children. 





Fig. 14. — Chief source of water supply, St. Tnul village 

St. George Island. — The school year began on September 21, 1925, 
and ended on May 21, 1926. In the senior school 9 boys and 15 girls 
were enrolled and in the junior school 8 boys and 6 girls, a total of 
38 children. 



ATTENDANCE AT SALEM INDIAN TRAINING SCHOOL, CHEMAWA, OREG. 

On January 1, 1926, seven natives of St. Paul Island (four boys 
and three girls) were in attendance at the Salem Indian School at 
Chemawa, Oreg. During the year one boy (Abraham S. ^lerculietf, 
from St. Paul Island) entered the school and three of those in at- 
tendance at the beginning of the year left, only one of wJiom 
(Auxenty Stepetin) returned to the Pribilof Islands. The five in 
attendance at the end of 1926 were Mariamna Merculieff. Kleopatra 
Krukoff, Tatiana Krukoii', Mamant Emanoff, and Abraham S. 
Merculieff. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUK-SEAL INrUSTIIIES, 1926 



309 



SAVINGS ACCOUNTS 

Certiiin of tlie Piibilof Ishiiuls natives liave funds in the custody 
of the Tnitod States C'onnuissioner of Fislieries. Thi-ou^diout l'.)2G 
these funds were kept on (lei)osit with the Wasliin<xton Loan c^ Trust 
Co., Washin<rton, 1). C, and interest was paid at the rate of 3 per 
cent per annvnii, calculated on monthly balances. An account for 
the St. Paul Church was opened and three accounts for natives were 
closed durin<i' the year. A sunnnary of the accounts as a whole for 
the year 192G is shown in the statement that follows: 

On hand. .Jan. 1. ll)2r. $11,427.85 

Interest earned from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 1926 337.74 

Deposited by natives in i;t2() ^ 1,584.12 

13, 349. 71 
AVithdrawn by natives in 1926 6.30.00 

On hand. Dec. 31, 1926 12,719.71 

An itemized statement of the account, showintj the individual 
accounts, follows : 



Sai-inffs (iccoKiiis of the Pribilof Itthnids natives in the eustody of the United 
States Commissioner of Fisheries, as trustee, December 31, 1926 



Borenien. Zoya ^ 


.$281. 89 


Bourdukofsky. Martlia 


107. 93 


Bourdukofsky. Peter 


.90 


Fratis. Agrippina ^ 


110. 91 


Fratis. Akalina ^ 


5.37. 51 


Fratis, Martlia '^ 


110. 89 


Fratis, Inliania ^ 


110. 89 


Gromoff, Juliana 


.304. 11 


Kochutin, Alexandra 


4. 5.55. 43 


Krukoff. Ekaterina 


111. 37 


Lekanof, Sophia M 


388. 16 


Lestenkof, Michael 


323. 21 


Mandregan. Alexandra M 


12.14 


Melovidov. Anton 


4.35 


Merculieff. Makary 


46.08 


Merculieft'. Mariamna " 


76.85 


Merculief, Alexandra 


409. 15 



Merculief. Daniel 

Merculief. Erena 

Merculief. George 

Merculief. .ir.. George 

Merculief, Joseph 

Merculief, Xicolai G 

Merculief. Poly xenia 

Merculief. Tatiana __ 

Pankoff. Agrippina 

Pankoff, Maria M[elovidov]. 

St. Paul Church' 

Sedick, Lavrenty 

Sedick, Leonty 

Sedick, Marina 

Shane, Michael 

Tetoff, Yikenty M[elovidov]. 
Zacliarof. Emanuel 



$577. 67 

577. 64 

381. 18 

402. 69 

206.13 

3.54. 84 

131, 64 

577. 67 

156, 66 

8.70 

I. 507. 50 

57, 21 

57.21 

.38 

102. 20 

128. 17 

.45 



1 Deceased. 

= Not living on islaud in 1926. 

^ New account. 



PAYMENTS FOR TAKING SEALSKINS 



The resident natives of the Pribilof Islands were paid in cash for 
their work in takinii sealskins. A flat rate of 75 cents was allowed 
for each sealskin taken, and bonuses were allowed for special work. 
Since the work of takino- sealskins is collective in character, the 
amount earned on each island, on the basis of 75 cents per skin, was 
divided amonfr the resident native sealers in accordance with ratin;o;s 
based on skill and ability. The men were divided into classes, each 
man in a given class receivino; an equal amount. Payments were 
made as shown below : 

St. Paul Island. — For the 16,231 sealskins taken on St. Paul Island, 
$12,173.25 was paid; and. in addition, $100 was allow^ed two foremen 
for special services. A statement of the earnings follows: 



310 U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

Payments to St. Paul Island natives for taking sealskins, calendar year 1926 



Classification 


Number 
of men 


Share of 
each 


Total 




30 
10 
10 
2 
1 


$267. 00 

213.00 

169. 50 

132.00 

74. 25 


$8,010.00 


Second class -._ 


2, 130. 00 


Third class . 


1, 695. 00 


Fourth class 


264.00 


Fifth class 


74. 25 




50.00 


Do -- - 






50.00 










Total 






12, 273. 25 











/St. George Island. — For the 5,900 sealskins taken on St. George 
Island, $4,425 was paid, and in addition $100 was allowed two 
foremen for special services. Ten men, who were temporarily de- 
tailed to St. Paul Island to assist with sealing operations, were 
paid $50 each in addition to their shares in the disbursement made 
for taking sealskins on St. George Island. A statement of the 
earnings follows: 

Payments to St. George Island natives for taking sealskins, calendar year 1926 



Classification 


Num- 
ber of 
men 


Share 
of each 


Total 


Classification 


Num- 
ber of 
men 


Share 
of each 


Total 


First clase ... 


19 
7 
4 
2 
3 
3 


$154. 50 
123.75 
93.00 
61.50 
32.25 
10.50 


$2, 935. 50 

866. 25 

372.00 

123.00 

96.75 

31.50 

55.00 


Foreman (additional 
compensation) 








Second class 


$45. 00 


Third class 


Additional amount paid 
for sealing work on 
St. Paul Island, 10 
men at $50 each 








Fourth class . 




Fifth class. 




Sixth class 


500.00 


Foreman (additional 
compensation) 


Total 








38 




5, 025. 00 













PAYMENTS FOR TAKING FOX SKINS 



The natives are paid $5 in cash for each fox skin taken on the 
Pribilof Islands. For the season of 1925-26 these payments 
amounted to $430 for the 86 skins taken on St. Paul Island and 
$3,195 for the 639 skins taken on St. George Island, a total of $3,625. 



FUR-SEAL HERD 



QUOT.\ FOB KILLING 



The plans of the Department of Commerce in connection with 
sealing operations for 1926 provided for the reservation of 9,500 
3-year-old male seals for future breeding purposes. The reserve 
was to be made on the basis of 7,500 on St. Paul Island and 2,000 on 
St. George Island. The remaining 3-year-old males that could be 
secured were to be killed. 

