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Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. XI, Plate I 


A Benefactor of the Museum, who died September 8, 1936. In honor of her, and her late 

husband, a hall has been named George T. and Frances Gaylord Smith Hall 

Report Series 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Volume XI 

Number 1 





Publication 382 


JUN15 1937 


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January, 1937 


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Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may be made in 
securities, money, books or collections. They may, if desired, take 
the form of a memorial to a person or cause, to be named by the 
giver. For those desirous of making bequests to the Museum, the 
following form is suggested: 


I do hereby give and bequeath to Field Museum of Natural 
History of the City of Chicago, State of Illinois, 

Contributions made within the taxable year to Field 
Museum of Natural History to an amount not in excess of 
15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income are allowable as 
deductions in computing net income for federal income 
tax purposes. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron during his 
or her lifetime. These annuities are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount and may reduce federal income taxes. 

I I I 7366 



List of Plates 7 

Officers, Trustees and Committees, 1936 9 

Former Members of the Board of Trustees 10 

Former Officers 11 

List of Staff 12 

Report of the Director 15 

Department of Anthropology 37 

Department of Botany 42 

Depar, ment of Geology 53 

Depai . nent of Zoology 64 

N. W. Harris Public School Extension 79 

James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for 

Public School and Children's Lectures 80 

Lectui -s for Adults 84 

Library 85 

Division of Printing 88 

Divisions of Photography and Illustration 91 

Division of Publications 91 

Division of Public Relations 93 

Division of Memberships 94 

Cafe f jria 95 

Comparative Attendance Statistics and Door Receipts . . 96 

Comparative Financial Statements 97 

List of Accessions 98 

Articles of Incorporation 112 

Amended By-Laws 114 

List of Members 119 

Benefactors 119 

Honorary Members 119 

Patrons 119 

Corresponding Members 120 




Contributors 120 

Corporate Members 121 

Life Members 121 

Non-Resident Life Members 123 

Associate Members 124 

Xon-Resident Associate Members 138 

Sustaining Members 138 

Annual Members 138 



I. Mrs. George T. Smith 1 

II. Ernest Robert Graham 16 

III. A Chellean Scene 20 

IV. Model of Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl 28 

V. Ancient Egyptian Promissory Note 36 

VI. Traveler's Tree of Madagascar (mural painting) ... 44 

VII. A Tea Plantation in Ceylon (miniature diorama) ... 52 

VIII. Reproduction of Purple Angelica 60 

IX. Model Illustrating Structure of the Earth 68 

X. Fossil Cones and Twigs 76 

XL Emperor Penguin 84 

XII. Bengal Tiger 92 

XIII. Reef Corals 100 

XIV. Type of Case Loaned to the Schools of Chicago by the 

N. W. Harris Public School Extension 108 


Stanley Field 

First Vice-President Second Vice-President 

Albert A. Sprague James Simpson 

Third Vice-President Secretary 

Albert W. Harris Stephen C. Simms 

Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
Solomon A. Smith 


Sewell L. Avery Cyrus H. McCormick* 

Leopold E. Block Charles A. McCulloch 

John Borden William H. Mitchell 

William J. Chalmers George A. Richardson 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Fred W. Sargent 

Joseph N. Field Stephen C. Simms 

Marshall Field James Simpson 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Ernest R. Graham* Albert A. Sprague 

Albert W. Harris Silas H. Strawn 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Leslie Wheeler 

John P. Wilson 


Executive. — Stanley Field, Albert W. Harris, William J. Chalmers, 
James Simpson, Albert A. Sprague, Marshall Field, Silas H. 
Strawn, John P. Wilson. 

Finance. — Albert W. Harris, Solomon A. Smith, James Simpson, 
John P. Wilson. 

Building. — William J. Chalmers, Samuel Insull, Jr., Cyrus H. 
McCormick*, Ernest R. Graham*, William H. Mitchell. 

Auditing. — James Simpson, Fred W. Sargent, George A. Richardson. 

Pension. — Albert A. Sprague, Sewell L. Avery, Solomon A. Smith. 

♦Deceased, 1936 


George E. Adams* 1893-1917 

Owen F. Aldis* 1893-1898 

Allison V. Armour 1893-1894 

Edward E. Ayer* 1893-1927 

John C. Black* 1893-1894 

M. C. Bullock* 1893-1894 

Daniel H. Burnham* 1893-1894 

George R. Davis* 1893-1899 

James W. Ellsworth* 1893-1894 

Charles B. Farwell* 1893-1894 

Frank W. Gunsaulus* 1893-1894, 1918-1921 

Emil G. Hirsch* 1893-1894 

Charles L. Hutchinson* 1893-1894 

John A. Roche* 1893-1894 

Martin A. Ryerson* 1893-1932 

Edwin Walker* 1893-1910 

Watson F. Blair* 1894-1928 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1894-1919 

Huntington W. Jackson* 1894-1900 

Arthur B. Jones* 1894-1927 

George Manierre* 1894-1924 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1910 

Norman Williams* 1894-1899 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1899-1905 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1902-1921 

George F. Porter* 1907-1916 

Richard T. Crane, Jr.* 1908-1912, 1921-1931 

John Barton Payne* 1910-1911 

Chauncey Keep* 1915-1929 

Henry Field* 1916-1917 

William Wrigley, Jr.* 1919-1931 

Harry E. Byram 1921-1928 

D. C. Davies* 1922-1928 

Charles H. Markham* 1924-1930 

Frederick H. Rawson 1927-1935 

William V. Kelley* 1929-1932 

* Deceased 




Edward E. Ayer* 1894-1398 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1898-1908 

First Vice-Presidents 
Martin A. Ryerson* 1894-1932 

Second Vice-Presidents 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1902 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1902-1905 

Stanley Field 1906-1903 

Watson F. Blair* 1909-1928 

Albert A. Sprague 1929-1932 

Th ird V ice-Pres iden's 

Albert A. Sprague 1921-1923 

James Simpson 1929-1932 


Ralph Metcalf 1894 

George Manierre* 1894-1907 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1907-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1923 

Byron L. Smith* 1894-1914 


Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1893-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 





Stephen C. Simms 


Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator 

Albert B. Lewis, Curator, Melanesian Ethnology 

Wilfrid D. Hambly, Curator, African Ethnology 

Henry Field, Curator, Physical Anthropology 

C. Martin Wilbur, Curator, Sinology 

Richard A. Martin, Curator, Near Eastern Archaeology 

A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate, American Archaeology 

T. George Allen, Research Associate, Egyptian Archaeology 

Tokumatsu Ito, Ceramic Restorer 

department of botany 

B. E. Dahlgrex, Chief Curator 

Paul C. Standley, Curator, Herbarium 

J. Francis Macbride, Associate Curator, Herbarium 

Llewelyn Williams, Curator, Economic Botany 

Samuel J. Record, Research Associate, Wood Technology 

A. C. Noe, Research Associate, Paleobotany 

E. E. Sherff, Research Associate, Systematic Botany 

John R. Millar, Assistant, Laboratory 

Emil Sella, Assistant, Laboratory 
Milton Copulos, Assistant, Laboratory 

department of geology 

Henry W. Nichols, Chief Curator 

Elmer S. Riggs, Curator, Paleontology 

Bryan Patterson, Assistant Curator, Paleontology 

Phil C. Orr, Assistant, Paleontology 

James H. Quinn, Assistant, Paleontology 

Sharat K. Roy, Curator, Geology 

DEPARTMENT of zoology 

Wilfred H. Osgood, Chief Curator 

William J. Gerhard, Curator, Insects 

Emil Liljeblad, Assistant Curator, Insects 

Karl P. Schmidt, Curator, Amphibians and Reptiles 

Alfred C. Weed, Curator, Fishes 

Rudyerd Boulton, Curator, Birds 

C. E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator, Birds 

Emmet R. Blake, Assistant Curator, Birds 

H. B. Conover, Research Associate, Birds 

Leslie W t heeler, Research Associate, Birds 

R. Magoon Barnes, Curator, Birds' Eggs 

Colin Campbell Sanborn, Curator, Mammals 

Edmoxd X. Gueret, Curator, Vertebrate Skeletons 

D. Dwight Davis, Assistant Curator, Vertebrate Skeletons 



Julius Friesser C. J. Albrecht 

L. L. Pray Leon L. Walters 

Arthur G. Rueckert John W. Mover 


Edgar G. Laybourne W. E. Eigsti 

Frank C. Wonder 

Frank H. Letl, Preparator of Accessories 


Stephen C. Simms, Acting Curator 
A. B. Wolcott, Assistant Curator 


Emily M. Wilcoxson, Librarian 
Mary W. Baker, Assistant Librarian 


Henry F. Ditzel Benjamin Bridge 

Clifford C. Gregg, Assistant to the Director 

RECORDER— IN charge of publication distribution 

Elsie H. Thomas 

purchasing agent 

J. L. Jones 


Margaret M. Cornell, Chief 
Miriam Wood Leota G. Thomas 

Velma D. Whipple Marie B. Pabst 

division of public relations 

H. B. Harte, in charge 

division of memberships 

Pearle Bilinske, in charge 


Dewey S. Dill, in charge 
Lillian A. Ross, Editor and Proofreader 


C. H. Carpenter, Photographer Carl F. Gronemann, Illustrator 
A. A. Miller, Photogravurist 


Charles A. Cor win 

superintendent of maintenance 

John E. Glynn 

chief engineer 

W. H. Corning 

William E. Lake, Assistant Engineer 



To the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History: 

I have the honor to present a report of the operations of the 
Museum for the year ending December 31, 1936. 

More money is the great need of Field Museum. 

This fact cannot be stressed too emphatically. It has been 
forcibly impressed upon those in charge of the administration of 
this institution throughout the year just closed, and in the several 
years preceding; it is the outstanding consideration that confronts 
the Museum officials as the year 1937 opens. 

More money to operate the Museum — 

More money to enable it to carry on the share of expeditions, 
research and dissemination of knowledge to which it is entitled as 
one of the world's pre-eminent scientific institutions — 

More money to assure maintenance of its enviable position 
among the great museums of the world — 

More money to provide for the retirement of old faithful workers 
in its employ — 

The need of more money for these, and countless other activities, 
is incontrovertibly the present crying problem of Field Museum. 

The decrease in income during the past few years has become, 
and continues to be, a serious menace to the further growth and 
development of this great institution. 

This decrease has occurred in nearly all sources of income, viz. : 

A decrease in the return from corporate investments. 

A decrease in the return from taxes levied for the maintenance 
of museums. 

A decrease in the revenue obtained from paid admissions. 

A decrease in the sums paid in for memberships in the Museum. 

A decrease in the contributions received from public-spirited 

The decrease in the return from corporate investments makes 
one ponder long as to what the future has in store for endowed 

If Field Museum is to carry on its activities at full strength, 
and on a scale suited to its standing as an institution and to the 


16 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

importance of the great public and territory which it serves, it must 
have large additions to its endowment funds. 

There must be also a substantial increase in the amount received 
from taxes. 

There must be an ever increasing membership supporting the 
Museum with contributions or annual dues. 

And the Museum must be able to look to the public-spirited 
citizens of Chicago and the middle west, which it so well serves, 
for generous contributions. 

Lacking increased income from all such sources, the Museum is 
faced with the prospect of a future situation which might lead to 
serious curtailment of all the important functions which it fulfills. 

The number of visitors during 1936 was 1,191,437, which repre- 
sents a small increase over 1935 when attendance totaled 1,182,349. 
This is an encouraging indication of reviving public interest, as it is 
the first reversal of the downward trend shown each year since the 
1933 record of 3,269,390 was attained, due to the stimulation given 
that year by A Century of Progress exposition. 

Although there was a slight increase also in the number of paid 
admissions in 1936, and in the ratio of paid to total admissions, it 
was of practically negligible proportions. The number of visitors 
paying the 25-cent admission fee charged on "pay days" in 1936 was 
68,375, or less than 6 per cent of the total, as compared to approxi- 
mately 5 per cent in 1935. All other 1936 visitors, numbering 
1,123,062, either came on the free days (Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays), or belonged to classes to which free admission is extended 
every day — Members of the Museum, children, students, teachers, etc. 

To obtain a true measure of the Museum's educational influence, 
it is necessary to consider that, in addition to the attendance received 
in the building, the institution reaches every year hundreds of 
thousands of others, principally children, through its extra-mural 
activities. The most important of these are conducted by the James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public School 
and Children's Lectures, and the Department of the N. W. Harris 
Public School Extension. 

The Raymond Foundation sent lecturers to the schools, who 
addressed 444 gatherings in classrooms and assembly halls, with a 
total of 165,757 children. In addition to this work outside the 
Museum building, the Foundation presented in the James Simpson 
Theatre nineteen free motion picture programs, which were attended 
by 25,759 children ; and conducted 810 groups comprising a total of 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. XI, Plate II 

A Trustee of the Museum from 1921 until his death on November 22, 1936, and one 
of the institution's Benefactors. A hall has been named 
Ernest R. Graham Hall as a memorial to him 


Introduction 17 

28,280 children on guide-lecture tours of the exhibition halls. For 
adults, 382 similar lecture tours were participated in by 7,115 per- 
sons. The nineteen free illustrated lectures for adults in the regular 
spring and autumn courses presented in the James Simpson Theatre 
attracted audiences totaling 17,557 persons. Altogether, 1,676 
groups, aggregating 245,814 persons, were reached by the Raymond 
Foundation activities together with the adult lectures, tours for 
adults, and other similar special services offered the public by the 

The traveling exhibits circulated among 446 schools and other 
institutions by the Harris Extension reached more than 700,000 
persons, chiefly children. Contact was maintained daily throughout 
the school year in 379 Chicago public schools with a total enrollment 
of 463,539 pupils; and also in thirty-three parochial and eight private 
schools which, together with various community centers, clubs and 
other organizations, made the benefits of the service available to 
approximately 250,000 additional children. In each school two cases 
are kept on display, changes of subjects being made every two weeks 
through the delivery and collection service in which two Museum 
trucks are used. 

The Museum Library functioned with its customary usefulness 
to the Staff of the Museum and to the general public, furnishing 
material needed in specialized research. Gifts, exchanges and pur- 
chases added many valuable new books and pamphlets to the collec- 
tions, which now number approximately 105,000 volumes. Physical 
improvements were made in the rooms occupied by the Library. 

The study collections maintained in each of the scientific Depart- 
ments for reference work by scientists, teachers, and students were 
likewise used to advantage. 

Other media through which the Museum disseminated scientific 
information to a public on which no statistics are possible but which 
obviously must aggregate hundreds of thousands of persons, are the 
publications and leaflets issued by the institution, the monthly 
bulletin Field Museum News, articles released to the r daily and 
periodical press of Chicago and the nation, and radio programs 
concerning the Museum. 

It is with deepest regret that there must be recorded here the 
deaths during 1936 of two Trustees of the Museum, Mr. Cyrus Hall 
McCormick and Mr. Ernest R. Graham. 

In tribute to the memory of Mr. McCormick, his fellow Trustees 
adopted the following resolution at their meeting of July 20: 

18 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

"With heartfelt grief the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural 
History make record of the death of their long-time and highly- 
esteemed fellow member of the Board, Cyrus Hall McCormick. 

"Since as far back as 1894, when the Museum's work was just 
beginning, Mr. McCormick had served as one of its Trustees, and 
had helped to guide the institution in its consistent progress over the 
years. His counsel was held in high regard by his companions on 
the Board, and he was a member of the important Building Com- 
mittee. For his gifts to the Museum his name has been given a 
perpetual place on the roll of the institution's Contributors. He 
was also a Life Member and a Corporate Member of the Museum. 

"Mr. McCormick was seventy-seven years old at the time of his 
death, which occurred on June 2, 1936. He was well known for his 
many philanthropies, and his deep interest and keen understanding 
of the problems of civic, educational and charitable institutions. 
His business career was characterized by remarkable vigor and the 
highest integrity, and he was noted for his successful development 
and administration of a vast industrial enterprise. He was one of 
the pioneers in the important field of activities for employes' welfare. 

"Mr. McCormick was greatly admired by his fellow Trustees of 
the Museum, and his presence will be sorely missed at their future 

"Therefore, be it resolved that this expression of our sorrow at 
his passing be permanently preserved on the records of the Board ; 

"And be it further resolved that our deep sympathy be conveyed 
to the members of his family in their bereavement, and that a copy 
of this resolution be sent to his widow." 

The following resolution in honor of Mr. Graham was adopted 
by the Trustees at a meeting held December 21 : 

"One of the truly great men of Chicago, and of the nation, has 
been lost by the death, on November 22, 1936, of Ernest Robert 
Graham. Internationally famed as architect and builder, he pos- 
sessed the artist's touch that wove symphonies in stone and steel. 
Thus he left behind his own most fitting monuments in a host of 
America's most beautiful buildings, standing in Chicago, New York, 
Washington, and many other cities of this country. Abroad, too, 
his memory will be preserved in splendid structures of his design. 

"Nowhere could grief over Mr. Graham's death be more poign- 
antly felt than among his fellow Trustees of Field Museum of 
Natural History. He had been a member of this Board since 1921, 
and the services he rendered are incalculable. With this institution 

Introduction 19 

he had a special and intimate relationship. The Museum was one 
of his predominant interests among the many worthy civic activities 
in which he engaged. In association with the late Daniel H. Burn- 
ham he designed the present Museum building, which ranks among 
the gems of his professional career. He was equally interested in the 
Museum as an institution. He was a Life Member, a Corporate 
Member, and, in recognition of the advancement of science, especially 
paleontology, made possible by his benefactions, he was elected an 
Honorary Member. His generous gifts to the Museum, totaling 
more than $130,000, placed his name on the list of the Museum's 
Benefactors, that group of twenty-one men and women who, with 
the Founder, have done the most for this institution in financial 
support. The development of the Hall of Historical Geology was 
made possible by his generous patronage, the magnificent series of 
twenty-eight mural paintings by Charles R. Knight restoring pre- 
historic life scenes, and the several group restorations, having been 
acquired with funds he provided. In recognition of his interest in 
and contributions to this hall, the Trustees in 1926 gave it the name 
Ernest R. Graham Hall, and this will remain as a permanent memo- 
rial to Mr. Graham, and a tribute on the part of the Museum for 
the many services he rendered it. 

"As a Trustee, Mr. Graham devoted much time, and his best 
effort and thought, to the problem of developing and administering 
this institution. His keen insight and well-considered suggestions 
and advice were highly valued by his fellow Trustees, and he had a 
personal charm, as well as depth of intellect, which was always 
a source of inspiration to them. 

"Therefore, be it resolved that this expression of our admiration 
and esteem for Mr. Graham, and our grief at his passing and the 
loss of his counsel and companionship, be permanently preserved 
on the records of the Board. 

"And be it further resolved that our deep sympathy be conveyed 
to the members of his family in their bereavement, and that a copy 
of this resolution be sent to his widow." 

Another death which removed one of the Museum's most earnest 
friends was that of Mrs. George T. (Frances Ann Gaylord) Smith, 
who passed away on September 8. Mrs. Smith had been for years 
a generous supporter of the institution, and in recognition of her 
contributions of funds and valuable material for the exhibits, had 
been elected a Patron, a Contributor, and a Corporate Member. 
In her honor, and in memory of her late husband, George T. Smith, 

20 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

who died some years previously, the Board of Trustees in 1931 gave 
to Hall 24 (devoted to the archaeology of China) the name George T. 
and Frances Gaylord Smith Hall. Mrs. Smith was especially inter- 
ested in the Chinese collections, being herself the possessor of an 
excellent private collection of Orientalia. In the settlement of her 
estate, Field Museum received a most notable collection of several 
hundred items of rare and beautiful Chinese objects of jade, por- 
celain, ivory, tapestry, embroidered silks, and other materials. The 
jades, when added to the large number already on exhibition in 
Hall 30, will, it is believed, make Field Museum's collection one of 
the finest in the world. At a meeting of the Trustees of the Museum 
held on September 21, the names of Mr. and Mrs. Smith were 
posthumously added to the roll of the Museum's Benefactors. 

Also added to the list of Benefactors was Trustee Frederick H. 
Rawson, who gave additional funds during the year which brought 
his total contributions to more than $100,000. 

In recognition of her eminent services, notably in sponsoring the 
Straus West African Expedition (1934), Mrs. Oscar Straus, of New 
York, was elected a Patron. 

Dr. Karl Keissler, Director of the Botanical Division of the 
Natural History Museum of Vienna, was elected a Corresponding 
Member in appreciation of services in connection with Field Mu- 
seum's botanical work in Europe. 

Two new Life Members were elected during 1936: Mr. Oscar 
Heineman, and Miss Gracia M. F. Barnhart. 

A list of Members in all classes will be found in this Report, 
beginning on page 119. The total membership at December 31 was 
4,238, a gain of 95 over the same date in 1935. This is the first 
increase since 1930, and encourages the hope for further membership 
growth in the next few years. 

With regret, note is made of the death of Sir Henry Wellcome in 
London on July 25. Sir Henry, who was born in Wisconsin and 
spent his youth in this country, had achieved world-wide fame as a 
benefactor of medical and biological sciences, and archaeology. He 
gave valuable assistance to the Marshall Field Anthropological 
Expedition to the Near East (1934). 

The Board of Trustees, at its Annual Meeting held January 20, 
re-elected all Officers of the Museum who had served in 1935. 

At the regular meeting held December 21, the Board elected 
three new Trustees, Mr. Charles A. McCulloch, Mr. Leopold E. 
Block, and Mr. Albert B. Dick, Jr., to fill vacancies on the Board 


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Introduction 21 

which had been caused by the resignation of Mr. Frederick H. 
Rawson, and the deaths of Mr. Cyrus H. McCormick and Mr. 
Ernest R. Graham. They were elected Corporate Members also. 

Installations of new exhibits, and reinstallations and improve- 
ments of older ones, proceeded as usual. The outstanding new 
exhibits are a habitat group of emperor penguins in Hall 20, and 
another of white-tailed gnu in Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall 
(Hall 22). 

The emperor penguins are especially interesting. They are the 
largest species of their family, they live farther south than any 
other birds, and are extremely odd in appearance. In the group 
are eight specimens, collected by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd on 
his Second Antarctic Expedition (1935), and presented to the Mu- 
seum by the Chicago Zoological Society. They are shown in a 
scene representing their home in "Little America." The birds were 
mounted by Staff Taxidermist John W. Moyer, assisted by Mr. 
John LaBonte. A method unusual in bird taxidermy was employed 
—manikins similar to those used for large mammals were modeled 
from the skeletons in accordance with measurements from fresh 
specimens, and the skins were mounted over these. Staff Taxi- 
dermist Leon L. Walters cast and reproduced the bills and feet in 
cellulose-acetate, which gives most realistically the appearance and 
texture of life. Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin and Staff Taxi- 
dermist Arthur G. Rueckert painted the panoramic background 
representing the great Ross ice shelf. 

The white-tailed gnu group is composed of two old bulls, an old 
cow, a younger cow, and a calf, collected in South Africa by an 
expedition led by Mr. Arthur S. Vernay, of New York and London, 
who presented them to the Museum. As it is extremely difficult to 
secure specimens of this animal, which is practically extinct in the 
wild state, the Museum was very fortunate to obtain this excellent 
representation. They are grotesque-looking animals, and in early 
books were called "horned horses." The group was prepared by 
Staff Taxidermist C. J. Albrecht. 

Among other additions to the zoological exhibits are a series of 
six different species of penguins, placed in the systematic collection 
in Hall 21; a specimen of the rare bird known as Derby's guan, or 
faisan, obtained by the Leon Mandel Guatemala Expedition (1933- 
34), also added to Hall 21; and single mounts of the rare four- 
horned antelope of India, the Ethiopian ibex, the small tamarao 
buffalo of Mindoro in the Philippines, and the Asiatic wild ox called 

22 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

banting, all four of these being placed in the horned and hoofed 
mammal series in George M. Pullman Hall (Hall 13). The four- 
horned antelope was obtained by the late Colonel J. C. Faunthorpe, 
of Bombay; the Ethiopian ibex was secured by the Field Museum- 
Chicago Daily News Ethiopian Expedition (1926-27); the tamarao 
is a gift from Mr. A. W. Exline, of Mindoro; the banting was ob- 
tained through the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to 
Eastern Asia (1928). Important additions and reinstallations were 
made among the exhibits of reptiles and amphibians in Albert W. 
Harris Hall (Hall 18), and eight cases of marine invertebrates were 
installed in the same hall. The appearance of the habitat group of 
Bengal tigers in William V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17) was greatly im- 
proved by remounting of the male animal, and other minor changes. 
The hippopotamus and white rhinoceros, formerly included in the 
systematic collection of mammals in Hall 15, were transferred to 
Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall (Hall 22), where they have been 
installed, with shrubbery and reeds to suggest their characteristic 

Among important new exhibits in the Department of Geology 
is a model installed in Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35), illus- 
trating the structure of the internal layers of the earth, in accordance 
with accepted scientific theories. In the same hall there has been 
installed a model showing the various shapes assumed by bodies of 
igneous rock in their original positions before they are exposed by 
erosion of the rocks above. Also added to this hall are a diorama 
representing an Alpine glacier, and an exhibit which illustrates the 
phenomenon of mineral fluorescence. Work was begun on complete 
reinstallation of the large meteorite collection in Hall 34. A replica 
of the great Jonker diamond, one of the world's largest, weighing 
726 carats (more than one-quarter of a pound) was placed among 
the gems and jewels in H. N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31). It is a 
gift from Mr. Harry Winston, of New York, owner of the original 

There were many additions to the paleontological exhibits in 
Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). Outstanding among these are a 
group of four articulated skeletons of animals shown as they were 
caught in their death trap, the Rancho La Brea asphaltum pools in 
Los Angeles; a fossil skeleton of the South American glyptodont 
Eleiitherocercus, together with a miniature restoration prepared by 
Assistant Phil C. Orr, showing the animal as it appeared in life; 
and the only known skeleton of the strange South American mammal 

Introduction 23 

designated as Homalodotherium. The Homalodotherium skeleton 
was prepared by Assistant J. H. Quinn. Both Eleutherocercus and 
Homalodotherium are from the collections made some years ago by 
the Marshall Field Paleontological Expeditions to various parts of 
South America, under the leadership of Curator Elmer S. Riggs. 

It should be mentioned here that further research conducted 
during 1936 on a specimen placed on exhibition in 1935, and identi- 
fied in the Annual Report for 1935 (pages 298 and 340) as Titanoides, 
resulted in its classification as the type of a new genus, Barylambda, 
a similar animal of equal rarity. 

In the Department of Botany, six more large murals by Staff 
Artist Charles A. Corwin were placed on the walls of the Hall of 
Plant Life (Hall 29), which, with those reported in 1935, make eight 
completed out of the total of fifteen planned. Subjects of the new 
ones are: the dragon's blood tree of Teneriffe, Canary Islands; 
giant tree cacti of Mexico; the Chilean pine; the baobab tree of 
Africa; the traveler's tree of Madagascar; cucumber trees of the 
island of Socotra; and the American elm. Also added to the exhibits 
in Hall 29 are reproductions of purple angelica, and a flowering and 
fruiting branch of a cassia known as "golden shower," prepared by 
Assistants Emil Sella and Milton Copulos. 

An outstanding new exhibit in Hall 25, half of which is devoted 
to food plants, is a diorama depicting in miniature a tea plantation 
in the rocky highlands of Ceylon. This was prepared by Assistant 
John R. Millar, and has a painted background by Mr. Corwin. 

In the Department of Anthropology an exhibit was placed in 
Hall 7 of the pottery and the bone and stone implements collected 
from the Lowry Ruin in southwestern Colorado by expeditions 
conducted during several summers by Chief Curator Paul S. Martin. 
A very interesting specimen of an ancient Egyptian promissory 
note was put on display in Hall J. Most of the other installation 
work in this Department in 1936 consisted either of reinstallations 
of old collections, or work upon new exhibits for future exhibition. 

As in several years past, the necessity for economy permitted no 
budget appropriations for major expeditions. A small amount of 
field work was conducted, however, and the Museum again benefited 
to some extent from expeditions conducted under auspices other 
than its own. Mr. Emil Sella, of the staff of the Department of 
Botany, collected material in the mountains of Wyoming for the 
preparation of a projected group of alpine plants for the Hall of 
Plant Life. Curator Sharat K. Roy collected in Dutchess County, 

24 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

New York, several series of rocks illustrating the phenomena con- 
nected with progressive metamorphism, for a proposed exhibit in 
the Department of Geology. An interesting collection of birds, 
mainly from northeastern Greenland, was obtained through coopera- 
tion with the Chicago Zoological Society, and the expenditure of 
income from the Emily Crane Chadbourne Fund. These birds were 
collected by Mr. Harold C. Hanson, a volunteer worker in the 
Department of Zoology, who accompanied, in the interest of Field 
Museum, the expedition led by Captain Robert A. Bartlett to capture 
live musk-oxen for the Chicago Zoological Society. On a hunting 
trip in South America, Mr. Sasha Siemel, of New York, obtained a 
baby tapir which he presented to the Museum for use in completion 
of the habitat group of that animal on exhibition in Hall 16. 
Arrangements were made whereby the Museum hopes to obtain rare 
birds of Australia and New Zealand needed for habitat groups in 
Hall 20. Mrs. Oscar Straus, of New York, a Patron of the Mu- 
seum, and sponsor of the Straus West African Expedition of Field 
Museum in 1934, acted on behalf of the Museum in this connec- 
tion during the course of a visit she made to those countries. 

Mr. J. Francis Macbride, Associate Curator of the Herbarium, 
continued through 1936 the project upon which he has been working 
in Europe since 1929. This work has resulted in the acquisition to 
date of more than 30,000 photographic negatives of type specimens 
of tropical American plants in European herbaria. During 1936 Mr. 
Macbride was engaged in this task at Madrid, Geneva, and Vienna. 
Prints from the negatives obtained have been added to the Herbarium 
of Field Museum, and duplicate prints are made available to botan- 
ists and institutions everywhere, at cost. These are highly regarded 
for their usefulness in the work of systematic botany. 

Grateful acknowledgment is herewith made to various contribu- 
tors of money, and of material for the scientific collections. Among 
gifts of funds may be mentioned the following: 

A gift from Mr. Albert W. Harris consisting of 200 shares of 
stock of the Harris Trust and Savings Bank, valued at $85,000. 
This was added to the endowment fund of the N. W. Harris Public 
School Extension of the Museum. 

Mr. Marshall Field contributed $74,625.93, to meet certain oper- 
ating expenses of the Museum, and to cover a budget deficit. 

Contributions received during the year from President Stanley 
Field totaled $59,882. Of this sum, $38,621.37 was applied, in 

Introduction 25 

accordance with his directions, to the reduction of the building 
deficit, and a corresponding reduction in bank loan (see financial 
report, page 97); and the balance was set aside for the purchase 
of much needed exhibition cases, storage equipment, laboratory 
equipment, and for certain expeditions to be conducted in the 
year 1937. 

A contribution of $7,500, received from Mr. Frederick H. Raw- 
son, was added to the Museum endowment. 

A gift of $6,000 was made by Mrs. James Nelson Raymond, in 
continuation of the many contributions she has made toward the 
operating expenses of the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures, which she 
established in 1925 with a munificent endowment. 

Gifts from Mr. Leslie Wheeler, for the purchase of specimens of 
birds of prey, totaled $1,090. 

From Mr. Henry J. Patten, a gift of $250 was received. 

Mr. C. Suydam Cutting, of New York, contributed $200. 

From the estate of the late Mr. William V. Kelley the Museum 
received a bequest of $50,000. This is being maintained as a separate 
fund, to be known as the William V. Kelley Fund, and the income is 
to be used for such purposes as the President and the Board of 
Trustees may direct. 

The will of the late Mr. Cyrus H. McCormick provided a bequest 
of $10,000 for the Museum. 

The sum of $10,000, and one-fourth of the residuary estate of the 
late Mrs. Edith Almy Adams were bequeathed to the Museum. 

The sum of $5,175, representing his bequest of $5,000 and interest 
thereon, was received from the estate of the late Judge John Barton 
Payne, a former Trustee of the Museum. 

The administrator of the estate of the late Mrs. Helen M. Block 
paid to the Museum $2,000, representing her bequest. 

The Rosenwald Family Association purchased from the Museum 
for $50,000, under a repurchase agreement, a block of Sears Roebuck 
and Company stock which the institution had acquired through a 
gift from the late Mrs. Augusta N. Rosenwald. 

The Museum received from the Chicago Park District $91,029.94, 
representing the institution's share, as authorized by the state 
legislature, of collections made during 1936 under the tax levies for 
1935 and preceding years. 

26 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Many gifts of material for the collections were received. More 
detailed reference to these will be found in the departmental sections 
of this Report, and in the complete List of Accessions (page 98). 
Most valuable of such accessions was the collection of several hun- 
dred Chinese art objects, bequeathed by the late Mrs. George T. 
Smith, to which reference has already been made. Among other 
outstanding acquisitions a few may be mentioned, as follows: 

His Highness the Maharaja Gaekwar Sir Savaji Rao III, ruling 
monarch of the Indian state of Baroda, who was a visitor at the 
Museum in 1933, presented excellent examples of four of the arts of 
India — embossed metal work, delicate lacquer work, teakwood 
caning, and textile making. 

Mr. William H. Dunham, of Evanston, Illinois, presented his 
private herbarium consisting of 2,000 mounted sheets of plants. 
This collection has been found extremely valuable in the Department 
of Botany. 

The Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus presented 
a specimen of black-tailed wallaby, a species which had been lacking 
from the Museum's Australian mammal collections. 

Mr. Leslie Wheeler, of Lake Forest, Illinois, continued to make 
frequent contributions to the collection of birds of prey. 

The Chicago Zoological Society, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 
General Biological Supply House of Chicago, and Lincoln Park 
Zoo (maintained by the Chicago Park District), as in previous years, 
made large and valuable additions to the Museum's zoological 

President Stanley Field presented to the Museum Library a 
rare and valuable work — the two volumes of the first edition of Dr. 
Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language, published 
in 1755. 

Commander Eugene F. McDonald, Jr., of Chicago, presented a 
rare painted conch-shell trumpet, which is an interesting example of 
ancient culture in the State of Nayarit, western Mexico. 

LTnusually valuable collections of plants for the Museum Her- 
barium were received from the National Museum of Prague, 
Czechoslovakia; the Botanic Garden of Madrid, Spain, and the 
Department of Botany of the University of Chicago. 

A copy of Trail Mates, an exceptionally fine four-reel motion 
picture presenting natural history in story form, was given to the 
Museum by its producer, Captain Jack Robertson, of Oakland, 



California. It is extremely useful for the children's programs pre- 
sented by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation. 

From the Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Admin- 
istration there were received twenty-four, enlarged, plaster 
reproductions of Near East stamp seals and cylinder seals, which 
will be used in a new hall of archaeology now in preparation. 

The Museum accepted an offer made by Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, 
Chief Curator of the Department of Zoology, to conduct and per- 
sonally finance an expedition in southern French Indo-China, Siam, 
and possibly the Malay Peninsula. Plans call for Dr. Osgood's 
departure in January, 1937, and his return in May. 

Among distinguished visitors entertained at Field Museum in 
1936 were Mrs. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, wife of the President of 
the United States, who came to observe the accomplishments of the 
Works Progress Administration project being conducted at this 
institution; M. Jean Delacour, the noted French ornithologist; Mr. 
E. G. Boulenger, Director of the London Aquarium; and a group of 
members of the National Academy of Sciences. 

The Museum presented to Tulane University, New Orleans, 
Louisiana, a collection of 294 casts of Mayan sculptures. This 
material was part of an exhibit at the World's Columbian Exposition 
in 1893, and had been turned over to the Museum at the close of the 
exposition. A number of pieces had been selected for Museum 
exhibition, and the remainder had been in storage since acquisition. 

Two new automobile trucks were purchased in 1936 to replace 
those formerly in use for deliveries and collections of the traveling 
exhibits circulated among Chicago schools by the Department of 
the N. W. Harris Public School Extension of Field Museum. 

In recognition of increasing costs of living, salaries of Museum 
employes were readjusted, effective January 1. As noted in the 
Report for 1932, certain salaries in that year had been adjusted 
downward, and then a horizontal reduction of 10 per cent was made 
in all salaries above $100 per month. Salaries are now restored to 
the level existing before the 10 per cent cut. This restoration was 
made possible through the generosity of Mr. Marshall Field, and 
at his request. 

There were a number of Staff changes during the year, and 
toward the end of the year the Board of Trustees approved a reas- 
signment of titles in the scientific Departments. Under the new 
plan, the heads of Departments, formerly designated as Curators, 
have become Chief Curators; and most of the men in charge of 

28 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

divisions within the Departments, formerly designated as Assistant 
Curators and Associate Curators, have been made Curators of their 
respective divisions. This eliminates much confusion which formerly 
existed in the minds of outsiders, and improves the internal organiza- 
tion of the Museum. 

Dr. Paul S. Martin on January 1 assumed the post of Curator 
(later changed to Chief Curator) of the Department of Anthropology, 
in accordance with the appointment approved by the Board of 
Trustees on December 16, 1935 (Annual Report for 1935, page 304). 

Mr. C. Martin Wilbur was appointed Curator of Sinology, and 
assumed his duties on October 1. Work on Oriental collections and 
researches, developed so notably by the late Dr. Berthold Laufer, 
has been placed in Mr. Wilbur's hands. 

Dr. Earl E. Sherff, well-known botanist, and member of the 
faculty of the Chicago Normal College, was appointed Research 
Associate in Systematic Botany on the Museum Staff, an honorary 
position in recognition of valuable services he has rendered to this 
institution for many years. 

Two new guide-lecturers were appointed to the staff of the James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public School 
and Children's Lectures. They are Miss Velma Whipple and Miss 
Marie B. Pabst. The Raymond Foundation staff, reduced to three 
for several years, is now back to its full strength of five lecturers, 
this action having been made necessary by the increasing public 
demands for service. 

In the reassignment of titles, previously mentioned, Mr. J. 
Francis Macbride, formerly Assistant Curator of the Herbarium, 
became Associate Curator of the Herbarium; Messrs. D. Dwight 
Davis, Emil Liljeblad, and Emmet R. Blake, formerly Assistants in 
the Divisions of Vertebrate Skeletons, Insects, and Birds respectively, 
became Assistant Curators of those Divisions; Mr. Bryan Patterson, 
formerly Assistant Curator of Fossil Mammals, became Assistant 
Curator of Paleontology. 

Because of her recent marriage, Miss Bertha Schweitzer, clerk in 
the Department of Botany, resigned. 

Under the provisions of the Field Museum Employes' Pension 
Fund, insurance was paid in the following amounts to the bene- 
ficiaries of the following employes and pensioners who died during 
1936 or late in 1935: $4,000 to the sister of Miss Tessie Hannan, 
bindery worker in the Division of Printing; $4,000 to the estate of 
Mr. Jacob F. Mangelsen, carpenter and preparator in the Depart- 







































O 00 ' 


Q ^i 5 

5 - .-- 
2 +2 



























Introduction 29 

ment of Botany; $6,000 to the widow of Mr. William J. O'Brien, 
skin dresser in the taxidermy shop; and $4,000 to Field Museum as 
beneficiary of the policy on Mr. Peter Glynn, former carpenter, to 
whom the Museum had paid a pension for a number of years totaling 
an amount far in excess of the insurance proceeds. 

Mr. Mathias Dones was employed as a carpenter and preparator 
in the Department of Botany, to replace Mr. Jacob F. Mangelsen, 

Professor F. E. Wood continued his activity, begun in 1935, as a 
volunteer worker, in organizing the collection of Tibetan manu- 
scripts bequeathed to the Library of the Museum by the late Dr. 
Berthold Laufer. 

The degree of doctor of science was conferred in November by 
Oxford University upon Mr. Wilfrid D. Hambly, Curator of African 
Ethnology, in recognition of a vast amount of research, including 
work on the Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological 
Expedition to West Africa (1929-30), and various books he has 
written which have been published by Field Museum Press. 

Various research projects were under way in the scientific Depart- 
ments, of which it is possible to mention here only a few. A notable 
one was the study undertaken by Mr. Paul C. Standley, Curator of 
the Herbarium, of the Sesse" and Mocino plants collected in 
Mexico nearly 150 years ago under the patronage of King Charles 
III of Spain. This collection, numbering 7,000 plants, was sent to 
the Museum for this purpose by the Botanic Garden of Madrid. 

Dr. Edwin H. Colbert, Assistant Curator of Vertebrate Paleon- 
tology at the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
was aided in research on an extinct member of the giraffe family 
known as Sivatherium by a representation of that animal in copper 
from the archaeological collections made at Kish by the Field 
Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia. A 
horn, collected by the same expedition, assisted Dr. Wolfgang 
Amschler, of the College of Agriculture in Vienna, in estab- 
lishing the presence 5,000 years ago in Mesopotamia of a species of 
modern goat which had been presumed to be unknown until recent 

Assistant Curator Bryan Patterson was engaged in an important 
study of brain casts of fossil mammals of the order Notoungulata. 

Mr. Henry W. Nichols, Chief Curator of the Department of 
Geology, undertook an investigation of methods to restore patina of 

30 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

a non-malignant kind to ancient bronzes from which malignant 
patina had been removed to save them from destruction. 

Associate Curator Charles E. Hellmayr, working in Vienna, 
continued his researches of past years on the birds of the western 
hemisphere. Curator Colin C. Sanborn made progress with his 
extensive researches in connection with bats. Curator Karl P. 
Schmidt was engaged in researches on reptiles and amphibians of 
southwestern Asia, Central America, and the Chicago region. 
Assistant Curator D. D wight Davis made observations resulting in 
some new conclusions regarding the mating behavior of snakes. 

Members of the Museum Staff attended a number of important 
scientific meetings. From the Department of Anthropology, Chief 
Curator Paul S. Martin, Curator Wilfrid D. Hambly, and Curator 
Richard A. Martin attended the meetings of the Central Section 
of the American Anthropological Society, held in Chicago in April. 
Chief Curator Martin also attended the main meetings of the same 
society, held at Washington, D.C., in December. Other meetings 
attended by Curator Richard A. Martin were those of the Middle 
West Branch of the American Oriental Society, and the Archaeo- 
logical Institute of America, both held in Chicago, the first in March, 
and the second in December. Curator Henry Field, at the request 
of the United States Department of State, attended the International 
Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences at Oslo, Norway, 
in August, as a member of the American delegation. 

Curator Elmer S. Riggs and Assistant Curator Bryan Patterson, 
of the Division of Paleontology, were present at the annual meeting 
of the National Academy of Sciences held at the University of 
Chicago in the spring, and Mr. Patterson attended also the annual 
meeting of the Paleontological Society of America, held in December 
at Washington, D.C. 

The Department of Zoology was represented at the annual 
meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, held at Pittsburgh 
in November, by Chief Curator Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator Rud- 
yerd Boulton, and Assistant Curator Emmet R. Blake. Curator 
Karl P. Schmidt and Assistant Curator D. D wight Davis attended 
the annual meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and 
Herpetologists at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, August 

31 and September 1. Mr. Schmidt acted as temporary chairman, 
and was elected vice-president for the ensuing year. 

The productivity of Field Museum Press exceeded that of any 
previous year, due largely to the additional labor made available by 

Introduction 31 

the Works Progress Administration. The complete list of publica- 
tions issued will be found in the Report under the heading "Division 
of Printing"; details concerning their distribution are reported under 
the heading "Division of Publications." 

Sales, on consignment, of books published under auspices other 
than those of the Museum, were continued. These included works 
from the authorship of members of the Staff, and books otherwise 
connected with the institution. Notable among the additions to 
such books in 1936 is Artist and Naturalist in Ethiopia, a day-by-day 
record of experiences during the Field Museum-C/wcago Daily News 
Ethiopian Expedition (1926-27). This was written by Dr. Wilfred 
H. Osgood, Chief Curator of the Department of Zoology, who led 
the expedition, and the late Louis Agassiz Fuertes, noted artist who 
accompanied it. Some of Fuertes' paintings are reproduced in the 
book, which is published by Doubleday Doran and Company, New 
York. Especially interesting also is Heads and Tales, a unique book 
by Malvina Hoffman, the noted sculptor who created the Races of 
Mankind sculptures in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall. In this 
book she has combined her autobiography and the story of her work 
in various parts of the world for Field Museum. It contains 278 
illustrations. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, are the publishers. 
The story of the Field Museum-Williamson Undersea Expedition to 
the Bahamas (1929) is told in Twenty Years Under the Sea, by J. E. 
Williamson, noted submarine explorer who led the expedition. It is 
profusely illustrated with pictures of undersea life. The publishers 
are Hale, Cushman and Flint, of Boston. 

The Museum continued its relations with the Works Progress 
Administration of the federal government. The number of men and 
women workers assigned to the Museum ranged from 114 to 204 at 
different periods, and their total working time aggregated 230,100 
hours. Wages, paid to these workers by the federal government, 
totaled $139,579. In previous years, workers came also through the 
Illinois Emergency Relief Commission and other agencies, but in 
1936 all were consolidated under the authority of the WPA. 

As in the other years since the latter part of 1933, when the Mu- 
seum began its cooperation with state and federal agencies for the 
relief of unemployment, the work has been of the most varied char- 
acter, individuals being assigned to duties in accordance with their 
past experience and training or native ability. Thus, a few have 
proved capable of handling even scientific research projects and 
other work of a professional character; others have been able to 

32 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

assist in tasks requiring artistic talent or highly skilled artisanship. 
Naturally, the majority are employed at more routine things such as 
clerical work, and manual labor, both skilled and unskilled. The 
Division of Printing has been one of the largest users of the skilled 
labor, and has been enabled to produce an unprecedented number of 
publications and other items of printed matter as a result of the 
additional help made available. All of the scientific Departments, 
and many other Divisions of the Museum, have benefited by the 
large numbers of relief employes assigned to such tasks as catalogu- 
ing, filing, typing manuscript and records, cleaning specimens, 
mounting photographs, etc. Details of this work will be found in the 
sections of this Report devoted to each Department and Division. 
It should be noted that the relief workers have been employed 
exclusively to accomplish objectives which could not and 
would not have been undertaken if these people had not been made 
available. The number of regular employes on the Museum's own 
payroll has not been reduced in consequence — it has been slightly 
increased, in fact. The Museum's own Staff members are occupied 
with the normal scientific and educational work of the Museum, 
and the supervision of the WPA forces. 

It is not possible to over-emphasize the importance of the work 
accomplished during the past three years with the aid of the workers 
assigned by the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission, the Works 
Progress Administration, and other governmental agencies for the 
alleviation of unemployment. At no time in its history has Field 
Museum been able to afford the employment of sufficient clerical 
and other help to keep pace with the demands imposed by the 
immense amount of incoming material for its rapidly growing col- 
lections. It must be remembered that this vast treasure house has 
been built up in the short span of forty-two years, during which it 
has reached, in the magnitude of its collections and activities, a 
stage comparable to that of institutions which had been in existence 
scores and even hundreds of years earlier. Therefore, many details 
have had to be somewhat neglected to permit the achievement of 
larger objectives. Now, through the efforts of the many relief 
workers, the Museum has made great progress toward the com- 
pletion of important tasks heretofore unavoidably postponed. 
These include the classifying, cataloguing and recording of many 
thousands of specimens which for years have seriously congested 
the storage facilities of all the scientific Departments, and which 
under the existing conditions had no usefulness as reference material. 

Introduction 33 

Likewise, great gains have been made in the repairing and prepa- 
ration of stored specimens useful for exhibition purposes as well as 
research. Thus, today, Field Museum's catalogues and records, 
and its huge accumulations of stored specimens, are at last rapidly 
reaching a most satisfactory condition, and some long delayed 
exhibits are being installed. All this work has yielded results which, 
in turn, have made possible the issuance of many additional scien- 
tific publications of importance. From this resume it is readily 
apparent that the assistance rendered by the relief workers has 
enabled the undertaking and pushing forward of an extensive 
program of work which could not have been attempted for years 
to come if the regular Museum Staff had been unaided. 

The Art Research Classes conducted at the Museum in coopera- 
tion with the Art Institute of Chicago were continued as in each year 
since 1922. Mr. John Gilbert Wilkins, a member of the faculty of 
the School of the Art Institute, who has been in charge since the 
classes were first established, remained as instructor. Approximately 
one hundred students participated, and courses were given, as usual, 
during the spring, autumn and winter, the curriculum including 
drawing, painting, illustration, design, and sculpture. In the summer 
there was a special class for teachers and others who are able to attend 
only during that season. Animals, plants, anthropological material, 
and other Museum exhibits are used by the students as the basis of 
their art creations. The Museum also provides a classroom and other 
working facilities. Many creative artists and art teachers have 
begun their careers in these classes. 

For young children, classes were again held at the Museum by the 
Saturday School of the Art Institute. Enrollment numbered nearly 
100. These classes are for children ranging from fourth grade ele- 
mentary pupils to those of high school age. 

The Museum building and equipment were maintained in satis- 
factory state by the working forces directed by the Superintendent 
of Maintenance and the Chief Engineer. As usual, many improve- 
ments were made, some of the more notable of which are outlined 
herewith : 

For the Department of Anthropology, Hall K on the ground 
floor, formerly used as a storage room, was emptied and cleaned, and 
a large case of the type that merges with the architecture of the hall 
was built for the installation of an ancient gateway from Kish, Col- 
lected by the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to 
Mesopotamia. This entire hall was renovated, ceilings and walls 

34 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

being channeled and replastered, drop ceilings hung in the niches to 
conceal piping, and new wiring installed. On the north wall of the 
east end a series of plaster friezes was hung. Eleven floor cases were 
remodeled and equipped with light boxes, and twenty cases were 
removed to the Anthropology workshop on the third floor for rein- 
stallation of exhibits, after which they were returned to the hall. 
On the third floor, all furniture in the office of the Curator of Sinology 
was repaired and refinished, as well as two desks for other offices. 
A room was equipped with steel wire guards on windows and door, 
to safeguard the valuable additions to the jade collection which are 
temporarily stored there. 

In H. N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31), which is under the joint 
supervision of the Departments of Anthropology and Geology, all 
wall cases were removed to the third floor for reinstallation, and 
later returned to their places in the hall. 

