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Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Publication 354 
Report Series Vol, X, No. 3 






CHK r. s. A. 

. 1936 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. X, Plate XXV 

cyrus h. Mccormick 

A Trustee of the Museum and member of the Building Committee 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Publication 354 
Report Series Vol. X, No. 3 





January, 1936 

282 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 


Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may be made in 
securities, money, books or collections. They may, if desired, take 
the form of a memorial to a person or cause, to be named by the 
giver. For those desirous of making bequests to the Museum, the 
following form is suggested: 


I do hereby give and bequeath to Field Museum of Natural 
History of the City of Chicago, State of Illinois, 

Contributions made within the taxable year to Field 
Museum of Natural History to an amount not in excess of 
15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income are allowable as 
deductions in computing net income for federal income 
tax purposes. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron during his 
or her lifetime. These annuities are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount and may reduce federal income taxes. 


Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 283 



List of Plates 285 

Officers, Trustees and Committees, 1934 287 

Former Members of the Board of Trustees 288 

Former Officers 289 

List of Staff 290 

Report of the Director 291 

Department of Anthropology 318 

Department of Botany 323 

Department of Geology 333 

Department of Zoology 343 

The N. W. Harris Public School Extension 356 

James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for 

Public School and Children's Lectures 358 

Lectures for Adults 361 

Library 363 

Division of Printing 367 

Divisions of Photography and Illustration 368 

Division of Publications 369 

Division of Public Relations 371 

Division of Memberships 372 

Cafeteria 373 

Comparative Attendance Statistics and Door Receipts . . 374 

Comparative Financial Statements 375 


List of Accessions 376 

List of Members 389 

Benefactors 389 

Honorary Members 389 

Patrons 389 

Corresponding Members 390 

284 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Contributors 390 

Corporate Members 391 

Life Members 391 

Non-Resident Life Members 393 

Associate Members 394 

Non-Resident Associate Members 408 

Sustaining Members 408 

Annual Members 408 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 




XXV. Cyrus H. McCormick 281 

XXVI. Sacred Apron (Tibet) 296 

XXVII. Peruvian Grave 300 

XXVIII. Quipu (ancient Peruvian accounting device) . . . 308 

XXIX. A Coffee Plantation in Miniature ........ 316 

XXX. Reproduction of a Tea Bush 324 

XXXI. Skeleton of the Great Fossil Sloth, Megatherium 

americanum 332 

XXXII. Skeleton of the Rare Fossil Mammal, Aslrapo- 

therium magnum 340 

XXXIII. Snow Leopard in Himalayas 348 

XXXIV. Northern Elephant Seal of Guadalupe Island ... 356 

XXXV. Spotted Deer or Axis Deer of India 364 

XXXVI. Type of Case Loaned to the Schools of Chicago by 

the N. W. Harris Public School Extension ... 372 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 287 


Stanley Field 

First Vice-President Second Vice-President 

Albert A. Sprague James Simpson 

Third Vice-President Secretary 

Albert W. Harris Stephen C. Simms 

Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
Solomon A. Smith 


Sewell L. Avery William H. Mitchell 

John Borden Frederick H. Rawson* 

William J. Chalmers George A. Richardson 

Joseph N. Field Fred W. Sargent 

Marshall Field Stephen C. Simms 

Stanley Field James Simpson 

Ernest R. Graham Solomon A. Smith 

Albert W. Harris Albert A. Sprague 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Silas H. Strawn 

Cyrus H. McCormick Leslie Wheeler 

John P. Wilson 


Executive. — Stanley Field, Albert W. Harris, William J. Chalmers, 
James Simpson, Albert A. Sprague, Marshall Field, Silas H. 
Strawn, John P. Wilson. 

Finance. — Albert W. Harris, Solomon A. Smith, James Simpson, 
Frederick H. Rawson,* John P. Wilson. 

Building. — William J. Chalmers, Samuel Insull, Jr., Cyrus H. 
McCormick, Ernest R. Graham, William H. Mitchell. 

Auditing. — James Simpson, Fred W. Sargent, George A. Richardson. 

Pension. — Albert A. Sprague, Sewell L. Avery, Solomon A. Smith. 

•Resigned, 1935 

288 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 


George E. Adams* 1893-1917 

Owen F. Aldis* 1893-1898 

Allison V. Armour 1893-1894 

Edward E. Ayer* 1893-1927 

John C. Black* 1893-1894 

M. C. Bullock* 1893-1894 

Daniel H. Burnham* 1893-1894 

George R. Davis* 1893-1899 

James W. Ellsworth* 1893-1894 

Charles B. Farwell* 1893-1894 

Frank W. Gunsaulus* 1893-1894, 1918-1921 

Emil G. Hirsch* 1893-1894 

Charles L. Hutchinson* 1893-1894 

John A. Roche* 1893-1894 

Martin A. Ryerson* 1893-1932 

Edwin Walker* 1893-1910 

Watson F. Blair* 1894-1928 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1894-1919 

Huntington W. Jackson* 1894-1900 

Arthur B. Jones* 1894-1927 

George Manierre* 1894-1924 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1910 

Norman Williams* 1894-1899 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1899-1905 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1902-1921 

George F. Porter* 1907-1916 

Richard T. Crane, Jr.* 1908-1912, 1921-1931 

John Barton Payne* 1910-1911 

Chauncey Keep* 1915-1929 

Henry Field* 1916-1917 

William Wrigley, Jr.* 1919-1931 

Harry E. Byram 1921-1928 

D. C. Davies* 1922-1928 

Charles H. Markham* 1924-1930 

William V. Kelley* 1929-1932 


Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 289 



Edward E. Ayer* 1894-1898 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1898-1908 

First Vice-Presidents 

Martin A. Ryerson* 1894-1932 

Second Vice-Presidents 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1902 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1902-1905 

Stanley Field 1906-1908 

Watson F. Blair* 1909-1928 

Albert A. Sprague 1929-1932 

Third Vice-Presidents 

Albert A. Sprague 1921-1928 

James Simpson 1929-1932 


Ralph Metcalf 1894 

George Manierre* 1894-1907 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1907-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 


Byron L. Smith* 1894-1914 


Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1893-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 


290 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 


Stephen C. Simms, Director 

DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY.— Paul S. Martin, Acting Curator; 
A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate in American Archaeology. Assistant 
Curators: Albert B. Lewis, Melanesian Ethnology; J. Eric Thompson,* 
Central and South American Archaeology; Wilfrid D. Hambly, African 
Ethnology; Henry Field, Physical Anthropology; T. George Allen, Egyptian 

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY.— B. E. Dahlgren, Curator; Paul C. Standley, 
Associate Curator of the Herbarium; J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator 
of the Herbarium; Llewelyn Williams, Assistant Curator of Economic Botany; 
Samuel J. Record, Research Associate in Wood Technology; A. C. No6, Research 
Associate in Paleobotany. 

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY.— Henry W. Nichols, Curator; Elmer S. Riggs, 
Associate Curator of Paleontology; Sharat K. Roy, Assistant Curator of Geology; 
Bryan Patterson, Assistant Curator of Fossil Mammals. 

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY.— Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator. Mammals: 
Colin C. Sanborn, Assistant Curator; Julius Friesser, C. J. Albrecht, A. G. 
Rueckert, Taxidermists. Birds: C. E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator; Rudyerd 
Boulton, Assistant Curator; Boardman Conover, Leslie Wheeler, Associates; 
Emmet R. Blake, Assistant; R. Magoon Barnes, Assistant Curator of Birds' 
Eggs; Ashley Hine,* John W. Moyer, Taxidermists. Amphibians and Rep- 
tiles: Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant Curator; Leon L. Walters, Taxidermist. 
Fishes: Alfred C. Weed, Assistant Curator; Leon L. Pray, Taxidermist. 
Insects: William J. Gerhard, Associate Curator; Emil Liljeblad, Assistant. 
Osteology: Edmond N. Gueret, Assistant Curator; Dwight Davw, Assistant. 

Curator; A. B. Wolcott, Assistant Curator. 

Margaret M. Cornell, Chief; Franklin C. Potter,* Miriam Wood, Leota G. 
Thomas, Guide-lecturers. 

LIBRARY. — Emily M. Wilcoxson, Librarian; Mary W. Baker, Assistant Librarian. 

ARTIST.— Charles A. Corwin. 

ADMINISTRATION.— Clifford C. Gregg, Assistant to the Director; Benjamin 
Bridge, Auditor; Henry F. Ditzel, Registrar; Elsie H. Thomas, Recorder — 
in charge of publication distribution; H. B. Harte, Public Relations; Pearle 
Bilinske, Memberships; J. L. Jones, Purchasing Agent. 

PRINTING. — Dewey S. Dill, in charge; Lillian A. Ross, Editor and Proofreader. 

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION.— C. H. Carpenter, Photographer; 
Carl F. Gronemann, Illustrator; A. A. Miller, Photogravurist. 

MAINTENANCE.— John E. Glynn, Superintendent; W. H. Corning, Chief 
Engineer; W. E. Lake, Assistant Engineer. 

•Resigned, 1935 



To the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History: 

I have the honor to present a report of the operations of the 
Museum for the year ending December 31, 1935. 

That the Museum is continuing to fulfill, on a large scale, its 
mission of contributing to the education of both adults and children, 
is indicated by the year's attendance which was well in excess of 
a million. Although the number of visitors, 1,182,349, was consider- 
ably less than that recorded in several previous years, it was rather 
larger than might have been anticipated. The fact must be taken 
into consideration that this was the first year following two abnormal 
years in which the attendance rose to unparalleled heights due 
largely to the institution's proximity to the grounds of A Century 
of Progress exposition. 

To obtain a true basis of comparison it is necessary to go back 
a few years, as in the following table showing annual attendance 
since 1929: 

1929 1,168,430 

1930 1,332,799 

1931 1,515,540 

1932 1,824,202 

1933 3,269,390 

1934 1,991,469 

1935 1,182,349 

In this table can be traced a steady growth in attendance under 
normal conditions (that is, without the stimulus of an exposition) 
through 1931; an acceleration in 1932, caused to some extent by 
the fact that pre-exposition activities were drawing large crowds 
to the vicinity of the Museum; the peak (more than double the 1931 
attendance) reached in the public enthusiasm at A Century of Pro- 
gress during its first season, in 1933; a still extra-large attendance 
in 1934, although decreased from that of the preceding year just as 
attendance at the exposition itself declined in its second season; 
and finally a return in 1935 to a figure slightly higher than 1929, 
which may be regarded as a quite natural balancing reaction after 
three years in which public interest had been so intensified by extraor- 
dinary factors. What seems most worthy of note, therefore, is 


292 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

not the degree to which attendance was reduced during 1935, but 
rather that the Museum's appeal was great enough still to attract 
more than a million visitors after three such unusual years. In 
passing, it is interesting to remark that the 1935 attendance at the 
Museum was larger than that reported by any of the other principal 
Chicago museums and similar institutions. 

As usual, in addition to visitors actually coming to the Museum, 
the institution extended its educational influence in 1935 to hundreds 
of thousands of others, principally children, through its extra-mural 
activities conducted by the Department of the N. W. Harris Public 
School Extension, and the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. Scientific 
information was disseminated likewise to untold numbers through 
the institution's publications and leaflets, the bulletin Field Museum 
News, articles in the daily and periodical press, and through various 
other channels. 

Paid admissions to the Museum remained in about the same 
proportion to total attendance as in the previous year. Visitors 
paying the 25-cent admission fee numbered only 54,631, or less 
than 5 per cent. Members of the Museum, children, teachers, 
students, and others who are admitted free on all days, together 
with admissions on the free days (Thursdays, Saturdays and Sun- 
days) numbered 1,127,718. 

There were no exceptional single day's attendances, as in other 
years, when more than 50,000, and even more than 65,000 visitors 
came in a day. During 1935 the highest attendance for a single day 
was 22,305 on September 1, a Sunday. 

The Department of the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
continued to provide natural history material for study by approxi- 
mately 500,000 children in more than 400 schools and other institu- 
tions. Its traveling exhibition cases, of which 882 were in circulation 
during the year, were available to all the children in these schools 
daily during the school terms. Cases are delivered and collected 
by Museum trucks, and the schedule is so arranged that two new 
subjects are brought to each school every two weeks. 

The activities of the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation reached 219,321 children during the year, an increase 
of nearly 6,000 over the preceding year. Of these, 153,557 attended 
411 illustrated extension lectures presented in classrooms and 
assembly halls of their own schools by the staff of the Raymond 
Foundation. This was a decrease from the 162,360 attending such 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 293 

lectures in 1934, but was more than made up for by the increases 
in the participants in Raymond Foundation activities conducted 
within the Museum. Those attending the twenty motion picture 
entertainments provided in the James Simpson Theatre in 1935 
numbered 34,004, as against 27,653 in 1934; guide-lecture tours 
of the exhibition halls were provided for 643 groups aggregating 
24,978 children during 1935, as against 404 groups aggregating 14,759 
in 1934. 

The regular spring and autumn courses of free illustrated lectures 
for adults on science and travel were presented in the James Simpson 
Theatre on Saturday afternoons during March and April, and 
October and November. Total attendance at the eighteen lectures 
presented was 24,336. There were guide-lecture tours provided 
for 355 groups of adults, and these were taken advantage of by 
6,782 persons. Large numbers of persons, especially students, 
teachers, and visiting scientific workers, made use of the Museum 
Library of some 100,000 volumes, and also of the scientific study 
collections provided in each of the Museum's scientific Departments. 

In recognition of his many valuable gifts to the Museum, con- 
sisting principally of collections of birds and individual specimens of 
rare birds, Mr. Leslie Wheeler's name was added to the list of the 
Contributors to the Museum (a membership classification designating 
those whose gifts in money or materials reach a value between $1,000 
and $100,000). Mr. Wheeler has been a Trustee of the Museum 
since 1934. 

Three new Life Members were elected during 1935. They are: 
Mr. Emanuel J. Block, Mr. Albert B. Dick, Jr., and Mrs. Philip S. 

Two new Non-Resident Life Members were elected: Mr. John 
Wyatt Gregg, of Monticello, Illinois; and Mr. Herbert F. Johnson, 
Jr., of Racine, Wisconsin. 

A list of Members in all classes will be found at the end of this 
Report (p. 389). The total membership for the year was 4,143, 
which, while representing a gain of only one Member as compared 
with 1934 when there were 4,142, was nevertheless encouraging, as 
it made 1935 the first year since 1930 in which no loss was sustained, 
the intervening years having been marked with losses ranging from 
57 to as many as 819. 

The death of Professor James Henry Breasted, founder and 
Director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, in 
December, 1935, is noted with regret. That learned scholar, whose 

294 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

outstanding accomplishments in archaeology had made him world- 
famous, in earlier years was of great service to Field Museum. He 
handled the purchasing and accomplished the original cataloguing 
and labeling of a large part of the Egyptian collection now in this 
institution. On May 17, 1926, he was elected an Honorary Member 
of Field Museum for his eminent service to Science. 

Tribute is due also to Dr. Henry Fairfield Osborn, Honorary 
President of The American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
who died in November. While Dr. Osborn had no direct connection 
with Field Museum, the influence of his great work was felt here as 
at other institutions devoted to science, and largely as a result of 
his efforts the utmost friendliness, harmony and active cooperation 
has prevailed between The American Museum and Field Museum. 

Sorrow was felt at Field Museum, too, because of the death, in 
February, of Dr. Herbert Weld, noted British scholar in the history 
and literature of Assyria and Ethiopia. He was sponsor, on behalf 
of Oxford, of the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition 
to Mesopotamia. On the basis of observations he made during his 
extensive travels, the site of Kish was selected for the excavations 
conducted over a long period of years by this expedition. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Board of Trustees, held January 
21, 1935, all Officers of the Museum who had served in 1934 were 

At the regular meeting held on October 21, the Board regretfully 
accepted the resignation of Trustee Frederick H. Rawson. Mr. 
Rawson was compelled to sever this connection because of ill health 
and the necessity of spending a large part of his time away from 
Chicago. He had been a Trustee since August, 1927, and his able 
counsel was greatly appreciated by his fellows on the Board, where 
he rendered distinguished service on the important Finance Com- 
mittee. Due to his eminent services to Science and to the Museum 
he is an Honorary Member, a Patron, a Contributor, a Corporate 
Member, and a Life Member of the Museum. Most notable among 
his many benefactions for the Museum were the organizing and 
financing of the two Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expeditions of 
Field Museum in 1926 and 1927-28; his similar sponsorship of the 
Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological Expedition to 
West Africa in 1929, and his contribution of $18,000 toward the 
preparation of the groups restoring types of prehistoric men in the 
Hall of the Stone Age of the Old World (Hall C). Altogether his 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 295 

contributions total more than $93,000. His fellow Trustees join in 
wishing him health and happiness in his retirement. 

No steps were taken in 1935 toward the election of a successor 
to Mr. Rawson. 

A number of important new exhibits were installed during 1935, 
principally in the Department of Zoology. Seven new habitat groups 
of mammals were completed, of which five are in William V. Kelley 
Hall (Hall 17) devoted to Asiatic species, one in Carl E. Akeley 
Memorial Hall (Hall 22) of African mammals, and one in the Hall 
of Marine Mammals (Hall N). First of the Kelley Hall groups was 
that of axis deer, or chital, of India, a spotted species considered by 
many the most beautiful member of the deer family. The group is 
composed of specimens obtained from two sources, some having been 
collected by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and Mr. Kermit Roosevelt 
on the James Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition (1926), and 
some by the late Colonel J. C. Faunthorpe of Bombay. Staff 
Taxidermist C. J. Albrecht prepared the group, and the background 
was painted by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin. Strikingly dramatic 
is the next exhibit finished in this hall, that of the common leopard, 
in which a fine specimen of this animal is seen crouched in a tree 
ready to pounce upon its prey. The specimen was obtained on the 
James Simpson-Roosevelts Expedition. Taxidermy, painted back- 
ground, and reproduction of the wild fig tree, which entailed an 
enormous amount of detailed labor, all are the work of Staff Taxi- 
dermist Leon L. Pray, assisted by Mr. Frank Letl. Important data 
for the task were supplied by the Bombay Natural History Society. 

Two groups of antelopes native to India were installed in Kelley 
Hall. In one, two small species are shown, the Indian antelope or 
blackbuck, and the Indian gazelle or chinkara. The specimens came 
from the Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition and from Colonel 
Faunthorpe. Valuable studies for preparation of the group were 
made through the cooperation of the Bombay Natural History 
Society; the animals were mounted by Staff Taxidermist Arthur G. 
Rueckert, assisted by Mr. William E. Eigsti, and Artist Corwin 
painted the background. The other antelope group is that of the 
nilgai or blue bull. This is the largest species native to India. The 
specimens were collected by the Simpson-Roosevelts Expedition. 
Staff Taxidermist Julius Friesser prepared the group, assisted by 
Mr. Letl, who reproduced a dhak tree which is a prominent feature 
of the group. Mr. Corwin painted the background. 

296 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Fifth of the Kelley Hall groups is that of the rare Himalayan 
snow leopard of Tibet and India. This animal is regarded as the 
most beautiful member of the cat family, and because of its rarity 
and the high altitudes it inhabits, it is the least known of the cats. 
These animals make one of the most striking groups in the Museum, 
not only because of the interest and beauty of the animals themselves, 
but because of the impressive mountain-top scene in which they 
are displayed. The specimens were collected by natives, and obtained 
by the Museum through traders in India. Taxidermy is by Mr. 
Albrecht, and the background by Mr. Corwin. 

The addition to Akeley Hall is a group of the bizarre-looking 
gelada baboons found only in Ethiopia. The animals are shown 
on a pile of rocks typical of the mountain crests and high-walled 
canyons they inhabit. The specimens were collected by the Field 
Museum-Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition (1926-27). 
Preparation of the group was the work of Taxidermist Pray. 

In the Hall of Marine Mammals there was installed a group, one 
of the largest in the Museum, of elephant seals from Guadalupe 
Island off the west coast of Mexico. These huge creatures, which 
exceed any other seals in size, are comparatively rare, difficult to 
obtain, and difficult to preserve and prepare for exhibition. Speci- 
mens were secured for the Museum as a result of the generous 
cooperation of Captain G. Allan Hancock, of Los Angeles, and the 
interest of Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, President of the San Diego 
Zoological Society. They organized the Hancock- Wegeforth Expedi- 
tion for the Museum in 1933, and with two Field Museum men 
aboard (Taxidermist Friesser and his assistant, Mr. Frank Wonder) 
made a special cruise to Guadalupe on Captain Hancock's large 
motor ship, the Velero III, an especially equipped vessel frequently 
used for scientific work. Part of the expense of the expedition was 
met with income from the Emily Crane Chadbourne Fund of the 
Museum. The group, in which the animals are shown basking on 
a seashore with the surf rolling in, includes one enormous bull, 
seventeen feet in length, which weighed about 5,000 pounds in life, 
and several other specimens. The collectors, Messrs. Friesser and 
Wonder, were responsible also for taxidermy on the group. Artist 
Corwin painted the background which shows a section of the beach 
on Guadalupe where the elephant seals assemble in large numbers. 
Such gathering-places are referred to as hauling grounds. 

Extensive alterations were made on the habitat group in Hall 20 
illustrating the bird life of Walrus Island in the Bering Sea. The 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. X, Plate XXVI 

Hall 32 

Consisting of forty-one carved pieces of human thigh bones. Used in religious ceremonies 

of the Tibetan Lamas 
About one-seventh actual size 
Presented by Arthur B. Jones 





Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 297 

group, a gift to the Museum from President Stanley Field, was 
completely reinstalled with great improvements, the work being 
done by Messrs. Pray, Letl, and Corwin. 

Exhibits of North American birds in Hall 21 were completed by 
Staff Taxidermists Ashley Hine and John W. Moyer, and important 
additions were made also to the exhibits of foreign birds occupying 
the other half of this hall. Of special interest are a screen showing 
the principal extinct species of North American birds, which points 
a lesson on the need for conservation measures, and an exhibit of 
foreign birds introduced on this continent by importation through 
the agency of man and now so adapted as to be on a par with natives. 
A number of rare, and many otherwise interesting birds, are included 
on screens of ocean birds and of pheasants and their relatives which 
have been added to this same hall. A specimen of the large flightless 
bird of New Guinea known as the cassowary, added to Hall 21, 
represents a new development in ornithological taxidermy. The 
head, neck, legs and feet of this specimen, instead of being mounted 
in the usual manner, were reproduced in cellulose-acetate by Staff 
Taxidermist Leon L. Walters, using the same method he has so suc- 
cessfully developed and used for the preparation of reptiles, amphib- 
ians, and large hairless or thinly haired animals such as the rhinoceros 
and hippopotamus. This new application proved highly successful, 
and solved the problem presented by the fact that original dried 
skins in the Museum collection have lost all their brilliant coloration, 
and the horny layers of the casque have split so as to lose their 
natural translucence. 

A number of additions and reinstallations were effected also among 
the exhibits of reptiles, fishes, and skeletons. 

In the Department of Geology two new paleontological exhibits 
of outstanding scientific interest were added to Ernest R. Graham 
Hall (Hall 38), and a third was practically completed, ready for 
installation early in 1936. One of these is known as Astrapotherium 
magnum. This is a species of animal which lived in southern 
Argentina and neighboring countries during the Miocene age (ap- 
proximately 15,000,000 years ago). It possesses many unusual 
features of structure, and the Museum specimen has been the object 
of studies not only by the Staff but by eminent paleontologists from 
other institutions who came here especially for the purpose. 

The second great fossil among the additions to Graham Hall 
is that of the largest species of South American ground sloth, 
known as Megatherium americanum. This giant, eighteen feet long, 

298 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

was collected by Associate Curator Elmer S. Riggs while leading 
the Second Marshall Field Paleontological Expedition to Argentina 
(1927), and is believed to be the only complete skeleton in any 
North American museum. The task of assembling it was an enor- 
mous one that occupied for many months the time of Preparator 
Phil C. Orr. The animal lived about 20,000 years ago. 

A mounted skeleton of an extremely rare and surpassingly in- 
teresting fossil mammal of North America, called Titanoides faberi, 
was practically completed in 1935, and awaited installation in 
January, 1936. This animal until very recently was one of the least 
known of American fossil mammals, and until specimens were col- 
lected in 1932 and 1933 by Assistant Curator Bryan Patterson 
(assisted by Mr. Edwin B. Faber of Grand Junction, Colorado, the 
discoverer, and Mr. T. J. Newhill, Jr., Preparator James H. Quinn, 
and Mr. C. A. Quinn) the animal was known only by a specimen of 
its lower jaws. Titanoides, which has no near relatives now living and 
is so unlike any existing mammal that profitable comparisons are 
impossible, is believed to have been the first of the large mammals 
to appear on this continent following the decline of the dinosaurs 
and other once dominant reptilian groups. It lived during the 
Paleocene or opening period of the Age of Mammals, some 50,000,000 
years ago. 

Also of interest among additions to Graham Hall are the shell 
and internal skeleton of a great fossil land-turtle, forty-two inches 
long and thirty-two inches wide, collected in 1931 by a Museum 
expedition in western Nebraska. In other divisions of the Depart- 
ment of Geology minor additions were made to the exhibits, as well 
as a number of reinstallations to improve older exhibits. 

Scattered additions were made to the exhibits in the Department 
of Anthropology. In Hall 8, devoted to the archaeology and ethnol- 
ogy of Mexico and Central America, there was placed a miniature 
model of the ancient votive Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl. This was 
obtained in an exchange with the National Museum of Mexico. It 
is a strikingly accurate reproduction, and makes a most attractive 
exhibit. Hall 9, devoted to the archaeology of South America, has 
been completely reinstalled and much new material added. Among 
features of special interest are an exhibit of so-called "mummies" or 
desiccated bodies from ancient Peru, reproductions of two opened 
Peruvian graves, dating to the period about A.D. 1250, shrunken 
human heads of enemies decapitated by the Chaco and Jivaro In- 
dians and preserved by a unique method, exhibits showing the 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 299 

preparation of food from the poisonous mandioca tuber, and the 
sacred trumpets used in initiation rites. In the same hall was placed 
an ancient Peruvian quipu, an accounting device used by the Incas 
in various kinds of computation. This rare object was found in a 
collection of archaeological material presented some years ago by 
Messrs. Stanley Field, Henry J. Patten, and Charles B. Pike. 

A collection of primitive African musical instruments and dancing 
regalia, obtained in Nigeria by the Frederick H. Rawson-Field Mu- 
seum Ethnological Expedition to West Africa (1929) was added to 
Hall D. The Races of Mankind exhibits in Chauncey Keep Memo- 
rial Hall (Hall 3) were completed with the addition of the bronze 
bust of a Beduin, bringing the total number of sculptures by Miss 
Malvina Hoffman to ninety-one (including several groups which 
increase the number of individual representatives of the various 
races portrayed to 101). 

Reinstallation of exhibits in Hall 32 (ethnology of China and 
Tibet), which had been interrupted by the death late in 1934 of 
former Curator Berthold Laufer, was completed by Assistant Curator 
J. Eric Thompson. New exhibits of special interest are a notable 
T'ang period clay statuette of a dancing woman presented to the 
Museum by an anonymous donor as a memorial to Dr. Laufer; a 
Tibetan coracle, or semi-globular boat made of animal skins, of a type 
used in crossing rivers, which once served Dr. Laufer while on an 
expedition in Tibet; and a colorful statue of Yama, the Tibetan god 
of death, presented by Mr. William E. Hague. A large cast-iron 
bell from a Lama temple in Tibet, which had been withdrawn from 
exhibition for some years, was reinstalled in this hall. 

The principal undertakings for augmenting and improving the 
exhibits of the Department of Botany are a series of fifteen large 
mural paintings showing plants in their natural environments, for 
the walls of the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29), and the construction of 
dioramas of coffee and tea plantations. Two of the murals, which 
are being done by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin, were completed 
and installed in 1935 — one representing the baobab tree of Africa, 
and the other showing some giant cacti of Mexico. Several others 
were brought near enough to completion to be placed on view early 
in 1936. The coffee plantation model, the work of Preparator John 
R. Millar, with a background by Mr. Corwin, was completed and 
installed in Hall 25 with other exhibits pertaining to the coffee in- 
dustry; and the tea plantation diorama is well on the way toward 

300 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Other additions to the Hall of Plant Life include reproductions 
of acanthus, mistletoe and loquat plants. 

For reasons of economy, the Museum conducted no expeditions 
during 1935. The institution benefited to some extent, however, 
from expeditionary work under other auspices. Through the Emily 
Crane Chadbourne Fund the Museum was enabled to participate 
in the Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition headed by Admiral Richard 
E. Byrd. As a result, specimens were obtained of the two principal 
species of Antarctic seals. These are of the species known as Wed- 
dell's seal and crab-eating seal, and are quite rare in museum col- 
lections. It is planned to use the specimens of Weddell's seal in a 
proposed habitat group for the Hall of Marine Mammals (Hall N). 

Through a gift from the Chicago Zoological Society, the Museum 
received ten specimens of the rare emperor penguin, and one of 
the Adelie penguin, collected also by Admiral Byrd for that society's 
zoo at Brookfield, Illinois. These were exhibited alive at the zoo, 
and following their death were presented to the Museum. Various 
other birds were also presented by the same society. Work is now 
under way on a habitat group of the emperor penguins for the 
projected new Hall of Birds. 

Three specimens of the strange Arctic sea mammal called nar- 
whal were collected for the Museum by Captain Robert A. Bartlett, 
well-known explorer of the far north. The commission to collect 
these, like that assigned to Admiral Byrd, was made possible by 
the Emily Crane Chadbourne Fund. The specimens are to be used 
in a habitat group in the Hall of Marine Mammals. 

The John G. Shedd Aquarium generously presented to the 
Museum a large and very valuable collection of fishes taken in 
Hawaii and Fiji by that institution's recent expedition to the South 
Seas. A large number of species are included, among them some 
especially rare or otherwise notably attractive ones. 

While the Field Museum Anthropological Expedition to the Near 
East, sponsored by Mr. Marshall Field, and led by Assistant Curator 
Henry Field, completed its work and returned late in 1934, its 
results were not fully realized until 1935 when important accessions 
were received by the Departments of Botany, Geology and Zoology, 
as well as Anthropology. Accounts of this material will be found 
under each of the departmental sections of this Report. 

Mr. J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator of the Herbarium, 
after his first vacation visit to this country in five years, returned 
to Europe in January to resume the botanical project commenced 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. X, Plate XXVII 

Hall 9 

Reconstruction of a stone-lined grave at Ancon, Central Coast of Peru 

.- : > 


Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 301 

in 1929 jointly by Field Museum and the Rockefeller Foundation. 
This work is now being continued by Field Museum independently, 
and has received splendid cooperation from leading botanical insti- 
tutions in Europe. The project has for its purpose the making of 
photographic negatives of type specimens of plants, chiefly South 
American, which are preserved in herbaria abroad. From these 
negatives prints are made available, at cost, to botanists every- 
where, and are proving of great value in the advancement of system- 
atic botany. Thus far, somewhere in the neighborhood of 30,000 
negatives have been made. 

To various contributors of funds, and of material for the scientific 

collections, grateful acknowledgment is hereby made. Among cash 
gifts may be mentioned the following: 

Sums totaling §4,000 were received as gifts from Mrs. James 
Nelson Raymond, of Chicago, to be used toward the operating 
expenses of the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foun- 
dation for Public School and Children's Lectures. This foundation 
was established by Mrs. Raymond in 1925 with a large endowment, 
and since that time she has generously contributed further funds 
each year. 

From Mr. Leslie Wheeler, of Lake Forest, Illinois, gifts totaling 
SI. 000 were received. This fund was designated for the purchase 
of desirable specimens of birds of prey as opportunities arise. 

From S. C. Johnson and Sons, Inc., of Racine, Wisconsin, a 
contribution of S600 was received. 

A contribution of $500 was received from the American Friends 
of China, Chicago, for expenses involved in the cataloguing of the 
library bequeathed to the Museum by the late Dr. Berthold Laufer, 
including the employment of Mr. Kenji Toda for this purpose. 

The Chicago Park District turned over to the Museum 
$140,838.65, representing the institution's share, as authorized by 
the state legislature, of collections made during 1935 under the 
tax levies for 1934 and previous years. 

Among the gifts of material for the collections, to which more 
detailed reference will be found in the departmental sections, and 
in the complete List of Accessions (p. 376 , a few outstanding 
ones may be mentioned as follows: 

Mr. A. TV. Exline of San Jose, Mindoro Island, in the Philippines, 
presented four excellent skins of tamarao, a rare small species of 
buffalo found nowhere in the world except in the Mindoro jungles. 

302 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Mr. Exline hunted these animals for the Museum as a result of a 
suggestion made by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt at the time 
the latter was Governor-General of the Philippine Islands. One is 
being mounted for exhibition. Other material for the Department 
of Zoology was also sent by Mr. Exline. 

What should be credited as a gift from Mrs. Emily Crane Chad- 
bourne, since it was purchased with funds she provided, is a very 
important collection of some 2,500 birds representing more than 
1,000 different species. These were selected from the large col- 
lection gathered by the late Henry Kelso Coale of Highland Park, 

The collection of birds of prey was greatly enlarged by the 
contributions of Mr. Leslie Wheeler, of Lake Forest, Illinois, which 
during the year amounted in toto to 480 specimens. Many of these 
were very rare or otherwise especially interesting species. 

Frequent contributions of valuable material for the zoological 
collections were received from the following Chicago organizations: 
General Biological Supply House, John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chi- 
cago Zoological Society and the Lincoln Park Zoo (maintained by 
the Chicago Park District). 

An interesting collection of bats, frogs and lizards, gathered in 
Barbados, West Indies, by Mr. Stewart J. Walpole, of Park Ridge, 
Illinois, was presented by him. A notable collection of reptiles was 
received as a gift from Mr. Stewart Springer of the Caribbean 
Biological Laboratories, Biloxi, Mississippi. 

Among notable gifts received in the Department of Anthro- 
pology were eight ethnological objects of the Djukas of Dutch 
Guiana, presented by Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Berkson, of Highland 
Park, Illinois; eight pottery objects from ancient Kish, from the 
American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology, New York; 
eighteen African musical instruments from Mrs. Laura C. Boulton, 
Chicago; and a lady's coat of the Ta Kang period of the Ching 
dynasty, China, from Miss Alice B. Robbins, Chicago. 

Gifts to the Departments of Botany and Geology, while more 
minor in character, were extremely gratifying in number and aggre- 
gate value, and testified, like the gifts to the other Departments, 
to the great number of friends the Museum has in various parts 
of the world who frequently take the time and trouble to find and 
send material to this institution. 

The Museum Library also was the recipient of many gifts. The 
outstanding one, a collection of 100 extremely rare and valuable 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 303 

books which had formed part of the library of Mr. Stanley Field, 
President of the Museum, was presented by him. These books, 
most of them very old, some dating back as far as the sixteenth 
century, are especially valuable as source material. They include 
many which are notable as examples of the fine book making arts 
of a past era. 

The Museum entertained many distinguished visitors during 
1935, among whom may be mentioned the following: Professor 
Julian Huxley, noted British scientist and author, and Secretary of 
the Zoological Society of London; Dr. Roy Chapman Andrews, 
Director of The American Museum of Natural History, New York; 
Professor Ralph W. Chaney, paleobotanist of the University of 
California; Major-General Sir Francis Younghusband, well-known 
explorer and author, and former British Commissioner to Tibet; 
M. Maxime Ducrocq, noted French sportsman and President du 
Conseil International de la Chasse; Colonel Theodore Roosevelt; 
Dr. E. L. Gill, Director of the South African Museum at Cape 
Town; Captain Harold A. White, of New York, sponsor and leader 
of several African expeditions, including two for Field Museum; Mr. 
George Eumorforpoulos, founder of the famous Eumorforpoulos 
Collection recently purchased by the British nation for the Victoria 
and Albert Museum; Mr. Robert Lockhart Hobson, Keeper of the 
Department of Ceramics and Ethnography in the British Museum, 
and cataloguer of the Eumorforpoulos Collection; Mr. Oscar Raphael, 
well-known British private collector of Orientalia; and Dr. William 
Berryman Scott, professor emeritus at Princeton University. 

With the completion of Chauncey Keep Hall upon receipt of 
the last sculpture, that of a Beduin, from Miss Malvina Hoffman, 
the sculptor, final payment was made, fulfilling her contract. All 
the plaster casts of the Races of Mankind sculptures which had 
been at the Rudier Foundry at Paris were transferred to Marshall 
Field and Company's Paris branch for storage, awaiting removal to 
the Museum. Bronze reproductions of the Sara dancing girl and 
the Senegalese drummer have been sold to The American Museum 
of Natural History, New York. 

During the year certain sums of money designated for the Library 
became available for use, and the various Departments were notified 
that they might make recommendations for purchase of such books 
as would be most useful, to the extent that these funds would 
permit. As a result, many books which had been needed, but the 

304 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

purchase of which had had to be denied in previous years because 
of lack of funds, were acquired. 

The expansion of the Library, due to the above acquisitions, 
the bequest of Dr. Laufer's many books, and to accessions from 
various other sources during the past few years, has been such that 
more space was required adequately to accommodate the books, 
pamphlets, and periodicals which now number approximately 100,000 
volumes. By a readjustment of the workrooms of the Department 
of Geology, Room 120, across from the general library, was made 
available for the use of the Library. Shelves were installed, and 
various large and important collections of books were moved into 
this room. 

A number of changes in the Staff occurred during the year. 

Mr. Leslie Wheeler, a Trustee, was given an honorary appoint- 
ment as Associate in Ornithology, in recognition of his deep and 
active interest in and support of the bird collection of the Museum. 
Mr. Wheeler is conducting important researches in the Division of 
Birds, in which he has been assigned an office-laboratory because 
of the great amount of his time he devotes to this work. 

In recognition of the capable manner in which he has administered 
the Department of Anthropology as Acting Curator since the death 
of Former Curator Berthold Laufer, the Board of Trustees at its 
meeting held December 16 approved the appointment of Dr. 
Paul S. Martin as Curator of the Department, to become effective 
January 1, 1936. Dr. Martin, who formerly was Assistant Curator 
of North American Archaeology, has been a member of the Staff 
since 1929. 

Several members of the Staff resigned during the year. They 
are Mr. J. Eric Thompson, Assistant Curator of Central and South 
American Archaeology, who accepted a position offered by the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C.; Mr. Ashley Hine, Staff 
Taxidermist in the Division of Birds, who wished to retire from 
his profession; and Mr. Franklin C. Potter, Guide-lecturer on the 
staff of the Raymond Foundation, who left to accept a position 
with the United States National Park Service. 

Mr. John W. Moyer, formerly Assistant Taxidermist in the 
Division of Birds, was promoted to Taxidermist in Mr. Hines' place. 

Mrs. Leota G. Thomas was appointed as Guide-lecturer to fill 
the vacancy left by Mr. Potter's resignation. 

Mr. Bryan Patterson, formerly Assistant in Paleontology, was 
promoted to the position of Assistant Curator of Fossil Mammals. 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 305 

Mr. Emmet R. Blake was appointed Assistant in the Division 
of Birds. 

The title of Mr. J. Francis Macbride, formerly Assistant Curator 
of Taxonomy, was changed to Assistant Curator of the Herbarium, 
as being more appropriate to the duties assigned to him. 

Mr. John B. Abbott, highly skilled preparator of fossil skeletons 
in the Division of Paleontology, died on August 6. He had been 
employed at Field Museum since 1901, and, except for a few intervals 
on leave of absence, had worked here continuously since that time. 
Under the provisions of the Field Museum Employes' Pension Fund 
insurance amounting to $4,000 was paid to his widow. Also, under 
the provisions of this fund, insurance was paid in the following 
amounts to the beneficiaries of the policies of the following employes 
and pensioners who died during the year : $4,000 to the two brothers 
of Mr. Percy L. Barrow, printer; $4,000 to the daughter of Mr. 
John Man well, pensioner; $2,500 to the widow of James Adams, 
guard; $1,500 to the widower of Mrs. Agnes Jansto, janitress. 

Mr. Jacob F. Mangelsen, carpenter and preparator in the Depart- 
ment of Botany, died late in December. His insurance policy under 
the pension fund calls for the payment of $4,000 to his estate. 

A pension of $45 a month, effective from July 1, was granted 
to Mr. Thomas J. Larkin, former guard, retired because of ill health. 

In settlement of his claim for total disability benefits, payments 
of $72.60 per month, to continue for a period of five years, were 
begun to Mr. Fred H. Geilhufe, former painter. This also was 
provided for by the group insurance policies carried under the 
Museum Pension Fund. 

Among new employes added to the Museum personnel during 
the year are the following: Mr. James Quinn, appointed as a pre- 
parator in the Division of Paleontology to fill the vacancy caused 
by Mr. Abbott's death; Mr. A. L. Stebbins, employed as North Door 
attendant to take the place of Mr. Landee Hanson, who resigned; 
and two carpenters employed for construction work on exhibition 
cases in the new Hall of Birds. 

Mr. Kenji Toda was temporarily employed to catalogue the 
large library of Oriental literature bequeathed to the Museum by 
the late Dr. Berthold Laufer. Funds for this purpose were provided 
by the American Friends of China, Chicago. As a volunteer worker, 
Professor F. E. Wood was also engaged upon this task. 

A notable research project of a most unusual character was com- 
pleted during the year by Assistant Curator Sharat K. Roy of the 

306 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Department of Geology. By exhaustive experiments in which parts 
of meteorites were exposed in sterile culture media to determine 
whether or not they contained extra-terrestrial bacteria, he refuted 
the theory propounded in 1932 by Professor Charles B. Lipman of 
the University of California that meteorites had brought life of extra- 
terrestrial origin to the earth. A complete detailed report on Mr. 
Roy's methods and findings has been made available in one of the 
Museum's Geological Series of publications issued during the year. 

An interesting research project having for its object the determi- 
nation of facts concerning the migration and hibernation of snakes, 
about which little has ever before been learned, was initiated by 
Assistant Curator of Reptiles Karl P. Schmidt, with the assistance 
of Assistant Curator Bryan Patterson of the Department of Geology, 
and Taxidermists Leon L. Walters and Edgar G. Laybourne. Having 
discovered an unusual colony of blue racers in the Indiana Dunes, 
these men marked a large number of the snakes so they may be re- 
captured and identified, much as research is conducted on birds by 
banding their legs. Further observations are to be made from time 
to time. 

A number of skulls of rare species of bats were discovered, by 
Assistant Curator of Mammals Colin C. Sanborn, as the result of the 
transfer of some ethnological specimens containing bat skulls from 
the Department of Anthropology to the Department of Zoology. 
Discovery of one of the rarest plants in the world, growing wild at 
Joliet, Illinois, was reported by Mr. Paul C. Standley, Associate 
Curator of the Herbarium, whose attention was called to it by Mr. 
H. Forrer. 

The fossil Astrapotheres in Field Museum's collection were the 
subject of very important research by Dr. William Berryman Scott, 
professor emeritus of Princeton University, who spent several weeks 
at the Museum engaged in these studies. Dr. Scott is one of the 
world's greatest authorities in the field of paleontology. 

The output of scientific publications by Field Museum Press in 
1935 was exceptionally large. A list of those issued will be found in 
this Report under the heading Division of Printing, and details con- 
cerning their distribution appear under the heading Division of 
Publications. As in the past several years, in addition to handling 
its own publications, the Museum handled sales, on a consignment 
basis, of books issued by other publishers. These included works of 
which members of the Staff were authors, or which, although written 
by others, were based on material in the collections of the Museum, 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 307 

as well as some with no direct Museum connection but nevertheless 
on subjects within the scope of the Museum. Among additions to 
these were the following: Before the Dawn of History, by Charles R. 
Knight, published by the McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 
and containing reproductions of many of Mr. Knight's mural paint- 
ings of prehistoric life in Ernest R. Graham Hall; The Magdalenian 
Skeleton from Cap-Blanc in the Field Museum of Natural History, 
a monograph on the Magdalenian skeleton exhibited in the Hall of 
the Stone Age of the Old World, by Dr. Gerhardt von Bonin of the 
staff of the department of anatomy of the University of Illinois, 
published by the University of Illinois Press; The Hawks of North 
America, by Dr. John B. May, formerly director of ornithology of 
the Massachusetts Department of Agriculture, published by the 
National Association of Audubon Societies; and four new titles in 
the series of books (mentioned in the 1934 Report) on animals for 
children containing pictures of habitat groups in Field Museum. 
The pictures in the last appear in three dimensions when viewed 
through an optical device accompanying the books, which are pub- 
lished by The Orthovis Company, of Chicago. The various other 
books by Staff members, reported in the previous year, were con- 
tinued on sale at the Museum in 1935. 

The Museum was represented at the International Botanical 
Congress held at Amsterdam in September by Professor Samuel J. 
Record, Research Associate in Wood Technology (and professor at 
Yale University School of Forestry), and by Mr. Llewelyn Williams, 
Assistant Curator of Economic Botany. 

Professor A. C. No£, the Museum's Research Associate in Paleo- 
botany (and member of the faculty of the University of Chicago) by 
special invitation delivered an address before the Seventh American 
Scientific Congress held in Mexico City in September. In the pro- 
gram of the same gathering was included a paper by Associate 
Curator Paul C. Standley of the Museum Herbarium. Mr. Standley 
was honored during the year also by the Panama Canal Zone Natural 
History Society, which elected him an honorary member in recogni- 
tion of his valuable researches on the flora of the Canal Zone. 