KILLINGS OF SEALS 

In 1926, 22,131 seals were killed (including 1 seal found dead, 
whose skin was preserved for commercial purposes) , of which 16,231 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 



311 



were on 8t. Paul Island and 5,900 on St. Georp:e Island. Of these, 
20,557 were listed as 3-year-old males. Details in regard to the 
killings are shoAvn in the following tabulations: 

Seal kiUings on Pribilof Islands in 1926 
ST. PAUL ISLAND 



Date 


Serial 
No. of 
drive 


May 21 


1 


June ]1 
15 


2 


16 




20 




20 




21 




23 


3 


26 




27 
28 


4 
5 


29 


6 


July 1 


7 


2 
3 


8 
9 


4 


10 


5 
6 


11 
12 


7 
8 


13 
14 


9 


15 \ 


10 
10 
11 


--- 
17 

i 



Hauling ground 



Sea Lion Rock (Si- 
vutch) 

Reef and Gorhatch 

From seal dying as a re- 
sult of reserving op- 
erations 

From seals dying as a 
result of reserving op- 
erations 

do 

From seal killed for 
food 

From seals dying as a 
result of reserving op- 
erations 

Zapadni and Little Za- 
padni 

From seals dying as a 
result of reserving op- 
erations 

Tolstoi and Lukanin... 

Zapadni and Little Za- 
padni 

Polovina, Polovina 
Cliffs, and Little Po- 
lovina.. 

Tolstoi, Lukanin, and 
Kitovi 

Reef and Gorbatch 

Zapadni and Little Za- 
padni 

Polovina, Little Polo- 
vina, and Polovina 
Cliffs 

Vostoehni and Morjovi. 

Tolstoi, Lukanin, and 
Kitovi 

Reef and Gorbatch 

Zapadni and Little Za- 
padni 

Polovina, Polovina 
Cliffs, and Little 
Polovina... 

Found in salt 

Vostoehni and Morjovi. 

Tolstoi, Lukanin, and 
Kitovi 



Skins 
secured 



75 



22 
244 



224 
809 



190 
420 



427 
1,355 



177 

3 

1,152 

570 



Date 



July 12 
13 



Aug. 24 

Oct. 20 

21 

26 

28 



Serial 
No. of 
drive 



30 



Hauling ground 



Reef and Gorbatch 

Zapadni and Little Za- 
padni 

Polovina, Little Polo- 
vina, and Polovina 
Cliffs 

Vostoehni and Mor- 
jovi 

Tolstoi, Lukanin, and 
Kitovi 

Reef and Gorbatch 

Zapadni and Little Za- 
padni. 

Polovina, Polovina 
ClifTs, and Little Po- 
lovina 

Vostoehni and Morjovi 

Tolstoi, Lukanin, and 
Kitovi. 

Reef and Gorbatch 

Zapadni and Little Za- 
padni 

Polovina, Polovina 
ClifTs, and Little Po- 
lovina 

Vostoehni and Morjovi 

Tolstoi, Lukanin, and 
Kitovi 

Reef and Gorbatch 

Zapadni and Little Za- 
padni. 

Polovina, Polovina 
ClifTs, and Little Po- 
lovina 

From seal dying as a re- 
sult of reserving op- 
erations 

From seal found dead.. 

Reef and Gorbatch 

Tolstoi, Lukanin, and 
Kitovi 

Zapadni and Little Za- 
padni. 

Vostoehni and Morjovi. 

Total 



ST. GEORGE ISLAND 



June 


4 


1 




15 


2 




24 


3 




29 


4 


July 


2 


5 




3 


6 




4 


7 




7 


8 




8 


9 




9 


10 




12 


11 




13 


12 




14 


13 




I" 


14 




18 


15 



Staraya Artil 

East 

East Reef and East 

Cliffs 

do 

Staraya Artil 

North 

East 

Staraya Artil 

North 

East Reef and East 

Cliffs 

Staraya Artil 

North Rookery 

East Reef and East 

Cliffs 

Staraya Artil 

North 



23 
48 

41 
195 

64 
312 
169 
204 
531 

317 
303 
504 

151 
150 
368 



July 19 

20 
22 
23 
24 

27 
28 
29 

31 
Oct. 20 

28 
Nov. 12 



East Reef and East 

Cliffs 

Zapadni 

Staraya Artil 

North 

East Reef and East 

Cliffs 

Staraya Artil 

North 

East Reef and East 

Cliffs 

North 

do 

do 

do 

Total 



312 



U. S. BUREAU OF FLSHERIES 



AGE CLASSES OF SEALS 



The age class of a male seal belonoing to the Pribilof Islands herd 
is determined from the length of its body. The classification was 
derived from measurements of a large number of pups branded in 
1912 and killed in subsequent years. The limits of the various age 
classes are shown in the table following : 

Age cla><s€s of male seals, Pribilof Islands 



Age 


Length of 
summer seals 


Length of 
fall seals 


Age 


Length of 
summer seals 


Length of 
fall seals 


Yearlings 


Inches 

Up to 36. 75 

37 to 40. 75 

41 to 45. 75 


Inches 
Up to 38. 75 
39 to 42. 75 
43 to 47. 75 


4-year-olds . 


Inches 
46 to 51. 75 
52 to 57. 75 
58 to 63. 75 


Inches 
48 to 53. 75 


2-year-olds . 


5-year-olds 


54 to 59 75 


3-year-olds . . 


6-year-olds 


60 to 65. 75 









Ages of seals killed on Pribilof Islands, calendar year 1926 

[On basis of classification shown in preceding table] 



Age 



Yearling males . 
2-year-old males 
3-year-old males 
4-year-old males 
5-year-old males 
Cows ' 

Total 



Summer (Jan. 1 to 
Aug. 5) 



St. 
Paul 



St. 
George 



9 

852 

14, 285 

480 

1 

58 



33 

5,492 

59 



34 



15,685 5,618 



Total 



885 

,777 

539 

1 

92 



Fall (Aug. 6 to 
Dec. 31) 



St. St. 

Paul George 



Total 



282 



21,303 546 



2 

31 

780 

11 



Total for year 



St. 
Paul 



11 

883 

14, 783 

491 

1 

62 



16, 231 



St. 
George 



33 

5,774 
59 



34 



Total 



11 

916 

20. 557 

550 

1 

96 



5, 900 22, 131 



I Cows unavoidably and accidentally killed and found dead. 



It should be stated that some of the seals recorded in the above 
tabulation as 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds probably were 3-year-olds. 
The killings were confined, as far as po.ssible, to 3-year-old males. 
Not all of the male seals of this age fall within the length limits 
assigned for the 3-year-old class. 



RESERVING OPERATIONS 



In order to make the annual provision for the future breeding 
stock of male seals. 9,565 3-year-olds were marked by shearing a 
patch of fur. On St. Paul Island 7,558 animals and on St. George 
Island 2,007 were marked. On each island the marking operations 
were begun on June l-L and ended on Jul}' 31. The following tabu- 
lation gives further details in regard to the marking operations: 



ALASKA FISHEItY ANH FUR-SKAL INDITSTRIES, li)26 



313 



2^[(l>^ki>^!f of :i-itcar-<>I<I male sfol.^ for hrndinff reserve, I'ribilof Islands, 1026 

ST. I'AUr- ISLAND 



Date 


Hauling ground driven 


Number 
of seals 
marked 


Date 


Hauling ground driven 


Number 
of seals 
marked 






41 
598 
816 
342 

23 
176 

69 
828 
762 

97 


24 
25 
26 
SO 
July 15 
30 
31 


Polo Vina and Little Polovina... 

