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Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. X, Plate XIII 


In whose memory a hall in the Museum has been named due to the 
benefactions of his sister, Miss Kate Buckingham 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Publication 336 

Report Series 

Vol. X, No. 2 





,/s NATURAL ^^ 



^^ 1893 ^ 


January, 1935 

138 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 


Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may be made in 
securities, money, books or collections. They may, if desired, take 
the form of a memorial to a person or cause, to be named by the 
giver. For those desirous of making bequests to the Museum, the 
following form is suggested: 

form of bequest 

I do hereby give and bequeath to Field Museum of Natural 
History of the City of Chicago, State of Illinois, 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year to 
Field Museum of Natural History to an amount not in 
excess of 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income are allow- 
able as deductions in computing net income under Article 
251 of Regulation 69 relating to the income tax under the 
Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron during his 
or her lifetime. These annuities are tax-free and are 
guaranteed against fluctuation in amount. 


V. I 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 139 



List of Plates 141 

Officers, Trustees and Committees, 1934 143 

Former Members of the Board of Trustees 144 

Former Officers 145 

List of Staff 146 

Report of the Director 147 

Department of Anthropology 169 

Department of Botany 185 

Department of Geology 195 

Department of Zoology 207 

The N. W. Harris Public School Extension 220 

James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for 

Public School and Children's Lectures 221 

Lectures for Adults 225 

Library 227 

Division of Printing 230 

Divisions of Photography and Illustration 231 

Division of Publications 232 

Division of Public Relations 233 

Division of Memberships 235 

Cafeteria 235 

Comparative Attendance Statistics and Door Receipts . . 236 

Comparative Financial Statements 237 

List of Accessions 238 

List of Members 253 

Benefactors 253 

Honorary Members 253 

Patrons 253 

Corresponding Members 254 

140 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Contributors 254 

Corporate Members 255 

Life Members 255 

Non-Resident Life Members 257 

Associate Members 258 

Non-Resident Associate Members 272 

Sustaining Members 272 

Annual Members 272 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 




XIIL Clarence Buckingham 137 

XIV. The Late Dr. Berthold Laufer 152 

XV. Imperial Dragon Screen 172 

XVI. Great Kiva or Ceremonial Chamber 180 

XVII. Jaboticaba 188 

XVIII. Panama Hat Palm 196 

XIX. Group of Fossil Edentates from the Pliocene of 

Argentina 200 

XX. Crystal of Beryl 204 

XXI. Bongo Antelope 208 

XXII. Ostriches and Their Allies 212 

XXIII. American Alligator and Nest 216 

XXIV. Type of Case Loaned to the Schools of Chicago by 

the N. W. Harris Public School Extension . . 220 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 143 


Stanley Field 

First Vice-President Second Vice-President 

Albert A. Sprague James Simpson 

Third Vice-President Secretary 

Albert W. Harris Stephen C. Simms 

Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
Solomon A. Smith 


Sewell L. Avery William H. Mitchell 

John Borden Frederick H. Rawson 

William J. Chalmers George A. Richardson 

Joseph N. Field Fred W. Sargent 

Marshall Field Stephen C. Simms 

Stanley Field James Simpson 

Ernest R. Graham Solomon A. Smith 

Albert W. Harris Albert A. Sprague 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Silas H. Strawn 

Cyrus H. McCormick Leslie Wheeler 

John P. Wilson 


Executive. — Stanley Field, Albert W. Harris, William J. Chalmers, 
James Simpson, Albert A. Sprague, Marshall Field, Silas H. 
Strawn, John P. Wilson. 

Finance. — Albert W. Harris, Solomon A. Smith, James Simpson, 
Frederick H. Rawson, John P. Wilson. 

Building. — William J. Chalmers, Samuel Insull, Jr., Cyrus H. 
McCormick, Ernest R. Graham, William H. Mitchell. 

Auditing. — James Simpson, Fred W. Sargent, George A. Richardson. 

Pension. — Albert A. Sprague, Sewell L. Avery, Solomon A. Smith. 

144 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 


George E. Adams* 1893-1917 

Owen F. Alois* 1893-1898 

Allison V. Armour 1893-1894 

Edward E. Ayer* 1893-1927 

John C. Black* 1893-1894 

M. C. Bullock* 1893-1894 

Daniel H. Burnham* 1893-1894 

George R. Davis* 1893-1899 

James W. Ellsworth* 1893-1894 

Charles B. Farwell* 1893-1894 

Frank W. Gunsaulus* 1893-1894, 1918-1921 

Emil G. Hirsch* 1893-1894 

Charles L. Hutchinson* 1893-1894 

John A. Roche* 1893-1894 

Martin A. Ryerson* 1893-1932 

Edwin Walker* 1893-1910 

Watson F. Blair* 1894-1928 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1894-1919 

Huntington W. Jackson* 1894-1900 

Arthur B. Jones* 1894-1927 

George Manierre* 1894-1924 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1910 

Norman Williams* 1894-1899 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1899-1905 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1902-1921 

George F. Porter* 1907-1916 

Richard T. Crane, Jr.* 1908-1912, 1921-1931 

John Barton Payne 1910-1911 

Chauncey Keep* 1915-1929 

Henry Field* 1916-1917 

William Wrigley, Jr.* 1919-1931 

Harry E.Byram 1921-1928 

D. C. Davies* 1922-1928 

Charles H. Markham* 1924-1930 

William V. Kelley* 1929-1932 

* Deceased 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 145 



Edward E. Ayer* 1894-1898 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1898-1908 

First Vice-Presidents 

Martin A. Ryerson* 1894-1932 

Second Vice-Presidents 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1902 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1902-1905 

Stanley Field 1906-1908 

Watson F. Blair* 1909-1928 

Albert A. Sprague 1929-1932 

Third Vice-Presidents 

Albert A. Sprague 1921-1928 

James Simpson 1929-1932 


Ralph Metcalf 1894 

George Manierre* 1894-1907 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1907-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 


Byron L. Smith* 1894-1914 


Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1893-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 


146 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 


Stephen C. Simms, Director 

DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY.— Berthold Laufer,* Curator; Paul S. 
Martin, Acting Curator; A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate in American 
Archaeology. Assistant Curators: Albert B. Lewis, Melanesian Ethnology; 
J. Eric Thompson, Central and South American Archaeology; Wilfrid D. 
Hambly, African Ethnology; Henry Field, Physical Anthropology; T. George 
Allen, Egyptian Archaeology. 

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY'.— B. E. Dahlgren, Curator; Paul C. Standley, 
Associate Curator of the Herbarium; J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator 
of Taxonomy; Llewelyn Williams, Assistant Curator of Economic Botany; 
Samuel J. Record, Research Associate in Wood Technology; A. C. Noe, Research 
Associate in Paleobotany. 

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY.— Henry W. Nichols, Curator; Elmer S. Riggs, 
Associate Curator of Paleontology; Sharat K. Roy, Assistant Curator of Geology; 
Bryan Patterson, Assistant in Paleontology. 

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY.— Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator. Mammals: 
Colin C. Sanborn, Assistayit Curator; Julius Friesser, C. J. Albrecht, A. G. 
Rueckert, Taxidermists. Birds: C. E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator; Rudyerd 
Boulton, Assistant Curator; Boardman Conover, Associate; R. Magoon Barnes, 
Assistant Curator of Birds' Eggs; Ashley Hine, Taxidermist. Amphibians 
AND Reptiles: Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant Curator; Leon L. Walters, Taxi- 
dermist. Fishes: Alfred C. Weed, Assistant Curator; Leon L. Pray, Taxi- 
dermist. Insects: William J. Gerhard, Associate Curator; Emil Liljeblad, 
Ass^tant. Osteology: Edmond N. Gueret, Assistant Curator; Dwight Davis, 
Assistant. Artist: Charles A. Corwin. 

Curator; A. B. Wolcott, Assistant Curator. 

Margaret M. Cornell, Chief; Franklin C. Potter, Miriam Wood, Guide-lecturers. 

LIBRARY. — Emily M. Wilcoxson, Librarian; Mary W. Baker, Assistard Librarian. 

ADMINISTRATION.— Clifford C. Gregg, Assistant to the Director; Benjamin 
Bridge, Auditor; Henry F. Ditzel, Registrar; Elsie H. Thomas, Recorder — 
in charge of publication distribution; H. B. Harte, Public Relations; Pearle 
Bilinske, Memberships; J. L. Jones, Purchasing Agent. 

PRINTING. — Dewey S. Dill, in charge; Lillian A. Ross, Editor and Proofreader. 

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION.— C. H. Carpenter, Photographer; 
Carl F. Gronemann, Illustrator; A. A. Miller, Photogravurist. 

MAINTENANCE.— John E. Glynn, Superintendent; W. H. Corning, Chief 
Engineer; W. E. Lake, Assistant Engineer. 

♦Deceased, 1934 




To the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History: 

I have the honor to present a report of the operations of the 
Museum for the year ending December 31, 1934. 

The preparation of an operating budget for the year 1934, as 
for the two previous j^ears, was most difficult, for the reason that a 
further decline in income from endowments, contributions, member- 
ships, and tax collections was anticipated, and likewise a very 
marked decrease in revenue from paid admissions was expected. 
Consequently the budget adopted was again substantially reduced, 
and no expeditions or purchases of collections were provided for 
except where made possible by contributions for specific new re- 
search received during the year. 

As anticipated, income from endowments and tax collections was 
less than in 1933; income from contributions was very much smaller; 
and, while the downward trend in income from memberships was 
greatly retarded, there was nevertheless a reduction of receipts from 
that source. Revenues from admissions and sundry receipts, which 
in 1933 were far above average, decreased in 1934 as a natural result 
of the smaller number of visitors, especially those from out of town, 
to A Century of Progress exposition in its second year. By rigid 
economies the Museum succeeded in keeping actual expenditures 
well within budget appropriations and was enabled without further 
reduction in salaries or personnel to cover its essential operating 
expenses, and to reduce notes payable caused by previous j^ears' 
deficits from $105,000 to $95,000 (see financial statement, page 237). 

Insofar as those activities directly connected with serving the 
public are concerned, the Museum, despite the severe economies 
which had to be instituted, managed to maintain its customary 
standards. The number of visitors received at the Museum was 
1,991,469, which, while it represents a large decline from the attend- 
ance of 3,269,390 recorded in 1933, was nevertheless the second 
highest year's attendance in the history of the institution. The 
decline from the 1933 peak was a natural and expected consequence 
of the smaller attendance experienced by A Century of Progress. 

Taking into consideration extra-mural activities, the Museum's 
educational influence was carried directly to a total of more than 
2,650,000 persons during 1934. This figure includes the visitors 


148 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

received in the Museum building itself, together with approximately 
662,000 persons (chiefly children) reached by the outside work con- 
ducted by the institution through the James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation for Public School and Children's 
Lectures, and the Department of the N. W. Harris Public School 
Extension. As always, there were further numbers impossible to 
calculate, benefiting from the indirect influence of the Museum 
through the media of its publications and leaflets. Field Museum 
News, and information circulated through newspapers, magazines, 
radio broadcasts, correspondence, etc. 

Only 99,553 persons, or approximately 5 per cent of the total 
attendance, paid the 25-cent admission fee. All the rest, numbering 
1,891,916, either came on Thursdays, Saturdays, and Sundays when 
admission is free, or belonged to those classifications to whom admis- 
sion is free on all days — Members of the Museum, children, teachers, 
students, etc. The highest attendance for a single day occurred on 
Sunday, September 2, when there were 55,548 visitors. 

The extension lecturers sent by the Raymond Foundation 
addressed 162,360 children at 428 meetings in their school classrooms 
and assembly halls. The twenty motion picture entertainments 
presented by the Foundation in the James Simpson Theatre were 
attended by 27,653 children. The Foundation also conducted 404 
guide-lecture tours of the exhibits for children, in which 14,759 
young people participated. The total number of persons benefiting 
from these and other activities of the Raymond Foundation, both 
inside and outside the building, was 213,579. 

Throughout the school year the traveling natural history exhibits 
circulated by the Department of the N. W. Harris Public School 
Extension were available in more than 400 schools and certain other 
institutions daily to approximately 500,000 children. Trucks from 
the Museum deliver and collect these cases on a regular schedule. 
This is so arranged that each public school, and numerous private 
schools, community centers, and other institutions, are provided 
with cases illustrating two new subjects every two weeks. 

During March and April, and October and November, the 
Museum's annual spring and autumn courses of free illustrated 
lectures for adults on travel and science were presented on Saturday 
afternoons in the James Simpson Theatre. In addition, a lecture 
especially for Members of the Museum was presented on Sunday, 
November 25. The total attendance at the seventeen lectures was 
24,326. Guide-lecture tours provided for groups of adults numbered 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 149 

370, and the total number of participants in these was 8,807. Large 
numbers of people were served by the Library of the Museum, and 
the scientific study collections maintained in the various Departments. 

A gratifying testimonial to the value of the traveling exhibits 
circulated among the schools by the N. W. Harris Public School 
Extension, and the extension lectures and other benefits pro\aded 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for 
Public School and Children's Lectures, was received during the year. 
This came in the form of a large number of booklets prepared by 
the seventh and eighth grade pupils of the Mozart Public School, 
in which the children told in their own words of their appreciation 
of this Museum extension work. By their essays on various subjects 
which had been thus presented to them, the children showed that 
they had absorbed much information as a result of the exhibits and 
lectures. The booklets were forwarded to the Museum through 
the cooperation of Miss Myrtle McKellar, Science Teacher, and 
Miss H. Gertrude Jaynes, Principal of the school. 

Dr. Carl Christensen, retired Curator of the Botanical Museum 
of Copenhagen, was elected a Corresponding Member of the Museum 
in recognition of his valuable services. Dr. Christensen, one of the 
world's two foremost authorities on ferns, enabled Field Museum 
to make photographs of extremely important type specimens of 
plants, in the course of the work of the Joint Botanical Project of 
the Rockefeller Foundation and Field Museum, and cooperated in 
every possible way to promote the success of that project. 

Three names were added to the list of Contributors to the 
Museum : 

Mrs. Sarah S. Straus, of New York, was elected a Contributor 
in appreciation of her generous contribution of funds which made 
possible the highly successful Straus West African Zoological Expedi- 
tion of Field Museum. This expedition, which Mrs. Straus herself 
accompanied for several months, resulted in the acquisition of 
extremely important additions to the Museum's zoological collections. 

Mr. Templeton Crocker, of San Francisco, became a Contributor 
as a result of his gift to the Museum of a valuable collection of 
more than 800 ethnological specimens from certain little-known 
islands of the Melanesian and Polynesian groups. This material 
was collected by an expedition to the South Pacific, made aboard 
Mr. Crocker's yacht and under his leadership. 

Dr. Berthold Laufer, Curator of the Department of Anthropology, 
who died September 13, was posthumously elected a Contributor 

150 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

in recognition of the bequest he made to the Museum of his personal 
library of some 5,000 volumes, many of them of great rarity and value. 

The death of Dr. Laufer removed from the staff of the Museum 
one of its most distinguished members. In his memory the Board 
of Trustees, at its meeting held September 17, adopted the following 

"Sorrowfully the Board of Trustees of Field Museum of Natural 
History has learned of the death, on September 13, 1934, of Dr. 
Berthold Laufer, for many years a member of the staff of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, and, since 1915, Curator of the Department. 
Dr. Laufer's death removes from the personnel of this institution, 
and from the roster of the world's scientists, one of the greatest of 
contemporary scholars. 

"An eminent authority on the science of anthropology in general, 
Dr. Laufer had for many years specialized on researches in Oriental 
archaeology^ and ethnology, and had gained world-wide recognition 
for the unique and important work he achieved in his studies and 
writings in connection with the yellow race. It is doubtful if any 
other white man ever penetrated so deeply into the philosophies 
and the psychology of the peoples of China and Tibet. He under- 
stood the Mongolian peoples as few of their own race could, and he 
humanized our knowledge of them. He was steeped in their litera- 
ture through all the centuries from their first discovery of means 
to record their thoughts. He was versed in all their arts — an unerring 
and incomparable judge of what was genuine and fine among their 
products, and what was dross. He was a vital influence in bringing 
about a more widespread appreciation in this country of the creations 
of Chinese genius, and in establishing a sympathetic understanding 
of the yellow race. 

"In greatest degree to the work of Dr. Laufer does Field Museum 
owe its fame as a repository of one of the most extensive and valuable 
of Oriental collections. As leader of the Blackstone Expedition to 
China and Tibet (1908-10) and the Marshall Field Expedition 
to China (1923) Dr. Laufer gathered comprehensive collections of the 
finest treasures of those countries. His profound knowledge enabled 
him to arrange the display of these in the Museum in the most 
instructive and interesting manner, with informative labels written 
in genuine literary style. His contributions to the publications of 
the Museum were extensive in number and unique in character and 
scope. In addition, he wrote many other important works which 
were published elsewhere. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 151 

"So familiar was Dr. Laufer with the history of the peoples of 
the Far East, even in its most obscure chapters, that many things 
blazoned forth in the present-day world as strictly modern and 
original accomplishments of the twentieth century and western 
civilization were to him very old, and but a repetition or develop- 
ment of ideas first born in the minds of men hundreds and sometimes 
thousands of years ago. In his conversation, and in his voluminous 
writings, there was always present a delightful charm and an under- 
current of quiet humor as he drew striking parallels from ancient 
civilizations to show that much contemporary thought, invention 
and 'progress' was actually not new at all. From his vast store 
of knowledge he upset, with quaint narratives and facts gleaned 
from little-known sources, many a set and smug notion of a too 
self-satisfied generation. 

"The loss of Dr. Laufer is keenly felt by the Trustees of the 
Museum, who recognize not only that a career of splendid intellectual 
achievements has sadly come to a close, but that a man of noble 
spirit and character has passed to the beyond. 

"Therefore, be it resolved, that this expression of the Trustees' 
appreciation of Dr. Laufer's many years of loyal and valuable 
service to the Museum, and to science, be permanently preserved 
on the records of the Board ; 

"And be it further resolved that our deep sympathy be conveyed 
to his bereaved family, and that a copy of this resolution be trans- 
mitted to his widow." 

News of two other deaths was received with regret during the 
year. Mr. Louis Charles Watelin, who had for several years been field 
director of the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition 
to Mesopotamia, died in July, while on his way to conduct an expedi- 
tion on Easter Island. His services during the excavations at Kish 
were of great value to Field Museum and to the science of archaeology. 

Dr. Davidson Black, a Corresponding Member of Field Museum, 
died on March 16. Dr. Black, a noted anatomist and anthropologist, 
was professor of anatomy at the Peking Union Medical College in 
China, and an authority on the "Peking man." He had rendered 
many valuable services to this institution. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Board of Trustees, held January 15, 
all Officers of the Museum who had served in the preceding year 
were re-elected for 1934. 

152 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

At a meeting of the Board held May 21, Mr. Leshe Wheeler 
and Mr. Joseph N. Field were elected Corporate Members of the 
Museum ; and at a meeting held June 18 they were elected as Trustees. 
Messrs. Wheeler and Field fill the places on the Board which had 
been vacant since the deaths in 1932 of Trustees William V. Kelley 
and Martin A. Ryerson. 

It is a pleasure to note that Professor Grafton Elliot Smith, 
famous British anthropologist, who is a good friend and a Correspond- 
ing Member of Field Museum, was knighted in 1934 by His Majesty 
King George V of England. Sir Grafton has performed many 
valuable services for Field Museum. 

Many new exhibits of importance were completed during 1934. 
Outstanding among these is the series of sculptures of champion 
domestic animals of Great Britain, for the exhibition of which a 
new hall, Hall 12, was especially prepared. These sculptures, of 
which there are nineteen, are a gift to the Museum from Trustee 
Marshall Field, and are the work of the noted sculptor, Mr. Herbert 
Haseltine, who visited the Museum for the purpose of making sugges- 
tions as to their installation. The sculptures are in marble and 
bronze, one-fourth life size. Types of horses, beef and dairy animals, 
sheep, and swine are included. The collection represents a new 
departure in the policy of the Museum, as hitherto all exhibits in 
the Department of Zoology had been limited to wild animals. 

A number of new habitat groups of wild animals were added to 
the zoological exhibits. Especially striking is the group of the rare 
African antelope known as the bongo, installed in Carl E. Akeley 
Memorial Hall (Hall 22). This is an animal seldom seen either in 
museums or by hunters in its homeland. Specimens for this group 
were collected by the Harold White- John Coats African Expedition 
(1930) after one of the most difficult hunts in the career of Captain 
Harold A. White. The group was prepared by Staff Taxidennist 
C. J. Albrecht, and has a painted background by Staff Artist Charles 
A. Corwin. In the same hall there was installed also a group of 
aardvarks, composed of specimens collected by the Harold White- 
John Coats Abyssinian Expedition (1929), and mounted by Taxi- 
dermist Albrecht. Aardvarks are among the world's most peculiar 
animals, and because of their remarkable speed in burrowing it 
is difficult to obtain specimens. 

In William V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17) four new habitat groups of 
Asiatic animals were installed. The two most important species of 
deer in Asia, the sambar deer, and the swamp deer or barasingha, 

field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. X, Plate XIV 


A member of the staff of Field Museum since 1907, Dr. Laufer was for a number of years 

Associate Curator of Anthropology, and was Curator of the Department from 1915 

until his death on September 13, 1934 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 153 

are represented by adjacent groups. Both of these are composed 
of specimens collected by the James Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic 
Expedition (1926), and the late Colonel J. C. Faunthorpe of Bombay. 
Preparation of both groups is the work of Staff Taxidermists Julius 
Friesser and Arthur G. Rueckert, assisted by Mr. W. E. Eigsti. 
The backgrounds are by Staff Artist Corwin, and are based on field 
studies furnished through the cooperation of the Bombay Natural 
History Society. The third new group in Kelley Hall is that of 
Bengal tigers, for which the specimens were obtained by the Simpson- 
Roosevelts Expedition. The tigers were mounted by Taxidermist 
Albrecht, and the background is by Mr. Corwin. Finally, there was 
installed in this hall a group of Asiatic sloth bears, for which speci- 
mens were collected by Colonel Faunthorpe, and by Mr. Dilipat 
Singh, of Singahi, Kheri District (Oudh), India. Staff Taxidermist 
Rueckert and Mr. Eigsti prepared this group, and Mr. Corwin 
painted the background from field studies furnished by the Bom- 
bay Natural History Society. 

A notable reinstallation in Kelley Hall is that of the group of 
proboscis monkeys of Borneo. This group, originally prepared by 
the late Carl E. Akeley, has been completely rearranged and improved 
by Staff Taxidermist Leon L. Pray, assisted by Mr. Frank Letl. 
The group now has a painted background by Mr. Pray, as well as 
a foreground reproducing a treetop scene with artificial branches, 
leaves and vines. The animals were purchased for the Museum 
years ago by the late Martin A. Ryerson. 

The installation of four new screens, and the reinstallation of 
several others, practically completed the systematic collection of 
North American birds in Hall 21. Nearly all of the work on these 
was done by Staff Taxidermist Ashley Hine. To the synoptic 
exhibit of foreign birds in the same hall was added a case of gallina- 
ceous birds prepared by Assistant Taxidermist John W. Moyer. 

Of special interest because of the use of the so-called "celluloid 
method" in its preparation, is a new specimen of the large flightless 
bird called cassowary, added to the foreign birds in Hall 21. The 
head and legs of the cassowary were reproduced in cellulose-acetate 
by the process developed in recent years for work on reptiles and 
hairless mammals. These are assembled with the original skin of 
the body. The mount is the work of Staff Taxidermist Leon L. 
Walters, originator of the celluloid process, and Mr. Edgar G. 


154 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

The most notable addition to the exhibits of the Department of 
Anthropology consisted of eleven more sculptures in bronze of racial 
types, installed in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall of the Races 
of Mankind). These, like the sculptures placed on view in the 
preceding year, are all the work of Miss Malvina Hoffman, noted 
sculptor. The new subjects include a full-length figure of a Navaho, 
and busts or heads of an Alpine Austrian, a Zulu woman, a Korean 
man, a Pueblo Indian woman, an Apache, a Carib, a Turk, an 
Igorot, a Berber, and a Toda. These brought the series practically 
to completion. Only a head of a Beduin remains to be added, and 
this is expected early in 1935. Altogether the hall now contains 
ninety studies (including several groups, which bring the number 
of individuals portrayed up to one hundred) of representative types 
of the races of the world. 

In the east end of Chauncey Keep Hall there was installed a 
series of exhibits illustrating various phases of physical anthropology. 
These consist of transparent illuminated colored pictures on glass 
of racial types, charts pertaining to racial differences and racial 
distribution, casts of hands and feet illustrating diiferences among 
various peoples, skulls of different races, casts of brains, examples 
of head and body deformation practised by many peoples, samples 
of hair, casts showing types of ears, and many other exhibits pertain- 
ing to the subject. 

At the entrance to the Hall of the Stone Age of the Old World 
(Hall C) there was installed an exhibit called "The Ancestry of Man." 
On the background of the exhibition case is represented a branching 
tree. Attached to the branches are reconstructions of the skulls 
of primitive monkeys and apes, of types of prehistoric men, and 
finally skulls of modern men of various races. The exhibit graphically 
illustrates the theory that man, while not the descendant of any 
living type of ape, has, from many lines of evidence accepted by 
scientists, a common ancestry with the apes; and that while apes 
were evolving from primitive types to those living today, a parallel 
evolution was taking place through various primitive human tjrpes 
and culminating in the present races of man. 

Of great interest is an exhibit illustrating the method for determin- 
ing the building dates of cliff houses and ruins in the southwestern 
United States by means of tree rings in the remains of wood used 
in the structures. This has been installed in Hall 7, devoted to 
archaeology and ethnology of the Southwest. This method of tree- 
ring chronology was developed by Dr. A. E. Douglass of the Uni- 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 155 

versity of Arizona, and has been successfully used in connection 
with the excavations on Lowry ruin in Colorado by the Field Museum 
Archaeological Expeditions to the Southwest. 

Two cases of artifacts, selected from the large collection of ethno- 
logical material from the islands of the Pacific, presented to the 
Museum during the year by Mr. Templeton Crocker, of San 
Francisco, were placed on exhibition in Joseph N. Field Hall (Hall A). 

Seventeen exhibition cases of new ethnological material from 
Africa were installed in Halls D and E, and two in Alcove Al near-by. 
The bulk of these new exhibits is from the collections made by the 
Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological Expedition to 
West Africa (1929-30). 

In Stanley Field Hall there were installed a case of beautiful 
scarfs for women, from India; a fine collection of ancient lacquered 
vessels from Peru ; and a case of remarkable Peruvian textiles made 
between a.d. 1000 and 1500. To the Mexican and Central American 
collections in Hall 8 there were added many excellent examples of 
ancient sculptures, pottery, textiles, and other archaeological material 
including some collected in British Honduras during 1934 by the 
Joint Expedition of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C., 
and Field Museum. 

Extensive reinstallations, along with additions of material not 
previously exhibited, were made in Halls 8 and 9 (archaeology of 
Mexico and Central and South America); Hall 32 (ethnology of 
China and Tibet); Hall D (West and Central African ethnology); 
Hall E (Madagascar, and East, South and North Africa) ; Edward E. 
and Emma B. Ayer Hall (Hall 2, archaeology of Italy, Etruria 
and Greece); and Joseph N. Field Hall (Hall A, ethnology of 
Melanesia and other South Pacific island groups). 

Numerous additions were made to the exhibits in the Department 
of Botany. Among new reproductions of plants, prepared by the 
Plant Reproduction Laboratories of the Museum, and now on exhibi- 
tion in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) are one of an entire plant of 
the Panama hat palm of Central America and northern South 
America; a branch of the South American climber called guarana, 
used by natives in making a beverage with the mildly stimulant 
properties of coffee; a fruiting branch of the jujube tree; a branch 
of the tropical American cupuassu tree, which is related to the 
cacao; a branch of jaboticaba, a curious plant from Brazil which 
has grape-like fruit growing directly from the stem; and a new 
species of Heliconia, from Mexico, which has been added to the 

156 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

case containing representatives of the banana family. To the exhibit 
of foreign nuts forming a part of the exhibit of food plants in Hall 
25 there was added a reproduction of a California-grown almond 
branch in fruit. Other additions to Hall 25 include a case of beverage 
plants such as coffee, mate, cassine tea, kola, guarana, and cacao, 
and a case devoted to fermented and distilled beverages. 

A variety of material was added also to the exhibits in Charles 
F. Millspaugh Hall (Hall 26, North American woods). Hall 27 
(foreign woods) and Hall 28 (plant raw materials and products). 

Most important new exhibit of the Department of Geology is 
a collection of culture pearls grown in Japan and presented to the 
Museum by Mr. Kokichi Mikimoto, of Tokyo, to whose years of 
experiment and study the commercial production of culture pearls 
is due. This collection, placed on exhibition in H. N. Higinbotham 
Hall (Hall 31), includes a group of five culture pearls illustrating 
range of color and luster; another group of six culture pearls with 
six natural Oriental pearls for comparison; a pearl oyster with one 
shell removed to show the mantle in which the pearl grows; a large 
shell which has a dark mother-of-pearl margin and a light center, 
with a black pearl on the dark portion and a white one on the light, 
showing the influence of the shell color on the color of the pearls; 
and two pearls cut in section, one a natural pearl and one of the 
culture variety, placed under a magnifying glass to show the nuclei 
and structure of each kind. 

To the meteorite collection in Hall 34, fifteen new specimens 
representing eleven falls were added. The collection, which is the 
largest in the world as regards the number of falls represented, now 
contains specimens of more than two-thirds of all known meteorites, 
or 727 of the approximately 1,050 of which there is a record. 

Fossil skulls of a sabertooth tiger, an Andean horse, and a giant 
species of turtle were added to the paleontological exhibits in Ernest 
R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). 

Reinstallation to better advantage of the mineral collection in 
Hall 34 was completed, and great progress was made on exhibits 
requiring reinstallation in other halls of the Department of Geology. 

As in the previous year, for reasons of economy, there were no 
budget appropriations for expeditions or field work, but a number 
of privately financed expeditions, organized on behalf of the Museum, 
were productive of great benefits to the institution. 

The Straus West African Expedition of Field Museum, sponsored 
by Mrs. Sarah S. Straus, of New York, widow of the late Oscar 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 157 

Straus, made large and valuable collections of zoological material 
in Senegal, the French Sudan, Nigeria, and Angola (Portuguese West 
Africa). It was led by Mr. Rudyerd Boulton, Assistant Curator 
of Birds. Mrs. Straus herself accompanied the expedition during 
several months of its work. Other members of the party were Mr. 
John F. Jennings, of Chicago, who was in charge of photography; 
Mr. Frank C. Wonder of the Museum's taxidermy staff, who collected 
mammals; and Mrs. Laura C. Boulton, who traveled with the exi)edi- 
tion while engaged in ethnological work under a grant from the 
Carnegie Corporation, of New York. In addition to extensive 
general zoological collections, material was collected for several 
proposed habitat groups of birds. 

The Leon Mandel Guatemala Expedition of Field Museum, 
continuing work begun in 1933, made a comprehensive collection of 
characteristic Central American fauna, and obtained important 
material for several habitat groups of birds. Mr. Mandel, the 
sponsor, participated in the work for a part of the time. The leader 
of the expedition was Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant Curator of 
Reptiles. The personnel included Mr. F. J. W. Schmidt, mam- 
malogist; Mr. Emmet R. Blake, ornithologist; and Mr. Daniel 
Clark, general assistant. 

Important new discoveries in connection with the history and 
culture of the ancient Mayas resulted from the excavations conducted 
by the Joint Archaeological Expedition of the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington, D.C, and Field Museum, to British Honduras. 
The expedition was led by Mr. J. Eric Thompson, Assistant Curator 
of Central and South American Archaeology. Much valuable 
material was collected for addition to the Museum's collections 
relating to the Mayas. The share of the finds assigned to the Belize 
Estate and Produce Company, owners of the land on which the 
excavated ruins are located, was purchased for Field Museum by 
means of a special grant of $300 generously provided by the Carnegie 

The Field Museum Archaeological Expedition to the Southwest, 
financed by the Julius and Augusta N. Rosenwald Fund of the 
Museum, carried on its fourth season of excavations on the Lowry 
ruin, a prehistoric Indian site in Colorado. As in its previous 
operations, the expedition was under the leadership of Dr. Paul S. 
Martin, Assistant Curator of North American Archaeology. The 
expedition brought back to the Museum a large collection of artifacts 
and human remains, and many important discoveries were made 

158 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

regarding the history of the ancient inhabitants of Lowry pueblo. 
Work was expedited by a force of workmen furnished by the 
Montezuma County Emergency Rehef Administration. 

An anthropometric survey of Kurd, Arab, and Beduin populations 
was made by the Field Museum Anthropological Expedition to the 
Near East, sponsored by Mr. Marshall Field. The expedition was 
led by Mr. Henry Field, Assistant Curator of Physical Anthropology, 
who was accompanied by Mr. Richard A. Martin, of Chicago. In 
addition to collecting anthropological data and material, the Near 
East expedition made large collections for the Departments of 
Botany, Zoology, and Geology. 

Paleontological field work was conducted in the Bad Lands of 
South Dakota by Mr. Elmer S. Riggs, Associate Curator of Paleon- 
tology; and in Nebraska and Pennsylvania by Mr. Sharat K. Roy, 
Assistant Curator of Geology. 

The botanical project in Europe, in charge of Mr. J. Francis 
Macbride, Assistant Curator of Taxonomy, was in its fifth year of 
operations. This project, inaugurated jointly in 1929 by Field 
Museum and the Rockefeller Foundation, is still partially supported 
from the funds granted for the purpose by the latter institution. 
As a result of its operations some 28,000 photographic negatives 
of type specimens of plants in European herbaria have now been 
made, and through Field Museum prints of these are available, 
at cost of production, to botanists generally in this country and 
abroad. For the first time since the inception of this project, it 
was interrupted toward the end of the year by the return of Mr. 
Macbride to this country for a vacation of several months. It is 
planned to have him resume work in Europe early in 1935. 

Grateful acknowledgment is hereby made to various contributors 
who have made gifts of funds to the Museum during the year. Among 
these may be mentioned the following: 

Mr. Marshall Field made two gifts totaling $26,140. One gift 
was of $18,640, which was to meet an anticipated deficit of the 
Museum for 1934. The second gift, $7,500, was made to defray 
the expenses of the Field Museum Anthropological Expedition to 
the Near East. 

Mrs. Oscar Straus, of New York, contributed $11,105.47 for 
expenses of the Straus West African Expedition of Field Museum. 

Mrs. James Nelson Raymond, of Chicago, made gifts totaling 
$4,000 toward the operating expenses of the James Nelson and 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 159 

Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public School and Children's 
Lectures, which she founded in 1925, and to the support of which 
she has been contributing annually since that time. 

Mr. Leslie Wheeler, of Lake Forest, Illinois, contributed $500 
to be devoted to the purchase of desirable bird specimens for addition 
to the Museum's collections. 

Mr. Leon Mandel, of Chicago, gave an additional $232.43 for 
expenses of the Leon Mandel Guatemala Expedition of Field Mu- 
seum, which he originally financed for the Museum with a contribu- 
tion in 1933 of $4,351.30. 

Mr. Henry J. Patten, of Chicago, is the donor of a total of 
$500, one-half of which was for addition to the general operating 
funds of the Museum. The balance is to cover the cost of publication, 
in the Survey of Persian Art, of certain drawings, made by Mr. 
Rowland Rathbun, of Sasanian stucco found at Kish by the Field 
Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia. This 
publication will be prepared at Oxford under the editorship of Mr. 
Arthur Upham Pope. 

The American Friends of China, Chicago, contributed $482 for 
the purchase of material for addition to the Museum's Chinese collec- 
tions, and for books on China for addition to the Library. 

From the Rosenwald Family Association the Museum received 
two payments totaling $2,500, representing the interest from October 
1, 1933, to October 1, 1934, on the bequest of the late Mrs. Augusta 
N. Rosenwald. 

The will of the late Mrs. Abby K. Babcock provides a legacy 
of $100,000, subject to the life interest of her husband, Mr. Frederick 
R. Babcock, formerly of Chicago. 

The South Park Commission, and its successor, the Chicago 
Park District, turned over to the Museum $101,226.19, representing 
the institution's share, as authorized by the state legislature, of 
collections made during 1934 under the tax levies for 1932 and 
previous years. 

Friends of the Museum have continued, as in past years, to make 
generous gifts of material for addition to the collections of the various 
Departments. Some of these have already been noted in preceding 
pages in connection with their acquisition by expeditions or their 
installation among the exhibits. Details of the many gifts will 
be found in the departmental sections of this Report under the 
heading Accessions, and in the tabulated List of Accessions which 

160 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

begins on page 238. It is fitting to mention here, however, a few 
of the gifts of outstanding importance: 

Most noteworthy was the gift from Mr. Marshall Field, Trustee 
of the Museum, of the nineteen sculptures by Herbert Haseltine 
of champion domestic animals of Great Britain, which have been 
installed in Hall 12. 

An interesting collection of fourteen Lamaist paintings was 
presented by Messrs. Leon Mandel and Fred L. Mandel, Jr., of 
Chicago, in memory of their deceased mother, Mrs. Blanche R. 
Mandel. Mr. Leon Mandel also presented 5,000 feet of motion 
picture film taken during the Leon Mandel-Field Museum Guate- 
mala Expedition. 

The American Friends of China, Chicago, gave the Museum a 
valuable brush-holder which belonged to the emperor K'ien-lung. It 
is made of Burmese padouk wood, and has inlaid inscriptions and 
designs in ivory, jade, and semi-precious stones. It bears the date 
A.D. 1736. The same society continued its generous contributions 
of books to the Museum Library. 

Mr. William J. Chalmers, of Chicago, presented fifteen specimens 
of placer gold, of historic interest due to their having been mined 
during the great California gold rush of 1849. 

From Mr. Frank Buck the Museum received gifts of a large 
king cobra, an East Indian monitor, and two iguanas. 

An unusual collection of zinc and lead ores having the appearance 
of cave deposits, coming from the Embree Mines of Tennessee, was 
presented by Mr. Seymour Wheeler in the name of his father, the 
late Mr. Charles P. Wheeler, of Chicago. 

From R. Bensabott, Inc., Chicago, there was received a most 
attractive statuette carved in the semi-precious stone called "tiger- 
eye" or crocidolite. 

The bequest of Dr. Berthold Laufer's personal library of more 
than 5,000 volumes, to which reference has already been made, is 
one of the most important Library accessions in years. 

A collection of snakes, lizards, frogs and turtles of Yucatan was 
received from Mr. E. Wyllys Andrews IV, of Chicago, and from Mr. 
H. St. J. Philby, of Mecca, Arabia, came a collection of 1,281 insects. 

From the estate of the late Mr. and Mrs. Edward E. Ayer there 
was received, as a bequest, a collection of eighteen notable examples 
of North American Indian blankets. An excellent example of a 
Chinese mandarin coat was presented by Mrs, Frank S. Johnson, of 
Pasadena, California, daughter of the late Mr, and Mrs. Ayer. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 161 

Mr. Homer E. Sargent, of Pasadena, California, purchased a 
fine Tunisian blanket for addition to the collections of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology. 

As a result of the cordial relations maintained between the 
Chicago Zoological Society and Field Museum, the Department of 
Zoology received a number of specimens of small mammals of 
unusual interest, as well as five snakes and fifteen lizards, chiefly 
Australian species. The similar relationship existing between the 
John G. Shedd Aquarium and this institution brought a number 
of especially desirable fish specimens which were needed to fill 
gaps in the Museum collection. 

Trustee Leslie Wlieeler presented the Museum with its most im- 
portant bird acquisitions of the year. Altogether his gifts amounted 
to 303 specimens, including birds of prey, and a collection of 248 
miscellaneous birds from southwest Africa. 

Dr. A. E. Douglass and Mr. Harry T. Getty, of the University 
of Arizona, presented material consisting of twenty polished cross 
sections of wooden beams from southwestern ruins of various dates, 
and various accessories. These were used in preparing an exhibit 
illustrating the method of dating ruins, known as "tree ring 
chronology," of which Dr. Douglass is the originator. 

From Mr. Allyn D. Warren, of Chicago, an interesting Balinese 
carved wooden figure of the god Vishnu riding on a mythical bird, 
was received. 

Mrs. Rudyerd Boulton, of Chicago, presented a collection of 
twenty-eight west African ethnological objects, principally musical 
instruments of the natives. 

Among distinguished visitors entertained at the Museum during 
the year were His Highness Sultan Ibrahim of Johore, and the 
Sultana; Baron and Baroness Maurice de Rothschild, of Paris; 
Captain H. C. Brocklehurst, former Game Warden of the Sudan, 
and author of books on African animals; Captain Maurice 
Rossi and Lieutenant Paul Codos, French aviators who made a 
trans- Atlantic flight; Sir Henry Wellcome, distinguished scientist. 
Founder and Director of the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum 
in London; His Excellency Mr. Hirosi Saito, Japanese Ambassador 
to the United States; Mr. Shane Leslie, noted Irish author; Mr. 
James Zetek, well-known entomologist of the Canal Zone; and Dr. 
E. P. Phillips, of the National Herbarium, Pretoria, South Africa. 

The American Ornithologists' Union held its fifty-second annual 
meeting in the James Simpson Theatre and the small lecture hall 

162 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

of Field Museum from October 22 to 25. The sessions, which 
comprised both technical and general discussions, were attended by 
nearly 200 leading ornithologists from all parts of the country. This 
was the second time the Union had held such a meeting at Field 
Museum, similar sessions having been held here twelve years pre- 
viously. Members of the staff of Field Museum's Department of 
Zoology presented several important papers. 

The Museum prepared for the visitors a special exhibition in 
Hall 20 of about one hundred original paintings made by the late 
Louis Agassiz Fuertes, noted naturalist and artist, during the course 
of the Field Museum-Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition 
(1926-27). These paintings were received at the Museum several 
years ago as a gift from Mr. C. Suydam Cutting, of New York, 
who was also a member of the Abyssinian expedition. 

As has been the experience in other years, the holding of the 
annual International Live Stock Exposition at the Union Stock 
Yards brought a large additional attendance to Field Museum 
during the period of the exposition, December 1 to 8. Besides the 
many persons from out-of-town who visited the Museum inde- 
pendently, two large groups of children were brought to the Museum 
under the auspices of the Four-H Clubs, an organization promoting 
the interests of young people on farms. There were a group of 540 
girls, and one of 646 boys. They were given special service by the 
guide-lecturers of the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

A party of delegates to the annual convention of the Chicago 
Dental Society spent a morning in the Department of Geology 
studying the metallurgy of metals used in their profession. 

The International Exhibition of Taxidermic Art, sponsored by 

the technical section of the American Association of Museums, had 

.y) its Chicago showing in Hall 20 of Field Museum from April 1 to 15. 

\f This exhibit, consisting of 473 photographs of animal groups, mounts, 

^ sculptures, and material illustrating taxidermic methods, comprised 

P examples of the work of eighty of the world's most highly skilled 

^« taxidermists. The staff of Field Museum was well represented 

among these, the works shown including examples by Staff Taxi- 

Z^. dermists Julius Friesser, C. J. Albrecht, Leon L. Walters, Leon L. 

VS' I Pray, Ashley Hine, Arthur G. Rueckert; Assistant Taxidermists 

■y ^ John W. Moyer and Frank Letl; and Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin. 

vjCf ^ There were received during the year from Miss Malvina Hoffman, 

^ and placed in storage in the Museum, plaster casts of all the sculp- 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 163 

tures of racial types in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall 3). 
These casts are being stored so that they may be available for 
filling any orders which may be received from other institutions, or 
from individuals, for duplicates of any of the sculptures. Some such 
duplicates have already been sold. 

As in 1933, there were loaned to A Century of Progress exposition 
during its 1934 season twelve of the traveling exhibits of the Depart- 
ment of the N. W. Harris Public School Extension, for display in 
the Hall of Science. Likewise, from the Department of Zoology 
there were loaned to the exposition 116 specimens of birds and mam- 
mals, and ten fish models, which were used in the biological section 
of the Hall of Science to illustrate speciation. 

The series of radio broadcasts on the Museum and its activities, 
begun in 1933 at the invitation of WGN, the Chicago Tribune 
station, was continued in the early part of 1934. The Director and 
Departmental heads of the Museum were the speakers. 

The habitat groups of birds in Hall 20 were reproduced as 
illustrations in a book entitled The Bird Kingdom, published by the 
Orthovis Company, of Chicago, as a companion volume to The 
Animal Kingdom, which appeared in 1933 with pictures of many 
of the Museum's mammal groups. In these books the pictures are 
printed by a special process which gives an illusion of three dimen- 
sions when they are viewed through an optical device called the 
"ortho-scope" which accompanies each book. The same publisher 
issued also four smaller books, for children, illustrated with "three- 
dimensional" pictures of Field Museum mammal groups. 

Among books written by members of the Museum staff and 
published outside in 1934 is Homes and Habits of Wild Animals, 
by Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant Curator of Reptiles. This is 
a companion volume to Traveling with the Birds, by Mr. Rudyerd 
Boulton, Assistant Curator of Birds, published late in 1933. Both 
books contain attractive colored illustrations by Walter A. Weber, 
an artist formerly on the staff of the Museum. These books are 
published by M. A. Donohue and Company, Chicago. 

In recognition of the capable and efficient manner in which 
they have administered their respective Departments, the Board 
of Trustees at its meeting held September 17, approved the appoint- 
ment of Acting Curator B. E. Dahlgren as Curator of the Depart- 
ment of Botany, and of Acting Curator Henry W. Nichols as Curator 
of the Department of Geology. These appointments became 
effective on October 1. 

164 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, formerly Assistant Curator of North 
American Archaeology, was appointed Acting Curator of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology^ shortly after the death of Dr. Berthold Laufer, 
Curator. Dr. Martin has been on the staff since 1929, and has 
accomplished much work of importance, both at the Museum and 
in the field as leader of the Field Museum Archaeological Expeditions 
to the Southwest. 

Dr. Charles Baehni, of the Conservatoire Botanique, Geneva, 
Switzerland, arrived in Chicago toward the end of July to begin 
a year of study at Field Museum, under a cooperative arrangement 
between the two institutions, initiated through the courtesy of Dr. 
B. P. G. Hochreutiner, director of the conservatory. 

Under the provisions of the Field Museum Employes' Pension 
Fund, insurance amounting to $6,000 was paid to Mrs. Berthold 
Laufer, widow of the late Dr. Laufer, whose death has been noted 
elsewhere in this Report. 

Mr. Carl Neuberth, former Custodian of the Herbarium who, 
after many years of service, was retired in 1932, and pensioned in 

1933, because of ill health, died during 1934. Under the pro\isions 
of the Field Museum Employes' Pension Fund insurance amounting 
to $4,000 was paid to his widow. Also under the pro^^sions of this 
fund, insurance of $1,500 was paid to the widow of Mr. Joseph 
Zobay, carpenter, who died during the year; and $3,000 insurance 
was paid to the widow of Mr. William C. Webster, pensioned 
member of the maintenance force. 

Mr. Paul C. Standley, Associate Curator of the Herbarium, was 
honored during the year by an invitation from the International 
Botanical Congress to act as Vice-President of the Section for 
Taxonomy and Nomenclature when the Congress meets at 
Amsterdam in September, 1935. 

Beginning in the last month of 1933, and continuing throughout 
1934 on a greatly increased scale. Field Museum has been cooperating 
with the various relief agencies of the state and federal governments 
in providing useful emplojrment for large numbers of the persons 
being assisted by those agencies. As a result, up to the end of 

1934, approximately 350 unemploj-ed men and women have had 
temporary employment for periods of various lengths at this institu- 
tion. As the "work relief" wages are paid by the relief agencies, 
the Museum has, without cost except for materials used in the work, 
derived great benefits from the assignment of these workers. They 
have been useful in practically every Department and Division of 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 165 

the Museum. The tasks to which they have been assigned are 
important ones, but of a character which would have required indefi- 
nite postponement if this additional personnel had not been avail- 
able, because the regular staff of the Museum was fully occupied 
in still more important work. 

The larger part of the relief workers has been assigned to the 
Museum by the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission, and paid 
through that agency. Many others, however, were assigned and 
paid by the Civil Works Service, Civil Works Administration, and 
Public Works of Art Commission, during the periods in which those 
federal government agencies were in operation. When the federal 
agencies were discontinued after the first quarter of 1934, their work 
was taken over by the state commission, which provided the Museum 
with assignees throughout the year. 

The Museum in 1934 had as many as 86 relief workers assigned 
to it during a single period; the lowest number at any one time was 
eight; and the average number through the year was 40. The total 
number of working hours of the assignees to the Museum, in the 
aggregate, was 43,172; the average number of working hours per 
week was 830. 

In the Department of Anthropology the work done by relief 
assignees included the mounting and captioning of some 6,000 
photographs; mounting on linen of more than 800 ancient Peruvian 
fabrics; the washing and numbering of about 9,000 potsherds, and 
the classifying and mounting of 4,000 of them; and a great amount 
of typing, indexing, preparing of catalogue cards, and other clerical 

In the Department of Botany relief workers have made 35,000 
packets for plant specimens; mounted approximately 60,000 herba- 
rium specimens of plants; prepared 35,000 index cards; made several 
thousand leaves in the Plant Reproduction Laboratories; and 
performed a large amount of work on the wood collections, in the 
preparation of dioramas, on drawings and lettering, on records, and 
in tjTDing and clerical work of various kinds. 

The relief workers assigned to the Department of Geology pre- 
pared more than 13,500 catalogue cards on the typewriter; numbered 
1,600 specimens; copied extensive manuscripts; mounted a number 
of fossils; and in the case of some especially qualified workers were 
even able to undertake certain research projects. 

