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Volume XII 

,iit LlbKARY OFlHi 

JUL 3 01942 










JANUARY, 1941 



rwW Ummm d Naiwvl HiMarr 

lUpuru. VoL IS. Ptai* IS 

t:iKi.«d • (> 


.alts* hc4d iM'pUniV'r Z-1 191' 






XV^ ^^ '"" 




JANUARY, 1941 


rtlNTBO IN THfi UNITED STATE*: f^* AVriirt 



List of Plates : 181 

Officers, Trustees, and Committees, 1940 183 

Former Members of the Board of Trustees 184 

Former Officers 185 

List of Staff 186 

Report of the Director 189 

Department of Anthropology 209 

Department of Botany 217 

Department of Geology 227 

Department of Zoology 235 

N. W. Harris Public School Extension 245 

James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for 

Public School and Children's Lectures 248 

Lectures for Adults 256 

Layman Lectures 257 

Library 258 

Publications and Printing 262 

Photography and Illustration 266 

Maintenance and Construction 267 

Public Relations 271 

Membership 274 

Comparative Attendance Statistics and Door Receipts . . 276 

Comparative Financial Statements 277 

List of Accessions 278 

Articles of Incorporation 294 

Amended By-Laws 296 

List of Members 302 

Benefactors 302 

Honorary Members 302 


180 roNT>:NTs 

Last of Members Continued rAcr 

Patrons :U)2 

Corrospondinjr Members :',0,'J 

Contributors 303 

( 'orporatc Members 304 

Life Members 304 

N'on-Resident Life Memlx-rs :',(»•', 

Associate Members 307 

Xon-Kesident Associate Members 321 

Sustaining Members 321 

Annual Members 321 



13. Colonel Albert A. Sprague 177 

14. Chinese Lacquered Wooden Grille 204 

15. Sasanid Portal 210 

16. Potato Planting in Peru 218 

17. Bee Swarm Orchid 222 

18. A Small Fossil Deer-like Mammal 226 

19. Alaskan Fur Seal Rookery 234 

20. Giant Carnivorous Bird 238 

21. North Island Kiwi 242 

22. Portable Natural History Exhibit for Chicago Schools . . 250 



Stanley Field 

First Vice-President Second Vice-President 

Albert A. Sprague Silas H. Strawn 

Third Vice-President Secretary 

Albert W. Harris Clifford C. Gregg 

Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith ( 


Lester Armour Albert W. Harris 

Sewell L. Avery Samuel Insull, Jr. 

W. McCoRMiCK Blair Charles A. McCulloch 

Leopold E. Block William H. Mitchell 


Walter J. Cummings Theodore Roosevelt 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Joseph N. Field Albert A. Sprague 

Marshall Field Silas H. Strawn 

Stanley Field Albert H. Wetten 

John P. Wilson 


Executive. — Stanley Field, Solomon A. Smith, Charles A. McCulloch, 
George A. Richardson, Albert A. Sprague, Marshall Field, 
Silas H. Strawn, John P. Wilson. 

Finance. — Solomon A. Smith, Albert W. Harris, Leopold E. Block, 
John P. Wilson, Albert B. Dick, Jr., Walter J. Cummings. 

Building. — Charles A. McCulloch, Albert H. Wetten, William H. 
Mitchell, Joseph N. Field, Lester Armour, 

Auditing. — George A. Richardson, W. McCormick Blair, Albert H. 

Pension. — Albert A. Sprague, Sewell L. Avery, Samuel Insull, Jr. 




CiKoRr.K K. Adams* 
(>\vKN F. Alois* 
Allison V. Armoik* 
Kt>\VARt> K. Aykr* 
John (*. ni.A<K* 
M. C. niLUK K* 
Daniel H. Birnham* 
Gk«>r<.k K. I^avls* 
Jamk-s W. Kli.swortm* 


Frank W. Ginsailis* 
Kmil G. Hir-'wh* 
Cmari.k-s L. Ultchlnson* 
John A. Kix-he* .... 
Martin A. Ryerson* 
Kdwin Wai.kkr* 
Watson F. Hlaik* 
William J. Chalmkr-s* 
Harmiw N. Hicinrotham' 
HrsTiNf.ToN W. Jackson* 
Arthir H. JoNt;s* 
George Manierre* 
Norman H. Ream* 
Norman Williams* 

TyRIS 11. McCoRMIiK* 

Marshall Field. Jr.* 


Geor<;e F. Porter* 

RirHARD T. f'RANE. JR.* 

John Harton Payne* 
Chaincey Keep* 
Henry Field* . . . 

William Wricley, Jr.* 
John Rorden 
James Simpson* 
Harry K. By ram 
?]RNf:sT R. Graham* 
D. C. Davies* 
Charles H. Makkhvm* 
Frederick H. K\\vs..s* 
Stephen C. Simms* 
William V. Kelley* 
Fred W. Sarc.ent* 
Leslie Wheeler* 
* Dbcsasso 


1 - 'J 



1- <9 
1 1 
\ - •! 

1 - ' ■ "'l 
1-. . . .'4 
1^9.-] 1S94 
1S93 1910 
1894 1927 


J kf, 1 1-09 

1 - . .<; 

1902 1921 

1915 1929 

1916 1917 

ll'_. .._.S 



1 :• 5 




Edward E. Ayer* 1894-1898 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1898-1908 

First Vice-Presidents 

Martin A. Ryerson* 1894-1932 

Second Vice-Presidents 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1902 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1902-1905 

Stanley Field 1906-1908 

Watson F. Blair* 1909-1928 

James Simpson* 1933-1939 

Albert A. Sprague 1929-1932 

Third Vice-Presidents 

Albert A. Sprague 1921-1928 

James Simpson* 1929-1932 


Ralph Metcalf 1894 

George Manierre* 1894-1907 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1907-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 

Stephen C. Simms* 1928-1937 


Byron L. Smith* 1894-1914 


Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1893-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 

Stephen C. Simms* 1928-1937 

* Dexibasbd 




Clifkoru C. Grkcc 


I'aii. S. Martin, (huf ( urator 

HknRV KtKl.l>. Curator, Phufical Anthropology 

Ai.HKRT H. I>KWIS,* Curolm, .\/. ' ' •' lo-jv 

WlI.KRIP n. HAMni.Y. I'urntoT. ;i, 

C. MaKTIS Wimur, (urnlor, Chinr.'f Arc ■ nnl<;i 

KicHARP A. Martin, Cura/nr, .\><jr /■; •;/!/ 

Al-EVANHKR Slt)KHR. Aftijilarxl Curator, American Kthnology and Arehcfology 

A. I-. KrokhF-R, iirsearch A»Mci'' '■-• ---an Archarology 

MaRJoRIK. Kkm.Y, Anfocinte, . Archaeology 

John Hinai.imi, A»foc\aic, >■ 

T. (Ik«»R(;k Al.I.KN. /iVj«rarr/i .Ifl- iAng\i 

KoRKRT Yule, Aii»i»tant, Archaeology 


B. E. I)aHI,<;RKN. Chief Curator 

Pait, C. Standi. KY. ('wninr. Herbarium 

.1. Frantis MacbrIDK, a ('urator, Uerfxirium 

Julian A. SteykrmaRK, a ./ Curator, Hrrharium 

PliANCIs DROUFrr. Curator, Cryptogamic Botany 

Ll.KWF.l.YN Williams, Curator, Kcono" • '' • my 

SaMI F.L .1. RF.fORn, Research Agnociate. \\ hnology 

E. E. Smf.rfF, limcnrch Anfociate, S-. • Hotany 

Emil Sella. Chief Prcparator. ,\ i!f 

Milton Copulos, Arti»t-Preparator 


Hknry \V. NirHoi„s, fViiV/' 

El.MF.R S. Rl<;(;.s, Curator, P.j f/ 

Bryan Patterson, Assistant Curator, i 'ogy 

V\\\. (►. McfrREU, A!*»U(tant Curator, I 'ogy 

JaMF> H. Qt inn, Chief Prcparator. /' gy 


Henry HKRrKRS, ,\ >logy 

Bryant Mather, Aasistant t urator. Mineralogy 


W '' - - ■■•■,/■■.■, 

Colin ' ' mmaU 

Ki i>'i KHi> Hoi 1 

C. E. Heli.mayr. .1 '■'.j> 

Emmet R. Blake. 
Boarpman Conover. .. '- 

I><n IS B. Bishop. A'. 

FALLEN T. Smith. ' a. Trayi.or, .!i. , -.;. 

K. Maooon Barnes, (urator, hirdf' Kgg» 

Karl P. Sthmidt, - - < - > i. '...-= v HfptUfs 

Clifforp \\. Pope. A ■« and Reptile* 

W fit 

RlTKRT L. WkNZF:L, .4*-»i.''''7"< < wnj.'nr, Inufcit 

Fritz Haas, ('urator, lAtver Inrrriehrntff 

Epmond N. Gueret,* (^urator. Anatomy and (Meology 

D. DwiGHT Davis, Curator, Anatomy and Ofteology 

'DBCSAIBD. 1940 



Julius Friesser C. J. Albrecht 

L. L. Pray Leon L. Walters 

W. E. EiGSTi John W. Moyer 

Frank C. Wonder, Assistant Taxidermist 

Frank H. Letl, Preparator of Accessories 

Nellie Starkson, Artist-Preparator 


John R. Millar, Curator 
A. B. WoLCOTT, Assistant Curator 


Emily M. Wilcoxson, Librarian 
Mary W. Baker, Associate Librarian 
Eunice Gemmill, Assistant Librarian 

registrar auditor 

Henry F. Ditzel Benjamin Bridge 

Warren E. Raymond, Assistant Registrar 
A. L. Stebbins, Bookkeeper 

recorder— in charge of publication distribution 

Elsie H. Thomas 
purchasing agent the book shop 

Robert E. Bruce Noble Stephens, Manager 


Miriam Wood, Chief 
Leota G. Thomas Elizabeth Hambleton 

Marie B. Pabst Bert E. Grove 

Loren p. Woods 

public relations counsel 

H. B. Harte 
Paul G. Dallwig, the Layman Lecturer 

DIVISION OF memberships 

Pearle Bilinske, in charge 


Farley H. Wade, in charge 
Lillian A. Ross, Editor and Proofreader 


C. H. Carpenter, Photographer Carl F. Gronemann, Illustrator 

Herman Abendroth, Assista7it Photographer 

John Janecek, Assistant Illustrator 

A. A. Miller, Collotyper 

Clarence B. Mitchell, Research Associate, Photography 

staff artist 

Arthur G. Rueckert 

general superintendent 

W. H. Corning 
James R. Shouba, Assistant Superintendent 

CHIEF engineer 

William E. Lake 

captain of the guard 

E. S. Abbey 




To the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History: 

I have the honor to present a report of the operations of the 
Museum for the year ending December 31, 1940. Again I am 
privileged to report substantial successes in many lines of activity. 
Perhaps the principal emphasis has been placed upon the rehabili- 
tation of the building itself. For several years financial conditions, 
and the pressure of new construction and expansion have interfered 
to some extent with both ordinary and extraordinary maintenance 
of the splendid structure housing our collections. During the 
past year it has been possible to refinish completely the roof of the 
building, replacing all materials found to be defective or in a state 
of deterioration. The renewal of downspouts begun the year before 
was brought to completion. The exterior of the entire building was 
gone over carefully by tuckpointers so that all open cracks which 
might work to the detriment of the structure were cleaned, filled, 
and properly pointed. The terrace wall surrounding the building 
was also checked over in detail and all cracks filled and pointed. 
Many of the marble blocks which had been pushed out of position 
by repeated frosts were removed and reset. Excavations were 
made behind the walls for the purpose of removing and replacing 
any of the supporting structure in need of attention. Every effort 
has been made to perfect this work so that the building will be 
water tight and winter tight. A severe degree of wear and tear is 
normal in any building subjected to the climatic extremes charac- 
teristic of the Chicago area, particularly any structure in such 
an isolated and exposed location as the Museum's site. It is a 
source of great satisfaction, therefore, to realize that increased 
maintenance efforts have now checked the effects of these conditions, 
and that necessary repairs have been made or are well under way. 

The principal exhibition feature of note was the opening on 
July 31 of the new Hall of Babylonian Archaeology (Hall K), 
bringing to a culmination the work of about seventeen years, begin- 
ning with the Field Museum-Oxford University Expedition to Kish 
(1923-33). The central feature of this hall is the reconstruction of a 
gateway of the Sasanid period (Plate 15). A new departure is the instal- 
lation of a frieze composed of enlarged copies made from impressions 
of tiny cyhnder seals excavated at Kish. The cases, lighting, and 


190 FiKLD MrsKiM OF N'ATtrRAL HISTORY Kkports. Vol, 12 

armnKemcnt of the hall are such as to brinj; it into complete harmony 
and unity. It tells a most interesting story of this ancient civilization 

Another outstanding new exhibit completed is a habitat jfroup 
representing? the "home life" of fur seals in the Pribilof Islands, 
Alaska < Plate 19 >. instalU^I in the Hall of Marine Mammals ' Hall N). 
Containing forty animals, including! huj^e "bulls," as the mature males 
are calle<l. the much smaller "cows" or females, and the "pups" 
or youn« seals, this ^oup is one of the larjjest exhibits in the Museum- 
and i)robably is the larjiest fur seal jn"oup in any museum. Twenty, 
four birds of species inhabiting the same environment as the seal.^ 
also appear in the proup. The animals were collected in 1937 by 
a special expe<lition conducted for the purpose by Staff Taxidermist 
r. J. Albrecht. who s]>ent more than two years after his return in 
preparation of the exhibit. 

romi)letion of another irnpDrumi new exhibit which has long 
been in preparation occurred! with the han^in^j of the last jrroup of 
"The World's FcmmI Plants' murals, painted by Mr. Julius Moessel, 
in the Hall of Pood Plants Hall 2') . Ki>jht of these were hung in 
the previous year, and the nine additional ones placed on the walls 
in 1910 complete the project. The paintings depict vividly the 
husbanding and transportation of the world's important vegetable 
pnxiucts. They are of interest not only for the story they tell, 
which co-onlinates with the exhibits of economically important 
j)lants and plant products in the hall, but also as decorative 
works of art i Plate 16). 

Detailed accounts of other new installations, and rLai.sLaiiaiioii.< 
of exhibits, will be found in the departmental sections of this Report 

The exhibition program at Field Mu.seum is approaching the 
point where a vastly difTerenl type of exhibit will come more and 
more into use. The plans for the construction of habitat groups of 
animals and birds of the world have almost come to complete 
reali7^tion. The next few years will bring about a change in exhibi- 
tion technique as new material is prepared. The emphasis will 
turn from "what things are " to the "how " and "why" of their bein^ 
.A pioneer in this program is the new exhibit, brought out during 
1940. entitled "What is a Bird? " This exhibit shows graphically 
the main features distinguishing the birds from mammals and 
reptiles, and gf>es into such detail as the presentation of cross sections 
of the tubular bones of birds, enlargecl sections illustrating the 
structure of feathers, and other diagrammatic and explanator. 

Introduction 191 

In connection with the opening of the Hall of Babylonian Archae- 
ology (Hall K) the Museum published an illustrated leaflet, Ancient 
Seals of the Near East, by Mr. Richard A. Martin, Curator of Near 
Eastern Archaeology. Likewise, when the last of the "World's 
Food Plants" murals was hung in Hall 25, a leaflet. The Story of 
Food Plants, by Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, Chief Curator of Botany, 
was published. 

On the radio Field Museum continued its educational work 
through the medium of a series entitled "How Do You Know?" 
given through the courtesy of the National Broadcasting Company 
over its Blue Network. I am especially indebted to Miss Judith 
Waller of N.B.C. and to the University Broadcasting Council for 
their fine co-operation and help in this series. It was our attempt 
not only to tell the listening public facts revealed by science, but to 
reveal as well the methods by which scientific conclusions are 
reached. Through this program it was hoped further to establish 
in the popular mind the authenticity of scientific research and the 
correctness of its resulting conclusions. 

Upon the invitation of the Zenith Radio Corporation, Field 
Museum presented a series of television programs. These, of course, 
were entirely experimental and were devised for the purpose of testing 
the effectiveness of television as an educational medium for trans- 
mitting scientific information. The results clearly indicate the 
tremendous value this medium will possess when it has been per- 
fected, as it will then carry to millions of children in schoolrooms, 
as well as to other audiences, a story of science which will reach 
them both aurally and visually at the same time. It will be possible 
to demonstrate chemical experiments or to exhibit poisonous reptiles 
without any danger whatever to the observer. It will be possible 
to show rare specimens, which should not be entrusted to the risks 
of even the best transportation facilities, to persons many hundreds 
of miles distant. The possibilities are, in fact, such as to challenge 
the imagination and best efforts of all who are interested in producing 
an enlightened citizenry. 

In the expansion of the educational work of Field Museum I am 
particularly pleased to commend the work of Miss Miriam Wood, 
Chief of the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation 
for Public School and Children's Lectures, and of her entire staff 
of guide-lecturers. This small and effective group of workers is 
seizing every possible opportunity to promote progressive education 
through lectures in the Museum and in the classrooms of Chicago's 

11>2 FiKi.1) MrsKiM OF Natirai. History IJi murs, Vol. 12 

m'h«M)Is. through the printwi "Field Museum Sloric«/' and ihrouRh 
mime<>j;nii)he«l shoots of information or of questions and answers. 
In conjunction with the Chicaj^o Puhhc Sch(K)l HroadcistinR Council 
and radio stations assix-iateil with il, there has been developed a 
system of radio follow-ups whereby desijjnated represcntiitives from 
various soh(X)ls come to the Museum after the broadcast* and receive 
additional instruction in the subjects that were featured over the air. 
Mrs. liOota G. Thomas of the Raymond Foundation, as Chairman of 
the Chicago Museum Sch(X)ls Relations Committee of the Progressive 
Education A.HwxMation, has been instrumental in patherinji and 
co-ordinatinp material of preat value in the furthenince of co-opera- 
tive e<lurational endeavor. It is rejrretted on the part of the liay- 
mond Foundation that Mr. I/)ren P. WcxkIs, for two and one-half 
years a member of its stalT, was transferred to the Department of 
Zoolojo' at the end of the year. In comi)en.s;ition, however, Mr. 
WixKJs has assumed a pasition of increased responsibility and 
opportunity, as Assistant Curator of Fi.shes. 

Kqually important in the field of co-operation with the schools 
are the activities of the X. W. Harris Public School Kxtension, 
which had another successful year of operation. Resides continuinjf 
its regular bi-weekly .schedule of circulating traveling exhibits to 
nearly .')(X) schools antl other institutions through which an aggregate 
of .some r)00,0()() children are repeatedly reached even.- year, the 
Harris Kxten.sion has developeil new types of exhibits, new ser\-ices, 
and various technical improvements. How well this department 
of the Museum is fulfilling its functions was shown again in 1940, 
as in so many other years, by the many letters of commendation 
receiveti from teachers, principals, school oflicials, and large numbers 
of the .s<'hool children themselves. 

Due to troubled conditions in Kurope and A.sia. Field Mu.seum 
.sent out no exi>editions beyond the limits of the western hemi.sphere. 
It is essential, however, that research work be continued, and 
expeditions must ever be one of the es.sential activities of a great 
research mu.seum. F'xpeditions are neces.sar>- in order to procure 
examples of new and unknown .species; they are necessar>- to round 
out incomplete representations of plant and animal life, human 
cultures, or rocks and minerals, .so as to establish comprehen.sive study 
collections as a basis for reference and further determinations; 
they are necessar>- for the training of the newer and younger members 
of the scientific staff, a comprehen.sive knowledge of the 
subjects within the scope of a museum cannot be obtained alone 

Introduction 193 

from the study of books and isolated specimens. It is essential that 
the biologist have knowledge of plants and animals in their native 
surroundings; that the geologist have knowledge of rocks and 
minerals as they naturally occur; that the ethnologist and archae- 
ologist have knowledge from personal contact with contemporaneous 
civilizations or the buried relics which their predecessors left behind. 

This year, for the fourth time, Mr. Leon Mandel sponsored and 
led an expedition aboard his yacht, collecting birds, mammals, 
fishes, and reptiles that inhabit little-known islands and keys of 
the Caribbean — almost forgotten tiny possessions of the United 
States, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, and British Honduras, At the 
end of the year, Mr. Mandel was planning another expedition to 
the Galapagos Islands and the coast of Peru. The expedition was 
scheduled to sail early in January, 1941. 

The Magellanic Expedition of Field Museum, which began during 
the summer of 1939 its work in various parts of South America, 
including the southernmost tip of that continent, completed its 
work in 1940. Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Chief Curator of Zoology 
and leader of the party, returned in April, and Mr. Colin C. Sanborn, 
Curator of Mammals, returned in June. 

Details of these and other expeditions will be found in the 
departmental sections of this Report. 

From the Chicago Park District the Museum received during 
the year $58,130.33 as compared with $86,093.85 received in 1939. 

In my report for the year 1939 I stated that the legislative act, 
under which the Chicago Park District levied a tax to aid in the 
support of Field Museum of Natural History and other museums, 
was invalidated by the Illinois Supreme Court during the year. 

I am now happy to report that during the year 1940 an act 
was passed by the Legislature of the State of Illinois which corrected / 
the technicality which led to the nullification of the first act. The ■ 
first tax collections under the new act will become due in 1941. 

Credit for framing and passage of this act is due to one of our 
Trustees, Colonel Albert A. Sprague, and to Mr. Frederick C. Hack, 
Mr. Charles J. Calderini, Mayor Edward J. Kelly, and Mr. Robert 
J. Dunham, President of the Chicago Park District, without whose 
help and co-operation the matter could not have been brought to a 
satisfactory conclusion. 

Of considerable interest and importance is a change in the staff 
of Field Museum brought about by the retirement of Dr. Wilfred H. 

194 FiKU) Ml SKIM OK Natikai, Histohy KKinmrs, Vol. 12 

OsK'fMxl, who jointnl the stall July 1. Hxni, and has been, sine*' 
NovemJHT 1. IIJ'JI. Chief Cunitor of the Department of Z<k»Io^';. . 
Dr. OsjjcKxl is the first to be retire*! under the provisions of the 
|K»nsion plan announre<i in the Annual ReiMirt of VXVJ. Fortunately, 
his retirement (1«h's not take from Field Museum the services of this 
outstanding st-ientist, but rather jiives to this institution and to the 
entire field of science his best efforts by virtue of freeinjj him from 
the routine details of administerinj? a department. It ha« long been 
a matter of sincere rejfret on my part that the system in vojfue in 
our ureat mu.s«nmis has been such as to reward outstanding scientists 
by making them chief curators, in which jxjsiiion administrative 
duties largely interfere with the scientific re.-^arch which is of out- 
standing interest to them and of panimount value to the world. 
Since the system cannot be changed arbitrarily at the moment, it 
is gratifying to know that the workings of the pension fund may 
at least bring back into active scientific study many of those men 
who have served well, who have l>een honored by appointment to 
positions of administrative resjKinsibility. and who are willing at 
last to lay aside those cares to re-engage in the activities in which 
they are pre-eminently neetled. 

Mr. Karl V. Schmidt, who has headefl the Division of Amphibians 
and Reptiles at Field Mu.seum .^nce .August 1. 1022, succeeds Dr. 
OsgcKKJ as Chief Curator of the Department of Z(K)l()gy. While I 
rejoice at this honor so justly bestowed upon him, I must voice 
my regret at the interference with his .scientific endeavors that it is 
bound to pnxluce. Mr. ClifTord H. Pope joined the stafT of Field 
Museum during the year and .succeeds Mr. Schmidt as Curator 
of Amphibians and Reptiles. 

Other retirements, new ap|K)intments, promotions*, and chanj^es 
in jKTsonnel occurred, ;us follows: 

Mi.Hs Miriam Wood was appointed C hief of the James Nel.son 
and .Anna I/iuise Raymond Foundation for Public School and 
Children's Ixvlures. taking the place of Margaret M. Cornell, 
who retirefl at the end of l^'.VJ. Woo<I had been a member of 
the Raymond Foundation staff .since 1U20. Karly in the year, Mr. 
Bert K. Grove joined the Raymond P'oundation .staff as a lecturer. 

Mr. I.iljeblad. .V.ssistant Curator of In.sects, retired on 
pen.sion. and Mr. Rupert L. Wenzel was appointed to the position 
thus vacated. 

Dr. .Alexander Spoehr was appointed As.sistant Curator of 
American F^thnology and Archaeology. 

Introduction 195 

Dr. Francis Drouet, having completed a two-year appointment 
as Curator of Cryptogamic Botany, was given a permanent appoint- 
ment to that position. Mr. D. Dwight Davis, Assistant Curator 
of Anatomy and Osteology, was promoted to Curator; Mr. Paul 
0. McGrew, Assistant in Paleontology, was promoted to Assistant 
Curator, and Mr. James H. Quinn, Assistant, was promoted to 
Chief Preparator in Paleontology, these promotions to be effective 
from January 1, 1941. 

Mr. John Janecek was appointed Assistant Illustrator, and Mrs. 
Eunice Gemmill was appointed Assistant Librarian. Mr. Farley H. 
Wade was placed in charge of the Division of Printing, succeeding 
Mr. Dewey S. Dill. Miss Nellie B. Starkson was appointed Artist- 
Preparator in the Department of Zoology. 

Mr. John William Harrison, a preparator in the Department of 
Anthropology for many years, was retired on pension, as were Mr. 
A. W. Mahlmann, pressman in the Division of Printing, and Messrs. 
John Weber and Patrick Walsh, Museum guards. 

A few temporary appointments for specific tasks and periods of 
time were made, and several new preparators, guards, and clerical 
assistants were employed during the year. 

The Museum was again indebted, as it has been for several years 
past, for assistance in research work and other activities by a group 
of volunteer workers who have toiled faithfully. Some of these 
workers are named in the List of the Staff at the beginning of this 
book, being designated by the titles "Research Associate" and 
"Associate," which distinguish them from salaried workers. One 
other in the list, Mr. Paul G. Dallwig, with the title "The Layman 
Lecturer," also serves without compensation. Grateful acknowl- 
edgment is herewith made to all the volunteers so listed, and also 
to the following: Miss Anne Harding, Miss Virginia Coward, Miss 
Jane Darrow, and Miss Margaret Ross, who worked in the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology; Mr. Donald Richards, Mrs. G. B. Stifler, 
and Dr. V. 0. Graham, who assisted in the Department of Botany; 
Mr. Leonard C. Bettson, Jr., and Mr. John M. Schmidt, who 
helped in the Department of Geology; Miss Elizabeth Best, Mr. 
Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., and Mrs. M. J. Taylor, who worked in the 
Department of Zoology; and Mr. Clarence L. Brown, who served as 
a volunteer on the lecture staff of the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

As in former years, it is my privilege and pleasure to commend 
especially the splendid work done by workers supplied by the Work 

196 FiKi.D Mlskum «)K N'ah kai, Histoky RnmRTs. Vol. 12 

Projects Administration, a fcnlenil Rovernment aRency. Over the 
|)eri«Kl of years that this agency has co-oi>enile<I with Field Museum 
many of its workers have (levelope<I a hi^h degree of skill. Re})ea' 
ediy, \\ r A workers have become employees of Field Museum aa 
vacanrie.s (Hcurre<i for which they were fjualified. Many of the 
tasks on which they were engayo*! have he<-ome pnictically dei>endent 
upon them, and it is with regret that the tendency toward re<luction 
of personnel on this project is noted. Many objectives have been 
reached, however, and new methods coupled with improved efficiency 
must be relied upon to hold the gains made passible with the xssist 
ance of this organi/^ition. It is especially desire<I to commend the 
whole-hearted co-ojx^ration of Jessie Steers, Resident Superin- 
tendent of the Project. The average number of men and women 
employefl by the WI'A at Field Mu.^eum during 1940 was 165. 
The highest number at any one time was 2(X). The aggregate man- 
hours worketl by the entire force was approximately 257,400. 

On September 1. the Director of the Museum was called into 
the service of the I'nited States Army, serving as a Major of Infantr>* . 
on the Special Staff of the Sixth Corps Area Headquarters, in 
Chicago. It is desired to express here to the President and the 
Hoard of Trustees of the Mu.seum his appreciation for their 
liberality in aminging for the continuation of the essential control 
of the institution by the Director despite the limited time which, 
temporarily, he is able to devote to that responsibility. It is also 
desired to record the appreciation of the entire staff of the Museum 
for the action of the Hoard of Trustees which guarantees, to ever>* 
man called into service of the armed forces of the United States for 
a one-year periofi under Public Resolution No. 96 or the Selective 
Ser\ice and Training Act of 1940. the return of his former position 
when he is able to resume it. and the continuation without cost t 
him of all in.surance and pension benefits then in force. 

For the third successive year, paid admissions to the Mu.seum 
decline<^i despite an increase in total attendance. The total number 
of visitors received at the Museum during 1940 was 1.450,68.'i. 
exceeding the 1939 attendance by more than 40,000; the paid admis- 
sions, however. numbere<l only S0.SH8 as against 8.'i.518 in VXV.r 
91.097 in 193JS. and 94.217 in 1937, which was the last year shoeing 
an increase in paid admissions. 

The uninterrupted growth of total attendance year by year shows 
that the Museum is fulfilling its educational and cultural mi.s.sions 
for an ever greater public. This fact is a source of gratification. 

Introduction 197 

The decrease in paid admissions is not in itself a matter of great 
moment since it is not the Museum's aim to develop door receipts 
as a major source of revenue. Nevertheless, in times like the present 
and the several years past, when income from other sources has 
declined, the decrease also in paid admissions emphasizes the financial 
problems of an institution dependent chiefly on income from invest- 
ment of endowment funds, and on contributions. 

As I have noted in past years, the total effectiveness of the 
Museum's services to the public is by no means measured by the 
citation of any one figure such as total attendance of more than 
1,450,000. To get a truer picture of the institution's sphere of 
influence, it is necessary to add to this figure the numbers of children 
reached by the activities of the Harris Extension and the Raymond 
Foundation, and when this is done it is found that the total number 
of persons directly reached is close to 2,200,000. But even this 
does not tell the whole story, for there is a further and greater 
public whose numbers must run into many millions throughout this 
country, and abroad, to whom scientific information of Field Museum 
origin is brought indirectly through many other channels such as 
radio, publications, and press reports. 

Special programs within the Museum itself brought a combined 
total attendance of 126,951. Included in this category are the 
spring and autumn courses of lectures for adults on Saturday after- 
noons in the James Simpson Theatre; the spring, summer, and autumn 
motion pictures for children presented in the Theatre by the Ray- 
mond Foundation ; the daily and special guide-lecture tours for adults 
and children; the Sunday afternoon lectures presented by the 
Layman Lecturer, Mr. Paul G. Dallwig; and a number of programs 
for special groups to which the use of the Theatre and Lecture Hall 
was extended. 

Among special groups of visitors coming to the Museum during 
the year were the adult graduating class of the Chicago Public 
Schools, whose commencement exercises were held in the James 
Simpson Theatre in June; the Delta Delta Delta sorority, which 
attended a special lecture by Mr. Paul G. Dallwig, the Layman 
Lecturer, in July; a group of 65 librarians from Michigan towns and 
cities, sent in November by the Kellogg Foundation to make special 
studies at the Museum; the Mid-West Federation of Geological 
Societies, which held its meetings at the Museum in December; and 
the groups of young delegates sent to the Museum annually in 
December by the National Congress of Four-H Clubs. The Four-H 

198 FiKi.i) MrsKiM of N'atiral History IU:i»i)RTs, Vol. 12 

jn"oup> in VMi) numbercHi 1.522 boy.s and jfirls from farms of the 
I'nilCHl Slates and Canada, an increiise of more than 50 per cent 
over the jfroups of the previous year. These groups, CMpecially 
selected as rewards for k(xx1 work, represent the cream of North 
American rural youth. Their ronjrress is held simultaneoualy with 
the International Live Stock P>xp<>sition which also i« the source of 
many additional adult visitors received at the Museum each 
Deceml>er. At the Live Stock Kxpf>sition the Museum co-operated 
by displaying a number of the tnivelinR exhibits circulated by the 
N. \V. Harris Public School Kxtension. 

The Annual Meeting of the Board of Trustees held January 
15, at which time Mr. Stanley Field was re-elected for his thirty- 
second consecutive year as President of the Museum. Mr. Silas H. 
Strawn was elected Second Vice-President, fiilinK the vacancy 
caused by the death in the previous year of Mr. James Simpsor. 
All other Officers of the Museum were re-electe<i. At the December 
16 meeting of the Trustees, Mr. Boardman Conover was elected to 
membership on the Board, filling a vacancy which had existed for 
a year. Mr. Conover for many years has been interested in and 
intimately associated with the work of Field Museum and has 
served voluntarily on the staff as Research Associate in Ornithology 
since 1924. He has been a member and leader of several important 
Museum expeditions, and has contributed jjenerously to help 
finance them. For his services and his contributions, the Trustees 
had previously honore<l him at various times by electing him a 
Patron, a Contributor, a Corporate Member, and a Ufe Member 
of the Museum. 

In recognition of recent eminent ser\ices to the Museum, Colonel 
Albert A. Sprague. Mr. PYetierick C. Hack, and Mr. Charles J 
Calderini were electe<l Patrons of the Museum at a meeting of the 
Board of Trustees held September 28. 

At the September meeting, the Museum Trustees also voted to 
add the names of Mr. Charles H. Schweppe and the late Charles K. 
Knickerbocker to the list of Contributors to the Mu.seum a list, 
maintained in perpetuity, of all persons whose contributions to the 
institution, in money or materials, range from $l,rHX) to $100,000. 
At their meeting of November 18, the Trustees elected Mrs. Frederick 
S. Fish, of New York, a Contributor. Mr. Schweppe's election was 
in recognition of generous cash contributions for the carrying out 
of an exhibition project now in preparation. Mr. Knickerbocker 
was posthumously elected in recognition of his gift of a notable 

Introduction 199 

collection of more than 10,000 birds' eggs, many of them extremely 
rare, which with previous collections in the Museum gives this 
institution representation of virtually all species of North American 
birds' eggs. The election of Mrs. Fish followed her gift of a pair 
of remarkable carved marble lions from China, which have been 
added to the exhibits in George T. and Frances Gaylord Smith 
Hall (Hall 24, Chinese Archaeology). 

One new Life Member, Mr. Hughston M. McBain, of Chicago, 
and one Non-Resident Life Member, Mr. Oscar U. Zerk, of Kenosha, 
Wisconsin, were elected during 1940. 

Beginning on page 302 of this Report will be found complete 
lists of all classes of Museum Members. The total number of 
memberships, as of December 31, 1940, was 4,225. There is thus 
a small gain over the previous year, when the number on the corre- 
sponding date was 4,171, and, as this is the second successive year 
in which a gain has been made, it may be hoped that it indicates 
a reversal of the previous trend toward decline. The administration 
of the Museum deeply appreciates the support given it by the civic- 
minded citizens who are enrolled as Members. The continued 
growth of membership represents an important source of hope for 
the continued expansion of the Museum's scientific and educational 

At a meeting of the Trustees, held May 27, action was taken to 
change the name of the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) to "Martin A. 
and Carrie Ryerson Hall," in memory of the late Martin A. Ryerson 
and the late Mrs. Carrie Ryerson, both of whom were notable 
benefactors of this institution. 

With deep regret, record must be made of the death on February 4. 
1940, of Mr. Fred W. Sargent. Mr. Sargent had been a Trustee of 
the Museum from 1929 until June 19, 1939, when ill health compelled 
him to resign. For a number of years he was a member of the 
Auditing Committee. 

Note is regretfully made of the death of Mr. Rufus C. Dawes, 
on January 8, 1940. His passing was a great loss to Chicago, and 
to the Museum of Science and Industry, of which he was President. 
In this loss the administration of Field Museum feels a distinct 
share, for although his own institution demanded most of his time 
and energy, Mr. Dawes was keenly interested also in the work of 
Field Museum, and was a Life Member of this institution. 

Two veteran members of the scientific staff passed away during 
the year. Dr. Albert Buell Lewis, Curator of Melanesian Ethnology, 

200 ViVA.D MisKiM OF Natirai. History IU.ports, Vol. 12 

(litHl on (VtoluT 10. in his sovcnty-fourth year. Ht- had bwn a 
member of the Museum slafT since HM)H. prior to which he had built 
up a scholarly background as student and graduate student at the 
University of Chicago and Columbia Tniversity, and as instructor 
at the I'niversity of N'ebniska. Dr. Ix*\vis's leadership of the 
Joseph N. Field South Pacific Kxpt^lition il909 13t resulted in 
bringing to Field Museum an ethnological collection which ha.*^ 
few rivals anywhere in the world in the completeness of iLs represen- 
tation of the cultures of such regions as New Guinea, New Britain, 
and Xew Caledonia. As a result of his researches, the Museum wa.>^ 
able to publish noteworthy contributions to ethnology. He wa-s :t 
P^ellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
and the American Anthropological Ass<x:iation, and a member of 
Sigma Xi. 

Mr. Kdmond Xarcis (iueret, Curator of Anatomy and Osteolog>'. 
diet! on November 30, at the age of eighty-one. P'ully sixty-five 
years of his life were devoted to his specialty, the preparation of 
animal skeletons and special o.steological di.ssections which layman 
and st'ientist alike recognize as among the best that human fingers 
could devise. The teaching materials in a dozen me<iical .sch(K)Is. 
the halls of osteological e.xhibit.s in many mu.-^ums especially Field 
Mu.seum, whose staff he joiner! in 1900, and innumerable prepara- 
tions in Field Museum's research collections remain as lasting monu- 
ments to his skill. 

Mr. John liuettner, a pen.sioner of Field Mu.seum. who had served 
as a carpenter and preparator from 1894 to 19.37, died on July 21. 

I'nder the Mu.seum's group insurance policy. $.3.(X>0 was paid 
to the widow of Dr. I>ewis, $2,r)00 to the widow of Mr. Gueret, and 
$2,000 to the widow of Mr. Huettner. 

As usual, the Mu.seum is indebted to a number of individuals for 
contributions of funds to insure its progress and the maintenance 
of its activities: and to many others for gifts of materials to expand 
the exhibits, the research collections, and the Library. The gratitude 
of the institution is herewith extended to the donors of all such 
contributions. In the following paragraphs will be found acknowl- 
edgments of some of the outstanding contributions of funds (the 
list is not complete in a few instances donors desiring to 
remain anonymous have requested that their gifts be not publicly 

The continued generosity of Mr. Marshall Field, member of the 
Board of Trustees, which has been of such major importance year 

Introduction 201 

after year in sustaining the Museum over its most difficult financial 
problems, was again manifested with gifts in 1940 amounting to the 
munificent total of $284,680.73. 

Gifts from Mr. Stanley Field, President of the Museum, totaled 
$22,700 and were placed in a special fund to be used for such purposes 
as may later be announced. 

From Mrs. James Nelson Raymond, Founder of the James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public School 
and Children's Lectures, there were received gifts totaling $6,000 
to be used in meeting the operating expenses of that division of the 

Mr. Charles H. Schweppe contributed the sum of $2,500 toward 
the costs of a proposed exhibition project, and pledged himself to 
meet the further costs when ascertained. 

Mrs. Clarence C. Prentice made a contribution of $1,000 to the 
Leslie Wheeler Fund for the continued purchase of specimens of 
birds of prey required to expand the collection begun by the late 
Leslie Wheeler, former Trustee of the Museum. 

The Jewish Welfare Fund, of Chicago, by a final contribution of 
$500, paid the balance of its pledge of funds toward the salary of a 
scientist employed on the Museum staff. 

The Rockefeller Foundation contributed $1,000 as a salary for 
the temporary employment of an archaeologist to carry out a special 
research project in connection with Chinese archaeological and 
historical material. Mr. Malcolm Farley, the expert employed for 
this purpose, unfortunately died during the course of the work, but 
the project is being carried to completion by his widow, assisted by 
other archaeologists. 

The late Frederick T. Haskell left the Museum a bequest of 
$10,000. A legacy of $8,000 was designated for the Museum in the 
will of the late William B. Storey. 

In the departmental sections of this book will be found details 
of the many gifts of material received for the collections of the 
Museum; such gifts are noted also in the complete List of Accessions 
which begins on page 278. 

One of the most notable gifts received during 1940 consists of 
X-ray apparatus, fluoroscopic screen, mechanical devices for auto- 
matic control and timing, and all other accessories required for the 
installation of a unique exhibit whereby an Egyptian mummy will 
be shown intermittently with the projection of the X-rayed image 

202 FiKLD MrsKiM of N'atiral History Rkports. \'ol. 12 

of its skeleton. This e<iui{)nient was presentwl to the Museum by 
the (leneral Klectric X-ray Corporation, of Chicago, which durinp 
two exposition seasons operate*! it, with a mummy lent by P'ield 
Museum, as a feature of the (Jeneral Klectric exhibits at the New 
York World's Fair ( 1939 40 >. The roentpenojfraphic and mechanical 
devices used for the purpose were espoiially designed and built 
by the technical and enpineerinp staffs of the X-ray company, and 
represent an investment of many thousands of dollars. The Museum 
plans to install this exhibit in a special chamber to be constructed 
in the Hall of Kpyptian Archaeology Hall J) early in 1941, and the 
General Klectric X-ray Corporation has generously offered the 
services of its technical experts to in completion of this project. 
The popularity of the exhibit at the Xew York P'air, where it was 
viewe<l by approximately 9.000.000 visitors, indicates that it should 
prove to be an outstanding public attraction when it has been 
permanently installer! at the Museum. 

Field Museum's collection of Chinese ivor>' objects was more 
than doubled by a bequest of the late Louis L. Valentine, gi\'ing 
his entire private collection to this institution. Some ver>' fine and 
old specimens are included in this bequest. P^.specially noteworthy 
are a number of late Ming ivories of the sixteenth and seventeenth 

From Mr. Michael Lemer, of Xew York, the Museum received 
two very- interesting specimens for in the new Hall of Fishes 
(Hall Oi, which is in preparation. One of these is a large Pacific 
bl.T^k marlin: the other is a thresher .shark. 

-Mr. P^mil Liljeblad. As.sistant Curator of In.sects, who retired 
during the year, made a noteworthy gift of his personal collection 
compri.sing some 2.500 comparatively small beetles from California. 
This acqui.sition will greatly improve the Museum's representation 
of the many kinds of beetles found in that state. ^Ir. Liljeblad 
also made a notable contribution of books and pamphlets to the 
Museum Librar>'. 

A major project of reconstruction and rearrangement in the 
Museum Librar>- was begun in the latter part of the year, and 
should be completed early in 1941. This involves converting the 
former stackroom into a new reading room, and requires rebuilding 
the ceiling at a lower level to co-ordinate with a new system of 
indirect lighting by fluorescent tubular lights concealed in coves 
around the edges of the ceiling. In addition to improved lighting, 
the new reading room will offer better facilities for the comfort and 

Introduction 203 

convenience of visitors, and will be more accessible to them when 
they arrive on the third floor by the passenger elevator. Also, 
the better arrangement will make it possible for attendants to give 
more efficient service. Included in the reconstruction work are the 
creation of new offices for the Librarians, and the conversion of the 
old reading room into a stackroom. The plans for this work are 
so drawn, and the schedule of construction so timed, that all of the 
work will be completed without interruption of the Library's service 
to the public while the changes are being made. 

Plans were completed and the first phases of work undertaken 
for a complete reinstallation of H. N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31 — 
the Gem Room), and the hall was temporarily closed for this purpose 
on September 24. It is expected that the project will be completed, 
and the hall reopened, early in 1941. New types of exhibition cases 
and improved lighting will make the display of precious stones much 
more attractive, and make it possible for those who are interested 
to study gem characteristics under better conditions than heretofore. 

To protect valuable material in offices, laboratories, workshops, 
storerooms, and libraries on the third floor from casual marauders, 
wire partitions with sliding doors were installed at the head of the 
eight stairways leading to that floor. Such protection is most 
important, especially on Saturday afternoons, Sundays, and holidays, 
when the majority of the staff are absent. The doors are kept 
locked at all such times. 

In addition to painting backgrounds for several habitat groups 
opened during the year, and for others still in preparation. Staff 
Artist Arthur G. Rueckert made studies for certain murals. These 
are planned for addition to the series on outstanding forms of plant 
life, begun in Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall (Hall 29) of the 
Department of Botany by a former Staff Artist, the late Charles A. 

Success continued to mark the operation of the Book Shop 
established in the Museum in 1938. Indicative of growing public 
confidence has been an increase in the number of sales made on mail 
orders. Visitors to the Museum found a larger and more varied 
stock of books available for over-the-counter sales. The policy of 
offering only the best books in the fields related to the Museum's 
work was maintained. Before any book, either for adults or children, 
is accepted for display and sale it must first be passed upon by a 
member of the institution's scientific staff qualified to exercise 
judgment in the particular subject to which the book pertains. 

2(M KiF.i.i) Mrsi-:rM ok Xatural History Kki'orts, Vol. 12 

The exhibits; at Firld Museum continued to serve as inspirational 
material for sketohinK and painting; by students of the School of the 
Art Institute of Chicago. The professional art school sent classes 
to study problems (x-currinj? in such courses as the history of art. 
drawing, composition and research, and pattern design. The classes 
for chiUlren. known as the Saturday Junior Department, were 
brought to Field Mu.seum by in.structors as a part of the regular 
curriculum. This co-operation is a source of satisfaction to both 

The five hundre<lth anniversary* of the invention in Europe of 
printing from movable t>7)e, and the four hundredth anniversary 
of the first printing in America, were commemorated in 1940 through- 
out the nation by printers, publishers, and libraries. Field Museum, 
in concert with other institutions, recognize<l this occasion. Two 
special exhibits of b(K)ks from the Mu.seum's Library were placeii 
on display, one in Stanley P'ield Hall in the summer, and one in 
Albert \V. Harris Hall in the autumn. 

The first of these temporar>' exhibits was devoted to some of the 
world's oldest, and some of its most beautiful, books on natural 
history. Among the old ones were French. Dutch, Venetian, 
and derman works publishe<l in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Feature<l for beauty were such books as the great "ele- 
phant folio" edition of Audubon's The Birds of America. In order 
to demonstrate the progress of .scientific writing and printing, there 
were shown .some outstanding bf)oks of more recent years. The 
second exhibit showed the development in books on natural history, 
and es|)ecially the histor>' of biology, from early printings down to 
the present time. Among works shown were those of Cuvier, 
Swammerdam, HufTon, Linnaeus, I^imarck, (ialton, and Dar\^•in. 

Field Mu.seum was represente<l by an exhibit at the Rotary 
Business Exposition held in the Hotel Sherman, April 9 12. Thi.- 
exhibit, which included the mounted giant panda Su-Lin, \%'as seen 
by at least 20,000 persons. Among other items in the display wen- 
ancient bu.siness d(X'uments on cuneiform tablets from examples 
of X. W. Harris Public School Fxten.sion traveling exhibition cases, 
material illustrating the activities of the Raymond Foundation, 
and scientific publications of the Museum. Mr. A. J. Franzen. 
taxidermist of the Harris Extension, gave demonstrations of tht 
mounting of birds. 

A special exhibit illustrating the scope of the work in which 
Field Museum has been assisted by the Work Projects Administration 







i I 












4 '!- - 

? - 







I o 



■3 o- - 





ft w 

i - 



W 0) 













Introduction 205 

was held in George M. Pullman Hall. This was presented in con- 
junction with the national exhibits by WPA projects in all parts of 
the country during what was termed "This Work Pays Your Com- 
munity Week" (May 20-25). 

Field Museum was represented at the Exhibition of Persian Art 
in New York, sponsored by the Iranian Institute of America from 
April 15 to June 15. The exhibit was the largest of its kind ever 
attempted in this country, and illustrated the development of 
Persian art through six thousand years. Field Museum's part in 
it consisted of a display of stucco and pottery of the Sasanid period 
from a palace of King Shapur II (fourth century a.d.) excavated by 
the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Kish. 
The Board of Trustees agreed to send certain specimens only because 
they were available nowhere else, and were needed to fill a gap in 
the otherwise well rounded display. 

Especially fine examples of the arts and crafts of North American 
Indians, selected from the collections of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, were lent to the Museum of Modern Art, New York, for 
inclusion in a special exhibit to be held at that institution from 
January to April, 1941. Deviating from their established policy 
of many years, the Trustees consented to this loan at the special 
and urgent request of the United States Department of the Interior, 
which was interested in making this exhibit all-inclusive. 

Commerce, the magazine published by the Chicago Association of 
Commerce, accorded recognition to the Museum's many services 
for business and industry by assigning Mr. Richard Lyon Brown, 
a special writer, to prepare a comprehensive article on this subject, 
published in the August issue. 

In accordance with the spirit of co-operation existing among 
the various museums of Chicago, Field Museum presented to 
the Aluseum of Science and Industry twenty-seven volumes of 
Mining World and twelve volumes of the Brick Magazine. These 
fall more directly within the scope of the library of the industrial 
museum than that of this institution. 

Dr. Otto Haas, a well-known vertebrate paleontologist from 
Vienna, worked for several weeks as a volunteer, in collaboration 
with members of the staff of the Departments of Geology and 
Zoology, on a research project based upon the Museum's collection 
of vertebrate fossils. 

Members of the Museum staff were honored in various ways 
during the year: 

206 FiKi.i) MrsKiM ok N'atikal History Kr.F»oKTs. Vol. 12 

The dejfree of D<x*lor of Philosophy was conferred on Mr 
Alexander Spoehr, Assistant Curator of American Archaeolojo' and 
Kthnolojo'. hy the University of Chicago at its quarterly convoca- 
tion held December 17. 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, C'hjci ( uraior of Anthropolo^ry. was ele<'tc<l 
I*resident of the Central Sivtion of the American Anthropolo^iral 
Association, and was appointe<l a member f)f the Committee on th« 
Conservation of Archaeological arul Historical Sites of the Illinois 
State Academy of Science. 

Mr. I?ryant Mather. A.ssistant Curator of Mineralojo'. was elected 
to membership in the Johns Hopkins Chapter of the Society of 
Sipma Xi. honorary natural histon.' society. Dr. Julian A. Steyer- 
mark. A.ssistant Curator of the Herbarium, was elected Vice-President 
of the Chicago ,\quarium S<x'iety. Mr. Kmmet R. Hlake. 
Curator of Birds, was appointed chairman of the field committer 
of the Chica}?o Ornitholojjical Society. Mrs. I>eota Cirej?or>' Thoma.^ 
of the Raymond Foundation staff, was appointe<l chairman of th< 
Chicajjo Committee for the Mu.seum School Branch f»f the Progres- 
sive Kducation .A.ssociation. 

Various members of the Mu.seum staff were active, both in 
Chicago and outside the city, on local field trips, in special studic 
in other institutions, in meelinjjs held by various learned societies, 
as jfuest speakers for organizations of many kinds, or on radi' 
programs, .\mong those who figured prominently as lecturers and 
radio sp)eakers were Mr. P^.mmet R. P>lake. A.ssistant Curator of 
lairds: Mr. I>oren P. Wocxls. of the Raymond P'oundation staff 
Major Clifford C. Cregg. Director; Mr. C. Martin Wilbur. Curator 
of Chinese .Archaeology and Ethnology ; Mr. Karl P. Schmid' 
Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles: Dr. Julian A. Steyermark 
A.ssi.stant Curator of the Herbarium: Mr. John \V. Moyer and Mr 
C. J. .Mbrecht, Staff Taxidermists: Mr. Rudyerd Boulton. Curato 
of Birds, and Mr. Br>ant Mather, A.ssistant Curator of Mineralogy 

Mr. Br>-an Patterson, A.ssistant Curator of Paleontology, read 
two scientific pai>ers at the annual meeting of the vertebrate section 
of the Paleontological Society of America, held in Pittsburgh. Mr. 
Henr>- Herpers. A.ssistant Curator of Geology, attended meetings 
of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical P^ngineers 
in Xew York. Mr. P^mmet R. Blake. A.ssistant Curator of Birds, 
made a field trip to study colonies of nesting egrets at Aver>' I.sland, 
Loui.siana, as the guest of Mr. John A. Holabird, Mr. Holabird's 
son Christopher, and Mr. E. A. Mcllhenny. By this trip he wa.- 

Introduction 207 

enabled also to bring the Museum a representative collection of 
Gulf Coast vertebrates. Mr. Blake later attended the meeting of 
the American Ornithologists' Union at Boston, and presented a 
paper on "The Brazilian Frontier of Guiana," outlining the work of 
the Sewell Avery Expedition to British Guiana. Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, 
Chief Curator of Botany, collected plants during a vacation trip 
to Brazil. Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator of Amphibians and 
Reptiles, made a visit of several weeks to Rochester, New York, 
to compile data on the history of Ward's Natural Science Establish- 
ment, an organization which had an important influence on the 
development of science and scientific museums in this country. Dr. 
Henry Field, Curator of Physical Anthropology, collected several 
hundred specimens for the Museum's Departments of Botany, 
Geology, and Zoology on a field trip in southern Georgia and northern 

Mr. Henry W. Nichols, Chief Curator of Geology, Mr. Elmer S. 
Riggs, Curator of Paleontology, Mr. Bryant Mather, Assistant 
Curator of Mineralogy, and Mr. Henry Herpers, Assistant Curator 
of Geology, attended the meetings of the American Association of 
Petroleum Geologists, the Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 
and the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. 
Field Museum was represented at the Eighth American Scientific 
Congress at Washington, D.C., by Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Chief 
Curator of Zoology. This notable scientific meeting was held as 
part of the program commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the 
founding of the Pan American Union, and was attended by leading 
scientists from countries of North, Central, and South America, 
and the West Indies. Dr. Osgood was honored by being appointed 
to preside at one of the sessions of the Section of Biological Sciences. 
Dr. Osgood also attended the meetings of the American Society of 
Mammalogists at Denver. Miss Miriam Wood, Chief of the Ray- 
mond Foundation, Mrs. Emily M. Wilcoxson, Librarian, and Mr. 
James H. Quinn, of the Division of Paleontology, represented Field 
Museum at the annual meeting of the American Association of 
Museums in Detroit. Mr. Quinn presented a paper on a phase of 
museum technique. 

Mr. Rudyerd Boulton, Curator of Birds, attended the meeting 
of the American Ornithologists' Union in Boston, and presented a 
paper, "Sea Birds of the West Indies," recounting observations made 
on the Leon Mandel Caribbean Expedition. Dr. Paul Martin, Chief 
Curator of Anthropology, presented a paper on the only two known 

208 FiKi.i) MrsKiM of Natiral History I{kim)kt>;. Vol. 12 

systems of writinK that oripinatcti in the N'cw World those of the 
Mayas and the Aztecs before a symposium of epijmiphers and other 
scholars held at the Oriental Institute of the Tniversity of Chicajio. 

