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Full text of "Annual Report of the Division of Fisheries and Game (1934-1939)"

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http://archive.org/details/annualreportofdiOOmass_0 



3 D I I'l U 



Vx. 



Public Document 



No. 25 



334 



®tji> Olnmmonunmlil? nf masaartjuartta 



ANNUAL REPORT 



A OF THE -■&--■■ 

Division of Fisheries and Game 



Year Ending November 30, 1934 



1934 



Department of Conservation 

38 : 20 SOMEBSET STBEET, BOSTON.] 




Publication op this Document approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance 
950. 2-'35. Order 3654. 



CONTENTS 



achusetts 



General Considerations . . 

Public Service rendered by Division of Fisheries and Game 
Proposed Program for developing Hunting and Fishing in Ma 
Cooperation wiiii National Recovery Administration 

Personnel 

Finances ........ 

Revenue ........ 

Conventions ,-ind Meetings ..... 

Activities of State and Local Organizations 
Education and Publicity ... ■-.. OF1 

Massachusetts State College .... 

Acknowledgments ...... 

Enforcemenl of the Came and Inland Fish Laws 

New Legislation during 1934 .... 

Recommendations for Future Legislation 
Activities of the Biologist : and Staff . 
Ornithologist ........ 

Act ivit Les of t he Supervisor of Fish and Came Permits and 01 
Permits and Registrations ..... 

Damage by Wild Deer 

Exhibits and Lectures 

Wild Birds and Animals and Fresh-water Fish 

Game 

Wildlife Survey and Management Program 

Statistics of Game and Fur-bearing Animals taken 

Migratory Game Birds .... 

Upland Game Birds — Pheasants 

Deer . . . 

Hares and Rabbits 

Wild Cat Bounties 

State Forests 

Reservations and Sanctuaries .... 
Inland Fisheries 

Public Fishing and Hunting Grounds 

Removal of Predatory Fish 

Ponds 

Pollution 

Propagation of Fish and Game 

Fish Hatcheries and Game Farms — General 

East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery . 

Montague State Fish Hatchery . 

Palmer State Fish Hatchery 

Sandwich State Fish Hatchery . 

Sunderland State Fish Hatchery 

Sutton State Fish Hatchery 

Sutton State Pond System .... 

Harold Parker State Forest Pond System . 

Turnbull's Pond, Greenfield 

Work of the Salvage Units .... 

Ayer State Game Farm . . \ ;',. 

Marshfield State Game Farm . .* . 

Sandwich State Game Farm 

Wilbraham State Game Farm . 
Fish and Game Distribution . . . . 

Marine Fisheries '- .%• ], ;_ i; 

Program of future Work . . i ,'\\ I V.» 

Bureau of Marine Fisheries 

Enforcement of the Marine Fisheries Laws 

Inspection of Food Fish .... 

Work of the Coastal Wardens . 

New Legislation during 1934 
Civil Works Administration and Emergency Relief Administration 
Activities 

Shellfish Work 

Stream Work 

Shellfish and Crustacea 

Shellfish Enemies 

Starfish Extermination 

Green Crabs 

Purification of Clams 



?M3 



p Permits 1 1- 3 H 

r Lobster Fishery .... -»g • 
1 Sea Crab Fishery . . • -^ • 

The Fishing Season 

General . • 

Sea and Shore Fisheries 

Port of Boston 

Port of Gloucester . . • • • ■ 

Estimated Value of Fishery Products of Massachusetts 

Marine Sport Fishing 

Restoration of the Shad Fishery 

Smelt and Alewives 

Fishways 

Bounty on Seals 

Note of Appreciation 

Appendix . 



Page 
58 
58 
58 
60 
60 
60 
60 
61 
61 
62 
62 
63 
63 
63 
63 
64 



DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

20 Somerset Street, Boston 

Commissioner, SAMUEL A. YORK, Cummington 

DIVISION OF FISHERIES AND GAME 

Director, Raymond J. Kenney, Belmont. 

Chief Fish and Game Warden, Carl G. Bates, Natick. ., 

Fish and Game Warden Supervisor (Propagation), Forrest S Clark, Mdem 
Fish and Game Warden Supervisor (Law Enforcement), Lloyd M. Walker, 

Northboro. , , T ^ -r> o , „ 

Biologist and Supervisor of Distributions, J. Arthur Kitson, Boston 
lupervLor of Fish and Game Permits and Claims, Orrin C. Bourne, Melrose. 
Field Agent and Engineer, Arnold E. Howard, Paxton. 
State Inspector of Fish and State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries, William D. 

Desmond, Stoneham. ^ ,. , , 

Biologist and Statistician (Marine Fisheries), Earnest W. Barnes, Roslmdale. 
Head Clerk, Miss L. B. Rimbach, Medford. 

Advisory Board 
John L. Saltonstall, Chairman, representing the Massachusetts Fish and Game 

Association. .,'*■« » ni„u, 

Thomas F. Bradley, representing the Council of Sportsman sUubs. _ 
Judge Robert Walcott, representing the 5 Massachusetts Audubon Society 
Francis H. Allen, representing The Federation of the Bird Clubs of New Eng- 

Samuel T. Brightman, representing the Massachusetts State Grarige 

Elmer M. Poole, representing the Massachusetts Farm Bureau Federation. 

Technical Consultants 

Dr. Hugh P. Baker, President, Massachusetts State College ^ Amherst 

Prof Samuel C. Prescott, Department of Biology and Public Health, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. ^.^^ 

Prof. R. P. Holdsworth, Head of the Department of Forestry, Massachusetts 
State College, Amherst. 

Mr Fred A. McLaughlin, Massachusetts State College, Amherst, 

Prof. J. C. Graham, Massachusetts State College, Amherst. 

Mr. Ludlow Griscom, Research Curator of Zoology, Museum of Comparative 
Zoologv, Harvard Universitv, Cambridge. 

Dr. David L. Belding, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston. 

Prof. James L. Peters, Curator of Birds, Museum of Comparative Zoology. 
Harvard University, Cambridge. 

Dr. Ernest E. Tyzzer, Department of Comparative Pathology, Harvnrd Uni- 
versity Medical School, Boston. 

Prof. F. J. Sievers, Director Experiment Station, Massachusetts State College, 
Amherst. 



4 I 



®lje (Sammonuiraltl? of MnsBnt^natttB 



ANNUAL REPORT 

The Director of the Division of Fisheries and (lame herewith presents the 

sixty-ninth annual report. 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

The opinion has become prevalent in recent years, that the Division of 
Fisheries and Game is an agency of the State government designed entirely for 
the purpose of providing hunting and fishing facilities for the sportsmen. 

A consideration of the history of the Division, since its organization in I860, 
will indicate the original purpose and subsequent development of the Division. 
Organized primarily for the regulation and protection of the coastal fisheries of 
the State, its activities have been gradually developed over an extensive field. 

A cursory examination of the duties and service of the Division as required by 
legislative mandate or established by the customs of many years, will show a 
wide range of governmental functions, apart from providing hunting and fishing 
facilities. These are arranged according to the usual functions of government. 

Public Service Rendered by Division of Fisheries and Game 
Conservation: 

Protection of song, insectivorous and non-game birds. 
Establishment and maintenance of wild life sanctuaries. 
Enforcement of forest fire laws by fish and game wardens. 
Consulting advice on wild life management. 
Service of fish and game wardens as federal migratory bird officers. 

Agriculture : 

Payment of claims for damage by deer to agricultural crops. 

Protection of carrier and homing pigeons. 

Protection of fruit orchards against depredations of ruffed grouse and deer. 

The protection of private lands posted against hunting and fishing. 

Consulting advice on the building of private ponds. 

Labor and Industry: 

Regulation, supervision and control of the marine fisheries industry, which 

has an estimated value of ten million dollars annually. 
Regulation of the trapping of fur-bearing animals for commercial purposes. 
Supervision of commercial game farms. 
Supervision of commercial fish hatcheries. 

Regulation of the commercial sale of imported and propagated game. 
The expenditure of approximately $175,000 annually as salaries and wages 

for the officers and employees of the Division. 
The expenditure of $150,000 annually for the purchase of materials, supplies 

and equipment. 
The purchase of the output of many of the commercial fish hatcheries and 

game farms in the State. 
Consulting advice on the private artificial propagation of fish and game. 
Regulation of taxidermist establishments. 
Regulation of the use of feathers in the millinery trade. 

Public Health: 

Protection of public health through the inspection of the fresh fish food sup-i 

ply in wholesale and retail markets of the State. 
Protection of the public health through the patrol of shellfish grounds inj 

contaminated waters. 
Service of fish and game wardens as dog officers. 



P.D. 25 5 

Protection of the public health by the salvaging of fish from water supply 

reservoirs. 
Protection of the public health by the patrol of water supply reservoirs 

against fishing. 
Protection of water supply reservoirs from defilement by wild birds. 
Protection of the public health through the control of pollution in inland 

waters. 
Protection of the public health through the control of pollution on coastal 

bathing beaches. 
Regulation of shellfish shucking and shipping plants. 

Public Safety: 

The inspection of summer cottages and camps in the isolated sections by the 
wardens of the Division during the seasons of unoccupancy. 

Service of the fish and game wardens in assisting the police in the suppres- 
sion of crime. 

Enforcement of the law relative to the possession of firearms by aliens. 

Protection of the public by the prohibition of hunting along highways. 
Public Welfare: 

Employment of men being aided by local welfare boards, the Civil Works 
Administration and the Emergency Relief Administration. 

Assistance to needy families through distribution of deer meat and other 
game confiscated by the warden force. 

Education : 

Lectures in schools and before clubs and civic organizations. 

The opening of State fish hatcheries and game farms to the public to enable 

them to inspect the methods of propagation from the standpoint of 

interest and education. 
Exhibitions at fairs and other public gatherings. 
Regulation of the taking of specimens for scientific, ornithological and 

biological investigations and studies. 
Consulting biological service. 
Regulation of bird-banding activities. 
Maintenance of a news service for the press. 
Furnishing information where boats are to be hired, both for inland and for 

salt water fishing; lists of stocked streams; stocked ponds; pheasant 

and quail covers. 

From the foregoing it can be seen that the Division of Fisheries and Game is 
I public service organization in the broadest sense. It is doubtful if any other 
gency of the State government, of similar size, is required to perform such a 
•road and diversified field of service in the interests of the people of the Com- 
aonwealth. 

It is also self-evident, from the foregoing, that a Division performing this field 
1 public service should not be limited to the revenue which hunting, fishing and 
rapping licenses provide, but, on the contrary, the revenue from such licenses 
hould be devoted almost exclusively to actual work of improving hunting and 
shmg conditions. 

A wide variety of useful projects, noted in the following program, await suf- 
cient funds for their promotion. 

Proposed Program for Developing Hunting and Fishing 
in Massachusetts 
ands and Waters : 

The leasing and ultimate purchase of not less than 200 miles of the best trout 
shmg streams m the State, with provision for actual stream improvement work. 

Ine gradual development for trout fishing of several natural great ponds in 
ich i county by selecting suitable ponds and removing the pond fish therefrom. 

ine formulation of a cooperative plan with the landowners, to the end that 
ley may be induced to care for, protect and aid in the propagation of the game 



6 P.D. 25 

mi their hinds throughout twelve months of the year and lor the protection of 
such lands againsl misuse by the thoughtless few. 

The establishment of at least two waterfowl sanctuaries. 

The Lease and ultimate purchase of abandoned mill pond sites and the repair 
of the dams to re-establish as fishing waters, preferably for trout. 

The protection and proper development of the Division's present wild life] 
sanctuaries and a reasonable increase in the acreage of the sanctuaries under 
us control. 

Fish Propagation: 

The development of (he Sunderland State Fish Hatchery to increase the pro- 
duction of brown trout. 

The development of the Palmer State Fish Hatchery to provide for the rearing 

of at least 100,000 six-inch black bass annually. 

The establishment of one additional pond fish cultural unit for the production 
of pond fish to supplement the two units now available. 

The establishment of field rearing stations where a portion of the output of 
the trout hatcheries may be reared to a larger size. 

Development of the work on salmon, pike perch and muscallonge, looking to 
the liberation of more of these fish, of larger size. 

Game Propagation: 

Increase the rearing facilities at the four State game farms, to the end that a 
large number of pheasants and quail may be carried through the winter months 
and liberated prior to the breeding season. 

The development of several areas throughout the State where the field rearing 
of game birds may be carried out under suitable supervision. 

The development of a program for the propagation of cotton-tail rabbits. 

The development of a program for the propagation of ruffed grouse. 

The establishment of a program for the propagation of raccoons. 

The development of a program for the propagation of waterfowl, particularly 
the native black duck, and the planting of duck food in marsh areas. 

Experimentation with Caucasian pheasants which appear to be more adapted 
to the wooded areas than the ring neck pheasants. 

The continued development of game management on State institutional 
grounds, as these areas are set apart by law as wild life sanctuaries, and on State 
forests 

Law Enforcement: 

The appointment o* 
of regular wardens to 40 in number. 

Research : 

A more rapid progress in the biological examination of ponds and streams. 

A more rapid progress in ornithological and game management surveys. 

Experimental work to hasten the growth of brown and rainbow trout to make 
better use of the present hatchery facilities (two years are now r required to real 
them to liberation size), and for the general improvment of fish and game propa- 
gation as well. 

Research work on the disappearance of the eel grass which has serioush 
affected the supply of w r aterfowl. 

Field Work: 

The establishment of a predator control unit under the supervision of pickec 
men to work the year round, — conducting, for example, crow exterminatioi 
projects and trapping in the winter months, and the elimination of turtles 
snakes and other fish pests in the summer months. 

The development of an intensive winter feeding program, including the plant 
ing of winter grains and fruit-bearing shrubs. 

The development of pollution control and elimination projects. 

The further development of public interest in salt water fishing and assistanc 
to the public in locating the best areas. 



aw Enforcement: 

The appointment of six additional permanent wardens to bring the field force 
i regular wardens to 40 in number. 



P.D. 25 7 

Cooperative work with other State departments to the end that their activi- 
ties will not seriously affect the wild life, as, for example, mosquito control work, 
plant pest control, dam building, drainage and reclamation. 

The establishment of one additional salvage unit to further the work of trap- 
ping and seining fish in water supplies and private ponds for liberation in 
State ponds. 

Some of the foregoing projects are urgently needed if present hunting and 
fishing conditions are to be maintained, and all of the projects should be under- 
taken in the near future if Massachusetts is to provide the hunting and fishing 
which the public demands. 

While recent events, such as reduced appropriations through the period of 
economic depression, restrictive provisions of the trapping laws and the exceed- 
ingly low market for furs, together with the extreme severity of the winter of 
1933-4, have had noticeable effects on the wild life supply, yet fundamental 
changes of a more far-reaching character have taken place. For example, the 
average hunter thinks in terms of pheasants, quail and cotton-tail rabbits, which 
are usually classed as "farm game"; but he little realizes that in the last thirty 
years more than one million acres of land in the State have reverted from agricul- 
tural use to wild or unused land, and one half of this decrease took place during 
the past ten years. During the past five years, over 100,000 acres of land which 
were heretofore used for crop production were allowed to revert to other uses. 
During the time that this change has been in progress in connection with land 
use in the State, there has been a gradual but constant increase in the number 
of persons who look to the State for the opportunity of securing hunting at a 
nominal charge. Other comparisons could be drawn in connection with hunting, 
and also fishing, and it is self-evident that a comprehensive and long-term pro- 
gram must be put into operation as soon as possible to produce and maintain 
satisfactory conditions. 

Cooperation with National Recovery Administration 
Late in November of 1933, when President Roosevelt launched a plan of pub- 
lic works under the Civil Works Administration for the relief of unemployment, 
the Director offered the facilities of the Division to the State Civil Works Board 
and proposed a plan which would provide worthwhile employment for a large 
number of men. As a result, 962 men and 4 women were assigned to the Divi- 
sion, namely, 125 for work on wild life sanctuaries, 420 for marine fisheries 
projects, 411 for work at fish hatcheries and game farms, and 10 to cover the 
administrative work. The work extended, approximately, from December 1, 
1933, to May 1, 1934, provided 280,499 hours of employment and called for 
the expenditure of $161,630.92. 

The work was retarded by weather conditions, for throughout much of the 
period below-zero temperatures prevailed, and glare ice, frost four feet deep in 
the ground with 6 to 10 feet of drifted snow on top, made work at times difficult 
or impossible. In spite of this, a great amount of worth-while work was accom- 
plished which could not have been done with State funds for many years to 
come. A detailed statement of accomplishments will be found at appropriate 
points later in this report. 

When the Civil Works Administration was superseded by the Emergency 
Relief Administration, which automatically terminated relief projects in State 
departments, the Division, through its Bureau of Marine Fisheries, cooperated 
with the Emergency Relief Administration officials in the coastal towns, with 
the result that many local projects designed to improve the coastal fisheries were 
supervised by members of the marine staff. A more detailed statement of the 
Emergency Relief Administration projects in which the Division assisted, will 
be found in the section pertaining to marine fisheries. 

Personnel 

Mr. William D. Desmond of Stoneham was reappointed, on November 9, as 
State Inspector of Fish, and took the oath of office on December 3, 1934. 

Mr. Joseph A. Hagar of Marshfield Hills was appointed provisionally, pending 
Civil Service examination, to the position of Ornithologist, effective Novem- 
ber 7, 1934. 



8 



P.D. 25 



Finances 



A marked reduction will be noted in the appropriation for the inland fish and 
game work of the Division (known as "Part I") during the fiscal year of 1934. 
This was due to a like reduction in the revenue of the Division during the pre- 
ceding fiscal year. However, there is a slight increase in the Part I appro- 
priation over the preceding year's Part I revenue, due, in a large part, to the 
necessity of readjusting the salary rates of the employees of the Division in 
accordance with legislative mandate. 

It will be noted that the inland fish and game revenue for fiscal year of 1934 
was $17,862.73 in excess of the revenue during the preceding year, and it will 
be noted from the accompanying license table that this is largely the result of 
the sale of upwards of 15,000 additional licenses. It is anticipated that the 
appropriation for this branch of the Division's work will show a corresponding 
increase for the next fiscal year. 



Appropriations 


and Expenditures 








Appropria- 


Balances, 


Expendi- 


Balances 


Balances 
to State 
Treasury 




tions 


transfers 


tures 


to 1935 


Part I (1933 revenue, $249,238.83) 












Salary of the Director 


$4,050.00 












100.00* 


— 


$4,150.00 


— 


— 


Office Assistants, Personal Services 


14,060.00 












240.00* 


— 


14,299.74 


— 


$0.26 


Office Expenses .... 


11,525.00 


— 


11,265.43 


$172.35 


87.22 


Education and Publicity 


1,500.00 


- 


1,496.24 


- 


3.76 


Enforcement of Laws: 












Personal Services 


67,020.00 












680.00* 


- 


67,327.53 


- 


372.47 


Expenses .... 


31,600.00 


$527.52 


27,991.80 


3,502.00 


633.72 


Biological Work: 












Personal Services 


8,400.00 












134.00* 


- 


8,533.54 


- 


.46 


Expenses .... 


2,350.00 


38.67 


2,350.39 


— 


38.28 


Propagation of Game Birds, etc. . 


96,700.00 










Special: 

For Improvements and Addi- 


1,200.00* 


- 


94,468.46 


2,625.18 


806.36 












tions at Fish Hatcheries and 












Game Farms 


- 


3,329.54 


2,646.16 


683.38 


_ 


Supervision of Public Fishing and 












Hunting Grounds: 












Personal Services 


5,000.00 


— 


4,934.91 


— 


65.09 


Expenses .... 


1,500.00 


369.34 


1,859.28 


- 


10.06 


Damages by Wild Deer and Wild 












Moose .... 


5,500.00 


- 


5,497.02 


- 


2.98 


Part II (1933 revenue, nothing) 












Protection of Wild Life 


3,400.00 












20.00* 


- 


2,405.25 


101.00 


913.75 


Part III (1933 revenue $9,340.55) 












State Supervisor of Marine Fish- 












eries : 
Personal Services 


10,380.00 












160.00* 


— 


10,143.08 


— 


396.92 


Expenses .... 


6,500.00 


512.04 


6,668.55 


— 


343.49 


Enforcement of Shellfish and other 












Marine Fishery Laws: 












Personal Services 


31,510.00 












260.00* 


— 


30,586.21 


— 


1,183.79 


Expenses .... 


21,200.00 


12.25 


17,568.16 


2,786.26 


857.83 


Purchase of Lobsters . 
Specials: 

Assisting cities and towns in re- 


6,500.00 


- 


4,052.67 


- 


2,447.33 












seeding depleted shellfish areas 


1,000.00 












416.08** 


- 


1,364.60 


51.48 


— 


Extermination of Starfish 


— 


7,478.95 


7,342.34 


136.61 


— 


Extermination of Enemies of 










— 


Shellfish .... 


5,000.00 


- 


- 


- 


5,000.00 




$337,905.08 


$12,268.31 


$326,951.36 


$10,058.26 


$13,163.77 



* Credits to appropriation on account of partial restoration of salaries from April 1 to November 30 | 
(Chapter 194, Acts of 1934). 

** Transfer from appropriation for Extraordinary Expenses by order of Governor and Council. 



P.D. 25 



Revenue 



Following is the revenue accruing to the State Treasury for the period of the 
fiscal year, from the activities of the Division. 



Part I 

Produced by 

the hunters, 

anglers and 

trappers 



Part II 

Produced by 
those who en- 
joy wild life 
but do not 
hunt, fish or 
trap 



Part III 

Produced by 

the marine 

fisheries 



PART I 

LICENSES: 

Hunting, fishing, sporting and trapping license fees 

$260,579.50 (less $288.50 refunds on account of 

overpayments by town clerks on 1933 and 1934 

licenses'), plus $31 in settlement of a 1931 account 

Gunning stand registrations .... 

Shiner permits ....... 

RENTS: 

Property at Marshfield, Palmer, Sandwich and Wil- 
braham ........ 

SALES: 

Confiscated goods, $66.10; game tags, $93.75; 
other sales — truck, $5; 12 pelts, $17.14; 3 
badges, $3; farm implements, $5; wood, Sutton 
and Sunderland, $65 ..... 

MISCELLANEOUS: 

Automobile damage claim, $167.35; refunds from 
appropriations of other years, $20.72; pheasant 
claim, $55 ....... 

FINES: 

Turned into State Treasury as a result of violations 
of the inland fish and game laws 

PART II 

SALES: 

Trailer, Martha's Vineyard Reservation 

PART III 

LICENSES: 

Lobster and crab licenses ..... 

Shellfish dealers' certificates 

Shellfish diggers' certificates 

Lobster meat permits ..... 
RENTS: 

Clam flats, $5; Chilmark Pond, $1 
MISCELLANEOUS: 

Automobile damage claim .... 
FINES: 

Turned into the State Treasury as a result of viols 
tions of marine fisheries laws 

Total revenue, $278,168.41 



$260,322.00 
929.50 
350.00 



666.00 

254.99 

243.07 
4,336.00 



$5.00 



$267,101.56 



$5.00 



$4,608.00 

750.00 

148.00 

1,410.00 

6.00 

75.00 

4,064.85 



$11,061.85 



10 P.D. 25 

Detail of Receipts from Licenses to Hunt, Fish or Trap (for fiscal year Dec. 1, 1933. to Nov. 30, 1934) 





Total 
number 
issued 


Gross 


Fees to 


Net Return 




value 


Clerks 


to State 


Resident Fishing ($2.00) 


48,642 


$97,284.00 


$11,966.25 


$85,348.75* 


Resident Hunting ($2.00) 


43,588 


87,176.00 


10,803.00 


76,373.00 


Resident Sporting ($3.25) 


25,252 


82,069.00 


6,231.50 


75,837.50 


Resident Minor and Female Fishing ($1.25) 


10.870 


13,587.50 


2,694.00 


10,893.50 


Resident Trapping ($5.25) 


732 


3,843.00 


182.75 


3,660.25 


Resident Minor Trapping ($2.25) . 


355 


798.75 


88.75 


710.00 


Resident Sporting (Free) 


5,858 


— 


— 


— 


Non-resident Fishing ($5.25) . 


612 


3,213.00 


151.75 


3,061.25 


Non-resident Hunting ($10.25) 


323 


3,310.75 


80.00 


3,230.75 


Non-resident Sporting ($15.25) 


25 


381.25 


6.25 


375.00 


Non-resident Minor Fishing ($2.25) 


38 


85.50 


9.50 


76.00 


Non-resident Trapping ($15.25) 


3 


45.75 


.75 


45.00 


Duplicate ($0.50) 


1,040 


520.00 


— 


520.00 


Special non-resident Fox Hunting ($2.00) 


18 


36.00 


4.50 


31.50 


Special non-resident Fishing ($1.50) 


358 


537.00 


89.00 


448.00 


Totals, sporting, hunting, fishing and 
trapping licenses, including duplicates 










137,714 


$292,887.50 


$32,308.00 


$260,610.50* 


Deduct refunds made on account of 1933 










licenses ...... 








288.50 




$260,322.00 


Lobster and crab ($5.00) 


967 


4,835.00 


241.55 


4,593.45 


Crab ($5.00) 


3 


15.00 


.45 


14.55 


Totals, marine licenses 


970 


$4,850.00 


$242.00 


$4,608.00 



* Includes $31 completing payment of a 1931 account, town of Mashpee. 

There has been considerable interest evinced in the past as to the number of 
licenses which are sold in the various counties of the State, but this information 
is never available until the completion, in the following year, of the annual audit 
of the license accounts of the town and city clerks. This makes it impossible to 
include that information for the year 1934 in the present report. However, a 
statement is given of the numbers of hunting, fishing and trapping licenses 
(excluding duplicates) sold in each county during the calendar year 1933, which 
will serve to indicate the distribution of the sale of licenses throughout the State. 
It does not, however, indicate the amount of hunting, fishing or trapping which is 
carried on in each county, since all licenses may be used anywhere in the State. 
As the figures are for the calendar year, the totals will not check with license 
data in the annual report for the fiscal year 1933. 

Barnstable County, 2,712; Berkshire County, 11,380; Bristol County, 7,511; 
Dukes County, 470; Essex County, 8,786; Franklin County, 5,063; Hampden 
County, 16,196; Hampshire County, 5,868; Middlesex County, 15,823; Nan- 
tucket County, 371; Norfolk County, 8,141; Plymouth County, 7,491; Suffolk 
County, 5,981; Worcester County, 27,493; total, 123,286. 

Conventions and Meetings 
Director Raymond J. Kenney attended the following meetings: 

Sixth Annual New England Game Conference, Boston, January 13, at which 
he served as chairman. At this meeting State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries 
William D. Desmond spoke on "What Salt Water Fishing Offers the Sportsman- 
Angler." 

American Game Conference, New York City, January 22-24. The Director 
was elected Vice-chairman for the next conference. 

Advisory Board to the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, July 11. 
The purpose of the meeting concerned the establishment of an open season dur- 
ing the present year for hunting migratory waterfowl throughout the country. 

International Association of Game, Fish and Conservation Commissioners, 
Sept. 10-11, and the American Fisheries Society, Sept. 12-14, at Montreal, 
Canada, where the Director served as a member of the American Fish Policy 
Committee. 

At the meeting of the International Association, Commissioner Frank T. Bell 



P.D. 25 11 

of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries called a conference of the commissioners of the 
various states, resulting in the formation of a National Planning Council of 
Commercial and Game Fish Commissioners, to provide an operative mechanism 
for shaping and carrying out a national fish policy, which will coordinate federal 
and state fish forces. 

Two meetings of the New England Fish and Game Commissioners Association, 
one in New York during the American Game Conference in January, and an- 
other in Springfield about September 20. 

At the meeting of the Northeastern Forest Research Council, New Haven, 
Conn., Feb. 21, Herbert K. Prout represented the Division. The chief topic for 
discussion was "The Interrelation of Wild Life and Forest Management with 
Special Reference to Research Needs." 

The Recreation Conference held March 17 and 18 at the Massachusetts State 
College, Amherst. The Director read a paper, "Problems in Fish and Game 
Restoration." 

The Advisory Board to the Division held meetings on December 5, 1933, 
January 30, May 16 and October 17. At these meetings various problems of 
the Division were discussed, as well as future policies for carrying on the work 
throughout the State. These meetings have proven of great value and assistance 
to the Director in formulating the policies of the Division and have served to 
bring together the various organizations interested in the conservation of the 
wild life resources of the State. 

Activities of State and Local Organizations 
The following table shows the number, location and membership of the vari- 
ous fish and game clubs: 









Number of Clubs 


COUNTY 


Number of 


Total Club 


in the Respective 




Clubs 


Membership 


County Leagues 


Barnstable ..... 


2 


555 


No league 


Berkshire ...... 


19 


2,456 


13 


Bristol . 


13 


1,952 


10 


Dukes ...... 


1 


150 


No league 


Essex ...... 


21 


1,895 


12 


Franklin 


13 


1,212 


10 


Hampden ...... 


27 


4,139 


13 


Hampshire ..... 


19 


1,457 


10 


Middlesex ...... 


25 


2,368 


21 


Nantucket ..... 


1 


150 


No league 


Norfolk 


18 


1,525 


15 


Plymouth ...... 


14 


1,988 


13 


Suffolk 


3 


162 


2 


Worcester ...... 


45 


6,236 


33 




221 


26,245 - 


152 



Considering the increased number of hunting and fishing licenses issued during 
the year, the foregoing summary is disappointing, in view of the fact that the 
Director on May 1 issued a public appeal, outlining the fine work which many 
of the local clubs were doing and calling upon all sportsmen to lend their assist- 
ance by joining the local organization. The table shows that only 19.19% of 
the sportsmen saw fit to support their local clubs. Nevertheless, many of these 
organizations have done constructive and worth-while work during the year, 
and have been a factor in improving conditions in their respective localities. 
Other organizations have performed a valuable service in providing recreational 
facilities for their members in the way of private trout ponds, skeet fields, club 
houses and similar projects, thereby becoming a factor in the community life. 

On July 18 the Director addressed a communication to all of the local clubs, 
pointing out the fact that a reduced appropriation for the year made it impos- 
sible for the Division to purchase the surplus stock of fish and game from the 
private game farms and fish hatcheries throughout the State, and asking the 
clubs to divert some of the club funds for the purpose of purchasing this surplus 
stock, which heretofore had been bought by the Division. 



12 P.D. 25 

From reports of the clubs at the close of the fiscal year, and other sources of 
information, it appears that the clubs bought from their own funds, and liber- 
ated either at field trials or simply for restocking purposes, the following fish 
and game: quail, for field trials, 169; pheasants, for field trials, 647 and for dis- 
tribution, 362; hares, for distribution, 49; rabbits, for field trials, 346 and for 
distribution, 249; raccoons, 11; brook trout, 200; and rainbow trout, 225. Total, 
2,25S head of game or fish. In the appendix credit is given to the individual 
clubs which liberated this stock. The Division greatly appreciates this co- 
operation. 

Education and Publicity 
The Division has endeavored, throughout the year, to keep the public in- 
formed of its activities through the medium of frequent news releases to the 
press. These have been well received by the newspapers throughout the State 
and considerable space has been devoted to a discussion of the work of the 
Division. The subjects covered were: 

1. Regulations for the deer season and caution to the hunters to guard 
against accidents. 

2. Proposed Civil Works Administration projects for the benefit of fish 
and game. 

3. Instructions for feeding the birds in the wild during the inclement 
weather. 

4. Sales of hunting, fishing and trapping licenses and revenue therefrom. 

5. Fish and game wardens to be uniformed, and known as conservation 
officers; their functions. 

6. importation of hares and rabbits from Maine discontinued, to prevent 
possible spread of tularemia. 

7. Better fish now sold to the public due to inspection by officers of the 
Marine Fisheries Bureau. 

8. Proffer to the Commissioner of Public Safety of the services of fish and 
game wardens in an intensive drive on banditry and crime. 

9. Account of completed Civil Works Administration projects. 

10. Public fishing grounds, well stocked and patrolled by fishermen's guides 
open along the best fishing waters in the State. 

11. Regulations governing the open season on trout; appeal to the fishermer 
to use care to avoid setting fires ; stocking of the brooks and streams with more 
than 1,100,000 fish, list of which is available to the public. 

12. Sportsmen urged to affiliate themselves with fish and game clubs, anc 
through these clubs to help keep the streams restocked by purchasing anc 
releasing privately reared fish, birds and animals. 

13. Game survey under way on State reservations, land surrounding State- 
owned institutions exclusive of State forests with a view to ascertaining ho^ 
many of these areas can be made available for game conservation. 

14. Bureau of information established which will direct the public to persons 
who will rent boats for salt water angling. 

15. First real scientific study of the problem of rearing ruffed grouse, com- 
monly called partridge, in captivity, being made at the Massachusetts State 
College at Amherst, in cooperation with the Division. 

16. Restocking of natural shad spawning grounds by the Division's Bureai 
of Marine Fisheries, and work looking to the rehabilitation of the smelt and her 
ring fisheries. 

17. Reseeding of the Massachusetts clam flats accomplished as an Emergency 
Relief Administration project under the direction of the Bureau of Marine- 
Fisheries of the Division. 

18. Efforts of the Division to secure from the United States Secretary o 
Agriculture a sixty-day open season on waterfowl shooting in Massachusetts. 

19. Announcement of the Federal and State regulations governing the shoot 
ing of wild fowl in Massachusetts. 

20. Rigid enforcement of the regulations on wild fowl shooting will be thv 
policy of the Division. 



P.D. 25 13 

21. Lists are available to the public of covers stocked with pheasants and 
quail, ponds and streams stocked with fish, and places where boats may be hired 
for inland fishing. 

22. Reasons for discontinuing the purchase and liberation of hares in order 
to avoid introduction of tularemia, and the necessity of conserving the cotton- 
tail rabbits from extinction by reason of the long open season and intensive 
hunting. 

23. Regulations for hunting upland game. 

24. Tagging brown and rainbow trout before release from the State hatch- 
eries, aimed to secure information on rates of growth, and distances traveled. 

25. Discussion of the trapping law and the choice to be made by the voters 
of the State either for continuance of the anti-steel trap law, or to permit the 
individual cities and towns, by vote, to either accept or set the law aside. 

26. Appointment of an Ornithologist in the Division of Fisheries and Game. 

27. Warning sportsmen that hunting is suspended between 7 a.m. and 1 p.m. 
on Armistice Day. 

28. Appeal to hunters in the woods during open season to refrain from hunt- 
ing within rifle or shotgun range of the places where Federal Emergency Relief 
Administration projects are under way. 

29. Announcement of the annual fall distribution of fish to the ponds and 
streams. 

30. Announcement of plans for intensive breeding and rearing of cotton-tail 
rabbits in close confinement to offset the decrease of these animals in the covers. 

31. Regulations for hunting deer in the open season. 

The Division has been endeavoring to increase its service to all those who 
seek outdoor recreation in hunting and fishing and during the year has compiled 
and distributed information on the following subjects : 

Covers to be stocked with pheasants. 

Covers to be stocked with quail. 

Ponds and rivers stocked with pond fish. 

Owners of boats available for fresh-water fishing. 

Streams stocked with trout. 

Owners of boats available for salt-water sport fishing. 

Location and extent of Massachusetts leased fishing waters. 

List of ponds stocked with salmon. 
This information proved of considerable public interest, and there was an im- 
mediate response as each bulletin became available. It is hoped that this line 
of service can be increased as time goes on. 

Massachusetts State College 
Among the more important items of progress during the year is the formu- 
lation of a cooperative plan between the Division and the Massachusetts State 
College at Amherst, whereby the President and faculty have generously made 
!the resources of that institution available to the Division in connection with 
I many problems which arise in the work. 

The outstanding example is the ruffed grouse propagation experiment which 
was undertaken by the college officials during the year. While the total number 
ml birds produced was limited in number to six, much valuable information was 
obtained by the faculty members working on this project, and plans are under 
1 way for pushing this work forward next year on a larger scale. It is anticipated 
:that when the experiments have been completed, this work can be undertaken 
upon a production basis at the game farms operated by the Division. 

Following is the report of Professor Luther Banta and Professor William C. 
|! Sanctuary of the Department of Poultry Husbandry of the College on the 
Experiment in grouse propagation: 

"We submit herewith our Progress Report on Artificial Propagation of Ruffed 
Arouse for the Season of 1934. 

"On May 19, 1934, the undersigned made a trip to the New York State Ruffed 

grouse Experimental farm at Delmar, N. Y. We were shown the equipment 

md methods there developed under the leadership of Dr. Gardiner Bump. 



14 P.D. 25 

Later, through the courtesy of Mr. Forrest S. Clark, a trip was made to the 
Wilbrahain Game Farms where Supt. Fred Wood explained the equipment and 
methods used in the propagation of pheasants and quail. 

"In many ways through assistance of game wardens in bringing in wild eggs, 
in the construction of equipment and in the loan of existing facilities the finest 
cooperation was given us by all employees of your Division. 

"Thirty-five grouse chicks were hatched from thirty-eight fertile eggs. The 
electric, radiant type incubator was operated essentially as for eggs of the domes- 
tic fowl. Apparently every hatchable egg came through, so that no serious 
incubation problem is apparent. 

"In brooding the chicks serious limitations of existing equipment were encoun- 
tered, notably facilities for maintaining constant temperature control. It is 
expected that these handicaps may be overcome another year. 

"The most important difficulty encountered was in respect to nutrition. The 
ration employed proved inadequate and a serious condition resembling perosis 
or slipped tendons resulted. Upon supplying raw tomato which proved very 
palatable and even preferred to cucumber, a marked improvement was noted, 
except in the case of individuals whose injuries were too far advanced. Dr. L. C. 
Norris of Cornell University has developed grouse rations which appear to be 
nutritionally adequate. It is hoped that we may jointly cooperate in this regard 
another year. 

"Two new triple purpose brooding, rearing and flying shelters have been built 
which are believed to provide improved housing facilities. 

"While only five grouse were reared to adult size, detailed autopsy records of 
each bird that was lost were furnished through the cooperation of our Depart- 
ment of Veterinary Science. Not a single case of acute ulcerative enteritis, 
otherwise known as quail disease, was reported, which indicates that our sanitary 
precautions were very effective. This disease has been the chief difficulty encoun- 
tered in all previous attempts to propagate ruffed grouse artificially." 

The Forest and Wild Life Laboratory of the College at the Mount Tobey 
Reservation has been the scene of cooperative work between the Division and 
the College. 

In other cases, the chemists and pathologists of the College have rendered 
valuable service in making examinations at fish hatcheries and game farms when 
problems requiring scientific skill have presented themselves. 

Acknowledgments 

The Division is indebted to the gentlemen who have served as members of its 
Advisory Board during the year and who have given freely of their time and 
effort to assist in the formulation of sound policies for the Division. Unselfish 
public service of this type should not go unrecorded. 

As noted elsewhere in this report, a group of leading scientists of the colleges 
and universities of the State volunteered their services in supplying technical 
information to the Division, and this has been of considerable benefit on 
several occasions during the year. 

The Division is indebted to Hon. David I. Walsh and Hon. Marcus A. 
Coolidge, United States Senators from Massachusetts, and to all the members 
of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts, for the wall- 
ing and conscientious assistance given to the Division in an effort to secure 
more satisfactory regulations for the hunting of migratory waterfowl in Massa- 
chusetts during the year just closed. Although the final regulations prescribed 
by the Secretary of Agriculture were not entirely satisfactory, nevertheless the 
Congressional delegation from this State did everything in its power to reinforce 
the recommendations of the Director. 

The Division expresses its appreciation to the President and members of the 
faculty and staff of the Massachusetts State College, for the cooperation and 
assistance rendered during the year, the details of which are enumerated else- 
where in this report. There is every indication that, as time goes on, the 
resources of the College will be an important factor in advancing the work of 
this Division. 



P.D. 25 15 

ENFORCEMENT OF THE GAME AND INLAND FISH LAWS 

During the year there have been few changes in the law-enforcement per- 
sonnel. The benefits derived from the new appointments and the several trans- 
fers made during 1933 became apparent in the current year, with a better 
(balanced organization resulting. On August 4, Warden Forest A. Rogers, in 
charge of the Westfield district, was relieved from duty, and Warden Donald 
Ellershaw, in charge of the Palmer district for several years, was transferred to 
! Westfield in charge of that district. 

One of the most far-reaching changes made in the law-enforcement work dur- 
| ing the year was the adoption of a policy whereby the wardens will be supplied 
I with regulation uniforms, which will be worn at all times while in the perform- 
ance of their duties, except on special investigational work. This is a step which 
i the Division has desired for many years to take, in view of the fact that the 
experience of many other progressive states has shown that such a plan greatly 
increases the efficiency of the service. 

During the winter months an increasing spread of crime was in evidence, and 
the services of the law-enforcement branch of the Division were offered to the 
Commissioner of Public Safety, so that the State Police might benefit from the 
wardens' knowledge of the remote sections of the State, far from the areas that 
would ordinarily be travelled by police officers, and where felons might attempt 
to keep out of the arms of the law. On several occasions throughout the year 
the wardens of this Division have been able to assist the State and local police 
in important criminal investigations. 

The enforcement of the migratory bird laws has greatly benefited through the 
use of the boats and crews of the Bureau of Marine Fisheries to assist the inland 
fish and game wardens in patrolling the coastal areas. Adequate patrolling of 
the coastal waters, where much waterfowl gunning is carried on, had been next 
to impossible without boats suitable for this work. The fish and game wardens 
can now cover the entire coastal waters of the Commonwealth. 

The enforcement of the game and inland fish laws by the regular force of 
wardens was supplemented by the services of nine temporary wardens for a 
period of nearly three months, for patrol work on the seven streams on which 
public fishing grounds are established, thus releasing the regular wardens to more 
adequately patrol other fishing areas. 

A considerable amount of the wardens' time was devoted, during the inclement 
winter season, to feeding ducks, geese and upland game birds. Many tons of 
grain were thus distributed throughout the State, and many birds were saved 
through this expert work. 

Venison from deer accidentally or illegally killed was distributed by the 
wardens to 408 families, and four deer carcasses in whole or in part, as well as 
sixty wild ducks, to charitable organizations. 

Four live raccoons and one deer which had become too tame for liberation 
were turned over to State or city zoological gardens. 

Plans were formulated to have in the warden service a competent revolver 
team to compete with other revolver teams throughout the State. 

The district court work of the wardens and deputy wardens for the year 
follows : 



16 



P.D. 25 



VIOLATION 



I] 



Disposition 



-a 






9 
B o 


-a 










a! O 


3 

a; 




I'd 


73 



Aiding or assisting in violations 

Aliens possessing firearms 

Aliens hunting .... 

Bass ...... 

Carrying rifle in woods during deer week 
Violation of license law by city or town clerk 
Deer ...... 

Discharge of firearms on a paved highway 

Fishing in closed pond 

Fishing on posted land 

Fishing other than by angling . 

Fishing without a license 

Geese ...... 

Sunday gunning .... 

Homing pigeons .... 

Horned pout ..... 

Hunting before sunrise or after sunset 

Hunting from boat or automobile 

Hunting on posted land . 

Hunting on the Lord's Day 

Hunting on Armistice Day in closed period 

Hunting without a license 

Failure to surrender void license 

Refusal to show license 

Securing license fraudulently 

Transferring license 

Maintaining unregistered gunning stand 

Muskrats ..... 

Ruffed grouse, commonly called partridge 
Pheasants ..... 

Pickerel ..... 

Pike perch . . . 

Possession of firearms while training dogs 

season ..... 

Quail ...... 

Rabbits ...... 

Raccoons ..... 

Salmon ...... 

Seining ...... 

Setting fires without a permit . 
Snaring or trapping quadrupeds 
Squirrels ..... 

Taking protected birds 

Trapping without a license 

Trapping in closed season 

Failure to mark traps with name 

Not visiting traps once in twenty-four 

Setting traps not designed to kill at once 

Setting traps in a path used by human beings 

mestic animals 
Setting fish traps without permit 
Trapping on Sunday 
Trawling .... 

Trout 

Using a net more than thirty-six square feet 

Using dogs during deer week 

Waterfowl .... 

White perch .... 

Wood ducks and black ducks . 

Yellow perch .... 



hours 



during closed 



do 



2 
20 

1 
27 

4 

7 
1 
5 
5 

16 

499 

1 

1 

3 

40 
1 
3 
6 

11 
4 

68 
2 
2 

16 
1 
2 

10 
1 
8 

47 
1 



1 
19 
1 
25 
2 
1 
4 

1 
5 

463 

1 

2 

29 

1 



1,001 



112 



29 



150 



245 



Filed cases continue to show in large numbers in the record of court work, 
for, owing to the economic conditions, many violators are absolutely without 
funds from which a fine can be paid. 

In addition to the gunning stand registration revoked last year, two additional 
stands where violations occurred have been without registrations for the full 
period of one year. 

New Legislation during 1934 
The following laws relating to fish and game were enacted, during the legis- 
lative session of 1934, to accomplish the following purposes: 



P.D. 25 17 

Chapter 33 provides authority whereby the Director may suspend the law 
relative to seasons, legal lengths and bag limits on certain detrimental fish for the 
benefit of trout propagation in waters acquired for public fishing grounds. 

Chapter 40 reduces the minimum legal length on great northern pike or mus- 
callonge from 20 to 15 inches. 

Chapter 51 prohibits the sale of black bass, wherever taken. 

Chapter 55 authorizes trap, skeet and target shooting on the Lord's Day in 
any city or town under authority of the city council, or selectmen. 

Chapter 70 shortens the open season on raccoons by two months. 

Chapter 149 sets the trout season in Dukes County between April 1 and 
July 15 (instead of April 15 to July 31). 

Chapter 156 provides a special non-resident three-day fishing license between 
May 30 and Labor Day, at a cost of $1.50. 

Chapter 183 establishes the open season on hares and rabbits in Nantucket 
County between November 20 and the last day of February, and in Dukes 
County between November 15 and February 15. 

Chapter 275 repeals Section 105-A, Chapter 131, General Laws, Ter. Ed., as 
amended by Chapter 203, Acts of 1933, which was the so-called anti-steel trap 
law and incorporates in said Chapter 131 a new section, namely Section 105-B. 
The effect of Chapter 275 is to provide for local option on the steel trap ques- 
tion, for it provides that any city or town may, by a majority vote, set aside 
the provisions of Section 105-B (the anti-steel trap provision of the law), until, 
voting in a similar way, they reinvoke the anti-steel trap law. Voting on No- 
vember 6 on the acceptance or rejection of Chapter 275, the electorate favored 
the local option plan, thus leaving the question to be settled from time to time 
by cities and towns according to local conditions. 

Recommendations for Future Legislation 

It is recommended that legislation be enacted to accomplish the following pur- 
poses, and drafts of bills have been filed as required by law, for consideration 
of the General Court in 1935. 

1. To provide for the Enforcement of the Fish and Game Laws on State 
Forests. — The present law does not authorize the fish and game wardens of the 
Division of Fisheries and Game to enforce regulations made by the Commis- 
sioner of Conservation relative to hunting and fishing on State Forests. There 
is also no authority vested in the wardens and deputy wardens of the Division 
of Forestry to enforce the fish and game laws on State Forest lands, and the 
accompanying bill is presented to provide sufficient authority for these officers 
to enforce the fish and game laws on the State Forests. 

2. To regulate the Deer Situation in Nantucket County. — The deer herd 
on Nantucket has steadily increased to a point where there is insufficient wild 
food on the island to adequately care for the deer, with the result that there has 
been substantial damage to garden crops and to fruit and ornamental trees. It 
is very evident that the number of deer should be reduced through an open sea- 
son, but if this is not desirable, the Commonwealth should be relieved of further 
responsibility for paying damage claims in this county. 

3. To require Hunters, Fishermen and Trappers to wear identification But- 
tons.— The organized sportsmen of the State have requested the Division of 
Fisheries and Game to introduce legislation requiring the issuance of identifica- 
tion buttons to hunters, fishermen and trappers, and requiring the wearing of 
these buttons when acting in pursuance of the license. This is in keeping with 
legislation which has been in force in other states for many years, and the accom- 
panying bill is presented to accomplish this purpose. 

4. To prevent the unlawful Hunting of Deer and other Mammals. — The 
present law which was intended to prohibit the use of artificial lights for the 
taking of deer and other animals does not permit adequate enforcement because 
of technicalities in the law which have been uncovered through court procedure. 
The suggested change in the accompanying bill will strengthen this law from an 
enforcement standpoint. 



18 P.D. 25 

ACTIVITIES OF THE BIOLOGIST AND STAFF 

The work of the Biologist involves studies, from a biological point of view, of 
the various phases of the Division's activities in order to determine what methods 
may be applied toward the development and improvement of our inland fisheries 
and upland gunning. 

The various projects engaging the attention of the biological staff were as 
follows : 

Agricultural Investigations. — Field studies dealing with the numerous and 
diverse factors which affect fish in their natural environment are most essential. 
It is obvious that the welfare of the fish after being liberated in natural waters 
is fully as important as the efficient operation of the hatcheries. Successful as 
the hatchery technique may be, the success or failure of artificial propagation in 
terms of catchable fish is determined sooner or later by conditions in the waters 
in which the fish are liberated. 

Stream survey was continued in the eastern section of the State with a view to 
balancing the program of field work. Reports from the western part of the State 
on some of the previously studied streams indicate better results which it is 
felt are a result, at least in part, of the biological stocking policy now T made 
possible in certain sections through the study of the streams. The Parker and 
Ipswich River Systems were studied during the year and a beginning was made 
on the Merrimac River System. 

During the winter months a new and complete classification was made of the 
streams in the State. Maps of each town have been prepared on which are 
recorded the official names of all streams. This standardization of nomenclature 
will eliminate a great deal of the confusion and misunderstanding which has 
existed in the past. 

Early in the year great interest in stream improvement was shown generally 
throughout the State, and to meet the growing demand for definite information 
on this subject a pamphlet was prepared. Several such projects have been 
undertaken by groups of sportsmen, and those streams which have been 
inspected show evidence of being greatly benefited by the work. 

Selective breeding has been continued with the brook, brown, and rainbow 
trout. Fish selected in 1933 were carefully examined before stripping began and 
selection was made only of such fish as fulfilled definite specifications. 

Feeding experiments begun in 1933 were continued at the Palmer and Sunder- 
land hatcheries with brook and brown trout, and careful consideration has been 
given to the nutritional problem as well as to the actual feeding experiments so 
that our knowledge of the principles of trout feeding as generally practiced by 
those engaged in this w T ork may be enlarged. The scope of such investigation 
is tremendous, and the lack of sufficient personnel and facilities at the hatcheries 
prevented much progress. In the course of the work many facts have come to 
light which will lead to improvement in methods and diets during the coming 
year. 

Fish Diseases. — In May an unknown disease of bacterial origin made its ap- 
pearance at the Montague State Fish Hatchery and later at the Sunderland 
State Fish Hatchery, causing a considerable loss among the yearling and adult 
brook, brown and rainbow trout. This disease takes the form of an inflamma- 
tory infection of the serous cavities such as the pericardium and peritoneum. 
It produces abscesses, chiefly in the kidneys and in the muscles, which are char- 
acterized by serous exudate consisting largely of purulent white fluid, but at 
times blood-stained. The disease is also characterized by general edema through- 
out the body of the fish, which gives as a striking clinical sign the so-called 
"pop eye." In some specimens the disease is characterized by external lesions 
resembling those of furunculosis, with which it is apt to be confused. Detailed 
studies of the pathology of the disease show clearly that it is quite distinct from 
furunculosis but highly pathogenic to at least three species of trout. 

All lesions in the kidneys, muscles, and cavities show the presence of a small 
Gram-positive diplobacillus in large numbers. This organism is most difficult to 
grow but from various specimens of trout four organisms which grow slowly on 



P.D. 25 19 

culture media have been isolated which resemble the bacilli present in the lesions. 
The remaining work to be done on this disease will be to produce it, if possible, 
with the organisms isolated, and thus establish the relationship. The investi- 
gation has been made by Dr. David L. Belding of the Boston University School 
of Medicine. 

An experiment was conducted during the fall on the destruction of coarse fish 
predators in ponds, the technique of which will be helpful on future problems. 

A collection and study of the aquatic plants common to the natural great 
ponds of the State has been started, with the aid of which the many requests 
received from the public for identification and information can better be 
answered. 

A planting of several desirable types of aquatic vegetation was completed in 
the late fall at the Sutton State Pond System located in Worcester County, 
namely, Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) ; Muskgrass {Char a sp.) ; Wild 
Rice (Zizania aquatica); Wild Celery (Vattisneria spiralis); Naias — Bushy 
Pond weed (Naias flexilis) . 

A constant watchful eye is kept to improve hatchery technique and operations. 
Experiments have been started on treatment of the hatchery water supplies, 
which if found practical, should greatly reduce the hazard of disease. The 
prophylactic sterilization of all trout eggs stripped from the brood stocks at the 
State hatcheries or received from outside sources was continued. The Division's 
policy of "preventive medicine" has been furthered by the purchase of two new 
pieces of apparatus for use in the sterilization of the rearing pools at the 
hatcheries. 

Ponds on Cape Cod were selected for stocking with trout in place of the 
streams, which in this part of the State are of little consequence. This policy 
should give the trout fishermen better opportunities for sport. 

Close contact has been maintained with the work of the Civilian Conservation 
Corps in the State Forests. Ponds created or reflowed. a major function of the 
Civilian Conservation Corps, have been examined with a view to establishing 
them as fishing ponds for the public. Trout and pond fish are allotted as each 
is completed, and a considerable number of new fishing waters are now available 
to the sportsmen since such work has been in progress in the forests. 

A member of the biological staff was in the field in connection with the work 
of the Civilian Conservation Corps from the first of May to the end of the year, 
pxploring for pond sites that might be developed as ponds for managed fishinjr 
fppfler ponds to benefit public fishing waters, and fish cultural units. He acted 
also in an advisory capacity on the development and construction of these ponds 
to adapt them to this intended purpose. Assistance was also given in stocking, 
management of the fishing in such ponds, and encouragement of stream improve- 
mpnt work within the forest areas. The work during the period covered some 
thirty-two ponds, all of which might be expected to be of some value for fishing, 
and a somewhat larger number of pond sites to which the work might reason- 
ably be expected to extend in the near future. Outside the forest areas the work 
consisted of exploration for and the examination of pond sites that might be 
developed for public fishing or fish cultural purposes. This work covered a con- 
siderable part of the State where topographical features were favorable. About 
one hundred pond sites were examined and listed as possibilities for such de- 
velopment. 

A program of experimental fish tagging was conducted at the Montague State 
Fish Hatchery during the summer, and later in the fall at the Montague and 
Sunderland hatcheries ten thousand brown and rainbow trout were tagged by 
the Biologist, assisted by a member of the staff of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 
A iy 2 x 1 /* inch yellow rubber tag with oval ends, numbered and marked "Return 
IJivi§ioll Fish-Game-Boston" was used. A small incision was made in the region 
or the ventral fin and the tag inserted in the abdomen to lie in the body cavity. 
Records were made of the length of each fish so tagged, and before the trout 
season opens the fishermen will be informed of the waters in which the tagged 
trout were planted. Half of the number tagged were liberated during the fall 
and the remainder will be retained through the winter in the hatcheries and 



20 P.D. 25 

liberated before the season opens. Some information, at least, should be gained 
on the catch of tagged fall-liberated trout as against the catch of an equivalent 
number of tagged spring-liberated trout, in regard to growth, migration, and the 
best season of the year for planting trout in public waters. 

Game Culture. — Selective breeding of pheasants was begun at the four game 
farms, and the Chinese Ringneck (Phasianus torquatus) has been decided upon 
as the standard for future propagation at the State game farms. Owing to lack 
of funds the present brood stocks could not be discarded entirely, but only hens 
and cocks showing definite Chinese markings were retained as breeders. A sup- 
ply of eggs as purely Chinese as could be procured in the United States was 
brought from the west coast and hatched and reared at the Ayer State Game 
Farm. All young Chinese birds were retained as additions to the brood stocks, 
and importations will be continued until each farm is supplied with a brood 
stock of approximately pure Chinese birds. 

A resurvey of the pheasant covers in the four western counties was made 
with assistance of the wardens, and the allotment of pheasants during the distri- 
bution season was based on its results. 

Plans are now under way for the experimental propagation, under the direc- 
tion of the Biologist, of cotton-tail rabbits at the Sutton State Pond System and 
the Ayer State Game Farm. 

General field work included monthly visits by the Biologist to the State game 
farms, fish hatcheries and pond units, and in addition examination of rearing 
pools and natural great ponds. 

During the winter months the annual distribution conferences in each county 
were conducted evenings by the Biologist and were attended by the wardens and 
delegates from the sportsmen's organizations in the county. 

The Junior Biologist spoke on several occasions before sportsmen's gatherings 
and made numerous visits in an advisory capacity to club rearing pools 
and pens. 

State hatcheries and game farms in neighboring states were visited by the 
Biologist and Junior Biologist in the course of the year. 

Specimens of fish, birds, and quadrupeds received during the year from the 
public were autopsied. The Biologist extends his thanks to Dr. David L. Belding 
of the Boston University School of Medicine, Dr. E. E. Tyzzer and Dr. Hans 
Theiler of the Harvard Medical School, and Dr. Elizabeth Jones, formerly of the 
Harvard Medical School but now at Wellesley College, for their valued assistance. 

ORNITHOLOGIST 

Under the provisions of Chapter 173, Acts of 1934, the Director was author- 
ized to appoint an Ornithologist in the Division, to replace the Division of 
Ornithology which formerly existed in the Department of Agriculture until in 
1933 it was abolished by the Legislature. 

By ruling of the Division of Civil Service, this position is to be filled by com- 
petitive examination, but the provisional appointment of a veteran was author- 
ized pending the holding of a competitive civil service examination. On 
November 7, Mr. Joseph A. Hagar of Marshfield, a veteran of the World War, 
was provisionally appointed to this position, and took up his duties at once. 

The first assignment of the Ornithologist was a study of the waterfowl situ- 
ation in the State, particularly the relationship between the waterfowl and the 
shellfish industry. Many complaints have originated concerning the amount of 
damage caused by the waterfowl in the fall and winter months, particularly to 
the seed scallops. During the remainder of the fiscal year the Ornithologist 
spent his time on this project, but steps were taken to formulate a program 
whereby this branch of the service will extend its activities to research and 
investigation on all forms of bird life throughout the State. 

ACTIVITIES OF THE SUPERVISOR OF FISH AND GAME PERMITS 

AND CLAIMS 

In addition to the lines of work reported on below, the Supervisor's duties 
include oversight of the reservations and wild life sanctuaries under the control 



P.D. 25 21 

of the Division. These matters are treated in the section on Wild Birds _and 
Animals. 

Permits and Registrations 

A special check-up by the fish and game wardens this fall stimulated the de- 
mand for permits by the dealers in propagated wild game, bringing with it an 
increased sale of tags for marking the various species of game sold. 

Soon after a change in the Federal laws allowed this Division to issue permits 
for killing gulls, terns and waterfowl which may be causing injury to property 
or to the fisheries, there was a large demand for such permits. These were 
issued to reliable licensed hunters for three-month periods, renewed upon receipt 
of satisfactory report of operations under the previous permit, and if circum- 
stances required continuance of the privilege. There were 31 such permits in 
force during the fiscal year, of which 11 took nothing and 20 reported a kill of 
593 gulls and 399 marine ducks. As the expense of ammunition and the time 
required to get these birds slowed down the work, no excessive numbers were 
killed, but the situation was helped as the birds were driven away by the gun- 
fire. Applications for renewals were few. During the open season, all useful 
waterfowl in excess of the legal bag limit were required, by law, to be turned 
over to the various welfare boards, but the gulls were to be buried immediately. 
Several of the permits were taken for the protection, of domestic water supplies. 

Only a few fish breeders, in addition to those already licensed, requested 
permits. 

For taking shiners for bait, 68 permits were issued. 

The various fish and game clubs have been very active with field trials, and 
permits were issued for a number of meetings held during the close season. 

The issuance of permits for scientific collecting of protected birds has been 
restricted to persons known to be collecting for strictly scientific purposes. 

During the period of the fiscal year 336 gunning stands were registered, a de- 
crease from last year of 21. The shorter season with its split weeks for shoot- 
ing, the restrictions on decoys, the lesser number of species which could be taken, 
and the additional expense to each gunner in the purchase of the Federal duck 
stamp, led to the closing of a number of the larger stands. Offsetting this, 
several new small stands were registered. 

Damage by Wild Deer 

The extent of damage to orchards and agricultural crops by deer was approxi- 
mately the same as in previous years, except on the island of Nantucket where 
the deer problem is becoming increasingly serious. Under the protection of the 
close season law there has been a marked increase in the deer herd on this island, 
and the situation has reached the point where remedial steps must be taken. 
For example, 15.32% of the cost of claims appraised during 1934 for damage by 
deer were on Nantucket, and this proportion is likely to increase annually unless 
steps are taken to reduce the deer herd to a reasonable number, proportionate 
to the area of the island and the amount of natural food available. The Division 
has introduced legislation providing for an open season on deer on Nantucket 
island during the regular deer season next fall, but with the alternative provi- 
sion that if an open season is not acceptable to residents of Nantucket, the Divi- 
sion shall be relieved of further responsibility of paying for damage done to fruit 
and ornamental trees and agricultural crops. 

The appropriation of $5,500 was not sufficient to pay all claims made during 
the year. The outstanding claim of $1,000 was on the large orchard in Williams- 
town (Berkshire County), which has been so extensively damaged in the past. 
The award this year was paid after a formal agreement from the owners to 
make no further claims on the State for deer damage. During the fiscal year 
there were (including the one mentioned above) 133 claims for deer damage 
appraised and paid, amounting to $5,497.02 (of which $765.12 was for appraisal 
costs and $34.80 for tags for marking the trees). There were 7 additional 
claims appraised totaling $261.37 (of which $33.52 was appraisal cost) which 
insufficient appropriation made it necessary to carry over into the next fiscal 
year for payment. 



22 P.D. 25 

As permitted by law, there were 92 deer shot by land owners who found the 
animals either damaging or about to damage their crops and orchards. 

Exhibits and Lectures 
The usual exhibits were made at the New England Sportsmen's and Boat 
Show, Mechanics Buildmg, Boston, Feb. 3-10, and at the Eastern States Expo- 
sition, Springfield, Sept. 16-22. In addition, an exhibit was made at the Hunt- 
ing and Fishing Show and Guide's Tournament at Boston Garden April 12 to 21, 
and a small show in the Physical Education Building at the Massachusetts State 
College, Amherst, during the recreational conference March 16 to 18, a total of 
28 days of exhibition work and approximately an equal amount of time prepar- 
ing and dismantling the exhibits. 

WILD BIRDS AND ANIMALS, AND FRESH WATER FISH 

Game 

Wildlife Survey and Management Program. — One of the most important 
activities undertaken during the year was a wild life survey of all State reserva- 
tions, lands surrounding State and county-owned institutions such as hospitals, 
correctional institutions, asylums, and other State-operated projects, exclusive 
of State Forests. The survey was made to ascertain the number of areas that 
are available for introducing wildlife management measures, and the amount of 
land that can be utilized. 

The primary objective of this plan includes the utilization of the large acreage 
of this unproductive land (unproductive land measured in terms of relative 
wildlife scarcity, as well as in the economic sense in many cases) to produce a 
game crop supplemental to the primary crop of the land. Among other things 
this will involve the modification of certain operating practices to reduce the 
heavy annual toll due to accidents, nest destruction, etc., which have been usu- 
ally considered unavoidable, as well as circumventing other adverse factors by 
improving the various environments. 

Although by law (Sec. 114 of Ch. 131, General Laws, Ter. Ed.) all of these 
State and county-owned lands are closed to hunting, it is hoped that ultimately 
the plan now in process of execution will improve these areas for wildlife, and 
provide a chain of small and large game producing sanctuaries that will extend 
all over the State. 

In the work of the survey, officials in charge of the institutions and lands and 
members of the various commissions governing the different reservations were 
interviewed, and an examination of each of the areas under their respective con- 
trol followed. The adaptability of these lands for wildlife management was de- 
termined by the extent and composition of the tract; the current operating prac- 
tices and policies; the types of adjacent territory, whether forest or agricultural 
land or otherwise; and the extent of open and posted land in the immediately 
surrounding country. Because of the wide diversification in land types and 
game range encountered on these areas, management measures therefore will 
affect practically all of the species that are found in the Commonwealth. 

The following table shows, by counties, the amounts (in acres) and distri- 
bution of these lands over the State: 





State- 


County- 


Holdings of Trustees 


Total 




owned 


owned 


of Public Reservations 


Acres 


Barnstable 


3,810 


100 


146 


4,056 


Berkshire . 








9.600 


- 


260 


9,860 


Bristol 








446 


238 


— 


684 


Essex 








517 


169 


72 


758 


Franklin . 








89 


— 


— 


89 


Hampden 








2,725 


150 


- 


2,875 


Hampshire 
Middlesex 








59,240 


480 


248 


59,968 








9,372 


722 


— 


10,094 


Norfolk . 








9,725 


346 


640 


10,711 


Plymouth . 








1,731 


391 


- 


2,122 


Worcester . 








24,599 


579 


- 


25,178 


Totals 








121,854 


3,175 


1,366 


126,395 



P.D. 25 23 

As a result of the survey a concrete attempt to improve habitats for wildlife 
has already begun under the direction of the Division on sixteen areas where 
conditions have been found favorable for carrying on the work. These areas 
are located as follows : Bristol County, 1 ; Essex, 2 ; Hampden, 2 ; Hampshire, 2 ; 
Franklin, 1; Middlesex, 2; Norfolk, 2; Plymouth, 2; Worcester, 2. Commencing 
in October actual operations have consisted of the following: census of local 
wildlife populations, erection of winter feeding stations, properly defining 
boundaries, woodland development, control (where legal) of certain predaceous 
species. Plans are being laid for a planting and cover-manipulation program 
that will be carried on during the spring and summer months. 

Statistics of Game and Fur-bearing Animals taken. — There were 64,255 re- 
ports of the game and fur taken during the calendar year 1933 filed by pur- 
chasers of sporting, hunting and trapping licenses for 1934. Tabulated, the 
reports show the amount of game and fur taken in 1933 to have been — 

Gallinules 318 

Rails 688 

Wilson snipe (jacksnipe) . . . . . . . . 2,580 

Fresh-water coots (mud hens) ....... 1,571 

Ducks (including skunk head, butter bill and white winged scoters, 

commonly known as coots) ....... 69,029 

Geese 4,962 

Brant 597 

Woodcock 18,135 

Quail 15,026 

Ruffed grouse ,. . . 36,313 

Pheasants 36,277 

Deer (bucks, 643; does, 483) 1,126 

Cotton-tail rabbits 126,839 

White hares . . 14,024 

Gray squirrels . . 62,978 

Total head of game taken 390,463 

Muskrat 28,220 

Mink 1,194 

Skunk 5,114 

Red fox 4,814 

Gray fox 535 

Raccoon 3,026 

Weasel 641 

Otter 69 

Canada lynx (loup cervier) . . ... 15 

Bay lynx (wild cat or bob cat) ... . 83 



43,711 



Migratory Game Birds.— On October 3 the Director promulgated the follow- 
ing regulations on migratory birds for 1934, which under the provisions of Sec- 
tion 87, Chapter 131 of the General Laws, must coincide with the Federal regu- 
lations in every detail, except the hours of daily shooting. 

"Pursuant to Section eighty-seven, Chapter 131 of the General Laws, I hereby 
declare an open season on rails and gallinules from October 4 to November 2, 
both dates inclusive; on Wilson or jacksnipe, coots (mud hens, and not that 
species sometimes called coot) ; ducks (except wood ducks, ruddy and bufflehead 
ducks), geese (except snow geese, Ross's goose, and brant) on Thursday, Friday 
and Saturday of each week between October 18 and December 22, both date's 
inclusive, and on woodcock from October 20 to November 19, both dates in- 
clusive. 

"The following daily bag limits may be taken: Woodcock, 4; Wilson or jack- 
snipe, 20; rails and gallinules, except sora rails and coot (not the species some- 



24 P.D. 25 

times called coot), 25 in the aggregate of all kinds, but not more than 15 of any 
one species; coots, 25; sora rails, 25; ducks (except wood duck, ruddy duck, 
and bufflehead duck), 12 in the aggregate of all kinds, but not more than 5 of 
any one, or more than 5 in the aggregate, of the following species — eider duck, 
canvas back, redhead, greater scaup, lesser scaup, ringneck, blue-wing teal, green- 
wing teal, cinnamon teal, shoveller and gadwall; and no person at any one time 
may possess more than 24 ducks in the aggregate of all kinds, but not more than 
10 of any one or more than 10 in the aggregate of the following species: eider 
duck, canvas back, redhead, greater scaup, lesser scaup, ringneck, blue-wing 
teal, green-wing teal, cinnamon teal, shoveller and gadwall. Geese (except snow 
geese, Ross's goose and brant) 4 in the aggregate of all kinds and no person at 
any one time may possess more than 8 geese in the aggregate of all kinds, and 
not more than 12 woodcock at any one time. 

"The above-mentioned migratory birds may be hunted on Thursday, Friday, 
and Saturday of each week during the open season from one half hour before 
sunrise to one half hour after sunset with a shot gun only, not larger than 10 
gauge, fired from the shoulder; with the aid of a dog; the use of decoys, pro- 
vided that not more than twenty-five live duck decoys may be shot over at any 
one gunning stand, blind or floating device; and from a blind or floating device 
other than an automobile, airplane, power boat, sail boat, any boat under sail, 
or any floating device towed by power boat or sail boat, or any sinkbox (battery) 
except that sinkboxes (batteries) may be used in taking waterfowl in coastal 
sounds and bays and other coastal water, nor may an airplane, power boat, sail 
boat or other floating device be used for the purpose of concentrating, driving, 
rallying or stirring up migratory waterfowl. 

"A person may take in any one day during the open seasons above prescribed 
not to exceed the numbers above specified of migratory game birds, which num- 
bers shall include all birds taken by any other person who for hire accompanies 
or assists him in taking migratory birds, and in the case of ducks, geese, and 
woodcock when so taken, these may be possessed in the numbers specified in the 
second paragraph of these regulations. 

"The migratory birds referred to herein which are legally taken may be held 
in possession at any time during the open season and for ten days next succeed- 
ing said open season. Migratory game birds lawfully killed during the open 
season in any other state may be possessed in Massachusetts for a period of 
ten days after the close of the season where killed." 

When the foregoing regulations were proposed by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, the Division recorded its opposition, based upon informa- 
tion at hand that the supply of waterfowl on the Atlantic seaboard was suf- 
ficient to warrant the sixty-day open season permitted during 1933. The Divi- 
sion further advanced the argument that the damage caused to the shellfish in- 
dustry of the State by the concentration of certain species of waterfowl on the 
shellfish areas warranted consideration in the formulation of the regulations for 
the open season. The Director personally attended the meeting of the Advisory 
Board to the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington on July 11, and advanced 
arguments on the basis of the foregoing. The Division received the support of 
the sportsmen of the State in its contention, and the able assistance of the 
United States Senators from Massachusetts and the members of the National 
House of Representatives, but when the Federal regulations were finally promul- 
gated it was found that the contention of Massachusetts and other New Eng- 
land States had not been recognized by the Federal officials, and a thirty-day 
open season was adopted throughout the entire country. 

Reports from the registered gunning stands show the number of stands regis- 
tered to have been 336; number of reports received, 309; ducks shot, 7,702; 
geese shot, 1,568; live duck decoys used, 4,744; wooden duck decoys used, 5,654; 
live goose decoys used, 5,582; wooden goose decoys used, 5,255. 

Upland Game Birds — Pheasants. — The regulations for the open season on 
pheasants declared by the Director differed in some respects from those of 1932 
and 1933, in that Essex, Bristol and Dukes Counties were added to those in 
which only cocks may be shot. Thus the shooting of pheasants was permitted 



P.D. 25 25 

from October 20 to November 20, both dates inclusive, on hens and cocks in 
Hampden, Barnstable, Worcester, Middlesex, Suffolk, Norfolk and Plymouth 
Counties; on cocks only in Berkshire, Hampshire, Franklin, Essex, Bristol and 
Nantucket Counties; and from November 5 to November 17, both dates inclu- 
sive, on cocks only in Dukes County. Limit for each person, two in one day 
and six in one season. 

The Division has not been entirely satisfied with the results obtained from its 
work in restocking the covers with pheasants, and is engaged in a study to de- 
termine whether or not the present policies can be changed with a view to im- 
proving pheasant shooting in this State. If funds permit, some new methods 
will undoubtedly be attempted next year to remedy some of the situations which 
now appear to exist. 

Deer. — The total of deer reported killed in open season was (for the one-week 
open season of 1933, falling within the period of this report) 643 bucks and 483 
does, total 1,126, divided among the counties as follows: Barnstable, closed; 
Berkshire, 330; Bristol, 43; Dukes, none; Essex, 8; Franklin, 253; Hampden, 
186; Hampshire, 90; Middlesex, 20; Nantucket, closed; Norfolk, 1; Plymouth, 
66; Suffolk, none; Worcester, 120; locality not stated, 9. 

The number of deer killed while in the act of damaging crops will be found in 
the report of the Supervisor of Fish and Game Permits and Claims, together 
with amount of claims paid for damage to crops and orchards by deer, and like- 
wise the Division's recommendation relative to the deer situation on Nantucket. 

Hares and Rabbits. — The status of the cotton-tail rabbit and the white hare 
throughout the State is a matter which has received the serious consideration of 
the Division during the year, due to the reported shortage of these animals in 
many sections of the State. 

One of the conditions which confronted the Division during the year was 
relative to the importation of white hares from the State of Maine, where for 
many years the Division obtained a sizable supply from the trappers. Before 
the shipments began in 1934, report was received of the death from tularemia 
of one or more persons in that State, after confirmation of which by the health 
authorities and the fish and game commissioner of that State, it was deemed 
advisable to cancel the order. Since that time, every effort has been made to 
make satisfactory arrangements for the importation of these animals from the 
Maritime Provinces of the Dominion of Canada, without success. 

The question of the importation of cotton-tail rabbits from the mid-western 
states was advanced to the Division by several groups of sportsmen, but the 
known prevalence of tularemia in those states made it advisable to refer this 
matter to the State Department of Public Health. At a meeting of the Public 
Health Council on July 10, they unanimously voted to request this Division to 
refrain from the importation of either hares or rabbits from any area except 
those where there were no known cases of tularemia, and this recommendation 
has been recognized by the Division. 

It will be noted elsewhere in the report that several hundred cotton-tail rab- 
bits were imported from the State of Vermont in the spring of 1934, and although 
a sizable order was placed for fall delivery, very few animals were received 
prior to the close of the fiscal year, due to unsatisfactory trapping conditions 
in that State. It is expected, however, that the order will be filled during the 
winter and spring months of the next fiscal year. 

In addition to the foregoing, plans were formulated and put into operation to 
experiment with the artificial propagation of cotton-tail rabbits at the Aver 
State Game Farm and at the Sutton Pond Reservation. It is hoped that this 
is the beginning of a successful plan to artificially propagate cotton-tail rabbits 
for liberation throughout the State. 

Wild Cat Bounties. — Bounties were paid on 113 wild cats, totalling $1,130. 

State Forests 
The forward-looking program of the Division of Forestry in increasing the 
acreage of State Forest lands and developing these areas from a standpoint of 
recreation and wildlife management, as well as forestry, has shown its effect in 



26 P.D. 25 

sportsmen's affairs during the year. The ultimate development of this program 
holds a promise of great importance to the sportsmen in years to come, due to 
the fact that private land owners are gradually closing their lands to the use of 
the general public, particularly for hunting purposes. 

Out of more than five million acres of land in the State the Commonwealth 
has owned, as State Forests, less than 125,000 acres, and to this limited degree 
the State Forests were the only public lands to which the sportsmen could look 
for hunting privileges unhampered by posters, as all other publicly-owned lands 
are wild life sanctuaries by statute. Heretofore no effort has been made to care 
for or increase the wild life on State Forests, and the Commonwealth had been 
satisfied to leave this work to private land owners upon their own premises. 
The present program of wild life management on State Forests, coupled with 
the intention of extending the acreage of these forests materially, is of the utmost 
importance to the sportsmen. 

During the year the Biologist and members of his staff spent considerable 
time in working on the State Forest lands in cooperation with the Civilian Con- 
servation Corps officials, particularly the Fish Culturist attached to the Biolo- 
gist's staff, who devoted the major portion of his time to the work in the 
Forests. 

There were 60.097 fish alloted for planting in the ponds and streams within 
the State Forest areas, and in many cases preference was given to these ponds 
as to size or quantity of fish liberated, because of the anticipated popularity of 
these areas, which materialized as soon as they were opened for public fishing. 
As the further development of these areas goes forward under the Civilian Con- 
servation Corps program, additional stocking operations must be planned for, 
as it is evident that the sportsmen react favorably to this method of supplying 
public fishing. 

While the sportsmen have reacted favorably to the development of public 
fishing opportunities on the State Forests they have not expressed the same 
interest in the hunting opportunities. For example, under the present system 
the distribution of game is planned at countv distribution conferences where the 
wishes of the sportsmen are recorded and incorporated into the stocking pro- 
gram. Early in the vear. while conducting the distribution conferences in the 
various counties, the Supervisor of Distribution discussed the matter of stocking 
State Forests with game, but in practically no case did the sportsmen recom- 
mend such action. This was due, no doubt, to the fact that they were unfamiliar 
with the type of work which was being carried on. Many reasons were given. 
but they may be summarized as a general belief that the use of State Forests 
for modern forestry development and general recreation purposes would render 
them unsuitable for extensive stocking with game for public hunting. When the 
sportsmen fully realize the type of work which is under way in the State Forests 
from a game management standpoint, there is little doubt that they will assume 
a different attitude, and, in fact, expect extensive stocking of the Forests with 
game birds and animals. 

The wardens of the Division gave particular attention to the State Forest 
lands during the year, and in addition many of the employees of the Forestry 
Division were appointed as Deputy Fish and Game Wardens to assist in the 
enforcement of the fish and game laws on the State Forests. Heretofore, em- 
ployees of the Division of Forestry had no authority to enforce the fish and 
game laws. 

Preliminary plans have been formulated to increase the activities of the Divi- 
sion on the State Forest lands during the coming year. 

Reservations and Sanctuaries 

Most of the development work on the wild life sanctuaries this year came 
through the Civil Works Administration projects which were organized in De- 
cember of 1933 for five of the sanctuaries Since acquirement of these lands, 
work of this nature by the State had been negligible on account of lack of funds. 
In spite of the low temperatures, deep snows and ice, which retarded the work 
rid in some instances prevented its entire completion, these areas were cleared 



P.D. 25 27 

so that reforestation, planting of food-bearing shrubs and trees, and the natural 
seeding of the areas, can be done to much better advantage. 

Such time as could be spared from other duties was spent by the Supervisor 
of Fish and Game Permits and Claims in the various sanctuaries, supervising 
the Federal projects and carrying on certain work on behalf of the State. 

Some of the several thousand Russian mulberry tree seedings produced at the 
Amherst Forest Nursery in 1932 were set, during 1933, in various reservations. 
These were found this year to have been injured to some extent by field mice, 
and in others by severe cold, though a large number held in a garden plot got by 
without serious injury. Those received from the nursery in 1934 were in better 
condition than the ones that were transplanted the year before. They had been 
set into cleared, sunny places in the reservations and most of them -showed good 
growth through this past summer. Several reservations are rocky and have so 
little open space that these trees will not be transplanted into them until there 
are more cleared, sunshiny spots. A goodly number are nursery set, so that as 
opportunity offers they can be transferred into the spaces where they may 
survive. 

The following is a complete list, with approximate acreage, of the wild life 
sanctuaries under the control of the Division (except Martha's Vineyard Reser- 
vation of 601 acres originally purchased for the protection of the heath hen, but 
now a sanctuary for wild life in general and included in the Martha's Vineyard 
State Forest). 

Isaac Sprague Bird Sanctuary (Carr Island), Salisbury, 110 acres. — By Civil 
Works Administration labor the foundations of the old mansion house, barns 
and other buildings were demolished and removed and the locations were levelled, 
to be seeded or planted with berry-bearing plants. The main well was restored 
and covered, and several old ones filled in. The small groves were trimmed, 
many fallen hardwood trees disposed of, and a general clean-up made of fallen 
dead material. 

Work on this reservation with State funds consisted of an endeavor to estab- 
lish, in the open spots, certain food-bearing grains such as Lespedeza, rye, millet 
and buckwheat. The weather was so dry that these did not take hold well until 
the fall rains came to start them along, so late that the buckwheat was just blos- 
soming in October. Native barberries and the old privet hedges produced the 
berries in unprecedented abundance. Some of these were collected and scattered 
over the bare spots in the expectation that they will take hold next spring and 
produce new bushes, with which it is planned to establish more hiding places for 
wild life frequenting the island. In addition, Japanese barberry seeds have been 
put out to produce an additional food supply to those already established. The 
shrubs set two years ago are nearly all doing well. 

Boxford Sanctuary, Boxjord, 334 acres. — By Civil Works Administration labor 
the fire line cutting around the reservation was completed and the loose brush 
burned. No live brush was cut except on the fire lines and trails. 

A new trail was cut to a high spot, to be known as Mount Eleanor, on the top 
of which a clearing was made from which there is a fine view over Crooked Pond 
and the hills to the northwest. 

In the northerly area of the reservation dead branches were trimmed from 
the trees, and fallen trees removed and burned, producing a park-like character 
which should induce the growth of shrubbery and give opportunity for planting 
food-bearing shrubs without making excessive shade. 

In the new section, low meadow land was cleared to create a small pond, the 
upper end of which is left in a wild state to entice ducks to stop and nest. 

The trail completing the path which encircles the reservation was finished and 
adds to the summer attractiveness, passing as it does the few springs that are to 
be found in this area. 

A channel was cut and cleared of vegetation where the floating bog growth 
had closed the narrows between the two parts of the hour-glass shaped Crooked 
Pond. 

Dead and fallen trees were cut into firewood lengths and sold, the debris 
burned, and the ashes of the fires spread so that the burned places will quieklv 
grow over. 



28 P.D. 25 

Cart roads were brushed to make them passable for horseback riders, or for 
fire fighting apparatus. 

Throughout the reservation gypsy moth work was done under direction of 
the Forestry Division. 

In addition to improvements made in the Boxford Sanctuary under Civil 
Works Administration projects, State funds were used to create a pond, by 
building a dam at the foot of the meadow in the new section acquired in 1933, 
where there is no nearby source of water. This pond, in which foundations for 
two islands are laid, will not only attract ducks to breed, supply water for the 
other wild life, but would serve in case of fire. Alongside the pond a nursery of 
mulberry trees was established which will be re-set into the area at the proper 
time, and numerous other trees will be left in that section for bird food. Grains 
planted on the dam will help hold the bank and serve seed-eating birds. This 
area is not spring-fed, so conservation of the surface water is necessary. The 
pond will flow several acres, and can be drawn down to its lowest point. 

A new section of State Forest land, acquired during the summer, adjoins the 
Division's wild life reservation in part. For forest fire purposes, an old aban- 
doned road has been improved, though not completed, to allow the passage of 
apparatus. A stone fill was made in soft spots to make it passable at all times 
of the year. 

Minns Wild Life Sanctuary (Little Wachusett Mountain), Princeton, 137 
acres. — Work by Civil Works Administration labor was confined to a section 
near the old highway where all of the birch were removed and only the maple 
left to give light shade for a planting of small trees which will be more valuable. 
Along with the cutting, all the gypsy moth nests were creosoted. 

A fine beech grove was trimmed and thinned and should provide nuts for 
bird and small animal food. Tall brush, having little value to wild life, was cut, 
giving a chance for berry bushes and other food-producing shrubs to come 
through. 

After the Civil Works Administration work was completed it was discovered, 
during the summer, that a heavy set of gypsy caterpillars had come into the 
reservation from outside. These were in the adult dormant stage and could not 
be reached with a poison spray. An effort was made to collect them from the 
trees and thousands were killed in this way, but a great many survived as 
attested by the large number of egg clusters seen later both on the trees and in 
the surrounding stone wall. Special efforts to eradicate them will be made in 
the spring. 

Watatic Mountain Wild Life Sanctuary, Ashby and Ashburnham, 139 acres. — 
Work here by Civil Works Administration labor was limited to removing and 
disposing of fallen timber, — a formidable task, for a good portion of this moun- 
tain area is an old virgin growth of hemlock, spruce, beech, maple and other 
trees, large numbers of which had fallen and interfered with those still standing. 
The work could be only partially done, for a great depth of snow on the north 
side covered much of the fallen material on the area being worked, and the 
larger area of heavy timber was not touched. 

The scenic value of the reservation was enhanced by trimming the dead limbs 
from the trees on several acres adjoining the Wapac Trail. 

Edward Howe Forbush Reservation, Hancock, 395 acres. — On this reservation 
the work by Civil Works Administration labor was confined to removing a 
tangle of slash and rejected tree trunks, left after the cutting of 4,000 railroad 
ties. The right to do this had been reserved at the time the land was given to 
the State. This clearing will allow natural reseeding, and a new underbrush of 
food will spring up, suitable for the wild creatures in this area. 

Wherever possible a trail was made next to the brook to the point where it 
branches. From this point a trail was cut to the New York-Massachusetts line, 
which constitutes the westerly boundary at the top of the Taconic Mountains. 

Ram Island, Mattapoisett, 2 acres. — This island was visited twice and a large 
colony of terns was seen nesting there. On August 2, members of The Federa- 
tion of the Bird Clubs of New England, Inc., visited the island. Downy young 
were found and banded and some freshly laid eggs were seen. Reports from 



P.D. 25 29 

Penikese at this time showed that the nesting had been completed there soon 
after the middle of July. A number of dead birds were found that had been 
banded by other persons. Most of these appeared to be fully feathered and 
about ready for flight. 

Henry Cabot Lodge Bird Sanctuary {Egg Rock), Nahant, 1 acre. — This 
reservation was not visited. The expense of getting to and from the rock being 
considerable, little time was given to this refuge as practically nothing can be 
accomplished. Being only one acre in area and a solid rock ledge with very 
steep sides, there is little chance of any birds nesting and it is used principally 
by adult birds as a temporary roosting place. 

Knight Wild Life Reservation {Milk Island), Rockport, 11 acres. — This 
reservation has received but little attention as there is nesting area only for a 
few small birds. No attempt has been made by the terns to use the island again 
since the sand was washed away in the heavy winter storm in 1933. These 
islands are valuable connecting links between State-owned reservations and pri- 
vate sanctuaries along the coast. 

Penikese Island Sanctuary, Buzzards Bay, 100 acres. — No new construction 
work was done, and only such repairs made as were necessary to keep the care- 
taker's dwelling in condition. The lawns were kept mowed, and in the cemetery 
the graves which had sunk during the winter were filled in and sodded. 

In the operation of the sanctuary no very definite changes were made, except 
to try to introduce certain food and protective shrubbery that will survive the 
storms of winter and the drouth of summer. Eleven hundred pounds of grain 
were fed to the wild birds during the winter. 

Terns nested in fully as large numbers as usual, but the bad weather condi- 
tions which at this season often prevail for several days at a time killed many 
of the young birds. Herring gulls nested in larger numbers than usual, and their 
extreme abundance caused the Bureau of Biological Survey to send their agent 
to limit the hatch. 1,488 eggs were punctured and left in the nests so that 
only a small number of young were produced. The usual abundant food supply 
about the island was lacking, so the birds had to make long trips to get food 
for their young. Had it not been for schools of bluefish and other predators 
driving the small fish to the surface in nearby waters, the mortality among the 
young birds would have been far greater. Food scarcity may be due, in some 
measure, to the lack of eel grass, although the relation of this lack to the food 
problem is not known. On July 4 members of The Federation of the Bird Clubs 
of New England, Inc., visited the colony and banded many young and some 
adult terns. 

Black ducks were banded by the caretaker for the Bureau of Biological Sur- 
vey, though the work was curtailed by shortage of bands. Only a few black 
ducks were enticed into the trap for banding purposes, for after the decoy ducks 
and geese were liberated last year, all but a few pairs of the ducks sought other 
places to live. 

The Leach's petrel reported last year was again heard at night, and its mate 
was heard responding from a stone wall, but at a new location. The section of 
stone wall used last year was pulled down by an enthusiast desiring credit for 
establishing the nesting record, but the rock filling proved to be of such large 
material that it could be handled only by a powerful derrick; consequently, the 
nest was not seen. Measures are being taken to see that the walls will not be 
molested again, and it is hoped that more birds will come to the island. 

The ponds were kept open to give fresh water to all the bird and animal life, 
until during the summer they all dried up when tin basins were kept filled with 
water for the wild life. 

Part of the island was burned over to make green feed early in the spring for 
the rabbits. The island became very dry during the summer months, but after 
the coming of the fall rains white clover came in very thick, making excellent 
feed for the rabbits. Forty wild rose bushes were dug up and reset to make bet- 
ter cover for the rabbits. Twenty-two rabbit covers were made from boards 
washed up on the shore and distributed around the island. The brood stock was 
augmented by the liberation of 62 rabbits from Vermont, the last shipment being 



30 P.D. 25' 

on March 14. Rabbit traps were set and baited for the first time August 30, 
and a total of 479 thus secured for distribution. One-foot chicken wire was put | 
around the top of the holding pen to keep rabbits from climbing over. 

Time and ship worms are working havoc with the wharf and measures will 
have to be taken next year to make it safe. 

Reservations under Sections 115-120, Chapter 131, General Laws, Ter. Ed. (on 
privately -owned land). — The Hinsdale-Peru Reservation was established for a 
second period of five years from Oct. 20, 1934. The only other reservation in 
this class is the Harvard Forest Reservation in Petersham, which runs until 
Sept. 1, 1938. 

Inland Fisheries 

The increasing demand upon the inland fisheries of the State has presented 
a problem to the Division requiring intensive study and the necessity of future 
development plans. During the year efforts have been made to increase the 
size of fish to be liberated, even to the extent of materially reducing the num- 
bers distributed. With present hatchery facilities, as far as trout are concerned, 
there is little opportunity to increase the size and numbers of trout produced, 
and elsewhere in this report, in the general program for the development of 
hunting and fishing, is found a suggestion for the establishment of field rearing 
stations to enable the Division to carry some of the trout to a larger size, and 
at the same time vacate the hatcheries in time for proper preparations for the 
hatching and rearing of the next year's supply. 

The condition of many of the trout brooks, particularly in the eastern part 
of the State, has caused the Division to study the possibilities of establishing 
trout fishing in some of the natural great ponds or to acquire abandoned mill 
pond sites for the reconstruction of artificial ponds for this purpose. Particular 
attention is being given to the fisheries of the natural great ponds, which bear 
the greatest burden of increased fishing, and the construction of additional pond 
fish rearing units and increased fish salvage work is contemplated to meet this 
demand. 

Unfortunately the limitation of funds has made it necessary to abandon, 
temporarily at least, the policy of leasing streams for the establishing of public 
fishing grounds, but it is hoped that this work can go forward in the near future. 

The severe weather of the past winter and the restrictive features of the trap- 
ping laws have undoubtedly had their effects upon our inland fisheries, particu- 
larly the trout streams. 

In July a period of unusually dry weather created a serious fire hazard to the 
forests and woodlands, which led His Excellency the Governor to close the 
forests and woodlands to the public, beginning at sunset July 23. Rain fell in 
sufficient volume to justify reopening the woods on July 30, except in Dukes, 
Barnstable and Plymouth Counties, where opening was delayed until August 3. 
As permitted by law in such cases, His Excellency the Governor proclaimed an 
extension of the fishing season from August 4 for a like number of days that the 
woodlands had been closed. 

Public Fishing and Hunting Grounds 

While no new public fishing grounds were established during the past year, 
the eighty-odd miles acquired during the previous two years were maintained as 
usual, and a large number of anglers took advantage of the excellent fishing 
waters thereby provided. 

For the protection of the land owners who had leased the fishing rights in 
their streams to the State, a special warden force of nine men was assigned to 
this territory, and it was their special duty to see that the fishermen abided by 
the regulations contained in the posters placed along the public fishing grounds 
territory. 

To insure continued good fishing in these streams, 116,000 brook trout, 42,000 
brown trout and 18,500 rainbow trout, a large portion of which were over the 
legal length, were distributed directly into their waters during the fall of 1933 
and the following winter of 1934. In addition to this the usual amount of stock- 
ing was carried on in the feeders to these larger streams. 



P.D. 25 31 

To foster the development of the trout fishery, the Director, as authorized by 
Chapter 33, Act of 1934, issued an order suspending the black bass law as to 
season, legal length and bag limit in that part of the Westfleld River sometimes 
called the East Branch of the Westfield River, in so far as it has been leased, on 
and after June 1, 1934, and further ordered that no minnows or shiners should 
be taken from said waters for commercial purposes or with a net exceeding 
thirty-six square feet in area. 

Previous to the opening of the fishing season on April 15, the public fishing 
grounds territory was gone over and new posters placed as needed, many of the 
old ones having become unfit for further use, due to the ravages of the weather. 
Posters were also placed along the feeder streams, for the closing of which 
the Field Agent had secured the consents of the land owners last year, so that 
they may serve as protected trout breeding areas. Following is the list of the 
feeder streams, which are closed to all fishing, dating from April 1, 1934, to the 
dates indicated: 



Stream 


Town 


Feeder to 


Distance 
closed 
(miles) 


Closed to — 


Upper end of Middle Branch 
of Westfield River 

Trout Brook 
Sykes Brook 


Worthington and 
Peru 

Peru 
Huntington 


Middle Branch West- 
field River 

Middle Branch West- 
field River 

East Branch West- 
field River 


3.00 
5.00 
1.75 


April 1, 1937 
April 1, 1937 
April 1, 1939 




9.75 





A large portion of the year's work was devoted to the task of securing con- 
sents for the closing of additional feeder streams. This work necessitated calling 
on all riparian land owners who owned or controlled the fishing rights in these 
streams, and obtaining their consent to the closing. While some opposition de- 
veloped, a large majority of the owners were willing to give the plan a trial, 
and, as a result, several streams located in different sections of the State will be 
closed to all fishing during the next five years. These streams have already been 
posted, so that in the next fishing season any fisherman approaching them will 
find signs warning him that the stream is closed, and that he must not fish it. 

The feeder streams closed, dating from April 1, 1935 to April 1, 1940 are: 









Distance 


Stream 


Town 


Feeder to — 


closed 
(miles) 


Bachelder Brook 


Rowley .... 


Mill River . 


2.50 


Daniels Brook 






Rowley 










Mill River . 






1.50 


Dresser Brook 






Rowley 










Mill River . 






0.75 


Taylor Brook 






Rowley 










Mill River . 






0.75 


Magoon Brook . 






Boxford 










Parker River 






1.00 


Chandler Brook . 






Boxford 










Parker River 






0.25 


Buckman Brook 






Athol 










Millers River 






1.75 


Collar Brook 






Royalston and Orange 




Millers River 






4.00 


Fish Brook 






Royalston and Orange 




Millers River 






4.00 


Fall Brook 






Royalston . 




Millers River 






1.00 


Nancy Whipple Brook 






Royalston 










Millers River 






1.50 


Newton Brook 






Athol 










Millers River 






0.75 


Tully Brook 






Warwick 










Millers River 






4.00 


West Gulf Brook 






Athol 










Millers River 






1.75 


North Branch Brook 






Sandisfield 










Farmington River 




1.00 


Cold Spring Brook 






Otis . 










Farmington River 




0.75 


Palmer Brook 






Becket 










Farmington River 




7.00 


Cobb Brook 






Hawley 










Deerfield River 




2.00 


Hawkes Brook 






Hawley 










Deerfield River 






2.50 


Hicks Brook 






Hawley 










Deerfield River 






1.00 


Temple Brook 






Hawley 










Deerfield River 






1.00 


Wetherbee Brook 






Charlemont 








Deerfield River 






1.25 
























42.00 



32 P.D. 25 

In addition to the above-mentioned streams, twenty other brooks were investi- 
gated, but a sufficient number of signatures could not be obtained to make the 
project worth while. 

Removal of Predatory Fish 

In 1933 permission was given to Irving Schwartzman of Epstein & Co., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., to use fishing gear (under supervision of the district wardens) for 
the removal of carp and suckers from the Housatonic River and Laurel Lake, 
Lee. The permits were renewed for 1934, and extended to Quannapowitt Pond, 
Wakefield. In 1934 permit was issued also to Robert Field, Peabody, to operate 
in Prankers (also called Lily) Pond, Saugus, Merrimack River, Lawrence, and 
Suntaug Lake, Peabody. 

Carp and suckers are detrimental to the more valuable species of fish in these 
waters. The work was done most successfully while the carp were collected on 
the spawning beds. The permits required all fish other than carp and suckers 
to be returned alive to the waters. This work is an extension of similar work 
done in Lake Zoar and in the Housatonic River in Connecticut. 

No fishing was done under the permits for the Merrimack River and Suntaug 
Lake. From the other waters there were taken, between July 7, 1933 and the 
close of the fiscal year 1934, the following fish: Housatonic River, carp, 9,625 
lbs.; suckers, 25,940 lbs.; Laurel Lake, Lee, carp, 3,475 lbs.; Quannapowitt 
Lake, Wakefield, carp, 5,518 lbs.; Prankers Pond, Saugus, carp, 116 lbs.; suckers, 
9 lbs.; total, carp, 18,734 lbs., suckers, 25,949 lbs. 

During the latter part of the year a plan was devised for retaining and 
replanting the game fish taken in the Housatonic River during the process of 
removing the predatory fish. The game fish were liberated in some of the ponds 
on the State Forests and other ponds open to the general public where it is 
believed they will thrive better than under conditions existing in the waters 
from which they were taken. The following amount of fish was transplanted in 
this process, and as the plans progress for the further removal of predatory fish 
it is anticipated that considerable stocking of public waters will result from the 
removal of game fish from waters where they do not appear to thrive. The 
transferred fish totalled 10,277 of the following species: bass, 80; pickerel, 70; 
blue gill and sunfish, 95; crappie, 34; yellow perch, 988; bullheads or horned 
pout, 9,010. 

Ponds 

No public rights of way to great ponds were established by legislative action 
during the year. 

Within the period of this report (Dec. 1, 1933 to Nov. 30, 1934) only one 
great pond was stocked and regulations applied by the Director under Sec- 
tion 40, Chap. 131, General Laws, Ter. Ed., namely, Long Pond, Littleton. The 
regulations close the pond to fishing between Nov. 1, 1934 and May 29, 1935; 
Nov. 1, 1935 and May 29, 1936; and Nov. 1, 1936 and May 29, 1937. Penalty, 
twenty dollars for each violation of the regulations. 

Pollution 
The pollution of the inland and coastal waters, the latter affecting not only 
the migratory waterfowl and shore birds but the marine fisheries as well, con- 
tinues to be one of the most important problems in maintaining the fisheries of 
the State. It is so widespread in its extent that the Division, with its own 
resources, has been unable to do much more than crystallize public opinion 
against the continued abuse of public waters by this menace. It is some satis- 
faction to note that public opinion is slowly but surely demanding an elimination 
of this evil, and definite progress is sure to come in the near future if the serious- 
ness of this situation is properly brought before the people. The situation is 
particularly difficult to correct in the coastal waters of the State as it involves 
Federal maritime jurisdiction and international relationships as well, but the 
increasing interest of the Federal Government along these lines assures relief. 
There is no doubt that public opinion will force a remedy as far as the inland 
waters are concerned. 



P.D. 25 33 

PROPAGATION OF FISH AND GAME 

Fish Hatcheries and Game Farms — General 

Except for the work carried on under the Civil Works Administration pro- 
gram of last winter it was impossible, because of lack of funds, to enlarge or 
increase the output of any of the fish hatcheries or game farms. Outside of 
necessary repairs and minor improvements the work at the stations consisted of 
the ordinary operating activities. As a matter of fact, it was difficult to keep 
all of the stations in operation to their capacity, but, fortunately, this was pos- 
sible through the fine cooperation of the personnel at the various stations. 

An additional handicap which may not appear from the printed record was 
the increased cost of fish food, bird food and other materials and supplies used 
at the fish hatcheries and game farms. The rising market on many of these 
commodities proved a substantial drain upon the funds of the Division. While 
the increased cost per unit may not appear to be large, the resulting total cost 
presented a problem which was difficult to solve. 

As usual, much valuable information was obtained through the year's propa- 
gation activities. This will be particularly valuable when the opportunity pre- 
sents itself to extend this work. 

At all fish hatcheries rigid disinfection of ponds and rearing pools took place 
during the winter and early spring by the use of chlorine gas applied under 
pressure, and with a few exceptions, noted under the respective stations, the 
hatcheries were free from disease during the year. The apparatus contrived 
for the work has proved most effective. 

Improvement in the brood stocks was continued by rigid selection, by the 
Biologist and the respective Fish Culturists, of only the best specimens before 
any eggs were stripped. 

An accurate record of the operating costs of each of the four game farms was 
maintained, and the cost of raising the output of pheasants and quail was deter- 
mined. In figuring these costs, as heretofore the entire cost of maintaining the 
station over a period of twelve months was charged against the birds produced 
during the season. For the purpose of accuracy the cost is indicated, not only 
on the basis of each pheasant and quail produced, but also on the basis of the 
total number of birds produced at the farm. It is difficult at times to allocate 
the expense against the pheasant work or the quail work, but in arriving at the 
figures in the foregoing manner it is possible to determine the actual cost at each 
station. 

Ayer State Game Farm. — Pheasants: cost, $4,747.63; production, 3,181; 
cost per pheasant, $1.49. Quail: cost, $2,867.90; production, 1,503; cost per 
quail, $1.91. Combined pheasants and quail: cost, $7,615.53; production, 
4,684; cost per bird, $1.63. 

Marshfield State Game Farm. — Pheasants: cost, $6,022.72; production, 
5,635; cost per pheasant, $1.07. Quail: cost, $4,015.14; production, 838; cost 
per quail, $4.79. Combined pheasants and quail: cost, $10,037.86 produc- 
tion, 6,473; cost per bird, $1.55. 

Sandwich State Game Farm. — Pheasants: cost, $7,236.72; production, 
7,354; cost per pheasant, $0.98. Quail: cost, $3,249.66; production, 2,291; cost 
per quail, $1.42. Combined pheasants and quail: cost, $10,486.38; produc- 
tion, 9,645; cost per bird, $1.09. 

Wilbraham State Game Farm. — Pheasants: cost, $6,363.18; production, 
5,910; cost per pheasant, $1.08. Quail: cost, $3,368.11; production, 1,418; cost 
per quail, $2.37. Combined pheasants and quail: cost, $9,731.29; production, 
7,328; cost per bird, $1.33. 

Division's Cost (all stations combined). — Pheasants: cost, $24,370.25; 
production, 22,080; cost per pheasant, $1.10. Quail: cost, $13,500.81; produc- 
tion, 6,050; cost per quail, $2.23. Combined pheasants and quail: cost, 
$37,871.06; production, 28,130; cost per bird, $1.34. 



34 P.D. 25 

East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery — Alfred C. Fish, 

Assistant Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction. — With State funds a new ice box was built to replace the 
old one, which had completely rotted out. The new one was built on a cement 
wall eighteen inches high, to lengthen the life of the box. 

New Equipment. — A new IV2 ton Ford truck replaced the 1930 model half- 
ton Ford truck. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 104,633 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
of which 16,008 were lost, 78,175 planted in open waters, 8,300 distributed to 
club rearing pools, 150 used for biological work, and 2,000 added to the brood 
stock. 

To the 1,185 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 
38 adult brook trout found to be on hand, and the 2,000 1933-hatched fish men- 
tioned above, making a total of 3,223. Of these 354 were lost, 780 planted in 
open waters, and 2,089 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 105,380 eggs were collected from the brood stock at 
the station (77,000 yearling eggs and 28,380 adult eggs). To the eggs collected 
were added 25,000 yearling eggs from the Sandwich State Fish Hatchery and 
50,000 adult eggs purchased, making a total of 180,380 eggs handled. Of these, 
35,703 were lost and 144,677 hatched, of which 30,105 fry were lost and 114,572 
classified as fingerlings. Of these, 20,252 were lost, 45,100 (2 to 3 inch) planted 
in open waters, and 49,220 remain on hand November 30. 

Chinook Salmon. — The year opened with 14,019 fingerlings on hand, to 
which were added 1,395 by recount, making a total of 15,414 of which 1,164 
w r ere lost and 14,250 planted in open waters. 

25,000 eggs were received from the California Fish and Game Commission of 
which 808 were lost and 24,192 fry transferred to the Sandwich State Fish 
Hatchery in March. 

Montague State Fish Hatchery — Ralph Bitzer, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction. — This station had been recently developed by the State 
to its utmost capacity. In order to protect it against loss from spring floods 
and freshets, a drainage ditch about 2,440 feet long, averaging 3^2 feet deep and 
5 feet wide at the bottom, was built as a Civil Works Administration project. 
In order to carry the water through this ditch, two very large fills and a great 
amount of riprapping were necessary. 

No new construction with State funds was undertaken, except general dam 
repair and the rebuilding of some of the rearing pools. 

New Equipment. — A sterilizing pump and motor and meat grinder were 
added to the equipment. 

Two additional lights were installed over the trout ponds for the purpose of 
attracting insects for food, making a total of five such lights which are in use 
from May until September. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 102,738 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
of which 16,113 were lost, 73,450 planted in open waters, 11,000 distributed to 
club rearing pools, 175 for display, and 2,000 added to the brood stock. 

To the 2,333 brook trout brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year 
were added 2,000 of the 1933-hatched fish mentioned above, making a total of 
4,333, of which 1,588 were lost, 1,468 planted in open w T aters, 25 distributed for 
display, and 1,252 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 140,000 yearling eggs w T ere collected from the brood 
stock at the station, to which were added 175,000 adult eggs purchased, making 
a total of 315,000 eggs handled, of which 30,050 were lost and 284,950 hatched. 
Of these, 8,000 were lost, 75,000 planted in open waters, and 201,950 classified 
as fingerlings. Of these 5,400 were lost, 139,550 (92,850 2 to 4-inch; 23,350 
5 to 6-inch; 23,350 6 inches and over) planted in open waters, 50 distributed for 
display, and 56,950 remain on hand November 30. 

Rainbow Trout. — The year opened with 2,220 adult brood stock on hand, 



P.D. 25 35 

of which 171 were lost, 1,057 planted in open waters, 23 distributed for display, 
and 969 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 87,400 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of the year, 8,845 were lost, 
10,000 transferred to the Sutton State Fish Hatchery, 5,000 planted in open 
waters, 150 distributed for display, and 63,405 classified as yearlings. Of these, 
1,180 were lost, 52,033 planted in open waters, 6 distributed for display, and 
10,186 remain on hand November 30. 

To the 11,519 yearlings on hand at the beginning of the year were added 580 
by recount, making a total of 12,099, of which 544 were lost, 11,530 planted in 
open waters, and 25 distributed for display. 

For the work of the year, 102,300 eggs were collected from the brood stock at 
the station, to which were added 25,000 purchased eggs and 150,000 eggs received 
the end of December, 1933, from the United States Bureau of Fisheries Station 
at White Sulphur Springs, West Va. (in exchange for which the Division pur- 
chased and shipped to that station 150,000 brook trout eggs), making a total of 
277,300 eggs handled. Of these, 61,450 were lost and 215,850 hatched, of which 
42,500 were lost, 29,250 planted in open waters, 50 distributed for display, and 
144,050 fingerlings remain on hand November 30. 

Early in May an unknown disease made its appearance among the brook trout 
brood stock, and later was found in both yearling and adult rainbow trout. This 
disease is described in detail under "Activities of the Biologist and Staff." After 
this trouble appeared, the diets were changed considerably and the feedings 
reduced to two a week, which helped materially in lowering the mortality. 

Feeding experiments were conducted by the Fish Culturist, and among the 
products used were beet pulp, cottonseed meal, and dehydrated beef meal. 
More work is still to be done before any definite conclusions are reached. 

Palmer State Fish Hatchery — William F. Monroe, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction. — With Civil Works Administration funds three new bass 
ponds were built, 200x90x40x6 feet; 200x90x90x6 feet; and 300x90x 
80x6 feet, respectively. A brook trout brood stock pond was contructed 
100 x 10 x 4 feet. Three lines of daphnia pools were excavated, each 195 x 5 x 2 
feet. Many of the trout pools, and two of the bass ponds, were deepened. The 
house on the mountain, and the barn at the single house, were demolished, and 
all useful lumber salvaged and stored at the hatchery buildings. 

No construction was done at this station with State funds. 

New Equipment. — A sterilizing pump was added to the equipment. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 68,407 fingerling brook trout on hand, 
30,007 of which were lost, 34,900 planted in open waters, 500 distributed to club 
rearing pools, and 3,000 retained for brood stock from which eggs were stripped 
in the fall of 1934. 

To the 151 adult brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 
31 by recount and the 3,000 mentioned above, making a total of 3,182, of which 
6 were lost, 1,307 planted in open waters, 45 distributed for display, and 1,824 
remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the season, 75,000 eggs (from adult fish) were purchased to 
which were added 50,000 yearling eggs received from the Sandwich State Fish 
Hatchery. In addition, 50,000 eggs were collected at this station, making a total 
of 175,000 eggs, of which 37,207 were lost and 137,793 hatched. Of these, 9,420 
were lost and 128,373 classified as fingerlings. Of these 24,200 were lost, 10,000 
transferred to the Sutton State Fish Hatchery, 27,400 planted in open waters, 
70 distributed for display, and 66,703 remain on hand November 30. 

Trout feeding experiments were conducted during the rearing season with five 
different combinations of foods, and the results of this work will be reported 
when the experiments have been completed. 

Small-mouth Black Bass.— The season started with 266 adult brood fish 
on hand, 38 of which were lost, 20 distributed for display, and 208 remain on 
hand November 30. 



