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JUL 17 1939 





JANUARY. 1939 


Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. XT, Plate XXV 



A Benefactor of the Museum, whose generous bequest included large sums of 

money and notable material for addition to the collections 






JUL 171939 





JANUARY, 1939 




Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may be made in 
securities, money, books or collections. They may, if desired, take 
the form of a memorial to a person or cause, to be named by the 
giver. For those desirous of making bequests to the Museum, the 
following form is suggested: 


I do hereby give and bequeath to Field Museum of Natural 
History of the City of Chicago, State of Illinois, 

Contributions made within the taxable year to Field 
Museum of Natural History to an amount not in excess of 
15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income are allowable a^ 
deductions in computing net income for federal income 
tax purposes. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron during his 
or her lifetime. These annuities are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount and may reduce federal income taxes. 




List of Plates 311 

Officers, Trustees and Committees, 1938 313 

Former Members of the Board of Trustees 314 

Former Officers 315 

List of Staff 316 

Obituary — WilHam J. Chalmers 319 

Report of the Director 321 

Department of Anthropology 354 

Department of Botany 364 

Department of Geology 378 

Department of Zoology 386 

N. W. Harris Public School Extension 399 

James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for 

Public School and Children's Lectures 402 

Lectures for Adults 407 

Layman Lecture Tours 408 

Library 409 

Publications and Printing 413 

Photography and Illustration 416 

Public Relations 417 

j Membership 420 

Comparative Attendance Statistics and Door Receipts . . 422 

Comparative Financial Statements 423 

List of Accessions 424 

Articles of Incorporation 439 

Amended By-Laws 441 

List of Members 446 

Benefactors 446 

Honorary Members 446 


310 Contents 

List of Members — Continued „.^„ 


Patrons 446 

Corresponding Members 447 

Contributors 447 

Corporate Members 448 

Life Members 448 

Non-Resident Life Members 450 

Associate Members 451 

Non-Resident Associate Members 465 

Sustaining Members 465 

Annual Members 465 
















Mrs. Martin A. (Carrie) Ryerson 305 

Excavation in Colorado 320 

Chinese Pottery Jar 354 

Diorama Showing Alpine Vegetation 366 

Merchants of St. Malo at Yemen (a mural 

painting) 372 

The Benld Meteorite 380 

A New Species of Crocodilian 388 

European Stork . 396 

Undersea Group of Narwhal 400 

Steel Cases for Zoological Specimens 404 

The Book Shop of the Museum 412 

A Recent Addition to the Portable Exhibits 
Loaned to the Schools of Chicago by the N. W. 

Harris Public School Extension 416 



Stanley Field 

First Vice-President Second Vice-President 

Albert A. Sprague James Simpson 

Third Vice-President Secretary 

Albert W. Harris Clifford C. Gregg 

Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
Solomon A. Smith 


Sewell L. Avery Charles A. McCulloch 

Leopold E. Block William H. Mitchell 

John Borden* George A. Richardson 

William J. Chalmers| Theodore Roosevelt 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Fred W. Sargent 

Joseph N. Field James Simpson 

Marshall Field  Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Albert A. Sprague 

Albert W. Harris Silas H. Strawn 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 


Executive. — Stanley Field, Albert W. Harris, William J. Chalmers, | 
James Simpson, Albert A. Sprague, Marshall Field, Silas H. 
Strawn, John P. Wilson. 

Finance. — Albert W. Harris, Solomon A. Smith, James Simpson, 
John P. Wilson, Albert B. Dick, Jr. 

Building. — William J. Chalmers, t Samuel Insull, Jr., William H. 
Mitchell, Leopold E. Block, Charles A. McCulloch. 

Auditing. — James Simpson, Fred W. Sargent, George A. Richardson. 

Pension. — Albert A. Sprague, Sewell L. Avery, Solomon A. Smith, 

♦Resigned, 1938 
t Deceased. 1938 



George E. Adams* 1893-1917 

Owen F. Aldis* 1893-1898 

Allison V. Armoxjr 1893-1894 

Edward E. Ayer* 1893-1927 

John C. Black* 1893-1894 

M. C. Bullock* 1893-1894 

Daniel H. Burnham* 1893-1894 

George R. Davis* 1893-1899 

James W. Ellsworth* 1893-1894 

Charles B. Farw^ll* 1893-1894 

Frank W. Gunsaulus* 1893-1894, 1918-1921 

Emil G. Hirsch* 1893-1894 

Charles L. Hutchinson* 1893-1894 

John A. Roche* 1893-1894 

Martin A. Ryerson* 1893-1932 

Edwin Walker* 1893-1910 

Watson F. Blair* 1894-1928 

William J. Chalmers* 1894-1938 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1894-1919 

Huntington W. Jackson* 1894-1900 

Arthur B. Jones* 1894-1927 

George Manierre* ' . 1894-1924 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1910 

Norman Williams* 1894-1899 

Cyrus H. McCormick* 1894-1936 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1899-1905 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1902-1921 

George F. Porter* 1907-1916 

Richard T. Crane, Jr.* 1908-1912, 1921-1931 

John Barton Payne* 1910-1911 

Chauncey Keep* 1915-1929 

Henry Field* 1916-1917 

William Wrigley, Jr.* 1919-1931 

John Borden 1920-1938 

Harry E. Byram 1921-1928 

Ernest R. Graham* 1921-1936 

D. C. Davies* 1922-1928 

Charles H. Markham* 1924-1930 

Frederick H. Rawson* 1927-1935 

Stephen C. Simms* 1928-1937 

William V. Kelley* 1929-1932 

Leslie Wheeler* 1934-1937 





Edward E. Ayer* 1894-1898 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1898-1908 

First Vice-Presidents 

Martin A. Ryerson* 1894-1932 

Second Vice-Presidents 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1902 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1902-1905 

Stanley Field 1906-1908 

Watson F. Blair* 1909-1928 

Albert A. Sprague 1929-1932 

Third Vice-Presidents 

Albert A. Sprague 1921-1928 

James Simpson • 1929-1932 


Ralph Metcalf 1894 

George Manierre* 1894-1907 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1907-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 

Stephen C. SIMMS* 1928-1937 


Byron L. Smith* 1894-1914 


Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1893-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 

Stephen C. SIMMS* 1928-1937 





Clifford C. Gregg 

department of anthropology 

Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator 

Henry Field, Curator, Physical Anthropology 

Albert B. Lewis, Curator, Melanesian Ethnology 

Wilfrid D. Hambly, Curator, African Ethnology 

C. Martin Wilbur, Curator, Chinese Archaeology and Ethnology 

Edna Horn Mandel, Associate, Chinese Collections 

Richard A. Martin, Curator, Near Eastern Archaeology 

A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate, American Archaeology 

Marjorie Kelly, Associate, Southwestern Archaeology 

John Rinaldo, Associate, Southwestern Archaeology 

T. George Allen, Research Associate, Egyptian Archaeology 

TOKUMATSU Ito, Ceramic Restorer 


B. E. Dahlgren, Chief Curator 

Paul C. Standley, Curator, Herbarium 

J. Francis Macbride, Associate Curator, Herbarium 

Julian A. Steyermark, Assistant Curator, Herbarium 

Francis Drouet, Curator, Cryptogamic Botany 

Llewelyn Williams, Curator, Economic Botany 

Samuel J. Record, Research Associate, Wood Technology 

A. C. NoE, Research Associate, Paleobotany 

E. E. Sherff, Research Associate, Systematic Botany 

Emil Sella, Assistant, Laboratory 

Milton Cofulos, Assistant, Laboratory 


Henry W. Nichols, Chief Curator 

Elmer S. Riggs, Curator, Paleontology 

Bryan Patterson, Assistant Curator, Paleontology 

Phil C. Orr, Assistant, Paleontology* 

James H. Quinn, Assistant, Paleontology 

Paul 0. McGrew, Assistant, Paleontology 

Sharat K. Roy, Curator, Geology 


Wilfred H. Osgood, Chief Curator 

Colin Campbell Sanborn, Curator, Mammals 

RUDYERD BouLTON, Curator, Birds 

C. E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator, Birds 

Emmet R. Blake, Assistant Curator, Birds 

H. B. Conover, Research Associate, Birds 

Ellen T. Smith, Associate, Birds 

R. Magoon Barnes, Curator, Birds' Eggs 

Karl P. Schmidt, Curator, Amphibians and Reptiles 

Alfred C. Weed, Curator, Fishes 

William J. Gerhard, Curator, Insects 

Emil Liljeblad, Assistant Curator, Insects 

Fritz Haas, Curator, Lower Invertebrates 

Claire Nemec, Associate, Lower Invertebrates 

Edmond N. Gueret, Curator, Anatomy and Osteology 

D. DwiGHT Davis, Assistant Curator, Anatomy and Osteology 

 Resigned, 1938 



Julius Friesser C. J. Albrecht 

L. L. Pray Leon L. Walters 

W. E. EiGSTi John W. Mover 


Edgar G. Laybourne Frank C. Wonder 

Frank H. Letl, Preparator of Accessories 


John R. Millar, Curator 
A. B. WoLCOTT, Assistant Curator 


Emily M. Wilcoxson, Librarian 
Mary W. Baker, Associate Librarian 

registrar auditor 

Henry F. Ditzel Benjamin Bridge 


A. L. Stebbins 

recorder— in charge of publication distribution 

Elsie H. Thomas 

purchasing agent the book shop 

J. L. Jones* Noble Stephens, Manager 

Robert E. Bruce 

the james nelson and anna louise raymond foundation 
for public school and children's lectures 

Margaret M. Cornell, Chief 
Miriam Wood Leota G. Thomas 

Velma D. Whipple* Elizabeth Hambleton 

Marie B. Pabst Loren P. Woods 

public relations COUNSEL 

H. B. Harte 
Paul G. Dallwig, the Layman Lecturer 


Pearle Bilinske, in charge 

Dewey S. Dill, in charge 


Lillian A. Ross David Gustafson 


C. H. Carpenter, Photographer Carl F. Gronemann, Illustrator 

A. A. Miller, Collotyper 
Clarence B. Mitchell, Research Associate, Photography 


Charles A. CorwinJ Arthur G. Rueckert 

superintendent of maintenance 

John E. GlynnJ 

chief engineer 

W. H. Corning 
William E. Lake, Assistant Engineer 

* Resigned, 1938 
t Deceased, 1938 


July 10, 1852— December 10, 1938 
Elected a Trustee January 22, 1894 

With a sense of acute loss, the Trustees of Field Museum of 
Natural History sorrowfully record the death of their colleague, 
William J. Chalmers. 

Mr. Chalmers, who died on December 10, 1938, in his eighty- 
seventh year, had served ably on the Board of Trustees since 1894, 
shortly after the founding of the Museum. His counsel and guidance 
greatly stimulated the progress of the Museum over the years. 
Especially valuable was his advice during the long period of planning 
the edifice which now houses the institution. He was chosen as a 
member of the Building Committee concurrently with his election 
as a Trustee, and for many years, until the time of his death, re- 
mained as chairman of that important committee, v/hose work 
assured this institution of a permanent and monumental structure 
pro\iding ideal accommodations for scientific exhibits, and suitable 
quarters for the research activities of the scientific staff. After the 
building's completion, Mr. Chalmers and his Committee continued 
to function as advisors on maintenance and improvements. 

Mr. Chalmers was a member also of the Executive Committee 
of the Trustees, in which capacity his voice was heard in all the 
most important decisions concerned with the welfare of the Museum 
as a whole. 

In recognition of eminent ser\-ice to Science, Mr. Chalmers was 
elected an Honorary Member of the Museum, and his name was 
placed high on the roll of the Museum's Contributors because of 
generous gifts he made to the institution. He was, further, a Corpo- 
rate Member and a Life Member. 

In the Museum's Department of Geology, Mr. Chalmers founded 
a noteworthy series of exhibits which his fellow Trustees designated 
as the William J. Chalmers Crystal Collection. By means of the 
carefully selected mineral specimens of unusual excellence which he 
contributed, this collection illustrates the most important phases 
of crystallography, and provides material of immense educational 
value which has been used to great advantage by countless students 
and teachers. Year after year, Mr. Chalmers made additional 
gifts to expand and improve this collection. He made outstanding 


320 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

contributions also to the general mineral collection, the gem collec- 
tion, and the vertebrate fossil collection. 

Mr. Chalmers, a native of Chicago, rose to a prominent place 
in the city's business life, but in recent years had retired from active 
direction of the enterprises with which he was associated. Always 
keenly interested in civic affairs, he was a director of the World's 
Columbian Exposition of 1893, and a member of the Chicago school 
board under Mayor Washburne. He also served on the track eleva- 
tion commission which made possible the elevation of the Illinois 
Central Railroad in 1892. During the World War, he directed 
campaigns to obtain relief funds for Belgian children, and contributed 
lavishly to this cause from his own funds. The Belgian Government 
recognized his humanitarian efforts with one of its highest decora- 
tions. He was equally active in promoting children's welfare and 
other charities at home, and he was quietly and anonymously the 
author of many private benefactions. 

Until recent years, when ill health made it impossible for Mr. 
Chalmers to continue active participation in the deliberations of the 
Board of Trustees, his presence at meetings was the souixe of many 
ideas important to the development of this institution. He was 
gi'eatly admired by his fellow Trustees, who, apart from the business 
of the Board, enjoyed deeply association with a man of such great 
personal charm. 

Therefore, be it resolved that this expression of our esteem for 
Mr. Chalmers, and our grief at his passing, be permanently preserved 
on the records of the Board; 

And be it further resolved that our deep sympathy be conveyed 
to the members of his family in their bereavement, and that a 
copy of this resolution be sent to his widow. 

Clifford C. Gregg, Secretary Stanley Field, President 

December 19, 1938 













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To the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History: 

I have the honor to present a report of the operations of the 
Museum for the year ending December 31, 1938. 

During the course of the year 1,391,580 visitors passed through 
the doors of Field Museum, this splendid total representing an 
increase of almost 100,000 over the pre\aous year's attendance. 
Despite this gain, receipts from paid admissions fell off $780, the 
percentage of paying visitors being only 6.6 per cent of the total 
as compared with 7.3 per cent during the preceding year. These 
figures show that financial support of the institution is not in direct 
proportion to its usefulness, but is affected directly and immediately 
by general business conditions and public confidence. 

It should be noted that the educational influence of the Museum 
is not confined to the number of visitors actually received in the 
building. Extra-mural activities, such as those conducted among 
school children by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures, and the N. W. 
Harris Public School Extension, reached hundreds of thousands of 
others, bringing the total number of persons directly within the 
sphere of the Museum's influence to more than 2,000,000. These 
additional contacts include 182,608 children reached through lec- 
turers sent into the schools by the Raymond Foundation, and 
approximately 500,000 children repeatedly reached by the 1,200 
traveling exhibits circulated in the schools by the Harris Extension. 
Indirectly, through newspaper publicity, Field Museum News, Mu- 
seum publications and leaflets, radio programs, motion picture 
newsreels, and other such media, additional numbers, of incalculable 
but obviously immense proportions, are made aware of Museum 
activities, and are brought scientific information. 

Included in the Museum attendance figures are the audiences, 
aggregating more than 50,000 persons, attracted by the spring 
and autumn courses of free illustrated lectures for adults, and the 
Raymond Foundation series (spring, summer and autumn) of free 
motion pictures for children, which were presented in the James 
Simpson Theatre. Likewise included are more than 48,000 children 
and adults who were conducted on guide-lecture tours of the exhibits. 



322 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

The attendance figures were increased also by persons who parti- 
cipated in the lecture tours conducted by Mr. Paul G. Dallwig, a 
Member of the Museum who joined the stafT in 1937 as a volunteer 
worker with the title of The Layinan Lecturer. Mr. Dallwig conducts 
parties of Museum visitors on special lecture tours on Sunday 
afternoons during eight months in the winter, spring, and autumn. 
In 1938 this notable service was extended to thirty-four such groups 
aggregating 2,741 persons. There were several hundred more 
applicants than could be accommodated, as parties were necessarily 
limited to a size practical for handling. A full report on Mr. Dallwig's 
unique contribution to Museum activities will be found elsewhere in 
this book. 

It is worthy of note that during the months of March, April, 
October, and November, with the Raymond Foundation's Saturday 
motion picture programs for children, the Saturday afternoon 
lectures for adults in the James Simpson Theatre, the Sunday 
afternoon lecture tours conducted by Mr. Dallwig, and the guide- 
lecture tours conducted on week-days by the Museum staff, there 
were special events for Museum visitors every day. Even during 
the other eight months, there were some special activities of this 
sort being conducted almost daily. 

The Museum continued to exert every effort to provide educa- 
tional service requested by groups, either of children or adults. Once 
again, large parties of farm boys and girls from forty-four states, 
and Canada and Hawaii, were brought to the Museum during the 
International Live Stock Exposition held at the Union Stock Yards 
in Chicago during December. There were 1,585 in these groups — 
626 girls and 959 boys — several hundred more than in the similar 
groups of the previous year. They came under the auspices of the 
National Foiu'-H Club Congress. The entire staff of the James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation was assigned to 
conducting them on guide-lecture tours of Museum exhibits. In 
addition to these groups, the Museum received hundreds of individual 
visitors, both adults and youths, who were in Chicago because of 
the live stock show. 

In 1938, as in 1937, the Raymond Foundation co-operated with 
the Public School Broadcasting Council in presenting programs 
supplementing science features on the radio. Special mimeographed 
material was prepared for use by boys and girls sent to the Museum : 
as representatives of their schools, and special exhibits and lectures, 
were arranged for them. I 


Introduction 323 

A program of expansion, including several educational innova- 
tions, was undertaken by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
of the Museum. While the new activities are still in the experimental 
stage, enough e\idence was obtained to indicate that the new 
services would fulfill real needs in the schools. The Harris Extension 
received many letters from school authorities, teachers, principals, 
and the children themselves lauding the work already in full opera- 
tion as developed in the twenty-five years since this Department 
was inaugurated. 

The Library of the Museum continued to give valuable service 
not only to members of the Museum staff and scientists in general, 
but to students in various educational institutions in Chicago and 
vicinity, and to the public in general. The fact that the Museum 
Library is available to the public is gradually becoming better 
known, with a resultant increase in its use. There were 2,510 readers 
from outside accommodated during 1938, or about one-third more 
than in the preceding year. The books and pamphlets on the shelves 
were increased to a total of approximately 114,000 volumes. 

Teachers, students, and others engaged in research work of 
various types, again found much valuable assistance in the reference 
material collections maintained for this purpose in each of the 
scientific Departments of the Museum. Members of the staff 
co-operated in every way with these researchers to assure their 
obtaining the full benefits of the study collections. 

Due to an ever-increasing demand on the part of the public 
for authoritative books on the sciences within the scope of the 
Museum, a Field Museum Book Shop was established. Each book 
offered for sale is first approved by the member of the scientific 
staff best qualified to deal with its particular subject matter. The 
approved list at the close of the year included 180 titles. In order 
that the Book Shop might offer maximum service to the general 
public, a special room was built for it at the north entrance of the 
building, where it is easily accessible to visitors. An index to the 
quick acceptance of this new service is found in the fact that the 
volume of business done was considerably in excess of expectations. 

The Museum sufi:ered a severe loss in the death, on December 10, 
of Mr. William J. Chalmers, who had ably served as a member of 
the Board of Trustees since 1894, shortly after the founding of the 
institution. Mr. Chalmers was Chairman of the Building Committee, 
and a member of the Executive Committee of the Trustees. He 
was also an Honorary Member, a Corporate Member, and a Life 

324 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Member of the Museum, and his generous gifts to the institution 
placed his name high on the roll of the Museum's Contributors (a 
membership classification including those whose gifts in money or 
materials reach a value between $1,000 and $100,000). A resolution 
of the Trustees, in tribute to Mr. Chalmers, will be found in pages 
of this book preceding the Report proper. 

Also noted with regret is the death, on February 25, of Mr. 
Henry Jay Patten, who was an advisor, supporter, and friend of 
institutions and researchers working in the field of Near Eastern 
archaeology. A Life Member of Field Museum, he contributed 
some of the Coptic textiles in the Egyptian hall, as well as cuneiform 
tablets from ancient Mesopotamia (now Iraq). He was the donor 
also of funds to enable the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint 
Expedition to Mesopotamia to continue excavations during 1928 
at the site of Jemdet Nasr, near Kish, and to cover the expenses 
involved in publishing the Kish Sasanian sculptures in a book 
entitled A Survey of Persian Art. In recognition of his generous gifts, 
the Trustees elected Mr. Patten some years ago to the membership 
classification designated as Contributors. 

The death, on December 4, of Mr. Frederick Blaschke, noted 
sculptor of Cold Spring-on-Hudson, New York, came as a profound 
shock to members of the scientific and administrative staff of Field 
Museum, with whom he had been associated for a number of years. 
Mr. Blaschke was the creator of the restorations of various types of 
prehistoric man in the Hall of the Stone Age of the Old World, 
and of extinct mammals in Ernest R. Graham Hall, which is devoted 
to the collections of fossil animals and plants. This work ranked 
among his most important accomplishments, and won him great 
acclaim for its excellence. A gift to the Museum, made a few years 
ago by Mr. Blaschke in the name of his infant son, Stanley Field 
Blaschke, resulted in the inclusion of the latter on the list of the 
institution's Contributors. 

In 1938 four names were added to the list of Contributors. 
They are: Mr. Sewell L. Avery, of Chicago; Mrs. Leslie Wheeler, 
of Lake Forest, Illinois; and Mrs. Edith Almy Adams, and Miss 
Clara A. Avery, both of Chicago (Mrs. Adams and Miss Avery were 
posthumously elected). Mr. Avery furnished funds during 1938 
for the carrying on of four important expeditions: a zoological 
expedition to British Guiana, botanical expeditions to the Bay of 
Fundy and to Guatemala, and a geological expedition to western 
and eastern regions of the United States. Mrs. Wheeler has gener- 

Introduction 325 

ously contributed sums for the support and expansion of the Mu- 
seum's collection of birds of prey which was built up by her late 
husband, who had been a Trustee of the institution, and Research 
Associate in Ornithology on the Museum staff. Mrs. Adams left 
a bequest to the Museum amounting to more than $30,000 in value. 
Miss Avery also generously bequeathed funds to the Museum. 

Mr. Charles A. McCulloch, of Chicago, was elected a Life 
Member of the Museum in 1938. He is a member of the Board of 

A list of Members in all classes will be found beginning on page 
446 of this Report. The total number of memberships on December 
31 was 4,122 as compared with 4,266 on the same date in 1937. 
It is hoped that the small loss may be more than recovered during 
1939. Appreciation is due to all those who have continued their 
support of the Museum by retaining their memberships. 

As a memorial to the late Richard T. Crane, Jr., Benefactor of 
the Museum, and former member of the Board of Trustees, a 
resolution to name Hall 16 (the Hall of American Mammal Habitat 
Groups) "Richard T. Crane Jr. Hall" was adopted by the Trustees 
at their Annual Meeting held January 17. This action was taken 
in recognition of the deep interest Mr. Crane manifested in the 
Museum's work for more than twenty-five years, the many important 
services he rendered the institution, and his generous contributions. 

At the same meeting, the Trustees re-elected for 1938 all Officers 
of the Museum who had served in 1937. Mr. Stanley Field thus 
began his thirtieth year as President, having held that office con- 
tinuously since 1909. The other re-elected Officers are: Colonel 
Albert A. Sprague, First Vice-President; Mr. James Simpson, 
Second Vice-President; Mr. Albert W. Harris, Third Vice-President; 
Mr. Clifford C. Gregg, Director and Secretary; and Mr. Solomon A. 
Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary. Also, at this meeting, 
the resignation from the Board of Trustees of Mr. John Borden, for 
personal reasons, was accepted with regret. 

At a meeting held May 23, the Trustees elected Colonel Theodore 
Roosevelt, of New York, to the Board. Colonel Roosevelt's interest 
in and association with the Museum dates back to 1925 when, with 
Mr. Kermit Roosevelt, he led the James Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic 
Expedition of Field Museum. In 1928 Colonel Roosevelt and his 
brother again collected for the Museum, as co-leaders of the William 
V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to Eastern Asia. Both of these 

326 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

expeditions obtained magnificent collections of mammals, many of 
which are now exhibited in habitat groups and also as single mounts. 
Outstanding among these are the groups of Marco Polo's sheep 
(Ovis poll), Asiatic ibex, and giant panda. 

At a meeting of the Board of Trustees, held November 21, an 
amendment was made to Section 2 of Article VIII of the By-Laws, 
increasing the number of members of the Finance Committee from 
five to six. Certain other minor amendments were made in the 
wording of Sections 9 and 10 of Article I. 

Many new exhibits were installed in all Departments of the 
Museum during 1938, and a number of exhibits already on display 
were reinstalled and improved. In each of the departmental reports 
in this book will be found details concerning the additions and 
reinstallations; consequently, only brief reference will be made here 
to a few of the more important ones. 

In the Department of Anthropology the most noteworthy new 
exhibits are those in Hall L. This hall, installation of which was 
completed during the year, is devoted to Asiatic ethnology exclusive 
of China and Tibet. It contains many objects no longer to be found 
in their places of origin, due to the changes wrought by the influence 
of different civilizations. Included is material representing the 
arts, industries, warfare, and social and religious life of India, 
Burma, Ceylon, Siam, Korea, Siberia, and the island of Yezo (Hok- 
kaido) in northern Japan where dwell the last remnants of that 
mysterious race known as the Ainu. In George T. and Frances 
Gaylord Smith Hall (Hall 24) notable additions were made to the 
exhibits of Chinese ceramics as a result of material received in the 
bequest of Mrs. George T. Smith, from whose private collections 
the Museum's series of jades in Hall 30 had been so greatly augmented 
in 1937. 

To the Department of Botany was added the largest and most 
striking exhibit thus far attempted in that Department — a habitat 
group of Rocky Mountain alpine plants installed in a built-in case 
at the north end of the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) . This diorama 
shows, against a background representing the snow-covered peaks 
of the Medicine Bow range in Wyoming, the curious profusion of 
flowers found growing under arctic-alpine conditions. Other new 
exhibits in this Department are: a reproduction of the bee-swarm ' 
orchid as it grows high on the trunks of trees in Central and South i 
America, installed in the Hall of Plant Life; and a reproduction of 

Introduction 327 

the fruit and fruiting stem of a feather-leaved nipa palm which 
grows in the Oriental tropics, added to Hall 25. 

Additions to Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35) in the Depart- 
ment of Geology include important specimens illustrating meta- 
morphism of the earth's surface rocks, collected by expeditions con- 
ducted during the past several years by Mr. Sharat K. Roy, Curator 
of Geology; and fossil imprints of raindrops in sedimentary rocks, 
estimated to be 250,000,000 years old, collected by Mr. Roy while 
conducting the Sewell Avery Geological Expedition of 1938. In 
Hall 34 there were placed on view specimens of tectites — nodules 
and fragments of natural glass which constitute one of the world's 
great geological mysteries. In the Division of Paleontology of this 
Department, several noteworthy additions were made to the exhibits 
in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). Among these is an almost 
complete skeleton of a huge prehistoric animal known as the moun- 
tain ground sloth of South America {Pseudomegatherium lundi). 
This is the first skeleton of its kind to be erected in any museum. 
The specimen was discovered and excavated some years ago by 
Captain Robert M. Thorne of the Second Marshall Field Paleon- 
tological Expedition to Argentina and Bolivia. Also outstanding 
in interest is a fossil skeleton of Moropus, a strange mammal related 
to the horse and the extinct Titanothere, but having claws on the 
feet in place of hoofs. It was found in Nebraska where it had been 
preserved in a sandstone formation for about 20,000,000 years. 
A temporary exhibit was made also of many interesting and im- 
portant fossil mammal specimens collected in 1937 by the Field 
Museum Paleontological Expedition to Colorado under the leader- 
ship of Assistant Curator Bryan Patterson. 

In the Department of Zoology two new habitat groups were 
added to the Hall of Marine Mammals (Hall N). One is a gi'oup 
of Weddell's seals, specimens for which were collected by the Second 
Antarctic Expedition of Rear- Admiral Richard E. Byrd (1934-35). 
The other group in this hall is an undersea scene showing narwhals. 
These are a small species of whale, of which the males are armed ^^_ 
with a long rapier-like tusk. The original specimens were collected 
by an expedition off the coast of Greenland under the leadership of 
Captain Robert A. Bartlett, noted Arctic explorer. In Hall 20, 
devoted to habitat groups of birds, four new groups were com- 
pleted, and an old group was entirely reinstalled and improved. 
One of the new groups is that of the white stork of Europe and ^ J^ 

Asia, shown as it nests on the roof of a house in a Polish village. ;,«' ,^'' 

1^ r., 

328 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

The specimens of the birds, and also the nest and rooftop, were 
presented to the Museum by the PoHsh-American Chamber of 
Commerce in Warsaw. The three other new bird groups are com- 
posed of specimens collected by the Leon Mandel-Field Museum 
Zoological Expedition to Guatemala (1934). One shows the bril- 
liantly colored and plumed quetzal, national bird of Guatemala; 
another, the giant oriole or oropendula with its strange hanging 
nests; and the third, the toucans and associated birds of the tropical 
rain-forest of eastern Guatemala. The reinstalled group shows 
many of the mjTiad kinds of oceanic birds which flock to Laysan 
Island (of the Hawaiian archipelago) to breed. Among single 
mounts prepared dming the year, the one that attracted the most 
interest was that of Su-Lin, famous giant panda which died at the 
Brookfield Zoological Park of the Chicago Zoological Society, in 
April. The specimen was presented to the Museum by the Zoo, 
and is now on exhibition in Stanley Field Hall. The body, except 
for the rem.oved skin, was turned over to Mr. D. Dwight Davis, 
Assistant Curator of Anatomy and Osteology, for the first complete 
detailed anatomical study ever made of this species of animal. 
In Hall 15, devoted to the sj^stematic collection of mammals, there 
was installed an exhibit showing the closest relatives of the giant 
panda, and Su-Lin will later be transferred to this case. Also 
installed in Hall 15 was an exhibit showing seven species of baboon. 
An important addition to the systematic bird collection in Hall 21 
is a life-size model of the extinct dodo, of which no complete speci- 
men, or even skeleton, remains in existence. An interesting new 
exhibit in Hall 19 (Osteology) shows the twenty component bones 
of a human skull compared with those of a codfish skull, numbering 
sixty-eight. This exhibit illustrates the general tendency toward 
structural simplification of the skull as evolution progresses. 

The Museum made loans of some of its material for various 
special exhibits in other cities. To the Metropolitan Museum of 
Ai't, New York, a number of noteworthy pieces were lent for 
an exhibition of representative Chinese bronzes in American collec- 
tions, held October 13 to November 28. A collection of ethnological 
objects from Borneo, Java, New Guinea, Sumatra, Cook Islands, 
Celebes, and other South Pacific islands, was dispatched to the 
Golden Gate International Exposition at San Francisco for display 
during 1939 in the exposition's Department of Fine Arts. An 
Egyptian mummy was lent to the General Electric X-ray Corpora- 
tion, Chicago, for use in an exhibit at the 1939 New York World's 

Introduction 329 

Fair. This exhibit will demonstrate the use of the fluoroscope in 
scientific research. An installation has been prepared whereby 
exposition visitors will be enabled alternately to view the mummy's 
exterior and then, through the fluoroscope, its interior. It will ' 
be a central feature of the X-ray Corporation's exhibit. Field 
Museum was invited to participate because of the pioneer work 
conducted by this institution, over a period of several years beginning 
in 1925, in developing, and successfully applying, a technique for 
x-ray photography on mummies and other types of specimens not 
pre\dously studied in this manner. As full credit will be given Field 
Museum in the exhibits at both the San Francisco and New York 
expositions, many persons, who later may be visitors to Chicago, will 
thus become acquainted with phases of the work of this institution. 

In \iew of the fact that in 1938, as in other recent years since 
depression has severely curtailed its budgets, it has been impossible 
for the Museum to make sizable appropriations for expeditions from 
its own funds, the institution was singularly fortunate in being en- 
abled to carry out an important expeditionary program with con- 
tributions from public-spirited Chicagoans. Mr. Sewell L. Avery, 
a Trustee, sponsored four; President Stanley Field made funds avail- 
able for one, and Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Chief Curator of the 
Department of Zoology, personally financed and conducted an 
expedition. Following is a summary of the year's expeditions, and 
other field work: 

The Sewell Avery Zoological Expedition to British Guiana, under 
the leadership of Mr. Emmet R. Blake, Assistant Curator of Birds, 
conducted operations for several months. Despite a boat accident 
which caused the loss of many valuable specimens, this expedition 
yielded several hundred birds and other animals for addition to the 
study collections of the Department of Zoology. 

The Sewell Avery Geological Expedition, under the leadership 
of Mr. Sharat K. Roy, Curator of Geology, collected rocks illustrating 
the effects of various dynamic agents, and others showing features 
of terrestrial structure. Semi-precious gem stones were also obtained. 
Collecting was carried on in both western and eastern states. The 
results, combined with collections of previous years, give Field 
Museum what is probably the most comprehensive collection in 
America illustrating phenomena embraced in the study of physical 

The Sewell Avery Botanical Expedition to Nova Scotia, led by ^ 

Mr. John R. Millar, Curator of the N. W. Harris Pubhc School 

330 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Extension (formerly a member of the staff of the Department of 
Botany), obtained a comprehensive collection of specimens repre- 
senting the inter-tidal vegetation of the Bay of Fundy, for use in 
a proposed exhibit of marine plant life. 

The Sewell Avery Botanical Expedition to Guatemala, under 
the leadership of Mr. Paul C. Standley, Curator of the Herbarium, 
left Chicago in November, and at the end of the year was scheduled 
to remain in the field for several months of 1939. Plans call for the 
collection of a wide variety of plants representing the diversified 
flora of Guatemala. At last reports several thousand specimens 
had already been collected. 

Through the generosity of President Stanley Field, funds were 
made available by means of which it was possible to resume the 
work of the Field Museum Archaeological Expeditions to the 
Southwest, conducted in Colorado during seven previous years by 
Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, and associated archaeologists. After one of his most success- 
ful seasons. Dr. Martin reports that the 1938 acti\ities resulted in 
the establishment of a complete and final sequence of the history 
of the earliest known inhabitants of southwestern Colorado — the 
prehistoric Basket Maker Indians who occupied the region from 
about A.D. 600 to 1200. Several important new sites were excavated, 
and large and important collections of pottery and other artifacts were 
obtained. A newsreel of the "dig" was made by Paramount News. 

Dr. Osgood's expedition was concerned with research into certain 
interesting biological problems presented by the fauna of the white 
Tularosa sands and the black lava beds in desert regions of New 
Mexico. He was accompanied by Dr. Frank W. Gorham, of Los 
Angeles, and Mr. Walter F. Nichols, of Pasadena, CaHfornia. In 
addition to collecting desert mammals. Dr. Osgood obtained im- 
portant zoological specimens in the Mogollon Mountains of New 
Mexico, and in various parts of California and Colorado. 

Varieties of cryptocrystalline quartz for the collections of the 
Departm.ent of Geology were obtained by an expedition to Oregon, 
Washington, and Wyoming, conducted under a special arrangement 
by Dr. Albert J. Walcott, of Chicago. 

Through the co-operation of Messrs. James Leavell and Carl 
Birdsall, of Chicago, Mr. Rudyerd Boulton, Cm^ator of Birds, was 
enabled to make a short field trip to the Gulf Coast area of Missis- 
sippi, during the course of which a number of specimens of birds 
were collected. 

Introduction 331 

Mr. J. Francis Macbride, Associate Curator of the Herbarium, 
continued the project, upon which he has been engaged since 1929, 
of obtaining photographs of type specimens of plants in herbaria 
of various European countries. To date the Museum has received 
from him more than 34,000 negatives. Prints from these are made 
available, at cost, to botanists and institutions all over the world, 
and have proved to be of immense value in connection with various 
scientific problems. 

Mr. Bryan Patterson, Assistant Curator of Paleontology, spent V(M^ 
several months in research in Europe, under a grant-in-aid awarded 
by the American Association of Museums from a fund provided by 
the Carnegie Corporation of New York. He also made a collection 
of several hundred insects for the Department of Zoology. 

Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Assistant Curator of the Herbarium, 
made several field trips in Missouri, and obtained several thousand 
botanical specimens for the Museum's Herbarium. Part of this work 
was done at his own expense, and part under a grant awarded him 
by the Academy of Sciences of St. Louis, through the research fund 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Mr. Colin Campbell Sanborn, Curator of Mammals, spent several 
months in Europe on a research project in the British Museum and 
other institutions, under a fellowship of the John Simon Guggenheim 
Memorial Foundation. Under this same fellowship he plans to 
make an expedition to Central America in 1939. 

Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, made 
a field trip to southwestern Arkansas to collect salamanders and 
other amphibians and reptiles. He was assisted by Mr, C. M. 
Barber, a former member of the Museum's staff. 

Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, Chief Curator of the Department of Botany, 
made a journey at his own expense to the Amazon region of Brazil. 
There he collected material and photographs needed for an ecological 
group in preparation for the Hall of Plant Life — an aquatic scene 
showing the largest of all fresh-water plants, the Victoria regia. 

Professor A. C. No^, Research Associate in Paleobotany, col- 
lected fossil plants on a field trip in southern Illinois, and collected 
also in the Pennsylvanian field of Texas, and the Cretaceous and 
Tertiary in Mexico. 

Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Curator of Economic Botany, was 
granted a two years' leave of absence to accept an appointment to 
engage in special work for the Ministry of Agriculture of Venezuela. 

332 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

He is assisting Dr. Henry F. Pittier, the famous Swiss botanist 
(formerly connected with the United States Department of Agri- 
culture), in a botanical survey and study of the various resources 
of Venezuela, and under a special arrangement is concurrently making 
botanical collections for Field Museum. 

Grateful acknowledgment is herewith extended to all who made 
gifts of money, and of material for the scientific collections and the 
Library. Among those who contributed funds during the year are 
the following: 

Mr. Albert W. Harris made a gift of $55,000 to restore the 
endowment of the N. W. Harris Public School Extension, which 
had suffered losses on certain securities held in its account. 

From the estate of the late Mrs. Carrie Ryerson the Museum 
received $302,146.91 in cash, stocks, and bonds, realized from assets 
included in a bequest. The estate is still in process of administration. 

Mrs. Diego Suarez, of New York, gave the sum of $25,000, to 
be used toward payment of general operating expenses of the Museum. 

From Mr. Marshall Field the Museum received gifts totaling 
$24,145, of which $4,615 was for purchase of much-needed equipment 
in the scientific Departments. The rigid economies made necessary 
for a number of years by extremely limited budgets had naturally 
prevented the purchase of many items of modern scientific equip- 
ment. Recognizing that the best results of scientific effort could 
not be obtained under these conditions, Mr. Field made the special 
gift above indicated for the purpose of replacing certain obsolete 
scientific apparatus with the most modern and up-to-date models. 

President Stanley Field contributed sums totaling $18,362.62. 
Included in this gift were rights to subscribe to a new issue of con- 
vertible debentures of the Commonwealth Edison Company, and 
funds for Museum expeditions, storage equipment, and the purchase 
of specimens. 

Mrs. James Nelson Raymond contributed $6,000 toward the 
operating expenses of the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. This, with 
previous gifts, makes a total of more than $63,000 received from Mrs. 
Raymond to supplement the $500,000 endowment she provided in 
1925 wherewith the Raymond Foundation was established. 

From Mr. Wallace W. Lufkin a gift of $5,000 was received. 

Mr. Sewell Avery provided funds of $4,500 to cover the expenses 
of four expeditions mentioned in preceding pages. 

Introduction 333 

To increase the collection of birds of prey begun by her late 
husband, Leslie Wheeler, of Lake Forest, Illinois, a former Trustee 
of Field Museum, Mrs. Wheeler contributed $1,000 and has indicated 
her intention of continuing the Leslie Wheeler Fund for the purchase 
of bird specimens. 

From the estate of the late Mrs. Edith Almy Adams the Museum 
received payment of a bequest amounting to $33,546.63. 

A bequest of $1,000 was received from the estate of the late Miss 
Clara A. Avery. 

Prior to his death in February, the Museum received from the 
late Henry J. Patten, of Chicago, a gift of $250. Other sums of 
varying amounts were received as contributions from Mrs. Hermon 
Dunlap Smith, of Lake Forest; Mr. Clarence B. Mitchell, of Lake 
Forest; the Jewish Welfare Fund, of Chicago, and the Emergency 
Committee for the Aid of Displaced German Scholars. The last 
two contributions in the foregoing list were for the specific purpose 
of enabling the Museum to add to its scientific staff, as Curator 
of Lower Invertebrates, Dr. Fritz Haas, noted biologist formerly 
on the staff of the Senckenberg Museum at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
Germany. Dr. Haas was not available for employment when the 
budget for the year was prepared. 

Indebtedness to the Northern Trust Company, of which a balance 
of $36,000 remained at the beginning of 1938, was paid during the 
year from available funds of the Museum. 

From the Chicago Park District the Museum received sums 
aggregating $117,904.31, as its share, authorized by the state 
legislature, of collections made during 1938 under the tax levies 
for 1937 and preceding years. 

Details of the many gifts of materials for the collections received 
by the Museum during the year will be found in the departmental 
sections of this Report, and in the complete List of Accessions 
beginning on page 424. For mention here, a few outstanding ones 
have been selected, as follows: 

A specimen of mako shark, about eight feet long and weighing 
274 pounds, was presented by Mr. Leon Mandel, of Chicago, who 
caught it during a cruise in Cuban waters aboard his yacht Buccaneer. 

Two excellent specimens of ribbon seal, and four of bearded seal, 
collected in northern Alaska, were presented by Mr. Carl Dreutzer, 
of Chicago. 

From The Chicago Tribune, through the good offices of its 
publisher. Colonel Robert R. McCormick, there was received as a 

334 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

gift a large relief model, ten feet wide by fifteen feet long, of North 
America, for addition to the exhibits in the Department of Geology. 

Colonel Warren R. Roberts, of Chicago, presented a beautiful 
mounted specimen of white marlin which he caught in the Gulf 
Stream off Miami, Florida. 

The Department of Zoology of the University of Chicago pre- 
sented a large collection of fishes taken in the Great Lakes and 
the upper Ohio and Mississippi Valleys. 

Mr. Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., of Chicago, gave the Museum 
representative specimens of more than eighty species of birds which 
he collected in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Subsequently he 
contributed also his services to the Museum as a volunteer worker, 
undertaking the classification and study of these birds in collabora- 
tion with Mr. Rudyerd Boulton, Curator of Birds. 

Dr. Henry Field, Curator of Physical Anthropology, contributed 
a large sarcophagus, a carved marble bath, a marble basin and stand, 
and two marble capitals from ancient Rome. 

Mr. Clarence B. Mitchell, Research Associate in Photography, 
contributed photographic equipment, and provided the expensive 
color plates necessary for the printing of colored post cards of the 
Museum's giant panda, klipspringer, and quetzal gi'oups. The 
quetzal picture was used also in publication of an attractive calendar 
for 1939, and for a four-color illustration in the December issue of 
Field Museum News. 

A collection of Navaho textiles was presented by Mr. Homer E. 
Sargent, of Pasadena, California, augmenting his previous gifts of 
material of this nature. 

A fine mounted specimen of Atlantic broadbill swordfish was . 
presented by Mr. Michael Lerner, New York sportsman. It was 
caught off the Nova Scotia coast by Mrs. Lerner. 

Mrs. Richard T. Crane, of Chicago, gave the Museum a portrait 
of the late Harlow N. Higinbotham, the Museum's second President, 
showing him as he appeared during the years he occupied that office. 

Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, of New York, presented two beautiful 
illuminated religious manuscripts from Tibet, written on parchment 
in the beautiful Tibetan script, and bound in elaborate wooden covers. 

Large numbers of valuable zoological specimens were contributed 
frequently, as in past years, by the Lincoln Park Zoo, the Chicago 
Zoological Society, the John G. Shedd Aquarium, and the General 
Biological Supply House. 

Introduction 335 

An acquisition of unusual interest and importance, obtained by- 
purchase, was that of the Benld meteorite which fell in the town of 
that name in southern Illinois on September 29, 1938, together with 
a section of a garage roof, automobile top, and seat cushion which 
it penetrated, and the automobile muffler which it dented and from 
which it bounced back into the cushion. This meteorite is out- 
standing on several grounds: it is only the second meteorite ever to 
be recorded as falling within the state of Illinois; it is one of only 
eleven (out of a total of approximately 1,300 recorded meteorites) 
to strike and damage buildings or other property; it represents the 
first authenticated instance of a meteorite striking a vehicle; and 
it was possible to observe the angle at which this meteorite arrived 
on earth by checking its point of rest with the hole through the car 
top and the roof of the garage. Few meteorites come to earth under 
circumstances making possible the assemblage of such accurate 
and complete records. The meteorite was obtained through the 
co-operation of Messrs. Ben Hur Wilson and Frank M. Preucil, Jr., 
of the Joliet (Illinois) Astronomical Society, good friends of the 
Museum who acted as agents for the institution. They not only- 
obtained the material for exhibition, but they made a very thorough 
investigation, collecting unusually thorough and competent data, 
and making numerous photographs of important features. 

Another notable purchase made during 1938 was that of the 
second largest single accession of bird specimens ever received at 
Field Museum. It is a magnificent series collected over a period 
of twenty years by the late Sir Frederick J. Jackson while he was 
Lieutenant-Governor of Kenya, and Governor of Uganda, in East 
Africa. The collection contains approximately 6,640 specimens 
belonging to more than 600 species. Also obtained was Sir Fi'ederick's 
sumptuous three-volume monograph on these birds, published 
posthumously during the year. This work contains all the notes 
and observations made by Sir Frederick on the specimens which 
are now the property of the Museum, and makes the collection 
more than ordinarily useful. This acquisition particularly strength- 
ens the Museum's ornithological material because it covers an area 
not well represented previously. 

A notable collection of some 800 ceramic objects, of Chinese 
and Siamese origin, found in the Philippine Islands, has been placed 
in the Museum for study, by Mr, E. D. Hester, of Manila, Economic 
Adviser to the High Commissioner of the Philippines. These 

336 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

ceramics range in date from about the thirteenth to the seven- 
teenth century. 

Mr. Phihp W. Wolle, of Princess Anne, Maryland, placed on 
file in the Herbarium of Field Museum a considerable portion of 
the algal herbarium of his grandfather, the late Rev. Francis Wolle. 
Some 2,000 specimens of algae, including most of the material 
received by the Rev. Mr. Wolle in his exchanges with European 
workers during the years from 1875 to 1892, are thus being made 
available for study at the Museum. 

The Museum was host to meetings of the Midwest Branch of 
the American Oriental Society, and the Chicago Chemists Club. 
The Director of the Museum, and Members of the staff of the 
Department of Anthropology, entertained the former group; Mr. 
Henry W. Nichols, Chief Curator of the Department of Geology, 
entertained the latter. 

Among distinguished \nsitors entertained at Field Museum in 
1938 were: His Royal Highness, Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of 
Sweden (who is an archaeologist and an Honorary Member of the 
Museum) ; Count Nils Gyldenstolpe, Curator of Birds at the Natur- 
historiska Riksmuseet of Stockholm, a member of the royal party; 
Mayor Edward J. Kelly, of Chicago, and other members of the 
official partj^ who accompanied the Prince; Brother Marie- Victorin, 
of the University of Montreal; Dr. Ivan M. Johnston, of the Arnold 
Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts; Dr. Fred A. Barkley, 
of the University of Montana; Mr. Merton J. Reed, of the University 
of Montana; Professor Langdon Warner, of the Fogg Museum at 
Harvard University; Dr. John L. Myres, Professor of Ancient 
History at New College, Oxford, England; Dr. Robert T. Hatt, of 
the Cranbrook Institute of Sciences, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan; 
Miss Mahina Hoffman, of New York; Dr. A. E. Douglass, of the 
University of Arizona, Tucson; Dr. Olov Janse, Professor at the 
University of Paris, and Corresponding Member of I'Ecole Frangaise 
d'Extreme-Orient, Hanoi (Tonkin), Indo-China; Dr. John Beattie, 
Conservator, Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, London; 
Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, Director of the Dominion Museum, W^ellington, 
New Zealand; Mrs. Eric Scott, Education Department, Tasmania; 
Mr. E. 0. G. Scott, Assistant Curator, Queen Victoria Museum and 
Art Gallery, Launceston, Tasmania; Mr. Thomas R. Adam, of the 
American Association for Adult Education, New York; Dr. Franz 
Weidenreich, Honorary Director of the Cenozoic Research Labora- 
tory, Geological Survey of China, Peiping; Mr. Ludwig Glauert, 

Introduction 337 

Curator of the Western Australia Museum, at Perth; Dr. Ales 
Hrdlicka, of the United States National Museum, Washington, D.C.; 
Dr. Vladimir Fewkes, archaeologist of Savannah, Georgia; Dr. 
F. F. Koumans, Leiden Museum, Leiden, Netherlands; Dr. C. G. 
Seligman, retired professor of ethnology of the University of London, 
and Mrs. (B. Z.) Seligman, who has collaborated with her husband 
on his many researches and scientific publications: Dr. Hannah 
Rydh, archaeologist of Upsala University, Sweden; Miss Anna 
Rothmann, of the Albany Museum in Grahamstown, South Africa; 
Dr. Carl G. Aim, of the Botanical Garden of the University of 
Upsala, Sweden; Dr. Francis W. Pennell, of the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natural Sciences; Miss Camilla Best, Director of 
Visual Aids, New Orleans, Louisiana; Mr. V. F. Fisher, ethnologist 
at Auckland Museum, Auckland, New Zealand; Dr. Paul Wallace 
Gregory, of the College of Agriculture, University of California; Dr. 
Walter Granger, of the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York; Mr. Alvin Seale, Director of Steinhart Aquarium, San 
Francisco; Mr. Charles E. Jackson, Acting Commissioner, Bureau 
of Fisheries, Washington, D.C.; Mr. L. M. Klauber, of San Diego, 
California, President of the American Society of Ichthyologists and 
Herpetologists; Mrs. Nicholas (Alice Roosevelt) Longworth, of 
Washington, D.C.; Mr. John W. Davis, former United States 
Ambassador to the Court of St. James's; Miss Anna Shepard, 
ceramic analyst on the staff of the Carnegie Institution, Washington, 
D.C.; Mr. Kermit Roosevelt, co-leader of Field Museum expeditions 
in past years, and a trustee of the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York; Countess Gisele de Diesbach, Attach^e to the 
Louwe, Paris, as head of the lecture department; Mr. A. S. Arguelles, 
Director of the Bureau of Science, Manila, Philippine Islands; Dr. 
Alexander Wetmore, Director of the United States National Museum 
and Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D.C.; Dr. C. L. Lundell, of the Herbarium of the University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor; Dr. Leon J. Cole, Professor of Zoolog>% 
University of Wisconsin, Madison; Mr. Stewart H. Perry, of Adrian, 
Michigan, an authority on meteorites; Mr. Bertrand Schultz, 
Assistant Director, Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln ; Dr. Gerald W. 
Prescott, Associate Professor in the Department of Botany, Albion 
College, Albion, Michigan; Mr. Russell Plimpton, Director of the 
Institute of Art, Minneapolis; Mr. Paul Frank, of the National 
Park Service staff at Zion National Park, Utah; Dr. Philip Drucker, 
Department of Anthropology, University of California; Mr. Michael 

338 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Lerner, sportsman, of New York City; Dr. Paul Ganz, a professor 
at the University of Basel in Switzerland, and President of the 
International Commission on the History of Art; Dr. William K. 
Gregory and Mr. Harry C, Raven, both of the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York; and Mr, Charles Lesley Ames, 
President, and Mr. William Mitchell, Secretary, of the Saint Paul 
(Minnesota) Institute. 

Among notable research accomplishments of the year was the 
establishment of a fossil ancestor of the giant panda, and its smaller 
cousin, the "ordinary" panda, by Mr. Paul McGrew, Assistant in 
Paleontology. The extinct form was identified from fragmentary 
specimens discovered by Mr. McGrew in the lower Miocene deposits 
of western Nebraska. It lived about 20,000,000 years ago and has 
been given the name Cynarctoides. 

Research conducted on a fossil skull of an extinct form of croco- 
dilian, bearing small horns, resulted in the establishment and naming 
of a new genus and species by Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator of 
Amphibians and Reptiles. The specimen was excavated in western 
Colorado in the preceding year by a party consisting of Mr. Elmer S. 
Riggs, Curator of Paleontology, Mr. Bryan Patterson, Assistant 
Curator of Paleontology, Mr. James H. Quinn, Assistant in the 
Division of Paleontology, and Mr. Theodore Burdosh, a volunteer 
assistant. The name Ceratosuchus burdoshi was given to the new 

A notable experiment was conducted in the Department of 
Botany when some seeds of the pink lotus of the Orient (Nelumhium 
Nelumbo), estimated to be between 300 and 500 years old, were 
received from Manchuria by way of Japan through the University 
of Chicago. It is believed that the resulting plants represent the 
longest duration on record of delayed germination of a flowering 
plant. After the leaves had begun to grow to a length of several 
inches, the plants were turned over to the Garfield Park Conservatory, 
where they are flourishing in a pool. 

A rare treeshrew (Dendrogale) , of which specimens were collected 
in 1937 in French Indo-China by Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Chief 
Curator of the Department of Zoology, was subjected to study by 
Dr. Osgood and Mr. D. D wight Davis, Assistant Curator of Anatomy 
and Osteology. As a result, this animal is now thought to be the 
oldest known living relative of man, usurping from that distinction 
the pen-tailed treeshrew which had previously been generally 

Introduction 339 

accepted by zoologists as the "original great-grandfather (many 
generations removed) of the human race." 

A report was published in 1938 on the results of research 
conducted on specimens of stems, branches, roots, and a native 
decoction from a twining shrub or woody climber of Peru known 
as Caapi or ayahuasca. The plant is the source of a powerful narcotic 
used in rites and divinations by medicine men of the Indians in the 
Permian montana region. Material of this plant, collected in 1930 
by Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Curator of Economic Botany, while 
leading the Marshall Field Peruvian Expedition, was turned over 
to Dr. K. K. Chen of the Research Laboratories of Eli Lilly and 
Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. Dr. Chen, in his article now 
published in the Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 
a British technical journal, states that the active principle is harmine, 
an alkaloid already known from another plant source. In the words 
of Dr. Chen, "the mystery of the action of Caapi is thus resolved." 
In his experiments with harmine on mice and rabbits. Dr. Chen 
found that the effects of the drug were neutralized to a large extent 
by injections of certain barbituric acid derivatives which appear 
to offer a possible means of treatment for Caapi poisoning. 

A report was received from Dr. B. V. Skvortzow, of Harbin, 
Manchukuo, on the results of his investigations made on diatoms 
found in a small amount of sediment, collected by the Department 
of Botany of Field Museum at his request, from ordinary Chicago 
tap water by use of a filter. From this specimen Dr. Skvortzow 
selected for description seventeen kinds of diatoms (minute aquatic 
plants visible only under a microscope of fairly high power), some 
of which were pre\aously unknown to science. Dr. Skvortzow is 
studying the fresh-water diatoms of the entire world. 

The excellent and characteristic specimens of corn from Peru 
in Field Museum's Department of Botany were studied by Mr. 
R. C. Mangelsdorf, of Texas Experimental Station, who has found 
evidence that points to the Peruvian area as the place of the original 
domestication of the corn plant. Earlier theories had indicated the 
Mexican-Guatemalan area as the original locale for this food plant, 
which was an indispensable factor in the development of pre- 
Columbian civilizations. 

Various other scientific research projects were undertaken by 
members of the Museum staff during the year, and details of these 
will be found in the departmental sections of this Report. Staff 
members also attended a number of important meetings of learned 

340 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

societies. Dr. Henry Field, Curator of Physical Anthropology, 
spent several weeks at Harvard University in February, completing 
a research project on the physical anthropology of the modern peoples 
of Iraq. Prior to this he lectured on the work of his several expedi- 
tions in the Near East before an audience at the Colorado Fine 
Arts Center in Colorado Springs. In July and August Dr. Field 
made an extended visit to Europe, attending scientific meetings in 
Copenhagen, Brussels, and London, and presenting papers at each. 
At the Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, in 
Copenhagen, he was an official delegate from the United States. 
While in Europe he also collected data for a tribal map of Iran, and 
assembled material for a report on the Ossetes and Yezidis of 
Georgia, U.S.S.R. In December he gave an illustrated lecture 
before the joint meeting of the American Historical Association and 
the American Oriental Society in Chicago. During the year he 
delivered other lectures and appeared in numerous radio programs, 

Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, was 
honored by election to membership in the American Society of 
Zoologists. He lectured before the Zoological Club of the University 
of Chicago, the Cornell Club of Chicago, and other organizations. 

Mr. C. Martin Wilbur, Curator of Chinese Archaeology and 
Ethnology, visited the Museum of the University of Michigan to 
make a study of a notable collection of Chinese ceramics excavated 
in the Philippines. He lectured before the Fortnightly Club and 
the Hoosier Art Patrons Association. Late in the year Mr. Wilbur 
spent a month making a survey of Chinese collections in museums 
of eastern and central states, including institutions in Detroit, 
Toronto, Buffalo, Boston, Cambridge, New Haven, New York, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Cleveland, Kansas City, 
St. Louis, Milwaukee, and Minneapolis. 

Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Chief Curator of the Department of 
Zoology, presented a scientific paper before the American Society 
of Mammalogists which met at San Francisco in July. Dr. Osgood 
is a Founder and a former President of this society, and is at present 
Chairman of its Committee on Nomenclature. 

Mr. Rudyerd Boulton, Curator of Birds, spent several weeks 
in the east on special research on the birds of Angola (Portuguese 
West Africa), working principally on collections at the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York. He also made studies at 
the Museum of Zoology of the University of Michigan, and was 

Introduction 341 

principal speaker at the annual meeting of the Michigan Audubon 
Society in June. In October Mr. Boulton attended the annual 
meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union at Washington, 
D.C., and was honored by election as Treasurer of the organization, 
and Business Manager of its quarterly journal, The Auk. 

Mr. Paul C. Standley, Curator of the Herbarium, attended the 
dedication of the Fairchild Tropical Garden at Coral Gables, Florida. 
Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Assistant Curator of the Herbarium, 
continued research and writing in connection with his forthcoming 
book on the flora of Missouri. 

Dr. Francis Drouet, Curator of Cryptogamic Botany, attended 
the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science held at Richmond, Virginia, in December, and presented 
a scientific paper. 

Dr. C. E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator of Birds, who for some 
years has been in Vienna where he has been working on the large 
and important Field Museum publication. Catalogue of Birds of the 
Americas, moved to London because of Central European political 

Mr. Sharat K. Roy, Curator of Geology, and Mr. Paul McGrew, 
Assistant in Paleontology, attended the meetings of the Geological 
Society of America, held at New York in December. 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, presented a report on the 1938 excavations of the Field 
Museum Archaeological Expedition to the Southwest before the 
meeting of the American Anthropological Association held at New 
York in December. 

The Director of the Museum made contacts with officials of other 
museums in various parts of the country, and was a speaker on 
museum subjects before various societies, on a number of radio 
programs, and elsewhere. Among cities in which Mr. Gregg furthered 
this institution's relations with other museums during a tour of the 
east are Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Cambridge, 
Newark, and Washington. He also presided at the dedicatory 
exercises of the Psychological Museum, of Chicago, and spoke at 
the dedication of the new wing of the Museum of the Saint Paul 

A number of lectures and radio talks on Museum subjects were 
given at various times by Staff Taxidermists C. J. Albrecht, John W. 
Moyer, and W. E. Eigsti. 


342 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Field Museum Press issued thirty technical scientific publications, 
and seven leaflets for lay readers. The technical publications circu- 
late internationally among scientists, and among libraries and other- 

A 48-page pamphlet. Field Museum and Group Education, was 
issued in September by Field Museum Press for the use of school 
officials, principals, and teachers. The booklet, which is illustrated 
with twelve collotjrpe plates, outlines the work carried on by Field 
Museum among school children through the N. W. Harris Public 
School Extension and the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Toward the end of the year plans were completed for enlarge- 
ment and improvement of Field Museum News, monthly bulletin 
published for the several thousand members of the Museum, and 
these were put into effect during December in the preparation of 
the issue for publication on January 1, 1939. The size of the bulletin 
has been increased from four to eight pages, and better legibility has 
been provided by increasing the white space between the lines 
of type. Thus the News has been brought into conformity with the 
typographical practice of most modern periodicals and newspapers, 
and a more complete coverage of Museum activities has been made 
possible as a service to Members. 

For the benefit of bird lovers, a leaflet. Haunts of Birds in the 
Chicago Region, prepared by the Chicago Ornithological Society, 
was published by Field Museum Press. It provides a guide to 
recommended field trips, giving the best localities for observing birds, 
the kinds of birds which frequent each, and the routes for reaching 
them. Accompanying each copy is a map furnished by the Cook 
County Forest Preserve District. 

Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, is 
the author of another book for children. Our Friendly Animals, 
pubUshed in 1938 by M. A. Donohue and Company, Chicago. It 
is a companion volume to the same author's Homes and Habits of 
Wild Animals, published several years ago. Staff Taxidermist 
John W. Moyer completed preparation in 1938 of a book. Lessons 
in Museum Taxidermy, scheduled for publication early in 1939. 
It is intended as an aid both to the amateur who wishes to mount 
birds, mammals, fishes, etc. as a hobby, and to persons who wish to 
train themselves in taxidermy as a profession. 

The metropolitan newspapers of Chicago, the community news- 
papers in various sections of the city, the papers of the city's suburbs, 

Introduction 343 

and the press of the nation as a whole, through the co-operation of 
the national and international news agencies, kept constantly before 
the public the story of the accomplishments and the current activities 
of Field Museum. Likewise, the local radio stations, and also the 
national networks of various broadcasting systems, co-operated in 
giving publicity to the Museum. 

During "Conservation Week," in April, arrangements were made 
whereby a series of six releases was published in the Chicago Daily 
News. These news stories covered various aspects of conservation, 
including wild flowers, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and 
natural mineral resources. The stories, except the introductory 
article, were written and signed by members of the scientific staff. 
The co-operation of the Chicago Daily News is sincerely appreciated. 
Each of the other local daily papers — the Tribune, Times, Herald- 
Examiner, and Evening American — at various times likewise con- 
tributed generous space for outstanding Museum news. 

Through the interest of the Chamber of Commerce of Grand 
Junction, Colorado, as well as several service clubs of that city, 
and Mr. Alfred A. Look, an executive of the Grand Junction Daily 
Sentinel, monuments- were constructed in 1938 from native rock at 
sites where important fossil dinosaur skeletons were excavated by 
a Field Museum expedition in 1900-1901. Bronze plaques v/ere 
placed on these monuments to commemorate the expedition. Mr. 
Look, long an enthusiastic friend of the Museum's, whose many 
contributions of excellent fossil specimens resulted in his election 
as a Contributor to the Museum, reports that a movement is under 
way to have these sites preserved as public parks under perpetual 
protection. Both sites are on isolated buttes in the valley of the 
Colorado River, one west of Grand Junction, the other across the 
river from Fruita. The expedition thus commemorated was conducted 
under the leadership of Mr. Elmer S. Riggs, Curator of Paleontology. 
At one site was obtained the huge skeleton of Apatosaurus (also 
known as Brontosaurus) , one of the largest forms of dinosaur, which 
now occupies a central position in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). 
At the second site the expedition unearthed a genus of dinosaur 
previously unknown to science, almost giraffe-like in form, to which 
was given the name Brachiosaurus. As the first example of this 
animal discovered, this is a type specimen, of importance to scientists 
as a criterion for comparison of any further specimens which may 
be found. ) 


344 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

The Museum continued co-operation with the School of the 
Art Institute of Chicago by providing facilities at this institution 
for the assistance of art students. Classes of children, ranging from 
the fourth elementary grade to high school age, were frequently 
brought to Field Museum on Saturdays by their instructors from 
the Art Institute, and the exhibits in the Museum often served as 
suggestive material also for groups of more advanced students. 

The Museum Cafeteria served 99,122 persons during 1938, as 
compared to 103,682 in 1937. Many additional thousands used the 
rooms provided for children and others who bring their own lunches. 
In these latter, tables and benches are available, and a lunch counter 
is operated where supplementary refreshments such as sandwiches, 
hot beverages, soft drinks, ice cream, etc., may be obtained. 

Under an agreement made with Mr. Emil Liers, of Homer, Min- 
nesota, Field Museum has undertaken the task of recording in motion 
pictures the life story of the otter. Mr. Liers is perhaps the only 
man in the world who is breeding and training otters. His thorough 
knowledge of their habits will make it possible to produce a film 
of high human interest and scientific accuracy. Photographs have 
been taken in various locations in the otter country of Minnesota, 
and arrangements have been made for other "shots" which will 
show the otter under water — an element in which he is perfectly 
at home. The photographic work is being done by Mr. C. J. Albrecht 
of Field Museum's staff. 

Early in the year, friends of the Museum arranged for a private 
showing of natural color slides made by Mr. Clarence B. Mitchell, 
Research Associate in Photography, illustrating objects in the 
collection of Chinese jades bequeathed by the late Mrs. George T. 
Smith. The showing was held at the Casino, where Mr. C. Martin 
Wilbur, Curator of Chinese Archaeology and Ethnology, lectured 
on the subject illustrated. 

Plans were prepared for important improvements in the gem 
room (H. N. Higinbotham Hall, Hall 31). This project awaits 
the provision of funds, which to date have not been available, before 
it can be carried out. 

For the Department of Botany, orders for six 8-door herbarium 
cases, and twelve 6-door cases, were authorized. 

A number of additions to the staff, and other changes of personnel, 
were made during the year: 

Dr. Fritz Haas, for many years Curator of the Department of 
Mollusks at the Senckenberg Museum, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 


Introduction 345 

German}^ was appointed Curator of Lower Invertebrates at Field 
Museum. Dr. Haas is well known and distinguished in his field, 
and recognized as one of the leading living authorities on mollusks. 
He is the author of numerous publications based on the important 
biological researches which he has conducted. He came to America 
under the sponsorship of the Emergency Committee in Aid of 
Displaced German Scholars, New York, and the Jewish Welfare 
Fund, Chicago, which jointly have furnished funds from which a 
part of his salary is being paid for a period of one year. 

Dr. Francis Drouet was appointed Curator of Cryptogamic 
Botany, for a two-year period. A graduate of the University of 
Missouri, he was formerly connected with the Osborn Botanical 
Laboratory of Yale University and the Marine Biological Laboratory 
in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. For a time he was commissioned 
by the Brazilian government to perform special research. 

Mr. Paul McGrew was appointed Assistant in Paleontology. 
An alumnus of the University of Nebraska, he specialized in 
paleontology as a post-graduate student at the Universities of Cali- 
fornia and Chicago. 

Mr. John R. Millar, who became Acting Curator of the N. W. 
Harris PubHc School Extension in 1937, was appointed Curator in 
1938. He is a former member of the staff of the Department of 
Botany, where he began his Museum service in 1918. 

Two guide-lecturers were appointed to the staff of the James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public School 
and Children's Lectures. They are Miss Elizabeth McM. Hambleton, 
who in the previous year worked as a volunteer Associate in South- 
western Archaeology in the Department of Anthropology; and 
Mr. Loren P. Woods. 

Miss Elizabeth Peitzsch was appointed Secretary to the Director. 

At the end of 1938 the following appointments were made, to 
become effective from January 1, 1939: 

Mr. William H. Corning — Superintendent of Maintenance. Mr. 
Corning joined the staff of Field Museum late in 1920 as Chief 
Engineer, and has served in that capacity since that time. 

Mr. William E. Lake — Chief Engineer. Mr. Lake came to the 
Museum July 1, 1922, as an engineer, becoming Assistant Chief 
Engineer in 1926. 

Mr. Arthur G. Rueckert — Staff Artist. Mr. Rueckert joined the 
staff in November, 1923, as a taxidermist. In addition to a general 

346 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

experience in taxidermy and the making of accessories for exhibits, 
Mr. Rueckert assisted the late Charles Abel Corwin in the painting 
of many of his more recent backgrounds, and has carried on this 
work since Mr. Corwin's death. 

Mr. Robert L. Yule — a Preparator, in the Department of 
Anthropology, where he has been employed in various capacities 
since February 1, 1932. 

Mr. W. E. Eigsti — a Taxidermist. Mr. Eigsti came to Field 
Museum in February, 1931, as an assistant taxidermist, since which 
time he has mounted many splendid specimens for the Museum 

Mr. Robert E. Bruce — Purchasing Agent. Mr. Bruce joined the 
staff in October, 1927, and served in various clerical capacities until 
August, 1938, when he became Acting Purchasing Agent. 

Mr. Noble Stephens — Manager of the Book Shop. Mr. Stephens 
has been on the staff of the Museum during the past year and has 
been in charge of the Book Shop since it was opened in April. He 
is largely responsible for the splendid showing made by this new 

Mr. Warren E. Raymond — Assistant Registrar. Mr. Raymond 
joined the staff October 1, 1938, as a clerk, and is now appointed to 
a new position created because of the increasing volume of business 
in the Registrar's office. 

Mr. Joseph D. Todd — Carpenter Foreman. Mr. Todd came to 
the Museum as a carpenter in November, 1927, after a wide ex- 
perience in both exterior and interior construction, and in his new 
position will be of great value to the Superintendent of Maintenance. 

Mr. E. S. Abbey — Captain of the Guard. Mr. Abbey joined 
the guard force in 1905, and became Sergeant in May, 1924. A 
reorganization of the guard force retains Mr. Abbey as the senior 
member of the organization with the new title of Captain. 

Mr. Patrick Walsh — Sergeant of the Guard. Mr. Walsh came 
to Field Museum in February, 1894, in the Maintenance Division. 
He is one of the oldest employes in point of service. In August, 
1905, he became a guard, and since January, 1930, has been Acting 
Sergeant on one of the night shifts. 

Mr. David Con will — Sergeant of the Guard. Mr. Con will became 
a Museum guard April 1, 1931, immediately after his retirement 
from the United States Army. 

Introduction 347 

Several members of the staff resigned during 1938. They are: 
Miss Velma D. Whipple, a guide-lecturer in the Raymond Founda- 
tion, who accepted a position as a teacher in the Chicago public 
schools; Mr. Phil C. Orr, Assistant in Paleontology, who became 
Curator of Archaeology and Paleontology at the Santa Barbara 
(California) Museum; and Mr. J. L. Jones, Purchasing Agent, who 
desired to make his home in Florida because of poor health. 

Death took three veteran museum employes during 1938. Staff 
Artist Charles Abel Corwin, who had been associated with the in- 
stitution for thirty-five years, died on January 27, in his eighty-first 
year. Mr. Corwin prepared nearly all the painted backgrounds 
used in the Museum as settings for habitat groups of modern mam- 
mals and birds, and for restorations of prehistoric peoples and 
animals. In addition to more than eighty such backgrounds he 
painted a series of large mural paintings of exotic plants and trees 
in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29). In his work he developed a 
technique which produced remarkably realistic results, and he was 
without doubt one of the foremost Museum artists in America. 
Prior to joining the staff of Field Museum, Mr. Corwin had a long 
and noteworthy career both as an independent artist, and on com- 
missions for other institutions, among them the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York, the Los Angeles Museum, and the 
Colorado Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. At one time he 
was an instructor at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. 
His paintings, shown at exhibits in Chicago and elsewhere, won 
many honors and prizes. 

Mr. John E. Glynn, employed at the Museum since 1894, and 
Superintendent of Maintenance since 1920, died on October 13. 
Mr. Glynn had been largely responsible for supervising the gigantic 
task of moving the Museum's exhibits, study collections, and other 
possessions from the building originally occupied in Jackson Park, 
and reinstalling them in the present building, which was opened to 
the public in 1921. This immense moving operation, including 
hundreds of thousands of items, many of them extremely fragile, 
was conducted with practically no loss or damage. Mr. Glynn 
designed many of the best types of cases used in the Museum, 
including the built-in cases which are architecturally integrated with 
the interior of the building, and which are used for the installation 
of habitat groups and other dioramas. He also made improvements 
in methods of installation of exhibits, lighting, etc. A notable 
accomplishment was his reconstruction in the jp^all of Egyptian 


348 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Archaeology (Hall J) of two complete mastaba tomb chapels of 
Egypt's Old Kingdom period. These were assembled, using chiefly 
original stone blocks brought from Egypt. 

Thomas W. Warke, a faithful member of the maintenance force, 
who had worked at the Museum since 1894, died on January 16. 
Like Mr. Glynn, he was in point of years of service one of the Mu- 
seum's oldest employes. 

Others who died were Mr. Michael Kirby, and Mr. R. N. Abbey, 
former members of the guard force. Mr. Kirby had been employed 
by the Museum since 1917, and Mr. Abbey since 1908. 

Under the provisions of the Field Museum Employes' Pension 
Fund, insurance was paid in the amounts indicated to the beneficiaries 
of Museum employes who died during 1938: to the widow of Mr. 
Charles A. Corwin, $4,000; to the widow of Mr. John E. Glynn, 
$6,000; to the widow of Mr. Thomas W. Warke, $4,000; to the 
beneficiaries of Mr. R. N. Abbey, $4,000; and to the widow of 
Mr. Michael Kirby, $2,500. 

Mr. Thomas Hardy, a guard since 1910, having reached the age 
of 74 years, was placed on the Museum's pension payroll at his own 

As a new measure for the welfare of employes of the Museum, 
arrangements were made whereby those who desire to do so may 
enroll in the Plan for Hospital Care, a corporation not for profit, 
which provides service in most of the leading hospitals of Chicago. 
Under this plan, employes pay a nominal annual fee which entitles 
them to as much as twenty-one days per year of hospitalization, 
together with the use of x-ray facilities, operating rooms, and other 
services, in any of the hospitals connected with the Plan; also, 
provision is made for similar service in hospitals of other cities and 
countries, should need arise while an employe is traveling. The 
plan also provides similar benefits for families of enrolled employes 
upon payment of a small additional fee. Enrollment is purely 
voluntary. Approximately 42 3^^ per cent of the Museum employes 
have subscribed. 

This plan for hospitalization at small cost, together with the life 
insurance provided for most Museum employes, has already proved 
of great advantage to many of the employes and their families in 
meeting the contingencies of life. 

Valuable assistance in the scientific work of the institution was 
rendered by a splendid group of volunteer workers who performed 

Introduction 349 

routine and scientific work in various departments of the Museum 
without remuneration. Newcomers to this group during the present 
year were: Miss Marjorie Kelly, Mr. John Rinaldo, Mr. Leonard 
Bessom, Mr. E. Fred Bromund, Mr. Robert T. Burton, Mr. Albert 
Enzenbacher, Miss Marian Geller, Mr. Jack Huber, Mr. John 
Kurfess, and Miss Claire K. Nemec. The services of this efficient 
group are deeply appreciated. 

Volunteer workers who began activities in 1937 and continued 
during 1938 include Mr. Clarence B. Mitchell, Research Associate 
in Photography, engaged in a project of making color pictures of 
outstanding exhibits; Mr. Paul G. Dallwig, The Layman Lecturer, 
whose work is reported upon elsewhere in this book; Mrs. Edna Horn 
Mandel, Associate, Chinese Collections, who is working with Curator 
C. Martin Wilbur in a variety of Oriental studies; Mrs. Hermon 
Dunlap Smith, Associate, Birds, engaged in an ornithological research 
project in collaboration with Curator Rudyerd Boulton; and Miss 
Elizabeth McM. Hambleton, who, until her appointment in June 
to the staff of the Raymond Foundation, assisted Chief Curator 
Paul S. Martin as an Associate in Southwestern Archaeology. 

The Museum is indebted also to other workers who have con- 
tinued to render volunteer services on the staff for many years. 
These include Professor A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate, American 
Archaeology; Dr. T. George Allen, Research Associate, Egyptian 
Archaeology; Professor Samuel J. Record, Research Associate, Wood 
Technology; Professor A. C. Noe, Research Associate, Paleobotany; 
Dr. E. E. Sherff, Research Associate, Systematic Botany; Mr. H. B. 
Conover, Research Associate, Birds, and the Hon. R. Magoon Barnes, 
Curator, Birds' Eggs. 

Again the Works Progress Administration of the federal govern- 
ment has performed noteworthy services for Field Museum. With 
many WPA workers continuing their work at Field Museum for 
several years, the value of their services has risen almost to a basis 
of equality with that of the junior members of the Museum Staff. 
Many tasks requiring expenditure of a great deal of time and meticu- 
lous labor have been completed or have been advanced to a point 
approaching completion. As members of the WPA become more 
proficient they are given more advanced tasks to perform. This plan 
results in greater values accruing to the Museum, and through it 
to the people of Chicago and the entire world of science. In several 
instances vacancies at Field Museum have been filled by transferring 
WPA workers to the Museum payrolls, and it is certain that the 

350 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

training received at Field Museum will qualify many others for 
museum work elsewhere upon their eventual return to private 
employment. During the current year the WPA forces have been 
increased to a total of 215 workers. Their working time aggregated 
337,756 hours, and the government paid them wages totaling 
$211,548. The range of the tasks to which they were assigned 
embraced scientific research, preparation of exhibits, clerical work, 
and general labor, assignments being made according to each individ- 
ual's capacities and experience. In acknowledging the splendid 
services of the workers on these Projects (Nos. 3701 and 3709), 
the Director desires to acknowledge also the fine co-operation of 
those in charge, not only at the Museum, but in the Chicago adminis- 
trative offices of WPA. 

It should be emphasized that the work done by WPA employes 
is of a character that could not be undertaken by the Museum's 
regular staff because of the pressure of more urgent tasks. The 
regular employes on the Museum's own payroll continued with their 
usual duties. 

Examples of the work performed at Field Museum by WPA 
employes were included in the Exhibit of the W^omen's and Pro- 
fessional Division of the WPA held at the Merchandise Mart from 
May 5 to 10. 

Following is a report of the principal activities of the forces 
working under the direction of the Superintendent of Maintenance: 

In the Department of Zoology the new mezzanine lined with 
steel cases for the storage of specimens, on the fourth floor, was 
completed early in the year. With construction almost finished in 
1937, this work in 1938 included installation of the railing, and of 
some eighty shelves and sixteen liners in the cases. An insulated 
cooling room for the storage of zoological specimens in the flesh was 
constructed on the fourth floor, in connection with the main taxi- 
dermy shop. An air-cooled condensing unit and coil for the refrigerat- 
ing equipment was installed by the Commonwealth Edison Company. 
Twenty trays were made for the storage of specimens of birds' eggs 
in a special room on the third floor. Partitions were built across 
Rooms 93 and 96 on the third floor to make four work rooms and 
offices, and window benches were constructed in Room 93. A base 
was constructed for the exhibit of baboons installed in Hall 15. 
In the new Hall of Fishes (Hall 0), which is in preparation, and will 
contain both habitat groups and the systematic collection, a 100- 
foot wall case, and groundwork for a group of Maine fishes, were 

Introduction 351 

built. Assistance was rendered in the installation of a whale shark 
exhibit under preparation in this hall, and of the narwhal group 
added to Hall N (Hall of Marine Mammals). In the latter hall 
revisions were made in the exhibit of walrus whereby the "mid- 
night sun" was relocated to improve its effectiveness. Seven cases 
in Hall 20 (habitat groups of birds) were glazed, and the glass in all 
cases in Halls 13, 16 and 17 was taken out, cleaned, and re-set. 
A case in Stanley Field Hall was remodeled for the exhibition of the 
giant panda "Su-Lin," and a dissecting table was built for research 
on this animal in the Di\'ision of Anatomy and Osteology. The 
light box for a case in Hall 20, in which a group of rheas is to be 
installed, was rebuilt to permit the use of a new type of lighting. 

For the Department of Botany, flush doors were installed on 
each side of the new diorama of alpine plants in Hall 29, and a 
railing was placed in front of the view glass. Two large new mural 
paintings were hung, framed and starched in Hall 25. In the working 
quarters on the third floor, additional steel cases for storage of 
botanical specimens were installed — eight in Room 11, four in Room 4, 
and twelve in Room 8. 

An arch for the installation of a lintel from ancient Kish was 
built between Halls K and L of the Department of Anthropology. 
Cases for the exhibition of Kish archaeological material in Hall K 
were refinished and temporarily arranged for installation of exhibits. 
In Hall J (Egyptian archaeology) the cases for exhibition of mummies 
were thoroughly cleaned. For the steel storage files for storage of 
anthropological material seventy-five wooden trays were provided. 
In the Department of Geology a case for the exhibition of the 
skeleton of the extinct Moropus was built and installed in Hall 38. 
A large relief map of North America, 10 by 15 feet in dimensions, 
presented by The Chicago Tribune, was hung in Hall 36. The 
exhibit of fluorescent minerals was moved to a new location in the 
passageway near Hall 34, and revamped. Pressed wood backs were 
fitted in eight cases for Halls 34 and 35. 

The office of the Curator of the N. W. Harris Public School Ex- 
tension was moved to a new room and fitted with work tables and 
sink. A number of changes were made in the work rooms of this 
Department. Various fixtures were installed, four new benches were 
made, and an exhaust fan and hood erected. 

General maintenance of the Museum building included the 
repairing of 565 windows on the second and third floors. New sills, 
sashes and frames were installed where needed. In the Cafeteria 

352 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

,the linoleum floor was repaired and waxed, cracks in the plaster 
of the walls were repaired and painted, and a new door frame was 
built for the large refrigerator. Five new cabinets for the storage 
of supplies were built for the Raymond Foundation and the Superin- 
tendent's office. An enclosure, with provisions for displays and 
for storage of books, was constructed to accommodate the Book 
Shop opened near the north entrance during the year. A large 
sign with raised letters indicating the new name of Hall 16 — now 
Richard T. Crane Jr. Hall — was made and hung. Signs were hung 
also in Halls G, H, and 7. New window shades were hung in the 
Library, the Raymond Foundation office, the business offices, 
and the second floor exhibition halls. Two small skylights were i 
re-covered, and eight were re-topped with rooflng cement. Many \ 
leaks were found in the downspouts for drainage of rain and snow ; 
from the roof, and eight of the worst of these were patched, with ! 
new heads being made for four of them. A large amount of painting 
was done, including walls, ceilings, and in some cases floors, in the i 
press room, Library, fourth floor work-rooms, exhibition halls K i 
and L on the ground floor, the second floor bridge halls, the Director's ; 
anteroom, telephone operator's room, offices of the Divisions of ' 
Publications and Public Relations, the Superintendent's office, fan 
room. Rooms 93, 93-A, and 94 on the third ffoor, and three corridors 
on the ground floor. The wall-washing project undertaken by workers 
assigned to the Museum by the Works Progress Administration was 
continued throughout the year. 

Herewith is a summary of the more important tasks accomplished 
during 1938 by the Chief Engineer and the men working under his 
supervision : 

All three elevators — the passenger elevator, the freight elevator 
that conveys material to all floors of the building, and the hydraulic 
secondary freight elevator that carries material between the shipping 
room and the loading platform on the outside of the building — were 
overhauled. New bearings were installed in the motor of the main 
freight elevator. The pump of the hydraulic elevator was repacked, 
and new floor plates and side sheets were installed on the lift carriage. 
Extensive changes in the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
quarters made necessary the installation of three new sinks, to- 
gether with new water lines and drains, ten gas outlets, ten air 
outlets, and changes in electrical connections including twelve new 
drop lights and three outlets for power tools, etc. Completion of the 
new fourth floor mezzanine for storage of zoological specimens 

Introduction 353 

necessitated the re-wiring of the west section of that floor. Both 
upper and lower tiers of storage cases were wired, and eighty-nine 
lights were installed. A pipe railing was cut for installation on 
the mezzanine. Lighting fixtures were hung in Hall L, and several 
electrical outlets for case lighting were installed in Hall K. In the 
latter, twelve cases also were wired for lighting. Several new 
circuits were run into Hall and the cases there were wired for 
lighting. Two spotlights were installed in Hall 16 to illuminate the 
new sign designating it as Richard T. Crane Jr. Hall. A new electrical 
outlet was provided for the walrus case in Hall N because of changes 
made in the "midnight sun" illumination of this exhibit. Lighting 
fixtures were installed also in the new case containing the narwhal 
exhibit in Hall N. Other work concerned with lighting included 
provision of an extra electrical outlet required in completing the 
group of alpine plants in Hall 29, rewiring the exhibit of fluorescent 
minerals on the bridge near Hall 34, wiring seven cases for habitat 
groups of birds in Hall 20, wiring a new case in Hall 22, and pro- 
\dding outlets for the lights needed in display cases in the Book 
Shop. Additional drop lights were installed wherever required in 
offices and work rooms. An electrical alarm system was installed 
to provide working and quitting time signals for the WPA workers 
on the third floor. For the convenience of the Director, a new 
system of buzzers was installed between his office and that of his 
secretary. Extensive changes were made in Room 11 (assigned as 
an office to the Curator of Cryptogamic Botany), which required 
the installation of a new sink with drains and water piping, and 
changes in lighting. Larger steam radiators were installed in a 
number of former work rooms on the third floor to make them 
available for office and research work. Racks in the skin storage 
room of the main taxidermy shop were changed to allow the accom- 
modation of larger skins. Many exhibition cases were moved for 
the various Departments to permit installation changes. 

Severe tests were made of a new type of tubular fluorescent 
lamp, developed recently by the General Electric Company, to 
determine whether or not it would fade exhibited materials, and to 
ascertain its adaptability in other respects for Museum use. Fifteen 
cases in various parts of the building were equipped with these 
lamps. To date no fading of exhibited material has been discovered. 
A check on the amount of current consumed indicates an average 
saving of 71 per cent in wattage consumed as compared with the 
old type of lights. At the same time a great improvement was 

354 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

obtained in the quality of the illumination. This indicates that 
adoption of these lights generally would make possible the lighting 
of many more individual cases with no increase in cost for electrical 
current. These lights offer great promise not only of vastly improved 
illumination of Museum exhibits, but may prove also of value for 
lighting of offices, the Library reading room, etc. They come in 
several different colors which make them especially valuable for 
obtaining different sorts of effects required in habitat groups, such 
as daylight, twilight, undersea scenes, etc. 

The brick work on all boilers in the Museum's heating plant 
was repaired. The coal conveyor was overhauled, and new buckets 
were installed wherever necessary. New bearings were installed 
in the stoker motor, and other repairs made. Both air compressors 
were thoroughly gone over and all worn parts replaced. Heating 
equipment was thoroughly checked, traps cleaned, and all apparatus 
kept in good order. Because of the worn condition of the coal lorry 
in the boiler room, steel was purchased to rebuild it. 

A contract was entered into by the Chicago Park District and 
the Museum whereby heat will be supplied from the Museum's 
steam plant for the new Park Administration building (at the north 
end of Soldier Field), construction of which was begun in 1938. 
The steam and return lines to this building have been installed by 
the Park District, and plans call for the delivery of steam beginning 
in the early part of 1939. Revisions were made in the contracts, 
which have been in force for a number of years, under which the 
Museum supplies heat required for the John G. Shedd Aquarium, 
and for Soldier Field (the latter contract being with the Chicago 
Park District). The new terms provide a more equitable basis for 
this service. During 1938, the Museum furnished 12,821,776 pounds 
of steam to the Aquarium, and 7,028,106 pounds to Soldier Field. 

Reports in detail of the year's activities in each of the Museum's 
Departments and Divisions will be found in the pages which follow: 

expeditions and research 

The Field Museum Archaeological Expedition to Southwestern 
Colorado, generously financed by President Stanley Field, spent 
four months in the field (June to October). This season was very 
successful and profitable from every point of view. 

The expedition was in charge of Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Cura- 
tor, who was ably assisted by Messrs. Carl Lloyd, Alexander Spoehr, 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. XI. Plate XXVII 




Decorated with a stamped design based upon motif of stags. Third century B.C. or later 

George T. and Frances Gaylord Smith Hall (Hall 24) 

1H£ umm 


Department of Anthropology 355 

and John Rinaldo. All photographs were taken by Mr. Robert 
Yule, Assistant in the Department of Anthropology. An excellent 
16-millimeter Cin^-kodak was presented to the leader of the expedi- 
tion by Mrs. Edna Horn Mandel, volunteer associate in the Depart- 
ment, making it possible to take motion pictures in color of the work 
in the field. 

Excavations were conducted on the ruins of two large villages 
which are probably the most ancient in southwestern Colorado. 
They may be classified as belonging to the Modified Basket Maker 
Period. Because the researches of the summer have not yet been 
thoroughly collated, the descriptions and summary herewith given 
are tentative, and the chronology is inferential. 

The people of the Modified Basket Maker Period constructed 
rooms of three kinds: 

(1) Rooms with floors a few inches below the ground surface, 
and walls consisting of upright slabs topped by rubble of small 
stones set in abundant mortar. These rooms were contiguous. Each 
of these slab-walled rooms was covered with a roof supported by 
four upright posts, one set in each corner. It is assumed that these 
posts were forked to hold the main roof beams upon which smaller 
beams were then laid and in turn covered with bark and mud. The 
exact use of these rooms is not known, but it seems probable that 
they served as granaries and general store rooms. 

(2) Rooms, built contiguously, with walls of upright posts (set 
stockade fashion) and mud. The spaces between the posts were 
plugged with mud in which leaves, grass, and reeds were used as 
binder. These houses were roofed by means of poles, bark, and mud, 
all supported by forked, upright posts. In each room there was 
at least one firepit, sometimes two. Many of them had large cists, 
or storage pits, sunk in the floor. These rooms varied in size, but 
measured on the average about six by eight feet. What they were 
used for is not known. Dr. Martin's guess is that they may have 
been living quarters. 

(3) Pit houses (so-called because they are in reality large pits), 
the floors of which were six or seven feet below ground level. Most 
of these were about fifteen feet square. The entrance to a pit 
house consisted of a small antechamber (to the south) connected 
to the house proper by a short passageway and a door in the south 
wall. In the floor, near the center of the room, was a firepit. An 
east-to-west partition wall divided the room into unequal sections, 
with the larger space to the north, and the smaller one to the south. 

356 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

The roof, composed of logs, was supported by four large posts, the 
upper ends of which were probably forked to provide a resting-place 
for the main stringers. In the floor, apparently without any definite 
arrangement, were numerous holes, large and small, deep and shallow. 
The use of these is unknown — some may have served as pot-rests, 
and one (north of the firepit and nearest to it) may have been analo- 
gous to the sipapu, which is provided in modern kivas for the pur- 
pose of "communication with the spirits." 

Whether these underground houses were used as living quarters, 
for celebrating ceremonies, or for both purposes, is not known. 
Because corn-grinding stones (metates and manos), cooking pots, 
and stone tools have been found on the floors of all of them, it seems 
a safe conjecture that they were used as living quarters. But it is also 
quite likely that they served as ceremonial chambers as well. It is 
difficult to explain why two kinds of living quarters — above-ground 
post-wall houses, and pit houses — existed simultaneously. 

These various kinds of rooms were arranged as follows: a row of 
slab-walled rooms running east and west; to the south of them, a 
row of post-and-mud-wall rooms; and then again to the south the 
pit houses. It is interesting to note that this arrangement con- 
tinued to prevail until late Pueblo times. 

The pottery used by the people of this period was of three kinds: 
(1) A plain, undecorated smooth pottery with all coil marks oblit- 
erated (Lino gray); (2) a pottery with an orange background and 
red or black designs (Abajo red-on-orange) ; and (3) a gray pottery 
with black designs (Lino black-on-gray). The third type was less 
abundant than the others. 

The stone and bone tools of this period were numerous. Passing 
over technical details and differences, suffice it to say that the 
stone tools comprised troughed stone metates (with only one end of 
the trough open), manos, axes, rubbing stones, hammer stones, mauls, 
polishing pebbles, projectile points, drills, knives, and scrapers. 
Many of these tools have distinguishing marks or characteristics 
which set them apart from those of later periods. The tools riiade of 
animal bones included awls, scrapers, and needles. 

Corn, and possibly squash, were grown and used for food. About 
A.D. 800, the character of the houses changed. Pit houses were 
still in fashion, but the method of roofing them was slightly 
different. Instead of four main upright supports, many small poles 
were used. These, numbering as many as forty, were set around 

Department of Anthropology 357 

the periphery of the room. The above-ground rooms were no longer 
constructed of slabs, posts, and mud, but were walled with crude, 
coursed masonry. However, the general arrangement of the village 
was the same as in earlier times, the construction of double rows 
of contiguous rooms being continued. The rear row was still used 
for storage (these rooms corresponding to the earlier slab-walled 
granaries), and the front row for living quarters (thus similar in 
function to the post-and-mud-wall houses of earlier times). All 
of the rooms used for living quarters were provided with firepits, 
and some of them with small ventilator shafts and deflectors. At 
this time large kivas became popular. At one village two were 
found, one measuring 82 feet in diameter, and the other, 43 feet. 
These are as large as any found in later villages. 

The pottery was practically the same as that of the preceding 
period, except that the necks of some of the gi'ay cooking vessels 
were "banded" — that is, the coils from which the pottery was con- 
structed were obliterated on the body of the vessel, but not on 
the neck. 

The stone and bone artifacts for these late Basket Maker houses 
continued unchanged. 

Dr. Martin read a paper, summarizing his expedition's work, 
before the American Anthropological Association's meeting in New 
York (December 27-31). The final report on the summer's activity 
will be published early in 1939. 

Mr. Richard A. Martin, Curator of Near Eastern Archaeology, 
spent most of the year in cataloguing material from ancient Kish, 
and arranging it for exhibition. Seven cases have been installed. 
A Sasanid portal, in what is to be the Babylonian hall, was com- 
pleted and has already been opened to the public. Research on 
the continuity of Near Eastern pottery forms, and the development 
and influence of Neo-Persian architectural ornamentation, was con- 
ducted. Curator Martin also arranged a temporary exhibition of 
Sasanian objects for the members of the American Oriental Society, 
who met in Chicago in April. Another meeting attended by Mr. 
Martin was that of the American Historical Society held at Chicago 
in December. 

Dr. Henry Field, Curator of Physical Anthropology, spent much 
of 1938 in research at various museums and universities in England 
and Europe. Acting for the Museum, he purchased several casts 
of human material. Appearing before the Second International 
Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences at Copen- 


358 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI M 

hagen in August, Dr. Field read a paper entitled "The Physical 
Characters of the Modern Inhabitants of Iran," At the meeting of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in July, . 
he was an American delegate. 

On his return to the Museum, Dr. Field completed Contributions 
to the Anthropology of Iran, and continued preparation of Contribu- 
tions to the Anthropology of Georgia, U.S.S.R., both of which may 
be published in 1939. He also compiled data for a tribal map of Iran. 

Dr. Wilfrid D. Hambly, Curator of African Ethnology, was 
engaged during the period from January to September in research 
required for the publication Anthropometry of the Ovimbundu of 
Angola. Data for this publication were collected by Dr. Hambly, 
as leader of the Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological 
Expedition to West Africa (1929-30), and this contribution to physi- 
cal anthropology forms the third and last installment of the reports 
on the acti\aties of that expedition. In this work, measurements 
of fifty-three adult males of the 0\'imbundu are statistically treated, 
and compared with measurements of other groups of African Negroes. 
There are thirty plates, including photographic studies of tribal and 
ornamental body-marks and mutilation of teeth. , 

Work on the craniometry of 194 skulls from New Guinea was 
continued at intervals throughout the year. Measurements nave 
been completed, and the task of making a detailed comparison of ; 
the data with the records of other observers has begun. These 
specimens were collected by Dr. Albert B. Lewis, Curator of Mela- 
nesian Ethnology, who was leader of the Joseph N. Field Expedition 
to New Guinea in 1909-1913. j 

In June, the task of rearranging and recataloguing a large col- ' 
lection of osteological material was undertaken. The specimens 
involved are stored in the drawers of steel cabinets. A numbering 
system facilitates ready reference. The new catalogue aims to give 
not merely a list under geographical headings, but a fairly detailed 
summary of the condition of all the material. When typed and 
indexed, it will be valuable for reference by students. A research 
worker may quickly ascertain from it the amount and condition of 
material available for his particular study. 

Mr. C. Martin Wilbur, Curator of Chinese Archaeology and Eth- 
nology, devoted considerable time to research on slavery in China 
during the Former Han period (206 b.c.-a.d. 25). This subject has 
anthropological interest because it deals with an important social, ; 

Department of Anthropology 359 

economic, and legal institution in a formative stage in Chinese 
history. Many similar studies of slavery have been made by scholars 
working in the history of ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, but no 
other western scholar has studied intensively Chinese slavery in the 
period roughly equivalent to the last two centuries of the Roman 
Republic. The sources for this study are entirely Chinese documents 
written during the Han period. While these fully report major 
historical movements and important people of the ruling class, they 
almost completely disregard the common people, of which the lowest 
class were slaves. Fortunately, however, many incidental references 
to slaves, who were in some way connected with important people 
or events, appear in the documents. By a minute study of these 
apparently trifling references it is possible to learn much about the 
social, economic, and legal aspects of the ancient Chinese institution 
of slavery, and to obtain a picture of the daily life of a slave. 

Curator Wilbur also completed the necessary study for the publi- 
cation of a manuscript, left uncompleted by Dr. Berthold Laufer, 
late Curator of Anthropology, on the diffusion of the potato. This 
was published as Part I of American Plant Migration. A survey of 
Chinese collections in twenty-one major eastern and middle western 
museums constituted another valuable research undertaking con- 
ducted by Mr. Wilbur. His time was also largely devoted to sys- 
tematizing working materials for the study of Chinese anthropology. 
A store-room containing a large east Asiatic study collection was 
completely overhauled and reorganized. A photograph file for east 
Asiatic archaeology and ethnology was established, and several 
thousand valuable photographs were classified and arranged. 

Mrs. Edna Horn Mandel, Associate in the Chinese Collections, 
continued her project, as a volunteer worker, to study the Museum's 
Chinese paintings and sculptures with a view to making both 
exhibits and the large study series more useful to students. The 
study collection, numbering several hundred items, has been made 
easily accessible through adequate filing and indexing. Plans have 
been made for more effective exhibition of the paintings on display 
to the public. Mrs. Mandel has also assembled all relevant data 
on Chinese painting prior to the T'ang period, both historical and 
graphic. To further this research project, she has spent part of her 
time studying Chinese painting and the Chinese language at the 
University of Chicago. She has been of great assistance also in 
problems of exhibition, in giving information to visitors, and in 
collaboration on the arrangement of materials in the Chinese division. 

360 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

In co-operation with Mr. Wilbur, Mrs. Rose G. Miller has under- 
taken to systematize the Museum's collection of several thousand 
Chinese rubbings. These rubbings, taken from monuments produced 
during the last three thousand years, offer invaluable studies of 
Chinese fine arts, literature, calligraphy, religion, and daily life. 
An adequate storage and filing system has been worked out, and Mrs. 
Miller has generously undertaken to arrange and classify the rub- 
bings, index their contents, and prepare a draft catalogue of a large 
number presented to the Museum by Dr. Laufer. Her knowledge of 
Chinese makes her work especially valuable. 

Reference has already been made to two of the publications issued 
during the year: Part I of American Plant Migration {The Potato) 
and Anthropometry of the Ovimbundu. Other publications which came 
from the press were: Archaeological Work in the Ackmen-Lowry 
Area, by Dr. Paul S. Martin, and The Hiyh Priest's Grave of Chichen 
Itza, written by Mr. Edward H. Thompson, and prepared for publi- 
cation by Mr. J. Eric Thompson, who was formerly a member of the 
staff. On the press at the end of the year was Part II, Section 2, 
Archaeology of Santa Marta, Colombia, by Dr. J. Alden Mason, 
another former member of the Department staff. 

Fifty articles for Field Museum News complete the list of the 
published material authored by the staff of the Department during 
1938. Data were furnished also for thirty-five newspaper articles. 

The rendering of assistance to students, the making of identifi- 
cations of specimens brought in by visitors, and the answering of 
numerous inquiries by telephone and letter occupied much of the 
time of the staff. 

ACCESSIONS — anthropology 

During 1938 the Department of Anthropology received twenty- 
three accessions comprising 32,817 specimens. Of the total number, 
32,725 specimens resulted from a Museum expedition, one specimen 
was acquired by exchange, one by purchase, and the remaining 
eighty-nine were gifts. 

A complete list of these accessions is appended to this Report 
(p. 424), but several deserve special mention here. 

The outstanding accessions fall mainly into two categories: 

textiles and ceramics. The textile collections were enriched by the 

'; addition of old and rare specimens of Navaho, Mexican, and Algerian 

weaving, given by Mr. Homer Sargent, of Pasadena, California 

(formerly of Chicago), and by an unusual specimen of Balinese 


Department of Anthropology 361 

painted cloth donated by Miss Helen R. Gilbert, of Chicago. Two 
rare ceramic statues of knights, from an anonymous donor, augment 
the Chinese collection of mortuary figurines collected thirty years ago 
by Dr. Berthold Laufer, to show how these guardians of the tomb 
developed in China out of the ancient Indian god of death. Mrs. 
William B. Berger, of Denver, Colorado, added to the Near Eastern 
collection a gift of two tablets inscribed with Babylonian contracts. 
An exchange with the Brooklyn Museum gave the Department a 
beautifully executed model of a Yucatecan Mayan temple. Through 
the generosity of Curator Henry Field, five rare pieces of Roman 
marble were received. Chief Curator Martin brought the Depart- 
ment its largest single accession as a result of the Archaeological 
Expedition to Southwestern Colorado. It is notable not for quantity 
alone, but also because it includes material, mainly pottery, on which 
no report has ever before been issued. Study of it, when completed 
early in 1939, will produce a much needed addition to archaeological 
knowledge of the southwestern United States. 

An important addition to the Chinese collections is a brown 
pottery jar about ten inches high, covered with a stamped design 
of stags or ibexes (Plate XXVII). This piece came from the region 
of Loyang in Honan province, and is thought to date from the third 
century B.C. It has been placed on exhibition in George T. and 
Frances Gaylord Smith Hall (Hall 24). Similar Chinese jars are 
known only in the University Museum, Philadelphia, and in the 
Lou\Te, Paris. 

cataloguing, inventorying, and labeling — ANTHROPOLOGY 

For sixteen of the twenty-three accessions received, entries were 
made. Twenty-six accessions of pre\ious years likewise were entered 
or partly entered. 

Catalogue cards prepared during the year totaled 1,653. Of these, 
1,220 were entered. Since the opening of the first volume, the total 
number of catalogue cards entered is 217,290. 

Distribution of the catalogue cards for the current year was as 
follows: North American archaeology and ethnology, 706; Central 
and South American, and Mexican archaeology and ethnology, 23; 
European archaeology and ethnology, 82; Japanese and Chinese 
archaeology and ethnology, 134; African ethnology, 16; Egyptian 
ethnology, 3; Kish and other Near Eastern archaeology, 623; East 

362 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Indian ethnology, 31; Balinese ethnology, 1; Malagasy ethnology, 
12; Polynesian ethnology, 1; and physical anthropology, 21. 

For use in exhibition cases, 1,781 labels were supplied by the 
Division of Printing. These were distributed as follows: Hall of 
the Stone Age of the Old World, 9; North American archaeology, 11 
ethnology of the Southwest, 2; Korea, 24; India, 884; China, 213 
Chinese jades, 323; Kish, 243; Africa, 6; Madagascar, 4; Egypt, 56 
physical anthropology, 6. 

In the departmental albums 698 additional photographs were 
mounted. Four new albums were opened. 

installations and rearrangements — anthropology 

One of the major installations completed in the Department was 
that by Curator Lewis of the Hall of Asiatic Ethnology (Hall L) 
which was opened to the public in August. Two and one-half years 
of steady work, including much research, were necessary to prepare 
this hitherto unexhibited material. Preparators J. William Harrison 
and Herbert E. Weeks co-operated with Dr. Lewis throughout the 
task. This hall is devoted to Asiatic ethnology exclusive of China, 
Japan, and Tibet. Among the places represented are Korea, India, 
Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands, Siberia, Siam, Ceylon, and the 
islands of Sakhalin and Yezo, the last named being the home of the 
interesting and almost extinct Ainu people. 

In Hall 24 (Archaeology of China), Curator Wilbur and Mrs. 
Mandel, Associate in Chinese Collections, made a new departure in 
exhibition of porcelains. In a case remodeled by Preparator Weeks, 
the usual painted background has been replaced by a wood veneer 
which displays the specimens to better advantage. Curator Wilbur, 
assisted by Preparator Harrison, rearranged a second case of Chinese 
pottery to eliminate over-crowding of specimens. 

The largest single cache of flint discs ever found in America was 
placed on exhibition in Hall B at the beginning of the year. They 
are installed as nearly as possible in the same position that they 
occupied in the Hopewell Mounds of Ohio. 

The final case of lower invertebrates, in a series begun in 1937, 
was completed for the Department of Zoology by Preparator Weeks. 
He also prepared a small temporary exhibit of American Indian 
material for the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Founda- 
tion for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Curator Henry Field began rechecking all specimens in the Hall 
of the Stone Age of the Old World (Hall C), and revised the labels 

Department of Anthropology 363 

and maps in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Races of Mankind, 
Hall 3). 

Hall K, in which Near Eastern exhibits are being prepared, will 
probably be opened in 1939. It now contains three cases of stucco, 
four cases of pottery, one arch, and a beautiful Sasanian gateway, 
all of which resulted from the Field Museum-Oxford University 
Joint Expedition to Kish. These have been restored and repaired, 
under the super\asion of Curator Richard A. Martin, by an expert 
plaster artist employed for the Museum through the federal govern- 
ment's Works Progress Administration. To facilitate access to the 
newly opened Hall L, the western end of Hall K, containing the 
Sasanian gateway and arches, has already been placed on exhibition. 

Mr. Tokumatsu Ito, Ceramic Restorer, treated, repaired, and 
restored 350 objects. 

Mr. Robert Yule, Preparator, marked catalogue numbers on 
many objects, made the drawings and maps for the report of Dr. 
Martin's 1937 expedition to the Southwest, and set the Chinese 
type used in the late Dr. Berthold Laufer's book, The Potato, which 
was published in 1938. Mr. Yule was photographer for Dr. Martin's 
1938 expedition and, upon his return, edited the natural color motion 
picture films, inserting explanatory titles. He also made 138 colored 
lantern slides showing phases of the summer's work. 

Three volunteer associates have given valuable assistance in 
Southwestern archaeology. Prior to her transfer in June to the 
staff of the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation, 
Miss Elizabeth McM. Hambleton helped Dr. Martin complete and 
publish the report of his 1937 expedition to Colorado. Mr. John 
Rinaldo joined the 1938 expedition as a volunteer, and is now 
engaged in research work and in restoration of the pottery which 
Dr. Martin excavated. Miss Marjorie Kelly, of the University of 
California, is assisting him in this work. She has classified and com- 
puted percentages on more than 30,000 pieces of pottery from the 
1938 expedition, and has compiled these data statistically and 

In addition to the plaster work in Hall K, previously mentioned, 
workers employed for the Museum by the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration have rendered much-needed ser\dces in all sections of the 
Department. A competent assistant has completed the sorting, 
cleaning, repairing, and identifying of stored collections in five large 

364 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

The subject-geographical index of the Department's collections, 
begun in 1937, now covers approximately one-third of the total 
number of specimens. The largest section, that for North America, 
is more than half finished, and is rapidly moving toward completion 
in the hands of a skilled cataloguer. Another worker has nearly com- 
pleted the immense task of checking and correcting all labels in the 
exhibition cases, while a librarian is working on a subject index of 
articles in periodicals published in several languages. Much clerical 
and statistical work of great value, including checking photographs 
and manuscripts, sorting specimens, etc., has been accomplished. 

Technical and editorial aid was furnished by an especially quali- 
fied worker. She inaugurated work on the subject-geographical 
index of the North American collections, helped prepare two reports 
for publication, and compiled data on the collections for inclusion in 
a handbook of Hispanic collections in the United States. 

expeditions and research 

With funds given by Mr. Sewell L. Avery, a Trustee of the 
Museum, an expedition was sent to the Nova Scotia shore of the 
Bay of Fundy to obtain data, material, photographs, and color notes 
for an ecological group showing typical inter-tidal vegetation of 
northern Atlantic shores. 

The task was entrusted to Mr. John R. Millar, formerly on the 
staff of the Department of Botany, and now Curator of the N. W. 
Harris Public School Extension. He left Chicago in July, taking 
the necessary collecting equipment in his automobile. On the 
advice of Dr. Hugo P. Bell, of Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, who was consulted for his knowledge of the marine plants of 
the region, a collecting locality was selected, after investigation 
of several situations, at Sandy Cove on Digby Neck, Nova Scotia. 
Digby Neck is a narrow peninsula between the Bay of Fundy and 
St. Mary's Bay. It proved desirable for collecting because the rocky 
shore and the absence of extreme currents permitted a luxiiriant 
growth of marine algae, while the tidal range of twenty-eight feet 
provided a great exposure of vegetation with the characteristic 
zoning of the plants distinctly evident. 

Because of the time and nature of the tides, inclemency of 
weather, and the physical difficulties of exploring a boldly rocky 
and precipitous shore, the work at Sandy Cove was not completed 
until August 14. After leaving the area, a circuitous route was fol- 

Department of Botany 365 

lowed around the southern and eastern shores of Nova Scotia for 
the purpose of making comparative observations in other localities. 
Additional material was collected at Quoddy Head, Maine, a penin- 
sula opposite the Island of Grand Manan in the Bay of Fundy. 
Quoddy Head is the easternmost point of the United States main- 
land. The duplicate specimens obtained there were taken with the 
expectation that certain forms would lend themselves to treatment 
with preservatives so that the natural material might be used as 
far as possible in the exhibit. 

Mr. Avery sponsored also an expedition to Guatemala, and Mr. 
Paul C. Standi ey, Curator of the Herbarium, was placed in charge. 
He left about the middle of November for Puerto Barrios. Beginning 
his collecting near Antigua, Curator Standley at the end of the year 
reported considerable progress made in the short time elapsed since 
his arrival in the field. 

Several field trips, of one to two weeks' duration, were made 
into Missouri by Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Assistant Curator of 
the Herbarium, for the purpose of collecting herbarium specimens 
and county records for his book, A Spring Flora of Missouri, and 
for a manual of the flora of Missouri, Arkansas, and the adjacent 
Ozark region. About 20,000 specimens, including duplicates, were 
gathered, and these will be incorporated in the Herbarium of Field 
Museum and used for exchanges with other institutions. Included 
among specimens collected on these trips are a number of varieties 
and forms new to science, as well as a number of species new to Mis- 
souri and not hitherto represented in the Herbarium of Field Museum. 

Dr. Francis Drouet, appointed to the staff during the year as 
Curator of Crj^Dtogamic Botany, has taken advantage of opportuni- 
ties for collecting algae in the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri, 
the algal floras of which are as yet very inadequately represented 
in herbaria. With the assistance of Dr. Paul D. Voth, of the Hull 
Botanical Laboratory, University of Chicago, and members of the 
Department of Botany staff at the Museum, 521 specimens of algae 
were thus added to the crj^togamic herbarium of this institution. 

Dr. B, E. Dahlgren, Chief Curator of the Department, made a 
visit to the lower Amazon in the months of August and September, 
the time of minimum rainfall in that region. In Belem, Dr. Dahlgren 
was joined by the veteran botanical explorer, Mr. C. Raymundo 
Monteiro da Costa, to whose collecting the Museum owes so many 
of its Amazon plants, particularly those of economic interest. From 
Santarem, at the junction of the Amazon and Tapajoz rivers, excur- 

366 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

sions were made to the terra firma in the elevated land of the region 
as well as to the river margins. 

Collections were made of palms and other plants and plant 
products especially desired for the Museum. Particular attention 
was given to vegetation of the small lakes off the river. These 
lakes constitute the native habitat of the Victoria regia, and pho- 
tographs and full collections were secured for use in a habitat group 
featuring this largest of fresh-water aquatics. 

A visit was also made to the new rubber plantation of the Ford 
Motor Company on the east bank of the Tapajoz River, a few hours 
by launch from the city of Santarem. Ancient rubber trees of great 
yield, wild, or planted many years ago, at the margin of the river, 
give some indication of what may be expected of the carefully planned 
and tended plantation on the still more favorable level ground of the 
nearby plateau. 

The return trip was made by way of Ceara in order to visit the 
carnauba plantation of S. C. Johnson and Son, near Fortaleza. There 
the Amazon collections were properly dried and packed, arrangements 
were made for some special collections, and some reliable data were 
obtained on the rate of growth and the development of the root 
system of young carnauba wax palms. 

Courtesies offered by Dr. P. Campos Porto, of the Brazilian 
Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, and in Belem-Para, Brazil, by the 
Director of the Museu Goeldi, Dr. Carlos Estevao de Oliveira, as 
well as by other members of the staff of that small but important 
institution, are gratefully recorded. 

In order to enlarge his field experience in tropical South America, 
Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Curator of Economic Botany, was given a 
leave of absence to enter the service of the government of Venezuela 
where he is at present acting as aid to Dr. Henry Pittier in the botani- 
cal exploration of that country. 

Aside from expeditions, the research work of the Department of 
Botany during 1938 continued, in the main, as during the preceding 
years, but with one notable modification, long overdue: the exten- 
sion of active work to the non-flowering plants. This has been 
effected by the addition to the staff of Curator Drouet, and it is 
expected that under his care a well-organized working herbarium 
of cryptogams will emerge from the present collection, augmented 
with such additions as can be provided by purchase, expeditions, 
and exchanges. 



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Department of Botany 367 

Mr. J. Francis Macbride, Associate Curator of the Herbarium, 
continued his work of searching out and photographing type speci- 
mens in European herbaria, especially in the Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle (Phanerogamie), in Paris. In that institution 
working quarters and other privileges, and valuable assistance, were 
generously provided for him through the kindness and interest of 
the Director, Professor Henri Humbert. During the summer Mr. 
Macbride returned to Geneva to resume previously uncompleted 
work, and made visits to some herbaria in Italy. 