In order to extend the Christmas and New Year's Day holidays 
to a larger number of Museum employes, it was decided henceforth 
to close the Museum to the public on those days. This new policy 
was put into effect on Christmas, 1935. By this action guards, jani- 
tors and other employes are enabled to spend the holidays with their 
families, and only such employes as are necessary for safety remain 

308 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

on duty. The closing causes little if any inconvenience to the public, 
as attendance on these days in the past has always been of negligible 

Dr. Charles Baehni, of the staff of the Conservatoire et Jardin 
Botaniques of Geneva, Switzerland, returned to Europe after a stay 
of fourteen months in Chicago during which he was assigned an 
office in Field Museum and given facilities for research on the Ameri- 
can flora and upon the Sapotaceae or sapodilla family. In addition, 
he assembled duplicate material to be sent to the Geneva Herbarium 
as the result of a cooperative project arranged by the Museum with 
Dr. B. P. G. Hochreutiner, Director of the Geneva institution. 

During the greater part of 1935, as through most of 1934 and the 
last month of 1933, Field Museum has enjoyed the advantages of 
having a large force of extra workers assigned to it by state and fed- 
eral unemployment relief agencies. In the year just closed this 
developed to a new peak, in regard to the number of workers assigned, 
and in the efficiency and productivity they developed. When the 
year ended indications were that this situation would continue for 
at least several months of 1936. 

Practically all the workers assigned in 1935 came from two 
agencies, the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission, and the federal 
government's Works Progress Administration. However, there were 
also for short periods two men assigned by the federal Civil Works 
Educational Service, one by the United Charities of Chicago, and one 
by the Jewish Social Service Bureau. The total number of workers 
assigned at any one time has ranged from 48 to 188, with about an 
equal division of men and women. 

Through the efforts of the many relief workers the Museum has 
made great gains in the completion of important cataloguing and 
recording tasks, sorting and preparation of specimens, repairing of 
specimens, issuance of publications, indexing, typing and general 
clerical work, and other work of a routine nature. Most of this work 
would not have been possible of accomplishment for years to come 
if the regular Museum Staff had been unaided. For years it has not 
been possible for internal activity to keep pace with the great col- 
lections accumulated by the many expeditions which the institution 
had in operation during its most active period of field work, which 
reached its greatest expansion, after steady growth, in the period 
between 1925 and 1931. The relief workers have been a great boon 
in assisting the Staff in the vast undertaking of classifying and record- 
ing all this material, which numbers many thousands of specimens 









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3 K % 










Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 309 

of myriad kinds, and was congesting the storage facilities of all the 
scientific Departments. 

But not only have the relief workers aided in such routine tasks 
as those above indicated — many have proved also to be skilled arti- 
sans, or at least to possess native ability making them susceptible 
of training for tasks requiring meticulous skill, and under the super- 
vision of the regular Staff they have been able to give valuable 
assistance in the preparation of new exhibits or accessories for 
exhibits. Further, a few others are men and women who have 
actually had scientific or other professional training and formerly 
held responsible positions in institutions such as universities and 
libraries, and some of these have been given important research 
tasks to work upon. Officials of the relief agencies have expressed 
the opinion that the Field Museum project is one of the most out- 
standing and satisfactory of all the projects in the national program 
for social rehabilitation. Frequent visits of inspection were made by 
various officials of the Works Progress Administration. To record 
the activities of the WPA workers assigned to the institution both 
motion and still pictures were made at the instance of the federal 
government. While, compared to many other projects of the more 
usual public works character, the Museum project is on a small 
scale, it represents an ideal among work relief enterprises because 
of the wide variety of types of employment embraced, the high 
objectives of the work, the conditions under which it has been carried 
out, and the huge total of successful accomplishments it has produced. 

In 1935 (for details of relief work in previous years, see Annual 
Report of the Director, 1933, p. 27, and 193 U, P- 16 U) from the 
beginning of the year to about the end of April, and again from 
the middle of June until nearly the end of September, the Museum 
had workers assigned by the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission. 
These men and women were assigned in groups ranging from 48 
to 117 in number. Their working time totaled 40,014 hours. The 
wages they received, paid by the state, amounted to $24,394. 

Beginning October 16, and continuing to the end of the year 
(under arrangements which are expected to continue during a con- 
siderable part of 1936) the relief workers assigned to the Museum 
came under the authority of the Works Progress Administration. 
The number of these WPA workers has ranged from 140 to 188, 
and their total working time to December 31 amounted to 50,239 
hours. Wages, paid by the federal government, amounted during the 
period indicated to $27,724. 

310 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

The permanent value to the Museum of the work undertaken 
by these forces of relief workers in the aggregate, during the year 1935, 
is estimated at approximately $95,000. This estimate is based upon 
the value computed by the heads of each Department and Division 
involved, and arrived at after consideration of the production of the 
workers and the probable cost to the Museum of a similar quantity 
and character of work if it were possible and desirable to employ 
privately a force of workers to do it at prevailing wages. 

While there has been no payroll expense to the Museum as a 
result of this large additional personnel in its offices, laboratories and 
shops, there has, naturally, been some expense to the institution to 
provide materials, tools, and supplies of various kinds needed in the 
work. This cost in 1935 amounted to upwards of $4,000. 

Following will be found brief summaries of the accomplishments 
by the relief work forces in the various Departments and Divisions 
of the Museum during 1935: 

Department of Anthropology. — This Department had the 
services of five women under IERC; six men and four women 
under WPA. The total number of hours worked amounted to more 
than 5,100. A major task undertaken was the assembling of the 
many parts of a great stucco gateway from ancient Kish, Iraq, to 
restore it for exhibition in Hall K, where a new series of exhibits is 
projected. This work is still under way. Other work in this Depart- 
ment includes the mounting of more than 300 Peruvian textiles on 
linen, the mounting of more than 11,000 photographs on cards or in 
albums, writing captions for 2,700 of the photographs, typing more 
than 1,200 index cards, and 750 pages of notes, manuscripts, labels 
and other matter; the washing of 400 pieces of pottery, and of 250 
bones and teeth, and numbering and wrapping same; the cleaning of 
475 pieces of Sasanian stucco and repairing of a number of these; 
a large amount of proof-reading, and much work such as cataloguing, 
and clerical work of a wide variety. Estimated value of the work is 
placed at $3,884. 

As a part of the art project of the Works Progress Administra- 
tion, certain important work for this institution was undertaken also 
outside the Museum building. This work consists of a series of six- 
teen enlarged reproductions in plaster of historic cylinder seals 
representing events from the Archaic to the Achaemenid periods in 
Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, and other ancient countries of the Near 
East area. These are joined together to form a frieze, 119 feet long 
and two and one-half feet wide, which will be installed on the walls 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 311 

of Hall K, now under preparation for archaeological exhibits. Other 
exhibits in this hall will be composed principally of material acquired 
by various Museum expeditions of recent years, especially the col- 
lections obtained by the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint 
Expedition to Mesopotamia (1922-32) in excavations at Kish. Value 
of the frieze is placed at about $15,000. 

Department of Botany. — From IERC this Department was 
assigned thirteen men and fifty-three women; from WPA eighteen 
men and seventy women; time worked amounted to more than 
29,300 hours. Largest activity was in the Herbarium where more 
than 61,000 plants were mounted, 30,000 packets for plants made, 
and 146 shipments of plants packed, this work occupying the time of 
from 30 to 36 workers. Approximately 142,000 index cards were 
written. From three to six men with manual arts ability assisted the 
regular Staff on plant reproductions, and two others assisted on the 
dioramas of coffee and tea plantations, the first of which is already 
on exhibition. An artist supplied various drawings needed in the 
Department's work. Time of the other workers was divided among 
a multitude of tasks such as typing thousands of pages of manuscript, 
filing thousands of photographs, lettering case labels, and various 
sorts of clerical work. The value of the work is estimated at $34,296. 

Department of Geology. — To this Department IERC assigned 
four men and one woman; WPA, six men and three women. This 
group worked an aggregate of more than 5,300 hours. One man, 
a trained optical mineralogist, conducted important research on the 
diamond, especially on some unusual specimens in matrix from 
Brazil. The results of his work will form a future publication. He 
also identified some 1,500 mineral specimens by inspection, and 520 
by optical and microscopical methods. A trained paleontological 
preparator mounted several large and important fossil specimens 
for the exhibits. The time of others was devoted to the heavy task 
of moving the reserve collections of 16,000 geological specimens from 
Room 120, which was cleared for use of the Library, to Room 113; 
to arranging trays of specimens, repairing and cleaning 1,500 broken 
mineral specimens, numbering and classifying 10,250 specimens, 
cleaning the chemical laboratory apparatus, making plaster casts 
and models, correcting proofs, stone cutting, typing 25,000 index 
cards, copy for 600 printed labels, 8,200 storage labels, and 1,400 
pages of manuscript, mounting and labeling 445 photographs, and a 
large amount of other general clerical work. The work in this De- 
partment is estimated to exceed $5,000 in value. 

312 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Department of Zoology. — Services were rendered in the De- 
partment of Zoology by twelve men and ten women from IERC; 
twenty-five men and nineteen women from WPA; two men from the 
Civil Works Educational Service, and one man from the Jewish 
Social Service Bureau. The total number of hours worked by all 
these was in excess of 18,300. The tasks accomplished were ex- 
tremely varied. One of the workers with professional experience 
developed an improved technique for the preparation of skeletons 
of fishes, reptiles and amphibians which will henceforth be of great 
use to the Department, and is the subject of a proposed technique 
publication. Others with technical experience conducted research 
on the birds of Guatemala and Galapagos, identified specimens of 
birds and birds' eggs, determined a collection of moths, conducted 
research on snakes (including scale counts on 107 specimens), and 
catalogued collections. Some with experience or ability in hand- 
crafts prepared accessories for the nilgai and leopard groups, and for 
proposed groups of African birds; repaired 222 bird skins; prepared 
models for proposed exhibits; and in various ways assisted the taxi- 
dermists. Many needed drawings and maps were made by an artist. 
General and varied work on the collections was performed by others, 
such as rearranging 1,045 trays of specimens for study purposes, 
tagging and cataloguing 7,500 specimens, arranging jars for alcoholic 
specimens, etc. In the osteological division some 930 small skulls 
were cleaned, and about sixty-five large skulls and skeletons or parts 
of skeletons. Identifications were made on 531 insect specimens. 
Indices were made for more than 5,000 species and genera of insects, 
and for 1,000 pamphlets and fifty-one volumes of collected papers 
on fishes. Photographs mounted number 1,150. An enormous 
amount of typing was done, including 12,780 index cards, 240 letters, 
400 pages of manuscript, bibliographies, etc., as well as 22,930 hand- 
written labels and cards. A great deal of filing and other sorts of 
clerical work were also performed. The Curator's estimate of the 
value of all the work is $16,933. 

Library. — The Library has had the assistance of two men and 
two women from IERC ; six men and three women from WPA, and 
one man from the United Charities. Their working time totaled some- 
thing over 4,100 hours. The most important item was the binding 
and reconditioning of nearly 700 books and pamphlets, and the reno- 
vating of some 4,000 others which had been in a dilapidated condition. 
Other work done includes the writing of 7,000 index cards; filing of 
23,600 cards; moving of 40,000 books in rearrangement of the stacks 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 313 

and taking over Room 120 which has been added to the Library 
quarters; the unpacking and sorting of some 12,000 volumes; 
copying of manuscript; checking of books for cataloguing; and, by 
one man versed in languages, the translation of Russian, Czecho- 
slovakian and Finnish material for cataloguing, and other biblio- 
graphical work. Estimated value of the work is placed at $3,835. 

Division of Printing. — Eleven men and two women, with 
experience in the various printing trades, were assigned to the 
Division of Printing by IERC; twenty- three men and three women 
by WPA. These included compositors, pressmen, monotype opera- 
tors and casters, binders, etc., and they assisted the regular printing 
force in all classes of work. Working time totaled more than 8,000 
hours — 4,090 hours on publications, 820 hours on exhibition labels, 
and 3,130 hours on miscellaneous job printing, Field Museum News, 
and other tasks. The estimated value of their services is $7,985. 

DrvisiON of Photography. — To this Division three men and 
one woman were assigned by IERC ; three men and two women by 
WPA. Hours worked amount to about 3,200. Those with experience 
in professional photography made 22,000 photographic prints. The 
others worked on the big task of cataloguing the collection of some 
85,000 negatives, and other clerical work. Value of the work is 
placed at $2,400. 

Recorder's Office, Division of Publications, and Division 
of Public Relations. — Two women from IERC and one from 
WPA served these offices jointly. Time amounted to more than 
900 hours. Work was of a general clerical character, such as typing 
invoices, operating addressograph machine, wrapping packages for 
mailing, preparing Field Museum News for distribution, record 
entries, indexing, filing, etc. Value estimated at $1,645. 

Dwision of Memberships. — One woman was assigned to 
this Division, both under IERC and WPA. Hours worked amount 
to 480. Work was all clerical, consisting of rewriting 8,860 cards, 
sorting 12,275 cards, alphabetically arranging 28,885 cards, supply- 
ing telephone numbers on 3,445 cards, and handling about 600 other 
cards. Value of work estimated at $665. 

Dwision of Maintenance, and Chief Engineer's Force. — 
To these Divisions, IERC assigned thirteen men, and WPA nineteen 
men. Aggregate hours worked were 8,100. Work consisted of 
a variety of maintenance tasks. Value of this work is placed at 
$3,729. * 

314 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

An "ozonator" or air purifying machine was installed in the 
Museum and connected with the ventilating system for the James 
Simpson Theatre, in order to increase the comfort of audiences 
attending lectures, children's programs, etc. This apparatus keeps 
the air fresh and pleasant without causing chilliness or drafts. Tests 
made show that with the ozonator in operation the air in the entire 
auditorium can be cleared in a very few minutes, and all chance of 
accumulation of impurities in the air eliminated. Many members 
of audiences in the Theatre have commented on the improvement 
noted since installation of this apparatus. 

The Museum continued its assistance to the study of art by Chi- 
cago students, through the Art Research Classes conducted in co- 
operation with the Art Institute of Chicago. The work has now been 
in progress since 1922, and is still in charge of the same instructor, 
Mr. John Gilbert Wilkins, of the faculty of the school of the Art 
Institute. There are classes in drawing, painting, illustration, de- 
sign, sculpture, etc. Regular courses are held in the spring, autumn 
and winter, and a special summer class is provided for teachers and 
others whose employment makes it possible to attend only at that 
time. Altogether more than one hundred students are accommo- 
dated. A classroom and working facilities are provided by the Mu- 
seum, and exhibits in the institution are used as subjects for study. 
As in past years, Mr. Wilkins reports, graduates have achieved pro- 
fessional success as creative artists and as teachers of art. 

Also, the Saturday School of the Art Institute continued the 
sending of classes of young children to Field Museum. These include 
children ranging from fourth grade elementary pupils to those of 
high school age, and the enrollment in 1935 was forty-one. 

The Museum continued its efforts to dispose of duplicate mate- 
rial no longer of use in this institution because it has been supplanted 
by superior material of the same nature. These efforts, which have 
for their aim not merely the money that may be realized through 
sale, but also the placing of this material in other institutions in 
which it will be of real value, have now been going on for several 
years, and have met with considerable success. Among items offered 
during 1935 are the X-ray machine and all accessory equipment from 
the Museum's discontinued Division of Roentgenology. 

Economies in the costs of electric lighting for the building were 
effected by continuance of the measures initiated several years ago 
under the "peak load contract" whereby favorable rates are obtained 
by complying with certain restrictions. 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 315 

The working forces under the supervision of the Superintendent 
of Maintenance and the Chief Engineer, with their customary activ- 
ity, kept the Museum building and its appurtenances in proper 
order. Various improvements were, as usual, undertaken, of which 
some of the more important are noted below: 

In Hall 21 (systematic collection of birds) all cases were opened, the 
screens upon which exhibits are mounted were removed for reinstal- 
lations, labeling and cleaning, and then replaced. With the exception 
of large groups, all cases in Hall H (ethnology of the Philippines) 
were removed to Room 38 (workshop of the Department of Anthro- 
pology) on the third floor for reinstallation, and afterwards replaced 
in the hall. Twelve cases in Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35) 
and Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37) of the Department of Geology 
were opened for cleaning and relabeling. The hippopotamus and 
white rhinoceros were removed from Hall 15 (systematic collection 
of mammals) where they had been displayed on open bases, to Carl 
E. Akeley Memorial Hall (Hall 22) for reinstallation with habitat 
group type of groundwork in glass-enclosed cases — a move which 
will greatly improve the appearance of these exhibits. The bison 
exhibit in George M. Pullman Hall (Hall 13) was reinstalled in a 
larger case. An exhibition case was prepared and lighting installed 
for the new group of gelada baboons added to Akeley Hall. 

All lighting fixtures in exhibition halls were cleaned. Ten exhibi- 
tion cases in Hall 20 were wired for lighting projected new habitat 
groups of foreign birds, and lights were installed on two wall cases 
in Hall 21. 

On account of the needs of the many extra workers assigned to 
all Departments by the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission and 
the federal Works Progress Administration, fifty new electric 
lights and six new glue pot outlets were installed in third floor work- 
rooms. Wiring in the studio of the Division of Photography was 
changed. In Rooms 54 and 52 (office of the Curator, and Library, 
of the Department of Anthropology) electrical switches were moved, 
and two fixtures and a base plug were installed. Similar electrical 
2hanges were made in Room 102 (preparators' room, Division of 

Seventy-five rooms on the third floor, nine corridors, and ten 
stairwells were washed and painted. 

The children's lunch room was washed and starched. Among 
mportant painting tasks were the corridor leading to the cafeteria, 
he President's anteroom, and the Director's office and reception 

316 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

room. The President's office was washed. The balcony in which 
Hall 32 is located was washed and starched. 

Tables, desks and chairs were distributed through the workrooms 
and offices of all Departments to provide for the relief workers, and 
five gas stoves needed in the work of some of them were connected. 

An exhaust fan was installed in Room 17 of the Plant Repro- 
duction Laboratories. Twenty-four cabinets in the Herbarium were 
moved to make room for new ones. A new pipe rack for lumber was 
erected in Room 38 (workshop of the Department of Anthropology). 
Gas, water, drain and electric pipes were torn from the walls of Room 
56, assigned as studio to the Staff Artist. 

The Department of Zoology's bone cleaning room on the ground 
floor was overhauled and painted, and there were installed in it a 
slate tank and a gas stove. 

In the Division of Maintenance there were built, remodeled or 
repaired such exhibition cases, bases for exhibits, and other acces- 
sories of that type as were required for the various installations of 
new exhibits and for reinstallations which are detailed elsewhere in 
this Report under the Departments in which they occurred. All 
told, this work accounted for a large part of the time of the main- 
tenance force. 

A major task was the construction of ten built-in exhibition cases 
in the northwest quarter of Hall 20 for proposed new habitat 
groups of foreign birds. The plan on which these were constructed 
represents an innovation in that instead of the cases running in 
a straight line as in other halls of habitat groups, the facade is 
broken by taking the fronts of certain cases in on an angle so as to 
form recesses in each of which occur two other cases of lesser depth. 
By this means it is possible to accommodate more groups in the 
same amount of space, and increase the attractiveness of the hall. 
It is believed further that it will facilitate the movements of visitors 
at times when there are unusual crowds. 

Extensive alterations, rearrangements, and additions of equip- 
ment were made on the third floor to increase the utility of the 
Library, and of offices, laboratories and workshops of the various de- 
partmental staffs, and to provide suitable accommodations for the 
Illinois Emergency Relief Commission and Works Progress Adminis- 
tration workers. The suite of offices assigned to the Curator of th( 
Department of Anthropology and the library of the Departmenl 
were rearranged, the work among other things involving the cutting 


5 m n 

< w « 
H w Q - 







Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 317 

of a new three-foot doorway, complete repainting of walls and ceilings, 
and varnishing of floors, etc. To make additional room for the general 
Library involved extensive revisions of five rooms — Nos. Ill, 113, 
113-A, 113-B, and 120. Room 113-A is a new room, created by 
building a tile wall across the center of the chemical laboratory of the 
Department of Geology. This condenses the laboratory to one-half 
its former floor area without losing any space which could be used 
efficiently. These, and various other changes and improvements on 
the third floor, required a great amount of work such as building 
of many hundreds of feet of shelving, rebuilding of bookcases, 
transfers of storage cases and racks from one room to another, in- 
stallation of new steel storage cabinets, provision of work tables, 
construction and installation of new ventilating hoods over special 
apparatus such as that in the chemical laboratory, installation of 
new plumbing, etc. In the photogravure studio a new metal tank 
was built for washing large photogravure plates. In Room 101, 
paleontological workshop, new double doors were provided to facili- 
tate the passage of large mounted skeletons of fossil animals. 

As for several years past, window repairs throughout the building 
formed an important item of maintenance work. The two large 
windows over the main stairways east and west of the north entrance 
had a general overhauling which included installation of new sills, 
repairing of jambs and cracked marble work, caulking of frames, 
resetting of glass, placing of new stools and aprons on the inside, and 
resetting of insulating panels and moldings. 

On the second floor 142 windows received attention such as reset- 
ting of glass, repairing or replacement of sills, frames, sashes, etc., 
and painting of frames. Hinged ventilating sashes were installed 
in a few. On the third floor 162 windows received similar treatment, 
and a few on the fourth floor also received repairs. 

In the boiler room the painting of all ceilings, walls, pipes, boilers 
and pumps was completed. Curtain walls were installed at the coal 
conveyor to keep out dust, and coal chutes were rewired to reduce 
consumption of electric current. Four new steel hopper fronts were 
installed, and thirty steel coal buckets were made. The wooden 
ladders to the coal pits were replaced with iron ones. Hot air 
siphons were installed on two boilers to improve combustion. The 
hot water circulating pump was repaired, as was the eight-inch 
check-valve in the fire line. A new wall was built between two of 
the boilers, and all brick work in boiler settings was carefully 
inspected and patched. 

318 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 



Under its contract with the John G. Shedd Aquarium, the Mu 
seum continued to furnish from its plant steam needed by the aqua 
rium during the months when heat was required. A total of 
12,159,985 pounds of steam was delivered to the aquarium. 

In the following pages will be found detailed reports on the year's 
activities in each of the Departments and Divisions of the Museum: 



During the year 1935 no expeditions were sent out from the 
Department of Anthropology. 

Acting Curator Paul S. Martin completed a manuscript on the 
archaeology of Lowry Pueblo, Colorado. The material for this work 
was obtained during the course of four summers' excavations — 
1930, 1931, 1933, and 1934— by the Field Museum Archaeological 
Expedition to the Southwest, which was financed from the income 
of a fund provided by the late Julius and Augusta N. Rosenwald, 
and was led by Dr. Martin. This publication is a comprehensive 
report on the archaeology of a large pueblo site, and includes a 
detailed study of the masonry of Lowry Pueblo by Mr. Lawrence 
Roys, a structural engineer of Moline, Illinois, and a complete 
analysis of the skeletal material by Dr. Gerhardt von Bonin, Assistant 
Professor of Anatomy at the University of Illinois. This study may 
be available in published form early in 1936. 

In December the Museum issued Arabs of Central Iraq — Their 
History, Ethnology and Physical Characters, a quarto-size book in 
the Anthropology Memoirs Series, written jointly by Assistant 
Curator Henry Field, Sir Arthur Keith, noted British anthropologist, 
and Professor Stephen A. Langdon, of Oxford University, who was 
Director of the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition 
to Mesopotamia (1922-32). 

x^ssistant Curator Field has been engaged further in preparing a 
report giving the results of the 1934 Field Museum Anthropological 
Expedition to the Near East. This expedition continued the somato- 
logical researches on the peoples of the Near East, commenced by 
Mr. Field in 1925. The report will probably be ready for press 
some time late in 1936. 

Mr. Field also had under way for future publication several 
ethnological reports on the Arabs. 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 319 

Assistant Curator Wilfrid D. Hambly's report on Culture Areas 
of Nigeria, which covers the last part of the work done on the 
Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Expedition to Africa (1929-30), 
was published in June. He also prepared for publication a leaflet 
on Australia entitled Primitive Hunters of Australia, which may be 
expected off the press early in the coming year. Mr. Hambly like- 
wise finished a report on the Maya skeletal material recovered from 
graves by former Assistant Curator J. Eric Thompson, who con- 
ducted the 1934 Field Museum-Carnegie Institution Joint Archaeo- 
logical Expedition to San Jos£, British Honduras. This somatological 
report will be published in one of the Contributions to American 
Archaeology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. In 
addition, Mr. Hambly has been engaged in making a series of 
measurements on human skulls collected by Assistant Curator 
Albert B. Lewis as leader of the Joseph N. Field South Pacific 
Expedition (1909-13). 

Mr. Richard A. Martin, formerly Field Director of the Syrian 
Expedition of the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, has 
been temporarily added to the staff of the Department. He was 
assigned the task of cataloguing, classifying, and installing the 
archaeological material recovered at Kish during the twelve seasons 
of operations conducted by the Field Museum-Oxford University 
Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia (1922-32). Mr. Martin at the 
close of the year was engaged in setting up a very beautiful arched 
gateway of stucco from Kish. It is typical of the architecture of 
the Sasanian period (about A.D. 350). 

During the year a portion of the valuable collection of archaeo- 
logical material secured by Dr. A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate 
in American Archaeology and leader of the Marshall Field Expedition 
to Peru (1925-26), was shipped to him for study. Dr. Kroeber 
proposes to use this material in writing Part III of Volume II, in the 
Anthropology Memoirs Series of the Museum, the title of which is 
Archaeological Explorations in Peru. 

By means of a fund of $500 generously contributed to the Museum 
by the American Friends of China, Chicago, it has been possible to 
have catalogued most of the books written in Chinese which the 
late Dr. Berthold Laufer, former Curator, bequeathed to this insti- 
tution. This work has been competently done by Mr. Kenji Toda of 
the University of Chicago, who has catalogued about 7,000 volumes. 

Professor F. E. Wood, of Chicago, has voluntarily devoted most 
of the year to cataloguing the remainder of Dr. Laufer's library, 

320 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

which consists of books written in Tibetan, Manchu, Mongolian, 
and Korean. About 200 books have been classified and properly- 
shelved. Many more remain to be catalogued. 

A great portion of the time of the staff of the Department has 
been devoted to correspondents, and to scholars, students, and other 
visitors calling for information. 

Six signed and thirty-five unsigned articles and brief items were 
contributed by the staff of the Department to Field Museum News. 
The staff also supplied data used in twenty-one newspaper articles 
during the year. 


Accessions received and recorded during the year amount to 
twenty-two, of which seventeen are gifts, and five were obtained 
by exchange. The total number of objects received in these acces- 
sions is 719. 

A very rare and beautiful Chinese mortuary clay figure of a 
dancing girl of the T'ang period was presented to the Museum by 
an anonymous donor in memory of the late Dr. Laufer. 

Two gifts came from the Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics: 
one, from the State Museum of Anthropology, Moscow, consisting 
of two skulls; and the other, from the Institute for History of Material 
Cultures, Ukraine Academy of Sciences, Kiev, being a collection 
of 181 rare paleolithic implements of Russia. 

An interesting collection of seventy-five Arabian ethnological 
objects, and six basalt blocks bearing Safaitic inscriptions, were 
presented to the Museum by Mr. Henry Field. 

The American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology, of 
New York, contributed one pottery jar, six pottery figurines, and one 
pottery head. These specimens date from the Sasanian period at 
Kish, Iraq, and were obtained by the Holmes Expedition to Kish, 
sent out in 1932-33 by the Institute jointly with Oxford University. 

With the receipt of a bronze head of a Beduin, the work of Miss 
Malvina Hoffman, the Races of Mankind series of sculptures in 
Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall 3) was completed. 

Dr. E. E. Burr, of the University of Chicago, presented two 
colored anatomical models of a human head. These models were 
cast so as to show a partial dissection of the musculature, nerves, 
and arteries. 

Two basaltic blocks bearing Safaitic inscriptions were given to 
the Museum by Dr. E. W. K. Anderson, of Houston, Texas. 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 321 

To Abbe" Henri Breuil and Pere de Chardin, of Paris, France, 
the Museum is indebted for a gift of 282 stone implements from near 
Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 


Of the twenty-two accessions received during the year, seventeen 
have been entered. Nine accessions of previous years have also 
been entered. 

Cataloguing has been continued, the number of catalogue cards 
prepared during the year totaling 891, of which 585 have been 
entered. The total number of catalogue cards entered from the 
opening of the first volume is 211,992. 

The catalogue cards for the current year were distributed as 
follows: archaeology and ethnology of North America, 106; archaeo- 
logy and ethnology of South America, 96; ethnology of Europe and 
Great Britain, 11; ethnology of Asia, 133; ethnology of China, 2; 
ethnology of Africa, 33; archaeology and ethnology of Near East 
(Kish), 436; physical anthropology, 74. 

A total of 6,262 labels for use in exhibition cases was supplied 
by the Division of Printing. These labels are distributed as follows: 
Indians of the Woodland Area, 2; Mexico and Central America, 221; 
South America, 908; Alaska, 17; China, 1; Tibet, 723; Malay Archi- 
pelago, 68; Philippine Islands, 4,321; Stanley Field Hall, 1. The 
Division of Printing also supplied 182 captions for photographs and 
2,510 catalogue cards. 

The number of additional photographs mounted in the depart- 
mental albums is 516. To the label file 1,451 cards were added. 

Much valuable clerical and repair work has been done by workers 
assigned to the Museum by the Illinois Emergency Relief Com- 
mission. This force of assistants, varying in number from four to 
six, worked six hours per day five days a week during the larger 
part of the period from January 2 to September 14. During this 
time 307 Peruvian textiles were repaired and mounted; 5,260 photo- 
graphs were mounted on cards; and 2,303 captions, and 451 pages 
of notes and manuscript, were typed. 

From October 16 to December 31, the state relief workers were 
replaced by a force of ten assistants assigned to the Department 
by the Works Progress Administration of the federal government. 
During this period 475 pieces of Sasanian stucco-work from Kish 
were cleaned; 28 pieces of Sasanian stucco were mended and restored; 
400 pieces of pottery were washed ; 250 bones were washed and num- 

322 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

bered; 169 pieces of pottery were numbered; 300 sheets of manu- 
script were typed; 130 sheets of manuscript were proofread; 392 
captions for photographs were typed; 725 captions were pasted on 
photographs; 5,900 photographs were mounted; 473 negatives were 
numbered; and 150 pieces of pottery were catalogued. 


Installation of new collections and modernization of older 
exhibits has continued throughout the year. Most of the old-style 
black labels have now been replaced by shorter, more interesting 
statements printed in black type on buff cards, thus improving 
legibility. Fifty-nine cases have been relabeled in this manner. 

The reorganization of Halls 8 and 9, devoted to Mexico, Central 
America, and South America, was completed under the direction 
of Assistant Curator Thompson. In Hall 8 were installed a case 
of Maya stone sculptures and two cases of pottery recovered from 
the San Jose ruin in British Honduras by the 1934 Field Museum- 
Carnegie Institution Joint Expedition, of which Mr. Thompson 
was leader. In Hall 9, new archaeological material from Brazil, 
the West Indies, Argentina, Colombia, and Peru was placed on 
exhibition. A special case showing a reproduction of two graves 
such as were constructed at Ancon, Peru, was installed (see Plate 
XXVII), and an unwrapped "mummy" pack displaying a desiccated 
body, was added to the hall. 

A miniature model of the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, Mexico, 
was repaired by Works Progress Administration workers under 
the supervision of Acting Curator Martin, and placed in Hall 8. 
This model was acquired during 1934 in an exchange with the Mex- 
ican National Museum of Archaeology, History and Ethnography. 

An interesting new exhibit in Hall 9 is a quipu or accounting 
device used by the Incas of Peru in computation (see Plate XXVIII). 
It consists of a long and fairly thick cord from which dangle groups 
of subsidiary cords on which are knots of two kinds — overhand and 
Flemish. These served as numerals in reckonings. Quipus, which 
are now quite rare, were used for such purposes as recording tribute 
payments, tallying herds of llamas, and computing vital and military 
statistics. The Museum's specimen was unexpectedly discovered 
in a stored archaeological collection purchased for the Museum 
some years ago by Messrs. Stanley Field, Henry J. Patten, and 
Charles B. Pike. 

The reinstallation of Tibetan material in Hall 32 was completed. 
Assistant Curator Thompson installed cases containing the following 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 323 

objects: a sacred apron worn by lamas and made up of forty-one 
carved pieces of human thigh bones (see Plate XXVI); shadow- 
play figures; masks. Acting Curator Martin supervised the 
installation of a coracle or boat made of skins. This boat was used 
several times by the late Dr. Laufer while traveling in Tibet as 
leader of the Blackstone Expedition to China (1908-10). 

Also in Hall 32 was installed a large "calendar screen" from 
China which had been in storage for some years. This screen, about 
fifteen feet long and six feet high, is divided into twelve panels with 
floral decorations corresponding to plants and flowers which would 
bloom in the month which each represents. The designs are formed 
with the bright-colored plumage of kingfishers, and the screen is 
an object of exceptional beauty and delicate craftsmanship. It was 
obtained by one of Dr. Laufer's expeditions. 

Under the joint supervision of Director Stephen C. Simms and 
Assistant Curator Albert B. Lewis, the reinstallation of forty cases 
in Hall H (Ethnology of the Philippine Islands) was completed in 
less than a year. This was an unusually difficult task, for much 
material which had never before been exhibited had first to be sorted 
and classified. It is now possible for visitors to secure a compre- 
hensive idea of the everyday life of all the important tribes of the 

Plans for Hall K have been perfected. In the east third of the 
hall will be exhibited the archaeological material from Kish; in the 
remainder of the hall will be shown ethnological material from India, 
the Andaman Islands, Korea, and Siberia. Work on remodeling 
the hall has already been begun, and actual installation will be 
commenced early in 1936. 

EXPEDITIONS and research 

The Department of Botany conducted no collecting expeditions 
during 1935. Assistant Curator J. Francis Macbride continued his 
work, described in the Reports of 1929 to 1934 inclusive, of photo- 
graphing type specimens of tropical American plants preserved in 
European herbaria. This project was initiated in 1929 partly with 
the assistance of funds furnished for several years by the Rockefeller 

Mr. Macbride's work during 1935 was continued in the DeCan- 
dolle and Delessert herbaria of the Conservatory and Botanical 
Garden of Geneva. There he received the most cordial support 

324 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

of the Director, Dr. B. P. Georges Hochreutiner, who always has 
extended every possible facility for the execution of the photographic 
work. The summer of 1935 was spent by Mr. Macbride at the 
Natural History Museum of Vienna, where, through the courtesies 
extended by Dr. Hermann Michel, Director of the Museum, and by 
Dr. Karl Keissler, Director of the Botanical Section, he was enabled 
to photograph type specimens and study South American material. 
The herbarium at Vienna possesses the original collections of Poeppig 
from eastern Peru, and the classic Jacquin collections from the 
northwestern coast of South America, both of great importance to 
students of the South American flora. 

The autumn and winter were spent by Mr. Macbride at the 
Botanic Garden of Madrid, where he was received most courteously 
by the Director, Dr. Antonio Garcia Varela, and given every assist- 
ance in his studies of the classic South American collections preserved 
there. The herbarium at Madrid contains the earliest large plant 
collections from South America, gathered by explorers dispatched 
by the Spanish government a century and a half ago to explore the 
natural resources of the nation's colonies. Of particular import- 
ance are the large collections made by Ruiz and Pavon, the first 
botanists to investigate the vegetation of Peru. 

The great value of the photographs of type specimens becomes 
increasingly apparent as continued use is made of them. For 
monographic or other work with tropical American plants these 
photographs are invaluable, as is evident to all who have had the 
privilege of using them. The photographs obtained to date illustrate 
about 28,000 species, and are estimated to include about one-half 
of those otherwise available only in Europe. With the extensive 
series of herbarium specimens from various sources already available 
in the Herbarium of Field Museum, they give this institution what 
is, with scarcely any doubt, the most complete representation of the 
species of plants of tropical America that is to be found today in any 
American herbarium. Prints from the type photographs already 
on hand are made available by the Museum to botanists generally 
at the cost of production. During the past year 2,231 such prints 
were purchased by American institutions, and others were exchanged 
for similar type photographs. 

Dr. Charles Baehni, of the Botanic Garden of Geneva, who came 
to Chicago in August, 1934, returned to Geneva at the end of 
September, 1935. As the result of a cooperative arrangement 
between the two institutions concerned, his time was spent in study 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. X, Plate XXX 


Hall 25 

In flower and fruit. From Southern China 



Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 325 

at Field Museum, enabling the Museum to make some return for 
the many courtesies extended by Dr. Hochreutiner at Geneva to 
facilitate the work done there by Assistant Curator Macbride. 
Besides making a monographic study of the Sapotaceae, Dr. Baehni 
assembled duplicate and other material as well as photographs of 
type specimens of plants, to be transmitted to the Botanic Garden 
of Geneva in partial return for the valuable duplicates already 
received from there by Field Museum, and it is believed that Dr. 
Baehni's visit will be of mutual advantage to the herbaria thus 
brought into closer relations. 

The Herbarium has been used constantly during the year by 
the staff of the Department of Botany, and it has been consulted 
also by a large number of visiting botanists from various parts of 
the United States and other countries. It has been consulted most 
frequently by botanists of the numerous large universities that exist 
in or within a few hundred miles of Chicago, since it is the largest 
herbarium for many hundreds of miles in almost every direction. 

The care of the collections and the determination of the extensive 
series of plants submitted for study have fully occupied the time 
of the Herbarium staff throughout the year. Through the employ- 
ment of a large number of workers supplied by the Illinois Emergency 
Relief Commission and the federal Works Progress Administration, 
it has been possible to perform an exceptional amount of work, the 
direction of which has made heavy demands upon the regular staff 
of the Department. There have been mounted and added to the 
Herbarium, during about half of the year when such labor was 
available, more than 61,000 sheets of specimens, a remarkably high 
number for any herbarium, and slightly more than were mounted 
during 1934, when extra labor was available for a longer time. At 
the end of 1935 all current collections had been mounted, and there 
remained only a small quantity of old ones, which it should be 
possible to finish during the coming year. Much of the material 
mounted had been in storage for ten years or more, and its present 
availability for study greatly increases the value of the Museum 

A large private herbarium, purchased many years ago and now 
almost completely mounted, gives the Herbarium of Field Museum 
a fine series of the critical species of the flora of southern and middle 
Europe, which will be highly useful for study of the plant immigrants 
of the United States. 

326 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

There were submitted to the Herbarium for study and determina- 
tion 184 lots of plants, containing more than 9,000 specimens. Of 
these, 58 lots, comprising 5,059 specimens, were named and returned 
to the senders, while 126 lots, amounting to 3,948 specimens, were 
retained by the Museum. In addition, there were determined, but 
not preserved for the collections, many plants from the Chicago 
region and elsewhere that were brought to the Museum by visitors, 
teachers, and students, or forwarded by mail. Also there were 
answered by mail and telephone hundreds of inquiries for the most 
diverse information upon botanical subjects. 

During the year Associate Curator Paul C. Standley published 
twelve papers based directly or indirectly upon the Herbarium 
collections. Several of these, dealing with American trees, appeared 
in Tropical Woods. To the same periodical Assistant Curator 
Llewelyn Williams contributed A Study of the Caryocaraceae, a 
small group of trees and shrubs of tropical America. The most 
important of Associate Curator Standley's papers, entitled New 
Plants from the Yucatan Peninsula, appeared in Publication 461 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. Mr. Standley 
revised the manuscript of the Flora of British Honduras, prepared 
several years ago in joint authorship with Professor Samuel J. 
Record, of Yale University (Research Associate in Wood Technology 
for the Museum). This is to be published early in 1936 by the 
Museum. He also began work upon a flora of Costa Rica, at 
the request of the Director of the Museo Nacional of Costa Rica. 
During the year about two-thirds of the manuscript was prepared for 
this work, which is to be published by the Costa Rican government. 

Members of the Department staff prepared for Tropical Woods 
many abstracts and reviews of current literature relating to tropical 
trees and shrubs, and contributed numerous signed articles and 
other items to Field Museum News, as well as data for many 
newspaper articles. 

During September Assistant Curator Williams attended the 
meetings of the International Association of Wood Anatomists held 
in Amsterdam, Holland, in conjunction with the Sixth Botanical 


During 1935 the Department of Botany was the recipient of 241 
accessions, comprising 25,138 specimens. The number of accessions 
was somewhat larger than in the preceding year, but the number 
of specimens was smaller, although probably not inferior in value 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 327 

to those received in 1934. The accessions consisted of specimens 
for the Herbarium, for the exhibits, and for the wood and economic 
collections. Of the total number 6,225 were gifts, 11,315 were 
received in exchanges, 28 were obtained by Museum expeditions, 
1,346 were purchased, and the remainder were acquired from 
miscellaneous sources. 

Of the Department's total receipts of specimens, those for the 
Herbarium amounted to 25,035 items — plant specimens and photo- 
graphs. Much material of outstanding value has been received, 
as usual, through exchange. Deserving of special mention is a 
collection of 2,110 specimens, from the Conservatory and Botanical 
Garden, Geneva, Switzerland, through the Director, Dr. B. P. 
Georges Hochreutiner. This consisted chiefly of Rubiaceae and 
Euphorbiaceae from tropical America, and included a major pro- 
portion of type or otherwise historically important material, as well 
as type material from Asia and Africa. A sending from the Riks- 
museet of Stockholm, through Dr. Gunnar Samuelsson, consisted 
of 490 plants, principally from Brazil, Haiti and the Dominican Re- 
public. From the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England, through 
the Director, Sir Arthur W. Hill, were received 305 plants of 
Mexico and Colombia. The New York Botanical Garden, through 
the Director, Dr. E. D. Merrill, transmitted sendings of great prac- 
tical value, amounting to 2,953 sheets, largely from eastern Asia. 

Among the more important gifts of herbarium specimens received 
during 1935 may be mentioned the following: 216 specimens from 
Illinois and adjacent states, from Mr. Hermann C. Benke, Chicago; 
the private herbarium of the late Carl Buhl, Jr., of Chicago, amount- 
ing to 897 mounted sheets, chiefly from Illinois and Indiana, pre- 
sented by his estate; 300 specimens of Bolivian plants, collected by 
Dr. Martin Cardenas, of Potosi; 153 plants of the western United 
States, collected by Professor G. Eifrig, River Forest, Illinois; 115 
Colombian plants from Rev. Brother Elias, of Barranquilla; 250 
specimens of Iraq plants, presented by Mr. Henry Field, Chicago; 
52 specimens of Yucatan plants, accompanied by copious notes and 
often by wood specimens, from Dr. Roman Sabas Flores, of Pro- 
greso; 266 specimens of Michigan plants from Professor F. J. Her- 
mann, Ann Arbor, Michigan; 102 specimens of Iraq plants from 
the Iraq Petroleum Company, Ltd., Haifa, Palestine; 575 specimens 
of Iraq plants from Mr. Yusuf Lazar, Bagdad; 657 plants, chiefly 
of North and South Carolina, from Mr. Donald C. Peattie, Chicago; 
185 plant specimens, mostly Hawaiian, from Dr. Earl E. Sherff, 

328 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Chicago; 316 Costa Rican plants from Professor Manuel Valerio, 
San Jos£; and 543 plants, principally trees and shrubs from tropical 
America, presented by the School of Forestry of Yale University, 
through Professor Samuel J. Record. 

From the S. C. Johnson Brazil Carnauba Expedition there were 
received, as a gift, 376 herbarium specimens collected in the states 
of Ceara and Piauhy; a quantity of large palm and economic mate- 
rial, still uncatalogued, from the same states and also from Bahia; 
and selected specimens preserved in formalin for use in the prepara- 
tion of botanical exhibits. 

Dr. Esmerino Gomes Parente of the Directoria de Plantas 
Texteis, Fortaleza, Ceara, contributed a small but choice collection 
consisting of thirty-two specimens of fiber-yielding plants of north- 
eastern Brazil, including the various kinds of cotton in cultivation 

As usual, some of the most valuable contributions of herbarium 
material have been acquired in return for the determination of the 
specimens. There may be mentioned particularly 500 plants from 
Sonora, Mexico, presented by their collector, Mr. Howard Scott 
Gentry, of Westmoreland, California. The University of Michigan 
forwarded, in continuation of similar sendings of previous years, 
464 plants from the Yucatan Peninsula, chiefly from British 

Besides the accessions specifically mentioned, the Museum re- 
ceived much other valuable material from almost all regions of the 
earth, and particularly from tropical America. Details of these 
will be found in the List of Accessions for the year (p. 376). 

As in other recent years, purchases of herbarium material were 
extremely limited, but there were obtained in this manner 966 
specimens from Amazonian Brazil, 80 from Venezuela, and 300 from 
eastern Peru. 

From the previously mentioned negatives of type specimens of 
tropical American plants made in European herbaria by Assistant 
Curator Macbride, there were added to the Herbarium several 
thousand prints, the majority of which represent species not previ- 
ously available. Prints of all the series of type negatives received 
have now been inserted in the Herbarium. 

The exhibits and study collections of economic material and 
woods were augmented by ninety-five items, in the form of gifts 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 329 

or exchanges, from individuals and scientific institutions as noted 
in the List of Accessions. 

The Armstrong Cork Company, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 
furnished specimens of cork bark and products made therefrom to 
replace some of the cork material on exhibition in Hall 28, and 
"Several acorn-bearing branches of cork oak (Quercus suber) were 
obtained from the Oroville (California) Station of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. Mr. B. A. Krukoff, New York, con- 
tributed seeds and fruits of palms and trees collected by him during 
1929 in the lower Amazon Valley. 