For the Department of Zoology new cases were constructed for 
two exhibits — the white-tailed gnu group and the okapi, and a 
case was remodeled for the installation of a group of guereza monkeys 
which was in preparation. All three of these cases are for Carl E. 
Akeley Memorial Hall (Hall 22). In the Hall of Birds (Hall 20) 
three cases were trimmed and glazed. In Hall 19, devoted to oste- 
ology, skeletons exposed on open mounts were cleaned. Ground- 
work for a case to contain the takin exhibit was built in the carpenter 
shop and taken to the taxidermy shop on the fourth floor for assem- 
bly. On the third floor, in the offices and other rooms assigned to the 
Division of Fishes, steel shelving of cabinets in Room 86 was en- 
closed with twenty steel doors; new cabinets and large bookcases 
were built and installed in Room 88, and old cabinets were refinished. 
In the Division of Birds, filing cabinets were remodeled and new 
drawers made; four frames were built for large maps, and 150 
storage trays were rebuilt. Cases for storage of egg specimens were 
removed from Room 99 to the south central area of the third floor, 
and Room 99 was converted into a workroom for the making of 
accessories used in zoological exhibits. For this purpose, four large 
cabinets with racks were built in this room, and gas stoves, com- 
pressed air apparatus, and work benches were installed. In the room 
under the north entrance steps of the Museum building, a compressed 
air line was installed for use in operations necessary in the cleaning 
of small mammals in benzine. 

Services performed for the Department of Geology include the 
construction of two large bases in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) 

Introduction 35 

for the fossil ground sloths and the Rancho La Brea "tar bed" 
group of skeletons; the building of three small floor cases, two 
screens for standard floor cases, and the shifting of cases in the same 
hall; the building of a case with a special arrangement for the 
alternation of ultra-violet and ordinary light, required for the display 
of fluorescent minerals in Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35) ; the 
fastening of twenty-five relief maps to the walls of the bridges con- 
necting Hall 35 with Halls 34 and 36; and the remodeling of 
the case in Hall 35 which contains a miniature representation of the 
Natural Bridge of Virginia. Sixteen standard floor cases for Halls 34 
and 35 were built by a contractor, but were glazed and paneled by 
Museum carpenters. For the paleontological laboratories on the 
third floor, 200 storage trays were remodeled. New shelving was 
installed in the Geology library. 

The principal work for the Department of Botany included hang- 
ing and trimming four large mural paintings in the Hall of Plant 
Life (Hall 29), and resetting the exhibition cases in the half of 
Hall 25 devoted to palms so that they form pleasing alcoves instead 
of extending out in parallel rows. In Room 9 on the third floor 
racks of piping were constructed for storage of wood specimens. 
Angle iron racks were built in Room 20, and this room was furnished 
with laboratory equipment such as gas and compressed air lines for 
air brush work, thus enlarging the facilities of the Plant Reproduc- 
tion Laboratories. 

Thirty-six exhibition halls were cleaned, and painting and patch- 
ing of walls and ceilings were done where necessary. 

On the third floor, to enlarge Room 120, which is an annex to the 
general Library, the adjacent janitors' closet and part of the women's 
wash room were torn out, and a new wall and double doors were 
built at the south end of the room. This resulted in improving 
access from the main Library room. 

A case which formerly contained Japanese tapestry was dis- 
mantled, and the glass salvaged from it was re-cut for use in cases 
in Hall 20. 

Four new signs, containing information about the Museum for 
the public, were built, and two of these were erected on the lawns in 
front of the building. 

Eighty-eight window sashes on the third floor were repaired and 
reset; six new sashes and frames were installed in Room 54, and one 
new sash in Room 81. One hundred and forty-four new window 
shades were hung in Halls 25, 26, 27, 34, 35 and 36. 

36 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

The shipping room and adjacent area under the south entrance 
steps were cleaned, and a quantity of copper, brass and iron salvaged 
there was sold. The freight elevator was overhauled, and new shafts 
and bearings installed. 

Roofs of three of the light courts were recoated, and the main 
roof was patched with roof cement. Six downspouts for removing 
rain and snow were repaired, and new heads installed on two of them. 

Tuck pointing was done where required about the building, 
notably on the north, south and west entrance steps, the flagpole 
bases, in six light courts, the shipping room and boiler room, and 
on the roof coping. 

In the boiler room forty new buckets were made and attached to 
the coal conveyor; twenty-six new tubes were installed in two of the 
boilers; all brick work of the furnaces was patched, and all other 
equipment in the boiler room was overhauled and reconditioned. 
A new system of boiler feed water treatment was instituted, and 
extremely satisfactory results produced. 

The Museum heating plant continued, under contract, to furnish 
steam required by the John G. Shedd Aquarium and Soldier Field 
during the months when heat was required. A total of 12,964,204 
pounds of steam was provided for the Aquarium, and 6,654,064 for 
Soldier Field. 

By complying with certain restrictions in the use of electric light 
and power, the Museum continued to enjoy favorable rates under 
the "peak load contract" entered into with the Commonwealth 
Edison Company several years ago. 

Under a federal Works Progress Administration project carried 
out for the Chicago Park District, improvements of value to the 
Museum were made. Five concrete walks were constructed across 
the Museum lawns to the terrace steps of the building — two on the 
north, two on the south, and one on the west side of the building. 
Two large automobile parking spaces were prepared, one at the 
Museum's southeast lawn with a capacity of approximately 600 
cars, and one facing the north entrance of the building with space for 
400 cars. A large number of trees and shrubs were planted around 
the building. The section of Leif Eriksen Drive northeast of the 
Museum, connecting with Field Drive, was widened and repaved, 
and is now open to northbound traffic, to which it will be restricted; 
Columbus Drive, to the west of the Museum, is now designated as 
a one-way boulevard for southbound traffic. An underpass for 
pedestrians was completed beneath Eriksen Drive, linking the 

Field Museum of Natural History 

- m 



Reports, Vol. XI, Plate V 

f 0- 

t*&M 'S^yfr a^-fry* '; • .« ^.k 1 ' 

t 1 ^r^s^'i-* ^ : ;«* 



Written in Demotic script, and dated about 108 B.C. From Thebes, Egypt 

Presented to the Museum by the late Edward E. Ayer, 1894 

Department of Anthropology 37 

approaches to Field Museum and the John G. Shedd Aquarium, 
thus facilitating the safe passage of visitors from one institution to 
the other. 

In the pages which follow will be found reports in detail of 
the year's activities in each of the Departments and Divisions of the 



The Department of Anthropology undertook no expeditions 
in 1936. 

During the year the following anthropological publications were 
issued by Field Museum Press: an archaeological report, Lowry Ruin 
in Southwestern Colorado, by Chief Curator Paul S. Martin; Part 2 
of an archaeological report, Archaeology of Santa Marta, Colombia, 
by Dr. J. Alden Mason, formerly Assistant Curator of Central and 
South American Archaeology at Field Museum; an archaeological 
report, Egyptian Stelae in Field Museum of Natural History, by 
Dr. T. George Allen, Research Associate in Egyptian Archaeology; 
a leaflet, Primitive Hunters of Australia, by Curator Wilfrid D. 
Hambly; and a leaflet, Archaeology of South America, by Mr. J. 
Eric Thompson, formerly Assistant Curator of Central and South 
American Archaeology. 

In press at the close of the year were the following publica- 
tions: Textiles of the Early NttZCa Period, by Dr. Lila M. O'Neale, 
of the University of California, and Cahete Valley, by Dr. A. L. 
Kroeber, of the University of California (Research Associate in 
American Archaeology at Field Museum), these two publications 
being Parts III and IV of Volume II of the Anthropology Memoirs 
Series; and Skeletal Material from San Jose Ruin, British Honduras, 
by Curator Hambly. Dr. Hambly has prepared for publication also 
a monograph entitled Source Booh of African Anthropology, which 
will be issued in 1937. 

Curator Henry Field was granted leave of absence to attend 
Harvard University from September, 1936, to June, 1937, for the 
purpose of taking several courses on physical anthropology from 
Dr. E. A. Hooton, and also to prepare for publication a report on 
the physical anthropology of the peoples of the Near East. 

Mr. C. Martin Wilbur, who assumed his duties as Curator of 
Sinology on October 1, has examined the various papers and manu- 
scripts left by the late Dr. Berthold Laufer, former Curator of the 
Department of Anthropology. Mr. Wilbur has been fortunate enough 

38 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

to find five nearly completed manuscripts treating of the domesti- 
cation of various plants and animals. These are now being carefully 
edited by him for publication in the near future. Further, Curator 
Wilbur has devoted some time to unpacking the collection of jade 
objects bequeathed to Field Museum by the late Mrs. George T. 
(Frances Ann Gaylord) Smith, of Chicago. 

Curator Richard A. Martin has spent most of the year cleaning 
and cataloguing archaeological specimens from Kish. Under his 
supervision, an arched gateway of stucco from Kish has been com- 
pletely restored and built into a special case in Hall K. Further, in 
order to illustrate the history of glyptic art in the Near East from 
3200 B.C. to A.D. 350, Mr. Martin selected, for enlarged reproduction, 
impressions from eighteen cylinder seals and six stamp seals. These 
impressions, magnified twenty-five times by projection, have been 
modeled in clay from that projection, and then cast in plaster with 
the help of the Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration. The resultant reproductions have been made into a frieze 
for which special beam illumination has been provided. The scale 
for these reproductions is such that the most minute details are 
clearer (even when viewed at a distance of twenty feet) than they 
are on the originals when examined with a hand lens. To explain 
the symbolism on them, and, where necessary, to give a translation 
of the cuneiform inscriptions, Mr. Martin has written a leaflet, 
entitled Reproductions of Seal Cylinder Impressions, which will be 
published in the near future. 

Dr. J. Alden Mason, formerly Assistant Curator of Central and 
South American Archaeology at Field Museum, and now Curator 
of the American Section, University Museum, Philadelphia, spent 
four weeks in Chicago. During this period he engaged in studies 
at the Museum, taking notes on pottery which he excavated at 
Santa Marta, Colombia, South America, as leader of the Marshall 
Field Archaeological Expedition to Colombia (1922-23). From these 
data Dr. Mason will prepare the third part of his report on the 
Tairona culture of Colombia. 

A generous portion of the time of the staff of this Department 
has been devoted to correspondents and to scholars, students, and 
other visitors calling for information. 

Six signed articles and fifty-two unsigned items were contributed 
by the Department staff to Field Museum News. The staff also 
supplied data used in twenty-six newspaper articles. 

Department of Anthropology 39 

accessions — anthropology 

Accessions received and recorded during the year amount to 
twenty-six, of which twenty-two are gifts, and four resulted from 
exchanges. The total number of objects received in these accessions 
is 2,095. 

A collection of rare Chinese art objects, valued at several hundred 
thousand dollars, was received by the Museum in the settlement 
of the estate of the late Mrs. George T. (Frances Ann Gaylord) 
Smith, of Chicago, who died on September 8. There are 718 pieces 
in the collection, nearly all of them representing the Ching or Manchu 
dynasty (1644-1912). Included are jade objects, porcelains, snuff 
bottles, textiles, beaded belts, screens, ivory, semi-precious stones and 
other materials. Arrangements are being made for the addition of 
these objects to the exhibits, after they have been catalogued and 
labeled. The jades in this bequest, numbering approximately one 
hundred, when added to the large number already on exhibition in 
the Museum's special hall devoted to Chinese jades (Hall 30), will, it is 
believed, make the Museum's collection in this field the foremost in 
America, and possibly in the whole world. 

Mr. Eugene F. McDonald, Jr., of Chicago, presented a painted 
conch-shell trumpet from the State of Nayarit, Mexico, a rare 
specimen representing a little-known culture. 

From Mr. V. F. C. Richardson, of Haifa, Palestine, the Museum 
received eighty-eight samples of human hair from Transjordania and 
Syria, valuable in the physical anthropology researches being con- 
ducted by this institution. An Eskimo's whale harpoon, and a 
sealskin float for such an implement, as well as a Cree Indian rabbit- 
fur blanket, were given to the Museum by Mr. Clarence Burley, 
of Winnetka, Illinois. These objects represent cultures of the 
Hudson Bay region of Canada. 

Two hundred and thirty stone and bone implements, obtained from 
a rock shelter in Rhodesia, South Africa, were presented by Mr. and 
Mrs. Rudyerd Boulton, of Chicago. 

Mr. Henry Field, Curator of Physical Anthropology, contributed 
twelve puppets, twenty-one playing cards, and one battle-ax, from 
Iran, and two skulls of modern Arabs. 

Dr. Albert B. Lewis, Curator of Melanesian Ethnology, presented 
a Burmese betel-nut box of woven strips of bamboo. 

His Highness the Maharaja Gaekwar Sir Savaji Rao III, ruling 
monarch of Baroda State, India, presented a repousse low table 

40 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

composed of silver, copper, and brass; a buffalo-effigy carved from 
teakwood, and a cradle, representative of the arts of his country. 

A series of fifty-two pieces of glazed pottery from Pecos Pueblo, 
New Mexico, was received from Phillips Academy, Andover, 
Massachusetts. These specimens were excavated by Dr. A. V. 
Kidder, of the Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C., during the 
seasons of field work from 1919 to 1928. 

Mrs. Philip Chancellor, of Hollywood, California, presented 
two skulls with modeled faces from northern New Guinea. 

A man's costume of tree-bark is the gift of Mr. Henry W. Nichols, 
Chief Curator of the Department of Geology. 

The Museum is indebted to Mr. Harold S. Gladwin, of Gila 
Pueblo, Globe, Arizona, for a gift of fifty pieces of Basket Maker 
pottery from Colorado. 

From the Federal Art Project (Illinois) of the Works Progress 
Administration the Museum received twenty-four plaster repro- 
ductions of impressions of Babylonian and other ancient seal 


Entries were made of twenty-two of the twenty-six accessions 
received during the year. Likewise, there were entered twenty-two 
accessions of previous years. 

The number of catalogue cards prepared during the year totaled 
5,575, of which 2,286 were entered. The total number of catalogue 
cards entered from the opening of the first volume is 214,278. 

The catalogue cards for the current year were distributed as 
follows: North American archaeology and ethnology, 387; Central 
and South American archaeology and ethnology, 27; European 
archaeology, 29; African ethnology, 399; Madagascar ethnology, 9; 
Philippine ethnology, 14; Malayan ethnology, 359; Kish archaeology, 
4,057; Near Eastern archaeology, 184; Korean ethnology, 12; Bur- 
mese and Indian ethnology, 20; Formosan ethnology, 30; Chinese 
ethnology, 1; physical anthropology, 47. 

The Division of Printing supplied a total of 2,053 labels for use 
in exhibition cases. These labels were distributed as follows: Navaho 
textiles, 227; archaeology of the Southwest, Lowry Ruin, 250; 
Northwest Coast Indians, 3; China, 30; Gem Room, 237; Malay 
Peninsula, 347; Egypt, 14; Philippine Islands, 2; Burma, Ceylon, 
Siam, Korea, 943. The Division of Printing also supplied 18,430 
catalogue cards and 25,162 index cards. 

Department of Anthropology 41 

The number of additional photographs mounted in the depart- 
mental albums is 818. Three new photographic albums were opened. 
To the label file, seventy-nine cards were added. 

Workers assigned to the Department by the Works Progress 
Administration of the Federal government performed much valuable 
clerical and repair work. These assistants, varying in number from 
line to eleven, worked an average of thirty hours per week. Their 
principal accomplishments during the year were as follows: 2,300 
Dages of manuscript typed; 23,304 library cards typed and filed; 
L,861 captions for photographs typed; 310 pages of manuscript read; 
3,230 pamphlets catalogued and checked; 14,109 numerical index 
:ards for departmental albums prepared and filed; 8,486 photo- 
graphs mounted; 3,293 captions mounted; 1,881 cards in photo- 
graph file numbered and filed; 978 labels pasted; 6,125 index cards 
Derf orated; 73 pieces of textiles (Persian, Korean, East Indian) 
^paired ; 500 pieces of pottery washed ; 149 pieces of pottery repaired ; 
786 pieces of pottery numbered; 5,239 flints numbered; 4,716 flints 
washed; 7,450 catalogue cards numbered; 67 boxes of beads cleaned; 
)16 pieces of stucco work from Kish repaired; 6,034 ethnological 
specimens sorted; 2,500 Kish archaeological specimens cleaned, 
2atalogued, and studied; 188 outline drawings made for publications; 
1,562 hours spent on reconstruction of Kish palace gateway; 1,009 
lours spent in general work; 71 hours spent in identifying Hopi 
pictures, and 192 hours spent on statistical work. 


The Navaho textiles in Hall 6 have been rearranged in chrono- 
logical order so that a person interested in this subject can note the 
decadence in technique that has occurred over the years in the con- 
trast of the fine blankets of old with the poor rugs produced by the 
modern Indians. Moreover, new labels have been supplied which 
indicate the kinds of wool and dyes used in each specimen. 

The pottery and the bone and stone implements from Lowry 
Ruin in southwestern Colorado, the excavation of which was made 
possible by the Julius and Augusta N. Rosen wald Archaeological 
Expedition Fund, were placed on exhibition in Hall 7. 

All of the jewelry in H. N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31) was 
reinstalled and relabeled in newly lined cases. 

Curator Lewis completed the reorganization of Hall G (ethnology 
of the Malay Peninsula and the Malay Archipelago). Eight cases 

42 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

were reinstalled in such a way as to permit exhibition of many 
specimens never before shown in this Museum. 

An Egyptian promissory note written in Demotic script on 
papyrus was installed in Hall J, along with a complete literal trans- 
lation made by Dr. Nathaniel Julius Reich, of Philadelphia. 

Installation of material from India, Ceylon, Siam, Burma, and 
Korea, for future exhibition in Hall K, has proceeded apace. This 
work is being performed by Dr. Lewis, who has taken great pains 
to arrange and label these specimens. It is hoped to finish the 
installation of this material by the end of 1937. 

The archaeological specimens from Kish, resulting from the 
Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia 
(1922-32), which are to be exhibited in the east third of Hall K, 
have not yet been installed. The delay is caused by the necessity 
of washing, chemically treating, and cataloguing these specimens — 
a task which must necessarily proceed slowly. Installation, however, 
may be started by next fall. 

At various times during the year the storage and poison rooms 
have been overhauled. All of the North American ethnological 
specimens have been sorted and replaced in proper order. 

New labels for the Races of Mankind sculptures by Malvina 
Hoffman in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall 3) have been 
provided. In addition to giving the names of racial types, these 
labels bear small maps on which are indicated the regions inhabited 
by the peoples of each group represented in the sculptures. 

Mr. Tokumatsu Ito, who is in charge of special repair work for 
the Department, treated, repaired, or restored 333 objects. Mr. 
Robert Yule, assistant and letterer in the Department, marked 
identification numbers on 2,153 objects during the year. Eight 
cases of invertebrates were installed for the Department of Zoology. 



In the summer of 1936 Mr. Emil Sella, of the Plant Reproduction 
Laboratory staff, visited the mountains of Wyoming to obtain 
material for an exhibit of alpine vegetation now in preparation for 
the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29). A large amount of necessary 
material was collected, representing characteristic plants of the 
alpine region. 

Department of Botany 43 

Curator Llewelyn Williams completed his detailed descriptions 
of the woods he collected in 1929-30 in northeastern Peru during 
the course of the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition to the 
Amazon. In preparation of his report, recently published as Volume 
XV of the Botanical Series, he spent parts of May and June ex- 
amining microscope slides of this material at Yale University School 
of Forestry. This study was made possible through the cooperation 
of Dr. Samuel J. Record, Professor of Forest Products at Yale, and 
Research Associate in Wood Technology at Field Museum. 

Associate Curator J. Francis Macbride continued his activities, 
described in the Reports of 1929 to 1935 inclusive, of photographing 
type specimens of tropical American plants preserved in European 
herbaria. Early in 1936 Mr. Macbride completed the work at 
Madrid, of which mention was made in the 1935 Report. He studied 
there particularly the original collections of Ruiz and Pavon, the 
first botanists to explore the flora of Peru. These collections are of 
particular interest to Field Museum because of the publication, 
Flora of Peru, four parts of which were issued by this institution in 
1936. The Madrid herbarium contains also the earliest collections 
from many other parts of South America, and from Mexico, obtained 
by scientific expeditions dispatched to the American colonies by the 
Spanish crown a century and a half ago. 

Work at Madrid was made pleasant and facilitated in every 
manner by the whole-hearted cooperation extended by the Director 
of the Jardin Botanico, Dr. Antonio Garcia Varela, and by Dr. Jose" 
Cuatrecasas. A large number of type specimens were lent for use 
at Geneva, where they could be photographed conveniently. 

A signal courtesy was the loan to Field Museum, by Dr. Varela, 
of the Sesse" and Mocino Herbarium of Mexican plants, which was 
sent to Chicago for study by Curator Paul C. Standley. This herba- 
rium, consisting of 7,752 sheets of specimens, was gathered in Mexico 
about 1790, and was the first important plant collection made in 
Mexico. Its history is romantic, but too extensive to be detailed 
here. A partial report upon it, prepared after the return to Spain 
of the celebrated collectors, Martin Sesse" and Don Jose" Mariano 
Mocino, remained unpublished until 1890, by which time it was 
obsolete, its contents having been anticipated by publications of 
later botanists whose manuscripts had been published promptly. 

The Sesse" and Mocino Herbarium has remained at Madrid, as 
its collectors left it, for more than a century, during which it has been 
inaccessible to botanists. The loan of it to Field Museum in 1936 

44 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

was made so that the specimens could be determined and named 
according to present knowledge, and the names ascribed to the 
plants by Sesse" and Mocino in their Flora Mexicana and Plantae 
Novae Hispaniae might be referred to their proper position in litera- 
ture. This work was still in progress at the end of the year. The 
aid of specialists in several groups has been enlisted, and it is expected 
that a volume enumerating the contents of the herbarium will be 
published by Field Museum. Through the great generosity of the 
staff of the Madrid herbarium, Field Museum is permitted to retain 
duplicates or fragments of many of the specimens. These, for the 
most part, will be their only representation outside of Madrid. 

After finishing his work at Madrid, Mr. Macbride returned to 
Switzerland, where he continued photographic work and study of 
collections from South America. As in previous years, he received 
at Geneva generous assistance from Dr. B. P. G. Hochreutiner, 
Director of the Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, and Dr. Charles 
Baehni, a member of its staff. 

In the early summer, Mr. Macbride went to Vienna, where, as 
upon his visit in 1935, he received kindly assistance from Dr. 
Hermann Michel, Director of the Naturhistorisches Museum, and 
Dr. Karl Keissler, Director of its Botanical Section. Studies were 
made of the important South American collections there, especially 
those of Poeppig from eastern Peru. Through the courtesy of Dr. 
Keissler, Mr. Macbride was permitted to take selected material 
to Geneva for photographing. 

At the end of 1936, Mr. Macbride returned to Geneva, where he 
plans to complete his photographic work quickly, and then transfer 
his activities to another center. 

The great value of the type photographs assembled by Mr. 
Macbride becomes more apparent each year. There have been re- 
ceived so far more than 30,000 negatives; others made during 1936 
have not yet reached Chicago, but are expected early in 1937. The 
photographs are exceptionally useful because of their high quality, 
and after having had them available at Field Museum for the past 
seven years, it would be a hardship for the botanical staff to do 
without them. They are becoming better known outside the Mu- 
seum, also, and are constantly more appreciated among American 
and other botanists, particularly for monographic studies. Prints 
from the negatives are made available by the Museum to botanists 
generally at the cost of production. During the past year 1,799 
such prints were purchased by American institutions, and many 

Q = 
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as * 

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Department of Botany 45 

others were accepted in exchange for similar type photographs 
needed by Field Museum. 

The Herbarium has been consulted frequently during 1936 by 
visiting botanists and others from near and remote parts of the 
United States, and from foreign countries as well. It has, of course, 
been utilized most frequently by scientists and students from the 
many large universities in Chicago, and elsewhere in Illinois and 
near-by states, since it is the only large herbarium existing within a 
radius of many hundreds of miles. Naturally, for the staff of the 
Museum's own Department of Botany, it has been a source of 
information to which constant reference is made. 

The time of the Herbarium staff has been occupied fully through- 
out the year by care of the collections and determination of the many 
large shipments of plants received for study. The employment of 
a large number of workers supplied by the federal Works Progress 
Administration during most of the year has made possible the under- 
taking of a vast amount of extra work, which could not have been 
done without such additional assistance. The direction of the WPA 
workers, however, has made special demands upon the time of the 
regular staff of the Department. There have been mounted and 
added to the Herbarium 62,259 sheets of specimens and photographs, 
and more than 4,000 printed or typewritten descriptions of new 
species of plants. This number is greater than that for 1935, and 
unusually large for any herbarium of the world. The total number 
of mounted specimens in the Herbarium is now 854,245. All old 
material that had been in storage for many years has been mounted, 
and practically all the current collections, and all prepared material, 
has been distributed promptly into the Herbarium. 

A good beginning was made at cleaning and repairing the sheets 
in the general Herbarium. Much was done toward rearrangement of 

(special groups according to recently published monographs. Many 
hundreds of new covers for genera and species were written for the 
Herbarium, which was searched for misplaced specimens such as, 
in spite of utmost care, always are found in every study collection. 

Submitted to the Herbarium for study and determination were 
at least 22,510 specimens of plants, chiefly from tropical America, 
but representing also many other regions. Nearly all of these were 
determined during the year. While some of this material was 
returned to the senders after names had been supplied, by far the 
greater part was retained for the Museum. In addition, there were 
determined, but not preserved for the permanent collections, many 

46 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

plants from the Chicago region and elsewhere that were brought to 
the Museum by visitors, teachers, and students, or forwarded by mail. 
Hundreds of inquiries for information regarding the most diverse 
botanical subjects were answered by mail and telephone. 

Botanical publications exceeded in size and scope those of 
any previous year of the Museum's history, and included three 
complete volumes of the Botanical Series. Volume XI was com- 
pleted by Number VI of Studies of American Plants, by Mr. Paul C. 
Standley, Curator of the Herbarium, and Monograph of the Genus 
Coreopsis, by Dr. E. E. Sherff, Research Associate in Systematic 

Volume XII of the Botanical Series is devoted to The Forests 
and Flora of British Honduras, a product of the joint authorship of 
Professor Samuel J. Record of Yale University (Research Associate 
in Wood Technology for the Museum) and Curator Standley. 
While listing all flowering plants known from British Honduras, the 
volume is devoted principally to the woody plants, and includes 
brief accounts of the distribution and woods of the principal trees. 

There have been issued four large parts of Volume XIII, the 
Flora of Peru, under the authorship of Associate Curator J. Francis 
Macbride, with the assistance of specialists in certain groups. This 
work, when completed, will constitute a volume of six parts and 
several thousand pages, presenting a descriptive account of the 
many thousands of flowering plants known from Peru. While based 
primarily upon the large collections obtained by the Museum's three 
expeditions to Peru, use has been made also of material in other 
herbaria of America and Europe. 

Volume XIV is devoted to an Index of American Palms by Chief 
Curator B. E. Dahlgren. It enumerates all plants of this group 
described before the end of 1935, citing all published descriptions 
and Field Museum photographs of type specimens, synonymy and 
vernacular names, and includes an extensive bibliography, and lists 
of palms known from each American country. The volume includes 
also an enumeration, by Professor A. C. Noe, of the University of 
Chicago, Research Associate in Paleobotany at Field Museum, of 
fossil palms discovered to date on the American continent. 

Volume XV, entitled Woods of Northeastern Peru, by Curator 
Llewelyn Williams, consists of descriptions of the woods obtained by 
the Marshall Field Expedition to the Amazonian region of Peru in 
1929-30. The report includes brief descriptions of the trees of 

Department of Botany 47 

this region, with citation of vernacular names, and notes upon uses of 
the more important woods. 

During the year Curator Standley published fifteen papers based 
directly or indirectly upon the Herbarium collections, the most 
important being treatments of the Gramineae (grass family) and 
Rubiaceae (coffee family) in the Flora of Peru. 

Two botanical leaflets were published by the Museum: Common 
Mushrooms, by Mr. Leon L. Pray, and Old-fashioned Garden Flowers, 
by Mr. Donald Culross Peattie. 

Members of the Department staff prepared for Tropical Woods 
numerous abstracts and reviews of current literature relating to 
woody plants of the tropics. They contributed many signed articles 
and other items for Field Museum News, besides data for twenty-four 
newspaper articles. 


The Department of Botany received 275 accessions, comprising 
41,477 specimens, during 1936. Both the number of accessions and 
the number of specimens were substantially larger than in the pre- 
ceding year, and their value was much greater. Included were 
specimens for the Herbarium, for the exhibits, and for the wood and 
economic collections. Of the total number, 22,047 were gifts, 18,238 
were received in exchanges, 608 were purchased, and the remainder 
acquired from miscellaneous sources. 

Of the total receipts, specimens for the Herbarium amounted to 
41,457 — plant material, photographs, and typed descriptions. As 
always is the case, much material of exceptional value was received 
through exchange. First in scientific importance are 6,624 complete 
or fragmentary specimens from the Jardin Botanico of Madrid. Half 
of these are from the Sesse* and Mocino Mexican Herbarium men- 
tioned under the heading "Expeditions and Research"; the rest con- 
sist of duplicates of various unique series preserved at Madrid, such 
as those of Nee, Ruiz and Pavon, which were described in part by 
Cavanilles, Lagasca, Ortega, and other Spanish botanists. Almost 
all these specimens are duplicate types, of which there is no repre- 
sentation elsewhere in America, and very little in Europe outside of 
Madrid. This historical material gives Field Museum a quite 
unexpected wealth of authoritative specimens of prime value for 
study purposes. 

Similar in nature are two other series received from European 
herbaria: 1,773 specimens forwarded by the Conservatoire et Jardin 

48 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Botaniques of Geneva, and 596 from the Naturhistorisches Museum 
of Vienna. The former is noteworthy for a large number of critically 
determined European fungi of historical significance, as well as many 
historical specimens of tropical American flowering plants. The 
collection sent from Vienna contains much interesting material from 
South America. 

From the Mus£e National, Prague, Czechoslovakia, were received 
192 specimens collected by Thaddaeus Haenke, one of the first 
botanical explorers to visit Mexico. About 500 sheets of Haenke's 
collections, made a century and a half ago, were determined at Field 
Museum and found to include type material of many Mexican 
species obtained by this celebrated collector. 

Other noteworthy receipts through exchange include the following: 
from the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, through Dr. 
Gunnar Samuelsson, 624 specimens, principally representing Brazil 
and Hispaniola; from Goteborgs Botaniska Tradgard, Sweden, 
through Dr. Carl Skottsberg, 735 specimens, chiefly Swedish; from 
the Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford, England, through Dr. 
J. Burtt Davy, 495 specimens representing India and Africa; from the 
Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
582 specimens, largely Brazilian, together with numerous photo- 
graphs of type specimens; from the United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C., 763 specimens and other items, chiefly of tropical 
American origin; from De Pauw University, Greencastle, Indiana, 
through Professor T. G. Yuncker, 440 Honduran specimens; from the 
Bailey Hortorium, Ithaca, New York, through Professor L. H. Bailey, 
423 Mexican specimens. 

Among gifts of herbarium specimens accessioned during 1936 are 
several of outstanding importance. Undoubtedly first in value is 
one of 8,190 specimens from the Museo Nacional of San Jos£, Costa 
Rica, received through the courtesy of the Director, Professor Juvenal 
Valerio Rodriguez. This gift comprises part of the unique series 
assembled during the past twenty-five years by Professor Alberto M. 
Brenes, official collector for the Costa Rican Museum, who is well 
known among orchid students for his extraordinary contributions 
to knowledge of that fascinating family. This herbarium is of 
immediate practical value for use in preparation of the Flora of Costa 
Rica, upon which Curator Standley is now engaged. 

A gift especially appreciated is that from Mr. William H. Dun- 
ham, of Evanston, Illinois, who presented his private herbarium of 
2,000 sheets. Its importance lies in the fact that much of it was 

Department of Botany 49 

collected during the past fifty years in parts of Chicago from which 
all native vegetation has long disappeared. It makes an important 
and irreplaceable addition to the Illinois Herbarium maintained by 
Field Museum. 

From the Department of Botany of the University of Chicago 
were received 3,192 specimens of Illinois and South Dakota plants, 
which had served as the basis for published ecological reports. The 
major portion of the collection is from the Black Hills of South 
Dakota, a region poorly represented previously in the Museum 
Herbarium, although of botanical interest because of the association 
there of eastern and Rocky Mountain types of vegetation. 

The Department of Botany of the University of Texas, through 
Professor B.C. Tharp, presented 2,452 specimens, partly from little 
known mountains of extreme western Texas, but chiefly from various 
states of northeastern Mexico. The Mexican plants, obtained in 
areas unvisited previously by collectors, were determined at Field 
Museum, and proved unexpectedly rich in new species, as well as in 
species known before only from a few collections. 

Numerous other gifts of herbarium specimens merit mention, but 
there is space only for the following: 283 specimens and 919 negatives 
of type and other specimens, from Dr. E. E. Sherff, of Chicago, 
representing chiefly Compositae and special groups of Hawaiian 
plants; 835 specimens collected in Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico, 
by Mr. Howard Scott Gentry, of Westmoreland, California, and 
illustrating many new or rare species; 317 sheets, chiefly of South 
American trees, from the School of Forestry of Yale University, 
through Professor Samuel J. Record; 355 specimens from the north 
coast of Colombia, presented by Reverend Brother Elias of Barran- 
quilla; 322 specimens from the high mountains of Peru, presented 
by Professor J. Soukup of Puno, and of definite value for citation in 
the Flora of Peru; 230 specimens from Piatt National Park, Okla- 
homa, presented by the United States National Park Service. 

Gifts of economic material and of woods were received from 
many institutions and individuals. All of these are noted in the 
List of Accessions (page 99), and mention of some follows herewith. 

For addition to the series of vegetable drying and non-drying oils 
donated by him a few years ago, and now displayed in Hall 28, Dr. 
Otto Eisenschiml, of the Scientific Oil Compounding Company, 
Chicago, contributed samples of tea-nut and of crude and refined 
hempseed oil. The Soya Products Division of the Glidden Company, 
of Chicago, furnished samples of soya beans, crude and refined oil, 

50 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

and the various by-products obtained in the extraction of the oil 
from the beans. Representative of an agricultural crop which 
has attained increased prominence in the Middle West during the 
last few years, this material forms an important addition to the 

Various negatives and photographs of local trees exhibited in 
Charles F. Millspaugh Hall (Hall 26) were presented by Mr. Her- 
mann C. Benke, of Chicago, who for many years has been a regular 
contributor to the Department. Mr. Leo R. Kische, of Columbus, 
Georgia, is the donor of wood samples of twenty-four species of trees, 
native to the state of Georgia, not represented previously in the study 
collections. The Armstrong Cork Products Company, Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, furnished several acorn-bearing branches of cork oak 
(Quercus suber) to replace some of the cork material in Hall 28. Mr. 
George N. Lamb, secretary of the Mahogany Association, of Chicago, 
gave a leafing branch, and fruits, of mahogany (Swietenia), collected 
at Key Largo, Florida. 

Through Professor Samuel J. Record, there were obtained from 
the School of Forestry of Yale University a large number of wood 
samples for critical study by Curator Williams, as part of the 
researches undertaken by members of the International Association 
of Wood Anatomists. From the same source there was received also 
a log specimen of a sumac (Rhus sylvestris), an ornamental tree 
native to Asia. It has handsome foliage which turns deep red or 
scarlet in autumn, and possesses toxic qualities similar to those of 
its close relative, the poison ivy. 

As in previous years, specimens of new or little known species of 
woods for the study collections were received from Dr. Roman 
Sabas Flores, of Progreso, Yucatan. Dr. David A. Kribs, Depart- 
ment of Forestry, Pennsylvania State College, at Mont Alto, Pennsyl- 
vania, contributed ninety microscope slides of woods collected 
several years ago in Liberia for Yale University School of Forestry 
by Mr. G. Proctor Cooper III. 

Other gifts which merit mention were an unusual bifurcated 
trunk section of choke-cherry (Prunus virginiana) from central 
Illinois, presented by Mr. Ray Lundy, of Chicago; a fruiting branch 
of winterberry (Ilex verticillato), a shrub or small tree common 
around acid swamps or in bogs in the dune region of Indiana and 
Michigan, and also a specimen of "saqui-saqui" (Bombacopsis), a 
very light wood closely related to balsa, native to Central and 
northern South America, both of which were given by Mr. Reginald 

Department of Botany 51 

Owen, of Evanston, Illinois; leaves, fruits, and fiber of babassu and 
carnauba palms, collected during 1935 by Chief Curator Dahlgren in 
Ceara and Bahia, Brazil; leaves and fruits of blue-palm (Erythea 
armata), collected by Laboratory Assistant John R. Millar near 
Riverside, California; and a wood specimen of a leguminous vine 
(Bauhinia), presented by Mr. Armando Dugand, of Barranquilla, 


Although no general distribution of duplicate material was made 
during the year, the Department distributed through exchanges 
5,832 herbarium specimens and photographs to various institutions 
and individuals in North and South America, and in Europe. Eighty- 
eight lots of plants were lent for study to institutions and individuals 
in Europe and the American continents, and seventy-one lots were 
received on loan, for study or determination. 

Workers assigned to the Department by the federal Works Pro- 
gress Administration were of great assistance in reorganization and 
arrangement of reference material, and did many and various tasks 
of typing. More than 201,600 cards were written in long hand for 
permanent or temporary files. Some of the catalogues now in 
process of preparation will be of extraordinary value when carried 
to completion. 

Several hundred labels for exhibits were revised or entirely rewrit- 
ten, and reprinted on light-colored stock. 


Owing to the sudden death, shortly before the beginning of 1937, 
of Preparator Jacob F. Mangelsen, who for many years had been 
responsible for the preparation of the wood specimens for the halls 
of American and foreign woods, installations in these halls were 
interrupted, and no additions were made to either during the past 
year. Mr. Mangelsen's wide practical acquaintance with woods 
and woodworking, his great skill, and the intelligent care with which 
he performed his work, made him, for many years, one of the most 
valued members of the Department's staff of preparators. With 
very few exceptions the remaining woods required to complete the 
display in the Hall of American Woods (Charles F. Millspaugh Hall, 
Hall 26) are on hand awaiting preparation and installation, as is 
also a considerable quantity of new material for the Hall of Foreign 
Woods (Hall 27). 

52 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

An important addition to the exhibit of food plants in Hall 25 
is a small scale diorama of a tea plantation in Ceylon, prepared 
by Laboratory Assistant John R. Millar. This diorama, a com- 
panion piece to that of a coffee plantation described in the Report 
for 1935, forms a part of the exhibit of tea among the beverage plants 
at the east end of the hall. 

A rearrangement of the cases containing the palm collection on the 
north side of Hall 25 resulted in a better display, and gives a more 
spacious appearance to the hall. Minor changes were made in the 
palm exhibits, with new labels and the installation of some new 
carnauba material secured by Chief Curator Dahlgren several years 
ago in Ceara, Brazil. A new exhibit is that of babassu palms of 
northern Brazil which yield an edible vegetable oil which recently has 
become prominent as an import of the United States. Material for 
this was obtained partly by the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition 
to the Amazon (1929-30), and partly by collecting and purchase 
made possible through the interest and generosity of Mr. H. F. 
Johnson, Jr., of Racine, Wisconsin, a Non-Resident Life Member of 
the Museum. 

To the exhibits in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) were added 
six important new mural paintings of botanical subjects, the work 
of the Museum's Staff Artist, Mr. Charles A. Corwin. Thus, with 
the two installed in 1935, there are now eight completed and in place 
of the total of fifteen murals planned for the west wall. The new 
ones, described from time to time during the year in Field Museum 
News, are as follows: Chilean pine (Araucaria imbricata), dragon's 
blood tree (Dracaena draco) of the Canary Islands, tree ferns 
(Hemitelia sp.), traveler's tree of Madagascar (Ravenala madagas- 
cariensis), cucumber trees of Socotra (Dendrosicyos socotrana with 
Adenium socotranum, etc.), and American elm — the last named being 
pictured in a scene typical of New Hampshire. 

Another new installation in Hall 29 is a reproduction of a tall- 
growing plant of the carrot family, local to the Chicago area — the 
purple angelica — which was completed during the year by Messrs. 
Milton Copulos and Emil Sella of the Plant Reproduction Labora- 
tories. It is located in its appropriate place in the hall, where it 
serves to illustrate the general characters of its order and family. 
From plant material recently secured, a flowering and fruiting 
branch of a cassia (Cassia fistula), an Indian tree commonly planted 
in warm countries for ornament and known in English-speaking 
countries as "golden shower," was reproduced in glass and celluloid 





Department of Geology 53 

by Mr. Sella and added to the exhibits of leguminous plants in the 
same hall. This family, with its various types of flowers, is so large 
and important, and contains so many economic plants, that it 
deserves to be illustrated even more fully than at present. 

Some minor additions, such as fruits of the rose and madder 
families, were added to the exhibits, but the most important other 
changes in Hall 29 were effected by an extensive rewriting of labels 
and the elimination of the black labels, formerly in general use in 
the Museum. 

Considerable progress was made during the year on various 
exhibits intended for Hall 29, particularly a beginning on the ecolog- 
ical groups which eventually are to occupy the now vacant north 
and south ends of this hall. With the aid of selected Works Progress 
Administration workers assigned to the Museum, a large quantity of 
material was prepared for a group showing North American alpine 
vegetation, which is to be the first of the series. 



Collecting for the Department of Geology was limited to one 
short expedition to gather specimens for which there was an immedi- 
ate need. To obtain these Curator Sharat K. Roy spent ten days in 
Dutchess County, New York, and collected there several series of 
rocks illustrating the progressive metamorphism of clay through 
shale, slate, and phyllite to mica schist. These specimens were 
required in order to fill an important gap in the collections of 
structural and dynamic geology which are now undergoing com- 
plete reorganization and reinstallation in Clarence Buckingham Hall 
(Hall 35). 

By making the collection at this time the material can be placed 
during the installation now under way, and extensive rearrangement 
of the exhibit at a later time is thus obviated. The material from 
Dutchess County is particularly useful because this is the only 
region known to the geological staff where all stages of the progres- 
sive metamorphism can be obtained, thus providing a single series, 
instead of a mosaic composed of several partial series, for exhibition. 

Work on reinstallation, and on arrangement and systematization 
of study and reserve collections, left less time than usual for con- 
centrated research. 

54 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

The most important works published during the year were two 
papers by Assistant Curator Bryan Patterson. The first includes a 
careful study of the structure of the middle ear in the Notoungulata, 
an order of extinct South American mammals, illustrated with 
numerous anatomical drawings. These studies have brought out 
three distinct types of ear-structure which afford new and important 
bases of classification. The studies were made possible by the large 
collections of fossil mammals brought to the Museum by the Mar- 
shall Field Paleontological Expeditions to South America. The 
second paper by Mr. Patterson describes a fossil caiman from the 
Pleistocene formation of South America, and includes a catalogue of 
South American fossil crocodiles. 

An important study of brain casts of fossil mammals of the order 
Notoungulata was begun, also by Assistant Curator Patterson. This 
work is facilitated by the large collection of specimens of that order 
in this Museum, and by the use of an elastic rubberoid material which 
makes it possible to produce the casts of the brain cavities without 
destroying the specimens. Comparison of brain casts offers a basis 
of study very little used in paleontology, but one which has important 
possibilities in classification. 

Continuing studies resulting from his observations during the 
Second Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition of Field Museum 
(1927-28), Curator Roy prepared two short papers, one on the Grin- 
nell Glacier, the other on the history and petrography of Frobisher's 
"gold ore," a rock which the famous explorer, Sir Martin Frobisher, 
mistakenly thought contained gold, causing great excitement in the 
England of his day (sixteenth century). Mr. Roy prepared also a 
short paper: Additiorial Notes on Living Bacteria in Stony Meteorites. 

Dr. Albert Walcott, working in the Department under a special 
arrangement, continued his studies of the diamonds in matrix which 
were collected several years ago by Chief Curator of Botany B. E. 
Dahlgren in Brazil. He identified by optical methods many doubtful 
specimens uncovered during the rearrangement of the mineral 

Under the direction of Chief Curator Henry W. Nichols, sixty- 
seven Egyptian bronzes were treated in the chemical laboratory to 
cure a malignant patina which was slowly destroying them. The 
Fink electrolytic method, and a chemical treatment originated in this 
laboratory, were both employed. As treatment removes the original 
patina and leaves the bronzes with a surface less attractive than is 
desirable, an investigation of methods for restoring non-malignant 

Department of Geology 55 

patina was undertaken and is now under way. The methods 
commonly employed for patinating new bronzes, reasonably effective 
on such material, cannot be safely employed on antique specimens 
which are always more or less porous and fragile from age, because 
some of these treatments reintroduce elements of malignant patina, 
and others are of too drastic a nature. 

Several of the bronzes were treated by the method used by the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Although this treatment, 
which consists of exposing the bronze to certain chemical fumes, is 
usually successful, it failed on these specimens, as it produced a color 
and texture resembling that of old wrought iron. This was found 
to be due to the presence of an excessive amount of sulphur in the 
metal. Another method now being investigated is more promising. 

The still for purifying old and discolored alcohol for re-use on the 
fish and reptile collections of the Department of Zoology was in 
operation for eleven months of the year. 

Serious corrosion of the degreasing tank used in the Department 
of Zoology was investigated and a remedy was recommended. The 
chlorine content of a water supposed to be injurious to the Museum 
boilers was determined, and a flue-cleaning compound was analyzed. 

Numerous partial analyses of minerals for identification and 
classification were made as usual. 

A new petrographic microscope acquired during the year has 
greatly facilitated routine identification of minerals, since this work 
is now done by petrographic and microchemical means instead of by 
the slower method of chemical analysis. 

Members of the Department staff contributed ten signed articles 
and twenty-five unsigned items for Field Museum News, and data 
for seventeen newspaper releases. There were 277 correspondents 
and 185 visitors referred to the Department for information and the 
identification of several hundred specimens. 


The number of accessions recorded during 1936 was forty-seven. 
The number of specimens included in these accessions is 544. Of 
these, 348 were gifts, 39 were obtained by exchange, and 157 came 
from expeditions or were collected by members of the staff. Although 
the number of accessions is somewhat greater than that recorded 
last year, it includes less than one-third as many specimens. This is 
partly accounted for by a more critical attitude toward specimens 
offered as gifts. 

56 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

The most important addition to the mineral collection is a large 
crystal of gem kunzite with a gem cut from its base, presented by 
Mr. William J. Chalmers, of Chicago. The crystal, weighing seven 
ounces, is four and one-half inches long and nearly half an inch thick. 
It is practically free from flaws and defects, and is of gem quality 
throughout, which is remarkable for so large a crystal. The gem 
cut from its base weighs twenty-eight carats, is free from flaws and 
is of good brilliancy. 

An attractive addition to the collection of opals in H. N. Higin- 
botham Hall (Hall 31) is a group of seven Mexican opals which Mrs. 
Joseph W. Work, of Evanston, Illinois, added to her former generous 
gifts of gems. 

Miss Margaret M. Cornell of the Museum staff presented a 
baroque pearl attached to the shell on which it grew. 

A glass model of the Jonkers diamond, the gift of Mr. Harry 
Winston, of New York, is a welcome addition to the models of large 
and famous diamonds in Higinbotham Hall. 

Mr. Sharat K. Roy of the Department staff presented an agate 
showing unusually brilliant fluorescence. 

Of special local interest is a group of pyrite crystals, and one of 
calcite, from the tunnels under the city of Chicago, contributed by a 
Mr. Roche, who neglected to leave his full name and address. 

Other gifts of minerals include twenty-five miscellaneous speci- 
mens from Mr. and Mrs. Walter J. Flesch, of Chicago; eleven min- 
erals of North Carolina from Mr. Samuel H. Gilbert, of Chicago, and 
nineteen crystallized gypsums and six calcite crystals from Mr. 0. J. 
Salo, of Red Lodge, Montana. 

One of the most interesting specimens received during the year 
is a vapor vent obtained by exchange with Mr. E. M. Brigham, of 
Battle Creek, Michigan. This is a tube which penetrated a lava 
surface of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Through it, steam and hot 
gases were ejected. 

A specimen of friction breccia, the gift of Mr. Bernard Bartnick, 
of Chicago, illustrates structural features with exceptional clarity. 

A welcome addition to the fulgurite or lightning tube collection 
was the gift of three fulgurites in loam, from Mr. J. 0. Beadle, of 
Marshall, Wisconsin. 

A series of manganese-silica concretions from South Dakota, 
collected and presented by Professor L. A. Higley, of Wheaton, 
Illinois, is of unusual scientific interest. The curious structure of 

Department of Geology 57 

curved plates, imperfectly shown in most manganese concretions, is 
so perfectly developed in these specimens that much may be learned 
of its nature from intensive study of them. Other concretions were 
presented by Mr. Albert Walker, of Ontario, Wisconsin. Two 
specimens, illustrating a phase of travertine not previously well 
represented in the collections, were received as a gift from Mr. L. E. 
Hildebrand, of Winnetka, Illinois. 

The most important addition to the economic collection was the 
gift by Mr. H. G. Metcalf, of Auburn, New York, of specimens of 
the upland diamond-bearing ground of Brazil, one of the few im- 
portant types of diamond deposit not hitherto represented in the 
collections. A unique talc specimen, presented by Mr. Dan P. 
Mumbrue of Helena, Montana, illustrates another type of deposit 
of which representation was hitherto lacking in the Museum. 

Other gifts for the economic collection are a specimen of diabase 
containing petroleum, from Mr. Charles G. Cowan, of Chicago; six 
brick shales and briquettes, from the Western Shale Products Com- 
pany, Fort Scott, Kansas; four specimens of cement rock and two of 
vermiculite, from the Utica Hydraulic Cement Company, Utica, 
Illinois, and a specimen of gold ore from Dr. F. A. Thurston, Chicago. 