Work done by relief assignees in the Department of Zoology 
comprises the preparation of 15,000 index cards, labels and other 

166 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

typewriting items; the cataloguing of some 4,000 birds; the tagging 
of 8,000 fishes; the cleaning of more than 1,000 large and 3,000 
small and medium-sized skulls; pinning of about 1,200 insects; and 
various routine tasks. 

From two to twelve relief workers have been assigned to the 
Division of Printing where they assisted in the type composition 
and other work on publications, exhibition labels, etc. In the 
Division of Photography relief workers made 12,800 photographic 
prints, and prepared 30,500 catalogue cards. A vast amount of 
typing and clerical work of various kinds was performed by relief 
workers in the Library, the Division of Publications, Division of 
Public Relations, Division of Memberships, and the Raymond 
Foundation. In the Maintenance Division ten relief workers assisted 
the Museum forces in various tasks. 

The Art Research Classes conducted at the Museum in coopera- 
tion with the Art Institute of Chicago were continued on the 
expanded and diversified plans inaugurated in 1933. This was the 
second year in which, in addition to the original class in drawing, 
painting and illustration with an enrollment of some fifteen students, 
there were conducted also a separate training class for art teachers 
with an enrollment of thirty students; and a summer class for 
teachers and others whose employment makes it impossible for them 
to attend the autumn, winter and spring courses, with fourteen 
students. Mr. John Gilbert Wilkins, of the faculty of the School 
of the Art Institute, who has been in charge of these classes since 
1922, states that the students have produced much work of re- 
markably high quality in the various branches of art studied — 
drawing, painting, design and sculpture. The Museum exhibits are 
used as subjects by these students, and the Museum provides a 
classroom with working facilities to aid in their instruction and to 
give them a place for the development of their ideas. Many of the 
graduates, Mr. Wilkins reports, have met with notable success in 
professional art fields, some having attracted nationwide attention 
as creative artists, and others having reached a high pinnacle as 
teachers of art. 

In addition to the classes in art research, which are composed 
of advanced students, the classes of young children inaugurated in 
1932 by the Saturday School of the Art Institute have been continued 
at Field Museum. The enrollment in these in 1934 was 74, and 
included children ranging from fourth grade pupils to those of high 
school age. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 167 

Continuation of measures instituted several years ago to save 
expense connected with electric lighting again resulted in a worth- 
while economy during 1934. 

Maintenance of the building was given proper attention by the 
Superintendent of Maintenance, the Chief Engineer, and the working 
forces under their supervision. As usual, a number of improvements 
were made, of which some of the more important are detailed below : 

To provide for the installation of the series of bronze and marble 
sculptures of British champion domestic animals presented by Mr. 
Marshall Field, it was necessary to remodel Hall 12 on the first 
floor com_pletely. Ten walnut cases with individual illumination 
were built around the room. The floor, both inside and outside 
the cases, and the bases, were covered with rubber tiles of 
"Napoleon gray" color. The walls and illuminating hoods were 
finished in pure white paint, flat finish. The sculptures were installed 
on their original wooden pedestals. Three walnut benches were 
provided in the hall. 

To provide additional space and afford a better arrangement of 
the bird and mammal storage cases in Rooms 76 and 77 on the third 
floor, the corridor walls formerly separating these two rooms were 
removed, and rooms and corridor were combined into a single room 
43 feet wide and 143 feet long, making an area of 6,149 square feet, 
with better light and air. The total area of the two rooms when 
separated by the corridor was 5,005 square feet. The increase in area 
obtained by removal of the corridor is about 23 per cent, and 
results in much larger increase in storage capacity by making pos- 
sible rearrangement of storage cases, and due to the fact that the 
center aisle can now be utilized by the workers both in the Division of 
Mammals and the Division of Birds. Twelve additional steel storage 
cabinets, 68 inches high, with removable center partitions, and 600 
half length trays, were provided for storage of bird specimens. 

At the north entrance to the building a new rack was provided 
for displaying stereoscopes, and stereoscopic photographs of Museum 
exhibits, which were placed on sale. 

In Stanley Field Hall the walls, statuarj^ columns, and arches 
of the colonnades were vacuum cleaned. 

At the east end of Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall 3) two 
new cases were built for exhibits pertaining to physical anthropology. 
In the main part of this hall seven new pedestals were built to provide 
for the installation of additional bronze figures of racial types received 
during the year from the sculptor, Miss Malvina Hoffman. 

168 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

In William V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17), the maintenance division 
provided the ground framework for the new groups of sambar deer, 
swamp deer, proboscis monkeys, and sloth bears, and also for a group 
of snow-leopards not yet completed. The cases containing the first 
four of these groups, and also one containing the Bengal tiger group, 
were glazed and finished. 

In Hall 20 (habitat groups of birds) the case in which the Bering 
Sea bird group has been reinstalled was glazed and finished. Two 
new floor cases with screens were provided for additions to the 
systematic exhibits of birds in Hall 21. In Carl E. Akeley Memorial 
Hall (Hall 22) the case containing the gorilla group was remodeled, 
ground framework was provided for the new aardvark group, and 
the cases containing the aardvark and bongo groups were glazed 
and finished. 

In Hall 32 (ethnology of China and Tibet) thirty cases were 
refitted with a new shade of cloth on their backgrounds, and with 
Upson board floor lining and end panels. The interior fittings of 
49 cases were repainted. A six-by-twelve foot floor case was built 
from salvaged material. The Tibetan temple bell was reinstalled 
on a new frame and placed in a separate case. Eleven Tibetan 
paintings were hung. In the north balcony of the second floor a 
sixteen-foot Chinese screen was installed to replace one which was 
removed and packed for shipping. 

At the entrance to the Hall of the Stone Age of the Old World 
(Hall C) the case containing the new exhibit illustrating the ancestry 
of man was glazed and finished. In the east end of Hall F (Polynesian 
and Micronesian ethnology) a new wall case was provided for the 
installation of a large Marquesan feast bowl. 

For the Division of Photography a washing box, accommodating 
144 negatives, and two ten-drawer card-filing cabinets were made. 

On the fourth floor forty shelves and runners were provided for 
the steel cabinets used for storage of bones. Two five-by-twelve 
foot glass cases were fitted with shelves for storage of leg bones and 
others in frequent use by the taxidermists. In the taxidermy shop 
a zinc-lined box for modeling clay was provided to take the place 
of stone jars formerly used. 

Six corridors and twenty-one rooms on the third floor of the 
west half of the building were repainted, and three rooms were 

A large amount of work was done on the exterior of the windows 
of the building. On the ground floor 101 window sills were scraped, 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 169 

repaired, and repainted. On the first floor 218 were similarly treated. 
On the second floor, in courtways, there were installed 58 new sills 
with water bars bedded in cement, 27 new transoms, 25 new jambs 
the full length of frames, and 33 new jambs of lengths varying from 
one to five feet. One hundred and twenty large upper panes of glass 
were reset in new putty. Ninety-six entire frames were scraped, 
caulked and painted. 

On the roof a great amount of repair work was done, principally 
where seams had sprung. In three places at the east end where ice 
fell and punctured the rubberoid, allowing the insulation to get wet, 
repairs and replacements were made. 

Among the tasks performed by the force under the supervision 
of the Chief Engineer were the following: All lighting fixtures in 
the exhibition halls were washed. Vacuum valves on all radiators 
were cleaned and adjusted. Combustion control apparatus was 
installed on the boilers, increasing the efficiency of the stokers. 
Forty buckets were made for the coal conveyor. The boilers were 
turbined and all brick work was repaired. The work of painting the 
boiler walls and ceiling was begun (aluminum paint is being applied 
to all iron work as a rust preventive). In the new Hall 12, devoted 
to exhibition of sculptures of domestic animals, thirty-eight wall 
lights and nineteen case lights were installed. To provide more 
effective lighting of the systematic bird exhibits in Hall 21 the lights 
were lowered five feet. In William V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17) seven 
cases were equipped for concealed illumination of habitat groups 
of animals, and fourteen label reflectors were installed. 

During the months when heat was required, the Museum con- 
tinued, under its contract with the John G. Shedd Aquarium, to 
furnish steam from its plant to the aquarium. 

In the following pages are detailed reports on the year's activities 
in each of the Departments and Divisions of the Museum: 


expeditions and research 

Three expeditions operated in the interest of the Department 
of Anthropology during 1934. One of these, jointly sponsored by 
Field Museum and the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C., 
and led by Assistant Curator J. Eric Thompson, continued excava- 
tions at the Maya ruins of San Jos6 initiated by the Third Marshall 
Field Archaeological Expedition to British Honduras (1931). San 

170 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Jos^ is in the western part of British Honduras, near the Guatemalan 
frontier. The 1931 excavations revealed pottery of a non-Maya 
ceramic tradition, but yielded no information as to its position in a 
definite ceramic sequence. The principal object of the 1934 Field 
Museum-Carnegie Institution Joint Archaeological Expedition was 
to unearth additional information that would definitely establish 
this sequence, and perhaps shed light on the vexed question of the 
correlation of the Maya calendar with the Gregorian. 

So far as the ceramic sequence is concerned, the objective was 
attained, for the non-Maya pottery was found to occur during the 
latest ceramic period. However, time has not yet been available 
for an intensive study of the sherds to determine what light may 
thereby be thrown on the correlation question. Preliminary 
investigations of the sherds collected would indicate five periods. 

Among more spectacular finds was a unique ax, nearly ten inches 
long, the head and haft of which were chipped from a single block of 
obsidian. Associated with it was verdigris, all that remained of the 
first metal objects ever found under archaeological conditions in 
the southern Maya region. Both ax and copper remains had been 
deposited, apparently, during the last ceramic period. This period 
was also richest in trade pieces. 

The few stone buildings at San Jos^ had been erected in a late 
period. Exterior sides of walls were faced with well-cut stone blocks, 
whereas interior sides were covered with irregular blocks haphazardly 
placed, the rough surfaces hidden by liberal coatings of plaster. 

Many burials were uncovered, and in almost every case the 
skeleton was found lying on its side, in a flexed position, with head 
toward the south. 

A new site, known locally as Mun Diego, was discovered south- 
west of San Jos^ about four miles, as the crow flies, although the 
circuitous route that had to be followed by the expedition was nearly 
eleven miles long. Mun Diego, a somewhat larger site than San 
Jos^, is equipped with a ball court, and around the various mounds 
several plain stelae were found. Unusually large is the city's great 
plaza, flanked on all four sides by mounds. There are also three 
small sunken courts. 

The expedition remained in the field from February to May. 
The share of the finds assigned to the Belize Estate and Produce 
Company, owners of the land on which the ruins are situated, was 
purchased for Field Museum by means of a special grant of $300 
generously provided by the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 171 

The Fourth Field Museum Archaeological Expedition to the 
Southwest, under the leadership of Assistant Curator Paul S. Martin 
(who has since become Acting Curator of the Department) con- 
tinued for fourteen weeks its archaeological investigations on the 
Lowry ruin in southwestern Colorado, about thirty-two miles north- 
west of Cortez, Montezuma County. As in the previous three years, 
the expedition was financed from the income of a fund donated by 
the late Julius and Augusta N. Rosenwald. The ruin was explored 
under a permit granted by the United States Department of the 

The excavations were greatly expedited through the aid given 
by the Montezuma County Emergency Relief Administration, which \ V 

furnished six to ten men for a period of nine weeks. Special thanks ^ AV^ 

are due to Mrs. Alice Van Diest, Director of Colorado State Relief, 
and to Mr. Harry E. Kauffman, Administrator of the Montezuma 
County Emergency Relief Administration, and his associates, for 
their helpful cooperation. 

With the force thus furnished, certain large excavations which 
had been deferred in previous years, were undertaken. The first 
digging was at the south end of the pueblo. It soon became apparent 
that this section was built late, and belongs to the period called 
"Mesa Verde," designating a culture characterized by a certain kind 
of masonry, by small, low-ceilinged rooms, and by a polished pottery 
decorated with vegetable paint in designs typical of the Mesa Verde 

In this late addition eleven living rooms and one small kiva 
were excavated. The latter had been at one time a rectangular 
living room which later was converted into a crude ceremonial 
chamber, three sides of which were straight, and the fourth, curved. 
Then, in order to simulate a subterranean structure, an extra wall 
had been built about two feet from the south side, and the space 
thereby created was filled with earth. 

A large refuse heap underlay the floors and the walls of the late 
rooms and extended beyond the outer walls for some thirty feet. 
In this were found fourteen burials, four of them under walls. This 
cemetery is the first and only one positively belonging to Lowry 
pueblo proper. Burials unearthed by the expedition in other years 
lay 500 feet or more from the main building and very likely belonged 
to near-by remains of small, crude, early houses. 

Most of the summer was spent in excavating the Great Kiva, 
which lies approximately 300 feet east of the pueblo. When the 

172 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

work was completed it was found that this large ceremonial structure 
was in some respects different from other Great Kivas which have 
been excavated. This kiva is forty-eight feet in diameter, has a 
stairway on the north side only, and is furnished with one low 
bench. A crude fire-pit, dug into the floor, is situated between the 
two south pillars. The kiva contains no sipapu; that is, the small 
hole usually found in the floor, through which spirits were believed 
to enter and through which priests talked to them. 

The roof pillars are of masonry, and stand thirty inches above 
the floor. All are the same height, and are level, smooth, and well 
finished on top; therefore, it seems evident that they never were 
built higher. Probably large upright poles stood on these pillar 
bases. Three pairs of niches were found in the outer wall, one above 
the other, on east, south, and west sides. A single niche was located 
in the northwest quadrant, making a total of seven. All were un- 
sealed and empty. 

A number of small beam (?) holes (from one to two inches in 
diameter) were discovered in the outside kiva wall. These were at 
varying heights, from eight to thirty inches above the banquette. 
In each, burned or rotten ends of poles were found. Their function 
is unknown. The vaults were crudely constructed, with earthen 
floors and some masonry. 

Two extensive secondary sections of masonry were found: one 
surrounding the two pillars and vault on the east side, and a similar 
one on the west. The purpose of these is unknown. The kiva 
floor, on east and west sides, is slightly higher than in the center, 
and the supplementary masonry may have served as a retaining 
wall for east and west platforms. 

The arrangement of peripheral chambers at Lowry differs from 
that found in Great Kivas in New Mexico at Aztec and at Pueblo 
Bonito in Chaco Canyon, for instead of being surrounded by small 
rooms, there are only three peripheral chambers possessing masonry 
walls. A large alcove-chamber containing a fire-pit was discovered 
on the north side of the Great Kiva. The floor of this room is 
about eight feet above the kiva floor. Into this room the north door 
and stairway lead. Two more peripheral chambers were found, one 
on the east side and one on the west. These are built with low, 
fragile masonry walls and are smaller than the north alcove. 

It was surprising to find no continuous band of peripheral 
chambers surrounding this Great Kiva. To be certain that no 
mistake had been made, trenches were cut across the outer kiva rim. 

Field Museum of Natural History- 

Reports, Vol. X, Plate XV 


George T. and Frances Gaylord Smith Hall (Hall 24j 

This screen was placed behind the throne in the Peking Palace 
of the Manchu dynasty, K'ien-lung period (1736-95) 

Presented by The Arts Club of Chicago 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 173 

Had there been any masonry walls there, they would have been 
discovered; however, none were located. 

But large pieces of charcoal were found in these trenches. Their 
presence suggested the possibility that a pole-and-brush structure 
had stood on the same level as the peripheral chambers. Therefore 
the trenches were widened, and the dirt banked up on the side 
of the extra-kiva rooms was removed. The expected evidence was 
found, and it now seems safe to say that the north, east, and west 
(and perhaps south, if it exists) peripheral chambers were joined 
by a series of rooms of jacal or pole-and-brush construction. 

A closer inspection of the north, east, and west chambers was 
made, and it was observed that the masonry walls were crudely built. 
In fact, in many places large slabs took the place of coursed masonry. 
Also, the walls of these chambers were fragile. Because of this, 
they probably never were carried very high. Moreover, pestholes 
were found in the corners. It was then concluded that the walls had 
been built with masonry bases and wattle-and-daub upper portions. 

Heretofore, a block of four rooms in the center of the pueblo 
has been regarded as a nucleus of early Chaco construction. Investi- 
gations this season indicated that there was an earlier, more typical 
Chaco section. This is composed of walls of typical Chaco-like slab 
masonry, but, unfortunately, later dwellers tore out many walls and 
so modified this section that it is impossible to reconstruct the size 
or shape of the early building. The "Mesa Verde" people ingeniously 
bonded many of their walls to the Chaco ones in a manner that 
makes it often impossible to tell exactly where Chaco wall ends and 
Mesa Verde begins. 

With the help and guidance of Mr. Lawrence Roys, a structural 
engineer of Moline, Illinois, who has studied Maya construction, an 
intense survey and analysis of masonry was begun. Heretofore, 
archaeologists have called certain walls "Mesa Verde" or "Chaco," 
but no criterion has existed for identifying many hybrid types. It 
is not certain that masonry can be classified so accurately as pottery, 
but some generalizations may be worked out. 

The Museum gratefully acknowledges the assistance rendered 
the expedition by Mr. Robert Burgh, cartographer of the United 
States National Park Service, who, at his own expense, surveyed 
and mapped Lowry ruin and the surrounding area; by Dr. Pierce 
Butler, of the University of Chicago, who lent his surveying instru- 
ments; and by Mr. Roys, who spent a month in making a detailed 
analysis of pueblo masonry. 

174 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

The Field Museum Anthropological Expedition to the Near East, 
1934, sponsored by Trustee Marshall Field, began work in Iraq on 
April 2. Assistant Curator Henry Field, leader, was accompanied 
by Mr. Richard A. Martin, who was in charge of photography and 
zoological collecting. The expedition continued the somatological 
study of peoples of the Near East, begun by Mr. Field in 1925, 
and also collected ethnological, zoological, botanical, and geological 

The anthropological work included measuring and photographing 
representative series of important racial elements of the Iraq popula- 
tion. During four months approximately 2,500 individuals were 
observed anthropometrically. These included 300 Marsh Arabs, 
750 Kurds, 475 Shammar Beduins, 250 Assyrians, 175 Dulaim, 150 
Jews, 100 Mandaeans, 300 Yezidis, 50 Sleyb, and 80 Turcomans. 
Forty standard observations and measurements were taken on each 
individual. Frontal and profile photographs, and hair and blood 
samples were obtained wherever possible. Dr. Carl Rassam, of 
the Royal Hospital, Bagdad, contributed records of his measurements 
on 500 men, women, and children. 

Miss Winifred Smeaton, of Ann Arbor, Michigan, accompanied 
the expedition on its work in Iraq, joining the party at Bagdad about 
the middle of April and returning to Bagdad about July 15. Her 
work was the study of the women of each group. Her results 
should prove of scientific im.portance, as statistics on women have 
not been available from this area. 

In Iraq several specialists collected data for the expedition. 
Mrs. E. M. Drower, of Bagdad, made ethnological and linguistic 
studies of the Marsh Arabs; Mrs. Donald Clawson, of Beirut, made 
a special study of the teeth of the Kurds and Shammar Beduins; 
Dr. Walter P. Kennedy, of the Royal College of Medicine, Bagdad, 
collected blood samples; Mr. Albert Meymourian, entomologist of 
the Rustam Agricultural Experimental Farm, collected insects in 
the Amara marshes; Mr. S. Y. Showket, of Basra, acted as inter- 
preter and general assistant; Mr. Khedoory Muallim, whose services 
were lent by the Royal Hospital, Bagdad, collected birds in the 
Amara marshes; Mr. Yusuf Lazar, of Bagdad, collected plants in 
Iraq and Persia. 

The expedition received unusual cooperation from Iraq officials, 
as well as from many private individuals. Outstanding among the 
many persons who rendered valuable assistance are the Prime 
Minister, Ali Jaudet Beg; the Minister of the Interior, Sir Kinahan 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 175 

Comwallis; Mr. C. Grice, of the Ministry of the Interior; Major 
W. C. F. Wilson, adviser to the Iraq government at Mosul; the 
Air Vice-Marshal; the American Minister, Mr. Paul S. Knabenshue; 
Squadron Leader A. R. M. Rickards, of the Royal Air Force; Dr. 
Walter P. Kennedy, of the Royal College of Medicine, Bagdad; 
Dr. T. H. McLeod, of the Royal Hospital, Mosul; and the Mutte- 
sarifs of the Mosul, Kirkuk, Erbil, and Amara Liwas. 

Through the courtesy of Professor James H. Breasted, Dr. H. 
Frankfort, director of the Oriental Institute Expeditions of the 
University of Chicago, very kindly lent the expedition a motor- 
wagon for general use in Iraq; and Mr. Gabriel Malek also gave 
generous assistance to the expedition. 

A search was made for archaeological sites in the North Arabian 
desert, lying in Iraq, Transjordania and Syria. Flint implements 
collected on the surface prove the former existence of paleolithic 
and neolithic man in that region. The Iraq Petroleum Company 
invited the members of the expedition to use their pipe-line stations 
and cooperated in every possible way. 

In Kurdistan flint implements of upper paleolithic types were 
found in the gorges of Zakho, Aqra, Rowandiz, and Sulaimaniya, 
thus welding together a chain of evidence which proves that ancient 
man once roamed the territory between Kurdistan and the 

Kish was visited in order to ship to Chicago the antiquities left 
there by Mr. Louis Charles Watelin, late field director of the Field 
Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia. The 
objects, contained in twenty-one cases, included many fine specimens 
belonging to the Sumerian, Babylonian, and Sasanian periods. 
There was also a series of human skulls. 

At the end of July, Messrs. Field and Martin, accompanied by 
Dr. Walter P. Kennedy and Mr. Yusuf Lazar, proceeded to Persia. 
The members of the expedition were guests of Dr. and Mrs. Erich 
Schmidt for four weeks at Rayy, near Teheran, during work in that 
vicinity. At Isfahan Mr. and Mrs. Myron B. Smith cooperated 
with the expedition, and accompanied it to Persepolis, where Pro- 
fessor Ernst Herzfeld, field director of the Oriental Institute Expedi- 
tion to Persia, cordially received the party. Anthropometric data 
were obtained on 50 Persians in the village of Kinareh, near Perse- 
polis; 100 Jews in Isfahan; 50 Persians in Yezd-i-Khast; and 35 
Persians at Rayy. Zoological, botanical, and geological specimens 
were also collected. Cordial cooperation was received from the Prime 

176 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Minister, the Minister of the Interior, the Chief of Police, the Governor 
of Isfahan, and the American Minister, Mr. William S. Hornibrook. 
On September 14, Messrs. Field and Martin entered the Union 
of Soviet Socialistic Republics at Baku on the Caspian Sea. At the 
request of the United States Department of State and Ambassador 
William C. Bullitt, the Soviet officials allowed free entry into the 
Soviet Union for all the expedition equipment. Traveling was 
greatly facilitated by VOKS (the Society for Cultural Relations 
with Foreign Countries) and Intourist (the Soviet travel organi- 
zation), whose representatives rendered every possible assistance. 
In Baku the Academy of Sciences, the University of Azerbaijan, 
and the Neft Geological Museum were visited. The collections of 
the Georgian Museum in Tiflis were studied. With the assistance of 
VOKS fifty male Yezidis were measured in the Kurd Club. These 
observations will form valuable comparative material with the data 
obtained on the two groups of Yezidis studied in northern Iraq. 
Ordzhonikidze was reached by automobile over the Georgian Military 
Highway. The peoples of northern Ossetia in the Caucasus have 
been little studied from the standpoint of physical anthropology. 
Through the assistance of Mr. T. Demurow, local chairman of 
Northern Ossetian Education, anthropometric observations, measure- 
ments, and photographs of 100 men and 50 women were compiled. 
In addition, a staff of medical assistants was provided by the Soviet 
government to obtain specimens of blood, hair samples, weight, pulse, 
temperature, and hand pressure of these individuals. The 150 blood 
samples were sent to Dr. Walter P. Kennedy, Royal Hospital, 
Bagdad, for study. 

Messrs. Field and Martin visited the various academies of 
science, museums, universities, and libraries in Rostov-on-Don, 
Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, and Leningrad. During the five weeks 
spent in the Soviet Union they were able to study many museum 
collections, visit sixty-eight institutions of various kinds, and meet 
the leading Soviet anthropologists and archaeologists. Plans for 
exchanging scientific material and publications were discussed. 

Mr. Field returned to the Museum in December, preceded by 
Mr. Martin, who came back in November. 

Classifying the data and photographs of the expedition has 
already begun, and the zoological, botanical, and geological speci- 
mens have been distributed to the various Departments. 

News of the death of Mr. Louis Charles Watelin, late field director 
of the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Kish, 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 177 

was received at the Museum with regret. Mr. WateHn died in 
July while on his way to Easter Island to examine newly discovered 
inscriptions. His death deprives Near Eastern archaeology of one 
of its foremost figures, and the Museum of a loyal friend and valuable 
scientific collaborator. Mr. Watelin had worked at Susa with de 
Morgan. His discoveries at Kish have thrown a flood of light on 
the ancient history of Mesopotamia. 

The Ovimbundu of Angola by Assistant Curator Wilfrid D. 
Hambly was published in July. This report covers a portion of the 
research of the Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Expedition to 
Africa, 1929-30. The manuscript of Mr. Hambly's report on the 
same expedition's work in Nigeria is now completed. 

Fourteen signed and thirty-three unsigned articles and brief 
items were contributed by the staff of the Department to Field 
Museum News during the year. The staff also supplied material 
for forty-four newspaper publicity stories during the same period. 

accessions — ANTHROPOLOGY 

The number of accessions recorded during the year is forty-two. 
Of these, thirty are gifts, five result from expeditions, two are 
purchases, and five were obtained by exchange. The total number 
of objects received in these accessions is 17,538. 

The American Friends of China, Chicago, presented an imperial 
brush-holder made of Burmese padouk wood, with inlaid inscrip- 
tions and designs in ivory, jade, and semi-precious stones. This 
belonged to the Emperor K'ien-lung and is dated a.d. 1736. 

From the National Museum of Copenhagen, Denmark, there 
were acquired 170 archaeological and ethnological objects of southern 
and eastern Greenland. These are localities from which the Museum 
heretofore possessed but scanty material. The collection comprises 
fur and skin garments, bone and stone tools, fishing accessories, 
and toys. This material is especially valuable because it is now 
difficult to obtain such specimens from that region. In exchange 
for it, Field Museum sent ten archaeological objects from France, 
and eight from Mexico, and thirty-six ethnological objects from the 
Northwest Coast of America. 

The collections made by Assistant Curator J. Eric Thompson, 
as leader of the Field Museum-Carnegie Institution Joint Archaeo- 
logical Expedition to British Honduras, contain 6,199 archaeological 
objects gathered at the site of San Jos^ in the northern part of the 
Cayo district of British Honduras. This large and important 
collection consists of pottery vessels, pottery whistles and figurines, 

178 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

potsherds, stone knives and spearheads, jade ornaments, two mirrors, 
one pearl, and a monohthic ax of obsidian. 

The Fourth Field Museum Archaeological Expedition to the 
Southwest, under the leadership of Assistant Curator Paul S. Martin, 
obtained more than 3,600 archaeological objects from the Lowry 
ruin, near Ackmen, Colorado. This collection comprises pottery, 
potsherds, human skeletons, arrowheads, bone awls, and butts of 
roof beams, from which it is hoped dates may be obtained. One 
hundred and twenty-eight negatives were exposed. 

Some of the roof logs obtained from Lowry ruin in 1932 and 
1933 were sent for examination and possible dating to Dr. Emil 
W. Haury, Assistant Director, Gila Pueblo museum. Globe, Arizona. 
Dr. Haury assigned approximate cutting dates of A. D. 950 to two 
roof logs, and exact cutting dates of a.d. 1106 to two others. 
The figure a.d. 950 is only approximate because the outer rings 
from the logs in question are missing. Other roof beams were 
forwarded for study to Mr. W. S. Stallings, Jr., Dendrologist, 
Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe, New Mexico, who reports 
that he has ascertained seven dates. Five of these were obtained 
from roof beams of one room and indicate that these logs were 
cut in A.D. 1090. Two other logs which served as door lintels are 
dated a.d. 1103. 

Grateful acknowledgment is hereby made to Dr. Haury and Mr. 
Stallings for dating these log samples from Lowry ruin; and to 
Mr. Harold S. Gladwin, Director of Gila Pueblo museum, and Mr. 
Jesse L. Nusbaum, Director of the Laboratory of Anthropology, for 
placing the facilities of their respective institutions at the disposal 
of Field Museum. 

The Field Museum Near East Expedition, 1934, sponsored by 
Trustee Marshall Field, and led by Assistant Curator Henry Field, 
brought back for the Department of Anthropology anthropometric 
data on 2,500 individuals; 5,000 photographs of racial types; 300 
specimens of blood; 300 teeth smears; 800 hair samples; 500 flint 
implements of paleolithic and neolithic types from the North Arabian 
desert, Kurdistan, and Persia; Himyaritic inscriptions on ten basalt 
blocks from Transjordania; and two fragments of twelfth century 
Mohammedan vessels with unusual decorations. For other Depart- 
ments this expedition collected 1,000 animals preserved in formalin, 
750 insects, 40 birds and mammals, and 1,500 plants. 

By exchange with Gila Pueblo museum. Globe, Arizona, Field 
Museum acquired thirty pieces of pottery from various ruins in New 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 179 

Mexico and Arizona. This collection is especially valuable because 
it contains southwestern types which the Museum lacked. Note- 
worthy are seven pottery bowls from the Mimbres valley, a locality 
in New Mexico in which realistic art reached a high development. 
Likewise of interest are four pottery dishes from southern Arizona, 
the region in which flourished the famed Hohokam culture. In 
return for this material. Field Museum sent seventeen South 
American archaeological objects. 

The Museum's South Pacific collections were enriched by a 
valuable gift from Mr. Templeton Crocker, of San Francisco, of 
835 ethnographical objects, nine phonograph records, and 325 
photographs. This was the more welcome as the major portion 
consisted of representative collections from the little-known islands 
of Anuda, Rennell, and Bellona, previously unrepresented in the 
Museum. There were also many objects from other islands, including 
a large, finely carved Marquesan bowl, ornamented mats from Puka 
Puka, and various objects from Samoa, Sikaiaiia, the eastern Solo- 
mons, and the Santa Cruz group. 

Through an exchange with the Mexican National Museum of 
Archaeology, History and Ethnography it was possible to fill a 
number of gaps in the Museum's collections from Mexico. The 
most spectacular object thus acquired was a model of the very 
ornate Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl at San Juan Teotihuacan, Mexico. 
This, like the previously acquired models of a palace at Mitla and 
a pyramid at Uaxactun, is valuable in illustrating the architectural 
achievements of the aboriginal civilizations in Latin America. The 
new model measures more than six feet in length. 

Among other objects acquired through this exchange were three 
fine funerary urns decorated with large seated deities in relief, 
belonging to the Zapotecan culture of Oaxaca, Mexico; a representa- 
tive collection of Zapotecan pottery figurines; and several Maya 
pottery figurines from the island of Jaina, off the coast of Mexico. 
To the Mexican museum there were sent from Field Museum, in 
this exchange, seventeen archaeological objects of the southwestern 
United States, 104 European archaeological objects, and fifty-four 
from South America. 

An important gift was received from Mr. Harry T. Getty and 
Dr. A. E. Douglass, both of the University of Arizona, at Tucson. 
This collection consists of twenty polished cross sections of wooden 
beams from various dated Southwestern ruins; a tubular borer, such 
as is used by dendrologists in obtaining small wood samples from 

180 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

timbers still in situ; eleven photographs, and four charts. Some 
of the cross sections were presented jointly by Dr. Douglass and 
the National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C. This acquisi- 
tion made possible an exhibit explaining the method used to obtain 
dates for prehistoric buildings in the Southwest. 

In memory of their mother, Mrs. Blanche R. Mandel, Messrs. 
Fred L. Mandel, Jr., and Leon Mandel, of Chicago, presented 
fourteen choice Lamaist paintings dating from the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. 

Miss Grace Brewster Cross, of Chicago, gave the Museum five 
valuable specimens from Hawaii: two headbands, one of feathers 
and one of shell; two strings of seed beads; and one string of crabs'- 

From Mr. T. Ito, of Chicago, the Museum received a Japanese 
reproduction (1807) of a series of Chinese wood-engravings illus- 
trating agriculture and sericulture, in exchange for a Chinese painting 
on glass. 

In exchange for a lapis-lazuli cylinder seal from Kish, Mr. 
Fahim Kouchakji, of New York, sent the Museum a most beautiful 
and rare Syrian glass pitcher of the fourth century a.d. It is 
hexagonal in shape, and the glass is an opaque blue-black. 

From Mr. Hubert Beddoes, of Chicago, the Museum received 
a gift of a very valuable folio album containing 134 large and most 
unusual photographs taken during the years from 1873 to 1876 in 
China, Japan, and Java. 

Eleven more sculptures in bronze, the work of Miss Malvina 
Hoffman, were received, and installed in Chauncey Keep Memorial 
Hall (Hall of the Races of Mankind). 

From the estate of the late Edward E. Ayer, Benefactor, former 
Trustee, and first President of the Museum, and the late Mrs. Ayer, 
eighteen Navaho blankets were received. 

Professor Rowland Rathbun, of Chicago, presented the Museum 
with twenty-three of his carefully sketched and valuable drawings 
of Sasanian stucco-work taken from the frescoes of fifth century 
A.D. Sasanian buildings. 

Two large aerial photographs of the Hopewell Mounds, Ohio, 
were presented by Captain Dache M. Reeves, of the United States 
Air Corps at Dayton, Ohio. These mounds were excavated in 1891- 
92 and the valuable archaeological material was later acquired by 
Field Museum. It is interesting to have an aerial view of mounds 
which were investigated some forty years ago. 

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Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 181 

Mrs. Frank S. Johnson, of Pasadena, California, daughter of the 
late Edward E. Ayer, presented a beautiful mandarin coat from China. 

An interesting figure of the god Vishnu riding on the mythical 
bird Garuda was given by Mr. Allyn D. Warren, of Chicago. This 
gift shows the fine wood-carving art of the modern Balinese. 

From the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to 
Mesopotamia twenty-one cases of Sumerian, Babylonian, and 
Sasanian objects excavated at Kish, Iraq, were received. 

The African ethnological collections have been enriched by the 
addition of twenty-eight west African objects which are the gift 
of Mrs. Rudyerd Boulton, of Chicago. The objects are of particular 
value because they form a unit representing the musical skill of 
west African Negroes. Instruments of percussion, wind instruments, 
and those played by strings are all represented. A human figure, 
carved in wood, from Dahomey, is of especial value because such 
objects, associated with religious beliefs and practices, are difficult 
to obtain. 

cataloguing, inventorying, and labeling — ANTHROPOLOGY 

Of the forty-two accessions received during the year, thirty have 
been entered. Seven accessions of previous years have also been 

Cataloguing has been continued as usual, the number of catalogue 
cards prepared during the year totaling 4,032. The total number of 
catalogue cards entered from the opening of the first inventory 
volume is 211,407. 

The catalogue cards prepared are distributed as follows: archae- 
ology and ethnology of North America, 1,771; archaeology and 
ethnology of Central and South America, 750; archaeology and eth- 
nology of China, Tibet, and Japan, 126; ethnology of Africa, 24; 
ethnology of Melanesia, 858; ethnology of India, 489; ethnology of 
the Near East, 2; ethnology of Polynesia, 5; ethnology of Australia, 
1; ethnology of Dutch East Indies, 1; ethnology of Europe, 1; 
physical anthropology, 4. Most of these cards have been entered 
in the inventory volumes, which number fifty-seven. 

A total of 9,117 labels for use in exhibition cases was supplied 
by the Division of Printing. These labels are distributed among the 
collections as follows: Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall, 682; Indians 
of California, 18; Southwestern United States, 72; Central America, 
762; South America, 1,477; China and Tibet, 3,485; Melanesia, 
464; Hall of the Stone Age of the Old World, 6; Africa, 2,016; Malay 

182 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Archipelago, 102; and 33 hall labels. The Division of Printing also sup- 
plied 75 case numbers, 1,140 catalogue cards, and 5,500 index cards. 

The number of photographs mounted in albums is 1,026. Five 
new albums were opened. To the label file 1,289 cards were added. 

Assistant Curator Albert B. Lewis is preparing an index of material 
which is on exhibition in Joseph N. Field Hall (Hall A). 

Assistant Curator "Wilfrid D. Hambly devoted much time to 
classifying photographs secured by Miss Malvina Hoffman while 
fulfilling her commission to sculpture representative types of races. 

installations and rearrangements — ANTHROPOLOGY 

The department has continued its work of installing new collec- 
tions and of modernizing the older exhibits. Many old-style black 
labels have been replaced with shorter, more interesting statements 
printed on buff cards in black type. Ninety-seven cases were in- 
stalled during the year. 

In Stanley Field Hall a case of attractive scarfs such as are 
worn by all castes of Hindu women; a case of Peruvian textiles; and 
a case of rare and decorative lacquered wooden vessels from Peru 
have been placed on exhibition. 

During the year, eleven more sculptures in bronze, the work of 
Miss Malvina Hoffman, have been added to Chauncey Keep 
Memorial Hall (Hall 3). These additions comprise heads or busts 
of a Berber, an Alpine Austrian, a Zulu woman, a Turk, a Toda, 
a Pueblo woman, a Jicarilla Apache, a Carib, a Korean, a Bontoc 
Igorot, and a life-size figure of a Navaho. 

Assistant Curator Henry Field installed, also in Chauncey Keep 
Hall, seven cases of exhibits in physical anthropology. These show 
physical characters of various races; differences in hair forms; types 
of deformation and tattooing practised by various peoples; trepan- 
ning as practised by primitive peoples, and endocranial casts of 
various races and mammals; casts of hands and feet of different 
races; skeletons of anthropoid apes and man (for comparative 
purposes); and skeletons of the principal human races. The ten 
skeletons used were prepared by Assistant Curator Edmond N. 
Gueret, osteologist in the Department of Zoology. 

An exhibit illustrating the Douglass method of dating prehistoric 
buildings of the Southwest by means of a tree-ring chronology was 
installed in Hall 7 by Assistant Curator Martin. This exhibit is of 
particular interest to many people because it shows how the tree- 
ring calendar was built up and how an ancient wooden roof beam is 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 183 

actually dated. The specimens and photographs used in this installa- 
tion were prepared by Mr. Harry T. Getty, and were jointly pre- 
sented by Mr. Getty and Dr. A. E. Douglass, both of the University 
of Arizona, Tucson. 

The reorganization of Halls 8 and 9 was continued during the 
year under the direction of Assistant Curator Thompson. Twelve 
cases of archaeological and ethnological material were placed on 
exhibition. Many of the objects, including pottery, textiles, and 
stone-work, had never before been displayed. Included is a case in 
Hall 8 of archaeological material obtained from the San Jos6 ruin 
in British Honduras, by the Field Museum-Carnegie Institution 
Joint Expedition, 1934. 

Reinstallation of Hall 32, devoted to the ethnology of China 
and Tibet, proceeded with remarkable celerity. Forty-four cases 
were installed. These comprise sacred objects from a Lama temple, 
armor and weapons, women's costumes, masks used in Tibetan 
mystery plays, utensils and food, musical instruments, basketry, 
images, wood-carvings, and a temple bell from Tibet; and theatrical 
costumes, baskets, textiles, palace curtains, imperial costumes, 
Manchu dresses, armor, rugs, embroidery, printing and writing 
materials, tableware, musical instruments, and jewelry from China. 
At the north end of the hall, a group of nine painted, wooden panels 
showing the genealogy of the Pan-Chen lamas, and two portraits 
in oil, have been hung. 

During the greater part of the year the work in Hall 32 was car- 
ried on under the personal supervision of Dr. Berthold Laufer, Curator 
of Anthropology. Since his death in September, the installation of 
this hall has been ably continued by Assistant Curator Thompson, in 
accordance with plans and notes which Dr. Laufer had prepared. 

The passing of Dr. Laufer was a severe blow to his associates in 
the Department, of which he had been Curator since 1915, and in 
which he had worked in other capacities since 1907. While his 
scholarship achieved its summit in his researches in the realm of 
Oriental subjects, his brilliant mind encompassed vast knowledge 
of all branches of anthropology, and his keen, helpful suggestions 
were always appreciated by the younger men working with him. 
His staff held him in highest esteem and respect for the genius he 
displayed in his science, and beyond that, there was a strong bond 
of affection between him and his assistants. 

In Joseph N. Field Hall (Hall A) twelve cases were reinstalled 
(some new objects being added), and two cases of entirely new 

184 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

material were installed. This completes the rearrangement of the 
hall. One new case contains a representative collection from Rennell 
and Bellona Islands, including arrows and spears with sharp slender 
points of human bone, finely carved clubs, baskets, bags, mats, 
pillows, clothing, ornaments of various kinds, and some remarkable 
heavy wooden shark hooks. The other new case contains material 
from the Santa Cruz group, including the outlying island of Anuda. 
Of special interest are tortoise-shell ornaments and a loom on which 
ornamented bags and mats were woven. 

In some of the reinstalled cases is shown material from the 
Admiralty Islands, including coiled baskets and oil vessels, finely 
carved wooden bowls, ornamented wooden beds, and large signal 
drums. Other reinstalled cases contain New Guinea material such 
as carved figures representing human beings, masks, ornamented 
canoe prows, and drums, beautifully decorated earthen bowls and 
pots, ornamented wooden bowls, a house ladder, carved wooden 
pillows, a drying box, and various other household objects. 

An exhibit called The Ancestry of Man was installed at the 
entrance to the Hall of the Stone Age of the Old World (Hall C) 
by Mr. Bryan Patterson, Assistant in Paleontology. This exhibit, 
based on data obtained from Dr. W. K. Gregory, of the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, is designed to show the 
relation of mankind to other primates, and particularly the inter-rela- 
tionships of the various living and extinct races of the human family. 

Seventeen newly installed cases of African ethnological material 
have been placed in Halls D and E. Most of the objects shown in 
these were collected by Assistant Curator Wilfrid D. Hambly, as 
leader of the Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological 
Expedition to West Africa (1929-30). Hall D now contains objects 
from west and central Africa only. The collection from Cameroon 
still occupies most of the north side of the hall, and several cases 
displaying leather goods, weaving, pottery, and metal work have 
been added. On the south side of Hall D, four cases showing weapons 
and raffia weaving from the Congo region, and six cases illustrating 
the arts, handicrafts, occupations, and magical rites of the tribes of 
Angola (Portuguese West Africa) have been installed. 

Near the middle of Hall E, two cases of material from the Kabyles 
and Tuareg of north Africa have been placed on exhibition. Blankets 
and clothing woven by Kabyle women are the gift of Mr. Homer E. 
Sargent, of Pasadena, California. The Kabyle jewelry was presented 
by Miss Barbara Neff, of Chicago. Several musical instruments of 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 185 

a north African type were the gift of Mr. H. G. Moore, of Peoria, 
Illinois. The west end of Hall E is now occupied by cases of material 
from south and northeast Africa, including Somaliland. Many 
of the exhibits from Somaliland and Kenya were collected by 
the late Carl E. Akeley about thirty years ago. Bushman material, 
including some exceptionally fine necklaces and girdles of ostrich 
eggshell beads (collected by Mr. Arthur S. Vernay, of New 
York, while leading the Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition of 1930) 
have been installed. 

In alcove Al two cases showing wood-carving and basketry from 
Nigeria have been installed. Reorganization of Halls D and E and 
Alcove Al was directed by Assistant Curator Hambly. 

Plans for Hall K (Japan, Korea, Siberia, and India) are being 
prepared. Assistant Curator Lewis has started sorting the East 
Indian material in storage, and two cases of Singhalese masks have 
been installed and await placement in the hall. 

Much work, which could not ordinarily have been done because 
of lack of time by the regular Department staff, has been accom- 
plished by workers assigned by the Illinois Emergency Relief Com- 
mission. These men and women have mounted and labeled some 
6,000 photographs; made important subject indexes; typed 2,500 
index and catalogue cards; washed and catalogued 9,000 potsherds, 
and mounted 4,000 of them; repaired and mounted 800 Peruvian 
textiles on linen; typed many pages of field notes; and performed 
general clerical work with neatness and dispatch. From one to 
eleven relief workers have served in the Department for periods of 
varying length during the greater part of the year. 



The Department of Botany conducted no expeditions during 
1934. However, Assistant Curator J. Francis Macbride continued his 
work in Europe, described in the Reports of 1929 to 1933 inclusive, 
of photographing type specimens of tropical American plants pre- 
served in European herbaria. This project is still supported in part 
by a balance of funds furnished some years ago by the Rockefeller 
Foundation. About 2,000 new negatives were made and forwarded 
to the Museum, making the total now on file more than 28,000, 
representing almost as many plants, principally South American 

186 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

The work in 1934 was conducted in the DeCandolle and Delessert 
herbaria of the Conservatory and Botanic Garden of Geneva. These 
well-known collections are so rich in type material that it was not 
possible during the year to complete the photography of their types. 
Mr, Macbride was aided most courteously by the director of the 
Geneva institution, Dr. B. P. Georges Hochreutiner, who provided 
every facility for successful prosecution of the task. Mr. Macbride 
returned to the United States on vacation in September, but is 
expected to sail for Europe early in 1935 to resume the work. 

As additions to the Herbarium of prints of type specimens have 
continued, their great value for purposes of study and determination 
has become constantly more apparent. That they are invaluable 
for critical work upon the classification of tropical American plants 
is evident to all systematic botanists, many of whom have had occa- 
sion to study them. Prints from the type negatives are made 
available by Field Museum to botanists generally in the United 
States and other countries at the mere cost of production. During 
1934 two American institutions purchased 1,609 prints from these 

Partly as a result of this work. Dr. Charles Baehni, of the Botanic 
Garden of Geneva, came to Chicago in August, 1934, to spend 
approximately a year at Field Museum. His visit, at the invitation 
of the Museum, will enable this institution to make some definite 
return for the valuable material received in exchange from the 
Geneva herbaria, and for the many courtesies extended by Dr. 
Hochreutiner. Dr. Baehni is engaged in study of the Museum's 
herbarium material of certain groups of plants in which he is 

From the Field Museum An Uii-opological Expedition to the Near 
East, 1934, led by Assistant Curator Henry Field of the Department 
of Anthropology, there was received a collection of approximately 
8,500 herbarium specimens of plants. These were obtained chiefly 
in Persia and Iraq. As these regions were previously almost without 
representation in the Museum Herbarium, this material will be 
exceptionally useful. Included are many duplicate specimens to 
be used for exchange purposes. 

Throughout the year the Herbarium has been in constant use 
by members of the staff of the Department of Botany. It has been 
consulted also by a large number of visiting students from various 
parts of the United States and from several foreign countries. The 
Herbarium of Field Museum is the largest one west of the city of 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 187 

Washington, D.C., and it is consulted especially by botanists of the 
numerous large universities within a few hundred miles of Chicago. 

The preparation and determination of the extensive plant collec- 
tions received during the year have fully occupied the time of the 
Herbarium staff. Through the employment during the year of a 
number of workers furnished by the Illinois Emergency Relief 
Commission, and, in the early months, of federal Civil Works Service 
assignees, it was possible to perform a large amount of clerical and 
other work that otherwise could not have been undertaken. Most 
important, it has been possible to mount and add to the Herbarium 
more than 60,000 sheets of specimens, an exceptionally high number 
in a single year for any herbarium in the world. Many collections 
of plants that had remained for years in storage were mounted during 
1934, and it is expected that if similar assistance is continued, it 
will be possible to add to the Herbarium during the coming year 
all the stored collections, some of them of great scientific value. 

There were submitted to the Herbarium for study and determina- 
tion 190 lots of plants, comprising 13,285 specimens. Of these, 64 
lots, consisting of 4,354 specimens, were named and returned to 
the senders, while 126 lots, amounting to 8,931 specimens, were 
retained by the Museum. In addition, there were determined, but 
not preserved for the collections, many plants from the Chicago 
region and elsewhere, brought to the Museum by visitors, teachers, 
and students, or forwarded by mail. Also, there were answered 
many inquiries by mail and telephone, requiring diverse information 
upon botanical subjects. 

Through the courtesy of the Department of Botany of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, Assistant Curator Llewelyn Williams was afforded 
special facilities for the study of the woods of the family Caryo- 
caraceae. This is a small group of tropical trees native in Central 
and South America, upon which he is engaged in research. 

Associate Curator Paul C. Standley published eleven papers 
based more or less directlj?^ upon the Herbarium collections, several 
of them, dealing with American trees, in Tropical Woods. His most 
important publication consisted of 142 pages of descriptions of 
Rubiaceae, published in North American Flora, in continuation of 
former parts of the flora treating of the same family. He prepared 
also a leaflet. Common Weeds, issued by Field Museum as No. 17 
of the Botanical Series of Leaflets. Assistant Curator J. Francis 
Macbride published in Candollea, issued by the Conservatory and 
Botanic Garden of Geneva, a paper of 57 pages devoted chiefly 

188 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol, X 

to descriptions of new Peruvian plants, principally those obtained 
by the various Marshall Field Expeditions to Peru. 

A guide book to the collection of North American trees exhibited 
in Charles F. Millspaugh Hall (Hall 26), was issued during the year. 
This publication was prepared by Professor Samuel J. Record, 
the Museum's Research Associate in Wood Technology, and Pro- 
fessor of Forest Products at Yale University School of Forestry. 
The text covers the same ground as the descriptive labels written 
by Professor Record for the woods displayed in this hall. Each 
of the eighty-four species included is described concisely as to 
appearance of the tree, botanical characters, geographic distribution, 
and characteristics and uses of its wood. Apart from its reference 
to the Museum's collection, this booklet, entitled North American 
Trees, with its numerous illustrations, constitutes a useful and 
instructive guide serviceable to all interested in our native trees 
and their woods. 

Members of the Department staff prepared for Tropical Woods 
many abstracts and reviews of current literature relating to tropical 
trees and shrubs, and contributed twelve signed articles and twenty 
other items to Field Museum News. Twenty-four newspaper articles 
resulted from data supplied by the Department. 