For exhibition in the series of domestic woods in Charles F. 
Millspaugh Hall (Hall 26) there were received a plank of tamarack 
from the Wisconsin Land and Lumber Company, Hermansville, 
Michigan; two boards of sycamore from the Eastman-Gardiner 
Hardwood Lumber Company, Laurel, Mississippi; wheel and log 
sections of Idaho white pine from the Potlatch Forests, Inc., of 
Potlatch, Idaho; and range maps of several exhibited Pacific Coast 
woods from Professor Emanuel Fritz, University of California, at 
Berkeley, who has for years been an important contributor to this 

From the Resources Corporation International, Chicago, through 
the courtesy of its president, Mr. Bruce L. Hoover, there were 
received twenty-one planks representative of the more important 
hardwoods growing in the State of Chiapas, Mexico, and now im- 
ported in commercial quantities into the United States. When 
installed these will form a distinct addition to the exhibit of foreign 
woods in Hall 27. 

Various specimens of tropical American woods for study purposes 
were received from Yale University School of Forestry, through 
the continued cooperation of Professor Samuel J. Record, and from 
Dr. Roman Sabas Flores, Progreso, Yucatan. Mr. Helmuth Bay, 
Research Associate in Forestry, Museum of Science and Industry, 
Chicago, presented fifteen hand specimens of commercial woods of 

Other gifts deserving special mention were a specimen of blue 
poplar from Mr. 0. G. Moore, Brownsboro, Alabama; photographs 
and a zinc cut of a Kentucky coffee tree growing at Palatine, Illinois, 
from Mr. Hermann C. Benke, of Chicago; and pine wood showing 
injury caused by a bullet, contributed by Mr. W. A. Summerhays, 
of Memphis, Tennessee. 

330 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

As in the previous year, Mr. William E. Bletsch, of Highland 
Park, Illinois, arranged for the cutting of numerous hand specimens 
of North American woods for exchange. Mr. Bletsch, who was 
an Associate Member of the Museum, unfortunately died during 

During 1935 the permanent study collections of the Herbarium 
have been increased by 61,411 sheets of plants and photographs, 
besides several thousand sheets bearing original printed descriptions 
of new species, or other material useful for study purposes. The 
total number of mounted specimens now in the Herbarium is 796,648. 
During the year there were removed from the Herbarium 600 
duplicate sheets. 


The Department distributed through exchanges 15,509 her- 
barium specimens and photographs to forty-five institutions and 
individuals in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
Australia. Thirty-six lots of plants were lent for study to various 
institutions and individuals, and fifty-eight lots were received on 
loan, for study or determination. 

Workers assigned to the Department by the Illinois Emergency 
Relief Commission and the federal Works Progress Administration 
assisted in the reorganization and orderly storage of reference 
material, and did many and various tasks of typing. Approximately 
8,000 index cards were typed for the study collection of woods, 
and more than 133,000 were written in long hand for other card files, 
including a large number for exchange purposes in the relations 
established with herbaria in Geneva and Vienna. 

In addition to labels for new exhibits installed during the year, 
the Division of Printing furnished a large number of buff labels 
to replace the remaining black ones on older exhibits. 


Some important additions were made during the year to the 
exhibits of the Department of Botany. The most notable of these 
are the first two paintings in a series of murals illustrating interesting 
and remarkable plant forms from many parts of the world. These 
murals, while intended principally to picture plants of large size 
of which otherwise only small parts could find place within the 
physical limits of a museum exhibit, will also serve to represent 
a wide variety of plant formations, if not a complete ecological 
series. They bring into the exhibition halls outdoor scenes, indica- 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 331 

tive of the native habitat of many of the plants represented in 
the botanical exhibits. 

From photographs and other data gathered by the Department 
of Botany, the Museum's Staff Artist, Mr. Charles A. Corwin, 
has prepared preliminary sketches for fifteen paintings to fill the 
spaces available above the exhibition cases on the west wall of the 
Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29). All of the murals are to be eight by 
ten feet in dimensions. The two which were completed during 
1935 may now be seen in the hall. They represent giant cacti of 
northern Mexico, and the baobab or monkeybread tree of central 
Africa. The third and fourth murals, which were well under way 
at the end of the year, show cucumber and passion-flower trees of 
the island of Socotra, and a dragon's blood tree of the Canary 
Islands. The fifth will be the Araucaria of the Chilean Andes. The 
sequence on the wall is not as here indicated, but will follow as 
far as possible the systematic order of the exhibits in the hall. The 
execution of the paintings is as creditable to the artist as are his 
many other contributions to the exhibits in other Departments of 
the Museum, and it is evident that not the least valuable feature 
of this series of murals will be its decorative aspect. 

Another new exhibit which constitutes an innovation in the 
Department of Botany, and a step in the same general direction 
as the murals in providing an outdoor scene and synthesis, is a 
diorama showing on a small scale a modern Brazilian coffee plan- 
tation. This exhibit illustrates the most up-to-date methods of 
handling the crop. In the foreground is shown a field used for 
drying and fermenting the coffee, with its various features such 
as the conduit which conveys the coffee from the hulling machines. 
Behind the warehouses and other buildings, there stretches off in 
the background an expanse filled with rows of coffee plants (see 
Plate XXIX). This diorama has been placed with the exhibit of 
food plants in Hall 25 in proximity to collections of coffee and tea 
samples illustrating many types and grades. Provision has been 
made for a second diorama to show a tea plantation in Ceylon, 
which at the present writing is on the way to completion. Both 
of these dioramas are the work of Preparator John R. Millar. 

During 1935, in conjunction with these exhibits there was 
2ompleted and installed, in a separate floor case, a natural size 
reproduction of a tea bush in fruit and flower (see Plate XXX). 
With thousands of leaves, and hundreds of buds, open flowers and 
r ruits, this celluloid reproduction of an entire bush has been an 

332 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

ambitious undertaking requiring much time and labor on the part 
of Preparators Emil Sella and Milton Copulos, together with various 
assistants drawn chiefly from the Illinois Emergency Relief and 
federal Works Progress Administration workers assigned to the 

A branch of a tropical mistletoe with showy red flowers, collected 
on the Tapajoz River by the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition 
to the Amazon, has been added to the mistletoes in the Hall of 
Plant Life. A reproduction of a small fruiting branch of loquat or 
Japanese plum was also made during the year from material and 
sketches secured in the field several years ago, and now serves to 
augment the display of fruits of the rose family. 

With the aid of selected workers sent by the Illinois Emergency 
Relief Commission and the Works Progress Administration, a large 
amount of work was done during the year toward the preparation 
of other botanical exhibits. These, however, have not yet reached 
a stage of advancement warranting their inclusion in the present 

Four new installations were made among the exhibits of North 
American trees in Charles F. Millspaugh Hall (Hall 26). Those 
added during the year were paper birch, material for which was 
presented a few years ago by the Berst-Forster-Dixfield Company, 
of Cloquet, Minnesota; holly, contributed in part by the Craftsman 
Wood Service Company, Inc., Chicago; and dogwood, the gift of 
Mr. Charles H. Barnaby, of Greencastle, Indiana. Another exhibit 
completed was that of tamarack, for which a trunk section was 
given by the Von Platen-Fox Company, of Iron Mountain, Michigan, 
and planks by the Wisconsin Land and Lumber Company, of 
Hermansville, Michigan. Photographs of trees and branches were 
added to several other exhibits to complete the installations. Five 
species of commercially important timbers of North America are 
still lacking in this hall. Material of two of these is on hand, but 
three woods from the west coast remain to be secured. 

To reduce the too extensive display of Japanese woods in Hall 
27, consisting of legacies from several expositions, duplication has 
been eliminated as far as possible, sometimes reducing the contents 
of a whole case by one-half. An instance is the recently reinstalled 
half-case of three woods of young coniferous trees, each represented 
by a number of cross-sections of the stem, cut at regular intervals 
from summit to base, and arranged to show the growth during 
successive periods of approximately ten years each. The wood 

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Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 333 

shows distinct layers or rings, each equivalent to one year's growth, 
and the well-known fact that the age of a tree may thus be told 
by the number of its rings is well illustrated by this Japanese 

In Hall 28, the exhibit of vegetable waxes was rearranged to 
include a small collection of rare waxes presented in 1934 by 
S. C. Johnson and Son, Inc., of Racine, Wisconsin. 

The display of fermented and distilled beverages in Hall 25 
received some attention, reproductions of fruits, pears, cashew, and 
a cluster of grapes modeled from nature, being added to illustrate 
the source of the corresponding beverages. 



The Department of Geology conducted no expeditions during 
1935. However, the Department received, as a result of the Field 
Museum Anthropological Expedition to the Near East which 
finished its work late in the preceding year, a large collection of 
sands, surface rocks, and fossils from the deserts of Iraq and neigh- 
boring countries, gathered by Assistant Curator Henry Field 
(Department of Anthropology), leader of the expedition. This 
supplements and adds to the importance of a similar collection 
made by the Marshall Field North Arabian Desert Expedition 
of 1927-28. 

The chemical laboratory was closed for alterations during the 
first four months of the year and consequently less chemical work 
than usual was accomplished. This was partly compensated for 
by an increase in mineral identification by optical and crystallo- 
graphic methods. The still, which was installed in the laboratory 
in 1934 for purifying old and discolored alcohol, was kept in opera- 
tion through all but six weeks of the year. More than 1,100 gallons 
of old alcohol were redistilled for the Divisions of Fishes and Reptiles 
of the Department of Zoology, and approximately 850 gallons were 
thus recovered for further use. 

For the Department of Anthropology, eighteen coins from ancient 
Kish, and four prehistoric copper bells from Arizona, were restored 
by the Fink electrolytic process. The heating values of three coals 
were determined for the Museum's chief engineer by calorimeter 
tests. Porosity tests on two stone meteorites were made as part 
of a research project on meteorites. The percentage of ash in pinon 

334 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

wood, and the volume of soft wood ashes, were determined for the 
Department of Anthropology, to assist research in connection 
with an ash-filled room of the Lowry ruin excavated in Colorado 
by the Field Museum Archaeological Expedition to the Southwest 
in previous years. There were, as usual, the numerous daily quick 
qualitative tests needed for mineral determinations. 

Dr. Alfred Walcott, working in the Department under a special 
arrangement, continued his studies of diamonds in the matrix from 
Brazil. He also identified by optical methods many doubtful 
specimens of minerals uncovered during the rearrangement of the 
reserve collections. 

Studies and descriptions of fossil mammals collected by the 
Marshall Field Paleontological Expeditions to South America (1922- 
27), and of other collections, were continued by Associate Curator 
Elmer S. Riggs and Assistant Curator Bryan Patterson. The results 
of these studies appeared in two papers in the Proceedings of the 
American Philosophical Society, one a joint paper on Casamayor 
notoungulates, the other a description by Mr. Patterson of the 
osteology and affinities of the Paleocene amblypod, Titanoides. In 
the Geological Series of Field Museum Mr. Riggs published a 
paper on the skeleton of Astrapotherium, and Mr. Patterson described 
a new species of Argyrohippus. Abstracts of three other papers 
by Messrs. Riggs and Patterson were presented at the winter meeting 
of the Geological Society of America. A bibliography of the literature 
on South American fossil mammals was prepared by Mr. Patterson 
and copied on cards. This laborious work constitutes a much needed 
reference index. 

Professor William Berryman Scott, of Princeton University, 
spent several weeks in the Department making a study of the 
Astrapotheria, a little known group of South American ungulates. 
The results of his studies will appear in his forthcoming monograph 
on this order. Dr. Albert E. Wood, formerly of Columbia University, 
visited the Department for a week examining the collection of fossil 

Assistant Curator Sharat K. Roy continued his studies in 
preparation of the monograph, The Geology and Paleontology of South- 
eastern Baffin Land, but progress in this work was considerably 
checked due to additional work caused by the transference of the 
study collection and rearrangement of the work rooms of the Depart- 
ment. A paper by Mr. Roy, entitled Description of a Silurian 
Phyllopod Mandible with Related Notes, was published by the 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 335 

Museum in the spring. The mandible figured and described in this 
paper is the only one yet recorded from the Silurian of North America. 

Mr. Roy completed in June a series of laboratory experiments, 
begun in 1933, to refute or confirm the reported discovery of living 
bacteria in stony meteorites by Professor Charles B. Lipman of 
the University of California. Four meteorites, known by the 
names Holbrook, Mocs, Pultusk and Forest City, were used in 
the investigation. The first three of these belong to the same falls 
as three of the five used by Professor Lipman in his final studies. 
The results of the experiments, published by the Museum, were 
negative, indicating that the living bacteria in meteorites found 
by Professor Lipman were contaminants. Mr. Roy also prepared 
a bibliography of the geologic literature on the Arctic regions. 

Miss Elizabeth Oliver, volunteer assistant in paleobotany, 
engaged in identifying and classifying Mesozoic plant material, 
was called away early in the year to fill a teaching position. She 
identified some 200 specimens, and was mainly responsible for the 
substantial progress which has been made in the care and use of the 
study collection of fossil plants. 

Members of the Department staff contributed nineteen signed 
articles and thirty shorter items to Field Museum News, and supplied 
data for twenty-eight newspaper articles. There were 235 corre- 
spondents and 202 visitors referred to the Department during the 
year for information and identification of several hundred specimens. 

The activities of the Department were considerably increased 
by the employment of several workers provided by the Illinois 
Emergency Relief Commission and the federal Works Progress 
Administration. Although these men and women were not assigned 
to the routine work of the regular staff, they rendered valuable 
service to the Department. Through their assistance much clerical 
work, which had been set aside for lack of time, was completed. 


Forty-four accessions were recorded during 1935. Of these 
thirty-five were gifts, four were from previous expeditions and mem- 
bers of the Staff, and five were obtained by exchange. These 
accessions increased the Department collections by 1,750 specimens. 

The most important accessions were skeletons of vertebrate 
fossils received from the United States National Museum, Washing- 
ton, D.C., in exchange for a duplicate South American sloth specimen. 
A skeleton of the fossil horse, Plesippus, received from this institu- 

336 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

tion, filled a gap in the Museum's series of fossil horses. Three 
extra skulls included in this exchange show three stages of tooth 
development. These are desirable additions to the study collection. 

The Standard Oil Company of New Jersey presented eighteen 
specimens of vertebrate fossils collected by their field men in 

Other additions to the vertebrate fossil collections were a fossil 
fish, the gift of Mr. A. H. Sullivan, of St. Louis; two shark teeth, 
presented by Mr. Harold Rydberg, of Sarasota, Florida; and a 
tooth of Uintatherium, presented by Mr. Edwin B. Faber, of Grand 
Junction, Colorado. 

An important accession is a collection of rocks, sands and fossils of 
desert regions gathered by Messrs. Henry Field and Richard Martin, 
leader and assistant respectively of the Field Museum Anthropo- 
logical Expedition to the Near East, 1934. This collection includes 
939 specimens of rocks and minerals, and 190 specimens of inverte- 
brate fossils. Since the effects of arid climates on surface rocks and 
soils are exceptionally well-marked in these deserts, the collection 
provides material of unusual excellence as a basis for research on 
numerous unsolved desert phenomena. The sands have been very 
carefully collected. When systematically studied they should aid 
considerably in the interpretation of the general geology of the 
regions of their origin. The fossils are mostly internal molds, but 
all, with the exception of a few, are identifiable. They are of Meso- 
zoic age and would be of value for stratigraphic and comparative 

Mr. K. Ogaki, of Fu-Shun, Manchukuo, presented a cabochon cut 
amber from Manchukuo, the only specimen of Asiatic amber in the 
Museum's collection. He also presented twenty-five fossil leaves 
from Manchukuo which, besides being a welcome addition to the 
exhibits, may provide material for research. A good specimen of 
iridescent agate from Oregon, placed on exhibition in H. N. Higin- 
botham Hall (Hall 31) was obtained by exchange with Mr. John 
A. Renshaw, of Arcadia, California. Three cones of living Araucaria 
from California were presented by Professor G. W. Graves, of Fresno, 
California, for comparison with fossil forms in the collection. 

Two fossil cones of spruce, collected and presented by Mr. Charles 
N. Ackerman, Chicago, an Associate Member of the Museum, are 
of scientific interest. Found on the shores of Grass Lake, Illinois, 
in strata deposited at the close of the Glacial period, they indicate 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 337 

the former presence of spruce forests at least 250 miles south of their 
present southern limits. 

Mr. Stafford C. Edwards, of Col ton, California, presented three 
specimens of the curious sand concretions found in the Salton Sink 
of California. Two other excellent spiral concretions from the 
Imperial Valley were the gift of Mr. Kenneth B. Garner of San 
Bernardino, California. 

Examples of the three principal constituents of coal — vitrain, 
clairain and fusain — were prepared and presented by the Illinois 
State Geological Survey, which also presented a specimen of novac- 
ulite from southern Illinois. Three specimens of other forms of 
silica from southern Illinois, and a large trilobite, were the gift of 
the Speiden Company, of Chicago. 

Six specimens of boron carbide presented by the Norton Com- 
pany, of Worcester, Massachusetts, are examples of the second 
hardest substance known, being exceeded in this quality only by 
the diamond. One of these specimens has been placed on exhibition 
in Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37). 

A gift, from the Philadelphia Quartz Company, of fourteen 
specimens of silicate of soda and the material from which it is made, 
has added interest to the exhibit displaying the uses of silica. 

The Standard Oil Company of Indiana continued its policy of 
replacing deteriorated specimens in the group illustrating the uses 
of petroleum, presenting for this purpose 320 specimens. 

Three specimens, one of glauconite, presented by Mr. Stanley 
Field, President of the Museum, and two of doucil, presented by the 
American Doucil Company, of Philadelphia, will form the nucleus 
for an exhibit of mineral water softeners, which have come into 
prominence in recent years. 

Mr. Frank von Drasek, of Cicero, Illinois, who has been for 
several years a generous donor, presented eleven additional speci- 
mens of quartz crystals illustrating the minerals of Arkansas. 

Specimens of four falls not hitherto represented were added to 
the meteorite collection by exchanging duplicate specimens with 
Professor H. H. Nininger, of Denver, Colorado. 

Nineteen specimens of Cambrian trilobites, the gift of Mr. 
Harold Vernon, of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, are a welcome addition 
to the Museum's collection of invertebrate fossils. 

Miss Elizabeth Oliver, of River Forest, Illinois, while working as 
a volunteer assistant in the Department, presented eight geologic 

338 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

specimens, one of which, a pisolite from Braidwood, Illinois, is of 
exceptional interest. 


New entries recorded in the Department catalogues, now com- 
prising twenty-six volumes, numbered 1,750. These, added to 
previous entries, give a total of 195,028. Copy for 1,273 specimen 
labels was prepared and sent to the Division of Printing, and 
2,915 labels, including duplicates, received from the Division, were 
installed in the cases. In order to afford information regarding 
exhibits before the permanent labels are ready, 149 typewritten 
labels were installed. These are written on buff paper matching 
the regular label stock so as to present a fairly uniform appearance 
when installed in a case containing permanent labels. There were 
649 labeled prints of photographs added to the Department 
albums, which now contain 8,385 prints. Fifty-eight United States 
Geological Survey maps were received, filed and labeled, making 
the number of these maps now available 4,290. 

The cross-indexed card catalogue of photographs begun last 
year was completed. The card catalogue of meteorites has been 
kept up to date. No work was possible until late in 1935 on the card 
catalogue of minerals begun last year, as no assistants qualified for 
this work could be assigned to it. 

Records of the entire collection of South American mammals 
obtained by the Marshall Field Expeditions, and by purchase and 
exchange, including collections from the Oligocene and middle 
Miocene formations, have been revised by Mr. Patterson. Speci- 
mens of these fossils have been permanently numbered to the extent 
of 3,797 pieces. Records of 312 specimens were entered in the card 
catalogue, and 480 determinations were made or confirmed and 
entered in the numerical catalogue of vertebrate fossils. 

A bibliography of the literature on South American fossil mam- 
mals, made by Mr. Patterson, has been copied on 3,000 cards, and 
a similar bibliography on the Arctic regions, prepared by Mr. Roy, 
has been copied on 420 cards. 

Illinois Emergency Relief and Works Progress Administration 
workers assigned to the Department prepared 25,000 catalogue 
cards, numbered 15,000 specimens, wrote 8,000 storage labels, 
cleaned 1,500 specimens and repaired 200 of them, and typed 1,400 
pages on work of various kinds. An average of six of these workers 
served the Department during about forty weeks of the year. 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 339 

installations and rearrangements — geology 

All exhibition cases were numbered to facilitate ready reference 
to their contents. The tremors resulting from the fall of the Skyride 
Towers of A Century of Progress exposition, which were razed in 
1935, caused much dust to fall from more friable specimens, necessi- 
tating the opening and cleaning of a number of cases. 

The most important addition to the exhibits in Hall 34 is the 
Gladstone meteorite, acquired by purchase in 1928. This large 
meteorite is two feet high, one foot wide, nine inches deep, and 
weighs 1,400 pounds. It was found in 1914 near Gladstone in 
Queensland, Australia. It is installed in an individual case placed 
in a group of five other cases, each of which contains a large meteorite. 

In Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35) a case of volcanic prod- 
ucts—lavas, volcanic bombs, etc. — was reinstalled, with the addition 
of much new material. Another case of volcanic products was 
dismantled, its contents being installed in accordance with a new 
plan. Many new specimens were added. 

The case of cave products, consisting chiefly of stalactites and 
stalagmites, and cut sections of these illustrating their internal 
structure, was reinstalled with the addition of a number of large 
specimens received from A Century of Progress exposition. 

Five colored transparencies of cave formations were placed in 
windows opposite the cave exhibit. The remarkable transparency 
showing the spine of Mount Pele, which had not been exhibited 
for some time, was placed in a window between the two cases of 
volcanic products. A case containing sections of veins and similar 
material was reinstalled, and to it were added a copper boulder 
and a number of other newly acquired specimens. 

Plans were made for an extensive reinstallation of the west 
half of this hall and much of the preliminary work was completed. 

In Hall 36 deteriorated specimens in two cases of petroleum 
products were replaced by fresh material, and the cases reinstalled. 
Two cases of oil sands were cleaned and reinstalled. 

In Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37) many of the old black 
labels were replaced with new labels on the standard buff background. 

Installations and changes in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) 
were of major importance. The principal change was the replace- 
ment of the cast of Megatherium, one of the most prominent objects 
in the hall, by a skeleton (see Plate XXXI). This skeleton, of the 
great sloth Megatherium americanum from the Pampa formation of 

340 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Argentina, was mounted by Preparator Phil C. Orr. It is the 
first skeleton of this animal installed in any museum of North 
America. The last of the large casts in this hall has now been 
eliminated and there remain no large specimens that are not actual 

A skeleton of the hitherto little-known South American mammal, 
Astrapotherium magnum, of the Miocene period, articulated by Prepar- 
ator J. B. Abbott, was placed on exhibition (see Plate XXXII). The 
death of Mr. Abbott on August 6 was a severe loss to his associates 
in the Department, of which he had been Chief Preparator since 
1902. A veteran collector, who had served on various expeditions 
in both North and South America, and one of the most outstanding 
men in his field, he was responsible for the preparation and mounting 
of many of the specimens now exhibited in Graham Hall. 

Another rare specimen, a skeleton of the archaic Paleocene 
amblypod, Titanoides faberi, was mounted by Preparator James H. 
Quinn, ready for installation early in 1936. From this and other 
allied specimens in the Museum's collection, the structure and 
relationships of this animal have been made known for the first time. 

Both of these skeletons, Astrapotherium and Titanoides, are the 
first specimens of their kind to be exhibited in any museum. 

Two great fossil land-turtles, Testudo species, form another im- 
portant new exhibit. One of these, measuring forty-eight inches in 
length, with a shell which alone is forty-two inches long by thirty- 
two inches wide, is one of the largest specimens of fossil tortoise 
so far reported from North America. Preparator Quinn mounted 
and installed the specimens, which include carapace and plastron of 
each, as well as the partially restored skeleton of the larger, and the 
skull of the smaller one. 

Preparation of a large group of Pleistocene mammals from the 
asphaltum beds of Los Angeles was begun by Preparator Orr. The 
group is designed to include skeletons of four large mammals, 
Equus occidentalis (an extinct species of horse), Bison antiquus 
(primitive western bison), Mylodon harlani (a ground sloth), and 
Smilodon calif ornicus (California saber- tooth tiger). These will be 
shown in a characteristic scene, in and about an asphaltum pool, in- 
dicating the manner in which the animals were mired and preserved. 

The life-size restorations of Mesohippus (three-toed horse) and 
of a Neanderthal family in Graham Hall have been moth-proofed, 
and the reindeer in the Neanderthal group has been replaced by a 
better specimen. 
























































































































1ft ^f 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 341 

The arrangement of invertebrate fossils in this hall remains sub- 
stantially as before. Only minor changes, such as replacement 
of inferior specimens, and the making of additions to or rearrange- 
ments of the contents of the cases, wherever interest and value 
could thus be improved, were undertaken. Duplicate fossils from 
wall cases containing Paleozoic material were removed to avoid 

In the case in Stanley Field Hall showing the comparison between 
living and fossil forms, three deteriorated invertebrate specimens 
were replaced by new material. Minor improvements in the installa- 
tion were also made in this case. 

A miniature sectioned model of the structure of the earth, show- 
ing the various layers in schematic form, was prepared by a Works 
Progress Administration modeler and painted by Assistant Curator 
A. B. Wolcott (of the N. W. Harris Public School Extension) under 
the direction of Curator Henry W. Nichols. It will go on exhibition 
as soon as preparations for its installation can be made. 

Room 120, which had held all study and reserve collections 
except those of vertebrate paleontology, was made available for 
the use of the Library which required additional space for the 
proper accommodation of books. This necessitated a rearrangement 
of the work rooms of the Department to provide space for the dis- 
placed collections, involving complete dismantling and reinstallation 
of equipment in four work rooms and changes in another. 

The invertebrate fossil collections which had filled nearly half 
of Room 120 were transferred to Room 111, formerly a preparatory 
work room. This room now accommodates both the fossil storage 
and the invertebrate laboratory. The preparator's equipment was 
transferred from Room 111 to 110, which had hitherto been used 
as the invertebrate laboratory. 

Since the transfer of the collections, they have undergone exten- 
sive reclassification and rearrangement. This was the major task 
undertaken during the year by Assistant Curator Roy. So far only 
the plant and the Ordovician fossils have been put in order. There 
remain some 600 trays to be arranged. The method of arrangement 
adopted by Mr. Roy is as follows : the material is distributed accord- 
ing to the geologic period; within each period the specimens are 
then divided into the various phyla, and finally each phylum is sub- 
divided geographically. 

The motor-driven combined rock-cutting and grinding machine 
was transferred from Room 110 and reinstalled in the invertebrate 

342 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

laboratory in a much improved condition. A new guard and two 
new saws, a diamond and a mud saw, were added to it, considerably 
enhancing its efficiency. 

Three-quarters of Room 113, which held the chemical laboratory, 
was walled off to accommodate the remaining collections from 
Room 120, consisting of the reserve, structural, and economic 
material, and part of the lithological and mineral specimens. 

The chemical equipment was installed in the smaller room, 
where it occupies only one-quarter of its former space. Nevertheless, 
owing to a more efficient arrangement of furniture and apparatus, 
it provides as many facilities as before. 

The chemical supplies, which had been stored in the west end 
of the old laboratory, were moved to an adjacent room which was 
equipped with storage closets for the purpose. Specimens requiring 
greater protection than the standard storage trays can provide 
were also transferred to this room. The room is provided with 
apparatus for sampling and rock crushing. 

Some additions to the working equipment in the chemical 
laboratory were made while rearrangements were in progress. An 
electric drying oven with automatic heat control has replaced the 
old gas oven, which required constant watching of the thermometer. 
The principal work desk has been provided with a ventilating hood 
to keep the air free of fumes. An apparatus, designed and built in 
the Department, has been installed in the still to save most of the 
time formerly required for refilling and cleaning. 

The Department supplies for installation work, formerly kept 
in Room 120, were transferred to Room 116. This room, previously 
used for making geological models and for preparations of larger 
specimens, now serves the double purpose of a storage and an installa- 
tion room. 

These changes in arrangement of rooms and equipment occupied 
most of the time of Curator Nichols for nearly four months. While 
the work was under way, material accumulated during a period of 
many years was sorted out, and all that was adjudged worthless 
was discarded. It was also discovered that many of the old numbers 
painted on specimens were fading. This was not due to the age of 
the paint but to its gradual sinking into the porous rocks. To remedy 
the condition a new method of numbering has been successfully 
employed. A small rectangle of paint of contrasting color is first 
applied to the specimen to fill the pores. This paint, when dried, 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 343 

provides the background on which the number is printed. This 
work has been assigned to two men from the relief organizations. 
To date, fifteen thousand specimens have been numbered, but 
many more require similar treatment. 



There were no regularly organized zoological expeditions in the 
field during the year. However, the Field Museum Anthropological 
Expedition to the Near East which concluded its work late in 1934, 
obtained a zoological collection of value and interest which was 
accessioned in 1935. This included mammals, birds, and reptiles, 
mainly from Iraq, collected by Messrs. Henry Field and Richard 
Martin of the Department of Anthropology. Since the Museum's 
collections from this part of the world are very scanty, this material 
was most welcome. 

Cooperation with Captain Robert A. Bartlett, on his expedition 
to the Arctic, resulted in the acquisition of three skins and skeletons 
of narwhal from Greenland. Arrangements similarly made with 
Admiral Richard E. Byrd on his Second Antarctic Expedition, 
yielded five Antarctic seals from "Little America," of the species 
known as Weddell's seal and crab-eating seal. The Museum's 
participation in both of these expeditions was made possible by the 
Emily Crane Chadbourne Fund. 

Ten specimens of emperor penguin, and a number of other pen- 
guins, also collected on the Byrd Expedition, were received as a 
gift from the Chicago Zoological Society. 

At the invitation of Mr. Tappan Gregory, of Chicago, Assistant 
Curator Colin C. Sanborn spent two weeks in Marquette County, 
Michigan, where he made a collection of fifty-five small mammals, 
including some which will be used for exhibition purposes. 

Mr. Edgar G. Laybourne, Assistant Taxidermist, collected snakes 
and lizards in Colorado during a vacation trip extended for the 
purpose, and obtained material for the preparation of an exhibit 
of the prairie rattlesnake. 

The following seven publications by members of the Staff and 
others, were issued in the Museum's Zoological Series during the 
year: New Fishes Obtained by the Crane Pacific Expedition, by Dr. 
Albert W. Herre, of Stanford University; A New Crocodile from the 
Philippine Islands, and Notes on the Breeding Behavior of Lizards, 

344 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

both by Assistant Curator Karl P. Schmidt; A New Skink from 
Mexico, by Professor Edward H. Taylor, of the University of Kansas; 
New Mammals from Guatemala and, Honduras, by Assistant Curator 
Colin C. Sanborn; A New Generic and Family Position for Bufo 
borbonica, by D. Dwight Davis, Assistant in Osteology; and Part 
VIII, Catalogue of Birds of the Americas, by Associate Curator 
Charles E. Hellmayr. 

Publications by Staff members which appeared under other than 
Museum auspices include the following: "Amphibians and Reptiles 
of the Chicago Region," by Karl P. Schmidt and Walter L. Necker, 
Bulletin, Chicago Academy of Sciences, Vol. 5, pp. 57-77; "Gona- 
dectomy and a New Secondary Sexual Character in Frogs," by 
D. Dwight Davis and C. R. Law, Science, Vol. 81, pp. 562-564; 
"Our Vanishing Game," by John W. Moyer, American Field, June, 
1935; "Along Darwin's Trail in South America," by Wilfred H. 
Osgood, Scientific Monthly, Vol. XL, pp. 73-77; and "The Ethiopians 
and Their Stronghold," by Wilfred H. Osgood, Natural History, 
Vol. XXXV, pp. 286-298. 

Contributions of the zoological staff to Field Museum News 
included eighteen signed articles and fifteen brief notes; and coopera- 
tion was extended in the preparation of thirty-one articles for 

Research was continued from time to time by Curator Wilfred H. 
Osgood on Chilean and African mammals, especially those obtained 
by the Field Museum-Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition 
(1926-27) and the Straus West African Expedition of Field Museum 
(1934). Assistant Curator Sanborn devoted available time mainly 
to studies of bats, preparing reports on the rarer neotropical species 
in the Museum and on various African bats, particularly those of 
the Straus West African Expedition. He also studied the mammals 
received through the Field Museum Archaeological Expedition to 
the Near East (1934). Material was accumulated for a revision of 
the American members of the chiropteran family Emballonuridae 
and preliminary studies were made. Work was continued in com- 
piling a list of the genera of bats and indexing other literature 
pertaining to them. 

In the Division of Birds, Associate Curator Hellmayr, work- 
ing in Europe, mainly at the Vienna Museum, concluded studies 
of the smaller passerine birds and began preparation of the final 
parts of the Catalogue of the Birds of the Americas. These parts 
will be devoted to the raptorial birds, the game birds, and the water 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 345 

birds. Assistant Curator Rudyerd Boulton devoted available time 
to African birds, especially certain genera, and Assistant Emmet R. 
Blake proceeded with identification and study of the birds received 
from the Mandel-Field Museum Zoological Expedition to Venezuela 
(1932), and the Leon Mandel Guatemala Expedition for Field 
Museum (1933-34). 

Research on reptiles and amphibians was centered, mainly, in 
two fields, upper Central America and southwestern Asia. The 
collections made by the Leon Mandel Guatemala Expedition were 
studied with others from Honduras and British Honduras made 
available by loans from the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh. 
Two papers by Assistant Curator Karl P. Schmidt were completed — 
The Salamanders of Guatemala and New Species of Amphibians and 
Reptiles from Honduras. The collections from Iraq and Persia were 
partly identified and will warrant an extended report. A small 
Bahaman collection received from Dr. L. A. Hodsdon, of Miami, 
Florida, made necessary a review of the Bahaman reptiles in Field 
Museum, which resulted in a brief report for publication as Notes 
on Bahaman Reptiles. A collection of Angolan frogs and toads col- 
lected by the Pulitzer Expedition of the Carnegie Museum was 
identified at Field Museum, and a short report was prepared here 
upon them. This is to appear in the Annals of the Carnegie Museum. 
The local fauna, on which observations of varying importance are 
made from year to year, was summarized in a joint paper by Mr. 
Walter L. Necker and Mr. Schmidt, published by the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences. This paper was written especially to serve 
as a technical background for the popular leaflets on the reptiles 
of the Chicago area, and to stimulate further study in the local field. 

Assistant Curator Alfred C. Weed made preliminary studies on 
new and interesting fishes obtained by Mr. Henry Field in the 
Near East, and also on new and rare fishes collected in Hawaii and 
Fiji by members of the John G. Shedd Aquarium staff during their 
expedition to the South Seas, and presented to the Museum by the 
Aquarium. Reports on these collections are in course of preparation. 

Assistant D. D wight Davis worked on problems in the anatomy 
of amphibians, and made a survey of the distribution of Bidder's 
organ in toads. This resulted in several additions to existing knowl- 
edge of the relationships of the animals involved and in new light 
on the nature of the structure itself. 

346 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 


Accessions in 1935 totaled 9,611, which is about 12 per cent less 
than in 1934, and about 25 per cent less than the average of the 
last ten years. This is a good showing, in view of the lack of expedi- 
tions, and is due to the receipt of an unusual number of gifts, to 
notable exchanges, and to especially advantageous purchases at 
small cost. The distribution of accessions by zoological groups is as 
follows: mammals, 1,208; birds, 3,240; amphibians and reptiles, 
2,309; fishes, 512; insects, 2,171; lower invertebrates, 171. Included 
in the totals for mammals, birds, and reptiles are 165 skeletons. 
The number credited to Museum expeditions is 1,311; to gifts, 
4,129; to exchanges, 1,126; to purchases, 3,045. 

Notable among the gifts of mammals were nine African and 
Australian mammals presented by the Chicago Zoological Society, 
and one polar bear received from the Lincoln Park Zoo through 
the courtesy of the Chicago Park District. 

From Mr. Henry Field, of Chicago, were received thirty mam- 
mals collected in Iraq. A fox and a badger from Mr. J. H. Dekker, 
stationed in Iraq; a bear skeleton from Mr. Austin Eastwood, of 
Bagdad, Iraq; and a hyena from Iran (Persia), gift of Dr. Erich F. 
Schmidt, of Rayy, Iran, received through the interest of Mr. Field, 
have added greatly to the interest and value of the Museum's small 
collection from the Near East. 

Mr. A. W. Exline, of San Jose^, on the island of Mindoro in the 
Philippines, collected and presented four specimens of the rare 
tamarao buffalo of that island, including a bull with horns of record 
size. Mr. Stewart Springer, of Biloxi, Mississippi, sent some un- 
usually small moles from Florida representing a form new to the 
collection. Major Wallis Huidekoper, of Twodot, Montana, pre- 
sented three fine wolf skins. A series of nineteen skulls of coyotes, 
skunks, bobcats, and badgers was received from Mr. W. R. Thomas, 
of Rapid City, South Dakota. From Leicestershire, England, Mrs. 
A. E. Burnaby sent ten specimens in alcohol, including three bats, 
a weasel, a water rat, and five moles. 

Gifts of bats, from Panama, the West Indies, the Philippines 
and China, totaling 353 specimens, were received. Most notable 
were 307 specimens from Panama presented by the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology of Harvard University. Dr. Alfred E. Emerson, 
of the University of Chicago, was the donor of seventeen bats from 
Panama, including forms new to the collection. Dr. L. A. Hodsdon, 
of Miami, Florida, gave nine bats from the Bahamas, and Mr. 

Fan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 347 

Stewart Walpole, of Chicago, presented ten bats from Barbados. 
Dr. C. C. Liu, of Soochow, China, presented three bats from there, 
me being an extremely rare form. The Department of Anthropology 
;ransferred to the Department of Zoology the skulls of seven rare 
ruit bats from the Philippines and New Guinea. 

Important additions were made to the collection of mammals 
3y exchange with other museums. The largest exchange has been 
vith the United States National Museum, Washington, D.C., 
whence 311 specimens have already been received, and further 
exchange is in progress. From the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
it Harvard were received seven bats, and from The American Museum 
)f Natural History, New York, eleven, by exchange. 

Through the Emily Crane Chadbourne Fund exceptionally fine 
material was obtained by purchase. This includes the skins and 
skeletons of three narwhals, collected by Captain Robert A. 
Bartlett off north Greenland, and three Weddell's and two crab- 
iating seals from Antarctica, collected by the Second Byrd Ant- 
arctic Expedition. Other advantageous purchases include 185 
West African, 175 Ecuadorian, and 83 Costa Rican mammals, adding 
nany desirable species to the Museum. 

A small collection of nine rare bats from Arizona was purchased. 
Gifts, exchanges, and purchases of bats added seven genera to the 
collection of this order, so that now the Museum has the fairly 
[arge total of 138 genera and more than 500 species and subspecies 
represented . 

Sixty-six separate gifts of birds, totaling 644 specimens, were 
'eceived from twenty-seven different donors. In these contributions 
s reflected especially the gratifying cooperation of local naturalists. 
Most important were those from Mr. Leslie Wheeler, a Trustee of 
the Museum, and the Chicago Zoological Society. Mr. Wheeler 
presented 333 specimens of hawks and owls, representing every 
major area in the world, and thus added greatly to the research 
facilities of Field Museum's fine study collection of birds of these 
groups. In addition, an excellent collection of 142 birds from Angola 
(Portuguese West Africa), four cuckoos and goatsuckers from 
Ecuador, and a partially albino robin, were presented to the Museum 
by Mr. Wheeler. 

From the Chicago Zoological Society 106 specimens were received 
as gifts, among the most important being ten emperor penguins 
from "Little America." In addition to the skins of these largest 
of all penguins, seven complete skeletons and two completely em- 

348 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

balmed specimens were preserved. Among other specimens of 
particular note were Adelie, Galapagos and black-footed penguins, 
saddle-billed stork, Galapagos albatross, Cape Barren and Australian 
pied geese, and many interesting pigeons and waxbill weavers from 
Australia. Skeletons were preserved of most of these specimens, 
which accounts in large part for the significant advancement of 
the osteological collection during the year. Sixty-one genera were 
added to this collection. 

Among small but important gifts of birds received during the 
year were those from Major R. D. Hildebrand, of Buncombe County, 
North Carolina, Mr. Boardman Conover, of Chicago, Sir Charles 
F. Belcher, of Port of Spain, Trinidad, and Mr. Donald B. Hodgsdon, 
of Pochuta, Guatemala. The purchase of part of the noted H. K. 
Coale collection resulted in the most important accession of the year, 
numbering 2,556 specimens from Africa, Asia and Australia. More 
than 1,200 species are included, among them a large number of rare 
and infrequently seen genera which heretofore have been unrepre- 
sented in Field Museum. 

Among gifts of reptiles and amphibians, the most notable were 
as follows: 380 specimens from various parts of the world, presented 
by Mr. Stewart Springer, of Biloxi, Mississippi, filling many gaps in 
the European and North American collections; from the Chicago 
Zoological Society, fifty-eight specimens, several of which were 
used for making reproductions for exhibition, while others provided 
valuable and much desired skeletal material; from Mr. Henry Field, 
and through him from officials of the Iraq Petroleum Company, 
129 specimens from Iraq, forming an important addition to the 
Museum's growing collections from southwestern Asia; from 
Dr. Alfred E. Emerson, of the University of Chicago, seventeen 
specimens, supplementing the Museum's Panama collections; from 
Dr. L. A. Hodsdon, of Miami, Florida, eighteen specimens from the 
Bahama Islands, making possible a short publication (now in press) 
on this interesting fauna; from Mr. Stewart J. Walpole, of Chicago, 
twenty-seven specimens from Barbados, representing this island in 
the collections for the first time; from Mr. George Murray, Director 
of Agriculture of the Territory of New Guinea, eleven specimens 
from New Britain; from Mr. R. Marlin Perkins, of St. Louis, thirteen 
snakes, including little known coral snakes from Arkansas; and 
from Mr. C. Blair Coursen, who is the President of the General 
Biological Supply House, Chicago, forty-six specimens from Key 
West, Florida. 





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Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 349 

Forty-eight reptiles obtained by purchase, chiefly from Florida, 
were used in the preparation of reproductions for exhibition. In 
return for identification of collections for other institutions, 440 
specimens were obtained from Oklahoma, Angola, Cameroon and 
Honduras. Other specimens were exchanged with the British 
Museum, the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, the 
Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh, and the Zoologische Staatssamm- 
lung in Munich. 

Reptiles and amphibians received as a result of expeditions 
include 579 specimens from the Field Museum Anthropological 
Expedition to the Near East (1934), collected by Messrs. Henry 
Field and Richard Martin; and twenty-six specimens collected in 
Colorado by Mr. Edgar G. Laybourne of the Museum's taxidermy 

As a gift from the John G. Shedd Aquarium, 400 specimens of 
fishes were received from that institution's 1935 expedition to 
Hawaii and Fiji. These form the most valuable accession of fishes 
during the year. Several of the species seem to be new to science. 
Others were previously known from only a very few individuals. 
Several of the fishes were found in places far removed from localities 
where they had previously been recorded. The fact that these 
fishes were seen and studied in life, before their preservation in 
alcohol, makes them especially valuable. 

Nineteen fishes received in an exchange with Professor Leonard P. 
Schultz, of the School of Fisheries, University of Washington, give 
the Museum a representation of forms previously lacking in the 
study collection. Mr. E. F. Vacin, of Oak Park, Illinois, presented 
three large trout that he caught in lakes near Laramie, Wyoming. 
One of these, a very large cut-throat trout, will serve as a fine 
example of this game fish for exhibition. Two small sharks, collected 
in Bermuda by Mr. Stewart J. Walpole, add an interesting species to 
the study collection. Professor H. W. Norris, Grinnell College, 
Grinnell, Iowa, has continued sending study material of sharks and 
related forms. The most valuable is a fine specimen of the rare 
shark Aprionodon isodon. 

A small number of fishes brought back by the Field Museum 
Anthropological Expedition to the Near East (1934), proved very 
valuable. Many of them were secured east of Amara, Iraq, in a 
region that had previously been entirely closed to zoological collectors. 
Two species in the lot seem to be new to science. 


352 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

The study collection of reptiles has been rearranged, especially 
the specimens contained in large bottles and tanks. Both reptiles 
and fishes preserved in alcohol have been insured of remaining in 
good condition by extensive changing and reclaiming of alcohol. 
In the large collection of fishes about half the stock of preservative 
has been renewed. 

Accumulated routine work, especially in the cleaning of skulls 
and bones in the Division of Osteology, was very greatly advanced. 
The preparation of approximately 2,000 mammal skulls leaves only 
a few hundred of these uncleaned, and makes way for the work of 
cleaning small skeletons. Twelve skeletons of large mammals were 
cleaned by a combination of maceration and hand methods. A 
number of small mammal skeletons and a few amphibian and reptile 
skeletons were cleaned by hand. By the use of dermestids (beetles) 
155 bird skeletons, ten mammal skeletons, and ten reptile skeletons 
were cleaned. The bodies of two emperor penguins were embalmed 
and added to the series of vertebrate types preserved for study of 
the soft anatomy. In the macerating room two large cooking tanks, 
which had corroded, were removed and replaced by a stone macerat- 
ing tank. Equipment was designed and built for degreasing bones 
and other material. 

installations and rearrangements — ZOOLOGY 

Seven habitat groups of large mammals were completed and 
opened to the public in 1935. Five of these are in William V. Kelley 
Hall of Asiatic Mammals (Hall 17), the subjects being the axis deer, 
the common leopard, the snow leopard, the blackbuck and chinkara, 
and the nilgai. A group of elephant seals was installed in the Hall 
of Marine Mammals (Hall N), and one of gelada baboon was placed 
in Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall (Hall 22). 

