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Field Museum of Natural History 

Fom>fDED BY Marshall Field, 1893 

Publication 287 
Report Series Vol. VIII, No. 2 




FOR THE YEAR 1930 fur- , 

4. /U"''Jlj- 

-^V o/ ^ . ^ 





Chicago, U. S. A. 

January, 1931 

^^ '""""y nr rut 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VIII, Plate XXI 


A Trustee of the Museum and Patron of the Museum's Arctic Expeditions of 1926 and 1927-28 

and its African Expedition of 1929-30 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Publication 287 
Report Series Vol. VIII, No. 2 





Chicago, U. S. A. 

January, 1931 





Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may be made in 
securities, money, books or collections. They may, if desired, take 
the form of a memorial to a person or cause, to be named by the 
giver. For those desirous of making bequests to the Museum, the 
following form is suggested: 


I do hereby give and bequeath to Field Museum of Natural 
History of the City of Chicago, State of Illinois, 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year to Field 
Museum of Natural History to an amount not in excess of 
1 5 'per cent of the taxpayer's net income are allowable as deduc- 
tions in computing net income under Article 251 of Regula- 
tion 69 relating to the income tax under the Revenue Act of 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the pro- 
vision that an annuity be paid to the patron during his or 
her lifetime. These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed 
against fluctuation in amount. 



Board of Trustees 272 

Officers and Committees 273 

List of Staff 274 

Report of the Director 277 

Lectures and Entertainments 302 

James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public 

School and Children's Lectures 304 

Nature Study Course 309 

Lecture Tours for Adults 310 

Educational Meetings 310 

Radio Broadcasting 310 

Division of Publications 311 

Library 314 

Expeditions and Research 316 

Anthropology 316 

Botany 326 

Geology 344 

Zoology 346 

Accessions 354 

Anthropology 354 

Botany 363 

Geology 374 

Zoology 378 

Departmental Cataloguing, Inventorying and I^abeling 383 

Installations and Rearrangements 387 

Anthropology 387 

Botany 393 

Geology 396 

Zoology 406 

The N. W. Harris Public School Extension 411 

Art Research Classes 412 

Division of Public Relations 413 

Division of Printing 418 

Division of Roentgenology 419 

Divisions of Photography and Illustration 420 

Division of Memberships 421 

Attendance Statistics and Door Receipts 422 

Financial Statements 423 

List of Accessions 424 

Articles of Incorporation 451 

Amended By-Laws 453 

List of Benefactors 458 

Honorary Members 458 

Patrons 459 

Corresponding Members 459 

Contributors 460 

Corporate Members 462 

Life Members 463 

Non-Resident Life Members 466 

Associate Members 466 

Non-Resident Associate Members 488 

Sustaining Members 488 

Annual Members 491 

272 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 


John Borden 
William J. Chalmers 
R. T. Crane, Jr. 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W. Harris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kelley 
Cyrus H. McCormick 

William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Martin A. Ryerson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Simms 
James Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Sprague 
Silas H. Strawn 

William Wrigley, Jr. 

DeCbasbd, 1930 

Charles H. Markham 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 273 


Stanley Field, President 

Martin A. Ryerson, First Vice-President 
Albert A. Sprague, Second Vice-President 
James Simpson, Third Vice-President 
Stephen C. Simms, Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 


executive committee 

Stanley Field Albert A. Sprague 

Albert W. Harris Marshall Field 

William J. Chalmers John Borden 

James Simpson Silas H. Strawn 

finance committee 

Albert W. Harris James Simpson 

Martin A. Ryerson Solomon A. Smith 

Frederick H. Rawson 

building committee 

William J. Chalmers Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Cyrus H. McCormick Ernest R. Graham 

William H. Mitchell 

auditing committee 

James Simpson *Charles H. Markham 

Fred W. Sargent 

pension committee 

Albert A. Sprague William V. Kelley 

Solomon A. Smith 


274 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 


Stephen C. Simms 


Berthold Laufer, Curator 

A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate in American Archaeology 


Albert B. Lewis, Melanesian Ethnology 

J. Eric Thompson, Central and South American Archaeology 

Paul S. Martin, North American Archaeology 

W. D. Hambly, African Ethnology 

Henry Field, Physical Anthropology 

T. George Allen, Egyptian Archaeology 

John G. Prasuhn, Modeler 


B. E. Dahlgren, Acting Curator 

Paul C. Standley, Associate Curator of the Herbarium 

J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator of Taxonomy 

James B. McNair, Assistant Curator of Economic Botany 

Samuel J. Record, Research Associate in Wood Technology 

Llewelyn Williams, Assistant in Wood Technology 

Carl Neuberth, Custodian of Herbarium 


O. C. Farrington, Curator 

Henry W. Nichols, Associate Curator 

Elmer S. Riggs, Associate Curator of Paleontology 

Sharat K. Roy, Assistant Curator of Invertebrate Paleontology 

Bryan Patterson, Assistant in Paleontology 


Wilfred H, Osgood, Curator 

William J. Gerhard, Associate Curator of Insects 

C. E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator of Birds 

H. B. Conover, Associate in Ornithology 

assistant curators 
♦John T. Zimmer, Birds Karl P. Schmidt, Reptiles 

R. Magoon Barnes, Birds' Eggs Alfred C. Weed, Fishes 
Edmond N. Gueret, Vertebrate Skeletons 

Colin C. Sanborn, Assistant in Mammalogy 

Walter A, Weber, Assistant and Artist 

DwiGHT Davis, Assistant in Osteology 

Emil Liljeblad, Assistant in Entomology 


Julius Friesser C. J. Albrecht 

L. L. Pray Leon L. Walters 

Arthur G. Rueckert Ashley Hine 


Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 275 

department of the n. w. harris public school extension 

Cleveland P. Grant, Acting Curator 
A. B. WoLCOTT, Assistant Curator 


Emily M. Wilcoxson, Librarian 

Mary W. Baker, Assistant Librarian 

♦Elsie Lippincott (Librarian) 


Henry F. Ditzel Benjamin Bridge 

Clifford C. Gregg, Assistant to the Director 

Elsie H. Thomas 

J. L. Jones 


Margaret M. Cornell, Chief 
Franklin C. Potter June Work 

Miriam Wood Gordon S. Pearsall 

H. B. Harte, in charge 

Pbarle Bilinske, in charge 


U. A. DoHMEN, in charge 
Lillian A. Ross, Editor 


C. H. Carpenter, Photographer Carl F. Gronemann, Artist 

A. A. Miller, Photogravurist 


Anna Reginalda Bolan, in charge 

Charles A. Corwin 

John E. Glynn 


W. H. Corning 

William E. Lake, Assistant Engineer 



To the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History: 

I have the honor to present a report of the operations of the 
Museum for the year ending December 31, 1930. 

In reviewing the achievements of the Museum during the past 
twelve months it is most gratifying to record once again not only an 
impressive increase in the number of visitors to the institution, but 
also a marked rise in the rate of increase. The total number of 
visitors during 1930 was 1,332,799, or 164,369 more than in 1929, 
which, with a record of 1,168,430, had the largest attendance of any 
previous year. This gain over 1929 is more than 14 per cent. The 
year 1930 was the fourth consecutive year in which the number 
of visitors has exceeded one million. How the rate of increase is 
rising is shown by comparing the gain of 144,803 made in 1929 over 
the 1928 attendance, with the 164,369 gained in 1930 over 1929. 

It is of interest to note that of the total number of visitors during 
1930 only 160,924 paid admission. Attendance on free days totaled 
1,079,367, while free admissions on pay days due to the special 
privileges granted Members, children, teachers, etc., numbered 
92,508. Of the total number of visitors it seems safe to estimate 
that fully one-third were children. 

That the Museum is successfully fulfilling its mission, not only as 
a place of immense interest for casual visitors, but also as an active 
and important educational institution of great and increasing scope 
and influence is indicated by statistics (to be found elsewhere in this 
Report) on the work carried on through the extra-mural activities 
conducted by the Department of the N. W. Harris Public School 
Extension, and the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. Through 
these two units of the Museum organization. Field Museum's 
benefits were extended outside the walls of the building to approxi- 
mately 716,000 school children. Thus, adding to this the number of 
persons actually coming to the Museum, the educational influence of 
the institution, including both inside and outside work, reached 
directly more than 2,048,000 individuals. 

In recognition of eminent services rendered to Science, the Board 
of Trustees in 1930 elected Mrs. E. Marshall Field and Mr. Arthur 
S. Vernay as Honorary Members of the Museum. 


278 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

In recognition of his eminent services to the Museum, Mr. Philip 
M. Chancellor was elected as a Patron of the Museum. 

The By-Laws of the Museum have been amended for the purpose 
of adding two new classes of Members, viz. : Corresponding Members 
and Contributors, and abolishing the membership classification pre- 
viously designated as Fellow of the Museum. Details concerning 
the newly created classes of membership will be found in the amended 
By-Laws included in this Report (p. 453). Corresponding Members 
are chosen by the Board from among scientists or patrons of science 
residing in foreign countries who render important services to the 
Museum. Contributors are all persons giving the Museum from 
$1,000 to $100,000 in money, or in material ranging in value between 
those amounts. 

Three noted foreign scholars who have rendered important 
services to the Museum were at once unanimously elected as Corre- 
sponding Members. They are: Abb^ Henri Breuil, professor in the 
College de France, and the Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, Paris; 
Professor Sir Arthur Keith of the Royal College of Surgeons, London; 
and Professor Grafton Elliot-Smith of University College, London. 
These three scientists have rendered especially valuable assistance 
and advice in the preparatory work being carried on in connection 
with the proposed Hall of Prehistoric Man and Chauncey Keep 
Memorial Hall (devoted to physical anthropology), and they also 
gave counsel on the already completed group of Neanderthal Man 
on exhibition in Ernest R. Graham Hall. 

As a permanent memorial to the persons whose gifts to the 
Museum place them in the newly created classification of Contribu- 
tors, an attractive bronze frame was installed in Stanley Field 
Hall near the main entrance to the building, in which has been posted 
a list of all persons who have made such contributions. Ninety-seven 
names now appear on the list in this frame, and provisions have 
been made for the addition of others as occasion demands. It 
is only just to mention that there are also thousands of other donors 
of money and materials in lesser amounts, whose gifts are as fully 
appreciated. Obviously, it would be impracticable to display a list 
of all these, because of space limitations. Acknowledgments of all 
gifts appear each year in the Annual Report of the Director of the 
Museum (List of Accessions — p. 424). 

Persons who, by their gifts, ranging in value from $1,000 to 
$100,000, made to the Museum during 1930, became Contributors 
are Mrs. E. Marshall Field, Mrs. William H. Moore, Mrs. Charles 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 279 

H. Schweppe, Mrs. Louise E. Thorne, Mr. Arthur S. Vernay, Mr. 
L. M. Willis, and Mr. Lee Ling Yun. 

The following were elected in 1930 as Life Members of the 
Museum: Mrs. Frank H. Armstrong, Mr. Louis E. Asher, Mr. 
Henry B. Babson, Mr. Thomas M. Boyd, Mr. Herman A. Brassert, 
Mr. Aldis J. Browne, Mr. George R. Carr, Mrs. Lewis L. Coburn, 
Mr. William M. Collins, Mr. George A. Cooke, Mr. Charles A. 
Paesch, and Mrs. A. A. Sprague IL 

A list of all classes of Members will be found at the end of this 
Report (p. 458). 

At the Annual Meeting of the Board of Trustees, held in January, 
Mr. George A. Richardson was elected a Trustee to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death in 1929 of Mr. Chauncey Keep. 

The death of Mr. Charles H. Markham, a member of the Board of 
Trustees, on November 24, 1930, is regretfully recorded. Mr. 
Markham had been a Trustee since 1924. He was also a Patron, a 
Corporate Member and a Life Member. He was sixty-nine years old. 
In tribute to his memory the Board of Trustees adopted the following 
resolution : 

"It is with deep sorrow and the sense of a great loss that the Board 
of Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History does hereby record 
the death of its esteemed member, Charles H. Markham. Mr. 
Markham became a member of this Board of Trustees in March, 
1924, and gave freely and loyally of his counsel and advice at all 
times up until his recent illness that resulted in his death. Mr. 
Markham, prior to his acceptance of membership on the Board of 
Trustees, had already become an outstanding national character in 
the field of industry and transportation. He was typical of the very 
finest type of American citizenship, and it is probably conservative 
to say that he possessed those higher qualities of leadership that made 
him one of the outstanding business executives of the period in which 
he lived. He not only directed the policies and managed the affairs 
of a great railroad system, but he took an active and sincere interest 
in all matters having to do with the public welfare. It may truly be 
said that he represented the best of modern leadership in conducting 
pioneer work looking to the improvement of the relations between 
the people and public service corporations. His kindly and sympa- 
thetic attitude in all matters, his direct, candid and always kindly 
methods in dealing with others, caused him to be highly respected 
and affectionately regarded by all whose privilege it was to come 
within the range of his influence. He was a man of great gentleness 

280 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

of spirit, and broad human sympathies and deep loyalty to any cause 
which he espoused. These qualities were always present and never 
failed to manifest themselves constantly in his attitude toward this 
institution and his valuable services as one of its Trustees. 

"Therefore, be it resolved, that this resolution be made a per- 
manent record of the Board of Trustees of Field Museum of 
Natural History for the purpose of perpetuating in permanent form, 
as far as may be, our deep affection, high esteem, and sincere sorrow 
because of his passing." 

An outstanding achievement of the year 1930 was the remarkable 
progress made in installation of new exhibits, and reinstallation of 
the older exhibits in many halls. The additions made to the exhibits 
during the year include many groups which rank among the finest 
in the Museum, and a great number of objects of most striking 
character and unusual interest. 

A habitat group of the rare giant panda, representing the most 
notable result of the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to 
Eastern Asia of 1928-29, was completed and placed on exhibition in 
William V. Kelley Hall. Two of these most unusual animals are 
shown in their favorite habitat of bamboo thickets in a setting 
reproducing a scene at a very high altitude in the mountains of 
western China. One of the animals is the specimen shot by Colonel 
Theodore Roosevelt and Mr. Kermit Roosevelt, and is the only one 
ever shot by a white man. The other specimen was obtained by the 
Roosevelts from native hunters. The group is one of the most 
beautiful and interesting in the Museum. 

After several years of preparation, the first two of the series of 
habitat groups of marine mammals projected for Hall N on the 
ground floor of the Museum, have been completed and exposed to the 
public. The northern sea-lion (or Steller's sea-lion) was selected to 
occupy the commanding central position in this hall. The group, 
with thirteen animals, is the largest so far installed in the Museum, 
and one of the most attractive. 

The completion of the sea-lion group was followed almost immedi- 
ately by a large imposing group of seven Pacific walruses in an adjoin- 
ing case. They are shown huddled together in characteristic attitude 
on Arctic ice. In the background is seen the midnight sun, repre- 
sented by means of a clever lighting arrangement. The whole effect 
produced is one of exceptional interest. The animals in this group 
were collected and presented by Messrs. Bruce Thorne of Chicago and 
George Coe Graves II of New York, as a result of the Thome-Graves- 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 281 

Field Museum Arctic Expedition of 1929, which they conducted. 
Messrs. Thome and Graves also contributed funds toward the cost 
of preparing the group. The Museum is indebted also to Mr. 
Henry Graves, Jr., of New York and to Mrs. Louise E. Thome of 
Chicago for substantial contributions toward the cost of preparing 
the group. 

A unique life-size group representing the Mesohippus, a species of 
small three-toed horse which lived in North America millions of years 
ago, was completed and placed on exhibition in Ernest R. Graham 
Hall. So far as is known this is the first group restoration ever made 
of extinct mammals, represented as scientific research indicates they 
appeared in life, and in the surroundings amid which they lived. Six 
figures, including full-grown males, mares and young, modeled by 
Mr. Frederick Blaschke, are in the group, which is a gift from Mr. 
Ernest R. Graham. The scene is in the Black Hills of South Dakota 
where these animals are known, from fossil skeletons, to have been 
fairly common in their day. 

An acquisition of great importance was the 745-pound Paragould 
(Arkansas) meteorite, presented to the Museum by President Stanley 
Field. This is the largest single meteoric stone ever seen to fall, and 
is a most valuable addition to the institution's collection of meteorites 
which, in point of number of falls represented, is the largest collection 
in the world. The Paragould meteorite has been placed on exhibition 
in Hall 34. 

An exhibit of the rare giant dragon lizard of Komodo, Dutch 
East Indies, was placed on view in Albert W. Harris Hall. It was 
prepared from one of the specimens obtained by the Chancellor- 
Stuart-Field Museum Expedition to the South Pacific (1929-30). 
This is the largest extant species of lizard, and is found only in the 
islands of Komodo and Flores of the Lesser Sunda group, east of 
Java. The exhibit is a reproduction in cellulose-acetate made by 
Staff Taxidermist Leon L. Walters, by the process he invented and 
perfected some years ago in the course of his work at the Museum, 
and which he has successfully applied in creating many exhibits 
now to be seen in the halls of the institution. 

He also prepared an exhibit of the giant prehensile-tailed skink 
of the Solomon Islands, the original specimen of which was collected 
by the Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedition of Field Museum in 1929. 
This is also on view in Albert W. Harris Hall. 

Another exhibit prepared during 1930 by this process, is a repro- 
duction of the rare white rhinoceros of Africa, the original specimen 

282 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

for which was obtained several years ago by the Conover-Everard- 
Field Museum Expedition to Tanganyika. This is on exhibition in 
Hall 15. 

A mammoth crystal of beryl, weighing approximately 1,000 
pounds, discovered in a quarry at Albany, Maine, was presented to 
the Museum by Mr. William J. Chalmers, and placed on exhibition 
in Stanley Field Hall. 

To the series of American mammal habitat groups in Hall 16 was 
added a group of marsh deer, largest of all South American deer, in a 
scene typical of its environment. Five specimens, obtained several 
years ago by the Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition, are in the 

An exhibit of unusual interest installed in Hall J is an actual-size 
representation of a prehistoric burial of Egypt, containing the remains 
of an Egyptian woman who died some time before 3500 B.C., sur- 
rounded by various original artifacts found in such ancient graves. 
This type of burial preceded the development of mummification and 
the periods in which elaborate tombs were built. 

A remarkably complete and excellent fossil skeleton of an ich- 
thyosaurus or fish-lizard which lived about 150,000,000 years ago, 
the specimen possessing the unusual feature of including in the slab 
of stone in which it is imbedded a clear impression of the fins and the 
skin, was placed on exhibition in Ernest R. Graham Hall. 

Seven more of the large mural paintings of prehistoric life being 
prepared by Mr. Charles R. Knight, for the walls of Ernest R. 
Graham Hall, were completed and installed during 1930. These 
bring the total number now on exhibition to twenty-three, and only 
five more paintings remain to be executed. This notable series is a 
gift to the Museum from Mr. Ernest R. Graham. 

An extraordinary specimen of lodestone, weighing more than 400 
pounds, and possessing unusual magnetic power, was placed on 
exhibition in Clarence Buckingham Hall. Displayed with it are 
various objects which illustrate its powerful magnetism. The speci- 
men comes from the Wasatch Mountains in Utah. 

Reproductions of the two most common ragweeds of the Chicago 
region, made in the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories, 
were completed and placed on exhibition in the Hall of Plant Life. 
They are of particular interest to the public because their pollen is 
held responsible for the widespread affliction of hay fever. 

A noteworthy collection of Navaho silver jewelry was placed on 
exhibition in Hall 6, part of it having been recently acquired as the 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VIII, Plate XXII 



Set up in two sections on south wall of Hall 10 

Total height thirty-seven feet. Presented by Edward E. Ayer, 1902 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 283 

result of a purchase made with the income of a fund provided by 
Julius Rosenwald and the late Augusta N. Rosenwald; and part of it 
consisting of material previously presented by the late Edward E. 


A number of important additions were made to the Maya 
archaeological material exhibited in Hall 8. Especially interesting is 
a model of an ancient Maya pyramid, and casts of several notable 
Maya door lintels and other objects. In the same hall was also 
installed a model of the famous Mitla temple of the Zapotecs. 

Reinstallations on a large scale were carried on in the exhibition 
halls of the various Departments, with especially notable changes 
being made in the Department of Anthropology. The seventy-four 
cases comprising the Melanesian ethnological collections were trans- 
ferred from Hall 10 on the first floor to Hall A on the ground floor. 
The name, Joseph N. Field Hall, which was formerly applied to 
Hall 10, was transferred to Hall A, because of the association of the 
man to whom it is a memorial with the collections, he having been 
the Benefactor who made possible the expedition by which most of 
the material was obtained. This transfer locates the Melanesian col- 
lections where they are adjacent to closely related collections from 
Polynesia, Micronesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. At the same 
time it affords a better arrangement on the first floor, making Hall 10 
available for North American collections related to the other North, 
and to the Central and South American collections in the halls 
adjoining it. Thus, the collections representing the cultures of the 
Eskimos and of the Indian tribes of the northwest coast were moved 
from Mary D. Sturges Hall to Hall 10. Because of the larger size 
of the latter hall, a better geographical arrangement of the exhibits 
has been made, and the large group cases are shown to better advan- 
tage. Also, for the first time since the Museum moved into the 
present building, it is now possible to display with these exhibits 
the remarkable series of some thirty large totem poles, grave posts 
and house posts which has been in the Museum's possession for 
many years. 

The vacated Mary D. Sturges Hall was set aside for the North 
American archaeological collections, which were removed from the 
part of James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Hall they formerly 
occupied. These collections are now in process of enlargement, and 
ample room for the additional material to come is now available in 
the hall. The removal of archaeological material from James Nelson 
and Anna Louise Raymond Hall makes possible devoting that hall 

284 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

entirely to exhibits pertaining to the eastern Woodland Indians, and 
thus the installation of these collections has been improved. Rein- 
stallation was completed in Raymond Hall of the exhibits represent- 
ing the Indian tribes of the upper Mississippi valley and the Great 
Lakes region — the Potawatomi, Sauk, Fox, Menominee, Ojibwa and 

Also reinstalled were the exhibits illustrating the lives of the 
Indians of the Great Plains in Hall 5, and the Mexican and Central 
American archaeological and ethnological collections in Hall 8. 
These, and the other reinstallations in halls previously mentioned, 
include the revision of collections and of information given on the 
labels, and the substitution of the new style buff labels with black 
letters for the black labels with silver letters formerly used. 

There remains little to be done to complete the reinstallation 
of Hall J, devoted to Egyptian archaeology. Installation of all the 
new style individually lighted floor cases in this hall was completed 
in 1930, and, as recorded in the Annual Report for the preceding year, 
the majority of the built-in wall cases and other exhibits were 
installed in 1929. There now are but three more wall cases to be 
installed, one to be devoted to Coptic textiles, and two to sculptures, 
and it is expected that this work will be completed early in 1931. 

The hippopotamus exhibit, which for nearly three years was on 
view in Stanley Field Hall, was transferred in 1930 to Hall 15, devoted 
to the systematic collections of mammals. 

Various built-in cases in several halls which have been prepared 
for proposed habitat groups, were placarded with printed labels 
giving information as to what they would contain in the future. 

Structural work on the cases for large groups, eight in number, 
in the Hall of Prehistoric Man, was started late in the year. The 
exhibits in this hall, when completed, will illustrate man's prog- 
ress from earliest prehistoric times down to the dawn of history, 
or about 10,000 B.C. This will be done by means of eight life-size 
groups showing early races of people and their manner of living, 
and by comprehensive collections of artifacts from various periods. 
The beginnings of family life, of art, of the domestication of animals, 
of agriculture and of primitive industry are among the subjects 
which will be illustrated. Mr. Frederick Blaschke, sculptor, has been 
engaged to prepare these groups. He reports that two of them are 
well under way. 

In Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall, which is to be devoted to 
physical anthropology, there will be exhibited twenty-seven full 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 285 

length life-size figures in bronze, three of which will compose a group 
symbolizing "Unity of Mankind." The other twenty-four bronze 
figures will illustrate the physical characteristics of the principal 
living races of man, showing stature, facial and bodily differences, 
and other distinctive features. There will also be exhibited sixty 
heads and twenty-seven life-size busts of typical human beings, 
modeled in composition material, representing various racial strains 
of Africa, Europe, Asia, Oceania, North, Central and South America. 
Other exhibits will illustrate such subjects as intentional facial 
and bodily deformation as practiced by various primitive tribes; 
physiologically abnormal types; social anthropology comprising 
studies of vital statistics, multiple births, influence of racial inter- 
marriage, growth of population, effects of epidemics and disease on 
population, and longevity of different races. 

The exhibits for this hall will be financed in part by a bequest of 
$50,000 left to the Museum by the late Mr. Chauncey Keep, who for 
fifteen years was a Trustee of the institution, and by a gift of $18,000 
from Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe. Funds to cover the balance 
have been pledged by Mr. Marshall Field in token of his esteem for 
Mr. Keep, in whose honor the hall was named. 

The figures, busts and heads will be made by Miss Malvina 
Hoffman. In connection with this task she will make an extensive 
study of the various races, work from living models and in conformity 
with scientific data, and will consult with leading anthropologists 
throughout the world. 

Including parties engaged in local field work in near-by collecting 
grounds, the Museum had seventeen expeditions in operation during 
1930. In addition to these, the Museum benefited from a private 
game hunting trip undertaken in Africa by Mr. Marshall Field; 
and from the activities of Miss Malvina Hoffman, the sculptress 
commissioned to prepare series of full-length life-size figures, face 
masks and busts illustrating the races of the world for Chauncey 
Keep Memorial Hall, who is making studies in Europe in connection 
with this work. Of the seventeen expeditions, eleven were in foreign 
countries, four were close to Chicago in Illinois and Indiana, and 
two in Colorado. Full details concerning the work performed and 
the personnel on all the expeditions will be found in the section of 
this Report under the heading Expeditions and Research, 
beginning on page 316. The following is a brief summary of some 
of the most important operations: 

286 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Mr. Arthur S. Vemay of New York and London was the sponsor 
and co-leader of a very important zoological expedition — the Vemay- 
Lang Kalahari Expedition for Field Museum. Associated with him 
in the leadership was Mr. Herbert Lang, formerly of New York. 
The territory in which this expedition worked was the Kalahari 
Desert and along the Botletle River in the British protectorate of 
Bechuanaland. It returned late in the year bringing collections 
remarkable for their size, variety and value. Its record of achieve- 
ment places it among the most successful expeditions ever sent to 
Africa. (Route of expedition shown on map facing p. 348.) 

The Field Museum Archaeological Expedition to the Southwest 
began important excavations on the Lowry ruin in southwestern 
Colorado, and the making of archaeological collections representing 
Indians believed to have lived 1,500 years ago and more. The most 
important accomplishment during the 1930 season was the excava- 
tion of an ancient kiva or ceremonial chamber, and eleven other 
large rooms of the ruins. The expedition was financed with income 
from a fund established by Mr. Julius Rosenwald and the late Mrs. 
Augusta N. Rosenwald. Dr. Paul S. Martin, Assistant Curator of 
North American Archaeology, conducted the expedition. 

The Chancellor-Stuart-Field Museum Expedition to the South 
Pacific, which began work in 1929, returned early in 1930. It was 
led by Mr. Philip M. Chancellor, its sponsor, and Mr. Norton Stuart, 
both of Santa Barbara, California. Important acquisitions obtained 
by this expedition include two excellent specimens of the reticulated 
python of Borneo, which is the largest reptile known to science, and 
two specimens of the rare giant dragon lizards of Komodo. 

Shortly after his return from the above-mentioned expedition, 
Mr. Chancellor organized the Chancellor-Stuart-Field Museum 
Expedition to Aitutaki and departed for the Cook Islands. Aitutaki 
is one of the most remote and least known islands of the Pacific 
Ocean. The expedition remained in this field for several months. 
When it returned it brought some 400 fishes for the Museum collec- 
tions, and some 14,000 feet of motion picture film showing the life 
of the natives and undersea scenes. 

An expedition sponsored and conducted jointly by Captain 
Harold A. White of New York and Major John Coats of London, 
England, which had as its principal object the securing of the beau- 
tiful, rare and most elusive African antelope known as the bongo, 
was able to take five of these greatly desired animals. In addition 
to these, the first still and motion pictures of the living bongo were 

Field Museum of Natural History Reports, Vol. VIII, Plate XXIII 



Reconstructed in the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories for a 

Carboniferous forest exhibit in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) 

One-thirtieth natural size 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 287 

made. Also secured were a fine bull eland and a baby rhinoceros, 
both greatly needed for a water hole group now in preparation. The 
expedition is continuing its hunt for other unusual animals. 

Mr. C. Suydam Cutting returned recently to New York from a 
successful zoological expedition for the Museum to Sikkim in India, 
and along the northern border of Tibet. The expedition was 
organized and financed by Mr. Cutting. He was accompanied by 
Mr. Herbert Stevens, of Tring, England, who has remained in the 
field to continue the work of the expedition. 

The Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Meso- 
potamia concluded its eighth season of archaeological excavations 
at Kish during the early part of 1930, and toward the end of the 
year began its ninth season, which is continuing into 1931. As in 
previous years, Field Museum's participation in this expedition is 
financed by Mr. Marshall Field. Each year this expedition has 
succeeded in accumulating archaeological collections and data of 
tremendous importance. Professor Stephen Langdon continued as 
director of the expedition, and Mr. L. C. Watelin as field director. 

The Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological Expedi- 
tion to West Africa, which began work in 1929, returned to Chicago 
in 1930 after nearly a year in the field. Work was conducted in 
two regions- — Angola (Portuguese West Africa) and Nigeria (British 
West Africa). Approximately 2,000 objects representing the tribes 
of these regions were collected, and a large amount of ethnological 
data was obtained. Mr. W. D. Hambly, Assistant Curator of African 
Ethnology, was leader of the expedition. 

The Peruvian division of the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition 
to the Amazon completed in 1930 its work begun the preceding year, 
and returned. Llewelyn Williams, Assistant in Wood Technology, 
was in charge. The expedition made large and important collections 
of woods and other botanical material in the Amazonian forests of 
Peru, which contain one of the world's richest floras, and have 
received little attention from botanists because of their inaccessibility. 

Operations have been begun in southern China by a Museum 
expedition, sponsored by Mr. Marshall Field, the immediate object 
of which is to obtain specimens for use in a habitat group of the 
rare goat-antelope known as the takin. The expedition is led by 
Mr. Floyd T. Smith of Long Island, New York, who is the only 
white man in the party. 

Mr. Henry Field, Assistant Curator of Physical Anthropology, 
who since early in the summer had been gathering material and data 

288 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

in Europe for use in the projected new Hall of Prehistoric Man 
and the Hall of Physical Anthropology, completed his work late 
in the year. 

An expedition to Florissant, Colorado, in charge of Mr. Bryan 
Patterson, Assistant in Paleontology, collected a large variety of 
fossil insects and plants, and other paleontological material. 

The work of photographing type specimens of plants in European 
herbaria, begun in 1929, was carried on during the past year by 
Mr. J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator of Taxonomy. Up to 
date approximately 9,000 photographs have been made, chiefly of 
specimens in the herbaria located in Berlin, Munich and Geneva 
which kindly gave splendid cooperation. Mr. Macbride will continue 
this work during part of 1931. The project is being carried out 
under a generous grant of funds provided for the Museum by the 
Rockefeller Foundation. 

Word was received from Mr. Marshall Field that he had shot, 
on Serengette Plains, Tanganyika Territory, British East Africa, 
a large male lion, a lioness, and two cubs, which he plans to present 
to the Museum. It is expected these will be received in the early 
part of 1931. They will fill a long-felt need for a habitat group of 
lions to be added to the exhibits in Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall. 
While the lion is perhaps the most characteristic and well-known 
of African animals, the Museum has up to date lacked any satis- 
factory typical habitat group of them to match the habitat groups 
of other animals, and the present specimens are arriving at a most 
opportune time for the creation of an exhibit of this kind. 

Miss Malvina Hoffman reports most satisfactory progress on the 
work she has been commissioned to perform for the Museum. She 
has spent a large part of the past year in Europe in consultation 
with leading anthropologists, and in independent research in connec- 
tion with her task of preparing the figures, busts and face masks by 
which the races of the world will be represented in the projected 
Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall. Two of the figures for the hall 
have already been completed by Miss Hoffman. 

Further zoological specimens were received as a result of the 
Central Asiatic Expedition of the American Museum of Natural 
History, in which Field Museum cooperated. Dr. Roy Chapman 
Andrews is leader of the expedition. 

The Museum's unprovided for operating deficit for the year 1930 
was $114,898.71 after all contributions. / 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 289 

Many benefactions, in both money and material, were received 
by the Museum during the year, for which expressions of thanks are 
herewith renewed. Acknowledgments of contributions of funds 
follow : 

As noted in the Report for 1929, the late Mr. Chauncey Keep 
provided in his will a legacy of $50,000 for Field Museum. This 
amount was received in 1930 from the estate of Mr. Keep, and will 
be devoted to the preparation of a memorial hall bearing his name. 

There was further received from the Estate of Chauncey Keep 
payment of $10,600, the amount due on Mr. Keep's pledge to the 
Yale University Press Film Service, Inc., for remaking for Field 
Museum fifty-three films of the "Chronicles of America" series. The 
Museum now possesses forty-seven of these films. 

An offer was made by Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe to contribute 
$18,000 for a group in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall. The offer 
was accepted, and the money will be applied to preparation of the 
"Unity of Man" bronze group planned for this hall. 

Mr. Marshall Field contributed $46,000 toward the cost of 
Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall. 

A contribution of $150,000 was also received from Mr. Marshall 
Field, for use in meeting part of the operating expenses of the Museum 
during 1930. 

Mr. Martin A. Ryerson contributed $10,000 to the Field Museum 
Employes' Pension Fund. 

Mrs. James Nelson Raymond made a further contribution of 
$5,000 towards the operating expense of the James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation for Public School and Children's 

Contributions amounting to $7,819.25 were made by Mr. R. T. 
Crane, Jr. Of these, $2,000 was for the purchase of jade specimens, 
$390 for a notable brown-pink tourmaline now on exhibition in H. N. 
Higinbotham Hall, and the balance of $5,429.25 for the purchase of a 
rare specimen of rose topaz and another of black opal which will 
be added to the gem collections in 1931. 

Mr. C. Suydam Cutting, in addition to financing a zoological 
expedition to Sikkim, India, made a contribution of $10,762.50 to 
cover the cost of publication of a portfolio of colored reproductions 
of a selected number of paintings of birds and mammals made by 
the late Louis Agassiz Fuertes while a member of the Field Museum- 
Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition in 1926-27. 

290 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Mrs. William H. Moore contributed $5,000 for the purchase of 
three exquisite pieces of jade for addition to the Museum's collection. 

President Stanley Field contributed a total of $154,547.25. This 
amount represents six different contributions, as follows: $53,606 
towards liquidation of the building fund deficit; $22,707.25 to meet 
the unprovided for remainder of the deficit for the year 1929; $50,000 
to cover part of the operating deficit of the Museum for the year 1930 ; 
$15,600 to cover the operating expenses of the Stanley Field Plant 
Reproduction Laboratories of the Museum during 1930; $6,434 given 
to cancel the overdraft of the Field Museum Employes' Pension 
Fund income account; and $6,200 for the purchase of the remarkable 
Paragould meteorite, which is described elsewhere in this Report. 

Mr. Albert W. Harris gave $3,700 for the purchase of a new 
delivery truck to carry to the schools the exhibition cases circulated 
by the Department of the N. W. Harris Public School Extension of 
Field Museum. 

Mr. William V. Kelley contributed $3,000 to meet the expense of 
gathering data and materials necessary for the completion of certain 
habitat groups of Asiatic mammals. 

A contribution of $50,000 was received from Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field to be devoted toward the operating expenses of the Museum 
during 1930. 

From the Rockefeller Foundation there was received a further 
grant of $5,000 for continuing the work of photographing type speci- 
mens of plants. 

Mrs. Louise E. Thorne contributed $2,000 toward the expense 
incurred in mounting for exhibition the walrus group now in Hall N, 
collected by the Thorne-Graves-Field Museum Arctic Expedition 
of 1929, which was sponsored and led by Messrs. Bruce Thome and 
George Coe Graves II. Mr. Henry Graves, Jr., Mr. George Coe 
Graves II, and Mr. Bruce Thorne also each contributed $1,000 
toward the preparation of this group. 

Mr. William J. Chalmers gave $834.85 for the purchase of speci- 
mens for addition to the WiUiam J. Chalmers Crystal Collection in 
Hall 34. 

From the American Friends of China there was received $655, 
for the purchase of material for addition to the Chinese collections, 
details of which are given elsewhere herein. 

The South Park Commissioners turned over to the Museum 
$205,911.15 representing the amount due the Museum under the 
tax levy authorized for this purpose by the state legislature. Of 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 291 

this amount $150,000 was used to retire the tax anticipation warrants 
issued by the South Park Commissioners. The balance of $55,911.15 
was in cash payments made in the usual way. 

As in the past the Museum during 1930 was the recipient of gifts 
of material for the collections of the various Departments. Such 
gifts are deeply appreciated, not only because of the value they add 
to the collections, but also for the active interest which they indicate 
is being taken in the growth and development of the Museum by its 
friends. Details of the acquisitions of the year are given in the 
departmental sections of this Report, and in the List of Accessions 
beginning on page 424. 

Among noteworthy gifts were a 745-pound stone meteorite, 
presented by President Stanley Field; a crystal of beryl weighing 
nearly 1,000 pounds, the gift of Mr. William J. Chalmers; a cut, 
brown-pink gem tourmaline weighing fifty-eight carats presented 
by Mr. R. T. Crane, Jr.; six old and valuable Navaho Indian blankets 
given by Mr. Burridge D. Butler of Chicago; a beautiful Pompeian 
glass amphora and its original bronze holder presented by Mr. L. M. 
Willis of Chicago; a rare old Chinese painting, a carved rhinoceros 
horn, a prehistoric pottery jar, a gilt bronzine, and a white porcelain 
jar, all from China, purchased with funds provided by the American 
PYiends of China, Chicago; three outstanding jade objects presented 
by Mrs. William H. Moore of New York; five important objects of 
Chinese jade acquired through the generosity of Mr. R. T. Crane, Jr. ; 
a translucent jade dish given by Mrs. George T. Smith of Chicago; a 
plastron of a turtle inscribed in Chinese characters of about 1500 B.C., 
which is of great scientific interest, presented by Mr. A. W. Bahr 
of New York; a Chinese metal mirror of high artistic quality given 
by Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe of Chicago, and two mortuary clay 
figures of horsewomen playing polo presented by Mr. David Weber 
of Chicago. In addition to the above, noteworthy collections and 
specimens were received as gifts from many other individuals and 
institutions, among whom are the following: Mr. C. F. Buhmann, 
Davenport, Iowa; Rev. H. A. Cotton, Warrensburg, Illinois; Dr. 
I. W. Drummond, New York; Mr. William B. Greenlee, Chicago; 
Dr. Martin Gusinde, Vienna, Austria; Haskell Museum, Oriental 
Institute, University of Chicago; Mr. N. M. Heeramaneck, New 
York; Mr. Thomas S. Hughes, Chicago; Professor Stephen Langdon, 
Oxford, England; Mr. Lee Ling Yiin, Shanghai, China; Museum of 
Science and Industrial Arts, Chicago; Mr. Henry J. Patten, Chicago; 
Professor Samuel J. Record, New Haven, Connecticut; Mr. J. A. 