During 1934 the Department of Botany received 226 accessions, 
consisting of 34,714 specimens. Thus, while the number of accessions 
is slightly smaller, the number of specimens is substantially larger 
than in 1933. The accessions comprised specimens for the Her- 
barium, for the exhibits, and for the wood and economic collections. 
Of the total number 6,655 were gifts, 8,132 were received through 
exchange, 14,858 were derived from Museum expeditions, 1,676 
were purchased, and the rest obtained from miscellaneous sources. 

Of the Department's total receipts of 34,714 specimens, those 
for the Herbarium amounted to 33,756 items — plant specimens, 
photographic prints, and negatives. The Herbarium has received 
an unusually large amount of particularly valuable material through 
gifts and exchanges. Among these may be selected for special 
mention 140 specimens of tropical American Rubiaceae, received 
in exchange from the Conservatory and Botanic Garden of Geneva, 
through the courtesy of the director. Dr. B. P. Georges Hochreutiner. 
These consisted chiefly of duplicate types or otherwise authentic 
material of historical importance. Another valuable sending, like- 
wise in exchange, consisted of 270 specimens from the Botanic 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. X, Plate XVII 


Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) 

Part of a fruiting branch of a Brazilian tree, reproduced from nature in Plant Reproduction 
Laboratories, Department of Botany of the Museum 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 189 

Garden of Madrid. The majority of these were Peruvian plants, 
collected by Ruiz and Pavon, the famous Spanish botanists who 
were the first collectors in Peru, about 150 years ago. Most of the 
specimens represent species named by those authors. The remainder 
of the Madrid sending consists of plants obtained almost as long 
ago in Colombia by the famous botanist Mutis. 

Among important gifts of herbarium specimens during 1934 
may be mentioned the following: 2,702 plants of New Mexico, 
presented by the collector. Rev. Brother G. Arsene, of Santa Fe, 
New Mexico; 88 sheets of plants of the Mississippi Valley, given 
by Mr. Hermann C. Benke, of Chicago; 178 specimens from Bolivia, 
presented by Professor Martin Cardenas of Potosi, Bolivia, who 
has been engaged in making collections in the military zones of the 
Chaco region; 348 Colombian plants, presented by Rev. Brother 
Elias, of Barranquilla, Colombia; 68 Yucatan plants, from Dr. 
Roman S. Flores of Progreso, Mexico, who accompanied his material 
with vernacular names and notes that greatly enhance their scien- 
tific value; 366 plants from Brazil and Amazonian Peru, collected 
by Mrs. Ynes Mexia, of San Francisco; 223 specimens from the 
State of Sinaloa, Mexico, presented by Mr. Jesus G. Ortega, of 
Mazatlan, Mexico; 160 Mexican plants presented by the veteran 
collector, Dr. C. A. Purpus, of Zacuapan, Veracruz, Mexico; 250 
specimens of rare plants of British Honduras, many of them new 
species, collected by Mr. William A. Schipp, of Stann Creek, British 
Honduras; 411 specimens, chiefly Compositae from the Hawaiian 
Islands, presented by Dr. Earl E. Sherff, of Chicago; 344 plants 
from Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone, contributed by Mr. James 
Zetek, of Balboa, Canal Zone; and an exceptionally valuable lot 
of 568 plants, chiefly trees of South America, presented by the 
School of Forestry of Yale University, through the courtesy of 
Professor Samuel J. Record. 

Many of the most desirable contributions have been acquired 
in return for determination of the specimens. Especially noteworthy 
is a lot of 1,385 plants of Guatemala, British Honduras, and Mexico, 
sent for determination by Professor H. H. Bartlett, of the Depart- 
ment of Botany of the University of Michigan. Most of these were 
collected by Mr. C. L. Lundell, and they form a highly important 
addition to the Museum's already large representation of the flora 
of the Yucatan Peninsula. 

Besides the collections specifically mentioned above, the Museum 
received through gifts and exchange much other valuable herbarium 

190 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

material from tropical America, the United States, Asia, and other 
regions of the earth. Details will be found in the List of Accessions 
for the year (p. 238 of this Report). 

While under existing financial conditions it has not been possible 
for the Museum to purchase many of the desirable series of tropical 
plants offered, there were purchased 1,675 specimens, chiefly from 
Brazil and Peru. 

From the previously mentioned negatives of type specimens of 
tropical American plants m.ade in European herbaria by Assistant 
Curator Macbride, there were added to the Herbarium about 3,400 
prints, most of which represent species not previously available for 

Of economic plant material, including woods, there were received 
in 1934 from scientific and commercial institutions, expeditions, and 
from individuals, as gifts or in exchange, 1,001 specimens. A few 
of these accessions deserve special mention. An extensive collec- 
tion of the economic plant products of Persia, Syria, and Iraq were 
gathered by the Field Museum Anthropological Expedition to the 
Near East. 

A small collection of rare vegetable waxes was received as a gift 
from S. C. Johnson and Son, Inc., of Racine, Wisconsin. Included 
are sugar cane wax, tea wax, coffee wax, rose, orange blossom, and 
mimosa wax. These will form an interesting addition to the exhibit 
of waxes of vegetable origin displayed in Hall 28. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. T. H. Kearney and Mr. C. J. King, 
of the United States Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D.C., 
the Museum received two fine specimens of cotton plants typical 
of upland and lowland cotton grown at the United States Field 
Station at Sacaton, Arizona. 

To the collections of domestic and foreign woods there were 
added 325 numbers. Some of these were accessioned for exhibition 
purposes, but the majority are to augment the reference collection. 

In continuation of contributions made in previous years, Yale 
University School of Forestry, through the courtesy of Professor 
Samuel J. Record, contributed 131 specimens of woods, mostly from 
Central and South America. Through the cooperation of the same 
institution the Museum received 105 samples of woods collected in 
Canton and Hainan Islands by Professor F. A. McClure, of the 
Department of Biology-, Lingnan University, Canton, South China. 

From the Forest Economist, Forest Research Institute, Dehra 
Dun, India, there was received a set of hand samples, comprising 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 191 

thirty species, collected in northern India. Professor Walter W. 
Tupper, of the Department of Botany, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, furnished several microscopic slides of tropical 
woods for study purposes. 

For the exhibit of osage orange installed in Charles F. Millspaugh 
Hall (Hall 26) Mr. Hermann C. Benke, of Chicago, donated several 
negatives and prints of the tree in summer and winter condition; 
the Von Platen-Fox Company, of Iron Mountain, Michigan, 
furnished a board of tamarack; and Mr. 0. G. Moore of Brownsboro, 
Alabama, donated a sample of chittam wood. For use in conjunction 
with the exhibits of American woods the Museum obtained, through 
the efforts of Professor Emanuel Fritz, of the University of California 
at Berkeley, California, cone-bearing branches of several Pacific 
Coast species, viz. redwood, incense cedar, western red cedar, Port 
Orford cedar and Monterey cypress. 

Through the generosity of Mr. W. E. Bletsch, of Highland Park, 
an Associate Member of the Museum, the services of several men 
were furnished for cutting a large number of North American woods 
into hand specimens of a size suitable for distribution among scientific 
institutions and forestry schools. These woods were not needed for 
exhibition purposes, and had been kept in storage for a number of 

The Department distributed through exchanges 1,038 herbarium 
specimens and photographs to fifteen institutions and individuals 
in North and South America, Europe, India, and Australia. Thirty- 
six lots of plants were lent for study to various institutions, and 
sixty-four lots were received on loan, for study or determination. 

cataloguing, inventorying, and labeling — botany 

During 1934 the permanent study collections of the Herbarium 
have been increased by 61,379 sheets of plants and photographs, 
besides several thousand sheets bearing original printed or type- 
written descriptions of new species, or other published matter useful 
for study purposes. The total number of mounted specimens now 
in the Herbarium is 735,237. During the year there were removed 
from the Herbarium 47 duplicate specimens. 

The collections of woods and economic plant material were 
increased by 1,001 items. 

With the assistance obtained from the workers furnished by the 
Illinois Emergency Relief Commission and the federal Civil Works 
Service, much of the reference and duplicate economic material, 

192 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

including woods, was overhauled, and rearranged for more orderly 
and economical storage. Typewritten labels were provided for 
thousands of such specimens placed in storage, as well as for the 
material accessioned. About 9,000 cards for the index files were 
also prepared for the economic reference collections. The albums 
of photographs which constitute the Department's key to the 
botanical subjects in the Museum collection of negatives, were 
brought up to date with numerous additions, and many of the old 
volumes were reclassified and indexed. 

From the Division of Printing the Department received a large 
quantity of buff labels for new exhibits, as well as for replacement 
of a large proportion of the black labels which are being eliminated 
as rapidly as possible from the exhibition halls. 

In continuation of the index of new species of American plants 
there were added to the Museum's file 4,914 cards received from 
the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University. 

installations and rearrangements — botany 
Various additions were made to the exhibits in the Hall of Plant 
Life (Hall 29) during the year. One resulted from the receipt of a 
fine Heliconia from Mexico, obtained near Veracruz by the well- 
known botanical collector, Dr. C. A. Purpus, and subsequently 
grown in the conservatory at Garfield Park. At maturity it was 
sent by Mr. August Koch, chief florist of the conservatory, to the 
Museum for determination. It proved to be a new, undescribed, 
exceptionally handsome species of this tropical genus, which con- 
stitutes the American branch of the otherwise Old World banana 
family. In honor of the capable horticulturist under whose direction 
Garfield Park Conservatory has become one of the finest institutions 
of its kind in the United States, the new plant was named Heliconia 
Kochiana. A reproduction of the plant was prepared for the exhibits 
and placed in the case devoted to the banana family near the north 
end of Hall 29, while the dried remains of the original have been 
placed with the numerous other type specimens of tropical American 
plants in the Herbarium. 

A branch of the jujube tree, an Asiatic buckthorn which produces 
one of the important fruits of northern India and China, was received 
through the courtesy of Professor Guy L. Philp, of the University 
of California at Davis, California. Reproduced for the exhibits, 
this fruiting branch illustrates the botanical characters of the 
family to which it belongs, and serves as an example of a notable 
Old World fruit tree which, despite its having been in cultivation 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 193 

for thousands of years over an area extending from China and India 
to the south of Europe, still remains almost unknown in the United 
States. It has been installed together with other material of the 
buckthorn family, which thus becomes represented for the first time 
in the Hall of Plant Life. 

To the exhibit devoted to the soapberry family has been added 
a reproduction of the Amazonian guarana plant, a luxurious tropical 
vine cultivated in a few localities for its small scarlet, chestnut-like 
fruits. These, or rather their shiny black seeds, are the source of 
the stimulating beverage known to the Amazon Indians as guarana, 
now extensively used in the manufacture of a carbonated kola-like 
beverage. The material for this interesting item was obtained by 
the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition to the Amazon in 1929, 
as was that for another addition made to the exhibits this year — 
a fruiting branch of lucuma, reproduced for the exhibits and installed 
with the sapote family to which it belongs. 

The jaboticaba, another fruit, tropical to semitropieal in range, 
but of a very different character, is represented in another new 
exhibit added to the case devoted to the myrtle family. It comes 
from southeastern Brazil. Grape-like in appearance, spherical and 
somewhat larger in size than large Concord grapes, this fruit grows 
abundantly, in small clusters of half a dozen or less, directly from 
the bark of the trunk and branches. The jaboticaba has a tough 
skin and one or more large seeds, but its juicy pulp of wine-like 
flavor makes it one of the most popular of fruits wherever it is known. 

Among minor additions to the exhibits in the same hall are a 
number of reproductions of fruits secured in Para in 1929 by the 
expedition mentioned above. These include several types of sapo- 
dillas; taperiba, or golden-apple; the famous Brazilian mango, 
"manga rosa" of Pernambuco; and the handsome cubiu of the 
Amazon which obviously is related to the tomato, and combines 
in its shape and coloring features suggestive also of a huge Japanese 

Various other exhibits for the Hall of Plant Life are under way, 
one of which, a reproduction of an acanthus plant, will be of partic- 
ular interest when completed. 

In Hall 25 some important additions were made to the exhibit 
of food plants. In conjunction with the coffee and tea exhibits, 
two further cases have been given to a display of beverage plants. 
One is devoted to a display of the botanical features of coffee, mat^, 
cassine tea, kola, guarana and cacao. A branch of an Arabian coffee 

194 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

tree, which formerly was a part of the exhibit of Rubiaceae in Hall 29, 
has been transferred to this new case together with the model of the 
enlarged flower and sections of the fruit. A small flowering and 
fruiting branch of the Liberian lowland coffee tree has been repro- 
duced for this exhibit, together with a branch of mat^ {yerba mate 
or Paraguay tea) from the region of the Paraguay River and adjoining 
parts of southern Brazil and northern Argentina. There is also 
included, from the southeastern United States, a branch of cassina, 
one of several shrubs of the holly famil}^ known to the North American 
Indians as a beverage plant, though never in such general use among 
them as was the Paraguayan holly among the southern aborigines 
of South America. A cluster of the fruit of guarana is shown with 
the seeds which furnish the beverage, as in the case of the African 
kola. Cacao is represented by pods of various species and varieties, 
together with the seeds or "beans." The only very important 
beverage plant lacking in this display is tea, and to supply this 
deficiency a reproduction of an entire teabush is to be provided. 

The case given to the second group of beverages includes a wide 
range of fermented drinks with a relatively low alcohol content, and 
also the more potent fermented liquors of diverse origin. Among 
the most primitive of fermented beverages shown are palm wine, 
made from the rapidly fermenting sap obtained by tapping the 
trunk or the cut stem of an unopened flower cluster of various palms 
of the Old World tropics; and Mexican pulque, similarly obtained 
by tapping the flower stem of a large century plant. Wines obtained 
by the fermentation of the juice of a large variety of fruits, chief 
of which is of course the grape, seem almost natural and simple 
plant products compared with the "piwarri" made by the South 
American Indians by fermentation of the masticated tubers of 
cassava, the "awa" of the South Sea Islanders from the macerated 
roots and stems of a pepper plant, or the "chicha" of the Peruvian 
Andes from macerated plantains. The more common as well as a 
few unusual distilled liquors occupy one-half of this case. With 
each is shown the respective plant material from which it is prepared. 
Specimens for this exhibit were contributed by several individuals, 
and firms. Among them may be especially mentioned Mr. W. T. 
Pope, of Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station at Honolulu, 
Hawaii; Mr. D. J. Steinheimer, of St. Louis, Missouri; Messrs. 
I. Lenard, Robert Yule, and John Mangelsen, of Chicago; Lionel 
Distilled Products, Inc., Atlas Brewing Company, and Paramount 
Liquor Company, Chicago. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 195 

In the coffee exhibit several samples which had been on display 
for many years were replaced by new specimens of the exchange 
standards of Brazilian and Colombian coffee furnished by the New 
York Coffee and Sugar Exchange. 

Further additions were made to the North American trees in 
Charles F. Millspaugh Hall (Hall 26). At the northwest end of the 
hall there was installed an exhibit, occupying one entire case, of sugar 
pine. The material used for this installation was obtained through 
the cooperation of Professor Emanuel Fritz, of the University of 
California at Berkeley, and was in part contributed by him personally. 
Other new exhibits completed are of ponderosa pine, the gift of 
Edward Hines Lumber Company, Chicago; of southern white cedar, 
material for which was furnished by the Richmond Cedar Works, 
Richmond, Virginia; and of Osage orange. 

An attractive addition to the foreign woods in Hall 27 is a group 
of seven boards representing important timbers of the Republic of 
Honduras, a gift from the United Fruit Company of Boston. Of 
the large collection of Japanese woods, which have been on exhibition 
for several years, one case was refinished and reinstalled. 

To the plant raw materials and products in Hall 28 there was 
added a case displaying specimens of the principal species of rubber 
obtained from widely separated regions of the world. These are 
arranged in two groups: one showing the steps in the production 
of smoked and vulcanized sheets from latex of the Para rubber trees; 
the other including samples of various other species, mostly of lesser 
commercial importance, or of more restricted industrial application, 
such as hule or guayule rubber from Mexico, balata from Peru, 
Ceara rubber from northeastern Brazil, Accra or African rubber, 
gutta-percha and Jelutong rubber from Malaya, Assam rubber, and 
finally a Colorado rubber plant as a representative of the various 
North American species which yield latex containing rubber. 

expeditions and research 

Collecting for the Department of Geology in 1934 was limited to 
short expeditions by members of the staff, which were conducted 
without appropriation by the Museum for expenses. 

Associate Curator Elmer S. Riggs spent sixteen days in Nebraska 
and South Dakota collecting vertebrate fossils and examining 
prospects for future collecting. He also made two short trips 
within Illinois for the same purpose. Mr. Phil C. Orr spent a day 

196 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

and a half in Kentucky collecting cave material. Assistant Curator 
Sharat K. Roy spent five weeks in the field at Peru, Nebraska, and 
near Lancaster, Pennsylvania. He carefully avoided collecting 
material which would duplicate any already in the Museum and 
collected only specimens to fill gaps in the present collections. 
Eighty-two specimens were gathered: twenty-one from the Penn- 
sylvanian of Nebraska, and sixty-one trilobites from the Lower 
Cambrian of Pennsylvania. Three of the specimens from Nebraska 
represent a hitherto unknown crustacean. The Cambrian collection 
from Pennsylvania has not yet been worked over but it is known 
to include several perfectly preserved trilobites. 

Studies and descriptions of specimens collected by the Marshall 
Field Paleontological Expeditions to South America were continued 
through the year by Associate Curator Riggs and Assistant Bryan 
Patterson. Some of the results were incorporated in a memoir on 
a new marsupial sabertooth by Messrs. Riggs and Patterson, which 
was published in the Transactions of the American Philosophical 
Society. Other results appeared in four octavo papers written by 
Mr. Patterson and published by the Museum. 

Assistant Curator Roy wrote a memorial of the late Dr. Oliver 
Cummings Farrington, former Curator, with a complete bibliog- 
raphy, which was published in the Proceedings of the Geological 
Society of America. He also prepared or worked on the preparation 
of five other papers during the year. Three of these. New Silurian 
Phyllopodous Crustaceans, A Silurian Conularia with Internal Septa, 
and The Grinnel Glacier, are to be published by the Museum early 
in 1935. Mr. Roy has also continued work on his Geology and 
Paleontology of Southeastern Bafinland. 

Research by Assistant Curator Roy intended to refute or confirm 
the reported discovery of living bacteria in stony meteorites by Dr. 
Charles B. Lipman of the University of Southern California, was 
continued through the year and is now nearly finished. Unforeseen 
delay in completing this work was caused by difficulty in verifying 
the sterilization of the external surface of the meteorites. A peculiar 
precipitate which simulated bacterial growth appeared on the 
surfaces. This growth is now known to be a chemical precipitate 
derived from a mineral peculiar to meteorites, so that the work is 
now nearing completion. As usual, thin and polished sections of 
fossils for identification and research were made in the laboratory. 

Miss Elizabeth Oliver, volunteer assistant in paleobotany, began 
the identification and classification of the collection of fossil leaves 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. X, Plate XVIII 


Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) 

Reproduced in Plant Reproduction Laboratories, Department of Botany of the Museum, 

from material collected in South America by the Stanley Field 

Guiana Expedition, 1926 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 197 

of Mesozoic Age. This is a collection of approximately a thousand 
excellently preserved specimens obtained at different times from 
several sources. The best part of it, recently collected by Assistant 
Patterson, has never been named, and for much of the older material 
identification is doubtful or absent. 

Dr. Alfred Walcott, working in the Department under a special 
arrangement, began a detailed study of a peculiar deposit of diamond 
in a hard matrix of lazulite and cyanite on specimens collected by 
Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, Curator of Botany, in Brazil. This is an 
important research as it may throw some light on the puzzling 
question of the origin of the diamond. 

During an extended leave of absence Assistant Patterson made 
studies of vertebrate fossils in the British Museum of Natural 
History and the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London 
for comparison with specimens now being studied in the Department. 

Tests and analyses required for identifications of minerals, alloys, 
and glazes were conducted in the chemical laboratory as usual. In 
addition many such identifications were made by Dr. Walcott by 
microscopic and optical methods. Possible solvents for matter 
which was clogging the downspouts from the Museum roof were 
investigated and a suitable solvent found. There was carried on 
in the laboratory an investigation of a proposed degreasing method 
for use in the preparation of zoological specimens. The alcohol 
used to preserve specimens of fish and reptiles had become muddy 
and much discolored so that it was no longer suitable for use. An 
elaborate study was made of possible methods of purifying the 
alcohol enough to allow its continued use. The result of the investi- 
gation showed that the only practical means was redistillation. A 
still of six gallons' capacity was installed in the laboratory and has 
been in constant operation since July. As the odor of the alcohol 
which has been for years in contact with dead fish and reptiles was 
exceedingly offensive, equipment was devised which traps this odor 
and conducts it out of the building. The product of the still is a 
clear, colorless liquid entirely suited for its intended use although 
not sufficiently pure for many other purposes. Towards the close 
of the year the laboratory, except for the still, was entirely dismantled 
for repainting, but it is expected that it will again be in use by the 
beginning of 1935. 

Recording a collection of culture and Oriental pearls, received 
from Japan, in such a way that the individual pearls could be surely 
identified if they should become separated from their labels, presented 

198 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

something of a problem, as it is impossible to paint identifying 
numbers on them without destroying their value. The problem was 
solved by carefully measuring each pearl and weighing it on the 
chemical balance, so that if the pearls ever became mixed they could 
be sorted out by re-measuring and re-weighing. 

Members of the Department staff contributed eleven signed 
articles and twenty-seven other notes to Field Museum News; and 
supplied data used in thirty newspaper publicity articles. Requests 
from correspondents and visitors for information and identification 
of specimens came in larger numbers than usual. There were 443 
visitors and 296 correspondents referred to the Department for these 
and similar services. 

accessions — geology 

During the year the Department of Geology received seventy 
accessions comprising 1,458 specimens. Of this number 1,178 were 
gifts, 105 were received through exchanges, six were purchased, and 
169 came from Museum expeditions or were collected by members 
of the staff. Specimens received by gift included many above 
average in quality and value. 

The most important gift of the year was a collection of culture 
and Oriental pearls presented by Mr. Kokichi Mikimoto, of Tokyo, 
Japan. This consists of thirteen culture pearls artificially propagated 
in pearl oysters and selected to show a range in color and size. For 
comparison the culture pearls are accompanied by six natural Oriental 
pearls. Included in the gift is a partially dissected pearl oyster, and 
several pearl oyster shells with brilliant mother-of-pearl interior 

An important and attractive addition to the collection of orna- 
mental minerals is a statuette, nine inches high, presented by R. 
Bensabott, Inc., of Chicago. This figure of a man in Japanese 
costume is carved from a block of crocidolite, or tiger-eye, a mineral 
noted for its brilliancy and the glowing golden silky sheen of its 
polished surface. 

Gifts of ores and minerals exhibited at A Century of Progress 
exposition were received from four of the exhibitors. The largest 
of these was a collection of thirty-two ores and industrial minerals 
of Alaska presented by the Alaska Museum, of Juneau. These 
specimens, representing a widely diversified range of mineral resources 
in the territory, are a valued addition to the economic collections 
as Alaska had been represented mostly by gold and tin ores. The 
Luray Caverns Corporation presented two large stalactites and three 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 199 

stalagmite formations from the Luray Cave, in Virginia. The 
specimens were accompanied by six large colored transparencies 
which adequately represent the peculiar and beautiful scenerj^ of 
the caverns. 

The United States Potash Company, New York, selected from 
its exhibit at A Century of Progress and presented to the Museum 
two large blocks of the potash salts from its mine near Carlsbad, New 
Mexico. This important newly found deposit which extends over 
parts of Texas and New Mexico had hitherto been represented only 
by a few small specimens. As the deposit, which resembles the 
celebrated deposit at Stassfurt, Germany, is of a kind not hitherto 
exploited in this country-, its adequate representation in the collec- 
tions is important. The Missouri Commission to A Centurj^ of 
Progress presented good examples of the curious blossom rock found 
in Missouri, and some iron ores. 

The large collection of ores of the state of Washington presented 
last year by the Northwest Mining Association, which was loaned 
back to the association for exhibition during the second season of 
A Century of Progress, was returned and is now included in the 
economic collections. 

Many visitors to A Century of Progress brought material from 
home to be identified, and they presented many of the specimens 
which proved to be good museum material. Some visitors presented 
specimens to improve the showing from their home towns, and 
exchanges were arranged with other visitors. 

Mr. William J. Chalmers, of Chicago, presented fifteen specimens 
of gold ore and nuggets which are of historical interest because they 
were collected during the gold rush to California in 1849. Mr. 
Franklin G. Mcintosh, of Beverly Hills, California, presented a 
large, well-crystallized colemanite from Nevada and seven Cali- 
fornia minerals. 

A large block of wood opal from a petrified forest in Oregon, the 
gift of Messrs. Robert Sloane and A. R. Renner, of Klamath Falls, 
Oregon, is a striking addition to the opal section of the mineral 
collection. Although this specimen, which weighs fifty pounds, 
lacks the fire of precious opal, the wide range of colors it displays 
and its soft luster make it a most attractive product of the fossiliza- 
tion of wood. Four wood opal specimens of a different kind, presented 
by Mr. Thomas A. Carney, of Portland, Oregon, display some 
features of unusual interest. Another example of fossil wood and 
five fossils were presented by Mr. L. W. Buker, of Provo, South 

200 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Dakota. Another wood opal from Texas, and a smaragdite, were 
obtained from Mr. C. S. Brock, of Houston, Texas, in exchange for 
wood opal from another locality. 

A specimen of the unusual agate of Datil, New Mexico, was 
given by Mr. Edward M. Brigham, of Battle Creek, Michigan, and 
a good group of the Arkansas rock crystals was presented by Mr. 
J. A. Bauer, of Hot Springs, Arkansas. 

Mr. Frank Von Drasek, of Cicero, Illinois, added to his gifts 
of previous years a collection of thirty-three minerals from Hot 
Springs, Arkansas. Mr. William Gardner, of Chicago, presented a 
collection of twenty-seven m.inerals and forty-five fossils from various 
localities, which contains much material of interest. 

Twenty-seven choice minerals were added to the Museum 
collections in Hall 34 through two exchanges with mineral collectors. 
Twenty-one of these came from Mr. E. Mitchell Gunnell, of Gales- 
burg, Illinois, in return for fourteen minerals from the Museum, and 
six from Mr. Fred Pough, of St. Louis, Missouri, were received 
in exchange for eight from the Museum. 

Twelve specimens were added to the meteorite collection by 
exchange. Specimens of six falls not hitherto represented were 
obtained from Professor H. H. Nininger, of Denver, Colorado, in 
return for ten meteorite specimens from the Museum. Better 
representation of meteorites from the craters of South Australia and 
of the great Hoba Farm meteorite were secured from the Kyancutta 
Museum, of South Australia, which received in exchange four 
meteorite specimens. 

Additions by gift and exchange to the collections in Clarence 
Buckingham Hall (Hall 35) illustrating structural and dynamical 
geology were greater in value but fewer in number than usual. The 
two accessions of most importance were the collection of cave prod- 
ucts of the Luray Cavern already mentioned, and a collection 
of Hawaiian lavas. These lavas and volcanic products, which will 
effect a great improvement in the appearance and interest of the 
exhibits, were obtained from Mr. Edward Brigham, of Battle Creek, 
Michigan, as an exchange for a small selection of minerals. They 
form a large collection, unusually well selected, representing all 
phases of the lavas of the Hawaiian Islands, including such features 
as peculiar lava surfaces, lava stalactites, and the fibrous Pele's hair. 

The claystone collection was enlarged by a gift from Mr. Charles 
Marriott, of Sault Ste Marie, Michigan, of forty-eight claystones 
selected for their imitative shapes. Miss Virginia Lee, of Ableman, 

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Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 201 

Wisconsin, presented a collection of fulgurites from Wisconsin. From 
Mr. J. 0. Shead, of Norman, Oklahoma, was received a gift of nine 
of the curious barite roses found in his state. Mrs. T. R. Jones, of 
Ashland, Nebraska, presented examples of dendrite tracings on 
novaculite, and Mr. John A. Manley, of New Brunswick, New 
Jersey, presented two limonite geodes of an unusual kind. 

The most important addition to the economic collections was a 
series of thirty-seven specimens from an unusual lead and zinc 
deposit of Embreeville, Tennessee, the gift of Mr. Seymour Wheeler 
to be credited to his father, the late Mr. Charles P. Wheeler, of 
Chicago, who discovered and developed the deposit. These specimens 
of ore have the appearance of stalactites, stalagmites and various 
cave floor and wall deposits which in ordinary caves are composed of 
carbonates of lime and gypsum. Because of their interest and beauty 
they have been exhibited by themselves in an individual case in 
Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37). 

Three specimens of the radium and silver ores of Great Bear 
Lake, Canada, the gift of the El Dorado Gold Mines, Ltd., permit 
for the first time a representation of this important radium deposit. 

Mr. Jack Weil, of Chicago, presented sixteen specimens of mis- 
cellaneous ores from Colorado. A typical specimen of rich telluride 
gold ore, the gift of Wright-Hargreaves Mines, Ltd., Kirkland 
Lake, Ontario, Canada, permits a better representation of the 
unusual ores of that district. 

A polished slab of Mexican onyx from Wisconsin, the gift of 
Mr. Edward B. Sylvanus, of Chicago, is an interesting addition to 
the marble collection as it is from a quarry much nearer Chicago 
than the usual sources of this ornamental stone. 

Mr. Henry Field, of Chicago, presented a collection of sixty 
fossils from Germany and England. Numerous examples of the 
well-preserved fossil fish of Solenhofen were included, as well as 
excellent examples of English invertebrates. The fossils were accom- 
panied by a collection of English ores and rocks. 

An interesting addition to the fossil collection was a group of 
twelve fossils of pre-Cambrian age which Mr. Carroll Lane Fenton, 
of West Liberty, Iowa, collected in Glacier National Park and pre- 
sented to the Museum. Fossils of so early an age are necessarily 
poorly preserved but they are very rare and come from a time 
nearer the beginnings of life than do the fossils usually seen in 
collections. These fossils were accompanied by twenty-seven other 
specimens of geological interest, such as impressions left on the 


202 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

beach sands by the raindrops and hailstones of storms of this 
remote period. 

Mr. Floyd Markham, of Chicago, and Messrs. J. Mann and J. Lee, 
of Oak Lawn, Illinois, presented twenty-one fossils which they 
collected in recently discovered beds in Blue Island. These speci- 
mens include new species and specimens which disclose unknown or 
obscurely known features of other species. Several of them have 
already been described in Museum publications. Messrs. A. G. 
and Raymond B. Becker, of Clermont, Iowa, presented a collection 
of eighty-one fossils from Florida. 

Additions to the collection of vertebrate fossils resulted from 
gifts, exchanges, and collecting by individuals of the staff. One 
skull each of the large Cretaceous dinosaurs, Anchioceratops and 
Edmontosaurus, were received by exchange with the Royal Ontario 
Museum of Toronto, Canada, in return for a miscellaneous collection 
of South American fossils. 

A specimen of the swimming reptile, Tylosaurus, was presented 
by Mr. G. M. Barber, of Hot Springs, Arkansas. A specimen of 
Elephas boreus, from Alaska, was the gift of Mr. George W. Robbins, 
of Valdez, Alaska. Mr. Henry Field, of Chicago, presented vertebra, 
jaws, and teeth of Ichthyosaurus, from England. 

A collection of eleven specimens of fossil mammals and reptiles 
from South America was contributed by the Standard Oil Company 
of New Jersey. A skull of Caenopus and half a skeleton of Metamy- 
nodon were collected in South Dakota by Associate Curator Riggs. 
The Straus West African Expedition of the Department of Zoology 
collected five specimens of African lavas. 

An iron ore from the Fiji Islands, collected by the Cornelius 
Crane Pacific Expedition, was received, as well as a bentonite (used 
as a cosmetic by the Arabs) collected by the Field Museum Anthro- 
pological Expedition to the Near East. 

Mr. Roy collected, on two field trips, eighty-three fossil inverte- 
brates and plants of Nebraska and Pennsylvania. Mr. Phil C. Orr 
collected sixty-two specimens of cave products and fossils from the 
cave region of Kentucky. 

cataloguing, inventorying, and labeling — GEOLOGY 

New entries recorded in the Department catalogues, now com- 
prising twenty-six volumes, numbered 1,458. These, added to pre- 
vious entries, give a total of 193,278. As copy for several thousand 
labels already had been sent to the Division of Printing, preparation 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 203 

of copy for new and replacement labels was not as actively pushed 
as was the case last year. However, copy for 170 labels was prepared 
and sent to the Division of Printing. In order to afford information 
regarding the exhibits before permanent labels are ready, 455 
temporary' tjrpewritten labels were prepared and installed. Labels 
totaling 1,812, received during the year from the Division of Printing, 
were installed. Two hundred thirty-eight photographic prints were 
added to the Department albums, bringing the total number in 
them to 7,736. Labels for all prints were made and filed with them. 
Three hundred eighty-four United States Geological Survey maps 
were received, filed and labeled, making the number of these maps 
now available 4,232. 

It has become increasingly evident during the past few years 
that a classified catalogue of at least some of the collections is a 
necessity. When arranging exchanges or purchases, planning im- 
proved or new exhibits, or answering questions from scientific 
workers, it is often necessary to know whether the collections include 
a certain kind of specimen. The regular catalogue is useless for 
this purpose because in it entries are necessarily chronological in 
order, and only the broadest classification is possible. In the past, 
dependence has been upon memory supplemented by an orderly 
arrangement of both exhibited and reserve collections. The collec- 
tions are now so large that memory is no longer dependable, and a 
search of even a well-classified reserve collection often involves the 
expenditure of a prohibitive amount of time. The preparation of the 
most necessary of these catalogues, now well under way, has absorbed 
much of the Department staff's time. The work has been facilitated 
by the use of clerical assistants, assigned by the Illinois Emergency 
Relief Commission, who have been able to do much of the typing 
and routine work. A card catalogue, arranged alphabetically, of 
all meteorites received since the date (1916) of the last printed 
catalogue, has been completed and is in use. A catalogue of the 
mineral collection, arranged in the order of the Dana system num.bers, 
has been started, and 2,810 cards have been made, checked, and filed. 
These cards tell the Dana number, catalogue number, name and 
locality of each specimen, and when, how and from whom it was 
acquired. They also give the approximate size and such other 
description as the cataloguer is able to supply. As the catalogue, 
when complete, will contain at least 16,000 cards, it will be a matter 
of some years before it is finished. There is special need for a 
catalogue of the nearly 8,000 geological photographs in the Depart- 

204 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

ment albums. Most of the data concerning these photographs have 
never been recorded, and exist only in the memory of the staff. 
Each photograph may be used to illustrate a number of geological 
subjects. A laborious search of the albums to find a suitable illustra- 
tion for some subject is often necessary. The catalogue begun 
this year, now nearly finished, contains this hitherto unrecorded 
data and is thoroughly cross-indexed for geological subjects. In 
some cases as many as five cards have been written for a single print 
and most of the prints are represented by at least two cards, one 
geographical and one or more geological. The standard Dewey 
decimal classification was used and found satisfactory. A quick 
reference to the card index shows at once what photographs are 
available from any country and what illustrations there may be of 
any geological feature such as jointing or lava flows. 

A catalogue of all exhibited invertebrate fossils and plants has 
been completed and is in use. The cards give the Museum number 
of each specimen, with its name, horizon, and geographical location. 
They are grouped by geological periods and under each period the 
cards are filed alphabetically by genera. This catalogue contains 
5,378 cards. A similar catalogue for the reserve fossil specimens 
has been started and some 700 cards written. 

A catalogue of approximately two-thirds of the specimens of 
vertebrate fossils, which was already in existence, was enlarged by 
the addition of forty-nine cards. This catalogue is on larger cards 
than the other catalogues, and is much more detailed. It contains 
the entire history of each specimen and such other information as 
may be considered pertinent. 

The steady growth of the library of pamphlets and separates on 
the subject of vertebrate paleontology made it necessary to provide 
better means of preserving and using this literature. Accordingly 
2,100 pamphlets and unbound volumes were filed in 133 covers made 
in the Department and arranged and marked alphabetically by 
authors. A catalogue of 1,641 cards was made for this library. 
A similar catalogue of cards was prepared for the literature on 
invertebrate paleontology, and a special catalogue for a special 
bibliography of paleontology and geology of Baffinland. All cata- 
logue cards except those of vertebrate paleontology specimens are 
on standard library size cards. To accommodate them five small 
filing cabinets to fit in spaces in the Department bookcases were 
made in the Department workrooms. These cabinets are twenty- 
two inches long, fourteen inches high and twelve inches deep. Each 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. X, Plate XX 


Stanley Field Hall 

This large crystal weighs 950 pounds 

Gift of William J. Chalmers 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 205 

contains six drawers. These small cabinets are found more con- 
venient in use than a single large one and obviate the necessity of 
providing filing capacity long before it is needed. 

Illinois Emergency Relief workers assigned to the Department 
prepared more than 13,500 catalogue cards, numbered more than 
1,600 specimens, and completed large amounts of typing on work of 
various kinds. From two to six of these workers served the Depart- 
ment during about thirty weeks of the year. 


As was the case last year, exhibits in the Department were dis- 
turbed as little as possible during the period of A Century of Progress 
exposition, and there were no major changes. 

The change in the method of mounting minerals in the tall cases 
of Hall 34, inaugurated last year, was finished by the complete 
reinstallation of six more cases, and reinstallation of the minerals 
on the top shelves of ten others. Eighteen hundred of the new 
tyipe wooden specimen mounts, made in the Department workshops, 
were employed in this hall, and in similar work in progress in Clarence 
Buckingham Hall (Hall 35). The new installation is so much more 
economical of space that several hundred specimens, partly from 
reserves and partly new accessions, have been added to the exhibits 
without producing a crowded effect. 

The four cases near the center of Hall 34 which contain the 
William J. Chalmers Crystal Collection, the amber collection, and 
the ornamental minerals, are equipped with narrow glass shelves 
on which it has been difficult to maintain the installation in good 
shape, as any vibration moved both specimens and labels out of 
position. The specimens have all been remounted and the pedestals 
have been attached to the glass shelves by a touch of adhesive, in- 
visible and easily removed. The special wire label holders formerly 
used were somewhat unsightly and never held the labels securely. 
A new type of steel label holder, which is practically invisible and 
holds the label firmly, was designed and built in the Department 
workrooms. One thousand of these were used in the reinstallation. 

In Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35) three cases of concretions 
and four cases illustrating various phases of structural geology were 
reinstalled. Here it was not possible to use the new typ^ of mounts 
for all specimens, and many were therefore remounted on tj^pes of 
supports already in use, while some of the larger specimens required 
special treatment. As in the mineral collection, the new installation 

206 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

proved more economical of space, and several hundred additional 
specimens were placed on view. A new exhibit, consisting of speci- 
mens collected by the Marshall Field North Arabian Desert Expedi- 
tion, was installed in this hall to illustrate the destructive action 
of the sun on rock surfaces. The collection illustrating such surface 
desert phenomena as desert varnish, sand polish, and erosion by 
wind-blown sand, was revised and greatly enlarged by the addition 
of specimens from the Marshall Field North Arabian Desert Expedi- 
tion and the Marshall Field Brazilian Expeditions. The exhibits 
of claystones and barite roses were enlarged by the addition of 
specimens received during the year. 

Work on the collections in Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37) 
was confined to such cleaning as was necessar^^ and the addition of 
a few specimens received during the year. The appearance of the 
hall has been improved by replacing 1,743 of the old black labels 
with new buff labels matching the background of the cases. The 
collection of unusual zinc and lead ores from Embreeville, Tennessee, 
was installed in a case formerly occupied by a collection of zinc 
ores from Greece, now transferred to another part of the hall. The 
new collection, which occupies a whole case, is unusually attractive 
because the specimens take the form of cavern deposits such as 
stalactite and stalagmite. 

Two large blocks of the potash ores of New Mexico are an 
important addition to the potash collections, as they show the nature 
of this deposit better than the drill cores formerly shown. 

In Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) fossil skulls of the saber- 
tooth tiger, Smilodon, the Andean horse, and a giant turtle were 
added to the collections. Further changes were confined to minor 
readjustments such as replacing inferior specimens, and rearranging 
specimens that were not in proper geological sequence. 

Preparation of specimens for exhibition continued through the 
year in the laboratories of vertebrate paleontology^ The working 
force of this laboratory was increased during part of the year by 
the re-employment of Mr. James H. Quinn as preparator for eight 
months, and by the attachment of Mr. Robert Witter as volunteer 
helper for four months. Specimens prepared for exhibition, and in 
process of preparation, in these laboratories, while few in number 
are of great importance. A skeleton of the large South American 
mammal, Astrapotherium, has been reconstructed from a poorly 
preserved specimen and for the first time the entire bony structure 
of this rare animal has been shown. Another rare skeleton, of a 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 207 

kind never before exhibited in any North American museum, is 
that of the great sloth, Megatherium americanum, which has been 
prepared and is nearly ready for exhibition. An entire skeleton of 
the rare Paleocene mammal, Titanoides faberi, was removed from 
a stony matrix of great hardness and prepared for study and for 
mounting later as an exhibit. Two fine specimens of great tortoises, 
consisting of the shell and large parts of the skeleton, have been 
prepared and mounted for exhibition. 

In H. N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31) there was installed a collec- 
tion of specimens of culture and Oriental pearls, the gift of Mr. 
Kokichi Mikimoto, of Tokyo, Japan. Materially enlarging the 
pearl exhibit, this collection contains culture pearls of the kind 
grown artificially in pearl oysters in Japan, along with a number of 
Oriental or natural pearls for comparison. It is accompanied by a 
pearl oyster with one shell removed to show the interior where 
pearls grow. 

Two gold nuggets received during the year were added to the 
native gold collection, and some inferior jade was replaced by 
specimens of better quality. 

The rearrangement of the mineral and economic reserve and study 
collections in trays in Room 120, which was undertaken last year, 
has already proved its worth. Use during the year of the reorganized 
collection indicated that a closer geographical classification of some 
sections of the economic collection would facilitate ready reference 
to them. The geographical classification of the gold, silver, and lead 
ores was already sufficiently detailed. All the other ore and non- 
metallic mineral collections now have been rearranged in as close 
geographical sequence as the nature of the material will permit. 
As the specimens in this room are reserve and study collections, not 
merely storage material, and are frequently referred to, the new 
arrangement has effected a worth-while economy of the time of the 

expeditions and research 

Two important zoological expeditions, organized and initiated 
near the close of 1933, were in the field during 1934. These were the 
Straus West African Expedition of Field Museum and the Leon 
Mandel Guatemala Expedition of Field Museum, both of which 
were mentioned in the Annual Report for 1933. 

The Straus West African Expedition was accompanied during 
February, March, and April by its patroness, Mrs. Oscar Straus, of 

208 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

New York. The expedition was under the leadership of Mr. Rudyerd 
Boulton, Assistant Curator of Birds. It sailed from New York in 
January direct for Dakar, Senegal, on the west coast of Africa. In 
addition to Mrs. Straus and Mr. Boulton, the party included the 
following: Mr. Frank C. Wonder, of the Museum's taxidermy 
staff, who collected mammals; Mr. John F. Jennings, of Chicago, 
who was in charge of photography; and Mrs. Rudyerd Boulton, 
who made studies of African native music under a grant from the 
Carnegie Corporation of New York, 

The expedition left Dakar by motor early in February and made 
its first camp at Fatick, about 100 miles inland on a brackish arm of 
the sea. Thence it moved on about 700 miles to Bamako, capital of 
the French Sudan. Mr. Wonder, at this point, began working back 
to the coast, collecting mammals and birds, while the rest of the 
party continued to Mopti, on the Niger River, where a great abun- 
dance of water birds was found. The expedition then moved to 
Sangha and to Gao. From there Mrs. Straus and Mr. Boulton 
motored across the Sahara Desert to Oran, Algeria, whence Mrs. 
Straus returned to the United States. The journey to Oran and the 
return to Gao, some 3,000 miles largely over waterless, uninhabited 
desert, was a difficult one. 

After a trip to Timbuktu, the expedition journeyed south through 
Dahomey and Nigeria to Mount Cameroon, a 13,000-foot, isolated 
peak near the coast, where several weeks were spent in intensive 
collecting and in making ecological and zonal studies from sea level 
to the treeless summit. Later, a stop was made in lowland forests of 
southern Nigeria. 

Results from this expedition include much material new to the 
Museum, since the route traveled was wholly in a part of Africa 
little represented in American collections. The material obtained 
comprises specimens and accessories for two habitat groups of 
birds, one of a nesting colony of weaver-birds, and one of the curious 
plantain-eaters or turacos of the mountain forest; and general col- 
lections of 641 mammals, 650 birds, 1,000 reptiles and fishes, 2,000 
insects, 1,000 still photographs, and 15,000 feet of motion pictures. 

The work of the Leon Mandel Guatemala Expedition of Field 
Museum, which was well under way in 1933, and of which a pre- 
liminary account appeared in last j^ear's Report, was carried to 
a successful conclusion. In December, 1933, the field party (con- 
sisting of Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant Curator of Reptiles and 
Amphibians; Mr. Emmet R. Blake, of Pittsburgh; Mr. F. J. W. 










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Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 209 

Schmidt, of Madison, Wisconsin; and Mr. Daniel Clark, of Chicago) 
had established headquarters at Tiquisate, a plantation of the 
United Fruit Company, on the Pacific plain of Guatemala. There 
they were joined by Mr. Leon Mandel, of Chicago, sponsor of the 
expedition; Dr. M. G. Krai, accompanied by Mr. Henri Bogner- 
Mayr as general assistant, both of Chicago; and Mr. Richard 
Madler, of New York, photographer. The main party was engaged 
in hunting, in collecting birds and reptiles, and in photography for 
ten days on the seacoast below Tiquisate, while Mr. F. J. W. Schmidt 
collected mammals and reptiles at Olas de Moca, the coffee plan- 
tation of Mr. Teodoro Englehardt, where later the entire party 
was cordially entertained. 

After arranging for the shipment of a number of live animals 
obtained for the Chicago Zoological Society, the party returned to 
Guatemala City, and Mr. Mandel visited the highland village of 
Chichicastenango. He was recalled to Chicago on account of the 
sudden death of his mother on January 20. 

Messrs. Karl P. and F. J. W. Schmidt, and Mr. Blake collected 
at Santa Elena, a high mountain station near Tecpam, in January 
and early February. They were entertained by Mr. Axel Pira, 
whose sawmill, in the cypress forest at an altitude of 9,500 feet, had 
been a collecting station for Field Museum collectors in 1905 and 
1906. From Santa Elena, they traveled by motor truck over the 
highland to San Marcos, where they had been invited by Mr. H. 
Goebel, of the Central American Plantations Corporation, to make 
the great coffee plantation "El Porvenir" their base for the 
zoological exploration of the Volcan Tajumulco, the highest moun- 
tain in Guatemala. Collections from El Porvenir, made at 3,400 
feet, and from camps at 7,000, 10,400 and 13,000 feet, will form the 
basis for detailed studies of the extremely interesting and well- 
defined life zones of this great mountain. 

Subsequent collecting stations, chosen to represent the diverse 
environmental regions of Guatemala, were at El Rancho, in the 
desert along the Motagua River; Salama, the high desert of Baja 
Vera Paz; the limestone cave region of Alta Vera Paz, in the vicinity 
of Coban; and the lowland forest on the Caribbean side, revisited 
before sailing from Puerto Barrios to New Orleans. 

Notable among results of the Leon Mandel Guatemala Expedi- 
tion is the exhibition material collected for three groups of birds for 
the proposed Hall of Foreign Birds. Two species of toucan, repre- 
senting one of the most distinctive groups of birds in tropical Amer- 

210 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

ica, were found feeding in great numbers on a forest tree with small 
blue fruits in the lowland forest near Puerto Barrios, and an ample 
series of specimens, together with photographs and plant acces- 
sories, was obtained. In the cloud-forest zone of Tajumulco, the 
rare and exceptionally brilliant trogon called quetzal was collected. 
This is the national bird of Guatemala, now protected by the govern- 
ment, and special permission was granted the expedition to take 
specimens for exhibition in Field Museum. These will be mounted 
in association with a branch hung with orchids and other epiphytic 
plants, and shown against a background of tree ferns, representing 
the typical habitat of the quetzal. The third group will demon- 
strate the nesting habits of the giant oriole of Central America 
whose hanging nests, from four to six feet in length, are grouped in 
colonies of hundreds in the tallest, most conspicuous trees, form.- 
ing one of the characteristic elements in the tropical landscape. 

Scientific collections obtained by the expedition will make possible 
important contributions to the knowledge of Guatemalan mammals, 
birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The total collections include 523 
mamm.als, 876 birds, 1,003 amphibians, 844 reptiles, 125 fishes, and 
1,621 insects and other invertebrates. Mr. Clark, who contributed 
his own time and expenses to the expedition, presented to Field 
Museum the 176 birds he collected. 

The Field Museum Anthropological Expedition to the Near 
East, conducted by Mr. Henry Field, Assistant Curator of Physical 
Anthropology, and Mr. Richard Martin, in addition to its work for 
the Department of Anthropology, made valuable zoological col- 
lections, including 142 mammals, some 50 birds, and 559 amphibians 
and reptiles. 

A limited amount of research was carried on, but this was cur- 
tailed by absences in the field and increased curatorial requirements. 

Assistant Curator Colin C. Sanborn made a preliminary study 
of the mammals obtained by the Leon Mandel Guatemala Expedi- 
tion, among which several new forms were discovered and, through- 
out the year, from time to time, he made additions to an index of the 
literature pertaining to the bats of the suborder Microchiroptera. 