In George M. Pullman Hall (Hall 13) there was added one sys- 
tematic case showing the five principal species of South American 

The axis deer group has unusually fine pictorial quality and 
harmonious color tones. Five animals are shown in light tropical 
forest resting at midday. A handsome stag stands quietly under a 
large tree, while a younger stag and two does with a pair of fawns 
are lying at one side on a leafy forest bed (see Plate XXXV). The 
specimens were obtained by the James Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic 
Expedition of Field Museum (1925-26) and the late Colonel J. C. 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 353 

Faunthorpe. The group was prepared by Staff Taxidermist C. J. 
Albrecht, and has a background by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin. 

The common leopard is represented by a single animal which is 
effectively combined with a forest scene so as to indicate the character 
and habits of the species by direct portrayal and also by subtle 
suggestion. It appears in a menacing attitude in the branches of 
a wild fig tree reproduced from studies made through cooperation 
with the Bombay Natural History Society. The specimen used 
was obtained during the James Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedi- 
tion. Taxidermy, background, and accessories for the exhibit are 
the work of Staff Taxidermist Leon L. Pray, assisted by Mr. Frank 

The third Asiatic group to be completed during the year was 
one in which two species of antelopes are shown. These are the 
Indian antelope or blackbuck and the Indian gazelle or chinkara. 
Five animals are included, three of the blackbuck and two of the 
chinkara, shown in a setting of light scrub in semi-arid plains 
with low hills in the distance. This group was obtained by the 
James Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition and Colonel Faun- 
thorpe. It was prepared by Staff Taxidermist Arthur G. Rueckert 
and Mr. W. E. Eigsti. The background is by Mr. Corwin. 

The snow leopard group (see Plate XXXIII), opposite the giant 
panda in the central section of Kelley Hall, is one of exceptional 
beauty and interest. This is not only because of the subject, con- 
ceded to be the most beautiful of the larger cats, but because of the 
stupendous grandeur of the scene in the high Himalayas in which 
it is displayed. Only three animals appear, an old female and two 
kittens sitting on a fallen log with a freshly killed pheasant before 
them to excite attitudes of playfulness and anticipation. Behind 
rises the magnificent snow-laden front of the Himalayas. Taxidermy 
is by Mr. Albrecht, and background by Mr. Corwin. 

The nilgai group shows another typical animal of central India, 
a large and somewhat ungainly antelope in which the males are 
blackish or bluish, and the females light brown or tan in color, 
A feature of the group is the reproduction of a dhak tree bearing 
great masses of reddish flowers above the green foliage of its 
lower branches. The animals are grouped as in midday enjoying 
the shade of the tree. The specimens in the group were collected 
by Mr. D. W. Ellsworth while temporarily associated with the James 
Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition. Staff Taxidermist Julius 

354 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Friesser and Mr. W. E. Eigsti prepared the group, and Mr. Corwin 
painted the background. 

In the Hall of Marine Mammals (Hall N), an important addition 
was made by the completion of a group of northern elephant seal (see 
Plate XXXIV). This is one of the largest groups in the Museum and 
one which has involved much labor, study and expense. It was made 
possible through the generous cooperation of Captain G. Allan Han- 
cock, of Los Angeles, and Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, President of the 
San Diego Zoological Society. On Captain Hancock's yacht, the 
Velero III, Messrs. Julius Friesser and Frank Wonder, of the Mu- 
seum's taxidermy staff, were taken to Guadalupe Island, Mexico, 
in 1933, and enabled to collect the specimens for the group and all 
necessary data. The finished group includes one magnificent bull 
and four females and younger animals. The bull measured approxi- 
mately seventeen feet in length, and had an estimated weight of 
5,000 pounds. The group was prepared by the collectors, Messrs. 
Friesser and Wonder. The background, painted by Mr. Corwin, 
shows an expansive seascape and a section of "Elephant Beach," 
the principal hauling ground of the seals on Guadalupe Island. 

A group of the gelada baboon, added to the exhibits in Carl E. 
Akeley Memorial Hall (Hall 22), shows an old male seated solemnly 
on a rocky prominence with a female and a half -grown young baboon 
engaged, near-by, in exploring crevices in the rock. The group 
was prepared by Mr. Pray from material collected by the Field 
Museum-Chicago Daily Neivs Abyssinian Expedition (1926-27). 

Two screens of ducks in the North American series in Hall 21 
were reinstalled, with eight replacements of specimens. Twenty- 
four case labels were provided for this series. In the synoptic series 
of birds of the world, two screens were installed. These show 
the important types of water birds of twelve families, including 
albatrosses, petrels, pelicans, cormorants, loons, grebes and frigate- 

Two special cases of the projected series of biological exhibits 
were completed and installed. One shows the extinct birds of North 
America, including the great auk, Labrador duck, passenger pigeon, 
Carolina paroquet, heath hen and three other extinct species; the 
other case shows foreign birds introduced by man, including the 
starling, house sparrow, ring-neck pheasant, Hungarian partridge 
and six other less known species. Appropriate labels call attention 
to gradual changes in a fauna that occur under natural conditions, 
and the greatly speeded-up changes caused by man's interference. 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 355 

Cases for ten new habitat groups of foreign birds were constructed 
in Hall 20, and the preparation of six groups was undertaken. Two 
of these, the emperor penguins from "Little America," and plantain 
eaters from the West African rain forest, were well advanced toward 
completion. All the work on birds was done by Staff Taxidermists 
Ashley Hine (who retired from service during the year), and John 
W. Moyer. 

A case of salamanders and frogs, in Albert W. Harris Hall 
(Hall 18), was rearranged to accommodate eleven new reproductions. 
These include two species of North American tree frogs; the remark- 
able African clawed frog; a large species of Australian tree-frog; 
the marbled, red-backed, and Great Smokies salamanders of the 
United States; the extraordinary eel-like Amphiuma of the south; 
the web-footed banana salamander from Guatemala, and the gill- 
breathing axolotl of the Mexican lakes. All these models are the 
work of Staff Taxidermist Leon L. Walters, and made by the cellulose- 
acetate process invented by him, and developed over a period of 
years in Field Museum laboratories. The larger American snakes 
were rearranged to make room for exhibits of the milk snake, striped 
racer, and blue racer, and the poisonous snakes were arranged to 
fill a complete half-case, with the addition of the two common 
vipers, the Florida coral snake, the western copperhead, pygmy 
rattlesnake, and the fer-de-lance of tropical America. 

There remain a number of lizard and snake reproductions which 
were finished during 1935 and are ready to be installed in the coming 
year. The most notable of these are the Galapagos land iguana 
and the common East Indian monitor lizard, prepared by Assistant 
Taxidermist Edgar G. Laybourne under the direction of Mr. Walters. 

A screen of skeletons of amphibians and reptiles was installed 
in Hall 19. This exhibit, in addition to a systematic representation 
of the principal types forming the group, is provided with illustrated 
diagrams demonstrating the central place these animals have 
occupied in the history of vertebrates and indicating the derivation 
of both mammals and birds from them. A series of fish skeletons 
was prepared and remounted for later installation in Hall 19 with 
the skeletons of other major groups of vertebrates. These installa- 
tions were the work of Assistant Curator Edmond N. Gueret and 
Assistant D. Dwight Davis. 

Volunteer work during the year was done by various young 
men, somewhat as student-assistants, but with very definite practical 
results in the care and use of the collections. In the Division of 

356 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Birds, Mr. Harold Hansen spent ten months, Mr. Sidney Camras, 
one month, and Mr. Robert Cutler, two weeks. In the Division of 
Osteology, Mr. Gerhard Roth was engaged for three months. Mr. 
Walter L. Necker worked on collections of amphibians and reptiles 
from time to time, altogether about two months. Mr. C. W. Carson, 
Jr., also worked in the Division of Reptiles for a period of six weeks. 
Mr. Rupert Wenzel contributed his services to the Division of 
Insects for seven months. 

The employment of workers paid by state and federal relief 
agencies was continued with marked success, and great benefit to 
the progress of every Division in the Department. The number 
engaged varied from month to month, being reduced to none in 
May, and increased to a maximum of forty-one in December, 
with a monthly average for the whole year of eighteen. 

The work done by this force, assigned in the earlier part of the 
year by the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission, and by the 
Works Progress Administration from October on, falls under three 
general heads: (1) Preparation of zoological specimens by hand 
work for permanent preservation in the study and reserve collections 
of the Museum. Examples of this are the cleaning of skulls and 
skeletons, the repairing and renovation of bird skins, and the pinning 
of insects. (2) Fabrication of accessories and materials for use in 
new exhibits. Examples are artificial leaves, flowers, and wax or 
plaster models. (3) Clerical and semi-clerical work, including typing, 
cataloguing, labeling, numbering, indexing, and arranging specimens; 
making drawings of specimens for illustration of reports; and biblio- 
graphic work or compilation of data from books or specimens. 


As in former years, the activities of the Department of the 
N. W. Harris Public School Extension embraced the collecting, 
preparing and installing of natural history specimens in portable 
cases with informative labels, and the circulating of them in the public 
schools and other educational institutions of the city. In the prepa- 
ration of various subjects, such as plants and flowers, reptiles, fishes, 
and some accessories which are highly perishable in nature, resort was 
made on an increasing scale to the cellulose-acetate process of re- 
production so successfully developed in the Department of Zoology. 
This has proved of great value in representing with fidelity the 
color and form of many types of specimens used in Harris Extension 
cases. The material and specimens used were, with the exception 













































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Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 357 

of a few economic subjects, all collected within the vicinity of the 
city of Chicago. The colored backgrounds used in many of 
the cases were also made from photographs taken in the same region 
and at the same time that the specimens were collected. 

Despite the fact that the members of the Department staff were 
largely occupied in repairing 216 cases and in reinstalling entirely 
ninety-one exhibits, nineteen new cases were completed during the 
year. In addition to the new cases finished, a number of others 
are in a more or less advanced stage of preparation. Due to deteri- 
oration from long and constant use, thirteen exhibits were with- 
drawn from circulation. All of the cases were inspected, cleaned 
and polished during the school vacation in summer. There are now 
available for use in the schools, 1,212 cases, illustrating 407 different 
subjects. There are 676 cases devoted to 290 zoological subjects; 
382 to eighty-seven botanical subjects; and 154 to thirty geological 

During the past year there were 415 schools in Chicago which 
made daily use of the cases. These comprised 374 public schools, 
with an attendance of approximately one-half million pupils; nine 
private schools, including the University High School of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago; and thirty- two parochial schools. In addition, 
cases were loaned to nine branches of the Chicago Public Library, 
eight branches of the Y.M.C.A., two Boys' Union League Clubs, 
and seven social settlements. To each of these 441 schools and 
institutions two cases were delivered fortnightly. Thus 882 of the 
exhibits were kept in constant circulation throughout the school 
year. The Department's two motor trucks traveled a total of 
11,885 miles while engaged in delivering and collecting cases. 

A number of requests were received from other sources for the 
loan of cases for special limited periods. In response to these, six 
cases were loaned to the Institute for Juvenile Research of the 
State Department of Public Welfare; five cases were sent to the 
Vacation Bible School of the Fourth Presbyterian Church; twelve 
cases were loaned to the summer camp of the United Charities of 
Chicago at Algonquin, Illinois; and fourteen were shown in a special 
booth at the International Live Stock Exposition, held at the Chi- 
cago Union Stock Yards. 

That the service rendered by the Harris Extension is appreciated 
as a valuable adjunct to the work of the schools is manifested by 
the receipt during the year of several hundred letters of commen- 
dation from principals, teachers and pupils. 

358 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 




The James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation has 
provided, as in past years, several series of lectures, entertainments, 
and other activities for the benefit of children. These include the 
spring and autumn courses of motion picture programs presented 
in the James Simpson Theatre of the Museum, the guide-lecture 
tours of the exhibits available to parties of children throughout the 
year, and also the extension lectures given in classrooms and as- 
sembly halls of the schools. The number of groups coming to the 
Museum for conducted tours of the exhibition halls in 1935 was the 
largest since 1931: also, many schools not heretofore on the Founda- 
tion's list requested and received the extension lectures. 


The programs in the series of free motion pictures, presented in 
the James Simpson Theatre on Saturday mornings during the spring 
and autumn, were as follows: 

Spring Course 

March 2 — American Bears; A Trip to Washington; In the South Seas; 

March 9 — Babies of the Farm; Jungle Belles; Australian Animals; A Dyak 

March 16 — The Orang at Work and Play; The Javanese Farmers; Watching the 

March 23 — Antelopes Seldom Seen; Daniel Boone and a New Trail. 
March 30— Wild Life at Home; Laying the World's Fastest Cable. 

April 6 — Beetle Friends and Enemies; Trained Bird Fishermen; Glimpses of 

Quaint Gaspe\ 
April 13 — Monkey Capers; Jungle Vaudeville; Souvenirs of Singapore; The 

Wapiti of Jackson Hole. 

April 20 — Mushrooms and Their Cousins; Peter Stuyvesant.* 

April 27 — Nature's Weavers; Life of a Moth; Mounting Butterflies; Algonquin 

Autumn Course 

October 5 — Adventures of Wrongstart, the Dog: The Mountain Goats; The 
Bear Family; Wrongstart Meets a Porcupine; Shooting the 

October 12 — Feeding the Fisheaters; Columbus Crosses the Atlantic* 

October 19 — 'Neath Poland's Harvest Skies: The Dainty Hummingbird; 
Mammals in Strange Form; Old Man Trouble. 

October 26 — Among the Igloo Dwellers; Winter in an Arctic Village; Odd 
Hoofed Animals; Elephants at Work and Play. 

November 2— Jungle Giants; The Veldt; The Wrestling Swordfish; The Prowlers. 

November 9 — The Jenolan Caves; The Declaration of Independence.* 

♦Gift to the Museum from the late Chauncey Keep. 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 359 

November 16 — Winners of the West: The Departure of the Covered Wagons; 
Indians at Home; Buffalo Bill; The Pony Express; Within the 

November 23 — A Rhinoceros Episode; Quaint Boats of Japan; Small Cats and 
Monkeys; Turtles of All Lands; Kangaroos. 

November 30 — The Lapps and Their Reindeer; Prehistoric Lake Dwellers; 
Wearers of Fur and Quills; Falling Snow. 

In addition to the two regular series of entertainments, two 
special programs were offered in February as follows: 

February 12 — Lincoln's Birthday Program: Lincoln and His Mother; A Presi- 
dent's Answer. 

February 22 — Washington's Birthday Program: Washington, His Life and Times. 

Twenty programs in all were offered to the children of the city 
and suburbs. The total attendance at these entertainments was 
34,004, of which 4,877 came to the special programs, 10,350 to the 
spring course, and 18,777 to the autumn series. 

The following newspapers gave publicity to the programs: 
Chicago Daily News, Chicago Tribune, Chicago Herald and Examiner, 
Chicago Evening American, and Chicago Daily Illustrated Times. 

An expression of appreciation for films loaned for the programs 
is herewith made to the United States Department of Agriculture, 
Western Electric Company, Canadian National Railways, Chicago, 
Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railway, Illinois Bell Telephone 
Company, Department of the Interior of the Dominion of Canada, 
and Swedish Bureau of Information. 


Members of the Raymond Foundation staff prepared two series 
of Museum Stories for Children. Field Museum Press printed 
these in folder form, and copies were handed to all children attending 
the entertainments. The subject matter of the stories correlated 
with that of some of the films shown in the Simpson Theatre, or 
that of the talks, illustrated with colored slides, given by staff 
members in the schools. The titles of the stories in each series 
were as follows: 

Series XXIV — The American Chameleon; Native Life of Australia; The Javanese 
and Their Plays; Antelopes; The Story of Quartz; The Beetles; Some Interest- 
ing Monkeys; Mushrooms and Their Cousins; Bird Weavers. 

Series XXV — Northern Squirrels; Fishes That Walk, Climb and Fly; Humming- 
birds; Eskimo Homes; Some Interesting African Plants; The Story of the 
Caves; Indian Tipis; A Strange Member of the Turtle Family; The Swiss 
Lake Dwellers. 

Remaining copies of these stories were placed in a holder at the 
North Door during the summer to be taken by visiting children. 

360 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

The year's total distribution of Museum Stories for Children was 


Classwork in the exhibition halls was extended to the following 


of groups Attendance 

Tours for children of Chicago schools 

Chicago public schools 385 14,427 

Chicago parochial schools 30 1,064 

Chicago private schools 12 203 

Tours for children of suburban schools 

Suburban public schools 142 4,612 

Suburban parochial schools 3 118 

Suburban private schools 5 94 

Tours for special groups from clubs 

and other organizations 66 4,460 

In all, 643 groups were given guide-lecture service and the atten- 
dance was 24,978. During the months of April, May, June, October 
and November the requests for guide service were far greater than 
could be handled by the present staff of the Foundation. During 
July and August, more special vacation groups were cared for than 
at any other time except in the month of July, 1930. 

On December 3 and 5, the Museum was host to 1,500 boy and 
girl delegates to the Annual Congress of Four-H Clubs of the United 
States. Of this number, 1,050 were given special lectures in the 
halls devoted to prehistoric plants and animals, and in the Hall of 
the Stone Age of the Old World. The visitors expressed themselves 
as most appreciative of the courtesies rendered. 


As in previous years, extension lectures were offered to the schools. 

Following are the subjects which were presented in classrooms and 

assemblies before audiences of both high and elementary school 


For Geography and History Groups 

Glimpses of Eskimo Life; South America; North American Indians; Glimpses of 
Chinese Life; Native Life in the Philippines; The Romans; The Egyptians; 
Migisi, the Indian Lad. 

For Science Groups 

Field Museum and Its Work; Prehistoric Plants and Animals; Insects and Reptiles; 
Coal and Iron; Coffee, Chocolate and Tea; A Trip to Banana Land; Birds of 
the Chicago Region; Animal Life in the Chicago Region; Trees of the Chicago 
Region; Wild Flowers of the Chicago Region; Animals at Home; Our Outdoor 

The total number of extension lectures given by the staff of the 
Raymond Foundation was 411, and the total attendance was 153,557. 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 361 

accessions — raymond foundation 

During the year the Raymond Foundation acquired, for use in the 
Theatre and in the extension lectures, 314 slides made by the Division 
of Photography. Of these 168 were colored by the Museum 

The Foundation was also the recipient of 18,200 feet (21 reels) of 
motion picture film entitled The Trail of the Olympian, presented by 
the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railway. 


Guide-lecture service was made available without charge, as in 
previous years, to clubs, conventions and other organizations, and 
to Museum visitors in general. During July and August, morning 
tours were given in addition to the regular afternoon ones. For the 
information of visitors, printed monthly schedules were placed at 
the main entrance, and were distributed through cooperating agen- 
cies such as libraries and other civic centers, not only in the city but 
also in the suburbs. The tours offered to the public during the year 
included 101 of a general nature, and 198 covering specific topics. 
These were taken advantage of by 289 groups, comprising 5,012 
individuals. In addition to the regular public tours, there were 
special tours given to sixty-six groups from colleges, clubs and other 
organizations, and 1,770 persons attended these. 

The James Simpson Theatre was used for two meetings. In 
May, 1,500 members of the Juvenile Council of the Cook County 
Schools held an all-day session; in June, the foreign-born adult 
commencement of the city schools was held with 696 in attendance. 
In January, the small lecture hall was used by a group of college 
students. Total attendance at the three meetings was 2,214. 


The total number of groups reached through the activities of 
the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public 
School and Children's Lectures was 1,429, and the aggregate at- 
tendance included in these groups numbered 219,321 individuals. 


On Saturday afternoons during the spring and autumn months 
the Museum's sixty-third and sixty-fourth courses of free lectures 
for adults were given in the James Simpson Theatre. They were illus- 

364 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

especially for consultation by the Staff, that this curtailment seriously 
hampered much work. Therefore the opportunity which came in 
1935 to renew subscriptions to some of these was most welcome. 
With each renewal the numbers for the intervening years were 
secured so as to make the files complete. This, of course, added 
materially to the cost, but it also added greatly to the value of the 
various series. It has been possible, likewise, to purchase some of 
the newer books of importance in the Museum's fields, and all 
Departments have thus been strengthened. Two of the especial 
desiderata for the Edward E. Ayer Ornithological Library have 
been purchased: Miller, Beitrdge zur Ornithologie, Part 1, Afrika, 
and Zander, Naturgeschichte der Vogel Mecklenburgs, Parts 1-8, 
1837-1853. There has also been purchased the rare set of Velloso's 
Flora fluminensis in eleven volumes, a work written before 1790, 
although not published until 1825. It is an especially important 
work on the plants of the American tropics. Other purchases of 
the year include: McKenney and Hall, History of the Indian Tribes 
of North America, revised edition; Westlake, American Designs; 
Lamprecht, Handbuch der Palaeornithologie. 

After the receipt of the late Dr. Berthold Laufer's private library, 
which he bequeathed to the Museum, additional space was neces- 
sary, and Room 120 across the hall to the north of the reading room 
was assigned to the Library. This additional space also made 
possible a rearrangement of the books in the General Library thus 
providing for continued growth during the next few years. The 
less crowded condition on the shelves thus accomplished improved 
the serviceability of the Library. The new room was freshly painted, 
thus making it bright and attractive, and the needed stacks were 
provided for books. One half has been devoted entirely to volumes 
about China, and to books and manuscripts in the Chinese, Tibetan, 
Mongolian, Manchu and Korean languages. These are being 
catalogued by Professor F. E. Wood, a volunteer worker who has 
had previous experience in similar projects for other libraries. Most 
of the so-called Old Mongolian texts, of which there are about thirty, 
are included in the Mongolian collection. The Tibetan collection 
contains some one hundred and twenty books. There is a compara- 
tively small number of Manchu books in existence (about two hundred 
and fifty or so) and there are approximately thirty-five of these in 
this collection, of which some twenty-five are dictionaries. By far 
the largest part of the whole collection consists of books on China, 
including about 7,000 books in the Chinese language which have been 





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Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 365 

catalogued by Mr. Kenji Toda, whose employment was made possible 
by a gift of funds from the American Friends of China, Chicago. 
Among these books are fifteen collections on the subjects of literature, 
bibliography, philosophy, religion, history, geography, natural his- 
tory, and the arts. The books on China in other languages are being 
catalogued as rapidly as possible, and many of them are already 
available for readers. 

A most interesting and valuable feature of this collection is the 
extremely fine assortment of dictionaries, many of them of languages 
little known outside of the countries in which they are used. These 
will be found invaluable by many students. Among the dictionaries 
received are Chinese-English, Chinese-Russian, Chinese-French, 
Japanese-English, English-Burmese, Turk, and Indian dialects. 

Mr. Stanley Field, President of the Museum, presented a col- 
lection of about one hundred rare, beautifully bound and valuable 
books, containing many old, out-of-print editions of accounts of 
the famous voyages made in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 
Such books are almost invaluable for use in research work, and 
will always be highly treasured as source material. A few of the 
outstanding ones are: five volumes of the Hakluyt Collections of the 
Early Voyages, 1809-1812; Cook, A Voyage Towards the South Pole 
and Round the World, 1772-1776 (second voyage), first edition, 
two volumes, 1777; Cook, A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, 1776-1780 
(third voyage), first edition, three volumes, 1784; Cook, Illustrations 
of Cook's Voyages, 1768-1780; Anson, Voyage Round the World in 
the Years 17 1^-17 Uh, fifth edition, 1749; Barrow, Travels in China, 
1804 ; Belanger, Voyage aux Indes-Orientales par le Nord de VEurope, 
Atlas, 1825-1829; Beverly, The History and Present State of Virginia, 
first edition, 1705; Burney, A Chronological History of the Voyages 
and Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean, five volumes, 
1579-1764; Carver, Travels Through the Interior Part of North 
America, 1803-17, third edition; Dalrymple, An Historical Collection 
of the Several Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean, 
1770; Dampier's Voyages, 1729; Esquemeling, Buccaneers of America, 
1684; Hearne, Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson Bay 
to the Northern Ocean, 1795; Hennepin, A New Discovery of a Vast 
Country in America, 1698; Kippis, The Life of Captain James Cook, 
first edition, 1788; Meares, Voyages Made in the Years 1788 and 
1789, first edition, 1790; Ogilby, America, Being the Latest and Most 
Accurate Description of the New World, 1671; W. Smith, An His- 

366 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

toxical Account of the Expedition Against the Ohio Indians, 1765. 
Many of these have for years been among the Library's desiderata. 

Mr. Carl Gronemann, the Museum Illustrator, designed dis- 
tinctive bookplates for the two special collections received during 
this last year so that these books will be always distinguished from 
the rest of the Library. The one for the Laufer collection repre- 
sents a scene typically Chinese in motif and art style, suggesting 
the outlook through a window over a desk which by its writing 
brushes, ink palette, scrolls and other objects subtly connotes the 
idea of an author's sanctum. The one for Mr. Stanley Field's col- 
lection has his family's coat of arms, bordered by the distinctive 
Ionic pillars of Field Museum. 

Through the courtesy of Pratt Institute Library, Brooklyn, New 
York, most of the first thirty volumes of the Illustrated London 
News were received. These are a substantial contribution toward 
filling out the file of this frequently consulted periodical. 

In addition to those mentioned above, other valuable gifts have 
been received, among which are the following: from Mr. Henry 
Field, Chicago, about twenty volumes together with current numbers 
of Journal of Heredity and publications of Palaeontographical So- 
ciety; from Mr. Stanley Field, Illustrated London News and Bird-lore, 
current numbers; from Mr. Hsu Kwan-swen, Kiangsu, China, 
Chinese Mirrors; Khi-no, Funeral Ceremony; from Mr. A. E. S. Neu- 
mann, Description of Patagonia, 1774 (reprint) ; from Dr. E. E. Sherff, 
topographical maps of Hawaii and various publications of much 
interest; from Director Stephen C. Simms, current numbers of 
Museum News published by the American Association of Museums, 
Seidenadel's Language Spoken by the Bontoc Igorot, and Hamilton's 
Maori Art; from Mr. Benjamin K. Smith, Rustafjaell's Stone Age 
in Egypt, and Bresadola's I funghi mangerecci e velenosi. Many 
others have donated their own publications and these are greatly 

The Museum has been fortunate in making some valuable ex- 
changes with institutions and individuals in various parts of the 
world. Such exchanges are an important source of new publications 
for addition to the Library. The publications of the various scien- 
tific institutions are of great significance and value in a research 

Again deserving of appreciative acknowledgment is the courtesy 
of other libraries in lending books which were desired by the members 
of the Staff to assist in their research work. Especially should be 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 367 

mentioned the John Crerar Library, Chicago; the University of 
Chicago Library; the Library of Congress and that of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, in Washington, D. C; the Library 
of The American Museum of Natural History, New York; Harvard 
University Library, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology of 
Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts; the Library of the 
Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts; University of 
Michigan Library at Ann Arbor; University of Illinois Library, 
Urbana, Illinois; and the Library of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural Sciences. 


An exceptionally large amount of work on Museum publications 
was handled by the Division of Printing during 1935. This heavy 
production was facilitated by the fact that, in addition to the regular 
force of the Division, there were compositors, monotype operators, 
pressmen, binders, assistants in proofreading, and other helpers 
furnished during the greater part of the year by the Illinois 
Emergency Relief Commission and the federal Works Progress 
Administration. The number of these helpers varied at different 
periods, ranging from five to twenty-five. 

In the regular Museum publication series there were issued 
fifteen new numbers requiring an aggregate of 992 pages of type 
composition. Of these, 16,876 copies were printed. Seven of these 
publications were in the Zoological Series, six in the Geological 
Series, one in the Anthropological Series, and one was the Annual 
Report of the Director for 1934. In addition, 790 copies were printed 
of a 24-page index for Volume XVIII of the Zoological Series. 
Miscellaneous additional publications include a revised edition of 
10,069 copies of the General Guide (44 pages); a revised edition 
of the Handbook of Field Museum (68 pages) in which 3,084 copies 
were printed; and an additional volume, quarto size, in the Museum's 
Anthropological Memoirs Series, this last being a 474-page book of 
which 698 copies were produced. 

The total number of exhibition labels printed for all Departments 
of the Museum was 11,436. Other miscellaneous work brought the 
total number of impressions for the year to an aggregate of 353,341. 

Following is a detailed list of the publications: 

Publication Series 

335.— Zoological Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 12. New Fishes Obtained by the Crane 
Pacific Expedition. By Albert W. Herre. February 15, 1935. 58 pages, 
3 zinc etchings. Edition 749. 

368 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

336. — Report Series, Vol. X, No. 2. Annual Report of the Director for the Year 
1934. January, 1935. 144 pages, 12 photogravures. Edition 5,550. 

337. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 8. A New Crocodile from the Philippine 

Islands. By Karl P. Schmidt. May 15, 1935. 4 pages, 1 text figure. 

Edition 807. 
338. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 9. Notes on the Breeding Behavior of 

Lizards. By Karl P. Schmidt. May 15, 1935. 6 pages, 3 text figures. 

Edition 829. 
339. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 10. A New Skink from Mexico. By 

Edward H. Taylor. May 15, 1935. 4 pages, 1 text figure. Edition 838. 

340. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 11. New Mammals from Guatemala and 
Honduras. By Colin C. Sanborn. May 15, 1935. 6 pages. Edition 846. 

341. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 9. A New Silurian Phyllopodous Crustacean. 
By Sharat K. Roy. May 15, 1935. 6 pages, 1 text figure. Edition 839. 

342. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 10. A New Niagaran Conularia. By Sharat 
K. Roy. May 15, 1935. 8 pages, 3 text figures. Edition 835. 

343. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 11. Description of a Silurian Phyllopod 
Mandible with Related Notes. By Sharat K. Roy. May 15, 1935. 6 
pages, 1 text figure. Edition 849. 

344. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 12. A New Argyrohippus from the Deseado 

Beds of Patagonia. By Bryan Patterson. May 15, 1935. 6 pages, 2 

text figures. Edition 845. 
345. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 12. A New Generic and Family Position 

for Bufo Borbonica. By D. Dwight Davis. May 15, 1935. 6 pages, 1 

text figure. Edition 858. 
346. — Anthropological Series, Vol. XXI, No. 3. Culture Areas of Nigeria. By 

Wilfrid D. Hambly. June 14, 1935. 140 pages, 68 photogravures, 1 map. 

Edition 665. 

347. — Zoological Series, Vol. XIII, Part VIII. Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. 
By Charles E. Hellmayr. September 16, 1935. 542 pages. Edition 790. 

348. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 13. A Skeleton of Astrapotherium. By 
Elmer S. Riggs. October 30, 1935. 12 pages, 1 photogravure, 3 zinc 
etchings. Edition 798. 

349. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 14. The Question of Living Bacteria in 
Stony Meteorites. By Sharat K. Roy, with preface by N. Paul Hudson. 
December 5, 1935. 20 pages, 4 text figures. Edition 793. 

Zoological Series. Index for Vol. XVIII. September 16, 1935. 24 pages. 
Edition 790. 

Memoir Series 
Anthropology, Vol. IV. Arabs of Central Iraq — Their History, Ethnology, 
and Physical Characters. By Henry Field, with introduction by Sir Arthur 
Keith. 1935. 474 pages, 156 photogravures, 48 text figures, 3 maps. Edition 

Guide Series 
General Guide to Exhibits of Field Museum. Seventeenth edition. 1935. 42 
pages, 3 zinc etchings, 1 photogravure (cover). Edition 10,069. 

Handbook Series 
Handbook. General information concerning the Museum, its history, building, 
exhibits, expeditions and activities. Fifth edition. July, 1935. 68 pages, 8 
halftones. Edition 3,084. 


A total of 35,105 negatives, prints, photographic enlargements, 
lantern slides, transparent exhibition labels, etc., was produced in 
the Division of Photography. While the majority of these were 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 369 

for the use of the Museum's various Departments and Divisions, 
this number includes also 329 prints and enlargements and 74 
stereopticon slides made for sale on orders received from the public. 

The Division has had the assistance through the greater part 
of the year of from four to five relief workers assigned by the Illinois 
Emergency Relief Commission and the federal Works Progress 
Administration. Three of these were professional photographers, 
who were responsible for producing 22,010 of a total of 32,000 
prints made during the year, the balance being made by the regular 
staff of the Division. All those made by the relief workers were 
prints of type specimens of plants for the Herbarium, from negatives 
received from Assistant Curator J. Francis Macbride, who is 
in Europe on a special assignment for the Department of Botany. 
The other relief workers performed very important clerical work, 
principally in connection with the cataloguing of the enormous 
negative collection, now numbering more than 85,000 negatives. 
About 7,550 index cards were written and filed in this work, and 
approximately the same number of negatives and jackets were also 
numbered and filed correspondingly. Labeling and refiling involved 
about 35,000 operations, and various other routine tasks were 

Because of reduced needs for photogravure work during 1935 
as compared with recent years, the total number of prints produced 
for the illustration of publications and leaflets, headings of posters, 
covers of various published works, and picture post cards was only 
194,750. In 1934 the number was 578,820. However, the staff of 
the Division of Photogravure was fully occupied, approximately 
half of the working time during the year being devoted to type 
composition work in the Division of Printing. 

The Museum Illustrator performed a wide variety of work, 
completing 795 orders to fulfill needs of the institution's various 
Departments and Divisions. These included 381 drawings, the 
coloring of 225 lantern slides, and miscellaneous items involving 
lettering, retouching, map-making, etc. A task of unusual di- 
mensions was that of retouching features of the large model of the 
moon exhibited in Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35). 


Continuing the generous distribution of its publications among 
the institutions with which exchange relations are maintained, Field 
Museum extended this far-reaching means of disseminating the 

370 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

research writings of its scientific staff by adding twenty-one new 
names to the lists for these exchanges. 

During the last year 10,591 copies of scientific publications and 
168 of leaflets were sent to the libraries, institutions, and scientists 
on the Museum mailing lists; also, 3,882 copies of the Annual 
Report of the Director for the year 1934 were sent to Members of 
the Museum. Sales for the year totaled 1,683 scientific publications, 
7,119 leaflets, and 8,405 miscellaneous publications and pamphlets 
such as guides, handbooks, and memoirs. 

Twelve large boxes containing 1,837 individually addressed 
packages of publications were shipped to Washington, D.C., for 
distribution in foreign countries through the exchange bureau of 
the Smithsonian Institution; and grateful acknowledgment is made 
of that institution's courtesy and cooperation. 

For future sales and other distributions, 20,901 copies of the 
various publications issued during 1935 were wrapped in 321 pack- 
ages, labeled, and stored in the stock room. 

Reprints, issued late in 1934, of two leaflets, semi-popular in 
character, were placed on sale in 1935. They are Neanderthal 
(Mousterian) Man and The Truth about Snake Stories, the first 
editions of which were published in 1929. 

The leaflets The Races of Mankind and Prehistoric Man con- 
tinued to be much in demand, about 800 copies of each having 
been sold in this, their third, year. 

Sales totaling more than 1,000 copies were made of several books 
issued by outside publishers and handled by the Museum on con- 
signment. They pertain to natural history, are written in popular 
style, and the authors of some of them are members of the Museum 

General clerical service of value to the Division was received dur- 
ing the year from one helper assigned by the Illinois Emergency 
Relief Commission during most of the period from January to Sep- 
tember, and by the federal Works Progress Administration from the 
middle of October to the end of the year. To some extent these 
services were shared by the Division of Public Relations. 

post cards 

The total number of picture post cards sold during 1935 was 

72,300. Of these, 16,929 were grouped into 1,161 of the packaged 

sets which are prepared for the convenience of the public. This 

total represents a decrease in the volume of sales of both individual 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 371 

cards and sets of cards, undoubtedly attributable to the decrease in 

Six zoological views were added to the individual post card 


Continuation of the Museum's regular publicity campaign, in 
which information is dispatched several times a week to the daily 
press, resulted, as in other years, in bringing public attention to the 
institution's activities through the columns of the newspapers of 
Chicago and elsewhere. 

Cordial cooperation was extended to the Museum not only by 
the newspapers but also by the news distributing agencies which 
serve the press nationally and internationally. Space was given not 
only to news from the Museum, but also to feature stories of a nature 
consistent with the institution's primary aim of spreading and inter- 
preting scientific knowledge to the largest possible number of persons. 

Through the Division of Public Relations, press releases averag- 
ing five a week, have been prepared and distributed to the news- 
papers, news services, radio stations, and other publicity channels. 
In addition to these articles, many photographs of Museum exhibits 
were published both in Chicago and in the papers of other cities 
throughout the United States. The more important articles and 
pictures frequently appeared also in foreign publications. As in 
past years, editors often assigned members of their own staffs to 
prepare special articles and pictures by means of which the Museum 
received additional publicity, while laudatory comments on the value 
of the work done by the Museum occasionally appeared in editorial 
columns as well as on news pages. 

The monthly bulletin, Field Museum News, completed its sixth 
year and volume of publication. The distribution schedule has been 
maintained on a basis to assure its delivery to all Members of the Mu- 
seum promptly at the beginning of each month. In each issue the 
aim has been to include diversified articles and pictures which 
would be of interest to all of the several thousand readers. Besides 
its distribution to Members, the News is circulated to other scientific 
institutions as an exchange, and to newspapers and magazines which 
by quoting or reprinting articles from it thus increase the general 
publicity received by the Museum. 

Gratitude is due to various organizations which continued in 
1935, as in past years, to place various advertising media at the 
disposal of the Museum without charge. Through the courtesy of 

372 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

the Illinois Central System and the Chicago and North Western 
Railway, the Museum was again permitted to display placards at 
city and suburban stations announcing the spring and autumn 
lecture courses. Lecture posters appeared likewise in schools, 
libraries, department stores, hotels, clubs, and other public places 
through the courtesy of the various authorities in charge of these. 
Folders containing information about the Museum were distributed 
through many of these same organizations, and also through local, 
interurban and interstate transportation companies. Radio stations 
and broadcasting networks also have cooperated by giving notice 
to the Museum and its activities. 

In addition to newspaper publicity and Field Museum News, the 
Division of Public Relations was responsible for editorial functions 
in connection with certain of the Museum's published matter, 
and for the preparation of various special reports and articles either 
for internal use or outside publication in magazines and books, as 
well as for a large volume of correspondence and other detail. 
Invitations to visit the Museum, and descriptive folders, were sent 
to the chairmen of nearly 400 conventions held in Chicago. 

The Division has received, jointly with the Division of Publica- 
tions, clerical services from one relief worker, assigned in the earlier 
part of the year by the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission, and 
later by the federal Works Progress Administration. 

For the third year the Consolidated Press Clipping Bureaus of 
Chicago generously furnished the Museum with a limited press clip- 
ping service for which no charge was made, and to them grateful 
acknowledgment is herewith made. 


The total number of Museum memberships on record as of 
December 31, 1935, was 4,143, as compared with 4,142 at the 
end of 1934. While this would seem to represent a static condition, 
it is actually significant of great improvement since it makes 1935 
the first year since 1930 to end without a loss in membership. De- 
clines ranging from 57 in 1934 to as high as 819 in 1932 had occurred in 
each of the four preceding years. This would seem to justify a 
hope that 1936 may bring the beginning of an increase in the number 
of Museum Members. 

Most gratifying is this evidence of the loyal support of the 
institution by its Members, and an expression of appreciation is 
due to all who have continued their association with the Museum. 






Pi ►< 

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o § 

















Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 373 

To all those Members who found it necessary to resign in recent 
years, an earnest invitation to renew their memberships stands at 
all times. 

The following tabulation shows the number of names on the 
list in each of the Museum's membership classifications at the end 
of 1935: 

Benefactors 18 

Honorary Members 17 

Patrons 30 

Corresponding Members 7 

Contributors Ill 

Corporate Members 46 

Life Members 298 

Non- Resident Life Members 10 

Associate Members 2,422 

Non-Resident Associate Members 4 

Sustaining Members 11 

Annual Members 1,169 

Total Memberships 4,143 

The names of all persons listed as Members during 1935 will be 
found at the end of this book. 

Valuable clerical services were rendered in the Division by a 
helper assigned, first by the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission, 
and in the later months by the federal Works Progress Administration. 


Meals or refreshments were served to a total of 98,643 persons 
in the lunch rooms of the Museum during 1935. Those patronizing 
the main cafeteria numbered 69,011, and those using the children's 
room 29,632. These figures show reductions from those reached in 
1934, but such decreases were to be expected in view of the smaller 
attendance at the Museum. 

In the pages which follow are submitted the Museum's financial 
statements, lists of accessions, names of Members, et cetera. 

Stephen C. Simms, Director 

374 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 


FOR YEARS 1934 AND 1935 

1935 1934 

Total attendance 1,182,349 1,991,469 

Paid attendance 54,631 99,553 

Free admissions on pay days: 

Students 19,478 19,870 

School children 67,514 54,712 

Teachers 2,016 1,139 

Members 1,080 1,208 

Admissions on free days: 

Thursdays (52) 190,580 (52) 523,580 

Saturdays (52) 385,159 (52) 603,953 

Sundays (52) 461,891 (52) 687,454 

Highest attendance (Sept. 1) 22,305 (Sept. 2) 55,458 

Lowest attendance (Jan. 22) 61 (Dec. 21) 56 

Highest paid attendance (Sept. 2) 2,842 (Sept. 3) 3,946 

Average daily admissions (365 days) 3,239 (365 days) 5,456 

Average paid admissions (209 days) 261 (209 days) 476 

Number of guides sold 4,814 4,706 

Number of articles checked 14,853 37,310 

Number of picture post cards sold 72,300 107,842 

Sales of publications, leaflets, handbooks, 

portfolios, and photographs $4,079.94 $4,209.48 

Jan. 1936 Annual Report of the Director 375 


FOR YEARS 1934 AND 1935 

Income 1935 1934 

Endowment Funds $173,834.39 $173,059.17 

Funds held under annuity agree- 
ments 36,724.36 38,349.29 

Life Membership Fund 12,878.81 13,081.56 

Associate Membership Fund . . . 12,132.13 12,669.33 

Chicago Park District 140,838.65 101,226.19 

Annual and Sustaining Member- 
ships 10,149.00 10,061.00 

Admissions 13,657.75 24,888.25 

Sundry receipts 16,909.10 29,439.45 

Contributions, general purposes 28,467.95 

Contributions, special purposes 

(expended per contra) 13,530.00 43,718.83 

Special funds: Part expended 
this year for purposes desig- 
nated (included per contra) 18,138.76 16,041.03 

$448,792.95 " " $491,002.05 


Collections $ 56,395.67 $ 70,220.98 

Expeditions 561.84 24,662.30 

Furniture, fixtures, etc 12,321.25 6,389.04 

Pensions, group insurance 15,418.36 17,320.90 

Departmental expenses 32,680.82 31,763.13 

General operating expenses 263,850.29 280,522.79 

Annuities on contingent gifts... 36,205.39 36,305.69 
Added to principal of annuity 

endowments 518.97 2,043.60 

Interest on loans 3,930.93 4,258.29 

Paid on bank loans 10,000.00 

$421,883.52 $483,486.72 

Balance $ 26,909.43 $ 7,515.33 

Notes payable January 1 $ 95,000.00 $105,000.00 

Paid on account 10,000.00 

Balance payable December 31 $ 95,000.00 $ 95,000.00 


1935 1934 

Income from Endowment $15,684.04 $19,427.71 

Operating expenses 17,590.04 17,654.81 

December 31 Deficit $ 1,906.00 Balance $ 1,772.90 

376 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 



American Institute for Persian 
Art and Archaeology, New Yerk: 1 
pottery jar, 6 Sasanian pottery figurines 
and 1 pottery head — Kish, Iraq (gift). 

Andrau, Dr. E. W., Houston, Texas: 
2 basalt blocks with Safaitic inscrip- 
tions — north of Qasr Burqu', Trans- 
Jordan (gift). 

Anonymous (through H. S. Mori, 
Chicago): 1 mortuary clay dancing 
figure, hand decorated, T'ang dynasty 
(a.d. 618-907)— China (gift). 

Belden, Joseph C, Chicago: 1 
shrunken human head — Jivaro, Ecua- 
dor (gift). 

Berkson, Mr. and Mrs. Maurice, 
Highland Park, Illinois: 1 tom-tom, 1 
pair of stirring-spoons, 1 child's bench, 
1 clothes paddle, 1 hair comb, 1 hat, 
and 1 case — Djukas, Paramaribo, Suri- 
nam Province, Dutch Guiana (gift). 

Breuil, Abbe Henri, and Pere de 
Chardin, Paris, France: 282 quartzite, 
flint, and obsidian implements — Porcu- 
pine Cave near Dire Dawa, Ethiopia 

Burr, Dr. E. E., Chicago: 2 colored 
anatomical models of a human head 
dissected to show muscles, and struc- 
tures of bones (gift). 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 1 rabeyba; 
33 ethnological objects including 
wooden ladles, pipes, tongs, tea 
strainers, flutes, toys, shoes, etc. — 
Kurdistan; 7 Nestorian ethnological ob- 
jects — Tell Kaif; 20 ethnological objects 
including fishing equipment, baskets, 
bags, etc. — Marsh Arabs; 12 ethno- 
logical objects, and 1 bottle of brown 
kohl and 1 of black — Syria; 6 basalt 
blocks with Safaitic inscriptions — near 
Station H-5, Iraq Petroleum Company, 
Trans- Jordan (gift). 

Gladwin, Harold S., Gila Pueblo, 
Globe, Arizona: about 36 potsherds 
illustrating Cibola branch of pottery 
classification as worked out by Mr. 
Gladwin — Arizona and New Mexico 
(gift); 13 pieces of prehistoric pueblo 
pottery — Arizona and New Mexico 

Grossman, E. C, Chicago: 2 
shrunken human heads, male and female 
— Lima, Peru (gift). 

Institute for History of Ma- 
terial Cultures, Ukrainian Acade- 
my of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine, Union 
of Soviet Socialistic Republics: 181 pa- 
leolithic implements — Ukraine, U.S.S.R. 

Keep, Chauncey, Estate of, Chi- 
cago: bronze head of a Beduin (gift). 