36 P.D. 25 

From the bass ponds were collected and distributed to open waters 30,000 fry 
and 14,420 fingerlings. 

It was decided last year to discontinue the distribution of small-mouth black 
bass fry, and as a result three new bass ponds were built this season, two of the 
old bass pools were deepened, and in addition three lines of daphnia pools were 
excavated, as mentioned above. 

The first season in producing fmgerhng bass did not come up to expectations, 
but the fish reared were fine specimens and attained a growth of up to 6 inches 
in length. There is considerable amount of work still ahead on the new ponds 
before they will be in condition to yield the maximum number of bass. 

At the beginning of the breeding season the Fish Culturist was handicapped in 
not getting a good run of daphnia in the culture and rearing ponds. Cultures 
of daphnia were supplied by the New York and New Jersey departments, but 
before they were received the season was well advanced, and it was possible to 
get a good run of this natural food in only three of the rearing ponds before the 
fry were placed in them. As a result of developing this natural food the pro- 
duction of fingerlings in these three ponds was fair. 54,000 shiners salvaged 
from the Tunxis Club Pond added to the supply of live bass food. 

Bass will not take readily to artificial foods, and it is only by fertilizing the 
ponds and adding daphnia cultures to them that the rearing ponds will produce 
the natural food necessary in bass culture. Feeding experiments were conducted 
during the year and the following diets fed: ground cooked herring bits, salmon 
roe meal, clam meal, sardines, tuna fish, cod fish, pork hearts, pork melts, and 
pork liver, but the fish would not eat any of them. This appears to be true of 
any kind of artificial food, and it may be that if considerable time could be 
spent in inducing them to take artificial food in some form, there would be 
eventually a much greater yield of bass per acre. 

Sandwich State Fish Hatchery — Irving E. Lewis, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction. — With State funds new crock tile was laid under the 
road leading from the adult cement pools to No. 1 adult pool, with new wood 
end in No. 1 pool. A new garage was built on south side of meat house 14 x 26 
feet in size, to replace the portable one. 

New Equipment. — A Vfe ton Ford truck replaced the 1930 model 1^2 ton 
Chevrolet. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 141,349 fingerlings on hand, of which 
4,649 were lost, 134,700 planted in open waters, and 2,000 added to the brood 
stock. 

To the 5,177 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 
302 by recounts and the 2,000 1933-hatch fish mentioned above, making a total 
of 7,479. Of these, 132 were lost, 5,388 planted in open waters, 10 distributed 
for exhibit, 18 used for biological work, and 1,931 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 472,000 eggs were collected at this station (422,000 
yearlings and 50,000 adults). To the eggs collected were added 50,000 adult 
eggs which were purchased, making a total of 522,000 eggs handled. Of these, 
63,910 were lost, 125,000 transferred to other stations (50,000 to Sutton, 25,000 
to East Sandwich, and 50,000 to Palmer), and 333,090 hatched. Of the number 
hatched, 97,752 were lost, 65,000 distributed to open waters, and 170,338 classi- 
fied as fingerlings, of which 60,113 were lost, 13,500 planted in open waters, 
2,000 turned over to club rearing pools, 25 distributed for exhibit, 10,000 trans- 
ferred to the Sutton State Fish Hatchery, and 84,700 remain on hand Novem- 
ber 30. 

Chinook Salmon. — Of the 990 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of the 
year, 15 were lost and 975 were planted in open waters. 25,000 Chinook salmon 
eggs were received from the California Fish and Game Commission in exchange 
for brook trout eggs purchased and sent to their Mt. Shasta Hatchery. Of 
these, 405 were lost and 24,595 hatched to which were added 24,192 from the 
East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery, making a total of 48,787 fry. 4,488 fry 



P.D. 25 37 

were lost and 44,299 classified as fingerlings. Of these, 5,399 were lost, 33,000 
planted in open waters, and 5,900 remain on hand November 30. 

Sunderland State Fish Hatchery — Ludwig Horst, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

No construction was done at this station with State funds, but with Civil 

Works Administration labor, material improvements were made. The outstand- 

I ing work was the repair and construction of roads to make all sections of the 

I station accessible by truck without the necessity of going on the State road. 

| To make this possible Mr. Joseph Bagdonis of Sunderland donated 550 square 

feet of land, w T hich is gratefully acknowledged. 

The pond on the Hubbard tract was drawn, cleaned out and given a new 
gravel bottom. On the Graves tract several fry pools were built. A long ditch 
was excavated to handle flood waters from the State road, and two ditches to 
lead water from springs into the trout pools. 

The entire station was cleared of dead trees and brush, and several cords of 
wood were cut and sold and the money turned into the State Treasury. 

New Equipment. — A new 1% ton Chevrolet truck was added to the station 
equipment, and the old truck retained. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 51,350 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
to which were added 3,000 by recount, making a total of 54,350, of which 150 
were lost, 49,900 planted in open waters, 2,500 distributed to club rearing pools, 
and 1,800 added to the brood stock. 

To the 2,144 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added the 
1,800 1933-hatched fish mentioned above, making a total of 3,944, of which 864 
were lost, 2,450 planted in open waters, and 630 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 200,000 yearling brook trout eggs were collected to 
which were added 50,000 adult eggs purchased, making a total of 250,000 eggs 
handled. Of these, 86,000 were lost, and 164,000 hatched, of which 13,200 were 
lost and 150,800 classified as fingerlings. Of these, 4,000 were lost, 125,200 
planted in open waters (50,000 2 to 3 inches; 40,000 5 to 6 inches; 35,200 
6 inches and over), and 21,600 remain on hand November 30. 

An outbreak of Gyrodactylus occurred during the year but was easily con- 
trolled by dipping the fish in acid baths. 

Brown Trout. — The year opened with 223,550 brown trout fingerlings on 
hand, of which 54,025 were lost, 36,900 planted in open waters, 125 distributed 
for display, and 132,500 classified as yearlings. Of these, 5,520 were lost, 102,789 
planted in open waters (10,000 3 to 4 in., 92,789 6 in. and over); 15,000 trans- 
ferred to the Sutton State Fish Hatchery, 33 distributed for display, and 9,158 
remain on hand November 30. 

To the 523 brown trout brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year 
were added 100 by recount and the 300 yearlings on hand, making a total of 
923, of which 72 were lost, 383 planted in open waters, 98 distributed for dis- 
play, and 370 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 480,000 brown trout eggs were collected from the 
brood stock at the station, which like the brook trout had been carefully 
selected. To these eggs were added 100,360 brown trout eggs received from the 
United States Bureau of Fisheries station at Bozeman, Mont., in exchange for 
brook trout eggs purchased and sent to their White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., 
station, making a total of 580,360 eggs handled. Of these, 72,000 were lost, 
1,000 distributed for study purposes, and 507,360 hatched, of which 292,010 
were lost, 350 distributed for study purposes, and 215,000 classified as finger- 
lings, of which 24,900 were lost, 100 distributed for display, and 190,000 remain 
on hand November 30. 

Early in the year some trouble was experienced among the fry with white 
spot disease, and later in the season the fingerlings were affected with gill dis- 
ease. Both diseases were eliminated after a few treatments. 



38 P.D. 25 

Sutton State Fish Hatchery — Michael O'Mara, 

Assistant Fish and Game Culturist, Acting in Charge 

\i.\v Construction. — With Civil Works Administration labor a fire lino was 
cut completely around the hatchery, and a crop of ice was harvested sufficient 
for the needs of the year. 

With State funds a plank retaining box was built back of the hatching house, 
to replace a dirt fill which washed ou1 last winter, cutting off water supply in 
the house and causing loss of eggs. The water pipes from the ice house to the 
dwelling house were dug up and the pipe line relaid from 2y 2 ft. to 5 ft. below 
i he surface of the ground, to prevent freezing as happened last winter. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 117,300 fingerlings on hand, of which 
23,300 were lost, 88,950 planted in public waters, 2,050 distributed to club 
rearing pools, and 3,000 added to the brood stock. 

The 118 adult brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were reduced 
to 91 by recount, 63 of which were lost and 28 planted in public waters. Of 
the 3,000 1933-hatch brood stock mentioned above, 346 were lost, 2,320 planted 
in public waters, 10 distributed for display, and 324 remain on hand Novem- 
ber 30. 

For the work of the year 85,000 adult eggs were purchased to which were 
added 50,000 yearling eggs from the Sandwich State Fish Hatchery, and 25,000 
eggs collected at this station, making a total of 160,000 eggs handled. Of these. 
37,000 were lost and 123,000 hatched, to which were added 10,000 from the 
Palmer State Fish Hatchery and 10,000 from the Sandwich State Fish Hatcherv, 
making a total of 143,000 fry. Of these, 100,000 were lost (lost in flood and fish 
did not take feed), 8,000 planted in open waters and 35,000 classified as finger- 
lings. Of these 13,385 were lost, 14,800 planted in open waters, 75 distributed 
for display, and 6,740 remain on hand November 30. 

Brown Trout. — 150 adult brown trout were found to be on hand the middle 
of April and were distributed to open waters. 

For the work of the year 15,000 brown trout fingerlings were received from 
the Sunderland State Fish Hatchery the end of April and the beginning of 
May. Of these, 288 were lost, 12,800 planted in open waters, and 1,912 remain 
on hand November 30. 

Rainbow Trout. — 50 adult rainbow trout were found to be on hand the 
middle of April and were distributed to open waters. 

For the work of the year, 10,000 rainbow trout fingerlings were received in 
January from the Montague State Fish Hatchery, of which 803 were lost, 9,000 
planted in open waters, and 197 remain on hand November 30. 

Sutton State Pond System — James E. Noble, in Charge 

New Construction. — With Civil Works Administration labor the road over 
the Arnold dam was raised and resurfaced, a small knoll at the end of the dam 
levelled, and the cellar hole filled, making this a very sightly spot. A short road 
and turnout was built at the Welch tract, so that a truck may reach the trap. 
A road built from the town road down to the dam gives access by truck to the 
Thompson Pond. Previously, fish had to be carried in pails a considerable dis- 
tance up or dowTi a steep hill. 

Over the entire area of the ponds, dead trees w T ere cut down and the brush 
cut along the shores. The whole area was then gone over and the brush thinned 
out. Fire lines were cleaned of all brush and trees. A number of cords of wood 
were cut and sold to the highest bidder, and the money turned into the State 
Treasury. 

Improvements w^ere continued with State funds as follows: The general ap- 
pearance of the grounds was improved by a general cleaning up, removal of 
dead trees and brush, replacement of unsightly fences. The road leading to the 
Thompson Pond was resurfaced with gravel to give access with a truck when 
transferring the fish to the main trap. The main fish trap was reconstructed 
to facilitate even more than the previous year the catching and distribution of 
the yearly output, and as a result the distribution was effected more rapidly 



P.D. 25 39 

and thoroughly than previously. A new fish trap was constructed at the Thomp- 
son Pond. 

New Equipment.— The half-ton Ford truck (1931 model) was traded in for 
a new iy 2 ton Chevrolet, a truck of this type being necessary at the Sutton 
State Ponds for fish distribution and general work. 

Pond Fish Culture —Except for the maintenance of a constant patrol and 
the making of necessary repairs on the dams, no work was carried on at this 
station until the annual distribution work began in October. 

As outlined in the report of the Biologist, some work was started replenishing 
the aquatic plants which serve as food supply in these ponds. 

Six ponds were drawn off in the fall of 1934, and before any fish were dis- 
tributed to open waters, the proper quantities of brood stock and fingerling fish 
in combination were returned to the ponds for next season's breeding and pro- 
duction. 

A chart of the ponds was prepared on which was carefully worked out, based 
on the acreage of the ponds, the proper amounts and combinations to return. 
Because of this careful restocking with breeders, fewer fish can be planted in 
open waters, but it will ultimately result in bringing the production of these 
ponds up to the maximum. 

In drawing off the ponds, crappie came through in small numbers and all 
adult, fingerling and yearlings were returned to the ponds. Fingerling horned 
pout did not come through in the quantity anticipated, considering the number 
of breeders taken from the ponds, while fingerling, yearling and adult yellow 
perch showed up in large quantities. Blue gills came through by the thousand, 
although none had been put back last year. The result of last year's freeze-up 
and the shortage in restocking are the reason of fingerling shortage. The ponds 
here show a shortage of natural food and the shiners came through in smalll 
numbers. 

The ponds yielded for distribution to open waters and for display and study 
for the period of this report, 402,169 pond fish, divided as follows: 72,575 horned 
pout, 15,600 pickerel, 108,550 yellow perch, 444 large mouth black bass, 205,000 
blue gills. Brood stock was introduced into the ponds from stock taken in 
salvage operations, as follows: 152 pickerel, 5,375 horned pout, 51 crappie and 
59 yellow perch. 

Harold Parker State Forest System 

At the Harold Parker State Forest in Andover, where the Division is con- 
structing a series of four artificial ponds for the propagation of pond fishes, the 
work progressed as rapidly as possible under the direction of the superintendent 
in charge of Camp S. P. 5 of the Civilian Conservation Corps. At the close of 
the fiscal year three of the ponds were practically completed, leaving the finish- 
ing of the fourth pond as work during the coming year to make this a unit 
available for the propagation of pond fish. None of the Division's funds were 
expended on this project during the year, and the work was restricted entirely 
to the activities of as many of the members of the Civilian Conservation Corps 
as could be spared from the other operations under way at this Forest. 

TurnbulVs Pond, Greenfield 
In an effort to improve the results from the stocking with muskallonge the 
lease of a small pond was obtained from Mr. R. W. Turnbull of Greenfield, at 
no cost to the Division, and 5,000 fry were placed in this pond upon their receipt 
from the Conservation Department of the State of New York, as an experiment 
to determine the value of such ponds for rearing these fish to a larger size before 
liberation. While this experiment was not entirely satisfactory, it will not deter 
the Division from making further efforts along this line. 

Work of the Salvage Units 

The two salvage crews began work in the field early in April and continued 

their activities through June, when it became necessary to suspend operations 

because of the thick growth of aquatic vegetation then present in the ponds. 

making the handling of the nets and genr impossible. At this time great diffi- 



40 P.D. 25 

culty is also experienced, on account of the steadily rising water and air tem- 
peratures, in transporting fish from the ponds netted to those to be stocked. 
The complete list of waters trapped, and the results, follows: 

Salvage Unit No. 1 — William H. Seaman, Fish Culturist, in Charge 

Oyster Pond, Falmouth, April 10 to 24. 43,450 white perch, 11,550 yellow 
perch, planted in open waters. Total — 55,000. 

Salt Pond, Falmouth, April 25 to May 5. 23,900 white perch, 5,600 yellow 
perch, planted in open waters. Total — 29,500. 

Middle Reservoir, Medford and Stoneham, May 7 to 14. 6,000 yellow perch, 
350 pickerel, 104 small mouth black bass, planted in open waters. Total — 6,454. 

North Reservoir, Stoneham and Winchester, May 15 to 22. 4,800 yellow 
perch, 17 pickerel, 200 small mouth black bass, planted in open waters. Total — 
5,017. 

Crystal Lake, Wakefield, May 23 to 26. 2,000 yellow perch, 350 horned pout, 
115 pickerel, 2,950 white perch, 120 small mouth black bass, planted in open 
waters. Total — 5,535. 

Suntaug Lake, Lynnfield and Peabody, May 28 to June 7. 2,250 yellow 
perch, 1,700 crappie, 20 pickerel, 2,050 small mouth black bass, planted in open 
waters. In addition, 4 horned pout were sent to Harvard College, Cambridge, 
for study. Total— 6,024. 

Granville Reservoir, Westfield, June 12 to 14. 151 brook trout, planted in 
open waters. Total — 151. 

Long Pond, Great Barrington, June 15 to 20. 1,200 yellow perch, 250 horned 
pout, 80 pickerel, 1,000 small mouth black bass, planted in open waters. 
Total— 2,530. 

Long Pond, Falmouth, June 23 to 29. 2,450 small mouth black bass, 350 yel- 
low perch, planted in open waters. Total — 2,800. 

Salvage Unit No. 2 — Elmer A. M acker. Fish Culturist, in Charge 

No Town Reservoir, Leominster, April 13 to 23. 4,648 horned pout, 525 
pickerel, 402 yellow perch, 2 small mouth black bass, planted in open waters. 
Total— 5,577. 

Wachusett Reservoir, Westminster, April 24 to May 2. 109 horned pout, 289 
pickerel, 74 yellow perch, 6 small mouth black bass, planted in open waters. 
Total— 478. 

Crystal Lake, Gardner, May 5 to 12. 51 horned pout, 5 pickerel, 53 yellow 
perch, 197 small mouth black bass, planted in open waters. Total — 306. 

Indian Lake, Worcester, May 6 to JuneJ3. 59,800 white perch, 1,526 crappie, 
1,300 horned pout, 74 pickerel, 2,200 yellow perch, planted in open waters. 
Total— 64,900. 

Cedar Meadow Pond, Leicester, June 8 to 23. 12,786 white perch, 1,636 yel- 
low perch, 13 horned pout, 257 pickerel, planted in open waters. Total — 14,692. 

Lake Williams, Marlboro, June 25 to 28. 177 yellow perch, 4 horned pout, 
13 pickerel, 8 large mouth black bass, planted in open waters. Total — 202. 

Miscellaneous Salvage 

Several lots of miscellaneous fish were salvaged by the employees of the Divi- 
sion, or under its supervision, and the fish planted in local ponds: 

From Lake Benedict on the Beartown State Forest, Great Barrington, 400 
brook trout. Total— 400. 

From Shaker Mill Pond on the October Mountain State Forest, Washington, 
250 brook trout. Total— 250. 

From Wayside Inn Pond, Sudbury, 294,700 horned pout. In addition 4,400 
were transferred to the Sutton State Pond System for breeding purposes. Total — 
299,100. 

From Upper Spectacle Pond, on the Sandisfield State Forest, Sandisfield, 
23,353 horned pout, 98 pickerel. Total — 23,451. (13,125 shiners were also col- 
lected and planted in local ponds.) 

From a pool near Foolish Hill in Foxboro, 642 horned pout. Total — 642. 

From the Mount Hermon School Pond, Northfield, 865 large mouth black 
bass. Total— 865. 



IP.D. 25 41 

From the Tunxis Club Pond, Tolland, 54,600 horned pout, 12,600 yellow perch, 
6,720 pickerel. Total— 73,920. (2,400 sunfish, 6,000 shiners and 1,680 suckers 
were also collected and planted in local ponds and 54,000 shiners sent to the 
Palmer State Fish Hatchery.) 

From Stump Pond, Sutton, 13,000 horned pout and 2,200 yellow perch planted 
in the Sutton State Pond System for later distribution. In addition 51 crappie 
and 59 yellow perch were retained for breeders at the Sutton State Pond Sys- 
tem. Total— 15,310. 

From the Housatonic River, Lenox and Sheffield, 9,010 horned pout, 988 yel- 
low perch, 70 pickerel, 80 rock bass, 34 crappie and 95 blue gills. Total— 10,277 

From Wiley's Pond, Franklin, 6,144 horned pout, 403 pickerel sent to the Sut- 
ton State Pond System. (Of the 6,144 horned pout, 975 were retained for 
breeders and 5,169 were later distributed. Of the 403 pickerel, 152 were re- 
tained for breeders and 251 were later distributed.) Total — 6,547. 

From Hammershop (Lothrop) Pond, Sharon, 88 yellow perch, 3 white perch, 
17 pickerel, 58 rainbow trout. Total — 166. 

The salvage operations resulted in the collection of 629,999 fish trapped by the 
salvage units and collected from the miscellaneous jobs done by the wardens and 
individuals. 

Of the 630,094 fish salvaged, 603,833 were distributed to open waters, 5,637 to 
the Sutton State Pond System for breeders, 20,620 to the Sutton State Pond 
System for later distribution, and 4 for study purposes. 

Ayer State Game Farm — Edward E. Backus, Game Bird Culturist, 

in Charge 

New Construction. — The work by Civil Works Administration labor in- 
cluded completion of the clearing of the land on the west side of the farm, 
extending the dyke on the north side of the pond, and the construction of a 
drainage ditch to allow earlier planting of the land north of the pond. The 
road bordering this pond on the east was raised and widened to allow for build- 
ing a culvert under the road to carry off the surplus water. On the Heubner 
land across the road from the game farm, the white pine slash, left from a log- 
ging job before the State acquired the area, was thoroughly cleared away, and 
a patrol path cut completely around the area. 

In October, work with State funds was commenced on a new quail brooder 
house, identical in design and general dimensions with the one built in 1933, but 
30 feet long instead of 20 feet and to contain six brooder units instead of four 
The house is completed except for the interior fittings and equipment, porch 
runs and wiring. This will be done during the winter months. It will make it 
unnecessary to continue the use of the obsolete Coleman system units. 

Considerable construction work was done at the dam on the property. In 
the spring, high water demolished the retaining walls and fill which carried the 
farm road across the outlet stream. This was rebuilt, the wall laid up in cement 
and a 12-inch tile culvert installed to supplement the 12-inch steel one, to care 
for excessive flowage. In the fall the old, inadequate wooden spillway was 
replaced by a permanent one of concrete, of ample capacity to care for any 
probable flowage and equipped with flash-boards to regulate the head of water 
as desired. The dam was also heavily reinforced with rock and earth fill and 
the road at the dam regraded. 

The seven old, wooden colony brooder houses were moved to a new location 
behind the central utilities building, thoroughly rehabilitated, equipped with 
new, permanent, sand-floored runs and with an automatic watering system, and 
used for starting houses in which chicks were reared to the age of two weeks 
when they were transferred to the movable field units. This resulted in a great 
saving of labor and greatly reduced early mortality. 

Pheasant Breeding. — The Division has adopted the Chinese type of pheasant 
as the future standard for breeding at the Massachusetts State game farms. 
The brood stock, already predominantly Chinese through several years of selec- 
tive breeding, was carefully scrutinized and 63 birds (7 cocks and 56 hens) 
bearing the closest approximation to correct Chinese type and coloration were 



42 P.D. 23 

Bet aside in pens separate from those confining the general Hock. The eggs col- 
lected from these specially selected birds were set and the chicks reared sepa- 
rately to be used as a nucleus of breeding stock for this and the other game 
farms. 

Five hundred pure Chinese pheasant eggs from stock imported from China 
last year were purchased from a breeder in Oregon who, in addition to those 
purchased, donated 184 eggs. The chicks from these eggs were kept entirely 
segregated from the rest until practically mature, when they were permanently 
marked with distinctive bands. 

The year opened with 303 adult pheasants on hand to which were added 
2 adult typical pure Chinese pheasants, a gift from the State of Oregon and im- 
ported by the Biologist to be used as a standard in the selective breeding of 
pheasants at the Massachusetts State game farms. Prior to the breeding season, 
11 birds were lost and 294 remained on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week of April 7 through the week of July 7. 
A total of 11,205 eggs were collected to which were added 684 Chinese pheasant 
eggs (mentioned above), making a total of 11,889 eggs, of which 4,587 were 
broken or discarded and 7,302 set in incubators. 

Of the eggs set, 2,667 proved to be infertile, contained dead germ, or other- 
wise failed to hatch and 4,635 hatched. Of these, 1,454 were lost, 2,110 liberated 
in open covers, 512 turned over to the sportsmen's clubs for wintering, 283 trans- 
ferred to other stations (27 to the Sandwich, 128 to the Marshfield, and 128 
to the Wilbraham State Game Farm), and 276 are on hand November 30. 

Of the 294 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 3 were lost, 
184 liberated in covers, 105 sent to the Marshfield State Game Farm, and 2 re- 
main on hand November 30. 

There was no radical change in feeding or rearing methods other than to 
maintain sufficient humidity in the brooder houses by means of placing wet sand 
around the stoves. There was no cannibalism but considerable trouble with 
feather pulling during the hot, dry weather of late summer. Except for a slight 
outbreak of gapes, which occurred in the wet weather of early fall and which 
was readily controlled with negligible loss, no disease manifested itself among 
either the old birds or the young stock. 

Quail Breeding. — The year opened with 502 adult quail on hand (70 of the 
old brood stock and 432 of the 1933-hatched birds). To these were added 10 
pairs of quail, with the native Massachusetts blood predominating, purchased 
the latter part of March. During the winter and spring 35 were lost, 241 liber- 
ated in covers, 6 used for research, 100 sent to the Marshfield State Game Farm, 
and 140 were on hand at the beginning of the laying season. 

The first eggs were collected during the week of May 5 and the last during the 
week of September 15, totaling 4,310 eggs, 34 of which were broken or dis- 
carded and 4,276 set in incubators. Of the number set, 1,483 proved to be 
infertile, contained dead germ, or otherwise failed to hatch and 2,793 hatched. 
Of these, 1,290 were lost, 1,110 liberated in covers, 120 sent to other stations 
(60 to the Wilbraham and 60 to Marshfield State Game Farm), and 273 remain 
on hand November 30. 

The eggs collected from the ten pairs of northern quail purchased during the 
spring were hatched separately and the resulting chicks kept apart. There w T ere 
reared to maturity 202 birds, and it was from this stock that 30 pairs each 
(mentioned above) were transferred to the Marshfield and the Wilbraham sta- 
tions in the late fall, the balance being retained at Ayer as part of the 1935 
brood stock. 

Due to the long hot, dry period of mid-summer, egg production was somewhat 
below the average of previous years and the average fertility was considerably 
lower. Hatches were excellent, so far as the fertile eggs w T ere concerned, and the 
chicks of good quality. There was no change from those employed last year in 
the feeding or brooding methods. 

The brooder house system inaugurated in 1933 again demonstrated its marked 
superiority over the so-called Coleman system, producing more rapid and uni- 
form growth, with lower mortality and with much less labor required to care 



P.D. 25 43 

for the birds, also a great saving in electricity. No disease of any kind appeared 
during the year. 

Of the 140 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 11 were lost, 
34 liberated in covers, and 95 remain on hand November 30. 

Marshfield State Game Farm — L. B. Sherman, Game Bird Culturist, 

in Charge 

New Construction. — The work done by Civil Works Administration labor 
was as follows : A series of roads was built, giving access with a truck to all sec- 
tions of the station at all times of the year, never before possible. The westerly 
side of the property was drained and filled, making a large area available for 
use in rearing pheasants. The marsh in front of the brooder house was drained 
and made usable. A new dyke and tide gate built in the brook at the State road 
will make it possible to reclaim a very large area. An excavation was made in the 
side hill north of the small brooder house for the construction of a root cellar. 

With State funds some alterations were made in the small brooder house for 
the purpose of developing the colony method of rearing quail. Early in the 
season this unit proved satisfactory, but during the period of high outdoor tem- 
peratures the young quail did not seem to thrive in this unit. 

New Equipment. — A new l 1 /^ ton Ford truck was bought and the old 1930 
model turned in. 

Pheasant Breeding. — The year opened with 513 adult pheasants on hand 
(223 of the old brood stock and 290 of the 1933-hatched pheasants). Prior to 
the breeding season, 3 were lost, 71 (of the 1933-hatched birds) turned over to 
clubs for wintering, and 439 were on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week of April 7 through the week of August 4, 
totaling 18,040 eggs, of which 980 were used for feeding birds and 17,060 set in 
incubators. Of these, 9,458 were infertile, and 7,602 hatched to which were added 
in September 128 young birds from the Ayer State Game Farm, making a total 
of 7,730, of which 1,967 were lost, 4,543 liberated in covers, 852 turned over to 
the sportsmen's clubs for wintering, and 368 remain on hand November 30. 

To the 439 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season were added 
the latter part of June 105 adult birds from the Ayer State Game Farm, making 
a total of 544. Of these, 25 were lost, 387 liberated in covers, and 132 remain 
on hand November 30. 

Quail Breeding. — The year opened with 130 adult quail on hand (54 of the 
old brood stock and 76 of the 1933-hatched birds), to which were added 100 
adult birds from the Ayer and 50 adult birds from the Wilbraham State Game 
Farm, making a total of 280 birds. Prior to the breeding season, 67 were lost, 
63 liberated in covers, and 150 were on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week of May 5 through the week of Septem- 
ber 8, totaling 3,454 eggs, all of which were set in incubators. Of these, 1,478 
proved infertile, contained dead germ, or otherwise failed to hatch, and 1,976 
hatched. To these were added 10 hatched from wild eggs and 60 birds received 
in November from the Ayer State Game Farm, making a total of 2,046 birds. Of 
these, 1,148 were lost (part of the loss due to the fact that early on the morning 
of October 1, all the doors to the quail pens were found opened and upon investi- 
gation it was discovered that 99 young and 14 adult quail had escaped), 786 
liberated in covers, and 112 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 150 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 55 were lost, 
60 liberated in covers, and 35 remain on hand November 30. 

Sandwich State Game Farm — Harry A. Torrey, Game Culturist, 

in Charge 
New Construction. — The major Civil Works Administration project was 
the construction of a dyke across Mill Creek, including culvert and tide gate, 
connecting the area where the pheasant work and the quail work are conducted. 
This does away with the three-quarter mile trip formerly necessary to get the 
truck from one area to the other, and saves much time and mileage. The long- 
road entering the farm from the State road was repaired and continued across 



1 1 P.I). 25 
the new dyke and pari of the pheasant area, tying in with the existing road on 
the latter. The wrecked camp on the hill was cleaned up and usable lumber 
salvaged. 

Very little new construction took place during the year with State funds, as 
the work was confined in necessary repairs except for the construction of an 
addition to the quail breeding yard, which was completed during the closing 
days of the year, and will be ready tor use next season. 

Pheasant Breeding.- The year opened with .';!>4 adult pheasants on hand 
i L76 of tli<' <>]d brood stock and 218 of the 1933-hatched birds). 

The first eggs wen; collected during the week of April 7 and the last during 
the week of July 14, totaling 15,125 eggs, 755 of which were used for feeding 
birds and 14,370 were set. Of these, 5,067 proved to be infertile, contained dead 
germ, or otherwise failed to hatch, and 9,303 hatched, to which were added 27 
cock pheasants transferred to this station from the Ayer State Game Farm in 
September, making a total of 9,330 birds. Of these, 1,949 were lost, 6,467 liber- 
ated in covers, 628 turned over to the sportsmen's clubs for wintering, 12 dis- 
tributed for display and 274 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 394 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 109 were lost, 
143 liberated in covers, and 142 remain on hand November 30. 

Selective breeding of pheasants was begun in a small way, and prior to the 
breeding season a stock was selected as closely resembling the typical Chinese 
pheasant as could be found. The eggs collected from these birds were segregated, 
and the pheasants reared from these specially mated birds were kept apart and a 
final selection for additions to the 1935 brood stock was made. 

Quail Breeding. — Late in the fall of 1933 a disease appeared among the quail 
in epidemic form, which was diagnosed definitely early in December as ulcerative 
enteritis, commonly known as "quail disease." Specimens were sent to Harvard 
Medical School and to Boston University School of Medicine for autopsy. Later 
Dr. David L. Belding went to the farm to advise with the Biologist and the 
Game Culturist in treating the birds and to assist in the adoption of stringent 
control measures for the eradication of the disease. The mortality continued 
into the winter until the disease had run its course, taking a large percentage of 
a brood stock carefully selected and bred for several years, and in addition a 
number of the young quail raised in 1933. 

The flocks in which no birds had died during the outbreak w r ere transferred 
to a new location on the farm and on to fresh ground never used for game 
breeding. These birds were carried successfully through the winter without 
losses and showed no evidence whatever of the disease. Enough suitable birds 
were selected from these flocks for the 1934 brood stock. A light outbreak of 
blackhead occurred among the birds reared in the new 7 quail house built in 1933, 
and the use of this building w T as at once discontinued for the remainder of 
the season. 

The year opened with 378 adult quail on hand (74 of the old brood stock and 
304 of the 1933-hatched birds), to which were added 102 birds by recounts and 

12 birds from the Wilbraham State Game Farm previously used for research, 
making a total of 492 birds. Prior to the laying season, 306 birds were lost, 
24 liberated in covers and 162 were on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week of May 5 through the week of Septem- 
ber 15, totaling 5,152, of which 54 were broken or discarded and 5,098 w-ere set 
in incubators. Of these, 1,799 proved to be infertile and 3,299 hatched, of which 
1,008 were lost, 1,670 liberated in covers, and 621 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 162 adult birds on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 36 were 
lost, 50 liberated in covers, and 76 remain on hand November 30. 

Few changes were made in the general operation of the farm. The Assistant 
Fish and Game Culturist was assigned to take full charge of the pheasant rear- 
ing as soon as the quail work required the full time of the Game Bird Culturist. 

Feather pulling and cannibalism was less prevalent than in other years. The 
season as a whole was a good one for the production of green food for the birds 
but during the very dry period it was necessary to purchase lettuce and cabbage. 



P.D. 25 45 

Wilbraham State Game Farm— Frederick W. Wood, Game Bird Culturist, 

in Charge 

New Construction. — By Civil Works Administration labor roads were built 
so that all sections of the station could be reached by truck. One road in par- 
ticular, which was built across the swamp and partially opened sand pit, gives 
access to a section where there is the greatest danger of fire. 

Partly by Civil Works Administration labor a new pheasant brooder house, 
220 ft.xl6 ft. was erected on the concrete foundation, which had been built 
during the latter part of 1933. The house was divided into 24 brooder sections, 
with a feed room in the center. Then 24 runs or yards were built in front of 
the brooder sections. The three old colony houses were dismantled, and the 
Simplex stoves were set up in the new house, also 14 new Simplex stoves, 24 Sim- 
plex ventilator roof saddles, 24 chick-size feed hoppers. A new 40 ft.xl4 ft. 
colony quail house was built on a concrete foundation and floor, the brooders 
and outside runs for which will be built and ready for operation during 1935. 
The old greenhouse was dismantled, as the woodwork had rotted badly, and a 
substantial wooden frame erected, so that the building should now last for a 
good many years. During the fall and winter this building is used as a clabber 
room, then in the early spring vegetable plants are started for the garden. 

New Equipment. — A new Dodge Vfe ton truck was added to the station 
equipment, and the old truck retained. 

Pheasant Breeding. — The year opened with 501 adult pheasants on hand 
(426 of the old brood stock and 75 of the 1933-hatched birds) . 

Prior to the breeding season, 59 birds were lost, 36 liberated in covers, and 
406 were on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week of April 21 through the week of July 21, 
totaling 19,985 eggs, of which 3,331 were used for feeding birds and 16,654 were 
set in incubators. Of these, 7,497 proved to be infertile and 9,157 hatched, to 
which were added late in September 128 pheasants from the Ayer State Game 
Farm, making a total of 9,285 birds. Of these, 3,247 were lost, 4,794 liberated 
in covers, 976 turned over to the clubs for wintering, and 268 remain on hand 
November 30. 

During the winter the breeders were carefully examined and 36 hens and 6 
cocks were selected which definitely showed the Chinese characteristics, and 
selective breeding was started on a small scale. The chicks reared from these 
special matings were carried in separate pens and the best of them were selected 
and retained as additions to the brood stock. 

Of the 406 adult birds on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 10 were 
lost, 256 liberated in covers, and 140 remain on hand November 30. 

Quail Breeding. — The year opened with 543 adult quail on hand (76 of the 
old brood stock and 467 of the 1933-hatched birds). 

Prior to the breeding season, 79 were lost, 262 liberated in covers, 50 trans- 
ferred to the Marshfield State Game Farm, 12 sent to Boston for research work 
(later sent to the Sandwich State Game Farm), and 140 were on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week of April 28 through the week of August 25. 
A total of 4,569 eggs were collected of which 103 were broken and 4,466 set in 
incubators. Of these, 1,570 proved to be infertile and 2,896 hatched, to which 
were added 60 quail received from the Ayer State Game Farm early in Novem- 
ber, making a total of 2,956 birds, of which 1,478 were lost, 1,240 liberated in 
covers, and 238 remain on hand November 30. 

Egg production experiments have been conducted for the past two years with 
the quail breeding cages by placing 16 pairs of breeders (1 pair to a cage) in the 
wire bottom cage and the same number in an equivalent number of pens con- 
structed with the elevated sand covered platforms to ascertain whether or not 
the egg production from the birds carried in one type of pen would be greater 
than the other. The quail carried on the sand platforms started laying about 
the middle of April, averaging 74 eggs per bird during the season. The highest 
producer laid 119 eggs and the lowest laid 36 eggs. The quail carried on wire 
did not start laying until the end of May, averaging 34 eggs per bird during the 
season. The highest producer laid 49 eggs and the lowest 11 eggs. 



46 P.D. 25 

Early in the BeasoD the quail chicks began dying from an unknown cause. 

Specimens were taken to the Massachusetts State College at Amherst for 

autopsy, but no diagnosis could be made. High mortality continued throughout 

the season among the young chicks of one day old and up to three weeks old. 

The birds surviving fhroc weeks thrived and did well. Xo changes were made 

in the feeding methods and no diseases were present. 

Of the 1 40 adults on hand at the beginning of the laving season, 13 were lost, 

:'»l liberated in covers, and 96 remain on hand November 30. 

FISH AND GAME DISTRIBUTION 

The program for the distribution of fish and game was based upon the infor- 
mation obtained at the county conferences where the Supervisor of Distributions 
recorded the wishes of the sportsmen in connection with restocking activities. 
This plan has been in effect for the past two years, and has proven its value in 
establishing a proper stocking program. Following is a summary of the restock- 
ing work of the year. 

Brook Trout. — There were distributed from the State Hatcheries 393,075 
fish, 1 to 4 in.; 489,188 fish 5 to 6 in.; 132,907 fish 6 in. and over. In addition, 
801 fish 6 inches and over were distributed by the salvage units and from mis- 
cellaneous salvage jobs. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at all the stations 285,913 finger- 
lings and 8,050 brood stock fish. 

Brown Trout. — From the Sunderland and the Sutton State Fish Hatcheries 
there were distributed 350 fry; 47,125 fish 2 to 4 in.; and 106,253 fish 6 in. 
and over. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at those stations 190,000 finger- 
lings, 11,070 yearlings, and 370 adults. 

Rainbow Trout. — From the Montague and the Sutton State Fish Hatcheries 
there were distributed 34,250 fish 2 to 3 in.; 200 fish 4 in.; and 73,782 fish 6 in. 
and over. In addition, 58 fish 6 in. and over were distributed from a salvage job. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at these stations 144,050 fingerlings, 
10,383 yearlings, and 969 adults. 

Chinook Salmon. — From the Sandwich and the East Sandwich State Fish 
Hatcheries there were distributed 38,975 fish 3 to 6 in. and 10,000 fish 6 in. 
and over. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the Sandwich State Fish 
Hatchery 5,900 fingerlings. 

Small-mouth Black Bass. — The entire production of bass at the Palmer 
State Fish Hatchery was liberated in suitable waters, 30,000 fry and 14,420 fin- 
gerlings. In addition, 6,129 were distributed by the salvage units. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the Palmer State Fish Hatcherv 
208 adult brood stock fish. 

Muskallonge. — The New York Conservation Commission furnished 20,000 
muskallonge fry, 15,000 of which were planted in various locations on the Con- 
necticut River upon arrival, and 5,000 were carried in a pond for later distri- 
bution in the Connecticut River. 

Wall-eyed Pike. — The New York Conservation Commission also furnished 
500,000 wall-eyed pike perch fry which were planted, upon arrival, in suitable 
waters. 

Horned Pout, Pickerel, Yellow Perch, White Perch, Crappie, Large- 
mouth Black Bass, Rock Bass and Blue Gills. — Pond fish of various species 
were distributed to open waters, for display, to the Sutton State Pond System 
for breeders, and to the Sutton State Pond System for later distribution, as fol- 
lows: From the Sutton State Pond System were distributed 72,575 horned pout, 
15,600 pickerel, 108,550 yellow perch, 444 large-mouth black bass and 205,000 
blue gills. From the salvage units and miscellaneous salvage jobs, 412,578 
horned pout, 9,053 pickerel, 54,227 yellow perch, 142,889 white perch, 3,311 
crappie, 873 large-mouth black bass, 80 rock bass, and 95 blue gills. 



P.D. 25 



47 



Fish Distribution for the Period December 1, 1933 to November 30, 1934 



(This table does not show stock transferred from one station to another, eggs exchanged with the 
U. S. Bureau or other State Commissions, nor does it show additions to brood stocks.) 





Product of State 
Hatcheries 


Not Hatchery Product 
(Seined, Gift, Etc.) 




Planted 

direct to 

public 

waters 


Distributed 
to clubs for 
rearing to 
larger size 
before liber- 
ation 


Distributed 

for study 
exhibit, etc. 


Planted 

direct to 

public 

waters 


Distributed 
for study 


Grand 
total 


Brook Trout: 
1-4 in. 
5-6 in. 
6 in. and over . 

Total Brook Trout 


370,825 
484,618 
131,923 


22,250 
4,100 


470 
183 


801 


- 


393,075 

489,188 
132,907 


987,366 


26,350 


653 


801 


- 


1,015,170 


Brown Trout: 
Fry .... 
2-4 in. . 
6 in. and over . 

Total Brown Trout: 
Fry . 
2 in. and over . 


46,900 
106,122 


- 


350 
225 
131 


- 


- 


350 
47,125 
106,253 


153,022 


- 


350 
356 


- 


: 


350 
153,378 


Rainbow Trout: . 
2-3 in. . 
4 in. 
6 in. and over . 

Total Rainbow Trout 


34,250 

5,203 

68,467 


- 


200 

54 


58 


: 


34,250 

5,403 

68,579 


107,920 


- 


254 


58 


- 


108,232 


i-'mall Mouth Black Bass: 
Fry . 

Under 6 in. 
6 in. and over . 
12 in. and over . 

Total Small Mouth Black 
Bass: 
Fry . 
2 in. and over . 


30,000 
14,420 


- 


- 


2,050 
4,079 


- 


30,000 

14,420 

2,050 

4,079 


30,000 
14,420 


- 


- 


6,129 


- 


30,000 
20,549 


Large Mouth Black Bass: 
Under 6 in. 
Over 6 in. 

Total Large Mouth Black 
Bass 


436 

8 


- 


- 


100 
773 


- 


536 
781 


444 


- 


- 


873 


- 


1,317 


Rock Bass: 
Under 6 in. 
Over 6 in. 


- 


- 


- 


56 
24 


- 


56 
24 


- 


- 


- 


80 


- 


80 


Chinook Salmon: 
Under 6 in. 
Over 6 in. 

Total Chinook Salmon . 


38,975 
10,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


38,975 
10,000 


48,975 


- 


- 


• - 


- 


48.975 


Crappie: 
Under 6 in. 
Over 6 in. 
Over 12 in. 

Total Crappie 


- 


- 


- 


134 
1,426 
1,700 


- 


134 
1,426 
1,700 


- 


- 


- 


3,260 


- 


3,260 



48 



(Continued) 



P.D. 



Product of State 
Hatcheries 



Planted 

direct to 
public 



Distributed 

to clllba for 

rearing to 

larger size 
before liber- 
ation 



Distributed 
for study, 

exhibit, etc. 



Not Hatchery product 
(Seined, Gift, Etc.) 



Planted 
direct to 

public 

waters 



Distributed 

for study 



Horned Pout 
Under 6 in. 
Over 6 in. 
Over 12 in. 


27,400 
45,050 


- 


125 


344,655 

38,067 

6.308 


4 


372,055 

83,246 

6,308 


Total Horned Pout 


72,450 


- 


125 


389,030 


4 


461,609 



Blue Gills: 
Under 6 in. 
Over 6 in. 


175.000 
30,000 


- 


- 


95 


- 


175,095 
30,000 


Total Blue Gills . 


205,000 


- 


- 


95 


- 


205,095 



Pickerel: 
Under 6 in. 
Over 6 in. 
Over 12 in. 


15,550 


- 


50 


98 
3.690 
4,862 


- 


98 
19.240 
4,912 


Total Pickerel 


15,550 


- 


50 


8,650 


- 


24,250 



Yellow Perch: 
Under 6 in. 
Over 6 in. 
Over 12 in. 

Total Yellow Perch 



104,600 
3,900 



108,500 



6,874 

39,944 

5,150 



51,968 



Total Trout and Pond 
Fish: 
Fry . 
1 inch and over 



30,000 
1,713,647 



26.350 



350 

1,488 



520,000 
603,833 



White Perch: 
Over 6 in. 


- 


- 


- 


142,889 


- 


142,889 


Pike Perch: 

Fry . 


- 


- 


- 


500,000 


- 


500,000 


Muskallonge: 
Fry . 


- 


- 


- 


20,000* 


- 


20,000* 



* 5,000 of these were carried in a pond for later distribution. 

Pheasants. — There were 20,953 young and 1,006 adult pheasants distributed 
from the game farms, either directly to the covers or to the clubs for wintering, 
also 12 young pheasants distributed for display. (See table.) 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the four game farms 1,186 birds 
(1934 hatched), and 416 adults. 

Quail— There were 4,806 young quail and 765 adult quail distributed to open 
covers from the four game farms. (See table.) 

At the close of the vear there are on hand at the four game farms 1,244 birds 
(1934 hatched) and 302 adults. 

Cotton-tail Rabbits. — Penikese Island supplied 479 live cotton-tails for 
restocking the mainland, and 1,531 were purchased from an out-of-state trapper, 
of which 62 were sent to Penikese Island for additions to the brood stock and 
the remainder released in open covers. 



P.D. 25 



49 



Game Distributed for the Period December 1, 1933 to November 30, 1934 



(This table does not show stock transferred from one game farm to another nor does it skow additions to 

brood stock.) 





Product 


of State Game Farms 


Not 
Product of 
State Game 

Farms 
(Purchased) 






Liberated 

direct to 

covers 


Wintered by 
clubs and 
others for 
liberation 

in spring of 
1935 


Distributed 

for 

exhibit 


Liberated 

direct to 

covers 


Total 


Pheasants: 

Young .... 

Adult 
Quail: 

Young .... 

Adult . . 
Cotton-tail Rabbits: 

Adult .... 


17,914 
1,006 

4,806 
765 

479 


3,039* 


12 


1,531 


20,965 
1,006 

4,806 
765 

2,010 



*71 of these were distributed for carrying through the winter of 1933-34. 



50 P.D. 25 

MARINE FISHERIES 

The marine fisheries work of the Division, as outlined in the following seetion 
of the report concerning the activities of the Bureau of Marine Fisheries, has 
progressed to a marked degree this year. 

In view of the fact that the marine fishing industry is one of the oldest and 
most important industries of the Commonwealth, it is fitting and proper that 
the matter of aiding this industry be duly recognized. Limited funds have in 
the past restricted the amount of work which the Division could do along these 
lines, but the Legislature recognized many of the problems and provided money 
during the past year to do some of the things which are of utmost importance 
to the industry, particularly in these times of economic stress. 

The Division is aware of the work which should be carried on to further the 
interests of this historic industry and is prepared to go forward as rapidly as the 
Legislature is able to provide the funds. A comprehensive, long-term program 
has been worked out along the lines intended to accomplish the best results, and 
all those who are concerned with the welfare of this industry will be interested 
in the features of this program, which is presented below. 

Program of Future Work 

1. The further study and examination of the coastal fisheries of the State for 
the purpose of ascertaining the extent and value of these fisheries, so as to make 
such recommendations as may lead to an increased catch and use. 

2. Promotion of an educational program to increase the knowledge of marine 
fish and encourage an increased use of them as food. 

3. The continuation of plans to increase the supply of anadromous fish 
which run up the streams to spawn. This program includes the introduction 
and protection of shad, smelt, salmon, and alewives in those streams that are 
adapted for them; the repair and improvement of existing fishways; the con- 
struction of new fishways where desirable; and the improvement of spawning 
areas. 

4. The continuance and further development of a cooperative program for 
reseeding barren shellfish areas. 

5. The continuance and extension, where necessary, of the present work in 
the extermination of shellfish enemies. 

6. The building up of a bio-statistical system from which information useful 
to commercial fisheries may be obtained and published. 

7. The establishment of chlorinating plants in Metropolitan Boston, New r 
Bedford and Fall River. 

8. The establishment of a biological and bacteriological laboratory for the 
study of methods of catching, handling and distributing fish. 

9. The appointment of additional enforcement officers to bring the total up 
to 10 inspectors and 15 coastal wardens. 

10. The maintenance of a fleet of two large patrol boats and three har- 
bor boats. 

11. The establishment of a lobster rearing plant to increase the supply of 
lobsters in those areas where the natural increase is not sufficiently rapid. 

12. The further encouragement of mutual cooperation between this State 
and neighboring states whose fisheries are similar, for the purpose of obtaining 
uniform laws and regulations. 

Bureau of Marine Fisheries 

The consolidation of the offices of the State Inspector of Fish and the State 
Supervisor of Marine Fisheries which was effected in 1933 was continued, and 
proved very beneficial to both branches of the work. The fish inspectors were 
able to extend the enforcement of the general marine fisheries laws into localities 
somewhat removed from the coast, and the coastal wardens were able to supple- 
ment the work of inspection. The fields of activity are quite inter-related, and 
by the consolidation a considerable amount of duplication of effort has been 
avoided. 

During the year the office staff was increased by two clerks. 






P.D. 25 51 

Near the end of the year it became necessary for the Bureau to move its boat 
headquarters from Grasseli Wharf in South Boston and an ideal location in East 
Boston was secured, as the United States Navy Department turned over to the 
Bureau its old Coast Guard Base at Lockwood Basin. This property, located 
off Sumner St., is 180 feet wide by 270 feet long, exclusive of the pier, which is 
420 feet long and 20 feet wide. There is a graded shore suitable for a marine 
railway, a two-story 25x50 ft. building, and a large shore area. The work of 
fitting out a small machine shop and securing the necessary equipment for repair- 
ing boats is now in progress. 

Lack of personnel and appropriation have prevented the Supervisor from 
establishing an adequate system of statistics as authorized by law, and which 
would be most valuable to the industry. A considerable portion of the Bureau's 
figures are still largely estimates, although this is gradually being corrected. 

Marketing and the general distribution of fishery products is another very 
important field, which has been approached, from time to time, from various 
angles, usually quite unsuccessfully. The Bureau, however, believes that it is 
now in a position to satisfactorily serve the industry in this field, if sufficient 
appropriation is secured. 

A marine fisheries laboratory has been advocated in the annual reports for 
several years, and the item placed in the budget forecast. The lack of a suitable 
laboratory is a severe handicap. Very important and far-reaching problems of 
fish inspection, shellfish propagation, purification of shellfish from contaminated 
areas as well as many minor problems require solution in order to build up the 
fisheries industries of the State. These industries are the oldest in the State, 
rank third in economic importance, and many related industries are dependent 
upon them, yet they have not received the same support or attention from the 
General Court as have many other industries of the State. 

Enforcement of the Marine Fisheries Laws 
Inspection of Food Fish 

There is no branch of the State work affecting the marine fisheries of more 
importance to the general public than that of fish inspection, or seeing that only 
such fish as is suitable for food reaches the consumer. Carelessness in inspection 
or laxity of enforcement is always fraught with grave danger. The task is not 
an easy one, since it entails the individual inspection not only of the many 
wholesale concerns, entry ports and freezers, but also of the thousands of retail 
stores, peddlers' carts, and road stands. 

It is a very difficult, in fact an almost hopeless task, to carry out a reasonable 
program of inspection with the present force of inspectors, which was increased 
during the year, by the addition of one permanent man, to a total of 5. Never- 
theless, the work has been carefully done and there has been a noticeable im- 
provement in the general attitude of the dealers, particularly in those districts in 
which more or less regular inspections have been possible. The lack of a suf- 
ficient number of inspectors has, furthermore, made it necessary for the Bureau 
to differentiate between flagrant violations and those small, technical ones which 
may have been encouraged by too infrequent inspections or lack of contact with 
the State officers. Warning letters with follow-up inspections have, in some 
such instances, proven most satisfactory, and uniformly brought good results. 
However, to obtain really satisfactory results in this field, at least ten inspectors, 
— double the present number, — will be required. 

The summary reveals that during the year more than 5,000 inspections were 
made by each deputy inspector, and on average more than 100,000 pounds of 
fish and lobsters unfit for food were condemned by each. The total of 527,343 
pounds condemned, large as it may seem, is insignificant when it is recalled that 
more than 300,000,000 pounds of fish and lobsters were handled by the dealers 
during the year. The amount seized was, therefore, only slightly over one-sixth 
of one per cent of the arrivals. Of the total amount condemned, only 5,000 
pounds came from the inspections of retail dealers, and of the remaining 522,000 
pounds, the bulk of it was seized upon arrival from vessels which had been 
delayed by storm. 



Japanese swordfish 


16,115 


Canadian swordfish 


58,589 


American swordfish 


24,757 


Miscellaneous fish 


228,104 


Lobsters condemned: 




Canadian subsidized lobsters 


56,457 


Other Canadian lobsters 


138,440 


American lobsters 


4,881 



52 i P.D. 25 

A summary of the work of fish inspection during the year is as follows: 

Total inspections 25,966 

Fish condemned: 



.327,565 



199,778 

Work of the Coastal Wardens 

The coastal laws are now enforced by eleven wardens, two additional wardens 
having been added to the force. These are supplemented by the three patrol 
boats with a personnel of five men. 

The efforts of the Bureau were directed, in a large measure, toward improving 
the equipment and efficiency of the service. Thus the No. 3 boat was remodeled 
and is now much more satisfactory. Although the No. 2 boat rendered a very 
good service during the summer it did not have sufficient horsepower to develop 
the desired speed, and accordingly, a larger engine was purchased and will be 
installed this winter. 

An analysis of the records of the patrol work of the three boats now operated 
by the Bureau shows that during the year they traveled 5,501 miles, assisted in 
the apprehension of 209 violators, and the seizure of 15 boats and 3 automobiles 
used in violations. The entire coast line was covered in this patrol, but dis- 
tances were too great to cover certain areas as frequently as deemed necessary. 

It has been pointed out in previous reports that at least four boats are needed 
in order to adequately patrol the more than 2,000 miles of coast line, divided as 
it is by Cape Cod and containing islands which have important fisheries. The 
Bureau has at present two patrol boats and a smaller boat useful for harbor 
work, and it is hoped that two small harbor boats can be added to the fleet dur- 
ing the coming year. 

Toward the close of the year uniforms were ordered for the coastal wardens 
and the men on the boats. This order has not as yet been completed. It is 
believed that uniformed officers can more successfully enforce the marine 
fisheries laws. 

The Bureau has very little new to propose in the way of recommendations for 
increasing the efficiency of the service. As in the past, lack of facilities and 
appropriation has made it impossible to do many things required by law. 

The district court work of the entire enforcement personnel (wardens and 
deputy fish inspectors) was as follows: 



P.D. 25 


















53 


Offense 


a 

8 
§ 
o 


H 


District Court Action 


T3 

to 

A 

w 

CD 
P 


CD 
O 

(3 
O 
O 




T3 


T3 

J2 

a> 

ft 
ft 


c 
.2 

Is 
.0 



73 

a 


0J 
TO 

O 
ft 

a 

TO 
09 

.6 


Violations in contaminated areas: 

Taking shellfish .... 

Possessing and transporting shellfish 
Possessing undersized shellfish : 

Clams ...... 

Quahaugs ..... 

Scallops ..... 
Non-residents carrying out of Common- 
wealth ..... 
Taking shellfish without permit . 
Shipping into Commonwealth without 
certificate ..... 
Violations of lobster laws: 

Possessing undersized lobsters 

Possessing egg-lobsters . 

Possessing punched lobsters 

Fishing without a license 

Selling lobster meat without permit 

Failure to display lobsters on demand 
of warden ..... 

Using unmarked gear 
Taking crabs without license 
Dragging in restricted areas 
Torching herring .... 
Interference with another's fishing gear 
Miscellaneous violations of marine fish- 
eries laws ..... 
Fish unfit for food : 

Keeping with intent to sell 

Exposed for sale .... 

Advertising cold storage fish as 
"freBh" ..... 


181 
6 

31 

7 
15 

8 

7 

2 

54 

2 

15 

11 

1 

2 
11 

6 
40 
22 

3 

7 
1 

1 


2 

1 

1 

1 
8 

3 

1 

2 
3 
2 
5 

2 


179 
5 

30 

7 

15 

8 

7 

1 

46 

2 

12 

10 

1 

8 

4 

35 

22 

3 

5 

1 


5 
1 

1 


26 
2 

4 
3 
3 

1 

13 
1 
5 
3 

2 

4 

22 

11 

1 


14 
2 

8 

18 

4 
1 

1 
1 


29 
2 

1 
2 


119 
3 

23 

4 

12 

8 

7 

33 
1 

7 
6 
1 

6 

11 
11 

2 

4 
1 

1 


$2,375 
60 

329 
21 
70 

400 

45 

3,345 

10 

500 

105 

10 

55 

350 

340 

30 

85 

10 

15 




433 


31 


402 


7 


101 


49 


34 


260 


$8,155 



Cases uncompleted on November 30, 6; number of boats seized and libelled, 
16; number of automobiles seized and libelled, 6; amount received from sale of 
boats and automobiles libelled, $317. 

New Legislation during 1934 

Chapter 115 requires clerks in coastal cities and towns to file with the Super- 
visor of Marine Fisheries, within one month from date of passage, certified 
copies of all rules and regulations made under general or special laws, in force 
in their respective towns; to file, monthly, certified copies of regulations enacted 
during the previous month, and, on request, to notify the Supervisor of all 
licenses or permits issued under authority thereof during the month. 

Chapter 129 requires all starfish taken from coastal waters to be disposed of 
above high water mark or other designated place to insure their destruction. 

Chapter 186 authorizes and directs the Division, during the year 1934, to 
assist and cooperate with the coastal muncipalities of Essex County in the exter- 
mination of the natural enemies of the shellfish, and appropriates money for 
the work. 

Chapter 216 prohibits importation for sale of any fresh swordfish unless 
properly packed in containers, and iced so as to prevent the fish from becoming 
unwholesome. 

Civil Works Administration and Emergency Relief 
Administration Activities 
A quite extensive program of marine fisheries projects was begun under the 
Federal Civil Works Administration on December 8, 1933 and ended April 30, 
1934. Other projects were undertaken by the Emergency Relief Administration 
on June 26, 1934, and continued sporadically through the summer and fall. 
These projects affected 46 towns, employed 438 men and 85 boats. 



54 P.D. 25 

Shellfish 

Salvaging and replanting Shellfish. — There were 18,748 bushels of shell- 
fish salvaged and replanted (clams, 9,068 bu.; quahaugs, 2,200 bu.; oysters, 
2,910 bu.; seed scallops, 4,570 bu.). These shellfish were valued at $40,500, and 
the estimated value when matured is, conservatively, $400,000. 

Exterminating Enemies of Shellfish. — Marine animals and vegetation 
inimical to the shellfisheries were destroyed, as follows: 

1. Starfish (Asterias Forbesii and A. vulgaris), 52,310 bushels (equal to 770 
tons, and comprising 17,123,400 individuals, each one capable of consuming more 
than a bushel of shellfish annually). 

2. Green crabs (Carcinides [Carcinus] maenas), 332 bushels, or 132,464 indi- 
viduals. Eighty per cent of these were egg-bearing. 

3. Horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus), 15,023. 

4. Cockles (Polynices [Natica] duplicata and P. heros), 2,122,240 and Sand 
Collars (eggs of the cockles), 28,700. 

5. 300 acres cleared of Silica Grass (Chaetomorpha sp.). 

Stream Work 

The work of restoring some of the spawning grounds for herring, smelt and 
shad and the repairs to fishways under the Civil Works and Emergency Relief 
Administration is as follows: 

Parker River. Newbury. — Many obstructions, caused* partly by spring 
freshets and partly by dumping debris, were removed from smelt spawning 
grounds at the old mill near fishway No. 1; the river bottom at this point was 
cleaned, the spawning grounds enlarged by removal of more than 4,500 cubic 
feet of cinders which had been dumped on the original spawning grounds and 
several hundred feet of retaining walls rebuilt. This work increased the spawn- 
ing area approximately fourfold. Sundry repairs of damage due to ice and 
heavy freshets were also made, as well as slight alterations in the design of 
certain fishways. 

Essex River, Essex. — Both sides of the stream were cleared of debris and 
bushes, and the spawning grounds from the site of the Old Story Saw Mil! to 
the railroad cleared of obstructions. 

Saw Mill Brook, Newbury. — This stream, which is a tributary of the Parker 
River, was cleared of obstructions for a distance of more than two miles. Spawn- 
ing areas for smelt and alewives were very greatly extended. 

Courcie Brook, Newbury. — This was cleared of obstructions for a distance 
of one mile. Smelt, alewives and trout frequent this stream. 

Mill River, Newbury and Rowley. — Obstructions in this river were cleared 
out for a distance of about one mile. 

Cart Creek, Newbury. — This stream, which had been closed for more than 
a hundred years, was again opened to the passage of smelt and alewives. 

Egypt River, Ipswich. — The spawning grounds were cleared of all debris and 
other obstructions, and dead wood and brush removed from both sides of the 
stream for a distance of half a mile, opening it completely as far as the bridge 
on the shore road. Oil-polluted debris was thoroughly removed from the bed of 
the river. 

Long Pond Herring Fishery, Harwich. — One mile of this stream has been 
cleared of brush and other debris, a half-mile ditch dug, sand bar removed from 
the mouth of the stream, and culvert placed under the State road. 

Mill Creek, West Yarmouth. — This stream was deepened below the State 
highway, brush removed, culverts repaired, and a fishway built around the dam. 

Herring River, Harwich. — The stream has been cleaned between the upper 
cranberry bogs and Hinckley's Pond. 

Marston's Mill Stream, Barnstable. — For a distance of two miles brush 
was cleared away, shoal places in the stream were deepened, and the ditch lead- 
ing into Grigson's Pond was dug out r 



[P.D. 25 55 

Santuit River, Barnstable. — The bed of this stream was cleaned and the 
brush removed from the banks for a quarter of a mile. 

COONAMESSETT RlVER, NEMASKET RlVER, MaTTAPOISETT RlVER, AND BRANCHES 

! of the Taunton Great River. — Important improvements were made in the 

fishways in these rivers. 

Plymouth County Streams. — Obstructions were removed and fishways im- 
j proved in the following streams in the eastern portion of Plymouth County : 

Beaver Brook and Little Beaver Brook, Manomet; Town Brook, Plymouth; 

Herring River, Pembroke, Hanover and Weymouth; Weir River, Hingham; 

Duxbury Brook, Duxbury; White Horse Beach Brook, Plymouth; and Smelt 

Brook, Kingston. 

Shellfish and Crustacea 
Shellfish Enemies 

Investigation of the extensive shellfish areas of the State over a period of 
years has made quite apparent the important role played by the various shell- 
fish pests in their depletion. This fact was particularly emphasized during the 
progress of the extensive reseeding projects carried on under Federal relief grants. 
Hidden as they are from sight in the soil or in deeper water, these persistent 
enemies are not easily observed, and even when actually at work on the shellfish 
beds the extent of the damage they are doing is usually underestimated even by 
discerning fishermen. Then, too, after the beds are depleted, the enemies are no 
longer in evidence as they usually retreat to other areas. Methods of combating 
the inroads of these pests are as varied as are the species themselves, and though 
oftentimes it is extremely difficult to determine an effective method, some way 
can usually be found of curbing their activities. Knowledge of their habits and 
life history is very essential and must be made use of to the fullest extent. 

As detailed elsewhere in this report, the Bureau directed the efforts of nearly 
500 men working in 46 coastal towns during the progress of which, in addition 
to salvaging and planting more than 20,000 bushels of shellfish, an extensive cam- 
paign was directed against the local enemies of the shellfish. Under this pro- 
gram there were destroyed more than 52,000 bushels of starfish, immense 
numbers of green crabs, horseshoe crabs and cockles, which were at work damag- 
ing shellfish areas, and hundreds of acres of clam flats were cleared of floating 
seaweed which had collected on them. 

Reflecting on the results of several months of this work, it may truthfully be 
said that never before in the history of the Commonwealth has such an exten- 
sive program of shellfish conservation been conducted, and never before ha« 
there been a fuller realization of the possibilities in work of this character and 
the steps necessary for carrying it out. Over the entire coastal area the princi- 
pal enemies have been noted, the particular areas in which they operate, their 
methods of attack, the extent of damage which they do, and the most feasible 
way of exterminating them. 

One thing stands out clear and distinct, and that is that only by unrelenting 
vigilance and intelligent effort can success be attained. It is quite possible that 
after a bed of clams has been successfully seeded at considerable expense and 
with painstaking care, failure to take into consideration the enemies which may 
be waiting just outside the area may be followed by the complete destruction, 
within a few weeks, of the newly seeded clam beds. 

Largely as a direct result of this extensive work has come the realization that 
here is a splendid opportunity for the State to cooperate with the local com- 
munities in their struggle to build up their shore fisheries. Therefore, there has 
been placed in the budget forecast for 1935 an item of $25,000 to be used solely 
for assisting such coastal cities and town in combating shellfish enemies as have 
revealed, through special appropriations and intelligent planning, a sincere effort 
to revive their shellfisheries. 

A brief account of this year's work on some of the shellfish enemies is given in 
the tables and paragraphs following. 

Starfish Extermination. — The task of suppressing the starfish in the 
southern waters of the Commonwealth, which has engaged the attention of State 



56 P.D. 25 

and towns since July, 1932, was further supplemented by Federal relief grants 
during the winter and spring months of 1934. Only a small portion of the 
expense of the work during this period was borne by State and towns, and con- 
sisted largely of expense supervision where the Federal government had not 
completely provided for it. This work was carried out under the direction of 
the Bureau of Marine Fisheries and resulted in collecting and destroying 52,310 
bushels of starfish. The field of operation was generally over the same areas 
covered by previous work of the Bureau, but was extended to three additional 
towns, Chilmark, Gay Head and Westport, which had not previously availed 
themselves of State assistance. 

What will be necessary to do in the future to lessen the damage done by this 
enemy to the bay scallop industry it is too early to predict. Coincident with the 
commencement of the work, the State compelled the towns which desired to 
avail themselves of State assistance to adopt a regulation compelling fishermen 
to bring ashore all starfish which they caught, under penalty of losing shellfish 
permits. This requirement was enacted into State law this year. The operation 
of this law r and the town regulations supporting it will be of great assistance in 
curbing the activities of this pest. At present there is a very large set of scallops 
throughout all this area, which towns are doing their utmost to protect. Had 
not such a tremendous amount of starfish been removed, this task would have 
been hopeless. The Bureau expects a very large percentage of this scallop seed 
to survive. 

The combined work of the towns, State and Federal government over a period 
of 28 months (from the time the law became effective in July, 1932 until Nov. 30, 
1934) is given in detail in the accompanying table, and resulted in the destruc- 
tion of 173,340 bushels of starfish which represents 2,340 tons or about 52,002,000 
in number. The total cost to the State and towns was $39,632.48 or a little over 
22c per bushel. Before the Bureau of Marine Fisheries took charge of this 
work, local towns had paid as high as $1.00 per bushel. 





Date 


Expenditures 


Bushels Collected 




















State 










Through 


Total 


Town 


Collections 


Town 


State 


From 


From 


C.W.A. 


Bushels 




Began 






Town 
Funds 


State 
Funds 


12/8/33 
to 3/29/34 


Collected 


Bourne 


9/15/32 


$1,614.80 


$4,787.00 


3,623 


11,9733^ 


1,163 


16,75934 


Chilmark 


12/15/33 


None 


None 


— 


— 


625 


625 


Dartmouth . 


9/15/33 


369.00 


1,069.83 


2,519 


7,455 


9,236 


19,210 


Edgartown . 


12/31/32 


751.00 


2,070.25 


2,706 


8,281 


1.810 


12,797 


Fairhaven . 


8/17/32 


534.18 


1,601.76 


1,48434 


4,739 


14,101 


20,32434 


Falmouth . 


12/12/33 


226.16 


434.17 


256 


45834 


3,580 


4,29434 


Gay Head . 


1/ 8/34 


None 


None 


— 


— 


250 


250 


Marion 


7/ 8/32 


1,369.31 


4,059.83 


2,782 


13,951 


1,862 


18,595 


Mattapoisett 


9/26/32 


1,595.92 


4,787.88 


2,50934 


16,972 


2,522 


22,00334 


New Bedford 


9/28/33 


250.00 


746.24 


690 


2,061 


8,662 


11,413 


Oak Bluffs . 


3/31/33 


10.00 


2.50 


40 


5 


1,250 


1,295 


Swansea 


6/30/33 


74.95 


224.50 


240 


720 


350 


1,310 


Tisbury 


2/ 9/33 


99.50 


297.01 


398 


953 


760 


2,111 


Wareham 


6/ 8/32 


2,874.27 


8,491.50 


11,086 


25,12734 


2,504 


38,71734 


Westport 


12/ 8/33 


None 


None 


- 


- 


3,635 


3,635 


Totals . 


- 


S9.769.09 


$28,572.47 


28.334 


92,69634 


52,310 


173,34034 



The expenditure of an additional amount of $1,290.92 by the State for investi- 
gation, printing vouchers and supervision over a period of twenty-eight months, 
brought the total expenditure by the State to $29,863.39, leaving a balance of 
$136.61. Practically all of this expense of supervision came during the period 
of Civil Works Administration activity. 

Green Crabs (Carcinides maenus). — For about two years prior to 1934 the 
number of green crabs in certain towns in Essex County increased in a very 
alarming manner and in 1933 had reached such proportions as to be really 
menacing. Clam sets were devoured as rapidly as they appeared and even the 
catch of the fishermen, when put into the water in bags, would be destroyed in 
a very short time. Selectmen and fishermen of these towns appealed to the 



E\D. 25 57 

(Supervisor for aid. An immediate investigation was made and a small amount 
pi State funds which was available was added to moderate appropriations of the 
{towns in an effort to at least determine the magnitude of the problem. During 
(the winter, a small number of fishermen were employed by the Bureau through 
the Civil Works Administration in catching the spawn-filled crabs which had 
retreated to deeper water, and later an appropriation of $5,000 was secured 
j through the General Court to assist in the work. The very severe winter, how- 
ever, killed off practically all of the crabs which had hibernated under the banks 
'and made it unnecessary for the Bureau to use this appropriation. 

As it has not been reported elsewhere, the results of the Bureau's campaign 
against green crabs in the fall of 1933 are given here, together with the 1934 
work under the Civil Works Administration. In September and early October, 
1933, through the cooperative work of State and town, 506 bushels of crabs 
were removed. So plentiful were the green crabs at this time that one fisherman 
in the town of Essex secured 42 bushels in one day, a total of 16,884 crabs. The 
work was quickly halted, however, because of lack of funds. During the winter 
months of 1933-34, 332 bushels of egg-bearing crabs were removed by Civil 
Works Administration workers in towns of Essex, Rowley, Gloucester, Ipswich, 
Salem, and Beverly, a total of 838 bushels. 

As a result of the removal of these crabs and the tremendous mortality, caused 
by the unusually severe winter, fishermen in these areas who had been troubled 
for two years by the large number of crabs now report that only two or three 
of them were taken during the entire summer. Furthermore, extensive sets of 
clams have appeared over the entire area. Had the crabs been as plentiful as 
before, they would have picked these shores clean of all sets. 

Purification of Clams 

During the year a total of 101,922 bushels of clams were taken, by special 
permit from the supervisor, from areas declared contaminated by the Depart- 
ment of Public Health and purified at chlorination plants located in Newbury- 
port, Scituate, and Plymouth. The market value of these clams was somewhat 
over $200,000. In securing these clams, 1,393 men were employed by 69 master 
diggers, and a total of 2,604,569 square feet of flats was dug over in the polluted 
areas of the following cities and towns: Boston, Fairhaven, Gloucester, Hing- 
ham, Hull, Lynn, Manchester, Nahant, Newbury, Newburyport, Plymouth, 
Quincy, Revere, Salem, Salisbury, Saugus, Weymouth and Winthrop. 

The amount of shellfish treated by the three authorized purification plants is 
as follows : Newburyport period of operation, twelve months, number of bushels 
purified, 57,534; Scituate, period of operation, July to October, number of 
bushels purified, 8,514; Plymouth, period of operation, twelve months, number 
of bushels purified, 35,874. 

As large as this quantity of clams is, almost double the amount purified in any 
previous year, it represents less than one tenth of the annual crop available in 
the contaminated areas of these towns and leaves practically untouched the 
extensive shellfish areas in New Bedford, Fall River, Fairhaven, Dartmouth, and 
Somerset. It is conservatively estimated that shellfish to the value of more than 
half a million dollars could be salvaged each year from areas either not now 
worked or incompletely exploited. To accomplish this result the Bureau advo- 
cates the erection of shellfish purifying plants in New Bedford, Boston and Fall 
River with greater control on the part of the Bureau over the operation of such 
plants in order that both the industry and the public may be more satisfac- 
torily served. 

The law establishing a method of fixing the responsibility for the pollution of 
shellfish areas and then assessing the cities and towns contributing to the con- 
tamination with their proportional part of the expenses of maintaining a purifi- 
cation plant has resulted in only one determination having been completed — 
Newburyport district — although other localities have made inquiries and some 
hearings have been held. 



58 P.D. 25 

Permits 

1,890 shellfish permits were issued by the Supervisor, classified as follows: 
to take clams from contaminated areas for purification, 71 master diggers' per- 
mits and 1,393 diggers' permits; to take shellfish from contaminated areas for 
bait purposes, 200; to take and possess seed shellfish for transplanting, 75; to 
sell lobster meat, 141; to torch herring, 10. 

There were issued 6,810 certificates, as follows: commercial shellfish, 3,4161 
dealers' shipping, 75; diggers' shipping, 74; shellfish bed certificates, 3,251. 

Seven cities and towns in Essex County were given leases to clam flats in 
accordance with Chapter 710, Acts of 1012. 

Six permits were issued to net sand eels in the Merrimac and Ipswich Rivers 
and their tributaries and in Plum Island Sound as authorized by Chapter 164 of 
the Acts of 1902. 

The total number of permits, certificates and leases was 8,719. 

While most of these privileges were issued without cost, a revenue of $2,3li 
was obtained during the current year from dealers and diggers shipping certifi- 
cates, lobster meat permits, and leases of clam flats. 

Of the 200 permits issued to take shellfish for bait from contaminated areas ( 
109 were active this year and reported a total of 4,890 bushels of shellfish so 
taken, valued at $7,170. 

The fishermen operating under permits for netting sand eels reported a catch 
of 39,200 pounds, valued at $1,176. 

Lobster Fishery 

Under the provisions of Section 33, Chapter 130, General Laws as revised in 
1933, a person may fish for both lobsters and crabs on one license. 967 such 
licenses were issued during the year. Furthermore, certain aliens are eligible for 
a crab license only, and of this type of license, 3 were issued. The revenue 
obtained from lobster and crab licenses was $4,608. In accordance with the pro- 
visions of Section 24, Chapter 130, General Laws, a report of the catch must be 
filed with the Supervisor. A summary of these reports is given in the accom- 
panying table. 

A total of 5,551 egg-bearing lobsters weighing 14,817 pounds, caught along 
the shores of the Commonwealth, were purchased in 1934 at a cost of $4,052,67. 
These lobsters were marked, as required by law, and liberated along the entire 
mainland coast line and in protected places off the islands of Nantucket and 
Martha's Vineyard. In addition to these, 29,210 egg-lobsters were caught and 
liberated by the fishermen on the fishing grounds, without cost to the State. 

From international shipments 3,117 egg-lobsters and 24,686 lobsters under 
legal length were seized and liberated by the coastal wardens. 394 lobsters over 
thirteen and a half inches in length which were seized by the Federal govern- 
ment were also liberated in Massachusetts waters by the Bureau. 

The catch of lobsters appears from these reports to have slightly increased, 
although, unfortunately, too much dependence cannot be placed on the accuracy 
of the figures submitted. The two principal obstacles to a further increase in the 
production of the Massachusetts lobster fisheries continue to be the trafficking 
in short lobsters and an unfortunate disposition of egg lobsters. The first of 
these disturbing factors has been somewhat lessened by enforcement activities 
of the past year, but a larger number of coastal wardens will be required. To 
correct the latter item — the purchase of egg-bearing lobsters — legislation will be 
needed. 

Sea Crab Fishery 

The following is a summary of the reports of licensed crab fishermen for the 
season as required by Chapter 130, General Law r s: Men, 30; 27 boats, valued 
at $8,675; 1,274 pots valued at $2,934; other equipment valued at $645; total 
equipment value $12,274; number of crabs taken, 1,187,211 valued at $9,835. 



P.D. 25 



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P.D. 25 



in j. !• [shing Season 
General 



From many angles the 1934 fishing season may be considered as an improve- 
ment over thai of other years of the depression. In the deep sea fisheries the 
total amount of fish landed by fishing vessels at Boston was greater than that 
of any year Bince L930. With slightly improved prices this catch brought in 
an increased return of more than half a million dollars over that of 1933. This 
was accomplished in spite of a rather serious strike of some 1,500 fish handlers 
and 700 fishermen which began in the early part of October and ended No- 
vember 6. As a result of the strike for a limited time prices of fish mounted 
rapidly, but the total catch for the month of October fell more than 9,000,000 
pounds below that of the same month in 1933, although in each of the preced- 
ing months there had been a substantial increase in the catch over that of the 
same month in the previous year. 

With nearly 50% less arrivals during the year (2,680 as compared with 5,301 
in 1933) the catch of ground fish showed an increase of more than 18,000,000 
pounds. 

The catch of mackerel landed by the fleet in Boston was 4,000,000 pounds 
greater than in 1933, although less than the very large catch of 1932. The catch 
of haddock showed a further decrease to slightly over 71,000,000 pounds com- 
pared with 82,000,000 pounds in the preceding year. The amount of scrod 
haddock, on the other hand, was 21,000,000 pounds greater than in 1933. 

The gill netters and draggers in Gloucester secured an unsually heavy catch of 
pollock in November, landing 530,000 pounds of these fish on November 26. 
It is not uncommon to have a large run of these fish in November, but the catch 
of this season had added significance to the fishermen because the strike in Bos- 
ton had so depleted cold storage supplies that the prices obtained were nearly 
double those of other years. 

In shore fisheries the traps had a slightly improved season, both in the pound- 
age caught and in the value of the catch. The lobster fishermen made a slightly 
increased catch but all other shellfish fisheries showed a substantial falling off. 

Tables containing rather complete figures on the various branches of the fisheries 
appear further on in the report. 

Sea and Shore Fisheries 

From reports received from the shore net and pound fisheries as required by 
Section 24 of Chapter 130, General Laws, as amended in 1933, is compiled the 
following record on this branch of the fisheries for 1934: number of men engaged 
in the fisheries, 264; number of boats, 115, valued at $51,342; number of traps 
and weirs operated, 182, valued at $220,616; total value of equipment, $451,146; 
amount of fish caught, 18,305,361 pounds; value of fish, $265,775. 

The reported amount of fish caught was practically the same as in 1933, but 
the value was greater by more than $50,000. 

Port of Boston 

Number of Vessels Landing Fish at Boston for the Past Five Years 





1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


Draggers (large and small) 

Steamers ...... 

Line Vessels (hand and trawl) . 
Swordfish ...... 

Mackerel ...... 

Halibut ....... 


202 
69 
82 
87 

112 
18 


182 
62 
69 
67 

107 
19 


185 
48 
78 
56 

116 
15 


164 
63 
70 
64 

104 
11 


153 

54 
52 
49 
85 
8 


Total . . . 


570 


506 


498 


476 


401 



P.D. 25 

Receipts of Fish at Boston Direct from the Fishing Fleet for 

ending November 30, 1934 



01 



Period of Five Years 





1930 
(Pounds) 


1931 

(Pounds) 


1932 

(Pounds) 


1933 

(Pounds) 


1934 
(Pounds) 


Large Codfish 
Market Codfisl 
Cod Scrod 
Haddock 
Scrod Haddocl 
Hake . 
Small Hake 
Pollock . 
Cusk 
Halibut . 
Mackerel 
Swordfish 
Miscellaneous 


i 








23,834,885 

26,499,149 

169,980 

160,665,853 

8,209,927 

13,764,080 

81,530 

4,821,757 

3,819,348 

2,499,011 

23,606,198 

3,078,088 

14,297,200 


24,441,043 

25,620,020 

223,786 

108,324,792 

9,710,768 

6,304,425 

15,120 

5,070,640 

3,343,296 

2,374,232 

19,908,792 

1,531,952 

11,954,828 


20,439,384 

25,997,822 

139,920 

86,058,865 

31,526,489 

4,170,806 

41,200 

4,547,001 

2,500,980 

2,133,603 

25,144,121 

2,249,947 

8,289,133 


27,391,340 

31,478,555 

189,455 

82,381,000 

30.182,200 

4^905,060 

461,500 

7,904,185 

2,503,340 

1,731,916 

17,554,665 

1,681,175 

11,695,591 


29,764,993 

39,806,592 

175,065 

71,380,342 

51,718,772 

3,772,847 

774,435 

8,831,561 

2,661,190 

1,749,694 

21,196,324 

1,314,095 

16,267,646 


Total 










285,347,006 


218,823,694 


213,239,271 


220,059,982 


249,413,556 



Port of Gloucester 



The following amounts of fresh fish were landed in Gloucester from Dec. 1, 
1933, to November 30, 1934 





Pounds 


Large Cod . 


6,076,000 


Market Cod 


1,000,365 


Cod Scrod . 


26,000 


Haddock 


1,073,100 


Scrod Haddock 


140,000 


Hake . 


35,300 


Small Hake 


20,000 


Pollock 


9,768,390 



Cusk . 
Halibut 
Mackerel 
Swordfish . 
Miscellaneous 



Pounds 
6,000 
3,100 

7,289,490 
35,400 

7,243,925 



Total pounds . 32,717,070 

Valued at $696,176 

In addition to the amounts of fresh fish listed above, there were also shipped 
into Gloucester during the year : 

Pounds 

Fresh Fish via Boston 7 '^S 

Fresh Fish, Foreign Vessels m^oonnn 

Salt Fish 'Ifi 425 

Lobsters 22b ' 425 



Total pounds 



18,072,975 



Estimated Value of Fishery Products of Massachusetts 
(Dec. 1, 1933, to Nov. 30, 1934) 

Vessel landings at port of Boston 

Vessel landings at port of Gloucester 

Vessel landings at ports of New Bedford and Woods Hole 

Shipped direct to New York 
*Shore net and pound fishery 
*Lobster fishery 

Soft shell clam fishery 

Quahaug fishery 

Shallow water scallop fishery 

Sea scallop fishery . 

Oyster fishery . 

Razor clam fishery . 

Sea crab fishery 

Bait worm fishery . 

Sea moss fishery 



,075,160 

696,176 

455,000 

550,000 

265,770 

387,282 

850,000 

375,000 

200,000 

180,000 

150,000 

22,000 

70,000 

75,000 

3,000 



Total 



S11,354,3SS 



Compiled from reports of fishermen. 






62 P.D. 25 

In addition to the fishery products listed above which were taken from the 
waters and shores of the Commonwealth or from fishing banks contiguous to its 
coast line, we list the following amounts coming into Boston and Gloucester 
through usual transportation lines: 

From Other States . . Clams . . 35,000 bus. 

Lobsters . . 359,634 lbs. 

From Canada . . . Swordfish . . 1,327,683 lbs. 

Clams . . 21,829 bus. 

Lobsters . . 6,614,308 lbs. 

Fish . . . 14,984,071 lbs. 

From Japan . . . Swordfish . . 836,289 lbs. 

Total amount shipped in through usual transportation lines: 

Clams 56,829 bus. 

Swordfish 2,163,972 lbs. 

Lobsters 6,973,942 lbs. 

Fish 14,984,071 lbs. 

Marine Sport Fishing 

In the early part of the summer, in response to an increasing number of calls 
from anglers, an information service was inaugurated for the purpose of inform- 
ing the fishermen where to go in order to catch the various species of marine fish 
with which our coast abounds, and where boats might be obtained for fishing. 
This service rapidly became quite popular and served the dual purpose of 
encouraging this excellent type of sport fishing and providing employment to 
many small boat owners who had fared quite badly because of the depression. 

It is doubtful if any other area along the Atlantic seaboard has such a varied 
wealth of marine fish or so many excellent places in which to fish. A list of the 
species of fish available to the sportsmen would include practically all of the 
most popular forms, from small smelt weighing a quarter of a pound to tuna 
and swordfish weighing several hundred pounds. The type of fishing is almost 
as varied as are the kinds of fish, — hand lining, drailing, surf casting and all the 
varied forms of fishing to suit the individual taste. 

It is intended to further develop and improve this service. The list of avail- 
able boats to date includes 5 large party boats, 4 yachts, 200 motor boats, 20 
sail boats and 360 smaller boats. 

Restoration of Shad Fishery 

Further headway was made in the effort to improve the conditions of the 
shad fishery in Palmer River. Acting on the suggestion of the Bureau, the holder 
of the seining privilege in Rehoboth gave up his rights to that portion of the 
Palmer River which lies between Shad Factory dam and Millers Bridge, a dis- 
tance of nearly two miles, with the understanding that it would be used as a 
spawning area. Acting on the requests of the selectmen, the Director then 
closed the area so as to permit the shad to spawn unmolested. Warning posters 
were displayed along the stream and it was further protected from poachers by 
wire entanglements. Brush was planted along the sides of the stream in order to 
provide a larger natural spawning area, and screens were placed to prevent the 
shad from being pocketed near the dam where they could easily be taken. 
Later in the summer a generous consignment of shad fry was released in the 
upper portion of the river. 

Other streams of the State which were deemed suitable for shad and which 
formerly abounded in them were stocked with shad fry through cooperation of 
the Board of Fisheries and Game of Connecticut. In accord with this program. 
640,000 shad fry were liberated at suitable points in the following streams: 
40,000, Coles River; 100,000, Nemasket River; 110,000 Wennatuxet River; 
30,000, Palmer River; 140,000, Jones River; 120,000, Pembroke Herring Stream; 
100,000, Stoney Brook. An effort will be made to continue and enlarge this 
program during the coming year. 



SP.D. 25 63 

Smelt and Alewives 

Supplementing the stream work which was done under the Civil Works Ad- 
ministration during the winter of 1933-34, a crew of men were employed under 
direction of the Bureau in improving the smelt and alewife fisheries in Plymouth 
County. Because of limited time and appropriation it was possible to do this 
work only in a few streams selected mostly because of their nearness to other 
work which was being conducted at the time. Spawning beds for smelt were 
prepared and enlarged in Weir River, Hingham; North River and tributaries in 
Marshfield and Scituate; Fresh River in Cohasset; Jones River in Kingston; 
and Soules Brook in Duxbury. Moss trays were prepared and placed in lower 
parts of streams to catch smelt spawn, and when properly filled these were taken 
to protected places in the upper portions of the streams. Over a million of 
smelt eggs were thus transferred. 

At the time the smelt work was being done, 4,500 large alewives, full of 
spawn, were transferred from the surplus supply in Pembroke and Weymouth 
Herring Brooks and placed in the upper reaches of Weir River and Bound 
Brook. 

Fishways 

In addition to the work done through Federal Emergency Relief programs 
under the direction of the Bureau, attention was given to repair work on a 
number of fishways scattered through the State. Certain new fishways were 
designed, such as at Foundry Pond, Weir River, and Charles River at South 
Natick. All but one of these have been satisfactorily completed. In the latter 
part of the year work was renewed on Parker River fishways for the purpose of 
improving the design and putting them in more permanent condition. It is 
hoped to complete the rebuilding of these five fishways before the spring 
freshets set in. 

Bounty on Seals 

During the fiscal year the following towns were reimbursed by the Common- 
wealth (through the county treasurers) for bounties on 272 seals at the rate of 
$5 for each seal delivered in accordance with the provisions of Section 85, Chap- 
ter 130, General Laws as amended in 1933: Barnstable, $335; Cohasset, $10; 
Eastham, $5; Essex, $45; Gloucester, $25; Ipswich, $170; Kingston, $125; 
Lynn, $5; Manchester, $5; Newbury, $5; Plymouth, $60; Provincetown, $15; 
Quincy, $75; Rockport, $5; Rowley, $15; Weymouth, $80; Winthrop, $20; 
Yarmouth, $360. Fees to city and town treasurers, $136. Total, $1,496. 

NOTE OF APPRECIATION 

The closing of this report after summarizing the major accomplishments of 
the Division during the year, recalls to mind the handicaps which have been 
placed upon the work. The outstanding handicap has been the limitation of 
funds, not only in comparison with the preceding year, but with other recent 
years as well. To have performed the work above recorded under such condi- 
tions reflects unusual credit upon the entire personnel of the Division, and the 
Director gladly gives public appreciation of their efforts and loyalty. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Raymond J. Kenney, 
Director, Division of Fisheries and Game. 



64 P.D. 21 

APPENDIX 

Following is a complete record of the stockings with game and fish purchased 
by the l\<\\ and game clubs of the State and liberated, either at field trials or 
merely for general restocking purposes. This is from information available at 
the Division a1 the close of the fiscal year. 

Barnstable County. — Falmouth Rod and Gun Club, pheasants for distri- 
bution, 15. 

Berkshire County. — Great Barrington Fish and Game Association, pheasanfl 
For field trials; 60, and for distribution, 22; Pittsfield Sportsmen's Club, pheasants! 
for distribution, 34, rabbits for distribution, 210; Sandisfield Rod and Gun Club,] 
rainbow trout, 225. 

Bristol County. — Bay State Beagle and Sportsmen's Club Inc., rabbits fori 
field trials, 49, and for distribution, 19; North End Rod and Gun Club, rabbits! 
for field trials, 67; South Seekonk Gun Club, pheasants for field trials, 40. 

Dukes County. — Martha's Vineyard Rod and Gun Club, pheasants for distri- \\ 
bution, 10; brook trout, 200. 

Essex County. — Boxford Sportsman's Association, pheasants for distribution, j 
4; Essex County Field Trial Association Inc., pheasants for field trials, 63; 1 
Methuen Rod and Gun Club, pheasants for field trials, 50; North Andover Fish j 
and Game Club, pheasants for distribution, 32. 

Franklin County. — None. 

Hampden County. — League of Hampden County Sportsmen's Clubs Inc., 
pheasants for field trials, 25; Chicopee Rod and Gun Club, pheasants for distri- 
bution, 25; East Longmeadow Rod and Gun Club, pheasants for field trials, 40; 
Fairview Sportsmen's Fish and Game Association, pheasants for distribution, 23 ; 
Ludlow Fish and Game Club Inc., pheasants for field trials, 25; Ludlow \ 
Pheasant Club, pheasants for distribution, 36; Polish American Rod and Gun 
Club, pheasants for distribution, 8; Western Massachusetts Beagle Club, rabbits 
for field trials, 74; Swift River Rod and Gun Club, pheasants for field trials, 25, 
raccoons, 4. 

Hampshire County. — None. 

Middlesex County. — Ayer Gun and Sportsmen's Club, pheasants for field 
trials, 10; Billerica Rod and Gun Club, pheasants for distribution, 7; Middlesex 
County Field Trial Club (of Woburn), pheasants for field trials, 107; Minute 
Man Sportsman's Club, pheasants for distribution, 32; Setter Club of New Eng- 
lands, quail for field trials, 50; Woburn Sportsman's Association Inc., pheasants 
for field trials, 50. 

Nantucket County. — None. 

Norfolk County. — Needham Sportsman's Club, quail for field trials, 30; 
pheasants for field trials, 12; South Shore Field Trial Association, quail for field 
trials, 19; Stoughton Fish and Game Association Inc., hares for distribution, 49, | 
and rabbits for distribution, 20. 

Plymouth County. — Bird Dog Club, quail for field trials, 70; Brockton 
Sportsmen's Association, pheasants for field trials, 35; Hingham Sportsmen's | 
Club, pheasants for field trials, 16, and for distribution, 23; Middleboro Fish f 
and Game Association, pheasants for field trials, 40. 

Suffolk County. — Greater Boston Sportsmen's Association, pheasants for 
field trials, 12; Eastern Massachusetts Beagle Club, rabbits for field trials, 156. 

Worcester County. — Worcester County League of Sportsmen's Clubs Inc., 
pheasants for field trials, 10; Auburn Sportsman's Club Inc., pheasants for dis- 
tribution, 46; Auburn Sportsman's Club Inc., and Singletary Rod and Gun 
Club, pheasants for field trials, 15; Spencer Fish and Game Club, raccoons, 7; 
Sturb ridge Fair Association, pheasants for field trials, 12; Whitinsville Fish and 
Game Club, pheasants for distribution, 45. 

Totals. — Quail for field trials, 169; pheasants for field trials, 647, and for 
distribution, 362; hares for distribution, 49; rabbits for field trials, 346, and for 
distribution, 249; raccoons, 11; brook trout, 200; rainbow trout, 225. 



c 



Public Document No. 25 



Zfyt Commontoealtfj of JWaftefacfrosette 



ANNUAL REPORT 



Division of Fisheries and Game 

FOR THE 

Year Ending November 30, 1935 



1935 



Department of Conservation 

[Offices: 20 Somerset Street, Boston] 



1 




l*'JJ ■ • ) 

» r. i " i * j . • 



S - 



Publication of this Document approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance 
1M. 3-'36. Order 7051. 



0lRl£j LlDiUUw ui i««^/*- v — — 

CONTENTS 

Page 

General Considerations 4 

Proposed Program for Developing Hunting and Fishing in Massachusetts 5 

Cooperation with National Recovery Administration ..... . 5 

Personnel . . . (n rn€U iW 8 

Finances . . . .tffc.W»% 9 

Revenue . T~T*. .... 10 

Conventions and Meetings 11 

Activities of State and Local Organizations 12 

Education and Publicity 13 

Massachusetts State College 16 

Acknowledgments 18 

Enforcement of the Game and Inland Fish Laws 18 

Permits and Registrations 21 

New Legislation during 1935 22 

Activities of the Biologist and Staff 23 

Aquicultural Investigations 23 

Fish Propagation 25 

Game Culture 29 

General Field Work 30 

Ornithologist 30 

Plan of Work 30 

Activities during the Year 31 

Wild Birds and Mammals, and Fresh-water Fish 34 

Game 34 

Wildlife Survey and Management Program 34 

Statistics of Game and Fur-bearing Animals taken 35 

Migratory Game Birds 35 

Upland Game 37 

State Forests 40 

Reservations and Sanctuaries 42 

Inland Fisheries 44 

Public Fishing and Hunting Grounds 45 

Removal of Predatory Fish 46 

Ponds 46 

Propagation of Fish and Game 47 

Fish Hatcheries and Game Farms — General 47 

East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery 48 

Montague State Fish Hatchery 48 

Palmer State Fish Hatchery 50 

Sandwich State Fish Hatchery 51 

Sunderland State Fish Hatchery 51 

Sutton State Fish Hatchery 53 

Sutton State Pond System — Fish Culture 53 

Andover State Pond System 54 

Turnbull's Pond, Greenfield 55 

Work of the Salvage Units 55 

Ayer State Game Farm 57 

Marshfield State Game Farm 60 

Sandwich State Game Farm 61 

Sutton State Pond System— Game Culture 61 

Wilbraham State Game Farm 65 

Fish and Game Distribution 66 

Marine Fisheries I 71 

Cooperative plan for Federal and State Aid to the Marine Fisheries . . 71 

' -State inspector of'Fisia .:.••.;, 74 

:\ State Supervisor of* Marine, Fisheries- 75 

Work of the Coastal Wardens .76 

New Legislation 77 

Emergency Relief Administration Activities 77 

Coastal Stream Work and Stocking with Anadromous Fish and Eggs 78 

Shellfish and Crustacea 80 

Shellfish Assistance to Coastal Cities and Towns 80 

Salvaging and Replanting Shellfish 81 

Exterminating Enemies of Shellfish 81 

Purification of Shellfish 81 

Permits 82 



T&5 

C7S 



Page 

Lobster Fishery .... <T2L 82 

Sea Crab Fishery 84 

The Fishing Season 84 

Sea and Shore Fisheries 84 

Port of Boston 85 

Port of Gloucester 85 

Estimated Value of Fishery Products of Massachusetts .... 85 

Marine Sport Fishing 86 

Bounty on Seals 86 

Note of Appreciation 86 

Appendix 87 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

20 Somerset Street, Boston 

Commissioner j SAMUEL A. YORK, Cumrnington 

DIVISION OF FISHERIES AND GAME 

Director, RAYMOND J. KENNEY, Belmont 

Bureau of Administration: 

0. C. Bourne, Melrose, Supervisor of Claims and Permits. 

L. B. Rimbach, Medford, Head Clerk. 

M. J. Carroll, Medford, Secretary to the Director. 
Bureau of Marine Fisheries : 

William D. Desmond, Stoneham, State Inspector of Fish. 

Bernard J. Sheridan, Somerville, State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries. 

Earnest W. Barnes, Roslindale, Biologist. 
Bureau of Wildlife Protection : 

Carl G. Bates, Natick, Chief Warden. 

Lloyd M. Walker, Northborough, Supervisor of Wardens. 

Joseph A. Hagar, Marshfield, State Ornithologist. 
Bureau of Hunting and Fishing : 

J. A. Kitson, Boston, Biologist and Supervisor of Distribution. 

Forrest S. Clark, Holden, Supervisor of Hatcheries. 

Arnold E. Howard, Lexington, Field Agent and Engineer. 

Advisory Board 
Samuel Hoar, representing the Massachusetts Fish and Game Association. 
Thomas F. Bradley, representing the Council of Sportsmen's Clubs. 
Judge Robert Walcott, representing the Massachusetts Audubon Society. 
Francis H. Allen, representing The Federation of the Bird Clubs of New Eng- 
land, Inc. 
Samuel T. Brightman, representing the Massachusetts State Grange. 
Elmer M. Poole, representing the Massachusetts Farm Bureau Federation. 

Technical Consultants 

Dr. Hugh P. Baker, President, Massachusetts State College, Amherst. 

Prof. Samuel C. Prescott, Department of Biology and Public Health, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. 

Prof. R. P. Holdsworth, Head of the Department of Forestry, Massachusetts 
State College, Amherst. 

Mr. Fred A. McLaughlin, Massachusetts State College, Amherst. 

Prof. J. C. Graham, Massachusetts State College, Amherst. 

Mr. Ludlow Griscom, Research Curator of Zoology, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge. 

Dr. David L. Belding, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston. 

Prof. James L. Peters, Curator of Birds, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Har- 
vard University, Cambridge. 

Dr. Ernest E. Tyzzer, Department of Comparative Pathology, Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge. 

Prof. F. J. Sievers, Director Experiment Station, Massachusetts State College, 
Amherst. 



P.D. 25 



Cf)e Commcmtoealtf) of jUasaacfjugette 



ANNUAL REPORT 

The Director of the Division of Fisheries and Game herewith presents the 
seventieth annual report. 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

For the purpose of efficient administration of the Division and to clarify its 
functions and financial background, the work of the Division has been grouped 
into four distinct bureaus — the Bureau of Administration ; the Bureau of Marine 
Fisheries; the Bureau of Wildlife Protection; and the Bureau of Hunting and 
Fishing. 

Into the Bureau of Administration have been grouped the office functions of 
the Division such as the issuance of licenses and permits, the payment of claims 
for damages, educational and publicity work, and the bookkeeping and secre- 
tarial" operations. 

The Bureau of Marine Fisheries includes all work having to do with the protec- 
tion and conservation of the coastal fisheries of the Commonwealth, which was 
the original purpose of the present Division, and the regulation and control of 
the marine fishing industry. 

The Bureau of Wildlife Protection includes the law enforcement activities, — 
the warden service, the office of State Ornithologist and the administration of the 
wildlife sanctuaries which have been given to the Commonwealth by various 
organizations and individuals to be held in perpetuity as sanctuaries for the 
wildlife. 

Into the fourth bureau, the Bureau of Hunting and Fishing, have been grouped 
the activities of particular interest to the sportsmen, namely, the operation of fish 
hatcheries and game farms, the biological work, including stream and pond sur- 
veys, the distribution of fish and game, the supervision of public hunting and 
fishing grounds, fish salvage and other field operations, and cooperative work with 
the landowners. 

It is self-evident that the work of the first three bureaus is in the nature of 
public functions of interest and benefit to all of the people of the Commonwealth. 
These bureaus include state-wide work of general public interest, either as the 
result of legislative mandate or long-established custom and it is obvious that they 
should be supported by general taxation. The annual report for 1934 enumerated 
in detail the extensive public services rendered by the Division. 

The Bureau of Hunting and Fishing is the one which is of particular interest 
and benefit to the hunters and fishermen of the State, and for that reason the 
entire amount of license fees should be made available for the work of that par- 
ticular bureau. Therefore, the budget request for the fiscal year of 1936 has been 
prepared on the basis of the foregoing. The hunters and fishermen of the State 
are unquestionably willing to support their own particular bureau — hence the 
general public should likewise finance all the other bureaus which serve its 
interests. 

As a matter of fact, if the entire revenue is not made available each year for 
actual fish and game restoration work, it will be impossible to meet the demands 
of the increasing number of hunters and fishermen and to offset the damage being 
done to the natural habitat of wildlife by various agencies seeking to render 
public service. 

It is not generally recognized that many of the so-called progressive move- 
ments, such as road building, mosquito control, land drainage and similar projects 
have a serious effect upon our wildlife resources. This type of activity has been 
increased during the recent years in which relief projects have been urgently 
needed in many communities. A considerable amount of wildlife is killed by the 



P.D. 25 5 

motor traffic on the highways each year, modern agricultural methods, such as 
plowing corn fields in the fall to eliminate the corn borer and thus destroy winter 
bird food, the burning of meadoAvs to improve the hay crop, the systematic spray- 
ing of fruit trees for insect control and innumerable other present day practices 
have their intangible, but definite effects upon our wildlife supply. 

There is a gradual extension of the waters and watersheds necessary for domes- 
tic water supplies and the resumption of industrial activities will tend to increase 
the pollution in the inland and coastal waters. 

High tension lines account for many birds killed in flight. Hiking, camping, 
horseback-riding take many people into the woodlands during the nesting and 
breeding seasons, and power developments on the inland streams have changed 
the character of many of such waters. 

Similar problems could be enumerated almost without end to further illustrate 
the fact that so-called progressive policies are constantly working against the 
wildlife resources of the State. While adequate funds will not serve to eliminate 
these factors, a more extensive fish and game restoration program would offset 
their effects. 

For these reasons, therefore, the minimum which should be made available for 
actual fish and game restoration, or more specifically for the Bureau of Hunting 
and Fishing, is the entire amount of the fees received from the sale of licenses. 

Proposed Program for Developing Hunting and Fishing in Massachusetts 
In the annual report for the last fiscal year was included an extensive program 
for the development of the hunting and fishing facilities of this State. The activi- 
ties of the present year have been directed along the lines of this program. 

Although the State funds were as limited as in previous years, considerable 
progress was made through the use of Emergency Relief Administration projects, 
and at the end of this fiscal year several Works Progress Administration projects 
are under way to carry out various features of a proposed program. The budget 
for the fiscal year of 1936 has been prepared with a view to putting into opera- 
tion within the next fiscal year the balance of the program as set forth in the 1934 
annual report. 

Cooperation with the National Recovery Administration 
As soon as final action was taken by the Legislature in refusing to appropriate 
the $100,000 recommended by His Excellency the Governor for the inland fish 
and game work of the Division, the Director presented to the Governor a fifteen- 
point program for developing the game and inland fisheries work of the Division 
with Federal funds, which included the following items : 

Estimated 
Cost 

1. Rebuilding dams at the Sutton State Pond System .... $15,000 

(There are 6 artificial ponds in this system which were built sev- 
eral years ago in the most economical way possible, with the 
result that the dams are now in very poor shape and a suitable 
dam should be constructed on each pond. ) 

2. Construction of trout rearing pools at the Sunderland State Fish 

Hatchery 5,000 

3. Construction of bass rearing ponds and trout rearing pools at the 

Palmer State Fish Hatchery 10,000 

4. Repairs to dams and trout rearing pools at the Sutton State Fish 

Hatchery 5,000 

5. Construction of trout rearing pools at the Sandwich State Fish 

Hatchery 5,000 

6. Construction of trout pools and a garage at the East Sandwich 

State Fish Hatchery 5,000 

7. Repairs to trout pools and construction of garage at Montague 

State Fish Hatchery 5,000 

8. Construction of brooder houses and pheasant breeding pens at 

Sandwich State Game Farm 10,000 



6 P.D. 25 

Estimated 
Cost 
9. Construction of rabbit propagation pens at Wilbraham State Game 

Farm $5,000 

10. Construction of incubator cellar and pheasant rearing yards at the 

Marshfield State Game Farm 5,000 

11. Construction of brooder house at Ayer State Game Farm . . . 5,000 

(The foregoing projects involve a large amount of hand-labor 
and it is conservative to estimate that, taking these projects as a 
whole, 60% of the expenditure would be for hand-labor.) 

12. Purchases and development of lands to be maintained as waterfowl 

sanctuaries 10,000 

13. Purchase and development of lands as public hunting and fishing 

grounds 25,000 

(This would provide not only suitable places for public hunting 
and fishing, but would also permit the establishment of field rear- 
ing stations where fish and game could be maintained under 
natural conditions for a period before liberation, resulting in the 
liberation of larger stock.) 

14. Pollution control survey of the inland waters 15,000 

(The pollution of our inland waters is a serious menace to the 
conservation of the wildlife resources and no adequate survey 
has ever been made. This would provide employment for the so- 
called "white collar" or skilled workers who do not have an 
opportunity to earn a living on many of the work relief projects.) 

15. Purchase of fish and game from commercial fish and game hatcheries 25,000 

(At the present time, these private enterprises are in need of a 
larger market for the product of their plants. On the other hand, 
there is an urgent demand by the public for additional hunting 
and fishing facilities over and above what the State is able to do.) 



Total estimated cost .... $150,000 

After careful consideration it was determined that these projects should be 
submitted in the usual way through the State Works Progress Administrator, 
rather than as a separate program to be forwarded direct to Washington, and as 
a result the following projects and estimated costs were submitted and are await- 
ing final approval in Washington : 

Federal State Total 

1. Wilbraham State Game Farm .... $1,967.50 $1,698.40 $3,665.90 

a. Construct a pheasant brooder house. 

b. Demolish 9 small pheasant brooder 
houses and pens. 

2. Palmer State Fish Hatchery .... 9,459.00 3,202.00 12,661.00 

a. Construct 24 claphnia pools. 

b. Raise dikes to increase water depth 
in present bass ponds. 

c. Wall up 500 feet of brook. 

d. Construct 5 bass ponds. 

e. Construct 5 trout pools. 

3. Sunderland State Fish Hatchery . . . 2,474.50 2,747.25 5,221.75 

Construct 8 trout pools with necessary 
supply ponds, drainage ditches and 
pipe and trough supply lines. 

4. Wilbraham State Game Farm .... 485.00 416.00 901.00 

Construct a pheasant wintering pen. 

5. Ayer State Game Farm . . . . . 485.00 416.00 901.00 

Construct a pheasant wintering pen. 



P.D. 25 7 

Federal State Total 

6. Marshfield State Game Farm .... $485.00 $416.00 $901.00 

Construct a pheasant wintering pen. 

7. Sandwich State Game Farm .... 409.00 416.00 825.00 

Construct a pheasant wintering pen. 

8. Sandwich State Fish Hatchery .... 3,532.50 1,021.71 4,554.21 

Build 13 trout pools and drive 18 wells 
for water supply. 

9. Sutton State Fish Hatchery .... 3,885.00 1,171.80 5,056.80 

a. Rebuild sluiceway under roadway. 

b. Rebuild all trout pools below roadway. 

c. Fill in pond back of dwelling house. 

d. Rebuild foundation wall of barn. 

e. Construct fry pools above road. 

10. State-Wide 2,028.00 200.00 2,228.00 

Organize a survey party to handle engi- 
neering work in connection with Works 
Progress Administration projects and 
do other survey work. 

11. Montague State Fish Hatchery . . . . 5,443.00 425.15 5,868.15 

a. Build gravel road leading from hill to 
pools at lower end of property. 

b. Brush 40 acres of land. 

c. Resheath ice house. 

d. Relay wall at lower end of brook. 

e. Build new overflow dam in brook 
near meat house. 

f . Gravel sides and bottoms of several 
pools. 

g. Drive 4 wells for additional water 
supply. 

h. Make up wooden racks for spillways. 

i. Relay 120 feet of supply pipe. 

j. Replace 3 wooden dams with con- 
crete dams, 
k. Enlarge present ice box. 

12. Sutton State Pond System 9,542.00 1,659.00 11,201.00 

a. Stop leaks in dams by placing addi- 
tional fill on them. 

b. Clear 7 acres of land at the site of 
rabbit and raccoon pens. 

c. Relay stone walls at site of new work 
shop. 

d. Lay stone foundation for proposed 
ice house. 

e. Improve drainage conditions in Ar- 
nold, Adams and Schoolhouse ponds 
by digging new channels and ditches. 

f . Replace present stone sluiceway and 
culvert at Arnold Pond dam with new 
one of concrete. 

g. Build small sluiceway at northeast- 
erly end of Arnold Pond in order to 
control waters above it. 

h. Fill area for site of new ice house. 

However, during the past year a large amount of work has been done at several 
of the game farms and fish hatcheries (namely, Wilbraham, Sunderland, Palmer, 
Montague and Sutton stations) through the cooperation of the local Emergency 



8 P.D. 25 

Relief Administrators. A detailed statement of these projects is found under each 
station. 

Over 200 Emergency Relief Administration town projects, in which the work 
done would directly affect wildlife or fish life, were inspected and supervised to a 
greater or lesser extent by the fish and game wardens, by the Field Agent and Engi- 
neer, by the Wildlife Survey and Management Agent, and by others in the 
Division. 

In addition, the Wildlife Survey and Management Agent consulted with and 
gave advice to officials and individuals in charge of the following proposed 
Emergency Relief Administration projects: 

Development of Hockamock Swamp area for wildlife. 

Development of Connecticut River marshes in Longmeadow. 