At the end of 1937 the Museum received 8,587 negatives made 
under Mr. Macbride's direction during the preceding two years. 
A shipment of about 1,500 more was made during 1938, but had 
not arrived at the end of the year. The total number of such neg- 
atives of type specimens at hand at the end of 1938 was 34,289, 
illustrating almost as many species of tropical American plants. 
They represent, in fact, the majority of species of flowering plants 
known from South America, and form a study series which for 
completeness is equaled in few, if any, other institutions. 

The practical utility of these photographs is recognized by all 
botanists who have seen them, and they are constantly in demand 
for monographic research in both America and Europe. Similar 
photographic work upon so extensive a scale has never before been 
undertaken by any botanical institution. Prints from the negatives 
are made available by the Museum to botanists generally. During 
the past year requests were received from institutions in North and 
South America, for 5,417 such prints, which are furnished at cost 
of production. Many others have been sent in exchange for similar 
type photographs and specimens desired by Field Museum. 

Collections received for determination and study from widely 
scattered sources have occupied fully the time of the Herbarium 
staff. Care of the Herbarium has been greatly facilitated by the 
employment throughout 1938 of a large number of workers supplied 
by the Works Progress Administration of the federal government. 
Although direction of the WPA workers has consumed much of the 
time of the staff, this is justified by the results accomplished. 

There have been mounted and added to the Herbarium 40,000 
sheets of specimens and 4,126 photographs. More than 11,959 
printed or typewritten descriptions of species of plants have also 
been added. These figures indicate rapid growth, and compare well 
with similar data for other large herbaria of the world. The total 
number of specimens now in the Herbarium exceeds 939,000. All 


368 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

work of mounting has been brought up to date, and current collec- 
tions are handled promptly. The mounted specimens are distributed 
into the permanent study collections within a few weeks of receipt, 
making new accessions quickly available for consultation. 

Progress has been made at cleaning and repairing sheets in the 
Herbarium. Several persons were engaged in this work during the 
year, and thereby greatly improved the appearance of the specimens. 
Many hundreds of new covers for genera and species were written, 
and data upon the sheets were corrected and amplified. 

In the cryptogamic herbarium a small beginning has been made 
in the long and tedious work of renovating the packaging of the speci- 
mens already filed in the Herbarium. For this, and for the task of 
mounting and filing specimens, two WPA assistants have given valu- 
able service during the period since September. 

Considerable work was accomplished in the organization, with 
consequent reduction of bulk, of the large quantities of palm material 
on hand for incorporation into the Herbarium. 

The rearrangement, according to recent literature, of certain 
groups of plants was started on the grasses, in which group it has 
now been completed. Similar work has been begun on the large 
genus Carex, and will be extended eventually to all the plants in the 
Herbarium. The nomenclature of North American plants is being 
brought up to date first. 

More than 15,000 specimens of plants were submitted to the 
Department for study and determination. These were principally 
from tropical America, Mexico, and the United States, but repre- 
sented various other regions as well. After determinations had been 
made, the larger portion of this material was retained for preservation 
in the Museum, but part was returned to the senders. Named, but 
not retained for the collections, were many specimens of plants of the 
Chicago region forwarded to the Museum by students, teachers, and 
visitors. The most varied botanical matters were the subjects of 
hundreds of inquiries answered by mail and telephone. 

Many visiting botanists, not only from the Chicago region but 
from near and remote parts of the United States, and also from 
foreign countries, have consulted the Herbarium during 1938. 
Frequent use of it has been made by scientists and students from 
the several large universities in or near Chicago, and elsewhere in 
Illinois or neighboring states. The fact that it is the only large 
herbarium within a radius of several hundred miles has intensified 

Department of Botany 369 

its use. Naturally, it is utilized constantly as a source of information, 
and as the basis of original studies by the Museum's staff botanists. 

Botanical publications of 1938 were concerned chiefly with the 
flora of tropical America. Of Volume XIII, Flora of Peru, by Asso- 
ciate Curator J. Francis Macbride, one part was issued. This treats of 
the families from Berberidaceae to Connaraceae, inclusive. Accounts 
of certain families were contributed by Dr. R. E. Fries, of Stockholm, 
Sweden, Mr. Albert C. Smith, of New York, and Mr. Paul C. Standley 
and Dr. Julian A. Steyermark of the Museum staff. Except for 
the index, Volume XVIII, Flora of Costa Rica, by Curator Standley, 
has been completed. The two parts published during 1938 consist 
of 788 pages. 

The only volume of the Botanical Series completed in 1938 is 
the two parts of Volume XIX, The American Species of Passi- 
floraceae, by Mr. Ellsworth P. Killip, Associate Curator, Division 
of Plants, United States National Museum. This publication is 
based upon the many years of monographic research devoted to this 
group by Mr. Killip, and represents an exhaustive study of material 
from the leading herbaria of the world. Of Volume XVII, Nos. 4 
and 5 were published during 1938. They are: A Contribution to 
the Flora of Honduras, by Dr. T. G. Yuncker, Professor of Botany, 
DePauw University, and Studies of the American Flora, by Assistant 
Curator Steyermark, containing primarily descriptions of new 

i species of Mexican and tropical American plants. 

One addition to the Museum's series of Botanical Leaflets was 
made during 1938. Following the leaflet Tea, by Assistant Curator 
Llewelyn Williams, issued last year. No. 22, Coffee, by Chief Curator 
B. E. Dahlgren, deals briefly with this commercial plant commodity 
in all its aspects. 

Many abstracts and re\dews of current literature relating to 
woody plants of the tropics were prepared by members of the Depart- 
ment staff for the periodical Tropical Woods, edited and published 
at Yale University by Professor Samuel J. Record, Field Museum's 
Research Associate in Wood Technology. 

■I The staff also contributed many articles to Field Museum News, 
and furnished data for various newspaper articles. Assistant Curator 
Steyermark published during the year in various periodicals nine 
articles on plants of the United States, chiefly those of Missouri. 

1^ Various manuscripts by members of the Department staff, re- 
' search associates, and assistants, have been prepared for publication 
in 1939, and several of these are already in press. 

370 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Curator Drouet, at the annual meeting of the Botanical Society 
of America, at Richmond, Virginia, on December 30, read a resum^ 
of his manuscript on Francis WolWs Filamentous Myxophyceae, a 
consideration of the specimens and publications of one of the early- 
American phycologists. 


There were received during 1938 in the Department of Botany 
390 accessions, comprising 50,823 items. The total number of acces- 
sions received during 1938 was almost a third greater than in 1937, 
but the total number of specimens included in them was slightly 
smaller. Included in the accessions were specimens for the exhibits, 
the herbarium, and the wood and economic collections. Classified 
by sources, 13,586 came as gifts, 21,483 were acquired in exchange, 
9,251 were purchased, 2,377 were obtained by Museum expeditions, 
and the remainder, consisting chiefly of about 4,000 photographic 
prints, were received from the Museum's Di\4sion of Photography. 

Of the total receipts, items for the Herbarium amounted to more 
than 50,000, including plant specimens, photographs, and typed 
descriptions. A large amount of exceptionally valuable herbarium 
material was received through exchange. First in importance was 
a sending of 3,358 specimens from the Museum National d'Histoire 
Natui'elle (Phan^rogamie), Paris, transmitted by Professor Henri 
Humbert, Director. This series consisted in major part of old col- 
lections from Brazil, representing t>TDe material of several hundred 
species discovered by early collectors, and not represented previously 
in American herbaria. Another exchange of similarly valuable 
material, amounting to 1,085 specimens, chiefly from South America, 
was received from the Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Geneva, 
through the courtesy of the Director, Dr. B. P. G. Hochreutiner. 

Other important receipts of specimens thi'ough exchange included 
350 specimens of flowering plants of Poland, from the Mus^e Physi- 
ographique de I'Acad^mie Polonaise des Sciences, Cracow, Poland; 
345 specimens from Panama and Costa Rica, from the Missouri 
Botanical Garden Herbarium, St. Louis; 260 specimens of Hawaiian 
plants, from Dr. F. Raymond Fosberg, Philadelphia; 904 specimens 
of plants, chiefly of the state of Washington and the Aleutian Islands, 
from Mr. Walter J. Eyerdam, Seattle; 2,030 plants of California 
and Nevada, representing material exceptionally well prepared and 
from a little known region, from i\Ir. Ira W. Clokej^ South Pasadena, 
California; 1,988 specimens of plants of Guatemala and Mexico from 

Department of Botany 371 

the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts; 321 specimens 
of plants of the United States from the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia; 237 specimens of plants of the central United States 
from Dr. F. J. Hermann, Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, 
D.C.; 229 specimens of North Dakota plants from the Department 
of Botany, North Dakota Agricultural College at Fargo; 336 speci- 
mens of California and Oregon plants from Dudley Herbarimn, 
Stanford University, California; 706 specimens of plants, chiefly 
of central and South America, from the United States National 
Museum, Washington, D.C.; 707 specimens of flowering plants, 
chiefly of Central and South America, from the New York Botanical 
Garden Herbarium; 606 specimens of plants, chiefly of Central 
America and Mexico, from the Herbarium of the University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor; 386 specimens of Argentinian plants from Insti- 
tuto de Botanico Darwinion, San Isidro, Argentina; 211 specimens 
of Argentinian plants from Universidad de La Plata, Instituto del 
Museo, La Plata, Argentina; 307 specimens of Kansas plants from 
Kansas State Teachers College, Hays, Kansas; and 100 specimens 
of Costa Rican plants from Mr. Austin Smith, Zarcero, Costa Rica. 

Of the 6,600 cryptogams added, chiefly in the last three months 
of the year, 1,962 came by way of exchange. There were 389 speci- 
mens from Natui'historiska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden; 938 
specimens from the Farlow Herbarium of Harvard University; 326 
from the herbarium of William Randolph Taylor; 470 algae, mosses 
and hepatics from the New York Botanical Garden; 45 mosses and he- 
patics from the Department of Plant Pathology, Florida Agricultural 
Experiment Station at Gaines\'ille; 41 specimens from the herbarium 
of J. C. Strickland; 4 from George H. Giles; 17 from Harold C. Bold; 
and 10 from Joan C. Bader. 

Among the numerous gifts of herbarium material accessioned 
during the year are many of outstanding value, particularly from 
tropical America and Mexico. Among these may be mentioned 557 
Honduras plants from Professor T. G. Yuncker, Greencastle, Indiana; 
262 specimens of Peruvian plants, from Dr. C^sar Vargas, Cuzco, 
Peru; 537 specimens of plants, chiefly of Missouri, from Dr. Julian 
A. Steyermark, of Field Museum; 209 specimens of Permian plants 
from Professor J. Soukup, Puno, Peru; 220 specimens of Uruguay 
plants, from Professor Bernardo Rosengurtt, Montevideo, Uruguay; 
338 specimens of Costa Rican plants, from Museo Nacional, San 
Jos^, Costa Rica, through its Director, Professor Juvenal Valerio 
Rodriguez; 292 specimens of plants of Ecuador and Puerto Rico, 

372 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

from Mr. B. A. Krukoff, New York; 328 specimens of Mexican plants, 
from Mr. Irving W. Knobloch, San Juanito, Chihuahua, Mexico; 
645 specimens of Mexican plants from Professor L. A. Kenoyer, 
Kalamazoo, Michigan; 265 specimens of Guatemalan plants from 
Dr. John R. Johnston, Chimaltenango, Guatemala; 344 specimens 
of Brazilian plants, from Dr. August Ginzberger, Vienna; 782 speci- 
mens of Brazilian plants, from Dr. Francis Drouet, of Field Museum; 
and 427 specimens of Costa Rican plants from Centro Nacional de 
Agricultura, San Pedro Montes de Oca, Costa Rica. 

The Department of Botany of the University of Texas, through 
Professor Benjamin C. Tharp, presented 720 specimens, chiefly from 
northeastern Mexico, most of which were named at Field 
Museum. Professor Samuel J. Record, of the Yale School of 
Forestry, New Haven, Connecticut, continued his practice of 
former years, by forwarding 198 specimens representing woody 
plants of Central and South America. The year's largest single gift 
consisted of 2,127 specimens of Brazilian plants from Jardim Botanico 
de Bello Horizonte, in Brazil. This material consists of beautifully 
prepared specimens collected by Professor Mello Barreto, and includes 
many species previously not in the Herbarium of Field Museum. 

Other gifts include 220 specimens of United States plants, from 
Mr. Hermann C.Benke, Chicago; 139 specimens of Colombian plants, 
from Rev. Brother H. Daniel, Medellin, Colombia; 184 specimens of 
Colombian plants, from Rev. Brother Elias, Barranquilla, Colombia; 
126 specimens of Missouri plants, from Mr. George Moore, Lebanon, 
Missouri; 306 specimens of plants, chiefly from Hawaii, from Dr. 
E. E. Sherff, Chicago; and 208 specimens of Mexican plants, from 
Mr. Howard Scott Gentry, Tucson, Arizona. 

Of 1,686 cryptogamic plants sent as gifts since September, 1938, 
the largest collections received consisted of 1,186 specimens from 
Missouri, sent by Mrs. Cora Shoop Steyermark, Chicago; 318 speci- 
mens of algae from the herbarium of Dr. Francis Drouet, Chicago, 
and 100 specimens of mosses of Iowa from Dr. H. S. Conard, Grinnell, 
Iowa. Other material, chiefly of Myxophyceae, sent to the Curator 
of Cryptogamic Botany for determination, and retained for the Her- 
barium, includes 96 specimens from Burma; 29 from China, and 
about 200 from various parts of North and South America. 

Of specimens purchased, the most important acquisition for the 
cryptogamic collections was the herbarium of Mr. H. Royers, a German 
phycologist. It contains 2,000 or more specimens of algae from 
Europe, collected principally by botanists of the nineteenth century. 



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Department of Botany 373 

A considerable series of these specimens is reported to have been 
studied by Gomont, and by Bornet and Flahault, monographers of 
the filamentous Myxophyceae. Many specimens from Rabenhorst, 
Die Algen Europas, are included. This herbarium, purchased early 
in December, has not yet been sorted and prepared for filing. 

Several sets of published exsiccatae were also added through 
purchase, the largest of these being Tilden, American Algae, with 
650 specimens. 

In August, 1938, the Museum received on loan the personal her- 
barium of Curator Drouet, containing 3,263 specimens of algae on 
2,760 herbarium sheets. These have been made available for refer- 
ence. This herbarium contains, besides Dr. Drouet's own collections 
from North America and Brazil during the period 1928-38, a large 
series of specimens collected and studied by many early and 
contemporary American and European botanists. 


During 1938 there were distributed, to institutions and individu- 
als in North and South America, and Europe, eighty-one lots of 
material, including 12,888 herbarium specimens, wood specimens, 
photographs, and typed descriptions of new species. Eighty-six 
lots of specimens were lent for study, and eighty-six lots were received 
on loan for study or determination. 

Records of botanical accessions, loans, and exchanges have been 
carefully kept by Miss Edith Vincent, Librarian of the Department. 
The geographical and collectors' indexes have been kept up to date, 
as has been the card catalogue of economic collections, with the aid 
of federal Works Progress Administration workers. Many WPA 
workers rendered great assistance in reorganization and arrangement 
of reference and exchange material, herbarium and economic speci- 
mens, and woods. They also performed much needed typing. More 
than 205,000 catalogue cards were written by them for permanent 
and temporary files, and many thousands of herbarium and wood 
collection labels were prepared. 

Labels have been prepared, printed, and installed for all current 
additions to the exhibits, and many old ones have been revised. 

The only collections of the Department requiring a thorough 
check-over during the year were those of non-vascular cryptogams 
acquired in the course of years, mostly without having had the atten- 
tion of a specialist. 

374 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Upon the assumption of his duties as Curator of Cryptogamic 
Botany, a general inventory of these became Dr. Francis Drouet's 
first concern. As a m.atter of record his report is quoted as follows: 
"Until September 1, 1938, specimens of cryptogams had accumulated 
in the Herbarium of the Museum in a rather desultory fashion. The 
collection had attained sizable proportions; it lacked much, however, 
in both organization and content of historical collections, to make it 
as useful to botanists as is the phanerogamic herbarium. Its chief 
constituents were the herbaria of: E. T. and S. A. Harper, principally 
of North American fungi; W. S. Moffatt, entu'ely of North American 
fungi; L. J. Wahlstedt, chiefly charophytes of the world; Ed. Jean- 
pert, principally of m.osses and hepatics; Arthur Schott, of algae; 
Mrs. E. (M. S.) Snyder, of southern California marine algae; and 
portions of the private herbaria of Elihu Hall, M. S. Bebb, and H. N. 

"A survey of the representation of published sets of exsiccatae 
has yet been attempted only among the algae. In this group there 
were present the full set of 2,350 specimens of North American algae 
of Collins, Holden and Setchell, and parts (150 specimens) of Ares- 

"Since September 1, 1938, when the Curator of Cryptogamic 
Botany assumed his duties at the Museum, some other sets of pub- 
lished exsiccatae have been added, \iz., Tilden, American Algae, 
portions of Wagner, Cryptogamen Herbarium, and of Wittrock and 
Nordstedt. New additions, totaling 6,600 specimens, are included 
in the account of botanical accessions elsewhere in this report. 

"It is the desire of the Curator to build a large and useful crj^Dto- 
gamic herbarium at Field Museum. The collection should be 
enlarged by the addition of material of historic value and of new 
specimens from the Americas and other parts of the world. Although 
the species of cryptogams are generally considered to be of wide 
distribution over the face of the earth, one cannot hope to accumu- 
late a herbarium complete in itself, v/ith material representing copi- 
ously each and every species from its entire range. It is hoped, how- 
ever, that large collections will be accumulated from both North and 
South America, and thus, by co-operation with other institutions, to 
make available for futm^e researches a fairly complete representation 
of the flora of the world. The purchase of specimens, and expeditions 
into regions little-explored for crj'ptogams, will be necessary for the 
realization of such an aim." 

Department of Botany 375 

installations and rearrangements — botany 

The most important addition to the botanical exhibits resulted 
from completion, early in the year, of the plant habitat group repre- 
senting an alpine meadow described in the 1937 Report. This was 
completed in February, 1938. A photograph of it is reproduced in 
this Report (Plate XXVIII, opposite page 366). The exhibit was 
prepared under the supervision of Mr. Emil Sella, of the Department 
Laboratories' staff, and occupied the time of several workers for 
more than two years. The necessary field studies and botanical 
collections were made in Wyoming by Mr. Sella. The second 
group planned for the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) is well advanced, 
and may be completed in the spring of 1939. It will represent 
the spring flora of this part of the world in a tjT^ical woodland 
scene such as formerly might have been found almost anywhere 
on the present site of Chicago, and still survives in a few favored or 
well-guarded localities near the city. In contrast with the low growing 
and relatively meager carpet of arctic vegetation shown at its moment 
of greatest perfection in the alpine meadow, that of the medium tem- 
perate local environment represented in this group will appear truly 
luxuriant and many-dimensional, with its mingling of trees, shrubs, 
and flowering herbs. The large amount of work required to produce 
it has been in progress for more than a year, occupjdng, under the 
supervision of Mr. Sella, the efforts of selected workers furnished 
by the federal Works Progress Administration who, in the course 
of time, have become sufficiently skilled to prepare the bulk of 
material required. The more exacting portions of the task have 
been performed by Mr. Sella, and by Mr. Milton Copulos, also of 
the Museum's own staff. The background was painted by Staff 
Artist Arthur G. Rueckert from photographs taken by Mr. Sella, 
and a preliminary sketch made by the late Charles A. Corwin, 
former Staff Artist. 

As mentioned in the section of this Report on Expeditions, mate- 
rial has been collected for two further botanical habitat gi'oups for 
the north and south ends of the Hall of Plant Life, \dz., one of m.arine 
algae of the inter-tidal zone of the northern Atlantic shore, and the 
other of tropical fresh-water aquatics. Some preliminary work has 
been done on both of these. 

While work on these groups has occupied most of the time and 
attention of the Department's staff of preparators, other exhib- 
its in the Hall of Plant Life have not been neglected. To^ the still 
inadequate representation of the rose family, the botanical source of 

376 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

most of our fruits and berries of the temperate zone, there has been 
added one more example, a reproduction of a branch of Bartlett 
pear. This is the work of Mr. Copulos. From the standpoint of 
museum technique this reproduction is of special interest because of 
the use of a new plastic known as vinylite, employed as material for 

An interesting addition to the orchids in this hall was made with 
the installation, in a separate floor case, of a reproduction of the 
striking epiphytic bee swarm orchid, Cyrtopodium punctatum, col- 
lected for the purpose by the Chief Curator several years ago in 
southeastern Brazil. This orchid, which grows as well on bare 
rock as in the tree-tops, stands about five feet in height. It has 
large clusters of yellow flowers with brown spots that are responsible 
for its common name. Of special interest are its palmlike foliage, 
long thick leaf stems which also function as storage organs for water, 
and its mass of aerial roots at the base. This exhibit, completed early 
in the year, is the work of Mr. John R. Millar and Mr. Copulos, 
with some assistance from WPA craftsmen. 

The exhibits in Hall 25 received a desirable addition in a repro- 
duction of a fruiting specimen of the nipa palm, an apparently stem- 
less palm inhabiting brackish water swamps of the East Indies, 
growing in solid formations and scattering its water-borne fruits 
over huge areas. Because of the plant's large size, only the basal 
part of its leaves could be shown. The material for this exhibit was 
secured from specimens growing in the Botanic Gardens of George- 
town, by the Stanley Field British Guiana Expedition of 1922, which 
furnished so much exhibition material for the Department. 

Some improvements of other exhibits in Hall 25 were made by 
the reinstallation of the cane sugar case (Case 22), and of the case 
containing the carnauba and Pritchardia palms (Case 7). The 
acquisition of new material, recently collected and prepared, made 
these improvements possible. 

A fine fruiting spadix of the American oil palm, collected last 
year in Panama by one of the Department's Research Associates, 
Professor A. C. No6, was brought to the Museum preserved in 
formalin. Satisfactorily dried, it has been installed in conjunction 
with its more important relative, the African oil palm, which was 
already represented in the exhibits. 

Preparation of a diorama showing a cassava starch mill, begun 
last year, has made some progress in the hands of a WPA preparator 
to whom it was entrusted. 

Department of Botany 377 

The series of transparencies in the windows of Hall 25 has been 
extended until there now remains only a single space unfilled, and 
this has been reserved for pictures relating to sorghum or Kaffir corn. 

A few excellent photographs for use as transparencies have been 
found by searching the files of the National Geographic Magazine, 
which has kindly lent negatives on request. Western railroads, 
especially the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific, have sup- 
plied the largest number of those used in connection with the small 
grains. The large film positives made from them have been produced 
by the Museum's Division of Photography, and colored by Mr. 
Thomas Jelinek. 

Some transparencies have been made also for the windows in 
Charles F. Millspaugh Hall of North American Woods (Hall 26) from 
photographs illustrating American trees, forests, forestry, and phases 
of the lumber industry and of forest conservation. Here the Muse- 
um's own files have furnished some subjects, and others have been 
lent by western lumbermen's associations and by the United 
States Forest Service. 

In the Hall of Foreign Woods (Hall 27) one case was installed. 
It contains four planks from New Zealand, the gift of Mr. 0. A. Oakes, 
of Evanston, Illinois. 

The most important new undertaking begun during the year to 
further improve the botanical exhibits is a series of murals in Hall 25, 
paralleling the food plant exhibits which form the theme. The murals 
will deal with the human activities which grow out of man's use of 
plants for food ; the primitive gathering, hoeing and planting, plowing, 
sowing, and other steps in development of crop production ; processes 
connected with the preparation of staple vegetable foods such as 
threshing, milling and baking, sugar production and wine-making; 
and transportation, trade, and distribution. In short, they will 
condense in pictorial form the story of man's use of food plants. 
Fortunately, it has been possible to entrust this task to Mr. Julius A. 
Moessel, as able and experienced a mural painter as could be desired. 
Plate XXIX, opposite page 372, of this Report, shows one of two 
paintings which are already in place on the north wall of Hall 25. This 
depicts a historic moment in European commerce in food stuffs — mer- 
chants of St. Malo buying coffee in Arabia. The other one so far 
installed shows a Mexican market scene. Two other subjects were 
almost completed at the end of the year. 

An important addition was made to the Herbarium during 1938 
by the purchase and installation of eighteen new metal herbarium 

378 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

cases, ser\dng in part for the cryptogamic herbarium, in part to 
accommodate expansion in the general herbarium of flowering plants, 
and finally to replace old wooden cases which were still in use. 


expeditions and research 

An expedition, sponsored by Mr. Sewell L. Avery, a Trustee of 
the Museum, and conducted by Mr. Sharat K. Roy, Curator of 
Geology, continued the work begun last year of collecting specimens 
for the enlarged collection illustrating structural and d^mamic geology 
now being organized for Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35). The 
expedition spent eleven weeks in the field in northern Colorado, the 
Black Hills of South Dakota, and in some eastern states as well. 
Although the main purpose of the expedition was to collect specimens 
relating to structural and djTiamic geology, minerals of high quality, 
when available in the localities \'isited, were also collected, and 
photographs of unusual geological features were secured. 

During the first six weeks, devoted to collecting in the Boulder 
region of northern Colorado and the Black Hills of South Dakota, 
eleven localities were \isited, and ninety-six specimens were collected. 
In the last five weeks field work was shifted to New York, Connecti- 
cut, Vermont, and Rhode Island, where twelve localities were visited 
and seventy-eight specimens collected. The 174 specimens collected 
by the expedition include dikes (in sedimentary and igneous rocks), 
folds (synclinal, anticlinal, isoclinal, similar, recumbent, etc.), flow 
structures, faults (normal and reverse), slickensides, fault breccia, 
breccia, tension joints, progressive weathering, raindrops, ripple 
marks, and various minerals. Many of the specimens represent 
features which are entirely new to the Museum's collection, and fill 
to a large extent the gap that has existed in the collections of the 
hall devoted to phj'sical geology. But the present enlarged collection, 
greatly superior as it is to the display of former years, cannot be 
regarded as an adequate representation of physical geology. Some 
important phases of the subject can be illustrated only if persistent 
search for further specimens is conducted in the field. 

Dr. Albert J. Walcott, working in the Department under a special 
arrangement, spent a month in Washington, Oregon, and Wyoming, 
collecting cryptocrystalline quartzes for a new exhibit of ornamental 
and semi-precious quartzes in preparation for Hall 34. The expedi- 
tion collected 193 specimens, mostly of the ornamental and semi- 
precious cryptocrystalline quartzes, and obtained 206 others, many 

Department of Geology 379 

of them polished, as gifts from local collectors. Much of the success 
of the expedition was due to the enthusiastic co-operation extended by 
local collectors, and especially to the valued assistance of Dr. H. C. 
Dake, Editor of The Mineralogist. The specimens secured, when 
added to those which were already in the collections, provide ample 
material for the new exhibit, although it should be further extended 
by addition of material from other parts of the world. 

There were no expeditions to collect vertebrate fossils during 1938. 
It has been increasingly evident for some years that the full value of 
the Museum's extensive collection of South American fossil mammals 
and birds could be developed only after comparisons with similar 
specimens in European and eastern museums; and that, if such 
comparisons were made, studies based mainly on the large collection 
here would have increased scientific significance. For this reason, 
Mr. Bryan Patterson, Assistant Curator of Paleontology, working 
under a grant-in-aid for travel made by the American Association of 
Museums from a fund provided by the Carnegie Corporation, spent 
two months in Europe making the necessary studies. During July 
he studied the South American fossil mammals at the Museum 
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, and in August he studied South American 
fossil birds in the British Museum (Natural History), London. 
Returning, he spent two weeks at the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, and at Princeton University, studying fossil 
birds. Results from these studies admirably supplement those 
obtained from work on Field Museum's collections. The synonymy 
of many genera and species can now be straightened out. The 
morphology of various forms is better understood, as well as the 
range of variation of a number of them. 

Research in vertebrate paleontology continued steadily through- 
out the year. It was based on material accumulated from past 
expeditions, and on specimens included in recent important gifts. 
The study and description of Miocene carnivores in the Museum 
collections by Mr. Elmer S. Riggs, Curator of Paleontology, is 
nearly completed. A study of some Notoungulate brain casts by 
Assistant Curator Patterson, completed in 1937, appeared as a 
Museum publication at the beginning of 1938. A paper on Animal 
Remains from the Alishar HiXyuk in Central Anatolia, by the same 
writer, was published by the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, 
as part of its Publications, Vol. 30, The Alishar HiXyuk, Seasons of 
1930-32. A paper by Mr. Paul McGrew, Assistant in Paleontology, 
on Dental Morphology of the Procyonidae with a Description of 

380 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Cynarctoides, Gen. nov., appeared as a Museum publication. It is 
based on specimens presented by Mr. McGrew. 

Mr. Edwin C. Galbreath, of Ashmore, Illinois, contributed a 
paper on Post-Glacial Fossil Vertebrates from East-Central Illinois, 
which was published in the Geological Series of the Museum. Two 
new Paleocene crocodiles collected in 1937 were described by Curator 
Karl P. Schmidt of the Department of Zoology, in a Museum pub- 
lication issued as No. 21 of Volume VI, and entitled New Crocodilians 
from the Upper Paleocene of Western Colorado. 

Curator Roy prepared a paper. Additional Notes on the Grinnell 
Glacier, published at the end of the year. It brings his earlier 
paper on this subject up to date by incorporating discoveries made 
by recent expeditions under the leadership of Commander Donald 
B. MacMillan. 

Dr. Walcott has begun a research on the constitution, classifica- 
tion, and nomenclature of the cryptocrystalline quartzes. This is to 
proceed in conjunction with his preparation of the new collection 
illustrating the subject. 

Other demands on the time of Chief Curator Henry W. Nichols 
made it necessary for him to confine work in the chemical laboratory 
to routine tests and analyses immediately needed for identification 
of specimens or preparation of labels. Four bronzes were restored 
by the Fink electrolytic process for the Department of Anthropology, 
and 882 gallons of alcohol were purified for the Department of 


The Department of Geology recorded during the year eighty-five 
accessions, an increase of nearly one-quarter over the number in the 
preceding year. These accessions added 4,559 specimens, nearly 
four times as many as were received in 1937, to the collections. Of 
these specimens, 3,883 were gifts, 248 were obtained by exchange, 
404 came from expeditions and 24 were purchased. 

The most important accession of the year was the Benld (Illinois) 
meteorite with material showing the damage it caused when it fell. 
This unusual and important meteorite was secured through the 
efforts of Messrs. Ben Hur Wilson and Frank M. Preucil, Jr., of the 
Joliet (Illinois) Astronomical Society, who undertook the negotia- 
tions which resulted in its purchase. 

The Chicago Tribune presented a large relief map of North 
America, fifteen feet long and ten feet wide. It has been placed on 
the west wall of Hall 36. 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reporu, Vol. XI, Plate XXX 


Hall 34 

Nt»,^\.v«^»^J»vU- t-* ^<' *v*^...•'<//<(^<<£■■''• 




Department of Geology 381 

A gift of forty-four pieces of jewelry from the Estate of Mrs. 
Carrie Ryerson permits an important enlargement of the gem collec- 
tions in H. N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31). Another gift of more 
than usual interest and beauty is a 3.97-carat beryllonite presented 
by Mrs. Joan A. Chalmers, and the late William J. Chalmers, former 
Trustee of the Museum. 

Mr. William B. Pitts, of Sunnyvale, California, presented a 
beautiful plaque of transparent sections of chiastolite crystals dis- 
playing the characteristic strange dark crosses in an unusually 
effective way. He also added a number of specimens to his former 
gifts of "orbicular jasper." 

The most important additions to the mineral collection were the 
cryptocrystalline quartzes obtained by the Expedition to the Pacific 
Northwest. This expedition secured, in addition to its collected 
specimens, gifts from local amateur collectors of 206 specimens, 
many of them cut and polished. Among those who contributed 
were: The Mineralogist, a magazine, and its editor, Dr. H. C. Dake, 
Mr. Jack Barry, Mr. A. R. Hine, Dr. E. W. Lazell, Mr. Walter 
Nelson, Mr. Peter Peterson, Mr. J. Lewis Renton, Mr. A.J.Schneider, 
Mr. Ray Schneider, Smith's Agate Shop, and Mr. F. S. Young, all 
of Portland, Oregon; Mr. P. L. Forbes and Mr. M. T. Green, of Bend, 
Oregon; Mr. J. R. Wharton, of Roseburg, Oregon; Mr. W. A. Brox, of 
Rawlins, Wyoming, and Mr. Paul Weiss, of Denver, Colorado. 

Mr. Lloyd Curtis, of Lander, Wyoming, presented eleven speci- 
mens of sapphire with damourite, and three jades from a newly 
opened deposit. 

Twelve "glacial gems" — polished cabochons cut from ordinary 
pebbles from local gravels — were received as a gift from Mr. William 
C. McKinley, of Peoria, Illinois. They demonstrate the beauty that 
can be given many of our ordinary stones by suitable treatment. 
Mr. J. 0. Shead, of Norman, Oklahoma, added nine to the Mu- 
seum's collection of barite roses. Mr. Frank Von Drasek, of Cicero, 
Illinois, added sixty-seven minerals to his gifts of former years. Miss 
Ann Trevett, of Casper, Wyoming, presented a specimen of the rare 
mineral uranophane. Another rare mineral, gillespite, was the gift 
of Miss Bertha Gordon, of Porterville, California, who also presented 
four photographs of geological features in Death Valley. 

Mr. S. M. Snyder, of Metamora, Illinois, presented a petroleum- 
filled geode, and Mr. Edward M. Brigham of Battle Creek, Michigan, 
gave seven blue agates. Excellent examples of asterism in phlogo- 
pite were presented by Mr. Hugh S. Spence, of Ottawa, Canada. 

382 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Other additions to the mineral collection came as gifts from Mr. 
Clark W. Walter, Mr. Harry Changnon, and Mrs. Beatrice Norden, 
all of Chicago; Mr. R. G. Slocom, of Riverside, Illinois; The Asphalt 
Shingle and Roofing Institute, of Chicago, and Mr. H. V. Schiefer, of 
Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

A fine gem quality crystal of aquamarine, and two gems cut from 
sphalerite, were obtained for the gem collection by exchange. The 
meteorite collection was enlarged by the purchase of fourteen meteo- 
rites. Six tectites and four meteorites were obtained by exchanges. 

The principal acquisitions for the physical geology collections were 
the 174 carefully selected specimens collected by a Museum expedi- 
tion sponsored by Mr. Sewell Avery. The Marquette Geologists' 
Association, a Chicago society of amateur geologists, collected for 
the Museum twenty-three specimens, mostly glacial striae, needed 
to fill gaps in the collection. This gift was supplemented by Mr. 
William E. Menzel, of the same association, with a collection of 
twenty-eight specimens. 

Six European rocks and sands were the gift of Dr. Henry Field, 
of the Museum staff. A collection of six siderite concretions which 
have peculiar features, worthy of much study, was presented by 
Wheaton College and Professor L. A, Higley, of Wheaton, Illinois. 
Gifts of other specimens illustrating physical geology came from 
Mrs. Keith Griswold, of Evanston, IlHnois, Mr. John W. Jennings, 
of Eureka Springs, Arkansas, Mr. Donald C. Boardman, of Fillmore, 
California, and Mr. C. W. McLeod, of Michigan City, Indiana. 

A large slab of the highly colored and patterned calico rock from 
Calico Canyon, South Dakota, was obtained by an exchange with 
Wheaton College. It has been given a prominent position among 
the exhibits in Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35). 

Accessions to the economic collections were comparatively few. 
One consisted of a collection of minerals used as medicine in Arabia, 
obtained by the Field Museum Anthropological Expedition to the 
Near East (1934). Gypsums and diatomite, collected in Nova 
Scotia by a botanical expedition of 1938, sponsored by Mr. Sewell 
Avery, formed another addition. The medicines are interesting as 
illustrations of strange therapeutics practiced in primitive times and 
by primitive peoples. Of similar interest is a geophagist's or clay- 
eater's clay, presented by Mr. W. 0. Swett, of Chicago. This clay 
is eaten by Indians in Oaxaca, Mexico. Coals and oil shales from 
mines in Fu-shun, Manchukuo, were presented by Mr. Tokumatsu 
Ito, of the Museum staff. They represent the product of one of the 

Department of Geology 383 

most important mines of western Asia. The Texas Planning Board, 
and the University of Texas, Austin, presented examples of the 
newly developed marbles and granites of that state. 

A valuable gift of fossil plants collected near Rifle Gap, Colorado, 
came from Messrs. William B. Hilton and G. Bradley Harris of near- 
by Rifle. This collection demonstrates the Paleocene age of the beds 
in which the specimens occur, and may help in correlating mammal 
and plant sequences of the Paleocene. Other gifts of invertebrate 
fossils came from Messrs. F. C. Cleveland, of Chicago, Fred E. Gray, 
of Oak Forest, Illinois, Duncan MacMillan, of Chicago, R. A. Yeager, 
of Kankakee, Illinois, C. A. Quinn, of Ainsworth, Nebraska, and 
J. K. Strecker, Jr., of Waco, Texas. A collection of Miocene fossil 
shells was obtained by exchange with Princeton University. 

Two important additions were made to the collection of vertebrate 
fossils. One, the gift of Mr. Elmer S. Riggs, of the Department staff, 
is a collection of forty-six specimens of fossil mammals from the Mio- 
cene and Pliocene of Devil's Gulch, Nebraska, which includes three 
skulls of fossil horses, one of a fossil camel, one of a canid, and two of 
procyanids which are new to the collections. The other, a gift from 
Mr. Paul 0. McGrew, also of the Department staff, is a collection of 
nine skulls, and some 3,000 jaws and teeth, of micro-mammals from 
the White River formation of Nebraska. This, the largest collection 
of the kind known, includes important specimens and new species. 

Other gifts of vertebrate fossils came from Messrs. Charles H. 
Flory, Bellingham, Washington, Alfred A. Look, Grand Junction, 
Colorado, George W. Bowen, Chicago, C. G. Colyer, Sheridan, 
Wyoming, and C. H. McPherson, Pana, Illinois. 

By exchange with the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 
Buenos Aires, Argentina, came five casts of holotypes of five South 
American fossil birds. A cast of the skeleton of the great Eocene 
bird Diatryma was received through an exchange with the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York. The skull and jaws of a 
musteline were obtained by an exchange with the Peabody Museum, 
of Yale University, and two other mustelines, two rodents, and two 
carnivores came through an exchange with the Dyche Museum, of 
the University of Kansas. 


In the Department catalogues, which now comprise twenty- 
eight volumes, there were 4,381 new entries. These, added to previous 

384 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

entries, make a total of 201,559. With the exception of such verte- 
brate fossils as require much preparation and study, all specimens 
received during the year have been catalogued. The classified card 
catalogues of the meteorites and of photographs have been kept up 
to date, and the classified minerals and rock card catalogues have 
been completed. 

In vertebrate paleontology, the stratigraphic card index, begun 
during the summer of 1937, was completed early in the year, and the 
systematic specimen catalogue was brought up to date. These two 
catalogues have been of great value in providing convenient and 
complete information regarding the specimens. The bibliographic 
index of the working library of vertebrate paleontology has been 
brought up to date by the typing of 610 cards. The bibliography 
of South American vertebrate fossils, prepared by Assistant Curator 
Patterson, has likewise been kept up to date. 

Preparation of a classified catalogue of the invertebrate fossils 
continued. Owing to previous bad over-crowding in storage, these 
specimens and their labels were found to be in poor order, and it 
became necessary to compare each of the thousands of specimens with 
the records in the accession books. This has been done for all speci- 
mens up to the close of Pennsylvanian time. Catalogue cards have 
now been typed for all specimens. As the collection contains many 
duplicates, the 8,262 cards typed represent the handling of some 
55,000 specimens. These cards are now placed in the trays with the 
specimens, and will be checked for errors before they are filed. The 
file will be in two sections, one with biological, the other with strati- 
graphic arrangement. 

Copy was prepared for 1,959 specimen labels, and all labels 
received from the Division of Printing were installed in the cases. 
To the Department albums 361 labeled prints of photographs were 
added. They now contain 9,085 prints. One hundred and five United 
States Geological Survey maps were received, labeled, and filed, 
bringing the number now available to 4,624. Nearly all of the work 
of preparing these classified records was performed by men and 
women assigned to the Department by the federal Works Progress 
Administration. Without their aid the work could not have been 
undertaken. The work of the regular staff has been greatly facilitated 
by the WPA assistance, and more has been accomplished than would 
otherwise have been possible either in the preparation and improve- 
ment of exhibits, or in research. 

Department of Geology 385 

installations and rearrangements — geology 
The principal addition to the collections in Hall 34, devoted to 
minerals and meteorites, was a case containing the Benld (Illinois) 
meteorite, and related material. This meteorite, which fell Sep- 
tember 29, 1938, crashed through the roof of a garage, penetrated 
the top of a car, and then after passing through the seat of the car, 
and the floor board, struck the muffler, whence it rebounded and 
came to rest among the springs of the seat cushion. It is exhibited 
with the damaged car cushion and muffler, and sections of the j 

damaged garage roof and car top. It is only the second recorded 
meteorite to fall in Illinois, and the eleventh known to have pene- 
trated a building anywhere in the world. Examples of eight of these 
eleven are in the Museum collection. The meteorite collection has 
been further enlarged by the addition of seventeen other specimens. 
It now contains examples of 766 of all recorded falls, which total 
approximately 1,300. As many authorities believe that tectites, 
peculiar glassy objects of unknown origin, may be meteorites, a 
group of six of these was placed on exhibition with the meteorites. 

The mineral collection, which occupies half of Hall 34, was little 
changed during the year. A few minerals were added, and seven 
cases and their contents were thoroughly cleaned. 

As in the previous year, most of the installation work was con- 
cerned with the revision and enlargement of the exhibits of rocks and 
structural geology in Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35). The 
enlarged rock collection was completed by the addition of six cases. 
Work of planning, installing, and incorporation of new material in 
the structural and physical geology collection filling the east end of 
the hall proceeded steadily during the year. Specimens to fill seven 
cases were prepared and installed. There are now fourteen cases of 
the new exhibit in place, and six cases remain to be prepared before 
the exhibit is complete. The case of fluorescent minerals, formerly 
installed in this hall, has been moved to an adjoining corridor where 
it can be seen to better advantage. 

The large model of an iron mine which stood against the west wall 
of Hall 36 has been discarded and replaced by a relief map of North 
America, presented by the Chicago Tribune. This map, fifteen feet 
high and ten feet wide, hangs against the wall where it can be seen 
from all parts of the hall. As it is intended to illustrate the physi- 
ography of continents, and of North America in particular, it is^ 
colored to show physiographic features, and is not obscured by 
lettering or markings of political divisions. 

386 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

In Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37), the economic geology- 
collections were increased by the addition of five marble specimens 
from Poland and eleven from Texas, as well as a case of potash and 
salt deposits from Poland. 

Cases in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) were provided with a 
new type of translucent labels which are much easier to read than 
those formerly used. Labels for the fossil vertebrates were revised. 
Two large skeletons of vertebrate fossils, each occupying an individual 
case, were added to the collections in this hall. One, Pseudomega- 
therium, is a fossil sloth collected by a Museum expedition in Bolivia 
in 1927. The other, Moropus, is the skeleton of a strange animal 
related to the horses and rhinoceroses, but provided with claws in- 
stead of hoofs. A collection of Paleocene animals, obtained by a 
Museum expedition to Colorado in 1937, was installed this year. It 
includes the skull of a crocodile unique for its possession of horns. 

Rearrangement, by WPA workers, of the large reserve collection 
of invertebrate fossils in Room 111 has been completed, but final 
checking of identifications, which must be done by a skilled paleon- 
tologist, is still required. 

The work of conditioning the reserve collections of ores, minerals, 
rocks, and physical geology specimens on the third floor continued 
throughout the year. As comparatively little sorting and rearrange- 
ment was needed, the improvements consisted chiefly of restoring 
faded and lost numbers, cleaning specimens, treating them to prevent 
decay, perfecting the labeling, and sorting and classifying the large 
quantity of new material received during the year. This work has 
been satisfactorily done by WPA labor with a minimum of super- 
vision by the staff. 

Preparation of vertebrate fossils for exhibition and study pro- 
ceeded steadily in the paleontology laboratories. Although much 
of the work is of such character that it can be trusted only to skilled 
preparators, a great deal has been accomplished by WPA labor after 
a short period of training. It has been possible to use the services of 
WPA men to the extent that the output of these work-rooms has 
been materially increased. 



The most important zoological expedition of the year was the 
Sewell Avery Expedition to British Guiana, led by Mr. R. 
Blake, Assistant Curator of Birds. In spite of misfortune, this 

Department of Zoology 387 

expedition reached its geographic objective, broke new ground in 
zoological exploration, and preserved a considerable portion of its 
tangible results. The expedition was planned to take advantage of 
an opportunity, not likely to recur, which was presented by special 
circumstances existing in 1938. The British Guiana-Brazil boundary 
had recently been surveyed with the result that many areas could be 
reached this year that would be inaccessible later because of the rapid 
growth of jungle vegetation. The region had been practically un- 
explored zoologically, and was especially interesting because the 
British Boundary Commission, whose co-operation is gratefully 
acknowledged, had discovered mountains, hitherto unknown, with 
an altitude of several thousand feet. The expedition, which con- 
sisted of fifteen men, including the former manager of transport for 
the Boundary Commission, ascended the Courantyne River and the 
New River to their head-waters by launch and dugout canoe. At 
this point, in virgin territory, a splendid collection of about two 
thousand specimens was made. 

On the return trip, while attempting to pass the King William 
Rapids, a boat containing personnel, collections and equipmj.ent 
foundered, the level of the river having suddenly and unexpectedly 
fallen to the danger point. The entire personnel was marooned for 
ten days on a rocky islet in the river, surrounded by uninhabited 

The expedition reached Georgetown late in the year, having 
salvaged more than half of the collections. The fact that no lives 
were lost in an extremely hazardous situation, and that collections 
were miade from the previously unreached divide between the Atlantic 
and Amazonian drainages, is a demonstration of Mr. Blake's 
resourcefulness and energy. 

Other expeditions were confined to the United States, Chief 
Curator Wilfred H. Osgood conducting one in New Mexico, and 
Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, another 
in Arkansas. 

Dr. Osgood, accompanied by Mr. W. F. Nichols, of Pasadena, 
California, and Dr. F. W. Gorham, of Los Angeles, spent several 
weeks in the Tularosa Basin of south central New Mexico. They 
collected specimens of the animals of the "white sands" and the 
adjoining black lava beds, which provide interesting illustrations of 
contemporary processes of evolution. Further collections were made 
in the Mogollon Mountains of western New Mexico, and in south- 
western Colorado. 

388 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Mr. Schmidt, assisted by his son, Mr. John M. Schmidt, and Mr. 
Charles M. Barber, of Hot Springs, Arkansas, worked principally in 
the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. The party obtained 258 
specimens, mostly amphibians and reptiles, including a series of the 
rare salamander Plethodon ouachitae. 

Mr. Colin C. Sanborn, Curator of Mammals, while in London 
for research at the British Museum (Natural History), found time 
for a short expedition to Scotland during which he collected speci- 
mens, photographs, and accessories for a habitat group of red grouse 
planned for one of the series now under way in Hall 20. For much 
assistance and invaluable co-operation, he was greatly indebted to 
Mr. J. P. Loudon, of SjTnington, Lanarkshire. 

Publications for the year include one leaflet and fourteen tech- 
nical papers in the Zoological Series. In addition, the zoological 
staff contributed fifteen signed articles to Field Museum Neivs. 

The leaflet. No. 14 in the Zoology Series, is Turtles of the Chicago 
Area, by Curator Karl P. Schmidt. It provides a convenient manual 
for those interested in the local fauna, and is illustrated with two 
colored plates. The following were issued in the technical Zoological 
Series: The Birds of El Salvador (609 pages), by Donald R. Dickey 
and A. J. van Rossem; General Function of the Gall Bladder from the 
Evolutionary Standpoint, by F. W. Gorham and A. C. Ivy; A New 
Catalogue of the Fresh-water Fishes of Panama, by S. F. Hildebrand; 
Catalogue of Birds of the Americas, Part XI (Fringillidae, etc., 662 
pages), by Charles E. Hellmayr; Snakes of the Genus Tantilla in the 
United States, by F. N. Blanchard; A Geographic Variation Gradient 
in Frogs, by Curator Karl P. Schmidt; Notes on the Anatomy of the 
Treeshrew Dendrogale, by Assistant Curator D. Dwight Davis; Food 
Habits of Some Arctic Birds and Mammals, by Clarence Cottam and 
H. C. Hanson; Hemiptera from Iraq, Iran, and Arabia, by W. E. 
China; Orthoptera from Iraq and Iran, by B. P. Uvarov; Birds of 
the Crane Pacific Expedition, by Ernst Mayr and Sidney Camras; A 
New Woodrat from Mexico, by Chief Curator Wilfred H. Osgood; 
A New Pigeon from Colombia, by Research Associate H. B. Conover; A 
New Wood Owl from Chile, by the late Research Associate Leslie 

Curator Sanborn continued research on the classification of bats, 
and during the last half of the year was assigned to work exclusively 
on this subject in European museums, especially the British Museum. 
This was made possible through his appointment as a Fellow of the 
John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. XI, Plate XXXI 




I / T^, 


Skull of a hitherto unknown fossil homed crocodile-like reptile, CercUosuehua burdoshi, discovered by a 

Field Museum expedition; and restoration based on this skull 

Hall 38 



Department of Zoology 389 

Dr. Charles E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator of Birds, proceeded 
with his work on the Catalogue of Birds of the Americas, working in 
Vienna until political conditions there obliged him to move to London 
where he has been afforded every facility at the British Museum. 
His work is now far advanced toward completion, and only one part 
consisting of two numbers remains to be published. One of these 
will include the game birds on which Mr. H. B. Conover, Research 
Associate in Ornithology, is collaborating. 

Mr. Rudyerd Boulton, Curator of Birds, spent a month and a 
half at the American Museum of Natural History, New York, study- 
ing the birds of Portuguese West Africa, and thereafter continued 
other research on African birds. Also, he completed a new restoration 
of the dodo from a fresh examination of pertinent data. Late in the 
year, as the guest of Messrs. James Leavell and Carl Birdsall, of 
Chicago, he made some brief field studies in Mississippi, in company 
with Mr. Stephen S. Gregory, Jr., of Winnetka, Illinois. Collections 
of birds from that part of the south are very limited in number and 
scope. It is hoped that a more extensive program can be planned for 
further work in this zoologically neglected area. 

In the Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, Curator Schmidt 
centered his research on the Central American collections and on the 
material from southwestern Asia, of which an annotated catalogue 
is in preparation. 

Mr. D. D\^dght Da\ns, Assistant Curator of Anatomy and Oste- 
ology, has been engaged in a detailed study of the gross anatomy of 
the giant panda, Su-Lin, the body of which was presented by the 
Chicago Zoological Society. "Embalmed" and injected especially 
for dissection, this specimen furnished an opportunity for the first 
thorough anatomical study ever made of this interesting species of 


Zoological specimens accessioned during 1938 reached the unusual 
total of 25,794, including by far the largest number of vertebrates 
ever received in one year, and approximately double the average 
for the last fifteen years (the largest previous number was 20,630 in 
1932). This great total is due mainly to a large single gift of more 
than 8,000 fishes, and a purchase of a collection of more than 6,000 
birds. The accessions classify as follows: mammals 961; birds and 
birds' eggs 9,246; amphibians and reptiles 3,308; fishes 9,639; insects 
942; lower invertebrates 1,698. Received as gifts were 13,436 speci- 


390 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

mens; by exchange, 2,244; from Museum expeditions, 1,681; and by 
purchase, 8,433. 

Among the most important gifts of mammals were thirty-five 
specimens from the Chicago Zoological Society, including the famous 
giant panda named Su-Lin. Mr. Carl Dreutzer, of Chicago, presented 
six well-prepared skins of bearded and ribbon seals, and the semi- 
fossilized skull of a musk-ox from Alaska. Mr. Paul 0. McGrew, 
of the Department of Geology, gave a collection of eighty-four bats 
from Honduras, including various species new to the Museum's 
collection. Other bats from Honduras came from Miss Margaret 
Ennis, of Chicago. Dr. Henry Field, of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, supplemented previous gifts of mammals with twenty-one 
further specimens from Iraq and England. Dr. Harold Nelson, of 
the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, contributed twenty-one 
bats taken at Luxor, Egypt. A collection of thirty-one small mam- 
mals from Wyoming was donated by Mr. R. S. Sturgis, of Winnetka. 

Several of the fifty-five separate gifts of birds are noteworthy. 
Mr. H. B. Conover, Research Associate in Ornithology, presented 
sixty-seven specimens from Alaska, Iceland, Argentina and Tangan- 
yika Territory. Mr. and Mrs. J. Andrews King, of Lake Forest, 
Illinois, gave twenty-seven specimens which they collected in Guate- 
mala, including several magnificent ocellated turkeys and black 
chachalacas. Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith, of Lake Forest, Illinois, 
gave fifty specimens from Tanganyika Territory. The Colorado 
Museum of Natural History, Denver, presented two mounted eagle 
chicks which will be used in remodeling the golden eagle habitat group 
in Hall 20. Mrs. M. Don Clawson, of Beirut, Syria, gave twenty-four 
specimens representing her own collecting in Iraq. The Chicago 
Zoological Society presented 143 specimens of rare and exotic birds, 
most of which were used to augment the collection of study skeletons. 

In addition to the above mentioned specimens, a gift of material 
and accessories for the construction of a habitat group of kiwis, 
curious flightless birds from New Zealand, was received from the 
Dominion Museum in Wellington, New Zealand. 

Among gifts of amphibians and reptiles, the most notable for the 
year are thirty-two from the Instituto de La Salle, of Bogota, Co- 
lombia, received through Brother Niceforo Maria; thirty-six speci- 
mens from Mr. Paul O. McGrew, of the Department of Geology, 
collected in the course of a paleontological expedition in Honduras; 
thirty-seven from Miss Margaret Ennis, of Chicago, which she 
collected in Honduras while engaged in archaeological field work at 


Department of Zoology 391 

Copan; six crocodile skulls, including one very large one, collected 
in the Philippine Islands, from Mr. A. W. Exline, of San Jos^, Min- 
doro; eight specimens from Dr. W. P. Kennedy, of Baghdad, Iraq; 
three Bahaman fresh-water turtles of recently described species, from 
the University of Miami, Miami, Florida; and two fine pink rattle- 
snakes (the rare species Crotalus lepidus lepidus), from Dr. and Mrs. 
Paul Rudnick, of the McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, Texas. 
As in previous years, the Chicago Zoological Society, the Lincoln 
Park Zoo, and the General Biological Supply House, of Chicago, 
have turned over important material to the Museum. 

A large and important gift was that of 8,424 preserved fishes from 
the Zoology Department of the University of Chicago. These w^ere 
collected by students and members of the faculty over a period of 
years and are of much value in studies of the local fauna of Illinois 
and neighboring states. Added to these were 248 specimens col- 
lected in Indiana and presented by Dr. Hurst Shoemaker of Stanford 
University, CaHfornia. For exhibition, a number of game fishes were 
donated. Mr. Leon Mandel, of Chicago, gave a large "Mako" shark 
which he secured off the north coast of Cuba. Colonel Warren R. 
Roberts, of Chicago, contributed a white marlin, and Mr. Al Pflueger, 
of Miami, Florida, gave a specimen of Allison's tuna, a long-finned 
variety of the yellow-finned tuna. Mr. Michael Lerner, well-known 
sportsman of New York, presented an excellent mounted specimen 
of North Atlantic broadbill swordfish caught on rod and reel by 
Mrs. Lerner off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia — the first swordfish ever 
thus taken by a woman angler in Canadian waters. The John G. 
Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, continued its courtesy of past years by 
contributing a number of fish specimens. 

Excepting six specimens received in exchange, all the somewhat 
limited accessions of insects were obtained through various donors. 
The most noteworthy acquisition was a lot of 543 named beetles, 
mainly from the Austrian Tyrol. These were received as a gift from 
Dr. Wolfgang Amschler, of Zeiyarn bei Cronach, Bavaria, Germany. 
Mr. Gordon Grant, of Los Angeles, California, continued to show 
his interest in the Museum by donating 161 insects that he collected 
in his vicinity. Through the kindness of Dr. Orlando Park, Evans- 
ton, Illinois, forty-five species of named New Zealand moths were 
added to the collection. 

Of the 1,698 specimens of lower invertebrates accessioned, some 
1,200 were shells presented by Mr. Clark W. Walter, of Chicago. 