292 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Skelton, Sonsonate, Salvador; Mr. Frank von Drasek, Cicero, 
Illinois; Mr. Sidney Weiss, Chicago; Dr. Ralph M. Whitehead, New 
York; British Museum (Natural History), London; Bureau of Science, 
Manila, Philippine Islands; Dr. Will J. Cameron, Chicago; Miss 
Emily A. Clark, Chicago; Mr. Henry Field, Chicago; General 
Biological Supply House, Chicago; Illinois Humane Society, Chicago; 
Dr. A. C. Kinsey, Bloomington, Indiana; Mr. Fred Lew, Stadra, 
California; Lincoln Park Aquarium, Chicago; Mr. Honore Palmer, 
Chicago; Mr. John Wentworth, Chicago; Dr. Alfred S. Romer, 
Chicago; John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago; the Hon. Dilipat 
Singh, Singahi, Oudh, India; Professor J. K. Strecker, Waco, Texas; 
United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, D.C.; Mr. H. C. 
Benke, Chicago; Mrs. Leonora S. Curtin, Santa Fe, New Mexico; 
Direccion General de Agricultura, Guatemala City, Guatemala; 
Mr. G. L. Fisher, Houston, Texas; Professor A. 0. Garrett, Salt Lake 
City, Utah; Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware; 
Professor L. A. Kenoyer, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Mr. C. L. Lundell, 
Dallas, Texas; Yale University, School of Forestry, New Haven, 
Connecticut; Mr. Franklin Hardinge, Chicago; Mr. H. H. Nininger, 
Palmer Lake, Colorado; Mr. William B. Pitts, Sunnjrvale, California; 
Standard Oil Company (Indiana), Chicago; Sullivan Machinery 
Company, Denver, Colorado; Estate of John Telling, Chicago; United 
Fruit Company, Boston, Massachusetts; Compton and Company, 
Chicago; Paramount News Films, Chicago; Spoor and Abhe Film 
Corporation, Chicago; Captain Harold A. White, New York, and 
United States Steel Corporation, New York. These are but a few of 
the many contributors. A complete list of them and their gifts 
appears in the List of Accessions beginning on page 424, and 
detailed descriptions of the various gifts appear in the section of this 
Report under the heading Accessions, beginning on page 354. 

Other noteworthy additions to the collections were acquired 
through Museum expeditions, purchases, and through exchange with 
other institutions. Details of these will be found in the section of 
this Report relating to Accessions (p. 354), and they are listed in 
the List of Accessions (p. 424). Among the most notable of 
these are more than 200 objects obtained on the Field Museum 
Archaeological Expedition to the Southwest, and a collection of 
Navaho Indian jewelry which was purchased. 

A contribution of $300 was made by the Museum as an annual 
payment to the Institute for Research in Tropical America, located 
on Barro Colorado Island, Gatun Lake, Canal Zone, Panama. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 293 

All Departments and Divisions of the Museum show satisfactory 
progress in their work during the year. In addition to the activities 
already described in the foregoing pages, much has been accomplished 
in such branches as improvement and enlargement of the special 
collections and facilities for study purposes; in cataloguing, inven- 
torying and labeling thousands of specimens; and in conducting 
scientific research into a host of subjects. As usual, there has been 
much public service rendered in the form of answering many inquiries 
made daily by persons in need of information upon a wide variety 
of subjects within the scope of the institution. Details of these 
various types of activity appear elsewhere in this Report. 

The annual spring and summer courses of free illustrated lectures 
on science and travel were given for the general public in the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum, and also a series of special lectures 
for Members of the Museum. Response to these offerings was 
gratifjdng, as may be seen in the statement of the attendance they 
attracted, given on page 303. 

With an increased number of schools on its list to receive service, 
and an increase in the number of traveling exhibition cases in circula- 
tion, the Department of the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
carried on its work of supplementing, by visual education methods, 
the studies presented in the regular curriculum of the city schools. 
A full account of this Department's activities appears on page 411. 

The varied activities of the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures 
reached the greatest number of children on record for any year 
thus far in the history of this division of the Museum. As in previous 
years, these activities included the sending of extension lecturers 
with lantern slides to the schools; the presentation of spring, summer 
and autumn series of free motion pictures and other forms of educa- 
tional entertainments in the James Simpson Theatre; tours of the 
Museum exhibits for groups of visiting children; and other types 
of work which are treated at length in this Report, beginning on 
page 304. 

For adults, guide-lecture tours were continued as in past years 
on a schedule of two tours daily except Saturdays and Sundays. 
A wide variety of subjects was covered, and gratifying public interest 
was evinced in the opportunity presented by these tours. In addi- 
tion to the regular public tours of this type, special guide-lecture 
service for groups requesting it was made available, as has been the 
practice in the past. 

294 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Many large groups of visitors from downstate Illinois were 
brought to the Museum under the auspices of the Chicago Enter- 
tainment Committee, as a feature of its educational tours of the city. 
Groups included both school children and adults, and were formed 
in cities, towns, villages and rural districts. Kiwanis, Lions, Rotary 
and similar clubs and civic organizations in the various places 
cooperated in organizing the parties, and the railroads extended 
special low rates. 

A series of six radio lectures on exploration and the results of 
scientific research was given by the Director and other members of 
the scientific staff over broadcasting station WLS {The Prairie 
Farmer station). Other contacts with the public were made by 
means of the radio at various times during the year. 

The Library di the Museum, in addition to its constant service 
as a source of information to assist the scientific staff, also served 
many visitors from outside. These were largely students from 
universities in and about Chicago. The Library was of service also 
to a number of authors, editors, manufacturers' representatives 
seeking data, teachers, persons engaged in scientific work, and other 
persons in need of information on subjects within the scope of the 
92,500 books and pamphlets on its shelves. 

Students, persons engaged in research, and others obtained 
valuable service from the collections of study material maintained 
in the various Departments of the Museum. 

Such Divisions of the Museum as Public Relations, Publications, 
Memberships, Printing, Roentgenology, Photography, and Illustra- 
tion all accomplished important work during the year, of which 
detailed accounts will be found in various sections of this Report. 

Scientific publications, popular leaflets, and other printed matter 
of the Museum continued to be issued on a large scale. In addition 
to continuing the usual series, the Museum published Flora of the 
Indiana Dunes, a pocket-size handbook of special value to all nature 
lovers in the Chicago region, and the portfolio of beautiful colored 
reproductions of paintings of birds and mammals by the late Louis 
Agassiz Fuertes, member of the Field Museum-Chicago Daily News 
Abyssinian Expedition. The latter was made possible by the con- 
tribution, elsewhere mentioned, of Mr. C. Suydam Cutting. 

Great progress was made in the development of electrical and 
chemical treatments to remove malignant patina from ancient 
bronzes, under the supervision of Mr. Henry W. Nichols, Associate 
Curator of Geology. A publication setting forth these methods of 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 295 

treatment, prepared by Mr. Nichols, was issued in the Museum's 
Technique Series. 

A monthly bulletin. Field Museum News, was inaugurated at 
the beginning of the year. This bulletin is sent to all Members of 
the Museum to keep them in close touch with the activities of the 
institution. Many pictures of new exhibits, as well as news reports 
and announcements, are published in it. A more detailed account 
of this undertaking, as well as a summary of the general publicity 
obtained for the Museum in newspapers and periodicals and the 
advertising carried on through various media generously placed at 
the disposal of the Museum, will be found in this Report under the 
heading Division of Public Relations (p. 413). 

Since the spring of 1930 transportation facilities for reaching the 
Museum have been greatly improved, due to the inauguration of bus 
service direct to the doors of the institution by the Chicago Motor 
Coach Company's Jackson Boulevard (No. 26) line, with transfer 
privileges between this and all connecting lines of the company. 

The University of Chicago, at its convocation in December, con- 
ferred upon President Stanley Field an honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws, in recognition of the great public service he has rendered 
through his work and his benefactions as a Trustee, and as President 
of the Museum. 

Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator of the Department of Zoology, 
spent three months in London studying type specimens of mammals 
in the British Museum (Natural History) for the purpose of com- 
parison with specimens obtained by the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts 
Expedition to Eastern Asia, 

Dr. C. E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator of Birds, spent several 
months in Europe on an ornithological research mission for Field 
Museum. He took with him a number of rare bird specimens 
collected by the Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedition, the Marshall 
Field South American Expedition, and others, for comparison with 
type specimens in museums of Great Britain, France, Germany and 
other countries. 

Dr. Hellmayr was awarded the great silver medal of the Soci^t^ 
Nationale d'Acclimatation de France, for his meritorious work on 
South American birds. 

Mr. J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator of Taxonomy, who 
has been in Europe since the beginning of the year to obtain photo- 
graphs of type specimens of tropical American plants under the pro- 
visions of the grant of funds made by the Rockefeller Foundation, 

296 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

was assigned as Field Museum's representative to the section of 
nomenclature of the International Botanical Congress at Cambridge, 
England. Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Assistant in Wood Technology, 
represented the Museum at the Congress' informal conference on 
woods. Professor Samuel J. Record, the Museum's Research 
Associate in Wood Technology, attended the Congress as the repre- 
sentative of Yale University, where he is Professor of Forest Products 
in the School of Forestry. 

The cordial relations existing between Field Museum and the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard University were con- 
tinued and furthered during the year by mutually advantageous 
exchanges of material and by personal contacts of staff members. 
Dr. Thomas Barbour, Director of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, spent several days visiting Field Museum in June, and later 
Dr. Glover M. Allen, Curator of Mammals of the same institution 
and Associate Professor of Zoology at Harvard University, came to 
Field Museum for conference with the zoological staff and for the 
selection of material for exchange. Likewise, Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, 
Assistant Curator of Reptiles at Field Museum, went to Cambridge 
for research work on specimens in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology and to make preliminary arrangements for exchanges. 
Further cooperation between the two institutions was carried out 
by the collaboration of Mr. Outram Bangs, Curator of Birds of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, in the preparation of a report for 
publication by Field Museum on the collection of birds obtained by 
the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition. 

There were few changes in the Museum staff during the year. 

Mr. John T. Zimmer resigned his post as Assistant Curator of 
Birds, to become Associate Curator of Birds at the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York. 

Miss Elsie Lippincott, Librarian of the Museum for thirty-three 
years, resigned on account of ill health. Her resignation was 
accepted with regret, and with full appreciation of the long and 
faithful service she had rendered. The vacancy was filled by the 
promotion of Mrs. Emily Wilcoxson, formerly Assistant Librarian. 
Mrs. Mary W. Baker has been appointed Assistant Librarian. 

The services of Dr. T. George Allen of the Oriental Institute, 
University of Chicago, were re-engaged through 1930 in order to 
continue the work necessary for the classification and labeling of 
Egyptian archaeological material. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 297 

Mr. Milton Copulos, who was a plant modeler in the Stanley Field 
Plant Reproduction Laboratories some years ago, returned to this 
position in 1930. Mr. John H. Wolcott was employed as a preparator 
in these Laboratories. 

Mr. Eugene Leitham was employed as a plant mounter in the 
Department of Botany. 

Mr. Paul Nieh was employed for some months as a preparator in 
vertebrate paleontology. Following his departure, Mr. J. H. Quinn 
was employed in this position. 

Mr. James Mooney was employed for temporary work in the 
Division of Fishes during July, August and September. Mr. Dominick 
Villa has been employed as a skin-dresser in the Department of 
Zoology. Mr. Pierce Brodkorb was temporarily engaged for work 
in the Division of Birds during October, November and December. 
Mr. Herman Hinrichs, assistant in taxidermy, resigned. 

The title of Miss Lillian A. Ross, employed as proofreader in the 
Division of Printing in 1929, was changed to Editor in 1930. 

In the Division of Printing the working force was considerably 
reduced by the resignation of two compositors, one pressman, one 
monotype operator, and one bindery girl. Of these, it was necessary 
to replace only the monotype operator. The resignations, with the 
exception of the bindery girl, represent the workers formerly em- 
ployed on a temporary night shift, which, with the exception of night 
work on the monotype machine, has been discontinued because work 
in the Division has caught up to the point where the regular day 
shift can handle it adequately. 

It is gratifying to report that the Division of Printing has been 
able to keep pace in label printing not only with the progress of 
installation, but also to carry on simultaneously the reprinting of a 
large number of the new style labels for previously installed exhibits. 

Three Museum employes died during the year. Mr. Walter H. 
Beardsley, a preparator in the Department of the N. W. Harris 
Public School Extension, who had worked for the Museum more 
than twenty years, died suddenly on June 17. Insurance amounting 
to $4,000 under the Field Museum Employes' Pension Fund was 
paid to his widow. Mr. Charles Kuhn, sergeant of the night guard, 
died on January 4. At the time of his death he was the oldest in 
length of service of all employes of the Museum. Under the Museum 
Employes' Pension Fund his widow was paid $4,000. Mr. Frank 
Hubacher, maihng clerk, died on June 9. His widow received $2,500 

298 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

under the insurance provided through the Museum Employes' 
Pension Fund. 

The Museum's janitors have been provided with neat washable 
uniforms. This has resulted in improvement of the appearance of 
this type of personnel wherever their work brings them into the 
view of Museum visitors. 

The James Simpson Theatre of the Museum was made available 
to Mrs. Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge for the presentation of a Festival 
of Chamber Music which she sponsored, consisting of five concerts. 

The Chicago Geographic Society in 1930 vacated the large room 
on the third floor which it had used as an office for several years. 
This room, No. 4, is now being used for the cryptogamic herbarium 
and the Illinois herbarium of the Department of Botany. 

Proper attention was given during the year to maintenance, and 
many notable improvements in the physical aspects of the building 
and its facilities were made. A number of the more important 
improvements are noted in the following pages. 

The old benches, which for years served their purpose both in 
the former Jackson Park building of the Museum and in Stanley 
Field Hall since the occupancy of the present structure, have been 
replaced with fourteen especially constructed massive mahogany 
benches. These new benches are constructed on extremely comfort- 
able lines, and are very attractive in appearance. Not only do they 
add to the appearance of Stanley Field Hall, but they afford seating 
capacity for a greater number of persons. 

The program of painting exhibition halls which began in 1929, 
when fourteen halls were painted, was carried on during 1930, and 
at the close of the year only a few exhibition halls which have not 
yet been opened to the public remained to be done. Marked indeed 
is the betterment in the appearance of the halls which have been 
painted. Especially impressive is the contrast which may now be 
observed in Stanley Field Hall as compared with its appearance 
prior to the undertaking of this extremely extensive painting task. 
In addition to the painting of exhibition halls done under contract, 
the Museum's own force of painters completed the painting of thirteen 
rooms, departmental offices, laboratories, shops and storage rooms 
on the third and ground floors, as well as the entire fourth floor and 
attic, and the girders in the latter place. 

Two hundred and twenty new glassteel electric lighting fixtures 
were installed. The lighting fixtures in Ernest R. Graham Hall 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 299 

were replaced with special indirect lighting fixture. In this hall 
two large cases were also wired, and experiments were conducted to 
determine the effects of light boxes over the free-standing cases used 
for some of the exhibits. 

New lighting fixtures were installed in Hall 19, and at the north 
entrance to the building. 

On the ground floor Hall A was rewired, and forty-six glassteel 
lighting fixtures installed. Subsequently this hall became Joseph N. 
Field Hall, following the removal into it of the Melanesian collections 
from Hall 10 on the first floor, which was formerly Joseph N. Field 

As a safeguard for visitors to the Hall of Marine Mammals, opened 
during 1930 at the time of completion of the new sea-lion and walrus 
groups, bronze handrails of a pleasing appearance were erected on 
the stairs leading to the hall. 

Fifteen built-in cases for habitat groups of Asiatic mammals were 
completed in William V. Kelley Hall, and one case, approximately 
forty-seven feet wide, twenty feet deep, and twenty-two feet high, 
was constructed for an African water hole group, to be installed in 
the south end of Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall. The first built-in 
case in the new Hall on the ground floor, which is to be devoted to 
habitat groups of fishes and systematic fish collections, was completed 
in preparation for installation of the first habitat group. This case is 
approximately thirty-seven feet wide and fifteen feet deep. The air 
duct in the corridor along the cafeteria was rerouted, and the old 
duct was removed, as was the old pipe over it, in order to make way 
for this case. 

Twenty-four mahogany cases for the systematic collections of 
birds and mammals were purchased, as were one case for an exhibit 
of the sago palm, and one for a reproduction of a pineapple plant. 

In ten exhibition halls 132 windows were closed with paneling of 
homasote insulating board on the exterior, and gypsum board for 
fireproofing on the interior, the latter colored to match the walls. 

A contract was entered into with a window cleaning concern 
to wash periodically all windows. The result of such attention 
has been to improve decidedly the appearance of the building. 
The Museum's own maintenance force will continue to carry on the 
cleaning of windows when conditions require it. 

The walls and ceilings of the two public lavatories were covered 
with chromite, in pleasing colors and designs. The facilities in 

300 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

these rooms were improved by having the nickel trimmings and 
fixtures chromium plated, and by replacing all the old flush valves 
with a more modern type of valves. 

In accordance with the Museum's policy to eliminate as far as 
possible all fire hazards caused by wooden shelving, cabinets, etc., 
as well as to give better protection to material in storage and to 
stocks of needed supplies and equipment, seven steel and enameled 
cupboards were erected in the Division of Photography. 

By installation of 220 metal self-closing individual containers, 
provisions have been made for the safe and efficient filing and handling 
of the Museum's increasing number of motion picture reels. These 
containers are assembled in rows, and each container will bear a label 
telling its contents and other required information. The care and 
supervision of these reels, as well as of all stereopticon lecture slides, 
has been assigned to the staff of the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Much was done in the way of providing improved storage facilities 
for scientific material. Twenty-four steel storage cabinets with racks 
and 500 trays were provided for birds and mammals. One block 
of three steel units fitted with racks and glass-topped drawers was 
provided for insects. Five blocks of twelve steel units each were 
installed for storing physical anthropology material. Six blocks of 
eight units each were added to the Herbarium. Wooden storage 
racks in the Division of Fishes were replaced with 4,300 square feet 
of enameled steel shelving. Likewise, wooden racks in eight storage 
rooms of the Department of Anthropology were replaced with 13,200 
square feet of enameled steel shelving, thus increasing storage 
capacity one-third. 

Room 55 on the third floor was converted from a storage room for 
ethnological material into a light, attractive room for the use of 
students desiring to use the anthropological study collections. 

The skin storage rooms were equipped with pipe hangers. Light 
and motor power lines were installed for the skin treatment room. 
Lights were provided for the bone storage cabinets on the fourth 
floor. Lights were installed also over the stacks in Room 81, con- 
taining the office and storage space of the Division of Fishes, and 
Room 77, storage room of the Division of Mammals. 

One new leathering tub and one dusting cage have been added to 
the equipment of the taxidermy shop. 

In the skylight over Stanley Field Hall the gutter drains were 
changed to one and one-half inch galvanized pipe to facilitate the 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 301 

drainage of water collecting there due to condensation, and fourteen 
fan-heating units were installed to heat the glass of the skylight to 
prevent condensation. To prevent any damage to the ceiling of 
Stanley Field Hall in case of condensation or leakage of the main 
skylight, the entire structural tile surfaces were given a coat of 
cement plaster, and two coats of waterproof paint, and all exposed 
steel trusses were given one coat of paint. 

The large skylights in the studio of the Division of Photography, 
and the artists' room of the Department of Botany, were rebuilt 
with nonpareil bars and ribbed wired glass. Four smaller sky- 
lights in the taxidermy shop were likewise rebuilt. This change 
resulted in the elimination of dripping of water caused by conden- 
sation, and also produced a decided improvement in lighting con- 
ditions, so important for the special types of work carried on in 
these rooms. 

The tuck pointing of all exterior walls, cornices, and parapet 
walls, started in 1928 and carried on in 1929, was continued in 1930, 
and the entire exterior of the building was completed with the excep- 
tion of the north and south steps. 

Work was begun to provide protection against water seepage 
under the steps at the north and south entrances of the building. To 
protect the steel girders the tile work encasing the girders had to be 
removed, and as the tiles performed a structural function they had to 
be replaced by small I-beams. For waterproofing on the outside 
the marble joints were cut to a sufficient width to allow an adequate 
cement-mortar joint to be made, and this was capped with a mastic 
cap. This work was started late in October and was still in progress 
at the end of the year. 

Due to the ravages of the weather it was necessary to replace the 
canvas canopy leading to the west door with a new one. 

Settling of the ground at the west entrance of the Museum made 
it necessary to re-lay the cement sidewalk approach. 

An emergency water line was installed from the Museum's pumps 
through the tunnel leading to Soldier Field. 

All boiler settings were repaired, and two new arches were 
installed over the furnaces. 

Steam for heating was furnished to the Shedd Aquarium, the 
supply being governed by weather conditions. During the winter 
months twenty-four hour service was maintained. Steam was also 
furnished to the building on Soldier Field from November 26 to 
December 5. 

302 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 


General Lectures. — The Museum's fifty-third and fifty-fourth 
courses of free lectures for the public were given in the James Simpson 
Theatre on Saturday afternoons during the spring and autumn 
months. They were illustrated by motion pictures and stereopticon 
slides. Following are the programs of both courses: 

Fifty-third Free Lecture Coltrse 

March 1 — Australian Aborigines. 

Captain Kilroy Harris, D.S.O., F.R.G.S., Cleveland, Ohio. 

March 8 — Bali, Borneo and Sumatra. 

Mr. H. C. Ostrander, Yonkers, New York. 

March 15 — Himalayan Exploration. 

Captain John B. Noel, London, England. 

March 22 — Afghanistan. 

Mr. Jackson Fleming, New York. 

March 29 — To New Guinea for Living Birds of Paradise. 

Mr. Lee Crandall, Curator of the New York Zoological Park. 

April 5 — Bird Enchantment. 

Mr. T. Walter Weiseman, Lakewood, Ohio. 

April 12— The Wonderland of Plants. 

Mr. A. C. Pillsbury, Berkeley, California. 

April 19 — A Naturalist in the South Seas. 

Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant Curator of Reptiles, Field 
Museum; leader of the scientific section of the Cornelius Crane 
Pacific Expedition of Field Museum, 1928-29. 

April 26 — Indian Cultures of the Southwest. 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, Assistant Curator of North American 
Archaeology, Field Museum. 

Fifty-fourth Free Lecture Course 

October 4 — Picturesque Japan. 

Mr. Horace E. Coleman, Chicago (a resident of Japan for more 
than twenty years). 

October 11 — Primitive Tribes of Angola, Portuguese West Africa. 

Mr. Wilfrid D. Hambly, Assistant Curator of African Ethnology, 
Field Museum; leader of the Frederick H. Rawson-Field 
Museum Ethnological Expedition to West Africa, 1929-30. 

October 18 — Botanical Collecting along the Upper Amazon. 

Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Assistant in Wood Technology, Field 
Museum; leader of the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition to 
Peru, 1929-30. 

October 25 — Madagascar and Her People. 

Dr. Ralph Linton, Professor of Anthropology, University of 
Wisconsin (leader of the Marshall Field Ethnological Expedition 
to Madagascar for Field Museum, 1925-27). 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 303 

November 1 — On Horseback to the Glacial Age. 

Mr. Walter L. Payne, Department of Public Instruction, Bureau 
of Commercial Economics, Washington, D.C. 

November 8 — Archaeological Explorations in the Maya Field and a Description 
of the Aztec and Maya Hieroglyphic Writings. 
Dr. Sylvanus G. Morley, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 

November 15 — Will Insects Displace Man? 

Mr. Brayton Eddy, Providence, Rhode Island. 

November 22— Siam and Indo-China. 

Mr. H. C. Ostrander, Yonkers, New York. 

November 29 — With Pinchot in the South Seas. 

Mr. Howard Cleaves, Pinchot South Sea Expedition, 1929. 

The total attendance at these eighteen lectures was 22,186. 
In addition to the regular spring and autumn courses, the follow- 
ing special lectures were given for Members of Field Museum: 

January 12 — The Rainbow Isles of the Guinea Gulf. 

Mr. T. Alexander Barns, London, England. 

January 19 — Shrinkers of Human Heads. 

Dr. Herbert Spencer Dickey, New York. 

January 2 6 — Through Southern Abyssinia. 

Mr. C. J. Albrecht, Department of Zoology, Field Museum; 
member of the Harold White-John Coats-Field Museum Expedi- 
tion to Southern Abyssinia. 

February 9 — Sea Hawks. 

Captain C. W. R. Knight, London, England. 

November 16 — Primitive Tribes of Angola, Portuguese West Africa. 

Mr. Wilfrid D. Hambly, Assistant Curator of African Ethnology, 
Field Museum; leader of the Frederick H. Rawson-Pleld 
Museum Ethnological Expedition to West Africa. 

(Note: Delivered by Mr. J. Eric Thompson for Mr. Hambly.) 

November 23 — Hunting Tigers and Other Mammals in India. 
Mr. Arthur S. Vernay, New York. 

November 30 — With Pinchot in the South Seas. 

Mr. Howard Cleaves, Pinchot South Sea Expedition, 1929. 

December 7 — Amazonian Jungles and Andean Trails. 

Mr. Llewelyn WiUiams, Assistant in Wood Technology, Field 
Museum; leader of the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition to 
Peru, 1929-30. 

December 14 — Excavation in a Prehistoric Village in Colorado. 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, Assistant Curator of North American 
Archaeology, Field Museum; leader of the Field Museum 
Archaeological Expedition to the Southwest, 1930. 

The total attendance at these nine special lectures was 5,417. 
The total number of lectures for adults was twenty-seven, and 
the total attendance at them was 27,603. 

304 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 




By action of the Board of Trustees of the Museum, the name of 
the division formerly known as the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Public School and Children's Lecture Division was changed 
in 1930 to that designated above. 

Entertainments for Children. — The James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation has continued to provide both lecture 
and entertainment programs for children. These programs have 
been presented in the Museum, and also outside in schools and camps. 

Three series of entertainments were offered during the year. As 
in the past, the spring and autumn courses were given on Saturdays 
in the James Simpson Theatre, and the summer series, offered on 
Thursdays during July and August, was given in the exhibition halls 
and in the Theatre. Following are the programs of these three 
series of entertainments: 

Spring Course 

February 22 — Washington's Birthday. 
Gateway to the West.* 

March 1— Across St. Gothard's Alps. 
A Fossil Cycad. 
Making Cement. 
Fish and Fowls. 
Hunting Wild Animals in India. 

March 8 — Glimpses of Japan. 
Japanese Scenery. 
Rice Growing and Wrestlers. 
Silk Industry. 
Boys anid Girls. 
Old Moose Trails. 

March 15 — The Doings of "Turp" and "Tine." 
Strip Mining. 

20,000 Leagues under the Sea. 
Among the Naskapi Indians. 

March 22 — Transportation through the Ages. 
Bedouins of the Sahara. 
Jewels of Industry. 
Whistling Swans. 

March 29 — Story of Paper and Printing. 
Romance of Rayon. 
The Rook. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 305 

April 5 — Persimmons in China. 
Magic Yellowstone. 
Knights of the Air. 
The Ant. 
Our Spring Birds. 

April 12— The Potter's Wheel. 
Wizardry of Wireless. 
The Butterfly. 
Our Spring Wild Flowers. 

April 19 — Getting Canada's Goat. 
Edison, the Wizard. 
Lions and Other African Animals. 

April 26 — Daniel Boone.* 

The Grand Canyon. 
Adopting a Bear Cub. 

*Gift to the Museum from the late Mr. Chauncey Keep. 

The total attendance at these ten entertainments was 15,058. 

Autumn Course 

October 4 — Friend Snail. 

Drifting Dunes. 
The Silver Swimmer. 
Undersea Life. 
Nesting of the Sea Turtle. 

October 11 — Columbus.* 

Lions on the Rocks. 

October 18— The Story of Petroleum. 

(Lecture illustrated with motion picture*.) 

Musquash, the Muskrat. 

October 25 — Hungarian Farmers. 
Our Daily Bread. 
The Coon Hunt. 

November 1 — In Mexico. 

The Last of the Seminoles. 
A Four-footed Columbus. 

November 8 — Trees to Tribunes. 

The Last Stand of the Red Man. 
Sacred Baboons. 

November 15 — How a Volcano Works. 

Active Volcano in Hawaii. 
Aloha Land. 

The Cobra and the Mongoose. 
Strange Animal Habits. 

November 22 — Beautiful Corsica. 
A Persian Wedding. 
Egypt, Old and New. 
The Taj Mahal. 

November 29— The Puritans.* 

Peter Stuyvesant.* 

306 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

December 6— On the Trail of the Dik Dik. 

The Stork. 
Castles of Paper. 
Winter Pep. 

♦Gift to the Museum from the late Mr. Chauncey Keep. 

The total attendance at the ten fall entertainments was 15,020. 

The summer course was planned to help meet the needs of 
children for wholesome entertainments during the summer vacation, 
and consisted of special tours of the exhibition halls, and motion 
pictures and story-hours in the James Simpson Theatre. The 
programs were as follows: 

July 10 — Tour: Animal Life of Plains and Deserts. 
Motion Picture: 

July 17 — Story-hour: A Day in Japan. 
Tour: The Japanese Hall. 

July 24 — Tour: The Insect Laboratory. 
Motion Pictures: 
Six-legged Friends. 
Cabbage Butterflies. 
Singing and Stinging. 
Honey Makers. 
Baby Songbirds at Mealtime. 

July 31 — Tour: Halls Illustrating Life in the South Seas. 
Motion Picture: 
Bali, the Unknown. 

August 7 — Story-hour: A Trip to Eskimo Land. 
Tour: The Eskimo Hall. 

August 14 — Tour: Plants and Animals Used by the Pioneers. 
Motion Pictures: 
The Frontier Woman.* 

*Gift to the Museum from the late Mr. Chauncey Keep. 

The total number of groups handled during this summer course 
was thirty-six and the attendance was 8,528. Of this number 3,198 
represents the tour attendance, and 5,330 the theatre attendance. 

Three special programs were given during the winter: 

January 18 — Story-hour: Bobbie Robin. 
Motion Pictures: 
The Ladybird. 
Peter, the Raven. 

January 25 — Story-hour: A Trip to Banana Land. 
Motion Pictures: 
Banana Land. 
Cruising in the Arctic. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 307 

February 12 — Motion Pictures: 

Abraham Lincoln. 
My Mother. 
My First Jury. 
My Native Land. 

The total attendance at the special programs was 4,385. 

In all, twenty-nine different programs were offered free to the 
children of the city and suburbs during the year, and the total 
attendance at these programs was 42,991. 

That the children's entertainments are filling a definite need is 
evidenced by the excellent cooperation extended to the Museum in 
giving publicity to these programs. Both newspapers and radio 
stations have helped. Many suburban papers have printed the 
programs, and from time to time have called attention to special 
features on the programs. The following were especially consistent 
in their efforts to further the work of the Museum in behalf of the 
young people of the community: the Chicago Daily News and Radio 
Station WMAQ; the Prairie Farmer and Station WLS; the Chicago 
Tribune and Station WGN; Station WCFL; the Chicago Evening 
American; the Chicago Daily Illustrated Times; the Chicago Herald 
and Examiner, and the Chicago Evening Post. 

Thanks for films and slides loaned for the programs are due to 
the United States Department of Agriculture, the Rothacker Film 
Corporation, the Izaak Walton League, the General Electric Com- 
pany, the Sinclair Refining Company, the Chicago Public Library, 
and the Art Institute of Chicago. 

Three series of Museum Stories for Children were written by 
members of the Raymond Foundation staff, and copies were handed 
to all attending the entertainments. During the summer the stories 
were kept at the North Door and handed to visiting children. Several 
schools and libraries are using the stories as natural history source 

The following list gives an idea of the variety of topics to be 
found in Series XIII, XIV and XV of Museum Stories for Children: 

Story of Limestone. Story of Mr. and Mrs. Garter Snake. 

Holidays and Games of Japanese Sand Dunes. 

Children. gg^ Weeds 

Camdf ^^'■^°°' Musquash,' the Muskrat. 

Pa^er and Silk from Plants. |^°^ °^ ^'■^^^• 

A Feathered Fisherman. nJ^^^' t, ^ 

Common Flower Friends. Totem Poles. 

Cats of Many Lands. Volcanoes. 

The Grand Canyon. The Taj Mahal. 

Trap Plants. Storks. 

308 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

A total of 45,000 copies of these stories was printed and 

Lecture Tours for Children. — The number of groups from 
public, parochial, and private schools was the largest handled since 
the guide-lecture service was inaugurated. Special emphasis was 
placed on tours which correlated with school curriculums or were of 
special value to children's clubs, and Scout or church groups. The 
following table shows how the groups were distributed : 

Number of Attendance 


Tours for children of the Chicago schools 

Chicago public schools 269 11,338 

Chicago parochial schools 28 970 

Chicago private schools 15 273 

Tours for children of suburban schools 

Suburban pubHc schools 181 6,559 

Suburban parochial schools 12 620 

Suburban private schools 20 413 

Tours for special groups 

Children's clubs 34 1,984 

Other organizations 45 3,886 

Out-of-town groups 4 1,100 

In all, 608 groups were given guide-lecture service and the 
attendance was 27,143. 

Extension Lectures.^ — Extension lectures were offered, as in 
previous years, to the public schools of the city. The subjects pre- 
sented in the junior and senior high schools were as follows: 

Field Museum and Its Work. The Romans: Their Arts and 

Animals of the Past. Customs 

Brrd^L^e"^ *^^ ^^'""^^^ ^'^^' '^'^^^ °^ *^^ '^^^"^S° ^'^^• 

Reptiles and Insects. Wild Flowers of the Chicago Area. 

The Ancient Egyptians. Story of Iron and Steel. 

For presentation in the elementary schools the following series 
was offered: 

For Geography and History Groups — South America. 

North American Indians. 
Glimpses of Chinese Life. 
Native Life of the PhiUppines. 
Marcus, the Roman. 
Ptahhotep, the Egyptian. 
Migisi, the Indian Lad. 
Field Museum and Its Work. 
A Trip to Banana Land. 
Coffee, Chocolate and Tea. 
Story of Coal and Iron. 
Story of Cotton and Flax. 
Story of Silk and Wool. 
Food Fishes of the World. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 309 

For Science and Nature Study Groups — African Animals. 

American Fur-bearers. 
Chicago Birds. 
Chicago Mammals. 
Chicago Trees. 
Chicago Wild Flowers. 

These lectures were given also before school clubs, parent-teacher 
associations, at conferences, and at camps. The following table 
gives an idea of the groups reached by Field Museum extension 
lecturers during the year: 

Number of Attendance 


In Chicago public schools 604 206,678 

Parent-teacher associations 4 845 

Foreign mother groups 2 165 

School clubs 8 423 

Camps Algonquin and Wasepe 26 1,666 

The total number of extension lectures presented by the staff of 
the Raymond Foundation was 644, and the total attendance at these 
was 209,777. 

Accessions. — The Raymond Foundation acquired during the 
year 576 stereopticon slides for use in the extension lectures; 22 
negatives for making slides; and 125 prints for the office records, 
all made by the Division of Photography. It also received as gifts 
from the United Fruit Company, Boston, 16 additional slides for the 
lecture "A Trip to Banana Land," and 26 copies of the revised 
version of the lecture. Compton and Company, Chicago publishers, 
presented as a gift a set of Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia in 
ten volumes. 


In response to a request from the Educational Director of the 
Chicago Council of Boy Scouts of America, a series of talks on natural 
history topics was especially arranged for the scoutmasters of the 
city. The series consisted of five meetings. At each«a member of 
the Raymond staff presented a subject which would be of assistance 
to leaders of Scout groups, and also assisted in the conference which 
followed. The subjects covered were as follows: 

April 19 — a. Geography of the Chicago Area. 

b. Study of Mammals. 
April 26 — Birds of the Chicago Area. 
May 3 — Ecology and Plant Life. 
May 10 — Trees. 
May 17 — Reptiles, Amphibians and Insects. 

The total number of these lectures and conferences was ten, and 
the attendance was 703. 

310 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 


As in the preceding years, the services of Museum guide-lecturers 
were offered, without charge, to clubs, conventions, and other 
organizations, and to Museum visitors in general. For the public 
136 general tours and 376 tours covering specific exhibits were 
arranged. Printed monthly tour schedules were placed at the main 
entrance for distribution to visitors. Each month copies of the 
schedule were sent to libraries, social settlements, retail stores and 
to some of the railroads bringing special groups into the city. 

Five hundred and twenty-eight groups took advantage of the 
guide-lecture service during the year, with a total attendance of 
8,684 individuals. 


The use of the small lecture hall was extended to twenty-two 
educational and civic groups. These meetings were attended by 
1,708 persons. 

On Armistice Day an Americanization program under the auspices 
of the Chicago Board of Education was held in the James Simpson 
Theatre. The attendance was 740. 

A series of Chamber Music Concerts, sponsored by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Sprague Coolidge, was presented in the Theatre on October 12, 13, 
14, 15 and 16. The number of persons who attended them was 5,831. 


Radio broadcasts by members of the Raymond Foundation staff 
were given in connection with the public school radio programs which 
are sponsored by Station WMAQ. During the year, twelve talks 
were presented to grades ranging from the first to the eighth. The 
talks given during September, October, November and December 
were planned to correlate with the new course of nature study being 
given in the elementary grades. 

During the summer course of entertainments, broadcasting ma- 
terial was prepared each week for the radio stations giving publicity 
to the children's programs. 

Totals. — The total number of groups receiving instruction by 
means of lectures, entertainments and tours was 1,852, with an 
aggregate attendance of 314,276. This figure includes both the adults 
and the children participating in Museum educational activities. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 311 


The publications of the Museum, as in previous years, were 
generously distributed during 1930. To institutions and individuals 
engaged in scientific work there were sent 10,030 copies of scientific 
publications, 3,133 leaflets, and 2,427 miscellaneous publications. 
Also, 5,660 copies of the 1929 Annual Report of the Director, and 
3,914 leaflets were sent to Members of Field Museum. Sales during 
the year totaled 1,041 scientific publications, 8,734 leaflets and 
12,368 miscellaneous publications and pamphlets. 

Thirty-three large boxes of books were shipped to Washington, 
D.C., for distribution in foreign countries, through the exchange 
bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, to museums, research organ- 
izations, scientific societies and individuals from whom valuable 
exchange material is obtained for the Library of Field Museum. 
A like quantity of Museum books was sent by stamped mail to 
names on this institution's domestic exchange list. 

The pressing need of more storage space for both the reserve and 
open stock of publications necessitated a readjustment of these 
books. Reconstruction of the racks in the vault housing this stock, 
numbering some 330,000 copies, provided the shelf space to hold 
these and many future publications. Supplementary to moving 
the packages of previously issued numbers from the old shelving and 
transferring them to the new racks, 1,010 packages of books issued 
in 1930 were wrapped and labeled for storage in the stock room. 

Two notable special publications were issued during the year. 
One of them is Flora of the Indiana Dunes by Donald C. Peattie, 
well-known writer and botanist, formerly on the staff of the 
United States Department of Agriculture. The book is a complete 
record in non-technical language of the 1,400 different kinds of plants 
found in the dunes area, long known as one of the richest and most 
interesting botanical regions in the United States. The popularity 
of this book during the flowering season of the year is indicated by 
its large sale. 

The second of these special publications was issued in November. 
It is a portfolio of accurate lithographic reproductions of paintings 
of birds and mammals, made by the late Louis Agassiz Fuertes, 
noted American artist, while he was a member of the Field Museum- 
Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition of 1926-27. The publi- 
cation of these was made possible through the generosity of Mr. C. 
Suydam Cutting, an Honorary Member and Patron of Field Museum, 

312 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

who was also a member of the Abyssinian expedition. The original 
paintings, including 108 subjects, were purchased by Mr. Cutting 
after the artist's untimely death and presented to the Museum. 
From this collection, thirty-two were selected for reproduction by 
offset lithography. Of these, twenty-eight are studies of birds and 
four of mammals, among them many of the finest and most character- 
istic species found in Abyssinia. At the time of his coronation. 
Field Museum presented to His Majesty the Emperor Haile Selassie 
I, of Ethiopia, a set of these reproductions in a handsomely bound 
portfolio of special design. 

In compliance with individual requests, the Museum sent out 
110 copies of Field Museum and the Child, a pamphlet outlining the 
work carried on among the school children of Chicago, by the N. W. 
Harris Public School Extension and the James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation of Field Museum. This pamphlet was 
given wide distribution during 1928 and 1929. 