Of greatest scientific interest among additions to the collection of 
invertebrate fossils is a series, presented by the Chicago Historical 
Society, of forty fossil insects named by Scudder, and containing 
twenty-two of his types. Three very perfect fossil fish and eight 
vertebrate fossils were also included in this gift. 

A collection of seventy-five rocks, minerals and fossils, presented 
by Mr. Henry Field of the Museum staff, includes thirty European 
invertebrate fossils, many of them of unusual perfection, beauty and 
rarity. The rocks and minerals included in this gift are of varieties 
not readily obtained in this country. 

A number of coal balls, and large celluloid sections made from 
them, were obtained by exchange with Professor A. C. Noe, of the 
University of Chicago. The transparent sections, which illustrate 
in a striking way the structures and forms of the vegetable detritus 
from which coal is made, are examples of a recently developed 
technique which has greatly improved our knowledge of the coal flora. 

Twelve fossil leaves from Patagonia were added to the collections 
through exchange with Mr. E. W. Berry, of Baltimore, Maryland. 

Two crustaceans and nine fossil plants were collected by Mr. 
Bryan Patterson of the Department staff. Other gifts of invertebrate 

58 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

fossils were a fossil cycad leaf from Mr. G. W. Wharton, of Roseburg, 
Oregon, and a fossil cephalopod from Mr. Donald Farquhar, Jr., 
of Chicago. 

The most important addition to the collection of vertebrate 
fossils was a fine mountable skeleton of the strange Miocene ungulate 
Moropas. This was received from the American Museum of Natural 
History in exchange for a skeleton of Barylambda. 

Mr. Edwin C. Galbreath, of Ashmore, Illinois, presented thirty 
specimens of Pleistocene mammals of Illinois, examples of the pre- 
glacial fauna of this region. 

Eight models and casts of Pleistocene vertebrates were obtained 
from the Los Angeles Museum of Science, History and Art in ex- 
change for similar material from this Museum. This exchange was 
for the purpose of providing material for study and as an aid in 
identifying specimens in both institutions. Mr. R. M. Barnes, of 
Lacon, Illinois, presented a vertebra, the second to be found in this 
state, which it has not yet been possible to identify. It may belong 
to some pre-glacial animal hitherto unknown in this region. 


There were 583 new entries in the Department catalogues, which 
comprise twenty-six volumes. Adding these to previous entries, the 
total becomes 195,611. The number of specimens catalogued exceeds 
the number received during the year, as it includes vertebrate mate- 
rial from expeditions of past years, which was not freed from matrix 
and identified until 1936. Many specimens of vertebrate fossils come 
to the Museum enclosed by and partly concealed in a stony matrix, 
so that it is sometimes impossible to determine their number or 
identify them accurately until the matrix has been chipped away. 
Also a few unrecorded specimens were found and catalogued during 
the checking of the study collections which accompanies the prepara- 
tion of the card catalogues. 

Copy for 2,283 specimen labels was prepared and sent to the 
Division of Printing, and 2,298 labels were received from that Divi- 
sion and installed in the cases. There were 143 labeled prints of 
photographs added to the Department albums, which now contain 
8,528 prints. One hundred and eight United States Geological Survey 
maps were received, filed and labeled, making the number of these 
maps now available 4,398. 

The cross-indexed card catalogue of photographs has been kept 
up to date, as has the card index of meteorites. At the beginning of 

Department of Geology 59 

the year, the meteorite index included cards for only those meteorites 
added to the collection since 1916, the date of the last printed cata- 
logue of the collection. Cards have now been written for all entries 
in the printed catalogue as well, thus covering all the meteorite 
specimens in the Museum. A beginning has been made on an index 
of all known meteorites not represented in the collection. These are 
typed on red cards to avoid confusion with the regular catalogue. 
As the known meteorites not represented number only a few hundred, 
the writing of this index would be a simple matter were it not that 
some of the data is widely scattered in the literature. 

Work on the card catalogue of minerals has continued. This 
index is now complete for all exhibited minerals, and substantial 
progress has been made in cataloguing the reserve collection. During 
the preparation of this catalogue all specimens were checked, and 
all doubtful ones were re-identified, a task much greater than listing 
the minerals and typing the cards. The preparation of the other 
card catalogues also involved much more work in assembling and 
correlating data, and checking identifications of specimens, than 
was required for typing the cards. In all, 7,471 cards were typed, 
exclusive of those for vertebrate paleontology mentioned later. 

Preparation of permanent records of the specimens in vertebrate 
paleontology was carried on during the greater part of the year. It 
included preparation of card indexes, records, and a bibliography of 
South American fossil mammals needed in connection with researches 
under way based on material collected by the Marshall Field Paleon- 
tological Expeditions. During this work, 6,838 specimens were 
numbered and catalogued, and 1,304 specimen and bibliography 
cards were written. Forty-five pages of field records were typed 
for preservation. 

Employment of workers assigned by the federal government's 
Works Progress Administration has been of great benefit to the 
Department, and much has been accomplished that could not have 
been attempted without this assistance. They prepared the much 
needed card catalogue of the meteorite collection, and began the 
classified catalogue of the mineral collection needed as an aid to 
future installation and for arrangement of exchanges. They assisted 
in the preparation of catalogues of the Department photographs and 
of the vertebrate paleontology collection. Nearly 12,000 catalogue 
cards were typed by WPA workers during the year. In addition to 
this, much other needed clerical work was performed. They arranged, 
cleaned and, where necessary, renumbered and relabeled the reserve 

60 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

collections on the third floor, handling nearly 23,000 specimens. 
Thejr have been of material assistance on reinstallation and placing 
of labels, and their aid has expedited the general work of the pre- 
parators. They made two small models for exhibition and helped in 
the preparation of vertebrate fossils. The number of WPA workers 
engaged in the Department varied from a minimum of three to a 
maximum of nine, with a monthly average of seven. 


The case labels which formerly projected above the tops of the 

leases were somewhat unsightly and not sufficiently legible. They 

have been replaced by framed labels, eighteen inches long and three 

inches wide, placed inside the cases. Similar labels have been 

installed also in all cases not previously labeled. 

In Hall 34, devoted to minerals and meteorites, the appearance 
of exhibits in four small cases has been materially improved by 
replacing with opaque backs the glass backs of the cases which had 
caused a confused view of objects behind them. 

Reinstallation in new cases of the entire meteorite collection, 
which occupies the west half of Hall 34, was started by emptying 
three cases and transferring their contents to the workrooms on the 
third floor where rearrangement for an improved installation is in 
progress. Otherwise installation in this hall has not been disturbed 
except for the usual minor adjustments, and additions of a few new 

Plans made in 1935 for the complete reinstallation of Clarence 
Buckingham Hall (Hall 35) contemplate a number of important 
changes, upon which work was begun during 1936. The relief maps 
which occupied more than half the hall are to be removed, because 
they occupy more space than their interest justifies. The small rock 
collection formerly in the east end of the hall is to be replaced by a 
larger and better organized collection which will fill the west end of 
the hall. The reason for this change is that visitors display more 
interest in this collection than was believed probable at the time of 
the original installation. The rest of the space vacated by the 
removal of relief maps is to be occupied by an exhibit of fluorescent 
minerals (installed in 1936), and an enlargement of the structural 
and dynamic collections for which material has been accumulating 
for years. The appearance of the exhibits is to be improved by 
removing the shelves and attaching specimens directly to the backs 
of the cases. This installation not only improves appearance, but 


Field Museum of Nalural History 

Reports, Vol. XI, Plate VIII 

Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) 
Northeastern North America 

£? £? <£. 

Department of Geology 61 

permits a better grouping by which sequences and relations of 
specimens are made more readily apparent. During reinstallation 
many minor improvements, such as replacing inferior with better 
specimens, and revision of labeling, are being made. Work on the 
reinstallation of this hall has progressed steadily during the year. 

The relief maps of most interest have been placed on the walls 
of the two corridors connecting Hall 35 with adjoining halls, where 
they show to better advantage. Half of the enlarged collection of 
rocks filling six cases is now installed in the west end of the hall. 
When complete this collection will fill twelve cases of the slope-top 
type, each twelve feet in length. The specimens, which approximate 
the usual size of three by four inches, are installed on panels parallel 
with the sloping fronts of the cases. Instead of being mounted on 
individual blocks as in the old installation, the specimens are attached 
directly to the panel by invisible clips. For each series of rocks there 
is a group label explaining them in simple language. The six cases 
now in place contain an extensive collection of the sedimentary and 
metamorphic rocks, leaving six cases of igneous rocks yet to be 

The reinstallation of structural specimens and those of dynamic 
origin has proceeded to the extent of five cases. The collection of 
volcanic material, which formerly occupied two cases, has been 
enlarged and now occupies three. 

A case of specimens and models, illustrating the structure of the 
earth and features pertaining to its interior, was assembled and 
installed. It contains the model made last year showing the struc- 
ture of the earth with its core of metal enveloped with successive 
shells of rock, each lighter and more acid in composition than the 
shell below. Another model, illustrating the forms assumed by 
intrusions of rock from the depths of the earth into overlying rock, 
was made in the Museum laboratories during the year and is now in 
position in this case. The rest of the case contains examples of rocks 
and structures characteristic of such depths as can be reached. A 
case of travertines and tufas, dendrites, and specimens illustrating 
rock coloration by weathering, and color banding by segregation of 
coloring matter, was emptied. After these collections were reorgan- 
ized and relabeled, the case was reinstalled in accordance with the 
new plan. 

A diorama representing an alpine glacier, modeled in the Depart- 
ment laboratories during the year, was installed in an individual case 

62 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

against one of the windows and is complete except for a few minor 
details of coloring. 

The most important change in Hall 35 is the addition of a case 
which promises to be one of the most attractive displays in the 
Department. It illustrates mineral fluorescence, a property some 
substances possess of transforming invisible ultra-violet light into 
visible light of longer wave length. While ordinary minerals are 
invisible when illuminated by ultra-violet light, fluorescent species 
glow brilliantly with colors which have no relation to their ordinary 
colors. In order to obtain the best effects, hundreds of specimens 
had to be tested before thirty of the most brilliant, representing 
twelve mineral species, were selected. 

As the fluorescent glow, brilliant when seen under proper con- 
ditions, is completely masked in daylight by the ordinary color of 
the mineral, the design of a case in which the fluorescence could be 
seen under favorable conditions in a dim light was a matter of some 
difficulty. The specimens have been installed on a vertical panel, 
four feet high and five and one-half feet long, on the back of a case 
three feet deep. The panel and interior of the case are black. Access 
of daylight from the front is impeded by a screen so placed that 
there is a passage three and a half feet wide between screen and case, 
from which the fluorescence can be observed. Entrance of light into 
the passage is further obstructed by wings attached to the screen 
at the entrance and exit. The specimens are provided with labels 
lettered with fluorescent paint. The minerals are illuminated by 
ultra-violet light from a nico lamp at the top. An illumination of 
forty-five seconds in each minute by ultra-violet light is followed by 
fifteen seconds of illumination by ordinary artificial light. The 
change of illumination is controlled by an automatic switch. The 
abrupt change from the brilliant blue and green, and less brilliant 
red and yellow, fluorescent glow to ordinary dull and commonplace 
color as the illumination changes is impressive. 

Eight colored transparencies of typical and well-known volcanoes 
were installed in windows adjacent to the volcanic exhibit. The 
colored transparencies formerly installed in a window adjacent to the 
exhibit of cave formations have been replaced by six views of superior 
quality representing scenes in the Carlsbad Caverns of New Mexico. 
Other rearrangements in this hall were confined to minor adjust- 
ments and changes of individual specimens. 

Installations in Hall 36 and in Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37) 
were limited to minor readjustments and additions of specimens. 

Department of Geology 63 

In Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) the most conspicuous change 
is the addition of a group of "tar bed" fossils from the asphalt springs 
near Los Angeles. This group, which occupies a floor space of eleven 
by fourteen feet, represents a portion of the surface of an asphalt 
spring in which many animals were trapped and mired. Mounted 
skeletons of the ground sloth, saber-tooth tiger, fossil horse and 
fossil bison are placed upon this surface in life-like poses. They 
exemplify a few of the larger of the numerous animals whose fossil 
remains have been found in this spring. A skeleton of the large 
armored mammal, Eleutherocercus, from South America, mounted 
in three-quarter relief and accompanied by a miniature restoration 
of the animal as it appeared in life, fills a whole case. 

A skull of the fossil baleen whale, Agalocetus; a carapace of a 
Pliocene glyptodont, Plohophorus, and a mounted skeleton of the 
great Pliocene turtle, Testudo, were removed from upright cases and 
installed in individual cases built for them. A collection of fossil 
cones, branches and sections of trunks of South American araucaria 
trees, with cones and foliage of a related modern tree, was installed 
in half of a slope-top case. Considerable rearrangement of collec- 
tions and of the position of cases in the north end of the hall was 
necessary to make room for these additions. 

A unique skeleton of the rare and hitherto little-known ungulate 
Homalodotkerium, from the Miocene of Argentina, was mounted in 
full relief and installed to occupy an entire case. 

In other parts of the hall only minor changes, such as elimination 
of duplicates and replacement of inferior specimens, were undertaken. 

Besides the preparation of vertebrate fossils finished and placed 
on exhibition during the year, two nearly complete skeletons and 
three additional skulls of a remarkable Pliocene bird from South 
America were removed from the matrix and prepared for the study 
which must precede mounting them for exhibition. 

Work on rearrangement and classification of study and reserve 
collections on the third floor has continued through the year. All 
reserve and study collections of minerals, including structural, 
dynamic and economic specimens in Room 113 (except the lithologic 
collection) are now substantially in order, although the repainting 
of faded numbers, replacing of defective labels, and some other details 
are far from complete. The value of a well-arranged reserve collec- 
tion has been amply demonstrated during the year. 

During the reinstallation of exhibits on the second floor, it has 
been possible to compare reserve with exhibited specimens and, by 

64 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

interchanges, to improve materially the appearance of the exhibits. 
Visitors whose problems call for examination of specimens not on 
exhibition are now assisted in their studies with greater benefit to 
them and the expenditure of less time. The reserve collections of 
invertebrate paleontology in Room 111 are of a character which will 
require much more labor to achieve a similar rearrangement. The 
specimens are more numerous, they require more cleaning, and 
checking them against the records requires more time. Although 
nearly 15,000 specimens have been cleaned, reclassified, and systema- 
tized, it is anticipated that several more years of work will be required 
before this task is completed. 



Expeditionary work for the Department of Zoology was at a 
minimum during 1936, and no field work of a regularly organized 
nature was conducted. 

Through cooperation with the Chicago Zoological Society, the 
services of Mr. Harold C. Hanson, a volunteer worker in the Depart- 
ment, were utilized to obtain an interesting collection of birds, 
mainly from northeastern Greenland. Mr. Hanson was associated 
for this purpose with the expedition of Captain Robert A. Bartlett, 
which had as its primary object the capture of specimens of live 
musk-oxen for the Zoological Society. Field Museum's partici- 
pation in this expedition was made possible by the Emily Crane 
Chadbourne Fund. 

Through the generosity of Mr. Sasha Siemel, of New York, who 
spent several months on a hunting trip in South America, the 
Museum secured a baby tapir specimen which he collected. This 
will be used to augment and complete the Museum's group of tapirs 
in the Hall of American Mammal Habitat Groups (Hall 16). 

Mrs. Oscar Straus, of New York, in the course of a visit to 
Australia and New Zealand, kindly made arrangements whereby it 
is expected the Museum will obtain certain rare birds needed for 
proposed habitat groups in the Hall of Birds (Hall 20). 

Fifteen zoological publications, embodying the results of research 
by members of the Department staff, and other scientists as well, 
were issued by Field Museum Press during the year, as follows: 
Fishes of the Crane Pacific Expedition, by Dr. Albert W. Herre, 
of Stanford University; African Reptiles arid Aynphibians in Field 

Department of Zoology 65 

Museum of Natural History, by Arthur Loveridge, of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University; Records and Measure- 
ments of Neotropical Bats, and Descriptions and Records of African 
Bats, both by Curator Colin C. Sanborn; Part IX, Catalogue of 
Birds of the Americas, by Associate Curator Charles E. Hellmayr; 
Secondary Sex Characters of Chinese Frogs and Toads, by Ch'eng- 
Chao Liu, of Soochow University, Soochow, China; The Distribution 
of Bidder's Organ in the Bufonidae, and Courtship and Mating Behavior 
in Snakes, both by Assistant Curator D. Dwight Davis; Clearing 
and Staining Skeletons of Small Vertebrates (Museum Technique 
Series), by Assistant Curator Davis and U. R. Gore; Notes on 
Bahaman Reptiles and Amphibians, Guatemalan Salamanders of the 
Genus Oedipus, Preliminary Account of Coral Snakes of South America, 
and Notes on Central American and Mexican Coral Snakes, all four by 
Curator Karl P. Schmidt; Notes on Snakes from Yucatan, by Curator 
Schmidt and E. Wyllys Andrews; and Neiv and Imperfectly Known 
Small Mammals from Africa, by Chief Curator Wilfred H. Osgood. 

Publications by staff members which appeared under other than 
Field Museum auspices include the following: "Robert Kennicott, 
Founder of Museums," by Karl P. Schmidt, Program of Activities — 
Chicago Academy of Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 3-8; "New Amphibians 
and Reptiles from Honduras in the Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy/' by Karl P. Schmidt, Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington, Vol. 49, pp. 43-50; "Zoogeographica" (review), by 
Karl P. Schmidt, American Naturalist, Vol. 70, pp. 264-266; "The 
Amphibians of the Pulitzer Angola Expedition," by Karl P. Schmidt, 
Annals of the Carnegie Museum, Vol. 25, pp. 127-133; "A Key to 
the Lizards of the United States and Canada" (review of a paper 
by Charles E. Burt), by Karl P. Schmidt, Copeia, 1936, pp. 127-129; 
"Notes on Brazilian Amphisbaenians," by Karl P. Schmidt, Herpe- 
tologica, Vol. 1, pp. 28-30, pi. 3; Artist and Naturalist in Ethiopia, 
a book by Wilfred H. Osgood and Louis A. Fuertes, with illustra- 
tions by the latter, Doubleday, Doran and Company, New York; 
"A Second Record of the White-eyed Vireo in Guatemala," by 
Emmet R. Blake, The Auk, Vol. 53, p. 219, April, 1936; "Additional 
Records of Neomorphus radiolosus," by Emmet R. Blake, The 
Auk, Vol. 53, p. 447, October, 1936; "The Terminology of Reptilian 
Musculature," by D. Dwight Davis, Herpetologica, Vol. 1, pp. 12-17, 
1936; and "Reducing the Injurious Effects of Formaldehyde in the 
Museum," by Alfred C. Weed, Museum News, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 
7-8, May 15, 1936. 

66 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Contributions of the zoological staff to Field Museum News 
comprised thirteen signed articles and twenty-six brief notes. Data 
were furnished for thirty-three newspaper releases. 

Research on African mammals obtained by various expeditions 
during the last ten years was continued by Chief Curator Osgood, 
and preliminary studies were completed with the publication of 
descriptions of eighteen new forms. 

Curator Colin C. Sanborn continued preparation of a special 
study of the American bats of the family Emballonuridae. Con- 
siderable progress was made in compiling the index to the literature 
pertaining to bats. 

Associate Curator Charles E. Hellmayr, working in Vienna, 
continued with the preparation of the final volumes of the Catalogue 
of the Birds of the Americas, which are to include the birds of prey, 
the game birds, and the water birds. Research Associate H. B. 
Conover was actively engaged in assisting Dr. Hellmayr with the 
volume which will cover game birds. So far as routine duties 
permitted, Curator Rudyerd Boulton and Assistant Curator Emmet 
R. Blake engaged in the identification of African and South American 
birds. Messrs. Harold Hanson and Sidney Camras, volunteer 
workers, proceeded with the identification of birds from Greenland 
and from the South Sea islands. 

Research in the Division of Reptiles centered on the collections 
from southwestern Asia, which have been further increased due to 
the interest of Mr. Henry Field of the Department of Anthropology, 
and on the Guatemalan and other Central American collections 
made by Curator Karl P. Schmidt in 1934. The study of the local 
fauna was continued, and the fall aggregation of blue racers in the 
Indiana Dunes was again observed. Two studies on the American 
coral snakes were completed and results published. Reptiles and 
amphibians collected by Mr. L. C. Cole in Utah and Arizona were 
identified in the Division with the aid of Curator Schmidt, the 
greater part of the collection being presented to the Museum. 

The mating behavior of snakes was investigated by Assistant 
Curator D. Dwight Davis. Existing literature on this subject was 
compiled and analyzed in conjunction with original observations 
yielding certain novel conclusions as to the relation between the 
mating behavior of snakes and that of other animals. 

Preliminary studies were made on adaptive radiation and con- 
vergence in the skulls of snakes. These studies were based on the 

Department of Zoology 67 

Museum's notable collection of specimens. Further study of this 
collection promises to yield much new and valuable information. 
Curator Alfred C. Weed continued work on fishes collected in 
Fiji by an expedition of the John G. Shedd Aquarium, and on new 
and interesting fishes collected in the Near East by Mr. Henry 
Field and others. Preparation of manuscripts for publication has 
been much delayed by the pressure of routine work. A study of 
Atlantic sea bass of the genus Centropristes also was made, and 
results will soon be ready for printing. 

Many undetermined butterflies and moths in the Museum's 
collection were properly classified by Dr. E. Murray-Aaron, a com- 
petent entomologist employed through the federal Works Progress 
Administration. In connection with this work 6,393 specimens of 
lepidopterous insects were studied, 150 name labels were written, 792 
previously unnamed species were identified, 1,270 generic and specific 
names were changed, and 2,043 name labels were supplied with 
bibliographic notations. 


Total accessions for the year amount to 11,481 specimens, of 
which some 4,000 are insects. The more important specimens 
of vertebrates were received as gifts and exchanges, material from 
expeditions or from purchases being relatively scanty. Accessions 
are classified by zoological groups as follows: mammals, 2,258; birds, 
846; amphibians and reptiles, 3,003; fishes, 580; insects, 4,145; lower 
invertebrates, 649. The number received from Museum expeditions 
is 3,196; gifts, 5,399; exchanges, 868; purchases, 2,018. 

Of particular value among gifts of mammals was a complete 
specimen of a markhor from Messrs. John M. Simpson and A. 
Watson Armour III, of Chicago. The Oriental Institute of the 
University of Chicago presented two wild boars from Syria. Mr. 
Sasha Siemel, of New York, collected and presented a young Brazilian 
tapir which will be placed with the adults of the same species in the 
Museum's group in Hall 16. Dr. J. F. W. Pearson, of the Univer- 
sity of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, collected and presented a 
collection of 142 bats from Long Island, Bahamas. 

Chief Curator Wilfred H. Osgood gave a series of forty-four 
Ontario mammals collected by himself. Mr. George K. Cherrie, of 
Newfane, Vermont, sent a collection of twenty-nine small mammals 
from Texas. Mr. Henry Field, of the Department of Anthropology, 
added forty specimens from Iraq to his many other gifts from that 

68 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

country. Mr. H. E. Perkins, of Huron Mountain, Michigan, secured 
a bobcat for the Museum. Mrs. John Hinaus, of Bruce, Wisconsin, 
presented an albino bat, the first ever received by the Museum. 

The John G. Shedd Aquarium, the Chicago Zoological Society, 
and the Lincoln Park Zoo presented the Museum with a total of 
thirty-seven mammals. Most important are a Brazilian manatee 
from the Shedd Aquarium; a binturong, two gibbons and six kan- 
garoos from the Chicago Zoological Society ; a giant ant-eater, zebra, 
three orang utans and one chimpanzee from the Lincoln Park Zoo. A 
young chimpanzee was received from Mr. Henry Trefflich, of New 
York, through the Chicago Zoological Society. 

In the Division of Birds, seventy-six gifts from thirty-eight 
individuals (compared with sixty-six gifts from twenty-seven indi- 
viduals for 1935), totaling 497 specimens, indicate continued increase 
in the interest and cooperation of local naturalists. 

As in 1935, the most important gifts of birds were those of Mr. 
Leslie Wheeler and the Chicago Zoological Society. Mr. Wheeler, 
who is both a Trustee and a Research Associate of the Museum, 
presented 180 specimens, mostly of hawks and owls, adding many 
new species and races to the large list of those already represented 
in the collection, as well as amplifying previously acquired series. 

Among 188 birds presented by the Chicago Zoological Society 
are 127 from northeast Greenland, collected on the Bartlett expedi- 
tion as noted elsewhere. The remainder are specimens that died 
during the course of the year in the Society's zoo at Brookfield. 
Many of these were very rare and valuable, especially for prepara- 
tion of skeletons and anatomical specimens. 

Among other important gifts of birds received during the year 
were those from Research Associate H. B. Conover, Mr. Henry 
Field, Mr. A. J. Franzen, of the Department of the N. W. Harris 
Public School Extension, Major R. D. Hildebrand, of Washington, 
D.C., Mr. J. Andrews King, of Lake Forest, Illinois, and Mr. Karl 
Plath, of Chicago. 

The most notable gifts of reptiles and amphibians were 273 
specimens from Florida, England and Iraq, presented by Mr. Henry 
Field, and forty specimens from Syria, presented by the Oriental 
Institute of the University of Chicago. From Mr. Lamont C. 
Cole, of Chicago, 333 specimens representing Utah and Arizona 
varieties were received. Forty-five specimens from Panama and 
Costa Rica were presented by Dr. Emmett R. Dunn, of Haverford, 
Pennsylvania; forty-nine specimens from Ecuador were received 






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^ **J ^~ 

^ <=» c: 

Department of Zoology 69 

from Mr. R. W. Chadwick, of Chicago; 115 specimens from the 
Bahamas were presented by the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
of Harvard University; five specimens came from the Lincoln Park 
Zoo, and fifty specimens from the Chicago Zoological Society. Sev- 
eral of these were used in preparation of exhibition models. 

Many valuable fishes were received as gifts from various sources. 
An unusually large number of these filled specific needs because the 
donors had been advised just what would be most desirable. 

Gifts of fishes from Mr. Henry Field include a collection contain- 
ing some new species from the rivers Tigris and Diala, Iraq. Other 
gifts from Mr. Field include valuable specimens from the west coast 
of Florida, and a series of the commoner fishes of northeastern Scot- 
land. Many of the species of this latter collection were not previously 
represented in our study series. To Mr. Field's interest is due also 
the gift of a collection of specimens from the Tigris and Euphrates 
rivers, sent by Professor W. P. Kennedy, of the Royal College of 
Medicine, Bagdad, Iraq. 

The John G. Shedd Aquarium has continued to cooperate with 
the Museum by furnishing many rare specimens for the study col- 
lections, as well as valuable information for the taxidermists. 

Professor H. W. Norris, of Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa, 
added some very interesting material to the series of jaws and skin 
samples of the sharks he has been studying. At the request of the 
Museum, Mr. Fred Ladd, of Wakulla, Florida, forwarded seven 
very excellent specimens of sea bass from the Gulf of Mexico. 

The Chicago Zoological Society gave a small collection of shore 
fishes of Newfoundland, collected by Mr. Harold C. Hanson while 
on the Greenland Expedition of 1936. Mr. Robert Zimmerman, 
of Chicago, presented a small series of the interesting fishes of the 
reefs and sand flats of Andros Island, Bahamas. 

Mr. Emil F. Vacin, of Oak Park, Illinois, added to the collection 
of game fishes, especially trout, as in previous years, and gave some 
fine specimens showing the variation of fishes planted in a new 
locality. Mr. Alfred C. Weed, Jr., of Chicago, gave two specimens 
collected on the west coast of Africa. One of these represented a 
genus not previously in the study collection. 

Much valuable osteological material to fill conspicuous gaps in 
the collections was received through the cooperation of the Chicago 
Zoological Society and the Lincoln Park Zoo. 

A large number of donors contributed to the collection of 
insects. Among the larger gifts was a series of 945 specimens pre- 

70 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

sented by Mr. Henry Field, representing well known but much 
needed species of England, Scotland and Wales. Mr. Gordon 
Grant, of Los Angeles, California, gave a collection of 643 insects. 
Mr. Field gave also 144 lower invertebrates from Great Britain, 
and Mr. Grant 307 from western North America. 

One of the most important exchanges of the year was with the 
United States National Museum, Washington, D.C., from which 
Field Museum received 185 bats, adding new genera and many 
new forms to the collection. Forty specimens of African and South 
American mammals were received in exchange from the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, of Harvard University. By other exchanges, 
thirty specimens were received from Japan and eleven from West 

Twelve exchanges of birds were effected with eight other insti- 
tutions and individuals. Although only forty-eight specimens were 
thus acquired, there were twenty genera, eight species and eight 
geographical races not hitherto represented in Field Museum's 

Exchanges of reptiles and amphibians resulted in the acquisition 
of 545 specimens. Most of these came from the British Museum; 
from Dr. Charles E. Burt, of Winfield, Kansas; and from Dr. J. 
F. W. Pearson, of Miami, Florida. Exchange of fishes was confined 
to that of one valuable specimen received from the Museum 
d'Histoire Naturelle, of Paris. The most important purchase of the 
year was a general collection from western China, obtained by Mr. 
Floyd T. Smith. This included 1,581 mammals, 299 birds, 405 
amphibians and reptiles, and 72 fishes. Other purchases include 
two fine clouded leopards from northern India and forty-one mis- 
cellaneous mammals from Ecuador. 

Material from expeditions was sparse, and largely confined to 
specimens collected in previous years but for various reasons not 
incorporated in the collections at the time of receipt. As mentioned 
elsewhere, a small but valuable collection was made by Mr. Harold 
C. Hanson, a volunteer assistant in the Division of Birds, who was 
enabled to accompany an expedition to Greenland with Captain 
Robert A. Bartlett under the auspices of the Chicago Zoological 
Society. Mr. Hanson's collections include 127 beautifully prepared 
birdskins, as well as skeletons, anatomical material, and birds' 
stomachs for use in the study of food habits. 

As part of Field Museum's share of the collections of the Vernay- 
Lang Kalahari Expedition (1930) there was received, in 1936, a 

Department of Zoology 71 

series of named South African fishes numbering 126 specimens 
forwarded by the Transvaal Museum of Pretoria, South Africa. 


The number of zoological specimens catalogued was 8,473. 
They are divided by subjects as follows: mammals, 743; birds and 
birds' eggs, 4,212; reptiles and amphibians, 2,599; and fishes, 919. 
About 24,000 small mammal skins were cleaned and degreased with 
benzine. Some 600 cards were added to the reference index of 
new forms of mammals. To the card index of the mammal col- 
lection, 500 cards were added and 1,500 cards were corrected and 
rewritten. Old-style skull vials were replaced and new labels written 
for them to the number of 3,400. Other skulls numbered and 
labeled amounted to 1,086. All original mammal labels not attached 
to specimens were numbered and filed consecutively in small enve- 
lopes. New labels were written for about 200 drawers, and for 
about 150 alcohol bottles. Thirty-three exhibition labels were 

Work was begun on a survey of the Museum's collection of 
pamphlets dealing with mammals so that missing papers can be 
secured and pamphlets bound. Work was also started on sorting 
and labeling the collection of photographs of mammals. 

In the Division of Birds unusual activity prevailed, and much 
progress was made in the arrangement of specimens and the per- 
fection of records and adjuncts to their efficient utilization. 

Specimens of birds belonging to fifty families were properly 
arranged so that individual specimens can be readily found, and 
space was allowed for expansion of the collection. This makes a 
total of seventy-two families now in good condition, slightly less 
than half the collection. Specimens from the New World, to the 
number of 11,730, were carded, making forty-four families now 
complete. Added to those of last year, this gives a total of 14,895 
specimens carded. A geographic card index file of all these speci- 
mens was also completed. 

Typewritten labels to replace old illegible labels were prepared 
for 14,895 specimens. Identifications were lettered in pencil on 
13,961 of them, and 9,000 labels were sewed to the original labels 
and tied on the specimens. This work was made possible largely by a 
special typewriter, equipped with very small type, presented by 
Trustee Leslie Wheeler. 

72 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

About one hundred large trays for storage cases were rebuilt, 
and the lining of trays with sheet cotton was continued, the number 
lined during the year being 1,497, which brings the total to 2,373. 
More than 200 especially valuable study skins of birds were de- 
greased and repaired, most of them being entirely remade. A file 
of all birds permanently removed from the collection by exchange, 
sale, or otherwise, was prepared, totaling 1,383 entries. 

Much checking of identifications of study skins of birds was 
accomplished, including identifications of two-thirds (about 2,000) 
of the specimens in the Coale Collection received in 1935; the 
checking, cataloguing and distributing of all non-passerine birds 
of the Ethiopian collection, and the identification and partial 
cataloguing of the Cornelius Crane Pacific collection. 

Among the bibliographic enterprises completed in the Division 
of Birds are the following: compilation of 9,495 author titles of New 
World birds complete from 1900 to 1934; compilation of all (728) 
New World birds described as new up to 1934, since the publication 
of the various volumes of the Catalogue of the Birds of the Americas; 
refiling and recarding of the Museum's collection of pamphlets on 
birds (997 titles to date); compilation of all (104) birds described 
as new since the publication of Peters's Birds of the World; com- 
pilation of all (529) African birds described as new since the publi- 
cation of Sclater's Systema avium Ethiopicarum. 

Six maps (18"x24") of Field Museum's zoological expeditions 
were made on appropriate projections showing routes, dates, and 
collecting stations. Projections were calculated and four large 
(30"x40") wall maps of the New World and Africa were constructed 
on which were plotted the localities of birds in Field Museum's 
collections. Seven maps for transparent exhibition labels were 
made, and three outline maps were drawn for photogravure repro- 
ductions to be used in plotting data and for publication. 

The Museum's collection of birds' eggs was unpacked, prepar- 
atory to final arrangement. One hundred and ninety-seven mis- 
cellaneous sets were catalogued, carded, labeled and arranged in 
new pasteboard trays, 385 sets were identified and arranged in new 
pasteboard trays, and 2,026 sets of the Barnes American collection 
were catalogued. 

A mounted and bound atlas of all available sheets of the American 
Geographical Society's Millionth Map of Hispanic America was 
presented to the Division by Trustee Leslie Wheeler, Research 
Associate H. B. Conover, and Curator Rudyerd Boulton. Four 

Department of Zoology 73 

map frames for holding the reference maps being drawn in the Divi- 
sion were acquired. 

Cataloguing of reptiles and amphibians was kept up to date. 
The number of entries for the year is 2,599, including 106 for osteo- 
logical material. Forty exhibition labels for lizards were rewritten 
to conform with others in Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18), and a 
small map indicating distribution was added for each species. Fur- 
ther progress has been made in labeling, made necessary by the 
rearrangement of the study collection which has been begun in the 
new steel cases on the fourth floor. Printed labels are now in prepa- 
ration for both cases and drawers containing the main collection in 
Room 88. 

Facilities for the storage of study collections of reptiles and 
amphibians have been improved by the addition of twenty-six steel 
cases on the fourth floor. This has made possible the elimination 
of the unsightly and bulky tanks in Room 88. These are now 
enclosed in cases, into which they are raised by a simple but 
ingenious carrier. Space gained in Room 88 is used for additional 
storage cases and for much needed expansion of the study tables. 

Considerable progress has been made in the work of separating 
specimens of fish remaining in large containers, which often were 
very poorly labeled, and in which they could be found for study 
purposes only after long and laborious search. Work so far accom- 
plished encourages the hope that, by the end of another year, prac- 
tically all material in the study series may be so arranged that any 
desired specimen can be located within a few minutes. During the 
year 1,221 gallons of used alcohol were taken to the still. Reclaimed 
alcohol to the amount of 980 gallons at an average strength of 77 
per cent was received, equivalent to 1,091 gallons at 69 per cent for 
return to the specimens. 

Steel doors were added to the stacks set apart for the types of 
fishes and other valuable material in the study collection. Prac- 
tically all of these valuable specimens have now been separated 
from the general collection, and placed where they will not be injured 
by the effects of light and where they can receive careful attention. 

The bibliographic project in the Division of Fishes was advanced 
by the indexing of seventeen bound volumes of short ichthyological 

Osteological material was catalogued under divisional subjects 
and also by card index in the Division of Osteology and Anatomy, 
the number of entries being 444. Of these, 49 were mammals, 289 

74 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

birds, and 106 amphibians and reptiles. Many desirable alcoholic 
specimens were transferred from other divisions and prepared as 
skeletons. Total accumulations of the year in osteology are 635 
specimens, bringing the total collections to 2,289, an increase over 
1935 of more than 34 per cent. 

With the cleaning of 1,111 mammal skulls, preparation of this 
type of material was brought up to date for the first time in the 
history of the Museum. This made possible a concerted attack on 
the accumulation of skeletons, most of which require cleaning by 
hand. A record total of 875 osteological specimens, in addition to 
mammal skulls, was prepared during the year. In order to accommo- 
date this material, considerable rearrangement and expansion were 
necessary. Much additional storage space was obtained, and the 
flexibility of the collections was greatly increased by cutting down 
deep drawers to make 150 three-inch trays for storage of small 
specimens. Labels were printed for all storage cases. 

An outstanding accomplishment of the year was the preparation 
of a comprehensive collection of nearly 400 snake skulls. These 
were removed from alcoholic specimens without serious damage to 
the latter, and cleaned. This is the only extensive collection of snake 
skulls in the United States, and promises to yield much valuable 
information. The bodies of two mammals and seven reptiles were 
embalmed and added to the series of vertebrate types preserved for 
study of soft anatomy. A much needed book-case was installed 
in the office of the Division. 

No insects were catalogued, but, as in the past, all accessions were 
recorded and indexed according to locality, donor and collector. 
For the installation of eight cases of lower invertebrates, thirty-six 
descriptive labels were prepared, and 777 name labels were verified 
and changed, when necessary, to conform to recent classifications. 
In continuation of the arrangement of the several collections of 
North American beetles, 2,749 specimens, requiring 405 species 
labels, were determined, largely repinned, and placed in fourteen 
new drawers. 

Student-assistants provided volunteer service in the Department 
as in former years. In the Division of Birds, Mr. Harold Hanson, 
Mr. Sidney Camras, and Mr. William Beecher have furnished valu- 
able aid. Mr. Walter Necker continued from time to time as a 
volunteer in the Division of Amphibians and Reptiles. Mr. Chester 
Roys assisted in the preparation of insects and in the installation 
of lower invertebrates. 

Department of Zoology 75 

The assistance of workers provided by the federal Works Progress 
Administration was of very great advantage throughout the Depart- 
ment. The type of work done by such workers was much the same 
as in 1935, but due to continuity of employment and better training, 
as well as to the larger number engaged, very much more was 


Although the preparation of large mammal groups proceeded 
at the usual rate, only one group was fully completed. Several 
others were in advanced stages at the end of the year, including 
groups of harbor seal for the Hall of Marine Mammals (Hall N), 
and of Asiatic takin for William V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17). A group 
of Colobus or guereza monkeys from Ethiopia also was nearing 
completion for exhibition in Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall (Hall 22). 

The group of Bengal tiger, installed in Kelley Hall in 1934, was 
improved by alteration. The male tiger was remounted and 
placed in a slightly different position. Although the change is not 
great, it is in the direction of a less tense and dramatic position for 
the animal, giving it better conformity with the subjects of other 
groups in the hall. The male tiger now stands over its kill merely 
snarling and defiant, while the female stands at one side, half- 
crouched and ready to slink away. 

The one finished group of large mammals is that of the white- 
tailed gnu or black wildebeest of South Africa, installed in Akeley 
Hall. This includes six specimens — males, females, and young — 
rather closely aggregated in conformity with the highly gregarious 
habits of the species. The setting is that of open plains such as those 
where the species once roamed in great herds but where, for the most 
part, it is now extirpated. The group is perhaps the only one of 
this species in existence, for as a truly wild animal the species is 
exceedingly scarce, being preserved mainly on private lands where 
natural conditions are still available. The specimens for this group 
were received through the generosity of Mr. Arthur S. Vernay, 
having been collected by the Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition 
(1930). The taxidermy is by Staff Taxidermist C. J. Albrecht. 

Further additions to Akeley Hall were made by reinstallation 
of a hippopotamus and a white rhinoceros in special cases with 
natural groundwork. 

Various important additions were made to the systematic exhibit 
of horned and hoofed mammals in George M. Pullman Hall (Hall 13). 

76 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

In one case, two forms of wild oxen were installed — the Philippine 
tamarao, and the banting of southeastern Asia. The tamarao, a 
sort of dwarf buffalo, known only from Mindoro Island and probably 
nearing extinction, was collected and presented by Mr. A. W. Exline, 
a resident of the Philippines. The banting, a very fine, richly colored 
specimen, was collected by the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Asiatic 
Expedition (1928). Both of these wild oxen were mounted by Staff 
Taxidermist Julius Friesser. Further additions to Pullman Hall 
include a blue sheep shot by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt in western 
China, a four-horned antelope shot by the late Colonel J. C. Faun- 
thorpe in India, and an Ethiopian ibex obtained by the Field 
Museum-Chicago Daily News Ethiopian Expedition. These were 
mounted by Assistant Taxidermist W. E. Eigsti. 

In Hall 15 one case of marsupials was reinstalled with important 
additions and substitutions, also prepared by Mr. Eigsti. The 
new animals shown are the red kangaroo, Matchie's tree kangaroo, 
the Australian native cat or dasyure, and the spotted cuscus of 
New Guinea. The last of these was collected by the Cornelius 
Crane Pacific Expedition (1928-29), and the others were presented 
by the Chicago Zoological Society. 

Much progress was made in Hall 20, where a series of habitat 
groups of foreign birds is under way. The emperor penguin group 
from "Little America" was completed and opened for exhibition. 
Eight specimens of this, the largest of penguins, collected by Rear 
Admiral Richard E. Byrd, on his Second Antarctic Expedition (1935) 
and presented to the Museum by the Chicago Zoological Society, 
are shown on the Ross Ice Shelf with the Barrier Reef of ice in the 
background. A small party of penguins is seen in the rear, has- 
tening from open water some miles in the distance to join the group 
in the foreground. A sky filled with snow clouds adds to the im- 
pression of extreme cold. The specimens were mounted and in- 
stalled by Staff Taxidermist John W. Moyer. The background was 
painted by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin and Staff Taxidermist 
Arthur G. Rueckert. 

Three other groups in Hall 20 were practically completed, in 
preparation for opening early in 1937. These are the Mount 
Cameroon forest group, the weaver-bird group, and the Kalahari 
Desert group. The specimens for the Mount Cameroon group 
were collected by Curator Rudyerd Boulton and Mrs. Boulton on 
the Straus West African Expedition (1934), and were presented to 
the Museum by Mrs. Oscar Straus, of New York. The group 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. XI, Plate X 

P 14014. 14016 

Leafscarred Branches 

Proaraucarla species 
Cerro Cuadrado Fossil Forest 

Province of Santa Cruz, Argentina 

P 13823 

Fossil Cone Entire (Carpellate) 

Proaraucarla mirahllis (Spec.) Wiel. 
Corro Cuadrado Fossil Forest 

Province of Santa Cruz, Argentina 

Fossil Cone (Carpellate) 

Proaraucarla patagonica Wiel. 

(Type Specimen) 

Cerro Cuadrado Fossil Forest 

Province of Santa Cruz. Argentina 



Fossil Cone, Sectioned Obliquely 

Proaraucarla mlrabllls (Speg.) Wiel. 
Cerro Cuadrado Fossil Forest 

Province of Santa Cruz, Argentina 

Fossil Cone (Carpellate) 

Proaraucarla mlrabllls (Speg.) Wiel. 
Cerro Cuadrado Fossil Forest 

Province of Santa Cruz. Argentina 


Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) 

Specimens from evergreen trees related to the Araucaria of Australia and South America 

Collected by the Marshall Field Paleontological Expedition 
in the Cerro Cuadrado fossil forest of Argentina 


s e^a 

Department of Zoology 77 

shows the junction of the lowland rain forest and the mountain 
rain forest at an altitude of 5,000 feet on the slope of Mount Cam- 
eroon in West Africa. The peak of the mountain, 13,353 feet high, 
is just discernible in the background. A flock of six plantain eaters 
is feeding on the fruit of a wild fig tree. Thrushes and fruit pigeons 
have also gathered to the feast. The disturbance has attracted 
several other species. Six species of birds found only on Mount 
Cameroon, and three other species widespread in West African 
forests, are shown. Twenty-seven species of plants, all collected 
on the mountain, are included in the group, helping to give the 
effect of tangled luxuriance. Three species of butte/flies and 
the Goliath beetle are also shown. Rain drops on the leaves of the 
Dracaena, and fig, and heavy, low-lying mist, help to create the 
illusion of excessive humidity in a place where the normal rainfall 
is more than forty feet in a year. The birds were mounted by 
Taxidermist Rueckert, and the vegetation was made under the 
direction of Preparator Frank Letl. The background was painted 
by Messrs. Corwin and Rueckert. 

The weaver-bird specimens also were collected by Mr. and Mrs. 
Boulton on the Straus Expedition, and presented by Mrs. Straus. 
The group shows a nesting colony of village weaver-birds in a gully 
on the bank of the Niger River at Niamey in French West Africa. 
Ten or fifteen nests in various stages of construction are shown 
in an abellia tree, closely related to the acacias and popularly 
called "woman's tongue tree," because the loose seeds in its large 
pods are constantly rattling in the wind. In the background, on 
the bank of the river, is a native village. About twenty birds in 
their bright orange, black, and yellow livery are seen at their nests 
engaged in various activities. The birds were mounted by Taxi- 
dermist Moyer, the accessories were made under the direction of 
Mr. Letl, and the background was painted by Mr. Corwin. 

The Kalahari Desert group was virtually completed. The 
specimens were collected by the Vernay Lang Kalahari Expedition 
(1930), and presented by Mr. Arthur S. Vernay, of New York and 
London. Gomodimo Pan, a waterhole in the semi-desert, is shown in 
the background, and to it flocks of yellow-throated sand-grouse are 
coming to drink. In the foreground, a small flock of sand-grouse 
have alighted. Two white-quilled bustards are stalking a lizard, 
while a double-banded courser scuttles out of the way. A pair 
of scarlet-breasted shrikes observe the commotion from their vantage 
point in a red aloe. In the background a giant bustard displays 

78 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

before his mate, and a bateleur eagle soars overhead. The birds 
were mounted by Taxidermist Rueckert, the accessories were pre- 
pared under the direction of Mr. Letl, and the background was 
painted by Messrs. Corwin and Rueckert. 

In all the aforementioned groups, the accessories were made 
with the assistance of Works Progress Administration workers, 
whose services amounted to several thousand hours. 

Four other habitat groups for Hall 20 — those of toucan, quetzal 
and oropendula collected by the Leon Mandel Guatemala Expe- 
dition (1933-34), and the red grouse collected by Mr. Henry Field 
— are in various stages of preparation. 

In Hall 21, additions to the systematic exhibit of birds were 
relatively few. Notable were several species of penguins to complete 
a synoptic exhibit of the group to which they belong. An important 
substitution was that of a fine African ostrich for a specimen mounted 
many years ago. The new specimen was prepared by Staff Taxi- 
dermist Leon L. Walters, and Assistant Taxidermist Edgar G. 
Laybourne. The head, neck, legs, and feet are reproduced by the 
"celluloid" process invented by Mr. Walters, which is particularly 
suitable to a bird of this kind having extensive naked or nearly 
naked and delicately colored parts. 

Rearrangement of the exhibition cases of amphibians and reptiles, 
begun in 1935, was completed in 1936, with the addition of nine 
models of snakes and eight of lizards. Notable among the snakes 
placed on exhibition were the fer-de-lance, the most important 
poisonous snake of tropical America, made from a specimen brought 
to the Museum by the Mandel Guatemala Expedition; the common 
European viper; and the blue racer and milk snake from the Chicago 
area. Especially notable among the lizards are the Galapagos land 
iguana, and the large East Indian monitor. Models of two species 
of the large lizards of the family Scincidae, characteristic of Australia, 
were added to the exhibition series, based on material received 
from the Chicago Zoological Society. Other models completed 
during the year are a prairie rattlesnake, a large lizard representing 
the African family Gerrhosauridae, a western spade-foot toad, and 
the large Jamaican tree frog. Molds were made of a variety of 
interesting forms acquired from the Chicago Zoological Society and 
from the Lincoln Park Zoo. 

In order to display in a more attractive manner the lower in- 
vertebrates that were formerly on exhibition, eight cases were 
installed with sponges, millepores, sea-fans, corals, sea-stars and 

N. W. Harris Public School Extension 79 

sea-urchins. These were placed in Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18). 
Although most of the specimens consist only of the calcareous or 
horny skeleton of the animals, glass models are utilized to show 
the color and form of soft-bodied creatures, like jellyfish, sea-ane- 
mones and sea-cucumbers. The cases were prepared for exhibition, 
under the supervision of Curator William J. Gerhard, by preparators 
in the Department of Anthropology, who are especially qualified 
for such work. 


A quarter of a century has now passed since the founding, 
through the generosity of the late Norman Wait Harris, of this 
Department for the extension of Museum benefits into the Chicago 
schools. During these twenty-five years Museum preparation and 
exhibition methods have advanced markedly. This Department 
has kept pace with the improvements in technique, the most im- 
portant of which are the development of the cellulose-acetate method 
for reproducing perishable specimens and accessories, the use of 
sheet celluloid in the making of flower petals and leaves of plants, 
the use of balsa wood for bodies in mounting birds and small mam- 
mals, and the installation of curved colored backgrounds in habitat 
exhibits. It is essential that Harris Extension exhibits be true to 
nature, attractively installed, durable enough to withstand frequent 
transportation, yet light enough to be handled by children. 

The Department of the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
, has currently available for loan to the schools 1,212 traveling exhibits, 
after withdrawal during 1936 of eighteen cases which, due to long 
use, deterioration of specimens, loss of present-day interest, or 
irreparable damage, were no longer of value. Included in the total 
in service are twenty-one new cases which were completely prepared 
and installed during the year. Sixty older cases were completely 
reinstalled, repairs of varied extent were made on 353 cases, and 
several more new ones were under way at the end of the year. 