Associate Curator Charles E. Hellmayr, working in Vienna and 
elsewhere in Europe, made much progress with the large work 
Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. Part VH, a book of some five 
hundred pages, was corrected and published, the manuscript for 
Part Vni was finished and sent to press, and preparation of Part IX 
was concluded. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 211 

After his return from Guatemala, Assistant Curator Schmidt 
engaged in research on Chinese amphibians and reptiles, continuing 
a collaboration begun in May with Dr. C. C. Liu, of Soochow 
University, China. The gift of an especially valuable series of 
snakes from Yucatan, by Mr. E. Wyllys Andrews IV, of Chicago, 
made possible a comparative study of Yucatecan and Guatemalan 
species, and a report on the collection made in Yucatan by Mr. 
Andrews was drawn up for publication, Mr, Schmidt also prepared 
a short paper on the breeding behavior of lizards and another 
describing a new crocodile from the Philippines, 

Except for the important addition mentioned above to the 
series on birds of the Americas, the only other publication of the 
Department of Zoology during the year was Zoology Leaflet No, 13, 
Sculptures hy Herbert Haseltine of Champion Domestic Animals of 
Great Britain, in which are illustrated and described the sculptures 
presented by Trustee Marshall Field and installed in the new Hall 12 
during the year. 

Members of the Department staff contributed eleven signed arti- 
cles and twenty-two other articles and items to Field Museum News 
during the year, and supplied data for thirty-six newspaper articles. 

A few publications of members of the staff appeared under other 
than Museum auspices. Most important of these are the 
Genera and Subgenera of South American Canids, by Dr. Wilfred H. 
Osgood, Curator of the Department of Zoology, published in Feb- 
ruary in the Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 15, pp. 45-50; and Notes 
on the Sea Trouts of Labrador, by Assistant Curator Alfred C. 
Weed, printed in Copeia, 1934, pp. 127-133. 

As in 1933, the work of the Department of Zoology was some- 
what affected by A Century of Progress exposition and the unusual 
attendance resulting from it. The number of visitors of a profes- 
sional character or coming with special introductions and requests 
for service from members of the staff was less than in 1933, but still 
large, and much time was unavoidably devoted to them. 

The association of Mr. Leslie Wheeler, a Trustee of the Museum, 
with the Department of Zoology during the year made a gratifying 
addition to the personnel. Mr. Wheeler has found an especial 
interest in the Museum's collection of birds of prey, which has 
been segregated and especially indexed. Preparations have been 
made for amplifying it and studying it along systematic lines. 

The year was marked especially by activities connected with 
the employment of numerous assistants provided by relief agencies 

212 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

— the Federal Civil Works Service, the Illinois Emergency Relief 
Commission, etc. Although many of these men and women were 
inexperienced and without especial qualifications, they were assigned 
to work in which they could be trained and they soon became able 
to render valuable service to the institution. In all cases they were 
given work which had fallen behind or which the regular staff 
had been unable to undertake for lack of time. They were not 
used to relieve the regular staff of any of its usual duties. Through 
their assistance large numbers of specimens hitherto in storage were 
prepared, catalogued, labeled, and numbered. General efficiency 
throughout the Department was greatly stimulated and much 
substantial progress was made in the care and use of the collections. 
Supervision of their work occupied much of the time of the regular 
staff, but the net gain was very large. 

accessions — zoology 

Accessions for the year total 10,951, which is about double the 
number received in 1933. The increase is due, mainly, to more 
results from Museum expeditions. By zoological groups, the 
accessions classify as follows: mammals, 1,405; birds, 1,947; amphib- 
ians and reptiles, 3,370; fishes, 578; insects, 3,651. The number 
obtained by Museum expeditions is 7,923; by gift, 2,730; by 
exchange, 266; by purchase, 32. 

Foremost among gifts are the bronze and marble sculptures of 
British champion domestic mammals, presented by Trustee Marshall 
Field. These consist of nineteen pieces by the well-known artist 
Mr. Herbert Haseltine. Their special installation in a new hall 
(Hall 12) has been mentioned elsewhere. 

Gifts of mammals include a small number of especial interest 
received from the new zoological gardens at Brookfield, Illinois, 
through the cordial relations maintained between the Museum and 
the Chicago Zoological Society. Dr. L. C. Sanford, of New Haven, 
Connecticut, presented the skin of a bear from Mexico to match a 
skull given to the Museum in 1902 and used as the basis of the 
description of a new form {Ursus machetes). This, therefore, is a 
type specimen and the preservation of both skin and skull together is 
important. Dr. G. W. D. Hamlett, of the Harvard Medical School, 
presented twenty-three specimens of bats collected in Brazil. 

The principal gifts of birds were those received from Mr. Leslie 
Wheeler, of Lake Forest, Illinois, from time to time, amounting to 
303 specimens. Among them were some fifty-five birds of prey and 
a collection of 248 miscellaneous birds from southwest Africa. 











1— ( 

































Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 213 

Notable among gifts of amphibians and reptiles, during 1934, are 
thirty-eight specimens of snakes, lizards, frogs, and turtles from 
Yucatan, from Mr. E. Wyllys Andrews IV, of Chicago; forty speci- 
mens of frogs and lizards from north China, from Dr. C. C. Liu, 
Soochow University, China; seven snakes from Brazil and Central 
America, from Mr. R. Marlin Perkins, of the St. Louis Zoological 
Park, including a rare genus of boa, Ungaliophis; a king cobra and 
an exceptionally large East Indian monitor lizard from Mr. Frank 
Buck, well-known dealer in live animals; and five snakes and fifteen 
lizards, chiefly Australian, from the Chicago Zoological Society. 

As in previous years, a number of desirable fishes were received 
from the John G. Shedd Aquarium. The continued friendly cooper- 
ation of the aquarium staff has resulted in the selection of especially 
needed specimens, from time to time, which have filled many 
gaps in the Museum's collections. A specimen of great interest is 
an east African lungfish, given by the General Biological Supply 
House, of Chicago. The Charleston Museum, Charleston, South 
Carolina, continued to add to its gifts of fishes, especially pickerels, 
from that state. 

The insect acquisitions were unusual in that more than two- 
thirds of them were specimens from foreign countries such as Guate- 
mala, Colombia, Ecuador, and Arabia. A notable and important 
gift from Mr. H. St. J. Philby, of Mecca, Arabia, consisted of 1,281 
specimens of various insects (particularly small moths and grass- 
hoppers) from Hejaz, Arabia, a country which previously was 
poorly represented in the insect collection. A welcome addition 
to the Museum's series of local insects was a donation of 427 
specimens, including 327 bees and wasps, received from Mr. Albert 
B. Wolcott, of Downers Grove, Illinois. 

cataloguing, inventorying, and labeling — ZOOLOGY 

The number of zoological specimens catalogued was 15,042, a 
rather large total as compared with recent years. The entries were 
divided as follows: mammals, 1,187; birds, 3,416; amphibians and 
reptiles, 1,772; fishes, 8,667. One thousand skins in the reference 
collection of mammals were labeled and 300 skulls of mammals 
were numbered, labeled, and boxed or bottled. Some 8,000 cards 
were added to the index of mammal specimens, including new cards 
for all type specimens and all mammals on exhibition. This work 
was participated in by Illinois Emergency Relief workers and by 
one volunteer assistant, Mr. Douglas Bruce, who was in regular 
attendance for seven weeks during the summer months. 

214 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Although more than three thousand birds were catalogued, this 
was incidental to a thorough rearrangement of the collection made 
possible by the acquisition of new storage cases delivered late in 
1933. This rearrangement involved the overhauling of the entire 
collection, which now numbers more than 100,000 specimens. 
Everything was placed in systematic order with the exception of 
several uncatalogued collections which were segregated to be classi- 
fied and later incorporated in the general collection. Cases containing 
the birds of prey — eagles, hawks, falcons, owls, and vultures — were 
arranged so as to be readily accessible and convenient for the studies 
undertaken by Trustee Leslie Wheeler, whose interest in this subject 
resulted in his associating himself with the Department of Zoology, 
taking active charge of this section of the bird collections. 

All collections of amphibians and reptiles received during the 
year were catalogued and much progress was made in the labeling 
and shelving of identified material. The number of entries made 
was 1,776, of which 206 were for osteological specimens which were 
catalogued and placed in order by Assistant D. D wight Davis. 
Much help was received from relief workers. 

The assistance of relief workers made it possible to catalogue 
large accumulations of fishes that had been in storage and unavail- 
able for many years. The largest group so handled was the 
remainder of the extensive collection from Panama and the Canal 
Zone made in 1911 and 1912. A total of 8,667 entries was made and 
all specimens catalogued were correctly labeled and assigned to their 
proper places on the shelves of the reference collection. 

Another project carried out in the Division of Fishes was the 
preparation of a card index of colored plates of fishes contained in 
the Museum Library. Cards to the number of 7,243 were written, 
and it is estimated that 1,200 more will complete the index, which 
will save much time in answering the many calls for information on 
this subject. 

As in the past, for convenience in the Division of Insects, the 
preceding year's accessions were recorded and indexed for reference 
by locality, collector, and donor. For the permanent arrangement 
of the North American beetles, on which the work of assembling, 
determining, and repinning specimens was continued, 908 name 
labels were written, and, by means of thirteen new drawers, four 
families of these insects were made more accessible and useful. 

Most of the accessioned insects that required such attention, 
as well as a number of butterflies that were stored away in papers 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 215 

for many years, were pinned or spread, and most of them pin- 
labeled. The number of specimens thus pinned was 2,885. Much 
appreciated help on this routine work was given in the latter half of 
the year by a volunteer assistant, Mr. Rupert L. Wenzel, and by 
Illinois Emergency Relief workers. By means of relief assignments, 
the Museum's accumulated series of bees, wasps, and parasites 
were also separated into their proper families, determined specifi- 
cally in part, and arranged in sixteen new containers. 

Entries of skeletal material numbered 367, distributed among 
mammals, birds, and reptiles. All material of this kind, excepting a 
few bird skeletons, was catalogued, labeled, and carded so that the 
records, so far as possible, are up to date. For the first time the 
individual bones of all disarticulated skeletons were separately 
numbered. This insures permanent proper association of the bones 
and avoids troublesome transpositions in handling. 

Extraordinary progress was made in cleaning skulls and bones, 
largely through assistance provided through federal relief agencies. 
This work had fallen far behind and much valuable material was 
inaccessible. Most important was the cleaning of more than 1,000 
skulls of large mammals which had accumulated over a period of 
years during which accessions were at a rate higher than the regular 
staff could meet successfully. In addition, 3,056 small and medium- 
sized skulls were cleaned and bottled. 

A skeleton of a spectacled bear was cleaned by maceration and 
two other large mammal skeletons were prepared by other methods. 
Many smaller skeletons were cleaned by dermestids in the dermestid 
room. Three frog skeletons were prepared from alcoholic specimens. 

An echidna, a young orang, and a large Australian tree frog, 
which were received in the flesh, were prepared for anatomical study 
by embalming and by injecting the arteries and veins with colored 
masses. An opossum was embalmed and stored. This highly 
desirable material fonns a nucleus for a synoptic series of vertebrate 
types, preserved for study of the soft anatomy, which will be an 
extremely important addition to the collections. 

A detailed study was made of the so-called Schultze method of 
clearing and staining smaller vertebrates to render the skeleton 
visible without destrojnng the surrounding tissues. Through 
specially qualified assistants assigned by relief agencies, much 
progress was made in appljdng this process to Museum material. A 
total of sixty-one excellent preparations, mostly amphibians and 
reptiles, was made. 

216 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

To supply the need of specimens to illustrate certain biological 
facts, there were again loaned to A Century of Progress exposition 
116 mounted and unmounted specimens of birds and mammals, 
and ten fish models. For the duration of the exposition, these 
specimens were displayed in the biological section of the Hall of 
Science, where they were used to exemplify speciation, and in 
exhibits showing world-wide ecological association and undersea life. 


A new hall (Hall 12) was opened in the Department of Zoology 
for a novel exhibit of nineteen sculptured champion British domestic 
animals, one-quarter life size. These were modeled from the living 
animals by the noted sculptor, Mr. Herbert Haseltine. The col- 
lection is a gift from Trustee Marshall Field. Among the animals 
depicted are many of international fame. Notable are the Shire 
stallion. Field Marshal V, from the stables of King George V of 
England, and the great thoroughbred sire Polymelus. The Suffolk 
Punch breed is represented by Sudhourne Premier, the Percheron 
by the stallion Rhum, the polo pony by Perfection, and the steeple- 
chaser by Sergeant Murphy, winner of the Grand National in 1923. 
Cattle are represented by an Aberdeen Angus bull, a Shorthorn 
bull, a Hereford bull, and a Dairy Shorthorn cow. Sheep and pigs 
include two Lincoln rams, a Southdown ewe. Middle White boar 
and sow, and a Berkshire boar. A varied technique adds greatly to 
the attractiveness of the figures. Some are cast bronze, others 
chiseled bronze, bronze plated with gold, bardiglio marble, black 
Belgian marble. Burgundy limestone, and rose St. Georges marble. 
Although highly realistic, they are also endowed with great artistic 

Unusual progress was made in the production of new exhibits, 
principally of mammals and birds. Seven large habitat groups of 
mammals were completed and opened to public view. Much 
advance was made, also, in the systematic exhibits of birds, five 
new screens being finished and two others rearranged and trans- 
ferred to new positions. One bird group, the birds of Bering Sea, 
was reinstalled with a new background. Of the new mammal 
groups, five are Asiatic and two African. The addition of the five 
Asiatic groups to William V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17) nearly doubles 
the display in that hall, which contained only six finished groups at 
the beginning of the year. It now has eleven, with space for ten 
more, five of which are well on the way toward completion. The 
new Asiatic groups are those of the sambar deer, the swamp deer. 









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Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 217 

the proboscis monkey, the sloth bear, and the Bengal tiger. The 
two African groups are those of the aardvark and the bongo, 
installed in Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall (Hall 22). 

The sambar deer group includes a large stag, a female, and a 
half-grown young deer in an open space in heavy forest where they 
are engaged in licking the exudate of the soil at a so-called "salt- 
lick," a practice common with nearly all deer. The specimens 
were obtained by the James Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition 
and the late Colonel J. C. Faunthorpe. The group was prepared by 
Staff Taxidermists Julius Friesser and Arthur G. Rueckert. The 
background was painted by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin from 
original studies made in India by artists employed for the purpose 
through the cooperation of the Bombay Natural History Society. 

The swamp deer group adjoins the sambar, making comparison 
easy, and emphasizing the contrast in the appearance and habits of 
the two largest species of Indian deer. Its setting is an open swamp 
where tall grass in autumn color harmonizes with the brown coats of 
the animals. A bugling stag stands at one side and three demure 
females are shown near-by at the edge of a stretch of water. This 
group also was produced by Messrs. Friesser and Rueckert and the 
background is by Mr. Corwin. Three of the specimens were taken 
by the Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition and the fourth by 
Colonel Faunthorpe. 

A group of proboscis monkeys, originally prepared by the late 
Carl E. Akeley and installed in a plain floor case, was successfully 
rearranged and placed in a large alcove space adjoining the west 
entrance to William V. Kelley Hall. This was done by Staff Taxi- 
dermist Leon L. Pray, who regrouped the animals, painted a suitable 
background, and, with Assistant Taxidermist Frank Letl, reproduced 
a treetop scene with artificial branches, leaves, and vines. 

The sloth bear group occupies one of the four enclosures which 
face the center of Kelley Hall. It is the second of four groups of 
carnivorous mammals planned for these spaces, the first, installed 
several years ago, being the giant panda group. A family of the 
curious, long-snouted sloth bears is shown busily engaged in search- 
ing for insects among loose stones, roots, and debris of a dry stream- 
bed or "donga." Included are two adult animals, and a young 
cub which rides on its mother's back in the fashion habitual 
with this species. The specimens for the group were received from 
Colonel Faunthorpe, the grown animals having fallen to his own 
rifle, and the cub being contributed by an East Indian friend, Mr. 

218 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Dilipat Singh. The production of the group was executed by- 
Staff Taxidermist Rueckert, assisted by Mr. Wilmer E. Eigsti. 
The background is by Artist Corwin. 

Of unusual interest is the group of Bengal tigers, opened in Kelley 
Hall. It occupies one of the larger spaces and makes an imposing 
appearance. In reference to the character of the animal, the treat- 
ment is somewhat dramatic, with the male tiger in a tense and 
startled position, standing over a fresh kill, while its mate at one 
side appears as if about to slink away. The background, by Mr. 
Corwin, depicts light, open forest rather than deep jungle, and the 
colors are bright and warm. The specimens were collected by the 
Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition. The group was prepared 
by Staff Taxidermist C. J. Albrecht. 

One of the two additions to the exhibits of African mammals in 
Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall (Hall 22) is a group of the rare, forest- 
dwelling bongo, the most distinctly marked and brightly colored of 
all antelopes. This attractive group includes five excellent specimens 
of these magnificent hoofed animals — two males, two females, and 
a fawn — posed in a bamboo thicket, with a background painted by 
Staff Artist Corwin. These specimens were collected by the Harold 
White- John Coats African Expedition of Field Museum in 1930, and 
the group was prepared by Staff Taxidermist Albrecht. 

A group of the odd-shaped aardvarks was also completed and 
installed in Akeley Hall. These peculiar animals feed wholly upon 
ants and termites, which are abundant in Africa. Notwithstanding 
their rather large size and weight, they are adept burrowers and hide 
in their excavations during the day. Being nocturnal in their habits, 
they are seldom encountered and, therefore, they are rarely repre- 
sented in collections. The two specimens in this group were obtained 
by the Harold White-John Coats Abyssinian Expedition in 1929 
and were prepared for exhibition by Mr. Albrecht, who was a 
member of the expedition. One of the animals is shown partly 
concealed in a reproduction of its burrow; the other is standing on 
the ground in front of two termite nests. 

The systematic exhibit of North American birds in Hall 21 was 
brought to practical completion by the addition of four new screens 
and the rearrangement of several others. The new screens include 
two of grouse and quail; one of doves, pigeons, and terns; and one 
of cuckoos, swifts, parrots, and hummingbirds. All the important 
species of birds known from North America north of Mexico are 
represented in this exhibit and, although it will be subject to inter- 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 219 

mittent change, substitution, and improvement in future years, it 
now stands as a unit with no large gaps to be filled. The number of 
species and subspecies included is 687, represented by 842 individual 
specimens, and the work is mainly by Staff Taxidermist Ashley 
Hine, who has devoted his time almost exclusively to it for more 
than ten years. The synoptic exhibit of foreign birds on the south 
side of Hall 21 received an important addition in a case of gallinaceous 
birds prepared by Assistant Taxidermist John W. Moyer. On one 
side of the screen are shown selected examples of the pheasant family, 
and on the other are the grouse, quail, and partridges. Among 
the pheasants are the peacock, the great argus pheasant, and rare 
and beautiful species such as the blood pheasant, impeyan, and 
tragopan, as well as the better-known golden pheasant, ringneck, 
and others kept in aviaries. Among the grouse are the large caper- 
caillie of Europe, the black cock, and other Old World game birds. 

A further interesting addition to the foreign birds was a single 
specimen of a New Guinean cassowary which was placed in the case 
of ostriches and their allies. It was prepared from a specimen received 
in fresh condition from the Lincoln Park Zoo. This made it possible 
to apply the so-called "celluloid" method to reproduction of the 
highly colored and much carunculated head and neck so characteristic 
of this bird. All the naked parts, including the legs and feet, were 
reproduced by this method and attached to the body, which was 
mounted in the usual way. The result is exceedingly lifelike and 
doubtless is the most natural and realistic preparation of a cassowary 
ever exhibited in a museum. The exhibit was prepared by Staff 
Taxidermist Leon L. Walters. 

Two special exhibitions were presented during the year, both in 
the west half of Hall 20. The first was an exhibition of 473 photo- 
graphs illustrating results and methods in modem taxidermy. This 
was the International Exhibition of Taxidermic Art, sponsored by 
the technical section of the American Association of Museums. 
The work illustrated included that of some eighty highly skilled 
taxidermists from Germany, Spain, Switzerland, and the United 
States, among them several members of the taxidermy staff of 
Field Museum. The exhibition was on view from April 1 to 15. 
Later in the year, an exhibition of paintings and photographs was 
shown in connection with the annual meeting of the American 
Ornithologists' Union, which was held in the Museum from October 
22 to 25. These included the Museum's original paintings of Abys- 
sinian birds and mammals by the late Louis A. Fuertes, and group 

220 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

photographs of ornithologists from the collection of the late Ruthven 
Deane, loaned by the Division of Fine Arts of the Library of Congress. 


All of the 375 Chicago public schools which were open during 
1934 received the services of the Department of the N. W. Harris 
Public School Extension. This was an increase of forty- two com- 
pared with the number served in 1933, accounted for by the opening 
of two new buildings and the reopening of forty which had been 
closed. To each of these schools, whose aggregate attendance 
is approximately 500,000 pupils, two traveling exhibition cases were 
delivered on a bi-weekly schedule throughout the school year. The 
same service was also given to the University High School of the 
University of Chicago, thirty-six parochial and private schools, nine 
branches of the Chicago Public Library, seven branches of the 
Y.M.C.A., five social settlements, and two Boys' Union League 
Clubs, the exhibits thereby reaching probably an additional quarter 
of a million persons. Thus the total number of institutions served 
was 435, and in delivering and collecting the 870 cases loaned to 
them the two Museum trucks traveled a distance of 10,744 miles. 

During the year an unusually large number of letters of apprecia- 
tion of the Harris Extension's services was received from principals, 
teachers, and pupils of the schools, and the heads of other institu- 
tions to which exhibits were loaned. Several of the letters received 
indicated that lack of funds prevents large numbers of children 
from ever making excursions outside the city limits, and that many 
seldom can even visit the Museum because their parents cannot 
afford the carfare. Consequently, the Harris traveling exhibits 
provide the only avenue to nature study available to them. Many 
other letters stressed the superior value of the visual education 
provided by these exhibits as compared to mere book studies. 

Illustrating the interest aroused by these exhibits are 145 booklets 
of essays by seventh and eighth grade pupils of the Mozart School. 
In these compositions, which were forwarded to the Museum, the 
children reveal in their own words that they have absorbed much 
knowledge from the Harris Extension cases. 

As in previous years, loans of cases were made on requests 
received from several institutions not on the list for regular service. 
Six cases of natural history and economic subjects were shown at the 
Chicago meeting of the Institute for Juvenile Research of the State 
Department of Public Welfare; four cases of wild flowers and birds 







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Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 221 

were loaned to the Central Branch of the Y.W.C.A.; three cases of 
wild flowers were exhibited in the booth of the Illinois Chapter of 
the Wild Flower Preservation Society at Mandel Brothers' depart- 
ment store; twelve cases were sent to the summer camp of the 
United Charities of Chicago at Camp Algonquin, Illinois, and 
twelve cases of insects and birds were on display in the Hall of 
Science at A Century of Progress exposition. 

Each year requests are also received and granted for the loan 
of cases to museums and other civic organizations for the purpose 
of illustrating the desirability of establishing similar educational 
services in other communities. Such loans were made to the Museum 
of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, Cincinnati, Ohio; to 
the Florida State Museum at Gainesville; and to the Museum 
Section of the Civic Auditorium, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Thirty new cases were produced during the year, 237 were 
repaired, and forty-six were completely reinstalled. Many of the 
reinstallations required the preparation of new specimens, new 
accessories, and the tinting and installation of backgrounds. This 
work occupied the major portion of the Department staff's time. 
Twenty cases which had become unserviceable on account of long 
usage, fading or deterioration of specimens or materials, or irreparable 
damage, were permanently withdrawn from circulation. There 
remained at the end of the year 1,214 exhibits available for use. 
All cases were inspected, and thoroughly cleaned and polished during 
the year. New label copy was written for thirty-eight subjects. 
The work begun in 1932 of replacing all old style black and white 
labels with the buff type adopted as standard was completed in 
1934, the last 114 cases being thus equipped. 

The ceilings and side walls of the Acting Curator's office, the 
two large rooms used for storage of cases, and the shop of the cabinet- 
maker were washed and, where needed, repainted. The three labora- 
tories and their accessory cabinets and cases were also cleaned, and 
repainted in lighter colors, thus affording better light for working. 
The labor in connection with these improvements was performed by 
workers assigned by the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission. 




As in past years the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation has provided various series of lectures and entertain- 

222 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

ments for children both at the Museum and in the schools. Despite 
the continuance of such a counter attraction as A Century of Progress 
exposition, a larger number of school groups came for instruction in 
the exhibition halls than in the preceding year, and the popularity 
of the extension lectures continued to gain. 

entertainments for children 

Two series of free motion picture entertainments were presented, 
one in the spring and the other in the autumn. The programs, 
given on Saturday mornings in the James Simpson Theatre, were as 

Spring Course 
March 3 — The Alligator Family; Mexico. 

March 10 — Beach and Sea Animals; The Making of Maple Sugar; The Triumph 
of the Century. 

March 17 — The Strange Maoris of New Zealand. 

March 24 — Who's Who in the Zoo; Little Visitors from Foreign Lands; The 
Story of Tea. 

March 31 — Sloths and Anteaters; Musko and Musme, the Japanese Wrestlers; 
Quaint Boats on the Inland Sea; Japanese Children. 

April 7 — The Settlement of Jamestown.* 

April 14 — The Elephant and Its Child; The Romance of Life; Across the 
Seven Seas; Thrills of Lumbering. 

April 21 — The Collision of the Icebergs; Hunting Whales; A Mother Bear 
Fights for Her Cub. 

April 28 — Neighbors of Simba, the Lion; Plants That Trap Visitors; By the 
Blue Mediterranean. 

Autumn Course 

October 6 — Views of Our New Zoo; The Journeys of the Seeds; In the Land 
of Yaks; Two Cities of Old Cathay. 

October 13 — Snake Myths; Columbus Sails West.* 

October 20 — In Sunny Guatemala; A Beaver Pet; The Story of Cofifee. 

October 27 — Feeding Time for the Hippos; Rollin' Down to Rio; Under the 
Southern Cross; Me and My Dog. 

November 3— By Dog-train and Snowshoes; In Canada's Fiords; The Bella 
Coola Indians; The Romance of Rubber. 

November 10 — From Trails to Rails; The Octopus and Its Cousins; In a Cave- 
man's Home. 

November 17 — Our Animal Neighbors; The Cement Gnomes; Women Workers of 

November 24 — An Arctic Visitor; The Story of the Pilgrims.* 

December 1 — The Fall Winds Blow; The Woodchuck Sleeps; A Friend to All 
the World; Winter Fun. 

* Gift to the Museum from the late Chauncey Keep. 

In addition to the two regular series of entertainments, two 
special programs were offered in February as follows: 

February 12 — Lincoln's Birthday Program: Abe Holds Court; Native State. 
February 22 — Washington's Birthday Program: Washington and His Times. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 223 

Twenty programs in all were offered to the children of the city 
and suburbs. The total attendance at these entertainments was 
27,653, of which 13,549 came to the spring course, 8,549 to the 
autumn course, and 5,555 to the special programs. 

The following newspapers gave publicity to the programs: 
Chicago Daily News, Chicago Tribune, Chicago Herald and Examiner, 
Chicago Evening American, and Chicago Daily Illustrated Times. 

An expression of appreciation for films loaned for the programs 
is due to the Department of the Interior of the Dominion of Canada, 
National Museum of Canada, Atlas Educational Films, Dynamic 
Pictures of New York, Canadian National Railways, Chicago Rapid 
Transit Company, and the Department of Conservation of Michigan. 


Two series of Museum Stories for Children were written by 
members of the Raymond Foundation staff. These were published 
and copies were handed to all in attendance at the entertainments. 
The material of the stories correlated with certain films shown on 
the programs or with talks given by staff members who used colored 
slides to illustrate the topics presented. The list of stories follows: 

Series XXII — The Builders of Mexico City; Sugars of Many Kinds; New Zealand 
and the Maoris; The Story of Tea; The Sloths and Their Cousins; The Pow- 
hatan Indians; Tapioca; Some Interesting Beach and Sea Animals; The Giraffe. 

Series XXIII — How Seeds Travel; American Snake Myths; The Story of Coffee; 
The Hippopotamuses; The Bella Coola Indians; Snails of Land and Water; 
The Pearl of the Orient; The Owls; Skis and Snowshoes. 

During the summer, accumulated stories were placed in a holder 
at the North Door to be taken by visitors. The total distribution 
of Museum Stories for Children during the year was 42,500 copies. 


Classwork in the exhibition halls was extended to the following 
groups: ^^^^ 

of groups Attendance 

Tours for children of Chicago schools 

Chicago public schools 204 7,752 

Chicago parochial schools 19 615 

Chicago private schools 12 259 

Tours for children of suburban schools 

Suburban public schools 121 3,878 

Suburban parochial schools 3 113 

Suburban private schools 10 167 

Tours for special groups from clubs 

and other organizations 35 1,975 

In all, 404 groups were given guide-lecture service and the attend- 
ance was 14,759. 

224 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

On December 4 and 6, the Museum was host to 1,186 boys and 
girls who were delegates to the Annual Congress of 4-H Clubs of 
the United States. As for several years past, the boys lunched in 
the cafeteria, and both groups were given special lectures in the halls 
devoted to prehistoric plants and animals and the Hall of the Stone 
Age of the Old World. Many letters of appreciation indicate that 
the visit to the Museum was considered one of the outstanding 
features of the congress. 

extension lectures — RAYMOND FOUNDATION 

Extension lectures were offered to the schools as in previous 
seasons. The following subjects were presented in classrooms and 
assemblies to both high and elementary school audiences: 

For Geography and History Groups 

Glimpses of Eskimo Life; South America; North American Indians; Native Life 
in the Philippines; The Romans; The Egyptians; Migisi, the Indian Lad. 

For Science Groups 

Field Museum and Its Work; Prehistoric Life; Insects and Reptiles; Coal and 
Iron; Coffee, Chocolate, and Tea; A Trip to Banana Land; Food Fishes of the 
World; Birds of the Chicago Region; Animal Life of the Chicago Region; 
Wild Flowers of the Chicago Region; Trees of the Chicago Region; Animals 
at Home; Our Outdoor Friends. 

The total number of extension lectures given by the staff of 
the Raymond Foundation was 428, and the total attendance was 


Radio broadcasts were given by the Raymond Foundation staff 
in connection with the public school radio programs of Station 
WMAQ. From January to the end of the spring semester talks 
were given every other week to the upper grades. These talks 
correlated with the nature study and science course being used in 
the schools. One talk on the Raymond Foundation was given over 


The Raymond Foundation acquired during the year for use in 
the Theatre and in the extension lectures 404 slides made by the 
Division of Photography. The Museum artist colored 476 slides 
for the Foundation. 

The Foundation was also the beneficiary of the following acqui- 
sitions: 5,000 feet of motion picture film on Guatemala, presented 
by Mr. Leon Mandel, of Chicago, and 375 feet of film taken at the 
new Brookfield Zoo and purchased by the Museum. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 225 

lecture tours and meetings for adults — raymond foundation 

The services of guide-lecturers were offered, as in former years, 
without charge, to clubs, colleges, conventions and other organiza- 
tions, and to Museum visitors in general. Special tours were offered 
in July and August for the benefit of those attending A Century of 
Progress exposition. The printed monthly tour schedules were 
placed at the main entrance for the use of visitors, and were also 
distributed through libraries and other civic centers of the city 
and suburbs. During the year, 153 general tours and 189 tours 
covering specific topics were offered to the public. The adult groups 
which took advantage of these lecture tours numbered 323, with a 
total attendance of 7,545 individuals. Besides the regular public 
tours, special tours were given to 47 groups from colleges, clubs, and 
other organizations, and these were attended by 1,262 persons. 

The James Simpson Theatre was used for several meetings during 
the year. In February, 1,050 foreign-born adults attended a program 
given by the Board of Education; in March, 1,250 members of the 
Juvenile Council of the Cook County schools held an all-day session; 
in June, the foreign-born adult commencement of the city schools 
was held there for 582 graduates; and in October, both the Theatre 
and the small lecture hall were used for four meetings of the American 
Ornithologists' Union, attended by 763 persons. Total attendance 
at all seven meetings was 3,645. 


The total number of groups reached through the activities of 
the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public 
School and Children's Lectures was 1,222, and the aggregate attend- 
ance included in these groups numbered 213,579 individuals. 


The Museum's sixty-first and sixty-second courses of free 
lectures for adults were given in the James Simpson Theatre on 
Saturday afternoons during the spring and autumn months. They 
were illustrated by motion pictures and stereopticon slides. Fol- 
lowing are the programs of both courses: 

Sixty-first Free Lecture Course 

March 3 — Monarchs of the Air. 

Captain C. W. R. Knight, London, England. 
March 10— The Passing of the Old West. 

Colonel Charles Wellington Furlong, F.R.G.S., Cohasset, 

226 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

March 17 — Miracles in Nature. 

Mr. Arthur C. Pillsbury, Berkeley, California. 

March 24 — A Naturalist in the Canadian Rockies. 
Mr. Dan McCowan, Banff, Canada. 

March 31— With Byrd to the Bottom of the World. 

Dr. Lawrence M. Gould, Carleton College, Northfleld, Minnesota. 

April 7 — The Wonderland of Mexico. 

Major James C. Sawders, Nutley, New Jersey. 

April 14 — Massa-Magaga: Head-takers of Formosa. 
Captain Carl von Hoffman, New York. 

April 21— The South Sea Islands. 

Mr. H. C. Ostrander, Jersey City, New Jersey. 

April 28 — Motion Pictures. 

Trail of the Swordfish; The Veldt; The Prowlers; Jungle Giants; 

Sixty-second Free Lecture Course 

October 6— In the Cellars of the World. 

Mr. Russell T. Neville, Kewanee, Illinois. 

October 13 — Volcanoes of Hawaii. 

Mr. Ray Jerome Baker, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

October 20 — New Zealand. 

Mr. M. P. Greenwood Adams, Hackensack, New Jersey. 

October 27— The Philippines Today. 

Mr. James King Steele, San Francisco, California. 

November 3 — The Human Adventure. 

Produced by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 
with technical assistance of the Erpi Picture Consultants, Inc. 

Talking motion picture sketching man's rise from savagery to civilization. 

November 10 — Islands of the Pacific. 

Mr. H. C. Ostrander, Jersey City, New Jersey. 

November 17 — Life on the Ocean Bottom and Wonders of the Plant World. 
Mr. Arthur C. Pillsbury, Berkeley, California. 

November 24 — The Conquest of Everest. 

Air Commodore P. F. M. Fellowes, D.S.O., A.D.C., London, 

The total attendance at these seventeen lectures was 23,932; 
13,309 for the spring course, and 10,623 for the autumn course. 

A special lecture for Members of Field Museum was given on 
Sunday, November 25. The speaker was Air Commodore P. F. M. 
Fellowes, D.S.O., A.D.C., of London, and the subject "The Conquest 
of Everest." The attendance was 394. This brought the total 
attendance for all adult lectures to 24,326. 


The total number of groups receiving instruction or other services 
from the Museum during the year was 1,247, with an aggregate 
attendance of 241,550 individuals. These figures include the 1,222 
groups and 213,579 individuals reached through the activities of the 
James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public 
School and Children's Lectures, as well as the 24,326 persons attend- 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 227 

ing the adult lectures, and the 3,645 persons attending the meetings 
of outside organizations to which the use of the James Simpson 
Theatre and the small lecture hall was made available. 


During the year the physical appearance of the Library was 
much improved by thorough cleaning of the walls, which added 
much to the attractiveness of the room. 

During about seven months of the year several federal Civil 
Works Service and Illinois Emergency Relief workers were assigned 
to the Library and with their assistance considerable extra work 
has been accomplished. The number of such workers varied at 
different times from one to four, and their total length of service was 
650 working hours. The cataloguing of a large accumulation of pam- 
phlets was finished by them, and the pamphlets were thus made 
available for use in the various Departments. Another project was 
the cataloguing of material which had been packed for many years 
and only recently placed on shelves. This work is about half finished. 

A much needed inventory of the Department of Geology Library 
was also made by these relief helpers. Likewise with their aid 2,100 
geological pamphlets were placed in covers. These were arranged 
alphabetically and cards written for them, 1,641 in all. 

Approximately 9,800 cards have been thus written by relief 
workers and added to the various catalogues. 

The purchases of books during the year were limited to those 
most needed for immediate work. 

Field Museum Library depends for its growth so largely on its 
exchanges that this subject is always uppermost in all plans. The 
number of exchanges, both foreign and domestic, has had some 
valuable additions during 1934, and these have brought much desired 
material. Some valuable exchanges have also been made with 
members of the staff of this institution. 

Although many libraries had fewer readers in 1934 than in the 
previous year. Field Museum Library served approximately the 
same number. 

Friends of the Museum have graciously made gifts of books to 
the Library, which are much appreciated, not only because of the 
value of the material but also for the interest in the Library's work 
indicated by them. 

The list of periodicals which, as reported last year, had been so 
drastically curtailed by the necessity of making economies, was 

228 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

partly sustained by assistance given by some members of the staff 
who continued a number of the subscriptions so that there might 
be no break in the files. Grateful acknowledgment of this coopera- 
tion is made herewith. 

Assistant Curator Henry Field, on his return from the Field 
Museum Anthropological Expedition to the Near East, brought an 
important collection of books received from various institutions, 
mostly in the Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics. 

The American Friends of China, Chicago, again made generous 
gifts of greatly desired books, selected by the late Dr. Berthold 
Laufer, Curator of Anthropology-, to supplement to best advantage 
works alread}' on the shelves. 

At the death of Dr. Laufer his private library, which he had 
accumulated and used in connection with his work, became the 
property of Field ]\Iuseum as a result of a bequest for which he 
had arranged some years ago. It will add 5,000 or more titles to 
the Librar}-. As the Museum already had a carefully selected 
collection of works on China, and the greater part of Dr. Laufer's 
books are on this subject, this addition will give the IMuseum one 
of the most complete libraries on China in the Middle West. The 
Chinese section will be segregated so as to be easily accessible for 
the use of scholars desirous of consulting it. Dr. Laufer's books 
on other subjects will greatly strengthen other sections of the 

IMr. Sadajiro Yamanaka, of New York, enriched the Library by 
presenting some valuable books on ceramics of China and Japan: 
Ko-Sometsukesara Hyakusen {Album of Selected Old Chinese Blue and 
White Porcelain Dishes); Ko-Akaesara Hyakusen (Album of Selected 
Old Three-color Porcelain Dishes of China); Nippon Koto Mehinshu 
(Album of Selected Old Ceramics of Japan); Kutani Nabeshima 
Kakiyemon Meihinshu {Album of Old Ceramics of Kutani, Nabeshima 
and Kakiyemon); Tanamono Shusei {Collection of Japanese Wood, 
Lacquer Tabks and Chests). All of these are illustrated with 
beautiful plates. 

Mr. Fahim Kouchakji, of New York, presented a work in two 
volumes entitled Glass; Origin, History, Chronology, Technic, and 
Classification to the 16th Century. This is a subject on which it 
is difficult to find information, and these volumes will be very 

A Centun,' of Progress exposition sent to the Library a collection 
of its most interesting publications. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 229 

Mrs. Mae Ellena Bachler, of Chicago, presented a ver\- beauti- 
fully prepared book by !\Ianly P. Hall: Encyclopedic Outline of the 
Masonic, Hermetic, Qahhalistic and Rosicrucian Symbolic Philosophy. 

The Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C., has again presented 
several important volumes of its valuable publications. President 
Stanley Field has continued presenting week by week the issues of 
the Illustrated London News, and Director Stephen C. Simms has 
given those of the Museum News published bj^ the American Associa- 
tion of Museum.s. The publishers of the Scientific American kindly 
placed the Museum Library on their free list for the coming j-ear. 

Among other gifts that have been of especial value are: Liberia 
Rediscovered, presented by ]\Ir. Han-ey S. Firestone, Akron, Ohio; 
L. Kraglie\ich's La Antiguedo.d Pliocena de las Faunas de Monte 
Hermoso y Chapaduratal, presented by the National IMuseum of 
Buenos Aires; Melanges entomologiques, volume 5, from I\I. Henri 
Gadeau de Kerville, Paris; 14 botanical works from ]Mr. Hermann 
Benke, Chicago; Glossary of Arms and Armor in All Countries and 
in All Times, from ]Mr. George Cameron Stone, Portland, ]Maine; 
Sweefs Architectural Catalogue, 4 volumes, from the publishers, 
Sweet's Catalogue Service, Xew York; and Bureau of American 
Ethnology Annual Reports, 4 volumes, from ]\Iisses Edith and Faith 
Wyatt, Chicago. 

Even more than in previous years the ^Museum Libran,- is indebted 
to other libraries for loans of books needed in the work of this institu- 
tion. Among those especially helpful were: The Libran- of Congress, 
Washington, D.C.; Library of the American ^Museum of X'atural 
Hist or}', Xew York; University of Illinois Libran-, Urbana, Illinois; 
University of ^Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, IMichigan; Grosvenor 
Libran.-, Buffalo, Xew York; the libraries of the Peabody Museum 
of Archaeology and the ^Museum of Comparative Zoology at Han-ard 
L'niversity, Cambridge, ^Massachusetts; L'niversity of Chicago 
Libraiy; L'nited States Department of Agriculture Libran.^ Washing- 
ton, D.C.; and the libran,- of the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, 
Massachusetts. Field IMuseum has also lent more books to other 
institutions this year than at any time before. 

Binding has necessarily been omitted during the last few years, 
but the Library- was fortunate in ha\'ing a little of the most needed 
work done in 1934. 

During the year there have been 2,252 books and 3,000 pamphlets 
added to the Libran,-. The approximately 5,000 books left to the 
Museum by Dr. Laufer are not included here because the work of 

230 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

cataloguing them has not yet been completed. There have been 
written and filed 15,626 catalogue cards, bringing the total number 
in the files to 438,480. From the John Crerar Library, Chicago, 
4,851 cards were received and filed. To the Library's record books, 
now occupying eighteen volumes, there were added 2,252 entries, 
making the total number of entries 86,727. 


The work in the Division of Printing for the entire year was, as 
nearly as possible, evenly divided between Museum publications and 
exhibition labels. The total number of labels produced for all Depart- 
ments was 24,282. Miscellaneous work totaled 373,262 impressions. 

Seven additions were issued in the regular Museum publication 
series, of which four were geological, one was anthropological, one 
zoological, and one the Annual Report of the Director for 1933. Of 
these a total of 10,530 copies was produced. The aggregate number 
of pages of type composition was 1,002. Seven leaflets were printed, 
of which three were anthropological (two reprints, and one a revised 
new edition of the same leaflet), one was botanical, one geological (a 
reprint), and two were zoological (of which one was a reprint). A 
botanical guide, North American Trees, was also printed. Of these 
additional books, 16,347 copies were printed. They involved a 
total of 318 pages of type composition. 

Following is a detailed list of these publications: 

Publication Series 
328. — Report Series, Vol. X, No. 1. Annual Report of the Director for the Year 

1933. January, 1934. 136 pages, 12 photogravures. Edition 5,474. 
329. — Anthropological Series, Vol. XXI, No. 2. The Ovimbundu of Angola. 

By Wilfrid D. Hambly. July 11, 1934. 276 pages, 84 photogravures. 

Edition 803. 
330. — Zoological Series, Vol. XIII, Part VII. Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. 

By Charles E. Hellmayr. November 15, 1934. 532 pages. Edition 770. 
331. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 5. The Auditory Region of an Upper 

Pliocene Typotherid. By Bryan Patterson. December 31, 1934. 8 

pages, 3 zinc etchings. Edition 819. 
332. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 6. Upper Premolar-molar Structure in the 

Notoungulata, with Notes on Taxonomy. By Bryan Patterson. 

December 31, 1934. 22 pages, 14 zinc etchings. Edition 883. 
333. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 7. Cranial Characters of Homalodotherium. 

By Bryan Patterson. December 31, 1934. 6 pages, 1 zinc etching. 

Edition 884. 
334. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 8. Trachytherus, a Typotherid from the 

Deseado Beds of Patagonia. By Bryan Patterson. December 31, 1934. 

22 pages, 5 zinc etchings. Edition 897. 

Leaflet Series 
Anthropology, No. 30. — The Races of Mankind (second reprint). By Henry 
Field, with preface by Berthold Laufer, and an introduction by Sir Arthur 
Keith. 40 pages, 8 photogravures, 1 plan of hall. February, 1934. Edition 500. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 231 

Anthropology, No. 30. — The Races of Mankind (third reprint, see above). March, 

1934. Edition 629. 
Anthropology, No. 30. — The Races of Mankind (second edition, revised; see above). 

44 pages. June, 1934. Edition 3,011. 
Botany, No. 17. — Common Weeds. By Paul C. Standley. 32 pages, 27 photo- 
gravures. September, 1934. Edition 3,068. 
Geology, No. 11. — Neanderthal (Mousterian) Man (reprint). By Oliver C. 

Farrington and Henry Field. 16 pages, 8 photogravures, 1 map. December 26, 

1934. Edition 2,559. 
Zoology, No. 13. — Sculptures by Herbert Haseltine of Champion Domestic Animals 

of Great Britain. 6 pages of text, 19 photogravures, with captions opposite. 

June, 1934. Edition 2,564. 
Zoology, No. 10.— The Truth about Snake Stories (reprint). By Karl P. Schmidt. 

20 pages. December 8, 1934. Edition 2,514. 

Guide Series 
Botany Guide. North American Trees. By Samuel J. Record. September 17, 
1934. 120 pages, 85 zinc etchings. Edition 1,502. 


The Division of Photography in 1934 produced negatives, prints, 
enlargements of photographs, lantern slides, and transparent exhibi- 
tion labels totaling 23,095 in number. These included 280 photo- 
graphic prints and 59 stereopticon slides for sales on orders placed 
by the public. The balance were for various uses in Departments 
and Divisions of the Museum. Of 20,137 prints made, 12,864 were 
done by relief workers assigned by the federal Civil Works Service 
and the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission; the balance were 
made by the Museum's regular photographers. The Division 
benefited from the assignment of from one to three relief workers 
throughout most of the year, whose hours of service totaled nearly 
700. In addition to the making of prints, which included many 
from negatives obtained through the Joint Project of the Rockefeller 
Foundation and Field Museum for photographing botanical type 
specimens in European museums, the relief workers made great 
progress on the huge task of cataloguing the Division's negative 
collection (now numbering more than 80,000 negatives). In this 
work the relief assistants wrote and filed about 30,500 index cards. 

The total number of photogravure prints produced in the Division 
of Photogravure was 578,820. These were for the illustration of 
publications and leaflets, for headings of posters, for covers of various 
published works, and for picture post cards. 

The Museum Illustrator completed 1,238 orders for the Museum's 
Departments and Divisions. These included 323 pen drawings, 19 
wash drawings, the coloring of 461 lantern slides, and other miscel- 
laneous tasks. One relief worker was assigned for a short period to 
assist the Illustrator in coloring lantern slides and other work. 

232 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 


The distribution of publications, as in previous years, was 
about equally divided between foreign and domestic institutions 
from which Field Museum in turn receives publications for its 

An increase in both foreign and domestic exchanges was made, 
thirty-five names having been added to the mailing lists. The total 
number of books sent on exchange was 6,146, of which 4,941 were 
copies of scientific publications and 1,205 were leaflets. The 
Museum also sent 3,879 complimentary copies of the Annual Report 
of the Director for the year 1933, and 696 leaflets, to Members of 
the institution. Sales for the year show totals of 420 publications, 
9,166 leaflets, and 7,850 miscellaneous publications and pamphlets 
— guides, handbooks, and memoirs. 

Grateful acknowledgment is tendered the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, at Washington, D.C., for its cordial cooperation in distributing 
Field Museum publications which were sent to the international 
exchange bureau to be forwarded to foreign destinations. 

For future sales and exchanges, 14,301 copies of the various 
publications and leaflets issued during 1934 were wrapped into 291 
packages, labeled, and stored in the stock room. 

Published early in the autumn, a season when so many people 
are especially interested in trees and weeds, the reference book on 
North American Trees and the leaflet on Common Weeds have been 
greatly in demand. Amateur botanists, teachers, students, and 
others interested in the plants local to the Chicago region, and in 
trees native to this country, have found these well-illustrated books 
to be of much use. 

Fairly wide distribution also has been given a leaflet issued last 
June, which describes and illustrates the sculptures by Herbert 
Haseltine of champion domestic animals of Great Britain, presented 
to the Museum through the generosity of Mr. Marshall Field. 

Interest in the living races of mankind and in prehistoric man 
continued to manifest itself in the numerous purchases of copies of 
the Races of Mankind and Prehistoric Man leaflets. These two 
books, published in the summer of 1933, when the exhibition halls 
to which they relate were first opened to the public, have been 
quite as popular as they were during the year they were issued. 
More than 3,100 copies were sold in 1934. 

Early in the summer the Museum added to the various items 
on display and sale at its leaflet and post card stands a pocket size 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 233 

folding type of stereoscope, together with views of habitat groups 
and other exhibits in Field Museum. The views were arranged in 
units of five and ten pictures each. This proved a highly successful 
venture, as many visitors purchased these stereoscopes and the 
various sets of views as a most desirable souvenir. The views and 
stereoscopes are a product of the Keystone View Company of 
Meadville, Pennsylvania. 

Numerous sales have been made of several books published 
outside and handled on consignment at the Museum. They pertain 
to natural history, are written in popular style, and the authors 
of some of them are members of the Museum staff. 


Although the number of post cards sold during 1934 was con- 
siderably less than in the previous year, because of the decrease 
in attendance, the total of 107,842 was very gratifying. 

Of the sets of cards containing views of the bronzes illustrating 
the races of mankind, more than 934 (totaling over 27,510 cards) 
were sold. An endeavor was made to serve persons especially 
interested in types of certain limited geographic divisions. This was 
done by offering, in addition to the set of thirty cards of miscella- 
neous racial types, five other sets covering respectively the racial 
types of Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania and Australia. 

One new set of cards was added to the series on zoological subjects. 
New views for the individual post card assortment include forty- 
seven anthropological subjects, twenty-six zoological, and one general. 