In rccojniition of the excellence of the radio follow-up programs 
of the Raymond Foundation. Miss Miriam Wood, Chief of its s' '^ 
was inviteii to present a domonstniticm of this type of work for Un: 
benefit of radio eilucational experts from all over the country wh^' 
attended the Fourth Annual I'.roadcast Conference in Decembe: 

P'ield Museum was represented at the Sixth Annual City-wi(i 
Recreation Conference, held November 8, by the Director and b 
Mrs. I^eota G. Thomas of the Raymond P'oundation staff. Tl. 
conference wius sponsored by the Chicago Recreation Commission. 
Its theme was "Recreation and Prepare<lness," discussion being 
directed upon recreation as an aid to civilian morale in time of 

Many of the noted .scientists, and persons distinguished in other 
fields, who had occasion to visit Chicago during the year made a 
point of including Field Mu.seum among the institutions they cor 
sidereal of outstanding interest. It is possible to list here only « 
few t)f these. Among the many to whom the Museum was host were: 
Ixird I^othian. British Ambassador to the I'nited States; Dr. Julian ^ 
Huxley, Secretary, I>ondon Zoological Society; Mr. Arthur I'pham 
Pope. Director, Iranian Institute of America, Xew York; Dr. William 
B. Pettus, President, College of Chinese Studies, Peking; Dr. Adolf 
D. Holmberg, Director, Zoological (iardens, and professor in the 
Cniver.sity of Buenos Aires; Count .lerzy Potocki, Ambassador of 
Poland to the I'nited States; Mr. Alfred M. Bailey. Director, Colo- 
nido Museum of Natural History; Mr. Fre<lcric Douglajvs, Acting 
Director, Denver Art Mu.seum; Dr. .lames C». N'ee<iham, Kmeritus 
FVofessor of Entomology, Cornell University; Dr. Ales Hrdlifka. 
Curator. Phy.sical Anthropology, Cnited States National Museun 
Mr. David Finley, Director, National Caller>' of Art, Washington, 
D.C.; and His P.eatitude. Kshai Shimun. Patriarch of the Church 
of the Fast. 

The Mu.seum Cafeteria served meals to 97,225 persons during 
1940. The rooms provided for children and others bringing their 
own lunches were use<^l by 7.^.738 persons. A .special lunch counter 
.supplied to the larger part of the latter group .supplementary refresh- 
ments such as hot beverages, .soft drinks, .sandwiches, ice cream, 
etc., but the tables and benches in these rooms are available to 
visitors regardless of whether they make such purchases or no; 

Department of Anthropology 209 

Detailed accounts of activities in the various Departments and 
Divisions of the Museum will be found in the pages that follow: 



During the year work on various research problems was under- 
aken by members of the Department of Anthropology staff, and 
atisfactory progress was made. 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, the Chief Curator, and Mrs. Elizabeth S- 
Villis published their long-awaited book, Anasazi Painted Pottery 
n Field Museum of Natural History (Anasazi is a Navaho term 
[sed by archaeologists to denote all Pueblo and Basket Maker 
ulture periods of the Southwest). 

Most of the pottery illustrated in this memoir was collected in 
he 1890's by various Field Museum expeditions to the Southwest. 
?he collection, about 5,000 pieces, includes many rare and even 
mique items, most of which had never been exhibited to the public 
,nd none of which had been studied by experts. The volume illus- 
rates about one-fifth of the entire collection, both typical and rare 
lieces, and contains descriptions and pertinent data as to locality, 
ype, and chronology. This study, which took more than two years 
complete, makes the collection available to all interested persons 
-laymen, artists, teachers, and students, as well as archaeologists, 
^he work exemplifies the manner in which present-day methods of 
cholarship and research can be applied to make useful various 
aaterials collected in the haphazard fashion of fifty years ago. 
t shows how such methods can extract new details from a hitherto 
lead and useless collection, and how they can vivify it for all to 
ise and enjoy. 

Mr. Richard A. Martin, Curator of Near Eastern Archaeology, 
ompleted the research necessary for the installation of material 
rom the ancient city of Kish in the Hall of Babylonian Archaeology 
Hall K), which was opened to the public in August. A preview of 
he hall was held for the press, special guests, and members of Field 
kluseum. Further details concerning this hall will be found in this 
leport under Installations and Rearrangements. Mr. Martin also 
>repared a leaflet entitled Ancient Seals of the Near East, which 
[escribes in detail the frieze in this hall, and gives translations of 
nscriptions appearing on the seals. The specimens in Hall K were 
xcavated by the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expe- 
lition to Mesopotamia (1923 33). 

210 KiKi.i) MrsKiM OK Natural Histouy lii.pouTs. Voi,. 12 

The Ktriis<'an. Kpyptian. Roman. Syrian, and Arabian jewdry 
in the Com R<M)m <\\. N*. Hijjinbotham Hall Hall 'M < was alx> 
rataloputxl by Cunitor Martin. 

Dr. Wilfrid D. Hambly. Cunitor of African Klhnolopy, devolCKl 
iho early part of the year to prepanilion of I'mmnmelry >'f V. w 
Guima. publishetl by Field Museum Press. The book was r< 
in February. This volume contains a full record of measurement^ 
on !•.».') .skulls brought to Field Mu.seum by the late Dr. Albert B. 
Ixnvis. leader of the Jo.seph X. FieUl Anthropological Kxpedition to 
the South Sea Islands iHHM) 13 . This is the larj^est collection of 
crania from New (kiinea that has yet been studied and the resullinv 
data made public. The report contains a comparative study o* 
Melanesian. Polynesian. Australian ai)oriKines, and African Negr«» 

This report is the forerunner of a .series of publications on 
craniometry, baser! on collections which have accumulated in P'ield 
Mu.^oum .since IM*:.. Research during PMO was concentrated on 
approximately KM) skulls from the i.slands of Melanesia and Poly- 
nesia. The j)lan of work is to produce a series of brief reports on vari- 
ous repions of the Pacific, and in summation a succinct, comparativr 
study of racial types of the whole Pacific region. 

Mr. C. Martin Wilbur. Curator of Chinese Archaeolog>' and 
Ethnolojiy, conducted research upon and directed installation of 
many newly ac(|uired spoi'imens. A lacqucre<l wooden jn"ille for 
a coflin. probably dating; from the third century n.( ., archaic bronzes, 
pottery, and porcelain from .sevenil j>erifKls, two monumental stom 
lions, and Chinese peasiint embroideries were put on exhibition. 
Mr. Wilbur also studied Chinese texts for information concerning 
social and economic conditions durinjz the last two centuries before 
Christ. This work was done in preparation for a forthcomin>; booK 
on Slarery in China During the Former Han Period. 

Dr. Alexander Spoehr, Assistant Curator of North American 
Archaeolojjy and Kthnolopy. prepared for publication a report fo* 
Field Mu.seum Press on Sk\d\ I'nunre Society, by the late Georp* 
A. Dorsey and the late James R. Murie. The notes for thi.> 
publication were collected from WHY.] to U»07 by Dr. Dorsey, aided 
by Murie, a Pawnee Indian. Dorsey later prepared a rough draft 
for this report from his notes. Dr. Spoehr used this first draft a 
the basis for the book in its final form. This publication was released 
in September. In addition. Dr. Spoehr super\'ised checking, sorting:, 
and cleaning of Middle American and South American specimen 














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Department of Anthropology 211 

in the archaeological storeroom, and worked on plans for rein- 
stallation of Hall B (American Archaeology). 

Up to the time of his death on October 10, 1940, Dr. Albert B. 
Lewis, Curator of Melanesian Ethnology, supervised the reinstalla- 
tion of many cases in Hall G (Malaysian Ethnology). This entailed 
writing more comprehensive labels, selecting suitable photographs 
to illustrate the specimens, and rearranging the material on the 
screens in a more attractive manner. 

During the year, Dr. Henry Field, Curator of Physical Anthro- 
pology, completed Part I, No. 1, of The Anthropology of Iraq— The 
Upper Euphrates. The manuscript on The Anthropology of Iraq, 
Part I, No. 2 — The Lower Euphrates-Tigris Region — has been turned 
over to the Museum Press. Dr. Field spent several weeks at 
Harvard University completing a research project on the physical 
anthropology of the modern peoples of Iraq. 

Mrs. Rose Miller continued volunteer work in studying and 
arranging the collection of 3,000 rubbings of Chinese historical 

Mr. John Rinaldo, Associate in Southwestern Archaeology, 
worked on The Su Site, Excavations at a Mogollon Village, Western 
New Mexico, 1939, a report of the 1939 Field Museum Expedition 
to the Southwest, led by Dr. Paul S. Martin. He helped also in pre- 
paration of a case showing the growth and development of stone tools 
in the Southwest, and a case of pottery and artifacts from Lowry 
Ruin (Hall 7). The latter embodies the latest ideas for exhibiting 
materials, the uses of which are vividly illustrated by means of four 
paintings by Miss Anne Harding. Mr. Rinaldo also helped in cata- 
loguing several collections. 

Miss Marjorie Kelly, who is likewise an Associate in Southwestern 
Archaeology, worked on skeletal material for the report of the 1939 
Field Museum Expedition. Her report was included in The Su Site, 
Excavations at a Mogollon Village, Western New Mexico, 1939, 
published in June, 1940. Miss Kelly also cleaned and sorted pottery. 

Miss Anne Fuller, Volunteer Assistant, aided in the arrange- 
ment of archaeological materials. 

Miss Margaret Ross, Volunteer Assistant, rendered valuable 
assistance in drawing layout sketches in color for the reinstallation 
of Hall B (American Archaeology). She also verified accessions and 
catalogue numbers for a periodic inventory. 

Miss Virginia Coward, Volunteer Assistant, gave valuable help 
in checking specimens and records in connection with the cataloguing 

JIJ FiF.i.i) MrsKt M OF N'ati'rai. History Rkports. Vol. 12 

<)i Kiiii> cind the rocataloffuinR of potten* from ihc Southwest. Sin- 
also m()unlt*<i many photo^jraphs. vorifio<I accessions and cat:' ' 

numbers for cluvk lists, Iabele<l a study colIe<'fi«>n of Southwi .;. 
|>oltery, and did much clerical work. Anne Harding, \'olunteer A.ssistant, paintwl several water 
colors depicting Pueblo life. These are exhibiteil in Hall 7 (Archae- 
ology and Kthnology of the Southwestern I'nited States). She aKso 
completeii layout sketches for the proposed reinstallation of Hall B. 

Miss Jane Harrow. X'olunteer .A.s.sistant, who began work in 
November, has type<l more than 500 cards for the gef>gniphical 
.subject index of .specimens in this Department. In addition, she 
has been helpful in ei^iiting and revi.sing manu.scripts. 

The Department of .Anthropology contribute<l fifteen articles 
to Field Museum \eus, and dat-a for many articles published in 

During the year, members of the staff of the Department devotcnl 
many hours to projiaration of .scripts for "How Do Vou Know?" 
a series of Mu.seum radio prognims. Several members of the Depart- 
ment partici|)aie<l in experimental televi.sion programs 
spon.sored by the Zenith Radio Corj)oration. 


The Department of .Anthropology listen! 2S acce.ssions, compri.sing 
1.014 specimen.s, of which 4.'?7 were gifts, 118 were acquired by 
exchange, one was purchase*!, an<l 460 were among previously 
uncatalogued material in departmental storerooms. 

As a result of an outstanding gift receiveti in 1040 from the 
Genenil Klectric X-ray Corporation, Chicago, this Department will 
be enabiwi in 11)41 to add a most unu.sual and .spectacular exhibit 
to the Hall of Kgyptian Archaeology i Hall J'. The gift includes 
all the X-ray equipment and acce,ssories required for installation in 
the Mu.seum of the exhibit featureri by (ieneral Klectric for two 
seasons at the Xew York World's P\iir < 1939 40 1 in which a mummy 
(sent to the Fair on loan from Field Mu.seum's collections) was 
X-rayed before the public view at intervals of less than one minute 
throughout the exposition visiting hours. This interesting exhibit 
will no doubt attract the same widespread attention at the Mu.seum 
that it did at the Fair. 

Xotable gifts of Chinese .specimens during the years included 
two monumental stone lions from Peking, now exhibited in George T. 

Department of Anthropology 213 

and Frances Gaylord Smith Hall (Hall 24). They came from Mrs. 
Frederick S. (Grace Studebaker) Fish, of New York, and probably 
date from the eighteenth century. In recognition of this valuable 
gift, the Trustees of the Museum elected Mrs. Fish a Contributor, 
an honor which continues in perpetuity. 

A collection of carved ivories was received from the Estate of 
Louis L. Valentine, Chicago; and eleven ceramic specimens, ranging 
in date from the Han to Ch'ing dynasties, were given by the firm 
of Grow and Cuttle, of Chicago. 

The Cenozoic Research Laboratory of Peking Union Medical 
College presented a colored cast of the reconstruction of the "Peking 
Man," one of the oldest representatives of the human race. This 
most welcome gift has been placed on exhibition in the Hall of the 
Stone Age of the Old World (Hall C). 

The Estate of Mrs. A. L. Fisher, of Colorado Springs, presented 
to the Museum 1,200 negatives and prints forming a pictorial survey 
of Iraq. Five albums of these prints were added to the Department 
files. The Museum now possesses one of the finest existing series of 
photographs of Iraq and her peoples. 

Dr. Henry Field, of Chicago, contributed ethnological specimens 
from Syria and Iraq, pottery from Petra, Trans-Jordan, and pre- 
historic artifacts from the type Mousterian station at Spy, Belgium. 

cataloguing, inventorying, and labeling — ANTHROPOLOGY 

During the year, 20 of the 27 new accessions were entered, as 
well as all or part of 55 previous accessions. 

The number of catalogue cards prepared during the year totaled 
7,974, and 7,500 cards were entered. Since the opening of the 
first inventory book, the total number of catalogue cards entered 
is 226,495. 

For the current year, the distribution of catalogue cards was 
as follows: North and South American archaeology and ethnology, 
294; Chinese, Japanese, Tibetan, and Korean archaeology and 
ethnology, 212; African ethnology, 49; Near Eastern archaeology, 
194; Melanesian and Polynesian ethnology, 361; physical anthro- 
pology, 6,864. 

From copy prepared by members of the Department, the Division 
of Printing issued 962 labels (1,985, if duplicates are included) for 
use in exhibition cases. Distribution was as follows : North and South 
American archaeology and ethnology, 176; African ethnology, 2; 

214 FfKi.n Ml SKIM of Natikai. History Kkports, Vol. 12 

Melaiu-Man and Polynesian ethnoloffv. 516; Near Flastem archae- 
ology. 1**^"; Chinese archaeolojf>'. 52; European arrhaeolojf>', 19. 

The Division of Printing supplie<l 119 capjtions for photo- 
graphs, G-1 maps, 8,48') catalogue cards, and 228 shelf labels for 

In the Depart' 1 albums, r),263 additional pholo^'raphs were 

mounte<l. This nr- i;v.itate<l opening new albums. About 8,074 
prints in the library of rarial tyj)e photographs of the peoples of the 
world were checke<l. 

Cataloguing and reammging of ethnological .specimens from 
Europe and st)uthwestern A.^^ia were completed. 

.\ collection of jewelry and ornamental stones, chiefly from the 
Kabyles of North .Africa, was catalogued. New labels were prepared, 
and about one hundred of the best .samples are now ready for incor- 
poration in a larger collection which will be installed in a room 
shounng gems and personal ornaments from many parts of the 
world (U. X. Higinbotham Hall Hall 31). 

installations and rkarrangements anthropoixk.y 

Hall K, the new Hall of Babylonian .Archaeology, was completed 
and opened in August under the direction of Mr. Richard A. Martin, 
Curator of Near Eastern Archaeolog>'. 

The exhibits are made up of thou.sands of objects excavate^! 
from Kish, for four thou.sand years an important city of ancient 
Babylonia. It is located in Iraq, east of P.abylon. The excavation 
was done over a period of ten years by the P'ield Mu.seum Oxford 
University Joint E,xpeflition to Mesopotamia. The staff of the late 
Professor Stephen l>angdon, of Oxford, composed of archaeologists 
from Great Britain, F'rance, and the I'nited States, supervised the 
excavating and laboratory research. Hundreds of native laborers 
performed the actual digging. P^ver since the termination in 19^ 
of ten years of field work, efforts and time have been directed 
towards recon.struction and preparation of the material selected 
for exhibition. This hall represents the longest period of civili- 
zation which has been reconstructed by Field Mu.seum. F>om the 
potter.*, sherds, statuar>\ tablets, bronze work, and building materials 
recovered it has been possible to identify this ancient city and recount 
its histor>*. 

One of the important exhibits is the reconstructed gateway of 
the Sasanid p)€riod. Curator Martin reconstructed this portal at 

Department of Anthropology 215 

the Museum, using wherever possible the original stucco from the 
royal buildings. Other interesting and valuable features are the 
earliest chariot wheels ever found; the miniature reconstruction of 
a chariot complete with horses and riders; and a frieze of seal repro- 
ductions. The frieze illustrates the high attainments of the glyptic 
artists of the Near East. In order to illustrate the history of this 
art from 3200 B.C. to a.d. 350, Curator Martin selected, for enlarged 
reproduction, impressions from eighteen cylinder seals and six 
stamp seals. These impressions, magnified twenty-five times by 
projection, were modeled in clay from the projections, and then cast 
in plaster with the help of the Federal Art Project of the Work 
Projects Administration. The resultant reproductions have been 
made into the frieze, for which special illumination is provided. 
The scale for these reproductions is such that the most minute 
details are clearer (even when viewed at a distance of twenty feet) 
than they are on the originals when examined with a hand lens. 
The impressions depict nearly all of the life of the times, with 
emphasis on the mythological aspects. 

During the year it was decided to dismantle the old installation 
of jewelry in H. N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31) in order to catalogue 
and rearrange some 2,500 specimens. These include materials from 
Peru, India, Arabia, North Africa, Egypt, Rome, and Syria. The plan 
is to install them in new, well-lighted cases. When completed in 1941, 
this will be one of the leading exhibits of its kind in the country. 

A case of archaeological specimens from the Lowry Ruin, Colo- 
rado, was prepared by Mr. John Rinaldo, Associate in Southwestern 
Archaeology, under the direction of Dr. Paul S. Martin, and placed 
in the Hall of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Southwestern 
United States (Hall 7). One side of the case shows the artifacts 
from Lowry Ruin in Southwestern Colorado. They are grouped in 
panels, each panel illustrating a different activity of the prehistoric 
inhabitants, such as building houses, hunting, and holding a 
ceremony. The objects in each panel are grouped around a water 
color picture illustrating the activities in which they were used. 
The other side of the case shows the progressive development, in 
stone and bone artifacts, of the Pueblo culture from Basket Maker 
times to historic times. The objects are grouped together on a panel, 
period by period, thereby showing the lineal sequence or "life history" 
of each type of artifact shown. 

The Department prepared a case of materials illustrating the 
growth and development of writing for a special event at the Rotary 


Club. In lliis display were an early P.ahylonian contract and other 
diHHiment.s written in hieroglyphics on clay. 

The Kgyplian mummy of a man nanit'i Ilnrwa was prepared for 
the second season of disjilay in the (icncral Klectric X-ray Cor- 
poration's exhibit at the New York Worhl's Fair. A representative 
colkrtion of Siisanian material was .sent to the Kxhibilion of Persian 
Art in N'ew York. 

.•\ case of rare wixnlen fipures was lent to the American Negro 
Exposition which was held in the Coliseum in Chicago from July 1 
to September 1. The specimens were collected by Curator NVilfrid 
n. Hambly. 

The Mu.seum lent a small fragment of a Roman iron scyth* 
(dated as first centur\' after Christ) to the Republic Steel Corpora- 
tion for the purpose of hel})ing that company to find out whether 
case harrloning was known to the Romans and, if so, how it v 

At the re<|uest of the Department of Arts and Crafts of the 
Cnitefl States Department of the Interior, the Mu.seum lent to the 
Mu.seum of M(Kiern Art, New York, eighteen rare .specimens repre- 
senting excellent examples of Indian Art. 

A collection of North American ethnological specimens was lent 
for three months to the I'niversity of Minnesota Art Galler>' for a 
special exhibit of primitive art. 

The total number of .specimens restored and repaired during the 
year is 'J^^'i Two skilled technicians. Mr. Tokumatsu Ito and Mr. 
John Pletinckx, have restore<i Southwestern potter>' specinv 
excavatefi by the last expedition to New Mexico, a Chinese coiini 
grille, and many pieces of pottery that have been placed on exhibi- 
tion in Hall K. 

Cases have been readjusted and relabeled where necessar>-. 
Four storerooms have been checke<i and many thou.sands of specimen.'- 
identifier!. Glass in the exhibition cases of Hall J, the Hall o; 
Eg>7)tian Archaeolog>-, has been thoroughly washed. 

In adflition. work on the geographical-.subject index of thi> 
Department's .specimens has continue<l throughout the year. Two- 
thirds of the North American ethnological material is now in it> 
final index-form and is available for The utilitarian value of 
the index has already been proved by it,s erticiency in supplying 
inforn n'ion to members of the Departmental staff. F'urthermore. 
repn Ives from other museums have pronounced it a definite 

advancement in the field of scientific cataloguing. 

Department of Botany 217 



In continuation of the Museum's botanical exploration in Guate- 
mala, reported in 1939, Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Assistant Curator 
of the Herbarium, who arrived there in October, 1939, remained until 
May, 1940. He was accompanied by Mr. William H. Coibion, a 
University of Illinois student, as volunteer assistant. They visited 
a great number of localities in which botanical collections had never 
been made. Dr. Steyermark succeeded in amassing some 11,000 
numbered collections containing 25,000 specimens which, though 
yet imperfectly studied, have shown conclusively that the flora of 
Guatemala is still inadequately known. The Museum's efforts to 
contribute to the knowledge of it are proving decidedly valuable: 
several new genera, hundreds of new species and, especially, new 
extensions in the known distribution of hundreds of plants, not only 
of Guatemala but of North and South America as well, point to the 
far-reaching scientific importance of this endeavor. Typical of such 
"range" extensions, and of interest to many readers of this Report, 
was the discovery of the partridge berry — a plant of the northern 
and eastern United States and familiar in the Indiana Dunes — for 
the second time south of the United States. 

The wealth of plants in Guatemala is not altogether surprising, 
for conditions in some of the regions where Dr. Steyermark collected 
practically duplicate those of other lands. Thus, for example, exten- 
sive cloud forests in the Sierra de las Minas, never before ascended 
by a botanist, proved to be a natural habitat for some high Andean 
as well as North American plants. 

Making its headquarters in strategic places, the party explored 
many types of terrain, including several volcanoes, notably the mag- 
nificent Tajumulco, which rises to 11,000 feet above San Sebastian. 
The slopes of these great mountains are cut by hundreds of streams. 
Associated with them are steep thousand-foot gorges and cliffs 
which make exploration very difficult, for frequently one has to 
travel several miles in order to ascend or descend. Through the 
generosity of Professor Ulisses Rojas, of Guatemala City, excellent 
headquarters were provided at Finca Pirineos for collecting the 
flora of this volcanic region. Likewise, through the courtesy of 
Don Erich Zoller, of the Central American Plantations, hospitality 
was provided at Finca El Porvenir. Dr. Steyermark explored the 
jungles along the Atlantic coast and the mountains adjacent. These 
areas contributed largely to the knowledge of the relationship of 

218 FiKi.i) Mi'st:iM of Xatiilm- History Rkports, Vol. 12 

floras of other Central American rounlries Hon<lura-s, British 
Honduras, and Costa Rica. The expcililion yielde<l an unusually 
lar^e number of specimens of palms, orchids, bromcliads, and ferns. 
In addition, sovenil hundreti collections of .seeds and living specimens 
of ornamental or interesting plants were brought back as a contribu- 
tion to the Ciarfield Park and other Chicago Park District con- 
ser\'atories. Some of these plants have already been displayed or 
have been used otherwise to supplement the botanical collectiona 

The botanical e.xploration in (Juatemala is being continued into 
1941 by Mr. Paul C. Standley, Curator of the Herbarium, who left 
Chicago late in September. During the three months already passed 
in the field, he has made extensive collections in eastern (tuatemala. 
These have resulte<l thus far in more than 5,000 numbered col- 
lections, with .some 10,000 .specimens. The rainy season made 
conditions unusually favorable for collecting. 

Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Curator of Economic Botany, was 
grante<l an extension of his leave of ab.sence to permit the continu- 
ation of his botanical explorations in Venezuela as aide to Dr. Henr>* 
Pittier. Chief of the Botanical Service of the Venezuelan Ministr>* 
of Agriculture. During 1940 Mr. Williams made excursions to the 
coast range above Caracas, where a large tract of forest land in 
the state of Aragua is set aside as a national park. He vi.sited 
many other areas along the north coast. However, as in the previ- 
ous year, his principal investigations were in the region south of the 
Orinoco. M the end of October Mr. Williams returned to resume his 
work at P'ield Museum. An article based on his ob.ser\'ations of last 
year, entitled "Botanical Exploration in the Middle and Ix)wer Caura, 
Venezuela," was published in the June number of Tropical Woods. 

Material and data on inter-tidal vegetation, tide pools, and other 
details necessar>' for the preparation of a north Atlantic coast 
habitat group of marine algae were collected by Emil Sella, Chief 
Preparator of Botanical Exhibits, on a field trip to the Maine coast. 
The collections supplement thase made by a previous expedition to 
Maine and the Bay of Fundy. A number of localities were visited, 
some as far south as Bar Harbor, but most of the collecting w^as 
done on the shore of Quoddy Head near Lubec in the Bay of Fundy. 
This is the easternmost point within the borders of the United 
States. The tidal range on this coast is from twenty-three to twenty- 
five feet, and Mr. Sella found the low tide period ideal for working 
during the best part of the day. 













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Department of Botany 219 

In the phanerogamic herbarium there have been mounted and 
distributed 38,431 sheets of specimens and photographs. More than 
2,680 typewritten descriptions of plant species, prepared in the 
Department or received in exchange, also have been added. These 
descriptions, when available in the study series, facilitate determina- 
tion and study of new or old material. Work of mounting current 
collections has been kept well up to date, and at the end of 1940 
only a relatively small quantity of material awaited preparation. 
The filing of new accessions to the Herbarium kept pace with the 
mounting, making new collections immediately available for use. 
Many hundreds of new covers for genera and species were prepared, 
and the alphabetical and geographical filing was checked and cor- 
rected in many groups. The purchase of twenty new metal her- 
barium cases provided considerable space for expansion and for 
some desirable rearrangement. In the cryptogamic herbarium the 
addition of two new eight-door metal cases furnished much needed 
space for filing the material recently acquired. New specimens 
were mounted as soon as they were received. An inestimable amount 
of help in writing labels, packeting specimens, filing herbarium 
sheets, determining species, and preparing duplicate material for 
exchange was given by Mr. Donald Richards, of the Hull Botanical 
Laboratory, University of Chicago. Other assistance in determina- 
tion of specimens, chiefly in the collections of fungi and lichens, was 
given by Mrs. G. B. Stifler, also of the Hull Botanical Laboratory, 
and Dr. V. 0. Graham, President of the Illinois Academy of Sciences. 
The project of repacketing the older specimens and of mounting each 
upon a single sheet has been continued from previous years, and at 
the end of 1940 the entire algal and moss collections had thus been 

During the past year, 9,496 prints, from the negatives of plant 
type specimens obtained in European herbaria by Associate Curator 
J. Francis Macbride, were supplied to botanists of North and South 
America at cost, or in exchange for similar type photographs or for 
specimens desired by Field Museum. 

As usual, many plants were submitted to the Department dur- 
ing the year for study and determination. Numerous local specimens 
were brought to the Museum for naming by residents of the Chicago 
region, and hundreds of inquiries regarding the most varied aspects 
of botanical science were answered by letter, telephone, and interview. 

Throughout the year the collections of the Department were 
consulted by visiting botanists from near and remote parts of the 

220 FiKi.i) MrsKiM of N'atirai. Histoky Kkpokts. Vol. 12 

' 111 t'i States, and from .scvenil fi)riiKn rcjuuincs. Much use h.; 
lut'n made of them l)y .seientists and students from the e<luealionai 
instiiutions in or near ChicaK", <>r el.sewhere in lUinois and neijjh- 
borinjr states. A number of slu<lent.s of the aljjae and bryophytea 
thus \vorke<i in the rryptonamic herbarium for pericxls of a week or 
more each durinp 1*>40. Mr. Donald Richards, of the rniversity of 
Chicago, si)ent a considerable part of the year studying the collections 
of bryophytes. Mr. J. C. Strickland, of the I'niversity of Chi 
and the I'niversity of Vir>jinia, devoted the perifKJ from March until 
June to a study of the N'ostocaceae. Mr. Richard Wood, of North- 
western I'niversity, was en^aj;e<i in work on the Characeae. Dr. 
G. W. Prescott, of Albion College, visite<l the Museum for ten days 
in October to consult the cr>'ptojfamic herbarium in his work on the 
plankton aljjae of Wiscon.sin. C^ile I.anouette, of the Cni- 
versity of Montreal, studied the Myxophyceae during the month 
of December. Mr. William A. Daily, of the University of Cincinnati, 
was at the Mu.seum for ten days in working; jointly with Dr. 
Francis Drouet. Curator of Cryptojjamic Botany, on a revision of 
the Chrooctx^caceae. 

Pul)lications of the Department of Botany during 1940 were as 
follows: Botanical Series, Volume 9, No. 4, Flora of the Aguon 
\'alley and the Coastal Regions tiear Im Ceiba, Honduras, by T. (. 
^'uncker, and Xo. 5, Studies of the Vegetation of Missouri I, by 
Julian A. Steyermark; Botanical Series, Volume 21, Travels of Ru\ 
Paron, and Dombry in Peru and Chile {1777-1778), by HiiK)lito Rui 
with an P^pilogue and Official Documents added by Agustin Jesiii* 
Barreiro i tran.slation by B. K. Dahlpren ; Volume 22. six numbers lall 
devote<l to flowering plants most of which were recently collected 
in Guatemala , resi>ectively, N'os. 1, 2. and :i. Studies of American 
Plants IX. X, and A7, by Paul C. Standley; N'os. 4 and 5, Studies 
of Central American Plants I and //, by Paul C. Standley and 
Julian A. Steyermark, and No. 6, A Sew Genus of Com jx>sifae from 
Xorthirestern Alabama, by Earl Krlward Sherd. 

Karly in the year, the Spring Flora of Missouri, by Asaistai 
Curator Steyermark, was publi.she<l jointly by the Missouri Botanical 
Cfarden,of St. Ixiuis,and Field Mu.seum. It includes descriptions and 
illustrations of each of the 1.4(X) species of planus which bloom before 
June 1. Most of the keys to families, genera, and .species are illus- 
trated, thus facilitating their use. About twr>-thirds of the draw- 
ings were made by artists of the Work Projects Administration. 
The staff contributed numerous signed articles and brief notes to 
Field Museum Xeirs and to Tropical Woods, and supplied informa 

Department of Botany 221 

:ion for numerous newspaper articles. Curator Standley and Assist- 
int Curator Steyermark published during the year many short 
papers dealing with plants of the United States and tropical America. 
Botany Leaflet No. 25, published toward the end of the year, 
!s entitled The Siory of Food Plants, and contains plates reproducing 
the seventeen mural paintings in Hall 25 by Julius Moessel (text of 
the leaflet is by Chief Curator B. E. Dahlgren). 

ACCESSIONS — botany 

In 1940 there were received in the Department of Botany 345 
accessions, comprising about 80,000 items. The accessions included 
material for the wood and the economic collections, as well as for 
the exhibits and the Herbarium. Classified by sources, 14,057 
:ame as gifts, 16,936 in exchanges, 8,057 as purchases, and 41,173 
ivere obtained by Museum expeditions. Included also are 554 
photographic prints transferred from the Museum's Division of 

Of the total receipts, items for the herbaria amounted to more 
than 76,545, including plant specimens, photographs, typed descrip- 
tions, and type negatives. The largest accession of the year consisted 
af approximately 25,000 specimens collected in Guatemala by 
A.ssistant Curator Steyermark, as described upon a preceding page. 
A.mong other material gathered by members of the Department staff 
were 2,538 specimens from Missouri, obtained by Assistant Curator 
Steyermark; 15,000 plants of the United States and Mexico, collected 
by Curator Drouet and Mr. Donald Richards; 752 Florida and 
Illinois plants, collected by Curator Standley, and 455 Venezuelan 
plants, collected by Curator Williams. 

The largest of the exchanges received during the year consisted 
of 2,958 specimens forwarded from the Herbarium of Arnold 
Arboretum at Harvard University. This collection consists of woody 
plants from many parts of the world. 

Other important exchanges received during 1940 include 1,470 
specimens of Bolivian plants, from Mr. B. A. Krukoff, of the New 
York Botanical Garden; 1,273 plants of the southwestern United 
States and Lower California, from the National Arboretum, Wash- 
ington, D.C.; 1,024 plants of North and South Carolina, and 440 
of Virginia, from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University; 555 
specimens of Chinese plants from the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica 
Plain, Massachusetts; 100 specimens of Argentinian plants from 
Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto del Museo, La Plata, 
Argentina; 346 specimens of plants from the western United States 

22J FiKi.i) Ml'skim ok N'atiiul History Rkpokts, Vol.. 12 

and Panama, from the Mi.'yu)uri Holanioal (larden, St. Ii<»ui,s; 2\s 
South Anu-rican plants from the rniltnl States National Mu.'^'um, 
W.ishinjrton, D.C. and 2()1 Mexican plants from the Dudley Her- 
barium. Stanford rnivcrsity, California. 

(lifts of phanoroKamic material ron.<<i.ste<l of 11,212 items, anH 
included much of the most valuable material that reache<l I' 
Herbarium during the year. Outstanding among them was a sen 
of 2,2(X) .siHvimens of Peruvian and Bolivian plants, presentetl by 
Dr. T. \V. ('i(MMlspeed, of the Department of Botany, University 
California, at P>erkeley. This collection con.sisted of plants collect* 
on the Cniversity of California'.'; Second Botanical Kxpetlition to t 
.Vndes. Other South .American collections receive<l by gift includwi l^i 
Venezuelan plants collei'te<i by the Rev. Padre Cornelio VogI, Cara- 
cas: 2 IS specimens of Venezuelan and Colombian plants from Brother 
p]lias, Caracas: 171 Colombian plants from Brother Apolinar-Maria, 
Bogotd: 87 si>ecimens of P>razilian plants from Professor Jos^ liadini. 
Minas (Jeraes: and 88 specimens of Argentinian plants collected by 
Mr. .\rturo K. Kagonese, Santa FY. A large amount of Central 
.American and Mexican material was received during 1940. Among 
gifts may be mentione<l 9B<) Mexican plants presented by the col- 
lector. Mr. Krnest (1. Marsh, Jr.. N'ictoria, Texas: 'ji) Guatema- 
lan sjKvimens from l)r. .1. K. Johnston. Chimaltenango: 123 Guate- 
malan sj>ecimens from Don Jo.';<^ Ignacio .Aguilar G., Guatemala City; 
138 specimens from liritish Honduras and Puerto Rico, from Mr. B. 
A. Krukoff. New York Botanical (iarden: 70 Cfuatemalan specimens 
from Mrs. B. B. I>ewis, Guatemala City: 189 Costa Rican .sj)ecimens 
from Mu.*^) Nacional. San Jos<^, presented through the Director. 
Profes.sor Juvenal \'alerio Rixlriguez: and 125 Mexican plants from 
the Department of liotany, I'niversity of Texas. .Austin. Among 
gifts of plants collecte<i in other areas are 217 .specimens, chiefly 
Hawaiian, from Dr. F^irl K. SherlT, Chicago; 67 .specimens of Pana- 
manian plants, from Dotha Seaverns. Bennington. Vermont; 
214 Tennessee and Ohio plants from Mrs. Alice S. Roberts, Chicago; 
140 Infliana and Minnesota plants from Mr. Donald Richards, 
Chicago: 129 Texas plants from Mr. George L. Fisher. Hou.ston, 
Texas: 2^?9 Illinois plants from the Illinois State Mu.seum. Spring- 
field: 121 New Mexican si>ecimens from Sister M. Marcelline Horton, 
Grand Rapids. Michigan: 108 Illinois and Wi.scon.sin plants from 
Mr. Hermann C. Benke. Chicago: and 626 Illinois and Missouri 
plants from Mr. Bill Bauer. Webster Groves, Mi.s.souri. 

To the cryptogamic herbarium 23.871 .specimens were added 
during 1940. These consist largely of algae and mosses, partially 

Field Museum of Natural History- 

Reports, Vol. 12, Plate 17 



(Cyrlopodium panclalum) 

A reproductioa of a large epiphytic orchid of the American tropics, recently added to the exhibits in 

Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall (Hall 29. Plant Life) 



of hepatics, fungi, and lichens. The largest accession was of about 
12,500 cniDtogams collected by Curator Drouet and Mr. Donald 
Richards in the Mexican state of Sonora, and in New ^Mexico, 
Arizona, and California on the Field ^Museum Expedition to Sonora 
and Southwestern United States (1939-40). Some 2,000 mosses 
and algae came from the Sewell Avery Expedition to Guatemala 
fl938-39), and from Florida in 1940, all collected by Curator 
Standley. Further collections were made by members of the staff 
in the vicinity of Chicago. Several thousand cryptogams, mostly 
algae, collected by Dr. Drouet in Massachusetts and ^Maryland in 
July, have not yet been accessioned. 

Many gifts came from indi\iduals. ]VIr. Donald Richards, of 
Chicago, contributed 945 specimens, mainly bryophytes of Minne- 
sota, Illinois, and Indiana. From Mr. William A. Daily, of Cincin- 
nati, came 373 specimens of the Chroococcaceae of Ohio, Indiana, 
and Kentuck\\ Dr. ]M. J. Groesbeck, of Porter\-ille, California, 
who is engaged in a survey of the hot springs and alkali flats and 
lakes of eastern California and western Nevada, sent 253 specimens 
of algae. An additional 225 specimens of the algae of Burma were 
accessioned from Dr. L. P. Khanna, of Rangoon. From Professor 
William Randolph Taylor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, were received 
138 specimens of ^Myxophyceae. Dr. George J. Hollenberg, Red- 
lands, Cahfornia, sent 107 specimens of ]M\-:xophyceae of California. 
Eighty-eight specimens of Canadian M\-xophyceae from the Pro- 
\ince of Quebec came from Dr. Jules Brunei, of Montreal. Mr. 
Hermann C. Benke, Chicago, contributed 83 specimens of cn-iDtogams 
of Wisconsin. Dr. G. W. Prescott, Albion, ^Michigan, made a gift 
of 76 algae of the Canal Zone and Wisconsin. ]\Ir. Lawrence J. 
King, of Richmond, Indiana, presented 69 algae of WajTie County, 
Indiana; Dr. Herman Kleerekoper, of Sao Paulo, 45 algae of Brazil; 
Mr. James R. Hui't, of Columbia, ^Missouri, 44 algae of Missouri; 
and ]Miss Barbara Willis, of Bennington, Vermont, 42 mosses of 
the Canal Zone. 

The largest collection received by gift, but not yet prepared for 
accessioning, is a complete set of the several thousand numbers of 
Myxophyceae in the herbarium of the late Professor Nathaniel 
Lyon Gardner, of the University of California. One set of specimens 
of this collection is to remain at the university, and the dupHcate 
sets are to be distributed from Field Museum. 

A considerable portion, containing about 5,000 specimens, of the 
algal herbarium of the late Professor K. Okamura, of Hokkaido 

2:21 FiKi.i) Mlsklm ok Natirai. History Kkports. \ ol. 12 

I'nivorsity, was purchasotl in necemlxT from I )r. ShiRco Yamanouchi. 
It is hoiHtl that tlicst» .siHvimens. r(»llet'teil by the first jjreal Japanese 
phycolojiist. will ho made availahlo for study at Field Museum some 
time in llMl. A larjje part of Kryptnrjnmru Hadens, of Jack, Ix-iner 
and Sli/enherjier. alonn with certain smaller sets of exsiccatae of 
cryptogams, was also purcluused in I'JIO. 

The algal herbarium of the late Professor \V. A. Kellerman, n^ 
Ohio State I'niversity, consisting of 227 specimens from Cluatemal;i. 
Ohio, and Kuro|H\ was place<l in the cr>'j)togamic herbarium of 
Field Museum through the courtesy of Dr. Clarence E. Taft and 
Mr. William A. l);iil\. This was acquired partially by gift and 
partially by exchange. 

In exchanges, 291 sjKvimens of algae and mosses were received 
from the New York Botanical darden; 257 algae and br>ophytes of 
California and the Pacific Islands from Dr. V. Raymond F'osberjj, 
Arlington. \'irginia: 252 Myxophyceae of the Philippines, collected 
by Dr. (i. T. Velas<iue7„ from the herbarium of the Tniversity of the 
Philippines; 145 algae of Montana, collected by Messrs. Fred A. 
P.arkley and Stanley \. Ames, from the herbarium of Montana State 
I'niversity: and 1 1<) Myxophyceae of \'irginia. from Mr. J. C. Strick- 
land, Charlottesville. \'irginia. Field Museum sent in exchanges t" 
various institutions. 1,171 specimens of cryptogams. 

The study series of wcxxls was increased considerably by material 
acquired mostly through exchange. The largest item, numbering 
close to 2,400 specimens, was received from Mr. B. A. Krukoff, of 
New York, as part payment for a complete set of photographs of 
type herbarium sjKvimens. This includes more than seven hundred 
samples collected by Mr. KrukotT on his fifth expedition to the 
Brazilian Amazonia in 19.'14 35; approximately eight hundred num- 
bers assembler! in the .same general region during 1936 37; a set of 
38.') .specimens from the Bolivian Amazonia: 261 hand samples from 
the Sultanate of Asahan, Sumatra. Dutch Fast Indies; and a dupli- 
cate set of the material collected in 1929 by Mr. G. Proctor Cooper 
III in Liberia. West Africa, for Yale University School of Forestr. 

Several hundred study specimens were received from the F?otani- 
cal Service of the Ministry of Agriculture of Venezuela. These were 
collecte<l by Curator Llewelyn Williams during his botanical explo- 
rations of the National Park. State of Aragua. and on his recent 
expedition to the region .south of the Orinoco. Through the gener- 
n>ity of Senor Joaquin Avellan, of Caracas, the Museum received 

Department of Botany 225 

nine panels suitable for exhibition purposes, representing some of 
the most widely used woods of Venezuela. 

Mr. F. A. McClure, Curator of Economic Botany for the Lignan 
Natural History Survey and Museum, contributed 85 hand speci- 
mens of Chinese wood. Mrs. B. B. Lewis, of Guatemala City, gave 
22 samples. 

To the economic collections Dr. Elizabeth Bacon, of Seattle, 
Washington, and Captain W. J. Moody, of the British Legation at 
Peshawar, India, contributed 107 specimens of plant drugs sold in 
the markets of Meshed, Persia, and Kabul, Afghanistan. Other 
material received included samples of beans from Mr. Clayborn 
Wayne, State College of New Mexico; fruits of the ivory palm 
(Hyphaene) from Victoria Falls, Southern Rhodesia, donated by 
Mr. Robert B. Dickinson of Lake Forest, Illinois; and 73 specimens 
of fruits, seeds, oils, and palm material collected in Venezuela by 
Curator Williams. 

The total of numbered specimens in the botanical collections at 
the end of the year 1940 was 1,067,247. 

cataloguing, inventorying, and labeling— botany 

During 1940 there were distributed in exchange to institutions 
and individuals in North and South America, and Europe, 91 lots 
of materials, totaling 9,917 items, including herbarium specimens, 
wood specimens, photographs, and typed descriptions of plants. 
Fifty-four lots of material, comprising 2,429 separate items, were 
received on loan for study or determination, and 119 lots, comprising 
14,876 specimens, were lent for determination or for use in mono- 
graphic studies. 

Hundreds of index cards were typed for the study collection of 
woods, and all the wood specimens received during the year were 
stamped with the collector's catalogue number. Typed copies 
were also made of field notes to accompany herbarium specimens. 

For convenience in reference, specimens of economic plant 
material, fruits, seeds, fibers, etc., were selected from the large 
quantity of material stored in the lockers under the cases in the 
exhibition halls. When properly classified and arranged for con- 
venient access they will constitute a ready reference collection. 

installations and rearrangements — BOTANY 

In the exhibition halls of the Department of Botany the most 
notable additions were made in the Hall of Food Plants (Hall 25), 

22fi FiKi.i) Ml SKI M OF N'atirai. History Kki*orts. Vol. 12 

and in the Hall of North Arneru-an WcmkIs Hall 2ii.. In the fof 
ten new murals wert* addwl to thos<» rTiwirttnl in 1939, incre;i i!!;; 
the total niimlHT to seventeen and complt'tinK the series now 
deconitinp three sides of the hall. 

These ixiintinps de[)irt human activities concerned with the 
gathering, plant inn. Jind cultivation of Man's more important types 
of vejretable Umm\, and the preparation, transportation, and com- 
merce of fcMKlstufTs. Two of the new murals are maps. One shows 
the ancient trade routes over which the prmlucts of the Kaul were 
formerly bmujjht to the Western World. The other show*s the areas 
of orijrin of the principal cultivate<l foml plant,s in the Old and New 
Worlds. The entire series thus constitutes a pictorial 8tor>' of food 
plants and serves to enhance the interest of the botanical exhibit^s in 
this hall. These new murals, like thase mentioned and figured in 
the previous years Report of the Director, are the work of Mr 
Julius Moessel, Chicajjo artist, well-known for his decorative paint- 
ings. Reproductions of the whole series have been publi.shed, with 
an accompanying text, in Motany Ix'aflet No. 25, The Story of 
Food Plants. An example is shown in Folate 16 of this Report. 

The exhibits of North .American trees and woods in C. F. Mill.- 
paugh Hall Hall 26 1 have been supplemented by the addition ot 
many photogi-aphic showing forest types and wood 
lanfl formations. Most of the photographs from which these have 
been made were obtained by loan and represent a selection from the 
vast number of negatives in the files of the I'nited States Forest 
Service. A few are from the Mu.seum's own files, and others have 
been obtained from individuals and as.sociations such as the Save 
the Re^lwood I>?ague, Amrrican Lumhcrman, etc. Here, as in Hall 
25, the presence of colored out-door scenes contributes greatly to 
the appearance of the hall and to the interest of the related specinv - 
A few of the installations of conifers in the northwest quarter of tnc 
hall were rearranged recently to provide a more orderly sequence. 

In the Hall of Foreign Woods (Hall 27 1 several additions wore 
made to existing installations. These include a splendid plank of 
"ipil," a Philippine wood, donated several years ago by Mr. Ralph A 
r*.nrH nf Chicago, and a fine sjiecimen of West Coast mahogan-. 
\\a humitis), the gift of Mr. L. Lind Petersen, of P>cuin ., 
Ouatemala. From material received in 1937 from the Mexican gov- 
ernment, and other sources, the exhibit of woods from Mexico was 
increased by the addition of an assortment of eleven species, mr> 
from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Other installations were Central 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. 12, Plate 18 


Skeleton and restoration of Leplomeryx, which attained only the size of a large jack rabbit. Collected 

from Oligocene deposits in the Bad Lands of South Dakota by a 

Museum expedition of 1905 

Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) 

Department of Geology 227 

American woods and four panels of East Indian woods, contributed 
by Ichabod T. Williams and Sons, New York, by Russel Fortune, 
Inc., Indianapolis, and by R. S. Bacon Company, Chicago; several 
full length panels of West African woods; and four European woods, 
Slavonian and Austrian oak, pearwood, and Turkish boxwood. 
In Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall (Hall 29, Plant Life) the only 
additions made during the year were a ginger plant, reproduced by 
Artist-Preparator Milton Copulos, from a specimen of ginger grown 
in the Museum, and a large fruiting branch of a rose to illustrate a 
type of fruit hitherto lacking in the exhibit of the rose family. To 
the palm exhibits in Hall 25 there was added a reproduction of a 
handsome cluster of dates received a few years ago from the govern- 
ment experiment station at Tucson, Arizona. This reproduction is 
in large part the work of craftsmen working with the aid and under 
the supervision of Mr. Emil Sella, Chief Preparator of Exhibits, and 
Mr. Milton Copulos. The time and effort of the preparators of 
botanical exhibits have been devoted throughout the year mainly to 
work on new plant habitat groups for Ryerson Hall. 



An expedition led by Mr. Paul 0. McGrew, Assistant in Paleon- 
tology, spent four months collecting fossil mammals from the lower 
Miocene deposits of South Dakota and western Nebraska. The 
extensive series of specimens secured include two skeletons of a 
small gazelle-like camel, Stenomylus, and ten skulls and a large 
number of other bones of the primitive deer Aletomeryx. A rich 
microfauna of extinct rodents (Aplodontoidea, Geomyidae, and 
Heteromyidae), containing at least two new genera and several new 
species, was also obtained. 
|l Bones of the giant fossil sloth Megalonyz were collected by Mr. 
Bryan Patterson, Assistant Curator of Paleontology, and Mr. James 
H. Quinn, Assistant in Paleontology, at London Mills, Illinois. 
Although far from a complete skeleton, and not to be compared in 
this respect with the giant sloths collected by the Marshall Field 
Expeditions to South America, it is much more complete than any 
of the other specimens of the genus found in Illinois. 

Mr. Sharat K. Roy, Curator of Geology, spent three months 
collecting specimens relating to physical geology. During this time, 
eighty-five localities in nine states — Nebraska, South Dakota, 
Colorado, Wyoming, Virginia, New Jersey, Connecticut, New York, 


'i'JS FiKi.D MrsKiM OF N'ati'ral History Rkports, Vol. 12 

ancl Mass.'irhusett5 wore vi.sito<l. and st-vonil hundred specimens 
wvrv coIIocUhI. The siHvimens were carefully selected as to size 
and shape so that ever>' one is usable for exhibition, if neetieci. 
They represent the work of ffn>und water, the erosional work of 
running water, rrx-k weatherin);. many forms of deformation of tl 
HH'ks of the earth's crust, and various phases of metamorphism. 
Durinj; the last week of September Mr. Roy was assisted by M; 
Henry Heri>ers, Assistant Curator of (leolojfy. 

Mr. Itryant Mather, Assistant Tunitor of Mineralojr>', sper 
about three months in the field in Maryland. Pennsylvania. Vir^rini.. 
and West \'irvrinia. making jjeolojdcal studies with sjKvial referen<»- 
to stnictural analysis. The area stuflie<i contains the j^eolo^ncal 
unit that forms the tninsition from the hijihly metamorphose<l rocks 
of the Piedmont to the east and the more pently folded sedimentar 
rocks of the Shenandoah or Cumberland N'alley and the Ai)pal;i 
chians to the west. In connection with his studies, Mr. Mather made 
a sizable collection representing structural and dynamic jjeolojf} 
Most of these specimens are for study purymses, but s<ime are suitable 
for exhibits and will be us4h\ in the reinstallations of physical peolopv 
exhibits in Clarence Buckingham Hall iHall 35) now under wa> 

Assistant Curator Patterson .sjient three weeks in the American 
Mu.'jeum of Natural History. New York, the Inite^i States National 
Museum, Washington. D.C., and the Museum of Princeton Cni- 
versity, making studies and comparing specimens. In Museum 
publications there a|)peare<l two papers on South American fossil 
mammals by Mr. Patterson, and he is prei)aring five others. An 
article of his on fossil collecting appeareil in the Chicago S'aturalii^: 

Mr. McCrew wrote a paper, now in press, on a Miocene lago- 
morph for the Mu.seum publications., in collaboration with 
Dr. Kverett C. Ol.son. of the Cniversity of Chicago, he prepare<l a 
pa|>er on a Pliocene mammalian fauna from Honduras which will 
ap|>ear in the liulUlm of the (ieoliKHcal S<tciety of America. 

A paper describing a fossil turtle from by Karl P. 
Schmidt, Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, was publishe<] in the 
Geological Series. 

An article by Mr. Quinn. describing the use of rubber molds for 
making casts of fos.sils as perfected in the vertebrate paleontolog> 
laboraton.-. appeared in the Mu.seum's Technique Series. Other 
articles on the .subject by Mr. Quinn appeared in Rubber Age and 
Museum .Wirs, the latter a periodical published by the American 
Association of Museums. A leaflet on Coliection and Preserrahon of 

Department of Geology 229 

Fossil Vertebrates was prepared by Mr. Elmer S. Riggs, Curator of 
Paleontology, and is ready for publication. 

Curator Roy spent the greater part of the year upon the comple- 
tion of his memoir, The Upper Ordotician Fauna of Frohisher Bay, 
Baffin Land, which is now in press. This paper, based on his field 
work as a member of the Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition 
for Field Museum (1927 28) consists of the description and illustra- 
tion of 116 species and the determination of their stratigraphic range. 
Of the species described, forty-two are new. The memoir is supple- 
mented by a chapter, "Narrative of the Expedition with Notes on 
the Coastal Geology of Labrador and Baffin Land." This chapter 
has been introduced to maintain continuity of geological observations 
and to give the reader a bird's-eye view of the expedition as a whole. 

The study of the fossils upon which the memoir is based reveals 
that no Black River or Trenton time is represented at the head of 
Frobisher Bay as previously reported, but all the strata therein 
present are of late Ordovician or Richmondian time. This con- 
clusion clarifies a long-standing controversial phase of Arctic 
Ordovician stratigraphy. 

The National Museum of Costa Rica, at San Jos^, sent Field 
Museum a collection of varied geological specimens to be identified. 
All of these, except six fossil leaves which are now being studied by 
Dr. Ralph Chaney, of the University of California, were identified. 
The invertebrate fossils were identified by Dr. Otto Haas, formerly 
of Vienna, acting temporarily as a volunteer assistant. A paper by 
Dr. Haas, describing the fauna, is undergoing some revision and 
amplification before publication. 

In the chemical laboratory four meteorites were analyzed by 
Assistant Curator Herpers. He also treated eighteen bronzes for 
the Department of Anthropology by the Fink process for curing 
malignant patina. None of the many specimens sent in for examina- 
tion as possible meteorites proved to be meteorites. Numerous 
necessary qualitative analyses and microscopic studies were per- 
formed as usual. Also, 585 gallons of alcohol were purified for the 
Department of Zoology, and distilled water was provided as needed. 

The equipment for sawing and polishing stone was, until August, 
in constant use, cutting and polishing the agates, fossil wood and 
other ornamental stones obtained by the Expedition to the Pacific 
Northwest (1938). When a supply of finished specimens ample 
for several years' needs had been accumulated, this work was 
discontinued, and the saw was put to use cutting to exhibition 

2:Ji» Fikli) MrsKiM ok N'aturai. Histoky HnmRTS. Vol. 12 

size and shape the many specimens illustrating physical ^t^'I^J^' 
collected in 1910. 

In the vertebrate paleontoiojfy workrooms molds were made 
from a plastic rubl>or mixture intnMlucc<i and i>erfoctefl by Assistant 
l^uinn, and s<'rios of casts were made by this mclh(Kl from specimens 
of MtstmhriDrtus. liarylambila, HaphtlamMa, SjxiraclolaynMa, lialhyp- 
aoides, Hippitiium and Arpyoruis. Copies of these casts were sent 
to ten museums by exchange, sale or pift. In return for the exchanges, 
many casts valuable for study and research were secured. 

