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Full text of "Annual report of the Cochituate Water Board"

RESENTED TO THE ^^^^^ A / 










City Document. — No. 61. 



ow 



ISPO 




REPORT 



COCHITUATE WATER BOARD 



CITY COUNCIL OF BOSTON, 



FOR THE YEAR 1S63-6 



CITY OF BOSTON . 



In Common Council, May 24, 1866. 
Oedeeed : That the Cochituate Water Board be authorized 
to report in print. 

Sent up for concurrence. 

BEN J. DEAN, President pro tern. 

In Board of Aldermen, May 25, 1866. 
Concurred. 

GEO. W. MESSINGER, Chairman. 

Approved May 26, 1866. 

F. W. LINCOLN, Je., Mayor. 

A true copy. 

Attest : S. F. McCLEARY, City ClerJc. 



Digitized by the Internet Arcinive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofco6566bost 



REPORT. 



Office of the Cochituate Water Board, 
Boston, May 20, 1866. 

To THE City Council. 

The previous reports of this Board have been made annually 
ending on the 31st of December. The financial year of the 
City Government ends on the 30th of April, and the accounts 
of the Auditor and Treasurer are made to that date, including 
in their yearly statement of the cost of the Water Works, the 
current expenses for the four months between December 31 and 
April 30, and also the large item of yearly interest upon the 
unfunded water debt. These items have not appeared in the 
cost of the Works as made up by us. In order to remedy this 
apparent discrepancy in stating the total cost of the Works by 
the different departments, this Board petitioned for leave to 
make their Report in future to April 30. Leave was granted, 
and the ordinance was changed in conformity by the City 
Council, December 27, 1865. Consequently this Report will 
contain the business and expenses for the sixteen months from 
January 1, 1865,. to April 30, 1866, inclusive. 

The supply of water for the past year has been sufficient to 
meet the requirements for domestic and mechanical purposes, 
and a limited quantity has been used for ornamental fountains. 

On the 31st of March, 1865, the water at the lake com- 
menced to run over the dam into Sudbury River, and continued 
to do so until the middle of June, wasting, according to 



6 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. Gl. 

an estimate of the City Engineer, 1,688,120,674 gallons. 
During a portion of the year 1865 the water was higher 
in the lake than upon the corresponding dates of the preceding 
year, varying from three inches in July to three feet eight 
inches in December, afterwards losing the excess gradually until 
March 7, 1866, at which date it was at the same point as upon 
the same day of the previous year, say ten feet six inches above 
the bottom of conduit. On the first day of the present month 
the water was twelve feet two inches above the bottom of con- 
duit, against high water, or thirteen feet and four inches, upon 
the first day of May, 1865. The absence of snow upon the 
ground to be dissolved by the early spring rains was one of 
the causes of the deficiency of water. 

The rain-fall at Lake Cochituate during May, 1865, was 
about eight inches ; so far the present year, the amount has 
been trifling. Unless we are favored with copious rains during 
the summer and fall, it will require the strictest economy to 
keep up the supply of water throughout the year, without the 
doubtful and expensive expedient of raising it by artificial means 
to the level of the conduit. By the tables of the Engineer it 
appears that the rain-fall for 1865, was the average of the last 
ten years. Yet there was during the last year, and is now, a 
very general complaint in the neighboring towns of the scarcity 
of water, and much inconvenience, if not sickness, has been con- 
sequent upon it. 

The constant supply with which our inhabitants have been 
blessed should always be kept in mind, and the efforts of the 
Water Board contimie to be seconded by all good citizens, not 
only by preventing waste upon their own premises, but by giving 
prompt notice of waste by others. The apprehension of a short 
supply will necessitate the greatest watchfulness on our part ; and 
if it is found necessary to subject the takers to some slight incon- 
venience from the visits of the inspectors, it must be borne with 
patience, as it is only in this way we can detect the improvident 
and wasteful. 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 7 

The number of notices issued for leaks from January, 1, 

1865, to May 1, 1866, 9,555 

. Number of joersons fined for waste .... 3,093 

One cause of excessive use, if not actual waste, of water is 
attributable to the use of self-acting and Hopper closets, with 
imjv'oper fixtures. 

In the report of Water Registrar, City Document 11, of 
1862, he states the number of these closets in use at that time 
was 5,654, since which the number has increased to 8,000. By 
experiments made by the Registrar, the consumption of water 
by these closets was found to be many times in excess of the 
ordinary pan closets. It is doubtful if the City Council can 
prohibit the use of hopper closets. Yet it would be but just 
that a price should be charged for their use, in accordance with 
the quantity of water consumed, and this would perhaps prevent 
their increase, if not abandonment. 

The Water Board contemplate the appointment of two or more 
oflScers whose duty it will be, upon an alarm of fire, to assist in 
opening the hydrants, and to see that they are properly closed 
after the hosemen have left ; to visit the hydrants used for sup- 
plying the steamboats with water for cleansing decks and other 
purposes ; and to have a general supervision of all hydrants so 
far as to prevent improper use. It will be desirable that these 
officers have police powers. In other cities a large number of 
such officers are advantageously employed. 

The present arrangements for a supply of water, particularly 
in case of fire, are somewhat more extensive than during the 
early days of the town. Mr. Quincy says "In 1653 leave 
was granted to the inhabitants to sink a twelve-foot cistern at 
the pump which stands in the highway, to be helpful against 
fire." And in 1670, " There having been found a great want 
of water in case of fire, every inhabitant was ordered to have a 
hogshead well filled with water, with the head open, near his 
door, under a penalty of five shillings." 



8 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 

In order to ascertain as nearly as possible the consumption for 
domestic purposes " per capita," about a year since a meter 
was placed in the house of each member of the Water Board, 
and an account of the water used was taken as often as once 
each month. The consumption in the different houses varied 
very considerably, notwithstanding the number of persons in 
each family was taken into account. Whether this was in con- 
sequence of more freedom in the use, or from the fact that at 
some houses the water was drawn under direct pressure, whilst 
at others it was drawn from a cistern upon the premises, has 
not yet been determined. It is, however, fair to presume that 
about the same variation exists throughout the city. The result 
of this experiment gives an average daily consumption of 24 j% 
gallons of water by each individual. 

WATER REGISTRAR. 

The Water Registrar reports the income for the year in his 
department as follows : — 

Total receipts for water rents to Jan. 1, 1866, | 451,433 48 
Dues of previous years, . $23,054 16 
Letting off and on . . 1,092 00 

$24,146 16 

Making net receipts for water used 



in twelve months . . . $427,287 32 

The receipts for the four months, from January 1, 1866, to 
April 30, 1866, was $340,966.53. Of this amount $313,- 
801.47 was in payment for water to be delivered during the year, 
the water rates being payable in advance on the 1st of January 
of each year. 

The number of meters has been largely increased. If it 
were not for their high cost (about $ 50 each) it would be desir- 
able to deliver all the water by measure, and then each taker 
would pay for what he consumed. If such a system could be 
adopted the quantity of water drawn from the Lake would be 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 9 

reduced nearly, If not quite, one third. However desirable 
this may be, it cannot be accomplished at present, for we have 
failed as yet to find a cheap, reliable meter. The whole num- 
ber of takers is 27,489, and much the largest proportion pay 
less than $ 10 a year. Consequently the expense at present 
cost would nearly consume the income. 

For a detail of the business of the Registrar's department, 
and for many very interesting statistics, we refer you to his 
Report, which is annexed. 

On the 26th of June last, the Board of Aldermen requested 
the Water Board to communicate to them " the reason which 
prevented the playing of the public fountains " In answer to the 
request this Boaird made a Report (City Document 57, for 1865) 
furnishing a statement of the consumption of water by the dif- 
ferent fountains then in use, and such other information as we 
deemed pertinent. The quantity of water necessary to play 
some of the fountains was so large that the Board thought it 
best to withdraw them from use and substitute others of the 
same general character, but more economical in the consump- 
tion of water. 

The scale of rates for water sold by meter which had been 
substantially in use from its introduction into the city, was found 
by experience to be very objectionable, and a change to a uni- 
form rate was recommended. A difference of opinion existing 
in the City Council as to the price to be charged for 100 gallons, 
the question was referred to this Board, and after careful con- 
sideration an answer was returned that three cents per 100 gal- 
lons was the lowest price that could be charged, if the receipts 
were expected to meet the expenses and interest upon the water 
debt, as required by the act of the Legislature giving authority 
to introduce water. Whilst the matter was under discussion 
a communication was sent to the City Council, containing a 
statement of the water debt, the deficiency of income of former 
years, and the probable receipts for the future (City Document 
76, for 1865). 



10 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 

On the 22d of November, 1865, the City Council fixed the 
price for water delivered through a meter at the uniform rate of 
three cents -per 100 gallons. 

During the present year the records at the Registry of Deeds 
for Middlesex, Norfolk, and Suffolk counties have been carefully 
examined, and every deed or other paper relating to real estate, 
whether purchased or sold by the Water Commissioners or 
Water Board, has been copied and substantially bound in two 
volumes, to be hereafter preserved in the office of the Water 
Board. 

On the 18th of October last. His Hon. Mayor Lincoln, with 
the members of the Water Board, the City Engineer, and Su- 
perintendents of the Western and Eastern Division, by the in- 
vitation of the Water Board of the city of Charlestown, visited 
the water works belonging to that city. We witnessed a very 
satisfactory trial of the " Lowry " hydrant, playing five streams 
of water at the same time, to the height of fifty or sixty feet. 
We then visited the new Reservoir on Walnut Hill, gate-house, 
engine-house, &c. and the dam and works at Mystic Pond, all 
of which we found in good order, and, as far as we could judge, 
thoroughly built. We were particularly pleased with the work- 
ing of the " Worthington Horizontal Pumping Engine," which 
appeared to do its work quietly but effectually. Our visit was 
very instructive and satisfactory. 

. CITY ENGINEEE. 

Annexed will be found the Report of the City Engineer, con- 
taining, in addition to a variety of information in regard to the 
works as connected with his department, several statistical 
tables of great interest as well as of practical value. From the 
Report we learn that the consumption of water for 1865 was re- 
duced twenty-five per cent, as compared with the consumption 
of 1864. One consequence of this economy was, that the 
citizens who resided upon the high grades were accommodated 
with a more regular and abundant supply of water than for 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. H 

some years past. The tables giving the yearly, monthly, and 
hourly consumption of water have been prepared with great care, 
and will repay a careful examination. 