Through the continued cooperation of the newspapers and various 
national and international news distributing agencies. Field Museum 
has been enabled throughout 1934 not only to gain publicity for its 
current activities but also to use the press as an additional means 
toward the accomplishment of the institution's primary mission — 
the popular dissemination of scientific information. 

There has been prepared and distributed to newspapers, maga- 
zines, news service associations, radio stations, and other publicity 
media an average of five press releases a week. These, and numerous 
photographs of Museum subjects, received generous space in all the 
newspapers of Chicago. Through the channels made available by 
such organizations as the Associated Press, United Press, Inter- 
national News Service, Universal Service, and Science Service, they 
appeared also in newspapers in all parts of this country and frequently 

234 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

in foreign countries as well. In addition, the Museum has received 
attention through articles and photographs prepared by members of 
newspaper staffs especially assigned by their editors for this pur- 
pose. Likewise, the Museum's cultural and educational values 
have been the subject of occasional favorable comment in the editorial 
as well as the news columns. 

For the fifth year the bulletin, Field Museum News, has been 
published monthly. As in the past, it has been sent to all Members 
of the Museum promptly at the beginning of each month. It is 
circulated also as an exchange to various scientific institutions, and 
to newspapers and magazines which frequently reprint or quote 
from it, thus augmenting the Museum's general publicity. Con- 
tinued efforts have been made to include in each issue articles and 
pictures which would appeal to the widely varying interests of the 
bulletin's several thousand readers. 

The Museum has been advertised, as in past years, without cost, 
through media generously placed at its disposal by various organ- 
izations, for which appreciation is herewith expressed. The Illinois 
Central System and the Chicago and North Western Railway again 
permitted the display at their city and suburban stations of posters 
in the spring and autumn announcing the Museum's lecture 
courses. These placards have likewise been posted in department 
stores, hotels, clubs, libraries, schools, and other establishments 
having wide public contacts. Many of these organizations, as well 
as local, interurban, and interstate transportation companies and 
agencies, further advertised the Museum by distributing folders 
giving information about the institution. 

Various opportunities have arisen whereby the Museum obtained 
radio publicity. Noteworthy was a series of talks by members of the 
Museum staff given at the invitation of WGN (the Chicago Tribune 
station), and a special program arranged by WLS (the Prairie 
Farmer station). 

Work was performed by the Division of Public Relations in 
connection with certain published matter of the Museum, such as a 
new edition of the General Guide to the exhibits, a leaflet on the 
collection of sculptures by Herbert Haseltine of British champion 
domestic animals, and various special articles, reports, etc. A 
large volume of correspondence and other detail was also handled. 

Grateful acknowledgment is hereby made to the Consolidated 
Press Clipping Bureaus of Chicago for their continuance, for the 
second year, of press clipping service to the Museum without charge. 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 235 

The decline in the number of persons on the Museum's member- 
ship rolls, which had been serious for several years, seemed to be 
almost completely checked in 1934. It is encouraging to note that 
the net loss of members for the year was only 57, as compared to 
losses of 320 in 1933, 819 in 1932, and 702 in 1931. 

The Museum is greatly indebted to those Members who have 
continued to give their loyal support through the difficult years of 
depression. It is realized that many of those who resigned had no 
alternative in the face of the distressing economic conditions which 
have prevailed, and with full appreciation of the assistance they 
rendered to the institution in the past, the Museum extends to them 
an invitation to renew their memberships whenever they may find 
it possible. 

The following tabulation shows the number of names on the 
list in each of the Museum's membership classifications at the end 

of 1934: 

Benefactors  18 

Honorary Members 18 

Patrons 31 

Corresponding Members 7 

Contributors 109 

Corporate Members 47 

Life Members 304 

Non-Resident Life Members 8 

A^ociate Members 2,396 

Non-Resident Associate Members 4 

Sustaining Members 25 

Annual Members 1,175 

Total Memberships 4,142 

The names of all persons listed as Members during 1934 will be 
found at the end of this book. 


The total number of persons served with meals or refreshments 
in the lunch rooms of the Museum in 1934 was 141,207. Of these, 
109,257 were served in the main public cafeteria and in the Aztec 
dining room which is assigned to the officials and staff of the Musemn 
and their guests; and 31,950 in the special children's room. There 
was a decrease of approximately 69,000 from the total number 
served in 1933, attributable to the decreased Museum attendance. 

In the pages which follow are submitted the Museum's financial 
statements, lists of accessions, names of Members, et cetera. 

Stephen C. Simms, Director 

236 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 


FOR YEARS 1933 AND 1934 

1934 1933 

Total attendance 1,991,469 3,269,390 

Paid attendance 99,553 212,298 

Free admissions on pay days: 

Students 19,870 21,901 

Schoolchildren 54,712 90,151 

Teachers 1,139 2,295 

Members 1,208 1,817 

Admissions on free days: 

Thursdays (52) 523,580 (52) 895,487 

Saturdays (52) 603,953 (52) 949,543 

Sundays (52) 687,454 (53) 1,095,898 

Highest attendance (Sept. 2) 55,458 (Aug. 24) 65,966 

Lowest attendance (Dec. 21) 56 (Feb. 7) 22 

Highest paid attendance (Sept. 3) 3,946 (Sept. 4) 6,363 

Average daily admissions (365 days) 5,456 (365 days) 8,957 

Average paid admissions (209 days) 476 (208 days) 1,020 

Number of guides sold 4,706 8,918 

Number of articles checked 37,310 64,322 

Number of picture post cards sold 107,842 164,729 

Sales of publications, leaflets, handbooks, 

portfolios, and photographs $4,209.48 $6,306.23 

Jan. 1935 Annual Report of the Director 237 


FOR YEARS 1933 AND 1934 

Income 1934 1933 

Endowment Funds $173,059.17 $183,042.24 

Funds held under annuity agree- 
ments 38,349.29 39,134.46 

Life Membership Fund 13,081.56 13,346.10 

Associate Membership Fund . . . 12,669.33 12,753.90 
South Park Commission and 

Chicago Park District 101,226.19 125,802.68 

Annual and Sustaining Member- 
ships 10,061.00 9,859.00 

Admissions 24,888.25 53,074.50 

Sundry receipts 29,439.45 21,171.41 

Contributions, general purposes. 28,467.95 15,991.47 
Contributions, special purposes 

(expended per contra) 43,718.83 145,746.92 

Special funds: Part expended 
this year for purposes cre- 
ated (included per contra) . . 16,041.03 16,396.09 

$491,002.05 $636,318.77 


Collections $ 70,220.98 $175,767.04 

Expeditions 24,662.30 7,973.96 

Furniture, fixtures, etc 6,389.04 12,894.68 

Pensions, group insurance 17,320.90 16,136.76 

Departmental expenses 31,763.13 38,847.64 

General operating expenses 280,522.79 295,342.04 

Annuities on contingent gifts. . . 36,305.69 37,138.20 
Added to principal of annuity 

endowments 2,043.60 1,996.26 

Interest on loans 4,258.29 6,049.73 

Paid on bank loans 10,000.00 51,100.00 

$483,486.72 $643,246.31 

Balance $ 7,515.33 Deficit $ 6,927.54 

Notes payable January 1 $105,000.00 $156,100.00 

Paid on account 10,000.00 51,100.00 

Balance payable December 31 $ 95,000.00 $105,000.00 


comparative financial STATEMENTS FOR YEARS 1933 AND 1934 

1934 1933 

Income from Endowment $19,427.71 $17,803.58 

Operating expenses 17,654.81 17,700.60 

Balance, December 31 $1,772.90 $ 102.98 

238 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 


department of anthropology 

American Friends of China, Chi- 
cago: 1 brush-holder of the Emperor 
K'ien-lung, made of Burmese padouk 
wood with inlaid inscriptions and de- 
signs in ivory, jade, and semi-precious 
stones, dated a.d. 1736 — China (gift). 

AsHER, Dr. Harry H., Chicago: 3 
human lower molar teeth of unusual 
type — American whites, Chicago, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Ayer, Edward E. and Emma B., 
Estate of, Chicago: 18 blankets — 
southwestern United States and Mexico 

Bebb, William, Oakland City, In- 
diana: about 60 fragments of flint arti- 
facts — Fort Gibson, Oklahoma (gift). 

Beddoe:s, Hubert, Chicago: 1 folio 
album containing 134 large photographs 
— China, Japan, and Java (gift). 

Bennett, Miss Helen B., Los 
Angeles, California: 25 stone artifacts: 
knives, scrapers, and projectiles — Salt 
Cliffs, Arkansas (gift). 

Birren, Mrs. Joseph, Chicago: 1 
stone ax — Illinois; 1 boomerang — Aus- 
tralia; 2 wooden war clubs, 1 conch- 
shell trumpet — Polynesia; 1 muzzle 
with bridle — Spain; 1 cotton baldric 
— India (gift). 

Boulton, Mrs. Laura C, Chicago: 
18 musical instruments — west Africa 

Carter, Mrs. Dagny, Peiping, 
China: 4 fragments of Chou pottery 
and 1 crupper damaskeened iron — Sui- 
yiian, Shensi Province, China (gift). 

Crocker, Templeton, San Francisco, 
California: 1 carved bowl— Marquesas 
Islands; 24 mats, baskets, ornaments, 
fish-hooks, etc. — Puka Puka and Samoa; 
810 examples of weapons, clothing, and 
fishing, household, personal and cere- 
monial objects — chiefly from south- 
eastern Solomon Islands, Rennell, Bel- 
lona, Sikaiana, Swallow group, and 
Anuda Islands; 9 phonograph records 
and 325 photographs — Polynesia and 
Melanesia (gift). 

Cross, Miss Grace Brewster, Chi- 
cago: 1 feather headband (lei), 1 shell 
headband, 1 string of crabs'-eyes or 
vine beads (Abrus precatorius), 2 
strings of seed beads — Honolulu, Hawaii 

Cutting, C. Suydam, New York: 1 
bag of monkey skin, 1 bag of goral skin 
— Upper Burma (gift). 

Douglass, Dr. A. E., and Harry T. 
Getty, Tucson, Arizona: 32 polished 
cross sections of logs from various dated 
ruins, charts, photographs, and a boring 
tool — Arizona and New Mexico (gift). 

Duke, Miss T., Chicago: 1 cactus 
girdle of fiber, 4 fiber moccasins, 2 stone 
arrowheads — Rio Grande River bank, 
18 miles northeast of Del Rio, Texas 

Felix, Benjamin B., Chicago: 48 
Chinese coins and 2 Japanese coins — 
China and Japan (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History: 
Collected by J. Eric Thompson 
(leader, Carnegie Institution-Reld Mu- 
seum Joint Expedition to British Hon- 
duras): 13 pottery whistles, figurines; 
69 pottery vessels, disks; 115 lots (about 
6,000 pieces) of pottery sherds; 14 stone 
knives and spear-heads; 38 obsidian 
and 5 jade objects; 21 shell ornaments 
and beads; 13 spindle whorls of stone 
and pottery; 1 pearl; 1 textile; 2 mirrors; 
8 miscellaneous objects such as carbon 
and paint for identification; 14 skeletal 
pieces. Total, 6,199 pieces — San Jose, 
Orange Walk District, British Honduras. 

Collected by Field Museum-Oxford 
University Joint Expedition to Meso- 
potamia (Marshall Field Fund): 21 
cases of Sumerian, Babylonian, and 
Sasanian objects — Kish, Mesopotamia. 

Collected by Paul S. Martin (leader. 
Field Museum Archaeological Expedi- 
tion to the Southwest): 38 pieces of 
pottery, 3,477 potsherds, 8 human 
skeletons, 5 arrowheads, 10 bone awls, 
27 pieces of roof beams (shipped to Gila 
Pueblo), 33 pieces of animal bones, and 
3 pendants — Lowry ruin, Ackmen, 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Collected by Henry Field (leader, 
Field Museum Anthropological Expedi- 
tion to the Near East, 1934): 500 flint 
implements of paleolithic and neolithic 
types from North Arabian desert, 
Kurdistan, and Persia; 10 basalt blocks 
of Himyaritic inscriptions from Trans- 
jordania; 2 fragments of twelfth century 
Mohammedan vessels from Beled Sin- 
jar, Iraq; approximately 7,000 photo- 
graphs; 800 hair samples — Near East 
and Russia. 

Collected by Miss Malvina Hoffman 
(Expedition to Asia): 3 nail protectors 
of enameled silver — China. 

Transferred from Department of 
Zoology: 1 skeleton of female gibbon — 
southeast Borneo; 1 skeleton of female 
chimpanzee — south Cameroon, west 

Purchases: 1 pair of Navaho mocca- 
sins — New Mexico; 1 complete skeleton 
of a Chinese. 

Gann, Mrs. M. E. L., Lake Forest, 
Illinois: 2 strings of Russian blue glass 
trade beads — Alaska (gift). 

Gila Pueblo (museum), Globe, 
Arizona: 30 specimens of prehistoric 
painted pottery — Rio Mimbres and 
other localities of New Mexico (ex- 

Ito, T., Chicago: 3 samples of old 
fabrics — Japan (exchange); 2 volumes 
of Chinese wood-engravings illustrating 
agriculture and sericulture, Japanese 
edition of 1807 — China -Japan (gift). 

Johnson, Mrs. Frank S., Pasadena, 
California: 1 Chinese mandarin coat — 
China (gift). 

Keep, Chauncey, Estate of, 
Chicago: bronze heads of Toda, Berber, 
San Ildefonso Pueblo woman; bronze 
bust of Bontoc Igorot (also plaster casts 
of same); bronze busts of an Alpine, a 
Zulu woman, a Turk, a Jicarilla Apache, 
a Carib, and a Korean; life-size figure 
of a Navaho (gift). 

KouCHAKJi, Fahim, New York: 1 
glass pitcher with Christian designs, 
fourth century a.d. — Syria (exchange). 

Mandel, Fred L., Jr., and Leon, in 
Memory of Their Mother, Mrs. 
Blanche R. Mandel, Chicago: 14 
Lamaist paintings, 18th-19th century 
(framed)— Tibet and China (gift). 

Martin, Mrs. George H., Chicago: 
2 carved horn spoons — Sitka Indians, 
Sitka, Alaska (gift). 

National Museum, Copenhagen, 
Denmark: 16 pieces of fur garments; 
57 wood, 29 bone, 49 stone, and 17 
leather objects; 2 glass beads — Green- 
land (exchange). 

National Museum of Mexico, 
Mexico City, Mexico: 76 pottery ob- 
jects — Oaxaca, Jalisco, and Campeche, 
Mexico (exchange). 

Rathbun, Rowland, Chicago: 23 
drawings of Sasanian stucco (gift). 

Reeves, Captain Dache M., Day- 
ton, Ohio: 2 large aerial photographs of 
Hopewell Mounds, Ohio (gift). 

Sargent, Homer E., Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia: 1 blanket — Kabyle, Algeria, 
northwest Africa (gift). 

Seton-Karr, H. W., London, Eng- 
land: 10 paleolithic stone implements — - 
Somaliland, east Africa (gift). 

Taylor, Zachary, Bangkok, Siam: 
2 leather shadow-play figures — Bang- 
kok, Siam (gift). 

Toler, G. E., Chicago: 1 stone eflSgy 
pipe, 1 pottery vessel — Bluff City, 
Fulton County, Illinois (gift). 

Warren, Allyn D., Chicago: 1 large 
carved figure of Vishnu riding on Garuda 
— Bali, Dutch East Indies (gift). 

Wilson, Samuel, Chicago: 1 official 
document on yellow paper bound in 
yellow silk — China (gift). 


Alfaro, Professor Anastasio, San 
Jose, Costa Rica: 46 specimens of 
mosses (gift). 

Andrews, A. H., Estero, Florida: 2 
chayote fruits (gift). 

Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, 
Massachusetts: 650 specimens of plants 

Arsenb, Rev. Brother G., Santa Fe, 
New Mexico: 2,702 specimens of plants 
— New Mexico (gift). 

Atlas Brewing Company, Chicago: 
11 samples of beverages (gift). 

Bailey, Dr. L. H., Ithaca, New 
York: 100 photographs of palms (ex- 

240 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Bellue, Miss Margaret K., Sacra- 
mento, California: 1 plant specimen 

Benke, Hermann C, Chicago: 12 
negatives, 6 photographs of Osage 
orange trees, 88 specimens of Illinois 
plants (gift). 

Buhl, Carl, Chicago : 203 plant speci- 
mens (gift). 

Burkart, Arturo, Buenos Aires, 
Argentina: 93 specimens of plants — 
Argentina (exchange). 

Cabrera, Professor Angel L., La 
Plata, Argentina: 64 specimens of 
plants — Argentina (exchange). 

Calderon, Dr. Salvador, San Sal- 
vador, Salvador: 2 plant specimens 

California Academy of Sciences, 
San Francisco, California: 372 specimens 
of plants— western United States (ex- 

California Department of Agri- 
culture, Sacramento, California: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

Canal Zone Experiment Gardens, 
Summit, Canal Zone: 1 plant specimen 

Cardenas, Professor MartIn, Co- 
chabamba, Bolivia: 178 specimens of 
plants— Bolivia (gift). 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania: 27 specimens of plants — 
Barro Colorado Island (exchange). 

Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D.C.: 275 plant specimens 

Clarkson, Mrs. Ralph, Chicago: 3 
plant specimens (gift). 

Conservatoire BoTANiQUE, Geneva, 
Switzerland: 140 specimens of plants 

CuRTiN; Mrs. Thomas E., Santa Fe, 
New Mexico: 6 plant specimens (gift). 

Dahlgren, Dr. B. E., Chicago: 1 
specimen of jaboticaba wood— Brazil 

Depauw University, Greencastle, 
Indiana: 150 specimens of plants — 
Hawaii (exchange). 

Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Ari- 
zona: 18 plant specimens (gift). 

Direccion General de Agricul- 
TURA, Guatemala City, Guatemala: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

Donaldson, C. S., Avon Park, 
Florida: 3 plant specimens (gift). 

Doolittle, Mrs. Harold M., One- 
kama, Michigan: 1 plant specimen 

DuPoNT DE Nemours, E. I., and 
Company, Wilmington, Delaware: 1 
sample of synthetic rubber (gift). 

Elias, Rev. Brother, Barranquilla, 
Colombia: 348 specimens of plants — 
Colombia (gift). 

Firestone Tire and Rubber Com- 
pany, Akron, Ohio: 1 specimen rubber 
latex, 1 specimen Jelutong rubber (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History: 

Collected by Henry Field and Richard 
Martin (Field Museum Anthropolog- 
ical Expedition to the Near East): 
550 samples of seeds, 55 samples of 
woods, 8,500 plant specimens. 

Collected by Karl P. Schmidt (Leon 
Mandel Guatemala Expedition of Field 
Museum): 3 specimens of plants — 

Rockefeller Foundation Fund for 
Photographing Type Specimens: 5,750 
negatives of type specimens of European 

Transferred from the Division of 
Photography: 3,393 photographic 

Purchases: 100 plant specimens — 
Patagonia; 508 plants — Peru; 414 speci- 
mens of plants — Brazil; 175 specimens 
of cryptogams — Germany, Austria, and 
Switzerland; 478 specimens of plants — 
Honduras; 1 specimen of kola nuts — 
west Africa. 

Fisher, George L., Houston, Texas: 
136 plant specimens, chiefly from Texas 

Flores, Dr. Roman S., Progreso, 
Yucatan: 3 photographs, 2 wood speci- 
mens, 63 plant specimens (gift). 

Forest Research Institute, Dehra 
Dun, India: 30 wood samples (ex- 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Freymuth, Mrs. W. C, River Forest, 
Illinois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Fritz, Professor Emanuel, Berke- 
ley, California: 1 branch of incense 
cedar, 1 branch of redwood, 1 branch of 
western red cedar, 1 branch of Douglas 
fir, 1 branch of Port Orford cedar, 1 
branch of Monterey cypress (gift). 

Fuller, Dr. George D., Chicago: 
1 specimen of alga — Florida (gift). 

Goteborgs Botaniska TradgArd, 
Goteborg, Sweden: 455 plant specimens 
• — Europe, Chile, Juan Fernandez (ex- 

Graham, George, Chicago: 1 sample 
of maple sugar — Wisconsin (gift). 

Grant, Mrs. Adele L., Los Angeles, 
California: 77 plant specimens — south 
Africa (gift). 

Gray Herbarium of Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Massachusetts: 
100 photographic prints, 180 specimens 
of plants (exchange). 

Haynes, Miss Caroline C, High- 
lands, New Jersey: 20 specimens of 
hepatics — New Mexico (gift). 

Hermann, Frederick J., Ann Arbor, 
Michigan: 115 plant specimens — New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania (exchange). 

Hines, Edward, Lumber Company, 
Chicago: 1 board of ponderosa pine 

TOIRE ET Jardin Botaniques, Geneva, 
Switzerland: 2 blueberry cradles (gift). 

Hood, Professor J. Douglas, 
Rochester, New York: 2 plant speci- 
mens — Canal Zone (gift). 

Imperial Forestry Institute, Ox- 
ford, England: 71 specimens of plants — 
tropical Africa (exchange). 

Jardim Botanico, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil: 74 specimens of plants — -Brazil 

Jardin Botanico, Madrid, Spain: 
270 plant specimens — Peru and Co- 
lombia (exchange). 

Johnson, S. C, and Son, Inc., 
Racine, Wisconsin: 9 samples of vegeta- 
ble waxes (gift). 

Kansas Agricultural College, 
Manhattan, Kansas: 542 specimens of 
plants — Kansas and Michigan (ex- 

King, C. J., United States Field 
Station, Sacaton, Arizona: 2 cotton 
plants (gift). 

Laboratorios del Ministerio de 
Agricultura, San Salvador, Salvador: 
8 plant specimens (gift). 

Lankester, Cyrus H., Cartago, 
Costa Rica: 1 photograph (gift). 

Lawrance, Alexander E., Bogota, 
Colombia: 9 plant specimens — Bolivia 

Lenard, I., Chicago: 1 sample of 
potato whiskey — Poland (gift). 

LiNGNAN Natural History Survey 
AND Museum, Canton, China: 105 
samples of woods — China (exchange). 

Lionel Distilled Products, Inc., 
Chicago: 12 samples of distilled and 
fermented beverages (gift). 

McFarlin, James B., Sebring, 
Florida: 2 plant specimens (gift). 

Martinez, Professor Maximino, 
Mexico City, Mexico: 1 plant specimen 

Mexia, Mrs. Ynes, San Francisco, 
California: 34 photographic prints, 332 
specimens of plants — Mexico, Brazil 
and Peru (gift). 

Milton, Roy H., Nashville, Ten- 
nessee: 2 samples of tobacco (gift). 

Moore, George E., Lebanon, Mis- 
souri: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Moore, O. G., Brownsboro, Alabama: 
1 sample of chittam wood (gift). 

Mueller, C. H., Cuero, Texas: 5 
plant specimens (gift). 

MusEO Nacional, San Jose, Costa 
Rica: 122 specimens of plants — Costa 
Rica (gift). 

MusEO Nacional de Historia 
Natural, Buenos Aires, Argentina: 
100 specimens of plants — Argentina 

National Herbarium op Victoria, 
South Yarra, Australia: 52 plant 
specimens — Australia (exchange). 

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, 
Stockholm, Sweden: 361 specimens of 
mosses from Scandinavia, 370 plant 
specimens — South America and Europe 

242 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

New York Botanical Garden, 
Bronx Park, New York: 652 specimens 
of plants (exchange). 

New Y^ork Coffee and Sugar 
Exchange, Inc., New York: 9 samples 
of standards for coffee grading (gift). 

Ortega, Jesus G., Mazatlan, Mexico: 
223 specimens of Mexican plants (gift). 

Page, E. C, Evanston, Illinois: 1 
plant specimen (gift) . 

Paramount Liquor Company, Chi- 
cago: 3 specimens of liquors (gift). 

Parodi, Lorenzo R., Buenos Aires, 
Argentina: 50 plant specimens — Argen- 
tina (exchange). 

Philp, Guy L., College of Agricul- 
ture, University of California, 
Da%ns, California: 1 specimen jujube 

Pomona College, Department of 
Botany, Claremont, California: 49 
specimens of plants, mostly from Lower 
California (exchange). 

Pope, W. T., Honolulu, Hawaii: 1 
specimen of stems of awa (gift). 

PuRPUS, Dr. C. a., Zacuapam, 
Mexico: 160 specimens of Mexican 
plants (gift). 

Richmond Cedar Works, Receivers 
for, Norfolk, Virginia: 1 board of 
southern white cedar (gift). 

Rousseau, Professor Jacques, 
Montreal, Canada: 24 specimens of 
plants — Mexico (gift). 

ScHipp, William A., Punta Gorda, 
British Honduras: 250 specimens of 
plants— British Honduras (gift). 

Sherff, Dr. Earl E., Chicago: 411 
specimens of plants — Hawaii (gift). 

Smith, F. W., Guasave, Mexico: 1 
packet of seeds (gift). 

Spann, James H., Summerville, South 
Carolina: tea flowers and fruit (gift). 

Standley, Miss Margaret, Fort 
Myers, Florida: 1 specimen of fungus 

Standley, Paul C, Chicago: 11 
plant specimens — Indiana (gift). 

Stanford, Leland,University, Cali- 
fornia: 376 plant specimens — western 
United States and Mexico (exchange). 

State College of Washington, 
Pullman, Washington: 100 plant speci- 
mens — northwestern United States (ex- 

Steinheimer, D. J., St. Louis, Mis- 
souri: 1 sample of elderberry wine (gift). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 95 plant specimens 

University of Arkansas, Depart- 
ment OF Botany, Fayetteville, Ar- 
kansas: 177 specimens of plants — 
Arkansas (exchange). 

University of California, Depart- 
ment OF Botany, Berkeley, California: 
1,353 plant specimens (exchange). 

University of California at Los 
Angeles, Los Angeles, California: 89 
specimens of plants — Guatemala (ex- 

University of Michigan, Depart- 
ment OF Botany, Ann Arbor, Michigan: 
8 microscopic slides of wood (gift); 
1,385 plant specimens, mostly from 
Central America (exchange). 

University of Minnesota, De- 
partment of Botany, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota: 111 specimens of plants — 
Minnesota (exchange). 

University of Montana, Depart- 
ment of Botany', Missoula, Montana: 
55 plant specimens — Montana (ex- 

University of Wisconsin, Depart- 
ment of Botany, Madison, Wisconsin: 
1 plant specimen (exchange). 

Uphof, Professor J. C. Th., Winter 
Park, Florida: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Van Cleef Brothers, Chicago: 4 
samples of rubber and materials used 
in processing it (gift). 

Visking Corporation, Chicago: 1 
sample of processed abacd fiber (gift). 

Von Platen-Fox Company, Iron 
Mountain, Michigan: 1 board of 
tamarack (gift). 

Wheeler, Louis C, La Verne, Cali- 
fornia: 11 plant specimens (gift). 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Williams, Arthur R., Riverside, 
Illinois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Williams, Percy, Pretoria, South 
Africa: 5 fruits of Hyphaena crinita 

Yale University, School of For- 
estry, New Haven, Connecticut: 568 

specimens of plants (gift); 131 wood 
samples (exchange). 

Yule, Robert, Chicago: 1 sample of 
Chinese rice liquor (gift). 

Zetek, James, Balboa, Panama Canal 
Zone: 344 specimens of plants — Barro 
Colorado Island (gift). 


Alaska Museum, Juneau, Alaska: 
32 specimens minerals and ores — Alaska 

Barber, C. M., Hot Springs, Ar- 
kansas: 1 vertebra of Tylosaur; 4 
invertebrate fossils — Arkadelphia, Ar- 
kansas (gift). 

Barclay, George C, Newport News, 
Virginia: 6 fossil shells — Yorktown, 
Virginia (gift). 

Bauer, J. A., Hot Springs, Arkansas: 
1 group quartz crystals — Hot Springs, 
Arkansas (gift). 

Becker, A. G. and Raymond B., 
Clermont, Iowa: 81 specimens inver- 
tebrate fossils — Florida (gift). 

Bensabott, R., Inc., Chicago: 1 
carved figure of quartz after crocidolite 
— South Africa (gift). 

Brigham, Edward M., Battle Creek, 
Michigan: 1 agate geode — Datil Moun- 
tains, Mexico (gift); 40 specimens 
volcanic material — Hawaii (exchange). 

Brock, C. S., Houston, Texas: 1 
specimen smaragdite with corundum — 
North Carolina; 1 specimen wood opal — 
Texas (exchange). 

Buker, L.W., Provo, South Dakota: 
1 specimen fossil wood; 5 specimens 
invertebrate fossils — South Dakota 

Calvert, Earl L., San Gabriel, 
California: 1 polished half of blue agate 
— Mohave Desert (exchange). 

Carney, Thomas A., Portland, Ore- 
gon: 4 specimens wood opal — north of 
Roosevelt, Washington (gift). 

Chalmers, William J., Chicago: 15 
specimens placer gold — California and 
Nevada (gift). 

Clark, Wayne, Salt Lake City, Utah: 
4 specimens concentric bleaching in 

shale — Bad Lands of southern Utah 

Cloyd, C. C, New Richmond, Wis- 
consin: 1 specimen calymene iiiagarensis 
 — Chicago (gift). 

Cross, Miss Grace Brewster, Chi- 
cago: 1 specimen sulphur; 1 specimen 
Pele's hair — Kilauea, Hawaii (gift). 

Daston, Joseph, Chicago: 1 tooth 
of Merychippus — Mexico (gift). 

Durand, Arthur Franklin, Chi- 
cago: 2 specimens hollow hematite con- 
cretions — Saugatuck, Michigan (gift). 

El Dorado Gold Mines, Ltd., 
Northwest Territories, Canada: 3 speci- 
mens radium and silver ore — Great 
Bear Lake, Canada (gift). 

Fenton, Carroll Lane, West Lib- 
erty, Iowa: 12 specimens invertebrate 
fossils, 27 geological specimens — Glacier 
National Park and Waterton National 
Park (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 

Collected by Rudyerd Boulton (Straus 
West African Expedition) : 5 specimens 
lava — Mount Cameroon, Africa. 

Collected by Oliver C. Farrington 
(Second Marshall Field Brazilian Ex- 
pedition): 1 specimen gold nugget, 1 
specimen placer gravel with nugget — 
Bahia, Brazil. 

Collected by Henry Field: 5 speci- 
mens limestone — Gibraltar. 

Collected by Henry Field (Anthro- 
pological Expedition to the Near East, 
1934): 1 specimen tin khawa — Amarah, 

Collected by Henry W. Nichols: 2 
specimens quartzite — Ontario; 1 speci- 
men free gold in quartz — Nova Scotia. 

Collected by Phil C. Orr: 21 speci- 
mens cave products, 3 specimens rocks, 

244 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

20 specimens invertebrate fossils, _ 18 
specimens geodes— Glasgow Junction, 

Collected by Elmer S. Riggs: 2 speci- 
mens vertebrate fossils — Bad Lands, 
South Dakota; 1 specimen shell marl — 
Aurora, Illinois. 

Collected by Sharat K. Roy: 66 
specimens invertebrate fossils, 17 speci- 
mens fossil plants — Nebraska and Penn- 

Collected by Karl P. Schmidt 
(Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedition of 
1929) : 1 specimen hematite — near Suva, 
Fiji Islands; (Leon Mandel Guatemala 
Expedition): 2 specimens lava; 2 speci- 
mens pumice — Guatemala. 

Piirchase: 6 specimens trilobites — 
Wichita, Kansas. 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 19 speci- 
mens minerals, 6 specimens rocks, 60 
specimens invertebrate fossils; vertebra, 
jaws and teeth of Ichthyosaurus — 
England and Germany (gift). 

Gardner, William, Chicago: 27 
specimens minerals, 45 specimens in- 
vertebrate fossils and fossil plants — 
various localities (gift). 

Gunnell, E. Mitchell, Galesburg, 
Illinois: 3 specimens minerals — various 
localities (gift); 1 specimen meteorite, 

21 specimens minerals — various locali- 
ties (exchange). 

Hockenbary, Elmer, Interior, South 
Dakota: 3 specimens fossil molar teeth 
—Bad Lands, South Dakota (gift). 

Huber, Herman J., North W'ashing- 
ton, Iowa: 1 limonite concretion, 1 sand- 
polished and etched agate — North 
Washington, Iowa (gift). 

Johns -Manville Company, Chi- 
cago: 1 specimen asbestos board (gift). 

Johnson, F. L., Frankfort, Indiana: 
1 specimen rock weathering — Clinton 
County, Indiana (gift). 

Jones, Mrs. T. R., Jr., _Mena, 
Arkansas: 2 specimens dendrite on 
novaculite — Mena, Arkansas (gift). 

Kopec, Emil, Ashland, Nebraska: 
15 photographs (exchange). 

Kyancutta Museum, Kyancutta, 
South Australia: 5 specimens meteor- 
ites — Australia and Africa (exchange). 

Lange, W. a., Taylor, Texas: 1 
specimen tripoli— Taylor, Texas (gift). 

Lee, Miss Virginia, Ableman, Wis- 
consin: 225 specimens fulgurite — Able- 
man, Wisconsin (gift). 

Luray Caverns Corporation, Lu- 
ray, Virginia: 2 stalactites, 3 stalagmite 
deposits, 6 colored transparencies — 
Luray Cavern, Virginia (gift). 

Markham, Floyd, Chicago: 12 speci- 
mens invertebrate fossils — Blue Island, 
Illinois (gift). 

Markham, Floyd, Chicago; J. Mann, 
Oak Lawn, Illinois; J. Lee, Oak Lawn, 
Illinois; and Sharat K. Roy, Chicago: 
7 specimens invertebrate fossils — Blue 
Island, Illinois (gift). 

Manley, John A., New Brunswick, 
New Jersey: 2 limonite geodes — Middle- 
sex County, New Jersey (gift). 

Mann, J., Oak Lawn, Illinois: 2 
specimens invertebrate fossils — Blue 
Island, Illinois (gift). 

Marriott, Charles, Sault Ste Marie, 
Michigan: 48 claystones — Sault Ste 
Marie, Michigan (gift). 

McIntosh, Franklin G., Beverly 
Hills, California: 8 specimens minerals 
— California (gift); 1 specimen mineral 
— California (exchange). 

Mikimoto, Kokichi, Tokyo, Japan: 
collection of culture pearls — Japan 

Missouri Commission to A Century 
OF Progress, Jefferson City, Missouri: 
9 specimens minerals — Washington 
County, Missouri (gift). 

Mitchell, Paul H., Maritcta, Illi- 
nois: 1 specimen stigmaria— Marietta, 
Illinois (gift). 

MuNROE, Conrad, Chicago: 1 speci- 
men mineral — unknown locality (gift). 

NiNiNGER, Professor H. H., Denver, 
Colorado: 1 slice of Sandia Mountains 
meteorite — New Mexico; 6 specimens 
meteorites — various localities (ex- 

Olberg, Peter, Chicago: 1 specimen 
sequoia — Spitzbergen (gift). 

Rough, Fred, St. Louis, Missouri: 
6 specimens minerals — various locali- 
ties (exchange). 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Price-Green, C, Montreal, Canada: 
12 specimens gold ore, 1 specimen gold 
in quartz — Porcupine, Ontario, Canada 

Pruitt, S. W., Niles, Michigan: 1 
specimen tin ore — North Carolina; 2 
lots minerals — Georgia (gift). 

Rezabek, Stanley, Chicago: 1 speci- 
men diamond — South Africa (gift). 

ROBBINS, George W., Valdez, Alaska: 
1 mammoth tooth, 1 section of mam- 
mo/ tusk — Fairbanks District, Alaska 

Roberts, Edwin A., Riverside, Cali- 
fornia: 2 specimens minerals — Cali- 
fornia (gift); 4 specimens minerals — 
California (exchange). 

RoDGBRS, Dr. E. a., Sainte Gene- 
vieve, Missouri: 1 specimen Orthoceras 
— Sainte Genevieve, Missouri (gift). 

Royal Ontario Museum of Pale- 
ontology, Toronto, Canada: 1 skull 
without jaws of Anchiceratops ornatus, 
1 skull and jaws of Edmontosaurus 
regalis — Alberta, Canada (exchange). 

Shaeffer, Walter L., Chicago: 1 
specimen pumice — California (gift). 

Shead, J. O., Norman, Oklahoma: 9 
specimens barite roses — Norman, Okla- 
homa (gift). 

Sloane, Robert, and A. R. Renner, 
Klamath Falls, Oregon: 1 specimen 
wood opal — Quartz Mountain, Oregon 

Standard Oil Company of Indiana, 
Chicago: 42 specimens petroleum prod- 

ucts — Whiting, Indiana; 44 wax flow- 
ers, 36 dozen wax paper dishes, 6 
dozen sheets paraffin paper (gift). 

Standard Oil Company of New 
Jersey, New York: 14 specimens 
vertebrate fossils — Argentina (gift). 

Sylvanus, Edward C, Chicago: 1 
polished slab of Mexican onyx — 
Viroqua, Wisconsin (gift). 

United States Potash Company, 
New York: 5 specimens minerals, 1 
specimen malpais lava — New Mexico 

Von Drasek, Frank, Cicero, Illi- 
nois: 33 specimens minerals — Arkansas 

Weil, Jack, Chicago: 16 specimens 
minerals — Colorado (gift). 

Wharton, J. R., Roseburg, Oregon: 
1 polished specimen of lignite in shale 
— Roseburg, Oregon (gift). 

Wheeler, Seymour, for his father, 
the late Charles P. Wheeler, Chicago: 
37 specimens lead and zinc ore — Em- 
breeville, Tennessee (gift). 

Witter, Robert V., Bayers, Ne- 
braska: 10 specimens minerals — Morrill 
County, Nebraska (gift). 

Wright, Randall, Chicago: 1 speci- 
men orthoclase — San Diego, California 

Wright-Hargreaves Mines, Ltd., 
Ontario, Canada: 1 specimen gold ore — 
Kirkland Lake, Ontario (gift). 


AcosTA y Lara, Eduardo F., Monte- 
video, Uruguay: 3 bat skins and 4 skulls 
— Uruguay (gift). 

Aldrich, Jack, Oak Park, Illinois: 
1 pickerel head — Lake Delavan, Wis- 
consin (gift). 

Andrews, E. Wyllys, IV, Chicago: 1 
vampire bat, 1 frog, 1 lizard, 4 turtles, 
30 snakes, 2 lots snake eggs and em- 
bryos, 15 insects and allies — Yucatan 

Bebb, Herbert, Chicago: 7 beetles- 
Chicago (exchange). 

BiRKS, Thomas K., Chicago: 1 
tiger salamander — Okee, Wisconsin 


Blackburn, Miss E. R., Merida, 
Yucatan: 5 lizards, 16 snakes— Merida, 
Yucatan (exchange). 

Bower, H. M., Evanston, Illinois: 2 
butterflies, 2 moths — Utah and Wis- 
consin (gift). 

Bristol, Maurice L., Elgin, Illi- 
nois: 3 cicadas — Elgin, Illinois (gift). 

Brown, E. J., Oranjested, Aruba: 
122 insects — Ecuador (gift). 

Brundage, Edward, Washington, 
Connecticut: 1 coral king snake, 24 in- 
sects and allies — various localities (gift). 

Buck, Frank, A Century of Pro- 
gress exposition: 1 East Indian moni- 
tor, 2 iguanas, 1 king cobra (gift). 

246 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Caribbean Biological Labora- 
tories, Biloxi, Mississippi: 9 mammal 
skins and 8 skulls — Biloxi, Mississippi; 
5 tree-frogs — Australia; 1 lizard — South 
Africa (gift). 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania: 104 frogs and toads, 62 
lizards, 35 snakes — Africa (exchange). 

Cascard, Ben, Chicago: 9 beetles 
— San Jacinto Mountains, California 

Chalmers, William J., Chicago: 2 
photographs of sable antelope and 
wildebeest, 1 map and guide to Kruger 
National Park (gift). 

Charleston Museum, Charleston, 
South Carolina: 14 eastern chain 
pickerel — Berkeley County, South Caro- 
lina (gift). 

Chicago Zoological Society, 
Brookfield, Illinois: 1 spiny anteater, 3 
kangaroos — Australia and New Guinea; 
1 brocket deer — Guatemala; 2 chim- 
panzees — Africa; 1 cormorant, 2 alba- 
trosses — Galapagos Islands; 2 bower 
birds, 1 Asiatic starling; 2 snakes, 
4 lizards — Australia; 3 snakes, 11 
lizards — various localities (gift). 

Cole, L. C, Chicago: 2 lizards — 
Navajo County, Arizona (gift). 

CONOVER, Boardman, Chicago: 1 
mounted passenger pigeon — Ontario, 
Canada; 8 game birds — various local- 
ities; 3 bird skins — Belgian Congo 
(exchange); 1 green-winged teal — Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Cramer, Miss Bertha, Highland 
Park, Illinois: 1 bat skeleton, 2 rail 
skeletons — Highland Park, Illinois (gift). 

Crandall, Robert H., Phoenix, 
Arizona: 4 beetles — Phoenix, Arizona 

Cutler, Bob, Kenilworth, Illinois: 
1 green snake — Glencoe, Illinois (gift). 

Davis, D. Dwight, Naperville, Illi- 
nois: 4 snakes — DuPage County, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Dickey, Donald R., Collection, 
Pasadena, California: 4 bird skins — 
various localities (gift). 

Dixon, Mrs. Homer, Chicago: 1 
mounted rabbit (gift). 

Dybas, Hen"RY, Chicago: 38 insects — 
Illinois and Indiana (gift). 

Dybas, Henry, and Floyd Wrier- 
CINSKI, Chicago: 1 massasauga — 
Beverly Shores, Indiana (gift). 

Felippon*e, Dr. Florentino, Monte- 
video, Uruguay: 5 bats— Uruguay (gift). 

Fenn^ma, Mrs. Marie, Chicago: 1 
brown bat — Chicago (gift). 

Field, Marshall, New York: 19 
sculptured figures of British champion 
domestic animals (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 
Collected by Rudyerd and Laura 
Boulton and Frank C. Wonder (Straus 
West African Expedition): 350 mam- 
mal skins, 502 skulls, 84 mammals in 
alcohol, 36 skeletons; 714 bird skins, 
143 skeletons, 56 birds in alcohol, 14 
birds' eggs, 4 boxes group accessories; 
245 toads and frogs, 16 chameleons, 
220 lizards, 37 snakes, 9 turtles, 6 
crocodiles; 323 fishes — west Africa. 

Collected by Henry Field and 
Richard A. Martin (Anthropological Ex- 
pedition to the Near East, 1934): 127 
mammals in alcohol, 7 mammal skins 
with 2 skeletons, 8 camel skulls, 23 
bird skins, 1 set birds' eggs, 78 frogs and 
toads, 6 salamanders, 330 lizards, 133 
snakes, 12 turtles, 20 fishes — southwest- 
em Asia. 

Collected by Albert J. Franzen: 2 
immature mink — Cook County, 

Collected by Colin C. Sanborn: 4 
toads, 2 frogs, 2 beetles — Lake County, 

Collected by Karl P. Schmidt, Frank 
J. W. Schmidt, Emmet R. Blake, 
Daniel Clark (Leon Mandel Guate- 
mala Expedition): 380 mammal sKins, 
389 skulls, 111 mammals in alcohol, 
23 skeletons; 875 bird skins, 1 skeleton, 
30 boxes of nests; 341 frogs and toads, 
662 salamanders, 603 lizards, 222 
snakes, 17 turtles, 2 crocodiles; 130 
fishes; 1,629 insects and lower inverte- 
brates — Guatemala. 

Purchases: 2 clawed frogs — Africa; 
12 lizards — Balearic Islands; 1 clouded 
leopard skin — China; 2 pheasants- 
Illinois; 3 snow-leopard skins — India; 
6 hummingbirds — Mexico; 2 sage grouse 

Forbis, Homer, Albany, Missouri: 
4 sand wasps — Albany, Missouri (gift). 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Franzen, Albert J., Chicago: 1 
herring gull skeleton, 1 tern skeleton, 
1 turtle, 21 insects, 3 parasitic worms — 
Illinois (gift). 

Frazier, C. a., Stuart, Florida: 1 
diamond-back rattlesnake — S t u a r t , 
Florida (gift). 

Fribsser, Julius, Chicago: 1 wasp — 
Chicago (gift). 

General Biological Supply House, 
Chicago: 1 clouded leopard skull — 
India (exchange); 3 snakes, 5 lizards 
— California; 4 frogs, 2 salamanders, 
5 snakes — various localities; 1 lungfish 
— Africa (gift). 

Gerhard, William J., Chicago: 45 
insects — Illinois and Indiana (gift). 

Gregg, Clifford C, Park Ridge, 
Illinois: 5 flies — Chicago (gift). 

Gregory, Stephen S., Winnetka, 
Illinois: 1 hawk skeleton — Winnetka, 
Illinois (gift). 

Hamlett, Dr. G. W., Boston, 
Massachusetts: 23 bats — Brazil (gift). 

Haskin, J. R., Babson Park, Florida: 
9 moths — Auburndale, Florida (gift). 

HiCKiN, N. E., Birmingham, Eng- 
land: 56 butterflies and moths — Eng- 
land (gift). 

HiNE, Ashley, Chicago: 6 mounted 
young ruflfed grouse, 9 grouse skins — 
various localities (exchange). 

HoLLEY, Francis E., Lombard, 
Illinois: 32 insects — United States and 
Panama (gift). 

HuBBELL, Dr. Theodore H., Gaines- 
ville, Florida: 6 camel crickets — 
Michigan and Ohio (gift). 

Job, Dr. W., Popayan, Colombia: 42 
insects — Colombia (gift). 

Kane, Miss Ruth W., Chicago: 1 
grosbeak skeleton — Chicago (gift). 

Kreer, J. G., Chicago: 7 beetles — 
Pine Bluff, Arkansas (gift). 

Laybourne, Miss Phyllis, Home- 
wood, Illinois: 1 red-backed sala- 
mander — Shadeland, Indiana (gift). 

Letl, Frank H., Hazel Crest, Illi- 
nois: 1 opossum skeleton — Hazel Crest, 
Illinois (gift). 

Liljeblad, Emil, Chicago: 1 stag 
beetle — Java (gift). 

Lincoln Park Commissioners, 
Chicago: 1 young orang utan, 1 griffon 
vulture, 1 plantain-eater (gift). 

Liu, Dr. C. C, Soochow, China: 34 
frogs and toads, 6 lizards — China 

Lowrie, Donald C, Chicago: 3 
snakes, 1 lizard — Greenbriar, Ten- 
nessee (gift). 

McLaren, James, Highland Park, 
Illinois: 1 red bat — Highland Park, 
Illinois (gift). 

Miller, Frank, Delavan, Wiscon- 
sin: 1 green snake — Delavan, Wiscon- 
sin (gift). 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: 6 bat skins 
with skulls — Africa and Brazil 

Necker, Walter L., Chicago: 1 
pilot blacksnake — Turkey Run, Indiana 

Neitzel, William, Chicago: 3 Fow- 
ler's toads — Stevensville, Michigan 

Oppenheimer, Harry D., Chicago: 
1 mounted bat — Trinidad; 1 fish 
skeleton (gift). 

Park, Dr. Orlando, Evanston, 
Illinois: 5 beetles — Urbana, Illinois 

Pearsall, Gordon S., Batavia, 
Illinois: 1 lesser yellowlegs, 5 snakes, 3 
mole crickets — Willow Springs, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Pearson, Dr. J. F. W., Coral Gables, 
Florida: 13 frogs and toads — Coral 
Gables, Florida (gift). 

Peattie, Dr. Donald C, Glenview, 
Illinois: 2 beetles — Glenview, Illinois 

Perkins, R. Marlin, St. Louis, 
Missouri: 7 snakes — Brazil and Guate- 
mala (gift). 

Perlstein, Dr. M. A., Chicago: 1 
garter snake — Beverly Hills, Illinois 

Peterson, Martin, Chicago: 1 
armored catfish (gift). 

Philby, H. St. J., Mecca, Arabia: 
1,043 insects and allies— Hejaz, Arabia 


248 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

PiRiE, John T., Lake Forest, Illinois: 
1 albino crow — Lake Forest, Illinois 

PiRNlE, M. D., Battle Creek, Michi- 
gan: 1 American merganser, 2 Ameri- 
can goldeneyes (gift). 

Plath, Karl, Chicago: 1 tanager — 
South America; 2 bird skeletons (gift). 

Pray, Leon L., Homewood, Illinois: 
1 mole — Harvey, Illinois (gift). 

QuiNN, J. H., Chicago: 1 gray bat — 
Barren County, Kentucky (gift). 

Rafferty, Robert, Chicago: 1 
woodcock — Chicago (gift). 

Richards, Mrs. Charles C, 
Chicago: 1,862 North American birds' 
eggs (gift). 

Rueckert, Arthur G., Chicago: 1 
flying squirrel — Ashland County, Wis- 
consin (gift). 

Sanborn, Colin C, Highland Park, 
Illinois: 1 white-footed mouse, 1 bug — 
Highland Park, Illinois; 1 painted 
turtle — Lake County, Illinois (gift). 

Sanford, Dr. L. C, New Haven, 
Connecticut: 1 Mexican bear skin 

Schmidt, F. J. W., Madison, Wis- 
consin: 1 painted turtle — Ashland 
County, Wisconsin (gift). 

Shedd, John G., Aquarium, Chicago: 
86 fishes — various localities (gift). 

Slevin, C. a., Chicago: 1 tarantula 
— Rogers, Arkansas (gift). 

Sperry, John L., Riverside, Cali- 
fornia: 6 sphinx moths — California 

Standley, Mrs. Florence R., Fort 
Myers, Florida: 3 bugs — Fort Myers, 
Florida (gift). 

Sugden, J. W., Salt Lake City, 
Utah: 11 moths — Salt Lake County, 
Utah (gift). 

Sullivan, Douglas, Chicago: 1 
spider — Kirkwood, Missouri (gift). 

Surghnor, Colonel V. H., Chicago: 
1 mountain sheep head — Alaska (gift). 