Plaster mcxlels were made of the primitive deer-like animal 
Lfptnmeryi. of the Miocene camel Orydnrlylus, of the armored 
mammal (tlyplodon, and of the great sloth Mrgntherinm. These 
tiv'ures. all but one in miniature, are intended to supplement exhibits 
of fossils. 


The Department of Geology recordefl rluring the year sevent 
two accessions which include*! 890 specimens. Classified by sources, 
TjIG came as gifts. ."iO were from exchanges, 29S were from expetlitions 
or were olher>vise collectwl by members of the staff, and 2fi were 
purcha.scfl. These figures do not include the three collections, 
estimate<i to contain more than a thou.sand specimens, from the 
expe<litions conducted by Curator Roy, Assistant Curator Mather, 
and .A.ssistant McClrew. The unpacking and classifying of these is 
under way, but has not advance*! to the stage of accessioning and 
cataloguing. N*o large collections were received by gift or purchase. 
Additions to the mineral collection, while not numerous, were im- 
portant they added many mineral species previously either 
lacking or poorly represente<l. Of these, the following are worthy 
of siKvial mention: maz«ipilite and du.ssertite from Mapimi. Durango, 
Mexico, the gift of Mr. Francis, of Colorado Springs. Colorado; 
dahllite. presented by Mr. O. J. Salo, of Red Lodge, Montana; 
shortite from Wyoming, the gift of Mr. Bryant Mather, of Chicago; 
ferritungstite, presented by Ann Trevett, of Caspar, Wyoming; and thinolite, received from Dr. M. J. Ciroesbeck, of 
Porterville, California: chiastolite in the form of two plaques of 
tran.sparent .sections of cn.-.stals from Au.stralia and Mas.sachusetts. 
the gift of William P>. Pitts, of Sunnyvale, California; and a small 
gem opal of fine quality, mounted in a .silver hand, presented by 
Mr. H. W. Plantz, of Chicago. 

The meteorite collection was increased by the purchase of twenty- 
three specimens of meteorites not before represented. Another 

Department of Geology 231 

interesting addition was a meteorite which came from near the 
Odessa meteorite crater, presented by Professor Lincoln La Paz, 
of Columbus, Ohio. It has special interest because it was excavated 
from a bed of limestone. The tektite collection, temporarily placed 
with the meteorites until the true nature of these puzzling objects 
is determined, was increased by the addition of seven specimens. 
Six of these are tektites presented by Mr. R. Schaap, of Batavia, 
Netherlands East Indies, and one is a fragment of Darwin glass 
obtained by an exchange with Mr. John D. Buddhue, of Pasadena, 

The more important additions to the vertebrate fossil collection 
came from the Expedition to South Dakota and Nebraska, and are 
mentioned elsewhere. 

Professor Arnim D. Hummel, of Richmond, Kentucky, owner of 
the ground near London Mills, Illinois, in which a partial skeleton 
of the giant sloth Megalonyx was buried, presented the fossil to the 
Museum. It was excavated by members of the staff. Other gifts 
of vertebrate fossils included nine fossil mammals, from Assistant 
James H. Quinn; a lower jaw of a fossil raccoon, from Mr. Grayson 
E. Mead, of Chicago; eighteen groups of fish teeth, from Dr. R. R. 
Becker, of Gainesville, Florida, and a skull of a fossil dog, from 
Mr. Robert G. Schmidt, of Homewood, Illinois. 

The collections of rocks and physical and economic geology 
material were increased by important additions estimated to contain 
several hundred specimens from two expeditions conducted by Curator 
Roy and Assistant Curator Mather. These expeditions were not only 
eminently successful in their primary objective of obtaining speci- 
mens for the improvement of the physical geology exhibit, but they 
also obtained many specimens for the other collections of the Depart- 
ment. Forty-six miscellaneous specimens came from expeditions 
conducted by other Departments. Other accessions to the collec- 
tions, which were fewer than usual, include eighty-nine specimens 
from fourteen donors. 


During 1940, there were 890 specimens catalogued in the Depart- 
ment's twenty-eight record books. All classified card catalogues 
have been kept up to date. The map catalogue, begun in 1939, 
is completed. A classified card catalogue of the gem collection in 
H. N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31) was made, and proved useful 

'2:V2 KiKi.i) MrsKi'M of Xati?rai, History I{kp<)KI><, Vol. 12 

in the preliminary slapes of reinstallation of this hall. In all, the 
olassilieil catalo^'ues were increasc<i by the addition of 4,258 cards. 

Copy for 1,12') labels was prepare^! and sent to the Division 
of Printinp. I-ibels instalktl numbereil 1.2(>4. 


rhanpcs in the mineral installation in Hall 'M were limited to 
some re[)lacements of inferior .sj)e<Mmens by better ones, and the 
addition of mi.'^ellaneous specimens receive<i during the year. This 
collection, with iu .T2,0(X1 specimens, now covers almost the entire 
range of mineral species and varieties. In the nearly forty-eight 
years of Field Mu.^eum's existence the number of specimens in the 
mineral collection has {iuadruple<l, largely through the efforts of the 
late Dr. Oliver C. Farrington, former head of the Department, and 
the goal of complete repre.sentation has been ever more closely 
approache<l. Of the S24 distinct mineral species known in 18i»2, the 
original collwtion purchase<i at the time of founding the Museum 
included 491, and up to the beginning of 1940 there had been added 
120 more. In 1940, examples of five more of these "original" mineral 
species, as well as of four other species not before represented, were 
added to the collection. 

The meteorite collection was enlarge<l by the addition of twenty- 
four meteorites and eight tektites. Much of the interest in iron 
meteorites lies in the Widmanstiitten figures, which are interlacing 
patterns of bands and lines developer! on polished surfaces of the 
meteorites by etching with acid. Old methods of etching meteorites 
pr(Kiuce<l results much inferior to those obtained by applying the 
technique more recently developed in the laboratories of the United 
States National Museum. The figures on many of the older specimens 
are dull, often imperfect, and .sometimes spotted with A 
program of re-etching such meteorites as inspection shows can be 
improve<l, has been started, and twenty-four have been treated. 

Revision and reinstallation of the exhibits of physical and 
economic geology and paleontolog>' in Halls 35, .36, 37, and 38 con- 
tinued. As this involves transfer of exhibits between the halls, 
reinstallation of all four is proceeding simultaneously. Xone of the 
halls have been closed, and although many cases have been emptied, 
it has been possible so to conduct the work that the major part of 
the exhibits always remains on di.splay. 

Installation of the improved physical geolog>* collection which 
occupies the east half of Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35; was 

Department of Geology 233 

interrupted when early reports from collecting parties in the field 
indicated that material superior to any now in the collections will 
soon be available. These collections were received late in the year 
and the work of preparing them for exhibition was started. Many 
of the new specimens require cutting on the stone saw to a size and 
shape suited for exhibition. The large model of the Natural Bridge 
of Virginia was moved from Hall 34 to a better location in the 
corridor connecting Halls 35 and 36. 

Reinstallation of the industrial mineral exhibit in Hall 36 con- 
tinued during the first part of the year as fast as reconditioned 
exhibition cases became available. As the new installation includes 
much material transferred from Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37), 
a necessary condensation was made by transferring to the study 
collections specimens primarily of interest to specialists. There 
they remain available to those competent to profit by their study. 
It is believed that the new installation, although holding fewer 
specimens of most groups, will be of more general interest. Three 
and one-half cases of fiuorite, barite, and sulphur were installed. 
Further installation was postponed to allow closer attention to 
preparations for reinstallation of the gem collection. 

Removal from Hall 36 of overflow material from the industrial 
mineral exhibit (which formerly filled the west half of Hall 37) is 
nearly completed. This change provides space for the invertebrate 
paleontology exhibit, which is to be moved from Hall 38. Some of 
the exhibits were reinstalled in Hall 36, others were taken to the work- 
rooms for revision before reinstallation, and still others were trans- 
ferred to the study collection. The marbles and building stones for 
which no space could be found in the new installation were retired. 

In the ore collection (east half of Hall 37) one case of tin and 
antimony, and one case of rare metals were reinstalled. 

The conversion of Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) from a hall 
of general paleontology into a hall of vertebrate paleontology, for 
which plans were made in the preceding year, was actively prose- 
cuted throughout 1940. This required, besides preparation of new 
specimens and of specimens not before shown, remounting and re- 
finishing many of the older exhibits. 

New exhibits include a skull of the large horned dinosaur Anchi- 
ceratops, and an unusually large skull of the swimming reptile, 
Tylosaurus. Skulls of the extinct mammals Achaenodon, Doli- 
chorhinus, Daphaenus, and Desmathyus were prepared for exhibition, 
and a large number of other mammalian specimens were added to 

231 FiKi.i) MrsKiM of Xatikai. History Rki'orts, Vol. 12 

the study rolUviion. A skull ol Liu- lussu amphibian liiuHnena, and 
shells of two lar>ie fowil turtl(»s. were prcpartHl and mounted for 
exhibition. More notable spe<Mmens are a skeleton of thp (riant 
beaver, CastoTouies, and a skeletal restoration of the jfr- ith 

American carnivorous bird. Mfsrmhrinrnis (Plate 20), both mounted 
by A.vistant James H. Quinn. A lar^e .section from the famous bone 
dejxjRit at Agate, N'ebniska, was prepare*! under his supenision. A 
skeleton of the Pliocene camel I^rttcnrndus was prepared and mounted 
under the .supervi.sion of Assistant Paul O. McClrew. 

Fossil .skeletons remountetl include one of the great South 
American armore<i mammal, (Uyptodon clarijyrff, to which leg bones 
and iH?lvis were adde<l to make an essentially complete specimen 
The older collections of fossil fish-li/^irds. crocodiles, and plesiosaurs 
of the Kuropean Jurassic were refurbished; seven of the specimens 
were remounte<l, and all were installed in two cases with new labels. 
A case of I*aleozoic and Jura.ssic fishes, and one of Cretaceous and 
Eocene fLshes, were gone over and reinstalled, as were two 
cases of Cretaceous swimming reptiles and fl>-ing reptiles, all under 
the super\i.sion of C^urator Klmer S. Riggs. 

A new type of without shelving, and with lower base and 
conse<iuent enlarged exhibition space, has been adopted for Ernest 
R. (iraham Hall Hall 38). A new type of lighting also provide^ 
much more effective illumination for exhibits. In this new t>'p€ of 
case, the exhibits enumerateil above were installed. 

Preparation for a complete reinstallation of the gem collection in 
H. X. Higinbotham Hall Hall 31 > occupietl much of the time of the 
staff during the last four months of the year. The new installation 
will be in especially designed cases with improved illumination. 
Methods of display have been adopted which will bring out the full 
beauty of the gems in a manner imprwwible in the old installation. 
As no catalogue of the gems was available, and as many of the .speci- 
mens are of great value and so small as to be easily mi.slaid, extraor- 
dinary means were Liken to prepare and check a list of all speci- 
mrr.< .ind to .safeguard them from the time of di.smantling the old 
c< n until reinstallation. 

P>efore the cases were opened a check list was made containing a 
description of each specimen with a copy of its label and such data 
as could be found in the records. All cut stones which could not be 
numbered without impairing their appearance were measured and 
weighed to the nearest milligram, and these figures recorded against 
the catalogue numbers assigned to them. It will always be possible 


« :2 






:2 < 




« o 



Department of Zoology 235 

from these records to identify any gem that at some future time 
might accidentally become separated from its label. All other speci- 
mens were numbered and the numbers recorded. A card catalogue 
has been prepared from the check list, and as the cards contain 
records of the size of every specimen, it has been possible to mark 
on blue prints of the interior of the cases the place each specimen is 
to occupy in the new installation. The use of these plans will greatly 
expedite the actual installation when the cases are ready, and will 
allow the installation to proceed with a minimum of handling 

Thirty-five sections of steel tray racks were placed in rooms 108 
and 116 to provide increased accommodation for the study collec- 
tions of physical geology and mineralogy. Over-crowding of the 
study collection has been relieved, and the collection is now in as 
good order as is possible until the contemplated increase of storage 
facilities becomes available. 



The Magellanic Expedition of Field Museum, sponsored by 
President Stanley Field, in 1940 completed the work in South America 
which it began in 1939. The party, led by Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, 
Chief Curator of Zoology, included Mr. Colin C. Sanborn, Curator 
of Mammals, and Mr. John M. Schmidt, field assistant. The Chilean 
city of Punta Arenas, on the north side of the Strait of Magellan, was 
reached about the middle of December, 1939. Punta Arenas, head- 
quarters for the expedition from December 15 to March 15, is the 
southernmost continental city in the world. Far removed from other 
parts of South America, and with a population of about 30,000, it 
is the metropolis of a little world of its own in a region devoted 
mainly to large scale sheep raising. 

A two-ton Ford truck, purchased for the work in the Magellanic 
region, proved invaluable in transporting the party with its equip- 
ment and collections. A representation of the mammals from the 
great island of Tierra del Fuego (the "Land of Fire"), which is cut 
off from the mainland of South America by the Strait of Magellan, 
was the main objective of the expedition. Various collecting sta- 
tions were established on the island, two in the far south on Lakes 
Fagnano and Yewin. Headquarters for a considerable stay were 
generously provided at the Reynolds' Ranch at Via Monte, and a 
short stop was made at Estancia Cullen, to the north. A very satis- 

236 FiKi.i) MrsKiM OF Natirai. Histx)KY Kkpokts, Vol. 12 


fa('tt)ry collectitm of mammals and birds was made at these l(K•alilie^ 
irn-ludinn series of the nire Scoresbys jjull and of the shealhbill. 

On the mainlan<l. «-()||pctinK was carrie<l on at nine Kx'alilies to 
ihe north an<l east of I'unta Arenas, and within a nifiius of 200 miles. 
A rompreliensive colleelion of all of the small mammals of the rejrion 
w;i,s ol)taine<l, including all the forms known with the exception of 
a burrowinj; nnlent, now apparently extinct. However, two sj • 
mens of a new spei'ies, representative of the form thought to be 
extinct on the mainland, were obtained on Riesco Island. In al; 
the colle<'tion includes 472 mammals, and is much the most exten- 
sive ever made in the Magellanic region, now esi)ecially imi)or" 
in view of the trend toward extinction of many forms under mu 
alterations of soil and vegetation prrxiucefl by the vast flocks of 
sheep. The collection includes 1.').') birds and a fpw lizards of 
the .southernmost form in South America. 

Work endefi the middle of March at the end of the brief Antarcti' 
summer. Mr. John Schmidt returned to New York with the col 
lections via the west coast. Dr. O.sgfMxl and Mr. Sanborn procee<led 
by steamer to Buenos Aires, whence Dr. ( Osgood returneti to Chicag 
via the east coast of South .Vmerica. vi.^iting Sao Paulo, F.razi 
en route, for a conference with Dr. Oliverio Pinto, Director of the 
Museu Paulista in that city. 

Curator S;»nborn spent two weeks in further collecting in Ar/- • - 
tina. at Dorrego, near liahia P.lanca. and at rhimi>ay on the Kiu 
NV>gro. Returning to liuenos Aires, he took the train for Cocha- 
bamba, liolivia, to examine collections otTere<i for sale. After a 
short stop in I^ Paz. he crossed I^ke Titicaca to Puno, Peru. 

The work of the Magellanic P'.xpedition in Peru during 1939 had 
defmei^l certain geogniphic problems in the distribution of small 
mammals, and indicated desirable additional collecting stations in 
southern Peru. Collections of mammals, birds, and reptiles were 
made at Yunguyu and at Pocosani in the l^ke Titicaca region, at 
Baftos de J6»us above Are^juipa, and at Chucurapi, a sugar plan- 
tation near the coast. At the latter place a remarkable bat, hitherto 
extremely rare in collections, was obtaine<l in good .series. The 
mammals collei^ed in Peru in 1939 and 1940 total 633. The total 
number of mammals collected by the expe^lition is 1.419. Birds 
collected number 334, and reptiles and amphibians 1,694. 

The Museum is greatly obliged to the personnel of the American 
embassies and consulates in Peru, Chile. Argentina, and Bolivia, 
for aid and advice to the Magellanic Expedition. In addition, 

Department of Zoology 237 

important assistance was rendered by Dr. Carlos Nicholson and 
Seiior Fernando Lopez de Romano, of Arequipa, Peru; by Mr. 
George Hodgson, of Talca, Mr. Fred Turner, of Osorno, Mr. William 
Fell and his son, of North Arm Station, Mr. John Dick and Messrs. 
Greer and McLean, of Punta Arenas, all in Chile; by the Bridges, 
Reynolds, and Goodall families of Tierra del Fuego; and by Mr. 
Hal Hodges, of Buenos Aires, Senor Jose Maria Perez Bustos, of 
Bahia Blanca, and Sehor Gaston Pawley of Chimpay, Argentina. 

The Mandel Caribbean Expedition, led by Mr. Leon Mandel, of 
Chicago, and conducted aboard his yacht, the Buccaneer, was in the 
Caribbean region from January 1 to February 9, 1940. Messrs. 
Rud^-erd Boulton, Curator of Birds, and D. D wight Davis, Assist- 
ant Curator of Anatomy and Osteology, accompanied the expedition. 
By means of the Buccaneer, they were able to make collections of 
birds, mammals, and reptiles on remote and little visited islands, 
together with considerable collections of fishes, numerous inverte- 
brates, a specimen of the rodent genus Capromys embalmed for ana- 
tomical study, and a specimen of the relatively rare Cuban crocodile. 

The party visited Swan Island and the Bay Islands off Honduras, 
various islands off the coast of British Honduras, including Glover's 
Reef, Half Moon Cay and Turneffe Island, and Mujeres, Cancun, 
and Contoy Islands, off Yucatan. No opportunity was lost to 
obtain collections from these little-visited islands. The expedition, 
in addition to various lots of invertebrates, collected more than 500 
fishes, 350 reptiles and amphibians, 150 birds, and 36 mammals. 

A motion picture record of the Mandel Caribbean Expedition, 
in color film, was made by Messrs. Boulton and Davis. This includes 
especially interesting views of the nesting rookeries of sea birds on 
the islands visited, and slow motion flight pictures of various birds, 
especially of the frigate bird. 

The year's publications in the Museum's Zoological Series 
include A Tentative Classification of the Palearctic Unionids, by 
Dr. Fritz Haas, Curator of Lower Invertebrates; Notes on Texan 
Snakes of the Genus Salvadora, by Karl P. Schmidt, Curator of 
Amphibians and Reptiles; A New Toad from Western China, by 
Curator Schmidt and C. C. Liu, of West China Union University; 
A New Venezuelan Honey Creeper, by Emmet R. Blake, Assistant 
Curator of Birds; A New Savannah Sparrow from Mexico, by Sidney 
Camras, former aid in the Division of Birds; Notes on the Anatomy 
of the Bahirusa, by D. D wight Davis, Assistant Curator of Anatomy 
and Osteology; and Studies of the Anatomy of the Extrahepatic Biliary 

23,s KiKi.i) MrsKiM of Natirai. History Rkports, \'ol. 12 

Tratt in Mnmmalia, by Stewart Cniin Thom.vm.of Ixjyola rniversily, 
Chioajio. "Mammals from Iraq." by Colin C. Sanborn, Curator of 
Mammals. api>«»r<xl as an api>on(lix in Anthropology of Iraq, }<y 
l)r Henry Field, of the Department of Anthropology. 

I'ublirations outside the Museum by the Department st.i!T 
include seasonal reiMirts on the birrl life of the Chicago region in 
Bird lAtre, by Kudyerd Boulton. Curator of liirds. and Assistiint 
Curator Blake: a technical report on the amphibians of China, by 
ClifTord H. Pope. Assistant Cunitor of Amjjhibiansand Reptiles, a:. ! 
Dr. Alice M. Boring of Peking, and a b(X)k by Mr. Pope, China's 
Animal Frontier, an account in popular style of his travel 
museum collector. Dr. Fritz Haas publishwl a paper, EciAngical 
Ohserraimns on the Common Mollusks of Satiihfl Island, resulting 
from Field Museum's Florida Kxi)edition of 193i>. 

Thirteen signe<l articles were v^Titten for Field Museum S'ews by 
various members of the Department. 

Research activities of the stafT nut retlected in published work 
include continue*! studies on bats by Curator Sanborn, who has a 
taxonomic monogniph of the family Rhinolophidae in preparation; 
a technical report on various malacological collections and specimens, 
by Curator P'ritz Haas, ready for publication in the Museum's 
Zoological Series at the end of the year, and studies on Peruvian 
mollusks by Dr. Haas. In the Division of Birds, in addition to 
Curator Boulton's continue*! studies on African birds and especially 
on the birds of Angola. Assistant Curator Blake completed prelimi- 
nary studies for his report on the birds of Piritish Guiana based on 
the results of his expeditions in 1937 and 1938. He also collaborated 
with Mr. Harold Hanson, of the University of Wisconsin, in the 
I)repanilion of a report on a collection of birds from Mexico. 

The third and last part of Dr. Reuben Myron Strong's monu- 
mental compilation, A Bibliography of Birds, was submitted for 
publication in 1940, and should soon be available to students. Part ^ 
III contains the .subject index, with an average of three references 
to each title in the author catalogue. 

Dr. Charles E. Hellmayr. A.ssociate Curator of Birds, now resi- 
dent in Geneva, Swit-zerland, continue*! his research on New World 
birds. The manu.srript of that part of the Catalogue of Birds of the 
Americas dealing with game birds, completed in co-operation with 
Mr. Boardman Conover. Research A.ssociate in Omitholog>% is in 
press, and the completed manuscript of the last volume of the .series 
has been received bv the Museum. 


Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. 12, Plate 20 



Collected from Pliocene deposits of Catamarca, Argentina, by the Marshall Field 
Paleontological Expeditions (1922-27) 

Ernest R. Graham HaU (Hall 38) 

Department of Zoology 239 

In the Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, Curator Schmidt 
continued studies on the amphibians and reptiles of Central 
America and southwestern Asia, and the fossil representatives of 
the living orders of reptiles, preparing a paper for the Museum's 
Geological Series on a fossil turtle from Arkansas, with another 
publication well advanced on a Miocene alligator from Nebraska. 
In the Division of Insects, two papers by Assistant Curator Rupert 
L. Wenzel were ready for the press at the end of the year, and two 
further papers based on Field Museum material had been accepted 
for publication, one on termitophilous Diptera by Dr. Charles H. 
Seevers of the Central YMCA College, Chicago, and one on 
Mallophaga by Miss Theresa M. Clay, of the British Museum. In 
the Division of Fishes, Curator Alfred C. Weed agreed to prepare 
an account of the mullets for a comprehensive work on the fishes 
of the northwestern Atlantic, and made some studies in preparation. 
In the Division of Anatomy and Osteology, Assistant Curator Davis 
continued the accumulation of drawings and manuscript toward a 
comprehensive account of the anatomy of the giant panda based on 
the dissection of the famous "Su-Lin." 

Various members of the staff attended scientific meetings during 
the year and engaged in studies at other museums. Chief Curator 
Osgood attended the Eighth American Scientific Congress in Wash- 
ington in May, as the representative of the Museum. Curator 
Boulton and Assistant Curator Blake attended the meetings of the 
American Ornithologists' Union in Boston, and Mr. Boulton was 
re-elected treasurer and business manager of the Union. He gave 
an illustrated lecture on the Mandel Caribbean Expedition, and 
Mr. Blake read a paper on the birds of the Brazilian frontier of 
British Guiana. Curator Haas attended the meeting of the American 
Malacologists' Union in Philadelphia in June. Assistant Curator 
Davis visited several eastern museums in October to examine ana- 
tomical exhibitions, and to discuss his important work on the anatomy 
of the giant panda with colleagues engaged in similar studies. 


The accessions for the year numbered 482, comprising a total of 
41,756 specimens. Classified, these consisted of 1,621 specimens of 
mammals, 7,463 birds, 10,525 birds' eggs, 4,936 amphibians and 
reptiles, 6,487 fishes, 7,384 insects and related forms, and 3,340 lower 
invertebrates, the last mostly mollusks. Included in the above 
figures are 337 specimens of mammals, birds, and reptiles preserved 
for anatomical study or prepared as skeletons. 

•Jltl FlKl.I) Ml SKIM OK NaTIRAI. HISTOKV RkI»1)RTS, \()L. 12 

The accessions receive*! as jjifts include 21,775 si>ecimens; by 
exchan>;e. l.?.'); from Museum expeilitions, 12,021; and by purchase. 
7,r)2'). Notable ^ifts of mammals include two lots of Mexican m.i!!i- 
mals. ;M from Mr. K. Wyllys Andrews, of Cambridge. Massiichuset'^. 
and IT from Mr. Harry Iiooj;slraal. of Champaign, Illinois. Imjiur- 
tant also are niUs of '.VJ spe<"imens from the Chicapo Z(M)]o^i«al 
S<x*iety, and three from the Lincoln Park Zoo. 

(lifts acre.ssione<l in the Division of P>irfls include ll,*J2^i ,■ - 
mens, of which 1,398 are birds and 10, .Vi.') are eggs. These come 
from thirty-eight individuals and institutions. The two large gift! 
of eggs include 9.869 from the Kstate of C. K. Knickerbock' r. 
Chicago, and fi')? from Mr. .Joseph M. Wells, of Chicago. Important 
gifUs of birds include 272 spe<Mmens from the Chicago Zfxilogical 
Sfviety; iV\ from Mr. Roardman Conover. Chicago; 732 from Mr. 
Melvin .\. Traylor, Jr., Chicavro; 26 from Mr. John \. Holabird, 
Chicago; and M from Mr. Bernard Bartnick, Chicago. 

Gifts of reptiles and amphibians include an important collection 
from Yucatan made by Mr. K. Wyllys Andrews and Mr. Melvin A. 
Traylor. Jr., resulting from an expedition financed mainly by them. 
Dr. Henry Field, Chicago, and Mrs. Robb White, Jr., Thomasville^ 
(ieorgia, presented 11') .specimens from Cleorgia and P'lorida. Numer- 
ous sjiecimens were presente<^i by the Chicago Ziw^logical Society and 
the Lincoln Park Z(k). 

The most important gifts among the acces.sions of fishes were t 
mounteil Pacific black marlin, and a mcxiel of a large thresher .shark, 
received from Mr. Michael lyerner, of New York. These .siKX-imeni 
were colIecte<l in the course of an expedition to New Zealand and 

.\ notable gift of in.secLs, spiders, and scoqiions was made by 
Padre Cornel io \*ogl, of Caracas, Venezuela; 73.3 .s|)ecimens, fmrn 
both North and South America, were presented by Mr. Henr> 
Dybas. of Chicago; 413 .spei'imens of neotropical hi.sterid beetles 
including six ty|>es and ten paratypes were added to the collection 
by Mr. Ku[>ert L. Wenzel, Chicago; and Dr. Charles Seevers, of 
Chicago, presenlwl 52 .si>ecimens, which include six types and ."^ix 
paratyi>es of new .species of termitophilous flies from the neotropirs. 

.\ con.'^iderable gift of mollu.^ks and other marine invertebrates 
came from Mr. Hen Casoard, of Gar>-, Indiana. 

The study collections of the Divi.sion of Anatomy and O.steo|og>' 
have grown chiefly through the gift of specimens from the Chicajro 


Department of Zoology 241 

Zoological Society. The Division co-operates closely with the 
Society's Brookfield Zoo, taking charge of animals after they die, 
and arranging for their best scientific use. 

The collections received through Museum expeditions, includ- 
ing collecting of insect parasites from the collections of birds and 
mammals in the Museum's existing collections, amount to 12,021 
specimens. Of these, the most important are the mammals, birds, 
reptiles, fishes, and various invertebrates from Chile, Argentina, 
and Peru, obtained by the Field Museum Magellanic Expedition. 
The Museum bore a minor share of the expense of an expedition to 
Yucatan by Messrs. E. Wyllys Andrews and Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., 
whose large collections have been credited as gifts. The collections 
of birds, mammals, reptiles, fishes, and marine invertebrates made 
by the Mandel Caribbean Expedition amount to more than 1,000 

Exchanges were made during 1940 with the British Museum 
(Natural History), the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, and with various individuals. Purchases include 
noteworthy specimens from Mexico, the United States, and Bolivia 
for addition to the reference collection. 

Through the fund established in memory of the late Leslie 
Wheeler, former Trustee of the Museum and Research Associate 
in the Division of Birds, 85 specimens of birds of prey were added to 
the collection. An additional 5,133 study skins from the Bishop 
Collection were received from Dr. Louis B. Bishop, of Pasadena, 
California, supplementing the 35,076 specimens received from this 
source in 1939. 


The entries in the departmental catalogues for 1940 number 
26,559, of which 2,127 are for mammals, 19,371 for birds, 2,565 for rep- 
tiles and amphibians, 157 for fishes, and 2,339 for lower invertebrates. 

Storage space for the reference collection of mammals was 
increased by forty-one cases, eighteen in Room 76 and thirty-three 
in Room 78. A complete rearrangement of the collection, made 
possible by these additional cases, has been undertaken, and about 
half the work of relabeling the drawers and cases completed. The 
reattachment of the original labels to specimens received before 1908 
has continued, and 975 such specimens have been relabeled. Other 
specimens labeled total 8,548 skins and 4,298 skulls in bottles and 
boxes. New index cards typed and old ones retyped total 5,647. 


The catalojrue onlrii»s for birds represonl 19,(KS<3 skinft, 220 skele- 
tons, 19 alcoholic specimens, and Ifi sets of ejiRS. The orjiani 
of the reference colUvtion, involvinjf the incorporation of the liiMi";. 
Collection and other recent lar^ie accessions, was a major activity 
of the Division of Hirds in VMO. The assignment of ninety-four 
large spei'imen c.uses on the west gallery of the fourth floor to bird* 
makes possible a complete rearrangement. The families of birds 
Iiste<l in the first two volumes of the Check-list of Birds of the World 
(Strut hionidae to Alcidaei have l)ecn arranged in this space, while 
the remaining families (Pteroclidae to Fringillidaei occupy the cases 
on the third floor in Room 76. 

The work of the Division was gieatly advance^! through the 
services of four volunteer assistants. Mi.«vs Sally I.«iwson, of \'a.ssar 
College, worke<l full time from July to mid-September and finished 
sorting the P.ishop Collei-tion for the catalogues. Mrs. Herman 
Dunlop Smith, of I^ke Poorest, averaged two days a week in ths 
Division throughout the year. Mrs. John A. Holabird and Mifli 
P^lorence Cluett, both of Chicago, devoted several days each week 
to routine work during the latter part of the year. 

A complete rearrangement of the reptile collection was under- 
taken by As.sistant Curator ClifTord H. Pope upon his arrival to 
join the staff of the Museum in June. This was made possible by the 
expan.'^ion of the storage and laboratory .space of the Division of 
Reptiles mentioneil in the VXV^ Report. Many new labels for the 
cases, drawers, and bottles were made during the course of this work. 

Newly catalogued specimens in the Division of Fishes were 
numberwl. label wl. and placet! on the storage shelves, together with 
a considerable number which were identified by Dr. Carl L. Hubbs, 
of the University of Michigan, during his several Nnsits to the 

In the Division of Insects, besides pinning, .spreading when 
necessary, pin labeling, and distributing most of the specimens 
received, a number of butterflies, moths, and flies were tran.sferred 
to new drawers. Much necfied attention was given to specimens in 
alcohol, which were .sorted, labele<^l. placet! in more suitable con- 
tainers, and arranged in sy.stematic order, making them more 
accessible and u.^eful. Spread and respread were I.IT)? butterflies 
and moths, the old pins being replaced with japanned pins. 

In the Division of Lower Invertebrates the principal activity 
for the year was also the arrangement of the collection in new cases 
on the fourth floor. In addition to the cataloguing of new material, 













t— t OJ 








03 t- 

0! K^" 












Department of Zoology 243 

with 2,128 entries in the catalogue of mollusks and 211 in that for 
other invertebrates, 1,158 older entries were checked and the lots 
of specimens relabeled. In the course of unpacking the collections 
from storage in the basement of the building, several collections of 
scientific importance have come to light, such as the Sonshine 
collection of mollusks from California, and the uncatalogued Elihu 
Hall collection from various parts of the United States. A capable 
volunteer worker, Mrs. M. J. Taylor, classified, catalogued, and 
labeled most of the collection of echinoderms, but was compelled 
to relinquish her work in May on account of ill health. 


The habitat group of northern fur seal (Plate 19) is a notable 
addition to the Hall of Marine Mammals (Hall N). The scene 
depicted is on St. Paul's Island, one of the Pribilof group in the 
Bering Sea. Forty mounted seals are included, showing old bulls 
with their "harems" of females and many small pups. A herd of 
young seals is shown in the background. Among these are some 
of the three-year-old males called "bachelors," the surplus of which 
supplies the market with sealskin furs. Various sea-birds such as 
the auklets and puffins, which nest in the seal rookery, are also 
shown. The materials and studies for the group were collected by 
Staff Taxidermist C. J. Albrecht in 1937, and he prepared them him- 
self, aided by Assistant Taxidermist Frank C. Wonder. The back- 
ground, in which the foggy atmosphere of the Pribilofs is captured 
with extraordinary realism, is by Staff Artist Arthur G. Rueckert. 

Additions to the systematic collection of mammals in Hall 15 
include a Mongolian wild ass mounted by Staff Taxidermist Julius 
Friesser. The case of South American monkeys was revamped by 
Staff Taxidermist W. E. Eigsti, seven new specimens being added; 
it now includes all but one genus of the South American primates. 
Mr. Eigsti also mounted specimens of the Guinea baboon, wombat, 
and Tasmanian devil for the systematic series. 

Mr. Friesser completed the mounting of six African forest hogs 
for a group, to be completed in 1941, with accessories to show their 
African forest habitat. He also mounted a Philippine pig, a river 
hog, and a bush pig for the systematic case of pigs. These were 
supplemented by a reproduction of a babirusa, prepared by Staff 
Taxidermist Leon L. Walters. This was made in celluloid, by the 
special process originated and developed at the Museum by Mr. 
Walters more than twenty years ago, and increasingly used ever 
since that time. 

lill KiKM) MrsKUM OF Natirai. Mistoky liKPoRTs, Vol. 12 

A new hahitat jjroup in Hall 20 has its scene laid at the base of 
sno\v-cappe<l Mount Kjrniont in New Zealand, to provide a setting for 
Mantell's kiwi. The kiwi.s are remarkable fliKhtless birds rhara< 
i.slio of \ew Zealand. The mother bird in the ffroup stands bfM'ic 
a nest which contains its two disproportionately larjje epjrs. Tly 
^oup (Plate 21 ) was prepare<l by Staff Taxidermist John W. Mover, 
with accessories by Preparator Fnink H. Lell, and background by 
Staff Artist Kuwkert. 

In the sx'stematic collection of birds in Hall 21, the introduction 
of a case near the east entrance under the heading "What is a bird? 
forms a step toward the more subjective and educational type of 
exhibit which has become of increasing importance to a logical growth 
of the Museum's public displays. This case shows the place of 
birds among their vertebrate relatives, and demonstrates some of 
the major pe<niliarilies of the bird group, such as the modification 
of the arms into wings, the elaborate feather structure, and the sys- 
tem of air-sacs which per\ade the bo<ly. Much care was expended 
on the preparation of the models for this screen, and on the accon 
panying exj)lanatory labels, by Mi.'vs Nellie H. Starkson, Artist - 
Preparator, under Curator Moulton's super\'ision. The systematic 
series was amplifio<l further by the installation of two screens of 
the ducks of the world, one of the eagles, hawks, and vultures, and 
one of the herons, storks, and, all the work of Mr. Mover. 

A temp<irary exhibit of eggs, base<l upon the recently acquired 
Knickerbocker Collection, was prepared for exhibition in Stanley 
Field Hall at the Piaster season. It attracted much favorable atten- 
tion, and was later removed to the southwest corner of Hall 21 

A considerable number of celluloid models of reptiles and am- 
phibians was fini.-^heti during the year, but none were placed on 
exhibition, pending reamingement of the cases. Staff Taxidermist 
Walters was engaged in the completion of the habitat group of the 
loggerhead turtle, shown laying its eggs at night on a Florida sea 
beach. This group will not he opened until the individual lighting 
of the adjacent systematic cases and the opposite crocodile group, 
planned for completion in 19-11, makes possible the solution of a 
serious problem of reflections. Two cases of enlarged models of 
tadpoles were in an advanced .«^tape at the end of the year. These 
are the work of Preparator Frank H. I>etl and Mr. J. B. Krstolich, and 
embody much research in the use of plastics suitable for this purpKwe. 

Much progress was made in the preparation of fish exhibits in 
1940. The specimens exhibited in Hall 18 were transferred to new 

N. W. Harris Public School Extension 245 

cases in Hall O on the ground floor. New individual labels were 
ordered prepared for the entire collection, and experiments were 
made in the style of the large case labels. The new built-in cases 
with fluorescent lighting are a great improvement over anything 
previously used in the Museum for fishes. The habitat group of 
fishes of the Texas coast was enlarged and improved for its permanent 
installation in Hall 0. It shows the fishes of the sandy bottom and 
their association with the "oyster lumps" which develop in such 
situations. A colorful habitat group of the New England fishes, 
exhibiting the marine life of a tidepool on the rocky coast of Maine, 
was completed during the year. Installation and preparation of 
both systematic collections and groups was the work of Staff Taxi- 
dermist Leon L. Pray. Accessories for the groups were produced 
under Mr. Letl's direction. Hall requires only finishing touches 
and the completion of labels, and is scheduled for opening in 1941. 

Experiments were made by the Division of Insects to decide on 
a style of case, and on labels and other details, for the exhibit of 
insects planned for Hall 18. A small group of Florida tree snails 
was installed among the lower invertebrate exhibits in Hall M. 

The construction of a workroom for the Division of Birds on 
the fourth floor is an especially important improvement in conjunc- 
tion with the establishment of a large share of the bird collection 
in the new cases in the west gallery on that floor, as it provides 
adequate working space accessible to the collections. 


Because of the reserve of material acquired in preceding years, 
no extensive collecting was necessary during 1940 to enable the 
work of the Harris Extension to proceed at an active rate. Neverthe- 
less, ten days were spent by staff members in local field work to 
procure specimens needed for immediate use or to add to reserve 
collections. Forty-seven birds were obtained, of which thirty-one 
were mounted for exhibition purposes, and the remainder added 
to reserves. Twenty-seven bird skins were purchased to replace 
an equal number destroyed while on loan at an elementary school. 
Numerous plant specimens, particularly common trees, were col- 
lected for inclusion in the loan herbarium now maintained by this 

During the year twenty-four exhibits were prepared, of which 
sixteen were installed in standard-sized cases, and eight in a new 
type of hand case. Worthy of special comment among these exhibits 

24<j KiKi.i) MrsKiM of N'atirai, Histokv Kki'okts. Voi,. 12 

are six relaiinjj to the life of the honeybee in which etfective \. > 
was made of photomacropraphs to show those details of the instil > 
anatomy which are ordinarily pointe<l out in elementary s<i«r"< 
instruction as remarkable inst,'inces of adaptation. Also, in !■ 
cases containin>i realistic mcKlels of a poison ivy plant, tinted phm.,. 
praphs were used to portray a typical case of ivy poisoning The | 
original illustration, also a tinted photograph, was supplied by Dr. 
A. \V. Stillians, of Northwestern I'niversity Me<lical School. 

The new type of hand case was desi^nefi as a container for sn 
specimens which are best examine<i at close range. It is approxi- 
mately 4xl.*^xlS'j inches, is constructed of plywood, and ha> 
metal-bound corners, a hinpe<l lid and suitcase latches. The bott. " 
of the ca.'^e may or may not be covere<^l \v\lh glass, depending on liji- 
nature of the material, and the inside of the lid is suitable for descrip- 
tive matter, charts, or photogniphs. Four .such cases were in.stallH 
with .synoptic collections of insects to illustrate the principal comn. n 
orders, two were installe<i with in.sects directly or indirectly beneficial 
to man's economy, and two were in.stalletl with injurious insect*. 

The remaining .six of the twenty-four cases were in a rein- 
stallations the original mounted animal .specimens wert- 
retaine<l. However, .since revisions were radical and extensive, with 
much new material adde<l, they have been counted as new exhibi's. 
The subjects thus treatefl were the prairie dog. prairie chicken, trt* 
sparrow, and hummingbird, of which two cases were prepared. 

Scenic backgrounds painted by a Work Projects Admini.stration 
artist, were added to ten The marker! sui)eriority of painted 
backgrounds over the tinted enlarged photographs extensively u.sed 
heretofore greatly improved the elTect of realism in these habitat 
groups. Considerable work was done to the specimens and 
foregrounds when the new paintings were placed. 

.A hand-powered hydraulic press with electrically heated platenfly I 
capable of exerting a pressure of thirty tons, was purchased to 
facilitate the prrxiuction of celluloid or other plastic casts from ■ 
metal molds. With this machine, the Harris P2xten.sion now em- 
ploys a technique in which high temperatures and great pres.sures are 
used to produce artificial foliage with the quality of goo<i wax leaves, 
yet with the greater strength and durability to be had in nl-i^tjc 

Many highly complimentary' letters of appreciation were received 
from teachers and principals who find that the portable Museum 
exhibits aid materially in the teaching of science in the schools. 



N. W. Harris Public School Extension 247 

Fourteen additions were made to the list of those receiving 
Harris Extension cases, and three recipients were removed. The 
net gain of eleven brings the total served at the end of the year 
to 485. Since the lending service of the Museum includes practically 
all of the public schools, increase in the number reached is to be 
expected only through the gradual growth of the public school 
system and the inclusion of more denominational schools and social 
service agencies such as the six Chicago Boys' Clubs and three 
hospital schools added in 1940. 

Thirty-four cases each were delivered during the year to 481 
schools and other Chicago institutions. In addition to the 962 
cases thus kept in constant circulation, twenty-four loans totaling 
sixty cases were made in response to special requests. Thirteen of 
these requests included unattached objects such as bird study 
skins, herbarium sheets, or geological specimens, all of which could 
be handled by pupils, and nine were for standard cases only. Various 
exhibits and specimens were supplied for the elementary school 
science teacher conferences held in the Lecture Hall of the Museum 
under the auspices of the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

A metal stand with casters was designed to increase the usefulness^ 
of the portable Museum cases in special schools where many pupils 
are confined to beds or wheelchairs, and a trial stand was constructed 
in the Museum shops. It supports two Harris Extension cases in 
a way which enables them to be wheeled into position at bedsides, 
or to be viewed conveniently by a seated person. This type of 
stand will be used by at least ten special schools, and there are 
prospects of its being adopted by many other schools using Harris 
Extension cases. 

The two Museum trucks traveled a total of 11,865 miles in the 
distribution of cases. Such work as was necessary to keep the 
trucks in good mechanical condition, and preserve their appearance, 
was completed during the summer months. 

With a certain minimum of material required to maintain the 
pattern of service which has developed over a period of years, the 
efforts of the Harris Extension staff have been devoted in a large 
degree to the task of re-working old exhibits as well as creating 
new ones. After a few years, damaged or obsolescent material tends 
to accumulate at a rate faster than the preparation of new exhibits 
to replace it. Repairs must be made quickly and continuously in 
order that no deficiency of loan material may be experienced. 

248 FiKLD MrsKiM of Natural History Kkports. Vol. 12 

Neveriheloss, there was a markc<l retlurtion in the amount of 
damapc to ciises directly attrihut^ihle to accident or misuse in any 
particular school. The front glasses were broken in twenty cases, 
31 per cent less than the previous year: fifteen label frames were 
damaKe<l, a re<iuction of Tf) per cent; and the wcMMJwork of nine 
cabinet^ was injured as against ten in the prece<linK perio<l. These 
figures lose sipnificance, however, in view of the total repairs made 
necessary through wear and tear accumulated over a period of 
time. Kxclusive of complete reinstallations, repairs were made to 
installations in sixty-nine cases, cabinet repairs to eighty-one cases, 
and label frame repairs in 125 instances. Xew bottoms were fittH 
to eijjhty cases, hanger strips were adde<i to ninety-two cases, and 
auxiliary label guides to 108 cases. The two latter items were 
strengthening members calculated to reduce the amount of dama^'e 
sulTcri'fi by the case assembly. The gray or soile<i interiors of 12-'^ 
cabinets were painte<l bull to conform to the standard color in gen- 
eral use in the Museum. 

An additional 116 feet of shelving was constructed in the new 
ground floor storeroom to accommodate those Harris Extension 
cases which have been withheld from circulation for some time but 
which are gradually being restored to usefulness or replaced. 

The usual annual cleaning, polishing, and inspection of cases 
were accomplished in July and August when all of them were in I 
storage in the Museum. 

thf: jamks xp:usox and axxa Lorist: raymoxd 


In 1940 the James Xelson and Anna Ixiuise Raymond Foundation 
continued the presentation of various programs of motion pictures, 
lectures, tours, and other activities to supplement the educational 
work of the schools and to provide enjoyable and educational hours 
of entertainment for the children. 

Included were the regular spring, summer, and fall series of 
motion picture programs for children shown in the James Simpson 
Theatre, and two special patriotic programs; guide-lecture tours in 
the exhibition halls; four series of special science programs; radio 
follow-up programs; extension lectures given in the classrooms and 
auditoriums of schools; a special course for leaders of recreational 
groups "Recreation Through Xature" — given in co-operation with 

Raymond Foundation 249 

the Leaders' Training School of the Work Projects Administration; 
a series of five talks arranged for the guidance of science teachers in 
the elementary grades, and a series of twelve experimental educa- 
tional programs by television in co-operation with the Zenith Radio 

Special efforts have been m.ade to fulfill the increasingly great 
number of requests for lectures and tours in the Museum. These 
demands are heaviest during April, May, June, October, and Novem- 
ber, when good weather makes it possible for groups to travel hun- 
dreds of miles. During January, February, and March, when groups 
find it difficult to come to the Museum, the extension lecture service 
is stressed. 


The programs in the three series of motion picture entertainments, 
and the two special patriotic events arranged for boys and girls 
were as follows: 

Spring Course 

March 2 — Animals at Home. 

Including animal cartoon. 

March 9 — The Ups and Downs of the Earth's Crust. 
Including cartoon feature. 

March 16— The World of Trees. 
March 23 — The Home of the Dinosaurs. 
Including dinosaur cartoon. 

March 30 — Far Flying Feathered Friends. 

Including Silly Symphony on birds. 

April 6 — Life Under Water. 

April 13 — Spring Comes to the Woodlands. 

Including Aesop's fables. 
April 20 — Plant and Insect Partnerships. 
April 27— First Aid to Nature. 

Summer Course 

July 11 — An Hour in Mexico. 

Mexican dancers and motion pictures. 
July 18 — Vacationing in the Open. 
July 25 — Elephant Boy. , 

Featuring Sabu, a boy from India. / 

August 1 — Nanook of the North. 

The story of an Eskimo boy; also a cartoon. 

August 8 — In the South Seas with Gifford Pinchot. 

August 15 — Animals of the Polar Regions. 
Including a cartoon. 

Autumn Course 

October 5 — Our North American Indians. 1 
October 12 — Lands Around the Caribbean. 

2r)0 FiKi.i) MrsKUM OF NatiR/VL History Rkports, Vol. 12 


October 19 Along thr ' ^| 

Color m . - ■ 

October 26 From Junulr to I>«'««Tt in Africa. 
InrluclinK a rnrtoon. 

N'ovrmlKT 2 Ania's Snithoa-nt Cornor. 

InrludinK a rart<K)n. 
Novpml>pr 9 C) ' Mir IVNiplo. 

i;. :.jl a cartoon. 

Novpmbor 16 ThrouRh the I.Hlnndu of the South Seat. 

Inchulinjc :» 
Novrmln^r 2.3 Why a Thank ,, ^ . 

Including a carttxin. 

NovomlMT 30- Our National and State Parks. 

In addition to the above-mentioned .series of entertainments the 
following two special patriotic programs were offered: 
February 12 "Abraham Lincoln." 
February* 22 - George Wa-shington projjram "Betsy Rom." 


The loial number of motion picture programs offered in the 
James Simpson Theatre was twenty-.«;ix. Twenty of these were 
repeated at a second showinj;, which makes the total of proprann 
given forty-six. The attendance at these children's entertainments 
was 29.1 10. Of this number 9,r)2r) attende<i the spring course, 5,ST6 
the summer course, 10,400 the fall series, and 3,309 the special 
patriotic programs. 

Publicity was given to the programs by the Chicago Daily Seirs, 
Chicago Tnhuue, Chicago Ht raid- American . Chicago Daily Times, | 
Doinilnwti Shopping Xeirs, and many neighborhood and suburban 


Two .series of Firifl Museum Stories for Children were prepared 
by members of the staff of the Raymond Foundation. They wen 
illustratwi with line drawings and photographs, each illustration 
being .selected! to add information as well as to make the stor>' more 
attractive. The subject.s of the stories correlated with films shown in 
the programs given in the Theatre, and were of seasonal interest to 
the children. Following are the titles of the stories in each series: 

Seri«>5« XXXIV - " - " ' -, of the U. ' " ' '^ny 

Crrrn ' . \VinjtP<l B. . 'an 

?; The Plants in .-i V. i ( onr In.'WH-t Mimicry and Pro- 

t» . ... I oloration; The Imp r ..,, < of Cor...- . ..; . :n. 

S*>rie!« XXXV -Pueblo Hou.-ies: The P>-ramid.n of Mexico; Humplesw Camels of 
.^Mith America: Mummip«< from Ejopt: Tho Taj Mahal: Rice Cultivation in 
China: V ' <i; The Wild Turkey— a Vanishing Game Bird; PlanU Are 

Natural ; rs of the Hills. 




















h- 1 












1— I 






1— 1 
















































Raymond Foundation 251 

Some 25,000 copies of Museum Stories were distributed to those 
ttending the Saturday morning programs. 


By means of conducted tours, the use of exhibition halls for 
lassroom work was extended to the following groups : 

Number of 

groups Attendance 

Tours for children of Chicago schools: 

Chicago public schools 446 19,146 

Chicago parochial schools 38 1,709 

Chicago private schools 14 322 

Tours for children of suburban schools: 

Suburban public schools 334 11,704 

Suburban parochial schools 21 821 

Suburban private schools 6 127 

Tours for special groups of children: 

Children's clubs 40 2,609 

Special science programs 112 5,858 

Miscellaneous 68 2,615 

Thus guide-lecture service was given to 1,079 children's groups, 
ind the aggregate attendance was 44,911, an increase in number of 
>,736 over 1939. 

In a number of instances, the schools and groups receiving such 
;ervice were also given illustrated talks and discussions in the lecture 
lall preceding the tour in the exhibition halls. These talks and 
pictures provided the background for a better understanding of the 
exhibits in the Museum halls. The total number of these supple- 
.Tientary lectures was 165, and they were attended by 11,693 children. 

f As in years past, many groups came in from outside the state, 
especially during the months of April, May, September, and October. 
The principal influx of such groups came from communities in 
Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana. 

The Museum was host on December 3 and 5 to parties of 4-H 
Club boys and girls who were delegates to the National Congress of 
4-H Clubs held in Chicago. These groups numbered 772 girls and 
750 boys. A flood of letters has been received from these fine young 
citizens expressing their appreciation for Field Museum's part in 
their entertainment. 


In the last few years a greater emphasis has been placed on 
science in the schools of the Chicago region. To meet the greater 
need thus engendered for lectures, tours, and supplementary mate- 


2'i2 KiKi.i) MrsKt M ok Natikai. Histdky Kkports. Vol. 12 

rials. siHvial wienco projrnims won* (»(Tit«1 in Fielci Museum to the 
Ht'h(K)ls of the area. 

The pn>Kram.H offered were a» follows: 

S«»pirmb«»r and Octobrr: 
Coiuvn'Bt 1 

•.* ♦• 

icli"^ .•» 

x tntU 

\ ^ll'*^^urlrrt^ iTth oi 'hrw pmiframs 

Tr.- .V - ... I, T- 

/ ^ . ^ Omw . 

pr Trr«<ii a<i .Mrmhom of the Plant KinKdom (Sth grsd*— «nr 


No\Tmb«»r and IVcrmU-r: 

AnimaU of thr World (4th grado four pr og T aim ): Rocki. Mincrab. tm 
Fowil* (6th ffmdc nii prr>fram<i 

These programs con.sistwi of illustrated lectures in the MuAemn 
Ixvture Hall or the James Simpson Theatre, followed by directed 
study in the exhibition halls. Sheets of questions and suk' J 

were jriven to the students, and with the help of liaymond hounUa- 
tion staff members the answers were obtained from the exhibit> 

These projn^ms proved so successful, and the demand for the* 
! •' s*) (Treat that besides the twenty-one projframs offerea, 

i-iii .^n additional ones were jriven. making a total of thirty-fiv*- 
sfHvial .s^'ience projirams. One hundred! and fourteen schools brougl 
proups into the Mu.seum for these pro>irams. Of these, ninety-aevc 
were Chicajfo public schools, ten Chicajjo parochial, one Chicaj: 
private, three suburban public, and three suburban parochial. 

The total attendance at the thirty-five lectures was 6,584. Of 
this number. Ti.^yS wrrr divide*! into 112 jiroupa for supeniaed 
Ktudy and work with the exhibits and question sheets. 


The staff of the Raymond Foundation a^ln co-operated wit^ 
the ChicaRo Public Sch«K)l Hnvadrastinjr Council by presenting tw 
•uT-ir^s of j)ri)jjrams which followo<l radio broadcasts jriven by t' 
' .1. These projjrams were base*! upon Mu.«ieum exhibits w 

correlated with the subjects of the broadcasts. Meetings were heW 
in the l>ecture Hall where slides were used and actual objects we: 
available for the studenLs to handle. Mimeographed informatif 
• •i^ts were distributed and questions were an.swered as inform 
: - •^«»ed. The mr- were follow«l by tours in it 

fxi(ii'iii"ii ii.iii>. The subjects Vk»_i»j a* follow*s: 
r r.. .. ■■ ^:Tn» and Their Ppoducu 


Raymond Foundation 253 

Four of the six programs were repeated, making a total of ten 
programs with an attendance of 849. 

The program on "Trees and Their Products" was repeated by 
request at the Fourth Annual Broadcast Conference held at the 
Congress Hotel early in December for the benefit of the 1,200 visiting 
delegates. This demonstration was made as similar as possible to 
the original program in Field Museum. 