As in former years, the Museum's domestic as well as its foreign 
exchange list was increased by the addition of an appreciable number 
of names. 

Thirteen additions to the regular series of Field Museum publi- 
cations were issued, two of which were anthropological, seven 
botanical, three zoological and one the Annual Report of the Director 
for 1929. Besides these, five numbers were added to the general 
leaflet series, and two special publications, two memoirs, one tech- 
nique series item, and three guide numbers were published. Follow- 
ing is a detailed list of the various publications: 


270.— Botanical Series, Vol. VII, No. 1. The Rubiaceae of Colombia. By 
Paul C. Standley. January 22, 1930. 175 pages. Edition 1,000. 

271. — Report Series, Vol. VIII, No. 1. Annual Report of the Director for 
the Year 1929. January, 1930. 265 pages, 20 photogravures. 
Edition 7,626. 

272. — Zoological Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 1. Descriptions of Five New Indo- 
Chinese Birds. By Outram Bangs and Josselyn Van Tyne. April 9, 
1930. 4 pages. Edition 1,010. 

273.— Zoological Series, Vol. XVII, No. 6. Reptiles of the Marshall Field 
North Arabian Desert Expedition, 1927-1928. By Karl P. Schmidt. 
May 10, 1930. 10 pages, 1 photogravure, 1 map and 1 zinc etching. 
Edition 1,048. 

274. — Anthropological Series, Vol. XVII, No. 2. Ethnology of the Mayas of 
Southern and Central British Honduras. By J. Eric Thompson. 
June 7, 1930. 191 pages, 24 photogravures and 1 map. Edition 

275. — Botanical Series, Vol. IX, No. 1. The Differential Analysis of Starches. 
By James B. McNair. June 19, 1930. 44 pages. Edition 1,074. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 313 

276. — Botanical Series, Vol. IX, No. 2. A Study of Some Characteristics of 
Vegetable Oils. By James B. McNair. June 19, 1930. 24 pages. 
Edition 1,024. 

277.— Botanical Series, Vol. VIII, No. 1. Studies of American Plants— III. 
By Paul C. Standley. July 9, 1930. 74 pages. Edition 1,046. 

278. — Botanical Series, Vol. VIII, No. 2. Spermatophytes, Mostly Peruvian 
— II. By J. Francis Macbride. July 9, 1930. 56 pages. Edition 

279.— Botanical Series, Vol. Ill, No. 3. Flora of Yucatan. By Paul C. 
Standley. September 11, 1930. 338 pages. Edition 1,224. 

280.— Anthropological Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 2. Geophagy. By Berthold 
Laufer. September 26, 1930. 102 pages. Edition 1,530. 

281.— Botanical Series, Vol. VIII, No. 3. Studies of American Plants— IV. 
By Paul C. Standley. October 22, 1930. 106 pages. Edition 1,045. 

282.— Zoological Series, Vol. XVII, No. 7. Birds of the Marshall Field 
Peruvian Expedition, 1922-1923. By John T. Zimmer. December 
10, 1930. 250 pages, 1 map. Edition 1,028. 


: Anthropology, No. 29. — Tobacco and Its Use in Africa. By Berthold Laufer, 
Wilfrid D. Hambly and Ralph Linton. January 28, 1930. 45 pages, 
6 photogravures. Edition 3,025. 

Botany, No. 14. — Indian Corn. By James B. McNair. February 6, 1930. 
34 pages, 6 halftones, 1 cover design. Edition 4,925. 

Botany, No. 15. — Spices and Condiments. By James B. McNair. August 
7, 1930. 64 pages, 11 zinc etchings, 1 cover design. Edition 2,036. 

Botany, No. 16. — Fifty Common Plant Galls of the Chicago Area. By Carl 
F. Gronemann. September 4, 1930. 30 pages, 51 zinc etchings, 1 colored 
cover design. Edition 1,599. 

Zoology, No. 12. — The Salamanders of the Chicago Area. By Karl P. Schmidt. 
October 8, 1930. 16 pages, 2 photogravures, 1 zinc etching, 1 colored plate, 
1 cover design. Edition 3,020. 

Miscellaneous Publications 

Anthropology, Memoirs, Vol. II, No. 2. Archaeological Explorations in Peru. 
Part II. The Northern Coast. By A. L. Kroeber. December, 1930. 72 
pages, 17 photogravures, 3 zinc etchings, 1 map. Edition 1,515. 

Geology, Memoirs, Vol. I, No. 1. Studies of Fossil Mammals of South America. 
A Partial Skeleton of Homalodontotherium from the Santa Cruz Beds of 
Patagonia. By William Berryman Scott. New Carnivorous Marsupials 
from the Deseado Formation of Patagonia. By William J. Sinclair. June, 
1930. 39 pages, 8 photogravures, 8 explanation pages. Edition 1,037. 

Flora of the Indiana Dunes. By Donald C. Peattie. May, 1930. 432 pages, 
38 halftones. Edition 2,497. 

Technique Series, No. 3. Restoration of Ancient Bronzes and Cure of Mahg- 
nant Patina. By Henry W. Nichols, with foreword by Berthold Laufer. 
August, 1930. 52 pages, 11 photogravures. Edition 1,040. 

Album of Abyssinian Birds and Mammals. From paintings by Louis Agassiz 
Fuertes. November 17, 1930. A portfolio of 32 lithographs, and 4 pages 
of text by Wilfred H. Osgood. Edition 2,500. 

Anthropology, Guide, No. 6. Ethnology of Africa. By Wilfrid D. Hambly. 
January 28, 1930. 226 pages, 42 photogravures, 4 maps. Edition 1,216. 

314 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

General Guide. Thirteenth Edition. 38 pages, 1 photogravure, 3 zinc etch- 
ings. Edition 4,913. 

General Guide. Fourteenth Edition. 39 pages, 1 photogravure, 3 zinc etch- 
ings. Edition 9,060. 

Post Cards, — The anticipated increase in picture post card sales 
was realized, the total number being 183,235, an increase of more 
than 22,000 over the 1929 sales. Further increases may be expected, 
as the conveniently located card stands permit easy selection of the 
large assortment of cards, to which are constantly being added new 
and interesting subjects. 


During the year there have been added 2,844 books and pamphlets 
to the Library, which was especially fortunate in receiving publi- 
cations from many of its exchanges not represented in the previous 
year's accessions. There were also a number of new exchanges 
arranged with societies and individuals both in this country and 
abroad which resulted in the acquisition of much valuable material. 

One of the aspirations of the Library is to complete more of the 
sets of important periodicals, and each year a little is accomplished 
in this direction. In 1930 the first fifty volumes of the Geographical 
Journal of the London Geographical Society were obtained, making 
the file complete. The early volumes of the American Fern Journal 
were purchased, and also some twenty of the early volumes of the 
Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France. The Union List of Serials 
has proved to be an invaluable aid, and through its instrumentality 
opportunities are offered to complete or nearly complete various 
sets of periodicals. 

Gifts have been received that have strengthened various parts of 
the Library. Mr. G. A. Pfeiffer, of New York, recently presented 
the four volumes of the reprint of Nippon, by Franz von Siebold. 
This is an important addition to the collection of works on Japan, 
as it contains much regarding the early history of the country that 
can be obtained from no other source. Another gift of beautifully 
illustrated books of the art of Fusajiro Abe from Japan is a welcome 
addition to this same collection. It was presented by Mr. Abe 
himself, a resident of Sumiyoshi, near Kobe. From Georges-Marie 
Haardt were received La crosiere noire, Premiere traversee du Sahara 
en automobile, and other interesting material on Africa. 

Among the purchases of the year were Lindley, Genera and 
Species of Orchidaceous Plants, 1830-40, and Bateman's Second Cen- 



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Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 315 

tury of Orchidaceous Plants, 1867; Alton, Hortus Kewensis, five 
volumes, 1810-13; Annates, Musei Botanici Lugduni Batavorum, four 
volumes, 1863-69; Ledebour and others. Flora Altaica, four volumes, 
1829-33; Martius, Specimen Materiae Medicae Brasiliensis exhibens 
plantas medicinales quas in itinere per Brasiliam 1817-1820 ohser- 
vavit, 1824; four volumes of Siren, History of Early Chinese Art; 
Preuss, Monumentale vorgeschichtliche Kunst; Maudslay, History of 
the Conquest of New Spain by Bernal Diaz; Waldeck, Voyage pitto- 
resque et archeologique dans la Province de Yucatan, 1838; Obregon, 
History of the Sixteenth Century Explorations in Western America, 
translated, edited and annotated by George P. Hammond and 
Agapite Reye; Susemihl and Schlegel, Die Vogel Europas, a rare 
work planned for an extended production but never finished ; Nouveau 
dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle; the three volumes of Pallasia and 
Schrank's Fauna Boica, 1798-1803, which contains the first complete 
account of the zoology of southern Germany; and Ameghino, Con- 
tribucion al conocimiento de los mamiferos fosiles de la Republica 
Argentina, 1889, a very rare and important work, essential for the 
study and identification of South American fossil mammals. 

The appearance of the stacks in the general Library has been 
much improved since the books have all been vacuum cleaned. The 
cleaning of the departmental libraries is being carried forward as 
rapidly as possible. 

It is a great satisfaction to find that the Library is more and more 
used each year, and in 1930 the number of students utilizing its 
facilities has shown a marked increase. It is frequently commented 
by visitors that certain material they need can be found nowhere 
else in the city. 

There were about 700 visitors (exclusive of members of the 
Museum staff) to the Library in 1930. Many of these were students 
from universities in and near Chicago. From publishers' offices there 
have been persons desiring reference material. There were also 
representatives of manufacturing firms seeking material for booklets; 
authors doing research work; and other persons in search of various 
kinds of information. The Library also furnished information on 
a multitude of subjects to many inquirers by telephone. 

For many years the Library has received an increasing number 
of duplicate books and pamphlets from various sources. In 1929 
these were brought out of storage, unpacked, and efforts were begun 
to distribute them to institutions where they would be of use. This 
work was continued in 1930. Many of the books and pamphlets 

316 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

were returned to the institutions from which they originally came, 
some were sold, and others were exchanged for desirable material. 
Lists have been made of part of the material, and it is hoped to 
accomplish still more this coming year. 

At different times during the year the Library has been able to 
lend books to other institutions, and it has in turn been favored by 
the courtesy of loans from other libraries. The borrowed books 
have been of value to Museum workers and have been greatly 
appreciated. The courtesy of these loans is acknowledged with 

During the year there were sent to the bindery 630 books which 
were bound in 490 volumes. Monthly installments of author cards 
totaling 8,500 were received from the John Crerar Library. 

There were 3,334 books accessioned, and 7,178 cards written and 
added to the permanent catalogue. 


Anthropology. — During the year four expeditions were operating 
in the interest of the Department of Anthropology. 

This summer the Museum again took up research among the 
ancient Pueblo Indians by organizing an archaeological expedition to 
the southwest under the leadership of Assistant Curator Paul S. 
Martin, who left Chicago by motor car on June 13 and returned in 
October. The actual length of time spent in the field amounted to 
fourteen weeks. The expedition was financed from a fund donated 
by Julius Rosenwald and the late Augusta N. Rosenwald. 

The southwestern corner of Colorado, which was chosen as the 
field of operations, is a region rich in prehistory, and is probably 
the place of origin for much of the southwest prehistoric culture. 
It was a center which extended its influence to other communities. 
Consequently this area is extremely important and offers great 
possibilities to the researcher. 

The ruin explored by Dr. Martin is known as the Lowry ruin. 
It is a large, stone-covered mound approximately 200 feet long, 100 
feet wide, and twenty-five feet high. The problems involved were to 
investigate a large site in an area where no work had previously been 
done ; to excavate a large ceremonial chamber unique for that region 
and unusual in superficial appearance; and to correlate the results 
of this work with the cultures of other near-by areas. All of this, 
however, could not be accomplished during one season. In fact. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 317 

excavations must be continued for at least three seasons to complete 
this task satisfactorily. 

Before any excavation on the mound was undertaken, a two-mile 
road was cut, a cistern was dug and cemented, a 500-foot mine 
railroad was installed, and trenches with an aggregate length of 350 
feet were made. Then the excavations proper began. In all, eleven 
secular or living rooms and one kiva or ceremonial chamber were 
completely excavated. These rooms were on an average twenty by 
ten feet in area, and from twelve to fourteen feet deep. Twelve 
kitchen-midden burial grounds were thoroughly explored, and twenty- 
six graves were found in them. In all, about 1,500 tons of debris 
were removed. 

The site of the Lowry ruin was apparently a favorite one, for, 
while digging exploratory trenches, evidence was found of three or 
four occupations. A near-by spring perhaps explains why this spot 
was so well liked. 

After the main walls of the ruin had been located, it was decided 
to expose first a kiva. A kiva is a circular, underground chamber 
in which religious performances were held. It was also used as a 
men's clubhouse. The excavation of this unit was very satisfactory 
because it brought to light interesting, extraordinary architectural 
features. It was found that this kiva rested on an earlier or older 
kiva. In addition to this, some unique fresco paintings were found 
on the walls of both upper and lower kivas. This fact is remarkable 
because such perishable decorations are rarely preserved in a room 
which is exposed to the elements, and because such designs are 
generally confined to pottery decoration. 

The dwelling rooms which were excavated varied in interest, 
although two are outstanding. One was filled solidly with about 
3,000 cubic feet of wood ash. It is estimated that more than 7,000 
tons of wood must have been consumed to produce this amount of 
ash. Mixed with the ash were many pieces of broken pottery. By 
taking samples of these potsherds from different levels, it was 
possible to obtain stratigraphic evidence of the cultures which had 
flourished on this site. Evidently this room for many generations 
served as a place for dumping refuse. One half of a bowl was found 
in it, while the other portion was dug out of a trench more than 
200 feet away. 

Another room is particularly interesting because its ceramic 
stratigraphy bears out that of the first-mentioned room, and likewise 
because both ceramic series are perfectly supported by the archi- 

318 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

tectural stratigraphy of the second room. Sufficient data were thus 
obtained to warrant the conclusion that there were four occupations 
of this site, and that many years may have elapsed between each. 
On the floor of the second room were found fourteen pieces of pottery, 
just as they had been left by the last inhabitants. Judging from this 
evidence, the history of the Lowry ruin may date back 1,500 to 2,000 

At the close of the season's work, eight to ten inches of soil were 
left on top of the walls. This dirt-capping will shed the rains of the 
winter and thus temporarily protect the masonry, which is held 
together only with mud mortar. In 1931, however, it will be im- 
perative to cover the tops of these unprotected walls with cement for 
purposes of preservation. Photographs were taken whenever pos- 
sible, and 1,500 feet of motion picture film were exposed. 

The Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition con- 
tinued its operations at Kish, its eighth consecutive season, from 
November 23, 1929, to March 18, 1930. Mr. L. C. Watelin again 
acted as director of excavations and was assisted by his son, Mr. 
Ren^ Watelin, and by Mr. I. Martel. The general supervision of the 
expedition's activities, as in previous years, was in the hands of 
Professor Stephen Langdon of Oxford University. The principal 
object of the work during this season was to determine through the 
opening of a certain trench the homogeneity of the population of 
Kish in the depth of the Tell ; to expose the surface down to the plain 
level through other trenches, in order to gain access in the future to 
the lower levels; and to reach by means of soundings virgin soil on a 
larger stretch of territory. 

Mr. Watelin's efforts were concentrated on the section west of 
the Tell, which two trenches had laid bare down to the level of the 
plain. From this level he sank a deep shaft in order to be certain 
that there was a correspondence between the strata of this part of the 
Tell and the strata excavated during the previous year in another 
trench. As in the latter, the excavations brought to light, beneath 
plain level, constructions belonging to an epoch which is not far from 
the reign of Sargon I, but during which the use of plano-convex 
bricks was abandoned. Whenever this type of brick was found, it 
was in every case a secondary use of such brick, which was clearly 
demonstrated by the vault of a water conduit. 

The constructions overlay a stratum of earth of indeterminate 
character. A certain number of sections composed of broken, baked 
bricks rested directly on the floor stratum which was again found 

Field Musetim of Natural ffiatory Reports, Vol. VIII, Plate XXVII 


(Hall J) 
Showing method of installation 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 319 

equally distributed at a depth of two and one-half meters below the 
level of the plain. No form of pottery vase found in the lower strata 
appeared in the upper levels; no cylinder seal found in the lower levels 
appeared above. Flint implements appeared above and below; 
those below were always so closely connected with human habitations 
that they can be considered as in situ. Not a single polished type 
was found below the flood stratum. The tablets found beneath the 
flood stratum are archaic, but do not show pictographic signs. 

From the flood stratum, the excavations penetrated through a 
layer of earth mixed with ashes and pottery. Without any apparent 
evidence, down to a depth of from three to five and one-half meters, 
the beds of ashes and of pottery are more regular, and the habitats 
which they indicate are somewhat regularly distributed. At this 
level some constructions appeared, and a tomb was found. 

As one trench yielded at its northern end and at plain level some 
interesting objects, Mr. Watelin decided to sink a similar deep trench 
into the northern part of the Tell. The workmen uncovered in the 
northern trench a part of a monument which extends over a portion 
still unexcavated. The new trench disclosed also several tombs 
with jars of the same type as those found in Cemetery A, as related 
in previous Reports. These perhaps can be dated at about 3000 B.C. 
This work was pushed forward to a depth of two meters. It should 
be pointed out that in this section of the territory the slope of the 
Tell comes down to the level of the plain, and that for this reason 
there is little earth at this point above the level of the plain. Con- 
sequently inscriptions dated from the period of Hammurabi were 
found there, and such turned up also at two or three meters of depth 
below the highest point of the surface of the Tell. In fact, the 
same quantity of earth covered the tablets in both cases. 

In January the excavations reached a depth of two meters 
beneath water level, and, by means of an efficient hydraulic method, 
the stratum containing polychrome pottery has yielded a large 
number of fragments of beautiful painted vases precisely like those 
previously discovered at Jemdet Nasr. Another kind of pottery is 
coated all over with a red engobe. In connection with this pottery 
were found low supports of terra cotta, a decorated cylinder of white 
paste, a long bead of paste, and a few stone beads. The flint tools 
found there are of microlithic shape and were made where found. 
The use of bitumen was known, and certain univalve shells were 
coated with this substance for an unknown purpose. 

320 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

As usual the strata on the surface of the Tell proved fruitful only 
to a small extent. Nevertheless they furnished this season several 
heads of alabaster statuettes, a terra cotta plaque, and a plaque of 
engraved schist; also a head of lapis lazuli, which was secured for 
Field Museum. Further, inscriptions in stone and three or four 
hundred tablets or fragments of such from different periods, weapons 
of metal, as well as objects and statuettes of baked clay were dis- 
covered. The results of the soundings, in the opinion of Mr. Watelin, 
are of capital importance for tracing the origin of civilization, as will 
be demonstrated in subsequent technical studies. Mr. Watelin 
holds that the civilization reached at Kish, despite some superficial 
analogies which it may present with other sites, certainly is the oldest 
of the civilizations of Chaldea and of Elam. 

In the plain near the Tell Bandar, Mr. Watelin excavated a 
collective Parthian tomb constructed of bricks. He recovered from 
it a score of crania and several long bones. A large jar found in this 
tomb harbored the remains of eight skeletons. 

The ninth season of work at Kish was begun on November 15, 
1930, and is continuing into 1931. Mr. Watelin reports that he will 
use part of his time this season to continue his search for large tombs, 
and that he already has discovered two in cutting the ground toward 
the great Ziggurat. 

The Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological Expedition 
to West Africa, under the leadership of Mr. Wilfrid D. Hambly, 
Assistant Curator of African Ethnology, arrived at Lagos, Nigeria, 
early in October, 1929. This part of the expeditionary work in West 
Africa followed closely upon the investigation carried out in Angola 
earlier in the year and described in last year's Report. Starting 
from Lagos a journey of five thousand miles was made, the greater 
portion of it in a motor truck. Mr. T. C. Bramley, of Lagos, was 
placed in charge of motor transport over the long and difficult routes. 
In the early stages of the journey flooded roads made progress 
tedious, but the expedition was rewarded by excellent opportunities 
for collecting at Ibadan, Iseyin, Ilorin, and Bida. The last-named 
town is particularly interesting because of its brass work and glass 
making. Sokoto in the far northwest of Nigeria, and the great 
emporium of Kano, provided opportunities for observing t3T)ical 
native crafts. At Kano the collections were augmented by products 
of the silversmiths, leather workers, basket makers, potters, and 
weavers. Subjects for photography were many and varied, as the 
season was the busiest of the year. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 321 

From Kano the expedition worked northward to Zinder, thence 
westward through Maradi and Tessowa to Tahua on the southern 
border of the Sahara Desert. Although the culture of this French 
Niger territory is not rich, the material gathered is valuable because 
the region has been but little visited by collectors. On returning 
to Kano preparations were made for a long eastward journey to the 
shore of Lake Chad. After making a halt at Potiskum and Maiduguri 
the motor transport was abandoned in favor of horse transport; this 
was necessary on account of the sandy roads in the immediate vicinity 
of Lake Chad. At the small village of Baya Seyarum on the west 
side of Lake Chad the Buduma people were studied. Collections 
relating to their lake trade and fishing were made, while their physical 
types, their methods of fighting behind large wooden shields, and 
their mode of navigation, formed attractive subjects for motion 
picture work. On the return journey to Lagos a visit was made 
to the Angas pagan tribes in the high plateau near Pankshin. The 
material collected in this region is particularly instructive, as many 
of the objects are of advanced technique. 

From the Bauchi Plateau the expedition proceeded to the river 
Benue, where a crossing was made at Ibi. Contact with the Munshi 
country added many interesting objects and photographs to the 
collections. The return from the Munshi country to Lagos was made 
by way of Onitsha, center of the Ibo country, Benin, and Ife. At 
Benin was secured a series of objects illustrating the processes of 
brass casting. At Ife, where sacred groves abound, data on a con- 
siderable amount of legend and photographs of sacred objects added 
to the scientific results of the expedition. Records of the Umbundu 
language and of drum music were taken on the dictaphone. Four 
thousand feet of motion pictures bearing on native crafts, games, and 
ceremonies in Angola and Nigeria were made. The still pictures 
are about 700 in number. 

Assistant Curator Henry Field left Chicago early in June to 
obtain additional material and data for Chauncey Keep Memorial 
Hall in which the racial divisions of mankind will be represented, 
and for the Hall of Prehistoric Man. He proceeded to England and 
shortly afterwards to Paris where plans were discussed with Miss 
Malvina Hoffman, the sculptress commissioned to prepare exhibits 
in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall, and Abbe Henri Breuil, Professor 
at the College de France. After a trip to the Dordogne and Pyrenean 
region of France where he purchased many specimens for the Hall 
of Prehistoric Man, Mr. Field visited the important museums 

322 Field Museum of Natural History^Reports, Vol. VIII 

and private collections in central Europe during the months of 
September and October. 

In view of the plan to have Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall 
ready during the early part of 1933 it was necessary to assist Miss 
Hoffman in obtaining models and data on the selected racial types 
to be modeled. At the same time skeletal material, charts, casts, 
and photographs for exhibition had to be obtained. It also seemed 
desirable to secure a series of racial type photographs to form the 
basis of a study collection. 

Every effort was made to insure the scientific accuracy of Miss 
Hoffman's work. The cooperation of a number of eminent anthro- 
pologists was invited to give Miss Hoffman advice on special problems. 
Among these are Professor Sir Arthur Keith, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
and Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton in England; Dr. P. Rivet and Mr. 
Y Lester in Paris; Professor Theodor Mollison in Munich; Professor 

/ Josef Weninger and Dr. Viktor Lebzelter in Vienna; Professor Eugen 

Fischer in Berlin; and Baron Dr. Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt in 
^- Breslau. Photographs of racial types were selected from the collec- 

tions of the British Museum, the Mus^e du Congo Beige at Tervueren 
in Belgium, the ethnological museums in Munich, Dresden, and 
Berlin, and the anthropological institutes of Berlin, Munich, Prague, 
and Vienna. In central Europe a series of excellent photographs and 
casts was obtained through the courtesy of Professor Josef Weninger 
of the Vienna Anthropological Institute. This series includes many 
central-Asiatic and Russian physical types, and since it consists 
mainly of unpublished material. Professor Weninger's cooperation 
with Field Museum is the more appreciated. 

Among others who have generously assisted the project are Mr. 
Georges-Marie Haardt, leader of the Citroen Trans-Sahara Expedi- 
tion; Dr. M. Kuesters of the ethnographical museum in Munich; 
and Mr. Arthur S. Vernay of the Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition 
of Field Museum, who obtained an excellent series of photographs 
of Kalahari Bushmen for the Museum. A large number of books 
and pamphlets were purchased for the Museum anthropological 

The proposed plan for a hall dealing with the physical characters 
of living peoples of the world was welcomed enthusiastically among 
scientists in Europe, and the members of the anthropological institu- 
tions rendered every possible assistance. 

For the purpose of rounding out collections for the proposed Hall 
of Prehistoric Man it was necessary to acquire _ a large series of 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 323 

objects ranging from the oldest stone age down to the iron age. 
Assistant Curator Field while in England made arrangements with 
Mr. J. Reid Moir to take charge of excavations at Ipswich, which were 
expected to yield implements from the earliest period of human 
workmanship. Work progressed very favorably during the summer, 
and Mr. Moir obtained an excellent series of artifacts of Pliocene 
man from below the Red Crag. During July and August Mr. Field, 
the Abb6 Breuil and Mr. Harper Kelley visited the Dordogne and 
Toulouse i-egion where Mr. Field purchased specimens selected from a 
number of local collections. The most important collection obtained 
in Europe was the property of Mr. Eugene Viot, Chateau-Colligny, 
Loiret, France. Mr. Viot had spent more than forty years in gather- 
ing these objects, which were all carefully determined according to 
their places of origin. Among these are many beautiful exhibition 
specimens including prehistoric engravings on bone, as well as many 
paleolithic, neolithic, bronze, and iron age objects. 

In central Europe additional material was secured. Franz Roubal, 
Vienna artist, was commissioned to undertake a series of drawings 
of the more important Pleistocene fauna contemporaneous with pre- 
historic man in western Europe. Arrangements were made with 
Professor Absolon of the Moravske Zemske Museum in Briinn, 
Czechoslovakia, to obtain a small kitchen midden from Predmost 
in Moravia. This will include bones from mammoths and other 
Pleistocene fauna, and will be of considerable scientific and exhibition 

Dr. Henri Martin, discoverer of the La Quina and Le Roc pre- 
historic stations, rendered constant assistance to Mr. Field. 

Mr. Amed^e Forestier, well-known artist in London, through the 
courtesy of Mr. Bruce Ingram, editor of the Illustrated London News, 
was commissioned by the Museum to make a series of drawings 
depicting life in prehistoric times. Unfortunately, Mr. Forestier 
died suddenly in November before four of the sketches were entirely 

During December the collections purchased in France were sorted, 
labeled, and packed with the kind assistance of the Abb^ Breuil and 
Mr. Harper Kelley, of Paris, who very kindly turned over his labora- 
tory to Mr. Field for a period of three weeks. This opportunity is 
taken to express the Museum's appreciation of the kind assistance 
rendered by the Abb6 Breuil and by both Mr. and Mrs. Harper 

324 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

The specimens and collections of books and pamphlets were 
packed and shipped through Marshall Field and Company's offices 
in London, Paris and Vienna, which rendered every possible 

Dr. Alfred L. Kj-oeber, professor of anthropology in the University 
of California, and Research Associate in American Archaeology in 
Field Museum, completed a manuscript entitled Archaeological 
Eo:.'plorations in Peru. Part II: The Northern Coast. This has been 
published in the Memoir Series as No. 2 of Volume II, and is illus- 
trated by eighteen plates and three text-figures. This memoir 
presents the results of Dr. Kroeber's work in northern Peru during 
the Marshall Field Expedition to Peru in 1926. 

Assistant Curator Albert B. Lewis completed the manuscript of 
a popular handbook. The Ethnology of Melanesia, which will serve as 
a useful guide to the Melanesian collections in Joseph N. Field Hall. 
Another publication of his, entitled Carved and Painted Designs from 
New Guinea, consisting of fifty-two plates, is being printed now 
as No. 5 of the Design Series, and may be expected off the press 
early in the coming year. 

Assistant Curator J. Eric Thompson completed the report on the 
archaeological results of the First and Second Marshall Field Expedi- 
tions to British Honduras. This will be a companion publication 
to the monograph on the ethnology of the Mayas of central and 
southern British Honduras, which deals with the ethnological results 
of the two expeditions, and was published during the year. The 
archaeological report gives a detailed account of the contents of 
graves and votive caches in so far as they aid in the outlining of time 
and cultural periods in this part of the Maya area. Until a few years 
ago archaeological work in the Maya field was very wide in scope, 
and as a result somewhat superficial. The broad outlines of Maya 
history having been reconstructed, it now remains to fill in the small 
details to complete the picture. The development of styles of arts 
and crafts, particularly pottery, holds out the greatest hope for the 
reconstruction of Maya daily life, and Mr. Thompson's publication 
will cover one small portion of the whole Maya field. It is now in 
press, and should be available early in 1931. Mr. Thompson has 
also made progress with a monograph on the domestication and 
taming of animals in Mexico and the Maya area. Commencing with 
the domestication of the dog for ritualistic and culinary purposes, 
the scope of the monograph has been so extended as to embrace a 
large number of animals, birds, and species of bees. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 325 

Assistant Curator Hambly has been engaged in preparing for 
publication his researches into the ethnology of the Ovimbundu of 
Angola. His report includes chapters on hunting, fishing, agriculture, 
and several important industries such as the work of blacksmiths, 
wood carvers, and basket makers, as well as on social organization, 
methods of education, religious beliefs, and magical practices. The 
wax records of songs and drum music taken by him in the field have 
been electrotyped in the Psychological Institute of the University of 
Berlin, and thus are made permanent. Mr. Hambly has also pre- 
pared a publication entitled Serpent Worship in Africa, which is now 
in press. This is a subject around which there has been considerable 
controversy and confusion. This monograph contains a detailed 
discussion of the many types of belief and ritual which center around 
the serpent in Africa. Arguments are advanced in favor of a theory 
that the various beliefs associated with the serpent have arisen 
through observation of its anatomical characteristics and habits. 
The python worship of Africa has many unique features. A map has 
been prepared to indicate the distribution and probable lines of 
diffusion of beliefs and customs relating to serpent worship. 

Assistant Curator Field has made good progress on preparing for 
publication a report giving the results of his expedition into the 
North Arabian Desert. 

Curator Berthold Laufer prepared the manuscript of a study 
devoted to the domestication of the cormorant in China and Japan, 
an interesting problem, which has never before been investigated on 
the basis of Chinese and Japanese sources. This monograph will 
form one of a series dealing with animal domestications in Asia. 
His monograph, Geophagy, issued by the Museum in 1930, although 
a strictly technical study, was made the subject of a lengthy editorial 
in the New York Times of October 1, 1930. In this publication the 
Chinese types purchased by Dr. Laufer at Shanghai in 1923 have 
been used for the first time. This font of type is now properly 
arranged in two cabinets especially constructed for the purpose. 
The Curator also contributed seven articles to Field Museum News. 
Altogether seventeen articles were prepared by members of the staff 
of the Department of Anthropology for this bulletin, in addition 
to smaller items for which information was furnished. 

As usual, heavy demands were made upon the time of the staff 
by correspondents, scholars, and other visitors calling for information, 
or asking for determination of material. Such requests are of almost 
daily occurrence. 

326 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Botany. — The Peruvian division of the Marshall Field Botanical 
Expedition to the Amazon, which commenced operations in 1929, 
was brought to a conclusion at the beginning of May, 1930, with the 
return of Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Assistant in Wood Technology, 
after spending twelve months in northeastern Peru searching for 
material to increase the study series of the Department. 

Mr. WiUiams left Chicago at the beginning of March, 1929, for 
Para, the Brazilian port at the mouth of the Amazon River. After 
a stay of a few days in that city he proceeded by steamer for 2,300 
miles along the Amazon to Iquitos, the largest town in Peru on the 
eastern side of the Andes, where he established his headquarters. 
This town on the upper Amazon, some two hundred miles within the 
border of Peru, is situated in the heart of a tropical forest, and it 
proved to be most satisfactory as a base. Thanks to arrangements 
made by the State Department of the United States, and by the 
British Consul at Iquitos, formalities at the port were reduced to a 
minimum. In connection with Mr. Williams' stay in Iquitos the 
Museum acknowledges with appreciation the cooperation and valu- 
able advice given him by several American and European concerns 
established there, and especially to Kahn Compania for their 
interest and assistance. 

Mr. Williams spent the first few days collecting in the neighbor- 
hood of Iquitos, and gradually worked farther afield. Then with 
native aids he proceeded by canoes up the Itaya River, a small 
affluent of the Amazon, making collections on the way. After a 
stay of two weeks in that locality, which resulted in the collection of 
several hundred specimens, he devoted his attention to the forest 
around the estuary of the Nanay River which has its confluence with 
the Amazon a short distance below Iquitos. During their stay in 
that region Mr. Williams and his aids were accommodated in a 
house placed at their disposal by the Astoria Manufacturing and 
Importing Company of Long Island City, New York, which main- 
tains a saw mill at this point. After two weeks of daily collecting 
in various directions it was decided to move to higher regions of the 
Nanay River. Accompanied by a guide with sufficient knowledge 
of the forest, and porters to handle the canoes, Mr. Williams jour- 
neyed for five days until a suitable spot for botanizing was reached. 
He then traveled through the forest in the direction of the Tigre 
River, an affluent of the Maraiion. During the several weeks spent 
here, living in hastily erected huts, he succeeded in making a collec- 
tion of several hundred specimens of woods and herbarium material, 

ield Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VIII, Plate XXVIII 


Reconstructed in the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories 

and forming part of a Carboniferous forest exhibit 

in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 327 

including the most common palms, resins and fibers. One character- 
istic feature about the forest in this region is the magnificent scale 
of everything in size, variety and beauty. The number of woods is 
extraordinary, although only a few of the most important ones are 
used locally in the woodworking industries. The exploitation of 
timber of the Peruvian Amazon for export is of comparatively recent 
inception and at present is confined to mahogany and Spanish cedar, 
especially the former. 

At the conclusion of the work in the upper Nanay area a visit 
was paid to Pebas, a small Yahua Indian village on the left bank of the 
Amazon below the estuary of the Napo River. The trip yielded 
highly satisfactory results. A great deal of information was obtained 
concerning various herbs, shrubs, and resins, some of which possess 
poisonous or narcotic properties. Much was learned of the uses made 
of these by the Indians for hunting, fishing or for treating ailments. 

Thus far the party had collected in the forest along the north 
bank of the Amazon River. The next trips were conducted from a 
village situated on the bank of a stream on the south side and flowing 
parallel with the Amazon. When rubber was the controlling factor 
in the Peruvian Amazon region this large village, Caballo-cocha, 
formed an important center, but in the last decade its importance 
has waned. Several trips were made during the stay of sixteen days, 
principally in the direction of the Javary River. This is possibly 
the most unhealthy region in the Amazon basin, notorious for 
epidemics of beri-beri, yellow fever and malaria. 

Thanks to the assistance and hospitality of Senor Jorge Giles, 
the manager of the largest sugar cane plantation in Loreto, at 
La Victoria on the border between Peru and Brazil, the party was 
able to make extensive trips through the dense forest extending 
northward towards the Putumayo River. The Putumayo is one 
of the largest tributaries of the upper Amazon, having its source in 
Colombia. In places the forest traversed was almost impenetrable. 

After spending several months traveling in canoes along the 
Peruvian Amazon, and its tributaries and streams, for two hundred 
miles below Iquitos, and on foot in the forest between that town 
and the eastern frontier line that separates Peru and the neighboring 
republics of Brazil and Colombia, the party returned to Iquitos to 
pack and ship the material collected. 

Before undertaking the next prolonged journey a short trip was 
made up the Itaya River to Paraiso and San Antonio where excellent 
collecting ground was found in the forest along the stream. 

328 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

For the next six months Mr. Williams continued exploring and 
collecting in the forests that extend up to the highlands forming 
ramifications of the eastern Andean range. Leaving Iquitos in 
October he proceeded by a small river steamer to Yurimaguas, a 
town on the left bank of the Huallaga River, about five days' journey 
above the place of departure. Collecting in this region proved very 
fruitful. One of the most successful trips made from the base was 
that in the direction of Balsapuerto, a village at the foot of a high 
range of mountains that extends between the rivers Marafion and 
Huallaga. For the successful results attained in this region the 
Museum is indebted to Sefior Enrique Pardo, at whose "finca," 
Fortaleza, Mr. Williams received generous hospitality. 

Another locality where very satisfactory collecting conditions 
were found was a clearing made through the forest for a proposed 
railroad from Yurimaguas to the Pacific coast. One of the most 
difficult problems which confronts a botanist in a dense forest is that 
of securing adequate herbarium specimens of tall trees and high climb- 
ing vines. To cut a huge tree requires much time, and very fre- 
quently the tree hits the ground with such force that little of foliage, 
fruit or flowers is left on the branches. Often the crown falls upon 
some other tree which in turn has to be felled, or is caught high up 
in the air by twining coils of woody vines. A place where the forest 
is being cleared is therefore always advantageous in avoiding many 
of these difficulties. Along this right of way it was a fairlj^ easy 
matter to obtain good specimens even of large trees. Among those 
cut by the expedition was one mahogany tree 180 feet in height. 

Through the assistance of Sefior Miguel Acosta, of Yurimaguas, 
porters were secured to carry the equipment, weighing several 
hundred pounds. A long journey, often in heavy downpours, was 
begun on foot over rocky and at times muddy paths. After six days 
of trudging through mud, fording streams, making treacherous ascents 
and descents, the Museum party arrived at Tarapoto. This town 
was made famous by the English botanist, Richard Spruce, who 
collected there seventy-five years ago. It lies in a plain which has 
the form of a vast natural amphitheater, encircled by ranges of 
mountains. The greater part of the plain has been denuded of its 
forest, except along the banks of the streams. 

In the vicinity of the town the soil is loose sand covered chiefly 
with coarse grasses, shrubs, and low, scattered trees of secondary 
growth. The general character of the vegetation is intermediate 
between that of the Peruvian lowlands and the Andean highlands. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 329 

In order to reach good botanizing ground one has to go to the high 
ridges which are densely clothed with primeval forest. 

During the month's stay at Tarapoto a trip was made to the top 
of "Cerro Pelado," whose summit is bare of trees- — hence the name 
meaning "bald hill." Along this range Mr. Williams m.ade an 
extensive collection of valuable specimens, including the quinine 
tree (cascarilla). In the vicinity he also collected specimens in a 
forest along the banks of the Huallaga River, as far as the estuary 
of the Mayo, a small river. Proceeding up the Mayo as far as Juan 
Guerra, a small Indian village, he collected in the forest extending 
towards the Sisa River. Returning by way of Morales, a village 
famed in northeastern Peru for its fine quality of tobacco, samples 
of the chief products of that area, such as cotton, cane sugar, tobacco, 
and coffee, were assembled for the Museum's economic collection. 

When the work in the vicinity of Tarapoto was completed the 
party moved to Lamas, a village seventeen miles north. Indian 
porters were the only available means of transporting the collections 
over the difficult paths in this region. Three days were spent in the 
vicinity of Lamas before continuing the journey to Tabalosis on the 
far side of the deep valley of the Mayo, several miles from Lamas. 

The following day's journey was a long and tedious one, through 
rocky, heavily wooded gorges with rugged cliffs and descents and 
over several streams. In the afternoon of the second day, after leaving 
Lamas, the members of the party reached San Roque at the base of 
a round, barren hill, known as Campana, which is surrounded by 
forest. The altitude at the summit of the hill is about 5,500 feet 
and that of the village which lies at its base is about 3,800 
feet. A stay of two weeks at San Roque proved to be highly 
profitable. Many trips were made to the summit of the hill and 
through the forest westward in the direction of Moyobamba, about 
fifty miles away, where Andrew Mathews, the English botanist, 
collected almost one hundred years ago. 