SwANSON, GusTAV, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota: 8 frogs — Minnesota (gift). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 1 gibbon skin and 
skeleton — Borneo (exchange). 

Walker, Charles F., Ann Arbor, 
Michigan: 2 frogs — Biloxi, Mississippi 

Wallen, Lieutenant Seeley A., 
Yardley, Pennsylvania: 1 wild boar 
skin with skull, 1 jungle fowl skin — 
Philippine Islands (gift). 

Walpole, Stewart J., Chicago: 1 
pocket gopher skin and skull — Temax, 
Yucatan (gift). 

Walton, Mrs. E., Highland Park, 
Illinois: 2 black-throated green war- 
blers, 5 bird skeletons — Highland Park 


Warke, Thomas, Chicago: 1 phoebe, 
1 oven bird — Chicago (gift). 

Watson, Donald K., Chicago: 5 
beetles — Dallas County, Texas (gift). 

Weed, Alfred C, Chicago: 39 
insects — Chicago (gift). 

Wheeler, Leslie, Lake Forest, 
Illinois: 1 red-tailed hawk— Henry, 
Illinois; 1 eagle, 9 hawks, 3 owls — 
Korea; 7 hawks, 1 owl — China; 22 
hawks, 6 owls, 4 caracara, 1 vulture 
— Mexico; 248 bird skins — Chitau, 
Angola (gift). 

WoLCOTT, Albert B., Downers 
Grove, Illinois: 427 insects — Illinois 

Wood, William C, New York: 20 
tiger beetles — various localities (gift). 

Zimmerman, Robert, Chicago: 1 
pair shark jaws— Hawaii (gift). 


Field Museum of Natural History: 

From Division of Photography : 
404 slides; 375 feet of 16-mm. film 

taken at Brookfield Zoo (purchase). 

Mandel, Leon, Chicago: 5,000 feet 
of 35-mm. film on Guatemala (gift). 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


division of photography — ACCESSIONS 

Jennings, John F., Chicago: 796 
negatives of natives, seascapes, land- 
scapes, and general views — west Africa 

Field Museum of Natural History: 

Made by Division of Photography: 
20,137 prints, 1,737 negatives, 508 
lantern slides, 150 enlargements, and 
28 transparent labels. 

Developed for expeditions: 535 nega- 

From Field Museum Archaeological 
Expedition to the Near East (made 
by Richard A. Martin): 3,272 nega- 
tives of natives, taken in Iraq; 2,030 
motion picture negatives, taken in 
Iraq; 756 negatives of natives, taken 
in Persia; 100 negatives of natives, 
taken in Transjordania, Syria, and 
Palestine; 576 negatives of natives, 
taken in Union of Soviet Socialistic 

Made by Bryan Patterson: 30 nega- 
tives of general views in Colorado. 


List of Donors of Books 


Agricultural Experiment Station, Agri- 
cultural College, Mississippi. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Au- 
burn, Alabama. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Washington, D.C. 

American Friends of China, Chicago. 

American Jewish Committee, New 

American Mining Congress, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Atlas des Champignons de I'Europe, 
Prague, Czechoslovakia. 

Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, 

Children's Museum, Boston, Massa- 

Chinese National Committee on In- 
tellectual Cooperation, Shanghai, 

Chinese Trading Company, Chicago. 

Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloom- 
field Hills, Michigan. 

Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado. 

Deutsche Fischwirtschaft, Berlin, Ger- 

Drew University, Madison, New Jersey. 

Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, 
Rochester, New York. 

Black Diamond, Chicago. 

Black Hills Engineer, Rapid City, South 

British School of Archaeology, Jeru- 
salem, Palestine. 

Bunrika Daigaku, Tokyo, Japan. 

Canadian Mini7ig Journal, Gardenvale, 

Carnegie Corporation of New York. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, 

Century of Progress, A, Chicago. 

Chemical Foundation, New York. 

Chicago and North Western Railway, 

Chicago Association of Commerce, Chi- 

Emergency Conservation Committee, 
New York. 

Erie Public Library and Museum, Erie, 

Fontana Company, Mario A., Mon- 
tevideo, Uruguay. 

Friedlander and Son, Berlin, Ger- 

Garden Club of America, New York. 

General Biological Supply House, Chi- 

German Tourist Travel, New York. 

Grosvenor Library, Buffalo, New York. 

Hartford Public Library, Hartford, 

Home Aquarium, East Orange, New 

Huntington, Henry E., Library and 
Art Gallery, San Marino, California. 

250 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Illinois Bell Telephone Company, Chi- 

Illinois Central System, Chicago. 

Illinois State Academy of Sciences, 
Springfield, Illinois. 

Imperial College of Science and Tech- 
nology, London, England. 

Inspector of Mines, Boise, Idaho. 

International Wild Life Protection, 
American Committee, New York. 

Italian Tourist Information Office, New 

Izaak Walton League of America, Chi- 

.Japan Society, New York. 

Journal of Calendar Reform, New York. 

Kalamazoo Vegetable Parchment Com- 
pany, Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Kentucky Academy of Science, Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky. 

Maderil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

Mediaeval Academy of America, Boul- 
der, Colorado. 

Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Mexican Embassy, Washington, D.C. 

More Game Birds in America, Inc., New 

Morse Museum, Warren, New Hamp- 

Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois. 

Mountaineer Club, Seattle, Washington. 

Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Museum of the City of New York. 

Nederlandsch Indie Travelers' Office, 
Information Bureau, Batavia, Java. 

Nelson, William Rockhill, Gallery of 
Art, Kansas City, Missouri. 

Oregon Agate and Mineral Society, 

Portland, Oregon. 
Oriental Ceramic Society, London, 


Pacific Scientific Institute of Fisheries, 
Vladivostok, Union of Soviet Social- 
istic Republics. 

Pennsylvania Historical Commission, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania Plastic Products, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

School Life, Washington, D.C. 

Science Service, Washington, D.C. 

Scientific American, New York. 

Scott, Foresman and Company, Chi- 

Silica Products Company, Kansas City, 

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, 

State Bureau of Mines and Geology, 
Butte, Montana. 

Stone Publishing Company, New Y'ork. 

Sul Ross State Teachers College, Alpine, 

Sun Mon Corporation, Chicago. 

Sweet's Catalogue Service, New York. 

Swift and Company, Chicago. 

Taylor Instrument Companies, Roches- 
ter, New York. 

Tennessee Ornithological Society, Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. 

Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio. 

Topographical and Geological Survey, 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Union League Club, Chicago. 

Victor News, Chicago. 

Wellcome Research Institute, London, 

Whitman College, Walla Walla, Wash- 

W' itte Memorial Museum, San Antonio, 

World Calendar Association, New Y'ork. 

Y'anaguana Society, San Antonio, Texas . 


Babcock, Ernest Brown, Berkeley, 

Bachler, Mrs. Mae Ellena, Chicago. 

Barros, Rafael, Santiago, Chile. 

Beatty, John D., Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 

Benke, Hermann C, Chicago. 

Black, Dr. Davidson, Peiping, China. 
Bourret, Rene, Hanoi, Indo-China. 
Brandstetter, Renward, Lucerne, 

Breuil, I'Abbe Henri, Lagny, France. 
Byrne, P. E., Bismarck, North Dakota. 

Canals, Jose, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Chinnery, E. W. P., Canberra, Aus- 

Cleland, Joseph Burton, Adelaide, South 

Cornell, Margaret M., Chicago. 

Dahlgren, Dr. B. E., Chicago. 

Davis, D. Dwight, Naperville, Illinois. 

Ewart, Professor A. J., Melbourne, 

Farley, Malcom Fisk, Foochow, China. 
Faura i Sans, M., Barcelona, Spain. 
Field, Henry, Chicago. 
Field, Marshall, New York. 
Field, Stanley, Chicago. 
Firestone, Harvey S., Akron, Ohio. 
Foran, Ethel Ursula, Montreal, Quebec. 
Fosberg, F. R., Los Angeles, California. 
Francis, W. D., Brisbane, Australia. 

Gadeau de Kerville, Henri, Paris, 

Gale, Esson M., Shanghai, China. 

Gerhard, W. J., Chicago. 

Gloyd, Howard Kay, Ann Arbor, 

Goble, S. M., Chicago. 
Goddard, Dwight, Santa Barbara, Cali- 

Gordon, Samuel G., Philadelphia, Penn- 

Graves, William Washington, St. Louis, 

Gregg, Clifford C, Park Ridge, Illinois. 
Guthe, Carl E., Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Harte, H. B., Chicago. 

Hilleman, Howard H., Milwaukee, 

Jones, Edith Seymour, Madison, Wis- 

Kelso, Leon H., Washington, D.C. 

Kirby, Percival R., Johannesburg, 
South Africa. 

Kouchakji, Fahim, New York. 

Larco H., Rafael, Lima, Peru. 

Laufer, Dr. Berthold, Chicago. 

Laughlin, Dr. Harry H., Cold Spring 
Harbor, New York. 

Lee, Ivy, New York. 

Leh, Leonard L., Boulder, Colorado. 

Lehmann, E., Giessen. Germany. 

Liljeblad, Emil, Chicago. 

Lindblom, Dr. Gerhard, Stockholm, 

Lines, Jorge A., San Jose, Costa Rica. 

Linton, Dr. Ralph, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Looser, Gualterio, Santiago, Chile. 

Lopatin, A., Los Angeles, California. 

Lotto, Edward, Warsaw, Poland. 

Lynge, Bernt, Oslo, Norway. 

McCurdy, George Grant, Old Lyme, 

Mackay, E. J. H. 
Merrill, Dr. Elmer Drew, New York. 

Mertens, Dr. R., Frankfort on the 
Main, Germany. 

Nabours, Robert K., Manhattan, 

Nichols, Henry W., Chicago. 

Nininger, H. H., Denver, Colorado. 

Nissen, Dr. Claus, Mainz-Kastel, Ger- 

Okada, Yaichiro, Tokyo, Japan. 
Osgood, Dr. Cornelius, New Haven, 

Osgood, Dr. Wilfred H., Chicago. 

Oudemaus, Dr. A. C, Arnhem, Nether- 

Peattie, Donald Culross, Glenview, 

Prasad, P., Bihar, India. 
Probst, L., Langendorf, Germany. 

Reed, Howard, Riverside, California. 

Sanborn, Colin C, Highland Park, Illi- 
Sarkar, Benoy, Calcutta, India. 

Scherman, Dr. Lucian, Munich, Ger- 

Schmidt, Karl Patterson, Homewood, 

Sennen, Professor F., Barcelona, Spain. 

Serrano, Antonio, Parana, Argentina. 

Sherff, Dr. Earl E., Chicago. 

Shipley, Robert M., Los Angeles, Cali- 

Simms, Stephen C, Chicago. 

Slocom, A. W., Chicago. 

Standley, Paul C, Chicago. 

Stegagno, Dr. Giuseppe, Verona, Italy. 

Stone, George Cameron, Portland, 

252 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Thompson, J. Eric, Chicago. 
Tokunaga, Shigeyasu, Tokyo, Japan. 
Truchet, Francis, Chicago. 

Vail, R. W. G., Worcester, Massa- 

Vavilov, N. I., Leningrad, Union of 
Soviet Socialistic Republics. 

Vignati, Milciades Alejo, La Plata, 

Weed, Alfred C, Chicago. 

Williams, James S., Washington, D.C. 

Winstedt, R. O., Singapore, Straits 

Wolcott, A. B., Downers Grove, Illinois. 

Worrell, William H., Ann Arbor, 

Wyatt, Misses Edith Franklin and 
Faith, Chicago. 

Webb, Hanor A., Nashville, Tennessee, Yamanaka, Sadajiro, New York. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 



Marshall Field* 


Those who have contributed $100,000 or more to the Museum 

Ayer, Edward E.* 

Buckingham, Miss 
Kate S. 

Crane, Cornelius 
Crane, R. T., Jr.* 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
* Deceased 

Field, Joseph N.* 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W.* 

Kelley, William V.* 

Pullman, George M.* 

Raymond, Mrs. Anna 

Raymond, Jam^ Nelson* 

Simpson, James 

Higinbotham, Harlow N.* Sturges, Mrs. Mary D. 


Those who Jmve rendered eminent service to Science 

Breasted, Professor 
James H. 

Chalmers, William J. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Marshall 

Field, Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 

Ludwig, H. R. H. Gustaf 
Adolf, Crown Prince of 

McCormick, Stanley 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Simpson, James 
Sprague, Albert A. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 


Those who have rendered eminent service to the Museum 

Armour, Allison V. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chancellor, Philip M. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cummings, Mrs. 

Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Hancock, G. Allan 

Insull, Samuel 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 
Knight, Charles R. 

Langdon, Professor 

Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Payne, John Barton 
Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H, 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

Wegeforth, Dr. Harry M. 
White, Harold A. 
White, Howard J. 

254 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Scientists or patrons of science, residing in foreign countries, who have rendered 

eminent service to the Museum 

Breuil, Abbe Henri 
Christensen, Dr. Carl 
Diels, Dr. Ludwig 

Hochreutiner, Dr. B. P. Langdon, Professor 
Georges Stephen 

Keith, Professor 
Sir Arthur 

Deceased, 1934 

Black, Dr. Davidson 

Smith, Professor Sir 
Grafton Elliot 


Those who have contributed $1,000 to $100,000 to the Museum 
in money or materials 

$75,000 to $100,000 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Rawson, Frederick H. 

$50,000 to $75,000 
Keep, Chauncey* 

Rosenwald, Mrs. 
Augusta N.* 
Ryerson, Martin A.* 

$25,000 to $50,000 

Blackstone, Mrs. 
Timothy B.* 

Coats, John* 
Crane, Charles R. 

Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Jones, Arthur B.* 

Porter, George F.* 

Rosenwald, Julius* 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

White, Harold A. 

$10,000 to $25,000 

Armour, Allison V. 
Armour, P. D.* 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chalmers, William J. 
Conover, Boardman 

Cummings, R. F.* 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Everard, R. T.* 

Gunsaulus, Dr. F. W.* 

InsuU, Samuel 

McCormick, Cyrus 

McCormick, Stanley 
Mitchell, John J.* 

Reese, Lewis* 
Robb, Mrs. George W. 
Rockefeller Foundation, 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Schweppe, Mrs. 

Charles H. 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Straus, Mrs. Sarah S. 
Strong, Walter A.* 

Wrigley, William, Jr.* 

$5,000 to $10,000 

Adams, George E.* 
Adams, Milward* 

Bartlett, A. C* 
Bishop, Heber (Estate) 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay* 

Crane, R. T.* 

Doane, J. W.* 

Fuller, William A.* 

Graves, George Coe, II 

Harris, Hayden B. 
Harris, Norman Dwight 
Harris, Mrs. Norman W.* 
Hutchinson, C. L.* 

Keith, Edson* 

Langtry, J. C. 

MacLean, Mrs. M, 

Mandel, Leon 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Pearsons, D. K.* 
Porter, H. H.* 

Ream, Norman B.* 
Revell, Alexander H.* 

Salie, Prince M. U. M. 
Sprague, A. A.* 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Thome, Bruce 
Tree, Lambert* 

$1,000 to $5,000 

American Friends of 

Ayer, Mrs. Edward E.* 

Barrett, Samuel E. 
Bensabott, R., Inc. 
Blair, Watson F.* 
Blaschke, Stanley 

Borden, John 

* Deceased 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 
Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr. 
Crocker, Templeton 
Cummings, Mrs. 
Robert F. 

Doering, O. C. 

Field, Henry 

Graves, Henry, Jr. 
Gunsaulus, Miss Helen 

Hibbard, W. G.* 
Higginson, Mrs. 

Charles M. 
Hill, James J.* 
Hixon. Frank P.* 

Hoffman, Miss Malvina 
Hughes, Thomas S. 

Jackson, Huntington W.* 
James, S. L. 

Laufer, Dr. Berthold* 
Lee Ling Yiin 

Mandel, FVed L., Jr. 
Manierre, George* 
Martin. Alfred T.* 
McCormick, Cyrus H. 
McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus* 

Ogden, Mrs, Frances E.* 

Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 

Rauchfuss, Charles F. 
Raymond, Charles E. 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Martin A. 

Schwab, Martin C. 
Shaw, William W. 
Sherff, Dr. Earl E. 
Smith, Byron L.* 
Sprague, Albert A. 

Thompson, E. H. 
Thome, Mrs. Louise E. 

VanValzah, Dr. Robert 
VonFrantzius, Fritz* 

Willis, L. M. 


Armour, Allison V. 

Borden, John 
Byram, Harry E. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chalmers, William J. 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Chatfield-Taylor, H. C. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cummings, Mrs. 

Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Joseph N. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Hancock, G. Allan 
Harris, Albert W. 

Insull, Samuel 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 
Knight, Charles R. 

Langdon, Professor 

McCormick, Cyrus H. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Mrs. William H, 

Payne, John Barton 
Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Richardson, George A. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Simms, Stephen C. 
Simpson, James 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

Wegeforth, Dr. Harry M. 
Wheeler, Leslie 
White, Harold A. 
White, Howard J. 


Those who hare contributed $500 to the Museum 

Abbott, John Jay 
Abbott, Robert S. 
Adler, Max 
Alexander, William A. 
AUerton, Robert H. 
Ames, James C. 
Armour, A. Watson 
Armour, Allison V. 
Armour, Lester 
Armour, Mrs. Ogden 
Asher, Louis E. 
Avery, Sewell L. 

Babcock, Frederick R. 
Babson, Henry B. 

Bacon, Edward 

Richardson, Jr. 
Banks, Alexander F. 
Barrett, Mrs. A. D. 
Barrett, Robert L. 
Bartlett, Miss Florence 

Baur, Mrs. Jacob 
Bendix, Vincent 
Bensabott, R. 
Bermingham, Edward J. 
Billings, C. K. G. 
Blaine, Mrs. Emmons 
Blair, Chauncey B. 
Block, L. E. 
Block, Philip D. 

Booth, W. Vernon 
Borden, John 
Borland, Chauncey B. 
Boynton, Mrs. C. T. 
Brassert, Herman A. 
Brewster, Walter S. 
Brown, Charles Edward 
Browne, Aldis J. 
Buchanan, D. W. 
Budd, Britton I. 
Buffington, Eugene J. 
Burnham, John 
Burt, William G. 
Butler, JuHus W. 
Butler, Rush C. 
Byram, Harry E. 

256 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Carpenter, Augustiw A. 
Carpenter, Mrs. Hubbard 
Carpenter, Mrs. John 

Carr, George R. 
Carr, Robert F. 
Carr, Walter S. 
Casalis, Mrs. Maurice 
Chalmers, William J. 
Chahners, Mrs. William J. 
Chatfield-Taylor, Wayne 
Clark, Eugene B. 
Clegg, William G. 
Clegg, Mrs. William G. 
Clow, William E. 
Collins, William M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cooke, George A. 
Corley, F. D. 
Cowles, Alfred 
Cramer, Corwith 
Cramer, E. W. 
Cramer, Mrs. 

Katharine S. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Crossett, Edward C. 
Crossley, Lady Josephine 
Crossley, Sir Kenneth 
Crowell, H. P. 
Cudahy, Edward A. 
Cudahy, Edward A., Jr. 
Cudahy, Joseph M. 
Cunningham, Frank S. 
Cunningham, James D. 
Gushing, Charles G. 
Cutten, Arthur W. 

Dau, J. J. 
Davies, Mrs. D. C. 
Dawes, Charles G. 
Dawes, Henry M. 
Dawes, Rufus C. 
Decker, Alfred 
Delano, Frederic A. 
Dierssen, Ferdinand W. 
Dixon, George W. 
Dixon, Homer L. 
Donnelley, Thomas E. 
Doyle, Edward J. 
Drake, John B. 
Drake, Tracy C. 
Dreyfus, Moise 
Durand, Scott S. 

Eckstein, Louis 
Edmunds, Philip S. 
Epstein, Max 
Everitt, George B. 
Ewing, Charles Hull 

Farnum, Henry W. 
Farr, Newton Camp 
Farr, Miss Shirley 
Farwell, Arthur L. 

Farwell, Francis C. 
Farwell, John V. 
Farwell, Walter 
Fay, C. N. 
Fenton, Howard W. 
Fentress, Calvin 
Ferguson, Louis A. 
Fernald, Charles 
Field, Joseph N. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Norman 
Field, Mrs. Norman 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 
Florsheim, Milton S. 

Gardner, Paul E. 
Gardner, Robert A. 
Gartz, A. F., Jr. 
Gary, Mrs. John W. 
Getz, George F. 
Gilbert, Huntly H. 
Glessner, John J. 
Glore, Charles F. 
Goddard, Leroy A. 
Goodman, William O. 
Goodrich, A. W. 
Goodspeed, Charles B. 
Gowing, J. Parker 
Graham, Ernest R. 
Griffiths, John 
Griscom, Clement A. 

Hack, Frederick C. 
Hamill, Alfred E. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W, 
Haskell, Frederick T. 
Hastings, Samuel M. 
Hayes, William F. 
Hecht, Frank A., Jr. 
Hibbard, Frank 
Hickox, Mrs. Charles V. 
Hill, Louis W. 
Hinde, Thomas W. 
Hippach, Louis A. 
Hixon, Robert 
Hopkins, J. M. 
Hopkins, L. J. 
Horowitz, L. J. 
Hoyt, N. Landon 
Hughes, Thomas S. 
Hutchins, James C. 

Insull, Martin J. 
Insull, Samuel 
Insull, Samuel, Jr. 

Jarnagin, William N. 
Jelke, John F., Jr. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Joiner, Theodore E. 
Jones, Miss Gwethalyn 

Kelley, Mrs. Daphne 

Kelley, Russell P. 
Kelly, D. F. 
Kidston, William H. 
King, Charles Garfield 
King, James G. 
Kirk, Walter Radcliffe 

Charles K. 
Kuppenheimer, Louis B. 

Lamont, Robert P. 
Lehmann, E. J. 
Leonard, Clifford M. 
Leopold, Mrs. Harold E. 
Levy, Mrs. David M. 
Linn, Mrs. Dorothy C. 
Logan, Spencer H. 
Lowden, Frank O. 
Lytton, Henry C. 

MacDowell, Charles H. 
MacLeish, John E. 
MacVeagh, Eames 
Madlener, Mrs. Albert F. 
Mark, Clayton 
Marshall, Benjamin H. 
Mason, William S. 
McCormick, Cyrus H. 
McCormick, Harold F. 
McCormick, Stanley 
McCutcheon, John T. 
McGann, Mrs. Robert G. 
Mcllvaine, William B. 
Mclnnerney, Thomas H. 
McKinlay, John 
McKinlock, George 

McLaughlin, Frederic 
McLennan, D. R. 
McLennan, Hugh 
McNulty, T. J. 
Meyer, Carl 
Meyne, Gerhardt F. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Edward S. 
Morse, Charles H., Jr. 
Morton, Mark 
Munroe, Charles A. 
Murphy, Walter P. 

Newell, A. B. 
Nikolas, G. J. 
Noel, Joseph R. 

O'Brien, John J. 
Ormsby, Dr. Oliver S. 
Orr, Robert M. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Paesch, Charles A. 
Palmer, Honore 
Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 
Patten, Mrs. James A. 
Patterson, Joseph M. 
Payne, John Barton 
Payson, George S. 
Peabody, Stuyvesant 
Perkins, Herbert F. 
Pick, Albert 
Pike, Charles B. 
Pike, Eugene R. 
Poppenhusen, Conrad H. 
Porter, Frank W. 
Porter, Gilbert E. 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Raymond, Mrs. Anna 

Rea, Mrs. Robert L. 
Reynolds, Arthur 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Reynolds, George M. 
Riley, Harrison B. 
Robinson, Theodore W. 
Robson, Miss Alice 
Rodman, Mrs. Katherine 

Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
Rosenwald, William 
Runnells, Clive 

Russell, Edmund A. 
Russell, Edward P. 
Ryerson, Edward L., Jr. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Martin A. 

Sargent, Fred Wesley 
Schweppe, Charles H. 
Scott, George E. 
Scott, Harold N. 
Seabury, Charles W. 
Shaffer, John C. 
Shirk, Joseph H. 
Simpson, James 
Simpson, William B. 
Smith, Alexander 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Spalding, Keith 
Spalding, Vaughan C. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Sprague, Mrs. Albert A. 
Stern, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Stevens, Eugene M. 
Stewart, Robert W. 
Stirton, Robert C. 
Storey, W. B. 
Strawn, Silas H. 
Stuart, Harry L. 
Stuart, John 
Stuart, R. Douglas 
Sturges, George 
Sunny, B. E. 
Swift, Charles H. 
Swift, G. F., Jr. 

Swift, Harold H. 
Swift, Louis F. 

Thome, Charles H. 
Thorne, Robert J. 
Tree, Ronald L. F. 
Tyson, Russell 

Uihlein, Edgar J. 
Underwood, Morgan P. 

Valentine, Louis L. 
Veatch, George L. 
Viles, Lawrence M. 

Wanner, Harry C, 
Ward, P. C. 
Weber, David 
Welch, Mrs. Edwin P. 
Welling, John P. 
Whitney, Mrs. Julia L. 
Wickwire, Mrs. Edward L. 
Wieboldt, William A. 
Willard, Alonzo J. 
Willits, Ward W. 
Wilson, John P. 
Wilson, Thomas E. 
Winston, Garrard B. 
Winter, Wallace C. 
Woolley, Clarence M. 
Wrigley, Philip K. 

Yates, David M. 

Deceased, 1934 

Armstrong, Mrs. Frank 

Clay, John 

Dick, Albert Blake 

Jones, Mrs. Arthur B. 

MacVeagh, Franklin 
Morton, Joy 

Peabody, Augustus S. 
Traylor, Melvin A. 
Wilson, Walter H. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $100 to the Museum 

Coolidge, Harold J., Jr. 
Copley, Ira Cliff 

Ellis, Ralph 

Hearne, Knox 
Rosenwald, Lessing J. 

Stephens, W. C. 
Stern, Mrs. Edgar B. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

258 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 


These who have contributed $1 00 to the Museiim 

Aaron, Charles 
Aaron, Ely M. 
Abbott, Donald 

Putnam, Jr. 
Abbott, Gordon C. 
Abbott, Guv H. 
Abbott, W. Rufus 
Abbott, William L. 
Abrams, Professor Duff A. 
Ackerman, Charles N. 
Adamick, Gustave H. 
Adams, Benjamin Stearns 
Adams, Mrs. Frances 

Adams, John Q. 
Adams, Joseph 
Adams, Mrs. S. H. 
Adams, Mrs. Samuel 
Adams, William C. 
Adcock, Mrs. Bessie 
Addleman, Samuel W. 
Adler, Da%-id 
Adler, Mrs. Max 
Affleck, Benjamin F. 
Ahlschlager, Walter W. 
Albee, Mrs. Harry W. 
Alexander, Mrs. Arline V. 
Allais, Arthur L. 
Allbright, William B. 
Allen, Mrs. Fred G. 
Allensworth, A. P. 
Ailing, Mrs. C. A. 
Ailing, Mrs. VanWagenen 
Allison, Mrs. Nathaniel 
Alschuler, Alfred S. 
Alsip, Charles H. 
Alter, Harry 
Alton, Carol W. 
Andersen, Arthur 
Anderson, Miss Florence 

Andreen, Otto C. 
Andrews, Alfred B. 
Andrews, Mrs. E. C. 
Andrews, Milton H. 
Anstiss, George P. 
Appelt, Mrs. Jessie E. 
Armbrust, John T. 
Armbruster, Charles A. 
Armour, A. Watson, III 
Armour, Philip D. 
Armstrong, Arthur W. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Julian 
Am, W. G. 

Artingstall, Samuel G., Jr. 
Ascher, Fred 
Ashby, W. B. 
Ashcraft, Raymond M. 

Ashenhurst, Harold S. 
Atkinson, Charles T. 
Atwater, Walter Hull 
Aurelius, Mrs. Marcus A. 
Austin, Henry W. 
Avery, Miss Clara 
Avery, George J. 

Baackes, Mrs. Frank 
Babb, W. E. 
Babson, Fred K. 
Bach, Julius H. 
Badger, Shreve Cowles 
Baer, Mer\in K. 
Baer, Walter S. 
Baggaley, William Blair 
Bailey, Mrs. Edward W. 
Baird, Mrs. Clay 
Baird, Harry K. 
Baker, Mrs. Alfred L. 
Baker, G. W. 
Baker, Greeley 
Baldwin, Vincent Curtis 
Baldwin, William W. 
Balgemann, Otto W. 
Balkin, Louis 
Ball, Dr. Fred E. 
Ball, Sidney Y. 
Ballard, Thomas L. 
Ballenberg, Adolph G. 
Bannister, Miss Ruth D. 
Bantsolas, John N. 
Barber, Phil C. 
Barbour, Harry A. 
Barbour, James J. 
Bargquist. Miss Lillian D. 
Barley, Miss Matilda A. 
Barnes, Cecil 
Barnes, Mrs. Charles 

Barnes, James M. 
Barnett, Otto R. 
Barnhart, Mrs. A. M. 
Barnhart, Mrs. Clara S. 
Barnhart, Miss Gracia 

M. F. 
Barnum, Harry 
Barr, Mrs. Alfred H. 
Bartelme, John H. 
Bartholomae, Mrs. Emma 
Bartholomay, F. H. 
Bartholomay, Henry 
Bartholomay, Mrs. 

William, Jr. 
Bartlett, Frederic C. 
Barton, Mrs. Enos M. 
Bastian, Charles L. 
Bateman, Floyd L. 
Bates, Mrs. A. M. 

Bates, Joseph A. 
Battey, Paul L. 
Bauer, Aleck 
Baum, Mrs. James E. 
Baum, Mervyn 
Baumrucker, Charles F. 
Bausch, William C. 
Beach, Miss Bess K. 
Beach, E. Chandler 
Beachy, Mrs. P, A. 
Beacom, Harold 
Beatty, H. W. 
Beck, Herbert 
Becker, Mrs. A. G. 
Becker, Benjamin F. 
Becker, Benjamin V. 
Becker, Frederick G. 
Becker, Herman T. 
Becker, James H. 
Becker, Louis 
Becker, Louis L. 
Behr, Mrs. Edith 
Beidler, Francis, II 
Belden, Joseph C. 
Bell, Mrs. Laird 
Bellinghausen, Miss 

Bender, C. J. 
Benjamin, Jack A. 
Benner, Harry 
Bennett, J. Gardner 
Bensinger, Benjamin E. 
Benson, John 
Bentley, Arthur 
Bentley, Mrs. Cyrus 
Benton, Miss Mabel M. 
Berend, George F. 
Berkowitz, Dr. J. G. 
Berndt, Dr. George W. 
Berryman, John B. 
Bersbach, Elmer S. 
Bertschinger, Dr. C. F. 
Besly, Mrs. C. H. 
Bevan, Dr. Arthur Dean 
Bichl, Thomas A. 
Bidwell, Charles W. 
Biehn, Dr. J. F. 
Bigler, Mrs. Albert J. 
Billow, Elmer Ellsworth 
Billow, Miss Virginia 
Bird, Miss Frances 
Bird, George H. 
Birk, Miss Amelia 
Birk, Edward J. 
Birk, Frank J. 
Birkenstein, George 
Birkholz, Hans E. 
Bishop, Howard P. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Bishop, Mrs. Martha V. 
Bistor, James E. 
Bittel, Mrs. Frank J. 
Bixby, Edward Randall 
Black, Dr. Arthur D. 
Blackburn, Oliver A. 
Blackman, Nathan L. 
Blair, Edward T. 
Blair, Mrs. M. Barbour 
Blair, Robert 0. 
Blair, Wolcott 
Blake, Tiffany 
Blatchford, Carter 
Blatchford, Dr. Frank 

Blayney, Thomas C. 
Blessing, Dr. Robert 
Bletsch, William E. 
Blish, Sylvester 
Block, Emanuel J. 
Blome, Rudolph S. 
Blomgren, Dr. Walter L. 
Bloom, Mrs. Leopold 
Bluford, Mrs. Da\ad 
Blum, David 
Blum, Harry H. 
Blunt, J. E., Jr. 
Bluthardt, Edwin 
Boal, Ayres 
Boberg, Niels 
Bode, William F. 
Boericke, Mrs. Anna 
Boettcher, Arthur H. 
Bohasseck, Charles 
Bolten, Paul H. 
Bondy, Berthold 
Boomer, Dr. Paul C. 
Boone, Arthur 
Boorn, William C. 
Booth, Alfred V. 
Booth, George E. 
Borg, George W. 
Borland, Mrs. Bruce 
Bosch, Charles 
Bosch, Mrs. Henry 
Both, William C. 
Botts, Graeme G. 
Bousa, Dr. Bohuslav 
Bowen, Mrs. Louise 

Bowes, William R. 
Bowey, Mrs. Charles F. 
Bowman, Johnston A. 
Boyack, Harry 
Boyden, Miss Ellen Webb 
Boyden, Miss Rosalie 

Boynton, A. J. 
Boynton, Frederick P. 
Brach, Mrs. F. V. 
Bradley, Mrs. A. Ballard 
Bradley, Charles E. 

Bradley, Mrs. Natalie 

Blair Higinbotham 
Brainerd, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Bramble, Delhi G. C. 
Brand, Mrs. Edwin L., Jr. 
Brand, Mrs. Maude G. 
Brand, Mrs. Rudolf 
Brandes, A. G. 
Brandt, Charles H. 
Bransfield, John J. 
Brauer, Mrs. Paul 
Breckinridge, Professor 

S. P. 
Bremer, Harry A. 
Bremner, Mrs. David 

F., Jr. 
Brendecke, Miss June 
Brennemann, Dr. Joseph 
Brennwasser, S. M. 
Brenza, Miss Mary 
Brewer, Mrs. Angeline L. 
Breyer, Mrs. Theodor 
Bridge, George S. 
Briggs, Mrs. Gertrude 
Bristol, James T. 
Brock, A. J. 
Brodribb, Lawrence C. 
Broome, Thornhill 
Brown, A. Wilder 
Brown, Benjamin R. 
Brown, Charles A. 
Brown, Christy 
Brown, Dr. Edward M. 
Brown, Mrs. George 

Brown, Mrs. Henry 

Brown, John T. 
Brown, Scott 
Bruckner, William T. 
Brugman, John J. 
Brundage, Avery 
Brunswick, Larry 
Bryant, John J., Jr. 
Buck, Guy R. 
Buck, Mrs. Lillian B. 
Buck, Nelson Leroy 
Bucklin, Mrs. Vail R. 
Budlong, Joseph J. 
Buehler, Mrs. Carl 
Buehler, H. L. 
Buettner, Walter J, 
Buffington, Mrs. 

Margaret A. 
Buhmann, Gilbert G. 
Bullock, Mrs. James E. 
Bunge, Mrs. Albert J. 
Burdick, Mrs. Alfred S. 
Burgess, Charles F. 
Burgstreser, Newton 
Burgweger, Mrs, Meta 


Burke, Mrs. Lawrence N. 
Burke, Webster H. 
Burkholder, Dr. J. F. 
Burnham, Mrs. Edward 
Burnham, Frederic 
Burns, Mrs. Randall W. 
Burrows, Mrs. W. F. 
Burry, Mrs. William 
Burry, William, Jr. 
Burtch, Almon 
Burton, Mrs. Ernest D. 
Bush, Mrs. Lionel E. 
Bush, Mrs. WiUiam H. 
Butler, Burridge D. 
Butler, Mrs. Hermon B. 
Butler, J. Fred 
Butler, John M. 
Butler, Paul 
Butz, Herbert R. 
Butz, Robert O. 
Butz, Theodore C. 
Butzow, Mrs. Robert C. 
Byfield, Dr. Albert H. 
Byrne, Miss Margaret H. 

Cable, J. E. 
Cahn, Dr. Alvin R. 
Cahn, Bertram J. 
Cahn, Morton D. 
Caine, John F. 
Caldwell, C. D. 
Caldwell, Mrs. F. C. 
Cameron, Dr. Dan U. 
Cameron, John M. 
Cameron, Will J. 
Camp, Mrs. Arthur Royce 
Campbell, Delwin M. 
Campbell, Herbert J. 
Canby, Caleb H., Jr. 
Capes, Lawrence R. 
Capps, Dr. Joseph A. 
Carlin, Leo J. 
Carney, William Roy 
Caron, 0. J. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Benjamin 
Carpenter, Frederic Ives 
Carpenter, Mrs. George A. 
Carpenter, George Sturges 
Carpenter, Hubbard 
Carpenter, Miss Rosalie 

Carpenter, W. W. S. 
Carque%'ille, Mrs. A. R. 
Carr, Mrs. Clyde M. 
Carroll, John A. 
Carry, Joseph C. 
Carter, Mrs. Armistead B. 
Carton, Alfred T. 
Gary, Dr. Eugene 
Gary, Dr. Frank 
Casey, Mrs. James J. 

260 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Casselberry, Mrs. William 

Evans, Sr. 
Cassels, Edwin H. 
Castle, Alfred C. 
Castruccio, Giuseppe 
Gates, Dudley 
Gernoch, Frank 
Ghadwick, Charles H. 
Chandler, Henry P. 
Chapin, Henry Kent 
Chapman, Arthur E. 
Chappell, Mrs. Charles H. 
Chase, Frank D. 
Cheney, Dr. Henry W. 
Ghilds, Mrs. G. 

Ghisholm, George D. 
Chislett, Miss Kate E. 
Chritton, George A. 
Churan, Charles A. 
Clark, Ainsworth W. 
Clark, Miss Alice Keep 
Clark, Charles V. 
Clark, Miss Dorothy S. 
Clark, Mrs. Edward S. 
Clark, Edwin H. 
Clark, Lincoln R. 
Clark, Dr. Peter S. 
Clarke, Charles F. 
Clarke, Fred L. 
Clarke, Harley L. 
Clas, Miss Mary Louise 
Clemen, Dr. Rudolf A. 
Cleveland, Paul W. 
Clifford, F. J. 
Clinch, Duncan L. 
Clough, William H. 
Clow, Mrs. Harry B. 
Clow, William E., Jr. 
Cochran, John L. 
Coffin, Fred Y. 
Cohen, George B. 
Cohen, Mrs. L. Lewis 
Golburn, Frederick S. 
Colby, Mrs. George E. 
Coldren, Clifton C. 
Coleman, Dr. George H. 
Coleman, Loring W., Jr. 
Coleman, William Ogden 
Colianni, Paul V. 
Collins, Beryl B. 
Collis, Harry J. 
Collison, E. K. 
Colvin, Miss Catharine 
Colvin, Miss Jessie 
Colvin, Mrs. William H, 
Colwell, Clyde G. 
Compton, D. M. 
Compton, Frank E. 
Condon, Mrs. James G. 
Conger, Miss Cornelia 
Connell, P. G. 

Gonners, Harry 
Connor, Mrs. Clara A. 
Connor, Frank H. 
Cook, Miss Alice B. 
Cook, Mrs. David S., Jr. 
Cook, Mrs. Wallace L. 
Cooke, Charles E. 
Cooke, Miss Flora 
Cooke, Leslie L. 
Coolidge, Miss Alice 
CooHdge, E. Channing 
Coombs, James F. 
Coonley, John Stuart, Jr. 
Coonley, Prentiss L. 
Cooper, Samuel 
Copland, David 
Corbett, Mrs. V^illiam J. 
Cormack, Charles V. 
Cornell, John E. 
Cosford, Thomas H. 
Coston, James E. 
Counselman, Mrs. 

Jennie E. 
Cox, Mrs. Howard M. 
Cox, James A. 
Cox, James G. 
Cox, Mrs. Rensselaer W. 
Crane, Charles R., II 
Crego, Mrs. Dominica S. 
Grerar, Mrs. John 
Grilly, Edgar 
Cromer, Clarence E. 
Cromwell, Miss Juliette 

Cross, Henry H. 
Crowder, Dr. Thomas R. 
Gubbins, Dr. William R. 
Cudahy, Edward I. 
Culbertson, Dr. Carey 
Gummings, Mrs. D. 

Guneo, John F. 
Cunningham, Mrs. 

Howard J. 
Cunningham, John T. 
Curran, Harry R. 
Curtis, Austin Guthrie, 

Curtis, Benjamin J. 
Curtis, Mrs. Charles S. 
Curtis, Miss Frances H. 
Cusack, Harold 
Gushing, John F. 
Cushman, A. W. 
Cutler, Henry E. 
Cutting, Charles S. 

Dahlberg, Bror G. 
Daily, Richard 
Dakin, Dr. Frank G. 
Daley, Harry G. 
Dammann, J. F. 

D'Ancona, Edward N. 
Danforth, Dr. William C. 
Daniels, H. L. 
Dantzig, Leonard P. 
Danz, Charles A. 
Dashiell, C. R. 
Daughaday, C. Colton 
Davey, Mrs. Bruce G. 
David, Dr. Vernon C. 
Davidonis, Dr. 

Alexander L. 
Davidson, Miss Mary E. 
Davies, Marshall 
Davis, Abel 
Davis, Arthur 
Davis, Brode B. 
Davis, C . S. 
Davis, Dr. Carl B. 
Davis, Frank S. 
Davis, Fred M. 
Davis, James 
Davis, Dr. Loyal 
DaAas, Dr. Nathan 

S., Ill 
Davis, Ralph 
Dawes, E. L. 
DeAcres, Clyde H. 
Deagan, John G. 
Deahl, Uriah S. 
Decker, Charles O. 
DeCosta, Lewis M. 
DeDardel, Carl 0. 
Dee, Thomas J. 
Deery, Thomas A., Jr. 
Degen, David 
DeGolyer, Robert S. 
DeKoven, Mrs. John 
DeLee, Dr. Joseph B. 
DeLemon, H. R. 
Deming, Everett G. 
Dempster, Mrs. Charles W. 
Deneen, Mrs. Charles S. 
Denkewalter, W. E. 
Denman, Mrs. Burt J. 
Dennehy, Thomas C. 
Dennis, Charles H. 
Dent, George C. 
Deslsles, Mrs. Carrie L. 
Deutsch, Mrs. Percy L. 
DeVries, David 
DeVries, Peter 
Dewes, Rudolph Peter 
Dick, Albert B., Jr. 
Dick, Elmer J. 
Dick, Mrs. Homer T. 
Dickey, Roy 
Dickey, William E. 
Dickinson, F. R. 
Dickinson, Robert B. 
Dickinson, Mrs. W. 


Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Diestel, Mrs. Herman 
Dikeman, Aaron Butler 
Dillon, Miss Hester 

Dimick, Miss Elizabeth 
Dixon, Alan C. 
Dixon, William Warren 
Dobson, George 
Doctor, Isidor 
Dodge, Mrs. Paul C. 
Doering, Otto C. 
Doerr, William P., Sr. 
Doetsch, Miss Anna 
Dole, Arthur 
Dolese, Mrs. John 
Donahue, William J. 
Donker, Mrs. William 
D onion, Mrs. Stephen E. 
Donnelley, Mrs. H. P. 
Donnelley, Miss Naomi 
Donnelly, Frank 
Donohue, Edgar T. 
Douglas, James H., Jr. 
Douglass, Kingman 
Douglass, W. A. 
Dreiske, George J. 
Drummond, James J. 
Dryden, Mrs. George B. 
Dubbs, C. P. 
Dudley, Laurence H. 
Dugan, Alphonso G. 
Dulany, George W., Jr. 
Dulsky, Mrs. Samuel 
Duncan, Albert G. 
Duner, Dr. Clarence S. 
Duner, Joseph A. 
Dunham, John H. 
Dunham, Miss Lucy Belle 
Dunham, Robert J. 
Dunlop, Mrs. Simpson 
Dunn, Samuel O. 
Dupee, Mrs. F. Kennett 
Durbin, Fletcher M. 
Dyche, William A. 

Easterberg, C. J. 
Eastman, Mrs. George H. 
Ebeling, Frederic O. 
Eckhart, Mrs. B. A. 
Eckhart, Percy B. 
Eckstein, H. G. 
Eddy, George A. 
Eddy, Thomas H. 
Edmonds, Harry C. 
Edwards, Miss Edith E. 
Edwards, Kenneth P. 
Egan, William B. 
Ehrman, Edwin H. 
Eiselen, Dr. Frederick 

Eisendrath, Edwin W. 
Eisendrath, Robert M. 

Eisendrath, Mrs. 

William N. 
Eisenschiml, Mrs. Otto 
Eisenstaedt, Harry 
Eisenstein, Sol 
Eitel, Max 
Elenbogen, Herman 
Ellbogen, Albert L. 
Elliot, Mrs. Frank M. 
Elliott, Dr. Charles A. 
Elliott, Frank R. 
Ellis, Howard 
Elting, Howard 
Ely, Mrs. C. Morse 
Engel, E. J. 

Engelhard, Benjamin M. 
Engstrom, Harold 
Engwall, John F. 
Erdmann, Mrs. C. Pardee 
Ericson, Mrs. Chester F. 
Ericson, Melvin Burton 
Ericsson, Clarence 
Ericsson, Dewey A. 
Ericsson, Henry 
Ericsson, Walter H. 
Ernst, Mrs. Leo 
Erskine, Albert DeWolf 
Etten, Henry C. 
Eustice, Alfred L. 
Evans, Mrs. Albert 

Evans, Miss Anna B. 
Evans, Mrs. David 
Evans, David J. 
Evans, Eliot H. 
Evans, Hon. Evan A. 
Ewell, C. D. 
Ewen, William R. T. 

Fabian, Francis G. 
Fabry, Herman 
Fackt, Mrs. George P. 
Fader, A. L. 
Faget, James E. 
Faherty, Roger 
Fahrenwald, Frank A. 
Fahrney, Emery H. 
Faithorn, Walter E. 
Falk, Miss Amy 
Farnham, Mrs. Harry J. 
Farrell, Mrs. B. J. 
Farrell, Rev. Thomas F. 
Faulkner, Charles J., Jr. 
Faulkner, Miss Elizabeth 
Faurot, Henry 
Faurot, Henry, Jr. 
Fay, Miss Agnes M. 
Fecke, Mrs. Frank J. 
Feigenheimer, Herman 
Feiwell, Morris E. 
Felix, Benjamin B. 
Fellows, William K. 

Felsenthal, Edward 

Feltman, Charles H. 
Fergus, Robert C. 
Ferguson, William H. 
Fernald, Robert W. 
Fetcher, Edwin S. 
Fetzer, Wade 
Filek, August 
Finley, Max H. 
Finn, Joseph M. 
Finnerud, Dr. Clark W. 
Fischel, Frederic A. 
Fish, Mrs. Isaac 
Fishbein, Dr. Morris 
Fisher, Mrs. Edward 

Fisher, George P. 
Fisher, Hon. Harry M. 
Fisher, Walter L. 
Fitzpatrick, Mrs. John A, 
Flavin, Edwin F. 
Flesch, Eugene W. P. 
Flexner, Washington 
Florsheim, Irving S. 
Flosdorf, Mrs. G. E. 
Foley, Rev. William M. 
FoUansbee, Mitchell D. 
Folonie, Mrs. Robert J. 
Folsom, Mrs. Richard S. 
Foote, Peter 

Foreman, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Foreman, Mrs. E. G. 
Foreman, Edwin G., Jr. 
Foreman, Harold E. 
Foresman, Mrs. W. 

Forgan, James B., Jr. 
Forgan, Mrs. J. Russel! 
Forgan, Robert D. 
Forman, Charles 
Forstall, James J. 
Fortune, Miss Joanna 
Foster, Mrs. Charles K. 
Foster, Volney 
Fowler, Miss Elizabeth 
Fox, Charles E. 
Fox, Jacob Logan 
Fox, Dr. Paul C. 
Frank, Dr. Ira 
Frank, Mrs. Joseph K. 
Frankenstein, Rudolph 
Frankenstein, William B. 
Frankenthal, Dr. Lester 

E., Jr. 
Frazer, Mrs. George E. 
Freedman, Dr. I. Val 
Freeman, Charles Y. 
Freeman, Walter W. 
Freer, Archibald E. 
French, Dudley K. 
Frenier, A. B. 

262 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Freudenthal, G. S. 
Freund, Charles E. 
Frey, Charles Daniel 
Freyn, Henry J. 
Pridstein, Meyer 
Friedlander, Jacob 
Friedlich, Mrs. Herbert 
Friedlund, Mrs. J. Arthur 
Friedman, Mrs. Isaac K. 
Friedman, Oscar J. 
Friend, Mrs. Henry K. 
Friestedt, Arthur A. 
Frisbie, Chauncey O. 
Frost, Mrs. Charles 
Fuller, Mrs. Charles 
Fuller, Mrs. Gretta 

Fuller, Judson M. 
Fuller, Leroy W. 
Furry, William S. 
Furst, Eduard A. 