Groups in educational institutions were offered extension lectures 

as in the past. These lectures, illustrated with slides, were given in 

classrooms, laboratories, and assemblies. At the conclusion of 

lectures, if time permitted, an open discussion followed in which 

teachers and students were invited to ask questions and participate 

in the discussion led by the Field Museum speaker. The following 

subjects were offered to high school groups: 

The Dynamic Earth and Its Meaning to Man; The Story of Rocks and Minerals 
That Are of Economic Importance; Plants and Animals of Prehistoric Ages; 
Prehistoric Man; The Natural Fauna of the Chicago Area (mammals, birds, 
reptiles, amphibians, fishes, insects); Mammals of the Chicago Area; Birds 
of the Chicago Area; North American Mammals; Amphibians and Reptiles; 
Insects; The Natural Flora of the Chicago Area (algae, fungi, flowering 
plants, trees); Wild Flowers of Swamp, Sand-Dune, and Prairie in Chicago; 
Trees of the Chicago Area; What Will the Great Out-of-Doors Be Like 100 
Years from Now? (Conservation); The Adventures of a Great Muse um of 
Natural Science; Ancient Egyptian Customs; North American Indians. 

The following subjects were offered to elementary school groups: 

For Geography and History Groups 

North American Indians; Indians of the Woodlands and Plains; The Navajo and 
Pueblo Indians; Migisi, the Indian Lad; Mexico, Land of the Feathered 
Serpent; Caribbean Lands; South America; The Egyptians; China and Her 
People; Prehistoric Peoples; Clothing from Cave Man to Civilization. 

For Science Groups 

Trees of the Chicago Region; Flowers of the Chicago Region; Our Outdoor Friends; 
Nature in City Yards and Parks; The Changing Earth; The Work of Wind 
and Water; Geography of the Chicago Region; Plants and Animals of Long 
Ago; A Rock May Be a Treasure Chest; Insects: Friends and Enemies; 
Animals of the World at Home; Birds of the Chicago Region; Mammals of 
the Chicago Region; What Will the Great Out-of-Doors Be Like 100 Years 
from Now? (Conservation) ; The Adventures of a Great Museum. 

The Raymond Foundation staff gave a total of 405 extension 
lectures, and the aggregate attendance was 139,286. This service 
was divided as follows: 

Number of 

groups Attendance 

Chicago elementary school groups 352 120,369 

Chicago high school groups 39 16,970 

Special schools 5 787 

Other organizations 9 1,160 


Durinn the months of April, May, and June, Field Museum par 
tioipate<i in the Ix»nders" Training School of the Work ProjecU 
Administration. A course, "Recreation through Nature," given a* 
the Museum, consisted of ten sessions during which ways of iv ' 
inp nature through recreation were (liscusse<i and demonstruif\i. 
Museum exhibits and slides were use<l in these demonstrations. The 
total attendance at the ten meetings was 508. 

In the Sixth Annual Recreation Conference sponsored by the 
Chicago Recreation Commission, a member of the Raymond Four, 
dation staff, Mrs. I^eota G. Thomas, was invited to participate ir. 
"Information Please." This quiz program, with a board of experts t- 
answer the questions, was modelwi on a well-known radio feature pn 
duce<i under the same title. 

T?:ArnER.s' training coursk ray.mond foundation 

As in 1939, the science super\'isors and science consultants of th^ 
Chicago Public Schools co-operated with Field Museum in pn 
ing a .series of talks and tours for teachers conducting science cour -< 
in grades from the third to the eighth inclu.sive. These teachers 
particularly intereste<i in knowing what the Museum had to olU 
them and their students in supplementary material, and how t 
make of it. The following five programs were offeree!: 

March 2- Gradf V Bird Study. 

March 9— Grade III Trpos. 

.March 16 Grade VI Plant Families. 

.\nimal.s of Our Forest Prv^crvn. 

March 2.1 Grades VI I, VIII Spring Mowers and Bird Migration. 

March 30 Grade IV Spring Wild nowers. 


Talks and di.scu.ssion in the lecture hall were followed by tour 
and demonstrations in the exhibition halls. As a result, many <> 
the.^ teachers returned to the Mu.seum with their student,s to stud 
the materials at the times when they were being di.scu.ssed in th' 
classrooms. The total number of teachers attending the five session 
was .3.39. 

television programs RAYMOND FOUNDATION 

Uunng the months of Januar>', February, and March. P'iel' 
Mu.seum again participated in a .series of experimental program 
over the Zenith Radio Corporation's television station, W9XZ\ 
Members of the Raymond Foundation staff planned the program 
and experimented with various methods of presenting educationa 

Raymond Foundation 255 

material by television. Guest speakers from other departments of 
Field Museum were invited to participate. The following programs 
were presented : 

January 12 — Introduction. 

What a Museum Is and Its Purpose — Miss Miriam Wood. 
Introduction to Geology Series — Mrs. Leota G. Thomas. 

January 19 — The First Two Billion Years Are the Hardest — Assistant Curator 
Bryant Mather. 

January 26 — Rocks and Minerals — Curator Sharat K. Roy. 

February 2 — Hunting the Dinosaur — Curator Elmer S. Riggs. 

February 9 — Paleontology — What and Why — Assistant Curator Bryan Patter- 
son and Assistant Paul O. McGrew. 

February 16 — Turtles — Large and Small — Curator Karl P. Schmidt. 

February 23 — Making the Dead Appear to Live — Staff Taxidermist John W. 

March 1 — The Story of Man — Curator Henry Field. 

March 8 — Melanesian Life — Assistant Curator Alexander Spoehr. 
People of Africa — Curator Wilfrid D. Hambly. 

March 15 — Pueblo Religion — Assistant Curator Alexander Spoehr. 
March 22 — Spring Wild Flowers — Miss Sophia Prior. 

Miss Marie B. Pabst. 

March 29 — Skeletons — Assistant Curator Dwight Davis. 
Conclusion — Director Clifford C. Gregg. 


For use in the Theatre and Lecture Hall, and in extension 
lectures, the Raymond Foundation acquired 629 stereopticon slides 
made by the Division of Photography, and 16 prints. The Museum 
Illustrator and assistants colored 1,693 sHdes. 

The use of 2x2 inch natural color slides was started with a collec- 
tion of 134. A special projector was purchased for use with these, 
and a slide viewer was also obtained. 

Forty-five records of fifteen "How Do You Know?" Field Museum 
radio broadcasts were received from the National Broadcasting 
Company. Five phonograph record albums and a phonograph were 


To clubs, colleges, church groups, other organizations, and 
Museum visitors in general, guide-lecture service was made available 
without charge. Regular public tours were given on weekdays 
(except Saturdays) at 2 p.m. During July and August additional 
morning tours were given at 11 A.M. Monthly schedules of the tours 
offered were printed and distributed at the entrances of the Museum, 
and standards announcing each day's tour were placed at the north 
and south entrances of the Museum. Inaugurated also was a policy 

'jrir> KiKM) MrsKiM ok N'atirai. Histouv Kkports, Vol. 12 

of ofTorinn s|>otMal Iwturc tours for adults at the lime of ojwning 
outstandiiiK new exhibits such as the Hall of Babylonian " 
olo^jy, and the "World's Vtnxi Plant" niunils. Tours for the ijuuiic 
includitl 114 of a ^reneral nature and \'.VJ on spet'ific subjwt*. In 
the 2H.S jrroups which participated the Kro.'w attendanm amountpH 
to r).:i77 i)€rsons. 

There were also special tours for sixty-nine coliejies with 2.17 
|K»rsons attendinj;, eleven clubs with attendance of 2r>4, and ; 
nine other or^aniz^itions with attendance of 1,733. Thus a totil of 
422 tours for adults were jiiven with a toLal attendance of 9,543. 

The James Simp.son Theatre was made available to the Hoard of 
Kducation for the commencement exercises held on June 13 for 1,28 
foreign-born adults. The Raymond P'oundation assisted in handling 

this pr()>:ram. 



In all, the various activities of the Raymond Foundation provided 
senicea for a grand total of 2,16.3 ja"oups with an ajiprejfate attend- 
ance of 243,256 persons. 

The effort to brinp the greatest possible number of people to th« 
Museum, and re<luce the number reache<l extra-murally resulted ir 
an increase of 157 groups and 21,882 persons served at the Mu.'ieum 
and a of 99 in the number of extension lectures and 47,391 
in the number of persons reached outside. 


Huring the spring and autumn moiuiis the Mu.seums sevc • 
third and seventy-fourth cour.'^s of free lectures for adults were \<r< 
sentH in the James Simp.Min Theatre on S;iturday afternoons T'^- 
were illustrated, as in past years, with motion pictures and .'^" • 
opticon slides. Following are the programs of both series. 

Seventy-third Free Lw-tire Course 

Marrh 2 Springtimp in thf Rnckirs. 
Alfrrd M. Bailoy. 

March 9 Sf>rial Inw^rt.i. 

Dr. .\l(rr<i Kmcrwjn. 

Ntarrh 16 — Ppnthou«> of the God.-*. 

Theoji Bernard. 
Marrh 23 Thrwihold of a Now World. 

Vincent Palmer. 
March 30 — Our Att - Southeastern Alaska. 

Karl i. n. 

Layman Lectures 257 

April 6 — Snow Peaks and Flower Meadows in the Canadian Rockies. 
Dan McCowan. 

April 13 — Africa Smiles. 

Herbert S. UUmann. 

April 20 — Birds of America. 

Dr. Arthur A. Allen. 

April 27 — Return to Malaya. 
Carveth Wells. 

Seventy-fourth Free Lecture Course 

October 5 — With the Snow Cruiser in Antarctica. 
Dr. Thomas C. Poulter. 

October 12 — Pacific Northwest. 
Karl Robinson. 

October 19 — At Home in the Union of South Africa. 
Dr. Michail Dorizas. 

October 26 — Undersea Life of the Caribbean. 
Rene Dussaq. 

November 2 — Birds That Haunt the Waterways. 
Dr. Olin Sewall Pettingill, Jr. 

November 9 — The Hawaiian Islands. 
Hal Corey. 

November 16— Old Ghost Falls. 
Harold D. Fish. 

November 23 — Springtime in the South. 
Dr. John B. May. 

November 30 — If Marco Polo Had a Camera. 
Harrison Forman. 

At these eighteen lectures the total attendance was 20,197 per- 
sons, of whom 9,908 attended the spring series and 10,289 the fall 
series. Included in the aggregate attendance were 2,313 Members 
of the Museum. 


During 1940 the Sunday afternoon lectures presented by Mr. 
Paul G. Dallwig, The Layman Lecturer, attained the highest 
point of attendance since their inauguration in October, 1937. 
Thirty regular lectures were given, with an aggregate of 2,784 per- 
sons attending, or an average of 93 to each party. In addition, one 
special lecture was given for a group of 67 out-of-town visitors. 
Because of necessary restrictions on the size of the groups, to make it 
practicable to conduct them through the halls containing exhibits 
illustrating Mr. Dallwig's lectures, the number actually attending 
was far below the number applying for reservations. In most 
instances reservations had to be made several weeks in advance. 
Even though the permitted size of the parties was somewhat increased 
over previous years, it was impossible to meet more than a portion 
of the requests for reservations. 

2o^ I- IKI.D MfSKTM OK N'ati'rai. Histoky Rkports. Voi.. 12 

Mr. Daliwi); .•.iiirini!.',! rhJH work on the s;ime iKusin ;is in prev!"««'! 
years without - i from fitluT the Must-um or his .i , 

ences, but pun»ly from his inlorfst in dissominatinR ficientific infoj 
nuilion in a |M)puiar and Hnimati/.iHl form. His inlen»reLation« 
of 84'ioncc from the layman'.-* point of view have a quality <ii- 
tin^ui.HhinK them inm\ other meth<Kl.H of apprtiach employed at Um 
Mu.^'um. They have won him a larjje following among intellijjenl 
group.'; of laymen, anfl al.«<o wide arrlaim in the press, including no* 
only the «laily newsi>;»|)ers but impf>rt.'int national magazines. 

Mr. Dallwig's .nubjects. during the .seven months of \^10 in which 
his leetures were presente<l. follow: 

t...,i.Trv- r.iiir c.K.i.v Ti ■■ t?..o>,t,... ..' Tt; .rrmndii from Mino to Man. 

I in Nature** "Marrh of Time. 

NLirih 'fivi» Stindayit l)i{(KinR I p the Cavp Man'* Pant. 

April Th«» Kom-inrr ..f ' .Iji from Mine lo Man. 

May Tho I'ararlr ..( th- :- 

N*o\Tmbor The ParaHe of the Rare*. 

December (li\T Sundayn- M>Titrriou!i "N'iijht-Riden*"* of the Sky. 


In all, the Museum rendere<i in.'^truction or similar senicei 
(luring HMO to a total of 2.212 grouj).*; aggregating 266.304 individual*. 
These figures include all those reached in 2.163 groups comprisinf 
243.2r)6 children and other |)ersons who participated in the varioui 
activitit»s unrler the au.spices of the James Kelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation, plus the 20.11)7 who attended the Saturday 
lectures for adults in the James Simpson Theatre, and the 2.S51 
who participates! in the Sunday afternoon lectures presente<i by the 
Layman Ixxrturer. 


During 1*>10 the Library continued to make progress both in 
expanding its collections and increasing its ,«;er\ices to .scientists and 
the public in genenil. Approximately 120. <^M) btxiks and pamphieti, 
divide<l among the (Jenerul Librarj' and the four departments, now 
make up the collection. 

The Librar>- der>ends for its growth to a large extent on the 
exchanges of publications with other institutions, and in IIMO, at 
in previous ye:irs. many im|)ortant additions have been made through 
this merlium. However, because of war in K^urope and Asia, e% 
changes from foreign countries have been curtailed, and in many 
instances su.spended entirely, to the great detriment of this an'? 

Library 259 

other reference libraries. But in this country, at least, some new 
arrangements for valuable exchanges have been negotiated with 
mutual benefit to Field Museum and the co-operating institutions. 

Some 2,800 books were accessioned, and for these, as well as 
2,172 pamphlets received, there have been written 23,966 cards. 
These include cards which have been distributed in the files of the 
General Library and also in the departmental libraries. 

It has been noted with gratification that more and more students 
each year are using the resources of Field Museum's Library for 
assistance in their studies. In 1940 more than twice as many availed 
themselves of the opportunities presented as in 1939. Some of the 
Library's visitors have come from as far as the east and west coasts 
of the countrj', to consult books not available in other libraries. 

The Union List of Serials, an almost indispensable reference aid, 
is in process of revision, and all libraries participating (of which this 
is one) have been assisting in the task by work on their individual 
lists. This has taken a good deal of the Library staff's time, but it 
is one of the "musts" for successful reference work. Publication of 
the new Union List is anticipated some time in 1941. 

The disposition of duplicate material in an advantageous manner 
is always an important problem for libraries, and requires much 
attention. The Museum Library during the past year considerably 
reduced such material in its collections, both by sales and by ex- 
changes. Much satisfaction is derived from this accomplishment 
because the material has thus been placed where it can be of use in 
:ompleting files in other libraries. 

For a long time it has been desired that the reading room should 
36 located where it would be more convenient to visitors arriving 
m the passenger elevator. Such relocation is now being accom- 
Dlished by reconstructing and refurnishing the stack room as a 
-eading room, and moving the book stacks into the present reading 
"oom, a task which will be completed early in 1941. The new reading 
•oom, in addition to being more conveniently arranged, will be 
provided with an entirely new system of fluorescent lighting much 
nore effective and agreeable for readers. The fluorescent lights are 
)eing installed in both the reading room and in the stacks. Revision 
>f the arrangement of the Library rooms has provided opportunity 
replace the wooden stacks with modern steel ones (grained and 
tained like mahogany), and to improve working conditions in a 
nanner which will increase efficiency of all operations. 

260 FiKi.i) MrsKt'M of Natiral History Kki'orts, Vol. 12 

It has bot»n the aim of the Libniry each year to fill out a few of 
it.H incomplete files of periodicals, and in 1940 it had the Rotxl fortune 
to obtain some desidenita of lon^ standing- The Zoologist, completed 
by the purchase of seventy-four volumes, is perhaps the outstan-' • ■ 
example. The much ne<Mle<i Sprcinl /'n/wr.s of the (ieoUtgical <'■ 
of America were purcha.'^.'<i. A subscription was ent* : 
CuUureel Indie, bejrinninji with the first volume. Sub.scriptions -. 
taken als<i for the Sntiimnl Unrticulturnl Magazine, the HuUetin f 
the American Aasttciatinn of Petroleum (icoUtgists, the Journal i 
Geomorphologn, and the Botanical Reriew. Among interesting pur 
chases of b(M^ks were: Kern Institute, Annual liibliographu of In' 
Archarology: Reeve, Conchologia Ironira 20 vols. >; Institut Fran<..i; 
Damas. Mrmoire!< (4 vols. », and Documents d'Etudes Orien''' 
(7 vols. I ; Kncyclofxiedia of Islam; a reprint of Andreas \*f*s;i . . 
Icones Anatomicae: the completing volume of Witherby's //a/,'''-. . 
of British Birds; Fontana, Sur le Vhiin de la \'i}>ere; Cuvier, Biii 
Animal, h\s Xiinres (2 vols.); Ix» May, Buddhist Art in Siam 
Cordillera Expedition 1901 1902 , and the popular account 
of the last. 

Mr. Stanley Field. President of the Mu.seum. again presented 
the year's issues of the weekly Illnstratrd lyondon \eus, a periodical 
of value for its scientific articles and pictures, especially in the f*^*''' 
of archaeolog>'. The Director presenter! numerous publicati 
including the files of various peri(xlicals. From time to time thr< 
most of the year Dr. Albert H. I>ewis, Curator of Melanesian Kthnol- 
ogy, presente<l b(X)ks of travel, and after his death in October tlv 
Mu.seum purcha.'^eil a collection of Wf)rks from his libran.*, man; 
of which concerne<l countries he had visited on the Jaseph N*. Fiel- 
South Pacific Kxpe<lition il909 13 . Dr. Henry Field. Curator oi 
Phy.sical .Anthropology, regularly contributes! .«;everal current period 
icals as well as many books that were of interest to members of th' 
staff. Dr. Field presenter! a fine collection of books, mar 
of them rare and beautifully bound volumes of the seventeenth an' 
eighteenth centuries. These include books of travel, science, histor} 
and some of the classics. Dr. Wilfre^l H. Osgood. Chief Curator 
of Zoolog>', presenter! a copy of Mis Viajes a la Tierra del Fufg< 
by Alberto M. de Agostini. This book has a wealth of exce ' 
illustrations, and is a comprehensive account of what is kntns 
of the Chilean and Argentinian island at the extreme southern ti} 
of South America. 

Mr. Emil Liljeblad, former Assistant Curator of Insects, presents 
175 books and pamphlets on Coleoptera. Many of these were of 

Library 261 

early date, and they form a notable addition to the entomological 
division. Mr. Bert E. Grove, of the Raymond Foundation staff, 
gave eleven scrapbooks containing historical records of Chicago's 
Century of Progress Exposition (1933-34). He also gave several 
scientific books of the early nineteenth century. Dr. E. E. Sherff, 
Research Associate in Systematic Botany, as in previous years 
generously contributed many botanical monographs as well as parts 
of botanical periodicals. Among these were a copy of Dr. Sherff's 
Labordia printed on special paper, a copy of DeCandolle's Origine 
des Plantes CuUivees (fourth edition), and works on the flora of 
different parts of the world. 

Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
presented many maps secured on expeditions to South America. 
He also contributed current periodicals, and various books on 
Reptilia. Mr. Henry W. Nichols, Chief Curator of Geology, presented 
files of periodicals, including many complete sets, which are difficult 
to obtain. The Chemical Abstracts of the American Chemical 
Society are among those especially well represented — the first two 
volumes are exceedingly rare, and this set contains Volume 2. 
Mr. Paul C. Standley, Curator of the Herbarium, and Dr. Julian 
A. Steyermark, Assistant Curator of the Herbarium, also presented 
desirable books. Among Dr. Steyermark's gifts were copies of 
two new books of his own authorship. Spring Flora of Missouri, 
and An Annotated List of the Flowering Plants of Missouri. 

The Carnegie Institution of Washington continued to send its 
valuable publications which are of much use for reference in connec- 
tion with work conducted here. Several years ago Mr. Kojiro Abe, 
of Mikage-Hyogoken, Japan, presented the Library with Volume 1 
of Soraikwan-kinsho, a much appreciated work, and in 1940 he gave 
Volume 2. The publishers of the Naturaliste Canadien sent many 
of the numbers of this useful periodical. Other friends of the Museum 
have given many valuable works which add greatly to the usefulness 
of the Library. The Museum gratefully acknowledges all these. 

The Library is indebted to various learned institutions for the 
loan of publications needed for special consultation. Among these 
are the John Crerar Library, Chicago; the Libraries of the University 
of Chicago; the Library of Congress; the United States Department 
of Agriculture; Harvard University (Libraries of the Peabody 
Museum, of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and of the 
Gray Herbarium); the Missouri Botanical Garden; Rochester Uni- 
versity Library, and Columbia University Library. The Museum 

2G2 FiF.i.i) MisKi M OF Natural History Kki*orts, Vol. 12 

ha.s in turn Invn ii\ai\ to help research workers from all jKirLs of the 
country by the lo;m of material not found in other libraries. 

The Library arlopteri a new b«K)kplate for use in the volumes on 
its shelves. The design, showinj; the Mu.seum buiUiin;;. the "lamp 
of knowleti^e," an<i sketches symbolizing the four .scientific depar'- 
ments of the institution, is the work of Staff Illustnitor Car! I 


As is customary each year, the publications of F'ield Museum 
were generously distribute<l during 1940. The Museum sent i 
institutions and individual scientists on iLs domestic exchange list, 
and to about half of its foreign exchanges, 11,782 copies of scientif: 
publications. 1.142 leaflets. 984 miscellaneous publications ar 
pamphlets, and r)(M) copies of large maps relative to tribal distribution 
in the Near P^ast. Shipment to the other portion of the foreign 
exchanges various European, Asiatic, and African institutions 
mu.seums, libraries, and scientists was of necessity withheld becau 
of unsettled conditions abroad. However, the publications in thej-' 
consignments have been prepared for transmittal and stored to auii 
more favorable shipping conditions. 

To Members of the Museum 3,759 copies of the Annual Report 
the Director for 1939, and 602 copies of leaflets were sent. 

Sales during the year totaled 1,923 scientific publications, 7,( 
leaflets, and 13,321 miscellaneous publications and pamphlets, su*"*" 
as Guides, Handb(M)ks, and Memoirs. 

An incrciLse of twenty-one was made in the number of names oi_ 
institutions and scientists on the Museum's exchange lists. 

Twenty-two large boxes and three cartons cont<iining 4,458 im 
vidually addresse<i envelope parcels, 354 wrapi>e<l packages of publ 
cations, and 135 tubes containing maps, were shipped to the Smil 
sonian Institution at Washington, D.C, for distribution to th< 
foreign countries to which it was possible to forward con.signmentf 
during 1940. Field Museum gratefully acknowle<iges the cordiai 
ro-operation of the international exchange bureau in effectioi 

The publications held for the present time, but destined f< 
foreign distribution at the end of the war, total 6.899. These bookl 
together with 156 maps, have been packed in 2.229 addressed env© 
lopes and 383 UTap|>ed packages, and are stored in eighteen U 

Publications and Printing 263 

For future sales and other distribution, 21,989 copies of various 
publications and leaflets, and 768 maps, were wrapped in packages, 
labeled, and stored in the stock room. 

One new leaflet was added to the Botany Series — The Story of 
Food Plants, by Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, Chief Curator of Botany, as 
illustrated in Field Museum by a series of murals painted by Julius 
Moessel. Reproductions of the murals appear in the leaflet, one of 
them from a photograph in natural colors by Mr. Clarence B. 
Mitchell, the Museum's Research Associate in Photography. 

To the Anthropology Series of Leaflets was added Ancient Seals 
of the Near East, by Richard A. Martin, Curator of Near Eastern 
Archaeology. The leaflet contains collotype plates of certain exhibits 
in the new Hall of Babylonian Archaeology (Hall K). 

The sales of The Races of Mankind and Prehistoric Man totaled 
1,410 copies, again exceeding the number of sales of any other two 
leaflets, as has been the case each year since these two booklets first 
were pubHshed in 1933. 

The total number of post card sales during 1940 was 83,050, of 
which 8,904 were grouped into 506 sets. 

The year's production of the Division of Printing included 
twenty-five new numbers in the Museum's regular publication series. 
These comprised 2,096 pages of type composition. Five of these 
were anthropological in subject matter, nine botanical, three geo- 
logical, seven zoological, and one was the Annual Report of the 
Director for 1939. The aggregate number of copies of these printed 
by Field Museum Press was 25,426. One botanical index consisting 
of 26 pages (827 copies) and one new number in the Museum Tech- 
nique Series consisting of 22 pages (927 copies) also were printed. 
Two new leaflets were issued, one on a botanical and one on an 
anthropological subject, and one botanical leaflet was reprinted. 
The number of pages in these three leaflets was 108 and the copies 
aggregated 6,460. A reprint of the nineteenth edition, and a revised 
edition (the twentieth) of the General Guide, consisting of 56 pages 
and ten illustrations each, were issued, followed by a reprint of the 
latter, the three printings totaling 11,000 copies. A reprint of 
the eighth edition and printing of the ninth edition of the Handbook 
of Field Museum, each containing 76 pages, totaled 3,590 copies. An 
anthropological Memoir consisting of 284 pages was issued. The 
total number of pages printed in all books was 2,856, and the total 
of copies issued was 48,051. 

'2i'>\ FiKi.i) MisKiM OK Xatiiiai. History Kkpokts, Vol. 12 

MiMH'llancous job work, the total of wimn t\( iiuihI thai of any 
previous year. ronsunuHl a large part of the lime in the Division. Of 
major importance was the |)rintinK' of twelve i.s.sues of Field Miixeum 
Stus, which is eijiht paries per issue, with an average of v>,2i)i) copi< 
a month. Mxhihition labels prinle<i for all DepartmenU of th( 
Museum during the year reache<l a total of 5,473. Increased effi- 
ciency and improve<l (luality in the printing of label.s was obtained 
by the purchase during the year of a new and modern type-casting 
machine. Other impressions, including Mu.seum stationer>', posten, 
lecture .s<ht^lules, ikxsI cards, etc., brought the total for the year 
to 1.17t.7«.M). 

A delaiUHJ list of publications follows: 

Pi ni.ICATION Skries 

463. Bot.inirnI S4>rifs. Vol. 22. No. 1. Studios of Amrriran Plantu IX. BjT 

P.iul C. Standley. January 26. 1940. 62 pajtrs. Kdition K29. 

464. Zooh.jiiral Series. Vol. 24. No. 11. A Tontativp Cla.H»ification of the Pal» 

arctic I'nionid.x. By Fritz Haas. January .30. 1940. 28 pugn. Edit 

465. Anthr«»poIotnral Sfriw, Vol. XXV. No. 3. Craniometry of New Guinei 

Hy •' D. Hamhiy. Fohruary 29. 1910. 210 p««wi, 44 plate*. 1 

ivx' „ ,9 draAinK!<, 1 map. F.diti<>n 629. 

466. Botanical Serieji, Vol. IX. No. 4. Flora of the A^an Valley and the Coa«ta 

I Near La CvWm. I? By T. G. Vuncker. March 22. 1940 

. . :>■». S text-fiRun-s. . S38. 

467. Botanical Series. Vol. 21. Traveln of Ruiz. Pav6n. and Dombey in P( 

:ir.'l Chile (1777 1788>. Hy Hip.Mito Ruiz, with an • ' • and o"' - 
i" -ument."* added by .XRustin Jfsus Harr'iro. Tr :i by i 

DahlRren. March 28. 1940. 372 pages. 2 maps. Kdiliun ^15. 

468. R*p<«rt S^^rii-j*. Vol. 12. No. 1. .Annual Report of f^ " - " - for the >^ 

1939. January. 1940. 174 pajjes, 12 plates. Fd 

469. Anthropological Series. Vol. 30. I'art I. No. 1. The .Anthropolojjy of Ira 

The fpper Fuphrates. By Henry Field. May 31. 1940. 224 page*. 1 
t»<xf-fieiir«-s. 48 plates, 1 map. Fdition 662. 

470. Z* Series. Vol. 24. No. 12. Notes on Texan Snakes of f 

........ ra. By Karl P. Schmii' \T - ti '940. 8 pageji, 3 tex: ;.^... 

IM;;ion 939. 

471,— Z-' Vol. 24. No. 13. A New from Western China. P 

i ; . ...;... it and Ch"iTH'-rMi:,n till Miv r?i. lOJO 4 p;«e.-«. 1 ux- 

tiilire. Kdition 967. 
472.- B' iant* X. By Pa . 

473.— Genloeiral .Serieii. Vol. 8. No. 1. A New Turtle of the Genus Podocnemi 

' Bv Karl P. Schmidt. June 29. : 


474.— 55ooloirical Serie*. Vol. 24, No. 14. A New Venezuelan Honey Creeper. B. 
T- R.Blake. June 29. 1940. 4 pages. Kdition 82.S. 

475. Z<. ."series. Vol. 24. No. 15. A New Savannah Sparrow fr<.m Nfexir* 

By Sidney Camras. June 29. 1940. 2 pages. Kdition 860. 

476._At 12. No. 1. The Su Site. Kxravat. 

.\: , -., . n New Mexico. 19-39. By Paul S. : n. 

June 29. 1940. 98 pages. 42 text-figures and 1 1 maps. Edition 7-32. 

Publications and Printing 265 

477. — Zoological Series, Vol. XXII, No. 5. Notes on the Anatomy of the Babirusa. 
By D. Dwight Davis. August 6, 1940. 52 pages, 24 text-figures. Edition 

478. — Botanical Series, Vol. 22, No. 3. Studies of American Plants — XL By 
Paul C. Standley. September 10, 1940. 88 pages. Edition 841. 

479. — Anthropological Series, Vol. 27, No. 2. Notes on Skidi Pawnee Society. By 
George A. Dorsey and James R. Murie. Prepared for publication by 
Alexander Spoehr. September 18, 1940. 54 pages, 1 text-figure. Edition 

480. — Botanical Series, Vol. 22, No. 4. Studies of Central American Plants — I. 
By Paul C. Standley and Julian A. Steyermark. September 30, 1940. 
104 pages, 2 text-figures. Edition 816. 

481. — Zoological Series, Vol. XXII, No. 6. Studies of the Anatomy of the Extra- 
hepatic Biliary Tract in Mammalia. By Stewart Craig Thomson. 
October 31, 1940. 18 pages. Edition 902. 

482. — Botanical Series, Vol. 22, No. 5. Studies of Central American Plants — II. 
By Paul C. Standley and Julian A. Steyermark. October 31, 1940. 74 
pages, 1 plate. Edition 842. 

483. — Botanical Series, Vol. 22, No. 6. A New Genus of Compositae from North- 
western Alabama. By Earl Edward Sherflf. December 24, 1940. 8 pages. 
Edition 897. 

485. — Botanical Series, Vol. IX, No. 5. Studies of the Vegetation of Missouri 
• — I. Natural Plant Associations and Succession in the Ozarks of Missouri. 
By Julian A. Steyermark. December 31, 1940. 130 pages, 45 text- 
figures. Edition 825. 

486. — Geological Series, Vol. 8, No. 2. An Adianthine Litoptern from the Deseado 
Formation of Patagonia. Results of the Marshall Field Paleontological 
Expeditions to Argentina and Bolivia, 1922-27. By Bryan Patterson, 
December 31, 1940. 8 pages, 2 text-figures. Edition 875. 

487. — Geological Series, Vol. 8, No. 3. The Status of Progaleopithecus Ameghino. 
By Bryan Patterson. December 31, 1940. 6 pages, 2 text-figures. 
Edition 875. 
Botanical Series, Vol. XVII. Index. April 2, 1940. 26 pages. Edition 827. 

Memoir Series 

Anthropology Memoir, Vol. 5. Anasazi Painted Pottery in Field Museum 
of Natural History. By Paul S. Martin and Elizabeth S. Willis. Decem- 
ber 31, 1940. 284 pages, 125 plates, 1 map. Edition 648. 

Museum Technique Series 

No.'6. — Rubber Molds and Plaster Casts in the Paleontological Laboratory. By 
James H. Quinn. April 27, 1940. 22 pages, 7 text-figures. Edition 927. 

Leaflet Series 

Botany, No. 16. Fifty Common Plant Galls of the Chicago Area. By 

Carl F. Gronemann. 30 pages, 1 colored plate, 51 zinc etchings. (Reprint.) 

March 13, 1940. Edition 1,070. 
Botany, No. 25. The Story of Food Plants. By B. E. Dahlgren. 32 pages, 

including 15 text-figures, 1 colored plate, 2 maps. September, 1940. 

Edition 3,855. 
Anthropology, No. 34. Ancient Seals of the Near East. By Richard A. 

Martin. 46 pages, including text and text-figures with legends. June, 

1940. Edition 1,535. 

Handbook Series 

Handbook. Information concerning the Museum — its history, building, 
exhibits, expeditions, endowments, and activities. Eighth edition. 
(Reprint.) February, 1940. 76 pages, 8 plates, 1 cover design. Edition 

260 FiKLi) MusKiM OF Natlrai. History Kkpokts, Vol. 12 

H. .: tho " Mn hijitor>', buitdini' 

1- . '-, .;....... and a. .. . Ninth edition. Juo« 

1940. 76 pagm. H plat«<». I cover desifcn. Kdition 3,081. 

GiJir ^ 

Genrral Guidp to F'xhihiti in FifWI MujM»uni nf Natu- ry. N. 

. ! • • 193S 39. (Reprint.) 56 pugpit. 9 texl-i.», ...-. 1 covi r 
General (iuido to ! "' m >>f Natural Hintorj*. T 

edition. 1940. , ..„ . . , :.,; ..-i-ji. 1 rover d<-i«iKn. Kditii .. 

General Guide to Kxhihitn in Field .Museum of Natural History. T»'er. 

■ i.'ion. (Reprint.) J)6 pageji, 9 text-figuresi, 1 cover denign. Kdili<>; 


The pnxluction of the Division of Photography during 1940 
totaled 21,738 items, which includf^ negatives, prints, bromide 
enlargement5, lantern slides, transparencies, etc. A ver>* small 
percentage of these were prints, enlargement,'^, and slides for sales 
on order.-^ received from the public, from publishers, and from other 
institutions, but well over 97 per cent were to fulfill refjuiremente 
of the various departments and divisions of the Museum. 

Of the total production, the Mu.seum staff photographer and 
his assistant were responsible for 10,7G() items. Workers assigned 
by the fe<ieral Work Projects Administration were respon.sible for 
the remainder, consisting chiefly of the making of prints of a routine 
character. These were largely prints of t>'pe specimens of plants 
for the Herbarium from negatives secure<l in Kurope through the 
recently concluded ten-year project of the Department of Botany. 
Photographic work re^juiring special skill and attention was dona 
by the Museum's own stall men. 

The photogniphic files of the Museum now contain nearly 90,000 
negatives, and the task of classifying, indexing, and numberii 
negatives and prints has become a major one, and a ver>' urgently 
necessan.' one in order that a systematic order and full usefulnt 
of this material may be maintained!. This work, as for sever 
years past, has been continued by clerical helpers furnished by th 
WP.\, and during U»40 it involved approximately 80,000 iter 
handled or operations performed. 

A total of 720,378 prints was produce^l by the Mu.«*eum Colli 
typer during 1940. These included illustrations for publicatioi 
and leaflets, covers for books and pamphlets, picture post 
hp.idings for lecture posters, and miscellaneous items. 

The Museum Illustrator and his assistant performed a gre 
amount of miscellaneous work, including the dra\\'ing of 74 illustra-j 

Maintenance and Construction 267 

tions for publications, slides, labels, transparencies, etc. ; the drawing, 
lettering, and coloring of 57 maps; the coloring of 279 stereopticon 
slides; the retouching of 134 photographs; the blocking of 127 
photographic negatives, and such items as rough sketches for a 
book of colored photographs, cutting stencils, etching negatives, 
lettering, tinting photographs, tooling cuts, etc. 


Comment has been made, in the Introduction to this Report, 
upon some of the most outstanding tasks undertaken during the year 
towards proper maintenance of the Museum building. Following 
is a summary of other principal accomphshments: 

Seventeen wdndow sashes and frames on the fourth floor were 
replaced. The entire third and fourth floor roofs, and the greater 
portion of the first floor covered skylights, were re-coated with 
fibered asphalt roofing. Worn linoleum in the Cafeteria and the 
passenger elevator was replaced. The Cafeteria floor and the rubber 
tile floor in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall 3) were cleaned 
and rewaxed. 

Walls were repaired and redecorated, general cleaning, painting, 
and repairs carried out, and new equipment was supplied in the office 
of the secretary to the President, the offices of the Director and his 
secretarj^, the Raymond Foundation office, the Lecture Hall, and 
various other parts of the building. The sashes and frames of the 
boiler room windows were repaired and painted, and the roof of 
this room was caulked. An area adjacent to Hall J was reconditioned 
for use as a children's cloak room. 

Cases and screens were prepared for various special exhibits. 
The Museum's large information signs outside the building were 
repaired, cleaned, and reset. The flagpoles in front of the north 
terrace of the Museum were thoroughly reconditioned; the cast 
bronze balls surmounting them, 19 inches in diameter, and weighing 
195 pounds apiece, were removed for the application of new gold 
leaf, after which they were reinstalled. The west pole, which had 
developed a slight lean, was straightened and reset; checking of the 
timber in both poles was "pointed up"; and both were repainted 
and equipped with new sheave bushings and halyards. 

In the heating plant all four boilers were thoroughly cleaned, 
and necessary repairs made. Sixteen new tubes were installed in 
one boiler to comply with the insurance inspector's recommendations. 
The stoker control unit was overhauled. Dampers were gone over, 

26S FiKLi) MisKiM OK N'atiral History Kkports, Vol. 12 

and the hrctvhinjj and ash vent pipis wrre cleaned. New .sieel 
sheets and angles were purchase*! to rebuild the lower portion of 
the coal conveyor, and sixty feet of trough were replace<J. Vo\r 
new hoppers for the stokers were alstj built. A new ash pack elbu-. 
w.Ls installed in the ash conveyor. Tnder the contracts in f 
for some years, a total of 13, 12.'). 388 pounds of steam was furnishe*. 
to the John G. Shetld Aquarium, l),T51,r>81 pounds to Soldier Field, 
an<i 1 l..V2r>,SH-t pounds t) the Chica^'o Park District Administration 

.Ml motors were chei'ke<l over and cleane<l, and the steam pumpi 
and vacuum j)umps were repacke<l. Repairs invoivinfz replacement! 
<»f parts were made where necessary. 

The pa.<v<;enKer elevator was e<iuipi)e<l with a new control board, 
car switch, and door closer.-: similar e<juipment, and counterweight 
cables also, were installed on the freight elevator. The hydraulic 
elevator at the shipping and receiving room entrance was repacked, 
and a new rack and pinion were installed in its operating valveu 

Fourteen radiators on the third floor were replaced to increase 
the heating efficiency in offices and work rooms. Hot water lim 
were extender! to the wash rooms of the curators and to the taxi* 
dermy shop, a total of 3fK) feet of pipe and the necessary fittinj 
being<l for this purpose. Much other new plumbing was installed 
as a result of changes in office arrangements, or the deterioration 
of old e(|uipment in lavatories, offices, and working quarters. In- 
clude<l are four new drinking fountains on the first fioor. (las lim 
and air lines were extended to new areas, and outlets .ir 
equipment installer!. Extensive changes made in the Plant Kepr 
duction I-aboratories necessitated the rerouting of twenty-five fc 
of steam main. 

The program. in.stitute<i in 1939, of improving illumination 
exhibition halls, offices, and workshops by application of technique 
employing the new tj'pes of tubular fluorescent lights, was continue 
during 1940 in various parts of the building. Altogether, 1,31 
fluorescent lighting units were installed during the year. Of the 
468 were used in the Hall of Kg>'ptian Archae<)log>- fHall Ji, 41 
in Ernest R. (iraham Hall < Hall 38 . and 207 in George T. ar 
P'rances Gaylord Smith Hall Hall 2-1 . This change made possibi 
the removal of the old ceiling fixtures and resulted in much improvi 
ment in the appearance of the halls. 

Fluorescent lighting was provided for the friezes and tl 
Kish gateway in the Hall of Babylonian Archaeolog>' Hall K) 


Maintenance and Construction 269 

the built-in case in Hall L (Asiatic Ethnology), the new fur seal case 
in Hall N, four new cases in Joseph N. Field Hall (HaJl A — Mela- 
nesian Ethnology), the water buffalo case in Carl E. Akeley Memorial 
Hall (Hall 22), ten floor cases for Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37), 
and the alpine flora case in Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall 
(Hall 29). 

The new reading room in preparation for the Library was com- 
pletely rewired, and provided with floor outlets and base plugs. 
Fluorescent lights were installed in coves around the ceiling. Pro- 
vision was also made for stack lighting. Nine fluorescent units 
were installed in Room 87 on the third floor, and six portable lamps 
were made for the Department of Zoology. The Division of Print- 
ing was equipped with fluorescent lights, and a number of individual 
installations were made throughout the building. 

Frederick J, V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37) was completely rewired to 
provide outlets for individually lighted cases. A total of 600 feet of 
new raceway and 1,500 feet of wire were required for this purpose. 

A new power feeder and distributing panel box were installed 
in the Division of Printing to care for the additional load required 
by a new typecasting machine purchased during the year. Various 
repairs and improvements were made on presses and other machinery 
used in the Division. 

The mezzanine storage space on the fourth floor was wired for 
lights, 150 feet of conduit and thirty outlets being installed. Ten 
fixtures in the Lecture Hall were replaced with a more efficient 
type. New circuits were run into several work rooms to supply 
current required for new equipment. Twenty-eight drop cords 
were installed throughout the third floor. 

Work was begun on the necessary equipment for the "X-raying 
a mummy" exhibit planned for Hall J. One hundred and fifty feet 
of drain pipe, 80 feet of water pipe, and 350 feet of conduit and 
feeder cables for electricity are required for this project. 

Included among special services performed for the Department 
of Anthropology were completion and installation of four cases in 
Joseph N. Field Hall (Hall A) for exhibits of tall carved ancestral 
figures and drums from Melanesia. A new exhibition case was con- 
structed for the Hall of Babylonian Archaeology (Hall K), and shields 
for light tubes were placed on case tops to illuminate the stucco orna- 
ments near the ceiling. Construction was begun on a new storage 
room on the third floor. Three hundred and fifteen steel storage 

272 FiKi.i) MrsKiM of N'atirai, History Kkpokts, Vol. 12 

Public Ivrlations Counsel preparc<l, in all, iW') news relea-ses. Thes' 
wvrv (listributo<l through the usual channels, and were publishe<I in 
the sevenil ]zrv:i[ metropolitan dailies of Chicapo, and in many other 
me<iia. All releases with more than Kx'al interest were carried ir 
the wire and mail services of such national and international new 
ajiencies ;is the Associate<l lYess, I'nited Press, International N 
Service, Science Service. Wide- World Photos, etc. In many » 
photopniphs accompanies! news releases; in other cases, e<!itor 
assivrntxi their stall writers and photojjraphers to follow up the 8torie> 
submitte<i by the Mu.seum and exi)and upon them. Occasionally 
Museum story was even made the subject of an editorial. 

Attention was piven in the Mu.'^um's publicity efforts not onl 
U) the metropolitan newspapers and nation-wide news a^jencies. bii 
al.s<i to reaching the many jjroups who read sevenil hundred c •■ 
munity papers publishe<i for the populations of distinct neigl. 
hcHxIs within the city, foreij^n lan^uape new.*;papers circulating; an 
Chicapoans of a wide variety of national origins, and the princip.i 
papers j)ublishe<i in meslium-sized cities of Illinois and neighborin, 
states, particularly those within the Chicapo suburban area. New 
releases from the Museum covere<i all such subjects as e,xpe<iition^ 
research, new e.xhibits, lectures, children's programs, and mi 
laneous activities of the institution. For their co-operation in V- 
inp the public informe<i repardinp the Mu.^^eum. spei'ial appreci.i 
is due to the (liicnqn Daily Sens, Chicago Daily Times, Chi 
Tribune, Chicago flrrahl-American, Chicago Journal of (^omm- 
and Dountnwn Shopping \eirs. Among local weekly period: 
giving the Mu.seum much desinible publicity were the Down' 
Free Press, \ahonal Corporation Rij>orirr, and This Week in Chic 

The monthly bulletin. Field Museum Sews, publi.shed for th' 
Members of the Mu.^um, w.-us continues] in the enlarged fom 
inaugurated in the precetling year, and even.' effort was made cor 
stantly to improve the quality of articles and illustrations. Tw« 
i.<vsues, September and December, were graced by four-color illustra 
tions of selected mural paintings from the series by Julius Moesse 
(Mexican Market Scene, and Camel Caravan Xorth of the Persian 
Gulf ^ This was made possible by of some of the special proces- 
plates generously presentesl by Mr. Clarence B. Mitchell, th* 
Museum's Research Associate in Photography, who was respon.sibl* 
also for making the artistic color photographs. Such plates, provide^ 
by Mr. Mitchell, had made possible previous color work in the AVif 
in 1938 and 1939. 

Public Relations 273 

The 1940 volume of the News constituted the eleventh since 
publication of the periodical was begun and, as in past years, copies 
were distributed to all Members promptly and regularly at the 
beginning of each month. This bulletin, in addition to keeping the 
membership informed about Museum activities, supplements the 
mimeographed news releases circulated by the Division of Public 
Relations, and many of the articles in it are reprinted or quoted in 
newspapers and magazines. It also serves as an exchange medium 
in the Museum's relations with similar institutions all over the world. 

The arrangements with the General Electric X-ray Corporation 
whereby an Egj^ptian mummy was lent for display in that company's 
fluoroscopic exhibit at the New York World's Fair, were renewed 
for the second year of the fair. The exhibit was improved, and the 
Museum was featured more prominently by the addition of a lecture 
which was heard by millions of visitors to the fair from special 
records automatically transmitted by a sound machine synchronized 
with the operation of the X-ray apparatus. Following the close of 
the fair, the General Electric Company presented the fluoroscopic 
equipment to the Museum, and it will be installed with the mummy 
as a feature of the Egyptian Hall (Hall J) next year. It alternately 
shows the mummy's exterior and the skeleton inside. 

Notable as a publicity project, as well as for its educational 
value, was the series of radio programs presented by the Museum 
under the title "How Do You Know?" This series of weekly drama- 
tized broadcasts on scientific subjects, which ran from January 25 
to June 13, was made possible by the co-operation of the National 
Broadcasting Company and the University Broadcasting Council. 
The series was presented from coast to coast over stations on the 
Blue Network of that company. Members of the Museum staff con- 
tributed the scientific data upon which the programs were based, 
and expert radio technique in presentation of the programs was 
furnished by the National Broadcasting Council, which provided a 
skilled script writer, Mr. William C. Hodapp, and actors and ac- 
tresses for the casts required in the various dramatizations. The 
programs were expertly produced under the supervision of Miss 
Judith Waller, Chicago Educational Director for the National 
Broadcasting Company. 

The Museum received further publicity through other broad- 
casts on various stations and networks, and through a series of tele- 
vision programs presented in co-operation with the Zenith Radio 
Corporation. Attention was directed to this institution likewise, as 

274 FiKi.n MrsKiM of NATtKAi, History Kkports, Vol. 12 

in past years, by placards a«lvertisinj; Museum Uvlurcs and exhibits. 
These were displaye<l in ears and .stations of various transportalion 
comiKinies, and in hotels, department stores, libraries, travel bureau% 
office buiidinjrs, .sch(H)l.s. and other public institutions. Throuj^ 
these .s.'ime orRani/^itions. many thou.sands of folders announcing iht 
Sunday afternoon le<tures presentetl by Mr. Paul (i. Dallwijj, tht 
I^ayman IxH-turer. and other folders containing information about 
Mu!^eum exhibits, were distribulcfl both to residents of Chicago 
and travelers visiting the city. Spe<"ial appreciation for their co--"- 
emtion in advertising the Mu.^eum i.*; due to the Chicago, Aurora ...^ 
Elgin Railroad, the Chicago. North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad, 
the Chicago Rapid Transit Lines, the Chicago and North Western 
Railway, the Illinois Central System, and the Chicago Surface Lines. 
Following its custom of many years, the Museum sent invitation 
and folders to the delegates attending several hundred convention 
held in Chicago. 

The Mu.seum was representee! during the year by its I'ublp 
Relations Counsel at the meetings of the newly formed Chicago 
Conference on Association Tublicity. This is an organization wh- •> is to promote better {)ress and radio relations for ii.. 
educational, public health and welfare, and other non-rnmmerri.i, 


It is most gnitifying again to report an increase in the numb* 
of Mu.seum Members. During 1940 there were 411 new Member 
enrolled, as against a loss of 862 Members incurred through tran.sfer 
cancellations, and deaths. The total net number of membership 
as of December 31 . 1940. was 4,225. An expression of deep apprecia- 
tion and gnititude is due the many Members who have continued 
their loyal support of the institution, and to the new Members 
who have become associated with the cultural activities of the 
Museum. The increasing burdens of taxation imposed on citizen 
today present an important difficulty, and make all the more laudab 
the contributions of those who continue their support of civi 
activities such as mu.'^eums. The continuance and expan.sion of 
the educational program of this institution is in large part dependeiv 
upon the support of Members. 

For their past support and interest, an expression of apprecia- 
tion is due those Members who found it neces.«iary to discontinue 
their memberships, and an invitation is extended to them to avail 


Membership 275 

themselves of the opportunities afforded by membership when- 
ever they may again find it convenient to enroll as Members of 
Field Museum. 

I The following tabulation shows the number of names on the list 
in each of the membership classifications at the end of 1940: 

Benefactors 23 

Honorary Members 12 

Patrons 27 

Corresponding Members " 

Contributors 124 

Corporate Members 48 

Life Members 250 

Non- Resident Life Members 13 

Associate Members 2,398 

Non- Resident Associate Members 8 

Sustaining Members 10 

Annual Members 1,305 

Total Memberships 4,225 

The names of all persons listed as Members during 1940 will be 
found on the pages at the end of this Report. 

In the pages which follow are submitted the Museum's financial 
statements, lists of accessions, ei cetera. 

Clifford C. Gregg, Director 

27G FiKLi) MrsKiM of N'atirai, History Kkports, Vol. 12 


Total attendance 
Paid attendance 

FOR VKA US 1939 AND 1940 



Free admiiwions on pay days: 

Students . 
Schfxil children 

••■ ~■y•^ 

1 ,039 

76,651 1 



AdmLssions on free days: 

Thursda>-s (52) 
Saturdaj'8 (52) .... 
Sundays (52) 




(52) 212,4 
(52) 379.3 
(52) 561.2 

HiRhost attendance on any day (June 4) 
I»west attendance on anv dav (March 13) 
H • • ■ -2).... 


Averajfe paid admussions (liiu da}?; , 


(June 2) 

121 (Januar>- 30) 

3.291 (Sep- - 4) 

3,963 < . .1) 

385 (2U7 days) 


Number of jfuides sold 

Number of articles checked 

Number of picture pfwt card* sold 



Sales of publications, leaflets, handbooks, 
portfolios, and photographs 



Financial Statements 277 

FOR YEARS 1939 AND 1940 

Income 1940 1939 

Endowment Funds $203,608.49 $198,455.79 

Funds held under annuity agree- 
ments 27,807.92 25,728.52 

Life Membership Fund 11,530.05 10,659.18 

Associate Membership Fund .. . 12,927.91 11,697.08 

Chicago Park District 58,130.33 86,093.85 

Annual and Sustaining Member- 
ships 12,085.00 11,555.00 

Admissions 20,222.00 20,879.50 

Sundry receipts 17,835.43 20,012.66 

Contributions, general purposes . 1,015.00 298.65 

Contributions, special purposes 

(expended per contra) 28,061.45 55,399.14 

Special Funds — part expended 
this year for purposes 
designated (included per 
contra) 11,822.93 14,457.31 

' " $405,046.51 ' $455,236.68 


Collections 26,490.19 38,256.62 

Operating expenses capitalized 

and added to collections . . . 41,701.84 43,749.41 

Expeditions 9,983.95 14,549.75 

Furniture, fixtures, etc 69,666.12 18,247.70 

Wages capitalized and added to 

fixtures 7,645.21 8,766.55 

Pensions and Group Insurance . . 43,078.64 49,281.28 

Pensions — past service liability 220,096.71 

Departmental expenses 40,994.29 42,019.41 

General operating expenses 319,212.39 318,676.76 

Building repairs and alterations 66,328.76 37,311.66 

Annuities on contingent gifts. . . 29,870.60 29,506.39 

Paid on bank loans 26,600.00 

Reserve for repairs and deprecia- 
tion 35,000.00 25,000.00 

" ~ $689,971.99 $872,062.24 

Deficit. . $284,925.48 $416,825.56 

Contribution by Mr. Marshall Field 283,895.94 415,138.78 

Net Deficit. . 1,029.54 1,686.78 


1940 1939 

Income from Endowment $20,376.62 $18,158.00 

Operating Expenses 17,205.21 16,509.32 

Balance $ 3,171.41 $ 1,648.68 

278 FiKM) MrsKiM of N'atikai, History liKmurs, Vol.. 12 



gnnind ' I'. 
HritiAh Cnh; 

'■ -IT \v.. r 

from n i 

. Vancouver Uland. 

...... K'lft'. 

Ppkinjc. China: rulorinl caul of .S"ih<im- 
Ihropu.^ i>rkinrnj>iii, in tu. . pieces 
Prkinjj. China (jnft 

CtRACAo Commission <»k 1.^93 
W(»Ri.i)'s Fair: I hracflot made of Ger- 
man roins, 1 solid nilver brarolet, 1 
charm "gold heart," 1 fob chain made 
of German coin* (Rift'. 

Kastman, Sidnky C. Kstatk ok. 
Chicago : 1 l>«>adod pip<» bag (Sioux , 

1 pipe bajf. 1 larjcr pitrh-covered basket 
(Gr^at Hajiin Tribosi (ifift'. 

FiEi.n. Dr. Henry. Chicago: 50 
pottery specimen,'! (16 sherd* > Trans- 
Jordan; 24 ethnologiral specimens 
northern Iraq; 60 artifacts and animal 
bones- Spy. Belgium (gift'. 

Field, Stanley, Chicago: 17 photo- 
graphs of Ward African bronzes 
Africa fgift^. 

Flsh. Mrs. Frederick S., New York: 

2 stone lions, eighteenth century - 
Peking. China (gift). 

(General F'-le^tric X-ray Corpora- 
tion, Chicago: Complete X-ray equip- 
ment, fluoroscopic screen and accessories 
for an exhibit in which an F'gyptian 
mummy will be i ' ' . X-rayed. 