Development of Quinsigamond River marshes in Grafton. 

Development of program for stream improvement on brooks in the town of 
Mattapoisett. 

Personnel 



1907 HERBERT K. PROUT 1935 

On September 6 the Division sustained a great loss in the death of Herbert K. 
Prout, who served in the Division since June 1, 1933, as Wildlife Survey and 
Management Agent. 

Mr. Prout, a native of Quincy, was educated in the Game Conservation Institute 
of New Jersey, and had considerable training in game management on private 
estates before entering the service of the Division. He had an extensive knowledge 
of wildlife conditions throughout the State, and the zeal and intellect which enabled 
him to constantly add to his fund of information in ornithology, biology, wildlife 
management, and forestry. He had the ability to translate technical information 
into a practical field program, and notable among his accomplishments were his 
surveys and development programs on various State reservations surrounding 
State institutions. 

Cut down in his youth when he was on the threshold of a successful career in his 
chosen work, his untimely death was a serious blow to the Division; but he left 
behind the foundation of an important branch of the Division's work, and a reputa- 
tion for energetic and faithful service which will be an inspiration to those who 
carry on the work he organized but laid down before realizing the full fruits of his 
ambitions. 

1898 HENRY A. CROWLEY 1935 

On September 4 the warden service of the Division suffered a great loss in the 
death of Henry A. Crowley, who was a member of the coastal warden force. 

Mr. Crowley, a native of Worcester, was appointed as a fish and game warden on 
September 23, 1929, and assigned to the enforcement of the marine fisheries laws. 
Subsequently this branch of the service became the coastal warden force, and 
Warden Crowley covered the patrol of several towns in Essex County, with head- 
quarters in Nahant. 

He was a fearless and impartial law-enforcement officer who performed his duties 
creditably; and, despite his difficult task, maintained the respect and the confidence 
of the people of his district, including those whom it was necessary for him to 
prosecute in the courts. 

His untimely death removed from his branch of the service an official whose place 
it is difficult to fill. His record and accomplishments will be a worthy incentive to 
his successor and to his associates in the coastal warden service. 



The position of State Ornithologist was filled permanently on July 12 by the 
appointment of Mr. Joseph A. Hagar of Marshfield, who had qualified for the 
position by a Civil Service examination. 

On November 13, Bernard J. Sheridan of Somerville was nominated and con- 



P.D. 25 9 

firmed to the position of State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries, formerly held by 
William D. Desmond of Stoneham who also held the position of State Inspector of 
Fish. Mr. Desmond continues in the latter position. 

Finances 

The financial outlook for the year was exceedingly bright, due to the fact that 
His Excellency the Governor recommended an appropriation of $100,000 in addi- 
tion to the revenue of the Division, for developing the inland fish and game work. 
Unfortunately, the Legislature was unable to comply with his recommendation, and 
the final result was the appropriation in the supplementary budget of $18,000, 
which represented the approximate unexpended balances which had been turned 
back, for various reasons, during the past three years. 

Appropriations and Expenditures 





Appropria- 


Balances, 


Expendi- 


Balances 


Balances 
to State 
Treasury 




tions 


transfers 


tures 


to 1936 


Part I (1934 revenue, $267,101. 56) 












Salary of the Director 


$4,500.00 


$150.00 


$4,650.00 


— 


— 


Office Assistants, Personal Services 


20,360.00 


360.00 


20,717.81 


— 


$2.19 


Office Expenses 


11,720.00 


149.55 


11,763.33 


■ — 


106.22 


Education and Publicity . 


2,500.00 


■ — 


2,439.74 


— 


60.26 


Enforcement of Laws : 












Personal Services .... 


69,200.00 


50.00 


68,941.95 


— 


308.05 


Expenses 


31,660.00 


3,244.95 


33,821.39 


$1,014.50 


69.06 


Biological Work : 












Personal Services .... 


5,100.00 


150.00 


5,250.00 


■ — 


— 


Expenses . . . . 


2,280.00 


— 


2,278.30 


— 


1.70 


Propagation of Game Birds, etc. 


108,500.00 


2,232.94 


110,158.65 


30.00 


544.29 


Special : For Improvements and Ad- 












ditions at Fish Hatcheries and 












Game Farms .... 


— 


683.38 


675.16 


— 


8.22 


Supervision of Public Fishing and 












Hunting Grounds : 












Personal Services .... 


5,316.00 


90.00 


5,294.00 


— 


112.00 


Expenses 


1,500.00 


— 


1,489.09 


— 


10.91 


For improvements of fish hatcheries 












and game farms and for propa- 












gation and field work, as au- 












thorized by Chapter 338 of the 












Acts of 1935 


18,000.00 


— 


11,110.53 


6,889.47 


— 


Damage by Wild Deer and Wild 












Moose 


5,500.00 


— 


5,499.41 


— 


.59 


Part II (1934 revenue, Nothing) 












Protection of Wild Life 


5,050.00 


86.00 


5.070.29 


— 


65.71 


PartIII(1934revenue,$ll,061.85) 












State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries : 












Personal Services .... 


12,300.00 


295.00 


12,593.71 


— 


1.29 


Expenses 


8,000.00 


— 


7,239.33 


395.90 


364.77 


Enforcement of Shellfish and Other 












Marine Fishery Laws : 












Personal Services .... 


39,475.00 


700.00 


39,549.02 


— 


625.98 


Expenses 


18,000.00 


2,073.59 


17,144.11 


668.34 


2.261.14 


Purchase of Lobsters .... 


6,500.00 


— 


5,455.00 


— 


1,045.00 


Special: For cost assisting coastal 












towns in the propagation of 












food fish and suppression of 












enemies thereof, as authorized 












by Sec. 3-a of Ch. 130, G. L. 












inserted therein by Ch. 324, 












Acts of 1935 .... 


18,000.00 


— 


5,086.42 


12,913.58 


. — 




— 


136.61 


125.49 


— 


11.12 


Assisting cities and towns in reseed- 












ing depleted shellfish areas 


— 


51.48 


50.32 


— 


1.16 


Compensations of apportionment 












commissioners .... 


2,234.54 


— 


2,234.54 


— 


— 




$395,695.54 


$10,453.50 


$378,637.59 


$21,911.79 


$5,599.66 



10 



P.D. 25 



Revenue 



Following is the revenue accruing to the State Treasury for the period of the 
fiscal year, from the activities of the Division. 



Parti 

Produced by 

the hunters, 

anglers and 

trappers 



Part II 

Produced by 
those who 
enjoy wild 
life but do 
not hunt, 

fish or trap 



Part III 

Produced by 

the marine 

fisheries 



PART I 

Licenses: 

Hunting, fishing, sporting and trapping license 
fees, $266,290 (less $170.25 refunds account of 
overpayments by town clerks on 1934 accounts) 

Gunning stand registrations 

Shiner permits 

Rents: 

Property at Marshfield, Palmer, Sandwich and 

Wilbraham 

Sales: 

Confiscated goods, $42.60; game tags, $67.60; 
other sales — 3 tires, 3 tubes, $2.25; 1 badge, $1 
Miscellaneous : 

Auto damage claim, $61.48; personal telephone 
calls, $11.14; refunds on appropriations prior 
years, $16.32 ; unidentified money sent by error, 

$2 

Fines: 

Turned into State Treasury as a result of violations 
of the inland fish and game laws .... 

PART II 
Nothing 

PART III 

Licenses: 

Lobster and crab licenses 

Shellfish dealers' certificates 

Shellfish diggers' certificates 

Lobster meat permits 

Rents: 

Clam flats, $20; Chilmark Pond, $1 . 
Sales: 

Confiscated goods 

Miscellaneous: 

Auto damage claim, $17.43; witness fees, $6; 
personal telephone calls, $1.17 .... 
Fines: 

Turned into State Treasury as a result of violations 
of marine fisheries laws 

Total revenue, $281,478.39 



$266,119.75 

5.50 

450.00 



728.00 
113.45 



90.94 
4,300.00 



Nothing 



$4,517.25 

820.00 

68.00 

1,680.00 

21.00 

736.15 

24.60 

1,803.75 



$271,807.64 



$9,670.75 



P.D. 25 



11 



Detail of .Receipts from Licenses to Hunt, Fish or Trap 
(for fiscal year Dec. 1, 1934, to Nov. 30, 1935) 







Gross 


Fees 


Net Return 




Number 


Amount 


Retained 
by Clerks 


to State 


Resident Fishing ($2.00) 


53,325 


$106,650.00 


$13,096.00 


$93,554.00 


Resident Hunting ($2.00) 


42,563 


85,126.00 


10,542.25 


74,583.75 


Resident Sporting ($3.25) . 


23,322 


75,796.50 


5,749.50 


70,047.00 


Resident Minor and Female Fishing ($1.25) 


12,429 


15,536.25 


3,069.75 


12,466.50 


Resident Trapping ($5.25) .... 


1,233 


6,473.25 


307.75 


6,165.50 


Resident Minor Trapping ($2.25) 


514 


1,156.50 


128.25 


1,028.25 


Resident Sporting (Free) .... 


6,338 


. — 


— 


— 


Non-resident Fishing ($5.25) 


663 


3,480.75 


164.75 


3,316.00 


Non-resident Hunting ($10.25) . 


333 


3,413.25 


82.25 


3,331.00 


Non-resident Sporting ($15.25) . 


24 


366.00 


6.00 


360.00 


Non-resident Minor Fishing ($2.25) . 


45 


101.25 


11.25 


90.00 


Non-resident Trapping ($15.25) . 


9 


137.25 


2.25 


135.00 


Duplicate ($0.50) 


1,024 


512.00 


— 


512.00 


Special Non-resident Fox Hunting ($2.00) 


12 


24.00 


3.00 


21.00 


Special Non-resident Fishing ($1.50) . 


544 


816.00 


136.00 


680.00 


Totals, sporting, hunting, fishing and 










trapping licenses, including duplicates 


142,378 


$299,589.00 


$33,299.00 


$266,290.00 


Deduct refunds made on account of over- 










payments by town clerks on 1934 










accounts 








170.25 




$266,119.75 


Lobster and Crab ($5.00) . . . * . 


951 


4,755.00 


237.75 


4,517.25 



Following is a statement of the numbers of hunting, fishing and trapping 
licenses (excluding duplicates) sold in each county during the calendar year 1934, 
which will indicate the distribution of the sale of licenses throughout the State. It is 
not an indication of the amount of hunting, fishing or trapping which is carried on 
in each county, since licenses may be used in any part of the State. As the figures are 
for the calendar year, the totals will not check with license data for the fiscal year in 
the annual report for 1934. 

Barnstable County, 2,881; Berkshire County, 13,162; Bristol County, 8,203; 
Dukes County, 430; Essex County, 8,695; Franklin County, 5,774; Hampden 
County, 18,412; Hampshire County, 6,626; Middlesex County, 17,274; Nantucket 
County, 362; Norfolk County, 8,891; Plymouth County, 7,823; Suffolk County, 
6,645; Worcester County, 31,607. 

Conventions and Meetings 

Pursuant to the work of the National Planning Council, formed in 1934 at a 
meeting of the International Association of Game, Fish and Conservation Com- 
missioners, William D. Desmond, State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries, was 
designated to represent the Commonwealth at a meeting held January 16 in Wash- 
ington, D. C, called by the U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries to lay plans for 
developing the marine fisheries industry of the country and extend the use of its 
products by the general public. 

At the New England Game Conference in Boston on January 26 under the 
auspices of the Massachusetts Fish and Game Association, the Director presented 
a paper dealing with the effect of modern development on the fish and game 
resources of the State. 

The Director attended the meeting, in New York City, of the American Game 
Conference January 21-25, to which he had been elected Vice Chairman. This is 
the largest gathering of State and Federal officials which is held during the year, 
and is the one time when the game policies of all the states are brought up for 
general discussion. The proceedings between 12 and 1 o'clock were broadcast, 
during which Director Kenney spoke on pollution problems and control. 

On February 1 the Director went to Washington, and with His Excellency the 
Governor presented to the Federal Administration officials in Washington a plan 
for aiding the marine fisheries industry. 

At the Second Annual Recreation Conference, held at the Massachusetts State 



12 



P.D. 25 



College, Amherst, March 15-17, the Director was Chairman of the sportmen's sec- 
tion of the conference. 

The Advisory Board of the Division met on May 13, to discuss several matters 
affecting the future work of the Division. 

On May 27 a meeting was held at the office of the Division at which were present 
Commissioner Frank T. Bell of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, and the commission- 
ers of the New England States and of New York, New Jersey and Delaware. The 
purpose of the meeting was to coordinate the work between the U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries and the various State departments of this zone. The National Planning 
Council was divided into zones, and Commissioner James Brown of Vermont 
served as Chairman and Director Raymond J. Kenney of Massachusetts as Secre- 
tary for the New England zone. 

The Director attended the Sportsmen's Rendezvous at Lake Maranacook, 
Winthrop, Me., July 26 to August 4, representing His Excellency Governor 
Curley. 

Activities of State and Local Organizations 

The following table shows the number, location and membership of the various 
fish and game clubs : 



county 


Number of 
Clubs 


Total Club 
Membership 


Number of Clubs 
in the respective 
County Leagues 


Barnstable 

Berkshire . 

Bristol 

Dukes 

Essex 

Franklin . 

Hampden . 

Hampshire 

Middlesex . 

Nantucket 

Norfolk 

Plymouth . 

Suffolk 

Worcester 
















3 

20 
15 

1 
22 
13 
29 
17 
25 

1 
19 
18 

2 
47 


618 
2,587 
2,183 

248 
2,251 
1,388 
4,073 
1,580 
3,237 

135 
1,880 
2,254 

117 
7,154 


2 
13 
10 
No league 
15 
12 
14 

8 

23 

No league 

18 

15 

2 
38 




232 


29,705 


170 



While the foregoing table shows an increase in the membership of the local 
clubs in comparison with the preceding year, there still appears to be a wide dis- 
crepancy between the number of license holders in each county and the member- 
ship of the fish and game clubs. If given proper support by the sportsmen, the 
club membership should show a decided increase. 

To encourage the fish and game clubs to expend their funds for the purchase 
of fish and game to supplement the Division's stocking work the Director on 
December 12, 1934, outlined to the clubs a plan under which the Division would 
match all fish and birds of the species raised by the Division at its hatcheries and 
game farms, which were purchased by the clubs out of their own funds, with a 
like number. The stock supplied under the cooperative plan was not deducted from 
the regular county quotas. The liberation of these birds and fish constituted 
additional stockings in the areas where the clubs used their funds to supplement 
the State work. Following is a summary of the stock allotted to the various clubs 
under this plan : quail, 110 ; pheasants, 1,489 ; brook trout, 450. In the Appendix 
is given a list of the individual clubs receiving this stock. 

The Millers Falls Sportsmen's Club donated a Hewitt round fish rearing tub 
which was installed on the grounds of the Montague State Fish Hatchery to test 
out the Hewitt system of rearing trout. The Club also furnished a sufficient 
quantity of the Hewitt food to carry on the experiment. The trout were supplied 
by the Division, and the work of caring for the fish was carried on by the regular 
employees of the station. The results of this experiment are discussed under the 
work of the Montague State Fish Hatchery. 



P.D. 25 13 

Education and Publicity 
The educational and publicity work of the Division continued along lines simi- 
lar to that in preceding years. The outstanding feature of this work was carried 
on through the medium of releases to the press of the State. The subjects covered 
were: 

1. Account of the open season on deer, and discussion of the problem of 
damage to crops by deer. 

2. Discussion of the numbers and kinds of hunting and fishing licenses issued, 
and revenue therefrom. 

3. Plea to bird lovers, sportsmen, farmers and others to feed the wild birds 
while the ground is covered and feeding conditions difficult for the birds; ac- 
count of bird feeding projects in progress; and suggestions how this work can 
best be done. 

4. Outlining a broad, far-reaching plan by which hunting and fishing can be 
almost immeasurably increased, contingent on acceptance of that part of 
Governor James M. Curley's inaugural address urging an appropriation of 
$100 000 for fish and game work in addition to the ordinary revenue of the 
Division. Seventeen possible projects, covering practically the entire field of 
modern conservation ideas, are listed. 

5. Expenditure of approximately $100,000 of the Federal Civil Works Ad- 
ministration and Emergency Relief Administration funds, has resulted in bene- 
fits to the Bay State shellfish industry amounting to an estimated $1,000,000. 

6. It is planned, for the benefit of the pond fisheries, to each year close to 
winter fishing for two-year periods, two-thirds of the ponds in each county, leav- 
ing one-third open. Once under way, the plan will in rotation give every great 
pond two years of closed seasons and one year of open, within every three years. 

7. Greater protection is under way for the larger birds native to Massachusetts, 
including the bald or American eagle, the red-tailed and red-shouldered hawks, 
the duck hawk, the snowy or Arctic owl and other large birds, to save them from 
extinction. 

8. A check-up on all State and Federal public works is being made, to avoid 
possible damage to the natural habitats of fish and game through work by persons 
unfamiliar with the conditions that might affect the habitability of the waters 
and covers for birds, game and fish. 

9. Announcement of number and size of brook, brown and rainbow trout, and 
salmon, stocked in the ponds and brooks; stockings (practically the first) of 
State Forest waters, lists of all of which may be had on application. Certain 
brooks feeding the streams on which public fishing grounds have been established, 
are closed to fishing so as to serve as breeding areas. 

10. Report on progress in the propagation of ruffed grouse in captivity by the 
Department of Poultry Husbandry at the Massachusetts State College in 
Amherst, under the auspices of the Division. 

11. Anglers asked to report all tagged trout caught (several thousand brown 
and rainbow trout having been tagged last fall before liberation from the 
hatcheries in a study of migration and growth). Announcement of special patrol 
on public fishing grounds throughout the open trout season. Regulations govern- 
ing public fishing grounds outlined, as well as amendments to the fish and game 
laws. 

12. Plea to nature lovers, bird clubs, sportsmen's clubs and all interested per- 
sons, to join in the movement in progress throughout the country to preserve the 
migratory water fowl. Provisions explained of the 1935 National Waterfowl 
Refuge Contest sponsored by the More Game Birds in America Foundation. 

13. Nature lovers and students, farmers, sportsmen, land owners, city dwellers 
and all citizens, are asked to give a thought to the song and insectivorous birds, 
whose value, both aesthetic and economic, is impossible to estimate, and to provide 
food and protection during the present nesting season. 

14. Fish and game wardens will in future be uniformed; their functions are 
not only law enforcement, but crime prevention, rendering of first aid, contact 



14 P.D. 25 

point between property owners and sportsmen, and in general to serve as custo- 
dians of the State's wildlife. 

15. Warning 1 to dog owners and the public, that a wild fox in this State was 
found to have been afflicted with rabies, and that owners of dogs should pay 
special attention to the animals' condition. 

16. Notice that for salt water recreational fishermen, lists of boat liveries may 
be had on application to this office. 

17. An abnormally large run of white perch from ocean into the fresh water 
ponds, made possible the salvaging and re-distribution of five times the annual 
number so handled. 

18. Rising prices of meat products used as fish feed in the State hatcheries, led 
to a conference between this Division and the heads of other New England and 
eastern seaboard State commissions with the Commissioner of the U. S. Fisheries 
Bureau. As a result, a study will be undertaken by the Federal employees of 
more economical methods and the use of less costly foods. Further, assistance of 
the Public Works Administration will be sought, for funds to develop fishery 
resources all over this area, both for commercial fisheries and for game fish. 

19. A clutch of eggs of the Colchicus pheasant of Bulgaria has been imported 
in the hope of introducing this bird, which, like the grouse, is forest-dwelling, 
hardy and prolific, into Massachusetts. 

20. Lists of boat liveries on inland waters, as well as stocked ponds and 
streams, are available. 

21. A program of stream clearance work (including fishway repair) embracing 
every coastal brook and river, is under way, intended to create better conditions 
for the anadromous fish so they may reach their spawning grounds without 
hindrance. These streams have been stocked with almost a million and a quarter 
shad fry, thousands of adult alewives and half a million of smelt eggs. 

22. Announcement of a three-day fishing license, available to non-residents for 
$1.50 between Memorial and Labor Day. Review of last year's issuance of 
licenses to fish and hunt. 

23. Extensive program of improvement and enlargement of the game farms 
and fish hatcheries submitted for approval of the Works Progress Administration 
authorities in Washington. 

24. Survey just completed under the direction of the State Ornithologist shows 
that shore birds, which were close to extinction a few years ago, are coming back. 

25. Announcement of State regulations governing fall shooting and possession 
of waterfowl. 

26. White hares will be imported from New Brunswick for liberation in 
Massachusetts because the previous sources of supply are cut off,- — by embargo 
on exportation from Vermont, and by the danger of tularemia in the Maine stock. 
Progress is being made in the experimental cottontail raising in Massachusetts. 

27. Raccoon hunting discussed as the season opens to take raccoons with dog 
and gun. A start has been made by the Division in rearing raccoon for re- 
stocking purposes. 

28. Annual fall distribution of brown and rainbow trout is in progress over 
the State, the fish ranging from 7 to over 10 inches in length and numbering over 
200,000. Discussion of the bass rearing work. 

29. Plea to the hunters to exercise special care in the handling of firearms 
made by the Director on the eve of the opening of the fall gunning season. 

30. Ban on the importation of white hares from Maine lifted by Massachusetts 
Public Health Council, so that stock may be secured there as well as in New 
Brunswick for the Division's stocking operations. 

31. Seasons, bag limits and other regulations on the hunting of game birds and 
animals announced and discussed. 

32. Explanation of the special one-day permits which gunners will be required 
to secure if they wish to hunt in the State Forests. The purpose of these permits 
is both for the protection of the Civilian Conservation Corps workers, and to 
check the number and kinds of game taken in the State Forests. 

33. Elucidation of the trapping situation. 



P.D. 25 15 

34. Announcement that request has been made to the Bureau of Biological 
Survey at Washington for authority to extend the season on ducks and geese, and 
on woodcock, the same number of days that shooting has been prevented because 
the woods were closed by proclamation, due to the drouth conditions. 

35. Calling attention to the fact that the period between 7 a.m. and 1 p.m. on 
Armistice Day is a close season for hunting, and making public the fact that the 
Bureau of Biological Survey cannot see its way to extending the season on water- 
fowl and woodcock which had been asked on account of the woods ban. 

36. Regulations governing the open season on deer. 

The Division continued its work in compiling and providing to the public, 
information on the following subjects: 

Covers to be stocked with pheasants. 

Covers to be stocked with quail. 

Ponds and rivers stocked with pond fish. 

Streams stocked with trout. 

Owners of boats available for fresh-water fishing. 

Owners of boats available for salt-water sport fishing. 

Location and extent of Massachusetts leased fishing waters. 

Ponds stocked with salmon. 

Waters open to fishing in State Forests. 

State Forests wherein hunting is permitted under permit from the superin- 
tendent in charge, and regulations under which such hunting may be done. 

Various other statements on matters of interest to the sportsmen, which arise 
from time to time. 

Exhibits and Lectures 

Many taUcs were given before Men's Clubs, Rotarians, Masons and other bodies 
guaranteeing an audience of fifty. On several occasions the seventy-slide balopti- 
con was loaned to Boy Scout organizations. 

At the New England Sportsmen's and Boat Show at Mechanics Building, 
Boston, February 3-9, a 40 by 14 foot space housed the Division's exhibit, the 
principal features of which were five aquaria containing large live trout ; hunters' 
camp comprising lean-to cabin and typical camp outfits, from which fish and 
game laws and other literature were distributed ; and the marine work was repre- 
sented by a five-foot model of a Gloucester type fisherman's dory and various 
marine specimens. 

The exhibit at the Physical Education Building at the Massachusetts State 
College, Amherst, March 15-17, was similar in character. 

The Director represented His Excellency Governor James M. Curley at the 
first New England Sportsmen's Rendezvous, at Maranacook Lake, Winthrop, 
Me., July 26 to August 4, held for the purpose of bringing together the sportsmen 
of New England. Present also were the Chief Fish and Game Warden, and a 
delegation consisting of a Fish and Game Warden Supervisor and five wardens 
who participated in the revolver shooting competition. The Massachusetts exhibit 
was housed in a 30 by 50 foot building of log cabin type, trimmed with flags and 
green boughs, and illuminated at night, located on a point of land running into 
the lake. Uniformed wardens were in attendance at all times. The inland work 
was shown by live fresh-water fish, live bob white quail and pheasants, large- 
sized paintings of the fish hatcheries and game farms, and the balopticon views. 
Models of the Jack Miner crow trap and explanatory literature, were on display. 
The marine work was shown by a moving representation of two old fishermen, 
fishing from a dory in a rough sea, and by salt water specimens, all in an appro- 
priate marine setting. 

An exhibit was made as usual at the Eastern States Exposition September 
15-25, but, with the cooperation of the National Park Service, an entirely new 
type of display was set up. In the east wing, containing the fish and game 
exhibit, a dome, skyblue overhead and with painted-in landscape on the horizon, 
was built to balance the dome of the forestry exhibit in the west wing. On one 
half of the 18 by 36 foot platform in front of the dome was laid out a representa- 
tion of a section of run-down farm land, with a tiny brook running into a muddy 



16 P.D. 25 

pond containing- a few shiners, and a single chipmunk and a pair of crows in the 
landscape emphasized the unattractiveness of the area for wild life. In contrast, 
the other side showed green moss underfoot, evergreen and deciduous trees, fruit- 
bearing- shrubs, and a gravel-bottom brook emptying into a lighted pool of 
swimming brook trout. Useful wildlife set in this scene showed the value of 
building up suitable wildlife conditions on neglected farm lands. Alongside of 
this exhibit, proper methods of feeding the wild birds during the winter were 
demonstrated by the exhibition of a properly built lean-to brush shelter, with 
grain and hay chaff and grit properly placed to attract the birds. A uniformed 
warden was on duty at all times. Attendance was reported as the largest in the 
nineteen years in which the exposition has been held. 

Massachusetts State College 

Due to the whole-hearted interest of the President and faculty of the Massachu- 
setts State College at Amherst in conservation matters, much has been accom- 
plished during the past year at this institution which directly affects fish and 
game work carried on b}^ the Division. 

For the purpose of obtaining data on fish life and fish food in Cranberry Pond, 
located on Mount Toby Reservation, fishing was regulated by permit and complete 
records of all fish taken from the pond became available to those in charge. 

In connection with the second annual Recreation Conference held at the college 
in March, the Division sponsored an exhibit of fish and game similar to that 
shown at the Sportsmen's Show in Boston. One section of the conference was 
devoted to a discussion of wildlife problems. 

The grouse experiment at the college, which was started last year under the 
direct supervision of Prof. Luther Banta and Prof. William C. Sanctuary of the 
Department of Poultry Husbandry, was continued this year and very valuable 
data have been obtained. For the purpose of providing constant care of the grouse 
the Division maintained an employee at the college during the summer months, 
and as a result a more detailed report of the behavior of the birds became avail- 
able. Following is their report in full : 

"We submit herewith our Progress Report on the artificial propagation of 
ruffed grouse for the season of 1935. Perhaps first should be mentioned our 
appreciation for the very fine cooperation extended by many individuals. Among 
these should be particularly enumerated the game wardens and field representa- 
tives of your division, and Mr. Fred Wood of the Wilbraham State Game Farm ; 
also Mr. Fred Taylor who was detailed to care for the grouse during the summer, 
and Doctors Van Roekel and Bullis of our Department of Veterinary Science, 
who autopsied every specimen that was lost. 

"With one season of experimentation, we were much better equipped with 
experience and facilities than in 1934. One hundred and fifty-four (154) wild 
eggs were brought in as 14 different lots, and from 16 different nests. These 
nests, in cases where the numbers of eggs were reported, held from 11 to 15 
eggs each. One hundred and fifty-two (152) eggs were set in a Buffalo electric 
incubator. Thirty-six (36) eggs were removed due to breakage, blood rings, dead 
in shell, etc., and 118 chicks were hatched or 77.6% of those set, A number of 
embryo malpositions have been observed and might well receive intensive study in 
the future. Upon arrival all eggs were weighed individually and scored for 
shape, texture and color. All eggs that had been held under domestic hens were 
disinfected before placing in the incubator. The range of egg weights was from 
15.5 to 21.5 grams inclusive. Each lot of eggs was segregated so that its progress 
could be followed subsequently. The chicks were weighed individually and leg 
banded. The range of chick weights was from 9 to 15.5 grams inclusive for the 
115 chicks moved to the brooders. 

"A study of the origin of our 5 live birds on hand at present demonstrates 
that they all came from a single wild nest. These eggs were the last lot to be 
brought in and the first to hatch. These facts suggest great differences in the 
inherent vigor of stocks from different parents, and that a study of the body 
temperatures of wild grouse and those of the embryos of wild eggs undergoing 
natural incubation should be undertaken in 1936. 



P.D. 25 17 

"The master thermostat furnished this year enabled us to maintain better con- 
trol of brooder temperatures than previously. The 2 new Coleman brooders were 
also helpful. However, the metal hovers were uninsulated, which proved a real 
handicap, and this improvement was effected. 

"The greatest single obstacle encountered was the inability to induce the baby 
chicks to eat. The greatest losses were experienced in the first few days in the 
brooders. Sixty-five (65) chicks that died in this period were, upon autopsy, 
found to have little or no feed in either crops or gizzards. They would walk or 
run right over and through the great abundance and variety of food offered, 
including both dry and moist mash, cracked grains, green feed and liquid milk. 
Forced feeding was resorted to but proved ineffectual. In most instances, in 
former experiments elsewhere, the use of live maggots has been resorted to. To 
reduce the chances of infection, we have thus far avoided this practice, but this 
method or some other device may be necessary to overcome this real handicap at 
the very start. No difficulty of this nature was experienced in 1934 when feeding 
was begun in the incubator due to inability to have the brooders ready on time. 
A very much improved ration was available this year, as developed by Dr. L. C. 
Norris of the Cornell University poultry staff. This ration carries substantial 
amounts of brewer's yeast and liver meal, and .supplies nutritional essentials, 
particularly vitamin 'G,' which have been deficient in many diets fed to game 
birds in the past. Due to the pioneer character of this work, it is desirable to 
employ rations of known constitution, rather than commercially available mix- 
tures involving secret formulas. No perosis or slipped tendon were observed, 
feathering was smooth and abundant, and observation would suggest that every 
nutritive essential was provided. When, if and as adequate numbers of grouse 
can be successfully reared, modifications calculated to reduce the cost of this diet 
may well be inaugurated. 

"On July 22, our 15 birds then available were divided into 2 lots, 7 being con- 
tinued on wire, and 8 placed in a portable run on what seemed to be clean lawn 
sod. The run was moved faithfully every other day to a new area. These birds 
developed very satisfactorily for nearly 5 weeks. On August 25, two (2) died 
suddenly, 2 on August 26, 3 on August 27, and 1 on September 1. Autopsy 
showed the cause to be acute ulcerative enteritis or quail disease. These cases were 
our first experience with this well known malady. From this experience we feel 
justified in our belief that, for our present location at least, the college poultry 
plant, it is essential to maintain our stock on wire floors continuously. When ade- 
quate numbers of birds are available, it would be practically feasible to try deep 
gravel, sand, or cinder runs. These have proven very successful in rearing turkey 
poults. The analogous problem concerned in rearing turkeys is infectious 
hepatitis or blackhead disease. We still have one surviving grouse from the 1934 
trial. This bird is apparently normal, but has been continuously on wire floors. 

"By employing strict sanitary precautions, disinfecting all utensils, hands, etc., 
no quail disease was transmitted to the other lot continued on wire', and these 
birds appear to be very fine individuals in every way. One (1) bird died October 
7 from blackhead. As the birds grew, the leg bands were replaced by wing bands 
at 45 to 57 days of age. All birds have been weighed weekly, so that some data 
are now available to determine normal growth curves. This information is very 
vital and useful from a number of standpoints. 

"Our progress is necessarily severely handicapped by having a supply of eggs 
available at only one time of year. When we succeed in rearing considerable 
numbers so that we may maintain our own breeding colony, we will be in a posi- 
tion to make more rapid progress. With the inauguration of a two-year wild life 
major in the Stockbridge School at Massachusetts State College this fall, it is 
hoped that more adequate funds and personnel may be made available. We are 
greatly handicapped in attempting to offer adequate instruction in game bird 
propagation with only a few birds of a single species, and the necessity of prose- 
cuting our experiments on a part-time basis." 



18 P.D. 25 

Acknowledgments 

Gift of $60 from the Massachusetts Audubon Society, for the purpose of 
affording protection to the duck hawk. The entire amount was spent for posters 
and warden service during the nesting period of this species. 

Donation, approximate value $87.50, by the Millers Falls Sportsmen's Club of 
one of the so-called Hewitt circular tubs for trout rearing at the Montague State 
Fish Hatchery, together with a supply of the balanced ration for raising to legal 
length one lot of trout. 

During the year the following gifts of land were received : 

From the Federation of the Bird Clubs of New England, Inc., 15.15 acres of 
land located in the town of Hancock, as an addition to the Edward Howe Forbush 
Wildlife Reservation. 

From the Federation of the Bird Clubs of New England, Inc., 20 acres of land 
more or less, known as Ram Island, in the Merrimack River in the town of 
Salisbury, as a wildlife sanctuary. 

ENFORCEMENT OF THE GAME AND INLAND FISH LAWS 

Through retirement, two of the oldest members of the game and inland fish 
law-enforcement personnel have been lost to the service. Warden Lyman E. 
Ruberg of Shelburne Falls on February 20 joined the retired list through disabil- 
ity. Mr. Ruberg entered the State service on September 15, 1900, served to 
January 1, 1907, in a temporary status, was appointed to the regular force on 
July 1, 1907, and served continuously to the date of his retirement. During that 
time he worked extensively in the western part of the State and patrolled a dis- 
trict in excess of four hundred and thirty square miles. 

On August 28 Warden James E. Bemis of Frainingham was retired after hav- 
ing reached the compulsory retirement age of seventy. Mr. Bemis entered the 
service on July 1, 1907, and served continuously until the date of his retirement. 
In his capacity of fish and game warden he had served over many portions of the 
State, and in the earlier years of his service much time was spent on lobster and 
smelt work. He was the one usually called upon for any special work requiring 
skill at carpentry, and much of this part of the exhibition work was done by him. 

Albert G. Farrell of Melrose was appointed to the service on April 12, with 
headquarters at Shelburne Falls, and assigned to the district formerly patrolled 
by Warden Lyman E. Ruberg. James E. Donohue of Worcester was appointed 
on the same date, with headquarters at Palmer, and assigned to the Palmer dis- 
trict, which had been vacant since the transfer of Warden Donald E. Ellershaw 
to the Westfield district. 

Mr. James F. Hayes of Whitinsville was provisionally appointed on September 
9 and assigned for patrol work in the Framingham district. 

On May 1 Warden Charles E. Tribou was relieved of enforcement duty and 
specially assigned to Emergency Relief Administration projects, continuing 
through the year. Warden Tribou's district was temporarily divided up among 
the wardens in adjoining districts, so that the area was adequately patrolled. 
His work was principally in connection with herring and alewife streams. Other 
wardens throughout the State, in addition to their regular duties, worked with 
the local administrators on projects, principally along the streams. 

The need for patrolling the public fishing grounds added nine temporary war- 
dens to the service for a three-months period, so that the district wardens were 
relieved from the entire patrol on these areas, giving them more time to devote to 
other trout streams in their respective districts, with only occasional trips to the 
public fishing grounds areas for the general oversight of this work. The tem- 
porary wardens so employed apprehended and prosecuted 14 persons for viola- 
tions of the fish and game laws while patrolling these streams. 

The wardens' uniforms mentioned in the last annual report were worn officially 
for the first time on May 16, with the value of a uniformed force being very- 
apparent from the start. While the uniforms may not be worn at all times, they 
are worn generally except on special occasions, and it is felt that the sportsmen 
appreciate dealing with a warden in uniform, and certain types of fish and game 



P.D. 25 19 

law violators evidence added respect for both the warden and the fish and game 
laws. 

As a result of plans formulated during the past fiscal year a revolver team was 
organized, and under the capable coaching of the U. S. Marine Corps it was sent 
to Maine to compete at the New England Sportsmen's Rendezvous held at 
Maranacook, Maine, this being the first appearance of a Massachusetts wardens' 
revolver team in competition. It is felt that satisfactory progress has been made, 
and while the team representing Massachusetts failed to win the Maine shoot, it 
is expected that as time goes on the team will place much higher in competition 
than in its original attempt. However, as much of the success in any such enter- 
prise depends entirely upon the amount of time and practice put into it, it is 
highly improbable that sufficient time can be taken from the work of the Division 
to develop a revolver team comparable to teams that have the time and opportu- 
nity to follow this work. 

A further service that the Division is rendering for the benefit of gunners, 
fishermen, and the public at large while enjoying outdoor recreation, is in equip- 
ping its entire force with first-aid outfits so that much suffering, and possibly 
lives, can be saved in the field. All wardens are supplied with various sized 
compresses, iodine swabs, ammonia inhalants, tannoid for burns, tourniquets, and 
eye dressings. All of the men active in law enforcement work have received 
instructions in first aid, so that broken legs and severe bleeding cases should not 
be occasions that cannot be satisfactorily handled in the near future. While most 
of the cases this year have been of a minor nature, several cases were serious, and 
it is felt that this service should be continued for the benefit particularly of fisher- 
men and hunters. 

During the winter months, feeding stations were constructed by the wardens 
and maintained throughout the severe weather, with varying results. No attempt 
was made to have an equal number of stations in each district, but feeding 
stations were set up by the wardens in connection with their regular patrol work. 
The feeding stations in a district varied from 5 to 20 or more, according to the 
location and conditions. The need of feeding stations in the western part of the 
State was not as acute as in the eastern part, where pheasants and quail exist in 
greater numbers. Therefore, generally speaking, the bulk of the stations ap- 
peared in eastern Massachusetts. Different types of construction were used, to 
learn if any preference was shown by the birds in coming to these stations for 
grain, but apparently the type of shelter used makes little difference, for in some 
instances quail, pheasants, rabbits, crows, jays, and even partridge or ruffed 
grouse were observed coming to a particular type of shelter, while others of the 
same type drew no game birds. In the North Easton district, comprising 9 towns, 
18 feeding stations were maintained, to which approximately 150 quail were 
known to come, with pheasants coming into the same stations to a lesser degree 
(5 at one time being the highest number observed). Grouse were noticed at two 
or three of these stations, and cottontail rabbits also were feeding in several of 
them. In other sections partridge were flushed from the stations, but generally 
did not appear to be eating much of the grain. Contrary to expectations, 
predators appeared around but few of the stations, and the only authentic records 
of birds having been killed by predators are as follows — by foxes, 3 rabbits and 2 
ruffed grouse ; by house cat, 1 quail ; by an owl, 1 quail. While it is entirely prob- 
able that predators killed additional game around feeding stations, there is no 
substantiating evidence. In several instances feeding stations were put in 
expressly for ruffed grouse, but were discontinued after a short time as it was 
found that while in some cases grouse used the shelters, they took little or no 
grain. 

Deer accidentally or illegally killed numbered 94 and met death in the follow- 
ing ways : 

Hit by automobiles or trucks 46 

Hit by trains 10 

Killed or fatally injured through being chased by dogs . . .18 

Badly injured, and shot by wardens 1 

Found dead 7 



20 P.D. 25 

Drowned, or found dead in the water 6 

Confiscated 3 

Ran into fence 2 

Starved 1 

Such deer were disposed of by the wardens. If fit for food, the meat was dis- 
tributed to needy families. This year 466 families received meat (receipts for 
which were taken from the individual families receiving the venison), and no 
meat was given to families other than those appearing on the welfare list in the 
particular town where the meat was killed. If unfit for food, the carcasses were 
buried. 

Several fawns, orphaned by dogs or automobiles killing the does, were picked 
up during the year and turned over to the State or city zoological gardens for 
proper care in raising. 

Complaints from farmers relative to damage, particularly to corn, by raccoons 
and gray squirrels have cost no little time and travel on the part of the wardens, 
and the damage has been greater from this source than has been in evidence for 
many years. It also has required much night patrol by the wardens in addition to 
regular day patrol, which prior to the opening of the season on squirrels was 
made particularly busy by the great number of gray squirrels at practically 
every point in the State. 

The Federal regulations on migratory game birds made the work of law 
enforcement along the shore particularly difficult — partly on account of the few 
who try to beat any law or regulation, but mainly through misunderstanding on 
the part of gunners by their failure to properly interpret the regulations. 

During the year, several outstanding cases were brought to completion by the 
wardens. In one case the defendant was convicted in Superior Court at New 
Bedford for selling game, resulting in the imposition of a fine of $300, which was 
paid. The case was handled under the direction of Supervisor of Wardens, Lloyd 
M. Walker, with the investigation lasting approximately two years before it was 
possible to make an arrest. Another game selling case, smaller in proportion, was 
also disposed of during the year, and it is anticipated that the taking of wildlife 
for market will be materially lessened as a result of the large fines imposed for 
this type of violation. One case, unique in so far as circumstances are concerned, 
involved the fishing vessel Seraphina N. of Gloucester, whose crew captured a 
deer with the aid of a lassoo from the boat while the deer was swimming in the 
ocean off Race Point in Provincetown. They were later apprehended by Warden 
Cyril W. Hanley of Harwichport who boarded the boat armed with a search 
warrant. The captain of the boat was fined $100 in the Provincetown Court for 
having deer in his possession during the closed season. Warden Hanley was 
assisted in this case by local officers. 

The deer season of December, 1934, which comes within the 1935 fiscal year, 
indicated that increase in lawlessness prevailed. Twenty-five violators were 
apprehended, resulting in fines up to $100, with total fines of $465 for the period 
of one week. Violations in connection with the deer season were somewhat varied 
in that Sunday hunting, hunting on posted land, hunting without a license, aliens 
in possession of firearms, hunting with dogs, and hunting during the closed 
season, all entered into the picture. 

Extra wardens were sent to Nantucket during the week of February 11 for 
patrol work for the initial open season on deer on the island. During that time 
two Nantucket gunners were apprehended for killing the wild turkeys on the 
Island, with a result that they were convicted in the Nantucket district court 
where fines of $20 each were imposed. As an added penalty they were required 
to replace the birds killed. 

The theft of trout used for exhibition purposes at the Sportsmen's Show held 
at Mechanics Building furnished an unusual case in which the two defendants 
were brought before the Boston Municipal Court for possession of trout during 
the closed season, resulting in fines of $50 each being paid. 

The district court work of the wardens and deputy wardens for the year, 
follows : 



P.D. 25 



21 



VIOLATION 



Aliens possessing firearms 

Armistice Day law violated 

Assault on an officer 

Bass 

Buying dead bodies of certain birds and mammals 

Deer 

Discharging firearms within 50 yards of State 

highway 

Fishmg in closed ponds 

Fishing on posted laud 

Fishing other than by angling 

Fishing without a license 

Fishing in closed season 

Horned pout 

Hunting from a boat ....... 

Hunting on State property 

Hunting with the aid of a vehicle .... 
Hunting on private land without permission of 

owner 

Hunting on the Lord's Day 

Hunting without a license 

Hunt : i:g half hour after sunset .... 

Impersonating a warden 

Failure to surrender void licenses .... 

Refusal to show license 

Securing license fraudulently 

Transferring license 

Migratory birds 

Mink 

Muskrats 

Tearing open muskrat houses 

Netting 

Pheasants 

Pickerel 

Placing grain on shores of pond for ducks . _ . 
Possession of firearms while training dogs during 

closed season 

Possession of a shotgun on Sunday where game 

may be found . 

Rabbits 

Raccoons ......... 

Ruffed grouse 

Selling fresh water fish 

Smelt 

Snaring or trapping quadrupeds .... 

Squirrels 

Taking protected birds 

Trapping without a license 

Not visiting traps once in 24 hours .... 

Trapping without a permit 

Using marked traps 

Setting traps not designed to kill at once 
Trapping in closed season ...... 

Trawling 

Trespassing 

Trout . 

Using dogs during deer week 

Wall eyed pike 

White perch . 

Wood ducks, black ducks, mallard ducks 

Totals 



2JS 

£8 



29 
5 
1 

12 
8 

18 



1 
4 
19 
341 
3 
6 
3 
1 
1 

1 

10 

79 

3 

3 

1 

5 

16 

3 

1 

1 

4 

2 

2 

6 

23 

2 



4 

1 

4 

3 

1 

3 

2 

11 

13 

29 

5 

1 

16 

10 

9 

1 

3 

28 

3 

2 

6 

2 



783 



1 

4 

18 

317 



4 

1 

3 

3 

1 

3 

2 

10 

13 

29 



1 
2 

27 
3 
2 
6 
2 



710 



Disposition 



«3 'd 
fig 



1 

21 



73 



32 



_ 


2 


1 


11 


- 


3 


_ 


1 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


1 



156 



Permits and Registrations 

The issuance of permits to breeders, dealers and others, concerning wildlife 
protected by law, was directed by the Supervisor of Permits and Claims. 

There were 32 forms of free permits issued this year, in addition to those for 
which a charge is made. In connection with the application for and issuance of 
each permit, as well as its subsequent supervision, considerable time and expense 
is involved. Each year several cases come before the courts where the parties have 
unlawfully obtained their stock or specimens. 



22 P.D. 25 

Upon receipt of a request for a permit, the proper application form must be 
sent to be completed, and the district warden involved notified to inspect the 
premises of the applicant to ascertain the suitability of the same for the particu- 
lar birds, mammals or fish to be kept, and the fitness of the applicant himself to 
hold such a permit. There must be prepared and kept on hand at the central 
office a variety of permit forms, as well as the statutes, rules and regulations for 
the guidance and protection of the permittee. In view of the fact that the warden 
force must keep under their supervision all persons and establishments holding 
permits, it would seem that a fee should be required covering the cost of issuance 
of the permits and the subsequent supervision both by the warden and at the 
central office. In many cases the permittee keeps the birds or mammals but a 
short time, or even never obtains any under the terms of his permit, which is 
eventually revoked. 

An increasing number of requests are received from the various fish and game 
clubs for permits to hold field trials. 

Registration of gunning stands was not required this year, because of the fact 
that the Federal regulations relative to the taking of ducks and geese forbade the 
use of live duck and goose decoys. 

For the taking of shiners for bait, 70 permits (at $5 each) were issued. 

The requests for permits to kill gulls fell off greatly, after it was learned that 
such permits could be obtained. Only a few are still outstanding, principally for 
the protection of shellfish beds. Among unusual requests is one for the privilege 
of driving them away from the Boston Airport, where they have become a menace 
to the landing planes. Recently, one of the Airport's planes was forced to pass 
through a large flock of gulls, and many of the birds were killed, glass was 
broken, and the plane and the propellers were damaged. Fear was expressed lest 
a crash might some time result, unless measures are taken to drive the birds from 
the landing field. In another instance, golf links were badly littered by shellfish, 
dropped by the gulls so that the shells would be broken. 

New Legislation During 1935 

The following laws relating to fish and game were enacted during the legislative 
session of 1935 : 

Chapter 5 provides an open season for deer on Nantucket, the first a special 
season from February 11 to 15 in 1935 only, and thereafter the regular open sea- 
son provided for the rest of the State. 

Chapter 13 provides for the shooting of quail in Middlesex and Worcester 
counties. 

Chapter 98 permits the use of fish traps with openings not over one inch in 
diameter for catching bait in any of the inland waters ; all fish not authorized by 
Section 71, Chapter 131, G. L., to be returned alive to the waters whence they 
were taken. 

Chapter 107 permits the taking of mammals on Sunday by means of traps. 

Chapter 120 changes the season on horned pout and yellow perch so that both 
seasons open April 15 and close on the last day of February. 

Chapter 127 places Dudley Pond, Wayland, under control of the town and 
provides that the town may make rules and regulations covering fishing, which to 
be effective must be approved by the Division of Fisheries and Game. 

Chapter 233 authorizes the fish and game wardens to enforce the regulations of 
the Commissioner of Conservation in State forests and such areas as he may con- 
trol. It also authorizes forest wardens to enforce the fish and game laws in such 
areas, and to enforce throughout the State the provisions of Section 81 during 
periods when the woods are closed owing to drouth conditions. 

Chapter 268 grants to the proprietors of the New Mattakessett Creeks certain 
fishing rights in Mattakessett Creeks and Craxtuxett Cove in Edgartown. 

Chapter 304 places Farm Pond, Sherborn, more or less under the jurisdiction 
of the town, and permits the town to make rules and regulations covering fishing, 
which to be effective must be approved by the Division of Fisheries and Game. 



P.D. 25 23 

ACTIVITIES OF THE BIOLOGIST AND STAFF 

The Biologist and his assistants continued to broaden the scope of their work 
during the year, and the number, as well as the diversity of the problems which 
arose requiring biological study, showed a noticeable increase. Some of the more 
important problems are discussed below. 

Aquicultural Investigations 

Stream Survey. — Through the courtesy of the Middlesex County Extension 
Service, a field office was established at Concord for the use of the biological 
stream survey unit, and which proved to be of great value and convenience during 
the year in both stream survey and general field work. 

Stream survey was continued on the Merrimack River System. This is a very 
large and wide-spread watershed, and numerous brooks on it were studied, includ- 
ing those in Acton, Berlin, Bolton, Chelmsford, Concord, Dunstable, Hudson, 
Marlboro, Northboro, Shrewsbury, Stow, Tyngsboro, and Westboro. Considerable 
preliminary work, in anticipation of future field work, was done on the Sudbury, 
Concord and Merrimack Rivers and their tributaries. On the whole, water condi- 
tions were very favorable this year for field work as compared to the previous 
three years. Fewer streams went dry, but water was low until much later in the 
fall, allowing intensive work to be carried on until a much later date than usual. 
This season was peculiar in that low water levels normally occurring in August 
did not prevail this year until late September, October and November. This con- 
dition resulted in denial to fish of access to many waters normally used for 
spawning, and the effect of this will probably be felt by anglers for two seasons 
hence. This is an example of one of the factors that will probably be forgotten 
by the time its effect is felt. 

Stream and pond classification was continued during the year. Town maps 
mounted on cloth were prepared and furnished to all wardens, giving the location 
and official nomenclature of all streams in their districts. In view of the many 
local names by which the streams are known, this will result in a great saving of 
time and avoid confusion in stocking them. 

Pond and Stream Investigations. — Numerous stream improvement problems 
were handled during the year by members of the biological staff. Advice and 
assistance were rendered to those seeking help in this field, and the results 
promise to be most gratifying. 

The work on stream improvement involved the preparation of material that 
could be used in the promotion and direction of the work. This included a paper 
which was supplementary to the stream improvement paper prepared in 1934, 
and also many field trips, particularly on work relating to Emergency Relief 
Administration stream improvement. 

One of the major stream improvement projects completed during the year was 
that on Yokum Brook located in the town of Lenox. The project was sponsored 
by the town, and was directed by a member of the biological staff in conjunction 
with the district warden. Numerous types of deflectors and barriers were in- 
stalled in the stream, also a Hewitt type dam, a fishway for the passage of fish 
over a mill dam, and the course of the brook was changed for the creation of a 
fishing pond. This project served as an excellent demonstration of stream im- 
provement for officials from other sections of the State contemplating similar 
projects, and frequent inspections were made by them of the work completed on 
this brook. A complete set of photographs and lantern slides was made of this 
demonstration work, and is available for use in the Division. 

In the early part of the year information that had been collected during the 
field work of the previous year was prepared in the form of special reports on 
the following subjects : 

1. "The Selection of Natural Great Ponds for Stocking as Trout Ponds." — 
This report includes the area, depth and percentage of deep water suitable for 
trout. In it are also contained summer bottom temperatures, list of fish inhabiting 
the pond, conditions for salvage work, methods for the control of predatory fish, 
and other items that would affect the life of trout. 

2. "Prospective Ponds." — This report covers field work spent in the explora- 



24 P.D. 25 

tion for sites for the construction of ponds for trout fishing or pond fish rearing 
ponds. It lists the location, probable area of pond, water supply, and area of 
watershed, as well as condition of dam if existing, conditions at probable site for 
dam construction, drainage, condition of pond bottom, and finally the recom- 
mended use of the pond if constructed. 

3. "Forest Ponds." — This report is descriptive of the possible uses of the 
Forest Ponds with recommendations for their improvement and control. Consid- 
eration is given to their use as ponds for trout fishing or as wintering ponds 
from which the trout might be later distributed, with the alternate use for pond 
fish. In this report is also included their possibilities as rearing ponds for pond 
fish, and the means for bringing this about through a plan for combined fishing 
and rearing with combinations of trout and pond fish if conditions are favorable. 

To aid and guide those in charge of the construction and development of the 
ponds in the State Forests, and for the use of sportsmen's clubs and individuals 
as well, a paper was prepared with the title, "Construction of Devices for the 
Control of Fish and Their Removal from Ponds." 

Field trips also included work relative to pond screening, fishway survey, plan- 
ning and construction, rearing pool location and planning, and special projects 
on fishing and fish cultural work. The above program required sixty-nine field 
trips and included projects in eighty-five different towns in the State. 

Massachusetts maps were prepared by a member of the biological staff to be 
used by the National Resources Board, a special Federal Board making a country- 
wide survey of our natural resources. The material which was supplied is to be 
used in a publication which will be entitled, "Little Waters." 

Fishways. — Through interest shown by the sportsmen in Worcester County, 
a survey was made by a member of the biological staff and the Worcester County 
Engineers on the circular dam of the Quinapoxet River at the head of the Wachu- 
sett Reservoir, Boylston and Clinton, preparatory to drawing up plans for the 
installation of a fishway at this point. The data collected during the survey were 
submitted to the Metropolitan District Commission for its consideration. This 
will enable the Commission to prepare plans and specifications for the construc- 
tion of a proper fishway. 

Pollution. — Two important cases of stream pollution were investigated, dur- 
ing the year. The first of these was on Bummit Brook, located in North Grafton. 
A yeast factory situated in the village of North Grafton was discharging large 
amounts of putrefactive waste into this stream. Fish were dying in large numbers, 
and the ponds and tributaries on Bummit Brook were overrun with a growth 
from which came a very offensive odor noticeable for a considerable distance 
from the stream. While the Division was preparing its case for prosecution, 
action was brought against the company by one seeking an injunction. A member 
of the biological staff testified at the hearing, and a temporary injunction was 
issued by the court. The case was ended by the burning of the factory before the 
Division took its case for a permanent injunction to court. 

The second case of pollution was that in the Deerfield River. Through the 
cooperation of the Deerfield Glassine Company, waste formerly discharged into 
the abandoned bed of the river in Monroe has been reduced from 50,000 pounds 
daily to about 150 pounds daily. Experiments have been started to determine 
whether or not the residual pollution is a menace to fish life. When this has been 
determined, steps will be taken to plant fish in this section of the river, thereby 
reclaiming for the sportsmen one of the best stretches of the Deerfield River. 
Such cooperation as this is a tribute to the enlightened public spirit of the officials 
of this company. 

Aquatic Vegetation. — During the month of August a detailed survey was 
made of the Sutton State Pond System under the direction of the Biologist and a 
Junior Aquatic Biologist of the IT. S. Forest Service, Emergency Conservation 
work. A chart and outline map of each pond were prepared, showing proposed 
pond improvement plantings of aquatic vegetation, and are available for use 
when funds permit the purchase and collection of such material. At the begin- 
ning of the fiscal year Naias — Bushy Pondweed (Naias flexilis) — was planted in 



P.D. 25 25 

the Putnam and the Arnold Pond, and in the late summer three thousand wild 
celery plants (Vallisneria spiralis) were transplanted from the Palmer State Fish 
Hatchery to the Sutton Ponds. In response to the numerous requests from the 
public for information, the collection and identification of aquatic plants and 
insect life was continued by the field workers in order to augment the present 
reference collection. 

Fish Tagging. — Fish tagging experiments were conducted at the Sunderland 
and the Sandwich State Fish Hatcheries during the summer and fall by the Biolo- 
gist, assisted by members of the staff of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. At Sun- 
derland 250 brown trout averaging 7 to 9 inches in length were tagged with 
bright red celluloid discs about one-half inch in diameter, which were affixed to 
the trout by forcing a pure nickel pin to which they are attached, through the 
flesh between the dorsal fin and lateral line. A second disc is riveted to the other 
end of the pin. Thus a disc is visible on each side of the trout. At the end of the 
fiscal year no report had been received of trout having lost the tags, and only 2 
fish had died. This lot of trout will be planted next spring. Early in October, 
3,250 brook trout averaging 5Y 2 to 6y 2 inches in length were tagged at the Sand- 
wich State Fish Hatchery with "belly tags." A bright red celluloid tag was used 
1 inch long and 5/16 of an inch wide, one end oval and one end straight, num- 
bered, and marked on the numbered side, "Mail at once to Div. of Fish and Game, 
Boston, Mass." On the reverse side was printed "State when and where caught. 
Measure fish by tracing its outline carefully on paper." A small incision was 
made in the region of the ventral fin and the tag inserted in the abdomen to lie 
in the body cavity. 

Records were made of the length of each fish tagged and of the tag number. 
Half of these fish will be liberated during the winter in the Copecut River, Dart- 
mouth, some above and some below the pond at Collins Mill ; the other half will 
be liberated in the same locations next spring. 

Results of the 1934 Tagging Experiment. — The number of tags returned to 
the Division from both spring and fall plantings was rather low. Numerous fac- 
tors contributed to this result. First, the rubber tags used work out of the body. 
Such loss of tags probably continued during the fishing season, so that the num- 
ber of tagged trout in the streams to be caught was somewhat less than when 
planted. Also the rubber tags are more likely to be overlooked than are the bright 
red celluloid tags, as the latter may attract attention by touch as well as by sight. 
In view of the fact that no inducements were offered for the return of tags, it is 
possible that some tags were recovered but not returned to the Division. It is 
obvious, therefore, that the results give no indication of the percentage of liber- 
ated trout taken by the fishermen. At the close of the next fishing season the 
results of the two seasons' tagging experiments should supply some valuable 
information to the Division. 

Fish Propagation 

Selective Breeding. — Before eggs were stripped from the brook, brown and 
rainbow trout brood stocks, the Biologist and the Fish Culturists in charge of the 
respective hatcheries examined each individual fish and reserved for spawning 
only such specimens as measured up to the required standard. 

Disinfection of Eggs. — All trout and Chinook salmon eggs received into the 
hatcheries from outside sources, as well as eggs stripped from State trout brood 
stocks, were disinfected by immersing in a solution of acrifiavine for a twenty- 
minute period. This procedure represents one issue in the constant fight waged 
against the appearance of diseases in the much over-worked hatchery pools and 
ponds. 

A Method of Sterilizing Rearing Pools. — Disease problems at the State 
fish hatcheries made it necessary to devise a quick, inexpensive and yet effective 
method for the sterilization of rearing pools and ponds. In dealing with a dis- 
ease, such as furunculosis, caused by bacteria which might survive in organic 
matter imbedded deep in the bottom and sides of the hatchery pools, simple 
methods such as drawing off a pool or pond and covering the bottom with a 
chemical would not be effective. The first problem was the choice of a disinfecting 



26 P.D. 25 

agent. In this choice all reasonable possibilities were considered. Chlorine is an 
effective germicide in concentration of 0.5 parts per million. This may be trebled 
to provide a factor of safety. Using then a concentration of 1.5 parts per million 
will be considered a safe method of treatment, and inexpensive. There are two 
sources of chlorine available. Free chlorine gas liquefied in cylinders is the 
cheapest source but its economical and safe use requires expensive apparatus. 
Chloride of lime is a cheap and efficient source. . At 35% available chlorine the 
treatment of 600,000 gallons of water at 2 parts per million would cost $1.40 per 
treatment with higher concentration in proportion. There is a commercial prod- 
uct called HTH which contains some 67% available chlorine and which leaves 
much less sludge to clog the apparatus. This has been selected as the germicide 
best meeting our requirements. 

At first the pool to be sterilized was filled with chlorinated water and the 
bottom and sides immediately raked violently and then allowed to stand for about 
a day. It soon became apparent that some more effective means of getting the 
chlorine and hypochlorous acid into contact with the mud was necessary. To this 
end an apparatus was devised using a centrifugal pump to drive the water against 
the sides and bottoms of the ponds. Into the intake side, which was a IV2 inch 
pipe, a V2 inch pipe was teed, the small pipe extending into the large one with 
one side cut away to form a suction. A valve controls the amount of HTH solu- 
tion which is sucked through a hose from a 10-gallon can of stock solution. A 
2-inch hose attached to the pump outlet is used on the bottom and sides. Fur- 
rows about 6 inches to 1 foot are plowed with it, depending on the type of bottom. 
By using a good pressure, the chlorine can be made to penetrate 2 feet or more 
into the pond bottom. The maximum pressure is used on the sides that is prac- 
ticable without washing or digging them out altogether. The hose may be used 
without chemical if desired. Four years ago this apparatus was used during one 
season at three hatcheries infected with disease, and since then there has been no 
recurrence of the trouble. Prophylactic sterilization of rearing pools was prac- 
ticed at all the stations and was greatly facilitated by the two new pumps pur- 
chased last year. 

Sterilization of Hatchery Water Supplies. — The Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology began during the year, in cooperation with the Division, an ex- 
periment which it is hoped will prove of practical value in sterilizing the hatchery 
water supplies. The solution to such a problem and the development of a feasible 
method would represent a great saving in fish and labor. 

Feeding Experiments. — For the past three years the biological section has 
conducted experiments at the various hatcheries in the development of trout diets. 
The aim of this experimentation has been to develop inexpensive and at the same 
time effective diets to enable fish to be reared to a greater and more uniform size 
at the least expense compatible with good practice. The work has been limited in 
scope by funds and help available and by lack of suitable pools for experimental 
purposes at the hatcheries. However, the cooperation of the fish culturists has 
made possible a considerable degree of progress. 

These experiments have been conducted in troughs or pools depending upon the 
type of information desired, and every effort has been made to control them as 
carefully as possible and to eliminate (either in the actual experiment or in the 
interpretation of the data) variables other than the actual diet. 

The measurement of growth has been by weight. The fish are weighed at the 
beginning of the experiment and periodically during its course. In certain cases 
the length has been correlated, but this is not as accurate a method as weighing. 
The fish are weighed on specially designed scales on which a pail of water is 
tared. The fish are then counted out of the pool, drained for a certain uniform 
period and put in the pail of water. The difference in weight represents the 
weight of the fish. From this weight the average weight of the individuals is 
calculated. The size of sample necessary for any particular lot of fish is deter- 
mined experimentally. 

Feeding methods throughout the country are changing rapidly. Fish culturists 
are realizing increasingly that the traditional feeding practices are based on little 



P.D. 25 27 

more than tradition, and that while they do yield satisfactory results it is possible 
to develop new feeding methods that will produce either as good or better fish at 
less cost. 

The tremendous increase in the cost of the fresh meats has made these experi- 
ments particularly timely. Had it been necessary to continue in 1936 the diets 
used in 1935, the fish food bill confronting the Division would have more than 
doubled. The experiments have made it possible to reduce this increase to about 
35%, a saving of thousands of dollars. This experimentation is something that 
the Division has to do for itself. It has been shown repeatedly that results found 
by workers to be true at one location cannot be used without question at other 
hatcheries or on other species. 

Limited in personnel and facilities as the biological section has been, it is felt 
that enough progress has been made to justify a preliminary report. Space limi- 
tations make impossible the printing of a full report with all the evidence, but a 
brief summary will be given below. 

In this work we have had to consider first the choice of the proper meat basis, 
and, second, the choice of proper supplements. While fed alone melts are inferior 
to the much more expensive livers and hearts, it has been found that, properly 
supplemented, they are not only the equal, but the superior of the more expensive 
meats commonly fed in hatcheries. It should be noted that the non-meat constitu- 
ents of the diets are not to be considered as substitutes but as supplements, valu- 
able in themselves and by their presence beneficial. 

A number of supplements have been tested under varying conditions, on dif- 
ferent species and at different stations. These supplements are discussed below. 

Clam Meal. — This has been used with outstanding success on all three species 
of trout for three years and on Chinook salmon for one year. The reason for its 
apparent superiority is obscure, although its mineral content may be partially 
responsible. We do not feel that clam meal represents the ultimate in supple- 
ments but it has done consistently better than any other supplement so far tried. 
The limited supply available prohibits its use as a major supplement at all times, 
making the discovery of something of equal value most necessary. Better results 
are obtained with hog melts as a base than hog plucks. 

Salmon Roe. — This has been much discussed and used as a trout food, par- 
ticularly for brown trout. For brown trout it has been found to be equal to the 
clam meal, but experiments on brook trout have indicated that it is definitely 
harmful to this species at a 25% level. Other workers have confirmed these re- 
sults. Its use may still be possible or desirable on brook trout at a level of 10% 
or less. 

Haddock Roe. — If a sufficiently large commercial supply of this item, prop- 
erly vacuum dried, can be developed, it is felt that it will be of great value. 

Vitamins. — Impossibility of assays as accurate as those that can be made in 
human dietetics has made all experimentation in this connection of a necessarily 
gross nature. Little is known concerning what vitamins are necessary in fish nu- 
trition, and workers in this field have presented much contradictory evidence. 
Our own work has shown that there is some vitamin-like substance in cod liver 
oil which makes it of great value during the second month of feeding during the 
period of rapid tissue formation in the fish. Before or after this period it has not 
proven of any value in relation to growth. It may have some "conditioning" 
effect at other times, and it has proven of apparent value as has iodine, in the 
treatment of fish which are "run-down" by the presence of disease. Yeast has 
been tried several times but no benefit has been observed from its use. 

Herring Bits. — The development of a supply of "pasteurized" herring bits 
has made this food available for use without the fear of the re-introduction of 
Furunculosis, successfully excluded from our stations for four years since its 
eradication by the use of specially designed disinfecting apparatus. Herring bits 
are most desirable, when fresh frozen, both because of their essential nature and 
their low cost. Experimentation has proven their suitability as trout food, but 
that better results are given when additional supplements are included in the diet. 



28 P.D. 25 

It has been consistently shown that a mixed diet is more valuable than a straight 
diet, and there is a volume of evidence to support the belief that the greater the 
number of ingredients the better the diet, provided that none of the constituents 
are harmful and that they have some food value of their own. This centers 
interest on inexpensive items. Such items cannot replace the more expensive and 
valuable supplements but their inclusion is of benefit. 

Cottonseed Meal. — Cottonseed meal is such a material. There has been much 
discussion of this product. New York State has found it valuable on an experi- 
mental scale and of some value on a practical scale. Our work indicates that it 
has no detrimental effect on trout. Diets containing it have been consistently 
good, showing that it has a definite food value. This is due, probably, not so 
much to its essential nature as to the fact that it serves to provide further ad- 
mixture in the diet. We feel that its use is justified. The proper level at which 
to feed it is still a subject for investigation. It probably lies between 10% and 
25%. It appears to have definite fattening effect on trout. 

Dried Silk Worms. — The use of dried silk worms shows promise of a 
definite value, probably during the latter part of the season as a conditioning 
food. 

Hewitt Prepared Trout Food. — Four careful tests made with this food under 
different conditions fail to indicate that it has any value for use at our sta- 
tions on brook trout. Better results were obtained on brown than on brook 
trout in one case, but not sufficiently good to justify its further use. 

Other Prepared Foods. — Various prepared foods have been tried without 
success, including Scott's, Henningsen's 1935 formula, and Spratt's. None of 
these has been of any value for our use. Balto, canned Pacific Mackerel with 
other ingredients added, is of value as a reserve supply in case of shortage. 

Skimmed Milk. — This has been fed in powdered form in several tests. It has 
never proven of any value, and sometimes its presence appears to have been 
detrimental. The use of rennin as a coagulant helps prevent waste, but it has 
never been fed without a high proportion of waste. Other workers continue to 
report it favorably and it may be that some method of successful use will yet 
be found. 

Skip-Feeding. — A considerable volume of literature has appeared recently 
claiming that the skipping of daily feeds will produce as good or better fish than 
daily feeding. An experiment conducted at the Sutton State Fish Hatchery indi- 
cates that skip-feeding does retard the growth of fish, but the skipping of every 
third day of feeding does not greatly retard it. Forced feedings the other days 
still result in a saving of food and where the growth rate will permit, this may 
offer a means of slightly reducing food costs. 

There is still a great deal of work to be done in the attempt to approach the 
perfect diet for use at the particular stations. New supplements must be tested 
and the proper proportions for their inclusion in the diets worked out. This 
latter important phase has hardly been touched. There are several promising 
supplements for consideration, such as mussel meal, scallop meal, white-fish 
meal, and dried silk worms. We hope that a continuation of this work may 
result in better fish at less cost, or, at least, at no increase in cost. 

Fish Diseases. — The hatcheries operated during the year with very little 
trouble from fish diseases and those which did occur were overcome with loss of 
but few fish. The investigation begun last year by Dr. David L. Belding of the 
Boston University School of Medicine of a heretofore undescribed disease of 
the Salmonidae which made its appearance at the Sunderland and the Montague 
State Fish Hatcheries was continued, and the summary of his preliminary report 
is herewith submitted. 

Summary 

"1. At present the disease is limited to hatchery fish. 

2. The pathological findings indicate that it is a chronic infectious disease. 

3. The etiology has not been definitely determined. Apparently the etiologic 
agent is a bacterium, which is difficult to cultivate. Koch's postulates have not 



P.D. 25 29 

been confirmed, since the typical disease as yet has not been produced by inocu- 
lation with cultures. 

4. It is impossible to state definitely whether the bacterial infection is primary 
or superimposed upon an already existent metabolic disease. The final patho- 
logic picture is that of an infection. 

5. The chief pathologic features are (1) serous effusion and empyema in the 
serous cavities, especially the pericardium and peritoneum, (2) multiple ab- 
scesses in the kidney, and less frequently in the liver, spleen, and reproductive 
organs, (3) local edema and abscesses of superficial and deep tissues, (4) exoph- 
thalmos, and (5) vascular changes of a hemorrhagic nature. 

6. The kidney is the chief organ affected. The metabolic disturbances are 
the result of impaired kidney function or of chemical or physical changes in the 
body fluid. 

7. The mortality is seasonal and is associated with warm water temperature, 
but the earlier peak of the mortality curve does not absolutely coincide with the 
temperature curve." 

The addition of an extra field man to the staff for several months made possi- 
ble further study of the disease which as yet remains unidentified. Through the 
courtesy and co-operation of the Massachusetts State College, the Division was 
allowed to complete laboratory facilities at the College during the summer in 
which to conduct field work. During the winter months fish tanks were installed 
in the Division's biological laboratory at 20 Somerset Street and a series of etio- 
logical experiments in connection with this disease was carried on. 

Game Culture 

Survey of Game Covers. — A complete survey was begun throughout the 
State by the biological staff of the quail and white hare covers and of the pheas- 
ant covers in those counties of the State not completed last year. This survey 
will include charting on individual town maps all suitable cover for the species 
mentioned, and with a map measurer the conversion of the suitable areas into 
square miles and thence into terms of percentages. With the cooperation of the 
wardens and sportsmen's clubs, a tremendous mass of data has already been col- 
lected, and when it can be tabulated, future allotments of stock for liberation will 
be based on the results of this survey. 

Selective Breeding of Pheasants. — The selective breeding of pheasants 
was continued at the four game farms using the Pure Chinese Pheasant (Phasi- 
anus torquatus) as a standard. Six hundred and forty-four Chinese eggs were 
imported from Oregon and hatched at the Ayer State Game Farm. The young 
pheasants reared were held at Ayer and later shipped to the other State game 
farms for brood stocks. Due to poor hatches from the imported eggs, it was 
possible to supply only three of the farms with a brood stock of pure Chinese 
birds for breeding in the spring of 1936. 

Cottontail Rabbit Breeding Experiments. — A series of experiments in the 
breeding of cottontail rabbits was begun at the Ayer State Game Farm and at 
the Sutton State Pond System under the direction of the Biologist, and was 
carried on as part of the station work. The object of this work was to determine 
ways and means to produce this animal in large numbers for restocking the 
Massachusetts covers. 

The use of a system of propagation similar to that practiced by the breeders 
of domestic rabbits will undoubtedly increase the cost of production, but there 
should be a somewhat lower mortality among the young and it is even possible 
that the production may be increased under such a system of controlled breeding. 

The plan under which the experiments were conducted might be called the 
"Pen System" as differentiated from the so-called "Range System" now in use in 
other states and on the Division's Penikese Island Sanctuary. Under the "Pen 
System" the rabbits were bred and reared entirely under wire, with predators 
under control and with considerable range provided for the young, which might 
be known as the rearing or growing pen. The work is discussed in detail under 
the stations where it was conducted. 



30 P.D. 25 

White Hares. — Some progress was made during the year with the importa- 
tion of white hares. In February the Biologist travelled to New Brunswick, 
Canada, and organized a crew of trappers. Because of the late start and the 
fact that the crew was not familiar with box-trapping this animal, and along with 
the many details, such as the construction of the traps in Canada made necessary 
because of Canadian labor regulations, and the necessity of conforming with 
United States Customs and Biological Survey regulations, it was possible to 
obtain only 707 hares. 

Early in the fall, the Biologist again travelled to Canada to arrange for the 
purchase and shipping of 5,000 white hares. The trappers organized last winter 
were contacted and engaged to trap again this winter. In addition, Grand 
Manan Island located in the Bay of Fundy was visited and a large crew of young 
men organized to trap and ship hares into Massachusetts during the coming 
winter. Soon after the Biologist returned from Canada, the Massachusetts Public 
Health Council removed the ban, thereby permitting the purchase of white hares 
in the State of Maine as formerly. 

Raccoon Breeding. — Because of the great interest shown by the sportsmen 
in the raccoon and the ever increasing demand for stocking the covers with this 
animal, plans are now under way for the experimental breeding of the raccoon 
at the Sutton State Pond System. 

Inspection of Purchased Stock. : — The Division purchased for liberation 
1,992 young ringneck pheasants from commercial breeders during the late sum- 
mer and early fall to supplement those produced at the State Game Farms. A 
very rigid inspection was made by the Biologist of all purchased pheasants and 
only those measuring up to his specifications were shipped to the covers. 

General Field Work 

Club distribution conferences (evening sessions) in each county were again 
conducted by the Biologist with the wardens and delegates from sportsmen's 
organizations present. Monthly visits were made by the Biologist to the game 
farms and fish hatcheries as well as the Sutton State Pond System. Members of 
the biological staff also made numerous inspections of club rearing pools, arti- 
ficial ponds, and land property, lending assistance and advice relative to their 
uses and development. Other general work included talks before sportsmen's 
gatherings. Specimens of fish, birds and quadrupeds received during the year 
from the public, were autopsied. 

The Division extends its thanks to Dr. David L. Belding of Boston University 
School of Medicine, and to Dr. E. E. Tyzzer of Harvard Medical School for their 
valued assistance in the diagnosis of fish and game diseases. The Division also 
expresses its appreciation of the splendid cooperation of the Massachusetts State 
College at Amherst and of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

ORNITHOLOGIST 

After the appointment of Mr. Joseph A. Hagar as Ornithologist had been 
made permanent on July 12, he proceeded to formulate a definite plan of work 
along the following lines. 

Plan of Work 

Because an Ornithologist has not previously been included in the organization 
of the Division of Fisheries and Game, it seemed desirable early in the year to 
arrive at a definite understanding of his proper relationship to the work of the 
Division. The following statement of policy was accordingly drawn up as a 
guide for future activities: 

"Reflection on the subject would indicate that the primary interest of govern- 
ment in ornithology is limited to the economic and aesthetic relationships between 
birds and various groups of its citizens. There has been a widespread tendency 
in recent years for governmental units to assume some responsibility for these 
relationships; each State government and the Federal government have under- 
taken to so control them that a degree of balance is maintained between the 
claims of different groups of citizens. 



P.D. 25 31 

"It follows that the work of a State Ornithologist should lie principally in 
the same field, i. e., the management of the bird-life of the State to the end that 
no one group shall exploit or alter the status of any species to a point that is 
detrimental to the interests of other groups. The Ornithologist is the one official 
of the State government whose proper charge and interest is the entire bird-life 
of the State. He should exercise the following functions: 

1. In general, he should be well-informed as to the current status of all bird- 
life in the State, as to human and natural factors affecting bird-life, and as to 
the possibilities of adjusting these factors to the point of greatest benefit, or 
least harm, to bird-life. 

2. He should pay particular attention to gathering data on the current status 
of those species which are under heavy pressure, as game birds; which are of 
unusual economic importance at the moment; or whose situation is precarious. 
The data collected should be put in such permanent form as to be available for 
accurate comparisons in the future. 

3. He should carry on, or arrange for private agencies to carry on, such re- 
search work on selected species as is necessary for a wise use of administrative 
and legislative measures to increase or partially control them. He should not be 
diverted into research for its own sake, however; his proper field is manage- 
ment, and his research should be closely tied up with the development of prac- 
tical methods of management. 

4. When new methods of management have been formulated and are being 
put into practice, he should be prepared to act in an administrative capacity 
during the initial stages, and during the training of the personnel which will 
eventually carry on the methods; but here again he should not become involved 
in administration at the expense of other functions. 

5. His position as a specialized biologist in the Division of Fisheries and 
Game points to an important liaison function; he should bring something of 
the scientific point of view to the practical administrative problems of the Di- 
vision; he can best interpret the work of the Division to outside groups of 
scientists and bird-lovers; his unusual opportunity to gain a comprehensive pic- 
ture of the factors affecting bird-life in the State should make him the logical 
coordinating agency for the various projects in bird protection and control under 
way in the State. 

6. He should be prepared to fill a limited number of engagements for talks 
to organizations, to explain his work and to foster interest in the bird-life of 
the State; and should handle the requests for advice and assistance that come 
to his office." 

Activities during the Year 

In pursuance of the above policy, a number of definite projects have engaged 
the attention of the Ornithologist during the year. These may be summarized 
as follows : — 

Damage to Shellfish by Gulls and Ducks. — As mentioned in the last 
annual report, this problem was the most serious one which confronted the Di- 
vision at the time of the original appointment in November, 1934. Complaints 
of damage from Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and Cape Cod were constant and 
insistent, but although the Division was bearing the brunt of this criticism, any 
solution depended primarily on the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey of the 
Federal government, which is charged with the protection of migratory birds. 
As the first step, the months of November and December were devoted to a study 
on the ground of the nature and extent of the alleged injury to shellfish. It was 
soon found that sufficient basis for the complaints existed in fact, and as soon as 
the ground had been covered, the Director invited the Survey to send a field 
representative to Massachusetts. Mr. W. F. Kubichek arrived on January 6 and 
spent three weeks with the Ornithologist studying the entire situation. At the 
end of that time a joint report was drawn up which formed the basis of a con- 
ference attended by Director Kenney, Mr. W. C. Henderson, assistant chief of 
the Survey, Mr. Kubichek and Mr. Hagar. A control program was approved 
by all concerned, and has been in effect since that time. 



32 P.D. 25 

To summarize the joint report briefly: It was found that damage by sea- 
ducks, specificially the three species of scoters, Eider Ducks, and Old Squaws — 
was sporadic and relatively unimportant, depending on a combination of factors 
which occasionally caused great rafts of these birds to form in a limited num- 
ber of brackish ponds and land-locked bays, where they fed on seed scallops. 
As a matter of fact, no such concentrations occurred last winter, and no evi- 
dence of substantial damage was found. To meet such situations when they do 
arise in the future, a program of sharply restricted shooting, designed to break 
up the concentrations and drive the birds out to their normal offshore feeding 
grounds again, and lasting only so long as shellfish were being actually taken, 
was approved by the Bureau of Biological Survey for administration by the 
Division. 

Damage by Herring Gulls was found to be persistent and severe at many 
points on the coast, notably at Nantucket, Sengekontacket Pond on Martha's 
Vineyard, Bourne and Barnstable Harbor. There can be no reasonable doubt 
that this gull has so increased under protective laws that a severe winter re- 
duces the whole species on the New England coast to the point of starvation. In 
limited numbers, it is of great economic value as a scavenger in harbors and 
along beaches; in its present abundance it menaces not only the shellfish industry, 
but several species of smaller gulls and terns upon whose eggs and young it 
feeds. This fact is now generally recognized by fishermen and bird-lovers alike, 
and during the breeding season of 1934 the Bureau of Biological Survey initiated 
a program of control by pricking the eggs on the breeding grounds. So far as 
Massachusetts is concerned, it was agreed that egg-pricking offered the real solu- 
tion to the problem, but that the beneficial results of this method would not be 
apparent for several years, and that in the meantime some quicker method 
should be authorized to protect certain shellfish areas which were particularly 
exposed to damage. The justice of this was even more apparent in those towns 
which had used their own funds to establish or conserve the shellfish areas under 
attack. Accordingly, a plan was approved under which the Division, when appli- 
cation is made by a Board of Selectmen, a town shellfish warden, or other re- 
sponsible local authority, issues a limited number of permits to shoot Herring 
Gulls which are actually damaging shellfish. 

The control program outlined above has proven reasonably satisfactory from 
every angle. It is administered locally by the district wardens of the Division 
with some supervision by the Ornithologist. The wardens exercise a close con- 
trol over the small amount of shooting that actually takes place, and there is no 
basis for reports of unrestricted or wanton killing of ducks or gulls. As regards 
the former, no permits have been issued since the approval program was put in 
force, and although gull permits have gone out in some fifteen towns, it has been 
the invariable experience that a very small amount of shooting drives the birds 
out of the area to be protected. The best example of this has been at Barnstable 
Harbor, where the seed-clams on many a'cres of flat have been saved with negligi- 
ble injury to the herring gulls. 

Meantime, the egg-pricking campaign of the Bureau of Biological Survey was 
carried forward during the breeding season of 1935. The Ornithologist accom- 
panied two Federal wardens on the patrol-boat Eider Duck when they made 
their rounds of the Massachusetts breeding colonies during the last week in 
May. Herring Gulls were found nesting at Penikese Island, two of the Wepecket 
Islands, Tuckernuck, Gravelly Islands, and Muskeget, and a total of 4,626 eggs 
were pricked. Control was more thorough on some islands than on others, vary- 
ing from 95% at Penikese, Wepeckets, and Tuckernuck to 65% to 70% at 
Muskeget. A subsequent visit to the Wepeckets in late June confirmed the fact 
that egg-pricking is an extremely effective method of control. 

In conclusion, mention should be made that Mr. Robert P. Allen of the Na- 
tional Association of Audubon Societies paid a visit to the State in March for 
the purpose of investigating the control methods in use by the Bureau of Biologi- 
cal Survey and the Division. The Ornithologist spent three days with him on 
Cape Cod, and as the Association has made no objection to the program, its 
tacit approval may be assumed. 



P.D. 25 33 

Study of Duck Hawk Aeries. — During April, May and June a number of 
weeks were devoted to a study of the breeding status of the Duck Hawk in 
Massachusetts. This falcon was placed on the protected list during the 1933 
legislative session. Its position was known to be somewhat precarious, for there 
are only about a dozen suitable nesting sites in the State, and the pressure on 
the bird from egg collectors has been increasingly severe during the years since 
the war. It is admittedly destructive to other birds, but is so rare that its depre- 
dations are quite negligible ; and it ranks very high in what may be called scenic 
value. The most superb flyer of all our birds, it has been said that in the Duck 
Hawk "strength, swiftness and beauty are exquisitely combined to make the most 
perfect of all living creatures." A surprisingly large number of people visit its 
mountain aeries during the breeding season to watch and enjoy its matchless 
aerial evolutions. 

In order to give the species any effective protection, it was necessary to know 
a great deal more about its courtship and nesting habits than has ever been 
collected and published, and this work was pushed ahead as fast as possible this 
year. Repeated visits were made to every recorded nesting site in the State, and 
note made of the vicissitudes and set-backs which steadily whittled down the 
number of young falcons raised. Less than one-third of the aaries succeeded in 
raising even one young bird; two-thirds were completely barren. Even this 
record would have been considerably worse if a timely contribution of funds 
had not made possible special posters at a number of nests, and the hiring of a 
special warden to watch one nest in Berkshire County. With the data collected 
this year, it is expected that better results in the enforcement of the protective 
law can be secured next spring. 

Census of Sea-bird Colonies. — In June so far as other duties permitted, 
and in July to the exclusion of everything else, the time of the Ornithologist was 
given to a preliminary census of the sea-bird colonies on the coast, with particular 
reference to the Least Tern, which has the most precarious foothold in the State 
of any of the Laridaa. The area to be covered in a state no larger than Massa- 
chusetts, and the almost incredible concentration of the birds on their more 
favored nesting grounds, offer substantial obstacles to a census of this kind, yet 
some estimate of the numbers involved from year to year is necessary to any 
intelligent management program. About 80% of the sites possibly occupied by 
Least Terns were visited during the season favorable to counting population, 
and an estimated total of 270 pairs were found breeding. It is reasonably safe 
to say that the Least Tern population is at least twice what it was in 1923 
when Mr. Forbush estimated it at "not over 300 individuals." No record of a 
comprehensive estimate since that time seems to be available. The figures gathered 
for other species of terns and gulls are of interest chiefly as a basis of compari- 
son with future years. 

Census of Waterfowl and Shorebirds. — An effort has been made at the 
proper seasons to gather information on the numbers of geese, ducks and shore- 
birds, so definite in nature, and arrived at by such standardized methods, that 
the same methods practised at the same places in future years will give really 
comparable figures. In this way it is hoped to follow the trends of increase and 
decrease more exactly than in the past. 

Advisory Work on State Forests and Parks. — During September and 
October several weeks have been devoted to visiting State Forests where game 
management and recreational projects are being carried on by the Department 
of Conservation in conjunction with the United States Forest Service and the 
United States Park Service, for the purpose of studying the effects on bird-life 
of such developments. In general, it has been found that these projects were 
well planned and executed with reference to wildlife, and in the long run should 
prove more beneficial than harmful. 

< In addition to the specific projects mentioned above, a somewhat dispropor- 
tionate amount of time this first year has been spent in renewing and extending 
an acquaintance with the rarer birds of the State, the State Forests, parks, and 
sanctuaries, and all those groups of citizens— sportsmen, wardens, bird-lovers, 



34 P.D. 25 

fishermen, scientists, — with whom this office naturally has dealings. In this con- 
nection the Ornithologist has visited practically every town in the State, a great 
many of the more interesting and unusual wild areas, and has met a great many 
people interested in the field of conservation. 

Further plans for the development of this work have been laid out along the 
following lines — 

1. Develop and extend the census work on breeding sea-birds, ducks and 
geese, shorebirds, and upland game birds. 

2. Plan and carry through several definite experiments in the protection of 
such rarer species as the Least Tern and Duck Hawk. 

3. Explore the possibility of increasing the breeding population of Black 
Ducks in the Commonwealth. 

4. During the breeding season in June make a reconnaissance of the higher 
mountains in northern Berkshire County. 

5. Continue the advisoiw work in connection with development of State 
Forests. 

WILD BIRDS AND MAMMALS, AND FRESH-WATER FISH 

Game 

Wildlife Survey and Management Program. — The recommendations, re- 
sulting from the wildlife surveys conducted on State and county-owned institu- 
tional lands during the year 1933, were put into effect during the year just com- 
pleted, and beneficial results to wildlife are beginning to become apparent. 

Perhaps the most important winter operation was the building and maintain- 
ing of feeding stations. The cooperation of the officers, employees, and patients 
at the ten institutions where these feeding stations were built, made possible the 
feeding of many birds during the period when natural food was buried under 
deep snow. 

The problem of protecting the nesting birds during the spring and early sum- 
mer was gone into quite extensively with the authorities in charge of farm opera- 
tions on these areas, and the burning of brush and cutting of grass and hay was 
restricted in a great many cases to those periods when the least amount of harm 
to wildlife would occur. As a further protection, a flushing bar for mowing 
machines was developed and used at some institutions, thereby preventing the 
breaking up of nests. 

Special activities carried on at the Grafton State Hospital consisted of a rat 
extermination campaign during the later part of March in conjunction with the 
U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey, and the planting of several thousand conif- 
erous trees throughout the grounds as a benefit to wildlife habitat. 

For the purpose of seeing what could be done in the way of raising pheasants 
on the institutional areas, 500 day-old chicks were supplied to the Hampden 
County Training School in Agawam and the United States Veterans Hospital 
of Northampton, on July 3, each receiving half. The patients who were assigned 
to the work of caring for the birds became very much interested in this project, 
and the care and attention given to the pheasants resulted in the raising of a 
fine flock of birds. As both of these areas are close to good pheasant country, the 
birds were allowed to drift away as they wished, thereby stocking the local 
covers with more birds than heretofore. 

Several visits were made during the year to the Tunxis Club in Tolland, the 
Massachusetts State College at Amherst, and to the Andover Sanctuary in the 
town of Andover, where experiments have been in progress in connection with 
the raising of grouse. The results of the State College experiment, in which the 
Division was more definitely interested, are described elsewhere in this report. 

By request of the commanding officer at Fort Devens, Mr. Prout of the Di- 
vision early in the spring made a game survey of the area comprising the fort, 
and made a complete report of his findings, carrying recommendations for im- 
provements and changes to better utilize the land as a game sanctuary. Hunting 
is not allowed within the confines of the fort, and therefore much in the way of 
benefit to game should result from a wildlife project at that area. 



RD. 25 35 

One of the most important activities under this program during the past year 
has been the inspection of the Emergency Relief Administration projects deal- 
ing with work directly affecting wildlife conditions. The many conflicting view- 
points connected with land usage sometimes complicated this type of work, but 
as a whole much preventive work was accomplished in advising as to the manner 
in which projects could be completed without detrimental effects on wildlife. 

Statistics of Game and Fur-bearing Animals taken. — There were 64,289 
reports of game and fur taken during the calendar year 1934 filed by purchasers 
of sporting, hunting and trapping licenses for 1935. Tabulated, the reports show 
the amount of game and fur taken in 1934 to have been — 

Gallinules 118 

Rails 401 

Wilson snipe (jacksnipe) 850 

Fresh-water coots (mud hens) . 1,667 

Ducks (including skunk head, butter bill and white winged 

scoters, commonly known as coots) 32,404 

Geese 1,706 

Brant 189 

Woodcock 15,039 

Quail 10,820 

Ruffed grouse 41,443 

Pheasants 29,183 

Deer (Bucks, 691; does, 533) 1,224 

Cottontail rabbits 100,414 

White hares 9,036 

Gray squirrels 16,498 

Total head of game taken 260,992 

Muskrat 39,309 

Mink .... 1,682 

Skunk 6,468 

Red fox 6,481 

Gray fox 791 

Raccoon 3,096 

Weasel 683 

Otter 72 

Canada lynx (loup cervier) 4 

Bay lynx (wild cat or bob cat) 212 

Total number of pelts taken 58,798 

Migratory Game Birds. — Working in conjunction with a committee from the 
State Council of Sportsmen's Clubs and one from the Massachusetts Water 
Fowlers Association, the Director made recommendations to the U. S. Bureau of 
Biological Survey looking to favorable regulations for the hunting of migratory 
waterfowl during the shooting season, based upon observations on the abundance 
of waterfowl in the Atlantic flyway, and in the main these recommendations fol- 
lowed the regulations which were in effect during the season of 1934. 

The Bureau of Biological Survey did not see fit to accept the recommendations, 
and applied the regulations which were effective throughout the entire country. 
When the Federal regulations were formally announced, the Director, after con- 
ference with the committee, protested the regulation eliminating the use of live 
decoys, but the Federal authorities were not disposed to make exceptions to the 
regulations alreadj^ promulgated. 

In the absence of discretionary powers the Director on September 16 promul- 
gated the following regulations on migratory birds for 1935, which under the 



36 P.D. 25 

provisions of Section 87, Chapter 131 of the General Laws, must coincide with 
the Federal regulations in every detail, except in the hours of daily shooting : 

"Pursuant to Section 87, Chapter 131, of the General Laws, I hereby declare 
an open season on rails from October 1 to November 30, both dates inclusive; on 
Wilson or jacksnipe, coots (mud hens and not that species sometimes called 
coot), ducks (except wood ducks, ruddy ducks, and bufflehead ducks), geese 
(except snow geese and Ross's goose and swans), and brant, between October 21 
and November 19, both dates inclusive; and on woodcock from October 21 to 
November 20, both dates inclusive. 

Daily Bag and Possession Limits on certain Migratory Game Birds. — A per- 
son may take in any one day during the open season prescribed therefor not to 
exceed the following numbers of migratory game birds, which number shall in- 
clude all birds taken by any other person who for hire accompanies or assists 
him in taking such birds; and when so taken these may be possessed in the 
numbers specified as follows: Ducks (except wood duck, ruddy duck, and buffle- 
head duck), 10 in the aggregate of all kinds, and any person at any one time 
may possess not more than 10 ducks in the aggregate of all kinds; geese and 
brant (except snow geese and Ross's goose), 4 in the aggregate of all kinds, and 
any person at any one time may possess not more than 4 geese and brant in the 
aggregate of all kinds; rails (except sora and coot), 15 in the aggregate of all 
kinds, and any person at any one time may possess not more than 15 in the 
aggregate of all kinds ; sora, 25, and any person at any one time may possess not 
more than 25; coot, 15 and any person at any one time may possess not more 
than 15; Wilson's snipe or jacksnipe, 15, and any person at any one time may 
possess not more than 15; woodcock, 4, and any person at any one time may 
possess not more than 4. 

The above mentioned migratory birds may be hunted every day except Sunday 
during the open season from one-half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after 
sunset with a shotgun only, not larger than 10-gauge, fired from the shoulder ; but 
they shall not be taken with or by means of any automatic loading or hand operated 
repeating shotgun capable of holding more than 3 shells, the magazine of which 
has not been cut off or plugged with a one-piece metal or wooden filler incapable 
of removal through the loading end thereof so as to reduce the capacity of said 
gun to not more than 3 shells at one loading. They may be taken during the 
open season from the land or water with the aid of a dog and from a blind, boat, 
or floating craft of any kind, except as hereinafter provided, not more than 100 
feet from the shore line as determined by ordinary high water or, where there is 
natural growth or vegetation existing beyond such shore line, not more than 100 
feet from such growth or vegetation protruding above the surface of the water 
at the time of taking such birds, except that scoters (sea coots) may be taken in 
coastal waters without reference to such distance limitation; but migratory game 
birds are not permitted to be taken from or by aid of an automobile, airplane, 
sinkbox (battery), power boat, sail boat, any boat under sail, any floating craft 
or device of any kind towed by power boat or sail boat. 

No migratory game birds are permitted to be taken with or by the aid of corn, 
wheat, oats, or other grain or products thereof, salt, or any kind of feed by 
whomsoever, or for whatsoever purpose, placed, deposited, distributed, scattered, 
or otherwise put out in any environment whatsoever, whereby such migratory 
game birds or waterfowl are lured, attracted, or enticed to the hunter. In the 
taking of waterfowl the use, directly or indirectly, of live duck or goose decoys 
is not permitted nor shall anything in these regulations be deemed to permit the 
use of an airplane, power boat, sail boat or other floating craft or device for the 
purpose of concentrating, driving, rallying or stirring up migratory waterfowl. 

The migratory birds referred to herein which have been legally taken may be 
held in possession at any time, in the numbers specified in these regulations, dur- 



P.D. 25 37 

ing the open season and for 10 days next succeeding said open season. Migratory 
game birds lawfully killed during the open season in any other state may be 
possessed in Massachusetts for a period of 10 days after the close of the season 
where killed. 

The possession limits hereinbefore prescribed shall apply as well to ducks, 
geese, brant, rails, Wilson's snipe or jacksnipe, and wood cock taken in any other 
state or in Canada or other foreign country and brought into the Commonwealth 
as to those taken in the Commonwealth." 

Gunning Stand Statistics. — Since the Federal regulations prohibited the 
use of live decoys, the usual gunning stand registrations (which authorize the 
maintenance of a stand for taking Anatida? by the use of live decoys) were not 
taken out by stand owners. Of the 335 stands registered last year, 145 reported 
that they did not open, 126 made no report at all, and 64 took birds as follows: 
ducks shot, 610; geese shot, 106; wooden duck decoys used, 1,823; wooden goose 
decoys used, 1,474. 

Upland Game. — Beginning about the first of July the summer was dry, and 
as the hunting season approached conditions throughout the State were carefully 
watched, having in mind the danger of fire in the woodlands. As no excessive 
number of fires was reported, the season opened as usual ; but by October 28 the 
continued absence of rain and the increase in the number of fires obliged the 
Commissioner to request His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor, Acting Governor, 
to close the woodlands to the public. This was done by proclamation effective at 
sunset on that day. It likewise closed the season on all birds and mammals, and 
prohibited the hunting of all species, but this did not apply to hunting on 
coastal waters. The opening of the trapping season was also suspended. 

The drouth broke soon after, and on November 1 at noon His Honor the 
Lieutenant-Governor by proclamation opened the woodlands, and re-opened all 
seasons on birds and mammals according to law. The re-opening proclamation 
extended the season on upland birds and game four days to end November 24, 
and restored the one day that the trapping season had lost. On November 22 
His Excellency the Governor, by proclamation, further extended the season on 
pheasants, grouse, squirrels and quail to include Monday, November 25, so that 
the gunners would not lose the fourth day of the extension by reason of its falling 
on Sunday. The season on raccoons was extended through January 6 and on 
rabbits and hares through Febuary 20, 1936. The closing and opening did not 
affect Dukes and Nantucket counties, where the seasons had not yet opened. 

Pheasants. — The regulations for the open season on pheasants as declared by 
the Director, differed from those of last year in that Berkshire and Essex 
Counties were added to the list of counties wherein both cocks and hens might 
be taken, and Plymouth County went into the group where cocks only might be 
shot, making the regulations as follows: from October 20 to November 20, both 
dates inclusive, on hens and cocks in Berkshire, Hampden, Worcester, Middlesex, 
Norfolk, Barnstable, Suffolk and Essex counties; and on cocks only in Hamp- 
shire, Nantucket, Franklin, Plymouth and Bristol counties. In Dukes County 
cocks only might be taken from November 7 to 20. Limit for each person, two 
in one day and six in one season. 

A new policy was adopted during the year and as a result the Division is now 
proceeding with plans to winter a large number of pheasants produced at the 
game farms for liberation during the following spring. The first unit of a series 
of wintering pens was constructed at each game farm this year, with the coopera- 
tion of the Works Progress Administration, and additional units will be built as 
rapidly as funds will permit, providing the results prove that the liberation of 
adult pheasants in the spring is the right policy. 

Deer. — The total of deer reported killed in the one-week open season in 
December, 1934 (falling within the period of this report) was 691 bucks and 
533 does, total 1,224, divided among the counties as follows: Barnstable, closed; 
Berkshire, 416; Bristol, 39; Dukes, none; Essex, 2, Franklin, 221; Hampden. 



38 P.D. 25 

210; Hampshire, 117; Middlesex, 23; Nantucket, closed; Norfolk, 5; Plymouth, 
82; Suffolk, none; Worcester, 107; locality not stated, 2. 

The total of deer reported killed in the special open season in Nantucket 
County in February of 1935 (discussed in the paragraphs following) was 26 
bucks, 28 does, 11 sex not reported, total 65. 

Following the Division's recommendation for legislation to regulate the deer 
situation in Nantucket county, where the deer herd had increased to a point 
where there is insufficient wild food to adequately care for them, with resulting 
damage to crops, the General Court by enactment of Chapter 5, provided an open 
season on deer in Nantucket County between one-half hour before sunrise and 
one-half hour after sunset of each day beginning with February 11 and ending 
with February 16 in the year 1935, in addition to the regular open season in 
December of each year. 

As a result of protests addressed to His Excellency the Governor, the Director, 
with the advice and consent of the Governor, at 6.05 p.m. on February 11 issued 
the following order closing the season for the hunting of deer in Nantucket 
County at noon on February 12: 

"It has become apparent that the purposes of Section 3 of Chapter 5 of the 
Acts of 1935, i. e., a reduction of the deer herd in Nantucket County to a point 
consistent with the natural food supply, will be accomplished by 12 o'clock noon, 
February 12, 1935. 

"It is further apparent that the rapidly increasing number of hunters within 
the limited area of said county may result in serious injury or loss of life among 
the hunters or the general public. 

"Therefore, to preserve the remaining deer and to prevent possible injuries or 
fatalities, I hereby order the hunting of deer to cease in Nantucket County at 12 
o'clock noon, February 12, 1935. 

Raymond J. Kenney, Director, 
Division of Fisheries and Game" 

To remove any doubt as to the legality of the order the Governor sent the 
following message to the Legislature: 

House No. 1807 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

Executive Department, Boston, 

Feb. 12, 1935. 
To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives: 

Section 3, Chapter 5 of the Acts of 1935, provided an open season for the 
hunting of deer in Nantucket County. The purpose of this act was to reduce 
the number of deer in that county to a point consistent with the natural food 
supply, and which, if successful, would provide protection for the agricultural 
crops and fruit and ornamental trees against damage by deer. 

This open season began February 11, 1935, one-half hour before sunrise. It 
was estimated that before twelve o'clock noon, February 12, 1935, approximately 
one hundred deer would be killed by hunters. 

In my opinion, the elimination of this number of the animals accomplished 
the purpose of this act. 

It was apparent, moreover, that the rapidly increasing number of hunters 
within the limited area of Nantucket County would result in serious personal 
injury and loss of life. 

Therefore, to preserve the remaining deer, approximately two hundred in 
number, and to avert the possibility of injury to persons in the vicinity where 
the shooting has been going on, I asked the Director of the Division of Fisheries 
and Game, Department of Conservation, to issue an order requiring the hunting 
of deer in Nantucket County to cease at 12 o'clock noon, February 12, 1935. 

In order that there may be no question as to his authority so to do, I respect- 
fully ask that an act be passed, a draft of which is appended to this message, 
validating the emergency action of the Director and making lawful the acts of 
public officers done in reliance upon such action." 



P.D. 25 39 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

In the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirty-five 

Resolve validating Action of the Director of the Division of Fisheries and Game 

in terminating the Open Season on Deer in Nantucket County. 

Resolved, That the action of the director of the division of fisheries and game 
of the department of conservation, on February twelfth of the current year, in 
terminating the open season on deer in Nantucket county established by section 
three of chapter five of the acts of the current year, is hereby validated and 
confirmed, and all acts of public officers in reliance upon such action are hereby 
declared to be lawful, to the same extent as though authority for said action had 
been previously granted by the General Court." 

After due consideration the Legislature voted "No legislation necessary" on 
this message. 

During the period from Monday morning to Tuesday noon, reports indicated 
(as already recorded) that 65 deer were killed on Nantucket. 

The usual appropriation was made for the settlement of claims for damage to 
crops and orchards by wild deer. Little change will be noted in the amounts 
spent. An unusually large number of small claims were filed this year by the 
selectmen of towns (who are designated by law to handle claims amounting to 
less than twenty dollars). These claims are usually for home garden crops, and 
take the lead over the others. The largest claim was for $1,024.20 in a new 
orchard. The smallest claim was for $2.00. 

The claims for damage on Nantucket, which were so large last year, have 
dropped since the open season provided in February, and permits have been 
given to certain agriculturists to use jacklights to protect their crops. It is quite 
probable that the regular open season in December will reduce the number of 
deer to a supply reasonable for that type of country. 

The appropriation of $5,500 was not sufficient to pay all claims filed during 
the year. During the fiscal year there were 138 claims for deer damage appraised 
and paid, amounting to $5,499.41 (of which amount $4,831.04 was for actual 
damage, $593.30 for appraisal costs and $75.07 for tags for marking the trees). 
There were 21 additional claims appraised, totaling $742.23 (of which amount 
$672.15 was for the actual damage, and $70.08 for appraisal costs) which insuffi- 
cient appropriation made it necessary to carry over into the next fiscal year for 
payment. 

As permitted by law, there were 136 deer shot by land owners who found the 
animals either damaging or about to damage their crops and orchards. Of these 
33 were killed on Nantucket. 

In addition to the above, deer numbering 94 died by accident or in ways other 
than legally provided by law, detailed in the report on Enforcement of the Game 
and Inland Fish Laws. 

Hares and Rabbits. — The problem of restocking the covers with hares and 
rabbits continues to receive the serious consideration of the Division. There are 
two outstanding developments through the year which will serve to help this 
situation as time goes on. 

On August 16 the Director consulted with the State Commissioner of Public 
Health relative to the removal of the ban on the native hares from the State of 
Maine, and on October 8 the Public Health Council voted to remove its objection 
to the importation of white hares from this source. Accordingly a supplementary 
order was placed with the trappers in that State for the delivery of five thou- 
sand white hares early in the next fiscal year. Of equal importance to this was 
the ability of the Division to again issue permits to sportsmen's clubs and in- 
terested individuals to purchase white hares with their own funds, in Maine, 
and it is anticipated that several thousand white hares will be stocked in the 
covers during the coming winter as a result of this change in policy. 

The other outstanding development for the improvement of this form of 
upland game hunting was the establishment of two experimental units for the 
propagation of cottontail rabbits, one at the Ayer State Game Farm and the 



40 P.D. 25 

other at the Sutton Pond reservation. The details of this work will be found in 
the reports of the stations mentioned. 

It may be recorded here, however, that the Division considers that definite 
progress has been made along the line of artificial propagation of cottontail 
rabbits. While the output this year was not substantial, sufficient information was 
obtained to forecast successful work along this line in the future. 

Fur-bearing Animals. — There was a marked increase in trapping activities as 
a result of the adoption of the law at the State election of 1934 permitting cities 
and towns to exercise local option in the matter of trapping. 

A survey of the cities and towns indicated that up to the end of this fiscal 
year approximately one-half of them had voted a suspension of the operation 
of the so-called anti-steel trap law, and this accounts for the fact that during 
this year 1,756 trapping licenses were issued against the 1,090 licenses sold in 
1934. A slow but gradual rise in the prices paid for raw furs resulted also in 
increased interest among the trappers. The protective laws during the past 
three or four years which practically eliminated all trapping, brought about a 
substantial increase in all species of fur-bearers. 

Bounties totalling $1,040 were paid on 104 wild cats. 

State Forests 

During the year a close check was maintained on the wildlife activities being 
carried on in the State Forests by the Civilian Conservation Corps. Conferences 
were held at the Division's headquarters with the Federal wildlife technicians, at 
which time the policies and plans for future developments were carefully gone 
into, and periodic inspection made of the work in the field. Pheasant rearing 
was also carried on at two of the State Forests, namely, October Mountain 
Forest and Beartown Forest, practically all of the birds reared on the first 
named forest being allowed to drift away as they reached the age where they 
could go over the fence, while at the latter forest, a good percentage of the birds 
were trapped up and distributed to good covers nearby. 

For the purpose of establishing wildlife refuges on certain of the State 
Forests, areas approximating ten percent of the total forest area have been set 
apart as such, and are closed to all activities except those pertaining to the 
development of the area as a wildlife habitat. These areas have been conspicu- 
ously posted against all trespassing, hunting, fishing, or trapping and during the 
hunting seasons are patrolled by special wardens appointed for that purpose. 
Areas have already been established on the following State Forests: Beartown 
Forest, 800 acres; Boxford Forest, 590 acres; Brimfield Forest, 302 acres; Leo- 
minster Forest, 300 acres; October Mountain Forest, 1,310 acres; Otis Forest, 
180 acres; Sandisfield Forest, 364 acres; Townsend Forest, 700 acres; Windsor 
Forest, 150 acres; Wrentham Forest, 292 acres. 

For the first time, fishing on the newly developed State Forest ponds has 
been regulated by permit, and, as a result, information is now available giving 
an accurate return on the number and size of fish taken during the open season. 
The figures thus obtained will be very helpful in determining the future stocking 
programs for these ponds. As a result of the regulations certain ponds were re- 
stricted to fly fishing only, this being the first attempt to regulate this type of 
public fishing anywhere in the Commonwealth. The following table gives the 
result of those ponds in State Forests which were open to fishing by permit dur- 
ing the past year. 



P.D. 25 








41 






Number 


Number of 


Number 


Name of Forest 


Name of Pond 


of permits 


individual 


of trout 






issued 


fishermen 


taken 


Beartown 


Benedict Pond 


96 


83 


64 


Brimfield 


Dearth Hill Pond 


631 


455 


540 


Brimfield 


Woodman Pond . 


433 


351 


471 


Daughters of the American 










Revolution (Goshen) 


Rogers Brook Pond . 


83 


45 


95 


Granville 


Half-way Brook Pond 


42 


35 


82 


Harold Parker 


Frye, Berry, Sudden, and 










Bradford Ponds 


1,775 


1,154 


1,157* 


Leominster .... 


Camp Pond .... 


58 


44 


32 


Monroe 


Brown Pond 


208 


152 


75 


Otter River .... 


Beaman Pond 


29 


19 


212** 


Otis 


Upper Spectacle Pond 


855 


599 


703 


Peru 


Geer Pond .... 


8 


8 


4 


Pittsfield 


Berry Pond .... 


133 


111 


52 


Pittsfield 


Lulu Cascade 


40 


35 


44 


Sandisfield .... 


York Pond .... 


781 


557 


1,020 


Savoy . . . . . 


Tannery Pond 


1,636 


1,005 


2,503 


Spencer 


Howe Pond .... 


1,130 


734 


1,509 


Wendell 


Ruggles Pond . 


399 


267 


316 




8,337 


5,654 


8,879 



*In addition to trout, 140 perch and 4 pickerel were taken. 

**12 by actual record, and estimated 200 were taken before permits were available. 

Consent was obtained from the Division of Forestry early in the year to close 
to fishing certain streams which run in whole or in part through State Forest 
lands, for the purpose of establishing trout breeding areas. A more detailed re- 
port of this activity appears in the section on Public Fishing Grounds in this 
report. 

In order to protect the few remaining hares and rabbits on State Forest 
lands, an order was issued on July 12 by the Commissioner prohibiting the 
hunting, taking or killing of these animals until further notice. 