Gabathuler, Miss Juanita 
Gabriel, Charles 
Gaertner, William 
Gale, G. Whittier 
Gale, Henry G. 
Gall, Charles H. 
Gall, Harry T. 
Gallagher, Vincent G. 
Gallup, Rockwell 
Gait, Mrs. A. T. 
Gann, David B. 
Gansbergen, Mrs. F. H. 
Garard, Elzy A. 
Garcia, Jose 
Garden, Hugh M. G. 
Gardner, Addison L. 
Gardner, Addison 

L., Jr. 
Gardner, Henry A. 
Gardner, Mrs. James P. 
Garner, Harry J. 
Garrison, Dr. Lester E. 
Gary, Fred Elbert 
Gately, Ralph M. 
Gawne, Miss Clara J. 
Gay, Rev. A. Royal 
Gaylord, Duane W. 
Gear, H. B. 
Gehl, Dr. W. H. 
Gehrmann, Felix 
George, Mrs. Albert B. 
George, Fred W. 
Gerding, R. W. 
Geringer, Charles M. 
Gerngross, Mrs. Leo 
Gerrity, Thomas 
Gerts, Walter S. 
Gettelman, Mrs. Sidney H. 
Getzoff, E. B. 
Gibbs, Dr. John Phillip 

Gibson, Dr. Stanley 
Gielow, Walter C. 
Giffert, Mrs. William 
Gifford, Mrs. Frederick 

Gilbert, Miss Clara C. 
Gilchrist, Mrs. John F. 
Gilchrist, Mrs. William 

Giles, Carl C. 
Gillette, Mrs. Ellen D. 
Gillman, Morris 
Gillson, Louis K. 
Ginther, Miss Minnie C. 
Girard, Mrs. Anna 
Glaescher, Mrs. G. W. 
Glaser, Edward L. 
Glasgow, H. A. 
Glasner, Rudolph W. 
Glenn, Mrs. J. M. 
Godehn, Paul M. 
Goedke, Charles F. 
Goehst, Mrs. John 

Goes, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Golden, Dr. Isaac J. K. 
Goldenberg, Sidney D. 
Goldfine, Dr. Ascher H. C. 
Goldstine, Dr. Mark T. 
Goldy, Walter I. 
Goode, Mrs. Rowland T. 
Gooden, G. E. 
Goodkind, Dr. Maurice L. 
Goodman, Benedict K. 
Goodman, W. J. 
Goodman, William E. 
Goodrow, William 
Goodwin, Hon. Clarence 

Goodwin, George S. 
Gordon, Harold J. 
Gordon, Mrs. Robert D. 
Gorham, Sidney Smith 
Gorman, George E. 
Gorrell, Mrs. Warren 
Gradle, Dr. Harry S. 
Grady, Dr. Grover Q. 
Graf, Robert J. 
Graflf, Oscar C. 
Graham, Douglas 
Graham, E. V. 
Graham, Miss 

Margaret H. 
Gramm, Mrs. Helen 
Granger, Alfred 
Granger, Mrs. Everett J. 
Grant, Alexander R. 
Grant, James D. 
Grant, John G. 
Graves, Howard B. 
Gray, Mrs. Charles W. 
Gray, Rev. James M. 

Green, Miss Mary Pomeroy 
Green, Robert D. 
Green, Zola C. 
Greenberg, Andrew H. 
Greenburg, Dr. Ira E. 
Greene, Carl D. 
Greene, Henry E. 
Greenebaum, James E. 
Greenebaum, M. E., Jr. 
Greenlee, James A. 
Greenlee, Mrs. William 

Greenman, Mrs. Earl C. 
Gregory, Clifford V. 
Gregory, Stephen 

S., Jr. 
Gregory, Tappan 
Grey, Charles F. 
Grey, Dr. Dorothy 
Griest, Mrs. Marianna L. 
Griffenhagen, Mrs. 

Edwin O. 
Griffith, Mrs. Carroll L. 
Griffith, E. L. 
Griffith, Melvin L. 
Griffith, Mrs. William 
Griffiths, George W. 
Grimm, Walter H. 
Griswold, Harold T. 
Grizzard, James A. 
Gronkowski, Rev. C. I. 
Groot, Cornelius J. 
Groot, Lawrence A. 
Gross, Henry R. 
Grossman, Frank I, 
Grotenhuis, Mrs. 

William J. 
Grotowski, Dr. Leon 
Gruhn, Alvah V. 
Grulee, Lowry K. 
Grunow, Mrs. William C. 
Guenzel, Louis 
Guest, Ward E. 
Gulbransen, Axel G. 
Gundlach, Ernest T. 
Gunthorp, Walter J. 
Gurley, Miss Helen K. 
Gwinn, William R. 

Haas, Adolph R. 
Haas, Maurice 
Haas, Dr. Raoul R. 
Hadley, Mrs. Edwin M. 
Hagen, Mrs. Daise 
Hagen, Fred J. 
Hagens, Dr. Garrett J. 
Haggard, John D. 
Hagner, Fred L. 
Haight, George I. 
Hair, T. R. 
Hajicek, Rudolph F. 
Haldeman, Walter S. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Hale, Mrs. Samuel 
Hale, William B. 
Hall, David W. 
Hall, Edward B. 
Hall, Mrs. J. B. 
Hallmann, August F. 
Hallmann, Herman F. 
Halperin, Aaron 
Hamill, Charles H. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Hamill, Robert W. 
Hamilton, Thomas B. 
Hamlin, Paul D. 
Hammerschmidt, Mrs. 

George F. 
Hammitt, Miss Frances M. 
Hammond, Thomas S. 
Hand, George W. 
Hanley, Henry L. 
Hansen, Mrs. Carl 
Hansen, Jacob W. 
Harder, John H. 
Hardie, George F. 
Hardin, John H. 
Harding, Charles 

F., Jr. 
Harding, George F. 
Harding, John Cowden 
Harding, Richard T. 
Hardinge, Franklin 
Harker, H. L. 
Harms, John V. D. 
Harper, Alfred C. 
Harris, Mrs. Abraham 
Harris, David J. 
Harris, Gordon L. 
Harris, Hayden B. 
Harris, Miss Martha E. 
Hart, Mrs. Herbert L. 
Hart, William M. 
Hartmann, A. 0. 
Hartshorn, Kenneth L. 
Hartwell, Fred G. 
Hartwig, Otto J. 
Harvey, Hillman H. 
Harvey, Richard M. 
Harwood, Thomas W. 
Haskell, Mrs. George E. 
Haugan, Oscar H. 
Havens, Samuel M. 
Hay, Mrs. William 

Hayes, Charles M. 
Hayes, Harold C. 
Hayes, Miss Mary E. 
Haynie, Miss Rachel W. 
Hays, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Hayslett, Arthur J. 
Hazlett, Dr. William H. 
Healy, Mrs, Marquette A. 
Heaney, Dr. N. Sproat 
Heaton, Harry E. 

Heaton, Herman C. 
Heberlein, Miss 

Amanda F. 
Heck, John 
Hedberg, Henry E. 
Heidke, Herman L. 
Heiman, Marcus 
Heine, Mrs. Albert 
Heineman, Oscar 
Heinzelman, Karl 
Heinzen, Mrs. Carl 
Heldmaier, Miss Marie 
Helfrich, J. Howard 
Heller, Albert 
Heller, John A. 
Heller, Mrs. Walter E. 
Hellman, George A. 
Hellyer, Walter 
Hemmens, Mrs. Walter P. 
Hemple, Miss Anne C. 
Henderson, Thomas B. G. 
Henkel, Frederick W. 
Henley, Eugene H. 
Hennings, Mrs. 

Abraham J. 
Henry, Huntington B. 
Henry, Otto 
Henshaw, Mrs. 

Raymond S. 
Herri ck, Charles E. 
Herrick, Miss Louise 
Herrick, Walter D. 
Herron, James C. 
Herron, Mrs. Ollie L. 
Hershey, J. Clarence 
Hertz, Mrs. Fred 
Herwig, George 
Herwig, William D., Jr. 
Hess, Mrs. Charles Wilbur 
Heun, Arthur 
Heverly, Earl L. 
Heyworth, Mrs. James O. 
Hibbard, Mrs. Angus S. 
Hibbard, Mrs. W. G. 
Higgins, John 
Higgins, John W. 
Higinbotham, Harlow D. 
Higiey, Mrs. Charles W. 
Hildebrand, Eugene, Jr. 
Hildebrand, Grant M. 
Hill, Mrs. E. M. 
Hill, Mrs. Lysander 
Hill, Mrs. Russell D. 
Hill, William E. 
Hille, Dr. Hermann 
Hillebrecht, Herbert E. 
Hillis, Dr. David S. 
Himrod, Mrs. Frank W. 
Hindman, Biscoe 
Hinkle, Ross O. 
Hinman, Mrs. Estelle S. 
Hinrichs, Henry, Jr. 

Hinsberg, Stanley K. 
Hinton, E. W. 
Hintz, John C. 
Hird, Frederick H. 
Hirsch, Jacob H. 
Hiscox, Morton 
Histed, J. Roland 
Hixon, Mrs. Frank P. 
Hodgkinson, Mrs. W. R. 
Hoelscher, Herman M. 
Hoffman, Glen T. 
Hoffmann, Miss Caroline 

Hoffmann, Edward 

Hogan, Robert E. 
Hohman, Dr. E. H. 
Hoier, William V. 
Holden, Edward A. 
Holland, Dr. William E. 
Hollis, Henry L. 
Hollister, Francis H. 
Holmes, George J. 
Holmes, Miss Harriet F. 
Holmes, Mrs. Maud G. 
Holmes, William 
Holmes, William N. 
Holt, Miss Ellen 
Homan, Miss Blossom L. 
Honnold, Dr. Fred C. 
Honsik, Mrs. James M. 
Hoover, F. E. 
Hoover, Mrs. Fred W. 
Hoover, H. Earl 
Hoover, Ray P. 
Hope, Alfred S. 
Hopkins, Farley 
Hopkins, Mrs. James M. 
Hopkins, John L. 
Horan, Dennis A. 
Horcher, William W. 
Horner, Dr. David A. 
Horner, Mrs. Maurice 

L., Jr. 
Hornung, Joseph J. 
Horst, Curt A. 
Horton, George T. 
Horton, Hiram T. 
Horton, Horace B. 
Hosbein, Louis H. 
Hosmer, Philip B. 
Hottinger, Adolph 
Howard, Mrs. Elmer A. 
Howard, Harold A. 
Howard, Willis G. 
Howe, Charles Arthur 
Howe, Clinton W. 
Howe, Warren D. 
Howe, William G. 
Howell, Albert S. 
Howell, William 
Howse, Richard 

264 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Hoyne, Frank G. 
Hoyne, Thomas Temple 
Hoyt, Frederick T. 
Hoyt, Mrs. Phelps B. 
Hubbard, George W. 
Huber, Dr. Harry Lee 
Hudson, Mrs. H. 

Hudson, Walter L. 
Hudson, William E. 
Huey, Mrs. A. S. 
Huff, Thomas D. 
Hughes, John E. 
Hughes, John W. 
Hulbert, Mrs. Charles 

Hulbert, Mrs. Milan H. 
Hultgen, Dr. Jacob F. 
Hume, John T. 
Huncke, Herbert S. 
Huncke, Oswald W. 
Hunter, Samuel M, 
Hurley, Edward N., Jr. 
Huston, W. L. 
Huston, Ward T. 
Huszagh, R. LeRoy 
Huszagh, Ralph D. 
Hutchinson, Foye P. 
Hutchinson, Samuel S. 
Hyatt, R. C. 
Hynes, Rev. J. A. 

Ickes, Raymond 
Idelman, Bernard 
Ilg, Robert A. 
Inlander, Samuel 
Irons, Dr. Ernest E. 
Isaacs, Charles W., Jr. 
Isham, Henry P. 
Ives, Clifford E. 

Jackson, Allan 
Jackson, Archer L. 
Jacobi, Miss Emily C. 
Jacobs, Hyman A. 
Jacobs, Julius 
Jacobs, Louis G. 
Jacobson, Raphael 
Jaeger, George J., Jr. 
Jaffe, Dr. Richard 

Jaffray, Mrs. Da\-id S. 
James, Edward P. 
James, William R. 
Jameson, Clarence W. 
Janusch, Fred W. 
Jarchow, Charles C. 
Jarratt, Mrs. Walter J. 
Jefferies, F. L. 
Jeffery, Mrs. Thomas B. 
Jenkins, David F. D. 
Jenkins, Mrs. John E. 

Jenkinson, Mrs. Arthur 

Jenks, William Shippen 
Jennings, Ode D. 
Jennings, Mrs. Rosa V. 
Jerger, Wilbur Joseph 
Jetzinger, David 
Jirka, Dr. Frank J. 
Jirka, Dr. Robert H. 
John, Dr. Findley D. 
Johnson, Albert M. 
Johnson, Ahin O. 
Johnson, Arthur L. 
Johnson, Mrs. Harley 

Johnson, Isaac Horton 
Johnson, Joseph F. 
Johnson, Nels E. 
Johnson, Mrs. O. W. 
Johnson, Olaf B. 
Johnson, Philip C. 
Johnson, Ulysses G. 
Johnston, Arthur C. 
Johnston, Edward R. 
Johnston, Mrs. Hubert 

Johnston, Mrs. M. L. 
Johnstone, Dr. A. Ralph 
Johnstone, George A. 
Johnstone, Dr. Mary 

M. S. 
Jones, Albert G. 
Jones, G. Herbert 
Jones, James B. 
Jones, Dr. Margaret M. 
Jones, Melvin 
Jones, Warren G. 
Joseph, Louis L. 
Joy, Guy A. 
Joyce, David G. 
Joyce, Joseph 
Judah, Noble Brandon 
Judah, Mrs. Noble 

Juergens, H. Paul 
Julien, Victor R. 
Junkunc, Stephen 

Kaercher, A. W. 
Kahn, Gus 
Kahn, J. Kesner 
Kahn, Louis 
Kaine, James B. 
Kalbfell, Conrad J. 
Kane, Jerome M, 
Kaplan, Nathan D. 
Karpen, Adolph 
Karpen, Michael 
Kaspar, Otto 
Katz, Mrs. Sidney L. 
Katzenstein, Mrs. 
George P. 

Kauffman, Mrs, R. K. 
Kauffmann, Alfred 
Kavanagh, Maurice F. 
Kay, Mrs. Marie E. 
Keefe, Mrs. George I. 
Keehn, George W. 
Keehn, Mrs. Theodore 

C. L. 
Keene, Mrs. Joseph 
Keeney, Albert F. 
Kehl, Robert Joseph 
Keith, Stanley 
Kelker, Rudolph F., Jr. 
Kellogg, John L. 
Kellogg, Mrs. M. G. 
Kelly, Edward T. 
Kelly, James J. 
Kemp, Mrs. E. M. 
Kempner, Harry B. 
Kempner, Stan 
Kendall, Mrs. Virginia H. 
Kendrick, John F. 
Kennedy, Miss Leonore 
Kennelly, Martin H. 
Kent, Dr. 0. B. 
Keogh, Gordon E. 
Kern, Trude 
Kersey, Glen B. 
Kesner, Jacob L. 
Kiessling, Mrs. Charles S. 
Kilbourne, L. B. 
Kile, Miss Jessie J. 
Kimbark, Mrs. Eugene 

Kimbark, John R. 
King, Joseph H. 
Kingman, Mrs. Arthur G. 
Kinney, Mrs. Minnie B. 
Kinsey, Frank 
Kinsey, Robert S. 
Kintzel, Richard 
Kircher, Rev. Julius 
Kirchheimer, Max 
Kirkland, Mrs. 

Kitchell, Howell W. 
Kittredge, R. J. 
Kitzelman, Otto 
Klein, Arthur F. 
Klein, Henry A. 
Klein, Mrs. Samuel 
Kleinpell, Dr. Henry H. 
Kleist, Mrs. Harry 
Kleppinger, William H. 
Kleutgen, Dr. Arthur C. 
Kline, Sol 

Klinetop, Mrs. Charles W. 
Klink, A. F. 
Knox, Harry S. 
Knutson, George H. 
Koch, Paul W. 
Koch, Raymond J. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Kochs, Augvist 
Kochs, Mrs. Robert T. 
Kohl, Mrs. Caroline L. 
Kohler, Eric L. 
Kohlsaat, Edward C. 
Komiss, Da\id S. 
Konsberg, Alvin V. 
Kopf, William P. 
Kosobud, William F. 
Kotal, John A. 
Kotin, George N. 
Koucky, Dr. J. D. 
Kovac, Stefan 
Kraber, Mrs. Fredericka 
Kraft, C. H. 
Kraft, James L. 
Kraft, Norman 
Kralovec, Emil G. 
Kralovec, Mrs. Otto J. 
Kramer, Leroy 
Kraus, Peter J. 
Kraus, Samuel B. 
Krause, John J. 
Kretschmer, Dr. 

Herman L. 
Kritchevsky, Dr. Wolff 
Kroehl, Howard 
Kropff, C. G. 
Krost, Dr. Gerard N. 
Krueger, Leopold A. 
Krutckoff, Charles 
Kuehn, A. L. 
Kuh, Mrs. Edwin 

J., Jr. 
Kuhl, Harry J. 
Kuhn, Frederick T. 
Kuhn, Dr. Hedwig S. 
Kunka, Bernard J. 
Kunstadter, Albert 
Kurtzon, Morris 

Lacey, Miss Edith M. 
LaChance, Mrs. 

Leander H. 
Laflin, Mrs. Louis E. 
Laflin, Louis E., Jr. 
LaGuske, Mrs. Chester 
Lampert, Wilson W. 
Lamson, W. A. 
Lanahan, Mrs. M. J. 
Landry, Alvar A. 
Lane, F. Howard 
Lane, Ray E. 
Lane, Wallace R. 
Lang, Edward J. 
Lang, Mrs. W. J. 
Lange, Mrs. August 
Langenbach, Mrs. Alice R. 
Langhome, George Tayloe 
Langland, James 
Langworthy, Benjamin 


Lansinger, Mrs. John M. 
Larimer, Howard S. 
Larson, Bror 0. 
Lashley, Mrs. Karl S. 
Lasker, Albert D. 
Lathrop, Mrs. Bryan 
Lau, Max 
Lauren, Newton B. 
Lauritzen, CM. 
Lauter, Mrs. Vera 
Lautmann, Herbert M. 
Lavezzorio, Mrs. J. B. 
Lawless, Dr. Theodore K. 
Lawson, A. J. 
Lawson, Mrs. Iver N. 
Lawton, Frank W. 
Laylander, O. J. 
Leahy, Thomas F. 
Learned, Edwin J. 
Leavell, James R. 
Leavitt, Mrs. Wellington 
Lebensohn, Dr. Mayer H. 
Lebolt, John Michael 
Lederer, Dr. FVancis L. 
Lee, Mrs. John H. S. 
Lefens, Miss Katherine J. 
Lefens, Walter C. 
Lehmann, Miss 

Augusta E. 
Leichenko, Peter M. 
Leight, Mrs. Albert E. 
Leistner, Oscar 
Leland, Miss Alice J. 
LeMoon, A. R. 
Lenz, J. Mayo 
Leonard, Arthur G. 
Leonard, Arthur T. 
Leopold, Foreman N. 
Leslie, John H. 
Letts, Mrs. Frank C. 
Levan, Rev. Thomas F. 
Leverone, Louis E. 
Le\'inson, Mrs. Salmon 0. 
Le\-itan, Benjamin 
Levitetz, Nathan 
Levy, Alexander M. 
Levy, Arthur G. 
Lewis, David R. 
Lewy, Dr. Alfred 
Libby, Mrs. C. P. 
Liebman, A. J. 
Ligman, Rev. Thaddeus 
Lillie, Frank R. 
Lindahl, Mrs. Edward J. 
Linden, John A. 
Lindheimer, B. F. 
Lindholm, Charles V. 
Lindquist, J. E. 
Lingle, Bowman C. 
Linton, Ben B. 
Lipman, Robert R. 
Liss, Samuel 

Little, Mrs. E. H. 
Littler, Harry E., Jr. 
Livingston, Julian M. 
Livingston, Mrs. Milton L. 
Llewellyn, Mrs. John T. 
Llewellyn, Paul 
Lloyd, Edward W. 
Lloyd, William Bross 
Lobdell, Mrs. Edwin L. 
Lockwood, W. S. 
Loeb, Mrs. A. H. 
Loeb, Hamilton M. 
Loeb, Jacob M. 
Loeb, Leo A. 
Loesch, Frank J. 
Loewenberg, Israel S. 
Loewenberg, M. L. 
Loewenstein, Sidney 
Loewenthal, Richard J. 
Logan, John I. 
Logan, L. B. 
Long, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Long, William E. 
Lord, Arthur R, 
Lord, Mrs. Russell 
Loucks, Charles O. 
Louer, Albert S. 
Love, Chase W. 
Lovell, William H. 
Lovgren, Carl 
Lownik, Dr. Felix J. 
Lucey, Patrick J. 
Ludington, Nelson J. 
Ludolph, Wilbur M. 
Lueder, Arthur C. 
Luehr, Dr. Edward 
Lufkin, Wallace W. 
Luria, Herbert A. 
Lurie, H. J. 
Lustgarten, Samuel 
Lutter, Henry J. 
Lydon, Mrs. William A. 
Lyford, Harry B. 
Lynch, William Joseph 
Lyon, Charles H. 
Lyon, Frank R. 
Lyon, Mrs. Thomas R. 

Maass, J. Edward 
Mabee, Mrs. Melbourne 
MacCardle, H. B. 
MacDonald, E. K. 
MacDougal, Mrs. T. W. 
Mackey, Frank J. 
Mackinson, Dr. John C. 
MacLeish, Mrs. Andrew 
MacLellan, K. F. 
Magan, Miss Jane A. 
Magill, Henry P. 
Magill, Robert M. 
Magnus, Albert, Jr. 
Magnus, August C. 

266 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Maher, Mrs. D. W. 
Main, Walter D. 
Malone, William H. 
Manaster, Harry 
Mandel, Mrs. Aaron W. 
Mandel, Edwin F. 
Mandel, Mrs. Emanuel 
Mandel, Miss Florence 
Mandel, Mrs. Robert 
Mandl, Sidney 
Manegold, Mrs. FVank W. 
Manierre, Francis E. 
Manierre, Louis 
Manley, John A. 
Mann, Albert C. 
Mann, John P. 
Manson, David 
Mansure, Edmund L. 
Marcus, Maurice S. 
Marhoefer, Edward H. 
Mark, Mrs. Cyrus 
Marks, Arnold K. 
Marquis, A. N. 
Marsh, A. Fletcher 
Marsh, Mrs. John P. 
Marsh, Mrs. Marshall S. 
Martin, Mrs. Franklin H. 
Martin, Samuel H. 
Martin, W. B. 
Martin, Wells 
Marx, Frederick Z. 
Marzluff, Frank W. 
Marzola, Leo A. 
Mason, Willard J. 
Massee, B. A. 
Massena, Roy 
Massey, Peter J. 
Masterson, Peter 
Mathesius, Mrs. Walther 
Matson, J. Edward 
Matter, Mrs. John 
Matthiessen, Frank 
Matz, Mrs. Rudolph 
Matz, Miss Ruth H. 
Maurer, Dr. Siegfried 
Maxwell, Lloyd R. 
Mayer, Isaac H. 
Mayer, Oscar F. 
Mayer, Theodore S. 
McAuley, John E. 
McBirney, Mrs. Hugh J. 
McBride, Mrs. Walter J. 
McCahey, James B. 
McCarthy, Edmond J. 
McCarthy, Joseph W. 
McClellan, Dr. John H. 
McCluer, WilHam 

McClun, John M. 
McCord, Downer 
McCormack, Professor 


McCormick, Mrs. 

Alexander A. 
McCormick, Mrs. 

McCormick, Fowler 
McCormick, Howard H. 
McCormick, Leander J. 
McCormick, Robert 

H., Jr. 
McCoy, Herbert N. 
McCraken, Miss Willietta 
McCrea, Mrs. W. S. 
McCready, Mrs. E. W. 
McDougal, Mrs. James B. 
McDougal, Mrs. Robert 
McDougall, Mrs. 

Arthur R. 
McErlean, Charles V. 
McGarry, John A. 
McGraw, Max 
McGurn, Mathew S. 
McHugh, Mrs. Grover 
Mcintosh, Arthur T. 
Mcintosh, Mrs. Walter G. 
McKay, James M. 
McKeever, Buell 
McKinney, Mrs. Hayes 
McLaury, Mrs. C. W. 
McLaury, Walker G. 
McLennan, Mrs. John A. 
McMenemy, L. T. 
McMillan, John 
McMillan, W. B. 
McMillan, William M. 
McNamara, Louis G. 
McNulty, Joseph D. 
McQuarrie, Mrs. Fannie 
McVoy, John M. 
Medsker, Dr. Ora L. 
Melchione, Joseph 
Melendy, Dr. R. A. 
Melnick, Leopold B. 
Merrill, Henry S. 
Merrill, James S. 
Merrill, William W. 
Merz, Edward E. 
Metz, Dr. A. R. 
Metzel, Mrs. Albert J. 
Meyer, Mrs. A. H. 
Meyer, Abraham W. 
Meyer, Albert 
Meyer, Charles Z. 
Meyer, Oscar 
Meyer, Sam R. 
Meyer, William 
Meyercord, George R. 
Midowicz, C. E. 
Milhening, Frank 
Milhening, Joseph 
Miller, Charles B. 
Miller, Mrs. Clajrton W. 
Miller, Mrs. Darius 

Miller, Mrs. F. H. 
Miller, Hyman 
Miller, John S. 
Miller, Dr. Joseph L. 
Miller, Mrs. Olive Beaupre 
Miller, Oscar C. 
Miller, Mrs. Phillip 
Miller, R. T. 
Miller, Walter E. 
Miller, Mrs. Walter H. 
Miller, WilUam E. 
Miller, William S. 
Mills, Allen G. 
Mills, Fred L. 
Mills, John, Sr. 
Mills, Mrs. William S. 
Miner, Dr. Carl S. 
Miner, H. J. 
Minotto, Mrs. James 
Minturn, Benjamin E. 
Mitchell, Charles D. 
Mitchell, George F. 
Mitchell, John J. 
Mitchell, Mrs. John J. 
Mitchell, Leeds 
Mitchell, Oliver 
Mock, Dr. Harry Edgar 
Moderwell, Charles M. 
Moeling, Mrs. Walter G. 
Moeller, Rev. Herman H. 
Moffatt, Mrs. 

Elizabeth M. 
Mohr, William J. 
Moist, Mrs. Samuel E. 
MoUoy, David J. 
Moltz, Mrs. Alice 
Monaghan, Thomas H. 
Monheimer, Henry I. 
Monroe, William S. 
Montgomery, Dr. 

Albert H. 
Moore, C. B. 
Moore, Philip Wyatt 
Moos, Joseph B. 
Moran, Brian T. 
Moran, Miss Margaret 
More, Roland R. 
Morey, Charles W. 
Morf, F. William 
Morgan, Alden K. 
Morgan, Mrs. 

Kendrick E. 
Morrill, Nahum 
Morris, Edward H. 
Morris, Eugene C. 
Morris, Mrs. Seymour 
Morrison, Mrs. 

Charles E. 
Morrison, Mrs. Harry 
Morrison, James C. 
Morrison, Matthew A. 
Morrisson, James W. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Morse, Mrs. Charles J. 
Morse, Leland R. 
Morse, Mrs. Milton 
Morse, Robert H. 
Mortenson, Mrs. Jacob 
Morton, Sterling 
Morton, William Morris 
Moses, Howard A. 
Moss, Jerome A. 
Mouat, Andrew 
Mowry, Louis C. 
Mudge, Mrs. John B. 
Muehlstein, Mrs. 

Mueller, Austin M. 
Mueller, J. Herbert 
Mueller, Paul H. 
Mulford, Miss Melinda 

Mulholand, William H. 
Murphy, John P. V. 
Murphy, Robert E. 
Musselman, Dr. George H. 

Naber, Henry G. 
Nadler, Dr. Walter H. 
Naess, Sigurd E. 
Nash, Charles J. 
Nathan, Claude 
Naugle, Mrs. Archibald 
Nebel, Herman C. 
Neely, Miss Carrie 

Nehls, Arthur L. 
Neilson, Mrs. Francis 
Nellegar, Mrs. Jay C. 
Nelson, Charles G. 
Nelson, Donald M. 
Nelson, Murry 
Nelson, N. J. 
Nelson, Nils A. 
Nelson, Mrs. Oliver R. 
Nelson, Victor W. 
Netcher, Mrs. Charles 
Neu, Clarence L. 
Neuffer, Paul A. 
Newhall, R. Frank 
Nichols, Mrs. George R. 
Nichols, Mrs. George 

R., Jr. 
Nichols, J. C. 
Nichols, S. F. 
Nicholson, Thomas G. 
Nitze, Mrs. William A. 
Noelle, Joseph B. 
Nollau, Miss Emma 
Noonan, Edward J. 
Norcross, Frederic F. 
Norris, Mrs. Lester 
Norris, Mrs. William W. 
Norton, R. H. 
Novak, Charles J. 

Noyes, A. H. 
Noyes, Allan S. 
Noyes, David A. 
Noyes, Mrs. May Wells 
Nusbaum, Mrs. Carl B. 
Nyman, Dr. John Egbert 

Gates, James F. 
Oberf elder, Herbert M. 
Oberfelder, Walter S. 
O'Brien, Frank J. 
Odell, William R. 
Odell, William 

R., Jr. 
O'Donnell, Miss Rose 
Off, Mrs. Clifford 
Offield, James R. 
Oglesbee, Nathan H. 
O'Keefe, Mrs. Dennis D. 
Olcott, Mrs. Henry C. 
Oldefest, Edward G. 
O'Leary, John W. 
Oliver, Gene G. 
Oliver, Mrs. Paul 
Olson, Gustaf 
Omo, Don L. 
Oppenheimer, Alfred 
Oppenheimer, Mrs. 

Harry D. 
Oppenheimer, Julius 
Orndoff, Dr. Benjamin H. 
O'Rourke, Albert 
Orr, Mrs. Eleanor N. 
Orr, Mrs. Robert C, 
Orthal, A. J. 
Ortmayer, Dr. Marie 
Osborn, Theodore L. 
Ostrom, Charles S. 
Ostrom, Mrs. James 

Otis, J. Sanford 
Otis, Joseph E. 
Otis, Joseph Edward, Jr. 
Otis, Ralph C. 
Otis, Raymond 
Otis, Stuart Huntington 
Otis, Mrs. Xavier L. 
Ouska, John A. 
Owings, Mrs. Nathaniel A. 

Paasche, Jens A. 
Packard, Dr. Rollo K. 
Paepcke, Walter P. 
Page- Wood, Gerald 
Pagin, Mrs. Frank S. 
Pam, Miss Carrie 
Pardridge, Albert J. 
Pardridge, Mrs. E, W. 
Park, R. E. 
Parker, Frank B. 
Parker, Dr. Gaston C. 

Parker, Norman S. 
Parker, Troy L. 
Parks, C. R. 
Parmelee, Dr. A. H. 
Partridge, Lloyd C. 
Paschen, Mrs. Henry 
Patrick, Miss Catherine 
Patrick, Dr. Hugh T. 
Pauling, Edward G. 
Payne, Professor James 
Peabody, Mrs. Francis S. 
Peabody, Howard B. 
Peabody, Miss Susan W. 
Peacock, Robert E. 
Peacock, Walter C. 
Pearse, Langdon 
Pearson, F. W. 
Pearson, George 

Albert, Jr. 
Peck, Dr. David B. 
Peet, Mrs. Belle G. 
Peet, Fred N. 
Peirce, Albert E. 
Pelley, John J. 
Peltier, M. F. 
PenDell, Charles W. 
Percy, Dr. Nelson 

Perkins, A. T. 
Perkins, Mrs. Herbert F. 
Perry, Dr. Ethel B. 
Perry, I. Newton 
Peter, William F. 
Peterkin, Daniel 
Peters, Harry A. 
Petersen, Jurgen 
Petersen, Dr. William F. 
Peterson, Albert 
Peterson, Alexander B. 
Peterson, Mrs. Anna J. 
Peterson, Arthur J. 
Peterson, Axel A. 
Peterson, Mrs. Bertha I. 
Pflaum, A. J. 
Pflock, Dr. John J. 
Phelps, Mrs. W. L. 
Phemister, Dr. Dallas B. 
Phillip, Peter 
Phillips, Herbert Morrow 
Picher, Mrs. Oliver S. 
Pick, Albert, Jr. 
Pick, George 
Pierce, J. Norman 
Pierce, Paul, Jr. 
Pirie, Mrs. John T. 
Pitcher, Mrs. Henry L. 
Pitzner, Alwin Frederick 
Plapp, Miss Doris A. 
Piatt, Mrs. Robert S. 
Plunkett, William H. 
Podell, Mrs. Beatrice 


268 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Polk, Mrs. Stella F. 
Pollock, Dr. Harry L. 
Pomeroy, Mrs. Frank W. 
Pond, Irving K. 
Pool, Marvin B. 
Pool, Mrs. W. Cloyd 
Poole, Mrs. Frederick 

Poole, George A. 
Poole, Mrs. Ralph H. 
Poor, Fred A. 
Poor, Mrs. Fred A. 
Pope, Frank 
Pope, Henry 
Pope, Herbert 
Poppenhagen, Henry J. 
Porter, Mrs. Frank S. 
Porter, Henry H., Jr. 
Porter, James F. 
Porterfield, Mrs. John F. 
Post, Frederick. Jr. 
Post, Gordon W. 
Post, Mrs. Philip Sidney 
Pottenger, William A. 
Powell, Mrs. Ambrose V. 
Powell, Isaac N. 
Prahl, Frederick A. 
Pratt, Mrs. William E. 
Prentice, John K. 
Primley, Walter S. 
Prince, Rev. Herbert W. 
Prince, Leonard M. 
Prussing, Mrs. George C. 
Psota, Dr. Frank J. 
Puckey, F. W. 
Pulver, Hugo 
Purcell, Joseph D. 
Purdy, Sparrow E. 
Pusey, Dr. William Allen 
Putnam, Miss Mabel C. 

Quigley, William J. 
Quinlan, Dr. William W. 

Raber, Franklin 
Radau, Hugo 
Radford, Mrs. W. A., Jr. 
Radniecki, Rev. Stanley 
Raff, Mrs. Arthur 
Raftree, Miss Julia M. 
Railton, Miss Frances 
Randall, Charies P. 
Randall, Rev. Edwin J. 
Randall, Irving 
Randle, Mrs. Charles H. 
Randle, Guy D. 
Raney, Mrs. R. J. 
Rankin, Miss Jessie H. 
Rasmussen, George 
Ray, Hal. S. 
Raymond, Mrs. 
Howard D. 

Razim, A. J. 
Reach, Benjamin F. 
Reach, William 
Redington, F. B. 
Redington, Mrs. W. H. 
Reed, Mrs. Kersey Coates 
Reed, N orris H. 
Reed, Mrs. PhiUp L. 
Reeve, Mrs. Earl 
Reeve, Frederick E. 
Regensteiner, Theodore 
Regnery, William H. 
Reich, Miss Annie 
Reichmann, Alexander F. 
Reid, Mrs. Bryan 
Reiter, Joseph J. 
Remy, Mrs. William 
Renshaw, Mrs. Charles 
Renwick, Edward A. 
Rew, Mrs. Irwin 
Reynolds, Harold F. 
Reynolds, Mrs. Henry J. 
Reynolds, Mrs. J. J. 
Rice, Arthur L. 
Rice, George L. 
Rice, Laurence A. 
Rich, Edward P. 
Rich, Elmer 
Richards, J. DeForest 
Richards, Marcus D. 
Richardson, George A. 
Richardson, Guy A. 
Richter, Mrs. Adelyn W. 
Rickcords, Francis S. 
Ricketts, C. Lindsay 
Riddle, Herbert H. 
Ridgeway, Ernest 
Ridgway, William 
Riemenschneider, Mrs. 

Julius H. 
Ries, Dr. Emil 
Rieser, Mrs. Herman 
Rieser, Leonard M. 
Rietz, Elmer W. 
Rietz, Walter H. 
Rigney, William T. 
Rinder, E. W. 
Ring, Miss Mary E. 
Ripstra, J. Henri 
Rittenhouse, Charles J. 
Robbins, Percy A. 
Roberts, Clark T. 
Roberts, Mrs. John 
Roberts, John M. 
Roberts, Dr. S. M. 
Roberts, Mrs. Warren R. 
Roberts, William 

Robinson, Mrs. Milton E. 
Robson, Miss Sarah C. 
Roche, Miss Emily 
Rockwell, Harold H. 

Roderick, Solomon P. 
Rodgers, Dr. David C. 
Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
Roehling, C. E. 
Roehling, Mrs. 

Otto G. 
Roehm, George R. 
Rogers, Miss Annie T. 
Rogers, Bernard F., Jr. 
Rogers, Dr. Cassius C. 
Rogers, Joseph E. 
Rogerson, Everett E. 
Rolfes, Gerald A. 
Roloson, Robert M. 
Romer, Miss Dagmar E. 
Root, John W. 
Rosen, M. R. 
Rosenbaum, Mrs. 

Edwin S. 
Rosenfeld, Mrs. Maurice 
Roseniield, William M. 
Rosenthal, James 
Rosenthal, Kurt 
Rosenthal, Lessing 
Rosenwald, Richard M. 
Ross, Charles S. 
Ross, Robert C. 
Ross, Mrs. Robert E. 
Ross, Thompson 
Ross, Walter S. 
Roth, Aaron 
Roth, Mrs. Margit 

Rothacker, Watterson R. 
Rothschild, George 

Rothschild, Maurice L. 
Rothschild, Melville N. 
Routh, George E., Jr. 
Rowe, Edgar C. 
Rozelle, Mrs. Emma 
Rubel, Dr. Maurice 
Rubens, Mrs. Charles 
Rubovits, Toby 
Ruckelhausen, Mrs. 

Rueckheim, Miss Lillian 
Ruel, John G. 
Rushton, Joseph A. 
Russell, Dr. Joseph W. 
Russell, Paul S. 
Rutledge, George E. 
Ryan, Henry B. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Edward L. 
Ryerson, Joseph T. 

Sackley, Mrs. James A. 
Sage, W. Otis 
Salisbury, Mrs. 

Warren M. 
Salmon, Mrs. E. D. 
Sammons, Wheeler 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Sandidge, Miss Daisy 
Sands, Mrs. Frances B. 
Sardeson, Orville A. 
Sargent, Chester F. 
Sargent, John R. W. 
Sargent, Ralph 
Sauter, Fred J. 
Sauter, Leonard J. 
Sawyer, Dr. Alvah L. 
Schacht, John H. 
Schaffer, Dr. David N. 
Schaffner, Mrs. Joseph 
Schaffner, Robert C. 
Scheidenhelm, Edward L. 
Scheinman, Jesse D. 
Schermerhorn, W. I. 
Schlake, William 
Schmidt, Dr. Charles L. 
Schmidt, Mrs. Minna 
Schmitz, Dr. Henry 
Schmitz, Nicholas J. 
Schneider, F. P. 
Schnering, Otto Y. 
Schnur, Ruth A. 
Scholl, Dr. William M. 
Schram, Harry S. 
Schreiner, Sigurd 
Schroeder, Dr. George H. 
Schukraft, William 
Schulman, A. S. 
Schulze, Mrs. Mathilde 
Schulze, William 
Schupp, Philip C. 
Schuyler, Mrs. Daniel 

J., Jr. 
Schwanke, Arthur 
Schwartz, Charles K. 
Schwartz, Charles P. 
Schwarz, Herbert E. 
Schwarzhaupt, Emil 
Sclanders, Mrs. Alexander 
Scott, Frank H. 
Scott, Robert L. 
Scribner, Gilbert 
Scully, Mrs. D. B. 
Seaman, George M. 
Seames, Mrs. Charles O. 
Sears, J. Alden 
Sears, Richard W., Jr. 
Seaver, Andrew E. 
Seaverns, George A. 
Seaverns, Louis C. 
See, Dr. Agnes Chester 
Seeberger, Miss Dora A. 
Seeburg, Justus P. 
Seifert, Mrs. Walter J. 
Seip, Emil G. 
Seipp, Clarence T. 
Seipp, Edwin A. 
Seipp, William C. 
Sello, George W. 
Sencenbaugh, Mrs. G. W. 

Seng, FVank J. 
Seng, V. J. 
Senne, John A. 
Sennekohl, Mrs. A. C. 
Shaffer, Carroll 
Shaffer, Charles B. 
Shambaugh, Dr. GeorgeE. 
Shanesy, Ralph D. 
Shannon, Angus Roy 
Shapiro, Meyer 
Sharpe, N. M. 
Shaw, Alfred P. 
Shaw, Mrs. Howard 
Shaw, Theodore A. 
Sheehy, Edward 
Sheldon, James M. 
Shelton, Dr. W. Eugene 
Shepherd, Mrs. Edith P. 
Sherman, Mrs. Francis 

C, Sr. 
Shields, James Culver 
Shillestad, John N. 
Shire, Moses E. 
Shoan, Nels 

Shockey, Mrs. Willis G. 
Shorey, Clyde E. 
Shoup, A. D. 
Shumway, Mrs. Edward 

Shumway, P. R. 
Siebel, Mrs. Ewald H. 
Sigman, Leon 
Silander, A. I. 
Silberman, Charles 
Silberman, David B. 
Silberman, Hubert S. 
Sills, Clarence W. 
Silverthorne, George M. 
Simond, Robert E. 
Simonds, Dr. James P. 
Sincere, Benjamin E. 
Sinclair, Dr. J. Frank 
Singer, Mrs. Mortimer H. 
Sitzer, Dr. L. Grace 

Skooglund, David 
Sleeper, Mrs. Olive C. 
Slocum, J. E. 
Smith, Mrs. C. R. 
Smith, Mrs. Emery J. 
Smith, Mrs. Frank S. 
Smith, Franklin P. 
Smith, Harold Byron 
Smith, Jens 
Smith, Jesse E. 
Smith, Mrs. Katherine 

Smith, Mrs. Kinney 
Smith, Samuel K. 
Smith, Sidney 
Smith, Mrs. Theodore 


Smith, Walter Bourne 
Smith, Walter Byron 
Smith, Mrs. William A. 
Smith, Z. Erol 
SmuUan, Alexander 
Snow, Edgar M. 
Snow, Fred A. 
Snyder, Harry 
Socrates, Nicholas 
Solem, Dr. George O. 
Sonnenschein, Edward 
Sonnenschein, Hugo 
Sonnenschein, Dr. Robert 
Sonneveld, Jacob 
Soper, Henry M. 
Soper, James P., Jr. 
Sopkin, Mrs. Setia H. 
Soravia, Joseph 
Sorensen, James 
Spencer, Mrs. William M. 
Spiegel, Mrs. 

Frederick W. 
Spiegel, Mrs. Mae 0. 
Spitz, Joel 
Spitz, Leo 
Spitzglass, Mrs. 

Leonard M. 
Spohn, John F. 
Spoor, Mrs. John A. 
Sprague, Dr. John P. 
Springer, Mrs. Samuel 
Squires, John G. 
Staack, Otto C. 
Stacey, Mrs. Thomas I. 
Staley, Miss Mary B. 
Stanton, Dr. E. M. 
Stanton, Edgar 
Stanton, Henry T. 
Starrels, Joel 
Stearns, Mrs. Richard I. 
Stebbins, Fred J. 
Steffens, Ralph Sutherland 
Steffey, David R. 
Stein, Benjamin F. 
Stein, Dr. Irving 
Stein, L. Montefiore 
Stenson, Frank R. 
Sterba, Dr. Joseph V. 
Stern, Alfred Whital 
Stern, David B. 
Stern, Felix 
Stern, Maurice S. 
Stern, Oscar D. 
Stevens, Delmar A. 
Stevens, Edward J. 
Stevens, Elmer T. 
Stevens, Harold L. 
Stevens, James W. 
Stevens, Mrs. James W. 
Stevens; R. G. 
Stevenson, Dr. 

Alexander F. 

270 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Stevenson, Engval 
Stewart, Miss Agnes 

Stewart, Miss Eglantine 

Stewart, James S. 
Stewart, Miss Mercedes 

Stibolt, Mrs. Carl B. 
Stiger, Charles W. 
Stirling, Miss Dorothy 
Stockton, Eugene M. 
Stockton, Miss Josephine 
Stone, Mrs. Jacob S. 
Strandberg, Erik P. 
Straus, David 
Straus, Martin L. 
Straus, Mehin L. 
Straus, S. J. T. 
Strauss, Dr. Alfred A. 
Strauss, Henry X. 
Strauss, John L. 
Street, Mrs. Charles A. 
Strobel, Charles L. 
Stromberg, Charles J. 
Strong, Edmund H. 
Strong, Mrs. Walter A. 
Strotz, Harold C. 
Struby, Mrs. Walter V. 
Stulik, Dr. Charles 
Sturges, Hollister 
Sturges, Solomon 
Sturtevant, Henry D. 
Suekoff, Louis A. 
Sullivan, Hon. John J. 
Sulzberger, Frank L. 
Sutcliffe, Mrs. Gary 
Sutherland, William 
Sutton, Harold I. 
Swan, Oscar H. 
Swanson, Joseph E. 
Swartchild, Edward G. 
Swartchild, William G. 
Swenson, S. P. O. 
Swett, Robert Wheeler 
Swift, Alden B. 
Swift, Mrs. Alden B. 
Swift, Edward F., Jr. 
Sykes, Mrs. Wilfred 

Taft, John H. 
Taft, Mrs. Oren E. 
Tarrant, Robert 
Tatge, Mrs. Gustavus J. 
Taylor, Charles C. 
Taylor, George Halleck 
Taylor, J. H. 
Teagle, E. W. 
Templeton, Stuart J. 
Templeton, Walter L. 
Templeton, Mrs. William 
Terry, Foss Bell 

Teter, Lucius 
Thatcher, Everett A. 
Theobald, Dr. John J. 
Thomas, Emmet A. 
Thomas, Frank W. 
Thomas, Mrs. Harry L. 
Thomas, Dr. William A. 
Thompson, Arthur H. 
Thompson, Charles E. 
Thompson, Charles F. 
Thompson, Edward F. 
Thompson, Fred L. 
Thompson, Dr. George F. 
Thompson, Mre. John R. 
Thompson, John R., Jr. 
Thompson, Mrs. Leverett 
Thome, Hallett W. 
Thome, James W. 
Thornton, Dr. Francis E. 
Thorp, Harry W. 
Thresher, C. J. 
Thulin, F. A. 
Tighe, Mrs. Bryan G. 
Tilden, Averill 
Tilden, Louis Edward 
Tilt, Charles A. 
Tobias, Clayton H. 
Torbet, A. W. 
Touchstone, John 

Towle, Leroy C. 
Towler, Kenneth F. 
Towne, Mrs. John D. C. 
Trainer, J. Milton 
Traylor, Mrs. Dorothy J. 
Tredwell, John 
Tripp, Chester D. 
Trombly, Dr. F. F. 
Trowbridge, Raymond W. 
Trude, Mrs. Mark W. 
Tucker, S. A. 
Turner, Alfred M. 
Tumer, Tracy L. 
Tuthill, Mrs. Beulah L. 
Tuttle, F. B. 
Tuttle, Henry Emerson 
Tuttle, Mrs. Henry N. 
Tyler, Albert S. 
Tyler, Mrs. Orson K. 
Tyrrell, Mrs. Percy 

Uhlmann, Fred 
Ullman, Mrs. N. J. 
Upham, Mrs. Frederic W. 

Valentine, Joseph L. 
Valentine, Mrs. 

May L. 
Valentine, Patrick A. 
VanCleef, Mrs. Noah 
VanCleef, Paul 

VanDeventer, Christopher 
VanNess, Gardiner B. 
VanSchaick, Gerard 
Van Winkle, James Z. 
VanZwoll, Henry B. 
Vaughan, Leonard H. 
Vawter, William A., II 
Veeder, Mrs. Henry 
Veeder, Miss Jessie 
Vehe, Dr. K. L. 
Vehon, Morris 
Vial, Charles H. 
Vial, Miss Mary M. 
Vickery, Miss Mabel S. 
Victor, Mrs. Jessie K. 
Vierling, Louis 
Vincent, Mrs. William 

Volicas, Dr. John N. 
Volk, Mrs. John H. 
VonColditz, Dr. G. 

VonGlahn, Mrs. August 
Voorhees, Mrs. Condit 
Vopicka, Charles J. 

Wagner, Fritz, Jr. 
Wagner, Dr. G. W. 
Wagner, John E. 
Walgreen, Mrs. 

Charles R. 
Walker, James 
Walker, Mrs. Paul 
Walker, William E. 
Wallace, Robert Y. 
Wallace, Walter F. 
Waller, H. P. 
Waller, J. Alexander 
Waller, Mrs. James B. 
Waller, James B., Jr. 
Wallerich, George W. 
Wallovick, J. H. 
Walther, Mrs. S. Arthur 
Ward, Mrs. N. C. 
Ware, Mrs. Charles W. 
Warfield, Edwin A. 
Warner, Mrs. John Eliot 
Warren, AUyn D. 
Warren, J. Latham 
Warren, Paul C. 
Warren, Paul G. 
Warren, Walter G. 
Warwick, W. E. 
Washburne, Clarke 

Hempstead, Jr. 
Washington, Laurence W. 
Wassell, Joseph 
Waterman, Dr. A. H. 
Watson, William Upton 
Watts, Harry C. 
Watzek, J. W., Jr. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Waud, E. P. 
Wayman, Charles A. G. 
Wean, Frank L. 
Weaver, Charles A. 
Webb, George D. 
Webb, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Weber, Bernard F. 
Weber, Frank C. 
Webster, Arthur L. 
Webster, Miss Helen R. 
Webster, Dr. Ralph W. 
Wedelstaedt, H. A. 
Weil, Martin 
Weiler, Rudolph 
Weinstein, Dr. M. L. 
Weinzelbaum, Louis L. 
Weis, Samuel W. 
Weisbrod, Benjamin H. 
Weiss, Mrs. Morton 
Weissenbach, Mrs. 

Minna K. 
Weisskopf, Maurice J. 
Weisskopf, Dr. Max A. 
Wells, Arthur H. 
Wells, Harry L. 
Wells, John E. 
Wells, Preston A. 
Wells, Thomas E. 
Wells, Mrs. Thomas E. 
Wendell, Barrett, Jr. 
Wendell, Miss Josephine 

Wentworth, Mrs. Moses J. 
Werner, Frank A. 
West, J. Roy 
West, Miss Mary Sylvia 
Westerfeld, Simon 
Westrich, Miss T. C. 
Wetten, Albert H. 
Wettling, Louis E. 
Weymer, Earl M. 
Whealan, Emmett P. 
Wheeler, George A. 
Wheeler, Leo W. 
Wheeler, Leslie 
Wheeler, Mrs. Robert C. 
Whinery, Charles C. 
White, Harold F. 
White, Mrs. James C. 

Almes, Dr. Herman E. 

Bodman, Mrs. Luther 
Bohn, Mrs. Bertha 

Born, Moses 
Brigham, Miss Florence 

Bullock, Carl C. 