After a short stay at this place, Mr. Williams continued his 
journey westward to Chachapoyas. In places the trail was like a 
deep, narrow ditch through which the mules carrying the equipment 
could barely force their way. Only experienced mountain mules 
could make such rough, precipitous ascents and go down such steep 
declivities. At times the path was strewn with fallen trees and 
straggling vines. At Bagazan, an uninhabited spot at the foot of a 
tall mountain, known as Pishco-huayuna, the Amazonian forest 

330 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

comes to an abrupt termination, 2,800 miles from the Atlantic 

Chachapoyas, the capital of the Department of Amazonas, is 
located near the foot of a lofty range in the midst of a fertile region. 
The principal objective of the visit to this territory was to secure 
specimens of a species of walnut known to exist in remote regions of 
the northern parts of northeastern Peru. Numerous representative 
specimens of grasses, herbs, shrubs, and trees growing in the locality 
were also assembled. 

On completion of this work the Museum party retraced its steps 
to San Roque, an eight-day journey. With all the material pre- 
served and packed, the expedition proceeded in a southeasterly 
direction through the forest to Shapaja, about seventy miles away, 
on the Huallaga River. At this place a raft was constructed of 
twenty trunks of "topa" (a species of balsa, the lightest wood known 
to exist). These were held together by five shorter pieces tied 
transversely with vines. This raft had to carry all the equipment, 
specimens and men. After negotiating whirlpools and rapids, the 
party reached Yurimaguas where all the material had to be redried, 
repacked and loaded aboard a steamer for transport to Iquitos, 
where all the specimens, numbering several thousand items, were 
assembled and packed for shipment to the Museum. 

In addition to the large amount of herbarium material assembled, 
22,500 specimens, representing 8,200 field numbers, the expedition 
brought back a large collection of woods and some fifty other eco- 
nomic specimens. The total number of various products collected 
while in the field during 1929 and part of 1930 amounted to 2,154 
specimens, which augment to a considerable extent the large series 
of tropical woods in the Museum files. This comprehensive repre- 
sentation is of singular importance as it is the first collection of 
authentic wood specimens of the Amazon headwaters ever brought 
together. Up till now the woods from that region of Peru had been 
entirely unrepresented in any scientific institution of the United 
States or Europe. The samples are of unusual value as each is 
accompanied by corresponding herbarium material without which 
it is not possible, in the case of new or imperfectly known species, 
to determine with certainty the identity of wood specimens. 

Mr. Hermann C. Benke, of Chicago, one of the most constant 
friends of the Museum's Department of Botany and always a 
generous contributor to its collections of North American plants, went 
farther afield in 1930 than usual in his search for desirable material. 

CO -w •— 


O a 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 331 

He made a circle trip of some 4,000 miles to the southeast, 
crossing the Ohio River at Evansville, Indiana, going through 
Kentucky and Tennessee to the foothills of the Appalachians, and 
thence descending over Alabama to the coastal plain of the gulf 
about Pensacola, Florida, and Mobile, Alabama. From there on 
botanical exploration was conducted on the coast of the Gulf of 
Mexico, westward and southward all the way to the Rio Grande, 
and beyond into Mexico. The greater part of the time was devoted 
to this section of the tour, zigzagging back and forth along the coast, 
not more than fifty miles inland at any point. The return was made 
by a great detour over Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, 
Kansas, Missouri, and Illinois, crossing the Mississippi River at 
Quincy, Illinois. Transportation was by rail, bus, auto and afoot. 

Numerous stops were made on the way, especially on the southern 
Texas coast, wherever new or unusual botanical material or data 
were expected. River courses and their tributaries were at times 
followed, particularly the Mississippi below New Orleans as far 
toward its delta as flood conditions would permit, and the Rio 
Grande about Brownsville, Texas. 

The trip yielded many notes on botanical observations and several 
hundred herbarium specimens with duplicates. Some special material 
in Cactaceae and Palmaceae was secured and sent to the Museum's 
Department of Botany. 

No herbarium specimens were taken without a definite purpose 
in view. Only those were collected that are rare or unusual, that 
gave promise of uncovering a new species or variety. 

In the fall short trips were made by Mr. Benke into the Valparaiso- 
LaPorte (Indiana) region and the dune region about Michigan 
City, Indiana. Mr. William F. C. Grams of Desplaines, Illinois, 
accompanied him. The Fox River valley was revisited in the region 
from Trout Park Preserve (Elgin, Illinois) northward to the Fox 
Lake district. The unusually dry season had not affected this 
territory to any considerable degree. Indeed, when the drought was 
at its height in the Mississippi valley, in late summer, this was about 
the only "green spot" on the map of Illinois. These trips yielded a 
few notes and herbarium specimens. 

In the Report for 1929 an account was given of the initiation 
of activities under the Rockefeller Foundation Fund for Photo- 
graphing Type Specimens of Plants. This work, planned by Dr. 
B. E. Dahlgren, Acting Curator of the Department of Botany, and 

332 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

financed jointly by the Rockefeller Foundation Fund and Field 
Museum, was begun at the Botanical Garden and Museum, Berlin- 
Dahlem, in August, 1929, by Assistant Curator J. Francis Macbride, 
and has been continued there and elsewhere until the present time. 

For more than a year the work was carried on at Berlin-Dahlem, 
where it received the most cordial support of the Director, Dr. 
Ludwig Diels, of the Assistant Director, Dr. Robert Pilger, and of 
the curators of the various sections of the herbarium. For the 
exceptional favors granted to Mr. Macbride in the execution of the 
photographic work. Field Museum expresses its most sincere appreci- 
ation to the director and staff of the Botanical Museum of Berlin- 

In all, nearly 9,000 type specimens of plants, chiefly those of 
South America, have been photographed, the number including 
all the types in several of the largest families of plants. The herba- 
rium at Berlin-Dahlem offers unequaled opportunities for obtaining 
photographs of tropical American plants. Being the institution at 
which the greatest amount of systematic work is done, it possesses 
an extraordinary number of type specimens, the result of the work of 
the competent and very active staff. The importance and extent of 
the herbarium scarcely can be appreciated by one who never has 
visited it. Its vast collections cover the flora of the whole world, 
and are international rather than merely national in scope. In thus 
developing and maintaining them, the German government renders 
a service of inestimable value to botanical science throughout the 

Several weeks were spent also at the Botanical Museum of 
Munich, where Mr. Macbride received the most friendly cooperation 
from Professor Carl von Goebel, Dr. Hermann Ross, and Professor 
Karl Suessenguth. The Munich Museum possesses the herbarium 
assembled by Martins, father of Brazilian botany, and many types 
in that collection were photographed. Special attention was devoted 
also to the plants of the family Sapindaceae, since the Munich her- 
barium contains many of the tj^pes in that group described by its 
monographer. Dr. Ludwig Radlkofer, who died only three years ago. 

Later Mr. Macbride proceeded to Geneva, where he was engaged 
in work at the end of 1930. Through the kindness of the Director, 
Dr. J. I. Briquet, he has been enabled to photograph many of the 
types in the famous herbarium of the Botanical Garden maintained 
by the city of Geneva, and in the unique DeCandolle Herbarium, 
in the custody of the same institution. Dr. Briquet very generously 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 333 

supplied the services of an assistant to aid in the photographic work. 
The herbarium of the Botanical Garden is one of the most celebrated 
in the world, being particularly valuable because of the great number 
of types that it contains as the result of the work of many of the very 
earliest botanists. Its organization speaks volumes for the abihty 
of its director and staff. 

Mr. Macbride extended his work also to the rich herbarium of the 
University of Geneva, where he was welcomed by Dr. Robert Chodat, 
the well-known monographer of the family Polygalaceae. The 
university collections, which contain a vast amount of historical 
material, are noteworthy for the close association that has been 
developed there between economic and purely scientific material. 
Dr. Chodat generously placed at Mr. Macbride's disposal the use 
of the photographic laboratories of the department of botany of the 
university, thus greatly facilitating the progress of his work. 

Field Museum already has received 5,166 negatives of type 
specimens which are in the Berlin herbarium. Prints have been 
made from them by the Division of Photography of the Museum and 
placed on standard sheets in the Herbarium. The photographs have 
been made with great care, and their superior quality has been 
commented on by all who have seen them. Details of the leaves 
and even of the flowers are shown almost as well as in ordinary 
herbarium specimens, and the photographs, especially when accom- 
panied by fragments of leaves and flowers, are almost as satisfactory 
for study purposes as the type specimens themselves, which could be 
consulted only by visiting at great expense the European herbaria 
in which they are deposited. 

The value to an herbarium of such prints scarcely can be esti- 
mated. It can be appreciated only by botanists themselves, who 
have been obhged to spend hours in studying vague Latin descrip- 
tions, comparing them with specimens at hand, detail by detail, 
and trying to guess whether the description really referred to the 
same species as the specimen under study. With the type photo- 
graphs before one, usually it is possible to settle the matter at a 
glance. When these photographs, which will be supplied by Field 
Museum at the bare cost of making the prints, are available in the 
principal herbaria of the United States, systematic work will be 
facilitated immeasurably in respect to tropical American plants. 

In the autumn of 1930 the Museum called the attention of the 
principal herbaria of the United States to the possibility of obtaining 
these prints. Two complete sets were ordered, and negotiations are 

334 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

under way for the purchase of sets by other institutions. During 
the year, 1,387 prints of the type negatives were supplied to the 
Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, the first institution to order 
a complete set of them. 

As proof of the increasing scientific activity of the Department of 
Botany as well as of the use being made of the Museum Herbarium 
and other collections, it is gratifying to be able to cite some of the 
numerous papers published during the year that have been based 
wholly or in part on its collections. Most of the papers concerned 
were prepared by members of the staff, but several others were written 
by outside botanists who had visited the Museum in order to consult 
the collections or had borrowed specimens for use in their studies. 

One of the most important botanical publications issued by the 
Museum during the year was Flora of the Indiana Dunes by 
Donald C. Peattie, a pocket-size handbook of 432 pages, with a map 
and thirty-eight halftone illustrations. It contains brief descriptions 
of all the ferns and flowering plants known from the sand dune region 
of the Indiana shore of Lake Michigan, and from the adjacent valley 
of the Calumet River. The Flora of the Indiana Dunes is the only 
descriptive manual devoted to the Chicago region. It supplies a 
long-needed manual for distinguishing the many species of plants 
composing the rich flora of the sand dunes. It will be a useful hand- 
book for many of the nature students who visit the dunes each year 
in increasing numbers. Since so many of the species growing in the 
dunes are widespread in the upper Mississippi valley, the volume 
will be found almost equally useful in most parts of Illinois, Wis- 
consin, and Michigan. 

Professor Samuel J. Record and Mr. Henry Kuylen published 
in No. 23 of Tropical Woods an account of "Santa Marta Valley, 
Colombia." The article, of fifteen pages, records the observations 
made by Professor Record during a visit to Santa Marta in January, 
1930, and includes an annotated list of the trees of the region. A 
set of the specimens collected, upon which the tree records are based, 
is in the Herbarium of Field Museum, and the specimens were 
determined by Associate Curator Paul C. Standley. 

In 1930 Mr. Standley published fifteen papers based wholly or 
partly upon Museum collections. One of these was a Flora of 
Yucatan, consisting of 336 pages, published as No. 3 of Volume III 
of the Botanical Series. This work lists all of the species known to 
exist in the Yucatan Peninsula, a limestone region, geologically and 
floristically distinct from the rest of Mexico. It is based almost 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 335 

wholly upon the Museum collections of Yucatan plants, the largest 
that exist in any herbarium of the world. The Flora of Yucatan 
brings to a close the Museum's botanical work upon the flora of that 
region, initiated many years ago by the late Dr. C. F. Millspaugh, 
former Curator of the Department of Botany, who was chiefly respon- 
sible for assembling the material on which the report is based. 
Before his death he had published numerous papers upon Yucatan 
plants, and his data were used freely in the report issued this year. 

Mr. Standley published as No. 1 of Volume VII of the Botanical 
Series a paper of 175 pages. The Ruhiaceae of Colombia. This enumer- 
ates eighty genera and several hundred species of plants of the coffee 
family that exist in Colombia. He published, further, as Nos. 1 
and 3 of Volume VIII of the same series, Studies of American Plants- — 
/// and IV. These papers, of seventy-three and 104 pages re- 
spectively, describe a large number of new plants, chiefly from South 
and Central America, found among the collections obtained by 
Museum expeditions or received for determination from other insti- 
tutions and from private individuals. 

Mr. Standley published in Volume XI of the Journal of the 
Arnold Arboretum a contribution of thirty-two pages enumerating 
"The Woody Plants of Siguatepeque, Honduras," based upon his 
field work of 1927-28; and in the same serial appeared another 
paper by him, entitled "Three New Plants from Yucatan." In the 
Journal there was published also his "A Second Supplement to the 
Flora of Barro Colorado Island, Panama," a list of eleven pages 
based upon Field Museum collections. 

In Rhodora Mr. Standley published a brief paper, "New Forms 
and Varieties of Indiana Plants." In the various numbers of Tropical 
Woods distributed during the year, he published the following 
papers: "Notes on Mexican Trees;" "A Second List of the Trees of 
Honduras;" "Sickingia Klugei, a Tree of Panama and Venezuela;" 
"A New Tree from Colombia;" "A New Inga from British Hon- 
duras." The paper upon Honduran trees, covering thirty-three 
pages, enumerated all the trees known from the Republic of Hon- 
duras, and was based upon specimens in the Museum Herbarium. 

In association with Dr. William R. Maxon, of the United States 
National Museum, Mr. Standley published in the Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington a paper of twelve pages devoted to 
the "Ferns of the Republic of Salvador." 

Assistant Curator J. Francis Macbride published as Volume 
VIII, No. 2, of the Botanical Series a paper of fifty-four pages 

336 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

entitled Spermatophytes, Mostly Peruvian — //. In this there are 
described many new species of Peruvian plants obtained by the 
two Marshall Field Botanical Expeditions to Peru. Descriptions of 
several of the new species that appear in the paper were furnished 
by members of the staff of the Botanical Museum of Berlin-Dahlem. 
Mr. Macbride published, also, in No. 24 of Tropical Woods a paper 
entitled "South American Viburnums Incorrectly Described as New 
Species of Cornus." 

No detailed search has been made through current botanical 
journals for papers, based wholly or in part upon material in the 
Museum Herbarium, published by botanists of other institutions. 
A substantial number of such papers has been published, but there 
need be mentioned here only a few of them. 

In Rhodora there appeared an illustrated article by Mr. Hermann 
C. Benke entitled "Aster amethystinus an Obvious Hybrid." This 
deals with the status of one of the rarest autumn asters of the Chicago 

Dr. Reinhard Knuth of the Berlin Museum published in the 
Repertorium specierum novarum a paper with the title "Geraniaceae 
novae." In this appear descriptions of six new species of Peruvian 
geraniums, whose types are in the Herbarium of Field Museum. 
Under the authorship of Mr. E. P. Killip, of the United States 
National Museum, there appeared in the Journal of the Washington 
Academy of Sciences a paper with the title "Ten New Species of 
Passifiora, Mainly from Colombia and Peru." Two of the Peruvian 
passion-flowers named were described from Field Museum type 

Two of the three papers by Assistant Curator James B. McNair 
mentioned in the Annual Report of 1929 (p. 69) were published by 
the Museum in 1930. They are: The Differential Analysis of Starches, 
Botanical Series Volume IX, No. 1; and A Study of Some Charac- 
teristics of Vegetable Oils, Botanical Series Volume IX, No. 2. The 
third, on gums, tannins and resins, was printed in the American 
Journal of Botany, March issue. In addition three other articles 
written by him have recently been printed. One of these, which 
appeared in the American Journal of Botany, is entitled "The Taxo- 
nomic and Climatic Distribution of Oil and Starch in Seeds in Relation 
to the Physical and Chemical Properties of Both Substances." The 
others are Indian Corn and Spices and Condiments, published as 
Field Museum Botany Leaflets, Nos. 14 and 15 respectively. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 337 

The Indian corn leaflet outlines the origin, geographic distribu- 
tion and varieties of this plant, its use by the American Indian, 
and modern industrial and experimental products obtained from it. 
It contains a number of full-page illustrations. 

The other leaflet contains descriptions of the various spices 
included in the case of spices and condiments in the economic 
exhibits of the Department, as well as some others, and information 
concerning their source, history, composition, and uses, illustrations 
of important spice plants and a map of the spice-producing regions 
of the Old World with the ancient trade and caravan routes. A 
list of the economic materials comprising various kinds of corn, 
basketry materials, food products, etc., identified for the Southwest 
Museum by Mr. McNair appeared in Southwest Museum Paper 
No. U. Archaeological Expeditions in Southern Nevada. Report of 
the First Sessions Expedition 1929. June 1930. 

Members of the Department staff contributed a number of 
articles to Field Museum News. 

The card indexes compiled by Mr. McNair on various subjects 
mentioned in the Annual Report of 1929 (pp. 69 and 125) have been 
continued. Additions have been made to his index of economic 
plants that yield oils, fats, and waxes. New lists of alkaloids and 
arrow and fish poisons are being compiled by him, as well as a large 
quantity of manuscript notes on starches, resins, and wood distillation 

During the year the 600 specimens of resins and gums of the 
Museum collection were sorted and classified by Mr. McNair in 
preparation for the exhibits, and in this connection he has prepared 
for publication a paper dealing with essential oils and resins. 

The resources of the staff of the Herbarium have been taxed by 
the volume of material received during 1930. Its labeling, mounting, 
and distribution into the Herbarium have required constant attention, 
but the work has been kept up to date, except for the mounting of 

More than 9,000 specimens of plants, chiefly from tropical 
America, have been submitted to the Museum for determination 
by institutions or individuals. Some lots have consisted of only one 
or two specimens, not infrequently brought to the Herbarium by 
their collectors, but others have contained hundreds of specimens 
that demanded detailed study before they could be named. Although 
part of the specimens had to be returned to the institutions forward- 
ing them, many others were retained for the Museum collections, 

338 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

and in this manner some of the most valuable of the year's accessions 
were obtained. A considerable proportion of the collections sub- 
mitted consisted of plants of the family Rubiaceae, in the study of 
which Associate Curator Standley has been engaged for the past 
two years. 

Plants were received for identification from every section of the 
United States, from Massachusetts to Florida, and westward to New 
Mexico, California, Washington, and Alaska. Among the more 
distant regions from which material was sent for naming were 
Switzerland, Germany, Sweden, Union of Socialistic Soviet Repub- 
lics, Denmark, Hawaii, Mexico, British Honduras, Guatemala, Hon- 
duras, Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, 
and Cuba. 

As stated above, much of the material thus examined consisted 
of tropical American Rubiaceae, especially from South America. 
This was directly helpful in Mr. Standley's studies of the family 
Rubiaceae, and much of it will be cited in papers now in press or 
in preparation. 

One of the most interesting and difficult collections thus studied 
was formed by the Rubiaceae, Moraceae, and Vochysiaceae collected 
by Mr. G. H. H. Tate of the American Museum of Natural History 
during his recent exploration of Mount Duida, Venezuela. This 
isolated mountain in southern Venezuela resembles in floristic features 
Mount Roraima, Venezuela, which is famous for the local species 
restricted to its slopes. Roraima, however, has been visited several 
times by collectors, and its plants are fairly well known. Mount 
Duida never had been visited by a botanist, and conditions there 
approached those visioned sometimes by botanists, who have dreams 
of discovering a spot whose every plant is a new species. Although 
the Mount Duida plants studied by Mr. Standley showed obvious 
affinities with species known from Roraima, practically all were 
undescribed and there were two plants that represented new genera 
with exceptionally well-marked distinguishing characters. Manu- 
script covering the famihes mentioned has been submitted to Dr. 
H. A. Gleason of the New York Botanical Garden, who is preparing 
a complete report upon Mr. Tate's plant collection. 

One of the most interesting of the other collections studied 
consisted of 511 specimens of Rubiaceae collected in Parana, Brazil, 
by Per Dus^n, and forwarded on loan by Dr. Gunnar Samuelsson of 
the Royal Museum of Stockholm. The specimens were so prepared 
that it was a delight to study them . They included complete material 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 339 

of several species unknown to science, and material of many more that 
are exceedingly rare in herbaria. 

From the Botanical Museum, Berlin-Dahlem, there were received 
two shipments of Rubiaceae, comprising 1,321 specimens, most of 
which already have been determined and returned. This collection 
included recent accumulations of unnamed specimens belonging to 
this family, and since the Berlin garden has such a wide range of 
correspondents, the material, although all American, represented a 
surprisingly large number of collectors and regions. Its determina- 
tion brought to light a substantial number of new species, as well 
as material attesting extensions of range for others already described. 

The United States National Museum, through Dr. William R. 
Maxon and Mr. Ellsworth P. Killip, likewise submitted on loan 547 
sheets of tropical Rubiaceae, which afforded numerous novelties and 
many new geographic records. From the Jardin Botanique Principal 
of Leningrad there were received on loan 419 sheets of the same 
family. These proved to be of exceptional interest because so many 
of the specimens were obtained by early collectors, one of those 
represented being Aublet, who published in 1775 the first account 
of the plants of French Guiana. 

The New York Botanical Garden forwarded on loan sixty-four 
sheets of Bolivian Rubiaceae, which were determined and returned. 
The sending contained several types of species described from Bolivia 
by Dr. H. H. Rusby and not represented in other herbaria. These 
were of great value in completing an enumeration of the Bolivian 
Rubiaceae which is now in press. 

For study by Dr. Earl E. Sherff there were lent to Field Museum 
by various European herbaria 840 specimens, chiefly of the genera 
Coreopsis and Cosmos and other related groups of the Compositae, 
with which Dr. Sherff has been engaged lately. This material was 
received from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England, the 
Botanical Museum of Berlin-Dahlem, the Museum of Natural 
History of Paris, and the Botanical Institute of the University of 
Florence, Italy. 

During 1930 Associate Curator Standley devoted a great deal 
of time to study of the South American plants of the coffee family, 
or Rubiaceae, a group whose principal representatives in South 
America are the species of Cinchona, from which quinine is obtained. 
The work was based in part upon a large series of sheets received 
on loan from other institutions, but chiefly upon the great numbers 
of specimens now in the Museum Herbarium. The results were 

340 Field Museum of Natural History^Reports, Vol. VIII 

particularly interesting in the case of the Rubiaceae collected in 
Peru by Messrs, Llewelyn Williams, Ellsworth P. Killip and A. C. 
Smith, and G. Klug. Their collections from the eastern slopes of the 
Peruvian Andes, where little plant collecting had been done pre- 
viously, yielded a surprising number of new or otherwise noteworthy 

There was issued at the beginning of the year an enumeration 
by Mr. Standley of The Rubiaceae of Colombia, and similar accounts 
of the same family as represented in Ecuador and Bolivia are now 
in press. A report has been prepared upon the Venezuelan Rubiaceae, 
but it awaits the appearance of a report upon the plants of Mount 
Duida, so that the numerous new species discovered there may be 
listed in the full enumeration. 

Mr. Standley finished his report upon the plants of the Lancetilla 
Valley, Honduras, based upon his own collections as represented in 
the Museum Herbarium, and this is to be issued in January, 1931, 
as Volume X of the Botanical Series under the title Flora of the 
Lancetilla Valley, Hoiiduras. It will consist of 418 pages, and will 
contain sixty-eight photogravure plates illustrating some of the 
prominent plants of the region. The volume is based upon explora- 
tion along the northern coast of Honduras, carried out by the author 
in the winter of 1927-28, and it lists and describes briefly in more 
or less popular language all the plants collected in the area. 

Also prepared by Mr. Standley were two papers describing miscel- 
laneous new plants of various groups, chiefly Central and South 
American, and these were issued during the year by the Museum. 
The latter papers were based primarily upon current collections 
received by the Museum for determination. Some of the most 
notable of the plants described were from the collections made in 
British Honduras by Mr. William A. Schipp. 

During the year Mr. Standley completed an account of the sedges 
or Cyperaceae of Central America, and this is now in process of 
publication. He prepared a descriptive list of the Nyctaginaceae or 
four o'clock family as represented in Peru, for the forthcoming Flora 
of Peru. At the same time he elaborated an account of the family 
as it is represented in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia, 
and the resulting paper is now ready for publication. This particular 
study was aided by the loan of Andine material from the United 
States National Museum. 

Assistant Curator J. Francis Macbride completed manuscript for 
a large part of his Flora of Peru, and prepared preliminary treat- 


Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 341 

ments for the majority of the remaining families. The manuscript 
for the earlier families of the usual sequence is practically ready for 
publication, and it is expected that it will be sent to the printer early 
in 1931. Flora of Peru, based on the collections of several Marshall 
Field Expeditions, will constitute a publication immediately useful 
to all persons interested in South American plants. 

As in previous years, Mr. Hermann C. Benke of Chicago has 
devoted a substantial amount of time to determining Museum 
material, especially plants of the Chicago region, and particularly 
asters and other difficult groups with which he is well acquainted. 
Dr. Earl E. Sherff, while continuing monographic studies of the 
genera Bidens, Cosmos, and Coreopsis, likewise has added materially 
to the value of the Museum collections by his critical annotations 
of these groups. 

The staff of the Herbarium prepared for distribution a large 
quantity of duplicate material that had accumulated from current 
collections. During the year 20,739 duplicates, chiefly herbarium 
specimens, were distributed from the Department of Botany. These 
were principally South American, mainly from the Williams, Mac- 
bride, and Weberbauer collections, and of exceptionally high quality. 
There were distributed, also, further sets of the Gaumer plants of 

The duplicates were sent to most of the important herbaria of 
the United States and Europe. Several desirable sets of plants have 
already been received in return for them, and others are expected 
later. It is through such exchanges that much of the most desirable 
herbarium material is received by Field Museum. An especially 
important sending made to the Botanical Museum of Berlin-Dahlem 
consisted of fragments of type specimens of Field Museum Her- 
barium, and of selected duplicates representing rare species of the 
American flora. 

Loans of mounted herbarium specimens from the Department in 
1930 amounted to 8,557 sheets. The greater part of these, 5,600 
sheets, were sent to Berlin-Dahlem for study and determination by 
Assistant Curator Macbride. The remaining 2,957 sheets were lent 
for study or determination to a large number of institutions and 
individuals in the United States and Europe. 

Among the more extensive of such loans were 566 specimens of 
mints or Labiatae, to Dr. Carl Epling, University of California at 
Los Angeles, who is preparing for publication accounts of the groups 
represented. To the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, there 

342 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

were lent 733 sheets of the genera Tradescantia and Mentzelia, to be 
used in preparing monographs on those groups; also 375 specimens 
of Frasera, Lycium, and Menodora, for the same purpose. 

To the United States National Museum there were submitted on 
loan 255 specimens, chiefly of South American plants, for study by 
Mr. Ellsworth P. Killip. The New York Botanical Garden received 
on loan 262 sheets, chiefly of South American plants, to be used in 
monographic studies by members of the staff. To the Gray Her- 
barium there were lent 154 specimens of bromeliads, for the conven- 
ience of Mr. Lyman B. Smith in preparing an account of the group 
as it is represented in Peru. To Professor Oakes Ames, Botanical 
Museum of Harvard University, 345 specimens of Peruvian orchids 
were lent for the same purpose. 

Loans of herbarium specimens by the Museum, although they 
often require a large amount of clerical work for their preparation, 
usually result to the great advantage of the Herbarium, because of 
the critical determinations obtained from those who study the 

As in former years, the Museum has received greatly appreciated 
assistance from botanists of the United States and Europe in the 
determination of plants, especially those collected by Museum 
expeditions. Usually it has been possible to submit duplicate speci- 
mens, to be retained by the cooperators to repay in part the labor 
of making such determinations. 

The woody plants gathered by Mr. Herbert Stevens of the 
William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to Eastern Asia were 
submitted to Dr. Alfred Rehder of the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica 
Plain, Massachusetts, who with gratifying promptness supplied a 
list of determinations for them. He described in the Journal of 
the Arnold Arboretum a new rose, Rosa Stevensii, collected by the 

Among others who have rendered substantial aid in the deter- 
mination of material should be mentioned the following: Mr. Edwin 
B. Bartram, Bushkill, Pennsylvania, who determined various send- 
ings of mosses from current collections; Dr. William Trelease, Urbana, 
Illinois, who named several lots of plants of the Piperaceae or pepper 
family; Professor Oakes Ames, of the Botanical Museum of Harvard 
University, who determined miscellaneous orchid material, and is 
preparing an account of the orchids for the Flora of Peru; Dr. B. L. 
Robinson, Dr. Ivan M. Johnston, and Mr. Lyman B. Smith of the 
Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, who have determined speci- 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 343 

mens of the groups in which they are especially interested; Dr. 
William R. Maxon, of the United States National Museum, who 
has determined many ferns, especially those of Peru; Mr. Ellsworth 
P. Killip, of the same museum, who has determined South American 
specimens of the passion-flowers, Urticaceae, Boraginaceae, and 
other groups, particularly those obtained by museum expeditions; 
Dr. S. F. Blake, of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
who has identified Compositae; Dr. A. S. Hitchcock and Mrs. Agnes 
Chase, also of the Department of Agriculture, who have named the 
grass collections; Dr. H. A. Gleason, of the New York Botanical 
Garden, who has named many of the melastomes collected by recent 
expeditions to Peru; Dr. C. L. Shear and Mr. John Stevenson of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, who have supplied 
names for difficult specimens of fungi; Dr. C. W. Dodge of the 
Farlow Herbarium of Harvard University, who has determined 
tropical American lichens. 

Assistant Curator Macbride has been assisted materially by the 
members of the staff of the Botanical Museum of Berlin-Dahlem in 
the determination of Peruvian plants, and this assistance is deeply 
appreciated by the Museum. The critical identifications made by 
those members of the staff who are engaged in systematic work for 
the Pflanzenreich, the great monograph of the plants of the world 
being issued by the Berlin Museum, will give the Peruvian specimens 
an added value for citation purposes in the Flora of Peru. 

As usual, the Department has been consulted freely by persons 
desiring information upon botanical matters. Telephone calls from 
business houses and individuals often bring strange requests for the 
most heterogeneous information, which is desired for practical appli- 
cation. The assistance of the Librarian of the Department, Miss 
Edith M. Vincent, has been invoked repeatedly by artists preparing 
illustrations for encyclopedias or for advertising folders. Specimens 
of local plants and of plant material often are brought to the Her- 
barium by their collectors in order to obtain names or information 
concerning them. Much time has been required, also, to answer 
requests for information received by mail, covering almost all 
branches of botanical science. The Department has been called 
upon frequently for aid in botanical matters by other Departments 
of the Museum. 

The staff of the Herbarium has enjoyed visits from a large number 
of botanists of the United States and foreign countries. Some have 
spent only a few hours in the Museum, while passing through Chicago, 

344 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

but others have devoted a longer period to stud}^ of the rapidly- 
expanding collections of the Herbarium. 

Geology.^ — An expedition to Florissant, Colorado, was conducted 
by Mr. Bryan Patterson, Assistant in Paleontology. The collecting 
grounds at this locality occupy the bed of an ancient lake, five miles 
long and one mile wide, about the shores of which grew, in Miocene 
times, a varied flora and insect fauna. The flora included all grada- 
tions from delicate flowering plants to giant sequoias. Active vol- 
canoes in the vicinity from time to time cast showers of ashes in 
and about the lake. In the fine-grained muds thus produced, the 
delicate remains of plants and insects of the period were remarkably 
well preserved. For collecting purposes, excavations were made by 
Mr. Patterson at seven different stations in order to obtain as com- 
prehensive a collection as possible. Acknowledgments are due Mr, 
Singer, owner of the Singer Ranch, and Mr. George Gotham, manager 
of the ranch, for permission to excavate on that property, and for 
much other assistance. 

Results obtained from the different stations varied considerably 
in amount, but as a result of the collecting a large and typical series 
of the fossil insects and plants of the region was secured. The 
fossil insects collected included flies, true bugs, bees, beetles, ants, 
crane flies, a perfect butterfly wing and a spider. Among plant 
remains, a flower of a member of the Convolvulaceae family is of 
special interest as an example of the preservation of so delicate an 
object. It belongs to a genus at present restricted to the East 
Indies. Other plant remains secured were leaves or other parts of 
poplars, maples, elms, sequoias, and many other trees. Petrified 
wood of some of the great sequoia trees was also acquired. A feather 
of a bird contemporaneous with the insects was another interesting 
object secured. A total of 570 specimens was obtained. 

A field trip to the coal mines at Braidwood, Illinois, was made 
by the entire staff of the paleontological division and 126 specimens 
of fossil plants were obtained. The fossils which were collected 
occurred chiefly in concretions and represent plants of the orders 
of Filicales, Equisetales and Lycopodiales. Some of the concretions 
were sufficiently large to jdeld specimens nearly a foot in length. 

A field trip to Terre Haute, Indiana, made by Assistant Patterson 
netted thirty-five specimens of fossil plants. These specimens were 
chiefly obtained from the Moore mine, near Terre Haute, Indiana, 
where they occur in shale. Especially fine specimens of Spheno- 
phyllum and Calamocladus were collected and proved of service in 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 345 

making reconstructions for the Carboniferous forest group in Ernest 
R. Graham Hall. 

Field trips by Assistant Curator Sharat K. Roy and Assistant 
Patterson to a section of the Sag Canal, Illinois, yielded twenty-two 
specimens of fossil worms and three specimens of graptolites. 

Two publications of major importance have been issued during 
the year. The first of these is Volume I, No. 1, of the Geological 
Memoirs of the Museum, entitled Studies of Fossil Mammals of 
South America. The authors are Professors William B. Scott and 
William J. Sinclair of Princeton University. This memoir is the 
first to be published giving the results of studies of the vertebrate 
fossils collected by the Marshall Field Paleontological Expeditions 
to Patagonia. Professor Scott describes in this memoir a partial 
skeleton of the little known fossil mammal, Homalodontotherium. 
Professor Sinclair treats of some fossil marsupials obtained by the 
expedition. The memoir comprises thirty-nine pages and eight 
full-page plates. 

The second publication issued during the year forms No. 8 of the 
Museum Technique Series. It is entitled Restoration of Ancient 
Bronzes and Cure of Malignant Patina. Associate Curator Henry 
W. Nichols is the author and Curator Berthold Laufer of the 
Department of Anthropology furnishes a foreword. This publication 
gives the results of several years' experience of the author in the 
restoration of ancient bronzes, and describes in full the use of the 
Fink process, by employment of which remarkably successful results 
have been obtained. The publication comprises fifty pages and ten 
full-page plates. 

A publication describing a marsupial saber-tooth fossil animal 
from the Pliocene of South America has been prepared in manuscript 
by Associate Curator Elmer S. Riggs. He also completed manuscript 
for a guide leaflet on the evolution of the horse and carried on studies 
of fossil mammals from the Colpodon and Pyrotherium beds of 

Studies of the Frobisher Bay, Baffin Land, fossils and of the drift 
fossils of Labrador and Baffin Land, all of which were collected by the 
Second Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition of Field Museum 
(1927), were continued during the year by Assistant Curator Roy. 
He completed the descriptions of all the brachiopods in the Frobisher 
Bay collection, and nearly all the trilobites. Photographs to accom- 
pany the descriptions have also been made. It is expected that at 

346 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

least forty new species will be found in the collection as a whole. 
Fifteen have already been discovered among the brachiopods. 

Studies of an unusual Silurian worm collected at Blue Island, 
Illinois, with the cooperation of the University of Chicago, were 
made by Mr. Roy and the results of his studies are nearly ready 
for publication. 

All the members of the scientific staff of the Department have 
contributed articles to Field Museum News during the year. Such 
articles include a brief history of the Museum, and matter descriptive 
of Museum exhibits, expeditions and other features. A total of 
twenty-three such articles prepared by members of the Department 
were published during the year. Copy was also prepared for the 
geological sections of new editions of the Museum Manual and 
Museum Guide. 

The Curator and Associate Curator, as members of the committees 
appointed by the National Research Council to plan geological and 
mining exhibits for the Century of Progress Exposition, attended 
several meetings of the committees and made written reports to their 
several chairmen. The Curator addressed the Chicago Women's 
Aid on the "Activities of Field Museum." Assistant Curator Roy 
addressed the Geological Club of the University of Chicago on the 
"Paleozoic Fauna of the Arctic." 

Answering of inquiries of correspondents and visitors continued 
to occupy much of the time of members of the staff during the year. 
Information was furnished to 563 correspondents and seventy-two 
visitors. Identification of minerals and fossils for schools and indi- 
viduals continues to be an important part of this service. 

Zoology.- — Six important zoological expeditions were in the field 
in 1930. Two of these, the Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition for 
Field Museum, and the Second Chancellor-Stuart-Field Museum 
Expedition (to Aitutaki, Cook Islands), completed their work in 
1930, but at the close of the year much of the material collected by 
them was still in transit. The First Chancellor-Stuart-Field Museum 
Expedition (to the South Pacific), which began operations in 1929, 
returned early in 1930, but, as most of its work was accomplished in 
1929, the detailed account of its activities will be found in the 
Report for that year. 

Three other expeditions, the Harold White- John Coats Central 
African Expedition, the Suydam Cutting Expedition to Sikkim, and 
the Marshall Field Expedition to China were in various stages as 

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Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 347 

this is written, the first drawing its work to a close, the second well 
under way, and the last just getting to its field of operation. 

Several private expeditions have reported the collecting of zoo- 
logical material for Field Museum. Notable is that of Mr. Marshall 
Field, who obtained several lions for the Museum while on a pleasure 
trip to Africa. These will be used in a habitat group which has been 
much desired. Report has been received also from Mr. James E. 
Baum, Jr., to the effect that he has obtained specimens of large 
mammals for presentation to the Museum during his personally 
organized expedition to Persia. 

Foremost of zoological expeditions during the year was the 
Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition for Field Museum. This was 
organized, financed, and participated in by Mr. Arthur S. Vernay, 
well known for his work in India and elsewhere. The plans of Mr. 
Vernay were carried out on a large scale and, although Field Museum 
was the principal beneficiary, material was also collected for the 
British Museum (Natural History), London, the Transvaal Museum, 
Pretoria, and the American Museum of Natural History, New York. 
Mr. Herbert Lang was placed in charge of general management and 
preparation, his large previous experience in Africa making him 
especially qualified for this position. Further technical personnel 
was obtained through cooperation with the Transvaal Museum and 
the following members of its staff became associated with the expedi- 
tion: Mr. Austin Roberts, ornithologist; Mr. G. van Son, entomol- 
ogist and botanist; Mr. V. Fitzsimmons, herpetologist; and Mr. 
G. Noome, taxidermist. Dr. A. W. Rogers, Director of the Union 
Geological Survey of South Africa, accompanied the expedition as 
geologist and contributed much to its success. Mr. Vernay himself 
completed the field party, and gave his especial attention to large 
mammals. The complete organization for continuous work consisted 
of fourteen white men and sixteen natives. 

The expedition received the cordial cooperation of the officials of 
the countries traversed, without whose assistance it could not have 
carried out its work. Lord Athlone, Governor General of South 
Africa, extended important aid and good will and took much interest 
in the expedition. Captain The Honorable B. E. H. Clifford, Im- 
perial Secretary for British South Africa, not only provided numerous 
indispensable facilities for passage through the country, but also 
gave invaluable advice in practical matters based on his personal 
knowledge of conditions gained on his own expedition of 1928. The 
Resident Commissioner of Bechuanaland, Colonel Rey, gave all 

348 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

possible assistance. The many courtesies accorded were deeply 
appreciated by Mr. Vernay and are most gratefully acknowledged 
by Field Museum. 