WESTERN DIVISION. 

Chestnut Hill Reservoir. — The demand for water by manufac- 
turing and mechanical establishments, consequent upon the 
growth of our city, in addition to the increased quantity required 
for domestic purposes, has, for some years, been a cause of 
anxiety to the Water Board. The additional quantity gained 
by the connection of Dudley Pond with the Lake in 1862, did 
not fully satisfy the Board of that year, and in their Report they 
recommended the City Government " to build a new reservoir 
somewhere near this end of the aqueduct for the storage of all 
the surplus water the Lake can furnish." And each subsequent 
Board, in their Reports, have urged the importance of a large 
reservoir for the purpose of holding an additional supply of 
water, and also as a safeguard in case of accident to the conduit. 

On the 8th of December, 1864, an order passed the City 
Council authorizing the Water Board to purchase lands for the 
construction of a new reservoir, and % 50,000 was appropriated 
for that purpose. After careful Investigation, the basin near 
Chestnut Hill, on either. side of Beacon Street, and lying in the 
towns of Newton and Brighton, was selected. An Act of the 
Legislature was obtained April 4, 1865, granting to the city of 
Boston the right to construct and maintain a reservoir in the 
above location, and conduct the water Into the City. The 
Water Board at once proceeded to purchase the land required. 
Terms satisfactory to both parties have been made with the 
owners, with the single exception of the proprietors of a parcel 
containing about three acres, and we regret that the terms de- 
manded render It our duty to take It under the act. A portion 
of the land purchased can be sold, if thought advisable, when 
the works are completed. It was deemed prudent to buy out- 



12 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 61. 

right those ands liable to injury, rather than subject the city to 
damages, "which former experience had taught us were often 
estimated by juries at nearly, if not quite, the original value of 
the estate. By subsequent action of the City Council, the 
Water Board were authorized to prepare the necessary surveys, 
and to construct a reservoir to hold not less than 500,000,000 
gallons of water (for estimates, see City Document 85, for 1865). 
The surveys were at once commenced, under the direction of 
N. Henry Crafts, Esq., City Engineer. Mr. Edward F. 
Knowlton, who had been engaged in the construction and 
management of the Water Works from their commencement, 
and who had been Superintendent of the Western Division for 
many years, was appointed Superintendent. Mr. Knowlton 
commenced his duties in December, 1865, by the construction 
of a culvei't in Beacon Street, for the purpose of draining the 
meadows, to facilitate the work in the spring. Early In Jan- 
uary, 1866, his health began to fall, and he was not after- 
wards enabled to give much attention to matters connected 
with the Reservoir. 

Mr. Knowlton died on the 12th of March, 1866, and was 
burled on the 15th, at Natick, Mass. Many members of the 
City Government, a large number of his personal friends from 
Boston, and the members of the present and past Water 
Boards, attended his funeral. He was a faithful and effi- 
cient officer, taking especial interest In all matters connected 
with his department. His liberality and social qualities 
gained for him many friends ; his Intimate knowledge of all 
matters connected with the Western Division, and his prompt 
attention to business, rendered the duties of the committee upon 
that division comparatively easy. 

On the 26th of March, Mr. Albert Stanwood, formerly 
Superintendent of the Eastern Division, was appointed Super- 
intendent of "Chestnut Hill Reservoir," and entered upon his 
duties April 2, 1866. It being Impossible to purchase, or 
lease, buildings In the vicinity adapted to our wants, stables, 



EEPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 13 

an office, boarding and lodging-houses for the men, a black- 
smith shop, tool houses, and other buildings are being erected. 
At the present time, about one hundred men are employed in 
removing the soil, preparatory to commencing the bank, and in 
clearing the land of stumps and rocks. When the buildings 
are ready for occupancy, the number of laborers will be in- 
creased. 

The gate-house and other structures at the Lake are generally 
in good order. The usual annual repairs will be required, and 
very soon much of the fencing must be renewed. At a proper 
time, it will be advisable to erect another house, for the use of 
the Superintendent. The house heretofore occupied by that 
officer is becoming old, and is not in the most desirable location 
for his residence. It could, however, be occupied advanta- 
geously by some of the employees upon the works, who are 
now compelled to reside at a considerable distance. 

The bridges, culverts, waste weirs, pipe chambers, and em- 
bankments, from the Lake to Brookline, were thoroughly 
cleansed, and put in good order, during the spring and 
summer. 

The water has been drawn from the conduit for various pur- 
poses twelve times during the year. A committee of the 
Board, the City Engineer, and the Superintendent, took these 
opportunities for making personal inspection of the interior. 
At different times, very nearly the whole line from the Lake to 
Brookline has been examined. Such repairs, as the limited time 
during which the water could be kept out of the conduit would 
allow, have been made. Several of the man holes were found 
in need of repair, to prevent the sand being washed into the 
conduit, and they have since been thoroughly cemented. The 
sections of the aqueduct most in need of attention are those 
nearest to Chestnut Hill Reservoir, and at Webber's Barn. 
They will be again examined at the earliest opportunity. As 
soon as the new Reservoir is completed, the whole line should 
be put in thorough repair. 



14 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 61. 

A slope wall has been laid during the year at the high bank 
next northerly from the gate-house, which will prevent the 
farther wash of the sand at that bluff. It is essential that this 
wall should be continued for a considerable distance in the same 
direction, as the sand from this shore is fast formino; a bank in 
front of the gate-house, and will soon prove a serious incon- 
venience. 

The island on the westerly shore of the Lake, near the 
Superintendent's house, which was washing away, has been 
surrounded by a stone wall, and sodded, and is now a pleasant 
feature in the scenery of the Lake. As the work at this island 
was done at the suggestion and under the direction of our late 
worthy Superintendent, it is proposed that, in remembrance 
of him, it shall henceforth be known as Knowlton's Island. 

The right of flowage at Lake Cochituate is predicated upon 
the location of Knight's Flume, so called, both in the original 
deeds and in the subsequent acts of the Legislature. This 
flume is a portion of the old mill which belonged to Mr. 
Knights, from whom the City purchased the property, and is 
situated within the Lake, and about thirty feet above the 
outlet-dam, in a southeasterly direction. The floor of the 
flume is always covered by water, and is liable to be carried 
away or displaced by accident. In order to fix this important 
point permanently, the City Engineer, at the request of the 
Board, on the 22d of October, the water being then at a 
favorable stage, directed it to be dammed out so as to expose 
to view the original plank composing the floor of the flume, and 
the point to which we are allowed to raise the dam above said 
flume, by the act of the Legislature, April 5, 1859, was per- 
manently preserved by causing the centre stone abutment of 
the outlet-dam to be cut down to the exact high-waterline, 
and the following inscription cut In the stone : " H. W., Apl. 
5, 1859." 

As a further precaution, the levels were taken from Knight's 
'Flume to the gate-house and to other points, which agree 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 15 

substantially with the measurements as recorded in former 
Eeports. The results were 3,3 follows : — 

Floor of Knight's Flume, 1243306,) feet above tide marsh level. • 



High Water, 


134,V^ 


i< <( (< 


Gate-house floor, 


138xVV 


<< << <( 


Interior bottom of Conduit, 


121 


<( <( <( 


Do. do. 


3fA 


" below floor of Knight's 


Flume, 






Gate-house floor. 


13/o\ 


" above the bottom of 


Conduit, 







The limit of flowage at Dug and Dudley's ponds was pre- 
served by inscriptions cut in the stane curb of the outlet-gate- 
cbamber at each pond. A particular description can be found 
in Report of City Engineer, dated Jan'y 17, 1866, upon the 
records of the Water Board. 

The purchase from I^ben Whitney of about three and a half 
acres of land in the town of Natick, lying on both sides of 
Pegan Brook, was completed by the present Board. This 
purchase of land was made to obtain the control of the mouth 
of that brook, which serves as a sewer to a considerable portion 
of the village of Natick. A filter-dam was constructed last 
year across its mouth, and has done good service. It is the 
intention of this Board, at the earliest practicable moment, to 
construct another filter upon the dam originally built to 
separate Whitney's meadow from the Lake. 

During the summer a new Culvert was laid under the road- 
way in Natick for Course Brook. By the action of the water 
and Ice last winter it received some damage. It has been 
repaired as well as circumstances will allow ; and as soon as the 
stage of water will permit, it will be put In thorough repair. 

The boundaries of the land awned by the City in the vicinity 
of the Lake need careful examination. The settina: of 
boundary posts, commenced last year, should be completed 



16 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 61. 

and trespassers removed before they gain possession, or the 
rights of the City otherways secured. 

Owing to the low state of the water on the 26th of Dec., 
1864, the water from Dudley Pond was let into the Lake. 
This pond having a very limited area of water-shed, it rises 
slowly, but is now nearly at high-water-mark. 

Dug Pond was at high-water-mark on the 18th of July last ; 
subsequently the water has been let into the Lake, and it now 
stands at one foot two inches below that point. 

The walks and grounds at BrooJcUne Reservoir are generally 
in good order. The gate-houses need attention ; but these 
structures, like the conduit, cannot be spared long enough for 
extensive repairs at present. As soon as the works are in 
condition to allow it, they must have a most thorough exami- 
nation. A small tool-house is required, as the room in the 
gate-house, intended and heretofore used for the purpose, is 
unsuitable from dampness. A portion of the wooden fence 
needs immediate attention. 

The town of Brookline have claimed the right to tax the 
Reservoir and other real estate connected with the Water Works, 
situated in that town, and have levied taxes thereon. Believing 
that the property was not legally subject to taxation under 
the principle which we were advised universally prevails, that 
Corporations chartered for public purposes and for the public 
good, and not for private gain, hold their corporate property 
free from assessment for taxes ; measures were taken to bring 
the claim of that town to a legtil decision. An appeal was taken 
from the Assessors of Brookline to the County Commissioners 
of Norfolk County, and heard on the 27th day of December 
last, when a decision was made in favor of the City in accord- 
ance with the views we had previously entertained. The same 
question has been raised before by the town of Wayland, and 
was decided finally by the Supreme Judicial Court. The 
decision may be found in the 4th vol. of Gray's reports, page 
500. 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 17 

A schedule of the property in use upon the Western Division 
will be found annexed. 

EASTERN DIVISION. 