Hunting on certain State Forest lands was again regulated by permit and the 
following table gives the results, on those Forests where permits were issued, of 
the upland game season which ended on Monday, November 25: 





03 
3 




o 
w 
d 




03 












Om 


O o3 


o 


M 







_ 


c3 




Forest 


03 +* 

T 

3 03 


t, S B 


03 


o 

o 
o 


u 



a* 
w 
-a 

03 


Oft 


03 


X 
o 
ft 


Beartown 


53 


27 


6 




6 


1 








Bellingham 


15 


10 


11 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


Brimfield 


30 


27 


15 


_ 


1 


_ 


1 


_ 




Chester-Blandford 


21 


14 


1 


_ 


1 


_ 




_ 


_ 


D. A. R. (Goshen) ..... 


2 


1 


1 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


Douglas 


3 


3 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Harold Parker (Andover) 


13 


13 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


Hawley 


17 


16 


9 


1 


— 


_ 


3 


_ 


_ 


Leominster 


11 


9 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


Mohawk Trail (Charlemont) 


14 


9 


6 


— 


2 


- 


— 


_ 


_ 


Monroe 


18 


9 


2 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


October Mountain (Becket and Lee) 


81 


65 


27 


— 


3 


_ 


3 


3 


1 


Pittsfield 


3 


2 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Sandisfield 


35 


19 


— 


_ 


2 


_ 


10 


2 


_ 


Savoy 


14 


9 


2 


_ 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Tolland 


26 


26 


6 


2 


— 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


Townsend 


10 


5 


2 


__ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Warwick 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Wendell 


51 


40 


10 


— 


1 


_ 


_ 


7 


_ 


Windsor 


1 


1 


















419 


306 


100 


5 


16 


1 


19 


12 


2 



Trapping on State Forest lands was again regulated this year, and permits to 
trap were issued by the Commissioner only after the applicant for the permit 
had received the recommendation of the State Forester in his district. The per- 



42 P.D. 25 

mits will be returned to the Division at the end of the season, with a report of 
the number and kind of mammals trapped noted thereon, and this information 
will be used to determine future policies governing trapping on these areas. 

Reservations and Sanctuaries 
Two gifts of land, already acknowledged, gave the Division an additional 
island reservation (Ram Island in the Merrimack River) and enlarged the Ed- 
ward Howe Forbush Reservation. The status and development of the various 
reservations are treated separately in the following pages. 

Isaac Sprague Bird Sanctuary (Carr Island), Salisbury, 110 acres. — 
Under an Emergency Relief Administration project a crew of ten men turned 
over an open section of sod land preparatory to making seed beds, and to receive 
fruit-bearing shrubs and berry bushes for shelter and food. Peat soil was taken 
from a low spot and spread on a portion of the newly turned area to add humus. 
In the depression left by the removal of the peat will be formed a small, fresh- 
water pond, which, being in a quiet and protected spot, will serve as a very 
suitable drinking place for wildlife. 

Work done by the State was principally in the direction of improving the food 
supplies. In April, 25 four-year old Japanese crab apple trees were given to 
the Division by the Essex County Agricultural School. The trees were very 
thrifty, and having been heeled in, were easily transplanted, although some were 
10 to 12 feet high and 3 inches through the butt. Special precautions were 
taken to protect them from the rabbits and mice, and only one died. A number 
of the trees bloomed, and on several, fruit set. The wild cherry and other trees 
were badly infested by tent caterpillars, and while these were in the web over 
250 nests were removed and destroyed. Had they been left there would have 
been little green vegetation left on the trees. The European chestnut tree again 
produced a good supply of burrs, but many of these were infested with worms 
that injure the nuts and make them useless. Those that fall are quickly disposed 
of by field mice. Two large limbs of this tree died, and, as they showed un- 
mistakable signs of the blight, have been cut off and burned. Native barberries, 
privet, and a few other trees produced a good crop of berries again this year. 
There still remain for future use a good number of the nursery-set Russian mul- 
berry trees. 

Field mice are very plentiful and attract numbers of small hawks to the 
island. A pair of eagles that spent the winter on the Merrimack River made the 
island their headquarters. After the snow left, the remains of a number of 
rabbits were found, but no determination was made of the cause of their death. 

Boxford Sanctuary, Boxford, 334 acres. — The Bald Hill road was gravelled 
in the bad spots and scraped its full length by order of the Boxford Highway 
superintendent, as had been done last year. 

The spring floods washed out a hole in the dirt dam at the small pond on the 
Boxford and Middleton back road, but the break was repaired so the water stood 
at outlet level until the rains stopped, and although very low from evaporation, 
the pond was not dry all summer. All of the ponds on the reservation are de- 
pendent on rain for their surplus, and do not flow during the dry season. A 
survey was made for a larger dam at this location, which would impound water 
to a depth of three or four feet, although not more than five acres would be 
flowed because of the steepness of the banks, and the pond would evaporate less 
rapidly. One nest of wood ducks hatched on this pond, and both old and young 
birds were seen at one time. 

Fresh holes drilled by the pileated woodpecker showed very prominently this 
spring, and more numerous than last year, but the nesting place has not yet been 
located. Gray squirrels are very much on the increase, but no increase in the 
numbers of ruffed grouse is apparent. 

Several parties, one consisting of as many as sixty persons, have been guided 
through this reservation. 

Minns Wildlife Sanctuary (Little Wachusett Mountain), Princeton, 
137 acres. — Miss Lois Fay, who by the terms of the gift has a life interest in 



P.D. 25 43 

this reservation, has conducted an intensive fight against the gypsy moths with 
poison spray and creosote, but so many loose stones, stone walls and ledges har- 
bor these pests, that it is an unending fight. Special attention will be given to 
moth work on this area. 

Watatic Mountain Wild Life Sanctuary, Ashby and Ashburnham, 139 
acres. — The boundaries have been fully posted with painted board signs, with 
cloth facing. The cloth signs nailed on trees harbored undesirable insect nests 
beneath, and were often spoiled by squirrels cutting out sections for nest material. 

Edward Howe Forbush Reservation, Hancock, 410 acres. — The open sec- 
tions, cleared by the Civil Works Administration workers in 1933, have filled in 
with wild blackberries, which are excellent summer bird food. The path along 
the brook is so grown up with briars as to be practically impenetrable. Wildlife 
appears to be increasing, judging by signs along the brook. 

A new area of approximately 15 acres was deeded to the Commonwealth by the 
Federation of the Bird Clubs of New England, Inc., as an addition to this re- 
servation. The new plot gives direct contact with the original area and con- 
sists of an open, rolling field, where the white quartz boulder and the bronze 
tablet which were placed there by the Federation in 1931, are located. While 
mulberry trees set in this area have not done well, the natural growth of the 
wild black cherry and wild apple trees is increasing, and this natural stock, 
after being thinned and trimmed, should make a very attractive background for 
the monument. The right of way to the back lot and to the new section is very 
steep, but automobiles can ascend in low gear, and enjoy a fine view of the 
surrounding hills and the valley of the west branch of the Green River. 

Ram Island, Mattapoisett, 2 acres. — A large number of terns nested again 
on this island, and signs were observed indicating that owls had killed a num- 
ber of terns. The winter ice took down all the posters, and new ones were set 
soon after the birds arrived. 

Ram Island, Merrimack River, Salisbury, 20 acres. — This island reserva- 
tion is adjacent to Carr Island, and this year was deeded to the Commonwealth as 
a gift by the Federation of the Bird Clubs of New England, Inc. This property 
consists of 20 acres, more or less. The high part is mostly rock ledge, with 
sufficient soil to sustain some underbrush and twelve very large old oak trees. 
The remainder of the island is salt marsh, and a good feeding and resting 
ground for migrating shore birds. 

Henry Cabot Lodge Bird Sanctuary (Egg Rock), Nahant, 1 acre. — Little 
can be done to improve this island except at an expense greater than is war- 
ranted at the present time. 

Knight Wildlife Reservation (Milk Island), Rockport, 11 acres. — 
What has been said of Egg Rock applies equally to Milk Island. 

Huebner Wildlife Sanctuary, Ayer, 38 acres. — On this reservation, across 
the road from the Ayer State Game Farm, a young tree growth under natural 
seeding is coming into the area which Civil Works Administration workers 
cleared last year of dead wood and brush. 

Penikese Island Sanctuary, Buzzards Bay, 100 acres. — No work was done 
on any of the buildings except to paint the roof of the dwelling. A barberry 
hedge was set out each side of the cement walk near the house, the cemetery fence 
repaired, and the lawn and cemetery were kept mowed. 

During the winter months, the drift ice in Buzzards Bay, driven, before a 
heavy storm, broke out the central span in the old wharf. As much as possible 
was salvaged, both for use as firewood and to prevent it from drifting away to 
menace navigation. Boring sea worms in the spiles are the chief cause of the 
collapse of the wharf. The entire structure is greatly weakened, and more of it 
may be carried away in next winter's storms. It was estimated that, even if re- 
built by a Federal Emergency Relief Administration project, the cost of re- 
placing the missing section would be $1,125, and this would still leave the old 
portions in their present unsafe condition. 

Contact with the mainland was maintained, as usual, by the mail boat "Alert" 



44 P.D. 25 

calling once each week with mail and supplies, although on several occasions 
when landing was impossible on account of storms, heavy seas and drifting ice, 
the caretaker and his wife were marooned on the island. Next winter contact 
will have to be made at high water at the inland end of the wharf, so that the 
mail boat may not be delayed by getting aground. 

As usual, several thousands of the common and roseate terns, in addition to 
the herring gulls, nested on the island. The first terns arrived on April 27. 
During the week of July 4 many of the young were banded by members of the 
Federation of the Bird Clubs of New England, Inc. Later, a heavy storm killed 
quite a number of the birds that were not fully fledged. In May the herring 
gull colony was visited by agents of the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey, in 
continuance of the work commenced last year, and 1,360 herring gull eggs were 
punctured. The increase was apparently very small, as only a few young birds 
were seen. At the request of the Federal Game Protector, a close watch was 
kept on the herring gull situation and he was kept informed of conditions from 
time to time. 

Evidence of a shortage of food was observed early in the season. Gulls were 
seen to catch garter snakes in the field, carry them to salt water, kill and eat 
them. Gulls were also seen on several occasions eating the young terns. This, 
although suspected, had not been definitely established before this year. 

Through the winter the small fresh water ponds were kept open to induce the 
ducks to come in, and black ducks came regularly at night to drink. Only a few 
were trapped and banded, and some of those taken proved to have been banded 
in previous years. 

The Leach's petrel was again heard and seen about the stone wall. A light 
thrown on the bird kept it hovering in the air almost stationary as long as the 
light was played on it. 

The peninsula end of the island was burned over in March to produce green 
feed for the rabbits a little earlier. More of the V-shaped hiding places for 
rabbits were made from drift lumber nailed together. While these shelters gave 
increased protection to both old and young, it was found also that they harbored 
garter snakes. Sections of sewer pipe in the banks around the edge of the island 
were made into rabbit shelters by covering one end. 

In an effort to discover something which will serve both as rabbit cover and 
as food for the wild birds, native rose bushes, barberries and mulberry seedlings 
were set in a nursery. Between the sandy soil which is adversely affected by 
drouth, and the high winds which sweep from almost every quarter, it is almost 
impossible to get any trees to grow on the island. 

A departure from the regular routine was the installation of a number of 
rabbit hutches for the purpose of raising young in captivity. Although some 
progress was made, the experiment was not fully successful. During the worst 
part of the winter, food was put out for the wild rabbits. Trapping for ship- 
ment began early in October, and during the period of the fiscal year 334 rabbits 
were shipped to the mainland for stocking covers. Also, two were shipped to 
each of the other experimental breeding centers at Ayer and Sutton. 

Many hawks and crows visited the island at all seasons of the year, as well as 
Arctic owls, of which several were on the island last winter. 

Inland Fisheries 

Reports reaching the Division indicate that the inland fisheries of the State 
were productive of better fishing during the year now closing. This is particu- 
larly true in the case of trout fishing, where it is generally conceded that 
better fishing was available than for a number of years. While many factors 
have a bearing on this situation, some of the improvement is traceable to the 
present policy of the Division looking toward the liberation of larger and better 
fish each season, even to the extent of cutting down the number of fish available 
for distribution. A continuation of this policy is necessary to meet the steady, 
increasing demand upon the inland fisheries of the State, and it is pleasing to 
note that the present policy has been productive of tangible results. 

Regulations were promulgated, in accordance with the present law, extending 



P.D. 25 45 

the special regulations for taking of trout in the Deerfield River, so as to include 
its diverted waters. These regulations permit fishing only with a single rod and 
line attached, held in the hand, between May 30 and August 31, inclusive, and a 
size limit of 12 inches and bag limit of five trout for each person in one day. 

Trout fishing benefited by the stream clearance projects under "Coastal Stream 
Work and Stocking with Anadromous Fish and Eggs" under Emergency Relief 
Administration Activities in the Marine Fisheries section of this report. In the 
course of this work trout holes and ripples were created or altered, tree trunks 
and logs removed, and the cleared streams may now be fished their entire length. 

Due to the large amount of Emergency Relief Administration and Civilian 
Conservation Corps work being carried on throughout the State on brooks and 
rivers, sometimes detrimental to fish life and other times beneficial, it was felt 
that something definite in the way of information should be available concerning 
this type of work. As a result two booklets were published during the early part 
of the year, describing the different types and methods of construction which 
could be done on a stream for the purpose of benefiting fish life. The descrip- 
tions of these methods were accompanied by numerous detailed sketches show- 
ing the construction and should be easily understood by any one entrusted with 
carrying on such work. 

Public Fishing and Hunting Grounds. — The increasing number of fisher- 
men who use the public fishing grounds each year, and the decreasing number 
of complaints against the fishermen by landowners bordering these streams, has 
more than justified the effort put into the establishment of these streams as public 
fishing grounds. The fisherman has felt he is free to traverse the banks of the 
brook or river without fear of trespassing, and the landowner has felt that he 
is receiving some protection to his property against depredation by the non- 
sportsman. 

The posters which had been placed along the banks of the public fishing ground 
streams in previous years, and which contained the regulations governing fishing 
on these areas, were renewed before the season opened, and these, combined with 
the special warden force of nine men assigned to these streams, provided ample 
protection to the landowners. 

The public fishing grounds continued to receive large numbers of legal length 
trout which were distributed to their waters during the previous fall and winter. 

The following table summarizes the location, mileage and effective period of 
the public fishing grounds. 





Located in town of — 


Miles of 

public fishing 

ground (miles 

of stream 

accessible to 

fishermen) 


Lease 
expires 

in March 
of year 

indicated 


Westfield River System: 

East Branch .... 

Middle Branch .... 
West Branch .... 

Farmington River System: 
Farmington, Buck and Clam 
Rivers 

Millers River : 

Athol to South Royalston 
Millers Falls to Erving . 

Squannacook River 

CopecutandShinglelslandRivers 


Huntington, Chesterfield, 

Cummington 

Huntington, Chester, Middlefield . 
Huntington, Chester, Becket, 

Middlefield ..... 

Sandisfield, Tolland, Otis 

Athol, Phillipston, Royalston 
Erving, Wendell, Montague . 

Townsend 

Dartmouth, Fall River . 


20.8 
10.4 

6.4 

12.05 

5.85 

4.25 

9.4 

10.55 


1937 
1937 

1937 

1938 

1938 
1938 
1938 
1938 




79.7 





The Director's order of June 1, 1934, suspending the black bass law in the 
leased portion of the East Branch of the Westfield River, and prohibiting the 
taking of minnows or shiners from said waters for commercial purposes or with 
a net exceeding 35 square feet in area, continue in force. 

The work of closing certain streams throughout the State as trout breeding 



46 P.D. 25 

areas was continued until just previous to the opening of the trout season this 
year, and the following table shows the streams on which no fishing will be 
allowed from April 1, 1935 to March 31, 1940. These streams are in addition to 
those closed in the year 1934. 



Stream 


Town 


Feeder to 


Distance 
closed 
(miles) 


Pearl Hill Brook 

Trap Fall Brook 

( Ashby Village to mouth) 

Willard Brook 

Gulf Brook (Burnett Pond to mouth) . 

Tannery Brook 

South Branch Brook 


Ashby and Townsend 

Ashby .... 
Ashby and Townsend 
Savoy .... 
Savoy .... 
Sandisfield . 


Squannacook River 

Squannacook River 
Squannacook River 
Deerfield River 
Deerfield River 
Farmington River 


6% 

5 
5 

6y 2 

2 
1% 



All of the above-named streams lie wholly or partly in State Forest lands, and 
were recommended highly as trout breeding areas. 

Removal of Predatory Fish. — Permits were again issued to use special fishing 
gear, under supervision of the district wardens, for the taking of carp and 
suckers from State waters as follows: To Robert Field, of Peabody, to operate 
in Lake Quannapowitt, Wakefield; Merrimac River, Lawrence (including the 
fishway) ; Prankers Pond (also called Lilly Pond), Saugus; Suntaug Lake, Pea- 
body; Little Spy Pond and Big Spy Pond, Belmont. To William G. Stewart of 
Ashley Falls to operate in Laurel Lake, Lee; Pontoosuc Lake, Pittsfield; section 
of the Housatonic River; Connecticut River from Holyoke dam to South Deer- 
field; and reservoirs of the Lenox Water Co. 

Mr. Field took approximately 14,500 lb. of carp and 2,300 lb. suckers and Mr. 
Stewart approximately 10,000 lb. of carp and 12,000 lb. of suckers, making a 
total of approximately 24,500 lb. of carp and 14,300 lb. of suckers. 

Game fish taken in the course of the work to the number of 8,904 were turned 
over to the Division and planted by the wardens in open waters, as follows: 
3,007 horned pout; 72 pickerel; 3,087 yellow perch; 42 small mouth and 25 
large mouth black bass; 2,658 rock bass; 6 blue gills; 1 rainbow, 1 brown and 
5 brook trout. 

Ponds. — No public rights of way to great ponds were established by legisla- 
tive action, although House Bill No. 274, which received unfavorable action, 
sought to provide such a way to Sampson Pond in the town of Carver. 

The problem of maintaining an adequate supply of fish in the ponds is ever 
before the Division, and ice fishing has been held responsible for reduction of 
the stocks. The fishermen themselves are divided strictly into two camps on the 
wrongs and rights of winter fishing. One group, the summer pond anglers, have 
always complained that with the generous number of lines permitted to each 
license holder and the daily bag allowed under the laws, the winter fishermen 
are slowly but surely wiping out the pickerel and perch in most of the ponds. 
The winter fishermen claim, that their best sport comes in the winter and have 
vigorously opposed any attempt to curtail it. 

A plan was suggested by the Director for closing, in rotation, all the great 
ponds in the State to winter fishing for a period of two years each. It would 
operate this way — one-third of the ponds in each county, no two adjacent or in 
the same community, would be declared closed for the first year of its operation, 
and this same group of ponds would be closed the second year, In the second 
year, another group of ponds, selected in the same way,- would be declared closed 
to winter fishing, to -remain closed also for two years. The third year, the re- 
maining ponds would be closed for two years, but the first group closed would be 
declared open to winter fishing for that season only. From then on, the plan 
would automatically rotate the opening and closing. Thus two-thirds of the 
ponds in every county would always be closed to winter fishing, and the re- 
maining third open, giving every great pond in the State two years of closed 
seasons and one year of open season within every three years. Inasmuch as the 



P.D. 25 47 

spawning period of both pickerel and perch comes during the latter part of the 
present winter fishing season, the plan would give the fish a much better chance 
to increase than if the majority of ponds were open to winter fishing, as is the 
case at present. The plan was not put into operation, however, as it did not 
meet the approval of the sportsmen's clubs. 

Great Ponds Stocked and Closed. — Within the period of this report (Dec. 1, 
1934 to Nov. 30, 1935) the following-named great ponds were stocked under 
Section 40, Chapter 131, General Laws, Terr. Ed., and regulations applied by 
the Director closing the respective ponds to fishing for the periods named below, 
some for three-year and some for one-year periods), with penalty of twenty 
dollars for each violation of the regulations. This list does not include ponds 
on which similar regulations have been applied in past years, and which are still 
in effect. 



Body of Water 



Town 



Regulations effective, both 
dates inclusive — 



Foster's Pond 



South Pond 



Watson's Pond 

South Pond (also called Harris, Welch's, Youth's 
and Forest Lake) 

Spectacle Pond (also called Big Spectacle Pond 
and Spec Pond) 

Winnecunnet Lake 

Hayes Pond 

Big Pond 

Onota Lake 

Shaw Pond 

Simon Pond (also called Simonds and Lake 

Marguerite) 

Yokum Pond 



Andover 

Savoy • 

Taunton 

Methuen 

Lancaster 

Norton 

Otis 

Otis 

Pittsfield 

Becket 

Sandisfield 

Becket 



Dec. 1, 
Nov. 1, 
Nov. 1, 

Dec. 15, 

Nov. 1, 
Nov. 1, 

Dec. 15, 

Nov. 1, 
Nov. 1, 



Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 

Nov. 
Nov. 

Nov. 

Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 



1934, 
1935, 
1936, 

1934, 
1935, 
1936, 

1934, 
1935, 
1936, 

1935, 
1936, 
1937, 

1935, 
1936, 
1937, 

1935, 
1936, 
1937, 

1935, 

1935, 

1935, 

1935, 

1935, 

1935, 



to May 29, 
to May 29, 
to May 29, 

to May 29, 
to May 29, 
to May 29, 

to May 29, 
to May 29, 
to May 29, 

to May 29, 
to May 29, 
to May 29, 

to May 29, 
to May 29, 
to May 29, 

to May 29, 
to May 29, 
to May 29, 

to May 29, 

to May 29, 

to May 29, 

to May 29, 

to May 29, 

to May 29, 



1935 
1936 
1937 

1935 
1936 
1937 

1935 
1936 
1937 

1936 
1937 
1938 

1936 
1937 
1938 

1936 

1937 
1938 

1936 

1936 

1936 

1936 

1936 

1936 



Breeding Areas in Great Ponds. — Upon petition from the town of Sharon 
under Section 41, Chapter 131, General Laws, Ter. Ed., the following described 
portion of Massapoag Lake in the town of Sharon was set aside as a breeding 
area for fish of all species for five years from July 1, 1935 : — That portion of 
Lake Massapoag in the town of Sharon which is known as the South Cove and 
which is set off by a line running westerly from the end of a point on the north- 
east corner of South Cove, which corner is owned by Mr. Dubinsky and inter- 
secting the westerly shore at a point just south of a duck blind. The regulations 
are as follows: "Whoever fishes in this area while it is set apart as a breeding 
area shall forfeit his license and shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
ten nor more than twenty-five dollars." 

PROPAGATION OF FISH AND GAME 

Fish Hatcheries and Game Farms — General 
There was no outstanding development at any of the game farms or fish 
hatcheries during the year, due to the lack of funds. The rising cost of fish food 
and bird food, as well as other materials used at these stations, made it difficult 
to operate them with a maximum output during the year. The only developments 
which can be recorded are those which were made possible through the medium of 
Emergency Relief Administration or Works Progress Administration projects, 



48 P.D. 25 

and these are noted under each station. As with Federal projects carried out in 
previous years, the United States government supplied only the labor, and the 
State paid for tools, materials and supplies. 

During this year, as in the past two or three years preceding, emphasis has 
been placed upon the quality of the fish and birds produced, rather than the 
quantity; but, notwithstanding this fact each station has made a creditable 
showing. 

East San&wich State Fish Hatchery — Alfred C. Fish, Assistant 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — No new construction or repair work 
with either Federal or State funds was undertaken at this station. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 49,220 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
of which 2,065 were lost, 37,700 planted in open waters, 7,455 distributed to 
club rearing pools, and 2,000 added to the brood stock. 

To the 2,089 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 
2,000 of the 1934 hatched fish mentioned above, making a total of 4,089, of 
which 619 were lost, 1,491 planted in open waters, and 1,979 remain on hand 
November 30. 

For the work of the year, 171,850 eggs were collected from the brood stock at 
the station, of which 38,444 were lost and 133,406 hatched. Of these, 12,050 
were lost, 38,400 planted in open waters, and 82,956 classified as fingerlings. Of 
these, 20,000 were lost, 5,000 turned over to club rearing pools, 13,430 planted 
in open waters (2 to 3 inch) and 44,526 remain on hand November 30. 

In the course of the year the following vermin was killed : 6 green herons, 25 
king fishers, 4 herring gulls, 2 great blue herons, and 4 black crowned night 
herons. 

Montague State Fish Hatchery — Ralph Bitzer, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — On June 11 an Emergency Relief 
Administration project was started at this hatchery. The major portion of the 
work consisted in gravelling all of the used roads on the hatchery property. 
This called for the excavation of about 500 cubic yards of earth and the placing 
of over 2,000 cubic yards of gravel surfacing. 

A new drainage ditch, 250 feet long, was dug to carry away the small stream 
of water from the pasture, and necessitated the excavation of 70 cubic yards of 
earth. 

Grading the dikes and hillside adjacent to the lower ponds called for the move- 
ment of over 150 cubic yards of material. 

A pipe line, 125 feet long, carrying the water of the back brook to the pools 
below it, was lowered to improve the flow. 

An old dump on the hillside near the westerly end of the property was filled 
in and graded over. 

No new construction with State funds was undertaken, except general pool 
repair. After the completion of the distribution of brook and rainbow trout to 
open waters, which extended well into the winter, all ponds and pools were 
carefully cleaned and disinfected, starting with the upper ponds above the 
hatchery building and continuing down through the entire station. It was com- 
pleted during the month of April. 

A large number of pine and spruce trees were gathered on the hatchery 
grounds and planted along the ponds in the lower section of the station. 

New Equipment. — A new iy 2 ton Chevrolet truck was added to the station 
equipment, and the old truck retained. 

General. — All brook and rainbow trout eggs were produced from the sta- 
tion's own brood stock, with the exception of one lot of 100,000 rainbow eggs 
shipped in from the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Station at White Sulphur Springs, 
West Virginia. There was a 50% loss in this lot of rainbow eggs, the cause of 
which could not be determined, and the Bureau kindly agreed to replace the 
losses next season. 

Feeding experiments were conducted during the year under the direction of 



P.D. 25 49 

the biologist. These experiments proved to be of great value in the substitution 
of diets at all the stations, made necessary by the great increase in the cost of 
fresh meats. 

Experiments were carried on with limestone placed in the water to determine 
if it would have an effect in increasing the growth of trout and decreasing mor- 
tality in hatchery practice. The results of this experiment are not yet known. 

In the early summer there was a recurrence of the unknown disease which 
made its appearance in the hatchery last year. Losses were greatly reduced by 
decreasing the amount of food fed. The disease was of shorter duration, and 
the mortality considerably lower, than in the preceding year. (This has already 
been discussed under Activities of the Biologist and Staff.) 

Bug lights were installed again this year over all pools and ponds where it 
was possible, and made great quantities of insects available to the trout. 

The Hewitt round tub rearing tank, donated by the Millers Falls Sportsmen's 
Club as already recorded, was installed at the lower end of the hatchery grounds 
during the spring, and 5,000 brook trout fingerlings, 2 inches in length, were 
placed in it during the month of June. This tub was operated with 40 gallons 
of water per minute, which appeared to be a very satisfactory flow. It is be- 
lieved, however, that better quality of fish would result if fewer fish were carried 
in this tank. 

Late in November, when a careful check was made of the fish in the tub, there 
was found to be a considerable number of fish which had not made any growth. 
A final check on the count of fish reared revealed, that of the 5,000 originally 
placed in the tank, there were on hand 2,611 fish, of which 1,746 were 5 inches 
and over and 865 under 5 inches. To the above should be added 700 fingerling 
fish which were distributed during the summer because the tank appeared to be 
overcrowded, making a total of 3,311 fish accounted for. Of the 1,689 fish lost, 
5% should be classified as escapes under the screens during the process of clean- 
ing, or from cannibalism, and the balance lost during the course of rearing. 

A visitation by an unusually large number of predatory birds resulted in 
heavy losses and a retardation in the growth of the fingerling brook trout from 
being continually scared by this vermin during the best growing months of the 
year. There was a total kill of 4 great blue herons, 62 black crown night herons, 
4 bitterns, and 77 kingfishers. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 56,950 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
to which were added 9,950 by a recount, making a total of 66,900, of which 64,900 
were distributed to open waters and 2,000 added to the brood stock. 

To the 1,252 brook trout brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year 
were added 2,528 of the 1934-hatched fish (2,000 mentioned above, to which 
were added 528 found to be on hand at a later date), making a total of 3,780, 
of which 1,123 were lost, 1.930 planted in open waters, 14 distributed for display, 
and 713 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 237,000 brook trout eggs were collected from the 
brood stock at the station, of which 61,734 were lost and 175,266 hatched. Of 
these 7,500 fry were lost and 167,766 transferred to fingerlings, of which 5,700 
were lost 88,800 planted in open waters (48,500 2-3 inch; 16,120 5 to 6 inches; 
24 180 6 inches and over), 11,000 turned over to club rearing pools, 50 distributed 
for display, and 62,216 remain on hand November 30. 

Rainbow Trout. — The year opened with 10,186 yearling rainbow trout on 
hand, of which 2,727 were lost and 7,459 distributed to open waters. 

To the 969 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 567 
found to be on hand at a later date, making a total of 1,536, of which 248 were 
lost, 250 distributed to open waters, 13 sent for display purposes, and 1,025 
remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 144.050 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of the year, 1,700 were 
lost, 49,400 distributed to open waters, and 92,950 were transferred to yearlings. 
Of these, 2,900 were lost, 10,000 transferred to the Sutton State Fish Hatchery, 
69,500 planted in open waters, 12 distributed for display, and 10,538 remain on 
hand November 30. 



50 P.D. 25 

For the work of the year, 237,560 rainbow trout eggs were collected from the 
brood stock at the station, to which were added 100,000 rainbow trout eggs re- 
ceived from the United States Bureau of Fisheries station, making a total of 
337,560 eggs handled. Of this number, 123,513 eggs were lost and 214,047 hatched, 
of which 33,000 fry were lost and 181,047 transferred to fingerlings. Of these, 
16,000 were lost, 5,000 were turned over to club rearing pools, 75 distributed for 
display, and 159,972 remain on hand November 30. 

Palmer State Fish Hatchery — William F. Monroe, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — On February 4, a crew of local 
Emergency Relief Administration workers, consisting of 15 laborers, 4 masons 
and a foreman, went to work at the Palmer State Fish Hatchery on a project 
which included the building of a stone wall on both sides of the brook from the 
main highway to the end of the present pond system, together with the construc- 
tion of 18 new daphnia pools. 

The wall, which was 4 feet in height and ran a total length of 1,700 feet, not 
only added considerably to the general appearance of the property, but strength- 
ened the dikes along the brook, and thus eliminated all danger from cave-ins. 

The pools consisted of 3 sets of 6 each, 36 feet long and running a total length 
of 216 feet for each set. They were 5 feet wide and 2 feet deep, with slanting 
sides to reduce shore erosion to a minimum. The dams in each case were built of 
treated fir. 

No new construction with State funds was undertaken at this station. 

Brook Trout. — The season's work was conducted practically the same as the 
preceding year. For the first time, all eggs hatched were stripped from the sta- 
tion's own selected brood stock, and while all eggs used were taken from first 
spawners, the resulting fish showed a remarkable growth. 

Trout feeding experiments were continued through the summer with 5 differ- 
ent diets, and considerable data are available as a result of this work. 

Late in July, Ichthyophthirus appeared among the fingerlings in three pools. 
Control measures were carefully observed and the disease was eliminated after a 
few treatments. 

The year opened with 66,703 brook trout fingerlings on hand, of which 26,803 
were lost or unaccounted for, 34,900 planted in open waters, 3,000 turned over 
to club rearing pools, and 2,000 added to the brood stock. 

To the 1,824 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 167 
by a recount and 2,000 of the 1934-hatched fish mentioned above, making a total 
of 3,991, of which 127 were lost, 3,273 planted in open waters, 21 distributed for 
display, 52 used for experimental purposes, and 518 remain on hand No- 
vember 30. 

For the work of the year, 214,325 eggs were collected from the brood stock 
at the station, of which 126,960 were lost and 87,365 hatched. Of the number 
hatched, 12,680 were lost and 74,685 transferred to fingerlings. Of these, 7,900 
were lost, 38,300 planted in open waters (4,700 2-3 inch; 8,625 5 to 6 inches; 
24,975 six inches and over), and 28,485 remain on hand November 30. 

Small mouth Black Bass. — The season started with 208 adult brood fish on 
hand, to which were added 123 from spring salvage operations and 161 from fall 
salvage work, making a total of 492, of which 64 were lost and 428 remain on 
hand November 30. 

From the bass ponds 9,550 fingerlings were collected and distributed to open 
waters and 10,000 fry were turned over to a club rearing pool. This was the 
second year that fingerling bass exclusively have been produced at this station. 
While the number reared was small, the growth was excellent, many specimens 
having attained a length of 7 inches. 

One of the greatest difficulties experienced during the year was that with large 
turtles which had gained entrance to the rearing ponds. It was several weeks 
before they were finally exterminated, and during this period they undoubtedly 
destroyed quantities of small bass. 



P.D. 25 51 

As discouraging as the turtle situation was, the most disheartening experience 
came when, upon drawing the ponds for the removal of the fingerling bass, tre- 
mendous numbers of crawfish were found instead of the fish which were ex- 
pected. Up to October 12, at least l 1 /^ tons or an estimated number of 250,000 
crawfish were collected, with many remaining in the ponds and several more 
ponds still to be drawn. This great quantity of crawfish undoubtedly made great 
inroads on the natural food that the young bass would consume, and in addition 
probably cleaned up much of the vegetation in the ponds, as well as the fertilizer 
introduced for the production of natural food, and the artificial food which the 
culturist endeavored to feed to the young bass. 

In 2 of the new uncompleted ponds a number of bass from the previous year's 
hatch were discovered, which had undoubtedly subsisted on this year's crop of 
fry. The result was, that the production in these 2 ponds consisted largely of 
last year's fish. 

The total vermin kill for the year was: 28 snakes, 29 turtles, 6 ospreys, 51 
kingfishers, 14 night herons, 13 brown bitterns, 9 green herons, 8 blue herons, 1 
Cooper's hawk, and 12 muskrats. 

Sandwich State Fish Hatchery — Irving Lewis, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — No new construction or replace- 
ment work was undertaken at this station with Federal funds. With State funds 
3 new wells were driven to increase the water supply. 

Brook Trout. • — The year opened with 84,700 fingerlings on hand, to which 
were added 2,100 by a recount, making a total of 86,800, of which 1,000 were 
lost, 83,800 planted in open waters, and 2,000 added to the brood stock. 

To the 1,931 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 
2,000 1934-hatched fish mentioned above, making a total of 3,931 of which 198 
were lost, 300 planted in open waters, and 3,433 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 355,000 eggs were collected from the brood stock at 
the station, of which 49,596 were lost, 40,000 transferred to the Sutton State 
Fish Hatchery, and 265,404 hatched. Of the number hatched, 83,721 were lost, 
20,000 planted in open waters, and 161,683 classified as fingerlings. Of these, 
66,871 were lost, 12 distributed for display, and 94,800 remain on hand No- 
vember 30. 

Chinook Salmon. — To the 5,900 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of 
the year were added 1,100 by a recount, making a total of 7,000, all of which were 
planted in open waters. 50,000 chinook salmon eggs were received from the 
California Fish and Game Commission in exchange for brook trout eggs pur- 
chased and sent to their Mount Shasta Hatchery. Of these, 1,037 were lost and 
48,963 hatched. Of the number hatched, 2,890 fry were lost and 46,073 classified 
as fingerlings. Of these, 5,573 were lost, 32,000 planted in open waters, and 
8,500 remain on hand November 30. 

During the month of October a fish tagging experiment was conducted by the 
Biologist and members of the staff of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries (details of 
the procedure are discussed in this report under Activities of the Biologist and 
Staff). 

Feeding experiments were conducted during the year by the Fish Culturist 
under the supervision of the Biologist, and among the products used were: 
dried silk worms, clam meal, Hewitts prepared fish food, salmon liver, hog 
plucks, and hog melts. 

During the year the following vermin destructive to fish life, was destroyed : 
40 kingfishers, 20 crow blackbirds, 12 black crown night herons, 1 great blue 
heron, 6 sea gulls, and 15 green herons. 

Sunderland State Fish Hatchery — Ludwig Horst, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 
New Construction and Replacement. — As an Emergency Relief Adminis- 
tration project, a new road was constructed at this station during the summer 
for the purpose of making accessible a new group of trout pools which are to be 



52 P.D. 25 

built in the near future on the northwest corner of the station. The road is 
1,500 feet long, has a 9-foot gravel surface, and required the movement of over 
2,000 cubic yards of material. As a part of this project, the main brook was 
relocated for a distance of 150 feet and necessitated the excavation of 130 cubic 
yards of earth. To carry the new road across the brook, a bridge having stone 
abutments was constructed near the lower end of the new brook location and 
was built of 3-inch oak planks laid on old trolley rails. 

With State funds 2 pools, each 8 feet by 98 feet with board sides, were built 
to improve the facilities for holding and handling brook trout brood stock. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 21,600 fingerlings on hand, to which 
were added 13,500 by a recount, making a total of 35,100, of which 33,100 were 
planted in open waters and 2,000 added to the brood stock. 

To the 630 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 2,000 
of the 1934-hatched fish to which were added 121 by a recount, making a total 
of 2,751, of which 216 were lost, 1655 planted in open waters, 50 turned over to 
a club rearing pool, 30 distributed for display, and 800 remain on hand No- 
vember 30. 

For the work of the year, 186,600 brook trout eggs were collected from the 
brood stock at the station, to which were added 50,000 adult eggs purchased 
from a commercial hatcherv, making a total of 236,600, of which 74,600 were 
lost and 162,000 hatched. Of these, 12,000 fry were lost and 150,000 transferred 
to fingerlings, to which were added 18,900 by a recount, making a total of 
168,900 fingerlings. Of these, 1,150 were lost, 127,550 distributed to open 
waters (47,000 2 to 3 inch; 40,275 5 to 6 inch; 40,275 6 inches and over) 3,000 
turned over to club rearing pools, and 37,200 remain on hand November 30. 

Gyrodactylus again made its appearance among the fingerling brook trout 
during the rearing season, but was soon cured by submerging the fish in acid 
baths. 

Brown Trout. ■ — The year opened with 9,158 yearlings on hand, to which 
were added 12,155 by a recount, making a total of 21,313, of which 568 were 
lost, 20,145 distributed to open waters, and 600 added to the brood stock. 

To the 370 brown trout brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year 
were added 600 yearlings mentioned above, to which were added 353 by a re- 
count, making a total of 1,323, of which 62 were lost, 350 planted in open waters, 
69 distributed for display, and 842 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 190,000 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of the year, 6,000 were 
lost, 63 500 distributed to open waters, and 120,500 transferred to yearlings, to 
which were added 26,112 by a recount, making a total of 146,612. Of these, 
5,300 were lost, 15,000 transferred to the Sutton State Fish Hatchery, 104,500 
distributed to open waters (10,000 3 to 5 in., 94,500 6 inches and over), 1,200 
turned over to club rearing pools, 12 distributed for display, and 20,600 remain 
on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 434,180 brown trout eggs were collected from the 
brood stock at the station. To these were added 100,500 brown trout eggs re- 
ceived from the United States Bureau of Fisheries Station at Bozeman, Mon- 
tana, in exchange for brook trout eggs purchased and sent to their White Sul- 
phur Springs, West Virginia station, making a total of 534,680 eggs handled. 
Of these, 110,000 were lost and 424,680 hatched, of which 170,000 fry were lost, 
350 distributed for study purposes, and 254,330 were transferred to fingerlings. 
Of these, 54,000 were lost, 50 distributed for display, and 200,280 remain on 
hand November 30. 

White Spot disease occurred during the season among the brown trout fry 
with considerable loss, but at least 25% more fry survived this year than last. 
The fingerling brown trout made a fine growth during the summer, and the 
yearlings a noticeably better growth during the winter, both of which can be 
attributed to the feeding of pasteurized herring bits. 

No disease was present during the year among the fingerling or adult brown 
trout. 

A fish tagging experiment was conducted on 250 brown trout by using cellu- 



P.D. 25 53 

loid disks. Further details of this experiment will be found under "Activities of 
Biologist and Staff." 

The following vermin was killed for the protection of the stock: 6 large blue 
herons, 35 black crowned night herons, 4 small green herons, 1 American bittern, 
54 kingfishers, 1 barn owl, 1 great horned owl, 36 house rats, 2 weasels, 4 
muskrats. 

Sutton State Fish Hatchery — Michael O'Mara, Assistant Fish and Game 
Culturist, Acting in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — No new construction or repair work 
was undertaken at this station, either with Federal or with State funds. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 6,740 fingerling brook trout on hand 
to which were added 7,460 by recount, making a total of 14,200, of which 12,200 
were planted in open waters and 2,000 added to the brood stock. 

To the 324 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 2,000 
of the 1934-hatched hsh mentioned above, making a total of 2,324, of which 
1,327 were lost, 898 distributed to open waters, and 99 remain on hand No- 
vember 30. 

For the work of the year 35,800 eggs were collected from the brood stock at 
the station, to which were added 35,000 adult eggs purchased and 40,000 yearling 
eggs from the Sandwich State Fish Hatchery, making a total of 110,800 eggs 
handled. Of these, 35,408 were lost and 75,392 hatched, of which 33,800 were 
lost, 10,000 distributed to public waters, 1,800 shipped for study and experiment, 
and 29,792 transferred to fmgerlings. Of these, 4,620 were lost, 9,300 distributed 
to open waters, and 15,872 remain on hand November 30. 

Brown Trout. — The year opened with 1,912 yearlings on hand, 12 of which 
were lost and 1,900 distributed to open waters. 

For the work of the year, 15,000 brown trout fmgerlings were received from 
the Sunderland State Fish Hatchery in March. Of these, 1,916 were lost and 
13,084 transferred to yearlings, of which 84 were lost and 13,000 distributed to 
open waters. 

Rainbow Trout. — The j^ear opened with 197 yearlings on hand, all of which 
were distributed to open waters. 

For the work of the year 10,000 rainbow trout fingerlings were received from 
the Montague State Fish Hatchery at the end of March and the beginning of 
April, of which 369 were lost, 55 shipped for experiment, and 9,576 transferred 
to yearlings, of which 76 were lost, and 9,500 distributed to open waters. 

The vermin killed for the protection of the stock was: 3 mink, 5 muskrats, 
36 herons and 62 kingfishers. 

Sutton State Pond System — James E. Noble, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — With State funds a new building 
24 feet by 24 feet was constructed to be used for garage, workshop and storage 
purposes. This building is located on the shores of Schoolhouse Pond. 

Early in the summer a group of Emergency Relief Administration workers 
were put to work on various projects. The largest, and probably the most im- 
portant project, was that of stopping leaks in the Putnam Pond dam. This 
necessitated the removal of 150 feet of stone wall, the placing of approximately 
300 cubic yards of clay and gravel on the upstream face of the dam, and relay- 
ing the wall. 

The Schoolhouse Pond dam and the Adams dam were also found to be leak- 
ing, and additional fill was placed on their upstream faces. 

Other items of work completed under this project were the enlargement of 
the area at the shipping stand by filling and grading the driveway below the 
sorting tanks; the relocation of buildings at the main trap; the excavating of a 
ceFar for new workshop and the laying of foundation walls for building; the 
cutting of brush and trimming of trees along the main road. 

Work was started October 18 on the following Emergency Relief Administra- 
tion project which is still uncompleted — 

(a) Replace wooden sluiceway at Adams Pond dam with concrete sluiceway. 



54 P.D. 25 

(b) Rebuild stone culvert under road between Clark Pond and Schoolhouse 
Pond. 

(c) Place fill on dam at Adams Pond to stop leaks. 

(d) Clear and grub 4 acres of land for planting. 

New Equipment. — A loading pump and motor were added to the equipment 
at this station. 

Pond Fish Culture. — The aquatic plants and seeds introduced into the 
ponds by the Biologist in the fall of 1934 came through the winter successfully, 
resulting in a luxuriant growth of vegetation all through the following summer 
and fall, which should aid materially in providing food and shelter necessary for 
the annual crop of young fish. A detailed survey, as outlined under "Activities 
of the Biologist and Staff," was undertaken, and additional lots of aquatic vegeta- 
tion planted during the year. 

All the ponds were drawn off in the fall and considerable difficulty was ex- 
perienced in removing the fish from the channels in the ponds because of the 
mud which had collected in them. Plans are under way for digging and regravel- 
ling channels to permit seining in the No. 3, No. 4 and No. 5 ponds, which it is 
understood will be executed as a Works Progress Administration project. No 
breeders were returned to these ponds and it is expected that a supply will be 
obtained from the salvage units next spring before the fish spawn. Brood stock 
in proper proportions was returned to the No. 1, No. 2 and No. 6 ponds. 

Great care had been exercised in the fall of 1934 to make certain that no 
blue gill breeders or young stock were returned to the ponds, but despite this 
care, when the ponds were drawn they appeared in large numbers. 

Fingerling crappie came through in amazingly small quantities. The very 
small production can undoubtedly be attributed, in part at least, to the lack of 
gravel spawning beds for the breeders. 

A great many horned pout remained in the mud and could not be seined, but 
on the whole, with the exception of fingerling crappie, a good crop of fish was 
removed from the system. 

The following vermin was killed in the course of the year: 31 kingfishers, 43 
herons. 

The ponds yielded for distribution to open waters and for display and study 
purposes, for the period of this report, 236,283 pond fish, divided as follows: 
40,405 horned pout, 1,718 pickerel, 143,677 yellow perch, 275 crappie, 8 large 
mouth black bass, 50,200 blue gills. 

Nine hundred and thirty (930) crappie taken in salvage operations were intro- 
duced into the ponds as brood stock. 

Game Propagation. — The game breeding work at the ponds is to be found 
among the reports of the game farms under the heading "Sutton State Pond 
System." 

Andover State Pond System 

Due to changes in the Civilian Conservation Corps program in Massachusetts, 
which removed from the Harold Parker State Forest the camp which was en- 
gaged in constructing the fish cultural ponds, this project has not been completed. 
Three ponds were completed and flowed prior to the removal of the camp, when 
it was found that some of the dams were not watertight. As a result, it is prob- 
able that all three ponds will be eventually drawn down to enable the Federal 
authorities to complete the work in a satisfactory condition. 

Work was started on the fourth pond and was approximately fifty percent 
completed, when the camp was removed from the area and no further work was 
done on that pond during the remainder of the year. Negotiations were opened 
up with the officials in charge of the Civilian Conservation Corps looking to the 
repair of the dams already constructed and the completion of the fourth pond, 
which was well under way when the removal order came from Washington. 

The completed ponds were stocked with the following brood fish : No. 1 Rear- 
ing Pond, 132 horned pout and 781 crappie; No. 2 Rearing Pond, 250,000 pike 
perch fry; No. 3 Rearing Pond, 204 small mouth black bass. 

In September the engineers of the Federal Parks Service drained No. 1 Pond 



P.D. 25 55 

for the purpose of determining the condition of the strata beneath the dam 
foundation. As the pond drained out it was discovered that the horned pout and 
crappie breeders had produced a large stock of excellent fingerlings that were 
in the channel of Mill Brook going down to Martin's Pond. These fish had largely 
passed out of the pond but the water remained behind the dykes separating the 
east and west arms of the pond from the main body. It was believed that this 
water would contain large numbers of crappie and horned pout, and to save 
these the water was drawn off. As expected, the area yielded fish in large num- 
bers, but they proved to be valueless banded pickerel and sunfish, and they were 
allowed to go down to Martin's Pond. 

Tumhiill's Pond 

The entire 20,000 muskallonge fry received from New York State were planted 
in TurnbulPs Pond, Greenfield, for further experiment. The pond is to be 
drawn next year. 

Work of the Salvage Units 

The usual salvage program was carried out during the spring months with 
generally satisfactory results, as shown in the following report of each salvage 
unit. 

Availability of water supplies and private ponds for salvage work, and the 
demand for this type of activity, led to a departure for the year in attempting 
to carry out a salvage program during the fall months. While some results were 
accomplished it was the consensus of opinion of those in charge of the salvage 
units, that the same results cannot be obtained during the fall months as in the 
spring and early summer, due, no doubt, to the difference in water conditions at 
that particular time. 

Salvage Unit No. 1 — William H. Seaman, Fish Culturist, in Charge 

Salt Pond, Little Pond, Oyster Pond and Perch Pond, all in Falmouth,* 
April 8 to April 26. — 1,800 yellow perch, 294,550 white perch, planted in open 
waters. In addition, 200 white perch were turned over to a club rearing pool. 
Total— 296,550. 

Great Quittacas Pond, Lakeville, Middleboro, Rochester, April 29 to May 6. — 
1,725 horned pout, 115 pickerel, 2,430 yellow perch, 2,050 white perch, 82 small 
mouth black bass, planted in open waters. Total — 6,402. 

Weymouth Great Pond, Weymouth, May 18 to May 16. — 1,880 horned pout, 
72 pickerel, 13,800 yellow perch, 1,250 white perch, 410 small mouth' black bass, 
planted in open waters. Total — 17,412. 

North Watuppa Pond, Fall River, May 17 to May 29.-11,975 horned pout, 
94 pickerel, 2,025 yellow perch, 19,325 white perch, 715 small mouth black bass, 
14 pike perch, 100 blue gills, 25 crappie, planted in open waters. In addition, 
123 small mouth black bass were turned over to the Palmer State Fish Hatchery 
for brood stock. Total— 34,396. 

Wenham Lake. Wenham, June 3 to June 12. — 921 horned pout, 350 pickerel, 
7,755 yellow perch, 29,274 white perch, 550 small mouth black bass, planted in 
open waters. Total — 38,850. 

Butler Ames Pond, Tewksbury, June 14 to June 20. — 1,381 crappie, 132 horned 
pout, 204 small mouth black bass, 1,000 blue gills, planted in open waters. In 
addition 930 crappie were turned over to the Sutton State Pond System for 
brood stock. Total— 3,647. 

Kenoza Lake, Haverhill, June 24 to June 28. — 95 pickerel, 950 yellow perch, 
4,750 white perch, 895 small mouth black bass, planted in open waters. Total — 
6,690. 

Hopping Hill Reservoir, North Attleborough, September 18 to September 21. — 
75 horned pout, 16 pickerel, 1,800 yellow perch, planted in open waters. Total — 
1,891. 

North Reservoir, South Reservoir, and Middle Reservoir, Stoneham, Win- 
chester, Medford, September 25 to October 8. — 165 horned pout, 275 pickerel, 
1,100 yellow perch, 3,300 small mouth black bass, planted in open waters. In 

*Both Salvage Unit No. 1 and Salvage Unit No. 2 operated in the Falmouth Ponds. 



56 P.D. 25 

addition 67 small mouth black bass were turned over to the Palmer State Fish 
Hatchery for brood stock. Total— 4,907. 

Salvage Unit No. 2 — Elmer A. Macker, Fish Culturist, in Charge 

Salvage Units No. 1 and No. 2 operated together on the salvage of fish from 
Falmouth Ponds, April 8 to April 26. For number of fish collected, see under 
Salvage Unit No. 1. 

Chauncey Lake, Westboro, April 29 to May 6. — 6,960 white perch, planted in 
open waters. Total — 6,960. 

Ashley Lake, Washington, May 10 to May 15. — 55 horned pout, 20 pickerel, 
275 yellow perch, planted in open waters. Total — 350. 

Lake Averic, Stockbridge, May 16 to May 22. — 220 horned pout, 35 pickerel, 
415 yellow perch, 22 small mouth black bass, 23 large mouth black bass, 40 rock 
bass, planted in open waters. Total — 755. 

Indian Lake, Worcester, May 24 to June 12. — 3,250 horned pout, 150 pickerel, 
2,900 yellow perch, 20,500 white perch, planted in open waters. In addition, 15 
crappie, 50 horned pout, 12 pickerel were distributed to a club rearing pool. 
Total— 26,877. 

Ludlow Reservoir, Ludlow, June 14 to June 26. — 245 yellow perch, 31 white 
perch, 1,845 small mouth black bass, planted in open waters. Total — 2,121. 

Gates Pond, Berlin, September 25 to October 2. — 55 horned pout, 13 pickerel, 
10 yellow perch, 155 small mouth black bass, planted in open waters. Total — 233. 

Shaw Pond, Leicester, October 4 to October 11. — 45 horned pout, 39 pickerel, 
26 yellow perch, planted in open waters. Total — 110. 

Mare Meadow Pond, Westminster, October 13, 14, 18, 22, 24.-1,250 horned 
pout, 100 pickerel, 19,400 yellow perch planted in open waters. Total — 20,750. 

Partridgeville Pond, Templeton, October 17, 19, 20. — 21 pickerel, 50 yellow 
perch, planted in open waters. Total — 71. 

Miscellaneous Salvage 

Several lots of miscellaneous fish were salvaged by the employees of the Divi- 
sion, and the fish planted in local ponds, except where otherwise stated. 

From Burnett Pond, Savoy, 150 pickerel, 1,750 horned pout, 17,480 yellow 
perch. Total — 19,380. (2,422 pond shiners were also collected and planted in 
open waters.) 

From Wyllie's Pond, Franklin, 10,100 horned pout, 121 pickerel. Total— 10,221. 

From Doble Pond, Savoy, 1,240 yellow perch, 27 pickerel, 103 horned pout. 
Total— 1,370. 

From Lilly Pond, Chicopee, 16,000 horned pout. Total— 16,000. 

From Manns Pond, Norfolk, 3,500 yellow perch, 1,100 horned pout. Total — 
4,600. 

From Dickinson Pond, Northfield, 15,800 horned pout. Total— 15,800. 

From a quarter-acre pond on the Daughters of the American Revolution State 
Forest, Goshen, 31 brown trout, 34 brook trout. Total — 65. 

From Meetinghouse Pond, Westminster, 94 small mouth black bass, sent to the 
Palmer State Fish Hatchery for brood stock. 

From a small unnamed pond in Spencer, 175 white perch, 5,650 horned pout, 
5,270 yellow perch, 125 small mouth black bass, 742 pickerel, 2,925 blue gills. 
Total— 14,887. 

From Decelles Pond, Windsor, 176 brown trout. Total — 176. 

From Clear Water Pond, Windsor, 106 rainbow trout, 20 brown trout. Total — 
126. 

From Benedict Pond, Great Barrington, Monterey, 372 brown trout, 7 brook 
trout. Total— 379. 

From the Cape Cod Cranberry Burrage Bogs, Halifax, 8,341 yellow perch. 
Total— 8,341. 

From Lower Goshen Reservoir, Goshen, 18 pickerel, 300 yellow perch, 200 
blue gills. Total— 518. 

From a pond on the Rufus Putnam Memorial Park, Rutland, 10,100 horned 
pout. Total— 10,100. 



P.D. 25 57 

From Sodum Pond, Tyringham, 28 horned pout, 31 yellow perch, 801 pickerel, 
27 brook trout. Total— 887. 

From Greenville Pond, Leicester, 4,700 white perch, 6,300 horned pout, 100 
small mouth black bass, 150 pickerel, 2,350 yellow perch. Total — 13,600. 

From Mare Meadow Pond, Westminster (This is in addition to the fish collected 
by Salvage Unit No. 2), 8,500 horned pout, 14,000 yellow perch. Total— 22,500. 

From a small pool in Mansfield, 718 horned pout. Total — 718. 

From the Housatonic River, Sheffield, Lenox, Stockbridge, 3,007 horned pout, 
72 pickerel, 3,087 yellow perch, 42 small mouth black bass, 2,658 rock bass, 25 
large mouth black bass, 6 blue gills, 1 rainbow trout, 1 brown trout, 5 brook 
trout. Total— 8,904. 

From Backus Pond, Lee, 450 horned pout. Total — 450. 

Ayer State Game Farm — Edward E. Backus, Game Bird Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — With State funds an experimental 
breeding and rearing pen unit for cottontail rabbits was constructed, which is 
described in detail in the account following of the rabbit breeding work. 

The roof of the Culturist's house, which was in very poor condition and leak- 
ing badly, was reshingled. 

Pheasant Breeding. — The pheasant breeding program in general was much 
the same as that of the previous year. No radical changes were made in rearing 
or feeding methods. 

The brood stock was about equally divided between the pure Chinese birds, 
hatched from eggs received from Oregon last year and females reserved from the 
so-called "Special Mating" stock of 1934, i. e. birds selected for outstanding 
Chinese characteristics in plumage markings, color and type, mated with pure 
Oregon Chinese cocks. These two lots of breeders were kept strictly separate and 
their eggs hatched separately. The chicks from the pure Chinese stock were 
marked by nicking the web between two toes to permanently identify them. 
From the pure Chinese brood stock a sufficient number of young hens were 
reared to completely replace the brood stock at the Marshfield and the Sandwich 
State Game Farms; to replace the cross-bred females used as part of the 1935 
brood stock at Ayer; and to partially furnish a Chinese brood stock at the Wil- 
braham State Game Farm. 

Egg production was excellent and the fertility was high and well sustained 
throughout the entire season. The average production was over 68 eggs per hen 
and the average fertility 90%. The percentage of hatch was materially increased 
beyond anything previously attained by the adoption of new incubator tempera- 
ture ranges. The average hatch for the entire season was slightly over 80% of 
the fertile eggs and 71.7% of all eggs set. 

Another lot of Chinese eggs was obtained from a breeder in Oregon, who in 
addition to those purchased donated a number of eggs. Unfortunately they 
were subjected to extremely hot weather while in transit and as a result hatched 
very poorly with heavy losses among the chicks hatched. (From this lot of 600 
eggs purchased and 44 donated, 125 birds were reared to maturity.) 

A shipment of wild Dark-neck pheasant eggs (Phasianus colcMcus colchicus) 
shipped from Bulgaria through diplomatic channels were found to be spoiled 
when tested on arrival. Additional eggs of this species were obtained from a Wis- 
consin breeder, who in addition to those purchased donated a number of eggs. 
(From this lot of 100 eggs purchased and 15 donated, 40 birds, which are on hand 
at the close of the fiscal year, were reared to maturity. ) 

A new departure from the previous practices in game bird distribution in this 
State was the shipping of day-old pheasant chicks for rearing at two of the 
State Forests (Beartown State Forest and October Mountain State Forest), and 
at two institutions (Hampden County Training School and Northampton Vet- 
erans' Facilities). The chicks were transferred without difficulty in ordinary com- 
mercial baby chick boxes. In addition, an experimental lot of pure Chinese day- 
old chicks was transferred to the Wilbraham Game Farm for rearing. 

Vermin destroyed at the station during the year was as follows: 6 skunks, 5 



58 P.D. 25 

house cats, 4 barred owls, 4 great horned owls, 3 goshawks, 1 Cooper's hawk, 
2 crows, 4 snapping turtles, over 100 rats. 

The year opened with 278 adult pheasants on hand (2 of the old brood stock 
and 276' of the 1934-hatched pheasants), to which were added 2 cock pheasants 
from the Sandwich State Game Farm, making a total of 2S0. Of thesee, 40 were 
lost and 240 remained on hand at the beginning of the breeding season. 

In the period from the week ending April 6, through the week ending August 
10, a total of 14,431 eggs were collected, to which were added the 644 Chinese 
pheasant eggs (600 purchased and 44 donated) from a breeder in Oregon, and 
115 Dark-neck pheasant eggs (100 purchased and 15 donated) from a breeder 
in Wisconsin, already referred to, making a total of 15,190 eggs. Of this num- 
ber, 4,296 were broken or discarded and 10,894 set in incubators. 

Of the eggs set, 3,093 proved to be infertile, contained dead germ, or otherwise 
failed to hatch, and 7,801 hatched, to which were added 34 ringneck pheasants 
purchased from a breeder in California, making a total of 7,835. Of these, 2,008 
were lost, 2,000 day-old chicks distributed for rearing on State Forest and Insti- 
tutions, 323 day-old chicks transferred to the Wilbraham State Game Farm, 1,194 
young pheasants liberated in open covers, 314 turned over to the sportsmen's 
clubs for wintering, 6 used for experiment, 1,310 transferred to other stations, 
(400 to the Marshfield State Game Farm, 430 to the Sandwich State Game Farm, 
480 to the Wilbraham State Game Farm), and 680 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 240 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 18 were lost, 
132 liberated in open covers, and 90 remain on hand November 30. 

Quail Breeding. — The vear opened with 368 adult quail on hand (95 of the 
old brood stock and 273 of "the 1934-hatched birds). Of these, 16 were lost, 112 
liberated in open covers, 90 transferred to the Marshfield State Game Farm, and 
150 were on hand at the beginning of the laying season. 

A total of 4,782 eggs were collected from the week ending April 27 through 
the week ending September 14. Of these, 109 were broken or discarded and 
4,673 were set in incubators. Of the number set, 1,131 proved to be infertile, 
contained dead germ or otherwise failed to hatch, and 3,542 hatched. Of these, 
1,579 were lost, 1,400 liberated in open covers, 20 distributed for exhibition pur- 
poses, and 543 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 150 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 15 were lost, 
102 liberated in open covers, and 33 remain on hand November 30. 

Cottontail Rabbit Breeding Experiment. — Following out a program laid 
down in the late fall of 1934, a start was made in the production of cottontail 
rabbits under strictly controlled methods. Unfortunately there were no precedents 
to work from, except a brief printed account of experimental work carried on 
by a private breeder in New Jersey. As the so-called cottontail "rabbit" is a 
hare and not a rabbit, and as hares have never been domesticated, methods used 
in breeding domesticated rabbits were not adaptable to our purpose, and it be- 
came necessary to devise methods as the work proceeded. 

During the early winter, an experimental breeding and rearing pen unit was 
constructed on sloping, sandy soil, near the northwest extremity of the farm. 
This consisted of 5 breeding pens, each 10 feet by 25 feet in area, at either end 
of a central rearing area of 50 feet by 100 feet in size. The outer fence was 
sunk 2 feet into the ground with a turn-in of one foot in width at the bottom, to 
prevent escape of the rabbits by burrowing, or entrance of skunks or other dig- 
ging predators. That part of the netting that was below the ground, as well as 
the first 2 feet above ground, was of weasel-proof mesh. Above that, a 12-inch 
wide strip of smooth, galvanized steel was placed, to render the fence unclimb- 
able, and 2 feet of coarser netting was placed above that. Partition fences, be- 
tween pens, were sunk into the ground to a depth of one foot, with a 12-inch 
horizontal extension or "carpet wire" on either side at the bottom. Later experi- 
ence indicates that this 12-inch depth would have been ample for the outer fence 
as well, as the rabbits made no effort to dig out. Also, in future, partition fences 
will have three-quarter inch netting at the bottom, instead of one inch, as it was 
found that very young leverets could get through the inch mesh and that having 
once escaped, it was difficult to prevail upon the dam to again accept them. 



P.D. 25 59 

The breeding pens were permanently covered with netting as a protection 
against attacks from hawks and owls. The central or rearing pen was so covered 
during the rearing season, with lightly secured netting which was removed before 
winter to prevent damage from heavy snow-falls. Two shelter boxes, 12 inches 
by 12 inches by 24 inches in size and covered with roofing paper, were provided 
for each pen, the feed for the animals being placed under one of them. 

From time to time, during the winter and early spring, shipments of wild 
trapped cottontails were received from Vermont, a total of 11 does and 7 bucks 
being so received in addition to several that were dead upon arrival. A few of 
those arriving alive were in poor condition and died within a short time of being 
placed in the pens. These animals were extremely wild and excitable, and it 
was several weeks before they became reconciled to their captivity. On April 1 
there were on hand 8 does and 7 bucks of this Vermont stock, and, at about that 
time, 2 does, presumed to be with young, were received from Penikese Island 
and were placed in hutches to determine the possibilities of that method of 
breeding. Both subsequently kindled, within a day or so of each other, but made 
no attempt to construct a nest and destroyed their young at birth, partially de- 
vouring them. One of these does died within a few days of kindling, and the 
other refused to breed again and eventually died in the early fall. 

Each individual buck or doe was kept in a separate pen until late March, 
when 5 of the does were introduced to the buck pens, 2 of the 7 bucks having 
been released in one of the large pheasant wintering pens to be trapped up later, 
if needed. Apparently late March was too early, as much fighting ensued and 
one doe was killed by her mate within 48 hours of introduction. After an 
interval of from one to two weeks, the does were removed to separate pens and 
other does placed with the bucks. It was found to be difficult to ascertain 
whether or not a doe had been bred, but they were kept under close observation 
and when it was noticed that a pair, which had previously been living together 
amicably, were beginning to fight, the doe was promptly removed. 

The first young were born on April 21. There was no attempt, on the part of 
the doe, to construct a nest, the young being strewn about the pen. All were 
dead, and, of the 6 born, 3 were mutilated by the doe. This doe kindled again, 
about May 21, digging, under a shelter box, a shallow, narrow-mouthed, flask- 
shaped burrow. This she lined with fur from her body. So well concealed was 
her nest that it was not found again until her 7 young had left it on June 4. She 
subsequently had 2 more litters, 2 dead young being found in her pen on July 14 
and a fourth litter of 5 were born on August 8. These were reared to the age of 
5 weeks, when 3 were lost, evidently killed by the doe. 

One doe kindled twice during the summer, making the characteristic nest each 
time but killing and partially eating her young as soon as born. Another doe, 
No. 67, had 7 young on June 16. She made no nest, and, apparently no attempt to 
care for the litter. A series of heavy thunder showers, followed by a period of 
cold, rainy weather, occurred at the time and the young were all dead within 3 
days of birth. This doe kindled again on July 14 and reared all of her 4 young, 
one dying, however, soon after weaning. Doe No. 77 kindled on July 14 and 
successfully reared all of her 5 young, and Doe No, 1557 kindled on July 28 
and likewise reared her entire litter of five. 

Summarizing: Twelve (12) litters were born of which 7 were either born 
dead, were destroyed by the does or died as a result of neglect on the part of 
the doe. Five (5) litters, totalling 26 young, were reared to weaning age, 4 
leverets being lost after weaning. One doe bred 4 times, 2 does twice, and 2 (ex- 
cluding the Penikese does) bred but once. Two (2) did not breed at all. 

The period of gestation was from 28 to 29 days. The young, born blind, opened 
their eyes on the eighth day and left the nest on the fourteenth day. It was not 
determined at what age they were weaned, but it seemed evident that they were 
entirely so at a month of age. They grew very rapidly and the oldest were nearly 
matured by September 15 or at four months of age, when they were removed 
to the individual hutches to avoid any possibility of their breeding while still 
immature. It is planned to house all the stock in these individual hutches during 
the winter, for convenience in caring for them. 



60 P.D. 25 

The ration for both young and old consisted of fresh-cut clover, (for which, 
clover hay was substituted in the winter), a cereal ration consisting of equal 
parts heavy oats and of a commercial rabbit mash, carrots and apples. These 
last were not fed during the summer months when fresh clover was readily avail- 
able. Supplementing the wild grasses, weeds and other herbage growing in the 
rearing pen, small patches were spaded up and sowed to a mixture of oats, buck- 
wheat, Essex rape and poultry cabbage, all of which was eaten greedily by the 
leverets. Several patches of sweet corn were sowed to furnish food and shelter 
and were eventually eaten. 

Two dozen small, open-ended coops, triangular in elevation, originally used 
for quail nests, were scattered about the rearing pen and proved very acceptable 
shelters. 

All the leverets were examined to determine sex when transferred to the rear- 
ing pen and marked with numbered, metallic ear tags. The does were tagged in 
the right ear, the bucks in the left, and careful records were kept of each indi- 
vidual's age, sex and parentage. Of the 22 young, 16 are does and 6 are bucks. 
While by no means tame, these captive-born cottontails are much quieter and 
docile than the parent stock, and it is hoped that they will prove less erratic in 
breeding and in rearing their young than is the wild trapped stock. 

(See also detailed report of experiment conducted at the game farm on the 
Sutton State Pond Sj^stem.) 

Marshfield State Gaw,e Farm — Lysander B. Sherman, 
Game Culturist, in Charge 
New Construction and Replacement. — With State funds a colony quail 
house was constructed which will entirely do away with the Coleman brooders, 
and materially decrease the cost of rearing these birds. During the winter a new 
floor was built the entire length of the pheasant brooder house. This building 
is now in shape to last several years without further repairs. Covered range 
pens, large enough to accommodate 1,400 pheasants, were also constructed. 

Pheasant Breeding. — The year opened with 500 adult pheasants on hand 
(132 of the old brood stock and 368 of the 1934-hatched birds). Prior to the 
breeding season, 9 were lost, 39 liberated in open covers, 6 used for experiment, 
24 transferred to the Sandwich State Game Farm, and 422 were on hand at the 
beginning of the breeding season. 

A total of 19,234 eggs were collected from the week ending April 13 through 
the week ending July 13. Of these, 2,984 were used for feeding birds and 16 250 
were set in incubators. Of the number set, 7,081 were infertile, contained dead 
germ, or otherwise failed to hatch and 9,169 hatched, to which were added 400 
Chinese pheasants from the Ayer State Game Farm, making a total of 9,569. 
Of these, 1,753 were lost, 6,417 liberated in open covers, 782 turned over to the 
sportsmen's clubs for wintering, and 617 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 422 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 28 were lost, 
367 liberated in open covers, and 27 remain on hand November 30. 

Quail Breeding. — The year opened with 147 adult quail on hand (35 of the 
old brood stock and 112 of the 1934-hatched birds), to which were added 90 
adult birds from the Ayer Game Farm, making a total of 237. Prior to the 
breeding season, 38 were lost, 49 distributed for liberation, and 150 remained 
on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week ending May 11 through the week ending 
August 31, totaling 3,166 eggs, all of which were set in incubators. Of the num- 
ber set, 1,732 were infertile, contained dead germ, or otherwise failed to hatch, 
and 1,434 hatched. Of these, 660 were lost, 480 liberated in open covers, and 294 
remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 150 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 53 were lost 
and 97 were liberated in open covers. 

In the course of the year the following vermin was destroyed: 47 skunks, 4 
weasels, and very many rats. 



P.D. 25 61 

Sandwich State Game Farm — Harry A. Torrey, 
Game Bird Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — With State funds 20 wire bottom 
pens were built to make possible the wintering of a larger number of quail. 
There were also built 2 quail rearing buildings, which will permit discarding 
the Coleman brooders previously used. 

Pheasant Breeding. — The year opened with 416 adult pheasants on hand 
(142 of the old brood stock and 274 of the 1934-hatched birds), to which were 
added 24 adults from the Marshfield State Game Farm, making a total of 440. 
Prior to the breeding season 2 cock pheasants were transferred to the Ayer State 
Game Farm, 39 were lost, and 399 remain on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week ending April 6 through the week ending 
July 6, totaling 12,904, all of which were set in incubators. Of the number set, 
4,447 proved to be infertile and 8,457 hatched, to which were added 430 Chinese 
pheasants received from the Ayer State Game Farm, making a total of 8,887. Of 
these, 2,038 were lost, 5,608 distributed to open covers, 312 turned over to the 
sportsmen's clubs for wintering, and 929 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 399 adults on hand at the beginning of the breeding season, 164 were 
lost, 229 liberated in open covers, and 6 remain on hand November 30. 

Quail Breeding. — The year opened with 697 adult quail on hand (76 of the 
old brood stock and 621 of the 1934-hatched birds) to which were added 100 by a 
recount, making a total of 797. Prior to the breeding season, 147 were lost, 500 
liberated in open covers, and 150 remain on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week ending May 11 through the week ending 
October 5, totaling 5,430, all of which were set in incubators. Of the number 
set, 1,372 proved to be infertile and 4,058 hatched. Of these, 1,650 were lost, 
1,650 liberated in open covers, and 758 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 150 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 19 were lost, 16 
liberated in open covers, and 115 remain on hand November 30. 

During the month of September, ulcerative enteritis, the dreaded "quail 
disease" made its appearance among the six and seven weeks old birds, resulting 
in a loss of 300 fine birds. The disease started in one pen containing 20 birds and 
soon extended to other flocks until every bird was lost in the several pens of the 
series where the disease began. The mortality was prevented from spreading 
through other flocks by applying rigid control measures. 

In the course of the year the following vermin was killed : 4 weasels, 3 foxes, 2 
red tailed hen hawks, 8 Cooper's hawks, 9 great horned owls, many skunks, and 
rats in large numbers. 

Sutton State Pond System — James E. Noble, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — With State funds a pen 150 feet by 
50 feet was erected for the purpose of raising cottontail rabbits. This provided 
15 small breeding pens and one large range pen, described in detail below. 

In addition, a small temporary pen was erected to hold what it is hoped will be 
the start of a racoon brood stock. 

As part of a Federal project a small building was moved from the main trap 
to the location of the game breeding experiments, to be used in the work. 

Cottontail Rabbit Experimental Breeding. — The area selected on which 
to conduct this experiment comprised some 6 acres, located on a hill on the east- 
erly side of the Putnam Pond, one of the 6 ponds which make up the Sutton 
State Pond System. 

During the month of November, 1934, the ground was cleared, broken up, and 
trenching started. Early in December the construction of a covered yard 150 
feet long by 50 feet wide was begun, and it was February of 1935, well into 
severe winter weather, before the enclosure was completed. Within this large 
yard 5 brood stock pens 25 feet long by 10 feet wide were constructed at each 
end, and as the experiment progressed it was decided to further partition 5 of 
these brood stock pens, thereby providing at the north end of the big yard 10 
smaller pens 12 feet 6 inches by 10 feet, in which breeders were retained. 

Details of Construction. — Before constructing the large yard a trench or 
ditch 2 feet wide and 2 feet deep was dug, and in it 19-gauge galvanized "carpet" 



62 P.D. 25 

wire IV2 inch mesh was buried the entire 2 feet in the ground to prevent the 
rabbits from digging out and predatory animals from entering the yard. In addi- 
tion to burying the carpet wire, the side and end wire of the large enclosure 
(20-gauge galvanized one-inch mesh wire), was likewise submerged in the 2-foot 
trench in an upright position, extending to the level of the ground, and known 
as the ground wire. 

Eight-foot punched steel T posts were placed 10 feet apart, 2 feet submerged 
in the ground, and to them was fastened first the ground wire followed by a 2-foot 
wide strip of three-quarter inch mesh 20-gauge wire to prevent ground vermin 
from entering the yard. 

Above this strip, galvanized sheet iron 1 foot wide 20-gauge was extended 
around the entire area of the yard as an extra precaution against ground preda- 
tors climbing up the wire and into the enclosure. 

Above the strip of sheet iron was placed 2 inch mesh 22-gauge wire 2 feet 
wide, fastened at the top to a strip of wood 2 by 4 which extended around the 
entire top of the yard making the height of the yard 5 feet. 

The top of the yard was covered with a 2-inch mesh galvanized wire 22-gauge 
fastened to the 2 by 4's and supported every 20 feet by a single strand of 11- 
gauge wire. The wire covering the top of the yard was further supported by T 
steel posts at 16 different locations in the center of the yard. 

The 5 breeding pens at the south end of the yard, 10 feet by 25 feet in size, 
were partitioned with one-inch mesh 20-gauge wire, 3 feet wide, one foot of which 
was buried in the ground. To the remaining 2 feet was attached a 3-foot strip 
of 2-inch mesh 22-gauge wire. A swing door was constructed on the inside end 
of each of the breeding pens. 

At the north end of the yard the 5 breeding pens were partitioned the same 
as the south end, but in addition they were further divided making 10 breeding 
pens at this end of the yard. One-inch mesh wire 20-gauge 3 feet high was used 
for these petitions. 

All wire used in the big yard was fastened to the steel posts with pig rings 
and with staples to the wooden 2 by 4's. 

A gate 4 by 5 feet leading into the entire enclosure was constructed on the 
easterly side of the yard, and is kept locked. 

Early in August, 14 new breeding pens (7 on each side) were constructed 
within the large yard. These pens were 10 feet wide by 15 feet long and parti- 
tioned with 3-foot high three-quarter inch mesh 20-gauge wire, one foot of which 
was submerged. To this was attached a strip of 3-foot wide one-inch mesh 20- 
gauge wire which extended to the top of the pens. A swing door was also con- 
structed on the inside end of each of these breeding pens. 

In each breeding pen two wooden hutches were placed which measure 1 foot 
high, 1 foot wide, and 2 feet long, each with an opening on the long side measur- 
ing 4 inches high and 2 feet long. One hutch was used to protect the feed from 
the weather and the other as shelter for the nest. 

Brood Stock. — The 23 specimens of cottontail rabbits used in this experi- 
ment were received between February 26 and April 17 from a commercial trap- 
per who trapped them in the region of Springfield, Vermont. Each rabbit upon 
arrival was ear-tagged with a numbered tag; the right ear was used for does 
and the left for bucks. 

At the beginning of the breeding season 12 does and 5 bucks were on hand, 
the balance having died soon after arrival. Fifteen (15) of the 17 animals were 
confined in separate pens and 2 does were used in a "hutch experiment" which 
will be described later in this report. 

On March 5 five (5) does were taken to the bucks and kept with them for 48 
hours, after which the does were returned to their individual pens. During the 
period the does and bucks were kept together nothing could be observed that 
would indicate that breeding had taken place. 

On March 16 there were 5 more does taken to the bucks and kept with them 
until March 22, when there was sufficient evidence that breeding had taken 
place. The does were then transferred to their own quarters. In the following 
table the results of the year's breeding activities are recorded. 

Six of brood stock died and 9 are on hand November 30. 



P.D. 25 



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64 P.D. 25 

Feeding the Brood Stock. — The first food given to the breeders when they 
arrived from Vermont was a ration consisting of the following: 

Wirthmore Commercial Rabbit Mash, 60%; cracked corn, 10%; wheat mid- 
dlings, 10%; whole oats, 20%. This mixture was fed once daily (usually at 
night), each rabbit receiving one-half pint dry measure of the above mixture. In 
addition, alfalfa hay was kept before them at all times. When the mash mix- 
ture was fed, fresh apples and carrots were also included in the meal. During 
the summer months, fresh alfalfa was cut and fed once each day. Clean water 
was provided daily. 

Making the Nest. — As the time approached for the does to have their young, 
it was observed among most of them that two days before kindling they ap- 
peared to look for a desirable spot in which to make the nest. From then on, 
unseen they pulled fur from the region of their breasts and made the nest. The 
nest was usually built under the hutch and in a small burrow about 3 inches in 
the ground. It was first lined with alfalfa hay and then with fur. When de- 
tected it was found to be carefully concealed under a layer of hay. When the 
young wished to nurse, the doe removed the hay to form a small opening over 
which she lay and allowed them to nurse from the nest. This procedure usually 
took place after dark. The night the young were born, it was observed that the 
doe did not eat her usual daily meal. This to the culturist was one of the most 
outstanding signs that a doe was about to give birth to a litter of young. 

Feeding the Young. — When a litter of rabbits was born, it was noted that 
the doe nursed them for approximately 5 to 6 weeks, after which they left her 
and the nest and were at large in the breeding pen seeking their own food. At 
this point they were taken from the doe and transferred to the rearing yard, and 
allowed the freedom of it. Natural food in the form of oats, wheat and corn 
had previously been planted in the rearing yard, and this supplemented a ration 
of rabbit mash, the same as fed to the adult rabbits. Apples, carrots, fresh alfalfa 
and water were also fed to them once daily, usually at night. 

Sour milk, about one-fourth pint to each rabbit or approximately 2 quarts to 
18 rabbits, was also fed each night in glass sauce dishes. When the oats in the 
rearing yard ripened in July, they were cut, raked in piles and allowed to re- 
main as feed and shelter for the young rabbits. It was observed that this ar- 
rangement was very popular with them, and that they were seldom seen in the 
big yard unless disturbed. 

Care of the Young. — When the young rabbits were taken from the does and 
transferred to the rearing yard, no special care other than feed and shelter was 
given them, and they appeared to take care of themselves. Several small wooden 
pitched-roof shelters, 18 inches by 18 inches and 10 inches high, were placed in 
various sections of the big yard. 

Near the end of August the first young born were well-grown rabbits. There 
were at this time pregnant does, one of which produced on September 9 a litter 
of 4 young rabbits. Only one of this litter, however, survived, but it was ob- 
vious that had several such litters been born they could not, with any degree of 
safety, have been turned loose in the so-called rearing yard with well-grown 
young rabbits. It became evident that instead of one large rearing yard in which 
to turn loose the young born during the summer, possibly four smaller areas 
would be more desirable and safer for the different ages of young. 

Wild Brood Stock Received. — On account of a forest fire in Uxbridge, the 
district warden discovered 4 ten-day old rabbits abandoned by the doe. These 
were taken to the rabbit breeding area and were raised on a bottle, using cow's 
milk for about one week, after which alfalfa, apples, and milk were fed from a 
dish. These young rabbits were kept at the culturist's house in a box under the 
kitchen stove. Two (2) died and the remaining 2 were transferred to the rear- 
ing yard at the station and reared under the same conditions as those born in the 
breeding pens. These 2 are on hand November 30. 

Additional wild brood stock rabbits were received and reared as described as 
above : 

May 1, — 4 ten-day old rabbits received from the district warden at Westfield, 



P.D. 25 65 

who had been notified that a cat had killed the doe and the young were aban- 
doned. Four (4) are on hand November 30. 

May 7, — 3 and May 20 two (2) rabbits one month old received from the warden 
of the Springfield district, who recovered them from a forest fire. One (of the 
lot of 3) died, and 4 are on hand November 30. 

May 29, — 1 rabbit one month old received from Brockton. It died immediately 
after arrival. 

June 5, — 7 rabbits 3 weeks old received from the warden of the Pittsfield dis- 
trict, who discovered them in the nest while on patrol. These died 2 weeks after 
arrival. 

The 10 young rabbits on hand will be retained for breeding in 1936, in addition 
to the 10 young propagated at the station. 

Individual Hutch Experiment. — Early in April 2 pregnant does were con- 
fined in 2 individual hutches. These hutches were made of wood and measured 
3 feet by 3 feet by 3 feet; wooden floor, flat roof, the front open and covered with 
1-inch mesh, 20-gauge galvanized wire. In each hutch was placed a small wooden 
shelter 1 foot wide and 18 inches long by 1 foot high. The floor of the hutch was 
kept covered with alfalfa hay and the shelter was likewise kept filled with 
alfalfa at all times. 

The rabbits confined in the hutches were fed the same ration as those in the 
pen experiments. When placed in the hutches these animals were extremely wild 
and excitable and their behavior resembled in no way that of domestic rabbits. 
They did not build a nest, pulled no fur, and when their young were born im- 
mediately abandoned them leaving them scattered over the floor of the hutch to 
die and in some instances partly devoured them. 

Because of the poor results obtained early in the experiment, and the un- 
certainty of ever raising a considerable number of rabbits by this method, it 
was discontinued. 

Experimental work in the rearing of cottontail rabbits was also carried on at 
the Ayer State Game Farm and is fully described in the report of that station. 

Raccoon. — At the Sutton State Pond game breeding location 7 pairs of rac- 
coon have been accumulated in various ways for propagation purposes. In sev- 
eral instances young raccoons picked up by individuals and turned over to the 
wardens, have been turned over to the culturist in charge of this particular propa- 
gation problem. Other stock was acquired through the cooperation of the au- 
thorities in charge of the zoological gardens at Forest Park, Springfield; Frank- 
lin Park, Boston ; and the Middlesex Fells at Stoneham, who were willing to ex- 
change young raccoons held by the Division for stock of breeding age. The Di- 
vision is indebted to them also for helpful suggestions in feeding and general care 
of raccoons in captivity. 

While the venture is new to the Division it is expected that substantial progress 
will be made toward aiding the raccoon hunters by restocking the areas favorable 
for this branch of the sport. 

Wilbraham State Game Farm — Frederick W. Wood, 
Game Bird Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — In preparation for construction of 
a new pheasant brooder house, an Emergency Relief Administration project was 
started about the middle of April, filling and grading the area in front of the 
proposed location of the new house, for use as pens. In bringing the pens up to 
the required grade, approximately 3,000 cubic yards of gravel had to be hauled 
in from the pit across the swamp. Fifty cubic yards of loam were also placed 
on the slopes to the front and lower end of the fill. In addition to the foregoing 
work, the roadway from the main highway into the farm was graded for a dis- 
tance of 200 feet, and two new culverts were installed to carry off the surface 
water which collects in a low spot adjacent to the barn. Other work accom- 
plished as part of the project was the removal of the old, unused incubator cellar, 
the grading of the surrounding slopes, and the erection of a new quail yard fence. 

With State funds an additional colony quail brooder house was built, which 
eliminates entirely the use of the costly Coleman brooders. 



66 P.D. 25 

Pheasant Breeding. — Two important changes were made in feeding methods 
during the rearing season, which proved to be a great saving in labor. No wet 
mash heretofore used was fed to the pheasants at any time. A commercial chick 
starter was fed to the pheasant chicks for the first four weeks, after which they 
were gradually shifted to a "lay-all" ration. In addition, the usual practices in 
regard to green food, water and sanitation were observed. 

Early in the breeding season, the so-called Romanoff method of hatching 
pheasants was introduced, which resulted in more and better quality of chicks 
than ever before hatched at this station. 

The usual fight against vermin was kept up. The pure young Chinese brood 
stock suffered especially heavy losses from this cause, three successive visits from 
mink resulting in the loss of 36 of the 66 brood stock hens in early September, 29 
young pheasants (part of a lot from Ayer) somewhat later, and on a third visit 
21 birds, a total of 86. (These losses are included in the figures below.) In the 
course of the year the following vermin was killed on the game farm : 3 weasels, 
56 skunks, 11 hawks and 9 owls. 

The year opened with 408 adult pheasants on hand (140 of the old brood stock 
and 268 of the 1934-hatched birds). Prior to the breeding season, 28 were lost 
and 380 were on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week ending April 13 through the week ending 
August 3, totaling 19,023, of which 1.227 were broken or discarded, 750 turned 
over to a State institution, and 17,046 set in incubators. Of the number set, 
6, 272 proved to be infertile and 10,774 hatched, to which were added 803 Chinese 
pheasants from the Ayer State Game Farm (323 of these were day-old chicks), 
making a total of 11,577. Of these, 3,013 were lost, 6,181 were liberated in open 
covers, 1,397 turned over to the sportsmen's clubs for wintering, and 986 re- 
main on hand November 30. 

Of the 380 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 30 were lost 
and 350 liberated in open covers. 

Quail Breeding. — The new quail house was used during the breeding season 
and was a great improvement over the Coleman units and old house previously 
operated. Two of the outstanding innovations in the new building were the 
wire floors in the pens in Mmich the birds were reared, and the strictly fly-proof 
construction. 

A change was made in the feeding method during the rearing of the quail 
chicks. A commercial chick starter was fed for the first 4 weeks, after which 
they were gradually shifted to a "start-all" ration, with the usual practices con- 
tinued in regard to green food, water and sanitation. 

At the beginning of the breeding season, "blackhead" made its appearance 
among the adult quail, which resulted in the loss of 27 hens during the laying 
period. However, the eggs obtained from these birds before their death showed 
high fertility and hatchability. 

The year opened with 334 adult quail on hand (96 of the old brood stock and 
238 of the 1934-hatched birds). Prior to the breeding season, 34 were lost, 150 
liberated in covers, and 150 remain on hand. 

Eggs were collected from the week ending April 27 through the week ending 
August 24, totaling 4,054, all of which were set in incubators. Of the number 
set, 839 proved to be infertile and 3,215 hatched. Of these 980 were lost, 1,820 
liberated in open covers, and 415 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 150 adults on hand at the beginning of the laying season, 41 were lost, 
2 turned over to Harvard Medical School for examination, and 107 remain on 
hand November 30. 

FISH AND GAME DISTRIBUTION 

The past policy of basing the distribution of fish and game upon information 
obtained at the county conferences by the Supervisor of Distribution was con- 
tinued during the year. 

Following is a summary of the restocking work of the year : 

Brook Trout. — There were distributed from the Division's fish hatcheries 



P.D. 25 67 

200,615 fish, 1 to 3 inches; 31,220 fish 3 to 5 inches; 197,300 fish 5 to 6 inches; 
224,276 fish 6 inches and over. In addition, 34 fish 3 to 5 inches and 39 fish 6 
inches and over were distributed from miscellaneous salvage jobs. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at all of the stations 283,599 finger- 
lings and 7,542 brood stock fish. 

Brown Trout. — From the State Fish Hatcheries at Sunderland and Sutton 
there were distributed 350 fry ; 63,500 fish 2 to 3 inches ; 11,950 fish 3 to 5 inches ; 
129,276 fish 6 inches and over. In addition, 600 fish 6 inches and over were 
distributed from miscellaneous salvage jobs. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the Sunderland State Fish 
Hatchery 200,280 fingerlings, 20,600 yearlings, and 842 adults. 

Rainbow Trout. — From the State fish hatcheries at Montague and Sutton 
there were distributed 54,575 fish 2 to 5 inches ; 86,831 fish 6 inches and over. In 
addition, 107 fish 6 inches and over were distributed from miscellaneous salvage 
jobs. 

Chinook Salmon. — From the Sandwich State Fish Hatchery there were 
distributed 29,250 fish 4 to 6 inches and 9,750 fish 6 inches and over. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the Sandwich State Fish Hatchery 
8,500 fingerlings. 

Small mouth Black Bass. — From the Palmer State Fish Hatchery 9,550 
fingerlings were liberated in suitable waters. In addition 10,000 fry were turned 
over to a club rearing pool. From the salvage units and miscellaneous salvage 
jobs were distributed 8,485 fish; 32,000 fry were received as a gift from the 
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries and were distributed to suitable waters. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the Palmer State Fish Hatchery 
423 adult brood stock fish. 

Muskallonge. — The New York Conservation Commission furnished 20,000 
muskallonge fry, all of which were planted in a leased pond for later distribution. 

Pike Perch. — The New York Conservation Commission also furnished 
500,000 pike perch fry, of which 250,000 were placed in No. 2 Rearing Pond, 
Harold Parker State Forest, and 250,000 were planted in suitable waters. In 
addition, 14 fish were distributed from the salvage units. 

Horned Pout, Pickerel, Yellow Perch, White Perch, Crappie, Large- 
mouth Black Bass, Rock Bass and Blue Gills. — Pond fish of various species 
were distributed to open waters, to club rearing pools, and for study purposes, 
as follows : From the Sutton State Pond System were distributed 40,405 horned 
pout, 1,718 pickerel, 143,677 yellow perch, 275 crappie, 8 large mouth black bass 
and 50,200 blue gills. From the salvage units and miscellaneous salvage jobs, 
101,404 horned pout, 3,498 pickerel, 110,630 yellow perch, 384,115 white perch, 
1,396 crappie, 48 large mouth black bass 2,698 rock bass and 4,231 blue gills. Id 
addition, from the salvage units and from miscellaneous salvage jobs 930 crappie 
breeders were turned over to the Sutton State Pond System and 284 bass breeders 
were turned over to the Palmer State Fish Hatchery. 



68 P.D. 25 

Fish Distribution for the Period December 1, 1934 to November 30, 1935 

(This table does not show stock transferred from one station to another, eggs exchanged with the 

U. S. Bureau or other State Commissions, nor does it show additions to brood stocks.) 



Product of State 
Hatcheries 



Planted 

direct to 

public 

waters 



Distributed 
to clubs for 

rearing to 

larger size 

before 

liberation 



Distributed 

for study, 

exhibit, 

etc. 



Not Hatchery 

Product 

(Seined, Gift, Etc.) 



Planted 

direct to 

public 

waters 



Distributed 
for rearing 
to larger 
size before 
liberation 



Brook Trout: 

1-3 in 

3-5 in 

5-6 in 

6 in. and over 


179,815 

22,665 

195,950 

223,497 


19,000 

8,505 

1,350 

650 


1,800 
50 

129 


34 
39 


- 


200,615 

31.254 

197,300 

224,315 


Total Brook Trout . 


621,927 


29,505 


1,979 


73 


- 


653,484 



Brown Trout: 














Fry 


— 


— 


350 


— 


— 


350 


2-3 in 


63,500 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


63,500 


3-5 in 


10,700 


1,200 


50 


— 


— 


11.950 


6 in. and over 


129,195 


- 


81 


600 


- 


129,876 


Total Brown Trout . 














Fry 


— 


— 


350 


— 


— 


350 


2 in. and over 


203,395 


1,200 


131 


600 


*~ 


205,326 



Rainbow Trout: 

2-5 in 

6 in. and over 


49,500 
86,806 


5,000 


75 
25 


107 


- 


54,575 
86,938 


Total Rainbow Trout 


136,306 


5,000 


100 


107 


- 


141,513 



Small Mouth Black Bass : 














Fry , 


— 


10,000 


— 


32,000 


— 


42.000 


Under 6 in. . 


8,395 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8,395 


Over 6 in. 


1,155 


— 


— 


5,344 


— 


6,499 


Over 12 in 


- 


- 


- 


3,141 


- 


3,141 


Total Small Mouth Black 














Bass .... 














Fry 


— 


10,000 


_ 


32,000 


— 


42,000 


3 in. and over 


9,550 


"~ 


~~ 


8,485 


~~ 


18,035 



Large Mouth Black Bass: 
Over 6 in. 


8 


- 


- 


48 


- 


56 


Rock Bass: 
Under 6 in. . 
Over 6 in. 


- 


- 


- 


18 
2,680 


- 


18 
2,680 


Total Rock Bass 


- 


- 


- 


2,698 


- 


2,698 



Chinook Salmon: 
Under 6 in. . 
Over 6 in. 


29,250 
9,750 


- 


- 


- 


- 


29,250 
9,750 


Total Chinook Salmon . 


39,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


39,000 



Crappie : 
Over 6 in. 



100 



175 



1,406 



15 



Horned Pout: 
Under 6 in. . 
Over 6 in. . 
Over 12 in. . 


30,125 
4,830 


5,000 
300 


150 


56,601 
30,006 
14,747 


50 


91,726 
35,336 
14,747 


Total Horned Pout . 


34,955 


5,300 


150 


101,354 


50 


141,809 



P.D. 25 



69 



(Continued) 



Product of State 
Hatcheries 



Planted 

direct to 

public 

waters 



Distributed 
to clubs for 

rearing to 

larger size 

before 

liberation 



Distributed 

for study, 

exhibit, 

etc. 



Not Hatchery 

Product 

(Seined, Gift, Etc.) 



Planted 

direct to 

public 

waters 



Distributed 
for rearing 

to larger 
size before 

liberation 



Grand 
Total 



Blue Gills: 
Under 6 in. . 
Over 6 in. . 


50,200 


- 


- 


3,925 
306 


- 


54,125 
306 


Total Blue Gills 


50,200 


- 


- 


4,231 


- 


54,431 



Pickerel : 

Under 6 in. . 
Over 6 in. 
Over 12 in. . 


383 
1,335 


- 


- 


650 

903 

1,933 


12 


1,033 
2,250 
1,933 


Total Pickerel . 


1,718 


- 


- 


3,486 


12 


5,216 



Yellow Perch: 
Under 6 in. . 
Over 6 in. . 
Over 12 in 


127,227 
15,150 


1,000 
300 


- 


33,231 

75,294 

2,105 


- 


161,458 

90,744 

2,105 


Total Yellow Perch 


142,377 


1,300 


- 


110,630 


- 


254,307 



White Perch: 
Under 6 in. . 
Over 6 in. . 
Over 12 in.. . 

Total White Perch 



265,075 
99,084 
19,756 



383,915 



200 



200 



265,075 
99,284 
19,756 



384,115 



Pike Perch : 

Fry 

Over 12 in 


- 


- 


- 


250,000 
14 


250,000 


500,000 
14 


Muskallonge: 

Fry 


- 


- 


- 


- 


20,000* 


20,000 


Total Trout and Pond 
Fish: 

Fry 

1 in. and over 


1,239,536 


10,000 
42,480 


350 

2,360 


282,000 
617,047 


270,000 
277 


562,350 
1,901,700 



*Entire number being carried in a leased pond for later distribution. 

Pheasants. — There were 22,205 young and 1,117 adult pheasants distributed 
from the game farms, either directly to the covers or to the clubs for wintering, 
also 2,000 day-old chicks distributed to State Forests and institutions for rearing, 
and 6 young and 6 adult pheasants distributed for experimental purposes. In 
addition, 1,992 young pheasants were purchased and distributed either directly 
to the covers or to the clubs for wintering. (See table.) 

At the close of the vear there are on hand at the 4 game farms 3,212 birds 
(1935 hatched), and 123 adults. 

Quail. — There were 5,350 young quail and 1,026 adult quail distributed to 
open covers from the 4 game farms. In addition, 20 young quail were distributed 
for display. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the 4 game farms, 2,010 birds 
(1935 hatched) and 255 adults. 

Cottontail Rabbits. — Penikese Island supplied 334 live cottontails for re- 



70 P.D. 25 

stocking the mainland, and 1,889 were purchased from out-of-state trappers, all 
of which were released in open covers. 

White Hares. — There were 707 white hares imported and released in open 
covers. 

Game Distributed for the Period December 1, 1934 to November 30, 1935 
(This table does not show stock transferred from one game farm to another nor does it show 

additions to brood stock) 













Not 














Product of 






Product or State Game Farms 


State Game 














Farms 














(Purchased) 














♦ 


CO 


Total 




CO 

u 

CD 
> 


2 


co 

CO ti 

■* S co .2 


6 

CD 


CO 

CP 


o co 

>»<M fl OS 






_^ CD 


■° co "'"'-I 


S-dlS J? 


t3 ^t-m 


o 


•° co-^ 






•n 


rrt U fl«4_, 


o _g ^ .-s c 


T3 ° 


h3 & C«4H 






CD O 


intere* 
d othe 
eratio 
ring o 


eg w " S ^ 




cp o 

11 


.5-2 CD s 






33 


^sse 


Q^SS 03=2 




23 






Pheasants : 
















Young . 


19,400 


2,805 


2,000 


6 


1,488 


504 


26,203 


Adult . 


1,117 


_ 


_ 


6 


_ 


_ 


1,123 


Quail: 
















Young . 


5,350 


— 


— 


20 


— 


— 


5,370 


Adult . 


1,026 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,026 


Cottontail Rabbits : 
















Adult . 


334 


_ 


— 


_ 


1,889 


— 


2,223 


White Hares : 
















Adult . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


707 


— 


707 



P.D. 25 71 

MARINE FISHERIES 

Cooperative Plan for Federal and State Aid to the Marine Fisheries 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the result of the economic depression was 
becoming particularly evident in the marine fishing industry. Shortly after 
January first His Excellency the Governor instructed the Director to take steps 
to formulate a plan to secure Federal aid for this important industry. 

Several meetings of the representatives of the fishermen and the producers 
were held, and as a result of these conferences the following report was sub- 
mitted to the Governor by the Director. 

Report to His Excellency James M. Curley, Governor of the 

Commonwealth, relative to proposed Assistance to the 

Marine Fisheries Industry of Massachusetts 

At the conference of representatives of all branches of the marine fisheries 
industry, a three-point plan was discussed, as follows: 

Purchase of Surplus Fish 
It appears to be unanimously agreed that immediate relief could be afforded 
through the purchase of surplus fish for distribution through welfare depart- 
ments and the following recommendations are made. 

1. Provision for the purchase of approximately sixty million pounds of fish 
during 1935 at a minimum price of two cents per pound, subject to the follow- 
ing provisions. 

2. The purchase to be made under the sujDervision of the Federal govern- 
ment by a committee of men familiar with the marine fisheries industry, in order 
that the purchases would be made at such times and in such amounts as would 
not interfere with the normal progress of the industry. While a minimum of 
two cents per pound was agreed upon, this committee should have the authority 
to raise or lower this figure slightly as market conditions should warrant. 

3. This fish should be processed locally at cost by concerns at present engaged 
in this type of work for the purpose of providing employment for men engaged 
in this branch of the industry, and, further, to make certain by proper super- 
vision that the fish reached the consumers in a wholesome condition. 

4. The fish so purchased to be used in the West or Middle West to prevent 
interference with the usual run of trade of the industry and to acquaint people 
in those sections of the country with the value of fish as a staple article of 
food, in order that they may become prospective purchasers in times of normal 
economic conditions. 

5. The total cost of the purchase of this estimated surplus would be $1,200,000 
with an additional cost of $600,000 for processing, making a total of $1,800,000. 
It will be noted that the cost of processing the fish is tentatively placed at one 
cent per pound. This plan does not contemplate a profit to the concern engaged 
in this work, although it will be an important factor for permanent employment 
in that branch of the industry. 

The meeting also went on record as favoring a stabilization corporation for 
the purpose of stabilizing the prices of fisheries products, but it was the con- 
sensus of opinion that this feature deserves more thorough study and a careful 
working out of all of the details. It is understood that this plan has already 
been brought to the attention of His Excellency, the Governor, and of the 
Honorable Harry A. Hopkins, Federal Relief Administrator, and because of 
familiarity with its terms, no comment is made in this connection, except the 
foregoing. 

Tariff 

The industry expressed great fear through the possibility of tariff changes and 
particularly with regard to the possible reciprocity with the Dominion of 
Canada by which the present tariff on fisheries products would be lowered or 
even removed. It was the unanimous opinion of those present at the conference 
that any lowering of the present tariff rates would bring ruin to the industry in 
this Commonwealth. 



72 P.D. 25 & 

The conference recommended, not only a maintenance of present tariff sched- 
ules, but an increase in many items so as to maintain the American standards of 
living and insure a living wage to the fishermen and a fair return to the vessel 
owners and others. The importance of a proper tariff schedule of the fisheries 
industry made it desirable to appoint a committee of ten men, representing 
various branches of the industry, to present a revised schedule of tariff rates. 
The recommendation of this committee is attached hereto. 

It is not over-emphasis to state that the industry fears a lowering of tariff 
schedules more than any single factor which confronts the industry today. 

Loans from Reconstruction Finance Corporation 
House Bill No. 560, copy of which is attached hereto,* was discussed and met 
with the unanimous approval of all present at the conference. It provides, in 
brief, a recommendation to the Congress of the United States to enact legislation 
which will enable the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to make loans to the 
owners of fishing vessels. This measure has not, as yet, been acted upon by the 
Legislature. 

Conclusion 
The foregoing appears to be the most important steps which should be immedi- 
ately taken to rehabilitate the marine fisheries industry in this Commonwealth. 

The Division will continue its efforts to aid this industry and will make addi- 
tional recommendations as they appear to be advisable. 

Respectfully submitted, 
January 30, 1935. Raymond J. Kenney, Director 

On February 1st the Governor and the Director presented this plan to the 
Federal officials at Washington, who promised their aid and cooperation. 

As a further result of these conferences a committee was constituted to draw 
up recommendations for changes in the tariff schedule and to work for the 
maintenance of the present schedules, with such upward revisions as appeared 
to be necessary from the point of view of the industry of this State. 

On March 28 a special conference was called by the Governor and Council to 
consider the plight of the industry, at which time the following resolution was 
adopted and forwarded to the proper officials in Washington : 

"Resolved: That it be the sense of the citizenship of Massachusetts as repre- 
sented at meeting of Governor's Council and representatives of the fishing and 
allied interests. 

That the continued existence of the fishing industry requires the adoption of 
such tariff schedules and other limitations as will exclude the fish products of 
other countries where health, wage and other standards are disregarded, thereby 
rendering it impossible for Americans to compete. 

We recommend the adoption of these Resolutions in order that work be pro- 
vided for the unemployed of America rather than the citizens of other countries. 

On May 23 the Director filed with His Excellency the Governor a further recom- 
mendation in behalf of the marine fishing industry, looking toward Federal 

*Resolutions in Behalf or the Fishing Industry 

Whereas, The Congress of the United States has enacted legislation authorizing loans by the 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation to industrial enterprises, and the fishing industry of Massachu- 
setts and all other states is seriously in need of such financial assistance; and 

Whereas, Under present maritime law, no adequate security can be given by the owners of fishing 
vessels to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation for any loans which are required, for the reason 
that any mortgage so given to secure such loans may be rendered of no adequate value because it 
may be postponed to subsequently accruing maritime liens; and 

Whereas, Under the present statutes of the United States, a valid mortgage preferred against 
subsequently accruing liens may be executed and recorded in regard to vessels of two hundred gross 
tons and upwards, therefore be it 

Resolved, That the General Court of Massachusetts respectfully urge the Congress of the United 
States to enact legislation which will provide that a mortgage on vessels of the United States of 
smaller tonnage shall have the preferred status as provided by the present statutes_ of the United 
States, or such other legislation as it may deem necessary, to the end that the fishing industry of the 
United States may be assisted and preserved. 

Resolved, That certified copies of these resolutions be sent by the Secretary of the Commonwealth 
to the presiding officers of both branches of the Congress and to each of our Senators and Represen- 
tatives therein. 



I P.D. 25 73 

I appropriations for more general assistance to all branches of the industry. This 
I was a ten-point program, containing the following recommendations. 

Ten Point Program for Aiding Marine Fisheries Industry 

1. Purchase of Surplus Fish. 

It is estimated that a surplus of 50,000,000 pounds of fish should be taken out 
of the usual channels of the Massachusetts fish trade during 1935. 

These fish could be purchased and processed locally, furnishing employment 
to a large number of men and would be available for distribution for welfare 
work in sections of the country where there is no substantial market for Massa- 
chusetts fish and could also be used in Federal institutions, army posts, naval 
bases and Civilian Conservation Corps camps, to increase the per capital con- 
sumption of fish at such places Estimated cost, $1,000,000 

2. The establishing of Cooking Schools. Trained experts should be em- 
ployed throughout Massachusetts to conduct cooking schools to increase the con- 
sumption in the normal trade areas Estimated cost, $10,000 

3. The Employment of Dietitians. Dietitians should be employed to work 
with the Stewards of Hospitals, Boarding Schools and other large Institutions to 
illustrate the Value of Fish and its proper Preparation. Estimated cost, $15,000 

4. The Construction of a Lobster Hatchery to propagate Lobsters for 
Liberation in the coastal Waters. At the present time a large Percentage of 
the Lobsters used in Massachusetts are imported from without the country. . 

Estimated cost, $25,000 

5. The Construction of Chlorination Plants at Boston, Fall River and 
New Bedford. At the present time, there are thousands of dollars' worth of 
shellfish in the contaminated areas closed by the Public Health officials in these 
sections which could be made available for food through chlorination at proper 
plants, furnishing much employment and eliminating the necessity of large im- 
ports of shellfish from without the country Estimated cost, $75,000 

6. The re-seeding and Cultivation of Shellfish Flats. There are hun- 
dreds of acres of shellfish flats along the coast line of Massachusetts in uncon- 
taminated waters which are barren or do not produce a reasonable amount of 
shellfish and which could be brought into production by this method 

Estimated cost, $50,000 

7. Elimination of Shellfish Enemies. The state and towns have spent 
considerable money for the elimination of shellfish pests, such as starfish, and a 
continuation of this work is necessary to protect our ever-increasing shellfish 
industry Estimated cost, $50,000 

8. Construction of Fishways on some of our Coastal Streams. These will 
allow salt water fish to ascend the streams for the purpose of spawning, will re- 
establish fisheries in those streams and increase sport fishing in some of the 
inland ponds Estimated cost, $50,000 

9. The Encouragement of Salt Water Angling. Massachusetts has the 
finest opportunity for salt water angling on the North Atlantic coast. It has not 
been developed because of the lack of facilities for engaging in this pursuit. 

The owners of small fishing vessels who cannot make a fair living under pres- 
ent conditions in the fisheries markets could be employed to conduct fishing 
parties to the fishing grounds, the patrons to pay the expenses incurred in 
operating the boat, — the wages of the men being paid as relief projects. 

Relief funds have been used to employ artists, actors and musicians to furnish 
recreation for the public and thus the precedent has been established to use 
relief funds for providing recreation. 

This would serve a dual purpose of attracting non-resident visitors to the 
possibilities of our salt water angling, and at the same time provide a living for 
the operators of the small fishing boats who cannot at the present time make a 
satisfactory living in a commercial way Estimated cost, $25,000 

10. Pollution Control and Elimination in the Coastal Waters. An im- 
mediate study should be made of the increasing pollution of the coastal waters 



74 P.D. 25 

of the state. While the elimination of all of the pollution in the coastal waters 
is a large task, considerable progress could be made in stopping and cleaning up 
the small sources of pollution, pending the time that the larger sources can be 

taken care of Estimated cost, $50,000 

Total estimated cost, $1,350,000 

While specific progress has not been made during the year on many of the 
proposals, there has been one outstanding accomplishment, and that is a realiza- 
tion, on the part of the general public, as to the importance and needs of the 
marine fishing industry. From the above, and other similar efforts, the public 
is becoming more and more fish conscious, which, coupled with the rising price 
of other food commodities, has resulted in noticeable improvement in the in- 
dustry. For example, His Excellency the Governor instructed the authorities in 
charge of various State institutions to increase the consumption of fish in the 
various institutions, and this has had the three-fold result of improving the 
diet, reducing the cost, and aiding the industry. It is impossible to properly 
evaluate the benefit derived from the public discussions of the needs of this old 
and important industry of the Commonwealth. 

State Inspector of Fish 

Upon the State Inspector of Fish and his deputies falls the responsibility of 
checking about three thousand retail markets which handle fish, the numerous 
wholesale dealers at Boston, Gloucester, New Bedford, Provincetown and many 
other coastal cities and towns, also the many cold storage plants where fish is 
stored. This very important service to the public is badly handicapped by a 
lack of a sufficient number of deputy inspectors. 

It is impossible, with the present force of five deputies, to make inspections 
as frequently as is necessary to keep a proper check and prevent unwholesome or 
unfit fish from being offered to the consuming public. At the present time two 
deputies are stationed at the Fish Pier, one at Atlantic and Northern Avenues, 
one at Gloucester, which leaves but one deputy available for retail store inspec- 
tion throughout the State. 

Despite the handicap of being so badly undermanned the inspection work has 
resulted in a higher quality of fish being offered to the consumer than ever be- 
fore, and both wholesaler and retailer are coming to realize that it is to their 
advantage to handle the very best quality of fish to be obtained, and they are 
using more care in selecting and handling their product. 