The reinstallation activities of the Department staff have been 
concerned chiefly with the changing of case interiors and specimen 
plaques, and the adoption of labels printed on the buff-colored 
stock now used for all the Museum's exhibits. Where it seemed 
desirable, replacements were made with new specimens or accessories. 
Better methods of attaching specimens to the plaques have been 
developed, resulting in greatly improved appearance of the exhibits. 

80 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

During 1936 a larger number of educational institutions was 
served than at any previous time, the total being 446, an increase of 
thirty-one over the preceding year. Of these, 379 were public schools 
with an enrollment of 463,539 pupils. Sixty-seven other institutions, 
including thirty-three parochial schools, eight private schools, two 
Boys' Union League Clubs, eight social settlements, seven branches 
of the Y.M.C.A., and nine branches of the Chicago Public Library, 
were also served. These organizations made the exhibits available 
to approximately 250,000 additional persons. 

Special loans of several cases were made to the Chicago Council 
of the Boy Scouts of America for their annual circus, and to the 
International Horticultural Exposition, both of which were held 
at the International Amphitheatre of the Union Stock Yards. Cases 
were sent also to the Algonquin, Illinois, summer camp of the United 
Charities of Chicago. Three cases were loaned to the Museum and 
Art Institute of Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

All cases were returned to the Department laboratories at the 
close of the school year, and were given a thorough inspection and 
cleaning during the summer. 

To maintain the regular bi-weekly delivery of 892 cases, two to 
each school, two new motor trucks, especially equipped, were placed 
in operation at the beginning of the fall semester, displacing the 
trucks formerly in use. Total mileage of Museum trucks in this 
service was 11,266 for the year. 

As in past years, many letters were received from school 
authorities and others showing a growing interest in and appreciation 
' of the educational value of the Harris Extension work. 




In 1936, as in previous years, the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation has provided series of entertainments, lectures, 
' and other activities for the education and enjoyment of children. 
Included were special patriotic programs, and the regular spring 
and autumn courses of motion picture programs presented in the 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum, as well as guide-lecture 
tours of the exhibits available to parties of children throughout the 
year, and extension lectures given in classrooms and assembly halls 
of the schools. A new record was made in the number of groups 

Raymond Foundation 81 

coming to the Museum for conducted tours; also, there was an 
increase in the number of requests for lectures in the schools. 


The programs in the Saturday morning series of free motion 
pictures, presented in the James Simpson Theatre during the spring 
and autumn, are appended : 

Spring Course 

March 7 — Chumming with Chipmunks; The Gallas and Their Cattle; Making 

the Deserts Bloom ; The Lair of the Spider. 
March 14 — When Jellyfish and Starfish Meet; The Iceberg Patrol; Spinning and 

March 21 — Cliff Dwellers; In the Land of Mountain Sheep; The Beauties of 

a Great National Forest; Birds and Beasts of the American Desert. 
March 28 — Children of the Balkans; "Thar She Blows;" Toads; Earthquakes. 
April 4 — The Silent Enemy. 
April 11 — Who's Who in the Zoo; A Visit to Boulder Dam; Where the Bananas 

April 18 — Glimpses of the Ethiopians at Home; Mystery of the Ferns; Travel 

Through the Ages; Strange Animals of the Galapagos. 
April 25 — Springtime; The Deadly Mosquito; The Animals Call a Congress; 

The Bees — How They Live and Work; When Summer Comes. 

Autumn Course 

October 3 — Indians at a Pow-wow; The Fish That Builds a Nest; Whale and 
Walrus Hunting in Alaska; The Indian at Work. 

October 10 — The Coral Polyp and Its Work; The Adventures of Columbus.* 

October 17 — Blowing Soap Bubbles; The Friendly Elephant Seal; Sea Shells 
and Their Uses; Palms and Cacti; Charming Ceylon. 

October 24 — The Parade of Comic Balloons; A Visit to a Rubber Plantation; 
Glass Blowing; Glimpses of Java. 

October 31 — Ship Ahoy!; Leading a Dog's Life; Children of Holland; Chum- 
ming with Animals. 

November 7 — Trailmates (The story of Wrongstart, a dog, and his master in 

November 14 — Our Neighbors, the White-tailed Deer; Where Pineapples Grow; 
The Story of Sulphur; Strange Salt Workers of Formosa. 

November 21 — In the Days of Chivalry; Armor of Horse and Man; Where 
Ostriches and Rhinos Meet; Beautiful Iguassu. 

November 28— Forest Folk; The Pilgrims.* 

* Gift to the Museum from the late Chauncey Keep. 

In addition to the regular series of entertainments, two special 

programs were offered in February as follows: 

February 12 — Lincoln's Birthday Program: My First Jury; The Call to Arms. 
February 22— Washington's Birthday Program: Washington, the Boy and Man. 

In all, nineteen programs in the Simpson Theatre were offered 
to the children of the city and its suburbs. Total attendance at 
these entertainments was 25,759. Of this number, 4,381 came to 
the special programs, 8,824 to the spring course, and 12,554 to the 
autumn series. 

82 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

The following newspapers gave publicity to the programs: 
Chicago Daily News, Chicago Tribune, Chicago Herald and Examiner, 
Chicago Evening American, and Chicago Daily Illustrated Times. 

To the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific Railroad, and the 
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, expressions of appreciation 
for films loaned for the programs are herewith made. 


Two series of Museum Stories for Children were prepared by 
members of the Raymond Foundation staff. These were printed 
by Field Museum Press in folder form, and all children attending 
the entertainments were handed copies. In subject, some of these 
stories were correlated with films shown in the Simpson Theatre. 
The titles of the stories in each series were as follows: 

Series XXVI— The Cattle Family; The Story of Flax; The Story of Mesa Verde; 
Earthquakes; Indian Bows and Arrows; Tropical Fruits; Ferns; The Grass- 
hopper Family. 

Series XXVII — North American Indian Beads; Coral Gardens; The Cactus 
Family; Balloons and Their Uses; The Koala or Real Teddy Bear; Land of 
Copper and Caribou; The Story of Common Salt; Armor Through the Ages; 
Gourds and Pumpkins and Their Uses. 

Copies of these stories were distributed to children during the 
summer by displaying them at the North Door in a holder from 
which they could be taken, in addition to the regular distribution 
effected at entertainments. The year's total distribution of the 
stories was 37,500 copies. 


Classwork in the exhibition halls was extended to the following 
groups : 

Number of 
groups Attendance 

Tours for children of Chicago schools 

Chicago public schools 470 16,673 

Chicago parochial schools 34 1,065 

Chicago private schools 10 186 

Tours for children of suburban schools 

Suburban public schools 202 6,147 

Suburban parochial schools 12 474 

Suburban private schools 9 169 

Tours for special groups from clubs 

and other organizations 73 3,566 

Guide-lecture service was given to 810 groups in all, and the 
attendance was 28,280. During the month of May alone, 104 
groups from the public schools of the city, and sixty-three from 
suburban schools were served, each receiving one hour's attention 

Raymond Foundation 83 

from a guide-lecturer. On December 1, a party of 706 girls, assembled 
from communities in forty-four states and Canada as delegates to 
the National 4-H Clubs Congress, was given special guide-lecture 
service for tours of certain halls. On December 3, the 4-H Clubs 
sent 700 boys for similar tours. These boys and girls, representative 
of the finest types of rural youth, later sent hundreds of letters 
evincing their keen interest in and appreciation of the Museum's 


Extension lectures were offered to the schools, as in previous 
years. The subjects presented in classrooms and assemblies, before 
audiences of both high and elementary schools, were as follows: 

For Geography and History Groups 

Glimpses of Eskimo Life; South America; North American Indians; Glimpses of 
Chinese Life; Native Life in the Philippines; Mexico and Its Southern Neigh- 
bors; The Romans; The Egyptians; Migisi, the Indian Lad. 

For Science Groups 

Field Museum and Its Work; Prehistoric Plants and Animals; Insects and Reptiles; 
The Story of Rubber; Coal and Iron; Coffee, Chocolate and Tea; A Trip 
to Banana Land; Birds of the Chicago Region; Animal Life in the Chicago 
Region; Trees of the Chicago Region; Wild Flowers of the Chicago Region; 
Animals at Home; Our Outdoor Friends. 

The extension lectures given by the staff of the Raymond Founda- 
tion totaled 444, and the aggregate attendance was 165,757. 


The Raymond Foundation acquired during the year, for use in 
the Theatre and the extension lectures, 674 slides made by the Divi- 
sion of Photography. The Museum Illustrator colored 370 of these. 

The Foundation received also 3,600 feet (4 reels) of motion 
picture film entitled Trailmates, made and presented by Captain 
Jack Robertson, of Oakland, California; and 4,000 feet (4 reels) of 
film entitled Undersea Life, taken by Mr. J. E. Williamson, of Lake 
Worth, Florida, leader of the Field Museum- Williamson Undersea 
Expedition to the Bahamas (1929). 


As in other years, guide-lecture service was made available with- 
out charge to clubs, conventions, colleges and other organizations, 
and to Museum visitors in general. In addition to the regular 
afternoon tours, morning tours were given during July and August. 

84 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

For the information of visitors, printed monthly schedules were 
distributed at the main entrance, and through cooperating agencies 
such as libraries and other civic centers throughout the city and in 
the suburbs as well. The public tours included 106 of a general 
nature, and 196 covering specific subjects. These were taken 
advantage of by 292 groups, comprising 5,204 individuals. In addi- 
tion to the public tours, there were special tours for ninety groups 
from colleges, clubs and other organizations, in which 1,911 persons 

The Board of Education used the James Simpson Theatre on 
June 4 for the commencement exercises for 837 foreign-born adults. 
On November 2, the small lecture hall was used for three discussions 
of Field Museum and its work, attended by 509 high school students. 
These lectures were followed by conducted tours. 

summary of attendance at entertainments, lectures, 
tours, etc. — raymond foundation 

The number of groups reached through the activities of the James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public School 
and Children's Lectures totaled 1,659, and the aggregate attendance 
included in these groups numbered 228,257 individuals. 


During the spring and autumn months the Museum's sixty-fifth 
and sixty-sixth courses of free lectures for adults were given on 
Saturday afternoons in the James Simpson Theatre. They were 
illustrated, as usual, with motion pictures and stereopticon slides. 
Following are the programs of both series: 

Sixty-fifth Free Lecture Course 

March 7 — Where Rolls the Oregon. 

Dr. William L. Finley, Portland, Oregon. 
March 14 — Gold, Diamonds and Orchids. 

Mr. William La Varre, New York. 
March 21— Getting the Killer. 

Mr. Sasha Siemel, New York. 
March 28 — A New Dinosaur Kingdom. 

Mr. Barnum Brown, American Museum of Natural History, 
New York. 
April 4— In the South Seas on the Zaca. 

Dr. James P. Chapin, American Museum of Natural History, New 
Y r ork. 
April 11— The Barbary States. 

Mr. H. C. Ostrander, Jersey City, New Jersey. 
April 18 — Exploring the Atlantic's Greatest Deep. 

Dr. Paul Bartsch, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 





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Library 85 

April 25 — The Four Arab Kingdoms by Camel and Car. 

Mr. Clarence W. Sorensen, Denver, Colorado. 

Sixty-sixth Free Lecture Course 
October 3 — Alone across Arctic America. 

Mr. David Irwin, Grand Rapids, Michigan. 
October 10 — Real Australia — the Land That Is Different. 

Rev. James Marshall, Turramurra, Sidney, New South Wales, 

October 17 — Sun and Silence in Death Valley. 

Mr. John Claire Monteith, Hollywood, California. 

October 24 — Siam and Java — Oriental Wonderlands. 
Mr. Branson De Cou, New York. 

October 31 — Awakening of Iran. 

Mr. Herrick B. Young, New Y T ork. 

November 7 — Recent Discoveries in the Maya Field. 

Dr. Sylvanus G. Morley, Carnegie Institution, Washington, 

November 14 — Some Wonders of the Plant World. 

Mr. Arthur C. Pillsbury, Berkeley, California. 

November 21 — Ceylon, the Island of Spice. 

Mr. H. C. Ostrander, Jersey City, New Jersey. 

November 28 — Into the New World under the Sea. 

Mr. J. E. Williamson, Lake Worth, Florida. 

The total attendance at these seventeen lectures was 17,557 
persons, of whom 8,973 attended the spring course, and 8,584 the 
autumn course. 


The Museum rendered instruction or other services during the 
year to a total of 1,676 groups, aggregating 245,814 individuals. 
These figures include the 1,659 groups and 228,257 individuals 
reached through the activities of the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures, 
as well as the 17,557 persons attending the adult lectures, and the 
1,346 persons attending the meetings of outside organizations to 
which the James Simpson Theatre and the small lecture hall were 
made available. 


During 1936 important physical improvements have been made 
in the Library. Appearance and convenience have been served by 
making a new entrance into the room across the hall from the 
reading room, directly opposite the doors of the latter. 

Many books which showed wear resulting from years of hard 
usage were repaired and returned to the shelves during the year. 
All the leather-bound books have been treated with oil, which 

86 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

has bettered their appearance and prolonged their serviceability. 
For years the binding of books and periodicals had been deferred 
and the amount of work accumulated had become appalling. In 
the past year, with the aid made available by the assignment of 
federal Works Progress Administration workers, a beginning has 
been made on this task. Concurrently with repairs and binding, 
the shelves are being cleaned, and an inventory is under way. 

The Library's most important source of accessions is its ex- 
changes. These bring the latest information on scientific work 
being done in this and other countries. As in previous years, many 
desirable publications have been received during 1936 through this 

An attempt has been made to obtain complete sets of the publi- 
cations of a few scientists who had in earlier years favored the Library 
by sending copies of some of their writings. These requests have 
met with most gracious response. 

During the year there have been more than 5,000 accessions of 
books and pamphlets, bringing the total number of works now in 
the Library to 105,032. It is gratifying to note that the Library is 
proving year after year to be of increasing utility to members of the 
staff of all Departments of the Museum. This growing use of the 
books emphasizes the necessity of continuing efforts to obtain 
further material for which demands have been made. Not only are 
current works sought, but older books also are frequently required 
for comparative study. The Library has partial files of various peri- 
odicals that are much used, and it is hoped gradually to complete 
many of these. A few years ago financial conditions compelled the 
Library to cancel subscriptions to many periodicals. Some of these 
were resumed in 1936, and at the same time the volumes for the 
intervening years were bought. An important purchase was that of 
early volumes of Zoologischer Anzeiger, completing to date the file of 
this valuable periodical. 

Among desirable books of recent publication added by purchase 
during the year were: R. Bourret, Les serpents cle V Indo-Chine; 
Fuertes and Osgood, Artist and Naturalist in Ethiopia; A. Eckardt, 
History of Korean Art (translated from the German by Kindersley) ; 
M. Hoffman, Heads and Tales; J. R. Partington, Origins and 
Development of Applied Chemistry; G. C. Robson, The Species 
Problem; W. H. Ukers, All about Coffee; W. M. Wheeler, Ants, 
Their Structure, Development, and Behavior. 

Library 87 

Of books long listed among the Library's desiderata there have 
been added: J. R. Aspelin, Antiquites du Nord Finno-ougrien; 
L. H. Bojanus, Anatome Testudinis Europeae (first edition, 1819- 
1821); Gervais, Journal de Zoologie (six volumes, 1872-1877); G. 
Hegi, Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (1906-1931); Hendley, 
Damascening on Steel and on Iron as Practiced in India; Hendley, 
Memorials of the Jeypore Exhibition (4 volumes, 1883); J. E. Pohl, 
Plantarum Brasiliae Icones et Descriptiones Hectenus; Reise in 
innern von Brasilien (1817-1821); P. Russell, An Account of Indian 
Serpents (1796-1801); L. H. Schneider, Illustrierte Handbuch der 
Laubholzkunde; G. Schuchert, History of the Geology of the Antillean- 
Caribbean Region; Sesse and Mocino, Flora Mexicana (second edi- 
tion); B. Solvyns, Costume of Hindostan (1807); 0. Swartz, 
Nova Genera et Species Plantarum Itinere per Indian Occidental 

Many welcome gifts have been received from friends of the insti- 
tution, including members of the staff. Among these the following 
are especially deserving of mention: Plantas Utiles de Colombia, 
presented by Mr. E. P. Arbelaez; twenty volumes from the Carnegie 
Institution, Washington, D.C.; four books presented by Mr. Joseph 
N. Field, Chicago; Variations and Diseases of the Teeth of Animals, 
received from Sir Colyer Frank, London; Cyrus Hall McCormick, 
Harvester, 1 856-1 88^, presented by Mr. Cyrus Hall McCormick, 
Chicago; John W. Norton, a biography, given by Mr. and Mrs. 
Frank G. Logan, Chicago; Obras Completas de Ameghino (volumes 
19-22), sent by the Brazilian commission which is publishing this 
valuable work; Roumanian Art from 1800 to Our Own Days, con- 
tributed by G. Oprescu; two Tibetan manuscripts presented by the 
Reverend Theodore Sorensen, of Norway; Coffee, the Epic of a Com- 
munity, given by Mr. Heinrich Edward Jacob; Niblack's Coast 
Indians of Southern Alaska and Northern British Columbia, presented 
by Mrs. James Ward Thorne, Chicago. 

Mr. Stanley Field, President of the Museum, added to his many 
valuable gifts of previous years a copy of the first edition of Dr. 
Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English language (1755), which 
includes a history of the language and a grammar. This dictionary 
was the result of seven years' work, and was recognized by the 
lexicographer's contemporaries as a masterly production. The 
Museum's copy was formerly in Mr. Field's private library. Mr. 
Field continued also his gift of current numbers of the Illustrated 
London Neivs. 

88 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Curator Rudyerd Boulton, Research Associate H. B. Conover, 
and Trustee Leslie Wheeler presented the sheets thus far issued of 
the Millionth Map, a publication of the American Geographical 
Society. This is the base for all comprehensive study of Hispanic 

Professor F. E. Wood, a volunteer worker, continued his work on 
the Tibetan manuscripts in the collection bequeathed to the Museum 
by the late Dr. Berthold Laufer. This material pertains chiefly to 
the Bon religion. Some of the manuscripts are extremely beautiful, 
embellished with artistic lettering in gold and silver. 

Various libraries have continued their courtesies by lending 
to Field Museum books required by members of the staff and not 
available here. Acknowledgment with gratitude is hereby made 
especially to the following: Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; 
Imited States Department of Agriculture; Army Medical Library, 
Washington, D.C.; John Crerar Library, Chicago; Library of the 
University of Chicago ; Library of the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York; Harvard University Library, and the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology and Peabody Museum of Harvard; and 
the Newberry Library, Chicago. Field Museum has reciprocated by 
lending to various libraries books required for research. 


Production of the Division of Printing exceeded by far that of 
any previous year in the history of the Museum. Many publications 
for which manuscripts had been completed several years ago, but 
issuance of which had been delayed because of insufficient labor and 
mechanical facilities, were printed in 1936. Very little of such 
deferred work now remains. The heavy increase in production was 
made possible by the purchase of additional machinery and other 
equipment, and by the large extra force of compositors, monotype 
operators, pressmen, binders, assistants in proofreading, and other 
helpers furnished practically throughout the year by the federal 
Works Progress Administration. 

There were twenty-eight new numbers issued by Field Museum 
Press in the regular publication series, requiring an aggregate of 
4,783 pages of type composition (as against 992 pages in 1935). 
The number of copies printed was 27,895. Three of these publica- 
tions were in the Anthropological Series, nine in the Botanical Series, 
one in the Geological Series, fourteen in the Zoological Series, and 
one was the Annual Report of the Director for 1935. In addition, 

Division of Printing 89 

813 copies were printed of a 26-page index for Volume XI of the 
Botanical Series. Besides the regular series, miscellaneous publica- 
tions of the year include a 16-page booklet in the Museum Technique 
Series, of which 666 copies were printed; and six numbers in the 
Leaflet Series (three on anthropological, and three on botanical 
subjects), aggregating 468 pages of type composition, and printed in 
editions totaling 11,014 copies. 

The total number of exhibition labels printed for all Departments 
of the Museum was 7,651. Other miscellaneous work, such as the 
twelve issues of Field Museum Netvs, Museum stationery and 
supplies, etc., brought the total number of impressions for the year 
to a total of 549,175. 

Following is a detailed list of the publications: 

Publication Series 

350. — Botanical Series, Vol. XII. The Forests and Flora of British Honduras. 

By Paul C. Standley and Samuel J. Record. January 27, 1936. 432 

pages, 16 photogravures. Edition 831. 
351.— Botanical Series, Vol. XIII, Part I, No. 1. Flora of Peru. By J. Francis 

Macbride. January 27, 1936. 320 pages, 1 map. Edition 796. 
352.— Botanical Series, Vol. XI, No. 5. Studies of American Plants — VI. By 

Paul C. Standley. February 10, 1936. 134 pages. Edition 763. 
353. — Zoological Series, Vol. XXL Fishes of the Crane Pacific Expedition. By 

Albert W. Herre. April 15, 1936. 473 pages, 50 photogravures. Edition 

354.— Report Series, Vol. X, No. 3. Annual Report of the Director for the Year 

1935. January, 1936. 136 pages, 12 photogravures. Edition 5,488. 
355.— Botanical Series, Vol. XIV. Index of American Palms. By B. E. Dahlgren. 

April 30, 1936. 456 pages. Edition 819. 

356. — Anthropological Series, Vol. XXIII, No. 1. Lowry Ruin in Southwestern 
Colorado. By Paul S. Martin. June 4, 1936. 216 pages, 112 photo- 
gravures, 54 text figures, 4 maps. Edition 650. 

357.— Botanical Series, Vol. XIII, Part II, No. 1. Flora of Peru. By J. Francis 
Macbride. June 10, 1936. 254 pages. Edition 844. 

358.— Anthropological Series, Vol. XX, No. 2. Archaeology of Santa Marta, 
Colombia. The Tairona Culture. Part II, Section 1. Objects of Stone, 
Shell, Bone, and Metal. By J. Alden Mason. June 26, 1936. 142 pages, 
99 photogravures. Edition 640. 

359.— Anthropological Series, Vol. XXIV, No. 1. Egyptian Stelae in Field Mu- 
seum of Natural History. By Thomas George Allen. July 24, 1936. 
80 pages, 43 photogravures, and 43 copies of inscriptions in the text. 
Edition 707. 

360.— Zoological Series, Vol. XXII, No. 1. African Reptiles and Amphibians in 
Field Museum of Natural History. By Arthur Loveridge. August 15, 

1936. 112 pages. Edition 791. 

361. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 13. Records and Measurements of Neo- 
tropical Bats. By Colin Campbell Sanborn. August 15, 1936. 14 pages. 
Edition 837. 

362.— Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 14. Descriptions and Records of African 
Bats. By Colin Campbell Sanborn. August 15, 1936. 8 pages. Edition 

363.— Botanical Series, Vol. XIII, Part I, No. 3. Flora of Peru. By J. Francis 
Macbride. August 26, 1936. 350 pages. Edition 841. 

90 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

364.— -Botanical Series, Vol. XIII, Part VI, No. 1. Flora of Peru. By J. Francis 

Macbride. September 18, 1936. 264 pages. Edition 832. 
365. — Zoological Series, Vol. XIII, Part IX. Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. 

By Charles E. Hellmayr. October 6, 1936. 458 pages. Edition 774. 
366. — Botanical Series, Vol. XI, No. 6. Revision of the Genus Coreopsis. By 

Earl Edward Sherff. October 20, 1936. 200 pages, 3 text figures. Edition 

367. — Geological Series, Vol. VI, No. 15. The Internal Structure of the Ear in 

Some Notoungulates. By Bryan Patterson. October 31, 1936. 30 

pages, 11 text figures. Edition 834. 
368. — Zoological Series, Vol. XXII, No. 2. Secondary Sex Characters of Chinese 

Frogs and Toads. By Ch'eng-Chao Liu. October 31, 1936. 44 pages, 

12 photogravures. Edition 817. 
369. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 15. The Distribution of Bidder's Organ in 

the Bufonidae. By D. Dwight Davis. October 31, 1936. 12 pages, 2 

text figures. Edition 808. 
370. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 16. Notes on Bahaman Reptiles and 

Amphibians. By Karl P. Schmidt. October 31, 1936. 8 pages, 2 text 

figures. Edition 850. 
371. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 17. Guatemalan Salamanders of the 

Genus Oedipus. By Karl P. Schmidt. October 31, 1936. 32 pages, 7 

text figures. Edition 833. 
372. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 18. Notes on Snakes from Yucatan. By 

Karl P. Schmidt and E. Wyllys Andrews. October 31, 1936. 22 pages, 

4 text figures. Edition 825. 
373. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 19. Preliminary Account of Coral Snakes 

of South America. By Karl P. Schmidt. October 31, 1936. 16 pages. 

Edition 837. 
374. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 20. Notes on Central American and Mexi- 
can Coral Snakes. By Karl P. Schmidt. October 31, 1936. 12 pages, 

4 text figures. Edition 841. 
375. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 21. New and Imperfectly Known Small 

Mammals from Africa. By Wilfred H. Osgood. December 28, 1936. 

40 pages. Edition 790. 
376. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 22. Courtship and Mating Behavior in 

Snakes. By D. Dwight Davis. December 28, 1936. 34 pages, 7 text 

figures. Edition 775. 
377. — Botanical Series, Vol. XV. Woods of Northeastern Peru. By Llewelyn 

Williams. December 31, 1936. 588 pages, 17 text figures, 1 map. 

Edition 817. 

Leaflet Series 

Anthropology, No. 25 (third edition). — The Civilization of the Mayas. By J. 

Eric Thompson. June, 1936. 104 pages, 14 photogravures, 11 text figures, 1 

map, 1 cover design. Edition 1,067. 
Anthropology, No. 32. — Primitive Hunters of Australia. By Wilfrid D. Hambly. 

February, 1936. 60 pages, 12 photogravures, 1 map. Edition 2,012. 
Anthropology, No. 33. — Archaeology of South America. By J. Eric Thompson. 

July, 1936. 160 pages, 12 photogravures, 18 text figures. Edition 1,649. 
Botany, No. 11 (second edition). — Common Trees. By J. Francis Macbride. 

February, 1936. 44 pages, 2 photogravures, 43 halftones. Edition 1,224. 
Botany, No. 18. — Common Mushrooms. By Leon L. Pray. July, 1936. 68 

pages, 66 text figures, 1 cover design. Edition 2,516. 
Botany, No. 19. — Old-fashioned Garden Flowers. By Donald Culross Peattie. 

November, 1936. 32 pages, 28 text figures, 1 cover design. Edition 2,546. 

Museum Technique Series 

Zoology, No. 4. — Glearing and Staining Skeletons of Small Vertebrates. By D. 
Dwight Davis and U. R. Gore. October 31, 1936. 16 pages, 3 text figures. 
Edition 666. 

Photography and Illustration 91 


The Division of Photography produced a total of 46,186 items, 
including negatives, prints, photographic enlargements, lantern 
slides, transparent exhibition labels, etc. This is by far the largest 
production ever attained by the Division. Most of these items were to 
fill requisitions from the various Departments and Divisions of the 
Museum, but the number includes also 482 prints and enlargements 
and 144 stereopticon slides for sale on orders received from the public. 

The exceedingly large amount of work performed was made 
possible by the assistance rendered by workers assigned to the 
Division by the federal Works Progress Administration. There were 
two photographers, and, varying at different times, from two to 
four clerks, from WPA, and their total working time amounted to 
approximately 6,000 hours. Of a total of 43,258 prints made, 38,181 
(principally of type specimens of plants for the Herbarium) were the 
work of the WPA photographers, and the remainder were made by the 
regular staff of the Division. The regular staff was responsible also 
for the negatives, slides, and other items included in the total of 
51,263 items of work. The WPA clerks made and filed some 42,000 
index cards, and performed other operations in connection with the 
important task of cataloguing the Museum's immense negative 
collection which now numbers approximately 87,000 negatives. 

Because of the fact that production in the Division of Printing of 
publications and leaflets requiring photogravure illustrations was 
greater in 1936 than in any previous year, the total number of prints 
produced by the Division of Photogravure likewise exceeded all past 
records. The number was 733,400, which compares with 194,750 
in 1935, and 578,820 in 1934. Included, in addition to the afore- 
mentioned illustrations, are headings of posters, covers for various 
published works, and picture post cards. The enormous increase in 
the amount of work handled was made possible by the assistance of 
from one to three workers assigned at various times to the Division 
by the federal Works Progress Administration. 

A wide variety of work was completed by the Museum Illus- 
trator, who performed tasks called for by more than 800 orders 
received from the institution's various Departments and Divisions. 
Included in this total were fifty drawings, the coloring of 376 lantern 
slides, and lettering, retouching, map-making, etc. 

The number of scientific publications issued by Field Museum in 
1936 exceeded that of any previous year, and the total distributions 

92 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

to institutions on the Museum's exchange lists were correspondingly 
in excess of those for any similar period. During the past year the 
Museum sent out on exchange 16,262 copies of scientific publica- 
tions, 1,776 leaflets, and 683 miscellaneous publications and pam- 
phlets. In addition, 3,835 copies of the 1935 Annual Report of the 
Director and 1,331 leaflets were sent to Members of the Museum. 
Sales during the year totaled 671 scientific publications, 7,340 leaflets, 
and 9,366 miscellaneous publications and pamphlets, such as guides, 
handbooks, and memoirs. 

Thirty-eight large boxes containing 5,636 individually addressed 
packages of publications were shipped to Washington, D.C., for 
distribution to foreign countries through the courteous cooperation 
of the Smithsonian Institution's bureau of international exchanges. 
An equal quantity of Museum books was sent by stamped mail to 
names on the domestic exchange list. 

Twenty-six new exchange arrangements were established with 
institutions and scientists. 

For future sales and other distributions, 13,648 copies of the 
various publications issued during 1936 were wrapped in 527 pack- 
ages, labeled, and stored in the stock room. 

A third edition was issued of the anthropology leaflet The Civiliza- 
tion of the Mayas, and a second edition of the botany leaflet Common 
Trees. The first editions were printed in 1927 and 1925, respectively. 
Numerous purchases of the leaflets entitled The Races of Mankind 
and Prehistoric Man again gave evidence of the great public interest 
in these subjects. In this, their fourth year, sales of these two 
leaflets totaled 1,794 copies. 

As in 1935, there were again more than 1,000 copies sold of 
several books published outside, and handled at the Museum on 
consignment. These books pertain to natural history, and are written 
in popular style. Some of the authors are members of the Museum 

General clerical service of value to the Division was received 
during the entire year from one helper assigned by the federal Works 
Progress Administration. 

post cards 

The total number of post cards sold during 1936 was 84,050, of 
which 12,406 were grouped into 887 sets. The increase over the 
preceding year's total sales was about 12,000. 

Two views on anthropological and six on zoological subjects were 
added to the assortment of individual post cards. 


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Public Relations 93 


Throughout the year, the public has been kept informed of all 
Field Museum activities through publicity in the daily press. As in 
preceding years, news, feature stories, and photographs have been 
released several times each week. These have been published not 
only by Chicago newspapers, but widely circulated nationally and 
internationally through the medium of news distributing agencies 
which have extended their usual hearty cooperation to the Museum. 

The aim of the Museum's publicity has continued to be not only 
the announcement of current activities, but the furtherance of the 
institution's primary educational motive: dissemination and inter- 
pretation of scientific knowledge in forms readily comprehensible to 
the largest possible number of persons. For this purpose, an 
innovation made during the latter months of the year was the 
designation of one outstanding exhibit each seven days as "Exhibit of 
the Week," and the releasing of a descriptive article and photograph. 

Aside from material sent out by the Museum's Division of Public 
Relations, additional publicity has been received due to the interest 
of newspaper and magazine editors who, on their own initiative, 
have frequently assigned reporters and photographers to obtain 
material concerning the exhibits and other activities of the institu- 
tion. Editorial writers, too, attracted by reports of the Museum's 
accomplishments, have drawn the public's attention to the Museum 
in their columns from time to time. Further publicity has been given 
to the Museum on the radio, both by individual broadcasting stations 
and by the network systems. 

Preparation and distribution of the monthly bulletin, Field 
Museum News, also a duty of the Division of Public Relations, has 
been carried on as before, with the aim of presenting in the limited 
space available the largest amount and variety of articles and pic- 
tures possible. This was the seventh year and seventh volume of 
this publication, and the usual schedule, which assures delivery to 
all Members of the Museum promptly at the beginning of each 
month, was maintained. Besides keeping the Museum in monthly 
contact with its entire membership, and informing them of all the 
institution's activities, the News performs an additional function, 
that of increasing the Museum's publicity reaching the general 
public. This result is obtained through distribution of the bulletin 
to newspapers and magazines which frequently quote or reprint 
articles from it. It is also circulated to other scientific institutions 
as an item in exchange relationships. 

94 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

The Museum has again enjoyed the benefits of advertising 
through media made available, without cost to this institution, by 
various organizations. Placards advertising the Museum have 
appeared on the street cars of the Chicago Surface Lines, and in the 
busses of the Chicago Motor Coach Company. The Museum has 
been permitted to announce its spring and autumn lecture courses 
again, as in so many past years, on placards displayed at city and 
suburban stations through the courtesy of the Illinois Central 
System and the Chicago and North Western Railway. Likewise, 
posters about the lectures have appeared in hotels, clubs, department 
stores, libraries, schools and other public places. Many of these 
organizations have further cooperated by distributing information 
folders prepared by the Museum. 

The Division of Public Relations, in addition to press publicity 
and Field Museum Neivs, has devoted its time to a variety of other 
duties, such as editorial work on certain Museum publications, 
special articles requested by periodicals, the handling of a large 
volume of correspondence, and other tasks involving much detail. 

For the purpose of attracting many of Chicago's out-of-town 
visitors, invitations to visit the Museum have been sent to the 
chairmen of several hundred conventions held in this city, and thou- 
sands of Museum folders have been distributed through them. 

The Division has been able to utilize, in certain work, clerical 
services of relief workers assigned to the Museum by the federal 
"Works Progress Administration. 

Grateful acknowledgment is herewith made to the Consolidated 
Press Clipping Bureaus of Chicago, which for the fourth year were 
so generous as to render a limited press clipping service to the 
Museum free of charge. 


It is both gratifying and encouraging to be able to report a net 
increase of ninety-five in the number of Museum memberships on 
record at the end of the year 1936. This is a great improvement over 
conditions in 1935, and marks the first definite increase in the number 
of Members since 1930. 

To those Members who have continued their loyal support 
during the years of economic stress, and to the many new Members, 
the Museum wishes to express its deep appreciation and gratitude 
for their association with the work of the institution. And to those 
Members who found it necessary to discontinue their membership, 

Cafeteria 95 

an invitation is extended to join again the ranks of the many public- 
spirited citizens who are aiding the great educational program 
undertaken by the Museum. 

Following is a classified list of the total number of Memberships 
as of December 31, 1936: 

Benefactors 21 

Honorary Members 16 

Patrons 28 

Corresponding Members 8 

Contributors 112 

Corporate Members 50 

Life Members 287 

Non-Resident Life Members 10 

Associate Members 2,422 

Non-Resident Associate Members 4 

Sustaining Members 11 

Annual Members 1,269 

Total Memberships 4,238 

The names of all persons listed as Members during 1936 will be 
found at the end of this Report. 

The services of a worker assigned by the federal Works Progress 
Administration greatly facilitated the clerical work in the Division. 


In the lunch rooms operated in the Museum, meals or refresh- 
ments were served to a total of 118,841 persons during 1936. The 
patrons of the main cafeteria numbered 81,534, while those using 
the children's room totaled 37,307. These figures represent con- 
siderable increases over 1935 business, when the total number served 
was 98,643, of whom 69,011 patronized the main cafeteria and 29,632 
the children's room. 

In the pages which follow are submitted the Museum's financial 
statements, lists of accessions, names of Members, et cetera. 

Stephen C. Simms, Director 


96 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 


FOR YEARS 1935 AND 1936 

1V36 1935 

Total attendance 1,191,437 1,182,349 

Paid attendance 68,375 54,631 

Free admissions on pay days: 

Students 27,205 19,478 

School children 63,914 67,514 

Teachers 2,165 2,016 

Members 997 1,080 

Admissions on free days: 

Thursdays (53) 171,357 (52) 190,580 

Saturdays (52) 373,470 (52) 385,159 

Sundays (52) 483,954 (52) 461,891 

Highest attendance (Sept. 6) 21,229 (Sept. 1) 22,305 

Lowest attendance (Jan. 22) 73 (Jan. 22) 61 

Highest paid attendance (Sept. 7) 2,694 (Sept. 2) 2,842 

Average daily admissions (366 days) 3,255 (365 days) 3,239 

Average paid admissions (209 days) 327 (209 days) 261 

Number of guides sold 5,339 4,814 

Number of articles checked 16,969 14,853 

Number of picture post cards sold 84,050 72,300 

Sales of publications, leaflets, handbooks, 

portfolios, and photographs $4,441.33 $4,079.94 

Financial Statements 97 


FOR YEARS 1935 AND 1936 

Income 1936 1935 

Endowment Funds $173,521.14 $173,834.39 

Funds held under annuity agree- 
ments 38,646.13 36,724.36 

Life Membership Fund 13,672.74 12,878.81 

Associate Membership Fund . . . 12,407.71 12,132.13 

Chicago Park District 91,029.94 140,838.65 

Annual and Sustaining Member- 
ships 11,167.00 10,149.00 

Admissions 17,093.75 13,657.75 

Sundry receipts 12,666.29 16,909.10 

Contributions, general purposes. 450.00 

Contributions, special purposes 

(expended per contra) 48,567.37 13,530.00 

Special funds: Part expended 
this year for purposes desig- 
nated (included per contra) 16,884.79 18,138.76 

$436,106.86 $448,792.95 


Collections $ 54,636.54 $ 56,395.67 

Expeditions 1,228.47 561.84 

Furniture, fixtures, etc 13,180.07 12,321.25 

Pensions, group insurance 15,833.45 15,418.36 

Departmental expenses 41,342.48 32,680.82 

General operating expenses 327,831.67 263,850.29 

Annuities on contingent gifts. . . 36,431.64 36,205.39 
Added to principal of annuity 

endowments 2,214.49 518.97 

Interest on loans 3,828.99 3,930.93 

Paid on bank loans 38,624.20 

$535,152.00 $421,883.52 

Deficit... 99,045.14 Balance . . $ 26,909.43 

Contribution by Mr. Marshall Field. . . 74,625.93 

N et Deficit. .. $ 24,419.21 

Notes payable January 1 $ 95,000.00 $ 95,000.00 

Paid on account, by contribution of Mr. 

Stanley Field 38,624.20 

Balance payable December 31 $ 56,375.80 $ 95,000.00 


1936 1935 

Income from Endowment $16,717.15 $15,684.04 

Operating expenses 16,365.50 17,590.04 

December 31 Balance $ 351.65 Deficit $1,906.00 

98 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 



Baroda, His Highness Maharaja 
Gaekwar Sir Savaji Rao III, Baroda 
State, India: 1 Sankheda lacquer-work 
cradle, 1 Patola tablecloth of pongee 
silk, 1 Visnagar repousse low table of 
3 metals, and 1 Visnagar carved wooden 
buffalo of teakwood — Baroda State, 
India (gift). 

Boulton, Mr. and Mrs. Rudyerd, 
Chicago: 230 stone and bone imple- 
ments—near Salisbury, Rhodesia, 
South Africa (gift). 

Breckinridge, Miss Marvin, New 
York: 16 stone implements — Kaffei- 
fontein, Cape Province, South Africa; 
and 6 prints of Bushman cave paintings 
—Plum Pudding Kopje Dombashawa, 
Rhodesia, South Africa (gift). 

Burley, Clarence, Winnetka, Illi- 
nois: 1 whale harpoon with head and 
rope, and 1 sealskin float for same- 
Hudson Bay Eskimo; and 1 rabbit-fur 
blanket— Cree Indians, James Bay, 
Hudson Bay, Canada (gift). 

Bustamante, Elva, Kokomo, Indi- 
ana: "Indian suit," including breast-, 
ankle-, stomach-, wrist- and head-pieces 
of parrot and other bird feathers- 
Ecuador (gift). 

Chancellor, Mrs. Philip, Holly- 
wood, California: 2 skulls with modeled 
faces— Central Sepik River, North 
New Guinea (gift). 

Chicago Historical Society, 
Chicago: Mummy of baby found in 
tree top— Montana; and 709 stone 
implements and potsherds — Arkansas, 
New York, Utah, Tennessee, and 
central United States (gift). 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 12 puppets, 
"21 playing cards, 1 battle-ax— Teheran, 
Iran (gift); 2 skulls— modern Arabs, 
An Najaf, Iraq (gift). 

Field Museum of NaturalHistory : 

Transferred from Department of 
Zoology: 1 skeleton of male orang utan. 

Gladwin, Harold S., Gila Pueblo, 
Globe, Arizona: 50 pieces of Basket 
Maker pottery, dated about a.d. 600 
by tree-ring study at Gila Pueblo— 
Durango, Colorado (gift). 

Knoblock, Byron, La Grange, 
Illinois: 2 human skulls— California; 4 
human skulls and fragmentary bones- 

Illinois; 1 Folsom-like point — Indiana; 
2 human skulls, male — California (ex- 

Lazzar, Joseph, Bagdad, Iraq: 4 
rare painted potsherds — Abu-Shahrain, 
Iraq (gift). 

Lewis, Dr. Albert B., Chicago: 1 
betel-nut box of woven strips of bamboo 
covered with lacquer and painted 
designs — Rangoon, Burma (gift). 

McDonald, Eugene F., Jr., Chi- 
cago: 1 painted conch-shell trumpet— 
from grave, State of Nayarit, Mexico 

Nichols, Henry W., Chicago: 1 
man's costume and cap of inner bark 
of a tree — Gran Chaco, Bolivia (gift). 

Phillips Academy, Andover, Mas- 
sachusetts: 52 pottery specimens rep- 
resenting a series from Glaze I to Glaze 
IV —Pecos Pueblo, New Mexico (gift). 

Rhodesia Museum, Bulawayo, 
South Africa: 130 stone implements- 
Rhodesia, South Africa (exchange). 

Richardson, V. F. C, Haifa, Pales- 
tine: 88 samples of human hair— Trans- 
jordania and Syria (gift). 

Rosenthal, Mrs. Samuel R., High- 
land Park, Illinois: 1 pottery bowl and 
heads of two figurines, and 1 spindle 
whorl— Mitla, Oaxaca, Mexico (gift). 

Smith, Mrs. George T. (Frances 
Ann Gaylord), Estate of: 718 speci- 
mens, including jade, beaded belts, por- 
celains, textiles, screens, glass, and 
semi-precious stones — China (gift). 

Wood, Miss Agnes A., Fraer, Iowa: 
1 cattle whip of plaited buck hide, 
covered handle — Zulu, Durban, South 
Africa (gift). 

Work, Mrs. Joseph W., Evanston, 
Illinois: 2 pieces of jewelry (necklaces), 
1 of turquois and silver wires — Navahc 
Indians, United States; 1 piece of gold- 
plated silver filigree disks surmounteo 
by inscribed pieces of jade— Peiping 
China (gift). 

Works Progress Administration 
(Federal Art Project), Chicago: 6 en- 
larged plaster reproductions of Neai 
East ring seals; 18 enlarged reproduc- 
tions of Near East cylinder seals- 
Near East (gift). 





d'Azerbajdjan, Baku, U.S.S.R.: 258 
specimens of plants from Transcaucasia 
(exchange) . 

Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 59 speci- 
mens of Mexican plants (exchange). 

Armstrong Cork Products Com-* 
pany, Lancaster, Pennsylvania: branch 
of cork oak (gift). 

Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, 
Massachusetts: 54 specimens of Guate- 
malan plants (exchange). 

Arsene, Rev. Brother G., Santa 
Fe, New Mexico: 11 plant specimens 

Bailey Hortorium, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, New York: 182 plant 
specimens (gift); 423 plant specimens 

Ball, Dr. Carleton R., Washing- 
ton, D. C: 14 specimens of plants (gift). 

Benke, Hermann C, Chicago: 9 
negatives, 8 photographic prints of 
sycamore (gift). 

Bishop Museum, Bernice Pauahi, 
Honolulu, Hawaii: 1 plant specimen 

Botanic Garden, Leningrad, 
U.S.S.R.: 39 plant specimens (exchange). 

Botanisches Institut, Munich, 
Germany: 172 plant specimens (ex- 

Bracelin, Mrs. H. P., Berkeley, 
California: 2 plant specimens (gift). 

Bravo H., Professor Helia, Mexico 
City, Mexico: 2 plant specimens (gift). 

Bristol, Maurice, Elgin, Illinois: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

Burkart, Arturo, Buenos Aires, 
Argentina: 114 specimens of Argentine 
plants (exchange). 

Butler University, Indianapolis, 
Indiana: 260 plant specimens (ex- 
change). * 

Cabrera, Professor Angel L., La 
Plata, Argentina: 144 specimens of 
plants, 116 photographic prints (ex- 

Calderon, Dr. Salvador, San Sal- 
vador, Salvador: 8 plant specimens 

California AcadExMY of Sciences, 
San Francisco, California: 288 speci- 
mens of California plants (exchange). 

Cardenas, Professor Mart!n, 
Potosi, Bolivia: 80 specimens of 
Bolivian plants (gift). 

Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton, Department of Genetics, Cold 
Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York: 
31 plant specimens (gift). 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania: 261 plant specimens (ex- 

Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D.C.: 475 plant specimens 

Chrysler, Professor Mintin A., 
New Brunswick, New Jersey: 3 plant 
specimens (gift). 

Cletus, Rev. Brother, Fort Logan, 
Colorado: 310 specimens of Colorado 
plants (gift). 

Conservatoire et Jardin Botan- 
IQUES, Geneva, Switzerland: 1,773 plant 
specimens (exchange). 

Corning, W. H., Chicago: 1 plant 
specimen (gift). 

Danforth, Ralph E., West Boyls- 
ton, Massachusetts: 1 plant specimen 

Darrow, Dr. Robert A., Tucson, 
Arizona: 41 plant specimens (gift). 

Dartmouth College, Department 
of Botany, Hanover, New Hampshire: 
99 plant specimens (gift). 

Deam, Charles C, Bluffton, Indi- 
ana: 10 plant specimens (gift). 

Degener, Otto, Honolulu, Hawaii: 
237 specimens of Hawaiian plants (gift). 

De Pauw University, Greencastle, 
Indiana: 440 specimens of plants from 
Honduras (exchange). 

Direccion General de Agricul- 
tura, Guatemala City, Guatemala: 5 
plant specimens (gift). 


Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil: 34 specimens 
of textile plants (gift). 

Doolittle, Mrs. Harold M., One- 
kama, Michigan: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Dugand, Armando, Barranquilla, 
Colombia: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Duke University, Department of 
Botany, Durham, North Carolina: 18 
plant specimens (exchange). 

100 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Dunham, William H., Evanston, 
Illinois: 2,000 specimens of plants from 
United States and Europe (gift). 

DURNO, W. F., Chicago: 2 plant 
specimens (gift). 

Eifrig, Professor G., Oak Park, 
Illinois: 18 specimens of plants (gift). 

Elias, Rev. Brother, Barranquilia, 
Colombia: 355 specimens of Colombian 
plants (gift). 

Fernandes. Professor Grijalva, 
Maracanahu, Ceara, Brazil: 10 plant 
specimens (gift). 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 112 plant 
specimens (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 
Collected by Dr. B. E. Dahlgren: 1 
plant specimen. 

Collected by Rudyerd Boulton 
(Straus West African Expedition): 1 
plant specimen. 

Transferred from the Division of 
Photography: 831 photographic prints. 

Purchases: 105 specimens of plants 
— Mexico; 211 specimens of plants —  
Peru; 269 specimens of plants — Uru- 
guay; 23 specimens of plants — Juan 

Fisher, George L., Houston, Texas: 
9 plant specimens (gift). 

Fisher, Dr. R. H., Chicago: 1 plant 
specimen (gift). 

Flores, Dr. Roman S., Progreso, 
Yucatan, Mexico: 37 plant specimens, 
12 wood samples (gift). 

Florists' Publishing Company, 
Chicago: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Garfield Park Conservatory, Chi- 
cago: 3 plant specimens (gift). 

Garrett, Professor Arthur O., 
Salt Lake City, Utah: 122 specimens 
of Utah plants (gift). 

Gentry, Howard Scott, Westmore- 
land, California: 835 specimens of Mexi- 
can plants (gift). 

Gifford, Dr. John C, Miami, Flor- 
ida: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Ginzberger, Dr. August, Vienna, 
Austria: 43 specimens of Brazilian 
plants (gift). 

Glidden Company, Chicago: 20 
samples of soya beans and products 


Goteborg, Sweden: 735 plant specimens 

Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: 582 plant specimens, 
242 photographic prints (exchange). 

Gregg, Clifford C, Park Ridge, 
Illinois: 22 plant specimens (gift). 

Haynie, Miss Nellie V., Oak Park, 
Illinois: 7 plant specimens (gift). 

Heath, Lester H., Milton, Florida: 
6 plant specimens (gift). 

Herrmann, Professor F. J., Ann 
Arbor, Michigan: 207 plant specimens 

Hewetson, William T., Freeport, 
Illinois: 7 plant specimens (gift). 

Hinton, George B., Mina El Rin- 
con, Mexico: 3 plant specimens (gift). 

Hoehne, Dr. F. C, Sao Paulo, Brazil: 
17 plant specimens (gift). 

Hood, Professor J. Douglas, 
Rochester, New York: 31 plant speci- 
mens (gift). 

Hottle, W. D., Milton, Florida: 2 
plant specimens (gift). 

Imperial Forestry Institute, Ox- 
ford, England: 495 specimens of plants 

Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil: 16 plant specimens (gift). 

Instituto de Biologia, Chapulte- 
pec, Mexico: 5 plant specimens (gift). 

Jardim Botanico, Rio de Janeiro, 

Brazil: 58 plant specimens (exchange). 

Jardin Botanico, Madrid, Spain: 
6,624 plant specimens (exchange). 

Johnson, H. F., Jr., Racine, Wis- 
consin: Collection of Amazon palm 
material (gift). 