Larimer, Mrs. Robert S., Evans- 
ton, Illinois: 1 puppet-doll, probably of 
Hopi Indians — southwestern United 
States (gift). 

Martin, Miss Julia T., Chicago: 1 
small grass basket — Sitka, Alaska; 1 
birch bark needle case — Ojibway camp 
near Grand Rapids, Michigan (gift). 

Morris, Earl H., Boulder, Colorado: 
9 pieces of prehistoric pottery — near 
mouth of La Plata River, New Mexico 

Muse£s Royaux d'Art et d'His- 
toire, Brussels, Belgium: 7 masks, 2 
statuettes, 4 mats and 4 combs from 
Bakuba, Bassonge, Bafende, etc., tribes 
— southwest Congo, Africa (exchange). 

Riddell, L. H., El Castillo, Arcos de 
la Frontera, Spain: 6 mounted prints of 
reconstructed prehistoric scenes drawn 
by Mr. Riddell — Upper Paleolithic and 
Neolithic, Pyrenees district and south- 
western France (gift). 

Robbins, Miss Alice B., Chicago: 
1 lady's coat, late Ch'ng dynasty — 
China (gift). 

San Diego Museum (collected by 
Malcolm J. Rogers), San Diego, Cali- 
fornia: 53 stone artifacts representing 
Pacific Coast cultures — San Diego 
region, California (exchange). 

State Museum of Anthropology, 
Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialistic 
Republics: 2 skulls— U.S.S.R. (?) (gift). 

Walter, Ellery, Estate of, Chi- 
cago: 1 bamboo quiver with bow, 2 
trident fish-spears, and 5 long-shafted 
arrows — southeastern Asia (?) (gift). 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 



Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 398 speci- 
mens of plants (exchange). 

Aellen, Dr. Paul, Basel, Switzer- 
land: 410 specimens of European plants 

Armstrong Cork Company, Lan- 
caster, Pennsylvania: 10 samples of 
cork, 1 photograph (gift). 

Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, 
Massachusetts: 699 specimens of plants 

Baehni, Dr. Charles, Geneva, 
Switzerland: 5 plant specimens (gift). 

Bailey, Dr. Liberty H., Ithaca, 
New York: 105 photographs (exchange). 

Bebb, Herbert, Chicago: 3 plant 
specimens (gift). 

Benke, Hermann C, Chicago: 216 
specimens of plants; cut and photo- 
graph of Kentucky coffee tree (gift). 

Boal, Miss Esther, Gary, Indiana: 
1 photograph (gift). 

Bracelin, Mrs. H. P., Berkeley, 
California: 9 specimens of California 
plants (gift). 

Bravo H., Professor Helia, Mex- 
ico City, Mexico: 1 plant specimen 

Buckner, Franklin, Bluffton, Indi- 
ana: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Buhl, Carl, Jr., Chicago: 897 speci- 
mens of plants (gift). 

Cabrera, Professor Angel L., La 
Plata, Argentina: 21 plant specimens 

Calderon, Dr. Salvador, San Sal- 
vador, Salvador: 5 plant specimens 

California Academy of Sciences, 
San Francisco, California: 224 speci- 
mens of plants (exchange). 

Cardenas, Dr. MartIn, Potosi, Bo- 
livia: 300 specimens of plants (gift). 

Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton, D.C., station at Stanford Univer- 
sity, California: 87 specimens of plants 

Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D.C: 211 specimens of 
plants (exchange). 

Chamberlain, Professor Charles 
J., Chicago: 1 photograph (gift). 

Chapman, Dr. Frank M., Frijoles, 
Canal Zone: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Chermont, Dr. Bento, Belem, Para, 
Brazil: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Christopherson, Dr. Erling, Oslo, 
Norway: 2 plant specimens (gift). 

Chrysler, Professor Mintin A., 
New Brunswick, New Jersey: 5 plant 
specimens (gift). 

Clokey, Ira W., South Pasadena, 
California: 225 plant specimens (ex- 

Conservatoire Botanique, Geneva, 
Switzerland: 2,110 specimens of plants 

Cornell University, Department 
of Botany, Ithaca, New York: 86 plant 
specimens (exchange). 

Dahlgren, Dr. B. E., Chicago: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

Davis, Mrs. O. W., Los Angeles, 
California: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Deam, Charles C, Bluffton, Indi- 
ana: 7 plant specimens (gift). 

Department of Agriculture, Pre- 
toria, South Africa: 50 specimens of 
plants (exchange). 

De Pauw University, Greencastle, 
Indiana: 223 plant specimens (ex- 

Doolittle, Mrs. Harold M., One- 
kama, Michigan: 1 plant specimen 

Ducke, Dr. Adolpho, Rio de Ja- 
neiro, Brazil: 48 plant specimens (gift). 

Dugand G., Armando, Barranquilla, 
Colombia: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Durham, O. C, Chicago: 2 plant 
specimens (gift). 

Eastman- Gardiner Hardwood 
Company, Laurel, Mississippi: 2 boards 
of sycamore (gift). 

Eifrig, Professor G., River Forest, 
Illinois: 152 plant specimens (gift). 

Elias, Rev. Brother, Barranquilla, 
Colombia: 115 plant specimens (gift). 

Ellis, Miss Charlotte C, Denver, 
Colorado: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

378 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Elson, Mrs. E. D., Las Esperanzas, 
Coahuila, Mexico: 1 plant specimen 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 250 speci- 
mens of plants (gift). 

Field Company, Walter, Chicago: 
1 specimen of lace bark (gift). 

Field M useum of Natural History : 

Collected by Karl P. Schmidt (Leon 
Mandel Guatemala Expedition of Field 
Museum): 28 plant specimens. 

Transferred from the Division of 
Photography : 6, 1 1 3 photographic prints . 

Purchases: 300 plant specimens — 
Peru; 80 specimens of plants — Vene- 
zuela; 966 specimens of plants- — Brazil. 

Fisher, George L., Houston, Texas: 
89 plant specimens (gift); 168 plant 
specimens (exchange). 

Flores, Dr. Roman S., Progreso, 
Yucatan, Mexico: 44 plant specimens, 
6 wood samples, 2 photographs (gift). 

Florist's Publishing Company, 
Chicago: 3 specimens of plants (gift). 

Forrer, H., Chicago: 7 plant speci- 
mens (gift). 

Fritz, Professor Emanuel, Berke- 
ley, California: 6 range maps of western 
trees; 1 bundle of miniature shingles 

Garrett, Professor Arthur O., 
Salt Lake City, Utah: 175 plant speci- 
mens (gift). 

Gentry, Howard Scott, Westmore- 
land, California: 500 specimens of plants 

Garfield Park Conservatory, Chi- 
cago: 8 plant specimens (gift). 

Graham, Dr. V. O., Chicago: 1 plant 
specimen (gift). 

Graves, Professor G. W., Fresno, 
California: Araucaria cones (gift). 

Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Mass- 
achusetts: 150 specimens of plants, 101 
photographic prints (exchange). 

Green, Burdett, Chicago: 1 plant 
specimen (gift). 

Gronemann, Carl F., Elgin, Illinois: 
1 plant specimen (gift). 

Guerra, J. Gutierrez, New York: 
plant bulbs (gift). 

Hauberg, Miss Catherine D., Rock 
Island, Illinois: 5 specimens of plants 

Haynie, Miss Nellie V., Oak Park, 
Illinois: 3 plant specimens (gift). 

Hermann, Professor F. J., Ann 
Arbor, Michigan: 266 plant specimens 
(gift); 60 plant specimens (exchange). 

Herzfeld, Professor Ernst, Perse- 
polis, Iran: 85 herbarium specimens 

Hewetson, William T., Freeport, 
Illinois: 18 plant specimens; 1 water 
color painting (gift). 

Hoover, Bruce L., Chicago: 21 
panels of Mexican hardwoods (gift). 

Hull, Edwin D., Gary, Indiana: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

Hutchinson, Mrs. C. L., Lake 
Geneva, Wisconsin: 1 plant specimen 


Hyers, Miss Mabel, Chicago: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

Instituto de Biologia, Mexico City, 
Mexico: 2 plant specimens (gift). 

Iraq Petroleum Company, Ltd., 
Haifa, Palestine: 102 plant specimens 

Jaccard, Professor Paul, Zurich, 
Switzerland: 22 samples of European 
woods (exchange). 

Johnson, S. C. and Sons, Inc., 
Racine, Wisconsin: 375 plant specimens. 

Kirsch, Myron R., Chicago: 1 plant 
specimen (gift). 

Krukoff, B. A., New York: 25 
samples of fruits (gift). 

Lankester, C. H., Cartago, Costa 
Rica: 4 plant specimens (gift). 

Lawrance, Alexander E., Bogota, 
Colombia: 28 plant specimens (gift). 

Lazar, Yusuf, Bagdad, Iraq: 575 
specimens of plants (gift). 

Mexia, Mrs. Ynes, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia: 117 specimens of plants (gift). 

Mille, Rev. Father Luis, Guaya- 
quil, Ecuador: 10 plant specimens 

Moore, O. G., Brownsboro, Ala- 
bama: 1 specimen of blue poplar (gift). 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Museo Argentino de Ciencias 
Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina: 
15 specimens of plants (exchange). 

Museo de La Plata, La Plata, 
Argentina: 65 specimens of plants 

Museo Nacional, San Jose, Costa 
Rica: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Museum of Science and Industry, 
Chicago: 15 wood samples (gift). 

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, 
Stockholm, Sweden: 490 plant speci- 
mens (exchange). 

New York Botanical Garden, 
Bronx Park, New York: 2,953 speci- 
mens of plants (exchange). 

Ortega, Jesus G., Mazatlan, Mex- 
ico: 5 plant specimens (gift). 

Osterhout, George E., Windsor, 
Colorado: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Parente, Dr. Esmerino Gomes, 
Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil: 33 plant speci- 

Parodi, Dr. Lorenzo R., Buenos 
Aires, Argentina: 19 specimens of plants 

Peattie, Donald C, Chicago: 657 
specimens of plants (gift). 

Potlatch Forests, Inc., Potlatch, 
Idaho: 2 specimens of Idaho white pine 

Purpus, Dr. C. A., Zacuapam, Mexi- 
co: 68 plant specimens (gift). 

Rhoades, William, Indianapolis, 
Indiana: 26 specimens of plants (gift). 

Robinson, E. R., Chicago: 1 plant 
specimen (gift). 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
Surrey, England: 305 specimens of 
plants (exchange). 

Rustam Experimental Farm, Bag- 
dad, Iraq: 15 plant specimens (gift). 

Schipp, William A., Belize, British 
Honduras: 77 plant specimens (gift). 

Schmoll, Dr. Hazel, Chicago: 15 
specimens of Colorado plants (gift). 

Sherff, Dr. Earl E., Chicago: 185 
plant specimens (gift). 

Smith, Mrs. R. K., Pyengyang, 
Chosen: 82 plant specimens (gift). 

Sosa, H. D., Panama City, Panama: 
4 plant specimens (gift). 

Standley, Paul C, Chicago: 20 
plant specimens (gift). 

Stanford University, Leland, 
(Dudley Herbarium), California: 596 
specimens of plants (exchange). 

Summerhays, W. A., Memphis, Ten- 
nessee: 1 pine board (gift). 

Throp, Ralph, Greensburg, Indiana: 
nuts of peanut walnut (gift). 

Tryon, R. M., Jr., Chicago: 41 
specimens of Indiana plants (gift). 

United States Department of 
Agriculture, station at Oroville, Cali- 
fornia: branches of cork oak (gift). 

United States Department of 
Agriculture, Division of Mycolo- 
gy, Washington, D.C.: 1 photograph 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 248 plant speci- 
mens (exchange). 

University of California, De- 
partment of Botany, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia: 395 plant specimens (exchange). 

University of Michigan, Depart- 
ment of Botany, Ann Arbor, Mich- 
igan: 469 plant specimens (exchange). 

University of Pennsylvania, De- 
partment of Botany, Philadelphia: 
255 plant specimens (exchange). 

University of Wisconsin, Depart- 
ment of Botany, Madison, Wisconsin: 
84 specimens of plants (exchange). 

Valerio, Professor Manuel, San 
Jose\ Costa Rica: 416 specimens of 
plants (gift). 

Wilkins, Miss Ruth C, Michigan 
City, Indiana: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Williams, Llewelyn, Chicago: 2 
plant specimens (gift). 

Wisconsin Land and Lumber Com- 
pany, Hermans ville, Michigan: 1 tama- 
rack board (gift). 

Worthington, Dr. H. C, Oak 
Forest, Illinois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Yale University, School of 
Forestry, New Haven, Connecticut: 
1 wood, 542 plant specimens (gift). 

Yoe, Paul J., and Ralph R. Thomas, 
Mount Morris, Illinois: 1 fungus speci- 
men (gift). 

380 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Zetek, James, Balboa, Canal Zone: 
22 plant specimens (gift). 

Zingg, Robert M., Chicago: 21 plant 
specimens (gift). 


Ackerman, Charles N., Chicago: 2 
specimens fossil cones; 1 specimen vivi- 
anite on clay — Grass Lake, Illinois 

American Doucil Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania: 2 specimens 
doucil (gift). 

American Museum of Natural 
History, New York: Skull and jaw of 
Megalocrinus rodens — Ciego Montero, 
Cuba (exchange). 

Andrews, Andrew, Lake Louise, 
Alberta, Canada: 1 specimen zinc-lead- 
silver ore — Field, British Columbia 

Bryant, Edward R., Princeton, Illi- 
nois: 1 pseudo-meteorite — Princeton, 
Illinois (gift). 

Edwards, Stafford C, Colton, Cali- 
fornia: 3 concretions — Signal Mountain, 
Salton Sink, California (gift). 

Faber, Edwin B., Grand Junction, 
Colorado: 1 Uintathere tooth — Palisade, 
Colorado (, r ift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 

Collected by Henry Field (Field Mu- 
seum Anthropological Expedition to the 
Near East, 1934): 939 specimens rocks 
and minerals; 190 specimens inverte- 
brate fossils — Iraq and Trans-Jor- 

Collected by Julius Friesser (Han- 
cock-Wegeforth Expedition to Guad- 
alupe): 4 specimens rocks — Guadalupe. 

Collected by Henry W. Nichols: 2 
specimens botryoidal sulphur on tufa — 
Alberta, Canada. 

Collected by Sharat K. Roy (Raw- 
son-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition 
of Field Museum, 1927-28) : 88 specimens 
rocks; 15 specimens ores— Newfound- 
land and Labrador. 

Field, Stanley, Chicago: 1 specimen 
glauconite — New Jersey (gift). 

Garner, Kenneth, San Bernardino, 
California: 2 spiral concretions — Im- 
perial Valley, California; 5 photographs 
of concretions (gift). 

Graves, Professor G. W., Fresno, 
California: 3 cones of Araucaria — 
Fresno, California (gift). 

Ha wes, George H., Chicago: 1 fossil 
cephalopod — Illinois (gift). 

Illinois State Geological Survey, 
Urbana, Illinois: 1 specimen nova- 
culite— Alexander County, Illinois; 3 
specimens of vitrain, clarain and 
fusain — Franklin County, Illinois 

Innes Speiden Company, Chicago: 
1 specimen silica; 2 specimens ground 
silica; 1 trilobite — Union County, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Lipman, Robert R., Chicago: 1 
crystal of pyrite — Gunnison County, 
Colorado (gift). 

Manning, James, Chicago: 1 speci- 
men cassiterite — near Cordova, Alaska 

Meyers, Alice C, Santa Fe, New 
Mexico: 1 specimen halloysite — New 
Mexico; 1 specimen vitrified clay — Nan- 
king, China (gift). 

McKinley, William, Peoria, Illi- 
nois: 1 concretion of calcite — Death 
Valley, California (gift). 

Nininger, Professor H. H., Den- 
ver, Colorado: etched slice of Central 
Wyoming meteorite; polished slice of 
Hobbs, New Mexico, meteorite; 1 speci- 
men Pasamonte, New Mexico, meteor- 
ite; 1 specimen Roy, New Mexico, 
meteorite; 4 photographs of Bruno, 
Saskatchewan, Canada, meteorite (ex- 

Norton Company, The, Worcester, 
Massachusetts; 1 specimen boron car- 
bide; 5 specimens norbide— Niagara 
Falls, New York (gift). 

Oliver, Elizabeth, River Forest, 
Illinois: 1 specimen pisolite— Braid- 
wood, Illinois; 4 specimens minerals; 
3 concretions — Paxton, Michigan 

Ogaki, K., Fu-shun, Manchukuo: 1 
cabochon-cut amber with insect; 25 
specimens fossil leaves; 1 fragment fossil 
turtle — Manchukuo (gift). 

Ordway, Charles A., Chicago: 2 
specimens iron ore — Idaho (gift). 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Philadelphia Quartz Company, 
Chicago: 14 specimens silicate of soda 
and material from which it is made 

Quinn, James, Chicago: 1 specimen 
diatomite — Nebraska (gift). 

Renshaw, John A., Arcadia, Cali- 
fornia: 1 specimen iridescent agate — 
near Antelope, Oregon (exchange). 

Rydberg, Harold, Sarasota, Flori- 
da: 2 teeth of Charcharodon — Sarasota, 
Florida (gift). 

Seymour, Dr. T. F., Mishawaka, 
Indiana: 1 specimen foliated talc — 
Huntington, Ontario (gift). 

Sitterle, A. F., Chicago: 1 double 
concretion — Texas (gift). 

Standard Oil Company of Indiana, 
Chicago: 84 specimens candles; 52 speci- 
mens illustrating candle manufacture; 
15 dozen birthday candles; 5 pounds 
parawax; 1 specimen belt dressing; 1 
specimen dressed leather; 1 telephone 
condenser — Whiting, Indiana (gift). 

Standard Oil Company of New 
Jersey, New York: 15 specimens con- 
taining vertebrate fossils; 3 specimens 
vertebrate fossils — Argentina (gift). 

Sullivan, A. H., St. Louis, Missouri: 
1 fossil fish (gift). 

Thomas, Frank L., Bremen, Indiana: 
1 native copper glacial boulder — Mar- 
shall county, Indiana (gift). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 2 skeletons and 2 
skulls of Plesippus — Snake River 
Valley, Hagerman, Idaho (exchange). 

Vernon, Harold, Calgary, Alberta, 
Canada: 19 specimens trilobites; 1 
specimen brachiopod — Alberta, Canada 

Von Drasek, Frank, Cicero, Illinois: 
9 quartz crystals; 1 caboch on-cut 
quartz; 1 cabochon-cut amethyst — 
Magnet Cove, Arkansas (gift). 

Walther, Herbert C, Chicago: 1 
specimen pyrite crystals; 7 specimens 
fossil fern leaves — Galena and Braid- 
wood, Illinois (gift). 

Wright, Charles, Chicago: 1 speci- 
men Lepidodendron — Clinton County, 
Pennsylvania (gift). 

West Coast Mineral Association, 
Seattle, Washington: 9 specimens ore 
— Washington (gift). 

Woodhouse, C. D., East Hampton, 
Long Island, New York: 1 specimen 
augelite— California; 1 specimen du- 
mortierite — Nevada (gift); 1 specimen 
euhedraldumortierite; 1 specimen crys- 
talline dumortierite— Oreana, Nevada 


Abel, Russell, Kwato, Samarai, 
New Guinea: 1 snake eel — Kwato, 
Samarai, New Guinea (gift). 

Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 7 insects 
— various localities (exchange). 

American Museum of Natural 
History, New York: 17 bats — Africa 
and South America (exchange). 

Anonymous: 1 partial-albino English 
sparrow — Illinois (gift). 

Aubert, Otto, Webster, Wisconsin: 
1 porcupine skeleton — Webster, Wis- 
consin (gift). 

Baird, Charles, Chicago: 1 rail 
skeleton — Chicago (gift). 

Bechara, Dr. A., Station 4, Iraq 
Petroleum Company, Syria: 3 bird skins 
— Syria (gift). 

Becker, Robert, Lake Bluff, Illi- 
nois: 1 beetle — St. Ignace, Michigan 

Belcher, Sir Charles, Port of 
Spain, Trinidad: 1 bird skin — British 
Guiana (gift). 

Benesh, Bernard, North Chicago, 
Illinois: 36 beetles — United States (gift). 

Biggs, Rev. H. E. J., Kerman, Iran: 
32 shells, 21 beetles — Iran (exchange). 

Blair, Albert P., Tulsa, Oklahoma: 
3 frogs — Tulsa, Oklahoma (exchange). 

Blake, Emmet R., Chicago: 1 bird 
skin — Chicago (gift). 

Bonati, Eugene, Teheran, Iran: 3 
scorpions, 3 solpugids — Teheran, Iran 

Boulton, Rudyerd, Chicago: 3 bird 
skeletons — Florida (gift). 

382 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

British Museum (Natural Histo- 
ry), London, England: 11 frogs — vari- 
ous localities (exchange). 

Brooking, A. M., Hastings, Nebras- 
ka: 1 badger skin and skull— Hastings, 
Nebraska (exchange). 

Brower, Dr. Auburn E., Bar Har- 
bor, Maine: 2 butterflies— Maine (gift). 

Brundage, Edward J., Washington, 
Connecticut: 86 insects — Connecticut 

Burnaby, Mrs. A. E., Leicestershire, 
England: 10 mammals, 4 English adders 
— England (gift). 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania: 163 frogs, 54 lizards, 21 
snakes — various localities (exchange). 

Carney, J. T., Marathon, Texas: 2 
lizards, 2 rattlesnakes — Texas (gift). 

Cascard, Ben, Chicago: 2 insects — 
Miller, Indiana (gift). 

Cazaly, P. R. J., Haditha, Iraq: 1 
lizard — Iraq (gift). 

Chase, Dr. H. D., Tulsa, Oklahoma: 
6 frogs— Tulsa, Oklahoma (exchange). 

Chicago Park District, Chicago: 1 
polar bear skeleton (gift). 

Chicago Zoological Society, 
Brookfield, Illinois: 9 mammals, 46 
birds, including 10 emperor penguins, 
60 bird skeletons, 30 lizards, 26 snakes, 
2 turtles — various localities (gift). 

Childs, L. C, Hinsdale, Illinois: 1 
bufflehead duck — Lacon, Illinois (gift). 

Cleaves, Howard, Staten Island, 
New York: 1 bobwhite — Neillsville, 
Wisconsin (gift). 

Colombo Museum, Colombo, Cey- 
lon: 5 turtles — (exchange). 

Conover, Boardman, Chicago: 3 
bird skins, 1 bird's egg — various locali- 
ties (gift). 

Coursen, C. Blair, Chicago: 2 frogs, 
44 lizards— Key West, Florida (gift). 

Craig, Wallace, Brookline, Massa- 
chusetts: the James Oregon Dunn origi- 
nal records and natural history notes, 
Chicago 1887-1907 (gift). 

Davis, D. Dwight, Naperville, Illi- 
nois: 1 bat, 4 salamanders, 6 toads, 8 
frogs, 6 snakes, 2 turtles, 1 spider, 1 

cicada — various localities (gift); 2 sala- 
manders, 21 frogs — Foochow, China 

Dekker, J. H., Station T-l, Iraq 
Petroleum Company, Iraq: 1 fox skin 
and skeleton, 1 badger skin and skeleton 
— western Iraq (gift). 

Dluhy, Eugene, Chicago: 4 beetles 
—United States (gift). 

Dubisch, Roy, Chicago: 1 snake — 
Argo, Illinois (gift). 

Dybas, Henry, Chicago: 4 beetles, 

19 snakes — various localities (gift). 

Eastwood, Austin, Bagdad, Iraq: 
1 bear skeleton — Asia Minor (gift). 

Eigsti, William E., Homewood, Illi- 
nois: 1 fox squirrel — Chicago Heights, 
Illinois (gift). 

Emerson, Dr. Alfred E., Chicago: 
17 bats, 1 caecilian, 8 frogs, 1 lizard, 
7 snakes — Panama (gift). 

Exline, A. W., San Jose, Mindoro, 
Philippine Islands: 4 tamarao buffaloes, 
1 gecko, 4 crocodile skulls, 1 beetle — 
Mindoro, Philippine Islands (gift). 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 26 mam- 
mals, 4 boar skulls, 1 bird skin, 10 frogs, 
81 lizards, 38 snakes, 1,020 insects and 
allies — Iraq (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 
Collected by D. Dwight Davis: 14 
insects — Kankakee County, Illinois. 

Collected by Henry Field and Rich- 
ard A. Martin (Field Museum Anthro- 
pological Expedition to the Near East, 
1934): 4 mammal skeletons, 2 donkey 
skulls, 157 frogs and toads, 335 lizards, 
76 snakes, 11 turtles, 51 fishes, 554 
insects and allies, 8 shells, 5 leeches — 
Asia Minor. 

Collected by Albert J. Franzen: 23 
insects — Hopkins Park, Illinois. 

Collected by Tappan Gregory and 
Colin C. Sanborn: 34 mammal skins 
and skulls, 1 mammal skin and skeleton, 

20 mammal skeletons — Huron Moun- 
tain, Michigan. 

Collected by Edgar G. Laybourne: 
1 toad, 20 lizards, 4 snakes, 1 turtle — 
Moffat County, Colorado. 

Transferred from Department of 
Anthropology: 7 fruit bat skulls — New 
Guinea and Philippines (gift). 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Transferred from Department of 
N. W. Harris Public School Extension: 1 
weasel skull — Deerfield, Illinois (gift); 
1 cardinal — Indiana (exchange). 

Purchases: 3 Weddell's seal skins and 
skulls; 1 crab-eating seal skin and skull 
— Antarctic; 9 bats — Arizona; 83 mam- 
mal skins and skulls — Costa Rica; 2 
bird skins — Cuba; 175 small mammals 
— Ecuador; 3 gopher frogs, 10 toads, 8 
lizards, 5 snakes — Florida; 3 mammals, 
1 pheasant — India; 10 salamanders- 
Korea; 185 mammal skins with 176 
skulls — Cameroon, Africa; 2,558 bird 
skins, 3 narwhal skins and skeletons — 
various localities; 1 photograph of sala- 
mander model. 

Franzen, Albert J., Chicago: 1 
badger skeleton — Wisconsin; 2 bird 
skins, 4 bird skeletons, 1 salamander 
skull, 11 insects — Illinois (gift). 

Friesser, Julius, Chicago: 1 snow 
leopard skull (part) — India; 3 mammal 
skulls, 1 turtle, 3 fishes, 1 moth — United 
States (gift). 

General Biological Supply House, 
Chicago: 2 salamanders — Oporto, Por- 
tugal (gift). 

Gerhard, William J., Chicago: 75 
insects — Illinois and Indiana (gift). 

Gesswein, Herman, Chicago: 1 sala- 
mander — Guatemala (gift). 

Grant, Gordon, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia: 8 toads, 27 lizards, 3 snakes, 25 
top minnows, 102 land shells — Cali- 
fornia (gift). 

Hanson, H. C, Chicago: 1 painted 
turtle — Cary, Illinois (gift). 

Harris, Mrs. Barnett, Evanston, 
Illinois: 62 insects — Zululand, Africa 

Herzfeld, Professor Ernst, Per- 
sepolis, Iran: 5 scorpions, 1 solpugid 
— Persepolis, Iran (gift). 

Hewitt, John, Grahamstown, South 
Africa: 3 lizards — South Africa (gift). 

Highland Park School, Highland 
Park, Illinois: 3 bird skeletons — High- 
land Park, Illinois (gift). 

Hildebrand, R. D., Buncombe 
County, North Carolina: 1 wild turkey 
skin — Buncombe County, North Caro- 
lina; 4 Virginia quail — Wayne County, 
Mississippi (gift). 

Hine, Ashley, Chicago: 1 mountain 
bluebird — Planada, California (ex- 

Hodgsdon, Donald B., Pochuta, 
Guatemala: 2 bird skins — Lake Atitlan, 
Guatemala (gift). 

Hodsdon, Dr. L. A., Miami, Florida: 
9 bats, 5 frogs, 13 lizards — Bahamas 

Hoffman, Dr. William E., Canton, 
China: 8 turtles — south China (gift). 

Huidekoper, Wallis, Twodot, Mon- 
tana: 2 wolf skins — North Dakota 

Illinois State Natural History 
Survey, Urbana, Illinois: 2 earwigs — 
Texas (exchange). 

Jennings, John F., Chicago: 1 ga- 
zelle skull— Niger Colony, Africa; 2 
mammal skulls — Alaska (gift). 

Jewell, Dr. Minna E., Harvey, 
Illinois: 12 fresh-water sponges — Wis- 
consin (gift). 

Kellogg, John P., Lake Forest, 
Illinois: 3 salamanders — Lebanon, 
Virginia (gift). 

Kellogg, W. K., Bird Sanctuary, 
Kalamazoo, Michigan: 3 wild ducks — 
Kalamazoo, Michigan (gift). 

Kennedy, Dr. Walter P., Bagdad, 
Iraq: 14 insects and allies — Bagdad, 
Iraq (gift). 

Laybourne, Edgar G., Homewood, 
Illinois: 5 mammal skins and 4 skulls, 
4 bird skins — Colorado (gift). 

Laybourne, Miss Phyllis, Home- 
wood, Illinois: 2 tree frogs — Dune 
Acres, Indiana (gift). 

Letl, Frank H., Chicago: 1 owl 
skeleton — Hazel crest, Illinois; 4 box 
turtles, 2 seventeen-year cicadas — Sub- 
lette, Illinois (gift). 

Liljeblad, Emil, Chicago: 27 in- 
sects — United States (gift). 

Liu, Dr. C. C, Soochow, China: 2 
bats, 26 frogs, 7 lizards, 8 snakes, 2 
turtles — Soochow, China (gift). 

Lowrie, Donald C, Chicago: 8 
beetles — Illinois and Indiana (gift). 

384 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Manasseh, Dr. P. S., Haifa, Pales- 
tine: 1 snake — Iraq (gift). 

Meisner, Richard W., Chicago: 1 
pink katydid— Chicago (gift). 

Miller, E. Morton, Coral Gables, 
Florida: 2 toads, 4 frogs, 4 snakes — 
Florida (gift). 

Mooney, James, Highland Park, 
Illinois: 1 tree snake — Chicago (gift). 

Moyer, John W., Chicago: 1 ring- 
necked pheasant — Barrington, Illinois 

Murray, George, Eabaul, New 
Guinea: 1 lizard, 10 snakes — New 
Britain (gift). 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: 310 bats — 
Canal Zone (gift); 6 salamanders, 21 
frogs, 141 lizards, 31 snakes — Honduras; 
6 bats — Africa and South America; 1 
bat, 17 frogs, 3 lizards — Africa (ex- 

Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 
Berkeley, California: 9 bird skeletons — 
various localities (exchange). 

Necker, Walter L., Chicago: 52 
salamanders, 3 toads, 2 snakes— Tur- 
key Run, Indiana; 1 bull snake — Kan- 
kakee County, Illinois (gift). 

Neitzel, William, Chicago: 1 tree 
frog, 1 milk snake, 2 beetles — Michigan 
and Arizona (gift). 

Norris, Professor H. W., Grinnell, 
Iowa: 1 shark, 7 samples of shark skins 
— Englewood, Florida (gift). 

Orr, Phil C, Chicago: 2 lizards — 
Barren County, Kentucky (gift). 

Ortenburger, Dr. A. I., Norman, 
Oklahoma: 1 musk turtle — Oklahoma 
(gift); 82 salamanders — Oklahoma (ex- 

Osgood, Dr. Wilfred H., Chicago: 
9 small mammals — Acapulco, Mexico 

Park, Dr. Orlando, Evanston, Illi- 
nois: 4 beetles — Illinois and Kentucky 

Patterson, Bryan, Chicago: 2 bird 
skeletons— Homewood, Illinois (gift). 

Pearsall, Gordon, River Forest, 
Illinois: 3 hoary bats — Maywood, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Perkins, H. E., Huron Mountain, 
Michigan: 1 bobcat — Marquette 
County, Michigan (gift). 

Perkins, Marlin R., St. Louis, 
Missouri: 13 snakes — Arkansas and 
Brazil (gift). 

Plath, Karl, Chicago: 1 rose- 
breasted grosbeak, 6 bird skeletons — 
Chicago (gift); 1 bird (exchange). 

Pray, Leon L., Homewood, Illinois: 
2 oven-bird skins, 1 dragon-fly — Home- 
wood, Illinois (gift). 

Quinn, James H., Chicago: 1 bat 
skeleton — Kentucky (gift). 

Ray, Eugene, Urbana, Illinois: 1 
black widow spider — Eddyville, Illinois 

Reynolds, Albert E., Greencastle, 
Indiana: 11 salamanders — Putnam 
County, Indiana (gift). 

Rickards, A. R. M., Bagdad, Iraq: 
1 solpugid — Bagdad, Iraq (gift). 

Rueckert, Arthur G., Chicago: 1 
parrakeet skeleton — Chicago (gift). 

St. Mary's Mission House, Techny, 
Illinois: 51 butterflies, 1 moth — New 
Guinea (exchange). 

Sakin, Sam, Chicago: 5 snakes, 1 
turtle — Chicago region (gift). 

Sanborn, Colin C, Highland Park, 
Illinois: 1 white-winged scoter, 1 bird 
skeleton — Highland Park, Illinois; 7 
snakes — Braeside, Illinois (gift). 

Schaack, Edward, Chicago: 2 mam- 
mals — Honduras; 1 snake — British 
Honduras (gift). 

Schmidt, Dr. Erich F., Rayy, Iran: 
1 hyena skull — Iran (gift). 

Schmidt, F. J. W., Madison, Wiscon- 
sin: 1 fox snake, 1 painted turtle — Jack- 
son County, Wisconsin (gift). 

Schmidt, Karl P., Homewood, Illi- 
nois: 16 salamanders, 18 frogs, 14 
snakes, 2 turtles — Illinois and Indiana 

Schoemann, Bruno, Chicago: 3 
snakes — Brazil (gift). 

Schultz, Leonard P., Seattle, Wash- 
ington: 19 fishes — various localities 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Shaw, Dr. F. R. S., Haifa, Beirut, 
Palestine: 1 mole cricket, 33 arachnids 
— Palestine and Trans- Jordan (gift). 

Shedd Aquarium, John G., Chi- 
cago: 195 fishes — Fiji; 1 octopus, 8 
crustaceans, 205 fishes — Hawaiian Is- 
lands; 1 hawksbill turtle — Bahama 
Islands (gift). 

Shuwayhat, Dr. Y. S., Haifa, Pales- 
tine: 6 snakes, 10 scorpions— Jordan 
Valley, Palestine (gift). 

Springer, Stewart, Biloxi, Missis- 
sippi: 5 mammal skins and 6 skulls — 
Florida; 11 lizards — Sardinia; 110 sala- 
manders, 96 frogs, 70 lizards, 81 snakes, 
1 alligator, 11 turtles — various locali- 
ties (gift). 

Stoddard, Herbert L., Thomas- 
ville, Georgia: 2 wild turkey skins — 
Thomasville, Georgia (exchange). 

Sturgis, R. S., Indian Hill, Illinois: 
1 garter snake — Indian Hill, Illinois 

Tallant, W. M., Manatee, Florida: 

1 limpkin skeleton — Collier County, 
Florida (gift). 

Thomas, W. R., Rapid City, South 
Dakota: 19 mammal skulls — Rapid 
City, South Dakota (gift). 

Turner, Dr. C. D., Athens, Georgia: 

2 bats — Athens, Georgia (gift). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 310 mammal skins 
and skulls, 5 bird skeletons — various 
countries (exchange). 

University of Kansas, Lawrence, 
Kansas: 3 bat skins and skulls — Barber 
County, Kansas (exchange). 

Upson, E. D., Madison, Wisconsin: 
2 photographs of beaver work — Wis- 
consin (gift). 

Vacin, E. F., Oak Park, Illinois: 3 
trout — Laramie, Wyoming (gift). 

Villalba, Gaston S., Havana, Cuba: 
13 bird skins — Cuba (exchange). 

Wachowski, Dr. Chester, Chicago: 

I mantis — Chicago (gift). 

Waddington, David and Hubert 
Beddoes, Chicago: 5 horned toads — 
Westcliff, Colorado (gift). 

Walpole, Stewart, Chicago: 10 bats, 

II frogs, 7 toads, 9 lizards — Barbados, 
West Indies; 2 sharks — Bermuda (gift). 

Weber, Walter A., Austin, Texas: 

I Texas fence lizard — Mt. Emory, 
Texas (gift). 

Weed, Alfred C, Chicago: 4 sala- 
manders — North Rose, New York 

Wenzel, Rupert, Chicago: 37 in- 
sects — United States (gift). 

Wheeler, Leslie, Lake Forest, Illi- 
nois: 479 bird skins, 1 bird skeleton, 2 
insects — various countries (gift); 2 
hawks — eastern Panama (exchange). 

Whitney, W. R., Chicago: 2 bird 
skeletons — Chicago (gift). 

Wolcott, Albert B., Downers 
Grove, Illinois: 15 insects — Illinois and 
Mexico (gift). 

Wyatt, Alex K., Chicago: 3 moths 
— Chicago (gift). 

Zoologische Sammlung des Bay- 
erischen Staats, Munich, Germany: 

II salamanders, 4 frogs, 6 lizards, 8 
snakes, 1 crocodile, 2 turtles — various 
localities (exchange). 


Field Museum of Natural History : 
From Division of Photography: 314 

Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul 
and Pacific Railway: 21 reels of 
35-mm. silent film (gift). 



Field Museum of Natural History : 

Made by Division of Photography: 
32,000 prints, 1,302 negatives, 455 lan- 
tern slides, 188 enlargements, and 44 
transparent labels. 

Developed for expeditions: 1,116 

From Field Museum Archaeological 
Expedition to the Near East (made by 
Richard A. Martin): 36 negatives of 
natives, taken in Iraq. 

Nichols, Henry W., Chicago: 256 
negatives (made during period from 
1892 to 1916) of general views in Can- 

386 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

ada and the United States: 89 negatives 
of general views in the Yellowstone 
and the Canadian Rockies. 

Smeaton, Miss Winifred, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan: 206 negatives of 
natives of Iraq. 

List of Donors of Books 


Agricultural Experiment Station, Agri- 
cultural College, Mississippi. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Au- 
burn, Alabama. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

American Friends of China, Chicago. 

American Gas Association, New York. 

American Mining Congress, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Amherst College, Amherst, Massachu- 

Black Diamond, Chicago. 
Bunrika Daigaku, Tokyo, Japan. 

Canadian Mining Journal, Gardenvale, 

Carnegie Corporation of New York. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, 

Chemical Foundation, New York. 

Chicago Association of Commerce, 

Chicago Recreation Commission, Chi- 

Children's Museum, Boston, Massa- 

Chinese Trading Company, Chicago. 

Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colo- 

Desert Magazine Publishing Company, 
Los Angeles, California. 

Deutsche Fischwirtschaft, Berlin, Ger- 

Drew University, Madison, New Jersey. 

Fontana Company, Mario A., Monte- 
video, Uruguay. 

Friedlander und Sohn, Berlin, Germany. 

Garden Club of America, New York. 

General Biological Supply House, Chi- 

Goteborgs Botaniska Tradgrad, Gote- 
borg, Sweden. 

Goteborgs Museum, Goteborg, Sweden. 

Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, 
New York. 

Hartford Public Library, Hartford, 

Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsyl- 

Home Aquarium, East Orange, New 

Howard Memorial Library, New Or- 
leans, Louisiana. 

Huntington Library and Art Gallery, 
Henry E., San Marino, California. 

Illinois Bell Telephone Company, Chi- 

Illinois State Academy of Sciences, 
Springfield, Illinois. 

Imperial College of Science and Tech- 
nology, London, England. 

Imperial Household, Department of 
Crown Forest and Estates, Tokyo, 

Inspector of Mines, Boise, Idaho. 

International Wild Life Protection, 
American Committee, New York. 

Izaak Walton League of America, Chi- 

Japan Society, New York. 

Japanese Embassy, Washington, D.C. 

Japanese Red Cross Society, Tokyo, 

Journal of Calendar Reform, New York. 

London Shellac Research Bureau, Lon- 
don, England. 

Louisiana State Parks Commission, 
New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Maderil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 
Mahogany Association, Inc., Chicago. 
Mauritius Forest Department, Port 

Louis, Mauritius. 
Meijikai, Tokyo, Japan. 
Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mexico 

City, Mexico. 
More Game Birds in America, Inc., 

New York. 
Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Mountaineer Club, Seattle, Washing- 

Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Museum of the City of New York. 

National Park Service, Field Division, 
Berkeley, California. 

Orthovis Company, Chicago. 

Radio Institute of Audible Arts, New 

School Life, Washington, D.C. 

Science Service, Washington, D.C. 

Scientific American, New York. 

Scott, Foresman and Company, Chi- 

Society for International Cultural Re- 
lations, Marunouchi, Japan. 

Spelio Club de France, Montpellier, 

State Bureau of Mines and Geology, 
Butte, Montana. 

Stone Publishing Company, New York. 
Sun Mon Corporation, Chicago. 
Swift and Company, Chicago. 

Taylor Instrument Company, Roches- 
ter, New York. 

Tea and Coffee Trade Journal Com- 
pany, New York. 

Tennessee Ornithological Club, Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. 

Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio. 

Topographical and Geological Survey, 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Union League Club, Chicago. 

University of Chicago (Department of 
Anthropology), Chicago. 

Victor News, Chicago. 

Wellcome Research Institute, London, 


Abbott, Cyril E., Morgan Park, Illinois. 
Arndt, Dr. Paul, Munich, Germany. 

Bourret, Ren6, Hanoi, Indo-China. 

Breuil, Abbe Henri, Paris, France. 

Brimley, H. H., Chapel Hill, North 

Camelog, J. 

Campbell, Louis W., Toledo, Ohio. 

Canals, Jose\ Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

Ching-Jun Lin, Foochow, China. 

Chinnery, E. W. P., Port Moresby, 
New Guinea. 

Clyde, Paul H., Lexington, Kentucky. 

Cornell, Margaret M., Chicago. 

Davis, Dwight D., Naperville, Illinois. 

DeCandolle, Casimir, Geneva, Switzer- 

Dreyer, T. F., Bloemfontein, South 

Essenberg, J. M., Chicago. 

Ewart, Professor E. J., Melbourne, 

Feruglio, Dr. Egidio, Chubert, Argen- 

Field, Henry, Chicago. 

Field, Stanley, Chicago. 

Fisher, Clyde, New York. 

Foran, Ethel Ursula, Montreal, Canada. 

Geist, Harry F., Aurora, Illinois. 

Gerhard, W. J., Chicago. 

Goddard, Dwight, Santa Barbara, Cali- 

Gregg, Clifford C, Park Ridge, Illinois. 

Harris, Halbert M., Ames, Iowa. 
Harte, H. B., Chicago. 

Hochreutiner, Dr. B. P. G., Geneva, 


Hocking, George M., Washington, D.C. 

Hsu Kwan-swen, Nantungchow, 
Kiangsu, China. 

Jenkins, Anna E., Washington, D.C. 

Jenness, D., Ottawa, Canada. 

Jones, Charles Lloyd, Sydney, Aus- 

Kelley, Harper, Paris, France. 
Kelso, Leon, Washington, D.C. 

Labouret, Henri, Paris, France. 

Li Fu-Ching, Kaifong, China. 

Lindblom, Gerhard, Stockholm, Swe- 

Lines, Jorge A., San Jose\ Costa Rica. 

Lunardi, Federico, Rio de Janeiro, 

Macbride, Francis J., Chicago. 
Mathey, Robert. 

388 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Meek, Alexander, Durham, England. 

Middleton, George, Washington, D.C. 

Miles, L. E., Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal College, Mississippi. 

Montgomery, Dr. James A., Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania. 

Moyer, John W., Chicago. 

Nelson, Dr. Aven, Laramie, Wyoming. 
Nichols, Henry W., Chicago. 

Osgood, Wilfred H., Chicago. 

Pacheco Cruz, Santiago, Merida, Yu- 

Patterson, Bryan, Chicago. 

Pease, P., Brisbane, Australia. 

Peattie, Donald Culross, Glenview, 

Phillipson, Jean, Victoria, Australia. 

Ramaley, Francis, Denver, Colorado. 
Reed, Howard, Riverside, California. 
Roberts, Austin, Pretoria, South Africa. 
Rock, J. F., Yunnanfu, Yunnan, China. 

Sanborn, Colin C, Highland Park, Illi- 
Sastri, Hiranandra, Calcutta, India. 
Schanzlin, G. L., Hillisburg, Indiana. 
Schmidt, Karl P., Homewood, Illinois. 
Schonto, J. C, Groningen, Holland. 

Scott, O. M., Marysville, Ohio. 
Sherff, Dr. Earl E., Chicago. 
Simms, Stephen C, Chicago. 
Smith, Benjamin K., Chicago. 
Smith, Mrs. Roy K., Seoul, Korea. 
Soper, J. Dewey, Winnipeg, Canada. 
Standley, Paul C, Chicago. 
Stoner, Dayton, Albany, New York. 

Strong, William Duncan, Washington, 

Thompson, J. Eric, Santa Fe, New 

Thomsen, Th., Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Thordeman, Bengt, Stockholm, Swe- 

Townsend, Charles Haskins, New York. 

Truchet, Francis, Chicago. 

Urteaga, Horacio H., Lima, Peru. 
Vincent, Edith, Chicago. 

Walcott, A. B., Downers Grove, Illinois. 

Weed, Isabelle Gordon, Iowa City, 

Wilbur, C. M., New York. 
Wolterstoff, Dr. W., Magdeburg, Ger- 
Wood, Miriam, Park Ridge, Illinois. 

Young, Isabel N., New York. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 



Marshall Field* 


Those who have contributed $100,000 or more to the Museum 

Ayer, Edward E.* 

Buckingham, Miss 
Kate S. 