When it is considered that about three hundred million pounds of fish are 
landed at Massachusetts ports each year it must be admitted that a good job is 
being done with a very small force. 

The producers are showing an excellent spirit of cooperation with this office. 
Boats are making shorter trips, the size of bins has been reduced, and in some 
cases has been cut in half, more ice is being carried — all of which have helped to 
improve the quality of fish landed. It is apparent that the most neglected field 
now is among the retailers. With an additional force of five deputies it would be 
possible to keep a closer check on the retail stores to the advantage of the con- 
sumer and the fish industry as a whole. 

A brief summary of the inspection work done during the year is as follows: 
Total inspections Dec. 1, 1934 to Nov. 30, 1935 . . . 32,139 

Fish condemned: 

Japanese swordfish 14,848 lbs. 

Canadian swordfish 125,573 lbs. 

American swordfish 1,103^ lbs. 

Miscellaneous fish 192,0S4y 2 lbs. 

333,609 lbs. 

Lobsters condemned: 

Canadian subsidized lobsters . . . 1,805 lbs. 

Other Canadian lobsters .... 86,082 lbs. 

American lobsters 14,993 lbs. 

102,880 lbs. 



P.D. 25 

The district court work of the Inspectors was as follows: 



75 





<D 

U 
03 

fl 

V 

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o 

'tis 

o 
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District Court Action 


Offense 


0) 

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'3 

1-3 


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s 


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o 

ft 

s 

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0) 


Selling lobster meat without a license 
Possessing undersized clams exceed- 
ing five per cent of batch . 
Fish unfit for food : 

Keeping with intent to sell . 

Misrepresenting fish 


1 

1 

2 
2 


1 
1 


1 

1 

1 
1 


~ 


1 


- 


- 


l 

i 
l 


$10 

100 
10 




6 


2 


4 


- 


1 


- 


- 


3 


$120 



State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries 

The following report of the year's work establishes this year as one of great 
progress, especially in the field of cooperative conservation. Every effort has 
been made to work in unison and friendliness with the Federal Relief Adminis- 
tration, the officials of the various coastal cities and towns, the associations of 
fishermen, the individual fishermen, and other citizens with whom contact is 
made. That these efforts have not been in vain is evidenced by the willingness of 
the Federal officials to cooperate and to require the Supervisor's approval on 
all fisheries project applications; by the readiness of town officers to seek advice 
on local fishery problems and quite uniformly to follow suggestions ; and by the 
ever increasing number of fishermen and citizens who bring to the Supervisor 
their personal ideas on fisheries for comment and advice. 

The program of work outlined in the 1934 report is, and in the main probably 
always will be, the guide for activities in the field of the marine fisheries. Cer- 
tain of these objectives have been closely approximated. Others are still some- 
what removed from achievement, due mostly to limited funds and lack of person- 
nel. It would seem fitting here to restate this program, the answer to which, as 
far as could be done, is given in the following report. 

Program of Work 

1. Further study and examination of the coastal fisheries of the State for the 
purpose of ascertaining the extent and value of these fisheries, so as to make 
such recommendations as may lead to an increased catch and use. 

2. Promotion of an educational program to increase the knowledge of marine 
fish and encourage an increased use of them as food. 

3. Continuation of plans to increase the supply of anadromous fish which 
run up the streams to spawn. This program includes the introduction and pro- 
tection of shad, smelt, salmon, and alewives in those streams that are adapted 
for them; the repair and improvement of existing fishways; the construction of 
new fishways where desirable; and the improvement of spawning areas. 

4. Continuance and further development of a cooperative program for re- 
seeding barren shellfish areas and the extermination of shellfish enemies. 

5. The continuation of efforts to protect our coastal areas from improper and 
exhaustive fishing methods which seriously deplete our coastal fisheries. 

6. Building up of a bio-statistical system from which information useful to 
commercial fisheries may be obtained and published. 

7. Establishment of chlorinating plants in Metropolitan Boston, New Bed- 
ford and Fall River. 

8. Establishment of a biological and bacteriological laboratory for the study 
of methods of catching, handling and distributing fish. 



76 P.D. 25 

9. The appointment of additional enforcement officers to bring the total up 
to fifteen coastal wardens. 

10. The maintenance of a fleet of two large patrol boats and three harbor boats. 

11. The establishment of a lobster rearing plant to increase the supply of 
lobsters in those areas where the natural increase is not sufficiently rapid. 

12. The further encouragement of mutual cooperation between this State and 
neighboring states, whose fisheries are similar, for the purpose of obtaining uni- 
form laws and regulations. 

Work of the Coastal Wardens 

The law enforcement personnel this past year consisted of eleven coastal 
wardens (none having been added during the year), six boatmen and twenty- 
four deputy coastal wardens. The district court work of these officers is tabu- 
lated below. 

It is with deep regret that we record the death, on September 14, of Coastal 
Warden Henry A. Crowley, who had been in the marine law enforcement unit 
since the office of Supervisor of Marine Fsheries was established in 1929. Mr. 
Crowley was assigned to the Lynn-Swampscott district. He was succeeded on 
Nov. 28 by J. Henry Brown of Beverly. 

The boat patrol consisted of three boats as in the previous years. During the 
winter the No. 2 Boat was completely remodeled and a new motor installed. 
Although it is still lacking in desired speed, these improvements have made it 
much more efficient and sea-worthy. The remodeling of the No. 3 Boat, which 
was reported last year, resulted in increasing its usefulness, particularly as a 
harbor boat and for purposes of investigation. During the latter part of the 
year this boat was assigned to starfish work along the southern shore of the 
State, and in addition to investigating the abundance of seed scallops and star- 
fish in the waters of the various towns along our southern shore, a total of 1,890 
bushels of starfish were taken by it from a badly infested area in Mattapoisett 
Harbor. The engine on the No. 1 Boat, which was second hand when obtained in 
1931, has now reached the end of practical service and should be replaced before 
the beginning of the 1936 season. 

As pointed out in previous reports, these boats are not sufficient to patrol the 
more than 2,000 miles of coastline which the Commonwealth possesses. At least 
one larger boat is needed in order to conduct a satisfactory patrol. The records 
of the patrol work show that the three boats covered 7,711 miles and assisted in 
the apprehension of 95 violators. The district court work of the coastal wardens 
was as follows : 



P.D. 25 



77 



Offense 



Violations in contaminated areas : 

Taking shellfish 

Possessing and transporting 

shellfish 

Possessing undersized shellfish: 

Clams 

Quahaugs 

Scallops ..... 
Taking shellfish without permit 
Violations of lobster laws : 

Possessing undersized lobsters 

Possessing punched lobsters 

Fishing without a license 

Failure to display lobsters on 
demand of warden 

Using unmarked gear . 

Possessing lobster meat . 
Taking crabs without license 
Dragging in restricted areas 
Torching herring . 
Interference with another's fish 



gear .... 
Improper tagging of shellfish 
Taking oysters from closed area 
Taking smelts illegally 
Scallops out of season . 
Unlawfully using otter trawl 
Obstructing an officer . 
Impersonating a warden . 
Refusing to display fish in 

possession 



ng 



77 



42 
1 

12 
2 

11 
1 
3 

3 
2 

1 

1 

36 

17 

4 
2 
3 

1 

3 

14 

1 

1 



247 



13 



Distriot Court Action 



1 

2 

1 

1 

36 

17 

4 

1 
3 

1 
3 

14 
1 
1 



234 



10 



14 



37 



19 



3 S 



45 
4 

24 

10 
2 

10 

2 

1 
1 

19 

17 

3 

2 

3 

11 

1 

1 



156 



$945 

85 

196 

66 
6 

450 

60 

10 
10 



530 

440 



70 
20 



75 
400 



35 
10 



,408 



Cases uncompleted on November 30, 12 ; number of boats seized and libelled, 6 ; 
number of automobiles seized and libelled, 2; value of equipment seized, $30; 
amount received from sale of boats and automobiles libelled, $365. 

New Legislation 

The following acts affecting the marine fisheries were passed by the General 
Court in 1935 : 

Chapter 39. An Act regulating the taking of fish by means of torches or 
other artificial lights in the waters of Ipswich. 

Chapter 110. An Act relative to the powers of aldermen of cities as to the 
control, regulation or prohibition of the taking of sea worms. 

Chapter 117. An Act exempting scallops from certain provision of law rela- 
tive to the taking and marketing of shellfish. 

Chapter 324. An Act providing for State aid to coastal cities and towns in 
conserving and increasing the supply of shellfish and in exterminating the 
enemies thereof. 

Of these laws, the most far reaching in its effect upon the marine fisheries is, 
without doubt, Chapter 324 which establishes a permanent policy of assistance to 
coastal cities and towns in shellfish problems with State financial aid on the 
basis of need and dependent upon the city or town providing a portion of the 
cost. 

Emergency Relief Administration Activities 

During the year the Supervisor approved 87 separate local project applica- 
tions affecting the coastal fisheries and also advised on certain stream proposals. 



78 P.D. 25 

In addition to these, the Federal government approved the Supervisor's work 
project applications for the following purposes : 

1. For remodeling the No. 2 Patrol Boat. This work changed the boat from 
a hunting cabin style to a flush deck cabin cruiser type. The change was very 
beneficial. 

2. For grading the premises at the Patrol Base which had been left in a 
dangerous condition due to open foundation holes. 

3. For putting new sills under the main building at the Patrol Base. This 
building serves as headquarters for the boatmen when ashore, and also as a 
workshop. 

4. For building an eight-foot board fence at the Patrol Base. 

5. For placing concrete piers under the boat shed at the Patrol Base. 

6. For collecting and indexing special laws relating to marine fisheries and 
shellfish. 

7. For an administrative group to outline and supervise activities for the 
purpose of assisting the coastal fisheries. 

The Federal government spent a total of $4,313.50 for the projects listed above. 

Coastal Stream Work and Stocking with Anadromous Fish and Eggs 

Work with various towns has been continued by promoting Emergency Relief 
Administration projects and supervising the activities of these local units in 
clearing coastal streams of obstructions to the passage of fish running up from 
the sea to spawn, as well as in providing refuges for trout and other inland fish 
which frequent these streams. 

In pursuing this work, particular attention has been paid to all obstructions in 
the stream over which fishways are required. Where these had already been 
provided, it was frequently found necessary to alter or rebuild them. In addi- 
tion to many slight repair jobs in connection with fishways, particular attention 
was given to altering and rebuilding fishways in the Parker River System, the 
Town River at West Bridgewater, the Pembroke Herring Stream and the Weir 
River System in Hingham. 

The interest of several towns has also been awakened to the possibility of 
building fishways over obstructions which have existed in certain streams for 
many years. Plans for this work have been made, but as most of them are quite 
extensive undertakings, the projects have not as yet been started. 

On April 22, an Emergency Relief Administration unit of seven men was 
secured from the Federal government to work under the immediate direction of 
the Supervisor's staff in order to take care of such portions of the stream work 
as required more expert attention. Later this unit was reduced to five, and still 
later to four men. 

During the progress of this work the following anadromous fish and eggs were 
planted in streams running into the sea: 

12,088 adult alewives in 10 brooks and ponds; 504,000 eyed smelt eggs in 7 
streams; 1,205,000 shad fry in 16 rivers and brooks. In addition to stocking 
streams with the above listed fish and eggs, about 50 miles of stream were cleared 
of obstructions, several fishways were repaired and temporary ones built, where 
none existed or in cases where the present ones were inadequate. 

A detailed account of the planting and stream work is as follows : 

Alewives. — From May 8 to 14 alewives were planted in Weir River, Hing- 
ham; Lily Pond, Cohasset; Mill Pond, Cohasset; Marsden Mills Pond, Barn- 
stable; Whitman Pond, Weymouth; Russells Pond, Kingston; Sylvia Pond, 
Kingston; Constable Pond, Kingston; Carver Pond, Bridgewater; West Bridge- 
water Pond. A total of 12,088 alewives, taken from the herring fisheries at 
Pembroke, Weymouth and Middleborough, were planted in these waters. This 
transfer was made for the purpose of increasing the supply, and also to im- 
prove the stock of fish in these localities. 

Smelt. — Between May 5 and 10, eyed smelt eggs to the number of 504,000 
were planted in the following streams: Upper Weir River, Hingham; Fresh 
River, Cohasset; Stoney Brook, Marshfield; Ford Hill Brook, Duxbury; Third 



P.D. 25 79 

Brook, Kingston; Third Herring Brook, Norwell; Marsden Mill Stream, Barn- 
stable. 

Shad. — Through the courtesy of the Board of Fisheries and Game of Con- 
necticut, 1,205,000 shad fry were secured and planted in the following waters: 
Palmer River, Rehoboth; Coles River, Swansea; Nemasket River, Middle- 
borough; Mattapoisett River, Mattapoisett ; Wenatuxet River, Plympton; Jones 
River, Kingston; Third Herring Brook, Pembroke; Stoney Brook, Kingston; 
Weir River, Hingham; Bluefish Brook, Duxbury; Duck Hill Brook, Duxbury; 
South River, Marshfield; Parker River, Newbury; Mill River, Rowley; Essex 
River, Essex; Ipswich River, Ipswich. 

An interesting item with reference to the previous shad work was noted in the 
large number of shad which were found in the portion of Palmer's River that 
was set aside last year as a spawning preserve. It became necessary during the 
season to repair the screen in this river at Shad Factory Dam which had ap- 
parently been broken down by the rush of fish. More than 2,500 alewives and 31 
adult shad had thus become trapped on the other side of the screen. These fish 
were seined and liberated above the dam. Later, before the next run of shad 
occurs, it is the intention to create several additional spawning holes in the river 
by the use of dynamite. 

Stream Work. — Two objectives were kept in mind: 

1. Clearing the streams of obstructions to the passage of such anadromous 
fish as alewives, shad, and smelt, or preparing fishways over existing major 
obstructions. 

2. Improving stream fishing by creating trout holes and ripples where needed 
or altering existing ones. The need of such work became more apparent as the 
work progressed. In many instances such obstructions as tree trunks and logs 
from 10 to 24 inches in diameter had apparently existed for more than a gen- 
eration, and immediately after they were removed schools of alewives, whose 
progress had been prevented, passed up the stream. In the more than 50 miles 
of stream which were cleared, it is now possible to fish the full length of the 
stream without danger of tangling lines. In most of the streams this could not 
have been done before. During the progress of the work, brown trout weighing 
as much as two pounds, and large brook trout, were observed in some of the 
streams. Because of the improved conditions, these fish will now be available to 
the sportsmen of the State. 

While nearly all of this work was done in Plymouth County, it is the inten- 
tion of the Bureau to extend this task of clearing obstructions to all coastal 
streams of the State. It is further the intention to follow up the planting of 
shad fry by stream improvement and altering fishways in preparation for the 
return of the adult shad which would take place in about five years from the 
time of planting. 

In addition to the actual work performed, contact has been made with groups 
of sportsmen and selectmen of various towns for the purpose of interesting 
them in further improving the streams within the borders of their towns. Already 
some seven or eight towns have decided to include stream work among their local 
Emergency Relief Administration projects. All of this work will be under the 
direct supervision and advisement of the Supervisor's office. 

A detailed account of the work in certain streams is as follows: 

1. Weir River and Tributaries, Hingham. — A very comprehensive program 
was laid out on this river system. Our objective was not only to improve this 
river system, but also to give a practical demonstration of what could be done 
in stream improvement. At the close of the year, although the work on this 
stream has not been completed, five miles of stream have already been cleared 
and improved. Small feeder streams for a long time obstructed, were cleared 
and deepened. Existing fishways were improved and graded. The water supply 
has been increased and its quality improved by tapping into it several large 
springs which had been choked with debris for years. It is expected before com- 
pletion of this work to increase the flow of water to such an extent that it will 
be unnecessary for the Hingham Water Supply Company to close off a portion 



80 P.D. 25 1 

of the stream during the summer season. A temporary stone fishway was built j 
at Shingle Mill Pond so that a free passage for fish now exists the full length! 
of the stream. Further work will be done on other parts of the stream when" 
weather permits. 

2. Palmer River, Rehoboth. — Further improvement of the shad spawning 
preserve was made by adjusting wire screen leaders and additional posting. The 
upper part of this stream, for a distance of five miles, was cleared of dead trees 
and logs making it suitable for trout, shad and alewives. 

3. Wintuxet Brook, Kingston. — The upper end of this brook was cleared 
for a distance of five miles until it widened to an eight-foot width. Dead trees 
nearly two feet in diameter were removed. 

4. Town River, West Bridgewater. — This stream was cleared of dead trees 
and rubbish for a distance of at least one mile. In order to insure easy passage 
for fish entering the fishway, a stone leader was built. 

5. Marston Mill Brook, Barnstable. — Both branches of this stream were 
cleared of obstructions and where the stream had become too shallow due to 
spreading out in flat areas, the depth was increased by constructing suitable 
baffles and otherwise narrowing it. Several cold springs were tapped into the 
stream in various places and the stream was further improved by creating 
refuges and hiding spots for fish. 

6. Red House Hill Brook, Halifax. — This brook, which is a branch of the 
Winatuxet River, was cleared for a distance of several miles. A large amount 
of work had to be done in this brook due to the fact that the greater part of it 
flowed through swamps and in these low flat areas, obstructions had divided the 
stream into several branches. Wherever possible these branches were united 
into one stream which served to increase the flow of water and make more ideal 
conditions for the fish. Several springs were also tapped into the stream. 

7. Mosquito Mill Brook, Bridgewater. — This stream was cleared for a dis- 
tance of about one-half a mile and was otherwise placed in very good condition 
by a local Emergency Relief Administration unit working out of Bridgewater. 
The work of this unit was under the supervision of the Supervisor's office. 

8. Bluefish and Ford Brooks, Buxbury. — These were cleared of obstructions, 
consisting principally of tangles of grape vines, for an estimated distance of 
about one mile. As a result of this work, these streams are now in very good 
condition for fishing. 

9. Gulf Brook, Mattapoisett. — This stream was improved by installing suit- 
able artificial baffles and also by tapping into it a larger spring. 

10. Bound Brook, North Scituate. — One-half day was spent by four men 
in clearing this stream. 

11. Constable's Brook, Kingston. — This was cleared for a distance of two 
and one-half miles and several springs were tapped into it. At one place a rustic 
bridge was constructed connecting with a foot path. 

12. Smelt Brook, Kingston. — This brook, which is suitable for trout and 
alewives, was cleared from Smelt Pond to Cobb and Drews Pond, a distance of 
five miles. 

Shellfish and Crustacea 
Shellfish Assistance to Coastal Cities and Towns. — Since the establishment 
of the office of Supervisor of Marine Fisheries in 1929, the task of assisting 
coastal cities and towns in restoring their depleted shellfish areas has rapidly 
increased in magnitude. At first it consisted largely in encouraging and advis- 
ing them in their local problems. It was soon found that these problems were 
often beyond local control, and to successfully solve them required the coopera- 
tion of neighboring towns. This was particularly true in regard to the suppres- 
sion of such shellfish enemies as starfish, cockles, etc., which readily travel from 
one area to another. Because satisfactory cooperation could not be easily ob- 
tained, due mostly to boundary restrictions of the local Boards of Selectmen, 
but occasionally to differences in policy, these pests quickly got out of hand 
until it became practically impossible for the towns, unaided, to cope with them. 
It was then decided that the Supervisor of Marine Fisheries must assume some 



P.D. 25 81 

sort of direct supervision over these matters. At first a specific appropriation 
was obtained directed toward the suppression of starfish. The excellent results 
obtained from this work and the lowering of the unit cost in collecting star- 
fish served to encourage the General Court to make further appropriations. 
Another appropriation was made for starfish suppression and later funds were 
supplied for a campaign against the pest of green crabs which were destroying 
the clam sets in Essex County. 

In 1934 a small appropriation was secured to assist the towns in replanting 
depleted shellfish areas. The spirit of cooperation engendered by these efforts 
and the encouraging results obtained, paved the way toward a general law 
establishing a permanent policy of State assistance and providing an annual 
item to be placed in the Budget forecast. This new law (Chapter 324 of the 
Acts of 1935) was approved June 5 and $18,000 was appropriated in the supple- 
mentary budget to provide for expenditures thereunder to the end of the fiscal 
year. In order to obtain greater results from this fund, blanket Works Progress 
Administration project proposals were submitted to the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration districts covering coastal areas asking for $85,081 for labor, and sub- 
scribing in behalf of the State and towns, $23,000 in material and equipment. 
Under these projects, more than 500 persons were to be employed in 41 coastal 
cities and towns for a period of from one to three months. On November 30, the 
last day of the fiscal year, official notice was received that the projects had been 
approved. Steps were immediately taken to start work in these areas wherever 
weather conditions permitted. 

Realizing that there would be considerable delay in getting projects approved, 
it was decided early in October to begin planting quahaugs in those towns which 
needed them badly, because to get best results this must be done before the 
water became too cool. Consequently, a group of fishermen in New Bedford 
were employed to tong little neck quahaugs from a thickly seeded section in the 
contaminated area of Clark's Cove. There were secured 1,607% bushels of 
little necks, 403V2 bushels of mediums, and 2 1 /2 bushels of seed, and planted in 
closed areas in Kingston, Plymouth, Chatham, Barnstable, Duxbury, New Bed- 
ford and Mashpee. Later a bed of very small seed quahaugs was located in a 
shallow, exposed area of Lewis Bay, Barnstable, and in cooperation with that 
town, 768 bushels averaging 5,000 to the bushel, were secured and planted in the 
deeper water of the same bay. 

During the year the Supervisor's office cooperated with the towns in securing 
Works Progress Administration projects on shellfisheries and supplied top super- 
vision. A resume of shellfish work in coastal towns in 1935 is as follows : 

Salvaging and Replanting Shellfish. — There were 24,144 bushels of shellfish 
salvaged and replanted as follows : Clams, 11,085 bu. ; seed quahaugs, 4,438 bu. ; 
little necks, 2,051 bu. ; large and medium quahaugs, 329 bu. ; oysters, 3,441 bu.; 
scallops, 2,800 bu. The market value of these shellfish was conservatively 
$46,156. When matured, estimated value will be $500,000. 

Exterminating Enemies of Shellfish. — The following amounts of marine ani- 
mals and vegetation inimical to shellfish were destroyed : 

1. Starfish, 30,250 bushels. The total destroyed under State supervision to 
date is 203,590 bushels or more than 2,100 tons. 

2. Green crabs, 100 bushels. 

3. Horseshoe crabs, 49,714 in number. 

4. Cockles, 335,069 in number and 83,054 sand collars (egg cases of the cockle). 

5. Conchs, 18,000 in number and 30,000 feet of their egg strings. 

6. Silica grass, 50V2 tons. 

7. Mussels removed from shellfish flats, 412 bushels. 

Purification of Shellfish. — By special permit from the Supervisor, a total of 
81,516 bushels of clams were taken during the year from areas declared by the 
Department of Public Health to be contaminated. These clams were purified at 
the two State-supervised plants in Newburyport and Plymouth. The value of 
the clams at prevailing market prices was in excess of $250,000, and in obtaining 
them, 519 persons were employed by the 53 master diggers who were bonded for 



82 P.D. 25 

the public's protection. To secure these shellfish, 4,025,996 square feet of flats 
were dug over in the polluted areas of Boston, Dartmouth, Fairhaven, Fall River, 
Hingham, Hull, Nantucket, New Bedford, Newbury, Newburyport, Quincy, 
Salem, Salisbury, Weymouth and Winthrop. 

The amount of shellfish treated by the individual purification plants is as fol- 
lows: Newburyport, 36,810 bushels in ten and one-half months of operation; 
Plymouth, 46,845 bushels in twelve months of operation. The plant at New- 
buryport was destroyed by fire on February 3, and was, therefore, not in full 
operation for about a month and a half. Many improvements were made at the 
time of rebuilding. 

During the year 2,139 bushels of quahaugs taken from the contaminated areas 
of Fall River, New Bedford, Dartmouth and Fairhaven were treated at Ply- 
mouth. This appears to be the first time that this species of shellfish has ever 
been purified at chlorinating plants. This accomplishment strengthens the opinion 
expressed in previous reports, that several times the amount of shellfish purified 
each year could be salvaged if purification plants were established in New Bed- 
ford, Boston and Fall River. The contaminated areas in these towns are filled 
with quahaugs. The 1933 law proportioning the responsibility for the pollution 
of shellfish areas would distribute the cost of building and maintaining these 
plants over several communities, so that financing them would not be burden- 
some. 

Permits. — A total of 8,253 permits and certificates were issued by the Super- 
visor during the year. Although a large part of them were issued without cost, a 
total revenue of $2,568 was secured. 

The permits and certificates may be classified as follows: 3,654 bed certificates; 
3,550 dealer's shellfish certificates; 519 permits for digging in contaminated 
areas; 55 master digger's permits for taking shellfish from contaminated 
areas; 82 dealer's shipping certificates; 34 digger's shipping certificates; 191 
bait permits ; 168 permits to sell lobster meat. In addition to the certificates and 
permits listed above, 25 permits were in force for taking sand eels from areas 
in Newburyport, Ipswich and Salisbury. 

Lobster Fishery. — 960 fishermen took out the lobster-crab licenses which are 
now combined in one license. The revenue received from this type of license was 
$4,517.25. A summary of the reports filed by these fishermen as required by 
Section 24, of Chapter 130, General Laws, is given in the accompanying tables. 

A total of 5,970 egg-bearing lobsters, caught along the shores of the Common- 
wealth, were purchased from the fishermen, punched to prevent their re-sale and 
liberated in accordance with Section 26, Chapter 130, General Laws. These 
lobsters weighed a total of 18,692 pounds and $5,455 was paid for them. This 
amount was allocated to the various coastal counties as follows: Barnstable 
County, $2,985.18; Suffolk County, $1,030.41; Essex County, $600.15; Nan- 
tucket County, $541.42; Bristol County, $157.77; Dukes County, $133.63; Ply- 
mouth County, $6.44. It is the opinion of the Bureau, as has been stated in 
previous reports, that the purchase of egg-bearing lobsters, cannot be justified 
from a conservation standpoint. 

In addition to these egg-bearing lobsters bought by the State, a total of 20,094 
egg lobsters were caught in our coastal waters and liberated by the fishermen 
without cost to the State. These fishermen should be commended for this action. 
If universally carried out, it would go far toward increasing the supply of 
lobsters. 

In addition to these egg lobsters secured from local areas, a total of 1,163 egg 
lobsters and 18,128 lobsters under the legal length from extra-state shipments 
were seized by the coastal wardens and liberated in suitable waters. 258 "Jumbo" 
lobsters (more than thirteen and one-half inches in length) which were seized by 
the Federal government were also liberated in our waters by the coastal wardens. 



P.D. 25 



83 



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84 P.D. 25 

Sea Crab Fishery. — The following is a summary of the reports of licensed 
crab fishermen for the season as required by Chapter 130, General Laws: Men, 
111; 96 boats, valued at $29,495; 6,652 pots valued at $17,866; other equipment 
valued at $2,267; total equipment value, $49,628; number of crabs taken, 
7,251,884 valued at $41,167. 

The Fishing Season 

Commenting on the total amount of fish brought into Boston by the fishing 
fleet as given in the accompanying table it will be seen that not only was the 
1935 catch greater by more than 77 million pounds than that of the previous year, 
but also these increases occurred in each kind of fish listed and with the excep- 
tion of swordfish and halibut, the catch of these species of fish was greater than 
in any year since 1931. Although market prices for these fish were slightly lower 
than in the preceding year, nevertheless there was an increase in revenue to the 
fisherman of more than one million dollars. 

While it is not safe to assume from these figures that there was an actual in- 
crease in the abundance of fish in the off-shore areas, there are very encouraging 
facts in the season's results such as: An increase in the catch of haddock of 
over 38 million pounds above that of 1934, with a continued large supply of 
scrod haddock and the further increase in the catch of mackerel, all of which is 
very promising for the supply of these fish in the immediate future. 

One innovation of the past two years has been the remarkable increase in the 
amount of rose fish or red fish. A total of 13,564,690 pounds of these fish were 
landed in Boston during the year ending November 30, 1935. In the month of 
October alone, a total of 3,733,000 pounds was received. The receipts of this 
fish now rank sixth in order of abundance. 

Among interesting items of the season are the unusually large run of alewives 
which came on our coast some ten days earlier than last year (March 22) ; the 
large number of seven to eight inch haddock on George's Banks; the catch on 
George's Banks of an unusually large haddock weighing fifteen pounds and 
measuring 36V2 inches in length; the catch of several large mackerel in March 
by an otter trawler on Western Banks; and the catch of a school of black hali- 
but with the heads turned left instead of right. 

Group activities for promoting the consumption of fish, consideration of fish 
tariffs and other problems for assisting the fish industry were quite conspicuous 
throughout the year. The staff of trie State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries was 
very active in these groups and took a prominent part in the discussion. 

During the summer an application was made for an Emergency Relief Admin- 
istration project to survey the needs of the fishing industry for the specific pur- 
pose of encouraging the consumption of fish. Beyond the preparation of an out- 
line for this work which was made by an administrative group, nothing more 
was accomplished as the working units have not as yet been allowed by the 
Federal government. 

Sea and Shore Fisheries 

From reports received from the shore net and pound fisheries as required by 
Section 24 of Chapter 130, General Laws, as amended in 1933, is compiled the 
following record on this branch of the fisheries for 1935: number of men en- 
gaged in the fisheries, 313; number of boats, 140; valued at $57,397; number of 
traps and weirs operated, 251; valued at $210,230; total value of equipment, 
$434,292; amount of fish caught, 31,013,028 pounds; value of fish $633,929.46. 

It will be noted that the reported value of fish taken in 1935 by nets and 
pounds was more than double the reported value of the catch for 1934. 



P.D. 25 



85 



Port of Boston 

Number of Vessels Landing Pish at Boston toe the Past Five Years 





1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


Draggers (large and small) . 

Steamers 

Line Vessels (hand and trawl) 

Swordfish 

Mackerel 

Halibut 


182 
62 
69 
67 

107 
19 


185 

48 
78 
56 
116 
15 


164 

63 
70 
64 
104 
11 


153 
54 
52 
49 
85 
8 


165 
65 
56 
60 
95 
12 


Total 


506 


498 


476 


401 


453 



Receipts of Pish at 


Boston Direct from the Pishing Fleet for a Period of Five Years 


Ending November 30, 1935 








1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 




(Pounds) 


(Pounds) 


(Pounds) 


(Pounds) 


(Pounds) 


Large Codfish 


24,441,043 


20,439,384 


27,391,340 


29,764,993 


32,179,470 


Market Codfish 






25,620,020 


25,997,822 


31,478,555 


39,806,592 


44,218,884 


Cod Scrod . 






223,786 


139,920 


189,455 


175,065 


599,195 


Haddock 






108,324,792 


86,058,865 


82,381,000 


71,380,342 


109,594,118 


Scrod Haddock 






9,710,768 


31,526,489 


30,182,200 


51,718,772 


51,452,056 


Hake 






6,304,425 


4,170,806 


4,905,060 


3,772,847 


7,485,190 


Small Hake . 






15,120 


41,200 


461,500 


774,435 


714,122 


Pollock . 






5,070,640 


4,547,001 


7,904,185 


8,831,561 


12,861,415 


Cusk 






3,343,296 


2,500,980 


2,503,340 


2,661,190 


3,705,455 


Halibut . 






2,374,232 


2,133,603 


1,731,916 


1,749,694 


2,244,992 


Mackerel 






19,908,792 


25,144,121 


17,554,665 


21,196,324 


26,814,151 


Swordfish 






1,531,952 


2,249,947 


1,681,175 


1,314,095 


2,024,199 


Miscellaneous 






11,954,828 


8,289,133 


11,695,591 


16,267,646 


32,204,291 








218,823,694 


213,239,271 


220,059,982 


249,413,556 


326,097,538 





Port of 


The following amounts of fresh fish 


1934 to Nov. 30, 1935 : 






Pounds 


Large Cod 


8,649,049 


Market Cod . 


2,253,301 


Cod Scrod 


43,880 


Haddock .... 


3,214,415 


Scrod Haddock . 


1,663,905 


Hake .... 


229,147 


Small Hake . 


9,384 



Gloucester 
were landed in Gloucester from Dec. 1, 

Pounds 

Pollock 13,738,859 

Cusk 181,842 

Halibut 220,365 

Mackerel 13,440,399 

Miscellaneous . . . 3,609,236 



In addition to the amounts of fresh 
into Gloucester during the year: 



Fresh Fish, via Boston . 
Fresh Fish, Foreign Vessels 

Salt Fish 

Lobsters 



Total pounds . . . 47,253,782 
Valued at $789,958 
fish listed above, there were also shipped 



Pounds 

8,510,000 

56,000 

9,401,000 

250,215 



Total pounds 18,217,215 

Estimated Value op Fishery Products op Massachusetts 
(Dec. 1, 1934 to Nov. 30, 1935) 

Vessel landings at port of Boston $8,088,298 

Vessel landings at port of Gloucester 789,958 

Vessel landings at ports of New Bedford and Woods Hole . . . 485,000 

Shipped direct to New York 500,000 

* Shore net and pound fishery 633,924 

*Lobster fishery 457,973 

Soft shell clam fishery 900,000 

*Oompiled from reports of fishermen. 



86 P.D. 25 

Quahaug fishery $375,000 

Shallow water scallop fishery 250,000 

Sea scallop fishery 150,000 

Oyster fishery 125,000 

Razor clam fishery 25,000 

Sea crab fishery 80,000 

Bait worm fishery 65,000 

Sea moss fishery 4,050 



Total $12,929,203 

In addition to the fishery products listed above which taken from the waters 
and shores of the Commonwealth or from fishing banks contiguous to its coast 
line, we list the following amounts coming into Boston and Gloucester through 
usual transportation lines : 

From other States : . Clams .... 38,000 bus. 

Lobsters . . . 340,000 lbs. 

From Canada: Swordfish . . . 2,040,094 lbs. 

Clams .... 178,609 bus. 
Lobsters . . . 5,795,426 lbs. 
Fish .... 9,708,698 lbs. 

From Japan : Swordfish . . . 1,292,039 lbs. 

Total amount shipped in through usual transportation lines : 

Clams 216,609 bus. 

Swordfish 3,332,133 lbs. 

Lobsters 6,135,426 lbs. 

Fish 16,641,668 lbs. 

Marine Sport Fishing 
This excellent type of fishing was further encouraged this season by continuing 
the information service inaugurated in the previous year. Owners of small boats 
and party boats were encouraged to enroll themselves with the Division, and this 
list was made available to those interested. Many persons availed themselves of 
this service, and quite frequently telephone calls to the Supervisor's office en- 
abled parties to secure desired fishing boats for the week-end at a few hours' 
notice. The list of available boats to date includes two large party boats; 2 
yachts; 139 motorboats; 2 sail boats; and 218 smaller boats. 

Bounty on Seals 

The following towns were reimbursed by the Commonwealth (through the 
county treasurers) for bounties of $5 each on 283 seals in accordance with sec- 
tion 85 of Chapter 130, General Laws, as amended : Barnstable, $400 ; Chatham, 
$5; Duxbury, $150; Essex, $35; Gloucester, $10; Gosnold, $5; Ipswich, $80; 
Kingston, $160 ; Lynn, $10 ; Manchester, $5 ; Marblehead, $5 ; Orleans, $95 ; Ply- 
mouth, $10; Provincetown, $50; Quincy, $60; Revere, $180; Rockport, $10; 
Rowley, $15; Sandwich, $5; Swampscott, $5; Wareham, $25; Weymouth, $80; 
Winthrop, $15. Fees to city and town treasurers, $141.50. Total, $1,556.50. 

In spite of the increased bounty on seals the number taken was not sufficient 
to reduce their abundance. 

NOTE OF APPRECIATION 

To the casual reader of this report the accomplishments enumerated therein 
may appear to be the ordinary routine of an easy and pleasant task. While it 
summarizes the accomplishments, it leaves unrecorded the hardships and the 
handicaps experienced by the personnel of the Division in making possible a 
creditable showing for the year just closed. The Director, mindful of the obstacles 
overcome and of the spirit and energy with which the members of the Division 
went about their tasks, closes this report with a public acknowledgment of the 
conscientious service rendered by the personnel of the Division. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Raymond J. Kenney, 
Director of the Division of Fisheries and Game. 



P.D. 25 87 

APPENDIX 

Following is the complete record of the clubs which received stock from the 
Division in consideration of having purchased and liberated game birds or fish 
with their own funds : 

Brook 
Quail Pheasants Trout 

Auburn Sportsmen's Club Inc 15 

Bird Dog Club 20 

Brockton Sportsmen's Association 20 

Canton Rod and Gun Club 17 

Catamount Sportsmen's Club of Colrain .... 12 

Chicopee Rod and Gun Club 32 

Clinton Fish and Game Protective Association Inc. . . 10 

Connecticut Valley Field Trial Club 50 

East Longmeadow Rod and Gun Club 75 

Essex County Field Trial Association Inc. ... 40 

Essex County Sportsmen's Association of Newburyport 102 

Fairview Sportsmen's Fish and Game Association, Inc. 25 

Great Barrington Fish and Game Association .... 25 

Legion Rod and Gun Club 20 

Lenox Sportsmen's Club 44 

Ludlow Fish and Game Club Inc 80 

Marlboro Fish and Game Association Inc 80 

Methuen Rod and Gun Club, Inc 97 

Middlesex County Field Trial Club, Woburn ... 54 

Middleboro Fish and Game Association .... 50 

Monson Rod and Gun Club 30 

Nantucket Sportsmen's Club Inc 100 

Needham Sportsmen's Club . 40 12 

Nimrod League of Holden 12 

Norwood Sportsmen's Club 300 

North Shore Sportsmen's Club 20 

Rockland Rod and Gun Club 40 

Scituate Rod and Gun Club Inc 41 

Setter Club of New England 50 

Spencer Fish and Game Club 80 

Swift River Rod and Gun Club 25 

Westboro Fish and Game Association 40 

West Warren Fish and Game Club 150 

Woburn Sportsmen's Association Inc 70 

Worcester County Fish and Game Association Inc. . 130 

Worcester County League of Sportsmen's Clubs Inc. . 20 
Sidney F. Smith, Northampton and Col. George A. 

Taylor of Hadley 21 



110 1,489 450 



■ 



Public Document 





C73r 

No. 25 



5Itjj> ffiattTOtntmn?altIj of JKaasadntfirtia 



ANNUAL REPORT 



Division of Fisheries and Game 



Year Ending November 30, 1936 



1936 



Department of Conservation 

[Offices: 20 Somerset Street, Boston.] 




•' v ° » I 



Publication of this Document approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance 
1M. 5-'37. No. 893. 



X9r 

1 w 



RTBUBRIR «f ua 



JUL 19 1937 

CONTENTS 



PAGE 

General Considerations . u|^, oB 'PIJ. HA. LB 4 

Co-operation with the National Recovery Administration ... . . 5 

Personnel . ^^.^ 6 

Finances . . . . -<e- „,„ .—.- .- *.- v ~V~. .""** 6 

Convention^^iST Meetings 9 

Activities of State and Local Organizations 9 

Education and Publicity 9 

Acknowledgments 10 

Enforcement of the Game and Inland Fish Laws 10 

Work of the Fish and Game Wardens 10 

Permits and Registration . 12 

Legislation 13 

Wild Birds and Mammals, and Fresh-water Fish 14 

Game 14 

Migratory Game Birds 14 

Upland Game 16 

Statistics of Game and Fur-bearing Animals taken .... 18 

Wildlife Survey and Management 18 

State Forests 18 

Reservations and Sanctuaries 21 

Inland Fisheries 24 

Public Fishing and Hunting Grounds 25 

Feeder Streams 25 

Great Ponds Stocked and Closed 26 

Breeding Areas set aside in Great Ponds 26 

Ornithologist 27 

Shellfish and Ducks 27 

Oil Pollution and Ducks 27 

Shellfish and Herring Gulls 27 

Hawk Studies 28 

Seabird Colonies 28 

Census of Waterfowl and Shorebirds 29 

Advisory Work on State Forests and Parks 29 

Activities of the Biologist and Staff 29 

Field Work and General Activities 29 

Aquicultural Investigations 30 

Fish Propagation 31 

Game Culture 32 

Propagation of Fish and Game 33 

Fish Hatcheries and Game Farms — General 33 

Bass Culture in Massachusetts 34 

East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery 36 

Montague State Fish Hatchery 36 

Palmer State Fish Hatchery 38 

Sandwich State Fish Hatchery 39 

Sunderland State Fish Hatchery 40 

Sutton State Fish Hatchery 41 

Sutton State Fcno System 42 

State Forest Ponds 43 

Work of the Salvage Dnits 45 

Ayer State Game Farm 46 

Marshfield State Game Farm 50 

Sandwich State Game Farm 50 

Sutton SlUlp Pond System -Ga aie Culture 51 

Wilbcaham State Game Farm 51 

Massachusetts State College — Experimental Breeding 53 

Beartown State Forest — Experimental Breeding ....... 54 

Fish and Game Distribution 55 

Marine Fisheries 61 

State Inspector of Fish 61 

State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries 61 

Program of Work 61 

Work of the Coastal Wardens 62 

New Legislation 63 

Coastal Stream and Fishway Improvement 63 



y\5 

c 



'73r 



/ PAGE 

Shellfish and Crustacea . , 65 

Assistance to Coastal Cities and Towns ........ 65 

Starfish ' ' qq 

Mussel Removal . . . . 67 

Quahaug Salvage . . . . 67 

Purification of Shellfish 68 

Permits 68 

Lobster Fishery .... " 68 

Sea Crab Fishery . . . 70 

The Fishing Season 70 

Sea and Shore Fisheries 70 

Ports of Boston and Gloucester „ 70 

Estimated value of the Fishery Products of Massachusetts '. '. 71 

Marine Sport Fishing 72 

Bounty on Seals 72 

Appendix 73 



DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

20 Somerset St., Boston 

Commissioner, ERNEST J. DEAN, Chilmark 

DIVISION OF FISHERIES AND GAME 

Director, PATRICK W. HEHIR, Worcester 

Office Administration: 

0. C. Bourne, Melrose, Supervisor of Fish and Game Permits and Claims 
L. B. Rimbach, Medford, Head Clerk. 

M. J. Carroll, Medford, Principal Clerk (Secretary to the Director) 
Propagation and Distribution of Fish and Game: 
J. Arthur Kitson, Boston, Fish and Game Biologist. 
Standish Deake, Acton, Junior Fish and Game Biologist. 
Arnold E. Howard, Lexington, Field Agent, Division of Fisheries and Game. 
Enforcement of the Game and Inland Fish Laws: 
Carl G. Bates, Natick, Chief Fish and Game Warden. 
Forrest S. Clark, Holden, Fish and Game Warden Supervisor. 
Lloyd M. Walker, Northborough, Fish and Game Warden Supervisor 
Ornithology: 

Joseph A. Hagar, Marshfield, State Ornithologist. 

Fish Inspection 
William D. Desmond, Stoneham, State Inspector of Fish. 
Marine Fisheries 
Bernard J Sheridan, Somerville, State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries. 
Ernest W. Barnes, Roslindale, Fish and Game Biologist. 
Howard S. Willard, Chief Coastal Fisheries Warden. 

Technical Consultants 
Dr. Hugh P Baker, President, Massachusetts State College, Amherst. 
Prof. Samuel CPrescott Department of Biology and Public Health, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. 

Pr ° f Qw n H old sworth, Head of the Department of Forestry, Massachusetts 

state College, Amherst. 
Mr. Fred A. McLaughlin, Massachusetts State College, Amherst. 
Mr. Ludlow Gnscom Research Curator of Zoology, Museum of Comparative 

Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge. 
Dr. David L Belding, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston. 
Prof James L Peters, Curator of Birds, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 

University, Cambridge. s * 

Dr * Camb \I TyZZer ' De P artment of Comparative Pathology, Harvard University, 
Pr ° f Amh J 'st ieVerS ' Direct0r Ex P eriment Station, Massachusetts State College, 



P.D. 25 



W$t Commoutoealtf) of Jffla££aci)u£ette 



ANNUAL REPORT 

The Director of the Division of Fisheries and Game herewith presents the seventy- 
first annual report, for the fiscal year December 1, 1935, to November 30, 1936. 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

A Change in the Trout Stocking Policy 

From the inception of fish cultural work with trout in Massachusetts in 1868 
when they were first hatched and distributed to public waters, the work was limited 
to fry until 1900 when a small beginning was made with fingerlings. From this 
beginning fingerling production was steadily increased as facilities could be pro- 
vided, until 1917, when they completely supplanted fry for distribution, except as 
fry were disposed of as a surplus product. 

The distribution of fry was continued along with the distribution of fingerlings, 
first with increasing, then diminishing numbers as the fry hatcheries could be 
abandoned and as facilities could be provided to rear the fry to the small fingerling 
stage suitable for summer distribution. Summer fingerling distribution was like- 
wise slowly decreased, and in 1922, when the capacity for growing and distributing 
fall fingerlings was considered sufficient for all stocking purposes, this distribution 
became the established policy. 

In 1927 the policy of distributing fall fingerlings was discontinued in favor of a 
policy of distributing legal length trout. The trout were planted whenever they 
reached legal length, making a distribution season beginning in winter and continu- 
ing until June. In 1931 this policy was modified by beginning the distribution 
when a portion of the trout had reached legal length and a substantial part of the 
others were planted when from four to six inches in length. This plan has con- 
tinued to the present, with brown and rainbow trout excepted. 

Brown and rainbow trout, because they did not come up to the brook trout 
standard the first year, were fed through the second year and distributed at the age 
of twenty to twenty-two months, when mostly seven to twelve inches in length. 
This had led to successes with brown and rainbow trout that are favorable in com- 
parison with the results from the larger number of smaller brook trout planted, 
and points to the need of an increased planting of larger brook trout. 

It is the announced policy of the Division for stocking with brook trout to in- 
crease the facilities for growing them and plant a larger number of larger fish as 
capacity for doing this can be provided. The distribution policy with brook, brown 
and rainbow trout will be further modified to shorten the period they must live in 
the brooks between the time of planting and the opening of the fishing season. 
This is to avoid the losses that to an increasing extent deplete the stock that should 
be in the brooks at the opening of the season. 

The development and expansion that brought about a change from the distribu- 
tion of fry alone, to the full distribution of well grown fingerlings, covered a period 
of twenty-two years. The first change from fingerling to legal length trout distribu- 
tion was accomplished in one season. Events proved this change to have been 
made too hastily for the best effect. There was no time for adjustments and ex- 
pansion to get the full benefit of hatchery production. The loss from the suspen- 
sion of fingerling trout distribution could not be quickly made up with the limited | 
facilities for legal length trout production. 

An effective change from fingerling to legal length trout of a larger size must be 
done as a long term program, with a large amount of adjustment and construction 
during the change. There should be no slackening in the production program 
already established if it affects fishing results. The old policy should not be j 
wholly abandoned until it can be fully superseded by the new. A change of stock- j 



P.D. 25 5 

ing policy that is radically different from what has been carried on cannot be put 
into effect with an abrupt departure from previous methods without disturbance to 
production, lost use of equipment and rearing facilities, and possible injury to the 
streams. The change should be made as gradual as is necessary to lose little and 
gain consistently and steadily. 

Conditions have changed along the trout streams and it is not possible to provide 
satisfactory angling by the methods formerly pursued or by an expansion of the 
work under these methods. Stocking with fry and fingerlings in nursery and feeder 
streams is still helpful in growing stock that will benefit the larger streams, but can 
no longer maintain the hoped-for fishing in them. If the whole field of possible 
stocking could be covered, plantings would include fry in the nursery streams, 
fingerlings in the feeder streams and larger trout in the fishing waters. This 
would be the most that could be done to utilize the natural capacity of the streams 
for producing trout fishing. Where only a part can be done, it should be by the 
direct method of creating the angling desired and the trend towards accomplish- 
ing this is by planting suitable trout in selected waters. This is the aim of the Divi- 
sion in future stream stocking. 

Various considerations enter into the plans for making a change in stocking 
policy, to have it become effective without loss of headway in the maintenance of 
fishing and to improve angling even as the new policy is supplanting the old. 

1. The stocking must be consistent with the augling expected and must make 
up any deficiency from what is abandoned. Fewer trout will come to the fishing 
areas from the feeder streams above if they be not stocked with small trout to fulfill 
their functions as feeder streams, while the fishing streams must have more trout. 

2. The stocking for fishing will be with trout not less than legal length in any 
case, and where it is expedient they will be as large as the average of the expected 
catch. Progress in this will depend on the growing facilities that can be provided. 

3. The stocking will be timed to avoid the losses now known to be expected 
when trout must live for a long time in streams where they are exposed to vermin, 
drouth, ice jams and floods. Progress in this will depend on capacity for wintering 
trout. 

4. It will require a larger stock of the larger size trout that must be carried in 
the hatcheries for a longer period than has been possible before, and to do this 
with effective results, capacity in new locations and in new construction must be 
planned and carried out. 

5. The new policy will go into force with the facilities which are now available 
and will be extended as fast as additional rearing space can be provided. To 
start on the new plan and get effective results in the early period of stocking by the 
new policy, the streams will be classified to select those most in need of the new 
stocking, and promising to give the best immediate results. The classification 
will be extended to other streams as fast as they can be fully and effectively 
stocked. 

The use of the new ponds constructed during the present year will give an 
impetus to the work that will have an effect in 1937. This will give the new 
policy a substantial start. Further advances willbe made as other new pools 
can be constructed and old pools reconditioned and adapted to the change. The 
ultimate goal will be reached when modernized trout rearing with new stations 
built for work on a large scale can be realized, enabling the main stock for distribu- 
tion to be carried through the second winter. 

Co-operation with the National Recovery Administration 
With the assistance of the Federal government a large amount of new con- 
struction has been carried on at the various game farms and fish hatcheries during 
the year. This work has been handled through the Works Progress Administra- 
tion to which Division-sponsored projects were submitted for approval. Under 
this program all labor was furnished by the Federal government and all materials, 
tools and equipment were supplied by the Division, as follows: 



6 



P.D. 25 



Station 
Ayer State Game Farm 
Marshfield State Game Farm 
Sandwich State Game Farm 
Wilbraham State Game Farm 
Montague State Fish Hatchery 
Palmer State Fish Hatchery 
Sandwich State Fish Hatchery 
Sunderland State Fish Hatchery 
Sutton State Fish Hatchery 
Sutton State Pond System 



State 


Federal 




Funds 


Funds 


Total 


$690 


$953 


$1,625 


270 


415 


685 


275 


400 


675 


2,335 


3,335 


5,670 


755 


7,150 


7,905 


2,275 


12,925 


15,200 


1,225 


6,740 


7,965 


1,840 


3,090 


4,930 


1,350 


5,840 


7,190 


925 


11,715 


12,640 



$11,940* $52,545 



$64,485 



♦Approximately $2,000 of this represents rental value of State-owned equipment. 



Peksonnel 

At the expiration of the term of Director Raymond J. Kenney, His Excellency 
James M. Curley appointed in his place, on January 22, Patrick W. Hehir of 
Worcester. 

On May 6 Mr. Harry A. Torrey, Game Bird Culturist at the East Sandwich 
State Game Farm, was retired from the State service, having reached the com- 
pulsory retirement age. 



1887 



EDWARD BABSON 



1936 



The death on July 28 of Fish and Game Warden Edward Babson of Newbury- 
port, one of the better-known members of the game and inland fish law-enforce- 
ment personnel, has been a loss to the service and the sportsmen alike. Warden 
Babson, appointed February 17, 1919, was in his eighteenth year of service with 
the Division. He was recognized as an efficient law-enforcement officer, who rated 
far above the average in his knowledge of wildlife, and particularly that along the 
coastal areas. 



Finances 



Recess Commission 

The problem of a better method of financing the work of the Division was the 
subject-matter of the work of a special unpaid Recess Commission of the Legis- 
lature. This had its beginning with the filing of House Document No. 673 (on 
petition of the Dedham Hunting and Fishing Association, Inc.) to provide that 
each year an appropriation should be made of a sum at least equal to the amount 
received during the preceding fiscal year from the sale of licenses and as fees of 
any kind, this appropriation to be used only for propagation and distribution of 
game and expenses in connection therewith. 

The bill was referred to the Next General Court; but, with the assent of the 
Director, the matter was made an item of study by a special Recess Commission 
established by Chapter 46, Resolves of 1936. Its purpose was "making a survey and 
study of the administrative functions and financial needs of the division of fish- 
eries and game of the department of conservation with a view to recommending 
the proper manner of administering and financing said division, particularly with 
reference to the obligations of the commonwealth to contribute money from the 
general tax levy to provide hunting and fishing, and the proper manner of financing 
the cost of enforcing the laws of the commonwealth pertaining to fish, birds and 
mammals, including therein a survey and study of other matters in relation thereto, 
including the subject-matter of House Document No. 673." 



P.D. 25 7 

Hearings were held from time to time by the commissioD, and are still in progress 
at the close ot the period of this report, November 30. 



Appropriations and Expenditures 













Balances 




Appropria- 


Balances, 


Expendi- 


Balances 


to State 




tions 


transfers 


tures 


to 1937 


Treasury 


Part I (1935 revenue, $271,807.64) 












Salary of the Director 


$4,971.40 


— 


$4,971.40 


— 


— 


Office Assistants, Personal Services . 


21,440.00 


— 


21,349.24 


— 


$90.76 


Office Expenses .... 


11,000.00 


- 


10,832.56 


- 


167.44 


Education and Publicity 


1,500.00 


— 


988.11 


— 


511.89 


Enforcement of the Laws: 












Personal Services . . 


71,790.00 


- 


71,419.51 


- 


370.49 


Expenses ..... 


31,660.00 


$966.69 


30,102.60 


$1,709.75 


814.34 


Biological Work: 












Personal Services 


5,460.00 


— 


5,460.00 


— 


— 


Expenses ..... 


2,500.00 


.24 


2,457.72 


— 


42.52 


Propagation of Game Birds, etc. 












Personal Services 


66,060.00 


- 


66,048.95 


- 


11.05 


Expenses ..... 


58,705.48 


30.81 


58,640.20 


66.22 


29.87 


For improvements of fish hatcheries 












and game farms, and for propa- 












gation and field work, etc. (Ch. 












338, Acts of 1935) 


- 


6,889.47 


6,882.42 


- 


7.05 


Supervision of Public Fishing and 












Hunting Grounds: 












Personal Services 


5,200.00 


— 


5,200.00 


— 


— 


Expenses ..... 


1,700.00 


— 


1,565.67 


- 


134.33 


Damage by Wild Deer and Wild 












Moose ..... 


5,500.00 


- 


5,498.71 


- 


1.29 


Part II (1935 revenue, Nothing) 












Protection of Wild Life . 


5,565.00 


- 


5,558.07 


- 


6.93 


Part III (1935 revenue, $9,670.75) 












Sale and Cold Storage of Fresh Food 












Fish: 












Personal Services 


14,520.00 


- 


14,512.28 


- 


7.72 


Expenses ..... 


3,500.00 


- 


3,415.71 


- 


84.29 


State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries: 












Personal Services 


12,715.00 


— 


12,695.17 


— 


19.83 


Expenses ..... 


9,950.00 


74.34 


6,238.08 


- 


3,786.26 


Enforcement of Shellfish and other 












Marine Fishery Laws: 












Personal Services 


32,385.00 


— 


31,461.16 


— 


923.84 


Expenses ..... 


15,500.00 


589.48 


15,618.55 


147.00 


32393 


Purchase of Lobsters 


6,000.00 


— 


5,582.13 


— 


417.87 


Special: For cost assisting coastal 












towns, etc. (Sec.3-a, Ch. 130, 












G. L. inserted therein by Ch. 












324, Acts of 1935) . 


20,000.00 


12,913.58 


32,884.62 


- 


28.96 




$407,621.88 


$21,464.61 


$419,382.86 


$1,922.97 


$7,780.66 



8 



P.D. 25 



Revenue 



Following is the revenue accruing to the State Treasury for the period of the 
fiscal year, from the activities of the Division. 



' 


Parti 

Produced by 

the hunters, 

anglers and 

trappers 


Part II 

Produced by 
those who 
enjoy wild 
life but do 
not hunt, 
fish or trap 


Part III 

Produced by 

the marine 

fisheries 


PART I 

Licenses: 
Hunting, fishing, sporting and trapping license fees 
$279,145.50 (less $199.50 refunds account of overpay- 
ments by town clerks on 1935 accounts) . 
Shiner permits ....... 

Rents: 
Property at Marshfield, Palmer, Sandwich and Wil- 
braham ........ 

Sales: 

Confiscated goods, $136.25; game tags, $154.55 . 
Miscellaneous : 
Auto damage claim, $36.90; refunds on appropriations 
prior years, $3.33; 10% of Medford Trust Co. claim, 
$2.60; U. S. Post Office indemnity payment, $5 
Fines: 
Turned into State Treasury as a result of violations of 
the inland fish and game laws .... 

PART II 

Nothing . . . . 

PART III 

Licenses: 
Lobster and crab licenses ...... 

Lobster meat permits . . . 

Dealers' shipping certificates ..... 

Diggers' ......... 

R FNTS * 

Clam flats, $60; Chilmark Pond, $1 .... 

Sales : 

Lobster gauges ....... 

Miscellaneous: 

Auto damage claim, $15.85; refunds on appropriations 
prior years, $44.85 ...... 

Fines: 

Turned into State Treasury as a result of violations of 
marine fisheries laws ...... 


$278,946.00 
505.00 

703.00 
290.80 

47.83 
4,975.00 


Nothing 


$5,244.00 

1,440.00 

770.00 

56.00 

61.00 

2.00 

60.70 

1,506.00 


Total Revenue, $294,615.92 


$285,467.63 


Nothing 


$9,139.70 



Detail of Receipts from 


IdCENSES TO 


Hunt, Fish or 


Trap 




(for fiscal year Dec. 


1, 1935, to Nov. 30, 1936) 










Gross 


Fees 


Net Return 




Number 


Amount 


Retained 
by Clerks 


to State 


Resident Fishing ($2.00) .... 


55,685 


$111,370.00 


$13,673.75 


$97,696.25 


Resident Hunting ($2.00) .... 


42,773 


85,546.00 


10,610.00 


74,936.00 


Resident Sporting ($3.25) .... 


24,845 


80,746.25 


6,118.25 


74,628.00 


Resident Minor and Female Fishing ($1.25) 


13,476 


16,845.00 


3,325.00 


13,520.00 


Resident Minor Trapping ($2.25) 


698 


1,570.50 


174.25 


1,396.25 


Resident Trapping ($5.25) .... 


1,623 


8,520.75 


403.25 


8,117.50 


Resident Sporting (Free) .... 


6,434 


— 


— 


— 


Special Non-resident Fishing ($1.50) 


692 


1,038.00 


172.25 


865.75 


Non-resident Minor Fishing ($2.25) 


78 


175 50 


19.50 


156.00 


Non-resident Fishing ($5.25) .... 


694 


3,643.50 


171.25 


3,472.25 


Non-resident Hunting ($10.25) 


338. 


3,464.50 


83.75 


3,380.75 


Non-resident Sporting ($15.25) 


16 


244.00 


4.00 


240.00 


Non-resident Trapping ($15.25) 


10 


152.50 


2.50 


150.00 


Duplicate ($0.50) 


1,128 


564.00 


— 


564.00 


Special Non-resident Fox Hunting ($2.00) 


13 


26.00 


3.25 


22.75 


Totals, sporting, hunting, fishing and trap- 










ping licenses, including duplicates 


148,503 


$313,906.50 


$34,761.00 


$279,145.50 


Deduct refunds made on account of overpay- 










ments by town clerks on 1935 accounts 








199.50 




$278,946.00 


Lobster and Crab ($5.00) .... 


1,104 


5,520.00 


276.00 


5,244.00 



P.D. 25 9 

The following statement of the numbers of hunting, fishing and trapping licenses 
(excluding duplicates) sold in each county during the calendar year 1935 will 
indicate the distribution of license sales throughout the State. It is not an indi- 
cation of the amount of hunting, fishing or trapping which is carried on in each 
county, since licenses may be used in any part of the State. As the figures are 
for the calendar year, the totals will not check with the license data for the fiscal 
year in the annual report for 1935. 

Barnstable County, 2,791; Berkshire County, 14,469; Bristol County, 8,065; 
Dukes County, 343; Essex County, 8,737; Franklin County, 6,375; Hampden 
County, 19,415; Hampshire County, 7,298; Middlesex County, 17,728; Nantucket 
County, 400; Norfolk County, 9,048; Plymouth County, 7,615; Suffolk County, 
6,566; Worcester County, 33,683. 

Conventions and Meetings 

The Director attended the following meetings of individuals and agencies dealing 
with conservation matters: 

The North American Wildlife Conference in Washington, D. C, Feb. 3-7, 
called by President Franklin D. Roosevelt with the purpose of promoting better 
cooperative work among organizations, agencies and individuals in Canada, 
Mexico and this country having to do with the restoration and conservation of 
wildlife resources. 

The New England Game Conference on February 15, in Boston. 

The Third Annual Conference on Outdoor Recreation at the Massachusetts 
State College on March 14. 

Activities of State and Local Organizations 
The following table shows the number, location and membership (as of the time 
the yearly club questionnaire was filed) of the number, location and membership 
of the various fish and game clubs: 



COUNTY 


Number of 
Clubs 


Total Club 
Membership 


Number of Clubs 
in the respective 
County Leagues 


Barnstable 

Berkshire 

Bristol . 

Dukes 

Essex 

Franklin 

Hampden 

Hampshire 

Middlesex 

Nantu,cket 

Norfolk . 

Plymouth 

Suffolk . 

Worcester 














5 
21 
15 

1 
23 
15 
29 
19 
26 

1 
20 
18 

2 
44 


479 
3,190 
2,408 

263 
2,757 
1,584 
4,268 
1,786 
3,034 

130 
2,150 
2,667 

162 
6,803 


4 
13 
15 

1 
18 
14 

9 

8 
28 

1 
18 
17 

3 
41 




239 


31,681 


190 



The clubs, during the fiscal year 1935, had spent $16,589 for projects for the 
increase or protection of fish and game, such as construction of yards, ponds and 
pools, bird feed and fish food, purchase of fish and birds for liberation. For 1936 
the total intended club projects as outlined in the early part of the year, totaled 
$21,865. 

Education and Publicity 

Only three exhibitions of any great magnitude were put on during the year, 
although smaller displays were made on a number of occasions, as follows: 

January 9, at the request of the Commissioner, an aquarium was set up for one 
evening in the Hotel Lenox, and, using oxygen, displayed live brook trout. 

January 19-25 an exhibit was put on at the Worcester Auditorium for the 
Worcester County League, consisting of camp of white cedar, various kinds of 
fish in aquaria, and a demonstration of the oxygen fish distribution tank. 

February 1-8 at the New England Sportsman's and Boat Show in Boston the 
departmental exhibit consisted of a 10 x 12-foot forestry conservation model, 
live game birds, and a marine exhibit. 



10 P.D. 25 

March 12-15 at the Massachusetts State College in Amherst practically the 
same exhibit (except the forest pond model) was made as at the foregoing. 

March 23-29. Cash and material, including trout for the brook, were contrib- 
uted to the exhibit put on at the Boston Flower Show by the Division of Forestry, 
for which a gold medal was awarded. 

In June a demonstration of fish salvage and turtle elimination work was made 
at the exhibit of the Worcester County League at the Barre Fair Grounds. In 
September the same exhibit was set up for the Field Day of the Middlesex County 
League at Maynard. 

September 20-26 at the Eastern States Exposition a live fish display was made 
in conjunction with the Forestry Division's exhibit. A new dome was built up 
as a permanent feature, replacing the old one which had been ruined in the spring 
flood. 

During the exhibition week of the Boy Scouts the balopticon was loaned to 
Troop Ten of Holyoke for use in their conservation demonstration. 

The usual stereopticon talks gave way, to a considerable extent during the past 
winter, to lecture work by the recently appointed Director, and to more extensive 
lecture work by the Chief Fish and Game Warden. On several occasions Mr. 
Harold M. Bradbury spoke before clubs on the value of planting food-bearing 
plants and shrubs, through cooperative work with the farmers, for winter feed 
for the wildlife. Other members of the Division have also filled speaking engage- 
ments at various types of meeting. 

The newspaper publicit}^ during the year has been confined chiefly to announce- 
ments, at appropriate times, on matters of special interest to the sportsmen. 

Acknowledgments 
The Division acknowledges, with appreciation, the following gifts: 
From the Norwottuck Fish and Game Club of Amherst, a Hewitt tank for the 

Sunderland State Fish Hatchery. 

From the Federation of the Bird Clubs of New England, Inc., Billingsgate 

Island, in Wellfleet Bay, to be a wildlife sanctuary. (More fully mentioned in 

the section on Reservations and Sanctuaries.) 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE GAME AND INLAND FISH LAWS 

Work of the Fish and Game Wardens 

The retired list suffered the loss of three veteran wardens through the death of 
Lyman E. Ruberg, Thomas L. Burney and William H. Jones. 

On July 28 the ranks of the permanent force were broken by the death of Warden 
Edward Babson of Newburyport. 

Following the death of Warden Babson, Warden Cyril W. Hanley, stationed in 
Harwichport since 1933, was transferred to the Newburyport district. 

Thomas J. McShane of Lowell was appointed August 24 to fill the vacancy in 
the warden service caused by the death of Warden Babson and was assigned to the 
Greenfield district. 

Transfers in the service, effective September 1, were as follows: 

Warden John J. Broderick, from the Ayer to the Northampton district. 

Warden Walter W. Gilmore, from the Northampton to the Lower Cape district. 

Warden James A. Peck, from the Northbridge to the Ayer district. 

Warden Ernest P. Anyon, from the Nantucket to the Northbridge district. 

Warden Arthur F. Hughes, from the Greenfield to the Nantucket district. 

Warden Chester K. Masse, from the Lee to the Lynn district- 
Warden Warren W. Leary, from the Lynn to the Lee district. 

With the reinstatement of Forrest A. Rogers of Lowell on April 1, and his assign- 
ment on April 6 to the Framingham district, the services of James F. Hayes, who 
had served as fish and game warden in that district, were terminated as of April 5. 

Eight temporary wardens were appointed for a three-months' period for patrol 
work on the public fishing grounds. Four were assigned to the Farmington and 
Squannacook Rivers, the assigned area being the same as in the previous years. 
On the Copicut River in Bristol County, however, no special patrol was furnished, 



P.D. 25 11 

as it seemed possible for the regular wardens to cover this stream as part of their 
regular patrol. 

During the flood emergency in March the Commissioner ordered all wardens 
to hold themselves in readiness for immediate flood duty. The wardens in the 
flood areas, particularly in the Connecticut Valley, cooperated with local, State 
and military authorities to the fullest extent, and either personally or through use 
of their equipment removed from their homes several hundred persons who were 
cut off by the rising waters. Canoes, row boats and motor boats, were used, and 
in some instances canoes were paddled into houses and the stranded taken from 
stairways to points of safety. In other instances patrol was maintained to watch 
that roads and bridges remained uninjured, so that traffic could be by-passed 
wherever possible. Many citizens did praiseworthy work in assisting the wardens 
in the stricken areas. 

During the winter, which was a severe one, much of the wardens' time was 
occupied in feeding wildlife, pheasants and quail receiving special attention. The 
Division purchased approximately 10,000 lbs. of grain, and received as donations 
from sportsmen's organizations and from individuals some 5,000 pounds more, 
together with approximately 80 bushels of waste popcorn. Club's and individuals 
demonstrated in a concrete way their interest in this work, and donations were 
more than usually extensive this year. Along with the grains commonly used 
for feeding, the gifts included also popcorn, suet, apples and grit. The popcorn 
was readily eaten by pheasants, quail and black ducks, and if available from year 
to year would save a considerable item of expense. In the Plymouth districts, 
twenty-one feeding stations were established through Civilian Conservation Corps 
projects, and unquestionably many birds, both game and non-game, were saved 
through the efforts, either collectively or individually, of persons interested in wild- 
life conservation throughout the State. 

Deer accidentally or illegally killed numbered 82, as follows: struck by automo- 
biles or trucks, 40; struck by trains, 3; killed or injured through being chased by 
dogs, 21; badly injured, and shot, 9; found dead, 7; killed illegally, 1; killed in 
fight with another buck, 1. Such deer were disposed of by the wardens in the 
usual m nner, that is, destroyed if unfit for food, or distributed to needy families as 
listed by the local welfare boards. Meat was thus furnished to 408 families. 

Outstanding in the enforcement work of the Division was the successful prosecu- 
tion of cases involving the sale of game. Investigations covering several months 
resulted in raids upon the Pine Grove Inn and the Wild Wood Inn of Marlboro, 
anpl game was found in both establishments. In addition, ruffed grouse was found 
in a Worcester cold storage plant, stored as squabs by the Pine Grove Inn. Seven 
persons were convicted in connection with the illegal sale of game, resulting in fines 
imposed in six of the cases amounting to $1,150, and in the seventh a fine of $20 for 
violation of the regulations in the sale of untagged game. 



12 



P.D. 25 







Disposition 


VIOLATION 


-a 




73 




-a 

0) 




|s 


a 




c 


-a 

32. 


IE o 




3 o 


o 
O 


•2: o—< 


a 
< 


£ 


ft 


Aiding or assisting in violations .... 


3 


3 








$120 


Aliens possessing firearms ..... 


15 


15 


— 


1 


2 


550 


Armistice Day Law violation .... 


8 


3 


5 






20 


Bass ........ 


18 


17 


1 


_ 


3 


120 


Carrying rifle in woods during deer week 


2 


1 


1 


_ 




20 


City or town clerks — failure to comply with laws 














regarding license remittances and books 


2 


2 


— 


_ 


1 


50 


Deer ........ 


25 


21 


4 


3 


3 


1,370 


Discharge of firearms on State or paved highways 


7 


6 


1 


2 


2 


80 


Fishing in private ponds ..... 


3 


3 


— 


_ 


1 


20 


Fishdng on posted land ..... 


6 


6 


— 


_ 


2 


40 


Fishing in closed ponds ..... 


3 


3 


— 


_ 




35 


Fishing other than by angling .... 


6 


3 


3 


1 


2 


20 


Fishing without a license ..... 


204 


200 


4 


1 


40 


1,452 


Fishing in breeding areas ..... 


6 


6 


— 


5 


_ 


95 


Horned pout ....... 


1 


— 


1 


— 


_ 




Hunting from a boat ...... 


2 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


40 


Hunting on State property without a permit 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


20 


Hunting on posted land ..... 


8 


7 


1 


— 


5 


10 


Hunting on the Lord's Day .... 


20 


18 


2 


_ 


7 


190 


Hunting without a license ..... 


39 


36 


3 


1 


10 


295 


Refusal to show license ..... 


5 


3 


2 


- 


1 


10 


Securing license fraudulently .... 


8 


5 


3 


- 


3 


20 


Migratory game birds . 


9 


9 


— 


3 


2 


140 


Muskrats ........ 


2 


2 


— 


2 


— 


40 


Pheasants ....... 


10 


7 


3 


- 


1 


100 


Pickerel ........ 


26 


20 


6 


_ 


_ 


190 


Possession of a live mammal without a permit 


1 


1 


— 


_ 


1 




Possession of firearms while training dogs during 














closed season ....... 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


Rabbits ........ 


1 


1 


— 


_ 


1 


— 


Raccoons ........ 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


20 


Ruffed grouse ....... 


2 


2 


- 


- 


1 


20 


Sale and possession of game for purpose of sale 


14 


14 


- 


- 


8 


1,150 


Setting fires without a permit .... 


4 


4 


— 


— 


1 


20 


Shore birds . . . . . 


5 


5 


- 


- 


2 


75 


Snaring or trapping quadrupeds .... 


4 


4 


— 


— 


— 


275 


Spearing wishou t a license ..... 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Squirrels ........ 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


20 


Taking protected birds ..... 


22 


22 


- 


3 


4 


390 


Trapping without a license .... 


19 


19 


— 


— 


3 


190 


Unmarked traps ...... 


28 


27 


1 


4 


3 


475 


Not visiting traps once in twenty-four hours. 


3 


2 


1 


- 


1 


25 


Trapping without a pertnit .... 


4 


4 


— 


— 


1 


60 


Setting traps not designed to kill at once 


7 


5 


2 


.— 


3 


50 


Traps not legibly marked ..... 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


Trapping closed season ..... 


9 


7 


2 


- 


- 


140 


Trapping in paths ...... 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Setting traps within ten feet of muskrat houses 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


20 


Illegal trapping ...... 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Trawling 


7 


7 


— 


— 


— 


140 


Trout 


11 


11 


— 


— 


1 


310 


Waterfowl ....... 


2 


2 


— 


— 


— 


40 


White perch ....... 


5 


5 


- 


- 


- 


50 


Woodcock ....... 


4 


4 


— 


— 


2 


40 


Wood ducks, black ducks, mallard ducks 


6 


5 


1 


— 


— 


100 


Yellow perch ....... 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


20 


Totals 


608 


558 


50 


26 


119 


$8,677 



Permits and Registrations 

The work of issuing permits to breeders, dealers and individuals who for one 
reason or another desire to handle protected wildlife, was directed by the Super- 
visor of Fish and Game Permits and Claims. 

In most cases there is no charge for these permits, but, as stated in the last report, 
the quite considerable cost in clerical work, and in time and travelling expense of 
the wardens to investigate the application, justifies a fee at least sufficient to cover 
the expense. Several court cases have resulted where investigation disclosed that 
the stock had been illegally obtained, or was held by aliens. This year the Director 
has recommended to the Legislature the enactment of a law providing for such fees. 



P.D. 25 13 

Requests for permits to possess stock for propagating purposes led in point of 
numbers, and 325 were investigated during the year by the wardens and permits 
issued in the central office, — in addition to the hundreds already outstanding (in 
force until revoked) which were issued during 1927 and in the years following. 
During the present year all holders of this class of permit were circularized to learn 
whether they are still operating. The check-up is still under way at the close of 
this report. Eventually a new list of dealers will be compiled, to provide correct 
information to prospective purchasers of breeding stock. 

Along with other information, the returns disclose that one dealer in pheasants 
has a brood stock of some 1,350 birds. Mink raisers, whose efforts, unlike those of 
bird breeders, persisted through the depression, have made notable progress, and 
many of them are now in a position to supply stock to others who wish to enter this 
line, with two mink dealers reporting stocks on hand in excess of 400. The demand 
for raccoon is indicated by the request of a fish and game club to be informed where 
three hundred dollars' worth could be bought. 

A large number of those who turned in their permits for cancellation were breed- 
ers of ducks and geese for gunning stands. As the Federal law no longer permits 
the use of live decoys, nearly all breeders have either given up entirely or retain only 
a minimum number of mated pairs. Of those who tried pheasant raising, many 
found the demand small and dropped the work. However, those who persisted 
will reap their reward when the demand for stock for propagating purposes increases. 

There are outstanding 68 permits to have protected birds in possession for 
scientific purposes, 76 bird banding permits, and 130 permits to breed fish. The 
list of permit holders of the first two classes mentioned was revised this year, can- 
celling the old permits and issuing new ones where desired. 

New Legislation enacted during 1936 

The following laws relating to fish and game were enacted during the legislative 
session of 1936 : 

Chapter 13 abolishes the close season on skunks. 

Chapter 21 reestablishes the open season on deer in Barnstable County. 

Chapter 37 places with the selectmen of the town the control of Archers Pond 
and Lake Pearl in the town of Wrentham, and rules and regulations made by the 
town relative to fishing become effective only when approved by the Division of 
Fisheries and Game. 

Chapter 69 regulates the number of hooks that may be used in fishing inland 
waters. Whereas previously a fisherman was permitted to use 10 lines each with a 
single hook attached, the present law limits him to the use of two lines, each with a 
single hook; but 10 traps may still be used in ice fishing. 

Chapter 138 abolishes the open season on deer in Dukes County by further 
amending Chapter 21 (above). 

Chapter 294 provides that if a pond lies partly in Massachusetts and partly in 
an adjoining State, a person licensed to fish in either State may fish the pond pro- 
vided the officials of both states have adopted, and put into effect as therein pro- 
vided, uniform regulations for fishing the pond. 

Chapter 425 provides a special season for taking trout from Onota Lake, Pitts- 
field, together with special bag limits and legal lengths. 

Recommendations for Legislation 
It is recommended that legislation be enacted to accomplish the following 
purposes: 

Providing for a Reduction in Fees to City and Town Clerks. — Section 9 of Chapter 
131 of the General Laws provides that any town clerk issuing any license under 
authority of this chapter may, except as otherwise provided by law, retain for his 
own use twenty-five cents from the fee for each such license. 

It is recommended that this section be amended so that any town clerk issuing 
any license under authority of this chapter may, except as otherwise provided by 
law, retain for his own use fifteen cents from the fee for each such license. 

Providing for a Fee for the Issuance of Permits.— It is recommended that a fee of 
one dollar, be charged for the issuance of permits to have in possession any of the 
wildlife of the State obtained for propagation purposes. Heretofore, in accordance 



14 P.D. 25 

with Section 127 of Chapter 131 of the General Laws, these permits have been issued 
free of charge, but due to the large number of permits which are issued yearly and 
the expense involved, it is deemed necessary to charge a fee of one dollar for each 
permit. 

To remove Conflict between State and Federal Laws on Migratory Birds. — Section 
87 of Chapter 131 of the General Laws provides that in drafting the migratory 
bird regulations, the Director specifically set the daily hours for hunting at one- 
half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after sunset. 

This provision of the law seriously conflicts with the Federal regulations and 
it is recommended that Chapter 131 of the General Laws be amended by striking 
out the present Section 87 and inserting a new Section 87 which will be identical 
except that the last paragraph be omitted. 

Providing for the issuance of Complimentary Licenses. — It is recommended that 
the license law be amended so that the Division of Fisheries and Game, with the 
approval of the Governor, may be allowed to issue complimentary licenses to proper 
officials of other States. 

Providing for Reciprocal Relations with the Dominion of Canada as to the Granting 
of Hunting and Fishing Licenses. — The Dominion of Canada issues licenses for 
hunting and fishing to citizens of the Commonwealth, and in order that our resi- 
dents may continue to enjoy this privilege it is believed that Massachusetts should 
enact legislation by amending the General Laws to permit the issuance of hunting 
and fishing licenses to residents of Canada. 



WILD BIRDS AND MAMMALS, AND FRESH-WATER FISH 

Game 

Migratory Game Birds 

Waterfowl . — In general waterfowl appeared in greater numbers than has been 
the case in several years. Native black ducks bred well throughout the State, 
with unusual numbers in evidence. In the flight, common blacks as well as the 
prize "red-leggers" showed a decided increase. Heavy concentrations of black 
ducks were noted all along the coastal areas, in which were included a generous 
mixture of blue-winged teal and pintails. In redhead and canvasback ducks 
there was a noticeable increase, and bluebills, mergansers, scoters and widgeon 
appeared in abundance. 

Geese, from all indications, were present in greater numbers than for several 
years. The flight along the north shore area did not appear heavy, for the flocks 
passed out to sea and therefore were not in evidence. The mild weather did not 
force them inshore, and under such conditions our north shore goose gunning suf- 
fered materially. This was in contrast with the flight on the south shore, for large 
numbers of geese were seen throughout the Cape. This year, as in 1935, the 
Federal regulations prohibited the use of live decoys in hunting migratory birds, 
and, consequently, the shooting of ducks and geese from gunning stands was 
so limited that no attempt was made to ascertain the number of birds taken by 
that method. It is safe to say that, as far as Massachusetts is concerned, the 
waterfowl situation is much improved, and without doubt more birds were ob- 
served than in the past ten years. 

Following the announcement from Washington of the Federal regulations for 
the shooting of migratory game birds, the Director on September 2, as provided by 
State law, declared an open season and regulations for the hunting of migratory 
birds in Massachusetts. These regulations coincided with the Federal regulations 
except in respect to the hours of shooting, for it is mandatory by State law that 
the daily open season shall be set at from one-half hour before sunrise to one-half 
hour after sunset. Nevertheless, since in all cases the Federal regulations super- 
sede those of the State, the legal hours of shooting were, as provided by Federal 
rules, as follows: ducks, geese and coot, 7 a.m. to 4 p.m.; Wilson's snipe or Jacksnipe, 
woodcock, rails and gallinules, 7 a.m. to sunset. 

The State regulations read as follows : 



P.D. 25 15 

Migratory Game Bird Regulations for Season of 1936 

"Pursuant to Section 87, Chapter 131, of the General Laws, I hereby declare 
an open season on rails and gallinules (except coot) from October 1 to November 30, 
both dates inclusive; on Wilson or jacksnipe, coots (mud hens and not that species 
sometimes called coot), ducks (except wood duck, ruddy duck, bufflehead duck, 
canvasback duck, and red head duck), geese (except snow geese, Ross's goose, 
swans, and brant) between November 1 and November 30, both dates inclusive, 
and on woodcock from October 21 to November 20, both dates inclusive. 

Daily bag and possession limits on certain migratory game birds. — A person 
may take in any one day during the open season prescribed therefor not to exceed 
the following numbers of migratory game birds, which number shall include all 
birds taken by any other person who for hire accompanies or assists him in taking 
such birds; and when so taken these may be possessed in the numbers specified 
as follows: Ducks (except wood duck, ruddy duck, bufflehead duck, canvasback 
duck, red head duck), 10 in the aggregate of all kinds, and any person at any one 
time may possess not more than 10 ducks in the aggregate of all kinds; geese 
(except snow geese, Ross's goose, swans, and brant), 4 in the aggregate of all kinds, 
and any person at any one time may possess not more than 4 geese in the aggre- 
gate of all kinds; rails and gallinules (except sora and coot), 15 in the aggregate 
of all kinds, and any person at any one time may possess not more than 15 in the 
aggregate of all kinds; sora, 25, and any person at any one time may possess not 
more than 25; coot, 15, and any person at any one time may possess not more 
than 15; Wilson's snipe or jacksnipe, 15, and any person at any one time may 
possess not more than 15; woodcock, 4, and any person at any one time may pos- 
sess not more than 4. 

The above-mentioned migratory birds may be hunted every day except Sunday 
during the open season from one-half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after 
sunset with a shotgun only, not larger than 10 gauge, fired from the shoulder; 
but they shall not be taken with or by means of any automatic loading or hand- 
operated repeating shotgun capable of holding more than 3 shells, the magazine 
of which has not been cut off or plugged with a one-piece metal or wooden filler 
incapable of removal through the loading end thereof so as to reduce the capacity of 
said gun to not more than 3 shells at one loading. They may be taken during the 
open season from the land or water with the aid of a dog and from a blind, boat, 
or floating craft of any kind, except as hereinafter provided; but migratory game 
birds are not permitted to be taken from or by the aid of an automobile, aircraft 
of any kind, sinkbox (battery), power boat, sail boat, any boat under sail, any 
floating craft or device of any kind towed by power boat or sail boat. 

No migratory game birds are permitted to be taken directly or indirectly with 
or by the aid of corn, wheat, oats, or other grain or products thereof, salt, or any 
kind of feed by whomsoever, or for whatsoever purpose, placed, deposited, dis- 
tributed, scattered, or otherwise put out in any environment whatsoever, whereby 
such migratory game birds or waterfowl are lured, attracted, or enticed to the 
hunter. In the taking of waterfowl the use, directly or indirectly, of live duck 
or goose decoys is not permitted nor shall anything in these regulations be deemed 
to permit the use of an aircraft of any kind, power boat, sail boat or other floating 
craft or device of any kind for the purpose of concentrating, driving, rallying or 
stirring up migratory waterfowl. 

The migratory birds referred to herein which have been legally taken may be 
held in possession at any time, in the numbers specified in these regulations, during 
the open season and for ten days next succeeding said open season. Migratory 
game birds lawfully killed during the open season in any other state may be pos- 
sessed in Massachusetts for a period of 10 days after the close of the season where 
killed. 

The possession limits hereinbefore prescribed shall apply as well to migratory 
game birds taken in any other state or in Canada and brought into the Common- 
wealth as to those taken in the Commonwealth, but not more than one day's bag 
limit shall be brought into this Commonwealth from any other state or Canadian 
province in one calendar week. — Patrick W. Hehir, Director" 

The migratory game bird season, owing to the rigid and restricted Federal regula- 



16 P.D. 25 

tions, was not satisfactory from the gunners' point of view, even though in general 
the number of birds was in excess of those in the past few years. 

Waterfowl and Shorebird Restoration. — After receiving the approval of 
the State Reclamation Board, a project was started at the Duxbury Marsh on 
July 16, the results of which should go far towards restoring shore birds to this 
area, as well as attracting waterfowl to use it as a resting place. The work is being 
done by a group of National Youth Administration boys under the supervision of 
Mr. Harold M. Bradbury of the Division, and has aroused the interest of the Na- 
tional Audubon Society as well as of sportsmen generally. Thus far 30 potholes 
have been opened, 6 shore bird stations (mud flats) restored, 3 acres of marsh 
burned over, and one fresh-water hole established. Tests made by a representa- 
tive of the State Reclamation Board failed to show the presence of larvae in the 
potholes and shore bird stations, and this was attributed to the fact that there 
were many minnows or chub present in each hole, which ate the larvae as soon as it 
appeared. Residents near the marsh report seeing many more birds on the marsh 
since this work was started than at any time during the previous three years. It 
has been definitely established that mosquito control and wildlife restoration can 
be carried on in the same tide marsh area and be of benefit one to the other, and 
that the work has not brought back the mosquito. The project was suspended 
during the winter months, with the expectation of starting again in the spring. 

Woodcock. — The woodcock flight was early this year, and many of the flight 
birds were gone before the Massachusetts season opened. However, the mild 
weather did hold the birds to some degree, extending the migration over a longer 
period than usual, so that a certain amount of good woodcock gunning was enjoyed. 

Upland Game 

The upland game season in Massachusetts, in common with other New England 
States, was disappointing in that grouse, quail and pheasants were all below T normal 
numbers. 

Ruffed grouse had a good breeding season, and the young and old birds alike 
came through the summer, but by the time the season opened, their numbers were 
badly depleted, — so much so that, in order to protect the brood stock, it appeared 
to be the best policy to close the season. After a careful investigation through the 
fish and game wardens, a canvass of the sportsmen, a public hearing, and with the 
approval of the Governor and Council, the season was declared closed, beginning at 
sunset on November 14, for the remainder of the season, by the authority conferred 
on the Director by section 86-a, Chapter 131, General Laws. 

Quail and pheasants apparently suffered from the severe winter. The stock in 
the covers did not measure up to anticipated numbers, although in some areas 
their numbers appeared normal. 

The regulations for the open season on pheasants, as formulated by the Director, 
permitted the shooting of cock pheasants only from October 20 to November 20, 
inclusive, in all counties except Dukes. In Dukes County, cocks only, from Oc- 
tober 20 to November 3, inclusive. Bag limit for each person, two in one day and 
six in one season, no person to have in possession more pheasants than may be 
legally taken. 

Gray squirrels were scarce generally throughout the State, with no migration 
occuring as was the case last year when the hordes of gray squirrels did damage to 
the extent of thousands of dollars. 

Hares and rabbits, as usual, came in for their share of hard hunting. Cottontail 
rabbits are again on the increase and have been noted this year in areas where none 
appeared last year. But this natural increase is bound to suffer from predators, 
due to the lesser numbers of grouse and pheasants. 

Raccoon hunters enjoyed a good season, and it appears that this sport is again on 
the upgrade, although in some sections of the State the prevalence of porcupines 
makes it a hazardous undertaking for dogs. 

Fur-bearing animals, excepting muskrats, were more in evidence than for some 
years. Due to the low market value of furs the incentive for trappers to go after 
them was not great at the opening of the season; but as the season advanced prices 



P.D. 25 17 

became better, with mink prices advancing to a greater degree than all others. 
Some of our fur bearers are predatory, and account for the game shortage to some 
extent, and their numbers should be reduced accordingly. 

Bounties to the amount of $620 were paid on 62 wildcats. 

Deer, in spite of the severe winter of 1935-6 when dogs took a heavy toll, are 
plentiful, and there is good reason to expect as good deer hunting in December of 
1936 as was the case in December of 1935. 

The number of deer reported killed in the one-week open season in December of 
1935 (falling within the period of this report) was 1,813 (973 bucks and 840 does), 
divided among the counties as follows: Barnstable, closed; Berkshire, 643; 
Bristol, 31; Dukes, none; Essex, 8; Franklin, 293; Hampden, 286; Hampshire, 
153; Middlesex, 33; Nantucket, 61; Norfolk, 3; Plymouth, 89; Suffolk, none; 
Worcester, 204; locality not stated, 9. 

Deer shot (as permitted by law) by land owners who found the animals either 
damaging or about to damage their crops and orchards, numbered 58 (of which 14 
were killed on Nantucket) . 

In addition to the above, deer numbering 82 died or were killed in ways other 
than permitted by law, as detailed in the report on Enforcement of the Game and 
Inland Fish Laws. 

During the fiscal year 1936 up to the middle of August there were 113 claims 
appraised and paid for damage to crops by deer, amounting to $5,498.71 (of which 
$4,859.08 were for damage, $553.88 for appraisal fees, and $85.75 for seals). This 
exhausted the appropriation of $5,500, and claims received thereafter were appraised 
in regular course and held for payment after December 1, 1936, on which date the 
appropriation intended for the fiscal year 1937 will become available. These held- 
over claims number 21, and amount to $1,776.13 ($1,652.95 for damage and $123.18 
for appraisal fees). 

The encroachment on the 1937 appropriation to the extent of over $1,700 for 
payment of bills of the previous year will reduce it to an amount which will be 
inadequate to pay for the damage claims accruing in 1937. With this in mind an 
item was inserted in the Forecast for 1937 for a sum sufficient to cover both the 
unpaid claims of the past year and the probable need for the full year 1937. 

The foregoing condition has come about gradually over the years since 1934. 
After an appropriation of $13,000 in 1930 proved considerably in excess of the needs 
of that year, the appropriations thereafter were reduced, eventually remaining at 
$5,500, which has proved to be too little. Each year the excess claims have reduced 
the appropriation for current claims to a greater extent, finally culminating in ex- 
haustion of the money this year at an early date. 

Although carefully appraised, the large claims are increasing in size. Many 
small claims are entered each year through the selectmen of towns, many of them 
from the same persons year after year. On the larger claims a personal investiga- 
tion has been made by the Supervisor of Claims, but in all cases these were found 
to have been thoroughly investigated by the appraisers, and no reason has appeared 
for declining to pay them. The most aggravated case is that of the Watuppa 
Orchards adjoining a reservation created by the Fall River Water Board. This 
reservation is heavily forested, and the deer have only to jump a low stone wall to 
be on the outside, and to jump back into the sanctuary if molested or frightened. 
This sanctuary is not open to public shooting during the annual open season on 
deer, consequently the increase in deer in that area from year to year is very sub- 
stantial. There is no known way of permanently keeping the deer out of this 
orchard except by a heavy ten-foot wire fence, which would be so expensive as to be 
impracticable. Until November of this year no deer have been killed in the Wa- 
tuppa Orchards under the law which permits an orchard owner to destroy deer 
damaging his crops. Although the law gives land owners this privilege, and pro- 
vides also for the issuance of permits to such owners to use a jack light at night, the 
majority do not take advantage of this method of guarding their property against 
damage by deer. 

Statistics of Game and Fur-bearing Animals taken. — There were 57,980 
reports of game and fur taken during the calendar year 1935 filed by purchasers 



18 P.D. 25 

of sporting, hunting and trapping licenses for 1936. Tabulated, the reports show 
the amount of game and fur taken in 1935 to have been— 



Gallinules ..... 

Rails ...... 

Wilson snipe (jacksnipe) 

Fresh-water coots (mud hens) 

Ducks (including skunk head, butter 

scoters, commonly known as coots) 
Geese 
Brant 

Woodcock . 
Quail 

Ruffed grouse 
Pheasants . 

Deer (bucks, 973; does, 840) 
Cottontail rabbits 
White hares 
Gray squirrels 

Total head of game taken 

Muskrat 

Mink . 

Skunk 

Red fox 

Gray fox 

Raccoon 

Weasel 

Otter . 

Canada lynx (loup cervier) 

Bay lynx (wildcat or bobcat) 

Total number of pelts taken 



bill and white winged 



55 
430 

528 
886 

15,012 
459 

228 
11,868 

8,948 
51,972 
27,216 

1,813 
78,538 

7,455 
61,669 

267,077 

38,636 
2,090 
7,025 
6,851 

874 
4,147 
834 
103 
17 
186 



60,763 



Wildlife Survey and Management. — The progress of the work in wildlife 
management was interrupted by the death, in 1935, of Mr. Herbert K. Prout, 
Wildlife Survey and Management Agent, who during 1934 and part of 1935 had 
organized the work and made a complete survey and report on the wildlife areas 
at each of the State institutions, with recommendations for their development by 
those in charge. 

During 1936 such work as could be done along this line was carried on by Mr. 
Harold M. Bradbury, conducted for the most part on the State Forest areas, an 
account of which will be found in the following section. 

In addition to activities on the State Forests his work had to do with the program 
of improving conditions for shore birds and waterfowl on the Duxbury, Salisbury 
and Barnstable marshes, a detailed account of which appears in the section of this 
report on migratory game birds. Some time was also devoted to advising and in- 
structing land owners and sportsmen on the matter of improving private lands as 
wildlife habitat. His activities also included the investigation of proposed Works 
Progress Administration projects that might cause injury to wildlife, particularly 
drainage and mosquito control projects. 

State Foeests 
The development of the State Forests during the past few years, with the aid of 
the Civilian Conservation Corps, has shown conclusively that recreational and wild- 



P.D. 25 



19 



life programs can be carried on in these areas without seriously affecting their prime 
use for raising timber. 

The wildlife program inaugurated on these areas early in 1935 has been carried 
on during the present year in so far as conditions permitted, the whole program at 
present being almost entirely dependent on the Civilian Conservation Corps for 
labor and materials. Under the present set-up, wildlife activities are confined 
principally to areas (approximating ten percent of the forest area in wilich they are 
located), which have been set aside by order of the Commissioner for development 
as wildlife habitat. The work of developing these areas has been carried on by 
members of the Civilian Conservation Corps under the direction of competent wild- 
life foremen. 

The Division has kept in touch with this work through conferences with the 
Federal authorities from time to time, through receiving copies of monthly progress 
reports, and through periodic inspection trips to the Forests by Mr. Howard and 
Mr. Bradbury, under whose jurisdiction this activity comes. Special attention 
has been given by the Division to the wildlife refuge at the Wrentham State Forest 
where, with the assistance of a crew of Civilian Conservation Corps workers, ten 
thousand cover plantings (coniferous), one thousand food plantings (mulberry), 
and one-half bushel of buckwheat were put in. 

Five new wildlife refuges (at Erving; Daughters of the American Revolution, 
Goshen; Savoy; Freetown; Pittsneld) have been set aside during this year. One 
area (at Boxford, set aside in 1935) has been abandoned. 

The following table shows the State Forests on which wildlife refuges are now in 
operation. 



Forest 


Area of Forest 

(Acres) 


Area of Refuge 
(Acres) 


Beartown ..... 
Brimfield ..... 
Goshen (D. A. R.) 
Erving ..... 
Freetown . . 
Leominster .... 
October Mountain 

Otis 

Pittsneld 

Sandisfield . . . 
Savoy . . . . . 
Townsend ..... 
Windsor . . . . 
Wrentham .... 










7,967 
2,932 
1,222 
5,408 
6,593 
3,293 

14,189 
3,835 
3,850 
3,923 

10,641 
2,713 
1,616 
1,075 


800 
312 
244 
660 
500 
300 

1,310 
180 
250 
364 

1,600 
700 
150 
292 












69,257 


7,662 



All of the areas thus set aside have been conspicuously posted against trespassing, 
and, wherever possible, a single strand of wire has been strung along the boundaries 
as an additional barrier against entrance upon the areas. 

The shooting of hares and rabbits on State Forest lands became lawful again 
this year when the Commissioner revoked the order passed in February of 1935 
which had prohibited the shooting of these animals. It was felt that their num- 
bers had increased to such an extent that protection was no longer necessary. 

To properly control trapping on the State Forests, regulations were issued by the 
Commissioner October 3, allowing (in accordance with existing law) trapping 
(except for muskrats) on these areas, but only by permit from the Division of Fisheries 
and Game, issued on an application endorsed by the forester in whose territory the 
trapping was to be carried on. In forest areas lying within the limits of towns 
which had not voted to suspend the anti-steel trap law, no trapping was permitted. 
This left large tracts of forest closed to trapping, and it is to be hoped that the 
towns where this condition now exists will see fit to take action to suspend this law 
by next year. As the trapping season does not close until March 1, the results of 
this season's trapping are not available for this report. 

Regulations by the Commissioner, effective October 10, set aside Benedict Pond 
on the Beartown State Forest as a Waterfowl refuge in w T hich pond fishing will 
be allowed between July 1 and October 1 of each year. This pond, created in 1933 
by the Civilian Conservation Corps, has not proved to be a good trout pond, and 



20 



P.D. 25 



for the purpose of utilizing it to better advantage, recommendations were submitted 
during the summer for making it a refuge. 

The experiment in wild turkey rearing, started on the Beartown State Forest 
in 1935, was continued through 1936. A more detailed account of the work will 
be found in the section on Propagation of Fish and Game. 

For the protection of Works Progress Administration workers engaged in a 
project on the Lowell-Dracut State Forest the Commissioner promulgated regula- 
tions under date of October 31 which closed this forest to all hunting. Both for 
the purpose of giving protection to the Civilian Conservation Corps workers, and 
to obtain data on game taken, hunting on the State Forests during the open seasons 
was again regulated by permit. As with the fishing regulations, permits were 
issued by the Civilian Conservation Corps camp superintendents, who designated 
the areas which could be hunted, and to whom the permits were returned at the 
end of the day with the report of game taken. The results of the upland game 
season between October 20 and November 20 are shown below: 



Name of Forest 


m 
3 

fejg 

11 

£Ph 


4) 

OJ 

3 

£ 

a 

-a 
to 

3 


o 

o 

O 

o 


a 

.03 

§ 

4) 

P-< 


o 
3 

Q 


03 

'3 

o* 
m 
>> 

03 
u 

o 


'3 

O o3 

OPh 


9 

tS 


o 


c 
o 
o 
o 
o 

03 

P3 


Beartown . 

Brimfield . 

Chester-Blandford 

Colrain 

Douglas 

Erving 

Freetown . 

Harold Parker . 

Hawley 

Leominster 

Myles Standish . 

Northfield 

October Mountain 

Otis .... 

Pittsfield . 

Sandisfield 

Savoy 

Shawme 

Tolland . 

Tolland-Granville 

Mount Grace 

Townsend 

Upton 

Warwick . 

Wendell . 

Willard Brook . 




78 
12 
15 
67 
17 
13 
24 
25 
55 
18 

5 
16 
100 
20 
31 
96 

1 
10 
22 
35 
12 
12 
41 
17 
38 

3 


10 

7 
2 

1 
6 

1 
13 

5 
1 
1 

5 


1 

5 

1 
5 

1 


1 
1 


4 


1 

2 
1 


22 

2 

15 
1 

6 

U 
1 

1 
13 

18 

2 
9 
9 


4 
5 

1 
4 


1 
1 


1 


Totals . 




783 


52 


13 


2 


4 


4 


110 


14 


2 


1 



The report of the State Forest fish cultural ponds will be found under "State 
Forest Ponds" in the section on Propagation. 

In order to ascertain the value of the State Forest Ponds for fishing purposes, 
the Commissioner again issued regulations, prior to the opening of the trout season, 
requiring all fishermen to obtain a permit from the superintendent of the Civilian 
Conservation Corps at the pond in which it is intended to fish, and to return the 
permit at the end of the day, with a report of fish taken. A tabulation of the infor- 
mation so obtained follows. 



P.D. 25 



21 



Name of Forest 


Name of Pond 


Permits 


Trout 


Average 






Issued 


Taken 


Length (in.) 


Brimfield .... 


Dearth Hill 


691 


673 


7 


Brimfield . 


Woodman 


546 


488 


9 


Harold Parker* . 


Frye; Berry; Sudden; Brad- 










ford .... 


3,235 


957 


10 


Myles Standish . 


Barrett .... 


285 


228 


9 


Otis** . . . 


Upper Spectacle 


2,841 


1,939 


11 


Pittsfield*** 


Lulu Cascade, Berry . 


269 


102 


s% 


Sandisfield .... 


York .... 


2,773 


2,411 


12 


Savoy .... 


North .... 


914 


915 


8 


Spencer .... 


Howe 


1,567 


1,013 


9V a 


Wendell .... 


Ruggles .... 


624 


318 


11 




13,745 


9,044 





*In addition to trout, 15 pickerel, 230 perch, 288 horned pout and 4 crappie were taken. 

**In addition to trout, 368 pickerel and 3,834 horned pout were taken. 

***In addition to trout, 10 perch and 5 horned pout were taken from Berry Pond. 

Comparison of the results with those of last year shows that 5,408 more permits 
were issued this year and 165 more fish were taken. The actual percentage of 
increase in this type of fishing is quijte appreciable, when it is considered that only 
14 ponds were under regulation by permit this year as compared to 20 last year. 

Several new ponds have been constructed on the State Forests during the year 
and should add greatly to the excellent pond fishing now available on the forest 
areas. They are: 

Name of Pond 
Dingley Dell . 
Felton .... 
Stearns . 
Crow Hill 



Name of Forest 


Area (acres) 


Brimfield . 


12 


October Mountain 


15 


Harold Parker . 


42 


Leominster 


10 



Reservations and Sanctuaries 

The gift of Billingsgate Island added one more reservation to the Division's 
holdings. 

While a great deal could be done to improve the various wildlife sanctuaries, 
at no time since their acquirement has any substantial amount of money been 
appropriated for the purpose. The same condition prevailed this year, and lack 
of funds prevented even travel to visit to the more inaccessible sanctuaries. The 
Edward Howe Forbush Reservation in Hancock, the Watatic Mountain Wildlife 
Sanctuary in Ashby and Ashburnham, and the Knight Wildlife Reservation 
(Milk Island) have been visited but once. The reservations at Boxford and Carr 
Island had the most attention, by reason of being most accessible from Boston. 

The work of previous years by Civil Works Administration labor is showing 
results. The areas on various inland sanctuaries on which the bushes had been 
trimmed to the ground, are now overgrown by a dense growth of most excellent 
cover for ground-feeding and nesting birds and small mammals. Most of the 
new places opened to the sun are producing an abundance of berries and tender 
shoots. Black cherry trees that were cut to the ground should next year produce 
a full crop of fruit. Wherever possible these will be trimmed to develop the tops, 
and tent caterpillars' eggs and nests will be removed. 

Boxford Reservation, Boxford. — The small pond created two years ago 
held a certain amount of water all summer, as was the case last year, but it is not 
capable of holding a sufficient quantity to keep the pond reasonably high, as all 
the ponds in this reservation are merely catch basins for rainwater. The dam 
requires raising and strengthening so that a larger pond would be formed, as the 
evaporation and the seepage takes up all that the present dam will retain. A 
survey has been made for putting in an earth dam with a concrete core and raising 
the water level from three to four feet, which seems a desirable project for considera- 
tion in any program of general improvements of State land. Up to this time the 
project has not been carried out, both because of lack of funds and inability to 
obtain full releases from all the abutters. 

The spring freshets flooded the outlet of Crooked Pond and overflowed the high- 



22 P.D. 25 

way bridge on the Bald Hill Road, but no serious damage resulted. After June 1 
there is practically no overflow from any of the reservation ponds, as there are 
only a very few small springs which can enter these areas, the flow now being only 
about sufficient to compensate for the summer evaporation. Fall rains, by re- 
plenishing the springs, keep the ponds full during the winter. 

During the spring a new path was opened from Mount Eleanor to the Ledges, 
and signs were placed at each end to indicate the direction for reaching these points. 

The public road through the reservation to Bald Hill was scraped and levelled, 
as in the past two years, by the road superintendent for the town of Boxford. 
There is much evidence of use on the Crooked Pond road, but this is no longer 
true of the footpaths and bridle paths, although the State- wide bridle trail follows 
the boundary of the reservation for some distance. The footpaths cut by the 
Civil Works Administration workers are in need of re-trimming, as sprouts have 
now grown and are a hindrance in traversing the various trails. 

On this reservation song and insectivorous birds appear to have increased. It 
is interesting to note that although this area has been closed to public shooting for 
the past five years, the same scarcity of grouse that prevailed in other parts of the 
State was apparent here also. 

From the nursery on the reservation two thousand small mulberry trees were 
supplied for planting in the open lands of the Division of Forestry. The wildlife 
reservations are too thickly wooded for this type of tree to flourish and be of any 
value as bird food. 

Edward Howe Forbush Reservation, Hancock. — This reservation is still 
in need of a complete survey, as there is little to indicate where the actual bound- 
aries are. A stock fence should be erected in the near future on the south side to 
restrain cattle from crossing into a nearby vegetable garden. The fence that has 
been there for many years is now in bad condition, and although temporarily 
repaired this season, new wire and posts will soon be needed. The rule of owner- 
ship in this section is, that such a fence is a fifty-fifty proposition between the 
tw r o owners. 

Watatic Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary, Ashby and Ashburnham. — This 
reservation has been visited only to police the boundaries, to see that the posters 
were in place, and to pick up debris left by picknickers who passed through the 
Wapack Trail that bisects this reservation. 

The addition of approximately 100 acres adjoining on the north, purchased by 
the Forestry Division, will give the State control of an outlet to the highway. The 
reservation formerly had to be reached by crossing private land, as no record could 
be found of any right of way to this mountain property. The Division's section 
of the mountain is covered with a wonderful virgin growth of pine, hemlock and 
beech, and the view from the mountain top gives an excellent view of many of the 
New Hampshire hills. 

Isaac Sprague Bird Sanctuary (Carr Island), Salisbury. — This island 
reservation is subject to serious damage by mice each year. The rodents are in- 
creasing very rapidly, and have become a serious hindrance to the planting of fruit 
trees for bird food. The young mulberry trees set on the island two years ago were 
completely killed by them. The Japanese crab apple trees set last year, excepting 
those with wire guards, were girdled, some to a height of 18 inches from the ground, 
but in spite of this produced a crop apparently as good as that from the protected 
trees. Several of the trees were bridge-grafted and surrounded with protecting 
wire, and should produce good supplies of these miniature crab apples, which make 
such excellent bird food. The smaller trees that were set appear to have suffered 
most from transplanting. The wild cherry trees were again cleared of tent cater- 
pillars, which the thorough cleaning of last year had brought down to a harmless 
minimum. 

The island did not escape the effects of the spring flood in the Merrimack River, 
and stains on the ledges by a heavy black oil show that a deep run of water went 
through the low spot, making two islands for the time being. The flood waters 
left much sand on the salt marsh, and there is little chance of any vegetation start- 
ing there, as it is said to contain absolutely no nourishment for growth. 

The land turned over by the Works Progress Administration workers in the fall 



P.D. 25 23 

of 1935, and planted by the State with grain and other bird foods, was swept away 
and replaced by the fine sand brought down by the flood. 

An attempt at trapping rabbits showed that these animals have disappeared 
from the island. It was reported during last winter's freeze-up that fox tracks 
were seen, headed towards the reservation across the ice from the Salesbury marshes, 
and hawks make many visits at the island. 

Ram Island, Salisbury. — This island, a gift in 1935, was posted this year, for 
the first time after perfecting the title. In the spring flood a considerable section 
of the salt marsh area became sand covered. 

Ram Island, Mattapoisett. — The ice carried away the posters from this reser- 
vation, necessitating newly posting it. Here, as at Penikese, the terns had very 
favorable breeding conditions and produced many young. 

Penikese Island Sanctuary, Buzzards Bay. — The only construction or re- 
pair work of any importance was on the caretaker's house, which was in a bad state 
of disrepair. Windows and thresholds were replaced throughout, and materials 
purchased for papering and whitewashing within, and for painting both within 
and without, the latter work being done by the caretaker and family. 

The power boat was hauled out the end of December of 1935 and arrangements 
were made with a fisherman at Cuttyhunk to meet the mail through the winter, but 
owing to extremely bad weather and heavy ice the mail was very irregular. When 
the boat was launched in the spring it was towed to South Dartmouth by the Coast 
Guard, and a new engine installed. 

The usual routine was followed, — vermin patrol, keeping the ponds open to 
supply the wild birds with water, and putting out feed for the rabbits and wild 
fowl. Very few ducks were banded through the winter— several picked up too 
weak to fly were confined and fed and watered until they regained their strength. 

Throughout the summer the cemetery and lawn were kept mowed, and board 
markers painted and set up in the cemetery so that the metal markers could be 
taken out, painted and re-lettered. Dead trees were felled and cut up, the Scotch 
pines trimmed of all dead wood, and the small mulberry trees set out the previous 
year were transplanted to a yard on the peninsula. 

This season was a banner one for the breeding of terns. It was estimated that 
there were 7,000 to 8,000 adult breeding birds at the island. Dry weather prevailed 
until the young birds were fully fledged. A party of six bird banders visited the 
island as usual over the July 4 week-end and banded 4,970 young terns. The care- 
taker estimates that there were at least 5,000 of the year's hatch survived to flying 
age. Practically all the terns, both old and young, left within a few hours on the 
same day. 

The herring gull colony was again visited by the Federal wardens and the greater 
part of the eggs were punctured as in the past two years, but it was noted that the 
number of eggs was smaller. These are the gulls about which most complaints 
are registered along the coast for doing damage to the fisheries and to boats, wharves 
and buildings. 

There is probably an increase in the Leach's petrel for the caretaker has heard 
the night cries of more than one bird at a time, but the extent of the increase cannot 
be stated. Since but one egg is incubated at a nesting, increase would necessarily 
be slow; and as the birds are about only late at night, it is difficult to make observa- 
tions. It is hoped that in this protected area these interesting birds will establish 
a colony where bird students will have an opportunity to hear them and study their 
interesting habits. 