The expedition depended largely upon motor transport, using 
five one and one-half ton trucks and one six-cylinder passenger car. 
Much difficulty having been experienced by previous expeditions 
through scarcity of water and through the frequent puncturing of 
tires, special precautions were taken to overcome these obstacles. 
Water tanks were carried on the running boards of all cars, and to 
one tank on each the radiator was connected to a device by which 
steam from the radiator was condensed and conserved. This resulted 
in a running loss of water amounting to no more than 2 per cent. 
The tires used were the heavy-duty type with special air-container 
tubes. These covered 5,800 miles, much of it over trackless ground, 
without a single puncture, a record which seems almost miraculous. 

Mr. Vernay sailed from Southampton, England, to Cape Town 
early in February and went thence to Kroonstadt, arriving March 1. 
Here a brief preliminary trip was made to the region about twenty 
miles northeast of Kroonstadt in the Orange Free State. This was 
for the special purpose of obtaining specimens of the blesbok and 
black wildebeest, species which are now becoming rare and confined 
to this area. Excellent specimens of both were secured, as well as 
a few examples of the springbok. Mr. Vernay then went to Pretoria, 
and thence to Mafeking, where he proceeded by rail to Gaberones, 
in southeastern Bechuanaland, which was the base of the main 

At Gaberones motors and other equipment had been assembled, 
and with everything in readiness the entire party immediately set 
out March 18, going northwest into the Kalahari Desert at Mole- 
polole and then continuing in a diagonal traverse through the center 
of the desert to the vicinity of Ghanzi. Leaving the Ghanzi district 
and the main Kalahari, they worked northward to Lake Ngami 
which was found to be wholly dry. The next main point was Maun, 
west of the Botletle River, where conditions were still very dry, but 
collecting was carried on continuously. Farther north it was expected 
to work up through swamps by boats, but lack of water prevented 
this, so a trip was made with porters up the Kudumane River until 
water was found thirty-five miles from its mouth. Hunting was 
carried on here for some time, and also in the vicinity of the Mababe 








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Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 349 

At this point Mr. Vemay proceeded at once to Livingstone, 
leaving the expedition to work slowly from the Mababe Flats to 
Kazungula. Here a road was cut south for hunting around Great 
Makakari where valuable material was obtained. On September 7, 
the expedition came out to Livingstone and brought its field work to a 

The broad appreciation of all the possibilities of the expedition 
for museum purposes shown by Mr. Vernay in planning and 
organizing it, and his wise choice of personnel, brought well-deserved 
results. A difficult region was traversed without mishap, and a 
collection was made which, considering the time spent, is the equal 
of or superior to any other ever brought out of Africa. Preliminary 
classification and enumeration of specimens before shipment indi- 
cates long series of practically all the large mammals of South Africa, 
including the following: giraffe, blesbok, springbok, eland, sassaby, 
steinbok, lechwe, reedbuck, sable antelope, Burchell's zebra, kudu, 
puku, roan, lion, leopard, brown hyena, wild dog, and aardvark. Of 
mammals in general, there are 800 specimens of some ninety species; 
of birds, 1,500 specimens of about 350 species; of reptiles, 2,500 
specimens; of fishes, 500 specimens; of lower invertebrates, 1,000 
specimens; of insects, 25,000; and of plants, a large collection as yet 
not recorded by number. A further important result is a complete 
and detailed photographic record of the expedition which for quality 
of production and choice of subjects has rarely, if ever, been equaled. 

Finally, as a result of this expedition. Field Museum comes into 
possession of a remarkably fine specimen of the giant sable antelope 
of Angola. This was obtained through arrangements made by Mr. 
Vernay with Mr. Allan Chapman, and with the Portuguese Colonial 
Office and the Governor General of Loanda, to whom grateful 
acknowledgment is made for permission to take the specimen. The 
horns of this specimen measure five feet two and one-half inches in 
length, and it is therefore among the finest of the few examples of 
this rare antelope preserved for museum purposes. 

The Chancellor-Stuart-Field Museum Expedition to Aitutaki, 
Cook Islands, sponsored and led by Mr. Philip M. Chancellor of 
Santa Barbara, California, sailed from San Francisco June 11. Mr. 
Chancellor, accompanied by Mr. Norton Stuart, proceeded to Rara- 
tonga. Cook Islands, and thence by trading schooner to Aitutaki 
Island, arriving in July. Their object was the collection of the highly 
colored and greatly varied fishes of the coral reefs, and the photog- 
raphy of reef life in general. They returned in December, bringing 

350 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

approximately 400 fishes among which are very pecuHar types 
suitable for reproduction and exhibition in the Museum's new Hall 
of Fishes, now under construction. In addition to this valuable 
ichthyological collection, the expedition produced some 14,000 feet 
of motion picture film, partly of undersea scenes taken with a diving 
bell and special cameras, and partly of various interesting subjects 
illustrating native life on the island. 

The Harold White-John Coats African Expedition of 1930, led 
by Captain Harold A. White of New York and Major John Coats of 
London, England, had as its principal object the securing of certain 
especially rare and desirable African mammals. It also supple- 
mented the results of the Abyssinian expedition of 1929, likewise 
conducted by Captain White and Major Coats. 

Captain White and Major Coats reached Nairobi by airplane 
early in September and arranged a special hunt for the beautiful 
but most elusive antelope known as the bongo, a species never 
obtained by any of the Museum's previous African expeditions. This 
himt was made in the Aberdare Mountains in dense humid forests 
at an elevation of 10,000 feet. After very hard hunting, fortune 
favored them and they were rewarded with success almost beyond 
expectations. The following quoted from a letter received from 
Captain White indicates what took place: 

"After one week of hunting twelve hours a day in that terrible 
forest, an old native tracker brought us into the heart of the bamboo 
forest where we discovered an old salt lick that his father had told 
him about and which had been lost to the younger generation. 
Here, early one morning, we saw a herd of over thirty bongo just 
entering the forest, and we picked our female and young yearling out 
of this group. Several days later, after waiting all night at this lick 
in terrible cold and rain, we shot a large bull just coming down to 
drink. This animal is a beauty and has a very fine horn measure- 
ment of over thirty inches. Later on, we secured another herd bull, 
making in all four fine large animals and one small young one." 

The bongo is unquestionably one of the most difficult to secure 
of the large mammals of Africa, and Captain White and Major 
Coats are to be congratulated on their success. Besides the speci- 
mens, they had the rare good fortune, doubtless unique, to obtain 
clear and distinct moving pictures of the live animals in their forest 

Captain White and Major Coats continued hunting in other 
selected localities and obtained a very fine bull eland and a small 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VIII, Plate XXXI 




Hall of Plant Life (HaU 29) 

Collected by the Marshall Field Amazon Expedition, 1929, and reproduced 

in the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories 

One-fourth natural size 



Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 351 

baby rhinoceros, both of which were needed for use in the large 
water hole group for which they collected the principal animals in 
1929. At last reports, they were expecting to get specimens of 
Hunter's antelope, a scarce and localized species not at present 
represented in Field Museum. 

The Suydam Cutting Expedition to Sikkim was organized and 
sponsored by Mr. C. Suydam Cutting of New York, well known 
traveler and sportsman, and companion of Messrs. Theodore and 
Kermit Roosevelt on their recent expeditions for Field Museum. 
Mr. Cutting spent the summer and early fall of 1930 in the highlands 
of Sikkim and neighboring parts of Tibet. Associated with him was 
Mr. Herbert Stevens of Tring, England, who devoted himself to 
general collecting from fixed camps of smaller mammals, birds, and 
reptiles, while Mr. Cutting moved about engaged in photography and 
big game hunting. Under date of October 3, Mr. Cutting wrote 
from the field, reporting that he had obtained three specimens of the 
Tibetan Argali sheep {Ovis ammon hodgsoni). These were taken in 
Sikkim near the Tibetan border at an altitude of 17,800 feet. Mr. 
Cutting returned to New York in December, leaving Mr. Stevens to 
continue detailed work. Specimens from this expedition will not be 
received until 1931. 

The Marshall Field Expedition to China was just reaching its first 
field of operation near the close of the year. This expedition is con- 
ducted by Mr. Floyd T. Smith, who will be accompanied by a corps 
of trained native Chinese collectors and who will work in cooperation 
with Chinese scientific societies. Mr. Smith sailed from the United 
States in July, and after reaching Shanghai, spent some weeks in 
establishing relations with Chinese officials and in accumulating and 
perfecting equipment. On November 29, Mr. Smith, with five 
Chinese assistants, started up the Yangtze River with the intention 
of continuing to Suifu and thence up the Min River to Chiatingfu, 
where it was planned to establish a headquarters for preliminary 
work. Among immediate objects is that of obtaining a series of 
specimens and complete material for a habitat group of the peculiar 
goat antelope known as the takin. Later, detailed general collecting 
is planned for the district of Mouping, in the province of Szechwan, 
to obtain typical examples of the many animals discovered there by 
the French missionary Armand David. Subsequent work will be 
carried on in southern provinces, especially the province of Kweichow. 

Field Museum is much indebted to the Chinese Ministry of 
Education and to the Academia Sinica of Nanking, through Dr. 

352 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

T. H. Chien and Dr. Tsai Yuan-pei, for their courteous reception of 
Mr. Smith and their broad-minded appreciation of the objects of 
his work. 

Curator Wilfred H. Osgood was absent during the spring months, 
engaged in research at the British Museum (Natural History) in 
London. This work was especially in connection with the classi- 
fication of mammals obtained by the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts 
Expedition in China and Indo-China. Certain unidentified mammals 
from other expeditions were also studied and notes made for use in 
the preparation of publications previously undertaken. A further 
result was the acquisition of a share of a large unstudied collection 
of mammals from French Indo-China which was submitted to Dr. 
Osgood for determination by the joint action of the British Museum 
and the French naturalist, M. Jean Delacour, whose expedition 
made the collection. 

Associate Curator C. E. Hellmayr also spent several months 
abroad, mainly in London, but also in various continental cities 
where he examined historic specimens of birds and carried on research 
in which all matters of uncertainty were settled for the completion 
of his forthcoming work, The Birds of Chile. He also made important 
studies for use in continuation of the series of books issuing under 
the title Birds of the A7nericas. 

Dr. Hellmayr published in Alauda, a French ornithological 
periodical, a paper entitled "Louis Bose, Ornithologue Oubli^," 
and in Novitates Zoologicae a short paper entitled "On Two Unde- 
scribed Neotropical Birds." 

Colin C. Sanborn, Assistant in Mammalogy, completed a study 
of the large collection of South Sea bats made by the Cornelius 
Crane Pacific Expedition. While at work on this, he received further 
collections from the same region submitted by the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology of Harvard University and the American Museum 
of Natural History, the last of these being the extensive series 
obtained by the Whitney South Sea Expedition. He has, therefore, 
prepared a combined report on all three collections. 

Mr. Sanborn published in American Museum Novitates, No. 435, 
a paper entitled "Two New Fruit Bats Collected by the Whitney 
South Sea Expedition," and in the Journal of Mammalogy (Vol. XI, 
pp. 61-68) one on "Distribution and Habits of the Three-banded 
Armadillo ( Tolypeutes) . ' ' 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 353 

Assistant Curator Karl P. Schmidt continued research on the 
local fauna during 1930, to complete the series of descriptive leaflets 
dealing with the amphibians and reptiles of the Chicago area. 

A Museum leaflet by Mr. Schmidt on The Salamanders of the 
Chicago Area, illustrated with three black and white plates and one 
colored plate, was finished and published early in the year. 

The manuscript for a leaflet on the turtles, the third of the series, 
was completed by Mr. Schmidt. He also finished a study of the 
small but unusually interesting collection of reptiles secured in 
north Arabia by Mr. Henry Field in the course of the Marshall 
Field North Arabian Desert Expeditions of 1927-28. The results of 
this study were issued in the Museum's Zoological Series of publica- 
tions. Further progress was made in the study and identification of 
the collections of reptiles made by the Cornelius Crane Pacific 
Expedition and the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition. 

Mr. Schmidt published (jointly with Mr. Charles E. Burt) a 
paper entitled "Description of Emoia sanjordi, a New Lizard from 
the Islands of the Western Pacific" in American Museum Novitates, 
No. 436. He also contributed an "Essay on the Zoogeography of the 
Pacific Islands," which appeared in Jungle Islands, the book on the 
Crane Pacific Expedition published by G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

An important report on the Birds of the Marshall Field Peruvian 
Expedition, 1922-1923, by Assistant Curator John T. Zimmer, was 
published. Included are the descriptions of six new birds discovered 
by this expedition, others having been named in several preliminary 
papers. The report covers 247 pages and forms a valuable contri- 
bution to knowledge of the birds of South America. 

A special publication was issued November 17, 1930, under the 
title Album of Abyssinian Birds and Mammals. This was in the 
form of a portfolio of colored lithographic reproductions of paintings 
made by Louis Agassiz Fuertes while a member of the Field Museum- 
Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition of 1926-27. Included 
are four studies of mammals and twenty-eight of birds, among which 
are many of the finest and most characteristic species of Abyssinia. 
A brief descriptive text accompanies the plates. The publication of 
this portfolio was made possible by a generous donation from Mr. 
C. Suydam Cutting, who was also a member of the expedition on 
which the original paintings were made. These paintings, 108 in 
number, were purchased by Mr. Cutting after the artist's untimely 
death and presented to the Museum. From this collection, thirty- two 
of the finest have been selected and reproduced by offset lithography. 

354 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

A large number of articles were contributed to Field Museum 
News by members of the Department staff. 

The following list indicates the various expeditions and other 
field work conducted during 1930 for all Departments of the Museum : 

Locality Collectors Material 

KiSH, Mesopotamia L. C. Watelin Archaeological collections 

(Eighth season) Rene Watelin 
I. Martel 

Nigeria, West Africa. W. D. Hambly Ethnological collections 

Colorado Paul S. Martin Archaeological collections 

Europe Henry Field Anthropological collections 

Peru Llewelyn Williams Botanical collections 

Eltrope J. Francis Macbride Photographs of botanical 

type specimens 

Colorado Bryan Patterson Paleontological collections 

Illinois Elmer S. Riggs Paleontological collections 

(Braidwood) and assistants 

Indiana Bryan Patterson Paleontological collections 

Illinois Bryan Patterson Paleontological collections 

(Sag Canal) 

Illinois Sharat K. Roy Paleontological collections 

(Sag Canal) Bryan Patterson 

Bechuanaland Arthur S. Vernay Zoological collections 

(Kalahari Desert) Herbert Lang 

Dr. A. W. Rogers 
Austin Roberts 
G. van Son 
V. Fitzsimmons 
G. Noome 

East Central Africa . . Captain Harold A. White Zoological collections 
(Kenya, Uganda, Major John Coats 

SiKKiM, India C. Suydam Cutting Zoological collections 

Herbert Stevens 

SZECHWAN, China Floyd T. Smith Zoological collections 

New Zealand, 
austrai-ia and 

East Indies Philip M. Chancellor Zoological collections 

Norton Stuart 


Cook Islands PhiUp M. Chancellor Zoological collections 

Norton Stuart 

Leader of expedition named first in each case. 

Anthropology. — The number of new accessions received and 
recorded during 1930 was fifty-eight. Of these, forty-five are by gift, 
five as the result of expeditions, two by exchange, and six by purchase. 
These accessions aggregate a total of more than 3,271 objects. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 355 

Two hundred and nineteen objects were brought back by Assistant 
Curator Paul S. Martin as the result of the Field Museum Archaeo- 
logical Expedition to the Southwest (Rosenwald Fund). This 
collection consists of decorated pottery, stone and bone tools, and 
some potsherds for study purposes. 

The pottery decorated with designs painted in black on white is 
in splendid condition. It is entirely different from any the Museum 
previously possessed, and will make an attractive exhibit. Two 
examples of this Pueblo pottery, corresponding to the early Mesa 
Verde type, are illustrated in Plate XXXIV of this Report. Dr. 
Martin also brought back some prehistoric roof logs from the rings 
of which approximate dates for the buildings may be computed. 

Mr. Burridge D. Butler, publisher of The Prairie Farmer, pre- 
sented to the Museum six excellent Navaho blankets from his 
collections made during the past twenty years. These blankets are 
old and especially valuable because they are colored with native 
dyes. The designs typify the older Indian style. 

The Museum acquired as a result of a purchase made with part 
of the income of a fund provided by Julius Rosenwald and the late 
Augusta N. Rosenwald, a fine collection of silver ornaments made 
by Navaho Indians and a set of their silversmiths' tools. This 
acquisition illustrates the high type of handiwork these artisans 
achieved, and with other material on hand made possible the installa- 
tion of a representative exhibit of Navaho silver jewelry. 

Two prehistoric coiled cooking pots found in the Chaco Canyon, 
Arizona, were presented by Mr. J. W. Young, of Chicago. 

Mr. Frank von Drasek of Cicero, Illinois, contributed a number 
of arrow- and spearheads from Magnet Cove, Arkansas. These 
specimens are valuable in that they come from the burial mounds 
of that area. 

Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Assistant in Wood Technology, turned 
over to the Department a small ethnological collection made by him 
during the year he spent on the upper Amazon as leader of the 
Peruvian Division of the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition to 
the Amazon. From the Yahua Indians, who live along the lower 
Peruvian Amazon, he obtained a series of skirts, armlets, leg orna- 
ments, and headbands, all made of dry grass, as well as hunting 
equipment consisting of a blowgun, a bundle of darts for the blow- 
gun tipped with the deadly curari poison, and the quiver in which 
the darts are kept while hunting. From the Campas Indians of the 

356 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Ucayali District of Peru Mr. Williams secured several pieces of 
excellent pottery. These are finely decorated with delicate lines, 
either incised or painted in red, brown, and black on a creamy white 
background. The whole surface is covered with a bright varnish 
obtained from a tree resin. 

Dr. Ralph M. Whitehead, of New York, collected and presented 
to the Museum three ear ornaments made of the metal-like wings of 
a giant wood-boring beetle, and ornamented with toucan feathers. 
These are worn by the Aguaruna Indians of the Amazon valley, a 
branch of the Jivaro. From the same tribe Dr. Whitehead also 
obtained a very finely made comb, a bark-cloth shirt, and a well- 
woven cotton bag. 

Mr. J. A. Skelton, of San Salvador, transmitted to the Museum, 
through the good offices of Mr. Gilbert H. Scribner, of Chicago, two 
very interesting stone objects excavated by him in El Salvador. 
One of these is a crude stone statuette which bears a very close 
resemblance to the so-called archaic statues of the Finca Arevalo, 
close to Guatemala City. The statuette presented by Mr. Skelton 
may be assigned with a high degree of certainty to this early culture, 
which preceded the Maya, and may perhaps be attributed to the 
Chorotegans. The other object is a well made stone ring, the top of 
which is carved in the shape of a realistic frog, the Central American 
symbol for rain. 

Three or four years ago an expedition of the Carnegie Institution, 
Washington, D.C., under the leadership of Mr. Oliver G. Ricketson, 
Jr., uncovered at Uaxactun, in the heart of the forest-clad Peten 
region of Guatemala, an exceptionally interesting pyramid. This is a 
structure covered with stucco, which owes its preservation to the fact 
that at a later period another pyramid had been built over and around 
it by the Maya inhabitants of Uaxactun. A scale model of this 
pyramid, the work of Mr. Samuel Guernsey of Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, has been purchased, and is now on exhibition in Hall 8. 
The model is of exceptional interest because it represents the earliest 
known pyramid of the Maya area, and possibly of the entire New 
World. On each side stairways flanked by huge grotesque masks 
ascend to the flat summit, and the character of the whole structure 
differs from any other Maya monuments. Indeed, it is probable 
that it was erected by people possessing a culture which preceded 
that of the Mayas, although its builders may well have spoken a 
Maya language. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 357 

Two remarkable craters (pottery vessels in which wine was mixed 
with water), made at Paestum in southern Italy in imitation of 
Greek red-figured vases, were presented by Mr. Thomas S. Hughes, 
of Chicago. One of these vases is painted with a bacchanalian scene 
which represents the Greek god of wine, Dionysos, holding his 
drinking-cup out to Selinos who stands in front of him, torch in hand. 
The other vase is a cahx crater, imitating in shape the type of 
drinking-cup known as calix. It is decorated with two paintings, one 
showing a warrior clad in the short Italic tunic and holding a white 
horse; the other representing a man with staff, clad in a toga. The 
date of these two craters is the first half of the fourth century B.C. 

To Mr. L. M. Willis of Chicago the Museum is indebted for an 
unusually large and beautiful glass amphora found in the ancient 
city of Pompeii in a perfect state of preservation. This vase is the 
more valuable as the original bronze tripod stand in which it is set 
is preserved with it. 

As a result of the excavations carried on at Kish during the last 
season by the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition 
to Mesopotamia, a vast amount of material was received. Out- 
standing are sixty complete pieces of pottery, a large quantity of 
pottery sherds, numerous clay figurines and flints, as well as many 
objects of shell, bone, and metal, and a great number of skulls. A 
fine bronze beaker of graceful outlines, discovered at Kish and 
restored in the Department's repair shop this year, is illustrated in 
Plate XXXVIII of this Report. 

Professor Stephen Langdon, director of the expedition, presented 
a reproduction of a painted Sumerian clay head. The original was 
discovered at Kish above the red stratum in a level where picto- 
graphic tablets of the Jemdet Nasr type were also found. It was 
retained by the Museum of Bagdad. This head now presents the 
best evidence for studying the type of the real Sumerian or proto- 
Sumerian of the earliest accessible period. It is the only portrait 
sculpture modeled with the hair and skin indicated in colors. The 
hair left on the crown by the tonsure of the period and the full beard 
without mustache are black; the skin is a pale yellow; the irises, 
eyebrows, and eyelashes are black. The torso of this statuette has 
unfortunately not been recovered. 

Six Babylonian clay tablets, each provided with a translation, 
were received as a gift from Mr. Henry J. Patten, Chicago. 

The Haskell Museum at the Oriental Institute of the University 
of Chicago obligingly placed at the Museum's disposal fourteen 

358 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

predynastic pottery jars from Egypt which were used in the installa- 
tion of a predynastic burial. 

During the year the Museum was made the beneficiary of a 
valuable gift of Bushman material collected by Mr. Arthur S. 
Vernay, of New York and London, while in Africa conducting the 
Vemay-Lang Kalahari Expedition for Field Museum. This collec- 
tion is completely representative of the simple hunting culture of 
the nomadic Bushmen, perhaps the most primitive of all primitives, 
against whom other tribes, along with European settlers, have 
constantly waged war. The parts of the Kalahari Desert where this 
collection was obtained are difficult of access; this material therefore 
represents Bushman culture in a form unaffected by foreign influence. 
The quivers and poisoned arrows are the best of their kind, while a 
series of bows will make an interesting exhibit. The Bushmen are 
skillful at making personal ornaments of ostrich eggshell beads 
threaded to form long loop necklaces, girdles, and headbands. The 
examples presented by Mr. Vernay are the finest now obtainable. 
An engraved ostrich egg, some neatly beaded aprons, and a string 
bag complete this excellent series. Anatomical material is difficult to 
obtain from the Bushmen; therefore the receipt with this collection 
of a skull in good state of preservation is particularly appreciated. 

The collections made in West Africa by Assistant Curator W. D. 
Hambly as leader of the Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum 
Ethnological Expedition to West Africa, 1929-30, comprise more 
than 2,000 objects. Of these, 1,200 come from Angola and the 
remainder from Nigeria. The material from Angola represents with 
a fair degi'ee of completeness the life and industries of the Ovimbundu 
of the central highlands, the VaKuanyama of the south, and the 
VaChokue of the east. Of these objects the greater number were 
obtained from the Ovimbundu, whose iron work, wood carving, 
basketry, pottery, hunting, and agriculture are fully represented. 
All crafts were studied carefully, and a series of objects was obtained 
in order to give a clear idea of the various stages of the processes. 
The masks and costumes of eastern Angola are particularly interest- 
ing in their bearing on the initiation ceremonies for boys. Among the 
carved wooden objects from the Ovimbundu are a large number 
of well done human figures, chiefs' staffs, tobacco pipes, and 

From Nigeria there are articles illustrating the process of glass- 
making, and leather work, brass work, basketry, and mats. The most 
valuable ceremonial objects are wooden masks from Ife used in a 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 359 

ceremony purporting to show a return of deceased people of great 
importance. The Buduma of Lake Chad yielded a series of objects 
illustrating every activity of these people, who were heretofore but 
little studied or represented in museums. Brass work from Benin 
is of particular interest in that there is a whole series of objects 
demonstrating the process of casting in clay molds. 

A gift from Mrs. William G. Burt of Evanston includes several 
welcome additions to the Museum's West African collections. A 
wooden mask and a fiber costume from Sierra Leone are valuable 
because of their association with a secret society, and such material 
is exceedingly difficult to obtain. Two well carved wooden paddles 
are probably from the Jekri or Sobo people of Sapele in southern 
Nigeria. The fact that these objects were obtained about thirty 
years ago adds to their value, for they show no trace of European 
influence such as is affecting African craftsmanship at the present 

Forty articles, collected in Angola forty years ago, are a gift from 
the Rev. H. A. Cotton, of Warrensburg, Illinois. Conditions have 
greatly changed in Angola since Mr. Cotton resided there as a 
missionary, and the objects are useful in showing persistence of 
basket designs and other types of industry over a long period. The 
ornamental clubs show the best workmanship of the Ovimbundu, 
and are a very welcome addition to the Museum's collections from 
this tribe. A leather pouch is of fine quality, and there is a pair of 
wooden shackles such as were worn by slaves half a century ago. 

A very fine alabaster model of the famed Taj Mahal at Agra, 
India, skillfully made by a native artist of that city, has been con- 
tributed by Mr. Sidney Weiss of Chicago. 

A gilt bronze statuette of a standing Buddha was donated by 
Mr. Lee Ling Yiin in memory of his father, Lee Wan Ching, well 
known in Shanghai and in this country, who died in Chicago in 
November, 1929. This image, of high artistic quality, is of the type 
of the so-called "sandalwood Buddha," which was the first Buddha 
statue that came to China, and was made of precious sandalwood. 
It is a production of the Ming period (a.d. 1368-1643). 

From the fund annually voted to the Museum by the American 
Friends of China, Chicago, for the increase of Chinese material, the 
following five acquisitions were made this year: 

(1) A rare old Chinese painting formerly in the possession of 
Marquis Tokugawa of Tokyo and attributed in Japan to Li An-chung, 
an artist of the Sung period, who lived in the twelfth century. It 

360 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

represents in spirited action a cockfight, forty-six figures being 
dramatically grouped around the cockpit, where two powerful 
roosters hold the stage, one pursuing the other which seeks safety 
in flight. 

(2) A rhinoceros horn of the Indian species, carved all around 
in high relief with a row of curious animals among which a giraffe 
is conspicuous. It is a work of the fifteenth century. 

(3) A large prehistoric pottery jar, decorated with spiral patterns 
painted in black, brown, and yellow, of the neolithic period (about 
2,000 B.C.). It is the first example of this kind of pottery in the 
Museum, and is especially valuable for comparison with the corre- 
sponding painted ceramics of Jemdet Nasr and Kish. 

(4) A unique gilt bronze figurine of a well modeled crouching 
two-horned rhinoceros with scaly armor, from about the third 
century a.d. 

(5) A white porcelain jar of the Yung-cheng period (1723-35) 
decorated with colored paintings, in enamel, which represent fisher- 
men variously engaged, especially with fishing cormorants. 

These five objects were carefully selected by the Curator, not 
merely on account of their distinct artistic or antiquarian merit, 
but because each offers a decidedly scientific interest and bears upon 
a specific problem that he is studying. 

Mrs. William H. Moore of New York, who has manifested her 
interest in the Museum's jade collection on several previous occasions, 
in 1930 presented three outstanding jade objects of the eighteenth 
century: a superb green jade brush-holder of cylindrical shape carved 
all around with an elaborate landscape in high and undercut relief, 
presumably the largest and finest of its kind ; a twin vase of the very 
rare yellow jade decorated with representations of pine, prunus, and 
five bats symbolizing five kinds of blessings; and a rare black jade 
dish in the form of a shell to which smaller shells and a lotus stem 
with two crabs are joined, all carved out of the same block. 

Five important objects of Chinese jade were presented to the 
Museum by Mr. R. T. Crane, Jr., a Trustee of the Museum. One 
of these is a ceremonial battle-ax carved from a grayish white jade. 
It is beautifully ornamented on both sides with conventionalized 
monster heads of archaic style, which are symbolic of attack. The 
period and significance of this ceremonial weapon are revealed by an 
inscription of eight characters in ancient style, four on the obverse 
and four on the reverse. This inscription reads, "Made by order of 
the Great Sung dynasty and bestowed upon the President of the 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 361 

Board of War." This jade ax is a product of the imperial work- 
shops, and was conferred by the emperor on the minister of war 
as a badge of office and emblem of power. 

Jade slabs were used in ancient China as writing material, and 
documents carved in such slabs were united into books. A jade 
slab presented by Mr. Crane is engraved with a pair of rampant 
five-clawed dragons soaring in clouds and striving for a flaming 
pearl. An island emerges from the ocean waves below. The center is 
occupied by the title of the book, which reads, A Dissertation on 
Talents and Virtues with Reference to the Counsels of Kao Yao — an 
Imperial Essay. It is written by the Emperor K'ien-lung. Kao 
Yao was minister of justice in ancient times, and is still regarded 
as the model for all administration of law. His wise counsels form 
a chapter of the Shu king, the oldest historical book of China. 

In earliest times carvings of jade were buried with the dead in 
the belief that this stone, regarded as the most precious jewel and 
as embodying the quintessence of nature, would have the tendency 
to preserve the body from decay and to promote its resurrection. 
Small figures of animals delicately carved from jade were attached 
to the shroud. Three very fine and rare examples of this type from 
the early archaic period —an elk, an ox-head, and a fish-monster — 
are included in the gift of Mr. Crane. 

Mrs. George T. Smith of Chicago, who has contributed so much 
to the Museum's jade collection, added to it this year two exquisite 
objects— a white translucent jade dish of the K'ien-lung period 
(1736-95) in the shape of a lotus leaf with a dragon fly resting on 
it, and a jade carving of a recumbent lion-like monster in the act 
of devouring two snakes, of so-called Scythian style (T'ang period, 
A.D. 618-906). Mr. A. W. Bahr, of New York, in memory of his 
deceased brother, presented a decorated jade ring of the late Chou 
period (about third century B.C.), and a notched disk and a small 
ox-head of the Han period (about second century B.C.). Another 
gift of Mr. Bahr's, which is of intense scientific interest, is the 
plastron of a turtle inscribed in the earliest extant form of Chinese 
characters and used for purposes of divination (about 1,500 B.C.). 

A Chinese metal mirror of highly artistic quality, made in the 
seventh or eighth century A.D. under the T'ang dynasty, is the gift 
of Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe of Chicago. It is decorated with a 
scene wrought in high relief, which depicts ancient Chinese notions 
of the moon. The center of the ornamented surface is occupied by 
a large tree, the sacred cassia, which was believed to make the human 

362 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

body immortal. Beneath the cassia is a hare pounding in a mortar 
herbs that will form the ingredients in an elixir of eternal life. The 
hare in the moon is an old mythical concept both in ancient India 
and China. To the left of the hare is another inhabitant of the 
moon, a supernatural long-lived toad believed to grow horns at the 
age of three thousand years and to cause eclipses of the moon by 
swallowing it. A dragon and a phoenix are also represented on the 

Two mortuary clay figures of horsewomen engaged in a polo 
match were presented by Mr. David Weber of Chicago. They are 
artistically modeled, and delicately painted in colors. Headstalls, 
bridles, and croups of the horses are finely outlined in ink over a 
layer of white pipe-clay. The polo horses of ancient China were of 
the Persian breed and were imported from Khotan in Turkestan. 
The game was eagerly played by the emperors of the T'ang dynasty 
as well as by officials and ladies of high rank. Such clay figures were 
interred in the graves of sport-loving dignitaries for the purpose of 
contributing to their entertainment in the future life, and are the 
earliest representations of polo now extant. Together with the two 
polo figures of a different style, presented last year by Mr. Earle 
H. Reynolds, of Chicago, they form important documents for tracing 
the early history of the game. 

Mr. William B. Greenlee of Chicago presented an iron knife 
with carved ivory handle from Nepal, a gilt bronze statuette of 
Buddha from Siam, an old Chinese opium pipe of ivory, and a 
Roman pottery lamp with designs in relief. The opium pipe is 
engraved with the pictures of the Eight Immortals and bears this 
inscription: "May you be promoted in office by three grades! May 
the odor and taste of this pipe lead you to joy and to the pure incense 
of the Fairies of the Eight Grottoes!" 

Six very interesting cast brass figures from Borneo were received 
as a gift from Mr. N. M. Heeramaneck, of New York. Three of 
these represent crocodiles with open jaws and scaly bodies. The 
crocodile is worshiped by the natives of Borneo as a human ancestor 
who is capable of assuming animal shape, and it plays a prominent 
role in both their mythology and decorative art. Another crocodile 
figure carries a man astride its neck with an animal in front of him, 
and another creature on the crocodile's back — evidently the record 
of a legendary tale. The most interesting of these brasses represents 
a ceremonial bull-fight. Two combatant bulls are facing each other 
with heads lowered, trying to gore each other with their horns, each 

% o 

a sf 

% m 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 363 

spurred on by a man standing behind, who wears the conical hat so 
characteristic of Borneo. 

Botany.— In 1930 the Department of Botany received 48,912 
specimens, a substantial increase over the number for the preceding 
year. The scientific value of these, as well as the quantity, was 
greater. The number of accessions was 260, representing 115 indi- 
viduals and organizations. Of the specimens accessioned, 2,271 were 
study samples and exhibition material of woods, 452 represented 
economic material for exhibition purposes or for the study series, 
and the remainder, 46,189 specimens, were herbarium specimens, 
photographic prints of plants, and negatives of type specimens. 

Of the total number of specimens accessioned, 3,660 were pre- 
sented by correspondents of the Museum, 11,563 were received in 
exchange, 6,995 were purchased, 20,907 were acquired as the result 
of Museum expeditions, and 5,787 came from miscellaneous sources. 

The most important addition to the herbarium collections was 
the large number of specimens from Peru, received through a Museum 
expedition, by exchange, and by purchase. This material arrived at 
an opportune time, early enough to be cited in the Flora of Peru, 
in course of preparation by Assistant Curator J. Francis Macbride, 
and now, in part, ready for publication. 

The most valuable of the Peruvian collections received consisted 
of 13,000 specimens obtained by Mr. Llewelyn Williams in eastern 
Peru. These are in addition to 9,500 specimens from the same 
region received from Mr. Williams in 1929. His complete series, 
representing more than 8,200 collection numbers with 2,154 wood 
specimens, is doubtless the most comprehensive one ever obtained 
in Peru, and of the greatest scientific value. A complete set of the 
herbarium specimens has been mounted and is now being studied 
and determined. The Rubiaceae, one of the largest families of Peru, 
already have been named, and they were found to be extraordinarily 
rich in new species. When named, the large number of duplicates 
will be distributed to other institutions. 

From the United States National Museum there were received 
in exchange 3,481 Peruvian specimens, collected by Mr. Ellsworth 
P. Killip and Mr. A. C. Smith in central and eastern Peru in 1929, 
during an expedition conducted by the Smithsonian Institution. 
Messrs. Killip and Smith traveled through the region visited by Mr. 
Williams, but they collected also in other parts of Peru, and the two 
large series do not duplicate each other as much as might be expected. 

364 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

When combined, the two afford the first large representation ever 
assembled of the rich flora of the eastern slopes of the Peni\nan Andes. 

The 4,137 specimens mentioned elsewhere as transmitted in 
exchange by the Botanical Museum of Berlin-Dahlem, include a 
large number of Peruvian species represented by fragments of type 
specimens and other specimens of historic interest. 

The Museum was fortunate in being able to purchase from Dr. 
August Weberbauer 1,686 specimens that he had collected in various 
parts of Peru. These supplement admirably the large series of Dr. 
Weberbauer's plants already in the Herbarium, and supply authentic 
material of many of the new species described from his collections. 

There were purchased also 1,460 specimens collected in the region 
of Iquitos, Peru, by Mr. G. Klug. Although these were gathered 
in an area visited by the Field Museum expedition and by that of 
the United States National Museum, they include numerous species 
not represented in the other collections. 

From Mr. Carlos O. Schunke of La Merced, Peru, there were 
purchased 720 specimens. These were obtained in the Chanchamayo 
valley, which already had become famous for the exceptionally 
interesting plants that it has yielded. Mr. Schunke's latest series 
shows that the botanical possibilities of the valley have not yet been 

The Museum Herbarium now contains more than 25,000 sheets 
of Peruvian plants, undoubtedly the most complete representation 
of the flora of that country that exists in any herbarium in the 
world. Through the courtesy of the director of the Berlin herbarium, 
there have been obtained fragments of many of the rarer species 
recorded from Peru and not otherwise represented in the United 
States. As a result, the Museum Herbarium possesses some repre- 
sentation of almost every species recorded from Peru and, of course, 
material of a very large number of species not represented in other 
American herbaria. 

From other parts of South America, also, large amounts of study 
material have been acquired during the year. Most of these have 
been obtained by purchase, and purchases of herbarium specimens 
have been restricted chiefly to collections from South American 

From the Jardin Botanique Principal, Leningrad, U.S.S.R., there 
were received in exchange 397 plants, mostly from Colombia and 
Mexico, collected by Dr. G. Woronow and Dr. S. Juzepczuk in the 
course of their exploration of those countries in 1926. The majority 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 365 

of these specimens were determined in the Department of Botany, 
and several of them, especially those from the little-known Caqueta 
valley of Colombia, were found to represent undescribed species. 

The British Museum (Natural History), London, sent in exchange 
137 specimens from Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador, collected 
almost a hundred years ago by the famous collectors Linden and 
Jameson, and consequently of great historical and scientific value. 
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England, transmitted in exchange 
twenty-two valuable specimens, chiefly type material of South 
American plants of the coffee family. 

Mr. Edward H. Graham, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, presented 
thirteen specimens of the same family that he had collected in 
Venezuela. From Professor Henri Pittier, Caracas, Venezuela, whose 
recent work has added so much to the knowledge of the Venezuelan 
flora, there were acquired by purchase 475 specimens of plants 
collected by himself and Mr. W. Gehriger. From Mr. Jos^ Saer 
d'H^quert there were purchased 224 specimens that he had collected 
in the same country. 

Several lots of Brazilian plants were received, the most important 
being a purchase of 510 sheets from the state of Parana, collected 
by the late Per Dus^n. The Dus^n specimens are pre-eminent in 
quality, their colors being preserved in almost natural brilliance, a 
most unusual condition in the case of tropical plant specimens. 

From Mr. E. H. Snethlage, Berlin, there were purchased 235 
Brazilian plants. The Gray Herbarium of Harvard University sent 
in continuation of exchanges sixty-nine desirable specimens, chiefly 
of plants obtained recently in Brazil by Mr. Lyman B. Smith. Mr. 
Emilio Kauffmann of Para, Brazil, presented four specimens of 
Brazilian plants, one of them illustrating by excellently preserved 
material the Brazilian Ravenala, the only American relative of the 
traveler's tree of Madagascar. 

There was purchased a single collection of Uruguay plants, con- 
sisting of seventy-seven specimens, from the well-known collector. 
Dr. Guillermo Herter, of Montevideo. From Mr. Pedro Jorgensen, 
of Villarrica, Paraguay, there were purchased 100 specimens assem- 
bled as the result of his field work in Paraguay. 

The Museum's Argentine collections were increased, through 
purchase, by 100 specimens collected in southern Argentina by 
Dr. Arturo Donat of Tehuelches, and 100 specimens collected by 
Mr. Erik Ammann. In the same manner there were acquired 300 
specimens of Chilean plants, from the collections of Dr. K. Behn. 