Vostochniand Morjovi 

Reef and Qorbatch 


103 


15 




317 


16 




1,038 


17 


Tolstoi 


V^ostochni and Morjovi 


1,250 


17 




do 


278 


18 


Zapadni and Little Zapadni 


do -.- 


377 


19 


Reef and Gorbatch 


443 


20 




Total 




21 




7,558 


22 


Tolstoi - 













June 14 

18 
19 
23 
24 
25 
28 



ST. GEORGE ISLAND 



North and Staraya ArtiL. 
do 

East Reef and East ClifT.^. 
North and Staraya ArtiL. 
East Reef and East Cliffs. 
Zapadni 

North and Staraya Artil.. 



175 


July 1 


85 ' 


10 


158 1 


20 


216 


30 


102 


31 


158 




404 





Zapadni.. 

do_.._ 

do._._ 

do._._ 

North 



Total. 



163 
269 

42 
145 

90 



2,007 







Fig. 10. — Fur-seal harom, Pribilof Islands, Alaska 
COMPUTATION OF FLTt-SEAL HB3RD 

The computation of the size of the fur-seal herd in 1926 was made 
by Edward C. Johnston, who has had immediate charge of this phase 
of the work in recent years, beginning with 1921. His report for 
1926 will be found on pages 330 to 336 of this document. Following 
is a comparative statement of the numerical strength of the various 
elements of the herd in the years 1915 to 1926, inclusive. 



314 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



General comparison of computations of the seal herd on the Pribilof Islands, 

1915 to 1926 



Classes 



Harem buUs 2, 151 

Breeding cows 103, 527 

Surplus bulls 

Idle bulls 673 

6-year-old males 

5-year-old males 11, 271 

4-year-old males 15,848 

3-year-old males 18,282 

2-year-old males„. 23,990 

Yearling males 30,307 

2-year-old cows 23,990 

Yearling cows | 30,306 

Pups ._ I 103,527 



1916 



1917 



3,500 
116,977 



2,632 
11, 167 
15, 494 
15, 427 
19, 402 
24, 169 
33, 645 
24, 245 
33,646 
116, 977 



4,850 

128,024 

8,977 

2,706 

15, 397 

14,813 

16,631 

19, 507 

26,815 

38, 013 

26,917 

38, 018 

128. 024 



Total 363.872 j 417,281 I 468.692 



1918 



5,344 
142,915 
17, 110 

2,444 
13, 755 
11,941 

7,114 

9.117 
30, 159 
41, 595 
30, 415 
41, 608 
142,915 



1919 



5,158 

157, 172 

9,619 

2,239 

8,991 

5,282 

5,747 

13, 596 

33, 081 

46,444 

33,287 

46, 447 

157, 172 



496, 432 



524,235 



4,066 

167, 527 

6,115 

1,161 

4,153 

5,007 

5,667 

10, 749 

39, 111 

51, 074 

39, 480 

51, 081 

167, 527 



552, 718 



Classes 



Harem bulls 

Breeding cows... 

Surplus bulls 

Idle bulls 

6-year-old males. 
5-year-old males. 
4-year-old males. 
3-year-old males. 
2-year-old males. 
Yearling males.. 
2-year-old cows.. 
Yearling cows... 
Pups.. 



Total.... 581,443 604,96: 



3,909 


3,562 


176, 655 


185,914 


3,301 


2,346 


747 


508 


3,991 


3,771 


4,729 


6,080 


6,780 


11, 807 


14, 668 


7,459 


41, 893 


40, 920 


50, 249 


52, 988 


43, 419 


46,280 


54, 447 


57, 413 


176, 655 


185,914 



1923 



3,412 

197, 659 

1,891 

312 

4,863 

10, 612 

5,710 

22, 786 

43, 112 

55, 769 

48,801 

60, 422 

197, 659 



653,008 



3.516 

208, 396 

2,043 

390 

8,489 

5,132 

18, 670 

21, 551 

45, 685 

59, 291 

51, 359 

64,240 

208, 396 



697, 158 



3,526 

226, 090 

3,558 

311 

4,105 

16, 792 

18, 692 

21,185 

43, 515 

52,091 

49,786 

57, 309 

226, 090 



723,050 



1926 



4,034 

244, 114 

2,002 

423 

13. 434 

16, 812 

17. 872 
17, 189 
38,183 
56, 514 
44,415 
62, 175 

244, 114 



761, 281 



SHIPMENT OF FUR SEALS TO STEIXHART AQUARIUM 

Pursuant to a request from the director of the Steinhart 
Aquarium, San Francisco, for a number of fur seals for exhibition 
purposes, there were shipped from St. Paul Island on the U. S. 
Coast Guard cutter Bear, on August 26, one 4-year-old male, one 2- 
year-old female, and two female pups. The animals reached San 
Francisco on September 13, UnfortunateW the two pups die<l 
shortly after their arrival. 

DEVELOPMENT OF FOX HERDS ON PRIBILOF ISLANDS 



S't. Paul Island. — Fox feeding was begun the middle of November 
and was carried on at the village. Northeast Point, Southwest Point, 
Halfway Point, and Zapadni. As usual, cooked food was used. 

St. George Iskind. — In addition to cooked food, preserved seal 
carcasses were fed on this island. The feeding of foxes was begun 
in the first part of November. 



FOX-TBAPPING SEASON OF 1926-27 

During the season 728 blue and 30 white fox pelts were taken on 
St. Paul and St. George Islands, a total of 758. The total number 
taken in the preceding season was 725. 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 315 

On St. Paul Island the take consisted of US blue and 27 white 
pelts, and on St. George Island of (IK) blue and 3 white pelts. 

On St. Paul Island there were marked and released for breedin<ij 
stock 125 male and 108 female blue foxes and on St. George Island 
205 male and 202 female blue foxes. The figures for St. Paul Island 
include the 20 foxes brought from St. George Island in December, 
192C. The foxes transferred from St. Paul Island to St. George 
Island at the same time are included in the figures of foxes released 
on the latter island. The 'stock remaining on the islands at the close 
of the season included, in addition to those marked and released, 
the animals that were not captured at all during trapping operations, 

REINDEER 

Counts of the reindeer on each island at the end of 1926 showed 
approximately 250 animals on St. Paul Island and 50 on St. George 
Island. During the year 20 reindeer were killed for food, 10 on 
each island. 

FUR-SEAL SKINS 
SHIPMENTS 

In the calendar year 1926 one shipment of 22,073 fur-seal skins 
was made from the Pribilof Islands, as follows: From St. Paul 
Island, 546 taken in the calendar year 1925 and 15,685 taken in 
1926; from St. George Island, 224 taken in the calendar year 1925 
and 5,618 taken in 1926. The shipment was made from the islands 
in August on the U. S. S. Vega, which arrived at Bremerton, Wash., 
on August 21. The skins were shipped from Bremerton on August 
24 via Puget Sound Navigation Co., Union Pacific, and Wabash 
Railroad to St. Louis, Mo., where they were delivered to the bureau's 
selling agents on September 3. 