The work of the most importance during the year in this 
division was the raising of the 30 and 36 inch mains on Tremont 
Street. 1650 feet of each were successfully raised and secured 
in a manner creditable to the Superintendent. The total cost, 
including paving, was $16,322.91. 

The land appropriated by City Council, Dec. 16, 1864, to 
the use of the Water Board, oa the easterly side of Albany, 
and near Concord Street, has been inclosed by a substantial 
fence, and a building erected for the storage of materials and 
pipes. At some future day it is the intention of the Board to 
erect a house to be occupied by one or more of the employees 
of the department, who will serve as watchmen over the 
property in the yard, and attend to leaks or accidents that may 
occur to the pipes in that section of the City. For the detail 
of the work in this division, you are respectfully referred to the 
report of the Superintendent, which is annexed. 

The following statement is from the Report of the Clerk of 
the Board. For further particulars reference must be had to 
his report, which is annexed : — 

Amount of current expenses from January 1, 1865, to April, 
30, 1866, including the raising of the pipes upon Tremont St., 
cost of meters and sundry other items which have heretofore 
been charged to '* extension of works," $ 158,867 05 

Extension of works, including main pipe, 
land purchased of Whitney (at lake) , and build- 
ings and fence at new pipe yard on Albany St. 
$ 20,213.70. Chestnut Hill Reservoir, includ- 
ing cost of the land, 107,282 02 



$266,149 07 



18 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 61. 

Amount h'ought forward, $266,149 07 

Credit, — By receipts for fines, letting off 
and on water, laying pipes, rent, &c. 20,400 00 



Balance, $245,749 07 

Salary of Water Eegistrar from January 1, 

1865, to May 1, 1866, $2,533 34 

Salary of treasury clerk in Water 

Board office, 2,000 00 ' 

$4,533 34 



The amount of interest and premium on gold 
charged by Treasurer to the Water Works 
for financial year ending April 30, 1866, is, $453,925 00 

Total expenditures for the Water Works to 
April 30, 1866, $12,152,934 94 

Total receipts from all sources to same date, 5,380,959 79 



Net cost of Water Works, including $107,- 
282.02 expended on account of Chestnut Hill 
Eeservoir, to April 30, 1866, $ 6,771,975 15 



STATISTICS. 

The following statistics, although most of them are to be 
« found in the former Reports of the Board, may be of interest to 
the public : — 

1846. March 16. Act of Legislature granting leave to in- 
troduce water. 

1846. August 20. Work commenced. 

1848. October 25. Water celebration. ' 

1859. April 5. Act of Legislature granting leave to raise the 
dam an additional two feet, making ten feet above Knight's 
flume. 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 19 

Lake CocJiituate, at high water, flows about 800 acres. Ca- 
pacity of one foot at high water is estimated at 260,000,000 
gallons. Water shed, 496,584,000 square feet. 

Dudley Pond, at high water, flows about 81 acres. This pond 
is shallow and has a limited water shed. 

Dug Fond, at high water, flows about 44 acres, and is 
a deep and reliable reservoir. High water is seven feet above 
high water in the Lake. 

Conduit — Length from Lake to Brookline reservoir 14 miles 
and 446 feet, including pipes at Charles River, and tunnels ; 
commenced October 19, 1846; water let into it Oct. 12, 
1848 ; built of brick, 8-inch thick, egg shape, 6 feet 4 inches 
high, 5 feet wide ; descent, 3|. inches to mile ; total descent, 
4tVct feet ; conduit cost, $ 817,717.73 ; land cost, $ 218,992.35. 

Brookline Reservoir — 22 jP^^^ acres ; depth 14 to 24 feet ; 
water let into it Nov. 16, 1848 ; capacity at two feet below dam 
about 120,000,000 gallons ; reservoir cost, $ 166,720.85 ; gate- 
house cost, $33,356.36. 

Beacon Hill Reservoir — Capacity, 2,678,961 gallons; 16 
feet deep; total cost, $513,353.21 ; size, 290 feet by 190 out- 
side, 167 feet by 162 inside; height of wall, lowest point, 40 
feet 8 inches ; walls 3 to 5 feet thick ; water let in to it November 
23, 1849. 

South Boston Reservoir — Capacity, 7,508,246 gallons; 21 
feet 3 in. deep ; water let into it Nov. 28, 1849 ; cost, $ 90,- 
908.10. 

East Boston Reservoir — Capacity, 5,591,816 gallons ; 30 feet 
deep ; total cost, $ 66,103.09 ; water let into it Jan. 1, 1851 ; 
size, 322 by 150 feet. 

Chestnut Hill Reservoir is estimated to have, when finished, a 
water surface of 125 acres, and to hold about 700,000,000 
gallons of water. 

1859. March, 29. The break at Charles Eiver crossing; 
100 feet conduit, gate-house, and pipes carried away ; water let 
in again on the 2d and 3d of April ; cost, $ 15,380.73. 



20 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 

Large Iron Mains. — The water Is brought from Brookline 
Keservoir in three mains. A 30 and 36-inch through Roxbury 
aud Tremont Street, laid 1847. A 40-inch was laid over Mill- 
dam, 1859. The act of the Legislature confirming the right of 
the City to maintain it there was approved May 13, 1864. 

Respectfully submitted, 

OTIS NORCROSS, 
L. MILES STANDISH, 
NATHL. J. BRADLEE, 
JONAS FITCH, 
ALEXANDER WADSWORTH, 
JOHN H. THORNDIKE, 
BENJ. F. STEVENS, 

Cochituate Water Board. 



Schedule of property in use Western Division. 

1 cart and harness, 2 boats, 30 shovels, 10 picks, 1 level, 1 
wagon and harness, 1 hand-cart, 4 crowbars and rammers, 4 
water-pails, 2 grindstones, 4 pair rubber boots, 22 lanterns, 
2 hammers, 2 grass-hooks, 4 wrenches, 4 trowels, 2 axes, 2 
hoes, 1 pair hedge-shears, 1 gravel-scow, 1 screen, 1 rain- 
gauge, 1 stove, 1 desk. 



OFFICE OF THE COCHITUATE WATER BOARD, 
BOSTON, June 1, 1866. 



Otis Norcross, Esq. President of the Oochituate Water Board : — 

Sir, — 
The following is a statement of the 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. 



Statement of Expenditures made by (he Cochituate fVater Boards 
from December 31, 1864, to May 1, 1866. 



Plumbing shop, for stock, &c. . 
Blacksmith shop '' '* 

Raising pipes on Tremont Street 
Land and water rights . 
Stables ..... 
Taxes .... 

Fountains .... 
Postage and express 
Tolls and ferriage . 
Tools .... 

Oil . . . . 
Travelling expenses 
Reservoirs, — Beacon Hill 

" South Boston . 

" East " 

" Brookline 



$191 44 

603 94 

16,322 91 

1,200 00 

1,513 45 
214 87 
410 82 
35 22 
174 16 
214 76 
128 75 
152 64 
878 55 
565 99 
529 52 

1,103 00 



Amount carried forward^ 



$24,240 02 



22 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 



Amount brought forward, 

Repairing fenders at Chelsea and Charlestown 
bridges ....... 

Lake ........ 

Aqueduct repairs . . . . . 

Extra inspectors . . . . . . 

Service pipe ....... 

Main pipe . . 

Salaries (including clerks and inspectors in the 
water registrar's office,) . . . . 

Meters ....... 

Maintaining meters ...... 

Damage ....... 

Printing (including Water Registrar's and Super- 
intendent's,) ...... 

Stationery (including "Water Registrar's and Su- 
perintendent's,) 
Watchmen's services 

Miscellaneous expenses, — Copying two volumes of 
deeds, expense of the Board, repairing safe lock, 
&c. &c. .... 

Office expenses 

Laying main pipes, for stock, &c. 
Repairing stop-cocks 
" main pipe 
" hydrants . 
" streets . 
" service pipes 
Wages, — Laying main pipe 
" " service pipe . 

" Proving yard 

** Blacksmith shop 

" Plumbing shop 

Amount carried forward, ,. 



$24,240 02 

4,070 89 

3,680 32 

2,176 72 

9,505 95 

9,297 38 

11,264 79 

13,248 89 

29,709 00 

1,553 59 

10 00 

981 10 



694 


31 


151 


82 


988 


59 


72 


00 


597 


11 


821 


05 


2,874 


46 


3,371 


02 


3,814 


36 


5,982 


32 


2,112 


03 


3,468 


41 


4,139 


64 


1,440 


90 


662 


43 


$140,929 


30 



EEPORT OF THE WATER BOAED. 23 

Amount brought forward, $140,929 30 

Off and on water, non-payment, waste and repairs 6,145 17 

Hydrants . . . . . . . 1,471 85 

Proving yard, stock, &c. .... 1,772 34 

Stop-cocks 1,608 97 

Hydrant and stop-cock boxes . . . 1,899 65 

Upper yard, fence, buildings, &c. . . • 5,039 17 

Chestnut Hill Eeservoir .... 107,282 02 



Whole amount drawn by the Board . $ 266,149 07 



Amount charged Chestnut Hill Eeservoir . . $ 107,282 02 
Amount drawn for Water Works . . .. . 158,867 05 



Total from January 1, 1865, to May 1, 1866, $ 266,149 07 

CASH PAID CITY TREASUREK. 

For rent of Arches under Beacon Hill 

Reservoir . . • . 

For land sold .... 

" Wood " at Lake 

" Meter " . . . . 

" Fines for waste, &c., &c. . 

" off and on water for repairs,* 
For Pasture . . , . 

" Pipe, laying, repairing, &c., &c. 9,363 64 
Chestnut Hill Reservoir, wood sold 

Balance 

Chestnut Hill Reservoir credited, wood sold 
Water Works credited, sundries 



* The City Treasurer received for off and on -water for non-payment of 
rates $ 1,778. 



$375 00 




358 83 




550 78 




50 00 




6,886 00 




2,409 75 




40 00 




9,363 64 




366 00 






20,400 00 




• 


245,749 07 


sold 


366 00 




20,034 00 




20,400 00 



24 CITY DOCUMENT. - No. 61. 

Amount brought forward , 
Total amount drawn for . . . . $266,14907 

EXTENSION OF THE WORKS. 