392 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Gifts from the Chicago Zoological Society continued to provide 
much valuable material for anatomical study. Besides many speci- 
mens of which skeletons were preserved, forty-seven particularly 
interesting ones were especially prepared for investigation of the soft 

Material from Museum expeditions was unusually limited in 
amount, consisting mainly of small lots from various sources. In 
point of numbers, the most important material actually collected 
during 1938 was a collection from New Mexico, obtained by Chief 
Curator Osgood, assisted by Mr. W. F. Nichols and Dr. F. W. Gor- 
ham. Included were 265 mammals, sixty-four birds, and thirty- 
eight reptiles. From the 1937 expedition of Assistant Curator Blake 
to British Guiana and Brazil there was considerable material not re- 
ceived until 1938, the principal items being some eight hundred birds, 
sixty-eight mammals, and thirty-four reptiles. Material from Mr. 
Blake's 1938 expedition will not be accessioned until early in 1939. 
Curator Schmidt, during his brief expedition to Arkansas, assisted by 
his son, Mr. John M. Schmidt, and Mr. Charles M. Barber, of Hot 
Springs, obtained 258 specimens of reptiles and amphibians, includ- 
ing thirty-two of the rare salamander Plethodon ouachitae, which was 
a special desideratum. 

The record of exchanges for the year shows the following totals: 
mammals 20; birds 997; amphibians and reptiles 1,216; fishes 5; 
insects 6. Of the birds, 994 are comprised in a selected lot of beauti- 
fully prepared specimens from El Salvador, received from the Donald 
R. Dickey Collection in Pasadena, California, not as an exchange, 
strictly speaking, but in return for the publication by Field Museum 
Press of a report on The Birds of El Salvador. The 1,216 amphibians 
and reptiles received in exchange were from numerous institutions 
and individuals. These included the Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy, Cambridge, Massachusetts; the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh; 
the Museum of Zoology of the University of Oklahoma, at Norman; 
Dr. Walter P. Taylor, College Station, Texas; Dr. Vasco M. Tanner, 
Provo, Utah; Dr. L. H. Snyder, Seoul, Korea; Dr. Ventura Barnes, 
Caracas, Venezuela; Dr. Charles E. Burt, Winfield, Kansas; Mr. N. 
Bayard Green, Elkins, West Virginia, and Dr. Frieda Cobb Blanchard, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Through the fund established by the late Leslie Wheeler, former 
Trustee of the Museum, and Research Associate in the Di\'ision of 
Birds, 188 specimens of birds of prey were acquired from India, 


Department of Zoology 393 

Manchukuo, Dutch East Indies, Iceland, Paraguay, Colombia, and 

The Sir Frederick Jackson collection of East African birds pur- 
chased during the year is the largest single accession of birds received 
by the Museum since the Cory collection in 1900, and certainly one 
of the most important. More than 6,600 specimens belonging to 
about 600 species are contained in the collection. It was made in 
Uganda and Kenya, between 1899 and 1917, by Sir Frederick during 
his long and distinguished career as a colonial officer, culminating in 
the governorship of Uganda. Many species are represented by large 
series from numerous localities which provide ample opportunity for 
detailed taxonomic and statistical studies on variation and speciation. 
The collection provides the necessary link, from the research point 
of view, between two important collections the Museum has possessed 
for some time — that made by Chief Curator Osgood in Ethiopia 
in 1926-27, and the South African collection of the Vernay Kalahari 
Expedition, made in 1930-31. 

Other purchases include 225 small mammals from Mexico, and 
various small lots mainly from South America and the West Indies. 

The principal purchases of amphibians and reptiles were 348 
specimens of Australian species, forming a notable addition to the 
reference series for that region, from the collections of the late F. N. 
Blanchard; 502 specimens from northeastern Mexico; and 215, 
supplementing pre\aous purchases, from Ecuador. 


During 1938 the number of zoological specimens catalogued was 
20,472. These are divided by subjects as follows: mammals, 973; 
birds, 13,373; amphibians and reptiles, 2,750; fishes, 1,760; lower 
invertebrates, 590; anatomical specimens, 1,026. 

In the Division of Mammals, an extensive program of reattaching 
original labels to skins, and other work connected with modernizing 
an outmoded system has continued. Details of this include the 
following: 10,192 skin labels typed; 5,510 skull labels typed; 4,107 
skin labels tied; 2,000 field labels punched and strung; 4,400 skull 
tags punched; 1,079 skulls renumbered; 550 cards added to the 
systematic index, and 2,610 cards refiled. Three cases containing 
alcoholic specimens of mammals were rearranged, and foui'teen cases 
were supplied with fresh alcohol. Skulls of large mammals were 
transferred to new cases and some progress made in their labeling and 

394 Field ]Museoi of Xatltial History — Reports, Vol. XI 

The work on the arrangement of the birds' egg collection pro- 
gressed rapidly, the full-time ser\ices of four persons, on the average, 
ha^■ing been devoted to it. Fift\'-six hundred and fifty-eight sets 
of eggs were catalogued, and 5,332 sets were sorted, packed in cotton 
and arranged systematically. Tliis, plus the preceding year's total 
of 1,246, makes 6,578 in this stage of aiTangement. Nine hundred and 
fift^"-six additional sets were sorted, although not yet packed. Com- 
pletely checked with respect to data were 2,609 sets — cards, labels, 
original data blanks, and catalogue being brought into agi'eement. 
Twelve hundi'ed and eight sets were finally and permanently aiTanged 
in cotton, systematically sorted, and completely labeled \\"ith data 
blanks and reference cards filed. 

As in 1937, a vast amount of work, invohing on an average the 
full-time services of about seven persons, was devoted to the collec- 
tion of study skins. This includes: re-identification of each specimen; 
correlation of old and present-day nomenclatui'e; checking the cata- 
logue against the original label; assembling the data on index cards; 
preparing a geogi-aphic cross-reference file; t^-ping and lettering a 
new label and sewing it to the original ; finding the often obscure local- 
ity on some map or in a published journal, and plotting that locality 
on maps especially drawn for the puipose. 

Bird skins to a total of 1,647 were remade and degreased through 
the ser\ices of four federal Works Progress Administration taxi- 
dermists. This service is extremely important. 

The collections of amphibians and reptiles in alcohol were sub- 
jected to the usual supenision. Cataloguing was kept fully up to 
date. About fifr\- gallons of stained alcohol were redistilled, and the 
alcohol level on all specimens in tanks and large jars was checked. 
The addition of new cases on the fourth floor of the ^Museum made 
possible the rean-angement of specimens in large bottles and the 
supphing of printed labels throughout. The dry material of turtles 
and crocodilians was relabeled. 

Continued work on the fishes has brought the collection to a 
ven,' satisfactory' condition, with practically all the specimens 
arranged and labeled so that they can be located quicklj' when needed. 
Discolored alcohol has been removed and reclaimed by distillation. 
Labels that have become illegible from any cause have been replaced. 
Considerable time in the Di\-ision of Fishes was devoted to the 
preparation of indices of literature, and of colored figures of fishes, 
which have proved useful in current work. 


Department of Zoology 395 

In the Division of Anatomy and Osteologj^ after several j^ears of 
effort, all dried skeletal material was finally cleaned, brought up to 
date, and boxed and labeled for the first tim.e in the historj' of the 
]Museum. Only current material remains to be cared for in the 

The services of from one to three "^TA workers made possible 
considerable progress in preparing insects that were in storage. Thus, 
4,535 insects were pinned or spread, 4,200 were pin-labeled, and 1,609 
bibliogi'aphic cards on butterflies were written. Assistant Curator 
Emil Liljeblad continued the collation and arrangement of North 
American beetles in new di-awers. For this needed work, 106 species 
represented by 1.0S4 specimens of lady beetles, twentj'-four species 
of comb-clawed beetles, and 1,425 specimens of darkling beetles were 
identified, and in many cases repinned and relabeled. 

Under the direction of Cm-ator Fritz Haas, who assumed his 
duties August 1, a Division of Lower Invertebrates was organized. 
After equipment was installed, the collections of mollusks and crusta- 
ceans were brought from storage. The work of sorting this material 
and identifying it was soon under way. Three himdred and forty-six 
lots of mollusks, and 423 lots of decapod crustaceans, were labeled and 
filed. ]\Iuch help was received from Miss Claire Nemec, who served 
as a volunteer student assistant, and devoted herself to the classifica- 
tion and care of the Crustacea. 

Volunteer or student workers contributed much assistance in 
several di\isions of the Department. In field work, aid was con- 
tributed by Mr. C. ]M. Bai'ber, of Hot Springs, Arkansas, Dr. F. W. 
Gorham, of Los Angeles, California, and Air. W. F. Xichols, of 
Pasadena. California. 

]Mr. Mehin Traylor, Jr., spent some time as a volimteer in the 
Di\-ision of Bu'ds, working on Central American collections. In the 
same di^■ision, ]\Iiss IMu'iam GeUer was engaged in the preparation 
of an ecological bibliography of the Chicago region with special 
reference to bu'ds. 

In the Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, Mr. John Kurfess, 
who worked f oui' days a week during July and eai-ly August, relabeled 
the di'y material of tui'tles and crocodilians. Mr. Fred Bromund 
spent some time in the prepai*ation of a list of the li\"ing crocodilians. 
Dr. Hobai-t 'M. Smith volunteered much time to complete a cata- 
logue of Field ^Museum's collections of amphibians and reptiles from 
^lexico. ]\Ir. Robert Bm'ton spent about thirty days identifying 
Xew ^Mexican reptiles and preparing a report on the scale count 


396 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

variation of broods of garter snakes and water snakes. Mr. Don 
Kemp assisted in making scale counts of snakes. Mr. Philip Clark 
spent several months during the summer studying the Museum's 
collection of box tortoise skeletons. Mr. Albert A. Enzenbacher 
completed a number of water-color paintings of Illinois snakes, and 
made seven pencil drawings of frogs and lizards, which have been 
used in the IMuseum's technical publications. 

The assistance given by increased personnel pro\dded by the 
federal Works Progress Administration has been still more effective 
than in 1937. This is due to continually improving organization, 
and to accumulated experience on both sides. The average number 
of workers assigned to the Department was 50. A typical distribu- 
tion of these is as follows: taxidermy, preparation, and exhibition 
work, 15; map-making, drafting, and illustrating, 7; Di\'ision of 
Mammals, 4; Division of Birds, 9; Division of Reptiles, 4; Division 
of Fishes, 1; Di\dsion of Anatomy and Osteology, 7; Division of 
Insects, 1; Di\asion of Lower Invertebrates, 1. 

installations and rearrangements — ZOOLOGY 

Seven large habitat groups were completed and opened to public 
view. Two of these were mammal groups in the Hall of Marine 
Mammals (Hall N), and five were bird groups in Hall 20. Numerous 
important additions to the synoptic exhibits also were made. 

A group of Weddell's seal from the Antarctic adds an interesting 
animal to the Hall of Marine Mammals. The specimens were collected 
by Rear-Admiral Richard E. Byrd's Second Antarctic Expedition 
(1935). They were mounted with great fidelity to nature by Taxi- 
dermist C. J. Albrecht. The background was painted by Staff Artist 
Arthur G. Rueckert. Weddell's seal is a species of large size and 
rich coloration. In the group an adult female and her young pup 
are shown on a field of ice and snow. Other seals are seen in the 
distance, scattered about as is their habit during the breeding season. 

In the same hall, an element of variety is provided by a very 
successful and somewhat unusual group of narwhals, small Arctic 
whales famous for their long, slender tusks. Three adults and one 
young animal are shown beneath the surface, swimming about the 
submerged foot of an iceberg. Specimens and data for this group 
were obtained in Greenland waters by Captain Robert A. Bartlett. 
These served as the basis for the very lifelike models used in the 
exhibit, which were skillfully prepared b3' Taxidermist Leon L. 







O c 











m 73 










i i 

Department of Zoology 397 

Walters, using his "celluloid" process. The background was painted 
by Staff Artist Rueckert. 

The addition of two cases greatly improved the synoptic or 
systematic exhibit of mammals in Hall 15. One of these, devoted to 
baboons, shows eight of the principal species variously disposed on an 
appropriate background of rock work. This was done mainly by 
Taxidermist W. E. Eigsti. Another case in the same hall shows 
several species of hyenas, also mounted by Mr. Eigsti, and on a 
separate screen the varied mammals comprising the raccoon family. 
Space in this case is reserved for the giant panda which appears to 
find its nearest relationships among these animals. 

On the death of Su-Lin, the first giant panda to be exhibited alive, 
the body was presented to the Museum by the Chicago Zoological 
Society especially for anatomical study. The skin, however, was 
skillfully removed by Taxidermist Albrecht and mounted in a pose 
representing one of the animal's characteristic playful attitudes so 
familiar to the public. The specimen is temporarily installed in a 
special case in Stanley Field Hall where it has attracted much 

A further addition to Hall 15 was a single specimen of the strik- 
ingly marked Indo-Chinese monkey known as the douc langur. 

Five habitat groups of birds were completed during the year. 
The Laysan Island group of oceanic birds was reinstalled by Taxi- 
dermist Leon L, Pray, with new accessories prepared by Mr. Frank 
Letl and his assistants. Two species of albatross are the predominant 
feature of the foreground, while in the background, painted by Mr. 
Pray, are some of the myriads of birds for which this mid-Pacific 
Island is noted. In addition to the albatrosses, two species of boobies, 
the red-tailed tropic bird, the man-o'-war bird, two species of terns, 
and several petrels are included. 

The four other groups are entirely new. The backgrounds of 
three were painted partly by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin, who 
died during the year, and were completed by Staff Artist Rueckert, 
who painted the fourth also. The birds were mounted by Taxi- 
dermist John W. Moyer, and the accessories were prepared under 
the direction of Mr. Letl. 

Tliree of the groups are the gift of Mr. Leon Mandel, of Chicago, 
and contain specimens collected by Assistant Curator Emmet R. 
Blake during the Mandel Guatemala Expedition of 1934. They 
occupy an alcove in Hall 20 and well illustrate three different ecologi- 
cal habitats in the neo-tropics. The oropendula group shows a nest- 

398 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

ing colony of giant orioles that overlooks a savanna scene from its 
lofty tree-top location. The nests, some of which are six feet long, 
are among the most remarkable constructed by any birds. Along 
with the eight giant orioles in the group is shown a rice grackle which 
parasitizes the orioles by taking possession of their nests. The second 
of the Guatemalan gi'oups shows two species of toucans feeding on 
the fruit of a tree in the lowland rain-forest. Ten specimens are shown 
in spirited action. Other tropical species of woodpeckers, finches, 
etc., attracted to the same food supply, also appear in the group. 
Especially interesting is a wood thrush of northern climes which, 
during the winter months, associates with these tropical and exotic 
birds. The last habitat group from the Mandel Guatemala Expe- 
dition shows a pair of quetzals in their cloud forest habitat just 
below the tree-line on the slopes of the Volcan Tajamulco. In the 
background is a sea of clouds and mist through which lesser moun- 
tains poke their crests like islands. The principal vegetation in the 
group consists of tree ferns. In a clump of bromeliads in the fore- 
ground are several salamanders of two species discovered by the expe- 
dition. The quetzal has long been the national symbol of Guatemala. 

The fifth gi'oup completed during the year was that of the Euro- 
pean white stork, which is shown in a typical village habitat in 
southeastern Poland. The four specimens (two adults and two 
young), the nest, and even the thatched house-top were the gift of 
the Polish-American Chamber of Commerce in Warsaw. This 
group admirably illustrates the uncommon but important principle 
of change of habitat due to development of a more favorable environ- 
ment. White storks have almost universally adopted a life associated 
with human society, just as chimney swifts have in America. 

A life size m.odel of the dodo, which became extinct in 1681, was 
made by Mr. Frank Gino, WPA sculptor, under the supervision of 
Curator Rudj^erd Boulton. Dodos and their relative, the soHtaire, 
comprise a unique family of birds related to pigeons. Since there are 
no complete specimens in existence, it is only by resorting to a 
reconstruction such as this that it is possible to make available in the 
Museum's exhibition halls a representation of this bird. Dodos, 
which were completely isolated on three small islands in the Indian 
Ocean, and became extinct through the agency of man shortly after 
their discovery, point lessons in evolution as well as conservation, 
and it is profitable to emphasize their history. 

Considerable material was prepared and accumulated for exhibi- 
tion in the Hall of Reptiles (Albert W. Harris Hall, Hall 18) but 

N. W. Harris Public School Extension 399 

installation has not yet taken place. Models in cellulose-acetate 
of two frogs, six lizards, and two snakes, were finished, as well as 
other reptiles of special interest. Among these is a rhinoceros iguana 
from a specimen collected by Mr. Leon Mandel on Gonave Island, 
Haiti; two specimens of the remarkable small American night lizard 
of the genus Xantusia; and a pink rattlesnake from material pre- 
sented by Dr. and Mrs. Paul Rudnick, of Fort Davis, Texas. Numer- 
ous molds for future use were made of notable reptiles received from 
the Chicago Zoological Society and the Lincoln Park Zoo, and from 
specimens received by gift or purchase. Among these is an exception- 
ally large boa constrictor which is to be shown hanging from the limb 
of a tree. 

Much work was done in preparation for the Hall of Fishes 
(Hall 0), which it is hoped may be opened in the near future. Most 
important of the new exhibits prepared was a twenty-five foot whale 
shark, mounted by Taxidermist Julius Friesser from a specimen 
presented (through the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York), by Messrs. Spencer W. Stewart and Robert J. Sykes, 
of New York, who obtained it at Acapulco, Mexico. 

An exhibit tracing the bones in the human skull was installed in 
Hall 19. Four parallel series of models of the skulls of eight verte- 
brates are colored to show graphically the changes that have taken 
place in four regions of the human skull. The models were prepared 
by Miss Nellie Starkson, under the direction of Assistant Curator 
D. D wight Davis. Other models for a proposed exhibit illustrating 
the history of the muscular system are in preparation. 


During the spring and summer months the members of the Harris 
Extension staff made short collecting trips in the vicinity of Chicago 
to obtain plant material needed for new cases and for the replace- 
ment of older deteriorated models in the traveling exhibits which 
this Department circulates among the schools. Plant specimens 
included in early exhibits, either as accessories or as the principal 
object, were made of wax. Some of these are now twenty or more 
years old. The extremes of temperature, and the unavoidable jarring 
and jolting which the exhibits undergo in being transported from 
school to school, have adversely affected such models, making it 
desirable to replace them with others of more durable materials, 
such as celluloid. Approximately 370 plaster of paris molds of leaves 


400 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

and flowers, as well as necessary photographs and color notes, were 
made for this purpose. 

Specimens were collected for exhibits showing the cliff swallow, 
the American merganser, the black duck, the woodcock, and the 
progressive changes in the plumage of the starling. In addition, 
several skins of birds and small mammals were prepared and added 
to the reserve collection. 

Curator John R. Millar visited a number of schools and attended 
science demonstrations to become more familiar with the present-day 
approach to the teaching of natural science in the grade schools. He 
also visited six representative eastern museums to become acquainted 
with their methods in school extension work. 

Six new exhibits of the habitat type, with curved photographic 
backgrounds, were completed early in the year. Four of these show 
the tall or later buttercup, one the parasitic jaeger, and one the long- 
tailed jaeger. 

Artifacts of the Alaska and Northwest Coast Indians were 
selected from surplus storage material in the Department of Anthro- 
pology and turned over to the Harris Extension. The Departments 
of Botany, Geology, and Zoology also released surplus specimens of 
plants, minerals, and shells. In all of this material there is a fair 
proportion of specimens suitable for loan study collections or for 
new portable exhibits. 

In anticipation of the eventual storage of all the school cases on 
the ground floor, near the service entrance of the Museum, a move 
which will considerably reduce the amount of trucking in the building 
and the use of the elevator, a new card file has been made which will 
contain all information pertinent to the nature and condition of each 
individual exhibit, as well as a record of the repairs and changes made. • 
A subject index of the exhibits now available for circulation also 
was made. 

In furtherance of plans to lend to the schools a new type of special 
study collections of material which can be handled for closer examina- 
tion by pupils and teachers, work has been begun on identification, 
labeling and indexing of reserve collections. Cases to transport such 
collections were designed, and one trial cabinet, to accommodate a 
loan study collection of rocks, was constructed in the shops of the 

More than 1,000 herbarium specimens of local plants were col- 
lected by members of the staff during the year for inclusion in loan 

















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as . 


S K 


^H£ U3RAi<\ 



N. W. Harris Public School Extension 401 

collections. This development of school service by the Museum is 
one of generally recognized merit. It is capable of great and varied 
expansion to include material useful not only in the study of natural 
history, but other subjects as well, particularly geography in its 
racial and economic aspects. 

In order to make fuller and more efficient use of valuable third 
floor office space, a new office with connecting work-room was provided 
for the Curator by partitioning portions of the rooms occupied by the 
Assistant Curator and the Department's taxidermist. A space for 
plaster-casting, die-making and celluloid-pressing was provided by 
arranging wall cabinets to form an alcove in the south end of Room 
95. The space has been equipped with transite-covered work tables, 
a stove, an exhaust fan, and a sink. New asbestos-covered benches 
were added to other work-rooms in the Department, and new 
storage shelves were constructed for approximately one hundred 
school cases. 

The customary annual cleaning and polishing of all cases available 
for distribution were carried out during the summer vacation of the 
schools. Repairs of various kinds were made on 165 cases. This 
includes painting of case interiors, reinstallations, replacement of 
broken glass, and repairs of other damages occurring in the schools. 

Seven schools were added to the list of those receiving Harris 
Extension cases, bringing the total now served to 472, 

Difficulties which had been experienced in maintaining the usual 
bi-weekly schedule in the delivery of cases on the south side of the 
city were eliminated by completely revising the truck routes and 
reapportioning the number of schools to be called on each day. 

Twenty special loans, totaling ninety-three cases, were made 
during the year in response to special requests from schools; from 
the Horticultural Committee of the Garden Club of Evanston; the 
Evanston Public Library; the United Charities Camp at Algonquin, 
Illinois; the Glenwood Park Training Camp for Recreational Workers 
(a WPA project) at Batavia, Illinois; and the International Live 
Stock Exposition at the Union Stock Yards, Chicago. 

The two Museum trucks traveled a total of 11,727 miles in the 
distribution of cases, maintaining their regular schedule without 
accident. Scores of letters of appreciation were sent to the Museum 
praising the school exhibits for their value in classroom instruction 
and commending the reliability of the service. 

402 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 




The James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation 
continued in 1938 the presentation of various series of motion pic- 
tures, lectures, and other activities to supplement the educational 
work of the schools, and to provide many enjoyable hours of enter- 
tainment for the children. Included were special patriotic programs 
in addition to the spring, summer and autumn series of motion pic- 
tures shown in the James Simpson Theatre; guide-lecture tours in 
the exhibition halls, and extension lectures given in the classrooms 
and assembly halls of schools and in auditoriums made available by 
civic organizations. The year, like the previous one, has seen an 
increase in the number of groups from out-of-the-state schools asking 
for guide-lecture service at the Museum, and in the requests for 
lectures to be presented in the schools, and elsewhere. The Founda- 
tion co-operated with the schools also by arranging special activities 
as follow-ups to educational radio broadcasts. 


Motion picture entertainments were augmented by presentation, 
during July and August, of a summer series of six entertainments, in 
addition to the customary spring and autumn courses. Many of the 
films had talking, musical, and other sound effects. The programs 
of the three series were as follows: 

Spring Course 

March 5 — The Circus City; Trailing the Sea Horse; Dances of the Nations. 

March 12 — Trailmates, including: Wrongstart; Fun with a Bear Cub; The Porcu- 
pine Family; Shivers! 

March 19 — Travels of a Postage Stamp; Souvenirs of Singapore; Paws and Claws; 
Glimpses of China and Bali. 

March 26 — In the Land of the Harmonica; Water Folks; The Black Giant; The 
Navajo Demon. 

April 2 — The Settlement of Jamestown, including: Life within the Stockade; 
The Village of Powhatan; The Capture of Pocahontas; The Spanish 
Spy; The Marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. 

April 9 — The Farmer's Friend; Peculiar Pets; Cairo to the Pyramids; The 

April 16 — Gold Mining in the Klondike; Animals of the Salton Sea; The World 
of Paper; The Art of the Cave Man. 

April 23 — From Red Earth to Steel Girder; A Visit to Czechoslovakia. 

April 30 — Magic Myxies; Hindu Holiday; The Bittern; 200 Fathoms Deep. 

Raymond Foundation 403 

Summer Course 

July 7 — Pied Piper of Hamelin (color cartoon by Walt Disney) ; The Covered 

July 14 — The Grasshopper and the Ant (color cartoon by Walt Disney); Death 

Fangs; Songs of the Range; The Nightingale. 
July 21— Black Beauty. 
July 28 — Itchy Scratchy; Songs of the Southland; Barefoot Boy. 

August 4 — Old King Cole (color cartoon by Walt Disney); The Great Raccoon 
Hunt; Songs of the Hills; Let 'er Buck, 

August 11 — King Neptune (color cartoon by Walt Disney); Robinson Crusoe; 
Brock the Badger. 

Autumn Course 

October 1 — The China Shop (color cartoon by Walt Disney); Water Boy; 
Isle of Desire, including: Enchanting Tahiti; Manea Battles an 
Octopus; Walking Upon Hot Stones. 

October 8 — An Alpine Shepherd Lad; Geysers; The Throne of the Gods. 

October 15 — Jenny Wren and Her Neighbors; Columbus and His Son. 

October 22 — Nature's Rogue; Pirates of the Deep; Siamese Journey; The Stork 
Family from Poland; The Seventh Wonder. 

October 29 — Arctic Antics (cartoon by Walt Disney); Work Dogs of the North; 
A Young Explorer; Ikpuk, the Igloo Dweller; Gathering Moss. 

November 5 — Shades of Noah; Songs of the Plantations; Thrills on the Faroe 

November 12 — In the Land of Montezuma; Land of the Eagle; Fiesta of Cala- 
veras; Quaint Animals of Guatemala. 

November 19 — Pied Piper of Hamelin (color cartoon by Walt Disney); Make a 
Alask; Beautiful Tyrol; Woodland Pals; Freaks of the Deep. 

November 26 — Mickey's Orphans (cartoon by Walt Disney); Snow Fun; Winter; 
Travels in Toyland. " 

During the Spring Course, special temporary exhibits for children 
were placed in Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18) to illustrate certain of 
the Museum Stories for Children for which it was not possible to 
secure good films. The dates and subjects of these exhibits were as 

March 12 — Evergreens. 

March 19— Bats. 

March 26 — Indian Musical Instruments. 

April 2 — Native American Nuts. 

April 23 — Agates. 

The Raymond Foundation had the hearty co-operation of staff 
members and their assistants in collecting, arranging and labeling 
the objects displayed in the special exhibits. 

In addition to the afore-mentioned series of entertainments, the 
following two special patriotic programs were offered in February: 

February 12— Lincoln's Birthday Program: My Father; My First Jury; Native 

February 22 — Washington's Birthday Program: George Washington's Life and 



404 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

In all, twenty-six programs were offered in the James Simpson 
Theatre for the children of the city and its suburbs. Total attendance 
at these entertainments was 34,061. Of this number, 5,681 came to 
the patriotic programs, 8,587 to the spring series, 6,243 to the summer 
programs, and 13,550 to the autumn entertainments. 

Newspapers which co-operated by giving publicity to the programs 
included the Chicago Daily Neivs, Chicago Tribune, Chicago Herald and 
Examiner, Chicago Evening American, Chicago Daily Times, and Down- 
town Shopping News, as well as many neighborhood and suburban 

Opportunity is taken here to express appreciation to the Uni- 
versity of Texas, the Chicago information office of the German 
Railways, the General Electric Company, and the Cunard-White 
Star Line (Chicago office), for the films they lent for use on the 

museum stories for children — RAYMOND FOUNDATION 

Two series of Museum Stories for Children were prepared by 
members of the Raymond Foundation staff. A new feature of these 
was the use of illustrations. Eighteen line drawings were made for 
this purpose by the Museum Illustrator. These stories were printed 
by Field Museum Press in folder form and distributed to all children 
attending the entertainments. The subjects of the stories correlated 
with films and slides shown, and with the special exhibits arranged 
for children. Following are the titles of the stories in each series: 

Series XXX — Hippocampus, the Sea Horse; Evergreens; The Bats — Ace FHers; 
North American Indian Musical Instruments; Some Native American Nuts; 
The Egyptian Pyramids; The First Artists; Agates; The Bitterns. 

Series XXXI— Tahiti, "The Queen of the Pacific"; Nature's Fountains; The Wren 
Family; A Stork Family; Sheep, Past and Present; The Mosses; American 
Marsupials; Masks and Their Meanings; Strange Toys. 

Copies of these stories were given to children during the summer 
by displaying them at the North Door in a special holder from which 
they could be taken, as well as by the regular distribution at the 
James Simpson Theatre on the mornings of the entertainments. 
Total distribution of the stories for the year amounted to 37,500 


By conducted tours, the use of the exhibition halls for classwork 
was extended to various groups, as follows: i 


Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. XI, Plate XXXIV 


Reference collections of mammals, birds, and reptiles 

West Gallery of Fourth Floor 

0^ ^* >^^0^' 


Of w 

Raymond Foundation 405 

Number of 

Tours for children of Chicago schools 

Chicago public schools 541 18 934 

Chicago parochial schools 42 1*469 

Chicago private schools 13 '228 

Tours for children of suburban schools 

Suburban public schools 335 10 043 

Suburban parochial schools 11 '328 

Suburban private schools 14 321 

Tours for special groups from clubs 

and other organizations 220 8,043 

Thus, lA'^S groups received guide-lecture ser\ace, and the aggre- 
gate attendance was 39,416. The year has been outstanding for the 
many groups of children from other states to whom this service 
was extended. From New York, Virginia, Alabama, Missouri, 
Kansas, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana, 157 groups 
requested and received an hour to an hour and a half each of exhibi- 
tion hall instruction. They included college, high school, and elemen- 
tary school classes, as well as various youth organizations. On 
November 29 and December 1, the Museum was host to parties of 
Four-H Club boys and girls who visited the Museum for special tours 
of the halls devoted to prehistoric plant and animal life, prehistoric 
man, and the living races of mankind. The total number of delegates 
to the National Four-H Clubs Congress who attended these special 
tours was 1,585. 


Extension lectures were offered to the schools under the plans 
so successfully employed for many years. In classrooms, laboratories, 
and assemblies, these talks were presented before audiences in both 
elementary and high schools. The subjects were: 

For Geography and History Groups 
Glimpses of Eskimo Life; South America; North American Indians; Glimpses of 
Chinese Life; Native Life in the Philippines; Mexico and Its Southern Neigh- 
bors; The Romans; The Egyptians; Migisi, the Indian Lad. 

For Science Groups 
Field Museum and Its Work; Prehistoric Plants and Animals; Insect Life; Am- 
phibians and Reptiles; The Story of Rubber; Coal and Iron; The Changing 
Earth; A Trip to Banana Land; Birds of the Chicago Region; Animal Life 
in the Chicago Region; Trees of the Chicago Region; Wild Flowers of the 
Chicago Region; Animals at Home; Our Outdoor Friends. 

The addition of one more member to the staff made it possible 
to handle a few of the many requests from organizations other than 
schools for the extension lecture service. Thirty such lectures were 
given before club, camp, and church groups, with total attendance 
of 2,449. 


406 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

In all, the extension lectures given by the staff of the Raymond 
Foundation totaled 540, and the aggregate attendance was 182,608. 


The staff of the Raymond Foundation is again co-operating with 
the Public School Broadcasting Council in presenting a series of 
science broadcasts. Two days after a broadcast based upon Museum 
exhibits, groups of pupils from the grades most concerned visit the 
Museum and meet in the Lecture Hall. There mimeographed 
sheets containing additional information on the subject, with illus- 
trations, are distributed, sample material is examined, and informal 
discussions are held. The pupils are then conducted on a tour of 
exhibition halls devoted to the subject of the broadcast. The topic 
for an October meeting was "Birches," and for one in December, 
"Black Diamonds." 


For use in the Theatre, the Lecture Hall, and in extension lec- 
tures, the Raymond Foundation acquired 590 stereopticon slides 
made by the Division of Photography. The Museum Illustrator 
colored 175 of these. 

The Foundation received also a reel of motion picture film from 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York, to complete 
the Si77iba series. The title of this reel is Man Versus Beast. Pro- 
fessor Higley, of Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois, presented nine 
colored slides of Calico Rock, a famous natural feature near Buffalo 
Gap, South Dakota. 


To clubs, conventions, colleges, hospital students, church groups, 
and other organizations, and to Museum visitors in general, guide- 
lecture service was made available without charge. During July 
and August, morning tours, as well as the regular afternoon ones, 
were given. The monthly schedules of subjects offered on tours 
were printed, and copies distributed at the main entrance of the 
Museum. City and suburban libraries, and other civic organizations, 
co-operated by distributing the tour schedules also. Tours for the 
public included 105 of a general nature, and 205 on specific subjects. 
In the 278 groups which participated gi'oss attendance amounted to 
4,593 persons. There were also special tours for 107 groups from 
colleges, clubs, hospitals and other organizations, with 2,944 persons 

Lectures for Adults 407 

On June 9, the Raymond Foundation assisted in commencement 
exercises for 845 foreign-born adults. The James Simpson Theatre, 
as in past years, was made available to the Board of Education for 
this purpose. 

The use of the Lecture Hall was granted to the WPA workers 
employed on Museum projects for several meetings concerned with 
their activities. Two other groups also were permitted to hold 
meetings there. One adult group, members of a club, attended a 
lecture on minerals, after which they took part in a tour led by a 
RajTnond staff member. Ten high school groups attended instruc- 
tional meetings conducted by the Raymond Foundation staff in the 
hall, and four radio groups met there for informal talks and examina- 
tions of exhibits. In all, fifteen groups, totaling 762 persons, were 
served by the Raymond staff in the Lecture Hall. 


The various activities of the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures 
reached a grand total of 2,143 groups, with an aggregate attendance 
of 265,229 individuals. 


During the spring and autumn months, the Museum's sixtj^- 
ninth and seventieth courses of free lectures for adults were given 
on Saturday afternoons in the James Simpson Theatre. They were 
illustrated, as in past years, with notable motion pictures and stere- 
opticon slides. The autumn course especially was outstanding for 
the number of natural-color films and sHdes used. Following are the 
programs of both series: 

Sixty-ninth Free Lecture Course 

March 5 — The Last Stand of the Great Ice Age. 

Mr. Bradford Washburn, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massa- 

March 12— Wings Over Utah. 

Mr. Alfred M. Bailey, Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver. 

March 19 — Adventures with Insects. 

Mr. Brayton Eddy, Providence, Rhode Island. 
March 26 — Primeval Stone Monuments: The Mystery of the Megaliths. 

Dr. Freiherr Robert von Heine-Geldern, Vienna. 

April 2 — The Search for the Congo Peacock. 

Dr. James P. Chapin, American Museum of Natural History, New 
April 9 — Home Life of the Gibbon: A Manlike Ape. 

Professor C. R. Carpenter, Columbia University, New York. 

April 16 — The Picture Book of a Canadian Naturalist. 
Mr. Dan McCowan, Banff, Canada. 

408 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

April 23 — An Expedition to Prehistoric Pueblos. 
Dr. Paul S. Martin, Field Museum. 

April 30 — From London to the South Seas (in natural color). 
Mr. William B. Holmes, Evanston, Illinois. 

Seventieth Free Lecture Course 

October 1 — A Winter in Oaxaca. 

Dr. W. H. Camp, New York Botanical Garden. 

October 8 — Around Again in the Yankee. 

Captain Irving Johnson, Springfield, Massachusetts. 

October 15 — JackHghting Wild Animals for the Movies. 

Mr. Howard Cleaves, Staten Island, New York. 

October 22— Our Stone-Pelted Planet. 

Dr. H. H. Nininger, Denver, Colorado. 

October 29 — Birds and Animals of the Far North. 

Commander Donald MacMillan, Provincetown, Massachusetts. 

November 5 — Where the Rainbow Ends. 

Mr. Howard MacDonald, Yonkers, New Y'ork. 

November 12 — Primitive Tribes of the Guianan Jungle. 

Colonel Charles Wellington Furlong, Cohasset, Massachusetts. 

November 19 — America and Isles of the Pacific. 

Mr. Fred Payne Clatworthy, Estes Park, Colorado. 

November 26 — The Human Side of Nature. 

Mr. Sam Campbell, Three Lakes, Wisconsin. 

At these eighteen lectures the total attendance was 15,997 persons, 
of whom 7,109 attended the spring series, and 8,888 the autumn 


Ever increasing popularity of the Sunday afternoon lecture tours, 
inaugurated in the autumn of 1937 by Mr. Paul G. Dallwig, led to 
their continuance in 1938. Mr. Dallwig, who has been appointed as 
a volunteer member of the staff with the title of Layman Lecturer, 
is a Chicago business man and Member of the Museum. He contrib- 
utes this service for the public as a result of his deep interest in 
science, and his desire that science should be interpreted to other 
laymen in easily understood terms. An able speaker, he has devel- 
oped a unique dramatic style which conveys information in a highly 
appealing manner. Mr. Dallwig lectured during eight months in 
1938 (all except the summer period from June 1 to September 30) 
and it is noteworthy that applications for participation in these 
lecture tours grew constantly, and to such an extent, that it was 
twice necessary to increase the size to which parties were limited — 
first from 75 to 100 persons, and then to 125 persons. The interest 
which he stimulated in his listeners is further indicated by the fact 
that not a single person in any of the groups dropped out of a lecture 
tour prior to its conclusion, and frequently his talks were interrupted 
by spontaneous outbursts of applause. Participants in the tours 

Library 409 

included, besides Chicagoans, visitors from all sections of the United 
States and Canada, and even from European countries. Numbered 
among them were business men and women, lawyers, physicians, 
clergymen, ofRce workers, university professors and instructors, high 
school principals and teachers, college students, world travelers, 
actors, and professional lecturers, as well as groups from women's 
clubs, business men's associations, and other organizations. 

The Sunday lectui'e-tours are presented without charge. The 
groups assemble at 2 P.M. in Stanley Field Hall. The demands 
have proved so great that it is always necessary to make reservations 
in advance, sometimes several weeks ahead. As far as practicable, 
however, Members of the Museum are accommodated regardless of 
whether or not they have made advance reservations, but it is 
advisable to make application beforehand. 

The subjects presented during 1938 were as follows: 

January (five Sundays) — Nature's "March of Time" (Hall of Historical Geology). 

February (four Sundays) — Digging Up Our Ancestral Skeletons (Hall of the 

Stone Age of the Old World). 

March (four Sundays) — Parade of the Races (Hall of Man). 

April (four Sundays) — Digging Up Our Ancestral Skeletons (Hall of the 

Stone Age of the Old World). 
May (five Sundays)- — Parade of the Races (Hall of Man). 

October (five Sundays) — Digging Up the Cave Man's Past (Hall of the Stone 

Age of the Old World). 

November (four Sundays) — Nature's "March of Time" (Hall of Historical Geology) . 

December (three Sundays) — Gems, Jewels, and "Junk" (Hall of Minerals and the 

Gem Room). 

In all, thirty-four Sunday lecture-tours were given, the total 
attendance for the eight months being 2,741. 


Instruction or other similar services were rendered by the Museum 
to a total of 2,195 groups comprising 283,967 individuals. These 
figures include all those reached in the 2,143 groups aggregating 
265,229 children and other persons who participated in the various 
activities under the auspices of the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation, plus the 15,997 who attended the lectures 
for adults in the James Simpson Theatre, and the 2,741 who par- 
ticipated in the Sunday afternoon Layman Lecture Tours. 


During 1938 the functions of the various di\isions of the Library 
have steadily increased, both with respect to internal improvement 

410 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

of organization, and in services to those who have consulted its 
collections of scientific literature. 

There have been accessioned 3,310 books. For these, necessary 
cards have been written, as well as author cards for 666 pamphlets. 
In all, approximately 24,000 cards have been added to the various 
catalogues, or about 5,000 more than in 1937. Some 400 letters in 
foreign languages have been translated. No record has been kept 
of telephone calls for various items of information, which sometimes 
are answered quickly, but often require considerable research. 

The regular periodical list was increased by resumption of various 
subscriptions that had been suspended for several years. Intervening 
volumes were purchased also to make the sets consecutive. The list 
was further enlarged by gifts from members of the Museum staff of 
current issues of desired periodicals. It is of interest to note that 
the number of periodicals and serials received in 1938 numbered 1,550 
more than in 1937. 

The physical appearance of the Reading Room in the General 
Library has been greatly improved by the replacement of the old 
shades with a "sunlight" type, and attractive draperies hung at the 
windows greatly soften the outlines of the room. Both of these 
changes have enhanced the atmosphere of hospitality which greets 
the Library's patrons. Experiments in better lighting, begun during 
the year, are being continued. 

The number of readers has noticeably increased, especially those 
from universities, colleges, and high schools. They have come not 
only from the city and nearby suburbs, but from all parts of this 
country and even from foreign lands. The total number during the 
year, exclusive of Museum personnel, was 2,510. 

The Library depends to a large extent for its growth on its 
exchanges of publications with other scientific and educational 
institutions. During 1938 there have been effected some very 
desirable exchanges which have brought and will continue to bring 
important material. 

In fulfillment of the desires of the different Departments of the 
Museum, opportunities have been embraced to fill out incomplete 
sets of valuable periodicals, thus increasing the usefulness of the sets. 
Among sets thus completed are the Quarterly Journal of the London 
Geological Society; Palaeontographical Society (London) Publica- 
tions; Memoirs of the Geological Society of India; Anatomischer 
Anzeiger; Internationales Archiv filr Ethnographie; Revue de Zoologie 

Library 411 

et de Botanique Africaines; and Sudan Notes and Records. Also the 
greater part of the Journal of Morphology was obtained. In the 
coming years further additions will be made. 

One of the outstanding purchases of the year was the Fossilium 
Catalogus, complete to date, which was much desired by the Division 
of Paleontology. Another was the Manual of Conchology by Tryon 
and Pilsbry. Other especially interesting purchases were: The 
Botanical Cabinet, 1818-1833; Umehara, Shina-kodo-seikwa; Oba and 
Kayanoto, Tomh of Wang Kuang; Siren, Chinese Paintings in Ameri- 
can Collections; Jackson, Birds of Kenya Colony; Martius, Nova 
Genera et Species Plantarum; Smitt, Skandinaviens Fiskar; Fischer and 
Crosse, Etudes des Mollusques Terrestres; Milne-Edwards, Histoire 
Naturelle des Crustaces, and Die Tierwelt (26 numbers). 

Among gifts of the year should be mentioned especially the books 
received from the Carrie Ryerson Estate, numbering about 800 
volumes. These are largely botanical or zoological, but include also 
works on travel and more general subjects. Several dictionaries 
were very welcome additions, particularly Littre, Dictionnaire de la 
Langue Frangaise; and Dupiney de Vorpierre, Dictionnaire Frangaise 
Illustree et Encyclopedic Universelle. Also received in this gift were 
Prescott's History of Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles the Fifth, History 
of the Conquest of Mexico, and History of the Conquest of Peru. In 
addition, a copy of Cyclopaedia of Agriculture and also the last edition 
of Encyclopaedia Britannica were included. 

Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, a Trustee, presented two religious 
books written on parchment in the beautiful Tibetan script. This is 
a valuable addition to the extensive Tibetan language material in 
the Library. 

President Stanley Field presented a fine copy of Lewin's Papilios 
of Great Britain, published in 1795. This contains forty-five beautiful 
hand-colored plates made by the author. It was originally issued 
under the title Insects of Great Britain, etc.. Volume 1. Mr. Field 
again presented the weekly numbers of the Illustrated Lo7idon News, 
copies of Bird-Lore, and publications on the conservation of wild life, 
including some from the Institut des Pares Nationaux du Congo 

Among other most helpful gifts are those received from the 
Carnegie Institution, of Washington, D.C. The Carnegie Corpora- 
tion, of New York, presented Mammals of Southwest Africa (in two 
volumes) by Shortridge. Dr. Henry Field, Curator of Physical 
Anthropology, presented the current numbers of several periodicals 

412 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

as well as various useful books on archaeology. Mr. H. B. Conover, 
Research Associate in Ornithologj', gave the Catalogue of Maps of 
Hispanic America issued by the American Geographical Society. 
From Dr. Francis Drouet, Curator of Cryptogamic Botany, interest- 
ing botanical publications were received. 

Mr. Julius Friesser, of the Department of Zoolog>% gave a copy 
of the second edition of Schlechter's Orchideen. Dr. Fritz Haas, 
Curator of Lower Invertebrates, gave nine numbers of Bronn's 
Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Mr. E. W. Lazell, of Portland, 
Oregon, presented several geological works issued between 1883 and 
1889. Mr. Elmer S. Riggs, Curator of Paleontology, assisted in the 
acquisition of the publications of the Geological Society of America, 
and a series of the Journal of Paleontology. Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, 
Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, gave the Scientific Monthly 
and several other helpful and interesting volumes. Dr. E. E. Sherff, 
Research Associate in Systematic Botany, gave desirable botanical 
works. Mr. George Siverling, Chicago, presented Francisco Pi y 
]\Iargall, Historia General de America, Volume 1, Part 2. Dr. Albert 
B. Lewis, Curator of Melanesian Ethnolog\% gave several interesting 
and helpful books. Mr. Paul C. Standley, Curator of the Herbarium, 
and Dr. Alexander de Sushko, Chicago, also presented valuable 
books. Many others have presented publications which likewise 
have been gratefully received. 

Helpers assigned by the federal Works Progress Administration 
aided materially in the accomplishments of the year. One of the 
projects carried on by them has been the binding of books and pam- 
phlets. A press was built which enabled them to do much better 
work than in pre\dous j'ears. A machine for sewing was also con- 
structed. Both of these increased production. Maps have been 
mounted in a manner that will preserve many which had shown 
signs of hard use. Another project has been the translation of some 
Russian publications into English. WPA helpers have also cata- 
logued material that otherwise would have had to wait indefinitely. 

The Library has again been indebted to other libraries for loans 
of much needed books. Acknowledgment is especially made to the 
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; the Library of the United 
States Department of Agiiculture; the John Crerar Library, Chicago; 
the University of Chicago Libraries; the Libraries of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, the Peabody Institute, and the Gray Herba- 
rium at Harvard University; the New York Public Library; the 
Library of the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis; Northwestern 

















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Publications and Printing 413 

University Library, Evanston, Illinois; the Library of the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York; the Newberry Library, 
Chicago; and the Library of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 
Conversely, Field Museum loaned books and periodicals to fifteen 
different organizations. 


The number of scientific papers published during 1938 again 
showed an increase over any previous year, and the Museum dis- 
tributed copies extensively to both foreign and domestic museums, 
libraries, and other institutions on its exchange lists. To these, and 
to individuals engaged in scientific work, the Museum sent 16,533 
copies of technical publications, 1,084 popular leaflets, and 482 
miscellaneous publications and pamphlets. It also sent 3,838 copies 
of the Annual Report of the Director for 1937, and 636 copies of leaf- 
lets, to Members of the Museum. 

Sales during the year totaled 10,985 scientific publications, 8,364 
leaflets, and 11,023 miscellaneous publications and pamphlets, such 
as Guides, Handbooks, and Memoirs. 

Thirty-two large boxes containing 6,393 individually addressed 
packages of publications were shipped to the Smithsonian Institution 
at Washington, D.C., for distribution to foreign destinations through 
its exchange bureau. This courteous co-operation on the part of the 
Washington institution in effecting deliveries is deeply appreciated 
at Field Museum. An approximately equal quantity of these books 
was sent by stamped mail to the institutions and individuals on the 
domestic exchange list. Seventy-three new exchange arrangements 
with domestic and foreign institutions and scientists were established. 

For future sales and distribution, 16,781 copies of various publica- 
tions and leaflets were wrapped in packages, labeled, and stored in 
the stock room. 

Second editions were issued of the anthropology leaflet Indian 
Tribes of the Chicago Area, and the botany leaflet Poison Ivy, of which 
the first editions were printed in 1926. Great public interest in both 
the living races of man, and their predecessors on earth, again was 
evidenced by the sale of a total of some 1,800 copies of the leaflets 
The Races of Mankind and Prehistoric Man. 

The total number of post cards sold during 1938 was 108,194, of 
which 16,165 were grouped into 745 sets. 

The Museum issued three colored post cards of zoological habitat 
groups, reproduced from color photographs made by Mr. Clarence B. 

416 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

429.— Botanical Series, Vol. XVIII, Part IV. Flora of Costa Rica. By Paul C. 
Standley. November 30, 1938. 438 pages. Edition 818. 

430. — Zoological Series, Vol. XIII, Part XI. Catalogue of Birds of the Americas 
and the Adjacent Islands. By Charles E. Hellmayr. December 31, 1938. 
668 pages. Edition 825. 

431. — Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 35. A New Woodrat from Mexico. By 
Wilfred H. Osgood. December 31, 1938. 2 pages. Edition 807. 

432.— Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 36. A New Pigeon from Colombia. By H. B. 
Conover. December 31, 1938. 2 pages. Edition 856. 

433.— Zoological Series, Vol. XX, No. 37. A New Wood Owl from Chile. By 
Leslie Wheeler. December 31, 1938. 4 pages. Edition 820. 

434. — Geological Series, Vol. VII, No. 4. Additional Notes on the Grinnell Ice- 
Cap. By Sharat K. Roy. December 31, 1938. 12 pages, 4 text figures, 
1 map. Edition 801. 

Museum Technique Series 

No. 5. Unique Construction of an Exhibit of Pliocene Edentates. By Phil C. Orr. 
March 30, 1938. 6 pages, 1 text figure. Edition 775. 

Leaflet Series 

Anthropology^ No. 24 (second edition). Indian Tribes of the Chicago Region. By 
William Duncan Strong. 36 pages, 8 plates. August, 1938. Edition 1,061. 

Botany, No. 22. Coffee. By B. E. Dahlgren. 44 pages, 14 plates, 1 text figure. 
June, 1938. Edition 2,536. 

Botany, No. 12 (second edition). Poison Ivy. By J. B. McNair. 12 pages, 5 
text figures. August, 1938. Edition 2,518. 

Zoology, No. 14. The Turtles of the Chicago Area. By Karl P. Schmidt. 24 
pages, 2 colored plates, 11 text figures. June, 1938. Edition 3,086. 

General. Field Museum and Group Education. 50 pages, 12 text figures. Septem- 
ber, 1938. Edition 1,252. 

Guide Series 

General Guide to Field Museum of Natural History Exhibits. Eighteenth edition 
(reprint). 1938. 48 pages, 1 plate. Edition 1,087. 

General Guide to Field Museum of Natural History Exhibits. Eighteenth edition 
(reprint). 1938. 48 pages, 1 plate. Edition 3,010. 

General Guide to Field Museum of Natural History Exhibits. Nineteenth edition. 
1938. 56 pages, 6 text figures. Edition 6,050. 

Handbook. General information concerning the Museum, its historj^ building, 
exhibits, expeditions and activities. Seventh edition. February, 1938. 74 
pages, 8 plates. Edition 3,521. 


During 1938 the Di\dsion of Photography's production, including 
negatives, prints, photographic enlargements, lantern slides, trans- 
parencies and transparent exhibition labels, totaled 20,227 items. 
Most of this work was done in fulfillment of the needs of the various 
Departments and Di\'isions of the Museum, but includes also 542 
prints, enlargements, and slides made for sales on orders received 
from the public. 

Of the total items produced, 9,481 were the work of the Staff 
Photographer and his Assistant, and 10,746 resulted from the em- 










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Public Relations 417 

ployment of several workers assigned by the federal Works Progress 
Administration. The WPA work was of a more routine character, 
chiefly making prints, including several thousand prints of type 
specimens of plants for the Herbarium from the negatives secured 
in Europe through the Department of Botany's project in foreign 

In addition to photographers, the WPA furnished clerks to the 
Division to carry on the important tasks of classifying, indexing, 
and numbering negatives and prints, and maintaining in good order 
the Museum's vast negative collection which at the end of the year 
had reached a total of approximately 88,000 negatives on file. The 
systematization of these files has increased enormously their availa- 
bility for prompt and efficient service in filling requisitions. The 
number of cards written and filed, negatives captioned and filed, 
and other clerical operations performed, aggregated more than 
80,000 items. 

A total of 724,525 prints was produced by the Museum Collo- 
typer. Included among these were illustrations for publications and 
leaflets, covers for various books and pamphlets, picture post cards, 
and headings for lecture posters. 

Three hundred and thirty-five orders for art work of various types 
were filled by the Museum Illustrator to meet the needs of the vari- 
ous Departments and Divisions of the institution. This total 
included, among other items, more than eighty-four drawings, the 
coloring of sixty-seven stereopticon slides, and the retouching of 
photographs, preparation and lettering of maps, etc. 


Field Museum during 1938 maintained its relations with the 
press on a scale which resulted in almost daily appearance of an- 
nouncements of its activities, such as lectures, tours, etc., and more 
elaborate articles on its exhibits, its expeditions, and other topics. 
Thus the public was promptly and constantly informed of the 
institution's services and researches. The interest thereby engen- 
dered promoted attendance, and created a general awareness of the 
functions of the Museum, and of its civic and scientific importance. 

The Public Relations Counsel prepared and distributed to the 
daily newspapers a total of 324 news releases, accompanied in many 
cases by photographs and captions which aggregated several hundred 
in number. This represented a substantial increase over 1937. 
Although the principal objective in this press campaign was space 

418 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

in the several great metropolitan dailies of Chicago, the releases 
were circulated also to the various small community papers pub- 
lished in various sections of the city, and its suburbs, thus reaching 
many thousands of additional readers. News releases and photo- 
graphs were also circulated on a national scale, and to some extent 
internationally, through the co-operation of such news agencies as 
the Associated Press, United Press, International News Service, 
Science Service, Wide- World Photos, and others. 

The releases issued by the Museum, in addition to attaining 
publication as sent, were often effective also in stimulating editors of 
newspapers and magazines to assign staff writers and camera-men 
to develop "angles" of their own, and to build up "feature stories" 
and series of pictures. A number of editorials also were inspired by 
news from Field Museum. 

Among the outstanding publicity features of the year were an 
entire page of photographs in color of Museum exhibits, published 
in the Chicago Sunday Herald and Examiner; a full-page article 
accompanied by illustrations and maps, on the Museum's expedi- 
tions of 1938, which also appeared in the Sunday Herald and Exam- 
iner; two full pages of pencil sketches made in the Museum by a staff 
artist of the Chicago Sunday Times; numerous front-page stories in 
the Chicago Tribune, Chicago Daily News, and Chicago Evening 
American on subjects such as the preparation and installation of 
Su-Lin, giant panda late of the Brookfield Zoo, as a Museum exhibit, 
and the germination in the Department of Botany of seeds of lotus 
plants estimated to be from 300 to 500 years old. Nine special 
releases, containing abstracts of the most interesting scientific 
papers presented before the American Oriental Society's annual 
meeting at a session held at the Museum, resulted in extensive 
publicity. Articles appeared also in various weekly and monthly 
periodicals, while a number of Museum photographs were published 
in various issues of the Illustrated London News. Nearly every week, 
as in the preceding year, one or more photographs and articles on the 
Museum appeared in the National Corporation Reporter, a periodical 
having wide circulation among members of the legal profession. 
Articles and photographs on specified subjects were supplied by 
the Museum in fulfillment of requests from various publishers. 

In co-operation with officials of the Chicago Board of Education, 
the Chicago Daily Times, and the Chicago Herald and Examiner, the 
Museum supplied pictorial material for use in publicity to promote 

Public Relations 419 

a series of special educational radio programs presented for children 
by the Radio Council of the Chicago Public Schools. 

The most curious publicity project in the history of the Museum 
was the preparation in the year 1938 of material for "release" in 
A.D. 8113! This was done by supplying photographs and data 
requested by Oglethorpe University for bui'ial in an especially 
designed and safeguarded sealed crypt which, it is hoped, will sim- 
plify the task of future archaeologists more than 6,000 years from 
now in reconstructing the story of civilization in the twentieth 
century. The cr3T)t is a co-operative project of Oglethorpe University 
and the Scientific American, and contains material representing all 
phases of contemporary life. The year 8113 was chosen because by 
that time 6,177 years will have passed since 1936, when assemblage 
of material for this crypt began. This period corresponds to the 
6,177 years preceding 1936 from an ancient Egyptian date (4241 B.C.) 
regarded as the first fixed date in human history. 

Field Museum News, the monthly bulletin which maintains 
contact between the Museum and its Members, was published with 
regularity, completing its ninth volume, and ninth year of operation. 
Every effort was made to improve editorial content and illustrations, 
and as an innovation there was printed in the December issue a 
special illustration, in four colors, of the new group of quetzal 
(national bird of Guatemala) opened in Hall 20 during the year. 
This was made from a color photograph taken by Mr. Clarence B. 
Mitchell, Research Associate in Photography, Toward the end of 
the year plans were completed for doubling the size and improving 
the typographical make-up of the News, and the first issue (January, 
1939) in the new format was published and placed in the mail on 
December 30. By the changes made, distinctly better legibility is 
accomplished, and space is provided for a more complete and elabo- 
rate coverage of Museum acti\dties. Field Museum News, in addition 
to serxang as an organ for the information of the membership, per- 
forms additional functions as a publication for exchange with other 
institutions, and as a supplementary medium of publicity. Copies 
are sent to editors of newspapers and magazines, who frequently 
reprint or quote its articles. 