SALES 

In 1926 a total of 22,676 fur-seal skins taken on the Pribilof 
Islands were sold at two public auction sales. There were also 
sold at special sales 695 fur-seal skins taken, on these islands. In 
the detailed statements which follow, the sales of other sealskins 
sold by the Department of Commerce for the account of the Gov- 
ernment are included, in order that the records may be complete. 

Public auction sale, May 2J-f, 1926. — At this sale 14,427 sealskins 
taken at the Pribilof Islands, dressed, dyed, and machined, sold for 
$430,446; 175 other sealskins taken at the Pribilof Islands, consist- 
ing of 149 raw salted, 20 washed and dried, and 6 dressed, sold for 
a total of $302 ; 1 raw salted skin from a seal shipped to the Stein- 
hart Aquarium brought $1 and 7 confiscated sealskins, $7; a grand 
total of $430,756. Of the dressed, dyed, and machined skins, 11,207 
were dyed black, 2,751 logwood brown (Bois de Campeche), and 
469 golden chestnut (Chataigne d'Or). 

Public auction sale, October 11, 1926. — At this sale 8,071 sealskins 
taken at the Pribilof Islands, dressed, dyed, and machined, sold for 
$308,841; 3 others from those islands sold, dressed, for $3; 151 
Japanese sealskins, dressed, dyed, and machined, sold for $4,394.50; 



316 



U. S. BUEEAU OF FISHERIES 



30 raw salted Japanese sealskins for $7.50: 1 confiscated sealskin, 
dressed, dyed, and machined, for $41 ; and 4 pieces of confiscated 
sealskin, dressed and dyed, for $1; a <>rand total of $31:3,*2>S8. Of 
the 8,071 Pribilof Islands sealskins sold dressed, dyed, and macliined, 
6,767 were dyed black, 1.250 lo<j:wood brown (Bois de Canipeche), 
and 54 <rolden chestnut (Cliatai<^ne d'Or). The 151 dressed, dyed, 
and machined Japanese sealskins were dyed black. 

The 181 Japanese sealskins sold on October 11, 1926, were the 
United States Government's share of sealskins taken by the Japanese 
Government in 1924 and 1925. delivered pursuant to the provisions 
of the North Pacific Sealin<r Convention of July 7, 1911. 

Special sales. — In the calendar year 1926, 627 dressed, dyed, and 
machined sealskins were sold at special sale for $19,990.05 and 68 
raw salted skins for $1,520.06. " All were skins taken at the Pribilof 
Islands. Of the dyed skins, 100 were black and 527 lo<i:wootl brown. 

The following tables give further details in regard to all sales 
of fur-seal skins by the Department of Commerce for the account of 
the Government in 1926 : 



Sale of fur-seal skins at St. Louis, Mo., May 24, 1926 
11,207 DRESSED, DYED, AND MACHINED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS, DYED BLACK 



Lot 


N Timber 


No. 


of skins 


1 


45 


2 


45 


3 


45 


4 


45 


!) 


90 


(i 


90 


7 


90 


« 


90 


9 


90 


JO 


90 


11 





12 


85 


U 


90 


14 


90 


15 


90 


16 


90 


17 


90 


18 


90 


19 


90 


20 


90 


21 


90 


22 


90 


23 


90 


24 


90 


25 


90 


2fi 


90 


27 


90 


28 


90 


29 


90 


30 


90 


31 


90 


32 


90 


33 


90 


41 


25 


42 


80 


43 


80 


44 


80 


45 


80 


46 


38 


47 


90 


48 


90 


49 


90 


50 


90 


51 


90 


52 


90 


.53 


90 


54 


90 



Trade classification 



Price 
per skin 



Total 
for lot 



Large.. 
do. 



Large; scarred, faulty, etc. 
do 



Medium, 
.dc 



do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
-do. 



Medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 

-do 

.do 



do 

do 

do 

do _ 

Small medium 

do -. 

do 

do 

do 

do! 

do 

Small medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 

do 

do 

do . 

do 

do 

do 

1 wig; 5 extra large, 19 large 

Large 

do 

do 

Large; scarre^j, faulty, etc 

do 

Medium 

do 

do - 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



$51.50 
58.50 
38.00 
38.50 
47.00 
49.50 
50.00 
50.50 
49.50 
52.50 
52.00 
52.00 
36.00 
33.00 
31.50 
34.00 
31.50 
35.50 
35.00 
37.50 
37.00 
36. 50 
36.50 
35. 5C 
35.50 
36.50 
24.50 
23. 50 
26.00 
26.00 
23.50 
23. 50 
22.00 
53.50 
63.00 
64.50 
65.50 
41. 50 
43.50 
44.50 
47.50 
46.00 
49.00 
49.50 
49.50 
49.50 
51.00 



.$2,317.50 

2, 632. 50 

1. 710. 00 
1.732.50 
4, 230. 00 
4, 455. 00 
4, 500. 00 
4, 545. 00 
4, 455. 00 
4, 725. 00 
4, 680. 00 

4, 420. OO 

3, 240. 00 
2, 970. 00 

2, 835. 00 
3. 060. 00 

2. 835. 00 
3, 195. 00 
3,1.50.00 

3, 375. 00 
3. 330. 00 
3, 285. 00 

3, 285. 00 
3, 195. 00 
3, 195. 00 
3, 285. 00 
2, 205. 00 
2,115.00 
2, 340. 00 
2, 340. 00 
2,115.00 
2.115.00 
1, 980. 00 
1, 337. 50 
5, 040. 00 

5, 160. 00 
5, 240. 00 
3, 320. 00 
1, 053. 00 
4, 005. 00 

4, 275. 00 
4, 140. 00 
4,410.00 
4, 45.5. UO 
4, 455. 00 
4, 455. 00 
4, 590. 00 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INIU'STRIES, 1926 



317 



Sale of fur-seal ,shini< at .^7. Louis, Mo., Mail JJ, i.''J() — Continuod 
]),207 DRESSED, DYED, AND MACHINED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS, DYED BLACK 



Number 
of skins 



Trade classification 



90 Medium 

90 do 

90 I do ---- 

90 ! do -. 

90 do 

90 do 

90 do .._ 

90 do 

90 do 

90 do 

90 do -. 

90 do 

90 do 

90 do 

90 do 

42 do 

90 Medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 



.do. 

.do- 

.do. 

.do. 

....do 

do 

do... 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do.. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Small medium. 
do.-_ 



.do. 
-do. 
-do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
-do. 
.do_ 



Small medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 
do 



do. 

do. 

do. 

.... do. 

do, 

do. 

do_ 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

.do. 



Ill; 25 medium, 25 small medium 

Ill small medium ^ 

5 large, 31 medium, 26 small medium 

2 extra large, 25 large; scarred, faulty, etc. 

Medium; scarred, faulty, etc . ... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

Small medium; scarred, faulty, etc . . . 
do... 