As the rabbits have not increased materially, none were trapped for shipment 
away from the island. All possible efforts were made to make conditions favorable 
for them, by burning over the peninsula to produce vegetation, and building brush 
shelters to protect them from hawks. To improve the stock eighteen rabbits 
trapped by the wardens were released on the island, of which twelve survived. 

Hawks and owls continue to harry the rabbits and the terns, and have to be con- 
tinually discouraged, driven away or killed, and constant patrol is kept through- 
out the season. 

The old wharf is rapidly going to pieces, and a large section is in danger of being 
carried away in almost any gale that causes a rough sea to heave in. As even the 
spiles under the small boat landing are badly eaten away, it would not be surpris- 



24 P.D. 25 

ing if the winter ice should break down the entire wharf. Should this occur it 
would leave the caretaker with no place to land his coal, groceries and other neces- 
sities, except on a rocky beach from a small skiff, a proceeding quite hazardous 
at any time and especially so in winter. 

Billingsgate Inland, Wellfleet Harbor. — Billingsgate Island was acquired 
this year as a gift from the Federation of the Bird Clubs of New England, Inc. 
This once quite extensive island has, at the present time, been reduced to a shifting 
sand bar, completely covered by spring, fall and winter tides, and but a few acres 
exposed at ordinary high tides. 

Originally it was located partly in the town of Eastham and partly in Wellfleet. 
Old deeds record that on October 23, 1821, Michael and Benjamin H. A. Coilings 
(sometimes spelled Collins) of Eastham conveyed title to an estimated 100 acres of 
land at Billingsgate Point, for $3,000. Other records state that a lighthouse was 
built on the Point in 1822, but that the land washed away and the lighthouse was 
replaced on higher ground. On July 4, 1857, six acres of Billingsgate (now referred 
to as "Island") was ceded to the United States government for lighthouse purposes. 
On January 12, 1897, Marietta Smith, guardian of Nathan Smith, sold 15 acres, 
more or less, "all that remained of the island except that ceded for lighthouse 
purposes." 

A photograph taken in 1900 shows the lighthouse and seven other buildings on this 
area. In the thirty-six years that have since elapsed the buildings, and most 
of the island, have disappeared. A photograph taken in 1936 shows only a crescent- 
shaped sandbar, some cut granite blocks, a brick-and-cement lined rusty metal 
cylinder from the fresh-water storage system — all pushed around by the ice and 
pretty well scattered. All metal work is rusted away. 

As the tide recedes nine to ten feet, a very large area of sand bars is exposed, 
which are used by shore and sea birds of various types. It is also a resting place 
for many of the sea ducks, geese and the types of bird that winter in that vicinity. 
The island is sufficiently far from the mainland so that gunners seldom visit it. 

Suggestions have been made for making the island rebuild itself, but this does 
not appear either feasible or of great prospective value. Stone work would be the 
only practicable way of retaining the sand, and to erect a barrier that would with- 
stand the elements would be an undertaking equal to building a breakwater. 
The money could be used to much better advantage for improving the inland 
reservations which would be accessible to people interested in wildlife. Billings- 
gate will probably form larger low-tide sandbars, which would be used by the 
wildfowl for many years to come and involve no expenditure. While higher 
land would give more protection to nesting terns, they will in all probability join 
some other colony if the old grounds are unavailable. At present there is no 
scarcity of these birds, and many of their nesting sites are now well guarded against 
depredation. 

Reservations under Sections 115-120, Chapter 131, General Laws, 
Ter. Ed. — Acting on petition of the owners of a tract comprising 150 acres of good 
quail habitat, the Commissioner issued an order setting this area aside as a wild- 
life refuge, to be known as the Mattapoisett Wildlife Sanctuary, for a period of 
five years from October 1, 1936. It is located in good quail-shooting country, 
and, with proper supervision, should benefit hunting in this section. The sanc- 
tuary has been conspicuously posted against all hunting and trapping, and work 
has started on a program for transplanting several thousand persistent food- 
bearing shrubs and trees to this area. 

Two other such reservations are in effect, the Harvard Forest Reservation in 
Petersham until September 1, 1938, and the Hinsdale-Peru Reservation until 
October 20, 1939. 

Inland Fisheries 

The opening of the trout season was watched with much interest owing to the 
flood conditions of the spring. At first it did not appear that the trout fishing had 
been seriously affected, but as the season advanced the flood damage became very 
apparent, and several years will have to elapse before natural conditions again 
prevail. 

Very substantial additions to the fishing facilities of the State are being made 
by the creation of new ponds in the State Forests over the past several years, by 



P.D. 25 25 

the Civilian Conservation Corps — already discussed in the section of this report 
entitled "State Forests." 

The regulations for fishing in the Deerfield River were amended so that the 
fishermen are restricted to the use of artificial lures from the Concrete bridge 
across the Deerfield River west of Charlemont Village to the Massachusetts- 
Vermont State line. 

The issuance of permits for the removal, under warden supervision, of carp and 
suckers from fishing waters was continued, and such authority was granted for 
the seining of the following waters: Tashmoo Pond, West Tisbury; Quannapowitt 
Lake, Wakefield; Merrimack River, Lawrence; Prankers or Lily Pond, Saugus; 
Big Spy Pond, Arlington and Little Spy Pond, Belmont; sections of the Charles 
River; Mitchell's Pond, Boxford; Chadwick's Pond, Haverhill and Boxford; 
Johnson's Pond, Groveland and Boxford; Kenoza Lake, Haverhill; Housatonic 
River, and the Connecticut River. From the results it would appear that the carp 
and suckers have been reduced in these waters. Lnder the above permits, approxi- 
mately 14,500 pounds of carp and 27,000 pounds of suckers were taken. 

Public Fishing and Hunting Grounds. — The present year saw the expiration 
of the leases which gave to the Commonwealth the control, during the past five 
years, of over thirty-seven miles of the three branches of the Westfield River for 
use as public fishing grounds. While the act of establishing these streams as public 
fishing grounds did not automatically create better fishing, it did nevertheless 
assure the fishermen that the streams would not be closed to fishing during the 
life of the leases. Further, it created a feeling of good-will among the landowners 
who had leased their rights to the Commonwealth, a feeling which needs to be 
developed more than ever before if private property is to be looked to as a place for 
the public to enjoy open fishing and hunting. 

The leases now in effect on the Farmington, Clam, Millers, Squannacook, Cope- 
cut and Shingle Island Rivers are effective one more year. On these streams the 
total mileage of leased territory is slightly more than the mileage on the three 
branches of the Westfield River. 

The unusually high water in March carried away a large number of the posters 
which had been placed along the leased streams, and over two weeks' time was 
required to replace them. In addition, all torn or faded signs were renewed. 

Special wardens were again assigned to patrol the public fishing grounds from 
April 15 to June 30. The duties of these wardens are especially to protect the 
interests of the land owners who have leased to the State, as well as to assist the 
fishermen and to see that they comply with the law and regulations. 

With the expectation of continuing the policy of establishing public fishing 
grounds, an item has been placed in the 1937 Budget Forecast, which if approved 
will allow this work to be continued. 

Feeder Streams. — Beginning in 1933, with the intention of supplementing the 
stock in some of the better trout streams in the State with hatchery stock, certain 
feeder brooks adjacent to these streams have been closed to all fishing during the 
past three years, in order that they might act as natural breeding areas for trout. 
The}' were selected only after a very thorough biological investigation as to the 
available food supplies, and water temperatures and volumes during the critical 
summer period. 

The work, first confined to the waters on the public fishing grounds, is now begin- 
ning to be extended to other parts of the State. 

During this time over seventy-eight miles of feeder streams have been closed 
for periods of three to five years, and the present year marked the expiration of 
the first group of agreements which allowed the Commonwealth to close the upper 
end of the Middle Branch of the Westfield River in Worthington and Peru, and 
Trout Brook in Peru. It will, of course, be impossible to state definitely just 
how much of an improvement in the fishing in the main stream has been accom- 
plished by this procedure. But certainly, if the trapping operations which have 
been conducted along the streams in the public fishing grounds by special permit 
have reduced the predators, there can be no doubt about the natural reproduction 
being greater, with the expectation that, as the trout increase in size, they will 
tend to go downstream into the larger waters of the main stream. 

Due to a lack of personnel for carrying on this work, it was possible to close 



26 P.D. 25 

only two additional streams during the present year, namely, Punkshire Brook 
in Canton, a feeder to Redwing Brook, and the lower end of Parker Brook, Pitts- 
field, a feeder to Onota Lake. These are closed for five years from April 1, 1936, 
to April 1, 1941. 

Great Ponds Stocked and Closed. — Within the period of this report (Dec. 1, 
1935, to Nov. 30, 1936) the following-named great ponds were stocked under 
Section 40, Chapter 131, G. L. Ter. Ed., and regulations applied by the Director 
closing the respective ponds to fishing for the periods stated, with penalty of 
twenty dollars for each violation of the regulations. This list does not include 
ponds on which regulations have been applied in past years and which are still 
in effect, but only ponds on which action has been taken within the present year. 



Body of Water 


Town 


Regulations effective, both 
dates inclusive — 


Stockbridge Bowl (also called Big Pond and Lake 
Mahkeenac) ...... 


Stockbridge 


Nov. 15, 1936, to Dec. 15, 1936 
Feb. 15, 1937, to Apr. 14, 1937 


Massapoag Lake ...... 


Sharon 


Dec. 1, 1935, to May 29, 1936 
Nov. 1, 1936, to May 29, 1937 
Nov. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 


Spectacle Pond (also called Spec, and Big Spec- 
tacle Pond) ....... 


Lancaster . 


As of April 15, 1936, the Direc- 
tor revoked the regulations 
which had been imposed on 
Oct. 26, 1935. The following 
regulations were then applied 
Nov. 1, 1936, to Apr. 14, 1937 
Nov. 1, 1937, to Apr. 14, 1938 


Lake Mirimichi (also called Shepard's Pond) 


Foxboro and 
Plainville 


Dec. 13, 1935, to May 29, 1936 
Nov. 1, 1936, to May 29, 1937 
Nov. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 


Sabbatia Lake 


Taunton 


Nov. 1, 1936, to May 29, 1937 
Nov. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 
Nov. 1, 1938, to May 29, 1939 


Wenham Lake ...... 


Carver 


Nov. 1, 1936, to May 29, 1937 
Nov. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 
Nov. 1, 1938, to May 29, 1939 


Crane Pond 


West Stockbridge 


Nov. 1, 1936, to May 29, 1937 
Nov. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 
Nov. 1, 1938, to May 29, 1939 


Watsons Pond ...... 


Taunton 


As of Oct. 17, 1936, the Director 
revoked the regulations which 
had been imposed Dec. 7, 
1934. The following regula- 
tions were then applied: 

Nov. 14, 1936, to May 29, 1937 


Mary's Pond ....... 


Rochester and 
Marion . 


Feb. 5, 1936, to May 29, 1936 
Nov. 1, 1936, to May 29, 1937 
Nov. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 


Snippatuit Pond ...... 


Rochester . 


Feb. 5, 1936, to May 29, 1936 
Nov. 1, 1936, to May 29, 1937 
Nov. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 


Snow's Pond ....... 


Rochester . 


Feb. 5, 1936, to May 29, 1936 
Nov. 1, 1936, to May 29, 1937 
Nov. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 



Breeding Areas Set Aside in Great Ponds. — Upon petition from the town of 
Stockbridge the Director, under Section 41, Chapter 131, General Laws, Ter. Ed. 
set aside the following-described portion of Stockbridge Bowl (also called Big 
Pond and Lake Mahkeenac) in the town of Stockbridge, as a breeding area for fish 
of all species from Nov. 1, 1936, to Oct. 31, 1937, both dates inclusive: 

"The area known as 'in back of the Island' including the outlet stream 
to the Fanna Dam south of a line drawn from the Hanna Boat House to 
a painted post set at the north of the island to a painted post set at the 
south end of the Island and thence to a painted post set on the south shore. 
Also that area which lies to the east of the causeway." 



P.D. 25 27 

STATE ORNITHOLOGIST 

The duties and functions of the State Ornithologist were discussed on page 
thirty of the 1935 annual report. No changes in policy have occurred during the 
year and the work has been mainly a continuation of the projects there outlined, 
the more important of which are brought up to date in the following paragraphs. 

Shellfish and Ducks. — This problem again came to the fore in January and 
February, when a very large concentration of Scoters and Eiders took place at 
Pleasant Bay, Chatham. Careful estimates placed the number of birds at between 
30,000 and 40,000. Complaints were made to this Division by local authorities 
as soon as the birds began to feed in the vicinity of commercial shellfish beds, and 
on January 28, in conformity with the agreement drawn up with the United States 
Biological Survey in February, 1935, the local warden was instructed to issue ten 
permits to take effect the following morning. Shooting was restricted to limited 
areas and was checked daily by the warden. The results obtained followed very 
closely those forecast in the 1935 study. Some 250 birds were killed the first day, 
of which the great majority were found to be badly oiled. Within a few hours the 
remaining thousands of ducks had moved off shore into Pleasant Bay, where they 
were feeding over non-commercial shellfish beds. A very much smaller number 
were killed the second day, and thereafter it was found that a few shots daily sufficed 
to protect commercial beds. The total kill was 238 Scoters and 140 Eiders, all of 
which were turned over to the Chatham Board of Public Welfare for distribution, 
unless too badly oiled for use. 

As a matter of public opinion, this seaduck-shellfish problem, which is strictly 
localized at Chatham and Nantucket, at once became hopelessly entangled with 
the more widespread oil-pollution situation which came to light at the same time, 
and which will be referred to later. From both inside and outside the State con- 
siderable pressure was brought to bear on the Biological Survey to stop all shoot- 
ing, and on February 20 the Survey withdrew the power of this Division to issue 
permits for the taking of Eider Ducks when damaging shellfish. From a strictly 
scientific point of view, no conclusive study of the food of the Eider Duck has yet 
been made at a time and place Where commercial fishermen claim damage to their 
interests. 

Oil Pollution and Ducks. — There was an appalling loss of sea-fowl from oil 
pollution during the winter of 1935-6. A severe and protracted cold spell which 
commenced about January 20 was followed within 48 hours by the appearance of 
hundreds of dead and dying birds along the shore at Orleans, Chatham, and Har- 
wich on Cape Cod, and at Nantucket and the Vineyard. Eider Ducks suffered the 
most, with White-winged Scoters a close second, and smaller numbers of Loons, 
Grebes, and other diving ducks. No very accurate estimate of the total loss was 
arrived at because in many areas the bodies were cleaned up by foxes, crows, eagles, 
and other scavengers before counts could be made, but in the Chatham-Monomoy 
area alone it certainly ran to several thousand. The number of sick birds fell off 
rapidly after the first week, and on February 6 it was definitely determined that 
the main flock of some 20,000 Eiders then remaining in Pleasant Bay was practi- 
cally free from oiled birds, so that the relative loss was not so serious as would 
appear. The situation was widely publicized in the newspapers, and many sug- 
gestions were heard for remedial action, but in reviewing the matter at the present 
time, it does not appear that the least progress was made towards a solution. The 
Ornithologist corresponded and consulted with representatives of the U. S. Army 
Engineer's Office and the U. S. Department of Commerce, Division of Steamboat 
Inspection, and familiarized himself with conditions at first hand, but the plain 
truth is that this pollution is so great a problem as to be insoluble by any agency 
less than national or international in its scope. 

Shellfish and Herring Gulls. — The nature and extent of injury to shellfish 
beds by Herring Gulls has not materially changed from a year ago, but there have 
been very few requests for control permits, and the number of birds killed has been 
negligible. Control work on the Herring Gull in Massachusetts by the U. S. 
Bureau of Biological Survey was interfered with by an accident to the patrol-boat 
on the first day of egg-pricking and as a result only the North Shore colonies were 



28 P.D. 25 

covered systematically. During a visit to Muskeget and Tuckernuck in mid- June 
it was estimated that the number of breeding Herring Gulls there had increased 
at least 50 per cent over last year, from approximately 950 pairs to 1,450 pairs. 

Hawk Studies. — As a direct reaction to "predator-control" programs by sports- 
men in recent years, the Hawks, Eagles, and Owls are probably receiving more 
attention from biologists at the present time than any other groups of birds. A 
number of significant studies of their economic relationships and population trends 
are under way in different States, and reviewing a period no longer than the past 
year, there can be no doubt that the viewpoints of sportsmen and other conserva- 
tionists towards these extremely interesting Raptores have been measurably recon- 
ciled. It is noticeable that "predator-control" no longer connotes the wholesale 
shooting and trapping of all Hawks; on the contrary, there is an obvious effort 
to discriminate between Hawks which are causing local damage and all other 
Hawks. 

Plans for protecting breeding Duck Hawks on State Parks and Forests were 
carried forward successfully this year, about 2}/% months being allocated to continu- 
ous work on this project. To the twelve aeries definitely located last year two 
more were added, of which one was hitherto entirely unknown. Eight of these 
were selected for intensive work. Private funds were secured to hire three deputy 
wardens for varying periods of time, effective posters were placed at all nest- 
shelves, methods of marking the eggs and the young for identification were suc- 
cessfully developed, and the young birds were leg-banded before they left the nests. 
Of the eight nests, two were unproductive because the resident males did not secure 
mates, and one pair through a series of natural mishaps lost two eggs and finally 
two young birds. The other five raised a total of fifteen young birds to maturity. 
Of the six aeries not given special protection, five were unsuccessful, and one raised 
three birds. The total of 18 young birds compares with a maximum output in 
1935 of 11, and some of these were doubtful. From the data secured this year, it 
is felt that all fourteen nests can be covered next year with very much less effort 
than heretofore. Of great interest is the discovery that the Mount Tom State 
Reservation in Holyoke and Easthampton is an outstanding observation point for 
migratory Hawks and Eagles. Much publicity has been given lately to Hawk 
Mountain in Pennsylvania, where formerly great numbers of Hawks were shot down 
for sport as they passed along a narrow ridge on their way south, but which is now 
a carefully guarded sanctuary, visited by several hundred bird-students during the 
fall season to watch the migratory birds of prey. Quite incidentally to the Duck 
Hawk work at Mount Tom last spring it was noticed that many Hawks crossed 
the crest of the Range on their way up the Connecticut Valley, and more extensive 
observation this fall raises the possibility that we have in Massachusetts a "Hawk 
Mountain" almost as interesting as Pennsylvania's. On several days the total 
number of Raptores counted has run into the hundreds, and on one day as many 
as eight Eagles were seen, some of them at extremely close range. Groups of 
interested observers are already beginning to visit the Reservation, and if early 
promises are fulfilled, we may expect Mount Tom to become quite a Mecca for bird 
students, in addition to its other attractions. 

In connection with the Bald Eagle, mention should be made that wardens of this 
Division secured last spring the first conviction under the law which protects the 
national bird of the United States at all times. 

Seabird Colonies. — Work on breeding Gulls and Terns took two directions 
the past summer, the more important of which was an intensive study of the Least 
Tern colony at Plymouth Beach. Either the Ornithologist or an assistant (sup- 
plied through the generosity of the Massachusetts Audubon Society) was working 
in the colony some part of every day from May 29 to July 31, and a mass of data 
was collected dealing with the extent and causes of mortality among eggs and 
chicks. Every nest was marked, a daily record of its history secured, and young 
birds banded the day they hatched. The incubation period of 20-23 days was 
determined for the first time, and so far as possible the development of individual 
young birds was followed from day to day. It is expected that when these facts 
are worked out and summarized, they will form the basis for a program of manage- 
ment in the colonies of this type. 

Census work was limited to filling in some of the gaps in the Least Tern count of 



P.D. 25 29 

1935, and to estimating the Laughing Gull colony at Muskeget. The results of the 
Least Tern census were extremely gratifying, for at Nantucket and the Vineyard 
there were located as many pairs as were found in the mainland colonies the year 
before, and in addition a large colony was discovered at Scusset Beach in Bourne. 
No great changes were noted in last year's colonies except at Plymouth, which 
was either grossly underestimated in 1935, or nearly doubled in size in 1936, for 
there were not far from 200 pairs breeding there. In short, the breeding popula- 
tion at present is not less than 700 pairs, against the 300 pairs reported last year, 
and Mr. Forbush's estimate of 150 pairs in 1923. 

The count of Laughing Gulls at Muskeget was equally reassuring. Through the 
kindness of the State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries, the Ornithologist had the 
use of one of the marine law-enforcement boats and its crew of two men for three 
days in mid- June, and on the nineteenth landed at Muskeget early in the morning 
and made a thorough examination of the island. The area occupied by Laughing 
Gulls was staked off and roughly measured, and nest counts made on about forty 
sample plots regularly distributed through the colony. When the calculations 
were completed, we had the rather surprising estimate of 24,000 occupied nests; 
nor did this give the complete picture of the nesting, for it was estimated that there 
were at least 6,000 nests empty from one cause or another. In addition to the 
30,000 pairs of Laughing Gulls, there were an estimated 1,000 to 1,200 pairs of 
Herring Gulls, 4,800 pairs of Roseate Terns, and 3,200 pairs of Common Terns. 
Other large colonies of Herring Gulls and Terns occupied neighboring sand- 
bars. 

Census of Waterfowl and Shorebirds. — This work has been continued at 
the proper seasons, but the data gathered is of comparative value over a term of 
years, rather than of immediate interest. 

Advisory Work on State Forests and Parks. — As opportunity offered dur- 
ing the year the Ornithologist visited most of the State Forests and Parks, and 
went over the development plans at the several headquarters, and appraised 
the work primarily from the standpoint of its effect on wildlife. Although an 
occasional project is harmful in its immediate effects, the programs are in gen- 
eral well designed to encourage wildlife on suitable areas, and to increase the wise 
enjoyment of these parks by the public. 



ACTIVITIES OF THE BIOLOGIST AND STAFF 

The work of the year consisted of the usual problems directly connected with 
the propagation of fish and game and the stocking of inland waters and covers. 
Commencing July 1 there was added the entire responsibility relative to the propa- 
gation work and financial operation of the game farms and fish hatcheries. 

Field Work and General Activities 

Student Training Courses. — Plans were formulated for cooperative work 
between the Division and the Massachusetts State College at Amherst in the field 
training of some of its students enrolled in the "Wildlife Management Course" 
(designed to train men for fish and game conservation and related work) in the 
Stockbridge School of Agriculture. This plan served the double purpose of pro- 
viding the students with actual field experience, and the Division with the benefit 
of their services with no cost except their maintenance in the field. The plan 
operated very successfully for two and one-half months, during which the three 
men on stream surve} r and the eight at the hatcheries proved themselves unusually 
valuable help; but, due to circumstances necessitating drastic curtailment of 
expenses, the Division was obliged to terminate their training for the time being. 

The Biologist and the Director visited the game farms and fish hatcheries at 
monthly or more frequent intervals during the year. Numerous field trips were 
made to club ponds and artificial ponds to aid in their proper development, and a 
number of club wintering pens for pheasants were inspected by the Biologist. 

Requests for the closing of feeder trout streams were investigated, and such 
streams as proved suitable were closed on obtaining the consent of the land owners. 

A member of the biological staff supervised the Works Progress Administration 



30 P.D. 25 

construction at the stations. Such construction will be of invaluable assistance 
in carrying out the plans for the distribution of larger trout next year. 

The Biologist attended many meetings of sportsmen's clubs. 

Early in May the Biologist and two Fish Culturists made an inspection tour of 
fish hatcheries located in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, the main 
purpose of the trip being to learn what other states are doing in rearing small- 
mouth black bass. Much data was collected which has already been of value in 
bass and trout rearing work in the State. (See section on Propagation of Fish 
and Game.) 

Inspection trips were made to Penikese Island, Naushon Island, No Man's 
Land, and Nantucket. 

Aquicultural Investigations 

Stream Survey. — Two student crews, directed by the Junior Fish and Game 
Biologist, undertook the study of the Bristol and Worcester County streams, 
and the groundwork had been laid and a good start made on the actual study of 
the streams before it became necessary to terminate the services of the students. 
For the remainder of the season the Junior Biologist carried on alone. It is planned 
to classify the streams into groups which can be stocked to best advantage with 
various- sized trout, so that as the production system is established a distribution 
plan will be ready to enable disposition of the fish to the best advantage. 

Stream Improvement. — Interest in this most valuable conservation measure 
continues to grow. Numerous sportsmen's clubs are considering field activities 
and have consulted with the Division, whose Biologist stands ready to render 
advice in planning such projects. The Division holds that such projects, intelli- 
gently planned and carefully executed, are of greater value than years of stocking 
in streams notably deficient in certain natural characteristics favorable to trout 
life. An outstanding project was completed on the Weir River at Hingham under 
supervision of Mr. W. Brewster Southworth, President of the Council of Sports- 
men's Clubs of Massachusetts, Inc. 

Pond and Stream Investigations. — Several ponds were surveyed to determine 
the species, number and size of fish best adapted to their needs to improve fishing 
in them. The development of trout ponds in sections where trout streams are of 
poor quality continues to be a major interest. Data has been assembled, where 
records of catches are available, the analysis of which has been of much value in 
the selection of ponds to be developed for trout fishing. 

Special Bulletins. — A series of papers on subjects related to wildlife restora- 
tion and maintenance was prepared and published during the year, and other 
material was assembled in preparation for later publication. 

The following additional bulletins have been made available since the publica- 
tion of the last report, and represent an effort to present timely and practical 
information to the sportsmen and the public. 

"Forest Pond Plan" outlines a use for the ponds being constructed in the State 
Forest in providing managed fishing of a superior quality that could not be realized 
in uncontrolled natural waters; in an opportunity for fish culture on a scale that 
could not be realized for ponds from funds provided for purely fish-cultural proj- 
ects; and for combining these two activities with an advantage to both objectives. 

"Massachusetts Trout Rivers" considers the excessively expensive methods in 
providing stream fishing, and the lack of results following stocking which might 
be avoided by adopting a policy more adaptable to the needs of the streams, in 
the present condition of uncontrolled predatory wildlife. 

"Creating Trout Fishing in Natural Great Ponds" treats of the numerous deep, 
cold ponds as an unconsidered asset in trout fishing, and the project for creating 
trout fishing in large areas of the State where good brooks do not exist. 

"Winter Feeding Shelters for Game Birds" was prepared for use during the 
winter of 1936-7 in case severe winter conditions set in, and to encourage the organ- 
ization for this work in assembling material, constructing and operating shelters, 
and in securing public support for their maintenance. 

Aquatic Vegetation and Daphnia. — During the year large quantities of wild 
celery (Vallisneria spiralis) were transported from the Palmer State Fish Hatch- 
ery to the Sutton State Pond System and to ponds located on the State Forests. 



P.D. 25 31 

Daphnia cultures were also supplied by the Palmer State Fish Hatchery to clubs 
operating bass-rearing units. 

Pollution. — Public interest in this vital matter continues to grow. The 
Division has investigated a number of complaints, namely, the Quinnapoxet River, 
Holden; Rumford River, Mansfield; South Watuppa Pond, Fall River; and Wales 
Brook, Wales. Their disposition is now under consideration. Industry indicates 
an increasing awareness of its obligation to the public in this matter and the 
Division, to the best of its ability under the present laws, will do its part in forcing 
compliance where this cannot be obtained amicably. 

Fishways. — Plans were prepared for the construction of a fishway over the 
circular dam on the Quinapoxet River at Oakdale, the property of the Metropoli- 
tan District Commission, which cooperated to the fullest degree and installed 
an adequate fishway which was put into operation during the month of October. 

Fish Propagation 

Selective Breeding. — The program of selective breeding was continued. Each 
specimen was examined before stripping, and only fish measuring up to definite 
standards were reserved for spawning and for additions to the brood stocks. 

Disease Control. — All eggs stripped at the hatcheries or received from out- 
side sources were disinfected by a twenty-minute immersion in an acriflavine 
solution. To the best of our knowledge Massachusetts is the only place outside 
of Scotland where this routine is carried on, and it is believed that the exceptionally 
clean communicable disease record at the hatcheries is in part due to this treatment. 

As another measure in the constant struggle to prevent disease from springing 
up in the hatchery pools and ponds, prophylactic sterilization of the hatchery 
pools was conducted. Inadequate hatchery space and unceasing demand for 
more and larger fish makes such treatment a necessity if the pools without ade- 
quate rest are to continue their production. 

Experimental Feeding. — Excellent growth has been obtained on the new diet 
introduced to offset the tremendously increased meat prices prevailing this season 
and the diet was based on results of previous years' experimentation. This year's 
experiments were designed to test out various phases of fish feeding brought into 
question when this diet was established. A few new ingredients were tried, some 
of which will be incorporated into the 1937 diets, and it is expected they will cor- 
rect practical difficulties developing in the large scale application of dry food feed- 
ing. Mechanical mixers were installed at the Sunderland and the Montague 
hatchery, and they have already proven their worth and will quickly pay for them- 
selves in reduced labor costs and food wastes. 

Fish Diseases. — This year closes marked as one happily free from disease 
problems. Such freedom is essential to the consummation of a carefully planned 
distribution program, and credit is due to the men for their vigilance in the practice 
of available control measures. 

Student Help. — The students assigned to the fish hatcheries and game farms, 
during early summer proved of great assistance to the culturists. Without their 
help, which enabled much necessary work to be done during the early part of the 
season, the later curtailment of help would have been a much more serious set- 
back. When the Division was unable to retain the students, some of them con- 
tinued to work with no remuneration of any kind, which is felt to be an indication 
of the real value of the plan to both student and the Division. 

A Change in the Fish Distribution Policy. — Stream study and analysis of 
the records made available in the State Forest ponds and on the public fishing 
grounds indicate clearly the need lor larger fish for stocking purposes. The 
initial step in the introduction of such a policy was taken this fall with the reten- 
tion of 250,000 trout and salmon at the hatcheries. These fish will be liberated 
next spring before the opening of and during the trout season as legal-sized fish, 
The end result of this plan will be a gradual diminishing of the numbers of finger- 
ling trout carried and liberated in the fall, accompanied by a greatly increased 
stocking of legal-size and adult trout. Final consummation of this plan will 
necessarily await construction of adequate hatchery facilities, but presently 
available facilities will be utilized to the utmost. Ultimately, stocking will be an 
almost continuous process as fish of different ages become available for stocking 
the streams where the fishing will best be served by stocking with fish of this size. 



32 P.D. 25 

Game Culture 

Survey of Game Covers. — The survey was completed during the winter and a 
complete set of maps and lists furnished to the wardens. The new allotment 
quotas were computed. Numerous tests of the survey have been made in various 
parts of the commonwealth and it has been amply demonstrated that it gives quite 
a true comparative picture of the suitable game cover. Slight adjustments have 
been made in certain towns, but in no case has there been enough difference to 
affect the allotment quotas appreciably. 

Percentage figures have been prepared for every town in the commonwealth, 
and this year's distributions were made strictly in accordance with the survey. 
It is felt that in spite of the difficult conditions under which the survey was made, 
it is as accurate as such a survey could possibly be, short of all the work being done 
by one man, which is an obvious impossibility. While the survey will always be 
open to minor adjustments due to changing or not fully appreciated conditions, it 
is felt that no changes likely to occur will affect more than a few towns. With 
the basic survey completed it remains to be determined whether additional factors, 
such as density of hunting populations, transient hunters, records of game taken, 
and the like, can be incorporated into the distribution plan without so obscuring 
the picture as to render it almost unintelligible. It must be realized that any 
distribution plan must always be subject to flux, even as are wildlife conditions. 
The Division aims steadily to improve and refine its methods in the endeavor to 
give justice to all concerned and to stock all covers in proportion to their true 
worth. 

Selective Breeding of Pheasants. — The gradual introduction of the pure 
Chinese strain into our brood stocks continues, and already the effect of this can 
be seen in a racier, smaller, and gamier bird for liberation. The Chinese (Phasi- 
anus torquatus) blood was further introduced by the importation of one hundred 
young pheasants from the State of Washington, and this new stock is entirely 
unrelated to the Chinese stock previously imported for use at the game farms. 

Cottontail Rabbit Breeding. — The continuance of this experimental work 
has shown promising results. A number of factors have been brought to light 
concerning the different geographical races of these animals, and it is felt that the 
time may not be far distant when this work can be increased to a production scale. 

The Ayer State Game Farm has been selected as the concentration area for work 
with this animal during the experimental stage, and stock formerly carried at the 
Sutton Pond Unit has been transferred to this farm. A full discussion of the 
problems of cottontail-rearing, and of the propagation work, will be found in the 
report of the Aver State Game farm in the section on "Propagation of Fish and 
Game." 

Cottontail Rabbit Importation. — After a conference with the Massachusetts 
Department of Public Health officials, the Director decided to permit importation 
of cottontail rabbits from the West. The Director and the Biologist met in con- 
ference at Albany with officials of the New York Conservation Department, 
which has for a number of years been importing cottontails from the West, and 
plans were made to standardize the Massachusetts system of importation as nearly 
as possible to the methods employed in New York. Plans are now being formu- 
lated for the importation of a considerable number of cottontail rabbits during 
1937. 

Raccoon Breeding. — This work is concentrated at the Ayer State Game Farm. 
Little progress was made during the year other than the acquirement of suitable 
specimens for breeding and the preparation of desirable housing facilities. It is 
expected that this work will become a regular feature of the Division's program. 

White Hare Importations. — The purchase of 6,354 white hares from the 
State of Maine permitted a far more adequate stocking than in 1935. This was 
made possible by the removal of the ban formerly imposed on the exportation of 
white hares from the State. 

Inspection of Purchased Pheasant Stock. — Inspection was made of all the 
pheasants purchased from commercial game farms to supplement the production 
at the State game farms. 

Vermin Control. — Early in the j^ear two wardens were supplied with turtle 



P.D. 25 33 

traps and they conducted trapping experiments all through the season. Turtle 
control is a practicable conservation activity that is quite as profitable as restock- 
ing. The Wisconsin Conservation Department recently reported a turtle taken 
from a newly stocked trout brook with 120 trout in its stomach. Turtles have 
been known to pull down such large birds as a goose and a blue heron, and the 
thousands of turtles in the waters of the State destroy tens of thousands of fish 
and waterfowl. Saving fish and game from loss is fully as effective as restocking, 
and far less expensive. Turtles can sometimes be taken in considerable numbers 
if a favorite nesting place is visited for a period of an hour or so after sunrise during 
the nesting season, but trapping is the most effective way to secure large numbers 
at small expense. 

The warden's report* sets forth a successful demonstration intended to point the 
way toward effective turtle control work in Massachusetts. The total catch by 
the two wardens and a deputy warden was 242 turtles weighing approximately 
4,000 pounds. Turtles are frequently taken in salvage work, both by the State 
crews and by the holders of permits to seine coarse fish, and systematic work would 
soon show results similar to those in Connecticut where in four years 7,640 turtles 
were taken, weighing 119,411 pounds. 

The usual predator control was conducted at the fish hatcheries and game farms. 
Numerous States were contacted to determine their respective methods of handling 
vermin control. 

Club Distribution Conferences. — Club distribution conferei ces were held 
evenings in some of the counties, as has been the custom for some years. Other 
counties felt that these conferences are now only a duplication of effort, and de- 
cided that previous conferences, and more especially the game survey, have given 
the Division a complete listing of the covers and waters suitable for stocking. 
Most of the clubs feel that the important problem of selection of covers to be in- 
cluded in the year's stocking program can better be handled at a conference 
directly between their committees and their warden, at which only a limited field 
need be covered and permitting of detailed discussion of individual covers and their 
needs. This can be done far more satisfactorily at a small meeting around a 
table than at a conference involving an entire county. While these conferences 
have served their purpose well, the work can perhaps now be carried on to better 
advantage by small groups. 

PROPAGATION OF FISH AND GAME 

Fish Hatcheries and Game Farms — General 
Considerable expansion and development work was conducted at a number of 
the fish hatcheries and game farms during the year, and most of this was made 

♦Following is the warden's report, in brief. Work began the middle of May with 6 traps, set for a week, 
during which only two turtles were taken, indicating that the water was too cold and the turtles not moving 
much. Trapping was resumed June 7 with better results. Apparently the turtles were just emerging 
from the mud at the bottom of the pond, as they were covered with hairlike green moss. Between June 
7 and July 9, eighty-four turtles weighing 1,395 pounds were taken. 

For bait the following was used: beef bones trimmed quite clean; beads of hens, ducks and fish; intestines 
of hens, ducks, lamb and sunfish. As the cans that come with the traps are too small for some of this 
bait, one-pound coffee cans, perforated with a chisel, were substituted. 

The traps were fastened with a rope (giving considerable leeway for changing its position), rather than 
by the recommended method of driving a stake through the trap. 

The best success was had by trapping in about three feet of water, with the trap entirely submerged, 
for the turtles are less lively when the traps are entirely under water; and, as the traps are tended from 
a 15-foot canoe, the half-drowned turtles can be handled with greater safety to the trapper. Consider- 
able injury may result from failure to realize how fast and how far a large snapper can strike. A thirty- 
pound turtle could probably strike more than a foot, having that length of neck plus the length of its 
legs. They strike hard, and the wiiter has seen a thirty-eight pound turtle take a piece out of the end of 
a canoe paddle. If the head of a turtle is cut off and some object placed against the nose, the head will 
strike and close on that object. A turtle will drown if left in water long enough, and will many times look 
dead, but they are tenacious of life and will strike suddenly and unexpectedly. 

On one occasion the warden, on notification that a turtle was pulling down a young duck in a small 
pond, went to the spot and found a half-grown wild black duck making frantic efforts to fly from the 
pond, unable to rise from the water. It worked along a railroad bank towards a narrow cut, at times 
partly submerged, then rising again to the surface. The warden shot the turtle as the pair went through 
the cut, thus releasing the duck. The turtle weighed eight pounds. 

As the 84 turtles trapped averaged over 15 pounds each, it can readily be seen that thousands of ducks 
will be saved if these predators are destroyed. 

Where possible the stomach contents of the trapped turtles were examined, and showed fish heads, 
ducks' feet, wings of a small bird, small bones, fur resembling muskrat, larva of the caddis fly, and dragon- 
fly wings. The warden's observations through the work led him to believe that digestion is very rapid, 
and it is difficult to tell what has been eaten unless the turtle is taken directly after having had a meal. 



34 P.D. 25 

possible through the Works Progress Administration. These accomplishments 
will be detailed under each station. 

Credit should be given to the National Youth Association for the fine assistance 
rendered to the Division in supplying young men for work at the fish hatcheries 
and game farms. The boys assigned to duty were a fine type and were both inter- 
ested and willing to do the work allocated to them. They were used in such work 
as tree planting, care of grounds, cultivation of crops, cleaning pheasant and quail 
houses, mowing brush, etc., and performed much useful work. 

The Director and the Biologist visited the stations at monthly or more frequent 
intervals during the year, and on July 1 the entire responsibility for the propaga- 
tion and financial operation of the stations was invested in the Biologist. 

With the view of advancing bass culture in Massachusetts, the Biologist, accom- 
panied by Mr. Arthur Merrill, the senior Fish Culturist of the Division, and William 
F. Monroe, Culturist at the Palmer State Fish Hatchery, visited New York State 
to study the plans for the development of the mammoth Rome Hatchery, and with 
special reference to the plans for bass work. They also visited three other hatch- 
eries where bass work is well established or construction for bass work on a large 
scale going on, namely, at South Otselic, N. Y., Pleasant Mount, Pa., and Hacketts- 
town, N. J. Valuable data were acquired, and along with the following outline 
of how this information may be used in the bass work of the Division, it may be 
of value to sketch the history of bass culture in Massachusetts. 

Bass Culture in Massachusetts 

Black bass are not native to Massachusetts, and none were to be found in the 
State until they were introduced in an attempt to improve the fishing, when the 
public was stimulated to undertake new things, in the early days of fish culture. 

The first stocking was not done by the State, as there was no organization for 
fish-cultural work and it was believed to be a good field for private enterprise. 

To foster interest in developing the fish resources of the State, a law was passed 
in 1869 that permitted the leasing of great ponds to private parties, and until 1885, 
when the law was repealed, many of the public ponds were so leased. While this 
law was in operation, bass were introduced into the State by the lessees, the first 
stock coming from Saratoga Lake, N. Y. 

The earliest stocking was made by transporting wild fish, and this method was 
continued by the State until the establishment of the Palmer Bass Hatchery in 
1912. Previous to this the United States Bureau of Fisheries stocked with bass 
extensively by shipping both small and large-mouth bass fry into Massachusetts. 
When the State took up the work of rearing, the production was limited to small- 
mouth bass fry with some incidental fingerling distribution when they were grown 
in the breeding ponds. 

In 1933 a program of expansion in rearing facilities was started and the produc- 
tion was limited to fingerlings except as surplus fry were produced and shipped 
to club rearing ponds. The establishment of daphnia pools for producing live 
food was a part of the 1933 program when the first pools were built. The daphnia 
is one of the minute swimming Crustacea commonly called water fleas, and is of 
great value in bass culture because it can be readily propagated in myriads. The 
species used is daphnia magna, which was discovered in northern Canada. The 
stock that now is grown in such multitudes at the hatcheries of the country orig- 
inated from two specimens used in experimental work at the Cornell University 
Fish Cultural Laboratory, Ithaca, N. Y. In 1935 and 1936 daphnia rearing was 
increased at Palmer by the construction of new pools, and at present its culture is 
conducted in seven series of pools, each divided into six sections making forty-two 
pools in all. 

Many of the new ideas, worked out in construction and operation at the four 
hatcheries visited can eventually be incorporated into the plans for bass work in 
Massachusetts. The advanced methods of which note was taken may be sum- 
marized in the following points: 

1. Deeper brood stock ponds to provide safer wintering conditions for the 
breeding bass, which makes it possible to have better conditioned fish at spawning 
time. 



P.D. 25 35 

2. Nesting stalls in batteries for the possible advantage of getting a larger 
production from the brood fish unit, with less handling of fish. 

3. A larger development for daphnia production, with the location and con- 
struction better adapted for carrying cultures through the freezing conditions of 
winter. 

4. Progress in the production of other living organisms that may result in the 
eventual supply of live food for bass larger than those for which daphnia is a suitable 
food. 

5. Ponds of better proportion and better adapted to artificial feeding, narrower 
than the former accepted type, but much longer. 

6. Ponds in independent units. Each pond in a block having its own water 
supply and connected separately with the drainage system to permit any operation 
in each pond and without interference with any other unit. 

7. More experimental work in feeding. The consensus of opinion is, that the 
solution of the artii cial feeding problem is in the use of finely shredded flesh of 
proper species of fresh fish rather than processed fish material. 

8. More intensive work in artificial feeding. The consensus of opinion at every 
station visited was, that in artificial feeding each half-acre of rearing pond should 
have the full attention of an attendant. 

9. Laboratory work was emphasized as being of great importance, and three 
such laboratories were found among the four stations visited. 

The bass program effective in Massachusetts in 1936 embraced the feeding of 
bass in 12 pools covering 5 1/10 acres, with 2 of these reserved as holding pools for 
adult breeding bass. 

For feeding the bass the first food is the daphnia produced in advance in the 
fertilized rearing pond. In preparation for this the ponds are drained the previous 
year after the fish are shipped and as far as possible cleaned of crawfish and weeds. 
They are fertilized, reflowed, and a culture of daphnia put in to develop conditions 
for daphnia wintering. The late daphnia produces winter eggs, and in the early 
warm weather of spring these eggs hatch and the daphnia becomes reestablished 
in the ponds. 

About the first of May the ponds are fertilized with about 40 cubic feet of fresh 
cow manure per acre, and enough is added from time to time to maintain a good 
tea color. It takes about three to four weeks to produce a good stock of daphnia, 
and by the time bass fry are introduced, the ponds are alive with this food. 

At Palmer the old breeding system is used — that is, nesting boxes are set in the 
breeding ponds, and a corresponding number of pairs of breeding bass are put in. 
In order to have as even a hatch as possible in each pond, the breeders are kept in 
the stock ponds until such time as they are ready to spawn. The time from egg 
laying to the appearance of fry is from 8 to 12 days, depending upon the water 
temperature. The rearing ponds are stocked at the rate of 40,000 to 50,000 fry 
per acre. 

This fry feeds abundantly on the daphnia swarming in the pond, but as this 
supply is depleted, the cultures in the daphnia rearing pools begin to reproduce, 
and as the supply grown in the rearing ponds diminishes, the increasing supply 
growing in the daphnia pools is fed into the rearing ponds as the young bass require 
it. 

At Palmer this year the daphnia formed the almost exclusive food for the young 
bass until they were about an inch long. Then artificial feeding was started for 
the long slow process of training the bass to take the artificial food. When the 
bass had grown to a size that made it difficult to supply them longer with daphnia, 
they were trained and ready to feed largely or wholly on artificial food. 

Artificial feeding was done with frozen alewives. All artificial ^feeding is in the 
experimental stage, and this feeding at Palmer, as in other states, is regarded as 
experimental and research and is eventually to result in a well worked out technique 
for growing bass fingerlings of good size. 

In the fish-cultural work now under way in Massachusetts State Forest Ponds, 
a new experiment in the culture of bass is underway in breeding and growing them 
in range ponds. The stock is in two ponds totaling 20 acres, where the full de- 
pendence of the bass fingerlings for food is on insects, larvae, Crustacea and mollusks 
growing naturally in the ponds. The breeding bass were removed after spawning, 



36 P.D. 25 

as is done in the most successful breeding ponds, and as far as is possible the bass 
fingerlings were given the exclusive range of the ponds, where there was a minimum 
of destruction by the adults and cannibalism among the young. 

The young bass have the larger range where on a per acre basis they can have 
four times more cubic feet space for each fish than is now possible in the smaller 
cultural pond. 

East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery — Alfred C. Fish, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — No new construction was done, or 
repairs made, either with State or Federal funds. 

A new filter box, supplying water to the meat room, was constructed by the 
town of Sandwich at the Mill Pond to replace one destroyed by the re-location 
of the highway. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 44,526 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
of which 276 were lost, 32,750 planted in open waters, 2,000 added to the brood 
stock, and 9,500 transferred to yearlings. Of these, 2,275 were lost and 7,225 
remain on hand November 30. 

To the 1,979 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 
2,000 of the 1935 hatched fish mentioned above, making a total of 3,979, of which 
248 were lost, 1,181 planted in open waters, and 2,550 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 284,000 eggs were collected from the brood stock at the 
station, of which 93,145 were lost, 60,000 transferred to the Sunderland State Fish 
Hatchery, and 130,855 hatched. Of these, 30,150 were lost and 100,705 trans- 
ferred to fingerlings, of which 4,160 were lost, 28,000 transferred to the Sandwich 
State Fish Hatchery, 27,400 planted in open waters, 6 distributed for experimental 
purposes, and 41,139 remain on hand November 30. 

Montague State Fish Hatchery — Ralph Bitzer, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — While no large construction work 
was carried on at this station, several small but important pieces of work were 
completed with Federal assistance. The first project submitted (which included 
several items) was approved early in January, work started soon after and was 
completed about the first of August, having accomplished the following: 

A much needed change in the location of the winding road up the hill from the 
pools at the lower end of the station was effected when a new road was cut into the 
hillside south of the old location. The new road is nearly straight, having but one 
easy curve part way up the hill, and having a maximum grade of 6 percent as com- 
pared to 14 percent on the old location. As this road is much used in the late fall 
and early winter when ice and snow make driving hazardous, this new stretch of 
road will greatly reduce the possibility of accidents to the trucks entering and leav- 
ing this end of the station. 

Forty acres of woodland were brushed during the winter months, reducing the 
fire hazard, and the work was done in a manner which should be beneficial to the 
wildlife living within its confines. 

Five hundred feet of dry wall was laid along the brook as a protection to the 
banks. This greatly improved the appearance of the brook, and at the same time 
will permit carrying large trout in its waters. 

To allow for the aeration of the water in the brook before it again enters the pools 
below the meat house, a small dam was constructed of stone at a point in the brook 
just above these pools. 

The sides of eight of the long, narrow rearing pools were lined with gravel and the 
beds of three of the larger oval shaped pools were graded and filled in with gravel 
as a part of this project. The three old wooden dams at these oval shaped pools 
were replaced with new ones of concrete. 

Twenty new wOoden racks were constructed for use at the trout pools. 

For the purpose of improving the flow of waters between two series of pools below 
the meat house, 120 feet of 4 inch tile pipe was relaid, a portion of which was re- 
placed with 6-inch and 8-inch pipe. 

The sheathing on the inside of the ice house was removed and replaced with new, 
the old having rotted out from years of dampness. 



P.D. 25 37 

In order to take care of the increased amount of food which has to be stored for 
feeding to the trout, it was found necessary to increase the size of the ice box which 
is built into the ice house, and this was accomplished by extending one end of the 
box 6 feet, thereby giving a box 6 feet by 12 feet, which is double the size of the 
old one. 

After the completion of the foregoing project the first of August, a new project 
was submitted to the Federal authorities. Funds were allotted on October 3, and 
work started on the 26th. As about 4 months will be required to complete it, the 
greater part of the project will be accomplished within the fiscal year of 1937. 
Under it, 375 feet more of the brook will be walled up, 20 acres of reforestation lots 
will be brushed over, a line of pools 250 feet long at the extreme lower end of the 
property will be excavated, and the dikes around the 3 large pools at the lower end 
of the system will be graded. 

For reforestation there were received from the Forestry Division 15,000 four-year- 
old white pine trees and 1,000 four-year-old Norway spruce. In addition, 140 
large 3 to 6 foot white pine trees obtained outside were planted around the lower 
end of the hatchery. 

New Equipment. — A food mixer was added to the station equipment, resulting 
both in a saving in labor and more complete utilization of the feed. 

General. — The fish feed at the station during the year was varied, due to the 
high cost of meat products. Beef melts were substituted for pork melts and larger 
quantities of herring and dried foods were fed. 

A few losses in the brood stock occurred from disease, but there were no serious 
outbreaks, and all trouble was kept well under control. A rigid sterilization of the 
pool system was carried on during the year. 

Feeding experiments were Conducted on fingerling rainbow trout, and are dis- 
cussed in the section on "Activities of the Biologist and his Staff." 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 62,216 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
to which were added 14,744 by recounts, making a total of 76,960, of which 74,400 
were planted in open waters, 2,520 added to the brood stock, and 40 distributed 
for display. 

To the 713 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 2,520 
of the 1935-hatched fish mentioned above, making a total of 3,233, of which 665 
were lost, 42 distributed for display, and 2,526 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 245,000 brook trout eggs were collected from the brood 
stock at the station, of which 95,000 were lost, and 150,000 hatched. Of these, 
17,000 were lost and 133,000 transferred to fingerlings, of w r hich 7,000 were lost, 
5,000 distributed to club rearing pools, 78,000 planted in open waters, 50 distributed 
for display purposes, and 42,950 remain on hand November 30. 

Rainbow Trout. The year opened with 10,538 yearling rainbow trout on hand, 
of which 623 were iost, 8,895 planted in open waters, 1,000 transferred to the brood 
stock, and 20 distributed for display. 

To the 1,025 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added the 
1,000 yearlings mentioned above, making a total of 2,025, of which 573 were lost, 
300 planted in open waters, 29 distributed for display and 1,123 remain on hand 
November 30. 

Of the 159,972 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of the year, 3,572 were lost, 
53,000 planted in open waters, 40 distributed for display and 103,360 transferred 
to yearlings. Of these, 1,252 were lost, 18,000 distributed to club rearing pools, 
55,400 planted in open waters, 20 distributed for display, and 28,688 remain on 
hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 220,000 rainbow trout eggs were collected from the 
brood stock at the station, to which were added 100,000 eggs received from the 
United States Bureau of Fisheries station at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., in 
exchange for 50,000 brook trout eggs purchased and sent to their White Sulphur 
Springs, W. Va., station (due to exceptional loss in eggs received from the Bureau 
the previous season, the Division was required to ship only 50,000 eggs in exchange 
this season). Total number of eggs handled was 320,000, of which 65,000 were 
lost, and 255,000 hatched. Of these, 34,000 were lost, 50 distributed for display 
and 220,950 transferred to fingerlings, of which 25,000 were lost, 10,000 transferred 



38 P.D. 25 

to the Sutton State Fish Hatchery, 78,575 planted in open waters, 75 distributed 
for display, and 107,300 remain on hand November 30. 

Palmer State Fish Hatchery — William F. Monroe, Fish Culturist in Charge. 

New Construction and Replacement. — Assisted by Works Progress Ad- 
ministration funds (all material and trucking being provided by the State) a large 
construction program was carried on at this station, accomplishing much which 
could not have been hoped for had the Division been called on to stand all expense. 

Three bass ponds, long and narrow in shape and covering approximately one- 
third of an acre each, were constructed below the present ponds on the south side 
of the brook. They are located on low, swampy land and the work of preparing 
the bottom and building the dikes called for a large amount of labor. Over 1,300 
cubic yards of material was excavated from the beds of the ponds, and 2,000 cubic 
yards of gravel was hauled for making the dikes. While the funds allotted did not 
permit the final grading of the dikes to the proper elevation, enough was completed 
so that the ponds couid be used, and from the results obtained, it would appear 
that they are quite satisfactory. 

To provide additional daphnia for the young bass to be reared in the new ponds, 
4 lines of daphnia pools, each 220 feet long, 6 feet wide and 2 feet deep were con- 
structed adjacent to those built last year. These lines of pools are divided by 
wooden partitions into 6 separate pools, thereby giving 24 additional pools, which 
more than doubles the daphnia rearing layout. 

Approximately 500 feet of wall was laid along the south side of the brook adja- 
cent to the new bass ponds, thereby strengthening the dike next to the brook and 
confining the brook to a definite channel. 

The dikes around bass ponds Nos. 4, 5, 6 and 9 were raised 17 inches to give a 
greater depth of water for the raising of fingerlings, the tops being graded with 
loam. Approximately 1,000 cubic yards of fill was hauled in for this work. 

Excavation for 5 trout pools, each 68 feet long, was completed as a part of this 
project, but, lacking funds for materials to board the sides of the pools, they could 
not be put in shape for present use. 

No new construction with State funds was undertaken, except general repairs. 

A large number of small pine and spruce trees was set out on the hatchery grounds 
from the station's nursery stock. 

Brook Trout. — All eggs hatched were stripped from the station's selected brood 
stock, and the resulting fish showed a most remarkable growth up to the time it 
became necessary to curtail feeding because of the shortage of funds with which to 
purchase food. No disease problems presented themselves during the year. 
Trout feeding experiments were again conducted and considerable valuable infor- 
mation resulted from this work. During the early spring all pools from one end 
of the system to the other were thoroughly sterilized. 

The year opened with 28,485 brook trout fingerlings on hand to which were added 
2,165 by a recount, making a total of 30,650, of which 5,500 were distributed to 
club rearing pools, 23,650 planted in open waters, 1,500 transferred to yearlings 
and later added to the brood stock. 

To the 518 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added the 
1,500 1935-hatched fish mentioned above, making a total of 2,018, of which 583 
were lost, 127 planted in open waters, 83 distributed for experimental purposes, 
and 1,225 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 334,575 brook trout eggs were collected from the brood 
stock at the station, of which 84,792 were lost, 121,500 transferred to the Sunder- 
land State Fish Hatchery, and 128,283 hatched. Of these, 16,300 were lost and 
111,983 transferred to fingerlings, of which 7,000 were lost, 10,000 transferred to 
the Sutton State Fish Hatchery, 1,000 distributed to club rearing pools, 67,500 
planted in open waters, 100 distributed for experimental purposes, and 26,383 
remain on hand November 30. 

Small-Mouth Black Bass. — A most successful season was experienced in the 
propagation of small-mouth black bass. The output of fingerlings both in numbers 
and size was most gratifying, and, considering the necessary curtailment of labor 
about July 1, the production for this reason is more outstanding. Ponds 13, 14, 
and 15, in which had been placed graded fish, showed a survival of over 95 per cent. 



P.D. 25 39 

It was not possible to grade the fish placed in the other ponds, and until such 
time as these ponds are reconstructed to permit of this grading, a higher production 
per acre cannot be expected from them. 

The season started with 428 adult brood fish on hand, to which were added 288 
from spring salvage operations, making a total of 716, of which 328 were lost and 
388 remain on hand November 30. 

From the bass ponds 40,000 fry and 10,000 fingerlings were turned over to club 
rearing pools and 43,170 fingerlings planted in open waters. 

Sandwich State Fish Hatchery — Irving Lewis, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — A Federal Works Progress Adminis- 
tration project (the State supplying material) starting Dec. 18, 1935, was carried 
out, the results of which will permit the rearing of many additional trout for dis- 
tribution. At its completion, one pool 80 feet by 12 feet, 2 pools 100 feet by 12 
feet, 2 pools 94 feet by 12 feet, 4 pools 95 feet by 14 feet, one pool 70 feet by 14 
feet and one pool 89 feet by 14 feet had been added to the layout at this station. 
The pools average 3 feet in depth and required the moving of over 2,500 cubic 
yards of material. A wooden dam or a spillway was installed at the lower end of 
each pool. 

To provide the necessary water supply to these new pools, 18 wells were driven 
to an average depth of 60 feet, each well supplying 7 to 8 gallons of water per 
minute. 

No construction work was undertaken with State funds. 

There were 114 evergreen trees taken up in the swamp and set out around the 
grounds. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 94,800 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
of which 828 were lost, 1,000 distributed to club rearing pools, 89,722 planted in 
open waters, and 3,250 added to the brood stock. 

To the 3,433 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added the 
3,250 1935-hatched fish mentioned above, making a total of 6,683, of which 260 
were lost, 2,436 planted in open waters, 48 distributed for display purposes, and 
3,939 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year 401,000 brook trout eggs were collected from the brood 
stock at the station, of which 100,000 were transferred to other stations (35,000 
to the Sutton State Fish Hatchery and 65,000 to the Sunderland State Fish Hatch- 
ery), 55,250 lost, and 245,750 hatched, of which 103,500 were lost and 142,250 
transferred to fingerlings. To these were added 28,000 received from the East 
Sandwich State Fish Hatchery, making a total of 170,250, of which 65,200 were 
lost, 5,000 distributed to club rearing pools, 47,050 planted in open waters, and 
53,000 remain on hand November 30. 

On the night of September 18-19 there was a severe northeast gale in the Cape 
region, and the following day a loss of 7,652 trout was discovered. This loss was 
attributed to seepage from a drainage ditch into one of the rearing pools. The 
State Public Health Laboratory made tests of the water involved. Their report 
showed the water in the pools to be quite normal, but the water in the ditch flows 
near an area covered to a depth of 18 inches with peaty soil. This water showed 
a very high acidity, low dissolved oxygen, and high carbonic acid. It had seeped 
in over a series of flashboards, and its toxicity was sufficient to kill the fish. To 
prevent a recurrence of this accident, the water of this ditch was confined to a 
pipe-line in accordance with the recommendation of the Department of Public 
Health. 

Chinook Salmon. — To the 8,500 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of the 
year were added 500 by a recount, making a total of 9,000, all of which were planted 
in open waters. 

For the work of the year, 50,000 chinook salmon eggs were received from the 
California Fish and Game Commission in exchange for an equal number of brook 
trout eggs purchased and shipped to their Mount Shasta Hatchery. Of these 
1,627 were lost, and 48,373 hatched, of which 7,866 were lost and 40,507 trans- 
ferred to fingerlings. Of these, 602 were lost, 20,000 distributed to a club rearing 
pool, and 19,905 remain on hand November 30. 



40 P.D. 25 

Sunderland State Fish Hatchery — Ludivig Horst, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — In order to develop a heretofore 
untouched section of this station, a Works Progress Administration project which 
had been approved on August 12, 1935, was allotted funds early in November, 
and work was started on the 13th of the same month, thus bringing practically 
the entire work within the fiscal year 1936. Material was supplied by the State. 
After six weeks of good weather, snow and frost slowed up progress to such an 
extent that work was suspended until early April, and the project was completed 
in the first week of July. 

Four trout pools, each 100 feet long by 20 feet wide were constructed between 
the brook and the new road along the northerly property line, and 4 pools, each 
125 feet long by 40 feet wide, were constructed on the south side of the brook, 
opposite the other new pools. Over 2,000 cubic yards of earth was removed from 
the beds of the pools and 1,600 cubic yards of fill was hauled in for the dikes. 
Wooden dams were installed at the lower end of each pool. 

To handle the water supply for these pools, it was necessary to install a system 
of supply pools, troughs and pipes, in itself a sizable project. At the head end of the 
125-foot by 40-foot pools a supply pool 90 feet by 10 feet was constructed, while at 
the head end of the 100-foot by 20-foot pools the supply pool was 27 feet by 27 feet. 
In order to concentrate the water from the series of pools near the new hatchery 
building and at the same time maintain the necessary head, a small pool was con- 
structed just below these pools, and a similar procedure followed at the pools by 
the back brook. 

To carry the water from the pool thus built at the back brook to the supply pool 
at the 125-foot by 40-foot pools, it was decided to build a long, narrow pool 4 feet 
wide which could be divided into sections and used for carrying fry in the early 
spring. 

With the exception of the 320 feet of 4-foot wide pool described above, all other 
connections between supply pools were by means of wooden troughs and corru- 
gated metal pipe where the supply line ran under roads. Over 900 feet of trough 
was installed, and 86 feet of pipe was laid. 

In order to keep the required grade on the supply line under the road leading 
to the new hatchery building, it was necessary to raise the bridge over the brook 
2J/2 feet and raise the grade of the road approaches to it for a distance of 150 feet. 

The construction of the four 100-foot by 20-foot pools along the brook w T as carried 
out in such a manner that it is now possible to drain each one independently of 
the other directly into the brook, a condition which would be of great assistance 
should disease occur in one or the other of the pools. 

No construction work was done by State funds. 

New Equipment. — A food mixer was installed which proved not only a great 
labor-saving device, but also mixes the feed so thoroughly that there is very little 
loss in feeding the trout. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 37,200 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
to which were added 1,000 by a recount, making a total of 38,200, of which 31,900 
were planted in open waters and 6,300 transferred to yearlings. Of these, 70 were 
lost and 5,600 remain on hand November 30. 

To the 800 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 75 
by a recount, making a total of 875, of which 70 were lost, 775 planted in open 
waters, and 30 distributed for display. 

For the work of the year, 75,000 brook trout eggs were collected from the brood 
stock at the station, to which were added 121,500 from the Palmer State Fish 
Hatchery, 60,000 from the East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery, 65,000 from the 
Sandwich State Fish Hatchery, 40,000 purchased from a commercial dealer, and 
25,000 wild brook trout eggs from Gaspe, Canada (hatched by the Division on 
behalf of a member of the Massachusetts Fish and Game Association, with the 
understanding that the Division should have one-half of the fry hatched), making 
a total of 386,500 eggs handled. Of these, 164,500 were lost and 222,000 hatched, 
of which 15,000 fry were lost, 10,000 hatched from Gaspe eggs turned over to the 
Massachusetts Fish and Game Association, and 197,000 transferred to finger- 
lings. To these were added 7,550 by a recount, making a total of 204,550 ringer- 



P.D. 25 41 

lings, of which 2,050 were lost, 146,500 distributed to open waters, and 56,000 
remain on hand November 30. 

After sorting the brook trout in July, all fish were treated (as a precautionary 
measure) with acetic acid and copper sulphate. This treatment is a great aid in 
the prevention of gyrodactylus. 

Brown Trout. — The year opened with 20,600 yearlings on hand, to which were 
added 187 by a recount, making a total of 20,787, of which 30 were lost, 20,737 dis- 
tributed to open waters, and 20 distributed for display purposes. 

To the 842 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 805 
two-year old fish found to be on hand, making a total of 1,647, of which 68 were lost, 
93 distributed for display and study purposes, and 1,486 remain on hand Novem- 
ber 30. 

Of the 200,280 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of the year, 62,500 were lost, 
25,500 distributed to open waters, 40 distributed for display, and 112,240 trans- 
ferred to yearlings. Of these, 1,400 were lost, 15,000 transferred to the Sutton 
State Fish Hatchery, 70,350 distributed to open waters, 8 distributed for display 
and 25,482 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the yesn, 660,000 brown trout eggs were collected from the brood 
stock at the station. To these were added 100,500 received from the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries Station at Bozeman, Mont., in exchange for brook trout eggs 
purchased and sent to their White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. station, making a total 
of 760,500 eggs handled. Of these, 280,000 were lost, 1,000 distributed for study 
purposes, and 479,500 hatched, of which 150,000 fry were lost and 329,500 trans- 
ferred to fingerlings. Of these, 83,000 were lost, 92,800 distributed to open waters, 
and 153,700 remain on hand November 30. 

White spot disease in brown trout eggs was reduced at least by 25 per cent with 
an estimated loss of one per cent during the season. 

Sutton State Fish Hatcher y — Michael O'Mara, Assistant Fish and Game 
Culturist, Acting in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — A Works Progress Administration 
project, submitted on Sept. 4, 1935, was approved in January, 1936, and work 
was started soon thereafter; but snow and cold weather necessitated suspension 
of operations until April. The following work was accomplished, (the State pro- 
viding the materials) : 

The dam at the large pond, and the sluiceway carrying the water from this pond 
to the pools below the road, were replaced with a reinforced concrete box culvert 
4 feet by 4 feet. This will give better control of the water at flood stages, will allow 
the large pond above the road to be more quickly drawn down, and the concrete box 
will be much easier to sterilize than was the old construction. 

All the trout pools east of the hatchery road were rebuilt. The old layout east 
of the road had consisted of a series of pools of varying widths, some with concrete 
sides and some with concrete slabs on the sides, and very little drop on water levels 
between pools. All of this old concrete was removed, and the pools were rebuilt 
with wooden sides and spillways, with a constant drop in water levei between pools. 
All spillways were built of equal size, permitting an interchange of screens and flash- 
boards, which could not be done with the old layout. There are now 6 pools 50 
feet long, 3 pools 36 feet long, 4 pools 32 feet long, one pool 30 feet long, and one 
pool 27 feet long in this rebuilt section. 

For the purpose of providing suitable pools where fry could be carried, 9 pools, 
each 173^2 feet long, 7 feet wide and 23/2 feet deep, were constructed at the head of 
the station layout. These pools have wooden sides and spillways and the layout 
has been so arranged that only the required amount of water need be sent through 
them, the balance of the water supply for the station being carried in the main 
brook channel. These new pools will fill a much needed want at this station as, 
heretofore, the fry had to be carried in the main brook with the possibility of loss 
by high water or escape through the many crevices in the sides and dams. 

With State funds the following work was accomplished: 

All ponds were cleaned and sterilized. 

Parts of the hatchery grounds have been graded, trees cut, brush cut and 
burned, and stumps dug out. 



42 P.D. 25 

The meat chopping stand was rebuilt and covered with galvanized iron to make 
it sanitary. 

Stand in which to thaw frozen meat was built in the meat-house. 

Five thousand white pines and 1,000 Norway spruce were planted on the grounds. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 15,872 fingerling brook trout on hand, of 
which 150 were lost, 12,000 distributed to open waters, and 3,722 transferred to 
yearlings. To these were added 9,328 by a recount, making a total of 13,050, of 
which 7 were lost, 11,000 distributed to open waters, 2,000 added to the brood stock, 
and 43 remain on hand November 30. 

To the 99 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added the 
2,000 1935-hatched fish mentioned above, making a total of 2,099, of which 954 
were lost, 67 distributed to open waters, and 1,078 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 35,000 brook trout eggs were received from the Sand- 
wich State Fish Hatchery and 75,000 eggs purchased from a commercial dealer, 
making a total of 110,000 eggs handled, of which 10,200 were lost and 99,800 
hatched. Of these, 52,025 fry were lost and 47,775 transferred to fingerlings, to 
which were added 10,000 received from the Palmer State Fish Hatchery, making 
a total of 57,775, of which 25,725 were lost, 8,000 distributed to open waters, and 
24,050 remain on hand November 30. 

During the summer feeding experiments were conducted on seven pools of finger- 
ling trout. 

Brown Trout. — For the work of the year, 15,000 brown trout yearlings were 
received from the Sunderland State Fish Hatchery the end of May. Of these, 
674 were lost and 14,326 remain on hand November 30. 

Rainbow Trout. — Late in November, 10,000 rainbow trout fingerlings were 
received from the Montague State Fish Hatchery. Of these, 20 were lost and 
9,980 remain on hand November 30. 

Sutton State Pond System — James E. Noble, in Charge 
New Construction and Replacement. — In 1935, on October 18, work had 
been started on an Emergency Relief Administration project consisting of the 
following items : 

(a) Replace wooden sluiceway at Adams Pond dam with concrete sluiceway. 

(b) Rebuild stone culvert under road between Clark Pond and Schoolhouse 
Pond. 

(c) Place fill on dam at Adams Pond to stop leaks. 

(d) Clear and grub 4 acres of land for planting. 

This work, uncompleted at the close of the year, was continued into 1936 and 
finished, except item (b) for which the money allotted did not suffice. 

A Works Progress Administration project for performing several much needed 
items of work at this station had been submitted for approval in November, 1935, 
funds were allotted early in the following February, work started February 17 
and continued until the end of October. 

Perhaps the largest and most important item of work performed was replacing 
the sluiceway through the Arnold Pond Dam with a concrete box culvert 5 feet wide 
by 6 feet high and having 2 spillway openings at the head end, each 4 feet 6 inches 
wide and running to a height of 12 feet above the floor of the box culvert. The 
old culvert through the dam was built some years ago, and, within the past 2 years, 
has caved in to such an extent that it was difficult, as well as quite dangerous, to 
work in. Approximately 80 cubic yards of concrete was placed in this new sluice- 
way and 4,200 pounds of steel was used for reinforcing. In order to complete this 
project over 600 cubic yards of material had to be excavated, 375 cubic yards of 
backfill placed, and 114 cubic yards of dry wall laid. 

Drainage facilities at the northeasterly end of the Arnold Pond were improved 
by the installation of a small concrete sluiceway and the channeling and filling of a 
pocket which heretofore could not be drained. Approximately 450 cubic yards 
of material was moved to accomplish this purpose. 

In order to stop leaks in the dams at the Putnam, Schoolhouse and Welch Ponds, 
900 cubic yards of gravel fill was placed on the upstream face of these dams. 

During the winter months 7 acres of land were brushed and cleared at the site 
of the rabbit and raccoon pens. 



P.D. 25 43 

For the purpose of providing better drainage, channels were dug in the beds of 
the Adams, Schoolhouse and Arnold Ponds. This will allow all parts of the ponds 
to be emptied, with the result that fish heretofore caught in pockets will be drawn 
down into the traps. Over 2,000 cubic yards of material was moved. 

The wall at the new workshop grounds w r as relaid to conform to the grading 
which had been done there. 

The March flood w r ashed away a short stretch of the roadway leading across the 
dam at the Arnold Pond at a point where it acts as an auxiliary spillway, and 50 
cubic yards of stone and 200 cubic yards of gravel were hauled in to put this road- 
way in good condition. 

In order to improve conditions for handling fish, traps were constructed below 
the dams at the Arnold and Adams Ponds. Forty cubic yards of material was 
excavated at each trap and frames for screens were installed. Repairs were also 
made at the concrete trap below the Putnam Pond. 

One of the wing walls at the Adams Pond sluiceway was damaged during the 
March flood and was replaced later in the spring. This work necessitated the 
removal of 20 cubic yards of material and the placing of 4 cubic yards of reinforced 
concrete as well as 6 cubic yards of dry wall. 

No construction w r ork was done with State funds. 

Twenty- five hundred Norway spruce and white pine were planted on the Sutton 
Pond reservation. 

Pond Fish Culture. — Wild celery collected from the bass ponds at the Palmer 
State Fish Hatchery early in June, was planted — 2,775 in Welch and 3,430 in 
Putnam Pond. 

Only three of the ponds in the system were in use this year. Because of the 
flood conditions experienced in the spring, the fish did not show up in as large 
numbers as had been expected, and a great loss was experienced. A large crop of 
very small blue gills was collected. 

The ponds yielded for distribution to open waters, study and for breeding 
purposes, during the period of this report, 150,068 pond fish divided as follows: 
35,850 horned pout, 1,468 pickerel, 26,950 yellow perch, 84,800 blue gills to open 
waters; 500 horned pout to a pond on Harold Parker Forest; 200 horned pout to 
Backus Pond on Ayer State Game Farm; 300 horned pout for study. In addition, 
for mosquito control work, 300 sunfish. The following lots of fish, taken in sal- 
vage operations, were placed in the ponds for breeding purposes: 550 horned pout, 
39 pickerel, 230 yellow perch; also 245 purchased pickerel. 

Game Propagation. — The work in cottontail rabbit and raccoon breeding was 
discontinued at the Ponds, and the brood stock transferred to the Ayer State Game 
Farm where all the experimental work with these species will be carried on. 

State Forest Ponds 
The general work on the State Forest ponds has already been discussed in the 
section on State Forests under "Wild Birds and Mammals." The actual fish- 
cultural work at the Forest Ponds is as follows: 

Andover State Pond System (Harold Parker Forest Ponds) 
Cultural Ponds. — The ponds constructed on the Harold Parker State Forest 
for fish-cultural purposes were given the names of four former Commissioners on 
Fisheries and Game who served for long periods between 1869 and 1916, and who 
may be regarded as the founders and builders of the fish and game conservation 
work in Massachusetts. 

Pond No. 1 is now known as Field Pond; Pond No. 2, — Collins Pond; Pond No. 
3,— Brackett Pond; Pond No. 4,— Delano Pond. 

Construction, which had been suspended in May, 1935, was not resumed until 
October of 1936. Field Pond was drained in connection with an examination to 
determine if the dam should be reconstructed, and was not reflowed until May, 
1936, when it was decided that only ordinary repair work was necessary and any 
possible flowage would not affect this work. The pond was partially flowed with 
water stored in Collins and Brackett Ponds. Repairs were made to the dam in 
October of 1936, and consisted mainly of putting on additional fill and in closing the 



44 P.D. 25 

secondary flume that was determined to be a point of weakness in the dam. The 
delay in closing the gate at Field Pond made it impossible to get full flowage, and 
when the ponds were stocked with fish they held only 11,000,000 cubic feet of water 
where the capacity is 29,288,000 cubic feet. 

Fish-cultural work for the year included the removal of the pike perch grown 
experimentally in Collins Pond and partial removal of the banded sunfish and 
banded pickerel, native to the valley of Mill Brook, and both worthless species 
that had multiplied rapidly since the first flowage of the ponds. Collins Pond was 
stocked with small black bass for experimental breeding, and through inadvertance 
it was stocked also with a large number of blue gill sunfish. The large number of 
two species of sunfish and many banded pickerel interfered with the experimental 
phase of bass work, as these species prevented a conclusive test. The production 
of bass was, however, satisfactory as it amounted to 1,000 per acre while at the same 
time the pond produced 1,000 adult and 11,000 fmgerling sunfish per acre. 

Field Pond was stocked with horned pout, crappie, and calico bass, and as it had 
been well cleaned of banded sunfish and banded pickerel in the drainage to survey 
the dam, there was a large and clean production of horned pout, calico bass and 
crappie, totaling over 8,000 fish per acre. 

Brackett Pond was stocked with 500 horned pout breeders taken from Frye Pond 
in the fall. 

Following the removal of the cultivated fish, the channels and undrained pits 
were treated to destroy all that remained of the sunfish and banded pickerel, and 
the ponds are thoroughly clean for the production of 1937. 

No permanent trapping facilities have been provided, and for the 1936 drainage 
temporary traps were constructed that proved serviceable in a well-controlled 
removal of the fish. 

The distribution from the ponds to open waters and for breeding and exhibition 
was 389,334 fish as follows: To open waters, 375 pike perch; 6,450 small mouth 
black bass; 203,800 crappie and calico bass; 5,362 adult and 55,288 fmgerling blue 
gills; 7,250 adult and 106,900 fmgerling horned pout; 1,650 fmgerling and 1,650 
adult yellow perch; for exhibition purposes 5 adult crappie; 35 adult horned pout; 
15 adult yellow perch; 35 adult blue gills; 8 large mouth black bass; 11 pike perch, 
500 horned pout breeders were transferred from Frye Pond to Brackett Pond. 

In addition to the production of cultivated fish for distribution, the ponds yielded 
20,000 banded sunfish and 750 banded pickerel which were liberated in waters in 
which they would serve as food for the more valuable game fish. 

Recreation Ponds. — Ponds constructed mainly for recreation and fishing, but 
planned for some incidental fish-cultural work have been constructed in several 
forests, and the first removal of fish was undertaken in 1936. This work is planned 
for the production of fmgerling fish, which is aided and increased by the removal of 
breeding fish by fishing after spawning. 

Salem Pond, in the Harold Parker Forest, was stocked with breeding bass for 
experimental work in bass production, but removal of the fingerlings was deferred 
until 1937. 

Sudden Pond, in the Harold Parker Forest, has been stocked with calico bass, 
yellow perch, and horned pout, but removal awaits reconstruction of the dam, with 
drainage conduit and fish trapping pool. 

Frye Pond in the Harold Parker Forest has been operated as a trout pond, but 
was drained through a temporary screened trap to remove horned pout and yellow 
perch that had come in from ponds above. Six thousand three hundred horned 
pout and 3,300 yellow perch were taken out and distributed in public waters. In 
addition, 500 horned pout were transferred to Brackett Pond for brood stock. 

Ponds on Other State Forests 

Cleanout operations were carried on at several State Forest ponds where pond 
fish had become established and were interfering with trout fishing. 

Dearth Hill Pond. — This pond, located on the Brimfield State Forest, had no 
drainage. Fyke nets were used on October 8 for the removal of 1,400 horned pout 
to open waters. 

Howe Pond. — This pond, located on the Spencer State Forest, was drained on 
October 22 and the fish taken by use of nets. Seven hundred pickerel were removed 



P.D. 25 45 

and transferred to public waters, and 10,000 shiners and dace were shipped to the 
Palmer State Fish Hatchery for bass food. 

Ruggles Pond. — This pond, located on the Wendell State Forest, was drained 
as low as the structure of the dam would permit, and screens were provided for 
trapping fish. The drainage, however, was insufficient to permit taking the fish 
from the pond, and the mud and brush made use of nets too difficult. 

Benedict Pond. — This pond, on Beartown State Forest, was stocked with calico 
bass, pickerel, and horned pout, as a convenient distribution point for Berkshire 
County, but removal of these fish was deferred. 

Work of the Salvage Units 

An intensive salvage program was conducted beginning early in the spring and 
continuing until July 1, when weather conditions made it impracticable to operate 
further. There is a growing demand for the use of the salvage units for trapping 
and netting fish from various types of ponds. The local municipal water boards 
have been most cooperative in granting permission to the Division to operate in 
the waters under their jurisdiction. 

New Ford pickup trucks were provided for each of the salvage units, the old 
trucks being turned in. 

Salvage Unit No. 1 — William H. Seaman, Fish Culturist, in Charge. 

Oyster and Great Ponds, Falmouth,* April 3-16. — 38,900 white perch planted 
in open waters. Total — 38,900. 

Weymouth Great Pond, Weymouth, April 25 to May 2.-1,000 crappie, 2,000 
horned pout, 250 pickerel, 7,500 yellow perch, 250 small mouth black bass planted 
in open waters. In addition 188 small mouth black bass were turned over to the 
Palmer State Fish Hatchery for brood stock; 1,000 crappie, 1,000 blue gills, 15 
small mouth black bass were planted in ponds on the Harold Parker State Forest 
for breeding purposes. Total — 13,203. 

Great Quittacas Pond, Lakeville, Middleboro, Rochester, May 4-9. — 1,784 
horned pout, 396 pickerel, 5,140 yellow perch, 8,220 white perch, 660 small mouth 
black bass, planted in open waters. Total — 16,200. 

North Watuppa Pond, Fall River, May 11-19.-7,600 horned pout, 168 pickerel, 
2,575 yellow perch, 5,300 white perch, 225 small mouth black bass planted in open 
waters. In addition, 10 crappie, 250 horned pout, 10 pickerel, 40 yellow perch, 
50 small mouth black bass, 40 blue gills, 50 sunfish were distributed for exhibition 
purposes. Also 2,850 horned pout, 260 small mouth black bass were planted in 
ponds on the Harold Parker State Forest for breeding purposes. Total — 19,428. 

Butler Ames Pond, Tewksbury, May 20-26.-2,050 crappie, 250 horned pout, 
50 small-mouth black bass, 13,000 blue gills planted in open waters. In addition, 
102 horned pout, 73 small-mouth black bass, 1,500 blue gills were planted in ponds 
on the Harold Parker State Forest for breeding purposes. Total — 17,025. 

Wenham Lake, Wenham, May 27 to June 5. — 825 horned pout, 180 pickerel, 
21,375 white perch, 150 small-mouth black bass planted in open waters. Total — 
22,530. 

Johnson Pond, Haverhill, June 8-12. — 250 horned pout, 250 pickerel, 4,500 
yellow perch, 2,500 white perch planted in open waters. Total— 7,500. 
North Reservoir, Winchester, June 16-20. — 500 horned pout, 90 pickerel, 
1,500 yellow perch, 800 small-mouth black bass, 70 sunfish planted in open waters. 
Total— 2,960. 

Long Pond, Falmouth, June 23-29. 1,160 yellow perch, 2,570 small mouth 
black bass planted in open waters. Total — 3,730. 

Salvage Unit No. 2 — Elmer A. M acker, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 
Salvage Units No. 1 and No. 2 operated together on the salvage of fish from the 
Falmouth Ponds, April 3 to April 16. For number of fish collected, see under 
Salvage Unit No. 1. 

No Town Reservoir, Fitchburg, April 22 to May 7.-2,250 horned pout, 448 
pickerel, 12,585 yellow perch planted in open waters. In addition, 500 horned 

*Both Salvage Unit No. 1 and Salvage Unit No. 2 operated in the Falmouth Ponds. 



46 P.D. 25 

pout were turned over to the Sutton State Pond System for brood stock and 200 
yellow perch, 200 horned pout were distributed in club rearing pools. Total — 
16,183. 

Ludlow Reservoir, Ludlow, May $-15. — 200 horned pout, 499 yellow perch, 
595 small mouth black bass planted in open waters. In addition, 140 horned 
pout, 9 pickerel, 400 yellow perch were distributed to a club rearing pool and 100 
small mouth black bass were turned over to the Palmer State Fish Hatchery for 
breeding purposes. Total — 4,943. 

Wachusett Reservoir, Clinton, May 20-28. — 4 horned pout, 3 pickerel, 105 
yellow perch, 103 small mouth black bass planted in open waters. Total — 215. 

Indian Lake, Worcester, May 28 to June 13. — 4,600 crappie, 1,005 horned 
pout, 7 pickerel, 5,930 yellow perch, 27,600 white perch planted in open waters. 
Total— 39,142. 

Cedar Meadow Pond, Leicester, June 16-29. — 600 crappie, 2,555 horned pout, 
6,600 yellow perch, 12,900 white perch planted in open waters. Total — 22,655. 

Mare Meadow Pond, Westminster, June 23. — 200 horned pout, 80 pickerel, 105 
yellow perch planted in open waters. Total — 385. 

Miscellaneous Salvage 

Several lots of miscellaneous fish were salvaged by the employees of the Divi- 
sion and the fish planted in local ponds, except where otherwise stated. 

From Newton Water Works Reservoir, Needham, 6,000 crappie, 2,000 horned 
pout, 3,300 pickerel, 3,000 vellow perch, 40 large mouth black bass, 14,000 blue 
gills. Total— 28,340. 

From Howe Pond, Millbury, 61,630 horned pout, 1,121 pickerel, 1,185 yellow 
perch. In addition, 25 pickerel were sent to the Sutton State Pond System for 
brood stock. Total— 63,961. 

From Ashfield Rod and Gun Club Pond, Ashfield, 5,000 horned pout. Total — 
5,000. 

From Barre Reservoir, Barre, 200 horned pout. Total — 200. 

From Cunningham Pond, Hubbardston, 27 pickerel. Total — 27. 

From Cranberry Pond, Sunderland, 300 pickerel. Total — 300. 

From Cranberry Burrage Bogs, Halifax, 14 pickerel, 230 yellow perch were 
sent to the Sutton State Pond System for brood stock. Total — 244. 

From Carlstrom Pond, Millbury, 50 horned pout were sent to the Sutton State 
Pond System for brood stock. Total — 50. 

From Rockwell Pond, Leominster, 700 horned pout, 51 pickerel, 11,450 yellow 
perch. Total— 12,201. 

Salvage of the State Forest Ponds 

Salvage operations were conducted in some of the State Forest Ponds by em- 
ployees of the Division, and the fish distributed to public waters, except as other- 
wise noted. 

Frye Pond on the Harold Parker State Forest, October 2 to 6. — 6,300 horned 
pout and 3,300 yellow perch, and in addition 500 horned pout to Brackett Pond 
for breeders. Total— 10,100. 

Dearth Hill Pond on the Brim field State Forest, October 8. — 1,400 horned pout. 
Total— 1,400. 

Collins Pond on the Harold Parker State Forest, October 15 to October 20. — 375 
pike perch, 6,450 small mouth black bass, 60,650 blue gills. Total — 67,475. 
There were also distributed for fish food 750 banded pickerel and 20,000 banded 
sunfish. 

How r e Pond on the Spencer State Forest, October 22. — 700 pickerel. Total — 
700. There were also distributed 10,000 shiners and dace to Palmer for fish food. 

Field Pond on the Harold Parker State Forest, October 27 to November 21. — 
203,800 crappie, 107,850 horned pout, planted in open waters. In addition, 5 
crappie, 35 horned pout, 15 yellow perch, 11 pike perch, 8 large mouth black bass, 
35 blue gills were supplied for exhibition purposes. Total — 311,759. 

Ayer State Game Farm — Edward E. Backus, Came Bird Culturist, in Charge 
Construction and Replacement. — With Federal labor, the State supplying 
the material, two projects were carried out, as follows. In December, 1935, a 



P.D. 25 47 

wintering pen for pheasants was completed on the Huebner tract, across the road 
from the main farm. The pen is 150 feet long, 90 feet wide and 7 feet high, framed 
with cedar poles and posts and covered on sides and top with wire netting, and 
being divided into three equal sections, each 150 feet by 30 feet. 

To allow for a much needed expansion in rabbit breeding equipment a Federal 
project was started the last of April and completed in one month's time. The 
new layout consists of 40 breeding pens, 10 feet by 25 feet, 7 buck pens, 6 feet by 
43 feet, 1 buck pen, 8 feet by 43 feet with corridor 7 feet by 40 feet forming one 
more pen, one range pen, 50 feet by 100 feet and one range pen 100 feet by 100 
feet. All outside construction was made vermin-proof. 

With State funds, in April, 7 surplus pheasant breeding pens of the Rogers type 
were stripped of wire, cut down and reconstructed into raccoon pens, 12 feet by 
12 feet by 6 feet 6 inches. Later, 2 more pheasant pens were so remodeled, each 
being divided by a partition through the center to form two pens and a smaller 
pen for rearing cubs was constructed. These last pens were completely boarded 
up on one side and new kennels of a "leanto" type constructed and attached to the 
outside of the boarded-up section, 3 feet from the ground, access being given through 
holes cut in the wall and a suitable landing shelf or ledge provided with a cleated 
ramp leading up to it. 

Late in the summer, 7 of the obsolete Coleman quail brooders received from the 
Marshfield station via the Sutton Ponds station were altered into raccoon kennels 
of the two-story type to replace those received from Sutton which were not satis- 
factory for winter use. Twenty-one of this lot of quail brooders were remodeled for 
use as winter hutches for cottontails and equipped with attached, wire- floored 
pens, mounted on trestles in units of four. 

A 4-section, electrically-heated grouse brooder of a new type was constructed in 
June, and later in the sumrcer an experimental holding pen for grouse. A tile 
drain was laid to dry up a wet area in the pheasant range field and additional tile 
laid to extend the distributive field of the residence septic system. The range pens 
were dismantled and re-erected on a new location. 

About 100 feet of the fence around the pheasant brood stock wintering pen, 
destroyed by the March flood, was rebuilt, one side of the original rabbit pen, also 
damaged by flood, was repaired, and the washed-out road beside the pond was 
repaired and re-surfaced. There were the usual minor repairs to equipment 
throughout the year. 

Equipment. — The station was provided with a new Ford truck, and the old one 
turned in. 

General Farm Work. — Large crops of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Scotch kale, 
cucumbers, tomatoes, etc., were raised to provide green food for pheasants, quail, 
grouse and cottontails. Fifty-four bushels of carrots and 27 bushels of rutabagas 
were raised, harvested and stored in the incubator cellar to provide winter food for 
cottontails. Two large tracts were fitted, limed and seeded to clover and to rye 
respectively, to provide early green food next spring. 

Pheasant Breeding. — No change was made in feeding or rearing methods over 
those in use last year. Worthy of note was the total absence of cannibalism 
among either young birds or adult stock. 

Egg production, fertility and percentage of hatch was eminently satisfactory, 
but excessive mortality among the chicks, under 10 days of age, prevailed through- 
out the entire season. Pathological examination of numerous specimens was made 
at Harvard Medical School, but no evidence of organic diseases was found. Lowered 
vitality due to intensive inbreeding is without doubt responsible for some of the 
losses, and efforts to correct this trouble through the introduction of unrelated blood 
are in progress. To this end, 101 pure-bred Chinese birds, of the current year's 
hatch, have been purchased from a breeder in the State of Washington whose stock 
originated in a direct importation from China and has no relationship to the Oregon 
birds. Apart from the losses sustained in the ten- day period before mentioned, 
mortality among the poults was extremely low and the quality of those distributed 
the highest in the annals of the farm. The birds feathered rapidly and smoothly 
and there was a total absence of feather picking or other vices. 

The year opened with 770 adult pheasants on hand (90 of the old brood stock 



48 P.D. 25 

and 680 of the 1935-hatched pheasants). Of these, 55 were lost, 464 liberated in 
open covers, 12 distributed for experimental purposes, and 239 retained for breeding 
purposes. 

From the week ending April 11 through the week ending August 15, a total of 
15,352 eggs was collected. Of this number, 1,850 were broken or discarded (1,496 
of which were used for feeding raccoons), and 13,502 were set in incubators. 

Of the number set, 4,615 were lost, and 8,887 hatched, to which were added 7 
brought in by a warden, making a total of 8,894. Of these, 4,052 were lost, 700 
transferred to other stations (450 to the Wilbraham State Game Farm and 250 to 
the Sandwich State Game Farm), 2,260 day-old chicks distributed for rearing, 
1,328 young pheasants liberated in open covers, 528 turned over to the sportsmen's 
clubs for wintering, and 26 remain on hand November 30. 

To the 239 brood stock retained for the breeding season were added 101 Chinese 
pheasants purchased from a breeder in the State of Washington, making a total of 
340, of which 36 cocks were transferred to other stations (12 to the Sandwich State 
Game Farm, 12 to the Marshfield State Game Farm, and 12 to the Wilbraham State 
Game Farm), 17 were lost, and 287 remain on hand November 30. 

Quail Breeding. — In general, the quail production for the year was disappoint- 
ing. Egg production slightly exceeded that of the previous year, but fertility and 
percentage of hatch was considerably lower. Excessive humidity throughout 
the incubating season contributed to the latter. Many of the chicks appeared to 
lack vitality and died within a few days of hatching. Those that survived the first 
two weeks lived well and developed normally. 

The year opened with 576 adult quail on hand (33 of the old brood stock and 
543 of the 1935-hatched birds). Of these, 44 were lost, 378 liberated in open 
covers, 11 distributed for experimental purposes, and 143 remained on hand at the 
beginning of the breeding season. 

A total of 5,101 eggs was collected from the week ending May 9 through the week 
ending September 19. Of these, 81 were broken or discarded and 5,020 were set 
in incubators. Of the number set, 1,520 were lost and 3,500 hatched. Of these, 
2,040 were lost, 980 liberated in open covers and 480 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 143 adults on hand at the beginning of the breeding season, 26 were lost, 
40 liberated in open covers, and 77 remain on hand November 30. 

Considerable work along the line of selective breeding to develop a strain of 
quail with inherent high productivity coupled with vitality and resistance to disease, 
a continuation of work started the previous year, was done. It is interesting to 
note that, as a result of this work, it was revealed that a great proportion of the 
losses in incubation and rearing could be traced definitely to individual pairs. For 
example, over 90 per cent of the cripples developing in incubation were found to be 
the offspring of a single hen. Certain other hens were responsible for a large pro- 
portion of the infertile eggs, others for the chicks dead in shell. Elimination of 
those individuals from the breeding flock should materially reduce further losses in 
eggs and chicks. A new station record in egg production was made when one young 
hen, a daughter of our previous high egg-record hen (130 eggs in 1935) produced 
139 eggs, nearly all of which were fertile and hatched. 

Cottontail Rabbit Breeding. — The stock on hand at the Game Farm at the 
beginning of the fiscal year, 20 does and 11 bucks, was carried through the winter in 
individual pens and hutches without loss. (These included 5 does and 4 bucks of 
the original wild- trapped Vermont stock and 15 does and 7 bucks pen-bred and 
reared from that stock in 1935.) To these were added in April, 13 does and 3 
bucks from the Sutton State Pond station where the cottontail work was discon- 
tinued. The 3 bucks and 5 of the does, received from Sutton, were of native 
Massachusetts stock, tentatively identified as the Sylvilagus mallurus or Eastern 
Cottontail, the majority of the Vermont stock being of the sub-species Sylvilagus 
transitionalis or Northern Cottontail. The morphology of this classification into 
two sub-species is still somewhat in doubt but does point to a specific distinction. 
The genetic evidence below justifies a practical distinction between the Eastern 
and Northern groups. 

It became apparent, as breeding operations began, that the two sub-species were 
inimical to one another and with a single exception all attempts to cross-breed them 
resulted in failure and usually in the death or injury of the doe. The hostility was 



P.D. 25 49 

particularly evident in the case of the Northern does placed with Eastern bucks, 
the doe attacking the buck savagely immediately she was introduced to his pen. 
The ranges of the two sub-species overlap in Northwestern Massachusetts and 
Southern Vermont, and the two are not readily distinguished by outward appear- 
ance. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that much of the trouble experienced 
in 1935, at both this and the Sutton station, through failure of does to mate or 
through the destruction of one of a pair by the other, was due to the fact that 
individuals of both species were received in the cottontails shij ped from Vermont. 
This is in part proved by the fact that a buck, received from Vermont, from which 
last year it was impossible to secure any young, twice mated with a known Eastern 
cottontail doe in 1936, siring two good litters. In the single exception noted of 
successful cross-breeding, an Eastern doe was twice mated to our best-producing 
Northern buck by whom she had two litters, losing the first but rearing the second. 

The Eastern cottontails proved much more prolific than the Northern. Not 
only did they breed more freely, but they averaged larger litters and took better 
care of their young. Four out of the 5 produced 9 litters among them, the fourth 
failing to breed although repeatedly mated. Ten of the 28 Northern does did 
not breed, and many bred but once. Each of the 4 Eastern does bred twice, and 
one 3 times. Barrenness among cottontails appears, therefore, to be a common 
occurrence. 

Considerable trouble was experienced, as was the case last year, by failure of 
the does to care for their young. This was particularly true of the first litters. 
A doe that completely neglected her first litter, allowing them to die of starvation 
and exposure, frequently took the best -of care of a succeeding one and reared 
every animal. There were only two or three instances of the young being actually 
destroyed by the doe, one case being remarkable by the fact that an old doe, with 
but two young, kjlled and partially devoured them after they had left the nest 
several days. 

Two reserve bucks, held in a pheasant wintering pen, escaped when the fence 
was demolished by the March flood; 2 bucks and 5 does were lost during the season; 
4 bucks and 13 does were distributed for liberation and 6 bucks and 15 does remain 
on hand. 

Thirty litters were born with a total of 117 young, of which 21 were either born 
dead or died within a few hours of birth. Thirteen young Eastern cottontails 
were received from various sources throughout the summer. Thirty- eight leverets, 
including 2 wild-born young brought in by wardens, were lost through various 
causes, 15 distributed for liberation, and 56 were raised to maturity. It is be- 
lieved that the eventual replacement of the Northern stock, as sufficient Eastern 
stock becomes available, will do much to substantially increase future production. 
Forty-two of the total of 117 young were born to the 4 Eastern does, an average 
of over 10 young to a doe, whereas 16 Northern does produced but 75 young be- 
tween them, averaging less than 5 young per doe. The percentage of young reared 
to those born was also in about the same ratio. The cottontails were handled 
and fed as described in the 1935 annual report. 

Ruffed Grouse. — Experiments in the hatching and rearing of ruffed grouse 
were conducted, this being the first attempt in this direction at this farm. Late 
in May three clutches, containing a total of 34 eggs, were collected from wild 
nests and delivered late in May to the station by neighboring wardens and placed 
in incubators. Of these, 5 were infertile or contained dead germs and 29 hatched. 
Of the first to hatch (9 chicks from 11 eggs set), four (3 cocks and a hen), were reared 
to maturity. Of the 5 lost, 4 were affected with slipped tendons and were destroyed, 
the fifth dying of enteric trouble. The remaining 2 clutches hatched simultaneously 
and produced 20 chicks. While still in the electric incubator, a violent thunder 
storm occurred, late in the night, and, lightning striking the transmission line, 
electric service was suspended for several hours. The grouse chicks were trans- 
ferred to an oil-burning incubator and through failure of the regulator to function 
properly, were severely overheated, resulting in their loss within 2 or 3 days. 
The 4 reared to maturity are on hand November 30. 

The grouse reared were fed exactly as were the young quail: Chapin's Start- All 
Kernels, clabber, poultry cabbage and cucumbers. The clabber was gradually 
eliminated after the fourth week and water substituted. Minced hard-boiled 



50 P.D. 25 

egg was used for a few days at the start but was discontinued when trouble from 
slipped tendons developed. The birds made excellent growth and feathered 
rapidly and smoothly, indicating that their simple ration was adequate. In 
October, fighting among the birds was so prevalent that it became necessary to 
place them in separate quarters. 

Raccoons. — Early in April and during the middle of June 13, raccoons were 
transferred to this station from the Sutton State Pond System, where the breed- 
ing of these animals was discontinued. To this number 4 were added, brought 
in by wardens, making a total of 17 adult raccoons on hand November 30. In 
addition, 7 young raccoons were brought to the station by wardens and are on 
hand November 30. 

Marshfield State Game Farm — Lysander B. Sherman, Game Bird Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — For the purpose of holding pheasants 
for spring liberation, a wintering pen capable of holding 550 birds was completed 
during the early part of December (1935) by Works Progress Administration labor, 
materials being furnished by the State. The pen is 150 feet long, 90 feet wide and 
7 feet high, framed with cedar poles and posts and covered on all sides and top 
with wire netting, and divided into 3 equal sections, each 150 feet by 30 feet. 

There was no construction work with State funds, and only small repair jobs. 

Pheasant Breeding. — The year opened with 644 adult pheasants on hand 
(27 of the old brood stock and 617 of the 1935-hatched birds). Of these, 20 were 
lost, 226 liberated in open covers, and 398 were retained for breeders. 

A total of 15,059 eggs was collected from the week ending April 4 through the 
week ending July 11, of which 443 were used for feeding birds, and 14,616 were 
set in incubators. Of these, 5,057 were infertile or contained dead germs and 
9,559 hatched, of which 3,396 were lost, 1,200 day-old chicks distributed for 
rearing, 3,648 young pheasants liberated in open covers, and 1,315 were distributed 
to the sportsmen's clubs for wintering. No young birds on hand November 30. 

To the 398 retained for breeding were added 12 Chinese cock pheasants received 
from the Ayer State Game Farm, making a total of 410, of which 23 were lost, 
and 387 remain on hand November 30. 

Quail Breeding. — The year opened with 294 of the 1935-hatched birds on hand, 
of which 17 were lost, 127 liberated in open covers, and 150 were on hand at the 
beginning of the breeding season. 

Eggs were collected from the week ending May 2 through the week ending 
August 22, totaling 4,476, of which 2 were broken or discarded and 4,474 set in 
incubators. Of these, 1,425 were infertile or contained dead germ and 3,049 
hatched, of which 1,251 were lost, 1,512 liberated in open covers and 286 remain 
on hand November 30. 

Of the 150 adults on hand at the beginning of the breeding season, 33 were lost, 
26 liberated in open covers, and 91 remain on hand November 30. 

Ruffed Grouse. — During the month of May, 51 eggs were brought to the 
station by wardens, and all were set in incubators. Twenty-one were infertile 
or contained dead germ and 30 hatched, of which 28 were lost and 2 remain on 
hand November 30. 

Sandwich State Game Farm — J. Albert Torrey, Game Bird Culturist, in Charge 

On May 6, 1936, Mr. Harry A. Torrey, after more than 22 years' service as a 
Game Bird Culturist with the State, was retired, having reached the compulsory 
retirement age. Mr. J. Albert Torrey was appointed as his successor, subject to 
confirmation by the Division of Civil Service. 

New Construction and Replacement. — By a Works Progress Administration 
project (labor by the Federal government, materials by the State), a wintering 
pen (550-bird capacity) was completed during the early part of December, 1935, 
for the purpose of holding pheasants for spring liberation. The pen is 150 feet 
long, 90 feet wide and 7 feet high, being framed with cedar poles and posts and 
covered on all sides and top with wire netting, and being divided into 3 equal 
sections, each 150 feet by 30 feet. 

With State funds 20 quail wintering pens were built in the early spring, tops and 



P.D. 25 51 

ends of homosote building board, bottoms and fronts of wire. During the winter 
and early spring considerable repair work was done to all pheasant houses and 
pens, consisting of replacing roofing paper, windows, boards, posts and wire. 

Pheasant Breeding. — The year opened with 935 adult pheasants on hand 
(6 of the old brood stock and 929 of the 1935-hatched birds). Of these, 105 were 
lost, 466 liberated in open covers and 364 retained for breeding. 

A total of 14,820 eggs was collected from the week ending April 4 through the 
week ending June 27, all of which were set in incubators. Two thousand of these 
eggs were collected from the pheasants carried through the winter prior to this 
liberation about May 1, and these early eggs aided materially in producing a greater 
number of early hatched pheasants. Of the number set, 4,213 were infertile or 
contained dead germ, and 10,607 hatched to which were added 250 received from 
the Ayer State Game Farm, making a total of 10,857. Of these, 2,507 were lost, 
900 day-old chicks distributed for rearing, 200 six-weeks old pheasants distributed 
for rearing, 6,129 young pheasants liberated in open covers, 866 distributed to the 
sportsmen's clubs for wintering, and 255 remain on hand November 30. 

To the 364 adults retained for breeding were added 12 Chinese cock pheasants 
from the Ayer State Game Farm, making a total of 376 of which 106 were lost, 
110 liberated in open covers, and 160 remain on hand November 30. 

Quail Breeding. — The year opened with 873 adult quail on hand (115 of the 
old brood stock and 758 of the 1935-hatched birds). Of these, 117 were lost, 605 
liberated in open covers, and 151 remained on hand at the beginning of the breeding 
season. 

From the week ending April 25 through the week ending September 5, a total 
of 6,173 eggs was collected, all of which were set in incubators. Of these, 2,263 
were lost and 3,910 hatched, of which 1,286 were lost, 2,110 young quail liberated 
in open covers, and 514 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 151 adults on hand at the beginning of the breeding season, 44 were lost, 
30 liberated in open covers, and 77 remain on hand November 30. 

During the winter and spring drastic action was taken to rid the quail houses 
and pens of the dreaded quail disease germs. In spite of the disinfecting and burn- 
ing with a large torch of the inside of the boxes and pens, it apparently was impos- 
sible to do a thorough job, and during the month of August quail disease again 
appeared causing a heavy mortality. 

Ruffed Grouse Breeding. — During the month of June, 20 eggs were brought 
to the farm by wardens. These consisted of 2 settings of 12 and 8. The lot of 
12 all hatched June 3. Four were weak and died on June 17, and the remaining 8 
were killed by a weasel which entered the pen. Those hatched from the setting 
of 8 eggs were reared almost to maturity when they contracted quail disease and 
died in a very few days. 

Sutton State Pond System — Game Culture — James E. Noble, in Charge 
Cottontail Rabbits. — The year opened with 29 brood stock on hand to which 
were added 2 brought in by a warden, making a total of 31, of which 4 were lost, 
11 liberated in open cover, and 16 transferred to the Ayer State Game Farm during 
the middle of April. 

Raccoons. — The year opened with 14 brood stock on hand, to which was added 
one brought in by a warden, making a total of 15, of which 2 were lost and 13 turned 
over to the Ayer State Game Farm (11 in April and 2 in June). 

During 1936 it was considered advisable to concentrate the cottontail rabbit and 
raccoon experimental work on one farm. The Ayer Game Farm was selected as 
headquarters for this work, and in the course of the year the stock on hand at the 
Sutton Ponds was transferred to Ayer. 

Wilbraham State Game Farm — Frederick W. Wood, 
Game Bird Culturist, in Charge 
New Construction and Replacement. — During the early part of December, 
1935, by a Works Progress Administration project (the State supplying the mate- 
rials), a wintering pen (550-bird capacity) was completed for holding pheasants 
for spring liberation. The pen is 150 feet long, 90 feet wide and 7 feet high, being 



52 P.D. 25 

framed with cedar poles and posts, covered on all sides and the top with wire net- 
ting, and divided into 3 equal sections, each 150 feet by 30 feet. 

The largest single project at this station was the construction of an additional 
pheasant intermediate house started about the end of November, 1935, and com- 
pleted in approximately 3 months. This house replaces 9 antiquated units which 
had outlived their usefulness. It was built as a companion to the brooder house 
constructed in 1934, and lies just south of and parallel to the latter. It is 250 
feet long by 12 feet wide, and is divided into 25 equal sections, having 12 brooder 
sections on each side of the feed room which occupies the middle section of the 
building. To save excessive fill for the house and pens, a drop oiV/i feet in floor 
levels was effected at the end of the first twelve brooder sections nearest the road, 
making the feed room and the remaining 12 brooder sections on a level equal to 
that of the corresponding sections of the 1934 house. The building sets on a con- 
crete foundation and is tied to it at 10-foot intervals by bolts embedded in the 
concrete. The floor is of concrete; the sides and ends of the building are covered 
with novelty siding, painted white, and the roof is covered with a good grade of 
asphalt shingle. Each brooder section (10 feet by 12 feet) is heated by a modern 
Simplex oil burning brooder stove, and drinking fountains are located between 
sections. Clean-out doors are installed at the back of the building at the center 
of each brooder section. 

A separate project for the construction of the pens for this new building was 
submitted to the Federal authorities during the winter, received approval and 
work started about the first of April, and was completed in six weeks. A pen 
80 feet long by 10 feet wide was constructed for each of the 24 brooder sections 
of the new building, the grading for which had been done the previous year. The 
pens are 6 feet 10 inches high, the sides and top covered with wire netting. 

To provide for the future expansion of pheasant rearing facilities, a Works 
Progress Administration project was submitted during the summer for extending 
the grading at the two new brooder houses. Approval was received early in October 
and work started on the 16th of that month. The project calls for the placing 
of 4,500 cubic yards of gravel fill, and when completed (probably early in February) 
will allow for the addition of one complete unit of 8 brooder sections, with pens, 
to each of the new houses. 

During the winter, with State funds and labor, 17 of the old quail breeding 
cages were reconstructed using new lumber where needed, and 10 pheasant range 
feeders and 6 grouse holding and breeding cages were constructed. 

Pheasant Breeding. — The } r ear opened with 986 of the 1935-hatched birds 
on hand, of which 54 were lost, 512 liberated in open covers, and 420 retained for 
breeding. 

Eggs were collected from the week ending April 11 through the week ending 
July 18, totaling 17,420. Of these, 255 were distributed to a sportsman's club for 
hatching and rearing, 200 were broken or discarded, 449 used for feeding birds, 
and 16,516 set in incubators. Of the number set, 5,948 were infertile or contained 
dead germ and 10,568 hatched, to which were added 450 received from the Ayer 
State Game Farm, making a total of 11,018. Of these, 3,666 were lost, 5,528 
liberated in open covers, 1,443 distributed to the sportsmen clubs for wintering, 
and 381 remain on hand November 30. 

No changes were made in the feeding of the pheasants at this station during 
the season. Dr. Romanoff's method of hatching was used with good results, 
and the chicks lived well up to the fifth and sixth days. From then until about 
the twelfth day heavy losses were experienced and everything was done to check 
these losses, but it was impossible to determine the cause. Specimens were sent 
to the State College for autopsy which revealed paratyphoid infection. While 
the pathologist who performed the autopsies did not think this was the direct cause 
of the losses, he did think that it might be indirectly responsible for them. Late 
in September, blood was taken by a member of the staff of the State College from 
all birds being held over as brood stock for 1937. The results of the tests revealed 
no reactors to the typhoid test. Through these tests it is expected that the main 
sources of carrying this infection over through another year will have been 
eliminated. 

To the 420 adults retained for breeding were added 12 Chinese cock pheasants 



P.D. 25 53 

from the Ayer State Game Farm, making a total of 432, of which 38 were lost, 
315 liberated in open covers, 16 distributed for wintering, and 63 remain on hand 
November 30. 

Quail Breeding. — The year opened with 522 adult quai on hand (107 of the old 
brood stock and 415 of the 1935-hatched birds), of which 114 were lost, 252 liberated 
in open covers, and 156 were on hand at the beginning of the breeding season. 

From the week ending May 9 through the week ending August 22, 4,856 eggs 
were collected, all of which were set in incubators. Of the number set, 1,221 were 
infertile or contained dead germ, and 3,635 hatched, of which 934 were lost, 2,160 
liberated in open covers and 541 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 156 adults on hand at the beginning of the breeding season, 39 were lost, 
10 liberated in open covers, and 107 (53 hens and 54 cocks) remain on hand No- 
vember 30. 