As usual, the Museum received additional publicity in broad- 
casts of various radio stations and networks, and on several occasions 
its activities were the subject of motion picture newsreels. Advertis- 
ing media of a number of organizations were made available, without 
charge, for the publicizing of Museum lectures and exhibits. Among 

420 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

transportation systems which displayed Museum placards in their 
stations or cars were the Chicago and North Western Railway, 
Illinois Central System, Chicago Surface Lines, Chicago Rapid 
Transit Lines, Chicago, Aurora and Elgin Railroad, and Chicago, 
North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad. Many thousands of infor- 
mation folders about the Museum, and others about the Sunday 
afternoon lecture tours presented by Mr. Paul G. Dallwig, the 
Layman Lecturer, were distributed through the courtesy of hotels, 
clubs, commercial organizations, libraries, schools, travel bureaus, 
department stores and public institutions. In addition, some of these 
establishments displayed posters advertising the lecture courses. 

Invitations, accompanied by folders, were sent to the delegates 
attending several hundred conventions held in Chicago, suggesting 
that they include the Museum among the places to be visited while 
in the city. 


It is regretted that a decline in the number of persons on the 
Museum's membership lists must be reported for 1938. The total 
number of memberships recorded as of December 31, 1938, is 4,122, 
as against 4,266 on the same date in 1937. 

Of those who resigned, the majority apparently found this step 
necessary because of the stress of economic conditions. To these 
former Members appreciation is expressed for their past support, 
and it is hoped they may find it possible to resume their member- 
ships in the early future. 

An expression of gratitude for their support is due to the new 
Members who have enrolled, as well as to those Members who have 
so loyally continued year after year their support of the Museum, 
thus helping to make possible the continuance and expansion of the 
institution's cultural activities. 

The following tabulation shows the number of names on the list 
of each of the membership classifications at the end of 1938: 

Benefactors 23 

Honorary Members 14 

Patrons 25 

Corresponding Members 6 

Contributors 117 

Corporate Members 44 

Life Members 271 

Non-Resident Life Members 10 

Associate Members 2,383 

Non-Resident Associate Members 7 

Sustaining Members 10 

Annual Members 1,212 

Total Memberships 4,122 

Membership 421 

The names of all persons listed as Members during 1938 will be 
found on the pages at the end of this Report. 

In the pages which follow are submitted the Museum's financial 
statements, lists of accessions, et cetera. 

Clifford C. Gregg, Director 

422 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 


FOR YEARS 1937 AND 1938 

1938 1937 

Total attendance 1,391,580 1,292,023 

Paid attendance 91,097 94,217 

Free admissions on pay days: 

Students 46,861 29,460 

School children 126,554 119,486 

Teachers 2,900 2,492 

Members 1,255 1,524 

Admissions on free days: 

Thursdays (52) 196,003 (52) 186,198 

Saturdays (52) 354,543 (52) 322,980 

Sundays (51) 572,367 (52) 535,666 

Highest attendance (May 20, 1938) 47,794 (May 21) 42,421 

Lowest attendance (April 6, 1938) 101 (Dec. 17) 129 

Highest paid attendance (Sept. 5, 1938) .... 3,115 (Sept. 6) 3,448 

Average daily admissions (363 days) 3,834 (363 days) 3,570 

Average paid admissions (208 days) 438 (209 days) 450 

Number of guides sold 7,219 7,555 

Number of articles checked 22,604 21,917 

Number of picture post cards sold 108,194 127,827 

Sales of publications, leaflets, handbooks, 

portfolios, and photographs $7,601.13 $5,289.49 

Financial Statements 



FOR YEARS 1937 AND 1938 

Income 1938 1937 

Endowment Funds $191,247.11 $175,878.29 

Funds held under annuity agree- 
ments 28,878.51 37,022.16 

Life Membership Fund 11,903.16 13,275.28 

Associate Membership Fund .. . 12,843.41 12,754.67 

Chicago Park District 117,904.31 92,122.69 

Annual and Sustaining Member- 
ships 11,020.00 12,383.50 

Admissions 22,774.25 23,554.25 

Sundry receipts 19,757.51 19,193.00 

Contributions, general purposes . 25,961.22 50,305.04 

Contributions, special purposes 

(expended per contra) 28,172.28 58,558.57 

Special funds: Part expended 
this year for purposes 
designated (included per 
contra) 15,276.54 16,358.07 

$485,738.30 $511,405.52 


Collections ..$ 9,918.28 $ 5,796.12 

Operating expenses capitalized 

and added to collections. . . 43,731.66 46,338.05 

Expeditions 13,159.97 10,305.17 

Furniture, fixtures, etc 24,923.14 48,531.38 

Wages capitalized and added to 

fixtures 6,141.68 2,240.86 

Pensions, group insurance 15,361.67 15,904.12 

Departmental expenses 42,860.28 43,202.37 

General operating expenses 311,591.69 298,735.04 

Annuities on contingent gifts .. . 30,044.40 35,929.23 
Added to principal of annuity 

endowments 1,092.93 

Interest on loans 1,229.00 2,191.06 

Paid on bank loans 9,400.00 20,375.80 

$508,361.77 $530,642.13 

Deficit. . $ 22,623.47 Deficit.. $ 19,236.61 

Contribution by Mr. Marshall Field . . . 19,530.00 28,750.00 

Net Deficit.. $ 3,093.47 Balance.. $ 9,513.39 

Notes payable January 1 $ 36,000.00 

Paid on account 9,400.00 

Balance payable December 31 $ 26,600.00 

$ 56,375.80 

$ 36,000.00 


1938 1937 

Income from Endowment $16,883.42 $18,964.67 

Operating expenses 15,773.74 13,879.08 

December 31 Balance $1,109.68 Balance $5,085.59 

424 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 



Berger, Mrs. William B., Denver, 
Colorado: 2 Babylonian contracts — 
ruins of Drehem, near Nippur (gift). 

Breuil, Abbe Henri, Paris, France: 

13 negatives taken in 1911 at Cap 
Blanc, Dordogne, France (gift). 

Bronson, Mrs. H. P., Chicago: 1 
blue-glazed Ushebti (1000 B.C.) and 
1 string of glazed beads (1500 B.C. or 
later)— Egypt (gift). 

Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New 
York: Model of Maya temple at Xlob- 
pak, Yucatan, Mexico (exchange). 

Cohen, Abraham, Chicago: 1 beaded 
jacket — Brule Sioux (gift). 

Field, Dr. Henry, Chicago: 5 ob- 
jects: 1 large sarcophagus, 1 carved 
marble bath, 1 marble basin with stand, 
and 2 marble capitals — Italy; 4 photo- 
graphs of construction of Swiss Lake 
Dweller Village (Zurich Natural History 
Museum exhibit), Switzerland (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 

Collected by Dr. Paul S. Martin 
(Field Museum Archaeological Expedi- 
tion to the Southwest): approximately 
2,500 objects: bone and stone tools, pot- 
sherds and whole or mendable pieces of 

Purchase: 1 Chinese pottery jar — 

Gilbert, Miss Helen R., Chicago: 1 
piece of painted cloth — interior of Bali 

Haas, Dr. Fritz, Chicago: 1 bow and 

14 arrows — Vachokwe tribe, Angola, 
West Africa (gift). 

Hammill, Miss Edith K., Chicago: 
1 pot — Apache(?), New Mexico(?) (gift). 

KoNSBERG, A. v., Chicago: 1 model 
outrigger canoe — Samoa (gift). 

McCuTCHEON, John T., Chicago: 1 
Peruvian jar — obtained in Panama by 
General Charles Dawes (gift). 

Mandel, Mrs. Edna Horn, Chicago: 
1 lot of copper spindle whorls and beads 
strung together — Peru; 2 ceramic 
statues of Yama, the god of death — 
China (gift). 

Meeker, Mrs. Arthur, Chicago: 1 
necklace of two strands made up of 
coral and silver coins — Chichicaste- 
nango, Guatemala (gift). 

Owen, Dr. A. K., Topeka, Kansas: 
1 glazed pottery plumb bob — Eshmu- 
nen (Hermopolis Magna Shmun); 8 
flint blades and 1 arrow point — east of 
Assiut, Egypt (gift). 

Ryerson, Carrie, Estate of, Chi- 
cago: 3 Navaho blankets and 1 Mexican 
blanket — United States and Mexico 

Sargent, Homer E., Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia: 6 textiles — 2 from Navaho In- 
dians, 3 from Mexico, and 1 from Alge- 
ria, North Africa (gift). 

Shook, Miss Ruby, Norton, Massa- 
chusetts: 1 beaded doll, 1 beaded purse 
— Crow Indians, Montana (gift). 

SiMONSON, Mrs. E. B., and Colonel 
D. F. HiTT (deceased), Franklin Park, 
Illinois: 1 birch bark covered basket 
with porcupine quill decorations — Deer 
Park Township, Illinois (gift). 

Smeaton, Miss Winifred, Ann Ar- 
bor, Michigan: 17 hair samples — Iran, 
Iraq, Anatolia, and Syria (gift). 


Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 1 algal 
specimen (gift) ; 321 specimens of United 
States plants (exchange). 

Aguirre, Gabriel, Mexico City, 
Mexico: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, 
Massachusetts: 1,988 plant specimens 

Arsene, Rev. Brother G., Santa Fe, 
New Mexico: manuscript list of Mexi- 
can plants (gift). 

Bader, Miss Joan, Toms River, New 
Jersey: 29 specimens of algae (gift); 10 
specimens of algae (exchange). 

Bailey Hortorium, Cornell Univer- 
sity, Ithaca, New York: 1 plant speci- 
men (gift). 

Bailey, Dr. Liberty H., Ithaca, 
New York: 135 photographic prints 

Barkley, Dr. Fred A., Missoula, 
Montana: 32 specimens of algae (gift). 




Benke, Hermann C, Chicago: 220 
specimens of United States plants, 1 
negative, 1 photograph (gift). 

Bold, Harold C, Nashville, Tennes- 
see: 39 specimens of algae (gift); 17 
specimens of algae (exchange). 

Boris Freres e Companhia, Forta- 
leza, Ceara, Brazil: 2 plant specimens 

Botanic Gardens, Singapore, Straits 
Settlements: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Botanisches Institut, Munich, Ger- 
many: 97 plant specimens (exchange). 

Botanisches Museum, Berlin-Dah- 
lem, Germany: 1 photographic print 

Butler University, Department of 
Botany, Indianapolis, Indiana: 63 speci- 
mens of Indiana plants (exchange). 

Canal Zone Experiment Gardens, 
Summit, Canal Zone: 3 specimens of 
plants (gift). 

Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton, Station for Experimental Evolu- 
tion, Cold Spring Harbor, New York: 
37 specimens of plants from Yucatan 

Centro Nacional de Agricultura, 
San Pedro Montes de Oca, Costa Rica: 
427 specimens of Costa Rican plants 

Chamberlain, Dr. Charles J., Chi- 
cago: 60 specimens of cycads, 6 seeds of 
nelumbo (gift). 

Ciferri, Dr. Raffaele, Pavia, Italy: 
1 plant specimen (gift). 

Clokey, Ira W., South Pasadena, 
California: 6 plant specimens (gift); 
2,030 specimens of United States plants 

Conard, Dr. Henry S., Grinnell, 
Iowa: 100 specimens of mosses (gift). 

Conservatoire et Jardin Bota- 
NIQUES, Geneva, Switzerland: 1,085 
plant specimens (exchange). 

Cornell University, Department 
of Botany, Ithaca, New York: 82 speci- 
mens of plants from Washington (ex- 

Cornell University, Plant Breed- 
ing Department, Ithaca, New York: 28 
plant specimens (gift). 

Crawford, Miss Sara W., Hatton 
Springs, Arkansas: 1 plant specimen, 3 
photographic prints (gift). 

Daniel, Rev. Brother H., Medellm, 
Colombia: 139 specimens of Colombian 
plants (gift). 

Deam, Charles C, Bluffton, Indi- 
ana: 17 plant specimens (gift). 

Degener, Otto, Waialua, Oahu, Ha- 
waiian Islands: 31 specimens of Hawai- 
ian plants (gift). 

DePauw University, Greencastle, 
Indiana: 146 specimens of Honduran 
plants (exchange). 

Deutzman, H. J., St. Louis,Missouri: 
11 wood specimens (gift). 

DiRECcioN General de Agricul- 
tura, Guatemala City, Guatemala: 2 
plant specimens (gift). 

Dodge, Dr. Carroll W., St. Louis, 
Missouri: 8 specimens of algae (gift). 

DoNES, Mathias, Chicago: 3 plant 
specimens (gift). 

Drouet, Dr. Francis, Chicago: 782 
specimens of Brazilian plants, 338 speci- 
mens of algae (gift). 

Elett, G. C, Waterloo, Indiana: 1 
photograph (gift). 

Elias, Rev. Brother, Barranquilla, 
Colombia: 184 specimens of Colombian 
plants (gift). 

EscuELA Nacional de Agricultura, 
Chimaltenango, Guatemala: 100 speci- 
mens of Guatemalan plants (gift). 

EsTACiON Experimental Agrono- 
MICA, Santiago de Las Vegas, Cuba: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

Eyerdam, Walter J., Seattle, Wash- 
ington: 904 plant specimens (exchange). 

Farlow Herbarium, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: 28 specimens of algae 
(gift); 938 cryptogamic specimens (ex- 

Field, Dr. Henry, Chicago: 73 
plant specimens, 1 mespilus tree (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History: 

Collected by Emil Sella: 46 specimens 
of Wyoming plants. 

Collected by Paul C. Standley and 
Dr. Julian A. Steyermark: 64 specimens 
of Illinois plants. 

Collected by Paul C. Standley, Dr. 
Julian A. Steyermark and Dr. Francis 
Drouet: 443 specimens of algae. 

Collected by Dr. Julian A. Steyer- 
mark: 903 specimens of Missouri plants. 

Collected by Dr. Paul D. Voth, Dr. 
JuHan A. Steyermark, Mrs. Cora Shoop 
Steyermark, and Dr. Francis Drouet: 
50 specimens of algae. 

Made in the Department Labora- 
tories: 8 photographic prints of type 
specimens of plants. 

426 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Transferred from the Division of 
Photography: 7,970 photographic prints. 

Purchases: 2,120 cryptogamic speci- 
mens; 1,341 plant specimens — Brazil; 
3,450 plant specimens — Costa Rica; 
183 plant specimens — Ecuador; 712 
plant specimens — Mexico; 928 plant 
specimens — Panama; 233 plant speci- 
mens — Peru; 173 plant specimens — 
United States; 101 plant specimens — 
Venezuela; 30 photographic prints. 

Fisher, George L., Houston, Texas: 
104 plant specimens (gift). 

Florists' Publishing Company, 
Chicago: 6 plant specimens (gift). 

FoRRER, H., Chicago: 4 plant speci- 
mens (gift). 

FosBBRG, F. Raymond, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania: 260 plant specimens 

Frenguelli, Dr. Joaquim, La Plata, 
Argentina: 1 algal specimen (gift). 

Freymuth, Mrs. W. C, River Forest, 
Illinois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Garrett, Professor Arthur O., 
Salt Lake City, Utah: 70 specimens of 
Utah plants (gift). 

Gentry, Howard Scott, Tucson, 
Arizona: 208 specimens of Mexican 
plants (gift). 

GiFFORD, Dr. John C, Coconut 
Grove, Florida: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Giles, George H., Wilson ville, Ne- 
braska: 18 specimens of algae (gift); 4 
specimens of algae (exchange). 

Ginzberger, Dr. August, Vienna, 
Germany: 344 specimens of Brazilian 
plants (gift). 

Gordon, Miss Bertha, Porterville, 
California: 3 photographic prints (gift). 

Grant, Gordon, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia: 1 specimen of seeds of Ricinus 

Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts: 162 specimens of plants (ex- 

Greenman, Dr. Jesse M., St. Louis, 
Missouri: 5 specimens of algae (gift). 

Guest, E. R., Kuala Lumpur, Feder- 
ated Malay States: preserved material 
of cloves and durian (gift). 

Gunter, Gordon, Palacios, Texas: 2 
plant specimens (gift). 

Heath, Charles A., Chicago: 1 eco- 
nomic specimen (gift). 

Hermann, Professor F. J., Wash- 
ington, D.C.: 237 plant specimens (ex- 
change) . 

Hewetson, William T., Freeport, 
Illinois: 2 plant specimens (gift). 

Hinckley, L. C, Austin, Texas: 25 
plant specimens (gift). 

Hinton, George B., Zitacuaro, Mi- 
choacan, Mexico: 85 specimens of Mexi- 
can plants (gift). 

Hollenberg, Dr. George J., La 
Verne, California: 11 specimens of algae 

Hood, Professor J. Douglas, Roch- 
ester, New York: 6 plant specimens 

HoTTLE, Walter D., Montgomery, 
Alabama: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Instituto de Botanica Darwinion, 
San Isidro, Argentina: 386 specimens of 
plants from Argentina (exchange). 

Ito, Tokumatsu, Chicago: 3 eco- 
nomic specimens (gift). 

Jardim Botanico, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil: 33 specimens of Brazilian plants 

Jardim Botanico de Bello Hori- 
ZONTE, Minas Geraes, Brazil: 2,127 
specimens of Brazilian plants (gift). 

Johnston, Dr. John R., Chimalte- 
nango, Guatemala: 265 specimens of 
plants from Guatemala (gift). 

Kansas State Teachers College, 
Hays, Kansas: 307 specimens of Kansas 
plants (exchange). 

Kenoyer, Professor Leslie A., 
Kalamazoo, Michigan: 645 specimens of 
Mexican plants, 2 photographs (gift). 

Khanna, Dr. Lalit P., Rangoon, 
Burma: 96 vials of algae (gift). 

Kische, Leo R., Columbus, Georgia: 
13 plant specimens, 3 wood specimens 

Knobloch, Irving W., San Juanito, 
Chihuahua, Mexico: 328 specimens of 
Mexican plants (gift). 

Koch, Cyril, Chicago: 12 specimens 
of conifers (gift). 

Konsberg, a. E., Evanston, Illinois: 
1 specimen of fungus (gift). 

Krukoff, Boris A., Bronx Park, 

New York: 292 plant specimens (gift). 

Kummer, Mrs. Anna M., Chicago: 
33 plant specimens (gift). 

Laboratorios del Ministerio de 
Agricultura, San Salvador, Salvador: 
7 plant specimens (gift). 

Lankester, C. H., Cartago, Costa 
Rica: 1 plant specimen (gift). 



Leal, Professor Adrian Ruiz, 
Mendoza, Argentina: 32 specimens of 
plants from Argentina (gift); 66 speci- 
mens of plants from Argentina (ex- 

Legrand, Professor Diego, Monte- 
video, Uruguay: 60 specimens of plants 
from Uruguay (exchange). 

LiLLiCK, Lois C, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts: 2 specimens of algae (gift). 

LiNDBR, Dr. David H., Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: 1 algal specimen (gift). 

Looser, Professor Gualterio, San- 
tiago, Chile: 15 specimens of Chilean 
plants (gift). 

MacMahon, John, Chicago: 2 eco- 
nomic specimens (gift). 

Maroney, J. E., Chicago: 1 specimen 
of Moringa seeds (gift). 

Marshall College, Huntington, 
West Virginia: 100 specimens of plants 
from West Virginia (exchange). 

Martin, Dr. Paul S., Chicago: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

Maywood Nurseries, Maywood, 
Illinois: 15 specimens of cultivated 
conifers (gift). 

Mexia, Mrs. Ynes, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia: 83 specimens of South American 
plants (gift). 

Meyer, Professor Teodoro, Fon- 
tana, Chaco, Argentina: 32 specimens 
of plants from Argentina (exchange). 

Mille, Rev. Luis, Manabf, Ecua- 
dor: 15 specimens of plants from 
Ecuador (gift). 

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. 
Louis, Missouri: 345 plant specimens 

Montana State University, Mis- 
soula, Montana: 56 specimens of United 
States plants (exchange). 

Monteiro da Costa, R. C, Belem, 
Para, Brazil: 18 specimens of Brazilian 
plants (gift). 

Moore, George, Lebanon, Missouri: 
126 specimens of Missouri plants (gift). 

Moore, O. G., Brownsboro, Ala- 
bama: 2 wood specimens (gift). 

Musee Physiographique de l'Aca- 
demie Polonaise des Sciences, 
Cracow, Poland: 350 specimens of 
plants from Poland (exchange). 

MusEo Argentino de Ciencias 
Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina: 
51 specimens of plants from Argentina 
(gift); 11 specimens of algae (exchange). 

tevideo, Uruguay: 14 plant specimens 
from Uruguay (exchange). 

MusEO Nacional, San Jose, Costa 
Rica: 338 specimens of Costa Rican 
plants (gift). 

Museum National d'Histoire Na- 
TURELLE (Phanerogamie), Paris, 
France: 3,358 plant specimens, 7 speci- 
mens of Welvntschia (exchange). 

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, 
Stockholm, Sweden: 314 specimens of 
mosses, 75 specimens of algae (ex- 

New York Botanical Garden, 
Bronx Park, New York: 707 plant speci- 
mens, 470 cryptogamic specimens, 9 
photographic prints (exchange). 

North Dakota Agricultural Col- 
lege, Department of Botany, Fargo, 
North Dakota: 229 specimens of North 
Dakota plants (exchange). 

Palmer, Professor Charles M., 
Indianapolis, Indiana: 2 specimens of 
algae (gift). 

Palmer, Miss Neva, Roswell, New 
Mexico: 40 plant specimens from 
New Mexico (gift). 

Patrick, Miss Ruth, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania: 31 specimens of algae 

Pearsall, Gordon, Riverside, Illi- 
nois: 25 specimens of Illinois plants 

Prior, Miss Sophia, Chicago: 7 
specimens of algae (gift). 

Puerto Rico Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, Mayaguez, Puerto 
Rico: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Purer, Miss E., San Diego, Cali- 
fornia: 3 plant specimens (gift). 

PuRPUS, Dr. C. a., Zacuapam, 
Mexico: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Gar- 
den, Anaheim, California: 50 specimens 
of California plants (exchange). 


Montevideo, LTruguay: 220 specimens 
of plants from Uruguay (gift). 

Sconce, Harvey, Chicago: 3 wood 
specimens (gift). 

Scull, Dr. Eleanor, Crown Point, 
Indiana: 1 fruit of mahogany, 1 wood 
specimen (gift). 

Sherff, Dr. Earl E., Chicago: 306 
plant specimens, 133 negatives of type 
specimens of plants (gift). 

428 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Shreve, Dr. Forrest, Tucson, Ari- 
zona: 133 plant specimens (gift). 

Smith, Austin, Zarcero, Costa Rica: 
100 specimens of Costa Rican plants 

Smith, Ernest C, Fort Collins, 
Colorado: 3 plant specimens (gift). 

Smith, Preston, Ottawa, Ohio: 17 
specimens of algae (gift). 

SoBRiNHO, J. Vasconcelos, Pemam.- 
buco, Brazil: 6 plant specimens, 1 wood 
specimen (gift). 

Solano, J. V., Lima, Peru: 1 map 

SouKUP, Professor J., Puno, Peru: 
209 specimens of Peruvian plants (gift). 

Standley, Paul C, Chicago: 154 
specimens of plants from Florida, 21 
illustrations of plants (gift). 

Stanford University (Dudley Her- 
barium), California: 336 plant speci- 
mens (exchange). 

Steffa, Mrs. Grace M., Fox Lake, 
Wisconsin: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Steyermark, Mrs. Cora S., Chicago: 
1,186 cryptogamic specimens (gift). 

Steyermark, Dr. Julian A., Chi- 
cago: 537 plant specimens (gift). 

Stillinger, Richard, Spokane, 
Washington: 85 specimens of Idaho 
plants (gift). 

Strickland, J. C, Charlottesville, 
Virginia: 41 specimens of algae (ex- 

Taft, Dr. C. E., Columbus, Ohio: 1 
algal specimen (gift). 

Taylor, Dr. William R., Ann Arbor, 
Michigan: 1 algal specimen (gift); 326 
specimens of algae (exchange). 

Thompson, Dr. Rufus H., Stanford 
University, California: 1 algal specimen 

United States Department of 
Agriculture, Division of Plant 
Exploration, Washington, D.C.: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 706 plant speci- 
mens, 424 photographic prints, 3,104 
typewritten descriptions of type speci- 
mens of plants (exchange). 

Universidad de Cuzco, Cuzco, 
Peru: 125 specimens of Peruvian plants 

Universidad de La Plata, Insti- 
TUTO del Museo, La Plata, Argentina: 

211 plant specimens from Argentina 

University of California at Los 
Angeles, Los Angeles, California: 3 
plant specimens (exchange). 

University of Florida, Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, Gaines- 
ville, Florida: 45 cryptogamic speci- 
mens (exchange). 

University of Michigan, Univer- 
sity Museums, Ann Arbor, Michigan: 
606 plant specimens (exchange). 

University of Tennessee, Knox- 
ville, Tennessee: 208 plant specimens 

University of Texas, Depart- 
ment OF Botany, Austin, Texas: 720 
specimens of Mexican plants (gift). 

University of Wisconsin, Depart- 
ment OF Botany, Madison, Wisconsin: 
103 plant specimens (exchange). 

Uphof, Professor J. C. T., Winter 
Park, Florida: 3 plant specimens (gift). 

Valerio, Professor Manuel, San 
Jose, Costa Rica: 26 specimens of Costa 
Rican plants (gift). 

Vargas C, Dr. Cesar, Cuzco, Peru: 
262 specimens of Peruvian plants (gift). 

Vaughan's Seed Store, Chicago: 
1 plant specimen (gift). 

VoTH, Dr. Paul D., Chicago: 2 
specimens of algae (gift). 

Walker, Dr. James, Chicago: 6 
economic specimens (gift). 

Weed, Alfred C, Chicago, Illinois: 
1 plant specimen (gift). 

White, Professor ORLANDE.,Boyce, 
Virginia: 70 specimens of Mexican 
plants (gift). 

WiTTE Memorial Museum, Austin, 
Texas: 54 plant specimens from 
Texas (gift). 

WOLCOTT, A. B., Downers Grove, 
Illinois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Wolf, Rev. Wolfgang, St. Bernard, 
Alabama: 8 plant specimens (gift). 

WoLLE, Philip W., Princess Anne, 
Maryland: 27 specimens of algae (gift). 

Wood, Merrill J., Salt Lake City, 
Utah: 1 economic specimen (gift). 

WoYTKOWSKi, Felix, Lima, Peru: 59 
specimens of Peruvian plants (gift). 

Yale University, School of For- 
estry, New Haven, Connecticut: 198 



plant specimens (gift); 25 microscopic 
slides of specimens of tropical woods 

York, Roy J., Chicago: 1 plant speci- 
men (gift). 

YuNCKER, Professor T. G., Green- 
castle, Indiana: 557 specimens of Hon- 
duran plants (gift). 

Zetek, James, Balboa, Canal Zone: 
45 specimens of Panama plants (gift). 


American Museum of Natural 
History, New York: cast of Diatryma 
skeleton (exchange). 

Asphalt Shingle and Roofing 
Institute, Chicago: 20 specimens of 
asphalt roofing (gift). 

Barry, Jack, Portland, Oregon: 1 
specimen of opalized wood — Estacada, 
Oregon (gift). 

Boardman, Donald C, Fillmore, 
California: 2 specimens of lava and tuff 
interstratified (gift). 

Bowen, George W., Chicago: 1 
fossil crane leg bone — Oceana County, 
Michigan (gift). 

Brigham, Edward M., Battle Creek, 
Michigan: 7 blue agate specimens — 
Luna National Forest, New Mexico; 
2 concretions — Michigan and New 
Mexico (gift). 

Brox, W. a., Rawlins, Wyoming: 37 
chalcedony and agate specimens — 
Wyoming and Montana (gift). 

Chalmers, Joan A. and William J., 
Chicago: 1 brilliant cut beryllonite — 
Paris, Maine (gift). 

Changnon, Harry, Chicago: 4 min- 
eral specimens, 6 ore specimens — Colo- 
rado (gift). 

The Chicago Tribune, Chicago: 1 
relief map of North America (gift). 

Cleveland, F. C, Chicago: 1 speci- 
men of calymene niagarensis — Chicago 
area (gift). 

Colyer, C. G., Sheridan, Wyoming: 
16 specimens of fish teeth — near Edge- 
mont. South Dakota (gift). 

Curtis, Lloyd, Lander, Wyoming: 
11 specimens of sapphire with damour- 
ite in matrix, 3 specimens of nephrite 
jade — near Lander, Wyoming (gift). 

Dake, H. C, Portland, Oregon: 1 
specimen of corundum changing to 
damourite, 1 geode, 23 almandite 
crystals and 12 mineral specimens — 
western United States (gift). 

Dychb Museum, University of 
Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas: 8 casts of 
vertebrate fossils (exchange). 

Ehrmann, Martin, New York: 1 
gem aquamarine crystal — Minas Ge- 
raes, Brazil (exchange). 

Field, Dr. Henry, Chicago: 2 speci- 
mens of sand — Florida; 2 specimens of 
beach sand — Copenhagen, Denmark; 

3 rock specimens, 1 specimen of sand — 
Norway and Sweden (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History: 

Collected by Dr. Henry Field (Field 
Museum Anthropological Expedition 
to the Near East — 1934): 25 specimens 
of medicines used in Iraq. 

Collected by John R. Millar (Sewell 
Avery Botanical Expedition to Nova 
Scotia): 4 gypsum specimens, 1 diato- 
mite specimen — Nova Scotia. 

Collected by Bryan Patterson: 7 
specimens of fossil fern leaves — Braid- 
wood, Illinois. 

Collected by Sharat K. Roy (Sewell 
Avery Expedition for Physical Geology) : 
138 physical geology specimens, 25 
mineral specimens, 11 rock specimens — 
United States. 

Collected by Dr. A. J. Walcott 
(Field Museum Expedition to the 
Pacific Northwest): 193 mineral speci- 
mens — Pacific Northwest. 

Purchases: 14 meteorites and 3 
objects showing damage to garage and 
automobile by fall of meteorite, 6 
tectites — various localities; 1 copy 
Rocks and Minerals partly printed in 
fluorescent ink. 

Flory, Charles H., EelUngham, 
Washington: 2 specimens of mammoth 
tusk — Fairbanks, Alaska (gift). 

Forbes, P. L., Bend, Oregon: 5 
mineral specimens — Oregon (gift). 

Gordon, Miss Bertha, Porterville, 
California: 1 gillespite specimen, 4 
volcanic splatter bombs — California; 

4 photographs of crumpled strata and 
erosion features — Mohave Desert and 
Death Valley, California (gift). 

Gray, Fred E., Oak Forest, Illinois: 
1 specimen of fossil cephalopod — Chi- 
cago area (gift). 

430 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Green, E. E., Manhattan Beach, 
CaUfornia: 1 kaoHn specimen — San 
Bernardino County, California (gift). 

Green, M. T., Bend, Oregon: 1 speci- 
men of chalcedony and quartz tree cast 
 — near Bend, Oregon (gift). 

Gresky, Benedict, Chicago: 36 
specimens of rare metals, 3 norbide 
specimens (gift). 

Griswold, Mrs. Keith, Evanston, 
Illinois: 9 graphic granite specimens — 
North Carolina (gift). 

Groesbeck, Dr. M. J., Porterville, 
California: 2 gem sphalerite specimens 
— Bisbee, Arizona (exchange). 

Higley, Professor L. A., Wheaton, 
Illinois: 12 manganese concretions — 
south of Buffalo, South Dakota; 6 
photographs of calico rock (gift). 

Hilton, William B. and G. Brad- 
ley Harris, Rifle, Colorado: 66 fossil 
plants — Rifle Gap, Colorado (gift). 

HiNE, A. R., Portland, Oregon: 33 
agate specimens — Oregon (gift). 

Ito, Tokumatsu, Chicago: 10 coal 
specimens, 5 oil shale specimens — Fu- 
shun, Manchukuo (gift). 

Jennings, John W., Eureka Springs, 
Arkansas: 2 lithographic limestone 
specimens, 2 feldspathic shale speci- 
mens, 1 bryozoan specimen, 2 flint 
specimens — Eureka Springs, Arkansas; 
1 slate specimen — northern Arkansas 

Lazell, Dr. E. W., Portland, Oregon: 
1 moss agate, 11 slides of fossil wood — 
Oregon (gift). 

Look, Alfred A., Grand Junction, 
Colorado: 1 vertebrate fossil, 2 fossil 
teeth — Colorado (gift). 

McGrew, Paul 0., Chicago: 3,000 
vertebrate fossils (Tertiary micro-mam- 
mals), 2 invertebrate fossils — western 
Nebraska (gift). 

McKinley, William C, Peoria, Illi- 
nois: 12 glacial gems — Peoria, Illinois 

McLeod, C. W., Michigan City, 
Indiana: 30 claystones — Michigan City, 
Indiana (gift). 

MacMillan, Duncan, Chicago: 34 
invertebrate fossils — Sag Canal, Blue 
Island, Illinois (gift). 

McPherson, C. H., Pana, IlUnois: 
partial skeleton of badger, Taxidea 
taxiis — gravel pit near Witt, Illinois 

Marqlt}tte Geologists' Associa- 
tion, Chicago: 17 glacial pebbles, 6 
marcasite concretions — Wilmington and 
Coal City, Illinois (gift). 

Menzel, William E., Chicago: 4 
pyrite concretions, 1 chalcedony con- 
cretion, 19 minerals, 4 geological speci- 
mens — United States (gift). 

Mineralogist Magazine, Portland, 
Oregon: 22 mineral soecimens — Oregon 

AIorrison, Morris G., Evanston, 
Illinois: 4 specimens building stones, 1 
basalt specimen — Palestine (gift). 

MusEO Argentino de Cienclas 
Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina: 
5 casts of fossil birds (exchange). 

Nelson, Walter, Portland, Oregon: 
1 opalized wood specimen — Washington 

Norden, Mrs. Beatrice, Chicago: 1 
cinnabar specimen, 1 verite specimen — 
Arkansas (gift). 

Pape, John C, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia: 6 specim.ens of massive horn- 
blende, 1 hornblendite specimen — Cali- 
fornia (gift). 

Peabody MusEuivi, Yale Univer- 
sity, New Haven, Connecticut: 1 cast 
of skull and lower jaws of Oligobunis 
darbyi (exchange). 

Perry, Stewart H., Adrian, Michi- 
gan: 4 meteorites — United States (ex- 

Peterson, Peter, Portland, Oregon: 
8 agate specimens — Oregon (gift). 

Pitts, William B., Sunnyvale, Cali- 
fornia: plaque of 25 chiastolite sections, 
42 specimens orbicular jasper — Cali- 
fornia (gift). 

Princeton Unu^rsity, Princeton, 
New Jersey: 177 Miocene shell specimens 
— Y'orktown, Pennsylvania (exchange). 

QuiNN, C. A., Ainsworth, Nebraska: 1 
land gastropod — Rifle, Colorado (gift). 

Renton, J. Lewis, Portland, Oregon: 
55 mineral specimens — Oregon and 
California (gift). 

RiGGS, Elmer S., Chicago: 46 speci- 
mens of Miocene and Pliocene mam- 
mals, 11 skulls and one incomplete 
skeleton of modern animals — various 
localities (gift). 

Ryerson, Carrie, Estate of, Chi- 
cago: 44 pieces of jewelry (gift). 

Schiefer, H. v., Cleveland Heights, 
Ohio: 1 jasper specimen — Flint Ridge, 
Ohio (gift). 



Schneider, A. J. and Ray, Portland, 
Oregon: 2 agate specimens — Madras, 
Oregon (gift). 

Shead, J. O., Norman, Oklahoma: 9 
specimens of barite roses — Norman, 
Oklahoma (gift). 

Slocom, R. G., Riverside, Illinois: 1 
cinnabar specimen (gift). 

Smith's Agate Shop, Portland, Ore- 
gon: 1 iris agate specimen — Oregon 

Snyder, S. M., Metamora, Illinois: 1 
petroleum-filled geode — Tyson Creek, 
near Niota, Illinois (gift). 

Spence, Hugh S., Ottawa, Canada: 3 
specimens of asterism in phlogopite — 
Frontenac County, Ontario (gift). 

Standard Oil Company (Indiana), 
Chicago: 14 specimens of petroleum 
products (gift). 

Strecker, J. K., Jr., Waco, Texas: 6 
specimens of Exogijra arietina — Hog 
Creek, Texas (gift). 

Swett, W. 0., Chicago: 1 specimen 
of clay-eater's clay (Chagasta) — Jalti- 
pan, Oaxaca, Mexico (gift). 

Texas Planning Board and Uni- 
versity OF Texas, Austin, Texas: 11 

slabs of polished marble; 4 discs of 
polished granite — Texas (gift). 

Trevett, Miss Ann, Casper, Wyo- 
ming: 1 uranophane specimen — Lusk, 
Wyoming (gift). 

VoN Drasek, Frank, Cicero, Illinois: 
20 mineral specimens — New Mexico and 
Arkansas (gift); 38 pebbles of gem 
peridot, 9 moonstone specimens. New 
Mexico (exchange). 

Walter, Clark W., Chicago: 12 
minerals, 3 fossils — various localities 

Weiss, Paul, Denver, Colorado: 1 
polished specimen fossil wood, 1 pol- 
ished specimen red chalcedony — Colo- 
rado (gift). 

Wharton, J. R., Roseburg, Oregon: 1 
specim.en chalcedony — near Roseburg, 
Oregon (gift). 

Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illi- 
nois: 1 specimen calico rock— Buffalo 
Gap, South Dakota (exchange). 

Yaeger, R. a., Kankakee, Illinois: 
2 specimens Carboniferous fossils — 
Fort Dodge, Iowa (gift). 

Young, F. S., Portland, Oregon: 11 
specimens of agate and chalcedony — 
Oregon (gift). 


American Consul, Warsaw, Poland: 
70 marine bivalves — Baltic Sea (gift). 

Amschler, Dr. Wolfgang, Zeiyarn 
bei Cronach, Germany: 543 beetles — 
Tyrol, Austria (gift). 

Anderson, Chris M., Miami, Florida: 
1 scorpion — Miami, Florida (gift). 

Baley, James, Chicago: 1 rattle- 
snake — Beverly Shores, Indiana (gift). 

Barber, C. M., Hot Springs, Arkan- 
sas: 1 shrew, 10 salamanders, 4 frogs, 9 
snakes, 3 lizards, 4 turtles — Arkansas 

Barnes, Dr. Ventura, Caracas, 
Venezuela: 10 frogs and toads, 3 lizards, 
6 snakes — Yaracuy, Venezuela (ex- 

Barry, Richard E., Chicago: 2 
beetles — Mill Brook, Illinois (gift). 

Barton, William, Chicago: 1 white- 
throated sparrow — Chicago (gift). 

Bass Biological Laboratory, Engle- 
wood, Florida: 2 shark jaws and 8 teeth 
— Englewood, Florida (gift). 

Becker, Robert H., Lake Blufi", Illi- 
nois: 4 fishes — Waukegan, Illinois (gift). 

Beecher, William J., Chicago: 1 
ground squirrel, 1 red-headed wood- 
pecker — Illinois (gift). 

Benak, Mrs. Frank, Chicago: 1 
spider with young — Chicago (gift). 

Birks, Thomas K., Chicago: 1 milk 
snake — Okee, Wisconsin (gift). 

Blair, W. Frank, Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan : 3 white mice — White Sands Region, 
New Mexico (gift). 

Blanchard, Dr. Frieda Cobb, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan: 896 snakes— various 
localities (exchange). 

BoiSMENUE, P., Columbia, Illinois: 
33 carp bones — Columbia, Illinois (gift). 

BoNK, Kenneth, Homewood, Illi- 
nois: 1 milk snake — Homewood, Illinois 

BoRELL, A. E., Santa Fe, New Mex- 
ico: 1 free-tailed bat, 1 toad, 4 lizards, 
5 snakes, 2 turtles — Texas (gift). 

BouLTON, Rudyerd, Chicago: 1 im- 
mature  woodcock — Indiana; 1 downy 
killdeer — Illinois; 18 bird skins — Mis- 
sissippi; 11 portraits of ©rnithologists 

432 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Boyd, Miss Lois, Muskegon, Michi- 
gan: 1 pharyngeal bone of drumfish — 
shore of Lake Michigan (gift). 

Bromund, E. Fred, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan: 24 salamanders, 14 frogs, 12 
insects — Michigan (gift). 

Burt, Dr. Charles E., Winfield, 
Kansas: 1 brown bat, 2 salamanders, 2 
frogs, 19 lizards, 2 snakes — various 
localities (exchange). 

Burton, Robert, Evanston, Illinois: 

1 beetle necklace — Brazil (gift). 
Buxton, R. W., Evanston, Illinois: 5 

frogs, 5 lizards, 5 snakes — McGill 
County, New Mexico (gift). 

Camras, Sidney, Chicago: 4 birds — 
Cook County, Illinois (gift). 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania: 1 Anolis — British Hon- 
duras (exchange). 

Cazier, Mont A., Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia: 4 beetles — CaUfornia (gift). 

Cefalie, Mrs. Phillis, Chicago: 2 
turtles, 1 fresh-water leach — Cook 
County, Illinois; 6 salamanders, 1 geo- 
graphic turtle — Cass County, Michigan 

Chadwick, R. W., Chicago: 1 red- 
winged blackbird, 2 savanna sparrows- 
Chicago (gift). 

Chicago Police Department, Chi- 
cago: 1 badger — Chicago (gift). 

Chicago Zoological Society, Brook- 
field, Illinois: 35 mammals, 143 birds, 12 
birds' eggs, 16 snakes, 3 lizards, 1 turtle 
— various localities (gift). 

Clark, Philip, Chicago: 4 snakes — 
Port Dickson, Federated Malay States: 

2 box tortoises — United States (gift). 
Clarke-MacIntyre, William, 

Bafios, Ecuador: 26 insects — Ecuador 

Clawson, Mrs. M. Don, Beirut, 
Syria: 24 bird skins — Iraq and Syria 

Colorado Museum of Natural 
History, Denver, Colorado: 2 mounted 
dov/ny golden eagles — Colorado (gift). 

CONOVER, Boardman, Chicago: 67 
bird skins — various localities (gift); 2 
bird skins — Korea and Ecuador (ex- 

Cooper, B., Moshi, Tanganyika: 24 
bird skins— Tanganyika (gift). 

CoRWiN, Charles A., Chicago: 15 
sets of eggs — Laysan Island (gift). 

Cox, Mrs. Thomas J., Chicago: 5 
corals — Borneo (gift). 

Cross, Dr. J. C, Kingsville, Texas: 2 
lizards, 2 snakes, 1 turtle — Kingsville, 
Texas (gift). 

Curtis, E. B., Phantom Grove, 
Florida : 1 worm lizard — Phantom Grove, 
Florida (gift). 

Dahlgren, Dr. B. E., Chicago: 4 
turtle eggs — Santarem, Brazil (gift). 

Davis, D. Dwight, Naperville, Illi- 
nois: 2 mammals — Illinois (gift). 

Deming, G. S., Chicago: 25 snakes — 
Chicago (gift). 

Dial, Miss Rose, Chicago: 1 brown 
creeper — Chicago (gift). 

Dickey Collection, Donald R., 
Pasadena, California: 994 bird skins — 
El Salvador (gift). 

Dominion Museum, New Zealand: 5 
boxes of accessories for kiwi group — 
New Zealand (gift). 

Dreutzer, Carl, Chicago: 6 seal 
skins with skulls, 1 semi-fossilized musk- 
ox skull — Alaska (gift). 

Ennis, Miss Margaret, Chicago: 9 
bats, 4 toads, 32 lizards, 1 snake — 
Copan, Honduras (gift). 

Enzenbacher, Albert A., Chicago: 
43 snakes, 6 turtles — McHenry, Illinois 

EXLINE, A. W., San Jose, Mindoro, 
Philippine Islands: 6 crocodile skulls — 
Philippine Islands (gift). 

Falck, Eugene G. F., Chicago: 2 
shells — La Porte County, Indiana (gift). 

Fellows, William K., Chicago: 1 
yellow-billed cuckoo — Chicago (gift). 

Ferris, William K., Stanford Uni- 
versity, California: 4 beetles — Lake 
Tahoe, California (exchange). 

Field, Dr. Henry, Chicago: 9 
mammals, 1 owl, 5 toads, 2 newts, 12 
water snakes — Leicestershire, England; 
1 toad, 158 fishes, 37 insects, 57 marine 
invertebrates — Morayshire, Scotland ; 
13 mammals, 4 bird skins, 2 lizards, 8 
snakes — Iraq; 1 glass snake — Georgia; 
162 fishes, 10 crustaceans — Boca 
Grande, Florida (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 

Collected by Emmet R. Blake 
(Stanley Field Expedition to British 
Guiana and Brazil): 68 mammals, 800 
bird skins, 34 amphibians and reptiles, 
125 fishes — Brazil. 

Collected by John R. Millar (Sewell 
Avery Botanical Expedition to Nova 



Scotia) : 3 frogs, 2 toads, 1 garter snake 
— Handy Cove, Nova Scotia. 

Collected by Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, 
F. W. Gorham, and W. F. Nichols 
(Field Museum Expedition to New 
Mexico): 242 mammal skins with 244 
skulls and 17 skeletons, 61 bird skins, 
38 amphibians and reptiles — New Mex- 
ico; 3 bird skins — Montezuma County, 

Collected by Colin C. Sanborn (Field 
Museum Expedition to Scotland): 11 
mammal skins and skulls, 10 red grouse 
skins, 1 black cock skin, 2 bird skeletons, 
4 boxes of accessories — Scotland. 

Collected by Karl P. Schmidt, C. M. 
Barber and John M. Schmidt (Field 
Museum Expedition to Arkansas): 258 
amphibians and reptiles — Arkansas. 

Purchases: 6,640 bird skins — East 
Africa; 5 codfish — Atlantic Ocean; 146 
frogs, 176 lizards, 26 snakes — Australia 
and Tasmania; 4 free-tailed bats — San 
Diego, California; 19 frogs, 8 lizards, 3 
snakes — Colombia; 150 frogs, 41 lizards, 
24 snakes, 26 bird skins — Ecuador; 19 
mammal skins — Ecuador; 8 worm liz- 
ards — Florida; 103 amphibians and 
reptiles, 4 fishes — Laurel, Maryland; 
154 mammal skins with 152 skulls — 
Guerrero, Mexico; 89 mammal skins 
with_ 74 skulls, 28 bird skins, 502 am- 
phibians and reptiles — Nuevo Leon, 
Mexico; 1 white-tailed deer — Minne- 
sota; 10 pocket gophers with skins and 
skulls — Texas City, Texas; 32 bats — 
Venezuela and Ecuador; 42 bats — West 
Indies; 160 hawks and owls, 28 other 
bird skins, 7 rhea eggs — various locali- 
ties (Leslie Wheeler Fund). 

Field, Stanley, Lake Forest, Illi- 
nois: 1 ruby-throated hummingbird — 
Lake Bluff, Illinois (gift). 

Fleming, Robert L., Mussoorie, 
India: 17 mammal skins and skulls, 7 
bird skins — India (gift). 

Foster, W. H., McAllen, Texas: 20 
wasps — McAllen, Texas (gift). 

Franzen, Albert J., Chicago: 1 
meadow lark — Elgin, Illinois; 1 green 
snake — Chicago (gift). 

Galbreath, Edwin C, San Diego, 
California: 4 lizards— San Diego, Cali- 
fornia (gift). 

General Biological Supply House, 
Chicago: 1 salamander — New Hartford, 
Missouri; 2 burrowing eels — Florida; 5 
sea anemones — -Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans (gift). 

Gore, Charles, Makenda, Illinois: 
1 copperhead snake — Makenda, Illinois 


Grant, Gordon, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia: 25 amphibians and reptiles, 9 
killifish, 161 insects and allies, 26 lower 
invertebrates — California; 1 centipede 
— Hawaiian Islands (gift). 

Green, N. Bayard, Elkins, West 
Virginia: 18 salamanders, 11 frogs, 2 
snakes — West Virginia (exchange). 

Gregg, Clifford C, Chicago: 2 
mounted ruffs (gift). 

Gueret, Edmond N., Chicago: 5 
bird skeletons — France (gift). 

Guernsey, Guy, South Haven, Michi- 
gan: 1 Baltimore oriole — South Haven, 
Michigan (gift). 

Guillaudeu, Robert, Chicago: 2 
water snakes — Chicago (gift). 

Haas, Dr. Fritz, Chicago: 42 mol- 
lusks — Chicago (gift). 

Haas, Dr. Fritz and Miss Edith, 
Chicago: 2 garter snakes — Pell Lake, 
Wisconsin (gift). 

Harden, L. E., Chicago: 1 albino 
opossum skin and skull — Glencoe, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Hartelius, Bertil, Homewood, Illi- 
nois: 1 armadillo skull — Del Rio, Texas; 
1 garter snake — Lansing, Michigan 

Hawkins, Dr. Ben H., Mena, Ar- 
kansas: 2 diamond-backed rattlesnakes 
— Minna, Arkansas (gift). 

Hawkins, Ray, Chicago Heights, 
Illinois: 1 black chicken snake — Hart- 
ford, Michigan (gift). 

Hedge, J. W., La Grange, Illinois: 4 
beetles — La Grange, Illinois (gift). 

HoRBACK, Henry, Chicago: 1 red bat 
skin — Chicago (gift). 

Kannapel, W., Chicago: 1 yellow- 
billed cuckoo — Cook County, Illinois 

Kellogg Bird Sanctuary, Battle 
Creek, Michigan: 1 goose (gift). 

Kennedy, Dr. W. P., Baghdad, 
Iraq: 4 lizards, 2 snakes, 2 turtle eggs, 2 
fishes — Iraq (gift). 

King, J. Andrews, Lake Forest, 
Illinois: 27 bird skins — Guatemala 


Krauth, Emil, Hebron, North Da- 
kota: 6 butterflies — Mt. Adams, Wash- 
ington (gift). 

434 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 



KORODA, Dr. Nagamichi, Tokyo, 
Japan: 1 bat skin and skull — Japan 

Lake, William E., Chicago: 1 red 
bat — Chicago (gift). 

Lauck, Albert G., Alton, Illinois: 18 
butterflies — Colorado and Wyoming 

Laurent, Dr. Paul, Trolard Taza, 
Algeria: 12 mammals in alcohol — 
France and North Africa (exchange). 

Lees, Arthur S., Oak Lawn, Illinois: 
5 beetles— Oak Lawn, Illinois (gift). 

Lerner, Michael, New York: 
broadbill swordfish (gift). 

Letl, Frank, Homewood, Illinois: 
cicada — Harvey, Illinois (gift). 

Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago: 
monkey, 3 lizards, 15 snakes, 1 turtle — 
various localities (gift). 

LiNDAHL, J. C, Hot Springs, Arkan- 
sas: 1 chicken snake — Arkansas (gift). 

Little, Mrs. John B., Chicago: 1 
nighthawk — Chicago (gift). 

McAlpine, Wilbur S., Birmingham, 
Michigan : 4 butterflies — Michigan (gift) . 

McCuTCHEON, John T., Chicago: 1 
porcupine fish — Salt Cay, Bahama 
Islands (gift). 

McGrew, Paul O., Chicago: 84 bats 
and 2 rats in alcohol, 2 mammal skele- 
tons, 33 lizards, 3 snakes, 1 spider — 
Honduras (gift). 

Mandel, Leon, Chicago: 1 shark — 
La Mulata, Cuba (gift). 

Maria, Brother Niceforo, Bogota, 
Colombia: 2 toads, 10 frogs, 5 lizards, 15 
snakes — Colombia (gift). 

Marshall, Ernest B., Laurel, Mary- 
land: 1 fresh-water leech — Laurel, Mary- 
land (gift). 

Marshall, Walter, Chicago: 1 
starling — Chicago (gift). 

Mazur, Anton, Chicago: 2 bats — 
Chicago (gift). 

Moore, G. E., Lebanon, Missouri: 1 
wood rat in alcohol — Webster County, 
Missouri (gift). 

Morrison, A. R. G., Famham, Sur- 
rey, England: 8 mammal skins and 
skulls — Peru (gift). 

MoYER, John W., Chicago: 4 wood- 
cock eggs and nests — Indiana (gift). 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: 219 snake 
heads — Panama (exchange). 

MussELMAN, T. E., Quincy, Illinois: 
1 albino English sparrow — Quincy, 
Illinois (gift). 

Nelson, Dr. Harold, Chicago: 21 
bats in alcohol, 2 lizards, 5 scorpions — 
Egypt (gift). 

Nemec, Miss Claire, Chicago: 1 
crayfish — Waukegan, Illinois (gift). 

Nichols, Walter F., Pasadena, 
California: 1 bat skin and skull — 
Mendocino County, California (gift). 

Nisbett, Lieutenant James M., 
Eagleton, Arkansas: 1 canebrake rattle- 
snake — Rich Mountain, Arkansas; 3 
salamanders, 1 lizard, 9 snakes — Eagle- 
ton, Arkansas (gift). 

Norby, D. G., Dwight, Illinois: 1 
scarlet tanager — Dwight, lUinois (gift). 

Olson, Andrew, Elbum, Illinois: 1 
snake — Elbum, Illinois (gift). 

Orozco, J. M., San Pedro Montes de 
Oca, Costa Rica: 5 fly larvae — Costa 
Rica (gift). 

Orr, Phil C, Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia: 1 chicken skeleton (gift). 

Park, Dr. Orlando, Evanston, 
Illinois: 1 salamander, 1 lizard, 4 snakes 
— Oaxaca, Mexico; 45 moths — New 
Zealand (gift). 

Patterson, Bryan, Chicago: 1 bird 
skeleton, 65 sets of birds' eggs — Iver 
Village, England; 1 starling, 2 frogs — 
various localities; 54 marine moUusks — 
Mazatlan, Mexico (gift). 

Pearson, Dr. J. F. W., Coral Gables, 
Florida: 5 snakes — Bahama Islands 

Pflueger, Al, Miami, Florida: 2 
duck skins, 7 turtles, 1 tuna fish — 
Florida (gift). 

Pitelka, Frank, Urbana, Illinois: 
1 red phalarope — Waukegan, Illinois 

Ribniker, M., Chicago: 1 golden- 
crowned kinglet — Chicago (gift). 

Roberts, Colonel Warren R., 
Chicago: 1 mounted swordfish — Florida 

Roy, Sharat K., Chicago, and John 
T. Crowell, Isle au Haut, Maine: 113 
marine invertebrates — Maine (gift). 

Rudnick, Dr. and Mrs. Paul, Fort 
Davis, Texas: 2 pink rattlesnakes — 
Mount Locke, Texas (gift). 

RUHE, Louis, New Y'ork: 3 Barbary 
apes (gift). 



Sabrosky, Professor Curtis W., 
East Lansing, Michigan: 1 butterfly — 
Mexico (exchange). 

Sanborn, Colin C, Highland Park, 
lUinois: 4 small mammal skins, 1 mouse 
skeleton — Abbey Wood, England (gift). 

Sanderson, Dr. Milton, Fayette- 
ville, Arkansas: 2 beetles — Alabama 

Schmidt, John M., Homewood, 
Illinois: 2 lizards — Tremont, Indiana 

Schmidt, Karl P., Homewood, Illi- 
nois: 21 salamanders, 5 lizards, 16 
snakes, 2 turtles — Illinois and Arkansas 

Schneider, R. A., Kankakee, Illinois: 

1 snake, 1 turtle — Kankakee, Illinois 

Schreiber, Jack, Chicago: 1 Ameri- 
can redstart, 2 turtle eggs, 1 mountain 
bullhead — various localities (gift). 

Shedd Aquarium, John G., Chicago: 

2 albino axolotl, 13 fishes — various 
localities (gift). 

Shockley, Clar,ence, Terre Haute, 
Indiana: 2 wood frogs — Indiana (gift). 

Shoemaker, Dr. Hurst, Stanford 
University, California: 248 fishes — 
various localities; 14 lower inverte- 
brates — Ilhnois and Indiana (gift). 

Smiley, David Charles, Neches, 
Texas: 6 beetles — Mussoorie, India 

Smith, Mrs. Hermon Dunlap, Lake 
Forest, Illinois: 50 bird skins — Mt. 
Meru and Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa 

Smith, Dr. H. N., Chicago: 2 bats in 
alcohol — Campeche, Mexico (gift). 

Snyder, Dr. L. H., Seoul, Korea: 4 
chipmunks, 5 salamanders — Songdo, 
Korea (exchange). 

Steyermark, Dr. Julian A., Chi- 
cago: .3 lizards, 5 snakes, 1 turtle, 11 
fishes, 1 centipede — Missouri (gift). 

Sturgis, R. S., Winnetka, Illinois: 31 
mammal skins and skulls — Fremont 
County, Wyoming (gift). 

Tanner, Dr. Vasco M., Prove, 
Utah: 1 gila monster, 6 snakes — Utah 

Taylor, Dr. Walter P., College 
Station, Texas: 4 frogs, 13 lizards, 3 
snakes, 1 turtle — Texas (exchange). 