Land of Mr. Whitney . . $ 1,200 00 

Mam pipe .... 11,264 79 

Wages laying main pipe . . 2,112 03 

Laying main pipe . . . 597 11 

Upper yard . . . . 5,039 77 

20,213 70 



245,935 37 
Less amount charged Chestnut Hill Keservoir 107,282 02 



Amount of expenses since Jan'y 1st, 1865 138,653 35 

Expenditures and Receipts on Account of the Water Works, to 

May 1, 1866. , 
Amount drawn by Commissioners . . $4,043,718 21 

Water Board, 1850, . 366,163 89 

" ** Cochituate Water Board to 

July 1st, 1865 . . . . . 1,598,082 16 
Am't drawn from Jan. 1st, 1865, to 

May 1st, 1866 266,149 07 

$6,274,113 33 
Amount paid the City Treasurer 

by the Commissioners . $ 47,648 38 
Am't paid by Water Board, 1850, 8,153 52 

*' ** «' Cochituate Water Board 

to Jan'y 1st, 1865 . . 128,712 08 
Am't paid from Jan'y 1, 1865, to 

May 1, 1866 . . . 20,400 00 

204,913 98 

Net amount drawn from the Treasurer by the 

Commissioners and Water Boards, 6,069,199 35 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 25 

t 

Gross payments for account of the Water 

Works, 12,152,934 94 

Gross Receipts, . . . . 5,380,959 79 

Net cost to the city, May 1, 18G6 . $ 6,771,975 15 

SAMUEL N. DYER, 

Clerk Cochituate Water Board. 



REPORT OP THE SUPERINTENDENT OE THE EASTERN 

DIVISION. 



Boston, May 11, 1866. 

Otis Noeceoss, Esq. President Cochituate Water Board. 

SiE : I herewith submit my Report for the year 1865, as also 
a Report for from January 1, to April 30, 1866. 

A comparatively small amount of main pipe has been laid 
during the last year, owing to so few buildings having been 
erected on new lands. The largest part of the labor performed 
by the pipe-laying department was, in raising and lowering' 
mains to conform to the change in the grade of the streets, an 
account of which I give below. 

The excessive cold weather during the months of January 
and February, of the year 1865, caused more freezing in the 
mains and services than in any year previous, in consequence of 
which I have altered the rule of grade for laying these pipes, 
burying them from four and one half feet to five feet deep, as 
the location or soil may suggest. 

The 20-inch main over South Boston bridge was discovered 
to be broken, February 8, 1865, caused by the settling of one 
part, the other resting on a pile, — it was repaired the same 
day. This was the only Instance, during the year, of any leak 
of note. 

This line was opened this spring to ascertain the effect of the 
bituraenous coating after the action of the water on It for eight 
years. It was opened in the presence of a portion of the Water 
Board and the City Engineer. I refer you to his Report for the 
details. 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 27 

The 40-iiich gate at the Brookline Reservoir being out of 
order so much as to make it impossible to close it, on the 8th of 
April, 1865, the line was shut oif, and the defect discovered to 
be occasioned by a large quantity of stone chips, some chisels, 
and other things in the recess where the friction wheels traverse. 
The power applied to shut this valve was so great as to com- 
pletely cut off the two one-and-one-half-inch brass axles of the 
wheels. They were cut as squarely as if they had been between 
the jaws of powerful shears. The defect was repaired on the 
14th instant. 

The 40-inch gate at the Milldam Four Corners is in a bad 
condition now. When this is repaired, I would suggest that 
the gate-chamber be boxed with clay. Now, at every flow of 
the tide, it is filled with water, and will make the work of too 
long duration unless some method is taken to keep out the tide. 

A portion of the fender, or guard, to the pipes under War- 
ren Bridge was carried away last season and has been repaired, 
and now appears to be strong enough to resist any pressure 
likely to be brought against it. 

The planking over the high water gates on the Milldam has 
been removed during the year. The old covering was com- 
pletely rotten, as also the covering of the pipes over the culvert 
on the Brookline road, near Appleton Place. 

The extreme cold of the eighth and ninth of January, of the 
present year, caused the freezing of quite a number of the meters 
then in use. A great many of the buildings in the city are so 
constructed as to make it impossible to attach the meters so that 
they will escape the frosts, however much care may be observed 
in locating them, and it is extremely difficult to decide in the 
warm season the most suitable place to prevent this difficulty. 
I would suggest that the Board, as far as is possible, furnish 
me, in the cold season, a list of buildings that they propose to 
meter, so that the warmest place may be selected. 

The mains that have been changed during the year are as fol- 
lows : — 



28 CITY DOCUMENT. — No: 61. 

Kaised, 1,650 feet of 36 inches, ) between Waltham and 
" 1,650 " 30 " 5 Newton streets. 

" 500 "12 " on Way Street. 

" 663 " " " on Newton Street. 

" 380 " 6 " on Border Street, and lo- 

cated on the opposite side of street. 

Taken up, 264 feet of 4 inches, on Western Avenue. 
" 624 " 4 " on Brookline Street. 
Lowered, 168 " 4 " on Concord Square. 
" 293 " 4 " on Temple Place. 



EEPORT OF THE WATEE BOARD. 



29 



Statement of Location, Size, and Number of Feet of Pipe laid in 1865. 



In what Street. 



Between what streets. 

BOSTON PROPER. 

West of Tremont 

Union Park and Clarendon 

West of Tremont 

Berkeley and Clarendon 

Concord and Springfield 

West of Tremont 

A.lbany Street and Harrison Avenue. . 

West of Tremont 

Tremont and Washington 

Lenox and Kendall 

South Cedar and the R. R. Bridge.. . . 

Total 6 inches in Boston 

West of Tremont Street 

Total 4 inches in Boston 

SOUTH BOSTON. 

Mercer and Gates 

Newman and Jenkins 

Fourth and Seventh 

Total 6 inches in South Boston. . . . 

B andC 

Dorchester and F 

For S. B. Iron Co 

Total 4 inches in South Boston 

ROXBURY. 
Near Texas Avenue 



Diameter of 
pipe in inclies. 



Feet of pipe. 



Rutland Square, 
Montgomery.... 

Dedham 

St. James 

Albany 

Canton , 

Canton , 

Pembroke , 

KendaU 

Tremont 

Ferdinand 



Concord Square. 



Eighth... 
Highland 
N 

Bolton... 

Dove 

Foundry. 

Tremont. 



6 


32?, 


6 


215 


6 


122 


6 


424 


6 


197 


6 


39 


6 


100 


6 


200 


6 


404 


6 


29 


6 


279 




2,392 


4 


246 



246 



207 
.■^lO 



1,323 

196 

185 
20S 

5S9 



30 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 



EEOAPITULATION. 





1S65. 


Diameter in Inches. 




36 


12 


8 


6 


4 


Boston Proper.. 






1 




2,392 
5 

1,323 
200 


246 










5S9 






1 


Roxbury 
















1 




3,915 

5 


835 




Sums of Stop-cocks 


1 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 



31 






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32 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 



Statement of Service Pipes laid in 1865. 



^ 


BOSTON PKOPEK. 


SOUTH BOSTON". 


EA-X 130S TON". 


Total. 


s 


Number of 
Pipes. 


Length in 
Feet. 


Number of 
Pipes. 


Length in 
Feet. 


Number of 
Pipes. 


Length in 
Feet. 


Number of 
Pipes. 


Length In 

Feet. 


1 


5 


203 




.... 


2 


282 


7 


485 


I 


4 


164 










4 


164 


i 


180 


6,927' 


43 


2,403 


22 


664 


245 


8,994 


5 


55 


1,609 


29 


1,035 


32 


788 


116 


3,432 




Aggre 






372 


13 075 












Making the total number up to January 1, 1866. . 






. 25,631 



Repairs of Pipes during the year 1865. 





DIAMETER OP PIPES IN INCHES. 


< 


WHEEE. 


40 


36 


30 


24 


20 


16 


12 


8 


6 


4 


3 


2 


H 


n 


1 


1 


i 


5 


g 


Boston 

South Boston 
East Boston. 




11 


3 




2 
7 


13 

1 


- 


25 

1 


47 
1 


1 


17 


42 


4 


10 
3 
3 


9 
1 


309 
44 

25 


17 
11 


508 
62 
37 


Totals 




11 


3 




9 




14 


26 


48 


1 


17 


42 


4 


16 


10 


378 


28 


607 



Of the leaks that have occurred in pipes of 4 inches and 
upwards, 81 were on the joints, 6 by setthng of the earth, 16 
by frost, 7 by defective pipe, 1 struck by pick; total, 111. 
Of the leaks of 2 and 3 inches and in service pipes, 171 by 
settling of earth, 72 by frost, 57 by defective pipe, 21 by 
defective joint, 4 by defective faucet, 21 by defective coupling, 
6 by defective packing, 38 by rust, 13 faucet pulled out, 3 by 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 



33 



faucet blown out, 28 stiff connections, 23 stopped by fish, 26 
struck by pick, 1 struck by nail, 5 eaten by rats, 1 by pile- 
driving, 1 by breaking of boxing, 1 by sewer-diggers, 1 stop- 
cock broken by sewer-diggers, 1 by flange blown out, 1 by 
settling of a drain, 1 cut by some person. Total, 496. 

Statement of Numher of Leaks, 1850-1865. 



1850. 
1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



DIAMETER OF 



Four inches 
and upwards. 



Less than 
Four inches. 



32 


72 


104 


64 


173 


237 


82 


241 


323 


85 


260 


345 


74 


280 


354 


75 


219 


294 


75 


232 


307 


85 


278 


363 


77 


324 


401 


82 


449 


531 


184 


458 


592 


109 


399 


508 


117 


373 


490 


97 


397 


494 


95 


894 


489 


111 


496 


607 



34 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 



Hydrants. 

During the year fifteen new Hydrants have been established, 
as follows: Nine in Boston proper, five in South Boston, and 
one in Roxbury. One Hydrant has been taken out, leaving a 
total of fourteen. 

Total number of Hydrants established up to January, 1?^66 : 

In Boston proper . . . . .991 

South Boston ..... 327 

East Boston . . . . . . 191 

Brookline . . . . . . 3 

Roxbury ...... 13 

Charlestown . , . . . 11 

Chelsea . . .... 8 



Total 1,544 

Thirty-one Hydrants have been taken out and replaced by 
new or repaired ones, and eighty-six boxes have been renewed. 
The Hydrants have had the attention of former years paid them. 