Kendall, Mrs. B. A., Elburn, Illi- 
nois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Kische, Leo R., Columbus, Georgia: 
24 wood samples (exchange). 

Klug, Guillermo, Iquitos, Peru: 23 
plant specimens (gift). 

Kribs, Dr. David A., Mont Alto, 
Pennsylvania: 90 microscope slides of 
Liberian woods (exchange). 

Lamb, George N., Chicago: 2 speci- 
mens of mahogany (gift). 

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Lewis, H. L., Carlsbad, New Mexico: 

1 plant specimen (gift). 

Little, Elbert L., Jr., Globe, Ari- 
zona: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Los Angeles Museum of History, 
Science and Art, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Lundy, Ray, Chicago: 1 trunk of 
choke-cherry (gift). 

Marshall College, Department 
of Botany, Huntingdon, West Virginia: 
100 plant specimens (exchange). 

Mexia, Mrs. Ynes, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia: 33 plant specimens (gift). 

Millar, John R., Chicago: 4 samples 
of palm material (gift). 

Musee National, Section du 
Botanique, Prague, Czechoslovakia: 
192 plant specimens (exchange). 

Museo Argentino de Ciencias 
Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina: 

2 plant specimens (exchange). 

Museo Nacional, San Jose, Costa 
Rica: 8,190 specimens of Costa Rican 
plants (gift). 


National Park Service, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Washington, 
D.C.: 230 specimens of Oklahoma 
plants (gift). 

Naturhistorisches Museum, Bo- 
tanische Abteilung, Vienna, Austria: 
596 specimens of plants (exchange). 

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, 
Stockholm, Sweden: 624 specimens of 
plants (exchange). 

New York Botanical Garden, 
Bronx Park, New York: 21 plant speci- 
mens (exchange). 

Oakes, O. A., Evanston, Illinois: 21 
samples of woods (gift). 

Osterhout, George E., Windsor, 
Colorado: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Owen, Reginald, Evanston, Illinois: 
2 wood specimens (gift). 

Peattie, Donald Culross, Glen- 
view, Illinois: 11 plant specimens (gift). 

Pomona College, Claremont, Cali- 
fornia: 91 specimens of California plants 

Purpus, Dr. C. A., Zacuapam, Mex- 
ico: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Rechenberg, Miss Elizabeth, Val- 
paraiso, Indiana: 3 plant specimens 


Rhoades, William, Indianapolis, 
Indiana: 12 plant specimens (gift). 

Ruksherbarium, Leiden, Nether- 
lands: 500 plant specimens (exchange). 

Rollins, Reed C, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: 9 plant specimens (gift). 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
Surrey, England: 109 plant specimens 

Schein, August, Chicago: 1 glass 
flower pot (gift). 

Schmoll, Dr. Hazel M., Chicago: 
7 plant specimens (gift). 

Schweitzer, Miss Bertha M., Chi- 
cago: study material of bearberry (gift). 

Scientific Oil Compounding Com- 
pany, Chicago: 3 samples of vegetable 
oil (gift). 

Seibert, R. J., St. Louis, Missouri: 
55 plant specimens (gift). 

Shattuck, Mrs. C. H., Idaho Falls, 
Idaho: 3 plant specimens (gift). 

Sherff, Dr. Earl E., Chicago: 283 
plant specimens, 919 negatives of type 
specimens (gift). 

Soukup, Professor J., Puno, Peru: 
322 specimens of Peruvian plants (gift). 

State College of Washington, 
Pullman, Washington: 101 plant speci- 
mens (exchange). 

Steffa, Mrs. Grace, Chicago: 1 
plant specimen, 3 photographic prints 

Stillinger, C. R., Spokane, Wash- 
ington: 70 plant specimens (gift). 

Sydow, Dr. H., Berlin, Germany: 
100 plant specimens (gift). 

United States Department of 
Agriculture, Bureau of Plant In- 
dustry, Washington, D.C.: 271 plant 
specimens (gift). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 763 plant speci- 
mens, 44 photographic prints, 360 type- 
written descriptions of new species of 
plants (exchange). 

Universidad National de La 
Plata, Instituto del Museo, La 
Plata, Argentina: 1 plant specimen 

102 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Universitat Wien, Botanischer 
Garten und Institut, Vienna, Aus- 
tria: 170 specimens of Brazilian plants 

University of Arkansas, Depart- 
ment of Botany, Fayetteville, Arkan- 
sas: 100 plant specimens (exchange). 

University of California, Depart- 
ment of Botany, Berkeley, California: 
116 specimens of California plants (ex- 

University of Chicago, Depart- 
ment of Botany, Chicago: 3,192 plant 
specimens (gift). 

University of Michigan, Uni- 
versity Museums, Ann Arbor, Mich- 
igan: 311 plant specimens (exchange). 

University of Minnesota, De- 
partment of Botany, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota: 317 specimens of Alaskan 

plants (gift). 

University of Texas, Department 
of Botany, Austin, Texas: 2,452 plant 
specimens (gift). 

Valerio, Professor Manuel, San 
Jose, Costa Rica: 103 plant specimens 

Williams, I. T. and Son, New York: 
20 planks of foreign woods (gift). 


Forest, Illinois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Wyeth, Mrs. Minnie A., Winnetka, 
Illinois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Yale University, School of 
Forestry, New Haven, Connecticut: 
317 plant specimens (gift); 51 wood 
samples (exchange). 

Zetek, James, Balboa, Canal Zone: 
85 plant specimens, 12 photographic 
prints (gift). 

Zingg, Dr. Robert M., Boulder, 
Colorado: 1 plant specimen (gift). 


American Museum of Natural 
History, New York: Skeleton of Moro- 
pus — Agate Springs Quarry, Nebraska 
(exchange); cast of Protoceratops eggs 

Barnes, R. M., Lacon, Illinois: 1 
fossil vertebra — Lacon, Illinois (gift). 

Bartnick, Bernard, Chicago: 1 
specimen friction breccia in calcareous 
sandstone — Prairie View, Illinois (gift). 

Beadle, J. O., Marshall, Wisconsin: 
3 specimens fulgurite in loam — Mar- 
shall, Wisconsin (gift). 

Berry, E. W., Baltimore, Maryland: 
12 specimens fossil leaves — Patagonia 

Brigham, E. M., Battle Creek, Mich- 
igan: 1 vapor vent — Hawaii; 3 faults — 
Michigan (exchange). 

Card, George W., New York: 1 
specimen precious opal in shell — Aus- 
tralia (gift). 

Chalmers, William J., Chicago: 1 
kunzite crystal; 1 twenty-eight carat 
gem kunzite — Pala, California (gift). 

Chicago Historical Society, Chi- 
cago: Collection of fossils — United 
States (gift). 

Cornell, Miss Margaret M., 
Chicago: 1 pearl on clam shell — Little 
Powers Lake, Illinois (gift). 

Cowan, Charles G., Chicago: 1 
specimen petroleum in diabase dike — 
Trinidad, Colorado (gift). 

Eifrig, C. W. G., River Forest, Illi- 
nois: Palate of fossil peccary, Platygonus 
— Cumberland Cave, Maryland (ex- 

Faber, Edwin B., Grand Junction, 
Colorado: Jaw of Thryptacodon (creo- 
dont) — De Beque, Colorado (gift). 

Farquhar, Donald, Jr., Chicago: 
1 cephalopod — Lemont, Illinois (gift). 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 30 speci- 
mens invertebrate fossils; 8 specimens 
minerals; 26 specimens rocks; 5 photo- 
graphs — Europe; 5 specimens modern 
coral; 1 specimen modern worm borings 
— Boca Grande, Florida (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 
Collected by Sharat K. Roy: 46 speci- 
mens geological structures — Dutchess 
and Genesee counties, New York. 

Collected by Elmer S. Riggs (Mar- 
shall Field Expedition to Alberta, Can- 
ada, 1922) : Collection of dinosaurs and 
other fossils — Alberta, Canada. 

Collected by Bryan Patterson: 2 
specimens fossil crustaceans; 9 speci- 
mens fossil plants — Braidwood, Illinois. 

Flesch, Mr. and Mrs. Walter J., 
Chicago: 25 specimens minerals — vari- 
ous localities (gift). 




Fornonzini, Gervaso, Valtellina, 
Lanzada, Italy: 1 specimen artinite 
with natrolite on serpentine — Lom- 
bardy, Italy (gift). 

Galbreath, Edwin C, Ashmore, 
Illinois: 30 specimens fossil vertebrates 
—Ashmore, Illinois (gift). 

Gilbert, Samuel H., Chicago: 11 
specimens minerals — North Carolina 

Higley, Professor L. A., Wheaton, 
Illinois: 1 septarium; 50 manganese- 
silica concretions — Buffalo, South Da- 
kota (gift). 

HlLDEBRAND, L. E., Winnetka, Illi- 
nois: 2 specimens calcareous tufa — 
Hartford, Michigan (gift). 

Los Angeles Museum of Science, 
History and Art, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia: Model restoration of Doedicurus; 
casts of Nothrotherium skull, jaws, 
humerus, radius, ulna, hind foot and 
model of foot (exchange). 

Main, Oscar, Oakland City, Indi- 
ana: 1 antler of Cervalces species — Oak- 
land City, Indiana (gift). 

Metcalf, H. G., Auburn, New York: 
9 specimens upland diamond-bearing 
ground — Minas Geraes, Brazil (gift). 

Mumbrue, Dan P., Helena, Mon- 
tana: 1 specimen talc — near Helena, 
Montana (gift). 

Nichols, Henry W., Chicago: 1 
specimen pectolite — Paterson, New 
Jersey (gift). 

Noe, Professor A. C, Chicago: 13 
specimens coal balls — Illinois (ex- 

Ray, Dr. Olaf E., Chicago: 4 octa- 
hedrite crystals; 4 specimens rutile — 
Jequitinhonha River, Brazil (gift). 

Reniff, Miss Elizabeth, Chicago: 5 
specimens modern coral — near Ham- 
ilton, Bermuda (gift). 

Roche, , Chicago: 2 specimens 

minerals — Chicago, Illinois (gift). 

Roy, Sharat K., Chicago: 1 specimen 
fluorescent agate — Arizona (gift). 

Salo, O. J., Red Lodge, Montana: 
19 specimens gypsum crystals; 6 speci- 
mens calcite crystals — Montana (gift). 

Thurston, Dr. Fredus A., Chicago: 
1 specimen gold ore — Kenora, Ontario, 
Canada (gift). 

Utica Hydraulic Cement Com- 
pany, Utica, Illinois: 4 specimens rock 
and products — Illinois; 2 specimens ver- 
miculite — North Carolina (gift). 

Von Drasek, Frank, Cicero, Illi- 
nois: 6 specimens minerals — Arkansas 

Walker, Albert, Ontario, Wiscon- 
sin: 2 specimens concretions; 1 specimen 
hematite replacing clay — Monteba, 
Wisconsin (gift). 

Western Shale Products Com- 
pany, Fort Scott, Kansas: 6 specimens 
brick shales and briquettes; 5 photo- 
graphs — Fort Scott, Kansas (gift). 

Wharton, G. W., Roseburg, Oregon: 
1 specimen cycad leaf in matrix — Buck 
Mountain, Oregon (gift). 

Winston, Harry, New York: 1 glass 
replica of the Jonker diamond (gift). 

Work, Mrs. Joseph W., Evanston, 
Illinois: 7 specimens precious opal— 
Queretaro, Mexico (gift). 


Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 1 birdskin 
— Haiti (exchange). 

American Museum of Natural 
History, New York: 2 African mon- 
keys, 1 zebra skull — Africa (exchange). 

Anonymous: 1 albino bobwhite (gift). 

Baldwin, Robert and Richard, 
Hammond, Indiana: 1 black rail and 
egg— Windfall, Indiana (gift). 

Banke, Mrs. Fred, Chicago: 1 wood- 
cock — Chicago (gift). 

Barker, G. T m Suva, Fiji Islands: 
1 frog, 6 snakes — Fiji Islands (gift). 

Bass Biological Laboratory, 
Englewood, Florida: 5 fishes — Florida 

Bauer, Louis L, Chicago: 1 three- 
legged domestic duck — Chicago (gift). 

Beecher, William, Chicago: 1 com- 
mon loon, 1 toad, 1 garter snake, 1 
painted turtle — Lake County, Illinois 

Birks, Tom, Chicago: 8 tiger sala- 
manders — Chicago (gift). 

104 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Blake, Emmet R., Chicago: 2 birds 
—Chicago (gift). 

Braestrup, F. W., Copenhagen, 
Denmark: 3 rodents with 2 skeletons, 
6 bats — West Africa (exchange). 

British Museum (Natural His- 
tory), London, England: 1 snake — 
Borneo (exchange). 

Bromund, E. Fred, Chicago: 
5 snakes — various localities (gift). 

Broughman, William T., Marion, 
Indiana: 18 frogs and toads, 1 sala- 
mander — Cook County, Minnesota 

Brower, Dr. Auburn E., Bar Har- 
bor, Maine: 5 moths — Maine and 
Missouri (gift). 

Brown, Professor F. Martin, Colo- 
rado Springs, Colorado: 1 butterfly — 
Fort Churchill, Canada (gift). 

Bruce, Robert, Chicago: 1 brown 
bat — Chicago (gift). 

Burt, Dr. Charles E., Winfield, 
Kansas: 24 collared lizards — Winfield, 
Kansas; 60 salamanders, 60 toads and 
frogs, 43 lizards, 62 snakes — various 
localities (exchange). 

Cagle, Fred, Carbondale, Illinois: 
75 leopard frogs — Murphysboro, Illinois 


Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania: 2 birdskins, 2 mounted 
hawks, 6 salamanders, 2 lizards, 1 snake 
—various localities (exchange). 

Chadwick, R. W., Chicago: 40 frogs, 
5 lizards, 4 snakes — eastern Ecuador 

Cherrie, George K., Newfane, Ver- 
mont: 29 rodents — Brownsville, Texas 


Chicago Zoological Society, 
Brookfield, Illinois: 21 mammals, 22 
birds, 39 bird skeletons, 1 frog, 12 
lizards, 33 snakes, 3 turtles, 1 crocodile 

—various localities; 115 birds, 12 bird 
skeletons, 1 bat, 3 mammal skulls, 17 
fishes, 25 insects, 19 other invertebrates 

—Greenland, Nova Scotia, and New- 
foundland (gift). 

Clark, Miss Emily, Chicago: 12 
frogs, 2 lizards, 12 snakes, 1 scorpion, 
1 beetle — Nigeria (gift). 

Cole, Lamont C, Chicago: 12 sala- 
manders, 22 toads, 297 lizards, 2 snakes 
—Utah and Arizona (gift). 

Colorado Museum of Natural 
History, Denver, Colorado: 1 red wolf 
skeleton — Brazil; 1 bird head — Guate- 
mala (gift). 

Conover, Boardman, Chicago: 24 
birdskins — various localities (gift). 

Dana, Mrs. Dora, West Palm 
Beach, Florida: 1 Abbot's bag-worm 
case — Florida (gift). 

Danforth, Dr. Stuart T., Maya- 
guez, Puerto Rico: 67 lizards — West 
Indies (gift). 

Davis, D. Dvvight, Naperville, Illi- 
nois: 2 bat skins and skulls, 5 frogs, 
7 snakes, 2 fishes, 149 insects — Illinois 

Davis, Miss Janet, Homewood, 
Illinois: 3 salamanders, 27 frogs, 1 turtle 
— Three Lakes, Wisconsin (gift). 

Davis, Spurgeon F., Barrington, 
Illinois: 1 green snake — Palatine, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

De Pauw University, Green- 
castle, Indiana: 210 salamanders— 
Greencastle, Indiana (exchange). 

Dillinga, John, Chicago: 1 night- 
hawk — Chicago (gift). 

Dunn, Dr. Emmett R., Haverford, 
Pennsylvania: 1 caecilian, 42 frogs, 1 
lizard, 1 snake — Panama and Costa 
Rica (gift). 

Dybas, Henry, Chicago: 1 newt, 3 
water-snakes — Illinois (gift). 

Emerson, Dr. Alfred E., Chicago: 
33 termites — Galapagos and Solomon 
islands (gift). 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 6 lizards, 
1 snake, 91 fishes, 10 insects, 37 other 
invertebrates — Boca Grande, Florida; 
5 bats, 1 toad, 3 frogs, 88 salamanders, 
16 snakes, 87 fishes, 945 insects and 
allies, 270 other invertebrates — Eng- 
land, Scotland and Wales; 5 birds — 
Europe; 9 salamanders, 11 lizards, 2 
snakes — France; 36 mammals, 4 mam- 
mal skeletons, 27 frogs, 109 lizards, 67 
fishes — Iraq (gift). 

Field Museum ofNatural History : 
Collected by Colin C. Sanborn: 1 
beetle — Huron Mountain, Michigan. 

Collected by F. J. W. Schmidt and 
Daniel Clark (Leon Mandel Guatemala 
Expedition of Field Museum): 38 in- 
sects — Guatemala. 



Collected by Karl P. Schmidt (Cor- 
nelius Crane Pacific Expedition of Field 
Museum): 4 shells, 2,019 insects and 
allies — various localities. 

Collected by Karl P. Schmidt: 7 
frogs, 10 salamanders, 3 snakes, 14 in- 
sects and allies — southern Illinois. 

Collected by Karl P. Schmidt and 
Colin C. Sanborn: 5 pocket gophers, 
63 insects — Kankakee County, Illinois. 

Collected by Karl P. Schmidt, Leon 
L. Walters, and D. D wight Davis: 2 
blue racers — Dune Acres, Indiana. 

Collected by Third Asiatic Expe- 
dition of American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, with Field Museum 
cooperating: 15 salamanders, 359 frogs, 
131 lizards, 289 snakes, 22 turtles — 

Collected by Arthur S. Vernay and 
Herbert Lang (Vernay-Lang Kalahari 
Expedition): 126 fishes — Kalahari 
Desert, Africa. 

Transferred from Department of 
Anthropology; 1 rodent skull — Suma- 
tra; 4 shells (gift). 

Purchases: 1,581 mammals, 299 bird- 
skins, 287 salamanders, 60 toads, 12 
frogs, 36 lizards, 10 snakes, 72 fishes 
— China; 41 mammal skins and 39 
skulls — Ecuador; 1 Allen's mud snake 
— Florida; 2 clouded leopards — India; 
20 small mammals — Manchuria; 3 sala- 
manders — Missouri. 

Fleming, Robert L., Mussoorie, 
India: 1 gavial skull — Ganges River, 
India; 1 fishing cat skin with skull, 52 
insects and allies — United Provinces, 
India (gift). 

Franzen, Albert J., Chicago: 7 
birds, 1 snake, 7 insects — northern Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Franzen, Albert J. and Emmet R. 
Blake, Chicago: 6 shore birds — Cook 
County, Illinois (gift). 

Fullmer, Mrs. P. F., Aurora, Illi- 
nois: 1 bluejay — Aurora, Illinois (gift). 

Galbreath, Edwin C, Ashmore, 
Illinois: 1 salamander, 3 cricket frogs, 
1 hog-nosed snake — Ashmore, Illinois 

General Biological Supply House, 
Chicago: 2 tiger salamanders — North 
Dakota; 7 tiger salamanders — Mason 
County, Illinois; 2 developmental sets 
of meadow frog and tiger salamander 

Goddard, Dr. Malcolm, Buca, 
British Cameroons: 3 birds — Buca and 
Mount Cameroon, Africa (gift). 

Grant, Gordon, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia: 13 salamanders, 27 tree frogs, 
65 lizards, 1 snake, 643 insects and 
allies, 307 other invertebrates — Los 
Angeles, California (gift). 

Gray, Charles W., Chicago: 1 spider 
— Bennett Springs, Missouri (gift). 

Gregg, Clifford C, Park Ridge, 
Illinois: 20 insects — Turlington, Wis- 
consin (gift). 

Gueret, Edmund N., Chicago: 1 
white-throated sparrow — Ghicago; 2 
snake skeletons — Rochester, New York 

Haines, T. P., Ann Arbor, Michigan: 
6 snake skulls — various localities (gift). 

Hamlett, Dr. G. W. D., Baltimore, 
Maryland: 1 lizard, 1 snake — Brazil 

Hanson, Harold, Chicago: 1 badger 
— Barrington, Illinois; 1 crow — Wood- 
stock, Illinois (gift). 

Hildebrand, R. D., Washington, 
D.C.: 23 birds— Alabama (gift). 

Hinaus, Mrs. John, Bruce, Wiscon- 
sin: 1 albino bat — Bruce, Wisconsin 

Holley, Francis E., Lombard, Illi- 
nois: 9 insects — Illinois, Indiana, and 
Madagascar (gift). 

Janecek, John J., Chicago: 9 frogs, 
1 lizard — Webb Lake, Wisconsin (gift). 

Jopson, Mrs. H. G. M., Ithaca, New 
York: 7 salamanders — various localities 


Karlovic, John K., Zeigler, Illinois: 
5 beetles — Provo, Utah (gift). 

Kellogg, W. K., Bird Sanctuary, 
Kalamazoo, Michigan: 3 birds (gift). 

Kennedy, Professor W. P., Bag- 
dad, Iraq: 17 fishes, 1 crustacean — Iraq 


King, John Andrews, Lake Forest, 
Illinois: 9 birds — British Guiana (gift). 

Klauber, Laurence M., San Diego, 
California: 2 leaf-nosed snakes — San 
Diego County, California (gift). 

Kohl, Robert B., Chicago: 3 birds 
— Bristol, Wisconsin (gift). 

Ladd, Fred, Wakulla, Florida: 7 
black sea bass — Florida (gift). 

106 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Laybourne, Edgar G., Homewood, 
Illinois: 1 barn owl — Indiana; 1 frog, 
15 toads, 4 lizards, 3 snakes — Austin, 
Texas (gift). 

Lee, Mrs. Frances, Chicago: 
1 Yucatan motmot — Yucatan (gift). 

Letl, Frank, Chicago: 2 bats— Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Levy, Miss Beatrice, Chicago: 1 
hermit thrush — Chicago (gift). 

Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago: 11 
mammals, 2 birds, 1 bullfrog, 2 lizards, 
6 snakes — various localities (gift). 

Lowrie, Donald C, Chicago: 1 bull 
snake — Kankakee County, Illinois 

Macreran, James, Highland Park, 
Illinois: 1 red bat — Highland Park, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Mahendra, Dr. Beni C, Agra, 
India: 10 frogs, 10 lizards, 4 snakes — 
Agra, India (exchange). 

Mallon, Arthur, Naperville, Illi- 
nois: 1 fox snake — Will County, Illinois 

Marsh, Ernest G., Austin, Texas: 

1 frog, 6 lizards, 5 snakes — Coahuila, 
Mexico (gift). 

Mather, King, Evanston, Illinois: 

2 short-eared owls — Evanston, Illinois 

McCauley, Mrs. Charles A., High- 
land Park, Illinois: 1 glass sponge (gift). 

McNeil, Henry, Chicago: 1 red bat 
— Chicago (gift). 

Mooney, James J., Highland Park, 
Illinois: 1 mink skeleton — Cook 
County, Illinois (gift). 

Moyer, John W., Chicago: 3 fishes 
— Miami, Florida (gift). 

Museo de Colegio San Pedro No- 
lasco, Santiago, Chile: 1 toad, 1 lizard, 
1 snake — Santiago, Chile (gift). 

Museo Nacional de Historia 
Natural, Santiago, Chile: 1 coral snake 
— Mendoza, Argentina (gift). 

Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris, France: 1 sole (para- 
type) — Bay of Suez (exchange). 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: 5 bats — 
Panama; 1 bat skin and skull — Pales- 
tine; 35 mammal skins with skulls —  

Africa and South America; 18 bird- 
skins — various localities (exchange); 5 
frogs, 108 lizards, 2 snakes — Bahama 
Islands (gift). 

Neitzel, William, Chicago: 3 frogs, 

1 snake — Michigan (gift). 

Norris, Professor Harry W., 
Grinnell, Iowa: 5 shark jaws and parts 
of skin — various localities (gift). 

Oriental Institute Syrian Expe- 
dition of University of Chicago: 2 
wild boar skins with skulls, 4 frogs, 5 
turtles, 14 lizards, 17 snakes, 11 insects 
and allies, 10 crabs — Amouk Plain, 
Syria (gift). 

Osgood, Dr. Wilfred H., Chicago: 
44 small mammals; 1 Lincoln sparrow, 
4 frogs — Ontario, Canada (gift). 

Packer, Glenn A., Chicago: 1 hog- 
nosed snake — Michigan (gift). 

Patterson, Arthur, East Gary, 
Indiana: 1 glass snake — New Chicago, 
Indiana (gift). 

Patterson, Bryan, Chicago: 9 frogs, 

2 turtles — Illinois (gift). 

Pearsall, Gordon, River Forest, 
Illinois: 13 snakes — various localities 

Pearson, Dr. J. F. W., Coral Gables, 
Florida: 142 bats — Bahama Islands 
(gift); 9 lizards, 1 snake — Bahama 
Islands (exchange). 

Peattie, Donald Culross, Glen- 
view, Illinois: 2 salamanders, 2 lizards— 
Tryon, North Carolina (gift). 

Perkins, H. E., Huron Mountain, 
Michigan: 1 bobcat — Huron Moun- 
tain, Michigan (gift). 

Perkins, R. Marlin, St. Louis, 
Missouri: 1 coral snake — Brazil; 1 snake 
skull (gift). 

Petersen, Mrs. Lina, Chicago: 1 
fish — Horn Island, Mississippi (gift). 

Plath, Karl, Chicago: 1 bat, 13 
birds — various localities (gift). 

Prime, Peter, Oconomowoc, Wis- 
consin: 1 lizard, 7 snakes — eastern 
Ecuador (gift). 

Princeton University, Princeton, 
New Jersey: 1 birdskin — Patagonia 

Quinn, James H., Chicago: 1 prairie 
mole — Coal City, Illinois (gift). 



Razzbto, Dr. Oscar, Lima, Peru; 7 
butterflies — Peru (gift). 

Reeve, Captain R. D., Rantoul, 
Illinois: 1 gaur skull — Malay Peninsula 

Rigel, Robert, Waterloo, Iowa: 1 
vesper rat skin and 2 skulls — Iowa 

Ringling Brothers and Barnum 
and Bailey Circus, Sarasota, Florida: 
1 wallaby — Australia (gift). 

Roberts, Mrs. Elmer, Chicago: 1 
least bittern — Chicago (gift). 

Romeo, Pat, Chicago: 1 nighthawk 
— Chicago (gift). 

Rosenberg, W. F. H., London, Eng- 
land: 10 birdskins — various localities 

Rueckert, Arthur G., Chicago: 2 
European woodcocks — Denmark (gift). 

Ruhe, Louis, New York: 1 black- 
necked swan — Argentina (gift). 

Saikin, Sam D., Chicago: 7 frogs — 
Lakeside, Michigan (gift). 

Samuelson, C. F., Chicago: 1 rose- 
breasted grosbeak — Chicago (gift). 

Sanborn, Colin C, Highland Park, 
Illinois: 1 least bittern, 1 spider —  
northern Illinois (gift). 

Sasko, Professor Vladimir, Chi- 
cago: 12 insects — Georgia and Florida 

Scheskie, Mrs. Henry F., Highland 
Park, Illinois: 1 spider — Highland Park, 
Illinois (gift). 

Schimmelfing, Richard, Highland 
Park, Illinois: 1 spider — Highland Park, 
Illinois (gift). 

Schmidt, John M., Homewood, Illi- 
nois: 2 silver-haired bats — Dune Park, 
Indiana (gift). 

Schmidt, John R., Plainfield, Illinois: 
1 box turtle — Clay County, Kentucky 

Schmidt, Karl P., Homewood, Illi- 
nois: 6 frogs, 8 lizards — Mexico (gift). 

Schnierla, Dr. Theodore C, New 
York: 1 marine toad — Canal Zone, 
Panama (gift). 

Schreiber, Paul, Chicago: 1 Vir- 
ginia rail — Chicago (gift). 

Schweitzer, Miss Anna, Chicago: 
1 milk snake — Matteson, Illinois (gift). 

Shedd Aquarium, John G., Chicago: 
1 manatee — Brazil; 45 fishes — various 
localities (gift). 

Sherman, Dr. Harley B., Gaines- 
ville, Florida: 7 bats — Florida (ex- 

Shockley, C, Terre Haute, Indiana: 
6 frogs, 45 salamanders — Terre Haute, 
Indiana (gift). 

Siemel, Sasha, New York: 1 tapir— 
Matto Grosso, Brazil (gift). 

Simpson, John M. and A. Watson 
Armour III, Chicago: 1 markhor skin 
with skull — India (gift). 

Smith, Tarleton, Waco, Texas: 2 
toads, 1 lizard, 9 snakes — Ghisos Moun- 
tains, Texas (gift). 

Sneidern, Kjel von, Cauca, Colom- 
bia: 1 tanager, 1 hummingbird — Cauca, 
Colombia (gift). 

Snyder, L. H., Seoul, Korea: 4 sala- 
manders, 2 toads, 10 snakes — Songdo, 
Korea (exchange). 

Springer, Stewart, Englewood, 
Florida: 2 rodents, 1 spotted skunk, 1 
mole — Florida (gift). 

State Natural History Survey 
Division, Urbana, Illinois: 3 chalcid- 
flies — Illinois (gift). 

Stevens, George M., Mountain 
View, Arkansas: 1 snapping turtle — 
Arkansas (gift). 

Tokuda, Mitosi, Kyoto, Japan: 7 
rodents, 3 moles, 10 bats — Japan (ex- 

Trefflich, Henry, New York: 1 
young chimpanzee — Africa (gift). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 185 bats, 7 bird- 
skins — various localities (exchange). 

University of Chicago, Chicago: 
1 frog, 3 lizards, 10 snakes — various 
localities (gift). 

Vacin, Emil F., Oak Park, Illinois: 
3 trout — Washke Lake, Wyoming (gift). 

Vandersliee, Mrs. , Chicago: 1 

paroquet (gift). 

Villalba, Gaston S., Havana, 
Cuba: 6 birdskins — Cuba (exchange). 

Warke, Thomas, Chicago: 1 white- 
throated sparrow — Chicago (gift). 

108 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Watson, Donald K., Chicago: 2 
beetles — Niles Center, Illinois (gift). 

Weber, Walter A., Austin, Texas: 
2 frogs, 2 lizards, 2 snakes — Texas 

Weed, Alfred C, Jr., Chicago: 2 
marine fishes — Angola, Africa (gift). 

Westbrook, C. I., Chicago: 1 white- 
throated sparrow, 1 Kirkland's water- 
snake — Chicago (gift). 

Weymarn, Michael A., Harbin, 
Manchukuo: 6 small mammals and 3 
skulls — Manchukuo (gift). 

Wheeler, Leslie, Lake Forest, Illi- 
nois: 1 oven-bird, 38 owls, 141 hawks 
— -various localities (gift). 

Wilborne, Mrs. Carrie, Chicago: 
1 monkey (gift). 

Wood, Sherwin F., Los Angeles, 
California: 27 lizards — Los Angeles and 
San Bernardino counties (exchange). 

Zimmerman, Robert, Chicago: 30 
fishes — Andros Island, Bahamas (gift). 

Zoological Society of San Diego, 
San Diego, California: 12 Galapagos 
tortoise shells — Galapagos Islands 

Robertson, Captain Jack, Oakland, Florida: 4 reels of 35-mm. silent film 
California: 4 reels of 35-mm. silent film (gift). 

(gift). Field Museum of Natural History: 

From Division of Photography: 674 
Williamson, J. E., Lake Worth, slides. 


Field, Henry, Chicago: 6 negatives 
of natives of Iraq. 

Field Museum of Natural History : 

Made by Division of Photography: 
43,258 prints, 1,846 negatives, 900 lan- 
tern slides, 100 enlargements, 42 trans- 
parencies, and 10 transparent labels. 

Developed for expeditions: 30 nega- 

Kantor, Dr. Charles M., Chicago: 
12 prints of ethnological views of 
Northern Territory, Australia. 

Nichols, Henry W., Chicago: 103 
negatives illustrating prospecting 
methods and conditions in the early 
days of the Porcupine Mining Camp. 

List of Donors of Books 
Society, Winter 

American Amaryllis 
Park, Florida. 

American Council of Learned Societies, 
Washington, D.C. 

American Tree Association, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Americana Corporation, New Y'ork. 

Arkansas Centennial Commission, Little 
Rock, Arkansas. 

Athens University, Athens, Greece. 

Carnegie Institution, Washington, 

Centro Nacional de Agricultura, San 
Jose, Costa Rica. 

Chemical Foundation, New York. 

Chicago Park District, Chicago. 

Chicago Recreation Commission, Chi- 

Clube Zoologico, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Comite Permanent International, 
Vienna, Austria. 

Connecticut Historical Society, Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. 
Crerar Library, John, Chicago. 

Departmento Forestal y de Caza y 
Pesca, Mexico City, Mexico. 

Emergency Conservation Committee, 

New York. 
Explorers Club, New York. 

Fort Wayne Historical Society, Fort 
Wayne, Indiana. 

Geological Prospecting Petroleum Insti- 
tute, Leningrad, U.S.S.R. 

Gobierno de la Provincia de Buenos 
Aires, Argentina. 

Gump, S. G., Company, San Francisco, 

Illinois Bell Telephone Company, Chi- 

Institut National pour l'Etude Agro- 
nomique du Congo Beige, Brussels, 



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Japan Society, New York. 

Kyancutta Museum, Kyancutta, South 

Lanston Monotype Machine Company, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Mauritius Institute, Port Louis, 

Meijikai, The, Tokyo, Japan. 

Menendez, Oscar, Mexico City, Mexico. 

Ministerio de Agricultura y Comercio, 
Bogota, Colombia. 

More Game Birds in America Foun- 
dation, New York. 

Mori, Tamezo, Chosen, Japan. 

Morris Arboretum, Philadelphia, Penn- 

Museum Association of China, Peiping, 

Museum fur Volkerkunde, Basel, 

National Advisory Council on Radio 
in Education, New York. 

Nature Notes, Peoria, Illinois. 
Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, Ham- 
burg, Germany. 

Parker School, Francis, Chicago. 

Peabody Museum of Archaeology and 
Ethnology, Cambridge, Massachu- 

Perkins Institution, Watertown, Massa- 

Photographie und Forschung, Dresden, 

Prairie Trek Expedition for Boys, 
Thoreau, New Mexico. 

Roumanian Legation, The, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Scientific American, New York. 
Shedd Aquarium, John G., Chicago. 
South Manchuria Railroad Company, 
Dairen, Manchuria. 

Texas Technological College, Lnblock, 

Union League Club, Chicago. 

Universidad Central Instituto Botanico, 

Quito, Ecuador. 
Universite de Tiflis, Georgia, U.S.S.R. 

Vanderbilt Marine Museum, New York. 
Vaughan's Seed Store, Chicago. 


Adams, J., Toronto, Canada. Britton, Roswell S., New York. 

Alfaro, Colon Eloy, Washington, D.C. Burt, Charles E., Winfield, Kansas. 
^_i._ ^ — i._:j_„ n/r u., Buschan, Georg, Stettin, Germany. 

Ames, Oakes, Cambridge, Massachu- 
Andrade, Ruy de, Lisbon, Portugal. 
Arbelaez, E. P. 
Arpee, Levon Harris, Chicago. 

Babcock, Louis L., Buffalo, New York. 
Bailey, Vernon, Washington, D.C. 
Bartlett, H. H., Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
Batchelder, Charles F., Peterborough, 
New Hampshire. 

Beaumont, Jacques de, Lausanne, 

Benke, Hermann C, Chicago. 

Borodin, N., Cambridge, Massachu- 

Bose, B. B., Pusa, India. 

Boulton, Rudyerd, Chicago. 

Bourret, Rene, Hanoi, French Indo- 

Brandstetter, Dr. Renward, Lucerne, 

Breasted, Dr. Charles, Chicago. 
Brennan, Dr. James Marks, Lawrence, 

Caso, Dr. Alfonso, Mexico City, Mex- 

Chevasnerie, Comte A. de la, Neuilly- 
sur-Seine, France. 

Colyer, Sir Frank, London, England. 

Comas, Juan, Madrid, Spain. 

Conover, H. B., Chicago. 

Cornell, Margaret M., Chicago. 

Darrah, William C, Cambridge, Massa- 

Davis, D. Dwight, Naperville, Illinois. 

Davis, Harry T., Raleigh, North Caro- 

Davis, Dr. J. J., Lafayette, Indiana. 

Day, Mary B., Chicago. 

Devincenzi, Garibaldi J., Montevideo, 

Dickey, Mrs. Florence V. V., Ojai, 

Dintzes, L., Moscow, U.S.S.R. 

Dorf, Ehrling, Princeton, New Jersey. 

110 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Erwin, A. T., Ames, Iowa. 

Field, Henry, Chicago. 

Field, Joseph N., Chicago. 

Field, Stanley, Chicago. 

Firestone, Harvey S., Jr., Akron, Ohio. 

Fontana Company, Mario A., Monte- 
video, Uruguay. 

Foran, Miss Ethel Ursula, Montreal, 

Fosberg, F. R., Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Francis, W. D., Brisbane, Australia. 

Frey-Wyssling, Alb., Zurich, Switzer- 

Friedlander und Sohn, Berlin, Germany. 

Geiser, S. W., Dallas, Texas. 
Gerhard, William J., Chicago. 

Harrasser, Dr. A., Munich, Germany. 
Hendry, G. W., Berkeley, California. 
Heyser, Frank, Chicago. 
Hitchcock, C. Leo, Missoula, Montana. 

Hoffman, Clarence H., St. Paul, Minne- 

Huey, Laurence M., San Diego, Cali- 

Jacob, Heinrich Edward. 
Judd, C. S., Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Kennedy, Walter P. 

Kummerlowe, Hans, Leipzig, Germany. 

Lewis, Dr. Albert B., Chicago. 

Lines, Jorge A., San Jose, Costa Rica. 

Logan, Mr. and Mrs. Frank G., Chi- 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall, Chicago. 
MacCurdy, George Grant, Old Lyme, 

McKinley, William C, Peoria, Illinois. 

McNair, James B., Los Angeles, Cali- 

Maldonado, Bruzzone, Buenos Aires, 

Martin, Dr. Alfred, Bad-Nauheim, 

Martin, Dr. Paul S., Chicago. 

Matthey, Dr. Robert, Lausanne, 

Moyer, John William, Chicago. 

Miiller, Dr. Reinhold F. G., Einsiedel, 

Necker, Walter, Chicago. 

Nichols, Henry W., Chicago. 
Nininger, H. H., Denver, Colorado. 
Nobre, Augusto, Oporto, Portugal. 

Okada, Yaichiro, Tokyo, Japan. 

Olalla, A. M., Manaos, Brazil. 

Olbrechts, Frans M., Brussels, Belgium. 

Oleveira Roxo, Mathias, La Plata, 

Oesterreich, R., Garmisch Parten- 

kirchen, Germany. 
Oprescu, G. 
Osgood, Dr. Wilfred H., Chicago. 

Peek, George N., Moline, Illinois. 

Ramos, Cesar Lizardi, Mexico City, 

Ray, Eugene, Urbana, Illinois. 
Rechinger, Karl Heinz, Dresden, Ger- 

Rehn, J. A. G., Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 

Richards, A. Glenn, Jr., Rochester, 
New York. 

Riggs, Elmer S., Chicago. 

Sabett, Younis S., Cairo, Egypt. 

Sanborn, Colin C, Highland Park, 

Schmidt, Karl P., Homewood, Illinois. 

Sennen, M., Paris, France. 

Serrano, Antonio, Parana, Argentina. 

Sharmith, Helen K., Berkeley, Cali- 

Sherff, Dr. Earl E., Chicago. 

Simms, Stephen C, Chicago. 

Skroztzov, B. V., Harbin, Manchukuo. 

Slavik, F., Prague, Czechoslovakia. 

Sorensen, Rev. Theodore, Norway. 

Sprague, Colonel Albert A., Chicago. 

Standley, Paul C, Chicago. 

Stillwell, Jerry E., Dallas, Texas. 

Taylor, Walter P., Washington, D.C. 

Thompson, J. Eric, Cambridge, Massa- 

Thomsen, Th., Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Thome, Mrs. James Ward, Chicago. 

Umrath, Karl, Graz, Austria. 
Uvarov, B. P., Stavropol, U.S.S.R. 

Vignati, Milciades Alejo, La Plata, 

Vos, C. M. de, Stellenbosch, Union of 
South Africa. 

Accessions 111 

Walcott, A. B., Downers Grove, Illinois. Wheeler, Leslie, Lake Forest, Illinois. 

Wardle, H. Newell, Philadelphia, Penn- Wilbur, C. Martin, Chicago. 

svl V 3. 1113. 

Warren, e'. B., Colorado Springs, Colo- Wiman > C - Moscow, U.S.S.R. 

rado. Woolcock, Violet, Melbourne, Aus- 
Weed, Alfred C, Chicago. tralia. 




William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State 

To All to Whom These Presents Shall Come, Greeting: 

Whereas, a Certificate duly signed and acknowledged having been filed in the 
office of the Secretary of State, on the 16th day of September, a.d. 1893, for the 
organization of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO, under and in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of "An Act Concerning Corporations," approved 
April 18, 1872, and in force July 1, 1872, and all acts amendatory thereof, a copy 
of which certificate is hereto attached. 

Now, therefore, I, William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State of the State of 
Illinois, by virtue of the powers and duties vested in me by law, do hereby certify 
that the said COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO is a legally organized 
Corporation under the laws of this State. 

In Testimony Whereof, I hereto set my hand and cause to be affixed the 
Great Seal of State. Done at the City of Springfield, this 16th day of September, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, and of the 
Independence of the United States the one hundred and eighteenth. 


[Seal] Secretary of State. 


Secretary of State: 

We, the undersigned citizens of the United States, propose to form a cor- 
poration under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, entitled 
"An Act Concerning Corporations," approved April 18, 1872, and all acts 
amendatory thereof; and that for the purposes of such organization we hereby 
state as follows, to-wit: 

1. The name of such corporation is the "COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF 

2. The object for which it is formed is for the accumulation and dis- 
semination of knowledge, and the preservation and exhibition of objects illus- 
trating Art, Archaeology, Science and History. 

3. The management of the aforesaid museum shall be vested in a Board of 
Fifteen (15) Trustees, five of whom are to be elected every year. 

4. The following named persons are hereby selected as the Trustees for the 
first year of its corporate existence: 

Edward E. Ayer, Charles B. Farwell, George E. Adams, George R. Davis, 
Charles L. Hutchinson, Daniel H. Burnham, John A. Roche, M. C. Bullock, 
Emil G. Hirsch, James W. Ellsworth, Allison V. Armour, O. F. Aldis, Edwin 
Walker, John C. Black and Frank W. Gunsaulus. 

5. The location of the Museum is in the City of Chicago, County of Cook, 
and State of Illinois. 


George E. Adams, C. B. Farwell, Sidney C. Eastman, F. W. Putnam, Robert 
McCurdy, Andrew Peterson, L. J. Gage, Charles L. Hutchinson, Ebenezer 
Buckingham, Andrew McNally, Edward E. Ayer, John M. Clark, Herman H. 
Kohlsaat, George Schneider, Henry H. Getty, William R. Harper, Franklin H. 
Head, E. G. Keith, J. Irving Pearce, Azel F. Hatch, Henry Wade Rogers, 


Articles of Incorporation 113 

Thomas B. Bryan, L. Z. Leiter, A. C. Bartlett, A. A. Sprague, A. C. McClurg, 
James W. Scott, Geo. F. Bissell, John R. Walsh, Chas. Fitzsimmons, John A. 
Roche, E. B. McCagg, Owen F. Aldis, Ferdinand W. Peck, James H. Dole, 
Joseph Stockton, Edward B. Butler, John McConnell, R. A. Waller, H. C. 
Chatfield-Taylor, A. Crawford, Wm. Sooy Smith, P. S. Peterson, John C. 
Black, Jno. J. Mitchell, C. F. Gunther, George R. Davis, Stephen A. Forbes, 
Robert W. Patterson, Jr., M. C. Bullock, Edwin Walker, George M. Pullman, 
William E. Curtis, James W. Ellsworth, William E. Hale, Wm. T. Baker, 
Martin A. Ryerson, Huntington W. Jackson, N. B. Ream, Norman Williams, 
Melville E. Stone, Bryan Lathrop, Eliphalet W. Blatchford, Philip D. Armour. 

State of Illinois 1 

> ss. 
Cook County j 

I, G. R. Mitchell, a Notary Public in and for said County, do hereby 
certify that the foregoing petitioners personally appeared before me and 
icknowledged severally that they signed the foregoing petition as their free and 
voluntary act for the uses and purposes therein set forth. 

Given under my hand and notarial seal this 14th day of September, 1893. 

Seal] Notary Public, Cook County, III. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
he 25th day of June, 1894, the name of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM was 
.hanged to FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. A certificate to this effect was 
iled June 26, 1894, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
:he 8th day of November, 1905, the name of the FIELD COLUMBIAN 
^ certificate to this effect was filed November 10, 1905, in the office of the Secretary 
if State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
:he 10th day of May, 1920, the management of FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY shall be invested in a Board of Twenty-one (21) Trustees, who 
'hall be elected in such manner and for such time and term of office as may 
:>e provided for by the By-Laws. A certificate to this effect was filed May 21, 
1920, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 





SECTION 1. Members shall be of twelve classes, Corporate Members, Hon- 
orary Members, Patrons, Corresponding Members, Benefactors, Contributors, 
Life Members, Non-Resident Life Members, Associate Members, Non-Resident 
Associate Members, Sustaining Members, and Annual Members. 

Section 2. The Corporate Members shall consist of the persons named in 
the articles of incorporation, and of such other persons as shall be chosen from 
time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, upon the recom- 
mendation of the Executive Committee; provided, that such person named in 
the articles of incorporation shall, within ninety days from the adoption of these 
By-Laws, and persons hereafter chosen as Corporate Members shall, within 
ninety days of their election, pay into the treasury the sum of Twenty Dollars 
($20.00) or more. Corporate Members becoming Life Members, Patrons or 
Honorary Members shall be exempt from dues. Annual meetings of said Corporate 
Members shall be held at the same place and on the same day that the annual 
meeting of the Board of Trustees is held. 

Section 3. Honorary Members shall be chosen by the Board from among 
persons who have rendered eminent service to science, and only upon unanimous 
nomination of the Executive Committee. They shall be exempt from all dues. 

Section 4. Patrons shall be chosen by the Board upon recommendation of 
the Executive Committee from among persons who have rendered eminent ser- 
vice to the Museum. They shall be exempt from all dues, and, by virtue of their 
election as Patrons, shall also be Corporate Members. 

Section 5. Any person contributing or devising the sum of One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars ($100,000.00) in cash, or securities, or property to the funds 
of the Museum, may be elected a Benefactor of the Museum. 

Section 6. Corresponding Members shall be chosen by the Board from among 
scientists or patrons of science residing in foreign countries, who render important 
service to the Museum. They shall be elected by the Board of Trustees at any 
of its meetings. They shall be exempt from all dues and shall enjoy all courtesies 
of the Museum. 

Section 7. Any person contributing to the Museum One Thousand Dollars 
($1,000.00) or more in cash, securities, or material, may be elected a Contributor 
of the Museum. Contributors shall be exempt from all dues and shall enjoy 
all courtesies of the Museum. 

Section 8. Any person paying into the treasury the sum of Five Hundred 
Dollars ($500.00), at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, 
become a Life Member. Life Members shall be exempt from all dues, and shall 
enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that are accorded to mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees. Any person residing fifty miles or more from 
the city of Chicago, paying into the treasury the sum of One Hundred Dollars 
($100.00) at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, become 
a Non-Resident Life Member. Non-Resident Life Members shall be exempt 
from all dues, and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that 
are accorded to members of the Board of Trustees. 

Section 9. Any person paying into the treasury of the Museum the sum of 
One Hundred Dollars ($100.00), at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote 
of the Board, become an Associate Member. Associate Members shall be exempt 
from all dues, and shall be entitled to tickets admitting Member and members 
of family, including non-resident home guests; all publications of the Museum, 
if so desired; reserved seats for all lectures and entertainments under the auspices 


Amended By-Laws 115 

of the Museum, provided reservation is requested in advance; and admission of 
holder of membership and accompanying party to all special exhibits and Museum 
functions day or evening. Any person residing fifty miles or more from the city 
of Chicago, paying into the treasury the sum of Fifty Dollars ($50.00) at any 
one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, become a Non-Resident 
Associate Member. Non-Resident Associate Members shall be exempt from all 
dues, and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that are 
accorded to Associate Members. 

Section 10. Sustaining Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00), payable within thirty 
days after notice of election and within thirty days after each recurring annual 
date. This Sustaining Membership entitles the member to free admission for 
the Member and family to the Museum on any day, the Annual Report and such 
other Museum documents or publications as may be requested in writing. When 
a Sustaining Member has paid the annual fee of $25.00 for six years, such Mem- 
ber shall be entitled to become an Associate Member. 

Section 11. Annual Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of Ten Dollars ($10.00), payable within thirty days after 
each recurring annual date. An Annual Membership shall entitle the Member 
to a card of admission for the Member and family during all hours when the 
Museum is open to the public, and free admission for the Member and family 
to all Museum lectures or entertainments. This membership will also entitle 
the holder to the courtesies of the membership privileges of every Museum of 
note in the United States and Canada, so long as the existing system of cooperative 
interchange of membership tickets shall be maintained, including tickets for any 
lectures given under the auspices of any of the Museums during a visit to the cities 
in which the cooperative museums are located. 

Section 12. All membership fees, excepting Sustaining and Annual, shall 
hereafter be applied to a permanent Membership Endowment Fund, the interest 
only of which shall be applied for the use of the Museum as the Board of Trustees 
may order. 



Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-one members. 
The respective members of the Board now in office, and those who shall here- 
after be elected, shall hold office during life. Vacancies occurring in the Board 
shall be filled at a regular meeting of the Board, upon the nomination of the 
Executive Committee made at a preceding regular meeting of the Board, by a 
majority vote of the members of the Board present. 