366 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

After the collections received through the Museum's own expedi- 
tion, the most important accession of the year consisted of 4,137 
specimens received in exchange from the Botanical Garden and 
Museum of Berlin-Dahlem, Germany. The several sendings consist 
principally of fragmentary specimens, but they are of the highest 
value because they were taken from type specimens or from sheets 
authentically named by the numerous specialists of the Berlin her- 
bariimi. It is difficult to express adequately the Museum's apprecia- 
tion of the courtesy thus extended by the Director, Dr. Ludwig 
Diels, in permitting the deposit in America of so large an amount 
of historically valuable material, which will facilitate immeasurably 
the study in this country of South American plants. Special thanks 
are due also to the curators of the Berlin Museum, who assisted in 
assembling the material. 

These collections from Berlin supplement the photographs of type 
specimens obtained during the past two years, and with their assist- 
ance it will be possible to understand the described species of plants 
almost as if the type specimens themselves were under observation. 
Nearly all the specimens thus received are South American, particu- 
larly Peruvian, and they give to the United States a representation of 
probably 2,000 species not previously accessible in American herbaria. 

From the United States National Museum there were received 
in exchange during the year 4,158 specimens of plants. Most of these 
were Peruvian, and already have been mentioned. The sendings 
also included material from various other parts of South America 
and from Mexico. They included many plants of the family Rubia- 
ceae, most of which were submitted for determination, and they were 
especially welcome as an aid to the studies of that family now being 
made by Associate Curator Paul C. Standley. The exchanges 
forwarded by the National Museum constituted a highly important 
addition to the Herbarium of Field Museum. 

In Mexico and Central America there has been less botanical 
activity than in other recent years, but the Museum's collections 
were increased by a substantial number of specimens from these 
regions which still are so imperfectly known, in spite of the vast 
amount of time already devoted to their exploration. From the 
Universitetets Botaniske Museum, Copenhagen, through Dr. Carl 
Christensen, there were received in exchange 593 specimens from 
Mexico and Central America. These were obtained almost a hundred 
years ago by F. M. Liebmann, the most diligent of the earlier col- 
lectors in Mexico, and by A. S. Oersted, who was probably the first 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 367 

collector to visit Costa Rica and several other parts of Central 
America. It is remarkable that portions of such important collections 
should have remained so long unnamed. The specimens received 
were determined in the Museum by Mr. Standley, and several 
proved to be new species that had escaped later visitors to the same 

From the United States National Museum there was received in 
exchange a valuable sending of 144 photographs of type specimens, 
representing plants of the Rubiaceae, or coffee family. Mr. George 
L. Fisher presented 193 plant specimens collected in Mexico and 
Texas, which were determined by the Department of Botany. 

The most interesting lot of Central American plants that arrived 
during the year consisted of 311 specimens presented by Mr. William 
A. Schipp of Belize, and collected in central British Honduras. The 
collections made by Mr. Schipp during the past two years have given 
a far better idea of the British Honduran flora than any previous ones. 
They prove that the flora is unexpectedly rich in new species, many 
of which have unexpected affinities with South American and West 
Indian plants. Mr. Schipp's most recent sending contained a larger 
number of Utricularias or bladderworts than had been known pre- 
viously to exist in the whole Central American region. 

From Mr. C. L. Lundell of Dallas, Texas, there were purchased 
278 specimens of plants that he had collected in the pinelands of 
northern British Honduras. His field work, unfortunately inter- 
rupted by illness, has yielded highly interesting results, especially 
because it has given further proof of the close relationship existing 
between the British Honduran flora and that of Yucatan, the two 
countries constituting an area sharply differentiated both geologically 
and floristically from the rest of Mexico and Central America. Mr. 
Lundell also presented 156 miscellaneous specimens from British 
Honduras and Texas. 

The Direccion General de Agricultura of Guatemala forwarded 
as a gift 133 specimens of Guatemalan plants, chiefly from the higher 
mountains, and their names were supplied to the donor. Dr. Sal- 
vador Calderon of San Salvador, Salvador, presented, in continuation 
of his numerous earlier sendings, forty-two specimens of the plants 
of Salvador. Several of them represented new species or known ones 
that had not been reported previously from Salvador. 

From the Second Marshall Field Archaeological Expedition to 
British Honduras there were received thirty herbarium specimens of 

368 Field Museum of Natural History^Reports, Vol. VIII 

plants of that country. These were collected by Mr. J. Eric Thomp- 
son, in connection with his studies of the present-day Maya Indians. 
PYom the Botanical Gardens and Arboretum of the University of 
Michigan there were received in exchange, through Professor H. 
H. Bartlett, 116 plants brought from Honduras by Professor A. M. 
Chickering. The collection was from the Tela region of the northern 
coast, and was of definite interest because that area was visited three 
years ago by Associate Curator Standley, who has prepared a report 
upon its flora. Several of the species collected by Professor Chicker- 
ing were additions to the Flora of the Lancetilla Valley, recently 
completed by Mr. Standley and to be issued by the Museum in 
January of the coming year. 

The School of Forestry of Yale University, through Professor 
Samuel J. Record, Research Associate in Wood Technology at Field 
Museum, continued its gifts of tropical collections. The material 
submitted included a number of interesting Central American plants, 
notably a Costa Rican tree {Naucleopsis naga) that proves to be 
another of the American "cow trees," that is, trees whose milky 
latex may be drunk like cow's milk. The gifts of the year from the 
School of Forestry included 352 specimens obtained in Liberia for 
Yale University by Mr. G. Proctor Cooper, who investigated the 
lumber resources of Liberia. Professor Record presented, further, 
eighty-seven specimens of trees from the Santa Marta region of 
Colombia, associable with wood specimens that he collected there 
at the beginning of 1930. 

Of Mexican plants there were received ninety-one specimens, 
collected and presented by Mr. CD. Mell, New York. They con- 
sisted chiefly of trees, with representatives of several rare and 
unusual species. Dr. C. A. Purpus of Zacuapam, Veracruz, presented 
thirteen specimens frpm the state in which he resides. They included 
several begonias belonging to species not illustrated previously in 
the Museum Herbarium. 

The most valuable accession of West Indian plants consisted of 
618 specimens collected in Cuba by Dr. Erik L. Ekman, and for- 
warded in exchange by the Riksmuseets Botaniska Afdelning, 
Stockholm, through the courtesy of Dr. Gunnar Samuelsson. Dr. 
Ekman has been engaged for many years in exploring Cuba and 
Hispaniola, and his investigations have added an immense number 
of plants to the recorded floras of those islands. The present sending 
contained many of the new species based upon the Ekman collections 
by Dr. Ignatius Urban, distinguished monographer of the West 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 369 

Indian flora. It was a particularly welcome addition to the Museum 
Herbarium because it supplied material of so many of Dr. Urban's 
new species of the family Rubiaceae. 

From Mr. E. J. Valeur, Moncion, Dominican Republic, there were 
purchased 288 specimens of plants. His collection is a useful one 
because heretofore the Dominican flora has been as incompletely 
represented in Field Museum as in most other herbaria of the world. 

Collections of Old World plants received during the year were 
not extensive. Besides the Liberian plants already mentioned, the 
accessions included 283 specimens collected for the Museum by 
Dr. A. W. Herre, a member of the Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedi- 
tion of Field Museum. They were determined by Dr. E. D. Merrill, 
Director-in-Chief of the New York Botanical Garden, the leading 
authority upon the vegetation of the islands visited by the expedition. 

From Mr. Walter J. Eyerdam, Seattle, Washington, there were 
purchased 263 plants that he had collected in Kamchatka. The 
Kamchatka flora is closely related to that of Alaska, and on that 
account the collection is an immediately useful one for purposes of 
comparison in study of the North American flora. 

Dr. P. Aellen of Basel, Switzerland, forwarded in exchange 102 
specimens of the genus Chenopodium. Dr. Aellen is the foremost 
authority upon this group, the pigweeds, and this authentically 
named series is a valuable addition to the Herbarium. Dr. Earl E. 
Sherff, of Chicago, in continuation of his donations of other years, 
presented twenty-eight specimens of plants of the family Compositae, 
mostly from Hawaii. 

The North American section of the Herbarium was improved 
during 1930 by a large number of desirable additions, acquired by 
gift or in exchange. Mr. Hermann C. Benke continued his liberal 
donations of recent years by presenting 992 specimens that he had 
collected in the southwestern United States and in the upper Missis- 
sippi valley. Since he is a careful and critical student of the flora of 
the Chicago region, especially of the beautiful but difficult asters, 
his contributions make an important addition to the Illinois collec- 
tions, as well as to the general Herbarium. 

Several correspondents and visitors presented specimens of local 
plants, usually rare species, that help to enrich the representation 
of the flora of southern Lake Michigan, an area from which botanists 
naturally expect to find the most comprehensive collections in 
Field Museum. Mr. Dana K. Bailey, of New York, while on vacation 
near Chicago, collected and brought to the Museum plants of four 

370 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

interesting gentians, one of which appears to represent a new color 
form. Mrs. Frances K. Hutchinson presented specimens of a 
remarkable albino mint (Monarda) that attracted the attention of 
Associate Curator Standley upon a visit to Wychwood, the famous 
wild flower preserve developed and maintained by Mrs. Hutchinson 
at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, 

Miss Nellie V. Haynie contributed nuts of the curious "peanut 
walnut," a freak Indiana tree that recently has attracted the atten- 
tion of horticulturists. The nuts are remarkable for the fact that, 
when opened, the kernel may be removed easily, without breaking. 

Mr. William F. C. Grams of Des Plaines, Illinois, presented 
thirty-four herbarium specimens of a curious cut-leaved burdock 
growing at Des Plaines. This plant is a remarkable one, named a 
few years ago by Mr. W. L. Clute, formerly of Joliet, Illinois, as a 
new form, Arctium minus f. laciniatum. It differs from the common 
burdock in having its leaves deeply cut and fringed. The burdock 
is a native of Europe, introduced and naturalized as a weed in the 
United States. Since search of botanical books failed to reveal 
mention of the occurrence of a cut-leaved plant in Europe, some of 
these recent specimens were sent to the Berlin Botanical Garden, and 
a letter was received from the director stating that the form could 
not be matched in that herbarium. It seems rather probable, 
consequentlj'', that this abnormal form of the burdock, which has 
been found only in northern Illinois and adjacent Indiana, may have 
originated in the Chicago region as a sport or mutation from a 
normal plant. 

Associate Curator Standley devoted the week-ends during the 
summer of 1930 to study of the flora of the Lake Michigan sand dunes 
region. He presented to the Museum 124 plant specimens from 
Illinois and Indiana, most of them representing rare species or 
additions to the local flora. 

Mr. Karl P. Schmidt donated an interesting series of sixteen 
specimens of Trillium, collected to illustrate abnormalities of leaves 
and flower parts in that notoriously variable group. Professor L. A. 
Kenoyer presented 190 specimens from Kalamazoo County, Michi- 
gan. A gift from Dr. C. J. Chamberlain of the University of Chicago 
consisted of seeds of four rare cycads. 

From Mr. E. R. Bogusch, of Pullman, Washington, there was 
received as a gift a collection of seventy-eight plants from the 
western United States. Mr. V. L. Cory, Sonora, Texas, presented 
three specimens of species that he had described recently as new. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 371 

Mrs. Leonora S. Curtin, Santa Fe, New Mexico, contributed 144 
specimens of New Mexican plants, collected in the course of her 
studies of the ethnobotany of the southwest. Professor A. 0. 
Garrett of Salt Lake City forwarded 177 specimens of Utah plants, 
many of which represented species that are meagerly represented in 
herbaria. From Professor Albert Ruth, Fort Worth, Texas, there 
were received, as a gift, forty-one plant specimens and packets of 
seeds, collected in northern Texas. 

Several important lots of North American plants were accessioned 
as exchanges in return for similar sendings dispatched by Field 
Museum. From Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, 
there were received 298 specimens, chiefly from the collections made 
in the southern states by Mr. E. J. Palmer. The California Academy 
of Sciences, San Francisco, through Miss Alice Eastwood, forwarded 
654 specimens, chiefly Californian. The Department of Botany of 
the University of California transmitted in exchange 629 specimens 
of flowering plants and ferns, some of them from the herbarium 
of the late Mr. J. G. Lemmon, a pioneer botanist of California. 
From the same institution there was received, through the courtesy 
of Professor W. A. Setchell, a set of 483 specimens of seaweeds. 

The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., sent in 
exchange 238 specimens of plants, the majority of which were 
collected in Florida by Rev. Hugh O'Neill. Mr. Ludlow Griscom, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, forwarded on an exchange basis a set of 
192 plants that he had collected in Newfoundland. 

From the Milwaukee Public Museum, through Mr. Huron H. 
Smith, there was received in exchange a series of 536 Wisconsin 
plants, a valuable representation of the flora of the upper Mississippi 
valley. The Department of Botany of the University of Wisconsin, 
through Professor N. C. Fassett, forwarded 327 specimens illus- 
trating the more critical species of the flora of the same state. 
From Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, there were received in 
exchange, through Professor K. M. Wiegand, 445 specimens collected 
in New York. 

Among the accessions there should be mentioned, also, 5,166 
negatives of photographs of type specimens of South American 
plants in the Berlin herbarium. These were obtained through the 
Rockefeller Foundation Fund for Photographing Type Specimens, 
and are discussed at greater length elsewhere in this Report. 

Through Professor Samuel J. Record, Research Associate in Wood 
Technology, several important gifts of wood material for exhibition 

372 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

purposes have been received during the past year. Particularly- 
noteworthy are thirty-two veneered panels representing important 
commercial woods from various parts of the world such as Africa, 
Australia, Brazil, Europe, India, Burma, Ceylon, Celebes and Japan. 
This valuable contribution, generously donated by Penrod, Jurden 
and Clark of Cincinnati, Ohio, will make an attractive exhibit 
when it is installed in the Hall of Foreign Woods, which is to be 

Useful material for the completion of the eastern white pine 
exhibit in the Hall of North American Woods was furnished by Mr. 
Charles Grosskurth of A. P. Bigelow and Company, of Long Island 
City, New York. 

Two boards of pitch pine, required to complete an exhibit of this 
important American wood, were acquired by gift from the Pennsyl- 
vania Department of Forests and Waters, Harrisburg. 

E. L, Bruce Company of Memphis, Tennessee, supplied two 
boards of red gum which will replace defective boards now on 

A small sample of alder wood was received from Mr. 0. J. Salo 
of Red Lodge, Montana. Rev. I. Chateau of Mission, Texas, 
donated a hand specimen of Ephedra wood. 

Mr. W. E. Bletsch of Highland Park, Illinois, an Associate 
Member of the Museum, again demonstrated his interest in the study 
of woods by contributing thirty-four samples of North American 
species. In addition, at his own expense, he had a large number of 
Brazilian, Jamaican and Formosan woods cut into hand specimens 
which will be used for exchange purposes. 

The School of Forestry at Yale University donated eight samples 
of woods from the Belgian Congo, obtained through M. Parlongue 
from the Comptoir de Vente de Bois Coloniaux, Brussels. 

To augment the study series the Museum purchased 162 small 
samples of Porto Rican woods from Dr. Justo D. Barea of San 
German, Porto Rico. 

Two specimens of African mahogany {Khaya ivoriensis) from the 
Ivory Coast were received from the Forest Service of West Africa. 
This wood has a rich, dark color and is somewhat heavier than that 
of other African mahoganies. It represents the species from which 
most of the coastal mahogany is obtained. 

Dr. Salvador Calderon of the laboratories of the Department of 
Agriculture, San Salvador, Salvador, presented the Museum with 
two hand specimens of local woods. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 373 

The most notable addition to the Museum's series of tropical 
woods was the collection, numbering 1,066 specimens, brought back 
by the Peruvian division of the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition 
to the Amazon. Inclusive of the material received by the Museum 
during the previous year, the total number of wood specimens 
assembled by the expedition in eastern Peru amounts to 2,154. 

The Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware, kindly 
contributed to the exhibit of steam distillation products obtained 
from soft wood, sending abundant material of thirty-two different 
products from this rapidly expanding industry. These include 
pieces of raw material, roots of the long-leaf pine in various stages of 
preparation, material representing the various important steps in the 
manufacturing process, samples of the finished product, and many 
hydrocarbons, alcohols, essential oils, and resins used in commerce. 

For the corn products exhibit the Chemical Engineering Depart- 
ment of Iowa State College has given valuable and interesting mate- 
rial demonstrating the present state of progress in this industry. 
Fourteen specimens, representative of various stages in the manu- 
facture, and finished products are included. Among the stalk products 
are pressed board, pith board, and paper pulp. Corncob products 
are represented by charcoal, flour, adhesive, and tar. 

For the exhibit of starch plants of economic importance the 
Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, kindly supplied a lot of tubers 
of Tacca. Sago palm material for the same purpose was received 
from the Botanic Garden of Buitenzorg, Java, This material, consist- 
ing of eight specimens, shows different stages in the preparation of 
sago starch and includes a piece from a ti*unk of the palm. 

The timely arrival of excellent specimens of flax plants, straw, 
retted straw, fiber, tow, and seed donated by the State Flax Industry, 
Salem, Oregon, made it possible to improve considerably the exhibits 
of this important fiber plant in Hall 28. 

For the cotton exhibit Mr. John R. Millar of the Department of 
Botany presented two short staple cotton plants obtained by him 
near Americus, Sumpter County, Georgia, and also some photographs 
illustrating phases of the cotton industry. 

For other fiber exhibits three sacks made of various plant fibers 
from different parts of the world were kindly furnished by McLaughlin 
Brothers and Company of Chicago. 

From the Peruvian division of the Marshall Field Botanical 
Expedition to the Amazon the Department received numerous 

374 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

samples of cotton of different grades cultivated in the lower region 
of the river Ucayali. From the vicinity of Tarapoto, in the Depart- 
ment of San Martin, renowned for its fine quality of coffee, specimens 
of that commodity and of cane sugar were obtained. From Morales, 
a village adjacent to Tarapoto, the expedition brought samples of 
the fine grade of tobacco for which this village is famous in eastern 

This expedition also secured specimens of various herbs, shrubs, 
and resins used by the Indians for medicinal purposes as well as 
samples of rubber, balata, chicle, caucho, and the principal palm 
fibers employed by the natives. These are interesting for comparison 
with the material secured last year from the lower Amazon. 

Samples of the arrow poison used by the Peruvian Indians, and 
also of the fish poison prepared from the roots of the vine known in 
Peru as "barbasco" {Lonchocarpus nicou (Aubl.) DC), were likewise 
obtained by the expedition. 

An item of unusual interest added to the collections, also from 
the Peruvian expedition, is a sample of a narcotic drink used in 
copious quantities by the Peruvian Indians at their feasts. This is 
an infusion prepared from a malpighiaceous liana known in the 
vernacular as "ayahuasca," meaning the death vine, and probably 
identical with the "caapi" mentioned by Spruce. Sufficient material 
of this is on hand to permit its distribution to various institutions 
that may be interested in the investigation of the action of this 

Mr. Paul Van Cleef of Chicago donated a small porcelain cup 
which had been used by the natives of the Malay Peninsula to 
gather the latex from the cultivated rubber trees. 

The Department of Geology transferred to Botany a lot of seeds 
of Bixa, which furnish the orange dye arnatto. These were obtained 
by Curator 0. C. Farrington of the Department of Geology in the 
state of Bahia during the Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition of 
1923. There were also transferred from the Department of Anthro- 
pology for use in the economic exhibits seventeen strings of seeds or 
other plant materials from various sources — South America, Africa, 
and China. 

Geology. — An accession of much importance and value is the 
745-pound Paragould (Arkansas) stone meteorite, a gift from Presi- 
dent Stanley Field. The fall of this meteorite was observed on 
February 17, 1930. The large stone obtained for the Museum is the 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 375 

greatest single mass ever seen to reach the earth from outer space. 
This gives this meteoric stone a unique value, and its acquisition 
considerably increases the value of the meteorite collection as a whole. 

Mr. William J. Chalmers, of Chicago, continued his generous 
contributions to the crystal collection, and through his liberality 
specimens of many of the latest and best finds have been added to it. 
Of these, a giant crystal of beryl from Maine, three feet long and two 
feet in diameter and weighing nearly 1,000 pounds, is of first impor- 
tance. This specimen is remarkable not only for its size but for the 
well-defined prismatic planes by which it is bounded. It is a unique 
illustration of the size which crystals may attain. 

Other specimens from Mr. Chalmers include: a large mass of 
feldspar from Maine penetrated by beautiful green and pink tour- 
malines; fine specimens of the rare iron-aluminum phosphates, vaux- 
ite and metavauxite from Bolivia; a very fine specimen of the rare 
zinc phosphate, hopeite; a beautifully crystallized specimen of the 
rare calcium borate, meyerhofferite, from Death Valley, California; 
an especially fine lazurite from Afghanistan; a large group of azurite 
crystals from southwest Africa; an addition to the series of tour- 
malines in the shape of a section showing the remarkable internal 
structure of a large Madagascar tourmaline; an unusual form of 
cerussite shown by four specimens of twin crystals; six specimens 
of crystallized gold from Placer County, California; a number of 
specimens obtained by Mr. Chalmers in Arizona, which included 
fine pieces of turquois, chrysocolla and malachite, and an addition 
to the mercury ores in the shape of cinnabar from the mines of the 
Quicksilver Corporation, near Phoenix, Arizona. 

A large mass of andalusite crystals showing also some rutile and 
lazurite was presented by the Champion Porcelain Company, of 
Detroit, Michigan. This specimen not only shows andalusite in an 
unusual crystal form, but also illustrates an important economic 

Mr. R. T. Crane, Jr., of Chicago, donated a cut, brown-pink 
gem tourmaline weighing fifty-eight carats, which has been added to 
the gem collection in H. N. Higinbotham Hall. This adds a large 
and flawless gem of a color not previously represented. 

Two fine specimens of thinolite from Lovelock, Nevada, weighing 
about fifty pounds each, presented by Mr. John T. Reid, of Lovelock, 
afford the first representation of this peculiar formation which the 
Museum has ever received. These specimens are especially valuable 
also in showing phases of the occurrence which are rarely seen. 

376 Field Musexjm of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Mr. William B. Pitts of Sunnyvale, California, presented ten 
polished specimens of oolitic jasper from California and a specimen 
of petrified cactus from Arizona. The specimens of oolitic jasper 
show a range of colors and patterns which is unusual and pleasing, 
and the specimen of petrified cactus is the first petrifaction of this 
plant which has thus far been received. 

Miss Ehzabeth Telling, of Chicago, presented a series of specimens 
of native copper, iron ores, barite, prehnite and other minerals from 
regions about the shores of Lake Superior. These had been collected 
by her father, the late John Telling, in many years of travels in the 

Five specimens of colored sands from occurrences at McGregor, 
Iowa, presented by Mr. C. A. Kent of Evanston, Illinois, illustrate 
colors used in the making of "sand paintings." These were supple- 
mented by a gift from Miss Pauline Williams, Chicago, of a remark- 
able sand picture made in 1860 by the artist, Andrew Clemens, who 
attained a wide reputation in this work. Miss Williams accompanied 
the picture with a specimen of the sandstone from which the different 
colored sands were obtained. 

Mr. Frank von Drasek, of Cicero, Illinois, continued his generosity 
in supplying the Museum with minerals from Arkansas by con- 
tributing a fine group of quartz crystals, a number of specimens of 
brookite, elaeolite and schorlomite, and twenty-two cabochon cut 
amethysts, quartzes, agates and schorlomites. 

Several individuals have presented concretions which increase 
the representation of varieties of these peculiar formations and of the 
localities from which they are obtained. An especially interesting 
group of these was presented by Mr. J. W. Johnston of Chicago and 
Mr. H. S. Roach, Silver City, New Mexico. This comprised twenty- 
four specimens of siliceous concretions from New Mexico, which 
strikingly resemble fossil eggs. 

A core of granite, ten feet long and two inches in diameter, made 
with a diamond drill and presented by the Sullivan Machinery 
Company, Denver, Colorado, through Mr. John Emrick, affords a 
remarkable example of this kind of work. 

Six specimens of petroleum and four of petroleum-bearing sands 
from Kentucky, presented by Mr. K. Z. Wilking, Owensboro, 
Kentucky, make a welcome addition to the series representing the 
petroleums of that state. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 377 

Thirty-four negatives of views of Yellowstone Park presented 
by Associate Curator Elmer S. Riggs afford excellent representations 
of the geysers and other phenomena to be seen there. 

Thirty-six specimens of fossil plants from Galesburg, Illinois, 
presented by Rev. Walter H. Smith, of Galesburg, are an appreciated 
addition to the representation of the fossil flora occurring at that 

A number of specimens of fossil worms from an occurrence near 
Blue Island, Illinois, were collected and presented by Messrs. Bryan 
Patterson, Jack Appel, Scott Griffith and Edward Espenshade, all 
of Chicago. Such fossils are an unusual occurrence, preservation of 
such soft-bodied creatures as worms being rarely known, especially 
from a period so remote in time. 

Thirty-six specimens of fossil pelecypods and cephalopods of 
Cretaceous age occurring near the headwaters of the Amazon were 
given by Sefior M. L. Velasco of Iquitos, Peru. 

Fewer specimens than usual were obtained by exchange, but some 
of these were of much value. They included two specimens of the 
rare Winona meteorite from Mr. L. F. Brady, Flagstaff, Arizona, 
and an etched section of the Huizopa meteorite from Mr. H. H. 
Nininger, Palmer Lake, Colorado. From Rev. Walter H. Smith of 
Galesburg, Illinois, forty-four specimens of fossil plants of the 
Carboniferous period and associated mollusks from coal mines at 
Galesburg were received by exchange. This accession also included 
a large slab of amphibian tracks from Grand Canyon, Arizona. 
From the American Museum of Natural History, New York, two 
specimens representing fossil cones of Araucarites were received by 

Obtained partly by purchase and partly by exchange, a fossilized 
skeleton of the extinct fish-lizard Ichthyosaurus was an important 
acquisition. Not only was this skeleton preserved complete to the 
minutest bones, but the slab of stone in which it was imbedded shows 
also a clear impression of the outline of the body of the animal, 
including the fins and tail. This individual evidently was a com- 
paratively young one, having a length of about four feet. 

Forty-five specimens of fossil fish, plants and rocks from localities 
in eastern Canada not previously represented were obtained by 
purchase. The fossil fish were chiefly ostracoderms from Scaumenac 
Bay, Quebec. The plants were of Carboniferous age, and came from 
Joggins, Nova Scotia, and Fern Ledges, New Brunswick. The rocks 
represented rare varieties occurring in the vicinity of Montreal. 

378 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

A skull of Protitanotherium from Utah, and fifty-eight specimens 
of trilobites, also from Utah, were other fossils purchased. The 
Protitanotherium is of interest as being an animal ancestral to the 
later and better known titanotheres. 

Another important specimen obtained by purchase was a mass of 
lodestone weighing about 400 pounds. The magnetism in this mass 
is so strong as to overcome the effect of gravity on small iron objects 
placed within its field without making contact with them. 

Two new falls were added to the meteorite collection by the pur- 
chase of specimens from two new localities in Mexico. 

A series of pebbles showing carving by natural sand blasts, and 
representing localities in New Zealand and Africa, was obtained by 
purchase, as were also a large specimen of orbicular diabase from 
Canada and two specimens of the peculiar rock from Australia 
known as "zebra" rock. 

The Florissant (Colorado) Expedition collected 396 specimens 
of fossil plants, 141 specimens of fossil insects and spiders, twenty- 
four specimens of mollusks and ostracods, one specimen of a fossil 
bird feather and eight specimens of rocks and minerals. The Braid- 
wood (Illinois) Expedition obtained 126 specimens of fossil plants. 
Thirty-five specimens of fossil plants were collected by an ex- 
pedition to Terre Haute, Indiana. Two expeditions to the Sag Canal, 
Illinois, collected twenty-two specimens of fossil worms and three of 
graptolites. As the locality at which these fossils occur is limited and 
liable to exhaustion, the Museum is fortunate to have secured so 
large a representation of them. 

Sixteen specimens of fossil invertebrates from Tarapoto, Peru, 
collected by Mr. Llewelyn Williams of the Marshall Field Botanical 
Expedition to the Amazon, enabled useful comparisons as to locality 
and species to be made with similar fossils which had been presented 
by Senor Velasco of Iquitos. 

From the collections of the Marshall Field North Arabian Desert 
Expedition of 1928 there were received 151 specimens of residual 
flints and associated rocks and six specimens of sands. These were 
collected at various points in the desert. Besides contributing to a 
knowledge of the geology of the region, these specimens illustrate 
varieties of coloration, form and etching, due to desert conditions. 

Zoology. — The total number of zoological specimens accessioned 
is 13,142, which is slightly less than the average for the past five 
years, which was 14,513. The reduced number in 1930 is probably 










































































Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 379 

due to the fact that quantities of material collected by the larger 
expeditions were still in transit at the end of the year. The accessions 
are distributed as follows: mammals, 672; birds, 9,619; reptiles and 
amphibians, 1,004; fishes, 525; insects, 1,002; lower invertebrates, 
271; skeletons, 49. The number obtained by Museum expeditions 
is 3,389; by gift, 1,714; by purchase, 7,757; and by exchange, 282. 

A number of valuable large mammals were received as gifts. 
Messrs. Honore Palmer and John Wentworth, of Chicago, presented 
a collection of fifty-five African game animals, mostly represented 
by scalps and skulls collected in Kenya and Tanganyika. 

Mr. Fred Lewis of Diamond Bar Ranch, California, presented the 
skin of a large black rhinoceros, also from Tanganyika. 

His Highness Dilipat Singh of Singahi, Kheri District, Oudh, 
India, presented the skin, skull and skeleton of an Indian sloth 
bear shot by himself. Such a complete specimen of this animal is a 
very desirable acquisition. 

Two skins of the gaur ox or seladang taken in Indo-China were 
sent as a gift by Mr. Charles Rydell of San Francisco. These provide 
additional material from which to select specimens to be used in a 
habitat group of these animals for William V. Kelley Hall. 

By exchange with the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 213 specimens of 
mammals from all parts of the world were obtained. A skin of a 
fine male of Steller's sea-lion was acquired by exchange with the 
University of Iowa. 

Mammals received from expeditions were relatively few, number- 
ing only 173 specimens. Most important was a second skin, skull 
and leg bones of the giant panda from western China. This came as 
a sequel to the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to Eastern 
Asia for Field Museum, through Dr. R. L. Crook, a missionary in 
Yachow, China, who was commissioned to get it by Messrs. Theodore 
and Kermit Roosevelt. The skin is complete and in excellent 
condition. In similar manner there were received, through instruc- 
tions left by the Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition, one bull banting, 
one cow seladang, a barking deer and a leopard. These were 
collected by Mr. F. J. Defosse in southern Indo-China. 

FVom the Third Asiatic Expedition of the American Museum of 
Natural History, in wh^'ch Field Museum continued to cooperate, 
a further consignment ol mammals was received, consisting of 153 
carnivores and bats. 

380 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Accessions of birds were unusually large, due mainly to several 
advantageous purchases. Most important was the acquisition of the 
private collection of the late Edward E. Armstrong of Chicago. This 
collection consists of 5,981 bird skins from North America, Costa 
Rica, and Colombia, all very carefully prepared and of high quality. 
It not only adds a large number of species previously unrepresented 
in the Museum, but also supplements in a most useful way the 
Museum's series of North American birds. Among many rarities, 
Arinia houcardi, Leucuria phaleraia, Carpodectes outoniae, and Habia 
atro-maxillaris may be mentioned as of particular interest. 

A second important purchase was that of a collection of Australian 
birds obtained from Mr. James W. Woodhead of Auckland, New 
Zealand. The avifauna of the peculiar Australian region was pre- 
viously represented in the Museum's collection only by a few odd 
specimens of poor quality. Also through purchase, 314 birds from 
southern Parana and Santa Catherina, Brazil, came into possession 
of the Museum. The region was previously unrepresented in the 
Museum, and this relatively small collection is therefore an important 
acquisition. Especially noteworthy are Leptotriccus sylviola, Otus 
sanctae-catherinae, and Amazona vinacea. 

From the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition there were 
received 1,149 birds collected in Yunnan and Szechwan, China, by 
Mr. Herbert Stevens, while a member of this expedition. Through 
the same source, as Field Museum's share of M. Jean Delacour's 
expedition to Indo-China in 1930, there were acquired 1,058 birds 
of that region. This lot supplements collections made in 1929 and 
is rich in characteristic species of the peculiar Indo-Chinese fauna. 
Several examples of the rare trogon, Pyrotrogon wardi, are worthy 
of special mention. 

By exchange with the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at 
Harvard University, there was obtained a specimen of the rare bird, 
Boanerges internigrans, from China, which is allied to the Canadian 
jay. Two rare petrels from the South Pacific Ocean were received 
in exchange from the American Museum of Natural History, New 

Notable among gifts of reptiles are three rare South African lizards 
from Dr. W. J. Cameron of Chicago; an exceptionally fine "glass 
snake" from the Indiana dunes, presented by Mr. Maurice Weil of 
Chicago; a rare West African gecko from Miss Emily A. Clark of the 
Interdenominational Mission in Nigeria; thirty-four specimens from 
Mr. D. S. Bullock of Angol, Chile; and eleven specimens from Irak, 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 381 

supplementing the Museum's North Arabian collections, from Mr. 
E. S. Fraser of Rutba Post, Irak. Dr. Alfred S. Romer, of the 
University of Chicago, presented forty-three specimens collected in 
South Africa during the university's recent paleontological expedition 
to that region. 

Through arrangements made by members of the William V. 
Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition, 162 specimens of Indo-Chinese reptiles 
and batrachians were received from Dr. Bourret of Hanoi, Tonkin. 
These form a welcome and valuable addition to the collections 
directly made by the expedition in 1929. Other material from 
expeditions which is especially notable is that from the Chancellor- 
Stuart-Field Museum Expedition to the South Pacific, which in- 
cludes specimens of the dragon lizard of Komodo, furnishing the basis 
for important new exhibits, and specimens of the New Zealand 
tuatara or Sphenodon, these being the first alcoholic specimens of 
this rare and remarkable reptile to reach Field Museum. Further 
important accessions of reptiles and amphibians were received from 
expeditions conducted by other Departments of the Museum, namely, 
the Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Expedition to West Africa, 
under the leadership of Mr. W. D. Hambly, and the Peruvian 
division of the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition to the Amazon, 
conducted by Mr. Llewelyn Williams. 

Among gifts of fishes there may be especially mentioned five 
specimens of the fresh-water sculpin fron Onondaga Cave, Leasburg, 
Missouri, received from Mr. Russell T. Neville of Kewanee, Illinois. 
These seem to represent a new type of cave-inhabiting fish which 
may prove to be of much interest. Other gifts include a large 
specimen of the American sole (Achirus fasciatus) from the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries; a small brown trout from Mr. A. J. 
Franzen of Chicago; and a large example of the silvery lamprey 
from Mr. Otis Dunkleberger of Mishawaka, Indiana. Two small 
eels (Ahlia egmontis) presented by the General Biological Supply 
House of Chicago, represent a species that has been very rare in 
collections and one which merits special study. 

Through cooperation with the John G. Shedd Aquarium, a number 
of selected specimens of fishes have been acquired from among those 
that have died in transit to the aquarium or shortly after arrival 
there. These, being in fresh condition, have furnished especially 
suitable material for preparation by the "celluloid" process. Among 
those so obtained were a batfish {Ogcocephalus radiatus), a sea robin 

382 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

{Prionotus strigatus), and a scorpion fish (Scorpaena plumieri). Also 
obtained for reproduction were specimens of the long-horned Atlantic 
sculpin, purchased from the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts. 

Fishes from expeditions were confined to those obtained in Java, 
Sumatra and Singapore by the Chancellor-Stuart-Field Museum 
Expedition to the South Pacific. They are 437 in number and 
nearly all the species are new to the Museum's collection. 

Gifts of insects numbered 993, mostly of species found in North 
America, only seventy-eight specimens being from foreign countries. 
The largest and most noteworthy gift was that of 188 authentically 
named, cynipid gall insects, including thirty-three paratypes of 
twenty-eight species; and 407 insect galls, embracing eighty- three 
paratypes of fifty-eight species, presented by Dr. A. C. Kinsey, 
University of Indiana, Bloomington, Indiana. These minute insects, 
which belong to the order containing the bees and wasps, are respon- 
sible for most of the small, abnormal growths found on the leaves and 
twigs of trees, especially oaks. Since the adult insects are rarely 
collected directly but are bred from the galls they produce, a series 
like that donated by Dr. Kinsey is not easy to obtain. 

Another specialist on these insects. Dr. Lewis H. Weld of East 
Falls Church, Virginia, also presented paratj^pes of newly described 
gall insects consisting of fifteen of the insects and sixteen of their 
galls from Arizona. 

Mr. Bryan Patterson of Chicago presented 160 insects of various 
orders from Colorado. Another welcome gift was that of seventy- 
nine beetles from California and Washington, received from Mr. 
Emil Liljeblad of Chicago. 

Insects from foreign countries included twenty-three butterflies 
from Sierra Leone, obtained by Mr. W. D. Hambly, leader of the 
Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological Expedition to 
West Africa. Two gall insects and twenty-one insect galls from 
France were presented by Dr. R. Salgues of Brignoles, Var, France. 

Accessions of invertebrates other than insects were 271 in number. 
Most important were 224 fresh-water shells from the southern United 
States, presented by Professor J. K. Strecker of Waco, Texas; and 
twenty-six crustaceans obtained by the Chancellor-Stuart-Field 
Museum Expedition to the South Pacific. 

Field Museum of Natural History 

'^ ^^^'T^^ 

Reports, Vol. VIII, Plate XXXV 



The collector is Mr. Jose M. Damasceno, who is continuing, 

under the auspices of the Companhia Ford do Brasil, the botanical collecting 

begun by the Marshall Field Amazon Expedition of 1929 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 383 



Anthropology. — Fifty-three of the fifty-eight accessions received 
in the Department of Anthropology during the year have been 
entered. Nineteen accessions from previous years were also entered. 

The work of cataloguing has been continued as usual during the 
current year, the number of catalogue cards prepared totaling 3,647. 
The total number of catalogue cards entered from the opening of the 
first volume is 192,702. 

The 3,647 cards written during 1930 for accessions received in 
the course of the year are distributed according to subjects as follows: 
North American archaeology and ethnology, 1,927; Mexican, Central 
and South American archaeology and ethnology, 537; archaeology 
of China, 30; ethnology of India, 2; ethnology of Malaysia, 6; 
ethnology of Polynesia, 1; ethnology of Australia, 40; ethnology of 
Africa, 1,071; archaeology of Egypt, 16; archaeology of Mesopotamia, 
8; prehistoric archaeology of Europe, 9. 

All these cards, with the addition of 433 cards prepared last year, 
making a total of 4,080 cards, have been entered in the inventory 
books, which now number fifty-three volumes. 

A total of 10,367 copies of labels for use in exhibition cases were 
supplied during the year by the Division of Printing. These labels 
are distributed over the exhibition halls as follows: ethnology of 
Micronesia and Polynesia, 2,547; archaeology of Egypt, 988; model 
of Taj Mahal, India, 3; classical archaeology, 107; ethnology of 
Woodland and Plains Indians, 3,856; Southwest ethnology, 613; 
ethnology and archaeology of Mexico, 1,296; ethnology of South 
America, 688; group cases, totem poles and house posts in Hall 10, 
229; archaeology of China, 40. Also supplied to the Department by 
the Division of Printing were 150 sketch maps for exhibition cases 
and 5,650 catalogue cards. All new labels for Hall F (Ethnology of 
Micronesia and Polynesia) are now ready to be installed at the 
earliest opportunity next year. 

The total number of photographs mounted in albums amounts to 
1,321. Five new albums were opened, two for India, two for Africa, 
and one for photographs used in publications. 

Botany. — In preparation for the retirement of the black labels 
in the Hall of Plant Life new copy was prepared and printed for 
many of the case labels there. 

384 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Descriptive labels were written by Assistant Curator James B. 
McNair during the year for the exhibit of spices and condiments in 
Hall 25. Labels were also written for the various exhibits in Hall 28 
of distillation products from wood and of resins, lacquers, turpentine, 
and fibers. 