Stop-Cochs. 

Seven new Stop-cocks have been established this year, and 
twenty-seven boxes over old ones renewed. All the Stop-cocks 
have had the usual attention paid them. 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 



35 



Statement of Pipes and other Stock on hand, exclusive of Tools, 
January, 1866. 



NUMBEK OF 



Diameter in Inches. 



40 36 30 24 20 16 12 8 



Pipes 

Blow off Branches. 
T. Branches 

3 Way Branches . . . 

4 Way Branches... 

Flange Pipe 

Sleeves 

Clamp Sleeves 

Caps 

Reducers 

Bevel Hubs 

Curved Pipes 

Quarter Turns 

Double Hubs 

Offset Pipes 

Yoke Pipes 

Man-Hole Pipes . . . 
One eighth Turns. . 

Pieces of Pipe 

Stop-Cocks 



115 



63 



Hydrants. 7 new Lovell, 6 Wilmarth (old), 5 Lovell, 
(old). 

For Hydrants. 7 bends, 42 lengtheners, 18 frames, 10 co- 
vers, 28 plungers, 14 screws, 23 wastes, 40 nipples, 33 valve 
seats, 55 stuffing boxes, 5 hose couplings, 656 lbs. composition 
castings, 2,540 lbs. iron castings, 32 lbs. of iron castings for 
wharf hydrants, 24 composition couplings for ditto, 4 wharf 
hydrants. 



36 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 

For Stop-Cocks. 3 36-inch screws, 1 30-inch ditto, 2 24- 
inch ditto, 1 16-inch ditto, 25 6-inch ditto, 3 4-inch ditto, 6 4- 
inch unfinished ditto, 1 ditto for waste weir, 1 ditto for Brookline 
Reservoir, 3 12-inch plungers, 6 6-inch ditto, 5 4-inch ditto, 2 
6-inch rings, 18 4-inch ditto. 

Meters. In the shop, 1 2-inch meter, 41 1-inch meters, 77 
f-inch meters, 18 f-inch imperfect, 27 condemned, 140 meter 
boxes (wood). 

Sto(;h for Meters. 108 lbs. composition castings for 2-inch 
meters, 78 1-inch nipples, 328 -|-inch ditto, 8 1-inch connecting 
pieces, 5 f-inch ditto, 5 2-inch ditto, 29 f-inch stop-cocks, 20 1- 
inch ditto, 21 clocks, 40 glasses, 70 rubber nipples, 9 lbs. rubber 
packing, 31 brass spindles, 6 frame covers, 10 feet leather hose, 
200 bolts, nuts and screws, 3 sheets straw paper, 4 platforms,. 
2 3-inch fish-pots, 2 4-inch ditto. 

For Service Pipe. 7 1-inch union cocks, 22 f-inch ditto, 94 
f-inch ditto, 31 i-inch ditto, 5 1-inch T cocks, 13 f-inch ditto, 
9 f-inch ditto, 8 f-inch Y cocks, 8 air cocks, 29 f-inch straight 
cocks, 73 ^-inch ditto, 15 f-inch with lever handles, 4 2i-inch 
connection couplings, 9 l^-inch ditto, 23 1^-inch nipples, 40 1- 
inch couplings, 30 f-inch ditto, 16 f-inch male couphngs, 17 
|-inch nuts, 40 f-inch couplings, 98 tubes and 40 nuts, 19 i- 
inch couplings and 40 nuts, 7 2-inch flanges, 3 1-inch ditto, 48 
f ditto, 15 complete f double-headers with flanges and pipes, 3 
6-inch flanges, 25 f-inch flange-cocks, 8 ^-inch ditto, 96 f-inch 
unfinished straight-cocks, 30 f-inch unfinished lever-handled 
cocks, 91 lbs. unfinished castings for couplings, 35 lbs. compo- 
sition castings for wharf hydrants, 363 lbs. composition castings 
for union cocks, 302 iron tubes, 200 iron caps, 75 extension 
tubes, 150 f-inch long boxes (iron), 20 1-inch ditto, 9 T boxes, 
40 Y boxes, 20 square boxes. 

Lead Fij)e. 733 lbs. 2-inch pipe, 217 lbs. IJ-inch pipe, 
1,658 lbs. 1-inch pipe, 420 lbs. f-inch ditto, 1,232 f-inch ditto, 
726 lbs. i-inch ditto, 953 lbs. sheet lead, 67 lbs. block tin and 
solder, 60 lbs. f-inch block tin pipe. 



KEPOET OF THE WATER BOARD. 37 

Blacksmith Shop. 850 lbs. square Iron, 565 lbs. round iron, 
700 lbs. flat ditto, 177 lbs. cast steel, 890 lbs. working pieces 
iron. 

Carpenter's Shop. 500 feet spruce plank, 400 feet spruce 
boards, 200 feet oak plank, 250 feet pine boards, 4 hydrant 
boxes, 14 top pieces, 50 hydrant boxes unfinished, 12 stop- 
cock boxes unfinished, 5 meter boxes unfinished, 125 lbs. nails 
and spikes. 

Wharf Hydrants. 4 complete, 2 incomplete. 

Stable. 3 horses, 3 wagons, 2 buggies, 1 pung, 5 sets har- 
ness, 2 sleighs, 1 ton English hay, 500 lbs. salt hay, 30 bushels 
grain, stable utensils. 

Tools. 1 steam-engine, 1 large hoisting crane, 1 boom der- 
rick, 4 geared hand derricks, 2 sets of shears and all the rigging 
for the same, tools for laying and repairing main and service 
pipes, 2 engine lathes, 1 fox ditto, 1 hand ditto, 1 upright drill- 
ng machine, 3 grindstones, and the necessary tools for carrying 
on the machine, blacksmith's, carpenter's, and plumber's shops, 
2 large tool houses, 1 small ditto, 1 40-inch proving press, 1 
36-inch ditto, 1 small ditto, also ofiice furniture, and a large lot 
of patterns stored at pipe-yard and at the founderies where we 
obtain castings. 

A.t Beacon Hill Reservoir. 5 swivel pipe patterns, 1 swing 
stage, capstan frame and levers, 1 composition cylinder, 1 6- 
iuch ditto, 4 jets, 1 reducer and two sets of 12-inch plates, and 
2 4-inch plates, 3 composition reel jets, 6 cast iron jets, 1 drink- 
ing fountain. 

Miscellaneous. 1 freight of gravel, 200 bricks, 768 lbs. 
gasket, 5 kegs bolts, 375 feet damaged hose, 1 cord wood, 16 
gallons oil, 12 lbs. old composition, 1 load sand, 12 reservoir 
gate covers, 5 manholes, 6 plates, lot of old lumber, lot of old 
machinery from Marlboro. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. R. JONES, 
Superintendent Eastern Division, B. W. W. 



WATER REGISTRAR'S REPORT. 



Water Eeqistrar's Office, 
Boston, May 1, 1S66. 

Otis Norcross, Esq. President of the Cochituate Water Board: 

Sir: In compliance with the 16th section of the Ordinance, 
providing for the care and management of the Boston Water 
Works, I have the honor to submit the following 

EEPORT : 

The total number of water-takers now entered for the year 
1866, is 27,489, being an increase, since Jan. 1, 1865, of 443. 

During the year 1865, there have been 677 cases where the 
water has been turned off for non-payment of water-rates. 

Of this number 559 have been turned on, leaving a balance 
of 118 still remainins: off. 

The total amount of water-rates received from Dec. 31, 1864, 
to January 1, 1866, is . . . . . $450,34148 

Of the above there was received for water used 

in previous years, the sum of $ 23,054 16 
Leaving the receipts for water fur- 
nished during the year 1865, the 

sum of . . . 427,287 32 

In addition to the above there has 

been received for turning on water 

in cases where it had been turned 

off for non-payment of rates, the 

sum of . 1,092 00 



Total $451,433 48 

The amount received for water-rates from Jan. 1, 
1866, to May 1, 1866, is . . $ 340,966 53 
Amount carried forward ^ $451,433.48 



KEPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 39 

Amount brought forward, % 451,433.48 

Of this amount there was received, 
for water used in previous years, 
the sum of . . . . 27,165 06 

Leaving the receipts for water (as- 
sessed for the year 1866), to 
May, 1,1866, the sum of . . 313,^01 47 

In addition to this amount there has 
been received for water furnished 
by meters from Jan. 1, 18()6, 
to April 1, 1866, the sum of . 34,349 51 

The total amount received from 
Jan. 1, 1866, to May 1, 1866, 
for turning on water in cases 
where it had been turned off for 
non-payment of rates, is . . 686 00 



376,002 04 



Total receipts from Jan. 1, '65, to May 1, 1866, $ 827,435 52 

The increased amount of Income in 1865, over the previous 

year, is $19,446 72 

The total amount of assessments now made for 

the present year, is . . . . . 360,436 37 

The estimated amount of income from the sales 

of water during the year, 1866, is . . 475,000 00 

The expenditures of my office during the year 

1865, has been 14,652 24 

The items of this expenditure are as follows : — 
Paid Wm. F. Davis as Registrar . . . $1,900 00 
Chas. H. Little as Treasurer's clerk . . 1,475 00 
Charles L. Bancroft as clerk . . . 1,089 96 

Stephen Badlam " " . . . 1,089 96 
Edward Jennings . . . . . 960 72 

Charles C. Badlam 960 72 



Amoun t carried forward , $7,47636 



40 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 



Amount hrought forward, 
Paid George Stanwood on meters 
R. D. Child as Inspector 

C. M. Thompson " 
F. W. Fay 
T. L. Kelley, 
J. Hay ward " 
M. F. Hews 

F. W. Tewksbury «' 
H. S. Talbot 
J, F. Mayo on meters 

G. E. Hunt as Inspector 

E. A. Kendall " " 
B. F. Doten " 
G. E. Richardson " 
A. G. Bugbee " 
Geo. Chamberlain " 
R. F. Lyman, " 

F. Crowell " . 
E. A. Jennings " 
M. O. Donnell " 

E. A. Sherman " 
James Tuttle " 

D. H. Bradlee 

F. H. Phillips 
John Sherburn " 
T. H. Palmer 
F. C. Hogan " 
H. T. Beal 
Ames Ramsdell ' ' 

E. B. Chandler " 
J. L. Fairbanks for stationery . 
J. E. Farwell & Co. for printing 

Amount .... 