Thorp, Mrs. B. J., Chicago: 1 ruby- 
crowned kinglet — Chicago (gift). 

Toner, G. C, Gananoque, Ontario: 
6 fishes, 2 fresh-water mollusks — Leeds 
County, Ontario (exchange). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 1 elephant shrew in 
alcohol — Kenya Colony, Africa; 1 toad- 
fish — Gulfport, Florida; 414 fishes — 
Panama and Canal Zone (exchange). 

University of Chicago, Chicago: 

1 ground squirrel and 4 bats in alcohol, 
8,424 fishes, 11 lower invertebrates — 
various localities (gift). 

University of Miami, Coral Gables, 
Florida: 3 turtles — Bahama Islands 

University of Oklahoma, Norman, 
Oklahoma: 1 salamander, 4 turtles — 
Oklahoma (exchange). 

Van Blair, D. I., Chicago Heights, 
Illinois: 1 fox squirrel (gift). 

Walter, Clark W., Chicago: 1,200 
mollusks, 1 Baltimore oriole's nest (gift). 

Walton, Mrs. Clara K., Highland 
Park, Illinois: 6 birds — Highland Park, 
Illinois (gift). 

Weed, A. C, Chicago: 1 mollusk — 
Fontana, Wisconsin (gift). 

White, Mrs. Robb, Thomasville, 
Georgia: 22 insects — Thomasville, Geor- 
gia (gift). 

Wolfe, Captain L. R., Chicago: 1 
golden eagle skin — Kwangju, Korea 

Wonder, Frank C, Chicago: 3 
leopard frogs, 1 water snake — Reelfoot 
Lake, Tennessee (gift). 

Woodcock, H. E., Chicago: 1 beetle 
— Brazil; 28 butterflies and 1 moth — 
France (gift). 

Woods, Loren P., Evanston, Illinois: 

2 bats — Kentucky (gift). 


Field Museum of Natural History 
From Division of Photography: 590 


lantern slides (miscellaneous subjects). 

American Museum of Natural 
History, Nev/ York: 1 reel 35-mm. film 

entitled Man Versus Beast, to complete 
the Simba series (gift). 

Higley, Professor L. A., Wheaton, 
Illinois: 9 35-mm. natural color slides of 
calico rock. South Dakota (gift). 

436 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

DIVISION OF photography— accessions 

lantern slides, 132 enlargements, 16 
transparencies, and 74 transparent 

Developed for expeditions: 255 nega- 

Field, Dr. Henry, Chicago: 2 nega- 
tives of general views in Rome, Italy. 
Field Museum of Natural History : 
Made by Division of Photography: 
6,340 prints, 1,611 negatives, 1,053 

American Society of the French Legion 
of Honor, New York. 

American Society for Testing Materials, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Arizona Archaeological and Historical 
Society, Tucson, Arizona. 

Astronomische Gesellschaft, Leipzig, 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Rail- 
way Company, Chicago. 

Atlantic Monthly, Boston, Massachu- 

Australia, Commonwealth of Canberra, 

BibKografia Mexicana, Mexico City, 

Black Diamond, Chicago. 
Board of Trade, Chicago. 

Carnegie Corporation of New York. 

Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. 

Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, Dun- 
fermline, Fife, Scotland. 

Chase Bank, New York. 

Chicago Community Trust, Chicago. 

Chinese Cultural Society, New York. 

Ciba Company, Incorporated, New 

Contribuciones a la Natural Historia 
Colombiana, Barranquilla, Colombia. 

Cranmore Ethnographical Museum, 
Chislehurst, England. 

Georgian Historical Society, Hertford, 

Gesundheits Ingenieur, Munich, Ger- 

Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 
Club, Hull, England. 

Imperial Bureau of Pastures and For- 
age Crops, Aberysstrvyth, Wales, 
Great Britain. 

List of Donors of Books 


Institute of Plant Systematics and 
Genetics, Upsala, Sweden. 

Instituto Cubano de Estabilizacion del 
Cafe, Havana, Cuba. 

Iowa State College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts, Ames, Iowa. 

Japan Institute,. New York. 

Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Mundelein College for Women, Chicago. 

Musee des Beaux Arts, Strasbourg, 

National Almanac and Year Book, 

Nationalmuseet Etnografiske Samling, 
Copenhagen, Denmark. 

New Sweden Tercentenary, Wilming- 
ton, Delaware. 

Oglethorpe University, Georgia. 
Oriental Institute, Warsaw, Poland. 

Pan-American Society of Tropical 
Research, New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Quarrie Corporation, Chicago. 

Revista di Biologia Coloniale, Rome, 

Revista da Flora Medicinal, Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil. 

Rolph, W. R. and Sons, Hobart, 

Royal Empire Society, London, Eng- 
Ryerson, Carrie, Estate of, Chicago. 

School of African Studies, Capetown, 

Snowy Egret, Battle Creek, Michigan. 




Societa Anonima d'Arti Grafiche San 
Bernardino, Siena, Italy. 

Societas Respublicana Geographicae 
Kiachtuensis, Moscow, U.S.S.R. 

Societe pour la Protection de la Nature, 
Moscow, U.S.S.R. 

University Library, Leiden, Holland. 

Vaughan's Seed Store, Chicago. 

Ward's Natural Science Establishment, 
Rochester, New York. 

Wheat Flour Institute, Chicago. 

Works Progress Administration, Federal 
Projects, Chicago. 

You and Industry Library, New York. 

Zion National Park, Utah. 



Abbott, Cyril E. 

Arctowski, Professor Henryk, Lwow, 

Ashbrook, Frank G., Washington, D.C. 

Baker, Frank C, Urbana, Illinois. 

Baldwin, Gordon C, Tucson, Arizona. 

Beasley, H. G. 

Beatty, John D., Pittsburgh, Penn- 

Beni, Dr. Gerhard, Munich, Germany. 

Bergs0e, Paul, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Bock, Professor Sixten, Stockholm, 

Born, Dr. Wolfgang, St. Louis, Mis- 

Borragan, Maria Teresa, Mexico City, 

Boudy, Dr. Emilie, Vienna, Germany. 

Bourret, Rene, Hanoi (Tonkin), Indo- 

Bruggeman, L. A., Buitenzorg, Java. 

Buffle, J. Ph., Geneva, Switzerland. 

Cartwright, B. W., Winnipeg, Canada. 
Caso, Dr. Alfonso, Mexico City, Mexico, 
Cazin, M. A., Berkeley, California. 
Cole, Dr. Fay-Cooper, Chicago. 
Coleman, Mrs. Anna, Chicago. 
Comfort, H., Florence, Italy. 
Condit, Lester, Chicago. 
Conover, H. B., Chicago. 
Cordero, E. H., Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Dahlgren, Dr. B. E., Chicago. 
Da\as, D. Dwight, Chicago. 
Delage, Franck, Perigord, France. 
De Sushko, Dr. Alexander, Chicago. 
Douglass, A. E., Tucson, Arizona. 
Drouet, Dr. Francis, Chicago. 
Dumond, Louis A., Chicago. 
Dunn, E. J., Victoria, Australia. 

Feruglio, Egidio, Chubert, Argentina. 

Field, Dr. Henry, Chicago. 

Field, Stanley, Lake Forest, Illinois. 

Frenguelli, Dr. Joaquin, La Plata, 

Friesser, Julius, Chicago. 

Gadeau de Kerville, Henri, Rouen, 

Gaines, Mildred, Chicago. 
Galbraith, A. V., Melbourne, Australia. 
Galopin, R., Geneva, Switzerland. 
Gerhard, William J., Chicago. 
Goldstein, Mathilde, Chicago. 
Goldthwait, J. W., Hanover, New 

Goodrich, CaMn, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
Gregg, Clifford C, Chicago. 
Gustafson, David, Chicago. 

Haas, Dr. Fritz, Chicago. 

Harte, H. B., Chicago. 

Hermanson, Helen, Chicago. 

Hochreutiner, Dr. B. P. G., Geneva, 

Holmberg, Eduardo Ladislao, San Isidro, 

Jenks, Dr. Albert Ernest, Minneapolis, 

Jusserand Memorial Committee, New 


Kelso, Leon, Ithaca, New York. 
Kent, Charles A., Evanston, Illinois. 
Knoche, Herman, San Jose, California. 

Laws, Dr. H. J., Leiden, Holland. 
Lazell, Dr. E. W., Portland, Oregon. 
Lewis, Dr. Albert B., Chicago. 
Loth, Edward, Warsaw, Poland. 

Mabry, G. A., Houston, Texas. 
Macdonald, Augustin S., Oakland, 

438 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Macdonald, Elizabeth Stone, Boston, 

Martin, Dr. Paul S., Chicago. 
Martin, Richard, Chicago. 
Mazur, Anthony, Chicago. 
Menzel, William E., Chicago. 
Michelet, Simon, Washington, D.C. 
Moldenke, Dr. Harold N., New York. 
Morrison, Mrs. W. A., Los Angeles, 

Murray-Aaron, Dr. Eugene, Chicago. 

Nabours, Robert K., Manhattan, Kan- 
Nininger, H. H., Denver, Colorado. 
Nobro, Augusto, Oporto, Portugal. 
Nylander, Olof O., Caribou, Maine. 

Okubo, Marquis Toshitake, Marnsu- 
nehi, Kojimachi-ku, Tok^'o, Japan. 

Oliveira Roxo, Mathias G., Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil. 

Orr, Phil C, Chicago. 

Osgood, Dr. Wilfred H., Chicago. 

Ouchi, Yoshio, Shanghai, China. 

Palmer, Harold S., Honolulu, Hawaii. 
Patterson, Bryan, Chicago. 

Reed, H. S., Berkeley, California. 
Riggs, Elmer S., Chicago. 
Roosevelt, Colonel Theodore, New Y'ork. 
Ruiz Leal, Adrian, Mexico City, 

St. John, Harold, Honolulu, Hawaiian 

Schmidt, Karl P., Chicago. 

Schoreto, Professor J. C, Groningen, 

Scott, Thomas G., Ames, Iowa. 
Seligman, C. G., Oxford, England. 
Serrano, Antonio, Parana, Argentina. 
Shen, T. C, Chicago. 
Sherff, Dr. E. E., Chicago. 
Siverling, George, Chicago. 
Smith, Benjamin K., Chicago. 
Smith, Dr. Hobart M., Chicago. 
Standley, Paul C, Chicago. 

Steam, William T., Westminster, Eng- 

Strimple, Harrell, Bartlesville, Okla- 

Thomas, Mrs. Elsie H., Chicago. 

UthmoUer, Wolfgang, Munich, Ger- 

Vincent, Edith, Chicago. 

Walker, Dr. James W., Chicago. 
Weed, Alfred C, Chicago. 
Wernert, Paul, Strasbourg, France. 
Wilbur, C. Martin, Chicago. 

WiUiams, Llewelyn, Caracas, Vene- 
Woods, Loren P., Chicago. 
Woolcock, Violet. 

Y^eager, Don G., Berkeley, California. 
Yepes, Jose, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 
Y'oung, W. A., Bromley, Kent, England. 





William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State 
To All to Whom These Presents Shall Come, Greeting: 

Whereas, a Certificate duly signed and acknowledged having been filed in the 
office of the Secretary of State, on the 16th day of September, a.d. 1893, for the 
organization of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO, under and in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of "An Act Concerning Corporations," approved 
April 18, 1872, and in force July 1, 1872, and all acts amendatory thereof, a copy 
of which certificate is hereto attached. 

Now, therefore, I, William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State of the State of 
Illinois, by virtue of the powers and duties vested in me by law, do hereby certify 
that the said COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO is a legally organized 
Corporation under the laws of this State. 

In Testimony Whereof, I hereto set my hand and cause to be affixed the 
Great Seal of State. Done at the City of Springfield, this 16th day of September, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, and of the 
Independence of the United States the one hundred and eighteenth. 

[SealI Secretary of State. 


Secretary of State: 

We, the undersigned citizens of the United States, propose to form a cor- 
poration under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, entitled 
"An Act Concerning Corporations," approved April 18, 1872, and all acts 
amendatory thereof; and that for the purposes of such organization we hereby 
state as follows, to-wit: 

1. The name of such corporation is the "COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF 

2. The object for which it is formed is for the accumulation and dis- 
semination of Imowledge, and the preservation and exhibition of objects illus- 
trating Art, Archaeology, Science and History. 

3. The management of the aforesaid museum shall be vested in a Board of 
Fifteen (15) Trustees, five of whom are to be elected every year. 

4. The following named persons are hereby selected as the Trustees for the 
first year of its corporate existence: 

Edward E. Ayer, Charles B. Farwell, George E. Adams, George R. Davis, 
Charles L. Hutchinson, Daniel H. Burnham, John A. Roche, M. C. Bullock, 
Emil G. Hirsch, James W. Ellsworth, Allison V. Armour, O. F. Aldis, Edwin 
Walker, John C. Black and Frank W. Gunsaulus. 

5. The location of the Museum is in the City of Chicago, County of Cook, 
and State of Illinois. 


George E. Adams, C. B. Farwell, Sidney C. Eastman, F. W. Putnam, Robert 
McCurdy, Andrew Peterson, L. J. Gage, Charles L. Hutchinson, Ebenezer 
Buckingham, Andrew McNally, Edward E. Ayer, John M. Clark, Herman H. 
Kohlsaat, George Schneider, Henry H. Getty, William R. Harper, Franklin H. 
Head, E. G. Keith, J. Ir\ing Pearce, Azel F. Hatch, Henry Wade Rogers, 


440 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Thomas B. Bryan, L. Z. Leiter, A. C. Bartlett, A. A. Sprague, A. C. McClurg, 
James W. Scott, Geo. F. Bissell, John R. Walsh, Chas. Fitzsimmons, John A. 
Roche, E. B. MeCagg, Owen F. Aldis, Ferdinand W. Peck, James H. Dole, 
Joseph Stockton, Edward B. Butler, John McConnell, R. A. Waller, H. C. 
Chatfield-Taylor, A. Crawford, Wm. Sooy Smith, P. S. Peterson, John C. 
Black, Jno. J. Mitchell, C. F. Gunther, George R. Davis, Stephen A. Forbes, 
Robert W. Patterson, Jr., M. C. Bullock, Edwin Walker, George M. Pullman, 
William E. Curtis, James W. Ellsworth, William E. Hale, Wm. T. Baker, 
Martin A. Ryerson, Huntington W. Jackson, N. B. Ream, Norman Williams, 
Melville E. Stone, Bryan Lathrop, Eliphalet W. Blatchford, Philip D. Armour. 

State of Illinois ] 

> ss. 
Cook County J 

I, G. R. Mitchell, a Notary Public in and for said County, do hereby 
certify that the foregoing petitioners personally appeared before me and 
acknowledged severally that they signed the foregoing petition as their free and 
voluntary act for the uses and purposes therein set forth. 

Given under my hand and notarial seal this 14th day of September, 1893. 

[Seal] Notary Public, Cook County, III. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 25th day of June, 1894, the name of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM was 
changed to FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. A certificate to this effect was 
filed June 26, 1894, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 8th day of November, 1905, the name of the FIELD COLUMBIAN 
A certificate to this effect was filed November 10, 1905, in the office of the Secretary 
of State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 10th day of May, 1920, the management of FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY shall be invested in a Board of Twenty-one (21) Trustees, who 
shall be elected in such manner and for such time and term of office as may 
be provided for by the By-Laws. A certificate to this effect was filed May 21, 
1920, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 





Section 1. Members shall be of twelve classes, Corporate Members, Hon- 
orary Members, Patrons, Corresponding Members, Benefactors, Contributors, 
Life Members, Non-Resident Life Members, Associate Members, Non-Resident 
Associate Members, Sustaining Members, and Annual Members. 

Section 2. The Corporate Members shall consist of the persons named in 
the articles of incorporation, and of such other persons as shall be chosen from 
time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, upon the recorn- 
mendation of the Executive Committee; provided, that such person named in 
the articles of incorporation shall, within ninety days from the adoption of these 
By-Laws, and persons hereafter chosen as Corporate Members shall, within 
ninety days of their election, pay into the treasury the sum of Twenty Dollars 
($20.00) or more. Corporate Members becoming Life Members, Patrons or 
Honorary Members shall be exempt from dues. Annual meetings of said Corporate 
Members shall be held at the same place and on the same day that the annual 
meeting of the Board of Trustees is held. 

Section 3. Honorary Members shall be chosen by the Board from among 
persons who have rendered eminent service to science, and only upon unanimous 
nomination of the Executive Committee. They shall be exempt from all dues. 

Section 4. Patrons shall be chosen by the Board upon recommendation of 
the Executive Committee from among persons who have rendered eminent ser- 
vice to the Museum. They shall be exempt from all dues, and, by virtue of their 
election as Patrons, shall also be Corporate Members. 

Section 5. Any person contributing or devising the sum of One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars ($100,000.00) in cash, or securities, or property to the funds 
of the Museum, may be elected a Benefactor of the Museum. 

Section 6. Corresponding Members shall be chosen by the Board from among 
scientists or patrons of science residing in foreign countries, who render important 
service to the Museum. They shall be elected by the Board of Trustees at any 
of its meetings. They shall be exempt from all dues and shall enjoy all courtesies 
of the Museum. 

Section 7. Any person contributing to the Museum One Thousand Dollars 
($1,000.00) or more in cash, securities, or material, may be elected a Contributor 
of the Museum. Contributors shall be exempt from all dues and shall enjoy 
all courtesies of the Museum. 

Section 8. Any person paying into the treasury the sum of Five Hundred 
Dollars ($500.00), at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, 
become a Life Member. Life Members shall be exempt from all dues, and shall 
enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that are accorded to mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees. Any person residing fifty miles or more from 
the city of Chicago, paying into the treasury the sum of One Hundred Dollars 
($100.00) at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, become 
a Non-Resident Life Member. Non-Resident Life Members shall be exempt 
from all dues, and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that 
are accorded to members of the Board of Trustees. 

Section 9. Any person paying into the treasury of the Museum the sum of 
One Hundred Dollars ($100.00), at any one time, shall, upon the vote of the Board, 
become an Associate Member. Associate Members shall be exempt from all dues, 
and shall be entitled to tickets admitting Member and members of family, includ- 
ing non-resident home guests; all publications of the Museum issued during the 
period of their membership, if so desired; reserved seats for all lectures and enter- 


442 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

tainments under the auspices of the Museum, provided reservation is requested in 
advance; and admission of holder of membership and accompanying party to all 
special exhibits and Museum functions day or evening. Any person residing fifty 
miles or more from the city of Chicago, paying into the treasury the sum of Fifty 
Dollars ($50.00) at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, 
become a Non-Resident Associate Member. Non-Resident Associate Members 
shall be exempt from all dues, and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies 
of the Museum that are accorded to Associate Members. 

Section 10. Sustaining Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00), payable within thirty 
days after notice of election and within thirty days after each recurring annual 
date. This Sustaining Membership entitles the member to free admission for 
the Member and family to the Museum on any day, the Annual Report and such 
other Museum documents or publications issued during the period of their mem- 
bership as may be requested in writing. When a Sustaining Member has paid the 
annual fee of $25.00 for six years, such Member shall be entitled to become an 
Associate Member. 

Section 11. Annual Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of Ten Dollars ($10.00), payable within thirty days after 
each recurring annual date. An Annual Membership shall entitle the Member 
to a card of admission for the Member and family during all hours when the 
Museum is open to the public, and free admission for the Member and family 
to all Museum lectures or entertainments. This membership will also entitle 
the holder to the courtesies of the membership privileges of every Museum of 
note in the United States and Canada, so long as the existing system of co-operative 
interchange of membership tickets shall be maintained, including tickets for any 
lectures given under the auspices of any of the Museums during a visit to the cities 
in which the co-operative museums are located. 

Section 12. All membership fees, excepting Sustaining and Annual, shall 
hereafter be applied to a permanent Membership Endowment Fund, the interest 
only of which shall be applied for the use of the Museum as the Board of Trustees 
may order. 



Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-one members. 
The respective members of the Board now in office, and those who shall here- 
after be elected, shall hold office during life. Vacancies occurring in the Board 
shall be filled at a regular meeting of the Board, upon the nomination of the 
Executive Committee made at a preceding regular meeting of the Board, by a 
majority vote of the members of the Board present. 

Section 2. Regular meetings of the Board shall be held on the third Mon- 
day of the month. Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, 
and shall be called by the Secretary upon the written request of three Trustees. 
Five Trustees shall constitute a quorum, except for the election of officers or the 
adoption of the Annual Budget, when seven Trustees shall be required, but meet- 
ings may be adjourned by any less number from day to day, or to a day fixed, 
previous to the next regular meeting. 

Section 3. Reasonable written notice, designating the time and place of 
holding meetings, shall be given by the Secretary. 



Section 1. As a mark of respect, and in appreciation of services performed 
for the Institution, any Trustee who by reason of inability, on account of 
change of residence, or for other cause or from indisposition to serve longer in 
such capacity shall resign his place upon the Board, may be elected, by a majority 
of those present at any regular meeting of the Board, an Honorary Trustee for life. 
Such Honorary Trustee will receive notice of all meetings of the Board of Trustees, 

Amended By-Laws 443 

whether regular or special, and will be expected to be present at all such meetings 
and participate in the deliberations thereof, but an Honorary Trustee shall not 
have the right to vote. 



Section 1. The officers shall be a President, a First Vice-President, a 
Second Vice-President, a Third Vice-President, a Secretary, an Assistant Secretary 
and a Treasurer. They shall be chosen by ballot by the Board of Trustees, a 
majority of those present and voting being necessary to elect. The President, 
the First Vice-President, the Second Vice-President, and the Third Vice-Presi- 
dent shall be chosen from among the members of the Board of Trustees. The 
meeting for the election of officers shall be held on the third Monday of January 
of each year, and shall be called the Annual Meeting. 

Section 2. The officers shall hold office for one year, or until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified, but any officer may be removed at any regular 
meeting of the Board of Trustees by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of 
the Board. Vacancies in any office may be filled by the Board at any meeting. 

Section 3. The officers shall perform such duties as ordinarily appertain 
to their respective offices, and such as shall be prescribed by the By-Laws, or 
designated from time to time by the Board of Trustees. 



Section 1. The Treasurer shall be custodian of the funds of the Corpo- 
ration except as hereinafter provided. He shall make disbursements only upon 
warrants drawn by the Director and countersigned by the President. In the 
aVtsence or inability of the Director, warrants may be signed by the Chairman 
of the Finance Committee, and in the absence or inability of the President, may 
be countersigned by one of the Vice-Presidents, or any member of the Finance 

Section 2. The securities and muniments of title belonging to the cor- 
poration shall be placed in the custody of some Trust Company of Chicago to 
be designated by the Board of Trustees, which Trust Company shall collect 
the income and principal of said securities as the same become due, and pay 
same to the Treasurer, except as hereinafter provided. Said Trust Company 
shall allow access to and deliver any or all securities or muniments of title to the 
joint order of the following officers, namely: the President or one of the Vice- 
Presidents, jointly with the Chairman, or one of the Vice-Chairmen, of the Finance 
Committee of the Museum. 

Section 3. The Treasurer shall give bond in such amount, and with such 
sureties as shall be approved by the Board of Trustees. 

Section 4. The Harris Trust & Savings Bank of Chicago shall be Cus- 
todian of "The N. W. Harris Public School Extension of Field Museum" fund. 
The bank shall make disbursements only upon warrants drawn by the Director 
and countersigned by the President. In the absence or inability of the Director, 
warrants may be signed by the Chairman of the Finance Committee, and in the 
absence or inability of the President, may be countersigned by one of the Vice- 
Presidents, or any member of the Finance Committee. 


THE director 

Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall elect a Director of the Museum, 
who shall remain in office until his successor shall be elected. He shall have im- 
mediate charge and supervision of the Museum, and shall control the operations 
of the Institution, subject to the authority of the Board of Trustees and its Com- 
mittees. The Director shall be the official medium of communication between the 
Board, or its Committees, and the scientific staff and maintenance force. 

Section 2. There shall be four scientific Departments of the Museum — 
Anthropology, Botany, Geology, and Zoology; each under the charge of a Chief 

444 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Curator, subject to the authority of the Director. The Chief Curators shall be 
appointed by the Board upon the recommendation of the Director, and shall serve 
during the pleasure of the Board. Subordinate staff officers in the scientific Depart- 
ments shall be appointed and removed by the Director upon the recommendation 
of the Chief Curators of the respective Departments. The Director shall have 
authority to employ and remove all other employees of the Museum. 

Section 3. The Director shall make report to the Board at each regular 
meeting, recounting the operations of the Museum for the previous month. At 
the Annual Meeting, the Director shall make an Annual Report, reviewing the 
work for the previous year, which Annual Report shall be published in pamphlet 
form for the information of the Trustees and Members, and for free distribution 
in such number as the Board may direct. 



Section 1. The Board shall appoint an Auditor, who shall hold his office 
during the pleasure of the Board. He shall keep proper books of account, setting 
forth the financial condition and transactions of the Corporation, and of the 
Museum, and report thereon at each regular meeting, and at such other times as 
may be required by the Board. He shall certify to the correctness of all bills 
rendered for the expenditure of the money of the Corporation. 



Section 1. There shall be five Committees, as follows: Finance, Building, 
Auditing, Pension, and Executive. 

Section 2. The Finance Committee shall consist of six members, the 
Auditing and Pension Committees shall each consist of three members, and the 
Building Committee shall consist of five members. All members of these four 
Committees shall be elected by ballot by the Board at the Annual Meeting, and 
shall hold office for one year, and until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied. In electing the members of these Committees, the Board shall designate 
the Chairman and Vice-Chairman by the order in which the members are 
named in the respective Committee; the first member named shall be Chair- 
man, the second named the Vice-Chairman, and the third named, Second Vice- 
Chairman, succession to the Chairmanship being in this order in the event of the 
absence or disability of the Chairman. 

Section 3. The Executive Committee shall consist of the President of the 
Board, the Chairman of the Finance Committee, the Chairman of the Building 
Committee, the Chairman of the Auditing Committee, the Chairman of the 
Pension Committee, and three other members of the Board to be elected by 
ballot at the Annual Meeting. 

Section 4. Four members shall constitute a quorum of the Executive Com- 
mittee, and in all standing Committees two members shall constitute a quorum. 
In the event that, owing to the absence or inability of members, a quorum of 
the regularly elected members cannot be present at any meeting of any Com- 
mittee, then the Chairman thereof, or his successor, as herein provided, may 
summon any members of the Board of Trustees to act in place of the absentee. 

Section 5. The Finance Committee shall have supervision of investing the 
endowment and other permanent funds of the Corporation, and the care of such 
real estate as may become its property. It shall have authority to invest, sell, 
and reinvest funds, subject to the approval of the Board. 

Section 6. The Building Committee shall have supervision of the con- 
struction, reconstruction, and extension of any and all buildings used for 
Museum purposes. 

Section 7. The Executive Committee shall be called together from time 
to time as the Chairman may consider necessary, or as he may be requested 
to do by three members of the Committee, to act upon such matters affecting 
the administration of the Museum as cannot await consideration at the Regular 
Monthly Meetings of the Board of Trustees. It shall, before the beginning of 

Amended By-Laws 445 

each fiscal year, prepare and submit to the Board an itemized Budget, setting 
forth the probable receipts from all sources for the ensuing year, and make 
recommendations as to the expenditures which should be made for routine 
maintenance and fixed charges. Upon the adoption of the Budget by the 
Board, the expenditures stated are authorized. 

Section 8. The Auditing Committee shall have supervision over all ac- 
counting and bookkeeping, and full control of the financial records. It shall 
cause the same, once each year, or oftener, to be examined by an expert indi- 
vidual or firm, and shall transmit the report of such expert individual or firm 
to the Board at the next ensuing regular meeting after such examination shall 
have taken place. 

Section 9. The Pension Committee shall determine by such means and 
processes as shall be established by the Board of Trustees to whom and in what 
amount the Pension Fund shall be distributed. These determinations or findings 
shall be subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees. 

Section 10. The Chairman of each Committee shall report the acts and 
proceedings thereof at the next ensuing regular meeting of the Board. 

Section 11. The President shall be ex-officio a member of all Committees 
and Chairman of the Executive Committee. Vacancies occurring in any Com- 
mittee may be filled by ballot at any regular meeting of the Board. 


nominating committee 

Section 1. At the November meeting of the Board each year, a Nomi- 
nating Committee of three shall be chosen by lot. Said Committee shall make 
nominations for membership of the Finance Committee, the Building Commit- 
tee, the Auditing Committee, and the Pension Committee, and for three mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee, from among the Trustees, to be submitted 
at the ensuing December meeting and voted upon at the following Annual 
Meeting in January. 


Section 1. Whenever the word "Museum" is employed in the By-Laws of 
the Corporation, it shall be taken to mean the building in which the Museum 
as an Institution is located and operated, the material exhibited, the material in 
study collections, or in storage, furniture, fixtures, cases, tools, records, books, 
and all appurtenances of the Institution and the workings, researches, installa- 
tions, expenditures, field work, laboratories, library, publications, lecture courses, 
and all scientific and maintenance activities. 

Section 2. These By-Laws may be amended at any regular meeting of the 
Board of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of all the members present, provided 
the amendment shall have been proposed at a preceding regular meeting. 


Marshall Field* 


Those who have contributed $100,000 or more to the Museum 

Ayer, Edward E.* 

Buckingham, Miss 
Kate S.* 

Crane, Cornelius 
Crane, R. T., Jr.* 

Field, Joseph N.* 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R.* 
* Deceased 

Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W.* 
Higinbotham, Harlow N.* 

Kelley, William V.* 

Pullman, George M.* 

Rawson, Frederick H.* 
Raymond, Mrs. Anna 

Raymond, James Nelson'' 
Ryerson, Martin A.* 
Ryerson, Mrs. 
Martin A.* 

Simpson, James 
Smith, Mrs. Frances 

Smiith, George T.* 
Sturges, Mrs. Mary D.* 
Suarez, Mrs. Diego 


Those who have rendered eminent service to Science 

Crane, Charles R. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Harris, Albert W. 

Ludwig, H. R. H. Gustaf Roosevelt, Theodore 
Adolf, Crown Prince of 

McCormick, Stanley 

Roosevelt, Kermit 
Deceased, 1938 
Chalmers, William J. 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Simpson, James 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Suarez, Mrs. Diego 

Vernay, Arthur S. 


Those who have rendered eminent service to the Museum 

Armour, Allison V. 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Chancellor, Philip M. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cummings, Mrs. 

Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Hancock, G. Allan 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 
Knight, Charles R. 

Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Probst, Edward 

Deceased, 1938 
Insull, Samuel 


Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Straus, Mrs. Oscar 
Strawn, Silas H. 
Suarez, Mrs. Diego 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

Wegeforth, Dr. Harry M. 
White, Harold A. 

Corresponding Members — Contributors 



Scientists or patrons of science, residing in foreign countries, who have rendered 

eminent service to the Museum 

Breuil, Abbe Henri 
Christensen, Dr. Carl 

Diels, Dr. Ludwig 

Keissler, Dr. Karl 

Hochreutiner, Dr. B. P. Keith, Professor Sir 
Georges Arthur 

$75,000 to $100,000 
Chancellor, Philip M. 


Those who have contributed $1,000 to $100,000 to the Museum 
in money or materials 

Gunsaulus, Dr. F. W.* 

Insull, Samuel* 

Laufer, Dr. Berthold* 

Harris, Mrs. Norman W.* 
Hutchinson, C. L.* 

Keith, Edson* 

$50,000 to $75,000 

Keep, Chauncey* 

Rosenwald, Mrs. 
Augusta N.* 

$25,000 to $50,000 

Adams, Mrs. Edith 

Blackstone, Mrs. 
Timothy B.* 

Coats, John* 
Crane, Charles R. 

Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Jones, Arthur B.* 

Porter, George F.* 

Rosenwald, Julius* 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

White, Harold A. 

$10,000 to $25,000 

Armour, Allison V. 
Armour, P. D.* 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chalmers, William J.* 
Conover, Boardman 
Cummings, R. F.* 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Everard, R. T.* 

McCormick, Cyrus 

McCormick, Stanley 
Mitchell, John J.* 

Reese, Lewis* 
Robb, Mrs. George W. 
Rockefeller Foundation, 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Schweppe, Mrs. 

Charles H.* 
Straus, Mrs. Oscar 
Strong, Walter A.* 

Wrigley, William, Jr.* 

$5,000 to $10,000 

Adams, George E.* 
Adams, Milward* 
American Friends of 

Avery, Sewell L. 

Bartlett.A. C* 
Bishop, Heber (Estate) 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay* 

Crane, R. T.* 

Doane, J. W.* 

Field, Dr. Henry 
Fuller, William A.* 

Graves, George Coe, II* 

Harris, Hayden B. 
Harris, Norman Dwight 

Langtry, J. C. 
Lufkin, Wallace W. 

MacLean, Mrs. M. 

Mandel, Leon 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Payne, John Barton* 
Pearsons, D. K.* 
Porter, H. H.* 

Ream, Norman B.* 
Revell, Alexander H.* 

Salie, Prince M. U. M. 
Sprague, A. A.* 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Thorne, Bruce 
Tree, Lambert* 

$1,000 to $5,000 

Avery, Miss Clara A.* 
Ayer, Mrs. Edward E.* 

Barrett, Samuel E.* 
Bensabott, R., Inc. 
Blair, Watson F.* 
Blaschke, Stanley 

Block, Mrs. Helen M.* 
Borden, John 

Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 
Chicago Zoological 

Society, The 
Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr. 
Crocker, Templeton 

448 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Cummings, Mrs. 
Robert F. 

Doering, O. C. 

Graves, Henry, Jr. 
Gunsaulus, Miss Helen 

Hibbard, W. G.* 
Higginson, Mrs. 

Charles M.* 
Hill, James J.* 
Hixon, Frank P.* 
Hoffman, Miss Malvina 
Hughes, Thomas S. 

Jackson, Huntington W.* 
James, S. L. 

Lee Ling Ytin 
Look, Alfred A. 

Mandel, Fred L., Jr. 
Manierre, George* 
Martin, Alfred T.* 
McCormick, Cyrus H.* 
McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus* 

Ogden, Mrs. Frances E.* 
Osgood, Dr. Wilfred H. 

Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 

Rauchfuss, Charles F. 
Raymond, Charles E.* 

Reynolds, Earle H. 
Rumely, William N.* 

Schwab, Martin C. 
Shaw, William W. 
Sherff, Dr. Earl E; 
Smith, Byron L.* 
Sprague, Albert A. 

Thompson, E. H.* 
Thome, Mrs. Louise E. 

VanValzah, Dr. Robert 
VonFrantzius, Fritz* 

Wheeler, Leslie* 
Wheeler, Mrs. Leslie 
Willis, L. M. 


Armour, Allison V. 
Avery, Sewell L. 

Block, Leopold E. 
Borden, John 
Byram, Harry E. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

Chancellor, Philip M. 
Chatfield-Taylor, H. C. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cummings, Mrs. 

Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 
Dick, Albert B., Jr. 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Field, Joseph N. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Hancock, G. Allan 
Harris, Albert W. 

Insull, Samuel, Jr. 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 
Knight, Charles R. 

McCulloch, Charles A. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Probst, Edward 

Richardson, George A. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Fred W. 
Sargent, Homer E. 
Simpson, James 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Straus, Mrs. Oscar 
Strawn, Silas H. 
Suarez, Mrs. Diego 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

Wege forth. Dr. Harry M. 
White, Harold A. 
Wilson, John P. 

Deceased, 1938 

Chalmers, William J. 

Insull, Samuel 


Those who have contributed $500 to the Museum 

Abbott, John Jay 
Abbott, Robert S. 
Adler, Max 
Alexander, William A. 
Allerton, Robert H. 
Ames, James C. 
Armour, Allison V. 
Armour, A. Watson 
Armour, Lester 
Armour, Mrs. Ogden 

Asher, Louis E. 
Avery, Sewell L. 

Babson, Henry B. 
Bacon, Edward 

Richardson, Jr. 
Banks, Alexander F. 
Barnhart, Miss Gracia 

M. F. 
Barrett, Mrs. A. D. 

Barrett, Robert L. 
Bartlett, Miss Florence 

Baur, Mrs. Jacob 
Bendix, Vincent 
Bensabott, R. 
Bermingham, Edward J. 
Blaine, Mrs. Emmons 
Blair, Chauncey B. 
Block, Emanuel J. 

Life Members 


Block, Leopold E. 
Block, Philip D. 
Booth, W. Vernon 
Borden, John 
Borland, Chauncey B. 
Brassert, Herman A. 
Brewster, Walter S. 
Brown, Charles 

Browne, Aldis J. 
Buchanan, D. W. 
Budd, Britton I. 
Burnham, John 
Burt, William G. 
Butler, Julius W. 
Butler, Rush C. 
Byram, Harry E. 

Carpenter, Augustus A. 
Carpenter, Mrs. Hubbard 
Carpenter, Mrs. John 

Carr, George R. 
Carr, Robert F. 
Carr, Walter S. 
Casalis, Mrs. Maurice 
Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 
Chatfield-Taylor, Wayne 
Clark, Eugene B. 
Clegg, William G. 
Clegg, Mrs. William G. 
Clow, William E. 
Collins, WiUiam M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Corley, F. D. 
Cowles, Alfred 
Cramer, Corwith 
Crane, Charles R. 
Crossett, Edward C. 
Crossley, Lady Josephine 
Crossley, Sir Kenneth 
Crowell, H. P. 
Cudahy, Edward A. 
Cudahy, Edward A., Jr. 
Cudahy, Joseph M. 
Cummings, Walter J. 
Cunningham, Frank S. 
Cunningham, James D. 
Gushing, Charles G. 

Davies, Mrs. D. C. 
Dawes, Charles G. 
Dawes, Henry M. 
Dawes, Rufus C. 
Decker, Alfred 
Delano, Frederic A. 
Dick, Albert B., Jr. 
Dierssen, Ferdinand W. 
Dixon, Homer L. 
Donnelley, Thomas E. 
Doyle, Edward J. 

Drake, John B. 
Drake, Tracy C. 
Durand, Scott S. 

Edmunds, PhiUp S. 
Ely, Mrs. C. Morse 
Epstein, Max 
Everitt, George B. 
Ewing, Charles Hull 

Farnum, Henry W. 
Farr, Newton Camp 
Farr, Miss Shirley 
Farwell, Arthur L. 
Farwell, John V. 
Farwell, Walter 
Fay, C. N. 
Fenton, Howard W. 
Fentress, Calvin 
Ferguson, Louis A. 
Fernald, Charles 
Field, Joseph N. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Norman 
Field, Mrs. Norman 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Gardner, Robert A. 
Gartz, A. F., Jr. 
Gary, Mrs. John W. 
Gilbert, Huntly H. 
Glore, Charles F. 
Goodspeed, Charles B. 
Gowing, J. Parker 

Hack, Frederick C. 
Hamill, Alfred E. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W. 
Hastings, Samuel M. 
Hayes, William F. 
Hecht, Frank A., Jr. 
Heineman, Oscar 
Hemmens, Mrs. 

Walter P. 
Hibbard, Frank 
Hickox, Mrs. Charles V. 
Hill, Louis W. 
Hinde, Thomas W. 
Hixon, Robert 
Hopkins, J. M. 
Hopkins, L. J. 
Horowitz, L. J. 
Hoyt, N. Landon 
Hughes, Thomas S. 
Hutchins, James C. 

Insull, Martin J. 
Insull, Samuel, Jr. 

Jarnagin, William N. 
Jelke, John F., Jr. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Joiner, Theodore E. 
Jones, Miss Gwethalyn 

Kelley, Mrs. Daphne 

Kelley, Russell P. 
Kidston, William H. 
King, Charles Garfield 
King, James G. 
Kirk, Walter Radcliffe 

Charles K. 

Ladd, John 
Lamont, Robert P. 
Lehmann, E. J. 
Leonard, Clifford M. 
Leopold, Mrs. Harold E. 
Levy, Mrs. David M. 
Linn, Mrs. Dorothy C. 
Logan, Spencer H. 
Lowden, Frank O. 
Lytton, Henry C. 

MacDowell, Charles H. 
MacLeish, John E. 
MacVeagh, Fames 
Madlener, Mrs. Albert F. 
Marshall, Benjamin H. 
Mason, William S. 
McCormick, Harold F. 
McCormick, Stanley 
McCuUoch, Charles A. 
McCutcheon, John T. 
McGann, Mrs. Robert G. 
Mcllvaine, William B. 
Mclnnerney, Thomas H. 
McKinlay, John 
McLaughlin, Frederic 
McLennan, D. R. 
McLennan, Hugh 
McNulty, T. J. 
Meyer, Carl 
Meyne, Gerhardt F. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Edward S. 
Morse, Charles H., Jr. 
Morton, Mark 
Munroe, Charles A. 
Murphy, Walter P. 

Newell, A. B. 
Nikolas, G. J. 
Noel, Joseph R. 

450 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Ormsby, Dr. Oliver S. 
Orr, Robert M. 

Paesch, Charles A. 
Palmer, Honore 
Palmer, Potter 
Patterson, Joseph M. 
Payson, George S. 
Peabody, Stuyvesant 
Pick, Albert 
Pike, Charles B. 
Pike, Eugene R. 
Poppenhusen, Conrad H. 
Porter, Gilbert E. 

Raymond, Mrs. Anna 

Reynolds, Arthur 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Reynolds, George M. 
Riley, Harrison B. 
Rinaldo, Mrs. Philip S. 
Robinson, Theodore W. 
Robson, Miss Alice 
Rodman, Mrs. Katherine 

Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
Rosenwald, William 
Russell, Edmund A. 

Boynton, Mrs. C. T. 

Chalmers, William J. 
Cooke, George A, 
Cramer, Mrs. 
Katharine S. 

Russell, Edward P. 
Ryerson, Edward L. 


Sargent, Fred W. 
Schweppe, Charles H. 
Scott, George E. 
Scott, Harold N. 
Seabury, Charles W. 
Shaffer, John C. 
Shirk, Joseph H. 
Simpson, James 
Simpson, William B. 
Smith, Alexander 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Spalding, Keith 
Spalding, Vaughan C. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Sprague, Mrs. Albert A. 
Stern, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Stewart, Robert W. 
Stirton, Robert C. 
Storey, W. B. 
Strawn, Silas H. 
Stuart, Harry L. 
Stuart, John 
Stuart, R. Douglas 
Sturges, George 
Sunny, B. E. 
Swift, Charles H. 
Swift, G. F., Jr. 
Swift, Harold H. 

Deceased, 1938 
Dixon, George W. 

Gardner, Paul E. 
Getz, George F. 
Goodrich, A. W. 

Thorne, Charles H. 
Thorne, Robert J. 
Tree, Ronald L. F. 
Tyson, Russell 

Uihlein, Edgar J. 
Underwood, Morgan P. 

Valentine, Louis L. 
Veatch, George L. 
Viles, Lawrence M. 

Wanner, Harry C. 
Ward, P. C. 
Weber, David 
Welch, Mrs. Edwin P. 
Welling, John P. 
Wheeler, Mrs. Leslie 
Whitney, Mrs. Julia L. 
Wickwire,Mrs. Edward L. 
Wieboldt, William A. 
Willard, Alonzo J. 
Willits, Ward W. 
Wilson, John P. 
Wilson, Thomas E. 
Winston, Garrard B. 
Winter, Wallace C. 
Woolley, Clarence M. 
Wrigley, Philip K. 

Yates, David M. 

InsuU, Samuel 
Kelly, D. F. 
Patten, Henry J. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $1 00 to the Museum 

Coolidge, Harold 

J., Jr. 
Copley, Ira Cliff 

Ellis, Ralph 

Gregg, John Wyatt 

Hearne, Knox 

Johnson, Herbert 
F., Jr. 

Rosenwald, Lessing J. 

Stephens, W. C. 
Stern, Mrs. Edgar B. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

Associate Members 



Those who have contributed $100 to the Museum 

Aaron, Charles 
Aaron, Ely M. 
Abbott, Donald 

Putnam, Jr. 
Abbott, Gordon C. 
Abbott, Guy H. 
Abbott, W. Rufus 
Abbott, William L. 
Abrahamsen, Miss Cora 
Abrams, Duff A. 
Ackerman, Charles N. 
Adamick, Gustave H. 
Adams, Benjamin Stearns 
Adams, Mrs. David T. 
Adams, Mrs. Frances 

Adams, Miss Jane 
Adams, John Q. 
Adams, Joseph 
Adams, Mrs. S. H. 
Adams, Mrs. Samuel 
Adams, William C. 
Adamson, Henry T. 
Adcock, Mrs. Bessie 
Addleman, Samuel W. 
Adler, David 
Adler, Mrs. Max 
Affleck, Benjamin F. 
Ahlschlager, Walter W. 
Albee, Mrs. Harry W. 
Alden, William T. 
Alexander, Mrs. Arline V. 
Alexander, Edward 
AUbright, William B. 
Allen, Mrs. Fred G. 
Allensworth, A. P. 
Ailing, Mrs. C. A. 
Allison, Mrs. Nathaniel 
Alschuler, Alfred S. 
Alsip, Charles H. 
Alsip, Mrs. Charles H. 
Alter, Harry 
Alton, Carol W. 
Ames, Rev. Edward S. 
Andersen, Arthur 
Anderson, Miss Florence 

Andreen, Otto C. 
Andrews, Mrs. E. C. 
Andrews, Milton H. 
Anstiss, George P. 
Appelt, Mrs. Jessie E. 
Armbrust, John T. 
Armbruster, Charles A. 
Armour, A. Watson, III 
Armour, Laurance H. 
Armour, Philip D. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Julian 

Arn, W. G. 
Arnold, Mrs. Lloyd 
Artingstall, Samuel 

G., Jr. 
Ascher, Fred 
Ashby, W. B. 
Ashcraft, Raymond M. 
Ashenhurst, Harold S. 
Atkinson, Charles T. 
Atwater, Walter Hull 
Aurelius, Mrs. Marcus A. 
Austin, E. F. 
Austin, Henry W. 
Avery, George J. 

Baackes, Mrs. Frank 
Babb, W. E. 
Babson, Mrs. Gustavus 
Bacon, Dr. Alfons R. 
Badger, Shreve Cowles 
Baer, Mervin K. 
Baer, Walter S. 
Baggaley, William Blair 
Baird, Harry K. 
Baker, Mrs. Alfred L. 
Baker, G. W. 
Baker, Greeley 
Baldwin, Mrs. 

Katharine W. 
Baldwin, Vincent Curtis 
BaJgemann, Otto W. 
Balkin, Louis 
Ball, Dr. Fred E. 
Ball, Sidney Y. 
Ballard, Thomas L. 
Ballenberg, Adolph G. 
Banks, Edgar C. 
Bannister, Miss Ruth D. 
Bantsolas, John N. 
Barber, Phil C. 
Barbour, Harry A. 
Barbour, James J. 
Bargquist, Miss 

LilUan D. 
Barnes, Cecil 
Barnes, Mrs. Charles 

Barnes, James M. 
Barnett, Otto R. 
Barnhart, Mrs. A. M. 
Barnum, Harry 
Barr, Mrs. Alfred H. 
Bartelme, John H. 
Bartholomae, Mrs. Emma 
Bartholomay, F. H. 
Bartholomay, Henry 
Bartholomay, Mrs. 

William, Jr. 

Bartlett, Frederic C. 
Barton, Mrs. Enos M. 
Basta, George A. 
Bastian, Charles L. 
Bateman, Floyd L. 
Bates, Mrs. A. M. 
Bates, Joseph A. 
Battey, Paul L. 
Bauer, Aleck 
Baum, Mrs. James E. 
Baum, Wilhelm 
Baumrucker, Charles F. 
Bausch, William C. 
Beach, Miss Bess K. 
Beach, E. Chandler 
Beachy, Mrs. P. A. 
Beachy, Mrs. Walter F. 
Beatty, H. W. 
Becker, Benjamin F. 
Becker, Benjamin V. 
Becker, Frederick G. 
Becker, Herman T. 
Becker, James H. 
Becker, Louis 
Becker, Louis L. 
Behr, Mrs. Edith 
Beidler, Francis, II 
Belden, Joseph C. 
Bell, Mrs. Laird 
Bender, Charles J. 
Benjamin, Jack A. 
Benner, Harry 
Bennett, Professor 

J. Gardner 
Benson, John 
Bentley, Arthur 
Bentley, Mrs. Cjtus 
Benton, Miss Mabel M. 
Berend, George F. 
Berger, Dr. John M. 
Berkowitz, Dr. J. G. 
Berryman, John B. 
Bersbach, Elmer S. 
Bertschinger, Dr. C. F. 
Besly, Mrs. C. H. 
Bettman, Dr. Ralph B. 
Bevan, Dr. Arthur Dean 
Bichl, Thomas A. 
Bidwell, Charles W. 
Biehn, Dr. J. F. 
Bigler, Mrs. Albert J. 
Billow, Elmer Ellsworth 
Billow, Miss Virginia 
Bird, Miss Frances 
Bird, George H. 
Birk, Miss Amelia 
Birk, Edward J. 
Birk, Frank J. 

452 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Birkenstein, George 
Birkholz, Hans E. 
Bischoff, Dr. Fred 
Bishop, Howard P. 
Bishop, Mrs. Martha V. 
Bistor, James E. 
Bittel, Mrs. Frank J. 
Bixby, Edward Randall 
Blackburn, Oliver A. 
Blackman, Nathan L. 
Blair, Edward T. 
Blair, Mrs. M. Barbour 
Blair, Wolcott 
Blake, Tiffany 
Blatchford, Carter 
Blatchford, Dr. Frank 

Blayney, Thomas C. 
Blessing, Dr. Robert 
Blish, Sylvester 
Blome, Rudolph S. 
Bloom, Mrs. Leopold 
Blum, David 
Blum, Harry H. 
Blunt, J. E., Jr. 
Bluthardt, Edwin 
Boal, Ayres 
Boberg, Niels 
Boericke, Mrs. Anna 
Boettcher, Arthur H. 
Bohasseck, Charles 
Bolten, Paul H. 
Bondy, Berthold 
Boomer, Dr. Paul C. 
Boone, Arthur 
Booth, Alfred V. 
Booth, George E. 
Borg, George W. 
Borland, Mrs. Bruce 
Borwell, Robert C. 
Bosch, Charles 
Bosch, Mrs. Henry 
Both, William C. 
Botts, Graeme G. 
Bousa, Dr. Bohuslav 
Bowen, Mrs. Louise 

Bowes, William R. 
Bowey, Mrs. Charles F. 
Bowman, Johnston A. 
Boyack, Harry 
Boyd, Mrs. T. Kenneth 
Boyden, Miss Ellen Webb 
Boyden, Miss Rosalie 

Boynton, A. J. 
Boynton, Frederick P. 
Brach, Mrs. F. V. 
Bradley, Mrs. A. Ballard 
Bradley, Charles E. 
Bradley, Mrs. Natalie 

Blair Higinbotham 

Brainerd, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Bramble, Delhi G. C. 
Brand, Mrs. Edwin L., Jr. 
Brand, Mrs. Maude G. 
Brand, Mrs. Rudolf 
Brandes, A. G. 
Brandt, Charles H. 
Bransfield, John J. 
Brauer, Mrs. Paul 
Breckinridge, Professor 

S. P. 
Bremer, Harry A. 
Bremner, Mrs. David 

F., Jr. 
Brendecke, Miss June 
Brennan, Mrs. George E. 
Brennemann, Dr. Joseph 
Brennwasser, S. M. 
Brenza, Miss Mary 
Brewer, Mrs. Angeline L. 
Breyer, Mrs. Theodor 
Bridges, Arnold 
Briggs, Mrs. Gertrude 
Bristol, James T. 
Brock, A. J. 
Brodribb, Lawrence C. 
Broome, Thornhill 
Brown, A. Wilder 
Brown, Benjamin R. 
Brown, Christy 
Brown, Mrs. Everett C. 
Brown, Mrs. George 

Brown, John T. 
Brown, Dr. Joshua M. 
Brown, Mark A. 
Brown, Scott 
Brucker, Dr. Edward A. 
Bruckner, William T. 
Brugman, John J. 
Brundage, Avery 
Brunswick, Larry 
Brunt, J. P. 
Bryant, John J., Jr. 
Buck, Guy R. 
Buck, Mrs. Lillian B. 
Buck, Nelson Leroy 
Bucklin, Mrs. Vail R. 
Budlong, Joseph J. 
Buehler, Mrs. Carl 
Buehler, H. L. 
Buettner, Walter J. 
Buffington, Mrs. 

Margaret A. 
Buhmann, Gilbert G. 
Bull, Richard S. 
Bullock, Mrs. James E. 
Bunge, Mrs. Albert J. 
Bunte, Mrs. Theodore W. 
Burdick, Mrs. Alfred S. 
Burgess, Charles F. 
Burgmeier, John M. 

Burgstreser, Newton 
Burgweger, Mrs. Meta 

Burke, Mrs. Lawrence N. 
Burke, Webster H. 
Burkholder, Dr. J. F. 
Burley, Mrs. Clarence A. 
Burnham, Mrs. Edward 
Burnham, Frederic 
Burns, Mrs. Randall W. 
Burrows, Mrs. W. F. 
Burry, Mrs. William 
Burry, William, Jr. 
Burtch, Almon 
Burton, Mrs. Ernest D. 
Bush, Mrs. Lionel E. 
Bush, Mrs. William H. 
Butler, Burridge D. 
Butler, Mrs. Hermon B. 
Butler, J. Fred 
Butler, John M. 
Butler, Paul 
Butz, Herbert R. 
Butz, Robert O. 
Butz, Theodore C. 
Butzow, Mrs. Robert C. 
Byfield, Dr. Albert H. 
Byrne, Miss Margaret H. 

Cable, J. Elmer 
Cahn, Dr. Alvin R. 
Cahn, Bertram J. 
Cahn, Morton D. 
Caine, John F. 
Caldwell, C. D. 
Callender, Mrs. 

Joseph E. 
Cameron, Dr. Dan U. 
Cameron, John M. 
Cameron, Will J. 
Camp, Mrs. Arthur 

Campbell, Delwin M. 
Campbell, Herbert J. 
Canby, Caleb H., Jr. 
Capes, Lawrence R. 
Capper, Miss M. M. 
Capps, Dr. Joseph A. 
Carlin, Leo J. 
Carney, William Roy 
Caron, O. J. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Benjamin 
Carpenter, Frederic Ives 
Carpenter, Mrs. GeorgeA. 
Carpenter, George 

Carpenter, Hubbard 
Carpenter, Miss Rosalie 

Carpenter, W. W. S. 
Carqueville, Mrs. A. R. 
Carr, Mrs. Clyde M. 

Associate Members 


Carroll, John A. 
Carry, Joseph C. 
Carter, Mrs. Armistead B. 
Carton, Alfred T. 
Cary, Dr. Eugene 
Casselberry, Mrs. William 

Evans, Sr. 
Cassels, Edwin H. 
Castle, Alfred C. 
Castruccio, Giuseppe 
Cates, Dudley 
Cernoch, Frank 
Chandler, Henry P. 
Chapin, Henry Kent 
Chapin, William Arthur 
Chapman, Arthur E. 
Chappell, Mrs. Charles H. 
Cheney, Dr. Henry W. 
Cherry, Walter L., Jr. 
Childs, Mrs. C. 

Chinnock, Mrs. Ronald J. 
Chisholm, George D. 
Chislett, Miss Kate E. 
Chritton, George A. 
Churan, Charles A. 
Clark, Ainsworth W. 
Clark, Miss Alice Keep 
Clark, Charles V. 
Clark, Miss Dorothy S. 
Clark, Mrs. Edward S. 
Clark, Edwin H. 
Clark, Lincoln R. 
Clark, Dr. Peter S. 
Clarke, Charles F. 
Clarke, Harley L. 
Clas, Miss Mary Louise 
Clay, John 

Clemen, Dr. Rudolf A. 
Cleveland, Paul W. 
Clinch, Duncan L. 
Clithero, W. S. 
Clonick, Seymour E. 
Clough, William H. 
Clow, Mrs. Harry B. 
Clow, William E., Jr. 
Cochran, John L. 
Coffin, Fred Y. 
Cohen, George B. 
Cohen, Mrs. L. Lewis 
Colburn, Frederick S. 
Colby, Mrs. George E. 
Coldren, Clifton C. 
Coleman, Clarence L., Jr. 
Coleman, Dr. George H. 
Coleman, Loring W. 
Coleman, William Ogden 
Colianni, Paul V. 
Collins, Beryl B. 
Collison, E. K. 
Colvin, Miss Catharine 
Colvin, Miss Jessie 

Colvin, Mrs. William H. 
Colwell, Clyde C. 
Compton, D. M. 
Compton, Frank E. 
Condon, Mrs. James G. 
Conger, Miss Cornelia 
Connell, P. G. 
Conners, Harry 
Connor, Mrs. Clara A. 
Connor, Frank H. 
Cook, Miss Alice B. 
Cook, Mrs. David S. 
Cook, Jonathan Miller 
Cooke, Charles E. 
Cooke, Miss Flora 
Cooke, Leslie L. 
Coolidge, Miss Alice 
CooUdge, E. Channing 
Coolidge, Dr. Edgar D. 
Coombs, James F. 
Coonley, John Stuart 
Coonley, Prentiss L. 
Cooper, Samuel 
Copland, David 
Corbett, Mrs. William J. 
Cornell, Dr. Edward L. 
Cosford, Thomas H. 
Coston, James E. 
Cowan, Mrs. Grace L. 
Cox, Mrs. Howard M. 
Cox, James A. 
Cox, James C. 
Cox, Mrs. Rensselaer W. 
Crane, Charles R., II 
Crego, Mrs. Dominica S. 
Crerar, Mrs. John 
Crilly, Edgar 
Cromer, Clarence E. 
Cromwell, Miss Juliette 

Cross, Henry H. 
Crowder, Dr. Thomas R. 
Cubbins, Dr. William R. 
Cudahy, Edward I. 
Culbertson, Dr. Carey 
Cummings, Mrs. D. 