After the return of Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Assistant in Wood 
Technology, from Peru, Assistant Curator McNair and Mr. WilHams 
resumed in June the poisoning, bottling, labeling, and card cata- 
loguing of economic botanical specimens as described in the Annual 
Report for 1928 (p. 473), which was interrupted by Mr. Williams' 
expedition to Peru. This year they have thus treated wood distilla- 
tion products, tan barks, cork, and rubber. 

The filing, as a card index, of copies of the labels in the exhibition 
halls has been continued and the files of labels for the economic 
specimens on display is complete to date. 

During 1930 there were added to the Herbarium 21,915 sheets of 
plants. The total number of mounted specimens now in the Her- 
barium is 622,251. 

Herbarium labels were written for many thousands of specimens 
received during the year, the largest collection thus treated being 
that brought from Peru by Mr. Williams. Thousands of labels were 
prepared, also, for the duplicate specimens distributed in exchange. 

A card index of the collectors represented by specimens in the 
Herbarium is maintained by the Custodian of the Herbarium, Mr. 
Carl Neuberth. He also maintains an index showing the number of 
herbarium specimens from each country or other political division. 
The collector index now contains 11,409 cards, representing almost 
as many different collectors, 402 cards having been added to it 
during the past year. The geographic index consists of 3,122 cards. 
By consulting it, it is possible to learn in a moment to what extent 
the flora of any country or state is represented in the collections of 
Field Museum. 

More than 1,500 index cards were received this year from the 
Institut Colonial de Marseille, Marseilles, France, and the cards of 
this catalogue now number 6,175. They have been sorted and filed 
by Assistant Curator McNair. As mentioned elsewhere in the Report, 
he has in process of formation card catalogues of plants that yield 
alkaloids, arrow and fish poisons, oils, drying and non-drying, and 
waxes. This card catalogue has proved very useful in dealing with 
the economic material of the Department as well as for reference in 
the preparation of technical papers. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 385 

The Department catalogue of the books and pamphlets in the 
botanical library, on which the Librarian, Miss Edith M. Vincent, who 
also has charge of the Department files of accessions, exchanges, and 
loans, has been engaged in her spare time for several years, has been 
completed for the sections of dendrology and forestry, economic 
botany, horticulture, plant pathology, monographs, medical botany, 
and floras of the West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America. 
The Gray Herbarium card catalogue of new American species, to 
which the Museum is a subscriber, is kept in order by Miss Vincent, 
and the new issues of cards are inserted as soon as they are received. 
Each issue consists of from 1,200 to 1,500 cards and the issues are 
received quarterly. 

Geology. — The work of cataloguing kept pace with the receipt 
of accessions except in regard to the vertebrate fossils. Most of 
these are catalogued only as they are freed from matrix and identified. 
The total number of specimens catalogued during the year was 1,766, 
making the total number of entries in the Department 187,358. The 
greater number of specimens catalogued during the year was received 
from expeditions, 570 specimens being recorded from the Florissant 
Expedition, 157 from the Marshall Field North Arabian Desert 
Expedition, and 126 from the Braidwood (Illinois) Expedition. 
Entries of specimens received by gift included 64 from Mr. Frank 
von Drasek, 56 from the estate of John Telling and 44 from Mr. 
Walter H. Smith. To the card catalogue of vertebrate fossils 174 
cards were added during the year. These cards, as previously noted, 
describe each specimen, give field number, name of collector, date of 
collection, locality, horizon and reference to description of specimen. 

A total of 6,667 labels was received from the Division of Printing, 
and of these 5,196 were installed. The number of labels written, 
printed and installed during the year includes 2,539 for the systematic 
mineral exhibit and 1,296 for the systematic rock exhibit. For the 
meteorite exhibit 1,240 labels were prepared and printed, thirteen 
of these being descriptive. Of these, the descriptive labels were 
installed. For the exhibits in Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall, 456 labels 
were written and printed, and nearly all were installed. The remain- 
ing labels written, printed and installed during the year related 
chiefly to the petroleum, pigment, physical geology and paleonto- 
logical exhibits. Thirty labels were prepared and installed for the 
murals in Ernest R. Graham Hall and illuminated labels were pre- 
pared and installed for the Mesohippus group. Typewritten labels 

386 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

to the number of 287 were prepared and installed with some special 

Photographic prints to the number of 777 were added to the 
Department albums, making a total of 7,136 now available. Of the 
prints added, 555 were views in South America from negatives made 
by the Marshall Field Paleontological Expeditions, and 100 were of 
plates of vertebrate fossils. Typewritten labels were prepared and 
affixed to all the prints mounted. One hundred and fifty-seven 
topographic maps of the United States Geological Survey were added 
to the map series and filed under their respective states. A descrip- 
tive label was prepared and filed with each map. The total number 
of these maps now filed and available for study is 3,332. 

Zoology. — A total of 8,734 specimens was numbered and entered 
in the Department catalogues. They were distributed, by divisions, 
as follows: mammals, 1,383; birds, 4,646; reptiles and amphibians, 
2,065; fishes, 591; skeletons, 49. 

Museum labels with full data were provided for 574 skins of 
mammals and for about 2,000 skulls in bottles. The card index of 
the mammal collection received 907 additions. Labeling and index- 
ing the skulls of large mammals were begun, and guide labels were 
placed on most of the new storage cases and the separate drawers 
in them. Labels were provided for all new exhibits of mammals. 

Good progress was made in cataloguing and labeling bird skins 
and in incorporating new acquisitions in classified position in the 
collection. The total number of catalogue entries of birds for the 
year is 4,646. 

In the Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, 2,065 catalogue 
entries were made. Inside labels were adopted for use in the glass 
containers, thus greatly facilitating the labeling and shelving of 
specimens as they are identified. 

New entries in the catalogue of fishes were made to the number 
of 591. A card index of the genera and families of recent fishes was 
begun, to be used as a finding list and key to the arrangement of 
the reference collections. For this list 3,079 cards were written. 

No cataloguing of invertebrates was done during the year. Most 
of the insects accessioned were pinned and labeled shortly after 
receipt. For the exhibit of lower invertebrates in Stanley Field Hall, 
seventy-five new labels were installed. The skeletons catalogued 
and indexed number forty-nine. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 387 

The photographic prints mounted in the departmental albums 
amount to 1,297, with the addition of three albums. 

The state of the catalogues at the end of the year is as follows: 

Number of Total of entries Entries Total of 

record to during cards 

books Dec. 31, 1930 1930 written 

Department of Anthropology 53 192,702 4,080 196,822 

Department of Botany 63 622,251 21,915 16,283 

Department of Geology 26 187,358 1,766 7,104 

Department of Zoology 43 154,446 8,734 41,769 

Library 16 189,643 3,334 393,802 


Anthropology.^ — The main efforts during the current year were 
directed toward the completion of the Egyptian Hall, and the 
reinstallation of James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Hall and 
Halls 5 and 6 on the first floor. Numerous additions and improve- 
ments were made also in almost all other halls of the Department. 

A total of eighty-five exhibition cases was installed during the 
year, distributed as follows: 

Egypt (Hall J) 15^ 

Polynesia (Hall F) 1 

Stanley Field Hall 1 

Edward E. and Emma B. Ayer Hall 1 

James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Hall 21 

Plains Indians (Hall 5) 20 

California and Southwest Nomadic Tribes (Hall 6) 14 

Mexico and Central America (Hall 8) 11 

South America (Hall 9) 1 

Total 85 

The hall devoted to the archaeology of ancient Egypt (Hall J) 
may now be reported as practically complete. All the thirty-seven 
individually lighted floor cases especially constructed for this hall 
are now installed, fifteen of these having been installed during the 
past year. There remain now three large wall cases whose instal- 
lation may be expected in the early part of 1931. The material 
installed during the year comprises animal and bird mummies, 
amulets, jewelry, sandals, baskets, headrests, writing implements, 
tools and weapons, vessels of bronze and lead, Coptic metal work of 
post-Christian times, weights, and miscellaneous groups including 
faces from wooden coffins, infant mummies and mummy heads. 

One of the most interesting exhibits added to the Egyptian Hall 
this year is a predjTiastic burial containing the desiccated body of a 
woman who died prior to 3500 B.C. This type of burial preceded the 

388 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

development of mummification which resulted in the erection of 
elaborate tombs. The body, with head facing south and with limbs 
flexed, was simply laid to rest in a shallow pit dug in the desert sand, 
and such a pit of actual size is shown in the exhibit. The body rests 
on a grass mat held together by twisted cords of flax heavily coated 
with pitch. Over the body was thrown a garment of skins with the 
short fur on the inside, and this in turn was covered by a cloth woven 
of linen. Another grass mat was thrown over the body to protect 
it from the sand with which the pit was refilled after burial. Pottery 
jars containing food and drink were placed around the body. 

Two newly installed six-foot cases with buff -colored backgrounds, 
and bases covered with cloth contain nineteen plaster reproductions 
of important Egyptian statuary, the originals of which are in other 
museums. Their value has been greatly enhanced by painting them 
in the colors of the original stones^ — limestone, granite, diorite, and 
basalt. One of these cases is illustrated in Plate XXVII of this 
Report as an example of this new method of installation. 

As it was decided in November to devote Halls B and C on the 
north side of the ground floor to the future exhibits relating to the 
races of man and the prehistoric archaeology of western Europe 
respectively, it became necessary to transfer Frank W. Gunsaulus 
Hall from the west end of Hall C to the east section of Hall K. 

The alabaster model of the Taj Mahal presented by Mr. Sidney 
Weiss this year is on exhibition in the center aisle of Hall E. 

An unusually large piece of painted tapa cloth from Fiji, pre- 
sented last year by Mr. Cornelius Crane, who conducted the Cornelius 
Crane Pacific Expedition, was recently placed on exhibition in Hall 
F, where it occupies an entire case. This tapa, decorated with a 
great variety of painted geometric patterns in colors, was used as a 
mosquito curtain, and measures fifteen by twenty feet. 

A leaf shelter supported by bamboo poles has been provided for 
the Semang fire-maker group installed in the center of Hall G (Arthur 
B. Jones Collection). Such leaf shelters are the typical habitations 
of the Semang of the Malay Peninsula, and the fire-maker is now 
shown in his natural habitat, which simultaneously conveys some 
impression of the tropical jungle. A carabao cart and eight human 
figures have been added to the miniature model of a Menangkabau 
village in the same hall. 

Case 7 in Stanley Field Hall, containing selected antiquities from 
China, has been reinstalled, the prehistoric painted pottery jar 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 389 

presented by the American Friends of China occupying the center. 
The bronze figurine of a rhinoceros acquired from a fund donated by 
the same society and the two polo figures presented by Mr. David 
Weber (p. 362) have been added to the same case. The bottom 
of the case and the bases in it have been changed to fight colors so 
that it now matches Case 11 in Stanley Field Hall, in which material 
from the excavations at Kish is displayed. The Sumerian clay head 
described under Accessions (p. 354) has now been placed with this 

One case at the north end of Edward E. and Emma B. Ayer Hall 
was rearranged. The two craters presented by Mr. Thomas S. 
Hughes this year and described under Accessions (p. 354) were added 
to the display of Italic pottery. New style labels were prepared 
for this case. The glass amphora recently presented by Mr. L. M. 
Willis has been added to the exhibits of antique glass in this hall. 
The backgrounds of four cases containing painted frescoes from 
Pompeii, as well as their black frames, were repainted in a light color. 
Labels for these frescoes were revised and reprinted in the new style. 

Exhibits representing the ethnology of the Eskimo and Indian 
tribes of the Northwest Coast were transferred from Mary D. 
Sturges Hall into the larger Hall 10 occupying the entire east side of 
the building. This move resulted in a better geographical arrange- 
ment of the various cultures and a more advantageous setting of the 
group cases in the center aisle. The culture of the Kwakiutl is shown 
on the north and northwest sides of the hall, followed on the west 
side by the Haida, Tlingit, Nootka, and Bella Coola. The large group 
illustrating the interior of a Salish house occupies the south wall and 
is joined by a case of Salish ethnology on the east side. Running 
from south to north along the east side are the Eskimo, Northern 
Athapascans, Cowichan, Skokomish and Twana, Chinook and Wasco, 
Yakima, Klikitat, and Tsimshian, followed by two cases representing 
the complex decorative art of the Indians of the Northwest Coast. 

The bays separating Hall 10 from the transverse halls have been 
efficiently utilized for a display of thirty totem poles, grave posts 
and house posts, which had heretofore not been shown since the 
Museum was moved into its present building. They are thus lined 
up in a continuous avenue running from north to south, and convey 
a vivid idea of these most imposing architectural monuments created 
by the North American Indians. As far as possible, they have been 
grouped in each bay in such a manner that they represent the tribe 
whose culture is illustrated in the adjoining exhibition cases. Two 

390 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

totem poles have been erected against the south wall, and one on the 
northwest wall. One of these, from the Haida of Queen Charlotte 
Islands, is illustrated in Plate XXII. It formerly formed the door- 
way of a Haida house, and, as its owner was a member of the Raven 
clan, the raven is carved on this pole as his principal crest beneath 
the three watchers on top. In order to accommodate the pole in the 
available space, it is shown in two sections placed side by side. 

Labels for all group cases in Hall 10 were revised, re-edited and. 
reprinted in the new style; likewise the totem poles and house posts 
were each provided with a special label in large type. A new descrip- 
tive label was prepared for the group illustrating the Kwakiutl 
guessing game. Many improvements were made in the Salish house 
group which, on account of its size, had to be taken apart for moving 
and reassembled, and in the Eskimo sledge group, in which all furs 
were cleaned and the "snow" renewed. 

Mary D. Sturges Hall is now reserved for North American 
archaeology and is in process of installation. At present it contains 
the group of three life-size Indians engaged in making stone imple- 
ments, two cases representing the archaeology of the Hopewell 
Mound group, two clay altars from a mound near ChiUicothe, Ohio, 
and a model of the Serpent Mound in Adams County, Ohio. These 
exhibits were formerly shown in James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Hall, which is now entirely given over to the Indian 
tribes of the Woodland area of North America. All cases in Raymond 
Hall, to the number of twenty-one, were completely reinstalled 
during the summer on buff-colored screens with new buff labels 
printed in black type. Sketch maps showing in red ink the habitat 
of each particular tribe are displayed in the case, beneath case labels. 
There is much fine, old and rare material displayed in this hall, of 
interest not merely to the ethnologist, but also to the art student 
and designer. 

The reinstallation of Hall 5, devoted to the ethnology of the 
Plains Indians, begun in 1929, was concluded this year. Altogether 
twenty cases were reinstalled with buff-colored screens and numerous 
improvements in arrangement. All labels were revised and re-edited, 
and then reprinted in the newly adopted style. 

In Hall 6, good progress has been made with the reinstallation of 
the west portion of the hall, which is allotted to the nomadic tribes of 
Arizona and New Mexico. Four cases illustrating basketry and 
household objects of the Papago and Pima, and war and ceremonial 
costumes and riding and hunting equipment of the Apache, have 



22 « 

ri DO 

H 5J 

tf S 








Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 391 

been placed on exhibition. An effective display of Navaho silver 
jewelry has been made in a six-foot case. It contains well-selected 
necklaces, bracelets, buttons, rings, buckles, and leather belts orna- 
mented with silver disks. Also shown are molds, crucibles, dies, and 
matrices for stamping designs on silver ornaments. Navaho blankets 
and saddlecloths, to the number of one hundred, have been installed 
in eight cases, and are displayed in a very attractive manner. The 
mode of installing them has been varied in every case. Masks used 
in the Navaho Night Chant Ceremony were also installed. In the 
east half of Hall 6 two cases of Maidu and Miwok basketry have been 
installed and placed on exhibition. 

Reinstallation progressed satisfactorily in Hall 8 devoted to 
Mexican and Central American archaeology and ethnology. Eleven 
newly installed cases have been placed on exhibition in this hall 
during the year. Old material has been carefully sifted, and new 
material added. Eight of these cases illustrate the daily life of the 
present Indian population of Mexico and Central America. Much 
of this material is now unobtainable, owing to the disintegration of 
native cultures in the face of industrial civilization. Another case 
contains antiquities from Nicaragua. These exhibits are illustrated 
by twenty-seven photographs, several of which are made from 
frescoes or paintings by such well-known Mexican artists as Diego 
Rivera and Covarrubias. Four other cases in this hall have been 
relabeled. All the casts of Maya monuments displayed in the hall 
were treated during the year by Modeler John G. Prasuhn with a 
new process, improving their appearance which now approaches 
very closely that of the originals. Casts of two magnificent Maya 
lintels from Yaxchilan were hung on the east wall, and, in close 
proximity, inside the east entrance, casts of two wall ornaments from 
a temple at the Maya city of Uxmal. These architectural ornaments 
are in the form of snakes' heads, in which are set human heads. 
Models of a large palace building from Mitla, Mexico, and of a 
pyramid at Uaxactun, described under Accessions (p. 354), were 
placed on exhibition in special cases. Finally a series of large photo- 
graphs of Maya buildings and stelae, taken by Mr. A. P. Maudslay, 
were hung on the pilasters. It is hoped to add to their number in the 
near future. 

One case of ethnological material from Peru and Bolivia was 
installed and placed on exhibition in Hall 9 during the year. A 
considerable amount of this material, which consists chiefly of 
costumes and fabrics of the Quichua and Aymara Indians, was 

392 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

collected by Dr. A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate of the Depart- 
ment, during the course of the First and Second Marshall Field 
Archaeological Expeditions to Peru. Two walnut-finished bases 
were made for the stone seats from Ecuador which occupy the center 
of the aisle, and six cases in this hall were relabeled. 

The Buddha statue presented by Mr. Lee Ling Yiin has been 
placed with two others of the same type in Case 39, Hall 24. The 
carved rhinoceros horn presented by the American Friends of China 
is shown with the John J. Mitchell collection of rhinoceros horn cups 
in the same hall. The cloisonne-enamel statuette of a Tibetan church 
dignitary and an ancient vase of the same material, formerly shown 
in Stanley Field Hall, have been transferred to Case 23, Hall 24. 

Rearrangements were made in eight cases of the gem room (H. N. 
Higinbotham Hall). 

Wooden frames to the number of 277 were made for the exhibition 
of Coptic garments and fabrics, and the latter, which have been 
mounted on linen, were stretched over these frames. 

In the modeling section of the Department a miniature carabao 
cart and eight human figures were made by Modeler Prasuhn for the 
Menangkabau village group shown in the center of Hall G (Arthur 
B. Jones Collection). Mr. Prasuhn built the leaf shelter and jungle 
background for the Pygmy fire-maker group in the same hall and the 
pit for the predynastic Egyptian burial. He retouched the model 
of the Casa Grande ruin in Hall 7, and refinished all casts of Maya 
monuments in Hall 8, by a new process of treating the surfaces with 
various colored sands and cement, which gives the casts almost the 
appearance of the originals. He painted nineteen casts of Egyptian 
statuary in the colors imitating the original^ — limestone, granite, 
black and red granite, diorite and basalt. The fagades and interior 
of the Mitla temple model were painted and refinished by him. He 
reassembled the Salish house and Eskimo sledge groups, as it was 
necessary to take these apart in moving them from Mary D. Sturges 
Hall to Hall 10. He also made casts of two Egyptian inscriptions, 
and treated 197 bronze implements from Kish by means of the 
electrochemical process. 

Five hundred and three objects were treated, repaired or restored 
by Mr. Tokomatsu Ito, who. is in charge of special repair work for the 
Department. These comprise 97 antiquities from Egypt, 140 from 
Mesopotamia, 82 from America, 37 from China, 2 from Japan, 138 
objects from Africa, 2 models of the Taj Mahal, 3 objects of European 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 393 

archaeology, and 2 skulls. Mr. Ito also carved six stands for objects 
placed on exhibition. 

Identification numbers marked on ethnological and archaeological 
objects during the year total 14,145. 

Material in forty exhibition cases was poisoned during the year. 
Material stored in the poison room on the fourth floor was cared for 
in the usual manner and is in satisfactory condition. 

Some important changes were made in the assignment of work 
and storage rooms. Room 55 has become the departmental study 
room. Melanesian material formerly stored in Room 55 was 
transferred to Room 35. Skulls and skeletal material were moved 
from Room 35 to Room 39, which formerly was the study room, and 
placed in new steel cabinets. The old wooden racks were discarded 
and replaced with steel throughout in Rooms 28, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 
36, 36A, and 65. Thanks to the use of steel the shelf area is con- 
siderably increased, resulting in a much better arrangement of study 
and exchange collections. 

Botany, — The installation of the economic botanical exhibits 
has been continued during the year by Assistant Curator James B. 
McNair. Attention has been given especially to wood distillation 
products, resins, and fibers. 

All of the exhibits in Hall 25 are now supplied with new labels, 
those for spices and condiments and cassava starch having been 
added during 1930. 

In Hall 28, devoted to industrial plant materials and their prod- 
ucts, all of the old installations on a black background were 
removed to allow the repainting of the cases, which has been 
completed. About one-half of the exhibits in this hall have been 
reinstalled according to a revised plan. The exhibits thus far com- 
pleted are mostly of the principal important fibers, such as cotton 
and other mallows, jute, ramie, flax. Sunn hemp, Manila hemp, 
bowstring hemp, and sisal. Some of the less common fibers are also 
included, as well as material for the manufacture of mats and cordage. 

Other exhibits so far revised and reinstalled in Hall 28 are those 
of the products obtained by the destructive distillation of soft wood, 
products from the steam distillation of soft wood, turpentine orchard- 
ing, Japanese, Burmese, and Indian lacquers, gum resins, oleo-resins, 
and true resins. There is an extensive exhibit of copal resins which 
occupies two cases and contains some large, rare, and beautiful 

394 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

specimens. Some of these show various inclusions, such as im-' 
prisoned bees and other insects, various forms of concretions, stalac- ■ 
tite formation, stratified flow, and deposition. The exhibit con- 
stitutes one of the most important collections of resins in the United 

Plans for the remainder of this hall provide for exhibits of tobacco, 
narcotics, drugs, cellulose products and artificial silks, paper and 
paper making, tanning materials, vegetable dyestufis, cork, paint 
oils, soaps, waxes, peat, charcoal, rubber, chicle, gums, essential 
oils and perfumes. 

In order to make available more space for the study collection 
of woods, the economic material stored in Room 16 has been placed 
in lockers in Halls 25, 27, and 28. The materials poisoned, bottled, 
labeled, and card indexed in 1930 were also stored in a similar 
manner in the lockers provided under the exhibition cases in the 
various botanical halls. 

Progress was made with the rearrangement and reinstallation, 
begun early in 1929, of the Hall of North American Woods 
(Charles F. Millspaugh Hall) which contains all the most important 
lumber-producing trees north of the Rio Grande. This magnificent 
collection is designed to display the elements of the forest wealth of 
the United States and Canada. During the past year eleven new 
cases were installed. Some of the necessary wood specimens are 
still lacking but through the efforts of Professor Samuel J. Record, 
Research Associate in Wood Technology, who has planned the 
arrangement of this hall, much material required to complete the 
exhibits and to replace defective boards has been furnished by 
individuals and concerns in the lumber industry. Such contributions 
are mentioned in this Report under Accessions (p. 354). 

The series of rare and tropical woods presented by C. H. Pearson 
and Son of New York and Mr. J. C. Deagan of Chicago, which was 
formerly on display in Stanley Field Hall, has been installed in the 
Hall of Foreign Woods. 

A series of boards of twenty-five of the most commonly used 
woods of the Amazon, brought from Para, Brazil, by the Marshall 
Field Botanical Expedition to the Amazon, has been prepared for 
installation in the same hall. 

During 1930 the Herbarium has grown rapidly. Its scientific 
value has been greatly increased, particularly by the addition of 
several thousand photographs of type specimens of South American 
plants, and by fragmentary material of types and other historical 






















ca 1-3 <; 

=! H 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 395 

specimens. It now contains more than 622,000 mounted sheets of 
plants, and there are on hand probably 100,000 more, largely from 
the Old World, that are awaiting mounting before they can be 

Although a large part of the time of the plant mounter was 
required for preparing shipments of specimens and for other routine 
work, there were prepared for distribution into the Herbarium, by 
gluing and strapping, 23,000 specimens, a substantial increase above 
the number of the preceding year. The employment of an assistant 
plant mounter for the greater part of the year facilitated the mount- 
ing of most of the urgently needed current collections, especially 
those received from Peru. There still remains an accumulation of 
material from Central and South America that will be immediately 
useful when it has been distributed into the general herbarium and 
is available for consultation. 

For three months the Custodian of the Herbarium was on leave 
of absence, but the position was filled temporarily. All specimens 
mounted have been distributed at once into the Herbarium, where 
they may be studied. Six new steel unit cases were installed in 1930. 
Three of them were placed in the general herbarium, to accommodate 
the increasing collections of flowering plants. Three others were 
placed in Room 4, which has been set aside for the herbarium of 
cryptogamic plants, and to these new cases there were transferred the 
ferns and certain other lower plants. These now are convenient of 
access, while in their former quarters it was almost impossible to 
examine the specimens because of the manner in which it was neces- 
sary to store them temporarily. 

The staff of the Herbarium has determined many thousand sheets 
of current collections, so that they could be filed in their proper places 
in the Herbarium. In addition, the determinations of hundreds 
of specimens already distributed have been corrected. All mounted 
plant specimens are arranged in a single sequence, and thus it is 
possible to find any particular one in a moment. The only exceptions 
are the Illinois and Peruvian herbaria. The former is kept apart as 
a matter of convenience for the study of the state flora. The Peruvian 
collections, except for a few families already incorporated in the 
general herbarium, are being kept together temporarily, until they 
are no longer needed for the preparation of the Flora of Peru. 

About 22,000 mounted sheets of plants were added to the per- 
manent herbarium collections during the year. Most of these were 
South American plants, which improved greatly the Museum's 

396 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

representation of the South American flora. The photographs and 
fragmentary material of tj^pe specimens that were added make the 
Field Museum Herbarium one of the best in the United States for the 
study of South American plants. 

Particular mention should be made of the great increase in the 
collections of South American Rubiaceae, a result of special studies 
upon the group made by Associate Curator Paul C. Standley. The 
Museum has received thousands of specimens in this group from 
recent collections, many of them having been submitted to Field 
Museum for the purpose of obtaining identifications. In addition, 
great numbers of mounted sheets have been received on loan. Photo- 
graphs were made of types and other important specimens, and in 
other cases permission was obtained to retain leaves or flowers when 
the material was sufficiently ample. Finally, photographs have been 
obtained of all the types of South American Rubiaceae in the herba- 
rium at Berlin-Dahlem, and fragmentary specimens of other rare 
species. As a result, Field Museum now possesses what is undoubtedly 
the best collection of South American Rubiaceae to be found any- 
where in the world. It contains some representatives of almost every 
species of the family that ever has been reported or described from 
South America. 

In the Hall of Plant Life the only new material added during 
the year was a reproduction of a flowering branch of a papilionaceous 
vine (Mucuna rostrata) with large pea-like flowers of a brilliant 
orange-red color. The original specimen of this tropical liana was 
collected on the Tapajoz River by the Marshall Field Botanical 
Expedition to the Amazon. It was reproduced in the Stanley Field 
Plant Reproduction Laboratories of the Museum from the preserved 
specimen with the aid of color sketches, field notes, and photographs. 
Inasmuch as the entire staff of these laboratories has been occupied 
with the work incident to the paleo-botanical group (Carboniferous 
forest) which is to form a part of the historical geology exhibits in 
Ernest R. Graham Hall, the material secured for the exhibits of the 
Department of Botany by last year's expedition to the Amazon, has 
been kept in reserve for 1931. 

Geology. — Reinstallation of all cases in the Department except 
those in Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall was completed during the year. 
In order that the work of painting the walls and ceilings of the halls 
and covering the windows on the north side of Hall 34 and south side 
of Skiff Hall might be carried on, most of the cases in all the halls 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 397 

were moved away from the walls or to other positions. Some removal 
or change of position of specimens was necessary in nearly all the 
cases in order to prevent injury during the moving. After painting 
of the halls was completed, the cases were replaced and the specimens 

In Hall 34, devoted to minerals and meteorites, the interiors of 
eight cases were painted and the specimens reinstalled. Six cases 
illustrating physical geology, together with two large slabs and one 
large concretion, were removed from the hall, and the west half of 
the hall devoted entirely to the exhibition of meteorites. A case was 
provided for the Paragould meteorite presented by President Stanley 
Field, and a base was made for one of the Navaho meteorites. The 
latter was installed without a case in order that visitors might more 
fully observe its physical characters. New descriptive labels were 
installed with the large meteorites. This part of the hall now con- 
tains thirteen cases of meteorites, the specimens being grouped 
according to composition and size. 

Labeling of the systematic mineral exhibit was essentially com- 
pleted, 2,539 labels being prepared and installed for this purpose. 
Label copy was prepared for 1,240 small specimens of meteorites, 
but only twenty-five of these have as yet been installed. 

Thirty specimens were added to the William J. Chalmers Crystal 
Collection during the year, and were installed in the cases devoted 
to that collection in Hall 34. The massive large beryl crystal pre- 
sented by Mr. Chalmers during the year was temporarily installed 
in Stanley Field Hall. 

In H. N. Higinbotham Hall, the collection of gems presented by 
Mrs. Joseph W. Work in 1929 was placed on exhibition, the speci- 
mens being distributed according to varieties. The cut tourmaline 
presented by Mr. R. T. Crane, Jr., was also installed in Higinbotham 

Four cases illustrating physical geology, and two large glacial 
slabs and a large concretion on individual bases, were moved from 
Hall 34 to Clarence Buckingham Hall. The physical geology exhibit, 
which had previously been divided between two halls, was thus 
consolidated. The specimens were removed from the cases which 
were added to Buckingham Hall, the case interiors painted, and the 
specimens reinstalled. A similar renovation was carried on for two 
other cases in the hall that had not been finished last year. The 
large mass of lodestone acquired during the year was installed in this 
hall, being placed on a base without cover in order that visitors may 

398 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

have an opportunity to test the magnetism of the mass by nails and 
other fragments of iron which are provided. 

LabeHng of all the exhibits in this hall was completed, a total of 
2,061 labels being provided and installed. Of these, 1,296 labels were 
for the systematic rock collection, the remainder for the cases of 
concretions, volcanic products, dendrites and other objects. Twenty- 
six of these labels were descriptive. In connection with all the 
reinstallations, a number of new specimens were added and the 
contents of nearly all the cases rearranged. To the case of volcanic 
products in this hall several specimens collected by the Marshall 
Field Expedition to New Mexico were added, the entire exhibit 
of these having been withdrawn from Stanley Field Hall. Of special 
importance among the added specimens were large masses of the 
rough lava called malpais, which show remarkable forms made by 
steam escaping during the lava flows, and a series, presented by 
Lieutenant-Commander W. J. Keester, of volcanic ash from the 1912 
eruption of the Katmai, Alaska, volcano. 

To the exhibit in the case showing a model of the Virginia Natural 
Bridge, a map of Virginia showing the location of the bridge has been 
added. A number of changes were made in the installation of the 
relief maps occupying the west end of the hall in order to give better 
lighting and more systematic grouping. New labels were made and 
attached to the maps, a total of thirty labels thus being furnished. 
All of these labels are descriptive. The model of the Moon in this 
hall was thoroughly cleaned and some portions of it were repainted. 

In Hall 36, devoted to coal, petroleum and non-metallic minerals, 
the work of changing backgrounds and reinstallation begun last year 
has been completed. This involved emptying nineteen and rein- 
stalUng twenty-six cases. Although only four cases are now provided 
with the new style labels, label copy has been prepared for the whole 
hall and is in the hands of the printer. While most of the collec- 
tions have been reinstalled essentially as they were, minor improve- 
ments and additions have been made. The crude petroleum exhibit 
has been materially enlarged by the addition of many specimens 
received from the United States Geological Survey and not hitherto 
shown. Space was secured for these by retiring two cases of obsolete 
material. The labeling of the petroleum exhibit has been amplified 
by the introduction of small maps giving the location of the fields 
from which the specimens were obtained. Studies carried on in 
conjunction with a representative of the Standard Oil Company 
(Indiana) have shown the possibilities of a new type of exhibit 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 399 

which will illustrate the applications and uses of petroleum in a 
more attractive and educational manner than the present one. Such 
an exhibit is now being prepared by the Standard Oil Company 
(Indiana). The model in this hall of the original Rockefeller oil 
refinery at Cleveland, which has been exhibited since the founding 
of the Museum, was in need of renovation and accordingly was 
repaired and repainted. Through the good offices of the Standard 
Oil Company (Indiana), a description of some missing parts was 
secured from a former employe of the refinery and these parts were 
modeled and added to the exhibit. Full repairs were also made to 
the model of the Chandler iron mine in this hall. This had suffered 
from depredations by souvenir hunters. An iron railing has been 
placed about the model and this will, it is hoped, prevent further 
injury of this sort. 

The cement collections, which occupy two cases, have been com- 
pletely revised upon new lines. They now show in synoptic form all 
the structural cements which are in large use in different parts of 
the world and these are followed by as large a collection of cement 
rock, Portland cement and concrete as space has permitted. The 
new silica collection, which occupies three cases, has been revised 
and enlarged, as has also the bentonite collection. 

The large collection illustrating the technical classification of 
soils as devised by the United States Department of Agriculture has 
been retired from exhibition, and is replaced by a collection illus- 
trating varieties of peat and other features of a single peat bog. 
This collection has been installed above the model of a peat bog, so 
that comparison of the specimens with the model may readily 
be made. Both the case containing the model and that containing 
sulphur and magnesite have been transferred to Hall 36 from the 
adjoining corridor. In the magnesite exhibit a bar of metallic 
magnesium has been given a special installation designed to call 
attention to the lightness of this metal. It is shown on a balance, 
poised against a piece of iron of equal weight, but of much smaller 

In Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall the work of changing backgrounds 
and reinstallation which was begun last year has been continued and 
has made good progress. Already twenty of the cases in this 
hall have been reinstalled. These include five cases of salts and 
exhibits illustrating salt extraction methods, four of marbles, two 
of gypsum, two of building stone and one each of mica, asbestos, 
phosphates, fluorite, barite, granite and alabaster. New labels to 

400 Field Museum of Natural History^Reports, Vol. VIII 

the number of 826 have been provided for these exhibits. Of these, 
forty-one are descriptive. While the new installation of the marble, 
building stone and some other exhibits is the same as before, in 
many others changes have been made. New material has been 
added and old retired, and some exhibits were enlarged while others 
were reduced. The locations of the asbestos and phosphate collec- 
tions in the hall have been interchanged so as to facilitate the work 
of the guide-lecturers. Many of the cases in this hall have a deep, 
low exhibition space for displaying large specimens. Where the serial 
arrangement requires the introduction of small specimens, screens 
have been provided for this part of the case in the new installation. 
These screens are placed four inches from the glass and thus bring 
the specimens near the eye of the observer. Also, to bring the labels 
of the large specimens near the eye, elevated label holders are used. 
The general descriptive labels, too, have been installed in this part 
of the case close to the glass, since the lighting and slope of the glass 
are conducive to easy reading. Special installation was provided 
in the hall for the ten-foot core of granite presented by the Sullivan 
Machinery Company, of Denver, Colorado. 

In Ernest R. Graham Hall the second of the three-dimensional 
restorations being made by Mr. Frederick Blaschke has been installed. 
This group, a gift from Mr. Ernest R. Graham, is a life-size restora- 
tion of the small, three-toed horse, Mesohippus. So far as known 
these are the first life-size restorations of individuals of a species of 
extinct mammals other than man, that have ever been undertaken. 
It is also the first time that restorations have been made with super- 
imposed hair on the models. In spite of the unusual nature of the 
undertaking, the restoration was performed with remarkable success 
and a very life-like appearance of the animals has been obtained. 
Careful studies made on fossil skeletons of Mesohippus, comparison 
with the anatomy of related modern animals and consultation with 
leading paleontological authorities, all were carried on during prepa- 
ration of the group in order that as great accuracy as possible 
might be attained. The group is composed of five individuals of 
Mesohippus, including representatives of both sexes and a young 
animal. The painted background is a reproduction of a scene in 
the Black Hills of South Dakota, where these animals are known 
to have lived. Grateful acknowledgments are especially due to 
Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn, President of the American 
Museum of Natural History, and the late Professor William Diller 
Matthew, of the University of California, for valuable advice and 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 401 

cooperation in the preparation of the group. Besides the installation 
of this group, Mr. Blaschke made considerable progress in the con- 
struction of what is to be the central group in the series. This is 
to be a representation of the animals of nearly elephantine size 
known as Titanotheres. 

Great progress was also made during the year on the many 
reconstructions of fossil plants required for the Carboniferous forest 
group in Graham Hall. Last year saw the completion of the large 
calamites that form an important element of the group and of the 
numerous trunks of the giant clubmosses representing various species 
of Sigillaria, Lepidodendron, and Lepidophloios, that constituted 
the bulk of the forests of the time. The present year has seen the 
completion of most of the mass of foliage required to give an idea of 
the truly luxuriant vegetation of the age. An entire tree of Cordaites 
(C. horassifolia) has been reconstructed, its details being based on 
fossils in the Museum's collections, and another of Lepidodendron 
(L. ohovatum). The former measures some sixteen feet in height, 
the latter but little less. This species of Lepidodendron was selected 
as being one of the most completely known, thanks to a large series 
of fossils showing all of its essential characters, stem-markings of 
trunk and branches, foliage, and male cones. 

The ferns which were so abundant in Carboniferous forests will 
be represented in the group by two tree ferns : one, the characteristic 
Megaphyton, with a two-ranked, fan-like disposition of its leaves; 
and another, Caulopteris, of the more usual type of stem, bearing 
at its tip a large crown of pinnately branched fronds. Reconstructions 
of both of these have been completed during the year. 

Much of the fern-like foliage of the Carboniferous period was not 
that of the true ferns, but of a large group of now entirely extinct 
fern-like seed plants with characters intermediate between ferns and 
the cycads that appeared much later. These have been called 
Cycadofilices, or Pteridosperms, or, more simply, but less correctly, 
seed-bearing ferns. Some of these are so well known that they may 
be reconstructed with considerable confidence with the aid of fossils 
which are now in the Museum collection or those placed at the 
disposal of the Museum by Professor Adolf Carl No6, of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. In conjunction with these, the results of the 
work on plants of this group by the well-known paleo-botanists, 
Scott, Knowlton, Kidston and many others who have studied these 
plants, were utilized. In the Graham Hall group the seed ferns will 
be represented by Neuropteris heterophylla, Neuropteris decipiens and 

402 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Lyginodendron oldhamnium. A splendid reconstruction of the first 
mentioned of these is practically complete, the second is well 
advanced, and the third is under way. 

A beginning has finally been made on the last group of plants to 
be included, Sphenophyllum, about the habit of which there has been 
much difference of opinion. A species abundant in North American 
remains of this period has been selected to represent this entirely 
extinct order of plants and for the purposes of the group will 
serve to complete the assemblage of restorations of Carboniferous 
plants which with its painted background will soon form an important 
feature of the exhibits in Graham Hall. With the permission of 
President Stanley Field, the laborious work for this group is being 
carried on in the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories of 
the Department of Botany. In this connection it is desired to express 
hearty appreciation of the generous cooperation of Professor Adolf 
Carl No^, the chief authority in the United States on the plants of 
the Pennsylvanian period, and of the unfailing interest with which he 
has aided the execution of this project, both by his advice and by 
the loan of literature and specimens from the collections of fossil 
plants in the Walker Museum, of the University of Chicago. The 
collection of Pennsylvanian fossils acquired in 1928 from a large 
series of duplicates of the United States National Museum has also 
been of great assistance in the work, and Field Museum highly 
appreciates the kindness of Head Curator R. C. Bassler of that 
institution in aiding it to obtain the use of this collection. Acknowl- 
edgments are also due Mr. Bassler for the loan through the United 
States National Museum of valuable specimens of Lepidophloios and 
Caulopteris, which have been of great service in furnishing details for 
certain of the restorations. 