Gila PrEni.o.i, . Arizona: 8 stone 
artifacts. Cochise types; 72 stone, b ■ ■ 
and pottery artifacts from Hohokam 
culture, all perio<ls; some p<itlery in 
sherd form- Snaketow? 
change I ; 20 stone .i 
stones, blades, scrapers. ^xes. 

kni\-es -near Lake C<--^^ • •■ 


and . ,: , 

Ming or early Ch'mg lawjuer 
7 ceramic specimens- China k 

I.Ai'MAM, Dr. A.vna Rom, Chicafo: 
1 wooden comb, 1 wooden ladle 
stirrer Djukas. Dutch Guiana (fift)* 

LiNDT.REN, Dr. Kthel-Johv. Cai^ 
bridge. F.ngland: 1 pair "• 
leathergloves Manchuria, Chii..< sni), 

MAfAl.LLHTER, T. H., Chicago: t 
metates without grooves, and 4 nuu 
Chaco Canyon, New Mezi'~<> >i^), 

MrsEiM OF Science and \\ y, 

(^hicago: 1 kayak- Eskimo, Ali 
(gift I. 

SCHAAP, R.. Ratavia. Netherli 
Fast Indies: '2 ' ' \r scrai 

chalcolithic h« . :,ic .irtifat 

and un" stone rmgs (" 

Java. N' :., , ..inds East Inc.;. 

fvivER-HiTY OK Illinois, College 
Dentistry, Chicago: 1 skull of mi 
white American (gift). 

Valentine. Ix)ii8 L., E«rrATE 
Chicago: 220 ivories— China, Jal 
Kurope, Alaska (gift). 

Welus, C. FnwARD, New Y 
bronre jar- Peking. China (purchi 

WiLLETT. Dr. R. C. Peoria. II! 
a cast of a child's mandible fn^'"" ' 
mound, and cast of an Aztec L, 
F "'on County. Illinois, and Mcxic< 

k-.:t '. 

WiusoN. Samiel E., Chicap>: 8' 
'ithic sherds c •-.' Ahansi r'* 
. China, near .■ and "i 

hu I gift I ; 6 Chinese neolithic ••■ 
i^n^lements central Shansi prov.;..« 
a. near T*ai-ky (exchanffe). 




ACKSRMANN. Evan, Chicago: I plant 
specimen (gift». 

.AproTK. Captain Th<ima.s .A.. Col- 
lege Station. Texas: 3 w<>od specimens 

• vR G.. .iMsf: I r , . 

r y. (i',iat»'mAi.i 

of Guatemalan plants (gift). 

Allen. David, Chicago: 1 plant 
specimen (gift). 

Allen. Pail H., Balboa. Cans 
Zone: 31 specimens of Panama 

Apolinar-MarIa. Rev. Brothkr 
Bogot4, Colombia: 171 specimens o 
Colombian plants (gift). 

.\RNoLn Arboretim. Jamaica Plain 
Massachusetts: 3.513 plant specimen 




AvELLAN, Joaquin, Los Caobos, 
Caracas, Venezuela: 9 boards of Vene- 
zuelan woods (gift). 

Badini, Professor Jose, Ouro Preto, 
Minas Geraes, Brazil: 87 specimens of 
Brazilian plants (gift). 

Bailey, Dr. Liberty Hyde, Ithaca, 
New York: 3 plant specimens (gift). 

Bates, Glen F., Fort Lauderdale, 
Florida: 3 fruits, 3 plant specimens 

Bauer, Bill, Webster Groves, Mis- 
souri: 626 plant specimens (gift). 

I Beal, Dr. J. M., Chicago: 3 plant 
'. specimens (gift). 

Benke, Hermann C, Chicago: 191 
specimens of plants from Illinois and 
Wisconsin, 83 cryptogamic specimens 

Beuttas, Joseph H., Chicago: 1 
fungus specimen (gift). 

Bold, Dr. Harold C, New York: 
3 algal specimens (gift). 

Botanical Museum, Harvard Uni- 
i VERSITY, Cambridge, Massachusetts: 
10 specimens of Mexican plants (ex- 

Bracelin, Mrs. H. P., Berkeley, 
California: 8 specimens of Mexican 
plants (gift). 

Brinker, Rev. Robert, St. Louis, 
Missouri: 1 algal specimen (gift). 

Brunel, Dr. Jules, Montreal, Can- 
ada: 88 specimens of algae (gift). 

Butcher, Devereux, New York: 
1 photograph, 17 cryptogamic speci- 
mens (gift). 

Cabrera, Professor Angel L., La 
Plata, Argentina: 129 specimens of 
plants from Argentina (exchange). 

Calderon, Dr. Salvador, San Sal- 
vador, El Salvador: 11 plant specimens 

California Academy of Sciences, 
San Francisco, California: 100 speci- 
mens of American plants (exchange). 

Chandler, A. C, St. Louis, Missouri: 
3 plant specimens (gift). 

Chaney, Dr. Ralph W., Berkeley, 
California: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Clayton, J. Paul, Jr., Winnetka, 
Illinois: 2 specimens of fungus (gift). 

Clokey, Ira W., South Pasadena, 
California: 342 plant specimens (ex- 

Cooke, W. B., Cincinnati, Ohio: 9 
cryptogamic specimens (gift). 

Cooper, I. C. G., Westerleigh, Staten 
Island, New York: 6 cryptogamic 
specimens (gift). 

Cornell University, Department 
of Botany, Ithaca, New York: 69 
specimens of Washington plants (ex- 

CuATRECASAS, Dr. Jose, Bogota, 
Colombia: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Dahlgren, Dr. B. E., Chicago: 2 
specimens of Brazilian plants (gift). 

Daily, William A., Cincinnati, 
Ohio: 441 cryptogamic specimens (gift). 

Daniel, Rev. Brother H., Medellln, 
Colombia: 41 specimens of Colombian 
plants (gift). 

Davis, Professor Ray J., Pocatello, 
Idaho: 5 plant specimens (gift). 

Deam, Charles C, Bluffton, Indi- 
ana: 65 plant specimens (gift). 

Dickinson, Robert B., Johannes- 
burg, South Africa: 1 economic speci- 
men (gift). 

Dixon, Royal, Houston, Texas: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

Drew, William B., Columbia, Mis- 
souri: 8 specimens of algae (gift). 

Edmonston, W. T., New Haven, 
Connecticut: 6 cryptogamic specimens 

Eisenberg, William V., Washington, 
D.C.: 2 plant specimens (gift). 

Elias, Rev. Brother, Caracas, 
Venezuela: 248 specimens of plants 
from Venezuela and Colombia (gift). 

Farlow Herbarium, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: 2 algal specimens (gift). 

Field, Dr. Henry, Chicago: 22 
specimens of plants from Georgia, 21 
cryptogamic specimens (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 
Collected by Donald Richards and 
Dr. Francis Drouet (Field Museum 
Expedition to Sonora and Southwest- 
ern United States, 1939-40): 12,500 
specimens of cryptogamic plants, 2,500 
specimens of vascular plants. 

Collected by Colin C. Sanborn 
(Magellanic Expedition of Field Mu- 
seum): 1 plant specimen from Chile. 

Collected by Paul C. Standley, Dr. 
Francis Drouet, and Dr. Julian A. 
Steyermark: 86 specimens of crypto- 
gamic plants. 

Collected by Dr. Julian A. Steyer- 
mark (Field Museum Expedition to 
Guatemala, 1939-40): 25,551 speci- 

2cS() FiKi.i) MrsKiM OF Natiral History Kkpokts, Vol. 12 

mens of Cruntpmnlnn plantu, 1 plant 
upocimrn frum Illinow. 

roll«»rtMl by Llowplyn Williams: 455 
j»p« of \'t • ■ ' ' ^, 65 

Wo rrn-ns, 1 • ; ^ryP" 

togamic plants. 

T ' -r>^\ fn>m tho n*>partmpnt of 
All Ky: 1.1 i'<'<>ni>mii' s|M'rim«'n5. 

TniMsfrrriHl from tho I)ivi.Hion of 
rhotojtraphy: 70 photoRraphic prints. 

Transfrrrrd from tln> Donartmfnt of 
tho N. \V. Harri.s Public School Kxten- 
sion: 3 plant sporimt-ns. 

Purchasm: 5,900 cryptojjamic speri- 
mons; 326 plant six-cimon? Costa 
Rica: 948 plant specimrn.'* Kruador; 
339 plant specimens- I'anama; 511 
plant sporimons South America. 

Fl.sMKR, (iKORCK L.. Houston, Texas: 
118 specimens of Texas plants (Rifti. 

Florists' Pini,isHiN(; Company, 
Chicajjo: 1 plant specimen (jjiftK 

FasnERC, Dr. F. Raymond, ArlinR- 
ton, Virginia: 85 plant specimens, 257 
cryptogamic specimens (exchanRei. 

Frey, a., Chicago: 1 funjfiis specimen 

Ffi.l.ER, I)R. George D., Chicago: 67 
specimens of Illinois plants (gift i. 

Ffl.ToN. W. H.. Rockford. Illinois: 5 
plant specimens (gift). 

C.ARHEi.o Park Conservatory, 
Chicago: 48 specimens of cultivated 
plants (gift). 


Salt I^ake City, Utah: 63 plant speci- 
mens (gift). 

Gkstry, Howard Stott. Tui-ion, 
.\ri7."na: 54 sp«'<imens of Mi xican 
plants (gift). George H., Wilsonville, 
Nebraska: 75 specimens of algae 
(exchange . 

Graham. Dr. V. ()., Chicago: 7 
specimens of fungi (gift). 

Gray HERnARUM. C.t . Ma.^- 

nachusetts: 1.740 plant , ■ ns, 11 

photographic prints (exchange) 

. Dr. M. J.. I ■U'. 

C.i... _).J specimens of .i^ *; :t'. 

Gronemann, Cari, F.. Elgin, Illinois: 
1 plant specimen (gift). 

GiARRERA. S. A., Buenos .\ires, 
.Xrgfntina: 14 specimens of algae (gift). 

GlEST, Edwin, Kuala Lumpur. Fed- 
er ' " Alay States: 10 economic speci- 

m- . - K 

T • NUM., 

C'! .. .. . •. • 

Hermann, Dr. F. J.. Washingt-n. 
D.C.: 93 plant «p<'cimens (exchange . 

Hll.l.s. Al.n E L., Chicago: 1 
plant specimen (gift). 

Him Ki.EV. L. C, " ' "^ xm: Hi 
sp<Timens of Texas i 

Hodge. Dr., Philadelphia, 
P«nnsylvania: 2 algal specin- ■ '• 

HoI.I.ENHERG, Dr. G. J., 
California: 85 specimens of algae ^(t;; 
22 sfwcimens of algae (exchange!. 

Grand Rapids. Michigan: 121 specimem 
of plants from New .Mexico (gifti. 

Hi i)SoN, Mrs. A. E.. White Plaint, 
New York: 106 e< specimem 

from Persia and Arm 

Hipp, E. R., Indianapolis, Indiana: 
2 fungus specimens (gift). 

HiRT, J. R., Columbia, MiflBouri: 44 
specimens of algae (gift). 

HiTf HiNsoN, J. R, T' ■ 
West Indies: 1 plant sp« 

Illinois State Miseim. Springfield, 
Illinois: 239 specimens of Illinois planU 

bia: 163 specimens of Colombian plants 

In.stitito de Rotvnica Darwiniom, 
.San Isidro, .Argentina: 2 plant speci- 
mens (exchange". 

.Johnston. Dr. John R., Chimalte- 
nango, (Guatemala: 55 specimens of 
plants from Guatemala (gilt). 

JoHN.sToNE. Dr. G. R., Ixw .'Vngelea, 
California: 1 algal specimen (gift >. 

JuNGE. Don Carlos, Concepci6n, 
Chile: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Kearney, Dr. T. H.. Washington, 
D.C.: 9 plant specimens (gift). 

KEi.i.'i. Ml.-vs ISAHEL, Villa Obregon, 
Mexico; 2 plant specimens (gift). 

Kendall, Mrs. B. A.. Elbum, Illi- 
nois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Khanna. Dr. L. P.. Rangoon. Burma: 
225 specimens of algae (gift ). 

King, Lawrence J.. Richmond, 
Indiana: 69 specimens of algae (gift). 

Paulo, Brazil: 45 specimens of algat 

Koch, Herbert L.. Princeton, Mis- 
souri: 7 plant specimens (gift). 




Krukoff, Boris A., Bronx Park, 

New York: 138 plant specimens (gift); 
1,470 plant specimens, 3,078 wood speci- 
mens (exchange). 

Lackey, Dr. James B., Cincinnati, 
Ohio: 3 algal specimens (gift). 

Langlois, a. C, Nassau, Bahamas: 

I specimen of palm (gift). 
Lankester, C. H., Cartago, Costa 

Rica: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Lanouette, Miss Cecile, Montreal, 
Canada: 1 algal specimen (gift). 

Lewis, Mrs. B. B., Guatemala City, 
Guatemala: 70 plant specimens, 22 
wood specimens (gift). 

LiNDAUER, Dr. V. W., Keri Keri, Bay 
of Islands, New Zealand: 8 specimens of 
algae (gift). 

Louisiana State University, 
Department of Botany, University, 
Louisiana: 2 plant specimens (gift). 

McCann, Dr. L. P., Bogalusa, Louisi- 
ana: 1 specimen of lichen (gift). 

McClure, F. a.. Canton, China: 85 
wood specimens (exchange). 

McInteer, Dr. B. B., Lexington, 
Kentucky: 14 specimens of algae (gift). 

Maddox, R. S., Jefferson City, Mis- 
souri: 2 plant specimens (gift). 

Maguire, Dr. Bassett, Logan, 
Utah: 14 specimens of algae (gift); 505 
photographic prints (exchange). 

Maldonade, Dr. Angel, Lima, Peru: 

II specimens of algae (gift). 

Mann, Louis K., Chicago: 16 speci- 
mens of algae (gift). 

Marsh, Ernest G., Jr., Victoria, 
Texas: 960 specimens of Mexican plants 

Martinez, Professor Maximino, 
Mexico City, Mexico: 16 specimens of 
Mexican plants, 2 specimens of algae 

Matuda, Eizi, Escuintla, Chiapas, 
Mexico: 20 specimens of Mexican 
plants (gift). 

Melbourne Botanic Gardens, 
South Yarra, Australia: 40 specimens 
of Australian plants (exchange). 

Meyer, Professor Teodoro, Tucu- 
mkn, Argentina: 9 plant specimens 

Millar, John R., Chicago: 10 speci- 
mens of algae (gift). 

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. 
Louis, Missouri: 481 plant specimens 

Montana State University, Her- 
barium, Missoula, Montana: 145 speci- 
mens of algae (exchange). 

Moore, George, Sullivan, Missouri: 
25 specimens of Missouri plants (gift). 

MuNZ, Dr. p. a., Claremont, Cali- 
fornia: 41 specimens of South American 
plants (gift). 

MuSEO Nacional, San Jose, Costa 
Rica: 189 specimens of Costa Rican 
plants (gift). 

New Mexico State College, New 
Mexico: 2 economic specimens (gift). 

New York Botanical Garden, 
New York: 68 plant specimens, 242 
cryptogamic specimens, 38 photographic 
prints (exchange). 

Ohio State University, Herbarium, 
Columbus, Ohio: 203 specimens of 
algae (exchange). 

Pacheco H., Mariano, Guatemala 
City, Guatemala: 4 plant specimens 

Penland, Professor C. William, 
Colorado Springs, Colorado: 41 speci- 
mens of plants from Ecuador (gift). 

Petersen, Oscar, St. Louis, Mis- 
souri: 10 plant specimens (gift). 

Pomona College, Claremont, Cali- 
fornia: 90 plant specimens (exchange). 

Ponce, Professor Jose M., Chapul- 
tepec, Mexico: 60 specimens of Mexican 
plants (gift). 

Prescott, Dr. G. W., Albion, 
Michigan: 76 specimens of algae (gift). 

Principia, The, Elsah, Illinois: 76 
specimens of plants from New Mexico 

Ragonese, Arturo E., Santa Fe, 
Argentina: 88 plant specimens from 
Argentina (gift). 

Reeves, Dr. R. G., College Station, 
Texas: 5 plant specimens (gift). 

Rehbein, Mrs. C. C, Chicago, Illi- 
nois: 1 specimen of cultivated plant 

Reko, Dr. Blas P., Tacubaya, 
Mexico: 14 plant specimens (gift). 

Richards, Donald, Chicago: 140 
specimens of plants from Indiana and 
Minnesota, 805 cryptogamic specimens 

Roberts, Mrs. Alice S., Chicago: 
214 plant specimens from Tennessee 
and Ohio (gift). 

Rosengurtt, Professor Bernardo, 
Montevideo, Uruguay: 17 specimens of 
Uruguayan plants (gift). 

282 FiKi.n MrsKiM or Xatirai. History Rkpokts, Vol. 12 

Sthiit. W. a.. Darwin, Au»tr«lia: 
1 plant 5p«'rimon tjtift>. 

S<HNK.II>KK. Kkmarh a.. Kankakn-. 
IllinoLt: 33G uperimonH of Illinois plants 

S<•n^l.T^2^. Rkmard Kvans, Cam- 
hridgr, Ma.'warhu'M'tt,"*: 1 plant sp^-ri- 
men, 1 photojfruphir print {gHt\ 

Skavkrns. Miss Dotiia. P 'm. 

\'rrm<)nt: fiT sp^'oimcns of ; rom 

Barro Colorado I.nland (Rifti. 

Servicio RoTAsiro, Ministorio do 
Ajfrif'uliurn y Crfa, Carara5, Wnrauola: 
279 w imona, 73 pconomic speci- 

mrns >C»''. 

StrrrnEi,!.. Professor Wii.mam A.. 
P' ' ' California: 13 specimens of 
aU , ■). 

Sherkf, Dr. Karl E., Chicago: 217 
plant sporimens (gift). 

Standi.ey, Pali, C, Chicago: 752 

plant spocimens (gift . 

Stanford Inivf.rsity, Dudley Her- 
barium, California: 261 specimens of 
Mexican plants (exchange i. 

Stkykrmark. Mrs. Cora Sn(Mir, 
Chicago: 8 cryptogamic specimens 
(gift I. 

Steyermark, Dr. Jli.ias A., Chi- 
cago: 2,53H plant specimens, 6 cryp- 
togamic specimens (gift). Mrs. C. B., Chicago: 9 
specimens of algae (gift'. 

Stricki-AND, J. C, Charlottesville, 
Virginia: 14 cryptogamic specimens 
(gift'; 91 cryptogamic specimens (ex- 

Taft, Dr. Clarence E.. Columbus, 
Ohio, and William A. Daily. Cincin- 
nati. Ohio: 27 .■specimens of algae (gift i. 

Taylor. Dr. William R.. Ann 
Arbor, Michigan: 101 specimens of 
algae (gift i. 

Tryon. R. M.. Jr.. Cambridge. 
Massachusetts: 24 plant specimens 
(gift); 82 plant specimena (exchange). 

I'MTED Statf-s Department of 
Ar.RTf-f! TIRE. National Arb<^retum. 
W n. DC: 1.273 plant speci- 

m> .. ... hangei. 

United States National Mt-sel-v, 
W ■ •■ ■'■■■■■ .-ns. 

5 of 

plants (exchange). 

Cniveicsity of California. Depart- 
ment of Botany, Berkeley, California: 
2,200 specimens «( plants from Peni 
and liolivia igift: 2.5S specimens of 
California plants (ejcchange). 

I'NivFJtsiTY OF California at Ixis 
AN<;ELt2<, California: 12 plant »p«'ci- 
mens (exchange*. 


ment of Botany, Athens, G< 
plant specimen (gift). 

Inivfuwity of Idaho, Depart nrn? 
of Botany, Moscow, Idaho: 1 br;f 
of Idaho white pine ^gift). 

INIVERSITY OF Il»AHo, South, rr. 
Branch, Department of Botany, I' 
tello. Idaho: 34 specimen* of Id.i;;- 
plants (gift). 

University of 
sity Herbarium, Ann Arljor. .M. 
230 plant specimens (exchange). 

University of Minnes< " :>art» 
ment of Botany. Minneap ■'. nn«> 

.sota: 50 specimens of Minnesota planti 

University of Texas, Departnoeot 

of Botany. .Austin. Texas: 125specinMai 
of Mexican plants (gift). 

University of the Philippe 
Manila. Philipp " " "252 spec^ 
mf-ns of algae • 

University of Wiston'sin, Depart* 
ment of Botany. Madison. Wisconsia: 
33 plant specimens (exchange). 

Vor.L. Rev. Padre C, Caracal^ 
Venezuela: 484 specimens of planti 
from Venezuela (gift). 

Votm. Dr. Pail D.. Chicago: If 
plant specimens, 13 cryptogamic specW 
mens (gift); 50 cryptogamic specinMOl 


Walp. Dr. Lee, Marietta. Ohio: If 
specimens of algae (gift). 

Walp<ile. Mrs. Robert H., V''^ 
netka. Illinois: 1 plant specimen <t 

WEi.rH, Mlss Helen H.. T«:rr 
Haute. Indiana: 2 algal specimens (gif: 

Welch, Dr. Winona H.. Grf-n- 
c:u»tlo. Indiana: 35 specimens of mos>u»« 

Willis, Mlss Barbara. Benningt >n. 
Vermont: 42 specimens of mosses (gift 

WiTTE Memorial Mlselm, ."^ar. 
Antonio. Texas: 34 specimens of Texa» 
plants (gift '. 

WoLLE. Philip W., Princesw Anne, 
Maryland: 2 algal sr - 's (gifti. 

Vale Univer,sit> . <>( Forestry. 

New Haven, Connecticut: 14 plant 
specimens (gift). 

YouNC. Mrs. Rl'ssell, Chicago: 1 

PT of semipetrified wfx-»d (gifC 

. James. Balboa. Canal Zone 

30 specimens of Panama plants (gift) 




American Museum of Natural 
ilSTORY, New York: casts of fossil 
,'ertebrates (exchange). 

Artamonoff, George, Chicago: 4 
pecimens of soils — Venezuela and 
Colombia (gift). 

Australian Museum, Sydney, New 
5outh Wales, Australia: fragment with 
•rust of Barratta No. 3 meteorite — 
S^ew South Wales (exchange). 

Balesteria, a. a., Chicago: 1 speci- 
men of chert with shrinkage cracks — 
lorth of Rockford, Illinois (gift). 

Barber, C. M., Hot Springs, Arkan- 
;as: 2 incomplete carapaces of fossil 
urtles — Devil's Backbone, Saratoga, 
\rkansas; plesiosaur vertebrae — De- 
ight, Arkansas (gift). 

Barker, James M., Honolulu, 
Hawaii: 24 specimens of volcanic sands 
—Hawaii and Oahu (gift). 

Becker, R. R., Gainesville, Florida: 
18 groups of fish teeth, 1 echinoid — 
Gainesville, Florida (gift). 

Blum, Charles E., New York: 1 
itylolite — Lannon, Wisconsin (gift). 

Bradley, Worthen, San Francisco, 
iCalifornia: 7 specimens of ore — various 
ilocalities (gift). 

• Brady, Professor L. F., Flagstaff, 
Arizona: 21 volcanic specimens — Ari- 
fzona (gift). 

Bryant, W., Parlier, California: 16 
teeth and 2 fragments of tusks of 
Desmonstylus — Oregon; 1 specimen of 
rhodonite — Tulare County, California 

' Buddhue, John D., Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia: 1 fragment of Darwin glass — 
Tasmania (exchange). 

Cardios, Michael, Chicago: 2 stylo- 
lites — near Bedford, Indiana (gift). 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania: casts of 4 vertebrate 
fossils (exchange). 

Cropas, Julius, St. Johns, Arizona: 
1 specimen of concretionary barite — 
St. Johns, Arizona (gift). 

Eunson, M. J., Murfreesboro, Ar- 
kansas: 5 specimens of cinnabar — Mur- 
freesboro, Arkansas (gift). 

Field, Dr. Henry, Chicago: 1 speci- 
men of residual soil — Huntingdon. Penn- 
sylvania; 4 specimens of sand — Florida 
and Georgia. 

Field Museum of Natural History : 

Collected by Colin C. Sanborn and 
Karl P. Schmidt (Field Museum 
Magellanic Expedition, 1939): 1 speci- 
men of hematitic rock, and 1 specimen 
of limonitic rock — Lima, Peru. 

Collected by Dr. Henry Field (Field 
Museum North Arabian Desert Ex- 
pedition, 1928): 39 specimens of rocks — 
Iraq and Trans-Jordan. 

Collected by Elmer S. Riggs (First 
Marshall Field Expedition to Argentina 
and Bolivia, 1922-24): part of collection 
of invertebrate fossils — Punta, Casa- 
mayor, Argentina. 

Collected by Paul O. McGrew (Field 
Museum Paleontological Expedition to 
South Dakota, 1940): 4 specimens of 
vertebrate fossils — Nebraska and South 

Collected by Sharat K. Roy (Rawson- 
MacMillan-Field Museum Subarctic 
Expedition, 1927-28): 110 invertebrate 
fossils — Frobisher Bay, Baffin Land. 

Purchases: 2 mineral specimens — 
Lehi, Utah; 23 specimens of meteorites 
— United States; individual of "Ozono" 
(Crockett County, Texas) meteorite. 

Goodman, R. J., Chicago: 16 geo- 
logical specimens — United States (gift). 

Gretton, R. N., Minneapolis, Min- 
nesota: 1 specimen of chatoyant goe- 
thite-bearing quartz — Cayuna, Minne- 
sota (gift). 

Groesbeck, Dr. M. J., Porterville, 
California: 17 geological specimens — 
Nevada and California (gift). 

Herpers, Henry, Chicago: 16 speci- 
mens of rocks and minerals-;-various 
localities; 3 micro-slides of minerals — 
Pennsylvania (gift); 2 mineral speci- 
mens — Utah and California (exchange). 

Hummel, Arnim D., Richmond, 
Kentucky: part of skeleton oi Mega- 
lonyx — London Mills, Illinois (gift). 

Jeannisson, Mrs. L., Park Ridge, 
Illinois: 1 specimen of azurite and 
malachite — Arizona (gift). 

Jenkins, Mrs. Cora, Chicago: 16 
barite roses — near Norman, Oklahoma 

Jennings, John W., Eureka Sprmgs, 
Arkansas: 1 specimen of marcasite, 
1 specimen of percussion cone on chert 
— Eureka Springs, Arkansas (gift). 

Jones, William, Lake City, Florida: 
1 specimen of botryoidal hematite — 
locality unknown (gift). 

JM KiKi.i) Mis>:i M OK N*ati:ral History Rkf'orts, Vol. 12 

KKvrrrn. Kahi.. ( 

mm o( KpfH-ular h«'"i ;. .„.•.!• 

(lurrnwy. Wyor i*. 

K •• ! 

In- ■ t 

Uin County. Oklahoma (gift 

U Paz. • 
lumbu*. < ' 
County, Tfxan (gi'i* 

\ ... 

:*>rri itrand Junction, 

rtTTS, V. 
fnrnia: 2 p... , 
rhuM'tt* and '\ 

) ■ •• 


1 prvciooi 

gilNS. Jamrs II.. Chirafo: ISaptd* 
•1 of vf>rt<>hratr (oMils— Aiuwortll, 
■ .■•ra.oka igift '. 

Sai.o, O. J., Ki-\ lAxigf. " a: 

8»po<"imrnjiof dahllit*' N(ont~.... 
S<HAAf. R . Mn'.iviH. 3nvn. N 

}.rm \ 

- \fl'««FI'V or M!«T<»RY. 

S<MMtI»T. RoRRRT. Hom«^i»od. tlli> 

top* rmmti (pxrhar, 

Grmruui. Hondunui (fn^t*- 

Mat- •• ■ ■- 

rral •!- 
mmg iw 

MnA '^ * 

of « i, 

^: '■ " — ' .: 

10 .r 

Ga ;; 

^' '«^' ^" . Chiragn: 1 

IvnwfT Cali- 

! uy r«iSTA Rha. 
minrral*, 2 

wiiod. • I 

1&4 inv*>rt*-i>rAU' (.\wu Kna 

Mvia».««. Groror T.. Jam«ito»n. 
Tenn rmmr : 12 ' harit«» 

J«m««t»'>wn. T- 

N .Y \V . Chiragn: 2 

mi.- '• 

J" VUutt Chicago. 

> I tooth o( cavr brar Hun- 
^■^ . *.ft^. 

Paivrr. Dr. R. H.. Havana. Cuba: 
1 rrtnoki*— Havmna, Cuha (px- 

PaPR. John C. Mill^n. Idaho: 6 
-inr-mlvrT ore Mul- 

PnAP«>f»v MiT»Rf^l. N>w Havfn. Con- 
.- raftn of \-prtrbrat<» foimls 

} W T. Morton. V. 


SrtiNKioRR. E. E., Chicago: 2 spwi- 

■ • ns of blup ". : ' " auartx por- 
;. ry noar Ba : Sfountaia. 

T»'Xa-s igift '. {'. H.. Mip'^'"?0"'i<i. Mton*- 

iiota: I ^pocimrn of cr ided tar. 

»ton#» noar ML-wwuila. Montana (fU* 

Stanparu Oil- (KNrANY (Induuu 
Chicago: 2 photograph* (fiftt. 

Si N.'^MINK ^' *■ 

logg. Iflaho: 1 
Kpllogg. Idaho (gift I. 

'T' ,, T».. ... -. f . . . . ti 

. I* — Cape Cv*l. 

Trratch. W. M.. Hrnnepin. I; 

Pp(>r boulder Hennepin, i 

TRK\>m^. Mi.«w .\ns. ' 
ming: I Rperimen .f f' - 
Wyoming (gift^. 

I ■ 


lirrmott^lH* hf*prryg (exrhangeK 

Von I)! * ■• • 

noi*: 14 , 

Wiv-»- H III. Ch 

cago: ;J »nt, Coi 

raoo (gi;: . 

Wi?;f:. F'RAsri.s. Colorado Spring 
io : 4 mineralu Durango, Mex. 

Wf«|f. Vai-ohv. I>>ean«port, Indiar 
I •• in b«»; 

-I . , . . 

Worth. F. C. Chicago: 28 noe 
of orw and rock* — varioua ioca ' 

ZiK«,j.RR. Edward. Chicago: 1 «r**"^ 
"-'^1 of fiTwil spruce — near Add, lo* 




Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 7 bird skins 
—various localities (exchange). 

Adams, William J. R., Wayland, 
tventucky: 43 salamanders, 15 toads — 
[ventucky (exchange). 

Allen, David, Highland Park, Illi- 
lois: 2 salamanders, 1 snapping turtle — 
La Porte County, Indiana (gift). 

Allen, E. Ross, Silver Springs, 
Florida: 1 panther skull— Collier 
County, Florida (gift). 

Allen, Paul H., Balboa, Canal 
Zone: 1 quetzal skin — Panama (gift). 

Alwart, Paul J., Chicago: 5 beetles 
— Chetek, Wisconsin (gift). 

Andrews, E. Wyllys, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: 82 bats in alcohol, 7 
rodent skins and skulls, 5 small mam- 
mal skulls, 2 salamanders, 197 frogs, 
328 lizards, 431 snakes, 8 turtles, 66 
fishes, 1 crab, 3 scorpions — Yucatan 
and Campeche, Mexico (gifts). 

Anonymous Donor: 5,153 bird skins 
—various localities (gift). 

Anonymous Donor: 63 fishes — vari- 
ous localities (gift). 

Arizona Game and Fish Commis- 
sion, Phoenix, Arizona: 1 river salmon 
— California (gift). 

Armour and Company, Chicago: 2 
domestic animals and parts of 2 others 

Arnold, Gustav E., San Augustine, 
Texas: 9 lizards, 7 snakes, 1 turtle — 
Texas (gift). 

Artamanoff, George, Chicago: 1 
land snail, 31 insects — Venezuela and 
Colombia (gift). 

Barber, Charles M., Hot Springs, 
Arkansas: 1 bat in alcohol, 1 lizard, 
1 snake, 1 cleaned turtle skeleton — 
Arkansas and Brazil (gift). 

Bartel, Karl, Blue Island, Illinois: 
1 western sandpiper — Wolf Lake, Indi- 
ana (gift). 

Bartnick, Bernard, Chicago: 12 
hummingbirds, 1 parrot — Venezuela 
and Colombia (gift); 31 bird skins — 
Europe and South America (exchange). 

Bass Biological Laboratory, En- 
glewood, Florida: 2 shark jaws, 1 
young ray and egg — Florida (gift). 

Becker, Mrs. Violet, Wooddale, 
Illinois: 1 rattlesnake — Wooddale, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Beecher, William J., Chicago: 2 
young rabbit skins and skulls — Fox 
Lake, Illinois (gift). 

Best, Miss Elizabeth, Glencoe, Illi- 
nois: 1 beetle — Nashville, Indiana (gift). 

British Museum (Natural His- 
tory), London, England: 88 bats in 
alcohol — West Indies, Trinidad, and 
Dutch Guiana (exchange). 

Bromund, E. Fred, Mount Pleasant, 
Michigan: 108 shells — various localities; 

1 scorpion-fly — Michigan (gift). 

Brown, Mrs. A. W., Spirit Lake, 
Iowa: 2 marine shells — Texas (gift). 
Buchsbaum, Dr. Ralph, Chicago: 

2 lizards — Barro Colorado Island, Canal 
Zone (gift). 

Buck, Frank, Chicago: 1 jaguar 

Bltiton, Robert A., Evanston, Illi- 
nois: 2 salamanders, 87 frogs, 47 toads, 
24 snakes, 4 turtles — Mount Pleasant, 
Iowa (gift). 

Burton, Robert A. and Donald 
Kemp, Evanston, Illinois: 1 tadpole, 
13 frogs, 4 snakes, 2 turtles — Grundy 
County, Illinois (gift). 

Campbell, J. E., Graham, Texas: 
1 hog moth — Graham, Texas (gift). 

Cascard, Ben, Gary, Indiana: 458 
lower invertebrates — San Pedro, Cali- 
fornia (gift). 

Chicago Zoological Society, Brook- 
field, Illinois: 39 mammals, 285 birds, 

3 salamanders, 18 frogs, 3 lizards, 2 
birds' eggs. 111 snakes, 3 turtles, 1 
alligator, 1 tick, 1 peripatus — various 
localities (gift). 

Conover, Boardman, Chicago: 36 
birds, 11 eggs — various localities (gift); 
17 birds — various localities (exchange). 

Cowles, Dr. Raymond B., Los 
Angeles, California: 3 sand lizards — 
Arizona (gift). 

Daggy, Thomas, Evanston, Illinois: 
3 beetles — Laporte County, Indiana 

Dampf, Dr. Alfonso, Mexico City, 
Mexico: 7 bats in alcohol — Mexico and 
Guatemala (gift). 

Davis, D. Dwight, Naperville, Illi- 
nois: 1 raccoon — Naperville, Illinois 

De Clements, Frank, Chicago: 1 
spider — Chicago (gift). 

Deitmer, Carl, Chicago: 1 wasp — 
Chicago (gift). 

-.^!> FiKiJ) Museum oy Natikai. History Kkports, Vol. 12 

DitorKIS. V. H. and I. Kohjojas. 
Chirafo: 1 bird (' 

DRorKT. I)K. y "(fv J 

»lidca of frmhwatrr 

I» TH. N. H . NUi.u;4. 1 

i'lnr :n: I flying litafl i 

iulaiuin, i'hitippinr Ivlandu <gi(t>. 

Dt vs. Dm K K • 
•ylvaiua; 2 o>ral •! 
Armupiira, Panama (Klft). 

" - ' Mknkv S i"' 
.<<« va: 

Krr. PoNAl.t). Svlvania. Ohio: I 
buttrrrty Wallar^. IHahn (gift*. 

KMER.HON. Dr. Ai.mKO K.. ChimifM 
26 termitm Bhttah Hondunu (k' 

KlF.l.D, Dr. Hknhy. Chicago: 1 mam- 
mal. 11 ■ ■ . Ifi 
frr>r». 1 ' . '29 

tin in United Statr* (gift). 

FiKt.nMt .sKiMor NATtRAi.Hi.'«T<mv: 
C,.'..f..! hy Kmmot K. Blak.-: 14 

w>t« o^ncn Illinoiji. 

Co;.' -•• i !•-. i 

n. I)w;v:' ■ •'.. 

itfun y.x im*: 1 1 

mammai hm;,i. „ \ !, 97 

hifl •kino. *i'J bifl • h of 

• . .31 

• i • . - ■ . . . IIH 

(txhni, 6.1 injM>rtji and ;i .'7 lower 
in\-prtrbnites Cariblx'Hii i'^i'U, Yura- 
tan, and Mondunui. 

Colipcted by Sidney Camnw: 230 
bird lire varioun loralitie*. 

roi!»v«H hy I> pwigh' I^svi^ 'T/^n 

' . 7 turtlen, 9 frogs Caribbean 


Collerted by Dr. Henr>* Fi<M .«tirl 
Kihard A. Slartin (FVld v 
Anthropological Kxpedition to • 
Kajit. 1934 : 5 tirku Ira*) an 

Monte Carlo. Ar, 


and John \5 

V-r.'--ir r.x; 

n iikirvi 

r ^ in al' 

Sf mamn 

' r- 

rale mammal akulU, \ft2 hinU. 16 

■ ,( 

■ .4 

. one lur" 1. 


< I. 

i, ur.'-l 1 ir.' 

(^ > .Martin :.. 

iiirda (.*hicago am. 

6 (rrah-water »heli*--ti«cob- 

, • * • tT\ .1 ' 1 


; by Dr. Julian .A Stejr»r 

- — '.^m^ 
r.-*. 1 1 lizard' 
•J -iiiiB.!-?., i ; . •« and aJIk^ 

3 crab*. 1». viala. 
Third Axiatic Kx; {I9tt 

I American Muaeum <■. ...NuraJ Hi* 
tory): 2 bat akulla -China. 

Kdward C. To» 
,, . iKm, 7 hair-worm» 

Fafe County. Illinois. 

Tran.ofer'' m Uepartmeol oi 

(icNilogy: 1 . ,t skeleton. 

Transferred from I>epartin«ot « 

N \V. Har- ' ' ttCMlor. 

4 bird.H I '^ain (« 

r'-\ by Rupert L. Wer.u 

•'><)' •' San I )ie|fo County. Cal 

-nal bat panuit«<a- 

Collected bv Loren P. Wooda (FkU \ 


PurehaM*: ?, ' '' 7 froo, * 

lizardji. ^ ^nn and Soolll 

.Amerir. a| akios taA 

%k\i\\*. . . .a: 9R nwah 

mala Brazil: 10 bat Hkinn and akulb- 
Califomia: 13 mammal nk ins and tlniS* 
If) ^rnall mammaU in alcohol ^Thlr 
8 ) tnd iikuUs. 16 bat* la 

n!r rnbia: 13 birds— Batt 

a: 1 iixard, 6 unaken, 5 fbh«s, \M 
tji, 15 crahn Florida: 44 iiiamiMJ 
■< and nkulU. 1 mammal skull, li 

M Mb* 

rds. 116 

nakr«, i turtle. A'l tiiiheii Mexico; fl 

..<i and skulto- 
ih mammal 
. . ^ fi imal! mai 



skins and skulls— Peru; 26 birds— 
Utilla Island; 84 hawks and owls, 
1 other bird skin — various localities 
(Leslie Wheeler Fund); 7 mammals — 
Vermont; 2 caecilians, 8 frogs, 10 
lizards, 5 snakes — West Indies and 
South America. 

FoGLB, Dr. F. Lester, South Bend, 
Indiana: 2 bats in alcohol, 1 centipede 
—West Africa (gift). 

Franz, Herman, Bensenville, Illi- 
nois: 2 snakes — McHenry, Illinois (gift). 

Franzen, Albert J., Chicago: 1 
snake — Calumet Lake, Illinois (gift). 
I Friesser, James, Chicago: 1 newt — 
' Ashland County, Wisconsin (gift). 

Friesser, Julius, Chicago: 1 jaguar 
skull — Brazil; 1 fish specimen — Illinois 
(gift); 1 white rhino skull— Africa; 1 
pair deer antlers — Asia (exchange). 

Frizzell, Mrs. Don L., Negritos, 
Peru: 4 snakes — Peru (gift). 

Funk, T. L., Chicago: 1 beetle — 
Louisville, Kentucky (gift). 

General Biological Supply House, 
Chicago: 1 injected frog— Chicago area; 
6 small bivalve shells — Englewood, 
Florida (gift). 

I Gerhard, William J., Chicago: 23 
'insects — New Jersey and Colorado. 

Grant, Gordon, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia: 1,137 insects and allies, 436 
lower invertebrates — Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia (gift). 

Green, J. A., Chicago: 1 loggerhead 
turtle skull— Key West, Florida (gift). 
, Green, Dr. N. Bayard, Huntington, 
iWest Virginia: 12 salamanders — Hunt- 
ington, West Virginia (exchange). 
, Gronemann, Carl F., Elgin, Illinois: 
16 beetles — Province of Hanover, Ger- 
many (gift). 

Gueret, Edmond N., Chicago: 2 
birds; 3 freshwater clams — Barron 
County, Wisconsin (gift). 

Guillaudeu, Robert, Chicago: 1 
inake — Deerfield, Illinois (gift). 

Haas, Dr. Fritz, Chicago: 18 fresh- 
water shells — Chicago (gift). 

Haas, Dr. Georg, Jerusalem, Pales- 
;ine: 1 salamander, 1 frog, 15 lizards, 
1 snakes — Palestine (exchange). 

Hargrove, J., Chicago: 6 book-lice — 
I^hicago (gift). 

Herpers, Henry, Chicago: 2 land 

;hells — Ogdensburg, New Jersey (gift). 

Hertig, Bruce, Lima, Peru: 1 toad, 

blind snake — Lima, Peru (gift). 

Hertig, Dr. Marshall, Lima, Peru: 
1 snake — Surco, Peru (gift). 

HiBLER, C. D., Kingsville, Texas: 
15 frogs and toads, 9 lizards, 19 snakes, 
7 turtles — Kingsville, Texas (exchange). 

Hill, J. L., Berwyn, Illinois: 2 in- 
sects — Colorado and South Dakota 

Hobgood, Dr. W. C, Monticello, 
Arkansas: 1 short-tailed shrew in 
alcohol, 1 salamander, 3 frogs, 3 liz- 
ards, 3 snakes, 1 turtle — Monticello, 
Arkansas (gift). 

Hodgsdon, Donald, Pochuta, Guate- 
mala: 1 tarantula — Pochuta, Guate- 
mala (gift). 

Holabird, John A., Chicago: 1 
raccoon skin and skeleton, 2 woodrat 
skins and skulls, 2 young woodrats in 
formalin, 20 bird skins, 6 bird skeletons, 
28 frogs, 15 lizards, 20 snakes, 2 turtles, 
1 alligator, 204 fishes — Avery Island, 
Louisiana (gift). 

Holabird, Mrs. John A., Chicago: 
1 hummingbird — Illinois (gift). 

HoLLEY, Francis E., Lornbard, Illi- 
nois: 8 insects — various localities (gift). 

HooGSTRAAL, Harry, Champaign, 
Illinois: 28 small mammal skins and 
skulls, 16 bats in alcohol, 3 separate 
mammal skulls — Mexico (gift). 

HuBRiCHT, Leslie, St. Louis, Mis- 
souri: 10 small marine shells — Port St. 
Joe, Florida (gift). 

Igler, Miss Sophie, and Miss 
Edith Haas, Chicago: 10 freshwater 
mussels — Loon Lake, Illinois (gift). 

Iowa Wesleyan College, Mount 
Pleasant, Iowa: 1 snake — Mount Pleas- 
ant, Iowa (gift). 

Janecek, John J., Cicero, Illinois: 
55 insects, 2 spiders — Illinois (gift). 

Jewett, Stanley G., Portland, Ore- 
gon: 2 rabbit skins and skulls — Oregon 

Joern, Miss Marie, River Forest, 
Illinois: 3 ticks— River Forest, Illinois 

Kemp, Donald, Evanston, Illinois: 
21 salamanders, 74 tadpoles, 41 frogs, 
5 lizards, 15 snakes, 8 turtles, 7 snails — 
Illinois and Missouri (gift). 

Knickerbocker, C. K., Estate of, 
Chicago: 223 birds— North America; 
9,869 birds' eggs— various localities 

Knowlton, Professor G. F., Logan, 
Utah: 60 flies— Utah (exchange). 

288 FiKLD Ml m:i-.m of Natihal Histokv Kepokts. Vol. 12 

Kraft, i: - K. Chicago: 2 

bertlps Chii..^ ^.:i i. 

KrRn->w, JoMS F.. Hinsdalo, lUinoU: 
1 younjc jipirtor .nnake 

H. ,. t». 

Lake. Wiixiam, Chirajfo: 1 hat in 
alrohnl ChiraRo (ijifti. 

I^MB. RoiiERT A.. Hammond. Indi- 
ana: 1 walkinjc stirk -Hammond, 
Indiana (jjift^. 

Lambert. Ronald, Zion, Illinois: 1 
frrshwaf«^r shell (Rift'. 

Lambert, Dr. S. M., Itira. NVw 
York: 1 rmcodilc skull New Guinoa 

Lerser. Miciiaei., Now York: 1 
blark marlin. 1 thrrshor shark New 
Zealand (Rift). 

Letl, Frank, Homowood, Illinois: 
1 bird. 1 water snake- -Illinois (gift). 

Levy, Seymoir, Chicago: 1 bird 
Chicago (giftK 

LiiJEni.AP, Emu.. Willow Park. Illi- 
nois: 43 in.sects— Pentwater, Michigan 

LiNroi.N Park Zoo. Chicago: 3 mam- 
mals, 1 frog, 5 lizards. 11 snakes, 1 
turtle, 1 young crocodile, 2 tongue 
worms (^gift). 

I^iEWEN. Mrs. S. L., Sterling, 
1 Great Plains lizard (gift). 

LlTZ. Thomas. Downers Grove, Illi- 
nois: 1 in.Hort Aurora (gift). 

MrCLOiD and Compa.vy, W. B.. 
Chicago: 1 beetle Chicago (gift). 

Miii.HENNY. Kdwarp A., .\very Is- 
land, Ix)uisiana: 1 mammal skin and 
skull. 1 mammal skin and ' ' • ., 1 
shrew in formalin, 1 t: ..-ed 

mallard duckling in formalin — Avery 
I.sland (gift). 

Mark, Harrifttt, Chicago: 1 bird- 
Chicago (gift). 

Mazir, Anthony, Chicago: 1 spider 
— Oswego, Illinois (giftt. 

Mock. Or. Harry. T" -i, Illi- 

nois: 1 mountain lion ^ New- 

Mexico (gift). 

Moran, Morton. San l>ifgo. Cali- 
fornia: Tfi inw'ft.s Phoenix. .Vrizona: 
6 fishes. rts and allies. 1.200 

lower invf - . -*« Coronado and San 
Diego, California (gift\ 

Moi; s B.. Chicago: 1 

bird- . . 


San Jo«^. Costa Rica: 4 corals— Costa 
Rica (gift). 


Cam'" ■'•.'■■ Xf ■ • '• ■■•'••• ■ ' • 


: 62 lizards— L 

Nei„'^n, Berne, Wooddale, Tlli- v 
2 snakes Wooddale, Illinoi* ;■ 

Neiman, Herbert. ' '• - 
1 fire-fly larva- Klgin, I 

()sr.(MiD. Or. Wii.KRKi* H., < 
1 prairie dog skin and skull, .. .. , • 
hawks. .1 biros' eggs Colorado; 1 r.\ 

Mi.'«»i.ssippi (gift). 

Owens, David W., Flossmoor. Illi- 
nois: IS frogs, 7 snakes, 1 turtlf 
Illinois (gift >. 

Paqiette, Donald J., Manteno. 
Illinois: 1 insect -Manteno, Illinob 

Park, Andrew R., Evanston. Illi- 
nois: 2 moths I'rbana, Illinois (gift . 

Patterson, Bryan, Chicago: 103 
in.sects and allies, 1 land shell - Indiana 
and Nebraska (gift). 

Pearsall, Gordon. Maywood, Illi- 
nois: 1 screech owl- River Forest, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

Persky. Mrs. B.. Chicago: 2 marinf 
shells Miami Beach, Florida (gift ■. 

PFi.iEr.ER, Al, Miami, Florida: 2 
ducks Florida (gift)., Harold St. John, Jidda. 
.Arabia: 3 arachnids- .\rabia (gift). 

PiusBRY, Dr. Henry A., Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania: 3 paratypes of land 
shells Miranda, Cuba (gift). 

PoHRTE. William C, Ijiporte, Indi- 
ana: S salamanders, 2 tree frogs, 1 
snake I^porte County, Indiana (gift;. 

PoLij^K, Mrs. H. H., Chicafo: S 
marine shells -Rio de Janeiro, Brad 

Pope, Clifford H., Winnetka, Illi- 
nois: 1 injected turtle — Chicago area 

Popov, Miss Slsan R., Freeport. 
Illinoio: 1 crab spider— Freeport, Illi- 
nois (giftK 

PoiLTER. Dr. Thomas, Chicago: 2 
penguin skeletons — Little America 

QtiNN. James H.. Harvey, Illinoui 
1 soft-shelled turtle — Ainsworth, Ne- 
braska (gift). 

Reep. Carlos S.. Santiago, Chile 
5 fly-catchers — Chile (gift). 



Reed, Frank, Monticello, Arkansas: 
shrew skin and skull — Monticello, 
Arkansas (gift). 

Retondo, John, Chicago: 101 in- 
ects — Chicago area (gift). 

RiBNiKER, Martin, Chicago: 2 birds 
—Hinsdale, Illinois (gift). 

RiCKARDS, A. R. M., Bagdad, Arabia: 
I ticks — Aden, Arabia (gift). 

RoMANA, William, Chicago: 1 frog, 
|. snake — Ludington, Michigan (gift). 

Rosenberg, W. F. H., Middlesex, 
i]ngland: 1 albatross — New Zealand 

Royal Ontario Museum op Zool- 
)GY, Toronto, Ontario: 1 cleaned marten 
keleton, 1 fisher skeleton — Ontario (ex- 
change) . 

Rueckert, Arthur, Chicago: 1 
hooper's hawk — Florida (gift). 

Sanborn, Colin C, Highland Park, 
Uinois: 1 beetle, 1 crayfish — Highland 
i'ark, Illinois (gift). 

Sanibel School, Sanibel, Florida: 
- coach whip snake — Sanibel Island, 
Florida (gift). 

Schmidt, John M., Homewood, Illi- 
lois: 16 lizards, 6 snakes, 6 insects and 
lilies — various localities (gift). 

Schmidt, Karl P., Homewood, lUi- 
lois: 3 snakes, 3 lizards, 20 beetles — 
Lllinois, Nebraska and Florida (gift). 

Schreiber, Jack, Chicago: 1 tick — 
Michigan; 1 bird parasite — Chicago 


Seevers, Dr. Charles H., Chicago: 
52 insects and allies — various localities 

Segovia, Pastora, Rio Anzu, Ecua- 
lor: 28 beetles — Ecuador (gift). 

Shedd Aquarium, John G., Chicago: 
L tropical fish — Amazon region (gift). 

Shoemaker, Dr. Hurst, Urbana, 
Illinois: 19 insects — various localities 

Shueman, Martin, Bensenville, Illi- 
lois: 2 snakes — Wooddale, Illinois (gift). 

Sigismund of Prussia, Princess, 
Barranca, Costa Rica: 1 bat in alcohol, 
i frogs, 2 snakes, 1 boa head, 1 lizard, 
J3 insects and allies, 7 land shells — 
Barranca, Costa Rica (gift). 

Slater, Dr. J. R., Tacoma, Washing- 
on: 7 snakes — Tacoma, Washington 

Smith, Dr. C. S., San Marcos, Texas: 
'. lizard, 1 snake— Texas (gift). 

Smith, Don, Chicago: 3 butterflies- 
Badger Mountains, Washington (gift). 

Smith, Mrs. H. D., Lake Forest, 
Illinois: 1 snake — Desplaines River, 
Illinois (gift). 

SoRENSEN, Harvey, Waukegan, Illi- 
nois: 1 pseudo-scorpion — Waukegan, 
Illinois (gift). 

Steyermark, Dr. Julian A., Chi- 
cago: 1 painted turtle — Lake County, 
Illinois (gift). 

Storey, Miss Margaret, Stanford 
University, California: 51 fishes — 
Florida (gift). 

Texas Co-operative Wild Life Re- 
search Unit, College Station, Texas: 

1 spotted skunk skeleton — Colorado 
County, Texas (gift). 

Tobiasz, Edward C, Chicago: 1 
salamander, 2 toads, 5 frogs, 5 snakes, 
40 lower invertebrates — DuPage 
County, Illinois (gift). 

Todd, Joseph D., Chicago: 124 ma- 
rine shells — Anna Maria Key, Florida 


Traylor, Melvin a., Jr., Chicago: 
731 bird skins, 1 bird skeleton — Yucatan 
and Campeche, Mexico (gift). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 1 bat in alcohol — 
Celebes; 15 samples of shark skins, 
3 crustaceans — various localities (ex- 

University op California Museum 
OF Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, 
California: 1 snake — Arabia (exchange). 

University OF Maine, Orono, Maine: 

2 land-locked salmon — Maine (gift). 

University of Michigan, Museum 
OF Zoology, Ann Arbor, Michigan: 2 
rabbits — Ecuador (exchange). 

Vatter, Albert, Glen view, Illinois: 
1 cicada — Glen view, Illinois (gift). 

VioscA, Dr. Percy, New Orleans, 
Louisiana: 1 salamander — Louisiana 

VoGL, Padre Cornelio, Caracas, 
Venezuela: 11 frogs, 1 lizard, 6 fishes, 
686 insects and allies — Venezuela (gift). 

VoGT, William, Lima, Peru: 1 tern 
head in alcohol, 50 mollusks — Peru 

Von Ihering, Rudolph, Recife, 
Brazil: 5 birds — Brazil (gift). 

Wade, Miss Elizabeth, Thomas- 
ville, Georgia: 6 salamanders — Thomas- 
ville, Georgia (gift). 

290 FiKi,i) MrsKiM of Natikai, Histoky Kkports, Vol. 12 

Wai>k. Kari.k^ H.. Park Ki«l|fp, Illi- 
noi««: 1 w;LHp ('hiraRo (Rifti. 

Walton. Miss Ci.aka. niKhlnn<l 
I'lirk, Illinois: 1 bird ♦•a.Mtrrn North 
Amrrira: 10 birds HiKhhujd Tark. Illi- 
n«)i.H (Rift I. 

Wkkp, Ai.frkd ('.. ChiraRo: 34 frf-sh- 
wntor snails I-oiko Ontario, Now York 
(gift)., Joskph M., Chicago: 657 
birds* eggs -North America (gift). 

Wknzk.I,. Rll'KKT L.. ChiraRo: 10 
salamandrrs, 40<5 insects and allios, ."> 
slugs various localitios (gift*. 

WniTK. Muss HErKY, Thomasvillo. 
(M'orRia: .30 insects Trinidad. British 
West Indies (gift i. 