Ruffed Grouse. — From the middle of May to the beginning of June, 68 eggs 
were brought in by wardens, one of which was discarded and 67 set in incubators. 
Of these, 19 were infertile or contained dead germ, and 48 hatched, to which were 
added 12 chicks brought in by a warden, making a total of 60, of which 35 were lost 
and 25 remain on hand November 30. 

In working with the grouse chicks it was found that their characteristics and 
habits are very different from either pheasant or quail chicks. At no time do they 
show the wild nervousness prevalent in both pheasants and quail. 

It was found that the grouse chicks did not care for dry mash which was fed to 
both pheasants and quail, so this was changed to a wet mash of Spratt's pheasant 
meal and egg, the combination formerly fed to the pheasants. They took to this 
readily; then, they were fed Larro dry mash, Chapin Start- All kernels, clabber, 
cucumbers and chopped lettuce which was kept before them at all times. The wet 
mash was fed 4 times daily up to 6 weeks of age when they were transferred (at 
between 6 and 7 weeks of age) to the holding cages, and at this time the wet mash, 
clabber and chopped lettuce were discontinued. From then on until maturity their 
feed consisted of Chapin kernels, green food such as cucumbers, poultry cabbage, 
of which they are very fond, tomatoes and fresh water. 

At about 2 weeks of age Hock disease made its appearance, and was present in 
each lot of birds as they reached that age. Ten birds at different ages died from 
this disease, the last one having lived to the age of 14 weeks. During the second 
week of July 3 chicks died of coccidiosis, and from then on until all of the birds were 
3 months of age enteritis powder was mixed with their food and water to keep this 
disease under control. Twenty-eight grouse were transferred to holding cages, 
one of which was crippled with Hock disease. This bird died later from exposure 
during a severe storm. On October 12, a female died and was autopsied at the 
State College, but no cause of death could be determined. 

Massachusetts State College, — Experimental Breeding 

Experimental grouse breeding, which was in progress during 1934 and 1935, at 
the Massachusetts State College, Amherst, was continued. For use of the college 
in 1936 there were 28 grouse eggs collected by the wardens. 

Experimental work was also carried on with ring-neck pheasants, for which the 
Division supplied the College with 150 day-old chicks early in July. 

Following is a report from Dr. R. E. Trippensee, Professor of Wildlife Manage- 
ment, on the game propagation work at the College : 

a Ail work with birds is carried on as a cooperative activity between the Depart- 
ment of Forestry, the Poultry Department, the Department of Veterinary Science, 
and the workers in the Experiment Station. 

The work of hatching and brooding is done at the Poultry plant. Professor 
J. C. Graham, Head of the Poultry Department, Assistant Professor Luther Banta, 
Professor William C. Sanctuary, and Mr. John H. Vondell have all given valuable 
time and effort in carrying on the work in hatching and brooding of both ruffed 
grouse and pheasants. 

Dr. Van Roekel and Dr. Bullis of the Experiment Station in the Department of 
Veterinary Medicine gave able assistance in the autopsy of specimens and the diag- 
nosis of the causes of death. Professor Banta, Mr. Fred Taylor, Mr. Robert Wells, 
and Mr. Thomson Stevens helped in the building of pheasant pens and the con- 



54 P.D. 25 

struction of a brooder for the care of both grouse and pheasants. The Forestry 
Department assisted through the help of Mr. Dan McLeary and by furnishing 
lumber and poles for construction of the various pens. 

The work with the ruffed grouse was as follows: — 

The College has experimented for the past three seasons with ruffed grouse eggs 
furnished by the Conservation Department. On January 1, five adult ruffed grouse 
were in the pens under the care of the poultry department. These 5 birds have 
been kept for studying feeding, habits, behavior and breeding phenomena. Three of 
these birds died at different times between April 20 and August 24, this season. 
Two of the birds were too badly decomposed when found to be of much value for 
diagnostic purposes. Lack of available refrigeration facilities prevented proper 
handling of the specimens. 

One of the females still on hand laid 8 fertile eggs and one which was infertile. 
All the live germs in the 8 fertile eggs died during the incubation period. The 
cause of death of these germs is not known. 

Difficulties of various kinds have accompanied our efforts to rear ruffed grouse in 
captivity. During incubation a wire broke in the incubator, probably weakening 
some of the grouse emb^os that did hatch, and killing the germ in some of the eggs 
that failed to hatch. The Coleman quail brooders are not suitable for work with 
grouse, and the electrical equipment, including temperature control apparatus, is 
neither suitable nor adequate. Use of water-soaked brooder coops accounted for 
the death of 3 partly-grown birds when a door dried and shrunk to the point where 
it fell out of the grooves which held it. Two birds broke their legs by catching 
them in the wire bottom of brooder pens. 

The greater number of the 26 birds hatched died of causes which appear to be 
connected with nutritional troubles. While the best food formula available was 
used, it proved not to be suitable for the rearing of grouse chicks during their early 
stages. 

Eggs received, 28; hatched, 26; death due to direct mechanical difficulties, 5; 
other deaths, 20 ; survivors, 1 . 

All of the 20 birds listed as "Other Deaths" died in the juvenile stages from what 
appeared to be nutritional deficiencies of some kind. But although some progress 
was made in that no slipped tendons were found, it appears much needs to be done 
in the way of research on food habits and requirements before satisfactory results 
can be expected. 

It is suggested that future studies be limited to mature birds, — unless it is pos- 
sible to place grouse rearing on a purely experimental basis, using modern tempera- 
ture control appliances, with the work conducted by a research student capable of 
developing a suitable mechanical control of the brooder, and who can make careful 
studies on the feeding of grouse, and who can spend full time on the project. 

The work with the ring-necked pheasants was as follows:— 

One hundred and fifty day-old pheasants were received by the college on July 12. 
They were cared for by Fred Taylor under the direction of Professor Luther Banta 
and R. E. Trippensee. A small rearing pen and a wintering yard 25 x 100 feet 
has been constructed for their accommodation. It is planned to carry approxi- 
mately 80 birds through the winter for demonstration and breeding purposes. 

The record is as follows, — Received July 12, — 150; distributed for liberation, 20; 
to Harvard Forest, 6; losses of various kinds, 34; losses unaccounted for (probably 
escapes), 21; on hand November 30, — 69. 

These birds have been and will be very valuable for class study in connection 
with wildlife instruction and for research and demonstration purposes in the wild- 
life program." 

Beartown State Forest— Experimental Turkey Breeding 

The experiment in breeding wild turkeys, started at the wildlife refuge on the 
Beartown State Forest in the spring of 1935j was continued during the past year. 
The work was carried on by the wildlife foreman and crew attached to the Civilian 
Conservation Corps camp located on this forest, with stock purchased from the 
Wildlife Institute in Delaware, N. J. 

Observations were made of the birds released during the fall of 1935, and all 
reports as to where and when they were seen, were carefully noted. 

Eighteen wild turkeys, 6 toms and 12 hens, were carried through the winter with- 



P.D. 25 55 

out loss, and 6 of them, 4 toms and 2 hens, were released on the wildlife refuge on 
March 25. Several reports were received during the spring and summer months of 
6 turkeys being seen in different localities adjoining the Forest, and it assumed that 
they were the ones released in March. 

During the breeding season 170 eggs were taken from the nests of the remaining 
hens, and 87 chicks were produced by artificial incubation. The last clutch of 
eggs was allowed to remain with the hen, and the following releases were made after 
the last hatch: June 4, — 1 hen with 9 chicks; June 6, — 1 hen with 10 chicks; 
June 14, — 1 hen with 9 chicks. 

On June 29 one hen and 7 chicks were observed in the town of Monterey, five 
miles from the point of release, and were photographed. 

On July 8, eighteen young turkeys were allowed to escape over the rearing field 
fence, having reached frying age. Early in September the remaining 6 turkeys 
were released in the town of Dalton, but, up to the time of this report, no word has 
been received concerning them. 

During October and November several reports were received concerning the 
birds released on the Forest, indicating that some of them were still alive and mov- 
ing about from place to place. 

FISH AND GAME DISTRIBUTION 

All distributions of fish and game during the year were based upon information 
and material collected at the annual county distribution conferences conducted by 
the Biologist. 

Mention has already been made, under "Activities of the Biologist and Staff," 
of stream, pond and game cover surveys, and the formulation of permanent plans 
for stocking the covers and waters. 

Following is a summary of the restocking during the year. 

Brook Trout. — There were distributed from the Division's fish hatcheries, 
64,150 fish 1 to 3 inches; 350,656 fish 3 to 5 inches; 252,762 fish 5 to 7 inches; and 
4,789 fish 7 inches and over. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at all of the stations 243,522 fingerlings, 
12,868 yearlings, and 11,318 brood stock fish. 

Brown Trout. — From the Sta.te fish hatcheries at Sunderland and Sutton there 
were distributed 1,000 eggs, 118,340 fish 2 to 5 inches, and 91,208 fish 6 inches and 
over. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the stations 153,700 fingerlings, 
39,808 yearlings, and 1,486 brood stock fish. 

Rainbow Trout. — From the State fish hatcheries at Montague and Sutton 
there were distributed 50 fry; 137,690 fish 2 to 5 inches, and 76,664 fish 6 inches 
and over. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the stations 117,280 fingerlings, 
28,688 yearlings, and 1,123 brood stock fish. 

Chinook Salmon. — From the Sandwich State Fish Hatchery there were dis- 
tributed to open waters 9,000 fish 4 to 6 inches, and 20,000 fish 4 to 6 inches are 
being reared in a private pond for liberation in open waters in the spring of 1938. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the Sandwich State Fish Hatchery 
19,905 fingerlings. 

Small Mouth Black Bass. — From the Palmer State Fish Hatchery 43,170 
fingerlings were liberated in suitable waters. In addition 40,000 fry and 10,000 
fingerlings were turned over to club rearing pools. From the salvage units were 
distributed 5,403 fish to open waters and 50 for exhibition purposes; from the 
salvage of the State Forest ponds were distributed 6,450 fish; from the U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries were received 130,000 fry of which 80,000 were distributed to 
suitable waters and 50,000 were turned over to a club rearing pool. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the Palmer State Fish Hatchery 388 
adult brood stock fish. 

Muskallonge. — The New York Conservation Commission furnished 20,000 fry, 
all of which were planted in a leased pond, Turnbull Pond, Greenfield, for later 
distribution. 



56 P.D.. 25 

Pike Perch. — The New York Conservation Commission furnished 500,000 pike 
perch fry of which 119,000 were distributed to open waters, and 381,000 lost in 
transit. From the salvage of the Harold Parker State Forest ponds were distri- 
buted to open waters 375 fish 6 inches and over; also 11 fish 6 inches and over were 
supplied for exhibition purposes. 

Horned Pout, Pickerel, Yellow Perch, White Perch, Crappie, Large 
Mouth Black Bass, Blue Gills. — Pond fish of various species were distributed 
to open waters, to club rearing pools, and for study and exhibition purposes as 
follows: From the Sutton State Pond System were distributed 36,150 horned pout, 
1,468 pickerel, 26,950 yellow perch, and 84,800 blue gills. From the salvage units 
and miscellaneous salvage jobs were distributed 14,260 crappie, 89,543 horned 
pout, 6,690 pickerel, 64,474 yellow perch, 116,795 white perch, 40 large mouth 
black bass, and 27,040 blue gills. From the salvage of the State Forest ponds 
were distributed 203,805 crappie, 115,585 horned pout, 700 pickerel, 3,315 yellow 
perch, 8 large mouth black bass, and 60,685 blue gills. The Division purchased 
1,025 pickerel of which 550 were distributed to suitable waters, 245 were turned 
over to the Sutton State Pond System for breeding, and 230 were turned over to 
Brackett Pond on the Harold Parker State Forest for breeding. In addition, from 
the salvage units and miscellaneous salvage jobs 1,000 crappie, 2,952 horned 
pout, 348 small mouth black bass, and 2,500 blue gills were turned over to the Har- 
old Parker State Forest ponds for breeding purposes; 550 horned pout, 39 pickerel, 
and 230 yellow perch were turned over to the Sutton State Pond System for breed- 
ing purposes; and 288 small mouth black bass were turned over to the Palmer State 
Fish Hatchery for breeding purposes. From the Sutton State Pond System 500 
horned pout breeders were turned over to the Harold Parker State Forest ponds; 
and 300 sunfish were distributed for mosquito control work; 300 horned pout dis- 
tributed for study ; 200 horned pout distributed to a pond on the Ayer State Game 
Farm. From Frye Pond on the Harold Parker State Forest 500 horned pout 
breeders were transferred to Brackett Pond on the same Forest. 



P.D. 25 



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60 



P.D. 25 



Pheasants. — There were 20,785 young and 2,109 adult pheasants distributed 
from the game farms, either directly to the covers or to the clubs for wintering, 
also 255 pheasant eggs, 4,360 day-old chicks and 200 six-weeks' old pheasants 
distributed for rearing, and 12 adult pheasants distributed for experimental pur- 
poses. In addition, 2,172 young pheasants and 301 adult pheasants were pur- 
chased and distributed either directly to the covers or to the clubs for wintering. 
(See table.) 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the 4 game farms 662 birds (1936 
hatched), and 897 adults. 

Quail. — There were 6,762 young quail and 1,468 adult quail distributed to 
open covers from the 4 game farms. In addition, 11 adult quail were distributed 
for experimental purposes. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the 4 game farms 1,821 birds (1936 
hatched) and 352 adults. 

Cottontail Rabbits. — There were 15 young and 28 adult cottontail rabbits 
distributed to open covers from the breeding activities at the Sutton State Pond 
System and Ayer State Game Farm. 

At the close of the year there are on hand at the Ayer State Game Farm 56 
young cottontail rabbits and 21 adults. 

White Hares.— There were 6,354 white hares imported and released in open 
covers. 

Raccoons. — At the close of the year there are on hand at the Ayer State Game 
Farm 7 young and 17 adults. 

Ruffed Grouse. — At the close of the year there are on hand at the Ayer, 
Marshfield, and Wilbraham State Game Farms 31 young stock. 

Game Distributed for the Period December 1, 1935, to November 30, 1936 
(This table does not show stock transferred from one game farm to another nor does it show 
additions to brood stock) 











Not 












Product of 






Product of State Game Farms 


State Game 












Farms 












(Purchased) 








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Young 


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4,152 


*4,560 


- 


1,590 


582 


27,517 


Adult 


2,093 


16 


— 


12 


301 


— 


2,422 


Quail: 
















Young 


6,762 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


6,762 


Adult 


1,468 


— 


— 


11 


— 


- 


1,479 


Cottontail Rabbits: 
















Young 


15 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15 


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28 


— 


— 


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Adult 


7 


~ 


" 


" 


6,354 


" 


6,354 



*4, 350 day-old and 200 six-weeks old. 

In addition, 255 pheasant eggs were turned over to a club for hatching. 



P.D. 25 61 

MARINE FISHERIES 

State Inspector of Fish 

The Bureau of Fish Inspection has just completed the busiest year of its history. 
The unusually large increase in the amount of fish landed at Massachusetts ports 
in American fishing vessels in addition to fish shipped in on steamers, vessels, 
railroad freight and trucks has made it almost impossible to inspect the retail 
stores as frequently as is necessary. 

At the present time there are about 3,000 retail markets in this State handling 
fish. With the present force it is impossible to inspect these retail markets more 
than two or three times a year. It can be readily understood that this is a very 
inadequate check. Excellent cooperation is oeing received from the wholesale 
dealers and producers. 

The summary reveals that during the year, 35,559 inspections were made by 
the five deputy inspectors and an average of 196,902 pounds of fish and lobster 
unfit for food was condemned by each. 

The total of 984,509 pounds condemned is but a very small percentage of the 
total amount of fish and lobster handled by the dealers during the year, there 
being 350,000,000 pounds handled. 

A brief summary of the inspection work done during the year is as follows: 
Total inspections Dec. 1, 1935, to Nov. 30, 1936 . . 35,559 

Fish condemned: 

Japanese swordfish .... 73,446 lbs. 

Canadian swordfish .... 77,923 lbs. 

American swordfish .... 1,352 lbs. 

Miscellaneous fish .... 750,174>< lbs. 

902,895 ><lbs. 

Lobster condemned: 

Canadian lobster . . . . . 72,166 lbs. 

American lobster .... 9,448 lbs. 



81,614 lbs. 

Court Work 
During the year there were only two cases in which it became necessary to take 
the defendant to court, one for representing frozen fish as fresh, and the other 
for exposing fish for sale which was unfit for human consumption. The first case 
was filed, and a fine of ten dollars was imposed in the other. 

State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries 
The work of the Marine Fisheries Bureau during the past year has continued 
to show the progress that has been in evidence each year since 1929, when pro- 
vision was made by law for the appointment of a State Supervisor of Marine Fish- 
eries. The accomplishments in service rendered to those citizens interested in 
the marine fishing industry indicate the success of a very progressive program of 
marine conservation which has been achieved through a fine spirit of cooperation 
between the boards of selectmen of the coastal towns and the Bureau. The 
desire of the selectmen not only to seek advice but to readily accept suggestions 
has been productive of splendid results. 

Program of Work 

The program of work followed the same general lines as outlined in previous 
reports. Although, due to limited funds and lack of personnel, certain points 
in this program were not as completely developed as others, the main objectives 
will, doubtless, continue in the future to be the goal of the activities of the Bureau. 

Concisely stated, this program is as follows: 

1. Further study and examination of the coastal fisheries of the State for the 
purpose of ascertaining the extent and value of these fisheries, so as to make such 
recommendations as may lead to an increased catch and use. 

2. Promotion of an educational program to increase the knowledge of marine 
fish and encourage an increased use of them as food. 



62 P.D. 25 

3. Continuation of plans to increase the supply of anadromous fish which run 
up the streams to spawn. This program includes the introduction and protection 
of shad, smelt, salmon, and alewives in those streams that are adapted for them; 
the repair and improvement of existing fishways; the construction of new fishways 
where desirable; and the improvement of spawning areas. 

4. Continuance and further development of a cooperative program for reseed- 
ing barren shellfish areas and the extermination of shellfish enemies. 

5. The continuation of efforts to protect the coastal areas from improper and 
exhaustive fishing methods which seriously deplete the coastal fisheries. 

6. Building up of a bio-statistical system from which information useful to 
commercial fisheries may be obtained and published. 

7. Establishment of chlorinating plants in Metropolitan Boston, New Bedford 
and Fall River until such time as modern methods of sewage disposal shall result 
in clearing these important coastal areas of contamination. 

8. Establishment of a biological and bacteriological laboratory for the study of 
methods of catching, handling and distributing fish. 

9. The appointment of additional enforcement officers to bring the total up 
to fifteen coastal wardens. 

10. The maintenaance of a fleet of two large patrol boats and three harbor 
boats. 

11. The establishment of a lobster rearing plant to increase the supply of 
lobsters in those areas where the natural increase is not sufficiently rapid. 

12. The further encouragement of mutual cooperation between this State 
and neighboring states, whose fisheries are similar, for the purpose of obtaining 
uniform laws and regulations. 

Work of the Coastal Wardens 

The coastal warden force consists of eleven uniformed officers who patrol the 
coastal areas from the New Hampshire line to the Rhode Island line, together 
with a marine unit of three boats and six men cooperating with the coastal wardens 
in the enforcement of the marine fisheries laws. 

The coast line of Massachusetts is 2,200 miles in length and boarders on 67 
coastal cities and towns; and outside the coast line are many small islands that 
require a constant watch to prevent violations of the fisheries laws. The mag- 
nitude of the coastal area readily reveals the impossibility of a really adequate 
patrol by such a small enforcement force. 

In the past few years, because of the depression, thousands of our citizens 
have turned to the coastal areas to reap from them a livelihood for themselves and 
their dependents. Because of this it became necessary for the wardens to apply 
themselves more diligently to their duties in order to prevent the exhaustion or 
destruction of these natural marine resources. In the law-enforcement work of 
1936, not only have the persistent violators been apprehended, but the enforce- 
ment officers have made every effort to assist those citizens who, affected by the 
depression, were endeavoring to obtain a livelihood by harvesting the natural 
marine resources. Although illegal dragging along our shores is still in evidence, 
the marine unit accomplished a splendid work in stopping, to a large extent, these 
violations at Provincetown and Gloucester. 

During the year the marine unit seized and liberated 19,082 short and 2,025 
seed lobsters at various points along shore. This in itself added materially in the 
revenue of the lobstermen. 

A reorganization of the enforcement unit was instituted as of October 1, by the 
promotion of Coastal Warden Howard S. Willard to the position of Chief Coastal 
Fisheries Warden. 

The district court work of the coastal wardens was as follows: 



P.D. 25 



63 





X) 

a 
H o 


District Court Action 


Offense 




















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Violations in contaminated areas: 




















Taking shellfish .... 


33 


- 


33 


1 


8 


2 


13 


13 


$265 


Possessing and transporting shell- 




















fish 


3 


— 


3 


1 


1 


— 


— 


2 


25 


Possessing undersized shellfish: 




















Clams ..... 


31 


i 


30 


— 


9 


1 


2 


16 


281 


Quahaugs ..... 


9 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


9 


37 


Taking shellfish without permit 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


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mit ...... 


2 


— 


2 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


20 


Failing to display shell fish on demand 




















of warden ..... 


6 


6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Violations of lobster laws: 




















Possessing undersized lobsters 


27 


3 


24 


- 


6 


8 


- 


19 


1,290 


Possessing punched lobsters . 


1 


— 


1 


- 


— 


— 


— 


1 


10 


Fishing without, a license 


10 


1 


9 


— 


2 


2 


— 


7 


135 


Unlawfully possessing lobster meat 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


25 


Failing to display lobsters on de- 




















mand of warden 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


25 


Using unmarked gear 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Interfering with another's fishing 




















gear 


2 


1 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Taking crabs without a license . 


3 


— 


3 


— 


3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Taking scallops without a permit 


2 


- 


2 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Taking scallops out of season 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


25 


Dragging in restricted areas 


34 


— 


34 


— 


14 


5 


5 


15 


475 


Obstructing an officer 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


10 


Aiding and assisting in a violation 


2 


— 


2 


— 


1 


1 


— 


1 


5 


Setting fish trap without a permit 


1 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 




172 


13 


159 


2 


49 


22 


21 


88 


$2,628 



Cases uncompleted on November 30, 21; number of boats seized and libeled, 2; 
automobiles seized and libeled, 1; value of equipment seized, $11.75. 

In addition to the above work of the coastal wardens, the following cases were 
entered in the district court by deputy coastal wardens and local police: 

Taking shellfish in contaminated areas, 4; possessing undersized lobsters, 2; 
fishing without license, 3 ; interference with another's fishing gear, 3; taking lobsters 
after legal hours, 3; digging sea worms without permit, 12; dragging in restricted 
areas, 46; total fines imposed for these violations, $1,075. 

New Legislation 

The following laws affecting the marine fisheries were enacted by the General 
Court in 1936: 

Chapter 158. An Act penalizing non-residents for the taking of fish by the 
otter trawl method from the coastal areas extending from Cuttyhunk in Vineyard 
Sound to Cape Pogue in Nantucket Sound. 

Chapter 176. An Act requiring that shucked scallops and quahaugs in the shell 
be sold only by weight. 

Chapter 238. An Act prohibiting, during certain months of the year, the use of 
beam or otter trawls in taking fish from certain territorial waters of the Common- 
wealth. (East Shore of Eastham, Orleans, and Chatham.) 

Chapter 239. An Act prohibiting the use of beam or otter trawls in taking fish 
from Bass River or any ponds and streams connected therewith in the towns of 
Yarmouth and Dennis. 

Chapter 412. An Act further penalizing the taking of fish by dragging or otter 
trawling in Cape Cod Bay. 

Coastal Stream and Fishway Improvement 
The program of stream and fishway improvement begun in 1935, in which the 
marine and inland sections of the Division worked together, was continued this 



64 P.D. 25 

year with excellent results. As far as time and funds permitted, the two principal 
objectives were reached — the prevention of serious damage to our streams from 
the unsupervised work of Federal relief units and the systematic clearing of streams 
of obstructions to fish. 

In March an allotment of $2,172.50 of Federal funds under the Works Progress 
Administration was secured for Plymouth and Bristol counties. This fund made 
possible the continuance of the work throughout the spring and summer at a very 
moderate cost. Two crews of men were employed under this project, one of four 
men working out of Brockton and another of three men working out of Matta- 
poisett. The work of these units was under the immediate charge of the Super- 
visor's staff. At certain times it was found necessary for these crews to work 
together. A brief account of the work done by these units is as follows: 

During the flood period, March and April, a large amount of work was needed 
in making emergency repairs to fishways and protecting them from flood condi- 
tions. The places at which special attention was necessary were: Triphammer 
Pond, Hingham; Jenkins' Mill dam, Bridgewater; Stanley Iron Works, Bridge- 
water. 

Following flood conditions and as a result of the flood, an increased amount 
of work was required in clearing streams. This work included repairing baffles, 
clearing rapids, removing large logs and other debris, and pointing-up stones 
loosened by the floods in fishways and dams. 

The following streams and ponds were improved during the progress of this 
work which began on March 9 and ended November 30 : Palmer River, Rehoboth ; 
Jones River System, Kingston; Indian Head Brook, Hanson; Smelt Brook, King- 
ston; Island Creek Stream, Duxbury; Town River, Bridgwater; Taunton Great 
River; Mattapoisett River at Roundsville, Rochester; Cowan's bog fishway, 
Rochester; Tremont Nail Company fishway, Wareham; Hathaway' s Pond fish- 
way, Rochester; Redbrook Stream, Cataumet; Bournedale Stream, Bourne; 
Winnetuxet River, Halifax; Sa tucket River, East Bridgewater; Nemasket River, 
Middleborough; Marston's Mills Stream, Barnstable; Bound Brook, Scituate; 
South River, Marshfield; Weir River System, Hingham. 

Palmer River, Rehoboth. — About one mile of this stream below Shad Factory 
dam was again closed this year in order to provide a suitable place for shad to 
spawn. Some work was required in readjusting the protecting screens to prevent 
the fish from being pocketed in shallow water near the dam. Seven hundred 
ale wives and 204 shad which had been trapped prior to the adjustment of the 
screens were salvaged and liberated above the dam. 

Taunton Great River.,— The united work of both crews was needed over a 
period of several days in order to clear out obstructions in this river. Some of 
these obstructions consisted of debris accumulated over a period of several years, 
but the greater part of it had resulted from the recent flood conditions. Not 
only had the passage of fish been obstructed but bridges were also menaced by the 
accumulation of logs, some of which were more than two feet in diameter. In 
addition to clearing out minor obstructions throughout several miles of this stream, 
extensive obstructions were moved near the bridges at Cherry Street, Auburn 
Street, Sturtevant's Corner, Taylor's Bridge, Robinson's and East Taunton. 
The value of the work done in this important stream is very great since it provides 
not only easier travel for alewives and other anadromous fish, but will also greatly 
assist in the restoration of shad in this stream and its tributaries and the general 
promotion of better fresh-water fishing. 

Weir River. — The work of improving this stream was continued this year. 
In addition to repairs and improvements at Triphammer dam and fishway, a 
considerable amount of work was done in developing a large smelt spawning ground 
below Foundry Pond. Some 250 feet of wall was built around a selected area 
and while this work is not completed, the spawning area has been more than 
doubled. 

Nemasket River. — The fishway on this stream at the Middleborough Power 
Plant was almost completely built over this year in order to take care of the greatly 
increased number of alewives in this stream, which has now undoubtedly become 
the largest herring run in the Commonwealth. This result is due partly to the 



P.D. 25 65 

destruction of the dam at East Taunton, but mostly to the persistent- work of the 
past three years in building up fishways and removing obstructions in the stream, 

Mattapoisett River. — Low retaining walls were built at Roundsville dam to 
protect the banks of the fishway. Some 10 to 15 tons of stone were required for 
this purpose. As a result of this work and that of the previous two years, more 
than 50,000 alewives passed through the fishway each day for a period of six weeks. 
Older residents asserted that there were more herring in this river this year than 
they had ever seen. Furthermore, the more satisfactory regulation of the water 
supply which resulted from the construction of this fishway will allow a dozen men 
to be regularly employed at the mill over a period of three months each year. 

Fishway and Stream Improvement Important. — While a large amount of 
work has been done in the past two years in the improvement of streams and the 
repairing or building of fishways there still remains very much that should be done. 
Work of this kind should be done regularly and systematically each year. The 
results from it are of tremendous value to our fisheries. The presence or absence 
of large schools of fish in our coastal waters is largely determined by the amount of 
food which can be secured in these areas. Of this food the adults and young of 
such anadromous fish as the alewife form a principal part. Furthermore, the 
abundance of fish life in such ponds as are connected with the sea is largely deter- 
mined by the quantity of marine fish which spawn in these head waters. It will be 
seen, therefore, that the building of fishways and the improvement of coastal 
streams is of great value to both the marine and the inland fisheries. 

In Essex County, during October and November, a unit of four men was employed 
in rebuilding and improving the Parker River fishways. Except for a certain 
amount of filling to be done behind the fishways this completes the work on the fish- 
ways themselves; but there still remains the task of improving the surrounding 
grounds, and of enlarging the smelt spawning area below the No. 1 Fishway. 

A detailed account follows of the work of restocking and fish transfer done by the 
stream improvement crews. 

Smelt. — From April 15 to May 15, there were 1,200,000 smelt eggs collected on 
trays and hatched in the following streams: Bluefish River, Duxbury; Crosby 
Brook, Marshfield; Ford Brook, Duxbury; Fresh River, Cohasset; Island Creek, 
Duxbury; Marston Mills Brook, Barnstable; Plymouth Brook, Hingham; Red 
Brook, Pocasset; Second Brook, Kingston; South River, Marshfield; and Third 
Herring Brook, Norwell. 

Alewives. — In addition to improvement of fishways and removing obstructions 
to the passage of alewives upstream to spawn, 8,700 adult alewives were trans- 
ferred, in the early part of May, from selected runs to the following waters: Bound 
Brook, North Scituate; Carvers Pond, Bridgewater; Cushing Pond, Duxbury; 
East Monponsett Lake, Halifax; Foundry Pond, Hingham; Lily Pond, Cohasset; 
Russell Pond, Kingston; Shad Factory Pond, Rehoboth; Shoe String Pond, 
Plympton; Soule Pond, Duxbury; Sylvia Pond, Kingston; Town River, West 
Bridgewater; Triphammer Pond, Hingham; West Monponsett Lake, Halifax; 
Whitman Pond, East Weymouth; West Falmouth Pond, Falmouth. 

Shad. — Two hundred and four adult shad, salvaged in Palmer River, were put 
above Orleans dam at Rehoboth. 

Shellfish and Crustacea 

Shellfish Assistance to Coastal Cities and Towns. — In the year and a half 
which has elapsed since a permanent policy of State assistance to the coastal cities 
and towns in their shellfish activities was established in the Commonwealth by an 
act of the General Court — June 5, 1935 — it is conservatively estimated that, as a 
result of this service, more than a quarter of a million dollars have been added to the 
annual revenue which citizens of these cities and towns have received from public 
shellfish areas, exclusive of wages and services paid for by the State and towns 
acting cooperatively to conserve and develop these natural resources, and exclusive 
of the wages paid by the federal government through the Worlds Progress Adminis- 
tration on shellfish projects sponsored by the Bureau. 

These federal shellfish projects, which in 1936 paid out to the unemployed in 
those towns the amount of $47,593, were supervised by the staff of the Bureau of 



66 P.D. 25 

Marine Fisheries, and were made possible through the fact that the Bureau was 
able to underwrite the expense of these projects because of the appropriation made 
by the State for assisting the coastal cities and towns in shellfish conservation. 
The Works Progress Administration employed a total of 368 men in 34 cities and 
towns, and State and towns contributed $28,464 in materials, boat and truck hire, 
supervision and wages to non-relief employees needed to supplement the relief 
workers. These projects have been placed in the highest rank of federal relief 
projects, inasmuch as they were promoted in localities where there were practically 
no opportunities for employment in private industry, and, furthermore, were 
labor-producing in that within a few months after their completion, as a direct 
result of the work, several times the number of persons employed in these projects 
were able to make a comfortable living over a period of several months. They 
were thus doubly effective in relieving unemployment. Very excellent growth was 
obtained in areas reseeded under these projects. A bulk increase of from 300 to 
800 per cent was obtained in the growth of shellfish planted, and in addition to this 
growth in many of the areas seeded, the future supply was further assured by spawn 
thrown from the shellfish which had been planted. 

In addition to reseeding depleted shellfish areas, the program of the Bureau in- 
cluded the restoration of areas which had become overgrown with mussels or thatch ; 
the reclamation of areas which had become too soft and muddy for satisfactory 
production, by hardening them through the addition of sand and gravel; and the 
destruction of enemies of the shellfish — principally starfish, cockles, horseshoe crabs, 
conchs and silica grass. The Bureau has also endeavored in its program to promote 
local interest in shellfish, to guide the local officials in making more efficient local 
regulations, and to encourage the towns to make larger appropriations for protec- 
tion and conservation of their local shellfish industries. The appreciative state- 
ments of the officials and citizens of these towns, both oral and written, are among 
our most valued possessions, and were there no further return secured from the 
appropriations made by the State than the promotion of this interest, it would have 
been money well invested. 

During the year 1936 work was conducted in the following cities and towns: In 
Essex County — Salisbury, Newburyport, Newbury, Rowley, Ipswich, Essex and 
Gloucester; in Plymouth County — Duxbury, Kingston, Plymouth, Wareham, 
Marion, Mattapoisett, Scituate and Marshfield ; in Bristol County — Swansea, West- 
port, Dartmouth, New Bedford and Fairhaven; in Barnstable County — Bourne, 
Barnstable, Yarmouth, Brewster, Dennis, Chatham, Orleans and Provincetown ; 
in Dukes County — Edgartown, Tisbury, Oak Bluffs, West Tisbury and Chilmark, 
and in Nantucket County. 

A brief summary of the results of the work in these towns is as follows: 

Shellfish Enemies Destroyed 

1. Starfish, 53,121 bushels. 

2. Conchs, 67,200, and 13,515 feet of their egg strings. 

3. Horseshoe crabs, 56,687. 

4. Cockles, 407,250, and 84,014 sand collars containing cockle eggs. 

5. Mussels, 53,481 bushels. 

6. Silica grass, 750 tons. 

Shellfish Salvaged and Planted in Barren Areas 

1. Soft-shell clams, 15,238 bushels. 

2. Quahaugs, 3,029 bushels. 

3. Seed scallops, 1,432 bushels. 

In addition to the above, a total of 209 acres of flats, which had hitherto been 
barren and unproductive, were reclaimed from the encroachment of beds of mus- 
sels and thatch. 

Starfish. — Large as was the total amount of starfish collected this past year, it 
was not the most important item of service rendered to the scallop areas most 
affected by this pest, i.e., in the vicinity of Buzzards Bay. By far the greatest 
service was the accurate charting of the location of beds of starfish and seed scallops 
which resulted in greater economy of operation and was less harmful to existing 
beds of shellfish. 



P.D. 25 67 

The Bureau called attention to the seriousness of the starfish peril in this region 
in its report for 1930, but it was not until 1931 that an appropriation was obtained, 
and work was not actually started until July 7 of that year. Since that date, 
256,711 bushels of starfish (representing more than 3,850 tons or 77,000,000 of 
individuals), have been collected and destroyed. In the earlier days of the work 
100 bushels represented an average day's catch, 197 bushels being the highest 
amount obtained by any one fisherman at that time; but in 1936 a very successful 
day's work in the same areas netted only 16 to 20 bushels. In addition to these 
efforts of suppression the General Court passed a law sponsored by the Bureau, 
making it illegal for a fisherman to return starfish to the water. 

The task of starfish suppression on such a large scale was new, and therefore 
encountered, as is common in most new ventures, the antagonism or pessimism of 
certain fishermen; but as the work progressed this antagonism has gradually 
melted away, until now it is common to receive unsolicited praise from shellfish 
growers for the accomplishments in this field. The results have been most en- 
couraging. The number of scallops appearing in these areas has been steadily 
on the increase in spite of the continued absence of eel grass which has prevented 
the scallop seed from surviving in certain exposed areas. 

Realizing that the number of starfish had become too reduced in numbers to 
warrant general and undirected dredging of all areas for them, and that in so doing, 
there would be danger of destroying too many scallops, the Bureau's small No. 3 
boat was again assigned to research work in this area. With a very capable and 
experienced fisherman in charge, this boat, under instructions, carefully charted 
the areas, noting the places of the greatest abundance of starfish at various seasons 
of the year and their reaction to the various methods of dredging. The location 
of the beds of seed scallops was also carefully noted. As a direct result of this 
accurate charting we were able, in the latter part of the year, despite the reduced 
quantities of starfish in this region, to clean up two rather large patches of 
starfish, each containing several hundred bushels, at a cost of about 20 cents per 
bushel and this was done without injuring the seed scallops in nearby areas. 

It is hoped that a continuation of this policy may be had, as from now on it 
appears that this "mopping up" process will be the most satisfactory way to ac- 
complish the desired results, namely, the conservation of the present supply of 
scallops, the prevention of future devastations, and the noting of important factors 
necessary to greatly increase the supply. 

Mussel Removal. — The encroachment of mussels upon shellfish areas has long 
been known to be a serious menace to them. It is particularly damaging to oyster 
and quahaug beds which are continually covered with water, and under such cir- 
cumstances it is especially difficult to remove them. The damage which they may 
do to clam areas, while equally as serious, is one which can be more easily cor- 
rected, and the results obtained are often amazing. A certain flat in Scituate may 
be cited as an example of what has been accomplished by the Bureau in restoring 
clam areas which have become blanketed and destroyed by mussels. As is usual 
in such areas, the underlying soil had become a mire of evil-smelling mud. Walk- 
ing through it, a person would sink in nearly knee-deep. This area, containing 
about ten acres, was cleared of mussels at State and town expense, and within 
three weeks' time the soft mud had washed away and the soil had become firm 
enough to walk on without sinking in more than one-half inch. The seed clams 
which had been caught in the mussel fibres and had been released in their removal, 
found suitable soil in which to grow. These salvaged clams averaged 396 per 
square foot. This area, which had heretofore been worthless as a shellfish area, 
will undoubtedly produce from 500 to 1,500 bushels of clams per acre, and at cur- 
rent prices the harvest from this cleared area will yield about $10,000. Other 
instances equally as amazing have occurred in the progress of our work in the towns 
of Newburyport, Rowley, Ipswich, Essex and Gloucester. 

Quahaug Salvage. — Continuing a service begun in 1935, the Bureau organized 
a unit of 34 local fishermen and 2 supervisors for the purpose of salvaging quahaugs 
from the mildly contaminated area of Clark's Cove New Bedford, for planting in 
clean areas which would be closed until the shellfish were purified. A total of 2,172 
bushels of these quahaugs were salvaged, for which the fishermen received $2,515.20. 



68 P.D. 25 

At the close of this work, the area was thoroughly dredged to remove trash and 
obnoxious growths, in order to prepare it for future supply. 

Purification of Shellfish. — A total of 29,106 bushels of shellfish were taken 
during the year by special permit from the Supervisor from areas declared by the 
Department of Public Health to be contaminated. Of this amount 28,814 bushels 
were clams which before being marketed were purified by a process of chlorination 
at the two State-supervised plants at Newburyport and Plymouth. The clams 
represent a value of $43,000, and 247 men were employed in taking them. To 
obtain these clams the 21 bonded master diggers reported that a total of 1,061,408 
square feet of flats were dug over in the contaminated areas of Boston, Hull, Fall 
River, Hingham, Lynn, Newburyport, Plymouth, Quincy, Revere, Salem, Salisbury 
and Saugus. 

In addition to clams, 292 bushels of quahaugs were taken from the contaminated 
areas of New Bedford and purified at Plymouth. 

The amount of shellfish treated by the individual purification plants was as 
follows: Newburyport, 18,778 bushels; Plymouth, 10,328 bushels. 

Permits. — A total of 7,697 permits and certificates were issued by the Super- 
visor during the year. Although most of these were issued without cost, a revenue 
of $2,266 was obtained from those for which a fee had been provided. The permits 
and certificates for commercial purposes are classified as follows: 3,542 bed certifi- 
cates; 3,389 dealer's shellfish certificates; 247 permits for digging in contaminated 
areas ; 22 master digger's permits for taking shellfish from contaminated areas under 
bond; 77 dealer's shipping certificates; 34 digger's shipping certificates; 216 bait 
permits; 144 permits to sell lobster meat; 21 permits to take sand eels from areas 
in Newburyport, Ipswich and Salisbury; 5 commercial permits to take seed shell- 
fish. 

Lobster Fishery. — From the reports of the fishermen, as required by the pro- 
visions of Section 24, of revised Chapter 130, General Laws, a summary of the catch 
of lobsters for 1936 has been given in the accompanying tables, together with such 
comparisons as would reveal the general trend of the lobster industry. A revenue 
of $5,244 was received by the State for the sale of 1,104 combined lobster-crab 
licenses. 

In accord with the provisions of Section 26 of Revised Chapter 130, General 
Laws, a total of 5,378 egg-bearing lobsters, caught within the waters of the Com- 
monwealth, were purchased from the licensed fishermen of the State at a cost of 
$5,582.13, punched to prevent re-sale and liberated in waters adjacent to the places 
where caught. The total weight of these lobsters was 16,779 pounds. The 
amount of money spent in their purchase in the various counties is as follows: 
Barnstable County, $2,836.18; Essex County, $658.98; Bristol County, $235.55; 
Suffolk County, $1,021.65; Nantucket County, $703.05; Norfolk County, $3.06; 
Dukes County, $111.80; Plymouth County, $11.32. These figures should not 
be interpreted as indicating the relative abundance of egg-bearing lobsters in these 
counties as they represent only the amounts received by the agents located in these 
counties. 

In closing this analysis of the purchase of egg-bearing lobsters the Bureau wishes 
to again go on record as being of the opinion that this purchase cannot be justified 
from a conservation standpoint, and, in practice, actually tends to decrease the 
future supply of lobsters without a sufficiently compensating benefit. This opinion 
is gaining more and more support from the progressive fishermen.- This year a 
total of 17,753 egg lobsters were caught and liberated at once by the fishermen 
without seeking the cash benefit which could have been obtained from the State. 
While the accuracy of our figures cannot be depended upon too exactly since many 
variable factors interfere with positive proof, nevertheless it appears that there has 
been a steady increase in the catch of lobsters in those localities where the fishermen 
have more consistently and over a greater length of time returned the egg lobsters 
immediately to the water instead of selling them to the State; and conversely the 
catch of lobsters has more steadily diminished in those particular areas from which 
the greatest number were sold to the State. 

In addition to the above record of lobsters taken from our coastal waters, 2,025 
egg lobsters and 19,0824obsters under the legal length were seized by the coastal 
wardens from extra-state shipments, and liberated in suitable waters. 



P.D. 25 



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P.D. 25 



Sea Crab Fishery. — The following summary of the catch of crabs in this State 
is made from the reports of licens:d fishermen as required by revised Chapter 130, 
General Laws: Men, 116; boats, 85 valued at $28,047; pots, 5,528, valued at 
$17,191; other equipment valued at $1,505; total equipment valued at $46,743; 
number of crabs taken for market, 5,731,219 valued at $34,796. 

Certain fishermen and dealers are again advocating a closed season on taking 
crabs from January 1 to March 31. The principal reasons for this plan were set 
forth in the annual report for 1930. Briefly stated, the chief reason lies in the fact 
that during the advocated closed season crabs are either soft shelled or "hollow" — • 
light in weight — and as a consequence approximately three times as many crabs 
must be taken to supply a certain amount of "flakes" as would be needed at other 
times of the year. 

The Fishing Season 

The total amount of fish landed this year at the two principal ports in Massa- 
chusetts was greater by more than 14,000,000 pounds than in 1935, which year 
had established a previous high record. This was accomplished in spite of a de- 
crease of more than 12,000,000 pounds in the amount of mackerel landed and 
800,000 pounds in the receipts of swordfish. The decrease in the catch of mackerel 
was due not so much to the scarcity of fish, but rather to adverse weather condi- 
tions and the presence of large numbers of sharks, bonita, and tuna which succeeded 
in breaking up the schools of mackerel or driving them to the westward. Prevailing 
prices for the principal fish were generally higher throughout the year, which re- 
sulted in an increased revenue of $1,796,615 to the fishermen. As a further index 
of the abundance of fish off our coast it should be noted that at the end of 1936 
the amount of fish held in cold storage warehouses in this State was more than 
12,000,000 pounds greater than in the previous year. 

It is interesting to note the continued increase in the landings of rose fish or red 
fish since 1933, when the fishermen began to bring them in in quantity. The re- 
ceipts now rank second only to the haddock, and a total of 60,568,916 pounds of 
these fish were landed in Boston and Gloucester during the year ending November 
30, 1936. The greater number of these fish were caught about forty miles off Cape 
Cod in about one hundred fathoms of water, but rather recently larger numbers 
of them have been taken at the edge of Brown's Bank. 

Six large new trawlers were added this year to the fleet of boats fishing out of 
Boston. These newer boats are powered by Diesel motors and include new equip- 
ment and innovations. In the revival of ship-building it is of interest to note that 
for the first time in five years a fishing boat — the Noreen, a 95-foot dragger — was 
built and launched at Essex, which port was quite famous in earlier days for its 
shipbuilding. 

Sea and Shore Fisheries 

From reports received from the shore net and pound fisheries as required by 
Section 24 of the revised Chapter 130, General Laws, is compiled the following 
record for 1936: number of men engaged in this fishery, 343; number of boats, 215. 
valued at $95,905; number of traps and weirs operated, 222; valued at $215,967; 
total value of equipment, $561,941; amount of fish caught, 28,141,542; value of 
fish, $277,784. 



Port of Boston 

Number of Vessels Landing Fish at Boston for the Past Five Years 





1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1936 


Draggers (large and small) 

Steamers ...... 

Line Vessels (hand and trawl) . 
Swordfish ...... 

Mackerel ...... 

Halibut 


185 
48 
78 
56 

116 
15 


164 
63 
70 
64 

104 
11 


153 
54 
52 
49 
85 
8 


165 
65 
56 
60 
95 
12 


59 
59 
52 
45 
72 
6 




498 


476 


401 


453 


293 



P.D. 25 



71 



Receipts op Fish at Boston Direct from the Fishing Fleet for a Period of Five Years 

Ending November 30, 1936 





1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1936 




(Pounds) 


(Pounds) 


(Pounds) 


(Pounds) 


(Pounds) 


Large Codfish 


20,439,384 


27,391,340 


29,764,993 


32,179,470 


29,209,610 


Market Codfish 


25,997,822 


31,478,555 


39,806,592 


44,218,884 


34,696,204 


Cod Scrod 


139,920 


189,455 


175,065 


599,195 


3,839,575 


Haddock 


86,058,865 


82,381,000 


71,380,342 


109,594,118 


99,038,878 


Scrod Haddock 


31,526,489 


30,182,200 


51,718,772 


51,452,056 


40,127,736 


Hake . 


4,170,806 


4,905,060 


3,772,847 


7,485,190 


7,943,251 


Small Hake . 


41,200 


461,500 


774,435 


714,122 


770,875 


Pollock . 


4,547,001 


7,904,185 


8,831,561 


12,861,415 


15,247,651 


Cusk 


2,500,980 


2,503,340 


2,661,190 


3,705,455 


5,447,283 


Halibut . 


2,133,603 


1,731,916 


1,749,694 


2,244,992 


2,061,107 


Mackerel 


25,144,121 


17,554,665 


21,196,324 


26,814,151 


20,876,126 


Swordfi6b 


2,249,947 


1,681,175 


1,314,095 


2,024,199 


1,195,520 


Miscellaneous . 


8,289,133 


11,695,591 


16,267,646 


32,204,291 


74,966,419 




213,239,271 


220,059,982 


249,413,556 


326,097,538 


335,420,235 


Value 


$5,396,003 


$6,053,218 


$6,957,659 


$8,088,298 


$9,630,873 



Port of Gloucester 
The following amounts of fresh fish were landed in Gloucester from December 1, 
1935, to November 30, 1936: 





Pounds 




Pounds 


Large Cod 


4,854,111 


Pollock . 


. 15,466,385 


Market Cod . 


1,630,667 


Cusk . 


149,646 


Cod Scrod 


245,772 


Halibut 


26,080 


Haddock 


3,078,375 


Mackerel 


. 6,927,923 


Scrod Haddock 


817,237 


Swordfish 


1,486 


Hake 


634,499 


Miscellaneous 


. 19,448,161 


Small Hake . 


38,290 




. — 






Total pounds 


. 53,298,632 




. 


Valued at 


. $1,043,998 



Estimated Value of Fishery Products of Massachusetts 



(Dec. 1, 1935, to Nov. 30, 1936) 
Vessel landings at port of Boston 
Vessel landings at port of Gloucester 
Vessel landings at ports of New Bedford and Woods Hole 
Shipped direct to New York 
*Shore net and pound fishery 
*Lobster fishery 
Soft shell clam fishery 
Quahaug fishery . 
Bay scallop fishery 
Sea scallop fishery 
Oyster fishery 
Razor clam fishery 
*Sea crab fishery . 
Bait worm fishery . 
Sea moss fishery . 

Total . . . 



♦Compiled from reports of fishermen. 



$9,630,873 

1,043,998 

640,000 

320,000 

277,784 

510,842 

950,000 

350,000 

325,000 

85,000 

100,000 

25,000 

34,802 

58,000 

2,500 

$14,388,611 



72 



P.D. 25 



In addition to the fishery products listed above which were taken from the 
waters and shores of the Commonwealth or from fishing banks near the coast, the 
following amounts came into Boston and Gloucester through the usual transporta- 
tion lines: 

From other States: . 

From Canada: . 



Clams 


31,000 bushels 


Lobsters . 


300,000 pounds 


Fresh fish 


805,400 pounds 


Swordfish 


2,560,193 pounds 


Clams 


9,880 bushels 


Lobsters . 


7,006,654 pounds 


Fresh fish 


. 3,768,601 pounds 


Swordfish 


1,542,378 pounds 



From Japan : . 
Total amount shipped in through the usual transportation lines: 

Clams 40,880 bushels 

Lobsters ...... 7,306,654 pounds 

• Swordfish 4,102,571 pounds 

Fresh fish 4,574,001 pounds 

Marine Sport Fishing 
Marine sport fishing is not only engaging attention in the seacoast areas, but is 
creating a decided interest among residents of inland cities and towns. One cause 
of this interest has been the issuance for the past three years of a boat directory by 
the Bureau, listing owners of party fishing boats having an intimate knowledge of 
the fishing grounds along the coast. With the Bureau acting as contact, many 
were enabled this past year to indulge in fishing not only for such species as cod, 
haddock, mackerel, bluefish, and striped bass, but also for a shark in Buzzards 
Bay or for tuna in Ipswich Bay. 

Bounty on Seals 

The Commonwealth reimbursed the following towns (through the county treas- 
urers) for bounties paid on 161 seals in accordance with Section 85 of amended 
Chapter 130, General Laws: Barnstable, $60; Boston, $5; Cohasset, $10; Dux- 
bury, $175; Eastham, $10; Edgartown, $5; Essex, $20; Gloucester, $10; Gosnold, 
$5; Hingham, $15; Kingston, $40; Lynn, $10; Marshfield, $5; Newburyport, $5; 
Orleans, $30; Plymouth, $55; Provincetown, $55; Quincy, $80; Revere, $110; 
Rowley, $10; Salem, $5; Salisbury, $5 ; Sandwich, $5; Weymouth, $50 ; Winthrop, 
$25. Fees paid to city and town treasurers, $80.50. lotal expended, $885.50. 

The number presented this year was only slightly more than half the amount 
taken in 1935. The number of seals upon which bounties were paid for the past 
five years is as follows:— 1932, 247; 1933,202; 1934,272; ] 935, 283; 1936,161. 



P.D. 25 



73 



APPENDIX 

Following is the complete record of the clubs which received stock from the Division 
in consideration of having purchased and liberated game birds or fish with their 
own funds: 

Rain- 
bow Brook 
Quail Trout Trout 



Agawam Sportsman's Club 

Andover Sportsman's Club, Inc. 

Auburn Sportsman's Club, Inc. 

Billerica Rod and Gun Club . 

Bird Dog Club . 

Boxford Sportsmen's Association 

Brockton Sportsmen's Association, Inc. 

Brookiield Rod and Gun Club, Inc. 

Chicopee Rod and Gun Club . 

Connecticut Valley Field Trial Club 

Clinton Fish and Game Protective Association, Inc. 

Eastern States Bird Dog Association, Inc. 

East Longmeadow Rod and Gun Club 

Essex County Field Trial Association 

Essex County Sportsmen's Association, Inc 

Fairview Sportsmen's Fish and Game Association, Inc 

Fall River Rod and Gun Club, Inc. 

Florence Fish and Game Association 

Greenfield Rod and Gun Club 

Great Barrington Fish and Game Association 

Hamilton Rod and Gun Club 

Hingham Sportsman's Club . 

Holyoke Fish and Game Association, Inc 

Irish Setter Club of America . 

Legion Rod and Gun Club 

Lenox Sportsmen's Club 

Leominster Sportsmen's Association 

Ludlow Fish and Game Club, Inc. . 

Marlboro Fish and Game Association, Inc 

Masconomo Sportsman's Club, Inc. 

Medway Sportsman's Club 

Methuen Rod and Gun Club, Inc. . 

Middleboro Fish and Game Association 

Middlesex County Field Trial Club 

Monson Rod and Gun Club . 

Nantucket Sportsman's Club, Inc. . 

Needham Sportsman's Club, Inc. . 

Nimrod League of Holden 

North Adams Sportsman's Club, Inc. 

North American Field Trial Association 

North Andover Fish and Game Club 

North Grafton Fish, Game and Bird Club 

North Shore Sportsman's Club, Inc. 

Norwood Sportsman's Association . 

Sandisfield Rod and Gun Club 

Scituate Rod and Gun Club, Inc. . 

Setter Club of New England . 

South Barre Rod and Gun Club 

Spencer Fish and Game Club 

Swift River Rod and Gun Club 

Taunton Fish and Game Association 

Turners Falls Fish and Game Association 

Waltham Rod and Gun Club 



Pheas- 
ants 

35 

59 

47 
11 

40 
25 
30 
15 
50 
35 
50 
81 
40 
116 
65 
4 
70 
21 
40 
40 
40 
18 
20 
25 
75 
150 
64 
69 
5 
6 

50 
50 
35 
80 
60 

25 

104 

15 

6 

9 
50 

38 

52 

80 
50 
25 
15 
13 
25 



30 



1,100 



48 



220 



50 



74 



P.D. 25 



Westboro Fish and Game Association 

Westfield Rod and Gun Club 

West Warren Fish and Game Club 

Whitinsville Fish and Game Club . 

Wilbraham Fish and Game Club 

Woburn Sportsman's Association, Inc. 

Worcester County Fish and Game Association, Inc. 

Worcester County League of Sportsmen's Clubs, Inc. 

Mr. Moses L. Brown, Assinnippi 

Mr. J. F. Dinneen, Taunton .... 





Rain- 


Pheas- 


bow Brook 


ants 


Quail Trout Trout 


55 




23 




16 




79 




100 




77 




, 85 




20 




8 




4 





2,595 128 220 1,100 



1937 

Public Document No. 25-^ 



Oftje QJommonuipaitlj nf iHasaactjusettH 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

Division of Fisheries and Game 

FOR THE 

Year Ending November 30, 1937 

1937 



J\m SS.\ Department of Conservation; 

Offices : 20 Somerset Street, Boston 













Publication of this Document approved by the Commission on administration and Finance 
1M. 4-'38. No. 3540-a. 



, . PAGE 

General Considerations . ;. 4 

Cooperation with the National Recovery Administration 5 

Personnel 5 

Finances . . *****»*-*. ..*,. .„, .... . 5 

Recess Commission . . . . . . . " . ". . ... 6 

Conventions and Meetings 8 

Activities of State and Local Organizations 9 

Education and Publicity : 9 

Enforcement of the Game and Inland Fish Laws 10 

Work of the Conservation Officers 10 

Permits and Registrations 13 

New Legislation, enacted during 1937 13 

Recommendations for Legislation 14 

Wild Birds and Mammals, and Fresh- water Fish 14 

Game 14 

Migratory Game Birds 14 

Upland Game .... 16 

Statistics of Game and Fur-bearing Animals taken .... 17 

Reservations and Sanctuaries 18 

Wildlife Management 18 

State Forests 22 

Other Reservations and Sanctuaries 24 

Inland Fisheries 26 

Public Fishing and Hunting Grounds 27 

Feeder Streams . ' 27 

Salmon Restoration 28 

Investigation of Conditions in the Merrimack River Valley . . 28 

Great Ponds Stocked and Closed, and Breeding Areas set Aside . 28 

Special Regulations 30 

Fishway and Stream Improvement 30 

State Ornithologist 31 

Shellfish and Ducks 31 

Oil Pollution 31 

Shellfish and Herring Gulls 31 

Hawks . 31 

Seabird Colonies . . 32 

Census of Waterfowl and Shorebird 32 

Activities of the Biologist and Staff 32 

Field Work and General Activities 32 

Aquiculturp] Investigations 33 

Fish Propagation ... 34 

Game Culture 34 

Propagation of Fish and Game 36 

Fish Hatcheries and Game Farms — General 36 

East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery 37 

Montague State Fish Hatchery . . . 38 

Palmer State Fish Hatchery 39 

Sandwich State Fish Hatchery 40 

Sunderland State Fish Hatchery 41 

Sutton State Fish Llatchery 42 

Merrill State Pond System' 43 

State Forest Ponds 43 

Work of the Salvage Units 46 

Ayer State Game Farm 48 

Marshfield State Game Farm 51 

Sandwich State Game Farm 52 

Wilbraham State Game Farm 53 

Fish and Game Distribution 55 

Marine Fisheries 62 

State Inspector of Fish . 62 



PAGE 

State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries 62 

Work of the Coastal Wardens • . . ■ 63 

New Legislation 65 

Coastal Stream and Fishway Improvement 65 

Shellfish and Crustacea 65 

Shellfish Assistance to Coastal Cities and Towns .... 65 

Shellfish Enemies 66 

Purification of Shellfish 67 

Permits f 67 

Lobster Fishery 67 

Sea Crab Fishery 70 

Sea and Shore Fisheries 70 

Ports of Boston and Gloucester 70 

Marine Sport Fishing 71 

Bounty on Seals 71 

Appendix 72 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

20 Somerset St., Boston 

Commissioner, Ernest J. Dean, Chilmark 

Division of Fisheries and Game 

Director, Patrick W. Hehir, Worcester 

Office Administration: 

O. C. Bourne, Melrose, Supervisor of Fish and Game Permits and Claims. 
L. B. Rimbach, Medford, Head Clerk. 

M. J. Carroll, Medford, Principal Clerk (Secretary to the Director). 
Propagation and Distribution of Fish and Game: 
J. Arthur Kitson, Boston, Fish and Game Biologist. 
Standish Deake, Acton, Junior Fish and Game Biologist. 
Arnold E. Howard, Lexington, Field Agent, Division of Fisheries and Game. 
Enforcement of the Game and Inland Fish Laws: 
Carl G. Bates, Natick, Chief Conservation Officer. 
Forrest S. Clark, Holden, Supervising Conservation Officer. 
Lloyd M. Walker, Northborough, Supervising Conservation Officer. 
Ornithology: 

Joseph A. Hagar, Marshfield, State Ornithologist. 

Fish Inspection 
William D. Desmond, Stoneham, State Inspector of Fish. 

Marine Fisheries 
Bernard J. Sheridan, Somerville, State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries. 
Earnest W. Barnes, Roslindale, Fish and Game Biologist. 
Howard S. Willard, Chief Coastal Warden. 

Technical Consultants 

Dr. Hugh P. Baker, President, Massachusetts State College, Amherst. 

Prof. Samuel C. Prescott, Department of Biology and Public Health, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. 

Prof. R. P. Holdsworth, Head of the Department of Forestry, Massachusetts 
State College, Amherst. 

Mr. Fred A. McLaughlin, Massachusetts State College, Amherst. 

Mr. Ludlow Griscom, Research Curator of Zoology, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge. 

Dr. David L. Belding, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston. 

Prof. James L. Peters, Curator of Birds, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
University, Cambridge. 

Dr. Ernest E. Tyzzer, Department of Comparative Pathology, Harvard University, 
Cambridge. 

Prof. F. J. Sievers, Director Experiment Station, Massachusetts State College, 
Amherst. 



P.D. 25 



Sflje fljammmuttealttj of JHafisacljUBettB 



ANNUAL REPORT 

The Director of the Division of Fisheries and Game herewith presents the seventy- 
second annual report, for the fiscal year December 1, 1936, to November 30, 1937. 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

A Change in the Pheasant Stocking Policy 

One of the foremost questions in the minds of the hunters of Massachusetts is — 
what is the situation in regard to the pheasant, and what can be done to restore 
former numbers? The answer is — changes in policy, some of which have already 
been worked out, and more intensive work, cooperation, and protection, to make 
these policies effective. 

Today Massachusetts stands at the crossroads in maintaining pheasants for 
hunting in the covers of the State; but we shall go forward on the road which we 
hope and believe to be the one which will lead to better pheasant shooting without 
suspending hunting. 

In the first nineteen years of the work, 9,000 pheasants of various sizes, mostly 
adult, were liberated. Two seasons for hunting cocks were allowed, in 1906 and 
in 1907. Beginning at the end of the nineteen-year period (in 1914), regular 
hunting seasons had been open. In the open season of 1914 there were 9,000 
pheasants reported killed. This number, compared with the number liberated 
in the previous nineteen years, indicates a good natural production. In the next 
twenty-three years, over 200,000 pheasants were liberated, mostly young birds, 
but many adult birds in some years. The kill during this twenty-three-year 
period was very low at times, but made a large net increase to a certain point. 
There is a definite slump at the present time both in the kill and in the numbers of 
birds in the covers. This proves low natural production and indicates low results 
from liberating young birds. 

Some periods in the twenty-three years stand out distinctly. The season was 
open on hens from 1914 to 1920, and from the high in 1914 the kill dropped and 
continued to be very low until after hens were again protected. Hens were pro- 
tected from 1921 to 1931. The kill rose during this period and reached a very 
high number. In 1923 the season was opened on hens again. The kill skyrocketed, 
but dropped heavily the next year, and has continued to drop to the present low. 

These ups and downs were also the result of other factors. When the Division 
liberated adult birds, the effect on the kill was good. When clubs wintered large 
numbers of birds for spring liberation and breeding, the effect was good. Both 
activities contributed to the supply from natural breeding. When this work was 
largely abandoned, the kill declined. 

For a time there was a frank belief that pheasant shooting could be maintained 
with pheasants reared and liberated each year. It was believed, also, that it could 
be provided and improved by liberating greater numbers of small birds. It is now 
known that either or both are not sufficient. The help that might come from 
natural breeding, which was not credited as important, is important and necessary. 
We believe that natural breeding is the most important part of pheasant main- 
tenance, and plan to depend on it to produce the greater number of birds for 
shooting. To this end the liberation of hens for breeding will be an important 
part of the work. When the breeding stock is low in the covers we aim to protect 
hens. If there is any reason to open the season on hens and they are heavily 
reduced in the covers, we plan to be able to replace them. Production at the game 
farms, and cooperation with the clubs, will be planned to get the greatest possible 
benefit from natural breeding in the covers. 



P.D. 25 5 

The first step in a new policy has been taken. During the first fifteen years 
when results were good, the stock distributed was pure Chinese. Then, in a 
policy of rapid expansion, the Chinese blood was bred out in a few years by the 
introduction of new stock hybridized with English, Mongolian, Japanese, and 
Colchican blood. The effect was not good. The pure Chinese is now the stock 
at the State game farms, and its distribution is in progress. 

Cooperation was valuable in making Massachusetts a pheasant State, and it 
seems necessary to a large degree now to keep pheasants in the State. Conditions 
that must be considered in the work of increasing pheasants are far worse than in 
the early years. Then, there was an almost constant closed season; now, pheasants 
must be established in numbers in the face of an annual hunting season. Then, 
vermin conditions were not bad, and vermin was not a serious handicap; now, the 
vermin situation is serious and there is little hope for improvement in the best 
pheasant areas of the State. Pheasants must be re-established in the face of 
vermin. 

To obtain the aimed-for results in the future, with these conditions to contend 
with, a large amount of cooperative effort will be required. This we plan to 
encourage with full credit for what it accomplishes. In shaping a policy that will 
bring the desired results in pheasant hunting, we are open-minded to suggestions, 
information and constructive criticisms that will aid in formulating this policy and 
in working out the details which must be followed to establish it as a success. 

Cooperation with the National Recovery Administration 
With the Federal government continuing to supply funds for construction pur- 
poses through its Works Progress Administration, the Division submitted and 
had approved during the year nineteen projects for carrying on work at its various 
game farms and fish hatcheries. While most of these projects were actually 
completed during the year, there were several which were not actually started by 
the end of the fiscal year due to a shortage of available labor. These projects will, 
no doubt, be completed during the coming year. 

The distribution of both Federal and State funds for all projects approved during 
the year is as follows : 

Location 
Ayer State Game Farm 
Marshfield State Game Farm 
Sandwich State Game Farm 
Wilbraham State Game Farm 
Montague State Fish Hatchery 
Palmer State Fish Hatchery 
East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery 
Sunderland State Fish Hatchery 
Sandwich State Fish Hatchery . 
Merrill State Pond System 

$17,535* $54,841 $72,376 



State 


Federal 


Total 


Funds 


Funds 




$535 


$825 


$1,360 


3,362 


4,503 


7,865 


1,218 


2,130 


3,348 


2,218 


5,234 


7,452 


1,192 


8,299 


9,491 


1,184 


4,530 


5,714 


4,482 


12,075 


16,557 


672 


4,451 


5,123 


767 


1,650 


2,417 


1,905 


11,144 


13,049 



*Of this amount, approximately 19,000 is accounted for as follows: 

Value of State-owned tools ........... $400 

Supervision by permanent State employees ...... . 3,500 

Rental value of State-owned equipment ......... 3,100 

Value of gravel and stone taken from State property ...... 1,500 

Lumber salvaged from Civilian Conservation Corps camps ..... 500 

Personnel 
There were no changes in administrative personnel. 

Finances 

The most important financial feature of the year was the enactment of Chapter 

426, amending Section 6, Chapter 29, General Laws, Ter. Ed., so that the law now 

provides that the annual budget shall include a sum, equal at least to the total 

amount received by the Division during the preceding fiscal year from licenses 



6 P.D. 25 

and other fees and fines under the laws relating to game and inland fisheries, and 
also a sum equal to one-half of the amount necessary for the enforcement of said 
laws. The said sums are to be appropriated for the general purposes of the Divi- 
sion, but not including any services or expenses relating to marine fisheries, and 
is to be effective in 1938. This was accomplished through the combined efforts 
of all the sportsmen, and every outdoors person in Massachusetts has reason to 
appreciate the action of His Excellency Charles F. Hurley in signing the act. In 
the coming year this will have the effect of adding approximately $50,000 to the 
money available for the use of the Division. 

Recess Commission 
In the last annual report it was recorded that at the time of writing the report 
the Recess Commission, appointed under Chapter 46, Resolves of 1936, was in the 
midst of carrying on the work for which it was created. Being unable to complete 
its investigation in time to file a report on December 1, 1936 as instructed by the 
Resolve, the Commission filed a bill asking for a continuance of the Commission — 
House 270. This bill came up for action, and on May 18 was rejected, thus ter- 
minating the Commission's activities. 



Appropriations and Expenditures 













Balances 




Appropria- 


Transfers 


Expendi- 


Balances 


to State 




tions 


from 1936 


tures 


to 1938 


Treasury 


Parti (1936 revenue, $285,467.63) 












Salary of the Director 


§5,000.00 


— 


$5,000.00 


_ 


— 


Office Assistants .... 


22,000.00 


_ 


21,996.62 


_ 


$3.38 


Office Expenses .... 


11,000.00 


$24.91 


10,758.55 


$82.55 


183.81 


Education and Publicity . 


1,500.00 


92.49 


889.02 


_ 


703.47 


Enforcement of Laws: 












Personal Services 


73,470.00 


_ 


73,156.58 


_ 


313.42 


Expenses ..... 


31,100.00 


910.40 


28,875.60 


2,356.68 


778.12 


Biological Work: 












Personal Services 


6,400.00 


_ 


6,400.00 


— 


— 


Expenses ..... 


2,500.00 


28.61 


2,336.59 


60.57 


131.45 


Propagation of Game Birds, etc.: 












Personal Services 


66,100.00 


_ 


63,732.91 


2,200.00* 


167.09 


Expenses ..... 


61,500.001 


96.43 


- 


687.51 1 






8,535.00/ 




67,768.07 


1,300.00*/ 


375.85 


Supervision of Public Fishing and 












Hunting Grounds: 












Personal Services 


5,000.00 


_ 


4,986.00 


— 


14.00 


Expenses ..... 


1,450.00 


92.30 


1,411.16 


— 


131.14 


Damages by Wild Deer and Wild 












Moose ..... 


6,500.00 


- 


6,494.04 


- 


5.96 


Specials : 












Establishment of Public Fishing 












Grounds ..... 


3,500.00 


- 


3,436.12 


25.00 


38.88 


Part II 












Protection of Wildlife 


5,650.00 


4.61 


5,649.46 


- 


5.15 


Part III 












Regulating the Sale and Cold Storage 












of Fresh Food Fish: 












Personal Services 


15,800.00 


_ 


15,569.55 


— 


230.45 


Expenses ..... 


4,200.00 


56.57 


3,722.71 


33.67 


500.19 


State Supervisor of Marine Fisheries: 












Personal Services .... 


13,350.001 
315.00/ 












— 


13,455.00 


— 


210.00 


Expenses ..... 


8,500.00 


40.58 


6,028.68 


136.50 


2,375.40 


Enforcement of Shellfish and other 












Marine Fishery Laws: 












Personal Services 


33,500.00 


— 


31,972.50 


— 


1,527.50 


Expenses ..... 


15,500.00 


424.99 


13,079.13 


422.82 


2,423.04 


Purchase of Lobsters 


6,000.00 


— 


5,670.28 


— 


329.72 


Assisting Coastal Towns, etc. . 


20,000.00 


- 


17,362.51 


- 


2,637.49 




$428,370.00 


$1,771.89 


$409,751.08 


$7,305.30 


$13,085.51 



*These two items make up the $3,500 brought over to carry out the provisions of Chapter 296, Acts of 
1937. 



P.D. 25 7 

Revenue 
Following is the revenue accruing to the State Treasury for the period of the 
fiscal year, from the activities of the Division. 



Part I 

Produced by 

the hunters, 

anglers and 

trappers 



Part II 
Produced by 
those who- 
enjoy -wild- 
life but do 
not hunt, 
fish or trap 



Part III 

Produced by 

the marine 

fisheries 



Licenses: PART I 

Hunting, fishing, sporting and trapping license fees 
(8308,200.50, less 8221.75 refunds on account of over- 
payments by town clerks on 1936 accounts) 
Shiner permits ........ 

Rents: 

Property at Marshfield, Palmer, Sandwich and Wil- 
braham ........ 

Sales: 

Confiscated goods, 8130.80; game tags, 8120.55 . 
Miscellaneous: 

15% of Medford Trust Co. claim, 83.90; auto damage 
claim, 87.40; refunds on appropriations of prior years, 
S60.09; U.S. Post Office indemnity, S9.50 
Fines: 

Turned into State Treasury as a result of violations of 
the inland fish and game laws .... 

PART II 



8307.978.75 
500.00 



622.00 
251.35 



80.89 
4,035.75 



Nothing 

Licenses: PART III 

Lobster and crab licenses (85,258.25 less refunds account 
of overpayment by town clerk on 1936 license, 84.75) 

Shellfish dealers' shipping certificates .... 

Shellfish diggers' shipping certificates .... 

Lobster meat permits ...... 

Rents: 

Clam flats, 855; Chilmark Pond, 81.00 
Sales: 

Confiscated goods, 828.50; clam ring, 20c . 
Miscellaneous: 

Refund on appropriation of prior year 
Fines: 

Turned into State Treasury as a result of violation of 
marine fisheries laws ...... 

Total Revenue, 8323,345.40 



Nothing 



85,253.50 

790.00 

36.00 

1,750.00 

56.00 

28.70 

50.46 

1,912.00 



8313,468.74 



Nothing 



S9.876.66 



Financial Statement Verified. 
Approved. 

George E. Murphy, 

Comptroller. 

Detail of Receipts from Licenses to Hunt, Fish or Trap 
(for fiscal year Dec. 1, 1936 to Nov. 30, 1937) 





Number 


Gross 
Amount 


Fees 
Retained 
by Clerks 


Net Return 
to State 


Resident Fishing (82.00) .... 


65,327 


8130,654.00 


816,083.00 


8114,571.00 


Resident Hunting (82.00) 




44,377 


88,754.00 


11,008.25 


77,745.75 


Resident Sporting (83.25) 




25,741 


83,658.25 


6,361.50 


77,296.75 


Resident Minor and Female Fishing (81.2 


>) . 


16,905 


21,131.25 


4,177.75 


16,953.50 


Resident Minor Trapping (82.25) 




716 


1,611.00 


178.75 


1,432.25 


Resident Trapping ($5.25) 




1,934 


10,153.50 


480.75 


9,672.75 


Resident Sporting (Free) 




6.977 


— 


— 


— 


Special Non-resident Fishing (81.50) 




890 


1,335.00 


222.00 


1,113.00 


Non-resident Minor Fishing (82.25) 




52 


117.00 


13.00 


104.00 


Non-resident Fishing ($5.25) . 




825 


4,331.25 


205.25 


4,126.00 


Non-resident Hunting (810.25) 




402 


4,120.50 


99.50 


4,021.00 


Non-resident Sporting (815.25) 




26 


396.50 


6.25 


390.25 


Non-resident Trapping (S15.25) 




8 


122.00 


1.75 


120.25 


Duplicate (80.50) 




1,259 


629.50 


— 


629.50 


Special Non-resident Fox Hunting (82.00) 


14 


28.00 


3.50 


24.50 


Totals, sporting, hunting, fishing and trapping 










licenses, including duplicates 


165,453 


8347,041.75 


S38.841.25 


8308,200.50 


Deduct refunds made on account of overpay- 










ments by town clerks on 1936 accounts 








221.75 




8307,978.75 


Lobsters and Crabs (85.00) 


1,107 


$5,535.00 


$276.75 


$5,258.25 


Deduct refund made on account of overpay- 










ment by town clerk on 1936 account . 








4.75 






85.253.50 



8 P.D. 25 

The following statement of the number of hunting, fishing and trapping licenses 
(excluding duplicates) sold in each county during the calendar year 1936 will 
indicate the distribution of license sales throughout the State. It is not an indi- 
cation of the amount of hunting, fishing or trapping which is carried on in each 
county, since licenses may be used in any part of the State. As the figures are for 
the calendar year, the totals will not check with the license data for the fiscal year 
in the annual report for 1936. 

Barnstable County, 3,468; Berkshire County, 15,288; Bristol County, 8,232; 
Dukes County, 426; Essex County, 9,040; Franklin County, 6,336; Hampden 
County, 19,842; Hampshire County, 7,034; Middlesex County, 18,370; Nantucket 
County, 349; Norfolk County, 9,654; Plymouth County, 8,198; Suffolk County, 
6,922; Worcester County, 35,401; total, 148,560. 

Provision was made by Chapter 191 for the issuance to certain officials of other 
States of complimentary licenses to hunt and fish. Under that law one such license 
was issued during the year. 

Conventions and Meetings 

The Director and others attended the following meetings of individuals and 
agencies dealing with conservation matters. 

Conference on January 13 of the North American Game Breeders' Association 
held in New York City, attended by the Biologist. 

The Ninth New England Game Conference, held on February 13 at Boston 
under the auspices of the Massachusetts Fish and Game Association, was attended 
by the Director, the Chief Conservation Officer, the Biologist, the Ornithologist, 
and others in the Division. 

The Division was represented by Mr. Harold M. Bradbury at the Wildlife 
Conference, held at Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., on Feb. 18-20, where wild- 
life management and research, as carried on by the several states in Region 1, was 
portrayed. The U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey and the States of New York, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware and Massachusetts were represented, a 
gathering of from two to three hundred technically trained specialists. Mr. Brad- 
bury presented a paper entitled "Progress in Massachusetts." 

The Director attended the Sportsmen's Convention held in New York on Feb- 
ruary 23 by the New York Rod and Gun Editors' Association. This brought 
together a great assemblage of anglers, hunters, conservationists and outdoorsmen. 
At this meeting Secretary I ekes delivered a message from the President of the 
United States to the effect that he is wholly in sympathy with this great movement 
on conservation. 

The Fourth Conference on Outdoor Recreation, March 11-14 at the Massachu- 
setts State College, Amherst, was attended by the Director, the Biologist and 
others in the Division. The aim of this conference was to contribute to a clearer 
and more definite plan for the development of the recreational facilities of Massa- 
chusetts and New England, for recreation is becoming an increasingly significant 
phase of our national life. At this meeting Mr. Harold M. Bradbury of the Divi- 
sion spoke on "A Plan for Wildlife Administration on Public Lands of the Com- 
monwealth." 

At the regular meeting of the New England Fish and Game Commissioners, held 
on June 30 in Boston, the Division was represented by the State Ornithologist. 
The principal topic of discussion was the waterfowl regulations for the coming 
season. 

In addition, the Director attended innumerable meetings of the different groups 
throughout the State, attending as many as six conferences of sportsmen in a single 
week. 



P.D. 25 9 

Activities of State and Local Organizations 
The following table shows the number, location and membership (as of the time 
the yearly club questionnaire was filed) of the various fish and game clubs. 





Number of 


Total Club 


Number of Clubs 


COUNTY 


Clubs 


Membership 


in the respective 
County Leagues 


Barnstable ...... 


7 


873 


6 


Berkshire ...... 


22 


3,777 


11 


Bristol ....... 


16 


2,489 


15 


Dukes ....... 


1 


200 


1 


Essex ....... 


21 


2,419 


17 


Franklin ....... 


16 


1,993 


16 


Hampden ...... 


25 


4,235 


10 


Hampshire ...... 


19 


1,958 


10 


Middlesex ...... 


29 


3,274 


28 


Nantucket ...... 


1 


168 


1 


Norfolk 


24 


2,375 


18 


Plymouth ...... 


20 


2,720 


18 


Suffolk 


3 


162 


1 


Worcester ...... 


44 


7,511 


40 




248 


34,154 


192 



Education and Publicity 

Exhibitions demonstrating the work of the Division in the conservation of fish 
and game were made as follows: 

January 16-23, Sportmen's Show under the auspices of the Worcester County 
League, in Worcester. On the stage at the Worcester Memorial Auditorium, 
against a background of evergreens, was set a lean-to outdoorsman's camp of the 
sort often found along forest trails, with the usual accompanying equipment. 
Four aquariums containing medium-sized trout in running water, were set up, as 
well as two troughs of trout eggs in process of hatching, from which the water 
spilled into the oxygen tank which held a number of large brown trout, thus dem- 
onstrating the method of using oxygen. A conservation officer was on duty 
throughout the day. 

January 31 to February 6, Boston Sportsmen's and Motor Boat Show. The 
exhibit here was more elaborate than in past years and gave an entirely different 
effect from previous shows, for an overhead dome, occupying the greater part of 
the allotted space, was built to house the departmental exhibit. The dome made 
a blue-sky effect, and a painted-in background, blending with the miniature land 
topography, made a beautiful landscape. In the foreground, which was built of 
stones, moss and trees, was shown a brook of running water well stocked with live 
brook trout. The space to the right and left of the main exhibit had been allotted 
to the Fish and Game Division, and in each space were placed two illuminated 
cases representing outdoor scenes, as follows : a corn-field with live and mounted 
quail; a woodland scene with a live rabbit; a swamp with live ruff ed grouse ; and 
a painted waterfall, with mounted snapping turtle in the pool. 

February 15-22, Sportsmen's Show, under the auspices of the East Longmeadow 
Rod and Gun Club, Springfield Municipal Auditorium. Here the same set-up 
was used as at Worcester. 

March 11-14. In the space allotted at the Massachusetts State College in 
Amherst in connection with the conservation meeting held there, the Commissioner 
had arranged a woodland scene. Against this background, the Division's lean-to 
camp was shown, and on the opposite side of a path were set the four aquariums 
with oxygen connection, displaying large trout. 

July 18, at the Bristol County League Field Day at North Westport, two brooder 
cages with partly-grown quail in one section and partly-grown pheasants in the 
other were set up, with Federal and State flags displayed beside them, and small 
signs indicating the contents. 

September 19-25. At the Eastern States Exposition the exhibit was arranged 
under the dome built last year. The platform was arranged to resemble a trout 
hatchery. On a flat spot, representing a mossy lawn, was set up a small model of 
one of the State hatchery buildings. The foreground was made into two canvas- 
lined hatchery pools holding a good display of adult brook and brown trout. A 



10 P.D. 25 

waterfall between the two ponds gave action to the scene, and drew favorable 
comment. The background of evergreen trees, beneath which the ground was 
covered with several other species of moss, set off the display effectively. At 
one side was set an automatic replica of two old handline fishermen standing in a 
Grand Banks dory, plying their trade. Nearby were mounted specimens of 
marine sport fish, such as striped bass, bluefish, and a seven-pound "jumbo" 
mackerel. 

The publicity work was carried on through the regular lecture work and a certain 
amount of newspaper publicity. The Director bore the brunt of the speaking 
engagements before the clubs, and lecture work was done in their respective lines 
by the State Ornithologist, the Chief Conservation Officer, Mr. Bourne with the 
stereopticon, and Mr. Harold Bradbury on the work in wildlife management. 

ENFORCEMENT OF THE GAME AND INLAND FISH LAWS 

Work of the Conservation Officers 

By legislative action (Chapter 413, Acts of 1937, amending Chapter 21, Section 7, 
G. L. Ter. Ed. as most recently amended) the titles of the law-enforcement per- 
sonnel were changed from "Fish and Game Warden" to "Conservation Officer," 
and from "Deputy Fish and Game Warden" to "Deputy Conservation Officer." 
The designation of the so-called city and town wardens remained unchanged, and 
provision was made for the gradual elimination of these officers. Under the law 
no new appointments can be made to this position after 1937, and reappointment 
only of the present encumbent if his name is submitted on or before March 1 of 
each year; otherwise the position becomes vacant and cannot be refilled. It is 
felt that through the elimination of this part of the auxiliary force, the law- 
enforcement force can be greatly improved, and definite steps are to be taken to 
this end. 

The titles in the positions of "Chief Fish and Game Warden" and "Fish and 
Game Warden Supervisor" were, by action of the Division of Personnel and ap- 
proved by the Governor and Council, changed to "Chief Conservation Officer" and 
"Supervising Conservation Officer," respectively. 

April marked the passing, through death, of James I. Mills and Elisha T. Ellis, 
who had served as fish and game wardens in the regular service of the Division, 
although both men left the service some years ago to follow other lines of work. 

The retirement from the service of Conservation Officer Dennis F. Shea of Ware 
marks the end of a long career with the Division. He had served under the various 
titles of Deputy Fish and Game Commissioner, Fish and Game Warden, and 
Conservation Officer in accordance with the changing of the titles of the enforce- 
ment personnel, for thirty-six years, and during that time he performed some very 
important enforcement work, many times under adverse conditions. His passing 
from the service is to be regretted. 

As a result of Officer Shea's retirement, Almon H. Griffin of Lee was appointed 
conservation officer, and at present is located at Ware, patrolling the area covered 
by Officer Shea for so many years. 

No transfers were made. 

Eight temporary conservation officers were appointed for a three-month period 
for patrol work on the public fishing grounds, with assignments the same as last 
year in covering areas along the Miller's, Farmington and Squannacook Rivers, 
and the Westfield River System. 

Owing to the open winter no feeding of wildlife was found necessary, and con- 
siderable saving was effected in that no grain or extra travel was needed. 

Deer accidentally or illegally killed numbered 66, as follows: struck by auto- 
mobiles, 41 ; struck by trains, 2; killed or injured through being chased by dogs, 8; 
badly injured, and shot, 3; found dead, 12. Such deer were disposed of by the 
Division in the usual manner, that is, meat that was unfit for food was destroyed, 
and meat in good condition was distributed to 365 needy families receiving welfare. 

During the early morning hours of July 23, three men were apprehended on the 
hatchery grounds at Palmer, two of whom had been fishing. Two other men of 
the same party were picked up at their machine not far from the bass pools. All 
five were locked up and appeared in the Palmer District Court on July 30, where 



P.D. 25 11 

two were fined $125 each, one $50, another $15 for drunkenness, and the fifth 
discharged. Conservation Officer Donohue of Palmer handled the entire situation, 
and his direction of the forces at his disposal at the time of the apprehension and 
the prosecution of the cases in court, was outstanding. 

One other case of theft occurred at the Sunderland State Fish Hatchery. Three 
offenders were prosecuted by the State Police for larceny of a large brown trout, 
for which fines of $25 each were imposed. 

Plans were formulated early in the year to concentrate in certain areas to put 
a stop to illegal deer hunting, and in the closing weeks of this fiscal year deer j ackers 
or other illegal deer hunters were apprehended to a greater extent than has been 
the case over a period of several years. All cases could not be terminated at the 
close of this report, but it is felt that the work along this line will have the desired 
effect on persons who may contemplate such illegal hunting in the future, as sub- 
stantial fines have resulted from prosecutions already made. 

It is anticipated that much illegal deer hunting, so prevalent in the past, will be 
rapidly stamped out with the advent of the so-called buckshot law, which perhaps 
should be explained here. Chapter 324, Acts of 1937, further amended Chapter 
131, Section 104, G. L. Ter. Ed. as most recently amended, making it prima facie 
evidence of illegal deer hunting on the part of any one found with any shot gun 
shells in their possession loaded with any shot, bullet or ball larger than No. 2 shot, 
together with a shot gun, in any place where deer might be found at any time, other 
than during the legal open season on deer, and further making it illegal to have in 
possession any rifle the calibre of which is larger than a 22-calibre long rifle, or a 
pistol or revolver larger than a 38-calibre, between the hours of one-half hour after 
sunset to one-half hour before sunrise. While the law has caused some dissatis- 
faction it is believed to be chiefly on the part of those desiring to continue illegal 
deer hunting. 

Conservation officers in the area where illegal deer hunting is prevalent have spent 
long hours in the field, and much of the work has been done nights, but the results 
have been most satisfactory, and the men who have worked without thought of 
time are to be commended for the work and the spirit in which it was carried out. 

With the early opening of the duck season the wood ducks were present in large 
numbers, resulting in 28 cases being handled by the conservation officers. 

A noticeable improvement in law-enforcement has taken place since the division 
of the State into two sections, namely, eastern and western, in charge of Supervising 
Conservation Officers Forrest S. Clark and Lloyd M. Walker, respectively. Not 
only the larger number of violations of the wood duck and deer laws apprehended, 
but many other illustrations could be cited to show the effectiveness of the present 
set-up. 

In the prosecution of cases for taking song birds or other protected birds outside 
of the game bird classification, fines averaged $20 per case, indicating that the 
seriousness of this form of hunting is recognized by the courts. 

Owing to the increased stocking of many of the great ponds with trout, the old 
smelt regulations were revoked and new ones issued that prohibit the taking of 
smelt from such ponds, in order to provide food for the trout, for this was the 
purpose in the first instance in placing smelt in these bodies of water. 



12 



P.D. 25 





of 

■§» 

I s 
,5 ° 


Disposition 


VIOLATION 


T3 

o 

"> 

C 
o 
O 


T3 

5 Is 


£ 

a 

a 
a 
< 




T3 

to <« 

<u o 


Aiding or assisting in violations .... 


4 


3 


i 




2 


$10 


Aliens possessing firearms ..... 


19 


18 


i 


1 


7 


350 


Armistice Day law violation .... 


5 


5 


— 


2 


2 


40 


Assault on an officer ...... 


1 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Bass 


15 


14 


i 


1 


6 


70 


Buying or selling birds and mammals . 


2 


2 


— 


1 


- 


100 


Carrying rifle in woods during deer week 


2 


- 


2 


- 


- 


— 


Carrying firearms while training dog in closed season 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


20 


City or town clerks — failure to comply with laws 














regarding license remittances and books 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Deer ........ 


28 


24 


4 


3 


— 


1,530 


Defacing and destroying public documents — license 














blank ........ 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Discharge of firearms on State or paved highways . 


7 


3 


4 


2 


- 


60 


Discharging firearms on the Lord's Day 


3 


3 


— 


— 


— 


14 


Ferrets ........ 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Fishing in closed areas in State forests . 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


30 


Fishing in reservations ..... 


4 


3 


1 


— 


— 


300 


Fishing in private ponds ..... 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Fishing in closed ponds ..... 


3 


3 


- 


- 


- 


40 


Fishing other than by angling .... 


18 


14 


4 


1 


6 


160 


Fishing without a license ..... 


218 


202 


16 


— 


55 


1,400 


Fishing in breeding areas ..... 


3 


3 


- 


— 


1 


20 


Geese ........ 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Horned pout ....... 


1 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Hunting on State property without a permit 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Hunting on posted land ..... 


3 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


Hunting on the Lord's Day .... 


19 


18 


1 


— 


4 


290 


Hunting without a license ..... 


32 


31 


1 


— 


7 


230 


Hunting with a rifle at night .... 


2 


2 


— 


— 


2 


— 


Hunting with the aid of a vehicle or light 


7 


7 


- 


1 


- 


350 


Hunting in closed season ..... 


12 


12 


— 


— 


1 


220 


Licenses — refusal to show ..... 


3 


3 


- 


1 


— 


30 


Licenses — securing fraudulently .... 


2 


2 


— 


— 




10 


Licenses — failure to produce . . . 


4 


3 


1 


- 




20 


Maintaining an open fire without a permit 


3 


3 


— 


- 




10 


Migratory bird regulations - — violation of 


1 


1 


- 


- 




- 


Muskrats ........ 


3 


1 


2 


— 




— 


Northern pike ....... 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


10 


Pheasants ........ 


7 


5 


2 


— 


1 


80 


Pickerel ........ 


19 


15 


4 


— 


3 


130 


Possession of firearms while training dogs during 














closed season ....... 


2 


— 


2 


- 


— 


— 


Possession of a shotgun on Sunday where game may 














be found ....... 


6 


6 


— 


1 


— 


85 


Protected ducks ...... 


20 


17 


3 


1 


— 


340 


Rabbits ........ 


6 


6 


- 


- 


- 


120 


Ruffed grouse ....... 


2 


2 


- 


- 


2 


- 


Scented bait ....... 


1 


1 


- 


— 


1 


— 


Seining ........ 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Shore birds ....... 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


20 


Smelt . 


2 


2 


— 


— 


2 


— 


Snaring or trapping quadrupeds .... 


8 


8 


- 


- 


4 


250 


Squirrels . ...... 


5 


4 


1 


— 


— 


20 


Taking protected birds ..... 


14 


14 


— 


— 


2 


280 


Trapping without a license ..... 


15 


13 


2 


2 


2 


125 


Traps — unmarked ...... 


24 


19 


5 


3 


6 


280 


Traps — not visiting once in twenty-four hours 


11 


9 


2 


1 


4 


100 


Trapping without a permit ..... 


5 


2 


3 


— 


2 


— 


Traps — setting not designed to kill at once . 


6 


5 


1 


1 


1 


200 


Trapping in closed season ..... 


14 


12 


2 


— 


1 


220 


Traps — setting within ten feet of muskrat houses. 


8 


8 


- 


2 


2 


120 


Traps — setting in pathways .... 


1 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Trapping — illegal ...... 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


20 


Trespassing ....... 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


— 


Trout 


7 


7 


- 


— 


— 


70 


Use of live bait on restricted area on Deerfield River. 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


10 


Waterfowl ....... 


4 


2 


2 


- 


1 


20 


Using net more than thirty-six square feet 


1 


- 


1 


— 


— 


— 


Using dogs during deer week .... 


2 


2 


- 


. - 


1 


20 


White perch ....... 


4 


4 


— 


— 


— 


30 


Woodcock ....... 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


20 


Yellow perch ....... 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


10 


Totals 


636 


563 


73 


26 


143 


$7,884 



P.D. 25 13 

Permits and Registrations 

When the sale of wild game birds and mammals for food value was prohibited, 
it was thought that propagated pheasants, ducks, geese and other stock would 
supply the market, but the cost of production proved too high to make private 
propagation profitable. Gunning stands developed large flocks of decoy geese 
and ducks, until Federal laws forbade the use of live decoys. Now only a few 
breeders are kept in the hope that their use will be allowed at a future date, when 
new flocks will be produced. With the introduction of fitch, many tried raising 
these animals for the value of the fur, but as it lost popularity the price dropped 
to almost nothing. It has been necessary to handle the fitch under the same law 
as ferrets, as there is very little difference between these animals, as all are, more 
or less, varieties of the same animal. Mink values have jumped far ahead of 
expectations, especially for breeding stock. The raccoon, in the past few years, 
has regained its former popularity as a game mammal, as well as a producer of fur 
and meat. Pheasants and quail are still in good demand, especially for stocking 
covers and for field trials. Accordingly, requests for permits for the breeding of 
wild birds, mammals and fish are still received in usual numbers. 

During the fiscal year 1937 there were 348 game and fur breeders' permits issued. 
There are outstanding 141 fish breeders' permits, 70 permits to take protected 
birds for scientific purposes, and 91 bird banding permits, all in force until revoked. 
For the taking of shiners for bait, 100 permits were issued, bringing in a revenue 
of $500. A charge should be made to cover the expense of investigation, corres- 
pondence, and issuance of these permits. As the increase of wild ducks and geese 
was not considered sufficient to warrant the use of live decoys, there was no sale 
of gunning stand certificates of registration, completely cutting off income from 
this source. This also had its effect in cutting down propagation of these forms of 
wildlife, as very few ducks and geese are now raised for market. The purchase of 
the Federal duck stamp was required as some wildfowl are taken by use of a painted 
wooden block, shadows, and other inanimate decoys, as well as by pass shooting, 
which was allowed. 

New Legislation, enacted during 1937 

The following laws were enacted during the legislative session of 1937: 

Chapter 18 authorizes towns in Barnstable County to appropriate money for 
stocking inland waters in such towns with fish, and for liberating game therein. 

Chapter 38 makes it illegal to hunt on Memorial Day or Armistice Day between 
the hours of 7 A. M. and 1 P. M. 

Chapter 89 relates to hunting within the borders of certain public lands, per- 
mitting a greater latitude on certain properties belonging to the Department of 
Conservation. 

Chapter 95 relates to the licensing of dog kennels in the case of their removal 
to other municipalities within the same State. 

Chapter 116 relates to the taking of trout from the Miller's River or its diverted 
waters, making the open season from May 15 to August 31 and the legal length of 
trout taken from this river to be 9 inches. 

Chapter 123 establishes a closed season for fish with respect to which no closed 
season is otherwise established by law, so that the period from March 1 to April 14 
is now closed on all fish. 

Chapter 152 permits fishing without a license in certain ponds in Dukes county. 

Chapter 167 provides for an open season on quail in Nantucket County. 

Chapter 172 relates to the hunting and possession of rabbits in Nantucket 
County and is outlined in Chapter 316 of the current acts'. 

Chapter 191 authorizes the issuance to certain officials of certain other states of 
complimentary certificates entitling them to hunt and fish in this commonwealth. 

Chapter 197 relates to using Lake Cochituate in the town of Natick for boating 
and fishing. 

Chapter 229 provides for further penalizing in the sale of game through adding 
a jail sentence to the fine already provided. 

Chapter 243 abolishes the open season on deer in Norfolk County. 

Chapter 269 limits the taking of trout from great ponds stocked by the Director 
of the Division to not more than five trout daily. 



14 P.D. 25 

Chapter 316 extends the closed season on hares and rabbits in certain counties 
and further regulates the hunting or possession of rabbits in Nantucket county 
by reducing the daily bag from five to three. 

Chapter 324 restricts the use of rifles and certain ammunition used with shotguns 
by making it illegal to have in possession in any place where deer may be found a 
rifle the calibre of which is larger than a twenty-two long rifle or a pistol or revolver 
calibre of which is larger than a thirty-eight between the hours of one-half hour 
after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise. This act further makes it prima facie 
evidence of illegal deer hunting to have in one's possession at any time of the year 
other than during the open season on deer any shotgun shells loaded with any shot, 
bullet, or ball larger than number two shot in any place where deer might be found. 

Chapter 372 provides for hunting on the Province Lands in Provincetown under 
rules and regulations laid down by the Department of Public Works which has 
jurisdiction over this area. 

Chapter 413 changes the titles of certain officers of the Division of Fisheries 
and Game and gradually abolishes the offices of certain of such officers paid by 
municipalities. 

Recommendations for Legislation 

With the changing conditions and the volume of bills filed each year, amend- 
ments have been made to the fish and game laws until practically every section of 
Chapter 131 has been amended at least once, and some sections have been amended 
nearly every year since 1930, and in some instances three times during one legislative 
session. 

Owing to the numerous amendments it seems necessary that the laws relative 
to fish, inland fisheries, birds, and mammals should be brought up to date, simplified 
and corrected. 

Unless one is following the fish and game laws at all times, it is difficult to deter- 
mine just what the law is, and in several instances the courts have criticised the 
present condition that the fish and game laws are in. Therefore it is deemed neces- 
sary to recognize the necessity for action by requesting an unpaid commission be 
authorized to remedy this situation through recommendations to the Legislature. 

WILD BIRDS AND MAMMALS, AND FRESH-WATER FISH 

Game 
The work that is being carried on with the aim of improving conditions for both 
the game and the non-game birds and mammals, is discussed later on in this section 
under "Reservations and Sanctuaries — Wildlife Management." 

Migratory Game Birds 
. Waterfowl. — Waterfowl continue to increase, and native black ducks bred 
well throughout the State, with unusual numbers in evidence. The season was 
entirely too early to expect much in the way of geese, and few were taken. On 
waterfowl in general the season was poor, because of mild weather and the fact 
that the season closed early (on November 7). As a rule, the shooting season is 
open through the month of November, which affords much better gunning on 
most species, except scoters, better known along our shores as "coot." With 
the season from October 9 to November 7 nearly ideal for the coot, there were 
heavy flights, resulting in good gunning along the shore areas. 

Following the announcement from Washington of the Federal regulations for 
the shooting of migratory game birds, the Director on September 7, as provided 
by State law, declared an open season and regulations for the hunting of migratory 
birds in Massachusetts. These regulations coincided with the Federal regulations 
except in respect to the hours of shooting, for it is mandatory by State law that 
the daily open season shall be set at from one-half hour before sunrise to one-half 
hour after sunset. Nevertheless, since in all cases the Federal regulations supersede 
those of the State, the legal hours of shooting were, as provided by Federal rules, 
as follows: ducks, geese and coot, 7 A. M. to 4 P. M. ; Wilson's snipe or Jacksnipe, 
woodcock, rails and gallinules, 7 A. M. to sunset. The State regulations read as 
follows : 



P.D. 25 15 

Migratory Game Bird Regulations for Season of 1937 

"Pursuant to Section 87, chapter 131, of the General Laws, I hereby declare an 
open season on rails and gallinules (except coot) from October 1 to November 30, 
both dates inclusive. On Wilson or jacksnipe, coots (mud hens and not that 
species sometimes called coot), ducks (except wood duck, ruddy duck, bufflehead 
duck, canvasback duck, and red head duck), geese (except snow geese, Ross's 
goose, swans, and brant) between October 9 and November 7, both dates inclusive, 
and on woodcock from October 21 to November 20, both dates inclusive. 

"Daily bag and possession limits on certain migratory game birds. — A person may 
hunt in any one day during the open season prescribed therefor not to exceed the 
following numbers of migratory game birds, which number shall include all birds 
taken by any other person who for hire accompanies or assists him in taking such 
birds; and when so taken these may be possessed in the numbers specified as 
follows : Ducks (except wood duck, ruddy duck, bufflehead duck, canvasback duck, 
red head duck), 10 in the aggregate of all kinds, and any person at any one time 
may possess not more than 10 ducks in the aggregate of all kinds; geese (except 
snow geese, Ross's goose, swans, and brant), 5 in the aggregate of all kinds, and 
any person at any one time may possess not more than 5 geese in the aggregate of 
all kinds; rails and gallinules (except sora and coot), 15 in the aggregate of all 
kinds, and any person at any one time may possess not more than 15 in the aggre- 
gate of all kinds; sora, 15, and any person at any one time may possess not more 
than 15; coot, 25, and any person at any one time may possess not more than 25; 
Wilson's snipe or jacksnipe, 15, and any person at any one time may possess not 
more than 15; woodcock, 4, and any person at any one time may possess not more 
than 4. 

"The above-mentioned migratory birds may be hunted every day except Sunday 
during the open season from one-half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after 
sunset with a shotgun only, not larger than 10 gauge, fired from the shoulder; 
but they shall not be hunted with or by means of any automatic loading or hand- 
operated repeating shotgun capable of holding more than 3 shells, the magazine 
of which has not been cut off or plugged with a one-piece metal or wooden filler 
incapable of removal through the loading end thereof so as to reduce the capacity 
of said gun to not more than 3 shells at one loading. They may be hunted during 
the open season from the land or water with the aid of a dog and from a blind, boat, 
or floating craft of any kind, except as hereinafter provided; but migratory game 
birds are not permitted to be hunted from or by the aid of an automobile, aircraft 
of any kind, sinkbox (battery), power boat, sail boat, any boat under sail, any 
floating craft or device of any kind towed by power boat or sail boat. 

"No migratory game birds are permitted to be hunted directly or indirectly with 
or by the aid of corn, wheat, oats, or other grain or products thereof, salt, or any 
kind of feed by whomsoever, or for whatsoever purpose, placed, deposited, dis- 
tributed, scattered, or otherwise put out in any environment whatsoever, whereby 
such migratory game birds or waterfowl are lured, attracted, or enticed to the 
hunter. In the hunting of waterfowl the use, directly or indirectly, of live duck 
or goose decoys is not permitted nor shall anything in these regulations be deemed 
to permit the use of an aircraft of any kind, power boat, sail boat or other floating 
craft or device of any kind for the purpose of concentrating, driving, rallying, or 
stirring up migratory waterfowl. 

"The migratory birds referred to herein which have been legally taken may be 
held in possession at any time, in the numbers specified in these regulations, during 
the open season and for 10 days next succeeding said open season. Migratory 
game birds lawfully killed during the open season in any other state may be pos- 
sessed in Massachusetts for a period of 10 days after the close of the season where 
killed. 

"The possession limits hereinbefore prescribed shall apply as well to migratory 
game birds taken in any other state, Canada, or Mexico and brought into the 
Commonwealth as to those taken in the Commonwealth, but not more than one 
day's bag limit shall be brought into this Commonwealth from any other state, 
Canada, or Mexico, in one calendar week. — Patrick W. Hehir, Director." 

Woodcock. — Woodcock gunning was, as usual, spotty. The main flight, as 
far as western Massachusetts was concerned, was over just prior to the opening of 



16 P.D. 25 

the Massachusetts season. In the eastern part of the State some good woodcock 
gunning was enjoyed south and east of Boston. 

Upland Game 

The open winter reacted favorably in many respects, causing little or no suffering 
to wildlife. Absence of snow and extreme cold made unnecessary the usual feeding 
of wildlife by the Division and other interested groups. 

The year was one of the best for natural production of game birds. After a 
very open winter it was only natural to expect that many of the food-bearing plants 
and shrubs which are so essential to the welfare of our wildlife, would produce 
abundantly. With a warm summer and an abundance of rain, this expectation 
proved well-founded, and a survey of the whole State shows an abundance of food 
in the covers. 

Ruffed grouse, our principal game bird, was still below normal but in the main 
its numbers compared a little more favorably than in the 1936 season, although the 
birds were uncommonly wild, which presumably saved many for brood stock for 
1938. Feed conditions for grouse were found to be excellent and should mean 
considerable in bringing a sufficient number through the winter, barring deep 
snows, crusts and ice storms. 

The quail story is about as usual, with the counties of southeastern Massachu- 
setts making up practically all the area in which quail hunting is of any note. 
Worcester County is practically the only one outside the real quail areas where 
sufficient numbers are found for any gunning, and then it is confined mainly to the 
south and southeastern part of the county. 

Pheasants were spotty with most of the success coming from liberated birds, 
although in some areas wild naturally propagated birds were in abundance. The 
regulations for the open season on pheasants, as formulated by the Director, 
permitted the shooting of cock pheasants only from October 20 to November 20 
in all counties alike except that in Nantucket County, that variety of pheasants 
known as the Melanistic Mutant was protected. The bag limit for each person 
was two in one day, six in one season, no person to have in possession more pheas- 
ants than is legally permitted by the regulations. 

Gray squirrels, while more plentiful than last year, still do not appear in great 
numbers as no migration took place as was the case two years ago. 

Hares and rabbits again numbered with the game that is hunted hardest. Hares 
have not shown a noticeable increase but rabbits are generally plentiful, furnishing 
the best rabbit hunting in a number of years. 

Raccoons generally appeared in average numbers, with some evidence that they 
are on the increase in eastern Massachusetts. 

Owing to the open winter trappers enjoyed a longer season in which to follow 
their trap lines, and in most parts of the State were not bothered with traps being 
frozen over or frozen in the ice. 

Mink and otter, and more particularly the latter, have come to be recognized as 
the worst enemies that the Division has to contend with in restocking the streams 
and ponds. Many private club ponds and small bodies of water used for rearing 
fish to larger size before planting, have been literally cleaned of fish, and poachers 
blamed, whereas the damage was done by one or more otters. Their destructive- 
ness, which goes on in the great ponds just as it does in the smaller bodies of water, 
is a matter that must be dealt with if steady improvement is to be expected in our 
fishing as a result of propagation and stocking. 

Beaver continue to be a problem, and while their numbers are small they are 
sufficiently large, considering the small area of the State and its dense population, 
to cause damage wherever they appear. Two trapped in the Pittsfield water 
supply where they had become very troublesome were shipped to Vermont, and 
one killed by an automobile was turned over to the Pittsfield Museum. It may 
seem shortsightedness on the part of the Division to ship them out of the State, 
but Massachusetts is not like States which have vast areas and a relatively small 
population. 

Bounties amounting to $410 were paid on 41 wild cats killed in 1937, and $120 
on 12 killed in previous years for which claims had not been presented before. 

During the deer season conditions were bad throughout the State, the icy roads 



P.D. 25 17 

making travel in western Massachusetts both difficult and hazardous, with rain 
during the latter part of the season softening the dirt roads in the eastern and 
southern sections. The rain which preceded the opening day brought about what 
promised to be a very poor season in that it not only caused muddy roads, but 
carried away what snow there was. In spite of these conditions more than 2,000 
deer were killed making the season of December, 1936 (falling within the period of 
this report) rank with the best over a one-week period. 

The deer shot in the open season was 2,009 (1,040 bucks and 969 does), divided 
among the counties as follows: Barnstable, 221; Berkshire, 565; Bristol, 37; 
Dukes, closed; Essex, 9; Franklin, 437; Hampden, 295; Hampshire, 139; Middle- 
sex, 29; Nantucket, 70; Norfolk, 7; Plymouth, 67; Suffolk, none; Worcester, 131; 
locality not stated, 2. 

Deer found damaging crops and shot by land owners (as permitted by law) 
numbered 40 (of which 3 were killed on Nantucket). 

In addition to the above, 66 died accidentally or otherwise as already detailed 
under "Enforcement of the Game and Inland Fish Laws." 

As farms and orchards increase in number and in size, so the damage by wild 
deer increases in proportion. Although the appropriation for deer damage in 
1937 was larger, it was still insufficient for the unpaid claims brought over from 
1936 and to pay also the claims of 1937 proper. 

The disbursements during the fiscal year 1937 were $6,494.04, as follows: For 
21 claims brought over from 1936, $1,776.13 ($1,652.95 for claims, $123.18 for 
appraisal fees); for 98 claims received within the fiscal year 1937, $4,717.91 
($4,080.70 for claims, $454.77 for appraisal fees and $182.44 for seals) . At the close 
of the year there are 6 claims on hand, totaling $1,352.48 ($1,295.38 for claims and 
$57.10 for appraisal fees) which for lack of funds are carried over to be paid within 
the fiscal year 1938. 

Since all the claims in excess of twenty dollars are thoroughly investigated by a 
conservation officer, the county agricultural agent, and a person representing the 
owner, there can be little advantage in making further investigation, and few 
claims so appraised have ever been disputed. The intent is to have the valuations 
of all claims as nearly as possible on the same basis in all sections of the State. 

It would seem that the deer near these cultivated areas would be the first taken 
in the hunting season, but the upland game season preceding the deer season appears 
to drive the deer into the deeper woods, so that when the deer season opens they 
are no longer in the localities where damage was done during spring and summer. 
Then, too, the falling of the leaves, making the deer conspicuous in their summer 
hiding places, sends them further away from summer habitats. Neither the deer 
killed by the land owners nor those taken by hunters in the regular open season 
suffice to reduce their numbers appreciably, so that the claims for damage still 
increase. Some effort has been made to hunt out the sections near to the locations 
of highest damage, but it has shown little or no result. 

Statistics of Game and Fur-bearing Animals taken. — There were 60,350 
reports of game and fur taken during the calendar year 1936 filed by purchasers 
of sporting, hunting and trapping licenses for 1937. Tabulated, the reports show 
the amount of game and fur taken in 1936 to have been — 

Gallinules ..... 

Rails ...... 

Wilson snipe (Jack snipe) 

Fresh-water coots (mud hens) 

Ducks (including skunk head, butter 
scoters, commonly known as coots) 

Geese .... 

Brant (shooting not permitted) 



Woodcock 

Quail ..... 