$7,476.36 


720 


91 


690 


81 


630 


81 


630 


81 


685 


81 


600 


81 


222 


50 


217 


50 


212 


50 


238 


68 


181 


67 


155 


00 


120 


00 


117 


50 


115 


00 


115 


00 


110 


00 


102 


00 


84 


17 


60 


00 


60 


00 


1^0 


00 


57 


50 


57 


50 


52 


50 


50 


00 


29 


17 


29 


17 


29 


17 


10 


00 


291 


25 


438 


14 


14,652 


24 



EEPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 



41 



A.mount brought forward, 



$14,G52 24 



The expenditures of my office from January 1, 
1866, to date, have been $ 5,265.00. The items of 
this expenditure have been as follows : — 

Paid Wm. F. Davis as Water Eegistrar, $ 633 33 

Charles H. Little Treasurer's Clerk . 500 00 

Charles L. Bancroft as clerk . 363 32 

Stephen Badlam <' " . . 363 32 

Edwin Jennings " " . 363 32 

C. C. Badlam as Inspector . 320 24 

R. D. Child " " . . 253 33 

J. Hay ward " '* . . 253 33 

T. L. Kelley " " . . 253 33 

F. W. Fay " " . . 253 33 

C. M. Thompson " " , . 253 33 

H. T. Beal " " . . 253 33 

Ames Ramsdell " " . . 253 33 

F. C. Hogan " " . . 253 33 

W. K. Langford " " . . 170 86 

J. F. Mayo on meters . . . 315 18 

J. L. Fairbanks, stationery . . 112 00 

J. E. Far well & Co. printing . . 96 79 



5,265 00 



Total 



19,917 24 



42 ^ CITY DOCUMENT. - No. 61. 

METERS. 
The total number of meters now applied to the premises of 
water-takers, is 586. Of this number 420 are |-inch, 143 1- 
inch, 19 2-ineh, 3 3-inch, and 1 4-inch size. They are attached 
to a variety of establishments, embracing hotels, railroads, 
manufactories, stables, confectionery, oyster saloons, ai^d build- 
ings occupied by several tenants. 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 



43 



The following table exhibits the yearly revenue received from 
the sales of Cochituate water, since its introduction into the city, 
October 25, 1848:. 



Received by Water Commissioners, as per 



's Report, in 1845 


, 






$972 81 


uary 1, 1849, to 


January 1, 


1850, 


71,657 79 


1850, 






1851, 


99,025 45 


1851, 






1852, 


161,052 85 


1852, 






1853, 


179,567 39 


1853, 






1854, 


196,352 32 


1854, 






1855, 


217,007 51 


1855, 






1856', 


266,302 77 


1856, 






1857, 


282,651 84 


■ 1857, 






1858, 


289,328 83 


1858, 






1859, 


302,409 73 


1859, 




( r- 


1860, 


314,808 97 


18G0, 






1861, 


334,544 86 


1861, 






1862, 


365,323 96 


1862, 






1863, 


373,922 33 


1863, 






1864, 


394,506 25 


1864, 






1865, 


430,710 76 


1865, 






1866, 


450,341 48 


1866, 


May 1, 


1866, 


375,316 04 


Total . 


$5,105,803 94 



44 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61, 



Statement showing the number of houses, stores, steam en- 
gines, &c. in the City of Boston, supplied.with Cochituate water 
to the 1st of January, 1866, with the amount of water-rates 
paid for 1865 : — 



19,508 Dwelling-houses 




34 Boarding do 




104 Model do . 




6 Lodo;in2: do 




14 Hotels 




4,473 Stores and shops 




196 Buildings . 




413 Offices . . . 




50 Printing offices . 




25 Banks . 




31 Halls . . . 




1 Theatre 




27 Private schools . 




9 Asylums 




3 Green-houses 




64 Churches 




7 Markets . 




17 Cellars . 


376 Restaurants and saloons 


4 Club-houses . 


4 Bath-houses 


50 Photographers 


15 Packing-houses . 


984 Stables . . . 


24 Factories . 


1 Brewery 


2 Beer factories . 


5 Bleacheries 


1 Laundry . 


. 



Amount carried forward, 





. 


1238,033 


12 




1,809 


00 






4,342 


00 






158 


00 






1,073 


00 






40,251 


57 






7,256 


95 






3,263 


49 






717 


33 






313 


00 




' 


476 


25 






19 


50 


• 




224 


00 






503 


63 






32 


00 






686 


63 






8li0 


50 






783 


00 






4,639 


89 






. 8Q 


50 






255 


00 






1,571 


CO 






355 


96 






8,105 


43 






646 


13 






25 


00 






73 


00 






69 


50 




25 


00 




$316,685 38 



EEPOET OF THE WATER BOARD. 



45 



Amount hr ought forward 


, 


1 


Dj-ehouse 


65 


Bakeries . 


5 


Ship yards 


1 


Dry dock . . . . 


2 


Dry docks and engines . 


49 


Shops ' 


' 


13 


Stores ' 


' , , 


5 


Foundries ' 


' , , 


10 


Factories ' 


• » 


7 


Printing ' 


' , , 


1 


Bakery ' 


' 


1 


Ship yard ' 


' . 


2 


Binderies ' 


' , , 


3 


Buildings * 


' , , 


1 


Pottery ' 


' 


1 


Laundry * 


* . 


35 


Stationery engines 


5 Armories 


3 


Gymnasiums . 


415 


Hand-hose 


15 Fountains 




Gaslight Co. (9 months) 




Gaslight Co. (filling tanks) 




MilldamCo. . 




State House . 




Home for discharged soldiers 




Home for Little Wanderers 




U. S. Rendezvous 




Custom House 


50 


Steam-boats 




Office (Harbor Master) . 




Do. (city scales 


) . . 



Amount carried forward, 



$316,685 


38 


54 


00 


538 


50 


34 


42 


25 


00 


34 


00 


4,205 


25 


1,055 


34 


254 


00 


630 


96 


698 


98 


33 


00 


62 


07 


223 


82 


378 


44 


35 


00 


36 


00 


1,349 


68 


61 


50 


56 


50 


2,790 


00 


118 


00 


569 


67 


295 


46 


300 


00 


-134 


50 


50 


00 


49 


58 


54 


50 


150 


00 


7,296 


08 


6 


00 


9 


00 


$338,274 


63 



46 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 



Amount brought forward ^ 


$338,274 63 


1 Old State House . 


27 00 


1 Court House .... 


262 50 


1 Probate building . . . 


47 50 


1 House of reception 


10 00 


6 Fire-alarm moters . . . 


65 00 


22 Fire-engine, hose and hook and la< 


ider 


houses .... 


527 00 


8 Police stations . . . 


728 00 


279 Public schools 


1,894 00 


2 City stables .... 


135 00 


1 Oifal station .... 


200 00 


1 Steamer Henry Morrison . 


192.56 


1 House of Correction 


462 00 


1 Jail for Suffolk County 


243 00 


1 Lunatic Hospital . 


225 00 


X Free City do. . 


250 00 


1 Public Library, . . 


50 00 


1 Faneuil Hall . . . . 


40 00 


1 City building .... 


37 50 


1 Shop (Paving Department) 


9 00 


Common Sewer Department (mal 


dng 


mortar) .... 


50 00 


Public urinals 


145 00 


Street sprinkling 


400 00 


Deer park .... 


10 00 


Boston Common . . . 


50 00 


Fining boiler 


: 2 00 


Mechanic's Fair .... 


25 00 


Building purposes . 


1,602 79 


Contractors for supplying shipping 


2,071 67 


Metered water 


79,251 17 




$427,287 32 



KEPOKT OF THE WATER BOARD 



47 



Statement showing the Number and hind of Water Fixtures con- 
tained within the Premises of Water-takers in the City of Boston 
to January 1, 1866, as compared with previous years. 



1863 


1864 


1865 


KEMARKS. 


4,789 


4,831 


4,797 


Taps. These have no connection with 
any drain or sewer. 


37,289 


38,844 


40,184 


Sinks. 


14,100 


15,488 


16,767 


■ Wash-hand basins. 


4,921 


5,262 


5,475 


Bathing- tubs. 


5,788 


6,286 


^,752 


Pan water-closets. 


6,529 


7,117 


7,317 


Hopper water-closets. 






181 


" " pull. 


846 


935 


315 


" " self-acting 






213 


" " waste. 






498 


" " door. 


1,548 


1,644 


1,741 


Urinals. 


4,967 


5,535 


6,087 


Wash-tubs. These are permanetly at- 
tached to the building. 


17 


12 


737 


Shower-baths. 


12 


12 


13 


Hydraulic rams. 


729 


708 


715 


Private hydrants. 


216 


278 


334 


Slop-hoppers. 






28 


Foot-baths. 


81,751 


86,9-49 


92,154 





Respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM F. DAVIS, 

Water Registrar. 



REPORT OF THE CITY ENGINEER. 



Office of City Engineer, 
Boston, April 30, 1866. 

Otis Norckoss, Esq. President Cochituate Water Board: 

Sir : The following Report relating to the general condition 
of the Water "Works, — so far as the same has come to my 
knowledge by personal observation and the partial reports made 
to me by the Superintendents, as required by the rules of the 
Board, — has been prepared in compliance with the 13th section 
of the Water Ordinance. 

LAKE COCHITUATE. 

From personal examinations of the several structures, &c. at 
the Lake, at various times during the past year, I am gratified 
to say that, their condition, as well as that of the adjacent 
grounds, is generally good, and, in some respects, improved. 
The principal exception is in the condition of the Course Brook 
culvert, — a new structure, built, under rather unfavorable cir- 
cumstances, by the late lamented Superintendent of the Western 
Division. A portion of the lower end of this culvert fell in 
this spring, and has been temporarily repaired. At the next low 
stage of the water this culvert should be rebuilt, and more care 
taken to secure a firm foundation for the inverted arch, at a 
lower level, and also to prevent the passage of the water along 
the outside of the culvert, washing away the sand, and thus, in 
time, undermining it. 

The slope-walls which have been built during the year in the 
Northern Division of the Lake are a manifest improvement, and 
have not only improved the appearance of the shores, but have 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 49 

served to arrest the rapid encroachments of the water upon the 
sandy borders of the Lake. The necessity of continuing to 
extend these walls is undoubtedly fully appreciated by the 
Board. 