Wmitk. Mrs. Ronn, Thomasviile. 
(JporKia: 1 molp in alcohol, 1 lizard. 9 
snak«>s.2 turtles, 4>i insects Florida and 
Georgia; <>'J insect,-. Kentucky (gifti. 

Wmitk. Mrs. Koiin. Jr., Thoi 

ville. (letirgia: .'J salamanders. I >■. 

s froRs, 6 snakoM Thoma-iville, Ge<..'>;u 

(Rift I. 

Wol.JiiTT. Al.nKRT B.. Ho*! • 

(irovi>, r : salam . 

drove. 1 , 'Jl : 

localities (gift). 

W .•<»; I weajK- 

Wood, Genkrai, R. E., Chicafo: 

3 bear skulls Alaska (gift). 

W(K)iK-orK. U. K., Chicago: 7 bu"'- 
tlies New Mexico; 1 iipider- Ch. 


Woods. Ix)RKS P.. f" 2 nala- 

manders. 6 frogs, 11;. snakes, 

3 crayfish various localities (gift 

Wyatt. .\i,e\ K.. Chicago: 11 lo- 
sects various localities (gift'. 


1 slide viewer. 60 slides in c ' - 

45 records of 15 "How Do You Kn' 
radio programs (gift>. 

Wood. Miriam, Chicago: 10 co. 
slides (gift). 

Field .Miseim (»f Natirai. Hi.«^tory : 
Made by Division of Photography: 

6'J' . 16 prints Mandel-Caribl)ean 

t.\, ... n, 67 colore*! slides. 

Piirchasr: 1 slide projector, 1 phono- 
graph, 5 phonograph record albums, 


FiSHKR, Mrs. ,\nse, E.state of. New 
York: 1,404 negatives, 3,022 prints, 75 
enlargements, and 35 post card views 
of racial types and general scenes in 
Iraq (gift I. 

Field MisEiM OF Natiral History: 

Made by Division of Photography: 
6,84f< prints, 1,S97 negatives, 1,155 
lantern slides, 612 enlargements, 42 

large transparencies, 62 transpamt 


Developed for expeditions: 144 nefi- 

Made by Paul O. McGrew: 150 i 
lives (35 mm. I of ' 

landscapes on the ; ■ 

Reservation, South Dakota. 

List of Donors of Dooks 


Agencia Geral das Colonias Lisbon, 

El AffricuUor \'rnr:olano, Caracas, 


Aluminum Company of .America. Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

.Amorican Institute of the City of New 


American Museum of Natural Historj*, 
New York. 

American Society for Testing Mate- 
rials, Philadelphia, Pennsyl\-ania. 

.\merican .^>ciety of Legion of Honor 
New York. 

Amerind Foundation, DragooD. 

.Anti-Cruelty Niciety, Chicago. 

Art Institute of Chicago. 

Atchison. Topeka and Santa F6 Rail- 
way Company, Topeka, Kansas. 

Boonton Molding Company, Boontoo, 
New Jersey. 



Brazil, Ministerio da Agricultura, Rio 
de Janeiro, Brazil. 

'arnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. 

'arolina Biological Supply Company, 
Elon College, North Carolina. 

'olombia, Ministerio de la Economia 
Nacional, Bogota, Colombia. 

'ompania Argentina de Editores, Bue- 
nos Aires, Argentina. 

Jook County Forest Preserve District, 

Dodd Mead and Company, New York. 

''ederal Security Agency, Washington, 

<'ood Facts, Chicago. 

jeneral Society of Mechanics and 

Tradesmen, New York, 
jolden Gate Exposition, San Francisco, 

juatemala, Instituto Quimico-Agri- 

cola Nacional, Guatemala City, 


clolst Publishing Company, Boone, 

Illinois Coal Strippers Association, 

[nstituto de La Salle, Bogota, Colombia. 

lohn Crerar Library, Chicago. 

Kafifrarian Museum, King William's 
Town, South Africa. 

Lincoln Golden Key Club, Chicago. 

Manchukuo, Central National Museum 

of, Hsinking, Manchukuo. 
Marine Studio, St. Augustine, Florida. 
Mexico, Departamento de la Marina 

Nacional, Patzcuaro, Mexico. 
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 

Louis, Missouri. 

National Association of Manufacturers, 
New York. 

National Soap Sculpture, New York. 

Naturaliste Canadien, Quebec, Canada. 

New York University, Institute of Fine 
Arts, New York. 

Northeastern University, Boston, 

Queen Victoria Museum and Art 
Gallery, Tasmania, Australia. 

Sao Paulo, Departmento de Botanica, 
Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

School of African Studies, Cape Town, 
South Africa. 

Schools of American Research, Santa 
Fe, New Mexico. 

Semana de la Farmacia, La, San Jose, 
Costa Rica. 

Sondley Reference Library, Asheville, 
North Carolina. 

South Dakota University, Vermillion, 
South Dakota. 

Squibb and Sons, E. R., New York. 

Standard Oil Company, New York. 

Statsbiblioteket, Aarhus, Denmark. 

Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio. 

Toledo Naturalists' Association, Toledo, 

United Brewers Industrial Foundation, 
New York. 

Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Logan, Utah. 

Washington, State Fisheries Depart- 
ment, Washington. 

Wood Technic, Chicago. 

Work Projects Administration; Illinois 
Historical Records Survey Project, 
Urbana, Illinois. 

Yikal Maya Than, Merida, Yucatan. 


Aden, Alonzo J., Chicago. 

Aoe, Kojiro Mikage, Hyogoken, Japan. 

Baird, Don O., Huntsville, Texas. 
Beecher, William J., Chicago. 
Behn, Dr. Konrad, Valparaiso, Chile. 
Bernstorff, Dr. W. H., Calumet City, 

Bolton, Mrs. Chester C, Cleveland, 

Borenstein, S., Chicago. 

Bowen, Norman L., Chicago. 

Brimley, H. H., Raleigh, North 

Causton, Dr. Gordon, Durban, Natal, 

Coleman, Edith, Blackburn, Victoria, 

Cory, Charles B., Jr., Chicago. 

Cummins, George B., Lafayette, 

2*J2 KiKU) Ml si:rM of Natlral History Kkports. Vol. 12 

Paniol. H., Mtnli'Ilin. Colombia. 

navi.i, n. Dwijtht. ChirnRo. 

l)ay, John and Company, New York. 

Emrrson, Dr. Alfred K., Chicago. 

Farley. Malcolm, Chicago. 
Fehir. Pr. D., Sopron. HunRary. 
Fernandez de Cordoba, Joaquin, 

Morelia. Mexico. 
Field. Dr. Henry. Chicago. 
Field. Stanley. Ijike Forest, Illinoi.s. 
Franc<>sco, Festa. Hitritto, Italy. 
Franci-H, W. I")., Hri.Hl)an<\ \ii>^trali:i. 

Gerhard, W. J.. Chicago. 
Glea5on, H. .A.. New York. 
Graham, H. L.. I)alla.s. Texas. 
Gregg. Clifford C, Fl(«««mo<)r, Illinoi.s. 
Grisecke, Dr. Alberf A . Mir:it1(.n-s, 

Grove. Bert E.. Chicago. 
Gunsaulus. Helen C, Chicago. 
Gu.ninde. Martin, St. Gabriel, Modling, 


Haas, Dr. F^ritz, Chicago. 

Hambly. Dr. Wilfrid D.. Chicago. 

Hamlin, Chauncey J., Buffalo, New 

Hansen. John Conrad, Chicago. 

Henderson, M. R.. Singapore, Straits 

Herald. Karl Stannard, Stanford Uni- 
versity, California. 

Herman, Dr. Carlton M., San Diego, 

Hermanson, Helen, Chicago. 

Herpers, Henry, Chicago. 

Herrera, F. I.., Lima, Peru. 

H^-yivr. Frank, Chicago. 

Ho»'hne. F. C, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Hovanitz, William, Pasadena, Cali- 

Hungerford, H. B.. I^wrence, Kan.<(as. 

Jeffre>-s, M. D. W., Port TT^rr,,.irf 

Jellison, William L.. HamiUon, 

Johnston, Dr. John R., Chimaltenango, 

Just. Dr. T., Notre Dame, Indiana. 

Kelso. I>eon. Washington, D.C. 
Kinghorn, J. R., Sydney, Australia. 

Knickerlxicker, Kenneth. Chicago. 
Knoche, Dr. Walter. Buenoa Ail 

I^garrigue, Luis, Santiago, Chile. 

Lazier. Dr. Karl F., Ann A: • 

Ijusker, Bruno, New York. 
I^tcham, Ricardo R.. Santiago, Chtk 
I>*wis. Dr. An>ert B., Chicago. 
Liljeblad. Kmil. Villa Park, Illinois. 
Little, James M., San Francisco, < th- 

Lundell, C. L., Ann Arbor, Michigaa. 

McGrew. Paul O.. Chicago. 

MrNair. James B.. Ixw Ange • i- 

Mather. Bryant. Chicago. 
Martin. Dr. Paul S., Chicago. 
Mayaud, No#l, Nantes, France. 

Mazz<itti, Dr. Luis, Mexico ' ': 

Mead, Dr. Margaret, New York. 

Moldenke. Harold N.. New York. 

Nichols, Henry W., Chicago. 

Osgood, Dr. Wilfred H., Chicago. 

Pabst, Marie, Chicago. 

Pachecho Cruz, Santiago, Meridi 

Parr. A. E., New Haven, Connecticut 
Patterson. Bryan, Chicago. 
Pearsall, Gord<»n, Ma>'wood, Illinois. 
Pope, Clifford H., Chicago. 

Re>'nolds. Philip K., New York. 

Riggs. ?]lmer S.. Chicago. 

R.>senberg. W. F. H.. ?:dgeu-are, Wi^\ 
dlesex. England. 

Ruiz I>eal, A., Mendoza, Argentina. 

Sanborn. Colin Campbell. Chicago. 
Sanderson. Ivan T., London, England.! 
Schmidt. Karl P., Chicago. 
• * -ff. Dr. E. E., Chicago, 
dley, Paul C, Chicago. 
Staner, P., Brussels. Belgium. 
Stauffer. Clinton R.. Minneapoli* 

Steam, William T.. London, England 
Steyermark. Dr. Julian A.. Chicago. 
Stirton. Ruben Arthur, Berkeley 






'apman, Lillian Smith, Jacksonville 

Beach, Florida, 
'homson, S. C, Chicago. 

''argas, Dr. Luis, Mexico City, Mexico, 
/■etlesen, Mrs. Georg, New York. 

Valker, Dr. James W., Chicago. 
iVasson, Theron, Chicago. 
Venzel, Rupert L., Chicago. 

Wilbur, C. Martin, Chicago. 

Wise, Jennings C, Charlottesville, 

Woods, Loren P., Chicago. 

Wyatt, Alex K., Chicago. 

Zamenhof, Dr. Stephen, New York. 

Zingg, Professor Robert M., Denver, 



W I U.I AM 11. HlSTilCHSBS, SfCTtiary of SlaU 

To Aix TO Whom Thbu Pkesknts Shaix Come. Grebting: 

and arkno .< havinK bMn fiM ia tht 

offlc. . . iu. .- ■••• f.-iy . i . - , . mbrr. A '» ^SQ'» '«» »U 

onnuiiiation of I OF (UK AGO. 

.- ■ ■ "lona. approvM 

:■ thcrtof, • copjr 
o( whirh crrtJlirjitc w horrto attJirhrd. 

.Voir. ' " - " <■ - ^ - - -retar>' of SUte of tbe SUI« «( 

Dlinoi*. hv : in mo by law. do hertbjr owtifar 

M UK CHICAGO is a legally orguM 

/n Trxii'mnny U'Arrro/. I herptn a«t my hand and cauM to be afflsad Uw 
' I>on«> at thp f ' '• pt««b»r 

; />rd on«> thoun.i .ndoftt 

Indrprndrnr* of the I'nitwl Statm thr onr hundrpd and eighteenth. 

(SCALt Secreiary of Stalt. 


Sbcretary or State: 

WV. th' form a op* 

poratmn ur :><>i». entitk 

"An Art < ng ( «- i.n." approved Apnl li^, 1«72. and all 

a—'-- '-•— '; and iii..:. .-r the purposes of auch organisation wt " 

• wit: 

\. The name of «urh corporation i» the "COLUMniAN MUSEUM OP 

2 T>M» object for which it i* fnrmod i* for the accumulation and di»- 
>f knowledge, an«i m and exhibition of objects lUa^ 

?._ _^ . .\rrhaeology. Sciei 

S. The management of the aforesaid muxeum nhall be veated in a Board ol 
FiFIIAs " ' whom are to be alactcd e\-ery year. 

4. .. .. ;>enK)na are hereby talected ai the Trusteea for tb* 
flmt year of ita corpor.* nee: 

n Farwe! . - ■ r.. r - 

< .' !l. IV:r- 

Kmii i». Mimch. Jamr» \\ Y n V. Armour, O. F. Aidi». Y'Am. 

Walker. '••*'- '' ^''-- -• ' *■' -^^:,m. 

5. . the City of Chicago, County 
and Stat* of liltnow. 


' - ' " Harwell. Sidney C. Eautman. F. W. Putnam. Rob«t 

Mr' L J Gagp, rharles L. Hutchinaon. Kbeomm 

' . . :^j,n M. Clark. }h H. 

r ^ ■ ,, am R. Harper. Fr.. 'L 

HcMi. £. G. Kdth, J. Imng Pearce. Axel F. Hatch, Henry Wade Koftf* 


Articles of Incorporation 295 

'homas B. Bryan, L. Z. Leiter, A. C. Bartlett, A. A. Sprague, A. C. McClurg, 
ames W. Scott, Geo. F. Bissell, John R. Walsh, Chas. Fitzsimmons, John A. 
Loche, E. B. McCagg, Owen F. Aldis, Ferdinand W. Peck, James H. Dole, 
oseph Stockton, Edward B. Butler, John McConnell, R. A. Waller, H. C. 
Ihatfield-Taylor, A. Crawford, Wm. Sooy Smith, P. S. Peterson, John C. 
lack, Jno. J. Mitchell, C. F. Gunther, George R. Davis, Stephen A. Forbes, 
Robert W. Patterson, Jr., M. C. Bullock, Edwin Walker, George M. Pullman, 
raiiam E. Curtis, James W. Ellsworth, William E. Hale, Wm. T. Baker, 
lartin A. Ryerson, Huntington W. Jackson, N. B. Ream, Norman Williams, 
lelville E. Stone, Bryan Lathrop, Eliphalet W. Blatchford, Philip D. Armour. 

TATE OF Illinois ] 

> ss. 
Cook County J 

I, G. R. Mitchell, a Notary Public in and for said County, do hereby 
srtify that the foregoing petitioners personally appeared before me and 
cknowledged severally that they signed the foregoing petition as their free and 
oluntary act for the uses and purposes therein set forth. 

Given under my hand and notarial seal this 14th day of September, 1893. 

5eal] Notary Public, Cook County, III. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
be 25th day of June, 1894, the name of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM was 
hanged to FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. A certificate to this effect was 
led June 26, 1894, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
he 8th day of November, 1905, the name of the FIELD COLUMBIAN 
L certificate to this effect was filed November 10, 1905, in the office of the Secretary 
f State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
he 10th day of May, 1920, the management of FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HSTORY shall be invested in a Board of Twenty-one (21) Trustees, who 
hall be elected in such manner and for such time and term of office as may 
)e provided for by the By-Laws. A certificate to this effect was filed May 21, 
.920, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 



S 1. MrmN-rs 

onir> M- i .ix-rs. !':»• - • 
Lifo MrmJwnt. Nor 
A»oriatr Mrmb' 

the ;. 




\ . . , 

r i)"* of • 

(J - - - 





of twolvr c\ 

■ ' • • Mombr 

- ' •nbutow. 

:..: ,. :.. .'.a naowd ia 

ns as shall be chaaen frooi 

;pon the reooai> 

'-rp^n named ta 

' :nn of th«» 

•1. pay intn tho trrasury thp «um of Tw- 
• *• -'or» brcomi:;- ' ' »• -' - 
n duos. A I 

irt> and on tht; &an)t; tiay Ih^t Ihe artoual 

Sbctios 3. Honorary Nfembvni shall be choM>n by the Board from amoec 

• aniroovf 

BOni: all dMi 

Skttios 4. Patron* shall bo chodon by thr Board upon recommendation c' 

jV- i-_ ,• /._._. . . . _ ... .,1. ; ... . 

\ . 

eleciiori it.-i I'litruUii. 

Section 5. Ai 
Thousand Dollars 
ofth. " 





of li.- 









■ r». 

.K . • J! the sum of One Hundred 

'A. or fi' . or property to the fund* 

: ii.i. Museum. 

■<• r!-. w»'Ti K\* the BoArrl Afnoftf 

. who r- 

ard of 1 r'j"'n-«-3 a^ »oj 

:iall enjoy all courtoi** 


* t t^ e* t . . f »' 

..,. \»... 

., I i,-r. Thousand t^'-"'«»« 
la Co: 
&hX.l be exempt (rum x;i Uuca and ahau es.ias 

8. Any pemon paying into the treasury the sum of Fi%-e Hundrtd 

tbe unanirr ' -^o Boud. 

!)« cxpfnpt ' ,nd thai: 

r- e Mu*' 'o rocs- 

h in rem ^ : . re frwr 

t' the sum of Dne I 


f- " 


Sbctios 9. Anv person pa^nns into the treasure of the Museum the furr '. 
o ■■■•■■'•■ ' • •• . , . ^ . 

^- ... 

and -er and family 

ire ' f the .\. , ,.,, , , ued du:...^ 

f- .e<i seats for all lecturea and er/'T- 



Amended By-Laws 297 

;ainments under the auspices of the Museum, provided reservation is requested in 
idvance; and admission of holder of membership and accompanying party to all 
ipecial exhibits and Museum functions day or evening. Any person residing fifty 
niles or more from the city of Chicago, paying into the treasury the sum of Fifty 
Dollars ($50.00) at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, 
jecome a Non-Resident Associate Member. Non-Resident Associate Members 
(hall be exempt from all dues, and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies 
)f the Museum that are accorded to Associate Members. 

Section 10. Sustaining Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
:rom time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00), payable within thirty 
lays after notice of election and within thirty days after each recurring annual 
late. This Sustaining Membership entitles the member to free admission for 
the Member and family to the Museum on any day, the Annual Report and such 
3ther Museum documents or publications issued during the period of their mem- 
oership as may be requested in writing. When a Sustaining Member has paid the 
annual fee of $25.00 for six years, such Member shall be entitled to become an 
A.ssociate Member. 

Section 11. Annual Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of Ten Dollars ($10.00), payable within thirty days after 
each recurring annual date. An Annual Membership shall entitle the Member 
to a card of admission for the Member and family during all hours when the 
Museum is open to the public, and free admission for the Member and family 
to all Museum lectures or entertainments. This membership will also entitle 
the holder to the courtesies of the membership privileges of every Museum of 
note in the United States and Canada, so long as the existing system of co-operative 
interchange of membership tickets shall be maintained, including tickets for any 
lectures given under the auspices of any of the Museums during a visit to the cities 
in which the co-operative museums are located. 

Section 12. All membership fees, excepting Sustaining and Annual, shall 
hereafter be applied to a permanent Membership Endowment Fund, the interest 
only of which shall be applied for the use of the Museum as the Board of Trustees 
may order. 


board of trustees 

Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-one members. 
The respective members of the Board now in office, and those who shall here- 
after be elected, shall hold office during life. Vacancies occurring in the Board 
shall be filled at a regular meeting of the Board, upon the nomination of the 
Executive Committee made at a preceding regular meeting of the Board, by a 
majority vote of the members of the Board present. 

Section 2. Regular meetings of the Board shall be held on the third Mon- 
day of the month. Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, 
and shall be called by the Secretary upon the written request of three Trustees. 
Five Trustees shall constitute a quorum, except for the election of officers or the 
adoption of the Annual Budget, when seven Trustees shall be required, but meet- 
ings may be adjourned by any less number from day to day, or to a day fixed, 
previous to the next regular meeting. 

Section 3. Reasonable written notice, designating the time and place of 
holding meetings, shall be given by the Secretary. 

honorary trustees 
Section 1. As a mark of respect, and in appreciation of services performed 
for the Institution, any Trustee who by reason of inability, on account of 
change of residence, or for other cause or from indisposition to serve longer in 
such capacity shall resign his place upon the Board, may be elected, by a majority 
of those present at any regular meeting of the Board, an Honorary Trustee for life. 
Such Honorary Trustee will receive notice of all meetings of the Board of Trustees, 
whether regular or special, and will be expected to be present at all such meetings 

298 Field Museum of Natural History l{i:mRTs. Vol. 12 

and ; .ti> in the doHbomtionJi thrrpof. but an Honorary Trustee shall not 

havf „ ' t" vote. 



SfxTIon I. Tho nfflrrrn nhall l>o a Pr«iid«'nt. a Kimt V;-^^'^?*!«)i. a 
Second Virf»-I*n«9i(lrnt. a Third Virr-PrfTiidrnt. a S<Tn'tar\', an A*-- • rrptary 

and a Tr- Thry ■ ' . thr Hoard u! iruiti< 

majority •• prrswi .to olort. The Pn-si 

tho First \ icv-l*r»^idrnt. tho S<»rond \ irt'-Pn-sidi'nt. and the Third Vicv-I*-' - - 
dent shall Ix* choewn from among tho momljors of the Hoard of Trujitc«i. ;•• 
mj-oting for tho olortion of otlirrrs nhall Iw hold on the third Monday of Jan ; .'v 
of rarh yoar, and shall I" " ' ■' '. ,1 M«'«»tinK. 

SwTioN 'J. Tho (••' .... :V\cr for ono yoar. or until their »uc- 

rejwors are olortod and '.. but any ofliror may bo removed at any reffuU* 

mo<»tin(C of tho Board of i : ' y a voto of two-third.i of all tho ^ — ' — ' 

the Hoanl. Varanrios in ar.. may 1h> filled by the Hoard at an;. 

Skctios :\. The ofTicern shall porform such duti»^ as ordinarily appertair 
to their respective offires, and such as shall be prescribed by the By-Laws, or 
designated from time to time by the Hoard of Trustees. 



SWTION 1. The Treasurer shall be :i of the funds of the Corpo- 
ration except as hereinafter providi-d. H* :nake disbursements only upor. 

warrants drawn by the Director and countersigned by the President. In the 
absence or inability of the Director, warrants may be signed by the Chairmar. 
of the Finance Committee, and in the absence or inability of the President, may 
be ci .:np<i by one of the Vice-Presidents, or any member of the Finance 


Sbctios 2. The securities and muniments of title belonging to the cor- 
' "! be placed in the cu-' ' some Trust C ' ' • ' 

i by the Hoard of 'I which Trust 

the income and principal of said < as the same become due, and pay 

same to the Treasurer, except as ;. , ...iftor provided. Said Trust C""i'^""v 
shall allow access to and deliver any or all securities or muniments of tif 
' f the f " ' - . namely: the President or one of t 

intlyw n, '>r one of the Vice-Chairmen, of the 

Commiit*-*- of the Mii.'M-urn. liir • t or any one of the Vice-Pr^ 

jointly with either tho Chairman or ... :.•• of the other members of the i .. 
Committee, are authorized and empowered (^a) to sell, assign and transfer 
w*^ ' - ■ -■ •' -ities owne<l by or regt';" - ' • •' - me of Fi- ' ' *' -r, 

o' for that purp<vu>, tn . ates in ' '•'> 

a such otii» - 

n,' ^iJfinR t*^ thi- 

ration now, or acquired in the future, to be held or registered in the name or namw 
of a nomine«» or nominees designated by them. 

SKCTtos 3. The Trvtturrr shall give bond in such amount, and with sudi 
■ureties as shall be approved by the Hoard of Trustees. 

SfXTloN 4. The Mams Tnist * - - '• . ': of Chi r ' " be Cm- 
todian of "Tho \, W Hams Publir S n of Fi. :" fund. 

The * - ■ 'i only irrants drawn by the Director 

and I- ' ^ ■ , In t) • '-e or inability of the Director, 

warrants may be signed by the ( hairman of the Finance Committee, and in th« 
absence or inability of the President, may be countersigned by one of the Vice- 
Prwidents, or any member of the Finance Committee. 



Skction 1. Th' i of Trustees shall elect a Director of the MusetllB. 

who shall remain in -:...l ^ntil his successor shall be elected. He shall have 



Amended By-Laws 299 

■nediate charge and supervision of the Museum, and shall control the operations 
)f the Institution, subject to the authority of the Board of Trustees and its Com- 
mittees. The Director shall be the official medium of communication between the 
Board, or its Committees, and the scientific staff and maintenance force. 

Section 2. There shall be four scientific Departments of the Museum- 
Anthropology, Botany, Geology, and Zoology; each under the charge of a Chief 
Curator, subject to the authority of the Director. The Chief Curators shall be 
appointed by the Board upon the recommendation of the Director, and shall serve 
during the pleasure of the Board. Subordinate staff officers in the scientific Depart- 
ments shall be appointed and removed by the Director upon the recommendation 
of the Chief Curators of the respective Departments. The Director shall have 
authority to employ and remove all other employees of the Museum. 

Section 3. The Director shall make report to the Board at each regular 
meeting, recounting the operations of the Museum for the previous month. At 
the Annual Meeting, the Director shall make an Annual Report, reviewing the 
work for the previous year, which Annual Report shall be published in pamphlet 
form for the information of the Trustees and Members, and for free distribution 
in such number as the Board may direct. 


Section 1. The Board shall appoint an Auditor, who shall hold his office 
during the pleasure of the Board. He shall keep proper books of account, setting 
forth the financial condition and transactions of the Corporation, and of the 
Museum, and report thereon at each regular meeting, and at such other times as 
may be required by the Board. He shall certify to the correctness of all bills 
rendered for the expenditure of the money of the Corporation. 



Section 1. There shall be five Committees, as follows: Finance, Building, 
Auditing, Pension, and Executive. 

Section 2. The Finance Committee shall consist of six members, the 
Auditing and Pension Committees shall each consist of three members, and the 
Building Committee shall consist of five members. All members of these four 
Committees shall be elected by ballot by the Board at the Annual Meeting, and 
shall hold office for one year, and until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied. In electing the members of these Committees, the Board shall designate 
the Chairman and Vice-Chairman by the order in which the members are 
named in the respective Committee; the first member named shall be Chair- 
man, the second named the Vice-Chairman, and the third named. Second Vice- 
Chairman, succession to the Chairmanship being in this order in the event of the 
absence or disability of the Chairman. 

Section 3. The Executive Committee shall consist of the President of the 
Board, the Chairman of the Finance Committee, the Chairman of the Building 
Committee, the Chairman of the Auditing Committee, the Chairman of the 
Pension Committee, and three other members of the Board to be elected by 
ballot at the Annual Meeting. 

Section 4. Four members shall constitute a quorum of the Executive Com- 
mittee, and in all standing Committees two members shall constitute a quorum. 
In the event that, owing to the absence or inability of members, a quorum of 
the regularly elected members cannot be present at any meeting of any Com- 
mittee, then the Chairman thereof, or his successor, as herein provided, may 
summon any members of the Board of Trustees to act in place of the absentee. 

Section 5. The Finance Committee shall have supervision of investing the 
endowment and other permanent funds of the Corporation, and the care of such 
real estate as may become its property. It shall have authority to invest, sell, 
and reinvest funds, subject to the approval of the Board. 

Section 6. The Building Committee shall have supervision of the con- 
struction, reconstruction, and extension of any and all buildings used for 
Museum purposes. 

3(X) I'iKi.i) MisF.f.M OF N'att'ral History Kkports, Vol. 12 

SfXTloN 7. Tho Kxoculivo Commilloc shall be called together from tin* 
to time 05 the (*hairman may consider nec«»ar>'. or as he may be requested 

to do by *'- ' ' ' - ' • Committe*", to act up ■ ■*! matters affecUag 
the admiv ' m a5 cannot await c< ion at th* Rsfulir 

M • M«iiiiiv i of Trust«i><«. It »haii. i ,'. <d 

•»;i '.', yrar. , , hmil to the Hoard an itt mf 

forth the nrnbable receipts from all sources for the ensuing year, and males 

rr- 'lalion!* as to the expenditures which should be made for routiot 

ni CO and fixed charges. l'p<in the adoption of the Budget by tht 

Boiii'tl. ine exjx'nditurrs stated are authori?^. 

Sfxtios S. The Auditing Committee shall have supervision over all ae> 
counting and bookkeeping, and full control of the financial records. It shall 
cause the same. -h year, or oftener. to l)e ox.imined by an expert indi* 

vidual or firm. :i ! transmit the repf)rt of such fxpcrt individual or flm 

to the Hoard at the next ensuing regular meeting after such examination shaO 
have taken place. 

Srction 9. The Pension Committee shall determine by such means simI 
pr "' ird of T " 

atv, 'hI. T; ' 

shall be subject to the approval of the iioard of Trustees. 

SkctIcin 10. The ("hairman of each Committee shall report the acts and 
proceedings thereof at the next ensuing regular m»Tiir.g of the Board. 

Sectio.n 11. The President shall be ex-oflicio a member of all Committee! 
and Chairman of the ?>xecutive Committee. Vacancies occurring in any Com- 
mittee may be filled by ballot at any regular meeting of the Board. 



SkctioN 1. .\t the \oveml>er meeting of the Board each year, a ^^^HM 
nating Committee of three shall be chosen by lot. Said Committee shall n^^" 
nominations for membership of the P^inance Committee, the Building Com' 
tee, the .Auditing Committee, and the Pension Committee, and for thrt 
bers of the Kxecutive Committee, from among the Trustees, to be si.: 
at the ensuing December meeting and voted upon at the following .Annual 
Meeting in January. 


Section 1. Whenever the word "Museum" is employed in the By-Lawa 4I 
the C - - '.on, it shall be taken to mean the building in which the Muteua 
as an '. ion is located and operated, the material exhibited, the material in 

study cu. . or in :rr, fixtures, rases, tools, records, books, 

and all a[ , ..inces <■: . . .ind the workings, researches, installa- 

tions, expenditures, field work, labo- library, publications, lecture coursei. 

and all scientific and maintenance m ; n iU. -i. 

SfXTlos 2. These Hy-La\*-s may be amended at any regular meeting of the 
Board of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of all the members present, provided 
the amendment shall have been proposed at a preceding regular meeting. 



Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may be made in 
ecurities, money, books or collections. They may, if desired, take 
he form of a memorial to a person or cause, to be named by the 
iver. For those desirous of making bequests to the Museum, the 
ollowing form is suggested : 


I do hereby give and bequeath to Field Museum of Natural 
listory of the City of Chicago, State of Illinois, 

Contributions made within the taxable year to Field 
duseum of Natural History to an amount not in excess of 
5 per cent of the taxpayer's net income are allowable as 
eductions in computing net income for federal income 
IX purposes. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
<rovision that an annuity be paid to the patron during his 
r her lifetime. These annuities are guaranteed against 
'uctuation in amount and may reduce federal income taxes. 



Mamhall Fk-ld* 

Tk09t tcho hart eomtribmled $100,000 or mart to the Mutfum 

Ayrr. Kdward K.* 

HuckinKham, Miss 
Kalr S.« 

Crmnp, ronioliua 
Cninp. R. T.. Jr.* 

Field. JojM^ph N.« 
Field. Mamhall 
P'iold, Stanley 

Graham. Kmest K* 

H.-irrHi. AlNort W. liaymond. James N* 

-m-in W.* Ryenon. Martin A 

iiigiiii'<-.ii.»rn. Harlow N.* I; */- 

Kcllcy. William V.« 
rullman, George M.* 

Simpson. Jam--. * 
Smith. Mm. Krar.'-t-« 

u... „ ..,_ Krwlerick H.' S:.. ... ;.-.n;e T.* 

•id. Mm. Anna Sturgw. Mm. Mary D.* 
i^'UiHe Suarei, Mn. Dtcfo 


Thott tcho hat* rendered eminent aertict to Seiene* 

Cutting. C. Suydam 

P)«Id. Mamhall 
Held, SUnley 

irarria. Albert W. 

LudwifT, II. K. II. Gu.ttaf Roosevelt, Tbcodort 

Adolf, Crown rriiu-e of 

Sweden Sargpnt, Homer E. 

Spraguc. Albert A. 
McCormirk. Stanley Suam, Mm. Diego 

Roosevelt. Kermil 

Vemay. .\rthur S. 


T'ftOM v4o hate rrndftrd eminent $erriee to the \fuMum 

Armour, Allison V. 


-» J. 



.M.-s. Kmily 
- • P M. 

Coiiirui. ' 
Conover. . • 
Cutting, r. 

Day, Lee Gamett 

Elbworth. Dunran S. 
Field. Mm. Stanley 

k r. 


Kennedy. Vernon Shaw 
Knight. Charles R. 

Moore, Mm. William H. 

Prohiit, Edward 

Ddr 'S.A.aVUI. 1940 

Cumminr*. Mm. Robert F. 

Roodovelt. Kern-.;*. 
Ron(M»velt, Thet»dore 

Sargent. Homer E. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Strauji, NT-" f><irar 
Strawn, ^ 
Suarex, Mr? 

Vemay, Arthur .■*. 

'V. Harry U 
A A. 


Corresponding Members— Contributors 303 


Scientists or patrons of science, residing in foreign countries, who have rendered 

eminent service to the Museum 

reuil, Abb6 Henri 
iristensen, Dr. Carl 
iels, Dr. Ludwig 

Hochreutiner, Dr. B. P. 

Humbert, Professor 


Keissler, Dr. Karl 

Keith, Professor Sir 


Those who have contributed $1,000 to $100,000 to the Museum 
in money or materials 

$75,000 to $100,000 
hancellor, Philip M. 

$50,000 to $75,000 

eep, Chauncey* 

osenwald, Mrs. 
Augusta N.* 

$25,000 to $50,000 

dams, Mrs. Edith 

lackstone, Mrs. 
Timothy B.* 

oats, John* 
rane, Charles R.* 

ield, Mrs. Stanley 

jnes, Arthur B.* 

lurphy, Walter P. 

orter, George F.* 

^osenwald, Julius* 

ernay, Arthur S. 

Thite, Harold A. 

$10,000 to $25,000 

rmour, Allison V. 
.rmour, P. D.* 

"hadbourne, Mrs. Emily 

"halmers, William J.* 
'onover, Boardman 
'ummings, R. F.* 
'utting, C. Suydam 

Decease D 

Everard, R. T.* 

Gunsaulus, Dr. F. W.* 

InsuU, Samuel* 

Laufer, Dr. Berthold* 
Lufkin, Wallace W. 

McCormick, Cyrus 

McCormick, Stanley 
Mitchell, John J.* 

Reese, Lewis* 
Robb, Mrs. George W. 
Rockefeller Foundation, 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Schweppe, Mrs. 

Charles H.* 
Straus, Mrs. Oscar 
Strong, Walter A.* 

Wrigley, William, Jr.* 

$5,000 to $10,000 

Adams, George E.* 
Adams, Milward* 
American Friends of 

Avery, Sewell L. 

Bartlett, A. C* 
Bishop, Heber (Estate) 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay* 

Crane, R. T.* 

Doane, J. W.* 

Field, Dr. Henry 
Fuller, William A.* 

Graves, George Coe, II* 

Harris, Hayden B. 
Harris, Norman Dwight 
Harris, Mrs. Norman W.* 
Hutchinson, C. L.* 

Keith, Edson* 

Langtry, J. C. 

MacLean, Mrs. M. 

Mandel, Leon 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Payne, John Barton* 
Pearsons, D. K.* 
Porter, H. H.* 

Ream, Norman B.* 
Revell, Alexander H.* 

SaHe, Prince M. U. M. 
Sprague, A. A.* 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Thome, Bruce 
Tree, Lambert* 

$1,000 to $5,000 

Avery, Miss Clara A.* 
Ayer, Mrs. Edward E.* 

Barrett, Samuel E.* 
Bensabott, R., Inc. 
Blair, Watson F.* 
Blaschke, Stanley 

Block, Mrs. Helen M.* 
Borden, John 

Chalmers, Mrs. 

William J.* 
Chicago Zoological 

Society, The 
Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr. 

:UVi FiKi.i> Mrs>:r.M of Natirai. His mm KKFt)RTS, Vol. 12 

(> n 

Cur:.::.. ^ . M;... 

Kolwrt F.* 

Doering. (>. ('. 

Fwh. Mr. Frr<irrirkS. 

(ir«vp«, Hcnn*. Jr. 
(iunMiuIu5, Muui Hrlm 

n.l.t .i-r W. (,.• 

Hu Mm. 

( !... ..-^ M.* 
Mill. Jam.* J • 


* Malvina 
iiuKhpK. Thnmui S. 



l/Tf Ling VUn 
I>rn<r. \I.. haol 
Ixxik. .\!fr.<l A. 

Nfar.drl. Frrrl I... Jr. 
N' ••• 

OgHnn. Mm. Fr«nmi K. 
d. Dr. Wilfrrd M. 

1 ...m<T, Pnttor 

Jarkson, Huntington \V.* I" 
Jfunt^, S. L. 

' :m. Charlc* P. 

■ !. Chur'.-. J* • 


S/..iw. \ 
Sh.-rff. . 

Smith, Hyron !*• 
Spraguc, Albert A. 

" -r^on. K. H.» 

. Mra. Louisr E 

VanValuh. Dr. RolMft 
VonFr»ntxiua, Friu* 

-. I>nilip' 
: \T 

Armour, .\l!i«on V. 
Armotir, I>^t»T 
Aver>*, Sowoll L. 

niair. W '• ick 

nt.,.'K. \j^ ■ , . ... 

, John 
i^yram. Harrj* K. 


ProiMt, Edw. 
ElUworth, Duncan S. 

Fiold, Jn9<>ph N. 
r\fh\, Marshall 

Firld, St . 

Field, M: >y 




F.mily I; m 

Ii:irru, .\iUrl \S . 


. Philip M. 

!. Samurl, Jr. 

Culling, i' 

. Suydam 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 
Knight, Charira R. 

n: a. 

Dsnunio. IMO 
Cummingn. Mrs. Rnl>ort F. 

SaiTPnt. Frpd W. 
mor K. 
'^ n A. 

Suart-*, .Mm. Dit-go 
Vemay, Arthur S. 



Tkott who kart conlribtilfd $S00 to ih« Mu»fum 

Abbott, John Jay 
Adkr. Max 

Allerton. Robert H. 
Ames, Jam«r« ('. 
Armour, Ara*"n V. 
.\rmour, A. \Vat.*on 
Armour. ly^tT 
Armour. Mm. Ogdrn 
Aacdi, Mrs. Max 

Aaher. Louis E. 
Avery, Sewell L. 

Babtmn, Henry R. 
' -- - "^dward 

- i»on, Jr. 

M. F. 

R«fTPt». Mni A. D. 
• L. 
. . : FTor«ir» 

n, Kdward 
Blaine, .Mm. Emmont 

Life Members 


Jlair, Chauncey B. 
Mock, Leopold E. 
Block, Philip D. 
Booth, W. Vernon 
Borden, John 
Borland, Chauncey B. 
Brassert, Herman A. 
Brewster, Walter S. 
Brown, Charles 

Browne, Aldis J. 
Buchanan, D. W. 
Budd, Britton I. 
Burnham, John 
Burt, William G. 
Butler, Julius W. 
3utler, Rush C. 
3yram, Harry E. 

Carpenter, Augustus A. 
"arpenter, Mrs. Hubbard 
Tarpenter, Mrs. John 

3arr, George R. 
:arr, Robert F. 
:arr, Walter S. 
Casalis, Mrs. Maurice 
:hatfield-Taylor, Wayne 
31ark, Eugene B. 
31egg, William G. 
Clegg, Mrs. William G. 
Clow, William E. 
3ollins, William M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cook, Mrs. 

Daphne Field 
Corley, F. D. 
Cramer, Corwith 
Crossett, Edward C. 
Crossley, Lady Josephine 
Crossley, Sir Kenneth 
Crowell, H. P. 
Cudahy, Edward A. 
Cudahy, Edward A., Jr. 
Cudahy, Joseph M. 
Cummings, Walter J. 
Cunningham, Frank S. 
Cunningham, James D. 
Gushing, Charles G. 

Dawes, Charles G. 
Dawes, Henry M. 
Decker, Alfred 
Delano, Frederic A. 
Dick, Albert B., Jr. 
Dierssen, Ferdinand W. 
Dixon, Homer L. 
Donnelley, Thomas E. 
Doyle, Edward J. 
Drake, John B. 
Durand, Scott S. 

Edmunds, Philip S. 
Ely, Mrs. C. Morse 
Epstein, Max 
Everitt, George B. 
Ewing, Charles Hull 

Farnum, Henry W. 
Farr, Newton Camp 
Farr, Miss Shirley 
Farwell, Arthur L. 
Farwell, John V. 
Farwell, Walter 
Fay, C. N. 
Fenton, Howard W. 
Fentress, Calvin 
Fernald, Charles 
Field, Joseph N. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Norman 
Field, Mrs. Norman 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Gardner, Robert A. 
Gartz, A. F., Jr. 
Gary, Mrs. John W. 
Gilbert, Huntly H. 
Glore, Charles F. 
Goodspeed, Charles B. 
Gowing, J. Parker 

Hack, Frederick C. 
Hamill, Alfred E. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W. 
Hastings, Samuel M. 
Hayes, William F. 
Hecht, Frank A., Jr. 
Heineman, Oscar 
Hemmens, Mrs. 

Walter P. 
Hibbard, Frank 
Hickox, Mrs. Charles V. 
Hill, Louis W. 
Hinde, Thomas W. 
Hixon, Robert 
Hopkins, J. M. 
Hopkins, L. J. 
Horowitz, L. J. 
Hoyt, N. Landon 
Hughes, Thomas S. 
Hutchins, James C. 

Insull, Martin J. 
Insull, Samuel, Jr. 

Jarnagin, William N. 
Jelke, John F., Jr. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Joiner, Theodore E. 
Jones, Miss Gwethalyn 

Kelley, Russell P. 
Kidston, William H. 
King, Charles Garfield 
King, James G. 
Kirk, Walter Radcliffe 

Ladd, John 
Lamont, Robert P. 
Lehmann, E. J. 
Leonard, Clifford M. 
Leopold, Mrs. Harold E. 
Levy, Mrs. David M. 
Linn, Mrs. Dorothy C. 
Logan, Spencer H. 
Lowden, Frank O. 
Lytton, Henry C. 

MacDowell, Charles H. 
MacLeish, John E. 
MacVeagh, Eames 
Madlener, Mrs. Albert F. 
Marshall, Benjamin H. 
Mason, William S. 
McBain, Hughston M. 
McCormick, Harold F. 
McCormick, Stanley 
McCuUoch, Charles A. 
McCutcheon, John T. 
McGann, Mrs. Robert G. 
Mcllvaine, William B. 
Mclnnerney, Thomas H. 
McKinlay, John 
McLaughlin, Frederic 
McLennan, D. R. 
McNulty, T. J. 
Meyer, Carl 
Meyne, Gerhardt F. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Edward S. 
Morse, Charles H. 
Morton, Mark 
Munroe, Charles A. 
Murphy, Walter P. 

Newell, A. B. 
Nikolas, G. J. 

Ormsby, Dr. Oliver S. 
Orr, Robert M. 

Paesch, Charles A. 
Palmer, Honore 
Palmer, Potter 
Patterson, Joseph M. 
Payson, George S. 
Peabody, Stuyvesant 
Pick, Albert 
Pike, Charles B. 
Pike, Eugene R. 
Poppenhusen, Conrad H. 
Porter, Gilbert E. 
Prentice, Mrs. 
Clarence C. 

3(M> FiKLi) MrsfU'M OF Xatiuai. Histouy Iii:i»()KTS. Vol. 12 

Ilaymond, Mm. Anna 
U«->nit)lflfl. Arthur 

i; • ' •• '. n. 

! II. 

I. .\Ip.. I'lulip s. 

l: . .. :.. Tho.Mlon> W. 
liobfon, Mifw .\lirf> 
K'ulmaii, Mrs. Kalhrrino 

R<><lmiin,Tl ;T<>rrl 

lioarnwald, \. 

Iiu.'W4'lI, Kdmund .\. 
Kyer»oii. F.dward I... Jr. 

Schwrpi • -i-n H. 

Swlt. W 

Scaburj*. I'harlos W. 
Shaffer, John (*. 
Shirk. Joseph H. 
S- ■■ -1 TV 

Abbott, Robert S. 

Chalmers. Mrs. 
William J. 

Davios. Mrs. I). C. 
Dawes. Rufus C. 


,:han C. 
t A. 

. „ . AH>orl 

Stewart. Roln-rt W. 
Slirton. ItolxTt C*. 
Strawn, M. 
.Stuart. Marry L. 
Stuart, John 
Stuart. R. DouKlas 

.Swift, Charles II. 
Swift. G. F., Jr. 
Swift, Harold H. 

Thome, Charles II. 
Thome. Robert J. 
Tree. V ' ' ' . K. 
Ty.snn , 

Ferjfuson, Ix>uis A. 

Charles K. 

Noel, Joseph R. 
Reynolds, George M. 

Uihlein, Kdjnr J. 
Uoderwooil, Morgan P. 

Vealch, George I>. 

Wanner, Harry C. 

Ward. P. C. 

W. l.-h. Mm. F^win V. 

V. ■ • ' ri P. 

V. <«. Julia I. 

V, ..Mm.Mwardl. 

V. W:!!;;im A. 


Wiilits, VS .i:.. A . 

Wilson. John r. 



Winf'T. . I". 

V. - ,..;.,..e M. 

\ . Philip K. 

Yates, David M. 

Ruasell. Edward P. 

Sarjtent. Fr<'<i W. 
Storey. W. n. 

Valentine, Louis L. 


Thoat, residing fifty miUa or more front thf city of Chicago, vho ha9t 
contribuUd $100 lo Ihe Museum 

Copley, Ira Cliff 
Ellis, Ralph 
Gregg. John Wyatt 

Heame, Knox 
Johnson, Herbert F., Jr. 
Rosenwald, Lessinc J. 
Siebel, Emil A. 

S . W. C. 

. Mrs. 
Kdgar B. 

Vemay, Arthur S. 

Zerk, Oscar U. 

Associate Members 



Those who have contributed $100 to the Museum 

laron, Charles 
laron, Ely M. 
vbbott, Donald 

Putnam, Jr. 
Abbott, Gordon C. 
Abbott, Guy H. 
Abbott, W. Rufus 
Abbott, William L. 
\.brahamsen, Miss Cora 
^brams, Duff A. 
^ckerman, Charles N. 
^damick, Gustave H. 
^dams, Benjamin Stearns 
^dams, Mrs. Charles S. 
^dams, Mrs. David T. 
^dams, Mrs. Frances 

^dams, Miss Jane 
\.dams, John Q. 
\.dams, Joseph 
Vdams, Mrs. S. H. 
^dams, Mrs. Samuel 
\.dams, William C. 
^damson, Henry T. 
\dcock, Mrs. Bessie 
\dler, David 
\dler, Mrs. Max 
:^ffleck, Benjamin F. 
^.hlschlager, Walter W. 
\lbee, Mrs. Harry W. 
A.lden, William T. 
Aldis, Graham 
Alexander, Mrs. Arline V. 
Alexander, Edward 
Alford, Mrs. Laura T. C. 
Allen, Mrs. Fred G. 
AUensworth, A. P. 
Alsip, Charles H. 
Alsip, Mrs. Charles H. 
Alter, Harry 
Alton, Carol W. 
Ames, Rev. Edward S. 
Andersen, Arthur 
Anderson, Miss Florence 

Andreen, Otto C. 
Andrews, Mrs. E. C. 
Andrews, Milton H. 
Anstiss, George P. 
Appelt, Mrs. Jessie E. 
Armbrust, John T. 
Armbruster, Charles A. 
Armour, A. Watson, III 
Armour, Laurance H. 
Armour, Philip D. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Julian 
Armstrong, Kenneth E. 
Am, W. G. 

Arnold, Mrs. Lloyd 
Artingstall, Samuel 

G., Jr. 
Ascher, Fred 
Ashby, W. B. 
Ashcraft, Raymond M. 
Ashenhurst, Harold S. 
Atkinson, Charles T. 
Atwater, Walter Hull 
Aurelius, Mrs. Marcus A. 
Austin, E. F. 
Austin, Henry W. 
Avery, George J. 

Baackes, Mrs. Frank 
Babb, W. E. 
Babson, Mrs. Gustavus 
Bachmann, Mrs. 

Harrold A. 
Bachmeyer, Dr. 

Arthur C. 
Bacon, Dr. Alfons R. 
Badger, Shreve Cowles 
Baer, Mervin K. 
Baer, Walter S. 
Baggaley, William Blair 
Baird, Harry K. 
Baker, Mrs. Alfred L. 
Baker, G. W. 
Baker, Greeley 
Baldwin, Mrs. 

Katharine W. 
Baldwin, Vincent Curtis 
Balgemann, Otto W- 
Balkin, Louis 
Ball, Dr. Fred E. 
Ball, Sidney Y. 
Ballard, Mrs. Foster K. 
Ballenger, A. G. 
Banes, W. C. 
Banks, Edgar C. 
Bannister, Miss Ruth D. 
Bantsolas, John N. 
Barber, Phil C. 
Barbour, James J. 
Bargquist, Miss 

LilUan D. 
Barkhausen, L. H. 
Barnes, Cecil 
Barnes, Mrs. Charles 

Barnes, James M. 
Barnett, Otto R. 
Barnhart, Mrs. A. M. 
Barnum, Harry H. 
Barr, Mrs. Alfred H. 
Barrett, Mrs. A. M. 
Bartelme, John H. 

Bartholomae, Mrs. Emma 
Bartholomay, F. H. 
Bartholomay, Henry 
Bartholomay, Mrs. 

William, Jr. 
Bartlett, Frederic C. 
Barton, Mrs. Enos M. 
Basta, George A. 
Bastian, Charles L. 
Bateman, Floyd L. 
Bates, Mrs. A. M. 
Bates, Joseph A. 
Battey, Paul L. 
Bauer, Aleck 
Baum, Mrs. James E. 
Baum, Wilhelm 
Bausch, William C. 
Beach, Miss Bess K. 
Beach, E. Chandler 
Beachy, Mrs. P. A. 
Beachy, Mrs. Walter F. 
Beatty, H. W. 
Becker, Benjamin F. 
Becker, Benjamin V. 
Becker, Frederick G. 
Becker, Herman T. 
Becker, James H. 
Becker, Louis 
Becker, Louis L. 
Beddoes, Hubert 
Behr, Mrs. Edith 
Beidler, Francis, II 
Bell, Mrs. Laird 
Bender, Charles J. 
Benjamin, Jack A. 
Benner, Harry 
Bennett, Professor 

J. Gardner 
Bennett, Reid M. 
Benson, John 
Benson, Mrs. 

Thaddeus R. 
Bentley, Arthur 
Bentley, Mrs. Cyrus 
Benton, Miss Mabel M. 
Berend, George F. 
Berger, Dr. John M. 
Berkowitz, Dr. J. G. 
Berkson, Mrs. Maurice 
Berryman, John B. 
Bersbach, Elmer S. 
Bertol, Miss Aurelia 
Bertschinger, Dr. C. F. 
Besly, Mrs. C. H. 
Bettman, Dr. Ralph B. 
Bevan, Dr. Arthur Dean 
Bichl, Thomas A. 
Biddle, Robert C. 


1 \v 

l:.. ... 

n< ' tUa Ucfialic 

Rungr. Mrii. Albert J. 

U.^Ur, ' 

!' \. J. 

I W. 

Millow, ; >rth 

- 'orirk V. 

I - " 

Hin..w. V A 


1 ! S. 

HiH. M 

ii- ■ irrl 


Hirk. Miv* A .. . .. 



Utrk. Frank J. 

Bradley, .Mr». N i 

nrk«*n<t«-in, Gwynt 
H;«-h..fT. Dr Vnd 

ni»ir n/> •• 

•/, .'«i.» ^ii«r(A 

Rrmini»rH, " 1' 

1 ■ "" 

:- , ■ ■ 

* ■■ rrnct N 

i. .. .aV. 


Hmtnr. . 

Mranrl. Mn«. Kudoif 

J. P. 

Hitt.1. y - T 

Hrf.- '.- \ <;. 

j , •w^ /■«pb i 

WxxhY. ' 

n: -51 H. 


V ■ 

Hr '. 

•.!:xii w 

1 I,. 


i lain 

H;.»ir. Mr* " 

rmdRp, I'rufcMior 

Iv\jrr>', ^^ iiiiam, Jr. 

niair. W M. 

.-. r. 

r.urtrh, Almon 

Hlair. \V..!r,.tt 

nrrmor, Harrj' A. 

Rii^h. Mm. IJonel E. 

T ' 

Brfmnor, Mrs. Da\-id 

Hish. Mm. William H. 

• >T 

K . .If 

Ritlrr. Rurridg* D. 

rxi. Dr. Frunk 

nr " 

H ;t!.r. Mm. Ifrrmoa B 

H:. Ir . .^- K. 

Rutior. J. Fred 

i . Thonijui C. 

R: jn. Dr. Jowph 

Hutlcr, John M. 

'- " ' rt 

Rr. M 

I'. :':.r. I»aul 

Rr.: : .. ■•■ 

I'. ;-7.. Horh^rt R. 


Rrfwr, Mrj<. •• L. 

Rutz. K 

' . Jr. 

Iln-vfr, Mrs. . r 
Rriditr^, .\mold 

R:-7 T r. 


! Mm. Knbcrt ( 

^....,., Nf. 

RriKiT'. Mrs. Grrtrude 

] I ,. » i .. 11 


Rristol. JamM T. 


V H. 

Rrn< k. A. J. 

■ Jr. 

Rr'vinbb, In-A-rrnrf C 

Cablr. J. FAmer 

it. F.dwin 

Rn>om»>, ■; 1 

Tahn. Dr. AUin R. 

- - 

Rr«>wn, .\. " .. .■ r 

(nhn. R' J. 


Rr»wn. Chrisfy 

C.ihn, N' :>. 


RrowT ' ' Kvorrtt 



Rrow! . r. 



Rrown. I»r. Jtwhua M. 

Jodoph K. 

Rrown. Mark A. 

r* >*rfi.'-f Vrr^^ Tl 


Rm*-n. Smtt 


• . • 

R- - • i A. 

1 , « ;.4 J. 


1 Im. Arthur 

l; ■. 



' • 

R- ,..r. 
Rr . lATTy 



Rr;:.:. J. V. 


Rn*nr*. John J., Jr. 

( .V. 

. u. 



T "■:,n n 

( - 


{I..-'-.. \Vi;...xm <• 


. Mm. Giov . 



!4v> J. 


R :; 

Mm. Arthur V 

' ' 

l\.. ;. 

< William Roy 

n- :l 

1 '. .V 

Of, H. L. 


- \^ - ' - J. 

. . ,• ieric Itt 



T. Kmnpth 

R • (.. 

Bullock, Mm. James E. 