Price 
per skin 



$47. 50 
47.50 
50.50 
47.00 
50. 50 
49.50 
50.50 
50.00 
50.00 
50.50 
50.00 
50.00 
47.00 
51.00 
5L00 
52.50 
33.50 
3L 50 
3L50 
30.00 
30.00 
30.50 
3L0Q 
32.00 
30.50 
29.00 
30. 00 
28.50 
27.50 
30.00 
30.00 
32.50 
29.50 
32.00 
31.00 
31.00 
30.00 
28.00 
28.50 
28.50 
29.00 
29.50 
28.00 
28. 50 
28.00 
29.00 
27.50 
28.00 
28.50 
29.00 
28.50 
19.00 
20.00 
18. 50 
19.00 
19.50 
18.50 
18.00 
18.00 
18.00 
18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
18.50 
19.00 
18.00 
19.00 
19.50 
11.75 
10.50 
36.50 
23.50 
14.00 
14.50 
15.00 
14.00 
8.00 
12.50 



318 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Sale of fur-seal skins at St. Louis, Mo., May 24, 1926 — Continued 
11,207 DRESSED. DYED, AND MACHINED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS, DYED BLACK 



Lot 

No. 


Number 
of skins 


Trade classification 


Price 
per .skin 


Total 
for lot 


138 


90 
88 
25 
45 
45 
45 
31 
45 
45 
45 
30 
17 

11,207 


Small medium ; scarred, faulty, etc 


$12. 00 
12.00 
7.00 
7.50 
8.00 
8.00 
9.00 
8.00 
8.50 
8.50 
10.50 
5.50 


$1,080.00 


139 


do._ 


1,056.00 


140 


III large ... 


175.00 


141 


Ill medium.-. ...... 


337. 50 


142 


do --- 


360 00 


143 


do 


360. 00 


144 


do 


279. 00 


145 


Ill small medium 


360 00 


146 


do - - . 


382. 50 


147 


do 


382. 50 


148 


do - - 


315. 00 


149 


IV; 5 medium, 12 small medium ...... 


93.50 










367,114.50 



2,751 DRESSED, DYED, AND MACHINED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS, DYED LOGWOOD 
BROWN (BOIS DE CAMPECHE) 



151 


29 
63 
51 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
36 
46 
42 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
33 
45 
29 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
30 
36 
43 
46 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
41 
21 
24 
25 
35 
19 
29 
40 


Large.. 


$45. 50 
36.00 
31.50 
33.00 
35.00 
.34. 50 
35.50 
35.50 
36.50 
34.00 
37.50 
35.50 
35.50 
21.50 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
20.50 
20.00 
20.50 
20.00 
20.00 
20.00 
22.50 
19.00 
19.50 
18.00 
17.50 
19.50 
18.00 
18.50 
18.50 
17.00 
18.00 
19.00 
19.00 
20.00 
19.50 
14.00 
14.50 
13.50 
13.00 
14.00 
14.00 
13.00 
13.00 
12.50 
14.00 
13.00 
12.50 
13.00 
34.00 
27.00 
26.50 
15.50 
17.00 
12. 50 
14.00 


$1,319.50 


152 


MediiiTTi 


2, 268. 00 


153 


do.... 


1, 606. 50 


154 


do _ _,. 


1, 485. 00 


155 


do . - 


1, 576. 00 


156 


do 


1, 552. 50 


157 


do . . 


1, 597. 50 


158 


do 


1, 597. 50 


159 


do _ 


1, 642. 50 


160 


.do ■ 


1, 530. 00 


161 


do 


1, 687. 50 


162 


do 


1, 597. 50 


163 


do 


1, 278. 00 


164 


17 large, 29 medium; scarred, faulty, etc 


989.00 


165 


Medium; scarred, faulty, etc .. 


840.00 


166 


do 


900.00 


167 


do 


900.00 


168 


.do 


922. 50 


169 


do 


900.00 


170 


do 


922. 50 


171 


do 


900.00 


172 


do 


900.00 


173 


do 


900.00 


174 


do 


742. 50 


175 


Small medium 


855.00 


176 


do 


565. 50 


177 


do 


810.00 


178 


do 


787. 50 


179 


do 


877. 50 


180 


.. do. 


810.00 


181 


do . . 


832.50 


182 


do 


832. 50 


183 


do 


765.00 


184 


do 


810. 00 


185 


.. .do 


855.00 


186 


do 


855.00 


187 


do 


600.00 


188 


do 


702.00 


189 




602.00 


190 


do 


667.00 


191 


do . 


607. 50 


192 


.. .do 


585.00 


193 


do 


630.00 


194 


do 


630.00 


195 


do 


585.00 


196 


do 


585. 00 


197 


do 


562. 50 


198 


do 


630. 00 


199 


do _ 


585. 00 


200 


do 


562. 50 


201 


do 


533. 00 


211 




714.00 


212 


4 large, 12 medium, 8 small medium . . 


648.00 


213 




637.50 


214 


1 large, 34 medium; scarred, faulty, etc ...... 


542. 50 


215 




323.00 


216 
217 


1 large, 14 medium, 14 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 

3 large, 24 medium, 13 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 


362. 50 
560. 00 



AI..\SK.\ FISHERY AND PUR-SEAL INDITSTKIES, 1026 



319 



Sale of fiir-xcal fikiii.s at St. Loiiif. Mo.. Mai/ 2.}, J}>26 — Contimu'd 

2,751 DRESSED. DYED, AND MACHINED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS, DYED LOGWOOD 
BROWN (BOIS DE CAMPECHE) 



Lot 
No. 


Number 
of skins 


Trade cUissificiUion 


Price 
per skin 


Total 
for lot 


218 


19 
45 
42 
44 
27 
36 
23 
36 
25 
26 


5 medium, 14 small medium . - 


$18. 50 
8.00 
10.50 
9.50 
9.50 
10.00 
15.50 
9.00 
5.50 
4.00 


$351.50 


219 


Small medium; scarred, faulty, etc 


360. 00 


220 


do 


441. 00 


221 


do. 


418. 00 


231 
232 
233 


2 large, 12 medium. 13 .'^inall medium; scarred, faulty, etc 

4 largf, 21 mpdiiHii, 11 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc 

8 medium. l,'i siiiall medium . ... 


256. 50 
360. 00 
356. 50 


234 


Small meiiiuiii; scarred, faulty, etc . . .. 


324. 00 


235 


III; 11 medium, 14 small mediimi . 


137. 50 


236 


Ill small medium.. .. _ ....... 


104. 00 




i 






2,751 


56, 172. 00 



469 DRESSED, DYED, AND MACHINED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS, DYED GOLDEN 
CHESTNUT (CHATAIGNE D'OR) 



241 
242. 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
257 
258 




Medium 

4 large, 31 medium; scarred, faulty, etc 

Medium; scarred, faulty, etc 

5 Medium, 15 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc 

Small medium 

Small medium; scarred, faulty, etc__^ 

do . 

1 large, 9 medium. 4 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc.. 
4 large, 20 medium, 13 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc 

4 large, 17 medium. 4 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 

5 large, 18 medium, 9 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc.. 
3 large, 20 medium, 14 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc 
3 large, 16 medium, 16 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc 

III; 2 large, 28 medium ' 

III small medium 




$648. 00 
665. 00 
594. 00 
330.00 
990.00 
540.00 
570.00 
217.00 
592.00 
425. 00 
512.00 
481.00 
472.50 
75.00 
48.00 



7, 159. 50 



175 MISCELLANEOUS PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS 




Dressed ; faulty. . _ 

Raw salted ; faulty 

do 

do 

Washed and dried; faulty 



.$1.50 
2.00 
1.50 
1.75 
2.00 



7 CONFISCVTED SKINS 



$9.00 
58.00 
90.00 
105.00 
40.00 

302. 00 



1 SKIN TAKEN FROM SEAL SHIPPED TO STEINHART AQUARIUM 


263 1 

1 


Raw salted; faulty $1.00 


$1.00 



265 
266 



Raw salted. 
Parchment. 