The Filter-dam at Pegan Brook has continued to work well, 
requiring but little repairs during the year. 

The surface of the water in the Lake on the first day of Jan- 
uary, 1865, was five feet ten inches above the bottom of the con- 
duit, or seven and one half feet below high-water mark. On 
March the nineteenth the Lake was full, and on the thirty-first 
of the same month the water began to waste at the outlet-dam. 
June first, the waste ceased, and on the sixteenth the Lake began " 
to fall, continuing to lower, with slight fluctuations, until the 
eighteenth of December, when the lowest point of the year, 
eight feet three inches above the bottom of the conduit, was 
reached. The water commenced to rise December twenty-fifth, 
and on the first of January, 1866, stood at 8 feet 11 inches, or 
3 feet 1 inch higher than at the beginning of the year. The 
lowest point reached in 1865 was 3 feet 5 inches higher than 
the lowest point of 1864, — a result entirely due to the marked 
decrease in the consumption of water ; for, if the rate of con- 
sumption had been the same from June sixteenth to December 
twenty-fifth, — the term during which the water in the Lake 
was falling, — as the average rate of 1864, the increased amount 
drawn from the Lake would have been equivalent to a depth of 
3 feet 6 inches, and the water in the Lake would have stood on 
the twenty-fifth of December, 1865, one inch lower than the 
lowest point of 1864, or only 5 feet 9 inches above the bottom 
of the conduit. 

It is, indeed, a source of congratulation that the efforts jaf the 
Board have been so effectual in checking the inordinate waste of 
water, which a few years since threatened to exhaust our source 
of supply. 

In order to realize fully the importance of economy in the 
use of the water, it Is only necessary to suppose a possible con- 
7 



50 CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 

tingency. We began the year 1865 with only 5 feet 10 inches 
of water in the Lake above the bottom of the conduit. Suppose 
that, instead of the gratifying economy which has reduced the 
consumption to a daily average, — for the whole year, of 12,- 
662,000 gallons, — the wastefulness of 1861, when the esti- 
mated consumption was over 18,000,000 gallons, had pre- 
vailed ; and suppose also, that, instead of the actual rain-fall at 
the Lake for the past year, — 49x^0^ inches, — we had had 
only 27f^ inches, which was the actual rain-fall of 1822, the 
result would have been that the water in the Lake, on the 
first of January, 1866, would have been nearly four feet helow 
the bottom of the conduit, and artificial means would have been 
necessary for several months of the year to raise the water into 
the conduit. 

From the table showing the average monthly and yearly 
heights of the water in the Lake, above the bottom of the con- 
duit, since 1850, it will be seen that the averao;e height for the 
year 1865 has been lO^^^ay feet, or very nearly the same as the 
previous year, and that the lowest average monthly height for 
the year was T^Vt) feet, being two feet higher than the lowest 
average for 1864. 

The usual statement of the rain-fall on the water shed of the 
Lake, the amount of water consumed and wasted, the avail- 
able amount received into the Lake, and the available percent- 
age of the annual rain-fall for a term of twelve years, is here- 
with submitted ; from which it appears that the daily average 
amount received into the Lake during the term was about 22^ 
millions of gallons : that the average daily waste (reckoning the 
whole number of days in the year,) at the outlet-dam, for the 
first six years of the term, — before the raising of the dam, — 
was 14,378,900 gallons, while for the last six years it was 
3,938,560 gallons : it also appears that the available percentage 
of rain-fall received into the Lake for the past year was 43, and 
the average for the whole term was 48. 



KEPOET OF THE WATER BOARD. 51 

The following statement shows the amount of water wasted 
at the outlet-dam during the year : — 

March, 1 day . . . . 26,853,062 gallons. 

April, 30 days . . . 526,626,253 " 

May, 31 " . . . . 1,134,641,359 " 



Total .... 1,688,120,674 '« 
This amount is equal to a daily average, for the whole year, of 
about 4,625,000, and could it have been stored, would have 
supplied the city for 133 days at the average rate of consump- 
tion for the year. 

CONSUMPTION OF WATER. 

The usual statement of the daily average number of gallons 
of water consumed for each month and year from 1849 to 1865, 
inclusive, is herewith presented, and it must be a source of gen- 
eral satisfaction to our fellow-citizens to know that the daily 
average for the past year amounts to only 12,662,000 gallons, 
against 16,681,000 for the previous year, a reduction of 4,219,- 
000 gallons per day, or over twenty-five per cent. And it will 
be seen, by an inspection of the table or statement above re- 
ferred to, that the daily average for the last three months of the 
year was only 11,300,000 gallons, being a still further reduc- 
tion of 1,362,000 gallons per day. The estimates of con- 
sumption have been made by the same method employed for the 
past two years, and the results are probably somewhat in excess 
of the actual consumption. 

During the past year the water was shut off at the Lake nine 
times for the purpose of measuring the amount actually used by 
the city, by observations of the heights of the water in the 
Brookline and city reservoirs. These observations were taken 
on two days in February, two in April, three in May, and two 
in June, and covered each day of the week, being, in every 
instance but one, taken every hour of the day and night, and 



52 CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 61. 

with great care. A statement of the result of these observations 
will be found in a subsequent part of this report, from which it 
will appear that the least amount consumed in one day was 
7,339,803 gallons for the twenty-four hours ending at twelve 
o'clock, M. on the thirtieth of April, and the largest amount 
consumed was 13,074,433 gallons for the twenty-four hours 
ending at twelve o'clock, m. June third. The average for the 
nine days was 10,735,723 gallons, or nearly 2,000,000 gallons 
less than the average for the whole year as estimated by the 
usual method. It will also be observed that for three days of 
the nine the actual consumption was only seven to nine millions 
of gallons per day, thus showing that the present legitimate 
wants of the city can be adequately served with a supply of, 
say, eight millons of gallons per day, and that the amount con- 
sumed in excess of that sum is, if not wasted, an unnecessary 
and extravagant use. This view is still further corroborated by 
an inspection of the night consumption for tl^e four hours from 
midnio-ht to four o'clock A. M. — hours when the rate of con- 
sumption should be very materially reduced : for it will be seen 
that the average hourly consumption for these hours, taking the 
eight days upon which the observations were made hourly, was 
282,000 gallons, or at the rate of 6,768,000 gallons per day. 
That such a rate of consumption during the four hours after 
midnight is not legitimate, except in case of fire, must be self- 
evident, and a large proportion must be accounted waste. The 
only fire of any magnitude which occurred between midnight 
and four o'clock, a.m. on the days the observations were taken, 
was the Court and Sudbury Street fire on the thirtieth of April, 
between three and four o'clock, a. m., and it appears that the 
average draft per hour for two hours after the fire broke out was 
about 315,000 gallons, while on the other nights, when there 
were no fires, the hourly draft ran as high as 500,000 and 
600,000 gallons. These facts must prove that, even the re- 
duced rate of consumption of the past year involves a large 
waste or illegitimate use, and that, as I said before, we can 



REPOET OF THE WATER BOARD. 53 

easily reduce our consumption to eight millions of gallons per 
day and be amply served. 

The greatest estimated amount consumed on any one day 
during the year was about 18,000,000 gallons, on the twenty- 
second of January. 

CONDUIT. 
A thorough examination of the interior of the conduit has 
been made during the year in company with the Superintendent 
and members of the Board. The section from the Lake to 
Dedmun's Brook waste-wier was found to be coated with the 
peculiar vegetable matter alluded to in former reports, and has 
been thoroughly cleaned by the Superintendent. Those portions 
of the conduit resting on embankments and alluded to in former 
reports as being defective, by reason of cracks caused by the 
settling or spreading of the banks, were specially examined, and 
no marked change was apparent. In cases where repairs had 
been previously made, as at station 168 on the first division, at 
Ware's Valley and Webber's Barn, a slight crack In the cement 
pointing of the old fissures Indicated that the widening of the 
breaches at these localities had not ceased, and that a more 
radical treatment of these difficulties must be applied to insure 
perfect safety. The worst cracks that were repaired during the 
year, were In those portions of the conduit in Newton where It 
crosses the " Bennett" and " Brown" meadows, so called, now 
owned by the city, and to form a part of the new reservoir. The 
cracked portion on the ' ' Bennett " meadow extends from about 
station 119-2 to station 126, — about 650 feet In length, — and 
that on the "Brown" meadow extends from station ISSa to 
station 1374, about 400 feet in length. As the embankments 
at these localities are to form a portion of the bank or dam of the 
new reservoir, both of these defective sections of the conduit 
will have to be rebuilt and placed upon foundations of solid 
masonry to insure perfect security. At several points on the line 
where the conduit is located in wet places and in deep cuttings 



54 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 



fissures were found bringing in water, and in some places 
considerable sand. The worst of these were at stations 75, 76 
and 98, on the first division; at stations 20 and 32, on the 
second division; and at stations 37i and 40, on the third divi- 
sion. These fissures have all been plugged with wooden wedges 
and the sand brought in removed. The water havinsr been shut 
off' twelve times during the year has afforded opportunities for a 
thorough cleaning and a partial repairing of those portions of the 
conduit and tunnels requiring the same, so that the whole line 
may be said to be in better general condition than for years. 



EASTERN DIVISION. 

For the details of the condition of the works in this division 
the Board is referred to the Report of the Superintendent. The 
usual statement of the average monthly heights of the water in 
the Brookline and city reservoirs, above tide marsh level, for 
the past five years, has been prepared and is herewith submitted. 
It will be observed that the marked reduction in the consump- 
tion of water is apparent in the increased height at which the 
water in the city reservoirs has been maintained. The average 
level in the Beacon Hill Reservoir for the year was 3^^ feet 
higher than in 1864; in the South Boston 2^ feet higher; 
and in the East Boston ^ feet higher. 

The following table shows the yearly average loss of head 
from Brookline to the city reservoirs for the past five years. 