'^r, Georga 

Carpenter, Hubbard 

Associate Members 


Carpenter, Miss Rosalie 

Sturges, II 
Carpenter, W. W. S. 
Carqueville, Mrs. A. R. 
Carr, Mrs. Clyde M. 
Carroll, John A. 
Carry, Joseph C. 
Carter, Mrs. Armistead B. 
Carton, Alfred T. 
Cary, Dr. Eugene 
Casselberry, Mrs. William 

Evans, Sr. 
Cassels, Edwin H. 
Castle, Alfred C. 
Castruccio, Giuseppe 
Cates, Dudley 
Cernoch, Frank 
Chandler, Henry P. 
Chapin, Henry Kent 
Chapin, William Arthur 
Chapman, Arthur E. 
Chappell, Mrs. Charles H. 
Cheney, Dr. Henry W. 
Cherry, Walter L., Jr. 
Childs, Mrs. C. 

Childs, Mrs. George W. 
Chinnock, Mrs. Ronald J. 
Chisholm, George D. 
Chislett, Miss Kate E. 
Christiansen, Dr. Henry 
Chritton, George A. 
Churan, Charles A. 
Clark, Ainsworth W. 
Clark, Miss Alice Keep 
Clark, Charles V. 
Clark, Miss Dorothy S. 
Clark, Mrs. Edward S. 
Clark, Edwin H. 
Clark, Lincoln R. 
Clark, Dr. Peter S. 
Clarke, Charles F. 
Clarke, Harley L. 
Clay, John 

Clemen, Dr. Rudolf A. 
Cleveland, Paul W. 
Clinch, Duncan L. 
Clithero, W. S. 
Clonick, Seymour E. 
Clough, William H. 
Clow, Mrs. Harry B. 
Clow, William E., Jr. 
Cochran, John L. 
Coffin, Fred Y. 
Cohen, George B. 
Cohen, Mrs. L. Lewis 
Colburn, Frederick S. 
Colby, Mrs. George E. 
Coldren, CUfton C. 
Coleman, Clarence L., Jr. 
Coleman, Dr. George H. 
Coleman, Loring W. 

Colianni, Paul V. 
Collins, Beryl B. 
Collison, E. K. 
Colvin, Miss Catharine 
Colvin, Miss Jessie 
Colvin, Mrs. William H. 
Colwell, Clyde C. 
Compton, Mrs. 

Arthur H. 
Compton, D. M. 
Compton, Frank E. 
Condon, Mrs. James G. 
Conger, Miss Cornelia 
Connell, P. G. 
Conners, Harry 
Connor, Mrs. Clara A. 
Connor, Frank H. 
Cook, Miss Alice B. 
Cook, Mrs. David S. 
Cook, Jonathan Miller 
Cooke, Charles E. 
Cooke, Miss Flora 
Cooke, Leslie L. 
Coolidge, Miss Alice 
Coolidge, E. Channing 
Coolidge, Dr. Edgar D. 
Coombs, James F. 
Coonley, John Stuart 
Coonley, Prentiss L. 
Cooper, Samuel 
Copland, David 
Corbett, Mrs. William J. 
Cornell, Dr. Edward L. 
Cosford, Thomas H. 
Coston, James E. 
Cowan, Mrs. Grace L. 
Cox, James A, 
Cox, James C. 
Cox, Mrs. Rensselaer W. 
Cox, William D. 
Cragg, Mrs. George L. 
Crane, Charles R., II 
Crego, Mrs. Dominica S. 
Crerar, Mrs. John 
Crilly, Edgar 
Cromer, Clarence E. 
Cromwell, Miss Juliette 

Crowder, Dr. Thomas R. 
Cubbins, Dr. William R. 
Cudahy, Edward I. 
Culbertson, Dr. Carey 
Cummings, Mrs. D. 

Cummings, Mrs. 

Frances S. 
Cuneo, John F. 
Cunningham, John T. 
Curran, Harry R. 
Curtis, Austin 

Guthrie, Jr. 
Curtis, Mrs. Charles S. 

Curtis, Miss Frances H. 
Cusack, Harold 
Cushman, A. W. 
Cushman, Barney 
Cutler, Henry E. 
Cuttle, Harold E. 

Dahlberg, Bror G. 
Daily, Richard 
Daley, Harry C. 
Dalmar, Mrs. Hugo 
Dalmar, Hugo, Jr. 
Dammann, J. F. 
Danforth, Dr. William C. 
Dangel, W. H. 
Dantzig, Leonard P. 
Darlington, Joseph F. 
Darrow, Paul E. 
Dashiell, C. R. 
Daughaday, C. Colton 
Davey, Mrs. Bruce C. 
David, Dr. Vernon C. 
Davidonis, Dr. 

Alexander L. 
Davidson, David W. 
Davidson, Miss Mary E. 
Davies, Marshall 
Davis, Arthur 
Davis, Brode B. 
Davis, C. S. 
Davis, Dr. Carl B. 
Davis, Frank S. 
Davis, Fred M. 
Davis, James 
Davis, Dr. Loyal 
Davis, Dr. Nathan 

S., Ill 
Dawes, E. L. 
DeAcres, Clyde H. 
Deahl, Uriah S. 
Deane, Mrs. Ruthven 
Decker, Charles O. 
DeCosta, Lewis M. 
DeDardel, Carl 0. 
Dee, Thomas J. 
Deery, Thomas A., Jr. 
Degen, David 
DeGolyer, Robert S. 
DeKoven, Mrs. John 
DeLee, Dr. Joseph B. 
DeLemon, H. R. 
Demaree, H. S. 
Deming, Everett G. 
Dempster, Mrs. 

Charles W. 
Deneen, Mrs. Charles S. 
Denison, Mrs. John 

Denkewalter, W. E. 
Denman, Mrs. Burt J. 
Dennehy, Thomas C, Jr. 
Denney, Ellis H. 

310 FiKLD MrsEiM OF Xatirai. History Rkpokts. Vol. 12 

I>' " '^hisrl.-s n. 

I' Mrs. Carrip L. 

I' Mrs. iVrry L. 

1 1. I»:ivi.l 

I).Vr .r 

Dirk. a 

Dirk. KImcr J. 
Dick. Mrs. Homrr T. 
Di<-kov. Uf>y 
n ■ 1. K. R. 
P n. Robert H. 

1> u. Mrs. 

1 (."iiitwon 
niohl. Harry I,. 
Dii^trl, Mrs. Ilrrman 
Dikeman, Aaron lUilIer 
Dimick. Nliss Klizal>eth 
Dixon, .Man C. 
Dixon. GforRr \V.. Jr. 
Doctor, Isidor 
DodRp. Mrs. Paul ('. 
DoprinR. Mrs. 

Kdmund J., Jr. 
Doering. ()tto C. 
Doorr. P.. Sr. 
Doot-srh, Miss .Anna 
DoIp, .Arthur 
Dole**, Mrs. John 
Donker. Mrs. William 
P ■ Mrs. Stephen E. 
1 1 y, {'laylord 

Donnelley, Mrs. H. P. 
Donnelley, Mi."w Naomi 
Donnelly. Frank 
P ■ ' -T. 

P H.. Jr. 

I ' . Kingman 

I' Mrs. W. A. 

Drake, Lyman M. 
P- ' Mrs. Moi«*e 
P Mrs. (ie*)rge li. 

Put. !.<<.(■. P. 
Dudley, I^aurence H. 
Duean, Alphonso G. 
Dulany, George W., Jr. 
DuUkv. Mrs. Samuel 
I' ■ .-h. narr>- J. 
l> . . AllM-rt (;. 
Duner, Dr. Clarence S. 
Duner. Joseph .\. 
Dunham, John H. 
P . Mi-w Lur>' 

Dunham, Tvoln'rt J. 
Dunlop, Mrs. Simjwon 
Dunn, Samuel O. 
Dupee, Mrs. F. Kennctt 
Durbin, Hetcher M. 

Easterberg. C. J. 
Eastman, Sirs. Geor^ II. 
Ebeling. Frederic O. 

'' 1' -.'t, Mrs. H. A. 
t. I'ercy n. 



Kddy, ihom-as H. 
KdwardH, NT - i"! 1- ^ 
Edwards. 1 
Egan, Wilh.iiTi li. 
EglofT, Pr. (Histav 

.',, Edwin II. 

. ►:n'<>n. Fiflmund K. 
ELsendrath, Edwin \V. 
'■ ' ■' " ' ' i H. 

m li. 

. .. .,: . utto 

Ei.senstaedt, Harry 
Ei.sen.stein, Sol 
Eitel. .Max 
Elenhdgen. Herman 
Eiich, KolxTt William 
Ellbogen, .Albert L. 
Ellbogen, Miss Telia 
Elliott. Frank R. 
Ellis, Howard 
Elting, Howard 
Emery, Edward W. 
Engberg, Miss liuth M. 
Engel, E. J. 
Engtl, MLss Henrietta 
Engstrom, Harold 
Erdmann, Mrs. C. Pardee 
Erick.son, Donovan V. 
Ericson, Mrs. Chester V. 
Ericsson, (" 
Ericsson, I 
Erics-son, Henry 
Erics.son, Walter H. 
Ernst, Nlrs. I>e<i 
Erskine, Albert DeWolf 
Etten, Henr>* C. 
Eustin>. .Alfre<l L. 
Evan.s, .Anna U. 
Evans, Mrs. David 
Evans, Da\-id J. 
E%-ans. Eliot H. 
Ev \. 

E«. ... R.T. 

Fabian, Fr;u,' ,-• * i. 
Fabric*', Edward H. 
Fabr>', Herman 
Fackt, Mrs. George P. 
Fader, .A. I.,. 
Faget. James E. 
Fahertv. Roger 

': A. 

Falk, Mis.s .Amy 
Famham. Mrs. Harr>" J. 
Farrell, Mrs. B. J. 
Faulkner, Charles J., Jr. 

Faulkner, Mias EUubeth 
Faurut. Henrv 
F •• ■ Tr. 

I .M. 

I ik J. 

' :;,. . . .;»nnan 

Morris E. 
i H. 

I . K. 

I li, Edward 

Feltman, Charles H. 
Fennekohl, Mrs. 
Arthur C 

Fergus, i ■ '. 

Fernald. ; . W. 

Ferr>', Mrs. Frank F 
Fetcher. Edwin S. 
Fetz*r, Wade 
Fies, .Mrs. E. E. 
Kil«'k. .Aug\ist 
Findlay, Mrs. Roderick 
Fineman, Oscar 
Finley, Max H. 
Finnegan, R ' '. 

?'mnenid, I): . W. 

Fiscl-.el, Fredenc A. 
Fish, Mrs. Isaac 
Ki'*hi>ein. Dr. Morris 
I Mrs. Edward 

?"isher, Harry M. 
Fitzpatrick, .Mrs. John A. 
Flavin, Edwin F. 
F "-1. Joseph B. 

1 ip W. P. 

KlcxntT. ^"n 

Fl<K)d, W... . -1. 
Horsheim, Harold M. 
K' - ' Ti, Ir\-ing S. 
1 n, Mrs. 

1 ;. Mn« G. E. 

Foley, Rev. ". M. 

?"ollansbee, .Nii • ..■ .. D. 
Folonie, Mrs. Robert J. 
Folsom. Mrs. Richard 8 
Frxite, Peter 
Forch, Mrs. John L., Jf 

F ". Mrs. Alfred E 

I . Mrs. E. G. 

y ■•• r- V 

I ".: i 

f'oreman. Harold H. 
Forgan, James H., Jr. 
Forgan. Mrs. J. Russell 
Forgan. Robert D. 
K'irman, Charles 
F'orrestfr. Mrs. W. W. 
Forstall, James J. 
Fortune, Joanna 
Foster, Mrs. Charles 

Associate Members 


Foster, Volney 
Fowler, Miss Elizabeth 
Fox, Charles E. 
Fox, Jacob Logan 
Fox, Dr. Paul C. 
Fox, Dr. Philip 
Frank, Arthur A. 
Frank, Dr. Ira 
Frank, Mrs. Joseph K. 
Frankenstein, William B. 
Frankenthal, Dr. Lester 

E., Jr. 
Franklin, Mrs. George 

De Haven 
Frazer, Mrs. George E. 
Freedman, Dr. I. Val 
Freeman, Charles Y. 
Freer, Archibald E. 
Freiler, Abraham J. 
French, Dudley K. 
Frenier, A. B. 
Freudenthal, G. S. 
Frey, Charles Daniel 
Freyn, Henry J. 
Fridstein, Meyer 
Friedlander, Jacob 
Friedlich, Mrs. Herbert 
Friedman, Mrs. Isaac K. 
Friend, Mrs. Henry K. 
Friestedt, Arthur A. 
Frisbie, Chauncey 0. 
Frost, Mrs. Charles 

Fuller, Mrs. Charles 
Fuller, Mrs. Gretta 

Fuller, Judson M. 
Furry, William S. 
Furst, Eduard A. 

Gabathuler, Miss Juanita 
Gabriel, Adam 
Gaertner, William 
Gale, G. Whittier 
Gale, Henry G. 
Gall, Charles H. 
Gall, Harry T. 
Gallagher, Mrs. John J. 
Gallup, Rockwell 
Gait, Mrs. A. T. 
Gamble, D. E. 
Gamble, James A. 
Gann, David B. 
Gansbergen, Mrs. F. H. 
Garcia, Jose 
Garden, Hugh M. G. 
Gardiner, Mrs. John L. 
Gardner, Addison L. 
Gardner, Addison 

L., Jr. 
Gardner, Henry A. 
t Gardner, Mrs. James P. 

Garrison, Dr. Lester E. 
Gately, Ralph M. 
Gates, Mrs. L. F. 
Gawne, Miss Clara V. 
Gay, Rev. A. Royal 
Gaylord, Duane W, 
Gear, H. B. 
Gehl, Dr. W. H. 
Gehrmann, Felix 
Geiger, Alfred B. 
Gelling, Dr. E. M. K. 
Gentz, Miss Margaret 

George, Mrs. Albert B. 
Georgs, Fred W. 
Gerber, Max 
Gerding, R. W. 
Geringer, Charles M. 
Gerngross, Mrs. Leo 
Gettelman, Mrs. 

Sidney H. 
Getz, Mrs. James R. 
Getzoff, E. B. 
Gibbs, Dr. John Phillip 
Gibson, Dr. Stanley 
Gidwitz, Alan K. 
Gielow, Walter C. 
Gifford, Mrs. 

Frederick C. 
Gilbert, Miss Clara C. 
Gilchrist, Mrs. John F. 
Gilchrist, Mrs. William 

Giles, Carl C. 
Giles, Mrs. Guy H. 
Gillette, Mrs. Ellen D. 
Gillson, Louis K. 
Ginther, Miss Minnie C. 
Girard, Mrs. Anna 
Glaescher, Mrs. G. W. 
Glasgow, H. A. 
Glasner, Rudolph W. 
Godehn, Paul M. 
Goedke, Charles F. 
Goehst, Mrs. John Henry 
Goes, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Golden, Dr. Isaac J. K. 
Goldenberg, Sidney D. 
Goldfine, Dr. Ascher H. C. 
Golding, Robert N. 
Goldsmith, Mitchel 
Goldstein, Nathan S. 
Goldstine, Dr. Mark T. 
Goldy, Walter I. 
Goltra, Mrs. William B. 
Goode, Mrs. Rowland T. 
Gooden, G. E. 
Goodman, Benedict K. 
Goodman, Mrs. Milton F. 
Goodman, W. J. 
Goodman, William E. 

Goodwin, Clarence 

Goodwin, George S. 
Gordon, Miss Bertha F. 
Gordon, Harold J. 
Gordon, Dr. Richard J. 
Gordon, Mrs. Robert D. 
Gorrell, Mrs. Warren 
Gradle, Dr. Harry S. 
Graf, Robert J. 
Graff, Oscar C. 
Graham, Douglas 
Graham, E. V. 
Graham, Miss 

Margaret H. 
Gramm, Mrs. Helen 
Granger, Mrs. Everett J. 
Grant, James D. 
Grant, John G. 
Graves, Howard B. 
Grawoig, Allen 
Gray, Dr. Earle 
Green, Miss Mary 

Green, Robert D. 
Greenburg, Dr. Ira E. 
Greene, Henry E. 
Greenebaum, James E. 
Greenebaum, M. E., Jr. 
Greenlee, Mrs. William 

Greenman, Mrs. Earl C. 
Gregory, Clifford V. 
Gregory, Mrs. Robert B. 
Gregory, Stephen 

S., Jr. 
Gregory, Tappan 
Gressens, Otto 
Grey, Charles F. 
Grey, Dr. Dorothy 
Griest, Mrs. Marianna L. 
Griffenhagen, Mrs. 

Edwin O. 
Griffith, Mrs. Carroll L. 
Griffith, E. L. 
Griffith, Mrs. William 
Griffiths, George W. 
Grimm, Walter H. 
Griswold, Harold T. 
Grizzard, James A. 
Gronkowski, Rev. C. I. 
Groot, Cornelius J. 
Groot, Lawrence A. 
Gross, Henry R. 
Grossman, Frank I. 
Grotenhuis, Mrs. 

William J. 
Grotowski, Dr. Leon 
Gruhn, Alvah V. 
Grulee, Lowry K. 
Grunow, Mrs. William C. 
Guenzel, Louis 

312 FiKLD MrsKiM of Naturai. History IiKiH)RTs, Vol. 12 





r J. 

Ci 1* - .'■/ , .11 -»■» 1 i • 

ion K 

(iwinn. Wiiham 


Haan. Ma":rtrf> 

Hugrn. N'.. 
Ilaern. Krp<i J. 



Haignt . (fr 

Hair. T. P- 


I! ' 











f;«rr»tt J. 
1 I.. 

rgi' I. 

-. K. 

vani H. 

t ti 

-ii. 1 . 







li .. 

Hann, J < 

Haa«' »rl 




li ••'■■ 



li -i 


H"-' • ' aham 



H it. 

1 -Tt L. 

li . . 



I L. 



Harvry, H. 



Ha.<ik«>.i. Mn«. (rt^nrp K 

Hay, ,\irii. \S Ilium 




onry K. 

" Marie 




» _ _ _ f ■ 




Rton B. 

•ind C. 


aw. y- 






"1 n , Jr 

.:\u S. 

W. G. 

s John 



>« w 


rand, K 

ug^ne, Jr. 

J.. . . 


i.... ... 

lillp. Dr 

?•• • 


t .M. 




ind. Mm. J 
inklo, Howi * > 
inman. Mr* K«t*U* S. 
y K. 
imch, Jartib H. 
i5t«»d. J. lioland 
ixnn, Mra. Frank P. 



i' jjj.:., :;iju?rt E. 
lohman, Dr. E. H. 
UncT, William V. 
loldf-n, Kdward A. 
lolland. Dr. William E 



lolmwi, ' 

1 1 » 

. R. G 


i ' "' ■ 

i N. 

lolt. M; 

loman, ?.i •• i-.^af-'rv. T. 
Inn<»>k, Mm. Jamca V. 
loovcr, F. K. 
loovpr, NTr». Frsrk K. 
loover, ' ' 


loovcr. Ray P. 


lomor. .' 
L.. Jr. 

»ph J. 

lorton. Horace B. 
Hosmer, F'hiWp B. 

Associate Members 


Hottinger, Adolph 
Howard, Willis G. 
Howe, Clinton W. 
Howe, Mrs. Pierce 

Howe, Warren D. 
Howe, William G. 
Howell, Albert S. 
Howell, William 
Howes, Mrs. Frank W. 
Howse, Richard G. 
Hovne, Thomas Temple 
Hoyt, Mrs. Phelps B. 
Hubbard, George W. 
Huber, Dr. Harry Lee 
Hudson, Mrs. H. 

Hudson, Walter L. 
Huey, Mrs. A. S. 
Huff, Thomas D. 
Hufty, Mrs. F. P. 
Huggins, Dr. Ben H. 
Hughes, George A. 
Hughes, John E. 
Hughes, John W. 
Hulbert, Mrs. Milan H. 
Hume, John T. 
Humphrey, H. K. 
Huncke, Herbert S. 
Huncke, Oswald W. 
Hunter, Samuel M. 
Hurley, Edward N., Jr. 
Huston, Ward T. 
Huszagh, R. LeRoy 
Huszagh, Ralph D. 
Hutchinson, Foye P. 
Hutchinson, Samuel S. 
Hyatt, R. C. 

Ickes, Raymond 
Idelman, Bernard 
Ilg, Robert A. 
Inlander, Samuel 
Irons, Dr. Ernest E. 
Isaacs, Charles W., Jr. 
Isham, Henry P. 
Ives, Clifford E. 

Jackson, Allan 
Jackson, Archer L. 
Jackson, Mrs. Arthur S. 
lackson. Miss Laura E. 
Jacobi, Miss Emily C. 
Jacobs, Hyman A. 
Jacobs, Julius 
Facobs, Louis G. 
Facobs, Walter H. 
facobs, Whipple 
Tacobson, Raphael 
^affray, Mrs. David S. 
^ames, Edward P. 
ames, William R, 

Jameson, Clarence W. 
Janusch, Fred W. 
Jaques, Mrs. Louis 

Jarchow, Mrs. C. E. 
Jarchow, Charles C. 
Jarratt, Mrs. Walter J. 
Jeffries, F. L. 
Jenkins, David F. D. 
Jenkins, Mrs. John E. 
Jenkinson, Mrs. Arthur 

Jenks, William Shippen 
Jennings, Ode D. 
Jennings, Mrs. Rosa V. 
Jerger, Wilbur Joseph 
Jetzinger, David 
Jirka, Dr. Frank J. 
Jirka, Dr. Robert H. 
John, Dr. Findley D. 
Johnson, Alvin O. 
Johnson, Arthur L. 
Johnson, H. C. 
Johnson, Mrs. Harley 

Johnson, Isaac Horton 
Johnson, Joseph M. 
Johnson, Nels E. 
Johnson, Mrs. O. W. 
Johnson, Olaf B. 
Johnson, Philip C. 
Johnston, Arthur C. 
Johnston, Edward R. 
Johnston, Mrs. Hubert 

Johnston, Mrs. M. L. 
Johnstone, George A. 
Jones, Albert G. 
Jones, G. Herbert 
Jones, James B. 
Jones, Dr. Margaret M. 
Jones, Melvin 
Jones, Miss Susan E. 
Jones, Warren G. 
Joseph, Mrs. Jacob G. 
Joseph, Louis L. 
Joy, Guy A. 
Joyce, Joseph 
Judson, Clay 
Juergens, H. Paul 
Julien, Victor R. 
Junkunc, Stephen 

Kaercher, A. W. 
Kahn, Gus 
Kahn, J. Kesner 
Kahn, Louis 
Kaine, James B. 
Kane, Jerome M. 
Kanter, Jerome J. 
Kaplan, Nathan D. 
Karcher, Mrs. Leonard D. 

Karpen, Michael 
Kasch, Frederick M. 
Kaspar, Otto 
Katz, Mrs. Sidney L. 
Katzenstein, Mrs. 

George P. 
Katzin, Frank 
Kauffman, Mrs. R. K, 
Kauffmann, Alfred 
Kaufmann, Dr. 

Gustav L. 
Kavanagh, Clarence H. 
Kavanagh, Maurice F. 
Kay, Mrs. Marie E. 
Keefe, Mrs. George I. 
Keehn, George W. 
Keene, Mrs. Joseph 
Keeney, Albert F. 
Kehl, Robert Joseph 
Keith, Stanley 
Kelker, Rudolph F., Jr. 
Kellogg, John L. 
Kelly, Edward T. 
Kelly, Mrs. Haven Core 
Kemp, Mrs. E. M. 
Kemper, Hathaway G. 
Kempner, Harry B. 
Kempner, Stan 
Kendall, Mrs. Virginia H. 
Kendrick, John F. 
Kennedy, Mrs. E. J. 
Kennedy, Miss Leonore 
Kennedy, Lesley 
Kennelly, Martin H. 
Kent, Dr. O. B. 
Keogh, Gordon E. 
Kern, H. A. 
Kern, Trude 
Kersey, Glen B. 
Kerwin, Edward M. 
Kesner, Jacob L. 
Kestnbaum, Meyer 
Kiessling, Mrs. Charles S. 
Kile, Miss Jessie J. 
Kimball, Mrs. Curtis N. 
Kimball, William W. 
Kimbark, Mrs. Eugene 

Kimbark, John R. 
King, Joseph H. 
Kingman, Mrs. Arthur G. 
Kinsey, Frank 
Kinsey, Robert S. 
Kintzel, Richard 
Kirchheimer, Max 
Kirkland, Mrs. 

Kitchell, Howell W. 
Kittredge, R. J. 
Kitzelman, Otto 
Klein, Arthur F. 
Klein, Henry A. 

:'l I KiKLD Mlsllm or Natlral Histuky IU:i*orts. Vol. 12 

Klein, Mm. Jv«mur| 

Klrmfx^ll, Dr. Hrnry H. 

Kl«'»«t, Nfm llarr^' 

K -' ' H 

K <■. 


K Mr». 

Kn.;i:. A" * 

Knolt. M irn U. 

Knox, Haro' >• 
Kniilnon, (Irorjtr 11. 
KiK-h. Paul W. 
Koch, lUymond J. 
Kochs, .\u(f\j*t 
Kix-h^. Mrs. ! 
Kohl. .Mm. ( .i.- -- ... 
Kohlrr. Krir I>. 
K '■-■ • '--HC. 

K V. 

K . 

Kn«ot>iirl, William F. 
Kotal, John A. 
Kotin, (ifirc N. 
K ■ I.I). 


Krab«>r. Mrs. FrrHlrricka 
Kraft. {•. H. 
Kraft. JamM I.. 
K' ' ' n 

K: .\r,. 

Kraiovrr. .Mni. Olto J. 
Kramrr. I-rny 
Krau«, lVt«T J. 
Kravjx, SamuH B. 
Kn»M««. John J. 
K- r. Dr. 

Kropff, ('. G. 
Krodt. Dr '"-H N. 
Krm'ifr, '. ' A. 

K- '. I har.m 

K I.. 

Kuh, .Mnt. K<Jwin J., Jr. 

K o-J. 

Ku!;r., i-r. ' ' T 

Kuhn. !">' .: " 

Kunk '. 

K, . . -t 




L*r<>y. Mi,« FAHh \t 
LaChanrr. Mrs. 

'. ' - U. 
l^ ' : rs. lyniis E. 
I^tlin, Ijnuxn V... Jr. 
Lftmfvrt. WiUon W. 
Lanahan, Mrs. M. J. 

Ijindr>'. Alvar A. 
Ijinr, K. IlowartI 
Ijinr. Kay K. 
luinr, \VaIUr«» H. 
Ijing. K'l»ar<i J. 
Ijing. .Mm. W. J. 
I T •.. \t-. Avj|f\i<il 
. Mm. 

MP, (f^Hirgr 

Ijinv* i'•^^.v Tliti'amin 

! . r. iv 

. r. Mm John M. 

Mm. Karl S. 

l„i^K. :. AlWrt n. Max 

Uir n. 

I„t:' ■ ra 

! • n. HrrU-rt M. 

- Vf"< J. H. 
- W. 

TV K. 

Frank W. 

„.. ;.r. (). J. 

yfahy. Thnm.i.s F. 
• voll, Jamr«« U. 


/•bold. N. 

' '• ''••r.r. Mirharl 
. I^r Frnnri.i L. 
>•»•, I ).i '■ 'uir 
>rf, Mr H. S. 

Lefptw. Mi.-w Kathrrinp J. 

„# M .'.. , C 

r M. 

Lpight, .Mm. Alb<»rt K. 
'■•■' MiM Alio*. J. 

Mm. Kfwcoo G. 


' ■ 7, J- .Mayo 

• . • .-.' \-v- r r, 

- T 

• ' ••«. Mm 

. ' -,on O. 

• :%. .Mm. Albort Cotter 

; . . •r^'-. Pr-.-nmin 
iy ■• •• ■ r. \" *• ■ m 
!>•>->•. A - M. 

LP^T. Ar 
Lpw>', Dr. Alfred 

Lichman, A. J. 
I.ic" •• Ttrv. Tliaddma 
I.i nk R. 

Ijmut.i. .Mm. f»wftrd J. 
Ijndrn, John A. 
Ijndhpimrr, B. F. 
Li,.,n,,-m. Chariw V. 
Li: J. E. 

LiriK'-. I'owmwi C. 
Lin*"n. !U»T> H. 
I/.; rt R. 

Li . 

Littlp. Mm. K. H. 
Li" - " — '■ . Jr. 
L .M. 

L. . .Mr». 

L;. I'aul 

l;. . -. V, — nnm 
Ix)hdrll. ^' *-in L. 

I> , \\ . .s. 

ly A. H. 

I»ob, n M. 

Ix)*>b, «.. .. .'.1. 
I>o<»b. Lpo a. 

i> ■ • •• V J. 

I> " I.. 

L- oy 

L- ard J. 

Ivonjc, Mm. Jo(M»ph B. 
lyine, William K. 
Ixjrd, .\rthur R. 
Lord. Mm. Rum(>II 
Lourka, Charkw O. 
Ixiupr. Alh.'rt E. M. 
I^ S. 

I> A'. 

I>ovrll. Wiiham H. 
Lovjprn. Carl 
Lurry. I'atnrk J. 
L': . Nelson J. 

L>. Mm. 

M. Durnard 
Ivudolph. Wilbur X(. 
Imo<\i^t. Arthur C. 
T.ufkin. Wallace W. 
l,>;na. Horbert A. 
lAinr, U. J. 
Luntearten, Samud 
I.AJtt*«r. Honrj- J. 
Lyford, Harry B. 
L>-nrh. William Joaepb 
Lyon. Chariet H. 

MaaiW, J. Edward 
MacDonald. E. K. 
Ma'"V-pv. Frank J. 
M ■:, Dr. John C 

M.. . Mm. Andrew 

MacUUan, K. F. 

Associate Members 


Madlener, Otto 
Magan, Miss Jane A. 
Magerstadt, Madeline 
Magill, Henry P. 
Magill, John R. 
Magnus, Albert, Jr. 
Magnuson, Mrs. Paul 
Maher, Mrs. D. W. 
Main, Walter D. 
Malone, William H. 
Manaster, Harry 
Mandel, Mrs. Aaron W. 
Mandel, Edwin F. 
Mandel, Mrs. Emanuel 
Mandel, Miss Florence 
Mandel, Mrs. Robert 
Manegold, Mrs. Frank W. 
Manierre, Francis E. 
Manierre, Louis 
Manley, John A. 
Mann, Albert C. 
Mann, John P. 
Manning, Miss 

Cordelia Ann 
Marcus, Maurice S. 
Mark, Mrs. Cyrus 
Marks, Arnold K. 
Marquart, Arthur A. 
Marquis, A. N. 
Marsh, A. Fletcher 
Marsh, John 

McWilliams, II 
Marsh, Mrs. John P. 
Marsh, Mrs. Marshall S. 
Martin, Mrs. Franklin H. 
Martin, George F. 
Martin, Samuel H. 
Martin, W. B. 
Martin, Wells 
Marx, Frederick Z. 
Marzluflf, Frank W. 
Marzola, Leo A. 
Mason, Willard J. 
Massee, B. A. 
Massena, Roy 
Massey, Peter J. 
Masterson, Peter 
Mathesius, Mrs. Walther 
Matson, J. Edward 
Matter, Mrs. John 
Maurer, Dr. Siegfried 
Maxwell, Lloyd R. 
Mayer, Frank D. 
Mayer, Mrs. Herbert G. 
Mayer, Herman J., Jr. 
Mayer, Isaac H. 
Mayer, Oscar F. 
Mayer, Oscar G. 
Mayer, Theodore S. 
McAllister, Sydney G. 
McArthur, Billings M. 
McAuley, John E. 

McBirney, Mrs. Hugh J. 
McCahey, James B. 
McCarthy, Edmond J. 
McCarthy, Joseph W. 
McClun, John M. 
McCord, Downer 
McCormack, Professor 

McCormick, Mrs. 

Alexander A. 
McCormick, Mrs. 

McCormick, Fowler 
McCormick, Howard H. 
McCormick, Leander J. 
McCormick, RobertH., Jr. 
McCoy, Herbert N. 
McCrea, Mrs. W. S. 
McCready, Mrs. E. W. 
McCreight, Miss Gladys 

McCreight, Louis Ralph 
McDonald, E. F., Jr. 
McDonald, Lewis 
McDougal, Mrs. James B. 
McDougal, Mrs. Robert 
McDougall, Mrs. 

Arthur R. 
McErlean, Charles V. 
McGarry, John A. 
McGraw, Max 
McGuinn, Edward B. 
McGurn, Mathew S. 
McHugh, Mrs. Grover 
Mcintosh, Arthur T. 
Mcintosh, Mrs. Walter G. 
McKenna, Dr. 

Charles H. 
McKinney, Mrs. Hayes 
McLaury, Mrs. C. W. 
McMenemy, L. T. 
McMillan, James G. 
McMillan, .John 
McMillan, W. B. 
McMillan, William M. 
McNamara, Louis G. 
McNamee, Peter F. 
McNulty, Joseph D. 
McQuarrie, Mrs. Fannie 
McVoy, John M. 
Mead, Dr. Henry C. A. 
Medsker, Dr. Ora L. 
Melcher, George Clinch 
Melendy, Dr. R. A. 
Melnick, Leopold B. 
Merrell, John H. 
Merriam, Miss Eleanor 
Merrill, William W. 
Merz, Edward E. 
Metz, Dr. A. R. 
Meyer, Mrs. A. H. 
Meyer, Abraham W. 

Meyer, Albert 
Meyer, Charles Z. 
Meyer, Sam R. 
Meyer, William 
Meyercord, George R. 
Meyers, Erwin A. 
Michaels, Everett B. 
Midowicz, C. E. 
Milburn, Miss Anne L. 
Milhening, Frank 
Miller, Miss Bertie E. 
Miller, Charles B. 
Miller, Mrs. Clayton W. 
Miller, Mrs. Donald J. 
Miller, Mrs. F. H. 
Miller, Hyman 
Miller, John S. 
Miller, Mrs. Olive 

Miller, Oscar C. 
Miller, Mrs. Phillip 
Miller, R. T. 
Miller, Walter E. 
Miller, WiUiam S. 
Mills, Allen G. 
Mills, Fred L. 
Mills, John, Sr. 
Mills, Mrs. William S. 
Miner, Dr. Carl S. 
Miner, H. J. 
Minotto, Mrs. James 
Minturn, Benjamin E. 
Mitchell, George F. 
Mitchell, John J. 
Mitchell, Mrs. John J. 
Mitchell, Leeds 
Mitchell, Oliver 
Mock, Dr. Harry Edgar 
Moderwell, Charles M. 
Moeling, Mrs. Walter G. 
Moeller, Rev. Herman H. 
Moflatt, Mrs. 

Elizabeth M. 
Moist, Mrs. Samuel E. 
Molloy, David J. 
Moltz, Mrs. Alice 
Monheimer, Henry I. 
Monroe, William S. 
Montgomery, Dr. 

Albert H. 
Moore, C. B. 
Moore, Paul 
Moore, Philip Wyatt 
Moos, Joseph B. 
Moran, Brian T. 
Moran, Miss Margaret 
Morey, Charles W. 
Morf, F. William 
Morgan, Alden K. 
Morgan, Mrs. 

Kendrick E. 
Morris, Edward H. 


:UG FiKiJ) Mrsiu-M of Natiral History Kkports, Vol. 12 

M'rris, Mrs. S<'ymnur 
Mi>rri,s<>n. Mr*. ('. K. 
Morrison, Mrs. 

ChnrlM K. 
Morrison. Mrs. Harry 
M ■ ■ ■ '". 

M . w A. 

Morri.HvMon, Jamrs W. 
Mors*', Mrs. ('harU*s J. 
Mtinw, Ix>land K. 
M"n<o, Mrs. Milton 
Morse. K<)l)««rt M. 
Mortrnson, Mrs. Jaroh 
Morton, Slerlinjt 
Morton, William Morri.«« 
Mos«9, Hiiward A. 
Moss, Jerome .\. 
Mouat, Andrew J. 
Mowr>', lyouis (.'. 
Moyer, Mrs. Paul S. 
M . '■ Vfrs. John B. 
M :i, Mrs. Charles 

Mvirll.T, .Xustin M. 
Nlueller, Mis.s He<lwiK H. 
Nlueller, J. Herlx^rt 
Mueller. Paul M. 
Nlulford, Miss Melinda 

Mulliern. Kdward F. 
Mulholand. William H. 
Nlullitcan. (leorRe F. 
Munroe. Moray 
Murphy, .I<>«)eph I>. 
Murphy. R(>l>ort K. 
Mussulman, Dr. George H. 

Naber, llenrv' G. 

N' .idler. Dr. Walter II. 
Naess, Sigxird K. 
Nahigian, Sarkis H. 
Nast. Mrs. A. D. 
Nathan, Claude 
Nebel, Herman C. 
Neely. Mrs. Lloyd F. 
Nehls. Arthur L. 
N'eilson, Mrs. Francis 
Nellegar, Mrs. Jay ('. 
Nelson, .Arthur \S . 
Nelson, Charles G. 
Nelson, Donald NL 
Nel.son, Murr>* 
Nelson, N. J. 
Nelson, Victor W. 
Netcher, Mrs. Charles 
Neu, Clarenre L. 
Neuffer, Paul .\. 
Neumann, .Arthur E. 
Newhail, R. Frank 
Newhnuse, Karl 
Newman. Mrs. .\lbert .\. 
Newman, Charles H. 
Nichols, Mrs. George R. 

Nirhols, Mrs. Georg© 

R., Jr. 
Nil-hols, J. C. 
Nirhols, S. K. 
Niohol.son. Thomas G. 
Nils-son, Mrs. 

(MHxiwin NL 
Nitze. Mrs. William A. 
Noble, Samuel R. 
NoUau, Kmma 
Noonan, Kclward J. 
Norman. Harold W. 
N orris, .Mrs. I /ester 
Norton, R. H. 
Novak, Charles J. 
Noyes, ,\. H. 
Noyes, .Mian S. 
Noyes, Davifl .\. 
Noyes, Mrs. NLiy Wells 
Nusbaum, Mrs. 

Hermien D. 
Nyman, Dr. John Egl>ert 

Dates, James F. 
Oberfelder, Herbert M. 
Ol>erfelder, Walter S. 
(•'Hrien, Frank J. 

• 'I'-rien. Mi.'w Janet 
n.i.ll. William R. 
Odell. William R.. Jr. 
OtT. .Mrs. Clifford 
DtVield, James R. 
OgleslM>«', Nathan H. 
()'K«H'fe. Mrs. Dennis D. 
Olcott, Mrs. Henr\' C. 
Oldefest, Kdward G. 
()'I>ear>', John W. 
Oliver, Gene G. 
Oliver. Mrs. Paul 
(»lsen, Agnes J. 
Olson, Gustaf 

Olson, Rudolph J. 
' • ■ .-r. Alfred 

I ' r, Mrs. 

Harrj- i». 
Orndoff', Dr. Henjamin H. 
O'Rourke, Albert 
Orr. NTrs. Rol>ert C. 
Orr, Thomas C. 
Orthal. A. J. 
Ortmayer. Dr. Marie 
< • 'ii'rn, Mrs. Gertnide L. 

• i-i'om, Theodore L. 
(•-trom, Mrs. James 

.\u gust us 
Otis, J. Sanford 
o-:s ,T .-. pH K. 
<'t!s .1 '•' ph Edward, Jr. 
('••.-. ll.ilph C. 
(it'.c, Stuart Huntington 
( I'jska, John A. 
Overton, George W. 


.1 A. 

Paasche, Jens A. 
Packard, Dr. Rollo K. 
Paeprke, V " P. 
I'agm. Mr u S. 

Pam, Miss ( arrie 
Pardridge, All>ert J. 
Pardridge. Mrs. E. W. 
Park. R. E. 
Parker, Frank B. 
F'arker, Dr. Gxston C 
Parker, Dr. J. William 
Parker, Norman S. 
Parker, Troy L. 
Parks, C. R. 
Parmelee, Dr. A. H. 
Partridge, Lloyd C. 
Paschen, Mrs. Henry 
Patrick, Catherine 
Patterson, Mrs. L. B. 
Patterson. Mrs. Wallace 
Pauling, PMward G. 
Payne. Professor James 
Pealwdy, Mrs. Francis S. 
Pcabfidy, Howard B. 
Peabody, ' ' san W. 

Peacock, i i-. 

Peacock, Waiter C. 
Pearl, Allen S. 
Pearse, Langdon 
Pearson. V. W. 
Pearson, George 

Albert, Jr. 
Peck, Dr. Dand B. 
Peet. Mrs. Belle G. 
Peirce, .Albert E. 
Pelley, John J. 
Peltier. M. F. 
Pen Dell, Charles W. 
Percy, Dr. Nelson 

Perkins, .\. T. 
Perkins. Mrs. Herlx^rt F. 
Perr>-, Dr. Ethel B. 
Perry, L Newton 
Peter, William F. 
Peterkin, Daniel 
Peters, Harr>- .\. 
Petersen, Jurgen 
Petersen, Dr. William F. 
Peterson, .Albert 
Peterson, Alexander B. 
Peterson, .Arthur J. 
Peterson, .Axel .A. 
Peterson. Mrs. Bertha I. 
Pflaum, A. J. 
Pflock, Dr. John J. 
Phelps, Ma.son 
Phelps, Mrs. W. L. 
Phemister, Dr. Dallas B. 

Associate Members 


Phillips, Dr. Herbert 

Phillips, Mervyn C. 
Picher, Mrs. Oliver S. 
Pick, Albert, Jr. 
Pick, Frederic G. 
Pierce, J. Norman 
Pierce, Paul, Jr. 
Pierson, Joseph B. 
Pink, Mrs. Ira M. 
Pirie, Mrs. John T. 
Pitcher, Mrs. Henry L. 
Pitzner, Alwin Frederick 
Plapp, Miss Doris A. 
Piatt, Mrs. Robert S. 
Plunkett, William H. 
Pobloske, Albert C. 
Podell, Mrs. Beatrice 

Pohn, Jacob S. 
Polk, Mrs. Stella F. 
Pollock, Dr. Harry L. 
Pomeroy, Mrs. Frank W. 
Pontius, Mrs. Taylor 
Pool, Marvin B. 
Poole, Mrs. Frederick 

Poole, George A. 
Poole, Mrs. Ralph H. 
Poor, Fred A. 
Pope, Frank 
Pope, Henry 
Pope, Herbert 
Poppenhagen, Henry J. 
Porter, Mrs. Frank S. 
Porter, Henry H. 
Porter, Mrs. Sidney S. 
Porterfield, Mrs. John F. 
Post, Frederick, Jr. 
Post, Mrs. Philip Sidney 
Pottenger, William A. 
Pottenger, Miss 

Zipporah Herrick 
Prahl, Frederick A. 
Pratt, Mrs. William E. 
Prentice, John K. 
Primley, Walter S. 
Prince, Rev. Herbert W. 
Prince, Leonard M. 
Proxmire, Dr. 

Theodore Stanley 
Prussing, Mrs. R. E. 
Puckey, F. W. 
Pulver, Hugo 
Pur cell, Joseph D. 
Purcey, Victor W. 
Purdy, Sparrow E. 
Putnam, Miss Mabel C. 
Pyterek, Rev. Peter H. 

Quick, Miss Hattiemae 
Quigley, William J. 

Raber, Franklin 
Racheflf, Ivan 
Radau, Hugo 
Radford, Mrs. W. A., Jr. 
Radniecki, Rev. Stanley 
Raff, Mrs. Arthur 
Raftree, Miss Julia M. 
Railton, Miss Frances 
Ramis, Leon Lipman 
Randall, Rev. Edwin J. 
Randall, Irving 
Randle, Mrs. Charles H. 
Raney, Mrs. R. J. 
Rankin, Miss Jessie H. 
Raymond, Mrs. 

Howard D. 
Razim, A. J. 
Reach, Benjamin F. 
Reach, William 
Redfield, William M. 
Redington, F. B. 
Reed, Mrs. Frank D. 
Reed, Mrs. Kersey Coates 
Reed, Mrs. Lila H. 
Reed, Norris H. 
Reed, Mrs. Philip L. 
Reeve, Mrs. Earl 
Reffelt, Miss F. A. 
Regan, Mrs. Robert G. 
Regenstein, Joseph 
Regensteiner, Theodore 
Regnery, William H. 
Reich, Miss Annie 
Reichmann, Alexander F. 
Reid, Mrs. Bryan 
Remy, Mrs. William 
Renshaw, Mrs. Charles 
Renwick, Edward A. 
Rew, Mrs. Irwin 
Reynolds, Harold F. 
Reynolds, Mrs. J. J. 
Rice, Arthur L. 
Rice, Mrs. Charles R. 
Rice, Laurence A. 
Rich, Elmer 
Rich, Harry 
Richards, J. DeForest 
Richards, Marcus D. 
Richardson, George A. 
Richardson, Guy A. 
Richter, Mrs. Adelyn W. 
Rickeords, Francis S. 
Ricketts, C. Lindsay 
Ridgeway, Ernest 
Ridgway, William 
Riemenschneider, Mrs. 

Julius H. 
Rieser, Leonard M. 
Rietz, Elmer W. 
Rietz, Walter H. 
Ring, Miss Mary E, 
Ripstra, J. Henri 

Ritchie, Mrs. John 
Rittenhouse, Charles J. 
Roberts, Mrs. John 
Roberts, John M. 
Roberts, Dr. S. M. 
Roberts, Shepherd M. 
Roberts, Mrs. Warren R. 
Roberts, William 

Robson, Miss Sarah C. 
Roche, Miss Emily 
Roderick, Solomon P. 
Rodgers, Dr. David C. 
Rodman, Thomas 

Roehling, Mrs. Otto G. 
Roehm, George R. 
Roesch, Frank P. 
Rogers, Miss Annie T. 
Rogers, Mrs. Bernard F. 
Rogers, Dr. Cassius C. 
Rogers, Edward S. 
Rogers, Joseph E. 
Rogers, Walter A. 
Rogerson, Everett E. 
Rolfes, Gerald A. 
Rolnick, Dr. Harry C. 
Romer, Miss Dagmar E. 
Root, John W. 
Rosborough, Dr. Paul A. 
Rosen, M. R. 
Rosenbaum, Mrs. 

Edwin S. 
Rosenfeld, M. J. 
Rosenfeld, Mrs. Maurice 
Rosenfield, Mrs. 

Morris S. 
Rosenthal, James 
Rosenthal, Kurt 
Rosenthal, Lessing 
Rosenwald, Mrs. Julius 
Rosenwald, Richard M. 
Ross, Robert C. 
Ross, Mrs. Robert E. 
Ross, Thompson 
Ross, Walter S. 
Roth, Aaron 
Roth, Mrs. Margit 

Rothacker, Watterson R. 
Rothschild, George 

Rothschild, Maurice L. 
Rothschild, Melville N. 
Routh, George E., Jr. 
Rowe, Edgar C. 
Rozelle, Mrs. Emma 
Rubel, Dr. Maurice 
Rubens, Mrs. Charles 
Rubovits, Theodore 
Ruckelhausen, Mrs. 


318 FiKLi) MisKiM OF Natural History Kkports, Vol. 12 

K ' rn, Mias Lillian 
l: .11 (I. 

Kuril injt'T, Ji)hn W. 
KiishtDn, Josoph A. 
Huiwoll, Dr. Joiwph \V. 
i: raul S. 

K , ("iforep E. 

Kyaii, Mrs. William A. 
Hycrson, Joseph T. 

Sarklrv. Mrs. James .\. 
SaK.', W. (.>tis 
Saii.siiiiry, Mrs. 

Warren M. 
Salmon, Mrs. E. D. 
Sammons, Wheeler 
Sample. John (lien 
SajulitlKr, Daisy 
Sands, Mrs. Frano's B. 
Santini, Mrs. Randolph 
Sardeson, Orville A. 
Sargent, Chester V. 
Sargent, John R. W. 
Sargent, Ralph 
Sauter, Fred J. 
Sawyer, Dr. .Mvah L. 
Schacht, John M. 
Schafor, O. J. 
Schaffner, Mrs. Joseph 
Schaffner, Robert C 
Scheidenhelm, Edward L. 
Scheinman, Jes,se D. 
Schrrmerhorn. W. I. 
Schmidt, Adolf 
Schmidt, Dr. Charles L. 
Schmidt, Mrs. Minna 
Schmitz. Dr. Henry 
S. ' • -, F. P. 
S« :. Otto V. 

Schnur, Ruth \. 
SchoU. Dr. William .M. 
Schram, Harr>' S. 
S( ' . Sigurd 

S' . Dr. (leorge H. 

Sohukral't , William 
Schulman, A. S. 
Schulze, Mrs. Mathilde 
Schupp, Philip C. 
Schuyler, Mrs. Daniel 

J., Jr. 
Schwanke, .\rthur 
Schwartz, Charles K. 
Schwartz, Charles P. 
Schwarr, Hprhprt E. 
S,-- -, -. ■ . . ■ , - 

S. . ■.: 

Scott. Robert L. 
Scribner, Gilbert 
Scully. Mrs. D. B. 
Seam»^. Mrs. Charles O. 
Sears, Miss Dorothy 
Sears, J. Alden 

Sears, Richartl W.. Jr. 
Seaton, (1. Ix'land 
S^'averns, (leorge .\. 
S«'av»>rns, I»uis C. 
Sedfwick. C. (Jalen 
Scf, Dr. .XgMt-s Chf-stiT 
S<<l>«Tgor, .Mis-s I)nr:i .\. 
St'^'hurg, Justus P. 
S«Mf«Tt, Mrs. Walter J. 
S» ip, Emil Cf. 
S<'ipp, Clarenre T. 
S^'ipp, Edwin A. 
S«ipp, Edwin A., Jr. 
Seipp, William C. 
Selfo, George W*. 
Senrenbaugh, Mrs. C. W. 
Seng, Frank J. 
S4-ng. V. J. 
Senne, John A. 
Shaffer, Carroll 
Shaffer, Charles R. 
Shanahan, Mrs. David E. 
Shanesy, lialph D. 
Shannon, Angus Roy 
Shapiro, Meyer 
Sharpe, N. M. 
Shaw. Alfre<l P. 
Shaw. Mrs. Arch W. 
Shaw, Theodore A. 
Sheldon, Jamfs NL 
Sheltnn, Dr. W. ?'ugene 
Shrpherd, Mrs. Edith P. 
Sherman, Mrs. Francis 

C, Sr. 
Sherman, Mrs. \\ . W . 
Shields. James Culver 

Siioan, N«'ls 

Shdrey, Clyde E. 

Short. J. R. 

Short. Shirley Jane 

.-^i ■up, A. D. 

Shumway, Mrs. F'dward 

.<'V. William P. 
M. !h-1, Mrs. Ewald H. 
S ,'man, I>eon 
-. A. L 
in, Charles 

- "rman, Da\-id B. 

- ' 'Tman. Hul>ert S. 
^ •. ( "larenre W. 

•o M. 

- • nds. Dr. James P. 
.",i..tre, Ben E. 
Sinclair, Dr. J. Frank 

:~^^ Mrs. Mortimer H. 

•ner, Allen 
Sisskind, Louis 

Sitr.«r. Dr. L. Grace 

Skleba, Dr. I^-onard F. 
Sk(K>glund, David 
Sle«»per, Mrs. Olive C. 
Smith, C"' '■ ■.•rt 

Smith, M R. | 

Smith, Clinton F. , 

Smith, Mrs. E. A. i 

Smith, Mrs. Emery J. I 
Smith, .M '■ • '. ^• 
Smith, F. • 

Smith, Huro ' 

Smith, Mrs. .. .;...;. 

Smith, Jens 
Smith, Jesse E. 
St ■ \rs. Katherine 

Smith, Mrs. Kinney 
Smith, Miss Marion D. 
Smith, Paul C. 
Smith, Samuel K. 
Smith, Mrs. Theodore 

Smith, Walter Bourne 
Smith, Walter Byron 
Smith, Mrs. William A. 
Smith, Z. Erol 
SmuUan, Alexander 
Snow, Fred A. 
Snyder, Ham' 
Socrates, Nicnolas 
Solem, Dr. George O. 
Sonnenschein, Hugo 
Sonneveld, Jacob 
Soper, Henry M. 
Soper, James P., Jr. 
Sopkin, Mrs. Setia H. 
Soravia, Joseph 
Sorensen, James 
Spencer, Mrs. Egliert 
Spencer, Mrs. William 
Spiegel, Mrs. Arthur H. 
Spiegel, Mrs. 

Frederick W. 
Spitz, Joel 
Spitz, Leo 
Spitzglass, Mrs. 

I>eonard M. 
Spohn, John F. 
Spooner, Charles W. 
Spoor, Mrs. John A. 
Sprague, Dr. John P. 
Spray, Cranston 
Squires, John G. 
Staark, Otto C. 
Stacey, Mrs. Thomas L 
Staley, Mary B. 
Stanton, Dr. E. M. 
Stanton, Edgar 
Stanton, Henry T. 

Associate Members 


Starbird, Miss Myrtle I. 
Stark, Mrs. Harold 
Starrels, Joel 
Stearns, Mrs. Richard I. 
Stebbins, Fred J. 
Steele, W. D. 
Steffey, David R. 
Stein, Benjamin F. 
Stein, Dr. Irving 
Stein, L. Montefiore 
Steinberg, Dr. Milton 
Stenson, Frank R. 
Sterba, Dr. Joseph V. 
Stern, Alfred Whital 
Stern, David B. 
Stern, Felix 
Stern, Gardner H. 
Stern, Maurice S. 
Stern, Oscar D. 
Stevens, Delmar A. 
Stevens, Edward J. 
Stevens, Elmer T. 
Stevens, Harold L. 
Stevens, Mrs. James W. 
Stevenson, Dr. 
Alexander F. 
Stevenson, Engval 
Stewart, Miss Agnes 

Stewart, Miss Eglantine 

Stewart, James S. 
Stewart, Miss Mercedes 

Stibolt, Mrs. Carl B. 
Stiger, Charles W. 
Stirling, Miss Dorothy 
Stockton, Eugene M. 
Stone, Mrs. Jacob S. 
Stone, Mrs. Theodore 
Straus, David 
Straus, Henry H. 
Straus, Martin L. 
Straus, Melvin L. 
Straus, S. J. T. 
Strauss, Dr. Alfred A. 
Strauss, Ivan 
Strauss, John L. 
Straw, Mrs. H. Foster 

Street, Mrs. Charles A. 

Stromberg, Charles J. 

Strong, Edmund H. 

Strong, Mrs. Walter A. 

Strotz, Harold C. 

Struby, Mrs. Walter V. 

3tulik, Dr. Charles 

iuUivan, John J. 

Sulzberger, Frank L. 

5utcliffe, Mrs. Gary 

Sutherland, William 

jutton, Harold I. 
,3wan, Oscar H. 