$1.00 
1.00 



B6.00 
1.00 



7.00 



48765—27- 



320 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Sale of fur-seal skins at St. Louis, Mo., October 11, 1926 

6,767 DRESSED, DYED, AND MACHINED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS, DYED BLACK 



Lot 
No. 


Number 
of skins 


Trade classification 


Price 
per skin 


Total for 
lot 


1 


70 
70 
34 
70 
23 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
37 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
46 
46 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
60 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
75 
48 
70 
70 
70 
70 
69 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
30 
80 
80 
80 
80 
55 
50 
90 
90 
90 
90 


Large - 


$60.50 
66.50 
66.00 
41.00 
39.50 
50.00 
49.00 
49.50 
49.50 
52.00 
51.00 
50.50 
50.00 
52.00 
52.50 
50.50 
50.50 
49.00 
50.00 
50. 50 
49.50 
50.00 
32.50 
33.50 
33.00 
34.00 
33.50 
33.50 
33.50 
33.00 
33.50 
34.50 
34.00 
34.00 
36.50 
36.00 
37.00 
37.00 
36.00 
36.00 
37.00 
36.50 
24.50 
23.00 
24.50 
23.50 
24.50 
23.50 
24.00 
24.50 
9.50 
69.00 
69.50 
69.50 
37.50 
36.00 
45.00 
45.00 
46.00 
44.50 
46.00 
45.50 
47.00 
46.50 
46.00 
45.50 
44.00 
45.00 
32.00 
31.00 
31.00 
31.00 
31.50 
31.50 
32.00 
31.50 
31.50 
31.00 


S4 235 00 


2 


do 


4, 655. 00 


3 
4 
5 


7 extra large; 27 large.. 

Large; scarred, faulty, etc 

3 extra large; 20 large; scarred, faulty, etc. 


2,244.00 

2, 870. 00 

908 50 


6 


Medium . . _. . _ _ 


4,000 00 


7 


. ..do . 


3, 920. 00 
3, 960. 00 


8 


do ..... . ..... .... 


9 


do 


3,960 00 


10 


do 


4, 160. 00 


11 


do . •. 


4, 080. 00 


12 


do. 


4, 040. 00 


13 


do . 


4,000.00 


14 


. . do • 


4, 160. 00 


15 


do 


4, 200. 00 


16 


do — .... 


4,040 00 


17 


do . 


4, 040. 00 


18 


do 


3, 920. 00 


19 


do 


4, 000. 00 


20 


do .. 


4, 040. 00 


21 


.. do .. - 


3, 960. 00 


22 


do .. 


1,850.00 


23 


Medium; scarred, faulty, etc. - 


2, 600. 00 


24 


do ... . 


2, 680. 00 


25 


. do 


2, 640. 00 


26 


do 


2, 720. 00 


27 


do . ... 


2, 680. 00 


28 


. . do. 


2, 680. 00 


29 


do 


2, 680. 00 


30 


do 


2, 640. 00 


31 


do . . 


2, 680. 00 


32 


do ... 


2, 760. 00 


33 


do 


1,564.00 


34 


do . ... . 


1,564.00 


35 


Small medium . ... .. 


3, 285. 00 


36 


do 


3, 240. 00 


37 


do .... 


3, 330. 00 


38 


do . 


3, 330. 00 


39 


do . 


3, 240. 00 


40 


do . 


3, 240. 00 


41 


do .. . . -. 


3, 330. 00 


42 


..do ... . 


2,190.00 


43 


Small medium; scarred, faulty, etc.. . . 


2, 205. 00 


44 


do -. . .. .. 


2, 070. 00 


45 


do , 


2, 205. 00 


46 


do 


2,115.00 


47 


do . - - 


2, 205. 00 


48 


do . . — .. 


2,115.00 


49 


do 


2, 160. 00 


50 


do 


1, 837. 50 


51 


III; 12 medium, 36 small medium . . . . . 


456.00 


52 


22 extra large; 48 large - 


4, 830. 00 


53 


Large . 


4, 865. 00 


54 


._ .do.. .. 


4, 86.5. 00 


55 


22 extra large; 48 large; scarred, faulty, etc. _. 


2, 625. 00 


56 


Large; scarred, faulty, etc.. . - 


2, 484. 00 


57 


Medium . . 


3, 600. 00 


58 


do . 


3, 600. 00 


59 


do 


3, 680. CO 


60 


do 


3. 560. 00 


61 


. .do 


3, 680. 00 


62 


do 


3, 640. 00 


63 


. .do . . 


3. 760. 00 


64 


do- 


3, 720. 00 


65 


do 


3, 680. 00 


66 


do . 


3, 040. 00 


67 


do - 


3, 520. 00 


68 


.do 


1,350.00 


69 


Medium; scarred, faulty, etc 


2. 560. 00 


70 


.do 


2, 480. 00 


71 


do 


2, 480. 00 


72 


do 


2, 480. 00 


73 


do 


1, 732. 50 


74 


do - - . . 


1, .575. 00 


75 


Small medium 


2, 880. 00 


76 


.do 


2, 835. 00 


77 


do 


2, 835. 00 


78 




2, 790. 00 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1J)26 



321 



Sale of fur-seal skins at St. Louis, Mo., October 11, l'.).i(i — Continued 
6,767 DRESSED, DYED, AND MACHINED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS, DYED BLACK 



Lot 
Xo. 


Number 
of skins 


Trade clflssiflcation 


Price 
per skin 


Total 
for lot 


79 


90 
60 
53 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
86 
31 
34 


Small medium .. 


$32.00 
32.00 
31. 50 
22.00 
22.00 
22.00 
22.50 
22.50 
22.50 
8.00 
8.00 


$2, 880. 00 


80 


do - 


1,920.00 


81 


do - 


1. 669. 50 


82 


Small medium; scarred, faulty, etc 


1,980.00 


83 


do 


1,980.00 


84 


.. .do. . . 


1,980.00 


85 


do 


2, 025. 00 


86 


do 


2, 025. 00 


87 


do 


1, 935. 00 


88 


Ill; 1 extra extra large; 3 extra largo; fi large; 21 medium 


248.00 


89 


Ill, small medium 


272.00 










6,767 


258,345.00 



1,250 DRESSED, DYED, AND MACHINED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS DYED LOGWOOD 
BROWN (BOIS DE CAMPECHE) 



91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
100 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 



24 I 2 extra large; 22 large $56.50 



1,250 



Medium. 

do 

do 

do.. 

do 

17 large; 23 medium 

Medium 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do - 

13 large; 27 medium 

Medium 

do , -. 

do _ 

5 large; 26 medium; 9 small medium 

6 large; 17 medium; 7 small medium 

32 medium, 14 small medium 

Small medium 

do 

do. 

do-... 

do 

1 large, 25 medium, 11 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 

2 large, 15 medium, 12 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 
1 large, 7 medium, 8 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc... 
1 large, 44 medium; scarred, faulty, etc... 