Section 2. Regular meetings of the Board shall be held on the third Mon- 
day of the month. Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, 
and shall be called by the Secretary upon the written request of three Trustees. 
Five Trustees shall constitute a quorum, except for the election of officers or the 
adoption of the Annual Budget, when seven Trustees shall be required, but meet- 
ings may be adjourned by any less number from day to day, or to a day fixed, 
previous to the next regular meeting. 

Section 3. Reasonable written notice, designating the time and place of 
holding meetings, shall be given by the Secretary. 



Section 1. As a mark of respect, and in appreciation of services performed 
for the Institution, any Trustee who by reason of inability, on account of 
change of residence, or for other cause or from indisposition to serve longer in 
such capacity shall resign his place upon the Board, may be elected, by a majority 
of those present at any regular meeting of the Board, an Honorary Trustee for life. 
Such Honorary Trustee will receive notice of all meetings of the Board of Trustees, 

116 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

whether regular or special, and will be expected to be present at all such meetings 
and participate in the deliberations thereof, but an Honorary Trustee shall not 
have the right to vote. 



Section 1. The officers shall be a President, a First Vice-President, a 
Second Vice-President, a Third Vice-President, a Secretary, an Assistant Secretary 
and a Treasurer. They shall be chosen by ballot by the Board of Trustees, a 
majority of those present and voting being necessary to elect. The President, 
the First Vice-President, the Second Vice-President, and the Third Vice-Presi- 
dent shall be chosen from among the members of the Board of Trustees. The 
meeting for the election of officers shall be held on the third Monday of January 
of each year, and shall be called the Annual Meeting. 

Section 2. The officers shall hold office for one year, or until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified, but any officer may be removed at any regular 
meeting of the Board of Trustees by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of 
the Board. Vacancies in any office may be filled by the Board at any meeting. 

Section 3. The officers shall perform such duties as ordinarily appertain 
to their respective offices, and such as shall be prescribed by the By-Laws, or 
designated from time to time by the Board of Trustees. 


THE treasurer 

Section 1. The Treasurer shall be custodian of the funds of the Corpo- 
ration except as hereinafter provided. He shall make disbursements only upon 
warrants drawn by the Director and countersigned by the President. In the 
absence or inability of the Director, warrants may be signed by the Chairman 
of the Finance Committee, and in the absence or inability of the President, may 
be countersigned by one of the Vice-Presidents, or any member of the Finance 

Section 2. The securities and muniments of title belonging to the cor- 
poration shall be placed in the custody of some Trust Company of Chicago to 
be designated by the Board of Trustees, which Trust Company shall collect 
the income and principal of said securities as the same become due, and pay 
same to the Treasurer, except as hereinafter provided. Said Trust Company 
shall allow access to and deliver any or all securities or muniments of title to the 
joint order of the following officers, namely: the President or one of the Vice- 
Presidents, jointly with the Chairman, or one of the Vice-Chairmen, of the Finance 
Committee of the Museum. 

Section 3. The Treasurer shall give bond in such amount, and with such 
sureties as shall be approved by the Board of Trustees. 

Section 4. The Harris Trust & Savings Bank of Chicago shall be Cus- 
todian of "The N. W. Harris Public School Extension of Field Museum" fund. 
The bank shall make disbursements only upon warrants drawn by the Director 
and countersigned by the President. In the absence or inability of the Director, 
warrants may be signed by the Chairman of the Finance Committee, and in the 
absence or inability of the President, may be countersigned by one of the Vice- 
Presidents, or any member of the Finance Committee. 



Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall elect a Director of the Museum, 
who shall remain in office until his successor shall be elected. He shall have im- 
mediate charge and supervision of the Museum, and shall control the operations 
of the Institution, subject to the authority of the Board of Trustees and its Com- 
mittees. The Director shall be the official medium of communication between the 
Board, or its Committees, and the scientific staff and maintenance force. 

Section 2. There shall be four scientific Departments of the Museum- 
Anthropology, Botany, Geology and Zoology; each under the charge of a Chief 

Amended By-Laws 117 

Curator, subject to the authority of the Director. The Chief Curators shall be 
appointed by the Board upon the recommendation of the Director, and shall serve 
during the pleasure of the Board. Subordinate staff officers in the scientific Depart- 
ments shall be appointed and removed by the Director upon the recommendation 
of the Chief Curators of the respective Departments. The Director shall have 
authority to employ and remove all other employees of the Museum. 

Section 3. The Director shall make report to the Board at each regular 
meeting, recounting the operations of the Museum for the previous month. At 
the Annual Meeting, the Director shall make an Annual Report, reviewing the 
work for the previous year, which Annual Report shall be published in pamphlet 
form for the information of the Trustees and Members, and for free distribution 
in such number as the Board may direct. 



Section 1. The Board shall appoint an Auditor, who shall hold his office 
during the pleasure of the Board. He shall keep proper books of account, setting 
forth the financial condition and transactions of the Corporation, and of the 
Museum, and report thereon at each regular meeting, and at such other times as 
may be required by the Board. He shall certify to the correctness of all bills 
rendered for the expenditure of the money of the Corporation. 



Section 1. There shall be five Committees, as follows: Finance, Building, 
Auditing, Pension and Executive. 

Section 2. The Finance Committee shall consist of five members, the 
Auditing and Pension Committees shall each consist of three members, and the 
Building Committee shall consist of five members. All members of these four 
Committees shall be elected by ballot by the Board at the Annual Meeting, and 
shall hold office for one year, and until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied. In electing the members of these Committees, the Board shall designate 
the Chairman and Vice-Chairman by the order in which the members are 
named in the respective Committee; the first member named shall be Chair- 
man, the second named the Vice-Chairman, and the third named, Second Vice- 
Chairman, succession to the Chairmanship being in this order in the event of the 
absence or disability of the Chairman. 

Section 3. The Executive Committee shall consist of the President of the 
Board, the Chairman of the Finance Committee, the Chairman of the Building 
Committee, the Chairman of the Auditing Committee, the Chairman of the 
Pension Committee, and three other members of the Board to be elected by 
ballot at the Annual Meeting. 

Section 4. Four members shall constitute a quorum of the Executive Com- 
mittee, and in all standing Committees two members shall constitute a quorum. 
In the event that, owing to the absence or inability of members, a quorum of 
the regularly elected members cannot be present at any meeting of any Com- 
mittee, then the Chairman thereof, or his successor, as herein provided, may 
summon any members of the Board of Trustees to act in place of the absentee. 

Section 5. The Finance Committee shall have supervision of investing the 
endowment and other permanent funds of the Corporation, and the care of such 
real estate as may become its property. It shall have authority to invest, sell, 
and reinvest funds, subject to the approval of the Board. 

Section 6. The Building Committee shall have supervision of the con- 
struction, reconstruction, and extension of any and all buildings used for 
Museum purposes. 

Section 7. The Executive Committee shall be called together from time 
to time as the Chairman may consider necessary, or as he may be requested 
to do by three members of the Committee, to act upon such matters affecting 
the administration of the Museum as cannot await consideration at the Regular 
Monthly Meetings of the Board of Trustees. It shall, before the beginning of 

118 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

each fiscal year, prepare and submit to the Board an itemized Budget, setting 
forth the probable receipts from all sources for the ensuing year, and make 
recommendations as to the expenditures which should be made for routine 
maintenance and fixed charges. Upon the adoption of the Budget by the 
Board, the expenditures stated are authorized. 

Section 8. The Auditing Committee shall have supervision over all ac- 
counting and bookkeeping, and full control of the financial records. It shall 
cause the same, once each year, or oftener, to be examined by an expert indi- 
vidual or firm, and shall transmit the report of such expert individual or firm 
to the Board at the next ensuing regular meeting after such examination shall 
have taken place. 

Section 9. The Pension Committee shall determine by such means and 
processes as shall be established by the Board of Trustees to whom and in what 
amount the Pension Fund shall be distributed. These determinations or findings 
shall be subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees. 

Section 10. The Chairman of each Committee shall report the acts and 
proceedings thereof at the next ensuing regular meeting of the Board. 

Section 11. The President shall be ex-officio a member of all Committees 
and Chairman of the Executive Committee. Vacancies occurring in any Com- 
mittee may be filled by ballot at any regular meeting of the Board. 


nominating committee 

Section 1. At the November meeting of the Board each year, a Nomi- 
nating Committee of three shall be chosen by lot. Said Committee shall make 
nominations for membership of the Finance Committee, the Building Commit- 
tee, the Auditing Committee, and the Pension Committee, and for three mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee, from among the Trustees, to be submitted 
at the ensuing December meeting and voted upon at the following Annual 
Meeting in January. 


Section 1. Whenever the word "Museum" is employed in the By-Laws of 
the Corporation, it shall be taken to mean the building in which the Museum 
as an Institution is located and operated, the material exhibited, the material in 
study collections, or in storage, furniture, fixtures, cases, tools, records, books, 
and all appurtenances of the Institution and the workings, researches, installa- 
tions, expenditures, field work, laboratories, library, publications, lecture courses, 
and all scientific and maintenance activities. 

Section 2. These By-Laws may be amended at any regular meeting of the 
Board of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of all the members present, provided 
the amendment shall have been proposed at a preceding regular meeting. 


Marshall Field* 


Those who have contributed $100,000 or more to the Museum 

Ayer, Edward E.* 

Buckingham, Miss 
Kate S. 

Crane, Cornelius 
Crane, R. T., Jr.* 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Joseph N.* 
Field, Marshall 


Field, Stanley- 
Graham, Ernest R.* 

Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W.* 
Higinbotham, Harlow N." 

Kelley, William V. * 
Pullman, George M.* 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Raymond, Mrs. Anna 

Raymond, James Nelson* 

Simpson, James 
Smith, Mrs. Frances 

Smith, George T.* 
Sturges, Mrs. Mary D.* 


Those who have rendered eminent service to Science 

Chalmers, William J. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Field, Mrs. E. 

Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Harris, Albert W. 

Ludwig, H. R. H. Gustaf 
Adolf, Crown Prince of 

McCormick, Stanley 

Rawson, Frederick H. 

Deceased, 1936 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Simpson, James 
Sprague, Albert A. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 


Those who have rendered eminent service to 

Armour, Allison V. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chancellor, Philip M. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cummings, Mrs. 

Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

White, Howard J. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Hancock, G. Allan 

Insull, Samuel 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 
Knight, Charles R. 

Langdon, Professor 

the Museum 

Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Straus, Mrs. Oscar 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

Wegeforth, Dr. Harry M. 
White, Harold A. 

Moore, Mrs. William H 

Deceased, 1936 

Smith, Mrs. Frances Gaylord 


120 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 


Scientists or patrons of science, residing in foreign countries, who have rendered 

eminent service to the Museum 

Breuil, Abbe Henri 
Christensen, Dr. Carl 
Diels, Dr. Ludwig 

Hochreutiner, Dr. B. P. Langdon, Professor 

Georges Stephen 

Keissler, Dr. Karl 

Keith, Professor Sir Smith, Professor Sir 

Arthur Grafton Elliot 


Those who have contributed $1,000 to $100,000 to the Museum 
in money or materials 

$75,000 to $100,000 
Chancellor, Philip M. 

$50,000 to $75,000 

Keep, Chauncey* 

Rosenwald, Mrs. 

Augusta N.* 
Ryerson, Martin A.* 

$25,000 to $50,000 

Blackstone, Mrs. 
Timothy B.* 

Coats, John* 
Crane, Charles R. 

Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Jones, Arthur B.* 

Porter, George F.* 

Rosenwald, Julius* 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

White, Harold A. 

$10,000 to $25,000 

Armour, Allison V. 
Armour, P. D.* 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chalmers, William J. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cummings, R. F.* 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Everard, R. T.* 


Gunsaulus, Dr. F. W.* 

Insull, Samuel 

Laufer, Dr. Berthold* 

McCormick, Cyrus 

McCormick, Stanley 
Mitchell, John J.* 

Reese, Lewis* 
Robb, Mrs. George W. 
Rockefeller Foundation, 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Schweppe, Mrs. 

Charles H. 
Smith, Mrs. George T.* 
Straus, Mrs. Oscar 
Strong, Walter A.* 

Wrigley, William, Jr.* 

$5,000 to $10,000 

Adams, George E.* 
Adams, Milward* 
American Friends of 

Bartlett, A. C* 
Bishop, Heber (Estate) 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay* 

Crane, R. T.* 

Doane, J. W.* 

Fuller, William A.* 

Graves, George Coe, II 

Harris, Hayden B. 
Harris, Norman Dwight 

Harris, Mrs. Norman W.* 
Hutchinson, C. L.* 

Keith, Edson* 

Langtry, J. C. 

MacLean, Mrs. M. 

Mandel, Leon 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Payne, John Barton* 
Pearsons, D. K.* 
Porter, H. H.* 

Ream, Norman B.* 
Re veil, Alexander H.* 

Salie, Prince M. U. M. 

Sprague, A. A.* 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Thorne, Bruce 
Tree, Lambert* 

$1,000 to $5,000 
Ayer, Mrs. Edward E.* 

Barrett, Samuel E. 
Bensabott, R., Inc. 
Blair, Watson F.* 
Blaschke, Stanley 

Block, Mrs. Helen M.* 
Borden, John 

Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 
Chicago Zoological 

Society, The 
Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr. 
Crocker, Templeton 

Corporate Members— Life Members 


Cummings, Mrs. 
Robert F. 

Doering, O. C. 

Field, Henry 

Graves, Henry, Jr. 
Gunsaulus, Miss Helen 

Hibbard, W. G.* 
Higginson, Mrs. 

Charles M. 
Hill, James J.* 
Hixon, Frank P. * 
Hoffman, Miss Malvina 
Hughes, Thomas S. 

Jackson, Huntington W.* 
James, S. L. 

Lee Ling Ylin 

Mandel, Fred L., Jr. 
Manierre, George* 
Martin, Alfred T.* 
McCormick, Cyrus H.* 
McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus* 

Ogden, Mrs. Frances E.* 

Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 

Rauchfuss, Charles F. 
Raymond, Charles E.* 

Reynolds, Earle H. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Martin A. 

Schwab, Martin C. 
Shaw, William W. 
Sherff, Dr. Earl E. 
Smith, Byron L.* 
Sprague, Albert A. 

Thompson, E. H. 
Thorne, Mrs. Louise E. 

VanValzah, Dr. Robert 
VonFrantzius, Fritz* 

Wheeler, Leslie 
Willis, L. M. 

Armour, Allison V. 
Avery, Sewell L. 

Block, Leopold E. 
Borden, John 
Byram, Harry E. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chalmers, William J. 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Chatfield-Taylor, H. C. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cummings, Mrs. 

Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 
Dick, Albert B., Jr. 


Ellsworth, Duncan S. Probst, Edward 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Joseph N. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Hancock, G. Allan 
Harris, Albert W. 

Insull, Samuel 
Insull, Samuel, Jr. 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 
Knight, Charles R. 

Langdon, Professor 

McCulloch, Charles A. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Deceased, 1936 

McCormick, Cyrus H. 
Smith, Mrs. Frances Gaylord 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Richardson, George A. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Fred W. 
Sargent, Homer E. 
Simms, Stephen C. 
Simpson, James 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Straus, Mrs. Oscar 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

Wegeforth, Dr. Harry M. 
Wheeler, Leslie 
White, Harold A. 
Wilson, John P. 

White, Howard J. 


Those who have contributed $500 to the Museum 

Abbott, John Jay 

Asher, Louis E. 

Barrett, Mrs. A. D. 

Abbott, Robert S. 

Avery, Sewell L. 

Barrett, Robert L. 

Adler, Max 

Bartlett, Miss Florence 

Alexander, William A. 

Babcock, Frederick R. 


Allerton, Robert H. 

Babson, Henry B. 

Baur, Mrs. Jacob 

Ames, James C. 

Bacon, Edward 

Bendix, Vincent 

Armour, A. Watson 

Richardson, Jr. 

Bensabott, R. 

Armour, Allison V. 

Banks, Alexander F. 

Bermingham, Edward J. 

Armour, Lester 

Barnhart, Miss Gracia 

Billings, C. K. G. 

Armour, Mrs. Ogden 

M. F. 

Blaine, Mrs. Emmons 

122 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Blair, Chauncey B. 
Block, Emanuel J. 
Block, Leopold E. 
Block, Philip D. 
Booth, W. Vernon 
Borden, John 
Borland, Chauncey B. 
Boynton, Mrs. C. T. 
Brassert, Herman A. 
Brewster, Walter S. 
Brown, Charles 

Browne, Aldis J. 
Buchanan, D. W. 
Budd, Britton I. 
Buffington, Eugene J. 
Burnham, John 
Burt, William G. 
Butler, Julius W. 
Butler, Rush C. 
Byram, Harry E. 

Carpenter, Augustus A. 
Carpenter, Mrs. Hubbard 
Carpenter, Mrs. John 

Carr, George R. 
Carr, Robert F. 
Carr, Walter S. 
Casalis, Mrs. Maurice 
Chalmers, William J. 
Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 
Chatfield-Taylor, Wayne 
Clark, Eugene B. 
Clegg, William G. 
Clegg, Mrs. William G. 
Clow, William E. 
Collins, William M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cooke, George A. 
Corley, F. D. 
Cowles, Alfred 
Cramer, Corwith 
Cramer, Mrs. 

Katharine S. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Crossett, Edward C. 
Crossley, Lady Josephine 
Crossley, Sir Kenneth 
Crowell, H. P. 
Cudahy, Edward A. 
Cudahy, Edward A., Jr. 
Cudahy, Joseph M. 
Cunningham, Frank S. 
Cunningham, James D. 
Cushing, Charles G. 

Davies, Mrs. D. C. 
Dawes, Charles G. 
Dawes, Henry M. 
Dawes, Rufus C. 
Decker, Alfred 
Delano, Frederic A. 

Dick, Albert B., Jr. 
Dierssen, Ferdinand W. 
Dixon, George W. 
Dixon, Homer L. 
Donnelley, Thomas E. 
Doyle, Edward J. 
Drake, John B. 
Drake, Tracy C. 
Dreyfus, Mo'ise 
Durand, Scott S. 

Edmunds, Philip S. 
Epstein, Max 
Everitt, George B. 
Ewing, Charles Hull 

Farnum, Henry W. 
Farr, Newton Camp 
Farr, Miss Shirley 
Farwell, Arthur L. 
Farwell, John V. 
Farwell, Walter 
Fay, C. N. 
Fenton, Howard W. 
Fentress, Calvin 
Ferguson, Louis A. 
Fernald, Charles 
Field, Joseph N. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Norman 
Field, Mrs. Norman 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Gardner, Paul E. 
Gardner, Robert A. 
Gartz, A. F., Jr. 
Gary, Mrs. John W. 
Getz, George F. 
Gilbert, Huntly H. 
Glore, Charles F. 
Goodrich, A. W. 
Goodspeed, Charles B. 
Gowing, J. Parker 
Griffiths, John 
Griscom, Clement A. 

Hack, Frederick C. 
Hamill, Alfred E. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W. 
Hastings, Samuel M. 
Hayes, William F. 
Hecht, Frank A., Jr. 
Heineman, Oscar 
Hibbard, Frank 
Hickox, Mrs. Charles V. 
Hill, Louis W. 
Hinde, Thomas W. 
Hixon, Robert 
Hopkins, J. M. 
Hopkins, L. J. 
Horowitz, L. J. 

Hoyt, N. Landon 
Hughes, Thomas S. 
Hutchins, James C. 

Insull, Martin J. 
Insull, Samuel 
Insull, Samuel, Jr. 

Jarnagin, William N. 
Jelke, John F., Jr. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Joiner, Theodore E. 
Jones, Miss Gwethalyn 

Kelley, Mrs. Daphne 

Kelley, Russell P. 
Kelly, D. F. 
Kidston, William H. 
King, Charles Garfield 
King, James G. 
Kirk, Walter Radcliffe 

Charles K. 

Lamont, Robert P. 
Lehmann, E. J. 
Leonard, Clifford M. 
Leopold, Mrs. Harold E. 
Levy, Mrs. David M. 
Linn, Mrs. Dorothy C. 
Logan, Spencer H. 
Lowden, Frank O. 
Lytton, Henry C. 

MacDowell, Charles H. 
MacLeish, John E. 
MacVeagh, Eames 
Madlener, Mrs. Albert F. 
Marshall, Benjamin H. 
Mason, William S. 
McCormick, Harold F. 
McCormick, Stanley 
McCutcheon, John T. 
McGann, Mrs. Robert G. 
Mcllvaine, William B. 
Mclnnerney, Thomas H. 
McKinlay, John 
McLaughlin, Frederic 
McLennan, D. R. 
McLennan, Hugh 
McNulty, T. J. 
Meyer, Carl 
Meyne, Gerhardt F. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Edward S. 
Morse, Charles H., Jr. 
Morton, Mark 
Munroe, Charles A. 
Murphy, Walter P. 

Newell, A. B. 
Nikolas, G. J. 
Noel, Joseph R. 

Life Members 


Ormsby, Dr. Oliver S. 
Orr, Robert M. 

Paesch, Charles A. 
Palmer, Honore 
Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 
Patterson, Joseph M. 
Payson, George S. 
Peabody, Stuyvesant 
Pick, Albert 
Pike, Charles B. 
Pike, Eugene R. 
Poppenhusen, Conrad H. 
Porter, Gilbert E. 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Raymond, Mrs. Anna 

Rea, Mrs. Robert L. 
Reynolds, Arthur 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Reynolds, George M. 
Riley, Harrison B. 
Rinaldo, Mrs. Philip S. 
Robinson, Theodore W. 
Robson, Miss Alice 
Rodman, Mrs. Katherine 

Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
Rosenwald, William 
Russell, Edmund A. 

Cutten, Arthur W. 

Florsheim, Milton S. 

Glessner, John J. 
Goddard, Leroy A. 

Russell, Edward P. 
Ryerson, Edward L., Jr. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Martin A. 

Sargent, Fred W. 
Schweppe, Charles H. 
Scott, George E. 
Scott, Harold N. 
Seabury, Charles W. 
Shaffer, John C. 
Shirk, Joseph H. 
Simpson, James 
Simpson, William B. 
Smith, Alexander 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Spalding, Keith 
Spalding, Vaughan C. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Sprague, Mrs. Albert A. 
Stern, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Stevens, Eugene M. 
Stewart, Robert W. 
Stirton, Robert C. 
Storey, W. B. 
Strawn, Silas H. 
Stuart, Harry L. 
Stuart, John 
Stuart, R. Douglas 
Sturges, George 
Sunny, B. E. 
Swift, Charles H. 
Swift, G. F., Jr. 

Deceased, 1936 

Goodman, William O. 
Graham, Ernest R. 

Kuppenheimer, Louis B. 

Mark, Clayton 
McCormick, Cyrus H. 

Swift, Harold H. 
Swift, Louis F. 

Thorne, Charles H. 
Thorne, Robert J. 
Tree, Ronald L. F. 
Tyson, Russell 

Uihlein, Edgar J. 
Underwood, Morgan P. 

Valentine, Louis L. 
Veatch, George L. 
Viles, Lawrence M. 

Wanner, Harry C. 
Ward, P. C. 
Weber, David 
Welch, Mrs. Edwin P. 
Welling, John x> . 
Whitney, Mrs. Julia L. 
Wickwire, Mrs. Edward L. 
Wieboldt, William A. 
Willard, Alonzo J. 
Willits, Ward W. 
Wilson, John P. 
Wilson, Thomas E. 
Winston, Garrard B. 
Winter, Wallace C. 
Woolley, Clarence M. 
Wrigley, Philip K. 

Yates, David M. 

McKinlock, George 

O'Brien, John J. 

Perkins, Herbert F. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $100 to the Museum 

Coolidge, Harold 

J., Jr. 
Copley, Ira Cliff 

Ellis, Ralph 

Gregg, John Wyatt 

Hearne, Knox 

Johnson, Herbert 
F., Jr. 

Rosenwald, Lessing J. 

Stephens, W. C. 
Stern, Mrs. Edgar B. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

124 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 


Those who have contributed $100 to the Museum 

Aaron, Charles 
Aaron, Ely M. 
Abbott, Donald 

Putnam, Jr. 
Abbott, Gordon C. 
Abbott, Guy H. 
Abbott, W. Rufus 
Abbott, William L. 
Abrahamsen, Miss Cora 
Abrams, Duff A. 
Ackerman, Charles N. 
Adamick, Gustave H. 
Adams, Benjamin Stearns 
Adams, Mrs. David T. 
Adams, Mrs. Frances 

Adams, Miss Jane 
Adams, John Q. 
Adams, Joseph 
Adams, Mrs. S. H. 
Adams, Mrs. Samuel 
Adams, William C. 
Adcock, Mrs. Bessie 
Addleman, Samuel W. 
Adler, David 
Adler, Mrs. Max 
Affleck, Benjamin F. 
Ahlschlager, Walter W. 
Albee, Mrs. Harry W. 
Alden, William T. 
Alexander, Mrs. Arline V. 
Alexander, Edward 
Allais, Arthur L. 
Allbright, William B. 
Allen, Mrs. Fred G. 
Allensworth, A. P. 
Ailing, Mrs. C. A. 
Allison, Mrs. Nathaniel 
Alschuler, Alfred S. 
Alsip, Charles H. 
Alsip, Mrs. Charles H. 
Alter, Harry 
Alton, Carol W. 
Andersen, Arthur 
Anderson, Miss Florence 

Andreen, Otto C. 
Andrews, Mrs. E. C. 
Andrews, Milton H. 
Anstiss, George P. 
Appelt, Mrs. Jessie E. 
Armbrust, John T. 
Armbruster, Charles A. 
Armour, A. Watson, III 
Armour, Laurance H. 
Armour, Philip D. 
Armstrong, Arthur W. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Julian 
Arn, W. G. 

Arnold, Mrs. Lloyd 
Artingstall, Samuel 

G., Jr. 
Ascher, Fred 
Ashby, W. B. 
Ashcraft, Raymond M. 
Ashenhurst, Harold S. 
Atkinson, Charles T. 
Atwater, Walter Hull 
Aurelius, Mrs. Marcus A. 
Austin, Henry W. 
Avery, Miss Clara 
Avery, George J. 

Baackes, Mrs. Frank 
Babb, W. E. 
Babson, Mrs. Gustavus 
Badger, Shreve Cowles 
Baer, Mervin K. 
Baer, Walter S. 
Baggaley, William Blair 
Bailey, Mrs. Edward W. 
Baird, Mrs. Clay 
Baird, Harry K. 
Baker, Mrs. Alfred L. 
Baker, G. W. 
Baker, Greeley 
Baldwin, Vincent Curtis 
Balgemann, Otto W. 
Balkin, Louis 
Ball, Dr. Fred E. 
Ball, Sidney Y. 
Ballard, Thomas L. 
Ballenberg, Adolph G. 
Bannister, Miss Ruth D. 
Bantsolas, John N. 
Barber, Phil C. 
Barbour, Harry A. 
Barbour, James J. 
Bargquist, Miss 

Lillian D. 
Barley, Miss Matilda A. 
Barnes, Cecil 
Barnes, Mrs. Charles 

Barnes, James M. 
Barnett, Otto R. 
Barnhart, Mrs. A. M. 
Barnhart, Mrs. Clara S. 
Barnum, Harry 
Barr, Mrs. Alfred H. 
Bartelme, John H. 
Bartholomae, Mrs. Emma 
Bartholomay, F. H. 
Bartholomay, Henry 
Bartholomay, Mrs. 

William, Jr. 
Bartlett, Frederic C. 
Barton, Mrs. Enos M. 

Bastian, Charles L. 
Bateman, Floyd L. 
Bates, Mrs. A. M. 
Bates, Joseph A. 
Battey, Paul L. 
Bauer, Aleck 
Baum, Mrs. James E. 
Baum, Wilhelm 
Baumrucker, Charles F. 
Bausch, William C. 
Beach, Miss Bess K. 
Beach, E. Chandler 
Beachy, Mrs. P. A. 
Beatty, H. W. 
Beck, Herbert 
Becker, Mrs. A. G. 
Becker, Benjamin F. 
Becker, Benjamin V. 
Becker, Frederick G. 
Becker, Herman T. 
Becker, James H. 
Becker, Louis 
Becker, Louis L. 
Behr, Mrs. Edith 
Beidler, Francis, II 
Belden, Joseph C. 
Bell, Mrs. Laird 
Bellinghausen, Miss Celia 
Bender, Charles J. 
Benjamin, Jack A. 
Benner, Harry 
Bennett, J. Gardner 
Benson, John 
Bentley, Arthur 
Bentley, Mrs. Cyrus 
Benton, Miss Mabel M. 
Berend, George F. 
Berkowitz, Dr. J. G. 
Berryman, John B. 
Bersbach, Elmer S. 
Bertschinger, Dr. C. F. 
Besly, Mrs. C. H. 
Bettman, Dr. Ralph B. 
Bevan, Dr. Arthur Dean 
Bichl, Thomas A. 
Bidwell, Charles W. 
Biehn, Dr. J. F. 
Bigler, Mrs. Albert J. 
Billow, Elmer Ellsworth 
Billow, Miss Virginia 
Bird, Miss Frances 
Bird, George H. 
Birk, Miss Amelia 
Birk, Edward J. 
Birk, Frank J. 
Birkenstein, George 
Birkholz, Hans E. 
Bishop, Howard P. 
Bishop, Mrs. Martha V. 

Associate Members 


Bistor, James E. 
Bittel, Mrs. Frank J. 
Bixby, Edward Randall 
Black, Dr. Arthur D. 
Blackburn, Oliver A. 
Blackman, Nathan L. 
Blair, Edward T. 
Blair, Mrs. M. Barbour 
Blair, Wolcott 
Blake, Tiffany 
Blatchford, Carter 
Blatchford, Dr. Frank 

Blayney, Thomas C. 
Blessing, Dr. Robert 
Blish, Sylvester 
Blome, Rudolph S. 
Blomgren, Dr. Walter L. 
Bloom, Mrs. Leopold 
Bluford, Mrs. David 
Blum, David 
Blum, Harry H. 
Blunt, J. E., Jr. 
Bluthardt, Edwin 
Boal, Ayres 
Boberg. Niels 
Bode, William F. 
Boericke, Mrs. Anna 
Boettcher, Arthur H. 
Bohasseck, Charles 
Bolten, Paul H. 
Bondy, Berthold 
Boomer, Dr. Paul C. 
Boone, Arthur 
Boorn, William C. 
Booth, Alfred V. 
Booth, George E. 
Borg, George W. 
Borland, Mrs. Bruce 
Bosch, Charles 
Bosch, Mrs. Henry 
Both, William C. 
Botts, Graeme G. 
Bousa, Dr. Bohuslav 
Bowen, Mrs. Louise 

Bowes, William R. 
Bowey, Mrs. Charles F. 
Bowman, Johnston A. 
Boyack, Harry 
Boyden, Miss Ellen Webb 
Boyden, Miss Rosalie 

St urges 
Boynton, A. J. 
Boynton, Frederick P. 
Brach, Mrs. F. V. 
Bradley, Mrs. A. Ballard 
Bradley, Charles E. 
Bradley, Mrs. Natalie 

Blair Higinbotham 
Brainerd, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Bramble, Delhi G. C. 

Brand, Mrs. Edwin L., Jr. 
Brand, Mrs. Maude G. 
Brand, Mrs. Rudolf 
Brandes, A. G. 
Brandt, Charles H. 
Bransfield, John J. 
Brauer, Mrs. Paul 
Breckinridge, Professor 

S. P. 
Bremer, Harry A. 
Bremner, Mrs. David 

F., Jr. 
Brendecke, Miss June 
Brennemann, Dr. Joseph 
Brennwasser, S. M. 
Brenza, Miss Mary 
Brewer, Mrs. Angeline L. 
Breyer, Mrs. Theodor 
Bridge, George S. 
Bridges, Arnold 
Briggs, Mrs. Gertrude 
Bristol, James T. 
Brock, A. J. 
Brodribb, Lawrence C. 
Broome, Thornhill 
Brown, A. Wilder 
Brown, Benjamin R. 
Brown, Charles A. 
Brown, Christy 
Brown, Mrs. Everett C. 
Brown, Mrs. George 

Brown, John T. 
Brown, Mark A. 
Brown, Scott 
Brucker, Dr. Edward A. 
Bruckner, William T. 
Brugman, John J. 
Brundage, Avery 
Brunswick, Larry 
Brunt, J. P. 
Bryant, John J., Jr. 
Buck, Guy R. 
Buck, Mrs. Lillian B. 
Buck, Nelson Leroy 
Bucklin, Mrs. Vail R. 
Budlong, Joseph J. 
Buehler, Mrs. Carl 
Buehler, H. L. 
Buettner, Walter J. 
Bufnngton, Mrs. 

Margaret A. 
Buhmann, Gilbert G. 
Bull, Richard S. 
Bullock, Mrs. James E. 
Bunge, Mrs. Albert J. 
Burdick, Mrs. Alfred S. 
Burgess, Charles F. 
Burgstreser, Newton 
Burgweger, Mrs. Meta 

Burke, Mrs. Lawrence N. 

Burke, Webster H. 
Burkholder, Dr. J. F. 
Burley, Mrs. Clarence A. 
Burnham, Mrs. Edward 
Burnham, Frederic 
Burns, Mrs. Randall W. 
Burrows, Mrs. W. F. 
Burry, Mrs. William 
Burry, William, Jr. 
Burtch, Almon 
Burton, Mrs. Ernest D. 
Bush, Mrs. Lionel E. 
Bush, Mrs. William H. 
Butler, Burridge D. 
Butler, Mrs. Hermon B. 
Butler, J. Fred 
Butler, John M. 
Butler, Paul 
Butz, Herbert R. 
Butz, Robert O. 
Butz, Theodore C. 
Butzow, Mrs. Robert C. 
Byfield, Dr. Albert H. 
Byrne, Miss Margaret H. 

Cable, J. Elmer 
Cahn, Dr. Alvin R. 
Cahn, Bertram J. 
Cahn, Morton D. 
Caine, John F. 
Caldwell, C. D. 
Cameron, Dr. Dan U. 
Cameron, John M. 
Cameron, Will J. 
Camp, Mrs. Arthur Royce 
Campbell, Delwin M. 
Campbell, Herbert J. 
Canby, Caleb H., Jr. 
Capes, Lawrence R. 
Capper, Miss M. M. 
Capps, Dr. Joseph A. 
Carlin, Leo J. 
Carney, William Roy 
Caron, O. J. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Benjamin 
Carpenter, Frederic Ives 
Carpenter, Mrs. George A. 
Carpenter, George 

Carpenter, Hubbard 
Carpenter, Miss Rosalie 

Carpenter, W. W. S. 
Carqueville, Mrs. A. R. 
Carr, Mrs. Clyde M. 
Carroll, John A. 
Carry, Joseph C. 
Carter, Mrs. Armistead B. 
Carton, Alfred T. 
Cary, Dr. Eugene 
Cary, Dr. Frank 
Casey, Mrs. James J. 

126 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Casselberry, Mrs. William 

Evans, Sr. 
Cassels, Edwin H. 
Castle, Alfred C. 
Castruccio, Giuseppe 
Cates, Dudley 
Cernoch, Frank 
Chadwick, Charles H. 
Chandler, Henry P. 
Chapin, Henry Kent 
Chapman, Arthur E. 
Chappell, Mrs. Charles H. 
Chase, Frank D. 
Cheney, Dr. Henry W. 
Cherry, Walter L., Jr. 
Childs, Mrs. C. 

Chinnock, Mrs. Ronald J. 
Chisholm, George D. 
Chislett, Miss Kate E. 
Chritton, George A. 
Churan, Charles A. 
Clark, Ainsworth W. 
Clark, Miss Alice Keep 
Clark, Charles V. 
Clark, Miss Dorothy S. 
Clark, Mrs. Edward S. 
Clark, Edwin H. 
Clark, Lincoln R. 
Clark, Dr. Peter S. 
Clarke, Charles F. 
Clarke, Harley L. 
Clas, Miss Mary Louise 
Clemen, Dr. Rudolf A. 
Cleveland, Paul W. 
Clifford, F. J. 
Clinch, Duncan L. 
Clithero, W. S. 
Clough, William H. 
Clow, Mrs. Harry B. 
Clow, William E., Jr. 
Cochran, John L. 
Coffin, Fred Y. 
Cohen, George B. 
Cohen, Mrs. L. Lewis 
Colburn, Frederick S. 
Colby, Mrs. George E. 
Coldren, Clifton C. 
Coleman, Dr. George H. 
Coleman, Loring W., Jr. 
Coleman, William Ogden 
Colianni, Paul V. 
Collins, Beryl B. 
Collis, Harry J. 
Collison, E. K. 
Colvin, Miss Catharine 
Colvin, Miss Jessie 
Colvin, Mrs. William H. 
Colwell, Clyde C. 
Compton, D. M. 
Compton, Frank E. 
Condon, Mrs. James G. 

Conger, Miss Cornelia 
Connell, P. G. 
Conners, Harry 
Connor, Mrs. Clara A. 
Connor, Frank H. 
Cook, Miss Alice B. 
Cook, Mrs. David S., Jr. 
Cook, Mrs. Wallace L. 
Cooke, Charles E. 
Cooke, Miss Flora 
Cooke, Leslie L. 
Coolidge, Miss Alice 
Coolidge, E. Channing 
Coolidge, Dr. Edgar D. 
Coombs, James F. 
Coonley, John Stuart, Jr. 
Coonley, Prentiss L. 
Cooper, Samuel 
Copland, David 
Corbett, Mrs. William J. 
Cormack, Charles V. 
Cornell, John E. 
Cosford, Thomas H. 
Coston, James E. 
Cowan, Mrs. Grace L. 
Cox, Mrs. Howard M. 
Cox, James A. 
Cox, James C. 
Cox, Mrs. Rensselaer W. 
Crane, Charles R., II 
Crego, Mrs. Dominica S. 
Crerar, Mrs. John 
Crilly, Edgar 
Cromer, Clarence E. 
Cromwell, Miss Juliette 

Cross, Henry H. 
Crowder, Dr. Thomas R. 
Cubbins, Dr. William R. 
Cudahy, Edward I. 
Culbertson, Dr. Carey 
Cummings, Mrs. D. 

Cuneo, John F. 
Cunningham, John T. 
Curran, Harry R. 
Curtis, Austin Guthrie, 

Curtis, Benjamin J. 
Curtis, Mrs. Charles S. 
Curtis, Miss Frances H. 
Cusack, Harold 
Cushman, A. W. 
Cushman, Barney 
Cutler, Henry E. 

Dahlberg, Bror G. 
Daily, Richard 
Dakin, Dr. Frank C. 
Daley, Harry C. 
Dammann, J. F. 
D'Ancona, Edward N. 

Danforth, Dr. William C. 
Dantzig, Leonard P. 
Danz, Charles A. 
Darrow, Paul E. 
Dashiell, C. R. 
Daughaday, C. Colton 
Davey, Mrs. Bruce C. 
David, Dr. Vernon C. 
Davidonis, Dr. 

Alexander L. 
Davidson, Miss Mary E. 
Davies, Marshall 
Davis, Abel 
Davis, Arthur 
Davis, Brode B. 
Davis, C. S. 
Davis, Dr. Carl B. 
Davis, Frank S. 
Davis, Fred M. 
Davis, James 
Davis, Dr. Loyal 
Davis, Dr. Nathan 

S., Ill 
Davis, Ralph 
Dawes, E. L. 
DeAcres, Clyde H. 
Deahl, Uriah S. 
Decker, Charles O. 
DeCosta, Lewis M. 
DeDardel, Carl O. 
Dee, Thomas J. 
Deery, Thomas A., Jr. 
Degen, David 
DeGolyer, Robert S. 
DeKoven, Mrs. John 
DeLee, Dr. Joseph B. 
DeLemon, H. R. 
Deming, Everett G. 
Dempster, Mrs. 

Charles W. 
Deneen, Mrs. Charles S. 
Denkewalter, W. E. 
Denman, Mrs. Burt J. 
Dennehy, Thomas C. 
Dennis, Charles H. 
Dent, George C. 
Deslsles, Mrs. Carrie L. 
Deutsch, Mrs. Percy L. 
DeVries, David 
DeVries, Peter 
Dewes, Rudolph Peter 
Dick, Edison 
Dick, Elmer J. 
Dick, Mrs. Homer T. 
Dickey, Roy 
Dickinson, F. R. 
Dickinson, Robert B. 
Dickinson, Mrs. W. 

Diehl, Harry L. 
Diestel, Mrs. Herman 
Dikeman, Aaron Butler 

Associate Members 


Dillon, Miss Hester 

Dimick, Miss Elizabeth 
Dixon, Alan C. 
Dixon, William Warren 
Doctor, Isidor 
Dodge, Mrs. Paul C. 
Doering, Mrs. 

Edmund J., Jr. 
Doering, Otto C. 
Doerr, William P., Sr. 
Doetsch, Miss Anna 
Dole, Arthur 
Dolese, Mrs. John 
Donahue, William J. 
Donker, Mrs. William 
Donlon, Mrs. Stephen E. 
Donnelley, Mrs. H. P. 
Donnelley, Miss Naomi 
Donnelly, Frank 
Donohue, Edgar T. 
Douglas, James H., Jr. 
Douglass, Kingman 
Drake, Lyman M. 
Dreiske, George J. 
Drummond, James J. 
Dryden, Mrs. George B. 
Dubbs, C. P. 
Dudley, Laurence H. 
Dugan, Alphonso G. 
Dulany, George W., Jr. 
Dulsky, Mrs. Samuel 
Dunbaugh, Harry J. 
Duncan, Albert G. 
Duner, Dr. Clarence S. 
Duner, Joseph A. 
Dunham, John H. 
Dunham, Miss Lucy Belle 
Dunham, Robert J. 
Dunlop, Mrs. Simpson 
Dunn, Samuel O. 
Dupee, Mrs. F. Kennett 
Durbin, Fletcher M. 

Easterberg, C. J. 
Eastman, Mrs. George H. 
Ebeling, Frederic O. 
Eckhart, Mrs. B. A. 
Eckhart, Percy B. 
Eddy, George A. 
Eddy, Thomas H. 
Edmonds, Harry C. 
Edwards, Miss Edith E. 
Edwards, Kenneth P. 
Egan, William B. 
Ehrman, Edwin H. 
Eiselen, Dr. Frederick 

Eisendrath, Edwin W. 
Eisendrath, Robert M. 
Eisendrath, Mrs. 

William N. 

Eisenschiml, Mrs. Otto 
Eisenstaedt, Harry 
Eisenstein, Sol 
Eitel, Max 
Elenbogen, Herman 
Ellbogen, Albert L. 
Elliot, Mrs. Frank M. 
Elliott, Dr. Charles A. 
Elliott, Frank R. 
Ellis, Howard 
Elting, Howard 
Ely, Mrs. C. Morse 
Engel, E. J. 

Engelhard, Benjamin M. 
Engstrom, Harold 
Engwall, John F. 
Erdmann, Mrs:C. Pardee 
Ericson, Mrs. Chester F. 
Ericson, Melvin Burton 
Ericsson, Clarence 
Ericsson, Dewey A. 
Ericsson, Henry 
Ericsson, Walter H. 
Ernst, Mrs. Leo 
Erskine, Albert DeWolf 
Etten, Henry C. 
Eustice, Alfred L. 
Evans, Mrs. Albert 

Evans, Miss Anna B. 
Evans, Mrs. David 
Evans, David J. 
Evans, Eliot H. 
Evans, Evan A. 
Ewell, CD. 
Ewen, William R. T. 

Fabian, Francis G. 
Fabry, Herman 
Fackt, Mrs. George P. 
Fader, A. L. 
Faget, James E. 
Faherty, Roger 
Fahrenwald, Frank A. 
Faithorn, Walter E. 
Falk, Miss Amy 
Farnham, Mrs. Harry J. 
Farrell, Mrs. B. J. 
Farrell, Rev. Thomas F. 
Faulkner, Charles J., Jr. 
Faulkner, Miss Elizabeth 
Faurot, Henry 
Faurot, Henry, Jr. 
Fay, Miss Agnes M. 
Fecke, Mrs. Frank J. 
Feigenheimer, Herman 
Feiwell, Morris E. 
Felix, Benjamin B. 
Fellows, William K. 
Felsenthal, Edward 

Feltman, Charles H. 

Fergus, Robert C. 
Ferguson, William H. 
Fernald, Robert W. 
Fetcher, Edwin S. 
Fetzer, Wade 
Fies, Mrs. E. E. 
Filek, August 
Findlay, Mrs. Roderick 
Finley, Max H. 
Finn, Joseph M. 
Finnerud, Dr. Clark W. 
Fischel, Frederic A. 
Fish, Mrs. Isaac 
Fishbein, Dr. Morris 
Fisher, Mrs. Edward 

Fisher, Harry M. 
Fitzpatrick, Mrs. John A. 
Flavin, Edwin f. 
Fleming, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Flesch, Eugene W. P. 
Flexner, Washington 
Florsheim, Irving S. 
Flosdorf, Mrs. G. E. 
Foley, Rev. William M. 
Follansbee, Mitchell D. 
Folonie, Mrs. Robert J. 
Folsom, Mrs. Richard S. 
Foote, Peter 
Forch, Mrs. John L., Jr. 
Foreman, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Foreman, Mrs. E. G. 
Foreman, Edwin G., Jr. 
Foreman, Harold E. 
Foresman, Mrs. W. 

Forgan, James B., Jr. 
Forgan, Mrs. J. Russell 
Forgan, Robert D. 
Forman, Charles 
Forstall, James J. 
Fortune, Miss Joanna 
Foster, Mrs. Charles K. 
Foster, Volney 
Fowler, Miss Elizabeth 
Fox, Charles E. 
Fox, Jacob Logan 
Fox, Dr. Paul C. 
Frank, Dr. Ira 
Frank, Mrs. Joseph K. 
Frankenstein, Rudolph 
Frankenstein, William B. 
Frankenthal, Dr. Lester 

E., Jr. 
Frazer, Mrs. George E. 
Freedman, Dr. I. Val 
Freeman, Charles Y. 
Freeman, Walter W. 
Freer, Archibald E. 
French, Dudley K. 
Frenier, A. B. 
Freudenthal, G. S. 

128 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Freund, Charles E. 
Frey, Charles Daniel 
Freyn, Henry J. 
Fridstein, Meyer 
Friedlander, Jacob 
Friedlich, Mrs. Herbert 
Friedlund, Mrs. J. Arthur 
Friedman, Mrs. Isaac K. 
Friedman, Oscar J. 
Friend, Mrs. Henry K. 
Friestedt, Arthur A. 
Frisbie, Chauncey 0. 
Frost, Mrs. Charles 
Fuller, Mrs. Charles 
Fuller, Mrs. Gretta 

Fuller, Judson M. 
Fuller, Leroy W. 
Furry, William S. 
Furst, Eduard A. 

Gabathuler, Miss Juanita 

Gabriel, Charles 

Gaertner, William 

Gale, G. Whittier 

Gale, Henry G. 

Gall, Charles H. 

Gall, Harry T. 

Gallagher, Vincent G. 

Gallup, Rockwell 

Gait, Mrs. A. T. 

Gamble, D. E. 

Gammage, Mrs. Adaline 

Gann, David B. 

Gansbergen, Mrs. F. H. 
Garard, Elzy A. 
Garcia, Jose 
Garden, Hugh M. G. 
Gardner, Addison L. 
Gardner, Addison 

L., Jr. 
Gardner, Henry A. 
Gardner, Mrs. James P. 
Garrison, Dr. Lester E. 
Gary, Fred Elbert 
Gately, Ralph M. 
Gates, Mrs. L. F. 
Gawne, Miss Clara J. 
Gay, Rev. A. Royal 
Gaylord, Duane W. 
Gear, H. B. 
Gehl, Dr. W. H. 
Gehrmann, Felix 
Geiger, Alfred B. 
George, Mrs. Albert B. 
George, Fred W. 
Gerding, R. W. 
Geringer, Charles M. 
Gerngross, Mrs. Leo 
Gerts, Walter S. 
Gettelman, Mrs. 
Sidney H. 

Getzoff, E. B. 

Gibbs, Dr. John Phillip 

Gibson, Dr. Stanley 

Gielow, Walter C. 

Giffert, Mrs. William 

Gifford, Mrs. 
Frederick C. 

Gilbert, Miss Clara C. 

Gilchrist, Mrs. John F. 

Gilchrist, Mrs. William 

Giles, Carl C. 

Gillette, Mrs. Ellen D. 

Gillman, Morris 

Gillson, Louis K. 

Ginther, Miss Minnie C. 

Girard, Mrs. Anna 

Glaescher, Mrs. G. W. 

Glasgow, H. A. 

Glasner, Rudolph W. 

Godehn, Paul M. 

Goedke, Charles F. 

Goehst, Mrs. John 

Goes, Mrs. Arthur A. 

Golden, Dr. Isaac J. K. 

Goldenberg, Sidney D. 


Golding, Robert N. 

Goldstine, Dr. Mark T. 

Goldy, Walter I. 

Goode, Mrs. Rowland T. 

Gooden, G. E. 

Goodkind, Dr. Maurice L. 

Goodman, Benedict K. 

Goodman, Mrs. Milton F. 

Goodman, W. J. 

Goodman, William E. 

Goodrow, William 
Goodwin, Clarence 

Goodwin, George S. 
Gordon, Miss Bertha F. 
Gordon, Harold J. 
Gordon, Mrs. Robert D. 
Gorrell, Mrs. Warren 
Gradle, Dr. Harry S. 
Grady, Dr. Grover Q. 
Graf, Robert J. 
Graff, Oscar C. 
Graham, Douglas 
Graham, E. V. 
Graham, Miss 
Margaret H. 
Gramm, Mrs. Helen 
Granger, Alfred 
Granger, Mrs. Everett J. 
Grant, Alexander R. 
Grant, James D. 
Grant, John G. 
Graves, Howard B. 
Grawoig, Allen 

Green, Miss Mary 

Green, Robert D. 
Green, Zola C. 
Greenberg, Andrew H. 
Greenburg, Dr. Ira E. 
Greene, Henry E. 
Greenebaum, James E. 
Greenebaum, M. E., Jr. 
Greenlee, James A. 
Greenlee, Mrs. William 

Greenman, Mrs. Earl C. 
Gregory, Clifford V. 
Gregory, Stephen 

S., Jr. 
Gregory, Tappan 
Grey, Charles F. 
Grey, Dr. Dorothy 
Griest, Mrs. Marianna L. 
Griffenhagen, Mrs. 