Case, Elmer G. 

White, James E. 
White, Joseph J. 
White, Richard T. 
White, Sanford B. 
White, Selden Freeman 
Whitehouse, Howard D. 
Whiting, Mrs. Adele H. 
Whiting, J. H. 
Whiting, Lawrence H. 
Wiborg, Frank B. 
Widdicombe, Mrs. R. A. 
Wieland, Charles J. 
Wieland, Mrs. George C. 
Wienhoeber, George V. 
Wilder, Harold, Jr. 
Wilder, Mrs. John E. 
Wilder, Mrs. T. E. 
Wilker, Mrs. Milton W. 
Wilkins, George Lester 
Wilkins, Miss Ruth 
Wilkinson, Mrs. 

George L. 
Wilkinson, John C. 
Willey, Mrs. Charles B. 
Williams, Dr. A. 

Williams, Miss 

Anna P. 
Williams, Harry 

Williams, J. M. 
Williams, Lucian M. 
Williamson, George H. 
Willis, Paul, Jr. 
Willis, Thomas H. 
Wills, H. E. 
Wilms, Herman P. 
Wilson, Mrs. E. Crane 
Wilson, Harry Bertram 
Wilson, Mrs. John R. 
Wilson, Miss Lillian M. 
Wilson, Morris Karl 
Wilson, Mrs. Robert 

Con over 
Wilson, Mrs. Robert E. 
Winans, Frank F. 
Windsor, H. H., Jr. 
Winston, Mrs. Bertram 


Deceased, 1934 

Cratty, Mrs. Josiah 

Darrow, William W. 
Dewey, Albert B., Sr. 
Donnelley, Mrs. R. R. 

Elcock, Edward G. 

Goodman, Mrs. Herbert 

Greenebaum, M. E. 

Winston, Hampden 
Winston, James H. 
Winter, Irving 
Wojtalewicz, Rev. 

Francis M. 
Woley, Dr. Harry P. 
Wolf, Mrs. Albert H. 
W^olf, Henry M. 
Wolf, Walter B. 
WolflF, Louis 

Wood, Mrs. Gertrude D, 
Wood, Mrs. Harold F. 
Wood, John H. 
Wood, Kay, Jr. 
Wood, Robert E. 
Wood, William G. 
Woodmansee, Fay 
Woodruff, George 
Woods, Weightstill 
Worcester, Mrs. 

Charles H. 
Work, Robert 
Worth, Miss Helen E. 
Wrenn, Mrs. Everts 
Wright, Warren 
Wrigley, Mrs. Charles W. 
Wunderle, H. O. 
Wyeth, Harry B. 

Yegge, C. Fred 
Yerkes, Richard W. 
Yondorf, John David 
Yondorf, Milton S. 
Yondorf, Milton S., Jr. 
Young, George W. 
Young, Hugh E. 

Zabel, Max W. 
Zapel, Elmer 
Zeisler, Mrs. Erwin P. 
Zerler, Charles F. 
Ziebarth, Charles A. 
Zimmer, Mrs. 
Rudolph E. 
Zimmerman, Herbert P. 
Zimmerman, Louis W. 
Zork, David 
Zulfer, P. M. 

Gulick, John H. 

Haugan, Charles M. 
Hogan, Frank 
Hutchinson, John W. 

Lampert, Mrs. Lydia 
Lyford, Will H. 

Magwire, Mrs. Mary F; 
Mandel, Mrs. Frederick 

272 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Mayer, Mrs. David Otis, Lucius J. 

McCormick, L. Hamilton 

Mohr, Edward Paschen, Mrs. Annette A. 

Nason, Albert J. 
Nelson, Edward A. 
Nichols, George P. 

Rueckheim, F. W. 
Bauer, William A. 

Scheunemann, Robert G. 
Seng, J. T. 

Thomas, Edward H. 

Wood, John G. 
Wormser, Leo F. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $50 to the Museum 

Baum, Mrs. James 
Day, Mrs. Winfield S. 

Phillips, Montagu Austin 
Stevens, Edmund W. 


Those who contribute $25 annually to the Museum 

Alsip, Mrs. Charles H. Hollingsworth, R. G. 

Bender, Daniel H. 
Berkson, Mrs. Maurice 

Cox, William D. 

Eddy, Mrs. Augustus W. 

Florsheim, Harold M. 

Gentz, Miss Lucia 
Goodman, Mrs. Milton F. 
Gordon, Leslie S. 

Hines, Charles M. 

Kavanagh, Clarence H. 
Knopf, Andrew J. 

Merrell, John H. 
Mulligan, George F. 

Newhouse, Karl 
Noble, Samuel R. 

Orr, Thomas C. 

Walker, Samuel J. 
Portman, Mrs. Edward C. Wright, H. K. 

Rosenthal, Benjamin J. Young, Mrs. Caryl B. 

Rothschild, Justin 

Seelen, Mark B. 
Shaw, E. R. 

Short, Miss Shirley Jane 
Swiecinski, Walter 

Titzel, Dr. W. R. 

Voorhees, H, Belin 

Deceased, 1934 
Cogswell, Elmer R. 

Those who contribute $10 annually to the Museum 

Abbott, Edwin H. 
Adams, Mrs. David T. 
Adams, Mrs. George 
Adams, Harvey M. 
Adams, Hugh R. 
Adams, Miss Jane 
Addams, Miss Jane 
Agar, W. S. 

Agar, Mrs. William Grant 
Alden, William T. 
Alessio, Frank 

Alexander, Mrs. H. G. B. 
Alexander, Harry T. 
Allen, C. W. 
Allen, Frank W. 
Allen, John D. 
Alrutz, Dr. Louis F. 
Alschuler, Hon. Samuel 
Alt, George E. 
Altheimer, Ben J. 
Alton, Robert Leslie 
Amberg, J. Ward 

Amberg, Miss Mary Agnes 
Amory, W. Austin 
Andersen, Miss Randi 
Anderson, Mrs. A. W. 
Anderson, Dr. Amabel A. 
Anderson, Arch W. 
Anderson, O. Helge 
Anheiser, Hugo 
Ankrum, Mrs. E. W. 
Anoff, Isador S. 
Anthony, Charles E. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Anthony, Joseph R. 
Arnold, George G. 
Arnold, Mrs. Lloyd 
Arthur, Miss Minnie J. 
Ashcraft, Edwin M., Ill 
Atkeisson, Dr. J. E. H. 
Atwood, Fred G. 
Austin, E. F. 
Austin, Edwin C. 
Axelson, Charles F. 
Ayer, Mrs. Walter 
Ayers, William L. 

Babcock, Charles S. 
Babson, Mrs. Gustavus 
Bacon, Dr. Charles S. 
Bader, Miss Madelyn M. 
Baginski, Mrs. Frank 
Baker, CM. 
Balderston, Mrs. 

Stephen V. 
Ballard, Mrs. E. S. 
Bankard, E. Hoover, Jr. 
Banning, Samuel W. 
Barkhausen, Mrs. 

Henry G. 
Barlow, Henry H. 
Barnes, Harold 0. 
Barnes, Mrs. Harold 

Barrett, Mrs. A. M. 
Barrett, Miss Adela 
Barrett, M. J. P. 
Barter, Leonard H. 
Bartholomay, William, Jr. 
Bartholomew, Mrs. F. H. 
Barton, L. R. 
Baumann, Mrs. F. 0. 
Beach, Calvin B. 
Bean, Edward H. 
Becker, Mrs. Herbert W. 
Beddoes, Hubert 
Beers-Jones, L. 
Beidler, Augustus F. 
Beifus, Morris 
Bell, George Irving 
Bell, Hayden N. 
Bennett, Edward H. 
Bennett, Mrs. Reid M. 
Bennington, Harold 
Benson, Mrs. T. R. 
Bentley, Richard 
Berg, Sigard E. 
Berger, Edward A. 
Berger, Dr. John M. 
Berger, R. 0. 
Bergh, Ross F. 
Berlizheimer, Miss Lily A. 
Bertram, Mrs. S. W. 
Bestel, Oliver A. 
Biddle, Robert C. 
Bielfeldt, P. W. 

Billig, Mrs. George W. 
Binz, William C. 
Birkenstein, Louis 
Bishop, Mrs. W. H. 
Black, Carl M. 
Black, Herman 
Black, Peter M. 
Blackburn, Burr 
Blocki, Mrs. Fred W. 
Blomquist, Alfred 
Blue, Dr. Robert 
Blythe, Mrs. J. W. 
Bobb, Dwight S. 
Bohner, William F. 
Bolin, Mrs. George 
Bond, William A. 
Borcherding, E. P. 
Borwell, Mrs. Robert C. 
Bothman, Dr. Louis 
Bournique, Alvar L. 
Bowen, Joseph T., Jr. 
Bowman, Jay 
Bowman, Mrs. Jay 
Boyd, Mrs. T. Kenneth 
Boyer, Mrs. J. E. 
Brachvogel, Mrs. 

Bradley, Herbert E. 
Braese, Mrs. Otto C. 
Brainerd, Mrs. David E. 
Brashears, J. W. 
Braudy, Mrs. Louis C. 
Brewster, William E. 
Briney, Mrs. H. C. 
Brodt, Irwin W. 
Broome, John Spoor 
Broome, Mrs. Thornhill 
Broomell, Chester C. 
Brower, Jule F. 
Brown, Alvia K. 
Brown, Mrs. Anna K. 
Brown, Miss Ella W. 
Brown, Mrs. Everett C. 
Brown, Gerard S. 
Brown, H. A. 
Brown, H. S. 
Brown, J. D. 
Brown, Joseph F. 
Brown, Mrs. W. Gray 
Brown, William A. 
Browne, Theodore C. 
Brucker, Dr. Edward A. 
Brucker, Dr. Matthew W. 
Bruhnke, A. C. 
Brumley, Daniel Joseph 
Brunker, A. R. 
Brunt, J. P. 
Bryan, H. H. 
Buchbinder, Dr. J. R. 
Buchen, Walther 
Buck, Nelson Earl 
Buck, Mrs. 0. J. 

Buckingham, Mrs. John 
Buckley, Mrs. Warren 
Buell, Mrs. Charles C. 
Buell, James H. 
Buhlig, Paul 
Bullard, Sellar 
BuUivant, L. J. 
Bunck, Edward C. 
Bunnell, John A. 
Bunte, Mrs. Theodore W. 
Bunting, Guy J. 
Burch, Mrs. W. E. 
Burgmeier, John M. 
Burnet, Mrs. W. A. 
Burnham, Daniel H. 
Burnham, Hubert 
Burns, Mrs. John S. 
Burridge, Mrs. Howard J. 
Burrows, Miss Louisa L. 
Busch, Francis X. 
Buswell, Mrs. Henry Lee 
Butler, Mrs. Gerald M. 
Butler, Mrs. Lloyd E. 
Byfield, Ernest L. 
Byrnes, William Jerome 

Cable, Arthur G. 
Cahill, William A. 
Callahan, Mrs. A. F. 
Camenisch, Edward T. 
Cameron, Ossian 
Camp, Benjamin B. 
Campbell, Argyle 
Campbell, Donald A. 
Campbell, Mrs. John G. 
Campe, Frank O. 
Canavan, J. Newell 
Cardelli, Mrs. Giovanni 
Carlson, John F. 
Carnahan, Mrs. Glen C. 
Carpenter, F. D. 
Carpenter, John Alden 
Carr, Dr. James G. 
Carr, John 0. 
Carrington, Edmund 
Carter, Mrs. C. B. 
Carter, John A., Jr. 
Case, J. Amos 
Cassady, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Castenholz, W. B. 
Castle, Sydney 
Caswell, Mrs. A. B. 
Cervenka, John A. 
Chandler, Charles H. 
Chandler, Dr. Fremont 

Chandler, George M. 
Chapin, Rufus F. 
Cherry, Mrs. Walter L. 
Chesrow, Dr. Eugene 

Chessman, L. W. 

274 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Chester, Miss Virginia 
Childs, Kent C. 
Childs, Theron W. 
Chinnock, Mrs. Ronald L. 
Chrissinger, Horace B. 
Christensen, Henry C. 
Clague, Mrs. Stanley, Sr. 
Clark, C. P. 
Clark, Charles T. 
Clark, Mrs. Ralph E. 
Clark, Robert H. 
Clarke, Broadus J. 
Clarke, David R. 
Claussen, Edmund -J. 
Clayton, Mrs. 

Anna G. 
Clements, Rev. 

Clemer, J. H. 
Cleveland, Mrs. A. F. 
Clifford, Thomas B. 
Clissold, Edward T. 
Clithero, W. S. 
Clizbe, Mrs. F. 0. 
Coburn, Alonzo J. 
Cochrane, Mrs. A. B. 
Coe, Frank Gait 
Coen, T. M. 
Coffman, A. B. 
Cohen, A. E. 
Cole, Lawrence A. 
Coleman, Mrs. 

Adelbert E. 
Coleman, Algernon 
Coleman, B. R. 
Coleman, Hamilton 
Collins, Arthur W. 
Collins, Charles W. 
Collins, Mrs. Frank P. 
Collins, Dr. Rufus G. 
Condon, Thomas J. 
Consoer, Arthur W. 
Converse, Earl M. 
Cook, Louis T. 
Cook, Paul W. 
Cook, Sidney A. 
Coolidge, Dr. Edgar D. 
Coon, Robert E. 
Coppel, Mrs. Charles H. 
Corbin, Mrs. Dana 
Corper, Erwin 
Cottell, Miss Louisa 
Cowan, Mrs. Grace L. 
Cozzens, Mrs. Frederick B. 
Craddock, John F. 
Cragg, Mrs. George L. 
Craig, Mrs. Alfred E. 
Cramer, Mrs. Ambrose 
Crawford, Adam W. 
Crellin, Miss Mary F. 
Crosby, Mrs. Frederick W. 

Culbertson, Mrs. 

James A. 
Culp, Miss Mary V. 
Cuneo, Frank 
Cunningham, Robert 
Cunningham, Robert M. 
Cunningham, Secor 
Cuppaidge, Mrs. G. 0. 
Curtis, D. C. 
Curtis, John G. 
Cuscaden, Fred A. 
Cushman, Barney 

Dahle, Isak 
Dalmar, Hugo 
Danielson, Reuben G. 
Darrow, Paul E. 
Daugherty, George H., 

David, Sigmund W. 
Da\-ies, William B. 
Davis, Alexander M. 
Davis, Mrs. Charles P. 
Davis, Charles S. 
Davis, Mrs. F. Ben 
Davis, Paul H. 
Davis, Ralph W. 
Day, Mrs. Lewis J. 
Dean, William D. 
Deane, Henry Towner 
DeBarry, CD. 
DeBere, Dr. C. J. 
Decker, Hiram E. 
Defrees, Mrs. Joseph H. 
Degener, August W. 
Deimel, Mrs. Jerome L. 
Deininger, Mrs. D. M. 
DeLamarter, Mrs. Eric 
Demaree, H. S. 
Deneen, Robert J. 
Denison, Mrs. John 

Denison, John W. 
Dennis, Willard P. 
DePeyster, Frederic A. 
Deree, William S, 
Derham, John A. 
Deutsch, Mrs. Anna C. 
Diehl, Harry L. 
Dillbahner, Frank 
Dixon, Mrs. Wesley M. 
Dodds, Roland P. 
Doering, Mrs, Edmund 

J., Jr. 
Donath, Otto 
Donnelley, Thome 
Dorney, Rev. Maurice A. 
Dosch, Henry C. 
Drell, Mrs. J. B. 
Drezmal, Max A. 
Dreyfus, Maurice M. 
Drielsma, I. J. 

Dulsky, Louis 
Dummer, Mrs. William 

Dunbaugh, Harry J. 
Duncan, W. S. 
Durr, Mrs. Herbert A. 

Easter, Adolph H. 
Eaton, Leland E. 
Edgar, Da^/id W. 
Edmonds, H. O. 
Egloff, Gustav 
Ehrman, Walter E. 
Ehrmann, Dr. Fred J. E. 
Eisendrath, Miss 

Elsa B. 
Eldred, Mrs. Harriot W. 
Elfborg, Mrs. Henry 
Elich, Mrs. Herman 
Ellbogen, Mrs. Max 
Elliott, Dr. Clinton A. 
Elliott, Francke C. 
Elmslie, George G. 
Emerson, R. W. 
Emery, Mrs. William H. 
Emig, Howard A. 
Engelhart, Frank C. 
Englander, Mrs. 

Marcelite S. 
Enos, Earl E. 
Epstein, Mrs. Arnold 
Erd, Arthur A. 
Erickson, Elmer 
Erickson, H. E. 
Erickson, Samuel E. 
Erminger, Mrs. H. B., Jr. 
Espenshade, Mrs. E. B. 
Estes, Clarence E. 
Ettelson, Samuel A. 
Eulass, Elmer A. 
Evans, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Everett, Edward W. 
Ewing, Davis 
Exo, Arnold H. 

Fabrice, Edward H. 
Falls, Dr. F. H. 
William J. 
Farrier, Clarence W. 
Farwell, Albert D. 
Farwell, Edward P. 
Faulkner, Dr. Louis 
Felsenthal, Herman 
Fenner, W. L. 
Fenton, J. R. 
Ferry, Mrs. Frank 
Field, Heman H. 
Field, Mrs. J. A. 
Fies, Mrs. E. E. 
Findlay, Dr. Ephraim K. 
Fisher, Thomas H. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Fisher, Mrs. W. A. 
Fitch, Thomas 
Fitzpatrick, Mrs. T. F. 
Flanagan, William C. 
Fleming, Edward J. 
Fleming, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Flood, E. J. 
Flynn, M. J. 
Flynn, Maurice J. 
Foley, Mrs. John Burton 
Follett, D wight W. 
Folsom, Mrs. William R. 
Forch, Mrs. John L., Jr. 
Ford, Mrs. Edwin S. 
Forrest, Maulsby 
Forrester, Mrs. W. W. 
Fortune, John L. 
Fowler, Edgar C. 
Fowler, Gordon F. 
Fowler, Harold A. 
Fowler, Walter E. 
Fox, Professor Philip 
Frank, John M. 
Frank, Miss Margaret 
Frazee, Seward C. 
Freeh of. Dr. Solomon B. 
Freiler, Abraham J. 
Fremont, Miss Ruby 
French, Bayless W. 
French, Dr. Thomas M. 
Freund, Erwin 0. 
Frieder, Edward N. 
Friedrichs, Mrs. Edith E. 
Fuller, Mrs. Eugene W. 
Fuller, Dr. George 

Gable, Harley O. 
Gabrielianz, Dr. 

Gale, Abram 
Gallagher, Miss Grace 
Gallauer, Carl 
Galloway, Dr. Charles E. 
Gano, David R. 
Gantner, Edward George 
Gardiner, Mrs. John L. 
Gardner, Robert H. 
Gates, Philip R. 
Geraghty, Mrs. 

Thomas F. 
Gibbs, Dr. William W. 
Gibson, Joseph R. 
Gilchrist, Miss Harriet F. 
Giles, Miss A. H. 
Gilkes, William H. 
Glader, Frank J. 
Gladish, David F. 
Gledhill, Edward 
Glover, John 
Glynn, Mrs. John E. 
Goble, Mrs. E. R. 

Goddard, Mrs. Convers 
Goldberg, Mrs. Sol H. 
Goldie, George G. 
Golding, Robert N. 
Goldman, Mrs. Louis 
Goldsmith, Henry M. 
Goodell, Mrs. Charles E. 
Gowenlock, Mrs. T. R. 
Gramm, Dr. Cari T. 
Grauer, Milton H. 
Graver, Philip S. 
Graves, Mrs. B. C. 
Graves, Mrs. George E. 
Grawoig, Allen 
Gray, William A. 
Gray, Mrs. William S. 
Graydon, Charles E. 
Green, Walter H. 
Greenebaum, Mrs. Esther 
Greenhouse, Jacob 
Greenlee, William B. 
Greenlee, Mrs. Ralph S. 
Gregg, John Wyatt 
Gregory, Mrs. Robert B. 
Grein, Joseph 
Grey, Newton F. 
Gridley, Mrs. Martin M. 
Griesel, Edward T. 
Griffith, Mrs. G. H. 
Groebe, Louis G. 
Guettler, H. W. 
Guilliams, John R. 
Guinan, James J. 
Gunderson, Mrs. 

George O. 
Gunkel, George F. 
Gunnar, Mrs. H. P. 

Hagey, J. F. 
Hajek, Henry F. 
Hall, Arthur B. 
Hall, Harold 
Hall, Harry 
Hall, Henry C. 
Hall, J. M. 
Hall, Louis W. 
Hamblen, J. C. 
Hamilton, Mrs. 

Chester F. 
Hamilton, Hugo A. 
Hamilton, J. R. 
Hamline, Mrs. 

John H. 
Hammond, Mrs. I. L. 
Hann, J. Roberts 
Hansen, Adolph H. 
Hanson, August E. 
Hanson, Martin J. 
Hardenbrook, Mrs. Burt 

Harding, Mrs. Charles F. 
Hardy, Henry G. 

Harmon, Hubert P. 
Harpel, Mrs. Charles J. 
Harrigan, E. J. 
Harriman, Frank B. 
Harris, Ewart 
Harris, Frank F. 
Harrison, William H. 
Harrold, James P. 
Harshaw, Myron T. 
Hart, Mrs. G. H. 
Hart, Mrs. Harry 
Hart, Louis E. 
Hart, Max A. 
Hart, Robert H. 
Hart, Mrs. Walter H. 
Hartigan, Clare 
Hartwick, H. J. 
Hartz, W. Homer 
Harvey, Byron S. 
Harvey, Mrs. Harold B. 
Haskell, L. A. 
Haskins, Mrs. Virginia W. 
Hattstaedt, Mrs. 

John J. 
Hauter, Mrs. A. N. 
Haven, Mrs. Alfred C. 
Hawkes, Joseph B. 
Hawkinson, Dr. Oscar 

Hawthorne, Vaughn R. 

Healy, John J. 

Hebel, Hon. Oscar 

Heckel, Edmund P. 

Hedman, Mrs. C. M. 

Heg, Ernest 

Heide, Bernard H. 

Heifetz, Samuel 

Heinz, W. W. 

Helebrandt, Louis 

Heller, Ward 

Hemington, Dr. Francis 

Henderson, B. E. 

Henderson, Edward E. 

Hendrickson, Magnus 

Hennessy, James 

Henning, Charles F. 

Henning, Mrs. Helen E. 

Henriksen, H. M. 

Henry, C. Duff 

Henschel, Edmund C. 

Herlihy, Frank J. 

Herring, Garner 

Hertz, Mrs. John D. 

Hertzberg, Edward 

Hess, Edward J. 

Hess, Mrs. J. H. 

Hess, Sol H. 

Hessler, John B. 

Heubach, Mrs. Lydia 

Heym, Dr. A. 

Heymann, L. H. 

Hibbard, Angus S. 

Hicks, E. L., Jr. 

276 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Hicks, Mrs. Ernest H. 

High, Mrs. George H. 

High, Shirley T. 

Hill, Mrs. Cyrus G. 

Hill, Mrs. Frank L. 

Hill, Miss Meda A. 

Hilliker, Miss Ray 

Hills, Edward R. 

Hillyer, John T. 

Hilpert, Dr. Willis S. 

Hilton, Henry H, 

Hirsh, Morris Henry 

Hoadley, Mrs. Arthur G. 

Hoag, Mrs. Junius C. 

Hobson, Professor Asher 

Hochstadter, Gustav 

Hodge, Thomas P. 

Hoff, C. W. 

Holabird, John A. 

Holden, Charles R. 

Holm, Gottfried 

Holman, Scott A. 

Holt, James A. 

Holt, McPherson 

Holter, Charles C. 

Honecker, Ralph H. 

Hooge, Dr. Ludwig F. 

Hooper, A. F. 

Hoover, Mrs. Frank K. 

Hopkins, James M., Jr. 

Horween, Ralph 

Hoskinson, James M. 

Houston, Mrs. Thomas J 
Howard, P. S. 
Howland, Mrs. Elvin W. 
Hoyt, N. Landon, Jr. 
Hoyt, WilHam M., II 
Hubachek, Frank Brookes 
Hubbell, Mrs. Pearl 

Hubbell, William J. 
Huebsch, Mrs. Helen M. 
Huettmann, Fred 
Huffacker, Mrs. 

O'Bannon L. 
Hufty, Mrs. F. P. 
Huggins, Dr. Ben H. 
Hughes, George A. 
Hughitt, Mrs. Marvin 
Huguenor, Lloyd B. 
Humphrey, H. K. 
Hunt, George C. 
Hurd, Harry B. 
Hurley, Frank J. 
Hutchinson, Mrs. C. L. 
Hyman, Mrs. David A. 
Hyndman, Mrs. A. H. 
Hyslop, Dr. R. J. 

Igoe, Mrs. Michael L. 
Illian, Arthur J. G. 

Ingersoll, Stephen L. 
Irwin, Amory T. 

Jackson, R. W. 
Jackson, W. H. 
Jackson, WiUiam F. 
Jacobs, E. G. 
Jacobs, Walter H. 
Jacobus, Graham B. 
James, Dr. R. L. 
Jamieson, Norman R. 
Janata, Louis J. 
Jaques, Mrs. Louis T. 
Jarchow, Mrs. C. E. 
Jarvis, William B, 
Jeffers, Roy S. 
Jenner, Mrs. Austin 
Jennings, Mrs. C. A. 
Jennings, S. C. 
Jernberg, Carl L. 
Jewell, Miss Helen M. 
Jewett, Miss Josephine J. 
Jicha, R. Charles 
Johnson, B. W. 
Johnson, Edmund G. 
Johnson, Frank 
Johnson, Mrs. Herbert S. 
Johnson, Mrs. Perry R. 
Johnson, Mrs. W. B. 
Johnston, Ira B. 
Johnstone, Mrs. Bruce 
Jones, A. R., Sr. 
Jones, Mrs. C. A. 
Jones, Howard B. 
Jones, Leslie N. 
Jones, Lester M. 
Jones, Owen Barton 
Jones, Miss Susan E. 
Jordan, J. S. 
Jourdan, Al 
Joy, James A. 
Judd, Mrs. Robert 

Judson, Clay 
Junker, Richard A. 

Kaempfer, F. W., Jr. 
Kaempfer, Fred 
Kann, Max M. 
Kannally, Michael V. 
Kanter, Dr. Aaron E. 
Karger, Mrs. Samuel I. 
Karpen, Solomon 
Kates, A. T. 
Katz, Solomon 
Kaufmann, Dr. Gustav L. 
Kaumeyer, Mrs. E. A. 
Keene, William J. 
Keig, Marshall E. 
Kellogg, James G. 
Kellogg, John Payne 
Kelly, Frank S. 

Kelly, Mrs. Haven Core 
Kelly, Joseph J. 
Kelly, William P. 
Kendall, H. R. 
Kenly, Mrs. William K. 
Kennedy, David E. 
Kennedy, Mrs. 

Edward A. 
Kennedy, Lesley 
Keplinger, W. A. 
Kerr, Mrs. Alexander M. 
Kerwin, Edward M. 
Kestnbaum, Meyer 
Keyser, Charles F. 
Kimball, William W. 
King, Mrs. Calvin P. 
King, David E. 
King, Mrs. Nelora S. 
King, Mrs. W. H. 
Kirkpatrick, Donald 
Klee, Mrs. Nathan 
Klein, Mrs. A. S. 
Klein, Dr. David 
Klein, Fred W. 
Kleinschmidt, Edward 
Klotz, Edward C. 
Knapp, Charles S. 
Knobbe, John W. 
Knoke, Mrs. Clara P. 
Knott, Mrs. Stephen R. 
Kobin, Mrs. William C. 
Koepke, Frank J. 
Kohl, Clarence E. 
Kohn, Mrs. Caroline H. 
Kohn, Mrs. Frances J. 
Kohout, Joseph, Jr. 
Kolstad, Odin T. 
Kort, George 
Kraft, John H. 
Krebs, Charles E. 
Kreusser, Mrs. O. T. 
Krier, Ambrose J. 
Kuehn, Miss Katherine 
Kuehn, Oswald L. 
Kunstadter, Sigmund 
Kuppenheimer, Mrs. 

Ladd, George D. 
Laemmle, Mrs. Louis 
Lafean, W. L. 
Laflin, Charles W. 
Laird, Robert S. 
Lake, Mrs. R. C. 
Landes, Mrs. Herbert 

Langdon, Buel A. 
Lange, A. G. 
Langford, Joseph P. 
Langrill, W. E. 
Lanman, E. B. 
Lantry, Thomas B. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Laramore, Florian Eugene 
Larson, Simon P. 
Lasch, Charles F. 
Lau, Mrs. John Arnold 
Lavidge, Arthur W. 
Law, M. A. 
Law, Mrs. Robert 0. 
Lawson, Miss Mary J. 
Lawton, Samuel T. 
Lazelle, L. L. 
Leach, Porter F. 
Lebold, Samuel N. 
Lechler, E. Fred 
Lee, Edward T. 
Lee, Mrs. W. George 
Leigh, Maurice 
Leitzeii, Mrs. Samuel N. 
Leland, Mrs. Roscoe G. 
Leonard, George Edward 
Leonard, Dr. Joseph M. 
Leslie, John Woodworth 
Lettermann, A. L. 
Levin, Louis 
Levis, John M. 
Levy, Mrs. Arthur K. 
LeWald, W. B. 
Lewis, Mrs. Harry G. 
Lewis, Mrs. Walker O. 
L'Hommedieu, Arthur 
Lichtenstein, Walter 
Lieboner, William S. 
Lindley, Mrs. Fred W. 
Lindsay, Mrs. Martin 
Linn, Mrs. James W. 
Lipman, Abraham 
List, Paulus 
Lobdell, Harry H. 
Loeb, Arthur A. 
Loehr, Karl C. 
Loewenherz, Emanuel 
Logan, Frank G. 
Loring, Edward D. 
Louis, Mrs. John J. 
Ludlam, Miss Bertha S. 
Luther, Miss Edith 
Lutz, J. George 
Lydston, Mrs. G. Frank 

MacArthur, Fred V. 
Macdonald, Mrs. Marion 
Macfarland, Mrs. 

Henry J. 
Macfarland, Lanning 
Macfarlane, Wilbert E. 
MacFerran, Charles S. 
Mackenzie, Mrs. G. S. 
Mackworth, Mrs. 

Maclean, J. A. 
MacNeille, Mrs. C. T. 
Macomb, J. DeNavarre 
Malkov, David S. 

Mandelbaum, Mrs. 

Maurice H. 
Manheimer, Arthur E. 
Manierre, John T. 
Mann, Howard 
Mansfield, Alfred W. 
Marks, Frank H. 
Marnane, James D. 
Marsh, John McWilliams 
Marston. Mrs. T. B. 
Martin, Edward 
Martin, Mellen C. 
Martin, Ralph H. 
Massmann, Frederick H. 
Mathews, Mrs. Grace 
Mathews, Mrs. Shailer 
Matthews, Francis E. 
May, Mrs. George T., Jr. 
May, Sol 

Mayer, Edwin W. C. 
Mayer, Herman J., Jr. 
Mayer, Oscar G. 
McAllister, M. Hall 
McClelland, Mrs. E, B. 
McConnell, Mrs. H. A. 
McCormick, Alister H. 
McCormick, Miss 

Elizabeth D. 
McCoy, Charles S. 
McCreight, R. B. 
McCuUoch, Frank H. 
McDonald, Lewis 
McDougall, Mrs. 

Edward G. 
McFadden, Everett R. 
McGrath, George E. 
McGregor, James P. 
McGuinn, Edward B. 
McGuire, Simms D. 
McHenry, Roland 
Mcllvaine, Mrs. John H. 
Mcintosh, Neil 
McKay, Charles R. 
McKay, Miss Mabel 
McKiernan, Mrs. 

Donald D. 
McKinstry, W. B. 
McLaughlin, Dr. JamesH. 
McMurray, Mrs. George 

McNair, Frank 
McNamara, Robert C. 
McNamee, Peter F. 
McPherson, Donald F. 
McSurely, Mrs. 

William H. 
Mead, H. B. 
Mears, Grant S. 
Mechem, J. C. 
Meek, Miss Margaret E. 
Meeker, Arthur 

Mehlhope, Clarence E. 
Meigs, James B. 
Melville, Hugh M. 
Michaels, Joseph 
Milchrist, Frank T. 
Millard, Mrs. E. L. 
Miller, Charles J. 
Miller, Henry G. 
Millsaps, J. H. 
Mitchell, Mrs. George R. 
Moldenhauer, Dr. 

William J. 
Moment, Asher 
Montgomery, John R. 
Moore, Mrs. Agnes C. 
Moore, Dr. Beveridge H. 
Moore, Frederick W. 
Moore, Nathan G. 
Moore, Oscar L. 
Moroney, John J. 
Morris, Ira Nelson 
Morris, Thomas J. 
Morrison, Mrs. C. R. 
Morton, Dr. Edward C. 
Moser, Paul 

Mower, Mrs. Roswell C. 
Mowry, Robert D. 
Mueller, Dr. E. W. 
Mueller, Miss Hedwig H. 
Mulford, Frank B. 
Mundie, Mrs. W. B. 
Murfey, E. T. R. 
Murphy, Henry C. 
Murphy, J. P. 
Myrland, A. L. 

Nance, Willis D. 
Nath, Bernard 
Nau, Otto F. 
Neely, Mrs. Lloyd F. 
Neeves, Leland K. 
Nelson, Arthur W. 
Nelson, Byron 
Nelson, Charles M. 
Nelson, Mrs. Joseph K. 
Nelson, Miss Minnie 
Nelson, Dr. Ole C. 
Nergard, Edwin J. 
Nessler, Robert W. 
Neumann, Arthur E. 
Nevins, John C. 
Nevotti, Joseph J. 
Newberry, Miss Mary L. 
New comet, Horace E. 
Newman, Mrs. H. H. 
Newman, Mrs. Jacob 
Niblack, Mrs. William C. 
Nichols, Mrs. Leslie H. 
Nicholson, Mrs. Frank G. 
Nicholson, W. S. 
Nickelson, S. T. 
Nickerson, J. F. 

278 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Nieland, Mrs. Mollie 

Nixon, Mrs. George F. 
Noble, C. W. 
Norman, Dan 
Norris, Eben H. 
Norris, James Dougan 
North, Mrs. F. S. 
Norton, EUery 
Notheis, Mrs. J. F. 
Noyes, Ernest H. 
Noyes, Mrs. John High 
Nugent, Dr. O. B. 
Nutting, C. G. 

O'Brien, M. J. 
O'Brien, Mrs. Philip 

Ochsner, Dr. Edward H. 
Oldberg, Dr. Eric 
Oleson, Dr. Richard 

Olin, Edward L. 
Clin, Dr. Harry D. 
Oliver, G. F. 
Olmstead, Ralph W. 
Olmsted, Conway H. 
Olson, Hon. Harry 
Ormsby, Mrs. Frank E. 
Osborn, Mrs. Gertrude L. 
Ossendorff, Dr. K. W. 
Ostrander, R. M. 
Outcault, Mrs. Richard 

F., Jr. 
Owen, C. N. 

Palmer, Robert F. 
Pardee, Mrs. Lucius C. 
Parker, George S. 
Parmelee, Dwight S. 
Parsons, Bruce 
Patch, Mrs. G. M. 
Patterson, Mrs. Harry C. 
Patterson, Mrs. L. B. 
Patterson, Mrs. Wallace 
Paiiley, Clarence O. 
Paver, Paul W. 
Payne, Mrs. T. D. 
Peacock, Charles D. 
Pearl, Allen S. 
Pearson, F. J. 
Pencik, Miles F. 
Pentecost, Lewis J. 
Pepple, Mrs. Eloise D. 
Ferryman, Mrs. Hattie S. 
Person, Peter P. 
Peruchietti, Miss Anna 
Peters, Miss Bernice E. 
Peterson, Dr. A. B. 
Petrie, Dr. Scott Turner 
Pettersen, Fred A. 
Pfeiffer, Mrs. Jacob 

Pflager, Charles W. 
Phelps, Erastus R. 
Phillips, Howard C. 
Pickell, J. Ralph 
Pietsch, Walter G. 
Pigall, Mrs. Joseph S. 
Pillsbury, Millard B. 
Place, F. E. 
Plamondon, Alfred D. 
Plath, Karl 
Platner, John K. 
Plattenburg, S. R. 
Plummer, Daniel C, Jr. 
Pond, Miss Gayle 
Pontarelli, Mrs. Michael 
Pontius, Dr. John R. 
Pottenger, MissZipporah 

Potts, Mrs. W. G. 
Price, William D. 
Prindle, James H. 
Pringle, Mrs. James E. 
Pritchard, N. H. 
Pritchard, Mrs. 

Richard E. 
Prosser, H. G. 
Proxmire, Dr. Theodore 

Prussing, Mrs. R. E. 
Pulver, Henri Pierre 
Purrucker, Miss 

Louise M. 
Putnam, Rufus W. 
Puttkammer, Mrs. Ernst 
Pyterek, Rev. Peter H. 

Quarles, Albert M. 
Quarrie, William F. 
Quetsch, L. J. 
Quinlan, James T. 
Quisenberry, T. E. 

Rader, Bud H. 

Raithel, Miss Luella 
Ramis, Leon Lipman 
Randall, C. M. 
Randick, Miss Sara A. 
Rankin, A. J. 
Ranney, Mrs. George A. 
Raulf, Mrs. Carl A. 
Rawlings, Mrs. I. D. 
Ray, Harry K. 
Raymond, Mrs. Cliffords. 
Rayner, Mrs. Arno P. 
Rayner, Frank 
RajTier, Lawrence 
Read, Mrs. J. J. 
Redfield, C. E. 
Redman, Sterling L. 
Reed, Mrs. Frank C. 
Reed, Mrs. Frank D. 
Reed, Rufus M. 

Reed, T. J. 

Reed, Walter S. 
Reffelt, Miss F. A. 
Regensburg, James 
Regenstein, Joseph 
Reichmann, Albert F. 
Rein, Lester E. 
Reiss, William 
ReQua, Mrs. Charles H. 
Reuss, Mrs. Henry H. 
ReyTiolds, Mrs. G. 

Rice, Mrs. Charles R. 
Rice, Gran\alle 
Rice, Joseph J. 
Rich, Harry 
Rich, Kenneth F. 
Richards, James Donald 
Richter, Arthur 
Rick, Miss Florence 
Rickard, Mrs. Fay E. 
Riel, George A. 
Righeimer, Miss Lucy F. 
Riley, Mrs. Harry A. 
Ritchie, Mrs. John 
Roadifer, W. H. 
Robbins, Laurence B. 
Roberts, Francis R. 
Robinson, Miss Nellie 
Robson, Mrs. Oscar 
Rocca, Mrs. Pina 
Rockhold, Mrs. 

Charles W. 
Rockwell, Lester 
Rockwell, Theodore G. 
Roden, Carl B. 
Roe, Miss Carol F. 
Rolnick, Dr. Harry C. 
Roodhouse, Benjamin T. 
Rooks, Irvin 
Rosenberg, Mrs. 

Rosenfeld, M. J. 
Rosenfels, Irwin S. 
Rosenfield, Morris S. 
Roth, Allen Benjamin 
Roth, Arthur J. 
Roth, Lester 
Rowell, Dr. L. W. 
Rowley, Clifford A. 
Roy, Mrs. Ervin L. 
Rubovits, Theodore 
Ruettinger, Mrs. J. C. 
Rynder, Ross D. 

Saggars, Wayne 
Sample, John Glen 
Sanborn, Mrs. V. C. 
Saplitzky, Miss Bessie M. 
Sauermann, Otto 
Sawyer, Dr. C. F. 
Sayers, Mrs. A. J. 

Jan. 1935 

Annual Report of the Director 


Sayre, Dr. Loren D. 
Sayre, Louis T. 
Scallan, John William 
Schaar, Bernard E. 
Schafer, O. J. 
Schaffner, Arthur B. 
Schaus, Carl J. 
Scheel, Fred H. 
Scherer, Andrew 
Schermerhorn, Richard A. 
Schiff, Sydney K. 
Schmidt, Dr. Otto L. 
Schmidt, Theodore 
Schmitt, Mrs. George J. 
Schnadig, E. M. 
Schneider, Dr. C. 0. 
Schoeneck, Edward F. 
Schrader, Miss 

Harriet N. 
Schramm, Charles F. 
Schultz, Walter H. 
Schulze, John E. 
Schulze, Paul 
Schupp, Robert W. 
Schwab, Martin C. 
Schwede, Charles W. 
Schweitzer, E. 0. 
Schweizer, Carl 
Schymanski, Mrs. Helen 
Scofield, Clarence P. 
Scott, George H. 
Scott, Walter A. 
Scott, Dr. Walter Dill 
Scudder, Mrs. 

Lawrence W. 
Scudder, W. M. 
Seaman, Henry L. 
Sears, Miss Dorothy 
Sears, Kenneth C. 
Seaton, G. Leland 
Selig, Lester N. 
Sellers, Mrs. 0. R. 
Selz, Emanuel 
Senear, Dr. F. E. 
Senior, Mrs. John L. 
Senne, Walter C. 
Seubold. Dr. F. H. 
Sexton, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Shaffer, Mrs. Norman P. 
Shanahan, David E. 
Shanner, Robert B. 
Shapiro, J. F. 
Shaw, Mrs. A. W. 
Shaw, Mrs. J. G. 
Shaw, Mrs. Walter A. 
Shay, John B. 
Sheahan, Miss Marie 
Sheil, Mrs. James B. 
Shepard, Guy C, 
Sheridan, L. J. 
Sherman, Edwin 
Sherman, H. C. 

Sherman, Louis A. 
Sherman, Mrs. W. W. 
Shippey, Mrs. Charles W. 
Shiverick, Mrs. A. F. 
Shoemaker, W. H. 
Short, J. R. 
Shortall, John L. 
Sidley, William P. 
Sieck, Herbert 
Sievers, William H. 
Silber, Clarence J. 
Sillani, Mrs. Mabel W. 
Simmons, Mrs. Charles R. 
Simpson, Mrs. Anita 
Simpson, C. G. 
Simpson, Walter H. 
Singer, Albert B. 
Sjostrom, Otto A. 
Skog, Mrs. Ludvig 
Slade, John C. 
Slaney, J. C. 
Sleight, Miss Barbara H. 
Smith, Charles Herbert 
Smith, Mrs. E. A. 
Smith, Glen E. 
Smith, Henry Justin 
Smith, Hermon Dunlap 
Smith, J. Parker 
Smith, O. Jay 
Smith, Reynold S. 
Smithwick, J. G. 
Snite, Fred B. 
Solomon, Harry W. 
Somerville, Mrs. Helen 
Sparrow, Mrs. W. W. K. 
Speed, Dr. Kellogg 
Speer, Earl D. 
Speyer, Mrs. George W. 
Spooner, Charles W. 
Sprague, Albert A., Jr. 
Spring, Benjamin J. 
Spry, George 
Stanbury, Dr. C. E. 
Stangle, Mrs. Mary W. 
Stanley, Mrs. Helen 

Staples, Miss Emily 
Stark, Rev. Dudley S. 
Steele, Leo M. 
Steele, Sidney J. 
Steffensen, Sigurd 
Stein, Lawrence M. 
Steinson, Henry G. 
Stensgaard, William L. 
Stephenson, Mrs. 

Elmer E. 
Stern, Mrs. Alfred 
Stern, Jacob S. 
Stevens, Miss 

Charlotte M. 
Stewart, Mrs. George 


Stewart, George R. 
Stewart, William 
Stifler, Mrs. J. M. 
Stilwell, Mrs. Abner J. 
Stilwell, George L. 
Stokes, Miss Marguerite 
Storkan, Mrs. James 
Strain, Miss H. Gertrude 
Strand, Mrs. Martin 
Stransky, Hon. 

Franklin J. 
Straub, Mrs. Walter F. 
Straus, Arthur W. 
Straus, Eli M. 
Street, C. R. 
Strigl, F. C. 
Strom, Walter H. 
Stumes, Charles B. 
Sturla, Harry L. 
Sturtevant, Roy E. 
Sudler, Carroll H., Jr. 
Sullivan, Grey 
Summers, L. F. 
Sundblom, Mrs. Haddon 

Sundell, Ernest W. 
Sundlof, F. W. 
Sutcliffe, Miss Sarah E. 
Swanson, Frank E. 
Swift, T. Philip 
Sylvester, Miss Ada I. 
Symmes, William H. 

Tankersley, J. N. 
Tark, Mrs. L. S. 
Taylor, Edmund H. 
Taylor, Frank F. 
Taylor, L. S. 
Teckemeyer, A. O. 
Telfer, Thomas A. 
Temps, Leupold 
Tevander, Mrs. Olaf N. 
Thomas, Charles F. 
Thomas, John J. 
Thomason, Samuel E. 
Thompson, Mrs. Slason 
Thompson, Mrs. W. B. 
Thorsness, Lionel G. 
Throop, George Enos 
Tibbetts, Mrs. N. L. 
Tifft, Mrs. Henry 
Timberlake, Mrs. 

Thomas M. 
Tinling, C. F. M. 
Tippett, William M. 
Todd, A. 
Tonk, Percy A. 
Towner, Miss 

Elizabeth W. 
Towner, Frank H. 
Tracy, Howard Van S. 
Trainer, William O. 

280 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Trausch, Joseph H. 
Traver, George W. 
Tremain, Miss Eloise R. 
Triggs, Charles W. 
Trude, Mrs. A. S. 
Truman, Percival H. 
Trumbull, Miss Florence 
Tyler, Alfred C. 

Ullmann, Mrs. Albert I. 
Utley, George B. 

Vail, Mrs. Edward G. 
Vaill, Mrs. J. H. 
VanDeventer, W. E. 
VanHagen, Mrs. George 

Varde, CM. 
Varty, Leo G. 
Vaughan, Mrs. 

Gordon M. 
Vial, F. K. 

Vilas, Mrs. George B. 
Vose, Mrs. Frederic P. 

Wagner, Richard 
Waite, Roy E. 
Waldeck, Herman 
Walker, James R. 
Wallach, Mrs. H. L. 
Waller, Mrs. Trigg 
Walpole, S. J. 
Walsh, Miss Mary 
Walton, Mrs. Helen R. 
Walton, Lyman A. 
Warner, E. J., Jr. 
Warner, Mason 
Warnesson, Miss 

Warren, L. Parsons 
Warren, William G. 
Wasson, Theron 
Watkins, Frank A. 
Watkins, Frederick A. 
Watson, Vernon S. 
Webber, E. A. 

Webster, James 

Webster, N. C. 
Wegg, Donald R. 
Weil, Mrs. Leon 
Weil, Mrs. Victor 
Weiner, Charles 
Weinress, Morton 
Weiss, Theodore O. 
Weissbrenner, Dr. R. F, 
Welch, L. C. 
Welles, Mrs. Donald P. 
Welles, Mrs. Edward 

Wells, Mrs. H. Gideon 
Wentworth, John 
Wescott, Dr. Virgil 
West, Mrs. Frederick T. 
West, Thomas H. 
Wetter, Miss A. 

Wheeler, Edgar E. 
Wheeler, Leslie M. 
Wheeler, Seymour 
Whidden, Ray A. 
Whipple, Mrs. George A. 
Whiston, Frank M. 
White, W. J. 
White, Vv^. T. 
Whitney, Mrs. Charles 

Whitney, Mrs. Gordon 
Whitwell, J. E. 
Wickham, Mrs. 

Thomas Y. 
Wickland, Algot A. 
Wiersen, Miss E. Lillian 
Wilder, Emory H. 
Wilds, John L. 
Wiley, Edward N. 
Wilhelm, Frank Edward 
Wilken, Mrs. Theodore 
Wilkey, Fred S. 
Willard, Guy 
Willens, Joseph R. 
Willett, Howard L. 
Williams, Lawrence 

Williamson, John A. 
Wilson, Arlen J. 
Wilson, E. L. 
Wilson, Percival C. 
Wilson, Mrs. Percy 
Wilson, William 
Wilson, WiUiam G. 
Wilson, William R. 
Winston, Mrs. Farwell 
Winterbotham, Mrs. 

John R., Jr. 
Wise, Mrs. Harold 
Witkowsky, James 
Witkowsky, Leon 
Wolbach, Murray 
Wolcott, Carl F. 
Wolfe, William C. 
Wolterding, Gerhard C. 
Wood, Milton G. 
Woodcock, Mrs. L^ T. 
Woodyatt, Dr. RoUin 

Worthy, Mrs. ^^ 

Sidney W. 
Wright, H. C. 
Wrisley, George A. 
Wulbert, Morris 
Wurzburg, H. J. 

Yeakel, Dr. William K. 
Yeomans, Charles 
Yorkey, Mrs. Margaret 
Young, B. Botsford 
Young, E. Frank 
Young, Ferdinand H. 
Young, Mrs. Henry 
Young, James W. 

Zacharias, Robert M. 
Zane, John Maxcy 
Zbyszewski, Tytus 
Zen OS, Rev. Andrew C. 
Ziff, Mrs. Belle 
Zimmermann, Mrs. P. T. 
Zintak, Frank V. 
Zitzewitz, Elmer 

Deceased, 1934 

Bartlett, Charles C. 
Boyd, Mrs. E. B. 
Bunts, Frederick W. 
Burkhardt, C. E. 

Daiches, Eli 
Deane, Ruthven 

Holman, Alfred L. 
Howe, Irwin M. 

Lutzow, Fred H. 

McArthur, Dr. Lewis L. 
McShane, James E. 
Miller, Edward L. 
Miller, Richard O. 
Morgenthau, Mrs. 
Sidney L. 

Noble, F. H. 

Reed, William P. 

Schmidt, Dr. Henry J. G. 
Schwarz, August 
Scully, Miss Florence E. 
Smith, Miss Mary Rozet 
Soper, Thomas 

Wales, Henry W. 
Watkins, Jesse M. 

OF r/ c