14 medium, 31 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc 

III, 3 medium, 6 small medium 

3 large, 24 medium; scarred, faulty, etc _ _. 

Small medium; scarred, faulty, etc 

III, 1 medium, 15 small medium _.. 



41.00 
44.00 
43.50 
44.50 
45.50 
49.00 
44.50 
44.50 
46.50 
47.00 
46.50 
46.50 
47.00 
44.50 
45.00 
44. 50 
47.50 
45.50 
41.00 
32.00 
36.50 
38.00 
39.00 
39.00 
26.50 
23.00 
23.00 
31.00 
28.00 

8.50 
21.50 
18.50 

6.00 



$1,356.00 
1,640.00 
1, 760. 00 
1,740.00 
1, 780. 00 
1, 820. 00 
1, 960. 00 
1, 780. 00 
1, 780. 00 
1, 860. 00 
1, 880. 00 
1, 860. 00 
1,906.50 
1, 880. 00 
1, 780. 00 
1, 800. 00 
1,557.50 
1, 900. 00 
1,365.00 

1, 886. 00 
1,472.00 
1,460.00 
1, 520. 00 
1,326.00 

2, 223. 00 
980. 50 
667. 00 
368. 00 

1,395.00 

1, 260. 00 

76.50 

580. 50 

610. 50 

96,00 



49, 326. 00 



54 DRESSED, DYED, AND MACHINED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS, DYED GOLDEN 
CHESTNUT (CHATAIGNE D'OR) 



25 


25 


26 


25 


27 


4 



54 



5 large, 20 medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 

8 medium, 17 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 
Ill, 1 medium, 3 small medium 



$25. 00 
21.00 
5.00 



$625. 00 
525. 00 
20.00 



1, 170. 00 



3 DRESSED PRIBILOF ISLANDS SKINS 



128 



3 Faulty. 



$1.00 



$3.00 



322 



U. S. BUREAU or FISHERIES 



Sale of fur-seal skins at St. Louis. Mo.. October 11. W26 — Continued 

151 SKINS RECEIVED FROM JAPANESE GOVERNMENT UNDER TREATY PROVISIONS, 
DRESSED, DYED, AND MACHINED, BLACK 



Lot 

No. 



131 
132 
133 
134 



Number 
of skins 



151 



Trade classification 



6 extra large, 25 large, 28 medium 

8 extra large, 30 large; scarred, faulty, etc 

41 medium, 2 small medium; scarred, faulty, etc. 
III, 1 extra large, 6 large, 4 medium 



Price 
per skin 



$37.00 
27.00 
24.50 
12.00 



Total 
for lot 



$2, 183. 00 

1, 026. 00 

1, 053. 50 

132. 00 



4, 394. 50 



30 SKINS RECEIVED FROM .JAPANESE GOVERNMENT UNDER TREATY PROVISIONS 

RAW SALTED 



135 



30 



Skins - 



0.25 



$7.50 



1 SKIN AND 4 PIECES OF SKIN, CONFISCATED 



136 
138 



4 pieces 



Extra large; dressed, dyed, and machined, black 

Dressed and dyed for lot. 



$41.00 



$41.00 
1.00 



42.00 



Special sales of Prihilof Islands sealskins in 1926 



Date 



Jan. 11 
11 
18 
18 
18 
20 
25 
28 

Mar. 25 



Mar. 27 
27 



Dec. 29 

29 



Number 
of skins 



29 
50 

100 
62 
36 
62 
30 

124 
34 



Description 



Dressed, dyed, and machined, logwood brown (Bois de 
Campeche) 



8 medium, 21 small medium; scarred . 

11 medium, 39 small medium 

64 medium, 36 small medium 

Small medium . 



--do. . - .... 


do 


.do- 


do. 


do 


Dressed, 


dyed. 


and machined. 


black 


Small medium .. ^ 


Raw salted 



Price 
per skin 



Total 



$18. 70 


$542. 30 


29.40 


1, 470. 00 


35.00 


3, 500. 00 


28.50 


1, 767. 00 


30.50 


1, 098. 00 


28.50 


1, 767. 00 


30.50 


915. 00 


28.50 


3, 534. 00 


30.50 


1, 037. 00 


46.32 


3, 474. 00 


35.43 


885.75 


14. 525 


130. 73 


23.548 


1,389.33 



21,510.11 



ALASKA FISHERY AND FITlt-SEAl. INDUSTIMKS, 1!)26 



323 



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U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



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ALASKA FISHERY AND FUR-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 



325 






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326 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHEEIES 



DISPOSITION OF FUR-SEAL SKINS TAKEN AT PRIBILOF ISLANDS 

On January 1, 1926, 32,531 fur-seal skins taken at the Pribilof 
Islands were on hand. Of these, 770 were at the Pribilof Islands, 
31,748 at St. Louis, Mo., 11 at,AVashington, and 2 temporarily shipped 
to Kansas City, Mo. In 1926, 22,131 Pribilof skins were securecl at 
the islands and 23,373 were disposed of, leaving 31,289 on hand on 
December 31, 1926. The follwing tables show further details in 
regard to sealskins taken on the Pribilof Islands, as well as details in 
regard to other Government-owned sealskins under the control of the 
Department of Commerce: 

Summary of Govenwifient-owned fur-seal skins in the custody of Fouke Fur Co., 
St. Louis, Mo., calendar year 1926 



Description 



Taken on Pribilof Islands: 

Calendar year 1923 

Calendar year 1924 

Calendar year 1925 

Calendar year 1926 

Skins from Pribilof Islands seals shipped from Steinhart Aquar- 
ium,. -_i 

Dnited States' share of Japanese sealskins: 

Season of 1924 

Season of 1925 

Confiscated skins 



Total 31,755 22,258 I 23,575 



On hand 
Jan. 1 



Receipts 
in 1926 



1,538 
11, 120 2 2 

19, 090 3 770 

3 21, 303 



Disposed 
of in 
1926 



1 1, 538 
1 11, 122 
< 10, 725 



194 

187 
58 



On hand 
Dec. 31 



9,135 
21, 303 



30, 438 



1 Sold. 

^ Returned from Kansas City, Mo. 

3 Shipped from Pribilof Islands. 

< 10,711 sold; 12 shipped to Washington; 2 charged off account error in count. 

5 Sold; in addition four pieces of sealskin were ccmfiscated and sold. 

Summary of all fur-seal skins handled on Pribilof Islands, calendar year 192f'> 



Island 


Balance 

on hand 

Jan. 1 


Number 
taken 


Total 
handled 


Number 
shipi)ed 


Balance 
on band 
Dec. 31 


St. Paul 


546 
224 


16, 231 
5,900 


16, 777 
6,124 


16, 231 
5,842 


546 


St. George 


282 






Total 


770 


22, 131 


22, 901 


22,073 1 828 



Summary of all Ooi^ermnent-owned fur-seal skins und4:r control of Department 
of Commerce, calendar year 1926 



Description 


On hand 
Jan. 1 


Receipts 
in 1926 


Sales in 
1926 


Balance 
on hand, 
Dec. 31 


Taken on Pribilof Islands: 


7 

1,541 

11, 123 

19, 860 






7 


Calendar year 1923 




1.538 

11, 122 

1 10, 713 


3 


Ciilendar year 1924 . . 