1861 


1862 


1863 


1864 


1865 


Loss of head from Brookline 
to Beacon Hill 

Loss of head from Brookline 


6.54 
9.66 

27.47 


6.35 
8.93 

28.27 


6.27 
11.05 
30.24 


6.10 
11.82 
28.04 


3.21 
9.24 


Loss of head from Brookline 


28.09 







REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 55 

In 1858, when the Dover Street Bridge was rebuilt, a por- 
tion of the main pipe which supplies South Boston was replaced 
with new pipes of Scotch manufacture, covered inside and out 
with a bituminous coating, designed to prevent rust and the 
formation of tubercular accretions on the inside of the pipes. 
An opportunity was recently aiforded to examine the interior of 
one of these pipes, and it was found to be remarkably clean and 
free from rust and tubercles. The result of this experiment is 
very satisfactory, and there can be very little doubt that we now 
have a simple and not very expensive means of preventing the 
growth of tubercular accretions in cast iron pipes. 



CHESTNUT HILL RESERVOIR. 

During the past year a party has been detached from my 
office to make the necessary surveys to determine the location 
and construction of this reservoir. A preliminary rough survey 
had already been made, and furnished approximately the means 
of ascertaining the limits of the land, required to construct the 
reservoir and protect the same from the liability of future 
objectionable surface drainage, or the too close proximity of any 
offensive establishments. The exact lines of all the separate 
estates within these limits were carefully surveyed and run out 
before proceeding to purchase the land, and since then a complete 
and thorough topographical survey of the whole territory has 
been made. Eoutes for the location of the main pipe or pipes 
to connect the reservoir with the present mains leading from 
Brookline to the city have been examined and partial surveys 
made ; the exact route, however, has not yet been determined. 

The estimates and reports made to the Board during the year, 
and the constant oversight of the work exerdsed by the Com- 
mittees having the same in charge, have probably placed at your . 
disposal all the information regarding the reservoir which the 
Board may desire to publish in the present Annual Report. 



56 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 








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58 



CITY DOCUMENT. — No. 61. 



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REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 



59 



w s s 

i-l i-l CI 






60 



CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 61. 



Conduit. 

The following table shows the different heights at which the 
water has been running, and the number of days in each month 
at the different heights. 

The height of the conduit is six feet four inches. 





HEIGHTS IN FEET AHD INCHES. 






These heights show a 
head on the Conduit. 




0.0 


i.io's.o. 

1 


5.4 5.6 


5.8J5.IO 


5.11 6.0 6.1 6.2J6.4 


6.5|6.6i 


6.8 6.10 


7.0 




NUMBEK OF DATS IN EACH MONTH. 




2 
2 


4 
31 

22 


15 
20 








1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


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3 

2 


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13 










































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28 
19 
















10 






























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1 




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31 

30 

27 

149 


10 








2 


























































































4 
61 






















57 


10 


10 


43 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




Total 


12 


14 




—_ 



From this table it appears that the Conduit has been empty 
twelve days during the past year, partly full with a depth of 
water varying from 4 feet 10 inches to 6 feet 2 inches for 
334 days; just full, one day; and for only eighteen days 
during the whole year has the Conduit been under a head. 



EEPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 



61 






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53 
































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tc 


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15 O 


l3 






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::> to 








o 




o 


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e 




B 1 o 




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IN 


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25 


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c 


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g 




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00 




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cc 








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g 


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00 


05 


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g 


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s s 



62 



KEPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 



to 



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o 


o 


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o 


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oo 


00 


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^ 


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^ 




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^ 






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o 














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o 


a> 


TH 


TtH 


TtH 


5 






T-1 


M 


CO 


■* 


•*l 


3 


CO 




o 


t^ 


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>o 


LO 


o 








M 


m 


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n 


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s 


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n 


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a 














































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o 


00 


o 


cs 


w 


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o 


00 










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CO 


CO 


o 




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CO 




m 


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s 


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^ 


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to 
































f= 






































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3 

g 

1-5 


S 


3 


P. 
< 




a 

3 


3 


3 
bD 

9 


£.1 

0) 

a 

03 


2 
o 


a 

a) 

t- 
o 


.o 

a 

Q 


s 





REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 
Monthly Fall of Rain in Inches, in 18G5. 



63 









Places and 


Oesekvers. 






UONIB. 


s 

3 
Sir' 


.a 


11 
It 


i 

.11 

^ a 

^ 1 
►J 3 


■a 

3 
►JO 


1 
> 

o 

'O 




.a 


January 


4.99 


4.47 


3.80 


3.61 


3.99 


4.87 


1.40 


5.29 


February 


4.45 


5.08 


4.34 


3.29 


3.73 


4.31 


2.63 


5.45 


March 


5.48 


4.83 


4.59 


4.24 


4.29 


4.25 


4.25 


5.56 


April 


2.18 


2.57 


2.42 


1.80 


2.24 


2.88 


2.25 


2.98 


May 


8.25 


6.90 


6.64 


5.71 


6.32 


6.24 


6.28 


6.23 




0.91 
3.10 


2.83 
4.26 


2.61 
3.18 


2.54 
2.39 


1.S5 

1.87 


2.20 
3.67 


,1.36 
3.52 


1.65 


July 


3.91 


August 


3.36 


1.42 


1.32 


2.42 


2.79 


1.76 


2.45 


0.74 


September 


1.66 


0.62 


0.71 


0.56 


0.56 


1.00 


0.82 


0.27 


October 


6.99 


6.21 


5.92 


5.86 


5.16 


5.71 


5,01 


4.60 


Kovember 


4.78 


4.46 


3.69 


2.08 


3.C5 


3.68 


3.91 


4.03 


December 


3.31 


4,18 


2.75 


2.8S 


2.97 


3.02 


1.96 


4.08 


Totals 


49.46 


47.83 


42.00 


37.38 


38.82 


43.59 


35.84 


44.69 



Note. — Melted snow is, as usual, included in the above amounts of rain-fall. 



The reports embodied in the foregoing table have been kindly 
furnished by the respective observers, and to them my thanks 
are due for their continued courtesy. 



64 



CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 61. 



Table showing the days in 1865 upon which rain fell, and the amount 
in inches and hundredths, compiled from observations made by 
W. H. Bradley, Superintendent of Sewers. 



Days. 



Months. 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug-. Sept. I Oct. Nov. Dec 















Inches. 












1 


.10 












.02 
.80 






.03 


.26 


.32 


2 








.05 






3 






.64 
.55 












4 
5 


'.25 

1.08 
.26 


.50 














.20 


1.16 


















(i 






1.20 
1.70 








.66 








7 


1.30 




.23 




.30 


.28 






.58 


s 










9 






1.00 
.62 


.43 


.46 
.17 


.07 
.35 








.28 
.10 






10 


.96 












11 


.41 








12 




.18 




.40 






.27 






13 


.05 




.16 








14 


.20 


















15 






.18 








.38 




1.63 
.69 






16 


.20 


1.20 


.20 




.05 


1.00 
.10 




17 












18 








1.40 






.05 








19 
















.21 




23 


20 














.33 








21 








.38 
.15 


.90 
.50 


.80 
.80 








2.24 
.03 




22 






.06 




.38 
.28 








23 


.75 










24 




















25 














.06 










.42 


26 




1.06 








.57 










04 


27 






.15 












.10 


28 




.10 














2.26 






29 






.06 










.24 


30 






.69 
.83 


.65 














.82 


31 
















.25 




























3.80 


4.34 


4.59 


2.42 


6.64 


2.64 


3.18 


1.32 


.71 


5.92 


3.69 


2.75 



REPORT OF THE WATER BOARD. 



65 



Aiinual Amount of Rain-Fall, in Inches, at Lake Cochituate, Boston, 
and vicinity, 1849 ^o 1865, inclusive. 









PLACES 


AND OBSERVERS. 




YEAR. 


:S o 

if 


1-5 

o 
o 


• '6 

O a 
. o 

■^ o 

o O 
so ,- 
S d 

t. oi 

il 


Waltham, by E. Hobbs 
and J. R. Scott, Agent, 
Boston Mannfac'ng Co. 


o 

& a 

o « 


Lowell, by Locks and 
Canals Co., J. B. 
Francis. 


O 

< 

53 
3 
o 


1849 





40.30 


40.97 


40.74 


51.09 




34.09 


1850 




53.98 


54.07 


62.13 


45.68 





51.48 


18.51 


.... 


44.31 


41.97 


41.00 


41.00 




43.30 


1852 


* 47.93 


47.94 


40.61 


42.24 


42.78 




38.58 


1853 


* 55.86 


48.86 


53.83 


45.04 


43.92 




53.27 


1851 


43.15 


45.71 


45.17 


41.29 


42.08 





46.25 


1855 


34.96 


44.19 


47.59 


40.63 


44.89 


48.41 


39.05 


1856 


40.80 


52.16 


53.79 


42.33 


42.49 


45.97 


40.97 


1857 


63.10 


56.87 


57.92 


44.04 


49.38 


52.02 


44.74 


1858 


48.66 


52.67 


45.46 


37.40 


37.73 


35.80 


44.51 


1859 


49.02 


56.70 


.... 


48.49 


47.51 


48.41 


45.29 


1860 


55.44 


51.46 


46.95 


.... 


46.91 


46.67 


38.24 


1861 


46.44 


50.07 


50.14 




43.32 


42.95 


44.25 


1862 


49.69 


61.06 


57.21 


.... 


44.26 


44.61 


50.09 


1863 


69.30 


67.72 


56.42 


53.66 


52.37 


57.81 


54.17 


1864 


42.60 


49.30 


.... 


•36.56 


38.11 


40.64 


36.83 


1865 


49.46 


47.83 


43.59 


35.84 


37.38 


38.82 


44.69 



'By J. Vannevar, 



66 



CITY DOCUMENT.— No. 61. 



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PUBLIC LIBRARY 

or XHB 

CITY OF BOSTON. 



ABBREVIATED REGULATIONS. 

One volume can be taken at a time from the 
Lower Hall, and one from the Bates Hall. 
Books can be kept out 14 days. 

A line of 2 cents for each volume will be 
Incurred for each day a book is detained more 
than 14 days. 

Any book detained more than a week be- 
yond the time limited, will be sent for at the 
expense of the delinquent. 

No book is to be lent out of the household 
of the borrower. 

The Library hours for the delivery and re- 
turn of books are from 10 o'clock, A. M., to 
8 o'clock, P. M., in the Lower HaU; and from 
10 o'clock, A. M., untn one half hour before 
sunset in the Bates HaU. 

Every book must, under penalty of one dol- 
lar, be returned to the Library at such time 
in August as shall be publicly announced. 

The card must be presented whenever a 
book is returned. For renewing a book the 
card must be presented, together with the 
book, or with the shelf-numbers of the book.