Swanson, Joseph E. 
Swartchild, Edward G. 
Swartchild, William G. 
Swenson, S. P. O. 
Swett, Robert Wheeler 
Swiecinski, Walter 
Swift, Mrs. Alden B. 
Swift, Edward F., Jr. 
Sykes, Mrs. Wilfred 
Sylvester, Miss Ada I. 

Taft, John H. 
Taft, Mrs. Oren E. 
Tarrant, Robert 
Tatge, Mrs. Gustavus J. 
Taylor, Frank F. 
Taylor, George Halleck 
Taylor, Herbert J. 
Taylor, J. H. 
Taylor, L. S. 
Teagle, E. W. 
Templeton, Stuart J. 
Templeton, Walter L. 
Templeton, Mrs. William 
Terry, Foss Bell 
Teter, Lucius 
Thatcher, Everett A. 
Theobald, Dr. John J. 
Thomas, Emmet A. 
Thomas, Mrs. Florence T. 
Thomas, Frank W. 
Thomas, Dr. William A. 
Thompson, Arthur H. 
Thompson, Charles E. 
Thompson, Edward F. 
Thompson, Floyd E. 
Thompson, Fred L. 
Thompson, Dr. George F. 
Thompson, Mrs. John R. 
Thompson, John R., Jr. 
Thome, Hallett W. 
Thorne, James W. 
Thornton, Dr. Francis E. 
Thorp, Harry W. 
Thresher, C. J. 
ThuUn, F. A. 
Tibbetts, Mrs. N. L. 
Tighe, Mrs. Bryan G. 
Tilden, Averill 
Tilden, Louis Edward 
Tilt, Charles A. 
Titzel, Dr. W. R. 
Tobey, William Robert 
Tobias, Clayton H. 
Torbet, A. W. 
Touchstone, John Henry 
Towle, Leroy C. 
Towler, Kenneth F. 
Towne, Mrs. John D. C. 
Trask, Arthur C. 
Traylor, Mrs. Dorothy J. 
Trees, Merle J. 

Tripp, Chester D. 
Trombly, Dr. F. F. 
Trude, Mrs. Mark W. 
True, Charles H. 
Tumpeer, Joseph J. 
Turck, J. A. V. 
Turner, Alfred M. 
Turner, Tracy L. 
Tuthill, Mrs. Beulah L. 
Tuthill, Gray B. 
Tuttle, Emerson 
Tuttle, F. B. 
Tuttle, Mrs. Henry N. 
Tyler, Mrs. Orson K. 

Ullman, Mrs. N. J. 
UUmann, Herbert S. 
Upham, Mrs. Frederic W. 

Vacin, Emil F. 
Valentine, Joseph L. 
Valentine, Mrs. May L. 
Valentine, Patrick A. 
VanArtsdale, Mrs. Flora 
VanCleef, Mrs. Noah 
VanCleef, Paul 

Vanek, John C. 
VanNess, Gardiner B. 
VanSchaack, R. H., Jr. 
VanZwoll, Henry B. 
Vaughan, Leonard H. 
Vawter, William A., II 
Veeder, Miss Jessie 
Vehe, Dr. K. L. 
Vehon, Morris 
Verson, David C. 
Vial, Charles H. 
Vial, F. K. 
Vial, Miss Mary M. 
Vickery, Miss Mabel S. 
Victor, Mrs. Jessie K. 
Vogl, Otto 
Volicas, Dr. John N. 
VonColditz, Dr. G. 

vonGlahn, Mrs. August 
Voorhees, Mrs. Condit 
Voorhees, H. Belin 
Voynow, Edward E. 

Wager, William 
Wagner, Fritz, Jr. 
Walgreen, Mrs. 

Charles R. 
Walker, James 
Walker, Mrs. Paul 
Walker, Samuel J. 
Walker, William E. 
Wallace, Walter F. 
Waller, James B., Jr. 

320 FiKi.i) MuseuM OK Natirai. History FiKPORTs. Vol. 12 

Wallorirh, (I««»irK'» W. 
V, I. M. 

1 Mar>' 
. Mm. S. Arthur 

\'. . . i !*in J. 
W.i: i. M-. N. r. 

• Worth 

. \in. John Eliot 
\'-- I). 

\ r G. 

. I larko 

\s .. 

li id. Jr. 

V. . ' iirrncpW, 


\-, ,._■._■ 

iarr>* (.'. 
J. W.. Jr. 

■•:. r. 

\'. " -\n A. (i, 

Wcavor. ( : 

W-»-' ^'- - 

\v r L. 

\S. . li. A. 

\V. l<<«on 

• 1, 

•1 W, 

- n If. 

>, Mr«. 

X A. 

I r. 
r n. 



\ : .- \t-v c. A. 

Baumrucker, Charlw F. 

W«»nlworth, Mr*. 


Wi-it. J Uov 

\\,-- \f \f ..^. CI-:". 


w r. 


N\ I- 



\\] .. '. - • !,. -! r 


W K 



W 1 H. 

\\ I'- T.- 


W . H. A. 

W T 

Wioland. " ' . 

V .-. v. 

W :. 

\Vii<i»T, Mm. John K. 

Wilkir. .Mn«. MUlon \V. 

Wilk.y. Fnfl S. 

W ' • ..r 


W . sin. 

\\ . John C. 


WiHi.»m.>«. H.irT>' Ijpq 

W ' ^' 

W h 

\\ KT H. 

W.., . ; :. 

Willie« H. 
Willrn-r. IU<Mton Jack, Jr 
Willv JI. K. 
Wiimo. Hermann P. 

wiiv.n. y- '• ' - - 

WiL^nn. !• 
\Vi!»-.n. N' 
Wiloon, ^• VT 

Wilson, n; 


BInm* . 1. 

Brown. I^ n 

B ->. Kdwartl 

B W. K. 

WiUon, Mm. Bob«rt 

• T'.oh^Tt K 


■■' ■ ■' . . ...:.,. i . 

-. H. H. Jr 

• rlramM. 



rt n. 

^^ ^ V. ... 

. '.:- c;<nrud«» D. 
Harold K. 

'^'i ' ■■1. i\.i%. Jr. 
W i. I:..|..rt K. 
^'' :. \\ .lam Ci. 


W.-rK. ; 

Wnrk.H. ' -„ \ 

Wnjcht. H. C. 

harlet V 
o. H. o. 
.... .... Harry B. 

'\ Frrd 
. Richard W. 
Yondorf, John David 

. Jr. 
; rkry. Mm. .\I ", .• 
^ ;nK. B. Botuf...-.; 
'i '.n%, K. Frmnk 

■ : t:. 


\ uung. 

• ' ' " ^ w. 
r J. 
• r, I harlf* F. 

('l.,,',^ 4 

Loui* W. 

...■-. A. 
K. David 

Burton, Mm. Emcst D 
Caldwell, C. D. 
Da\'i<<. Ralph 

Sustaining Members — Annual Members 


Dennehy, Thomas C. 
Dixon, William Warren 
Dole, Andrew R. 
Drummond, James J. 

Ewell, C. D. 

Fuller, Leroy W. 

Gallagher, Vincent G. 
Gary, Fred Elbert 
Gerts, Walter S. 
Gillman, Morris 
Greenlee, James A. 

Harding, Charles F., Jr. 

Harker, H. L. 

Howe, Charles Arthur 

Johnstone, Dr. 
Mary M. S. 

Kilbourne, L. B. 
Kircher, Rev. Julius 
Kritchevsky, Dr. Wolff 
Kroehl, Howard 

Lamson, W. A. 
Lawson, Arthur J. 
Leistner, Oscar 
Lloyd, Edward W. 
Lownik, Dr. Felix J. 
Lydon, Mrs. William A. 

Melchione, Joseph 

Nash, Charles J. 

Powell, Isaac N. 

Pusey, Dr. William Allen 

Reeve, Frederick E. 

Schlake, William 
Sturges, Solomon 

Thompson, Mrs. Leverett 
Thurber, Dr. Austin H. 

Ware, Mrs. Charles 
Ware, Mrs. Charles W. 
Warren, J. Latham 
Wells, Thomas E. 
Wilder, Mrs. T. E. 
Williams, Dr. A. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $50 to the Museum 

Baum, Mrs. James 
Colby, Carl 
Day, Mrs. Winfield S. 
Meevers, Harvey 

Mitchell, W. A. 
Niederhauser, Homer 
Phillips, Montagu Austin 
Stevens, Edmund W. 


Those who contribute $25 annually to the Museum 

Carney, Thomas J. 
Chinlund, Miss Ruth E. 

Kurtz, W. 0. 
Lassers, Sanford 

Louis, Mrs. John J. 
Mclnerney, John L. 
Peel, Richard H. 
Sawyer, Ainslie Y. 

Somers, Byron H. 
Stein, Sydney, Jr. 
Swigart, John D. 

Wade, Walter A. 


Those who contribute $10 annually to the Museum 

Abeles, Jerome G. 
Abrahams, Harry E. 
Achenbach, William N. 
Adamowski, Benjmin S. 
Adams, A. J. 
Adams, Cyrus H. 
Adams, Harvey M. 
Adams, Hugh R. 
Adams, Dr. Walter A. 
Addington, Mrs. James R. 

Adler, Sidney 
Agnew, H. D. 
Aishton, Richard H. 
Albert, Mrs. Lloyd G. 
Alessio, Frank 
Alexander, John F. 
Alexander, William J. 
Alford, Virgil E. 
Allen, Dr. A. V. 
Allen, Amos G. 

Allen, Edwin D. 
Allen, Frank W. 
Allen, John D. 
Allen, W. B. 
Allin, Mrs. J. J. 
Allman, George D. 
Alrutz, Dr. Louis F. 
Altheimer, Ben J. 
Alton, Robert Leslie 
Amberg, Harold V. 

322 FiKi.n MrsKiM of Xatikai. Histoky IlKmRTs, Vol. 12 



" -V r 

Ai . Dr. Juliu-i M. 

r.i H. 

Ai \. 

! Kdwnrd \V. 

Ai Mn A. W. 


Ai Mm. Alma K. 

I • ■ .■._..,; 

Ai J. A. 


Ai ' ' -w 

! . I.. 


i ' -H. Hrrman .A. 

.\nd«T<i<>n, \\»» H. 

Hi;:i«, M-rriji 

Ap'-- ^- M. 

p. . 1. . \ ( , '"'t— '^i^ 

A I . Mr!i. Harrj- K. 


Ar S. 

' \. 


i ■ ■ -t 

.\rthur. Miv» Minnio J. 


.\rvry. Ja«n)b .M. 

f -■...,- i i 1 . 

Anhrraft. KHwjn M., Ill 

i Harold 

,\."«hum. John H. 

1 ••'•'• 

.\tw(x><i. F'riHl Ct. 


Au»man. Mrs. Kvan I.. 

; K. 

Au.itin. Kdwin ('. 

1 .. .M. 

Au.itin. M. B. 

H.TKPr. R. O. 

Austin, Dr. Marjpirrt 

]' -.■■ '• 


! Mildrixl 

Austrian. Mrs. H. S. 


Auty, K. A. 


Bn" •• ^•- !^ ^. M. 

i>'rr . . < . 1 <. 


Bost.'l. ()liv<r .\. 

Ba...u. \\ 

Bad.-. Mr mi A 

• T. 

Bagbv. John i.'. 
Bak.r. C. M. 

ph Honry 

l..i.- r%. .".;, -. jnu'x» 

Balahan. KltTUT 

Bird. Herbert J. 

B . >. Mni. 

t: - • •' -. , T. 



Baifanr., Hpnr>' W. 

! '.'. 

Ballard. Mn«. K. S. 

1 :.:; -. .'. . 

Bankard. K. Hoover, Jr. 


Barb«>r, rharl*«« E. 

T- • " ^ K. 

Barl>^r. S. L. 

1 • ■ ,. 

Banl. W. A. 

Block. V L. 

Barkrr. Charlw P. 

Blomqu. , 

Barker. Jam«» M. 

Bloom, H. L. 

Bark.r. W R. 

T" - ' ' - V ^1 

Bam«>*. 1 

I S. 

B.< Vn.. Harold 

I .rr.- 


1 m L. 

Barn'T'. J'<hn Pott* 

Blunt. • 

Brx " - Jl. 

«••••'- • w. 

B > .*;. 


Barr» t; . V" ' :\ 


B.1"--- ' A 

-. A. F. 


■ ■ '.v. 

B " ' 

■ ■ \\ "' \ 


: ■ . '1 





Batr««. (iooricr A. 

.. K. P. 

Bat*^. Harr>- A. 

. . 'avid 

Baughman. R. I'. 

i -1. Dr. Ixiuis 

Bauman, Jo**>ph J. 

Ik*vuigdon. Mni. Thome 


! . i! Mm. Henry W. 
B.' .-.1. Mr». 

' na 

B: K. 

Br • V. 

Brand, t»u«tavp A. 
Brandel. P.uil W. 
Brandt. Frr*! T. 
B' , J. W. 

Br Mrs. Ix>uis (' 

Brrrk. Dr. Mirrick li 
Brwn, Jamra W. 
Brrmner, Dr. M. D. K. 
Br.-wor. n '■ 

Brewstrr. . K. 

Bnnoy. Dr. \S uiiam F 
BrrK>ks. Mr.v K. P. 
Broomo, John Spoor 

Br '■'. 

Br. •Ah, Mini. Kiia W . 

Brnwn. H. A. 
Brown. Robert C, Jr 
Brown. .*^ydnfv T' 
BrowninK, J. 1 . 
Br - r>r M.i- 

B . . Wrs. ] 

Budd. Mrs. L. W. 
B"" V'"«. Ralph 
B Trrr. 

Biiii. 1.. iVrkina 
Bunn. B. H. 
Bvannell, John A. 
Burrh. Mrs. W. E. 
Burrhmore, John S. 
B'. • ' •■ rle* B. 
B Irs. 

Kaiph K. 
Burnrt. Nfrs. W. A. 
Burridge, Mm. HowarH J. 
Burrows. MiM Louisa L 
Busrh. FranrU X. 
Byfield. Kmest L. 
Byrne. Mm M. W. K 
Byrne*. William Jerom* 

Cabell. Mm. Robert H. 
Cable, Arthur G. 
Caesar. O. E. 
Caine. Leon J. 
Callahan. Mr». A. F. 
Callan. T. J. 
Campbell. Argyle 
Campbell. Donald A. 
Campbell. Mrii. John G. 
Canavan, J. Newell 
Carey. Deni» P. 
Carl. Otto Frederick 

Annual Members 


Carlisle, William George 
Carlson, Mrs. Annetta C. 
Carlson, John F. 
Carlton, Mrs. Frank A. 
Carpenter, John Alden 
Carpenter, Robert 
Carr, Henry C. 
Carter, Mrs. C. B. 
Carter, Mrs. R. B. 
Cassady, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Castle, Sidney 
Cavanagh, Mrs. Joseph J. 
Cavenaugh, Robert A. 
Cervenka, John A. 
Chandler, Charles H. 
Chandler, Dr. Fremont A. 
Chapin, Rufus F, 
Chapman, Ralph 
Chapman, Theodore S. 
Chapman, William 

Chase, Carroll G. 
Chessman, L. W. 
Childs, Kent C. 
Chrissinger, Horace B. 
Christensen, E. C. 
Christensen, Henry C. 
Citron, William 
Clancy, James F. 
Clark, A. B. 
Clark, E. L. 
Clark, Miss Marion 
Clark, N. R. 
Clark, Mrs. Ralph E. 
Clark, Robert H. 
Clark, Mrs. Robert K. 
Clark, Miss Rose A. 
Clark, Willard F. . 
Clarke, Mrs. A. S. C. 
Clarke, Broadus J. 
Clarke, David R. 
Clarke, Mrs. Philip R. 
Clements, Mrs. Ira J. 
Clements, J. A. 
Clifford, Fred J., Jr. 
Clissold, Edward T. 
Clizbe, Mrs. F. O. 
Clow, Kent S. 
Cobbey, J. A. 
Coburn, Archie T. 
Cochran, William S. 
Coe, Mrs. Schuyler M. 
Coen, T. M. 
Cohen, Archie H. 
Cohen, Harry 
Cohen, Reuben W. 
Cole, Samuel 
Coleman, Hamilton 
Collins, Arthur W. 
Collins, Charles W. 
Collins, Mrs. Frank P. 
Collins, H. W. 

Colvin, Miss Bonnie 
Combs, Earle M., Jr. 
Condee, Ralph W. 
Condon, Mrs. Jessie B. 
Connolly, R. E. 
Connors, Mrs. Thomas A. 
Consoer, Arthur W. 
Consoer, George 0. 
Cook, Louis T. 
Cook, Paul W. 
Cook, Sidney A. 
Coombs, Dr. Arthur J. 
Cooper, Charles H. 
Cooper, Mrs. Clay C. 
Coppel, Mrs. Charles H. 
Corper, Erwin 
Couse, Arthur J. 
Coverley, Mrs. Cecile 
Cowham, Robert Neil 
Coxe, Miss Winnie 
Craddock, John F. 
Cragg, Mrs. George L. 
Craig, E. C. 
Cramer, Mrs. Ambrose 
Crane, Dr. Cyril V. 
Crawford, Adam W. 
Creevy, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Crites, Joe 
Cronkhite, A. C. 
Crowell, Dr. Bowman 

Crowell, Mrs. Lucius A. 
Cummings, Dr. C. A. 
Cummings, Mrs. Dexter 
Cuneo, Frank 
Cunningham, Robert M. 
Cunningham, Secor 
Curran, William 
Curtis, Al Martin 
Curtis, D. C. 
Cuscaden, Fred A. 
Cushman, Dr. Beulah 
Cushman, Robert S. 

Dallwig, P. G. 
Dalzell, Harry G. 
Daniel, Norman 
Danielson, Miss Ellen T. 
Danielson, Reuben G. 
Darrow, William Dwight 
Daspit, Walter 
David, Sigmund W. 
Davies, Mrs. H. G. 
Davies, William B. 
Davis, Mrs. Abel 
Davis, Arthur G. 
Davis, Mrs. Charles P. 
Davis, Charles S. 
Davis, Miss Elease E. 
Davis, Mrs. F. Ben 
Davis, Paul H. 
Davis, Ralph W. 

Day, Mrs. Lewis J. 
Decker, Herbert 
Deffenbaugh, Walter I. 
Defrees, Mrs. Joseph H, 
Degener, August W. 
Deimel, Mrs. Jerome L. 
Delph, Dr. John F. 
de Mars, Miss Anita 
Denison, John W. 
Deniston, Mrs. Albert 

J., Jr. 
Denson, John H. 
DePencier, Mrs. 

Joseph R. 
Depue, Oscar B. 
D'Esposito, Joshua 
Dewey, Mrs. Charles S. 
Diamond, Louis E. 
Dick, Mrs. Edison 
Dillbahner, Frank 
Dimmer, Miss 

Elizabeth G. 
Dinkelman, Harry 
Dixon, Mrs. Wesley M. 
Dobricky, Stanley 
Donahue, Elmer W. 
Donnelley, Thorne 
Dorschel, Q. P. 
Dotson, Heber T. 
Douglas, Mrs. James H. 
Douglas, William C. 
Dovenmuehle, George H. 
Drake, L. J. 
Drell, Mrs. J. B. 
Dressel, Charles L. 
Dreutzer, Carl 
Drever, Thomas 
Drew, Walter W. 
Drezmal, Max A. 
Drielsrna, I. J. 
Drummond, John H. 
Dry, Meyer 
Dulsky, Louis 
Dunigan, Edward B, 
Dunlap, George G. 
Durbin, Miss N. B. 

Easter, Donald W. 
Eaton, Norman 
Eckhouse, George H. 
Eckhouse, Walter L. 
Ed, Carl 

Edell, Mrs. Fred B. 
Edgerly, Countess Mira 
Eismann, William 
Eitel, Emil 
Eitel, Karl 
Eitel, Robert J. 
Eldred, Mrs. Harriot W. 
Elkan, Leo H. 
Elliott, Dr. Clinton A. 
Elliott, Frank Osborne 

n-j J Field Muskum of Natliial History Iif:i*nmN \'ni 12 

Klliott. Mp. William A. 


. Mm Harlry T. 

F'" •• " nmS. 


- ' — H. 

y 1:. 


y c. 





y •""■•- 

> P. 

y I F. 


K i. I.. Jr. 

K .»n 

Kmbrp«», Hmr>* S. 

i ' 

!.>.>.'.-. T \v Jr. 

: I . 

y . F. 

1. Dr. M. R. 

y r 

»f; — t)..i««. 

.TiAi Kiiby 

y H H. 

Tf W. 


ui M. 


F A. 

Mp. I. H 

K\,i:.H. Mrn. Arthur T. 

- I>r Stanton A 

Kvanv F. H. 


K%rni. John W., Jr. 



Fa.r. Mr. H.I.n E. 

. John R. 

|,--. -■ \i. \\ s 

T f 

y^ • ■ ' in 

lam A. 

F^;.'.. I>r. V. \l. 


Far,*-;«. Vt.'-^* I.. 


F D. 

F K. J. 

A H. 


■ ram 

y n. 

1 »■* 

i-Ips K 

y D. 


. J. K. 



Mills Gertrude 

y- . Jim G. 


Mm. Rudolph 

F. .: • v.. Jr. 

f ■ . 

*• • H. 

F.— -. ■ ■ k 

. n. 

y. . n. Mn.. M. C. 

Fi.; i. Mm. J. A. 

'-■. VugUAt 

FirM. Mm. 

• vc 

tl .„ _.!. f 

. r, r.. 


Horb^^rt F. 

K P 

i N. 

K t:. 


F nd C. 



• 1 r"*. 





- A. 

• * 1 

1 roard 

K M 

r. !•;••. 



. ■ '■ ' 

~ W. 


-iot F. 


\. u. 



F ': 

-i. T. 

F: . , .: ... 

\', .M 

Flor>'. OwpTi 0. 


Floto. J. W. 

i.. Jr. 

Flynn. Maurif* J. 


Fojtipr. y. \. 

John K. 

Follptt. ( . - A'. 
Folsom. Mrs. William R 

.. .Mm. Convpn 

, Dr. Philip C. 



\ I ^ 


(. . lA'ii A. 

(. . ... .K, Dr. lUrry 

G'vkI. Arthur I*. 
Go<k1 ' ' ' '' ■ 
Goo«i: , I^ 

Go<wlmBn, Mm. 

William O. 
German, John J. 
G - " V. IliamJ 

<; k M 

*' ^ •'*- 

< ira<-<«, John H.. Jr. 
Gradr, Jo4M>ph Y. 
GraffiJi. Herbert 
(.- Mm. WilliAin 

(i Mm. W. W. 

(if......... ' ' "''-^ N., Jr. 

Graupr, \' 

G- T. i t.i^xlorv P 

("i . Aard 

Graydon, Gharin E. 

Grrf'n, C. M. 

Gr««n. Mm. Dwight H 


Grt^T b 

G" nam B. 

Gr. .; ..,.;. 

Grrll. I>ouiii 

G- V n F. 

G rdT. 

(; G. S. 


Gr '. :. M.H.H Kow 

G" imin H. 

G nn li. 

Guillen, Jiimo« J. 

Gunnar, Mm. H. P. 

Gujikay. John W. 

G y 

Gui;K. Mr*. M^inny 

Ilarkptt, Mm. Jamci J. li 
Haffner. Mr». Cbmrtoi '^ 
C. Jr. 

H " • y 

U . 

Hagry. J. K. 
Hagloy. Muw Olive L. 
Hajrk. Hmry F. 

Hall. ■ - - n. 
Hall, : 
Hall, Harry 
Hall. Henry C. 
Hall, Louw W. 

Annual Members 


Hamilton, Mrs. 

Chester F. 
Hamilton, Hugo A. 
Hamilton, J. R. 
Hammill, Miss Edith K. 
Hammond, C. Herrick 
Hansen, Adolph H. 
Harbison, Robert B. 
Hardin, George D. 
Harding, Mrs. Charles F. 
Harpel, Mrs. Charles J. 
Harper, Philip S. 
Harper, Robert B. 
Harrington, George Bates 
Harrington, S. R. 
Harris, Benjamin R. 
Harris, Frank F. 
Harris, Mortimer B. 
Harrison, William H. 
Harrold, James P. 
Harshaw, Myron T. 
Hart, Mrs. G. H. 
Hart, Mrs. H. G. 
Hart, Mrs. Harry- 
Hart, Louis E. 
Hart, Mrs. 
i Rachel Harber 
Hart, Mrs. Walter H. 
Harvey, Byron S. 
Harvey, Mrs. Byron, Jr. 
Harvey, Mrs. Harold B. 
Haskell, L. A. 
Haskins, Raymond G. 
Sattstaedt, Mrs. John J. 
Hauser, J. C. 
iawkes, Joseph B. 
iawkinson. Dr. Oscar 
^awley, Mrs. Melvin M. 
lawthorne, Vaughn R. 
Paynes, William H. 
ieadley, Mrs. Ida M. 
ieald, Mrs. Henry T. 
lealy, John J. 
lealy, Vincent E. 
leavey, John C. 
iebel, Oscar 
leckel, Edmund P. 
Meckel, Dr. Norris J. 
ledly, Arthur H. 
ieed, Mrs. D. 
leg, Ernest 
leifetz, Samuel 
ielebrandt, Louis 
lelgason, Arni 
ielland, A. L 
ieller, Fred M. 
lenderson, B. E. 
lendry, Chester S. 
lenke, Frank X. 
ienkle, Charles Zane 
lenning, Mrs. Helen E. 
lenriksen, H. M. 

Hersh, Dr. Helen 
Herz, Alfred 
Hess, Edward J. 
Hess, Sol H. 
Hesseltine, Dr. H. 

Hibbard, Angus S. 
Hicks, Mrs. Ernest H. 
High, Mrs. George H. 
High, Shirley T. 
Hill, Mrs. Cyrus G. 
Hill, Miss Meda A. 
Hill, William C. 
Hiller, J. A. 
Hillyer, John T. 
Hilpert, Dr. Willis S. 
Hilton, Henry H. 
Hinckley, Mrs. Freeman 
Hinds, Fred J. 
Hirsch, Edwin W. 
Hirsh, Morris Henry 
Hitchcock, Mrs. 

Arthur B. 
Hixon, H. Rea 
Hoag, Mrs. Junius C. 
Hochfeldt, William F. 
Hodges, L. C. 
Hoffman, Mrs. 

Robert M., Jr. 
Hofman, Charles M. 
Hollaman, Arthur M. 
HoUender, S. S. 
Hollerbach, Joseph 
Hollingshead, Mrs. A. G. 
Holmes, Miss Berenice 
Holt, McPherson 
Holter, Charles C. 
Holzheimer, Joseph 
Hood, H. M. 
Hooper, A. F. 
Horton, Mrs. Arthur 
Horween, Isidore 
Horwich, Alan H. 
Horwich, Philip 
Houston, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Howard, Charles Lowell 
Howe, Roger F. 
Hoyt, Dr. D. C. 
Hoyt, N. Landon, Jr. 
Hoyt, William M., II 
Hubachek, Frank 

Huck, Mrs. Irene 
Huettmann, Fred 
Huff, Dr. Robert E. 
Huffman, Frank C. 
Huguenor, Lloyd B. 
Hurd, Ferris E. 
Hurd, Harry B. 
Huth, Mrs. C. F. 
Huxley, Henry M. 
Hyman, Mrs. David A. 

Immerwahr, Max E. 
Ingalls, Allin K. 
Ireland, Mrs. Charles H. 
Irish, Dr. Henry E. 
Isaacs, Lewis J. 
Ivy, Dr. A. C. 

Jack, Dr. Harry T. 
Jackson, Mrs. Martha F. 
Jackson, Mrs. Pleda H. 
Jackson, Mrs. W. A. 
Jackson, W. H. 
Jacobs, Nate 
James, H. H. 
Jamieson, Norman R. 
Janata, Louis J. 
Jarvis, WiUiam B. 
Jeffers, Roy S. 
Jeffreys, Mrs. Mary M. 
Jeffries, Dr. Daniel W. 
Jeffries, Dr. Milo E. 
Jenner, Mrs. Austin 
Jennings, Mrs. C. A. 
Jensen, George P. 
Jewett, George F. 
Job, Dr. Thesle T. 
Johns, Mrs. K. V. 

Johnson, B. W. 
Johnson, Edmund G. 
Johnson, Miss 

Kathryn M. 
Johnson, Miss Millie C. 
Johnston, A. J. 
Johnston, Mrs. Alfred B. 
Johnston, Mrs. W. 

Johnstone, Mrs. Bruce 
Jones, Mrs. C. A. 
Jones, Charles W. 
Jones, D. C. 
Jones, Howard B. 
Jones, Owen Barton 
Jordan, Dr. John W. 
Joseph, Albert G. 
Joy, James A. 
Julian, Frederick 

Kaczkowski, Dr. 

Joseph C. 
Kagan, Bernhard R. 
Kahlke, Dr. Charles E. 
Kahn, Jerome J. 
Kahn, Louis 
Kahn, Paul J. 
Kamin, E. J. 
Kampmeier, August G. 
Kanter, Dr. Aaron E. 
Kapche, William 
Kaplan, Benjamin G. 
Kaplan, Frank 
Karker, Mrs. M. H. 


326 FiKLD MisKi'M OF Xatural History I'.kports, Vol. 12 

K -• ■ ]a*o 
K . Norman V.; , >.imiii'l 
K:itz, Miss Josmip 
Katz, Solomon 
KatzrnlMTRor, Mrs. W. U. 
Kaufman. Mrs. J. Sylvan 
K '' K. A. 

K .. . T M. 

Kerk, Mat hew 
Ko<>nr, William J. 
Keim, Molvillo 
Kolloy, Mrs. Tholps 
Kollogjj, James (I. 
KoliogK. John Payne 
Kellv, Charles Scott 
Kelly. Frank S. 
Kelly, Miss 

Katherine Mariorie 
Kemp, Dr. Jarolcl 
Kemper, Miss Hilda M. 
Kennedy, David K. 
Kenyon, Mrs. Kdward F. 
Keplinger, W. A. 
Kerr, l><>slie H. 
Kettering, Mrs. E. W. 
Keyser, Charles F. 
Kimbali, Mrs. K. M. 
Kimball, T. Weller 
King, Clinton H. 
King, Frank L. 
King, H. R. 
King, J. Andrews 
King, Kenneth R. 
King. Willard L. 
Kirshhaum, Harry L. 
Klein, Mrs. A. S. 
Klein, Dr. Da\nd 
Kleinschmidt, ?]dward 
Kline, A. 
Kloese. Henry 
Knapp, Charles S. 
Knohjock, Byron W. 
Knode, Oliver M. 
Knol, Nicholas 
Knutson, Mrs. George H. 
Koch, Carl 
Korh, Mrs. Fred J. 
Koehnlein, Wil.son O. 
Kohn. Mrs. Frances J. 
Kohout. Joseph. Jr. 
Koltz, CJeorge C 
Koolish, Pullman 
Koopmann, Kmest F. 

K" • ,1. Dr. 

■ h Thompson 
K :. J. A. 

K -ge 

Ko9trze^»-ski, Dr. M. J. 
Kotas, Rudolph J. 
Kotrba. Frank 
Kraemer, Leo 

KrnfTt. Walter A. 
Kraft. John H. 

■i)auer, Charles F. 

rg, Rudolph 
Krawetz. .Mrs. Johannea 
Krebs, Charles K. 
Kresl. Carl 
Krier. .^ ■ J. 

Krorh. , . 

Krol, Dr. Francis R. 
Kniesi. F. K. 
Kruggel. .-Vrthur 
Kuehn, Miss Katherine 
Kuehn, Oswald L. 
Kuhnen, Mrs. George H. 
Kuhns, Mrs. H. B. 
Kurth, W. H. 

I^chman, Harold 
Ladd, John W. 
Laird, Robert S. 
Lamb, George N. 
I>andon, Rol>ert E. 
Lang. Isidor 
Lange, A. G. 
Langert, A. M. 
Langford, Joseph P. 
Lapp, John A. 
Larson, Charles E. 
Larson, Simon P. 
Lasch, Charles F. 
I>.'itimer, William L. 
Lau, .Mrs. John 

Laud. Sam 
L.1W, .\L A. 
Lawrence. Walter D. 
I>awson. David A. 
Layden, Michael J. 
Lazear, George C. 
]ah', P.dward N. 
I.,ee, Mrs. 

William George 
I>>hman, I.^iwrence B. 
I.'hman, ( ). W. 
I>ighty, Kdgar R. 
I>eslie, John Woodworth 
I>etterman, A. L. 
I/Tutz, Marie 
I^evin, I/ouis 
I>4'vine, William 
Levinger, Mrs. David 
TiOvis. John M. 
I>e\-y, Mrs. Arthur K. 
I>ewis. Mrs. Lloyd 
I>ewis. Mrs. Walker O. 
L'Hommedieu. .\rthur 
Lichtenstein. Walter 
Lindeman, John H. 
T ' . Mrs. Martin 
i ^cr, Mrs. 

Charles E. 

Lingolt, Richard H. 
Linn, .\irs. Jamc-s W. 
Lipman, Abraham 

L'l.T.' .'* n n 

Lit I if, I nar.' ■ ' ;. 
Little. F. C. 
F . Mrs. Ken- ■ 

L : ... Harry H. 
Loeb, Arthur A. 
I,,- -- , - ' — Kmanuei 
L . Kmanuel 

IvijfUuL'il, Karl K. 
Logan, Mrs. Frank G. 
Loomis, Miss Marie 
Love. Joseph Kirk 
I»ve. .Miss R. B. 
Lynch, .Mrs. Cora E. 
Lyon, C. E. 
Lyon, Mrs. Jeneva A. 
Lyon, Mrs. William H. 

NT ■ - ■ - "" ] V. 

Macfarland, Mrs. 

Henr\* J. 
M ^ ^ • - ■■■-,: 

Hugh .\. 
Mackie. Da\'id Smith 
MacMillan, William D. 
MacMurray, Mrs. 

Macomb, J. deNavarre 
Maddock, Alice E. 
Maddock, Thomas E. 
NLidlener. Mrs. 

Albert F.. Jr. 
Magie, William A. 
.Magner, Rev. F. J. 
.Mating, .Albert 
Malkov, David S. 
.Manaster, Henr>' 
Manheimer, Arthur E. 
Manning, Guv E. 
Mansfield, Alfred W. 
Manta. Mrs. John L. 
NLirkman. Mrs. 

Samuel K. 
Marks. Mrs. Frank H. 
Marnane. James D. 
Marrjuart. .Arthur A. 
Marquart, E. C. 
Marsch, Mrs. John 
Marsh, Charles L. 
Marshall, Kdward 
.Marslon. Mrs. T. B. 
Martin. Webb W. 
Marvin. W. Ross 
Marwick, Maurice 
Marx, Samuel A. 

Annual Members 


Mason, Dr. Ira M. 
Mason, Lewis F. 
Mason, Mrs. Michael L. 
Mattes, Harold C. 
Matthews, Francis E. 
Matthews, J. H. 
Mawicke, Henry J. 
Maxwell, William A. 
May, Sol 

Mayer, Arthur H. 
Mayer, Edwin W. C. 
Mayer, Frederick 
Mayer, Richard 
Maynard, Edwin T. 
McAllister, M. Hall 
McAloon, Owen J. 
McArthur, Mrs. S. W. 
McCarthy, F. J. 
McClure, Donald F. 
McConnell, F. B. 
McCormick, Miss 

Elizabeth D. 
McCoy, Charles S. 
McCreight, Marion 
i Everett 

McDonnell, Mrs. E. N. 
McDonnell, John B. 
McDougall, E. G. 
McDowell, Miss Ada V. 
McDowell, Malcolm 
McEwen, William 
McFadden, Everett R. 
McGowen, Thomas N. 
McGrain, Preston 
McGrew, Mrs. O. V. 
McGuire, Simms D. 
McKay, Miss Mabel 
McKeown, Daniel F. 
McKibbin, Mrs. GeorgeB. 
McKinlock, Mrs. 

George A. 
McKinstry, W. B. 
McKisson, Robert W. 
McLaughlin, Mrs. 

George D. 
M cLaughlin , D r. James H . 
McLaughlin, Mrs, 

Jesse L. 
McManus, James F. 
McMillan, Mrs. 

Foster L. 
McNall, Quinlan J. 
McNamara, Robert C. 
McPherson, Donald F. 
McSurely, Mrs. 

WiUiam H. 
VIechem, John C. 
Meek, Miss Margaret E. 
Meeker, Arthur 
VIehlhope, Clarence E. 
Meier, Mrs. Edward 
Melville, Hugh M. 

Merchant, Miss Grace M. 
Meredith, Oscar F. 
Merritt, Thomas W, 
Merz, Miss Martha 
Metzenberg, John B. 
Metzenberg, Leopold 
Meyer, Wallace 
Meyerhoff, A. E. 
Michaels, Joseph 
Michel, Dr. William A. 
Milchrist, Frank T. 
Millard, Mrs. E. L. 
Miller, Joseph 
Miller, William 
Mills, Mrs. James Leonard 
Milne, John H. 
Mitchell, Mrs. George R. 
Mitchell, Mrs. 

James Herbert 
Molay, Marshal D., M.D. 
Molter, Harold 
Monroe, Walter D. 
Moore, Mrs. Agnes C. 
Moore, Dr. Beveridge H. 
Moore, Mrs. J. W. 
Moore, Nathan G. 
Moore, Oscar L. 
Morgan, Clarence 
Mork, P. R. 
Morley, Rev. Walter K. 
Morris, Ira Nelson 
Morris, Milton H. 
Morrow, John, Jr. 
Morse, Mrs. John B. 
Morton, Dr. Edward C. 
Moser, Paul 
Moss, Alfred J. 
Moss, Jacob L. 
Mowrer, Mrs. Paul 

Mudd, Joseph B. 
Mueller, Dr. E. W. 
Mulcahy, Mrs, Michael F. 
Muller, Allan 
Murphy, E. T. 
Murphy, Mrs. Helen C. 
Murphy, Henry C. 
Murphy, J. P. 
Murphy, John C. 
Murray, William M. 
Musick, Philip Lee 
Muter, Leslie F. 
Myers, Harold B. 

Nadelhoffer, Dr. L. E. 
Nafziger, R. L. 
Nance, Willis D. 
Nardi, Mrs. E. W, 
Nardin, John G, 
Nash, Fred W. 
Nast, Mrs. Samuel 
Nath, Bernard 

Nau, Otto F. 
Nelson, Charles M, 
Nelson, Herbert U. 
Nelson, Hoogner 
Ness, J. Stanley 
Nessler, Robert W. 
Newman, Charles H. 
Newman, Mrs. H. H. 
Newman, Mrs. Jacob 
Nickerson, J. F. 
Noble, Guy L. 
Nolte, Charles B. 
Norcott, Mrs. Ernest J. 
Nordstrum, George W. 
Norian, Morris 
Norris, Eben H. 
North, Mrs. F. S. 
Novy, Dr. B. Newton 
Nyquist, Carl 

Oberhelman, Dr. 

Harry A. 
Obermaier, John A. 
Obermeyer, Charles B. 
O'Brien, M. J. 
O'Brien, Miss 

Theresa J. 
Ochsner, Dr. Edward H. 
O'Donohue, Miss Anna 
Oelkers, Alfred H. 
Ogilvie, Alexander W. T. 
O'Hara, Arthur J. 
Oldberg, Dr. Eric 
Oleson, John P. 
Oleson, Philip H. 
Olin, Edward L. 
Olsen, Mrs. Arthur O. 
O'Neill, Dr. Eugene J. 
Oppenheimer, Seymour 
Orban, Dr. Balint 
Ormsby, Mrs. Frank E. 
Orschel, Albert K. 
Ossendorff, Dr. K. W. 
O'Toole, John F. 
Owen, Mrs. W. David 

Palmer, Robert F. 
Panosh, Roy W. 
Pardee, Harvey 
Parker, Austin H. 
Parkinson, Mrs. 

George H. 
Parmelee, Dwight S. 
Parsons, Bruce 
Parker, George S, 
Pashkow, A. D, 
Patch, Mrs. G. M. 
Patterson, Grier D. 
Pauley, Clarence O. 
Paulsen, Arthur N. 
Paulson, Miss Christine 
Paulus, Mrs. M. G. 


:V2S Fiin.n Miskim of Natiral History Kkpokts, Vol. 12 

1 Mm. William H. 

1 . Mrs. (iracc M. 

r. .^. U: >,.im C. 
I'lir.-.', Mrs, Clnrrnrr A. 
r.:., ,k. Mrv Mu.> K. 
I'l-nt'i- st , I/'Wis J. 
r.nti.-niT. M. C. 

IVrr>*. Arthur C. 
I*trir.m«n, Thorvald 
P.Tn\ Dr. Srott Turner 
! Mrs. Kllard L. 

1 . Mn<. Monroe 

r;;.n;«T, ( harlcs \V. 
ri- Ips, Kra.stus H. 
i'i'.jihs, Harrv ('. 
I- L. A. 

1 Howard C. 

I'i. K, Ji»srph Kirhard 
l', Mrs. Charles S. 
Pirie, Mrs. Gordon L. 
Pitt. A. A. 
Place. F. E. 
Plamondnn. .Mfred D. 
Plummcr, Comer 
Phimmer. Daniel C, Jr. 
PoIl.H'k. GeorRP L. 
Pnllo.-k. Mr.s. I^owia J. 
r«ind, CiO'irjje F. 
Pooro. William K. 
Porter. John II. 
Porti.««, Dr. Sidney A. 
Potter. Mrs. T. A. 
ro' Mrs. George W. 
{'■■viT, .^''p'len A. 
Prentice. J. Rockefeller 
Preston, Fred \. 
Pretty, Royden K. 
Pr-'i-i. M"^ J. A. O. 
I'ri. .-. i;ri..-st R. 
Prindle. James !I. 
Pritrhard. N. H. 
Pr .pt.. M. H. 
I'r .^-r. .I..hii A. 
I'r ;,'• , liaymond S. 
Putnam. Rufus W. 
Putlkammer. K. W. 

q -■ "'. -1 F. 

(■i ■rick 

Qu>senberr>-, T. E. 

Railton. John R 

r. ••- -.■■•> 


K "n. Mrs. George 

K... ;.. Rex 

Ravenscroft. Edward H. 
n . Mrs. I. D. 

I. i. Mrs. 

C iilTord S. 
Ra>'ner. Lawrence 
Rea. Miss Edith 

Reavis, \\ 

Ree<i. Mr-^ C. 

Re<Hl. Waller S. 



Rein. I>«ster E. 
Rei.ner, Irene K. 
Rei.v«, William 
Rembold. Fn-«i W 
ReQiia. Mrs. Chirlis H. 
ReOua. Hav.-n A. 
Reser, Harry M. 
Reu.'is. Mrs. Henr>' II. 
Revnold.s. Mrs. G. 

v.- ■■ ■ 

Rt . Joseph Callow 

Rice, Joseph J. 
Rice. Mrs. W. W. 
Richards, James Donald 
Ri. • ' Oron E. 
Ri ;i, Henry R. 

Rirhanl.son. Mrs. W. D. 
Richert, John C. 
Richter, .-Xrthur 
Riddell. John T. 
Ridley, Clarence E. 
Riel, George A. 
Riley. John H. 
Ritter, Emil W. 
Ritter, Dr. I. I. 
Ritter, Miss I^vinia 
Roadifer. W. H. 
Rohbins, Hurr L. 
Rohbins. Charles Burton 
Robbins, I./aurence 13. 
Robins<in, Emerv 

R'" " ' :>^\\p 

R- d 

Robin.son, Theodore 

W., Jr. 
Roblin. Mrs. G. S. 
Robs4in. Mrs. Oscar 
Roche, John Pierre 
Rockwell. Theodore G. 
Roden. Carl R. 
Rodgers. .Mrs. John B. 
RoRors, Mrs. J. H. 
Rollins, Athol E. 
Roman, B. F. 
Rosenberjc. Mrs. 

R. Hugo H. 

R' . .Mrs. Irwin S. 

Rosenthal, Da>'id F. 
Rosenthal. M. A. 
Rnsner. Max 
Ross, Earle L. 
Ross, Mrs. Sophie S. 
Rostenkowski, Joseph P. 

!: •■ . E. 

i. :•-. ,. .:; ;i A. 
Rowley. William A. 
]'. - V-s. Ervin L. 
! Walter L. 

! lur 

1. . 

KuK«'n, Kred A. 
Ryan, C. D. 
Kynder, Ross D. 

Sachse, William R. 
Salmon, Rudolph B 
S -^ '", Mm. V. C. 
^ ,!. Harry S. 

San^'. I'hilip D. 
Suslow, Da%*id 
Sawyer, Dr. C. F. 
Sayere, Mrs. A. J. 

Sa\Te. Dr. Loren D. 

J, . , , , 

^ -.1 

Schaus, Carl J. 
Scheel, Fred H. 
Schenker. Ben W. 
Schick. Mrs. W. F. 
Schiltz. M. A. 
Schlichtinc. Justus L. 
Schl<^s,sl)erK. Max 
Schmidt. Theodore 
Schmidtbauer. J. C. 
Schmitt. Nfrs. George J. 
S K. 

S ... : . : .imin B. 
Schneider, D. G 
?■••-.-. J. A. 
.< . Arnold C. 

S F^aul 

.^ ... .Meyer 

Schupn, Robert W. 
Schwab, Martin C. 
Schwartz. Joseph 
.'^ . Dr. Otto 

.*- Mrs. Sidney I* 

^ -r. E. O. 

.s . David P. 

Scofield. Clarence P. 
Scott. Frederick H. 
Scott. Ge^rr^ A. f{. 

Scott. (;• 

Scott. M. ; ;.. 

Soitt. Walter A. 
Scott. Dr. Walter Dill 
Sci;dder. Mrs. 

Lawrence W. 
Sciidder. W. M. 
Secord. Burton F. | 

S ' -Ti. Gilbert B. 

."- -kpr. Mrs. O. F 

:- -jj. Harr>' 

^ ^ , Calvin F. 

Selz, Mrs. J. Harry 



Annual Members 


Senear, Dr. F. E. 
Sexton, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Seymour, Mrs. Flora 

Shakman, James G. 
Shaw, John I. 
Shaw, Mrs. Walter A. 
Sheahan, Miss Marie 
Shedd, Mrs. Charles C. 
Sheridan, Leo J. 
Sherman, H. C. 
Sherman, Nate H. 
Sherwin, Mrs. F. B. 
Shrader, Frank K. 
Shultz, Earle 
Sieck, Herbert 
Siegfried, Walter H. 
Sievers, William H. 
Silbernagel, Mrs. 

George J. 
Sillani, Mrs. Mabel W. 
Simmons, Richard W. 
Simpson, Dr. Elmer E. 
Simpson, John M. 
Sims, Howard M. 
Sindelar, Joseph C. 
Sippy, Mrs. Harold L. 
Siragusa, Mrs. Ross 
Skeel, Fred F. 
Skog, Mrs. Ludvig 
Slavik, James 
Smart, Alfred 
Smith, Harold A. 
Smith, Hawley Lester 
Smith, John F., Jr. 
Smith, Mrs. 

Kenneth Gladstone 
Smith, Reynold S. 
Smith, Robert S. 
Smithson, Stuart Busby 
Snydacker, Mrs. 

James U. 
Sokoll, M. M. 
Sollitt, Mrs. George 
Sollitt, Sumner S. 
Solomon, L. R. 
Solomon, Mrs. Lewis J. 
Somerville, Mrs. Helen 
Sonnenschein, Mrs. 

Souder, Mrs. Robert 
Southman, John H. 
Spalding, Mrs. Charles F. 
Speed, Dr. Kellogg 
Speer, Earl D. 
Speer, Robert J. 
Sperling, Mrs. Grace 

Spicer, Mrs. George A. 
ipiegel, Modie J. 
Spiegel, Mrs. Philip 
Spitz, Milton J. 

Sprague, Albert A., Jr. 
Springer, Charles E. 
Stackler, Sidney 
Starck, Mrs. Philip T. 
Starrett, Mrs. June M. 
Starshak, A. L. 
Stearns, Fred 
Steckl, Miss Cornelia C. 
Steece, F. B. 
Steflfensen, Sigurd 
Stein, Lawrence M. 
Steinfeldt, Dr. C. R. 
Steins, Mrs. Halsey 
Steinwedell, William 
Stensgaard, W. L. 
Stephens, Frank Hall 
Stern, Jacob S. 
Sternath, Mrs. Hannah 
Stevens, Miss 

Charlotte M. 
Stevens, Francis O. 
Stewart, Miss Alma May 
Stewart, George R. 
Stewart, William 
Stier, Willard J. 
Stifler, Mrs. J. M. 
Stiles, Charles G. 
Stiles, J. F., Jr. 
Stoehr, Kurt 
Stone, Mrs. John 

Stops, Harry D. 
Storkan, Mrs. James 
Stout, Frederick E. 
Stransky, Franklin J. 
Straus, Eli M. 
Strauss, Marshall E. 
Strigl, F. C. 
Strubel, Henry F. 
Stumes, Charles B. 
Sturla, Harry L. 
Sturm, William G. 
Sturtevant, Roy E. 
Sullivan, Grey 
Sundlof, F. W. 
Suomela, John P. 
Swift, T. Philip 
Swigert, H. A. 
Sykes, Aubrey L. 
Symmes, William H. 
Symon, Stow E. 

Talbot, Mrs. 

Eugene S., Jr. 
Tarrson, Albert J. 
Tatge, Paul W. 
Taylor, Robert F. 
Teare, W. C. 
Teller, George L. 
Thiebeault, C. J. 
Thiffault, A. E. 
Thirkield, D. D. 

Thomas, James A. 
Thomas, Thomas J. 
Thomason, Mrs. S. E. 
Thompson, Ernest H. 
Thompson, Paul B. 
Thorek, Dr. Max 
Thornton, Randolph 
Throop, Mrs. 

George Enos 
Tieken, Theodore 
Todd, A. 
Todd, John 0. 
Tonk, Percy A. 
Topping, John R. 
Tracy, S. W. 
Traver, George W. 
Treat, Mrs. Dana R. 
Tremain, Miss Eloise R. 
Trenkmann, Richard A. 
Trier, Robert 
Trude, Daniel P. 
Truman, Percival H. 
Tyler, Alfred C. 

Uhlemann, William R. 
Ullmann, Mrs. Albert L 
Ulvestad, Dr. E. E. 
Urban, Andrew 
Utley, Mrs. Clifton M. 
Utley, George B. 
Utter, Mrs. Arthur J. 

VanHagen, Mrs. 

George E. 
VanPelt, H. C. 
Varty, Leo G. 
Velvel, Charles 
Versluis, Mrs. James J. 
Vierling, Mrs. Louis 
Vogel, Rudolph E. 
Vose, Mrs. Frederic P. 

Wachowski, Casimir R. 
Wacker. Fred G. 
Wadsworth, Robert W. 
Wagner, Richard 
Wagonseller, E. A. 
Waite, Roy E. 
Walcher, A. 
Waldeck, Herman 
Walker, Lee 
Wallace, Frank M. 
Wallach, Mrs. H. L. 
Waller, Mrs. Edward C. 
Wallgren, Eric M. 
Walpole, S. J. 
Walsh, R. A. 
Ware, Dr. R. A. 
Warner, Mason 
Warren, L. Parsons 
Warren, William G. 
Wasson, Theron 

330 FiKLD Mi'SKiM OF N'atiral History Rkih)kts, Vol. 12 



iitkii).*, ! \. 

iitkins. I . ... '- V 
atlinK, John 
;»Mj;h. Mum Anna M 
vhU. Uw H. 
rl>Ht<r, Harr% < '. 
«'hsl«T. Jam<"* 
cbstrr. N. I', 
rgnrr. CharlM T.. Jr. 

.•i.i.Tt. V r. 

.il. Pa. ..vpII 

oil, Kdward S. 
pinfT, Charlwi 

• inraiib, Aaron 

• •is.«, \. 
.-<v i 

:irr. A. W. 
. , • . . rn. I^) Juliu.s 
fi.«t. Miltnn M. 

r\rh. L.C. 

»\.'h, K. T. 
r'.U, Mr"* H. Gideon 
rlsh. William W. 
ontworth, John 
onlz. Prtor I>»lanfl 
i-^'-^ft. Dr. Virifil 

:. Ira K. 
, : . \T-N Frank O. 
otmor* . O. 

, Nfiiw Vplni» D. 

Witham. ' ' ' ' iTu- 


\Vilko»iik;. . -.: • •» 

•o. W. J. 

Wdlfmh, (i«'«>rK'' 

• .. Dr. 

\V ' " 

• m 

W . T. 

NV , L»r. Kollin 



!. J. K. 

i. Algol A. 

;.. ('. K. 
W i.*i« r. Kmor>' 11. 
Wilfls. John I.. 
Wil.y. Kdward N. 
Wilholm. Frank Kdward 
Wilinrd. NVNon W. 
• K. 

\\ iiiiam.«i, I iydc (). 
W • ,„,, I^iwrrnro 
\' . Mn.. 

Jw '.v.and L. 
William-x. Waltrr H. 
Wilson, .Arlen J. 
WiUon, K. I.,. 
Wil.nnn, I'orcival C. 
V W . M. 

N . .Mrs. Frank A. 

W iii.siiip, Mi.<w 

Florenrr S. 
W*in.ston, Mrs. Farwoll 
Winterbotham, John K. 

Woolard, Francis C. 
Worthy. Mr». .Sidney W. 
Wray, Kdward 
Wright, William Kyer 
Wrislcy, Georgp A. 
Wulbert, Morriii 
W :"■' Nfni. William 
W ;.. Dr. 

I ..- • - Ira 
Wy,..ii.Hk;, Henry N. 

Yanofsky, Dr. Hyman 
Yonce, .Sirs. Stanley I... 

\' ,• ' — '^W. 

\ rthur C. 

Zadek, Milton 
Zangerle, .A. .Arthur 
Zeno«, Rev. Andrew C. 
Zjclenickj. Leon 
Zimrr- "' .rle» J. 

Zimm' . :*. P. T. 

ZoUa. Abner M. 
Zonsius, Ijiwrence W. 

Alexander. Harr>' T. 

Barfv.ur. Frank 

Bp'wn, .Mrs. Corabrl K. 

Chandler. Georjfe M. 
Churrh. Mrs. Kmma 

' Mm. 

• K. 


Da\*w. R. Edwartl 
iVrkcr. Hiram K. 

Dbcbaskp. 1940 

Fox. Mrs. Kdward F. 
Fulton, I). H. 

Gre<»nebaum. Mrs. 

Hawkins. Harold E. 
Hiblrr. Mrs. Harriet E. 
Hodge, Thomaj* P. 

Reed, Rufu.s M. 

S< K. M. 

Sr;. . . Charles W. 
Selz. Emanuel 
Sn •►. J. G. 

S< nard S. 

Spencer, J. C. 

Wakem, Mrs. Wallace 
Walton, Lyman A. 
Ware, Dr. R. A.