1 






9,147 


Calendar year 1926 


22, 131 


22, 131 




4 




4 


Skins from Pribilof Islan<is seals shipped to Steinhart Aquarium 


1 

94 

87 

1 


1 

94 

87 

28 




United States' share of Japanese sealskins: 
Season of 1924 






Season of 1925 ..- 








7 








Total 


32, 542 


22, 314 


1 23, 563 


3 31, 293 







1 Includes two charged off account error in count. 

2 In addition four pieces of sealskin were confiscated and sold. 

3 828skins at Pribilof Islands; 30,438 in custody Fouke Fur Co. 
of Fisheries. 



27 in custody Washington office. Bureau 



ALASK.V FISHEHY AND FUIJ-SEAL INDUSTRIES, 1926 



327 



SHIPMENT AND SALE OF FOX SKINS 

Tlu' (>T blue :uul 15) white fox skins taken on St. Paul Island in the 
season of lJ)'2r)-2() and the G:W blue and 1 white fo.x skins taken on 
St. Cieor<ie Island in the same season were placed aboard the V. S. S. 
Ve</a for shipment in Auj^ust. These 725 skins were delivered at 
Bremerton, Wash., on August 21, and were then forwarded by ex- 
press to St. Louis, Mo., where they were delivered to the bureau's 
sellin<r a^rents on Aujirust 28. 

Of these skins, 125 blues were sold at public auction at St. Louis 
on October 11. 192(). At the same sale there were also disposed 
of the 340 blue-fox skins that remained on hand from the Pribilof Is- 
lands take of the season 15)24-25. These 465 skins sold for $24,740, 
an averaoe of $53.20 per skin, the maximum price obtained being $132 
per skin for a lot of four. The average price at the last preceding- 
sale for the Government's account (September 24, 1925) of Pribilof 
Islands blue-fox skins was $48.62. 

There were also sold at the same time three blue-fox pelts taken 
from animals included in a shipment of foxes made from the Pribilof 
Islands in 1925 and which died en route. The skins brought $1.50. 

Further details are iriven in the followino; table: 



Sale of -idS blue-fox skins at St. Louis, Mo., October 11, 1926 



Lot 
No. 


^^f^s ' Trade classification 


Price per 
skin 


Total for 
lot 


200 


2 
5 
2 
7 
10 


Taken season 1925-26 


$99. 00 
76.00 
89.00 
61.00 
55.00 
46.00 
50.00 
51.00 
49.00 
45.50 
56.00 
40.00 
32.00 
35.50 
25.50 


$198.00 


201 




380.00 


202 




178.00 


203 


Fine 


427.00 


204 


Idark 


550.00 


205 


8 
10 
10 
12 

9 


do - - 


368. 00 


206 


do - 


500.00 


207 


. do . 


510.00 


208 


do 


588.00 


209 


I blue 


409.50 


210 


6 


I silvery - - - -- 


336.00 


211 


16 
7 
9 

12 


II dark . . . . _- 


640.00 


212 


II blue - 


224.00 


213 


II part I - - 


319. 50 


214 




306.00 




Taken season 192^-25 






125 




5, 934. 00 


215 


4 
6 
8 
4 
8 
12 
12 
10 
8 
10 
6 

7 
4 
6 
6 
10 
14 
8 
10 
12 
10 
8 
4 


81.00 
81.00 
72.00 
70. 00 
57.00 
34.00 
52.00 
37.50 
52.50 
33.50 
47.00 
20.00 
5.50 
111.00 
82.00 
73.00 
58.00 
36.00 
53.50 
35. 00 
42.00 
33.00 
40.00 
95.00 


324.00 


216 




486. 00 


217 


Fine--- 


.576. 00 


218 




280.00 


219 


Idark 


4.56.00 


220 


II dark .-. 


408.00 


221 


Idark .-- 


624.00 


222 


Ildark 


375.00 


223 


I blue 


420.00 


224 


II blue 


335.00 


225 


I part II dark - 


282.00 


226 


II low -- - - 


140.00 


227 


IllandIV-. 


38.50 


228 




444.00 


229 




492.00 


230 


Fine 


438. 00 


231 


I dark 


580. 00 


232 


Ildark ._ . . 


504.00 


2.33 


Idark .- 


428.00 


234 


Ildark 


350.00 


235 


I blue . . 


.504.00 


236 


II blue --.- 


330.00 


237 


I part II .- -- 


320.00 


238 


Extra extra fine 


380.10 



328 u. s. BUEEAr of fisheries 

»S'f/7e of J/GS blue-fox skins at St. Louis, Mo., Octoher 11, 1926 — Continued 



Lot 
No. 


Number 
of skins 


Trade classification 


Price per 
skin 


Total for 
lot 


239 


4 

8 

10 

10 

12 

12 

7 

9 

4 

4 

12 

12 

4 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4 

8 

4 

2 


Taken season 192i-SS— Continued 
E xtra fine _ 


$73.50 
71.00 
49.00 
46.00 
45.00 
40.00 
55.00 
47.50 
52.00 
89.00 
64.00 
57.00 

132. 00 

112. 00 
91.00 
89.00 
65.00 
85.00 
64.00 

104.00 
25.00 


$294.00 


240 


Fine 


568. 00 


241 


Idark .. 


490.00 


242 


do 


460. 00 


243 


I blue 


540.00 


244 


Ilblue 


480. 00 


245 


I dark -... 


385.00 


246 


I part II 


427.50 


247 


Silvery . . 


208.00 


248 




356.00 


249 


Idark -. 


768.00 


250 


do - ---- 


684.00 


251 




528. 00 


252 


Extra fine -.- 


560.00 


253 


Idark _ 


455. 00 


254 


do. .. 


445.00 


255 


II dark 


325.00 


256 


Fine - -- 


340.00 


257 




512. 00 


258 


Silvery - 


416.00 


269 


IIlow 


50.00 










340 




18, 806. 00 




Skins . .. 






260 


3 


.50 


1.50 










468 




24, 741. 50 



The remaining 580 blue and the 20 white pelts of the Pribilof 
Islands take of the season of 1925-2G will be sold later. 



FUR-SEAL PATROL 



UNITED STATES COAST GUABD 



The United States Coast Guard employed five of its vessels in the 
patrol of the North Pacific Ocean, including Bering Sea, for the pro- 
tection of fur seals in 1926. 

The detail of the vessels was virtually the same as in the preceding 
year. The tSnohomish patrolled the coastal waters from the southern 
boundary of Washington to Dixon Entrance, southeastern Alaska. 
The ZJnalga patrolled waters between Dixon Entrance and Unalaska 
and in Bering Sea. The Algonquin and Haida proceeded from 
Seattle to Unalaska, patrolling en route, and then engaged in patrol 
work in Bering Sea. 

The Bear^ while detailed primarily for the usual annual expedi- 
tion to the Arctic Ocean, served as a patrol vessel Avhile in the waters 
frequented by the fur seals. 

The seal patrol extended as far westward as Attn, the westernmost 
island of the Aleutian Chain, and was maintained as long as