Edwin 0. 
Griffith, Mrs. Carroll L. 
Griffith, E. L. 
Griffith, Melvin L. 
Griffith, Mrs. William 
Griffiths, George W. 
Grimm, Walter H. 
Griswold, Harold T. 
Grizzard, James A. 
Gronkowski, Rev. C. I. 
Groot, Cornelius J. 
Groot, Lawrence A. 
Gross, Henry R. 
Grossman, Frank I. 
Grotenhuis, Mrs. 

William J. 
Grotowski, Dr. Leon 
Gruhn, Alvah V. 
Grulee, Lowry K. 
Grunow, Mrs. William C. 
Guenzel, Louis 
Guest, Ward E. 
Gundlach, Ernest T. 
Gunthorp, Walter J. 
Gurley, Miss Helen K. 
Gwinn, William R. 

Haas, Adolph R. 
Haas, Maurice 
Haas, Dr. Raoul R. 
Hadley, Mrs. Edwin M. 
Hagen, Mrs. Daise 
Hagen, Fred J. 
Hagens, Dr. Garrett J. 
Haggard, John D. 
Hagner, Fred L. 
Haight, George I. 
Hair, T. R. 
Hajicek, Rudolph F. 
Haldeman, Walter S. 
Hale, Mrs. Samuel 

Associate Members 


Hale, William B. 
Hall, David W. 
Hall, Edward B. 
Hall, Mrs. J. B. 
Hallmann, August F. 
Hallmann, Herman F. 
Halperin, Aaron 
Hamill, Charles H. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Hamill, Robert W. 
Hamilton, Thomas B. 
Hamlin, Paul D. 
Hammerschmidt, Mrs. 

George F. 
Hammitt, Miss 

Frances M. 
Hammond, Mrs. Idea L. 
Hammond, Thomas S. 
Hand, George W. 
Hanley, Henry L. 
Hann, J. Roberts 
Hansen, Mrs. Carl 
Hansen, Jacob W. 
Harder, John H. 
Hardie, George F. 
Hardin, John H. 
Harding, Charles 

F., Jr. 
Harding, George F. 
Harding, John Cowden 
Harding, Richard T. 
Hardinge, Franklin 
Harker, H. L. 
Harms, John V. D. 
Harper, Alfred C. 
Harris, Mrs. Abraham 
Harris, David J. 
Harris, Gordon L. 
Harris, Hayden B. 
Hart, Mrs. Herbert L. 
Hart, William M. 
Hartmann, A. 0. 
Hartshorn, Kenneth L. 
Hartwell, Fred G. 
Hartwig, Otto J. 
Hartz, W. Homer 
Harvey, Hillman H. 
Harvey, Richard M. 
Harwood, Thomas W. 
Haskell, Mrs. George E. 
Haugan, Oscar H. 
Havens, Samuel M. 
Hay, Mrs. William 

Hayes, Charles M. 
Hayes, Harold C. 
Hayes, Miss Mary E. 
Haynie, Miss Rachel W. 
Hays, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Hayslett, Arthur J. 
Hazlett, Dr. William H. 
Healy, Mrs. Marquette A. 

Heaney, Dr. N. Sproat 
Heaton, Harry E. 
Heaton, Herman C. 
Heberlein, Miss 

Amanda F. 
Heck, John 
Hedberg, Henry E. 
Heide, John H., Jr. 
Heidke, Herman L. 
Heiman, Marcus 
Heine, Mrs. Albert 
Heineman, Oscar 
Heinzelman, Karl 
Heinzen, Mrs. Carl 
Heldmaier, Miss Marie 
Helfrich, J. Howard 
Heller, Albert 
Heller, John A. 
Heller, Mrs. Walter E. 
Hellman, George A. 
Hellyer, Walter 
Hemmens, Mrs. Walter P. 
Hemple, Miss Anne C. 
Henderson, Thomas B. G. 
Henkel, Frederick W. 
Henley, Dr. Eugene H. 
Hennings, Mrs. 

Abraham J. 
Henry, Huntington B. 
Henry, Otto 
Henshaw, Mrs. 

Raymond S. 
Herrick, Charles E. 
Herrick, Miss Louise 
Herrick, Walter D. 
Herron, James C. 
Herron, Mrs. Ollie L. 
Hershey, J. Clarence 
Hertz, Mrs. Fred 
Herwig, George 
Herwig, William D., Jr. 
Heun, Arthur 
Heverly, Earl L. 
Hibbard, Mrs. Angus S. 
Hibbard, Mrs. W. G. 
Higgins, John 
Higinbotham, Harlow D. 
Higley, Mrs. Charles W. 
Hildebrand, Eugene, Jr. 
Hildebrand, Grant M. 
Hill, Mrs. E. M. 
Hill, Mrs. Russell D. 
Hill, William E. 
Hille, Dr. Hermann 
Hillebrecht, Herbert E. 
Hillis, Dr. David S. 
Hills, Edward R. 
Himrod, Mrs. Frank W. 
Hinkle, Ross O. 
Hinman, Mrs. Estelle S. 
Hinrichs, Henry, Jr. 
Hinsberg, Stanley K. 

Hintz, John C. 
Hird, Frederick H. 
Hirsch, Jacob H. 
Hiscox, Morton 
Histed, J. Roland 
Hixon, Mrs. Frank P. 
Hodgkinson, Mrs. W. R. 
Hoffman, Glen T. 
Hoffmann, Miss Caroline 

Hoffmann, Edward 

Hogan, Robert E. 
Hohman, Dr. E. H. 
Hoier, William V. 
Holden, Edward A. 
Holland, Dr. William E. 
Holliday, W. J. 
Hollingsworth, R. G. 
Hollis, Henry L. 
Hollister, Francis H. 
Holmes, George J. 
Holmes, Miss Harriet F. 
Holmes, Mrs. Maud G. 
Holmes, William 
Holmes, William N. 
Holt, Miss Ellen 
Homan, Miss Blossom L. 
Honnold, Dr. Fred C. 
Honsik, Mrs. James M. 
Hoover, F. E. 
Hoover, Mrs. Frank K. 
Hoover, Mrs. Fred W. 
Hoover, H. Earl 
Hoover, Ray P. 
Hope, Alfred S. 
Hopkins, Farley 
Hopkins, Mrs. James M. 
Hopkins, John L. 
Horan, Dennis A. 
Horcher, William W. 
Horner, Dr. David A. 
Horner, Mrs. Maurice 

L., Jr. 
Hornung, Joseph J. 
Horst, Curt A. 
Horton, George T. 
Horton, Hiram T. 
Horton, Horace B. 
Hosbein, Louis H. 
Hosmer, Philip B. 
Hottinger, Adolph 
Howard, Mrs. Elmer A. 
Howard, Willis G. 
Howe, Charles Arthur 
Howe, Clinton W. 
Howe, Warren D. 
Howe, William G. 
Howell, Albert S. 
Howell, William 
Howse, Richard 
Hoyne, Thomas Temple 

130 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Hoyt, Frederick T. 
Hoyt, Mrs. Phelps B. 
Hubbard, George W. 
Huber, Dr. Harry Lee 
Hudson, Mrs. H. 

Newton • 
Hudson, Walter L. 
Hudson, William E. 
Huey, Mrs. A. S. 
Huff, Thomas D. 
Huggins, Dr. Ben H. 
Hughes, George A. 
Hughes, John E. 
Hughes, John W. 
Hulbert, Mrs. Charles 

Hulbert, Mrs. Milan H. 
Hume, John T. 
Humphrey, H. K. 
Huncke, Herbert S. 
Huncke, Oswald W. 
Hunter, Samuel M. 
Hurley, Edward N., Jr. 
Huston, W. L. 
Huston, Ward T. 
Huszagh, R. LeRoy 
Huszagh, Ralph D. 
Hutchinson, Foye P. 
Hutchinson, Samuel S. 
Hyatt, R. C. 
Hynes, Rev. J. A. 

Ickes, Raymond 
Idelman, Bernard 
Ilg, Robert A. 
Inlander, Samuel 
Irons, Dr. Ernest E. 
Isaacs, Charles W., Jr. 
Isham, Henry P. 
Ives, Clifford E. 

Jackson, Allan 
Jackson, Archer L. 
Jacobi, Miss Emily C. 
Jacobs, Hyman A. 
Jacobs, Julius 
Jacobs, Louis G. 
Jacobs, Walter H. 
Jacobson, Raphael 
Jaeger, George J., Jr. 
Jaffe, Dr. Richard 

Jaffray, Mrs. David S. 
James, Edward P. 
James, William R. 
Jameson, Clarence W. 
Janusch, Fred W. 
Jaques, Mrs. Louis 

Jarchow, Mrs. C. E. 
Jar chow, Charles C. 
Jarratt, Mrs. Walter J. 

Jefferies, F. L. 
Jenkins, David F. D. 
Jenkins, Mrs. John E. 
Jenkinson, Mrs. Arthur 

Jenks, William Shippen 
Jennings, Ode D. 
Jennings, Mrs. Rosa V. 
Jerger, Wilbur Joseph 
Jetzinger, David 
Jirka, Dr. Frank J. 
Jirka, Dr. Robert H. 
John, Dr. Findley D. 
Johnson, Albert M. 
Johnson, Alvin 0. 
Johnson, Arthur L. 
Johnson, Mrs. Harley 

Johnson, Isaac Horton 
Johnson, Joseph F. 
Johnson, Nels E. 
Johnson, Mrs. O. W. 
Johnson, Olaf B. 
Johnson, Philip C. 
Johnson, Ulysses G. 
Johnston, Arthur C. 
Johnston, Edward R. 
Johnston, Mrs. Hubert 

Johnston, Mrs. M. L. 
Johnstone, Dr. A. Ralph 
Johnstone, George A. 
Johnstone, Dr. Mary 

M. S. 
Jones, Albert G. 
Jones, G. Herbert 
Jones, James B. 
Jones, Lester M. 
Jones, Dr. Margaret M. 
Jones, Melvin 
Jones, Miss Susan E. 
Jones, Warren G. 
Joseph, Louis L. 
Joy, Guy A. 
Joyce, David G. 
Joyce, Joseph 
Judah, Noble Brandon 
Judson, Clay 
Juergens, H. Paul 
Julien, Victor R. 
Junker, Miss Elsa W. 
Junkunc, Stephen 

Kaercher, A. W. 
Kahn, Gus 
Kahn, J. Kesner 
Kahn, Louis 
Kaine, James B. 
Kane, Jerome M. 
Kanter, Jerome J. 
Kaplan, Nathan D. 
Karpen, Michael 

Kaspar, Otto 

Katz, Mrs. Sidney L. 

Katzenstein, Mrs. 

George P. 
Kauffman, Mrs. R. K. 
Kauffmann, Alfred 
Kavanagh, Clarence H. 
Kavanagh, Maurice F. 
Kay, Mrs. Marie E. 
Keefe, Mrs. George I. 
Keehn, George W. 
Keene, Mrs. Joseph 
Keeney, Albert F. 
Kehl, Robert Joseph 
Keith, Stanley 
Kelker, Rudolph F., Jr. 
Kellogg, John L. 
Kelly, Edward T. 
Kelly, Mrs. Haven Core 
Kelly, James J. 
Kemp, Mrs. E. M. 
Kempner, Harry B. 
Kempner, Stan 
Kendall, Mrs. Virginia H. 
Kendrick, John F. 
Kennedy, Mrs. E. J. 
Kennedy, Miss Leonore 
Kennedy, Lesley 
Kennelly, Martin H. 
Kent, Dr. O. B. 
Keogh, Gordon E. 
Kern, Trude 
Kersey, Glen B. 
Kerwin, Edward M. 
Kesner, Jacob L. 
Kestnbaum, Meyer 
Kiessling, Mrs. Charles S. 
Kilbourne, L. B. 
Kile, Miss Jessie J. 
Kimbark, Mrs. Eugene 

Kimbark, John R. 
King, Joseph H. 
Kingman, Mrs. Arthur G. 
Kinney, Mrs. Minnie B. 
Kinsey, Frank 
Kinsey, Robert S. 
Kintzel, Richard 
Kircher, Rev. Julius 
Kirchheimer, Max 
Kirkland, Mrs. 

Kitchell, Howell W. 
Kittredge, R. J. 
Kitzelman, Otto 
Klein, Arthur F. 
Klein, Henry A. 
Klein, Mrs. Samuel 
Kleinpell, Dr. Henry H. 
Kleist, Mrs. Harry 
Kleppinger, William H. 
Kleutgen, Dr. Arthur C. 

Associate Members 


Kline, Sol 
Klinetop, Mrs. 

Charles W. 
Klink, A. F. 

Knott, Mrs. Stephen R. 
Knox, Harry S. 
Knutson, George H. 
Koch, Paul W. 
Koch, Raymond-J. 
Kochs, August 
Kochs, Mrs. Robert T. 
Kohl, Mrs. Caroline L. 
Kohler, Eric L. 
Kohlsaat, Edward C. 
Komiss, David S. 
Konsberg, Alvin V. 
Kopf, William P. 
Kosobud, William F. 
Kotal, John A. 
Kotin, George N. 
Koueky, Dr. J. D. 
Kovac, Stefan 
Kraber, Mrs. Fredericka 
Kraft, C. H. 
Kraft, James L. 
Kraft, Norman 
Kralovec, Emil G. 
Kralovec, Mrs. Otto J. 
Kramer, Leroy 
Kraus, Peter J. 
Kraus, Samuel B. 
Krause, John J. 
Kretschmer, Dr. 

Herman L. 
Kritchevsky, Dr. Wolff 
Kroehl, Howard 
Kropff, C. G. 
Krost, Dr. Gerard N. 
Krueger, Leopold A. 
Krutckoff, Charles 
Kuehn, A. L. 
Kuh, Mrs. Edwin J., Jr. 
Kuhl, Harry J. 
Kuhn, Frederick T. 
Kuhn, Dr. Hedwig S. 
Kunka, Bernard J. 
Kunstadter, Albert 
Kunstadter, Sigmund 
Kurtzon, Morris 

Lacey, Miss Edith M. 
LaChance, Mrs. 

Leander H. 
Laflin, Mrs. Louis E. 
Laflin, Louis E., Jr. 
Lampert, Wilson W. 
Lamson, W. A. 
Lanahan, Mrs. M. J. 
Landry, Alvar A. 
Lane, F. Howard 
Lane, Ray E. 
Lane, Wallace R. 

Lang, Edward J. 
Lang, Mrs. W. J. 
Lange, Mrs. August 
Langenbach, Mrs. 

Alice R. 
Langhorne, George 

Langworthy, Benjamin 

Lanman, E. B. 
Lansinger, Mrs. John M. 
Larimer, Howard S. 
Larson, Bror 0. 
Lashley, Mrs. Karl S. 
Lasker, Albert D. 
Lau, Max 
Lauren, Newton B. 
Lauritzen, CM. 
Lauter, Mrs. Vera 
Lautmann, Herbert M. 
Lavezzorio, Mrs. J. B. 
Lavidge, Arthur W. 
Lawless, Dr. Theodore K. 
Lawson, A. J. 
Lawson, Mrs. Iver N. 
Lawton, Frank W. 
Laylander, O. J. 
Leahy, Thomas F. 
Learned, Edwin J. 
Leavell, James R. 
Leavitt, Mrs. Wellington 
Lebold, Foreman N. 
Lebold, Samuel N. 
Lebolt, John Michael 
Lederer, Dr. Francis L. 
Lee, Mrs. John H. S. 
Lefens, Miss Katherine J. 
Lefens, Walter C. 
Lehmann, Miss 

Augusta E. 
Leichenko, Peter M. 
Leight, Mrs. Albert E. 
Leistner, Oscar 
Leland, Miss Alice J. 
Leland, Mrs. Roscoe G. 
LeMoon, A. R. 
Lenz, J. Mayo 
Leonard, Arthur G. 
Leonard, Arthur T. 
Letts, Mrs. Frank C. 
Leverone, Louis E. 
Levinson, Mrs. Salmon O. 
Levitan, Benjamin 
Levitetz, Nathan 
Levy, Alexander M. 
Levy, Arthur G. 
Lewis, David R. 
Lewy, Dr. Alfred 
Libby, Mrs. C. P. 
Liebman, A. J. 
Ligman, Rev. Thaddeus 
Lillie, Frank R. 

Lindahl, Mrs. Edward J. 
Linden, John A. 
Lindheimer, B. F. 
Lindholm, Charles V. 
Lindquist, J. E. 
Lingle, Bowman C. 
Linton, Ben B. 
Lipman, Robert R. 
Liss, Samuel 
Little, Mrs. E. H. 
Littler, Harry E., Jr. 
Livingston, Julian M. 
Livingston, Mrs. 

Milton L. 
Llewellyn, Mrs. John T. 
Llewellyn, Paul 
Lloyd, Edward W. 
Lloyd, William Bross 
Lobdell, Mrs. Edwin L. 
Lockwood, W. S. 
Loeb, Mrs. A. H. 
Loeb, Hamilton M. 
Loeb, Jacob M. 
Loeb, Leo A. 
Loesch, Frank J. 
Loewenberg, Israel S. 
Loewenberg, M. L. 
Loewenstein, Sidney 
Loewenthal, Richard J. 
Logan, John I. 
Logan, L. B. 
Long, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Long, William E. 
Lord, Arthur R. 
Lord, Mrs. Russell 
Loring, Edward D. 
Loucks, Charles 0. 
Louer, Albert S. 
Love, Chase W. 
Lovell, William H. 
Lovgren, Carl 
Lownik, Dr. Felix J. 
Lucey, Patrick J. 
Ludington, Nelson J. 
Ludlam, Miss Bertha S. 
Ludolph, Wilbur M. 
Lueder, Arthur C. 
Luehr, Dr. Edward 
Lufkin, Wallace W. 
Luria, Herbert A. 
Lurie, H. J. 
Lustgarten, Samuel 
Lutter, Henry J. 
Lydon, Mrs. William A. 
Lyford, Harry B. 
Lynch, William Joseph 
Lyon, Charles H. 
Lyon, Frank R. 

Maass, J. Edward 
Mabee, Mrs. Melbourne 
MacCardle, H. B. 

132 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

MacDonald, E. K. 
MacDougal, Mrs. T. W. 
Mackey, Frank J. 
Mackinson, Dr. John C. 
MacLeish, Mrs. Andrew 
MacLellan, K. F. 
Magan, Miss Jane A. 
Magill, Henry P. 
Magill, Robert M. 
Magnus, Albert, Jr. 
Magnus, August C. 
Magnuson, Mrs. Paul 
Maher, Mrs. D. W. 
Main, Walter D. 
Malone, William H. 
Manaster, Harry 
Mandel, Mrs. Aaron W. 
Mandel, Edwin F. 
Mandel, Mrs. Emanuel 
Mandel, Miss Florence 
Mandel, Mrs. Robert 
Manegold, Mrs. Frank W. 
Manierre, Francis E. 
Manierre, Louis 
Manley, John A. 
Mann, Albert C. 
Mann, John P. 
Manson, David 
Marcus, Maurice S. 
Mark, Mrs. Cyrus 
Marks, Arnold K. 
Marquis, A. N. 
Marsh, A. Fletcher 
Marsh, John 

McWilliams, II 
Marsh, Mrs. John P. 
Marsh, Mrs. Marshall S. 
Martin, Mrs. Franklin H. 
Martin, George F. 
Martin, Samuel H. 
Martin, W. B. 
Martin, Wells 
Marx, Frederick Z. 
Marzluff, Frank W. 
Marzola, Leo A. 
Mason, Phelps 
Mason, Willard J. 
Massee, B. A. 
Massena, Roy 
Massey, Peter J. 
Masterson, Peter 
Mathesius, Mrs. Walther 
Matson, J. Edward 
Matter, Mrs. John 
Matthiessen, Frank 
Matz, Mrs. Rudolph 
Maurer, Dr. Siegfried 
Maxwell, Lloyd R. 
Mayer, Frank D. 
Mayer, Mrs. Herbert G. 
Mayer, Isaac H. 
Mayer, Oscar F. 

Mayer, Theodore S. 
McAllister, Sydney G. 
McAuley, John E. 
McBirney, Mrs. Hugh J. 
McBride, Mrs. Walter J. 
McCahey, James B. 
McCarthy, Edmond J. 
McCarthy, Joseph W. 
McClellan, Dr. John H. 
McCluer, William 

McClun, John M. 
McCord, Downer 
McCormack, Professor 

McCormick, Mrs. 

Alexander A. 
McCormick, Mrs. 

McCormick, Fowler 
McCormick, Howard H. 
McCormick, Leander J. 
McCormick, Robert 

H., Jr. 
McCoy, Herbert N. 
McCrea, Mrs. W. S. 
McCready, Mrs. E. W. 
McCreight, Miss Gladys 

McCreight, Louis Ralph 
McDonald, Lewis 
McDougal, Mrs. James B. 
McDougal, Mrs. Robert 
McDougall, Mrs. 

Arthur R. 
McErlean, Charles V. 
McGarry, John A. 
McGrath, George E. 
McGraw, Max 
McGurn, Mathew S. 
McHugh, Mrs. Grover 
Mcintosh, Arthur T. 
Mcintosh, Mrs. Walter G. 
McKeever, Buell 
McKinney, Mrs. Hayes 
McLaury, Mrs. C. W. 
McLaury, Walker G. 
McMenemy, L. T. 
McMillan, James G. 
McMillan, John 
McMillan, W. B. 
McMillan, William M. 
McNamara, Louis G. 
McNulty, Joseph D. 
McQuarrie, Mrs. Fannie 
McVoy, John M. 
Mead, Dr. Henry C. A. 
Medsker, Dr. Ora L. 
Melchione, Joseph 
Melendy, Dr. R. A. 
Melnick, Leopold B. 
Merrell, John H. 

Merriam, Miss Eleanor 
Merrill, Henry S. 
Merrill, William W. 
Merz, Edward E. 
Metz, Dr. A. R. 
Metzel, Mrs. Albert J. 
Meyer, Mrs. A. H. 
Meyer, Abraham W. 
Meyer, Albert 
Meyer, Charles Z. 
Meyer, Sam R. 
Meyer, William 
Meyercord, George R. 
Michaels, Everett B. 
Midowicz, C. E. 
Milhening, Frank 
Milhening, Joseph 
Miller, Charles B. 
Miller, Mrs. Clayton W. 
Miller, Mrs. Darius 
Miller, Mrs. F. H. 
Miller, Hyman 
Miller, John S. 
Miller, Dr. Joseph L. 
Miller.Mrs.Olive Beaupre 
Miller, Oscar C. 
Miller, Mrs. Phillip 
Miller, R. T. 
Miller, Walter E. 
Miller, Mrs. Walter H. 
Miller, William S. 
Mills, Allen G. 
Mills, Fred L. 
Mills, John, Sr. 
Mills, Mrs. William S. 
Miner, Dr. Carl S. 
Miner, H. J. 
Minotto, Mrs. James 
Minturn, Benjamin E. 
Mitchell, Charles D. 
Mitchell, George F. 
Mitchell, John J. 
Mitchell, Mrs. John J. 
Mitchell, Leeds 
Mitchell, Oliver 
Mock, Dr. Harry Edgar 
Moderwell, Charles M. 
Moeling, Mrs. Walter G. 
Moeller, Rev. Herman H. 
Moffatt, Mrs. 

Elizabeth M. 
Mohr, William J. 
Moist, Mrs. Samuel E. 
Molloy, David J. 
Moltz, Mrs. Alice 
Monheimer, Henry I. 
Monroe, William S. 
Montgomery, Dr. 

Albert H. 
Moore, C. B. 
Moore, Philip Wyatt 
Moos, Joseph B. 

Associate Members 


Moran, Brian T. 
Moran, Miss Margaret 
Morey, Charles W. 
Morf, F. William 
Morgan, Alden K. 
Morgan, Mrs. 

Kendrick E. 
Morris, Edward H. 
Morris, Mrs. Seymour 
Morrison, Mrs. 

Charles E. 
Morrison, Mrs. Harry 
Morrison, James C. 
Morrison, Matthew A. 
Morrisson, James W. 
Morse, Mrs. Charles J. 
Morse, Leland R. 
Morse, Mrs. Milton 
Morse, Robert H. 
Mortenson, Mrs. Jacob 
Morton, Sterling 
Morton, William Morris 
Moses, Howard A. 
Moss, Jerome A. 
Mouat, Andrew 
Mowry, Louis C. 
Mudge, Mrs. John B. 
Muehlstein, Mrs. 

Mueller, Austin M. 
Mueller, Miss Hedwig H. 
Mueller, J. Herbert 
Mueller, Paul H. 
Mulford, Miss Melinda 

Mulholand, William H. 
Mulligan, George F. 
Munroe, Moray 
Murphy, Robert E. 
Musselman.Dr.George H. 

Naber, Henry G. 
Nadler, Dr. Walter H. 
Naess, Sigurd E. 
Nash, Charles J. 
Nathan, Claude 
Nebel, Herman C. 
Neely, Miss Carrie 

Neely, Mrs. Lloyd F. 
Nehls, Arthur L. 
Neilson, Mrs. Francis 
Nellegar, Mrs. Jay C. 
Nelson, Charles G. 
Nelson, Donald M. 
Nelson, Murry 
Nelson, N. J. 
Nelson, Victor W. 
Netcher, Mrs. Charles 
Neu, Clarence L. 
Neuffer, Paul A. 
Neumann, Arthur E. 

Newhall, R. Frank 
Newhouse, Karl 
Nichols, Mrs. George R. 
Nichols, Mrs. George 

R., Jr. 
Nichols, J. C. 
Nichols, S. F. 
Nicholson, Thomas G. 
Nitze, Mrs. William A. 
Noble, Samuel R. 
Noelle, Joseph B. 
Nollau, Miss Emma 
Noonan, Edward J. 
Norcross, Frederic F. 
Norman, Harold W. 
Norris, Mrs. Lester 
Norris, Mrs. William W. 
Norton, R. H. 
Novak, Charles J. 
Noyes, A. H. 
Noyes, Allan S. 
Noyes, David A. 
Noyes, Mrs. May Wells 
Nusbaum, Mrs. Carl B. 
Nyman, Dr. John Egbert 

Oates, James F. 
Oberf elder, Herbert M. 
Oberfelder, Walter S. 
O'Brien, Frank J. 
O'Brien, Miss Janet 
Odell, William R. 
Odell, William 

R., Jr. 
O'Donnell, Miss Rose 
Off, Mrs. Clifford 
Offield, James R. 
Oglesbee, Nathan H. 
O'Keefe, Mrs. Dennis D. 
Olcott, Mrs. Henry C. 
Oldefest, Edward G. 
O'Leary, John W. 
Oliver, Gene G. 
Oliver, Mrs. Paul 
Olson, Gustaf 
Omo, Don L. 
Oppenheimer, Alfred 
Oppenheimer, Mrs. 

Harry D. 
Orndoff, Dr. Benjamin H. 
O'Rourke, Albert 
Orr, Mrs. Eleanor N. 
Orr, Mrs. Robert C. 
Orr, Thomas C. 
Orthal, A. J. 
Ortmayer, Dr. Marie 
Osborn, Theodore L. 
Ostrom, Charles S. 
Ostrom, Mrs. James 

Otis, J. Sanford 
Otis, Joseph E. 

Otis, Joseph Edward, Jr. 
Otis, Ralph C. 
Otis, Raymond 
Otis, Stuart Huntington 
Otis, Mrs. Xavier L. 
Ouska, John A. 
Owings, Mrs. 
Nathaniel A. 

Paasche, Jens A. 
Packard, Dr. Rollo K. 
Paepcke, Walter P. 
Page-Wood, Gerald 
Pagin, Mrs. Frank S. 
Pam, Miss Carrie 
Pardridge, Albert J. 
Pardridge, Mrs. E. W. 
Park, R. E. 
Parker, Frank B. 
Parker, Dr. Gaston C. 
Parker, Norman S. 
Parker, Troy L. 
Parks, C. R. 
Parmelee, Dr. A. H. 
Partridge, Lloyd C. 
Paschen, Mrs. Henry 
Patrick, Miss Catherine 
Patrick, Dr. Hugh T. 
Pauling, Edward G. 
Payne, Professor James 
Peabody, Mrs. Francis S. 
Peabody, Howard B. 
Peabody, Miss Susan W. 
Peacock, Robert E. 
Peacock, Walter C. 
Pearl, Allen S. 
Pearse, Langdon 
Pearson, F. W. 
Pearson, George 

Albert, Jr. 
Peck, Dr. David B. 
Peet, Mrs. Belle G. 
Peirce, Albert E. 
Pelley, John J. 
Peltier, M. F. 
PenDell, Charles W. 
Percy, Dr. Nelson 

Perkins, A. T. 
Perkins, Mrs. Herbert F. 
Perry, Dr. Ethel B. 
Perry, I. Newton 
Peter, William F. 
Peterkin, Daniel 
Peters, Harry A. 
Petersen, Jurgen 
Petersen, Dr. William F. 
Peterson, Albert 
Peterson, Alexander B. 
Peterson, Mrs. Anna J. 
Peterson, Arthur J. 
Peterson, Axel A. 

134 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Peterson, Mrs. Bertha I. 
Pettersen, Fred A. 
Pflaum, A. J. 
Pflock, Dr. John J. 
Phelps, Mrs. W. L. 
Phemister, Dr. Dallas B. 
Phillips, Dr. Herbert 

Picher, Mrs. Oliver S. 
Pick, Albert, Jr. 
Pick, George 
Pierce, J. Norman 
Pierce, Paul, Jr. 
Pirie, Mrs. John T. 
Pitcher, Mrs. Henry L. 
Pitzner, Alwin Frederick 
Plapp, Miss Doris A. 
Piatt, Mrs. Robert S. 
Plunkett, William H. 
Podell, Mrs. Beatrice 

Polk, Mrs. Stella F. 
Pollock, Dr. Harry L. 
Pomeroy, Mrs. Frank W. 
Pond, Irving K. 
Pool, Marvin B. 
Poole, Mrs. Frederick 

Poole, George A. 
Poole, Mrs. Ralph H. 
Poor, Fred A. 
Poor, Mrs. Fred A. 
Pope, Frank 
Pope, Henry 
Pope, Herbert 
Poppenhagen, Henry J. 
Porter, Mrs. Frank S. 
Porter, Henry H., Jr. 
Porter, James F. 
Porterfield, Mrs. John F. 
Post, Frederick, Jr. 
Post, Gordon W. 
Post, Mrs. Philip Sidney 
Pottenger, William A. 
Pottenger, Miss 

Zipporah Herrick 
Powell, Isaac N. 
Prahl, Frederick A. 
Pratt, Mrs. William E. 
Prentice, John K. 
Primley, Walter S. 
Prince, Rev. Herbert W. 
Prince, Leonard M. 
Proxmire, Dr. 

Theodore Stanley 
Prussing, Mrs. George C. 
Prussing, Mrs. R. E. 
Puckey, F. W. 
Pulver, Hugo 
Purcell, Joseph D. 
Purdy, Sparrow E. 

Pusey, Dr. William Allen 
Putnam, Miss Mabel C. 

Quigley, William J. 
Quinlan, Dr. William W. 

Raber, Franklin 
Radau, Hugo 
Radford, Mrs. W. A., Jr. 
Radniecki, Rev. Stanley 
Raff, Mrs. Arthur 
Raftree, Miss Julia M. 
Railton, Miss Frances 
Raithel, Miss Luella 
Randall, Charles P. 
Randall, Rev. Edwin J. 
Randall, Irving 
Randle, Mrs. Charles H. 
Randle, Guy D. 
Raney, Mrs. R. J. 
Rankin, Miss Jessie H. 
Ray, Hal. S. 
Raymond, Mrs. 

Howard D. 
Razim, A. J. 
Reach, Benjamin F. 
Reach, William 
Redington, F. B. 
Redington, Mrs. W. H. 
Reed, Mrs. Frank D. 
Reed, Mrs. Kersey Coates 
Reed, Norris H. 
Reed, Mrs. Philip L. 
Reed, T. J. 
Reeve, Mrs. Earl 
Reeve, Frederick E. 
Reffelt, Miss F. A. 
Regenstein, Joseph 
Regensteiner, Theodore 
Regnery, William H. 
Reich, Miss Annie 
Reichmann, Alexander F. 
Reid, Mrs. Bryan 
Reiter, Joseph J. 
Remy, Mrs. William 
Renshaw, Mrs. Charles 
Renwick, Edward A. 
Rew, Mrs. Irwin 
Reynolds, Harold F. 
Reynolds, Mrs. J. J. 
Rice, Arthur L. 
Rice, George L. 
Rice, Laurence A. 
Rich, Edward P. 
Rich, Elmer 
Richards, J. DeForest 
Richards, Marcus D. 
Richardson, George A. 
Richardson, Guy A. 
Richter, Mrs. Adelyn W. 
Rickcords, Francis S. 
Ricketts, C. Lindsay 

Riddle, Herbert H. 
Ridgeway, Ernest 
Ridgway, William 
Riemenschneider, Mrs. 

Julius H. 
Ries, Dr. Emil 
Rieser, Mrs. Herman 
Rieser, Leonard M. 
Rietz, Elmer W. 
Rietz, Walter H. 
Rigney, William T. 
Rinder, E. W. 
Ring, Miss Mary E. 
Ripstra, J. Henri 
Rittenhouse, Charles J. 
Robbins, Percy A. 
Roberts, Clark T. 
Roberts, Mrs. John 
Roberts, John M. 
Roberts, Dr. S. M. 
Roberts, Mrs. Warren R. 
Roberts, William 

Robson, Miss Sarah C. 
Roche, Miss Emily 
Rockwell, Harold H. 
Roderick, Solomon P. 
Rodgers, Dr. David C. 
Rodman, Thomas 

Roehling, C. E. 
Roehling, Mrs. 

Otto G. 
Roehm, George R. 
Rogers, Miss Annie T. 
Rogers, Mrs. Bernard F. 
Rogers, Bernard F., Jr. 
Rogers, Dr. Cassius C. 
Rogers, Joseph E. 
Rogerson, Everett E. 
Rolfes, Gerald A. 
Romer, Miss Dagmar E. 
Root, John W. 
Rosborough, Dr. Paul A. 
Rosen, M. R. 
Rosenbaum, Mrs. 

Edwin S. 
Rosenfeld, Mrs. Maurice 
Rosenfield, Mrs. 

Morris S. 
Rosenfield, William M. 
Rosenthal, James 
Rosenthal, Kurt 
Rosenthal, Lessing 
Rosenwald, Mrs. Julius 
Rosenwald, Richard M. 
Ross, Charles S. 
Ross, Robert C. 
Ross, Mrs. Robert E. 
Ross, Thompson 
Ross, Walter S. 
Roth, Aaron 

Associate Members 


Roth, Mrs. Margit 

Rothacker, Watterson R. 
Rothschild, George 

Rothschild, Maurice L. 
Rothschild, Melville N. 
Routh, George E., Jr. 
Rowe, Edgar C. 
Rozelle, Mrs. Emma 
Rubel, Dr. Maurice 
Rubens, Mrs. Charles 
Rubovits, Theodore 
Ruckelhausen, Mrs. 

Rueckheim, Miss Lillian 
Ruel, John G. 
Rushton, Joseph A. 
Russell, Dr. Joseph W. 
Russell, Paul S. 
Rutledge, George E. 
Ryan, Henry B. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Edward L. 
Ryerson, Joseph T. 

Sackley, Mrs. James A. 
Sage, W. Otis 
Salisbury, Mrs. 

Warren M. 
Salmon, Mrs. E. D. 
Sammons, Wheeler 
Sample, John Glen 
Sandidge, Miss Daisy 
Sands, Mrs. Frances B. 
Santini, Mrs. Randolph 
Sardeson, Orville A. 
Sargent, Chester F. 
Sargent, John R. W. 
Sargent, Ralph 
Sauter, Fred J. 
Sauter, Leonard J. 
Sawyer, Dr. Alvah L. 
Schacht, John H. 
Schafer, O. J. 
Schaffer, Dr. David N. 
Schaffner, Mrs. Joseph 
Schaffner, Robert C. 
Scheidenhelm, Edward L. 
Scheinman, Jesse D. 
Schermerhorn, W. I. 
Schlake, William 
Schmidt, Dr. Charles L. 
Schmidt, Mrs. Minna 
Schmitz, Dr. Henry 
Schmitz, Nicholas J. 
Schneider, F. P. 
Schnering, Otto Y. 
Schnur, Ruth A. 
Scholl, Dr. William M. 
Schram, Harry S. 
Schreiner, Sigurd 
Schroeder, Dr. George H. 

Schukraft, William 
Schulman, A. S. 
Schulze, Mrs. Mathilde 
Schulze, William 
Schupp, Philip C. 
Schuyler, Mrs. Daniel 

J., Jr. 
Schwanke, Arthur 
Schwartz, Charles K. 
Schwartz, Charles P. 
Schwarz, Herbert E. 
Schwarzhaupt, Emil 
Sclanders, Mrs. Alexander 
Scott, Robert L. 
Scribner, Gilbert 
Scully, Mrs. D. B. 
Seames, Mrs. Charles 0. 
Sears, J. Alden 
Sears, Richard W., Jr. 
Seaver, Andrew E. 
Seaverns, George A. 
Seaverns, Louis C. 
See, Dr. Agnes Chester 
Seeberger, Miss Dora A. 
Seeburg, Justus P. 
Seifert, Mrs. Walter J. 
Seip, Emil G. 
Seipp, Clarence T. 
Seipp, Edwin A. 
Seipp, William C. 
Sello, George W. 
Sencenbaugh, Mrs. G. W. 
Seng, Frank J. 
Seng, V. J. 
Senne, John A. 
Sennekohl, Mrs. A. C. 
Shaffer, Carroll 
Shaffer, Charles B. 
Shambaugh, Dr. George E. 
Shanesy, Ralph D. 
Shannon, Angus Roy 
Shapiro, Meyer 
Sharpe, N. M. 
Shaw, Alfred P. 
Shaw, Mrs. Howard 
Shaw, Theodore A. 
Sheldon, James M. 
Shelton, Dr. W. Eugene 
Shepherd, Mrs. Edith P. 
Sherman, Mrs. Francis 

C, Sr. 
Shields, James Culver 
Shillestad, John N. 
Shire, Moses E. 
Shoan, Nels 
Shorey, Clyde E. 
Short, J. R. 

Short, Miss Shirley Jane 
Shoup, A. D. 
Shumway, Mrs. Edward 

Sidley, William P. 

Siebel, Mrs. Ewald H. 
Sigman, Leon 
Silander, A. I. 
Silberman, Charles 
Silberman, David B. 
Silberman, Hubert S. 
Sills, Clarence W. 
Silverthorne, George M. 
Simond, Robert E. 
Simonds, Dr. James P. 
Sincere, Benjamin E. 
Sinclair, Dr. J. Frank 
Singer, Mrs. Mortimer'H. 
Sitzer, Dr. L. Grace 

Skooglund, David 
Sleeper, Mrs. Olive C. 
Smith, Mrs. Ch-rles R. 
Smith, Mrs. E. A. 
Smith, Mrs. Emerv J. 
Smith, Mrs. Frank S. 
Smith, Franklin P. 
Smith, Harold Byron 
Smith, Jens 
Smith, Jesse E. 
Smith, Mrs. Katherine 

Smith, Mrs. Kinney 
Smith, Miss Marion D. 
Smith, Samuel K. 
Smith, Mrs. Theodore 

Smith, Walter Bourne 
Smith, Walter Byron 
Smith, Mrs. William A. 
Smith, Z. Erol 
Smullan, Alexander 
Snow, Edgar M. 
Snow, Fred A. 
Snyder, Harry 
Socrates, Nicholas 
Solem, Dr. George 0. 
Sonnenschein, Hugo 
Sonnenschein, Dr. Robert 
Sonneveld, Jacob 
Soper, Henry M. 
Soper, James P., Jr. 
Sopkin, Mrs. Setia H. 
Soravia, Joseph 
Sorensen, James 
Spencer, Mrs. Egbert H. 
Spencer, Mrs. William M. 
Spiegel, Mrs. 

Frederick W. 
Spiegel, Mrs. Mae 0. 
Spitz, Joel 
Spitz, Leo 
Spitzglass, Mrs. 

Leonard M. 
Spohn, John F. 
Spooner, Charles W. 
Spoor, Mrs. John A. 

136 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Sprague, Dr. John P. 
Squires, John G. 
Staack, Otto C. 
Stacey, Mrs. Thomas I. 
Staley, Miss Mary B. 
Stanton, Dr. E. M. 
Stanton, Edgar 
Stanton, Henry T. 
Starbird, Miss Myrtle I. 
Stark, Mrs. Harold 
Starrels, Joel 
Stearns, Mrs. Richard I. 
Stebbins, Fred J. 
Stetfey, David R. 
Stein, Benjamin F. 
Stein, Dr. Irving 
Stein, L. Montefiore 
Stenson, Frank R. 
Sterba, Dr. Joseph V. 
Stern, Alfred Whital 
Stern, David B. 
Stern, Felix 
Stern, Maurice S. 
Stern, Oscar D. 
Stevens, Delmar A. 
Stevens, Edward J. 
Stevens, Elmer T. 
Stevens, Harold L. 
Stevens, Mrs. James W. 
Stevens, R. G. 
Stevenson, Dr. 

Alexander F. 
Stevenson, Engval 
Stewart, Miss Agnes 

Stewart, Miss Eglantine 

Stewart, James S. 
Stewart, Miss Mercedes 

Stibolt, Mrs. Carl B. 
Stiger, Charles W. 
Stirling, Miss Dorothy 
Stockton, Eugene M. 
Stone, Mrs. Jacob S. 
Strandberg, Erik P. 
Straus, David 
Straus, Martin L. 
Straus, Melvin L. 
Straus, S. J. T. 
Strauss, Dr. Alfred A. 
Strauss, Henry X. 
Strauss, John L. 
Street, Mrs. Charles A. 
Stromberg, Charles J. 
Strong, Edmund H. 
Strong, Mrs. Walter A. 
Strotz, Harold C. 
Struby, Mrs. Walter V. 
Stulik, Dr. Charles 
Sturges, Solomon 
Sullivan, John J. 

Sulzberger, Frank L. 
Sutcliffe, Mrs. Gary 
Sutherland, William 
Sutton, Harold I. 
Swan, Oscar H. 
Swanson, Joseph E. 
Swartchild, Edward G. 
Swartchild, William G. 
Swenson, S. P. O. 
Swett, Robert Wheeler 
Swiecinski, Walter 
Swift, Mrs. Alden B. 
Swift, Edward F., Jr. 
Sykes, Mrs. Wilfred 

Taft, John H. 
Taft, Mrs. Oren E. 
Tarrant, Robert 
Tatge, Mrs. Gustavus J. 
Taylor, Charles C. 
Taylor, George Halleck 
Taylor, J. H. 
Teagle, E. W. 
Templeton, Stuart J. 
Templeton, Walter L. 
Templeton, Mrs. William 
Terry, Foss Bell 
Teter, Lucius 
Thatcher, Everett A. 
Theobald, Dr. John J. 
Thomas, Emmet A. 
Thomas, Frank W. 
Thomas, Mrs. Harry L. 
Thomas, Dr. William A. 
Thompson, Arthur H. 
Thompson, Charles E. 
Thompson, Charles F. 
Thompson, Edward F. 
Thompson, Fred L. 
Thompson, Floyd E. 
Thompson, Dr. George F. 
Thompson, Mrs. John R. 
Thompson, John R., Jr. 
Thompson, Mrs. Leverett 
Thorne, Hallett W. 
Thome, James W. 
Thornton, Dr. Francis E. 
Thorp, Harry W. 
Thresher, C. J. 
Thulin, F. A. 
Tibbetts, Mrs. N. L. 
Tighe, Mrs. Bryan G. 
Tilden, Averill 
Tilden, Louis Edward 
Tilt, Charles A. 
Titzel, Dr. W. R. 
Tobias, Clayton H. 
Torbet, A. W. 
Touchstone, John Henry 
Towle, Leroy C. 
Towler, Kenneth F. 
Towne, Mrs. John D. C. 

Trainer, J. Milton 
Traylor, Mrs. Dorothy J. 
Tredwell, John 
Tripp, Chester D. 
Trombly, Dr. F. F. 
Trude, Mrs. Mark W. 
Tucker, S. A. 
Turner, Alfred M. 
Turner, Tracy L. 
Tuthill, Mrs. Beulah L. 
Tuttle, F. B. 
Tuttle, Henry Emerson 
Tuttle, Mrs. Henry N. 
Tyler, Albert S. 
Tyler, Mrs. Orson K. 
Tyrrell, Mrs. Percy 

Uhlmann, Fred 
Ullman, Mrs. N. J. 
Ullmann, Herbert S. 
Upham, Mrs. Frederic W. 

Valentine, Joseph L. 
Valentine, Mrs. May L. 
Valentine, Patrick A. 
VanCleef, Mrs. Noah 
VanCleef, Paul 
VanDeventer, Christopher 
VanNess, Gardiner B. 
VanSchaack, R. H., Jr. 
VanSchaick, Gerard 
Van Winkle, James Z. 
VanZwoll, Henry B. 
Vaughan, Leonard H. 
Vawter, William A., II 
Veeder, Mrs. Henry 
Veeder, Miss Jessie 
Vehe, Dr. K. L. 
Vehon, Morris 
Vial, Charles H. 
Vial, Miss Mary M. 
Vickery, Miss Mabel S. 
Victor, Mrs. Jessie K. 
Vierling, Louis 
Volicas, Dr. John N. 
Volk, Mrs. John H. 
VonColditz, Dr. G. 

VonGlahn, Mrs. August 
Voorhees, Mrs. Condit 
Voorhees, H. Belin 
Voynow, Edward E. 

Wagner, Fritz, Jr. 
Wagner, Dr. G. W. 
Wagner, John E. 
Walgreen, Mrs. 

Charles R. 
Walker, James 
Walker, Mrs. Paul 
Walker, Samuel J. 
Walker, William E. 

Associate Members 


Wallace, Robert Y. 
Wallace, Walter F. 
Waller, H. P. 
Waller, J. Alexander 
Waller, James B., Jr. 
Waller, Mrs. Sarah 
Wallerich, George W. 
Wallovick, J. H. 
Walther, Mrs. S. Arthur 
Ward, Mrs. N. C. 
Ware, Mrs. Charles W. 
Warfield, Edwin A. 
Warner, Mrs. John Eliot 
Warren, Allyn D. 
Warren, J. Latham 
Warren, Paul C. 
Warren, Paul G. 
Warren, Walter G. 
Washburne, Clarke 

Hempstead, Jr. 
Washington, Laurence W. 
Wassell, Joseph 
Waterman, Dr. A. H. 
Watson, William Upton 
Watts, Harry C. 
Watzek, J. W., Jr. 
Waud, E. P. 
Wayman, Charles A. G. 
Wean, Frank L. 
Weaver, Charles A. 
Webb, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Weber, Frank C. 
Webster, Arthur L. 
Webster, Miss Helen R. 
Webster, Henry A. 
Wedelstaedt, H. A. 
Weil, Mrs. Leon 
Weil, Martin 
Weiler, Rudolph 
Weiner, Charles 
Weinstein, Dr. M. L. 
Weinzelbaum, Louis L. 
Weis, Samuel W. 
Weisbrod, Benjamin H. 
Weiss, Mrs. Morton 
Weissenbach, Mrs. 

Minna K. 
Weisskopf, Maurice J. 
Weisskopf, Dr. Max A. 
Welles, Mrs. Donald P. 
Welles, Mrs. Edward 

Wells, Arthur H. 
Wells, Harry L. 
Wells, John E. 
Wells, Preston A. 
Wells, Thomas E. 

Ailing, Mrs. VanWagenen 
Baldwin, William W. 

Wells, Mrs. Thomas E. 
Wendell, Barrett, Jr. 
Wendell, Miss 

Josephine A. 
Werner, Frank A. 
West, J. Roy 
West, Miss Mary Sylvia 
Westerfeld, Simon 
Westrich, Miss T. C. 
Wetten, Albert H. 
Wettling, Louis E. 
Weymer, Earl M. 
Whealan, Emmett P. 
Wheeler, George A. 
Wheeler, Leo W. 
Wheeler, Leslie 
Wheeler, Leslie M. 
Wheeler, Mrs. Robert C. 
Whinery, Charles C. 
White, Mrs. James C. 
White, James E. 
White, Joseph J. 
White, Richard T. 
White, Sanford B. 
White, Selden Freeman 
Whitehouse, Howard D. 
Whiting, Mrs. Adele H. 
Whiting, Lawrence H. 
Wiborg, Frank B. 
Widdicombe, Mrs. R. A. 
Wieland, Charles J. 
Wieland, Mrs. George C. 
Wienhoeber, George V. 
Wilder, Harold, Jr. 
Wilder, Mrs. John E. 
Wilder, Mrs. T. E. 
Wilker, Mrs. Milton W. 
Wilkey, Fred S. 
Wilkins, George Lester 
Wilkins, Miss Ruth 
Wilkinson, Mrs. 

George L. 
Wilkinson, John C. 
Willey, Mrs. Charles B. 
Williams, Dr. A. 

Williams, Miss Anna P. 
Williams, Harry Lee 
Williams, J. M. 
Williamson, George H. 
Willis, Paul, Jr. 
Willis, Thomas H. 
Willner, Benton Jack, Jr. 
Wills, H. E. 
Wilms, Herman P. 
Wilson, Mrs. E. Crane 
Wilson, Harry Bertram 
Wilson, Mrs. John R. 

Deceased, 1936 
Bastian, Charles L. 
Berndt, Dr. George W. 
Blair, Robert O. 

Wilson, Miss Lillian M. 
Wilson, Morris Karl 
Wilson, Mrs. Robert 

Wilson, Mrs. Robert E. 
Wilson, William 
Winans, Frank F. 
Windsor, H. H., Jr. 
Winston, Mrs. 