Crane, Cornelius 
Crane, R. T., Jr.* 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 

* Deceased 

Field, Joseph N.* 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W.* 
Higinbotham, Harlow N. 

Kelley, William V.* 

Pullman, George M.* 

Raymond*, Mrs. Anna 

Raymond, James Nelson* 

Simpson, James 
Sturges, Mrs. Mary D.* 


Chalmers, William J. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Field, Mrs. E. 

Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Those who have rendered eminent service to Science 

Graham, Ernest R. 
Harris, Albert W. 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Ludwig, H. R. H. Gustaf 
Adolf, Crown Prince of 

McCormick, Stanley 
Deceased, 1935 
Breasted, Professor James H. 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Simpson, James 
Sprague, Albert A. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 


Those who have rendered eminent service to the Museum 

Armour, Allison V. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chancellor, Philip M. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cummings, Mrs. 

Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Hancock, G. Allan 

Insull, Samuel 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 
Knight, Charles R. 

Langdon, Professor 

Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Deceased, 1935 

Payne, John Barton 

Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

Wegeforth, Dr. Harry M. 
White, Harold A. 
White, Howard J. 

390 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Scientists or patrons of science, residing in foreign countries, who hare rendered 

eminent service to the Museum 

Breuil, Abbe Henri 
Christensen, Dr. Carl 
Diels, Dr. Ludwig 

Hochreutiner, Dr. B. P. 

Keith, Professor 
Sir Arthur 

Langdon, Professor 

Smith, Professor Sir 
Grafton Elliot 


Those who hare contributed $1,000 to $100,000 to the Museum 
in money or materials 

$75,000 to $100,000 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Rawson, Frederick H. 

$50,000 to $75,000 

Keep, Chauncey* 

Rosenwald, Mrs. 
Augusta N.* 
Ryerson, Martin A.* 

$25,000 to $50,000 

Blackstone, Mrs. 
Timothy B.* 

Coats, John* 
Crane, Charles R. 

Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Jones, Arthur B.* 

Porter, George P.* 

Rosenwald, Julius* 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

White, Harold A. 

$10,000 to $25,000 

Armour, Allison V. 
Armour, P. D.* 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chalmers, William J. 
Conover, Boardman 

Cummings, R. F.* 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Everard, R. T.* 

Gunsaulus, Dr. F. W.* 

Insull, Samuel 

McCormick, Cyrus 

McCormick, Stanley 
Mitchell, John J.* 

Reese, Lewis* 
Robb, Mrs. George W. 
Rockefeller Foundation, 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Schweppe, Mrs. 

Charles H. 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Straus, Mrs. Sarah S. 
Strong, Walter A.* 

Wrigley, William, Jr.* 

$5,000 to $10,000 

Adams, George E.* 
Adams, Mil ward* 

Bartlett, A. C* 
Bishop, Heber (Estate) 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay* 

Crane, R. T.* 

Doane, J. W.* 

Fuller, William A.* 

Graves, George Coe, II 

Harm, Hayden B. 
Harris, Norman Dwight 
Harris, Mrs. Norman W.* 
Hutchinson, C. L.* 

Keith, Edson* 

Langtry, J. C. 

MacLean, Mrs. M. 

Mandel, Leon 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Pearsons, D. K.* 
Porter, H. H.* 

Ream, Norman B.* 
Revell, Alexander H.* 

Salie, Prince M. U. M. 
Sprague, A. A.* 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Thorne, Bruce 
Tree, Lambert* 

$1,000 to $5,000 

American Friends of 

Ayer, Mrs. Edward E.* 

Barrett, Samuel E. 
Bensabott, R., Inc. 
Blair, Watson F.* 
Blaschke, Stanley 

Borden, John 

Chalmers, Mrs. William J . 
Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr. 
Crocker, Templeton 

• Deceahbd 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Cummings, Mrs. 
Robert F. 

Doering, 0. C. 

Field, Henry 

Graves, Henry, Jr. 
Gunsaulus, Miss Helen 

Hibbard, W. G.* 
Higginson, Mrs. 

Charles M. 
Hill, James J.* 
Hixon, Frank P.* 
Hoffman, Miss Malvina 
Hughes, Thomas S. 

Jackson, Huntington W.* 
James, S. L. 

Laufer, Dr. Berthold* 
Lee Ling Yiin 

Mandel, Fred L., Jr. 
Manierre, George* 
Martin. Alfred T.* 
McCormick, Cyrus H. 
McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus* 

Ogden, Mrs. Frances E.* 

Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 

Rauchfuss, Charles F. 

Raymond, Charles E.* 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Martin A. 

Schwab, Martin C. 
Shaw, William W. 
Sherff, Dr. Earl E. 
Smith, Byron L.* 
Sprague, Albert A. 

Thompson, E. H. 
Thorne, Mrs. Louise E. 

VanValzah, Dr. Robert 
VonFrantzius, Fritz* 

Wheeler, Leslie 
Willis, L. M. 


Armour, Allison V. 

Borden, John 
Byram, Harry E. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chalmers, William J. 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Chatfield-Taylor, H. C. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cummings, Mrs. 

Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Joseph X. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Hancock, G. Allan 
Harris, Albert W. 

Insull, Samuel 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 
Knight, Charles R. 

Langdon, Professor 

McCormick, Cyrus H. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Deceased, 1935 

Payne, John Barton 

Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Richardson, George A. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Simms, Stephen C. 
Simpson, James 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

Wegeforth, Dr. Harry M. 
Wheeler, Leslie 
White, Harold A. 
White, Howard J. 


Those who hare contributed $500 to the Museum 

Abbott, John Jay 
Abbott, Robert S. 
Adler, Max 
Alexander, William A. 
Allerton, Robert H. 
Ames, James C. 
Armour, A. Watson 
Armour, Allison V. 
Armour, Lester 
Armour, Mrs. Ogden 
Asher, Louis E. 
Avery, Sewell L. 

Babcock, Frederick R. 
Babson, Henry B. 

Bacon, Edward 

Richardson, Jr. 
Banks, Alexander F. 
Barrett, Mrs. A. D. 
Barrett, Robert L. 
Bartlett, Miss Florence 

Baur, Mrs. Jacob 
Bendix, Vincent 
Bensabott, R. 
Bermingham, Edward J. 
Billings, C. K. G. 
Blaine, Mrs. Emmons 
Blair, Chauncey B. 
Block, Emanuel J. 
Block, L. E. 

Block, Philip D. 
Booth, W. Vernon 
Borden, John 
Borland, Chauncey B. 
Boynton, Mrs. C. T. 
Brassert, Herman A. 
Brewster, Walter S. 
Brown, Charles 

Browne, Aldis J. 
Buchanan, D. W. 
Budd, Britton I. 
Buffington, Eugene J. 
Burnham, John 
Burt, William G. 
Butler, Julius W. 

392 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Butler, Rush C. 
Byram, Harry E. 

Carpenter, Augustus A. 
Carpenter, Mrs. Hubbard 
Carpenter, Mrs. John 

Carr, George R. 
Carr, Robert F. 
Carr, Walter S. 
Casalis, Mrs. Maurice 
Chalmers, William J. 
Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 
Chatfield-Taylor, Wayne 
Clark, Eugene B. 
Clegg, William G. 
Clegg, Mrs. William G. 
Clow, William E. 
Collins, William M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cooke, George A. 
Corley, F. D. 
Cowles, Alfred 
Cramer, Corwith 
Cramer, Mrs. 

Katharine S. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Crossett, Edward C. 
Crossley, Lady Josephine 
Crossley, Sir Kenneth 
Crowell, H. P. 
Cudahy, Edward A. 
Cudahy, Edward A., Jr. 
Cudahy, Joseph M. 
Cunningham, Frank S. 
Cunningham, James D. 
Cushing, Charles G. 
Cutten, Arthur W. 

Davies, Mrs. D. C. 
Dawes, Charles G. 
Dawes, Henry M. 
Dawes, Rufus C. 
Decker, Alfred 
Delano, Frederic A. 
Dick, Albert B., Jr. 
Dierssen, Ferdinand W. 
Dixon, George W. 
Dixon, Homer L. 
Donnelley, Thomas E. 
Doyle, Edward J. 
Drake, John B. 
Drake, Tracy C. 
Dreyfus, Moise 
Durand, Scott S. 

Edmunds, Philip S. 
Epstein, Max 
Everitt, George B. 
Ewing, Charles Hull 

Farnum, Henry W. 
Farr, Newton Camp 
Farr, Miss Shirley 

Farwell, Arthur L. 
Farwell, John V. 
Farwell, Walter 
Fay, C. N. 
Fenton, Howard W. 
Fentress, Calvin 
Ferguson, Louis A. 
Fernald, Charles 
Field, Joseph N. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Norman 
Field, Mrs. Norman 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 
Florsheim, Milton S. 

Gardner, Paul E. 
Gardner, Robert A. 
Gartz, A. F., Jr. 
Gary, Mrs. John W. 
Getz, George F. 
Gilbert, Huntly H. 
Glessner, John J. 
Glore, Charles F. 
Goddard, Leroy A. 
Goodman, William 0. 
Goodrich, A. W. 
Goodspeed, Charles B. 
Gowing, J. Parker 
Graham, Ernest R. 
Griffiths, John 
Griscom, Clement A. 

Hack, Frederick C. 
Hamill, Alfred E. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W. 
Hastings, Samuel M. 
Hayes, William F. 
Hecht, Frank A., Jr. 
Hibbard, Frank 
Hickox, Mrs. Charles V. 
Hill, Louis W. 
Hinde, Thomas W. 
Hixon, Robert 
Hopkins, J. M. 
Hopkins, L. J. 
Horowitz, L. J. 
Hoyt, N. Landon 
Hughes, Thomas S. 
Hutchins, James C. 

Insull, Martin J. 
Insull, Samuel 
Insull, Samuel, Jr. 

Jamagin, William N. 
Jelke, John F., Jr. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Joiner, Theodore E. 
Jones, Miss Gwethalyn 

Kelley, Mrs. Daphne 

Kelley, Russell P. 
Kelly, D. F. 
Kidston, William H. 
King, Charles Garfield 
King, James G. 
Kirk, Walter Radcliffe 

Charles K. 
Kuppenheimer, Louis B. 

Lamont, Robert P. 
Lehmann, E. J. 
Leonard, Clifford M. 
Leopold, Mrs. Harold E. 
Levy, Mrs. David M. 
Linn, Mrs. Dorothy C. 
Logan, Spencer H. 
Lowden, Frank O. 
Lytton, Henry C. 

MacDowell, Charles H. 
MacLeish, John E. 
MacVeagh, Eames 
Madlener, Mrs. Albert F. 
Mark, Clayton 
Marshall, Benjamin H. 
Mason, William S. 
McCormick, Cyrus H. 
McCormick, Harold F. 
McCormick, Stanley 
McCutcheon, John T. 
McGann, Mrs. Robert G. 
Mcllvaine, William B. 
Mclnnerney, Thomas H. 
McKinlay, John 
McKinlock, George 

McLaughlin, Frederic 
McLennan, D. R. 
McLennan, Hugh 
McNulty, T. J. 
Meyer, Carl 
Meyne, Gerhardt F. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Edward S. 
Morse, Charles H., Jr. 
Morton, Mark 
Munroe, Charles A. 
Murphy, Walter P. 

Newell, A. B. 
Nikolas, G. J. 
Noel, Joseph R. 

O'Brien, John J. 
Ormsby, Dr. Oliver S. 
Orr, Robert M. 

Paesch, Charles A. 
Palmer, Honore 
Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Patterson, Joseph M. 
Payson, George S. 
Peabody, Stuyvesant 
Perkins, Herbert F. 
Pick, Albert 
Pike, Charles B. 
Pike, Eugene R. 
Poppenhusen, Conrad H. 
Porter, Frank W. 
Porter, Gilbert E. 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Raymond, Mrs. Anna 

Rea, Mrs. Robert L. 
Reynolds, Arthur 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Reynolds, George M. 
Riley, Harrison B. 
Rinaldo, Mrs. Philip S. 
Robinson, Theodore W. 
Robson, Miss Alice 
Rodman, Mrs. Katherine 

Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
Rosenwald, William 
Russell, Edmund A. 
Russell, Edward P. 
Ryerson, Edward L., Jr. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Martin A. 

Sargent, Fred Wesley 
Schweppe, Charles H. 
Scott, George E. 
Scott, Harold N. 
Seabury, Charles W. 
Shaffer, John C. 
Shirk, Joseph H. 
Simpson, James 
Simpson, William B. 
Smith, Alexander 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Spalding, Keith 
Spalding, Vaughan C. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Sprague, Mrs. Albert A. 
Stern, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Stevens, Eugene M. 
Stewart, Robert W. 
Stirton, Robert C. 
Storey, W. B. 
Strawn, Silas H. 
Stuart, Harry L. 
Stuart, John 
Stuart, R. Douglas 
Sturges, George 
Sunny, B. E. 
Swift, Charles H. 
Swift, G. F., Jr. 
Swift, Harold H. 
Swift, Louis F. 

Thome, Charles H. 
Thome, Robert J. 
Tree, Ronald L. F. 
Tyson, Russell 

Uihlein, Edgar J. 
Underwood, Morgan P. 

Valentine, Louis L. 
Veatch, George L. 
Viles, Lawrence M. 

Wanner, Harry C. 
Ward, P. C. 
Weber, David 
Welch, Mrs. Edwin P. 
Welling, John P. 
Whitney, Mrs. Julia L. 
Wickwire, Mrs. Edward L. 
Wieboldt, William A. 
Willard, Alonzo J. 
Willits, Ward W. 
Wilson, John P. 
Wilson, Thomas E. 
Winston, Garrard B. 
Winter, Wallace C. 
Woolley, Clarence M. 
Wrigley, Philip K. 

Yates, David M. 

Cramer, E. W. 
Dau, J. J. 
Eckstein, Louis 

Deceased, 1935 
Farwell, Francis C. 

Haskell, Frederick T. 
Hippach, Louis A. 

Patten, Mrs. James A. 
Payne, John Barton 

Runnells, Clive 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $100 to the Museum 

Coolidge, Harold Gregg, John Wyatt Rosenwald, Lessing J. 

_ J -> Jr - „,,._ Hearne, Knox Stephens, W. C. 

Copley, Ira CM ^ ^^ Stern, Mrs. Edgar B. 

Ellis, Ralph F., Jr. Vemay, Arthur S. 

394 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 


Those who have contributed $100 to the Museum 

Aaron, Charles 
Aaron, Ely M. 
Abbott, Donald 

Putnam, Jr. 
Abbott, Gordon C. 
Abbott, Guy H. 
Abbott, W. Rufus 
Abbott, William L. 
Abrams, Duff A. 
Ackerman, Charles N. 
Adamick, Gustave H. 
Adams, Benjamin Stearns 
Adams, Mrs. David T. 
Adams, Mrs. Frances 

Adams, John Q. 
Adams, Joseph 
Adams, Mrs. S. H. 
Adams, Mrs. Samuel 
Adams, William C. 
Adcock, Mrs. Bessie 
Addleman, Samuel W. 
Adler, David 
Adler, Mrs. Max 
Affleck, Benjamin F. 
Ahlschlager, Walter W. 
Albee, Mrs. Harry W. 
Alexander, Mrs. Arline V. 
Allais, Arthur L. 
Allbright, William B. 
Allen, Mrs. Fred G. 
Allensworth, A. P. 
Ailing, Mrs. C. A. 
Ailing, Mrs. VanWagenen 
Allison, Mrs. Nathaniel 
Alschuler, Alfred S. 
Alsip, Charles H. 
Alter, Harry 
Alton, Carol W. 
Andersen, Arthur 
Anderson, Miss Florence 

Andreen, Otto C. 
Andrews, Mrs. E. C. 
Andrews, Milton H. 
Anstiss, George P. 
Appelt, Mrs. Jessie E. 
Armbrust, John T. 
Armbruster, Charles A. 
Armour, A. Watson, III 
Armour, Philip D. 
Armstrong, Arthur W. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Julian 
Arn, W. G. 

Artingstall, Samuel G., Jr. 
Ascher, Fred 
Ashby, W. B. 
Ash craft, Raymond M. 

Ashenhurst, Harold S. 
Atkinson, Charles T. 
Atwater, Walter Hull 
Aurelius, Mrs. Marcus A. 
Austin, Henry W. 
Avery, Miss Clara 
Avery, George J. 

Baackes, Mrs. Frank 
Babb, W. E. 
Babson, Fred K. 
Babson, Mrs. Gustavus 
Badger, Shreve Cowles 
Baer, Mervin K. 
Baer, Walter S. 
Baggaley, William Blair 
Bailey, Mrs. Edward W. 
Baird, Mrs. Clay 
Baird, Harry K. 
Baker, Mrs. Alfred L. 
Baker, G. W. 
Baker, Greeley 
Baldwin, Vincent Curtis 
Baldwin, William W. 
Balgemann, Otto W. 
Balkin, Louis 
Ball, Dr. Fred E. 
Ball, Sidney Y. 
Ballard, Thomas L. 
Ballenberg, Adolph G. 
Bannister, Miss Ruth D. 
Bantsolas, John N. 
Barber, Phil C. 
Barbour, Harry A. 
Barbour, James J. 
Bargquist, Miss Lillian D. 
Barley, Miss Matilda A. 
Barnes, Cecil 
Barnes, Mrs. Charles 

Barnes, James M. 
Barnett, Otto R. 
Barnhart, Mrs. A. M. 
Barnhart, Mrs. Clara S. 
Barnhart, Miss Gracia 

M. F. 
Barnum, Harry 
Barr, Mrs. Alfred H. 
Bartelme, John H. 
Bartholomae, Mrs. Emma 
Bartholomay, F. H. 
Bartholomay, Henry 
Bartholomay, Mrs. 

William, Jr. 
Bartlett, Frederic C. 
Barton, Mrs. Enos M. 
Bastian, Charles L. 
Bateman, Floyd L. 

Bates, Mrs. A. M. 
Bates, Joseph A. 
Battey, Paul L. 
Bauer, Aleck 
Baum, Mrs. James E. 
Baum, Wilhelm 
Baumrucker, Charles F. 
Bausch, William C. 
Beach, Miss Bess K. 
Beach, E. Chandler 
Beachy, Mrs. P. A. 
Beatty, H. W. 
Beck, Herbert 
Becker, Mrs. A. G. 
Becker, Benjamin F. 
Becker, Benjamin V. 
Becker, Frederick G. 
Becker, Herman T. 
Becker, James H. 
Becker, Louis 
Becker, Louis L. 
Behr, Mrs. Edith 
Beidler, Francis, II 
Belden, Joseph C. 
Bell, Mrs. Laird 
Bellinghausen, Miss Celia 
Bender, C. J. 
Benjamin, Jack A. 
Benner, Harry 
Bennett, J. Gardner 
Benson, John 
Bentley, Arthur 
Bentley, Mrs. Cyrus 
Benton, Miss Mabel M. 
Berend, George F. 
Berkowitz, Dr. J. G. 
Berndt, Dr. George W. 
Berryman, John B. 
Bersbach, Elmer S. 
Bertschinger, Dr. C. F. 
Besly, Mrs. C. H. 
Bettman, Dr. Ralph B. 
Bevan, Dr. Arthur Dean 
Bichl, Thomas A. 
Bidwell, Charles W. 
Biehn, Dr. J. F. 
Bigler, Mrs. Albert J. 
Billow, Elmer Ellsworth 
Billow, Miss Virginia 
Bird, Miss Frances 
Bird, George H. 
Birk, Miss Amelia 
Birk, Edward J. 
Birk, Frank J. 
Birkenstein, George 
Birkholz, Hans E. 
Bishop, Howard P. 
Bishop, Mrs. Martha V. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Bistor, James E. 
Bittel, Mrs. Frank J. 
Bixby, Edward Randall 
Black, Dr. Arthur D. 
Blackburn, Oliver A. 
Blackman, Nathan L. 
Blair, Edward T. 
Blair, Mrs. M. Barbour 
Blair, Robert 0. 
Blair, Wolcott 
Blake, Tiffany 
Blatchford, Carter 
Blatchford, Dr. Frank 

Blayney, Thomas C. 
Blessing, Dr. Robert 
Blish, Sylvester 
Blome, Rudolph S. 
Blomgren, Dr. Walter L. 
Bloom, Mrs. Leopold 
Bluford, Mrs. David 
Blum, David 
Blum, Harry H. 
Blunt, J. E., Jr. 
Bluthardt, Edwin 
Boal, Ayres 
Boberg, Niels 
Bode, William F. 
Boericke, Mrs. Anna 
Boettcher, Arthur H. 
Bohasseck, Charles 
Bolten, Paul H. 
Bondy, Berthold 
Boomer, Dr. Paul C. 
Boone, Arthur 
Boom, William C. 
Booth, Alfred V. 
Booth, George E. 
Borg, George W. 
Borland, Mrs. Bruce 
Bosch, Charles 
Bosch, Mrs. Henry 
Both, William C. 
Bctts, Graeme G. 
Bousa, Dr. Bohuslav 
Bowen, Mrs. Louise 

Bowes, William R. 
Bowey, Mrs. Charles F. 
Bowman, Johnston A. 
Boyack, Harry 
Boyden, Miss Ellen Webb 
Boyden, Miss Rosalie 

Boynton, A. J. 
Boynton, Frederick P. 
Brach, Mrs. F. V. 
Bradley, Mrs. A. Ballard 
Bradley, Charles E. 
Bradley, Mrs. Natalie 

Blair Higinbotham 
Brainerd, Mrs. Arthur T. 

Bramble, Delhi G. C. 
Brand, Mrs. Edwin L., Jr. 
Brand, Mrs. Maude G. 
Brand, Mrs. Rudolf 
Brandes, A. G. 
Brandt, Charles H. 
Bransfield, John J. 
Brauer, Mrs. Paul 
Breckinridge, Professor 

S. P. 
Bremer, Harry A. 
Bremner, Mrs. David 

F., Jr. 
Brendecke, Miss June 
Brennemann, Dr. Joseph 
Brennwasser, S. M. 
Brenza, Miss Mary 
Brewer, Mrs. Angeline L. 
Breyer, Mrs. Theodor 
Bridge, George S. 
Briggs, Mrs. Gertrude 
Bristol, James T. 
Brock, A. J. 
Brodribb, Lawrence C. 
Broome, Thornhill 
Brown, A. Wilder 
Brown, Benjamin R. 
Brown, Charles A. 
Brown, Christy 
Brown, Dr. Edward M. 
Brown, Mrs. Everett C. 
Brown, Mrs. George 

Brown, Mrs. Henry 

Brown, John T. 
Brown, Scott 
Brucker, Dr. Edward A. 
Bruckner, William T. 
Brugman, John J. 
Brundage, Avery 
Brunswick, Larry 
Brunt, J. P. 
Bryant, John J., Jr. 
Buck, Guy R. 
Buck, Mrs. Lillian B. 
Buck, Nelson Leroy 
Bucklin, Mrs. Vail R. 
Budlong, Joseph J. 
Buehler, Mrs. Carl 
Buehler, H. L. 
Buettner, Walter J. 
Buffington, Mrs. 

Margaret A. 
Buhmann, Gilbert G. 
Bullock, Mrs. James E. 
Bunge, Mrs. Albert J. 
Burdick, Mrs. Alfred S. 
Burgess, Charles F. 
Burgstreser, Newton 
Burgweger, Mrs. Meta 


Burke, Mrs. Lawrence N. 
Burke, Webster H. 
Burkholder, Dr. J. F. 
Burley, Mrs. Clarence A. 
Burnham, Mrs. Edward 
Burnham, Frederic 
Burns, Mrs. Randall W. 
Burrows, Mrs. W. F. 
Burry, Mrs. William 
Burry, William, Jr. 
Burtch, Almon 
Burton, Mrs. Ernest D. 
Bush, Mrs. Lionel E. 
Bush, Mrs. William H. 
Butler, Burridge D. 
Butler, Mrs. Hermon B. 
Butler, J. Fred 
Butler, John M. 
Butler, Paul 
Butz, Herbert R. 
Butz, Robert O. 
Butz, Theodore C. 
Butzow, Mrs. Robert C. 
Byfield, Dr. Albert H. 
Byrne, Miss Margaret H. 

Cable, J. E. 
Cahn, Dr. Alvin R. 
Cahn, Bertram J. 
Cahn, Morton D. 
Caine, John F. 
Caldwell, C. D. 
Cameron, Dr. Dan U. 
Cameron, John M. 
Cameron, Will J. 
Camp, Mrs. Arthur Royce 
Campbell, Delwin M. 
Campbell, Herbert J. 
Canby, Caleb H., Jr. 
Capes, Lawrence R. 
Capps, Dr. Joseph A. 
Carlin, Leo J. 
Carney, William Roy 
Caron, O. J. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Benjamin 
Carpenter, Frederic Ives 
Carpenter, Mrs. George A. 
Carpenter, George Sturges 
Carpenter, Hubbard 
Carpenter, Miss Rosalie 

Carpenter, W. W. S. 
Carqueville, Mrs. A. R. 
Carr, Mrs. Clyde M. 
Carroll, John A. 
Carry, Joseph C. 
Carter, Mrs. Armistead B. 
Carton, Alfred T. 
Cary, Dr. Eugene 
Cary, Dr. Frank 
Casey, Mrs. James J. 

396 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Casselberry, Mrs. William 

Evans, Sr. 
Cassels, Edwin H. 
Castle, Alfred C. 
Castruccio, Giuseppe 
Cates, Dudley 
Cernoch, Frank 
Chadwick, Charles H. 
Chandler, Henry P. 
Chapin, Henry Kent 
Chapman, Arthur E. 
Chappell, Mrs. Charles H. 
Chase, Frank D. 
Cheney, Dr. Henry W. 
Cherry, Walter L., Jr. 
Childs, Mrs. C. 

Chisholm, George D. 
Chislett, Miss Kate E. 
Chritton, George A. 
Churan, Charles A. 
Clark, Ainsworth W. 
Clark, Miss Alice Keep 
Clark, Charles V. 
Clark, Miss Dorothy S. 
Clark, Mrs. Edward S. 
Clark, Edwin H. 
Clark, Lincoln R. 
Clark, Dr. Peter S. 
Clarke, Charles F. 
Clarke, Fred L. 
Clarke, Harley L. 
Clas, Miss Mary Louise 
Clemen, Dr. Rudolf A. 
Cleveland, Paul W. 
Clifford, F. J. 
Clinch, Duncan L. 
Clithero, W. S. 
Clough, William H. 
Clow, Mrs. Harry B. 
Clow, William E., Jr. 
Cochran, John L. 
Coffin, Fred Y. 
Cohen, George B. 
Cohen, Mrs. L. Lewis 
Colburn, Frederick S. 
Colby, Mrs. George E. 
Coldren, Clifton C. 
Coleman, Dr. George H. 
Coleman, Loring W., Jr. 
Coleman, William Ogden 
Colianni, Paul V. 
Collins, Beryl B. 
Collis, Harry J. 
Collison, E. K. 
Colvin, Miss Catharine 
Colvin, Miss Jessie 
Colvin, Mrs. William H. 
Colwell, Clyde C. 
Compton, D. M. 
Compton, Frank E. 
Condon, Mrs. James G. 

Conger, Miss Cornelia 
Connell, P. G. 
Conners, Harry 
Connor, Mrs. Clara A. 
Connor, Frank H. 
Cook, Miss Alice B. 
Cook, Mrs. David S., Jr. 
Cook, Mrs. Wallace L. 
Cooke, Charles E. 
Cooke, Miss Flora 
Cooke, Leslie L. 
Coolidge, Miss Alice 
Coolidge, E. Channing 
Coombs, James F. 
Coonley, John Stuart, Jr. 
Coonley, Prentiss L. 
Cooper, Samuel 
Copland, David 
Corbett, Mrs. William J. 
Cormack, Charles V. 
Cornell, John E. 
Cosford, Thomas H. 
Coston, James E. 
Counselman, Mrs. 

Jennie E. 
Cox, Mrs. Howard M. 
Cox, James A. 
Cox, James C. 
Cox, Mrs. Rensselaer W. 
Crane, Charles R., II 
Crego, Mrs. Dominica S. 
Crerar, Mrs. John 
Crilly, Edgar 
Cromer, Clarence E. 
Cromwell, Miss Juliette 

Cross, Henry H. 
Crowder, Dr. Thomas R. 
Cubbins, Dr. William R. 
Cudahy, Edward I. 
Culbertson, Dr. Carey 
Cummings, Mrs. D. 

Cuneo, John F. 
Cunningham, Mrs. 

Howard J. 
Cunningham, John T. 
Curran, Harry R. 
Curtis, Austin Guthrie, 

Curtis, Benjamin J. 
Curtis, Mrs. Charles S. 
Curtis, Miss Frances H. 
Cusack, Harold 
Cushman, A. W. 
Cushman, Barney 
Cutler, Henry E. 
Cutting, Charles S. 

Dahlberg, Bror G. 
Daily, Richard 
Dakin, Dr. Frank C. 

Daley, Harry C. 
Dammann, J. F. 
D'Ancona, Edward N. 
Danforth, Dr. William C. 
Dantzig, Leonard P. 
Danz, Charles A. 
Dashiell, C. R. 
Daughaday, C. Colton 
Davey, Mrs. Bruce C. 
David, Dr. Vernon C. 
Davidonis, Dr. 

Alexander L. 
Davidson, Miss Mary E. 
Davies, Marshall 
Davis, Abel 
Davis, Arthur 
Davis, Brode B. 
Davis, C . S. 
Davis, Dr. Carl B. 
Davis, Frank S. 
Davis, Fred M. 
Davis, James 
Davis, Dr. Loyal 
Davis, Dr. Nathan 

S., Ill 
Davis, Ralph 
Dawes, E. L. 
DeAcres, Clyde H. 
Deagan, John C. 
Deahl, Uriah S. 
Decker, Charles 0. 
DeCosta, Lewis M. 
DeDardel, Carl 0. 
Dee, Thomas J. 
Deery, Thomas A., Jr. 
Degen, David 
DeGolyer, Robert S. 
DeKoven, Mrs. John 
DeLee, Dr. Joseph B. 
DeLemon, H. R. 
Deming, Everett G. 
Dempster, Mrs. 

Charles W. 
Deneen, Mrs. Charles S. 
Denkewalter, W. E. 
Denman, Mrs. Burt J. 
Dennehy, Thomas C. 
Dennis, Charles H. 
Dent, George C. 
Deslsles, Mrs. Carrie L. 
Deutsch, Mrs. Percy L. 
DeVries, David 
DeVries, Peter 
Dewes, Rudolph Peter 
Dick, Edison 
Dick, Elmer J. 
Dick, Mrs. Homer T. 
Dickey, Roy 
Dickey, William E. 
Dickinson, F. R. 
Dickinson, Robert B. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Dickinson, Mrs. W. 

Diehl, Harry L. 
Diestel, Mrs. Herman 
Dikeman, Aaron Butler 
Dillon, Miss Hester 

Dimick, Miss Elizabeth 
Dixon, Alan C. 
Dixon, William Warren 
Dobson, George 
Doctor, Isidor 
Dodge, Mrs. Paul C. 
Doering, Mrs. 

Edmund J., Jr. 
Doering, Otto C. 
Doerr, William P., Sr. 
Doetsch, Miss Anna 
Dole, Arthur 
Dolese, Mrs. John 
Donahue, William J. 
Donker, Mrs. William 
Donlon, Mrs. Stephen E. 
Donnelley, Mrs. H. P. 
Donnelley, Miss Naomi 
Donnelly, Frank 
Donohue, Edgar T. 
Douglas, James H., Jr. 
Douglass, Kingman 
Dreiske, George J. 
Drummond, James J. 
Dryden, Mrs. George B. 
Dubbs, C. P. 
Dudley, Laurence H. 
Dugan, Alphonso G. 
Dulany, George W., Jr. 
Dulsky, Mrs. Samuel 
Dunbaugh, Harry J. 
Duncan, Albert G. 
Duner, Dr. Clarence S. 
Duner, Joseph A. 
Dunham, John H. 
Dunham, Miss Lucy Belle 
Dunham, Robert J. 
Dunlop, Mrs. Simpson 
Dunn, Samuel O. 
Dupee, Mrs. F. Kennett 
Durbin, Fletcher M. 
Dyche, William A. 

Easterberg, C. J. 
Eastman, Mrs. George H. 
Ebeling, Frederic O. 
Eckhart, Mrs. B. A. 
Eckhart, Percy B. 
Eddy, George A. 
Eddy, Thomas H. 
Edmonds, Harry C. 
Edwards, Miss Edith E. 
Edwards, Kenneth P. 
Egan, William B. 
Ehrman, Edwin H. 

Eiselen, Dr. Frederick 

Eisendrath, Edwin W. 
Eisendrath, Robert M. 
Eisendrath, Mrs. 

William N. 
Eisenschiml, Mrs. Otto 
Eisenstaedt, Harry 
Eisenstein, Sol 
Eitel, Max 
Elenbogen, Herman 
Ellbogen, Albert L. 
Elliot, Mrs. Frank M. 
Elliott, Dr. Charles A. 
Elliott, Frank R. 
Ellis, Howard 
Elting, Howard 
Ely, Mrs. C. Morse 
Engel, E. J. 

Engelhard, Benjamin M. 
Engstrom, Harold 
Engwall, John F. 
Erdmann, Mrs. C. Pardee 
Ericson, Mrs. Chester F. 
Ericson, Melvin Burton 
Ericsson, Clarence 
Ericsson, Dewey A. 
Ericsson, Henry 
Ericsson, Walter H. 
Ernst, Mrs. Leo 
Erskine, Albert DeWolf 
Etten, Henry C. 
Eustice, Alfred L. 
Evans, Mrs. Albert 

Evans, Miss Anna B. 
Evans, Mrs. David 
Evans, David J. 
Evans, Eliot H. 
Evans, Evan A. 
Ewell, CD. 
Ewen, William R. T. 

Fabian, Francis G. 
Fabry, Herman 
Fackt, Mrs. George P. 
Fader, A. L. 
Faget, James E. 
Faherty, Roger 
Fahrenwald, Frank A. 
Faithorn, Walter E. 
Falk, Miss Amy 
Farnham, Mrs. Harry J. 
Farrell, Mrs. B. J. 
Farrell, Rev. Thomas F. 
Faulkner, Charles J., Jr. 
Faulkner, Miss Elizabeth 
Faurot, Henry 
Faurot, Henry, Jr. 
Fay, Miss Agnes M. 
Fecke, Mrs. Frank J. 
Feigenheimer, Herman 

Feiwell, Morris E. 
Felix, Benjamin B. 
Fellows, William K. 
Felsenthal, Edward 

Feltman, Charles H. 
Fergus, Robert C. 
Ferguson, William H. 
Fernald, Robert W. 
Fetcher, Edwin S. 
Fetzer, Wade 
Fies, Mrs. E. E. 
Filek, August 
Findlay, Mrs. Roderick 
Finley, Max H. 
Finn, Joseph M. 
Finnerud, Dr. Clark W. 
Fischel, Frederic A. 
Fish, Mrs. Isaac 
Fishbein, Dr. Morris 
Fisher, Mrs. Edward 

Fisher, George P. 
Fisher, Harry M. 
Fitzpatrick, Mrs. John A. 
Flavin, Edwin F. 
Fleming, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Flesch, Eugene W. P. 
Flexner, Washington 
Florsheim, Irving S. 
Flosdorf, Mrs. G. E. 
Foley, Rev. William M. 
Follansbee, Mitchell D. 
Folonie, Mrs. Robert J. 
Folsom, Mrs. Richard S. 
Foote, Peter 

Foreman, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Foreman, Mrs. E. G. 
Foreman, Edwin G., Jr. 
Foreman, Harold E. 
Foresman, Mrs. W. 

Forgan, James B., Jr. 
Forgan, Mrs. J. Russell 
Forgan, Robert D. 
Forman, Charles 
Forstall, James J. 
Fortune, Miss Joanna 
Foster, Mrs. Charles K. 
Foster, Volney 
Fowler, Miss Elizabeth 
Fox, Charles E. 
Fox, Jacob Logan 
Fox, Dr. Paul C. 
Frank, Dr. Ira 
Frank, Mrs. Joseph K. 
Frankenstein, Rudolph 
Frankenstein, William B. 
Frankenthal, Dr. Lester 

E., Jr. 
Frazer, Mrs. George E. 
Freedman, Dr. I. Val 

398 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Freeman, Charles Y. 
Freeman, Walter W. 
Freer, Archibald E. 
French, Dudley K. 
Frenier, A. B. 
Freudenthal, G. S. 
Freund, Charles E. 
Frey, Charles Daniel 
Freyn, Henry J. 
Fridstein, Meyer 
Friedlander, Jacob 
Friedlich, Mrs. Herbert 
Friedlund, Mrs. J. Arthur 
Friedman, Mrs. Isaac K. 
Friedman, Oscar J. 
Friend, Mrs. Henry K. 
Friestedt, Arthur A. 
Frisbie, Chauncey O. 
Frost, Mrs. Charles 
Fuller, Mrs. Charles 
Fuller, Mrs. Gretta 

Fuller, Judson M. 
Fuller, Leroy W. 
Furry, William S. 
Furst, Eduard A. 

Gabathuler, Miss Juanita 
Gabriel, Charles 
Gaertner, William 
Gale, G. Whittier 
Gale, Henry G. 
Gall, Charles H. 
Gall, Harry T. 
Gallagher, Vincent G. 
Gallup, Rockwell 
Gait, Mrs. A. T. 
Gann, David B. 
Gansbergen, Mrs. F. H. 
Garard, Elzy A. 
Garcia, Jose 
Garden, Hugh M. G. 
Gardner, Addison L. 
Gardner, Addison 

L., Jr. 
Gardner, Henry A. 
Gardner, Mrs. James P. 
Garner, Harry J. 
Garrison, Dr. Lester E. 
Gary, Fred Elbert 
Gately, Ralph M. 
Gawne, Miss Clara J. 
Gay, Rev. A. Royal 
Gaylord, Duane W. 
Gear, H. B. 
Gehl, Dr. W. H. 
Gehrmann, Felix 
George, Mrs. Albert B. 
George, Fred W 
Gerding, R. W. 
Geringer, Charles M. 
Gerngross, Mrs. Leo 

Gerrity, Thomas 
Gerts, Walter S. 
Gettelman, Mrs. Sidney H. 
Getzoff, E. B. 
Gibbs, Dr. John Phillip 
Gibson, Dr. Stanley 
Gielow, Walter C. 
Giffert, Mrs. William 
Gifford, Mrs. Frederick 

Gilbert, Miss Clara C. 
Gilchrist, Mrs. John F. 
Gilchrist, Mrs. William 

Giles, Carl C. 
Gillette, Mrs. Ellen D. 
Gillman, Morris 
Gillson, Louis K. 
Ginther, Miss Minnie C. 
Girard, Mrs. Anna 
Glaescher, Mrs. G. W. 
Glasgow, H. A. 
Glasner, Rudolph W. 
Glenn, Mrs. J. M. 
Godehn, Paul M. 
Goedke, Charles F. 
Goehst, Mrs. John 

Goes, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Golden, Dr. Isaac J. K. 
Goldenberg, Sidney D. 
Goldfine, Dr. Ascher H. C. 
Golding, Robert N. 
Goldstine, Dr. Mark T. 
Goldy, Walter I. 
Goode, Mrs. Rowland T. 
Gooden, G. E. 
Goodkind, Dr. Maurice L. 
Goodman, Benedict K. 
Goodman, W. J. 
Goodman, William E. 
Goodrow, William 
Goodwin, Clarence 

Goodwin, George S. 
Gordon, Harold J. 
Gordon, Mrs. Robert D. 
Gorrell, Mrs. Warren 
Gradle, Dr. Harry S. 
Grady, Dr. Grover Q. 
Graf, Robert J. 
Graff, Oscar C. 
Graham, Douglas 
Graham, E. V. 
Graham, Miss 

Margaret H. 
Gramm, Mrs. Helen 
Granger, Alfred 
Granger, Mrs. Everett J. 
Grant, Alexander R. 
Grant, James D. 
Grant, John G. 

Graves, Howard B. 
Grawoig, Allen 
Gray, Mrs. Charles W. 
Green, Miss Mary Pomeroy 
Green, Robert D. 
Green, Zola C. 
Greenberg, Andrew H. 
Greenburg, Dr. Ira E. 
Greene, Carl D. 
Greene, Henry E. 
Greenebaum, James E. 
Greenebaum, M. E., Jr. 
Greenlee, James A. 
Greenlee, Mrs. William 

Greenman, Mrs. Earl C. 
Gregory, Clifford V. 
Gregory, Stephen 

S., Jr. 
Gregory, Tappan 
Grey, Charles F. 
Grey, Dr. Dorothy 
Griest, Mrs. Marianna L.. 
Griff enhagen, Mrs. 

Edwin O. 
Griffith, Mrs. Carroll L. 
Griffith, E. L. 
Griffith, Melvin L. 
Griffith, Mrs. William 
Griffiths, George W. 
Grimm, Walter H. 
Griswold, Harold T. 
Grizzard, James A. 
Gronkowski, Rev. C. I. 
Groot, Cornelius J. 
Groot, Lawrence A. 
Gross, Henry R. 
Grossman, Frank I. 
Grotenhuis, Mrs. 

William J. 
Grotowski, Dr. Leon 
Gruhn, Alvah V. 
Grulee, Lowry K. 
Grunow, Mrs. William C, 
Guenzel, Louis 
Guest, Ward E. 
Gundlach, Ernest T. 
Gunthorp, Walter J. 
Gurley, Miss Helen K. 
Gwinn, William R. 

Haas, Adolph R. 
Haas, Maurice 
Haas, Dr. Raoul R. 
Hadley, Mrs. Edwin M. 
Hagen, Mrs. Daise 
Hagen, Fred J. 
Hagens, Dr. Garrett J. 
Haggard, John D. 
Hagner, Fred L. 
Haight, George I. 
Hair, T. R. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Hajicek, Rudolph F. 
Haldeman, Walter S. 
Hale, Mrs. Samuel 
Hale, William B. 
Hall, David W. 
Hall, Edward B. 
Hall, Mrs. J. B. 
Hallmann, August F. 
Hallmann, Herman F. 
Halperin, Aaron 
Hamill, Charles H. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Hamill, Robert W. 
Hamilton, Thomas B. 
Hamlin, Paul D. 
Hammerschmidt, Mrs. 

George F. 
Hammitt, Miss Frances M. 
Hammond, Mrs. Idea L. 
Hammond, Thomas S. 
Hand, George W. 
Hanley, Henry L. 
Hann, J. Roberts 
Hansen, Mrs. Carl 
Hansen, Jacob W. 
Harder, John H. 
Hardie, George F. 
Hardin, John H. 
Harding, Charles 

F., Jr. 
Harding, George F. 
Harding, John Cowden 
Harding, Richard T. 
Hardinge, Franklin 
Harker, H. L. 
Harms, John V. D. 
Harper, Alfred C. 
Harris, Mrs. Abraham 
Harris, David J. 
Harris, Gordon L. 
Harris, Hayden B. 
Harris, Miss Martha E. 
Hart, Mrs. Herbert L. 
Hart, William M. 
Hartmann, A. O. 
Hartshorn, Kenneth L. 
Hartwell, Fred G. 
Hartwig, Otto J. 
Hartz, W. Homer 
Harvey, Hillman H. 
Harvey, Richard M. 
Harwood, Thomas W. 
Haskell, Mrs. George E. 
Haugan, Oscar H. 
Havens, Samuel M. 
Hay, Mrs. William 

Hayes, Charles M. 
Hayes, Harold C. 
Hayes, Miss Mary E. 
Haynie, Miss Rachel W. 
Hays, Mrs. Arthur A. 

Hayslett, Arthur J. 
Hazlett. Dr. William H. 
Healy, Mrs. Marquette A. 
Heaney, Dr. N. Sproat 
Heaton, Harry E. 
Heaton, Herman C. 
Heberlein, Miss 

Amanda F. 
Heck, John 
Hedberg, Henry E. 
Heidke, Herman L. 
Heiman, Marcus 
Heine, Mrs. Albert 
Heineman, Oscar 
Heinzelman, Karl 
Heinzen, Mrs. Carl 
Heldmaier, Miss Marie 
Helfrich, J. Howard 
Heller, Albert 
Heller, John A. 
Heller, Mrs. Walter E. 
Hellman, George A. 
Hellyer, Walter 
Hemmens, Mrs. Walter P. 
Hemple, Miss Anne C. 
Henderson, Thomas B. G. 
Henkel, Frederick W. 
Henley, Eugene H. 
Hennings, Mrs. 

Abraham J. 
Henry, Huntington B. 
Henry, Otto 
Henshaw, Mrs. 

Raymond S. 
Herri ck, Charles E. 
Herrick, Miss Louise 
Herrick, Walter D. 
Herron, James C. 
Herron, Mrs. Ollie L. 
Hershey, J. Clarence 
Hertz, Mrs. Fred 
Herwig, George 
Herwig, William D., Jr. 
Heun, Arthur 
Heverly, Earl L. 
Heyworth, Mrs. James O. 
Hibbard, Mrs. Angus S. 
Hibbard, Mrs. W. G. 
Higgins, John 
Higgins, John W. 
Higinbotham, Harlow D. 
Higley, Mrs. Charles W. 
Hildebrand, Eugene, Jr. 
Hildebrand, Grant M. 
Hill, Mrs. E. M. 
Hill, Mrs. Lysander 
Hill, Mrs. Russell D. 
Hill, William E. 
Hille, Dr. Hermann 
Hillebrecht, Herbert E. 
Hillis, Dr. David S. 
Himrod, Mrs. Frank W. 