Cuneo, John F. 
Cunningham, John T. 
Curran, Harry R. 
Curtis, Austin 

Guthrie, Jr. 
Curtis, Mrs. Charles S. 
Curtis, Miss Frances H. 
Cusack, Harold 
Cushman, A. W. 
Cushman, Barney 
Cutler, Henry E. 

Dahlberg, Bror G. 
Daily, Richard 
Daley, Harry C. 

Dammann, J. F. 
Danforth, Dr. William C. 
Dantzig, Leonard P. 
Darlington, Joseph F. 
Darrow, Paul E. 
Dashiell, C. R. 
Daughaday, C. Colton 
Davey, Mrs. Bruce C. 
David, Dr. Vernon C. 
Davidonis, Dr. 

Alexander L. 
Da\adson, Miss Mary E. 
Da vies, Marshall 
Da\as, Arthur 
Davis, Brode B. 
Da\is, C. S. 
Davis, Dr. Carl B. 
Davis, Frank S. 
Davis, Fred M. 
Davis, James 
Davis, Dr. Loyal 
Davis, Dr. Nathan 

S., Ill 
Davis, Ralph 
Dawes, E. L. 
DeAcres, Clyde H. 
Deahl, Uriah S. 
Decker, Charles 0. 
DeCosta, Lewis M. 
DeDardel, Carl 0. 
Dee, Thomas J. 
Deery, Thomas A., Jr. 
Degen, David 
DeGolyer, Robert S. 
DeKoven, Mrs. John 
DeLee, Dr. Joseph B. 
DeLemon, H. R. 
Deming, Everett G. 
Dempster, Mrs. 

Charles W. 
Deneen, Mrs. Charles S. 
Denison, Mrs. John 

Denkewalter, W. E. 
Denman, Mrs. Burt J. 
Dennehy, Thomas C. 
Dennis, Charles H. 
Deslsles, Mrs. Carrie L. 
Deutsch, Mrs. Percy L. 
DeVries, David 
DeVries, Peter 
Dewes, Rudolph Peter 
Dick, Edison 
Dick, Elmer J. 
Dick, Mrs. Homer T. 
Dickey, Roy 
Dickinson, F. R. 
Dickinson, Robert B. 
Dickinson, Mrs. W. 

Diehl, Harry L. 
Diestel, Mrs. Herman 

454 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Dikeman, Aaron Butler 
Dillon, Miss Hester 

Dimick, Miss Elizabeth 
Dixon, Alan C. 
Dixon, William Warren 
Doctor, Isidor 
Dodge, Mrs. Paul C. 
Doering, Mrs. 

Edmund J., Jr. 
Doering, Otto C. 
Doerr, William P., Sr. 
Doetsch, Miss Anna 
Dole, Arthur 
Dolese, Mrs. John 
Donahue, William J. 
Donker, Mrs. WiUiam 
Donlon, Mrs. Stephen E. 
Donnelley, Mrs. H. P. 
Donnelley, Miss Naomi 
Donnelly, Frank 
Donohue, Edgar T. 
Douglas, James H., Jr. 
Douglass, Kingman 
Drake, Lyman M. 
Drummond, James J. 
Dryden, Mrs. George B. 
Dubbs, C. P. 
Dudley, Laurence H. 
Dugan, Alphonso G. 
Dulany, George W., Jr. 
Dulsky, Mrs. Samuel 
Dunbaugh, Harry J. 
Duncan, Albert G. 
Duner, Dr. Clarence S. 
Duner, Joseph A. 
Dunham, John H. 
Dunham, Miss Lucy 

Dunham, Robert J. 
Dunlop, Mrs. Simpson 
Dunn, Samuel 0. 
Dupee, Mrs. F. Kennett 
Durbin, Fletcher M. 

Easterberg, C. J. 
Eastman, Mrs. George H. 
Ebeling, Frederic O. 
Eckhart, Mrs. B. A. 
Eckhart, Percy B. 
Eckstein, Mrs. Louis 
Eddy, George A. 
Eddy, Thomas H. 
Edwards, Miss Edith E. 
Edwards, Kenneth P. 
Egan, WiUiam B. 
Egloff, Dr. Gustav 
Ehrman, Edwin H. 
Eisendrath, Edwin W. 
Eisendrath, Miss Elsa B. 
Eisendrath, Robert M. 
Eisendrath, William B. 

Eisenschiml, Mrs. Otto 
Eisenstaedt, Harry 
Eisenstein, Sol 
Eitel, Max 
Elenbogen, Herman 
EKch, Robert WilUam 
Ellbogen, Albert L. 
EUbogen, Miss Celia 
Elliott, Dr. Charles A. 
Elliott, Frank R. 
Ellis, Howard 
Elting, Howard 
Emery, Edward W. 
Engberg, Miss Ruth M. 
Engel, E. J. 
Engstrom, Harold 
Engwall, John F. 
Erdmann, Mrs. C. Pardee 
Ericson, Mrs. Chester F. 
Ericson, Melvin Burton 
Ericsson, Clarence 
Ericsson, Dewey A. 
Ericsson, Henry 
Ericsson, Walter H. 
Ernst, Mrs. Leo 
Erskine, Albert DeWolf 
Etten, Henry C. 
Eustice, Alfred L. 
Evans, Mrs. Albert 

Evans, Miss Anna B. 
Evans, Mrs. David 
Evans, David J. 
Evans, Eliot H. 
Evans, Evan A. 
Ewell, C. D. 
Ewen, WilUam R. T. 

Fabian, Francis G. 
Fabry, Herman 
Fabyan, Mrs. George 
Fackt, Mrs. George P. 
Fader, A. L. 
Paget, James E. 
Faherty, Roger 
Fahrenwald, Frank A. 
Faithorn, Walter E. 
Falk, Miss Amy 
Farnham, Mrs. Harry J. 
FarreU, Mrs. B. J. 
Faulkner, Charles J., Jr. 
Faulkner, Miss Elizabeth 
Faurot, Henry 
Faurot, Henry, Jr. 
Fay, Miss Agnes M. 
Fecke, Mrs. Frank J. 
Feigenheimer, Herman 
Feiwell, Morris E. 
Felix, Benjamin B. 
Fellows, William K. 
Felsenthal, Edward 

Feltman, Charles H. 
Fergus, Robert C. 
Fernald, Robert W. 
Fetcher, Edwin S. 
Fetzer, Wade 
Fies, Mrs. E. E. 
Filek, August 
Findlay, Mrs. Roderick 
Fineman, Oscar 
Finley, Max H. 
Finnerud, Dr. Clark W. 
Fischel, Frederic A. 
Fish, Mrs. Isaac 
Fishbein, Dr. Morris 
Fisher, Mrs. Edward 

Fisher, Harry M. 
Fitzpatrick, Mrs. John A. 
Flavin, Edwin F. 
Fleming, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Flesch, Eugene W. P. 
Flexner, Washington 
Flood, Walter H. 
Florsheim, Irving S. 
Florsheim, Mrs. 

Milton S. 
Flosdorf, Mrs. G. E. 
Foley, Rev. William M. 
FoUansbee, Mitchell D. 
Folonie, Mrs. Robert J. 
Folsom, Mrs. Richard S. 
Foote, Peter 

Forch, Mrs. John L., Jr. 
Foreman, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Foreman, Mrs. E. G. 
Foreman, Edwin G., Jr. 
Foreman, Mrs. Gerhard 
Foreman, Harold E. 
Forgan, James B., Jr. 
Forgan, Mrs. J. Russell 
Forgan, Robert D. 
Forman, Charles 
Forstall, James J. 
Fortune, Miss Joanna 
Foster, Mrs. Charles K. 
Foster, Volney 
Fowler, Miss Elizabeth 
Fox, Charles E. 
Fox, Jacob Logan 
Fox, Dr. Paul C. 
Fox, Dr. PhiUp 
Frank, Arthur A. 
Frank, Dr. Ira 
Frank, Mrs. Joseph K. 
Frankenstein, William B. 
Frankenthal, Dr. Lester 

E., Jr. 
Frazer, Mrs. George E. 
Freedman, Dr. I. Val 
Freeman, Charles Y. 
Freer, Archibald E. 
French, Dudley K. 

Associate Members 


Frenier, A. B. 
Freudenthal, G. S. 
Freund, Charles E. 
Frey, Charles Daniel 
Freyn, Henry J. 
Fridstein, Meyer 
Friedlander, Jacob 
Friedlich, Mrs. Herbert 
Friedman, Mrs. Isaac K. 
Friend, Mrs. Henry K. 
Friestedt, Arthur A. 
Frisbie, Chauncey O. 
Frost, Mrs. Charles 

Fuller, Mrs. Charles 
Fuller, Mrs. Gretta 

Fuller, Judson M. 
Fuller, Leroy W. 
Furry, William S. 
Furst, Eduard A. 

Gabathuler, Miss Juanita 
Gaertner, William 
Gale, G. Whittier 
Gale, Henry G. 
Gall, Charles H. 
Gall, Harry T. 
Gallagher, Mrs. John J. 
Gallagher, Vincent G. 
Gallup, Rockwell 
Gait, Mrs. A. T. 
Gamble, D. E. 
Gamble, James A. 
Gammage, Mrs. Adaline 
Gann, David B. 
Gansbergen, Mrs. F. H. 
Garard, Elzy A. 
Garcia, Jose 
Garden, Hugh M. G. 
Gardner, Addison L. 
Gardner, Addison 

L., Jr. 
Gardner, Henry A. 
Gardner, Mrs. James P. 
Garrison, Dr. Lester E. 
Gary, Fred Elbert 
Gately, Ralph M. 
Gates, Mrs. L. F. 
Gawne, Miss Clara V. 
Gay, Rev. A. Royal 
Gaylord, Duane W. 
Gear, H. B. 
Gehl, Dr. W. H. 
Gehrmann, Felix 
Geiger, Alfred B. 
Gentz, Miss Margaret 

George, Mrs. Albert B. 
Georgs, Fred W. 
Gerding, R. W. 
Geringer, Charles M. 

Gerngross, Mrs. Leo 
Gerts, Walter S. 
Gettelman, Mrs. 

Sidney H. 
Getz, Mrs. James R. 
Getzoff, E. B. 
Gibbs, Dr. John Phillip 
Gibson, Dr. Stanley 
Gielow, Walter C. 
Giflford, Mrs. 

Frederick C. 
Gilbert, Miss Clara C. 
Gilchrist, Mrs. John F. 
Gilchrist, Mrs. William 

Giles, Carl C. 
Gillette, Mrs. Ellen D. 
Gillman, Morris 
Gillson, Louis K. 
Ginther, Miss Minnie C. 
Girard, Mrs. Anna 
Glaescher, Mrs. G. W. 
Glasgow, H. A. 
Glasner, Rudolph W. 
Godehn, Paul M. 
Goedke, Charles F. 
Goehst, Mrs. John Henry 
Goes, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Golden, Dr. Isaac J. K. 
Goldenberg, Sidney D. 
Goldfine, Dr. Ascher H. C. 
Golding, Robert N. 
Goldstine, Dr. Mark T. 
Goldy, Walter I. 
Goltra, Mrs. William B. 
Goode, Mrs. Rowland T. 
Gooden, G. E. 
Goodkind, Dr. Maurice L. 
Goodman, Benedict K. 
Goodman, Mrs. Milton F. 
Goodman, W. J. 
Goodman, William E. 
Goodwin, Clarence 

Goodwin, George S. 
Gordon, Miss Bertha F. 
Gordon, Harold J. 
Gordon, Mrs. Robert D. 
Gorrell, Mrs. Warren 
Gradle, Dr. Harry S. 
Graf, Robert J. 
Graff, Oscar C. 
Graham, Douglas 
Graham, E. V. 
Graham, Miss 

Margaret H. 
Gramm, Mrs. Helen 
Granger, Alfred 
Granger, Mrs. Everett J. 
Grant, James D. 
Grant, John G. 
Graves, Howard B. 

Grawoig, Allen 
Green, Miss Mary 

Green, Robert D. 
Green, Zola C. 
Greenberg, Andrew H. 
Greenburg, Dr. Ira E. 
Greene, Henry E. 
Greenebaum, James E. 
Green ebaum, M. E., Jr. 
Greenlee, James A. 
Greenlee, Mrs. William 

Greenman, Mrs. Earl C. 
Gregory, Clifford V. 
Gregory, Mrs. Robert B. 
Gregory, Stephen 

S., Jr. 
Gregory, Tappan 
Grey, Charles F. 
Grey, Dr. Dorothy 
Griest, Mrs. Marianna L. 
Griffenhagen, Mrs. 

Edwin O. 
Griffith, Mrs. Carroll L. 
Griffith, E. L. 
Griffith, Mrs. WilUam 
Griffiths, George W. 
Grimm, Walter H. 
Griswold, Harold T. 
Grizzard, James A. 
Gronkowski, Rev. C. I. 
Groot, Cornelius J. 
Groot, Lawrence A. 
Gross, Henry R. 
Grossman, Frank I. 
Grotenhuis, Mrs. 

William J. 
Grotowski, Dr. Leon 
Gruhn, Alvah V. 
Grulee, Lowry K. 
Grunow, Mrs. William C. 
Guenzel, Louis 
Guest, Ward E. 
Gundlach, Ernest T. 
Gunthorp, Walter J. 
Gurley, Miss Helen K. 
Gwinn, William R. 

Haas, Adolph R. 
Haas, Maurice 
Haas, Dr. Raoul R. 
Hadley, Mrs. Edwin M. 
Hagen, Mrs. Daise 
Hagen, Fred J. 
Hagens, Dr. Garrett J. 
Hagner, Fred L. 
Haight, George I. 
Hair, T. R. 
Hajicek, Rudolph F. 
Haldeman, Walter S. 
Hale, Mrs. Samuel 

456 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Hale, William B. 
Hall, David W. 
Hall, Edward B. 
Hall, Mrs. J. B. 
Hallmann, August F. 
Hallmann, Herman F. 
Halperin, Aaron 
Hamill, Charles H. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Hamill, Robert W. 
Hamilton, Thomas B. 
Hamlin, Paul D. 
Hamm, Fred B. 
Hammerschmidt, Mrs. 

George F. 
Hammitt, Miss 

Frances M. 
Hammond, Thomas S. 
Hand, George W. 
Hanley, Henry L. 
Hann, J. Roberts 
Hansen, Mrs. Carl 
Hansen, Jacob W. 
Harder, .John H. 
Hardie, George F. 
Hardin, John H. 
Harding, Charles 

F., Jr. 
Harding, George F. 
Harding, John Cowden 
Harding, Richard T. 
Hardinge, Franklin 
Harker, H. L. 
Harms, John V. D. 
Harper, Alfred C. 
Harris, Mrs. Abraham 
Harris, David J. 
Harris, Gordon L. 
Harris, Hayden B. 
Hart, Mrs. Herbert L. 
Hart, William M. 
Hartmann, A. O. 
Hartshorn, Kenneth L. 
Hartwig, Otto J. 
Hartz, W. Homer 
Harvey, Hillman H. 
Harvey, Richard M. 
Harwood, Thomas W. 
Haskell, Mrs. George E. 
Haugan, Oscar H. 
Havens, Samuel M. 
Hay, Mrs. William 

Hayes, Charles M. 
Hayes, Harold C. 
Hayes, Miss Mary E. 
Haynie, Miss Rachel W. 
Hays, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Hayslett, Arthur J. 
Hazlett, Dr. William H. 
Healy, Mrs. Marquette A. 
Heaney, Dr. N. Sproat 

Heaton, Harry E. 
Heaton, Herman C. 
Heberlein, Miss 

Amanda F. 
Heck, John 
Hedberg, Henry E. 
Heide, John H., Jr. 
Heidke, Herman L. 
Heiman, Marcus 
Heine, Mrs. Albert 
Heineman, Oscar 
Heinzelman, Karl 
Heinzen, Mrs. Carl 
Hejna, Joseph F. 
Heldmaier, Miss Marie 
Helfrich, J. Howard 
Heller, Albert 
Heller, John A. 
Heller, Mrs. Walter E. 
Hellman, George A. 
Hellyer, Walter 
Hemple, Miss Anne C. 
Henderson, Thomas B. G. 
Henkel, Frederick W. 
Henley, Dr. Eugene H. 
Hennings, Mrs. 

Abraham J. 
Henry, Huntington B. 
Henry, Otto 
Henschel, Edmund C. 
Henshaw, Mrs. 

Raymond S. 
Herrick, Charles E. 
Herrick, Miss Louise 
Herrick, Walter D. 
Herron, James C. 
Herron, Mrs. Ollie L. 
Hershey, J. Clarence 
Hertz, Mrs. Fred 
Herwig, George 
Herwig, William D., Jr. 
Heun, Arthur 
Heverly, Earl L. 
Hibbard, Mrs. Angus S. 
Hibbard, Mrs. W. G. 
Hicks, E. L., Jr. 
Higgins, John 
Higinbotham, Harlow D. 
Higley, Mrs. Charles W. 
Hildebrand, Eugene, Jr. 
Hildebrand, Grant M. 
Hill, Mrs. E. M. 
Hill, Mrs. Russell D. 
Hill, William E. 
Hille, Dr. Hermann 
Hillebrecht, Herbert E. 
Hillis, Dr. Da\ad S. 
Hills, Edward R. 
Himrod, Mrs. Frank W. 
Hinkle, Ross O. 
Hinman, Mrs. Estelle S. 
Hinrichs, Henry, Jr. 

Hinsberg, Stanley K. 
Hintz, John C. 
Hirsch, Jacob H. 
Hiscox, Morton 
Histed, J. Roland 
Hixon, Mrs. Frank P. 
Hodgkinson, Mrs. W. R. 
Hoffman, Glen T. 
Hoffmann, Miss Caroline 

Hoffmann, Edward 

Hogan, Robert E. 
Hohman, Dr. E. H. 
Hoier, William V. 
Holden, Edward A. 
Holland, Dr. WilUam E. 
HoUiday, W. J. 
Hollingsworth, R. G. 
Hollis, Henry L. 
HoUister, Francis H. 
Holmes, George J. 
Holmes, Miss Harriet F. 
Holmes, Mrs. Maud G. 
Holmes, WiUiam 
Holmes, William N. 
Holt, Miss Ellen 
Homan, Miss Blossom L. 
Honsik, Mrs. James M. 
Hoover, F. E. 
Hoover, Mrs. Frank K. 
Hoover, Mrs. Fred W. 
Hoover, H. Earl 
Hoover, Ray P. 
Hope, Alfred S. 
Hopkins, Farley 
Hopkins, Mrs. James M. 
Horan, Dennis A. 
Horcher, William W. 
Home, Mrs. William 

Dodge, Jr. 
Horner, Dr. David A. 
Horner, Mrs. Maurice 

L., Jr. 
Hornung, Joseph J. 
Horst, Curt A. 
Horton, George T. 
Horton, Hiram T. 
Horton, Horace B. 
Hosbein, Louis H. 
Hosmer, Philip B. 
Hottinger, Adolph 
Howard, Willis G. 
Howe, Charles Arthur 
Howe, Clinton W. 
Howe, Mrs. Pierce 

Howe, Warren D. 
Howe, William G. 
Howell, Albert S. 
Howell, William 
Howse, Richard 


Associate Members 


Hoyne, Thomas Temple 
Hoyt, Mrs. Phelps B. 
Hubbard, George W. 
Huber, Dr. Harry Lee 
Hudson, Mrs. H. 

Hudson, Walter L. 
Huey, Mrs. A. S. 
Huflf, Thomas D. 
Hufty, Mrs. F. P. 
Huggins, Dr. Ben H. 
Hughes, George A. 
Hughes, John E. 
Hughes, John W. 
Hulbert, Mrs. Charles 

Hulbert, Mrs. Milan H. 
Hume, John T. 
Humphrey, H. K. 
Huncke, Herbert S. 
Huncke, Oswald W. 
Hunter, Samuel M. 
Hurley, Edward N., Jr. 
Huston, Ward T. 
Huszagh, R. LeRoy 
Huszagh, Ralph D. 
Hutchinson, Foye P. 
Hutchinson, Samuel S. 
Hyatt, R. C. 

Ickes, Raymond 
Idelman, Bernard 
Ilg, Robert A. 
Inlander, Samuel 
Irons, Dr. Ernest E. 
Isaacs, Charles W., Jr. 
Isham, Henry P. 
Ives, Clifford E. 

Jackson, Allan 
Jackson, Archer L. 
Jackson, Miss Laura E. 
Jacobi, Miss Emily C. 
Jacobs, Hyman A. 
Jacobs, Julius 
Jacobs, Louis G. 
Jacobs, Walter H. 
Jacobs, Whipple 
Jacobson, Raphael 
Jaffray, Mrs. David S. 
James, Edward P. 
James, William R. 
Jamieson, Clarence W. 
Janusch, Fred W. 
Jaques, Mrs. Louis 

Jarchow, Mrs. C. E. 
Jarchow, Charles C. 
Jarratt, Mrs. Walter J. 
Jeffries, F. L. 
Jenkins, David F. D. 
Jenkins, Mrs. John E. 

Jenkinson, Mrs. Arthur 

Jenks, William Shippen 
Jennings, Ode D. 
Jennings, Mrs. Rosa V. 
Jerger, Wilbur Joseph 
Jetzinger, David 
Jirka, Dr. Frank J. 
Jirka, Dr. Robert H. 
John, Dr. Findley D. 
Johnson, Alvin O. 
Johnson, Arthur L. 
Johnson, H. C. 
Johnson, Mrs. Harley 

Johnson, Isaac Horton 
Johnson, Joseph F. 
Johnson, Nels E. 
Johnson, Mrs. O. W. 
Johnson, Olaf B. 
Johnson, Philip C. 
Johnston, Arthur C. 
Johnston, Edward R. 
Johnston, Mrs. Hubert 

Johnston, Mrs. M. L. 
Johnstone, George A. 
Johnstone, Dr. Mary 

M. S. 
Jones, Albert G. 
Jones, G. Herbert 
Jones, James B. 
Jones, Dr. Margaret M. 
Jones, Melvin 
Jones, Miss Susan E. 
Jones, Warren G. 
Joseph, Louis L. 
Joy, Guy A. 
Joyce, Joseph 
Judson, Clay 
Juergens, H. Paul 
Julien, Victor R. 
Junkunc, Stephen 

Kaercher, A. W. 
Kahn, Gus 
Kahn, J. Kesner 
Kahn, Louis 
Kaine, -James B. 
Kane, Jerome M. 
Kanter, Jerome J. 
Kaplan, Nathan D. 
Karcher, Mrs. 

Leonard D. 
Karpen, Michael 
Kaspar, Otto 
Katz, Mrs. Sidney L. 
Katzenstein, Mrs. 

George P. 
Kaufman, Mrs. R. K. 
Kauffmann, Alfred 
Kavanagh, Clarence H. 

Kavanagh, Maurice F. 
Kay, Mrs. Marie E. 
Keefe, Mrs. George I. 
Keehn, George W. 
Keene, Mrs. Joseph 
Keeney, Albert F. 
Kehl, Robert Joseph 
Keith, Stanley 
Kelker, Rudolph F., Jr. 
Kellogg, John L. 
Kelly, Edward T. 
Kelly, Mrs. Haven Core 
Kemp, Mrs. E. M. 
Kempner, Harry B. 
Kempner, Stan 
Kendall, Mrs. Virginia H. 
Kendrick, John F. 
Kennedy, Mrs. E. J. 
Kennedy, Miss Leonore 
Kennedy, Lesley 
Kennelly, Martin H. 
Kent, Dr. O. B. 
Keogh, Gordon E. 
Kern, Trude 
Kersey, Glen B. 
Kerwin, Edward M. 
Kesner, Jacob L. 
Kestnbaum, Meyer 
Kiessling, Mrs. Charles S. 
Kilbourne, L. B. 
Kile, Miss Jessie J. 
Kimball, Mrs. Curtis N. 
Kimball, William W. 
Kimbark, Mrs. Eugene 

Kimbark, John R. 
King, Joseph H. 
Kingman, Mrs. Arthur G. 
Kinsey, Frank 
Kinsey, Robert S. 
Kintzel, Richard 
Kircher, Rev. Julius 
Kirchheimer, Max 
Kirkland, Mrs. 

Kitchen, Howell W. 
Kittredge, R. J. 
Kitzelman, Otto 
Klein, Arthur F. 
Klein, Henry A. 
Klein, Mrs. Samuel 
Kleinpell, Dr. Henry K. 
Kleist, Mrs. Harry 
Kleppinger, William H. 
Kleutgen, Dr. Arthur C. 
Kline, Sol 
•KUnetop, Mrs. 

Charles W. 
Knopf, Andrew J. 
Knott, Mrs. Stephen R. 
Knox, Harry S. 
Knutson, George H. 

458 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Koch, Paul W. 
Koch, Raymond J. 
Kochs, August 
Kochs, Mrs. Robert T. 
Kohl, Mrs. Caroline L. 
Kohler, EricL. 
Kohlsaat, Edward C. 
Komiss, David S. 
Konsberg, Alvin V. 
Kosobud, William F. 
Kotal, John A. 
Kotin, George N. 
Koucky, Dr. J. D. 
Kovac, Stefan 
Kraber, Mrs. Fredericka 
Kraft, C. H. 
Kraft, James L. 
Kraft, Norman 
Kralovec, Emil G. 
Kralovec, Mrs. Otto J. 
Kramer, Leroy 
Kraus, Peter J. 
Kraus, Samuel B. 
Krause, John J. 
Kretschmer, Dr. 

Herman L. 
Kritchevsky, Dr. Wolff 
Kroehl, Howard 
Kropff, C. G. 
Krost, Dr. Gerard N. 
Krueger, Leopold A. 
Krutckoff, Charles 
Kuehn, A. L. 
Kuh, Mrs. Edwin J., Jr. 
Kuhl, Harry J. 
Kuhn, Frederick T. 
Kuhn, Dr. Hedwig S. 
Kunka, Bernard J. 
Kunstadter, Albert 
Kunstadter, Sigmund W, 
Kurtzon, Morris 

Lacey, Miss Edith M. 
LaChance, Mrs. 

Leander H. 
Laflin, Mrs. Louis E. 
Lafiin, Louis E., Jr. 
Lampert, Wilson W. 
Lamson, W. A. 
Lanahan, Mrs. M. J. 
Landry, Alvar A. 
Lane, F. Howard 
Lane, Ray E. 
Lane, Wallace R. 
Lang, Edward J. 
Lang, Mrs. W. J. 
Lange, Mrs. August 
Langenbach, Mrs. 

Alice R. 
Langhorne, George 


Langworthy, Benjamin 

Lanman, E. B. 
Lansinger, Mrs. John M. 
Larimer, Howard S. 
Larson, Mrs. George E. 
Lashley, Mrs. Karl S. 
Lasker, Albert D. 
Lau, Max 
Lauren, Newton B. 
Lauter, Mrs. Vera 
Lautmann, Herbert M. 
Lavezzorio, Mrs. J. B. 
Lavidge, Arthur W. 
Law, Mrs. Robert O. 
Lawless, Dr. Theodore K. 
Lawson, A. J. 
Lawton, Frank W. 
Laylander, O. J. 
Leahy, Thomas F. 
Leavell, James R. 
Leavitt, Mrs. Wellington 
Lebold, Foreman N. 
Lebold, Samuel N. 
Lebolt, John Michael 
Lederer, Dr. Francis L. 
Lee, David Arthur 
Lee, Mrs. John H. S. 
Lefens, Miss Katherine J. 
Lefens, Walter C. 
Lehmann, Miss 

Augusta E. 
Leichenko, Peter M. 
Leight, Mrs. Albert E. 
Leistner, Oscar 
Leland, Miss Alice J. 
Leland, Mrs. Roscoe G. 
LeMoon, A. R. 
Lenz, J. Mayo 
Leonard, Arthur G. 
Leonard, Arthur T. 
Letts, Mrs. Frank C. 
Leverone, Louis E. 
Levinson, Mrs. Salmon O. 
Levis, Mrs. Albert Cotter 
Levitan, Benjamin 
Levitetz, Nathan 
Levy, Alexander M. 
Lev-y, Arthur G. 
Lewis, David R. 
Lewy, Dr. Alfred 
Libby, Mrs. C. P. 
Liebman, A. J. 
Ligman, Rev. Thaddeus 
Lillie, Frank R. 
Lindahl, Mrs. Edward J. 
Linden, John A. 
Lindheimer, B. F. 
Lindholm, Charles V. 
Lindquist, J. E. 
Lingle, Bowman C. 
Linton, Ben B. 

Lipman, Robert R. 
Liss, Samuel 
Little, Mrs. E. H. 
Littler, Harry E., Jr. 
Livingston, Julian M. 
Livingston, Mrs. 

Milton L. 
Llewellyn, Paul 
Lloyd, Edward W. 
Lloyd, William Bross 
Lobdell, Mrs. Edwin L. 
Lockwood, W. S. 
Loeb, Mrs. A. H. 
Loeb, Hamilton M. 
Loeb, Jacob M. 
Loeb, Leo A. 
Loesch, Frank J. 
Loewenberg, Israel S. 
Loewenberg, M. L. 
Loewenstein, Sidney 
Loewenthal, Richard J. 
Logan, L. B. 
Long, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Long, William E. 
Lord, Arthur R. 
Lord, Mrs. Russell 
Loucks, Charles 0. 
Louer, Albert S. 
Love, Chase W. 
Lovell, William H. 
Lovgren, Carl 
Lownik, Dr. Felix J. 
Lucey, Patrick J. 
Ludington, Nelson J. 
Ludolph, Wilbur M. 
Lueder, Arthur C. 
Lufkin, Wallace W. 
Luria, Herbert A. 
Lurie, H. J. 
Lustgarten, Samuel 
Lutter, Henry J. 
Lydon, Mrs. William A. 
Lyford, Harry B. 
Lynch, William Joseph 
Lyon, Charles H. 

Maass, J. Edward 
MacDonald, E. K. 
MacDougal, Mrs. T. W. 
Mackey, Frank J. 
Mackinson, Dr. John C. 
MacLeish, Mrs. Andrew 
MacLellan, K. F. 
Magan, Miss Jane A. 
Magill, Henry P. 
Magnus, Albert, Jr. 
Magnuson, Mrs. Paul 
Maher, Mrs. D. W. 
Main, Walter D. 
Malone, William H. 
Manaster, Harry 
Mandel, Mrs. Aaron W. 

Associate Members 


Mandel, Edwin F. 
Mandel, Mrs. Emanuel 
Mandel, Miss Florence 
Mandel, Mrs. Robert 
Manegold, Mrs. Frank W. 
Manierre, Francis E. 
Manierre, Louis 
Manley, John A. 
Mann, Albert C. 
Mann, John P. 
Manning, Miss 
Cordelia Ann 
Marcus, Maurice S. 
Mark, Mrs. Cyrus 
Marks, Arnold K, 
Marquis, A. N. 
Marsh, A. Fletcher 
Marsh, John 

McWilliams, II 
Marsh, Mrs. John P. 
Marsh, Mrs. Marshall S. 
Martin, Mrs. Franklin H. 
Martin, George F. 
Martin, Samuel H. 
Martin, W. B. 
Martin, Wells 
Marx, Frederick Z. 
Marzluflf, Frank W. 
Marzola, Leo A. 
Mason, Willard J. 
Massee, B. A. 
Massena, Roy 
Massey, Peter J. 
Masterson, Peter 
Mathesius, Mrs. Walther 
Matson, J. Edward 
Matter, Mrs. John 
Matthiessen, Frank 
Maurer, Dr. Siegfried 
Maxwell, Lloyd R. 
Mayer, Frank D. 
Mayer, Mrs. Herbert G. 
Mayer, Isaac H. 
Mayer, Oscar F. 
Mayer, Theodore S. 
McAllister, Sydney G. 
McArthur, Billings M. 
McAuley, John E. 
McBirney, Mrs. Hugh J. 
McCahey, James B. 
McCarthy, Edmond J. 
McCarthy, Joseph W. 
McClun, John M. 
McCord, Downer 
McCormack, Professor 

McCormick, Mrs. 

Alexander A. 
McCormick, Mrs. 

McCormick, Fowler 
McCormick, Howard H. 

McCormick, Leander J. 
McCoy, Herbert N. 
McCrea, Mrs. W. S. 
McCready, Mrs. E. W. 
McCreight, Miss Gladys 

McCreight, Louis Ralph 
McDonald, Lewis 
McDougal, Mrs. James B. 
McDougal, Mrs. Robert 
McDougall, Mrs. 

Arthur R. 
McErlean, Charles V. 
McGarry, John A. 
McGraw, Max 
McGuinn, Edward B. 
McGurn, Mathew S. 
McHugh, Mrs. Grover 
Mcintosh, Arthur T. 
Mcintosh, Mrs. Walter G. 
McKinney, Mrs. Hayes 
McLaury, Mrs. C. W. 
McLaury, Walker G. 
McMenemy, L. T. 
McMillan, James G. 
McMillan, John 
McMillan, W. B. 
McMillan, William M. 
McNamara, Louis G. 
McNulty, Joseph D. 
McQuarrie, Mrs. Fannie 
McVoy, John M. 
Mead, Dr. Henry C. A. 
Medsker, Dr. Ora L. 
Melcher, George Clinch 
Melchione, Joseph 
Melendy, Dr. R. A. 
Melnick, Leopold B. 
Merrell, John H. 
Merriam, Miss Eleanor 
Merrill, William W. 
Merz, Edward E. 
Metz, Dr. A. R. 
Meyer, Mrs. A. H. 
Meyer, Abraham W. 
Meyer, Albert 
Meyer, Charles Z. 
Meyer, Sam R. 
Meyer, William 
Meyercord, George R. 
Meyers, Erwin A. 
Michaels, Everett B. 
Midowicz, C. E. 
Milhening, Frank 
Milhening, Joseph 
Miller, Miss Bertie E. 
Miller, Charles B. 
Miller, Mrs. Clayton W. 
Miller, Mrs. Darius 
Miller, Mrs. Donald J. 
Miller, Mrs. F. H. 

Miller, Hyman 
Miller, John S. 
Miller, Mrs. Olive 

Miller, Oscar C. 
Miller, Mrs. PhilHp 
Miller, R. T. 
Miller, Walter E. 
Miller, Mrs. Walter H. 
Miller, WiUiam S. 
Mills, Allen G. 
Mills, Fred L. 
Mills, John, Sr. 
Mills, Mrs. William S. 
Miner, Dr. Carl S. 
Miner, H. J. 
Minotto, Mrs. James 
Minturn, Benjamin E. 
Mitchell, George F. 
Mitchell, John J. 
Mitchell, Mrs. John J. 
Mitchell, Leeds 
Mitchell, Oliver 
Mock, Dr. Harry Edgar 
Moderwell, Charles M. 
Moeling, Mrs. Walter G. 
Moeller, Rev. Herman H. 
Moffatt, Mrs. 

Elizabeth M. 
Mohr, William J. 
Moist, Mrs. Samuel E, 
MoUoy, David J. 
Moltz, Mrs. Alice 
Monheimer, Henry I. 
Monroe, William S. 
Montgomery, Dr. 

Albert H. 
Moore, C. B. 
Moore, Philip Wyatt 
Moos, Joseph B. 
Moran, Brian T. 
Moran, Miss Margaret 
Morey, Charles W. 
Morf, F. William 
Morgan, Alden K. 
Morgan, Mrs. 

Kendrick E. 
Morris, Edward H. 
Morris, Mrs. Seymour 
Morrison, Mrs. C. R. 
Morrison, Mrs. 

Charles E. 
Morrison, Mrs. Harry 
Morrison, James C. 
Morrison, Matthew A. 
Morrisson, James W. 
Morse, Mrs. Charles J. 
Morse, Leland R. 
Morse, Mrs. Milton 
Morse, Robert H. 
Mortenson, Mrs. Jacob 
Morton, Sterling 

460 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Morton, William Morris 
Moses, Howard A. 
Moss, Jerome A. 
Mouat, Andrew J. 
Mowry, Louis C. 
Moyer, Mrs. Paul S. 
Mudge, Mrs. John B. 
Muehlstein, Mrs. 

Mueller, Austin M. 
Mueller, Miss Hedwig H. 
Mueller, J. Herbert 
Mueller, Paul H. 
Mulford, Miss Melinda 

Mulholand, William H. 
Mulligan, George F. 
Munroe, Moray 
Murphy, Robert E. 
Musselman, Dr. GeorgeH. 

Naber, Henry G. 
Nadler, Dr. Walter H. 
Naess, Sigurd E. 
Nahigian, Sarkis H. 
Nash, Charles J. 
Nathan, Claude 
Nebel, Herman C. 
Neely, Mrs. Lloyd F. 
Nehls, Arthur L. 
Neilson, Mrs. Francis 
Nellegar, Mrs. Jay C. 
Nelson, Arthur W. 
Nelson, Charles G. 
Nelson, Donald M. 
Nelson, Murry 
Nelson, N. J. 
Nelson, Victor W. 
Netcher, Mrs. Charles 
Neu, Clarence L. 
Neuffer, Paul A. 
Neumann, Arthur E. 
Newhall, R. Frank 
Newhouse, Karl 
Nichols, Mrs. George R. 
Nichols, Mrs. George 

R., Jr. 
Nichols, J. C. 
Nichols, S. F. 
Nicholson, Thomas G. 
Nilsson, Mrs. Goodwin M. 
Nitze, Mrs. William A. 
Noble, Samuel R. 
NoUau, Miss Emma 
Noonan, Edward J. 
Norman, Harold W. 
Norris, Mrs. Lester 
Norton, R. H. 
Novak, Charles J. 
Noyes, A. H. 
Noyes, Allan S. 
Noyes, David A. 

Noyes, Mrs. May Wells 
Nusbaum, Mrs. Carl B. 
Nyman, Dr. John Egbert 

Gates, James F. 
Oberfelder, Herbert M. 
Oberfelder, Walter S. 
O'Brien, Frank J. 
O'Brien, Miss Janet 
Odell, William R. 
Odell, WilUam R., Jr. 
O'Donnell, Miss Rose 
Off, Mrs. CUfford 
Ofheld, James R. 
Oglesbee, Nathan H. 
O'Keefe, Mrs. Dennis D. 
Olcott, Mrs. Henry C. 
Oldefest, Edward G. 
O'Leary, John W. 
Oliver, Gene G. 
Oliver, Mrs. Paul 
Olson, Gustaf 
Oppenheimer, Alfred 
Oppenheimer, Mrs. 

Harry D. 
Orndoff, Dr. Benjamin H. 
O'Rourke, Albert 
Orr, Mrs. Robert C. 
Orr, Thomas C. 
Orthal, A. J. 
Ortmayer, Dr. Marie 
Osborn, Mrs Gertrude L. 
Osborn, Theodore L. 
Ostrom, Mrs. James 

Otis, J. Sanford 
Otis, Joseph E. 
Otis, Joseph Edward, Jr. 
Otis, Ralph C. 
Otis, Stuart Huntington 
Ouska, John A. 
Overton, George W. 
Owings, Mrs. 

Nathaniel A. 

Paasche, Jens A. 
Packard, Dr. Rollo K. 
Paepcke, Walter P. 
Page-Wood, Gerald 
Pagin, Mrs. Frank S. 
Pam, Miss Carrie 
Pardridge, Albert J. 
Pardridge, Mrs. E. W. 
Park, R. E. 
Parker, Frank B. 
Parker, Dr. Gaston C. 
Parker, Dr. J. William 
Parker, Norman S. 
Parker, Troy L. 
Parks, C. R. 
Parmelee, Dr. A. H. 
Partridge, Lloyd C. 

Paschen, Mrs. Henry 
Patrick, Miss Catherine 
Patrick, Dr. Hugh T. 
Patterson, Mrs. L. B. 
Patterson, Mrs. Wallace 
Pauling, Edward G. 
Payne, Professor James 
Peabody, Mrs. Francis S. 
Peabody, Howard B. 
Peabody, Miss Susan W. 
Peacock, Robert E. 
Peacock, Walter C. 
Pearl, Allen S. 
Pearse, Langdon 
Pearson, F. W. 
Pearson, George 

Albert, Jr. 
Peck, Dr. David B. 
Peet, Mrs. Belle G. 
Peirce, Albert E. 
Pelley, John J. 
Peltier, M. F. 
PenDell, Charles W. 
Percy, Dr. Nelson 

Perkins, A. T. 
Perkins, Mrs. Herbert F. 
Perry, Dr. Ethel B. 
Perry, I. Newton 
Peter, William F. 
Peterkin, Daniel 
Peters, Harry A. 
Petersen, Jurgen 
Petersen, Dr. William F. 
Peterson, Albert 
Peterson, Alexander B. 
Peterson, Arthur J. 
Peterson, Axel A. 
Peterson, Mrs. Bertha I. 
Pflaum, A. J. 
Pfiock, Dr. John J. 
Phelps, Mason 
Phelps, Mrs. W. L. 
Phemister, Dr. Dallas B. 
Phillips, Dr. Herbert 

Phillips, Mervyn C. 
Richer, Mrs. Oliver S. 
Pick, Albert, Jr. 
Pierce, J. Norman 
Pierce, Paul, Jr. 
Pirie, Mrs. John T. 
Pitcher, Mrs. Henry L. 
Pitzner, Alwin Frederick 
Plapp, Miss Doris A. 
Piatt, Mrs. Robert S. 
Plunkett, William H. 
Podell, Mrs. Beatrice 

Polk, Mrs. Stella F. 
Pollock, Dr. Harry L. 
Pomeroy, Mrs. Frank W. 


Associate Members 


Pond, Irving K. 
Pontius, Dr. John R. 
Pool, Marvin B. 
Poole, Mrs. Frederick 

Poole, George A. 
Poole, Mrs. Ralph H. 
Poor, Fred A. 
Pope, Frank 
Pope, Henry 
Pope, Herbert 
Poppenhagen, Henry J. 
Porter, Mrs. Frank S. 
Porter, Henry H. 
Porter, James F. 
Porter, Mrs. Sidney S. 
Porterfield, Mrs. John F. 
Post, Frederick, Jr. 
Post, Mrs. Philip Sidney 
Pottenger, William A. 
Pottenger, Miss 

Zipporah Herrick 
Powell, Isaac N. 
Prahl, Frederick A. 
Pratt, Mrs. William E. 
Prentice, John K. 
Primley, Walter S. 
Prince, Rev. Herbert W. 
Prince, Leonard M. 
Proxmire, Dr. 

Theodore Stanley 
Prussing, Mrs. R. E. 
Puckey, F. W. 
Pulver, Hugo 
Purcell, Joseph D. 
Purdy, Sparrow E. 
Pusey, Dr. William Allen 
Putnam, Miss Mabel C. 
Pyterek, Rev. Peter H. 

Quick, Miss Hattiemae 
Quigley, William J. 

Raber, Franklin 
Racheff, Ivan 
Radau, Hugo 
Radford, Mrs. W. A., Jr. 
Radniecki, Rev. Stanley 
Raff, Mrs. Arthur 
Raftree, Miss Julia M. 
Railton, Miss Frances 
Raithel, Miss Luella 
Ramis, Leon Lipman 
Randall, Charles P. 
Randall, Rev. Edwin J. 
Randall, Irving 
Randle, Mrs. Charles H. 
Raney, Mrs. R. J. 
Rankin, Miss Jessie H. 
Raymond, Mrs. 

Howard D. 
Razim, A. J. 

Reach, Benjamin F. 
Reach, William 
Redington, F. B. 
Reed, Mrs. Frank D. 
Reed, Mrs. Kersey Coates 
Reed, Norris H. 
Reed, Mrs. Philip L. 
Reeve, Mrs. Earl 
Reeve, Frederick E. 
Reffelt, Miss F. A. 
Regenstein, Joseph 
Regensteiner, Theodore 
Regnery, William H. 
Reich, Miss Annie 
Reichmann, Alexander F. 
Reid, Mrs. Bryan 
Remy, Mrs. William 
Renshaw, Mrs. Charles 
Renwick, Edward A. 
Rew, Mrs. Irwin 
Reynolds, Harold F. 
Reynolds, Mrs. J. J. 
Rice, Arthur L. 
Rice, Mrs. Charles R. 
Rice, George L. 
Rice, Laurence A. 
Rich, Elmer 
Richards, J. DeForest 
Richards, Marcus D. 
Richardson, George A. 
Richardson, Guy A. 
Richter, Mrs. Adelyn W. 
Rickcords, Francis S. 
Ricketts, C. Lindsay 
Riddle, Herbert H. 
Ridgeway, Ernest 
Ridgu'ay, William 
Riemenschneider, Mrs. 

Julius H. 
Ries, Dr. Emil 
Rieser, Mrs. Herman 
Rieser, Leonard M. 
Rietz, Elmer W. 
Rietz, Walter H. 
Rinder, E. W. 
Ring, Miss Mary E. 
Ripstra, J. Henri 
Rittenhouse, Charles J. 
Roberts, Clark T. 
Roberts, Mrs. John 
Roberts, John M. 
Roberts, Dr. S. M. 
Roberts, Shepherd M. 
Roberts, Mrs. Warren R. 
Roberts, William 

Robson, Miss Sarah C. 
Roche, Miss Emily 
Rockwell, Harold H. 
Roderick, Solomon P. 
Rodgers, Dr. David C. 

Rodman, Thomas 

RoehHng, Mrs. 

Otto G. 
Roehm, George R. 
Roesch, Frank P. 
Rogers, Miss Annie T. 
Rogers, Mrs. Bernard F. 
Rogers, Dr. Cassius C. 
Rogers, Joseph E. 
Rogers, Walter A. 
Rogerson, Everett E. 
Rolfes, Gerald A. 
Romer, Miss Dagmar E. 
Root, John W. 
Rosborough, Dr. Paul A. 
Rosen, M. R. 
Rosenlaaum, Mrs. 

Edwin S. 
Rosenfeld, Mrs. Maurice 
Rosenfield, Mrs. 

Morris S. 
Rosenfield, William M. 
Rosenthal, James 
Rosenthal, Kurt 
Rosenthal, Lessing 
Rosenwald, Mrs. Julius 
Rosenwald, Richard M. 
Ross, Robert C. 
Ross, Mrs. Robert E. 
Ross, Thompson 
Ross, Walter S. 
Roth, Aaron 
Roth, Mrs. Mar git 

Rothacker, Watterson R. 
Rothschild, George 

Rothschild, Maurice L. 
Rothschild, Melville N. 
Routh, George E., Jr. 
Rowe, Edgar C. 
Rozelle, Mrs. Emma 
Rubel, Dr. Maurice 
Rubens, Mrs. Charles 
Rubovits, Theodore 
Ruckelhausen, Mrs. 

Rueckheim, Miss Lillian 
Ruel, John G. 
Ruettinger, John W. 
Rushton, Joseph A. 
Russell, Dr. Joseph W. 
Russell, Paul S. 
Rutledge, George E. 
Ryan, Mrs. William A. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Edward L. 
Ryerson, Joseph T. 

Sackley, Mrs. James A. 
Sage, W. Otis 

462 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Salisbury, Mrs. 

Warren M. 
Salmon, Mrs. E. D. 
Sammons, Wheeler 
Sample, John Glen 
Sandidge, Miss Daisy 
Sands, Mrs. Frances B. 
Santini, Mrs. Randolph 
Sardeson, Orville A. 
Sargent, Chester F. 
Sargent, John R. W. 
Sargent, Ralph 
Sauter, Fred J. 
Sawyer, Dr. Alvah L. 
Schacht, John H. 
Schafer, 0. J. 
Schaffner, Mrs. Joseph 
Schaffner, Robert C. 
Scheidenhelm, Edward L. 
Scheinman, Jesse D. 
Schermerhorn, W. I. 
Schlake, William 
Schmidt, Adolf 
Schmidt, Dr. Charles L. 
Schmidt, Mrs. Minna 
Schmitz, Dr. Henry 
Schneider, F. P. 
Schnering, Otto Y. 
Schnur, Ruth A. 
Scholl, Dr. William M. 
Schram, Harry S. 
Schreiner, Sigurd 
Schroeder, Dr. George H. 
Schukraft, William 
Schulman, A. S. 
Schulze, Mrs. Mathilde 
Schulze, William 
Schupp, Philip C. 
Schuyler, Mrs. Daniel 

J., Jr. 
Schwanke, Arthur 
Schwartz, Charles K. 
Schwartz, Charles P. 
Schwarz, Herbert E. 
Schwarzhaupt, Emil 
Sclanders, Mrs. Alexander 
Scott, Robert L. 
Scribner, Gilbert 
Scully, Mrs. D. B. 
Seames, Mrs. Charles 0. 
Sears, Miss Dorothy 
Sears, J. Alden 
Sears, Richard W., Jr. 
Seaton, G. Leland 
Seaverns, George A. 
Seaverns, Louis C. 
Sedgwick, C. Galen 
See, Dr. Agnes Chester 
Seeberger, Miss Dora A. 
Seeburg, Justus P. 
Seifert, Mrs. Walter J. 
Seip, Emil G. 

Seipp, Clarence T. 
Seipp, Edwin A. 
Seipp, Edwin A., Jr. 
Seipp, WiUiam C. 
Sello, George W. 
Sencenbaugh, Mrs. C. W. 
Seng, Frank J. 
Seng, V. J. 
Senne, John A. 
Sennekohl, Mrs. A. C. 
Shaffer, Carroll 
Shaffer, Charles B. 
Shambaugh, Dr. GeorgeE. 
Shanesy, Ralph D. 
Shannon, Angus Roy 
Shapiro, Meyer 
Sharpe, N. M. 
Shaw, Alfred P. 
Shaw, Mrs. Arch W. 
Shaw, Theodore A. 
Sheldon, James M. 
Shelton, Dr. W. Eugene 
Shepherd, Mrs. Edith P. 
Sherman, Mrs. Francis 

C, Sr. 
Shields, James Culver 
Shillestad, John N. 
Shire, Moses E. 
Shoan, Nels 
Shorey, Clyde E. 
Short, J. R. 

Short, Miss Shirley Jane 
Shoup, A. D. 
Shumway, Mrs. Edward 

Sidley, William P. 
Siebel, Mrs. Ewald H. 
Sigman, Leon 
Silander, A. I. 
Silberman, Charles 
Silberman, David B. 
Silberman, Hubert S. 
Sills, Clarence W. 
Silverthorne, George M. 
Simond, Robert E. 
Simonds, Dr. James P. 
Sincere, Ben E. 
Sinclair, Dr. J. Frank 
Singer, Mrs. Mortimer H. 
Sitzer, Dr. L. Grace 

Skleba, Dr. Leonard F. 
Skooglund, David 
Sleeper, Mrs. Olive C. 
Smith, Mrs. Charles R. 
Smith, Mrs. E. A. 
Smith, Mrs. Emery J. 
Smith, Mrs. Frank S. 
Smith, Franklin P. 
Smith, Harold Byron 
Smith, Mrs. Hermon 


Smith, Jens 
Smith, Jesse E. 
Smith, Mrs. Katherine 

Smith, Mrs. Kinney 
Smith, Miss Marion D. 
Smith, Samuel K. 
Smith, Mrs. Theodore 

Smith, Walter Bourne 
Smith, Walter Byron 
Smith, Mrs. WiUiam A. 
Smith, Z. Erol 
SmuUan, Alexander 
Snow, Fred A. 
Snyder, Harry 
Socrates, Nicholas 
Solem, Dr. George O. 
Sonnenschein, Hugo 
Sonnenschein, Dr. Robert 
Sonneveld, Jacob 
Soper, Henry M. 
Soper, James P., Jr. 
Sopkin, Mrs. Setia H. 
Soravia, Joseph 
Sorensen, James 
Spencer, Mrs. Egbert H. 
Spencer, Mrs. William M. 
Spiegel, Mrs. 

Frederick W. 
Spiegel, Mrs. Mae O. 
Spitz, Joel 
Spitz, Leo 
Spitzglass, Mrs. 

Leonard M. 
Spohn, John F. 
Spooner, Charles W. 
Spoor, Mrs. John A. 
Sprague, Dr. John P. 
Spray, Cranston 
Squires, John G. 
Staack, Otto C. 
Stacey, Mrs. Thomas I. 
Staley, Miss Mary B. 
Stanton, Dr. E. M. 
Stanton, Edgar 
Stanton, Henry T. 
Starbird, Miss Myrtle I. 
Stark, Mrs. Harold 
Starrels, Joel 
Stearns, Mrs. Richard I. 
Stebbins, Fred J. 
Steele, W. D. 
Steffey, David R. 
Stein, Benjamin F. 
Stein, Dr. Irving 
Stein, L. Montefiore 
Stenson, Frank R. 
Sterba, Dr. Joseph V. 
Stern, Alfred Whital 
Stern, David B. 
Stern, Felix 

Associate Members 


stern, Maurice S. 
Stern, Oscar D. 
Stevens, Delmar A. 
Stevens, Edward J. 
Stevens, Elmer T. 
Stevens, Harold L. 
Stevens, Mrs. James W. 
Stevens, R. G. 
Stevenson, Dr. 

Alexander F. 
Stevenson, Engval 
Stewart, Miss Agnes 

Stewart, Miss Eglantine 

Stewart, James S. 
Stewart, Miss Mercedes 

Stibolt, Mrs. Carl B. 
Stiger, Charles W. 
Stirling, Miss Dorothy 
Stockton, Eugene M. 
Stone, Mrs. Jacob S. 
Straus, David 
Straus, Martin L. 
Straus, Melvin L. 
Straus, S. J. T. 
Strauss, Dr. Alfred A. 
Strauss, Henry X. 
Strauss, John L. 
Street, Mrs. Charles A. 
Stromberg, Charles J. 
Strong, Edmund H. 
Strong, Mrs. Walter A. 
Strotz, Harold C. 
Struby, Mrs. Walter V. 
Stulik, Dr. Charles 
Sturges, Solomon 
Sullivan, John J. 
Sulzberger, Frank L. 
Sutcliffe, Mrs. Gary 
Sutherland, William 
Sutton, Harold I. 
Swan, Oscar H. 
Swanson, Joseph E. 
Swartchild, Edward G. 
Swartchild, William G. 
Swenson, S. P. O. 
Swett, Robert Wheeler 
Swiecinski, Walter 
Swift, Mrs. Alden B. 
Swift, Edward F., Jr. 
Sykes, Mrs. Wilfred 
Sylvester, Miss Ada I. 

Taft, John H. 
Taft, Mrs. Oren E. 
Tarrant, Robert 
Tatge, Mrs. Gustavus J. 
Taylor, Charles C. 
Taylor, Frank F. 
Taylor, George Halleck 

Taylor, J. H. 
Taylor, L. S. 
Teagle, E. W. 
Templeton, Stuart J. 
Templeton, Walter L. 
Templeton, Mrs. William 
Terry, Foss Bell 
Teter, Lucius 
Thatcher, Everett A. 
Theobald, Dr. John J. 
Thomas, Emmet A. 
Thomas, Frank W. 
Thomas, Mrs. Harry L. 
Thomas, Dr. William A. 
Thompson, Arthur H. 
Thompson, Charles E. 
Thompson, Edward F. 
Thompson, Floyd E. 
Thompson, Fred L. 
Thompson, Dr. George F. 
Thompson, Mrs. John R. 
Thompson, John R., Jr. 
Thompson, Mrs. Leverett 
Thorne, Hallett W. 
Thorne, James W. 
Thornton, Dr. Francis E. 
Thorp, Harry W. 
Thresher, C. J. 
Thulin, F. A. 
Tibbetts, Mrs. N. L. 
Tighe, Mrs. Bryan G. 
Tilden, Averill 
Tilden, Louis Edward 
Tilt, Charles A. 
Titzel, Dr. W. R. 
Tobey, William Robert 
Tobias, Clayton H. 
Torbet, A. W. 
Touchstone, John Henry 
Towle, Leroy C. 
Towler, Kenneth F. 
Towne, Mrs. John D. C. 
Traylor, Mrs. Dorothy J. 
Tredwell, John 
Tripp, Chester D. 
Trombly, Dr. F. F. 
Trude, Mrs. Mark W. 
True, Charles H. 
Turner, Alfred M. 
Turner, Tracy L. 
Tuthill, Mrs. Beulah L. 
Tuthill, Gray B. 
Tuttle, Emerson 
Tuttle, F. B. 
Tuttle, Mrs. Henry N. 
Tyler, Mrs. Orson K. 