Bertram M. 
Winston, Hampden 
Winston, James H. 
Winter, Irving 
Wojtalewicz, Rev. 

Francis M. 
Wolf, Mrs. Albert H. 
Wolf, Walter B. 
Wolff, Louis 

Wood, Mrs. Gertrude D. 
Wood, Mrs. Harold F. 
Wood, John H. 
Wood, Kay, Jr. 
Wood, Robert E. 
Wood, William G. 
Woodmansee, Fay 
Woodruff, George 
Woods, Weightstill 
Worcester, Mrs. 

Charles H. 
Work, Robert 
Worth, Miss Helen E. 
Wright, H. C. 
Wright, Warren 
Wrigley, Mrs. Charles W. 
Wunderle, H. 0. 
Wyeth, Harry B. 

Yegge, C. Fred 
Yerkes, Richard W. 
Yondorf, John David 
Yondorf, Milton S. 
Yondorf, Milton S., Jr. 
Young, Mrs. Caryl B. 
Young, E. Frank 
Young, George W. 
Young, Hugh E. 

Zabel, Max W. 
Zapel, Elmer 
Zerk, Oscar U. 
Zerler, Charles F. 
Ziebarth, Charles A. 
Zimmer, Mrs. Rudolph E. 
Zimmerman, Herbert P. 
Zimmerman, Louis W. 
Zinke, Otto A. 
Zork, David 
Zulfer, P. M. 

Brown, Dr. Edward M. 
Clarke, Fred L. 

138 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Counselman, Mrs. 

Jennie E. 
Cutting, Charles S. 

Deagan, John C. 
Dickey, William E. 
Dobson, George 
Dyche, William A. 

Garner, Harry J. 
Glenn, Mrs. J. M. 
Greene, Carl D. 

Harris, Miss Martha E. 
Heyworth, Mrs. James O. 
Higgins, John W. 
Hill, Mrs. Lysander 
Hinton, E. W. 
Hoelscher, Herman M. 
Howard, Harold A. 

Jeffery, Mrs. Thomas B. 

Deceased, 1936 

Keehn, Mrs. Theodore 

C. L. 
Kellogg, Mrs. M. G. 

Lebensohn, Dr. Mayer H. 
Leslie, John H. 
Levan, Rev. Thomas F. 
Lyon, Mrs. Thomas R. 

Matz, Miss Ruth H. 
McCraken, Miss 

Meyer, Alfred C. 
Morrill, Nahum 
Morris, Eugene C. 
Murphy, John P. V. 

Peet, Fred N. 
Phillip, Peter 
Pool, Mrs. W. Cloyd 
Psota, Dr. Frank J. 

Rasmussen, George 
Reynolds, Mrs. Henry J. 
Robinson, Mrs. Milton E. 
Rosenthal, Benjamin J. 

Seaman, George M. 
Sheehy, Edward 
Springer, Mrs. Samuel 
Stevens, James W. 
Strobel, Charles L. 
Sturtevant, Henry D. 
Swift, Alden B. 

Trowbridge, Raymond W. 

Warwick, W. E. 
Webb, George D. 
White, Harold F. 
Woley, Dr. Harry P. 
Wrenn, Mrs. Everts 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $50 to the Museum 

Baum, Mrs. James 
Day, Mrs. Winfield S. 

Phillips, Montagu Austin 
Stevens, Edmund W. 


Those who contribute $25 annually to the Museum 

Berkson, Mrs. Maurice 
Bernstein, Fred 

Carney, Thomas J. 
Cox, William D. 

Florsheim, Harold M. 
Gentz, Miss Lucia 
Harris, Harvey L. 
Knopf, Andrew J. 

Deceased, 1936 
Rothschild, Justin 

Louis, Mrs. John J. 
Mclnerney, John L. 
Peel, Richard H. 
Somers, Byron H. 


Those who contribute $10 annually to the Museum 

Abeles, Jerome G. 
Adams, Harvey M. 
Adams, Hugh R. 
Adamson, Henry T. 
Agar, W. S. 
Agazim, John 

Aleshire, Mrs. Oscar E. 
Alessio, Frank 
Alexander, Harry T. 
Allen, C. W. 
Allen, Frank W. 
Allen, John D. 

Alrutz, Dr. Louis F. 
Alschuler, Samuel 
Altheimer, Ben J. 
Alton, Robert Leslie 
Amberg, Miss Mary Agnes 
Ames, Rev. Edward S. 

Annual Members 


Amory, W. Austin 
Anderson, Mrs. A. W. 
Anderson, Arch W. 
Anderson, Harry 
Anderson, Mrs. Lillian H. 
Anderson, O. Helge 
Anheiser, Hugo 
Ankrum, Mrs. E. W. 
Anoff, Isador S. 
Anthony, Charles E. 
Anthony, Joseph R. 
Applegate, Mrs. Harry R. 
Armstrong, Horace 

Arnold, George G. 
Arnold, Mrs. J. Bertley 
Arthur, Miss Minnie J. 
Ashcraft, Edwin M., Ill 
Atkeisson, Dr. J. E. H. 
Atwood, Fred G. 
Austin, E. F. 
Austin, Edwin C. 
Auty, K. A. 
Axelson, Charles F. 
Ayer, Mrs. Walter 

Bachmann, Mrs. 

Harrold A. 
Bachmeyer, Dr. Arthur C. 
Bacon, Dr. Alfons R. 
Bacon, Dr. Charles S. 
Baird, Mrs. Hilda 
Baker, C. M. 
Balderston, Mrs. 

Stephen V. 
Baley, Mrs. James A. 
Ballard, Mrs. E. S. 
Bankard, E. Hoover, Jr. 
Barkhausen, L. H. 
Barlow, Henry H. 
Barnes, Harold O. 
Barnes, Mrs. Harold 

Barnes, William H. 
Barrett, Miss Adela 
Barrett, M. J. P. 
Barter, Leonard H. 
Bartholomay, William, Jr. 
Bartholomew, Mrs. F. H. 
Bartoli, Peter 
Barton, L. R. 
Baskin, Salem N. 
Baumann, Mrs. F. O. 
Beach, Calvin B. 
Beachy, Mrs. Walter F. 
Bean, Edward H. 
Beatty, Mrs. R. J. 
Beatty, S. Frank 
Becker, H. Kirke 
Becker, Mrs. Herbert W. 
Beddoes, Hubert 
Beers-Jones, L. 

Bell, George Irving 
Bender, Miss Caroline 
Bennett, Edward H. 
Bennett, N. J. 
Bennett, Mrs. Reid M. 
Bennington, Harold 
Benson, Mrs. T. R. 
Bentley, Richard 
Beresford, Charles Evelyn 
Berg, Sigard E. 
Berger, Dr. John M. 
Berger, R. O. 
Bergh, Ross F. 
Berghoff, Mrs. H. J. 
Berkey, Mrs. Peter 
Berlizheimer, Miss Lily A. 
Berry, Harry J. 
Berry, V. D. 
Bert, Mrs. V. J. 
Bertol, Miss Aurelia 
Bestel, Oliver A. 
Bethge, C. A. 
Biddle, Robert C. 
Biggs, Mrs. Joseph Henry 
Binz, William C. 
Bird, Herbert J. 
Birdsall, Carl A. 
Bishop, Mrs. W. H. 
Bissell, Miss Mary S. 
Black, Carl M. 
Blackburn, Burr 
Blaker, Edward T. 
Bledsoe, Samuel T. 
Block, Mrs. Joseph L. 
Blocki, Mrs. Fred W. 
Blocki, Fritz 
Blomquist, Alfred 
Blum, Henry S. 
Blumberg, Nathan S. 
Blythe, Mrs. J. W. 
Boardman, Mrs. 

Ronald P. 
Bobb, Dwight S. 
Bolin, Mrs. George 
Bolton, John F. 
Bond, William A. 
Bond, William Scott 
Bonfield, James 
Borcherding, E. P. 
Borneman, Fred B. 
Borwell, Mrs. Robert C. 
Bothman, Dr. Louis 
Bournique, Alvar L. 
Bournique, Eugene A. 
Bowman, Jay 
Bowman, Mrs. Jay 
Boyd, E. B. 

Boyd, Mrs. T. Kenneth 
Boyer, Mrs. J. E. 
Brachvogel, Mrs. 

Bradley, Charles D. 

Bradley, Herbert E. 
Brant, Mrs. C. M. 
Brashears, J. W. 
Braudy, Mrs. Louis C. 
Bremner, Dr. M. D. K. 
Brennan, Mrs. George E. 
Brewster, William E. 
Briney, Mrs. H. C. 
Briney, Dr. William F. 
Brooks, P. C. 
Broome, John Spoor 
Broome, Mrs. Thornhill 
Broomell, Chester C. 
Brown, Mrs. James J. 
Brown, Miss Ella W. 
Brown, Gerard S. 
Brown, Guy 
Brown, H. A. 
Brown, H. S. 
Brown, J. D. 
Brown, Dr. Ralph C. 
Brown, William A. 
Brucker, Dr. Matthew W. 
Brumley, Daniel Joseph 
Brunker, A. R. 
Buchen, Walther 
Buck, Nelson Earl 
Buckingham, Mrs. John 
Buckley, Mrs. Warren 
Buell, Mrs. Charles C. 
Buethe, W. C. 
Buker, Edward 
Bullivant, L. J. 
Bunnell, John A. 
Bunte, Mrs. Theodore W. 
Bunting, Guy J. 
Burch, Mrs. W. E. 
Burgmeier, John M. 
Burket, Dr. Walter C. 
Burnet, Mrs. W. A. 
Burnham, Daniel H. 
Burnham, Hubert 
Burridge, Mrs. Howard J. 
Burrows, Miss Louisa L. 
Busch, Francis X. 
Bushman, Andrew K. 
Butler, Comfort S. 
Butler, Mrs. Gerald M. 
Byfield, Ernest L. 
Byrnes, William Jerome 

Cable, Arthur G. 
Caesar, O. E. 
Callahan, Mrs. A. F. 
Callender, Mrs. Joseph E. 
Calmeyn, Frank B. 
Camenisch, Edward T. 
Campbell, Argyle 
Campbell, Donald A. 
Campbell, H. W. 
Campbell, Mrs. John G. 
Campe, Frank O. 

140 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Canavan, J. Newell 
Cardelli, Mrs. Giovanni 
Carlson, John F. 
Carpenter, John Alden 
Carpenter, Mrs. Robert 
Carry, Mrs. Edward F. 
Carter, Mrs. C. B. 
Carter, Mrs. R. B. 
Case, Amos H. 
Case, J. Amos 
Cassady, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Cassells, G. J. 
Castle, Sidney 
Caswell, Mrs. A. B. 
Cathcart, James A. 
Cauvins, Miss Ellen M. 
Cervenka, John A. 
Chamberlin, Mrs. Dale E. 
Chandler, Charles H. 
Chandler, Dr. Fremont A. 
Chandler, George M. 
Chandler, W. W. 
Chapin, Mrs. Chester W. 
Chapin, Mrs. 

Elizabeth M. 
Chapin, Rufus F. 
Chapman, Ralph 
Chapman, Theodore S. 
Chase, Carroll G. 
Chase, Derwood S. 
Chase, Samuel T. 
Chesrow, Dr. Eugene 

Chessman, L. W. 
Childs, Kent C. 
Chrissinger, Horace B. 
Christensen, Henry C. 
Christiansen, Dr. Henry 
Cini, Soly 
Clancy, James F. 
Claney, John 
Clark, A. B. 
Clark, Charles T. 
Clark, George C, Jr. 
Clark, Mrs. Harold A. 
Clark, N. R. 
Clark, Mrs. Ralph E. 
Clark, Robert H. 
Clarke, Broadus J. 
Clarke, David R. 
Clarke, Mrs. Philip R. 
Clay, John 

Clement, Dr. Charles C. 
Clifford, Thomas B. 
Clinch, Mrs. George 

Clissold, Edward T. 
Clizbe, Mrs. F. O. 
Clonick, Seymour E. 
Coburn, Alonzo J. 
Coe, Frank Gait 
Coe, Mrs. Schuyler M. 

Coen, T. M. 
Cohen, Archie H. 
Cole, Samuel 
Coleman, Mrs. 

Adelbert E. 
Coleman, B. R. 
Coleman, Hamilton 
Collins, Arthur W. 
Collins, Charles W. 
Collins, Mrs. Frank P. 
Compton, Mrs. Arthur H. 
Condit, J. Sidney 
Condon, Thomas J. 
Connors, Mrs. Thomas A. 
Consoer, Arthur W. 
Conway, Barret 
Cook, Louis T. 
Cook, Paul W. 
Cook, Sidney A. 
Coombs, Dr. Arthur J. 
Coon, Owen L. 
Coon, Robert E. 
Cooper, Charles H. 
Cooper, Mrs. Clay C. 
Cooper, R., Jr. 
Coppel, Mrs. Charles H. 
Corper, Erwin 
Corsant, Mrs. Charles 

Cottell, Miss Louisa 
Cozzens, Mrs. Frederick B. 
Craddock, John F. 
Cragg, Mrs. George L. 
Cramer, Mrs. Ambrose 
Crawford, Adam W. 
Crellin, Miss Mary F. 
Cresap, Mark W. 
Crist, L. H. 

Crosby, Mrs. Frederick W. 
Crowell, Dr. Bowman 

Culbertson, Mrs. 

James A. 
Cuneo, Frank 
Cunningham, Secor 
Curtis, D. C. 
Curtis, John G. 
Cuscaden, Fred A. 
Gushing, Miss Natalie S. 
Cushman, Dr. Beulah 

Dahlberg, Dr. A. A. 
Dahle, Isak 
Dallwig, P. G. 
Dalzell, Harry G. 
Dangel, W. H. 
Daniel, Norman 
Danielson, Reuben G. 
Darrow, Mrs. William W. 
David, Sigmund W. 
Davidsohn, Dr. Israel 
Davies, William B. 

Davis, Mrs. Charles P. 
Davis, Charles S. 
Davis, Mrs. F. Ben 
Davis, Paul H. 
Davis, Ralph W. 
Day, Mrs. Lewis J. 
Deacon, Edward F. 
Dean, William D. 
Deane, Henry Towner 
Deane, Mrs. Ruthven 
DeBarry, C. D. 
Decker, Hiram E. 
Deffenbaugh, Walter I. 
Defrees, Mrs. Joseph H. 
Degener, August W. 
Deimel, Mrs. Jerome L. 
Deininger, Mrs. D. M. 
Demaree, H. S. 
Denison, Mrs. John Porter 
Denison, John W. 
Deniston, Mrs. Albert 

J., Jr. 
Denson, John H. 
DePeyster, Frederic A. 
Depue, Oscar B. 
D'Esposito, Joshua 
DeStefani, Tully 
Dewey, Mrs. Charles S. 
Dick, Mrs. Edison 
Dickinson, J. David 
Diggs, Dr. Arthur E. 
Dillbahner, Frank 
Dixon, Mrs. Wesley M. 
Doherty, Mrs. James 
Donath, Otto 
Donnelley, Thorne 
Dorney, Rev. Maurice A. 
Doubson, Mrs. Willa 

Drake, L. J. 
Drell, Mrs. J. B. 
Dreutzer, Carl 
Drew, Miss E. L. 
Drezmal, Max A. 
Dreyfus, Maurice M. 
Drielsma, I. J. 
Duffy, Mrs. Thomas E. 
Dulsky, Louis 
Dummer, Mrs. William F. 

Easter, Adolph H. 
Eaton, Leland E. 
Eckhouse, Mrs. 

Herbert F. 
Edmonds, H. 0. 
Egloff, Dr. Gustav 
Ehrman, Walter E. 
Ehrmann, Dr. Fred J. E. 
Eisendrath, Miss Elsa B. 
Eisendrath, William B. 
Eitel, Emil 
Eitel, Karl 

Annual Members 


Eldred, Mrs. Harriot W. 
Elfborg, Mrs. Henry 
Elich, Mrs. Herman 
Ellbogen, Mrs. Max 
Elliott, Fran eke C. 
Elliott, William S. 
Elmer, Dr. Raymond F. 
Embree, J. W., Jr. 
Emery, Mrs. William H. 
Engberg, Miss Ruth M. 
Engelhart, Frank C. 
Enos, Earl E. 
Erickson, Elmer 
Erminger, Mrs. H. B., Jr. 
Essley, E. Porter 
Estes, Clarence E. 
Ettelson, Samuel A. 
Evans, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Everett, Edward W. 
Evers, John W., Jr. 

Fabrice, Edward H. 
Fairlie, Mrs. W. A. 
Fairman, Miss Marian 
Falls, Dr. F. H. 
Fantus, Ernest L. 
Farquharson, William J. 
Farwell, Albert D. 
Faulhaber, Ernest A. 
Feipel, Peter J. 
Felsenthal, Herman 
Fenton, J. R. 
Ferrara, Salvatore 
Ferry, Mrs. Frank 
Field, Mrs. J. A. 
Field, Mrs. Wentworth G. 
Findlay, Dr. Ephraim K. 
Fineman, Oscar 
Finkl, Frank X. 
Fischer, Arthur 
Fischer, Mrs. Louis E. 
Fisher, Stephen J. 
Fisher, Thomas H. 
Fisher, Mrs. W. A. 
Fitzgerald, Dr. J. E. 
Fletcher, R. P. 
Flood, Walter H. 
Florsheim, Leonard S. 
Flory, Owen 0. 
Flynn, Maurice J. 
Follett, Dwight W. 
Folsom, Mrs. William R. 
Ford, Mrs. Edwin S. 
Ford, Dr. James W. 
Forrest, Maulsby 
Forrester, Mrs. W. W. 
Fosburg, H. A. 
Fowler, Edgar C. 
Fowler, Gordon F. 
Fowler, Walter E. 
Fox, Professor Philip 
Fox, Richard T. 

Frank, Miss Margaret 
Frankhauser, Miss 

Frazee, Seward C. 
Freiler, Abraham J. 
Fremont, Miss Ruby 
French, George W. 
French, Dr. Thomas M. 
Freund, Erwin O. 
Frick, Mrs. H. A. 
Frieder, Edward 
Friedlander, Maurice 
Friedrichs, Mrs. Edith E. 
Fulton, Arthur W. 
Fulton, D. B. 

Gale, Abram 
Gallagher, Miss Grace 
Gallauer, Mrs. Carl 
Galloway, Dr. Charles E. 
Gamble, James A. 
Gano, David R. 
Gardiner, Mrs. John L. 
Gates, Philip R. 
Gengevi, Ettore 
Gensburg, Louis W x . 
Geraghty, Mrs. 

Thomas F. 
Gibbs, William J. 
Gibbs, Dr. William W. 
Gilchrist, Miss Harriet F. 
Giles, Miss A. H. 
Gilkes, William H. 
Glade, George EL, Jr. 
Glader, Frank J. 
Glover, John 
Glynn, Mrs. John E. 
Goble, Mrs. E. R. 
Goddard, Mrs. Convers 
Goldberg, Mrs. Sol H. 
Goldfinger, Miss Annie 
Goldman, Mrs. Louis 
Goldsmith, Henry M. 
Goldsmith, Mitchel 
Goodkin, Alexander 
Goodman, Benjamin H. 
Graf, Emil 
Graffis, Herbert 
Granstrom, P. Martin 
Grauer, Milton H. 
Graves, Mrs. George E. 
Gray, William A. 
Gray, Mrs. William S. 
Graydon, Charles E. 
Green, Walter H. 
Greene, Miss Rosa B. 
Greenebaum, Mrs. Esther 
Greenhouse, Jacob 
Greenlee, William B. 
Greenlee, Mrs. Ralph S. 
Gregory, Mrs. Robert B. 
Grein, Joseph 

Grey, Newton F. 
Gridley, Mrs. Martin M. 
Griesel, Edward T. 
Griffith, Mrs. G. H. 
Groebe, Louis G. 
Guettler, H. W. 
Guilliams, John R. 
Guinan, James J. 
Gunkel, George F. 
Gunnar, Mrs. H. P. 

Haerther, William W. 
Hagey, J. F. 
Hajek, Henry F. 
Hall, Arthur B. 
Hall, Harold 
Hall, Harry 
Hall, Harry Millard 
Hall, Henry C. 
Hall, Louis W. 
Hallett, L. F. 
Hamilton, Mrs. 

Chester F. 
Hamilton, Hugo A. 
Hamilton, J. R. 
Hamline, Mrs. 

John H. 
Hamm, Fred B. 
Hammill, Miss Edith K. 
Hammond, C. Herrick 
Hansen, Adolph H. 
Hanson, August E. 
Hanson, Martin J. 
Hardenbrook, Mrs. 

Burt C. 
Hardin, George D. 
Harding, Mrs. Charles F. 
Harmon, Hubert P. 
Harmon, J. R. 
Harmon, J. W. 
Harpel, Mrs. Charles J. 
Harper, James H. 
Harper, Robert B. 
Harriman, Frank B. 
Harrington, George Bates 
Harrington, S. R. 
Harris, Benjamin R. 
Harris, Ewart 
Harris, Frank F. 
Harrison, William H. 
Harrold, James P. 
Harshaw, Myron T. 
Hart, Mrs. G. H. 
Hart, Mrs. H. G. 
Hart, Mrs. Harry 
Hart, Louis E. 
Hart, Max A. 
Hart, Robert H. 
Hart, Mrs. Walter H. 
Hartigan, Clare 
Harvey, Byron S. 
Harvey, Mrs. Harold B. 

142 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Haskell, L. A. 
Hathaway, Leonard W. 
Hattstaedt, Mrs. 

John J. 
Hawkes, Joseph B. 
Hawkinson, Dr. Oscar 
Hawthorne, Vaughn R. 
Hayward, R. B. 
Headland, Dr. Paul 
Healy, John J. 
Hebel, Oscar 
Hebert, Mrs. Louis A. 
Heckel, Edmund P. 
Hedley, Arthur H. 
Heg, Ernest 
Heifetz, Samuel 
Hejna, Joseph F. 
Helebrandt, Louis 
Heller, Fred M. 
Hemington, Dr. Francis 
Hempe, George H. 
Henderson, B. E. 
Henderson, Mrs. 

Burton W. 
Heneage, Thomas H. 
Henkel, Milford F. 
Henne, E. A. 
Henneberry, Mrs. 

George F. 
Hennessy, James 
Henning, Mrs. Helen E. 
Henriksen, H. M. 
Henschel, Edmund C. 
Hertzman, Irving L. 
Herz, Alfred 
Hess, Edward J. 
Hess, Sol H. 
Hibbard, Angus S. 
Hicks, E. L., Jr. 
Hicks, Mrs. Ernest H. 
High, Mrs. George H. 
High, Shirley T. 
Hill, Mrs. Cyrus G. 
Hill, Miss Meda A. 
Hillyer, John T. 
Hilpert, Dr. Willis S. 
Hilton, Henry H. 
Hirsch, Mrs. Cora S. 
Hirsh, Morris Henry 
Hixon, H. Rea 
Hoadley, Mrs. Arthur G. 
Hoag, Mrs. Junius C. 
Hobson, Professor Asher 
Hodge, Thomas P. 
Hoff, C. W. 

Hoffman, Mrs. Ernst H. 
Holland, Mrs. Samuel H. 
Holm, Gottfried 
Holman, Scott A. 
Holt, McPherson 
Holter, Charles C. 
Hooge, Dr. Ludwig F. 

Hooper, A. F. 
Hopkins, James M., Jr. 
Horton, Mrs. Douglas 
Horton, Homer F. 
Horton, Warren C. 
Horween, Isidore 
Hoskinson, James M. 
Hough, Frank G. 
Howard, P. S. 
Hoyt, N. Landon, Jr. 
Hoyt, William M., II 
Hubachek, Frank 

Hubbell, William J. 
Huettmann, Fred 
Huffman, Frank C. 
Hufty, Mrs. F. P. 
Hughitt, Mrs. Marvin 
Huguenor, Lloyd B. 
Hull, Morten D. 
Hungerford, Mrs. L. S. 
Hunt, Lewis W. 
Hurd, Harry B. 
Hurlbut, Mrs. E. R. 
Hutchison, Miss Jean 
Hyman, Mrs. David A. 
Hyndman, Mrs. A. H. 

Igoe, Mrs. Michael L. 
Illian, Arthur J. G. 
Irwin, Amory T. 
Irwin, John 

Jackson, Miss Laura E. 
Jackson, Mrs. Pleda H. 
Jackson, R. W. 
Jackson, W. H. 
Jackson, William F. 
Jacobs, E. G. 
Jacobs, Nate 
Jacobs, Whipple 
James, Dr. R. L. 
Jamieson, Norman R. 
Jarvis, William B. 
Jeffers, Roy S. 
Jeffries, Dr. Daniel W. 
Jenner, Mrs. Austin 
Jennings, Mrs. C. A. 
Jewett, George F. 
Johnson, B. W. 
Johnson, Edmund G. 
Johnson, Frank 
Johnson, Miss Millie C. 
Johnston, Ira B. 
Johnstone, Mrs. Bruce 
Jones, Mrs. C. A. 
Jones, Howard B. 
Jones, Mrs. Morgan T. 
Jones, Oliver 
Jones, Owen Barton 
Joy, James A. 
Judd, Mrs. Robert 

Kaempfer, F. W., Jr. 
Kahlke, Dr. Charles E. 
Kann, Max M. 
Kannally, Michael V. 
Kanter, Dr. Aaron E. 
Karcher, Mrs. 

Leonard D. 
Kates, A. T. 
Katz, Solomon 
Katzinger, Arthur 
Kaufmann, Dr. 

Gustav L. 
Kaumeyer, Mrs. E. A. 
Kay, Webster B. 
Keck, William S. 
Keene, William J. 
Keith, Dr. Robert P. 
Kelley, L. Thomas 
Kelley, Mrs. Phelps 
Kellogg, James G. 
Kellogg, John Payne 
Kelly, Charles Scott 
Kelly, Frank S. 
Kelman, Mrs. James 

Kemper, Miss Hilda M. 
Kemper, W. R. 
Kenly, Mrs. William K. 
Kennedy, David E. 
Keogh, Dr. Chester 

Keyser, Charles F. 
Killelea, Miss Marie 
Kimball, T. Weller 
Kimball, William W. 
Kindsvogel, W. G. 
King, David E. 
King, H. R. 
King, Mrs. Nelora S. 
King, Mrs. W. H. 
King, Willard L. 
Kinne, Harry C. 
Kirchheimer, Mrs. 

Kirk, Joseph H. 
Kirkpatrick, Donald 
Klein, Mrs. A. S. 
Klein, Dr. David 
Kleinschmidt, Edward 
Kline, A. 
Klohr, Philip C. 
Klotz, Edward C. 
Knapp, Charles S. 
Knight, Edward P. 
Knode, Oliver M. 
Knol, Nicholas 
Knutson, Mrs. George H. 
Kobin, Mrs. William C. 
Koch, Carl 
Koenig, Fred A. 
Koepke, Frank J. 
Kohn, Mrs. Frances J. 

Annual Members 


Kohout, Joseph, Jr. 
Kolar, Miss Gwendolyn 

Kolstad, Odin T. 
Kort, George 
Krebs, Charles E. 
Kress, William G. 
Kreusser, Mrs. O. T. 
Krier, Ambrose J. 
Kuehn, Miss Katherine 
Kuehn, Oswald L. 
Kuhns, Mrs. H. B. 
Kurtzon, George B. 
Kussman, A. C. 

LaCamp, Miss Augusta 
LaForge, Dr. Alvin W. 
Laird, Robert S. 
Lalley, Henry J. 
Lamb, George N. 
Lange, A. G. 
Langert, A. M. 
Langford, Joseph P. 
Langhorst, Dr. Henry F. 
Lapham, Ralph L. 
Laramore, Florian 

Larson, Simon P. 
Lasch, Charles F. 
Lau, Mrs. John Arnold 
Law, M. A. 
Law, Mrs. Robert O. 
Lazelle, L. L. 
Leach, Porter F. 
Leary, Thomas J. 
Lee, Mrs. W. George 
Lehman, Lawrence B. 
Leitch, Mrs. Walter C. 
Leitzell, Mrs. Samuel N. 
Leslie, John Woodworth 
Lettermann, A. L. 
Levin, I. Archer 
Levin, Louis 

Levis, Mrs. Albert Cotter 
Levis, John M. 
Levy, Mrs. Arthur K. 
Lewis, Frank J. 
Lewis, Mrs. Walker O. 
L'Hommedieu, Arthur 
Lichtenstein, Miss Lydia 
Lichtenstein, Walter 
Liebenthal, Mrs. John 

Lieboner, William S. 
Lifvendahl, Dr. 

Richard A. 
Lindley, Arthur F. 
Lindley, Mrs. Fred W. 
Lindsay, Mrs. Martin 
Linn, Mrs. James W. 
Lipman, Abraham 
List, Paulus 

Llewellyn, Mrs. W. A. 
Lobdell, Harry H. 
Loeb, Arthur A. 
Loehr, Karl C. 
Loewenherz, Emanuel 
Loewenstein, Mrs. E. 
Logan, Frank G. 
Loomis, Miss Marie 
Lovely, Miss 

Charlotte G. 
Lydston, Mrs. G. Frank 
Lyon, Mrs. Jeneva A. 

MacArthur, Fred V. 
MacArthur, Telfer 
MacChesney, Miss 

MacEachern, Dr. M. T. 
Macfarland, Mrs. 

Henry J. 
Macfarland, Lanning 
MacKechnie, Dr. 

Hugh N. 
Mackenzie, G. I. 
Mackenzie, Mrs. G. S. 
MacKenzie, William J. 
Mackie, David Smith 
MacLean, Miss Viola 

Macomb, J. DeNavarre 
MacPherson, Walsh B. 
Magill, John R. 
Malkov, David S. 
Manaster, Henry 
Manheimer, Arthur E. 
Manning, Guy E. 
Mansfield, Alfred W. 
Marling, Mrs. 

Franklin, Jr. 
Marnane, James D. 
Marsch, Mrs. John 
Marshall, J. Waller 
Marston, Mrs. T. B. 
Martin, Ralph H. 
Martin, Robert W. 
Martin, Webb W. 
Martin, Z. E. 
Marx, Elmer William 
Massey, Walter I. 
Matthews, Francis E. 
Matthews, J. H. 
May, Mrs. George T., Jr. 
May, Sol 

Mayer, Edwin W. C. 
Mayer, Fritz 
Mayer, Herman J., Jr. 
Mayer, Oscar G. 
Mayer, Richard 
McAllister, M. Hall 
McArthur, Billings 
McArthur, Mrs. S. W. 

McCarty, Mrs. 

James J. 
McClelland, Mrs. E. B. 
McConnell, Mrs. 

A. Howard 
McCormick, Alister H. 
McCormick, Miss 

Elizabeth D. 
McCoy, Charles S. 
McCoy, Frank R. 
McCracken, Harry S. 
McDonald, E. F., Jr. 
McDougall, Mrs. 

Edward G. 
McFadden, Everett R. 
McGill, John H. 
McGregor, James P. 
McGuinn, Edward B. 
McGuire, Simms D. 
McHenry, Roland 
Mcintosh, Loy N. 
McKay, Charles R. 
McKay, Miss Mabel 
McKearnan, Thomas J. 
McKibbin.Mrs.George B. 
McKiernan, Mrs. 

Donald D. 
McKinstry, W. B. 
McLaughlin, Mrs. 

George D. 
McLaughlin, Dr. JamesH. 
McLaughlin, Mrs. 

Jesse L. 
McLaughlin, Dr. John W. 
McLean, Miss Sarah 
McMurray, S. A. 
McNamara, Robert C. 
McNamee, Peter F. 
McPherson, Donald F. 
McSurely, Mrs. 

William H. 
Mead, H. B. 
Meek, Miss Margaret E. 
Meeker, Arthur 
Mehlhope, Clarence E. 
Melville, Hugh M. 
Metz, C. A. 
Metzger, Charles 

Meyer, Mrs. George J. 
Meyers, Erwin A. 
Mikulski, Mrs. Thomas 
Milchrist, Frank T. 
Miller, Miss Bertie E. 
Miller, Charles J. 
Millsaps, J. H. 
Mitchell, Mrs. George R. 
Montgomery, Mrs. 

Frederick D. 
Montgomery, John R. 
Moore, Mrs. Agnes C. 
Moore, Dr. Beveridge H. 

144 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Moore, E. E. 
Moore, Mrs. J. W. 
Moore, Merritt S. 
Moore, Nathan G. 
Moore, Oscar L. 
Morgan, Clarence 
Morris, Ira Nelson 
Morris, Thomas J. 
Morrison, Mrs. C. R. 
Morton, Dr. Edward C. 
Moser, Paul 

Mountcastle, Mrs. M. E. 
Mower, Mrs. Roswell C. 
Mowrer, Mrs. Paul Scott 
Mowry, Robert D. 
Mueller, Dr. E. W. 
Mulcahy,Mrs. Michael F. 
Mulford, Frank B. 
Murfey, E. T. R. 
Murphy, Henry C. 
Murphy, J. P. 
Muter, Leslie F. 

Nance, Willis D. 
Napier, William C. 
Nath, Bernard 
Nau, Otto F. 
Needham, Mrs. 

Maurice H. 
Nelson, Arthur W. 
Nelson, Byron 
Nelson, Charles M. 
Nelson, William H. 
Nessler, Robert W. 
Nevins, John C. 
Newey, J. W. 
Newman, Mrs. H. H. 
Newman, Hugh 
Newman, Mrs. Jacob 
Newman, Montrose 
Niblack, Mrs. William C. 
Nichols, Mrs. Leslie H. 
Nickerson, J. F. 
Nitka, Jesse 
Nixon, Mrs. George F. 
Noble, C. W. 
Noble, Guy L. 
Noble, R. Shreve 
Noee, Miss Grace 

Nolan, Mrs. James J. 
Norman, Dan 
Norris, Eben H. 
North, Mrs. F. S. 
Northrup, Lorry R. 
Norton, Ellery 
Noyes, Ernest H. 
Nutting, C. G. 

Obenchain, Miss 

Jeannette Brown 
Oberman, Mrs. 

Abraham M. 

Obermeyer, Charles B. 
O'Brien, M. J. 
Ochsner, Dr. Edward H. 
O'Connell, Dr. Sarah C. 
Oesterblom, I. 
Oestmann, Albert G. 
Oldberg, Dr. Eric 
Oleson, John P. 
Oleson, Dr. Richard 

Olin, Edward L. 
Olin, Dr. Harry D. 
Olmstead, Ralph W. 
O'Neill, Dr. Eugene J. 
Orb, Mrs. Marie S. 
Ormsby, Mrs. Frank E. 
Orr, Mrs. Fred B. 
Osborn, Mrs. Gertrude L. 
Osborne, Raymond 
Osgood, William T. 
O'Shaughnessy, John P. 
Ossendorff, Dr. K. W. 
Ostrander, R. M. 
Oswald, Miss Tillie 
O'Toole, Mrs. 

Overton, George W. 
Owen, C. N. 

Palmer, Robert F. 
Parker, George S. 
Parker, Dr. J. William 
Parker, W. H. 
Parmelee, Dwight S. 
Parsons, Bruce 
Patch. Mrs. G. M. 
Patrick, Miss Mary L. 
Patterson, Mrs. C. L. 
Patterson, Mrs. L. B. 
Patterson, Mrs. Wallace 
Pauley, Clarence O. 
Paver, Paul W. 
Pearson, F. J. 
Peck, Mrs. Robert G. 
Pencik, Miles F. 
Pentecost, Lewis J. 
Penticoff, M. C. 
Pepple, Mrs. Eloise D. 
Perkins, C. W. 
Perrenot, Mrs. O. M. 
Peruchietti, Miss Anna 
Peterkin, Daniel, Jr. 
Peterson, Dr. A. B. 
Peterson, C. J. 
Petrie, Dr. Scott Turner 
Pettibone, Mrs. 

Holman D. 
Pfaelzer, Mrs. Monroe 
Pfister, Mrs. C. Eugene 
Pflager, Charles W. 
Phelps, Erastus R. 
Phillips, Howard C. 
Pickell, J. Ralph 

Pietsch, Walter G. 
Pigall, Mrs. Joseph S. 
Pirie, Mrs. Gordon L. 
Pitt, A. A. 
Place, F. E. 
Plamondon, Alfred D. 
Plattenburg, S. R. 
Plummer, Daniel C, Jr. 
Pohn, Jacob S. 
Pond, Miss Gayle 
Pond, George F. 
Pontarelli, Mrs. Michael 
Pontius, Dr. John R. 
Poore, William E. 
Potts, Mrs. W. G. 
Prescott, Patrick B., Jr. 
Prindle, James H. 
Pritchard, N. H. 
Prosser, H. G. 
Pruitt, Raymond S. 
Pulver, Henri Pierre 
Purrucker, Miss 

Louise M. 
Putnam, Rufus W. 
Puttkammer, Mrs. Ernst 
Pyterek, Rev. Peter H. 

Quarrie, William F. 
Quellmalz, Frederick 
Quick, Miss Hattiemae 
Quinlan, James T. 
Quisenberry, T. E. 

Railton, John R. 
Raim, Dr. William 
Ramis, Leon Lipman 
Randall, CM. 
Randall, Clarence B. 
Rankin, A. J. 
Rankin, Mrs. Julian J. 
Ranney, Mrs. George A. 
Rawlings, Mrs. I. D. 
Raymond, Mrs. 

Clifford S. 
Rayner, Mrs. Arno P. 
Rayner, Frank 
Rayner, Lawrence 
Rea, Miss Edith 
Read, Mrs. J. J. 
Redfield, C. E. 
Reed, Mrs. Frank C. 
Reed, Rufus M. 
Reed, Walter S. 
Regensburg, James 
Rein, Lester E. 
Reiss, William 
ReQua, Mrs. Charles H. 
Reuss, Mrs. Henry H. 
Reynolds, Mrs. G. 

Reynolds, Marvin C. 
Rice, Mrs. Charles R. 
Rice, Joseph J. 

Annual Members 


Rice, Mrs. W. W. 
Rice, William Wallace 
Rich, Harry- 
Richards, James Donald 
Richardson, Dr. 

Maurice L. 
Richert, John C. 
Richter, Arthur 
Rick, Miss Florence 
Riel, George A. 
Rilling, Mrs. Paul 
Ritchie, Mrs. John 
Ritchie, R. H. 
Ritter, Emil W. 
Roadifer, W. H. 
Robbins, Laurence B. 
Roberts, Shepherd M. 
Robinson, Miss Nellie 
Robinson, Reginald 

Robson, Mrs. Oscar 
Roche, Stephen F. 
Rockola, David 
Rockhold, Mrs. 

Charles W. 
Rockwell, Theodore G. 
Roden, Carl B. 
Roesch, Frank P. 
Rogers, Edward S. 
Rogers, Walter A. 
Rollins, Athol E. 
Rolnick, Dr. Harry C. 
Roodhouse, Benjamin T. 
Rooks, Irvin 
Rosenbaum, Julius 
Rosenberg, Mrs. 

Rosenfeld, M. J. 
Rosenfels, Mrs. Irwin S. 
Rosenthal, Samuel H. 
Ross, William J. 
Roth, Allen Benjamin 
Roth, Arthur J. 
Rowland, James E. 
Rowley, Clifford A. 
Rowley, William A. 
Roy, Mrs. Ervin L. 
Royal, Mrs. Joseph S. 
Rudin, John 
Ryan, C. D. 

Ryan, Miss Helen Valerie 
Ryan, Mrs. William A. 
Ryer, Julian C. 
Rynder, Ross D. 

Sadler, Mrs. Fred D. 
Saggars, Wayne 
Sanborn, Mrs. V. C. 
Sawyer, Dr. C. F. 
Sawyer, W. M. 
Sayers, Mrs. A. J. 
Sayre, Dr. Loren D. 
Sayre, Louis T. 

Scallan, John William 
Schaffner, Arthur B. 
Schaus, Carl J. 
Scheel, Fred H. 
Scherer, Andrew 
Schermerhorn, Richard A. 
Schiff, Sydney K. 
Schmidt, Theodore 
Schmitt, Mrs. George J. 
Schnadig, E. M. 
Schrader, Miss 

Harriet N. 
Schueren, Arnold C. 
Schulte, Dr. Edward V. 
Schultz, Walter H. 
Schulze, John E. 
Schulze, Paul 
Schupp, Robert W. 
Schwab, Martin C. 
Schwede, Charles W. 
Schweitzer, E. O. 
Schweizer, Carl 
Scofield, Clarence P. 
Scott, George H. 
Scott, Walter A. 
Scott, Dr. Walter Dill 
Scudder, W. M. 
Seanor, Harry E. 
Sears, Miss Dorothy 
Seaton, G. Leland 
Sedgwick, C. Galen 
Seehausen, Gilbert B. 
Selig, Lester N. 
Selz, Emanuel 
Selz, J. Harold 
Senear, Dr. F. E. 
Seubold, Dr. F. H. 
Sexton, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Seymour, Mrs. Flora 

Shaffer, Mrs. Norman P. 
Shaw, Mrs. A. W. 
Shaw, John I. 
Shaw, Mrs. Walter A. 
Sheahan, Miss Marie 
Sheehan, John J. 
Shepard, Guy C. 
Sheridan, L. J. 
Sherman, H. C. 
Sherman, Mrs. W. W. 
Sherwin, Mrs. F. B. 
Shippey, Mrs. Charles W. 
Shiverick, Mrs. A. F. 
Shrader, Frank K. 
Shurtleff, Miss Lucille 
Sieck, Herbert 
Sievers, William H. 
Silber, Clarence J. 
Sillani, Mrs. Mabel W. 
Simmons, Mrs. Charles R. 
Simons, Hi 
Simonson, Roger A. 

Simpson, Mrs. Anita 
Simsky, Miss Edith M. 
Singer, Albert B. 
Sizer, William A. 
Sjostrom, Otto A. 
Skleba, Dr. Leonard F. 
Skog, Mrs. Ludvig 
Slade, John C. 
Slade, William F. 
Slaney, J. C. 
Smale, William 
Smith, Charles Herbert 
Smith, Glen E. 
Smith, Hermon Dunlap 
Smith, Osborne B. 
Smith, Reynold S. 
Smithwick, J. G. 
Sokoll, M. M. 
Sollitt, George 
Somerville, Mrs. Helen 
Sparrow, Mrs. W. W. K. 
Speed, Dr. Kellogg 
Speer, Earl D. 
Speyer, Mrs. George W. 
Spiegel, Modie J. 
Sprague, Albert A., Jr. 
Spray, Cranston 
Spry, George 
Stanbury, Dr. C. E. 
Stanley, Miss E. C. 
Staples, Mrs. J. W. 
Stark, Rev. Dudley S. 
States, Wilmer M. 
Steece, F. B. 
Steele, Mrs. Charles D. 
Steele, Leo M. 
Steffensen, Sigurd 
Stein, Lawrence M. 
Steinfeldt, Dr. C. R. 
Steins, Mrs. Halsey 
Steinson, Henry G. 
Stempfel, Theodore 
Stephenson, Mrs. 

Elmer E. 
Stern, Mrs. Alfred 
Stern, Jacob S. 
Steven, Mrs. Leslie 

Stevens, Miss 

Charlotte M. 
Stevens, Miss 

Katharine M. 
Stewart, George R. 
Stewart, William 
Stifler, Mrs. J. M. 
Stilwell, Abner J. 
Stilwell, George L. 
Stone, Mrs. John 

Storkan, Mrs. James 
Stout, Frederick E. 
Stransky, Franklin J. 

146 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Straus, Arthur W. 
Straus, Eli M. 
Straus, Henry H. 
Straw, Mrs. H. Foster 
Strawbridge, C. H. 
Street, C. R. 
Strigl, F. C. 

Strouse, John Frederick 
Stumes, Charles B. 
Sturla, Harry L. 
Sturtevant, CD. 
Sturtevant, Roy E. 
Sudler, Carroll H., Jr. 
Sullivan, Grey 
Summers, L. F. 
Sundell, Ernest W. 
Supplee, Cochran 
Swanson, Frank E. 
Swift, Mrs. Nathan B. 
Swift, T. Philip 
Sylvester, Miss Ada I. 
Sylvester, Dr. Frank M. 
Symmes, William H. 

Tankersley, J. N. 
Tansey, Thomas F. 
Tatge, Paul W. 
Taylor, Edmund H. 
Taylor, Frank F. 
Taylor, L. S. 
Teller, George L. 
Temps, Leupold 
Tevander, Mrs. Olaf N. 
Tewson, William E. 
Theurer, Mrs. Peter S. 
Thomas, Mrs. J. Elmer 
Thomas, John J. 
Thomason, Samuel E. 
Thompson, Ernest H. 
Thompson, Miss 

Lucille C. 
Thompson, Mrs. Slason 
Thompson, Mrs. W. B. 
Throop, George Enos 
Thurman, E. B. 
Tippett, William M. 
Todd, A. 

Todd, Miss Ruth G. 
Tonk, Percy A. 
Topping, John R. 
Towner, Miss 

Elizabeth W. 
Towner, Frank H. 
Tracy, Howard Van S. 
Trask, Arthur C. 
Traver, George W. 
Treat, Floyd C. 
Tremain, Miss Eloise R. 
Trier, Robert 
Triggs, Charles W. 
Trowbridge, E. C. 
Trude, Daniel P. 

True, Charles H. 
Truman, Percival H. 
Trumbull, Miss Florence 
Tuthill, Gray B. 
Tyler, Alfred C. 

Uden, Walter I. 
Ullman, J. M. 
Ullmann, Mrs. Albert I. 
Utley, George B. 

Vacin, Emil F. 
Vaill, Mrs. J. H. 
VanArtsdale, Mrs. Flora 
VanBuren, George B. 
VanDeventer, W. E. 
VanHagen, Mrs. 

George E. 
VanKirk, George M. 
VanSchaack, Mrs. C. P. 
Varley, C. E. 
Varty, Leo G. 
Vernon, H. D. 
Vial, F. K. 

Vilas, Mrs. George B. 
Vilas, Mrs. Lawrence H. 
Vinissky, Bernard W. 
Vivian, George 
Vogel, Rudolph E. 
Vose, Mrs. Frederic P. 

Wagner, Richard 
Waite, Roy E. 
Wakem, Mrs. Wallace 
Waldeck, Herman 
Walker, Edgar H. 
Walker, James R. 
Walker, Lee 
Walker, Stephen P. 
Wallach, Mrs. H. L. 
Waller, Mrs. William, Jr. 
Wallgren, Eric M. 
Walpole, S. J. 
Walton, Lyman A. 
Warner, Addison W. 
Warner, E. J., Jr. 
Warner, Mason 
Warren, L. Parsons 
Warren, William G. 
Warszewski, Mrs. 

Edward H. 
Wasson, Theron 
Watkins, Frank A. 
Watkins, Frederick A. 
Watson, H. A. 
Watson, Vernon S. 
Weast, Mrs. E. W. 
Webber, E. A. 
Webster, James 
Webster, N. C. 
Weidenhoff, Joseph 
Weil, Mrs. Joseph M. 

Weil, Mrs. Victor 
Weiner, Charles 
Weiner, Samuel 
Weiss, George B. 
Welch, L. C. 
Wells, Mrs. H. Gideon 
Wentworth, John 
Wentworth, Mrs. 

Sylvia B. 
Wentz, Peter Leland 
Werelius, Mrs. Axel 
Wescott, Dr. Virgil 
West, Mrs. Frederick T. 
West, Thomas H. 
Westerling, Olaf 
Westphal, Miss Mary E. 
Wetmore, Mrs. Frank 0. 
Whedon, Miss Frances E. 
Wheeler, Mrs. John T. 
Wheeler, Mrs. Seymour 
Whipple, A. J. 
White, Mrs. Charlotte D. 
White, Linn 
White, W. J. 
White, W. T. 
White, William J. 
Whitney, Mrs. Charles 

Whitney, Mrs. Gordon 
Whitwell, J. E. 
Wickland, Algot A. 
Wickman, C. E. 
Wickstrom, John 
Wiersen, Miss Annie C. 
Wiersen, Miss E. Lillian 
Wilder, Emory H. 
Wilds, John L. 
Wiley, Edward N. 
Wilhelm, Frank Edward 
Willard, Nelson W. 
Wille, Andrew 
Willens, Joseph R. 
Williams, Clyde O. 
Williams, Kenneth 
Williams, Lawrence 
Willis, P. P. 
Wilsey, Mrs. Robert E. 
Wilson, Arlen J. 
Wilson, Percival C. 
Wilson, William G. 
Wilson, William R. 
Winston, Mrs. Farwell 
Winterbotham, Mrs. 

John R., Jr. 
Witkowsky, James 
Witkowsky, Leon 
Wolfe, William C. 
Wood, Milton G. 
Woodyatt, Dr. Rollin 

Works, George A. 
Worthy, Mrs. Sidney W. 

Annual Members 


Wray, Edward 
Wright, Miss Bertha 
Wrisley, George A. 
Wubbena, Miss Ella C. 
Wulbert, Morris 
Wurzburg, H. J. 
Wyzanski, Henry N. 

Yates, Raymond 

Alt, George E. 

Brower, Jule F. 

Gallauer, Carl 
Gramm, Dr. Carl T. 

Haven, Mrs. Alfred C. 

Yeaton, H. T. 
Yeakel, Dr. William K. 
Yonce, Mrs. Stanley L. 
Yorkey, Mrs. Margaret 
Young, B. Botsford 
Young, James W. 
Youngberg, Arthur C. 

Zacharias, Robert M. 

Deceased, 1936 

Henning, Charles F. 
Hutchinson, Mrs. C. L. 

Karpen, Solomon 
Kelly, William P. 
Knobbe, John W. 

LeWald, W. B. 

Zambon, Attilio 
Zane, John Maxcy 
Zenos, Rev. Andrew C. 
Zglenicki, Leon 
Zimmer, Benedict F. 
Zimmerman, Irving 
Zimmermann, Mrs. P. T. 
Zintak, Frank V. 
Zipprich, Carl J. 

Mann, Howard 
Mears, Grant S. 
Moroney, John J. 

Shanahan, David E. 
Smith, Henry Justin 
Steece, Mrs. F. B. 





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