Hinkle, Ross 0. 
Hinman, Mrs. Estelle S. 
Hinrichs, Henry, Jr. 
Hinsberg, Stanley K. 
Hinton, E. W. 
Hintz, John C. 
Hird, Frederick H. 
Hirsch, Jacob H. 
Hiscox, Morton 
Histed, J. Roland 
Hixon, Mrs. Frank P. 
Hodgkinson, Mrs. W. R. 
Hoelscher, Herman M. 
Hoffman, Glen T. 
Hoffmann, Miss Caroline 

Hoffmann, Edward 

Hogan, Robert E. 
Hohman, Dr. E. H. 
Hoier, William V. 
Holden, Edward A. 
Holland, Dr. William E. 
Hollingsworth, R. G. 
Hollis, Henry L. 
Hollister, Francis H. 
Holmes, George J. 
Holmes, Miss Harriet F. 
Holmes, Mrs. Maud G. 
Holmes, William 
Holmes, William N. 
Holt, Miss Ellen 
Homan, Miss Blossom L. 
Honnold, Dr. Fred C. 
Honsik, Mrs. James M. 
Hoover, F. E. 
Hoover, Mrs. Frank K. 
Hoover, Mrs. Fred W. 
Hoover, H. Earl 
Hoover, Ray P. 
Hope, Alfred S. 
Hopkins, Farley 
Hopkins, Mrs. James M. 
Hopkins, John L. 
Horan, Dennis A. 
Horcher, William W. 
Horner, Dr. David A. 
Horner, Mrs. Maurice 

L., Jr. 
Hornung, Joseph J. 
Horst, Curt A. 
Horton, George T. 
Horton, Hiram T. 
Horton, Horace B. 
Hosbein, Louis H. 
Hosmer, Philip B. 
Hottinger, Adolph 
Howard, Mrs. Elmer A. 
Howard, Harold A. 
Howard, Willis G. 
Howe, Charles Arthur 
Howe, Clinton W. 

400 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Howe, Warren D. 
Howe, William G. 
Howell, Albert S. 
Howell, William 
Howse, Richard 
Hoyne, Thomas Temple 
Hoyt, Frederick T. 
Hoyt, Mrs. Phelps B. 
Hubbard, George W. 
Huber, Dr. Harry Lee 
Hudson, Mrs. H. 

Hudson, Walter L. 
Hudson, William E. 
Huey, Mrs. A. S. 
Huff, Thomas D. 
Huggins, Dr. Ben H. 
Hughes, John E. 
Hughes, John W. 
Hulbert, Mrs. Charles 

Hulbert, Mrs. Milan H. 
Hume, John T. 
Humphrey, H. K. 
Huncke, Herbert S. 
Huncke, Oswald W. 
Hunter, Samuel M. 
Hurley, Edward N., Jr. 
Huston, W. L. 
Huston, Ward T. 
Huszagh, R. LeRoy 
Huszagh, Ralph D. 
Hutchinson, Foye P. 
Hutchinson, Samuel S. 
Hyatt, R. C. 
Hynes, Rev. J. A. 

Ickes, Raymond 
Idelman, Bernard 
Ilg, Robert A. 
Inlander, Samuel 
Irons, Dr. Ernest E. 
Isaacs, Charles W., Jr. 
Isham, Henry P. 
Ives, Clifford E. 

Jackson, Allan 
Jackson, Archer L. 
Jacobi, Miss Emily C. 
Jacobs, Hyman A. 
Jacobs, Julius 
Jacobs, Louis G. 
Jacobson, Raphael 
Jaeger, George J., Jr. 
Jaffe, Dr. Richard 

Jaffray, Mrs. David S. 
James, Edward P. 
James, William R. 
Jameson, Clarence W. 
Janusch, Fred W. 

Jaques, Mrs. Louis 

Jar chow, Charles C. 
Jarratt, Mrs. Walter J. 
Jefferies, F. L. 
Jeffery, Mrs. Thomas B. 
Jenkins, David F. D. 
Jenkins, Mrs. John E. 
Jenkinson, Mrs. Arthur 

Jenks, William Shippen 
Jennings, Ode D. 
Jennings, Mrs. Rosa V. 
Jerger, Wilbur Joseph 
Jetzinger, David 
Jirka, Dr. Frank J. 
Jirka, Dr. Robert H. 
John, Dr. Findley D. 
Johnson, Albert M. 
Johnson, Alvin O. 
Johnson, Arthur L. 
Johnson, Mrs. Harley 

Johnson, Isaac Horton 
Johnson, Joseph F. 
Johnson, Nels E. 
Johnson, Mrs. O. W. 
Johnson, Olaf B. 
Johnson, Philip C. 
Johnson, Ulysses G. 
Johnston, Arthur C. 
Johnston, Edward R. 
Johnston, Mrs. Hubert 

Johnston, Mrs. M. L. 
Johnstone, Dr. A. Ralph 
Johnstone, George A. 
Johnstone, Dr. Mary 

Jones, Albert G. 
Jones, G. Herbert 
Jones, James B. 
Jones, Lester M. 
Jones, Dr. Margaret M. 
Jones, Melvin 
Jones, Miss Susan E. 
Jones, Warren G. 
Joseph, Louis L. 
Joy, Guy A. 
Joyce, David G. 
Joyce, Joseph 
Judah, Noble Brandon 
Juergens, H. Paul 
Julien, Victor R. 
Junker, Miss Elsa W. 
Junkunc, Stephen 

Kaercher, A. W. 
Kahn, Gus 
Kahn, J. Kesner 
Kahn, Louis 
Kaine, James B. 

Kane, Jerome M. 
Kanter, Jerome J. 
Kaplan, Nathan D. 
Karpen, Michael 
Kaspar, Otto 
Katz, Mrs. Sidney L. 
Katzenstein, Mrs. 

George P. 
Kauffman, Mrs. R. K. 
Kauffmann, Alfred 
Kavanagh, Clarence H. 
Kavanagh, Maurice F. 
Kay, Mrs. Marie E. 
Keefe, Mrs. George I. 
Keehn, George W. 
Keehn, Mrs. Theodore 

C. L. 
Keene, Mrs. Joseph 
Keeney, Albert F. 
Kehl, Robert Joseph 
Keith, Stanley 
Kelker, Rudolph F., Jr. 
Kellogg, John L. 
Kellogg, Mrs. M. G. 
Kelly, Edward T. 
Kelly, James J. 
Kemp, Mrs. E. M. 
Kempner, Harry B. 
Kempner, Stan 
Kendall, Mrs. Virginia H. 
Kendrick, John F. 
Kennedy, Miss Leonore 
Kennelly, Martin H. 
Kent, Dr. O. B. 
Keogh, Gordon E. 
Kern, Trude 
Kersey, Glen B. 
Kerwin, Edward M. 
Kesner, Jacob L. 
Kiessling, Mrs. Charles S. 
Kilbourne, L. B. 
Kile, Miss Jessie J. 
Kimbark, Mrs. Eugene 

Kimbark, John R. 
King, Joseph H. 
Kingman, Mrs. Arthur G. 
Kinney, Mrs. Minnie B. 
Kinsey, Frank 
Kinsey, Robert S. 
Kintzel, Richard 
Kircher, Rev. Julius 
Kirchheimer, Max 
Kirkland, Mrs. 

Kitchell, Howell W. 
Kittredge, R. J. 
Kitzelman, Otto 
Klein, Arthur F. 
Klein, Henry A. 
Klein, Mrs. Samuel 
Kleinpell, Dr. Henry H. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Kleist, Mrs. Harry 
Kleppinger, William H. 
Kleutgen, Dr. Arthur C. 
Kline, Sol 

Klinetop, Mrs. Charles W. 
Klink, A. F. 
Knox, Harry S. 
Knutson, George H. 
Koch, Paul W. 
Koch, Raymond J. 
Kochs, August 
Kochs, Mrs. Robert T. 
Kohl, Mrs. Caroline L. 
Kohler, Eric L. 
Kohlsaat, Edward C. 
Komiss, David S. 
Konsberg, Alvin V. 
Kopf, William P. 
Kosobud, William F. 
Kotal, John A. 
Kotin, George N. 
Koucky, Dr. J. D. 
Kovac, Stefan 
Kraber, Mrs. Fredericka 
Kraft, C. H. 
Kraft, James L. 
Kraft, Norman 
Kralovec, Emil G. 
Kralovec, Mrs. Otto J. 
Kramer, Leroy 
Kraus, Peter J. 
Kraus, Samuel B. 
Krause, John J. 
Kretschmer, Dr. 

Herman L. 
Kritchevsky, Dr. Wolff 
Kroehl, Howard 
Kropff, C. G. 
Krost, Dr. Gerard N. 
Krueger, Leopold A. 
Krutckoff, Charles 
Kuehn, A. L. 
Kuh, Mrs. Edwin 

J., Jr. 
Kuhl, Harry J. 
Kuhn, Frederick T. 
Kuhn, Dr. Hedwig S. 
Kunka, Bernard J. 
Kunstadter, Albert 
Kunstadter, Sigmund 
Kurtzon, Morris 

Lacey, Miss Edith M. 
LaChance, Mrs. 

Leander H. 
Laflin, Mrs. Louis E. 
Laflin, Louis E., Jr. 
LaGuske, Mrs. Chester 
Lampert, Wilson W. 
Lamson, W. A. 
Lanahan, Mrs. M. J. 
Landry, Alvar A. 

Lane, F. Howard 
Lane, Ray E. 
Lane, Wallace R. 
Lang, Edward J. 
Lang, Mrs. W. J. 
Lange, Mrs. August 
Langenbach, Mrs. Alice R. 
Langhorne, George Tayloe 
Langworthy, Benjamin 

Lansinger, Mrs. John M. 
Larimer, Howard S. 
Larson, Bror 0. 
Lashley, Mrs. Karl S. 
Lasker, Albert D. 
Lau, Max 
Lauren, Newton B. 
Lauritzen, CM. 
Lauter, Mrs. Vera 
Lautmann, Herbert M. 
Lavezzorio, Mrs. J. B. 
Lawless, Dr. Theodore K. 
Lawson, A. J. 
Lawson, Mrs. Iver N. 
Lawton, Frank W. 
Laylander, O. J. 
Leahy, Thomas F. 
Learned, Edwin J. 
Leavell, James R. 
Leavitt, Mrs. Wellington 
Lebensohn, Dr. Mayer H. 
Lebold, Samuel N. 
Lebolt, John Michael 
Lederer, Dr. Francis L. 
Lee, Mrs. John H. S. 
Lefens, Miss Katherine J. 
Lefens, Walter C. 
Lehmann, Miss 

Augusta E. 
Leichenko, Peter M. 
Leight, Mrs. Albert E. 
Leistner, Oscar 
Leland, Miss Alice J. 
Leland, Mrs. Roscoe G. 
LeMoon, A. R. 
Lenz, J. Mayo 
Leonard, Arthur G. 
Leonard, Arthur T. 
Leopold, Foreman N. 
Leslie, John H. 
Letts, Mrs. Frank C. 
Levan, Rev. Thomas F. 
Leverone, Louis E. 
Levinson, Mrs. Salmon 0. 
Levitan, Benjamin 
Levitetz, Nathan 
Levy, Alexander M. 
Levy, Arthur G. 
Lewis, David R. 
Lewy, Dr. Alfred 
Libby, Mrs. C. P. 
Liebman, A. J. 

Ligman, Rev. Thaddeus 
Lillie, Frank R. 
Lindahl, Mrs. Edward J. 
Linden, John A. 
Lindheimer, B. F. 
Lindholm, Charles V. 
Lindquist, J. E. 
Lingle, Bowman C. 
Linton, Ben B. 
Lipman, Robert R. 
Liss, Samuel 
Little, Mrs. E. H. 
Littler, Harry E., Jr. 
Livingston, Julian M. 
Livingston, Mrs. Milton L. 
Llewellyn, Mrs. John T. 
Llewellyn, Paul 
Lloyd, Edward W. 
Lloyd, William Bross 
Lobdell, Mrs. Edwin L. 
Lockwood, W. S. 
Loeb, Mrs. A. H. 
Loeb, Hamilton M. 
Loeb, Jacob M. 
Loeb, Leo A. 
Loesch, Frank J. 
Loewenberg, Israel S. 
Loewenberg, M. L. 
Loewenstein, Sidney 
Loewenthal, Richard J. 
Logan, John I. 
Logan, L. B. 
Long, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Long, William E. 
Lord, Arthur R. 
Lord, Mrs. Russell 
Loring, Edward D. 
Loucks, Charles 0. 
Louer, Albert S. 
Love, Chase W. 
Lovell, William H. 
Lovgren, Carl 
Lownik, Dr. Felix J. 
Lucey, Patrick J. 
Ludington, Nelson J. 
Ludolph, Wilbur M. 
Lueder, Arthur C. 
Luehr, Dr. Edward 
Lufkin, Wallace W. 
Luria, Herbert A. 
Lurie, H. J. 
Lustgarten, Samuel 
Lutter, Henry J. 
Lydon, Mrs. William A. 
Lyford, Harry B. 
Lynch, William Joseph 
Lyon, Charles H. 
Lyon, Frank R. 
Lyon, Mrs. Thomas R. 

Maass, J. Edward 
Mabee, Mrs. Melbourne 

402 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

MacCardle, H. B. 
MacDonald, E. K. 
MacDougal, Mrs. T. W. 
Mackey, Frank J. 
Mackinson, Dr. John C. 
MacLeish, Mrs. Andrew 
MacLellan, K. F. 
Magan, Miss Jane A. 
Magill, Henry P. 
Magill, Robert M. 
Magnus, Albert, Jr. 
Magnus, August C. 
Maher, Mrs. D. W. 
Main, Walter D. 
Malone, William H. 
Manaster, Harry 
Mandel, Mrs. Aaron W. 
Mandel, Edwin F. 
Mandel, Mrs. Emanuel 
Mandel, Miss Florence 
Mandel, Mrs. Robert 
Manegold, Mrs. Frank W. 
Manierre, Francis E. 
Manierre, Louis 
Manley, John A. 
Mann, Albert C. 
Mann, John P. 
Manson, David 
Marcus, Maurice S. 
Mark, Mrs. Cyrus 
Marks, Arnold K. 
Marquis, A. N. 
Marsh, A. Fletcher 
Marsh, John 

McWilliams, II 
Marsh, Mrs. John P. 
Marsh, Mrs. Marshall S. 
Martin, Mrs. Franklin H. 
Martin, George F. 
Martin, Samuel H. 
Martin, W. B. 
Martin, Wells 
Marx, Frederick Z. 
Marzluff, Frank W. 
Marzola, Leo A. 
Mason, Phelps 
Mason, Willard J. 
Massee, B. A. 
Massena, Roy 
Massey, Peter J. 
Masterson, Peter 
Mathesius, Mrs. Walther 
Matson, J. Edward 
Matter, Mrs. John 
Matthiessen, Frank 
Matz, Mrs. Rudolph 
Matz, Miss Ruth H. 
Maurer, Dr. Siegfried 
Maxwell, Lloyd R. 
Mayer, Isaac H. 
Mayer, Oscar F. 

Mayer, Theodore S. 
McAuley, John E. 
McBirney, Mrs. Hugh J. 
McBride, Mrs. Walter J. 
McCahey, James B. 
McCarthy, Edmond J. 
McCarthy, Joseph W. 
McClellan, Dr. John H. 
McCluer, William 

McClun, John M. 
McCord, Downer 
McCormack, Professor 

McCormick, Mrs. 

Alexander A. 
McCormick, Mrs. 

McCormick, Fowler 
McCormick, Howard H. 
McCormick, Leander J. 
McCormick, Robert 

H., Jr. 
McCoy, Herbert N. 
McCraken, Miss Willietta 
McCrea, Mrs. W. S. 
McCready, Mrs. E. W. 
McCreight, Louis Ralph 
McDougal, Mrs. James B. 
McDougal, Mrs. Robert 
McDougall, Mrs. 

Arthur R. 
McErlean, Charles V. 
McGarry, John A. 
McGrath, George E. 
McGraw, Max 
McGurn, Mathew S. 
McHugh, Mrs. Grover 
Mcintosh, Arthur T. 
Mcintosh, Mrs. Walter G. 
McKay, James M. 
McKeever, Buell 
McKinney, Mrs. Hayes 
McLaury, Mrs. C. W. 
McLaury, Walker G. 
McMenemy, L. T. 
McMillan, John 
McMillan, W. B. 
McMillan, William M. 
McNamara, Louis G. 
McNulty, Joseph D. 
McQuarrie, Mrs. Fannie 
McVoy, John M. 
Medsker, Dr. Ora L. 
Melchione, Joseph 
Melendy, Dr. R. A. 
Melnick, Leopold B. 
Merrell, John H. 
Merrill, Henry S. 
Merrill, William W. 
Merz, Edward E. 

Metz, Dr. A. R. 
Metzel, Mrs. Albert J. 
Meyer, Mrs. A. H. 
Meyer, Abraham W. 
Meyer, Albert 
Meyer, Charles Z. 
Meyer, Sam R. 
Meyer, William 
Meyercord, George R. 
Midowicz, C. E. 
Milhening, Frank 
Milhening, Joseph 
Miller, Charles B. 
Miller, Mrs. Clayton W. 
Miller, Mrs. Darius 
Miller, Mrs. F. H. 
Miller, Hyman 
Miller, John S. 
Miller, Dr. Joseph L. 
Miller, Mrs. Olive Beaupre 
Miller, Oscar C. 
Miller, Mrs. Phillip 
Miller, R. T. 
Miller, Walter E. 
Miller, Mrs. Walter H. 
Miller, William E. 
Miller, William S. 
Mills, Allen G. 
Mills, Fred L. 
Mills, John, Sr. 
Mills, Mrs. William S. 
Miner, Dr. Carl S. 
Miner, H. J. 
Minotto, Mrs. James 
Minturn, Benjamin E. 
Mitchell, Charles D. 
Mitchell, George F. 
Mitchell, John J. 
Mitchell, Mrs. John J. 
Mitchell, Leeds 
Mitchell, Oliver 
Mock, Dr. Harry Edgar 
Moderwell, Charles M. 
Moeling, Mrs. Walter G. 
Moeller, Rev. Herman H. 
Moffatt, Mrs. 

Elizabeth M. 
Mohr, William J. 
Moist, Mrs. Samuel E. 
Molloy, David J. 
Moltz, Mrs. Alice 
Monaghan, Thomas H. 
Monheimer, Henry I. 
Monroe, William S. 
Montgomery, Dr. 

Albert H. 
Moore, C. B. 
Moore, Philip Wyatt 
Moos, Joseph B. 
Moran, Brian T. 
Moran, Miss Margaret 
Morey, Charles W. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Morf, F. William 
Morgan, Alden K. 
Morgan, Mrs. 

Kendrick E. 
Morrill, Nahum 
Morris, Edward H. 
Morris, Eugene C. 
Morris, Mrs. Seymour 
Morrison, Mrs. 

Charles E. 
Morrison, Mrs. Harry 
Morrison, James C. 
Morrison, Matthew A. 
Morrisson, James W. 
Morse, Mrs. Charles J. 
Morse, Leland R. 
Morse, Mrs. Milton 
Morse, Robert H. 
Mortenson, Mrs. Jacob 
Morton, Sterling 
Morton, William Morris 
Moses, Howard A. 
Moss, Jerome A. 
Mouat, Andrew 
Mowry, Louis C. 
Mudge, Mrs. John B. 
Muehlstein, Mrs. 

Mueller, Austin M. 
Mueller, Miss Hedwig H. 
Mueller, J. Herbert 
Mueller, Paul H. 
Mulford, Miss Melinda 

Mulholand, William H. 
Mulligan, George F. 
Murphy, John P. V. 
Murphy, Robert E. 
Musselman, Dr. George H. 

Naber, Henry G. 
Nadler, Dr. Walter H. 
Naess, Sigurd E. 
Nash, Charles J. 
Nathan, Claude 
Naugle, Mrs. Archibald 
Nebel, Herman C. 
Neely, Miss Carrie 

Neely, Mrs. Lloyd F. 
Nehk, Arthur L. 
Neilson, Mrs. Francis 
Nellegar, Mrs. Jay C. 
Nelson, Charles G. 
Nelson, Donald M. 
Nelson, Murry 
Nelson, N. J. 
Nelson, Mrs. Oliver R. 
Nelson, Victor W. 
Netcher, Mrs. Charles 
Neu, Clarence L. 
Neuffer, Paul A. 

Neumann, Arthur E. 
Newhall, R. Frank 
Newhouse, Karl 
Nichols, Mrs. George R. 
Nichols, Mrs. George 

R., Jr. 
Nichols, J. C. 
Nichols, S. F. 
Nicholson, Thomas G. 
Nitze, Mrs. William A. 
Noble, Samuel R. 
Noelle, Joseph B. 
Nollau, Miss Emma 
Noonan, Edward J. 
Norcross, Frederic F. 
N orris, Mrs. Lester 
Norris, Mrs. William W. 
Norton, R. H. 
Novak, Charles J. 
Noyes, A. H. 
Noyes, Allan S. 
Noyes, David A. 
Noyes, Mrs. May Wells 
Nusbaum, Mrs. Carl B. 
Nyman, Dr. John Egbert 

Oates, James F. 
Oberf elder, Herbert M. 
Oberfelder, Walter S. 
O'Brien, Frank J. 
O'Brien, Miss Janet 
Odell, William R. 
Odell, William 

R., Jr. 
O'Donnell, Miss Rose 
Off, Mrs. Clifford 
Offield, James R. 
Oglesbee, Nathan H. 
O'Keefe, Mrs. Dennis D. 
Olcott, Mrs. Henry C. 
Oldefest, Edward G. 
O'Leary, John W. 
Oliver, Gene G. 
Oliver, Mrs. Paul 
Olson, Gustaf 
Omo, Don L. 
Oppenheimer, Alfred 
Oppenheimer, Mrs. 

Harry D. 
Oppenheimer, Julius 
Orndoff, Dr. Benjamin H. 
O'Rourke, Albert 
Orr, Mrs. Eleanor N. 
Orr, Mrs. Robert C. 
Orr, Thomas C. 
Orthal, A. J. 
Ortmayer, Dr. Marie 
Osborn, Theodore L. 
Ostrom, Charles S. 
Ostrom, Mrs. James 


Otis, J. Sanford 

Otis, Joseph E. 

Otis, Joseph Edward, Jr. 

Otis, Ralph C. 

Otis, Raymond 

Otis, Stuart Huntington 

Otis, Mrs. Xavier L. 

Ouska, John A. 

Owings, Mrs. Nathaniel A. 

Paasche, Jens A. 
Packard, Dr. Rollo K. 
Paepcke, Walter P. 
Page-Wood, Gerald 
Pagin, Mrs. Frank S. 
Pam, Miss Carrie 
Pardridge, Albert J. 
Pardridge, Mrs. E. W. 
Park, R. E. 
Parker, Frank B. 
Parker, Dr. Gaston C. 
Parker, Norman S. 
Parker, Troy L. 
Parks, C. R. 
Parmelee, Dr. A. H. 
Partridge, Lloyd C. 
Paschen, Mrs. Henry 
Patrick, Miss Catherine 
Patrick, Dr. Hugh T. 
Pauling, Edward G. 
Payne, Professor James 
Peabody, Mrs. Francis S. 
Peabody, Howard B. 
Peabody, Miss Susan W. 
Peacock, Robert E. 
Peacock, Walter C. 
Pearse, Langdon 
Pearson, F. W. 
Pearson, George 

Albert, Jr. 
Peck, Dr. David B. 
Peet, Mrs. Belle G. 
Peet, Fred N. 
Peirce, Albert E. 
Pelley, John J. 
Peltier, M. F. 
PenDell, Charles W. 
Percy, Dr. Nelson 

Perkins, A. T. 
Perkins, Mrs. Herbert F. 
Perry, Dr. Ethel B. 
Perry, I. Newton 
Peter, William F. 
Peterkin, Daniel 
Peters, Harry A. 
Petersen, Jurgen 
Petersen, Dr. William F. 
Peterson, Albert 
Peterson, Alexander B. 
Peterson, Mrs. Anna J. 
Peterson, Arthur J. 

404 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Peterson, Axel A. 
Peterson, Mrs. Bertha I. 
Pettersen, Fred A. 
Pflaum, A. J. 
Pflock, Dr. John J. 
Phelps, Mrs. W. L. 
Phemister, Dr. Dallas B. 
Phillip, Peter 
Phillips, Herbert Morrow 
Picher, Mrs. Oliver S. 
Pick, Albert, Jr. 
Pick, George 
Pierce, J. Norman 
Pierce, Paul, Jr. 
Pirie, Mrs. John T. 
Pitcher, Mrs. Henry L. 
Pitzner, Alwin Frederick 
Plapp, Miss Doris A. 
Piatt, Mrs. Robert S. 
Plunkett, William H. 
Podell, Mrs. Beatrice 

Polk, Mrs. Stella F. 
Pollock, Dr. Harry L. 
Pomeroy, Mrs. Frank W. 
Pond, Irving K. 
Pool, Marvin B. 
Pool, Mrs. W. Cloyd 
Poole, Mrs. Frederick 

Poole, George A. 
Poole, Mrs. Ralph H. 
Poor, Fred A. 
Poor, Mrs. Fred A. 
Pope, Frank 
Pope, Henry 
Pope, Herbert 
Poppenhagen, Henry J. 
Porter, Mrs. Frank S. 
Porter, Henry H., Jr. 
Porter, James F. 
Porterfield, Mrs. John F. 
Post, Frederick, Jr. 
Post, Gordon W. 
Post, Mrs. Philip Sidney 
Pottenger, William A. 
Pottenger, Miss 

Zipporah Herrick 
Powell, Isaac N. 
Prahl, Frederick A. 
Pratt, Mrs. William E. 
Prentice, John K. 
Primley, Walter S. 
Prince, Rev. Herbert W. 
Prince, Leonard M. 
Proxmire, Dr. 

Theodore Stanley 
Prussing, Mrs. George C. 
Prussing, Mrs. R. E. 
Psota, Dr. Frank J. 
Puckey, F. W. 
Pulver, Hugo 

Purcell, Joseph D. 
Purdy, Sparrow E. 
Pusey, Dr. William Allen 
Putnam, Miss Mabel C. 

Quigley, William J. 
Quinlan, Dr. William W. 

Raber, Franklin 
Radau, Hugo 
Radford, Mrs. W. A., Jr. 
Radniecki, Rev. Stanley 
Raff, Mrs. Arthur 
Raftree, Miss Julia M. 
Railton, Miss Frances 
Raithel, Miss Luella 
Randall, Charles P. 
Randall, Rev. Edwin J. 
Randall, Irving 
Randle, Mrs. Charles H. 
Randle, Guy D. 
Raney, Mrs. R. J. 
Rankin, Miss Jessie H. 
Rasmussen, George 
Ray, Hal. S. 
Raymond, Mrs. 

Howard D. 
Razim, A. J. 
Reach, Benjamin F. 
Reach, William 
Redington, F. B. 
Redington, Mrs. W. H. 
Reed, Mrs. Kersey Coates 
Reed, Norris H. 
Reed, Mrs. Philip L. 
Reed, T. J. 
Reeve, Mrs. Earl 
Reeve, Frederick E. 
Reffelt, Miss F. A. 
Regenstein, Joseph 
Regensteiner, Theodore 
Regnery, William H. 
Reich, Miss Annie 
Reichmann, Alexander F. 
Reid, Mrs. Bryan 
Reiter, Joseph J. 
Remy, Mrs. William 
Renshaw, Mrs. Charles 
Renwick, Edward A. 
Rew, Mrs. Irwin 
Reynolds, Harold F. 
Reynolds, Mrs. Henry J. 
Reynolds, Mrs. J. J. 
Rice, Arthur L. 
Rice, George L. 
Rice, Laurence A. 
Rich, Edward P. 
Rich, Elmer 
Richards, J. DeForest 
Richards, Marcus D. 
Richardson, George A. 
Richardson, Guy A. 

Richter, Mrs. Adelyn W. 
Rickcords, Francis S. 
Ricketts, C. Lindsay 
Riddle, Herbert H. 
Ridgeway, Ernest 
Ridgway, William 
Riemenschneider, Mrs. 

Julius H. 
Ries, Dr. Emil 
Rieser, Mrs. Herman 
Rieser, Leonard M. 
Rietz, Elmer W. 
Rietz, Walter H. 
Rigney, William T. 
Rinder, E. W. 
Ring, Miss Mary E. 
Ripstra, J. Henri 
Rittenhouse, Charles J. 
Robbins, Percy A. 
Roberts, Clark T. 
Roberts, Mrs. John 
Roberts, John M. 
Roberts, Dr. S. M. 
Roberts, Mrs. Warren R. 
Roberts, William 

Robinson, Mrs. Milton E. 
Robson, Miss Sarah C. 
Roche, Miss Emily 
Rockwell, Harold H. 
Roderick, Solomon P. 
Rodgers, Dr. David C. 
Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
Roehling, C. E. 
Roehling, Mrs. 

Otto G. 
Roehm, George R. 
Rogers, Miss Annie T. 
Rogers, Bernard F., Jr. 
Rogers, Dr. Cassius C. 
Rogers, Joseph E. 
Rogerson, Everett E. 
Rolfes, Gerald A. 
Romer, Miss Dagmar E. 
Root, John W. 
Rosen, M. R. 
Rosenbaum, Mrs. 

Edwin S. 
Rosenfeld, Mrs. Maurice 
Rosenfield, Mrs. 

Morris S. 
Rosenfield, William M. 
Rosenthal, Benjamin J. 
Rosenthal, James 
Rosenthal, Kurt 
Rosenthal, Lessing 
Rosenwald, Richard M. 
Ross, Charles S. 
Ross, Robert C. 
Ross, Mrs. Robert E. 
Ross, Thompson 
Ross, Walter S. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Roth, Aaron 
Roth, Mrs. Margit 

Rothacker, Watterson R. 
Rothschild, George 

Rothschild, Maurice L. 
Rothschild, Melville N. 
Routh, George E., Jr. 
Rowe, Edgar C. 
Rozelle, Mrs. Emma 
Rubel, Dr. Maurice 
Rubens, Mrs. Charles 
Ruckelhausen, Mrs. 

Rueckheim, Miss Lillian 
Ruel, John G. 
Rushton, Joseph A. 
Russell, Dr. Joseph W. 
Russell, Paul S. 
Rutledge, George E. 
Ryan, Henry B. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Edward L. 
Ryerson, Joseph T. 

Sackley, Mrs. James A. 
Sage, W. Otis 
Salisbury, Mrs. 

Warren M. 
Salmon, Mrs. E. D. 
Sammons, Wheeler 
Sandidge, Miss Daisy 
Sands, Mrs. Frances B. 
Santini, Mrs. Randolph 
Sardeson, Orville A. 
Sargent, Chester F. 
Sargent, John R. W. 
Sargent, Ralph 
Sauter, Fred J. 
Sauter, Leonard J. 
Sawyer, Dr. Alvah L. 
Schacht, John H. 
Schaffer, Dr. David N. 
Schaflner, Mrs. Joseph 
Schaffner, Robert C. 
Scheidenhelm, Edward L. 
Scheinman, Jesse D. 
Schermerhorn, W. I. 
Schlake, William 
Schmidt, Dr. Charles L. 
Schmidt, Mrs. Minna 
Schmitz, Dr. Henry 
Schmitz, Nicholas J. 
Schneider, F. P. 
Schnering, Otto Y. 
Schnur, Ruth A. 
Scholl, Dr. William M. 
Schram, Harry S. 
Schreiner, Sigurd 
Schroeder, Dr. George H. 
Schukraft, William 

Schulman, A. S. 
Schulze, Mrs. Mathilde 
Schulze, William 
Schupp, Philip C. 
Schuyler, Mrs. Daniel 

J., Jr. 
Schwanke, Arthur 
Schwartz, Charles K. 
Schwartz, Charles P. 
Schwarz, Herbert E. 
Schwarzhaupt, Emil 
Sclanders, Mrs. Alexander 
Scott, Frank H. 
Scott, Robert L. 
Scribner, Gilbert 
Scully, Mrs. D. B. 
Seaman, George M. 
Seames, Mrs. Charles O. 
Sears, J. Alden 
Sears, Richard W., Jr. 
Seaver, Andrew E. 
Seaverns, George A. 
Seaverns, Louis C. 
See, Dr. Agnes Chester 
Seeberger, Miss Dora A. 
Seeburg, Justus P. 
Seifert, Mrs. Walter J. 
Seip, Emil G. 
Seipp, Clarence T. 
Seipp, Edwin A. 
Seipp, William C. 
Sello, George W. 
Sencenbaugh, Mrs. G. W. 
Seng, Frank J. 
Seng, V. J. 
Senne, John A. 
Sennekohl, Mrs. A. C. 
Shaffer, Carroll 
Shaffer, Charles B. 
Shanesy, Ralph D. 
Shannon, Angus Roy 
Shapiro, Meyer 
Sharpe, N. M. 
Shaw, Alfred P. 
Shaw, Mrs. Howard 
Shaw, Theodore A. 
Sheehy, Edward 
Sheldon, James M. 
Shelton, Dr. W. Eugene 
Shepherd, Mrs. Edith P. 
Sherman, Mrs. Francis 

C, Sr. 
Shields, James Culver 
Shillestad, John N. 
Shire, Moses E. 
Shoan, Nels 
Shorey, Clyde E. 
Short, Miss Shirley Jane 
Shoup, A. D. 
Shumway, Mrs. Edward 


Sidley, William P. 
Siebel, Mrs. Ewald H. 
Sigman, Leon 
Silander, A. I. 
Silberman, Charles 
Silberman, David B. 
Silberman, Hubert S. 
Sills, Clarence W. 
Silverthorne, George M. 
Simond, Robert E. 
Simonds, Dr. James P. 
Sincere, Benjamin E. 
Sinclair, Dr. J. Frank 
Singer, Mrs. Mortimer H. 
Sitzer, Dr. L. Grace 

Skooglund, David 
Sleeper, Mrs. Olive C. 
Smith, Mrs. C. R. 
Smith, Mrs. Emery J. 
Smith, Mrs. Frank S. 
Smith, Franklin P. 
Smith, Harold Byron 
Smith, Jens 
Smith, Jesse E. 
Smith, Mrs. Katherine 

Smith, Mrs. Kinney 
Smith, Samuel K. 
Smith, Mrs. Theodore 

Smith, Walter Bourne 
Smith, Walter Byron 
Smith, Mrs. William A. 
Smith, Z. Erol 
Smullan, Alexander 
Snow, Edgar M. 
Snow, Fred A. 
Snyder, Harry 
Socrates, Nicholas 
Solem, Dr. George 0. 
Sonnenschein, Hugo 
Sonnenschein, Dr. Robert 
Sonneveld, Jacob 
Soper, Henry M. 
Soper, James P., Jr. 
Sopkin, Mrs. Setia H. 
Soravia, Joseph 
Sorensen, James 
Spencer, Mrs. William M. 
Spiegel, Mrs. 

Frederick W. 
Spiegel, Mrs. Mae 0. 
Spitz, Joel 
Spitz, Leo 
Spitzglass, Mrs. 

Leonard M. 
Spohn, John F. 
Spooner, Charles W. 
Spoor, Mrs. John A. 
Sprague, Dr. John P. 
Springer, Mrs. Samuel 

406 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Squires, John G. 
Staack, Otto C. 
Stacey, Mrs. Thomas I. 
Staley, Miss Mary B. 
Stanton, Dr. E. M. 
Stanton, Edgar 
Stanton, Henry T. 
Starbird, Miss Myrtle I. 
Starrels, Joel 
Stearns, Mrs. Richard I. 
Stebbins, Fred J. 
Steffens, Ralph Sutherland 
Steffey, David R. 
Stein, Benjamin F. 
Stein, Dr. Irving 
Stein, L. Montefiore 
Stenson, Frank R. 
Sterba, Dr. Joseph V. 
Stern, Alfred Whital 
Stern, David B. 
Stern, Felix 
Stern, Maurice S. 
Stern, Oscar D. 
Stevens, Delmar A. 
Stevens, Edward J. 
Stevens, Elmer T. 
Stevens, Harold L. 
Stevens, James W. 
Stevens, Mrs. James W. 
Stevens, R. G. 
Stevenson, Dr. 

Alexander F. 
Stevenson, Engval 
Stewart, Miss Agnes 

Stewart, Miss Eglantine 

Stewart, James S. 
Stewart, Miss Mercedes 

Stibolt, Mrs. Carl B. 
Stiger, Charles W. 
Stirling, Miss Dorothy 
Stockton, Eugene M. 
Stone, Mrs. Jacob S. 
Strandberg, Erik P. 
Straus, David 
Straus, Martin L. 
Straus, Melvin L. 
Straus, S. J. T. 
Strauss, Dr. Alfred A. 
Strauss, Henry X. 
Strauss, John L. 
Street, Mrs. Charles A. 
Strobel, Charles L. 
Stromberg, Charles J. 
Strong, Edmund H. 
Strong, Mrs. Walter A. 
Strotz, Harold C. 
Struby, Mrs. Walter V. 
Stulik, Dr. Charles 
Sturges, Solomon 

Sturtevant, Henry D. 
Sullivan, John J. 
Sulzberger, Frank L. 
Sutcliffe, Mrs. Gary 
Sutherland, William 
Sutton, Harold I. 
Swan, Oscar H. 
Swanson, Joseph E. 
Swartchild, Edward G. 
Swartchild, William G. 
Swenson, S. P. O. 
Swett, Robert Wheeler 
Swift, Alden B. 
Swift, Mrs. Alden B. 
Swift, Edward F., Jr. 
Sykes, Mrs. Wilfred 

Taft, John H. 
Taft, Mrs. Oren E. 
Tarrant, Robert 
Tatge, Mrs. Gustavus J. 
Taylor, Charles C. 
Taylor, George Halleck 
Taylor, J. H. 
Teagle, E. W. 
Templeton, Stuart J. 
Templeton, Walter L. 
Templeton, Mrs. William 
Terry, Foss Bell 
Teter, Lucius 
Thatcher, Everett A. 
Theobald, Dr. John J. 
Thomas, Emmet A. 
Thomas, Frank W. 
Thomas, Mrs. Harry L. 
Thomas, Dr. William A. 
Thompson, Arthur H. 
Thompson, Charles E. 
Thompson, Charles F. 
Thompson, Edward F. 
Thompson, Fred L. 
Thompson, Floyd E. 
Thompson, Dr. George F. 
Thompson, Mrs. John R. 
Thompson, John R., Jr. 
Thompson, Mrs. Leverett 
Thorne, Hallett W. 
Thorne, James W. 
Thornton, Dr. Francis E. 
Thorp, Harry W. 
Thresher, C. J. 
Thulin, F. A. 
Tibbetts, Mrs. N. L. 
Tighe, Mrs. Bryan G. 
Tilden, Averill 
Tilden, Louis Edward 
Tilt, Charles A. 
Tobias, Clayton H. 
Torbet, A. W. 
Touchstone, John 

Towle, Leroy C. 

Towler, Kenneth F. 
Towne, Mrs. John D. C. 
Trainer, J. Milton 
Traylor, Mrs. Dorothy J. 
Tredwell, John 
Tripp, Chester D. 
Trombly, Dr. F. F. 
Trowbridge, Raymond W. 
Trude, Mrs. Mark W. 
Tucker, S. A. 
Turner, Alfred M. 
Turner, Tracy L. 
Tuthill, Mrs. Beulah L. 
Tuttle, F. B. 
Turtle, Henry 

Tuttle, Mrs. Henry N. 
Tyler, Albert S. 
Tyler, Mrs. Orson K. 
Tyrrell, Mrs. Percy 

Uhlmann, Fred 
Ullman, Mrs. N. J. 
Ullmann, Herbert S. 
Upham, Mrs. Frederic W. 

Valentine, Joseph L. 
Valentine, Mrs. 

May L. 
Valentine, Patrick A. 
VanCleef, Mrs. Noah 
VanCleef, Paul 
VanDeventer, Christopher 
VanNess, Gardiner B. 
VanSchaack, R. H., Jr. 
VanSchaick, Gerard 
Van Winkle, James Z. 
VanZwoll, Henry B. 
Vaughan, Leonard H. 
Vawter, William A., II 
Veeder, Mrs. Henry 
Veeder, Miss Jessie 
Vehe, Dr. K. L. 
Vehon, Morris 
Vial, Charles H. 
Vial, Miss Mary M. 
Vickery, Miss Mabel S. 
Victor, Mrs. Jessie K. 
Vierling, Louis 
Vincent, Mrs. William 

Volicas, Dr. John N. 
Volk, Mrs. John H. 
VonColditz, Dr. G. 

VonGlahn, Mrs. August 
Voorhees, Mrs. Condit 
Voynow, Edward E. 

Wagner, Fritz, Jr. 
Wagner, Dr. G. W. 
Wagner, John E. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Walgreen, Mrs. 

Charles R. 
Walker, James 
Walker, Mrs. Paul 
Walker, Samuel J. 
Walker, William E. 
Wallace, Robert Y. 
Wallace, Walter F. 
Waller, H. P. 
Waller, J. Alexander 
Waller, Mrs. James B. 
Waller, James B., Jr. 
Wallerich, George W. 
Wallovick, J. H. 
Walther, Mrs. S. Arthur 
Ward, Mrs. N. C. 
Ware, Mrs. Charles W. 
Warfield, Edwin A. 
Warner, Mrs. Ezra J. 
Warner, Mrs. John Eliot 
Warren, Allyn D. 
Warren, J. Latham 
Warren, Paul C. 
Warren, Paul G. 
Warren, Walter G. 
Warwick, W. E. 
Washburne, Clarke 

Hempstead, Jr. 
Washington, Laurence W. 
Wassell, Joseph 
Waterman, Dr. A. H. 
Watson, William Upton 
Watts, Harry C. 
Watzek, J. W., Jr. 
Waud, E. P. 
Wayman, Charles A. G. 
Wean, Frank L. 
Weaver, Charles A. 
Webb, George D. 
Webb, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Weber, Bernard F. 
Weber, Frank C. 
Webster, Arthur L. 
Webster, Miss Helen R. 
Wedelstaedt, H. A. 
Weil, Martin 
Weiler, Rudolph 
Weiner, Charles 
Weinstein, Dr. M. L. 
Weinzelbaum, Louis L. 
Weis, Samuel W. 
Weisbrod, Benjamin H. 
Weiss, Mrs. Morton 
Weissenbach, Mrs. 

Minna K. 
Weisskopf, Maurice J. 
Weisskopf, Dr. Max A. 
Welles, Mrs. Donald P. 
Welles, Mrs. Edward 


Wells, Arthur H. 
Wells, Harry L. 
Wells, John E. 
Wells, Preston A. 
Wells, Thomas E. 
Wells, Mrs. Thomas E. 
Wendell, Barrett, Jr. 
Wendell, Miss Josephine 

Werner, Frank A. 
West, J. Roy 
West, Miss Mary Sylvia 
Westerfeld, Simon 
Westrich, Miss T. C. 
Wetten, Albert H. 
Wettling, Louis E. 
Weymer, Earl M. 
Whealan, Emmett P. 
Wheeler, George A. 
Wheeler, Leo W. 
Wheeler, Leslie 
Wheeler, Leslie M. 
Wheeler, Mrs. Robert C. 
Whinery, Charles C. 
White, Harold F. 
White, Mrs. James C. 
White, James E. 
White, Joseph J. 
White, Richard T. 
White, Sanford B. 
White, Selden Freeman 
Whitehouse, Howard D. 
Whiting, Mrs.Adele H. 
Whiting, Lawrence H. 
Wiborg, Frank B. 
Widdicombe, Mrs. R. A. 
Wieland, Charles J. 
Wieland, Mrs. George C. 
Wienhoeber, George V. 
Wilder, Harold, Jr. 
Wilder, Mrs. John E. 
Wilder, Mrs. T. E. 
Wilker, Mrs. Milton W. 
Wilkins, George Lester 
Wilkins, Miss Ruth 
Wilkinson, Mrs. 

George L. 
Wilkinson, John C. 
Willey, Mrs. Charles B. 
Williams, Dr. A. 

Williams, Miss 

Anna P. 
Williams, Harry 

Williams, J. M. 
Williamson, George H. 
Willis, Paul, Jr. 
Willis, Thomas H. 
Wills, H. E. 
Wilms, Herman P. 

Wilson, Mrs. E. Crane 
Wilson, Harry Bertram 
Wilson, Mrs. John R. 
Wilson, Miss Lillian M. 
Wilson, Morris Karl 
Wilson, Mrs. Robert 

Wilson, Mrs. Robert E. 
Winans, Frank F. 
Windsor, H. H., Jr. 
Winston, Mrs. Bertram 

Winston, Hampden 
Winston, James H. 
Winter, Irving 
Wojtalewicz, Rev. 

Francis M. 
Woley, Dr. Harry P. 
Wolf, Mrs. Albert H. 
Wolf, Walter B. 
Wolff, Louis 

Wood, Mrs. Gertrude D. 
Wood, Mrs. Harold F. 
Wood, John H. 
Wood, Kay, Jr. 
Wood, Robert E. 
Wood, William G. 
Woodmansee, Fay 
Woodruff, George 
Woods, Weightstill 
Worcester, Mrs. 

Charles H. 
Work, Robert 
Worth, Miss Helen E. 
Wrenn, Mrs. Everts 
Wright, H. C. 
Wright, Warren 
Wrigley, Mrs. Charles W. 
Wunderle, H. O. 
Wyeth, Harry B. 

Yegge, C. Fred 
Yerkes, Richard W. 
Yondorf, John David 
Yondorf, Milton S. 
Yondorf, Milton S., Jr. 
Young, George W. 
Young, Hugh E. 

Zabel, Max W. 
Zapel, Elmer 
Zeisler, Mrs. Erwin P. 
Zerler, Charles F. 
Ziebarth, Charles A. 
Zimmer, Mrs. 
Rudolph E. 
Zimmerman, Herbert P. 
Zimmerman, Louis W. 
Zork, David 
Zulfer, P. M. 