Ullman, Mrs. N. J. 
Ullmann, Herbert S. 
Upham, Mrs. Frederic W. 

Vacin, Emil F. 
Valentine, Joseph L. 
Valentine, Mrs. May L. 
Valentine, Patrick A. 
VanArtsdale, Mrs. Flora 
VanCleef, Mrs. Noah 
VanCleef, Paul 

Vanek, John C. 
VanNess, Gardiner B. 
VanSchaack, R. H., Jr. 
Van Winkle, James Z. 
VanZwoll, Henry B. 
Vaughan, Leonard H. 
Vawter, William A., II 
Veeder, Miss Jessie 
Vehe, Dr. K. L. 
Vehon, Morris 
Vial, Charles H. 
Vial, F. K. 
Vial, Miss Mary M. 
Vickery, Miss Mabel S. 
Victor, Mrs. Jessie K. 
Vinissky, Bernard W. 
Volicas, Dr. John N. 
VonColditz, Dr. G. 

vonGlahn, Mrs. August 
Voorhees, Mrs. Condit 
Voorhees, H. Belin 
Voynow, Edward E. 

Wager, William 
Wagner, Fritz, Jr. 
Wagner, Dr. G. W. 
Walgreen, Mrs. 

Charles R. 
Walker, James 
Walker, Mrs. Paul 
Walker, Samuel J. 
Walker, William E. 
Wallace, Robert Y. 
Wallace, Walter F. 
Waller, James B., Jr. 
Wallerich, George W. 
Wallovick, J. H. 
Walsh, Miss Mary 
Walther, Mrs. S. Arthur 
Ward, Edwin J. 
Ward, Mrs. N. C. 
Ware, Mrs. Charles W. 
Warfield, Edwin A. 
Warner, Mrs. John Eliot 
Warren, Allyn D. 
Warren, J. Latham 
Warren, Paul C. 
Warren, Paul G. 
Warren, Walter G. 
Washburne, Clarke 

Hempstead, Jr. 

464 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Washington, Laurence W. 
Wassell, Joseph 
Waterman, Dr. A. H. 
Watson, William Upton 
Watts, Harry C. 
Watzek, J. W., Jr. 
Waud, E. P. 

Wayman, Charles A. G. 
Wean, Frank L. 
Weaver, Charles A. 
Webster, Arthur L. 
Webster, Miss Helen R. 
Webster, Henry A. 
Wedelstaedt, H. A. 
Weil, Mrs. Leon 
Weil, Martin 
Weiler, Rudolph 
Weiner, Charles 
Weinstein, Dr. M. L. 
Weinzelbaum, Louis L. 
Weis, Samuel W. 
Weisbrod, Benjamin H. 
Weiss, Mrs. Morton 
Weissenbach, Mrs. 

Minna K. 
Weisskopf, Maurice J. 
Weisskopf, Dr. Max A. 
Welles, Mrs. Donald P. 
Welles, Mrs. Edward 

Kenneth . 
Wells, Arthur H. 
Wells, Harry L. 
Wells, John E. 
Wells, Preston A. 
Wells, Thomas E. 
Wells, Mrs. Thomas E. 
Wendell, Barrett, Jr. 
Wendell, Miss 

Josephine A. 
Wentworth, Mrs. 

Sylvia B. 
Werner, Frank A. 
West, J. Roy 
West, Miss Mary Sylvia 
West, Thomas H. 
Westerfeld, Simon 
Westrich, Miss T. C. 
Wetten, Albert H. 
Weymer, Earl M. 
Whealan, Emmett P. 

Armstrong, Arthur W. 

Bailey, Mrs. Edward W. 
Baird, Mrs. Clay 
Becker, Mrs. A. G. 
Blomgren, Mrs. Walter L. 
Bode, William F. 
Bridge, George S. 
Brown, Charles A. 
Bullard, Mrs. John A. 

Wheeler, George A. 
Wheeler, Leo W. 
Wheeler, Leslie M. 
Wheeler, Mrs. Robert C. 
Whinery, Charles C. 
White, Mrs. James C. 
White, James E. 
White, Joseph J. 
WTiite, Richard T. 
White, Sanford B. 
White, Selden Freeman 
Whitehouse, Hov/ard D. 
Whiting, Mrs. Adele H. 
Whiting, Lawrence H. 
Widdicombe, Mrs. R. A. 
Wieland, Charles J. 
Wieland, Mrs. George C. 
Wienhoeber, George V. 
Wilder, Harold, Jr. 
Wilder, Mrs. John E. 
Wilder, Mrs. T. E. 
Wilker, Mrs. Milton W. 
Wilkey, Fred S. 
Wilkins, George Lester 
Wilkins, Miss Ruth 
Wilkinson, Mrs. 

George L. 
Wilkinson, John C. 
Willey, Mrs. Charles B. 
Williams, Dr. A. 

Williams, Miss Anna P. 
Williams, Harry Lee 
Williams, J. M. 
Williams, Kenneth 
Williamson, George H. 
Willis, Paul, Jr. 
WilKs, Thomas H. 
Willner, Benton Jack, Jr. 
Wills, H. E. 
Wilms, Hermann P. 
Wilson, Mrs. E. Crane 
Wilson, Harry Bertram 
Wilson, Mrs. John R. 
Wilson, Miss Lillian M. 
Wilson, Morris Karl 
Wilson, Mrs. Robert 

Wilson, Mrs. Robert E. 
Wilson, William 

Deceased, 1938 

Gary, Dr. Frank 
Cook, Mrs. Wallace L. 
Cormack, Charles V. 
Cornell, John E. 

Dakin, Dr. Frank C. 

Edmonds, Harry C. 

Farrell, Rev. Thomas F. 
Freeman, Walter W. 

Grant, Alexander R. 

Winans, Frank F. 
Windsor, H. H., Jr. 
Winston, Mrs. Bertram M . 
Winston, Hampden 
Winston, James H. 
Winter, Irving 
Witkowsky, Leon 
Wojtalewicz, Rev. 

Frances M. 
Wolf, Mrs. Albert H. 
Wolf, Walter B. 
Wood, Mrs. Gertrude D. 
Wood, Mrs. Harold F. 
Wood, John H. 
Wood, Kay, Jr. 
Wood, Robert E. 
Wood, William G. 
Woodmansee, Fay 
Woodruff, George 
Woods, Weightstill 
Worcester, Mrs. 

Charles H. 
Work, Robert 
Works, George A. 
Worth, Miss Helen E. 
Wright, H. C. 
Wright, Warren 
Wrigley, Mrs. Charles W. 
Wunderle, H. O. 
Wyeth, Harry B. 

Yegge, C. Fred 
Y^erkes, Richard W. 
Yondorf, John David 
Yondorf, Milton S. 
Y'ondorf, Milton S., Jr. 
Yorkey, Mrs. Margaret 
Y'oung, E. Frank 
Young, George W. 
Young, Hugh E. 

Zabel, Max W. 
Zapel, Elmer 
Zerk, Oscar U. 
Zerler, Charles F. 
Ziebarth, Charles A. 
Zimmerman, Herbert P. 
Zimmerman, Louis W. 
Zinke, Otto A. 
Zork, David 

Hammond, Mrs. Idea L. 
Hartwell, Fred G. 
Hopkins, John L. 
Hoyt, Frederick T. 
Hudson, William E. 

Johnson, Albert M. 
Jones, Lester M. 
Judah, Noble Brandon 

Kopf, William P. 

Annual Members 


Learned, Edwin J. 
Llewellyn, Mrs. John T. 
Ludlam, Miss Bertha S. 

Magnus, August C. 
Manson, David 
Matz, Mrs. Rudolph 
McCluer, William 

McKeever, Buell 

Neely, Miss Carrie Blair 
Noelle, Joseph B. 
Norcross, Frederic F. 

Deceased, 1938 

Omo, Don L. 
Orr, Mrs. Eleanor N. 
Ostrom, Charles S. 
Otis, Raymond 

Poor, Mrs. Fred A. 

Quinlan, Dr. William W. 

Randle, Guy D. 
Rigney, William T. 
Robbins, Percy A. 

Sauter, Leonard J. 
Schaffer, David N. 

Tucker, S. A. 

Uhlmann, Fred 

Volk, Mrs. John H. 

Wagner, John E. 
Waller, H. P. 
Webb, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Wettling, Louis E. 

Young, Mrs. Caryl B. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $50 to the Museum 

Baum, Mrs. James 
Colby, Carl 

Day, Mrs. Winfield S. 
Mitchell, W. A. 
Niederhauser, Homer 

Phillips, Montagu Austin 
Stevens, Edmund W. 

Berkson, Mrs. Maurice 
Bernstein, Fred 

Carney, Thomas J. 
Chinlund, Miss Ruth E 
Cox, WilHam D. 


Those who contribute $25 annually to the Museum 

Florsheim, Harold M. Peel, Richard H. 

Louis, Mrs. John J. 

Mclnerney, John L. 

Sawyer, Ainslie Y. 
Slader, Thomas 
Somers, Byron H. 
Swigart, John D. 


Those who contribute $10 annually to the Museum 

Abeles, Jerome G. 
Adams, E. E. 
Adams, Harvey M. 
Adams, Hugh R. 
Adams, Samuel 
Addington, Mrs. 

James R. 
Agger, Jens 
Albert, Mrs. Lloyd G. 
Alcorn, W. R. 
Aldrich, Mrs. H. E. 
Aleshire, Mrs. Oscar E. 
Alessio, Frank 
Alexander, Harry T. 
Alford, Mrs. Laura T. C. 

Allen, Dr. A. V. 
Allen, Frank W. 
Allen, John D. 
Alrutz, Dr. Louis F. 
Alschuler, Samuel 
Altheimer, Ben J. 
Alton, Robert Leslie 
Amberg, Harold V. 
Amberg, Miss Mary 

Amos, J. A. 
Anderson, Mrs. A. W. 
Anderson, Arch W. 
Anderson, J. A. 
Anderson, Mrs. Lillian H. 

Angus, Mrs. John 
Anheiser, Hugo 
Anthony, Joseph R. 
Applegate, Mrs. Harry R. 
Arcus, James S. 
Armstrong, Horace White 
Armstrong, Kenneth E. 
Arndt, Albert 
Arnold, George G. 
Arnold, Mrs. Hugo F. 
Arnold, Mrs. J. Bertley 
Arthur, Miss Minnie J. 
Ashcraft, Edwin M., Ill 

466 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Atwood, Fred G. 
Austin, Edwin C. 
Austin, M. B. 
Auty, K. A. 
Avildsen, Clarence 
Ayer, Mrs. Walter 

Bachmann, Mrs. 

Harrold A. 
Bachmeyer, Dr. Arthur C. 
Bade, Mrs. William A. 
Baker, C. M. 
Balderston, Mrs. 

Stephen V. 
Balfanz, Henry W. 
Ballard, Mrs. E. S. 
Banes, W. C. 
Bankard, E. Hoover, Jr. 
Baril, W. A. 
Barker, James M. 
Barkhausen, Mrs. 

Henry G. 
Barkhausen, L. H. 
Barlow, Henry H. 
Barnes, Harold O. 
Barnes, Mrs. Harold 

Barnes, William H. 
Barrett, Mrs. A. M. 
Barrett, Miss Adela 
Bartholomay , William, Jr. 
Bartholomew, Mrs. F. H. 
Bartoli, Peter 
Baskin, Salem N. 
Beal, Henry S. 
Bean, Edward H. 
Bear, Mrs. Robert G. 
Becker, Mrs. Herbert W. 
Beddoes, Hubert 
Beers-Jones, L. 
Bell, George Irving 
Bender, Miss Caroline 
Bender, Mrs. Charles 
Bengtson, J. Ludvig 
Bennett, Edward H. 
Bennett, Miss Evelyn T. 
Bennett, N. J. 
Bennett, Mrs. Reid M. 
Bennington, Harold 
Benson, Frank A. 
Benson, Mrs. T. R. 
Bentley, Richard 
Berg, Sigard E. 
Berger, E. M. 
Berger, R. O. 
Bergh, Ross F. 
Berry, V. D. 
Bertol, Miss Aurelia 
Bestel, Oliver A. 
Biddle, Robert C. 
Biggio, Mrs. Louise T. 
Biggs, Mrs. Joseph Henry 

Bird, Herbert J. 
Birdsall, Carl A. 
Birdsall, Lewis I. 
Black, J. Walker 
Blackburn, Burr 
Blackburn, John W. 
Blair, Mrs. W. 

Blaker, Edward T. 
Bledsoe, Samuel T. 
Block, Mrs. Joseph L. 
Blomquist, Alfred 
Bloomfield, Mrs. Leonard 
Blosser, J. D. 
Blumenthal, Barre 
Blythe, Mrs. J. W. 
Bobb, Dwight S. 
Boeger, William F. 
Bogoff, Henry 
Bokman, Dr. A. F. 
Bolton, John F. 
Bond, William A. 
Bond, William Scott 
Bopp, Andrew R. 
Borcherding, E. P. 
Bothman, Dr. Louis 
Botthof, Walter E. 
Bowes, W. R. 
Bowman, Jay 
Bowman, Mrs. Jay 
Boyd, E. B. 
Boyd, Mrs. Henry W. 
Boyer, Mrs. J. E. 
Brachvogel, Mrs. 

Bradford, David H. 
Bradley, Herbert E. 
Brant, Mrs. C. M. 
Brashears, J. W. 
Braudy, Mrs. Louis C. 
Breen, James W. 
Bremner, Dr. M. D. K. 
Brewster, William E. 
Briggs, Dr. Clement 

W. K. 
Briney, Dr. William F. 
Broome, John Spoor 
Broome, Mrs. Thornhill 
Brossard, J. J. 
Brown, Miss Ella W. 
Brown, Gerard S. 
Brown, H. A. 
Brown, Miss Martha A. 
Brown, Dr. Ralph C. 
Brown, Mrs. Warren W. 
Brown, William A. 
Browning, Miss 

Browning, J. Roy 
Brucker, Dr. Matthew W. 
Brunkhorst, John Keenan 
Buchanan, Mrs. Perry B. 

Buchbinder, Dr. J. R. 
Buchen, Walther 
Buck, Mrs. A. F. 
Buckley, Mrs. Warren 
Budd, Mrs. Ralph 
Buker, Edward 
Bunnell, John A. 
Bunton, Miss Helen M. 
Burbott, E. W. 
Burch, Mrs. W. E. 
Burdick, Charles B. 
Burkhardt, Mrs. 

Ralph N. 
Burnet, Mrs. W. A. 
Burnham, Hubert 
Burridge, Mrs. Howard J. 
Burrows, Miss Louisa L. 
Busch, Francis X. 
Butler, Comfort S. 
Butler, Mrs. Gerald M. 
Byfield, Ernest L. 
Byrnes, William Jerome 

Cable, Arthur G. 
Caesar, O. E. 
Caine, Leon J. 
Callahan, Mrs. A. F. 
Callan, T. J. 
Calmeyn, Frank B. 
Campbell, Argyle 
Campbell, Donald A. 
Campbell, George F. 
Campbell, Mrs. John G. 
Campe, Frank O. 
Canavan, J. Newell 
Cardelli, Mrs. Giovanni 
Cardwell, Mrs. J. R. 
Carl, Otto Frederick 
Carlson, Mrs. Annetta C. 
Carlson, John F. 
Carpenter, Frank D. 
Carpenter, John Alden 
Carpenter, Mrs. Robert 
Carr, Henry C. 
Carry, Mrs. Edward F. 
Carter, Mrs. C. B. 
Carter, Mrs. R. B. 
Cassady, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Cassells, G. J. 
Castenholz, W. B. 
Castle, Sidney 
Caswell, Mrs. A. B. 
Cathcart, James A. 
Cavanagh, Harry L. 
Cawley, William J. 
Cedarquist, B. E. 
Cervenka, John A. 
Chandler, Charles H. 
Chandler, Dr. Fremont A. 
Chandler, George M. 
Chanock, T. 
Chapin, Rufus F. 

Annual Members 


Chapman, Ralph 
Chapman, Theodore S. 
Chapman, WilUam 

Chase, Carroll G. 
Chase, Derwood S. 
Chase, Samuel T. 
Chessman, L. W. 
Childs, Mrs. George W. 
Childs, Kent C. 
Chrissinger, Horace B. 
Christensen, E. C. 
Christensen, Henry C. 
Christiansen, Dr. Henry- 
Citron, William 
Clark, A. B. 
Clark, Mrs. Eugene 
Clark, George C, Jr. 
Clark, N. R. 
Clark, Mrs. Ralph E. 
Clark, Robert H. 
Clarke, Broadus J. 
Clarke, David R. 
Clarke, Mrs. PhiUp R. 
Clements, Mrs. Ira J. 
Clements, J. A. 
Clifford, Thomas B. 
Clissold, Edward T. 
Clizbe, Mrs. F. O. 
Clow, Kent S. 
Coe, Mrs. Schuyler M. 
Coen, T. M. 
Cohen, Archie H. 
Cohen, Irving Leslie 
Colby, Miss Agnes 
Cole, Samuel 
Coleman, Mrs. 

Adelbert E. 
Colenian, Hamilton 
Collins, Arthur W. 
Collins, Charles W. 
Collins, Mrs. Frank P. 
Combs, Earle M., Jr. 
Compton, Mrs. Arthur H. 
Condon, Thomas J. 
Conner, J. A. 
Connolly, R. E. 
Connors, Mrs. Thomas A. 
Consoer, Arthur W. 
Cook, Louis T. 
Cook, Sidney A. 
Cooke, Charles F. 
Coombs, Dr. Arthur J. 
Cooper, Charles H. 
Cooper, Mrs. Clay C. 
Cooper, R., Jr. 
Coppel, Mrs. Charles H. 
Corper, Erwin 
Craddock, John F. 
Cragg, Mrs. George L. 
Craig, E. C. 
Craigmile, Charles S. 

Craigmile, Miss 

Esther A. 
Cramer, Mrs. Ambrose 
Craske, Dr. W. D. 
Crawford, Adam W. 
Croft, Miss Mildred H. 
Cronkhite, A. C. 
Cronwall, Edward C. 
Crowell, Dr. Bowman 

Cummings, Mrs. Dexter 
Cuneo, Frank 
Cunningham, Secor 
Curtis, D. C. 
Cuscaden, Fred A. 
Cushman, Dr. Beulah 
Cuttle, Harold E. 

Dallwig, P. G. 
Dalzell, Harry G. 
Dangel, W. H. 
Daniel, Norman 
Danielson, Reuben G. 
Daspit, Walter 
David, Sigmund W. 
Davidson, David W. 
Da vies, William B. 
Davies, Mrs. William J. 
Davis, Charles C. 
Davis, Mrs. Charles P. 
Davis, Charles S. 
Davis, Mrs. F. Ben 
Davis, Miss Hilda G. 
Davis, Paul H. 
Davis, R. Edward 
Davis, Ralph W. 
Day, Mrs. Lewis J. 
Deacon, Edward F. 
Dean, Mrs. C. H. 
Dean, William D. 
Deane, Mrs. Ruthven 
DeBarry, CD. 
DeCamp, Harry E. 
Decker, Herbert 
Decker, Hiram E. 
Deffenbaugh, Walter I. 
Defrees, Mrs. Joseph H. 
Degener, August W. 
Dehning, Mrs. C. H. 
Deimel, Mrs. Jerome L. 
Demaree, H. S. 
Dempsey, William J. 
Denison, John W. 
Deniston, Mrs. Albert 

J., Jr. 
Denson, John H. 
DePencier, Mrs. 

Joseph R. 
DePeyster, Frederic A. 
Depue, Oscar B. 
Deree, William S. 
Dern, Dr. Henry J. 

D'Esposito, Joshua 
Dewey, Mrs. Charles S. 
Diamond, Louis E. 
Dick, Mrs. Edison 
Dicken, Clinton O. 
Dickerson, Earl B. 
Dickinson, Mrs. Welch 
Diem, Peter 
Diggs, Dr. Arthur E. 
Dillbahner, Frank 
Dimmer, Miss 

Elizabeth G. 
Dixon, Mrs. Wesley M. 
Donnelley, Thorne 
Donohue, Louis J. 
Doolittle, Douglass 
Dorney, Rev. Maurice A. 
Doubson, Mrs. Willa 

Douglas, Mrs. James H. 
Douglass, Mrs. W. A. 
Drake, L. J. 
Drell, Mrs. J. B. 
Dressel, Charles L. 
Dreutzer, Carl 
Drezmal, Max A. 
Dreyfus, Maurice M. 
Drielsma, I. J, 
Dry, Meyer 
Dulsky, Louis 
Dunham, M. Keith 
Dunlap, George G. 

Easton, J. Mills 
Eaton, Leland E. 
Eckart, Mrs. Robert P. 
Eckhouse, George H. 
Eckhouse, Mrs. 

Herbert F. 
Edell, Mrs. Fred B. 
Edgar, Guy A. 
Ehrmann, Dr. Fred J. E. 
Eisenberg, David B. 
Eitel, Emil 
Eitel, Karl 

Eldred, Mrs. Harriot W. 
Eldridge, Charles B. 
Elliott, Francke C. 
Elliott, Frank Osborne 
Elliott, William S. 
Ellis, Alfred E. 
EUis, Charles S. 
Ellis, Hubert C. 
Elmendorf, Armin 
Elmer, Dr. Rajonond F. 
Elston, Mrs. I. C, Jr. 
Embree, Henry S. 
Embree, J. W., Jr. 
Epstein, Mrs. Albert K. 
Erickson, Elmer 
Erminger, Mrs. H. B., Jr. 
Essley, E. Porter 

468 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Eulass, E. A. 
Evans, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Everett, Edward W. 
Evers, John W., Jr. 

Fabrice, Edward H. 
Fairlie, Mrs. W. A. 
Fairman, Miss Marian 
Falls, Dr. F. H. 
Fantus, Ernest L. 
Farnsworth, Mrs. Ward 
Farrar, Holden K. 
Farwell, Albert D. 
Feipel, Peter J. 
Felsenthal, Herman 
Feltman, Roland D. 
Fenton, J. R. 
Ferguson, Louis A., Jr. 
Ferry, Mrs. Frank 
Field, Mrs. J. A. 
Field, Mrs. 

Wentworth G. 
Fink, R. A. 
Finkl, Frank X. 
Fischer, Mrs. Louis E. 
Fish, Mrs. Sigmund C. 
Fisher, Stephen J. 
Fitzgerald, Dr. J. E. 
Fleischhauer, Herbert 
Fletcher, R. P. 
Flood, E. J. 
Florsheim, Leonard S. 
Flory, Owen 0. 
Floyd, Paul E. 
Flynn, Maurice J. 
Folsom, Mrs. William R. 
Ford, Mrs. Edwin S. 
Fordyce, Mrs. Rushton L. 
Forester, Mrs. Anne 
Forrest, Maulsby 
Forrester, Mrs. W. W. 
Fosburg, H. A. 
Foster, William S. 
Foucek, Charles G. 
Fowler, Edgar C. 
Fowler, Gordon F. 
Fowler, Walter E. 
Fox, Guy G. 
Frank, A. Richard 
Frazee, Seward C. 
Freeman, Thomas B. 
Freiler, Abraham J. 
Fremont, Miss Ruby 
French, George W. 
French, Dr. Thomas M. 
Freund, Erwin 0. 
Frick, Mrs. H. A. 
Frieder, Edward 
Fulton, Arthur W, 
Fulton, D. B. 

Gabel, Walter H. 
Gabriel, Adam 
Gale, Alaram 

Galloway, Dr. Charles E. 
Galvin, J. E. 
Gano, David R. 
Ganz, Mrs. Rudolph 
Gardiner, Mrs. John L. 
Gates, Philip R. 
Gatzert, Mrs. August 
Ceiling, Dr. E. M. K. 
Genge\'i, Ettore 
Gensburg, Louis W. 
Geraghty, Mrs. 

Thomas F. 
Gerber, Max 
Gibbs, William J. 
Gibbs, Dr. William W. 
Gilchrist, Miss Harriet F. 
Giles, Miss A. H. 
Gillett, W. N. 
Gillick, J. T. 
Gingrich, Arnold 
Glade, George H., Jr. 
Glader, Frank J. 
Glennon, Mrs. Fred M. 
Glynn, Mrs. John E. 
Coble, Mrs. E. R. 
Coddard, Mrs. Convers 
Goldberg, Mrs. Sol H. 
Goldman, Mrs. Louis 
Goldsmith, Henry M, 
Goldsmith, Mitchel 
Coodell, P. W. 
Goodkin, Alexander 
Goodman, Benjamin H. 
Grabiner, Harry M. 
Grade, Joseph Y. 
Graffis, Herbert 
Granstrom, P. Martin 
Crauer, Milton H. 
Graves, Mrs. George E. 
Gray, William A. 
Craydon, Charles E. 
Green, Walter H. 
Greenebaum, Mrs. Esther 
Greenhouse, Jacob 
Greenlee, Mrs. Ralph S. 
Greenlee, William B. 
Grein, Joseph 
Gressens, Otto 
Grey, Newton F. 
Gridley, Mrs. Martin M. 
Griesel, Edward T. 
Griesemer, Mrs. Itha 
Griffith, Mrs. G. H. 
Groebe, Louis G. 
Grossfeld, Miss Rose 
Grupe, Mrs. Sara Martin 
Guilliams, John R. 
Guinan, James J. 

Gunnar, Mrs. H. P. 
Guthrie, S. Ashley 

Haffner, Mrs. Charles 

C, Jr. 
Hagey, J. F. 
Hajek, Henry F. 
Hales, Mrs. G. W. 
Hall, Arthur B. 
Hall, Mrs. David W., Jr. 
Hall, Henry C. 
Hall, Louis W. 
Hall, Ross C. 
Hallett, L. F. 
Hamilton, Mrs. 

Chester F. 
Hamilton, Hugo A. 
Hamilton, J. R. 
Hammerman, Joseph M. 
Hammill, Miss Edith K. 
Hammond, C. Herrick 
Hansen, Adolph H. 
Hanson, Martin J. 
Harbison, Robert B. 
Hardenbrook, Mrs. 

Burt C. 
Hardin, George D. 
Harding, Mrs. Charles F. 
Hardy, Francis H. 
Harmon, Hubert P. 
Harpel, Mrs. Charles J. 
Harper, PhiHp S. 
Harper, Robert B. 
Harper, Samuel A. 
Harrington, George Bates 
Harrington, S. R. 
Harris, Benjamin R. 
Harris, Ewart 
Harris, Frank F. 
Harris, Mortimer B. 
Harrison, Dr. Edwin M. 
Harrison, William H. 
Harrold, James P. 
Harshaw, Myron T. 
Hart, Mrs. G. H. 
Hart, Mrs. H. G. 
Hart, Mrs. Harry 
Hart, Louis E. 
Hart, Max A. 
Hart, Robert H. 
Hart, Mrs. Walter H. 
Hartmann, Ernest F. L. 
Harvey, Byron S. 
Harvey, Mrs. Harold B. 
Hasely, C. C. 
Haskell, L. A. 
Hattstaedt, Mrs. John J. 
Hauser, J. C. 
Hawkes, Joseph B. 
Hawkins, Harold E. 
Hawkins, Mrs. R. W. 
Hawkinson, Dr. Oscar 

Annual Members 


Hawley, Mrs. Melvin M. 
Hawthorne, Vaughn R. 
Haywood, Mrs. William 
Headley, Mrs. Ida M. 
Healy, John J. 
Healy, Vincent E. 
Heavy, John C. 
Hebel, Oscar 
Heckel, Edmund P. 
Hedly, Arthur H. 
Heg, Ernest 
Heifetz, Samuel 
Helebrandt, Louis 
Heller, Fred M. 
Henderson, B. E. 
Henke, Frank X. 
Henkel, Milford F. 
Henner, Hyman I. 
Henning, Mrs. Helen E. 
Henriksen, H. M. 
Herendeen, Frederick 
Hertzman, Irving L. 
Herz, Alfred 
Hess, Edward J. 
Hess, Sol H. 
Hibbard, Angus S. 
Hibler, Mrs. Harriet E. 
Hicks, Mrs. Ernest H. 
High, Mrs. George H. 
High, Shirley T. 
Hill, Mrs. Cyrus G. 
Hill, Miss Meda A. 
Hillyer, John T. 
Hilpert, Dr. Willis S. 
Hilton, Henry H. 
Hinckley, Mrs. Freeman 
Hirsh, Morris Henry 
Hixon, H. Rea 
Hoadley, Mrs. Arthur G. 
Hoag, Mrs. Junius C. 
Hobbs, John W. 
Hodge, Thomas P. 
Hoff, C. W. 

Hollingshead, Mrs. A. G. 
Holt, McPherson 
Holter, Charles C. 
Honecker, Ralph H. 
Hood, H. M. 
Hooper, A. F. 
Horton, Mrs. Douglas 
Horton, Warren C. 
Horween, Arnold 
Horween, Isidore 
Horwich, Alan H. 
Hough, Frank G. 
Howard, Charles Lowell 
Howard, P. S. 
Hoyt, Dr. D. C. 
Hoyt, N. Landon, Jr. 
Hoyt, William M., II 
Hubachek, Frank 

Huettmann, Fred 
Huffman, P'rank C. 
Hughitt, Mrs. Marvin 
Huguenor, Lloyd B. 
Hungerford, Mrs. L. S. 
Hurd, Harry B. 
Huth, Mrs. C. F. 
Hyman, Mrs. David A. 
Hyndman, Mrs. A. H. 

Igoe, Mrs. Michael L. 
Illian, Arthur J. G. 
Immerwahr, Max E. 
Ireland, Mrs. Charles H. 
Irish, Dr. Henry E. 
Ivy, Dr. A. C. 

Jackson, Mrs. Arthur S. 
Jackson, G. McStay 
Jackson, Mrs. Pleda H. 
Jackson, W. H. 
Jackson, William F. 
Jacobs, E. G. 
Jacobs, Nate 
Jamieson, Norman R. 
Janda, Frank J. 
Jaques, Mrs. Bertha E. 
Jarvis, William B. 
Jeffers, Roy S. 
Jeffreys, Mrs. Mary M. 
Jeffries, Dr. Daniel W. 
Jeffries, Robert M. 
Jenkins, Newton 
Jenner, Mrs. Austin 
Jennings, Mrs. C. A. 
Jennings, S. C. 
Jensen, Mrs. Alfred 
Jensen, Miss Esther 
Jensen, H. J. 
Jewett, George F. 
Johns, Mrs. K. V. 

Johnson, B. W. 
Johnson, Edmund G. 
Johnson, George A. 
Johnson, Joseph M. 
Johnson, Miss Millie C. 
Johnston, A. J. 
Johnstone, Mrs. Bruce 
Jones, Mrs. C. A. 
Jones, Charles W. 
Jones, D. C. 
Jones, Howard B. 
Jones, Oliver 
Jones, Owen Barton 
Joy, James A. 
Judd, Mrs. Charles H. 
Juhn, Miss Mary 

Kaempfer, F. W., Jr. 
Kahlke, Dr. Charles E. 
Kahn, Paul J. 

Kann, Max M. 
Kannally, Michael V. 
Kanter, Dr. Aaron E. 
Kaplan, Benjamin G. 
Karker, Mrs. M. H. 
Karpen, Leo 
Katz, Solomon 
Kaufman, Mrs. J. Sylvan 
Kaufmann, Dr. 

Gustav L. 
Kaumeyer, Mrs. E. A. 
Kay, Dr. Webster B. 
Keck, WiUiam S. 
Keeler, CD. 
Keene, William J. 
Keim, Melville 
Keller, Mrs. Rose H. 
Kelley, L. Thomas 
Kelley, Mrs. Phelps 
Kellogg, James G. 
Kellogg, John Payne 
Kelly, Charles Scott 
Kelly, Frank S. 
Kelly, Miss 

Katherine Marjorie 
Kemper, Miss Hilda M. 
Kendall, H. R. 
Kenly, Mrs. William K. 
Kennedy, David E. 
Kenyon, Mrs. Edward F. 
Keplinger, W. A. 
Keyser, Charles F. 
Kharasch, Dr. M. S. 
Killelea, Miss Marie 
Kimball, T. Weller 
King, Frank L. 
King, H. R. 
King, J. Andrews 
King, Joseph M. 
King, Willard L. 
Kinne, Harry C. 
Klein, Mrs. A. S. 
Klein, Dr. David 
Kleinschmidt, Edward 
Kline, A. 
Kloese, Henry 
Klohr, Philip C. 
Klotz, George C, Sr. 
Knapp, Charles S. 
Knode, Oliver M. 
Knol, Nicholas 
Knutson, Mrs. George H. 
Koch, Carl 

Kohn, Mrs. Frances J. 
Koltz, George C, Sr. 
Koopmann, Ernest F. 
Koplin, Samuel M. 
Korengold, J. A. 
Kort, George 
Korten, Miss Hattie C. 
Kotas, Rudolph J. 
Kraemer, Leo 

470 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Krafft, Walter A. 
Kraft, John H. 
Krafthefer, James M. 
Kramer, A. E. 
Krasberg, Rudolph 
Krause, C. H. 
Krausman, Arthur 
Krawetz, Mrs. Johannes 
Krebs, Charles E. 
Kresl, Carl 
Kress, William G. 
Krier, Ambrose J. 
Krol, Dr. Francis B. 
Kruesi, F. E. 
Krum, Morrow 
Kuehn, Miss Katherine 
Kuehn, Oswald L. 
Kugel, Leonard J. 
Kuhnen, Mrs. George H. 
Kuhns, Mrs. H. B. 
Kunze, Edward L. 
Kurfess, W. F. 
Kurth, W. H. 
Kurtzon, George B. 
Kussman, A. C. 

Lachman, Harold 
LaCroix, J. V. 
Ladd, John W. 
Laird, Robert S. 
Lamb, George N. 
Landon, Robert E. 
Landreth, Mrs. John P. 
Landsberg, Mrs. Edward 
Lang, Frank A. 
Lang, Isidor 
Lange, A. G. 
Langert, A. M. 
Langford, Joseph P. 
Langhorst, Dr. Henry F. 
Lapham, Ralph L. 
Laramore, Florian 

Lasch, Charles F. 
Lau, Mrs. John Arnold 
Laud, Sam 
Law, M. A. 
Lawrence, Walter D. 
Lazelle, L. L. 
Lazerson, Abraham 
Leahy, T. M. 
Leavens, Theodore 
Lee, Lewis W., Jr. 
Lee, Mrs. W. George 
Lehman, Lawrence B. 
Lehman, 0. W. 
Leighty, Edgar R. 
Leonard, Dr. Joseph M. 
Leslie, John Woodworth 
Letterman, A. L. 
Levin, Louis 
Levis, John M. 

Levy, Mrs. Arthur K. 
Lewin, Miss Estella 
Lewis, Frank J. 
Lewis, Mrs. Walker O. 
L'Hommedieu, Arthur 
Lichtenstein, Walter 
Liebenthal, Mrs. John 

Lieboner, William S. 
Lifvendahl, Dr. 

Richard A. 
Lindeman, John H. 
Lindley, Arthur F. 
Lindsay, Mrs. Martin 
Lingott, Richard H. 
Linn, Mrs. James W. 
Lintuman, Miss Jennie 
Lipman, Abraham 
Little, Charles G. 
Little, F. C. 

Llewellyn, Mrs. Kenneth 
Llewellyn, Mrs. W. A. 
Lobdell, Harry H. 
Loeb, Arthur A. 
Loewenherz, Emanuel 
Loewenstein, Mrs. E. 
Loewenstein, Emanuel 
Loomis, Miss Marie 
Lorentz, Mrs. R. E. 
Love, Miss R. B. 
Ludlow, Mrs. H. 

Lurie, Mrs. George S. 
Lynch, Miss Mary E. 
Lyon, C. E. 
Lyon, Mrs. Jeneva A. 
Lyon, Mrs. William H. 

MacArthur, Fred V. 
MacChesney, Miss 

MacEachern, Dr. M. T. 
Macfarland, Mrs. 

Henry J. 
Macfarland, Lanning 
MacKechnie, Dr. 

Hugh N. 
Mackie, David Smith 
MacMillan, William D. 
Macomb, J. DeNavarre 
Maddock, Thomas E. 
Magerstadt, Madeline 
Magie, William A. 
Magill, John R. 
Malkov, David S. 
Manaster, Henry 
Manheimer, Arthur E. 
Manning, Guy E. 
Mansfield, Alfred W. 
Marks, Emanuel 
Marling, Mrs. 

Franklin, Jr. 

Marnane, James D. 
Marquart, Arthur A. 
Marquart, E. C. 
Marsch, Mrs. John 
Marston, Mrs. T. B. 
Martin, Webb W. 
Martin, Z. E. 
Marvin, W. Ross 
Mason, Dr. Ira M. 
Mason, Lewis F. 
Mason, Miss Ruth G. 
Massen, John A. 
Massey, Walter I. 
Mattes, Harold C. 
Matthews, Francis E. 
Matthews, J. H. 
Maurer, W. Edward 
Mawicke, Henry J. 
May, Mrs. George T., Jr. 
May, Sol 
Mayer, Arthur H. 
Mayer, Edwin W. C. 
Mayer, Frederick 
Mayer, Fritz 
Mayer, Herman J., Jr. 
Mayer, Oscar G. 
Mayer, Richard 
Mayer, Mrs. Walter H. 
Maynard, Edwin T. 
McAdams, Frank J., Jr. 
McAllister, M. Hall 
McAloon, Owen J. 
McArthur, Mrs. S. W. 
McCarthy, Mrs. 

Earl R. 
McClellan, K. F. 
McClure, Donald F. 
McCollum, Mrs. W. E. 
McConnell, Mrs. 

A. Howard 
McCormick, Alister H. 
McCormick, Miss 

EUzabeth D. 
McCoy, Charles S. 
McCreight, Marion 

McCurdy, John W. 
McDonald, E. F., Jr. 
McDonald, W. H. 
McDonnell, Mrs. E. N. 
McDougal, Mrs. 

Robert, Jr. 
McDowell, Miss Ada 
McDowell, Malcolm 
McFadden, Everett R. 
McGowen, Thomas N. 
McGrain, Preston 
McGreer, Mrs. John T. 
McGregor, James P. 
McGrew, Mrs. O. V. 
McGuire, Simms D. 
McKay, Miss Mabel 

Annual Members 


McKenna, Dr. Charles H. 
McKinstry, W. B. 
McKisson, Robert W. 
McLaughlin, Mrs. 

George D. 
McLaughlin, Dr. James H. 
McLaughlin, Mrs. 

Jesse L. 
McLaughlin, Dr. JohnW. 
McLean, Miss Sarah 
McManus, James F. 
McMurray, S. A. 
McNall, Quinlan J. 
McNally, Mrs. 

William D. 
McNamara, Robert C. 
McNamee, Peter F. 
McPherson, Donald F. 
McSurely, Mrs. 

William H. 
Mechem, John C. 
Medema, Peter J. 
Meek, C. P. 

Meek, Miss Margaret E. 
Meeker, Arthur 
Mehlhope, Clarence E. 
Meier, Mrs. Edward 
Meltzer, H. H. 
Melville, Hugh M. 
Merchant, Miss Grace M. 
Metz, C. A. 
Meyer, H. B. 
Meyerhoflf, A. E. 
Michaels, Joseph 
Michel, Dr. William A. 
Milchrist, Frank T. 
Millard, Mrs. E. L. 
Miller, Charles J. 
Miller, Williapi 
Mills, Mrs. James Leonard 
Milne, John H. 
Mitchell, Mrs. George R. 
Molay, Marshal D., M.D. 
Molter, Harold 
Montgomery, Mrs. 

Frederick D. 
Moore, Mrs. Agnes C. 
Moore, Dr. Beveridge H. 
Moore, E. E. 
Moore, Mrs. J. W. 
Moore, Nathan G. 
Moore, William F. 
Morgan, Clarence 
Mork, P. R. 
Morris, Ira Nelson 
Morris, Thomas J. 
Morrow, John Jr. 
Morton, Dr. Edward C. 
Moser, Paul 

Mountcastle, Mrs. M. E. 
Mowrer, Mrs. Paul Scott 

Mowry, Robert D. 
Mueller, Dr. E. W. 
Mulcahy, Mrs. Michael F. 
Mulhern, Edward F. 
Muller, Allan 
Murfey, E. T. R. 
Murphy, E. T. 
Murphy, Henry C. 
Murphy, John C. 
Murphy, J. P. 
Murray, J. C. 
Muter, Leslie F. 

Nast, Mrs. Samuel 
Nath, Bernard 
Nau, Otto F. 
Needham, Mrs. 

Maurice H. 
Neff, Mrs. E. Eugene 
Nelson, Byron 
Nelson, Charles M. 
Nelson, Hoogner 
Nelson, Walter H. 
Nelson, William H. 
Nessler, Robert W. 
Nevins, John C. 
Newman, Charles H. 
Newman, Mrs. H. H. 
Newman, Mrs. Jacob 
Newman, Montrose 
Nickerson, J. F. 
Nitka, Jesse 
Noble, Guy L. 
Noee, Miss Grace 

Nolte, Charles B. 
Norman, Dan 
Norris, Eben H. 
North, Mrs. F. S. 
Novy, Dr. B. Newton 
Nutting, C. G. 
Nyquist, Carl 

Oberman, Mrs. 
Abraham M. 
Obermeyer, Charles B. 
O'Brien, M. J. 
O'Brien, William L. 
O'Bryan, S. J. 
Ochsner, Dr. Edward H. 
Oldberg, Dr. Eric 
Oleson, John P. 
Olin, Edward L. 
Olin, Dr. Harry D. 
Olmstead, Ralph W. 
Olsen, Miss Agnes J. 
Olsen, Andrew P. 
Olson, John 
Olson, Rudolph J. 
O'Neill, Dr. Eugene J. 
Oppenheimer, Seymour 
Ormsby, Mrs. Frank E. 
Orr, Mrs. Fred B. 

Osborne, Raymond 
O'Shaughnessy, John P, 
Ossendorflf, Dr. K. W. 
O'Toole, Mrs. 

O'Toole, Dennis J. 
Owen, C. N. 

Palmer, Mrs. James L. 
Palmer, Robert F. 
Panosh, Roy W. 
Parker, George S. 
Pashkow, A. D. 
Passell, Charles A. 
Patch, Mrs. G. M. 
Pauley, Clarence O. 
Paulsen, Arthur N. 
Paulson, Miss Christine 
Paulus, Mrs. M. G. 
Paver, Paul W. 
Pearsall, R. E. 
Peirce, Mrs. Clarence A. 
Pencik, Miles F. 
Pentecost, Lewis J. 
Penticoff, M. C. 
Perry, Arthur C. 
Peterson, Dr. A. B. 
Peterson, C. J. 
Petrie, Dr. Scott Turner 
Pettibone, Mrs. 

Holman D. 
Pfaelzer, Mrs. Monroe 
Pfister, Mrs. C. Eugene 
Pflager, Charles W. 
Phelps, Erastus R. 
PhilUps, Howard C. 
Pickell, J. Ralph 
Pilling, Neville 
Pirie, Mrs. Gordon L. 
Pitt, A. A. 
Place, F. E. 
Plamondon, Alfred D. 
Plate, Ludwig 
Plattenburg, S. R. 
Plummer, Comer 
Plummer, Daniel C, Jr. 
Pohn, Jacob S. 
Pollard, Charles W. 
Pond, George F. 
Poole, Mrs. James E. 
Poore, William E. 
Potter, Mrs. T. A. 
Potts, Mrs. W. G. 
Poulter, Mrs. 

Thomas Charles 
Preetorius, Irwin W. 
Preus, Mrs. J. A. O. 
Prindle, James H. 
Pritchard, N. H. 
Propp, M. H. 
Pruitt, Raymond S. 
Pullman, Frederic A. 

472 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. XI 

Purrucker, Miss 

Louise M. 
Putnam, Rufus W. 
Puttkammer, Mrs. Ernst 

Quarrie, William F. 
Quellmalz, Frederick 
Quisenberry, T. E. 

Raeth, J. P. 
Railton, John R. 
Randall, Clarence B. 
Ranney, Mrs. George A. 
Rasmussen, Robert P. 
Rawlings, Mrs. I. D. 
Ray, Bert 
Raymond, Mrs. 

Clifford S. 
Rayner, Lawrence 
Rea, Miss Edith 
Read, Mrs. J. J. 
Reavis, WiUiam C. 
Redmond, Hugh 
Reed, Mrs. Frank C. 
Reed, Rufus M. 
Reed, Walter S. 
Regensburg, James 
Rehm, J. Albert 
Rein, Lester E. 
Reiss, William 
ReQua, Mrs. Charles H. 
Reuter, Mrs. Gustave A. 
Reutlinger, Harry F. 
Reuss, Mrs. Henry H. 
Reynolds, Mrs. G. 

Reynolds, Joseph Callow 
Rice, C. Leslie 
Rice, Joseph J. 
Rice, Mrs. W. W. 
Rich, Harry 
Richards, James Donald 
Richards, Oron E. 
Richardson, Henry R. 
Richardson, Dr. 

Maurice L. 
Richert, John C. 
Richter, Arthur 
Riel, George A. 
Riley, John H. 
Ripley, Mrs. 

Bradford W. 
Ritchie, Mrs. John 
Ritchie, R. H. 
Ritter, Emil W. 
Roadifer, W. H. 
Robbins, Charles Burton 
Robbins, Dr. James M. 
Robbins, Laurence B. 
Robinson, Miss Nellie 
Robinson, Reginald 


Robson, Mrs. Oscar 
Rockhold, Mrs. CharlesW. 
Rockola, David 
Rockwell, Theodore G. 
Roden, Carl B. 
Roeth, A. C. 
Rogers, Edward S. 
RoUins, Athol E. 
Rolnick, Dr. Harry C. 
Roman, B. F. 
Romaskiewicz, John 
Rosenberg, Mrs. 

Rosenfeld, M. J. 
Rosenfels, Hugo H. 
Rosenfels, Mrs. Irwin S. 
Rosenthal, Jerome B, 
Rosenthal, M. A. 
Rosenthal, Nathan H. 
Rosenthal, Samuel H. 
Rosner, Max 
Ross, Mrs. F. A. 
Ross, Mrs. Sophie S. 
Ross, William J. 
Ross-Lewin, Miss 

Roth, Arthur J. 
Rothstein, Mrs. Dave 
Rountree, Lingard T. 
Rowland, Hiram A. 
Rowland, James E. 
Rowley, Cliit'ord A. 
Rowley, William A. 
Roy, Mrs. Ervin L. 
Royal, Mrs. Joseph S. 
Rubens, Miss Doris 
Rubloff, Arthur 
Ruby, Samuel D. 
Rudin, John 
Ryan, C. D. 
Ryan, Mrs. Edward J. 
Ryan, Miss Helen Valerie 
Ryan, Mrs. Joseph D. 
Rynder, Ross D. 

Sachse, William R. 
Salmonsen, Miss Ella M. 
Sanborn, Mrs. V. C. 
Sandberg, Harry S. 
Sang, PhiUp D. 
Saslow, David 
Sawyer, Dr. C. F. 
Sawyer, W. M. 
Sayers, Mrs. A. J. 
Sayre, Dr. Loren D. 
Scallan, John William 
Schaffner, Arthur B. 
Schaus, Carl J. 
Scheel, Fred H. 
Scherer, Andrew 
Schermerhorn, Richard A. 
Schiltz, M. A. 

Schlachet, Herman 
Schlichting, Justus L. 
Schmidt, F. W. 
Schmidt, Theodore 
Schmitt, Mrs. George J. 
Schmus, Elmer E. 
Schnadig, E. M. 
Schneider, Benjamin B. 
Schobinger, Mrs. Eugene 
Schofield, Mrs. Flora 
Schu, Jacob 
Schueren, Arnold C. 
Schulte, Dr. Edward V. 
Schulz, Miss Myrtle 
Schulz, Mrs. Otto 
Schulze, John E. 
Schulze, Paul 
Schupp, Robert W. 
Schwab, Dr. Leslie W. 
Schwab, Martin C. 
Schwarting, Clarence J. 
Schwartz, Dr. Otto 
Schwede, Charles W. 
Schweitzer, E. O. 
Scofield, Clarence P. 
Scott, Frederick H. 
Scott, George A. H. 
Scott, George E. 
Scott, George H. 
Scott, Walter A. 
Scott, Dr. Walter Dill 
Scudder, Mrs. 

Lawrence W. 
Scudder, W. M. 
Secord, Burton F. 
Seehausen, Gilbert B. 
Selig, Lester N. 
Selz, Emanuel 
Senear, Dr. F. E. 
Seubold, Dr. F. H. 
Sexton, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Seymour, Mrs. Flora 

Shaffer, Mrs. Norman P. 
Shapiro, Isaac 
Shaw, John I. 
Shaw, Mrs. Walter A. 
Sheahan, Miss Marie 
Sheridan, L. J. 
Sherman, H. C. 
Sherman, Mrs. W. W. 
Sherwin, Mrs. F. B. 
Shippey, Mrs. CharlesW. 
Sholty, Lester J. 
Shrader, Frank K. 
Shultz, Earle 
Shultz, Miss Edith 
Shurtleff, Miss Lucille 
Sidney, John A. 
Siebel, Fred P. 
Sieck, Herbert 
Sievers, William H. 


Annual Members 


Sillani, Mrs. Mabel W. 
Simmons, Mrs. Charles R. 
Simonson, Roger A. 
Simpson, Mrs. Anita 
Simpson, John M. 
Sizer, William A. 
Sjostrom, Otto A. 
Skeel, Fred F. 
Skog, Mrs. Ludvig 
Slade, John C. 
Sloan, William F. 
Smart, Alfred 
Smith, Charles Herbert 
Smith, Glen E. 
Smith, Hawley Lester 
Smith, Dr. Milton L. 
Smith, Paul C. 
Smith, Reynold S. 
Smithwick, J. G. 
Sokolec, Maurice 
Sokoll, M. M. 
SoUitt, George 
Somerville, Mrs. Helen 
Sparrow, Mrs. W. W. K. 
Speed, Dr. Kellogg 
Sperling, Mrs. Grace 

Spiegel, Modie J. 
Sprague, Albert A., Jr. 
Staehle, Jack C. 
Stark, Rev. Dudley S. 
Steece, F. B. 
Steele, Mrs. Charles D. 
Steffensen, Sigurd 
Stein, Lawrence M. 
Steinfeldt, Dr. C. R. 
Steins, Mrs. Halsey 
Steinson, Henry G. 
Steinwedell, William 
Stern, Jacob S. 
Stevens, Francis O. 
Stewart, Miss Alma May 
Stewart, George J. 
Stewart, George R. 
Stewart, William 
Stier, Willard J. 
Stifler, Mrs. J. M. 
Stiles, J. F., Jr. 
Stilwell, Abner J. 
Stone, Mrs. John 

Storkan, Mrs. James 
Stout, Frederick E. 
Stowe, Merrill C. 
Stransky, Franklin J. 
Straus, Eli M. 
Straus, Henry H. 
Strauss, Marshall E. 
Straw, Mrs. H. Foster 
Strawbridge, C. H. 
Strigl, F. C. 
Strubel, Henry 

Stumes, Charles B. 
Sturla, Harry L. 
Sturtevant, CD. 
Sturtevant, Roy E. 
Sudler, Carroll H., Jr. 
Sullivan, Grey 
Sundell, Ernest W. 
Sundlof, F. W. 
Swanson, Frank E. 
Swift, T. Philip 
Symmes, William H, 
Symon, Stow E. 

Talbot, Mrs. 

Eugene S., Jr. 
Taradash, Lawrence 
Tatge, Paul W. 
Taylor, Mrs. Samuel G. 
Teller, George L. 
Tevander, Mrs. Olaf N, 
Thiebeault, C. J. 
Thomas, Mrs. 

Henry Bascom 
Thompson, Ernest H. 
Thornton, Everett A. 
Thornton, Randolph 
Thurber, Dr. Austin H. 
Todd, A. 

Todd, Miss Ruth G. 
Tonk, Percy A. 
Topping, John R. 
Towne, Claude 
Towner, Frank H. 
Townsley, Lloyd Roger 
Tracy, Howard Van S. 
Tracy, S. W. 
Trask, Arthur C. 
Traver, George W. 
Treat, Floyd C. 
Trees, Mrs. Merle J. 
Tremain, Miss Eloise R. 
Trier, Robert 
Trude, Daniel P. 
Truman, Percival H. 
Trumbull, Miss Florence 
Turck, J. A. V. 
Tyler, Alfred C. 

Ullmann, Mrs. Albert I. 
Urban, Andrew 
Utley, George B. 

Vail, Mrs. Arthur H. 
VanHagen, Mrs. 

George E. 
VanKirk, George M. 
VanVlissingen, Mrs. 

Etta D. 
Varty, Leo G. 
Vilas, Mrs. Lawrence H. 
Vivian, George 
Vogl, Otto 

vonHelmolt, Carl W. 
Vose, Mrs. Frederic P, 

Wachowski, Casimir R. 
Wacker, Frederick G. 
Wagner, Richard 
Waite, Roy E. 
Walcher, A. 
Waldeck, Herman 
Walker, Edgar H. 
Walker, Lee 
Walker, Stephen P. 
Walker, Wendell 
Wallach, Mrs. H. L. 
Wallgren, Eric M. 
Walpole, S. J. 
Walton, Lyman A. 
Ware, Mrs. Charles 
Warner, Mason 
Warren, L. Parsons 
Warren, William G. 
Wasson, Theron 
Watkins, Frank A. 
Watkins, Frederick A. 
Watson, Vernon S. 
Weast, Mrs. E. W, 
Weber, William F, 
Weber, W. S. 
Webster, Edgar C. 
Webster, James 
Webster, Dr. James R. 
Webster, N. C. 
Weeks, Mrs. Marcy T. 
Weidenhofif, Joseph 
Weil, Edward S. 
Weil, Mrs. Joseph M. 
Weil, Mrs. Victor 
Weiner, Charles 
Weiner, Samuel 
Weintroub, Mrs. 

Weirick,Miss Elizabeth S. 
Welch, L. C. 
Wells, Mrs. H. Gideon 
Wentworth, John 
Wentz, Peter Leland 
Werelius, Mrs. Axel 
Wescott, Dr. Virgil 
Westbrook, Ira E. 
Wetmore, Mrs. Frank O. 
Whedon, Miss Frances E. 
Wheeler, Mrs. Seymour 
Whipple, Roy A. 
Whipple, Miss Velma D. 
White, Mrs. F. Edson 
White, Linn 
White, W. J. 
Whitwell, J. E. 
Wickland, Algot A. 
Wickman, C. E. 
Wilder, Emory H. 
Wilds, John L. 

474 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. XI 

Wiley, Edward N. 
Wilhelm, Frank Edward 
Willard, Nelson W. 
Wille, Andrew 
Willens, Joseph R. 
Willett, Howard L. 
Williams, Charles Sneed 
Williams, Clyde O. 
Williams, Miss Florence 

Williams, Lawrence 
Willis, P. P. 
Wilson, Arlen J. 
Wilson, E. L. 
Wilson, Percival C. 
Winston, Mrs. Farwell 

Winterbotham, John 

R., Jr. 
Witkowsky, James 
Wood, Milton G. 
Woodyatt, Dr. RoUin 

Woolard, Francis C. 
Worthy, Mrs. Sidney W. 
Wray, Edward 
Wright, Miss Bertha 
Wrisley, George A. 
Wulbert, Morris 
Wyle, Mrs. E. A. 
Wyzanski, Henry N. 

Yates, Raymond 

Yavitz, Philip M. 
Y^once, Mrs. Stanley L. 
Y^oung, B. Botsford 
Y^oung, James W. 
Youngberg, Arthur C. 

Zadek, Milton 
Zahringer, Eugene V. 
Zangerle, A. Arthur 
Zeiss, Carl H. 
Zenos, Rev. Andrew C. 
Zglenicki, Leon 
Zimmermann, Mrs. P. T. 
Zipprich, Carl J. 
Zolla, Abner M. 
Zonsius, Lawrence W. 

Barrett, M. J. P. 
Baumann, Mrs. F. 0. 
Berlizheimer, Miss 

Lily A. 
Bournique, Alvar L. 
Buck, Nelson Earl 
Buethe, W. C. 

Crosby, Mrs. 
Frederick W. 

Ettelson, Samuel A. 

Graf, Emil 

Deceased, 1938 

Harmon, J. W. 
Harper, James H. 
Hathaway, Leonard W. 

Kramer, Henry 

Millsaps, J. H. 
Mulford, Frank B. 

Peterson, Leonard 
Pietsch, Walter G. 

Schwill, Julius 
Shepard, Guy C. 

Spry, George 
Stanbury, Dr. C. E. 
Street, C. R. 

Tankersley, J. N. 
Taylor, Harry G. 
Throop, George Enos 

Warren, A. G. 
Wedeles, Sigmund 
West, Mrs. Frederick T. 
Westerling, Olaf 
Whipple, A. J.