Ruffed grouse 

Pheasants .... 

Deer (bucks, 1,040; does, 969) 

Cottontail rabbits 

White hares 



bill and white-winged 



123 

277 
316 
832 

20,354 
601 



12,380 
6,783 

29,661 

19,872 
2,009 

77,146 
8,518 



18 



Gray squirrels 

Total head of game taken 

Muskrat 

Mink . 

Skunk 

Red fox 

Gray fox 

Raccoon 

Weasel 

Otter . 

Canada lynx (loup cervier) 

Bay lynx (wildcat or bobcat) 

Total number of pelts taken 



P.D. 25 

40,468 



219,340 

41,482 

2,425 

12,617 

6,519 

861 

3,667 

985 

112 

20 

75 

68,763 



Reservations and Sanctuaries 



The purpose of establishing wildlife refuges is to insure a virile breeding nucleus 
of our native fauna for the enjoyment and economic gain of future generations. 
These refuge areas are so laid out and developed that research in the seasonal 
habits, food and cover requirements, density of population, disease, and other 
forms of mortality, is greatly simplified. Upon the facts so gathered and co- 
ordinated is based sound biological procedure to be followed in assisting any given 
species. 

Wildlife is a product of environment, and environment is the habitat in which 
any species lives; therefore if we improve this environment for any given species, 
a natural increase in that species will follow. By following this formula on refuges 
and developing them in accordance with what is learned from research, an increase 
in all wildlife will be obtained. These areas then serve as demonstration areas 
from which those who control private land can gather the information necessary 
to improve their holdings. 

The economic necessity of such a program is readily seen when it is known 
that in Massachusetts it is estimated that there are four breeding pairs of birds to 
the acre, or a total of over 56 million. If, then, their value as insect destroyers is 
estimated at 10 cents apiece, an economic gain of over 53^ millions of dollars is 
shown, and when the 4^£ to 5 million dollars spent by the sportsmen annually in 
Massachusetts in pursuit of their pleasure is considered, it becomes apparent that 
this constitutes economics of major importance. The pleasure derived from 
observing our wild creatures is enjoyed by all who live or travel in Massachusetts 
and makes them glad that the wondrous beauty of nature still exists for the enjoy- 
ment of the people. Because of these, and many other reasons, it is both wise 
and expedient that the wildlife program be carried on, improved and enlarged as 
we advance in knowledge. 

Wildlife Management 

Although the work in wildlife management began several years ago, progress 
has been slow owing to limited funds, and the work has of necessity been on a small 
scale; so it may be of value, after the lapse of nearly three years, to survey the 
results for that period as a whole. 

Massachusetts is divided into three ecological zones: the eastern or seacoast, 
the central or Connecticut River valley, and the western or Berkshire Mountains. 
Each of these calls for slightly different treatment, and any policy drawn to cover 
this State must be flexible enough to provide equitably for all three. 

There are also conditions to meet on our tide marshes different than are found 
in states lying to the south. Our marshes average 10 feet level and our range in 
high tides is from 7.1 to a flood tide of 12.1, giving a variation of 5 feet in high tide 
range, and our ebb tides run from — 2.2 to +1.8. These conditions are entirely 
dissimilar to those existing in most of the Atlantic seaboard states, and consequently 
call for different treatment in carrying on a tide marsh waterfowl and shorebird 
restoration program. In this program we have coordinated with the State Reclama- 
tion Board, our efforts having been put to restoring pot holes and shallow water 



P.D. 25 19 

mud flats that have been drained through mosquito control operations. This 
has restored environment for the killifish that eat all mosquito larvae and are in 
turn consumed by many species of wading and swimming fowl. This work has 
also supplied our migratory birds with much-needed resting stations. 

To date there have been set aside on State Forest lands 18 wildlife refuges, 
totaling 15,605 acres, the largest comprising 5,500 and the smallest 140 acres. 
Seven of these have been mapped, work plans drawn, and actual development 
started. On two of these areas development has continued without interruption 
since February, 1935 and has proceeded on the others with the exception of short 
layoffs due to emergency flood work or lack of funds. 

As a fire prevention measure there have been constructed or improved 43.7 
miles of graveled fire lanes and 50 waterholes. To supply cover there have been 
planted 247,650 three-year old nursery-grown coniferous trees in scattered groups 
adjacent to feeding grounds and at other strategic points, and wherever desirable 
slash has been piled to provide temporary escape cover. Predator control has 
been carried on successfully, with emphasis being placed on escape cover. There 
have been 7.3 miles of rides or food strips cleared, cultivated and planted, and 42.75 
acres of food patches established. Winter foods have been established and im- 
proved by planting, transplanting, grafting and pruning a total of 26,000 persistent 
fruit-bearing shrubs and trees, including 2,839 malus grafts, combined with pruning 
species already growing. A total area of 847 acres of woodland has been treated 
to improve composition with hardwood softwood groups as the objective. A 
main nursery for the propagation of food and cover shrubs and trees has been 
established, as well as branch nurseries in all wildlife areas where it is deemed 
expedient. 

Census is taken twice each month by the grid line system, our lines being run a- 
400-foot intervals north and south, east and west; observations are made altert 
nately, north and south lines being run on the first of the month and east and west 
on the fifteenth, or vice versa. 

Stream improvement has been carried on by the installation of dams, checks, 
deflectors, and by the clearing or installation of gravel for spawning beds at spring 
holes, a total of 4.6 miles of trout stream having been so treated. Twenty-five 
ponds have been created, some dedicated to fishing and others to waterfowl res- 
toration. Preferred aquatic plants have been, or will be, planted in these waters. 

Summarizing, it is found that the work just described has accomplished the 
following results. All species of wildlife are materially increased by these opera- 
tions, particularly noticeable of cottontail rabbits in areas that have been developed 
for a period of two years or more. Grouse increased slightly, about ten percent, 
in these areas during the recent downward cycle of this species. Deer herd in the 
areas during the open season without impairing the amount of kill, 1936 having 
been one of the largest years in deer take. Wild turkeys are doing well, with three 
broods (hatched from stock liberated prior to October, 1936) reported under 
observation at Beartown Wildlife Area, the only place where restocking of this 
species was attempted. From a total of seven known muskrat on Bog Pond in 
1934 there were 22 houses built in the winter of 1936-7. This was brought about 
principally by closing to trapping and by lowering the pond. Benedict Pond, 
built in 1934 and planted to giant wild rice and wapato, supported 70 black duck 
during the fall of 1936. 

Our tide marsh experiments, detailed report of which follows, have led to the 
discontinuance of drastic and complete drainage by mosquito control authorities 
in this State, for we have proved that mosquito control and waterfowl-shorebird 
restoration can be carried on successfully with the same operation and can be of 
benefit to both. 

Non-game species were found to have increased tremendously, particularly song 
and insectivorous birds. Rides or food strips proved to be very desirable, resulting 
in the breaking up of the forest density, the creation of rimage or edges, the natural 
sweetening of the soil, and the dusting sites and food supplied through cultivation. 
These were sowed to cereals, clovers and legumes. 

The taking of the census by grid lines already described, traversing as they do 
all types of topography and flora, has proved extremely valuable in ascertaining 
the preferred seasonal environment of the different species; and the grid lines 



20 P.D. 25 

themselves act as breaker strips and runways in what we have found to be a desired 
frequency of 400-foot spacing. 

The work of predator control has shown that in general the best method is to 
provide escape cover as an integral part of feeding grounds. Where red-tail and 
red-shouldered hawks have been eliminated the less desirable Cooper's hawk has 
come in. This was discovered by observing a red-tail kill a Cooper's hawk imme- 
diately after it had been placed in the same pen. This did not occur when a red- 
shouldered hawk was placed with a red-tail; as a matter of fact, there seemed to 
be little if any antagonism displayed by these two buteos. 

Composition improvement has had the effect of materially increasing the cotton- 
tail rabbit and grouse population as well as the desirable non-game species. 

From the observations taken and the findings arrived at we feel confident that 
we are building on a sure foundation, and intend to continue and to expand until 
those who control the privately owned lands see how beneficial this work has been, 
and join whole-heartedly with the State in a wildlife restoration program. When 
that day arrives, wildlife will realize that "more abundant life" so often spoken of 
but so seldom enjoyed. 

Following is the account in detail of the work for the restoration of shore birds 
and waterfowl, carried on under the direction of Mr. Harold M. Bradbury. Since 
1931 the sportsmen and bird lovers had from time to time complained of the 
alarming decrease in the numbers of migratory fowl that formerly rested and fed 
in our salt marshes during their migrations. These conditions were officially 
called to the attention of the Department of Conservation early in 1936, and the 
Division was authorized to proceed with a fact-finding investigation, to be followed 
by such work as was necessary to bring about rehabilitation. The Duxbury 
Marsh, comprising about 1,300 acres, was chosen as the experimental area because 
of the known falling off in the number of birds there and its accessibility to Boston. 

Prior to the completion of mosquito control operations in 1931, many different 
species of migratory fowl, including flocks of American egrets, had been observed, 
and the two still existing and the remains of nine other large gunning stands, as 
well as numbers of disused shooting boxes, bear testimony to its former value as 
desirable environment. 

May and June of 1936 were used in making a thorough survey of existing condi- 
tions and planning remedial measures. The shallow water and flats were found 
to be completely drained, with the bottoms dried and cracked from exposure to 
the sun and air, and a coarse vegetation, glasswort, establishing itself. No birds 
were observed except one or two following a flood tide or a heavy rain, and these 
stayed only as long as it took the water to drain off. 

The pot holes had been ditched and drained so that they contained water only 
when the tide level was above their bottoms, and most of them were filling in with 
a coarse grass (Spartina glabra). Only an occasional bittern (Botaursa lentiginosus) 
and two blue herons (Ardea herodias herodias and Florida caerulea caerulea) were 
observed feeding on the killifish stranded there by the receding tide. "The hand 
of man had again dispossessed wildlife of its ancestral haunts." 

The disappearance of the eel grass in Duxbury Bay was also taken into con- 
sideration as a factor in waterfowl shortage, but one over which we had no control 
and therefore beyond our scope. The Duxbury Marsh averages 10 feet in elevation 
which is approximately true of all our tide marshes north of Cape Cod. Since our 
range in high tides is from 7.1 to a flood tide of 12.1, a variation of 5 feet in high 
tide range, and our ebb tides run from — 2.2 to +1.8, giving a maximum range of 
tide level of 14.3, it can be readily seen that flood or tide gates would be impractical, 
and therefore plans for any such development were discarded. 

In order to retain the benefits of the work of the State Reclamation Board in 
mosquito elimination, all plans for restoration projects were submitted for the 
Board's approval before proceeding with treatment. Tentative approval (subject 
to check for mosquito larvae following August flood tides) having been granted, 
the program started on July 16 with National Youth Administration labor and 
was in full swing by August 1. 

Development plans were based on the assumption that all mosquito larvae 
would be eaten by the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus macrolepidous) . This being 
true, our task was to recreate a desirable environment where they would remain 



P.D. 25 21 

healthy and hungry during the lowest tides and the hottest weather, the period 
most favorable for mosquito reproduction. This was done by damming the outlets 
with the blocks of peaty sod removed in drainage operations, the grass roots in 
which (dormant during exposure for 5 years) became vigorous again when subjected 
to moisture, and within a year had become an integral part of the marsh. Care 
was taken to hold the water level a little below the surrounding marsh (about 9 
inches), thus giving the adjacent turf freedom from surface pools without appre- 
ciably changing the water table, yet holding the marsh vegetation unchanged. 

The grass which was establishing itself, and in some cases completely filling the 
pot holes, was removed before the dam was placed, thereby restoring them to a 
natural condition. In some cases these holes were deepened to provide a desirable 
depth, from 12 to 24 inches, and a portion of the bank shelved off to give the water- 
fowl a place to sun and preen. Where it appeared expedient, new ones were 
excavated, and the water similarly controlled. 

The shallow-water shorebird stations were given slightly different treatment. 
In these, to deepen the water would have made them uninhabitable for the smaller 
waders, so scattered holes were dug from 8 to 10 feet in diameter and averaging 
18 inches in depth. These were placed in the deeper portions from which the 
killifish could work out into the shallows and feed on the mosquito larvae or 
wrigglers. As the waters gradually receded during the low tide periods and from 
evaporation during warm weather, the killifish feeding area would gradually con- 
tract, but suitable environment was always present in these holes until the next 
flood tides restored the maximum feeding range. 

When salt hay or black grass was harvested in former years, many species of 
shore birds, particularly the black bellied plover or beetle head and yellow legs 
would frequent these cut-over areas in large flocks, feeding industriously midst 
the stubble. With this in mind several acres in small patches were burned over, 
creating equally desirable areas on which much food was uncovered and made- 
more available. Sand fleas, crickets, grasshoppers, small periwinkles, grubs, and 
many other small forms of animal life became readily available by burning the 
cover grass. It is a common sight to see from 30 to 150 greater yellow-legs feeding 
in these patches of not over 2,500 square feet in extent, during the fall migration. 
This burning over was also of value in controlling the mosquitoes because of the 
hastened evaporation of the surface water through the removal of the sheltering 
grasses. August burning in small interspersed patches, thereby leaving cover 
strips for the marsh fauna, appears to give the best results. 

An inspection of the Duxbury Marsh experiment was made on November 13 
by Mr. R. W. Wales, Entomologist of the State Reclamation Board. His report 
on November 16 to the Board details the work as described above, and adds, 
"Some of these ponds dammed about a year ago provide a good opportunity to 
observe the probable effects on the control of mosquito breeding. Observations 
indicate no unfavorable effects, and it would seem to be a safe method to pursue. 
The ponds observed contained numbers of minnows and the marsh immediately 
surrounding the pond drains rapidly enough to prevent the development of condi- 
tions where mosquitoes might breed." Regarding the areas for wading birds he 
comments, "Such areas should not provide conditions suitable for mosquito breed- 
ing, if the water is not permitted to stand in the marsh grass surrounding the area. 
A careful adjustment of the height of the dam at the outlet is necessary to accom- 
plish this. These experiments are being carried out on marshes where the minimum 
tidal range between low and high is about 9 feet. It would be of value to make 
observations of the effects of the same methods on marshes where the tidal range 
is much smaller and drainage consequently slower." 

It appears, from the above report, that a program of migratory wildlife restoration 
can be carried on without impairing the mosquito extermination project. 

Our observations, combined with those of persons who have watched conditions 
here over a period of forty or more years, show a marked increase in the use of this 
marsh in 1936 and 1937 over the period from 1931 to 1936. It is apparent that 
migratory waterfowl will not rest where proper environment does not exist, but 
we were interested in ascertaining whether they would return to their former 
haunts when restored. This they have done in a gratifying manner and with 
every prospect that the numbers so doing will increase from year to year. 



22 P.D. 25 

These experiments have proven that mosquito control work on our tide marshes 
can be carried on successfully without causing injury to this type of migratory 
bird habitat if drastic drainage is avoided. This is the preventive which should 
be followed when first practicing mosquito control, thereby eliminating the necessity 
and expense of applying remedial measures. 

State Forests 

The increasing use of the State Forests by the licensed sportsmen for fishing 
and hunting more than justifies the time and funds being spent to improve condi- 
tions on them for these sports. 

Regulations governing trapping on the State Forests for the period November 1, 
1936 to March 1, 1937 were issued by the Commissioner previous to the opening 
of the season, and, as a result, practically every forest area which lay within the 
limit of towns which had voted to suspend the operation of the anti-steel trap law, 
was trapped by experienced trappers. The regulations allowed one trapping 
permit for each 2,500 acres of forest area legally open to trapping. The following 
table shows the results: 



Forest 


Mink 


Raccoon 


Weasel 


Red Fox 


Gray Fox 


Wild cat 


Skunk 


Beartown (Monterey, Great Barring- 
ton, Lee, Tyringham) . 

Brimfield ..... 

Colrain ...... 

Conway ..... 

Erving . . 

Massachusetts Federation of Women's 
Clubs (Petersham) 

Great Barrington .... 

Hubbardston ..... 

Myles Standish (Plymouth and Car- 
ver) . . . 

October Mountain (Lee, Lenox, 
Becket, Washington) . 

Otis 

Sandisfield 

Savoy Mountain .... 

Shawme (Sandwich, Bourne) 

Tolland-Granville .... 

Wendell 

Willard Brook (Townsend, Ashby) 

Windsor ..... 


1 
2 

2 

6 

1 

2 

4 

1 
7 
5 
2 


4 

1 
1 

2 

1 
1 


6 
2 

3 

15 
3 
2 

1 
1 


20 

12 

1 

4 

5 

3 

14 

6 

2 

6 

11 

53 

25 
3 


1 
4 

2 

4 
3 

3 


4 
1 


17 
9 

1 

7 

10 
3 

2 

22 

17 
1 




33 


10 


33 


165 


17 


5 


89 



Deer hunting on 19 State Forests was regulated by permit during the one-week 
season (December 1936, falling within the period of the 1937 report), and the 
reports obtained indicated that deer were found on practically all forests thus 
regulated. 





Number of 








Forest 


permits 
issued 


Bucks 


Does 


Total 


Beartown (Monterey, Great Barrington, Lee, Tyringham) . 


202 


12 


12 


24 


Brimfield ......... 


50 


— 


1 


1 


Chester-Blandford ........ 


155 


* 


* 


15 


Colrain ......... 


39 


— 


1 


1 


Erving ......... 


109 


3 


1 


4 


Freetown ......... 


60 


* 


* 


2 


Mount Grace (Warwick) ...... 


20 


- 


- 


- 


Myles Standish (Plymouth and Carver) .... 


674 


8 


4 


12 


Northfield 


58 


3 


1 


4 


October Mountain (Lee, Lenox, Becket, Washington) 


300 


o 


11 


16 


Pittsfield 


50 


— 


— 


— 


Sandisfield ......... 


83 


2 


4 


6 


Savoy .......... 


3 


- 


- 


- ■ 


Shawme (Bourne, Sandwich) ...... 


505 


1 


5 


6 


Tolland 


140 


3 


3 


6 


Tolland-Granville ........ 


90 


1 


5 


6 


Townsend ......... 


6 


— 


2 


2 


Warwick ......... 


57 


— 


— 


— 


Wendell 


49 


- 


1 


1 




2,650 


38 


51 


106 



*Sex not reported. 



P.D. 25 23 

The shooting of upland game on State Forests was also regulated by the Com- 
missioner this year, and, as a result, hunting on 17 State Forests where Civilian 
Conservation Corps activities were still in progress, was restricted to those hunters 
who obtained a permit from the headquarters established at each of those forests. 
In trying to serve the hunters' convenience as far as possible, permits were issued 
this year on a weekly basis, and, in contrast with the daily permit used in 1936, 
this system worked less hardship on the hunter while at the same time serving its 
double purpose of restricting the hunters to areas not occupied by workers as well 
as providing information as to the number and species of birds or animals taken. 
The following table shows the results on those areas open by permit to hunting. 





T3 

3 
— m 


9 

3 






"3 




o> 




Forest 




6 


c 




3 


'3 


c3 


X 




ss 
3 % 


-a 

3 




o 

3 


0Q 

c3 


fl.-s. 

-2-° 


01 

1H 


73 




z& 


ti 


Ph 


Q 


O 


OPh 


£ 


ti 


Beartown (Monterey, Great Barrington, 


















Lee, Tyringham) ..... 


71 


1 


_ 


_ 


1 


6 


3 


_ 


Brimfield ...... 


10 




'_ 


_ 








_ 


Chester-Blandford ..... 


11 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Douglas ....... 


17 


_ 


_ 


_ 




_ 


4 


_ 


Leominster ...... 


120 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3 


42 


_ 


Myles Standish (Plymouth, Carver) . 


26 


1 


_ 


20 


_ 


1 




_ 


October Mountain (Lee, Lenox, Becket, 


















Washington) .... 


55 


6 


_ 


_ 


_ 


17 


4 


_ 


Pittsfield .... 


3 




_ 


_ 


_ 






_ 


Savoy Mountain . . . 


18 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


Townsend 


33 


1 


1 


_ 


5 


1 


_ 


1 


Upton ...... 


37 


3 




_ 




3 


_ 


2 


Warwick 


8 


1 


_ 








_ 




Wendell ....... 


41 


3 


- 


- 


- 


3 


7 


- 


Totals 


450 


17 


1 


20 


7 


35 


60 


3 



To protect Works Progress Administration laborers on the Lowell-Dracut Forest 
and to conform to the wishes of the doner of the Arthur Wharton Swann Forest in 
Monterey, the Commissioner ordered these two areas closed to all hunting. 

Wildlife refuges were set aside on four more forests, and one new refuge at the 
Leominster Forest in place of the one on that area released for forestry work. 
The new areas are: Massachusetts Federation of Women's Clubs Forest, Petersham, 
140 acres; Leominster Forest (at the same time abandoning 300 acres), 720 acres; 
Myles Standish Forest, Plymouth and Carver, 5,500 acres; Willowdale Forest, 
1,325 acres; Hawley Forest, 530 acres. With this addition there are now 18 wild- 
life refuges on as many forests, with an approximate area of 15,577 acres. The 
report covering the development of these areas as wildlife habitat has already been 
given in some detail under "Wildlife Management." 

The results of the experiment in breeding wild turkeys at Beartown State Forest 
were followed carefully in connection with the wildlife management work. Three 
known broods were produced on this area this year from stock released prior to 
October, 1936. It is believed that other broods were hatched and raised in the 
wild, but as observations and studies are confined to the refuge this could not be 
authenticated. There are 16 wild-hatched and raised turkeys that appear to be 
taking care of themselves with no trouble, and from which it is hoped to build up 
a surplus for shipment to other areas. 

Under date of November 29, 1937 the Commissioner set aside Bog Pond on the 
Savoy Mountain State Forest as a waterfowl refuge and prohibited all hunting on 
the pond. A new dam and spillway recently built at this pond has created an 
area especially suited for waterfowl. The pond was planted with wild rice, and 
will be stocked with pondfish and allowed to lie idle until July 1, 1940, at which 
time it is intended to open it to fishing under special regulations between Julv 1 
and October 1 of each year. 

Fishing on the State Forest ponds again exceeded the expectations of those in 
charge, and the tabulation shows more permits issued and more fish caught than 



24 



P.D. 25 



during any previous season. The regulations governing the taking of fish from 
the ponds were practically the same as in past years, the principal deviation from 
the regular fishing laws being the setting of a daily bag limit of 5 for trout. Where 
ponds were located reasonably close to a Civilian Conservation Corps camp or 
forest headquarters, permits were required for fishing the ponds, while at those 
ponds located on areas where obtaining a permit would be inconvenient, the only 
restrictions were those governing the daily bag limit of trout and certain kinds of 
pond fish. Large numbers of brook, brown and rainbow trout, all above legal 
length, were put into these ponds previous to the opening of the season on May 1, 
and the table indicates that a good share of them were caught out. Five of the 
ponds, namely Dearth Hill Pond, Frye Pond, Crow Hill Pond, Barrett Pond, and 
Howe Pond, were restricted to fly-fishing, and from all indications this type of 
fishing is becoming more popular each year. 







Number of 




Average 


Forest 


Pond 


permits 


Trout 


length 






issued 


taken 


(inches) 


Brimfield .... 


Dearth Hill) 








Brimfield .... 


Woodman / . . . 


2,170 


1,119 


8 


Harold Parker 


Berry \* 

Frye / . . . . 




200 




Harold Parker 


3,914 


1,346 


9 


Leominster .... 


Crow Hill 


2,717 


1,370 


10 


Myles Standish (Plymouth 










and Carver) 


Barrett . . y . 


' 322 


180 


No record 


Otis 


Upper Spectacle** 


2,338 


243 


No record 


Sandisfield .... 


York .... 


3,929 


3,590 


No record 


Savoy Mountain . 


North*** .... 


830 


443 


9^ 


Spencer .... 


Howe .... 


1,976 


1,235 


9 


Wendell .... 


Ruggles**** 


700 


297 


10 




18,896 


10,023 





*In addition to trout, 11 pickerel were taken. 
**In addition to trout, 777 pickerel and 5,355 bullheads were taken. 
***In addition to trout, 658 perch and 70 bullheads were taken. 
****In addition to trout, 3,857 bullheads were taken. 

For protection of the spawning fish, portions of Sandy Brook and East Branch 
of Clam River in the Sandisfield and the Otis State Forests, respectively, were 
closed as set forth in the section on "Feeder Streams" later in this report. 

Special regulations governing fishing through the ice were issued for Barrett 
Pond on the Myles Standish State Forest, but, due to the mild winter, the ice did 
not form to a sufficient depth to permit any fishing whatever. 

The report of the fish cultural ponds on certain of the State Forests will be found 
in the section on "Propagation of Fish and Game" — State Forest Ponds. 

Other Reservations and Sanctuaries 

No additional areas were donated this year for the purpose of protecting wildlife. 
There is little to say concerning these sanctuaries for the past year, since in the 
absence of funds (the appropriation barely suffices for the running expenses of the 
State Ornithologist and for Penikese Island) little can be accomplished for the 
increase of wildlife. On all the areas a certain amount of trimming of paths and 
roads was carried on. 

At the Boxford Reservation the gypsy moths got a new start, but work was 
done on the egg clusters and every effort is being made to keep the numbers at a 
harmless minimum. Several large parties, under the guidance of the Trustees of 
Public Reservations, visited this and nearby areas of special interest — one party 
with 20 automobiles in line. As there are but five small areas in the Crooked Pond 
section where cars can pass each other, only a limited number of automobiles can 
traverse this section without causing a traffic jam. 

At the Edward Howe Forbush Reservation in Hancock barbed wire and posts 
have been put up to restrain cattle from nearby farms. 

The Watatic Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary in Ashby and Ashburnham was re- 
posted. 

At the Minns Wildlife Sanctuary (Little Wachusett Mountain), Princeton, an 
abundance of winter food shrubs of the natural wild varieties attract many migrants 
in spring and fall. The resident bird life always has plenty of available food above 



P.D. 25 25 

the deepest snows. A spruce plantation on the south mountain slope assures 
protection in the worst of weather. 

On the Isaac Sprague Bird Sanctuary (Carr Island), Salisbury, some attention 
was given to trimming the bird food shrubs set out a few years ago, and measures 
taken for protecting them from field mice which menace the new growths. The 
poison campaign against these rodents is being continued. 

Ram Island, Mattapoisett, had the greatest number of common and roseate 
terns ever seen at this reservation, and there is reason to believe that many of 
these birds came from Penikese and joined this colony, which would account for 
the shortage at Penikese. Several bird banders visited the island during nesting 
time and marked a large number of young. During extreme hot weather of late 
July there were reports that many well-fledged young birds were found dead on 
Ram Island, but it is nothing unusual for considerable numbers to succumb to 
extremes of either hot, cold or wet weather. It is planned, after cold weather, to 
burn the trash on the island which will give better nesting areas. 

On the Knight Wildlife Reservation (Milk Island), Rockport, poison was placed 
in the rat holes, and the hiding places above ground will be removed by burning 
weeds and trash before snow comes, thus driving the rats into the open where the 
hawks and owls can get them. 

At Ram Island at Salisbury, Egg Rock off Nahant, and Billingsgate Island, Well- 
fleet, little can be accomplished from the nature of the areas, even under the most 
favorable conditions, and therefore these sanctuaries were left to the guardianship 
of the conservation officers to see that no violations were committed. All are 
small, outlying areas serving as temporary resting places for wild birds. 

Penikese Island. — The need for a proper wharf at this sanctuary continues. 
Although the winter was very blustery, ice fields and jams did not form as much 
as in other years, and the life of the old wharf was thus prolonged. The principal 
injury this year was to the landing for the small boats. The spiles having been 
completely eaten away by ship worms, this landing was torn from its fastening 
and set adrift in a southeast storm. This very seriously handicaps the caretaker 
in getting necessary supplies, and especially so in shipping rabbits, for handling of 
the crates must be done on an open, stony beach from which launching a loaded 
boat is almost impossible unless favored by offshore winds. 

Terns appeared at the usual time in May, but less than the usual numbers stayed 
to breed. The areas used by the birds for breeding in past years were less suitable 
for the purpose this year. On most of these areas there has been very little fertile 
soil for raising any vegetation; but this year, rains continuing later than usual, 
coupled with the deposit of bird lime left in other seasons, caused a very rank growth 
of weeds and wild grasses. This held the moisture and made inaccessible the bare 
ground on which the birds prefer to nest, and many abandoned nests with decaying 
eggs and dead chicks, were found. One thousand terns were banded in the manner 
described below, this being the largest number possible to band owing to the smaller 
production this year. 

In the three past years Federal wardens have punctured the eggs of the herring 
gulls at this and at other colonies in Massachusetts to limit the number of young 
produced. This year at Penikese the herring gulls were allowed to hatch their 
eggs, and the American Museum of Natural History Gull Survey, cooperating 
with the Bureau of Biological Survey, provided the Northeastern Bird Banding 
Association with special markers for identifying this year's young birds. A party 
of banders, led by Mr. L. B. Fletcher, spent the Fourth of July week-end at the 
island for the purpose of banding. The markers used were the usual numbered 
bands that can be snapped on to the lower part of the bird's leg, in conjunction 
with colored bands. In ten other sections of the United States and Canada young- 
herring gulls were marked in this manner, but with a different combination of 
colors. The markers may be seen while the birds take off or alight. The identifying 
banding for Penikese Island was as follows: first a white aluminum band, then a 
blue, and afterwards a red celluloid band next to the foot. The aluminum bands 
instruct the finders of banded birds to report to the U. S. Bureau of Biological 
Survey the location where found and the color combinations. Five hundred 
young herring gulls were thus marked at Penikese A herring gull banded on 
July 4 was found dead August 4 on a beach in Maryland. 



26 P.D. 25 

The old rabbit holding yard, made from untreated square timbers from material 
found some years ago on the island, gave out completely this summer and was 
replaced by one built from new material, well creosoted, which should serve for 
many years. 

The natural green food for rabbits lasted later into the summer than usual, and 
with the fall rains starting early in the season it was not necessary to give them 
supplementary feed during the extremely hot weather. Rabbits have increased 
this past season, and 433 were shipped to the mainland prior to November 30. 

As the work at Penikese is becoming better known, increasing numbers of visitors 
come to the island, especially during the nesting time of the birds. Courtesies are 
extended so far as may be done without interfering with the birds and their nesting 
locations. On one day 80 students from the Marine Biological Laboratory at 
Woods Hole visited the island. Some brought provisions and spent the night on 
the beach, their principal interest being in marine life which is very abundant in 
the nearby waters. This is more or less of a yearly pilgrimage, as it was at Penikese 
Island that Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz established the Anderson School of 
Natural History in 1873. This proved to be the foundation for the present Marine 
Biological Laboratory. To this a bronze tablet on one of the island boulders 
testifies. 

Reservations under Sections 115-120, Chapter 131, General Laws, 
Ter. Ed. — With the consent of the owners, a large tract of land in the towns of 
Hamilton, Ipswich and Topsfield comprising 1,560 acres of swamp and upland, 
was set aside as a wildlife sanctuary for a period of five years by order issued by 
the Commissioner on November 1. This area adjoins the wildlife refuge on the 
Willowdale State Forest, and, when plans now being formulated both by the State 
and the landowners for improving the area as wildlife habitat have been carried 
out, a noticeable increase in birds and small game should result. 

At the Mattapoisett Wildlife Sanctuary, established in 1936, additional food 
cover improvement work was done, and, from observations taken at intervals 
during the year, it is apparent that the area is being used by wildlife, especially 
quail, to a greater extent than heretofore. 

Two other sanctuaries established under this same law are still in effect — the 
Harvard Forest Reservation in Petersham and the Hinsdale-Peru Reservation, 
the expiration dates of which are September 1, 1938 and October 20, 1939, respec- 
tively. 

Inland Fisheries 
Little continued ice-fishing was enjoyed, due to the fact that in many sections 
but two or three days of ice fishing at a time was possible before rain rendered the 
ice unsafe, or took it out entirely. The Cape and the southern counties had little 
or no ice. 

As a result of the lack of ice fishing, many fish remained for the summer fishermen. 
Trout streams did not suffer the usual winter drouth, and therefore the fish survived 
in greater numbers and suffered less from the inroads made upon them by mink 
and otter, these two predators having reached such numbers that they probably 
destroyed more fish than did any other cause. The extremely hot summer rendered 
daytime fishing almost impossible during the month of August, but the early season 
fishing was exceptionally good insofar as trout were concerned, particularly from 
Worcester County west, where the better trout streams are found. 

The trout fishing in the Quaboag River from West Warren to Palmer was the 
best that it has been in the past nine or ten years, which indicates that the river 
is coming back as an important trout fishing stream. There have been many 
reports of good sized trout having been taken, particularly rainbow and brook 
trout. The improved conditions may be attributed to continued stocking and the 
increase in trout returning to the main stream from tributaries which suffered 
seriously during the dry years of 1928 and 1929. This is in keeping with conditions 
that are apparently developing in the feeder streams of other good-sized rivers 
where trout fishing has been good in the past, in that the increase in native stock 
in the breeding brooks has increased to the point where they should furnish reason- 
able natural stocking to what may be called the parent stream. 

In the Deerfield River excellent catches of trout were made, with a great number 
of fishermen putting in an appearance for the opening. 



P.D. 25 * 27 

The issuance of permits for the removal, under warden supervision, of carp and 
suckers from fishing waters was continued, and such authority was granted for the 
seining of the following waters: Little Spy Pond and Big Spy Pond, Belmont; 
Prankers (also called Lily) Pond, Saugus; Quannapowitt Lake, Wakefield; Mit- 
chell's Pond, Boxford; Chadwicks Pond, Haverhill and Boxford; Johnsons Pond, 
Groveland and Boxford; Kenoza Lake, Haverhill; Merrimack River, Lawrence, 
including from or near the fishway at the dam at Lawrence; sections of the Charles 
River; Mill River (Konkopot River), Ashley Falls; Boggastow Pond and South 
End Pond, Millis; Connecticut River and tributaries between Holyoke dam and 
dam at Turners Falls; Housatonic River (from Konkapot River to Schnob Brook) ; 
Nine Mile Pond and Spectacle Pond, Wilbraham. Under the above permits 
approximately 17,130 pounds of carp and 50,000 pounds of suckers were taken. 

Public Fishing and Hunting Grounds 
The program of the Division for the establishment of public fishing grounds 
was continued this year with the re-leasing of the three branches of the Westfield 
River for another five-year period. The apparent satisfaction of the landowners 
along these streams was also noted when, out of 125 original lessors, only 6 refused 
to re-lease their fishing rights to the Commonwealth, and several landowners who 
five years ago could not see their way clear to leasing, were this year quite willing 
to give the Commonwealth control. The following table shows the location and 
mileage of the streams re-leased for five years, dating from April 1, 1937. 



Stream 


Town 


Miles of stream 
under lease 


Westfield River: 
East Branch 
Middle Branch . 
West Branch 


Huntington, Chesterfield, Cummington . 
Huntington, Chester, Middlefield, Worthington 
Huntington, Chester, Becket, Middlefield 


21 
10.5 
6.5 




38 



In accordance with the agreement of the Commonwealth to patrol the public 
fishing grounds, seven special wardens (now designated conservation officers) were 
assigned to the five public fishing ground streams, and served from April 15 to 
June 30. Their presence along the streams did much to promote a better feeling 
between landowners and fishermen. 

The usual amount of posting was done previous to the opening of the trout season, 
this work being necessary each year to offset the damage by high water and winter 
storms as well as by human destructionists. 

In anticipation of an appropriation to continue this work, preliminary plans have 
already been drawn up to re-lease the public fishing grounds on the Farmington, 
Millers, Squannacook, Copecut and Shingle Island Rivers as the present leases 
expire March 30, 1938. 

Feeder Streams 

Additional feeder streams were closed to all fishing for varying lengths of time 
for the purpose of protecting the trout that use them as breeding grounds. 

Early in April well-founded reports were received that rainbow trout, running 
up Sandy Brook from York Lake in the Sandisfield State Forest and up the East 
Branch of Clam River from Upper Spectacle Pond in the Otis State Forest to 
spawn, were being removed in alarming numbers. To correct this situation the 
Commissioner issued an order on April 22 prohibiting fishing in these two streams 
until such time as conditions would warrant their being reopened. 

The entire upper end of the Jones River Feeder Brook in the town of Kingston, 
a feeder to Jones River, was closed to all fishing for a five-year period commencing 
April 1, 1937. This represents practically the entire length of the stream. 

Leary's Brook in the town of Hingham, a feeder to Plymouth River, was closed 
to all fishing for a five-year period commencing August 1. All landowners con- 
trolling this stream were interested in having it set aside as a breeding area, and 
all signed the papers permitting the Director to take this action. 

Posters were placed on all of the streams thus closed. 



28 P.D. 25 

An attempt was made to again close the upper end of the Middle Branch of the 
Westfield River in the towns of Worthington and Peru, together with Trout Brook, 
one of its tributaries, on expiration of the original agreement on April 1. Several 
land owners, however, did not wish to have their portions again closed, and in 
deference to their wishes nothing further was done on these streams and all posters 
removed previous to the opening of the trout season. 

Salmon Restoration 

Because of the widespread interest shown by the sportsmen in developing certain 
coastal streams for the Atlantic salmon, a conference was called early in June to 
discuss the advisability of engaging in such a project. Dr. David L. Belding, 
Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology at the Boston University School of Medi- 
cine, who for many years has been in charge of the salmon investigation for the 
Restigouche Salmon Club of Quebec, Canada, and who is also one of the Commis- 
sioners of the Quebec Salmon Commission, was invited to be the principal speaker 
at this conference. 

As a result, a special committee was appointed known as the Salmon Restoration 
Committee, as follows : representing the inland section of the Division of Fisheries 
and Game, J. Arthur Kitson, Biologist; Arthur Merrill, Fish Culturist; Cyril W. 
Hanley, Conservation Officer; representing the marine fisheries section, Earnest W. 
Barnes, Biologist, and Orin A. Arlin, Coastal Warden; representing the Essex 
County League of Sportsmen, Erwin S. Wilder of Lynn; and representing the 
sportsmen of Newburyport, Charles H. Richardson of Newbury. 

As a starting point the committee selected the Parker River located in Newbury 
as a demonstration stream. Mr. Kitson was authorized to travel to the Provinces 
of New Brunswick and Quebec to arrange for a supply of Atlantic salmon eggs and 
to collect data in connection with the hatching and rearing of the fish. The 
Dominion government has been most cooperative and interested in the project, 
and has promised a shipment of 100,000 Atlantic salmon eggs during the winter 
of 1937-8. These eggs will be hatched at the East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery. 

Because of this assurance that eggs will be supplied, the committee voted to 
engage in a further survey of the Parker River to determine its suitability for 
development as a salmon stream. For this work the Division engaged the services 
of Mr. Manley B. Cohen of Boston, Research Investigator, and the committee has 
a detailed report of the findings of this survey. 

Investigation of Conditions in the Merrimack Valley 
By Chapter 60, Resolves of 1937 the General Court established a special unpaid 
commission, to consist of the Commissioner of Public Health, the Commissioner 
of the Department of Public Utilities, the Commissioner of Public Works, the 
Commissioner of Conservation (or a representative to be designated in each in- 
stance), and the chairman of the State Planning Board, for the purpose of making 
an investigation and study relative to certain problems existing within the Merri- 
mack Valley, so-called. The investigation was to include, among other phases, 
problems of disposal of waste and refuse, purification of the waters of the Merrimack 
River, acquisition of sites for parks, playgrounds, outing groves and camping facil- 
ities and providing for winter sports; stocking of waterways for fishing; flood 
control, soil erosion and conservation, and general improvement of natural re- 
sources — recommendations to be made to the General Court in December. 

The Commission appointed a technical staff, to which Mr. Arthur Merrill, Fish 
Culturist, was appointed to represent the Division and to carry out the details of 
the work. For the fish and game interests this work included a study of conditions 
relative to improvement of fishing in the valley, an examination and study of the 
river, listing of waters open to fishing with a comparative list of waters closed to 
fishing, suggestions for the development of new waters adaptable for fish or fish 
rearing, and suggestions for coordinating these proposals with recreational develop- 
ment. 

Great Ponds Stocked and Closed, and Breeding Areas set Aside 
Within the period of this report (December 1, 1936 to November 30, 1937) the 
following-named great ponds were stocked under Section 40, Chapter 131, G. L. 
Ter. Ed., and regulations applied by the Director closing the respective ponds to 



P.D. 25 29 

fishing for the periods stated, with penalty of twenty dollars for each violation of 
the regulations. This list does not include ponds on which regulations have been 
applied in past years, and which are still in effect, but only ponds on which action 
has been taken within the present year. 



Body of Water 


Town 


Regulations effective, both 
dates inclusive — 


Onota Lake ...... 


Pittsfield 


Dec. 1, 1936, to May 29, 1937 
Dec. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 


Great Pond (also called Ashfield Lake) . 


Ashfield . 


Dec. 5, 1936, to May 29, 1937 
Nov. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 
Nov. 1, 1938, to May 29, 1939 


Massapoag Pond ..... 


Dunstable, Groton 
and Tyngsboro 


Nov. 1, 1937, to May 29, 1938 
Nov. 1, 1938, to May 29, 1939 
Nov. 1, 1939, to May 29, 1940 



Upon petition from the respective towns, the Director, under Section 41, Chapter 
131, General Laws, Ter. Ed., set aside the following-described portions of great 
ponds as breeding areas for fish for the periods named : 

Robbins Pond, East Bridgewater. — That portion of Robbins Pond, East Bridge- 
water lying southerly of a line drawn from a point at Keith Gunning Stand, easterly 
to a painted post set at the easterly end of the Cape Cod Cranberry dyke. Five 
years beginning January 1, 1937. 

Maquan Pond, Hanson. — That portion of Maquan Pond, Hanson, lying south- 
erly of a line drawn from a painted post set at Campfire Girls land, westerly to a 
painted post set at Reynolds. Five years beginning January 1, 1937. 

Indian Head Pond, Hanson. — That portion of Indian Head Pond in the town 
of Hanson lying northerly of a line drawn from a painted post set at the Thomas 
Gunning Stand, easterly to a painted post set at north gunning stand on point near 
Pembroke Town Forest. Five years beginning January 1, 1937. 

Stetson Pond, Pembroke. — That portion of Stetson Pond in the town of Pem- 
broke lying southerly of a line drawn from a painted post set on the pond shore 
at Columbia Road, easterly to a painted post set at Blackmans East Point. Five 
years beginning February 15, 1937. 

Furnace Pond, Pembroke. — That portion of Furnace Pond in the town of Pem- 
broke lying southerly from a painted post set at the north side of the entrance to 
the ditch connecting Furnace with Oldham Pond to a painted post set on the 
Pulling Over Shore or the Narrows near the former Charles Eaton estate. This 
line would run southeasterly from the so-called ditch. Five years beginning 
February 15, 1937. 

Little Sandy Bottom Pond, Pembroke. — That portion of Little Sandy Bottom 
Pond in the town of Pembroke lying northerly of a line drawn from a painted post 
set at a point north of Mayflower Grove, easterly to a painted post set at wooded 
point south of northerly group of cottages. Five years beginning February 15, 
1937. 

Monponsett Ponds, Hanson and Halifax. — That portion of East Monponsett 
Lake in the town of Halifax lying easterly of a line drawn from a post painted white 
set on the shore sixty feet easterly from the last cottage, known as the Yakavonis 
land, on the northerly side of said lake to a post painted white set in the shore at 
the north end of the road known as the boundary of Dreamland Pines. Five years 
beginning January 15, 1937. 

That portion of West Monponsett Lake in the towns of Halifax and Hanson 
lying westerly of a line drawn from a post painted white set in the shore on the 
west side of what is known as the Ike Bourne Gunning stand on the northerly side 
of said lake to a post painted white set in the shore at a pronounced point of land 
known as the Winebrook Cranberry Company land, said point being easterly of 
what was known as Courrier gunning stand on the southerly side of said lake. 
Five years beginning January 15, 1937. 

Oldham Pond, Pembroke. — That portion of Oldham Pond in the town of Pem- 
broke, lying easterly from a line drawn from a painted post set at the most northerly 
point of what is called the Oldham Goose Club Beach to a painted post set at 
easterly point of Peters Cove. Five years beginning November 1, 1937. 



30 • P.D. 25 

Special Regulations 
Under the provisions of Chapter 131, General Laws, Ter. Ed. as amended by 
Chapter 294, Acts of 1936 which provides for the regulation of fishing in great 
ponds lying partly in Massachusetts and partly in another state, the Director on 
January 15, 1937 promulgated the following rules and regulations relative to 
seasons, legal lengths, bag limits and license requirements to apply to Wallum 
Lake, lying partly in the town of Douglas and partly in Rhode Island. All dates 
are inclusive. 



Species 


Open season 


Daily bag 
limit 


Minimum 
legal 
length 


Yellow perch 
Pickerel 
Pike perch 
White perch . 
Horned pout 
Muscallonge 
Trout . 
Black bass . 






May 1 to last day of February . 
May 1 to last day of February. 
May 1 to last day of February. 
May 1 to last day of February. 
May 1 to last day of February. 
May 1 to last day of February. 
May 1 to July 31 . 
July 1 to last day of February. 






15 

10 

5 

15 

30 

5 

5 

6 


6 inches 
12 inches 
12 inches 

6 inches 

12 inches 
9 inches 
10 inches 



"No person shall, in fishing through the ice, use more than five tilts, commonly 
known as tip-ups or traps, and said tilts shall be personally attended by the licensee 
and may be set and tended between the hours of sunrise and sunset. 

"All male persons fifteen years of age and over, except patients at the State 
Sanitorium, Wallum Lake, Burrillville, R. I., while fishing in Wallum Lake in the 
town of Douglas shall have upon their person a license to fish, said license being 
issued by either Massachusetts or Rhode Island authorities as provided by law. 
Any citizen of Massachusetts or Rhode Island, so licensed, may fish in that portion 
of Wallum Lake in the town of Douglas as may Rhode Island or Massachusetts 
citizens fish in said lake in the State of Rhode Island in accordance with similar 
regulations in effect in the state of Rhode Island — said regulations having been 
jointly agreed upon by the proper officials of the State of Rhode Island and the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts as provided in the instant statute." 

Fishway and Stream Improvement 

The program of fishway and stream improvement in so far as it affected streams 
flowing into the sea was continued along the lines of work in previous years with a 
combined personnel of the marine and the inland sections of the Division. 

One major accomplishment was the completion of repairs and alterations of the 
fishway at Lawrence on the Merrimack River. This fishway was built in 1918-19 
by the Commonwealth, assisted by a contribution from the Essex Company, 
owners of the dam. Partly due to faulty workmanship the fishway soon began 
to disintegrate. This disintegration was more rapidly promoted by two or three 
very severe winters and the flood of 1936. The repair of the fishway was delayed 
for considerable time by the reluctance of the Essex Company to assume any 
liabilities for its repair. However, after preliminary conferences in the spring of 
1937, the Director succeeded, in September, in getting the cooperation of the 
Essex Company to start repairs under a plan by which the engineer of the Company 
and the marine biologist worked out the details step by step. The interior altera- 
tions were made by the biologist using a crew of men hired by the Company. The 
Company assumed full responsibility for payment for all repairs and alterations, 
the total cost of which amounted to $4,322.99. The State contributed services of 
the biologist and $104.63 for clearing out debris to permit inspection. 

As a result of this cooperative plan, by November 30 the entire fishway had been 
repaired, the interior "steps" improved and the removable steel sluice box origi- 
nally connecting the fishway to the dam replaced by a permanent reinforced con- 
crete structure. A very little work remains to be done in the lower pools when 
low water conditions prevail and this will be attended to by the Essex Company 
under the direction of the Division. The fishway will, therefore, be in operation 
in the spring of 1938. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the able assistance in this 
work of the Department of Public Works through its Waterways Engineer, F. L. 
Sellew. 



P.D. 25 31 

Work on fishway and stream improvement was also done by the marine section 
in the vicinity of the Parker River system (principally at Courcie Brook, Newbury) ; 
Herring River, Hinckley Pond, Pleasant Lake in Harwich; Mill River, Rowley; 
Spring Brook in Gloucester. 

A detailed account follows of the work of restocking and fish transfer done by 
the stream improvement crews. A transfer of 2,158,000 smelt eggs into the fol- 
lowing brooks : Stoney Brook and Crosby Brook, Marshfield ; Fords Brook, Island 
Creek Brook and Blue Fish Brook, Duxbury; Jones River, Kingston; Bound 
Brook and Beaver Dam Brook, Scituate; Fresh River, Cohasset; Smelt Brook, 
Pembroke; Marsden Mills Brook, Barnstable; Red Brook, Bourne; Mattapoisett 
River, Mattapoisett. 

A total of 9,460 alewives were transferred from Pembroke, Weymouth and 
Middleboro to the following streams and ponds for the purpose of restocking or 
for improving the stock of fish in those waters: Carvers Pond, Bridgewater; Shoe 
Thread Pond, Plympton; Snipatuit Pond, Rochester; East Monponsett Pond, 
Halifax; Town River, West Bridgewater; Palmer River, Rehoboth; Hathaways 
Pond, Mattapoisett; Triphammer Pond, Hingham; Foundry Pond, Hingham; 
Bournedale Pond, Bourne; Middle Mystic Lake, Barnstable; Red Brook, Bourne; 
Whitmans Pond, Weymouth; Coonamesset Pond, Falmouth; Hurds Pond, Kings- 
ton; Russells Pond, Kingston; Silva Pond, Kingston; Fords Pond, Duxbury; 
Cushings Pond, Duxbury; Santuit Pond, Barnstable; Wequaquet Pond, Barn- 
stable; Lily Pond, Cohasset; West Monponsett Pond, Halifax; Bound Brook, 
Scituate; Oldhams Pond, Norwell; Jacobs Pond, Hanover. 

STATE ORNITHOLOGIST 

In the annual reports of the Division of Fisheries and Game for 1935 and 1936 
will be found a thorough discussion of the general duties of the State Ornithologist, 
and of the several specific lines of work being carried on during those years. No 
changes in policy have occurred during the past year, and no new major activities 
have been undertaken. The more important of the old projects are here brought 
up to date. 

Shellfish and Ducks. — The winter was comparatively open and the bulk 
of wintering American Eiders came no further south than the coast of Maine, so 
that the Eider concentration at Monomoy was the smallest in several years. 
Scoters wintered in more normal numbers, but no complaints of substantial damage 
were received except at Nantucket Island. Here the limited plan of control pre- 
viously worked out by the Biological Survey and the Division was put into effect 
about December 10, 1936, but because of the mild weather, there proved to be very 
little need for it, and the kill of Scoters was negligible. 

Oil Pollution and Ducks. — Losses from oil pollution were comparatively 
small during the year, and the situation remains unchanged. 

Shellfish and Herring Gulls. — The extent of Herring Gull damage to 
shellfish beds has not changed appreciably in the year, but control methods have 
settled down to a practicable minimum. In a number of coastal towns the shellfish 
warden has taken out a control permit for himself, and in a few towns for one or 
two deputies in addition, but the number of Gulls killed is small. Shooting is 
usually limited to newly planted areas. Egg-pricking at the Massachusetts breed- 
ing colonies by the Biological Survey was carried on as in previous years. 

Hawks. — As predicted in last year's report, the Duck Hawk eyries on State 
Parks and Forests were given what protection they required with the expenditure 
of much less time and money than in 1936. Of the eight pairs which tried to 
breed, one nest was broken up from natural causes, one came to naught through 
the death of the incubating female, and the other six successfully raised a total of 
seventeen young birds, which were all leg-banded before they flew. There have 
been several returns from the youngsters banded last year, the most interesting 
being a bird which left its eyrie early in June and was killed at Coburgh, Ontario, 250 
miles WNW of the breeding cliff, in mid-September. 

Some time has been devoted to systematic observation of the hawk-flights at 
Mount Tom State Park, and to publicizing the advantages of the tower on Goat 
Peak as an observation point, with the result that an increasing number of people 
have been going there this fall. 



32 P.D. 25 

Seabird Colonies. — Work on the Least Tern colony at Plymouth Beach was 

limited to a successful rat-control campaign, and to banding several hundred 

young birds for future life history studies. 

Census of Waterfowl and Shorebird. — An increasing amount of time 

has been given to the groundwork of this project. With the waterfowl figures for 

three years now at hand, a number of interesting lines of investigation have opened 

up, which are now being pushed. It is expected that some definite conclusions 

may be drawn from this work during the coming year. 

ACTIVITIES OF THE BIOLOGIST AND STAFF 

The year's work included the usual problems connected with the propagation of 
fish and game, the stocking of the covers and inland waters, and the responsibility 
for the operation of the hatcheries and game farms from the financial as well as 
the biological angle. 

Field Work and General Activities 

The cooperative plan established last year between the Division and the Massa- 
chusetts State College for the field training of the selected students in the Stock- 
bridge School of Agriculture. Amherst, was continued, and three students were 
placed at the game farms and fish hatcheries and paid enough to maintain them- 
selves. 

The Biologist and the Director visited the stations at monthly or more frequent 
intervals. Other field activities included numerous visits to the Massachusetts 
State College, the inspection of sanctuaries, State Forests, prospective pond sites, 
club ponds, wintering pens and brooder houses constructed by the sportsmen's 
organizations. 

The Biologist attended many meetings of sportsmen's clubs, the second annual 
conference of North American Game Breeders Association, and also made a com- 
plete inspection of all of the Dominion and Provincial salmon and trout hatcheries 
in the Canadian Provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec in an attempt to obtain 
a supply of Atlantic salmon eggs. 

Periodic inspection trips were made to Penikese Island in connection with the 
propagation of cottontail rabbits. 

Construction at the game farms and fish hatcheries under the Works Progress 
Administration was supervised by a member of the biological staff. The con- 
struction completed last year has made possible the distribution of a larger number 
of adult trout than ever before. Construction is now in progress at certain of the 
hatcheries which will enable the Division to produce an additional supply of adult 
trout for distribution in the future. 

One special bulletin was made available during the year entitled " Salmon 
Restoration." 

Work in connection with club rearing and club fishing ponds, fish rearing and 
recreational ponds in the State Forests, and the development of trout fishing in 
the great ponds was continued and extended. Survey for improved fishing was 
done in many parts of the State, including: — 

1. Study and report on the development of trout fishing in the lakes of Barnstable 
County. 

2. Study and report on the spring-fed ponds in the Springfield City Parks for 
creating managed trout fishing. 

3. Examinations of conditions on the stream between Sawdy Pond, Westport, 
and South Watuppa Pond, Westport, and Fall River, relative to the passage of 
fish and the injury that might be done to South Watuppa if fish were encouraged 
to pass into Sawdy. 

4. Development of trout fishing in Onota Lake, and the use of Pittsfield city 
waters for growing fish for that lake. 

5. Report on the development of fish rearing in Berkshire County. 

6. Explorations in Norfolk County for establishment of rearing ponds. 

7. Explorations in Middlesex County for fish rearing sites and the establishment 
of Pine Meadow Pond, Ayer. A site of unusual qualities was found in Ayer, and 
a plan for developing it was carried out by the combined efforts of the clubs in 
Ayer, Groton and Westford. Assistance and advice was furnished to the clubs, 



P.D. 25 33 

and they were able to make a distribution of 352,000 fingerling calico bass and 
horned pout to ponds in Ayer and adjoining towns. The remainder, estimated 
at 50,000, were allowed to go from the trap to Flanagans and Sandy Ponds. 

8. Plans were made and information supplied for drawing Stedmans Pond, 
Tyringham (a privately owned pond), removing the fish and treating the pond to 
restore it for trout, the Division to receive whatever fish were removed. This 
work was not carried out owing to the heavy fall rains that increased the flow 
beyond the capacity of the drainage conduit. 

9. Work on a study of the possibility of restoring salmon to Massachusetts 
rivers, undertaken in 1936, was completed and published for use by the Salmon 
Restoration Committee organized for work in 1937, discussed under "Inland 
Fisheries." 

10. The Division was represented on the technical staff of the Commission 
appointed by the General Court for study and report on the conditions in the 
Merrimac Valley, already discussed under "Inland Fisheries." 

Aquicultural Investigations 

Stream Survey. — A survey was made of the Parker River, Newbury, in 
connection with the restoration of salmon. 

The stream survey work commenced on June 8 and continued through the 
summer until October 30. Streams and rivers in three systems were surveyed, 
namely, the Taunton River system, the Seekonk River system, and the Westport 
River system. Work on the latter two was supplementary to that of 1936. There 
were 92 streams and rivers surveyed; total mileage surveyed, 255.5 miles; total 
mileage of actual suitable trout waters, 41 miles; percent of total mileage found 
suitable to trout, 16 percent. The work on the individual river systems was as 
follows : 

Westport River System 
Westport River system consists of the Bread and Cheese Brook, the Copecut 
River and the Shingle Island River with their feeders, which drain the towns of 
Westport, Dartmouth, the eastern section of Fall River and the southern part of 
Freetown, all in Bristol County. Due to the importance of the Copecut and 
Shingle Island Rivers they were accorded special attention. 
Summary of Westport River System: 

Number of principal streams surveyed .... 3 

Total mileage of rivers surveyed ..... 16.5 miles 

Total mileage suitable to trout . . . . . 8.5 miles 

Seekonk River System 

The portion of this system which was surveyed this year supplementary to last 

year's work consists of one river, the Bungay, and one of its tributaries, Minto 

Brook. These two bodies of water lie in the towns of North Attleboro and Attle- 

boro in Bristol County. Due to their importance, they were given special attention. 

Summary of portion of Seekonk River surveyed in 1937. 

Number of streams and rivers surveyed .... 2 

Total mileage of these . . .... 5 miles 

Total mileage suitable to trout ..... 4.5 miles 

Taunton River System 

This system was the main objective of the summer's work. Headwaters lie in 
the towns of Wrentham, Plainville, Foxboro, Sharon, Stoughton, Avon, Abington, 
and Hanson. Roughly speaking, it drains the land within a radius of 20 miles of 
the city of Taunton and is located in three counties : Bristol, Norfolk and Plymouth. 

Although the survey of this system was not completed, the greater portion, in- 
cluding some 87 streams and rivers, was examined. While a few streams in the 
northern and western sections of the system provided suitable trout habitat, for 
the most part they proved to be slow, sluggish, warm streams typical of the low 
country through which they flow. 



34 P.D. 25 

Summary of the portion of the Taunton River System surveyed in 1937. 

Number of streams and rivers surveyed . 

Total mileage of these .... 

Bristol County total mileage . 144 

Norfolk County total mileage . 44 

Plymouth County total mileage . 46 

234 28 

Although no records were consulted, it was very obvious that temperatures 
through the summer months this year were above the normal. However, the 
following tabulations were secured at the Mansfield Pumping Station where a 
record of the rainfall is taken daily. 





87 


. 


234 miles 


trout waters 


20 


trout waters 


8 


trout waters 






Normal average rainfall at 
Mansfield for last 12 years 
3.10 inches 
3.53 inches 
3.39 inches 
4.32 inches 
3.80 inches 



This year's rainfall in 
comparison to normal 

3.05 inches 
4.39 inches 

. 2.07 inches 

6.06 inches 
3.02 inches 



Month 
May 
June 
July 

August 

September (on 22nd) 

It will be noted that in May the departure from normal was only .05 inches low; 
in June it was .86 inches above normal; in July it was 1.32 inches below normal; 
in August, which is considered the vital time regarding temperatures and their 
effect on trout, the rainfall this year was 1.74 inches above normal. This naturally 
lowered the temperatures of the water so that a true picture of the stream during 
this warm month was lacking. 

Stream and Pond Investigations. — The usual large number of requests 
was received from various sources for pond and stream investigations. These 
examinations are made by members of the biological staff as rapidly as time permits 
with the many other duties which confront the biological force. Many of these 
remain unfilled because of the limited field force and also the fact that these inves- 
tigations must be made during the warmest and driest period of the year, which 
limits the time when this work can be done. 

Aquatic Vegetation and Daphnia. — Wild rice was purchased for planting 
in Bog Pond on the Savoy State Forest. From the Palmer Fish Hatchery Daphnia 
cultures were supplied to the Merrill State Pond System and to clubs operating 
bass-rearing units. 

Pollution. — A number of pollution complaints were investigated in cooperation 
with the law-enforcement section, and are still under way. A gratifying number 
of cases have been settled by the cooperation of the offending industries without 
the necessity of court action, and it is hoped that the remaining cases will be 
similarly cleared up. 

Fish Propagation 

Selective Breeding. — All parent trout were examined individually well in 
advance of the breeding season, and only perfect specimens were reserved from 
which to take eggs for next season's work. 

Fish Diseases and Disease Control. — The year has been one free of losses 
from epidemic fish diseases, a fact greatly to the credit of the fish culturists. The 
practice of disinfecting all eggs taken at the hatcheries or brought into them, has 
now become a routine measure, and the frequent sterilization of the fish pools with 
chlorinated water under pressure is now also in the class of routine procedure. It 
is felt that these practices contribute in no small measure to the freedom from 
epidemic disease, a constant menace where hatchery pools are in continual use to 
produce their maximum capacity. 

Results of New Policy of Fish Distribution. — The very satisfactory 
results of the fish distribution policy announced in the 1936 report and put into 
effect this year, is discussed in the section on "Fish and Game Distribution." 

Game Culture 
Survey of Cottontail Rabbit Covers. — The importation of cottontail 
rabbits from the West necessitated a new survey of available covers on which to 



P.D. 25 35 

base distributions. In making this survey a new plan of comparative ratings was 
adopted which is better adapted to an animal of the habits of the cottontail than 
the method of measuring suitable cover as employed on the survey of pheasant, 
quail and white hare covers. 

In making this survey it was necessary to give recognition to certain established 
facts, viz.: 

1. The cottontail feeds on any non-poisonous plant. 

2. He shelters anywhere. 

3. His vermin enemies are too widespread to permit this to be used as a 
negative factor. 

4. He has no representative cover types. 

5. Where found at all he is ubiquitous. 

6. The experience of the conservation officers has indicated that many 
apparently good covers never have supported and probably never will 
support, any population of cottontails, whereas many apparently totally 
unfit areas abound with them. 

These factors, taken together, indicate the impossibility of mapping cover type 
areas as was done for other species, and then measuring them. The fact remains, 
however, that even though where he is found the cottontail is practically ubiquitous, 
certain areas of cover will and do support much larger populations than do other 
areas. In the survey for other species the one operation of plotting cover types 
gave a quantitative measurement of the two factors quality and quantity, because 
quality of an area was measured by the quantity of certain cover types available. 

The cottontail rabbit was made on two basic assumptions: 

1. Where found at all the cottontail's range is unlimited. 

2. Quality of cover is independent of the amount of any given type of cover. 
It was, therefore, essential to develop a method which should embrace separately 

the two factors of ' 'quantity" and "quality" but yet correlate the two into a single 
numerical rating. 

To this end the survey was made in two separate steps: an estimation of the 
portion of each town that represented cottontail cover of any sort, and an estimation 
of its quality. The district conservation officers supplied the information con- 
cerning the covers. 

The entire survey is based on a system of so-called "key towns." It was essential 
that a method be devised which would establish uniformity between the various 
districts of the State. 

One centrally located officer's district was selected as the starting point and out 
of this district the best all-round rabbit town was selected, chosen because it was 
unnecessary to make any appreciable deductions from this town for unsuitable 
cover. The area of the town is 34.02 square miles. The town was assigned an 
arbitrary rating of 100, with which all other towns were compared, some having 
smaller and others higher ratings. 

The first factor in which towns vary is their actual area. Obviously if the area 
of the town mentioned above is divided by 34.02, the resulting figure (1.00) imme- 
diately becomes a relative standard of area. Similarly, if the area of every town 
in the State be divided by 34 the resulting figure represents its relative area. These 
relative areas were used as the basis for the final numerical rating. 

The basic assumption — that where the cottontail is found he is ubiquitous — 
leads at once to the conclusion that except for densely populated areas, large water 
areas, widespread farm lands, etc. and posted land, the entire areas of towns 
represent cottontail cover of greater or less value. The next step then was, to 
deduct from each town a certain number of square miles which it was estimated 
did not represent available suitable cottontail country. 

For example, another town is 33.07 square miles in area. Dividing this by 34 
gives .97 as its relative area. Of this it is estimated that 25 percent must be 
deducted as unsuitable for various reasons. Deducting this amount (25 percent 
of .97 = 24) gives 73 as its relative suitable area. For convenience this was 
termed the "new figure." 

The cover value was arrived at as follows: It will be seen that if two towns 
represent the same biological characteristics, and that if town B is half as large as 
town A, and town A is rated as 100, then town B will receive a rating of 50; but 



36 P.D. 25 

if town B is twice as good biologically (that it might be expected to support twice 
the population per square mile), then this rating would be doubled and the two 
towns would be equal in value. 

In this way the officer in the centrally located district compared every town in 
his district with the 100% town and gave each a comparative rating. Then each 
adjoining conservation officer took a town comparable with one of the first officer's 
and rated his "key town" accordingly, and then compared each of his own towns 
with this "key town." He then made necessary additions or subtractions from 
his rating as explained above. 

Using again as an example the town indicated above with an area of 33.07 
square miles, the conservation officer estimated that after deducting non-suitable 
area the remaining area represented 20 percent less good cover than did his key 
town. Accordingly he deducted 20 percent of 73 giving a final rating of 58. 

Finally, then, there are a number of towns scattered throughout the State with 
a rating, say, of 45. These may represent towns of very different areas and cover 
values, but they do represent about equal cover values as a whole; that is to say, 
they might be expected to support about the same rabbit population. 

This method gives an immediate system of checks upon itself. As each district 
was completed the conservation officer compared his figures with each adjoining 
man. In every case they agreed that the ratings represented true comparative 
value. With the aid of the supervising officers it was also possible to check widely 
separated towns. These also have checked, indicating that the system of "key 
towns" has produced a uniform result over the State. 

While during the actual conduct of the survey each town was indirectly compared 
with the town with a 100% rating, this comparison is lost when the final rating is 
reached, and the ratings represent true numerical comparative values, each town 
comparable with any other and the figures become absolute or pure numbers and 
reflect three composite comparisons: (1) area of town; (2) area of town suitable; 
(3) biological quality of the town. 

For use in distributions each town was divided into 10 or less stocking areas, and 
lists and maps of these prepared for office use. 

Selective Breeding of Pheasants. — Each of the four game farms has been 
supplied with a brood stock of pure Chinese pheasants (Phasianus torquatus), and 
it will be the aim of the game bird culturists in charge of the farms to perfect this 
brood stock. 

Inspection of Purchased Pheasant Stock. — All pheasants purchased by 
the Division for liberation were carefully selected and inspected at the commercial 
farms on the day the shipments were made to the conservation officers handling 
the distributions. 

Cottontail Rabbit Breeding. — This experimental work at the Ayer State 
Farm continues and is being gradually expanded as the appropriation will permit. 
(See "Ayer Game Farm.") 

The breeding of cottontail rabbits at Penikese Island has also been continued. 
(For trapping operations, see "Fish and Game Distribution.") 

Raccoon Breeding. — The experimental breeding of raccoons at the Ayer 
State Game Farm was continued. (See "Ayer State Game Farm.) 

Cottontail Rabbit and White Hare Importations. — (See section on "Fish 
and Game Distribution.") 

Club Distribution Conferences. — Distribution conferences were again 
held in most of the counties. The general sentiment among the sportsmen's 
organizations is for the abolition of these meetings, as it is felt that the previous 
conferences held over a period of years have developed an efficient record of suitable 
covers and waters to be stocked annually. 

PROPAGATION OF FISH AND GAME 

Fish Hatcheries and Game Farms — General 
At three of the stations, namely Sunderland, Wilbraham and Palmer, the estab- 
lishment of a permanent position as Assistant Fish and Game Culturist put the 
work, formerly performed by day labor, on a more satisfactory basis. A similar 
position was authorized for the Merrill State Pond System, and for the first time 
since their creation the ponds are now being operated under the direction of a 



P.D. 25 37 

permanent Assistant Fish and Game Culturist. At the Sandwich State Game 
Farm the provisional appointment of J. Albert Torrey as Game Bird Culturist, 
authorized last year, was made permanent following a Civil Service examination. 

This year again several crews of young men supplied by the National Youth 
Administration worked very effectively at the various stations. Also, continuing 
the practice started last year, three students from the Stockbridge School of Agri- 
culture were placed at the stations. 

The expansion of the facilities for producing and rearing stock was con- 
tinued, through cooperation with the Works Progress Administration, as 
detailed under the individual stations. 

The enactment of Chapter 296 required the Division to reserve, out of the money 
previously appropriated for the propagation of game birds, fish, etc., the sum of 
$3,500 for the cost of installing a screen at the outlet and spillway to the East Otis 
Reservoir in the town of Otis. Because of this, it was necessary to curtail some of 
the propagation and salvage work. 

As a result of feeding experiments conducted during past years, there is now a 
fairly wide selection of dried food items which can be used according to market 
fluctuations in prices, and it is known what proportions of these items can safely 
be fed under various conditions to provide an adequate diet at the minimum cost 
compatible with safety. 

This year for the first time the fish food was contracted for in two six-months 
periods. When the time arrived to contract for the supply for the second half of 
the year, hog and beef melts had so increased in price that it was impossible to 
continue this product as the principal fish food at the several hatcheries. The 
nearest food comparable to the melt which funds would permit purchasing, was 
lungs, and these were fed as a substitute for melts during the last half of the year. 
The feeding of this product has not proved satisfactory, and at all stations the 
culturists are agreed that they did not obtain the same growth from using the lungs 
as from melts. The losses among the larger trout were greater, due to the inade- 
quately balanced diet caused by the substitution of the lungs. 

East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery — Alfred C. Fish, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — No repair or construction work 
was accomplished during the year. 

Two Works Progress Administration projects were approved in September, but 
due to a lack of available labor, no work had been started by the end of the year. 
One of these projects covers the installation of new dams at the 16 trout pools 
back of the Grange Hall and the boarding of their sides. The other calls for the 
construction of 20 new trout rearing pools, together with the necessary water supply 
system. These projects will provide capacity for rearing approximately 50,000 
two-year-old trout at this station. 

New Equipment. — A new portable galvanized iron fish tank was constructed 
for the distribution of fish and equipped to operate with oxygen cylinders, and will 
be available for use in the next distribution of fish from this station. 

General. — Early in May losses were experienced among the fingerling brook 
trout, which continued well into the summer, when they stopped as suddenly as 
they had begun. The fish appeared perfectly healthy, and there was no external 
evidence of disease. Specimens were examined for the presence of furunculosis. 
Bacteriological examination of the specimens autopsied showed no evidence of the 
disease, although one or two suspicious lesions in the form of subcutaneous hemor- 
rhages were observed. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 41,139 fingerlings on hand, of which 
1,975 were lost, 2,000 added to the brood stock, and 37,164 reclassified as yearlings. 
Of these, 4,888 were lost, 24,300 planted in open waters, and 7,976 distributed to 
club rearing pools. 

Of the 7,225 yearlings on hand at the beginning of the year, 1,061 were lost and 
6,164 distributed to public waters (622 on cooperative plan). 

To the 2,550 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 2,000 
of the 1936-hatched fish mentioned above, making a total of 4,550, of which 428 
were lost, 1,430 planted in open waters, and 2,692 remain on hand November 30. 



38 P.D. 25 

For the work of the year, 448,000 eggs were collected from the brood stock at 
the station, of which 91,127 were lost, 200,000 transferred to the Sunderland State 
Fish Hatchery and 156,873 hatched. Of these, 45,455 were lost, 43,000 transferred 
to Sunderland State Fish Hatchery, and 68,418 transferred to fingerlings, of which 
27,225 were lost and 41,193 remain on hand November 30. 

Montague State Fish Hatchery — Ralph Bitzer, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 
New Construction and Replacement. — A large amount of construction 
was accomplished at this station through the medium of two Works Progress 
Administration projects. The first started on October 26, 1936, with a large 
percentage of the work being done during 1937. The items of work completed 
under this project are as follows: 

(a) Three hundred seventy-five (375) feet of brook at the lower end of the prop- 
erty was walled up, and for the purpose of dividing the brook into sections, three 
wooden racks were installed. 

(b) A channel 250 feet long by 14 feet wide was excavated at the lower end of 
the property, to be developed later into trout pools. 

(c) Two hundred (200) feet of flood ditch were paved. 

(d) Dykes at the three lower ponds were cut down to conform to the maximum 
pond depth desired. 

(e) The main flood ditch was continued so as to enter the brook at the lowest 
end of the property. 

(f) Twenty (20) acres of forest land were brushed. 

This project was completed during the early part of the summer. 

The second project, which was planned to carry on the work started under the 
original project, was approved for operation during September, but it was not 
until the first week in November that the necessary labor became available and 
work actually started. The most important items of work to be done under this 
project are the completion of the five trout pools at the lower end of the property, 
for which the excavation was completed under the first project, and the paving of 
the main flood ditch down the steep grade encountered at its lower end. While 
the completion of these two portions of the project will not be accomplished until 
1938 a good start has been made, and on November 30 all of the concrete dams 
for the pools are completed. 

Fifty (50) white pine (3-foot) from older plantings where thinning was practicable, 
were transplanted around the ponds. 

General. — During the course of the entire growing period, minimum losses 
in both brook trout and rainbow fingerling stock were experienced. Both brook 
and rainbow yearlings were carried from spring through summer — the brook 
trout to be carried until next spring. There were abnormal losses in the yearling 
brook trout through the summer, which gradually dropped toward the latter part 
to a normal loss. The rainbow yearlings were sorted, the usual number of large- 
sized fish were reserved for spring liberation, and the balance of the smaller size 
rainbows shipped out. The rainbow yearlings did very well, with only normal 

losses. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 42,950 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
to which were added 7,000 by recounts, making a total of 49,950, all of which were 
reclassified as yearlings. Of these, 41,000 (2,000 on cooperative plan) were planted 
in open waters. 2,686 were lost, 32 distributed for display, and 6,232 are on hand 
November 30. . . 

Of the 2,526 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year 584 were lost, 33 
distributed for display, 850 distributed to open waters, and 1,059 are on hand 
November 30. 

For the work of the year, 224,000 brook trout eggs were collected from the brood 
stock at the station, of which 28,075 were lost, 6,000 distributed for display, and 
189,925 hatched. Of these, 14,500 were lost and 175,425 transferred to fingerlings, 
of which 975 were lost, 5,700 distributed to club rearing pools, 95,750 planted in 
open waters, 23,000 transferred to Sunderland State Fish Hatchery, and 50,000 
remain on hand November 30. 

Rainbow Trout. — The year opened with 28,688 yearling rainbow trout on 



P.D. 25 39 

hand, to which were added, 3,600 by a recount, making a total of 32,288, of which 
38 were lost, 32,086 (315 on cooperative plan) planted in open waters, 65 transferred 
to the brood stock, and 99 distributed for display and experiment. 

To the 1,123 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added the 
65 yearlings mentioned above, making a total of 1,188 of which 312 were lost, 
250 planted in open waters, 35 distributed for display, and 591 remain on hand 
November 30. 

The 107,300 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of the year were reclassified as 
yearlings and to these were added 6,000 by a recount, and of these 970 were lost, 
42,526 planted in open waters, 24,500 distributed to club rearing pools, 18,000 
transferred to the Palmer State Fish Hatchery, and 27,304 remain on hand 
November 30. 

For the work of the year, 225,000 rainbow trout eggs were collected from the 
brood stock at the station, to which were added 100,000 eggs received from the 
United States Bureau of Fisheries station at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia 
(in exchange for 100,000 brook trout eggs purchased and sent to their White Sulphur 
Spring station). This lot of eggs from West Virginia proved very unsatisfactory 
and a 50% loss was experienced during hatching which the Bureau has agreed to 
replace for the 1938 work. The total number of eggs handled was 325,000, of 
which 132,500 were lost, 3,000 distributed for display, and 189,500 hatched. Of 
these, 30,000 were lost, and 159,500 transferred to fingerlings. Of the fingerlings 
11,000 were lost, 5,000 transferred to Sutton State Fish Hatchery, 22,000 to open 
waters, and 121,500 remain on hand November 30. 

Palmer State Fish Hatchery — William F. Monroe, Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — No new construction with State 
funds was undertaken — only general repair work. 

On December 2, 1936 a Works Progress Administration project was started at 
this hatchery which called for work at both the bass and the trout sections. The 
beds of 11 bass ponds were graded with gravel in order that they might be more 
completely drained, over 1,200 cubic yards of material being hauled in for this 
purpose. At the trout section 600 feet of brook were cleaned out and widened for 
the purpose of providing a quicker run-off of flood waters. This project was 
completed on March 13, 1937. 

On November 4, 1937 another project was started at the trout section, which, 
when completed, will provide five new trout pools in series, each of which will be 
63 feet long, 8 feet wide and 3 feet deep. These pools will be composed of concrete 
dams and boarded sides. 

A large number of pine and spruce trees were set out on the hatchery grounds 
from the station's nursery stock. 

New Equipment. — The meat grinder from the Sunderland station, discarded 
as too small, was transferred to this station. 

General. — Losses, due to theft, were sustained among the adult brook trout 
and adult black bass stock. The poachers were apprehended and prosecuted, as 
already recorded under ' 'Enforcement of the Game and Inland Fish Laws." 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 26,383 brook trout fingerlings on 
hand, of which 2,950 were lost, 15 distributed for display, and 23,418 transferred 
to yearlings, to which were added 5,000 by a recount, making a total of 28,418. 
Of these 400 were lost, 23,600 distributed to public waters (250 on cooperative 
plan), and 4,418 remain on hand November 30. 

To the 1,225 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added 31 
by recount, making a total of 1,256, of which 204 were lost, 615 planted in open 
waters, 24 distributed for display, and 413 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 210,067 brook trout eggs were collected from the 
brood stock at the station, of which 115,500 were lost, and 94,567 hatched. Of 
these 6,500 were lost and 88,067 reclassified as fingerlings, of which 18,500 were 
lost, 15,000 distributed to club rearing pools, and 54,567 remain on hand November 
30. 

Rainbow Trout. — In October there were transferred to this station from 
the Montague State Fish Hatchery 18,000 rainbow trout (1 year 9 months) and 
are on hand November 30. 



40 P.D. 25 

Brown Trout. — In October 17,000 brown trout (1 year 9 months) were 
transferred to this station from the Sunderland State Fish Hatchery and these are 
on hand November 30. 

Small-mouth Black Bass. — The season started with 388 adult brood fish 
on hand, to which were added 309 from salvage operations (49 of these from the 
holder of a permit to seine carp and suckers from public fishing waters), making a 
total of 697, of which 202 were lost, 251 distributed to open waters, and 244 remain 
on hand November 30. 

From the bass ponds 13,000 fingerlings were turned over to club rearing pools 
and 28,731 fingerlings planted in open waters. 

This has been another good year on the propagation of bass fingerlings, and while 
no fry could be distributed owing to failure of a certain lot of brood stock to spawn, 
the production of fingerlings consisted of large numbers of fish 6 and 7 inches in 
length. This year's output surpasses any year for such large numbers of fish of 
this size. 

Wall-eyed Pike. — In order to carry out a program of hatching wall-eyed 
pike eggs for the Connecticut River Game Fish Association, one of the batteries 
was overhauled, repainted and set up ready for use. Late in the fall of 1936 this 
club delivered to the hatchery a few adult fish from which enough eggs were stripped 
in the spring of 1937 to hatch 160,000 vigorous fry which the club released in Mill 
Pond, Hatfield. When the time comes to release the fish, they can go down a 
sluiceway into the Connecticut River. 

After stripping, the adult fish were turned back to the Association for release 
in the Connecticut River. 

Sandwich State Fish Hatchery — Irving Lewis, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — No new construction or replace- 
ment work was undertaken at this station. There were 75 evergreen trees, taken 
up at the Merrill Ponds, planted along the road leading into the hatchery. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 53,000 brook trout fingerlings on hand, 
of which 270 were lost, 12 distributed for display and 52,718 transferred to year- 
lings, of which 110 were lost, 35,000 (1,120 on cooperative plan) were planted in 
open waters, 5,000 to a club rearing pool, 110 distributed for display, and 12,498 
remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 3,939 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year 166 were lost, 
2,928 planted in open waters, 72 distributed for display purposes, and 773 remain 
on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year 375,000 brook trout eggs were collected from the brood 
stock at the station, of which 50,880 were transferred to the Sunderland State Fish 
Hatchery, 40,261 lost, and 283,859 hatched, of which 54,310 were lost, 75,168 
transferred to the Sutton State Fish Hatchery, and 154,381 reclassified as fingerlings. 
Of these 89,366 were lost, 15,015 transferred to the Sunderland State Fish Hatchery, 
and 50,000 remain on hand November 30. 

Rainbow Trout. — To carry on the rainbow work planned for the East 
Sandwich Hatchery, 91,000 rainbow trout eggs were received early in December 
from the United States Bureau of Fisheries Station at White Sulphur Springs, 
West Virginia, in exchange for which 75,000 brook trout eggs were purchased and 
sent to the Bureau's station at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. The extra 
eggs were supplied to the Division because the superintendent of the Bureau's 
station making the shipment stated, that they were unable to turn some of the 
blanks on the wash up. By the middle of December, 34,600 blank eggs had been 
picked out at our station. In all, 43,000 eggs were lost and 48,000 hatched. The 
Bureau of Fisheries will make good, for the work of the 1938 fiscal year, on this 
abnormal loss of eggs. 

Because of the exceedingly heavy loss in the eggs from the Bureau, it was nec- 
essary to purchase 50,000 rainbow trout eggs from a commercial dealer. Of these 
229 were lost and 49,771 hatched. 

Of the 97,771 fry hatched (48,000 U. S. Bureau of Fisheries and 49,771 commer- 
cial), 43,000 were lost and 54,771 reared and reclassified as fingerlings. Of these 
19,671 were lost and 35,100 remain on hand November 30, to be transferred to the 
East Sandwich station as soon as the federal project is completed. 



P.D. 25 41 

Chinook Salmon. — The 19,905 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of the 
year were transferred to yearlings, to which a recount added 95, making a total 
of 20,000, all of which were planted in open waters. 

For the work of the year 50,000 chinook salmon eggs were received from the 
California Fish and Game Commission in exchange for an equal number of brook 
trout eggs purchased and shipped to their Mount Shasta Hatchery. Of these 
827 were lost, and 49,173 hatched, of which 2,713 were lost and 46,460 transferred 
to fingerlings. Of these 9,300 were lost, 14,000 distributed to public waters, and 
23,160 remain on hand November 30. 

Sunderland State Fish Hatchery — Ludwig Horst, 
Fish Culturist, in Charge 
New Construction and Replacement. — With State funds two rooms were 
finished above the workshop, to be used for supply room and storage. 

With labor provided through the Works Progress Administration, flood control 
work was carried on at this station, starting on December 3, 1936, and suspending 
in March of 1937 due to lack of available labor. Other work not directly connected 
with flood control was also done under this project. The items of work completed 
to date are as follows: 

(a) Four thousand (4,000) feet of flood ditches excavated. 

(b) One thousand (1,000) feet of dykes and ditches built adjacent to main 
highway to concentrate all flood waters, which cross highway, into one discharge 
ditch. 

(c) Individual drainage facilities installed for 13 pools. 

(d) Trout pond 125 feet by 40 feet excavated at lower end of property. 

(e) One hundred fifty (150) feet of brook relocated. 

(f) Grading done around 3 strings of pools. 

(g) Other work will be done under this project if and when labor becomes 
available. 

There were set out at the station 1,000 4-year old red pines; 1,000 Russian 
mulberry; 1,000 4-year old hemlock; 10,000 larch; 50 arbor vitae; and 60 6-foot 
hemlocks transplanted. 

New Equipment. — A new meat grinder was purchased as a larger one was 
required, and the old one transferred to the Palmer station. 

Brook Trout. — The brook trout fingerlings kept over winter and distributed 
in the spring, made excellent growth. 

The year opened with 56,000 brook trout fingerlings on hand, of which 400 were 
lost and 55,600 transferred to yearlings. Of these 900 were lost, 49,167 (667 of 
these on cooperative plan) planted in open waters, 43 distributed for study and 
display, and 5,490 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 5,600 yearlings on hand at the beginning of the year, 150 were lost and 
5,450 transferred to brood stock, to which 529 were added by a recount making 
a total of 5,979. Of these 20 were lost, 5,316 (751 of these on cooperative plan) 
planted in open waters, 25 distributed for display, and 618 remain on hand No- 
vember 30. 

For the work of the year, 50,880 brook trout eggs were received from the Sand- 
wich State Fish Hatchery and 200,000 from the East Sandwich station, making a 
total of 250,880, of which 7,000 were lost and 243,880 hatched. To these were 
added 43,000 received from the East Sandwich station, making a total of 286,880 
fry, of which 160,000 were lost, and 126,880 reclassified as fingerlings. To these 
were added 15,015 received from the Sandwich State Fish Hatchery and 23,000 
received from the Montague State Fish Hatchery, making a total of 164,895 
fingerlings. Of these 10,472 were lost, 3,000 distributed to club rearing pools, 
91,375 (12,000 of these on cooperative plan) distributed to open waters, 48 dis- 
tributed for display and study, and 60,000 remain on hand November 30. 

A light occurrence of Gyrodactylus was noticed in the brook trout fingerlings, 
but with proper treatment no fish were lost. There was a high mortality in the 
fry from eggs received from the East Sandwich hatchery. The cause has not been 
determined, but it may have been due either to rough handling in shipment, or to 
chilling. 

Brown Trout. — The year opened with 25,482 yearlings on hand, of which 



42 P.D. 25 

100 were lost, 20,800 distributed to open waters, and 4,582 transferred to brood 
stock. 

To the 1,486 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year were added the 
4,582 two-year old fish mentioned above and 1,888 by a recount, making a total of 
7,956, of which 99 were lost, 6,329 planted in open waters, 68 distributed for display 
and study purposes, and 1,460 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 153,700 fingerlings on hand at the beginning of the year, 3,000 were lost, 
10,000 transferred to the Sutton State Fish Hatchery, 37,000 distributed to open 
waters, and 103,700 transferred to yearlings. Of these 1,500 were lost, 59,550 
distributed to open waters, 17,000 transferred to the Palmer State Fish Hatchery, 
and 25,650 remain on hand November 30. 

For the work of the year, 587,700 brown trout eggs were collected from the brood 
stock at the station. To these were added 100,000 received from the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries Station at Bozeman, Mont., in exchange for brook trout eggs 
purchased and sent to their White Sulphur Springs, West Va., station, making a 
total of 687,700 eggs handled. Of these 240,000 were lost, 4,000 distributed for 
display and study purposes, and 443,700 hatched, of which 160,700 fry were lost, 
1,000 distributed for study purposes, and 282,000 reclassified as fingerlings. Of 
these 45,000 were lost, 63,000 distributed to open waters, and 174,000 remain on 
hand November 30. 

The brown trout have done well during the year. While in the past, White Spot 
disease has claimed as high as 50% of the fry in the sac stage, this loss has been 
reduced to less than 1%. 

Sutton State Fish Hatchery — Michael O'Mara, Assistant Fish and Game 
Culturist, Acting in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — No construction was done with 
Federal labor. 

With State funds and labor by National Youth Administration boys the road 
from the hatchery to the main highway was widened and the whole road graveled. 
Fences and gates about the grounds were repaired. A great deal has been accom- 
plished in the beautification of the hatchery. The grounds around the pools were 
graded, stumps removed, and the grounds rolled and seeded. On the south side 
of the large pond a slab sidewalk was laid, running from the roadway to the head 
of the pond. On the same side of the pond, the pond wall was raised to the level 
of the sidewalk, and the whole area rolled and seeded. Much brushing and thinning- 
out was done, especially working back from the pools. About 300 sizable fir and 
evergreen trees were planted about the place. 

General repairs were made to the buildings. At the ice house, the roof over the 
stairway, which was too low, was raised and repaired. Roofs were repaired on 
other buildings. A new floor was laid in the rear hall of the dwelling house to 
replace the one which had broken through. 

At the shipping stand, a one-horsepower motor and pump was installed to aid 
in loading the fish tank when shipping. The shipping tank was painted inside 
and out, and the pipes rewound. Approximately thirty large screens for the tanks 
below the road, and for the fry pools, were constructed. 

Brook Trout. — The year opened with 24,050 fingerling brook trout on hand, 
of which 780 were lost, and 23,270 transferred to yearlings and added to the 43 on 
hand at the beginning of the year. Of these, 8,070 were lost, 14,335 (335 of these 
on cooperative plan) were distributed to open waters, 212 used for experimental 
purposes, and 696 remain on hand November 30. 

Of the 1,078 brood stock on hand at the beginning of the year 362 were lost, 
713 distributed to open waters, and 3 for experiment. 

For the work of the year, 45,000 brook trout eggs were collected from the brood 
stock at the station, of which 14,680 were lost and 30,320 hatched. Of these, 
10,270 fry were lost, and 20,050 planted in open waters. 

In April, 75,168 fry were received from the Sandwich State Fish Hatchery, of 
which 9,400 were lost and 65,768 reclassified as fingerlings. Of these, 10,250 were 
lost, 10,000 distributed to club rearing pools, 5,000 distributed on the cooperative 
plan, and 40,518 remain on hand November 30. 

Rainbow Trout. — Of the 9,980 rainbow trout fingerlings on hand at the 



P.D. 25 43 

beginning of the year, 681 were lost and 9,299 transferred to yearlings. Of these, 
406 were lost and 8,893 remain on hand November 30. 

Late in November 5,000 1937-hatched fish were received from the Montague 
station and these are on hand November 30. 

Brown Trout. — Of the 14,326 yearlings on hand at the beginning of the year 
676 were lost and 13,591 (including 41 on cooperative plan) were distributed to 
open waters and 59 for display. 

In January 10,000 flngerlings were received from the Sunderland State Fish 
Hatchery, of which 580 were hatched and 9,420 reclassified as yearlings. Of these 
668 were lost, and 8,752 remain on hand November 30. 

Merrill State Pond System — Allan S. Kennedy, Assistant Fish 
Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — With the Federal government 
furnishing the necessary labor and the Division supplying materials and equipment, 
several important jobs were done at the pond system during the year. 

Guard walls were laid along the roadway across the Arnold Pond dam, thereby 
completing the work of putting this dam in good condition. 

At the Thompson Pond new walls were laid at the up and down-stream faces 
of the dam, impervious material and rip-rapping were placed on the upstream 
face, and the space between the walls was graded with closely compacted material 
to act as a driveway across the dam. The original pipe sluiceway through the 
dam, which had not functioned properly for some time, was replaced with a 3-foot 
x 3-foot reinforced concrete box and spillway. With these improvements it is 
expected that the leaks through this dam will be stopped and that the desired 
water level can be maintained for a longer period through the summer months. 
It will also expedite the drawing of the ponds. 

Other work to be completed by a new project started in October, is as follows: 

(a) Channeling the Welch Pond. 

(b) Stopping leaks at the Welch dam. 

(c) Graveling the shores of the Welch Pond to act as bass spawning beds. 

(d) Channeling the brook below the outlet to the Putnam Pond. 

(e) Cleaning out the small pond below the traps at Putnam Pond. 

(f) Brushing woodland. 

New Equipment. — The portable galvanized iron fish tank formerly used by 
Salvage Unit No. 1 has been transferred to the Merrill State Pond System for use 
in the distribution of fish by that unit. 

Pond Fish Culture. — All of the ponds, with the exception of the Putnam 
Pond, were drawn in the fall. The Putnam Pond will be drawn shortly, and a 
good yield of fish is expected; but the work done after December 1 will fall within 
the period of the next report. 

Horned pout and pickerel were taken from the ponds in larger numbers than 
usual, but the number of fingerling pickerel taken was smaller than usual. Calico 
bass did not breed very well in the ponds this year. The ponds have again yielded 
a large number of sunfish, and it is expected that they will be eliminated in time. 

The ponds yielded for distribution to open waters, study, and for breeding 
purposes, during the period of this report, 107,630 pond fish and 6,225 forage fish, 
divided as follows: 82,650 horned pout, 1,700 pickerel, 20,480 yellow perch, 150 
calico bass and 6,225 forage fish to open waters; 2,500 horned pout to club rearing 
pools; 150 horned pout for experimental purposes. 

The following lots of fish, taken in salvage operations, were placed in the ponds 
for breeding purposes: 247 small mouth bass, 165 pickerel, 144 yellow perch. 

State Forest Ponds 

Fishing in the State Forest Ponds has already been discussed in the section on 
State Forests under "Wild Birds and Mammals and Fresh-water Fish." The 
salvage operations in these ponds appears in the section following on "Work of 
the Salvage Units." The cultural work at the forest ponds is as follows: 

The second year in the use of the State Forest ponds for fish cultural work 
resulted in a large and more valuable production, and a conclusive demonstration 
that they could supply fish for local distribution in areas of the State remote from 



44 P.D. 25 

the regular stations, thereby saving much long-distance distribution. A large 
proportion of the fish distributed were 1936-hatched fish, and this distribution of 
larger fish can be continued as the main feature of the Forest Pond work. 

None of the features such as improved drainage, flow control, equipment and 
trapping devices were provided with the exception of a fish trap at Upper Spectacle 
Pond, and the work was done with traps of temporary construction, or with portable 
equipment. During the salvage it was possible to carry out some improvements 
in drainage, gates and flow control that could only be done when the ponds were 
drained, and which will materially aid the work in 1938. Valuable assistance was 
rendered by the Civilian Conservation Corps companies and the State Forest 
employees, in supplying material, assistance in the work of draining ponds, and 
in carrying out such improvement as could be done. 

Otis State Forest. — Upper Spectacle Pond is a valuable trout pond, and 
can be so maintained only by a periodic removal of predator pond fish, which 
makes it also a useful production pond. The construction of a fish trap to facilitate 
this work was undertaken by the Tolland Civilian Conservation Corps Camp, 
and finished by the Chester Camp when the Tolland company was disbanded, 
but so late that it was not possible to carry out drainage effectively. This was 
deferred until 1938. Upper Spectacle Pond in the meantime will supply pickerel 
brood stock for the other State Forest ponds. 

Beartown State Forest. — The combination of fish selected for experimental 
production in Benedict Pond was horned pout, calico bass and pickerel placed in 
the pond for breeding in 1936. Benedict Pond was not drawn that year as planned, 
and the production of 1936, consisting mainly of horned pout, was taken out as 
yearling fish in 1937. 

Calico bass had almost entirely disappeared, and only two of the original 1,000 
planted were found. There was no breeding. 

The original stock of pickerel was small, but there was a good production in 
1936, many of which had grown to legal length. There was no 1937 fingerling 
production. There were distributed from this pond 450 pickerel. 

The horned pout production for 1936 was so large that when they began the 
summer growth in 1937 the pond was overstocked and a heavy loss resulted. 
The stock was further reduced to a safe number by fishing by permit when their 
growth made them attractive to anglers, and the rest of the stock went to the end 
of the season without trouble. In draining the pond, 58,525 of these large horned 
pout, estimated to weigh nearly 5 tons, were taken out and distributed and about 
3,000 were left in the pond. Benedict Pond does not have full drainage, and 
many fish remained in the channels where an attempt was made to kill the pickerel 
and perch to fit the pond for a grayling experiment. This experiment was aban- 
doned when it was found that it would involve the destruction of the 3,000 horned 
pout hiding under sections of floating bottom. 

Yellow perch and common sunfish were found in the pond in large numbers. 
They had been introduced as fingerlings in the stocking done in 1936, and were 
not old enough to breed that year, but bred heavily in 1937. It was impossible to 
clean them out, and they will remain as a troublesome problem until the time 
comes when all fish can be exterminated for a new start. 

A defective gate that gave much trouble in drainage was replaced with a new 
gate by the Forest superintendent. 

October Mountain State Forest. — Felton Lake was operated for bass 
production, aquatic insect control by means of bass, and managed fishing for the 
removal of the breeders after spawning. 

Felton Lake was first flowed late in 1936, and during the winter, with a plan for 
experimental bass production, it was prepared for bass breeding by dumping 
gravel on the ice where it might sink to the selected nesting places when the ice 
melted. 

The lake was stocked in the spring of 1937 with approximately 500 small mouth 
black bass of breeding age, but on delivery of the fish it was found that all had 
spawned. This made production by breeding impossible, but to carry out the 
plan of using bass for aquatic insect control and to test the pond for fingerling 
growth, a shipment of 12,000 advanced fry was sent to the lake in July from Palmer. 
These yielded 2,121 fingerlings of unusual growth, and their presence had a marked 



P.D. 25 45 

effect in reducing the aquatic life that threatened to make the pond unfit for 
bathing. 

Felton Lake was drawn in October, and the fish trapped by means of a sand 
bag wire screen trap. Forty-three (43) breeding bass were taken and returned to 
the lake. This indicated effective control of used breeders by fishing. 

Harold Parker State Forest. — The Harold Parker State Forest Ponds 
were abandoned after a period of construction lasting two years, the principal 
reason advanced for this abandonment being that the ponds were too large for 
the watershed and could not be filled. In 1936 all ponds were drained, working 
from the head pond to remove cultch fish. Between this time late in the fall until 
early spring, all ponds refilled with much water wasting over the spillway which 
indicated that the fear of insufficient water supply was unfounded and that there 
would be ample to fill the fourth or Delano Pond. 

The plan of work for 1937 was to drain Doctor Field Pond the lowest, and save 
all water run from the upper ponds in refilling Doctor Field Pond. This will 
reduce the whole period for refilling to a few winter months. 

General construction at the ponds still remains suspended, and only minor 
repairs were made. In March the National Parks Service put additional fill on 
Doctor Field Pond dam to check the seepage where the abandoned outlet had been 
filled. During the fall drainage a control gate was built into the flume to protect 
the iron slide gate which on several occasions had been jammed with drift. During 
the same period a dam was built closing the outlet to the swamp between Doctor 
Field and Captain Collins Ponds to convert this swamp area into a pond. A shed 
to serve as garage and storage was built as an addition to the shelter building, the 
surrounding grounds were graded and planted, and the adjacent dump used by the 
110th Company cleaned up. 

From the Doctor Field Pond the yield of fish was mainly yearling horned pout 
and calico bass taken in the temporary trap built for use in 1936. The production 
of fingerling horned pout and calico bass was less than in the previous year, due 
partly to the plan of stocking for fewer fingerlings and more yearlings, and partly 
due to losses from the wrecked trap, which occurred early in the work. The gate 
was opened over one week-end by an unknown person, clogging the trap which 
gave way at places and was undermined. The damage was not wholly repaired 
until near the end of the season, and many fingerling horned pout were retaken 
below the trap. Doctor Field Pond was thoroughly cleaned of blue gills, banded 
sunfish and banded pickerel to eliminate these species. Banded sunfish and banded 
pickerel were found in only very small numbers, but numerous blue gills, both 
breeders and fingerlings, were found, indicating a restocking. All of these fish 
found were discarded. During drainage Doctor Field Pond was prepared with 
bass nests to permit its use for bass rearing in 1938. 

Captain Collins Pond was drawn to the point of taking fish at the close of the 
fiscal year, and enough fish seen to indicate that it was stocked with calico bass as 
well as small mouth black bass, the intended stock. 

Brackett Pond must wait the finish of Captain Collins Pond, and the drainage 
will come in the 1938 fiscal year. The water from both Captain Collins and 
Brackett Ponds is an important factor in refilling Doctor Field Pond. 

Salem Pond was first flowed in 1935, and was stocked with small mouth black 
bass for experimental breeding in 1936, with managed fishing permitted for the 
removal of the breeders after spawning. The pond did not receive its full quota 
of breeders, and drawing was deferred until 1937 when it became advisable to 
check on the condition of the pond and its stock. The fish were taken in a sand 
bag trap with screen box, and it was found that horned pout and calico bass pre- 
dominated, with large-mouth bass most numerous among the black bass. The 
horned pout were all yearlings produced from stock planted in 1936. The calico 
bass were all fingerlings from stock planted in 1937. In addition, common and 
long-eared sunfish were found in the pond. Only 15 of 320 breeders reported 
planted, were found in the pond. Salem Pond has poor drainage conditions due 
to sections of the bottom floating up and settling in other places, leaving deep 
holes, and should be stocked with mixed fish, since control for selected species is 
difficult. 



46 P.D. 25 

Work of the Salvage Units 

Early in the year a new Dodge chassis was purchased and the body of the truck 
previously used by Salvage Unit No. 1 was mounted on the new chassis. 

The culturist in charge of Salvage Unit No. 1 supervised the construction of two 
new portable galvanized iron fish tanks equipped with the latest and most efficient 
devices for transporting fish long distances. One of these has been assigned to 
the East Sandwich State Fish Hatchery, and the other will be used by Salvage 
Unit No. 1 as the tank formerly used by this unit has been transferred to the 
Merrill State Pond System. In addition, he supervised the construction of a third 
tank for use in exhibiting fish at State fairs, sportsmen's shows, and field days. 

During the period when the men were not engaged in actual salvage work, they 
were assigned to the fish hatcheries and game farms to assist in cultural and con- 
struction projects. 

Through the abandonment of a number of Civilian Conservation Corps camps, 
a considerable amount of valuable lumber became available to the Division, and 
this was salvaged by a member of the salvage units. 

Salvage Unit No. 1 — William H. Seaman, Fish Culturist, in Charge 

Oyster and Little Ponds, Falmouth,* April 3 to 16. — 49,300 white perch planted 
in open waters. Total — 49,300. 

Great Quittacas Pond, Lakeville, Middleboro, Rochester, April 21 to 27. — 1,275 
horned pout, 340 pickerel, 9,300 yellow perch, 2,750 white perch, 390 small mouth 
black bass planted in open waters. Total — 14,055. 

Weymouth Great Pond, Weymouth, April 30 to May 7. — 2,950 horned pout, 
152 pickerel, 14,500 yellow perch, 170 small mouth black bass planted in open 
waters. In addition 80 small mouth black bass were planted in the Welch Pond 
of the Merrill State Pond System for breeding purposes and 295 small mouth 
black bass were planted in Salem and Captain Collins Ponds on the Harold Parker 
State Forest for breeding purposes. Total — 18,147. 

Butler Ames Pond, Tewksbury, May 12 to 15. — 750 crappie, 105 horned pout, 
6,000 blue gills, planted in open waters. In addition 565 crappie, 102 horned pout, 
33 small mouth black bass were planted in Brackett and Doctor Field Ponds on the 
Harold Parker State Forest for breeding purposes, and 1,500 crappie were dis- 
tributed to a club rearing pond. Total — 9,055. 

Wenham Lake, Wenham, May 22 to 28. — 180 pickerel, 1,590 yellow perch, 
44,400 white perch, 330 small mouth black bass planted in open waters. Total — 
46,500. 

North Watuppa Pond, Fall River, June 3 to 17. — 820 crappie, 5,575 horned 
pout, 160 pickerel, 8,000 yellow perch, 4,785 white perch, 1,490 small mouth black 
bass, 1,985 blue gills planted in open waters. In addition 753 horned pout were 
distributed to a club rearing pool. Total — 23,568. 

Long Pond, Falmouth, June 21 to 27. — 2,450 yellow perch, 2,350 small mouth 
black bass planted in open waters. Total — 4,800. 

Salvage Unit No. 2 — Elmer A. M acker, Fish Culturist, in Charge 

Salvage Units No. 1 and No. 2 operated together on the salvage of fish from the 
Falmouth Ponds, April 3 to 16. For the number of fish collected, see under Salvage 
Unit No. 1. 

No Town Reservoir, Leominster, Fitchburg and Westminster, April 23 to May 3. 
— 1,790 horned pout, 115 pickerel, 13,750 yellow perch planted in open waters. 
In addition, 425 horned pout were distributed to a club rearing pool. Total — 
16,080. 

Ludlow Reservoir, Ludlow, May 7 to 15. — 585 horned pout, 14 pickerel, 1,676 
yellow perch, 142 small mouth black bass planted in open waters. In addition 
150 horned pout, 10 pickerel, 150 yellow perch were distributed to a club rearing 
pool, 260 small mouth black bass were turned over to the Palmer State Fish 
Hatchery for brood stock, and 145 small mouth black bass were turned over to the 
Merrill State Pond System for brood stock. Total — 3,132. 

Framingham Reservoir No. 3, Framingham, May 18 to 21. — 2 pickerel, 34 yellow 

*Both Salvage Unit No. 1 and No. 2 operated in the Falmouth Ponds. 



P.D. 25 47 

perch, 1,670 white perch, 13 small mouth black bass planted in open waters. 
Total— 1,719. 

Sudbury Reservoir, Marlboro and Southboro, May 25 to June 1. — 228 horned 
pout, 70 pickerel, 5,620 yellow perch, 100 white perch, 14 small mouth black bass 
planted in open waters. In addition, 22 small mouth black bass were turned over 
to the Merrill State Pond System for brood stock. Total — 6,054. 

Long Pond, Great Barrington, June 3 to 15. — 234 small mouth black bass 
planted in open waters. Total — 234. 

Echo Lake, Stockbridge, June 6 to 10. — 10 horned pout, 5 pickerel, 91 yellow 
perch, 8 small mouth black bass planted in open waters. Total — 114. 

Brookside Pond, Great Barrington, June 8. — 500 yellow perch, 15 large mouth 
black bass planted in open waters. Total — 515. 

Indian Lake, Worcester, June 18 to 27. — 9,000 crappie, 1,200 horned pout, 
1,550 yellow perch, 4,500 white perch planted in open waters. Total — 16,250. 

Cedar Meadow Pond, Leicester, July 2 to 8. — 830 horned pout, 1,080 yellow 
perch, 14,980 white perch planted in open waters. Total — 16,890. 

West Pond, Bolton, July 12. — 250 crappie, 30 horned pout, 20 yellow perch, 
12 white perch planted in open waters. Total — 312. 

North Pond, Florida, July 13 to 15. — 29 horned pout, 7 pickerel, 187 yellow 
perch planted in open waters. Total — 223. 

Miscellaneous Salvage 

Several lots of miscellaneous fish were salvaged by employees of the Division 
and the fish planted in local ponds, except where otherwise stated. 

From Chaffin Middle Pond, Holden, 100 crappie, 100 horned pout, 50 pickerel, 
100 yellow perch, 100 blue gills, 50 small mouth black bass. Total — 500. 

From Housatonic River, Great Barrington, 4 pickerel, 6 yellow perch, 4 rock 
bass. Total — 14. 

From Newton Water Works Reservoir, Needham, 12,000 crappie, 150 large 
mouth black bass, 150 pickerel, 600 yellow perch, 2,100 blue gills, 300 horned pout. 
Total — 15,300. 

Singletary Pond, Sutton and Millbury, 700 yellow perch. Total — 700. 

Cunningham Pond, Hubbardston, 165 pickerel and 144 yellow perch were sent 
to the Merrill State Pond System for brood stock. Total — 309. 

Bailey Brook Pond, Gardner, 600 horned pout, 20 pickerel, 200 yellow perch. 
Total — 820. 

Pine Meadow Wildlife Rearing Pond, Ayer. — This pond was stocked from 
April to June with 1,728 horned pout and 1,500 calico bass. Because of the mag- 
nitude of the project, when it was time to draw off the pond and distribute the 
fish the Division assisted the three clubs sponsoring the project, namely — Ayer 
Gun and Sportsmen's Club, Tuity Rod and Gun Club, Stony Brook Fish and Game 
Association. A total of 352,000 fingerling horned pout and calico bass were sal- 
vaged from the pond and released in ponds open to public fishing. In addition 
5,000 horned pout and 45,000 calico bass were allowed to go from the trap to 
Flanagans and Sandy Ponds. This distribution is shown as a footnote in the fish 
distribution table and is not included in the total of fish distributed by the Division. 

Salvage of the State Forest Ponds 

Salvage operations were conducted in some of the State Forest Ponds by 
employees of the Division, and the fish distributed to public waters, except as 
otherwise noted. 

Doctor Field Pond on the Harold Parker State Forest, December 4 to 19, 1936. — 
7,700 calico bass, 78,270 horned pout, 150 blue gills, 200 small mouth black bass 
planted in open waters. Total — 86,320. 

Benedict Pond on the Beartown State Forest, September 14 to 21. — 58,525 
horned pout, 450 pickerel planted in open waters. Total — 58,975. 

Felton Lake on the October Mountain State Forest, October 13 to 16. — 2,121 
small mouth black bass planted in open waters. Total — 2,121. 

Doctor Field and Salem Pond on the Harold Parker State Forest, October 25 to 
November 30. — 683 small mouth black bass, 26,335 calico bass, 58,450 horned 
pout planted in open waters. In addition 1,300 calico bass and 1,800 horned pout 



48 P.D. 25 

were turned over to the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries in exchange for rainbow trout 
eggs to be supplied to the Montague State Fish Hatchery for work of 1938. Total — 

88,568. 

Ayer State Game Farm — Edward E. Backus, Game Bird Culturist, in Charge 

New Construction and Replacement. — During the winter months with 
State funds 10 new combination quail breeding-holding pens, of the standard type 
in use at this station, were constructed and 5 additional Torrey shelter boxes were 
built to replace 5 that had become unserviceable. There were also built during 
the winter and early spring 6 grouse breeding-holding pens and trestles to support 
them. These pens are 5 feet by 10 feet by 4 feet high, of a modified "A" type, 
adapted from the design in use at the Wilbraham State Game Farm, from which 
they differ only in size and in minor structural details. 

In April, 22 additional cottontail breeding pens were built by partitioning off a 
20-foot strip on the northern sides of the two rearing areas of the pen unit built 
last year. These pens differ only in area from the pens previously built, averaging 
6 feet by 20 feet, instead of 10 feet by 25 feet. Twenty-five (25) nest boxes and 
25 feed shelter boxes were built. 

In May, 8 new raccoon pens for confining the males after separation from the 
females, were built. These pens, 6 feet by 12 feet in area by 6 feet 6 inches high, 
were constructed largely of salvaged material, the posts and main frame being of 
piping. Four double kennels of the lean-to type were constructed.