408 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Andrews, Alfred B. 

Bach, Julius H. 
Beacom, Harold 
Bensinger, Benjamin E. 
Bletsch, William E. 

Caldwell, Mrs. F. C. 
Cushing, John F. 

Daniels, H. L. 
Douglass, W. A. 

Eckstein, H. G. 

Fahrney, Emery H. 
Fisher, Walter L. 

Glaser, Edward L. 

Deceased, 1935 

Gorham, Sidney Smith 
Gorman, George E. 
Gray, Rev. James M. 
Gulbransen, Axel G. 

Hoyne, Frank G. 
Hultgen, Dr. Jacob F. 

Karpen, Adolph 

Lathrop, Mrs. Bryan 

Mandl, Sidney 
Mansure, Edward L. 
Marhoefer, Edward H. 
McLennan, Mrs. John A. 
Merrill, James S. 
Meyer, Oscar 
More, Roland R. 

Powell, Mrs. Ambrose V. 

Roloson, Robert M. 
Rubovits, Toby 

Shockey, Mrs. Willis G. 
Shumway, P. R. 
Slocum, J. E. 
Smith, Sidney 
Sonnenschein, Edward 
Stockton, Miss Josephine 
Sturges, Hollister 
Suekoff, Louis A. 

Vopicka, Charles J. 

Wentworth, Mrs. 

Moses J. 
Whiting, J. H. 
Wolf, Henry M. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $50 to the Museum 

Baum, Mrs. James 
Day, Mrs. Winfield S. 

Phillips, Montagu Austin 
Stevens, Edmund W. 


Those who contribute $25 annually to the Museum 

Alsip, Mrs. Charles H. 

Bender, Daniel H. 
Berkson, Mrs. Maurice 

Cox, William D. 

Florsheim, Harold M. 

Gentz, Miss Lucia 
Goodman, Mrs. 
Milton F. 

Knopf, Andrew J. 

Rothschild, Justin 

Swiecinski, Walter 

Titzel, Dr. W. R. 

Voorhees, H. Belin 

Young, Mrs. 
Caryl B. 


Those who contribute $10 annually to the Museum 

Adams, Harvey M. 
Adams, Hugh R. 
Adams, Miss Jane 
Agar, W. S. 
Alden, William T. 
Alessio, Frank 
Alexander, Mrs. H. G. 
Alexander, Harry T. 
Allen, C. W. 
Allen, Frank W. 


Allen, John D. 
Alrutz, Dr. Louis F. 
Alschuler, Samuel 
Alt, George E. 
Altheimer, Ben J. 
Alton, Robert Leslie 
Amberg, J. Ward 
Amberg, Miss Mary Agnes 
Ames, Rev. Edward S. 
Amory, W. Austin 

Anderson, Mrs. A. W. 
Anderson, Dr. Amabel A. 
Anderson, Arch W. 
Anderson, Harry 
Anderson, O. Helge 
Anheiser, Hugo 
Ankrum, Mrs. E. W. 
Anoff, Isador S. 
Anthony, Charles E. 
Anthony, Joseph R. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Applegate, Mrs. 

Harry R. 
Armstrong, Horace 

Arnold, George G. 
Arnold, Mrs. Lloyd 
Arthur, Miss Minnie J. 
Ashcraft, Edwin M., Ill 
Atkeisson, Dr. J. E. H. 
Atwood, Fred G. 
Austin, E. F. 
Austin, Edwin C. 
Axelson, Charles F. 
Ayer, Mrs. Walter 

Babcock, Charles S. 
Bachmeyer, Dr. 

Arthur C. 
Bacon, Dr. Alfons R. 
Bacon, Dr. Charles S. 
Baginski, Mrs. Frank 
Baird, Mrs. Hilda 
Baker, CM. 
Balderston, Mrs. 

Stephen V. 
Ballard, Mrs. E. S. 
Bankard, E. Hoover, Jr. 
Barnes, Harold O. 
Barnes, Mrs. Harold 

Barrett, Mrs. A. M. 
Barrett, Miss Adela 
Barrett, M. J. P. 
Barter, Leonard H. 
Bartholomay, William, Jr. 
Bartholomew, Mrs. F. H. 
Bartoli, Peter 
Barton, L. R. 
Baumann, Mrs. F. O. 
Beach, Calvin B. 
Bean, Edward H. 
Beatty, Mrs. R. J. 
Beatty, S. Frank 
Becker, H. Kirke 
Beddoes, Hubert 
Beers-Jones, L. 
Bell, George Irving 
Bennett, Edward H. 
Bennett, Mrs. Reid M. 
Bennington, Harold 
Benson, Mrs. T. R. 
Bentley, Richard 
Beresford, Charles 

Berg, Sigard E. 
Berger, Dr. John M. 
Berger, R. 0. 
Bergh, Ross F. 
Berlizheimer, Miss Lily A. 
Bertol, Miss Aurelia 
Bertram, Mrs. S. W. 
Bestel, Oliver A. 

Biddle, Robert C. 
Bielfeldt, P. W. 
Biggs, Mrs. 

Joseph Henry 
Binz, William C. 
Bird, Herbert J. 
Birkenstein, Louis 
Bishop, Mrs. W. H. 
Bissell, Miss Mary S. 
Black, Carl M. 
Black, Herman 
Blackburn, Burr 
Blocki, Mrs. Fred W. 
Blocki, Fritz 
Blomquist, Alfred 
Blue, Dr. Robert 
Blum, Henry S. 
Blumberg, Nathan S. 
Blythe, Mrs. J. W. 
Boardman, Mrs. 

Ronald P. 
Bolin, Mrs. George 
Bond, William A. 
Bond, William Scott 
Bonfield, James 
Borcherding, E. P. 
Borneman, Fred B. 
Borwell, Mrs. Robert C. 
Bothman, Dr. Louis 
Bournique, Alvar L. 
Bournique, Eugene A. 
Bowen, Joseph T., Jr. 
Bowman, Jay 
Bowman, Mrs. Jay 
Boyd, E. B. 
Boyd, Mrs. T. Kenneth 
Boyer, Mrs. J. E. 
Brachvogel, Mrs. 

Bradley, Herbert E. 
Braese, Mrs. Otto C. 
Brant, Mrs. C. M. 
Brashears, J. W. 
Braudy, Mrs. Louis C. 
Bremner, Dr. M. D. K. 
Brewster, William E. 
Briney, Mrs. H. C. 
Briney, Dr. William F. 
Broome, John Spoor 
Broome, Mrs. Thornhill 
Broomell, Chester C. 
Brower, Jule F. 
Brown, Mrs. James J. 
Brown, Miss Ella W. 
Brown, Gerard S. 
Brown, Guy 
Brown, H. A. 
Brown, H. S. 
Brown, J. D. 
Brown, Dr. Ralph C. 
Brown, William A. 
Browne, Theodore C. 

Brucker, Dr. Matthew W. 
Brumley, Daniel Joseph 
Brunker, A. R. 
Buchen, Walther 
Buck, Nelson Earl 
Buck, Mrs. O. J. 
Buckingham, Mrs. John 
Buckley, Mrs. Warren 
Buell, Mrs. Charles C. 
Buell, James H. 
Buethe, W. C. 
Buker, Edward 
Bull, Richard S. 
Bullard, Sellar 
Bullivant, L. J. 
Bunnell, John A. 
Bunte, Mrs. Theodore W. 
Bunting, Guy J. 
Burch, Mrs. W. E. 
Burgmeier, John M. 
Burket, Dr. Walter C. 
Burnet, Mrs. W. A. 
Burnham, Daniel H. 
Burnham, Hubert 
Burns, Mrs. John S. 
Burridge, Mrs. Howard J. 
Burrows, Miss Louisa L. 
Busch, Francis X. 
Bushman, Andrew K. 
Buswell, Mrs. Henry Lee 
Butler, Comfort S. 
Butler, Mrs. Gerald M. 
Byfield, Ernest L. 
Byrnes, William Jerome 

Cable, Arthur G. 
Callahan, Mrs. A. F. 
Camenisch, Edward T. 
Campbell, Argyle 
Campbell, Donald A. 
Campbell, Mrs. John G. 
Campe, Frank O. 
Canavan, J. Newell 
Capper, Miss M. M. 
Cardelli, Mrs. Giovanni 
Carlson, John F. 
Carpenter, F. D. 
Carpenter, John Alden 
Carr, Dr. James G. 
Carrington, Edmund 
Carry, Mrs. Edward F. 
Carter, Mrs. C. B. 
Case, Amos H. 
Case, J. Amos 
Cassady, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Castle, Sydney 
Caswell, Mrs. A. B. 
Cathcart, James A. 
Cauvins, Miss Ellen M. 
Cervenka, John A. 
Chamberlin, Mrs. 
Dale E. 

410 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Chandler, Charles H. 
Chandler, Dr. Fremont 

Chandler, George M. 
Chandler, W. W. 
Chapin, Mrs. Chester W. 
Chapin, Rufus F. 
Chase, Carroll G. 
Chase, Samuel T. 
Chesrow, Dr. Eugene 

Chessman, L. W. 
Chester, Miss Virginia 
Childs, Kent C. 
Chinnock, Mrs. Ronald L. 
Chrissinger, Horace B. 
Christensen, Henry C. 
Cini, Soly 

Clague, Mrs. Stanley, Sr. 
Clancy, James F. 
Clark, A. B. 
Clark, Charles T. 
Clark, Mrs. Ralph E. 
Clark, Robert H. 
Clarke, Broadus J. 
Clarke, David R. 
Clarke, Mrs. Philip R. 
Claussen, Edmund J. 
Clement, Dr. Charles C. 
Cleveland, Mrs. A. F. 
Clifford, Thomas B. 
Clinch, Mrs. George 

Clissold, Edward T. 
Clizbe, Mrs. F. O. 
Coburn, Alonzo J. 
Coe, Frank Gait 
Coe, Mrs. Schuyler M. 
Coen, T. M. 
Coffman, A. B. 
Cohen, A. E. 
Coleman, Mrs. 

Adelbert E. 
Coleman, B. R. 
Coleman, Hamilton 
Collins, Arthur W. 
Collins, Charles W. 
Collins, Mrs. Frank P. 
Compton, Mrs. 

Arthur H. 
Condon, Thomas J. 
Converse, Earl M. 
Cook, Louis T. 
Cook, Paul W. 
Cook, Sidney A. 
Coolidge, Dr. Edgar D. 
Coon, Owen L. 
Coon, Robert E. 
Cooper, R., Jr. 
Coppel, Mrs. Charles H. 
Corbin, Mrs. Dana 

Corper, Erwin 
Cottell, Miss Louisa 
Cowan, Mrs. Grace L. 
Cozzens, Mrs. Frederick B. 
Craddock, John F. 
Cragg, Mrs. George L. 
Craig, Mrs. Alfred E. 
Cramer, Mrs. Ambrose 
Crawford, Adam W. 
Crellin, Miss Mary F. 
Crosby, Mrs. Frederick W. 
Crowell, Dr. Bowman 

Culbertson, Mrs. 

James A. 
Cuneo, Frank 
Cunningham, Robert 
Cunningham, Robert M. 
Cunningham, Secor 
Cuppaidge, Mrs. G. 0. 
Curtis, D. C. 
Curtis, John G. 
Cuscaden, Fred A. 
Cushman, Dr. Beulah 

Dahlberg, Dr. A. A. 
Dahle, Isak 
Daniel, Norman 
Danielson, Reuben G. 
Darrow, Paul E. 
Darrow, Mrs. William W. 
Daugherty, George H., 

David, Sigmund W. 
Davies, William B. 
Davis, Mrs. Charles P. 
Davis, Charles S. 
Davis, Mrs. F. Ben 
Davis, Paul H. 
Davis, Ralph W. 
Day, Mrs. Lewis J. 
Dean, William D. 
Deane, Henry Towner 
DeBarry, CD. 
Decker, Hiram E. 
Deffenbaugh, Walter I. 
Defrees, Mrs. Joseph H. 
Degener, August W. 
Deimel, Mrs. Jerome L. 
Deininger, Mrs. D. M. 
Demaree, H. S. 
Denison, Mrs. John 

Denison, John W. 
Deniston, Mrs. 

Albert J., Jr. 
DePeyster, Frederic A. 
Depue, Oscar B. 
D'Esposito, Joshua 
Deutsch, Mrs. Anna C. 
Dick, Mrs. Edison 
Dickinson, J. David 

Dillbahner, Frank 
Dixon, Mrs. Wesley M. 
Donath, Otto 
Donnelley, Thome 
Dorney, Rev. Maurice A. 
Dosch, Henry C. 
Drake, L. J. 
Drake, Lyman M. 
Drell, Mrs. J. B. 
Dreutzer, Carl 
Drew, Miss E. L. 
Drezmal, Max A. 
Dreyfus, Maurice M. 
Drielsma, I. J. 
Duffy, Mrs. Thomas E. 
Dulsky, Louis 
Dummer, Mrs. William 

Duncan, W. S. 
Durr, Mrs. Herbert A. 

Easter, Adolph H. 
Eaton, Leland E. 
Eckhouse, Mrs. 

Herbert F. 
Edgar, David W. 
Edmonds, H. O. 
Egloff, Dr. Gustav 
Ehrman, Walter E. 
Ehrmann, Dr. Fred J. E. 
Eisendrath, Miss 

Eitel, Emil 

Eldred, Mrs. Harriot W. 
Elfborg, Mrs. Henry 
Elich, Mrs. Herman 
Ellbogen, Mrs. Max 
Elliott, Dr. Clinton A. 
Elliott, Francke C. 
Embree, J. W., Jr. 
Emerson, R. W. 
Emery, Mrs. William H. 
Engberg, Miss Ruth M. 
Engelhart, Frank C. 
Enos, Earl E. 
Epstein, Mrs. Arnold 
Erickson, H. E. 
Erickson, Samuel E. 
Erminger, Mrs. H. B., Jr. 
Espenshade, Mrs. E. B. 
Estes, Clarence E. 
Ettelson, Samuel A. 
Eulass, Elmer A. 
Evans, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Everett, Edward W. 
Evers, John W., Jr. 
Exo, Arnold H. 

Fabrice, Edward H. 
Falls, Dr. F. H. 
William J. 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Farwell, Albert D. 
Felsenthal, Herman 
Fenner, W. L. 
Fenton, J. R. 
Ferry, Mrs. Frank 
Field, Mrs. J. A. 
Field, Mrs. 

Wentworth G. 
Findlay, Dr. Ephraim K. 
Fischer, Mrs. Louis E. 
Fisher, Stephen J. 
Fisher, Thomas H. 
Fisher, Mrs. W. A. 
Fitzpatrick, Mrs. T. F. 
Flood, E. J. 
Florsheim, Leonard S. 
Flory, Owen 0. 
Flynn, Maurice J. 
Foley, Mrs. John 

Follett, Dwight W. 
Folsom, Mrs. William R. 
Forch, Mrs. John L., Jr. 
Ford, Mrs. Edwin S. 
Ford, Dr. James W. 
Forrest, Maulsby 
Forrester, Mrs. W. W. 
Fowler, Edgar C. 
Fowler, Gordon F. 
Fowler, Walter E. 
Fox, Professor Philip 
Frank, Miss Margaret 
Frankhauser, Miss 

Frazee, Seward C. 
Freehof, Dr. Solomon B. 
Freiler, Abraham J. 
Fremont, Miss Ruby 
French, Bayless W. 
French, Dr. Thomas M. 
Freund, Erwin 0. 
Frick, Mrs. H. A. 
Frieder, Edward N. 
Friedlander, Maurice 
Friedrichs, Mrs. Edith E. 
Fulton, D. B. 

Gable, Harley 0. 
Gabrielianz, Dr. 

Gale, Abram 
Gallagher, Miss Grace 
Grallauer, Carl 
G-alloway, Dr. Charles E. 
Gamble, James A. 
Gano, David R. 
Gantner, Edward George 
Gardiner, Mrs. John L. 
Girdner, Robert H. 
Gites, Philip R. 
Geraghty, Mrs. 

Thomas F. 

Gibbs, Dr. William W. 
Gilchrist, Miss Harriet F. 
Giles, Miss A. H. 
Gilkes, William H. 
Glade, George H., Jr. 
Glader, Frank J. 
Gladish, David F. 
Gledhill, Edward 
Glover, John 
Glynn, Mrs. John E. 
Goble, Mrs. E. R. 
Goddard, Mrs. Convers 
Goldberg, Mrs. Sol H. 
Goldfinger, Miss Annie 
Goldie, George G. 
Goldman, Mrs. Louis 
Goldsmith, Henry M. 
Goldsmith, Mitchel 
Goodkin, Alexander 
Gordon, Miss Bertha F. 
Gowenlock, Mrs. T. R. 
Graffis, Herbert 
Gramm, Dr. Carl T. 
Grauer, Milton H. 
Graves, Mrs. George E. 
Gray, William A. 
Gray, Mrs. William S. 
Graydon, Charles E. 
Green, Walter H. 
Greene, Miss Rosa B. 
Greenebaum, Mrs. Esther 
Greenhouse, Jacob 
Greenlee, William B. 
Greenlee, Mrs. Ralph S. 
Gregory, Mrs. Robert B. 
Grein, Joseph 
Grey, Newton F. 
Gridley, Mrs. Martin M. 
Griesel, Edward T. 
Griffith, Mrs. G. H. 
Groebe, Louis G. 
Guettler, H. W. 
Guilliams, John R. 
Guinan, James J. 
Gunderson, Mrs. 

George 0. 
Gunkel, George F. 
Gunnar, Mrs. H. P. 

Haerther, William W. 
Hagey, J. F. 
Hajek, Henry F. 
Hall, Arthur B. 
Hall, Harold 
Hall, Harrv 
Hall, Henry C. 
Hall, Louis W. 
Hallett, L. F. 
Hamblen, J. C. 
Hamilton, Mrs. 

Chester F. 
Hamilton, Hugo A. 

Hamilton, J. R. 
Hamline, Mrs. 

John H. 
Hamm, Fred B. 
Hansen, Adolph H. 
Hanson, August E. 
Hanson, Martin J. 
Hardenbrook, Mrs. Burt 

Harding, Mrs. Charles F. 
Harmon, Hubert P. 
Harpel, Mrs. Charles J. 
Harper, James H. 
Harriman, Frank B. 
Harris, Ewart 
Harris, Frank F. 
Harrison, William H. 
Harrold, James P. 
Harshaw, Myron T. 
Hart, Mrs. G. H. 
Hart, Mrs. Harry 
Hart, Louis E. 
Hart, Max A. 
Hart, Robert H. 
Hart, Mrs. Walter H. 
Hartigan, Clare 
Hartwick, H. J. 
Harvey, Byron S. 
Harvey, Mrs. Harold B. 
Haskell, L. A. 
Haskins, Mrs. Virginia W. 
Hattstaedt, Mrs. 

John J. 
Haven, Mrs. Alfred C. 
Hawkes, Joseph B. 
Hawkinson, Dr. Oscar 
Hawthorne, Vaughn R. 
Healy, John J. 
Hebel, Oscar 
Hebert, Mrs. Louis A. 
Heckel, Edmund P. 
Hedley, Arthur H. 
Hedman, Mrs. CM. 
Heg, Ernest 
Heide, Bernard H. 
Heifetz, Samuel 
Heinz, W. W. 
Helebrandt, Louis 
Heller, Ward 
Hemington, Dr. Francis 
Henderson, B. E. 
Henderson, Edward E. 
Heneage, Thomas H. 
Henne, E. A. 
Henneberry, Mrs. 

George F. 
Hennessy, James 
Henning, Charles F. 
Henning, Mrs. Helen E. 
Henriksen, H. M. 
Henschel, Edmund C. 
Herring, Garner 

412 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Hess, Edward J. 
Hess, Mrs. J. H. 
Hess, Sol H. 
Hessler, John B. 
Heubach, Mrs. Lydia 
Heymann, L. H. 
Hibbard, Angus S. 
Hicks, E. L., Jr. 
Hicks, Mrs. Ernest H. 
High, Mrs. George H. 
High, Shirley T. 
Hill, Mrs. Cyrus G. 
Hill, Mrs. Frank L. 
Hill, Miss Meda A. 
Hills, Edward R. 
Hillyer, John T. 
Hilton, Henry H. 
Hirsch, Mrs. Cora S. 
Hirsh, Morris Henry 
Hoadley, Mrs. Arthur G. 
Hoag, Mrs. Junius C. 
Hobson, Professor Asher 
Hodge, Thomas P. 
Holden, Charles R. 
Holliday, W. J. 
Holm, Gottfried 

Holman, Scott A. 

Holt, McPherson 

Holter, Charles C. 

Hooge, Dr. Ludwig F. 

Hooper, A. F. 

Hopkins, James M., Jr. 

Horton, Warren C. 

Hoskinson, James M. 

Houston, Mrs. Thomas J. 

Howard, P. S. 

Hoyt, N. Landon, Jr. 

Hoyt, William M., II 

Hubachek, Frank 

Hubbell, William J. 

Huebsch, Mrs. Helen M. 

Huettmann, Fred 

Huffman, Frank C. 

Hufty, Mrs. F. P. 

Hughes, George A. 

Hughitt, Mrs. Marvin 

Huguenor, Lloyd B. 

Hull, Morton D. 

Hungerford, Mrs. L. S. 

Hunt, George C. 

Hurd, Harry B. 

Hurley, Frank J. 

Hutchinson, Mrs. C. L. 

Hutchison, Miss Jean 

Hyman, Mrs. David A. 

Hyndman, Mrs. A. H. 

Igoe, Mrs. Michael L. 
Ulian, Arthur J. G. 
Ingersoll, Stephen L. 
Irwin, Amory T. 

Jackson, R. W. 
Jackson, W. H. 
Jackson, William F. 
Jacobs, E. G. 
Jacobs, Walter H. 
Jacobs, Whipple 
James, Dr. R. L. 
Jamieson, Norman R. 
Janata, Louis J. 
Jarchow, Mrs. C. E. 
Jar vis, William B. 
Jeffers, Roy S. 
Jeffries, Dr. Daniel W. 
Jenner, Mrs. Austin 
Jennings, Mrs. C. A. 
Jennings, S. C. 
Jewett, Miss Josephine J. 
Jicha, R. Charles 
Johnson, B. W. 
Johnson, Edmund G. 
Johnson, Frank 
Johnson, Mrs. Perry R. 
Johnston, Ira B. 
Johnstone, Mrs. Bruce 
Jones, A. R., Sr. 
Jones, Mrs. C. A. 
Jones, Howard B. 
Jones, Leslie N. 
Jones, Mrs. Morgan T. 
Jones, Oliver 
Jones, Owen Barton 
Joy, James A. 
Judd, Mrs. Robert 

Judson, Clay 

Kaempfer, F. W., Jr. 
Kaempfer, Fred 
Kahlke, Dr. Charles E. 
Kann, Max M. 
Kannally, Michael V. 
Kanter, Dr. Aaron E. 
Karger, Mrs. Samuel I. 
Karpen, Solomon 
Kates, A. T. 
Katz, Solomon 
Kaufmann, Dr. Gustav L. 
Kaumeyer, Mrs. E. A. 
Keene, William J. 
Keith, Dr. Robert P. 
Kelley, L. Thomas 
Kellogg, James G. 
Kellogg, John Payne 
Kelly, Frank S. 
Kelly, Mrs. Haven 

Kelly, William P. 
Kemper, W. R. 
Kendall, H. R. 
Kenly, Mrs. William K. 
Kennedy, David E. 
Kennedy, Lesley 

Keplinger, W. A. 
Kestnbaum, Meyer 
Keyser, Charles F. 
Kimball, William W. 
Kindsvogel, W. G. 
King, David E. 
King, Mrs. Nelora S. 
King, Mrs. W. H. 
Kirchheimer, Mrs. 

Kirk, Joseph H. 
Kirkpatrick, Donald 
Klee, Mrs. Nathan 
Klein, Mrs. A. S. 
Klein, Dr. David 
Kleinschmidt, Edward 
Klotz, Edward C. 
Knapp, Charles S. 
Knobbe, John W. 
Knott, Mrs. Stephen R. 
Kobin, Mrs. William C. 
Koepke, Frank J. 
Kohl, Clarence E. 
Kohn, Mrs. Frances J. 
Kohout, Joseph, Jr. 
Kolar, Miss Gwendolyn 

Kolstad, Odin T. 
Kort, George 
Krebs, Charles E. 
Kress, William G. 
Kreusser, Mrs. O. T. 
Krier, Ambrose J. 
Kuehn, Miss Katherine 
Kuehn, Oswald L. 
Kuhns, Mrs. H. B. 

LaCamp, Miss Augusta 
Laemmle, Mrs. Louis 
LaForge, Dr. Alvin W. 
Laird, Robert S. 
Lange, A. G. 
Langford, Joseph P. 
Langrill, W. E. 
Lanman, E. B. 
Laramore, Florian Eugene 
Larson, Simon P. 
Lasch, Charles F. 
Lau, Mrs. John Arnold 
Lavidge, Arthur W. 
Law, M. A. 
Law, Mrs. Robert O. 
Lawson, Miss Mary J. 
Lazelle, L. L. 
Leach, Porter F. 
Leary, Thomas J. 
Lee, Edward T. 
Lee, Mrs. W. George 
Leigh, Maurice 
Leitch, Mrs. Walter C. 
Leitzell, Mrs. Samuel N. 
Leonard, George Edwaid 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Leslie, John Woodworth 
Lettermann, A. L. 
Levin, I. Archer 
Levin, Louis 

Levis, Mrs. Albert Cotter 
Levis, John M. 
Levy, Mrs. Arthur K. 
LeWald, W. B. 
Lewis, Mrs. Walker O. 
L'Hommedieu, Arthur 
Lichtenstein, Miss Lydia 
Lichtenstein, Walter 
Liebenthal, John Henry 
Lieboner, William S. 
Lifvendahl, Dr. 

Richard A. 
Lindley, Arthur F. 
Lindley, Mrs. Fred W. 
Lindsay, Mrs. Martin 
Lipman, Abraham 
List, Paulus 
Lobdell, Harry H. 
Loeb, Arthur A. 
Loehr, Karl C. 
Loewenherz, Emanuel 
Logan, Frank G. 
Loomis, Miss Marie 
Ludlam, Miss Bertha S. 
Luther, Miss Edith 
Lutz, J. George 
Lydston, Mrs. G. Frank 

MacArthur, Fred V. 
Macdonald, Mrs. Marion 
MacEachern, Dr. M. T. 
Macfarland, Mrs. 

Henry J. 
Macfarland, Lanning 
MacFerran, Charles S. 
MacKechnie, Dr. 

Hugh N. 
Mackenzie, G. I. 
Mackenzie, Mrs. G. S. 
Mackworth, Mrs. 

MacLean, Miss 

Viola Edna 
Macomb, J. DeNavarre 
Malkov, David S. 
Manaster, Henry 
Manheimer, Arthur E. 
Manierre, John T. 
Mann, Howard 
Mansfield, Alfred W. 
Marks, Frank H. 
Marling, Mrs. 

Franklin, Jr. 
Marnane, James D. 
Marshall, J. Waller 
Marston, Mrs. T. B. 
Martin, Ralph H. 
Martin, Robert W. 

Martin, Webb W. 
Mathews, Mrs. Grace 
Matthews, Francis E. 
Matthews, J. H. 
May, Mrs. George T., Jr. 
May, Sol 

Mayer, Edwin W. C. 
Mayer, Frank D. 
Mayer, Herman J., Jr. 
Mayer, Oscar G. 
Mayer, Richard 
McAllister, M. Hall 
McCarty, Mrs. 

James J. 
McClelland, Mrs. E. B. 
McConnell, Mrs. 

A. Howard 
McCormick, Alister H. 
McCormick, Miss 

Elizabeth D. 
McCoy, Charles S. 
McCoy, Frank R. 
McCracken, Harry S. 
McCreight, Miss 

Gladys Alizabeth 
McDonald, Lewis 
McDougall, Mrs. 

Edward G. 
McFadden, Everett R. 
McGregor, James P. 
McGuinn, Edward B. 
McGuire, Simms D. 
McHenry, Roland 
McKay, Charles R. 
McKay, Miss Mabel 
McKiernan, Mrs. 

Donald D. 
McKinstry, W. B. 
McLaughlin, Mrs. 

George D. 
McLaughlin, Dr. James H. 
McLaughlin, Mrs. 

Jesse L. 
McLean, Miss Sarah 
McNamara, Robert C. 
McNamee, Peter F. 
McPherson, Donald F. 
McSurely, Mrs. 

William H. 
Mead, H. B. 

Mead, Dr. Henry C. A. 
Mears, Grant S. 
Mechem, J. C. 
Meek, Miss 

Margaret E. 
Meeker, Arthur 
Mehlhope, Clarence E. 
Meigs, James B. 
Melville, Hugh M. 
Metzger, Charles 


Meyer, Alfred C. 
Meyer, Mrs. 

George J. 
Michaels, Everett B. 
Milchrist, Frank T. 
Miller, Charles J. 
Miller, Henry G. 
Millsaps, J. H. 
Mitchell, Mrs. 

George R. 
Moment, Asher 
Montgomery, John R. 
Moore, Mrs. Agnes C. 
Moore, Dr. Beveridge H. 
Moore, E. E. 
Moore, Mrs. J. W. 
Moore, Merritt S. 
Moore, Nathan G. 
Moore, Oscar L. 
Morgan, Clarence 
Moroney, John J. 
Morris, Ira Nelson 
Morris, Thomas J. 
Morrison, Mrs. C. R. 
Morton, Dr. Edward C. 
Moser, Paul 

Mower, Mrs. Roswell C. 
Mowry, Robert D. 
Mueller, Dr. E. W. 
Mulcahy, Mrs. 

Michael F. 
Mulford, Frank B. 
Munroe, Moray 
Murfey, E. T. R. 
Murphy, Henry C. 
Murphy, J. P. 

Nance, Willis D. 
Napier, William C. 
Nath, Bernard 
Nau, Otto F. 
Neeves, Leland K. 
Nelson, Arthur W. 
Nelson, Byron 
Nelson, Charles M. 
Nelson, William H. 
Nessler, Robert W. 
Nevins, John C. 
Nevotti, Joseph J. 
Newcomet, Horace E. 
Newey, J. W. 
Newman, Mrs. H. H. 
Newman, Hugh 
Newman, Mrs. Jacob 
Newman, Montrose 
Niblack, Mrs. William C. 
Nichols, Mrs. Leslie H. 
Nicholson, Mrs. Frank G. 
Nicholson, W. S. 
Nickerson, J. F. 
Nieland, Mrs. Mollie 

414 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. X 

Nixon, Mrs. George F. 
Noble, C. W. 
Noble, R. Shreve 
Noee, Miss Grace 

Nolan, Mrs. James J. 
Norman, Dan 
Norman, Harold W. 
Norris, Eben H. 
North, Mrs. F. S. 
Northrup, Lorry R. 
Norton, Ellery 
Notheis, Mrs. J. F. 
Noyes, Ernest H. 
Nutting, C. G. 

Obenchain, Miss 

Jeannette Brown 
Oberman, Mrs. 

Abraham M. 
Obermeyer, Charles B. 
O'Brien, M. J. 
Ochsner, Dr. Edward H. 
Oesterblom, I. 
Oldberg, Dr. Eric 
Oleson, Dr. Richard 

Olin, Edward L. 
Olin, Dr. Harry D. 
Olmstead, Ralph W. 
Orb, Mrs. Marie S. 
Ormsby, Mrs. Frank E. 
Osborn, Mrs. Gertrude L. 
Osborne, Raymond 
Osgood, William T. 
O'Shaughnessy, John P. 
Ossendorff, Dr. K. W. 
Ostrander, R. M. 
O'Toole, Mrs. 

Outcault, Mrs. Richard 

F., Jr. 
Owen, C. N. 

Palmer, Robert F. 
Pardee, Mrs. Lucius C. 
Parker, George S. 
Parker, W. H. 
Parmelee, Dwight S. 
Parsons, Bruce 
Patch, Mrs. G. M. 
Patterson, Mrs. L. B. 
Patterson, Mrs. Wallace 
Pauley, Clarence O. 
Paver, Paul W. 
Payne, Mrs. T. D. 
Peacock, Charles D. 
Pearl, Allen S. 
Pearson, F. J. 
Peck, Mrs. Robert G. 
Pencik, Miles F. 
Pentecost, Lewis J. 

Pepple, Mrs. Eloise D. 
Perkins, C. W. 
Perrenot, Mrs. O. M. 
Perryman, Mrs. Hattie S. 
Person, Peter P. 
Peruchietti, Miss Anna 
Peters, Miss Bernice E. 
Peterson, Dr. A. B. 
Petrie, Dr. Scott Turner 
Pfeiffer, Mrs. Jacob 
Pflager, Charles W. 
Phelps, Erastus R. 
Phillips, Howard C. 
Pickell, J. Ralph 
Pietsch, Walter G. 
Pigall, Mrs. Joseph S. 
Pillsbury, Millard B. 
Place, F. E. 
Plamondon, Alfred D. 
Plath, Karl 
Plattenburg, S. R. 
Plummer, Daniel C, Jr. 
Pond, Miss Gayle 
Pond, George F. 
Pontarelli, Mrs. Michael 
Pontius, Dr. John R. 
Potts, Mrs. W. G. 
Prescott, Patrick B., Jr. 
Price, William D. 
Prindle, James H. 
Pringle, Mrs. James E. 
Pritchard, N. H. 
Pritchard, Mrs. 

Richard E. 
Prosser, H. G. 
Pulver, Henri Pierre 
Purrucker, Miss 

Louise M. 
Putnam, Rufus W. 
Puttkammer, Mrs. Ernst 
Pyterek, Rev. Peter H. 

Quarles, Albert M. 
Quarrie, William F. 
Quetsch, L. J. 
Quinlan, James T. 
Quisenberry, T. E. 

Rader, Bud H. 
Raim, Dr. William 
Ramis, Leon Lipman 
Randall, CM. 
Randall, Clarence B. 
Rankin, A. J. 
Rankin, Mrs. Julian J. 
Ranney, Mrs. George A. 
Raulf, Mrs. Carl A. 
Rawlings, Mrs. I. D. 
Ray, Harry K. 
Raymond, Mrs. Clifford S. 
Rayner, Mrs. Arno P. 
Rayner, Frank 

Rayner, Lawrence 
Rea, Miss Edith 
Read, Mrs. J. J. 
Redfield, C. E. 
Reed, Mrs. Frank C. 
Reed, Mrs. Frank D. 
Reed. Rufus M. 
Reed, Walter S. 
Regensburg, James 
Rein, Lester E. 
Reiss, William 
ReQua, Mrs. Charles H. 
Reuss, Mrs. Henry H. 
Reynolds, Mrs. G. 

Rice, Mrs. Charles R. 
Rice, Granville 
Rice, Joseph J. 
Rice, Mrs. W. W. 
Rice, William Wallace 
Rich, Harry 

Richards, James Donald 
Richardson, Dr. 

Maurice L. 
Richert, John C. 
Richter, Arthur 
Rick, Miss Florence 
Rickard, Mrs. Fay E. 
Riel, George A. 
Righeimer, Miss 

Lucy F. 
Riley, Mrs. Harry A. 
Ritchie, Mrs. John 
Ritter, Emil W. 
Roadifer, W. H. 
Robbins, Laurence B. 
Robinson, Miss Nellie 
Robson, Mrs. Oscar 
Roche, Stephen F. 
Rockhold, Mrs. 

Charles W. 
Rockwell, Theodore G. 
Roden, Carl B. 
Roe, Miss Carol F. 
Rogers, Walter A. 
Rolnick, Dr. Harry C. 
Roodhouse, Benjamin T. 
Rooks, Irvin 
Rosenbaum, Julius 
Rosenberg, Mrs. 

Rosenfeld, M. J. 
Rosenfels, Mrs. Irwin S. 
Roth, Allen Benjamin 
Roth, Arthur J. 
Roth, Lester 
Rowell, Dr. L. W. 
Rowland, James E. 
Rowley, Clifford A. 
Rowley, William A. 
Roy, Mrs. Ervin L. 
Rubovits, Theodore 

Jan. 1936 

Annual Report of the Director 


Rudin, John 
Rynder, Ross D. 

Sadler, Mrs. Fred D. 
Saggars, Wayne 
Sample, John Glen 
Sanborn, Mrs. V. C. 
Sawyer, Dr. C. F. 
Sayers, Mrs. A. J. 
Sayre, Dr. Loren D. 
Sayre, Louis T. 
Scallan, John William 
Schaar, Bernard E. 
Schafer, O. J. 
Schafl'ner, Arthur B. 
Schaus, Carl J. 
Scheel, Fred H. 
Scherer, Andrew 
Schermerhorn, Richard A. 
Schiff, Sydney K. 
Schmidt, Theodore 
Schmitt, Mrs. George J. 
Schnadig, E. M. 
Schrader, Miss 

Harriet N. 
Schramm, Charles F. 
Schultz, Walter H. 
Schulze, John E. 
Schulze, Paul 
Schupp, Robert W. 
Schwab, Martin C. 
Schwede, Charles W. 
Schweitzer, E. O. 
Schweizer, Carl 
Scofield, Clarence P. 
Scott, George H. 
Scott, Walter A. 
Scott, Dr. Walter Dill 
Scudder, W. M. 
Seaman, Henry L. 
Seanor, Harry E. 
Sears, Miss Dorothy 
Seaton, G. Leland 
Selig, Lester N. 
Sellers, Mrs. O. R. 
Selz, Emanuel 
Senear, Dr. F. E. 
Senne, Walter C. 
Seubold, Dr. F. H. 
Sexton, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Shaffer, Mrs. 

Norman P. 
Shanahan, David E. 
Shaw, Mrs. A. W. 
Sheahan, Miss Marie 
Shepard, Guy C. 
Sheridan, L. J. 
Sherman, Edwin 
Sherman, H. C. 
Sherman, Mrs. W. W. 
Shippey, Mrs. Charles W. 
Shiverick, Mrs. A. F. 

Shoemaker, W. H. 
Short, J. R. 
Shrader, Frank K. 
Sieck, Herbert 
Sievers, William H. 
Silber, Clarence J. 
Sillani, Mrs. Mabel W. 
Simmons, Mrs. Charles R. 
Simons, Hi 
Simpson, Mrs. Anita 
Simpson, C. G. 
Singer, Albert B. 
Sjostrom, Otto A. 
Skog, Mrs. Ludvig 
Slade, John C. 
Slade, William F. 
Slaney, J. C. 
Smale, William 
Smith, Charles Herbert 
Smith, Mrs. E. A. 
Smith, Glen E. 
Smith, Henry Justin 
Smith, Hermon Dunlap 
Smith, J. Parker 
Smith, Reynold S. 
Smithwick, J. G. 
Snite, Fred B. 
Somerville, Mrs. Helen 
Sparrow, Mrs. W. W. K. 
Speed, Dr. Kellogg 
Speer, Earl D. 
Spencer, Egbert H. 
Speyer, Mrs. George W. 
Sprague, Albert A., Jr. 
Spray, Cranston 
Spry, George 
Stanbury, Dr. C. E. 
Stanley, Miss E. C. 
Stark, Rev. Dudley S. 
States, Wilmer M. 
Steece, F. B. 
Steele, Leo M. 
Steele, Sidney J. 
Steffensen, Sigurd 
Stein, Lawrence M. 
Steinfeldt, Dr. C. R. 
Steinson, Henry G. 
Stephenson, Mrs. 

Elmer E. 
Stern, Mrs. Alfred 
Stern, Jacob S. 
Steven, Mrs. Leslie 

Stevens, Miss 

Charlotte M. 
Stevens, Miss 

Katharine M. 
Stewart, Mrs. George 

Stewart, George R. 
Stewart, William 
Stifler, Mrs. J. M. 

Stift, Miss Louise A. 
Stilwell, George L. 
Storkan, Mrs. James 

Franklin J. 
Straub, Mrs. Walter F. 
Straus, Arthur W. 
Strawbridge, C. H. 
Street, C. R. 
Strigl, F. C. 
Strom, Walter H. 
Stumes, Charles B. 
Sturla, Harry L. 
Sturtevant, Roy E. 
Sudler, Carroll H., Jr. 
Sullivan, Grey 
Summers, L. F. 
Sundell, Ernest W. 
Sundlof, F. W. 
Supplee, Cochran 
Swanson, Frank E. 
Swift, Mrs. Nathan B. 
Swift, T. Philip 
Sylvester, Miss Ada I. 
Symmes, William H. 

Tankersley, J. N. 
Tansey, Thomas F. 
Taylor, Edmund H. 
Taylor, Frank F. 
Taylor, L. S. 
Teller, George L. 
Temps, Leupold 
Tevander, Mrs. Olaf N. 
Tewson, William E. 
Theurer, Mrs. 

Peter S. 
Thomas, Mrs. J. Elmer 
Thomas, John J. 
Thomason, Samuel E. 
Thompson, Miss 

Lucille C. 
Thompson, Mrs. Slason 
Thompson, Mrs. W. B. 
Throop, George Enos 
Thurman, E. B. 
Tinling, C. F. M. 
Tippett, William M. 
Todd, A. 
Tonk, Percy A. 
Topping, John R. 
Towner, Miss 

Elizabeth W. 
Towner, Frank H. 
Tracy, Howard Van S. 
Trainer, William O. 
Traver, George W. 
Tremain, Miss Eloise R. 
Triggs, Charles W. 
Trowbridge, E. C. 
Trude, Mrs. A. S. 
True, Charles H. 

416 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. X 

Truman, Percival H. 
Trumbull, Miss Florence 
Tyler, Alfred C. 

Ullmann, Mrs. Albert I. 
Utley, George B. 

Vaill, Mrs. J. H. 
VanArtsdale, Mrs. Flora 
VanDeventer, \V. E. 
VanHagen, Mrs. George 

VanSchaack, Mrs. C. P. 
Varde, CM. 
Varley, C. E. 
Varty, Leo G. 
Vernon, Harvey C. 
Vial. F. K. 

Vilas, Mrs. George B. 
Vivian, George 
Vogel, Rudolph E. 
Vose, Mrs. Frederic P. 

Wagner, Richard 
Wake, Roy E. 
Wakem, Mrs. Wa!i 
Waldeck, Herman 
Walker, James R. 
Walker, Lee 
Wallach, Mrs. H. L. 
Waller, Mrs. Trigg 
Waller. Mrs. William, Jr. 
Walpole, S. J. 
Walton, Lyman A. 
Warner, Addison W. 
Warner, E. J., Jr. 
Warner, Mason 
Warren, L. Parsons 
Warren, William G. 
Warsziwski, Mrs. 

Edward 11. 
Wasson, Theron 
Watkins, Frank A. 
Watkins, Frederick A. 

Watson, Vernon S. 
Webber, E. A. 
Webster, Henry A. 
Webster, James 
Webster, N. C. 
Wegg, Donald R. 
Weil, Mrs. Leon 
Weil, Mrs. Victor 
Weiner, Charles 
Weiss, Theodore O. 
Welch, L. C. 
Wells, Mrs. H. Gideon 
Wentworth, John 
V. • ntworth, Mrs. 

Ivia B. 
Wents, Peter Leland 
Werelius, Mrs. Axel 
•ott, Dr. Virgil 

Frederick T. 
t, Thomas H. 

. Mrs. S' ymour 
Whipple, Mrs. George A. 
Whiston, Frank M. 
White. W. J. 
White, W. T. 
White, William J. 
Whitney, Mrs. Charles 

Whitnev, Mrs. Gordon 
Whit well, J. E. 
Wirkham, lira, 

Thomas Y. 
Wickland, Algot A. 
- im, .!"hn 
. Miss E. Lillian 
Wilder, Emory 11. 
Wilds, John L. 
Wil- ard X. 

Wilhelm, Frank Edward 
Wilken, Mrs. Theodore 
Wilkey, Fred S. 
Widard. Guy 
Wille, Andrew 
Willens, Joseph R. 

Willett, Howard L. 
Wiliiams, Clyde O. 
Williams, Kenneth 
Williams, Lawrence 
Williamson, John A. 
Wilson, Arlen J. 
Wilson, E. L. 
Wilson, Percival C. 
Wilson, William 
Wilson, William G. 
Wilson, William R. 
Winston. Mrs. Farwell 
Winterbotham, Mrs. 

John R., Jr. 
Witkowsky, James 
Witkowsky, Leon 
Wolbach. Murray 
Wolcott. Carl F. 
Wolfe, William C. 
Wood, Milton G. 
Woodyatt, Dr. Rollin 

Worthy, Mrs. 

Sidney W. 
Wrisley, George A. 
Wulbert, Morris 
Wurzburg, H. J. 

Yeakel, Dr. William K. 
York'.v, Mrs. Margaret 
Young, B. Botsford 
Young, E. Frank 
Young, James W. 

Zacharias, Robert M. 
Zambon, Attilio 
Zane, John Maxcy 
Zbyszewski, Tytus 
Zenos, Rev. Andrew C. 
ZitT, Mrs. Belle 
Zimmermann, Mrs. P. T. 
Zintak, Frank V. 
Zipprich, Carl J. 
Zitzewitz, Elmer 

Deceased, 1935 

Addams, Miss Jane 

Beidler, Augustus F. 
Brodt, Irwin W. 
Brown, Joseph F. 

Cameron, Ossian 
Culp, Miss Mary V. 

Dalmar, Hugo 
DeLamarter, Mrs. Eric 

Hertzberg, Edward 

Kuppenheimer, Mrs. 

Mcintosh, Neil 

Rosenfels, Irwin S. 
Rosenfield, Morris S. 

Schmidt, Dr. Otto L. 
Staples, Miss Emily