Painting of a background for the Carboniferous forest group has 
been carried on by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin in conjunction 
with installation and other work on the group. 

Of the mural paintings being executed by Mr. Charles R. Knight 
of New York, seven were completed and installed in the hall during 
the year. Six of these are twenty-five feet by nine feet in size, and 
one is ten feet by nine feet. The titles are as follows: Prehistoric 
Life at the Los Angeles Tar Pits, the Cave Bear, Lower Miocene 
Mammals, Plesiosaurs and Ichthyosaurs, Upper Miocene Mammals, 
Permian Reptiles, and a Devonian Forest. The completion of these 
paintings leaves only five to be added to finish the series of twenty- 
eight, and there is every reason to expect that this will be accom- 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 403 

plished during the coming year. The series is a gift from Mr. Ernest 
R. Graham. 

To the exhibition series a complete fossil fish-lizard obtained 
during the year was added. This is a specimen of a comparatively 
young individual about four feet in length and shows not only the 
skeleton in every detail, but also a clear impression of the fins and 
skin. Some of the specimens of South American vertebrate fossils in 
the hall were remounted and reinstalled, these being chiefly skulls of 
Nesodon and Hapalops. Sketches representing the probable appear- 
ance of some of the animals while living were installed in proximity 
to the fossil specimens. A model of a restored head of Pronothro- 
therium, and a specimen of the dermal armor of one of the large fossil 
ground sloths were added to the exhibit of South American fossils. All 
the larger exposed skeletons in the hall, viz.: those of the Mammoth, 
Mastodon, great Dinosaur, ground sloth and Irish deer were carefully 
and thoroughly cleaned with a vacuum cleaner, following the com- 
pletion of the painting of the hall. Several readjustments in the 
positions of the cases and exhibits were made in order to allow 
the introduction of a case to contain a group of ground sloths now 
being prepared. 

In addition to the labels, some of which were installed last year, 
showing the succession of geological periods, ten more were prepared 
and placed in the cases. These enable the visitor to obtain a correct 
idea of the period of time at which the animals and plants, fossils 
of which are shown in each case, lived. The case in which a complete 
skeleton of the Titanothere, Allops, has been displayed, was remodeled 
and a single large light of glass is now used to replace the two previ- 
ously employed. The artificial lighting of the case was also modified. 

Transfer of the remainder of the exhibit of invertebrate fossils 
from black to buff tablets was completed during the year, 4,408 
specimens being thus transferred. The tablets were then reinstalled, 
completing the installations of this character in the hall. A total of 
eight of these cases was installed during the year as follows: three 
cases of Mississippian fossils, one of Pennsylvanian, one of Penn- 
sylvanian and Permian, and three of Jurassic age. Thorough revision 
of the nomenclature of the specimens installed was carried on by 
Assistant Curator Sharat K. Roy previous to their installation. 

In the Paleontological Laboratory the preparation of vertebrate 
fossils from South America has engaged chief attention. The work 
has essentially been divided into two parts: (1) preparation and 
identification of fossils; and (2) preparation and mounting of two 

404 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

complete skeletons of the large ground sloth, Scelidodon. In the 
preparation of the systematic series of fossils more than 200 speci- 
mens have been freed from matrix and made ready for identification 
and study. Determination and full records of most of these have 
been made by Assistant Bryan Patterson. Specimens suitable for 
exhibition were installed in Ernest R. Graham Hall, while the others 
were set aside for study. Before assembling and mounting the 
skeletons of the ground sloths it was necessary to prepare the 
bones so that they might be durable. These skeletons were 
collected by the Marshall Field Paleontological Expeditions from 
the Pleistocene formation of southern Bolivia and occurred in a 
layer of dry, sandy clay which made the bones soft and fragile. 
It was therefore necessary to harden them sufficiently to give them 
the strength essential for mounting. For this purpose, the bones 
were individually impregnated with a solution of bakelite varnish 
and then baked to hardness in an oven which was specially con- 
structed for the purpose as described elsewhere. As there were two 
skeletons it was decided to install them as a group. A miniature 
model to scale of the group was first prepared, and mounting of the 
skeletons carried on according to that design. One skeleton, that of 
a large male, was mounted in the position of an animal digging in the 
gi'ound for the roots and tubers upon which these animals are supposed 
to have fed. The second skeleton, apparently that of a female of the 
same species, was mounted standing on its hind legs, balanced by its 
short stout tail, while the forelegs rest upon a branch of the algaroba 
tree, upon the leaves and seed pods of which it is supposed to be 
feeding. In mounting the skeletons, aluminum rods were used as far 
as possible in place of steel, on account of their light weight. 
Moreover, pains were taken to conceal all metal supports within the 
bones so far as possible. Preparation and mounting of the skeletons 
was finished during the year and their installation awaits only 
the construction of a supporting tree and preparation of some 

The study collection of fossil invertebrates and plants was made 
available for greater service by the opening and distribution of the 
contents of 101 large boxes containing fossils which had remained 
inaccessible since their removal from the Museum in Jackson Park. 
Several thousand specimens were unpacked, cleaned, classified both 
biologically and in accordance with geological time and in this order 
placed in trays in the cabinets in Room 120. At present they occupy 
600 trays and easy examination of any specimen can be made 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 405 

at all times. Specimens deemed of no further use either because of 
poor quality or imperfect identification, were discarded, about 2,000 
being thus eliminated. 

In the chemical laboratory much of the time of Associate Curator 
Henry W. Nichols has been given to the electrolytic treatment of 
ancient bronzes from Kish and Egypt. As these bronzes are valuable, 
and many were in a state that made prompt treatment necessary 
to forestall serious damage, their treatment has been given first 
consideration even though other work had to be deferred. During 
the year, 209 bronzes belonging to the Museum collections, many 
of which were badly corroded, have been successfully treated. In 
addition, two valuable bronzes from Assyria which were in unusually 
bad condition were treated for the Haskell Museum of the University 
of Chicago. As additional experience has been gained, the electrolytic 
process has been used more successfully than ever in this work. 

Other investigations and analyses carried on in the chemical 
laboratory, for the Department of Anthropology, included analyses 
of three antique copper objects, an investigation of the filling of an 
Inca tooth, analysis of an efflorescence on ancient pottery from 
Yucatan, and determination of the modern weights of a large series 
of ancient Egyptian weights. For the Department of Geology, 
three partial analyses were made of meteorites and pseudo-meteor- 
ites. For general Museum purposes, two determinations of the 
heating value of samples of coal submitted for Museum use were 
made, an investigation as to the durability of a new type of wall 
covering intended for use in the Museum lavatories and boiler room 
was completed, methods of oxidizing bright brass fittings on Museum 
furniture were devised, and the quality of a paper intended for use 
in Museum publications was tested. Investigations and experiments 
were also made by Curator Oliver C. Farrington and Associate 
Curator Nichols with a view to determining the best design for a 
contemplated exhibit of fluorescent minerals. Exhibits of this char- 
acter elsewhere have not been wholly satisfactory, but it is expected 
that it will be possible by sufficient study to devise a plan that will 
avoid the defects, while retaining the good features, of other exhibits 
of this kind. The chief object of these studies is to reduce the cost 
and increase the permanence of the exhibit. 

A motor-driven apparatus for concentrating and cleaning micro- 
fossils, based upon a similar apparatus used by agricultural chemists, 
was designed by Associate Curator Nichols and constructed in the 
Department. Through its use, Assistant Curator Roy has been 

406 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

greatly aided in the study of the micro-fossils which he collected in 
Baffin Land while a member of the Second Rawson-Macmillan 
Subarctic Expedition (1927). Making and mounting of thin sections 
of invertebrate fossils, by the aid of the cornbined cutting and grind- 
ing machine installed in 1929, was carried on during the year, and a 
number of specimens which could not have been identified from 
external appearances alone were readily determined as soon as their 
internal structure was revealed by the sections. 

In cooperation with Preparator P. C. Orr, Associate Curator 
Nichols carried on an extensive investigation as to the best methods 
of impregnating vertebrate fossils with bakelite for hardening and 
preserving purposes. As a result of these investigations, satisfactory 
methods were developed and are now in use in the paleontological 
laboratory. In connection with this work, provision of a large, 
constant-temperature, drying oven became necessary, and this was 
accordingly designed and built in the Department. It is a steam- 
jacketed gas-heated oven on the lines of the ordinary steam- jacketed 
constant-temperature oven of the chemical laboratory, but incor- 
porating changes to suit it for its intended use. An oven of galvanized 
iron, measuring twelve by twenty-four inches inside, is enclosed in 
a larger galvanized iron box which serves as a steam jacket. The 
entire front of the inner oven is in the form of an asbestos insulated 
door, which, by the use of stiffening members and suitable fastenings, 
hermetically closes the oven. The entire outer part, except the bottom, 
is insulated against the escape of heat by a thick coat of asbestos 
cement. An inch of water is maintained on the floor of the outer or 
jacketing box by a simple constant-level apparatus at the side, 
through which a small stream of water flows. Steam from the boiling 
water heats all sides of the inner oven, and a constant temperature 
of 94°C. is maintained. The inner oven is provided with small vents 
for introduction of a thermometer and for ventilation. The steam 
escapes from the outer box through a vent in a corner. After the 
oven was put in operation it was found that the escaping steam 
moistened the air of the room enough to interfere with the use of 
plaster, so a simple reflux condenser was designed, built and attached 
and all escape of steam was thus avoided. 

All the books in the Department library were thoroughly cleaned. 

Zoology. — The preparation and installation of habitat groups of 
large mammals have continued at the same high rate established in 
recent years. Four large groups were finished and opened to the 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 407 

public during the year. The animals shown are the giant panda, 
the northern sea-lion, the Pacific walrus, and the South American 
marsh deer. 

The giant panda group (Plate XXX) has as its basis the animal 
killed by Messrs. Theodore Roosevelt and Kermit Roosevelt during 
the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to Eastern Asia 
for Field Museum in 1928-29, referred to in the Report for 1929. 
This specimen, the first really complete one to reach any museum and 
the first actually killed by white men, has been supplemented by 
another obtained by the Roosevelts through barter with natives, 
which produces a pleasing and natural arrangement showing two 
animals instead of one. 

The pandas are placed in an excellent representation of their 
favorite habitat of bamboo thickets which in western China are found 
growing at altitudes of 10,000 feet and more. One of them is seen 
feeding on the twigs and stalks of bamboo which seem to furnish 
their principal diet, and for crushing and chewing which their 
extraordinarily heavy teeth have doubtless been developed. They 
have been skillfully prepared by Taxidermist Julius Friesser, and a 
background of unusual beauty has been painted by Staff Artist 
Charles A. Corwin. The group is situated in one of the four central 
cases of William V. Kelley Hall where it is exceptionally well dis- 
played and visible not only from that hall but also from adjoining 
halls and passages on either side. 

The group of the northern or Steller's sea-lion (Plate XXXIII) 
is the first to be completed of the fine series of habitat groups of 
marine mammals projected for Hall N on the ground floor of the 
Museum. It occupies the commanding central position on the west 
side of this hall to which there is a long dignified approach by the 
stairway leading down, west of the center of Stanley Field Hall. 
It is the largest animal group so far installed in the Museum, occupy- 
ing a space forty feet in width and seventeen feet in depth. The 
graceful lines of the animals, thirteen of which are in the group, and 
their rich coloration, combined with the bright tones of an expansive 
seascape, provide one of the most attractive pictorial effects yet 
produced in the Museum. 

The specimens for the sea-lion group were collected and prepared 
by Taxidermist C. J. Albrecht, who made an expedition to the coast 
of Washington several years ago expressly to obtain the material 
and life studies necessary. The background, painted by Mr. Corwin, 

408 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

is a faithful representation of the actual locality from which the 
animals were secured. 

The group of Pacific walrus (Plate XXXVII) forms another 
important feature of the hall of marine mammals. The specimens 
for this group were collected and presented by Mr. Bruce Thorne of 
Chicago and Mr. George Coe Graves II of New York, principals of 
the Thorne-Graves-Field Museum Arctic Expedition of 1929. Field 
Museum is indebted to them not only for the specimens but for a 
generous contribution covering a large part of the cost of preparing 
the group. Seven animals are included in the group, one large bull, 
two younger males, two adult females, and two partly grown young. 
The ponderous beasts are shown huddled together in their usual 
manner on an Arctic ice floe, the old bull with his head raised, the 
cows literally overlapping each other, and the young ones clambering 
over them. The polished ivory of the formidable looking tusks 
glints in the subdued rays of a midnight sun cleverly devised to 
mingle with the background of ice and snow. The entire effect is 
one of striking interest, and the group stands as one of exceptional 
individuality. The taxidermy of the walrus group was done by 
Jonas Brothers of Mount Vernon, New York. The group was 
installed by Mr. Albrecht, and the background and light effects 
are by Mr. Corwin. 

The group of South American marsh deer (Plate XXV) is the 
first of several South American groups planned for the western end of 
Hall 16. The specimens for it were collected by Mr. Colin C. 
Sanborn, Assistant in Mammalogy, as part of the work of the 
Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition of 1926-27. Five animals are 
shown amid the tall grass under the uncertain shade of a palm tree. 
The scene represented is that of one of the great pantanales so charac- 
teristic of central Brazil, a vast, level, grassy swamp, dotted here 
and there with low bushes in clumps, from each of which rise a few 
slender but towering palms. The species is the largest of South 
American deer, mainly of a rich tawny color, and it makes a beauti- 
ful subject for group treatment. The taxidermy is by Mr. Leon L. 
Pray, with background by Mr. Corwin. 

An important addition to the systematic exhibit of mammals is 
the white rhinoceros, largest of extant rhinoceroses. A reproduction 
of this animal in cellulose-acetate by Taxidermist Leon L. Walters 
was finished and placed on exhibition in Hall 15. It is a very fine 
example of museum technique and has the double advantage of 
faithfully portraying nature and of preserving the skin of an animal 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 409 

now probably approaching extinction. The specimen used in the 
preparation of this exhibit was obtained by Messrs. H. B. Conover, 
R. H. Everard, and John T. Zimmer during the Conover-Everard 
Expedition to Tanganyika Territory in 1926-27. Field Museum is 
greatly indebted to British officials, whose permission to take the 
specimen was courteously granted. 

In George M. Pullman Hall improved installation was begun with 
the retirement of two old-style cases and recoloring of the floors of 
the cases. 

In continuation of the revision and improvement of the system- 
atic exhibit of North American birds, two cases of song and insec- 
tivorous birds were installed during the year, adding greatly to the 
general appearance of Hall 21. One of these cases contains finches, 
sparrows, tanagers and allied birds totaling 128 in number. Each 
is on a natural perch, and here and there accessories have been intro- 
duced, giving interest and variety. The second case contains warblers, 
thrushes, kinglets and related species, and the two sides of the screen 
accommodate 145 specimens. It has been necessary to some extent 
to utilize old mounts, but so far as possible fresh birds have been 
secured on recent field trips by Taxidermist Ashley Hine and espe- 
cially prepared by him for mounting. 

The reorganization of the systematic exhibit of reptiles and 
amphibians undertaken last year was continued in the west division 
of Albert W. Harris Hall. A symmetrical arrangement in ten new 
cases was completed with a final case containing an African python 
and three monitor lizards. The groundwork for these cases was 
made and the installation carried out by Associate Curator William J. 
Gerhard with the assistance of Mr. E. J. Liljeblad and Mr. Walters. 

A striking addition to the reptile exhibits is a cellulose-acetate 
reproduction of the "dragon lizard of Komodo," as the giant monitor 
collected by the Chancellor-Stuart-Field Museum Expedition to the 
South Pacific (1929-30) has been called. This animal is shown in 
an alert attitude on a special base occupying an entire case. The 
Komodo lizard is by far the largest true Hzard now existing, and 
Field Museum is greatly indebted to Mr. Philip M. Chancellor for 
his interest and perseverance in securing so notable an addition to 
the hall of reptiles. Another new exhibit, also a fine reproduction in 
cellulose-acetate, is that of the large prehensile-tailed skink of the 
Solomon Islands, based on specimens collected by the Cornelius 
Crane Pacific Expedition of Field Museum. Both of these exhibits 
were prepared by Taxidermist Walters. 

410 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

In the systematic exhibit of fishes, eight new specimens were 
introduced into cases previously installed. All of these are repro- 
ductions in cellulose-acetate prepared by Taxidermist Arthur G. 
Rueckert. Among them are specimens of the long-horned sculpin, 
the batfish, and the sea robin, the last two prepared from specimens 
received in fresh condition from the John G. Shedd Aquarium. Great 
progress has been made in the preparation of fishes and accessories 
to be used in undersea groups projected for Hall on the ground 
floor of the Museum. Four large sharks and many small fishes have 
been finished, and the intricate work of installing them among huge 
corals has begun. Progress has been made also in preparing for 
exhibition a large number of tropical fishes collected in the Pacific 
Ocean by the Crane Pacific Expedition. 

Improvement in the exhibit of invertebrates in Stanley Field 
Hall was made by the installation of a wall case with buff-colored 
instead of black background. 

The condition of the reference or study collection of mammals 
was greatly improved by the addition of sixteen new metal storage 
cases making it possible to retire permanently all the old-style tin 
cases of small size. The collection of mammals, therefore, although 
still slightly crowded, is in better order than for a number of years, 
notwithstanding the large number of recent accessions. Skins of 
large mammals were removed from the ground floor and arranged in 
the new skin storage rooms on the gallery above the main taxidermy 
shop. Skulls for these large skins also were taken from storage on the 
ground floor and placed in classified position in the new steel storage 
cases on the west corridor of the fourth floor. Although in large 
part not yet cleaned, they are now accessible and separated into 
related groups. Considerable progress was made in dressing raw 
skins of large mammals and in "making up" salted skins for perma- 
nent preservation for reference. All such material was overhauled, 
reclassified, and arranged for disposition in systematic manner. 

Eight new steel storage cases were received in the Division of 
Birds, serving to relieve immediate congestion in the collection. So 
far as possible a system of classification v/as followed in arranging 
new accessions in connection with cataloguing and labeling. One 
hundred and twenty flat skins of birds from expeditions were made 
into cabinet specimens, and various damaged skins were repaired. 

In the Division of Fishes, wooden storage stacks were replaced 
by modern adjustable steel shelving. A carefully classified arrange- 
ment of the fish collection was planned and much progress made in 

Field Museum of Natural History Reports, Vol. VIII, Plate XXXVIII 



Completely covered with a coat of green patina 

About one-half actual size 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 411 

putting it into effect. The task of replacing the bottled fishes on the 
shelves in classified order is now about half finished. 

Three two-faced steel cabinets with 276 glass-topped drawers 
arranged in twelve tiers make it possible to begin the collation of 
the Museum's several collections of insects, and to arrange them in 
systematic order, thereby assuring their preservation and making 
them more accessible. 

No additions were made to the osteological exhibits during the 
year. The skeleton of a gibbon was prepared for use in a proposed 
rearrangement of the exhibit of the skeletons of Primates. Practically 
all skulls of small mammals on hand, 1,286 in number, were cleaned, 
and progress was made in organizing the care and classification of 
osteological material. Skeletons of seven mammals and four birds 
were prepared for reference, and skulls of seven alligators, three 
turtles, and two fishes were cleaned. 


During 1930 the number of schools and other institutions regularly 
served with cases from this Department increased from 408 to 430, 
and the number of cases completed from 1,123 to 1,176 (Plates 

In addition to the construction of these fifty-three new cases, 
eleven cases were completely reinstalled, and thirty-six partially 
reinstalled. All other cases were thoroughly inspected and cleaned, 
and 556 were repaired. 

The color of the labels has been changed from black with silver 
printing to buff with black printing to coincide with a similar change 
adopted for labels within the Museum. The buff labels have been 
used on all cases completed in 1930, as well as being used to replace 
black labels on many previously constructed cases. 

The two motor trucks have traveled more than 12,000 miles 
in this period. They have made 8,636 deliveries of from two to 
twenty cases each, with no cost or trouble to the institutions receiving 
the cases. In addition to the bi-weekly delivery and collection of 
cases at each of 430 schools and other institutions on the regular 
routes, special exhibits were sent as follows: four cases to the booth 
of the Wild Flower Preservation Society in the Hotel Sherman; four 
cases to the Fourth Annual Garden and Flower Show held in the 
Chicago Stadium; three cases to the booth of Community Sanitation 

412 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

at the Chicago Health and Education Exposition; six cases to the 
summer session of Loyola University at St. Ignatius School; and 
twelve cases to Camp Algonquin of the United Charities of Chicago. 
A booth with twenty cases was maintained at the International Live 
Stock Exposition in the Union Stock Yards. 

In the period under review, Acting Curator Cleveland P. Grant 
visited 118 schools served with Harris Extension cases to gain a better 
understanding of the needs and desires of the schools for visual 
education in natural history, and to give instruction in the use of 
the cases. 

At the close of the school year in June an unprecedented number 
of letters of appreciation of the service rendered by this Department 
were received. Hundreds of principals, teachers, and students 
expressed their gratitude for the cases sent them throughout the 
school year, and their anticipation of the new cases that would come 
with the opening of school in the fall. 

The sudden death on June 17, 1930, of Walter H. Beardsley, 
Preparator for this Department since 1919, was a great loss to it. 


The art research classes, composed of students enrolled at the 
Art Institute of Chicago who receive special instruction at Field 
Museum from Mr. John Gilbert Wilkins, an instructor on the Art 
Institute faculty, have shown progress in the artistic merit of their 
productions ever since the classes were established seven years ago. 
During the last year the work accomplished by these students 
surpassed that of any previous year, according to Mr. Wilkins. 
Professional standards were approached by the work of the classes 
as a whole, and several individuals attained high points of self- 
expression and fine art quality. Each member of the classes is 
encouraged to work in his own style and in the medium in which he 
wishes to perfect himself. Some of the students devote themselves 
to sculpture, some to mural paintings, some to illustration, and some 
to decorative design work. 

The second and revised edition of the book Research Design in 
Nature, compiled by Mr. Wilkins, is ready for publication. It 
contains 268 plates (including eighteen color plates) of work done 
by Mr. Wilkins' students based wholly on subjects covered bj'' 
exhibits in the Museum. It is widely used for educational and 
reference purposes. 


Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 413 


Because of the time it was necessary to devote to the newly 
established Field Museum News, the monthly bulletin for Members 
of the Museum, and due to the fact that the Museum's expeditionary 
activities, which are usually one of the principal factors in obtaining 
newspaper publicity, were in 1930 considerably reduced in extent 
and in spectacular features as compared with the several years 
preceding, there was some decrease in the amount of general publicity 
the Museum received during the past year as compared to 1929. 

Distribution of information through the daily press continued to 
be the principal phase of the Museum's publicity, and the number of 
articles prepared at the Museum and published in the newspapers 
averaged about six a week. In addition many articles by members of 
the newspaper staffs and other outside writers augmented the 
amount of publicity received. As in previous years, publicity efforts 
were concentrated chiefly on the newspapers of Chicago and vicinity, 
but through the cooperation of news agencies the Museum's activities 
have received nationwide attention. Likewise, international circula- 
tion has been given the more important news emanating from the 
Museum, as is testified by clippings received from almost all parts of 
the world. 

Magazines and periodicals of various types, as well as the news- 
papers, have evinced keen interest in news from the Museum and 
have devoted much space to it. Various organizations have again 
placed valuable advertising space at the Museum's disposal gratis. 
The public has been reached also through radio broadcasting of 
Museum news; through motion picture newsreels taken in the 
Museum ; and through the distribution of direction folders and other 
printed matter prepared to attract visitors. 

Field Museum News.- — The first number of Field Museum News 
was issued in January, and it has been published each month since 
then. This bulletin was established for the purpose of announcing, 
reporting, and permanently recording all activities of the Museum, 
and of serving every Member of the Museum by keeping him in 
continual touch with these activities. In addition. Field Museum 
News serves as an exchange unit between this and other scientific 
institutions, and as an additional medium for convejnng information 
to the press in general, many copies being sent to editors of news- 
papers and magazines with the result that numbers of its articles 
have been reprinted or quoted in part. 

414 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

While Field Museum News has but Hmited space, it has been the 
constant endeavor to put into each number a great amount of timely- 
information regarding the activities of the Museum and its expedi- 
tions, announcements of current events such as lecture courses and 
children's programs, the installation of important new exhibits, and 
brief articles on interesting scientific subjects of a nature not available 
for the most part in other periodicals which Members read. The 
publication of attractive pictures has also been given much attention. 
A feature during the first year which it is believed will be of value to 
readers who make bound volumes or keep scrapbooks, has been the 
publication serially of a brief history of Field Museum, which was 
written by Dr. Oliver C. Farrington, Curator of the Department of 
Geology, who has served the Museum as a curator since its earliest 
days. The paper has been carefully edited with the definite aim of 
conserving the readers' time by giving the greatest amount and 
variety of information in the briefest adequate form. The staff of 
the Museum has given hearty cooperation by contributing to the 
columns of the News. Printing and distribution routine has been 
maintained on a schedule insuring prompt delivery of the bulletin 
to all Members about the first of each month. 

Newspaper Publicity. — The Division of Public Relations re- 
leased a total of 303 news stories during 1930, or an average of 
approximately six each week. In addition, some 156 brief "filler" 
items were distributed to the press, thus bringing the total of notices, 
including regular articles and short items obtained for the Museum 
by its own direct efforts, up to 459. 

Copies of this publicity matter were furnished to the seven 
principal daily newspapers of Chicago; to some sixty community 
and neighborhood papers published in the city; to more than fifty 
Chicago foreign language newspapers; to about sixty suburban 
newspapers covering the principal suburbs, cities and towns within 
a 100-mile radius of Chicago; to all the principal national and 
international news agencies; and to the Springfield bureau of the 
Associated Press for its special service to newspapers throughout the 
state of Illinois, which is in addition to the national distribution 
effected through the Chicago office of the same organization. 

Many of the publicity stories were accompanied by photographs, 
prints from 166 negatives having been released by the Museum. 
Copies of each of these photographs were furnished to a list of twenty- 
five leading newspapers and news photograph agencies, through 
which hundreds of additional copies were distributed to newspapers 

1 s ^ 

o J3 ^ — 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 415 

all over the world. Newspapers publishing rotogravure sections 
have made splendid use of many of these photographs, thus pro- 
viding an extra-desirable type of publicity. 

Especially effective publicity was a full page of color reproductions 
of some of the paintings made by Mr. Walter A. Weber while he was 
a member of the Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedition, which was 
published in the Chicago Sunday Tribune of January 12. 

The contract with the New York Times whereby photographs 
resulting from certain Field Museum expeditions are syndicated 
nationally, through Wide World Photos, was continued as in past 

Frequently, as in other years, news from the Museum has been 
the basis of editorial comments by many important newspapers in 
all parts of this country, and occasionally abroad. 

The great majority of the Museum's releases were news stories 
of from one-half to two-thirds of the average newspaper column. 
Others ranged from a column to items of fifteen to fifty words. 
Practically every story released was printed in several Chicago 
newspapers, and many in all; and the majority received extensive 
space throughout the country. As has happened in the past, news- 
paper staff writers have frequently expanded these releases into 
half -page and full-page Sunday feature articles. 

The success of the Museum's publicity efforts is largely dependent 
on the cooperation of the press, and for their generosity in this 
respect grateful recognition is herewith accorded the Chicago Tribune, 
the Chicago Daily News, the Chicago Evening Post, the Chicago 
Evening American, the Chicago Herald and Examiner, the Chicago 
Daily Illustrated Times, the Chicago Journal of Commerce, and the 
national and international news agencies such as the Associated 
Press, United Press, International News Service, Universal Service, 
and Science Service. 

Indicating the extent of the newspaper publicity received, the 
records show that an average of 1,628 clippings of articles mentioning 
the Museum was received each month in 1930. This number repre- 
sents only a part of the actual total number of articles about the 
Musemn, as no complete coverage of even the English language 
newspapers is available, and certain groups, such as the foreign 
language papers, are not covered at all by the clipping bureaus. The 
total number of clippings received for the year was 19,537. 

416 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Publicity in Periodicals. — Repeating the experience of past 
years, the Museum and its activities have been the subject of numer- 
ous special articles which have appeared in general and popular 
magazines, trade journals, scientific publications, and other periodi- 
cals. Of these, some were prepared at the Museum on the request 
of editors, and others were written by outside writers. They were 
usually illustrated with photographs furnished by the Museum and 
based on data supplied by the staff. Among some of the more 
important publications in which this material has appeared are 
Scientific American, Chicago Commerce, Science, Popular Mechanics, 
Popular Science, Americana Annual, International Year Book, Science 
News Letter, U Illustration, Illustrated London News, Museums Journal 
(London), Chicago Visitor, Rocks and Minerals, American Weekly, 
and Sunday Magazine of the New York Times. 

Advertising. — As has been the case in previous years, space in 
various advertising media has been given to the Museum, free of 
charge. From a half-page to a page of advertising space in each 
program of practically all Chicago theatres (exclusive of motion 
picture houses) was given the Museum by the Clyde W. Riley Adver- 
tising System, publishers of The Playgoer, the magazine program. 
This is a courtesy which has been extended to the Museum year 
after year. 

Likewise, advertisements in the programs of the Chicago Civic 
Opera Company were given the Museum in 1930, as has been done 
for a number of years. 

The long-standing generous cooperation of the Chicago Surface 
Lines in printing at its own expense and displaying in the street cars 
colored placards calling attention to striking exhibits at the Museum, 
was continued. 

The Illinois Central Railroad and the Chicago and North Western 
Railway, which have similarly been cooperating with the Museum, 
again displayed at their city and suburban stations posters announc- 
ing Field Museum lecture courses. These posters were also displayed 
in Marshall Field and Company's retail store and in libraries, schools 
and other institutions. 

The Chicago Rapid Transit Company and associated interurban 
lines, including the Chicago, North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad, 
the Chicago, South Shore and South Bend Railroad, and the Chicago, 
Aurora and Elgin Railroad, distributed 50,000 Field Museum descrip- 
tive folders among their patrons. The Chicago, North Shore and 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 417 

Milwaukee Railroad again allotted space throughout the year to 
Museum lectures and exhibits in its "This Week's Events Along the 
North Shore Line" posters which are displayed at all stations between 
Chicago and Milwaukee. 

The Chicago Motor Coach Company, following the extension of 
its bus service direct to the doors of the Museum, displayed Museum 
posters in its coaches, printed articles about the Museum in its 
house organs, and distributed thousands of descriptive folders about 
the Museum. 

Practically all railroads entering Chicago advertised the Museum 
widely in connection with various excursion trips they conducted. 
More than 120,000 Field Museum descriptive folders (in addition 
to the 50,000 distributed by the Rapid Transit and associated 
companies) were distributed by the Museum and cooperating agencies, 
including practically every railroad and lake steamship line entering 
the city, and the principal hotels, clubs, travel bureaus, and depart- 
ment stores. The officers and delegates to many conventions held 
in Chicago were also furnished with supplies of these folders. 

Advertising was given to the Museum also in the house organs 
for customers and employes published by Marshall Field and 
Company, Commonwealth Edison Company, People's Gas Light and 
Coke Company, and many other firms, and in folders and other 
advertising matter issued by railroads, lake steamship companies, 
and hotels. 

Special cooperative publicity and advertising were arranged be- 
tween the International Live Stock Exposition and the Museum. 

Radio.^ — Reports from radio listeners indicate that an increased 
amount of Field Museum news was broadcast by local radio stations, 
a number of which are receiving the news releases from the Museum 
simultaneously with their distribution to the press. Among stations 
cooperating with the Museum were WGN, the Chicago Tribune 
station; WMAQ, the Chicago Daily News station; WLS, The Prairie 
Farmer station; WCFL, the Chicago Federation of Labor station, 
and many others. 

In addition to the broadcasting of news, a special series of six 
lectures on natural history subjects was broadcast from WLS, the 
speakers being the Director and other members of the Museum staff. 

Many radio stations in Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin 
cooperated with the Museum in a special campaign at the time of 

418 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

publication of the book, Flora of the Indiana Dunes, which contained 
material of special interest to the public in those states. Their 
announcements are believed to have been responsible for many of 
the sales of copies of this book. 

Newsreels.^ — Motion picture newsreel producers evinced con- 
siderable interest in Museum activities, and a number of films were 
taken on various occasions. Among the newsreels which covered 
Museum events were the Chicago Daily A/'e^(;s-Universal Newsreel, 
Kinograms Newsreel, M-G-M International Newsreel and Para- 
mount Newsreel. 

Editorial Work. — The Division of Pubhc Relations performed 
a large amount of general editorial work on certain publications and 
other printed matter of the Museum, in addition to that on Field 
Museum News. 


The production of publications, labels and miscellaneous job work 
in the Division of Printing was, as in the preceding year, exceptionally 
large and varied. 

Special attention was given to supplying promptly the new labels 
needed by the various Departments, the number printed being 
26,645. The recently adopted plan of submitting in case lots the 
black labels to be replaced has proved quite satisfactory, and has 
facilitated the installation of the cases. 

Of the regular publication series 21,459 copies were issued. As 
some of the fourteen papers printed were unusually large, they 
required 2,058 pages of type composition. In addition to the regular 
publications the leaflets, guides and special publications totaled 1,082 
type pages. Worthy of mention also are the twelve issues of Field 
Museum News, the four to six page monthly bulletin inaugurated in 
January. All of this work, including typesetting, printing and 
binding, was efficiently done in the Museum. 

The composition work on manuscripts long awaiting publication 
was so nearly completed toward the end of March that the night 
shift was no longer considered necessary, and was therefore dis- 

A summary of the publications issued may be found under the 
caption, Division of Publications, page 311. The other work done in 
the Division of Printing is as follows: 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 419 

Exhibition Other 

labels impressions 

Anthropology 10,474 5,406 

Botany 2,861 70,245 

Geology 11,161 2,200 

Zoology 967 39,050 

Harris Extension 1,182 3,100 

Raymond Foundation 175 , 385 

General 154,311 

Library 14,000 

Public Relations 152,318 

Field Museum News 82 , 102 

Direction folders for Chicago Rapid Transit Company 50,000 

Direction folders for Division of Public Relations 127 , 500 

Division of Memberships 64 , 757 

Post cards 105,000 

Post card albums 225 

Total 26,645 1,045,599 


The Division of Roentgenology made some important contri- 
butions to science during 1930. Repeated experiments with the four 
prime factors^ — milliamperage, voltage, distance, and time — necessary 
for the production of roentgenograms, have resulted in the devel- 
opment of a technique that is unique in the practice of roentgenog- 
raphy. This technique, which produces films of greater brilliancy 
than it is possible to produce in any other way, is peculiarly adapted 
to museum work. The ray that this Division applies could not be 
used on living tissue, however, on account of the caustic effect, 
but this ray in no way harms the materials that are submitted for 
examination in the Museum laboratory. 

During the past year the manuscript of Roentgenologic Studies of 
Egyptian and Peruvian Mummies by Dr. Roy L. Moodie, of the 
Wellcome Historical Museum, London, has been edited, revised and 
arranged for publication. 

Although careful pathologic study of the Museum's collection 
of mummies has just begun, some interesting observations have been 
made. Arthritis, that disease so prevalent in ancient times, is 
represented in the Division's files by a collection of outstanding cases. 
In a dental series it was observed that paradontitis, better known as 
pyorrhea, was widely distributed among the ancients, and the 
Museum has a record of impacted lower third molar in a pre-Colum- 
bian mummy from Peru. 

The discovery of a case of rickets in a little boy from ancient 
Egypt was corroborated by Dr. G. Elliot-Smith, of University College, 
London, who visited the Museum late in the year. Dr. Smith said 

420 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

that, so far as he knows, this is the only case of hitman rickets that 
has come out of ancient Egypt. Rickets has been suspected in the 
study of an ape skeleton from ancient Egypt. It was supposed that 
the animal was a pet, and that this condition was caused by con- 
finement. Dr. Smith possesses the distinction of having opened and 
examined more mummy packages than any other individual. 

Miss Anna Reginalda Bolan, the Museum's roentgenologist, gave 
lectures during the past year before the following assemblies : Ameri- 
can Society of Radiographers, National Convention, Chicago; Fort 
Dearborn Camera Club, Chicago; Class of Students in Journalism, 
Northwestern University; Chicago Society of Radiological Tech- 
nicians, and American Physical Therapy Association, National Con- 
vention, Chicago. 


Photography.- — The total number of lantern slides, negatives 
and prints made by the Division of Photography during 1930 was 
32,235. The following tabulation gives a summary of the work 
performed : 



Anthropology 670 1 ,297 

Botany 267 269 

Geology 530 

Zoology 544 343 

Harris Extension 63 

Raymond Foundation 576 22 

Photogravure 382 

Publicity 24 

General 85 


Sales 54 

Total 2,111 3,015 







Enlarge- Negatives Trans- 

ments developed parent 

made for labels 

expedi- made 

















26,225 272 



Photogravure. — Following is a summary of the photogravures 
produced during 1930 by this Division: 

Number of 

Publication illustrations 355 , 100 

Leaflet illustrations 6 , 000 

Memoirs Series illustrations 46,200 

Guide covers 10,000 

Poster headings 3 , 600 

Membership headings 500 

Post cards 105,000 

Total 526,400 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 421 

Artist. — Following is a summary of the work done during 1930 

by this Division: 

Pen drawings 186 

Wash drawings 41 

Lantern slides colored 820 

Maps drawn and lettered 22 

Case maps lettered 12 

Case maps tinted 8 

Chinese characters drawn 13 

Field plans drawn and lettered 13 

Posters drawn 2 

Case labels color lined 15 

Photographs retouched 51 

Photographs tinted 6 

Negatives blocked 98 

Negatives tinted 4 

Negatives lettered for copyright 35 

Large transparencies tinted 1 

Transparency maps tinted 7 

Cuts tooled 6 

Steel dies engraved 2 

Miscellaneous items 30 

Total 1 ,372 

The number of names on the membership rolls of the Museum 
for 1930 shows a slight increase over that registered in 1929. Follow- 
ing is a classified list of the total number of memberships: 

Benefactors 17 

Honorary Members 21 

Patrons 31 

Corresponding Members 3 

Contributors 97 

Corporate Members 50 

Life Members 356 

Non-Resident Life Members 7 

Associate Members 2 ,296 

Non-Resident Associate Members 1 

Sustaining Members 251 

Annual Members 2 , 911 

Total Memberships 6 , 041 

The names of all Members on the rolls as of December 31, 1930, 
will be found elsewhere in this Report. 

The cafeteria served refreshments to 101,271 persons during 1930, an 
increase of 4,766 over the number in 1929. The cafeteria is not oper- 
ated by the Museum, but is under the management of a concessionaire. 

In the pages which follow are submitted the Museum's financial 
statements, lists of accessions, names of Members, et cetera. 

Stephen C. Simms, Director. 

422 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 


FROM JANUARY 1, 1930, TO DECEMBER 31, 1930 

Total attendance 1,332,799 

Paid attendance 160,924 

Free admissions on pay days: 

Students 13,221 

School children 75,744 

Teachers 1,808 

Members 1,735 

Admissions on free days: 

Thursdays (52) 176,716 

Saturdays (52) 334,823 

Sundays (52) 567,828 

Highest attendance on any day (August 17, 1930) 23,414 

Lowest attendance on any day (March 25, 1930) 6 

Highest paid attendance (September 1, 1930) 6,281 

Average daily admissions (365 days) 3,651 

Average paid admissions (209 days) 770 

Number of guides sold 11,721 

Number of articles checked 19,190 

Number of picture post cards sold 183,235 

Sales of publications, leaflets, handbooks, portfolios and photo- 
graphs $4,914.72 

O fa 

o o 

s i 

o S 

o S 

a &, 

CO § 
Q H 







Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 423 



Endowment Fund income $194,921.37 

Less: Transferred to Reserve against 
Security Investments — all 
funds 10,000.00 


Income from funds held under annuity agreements 41,001.02 

Life Membership Fund income 14,181.74 

Associate Membership Fund income 12,592.44 

South Park Commissioners 55,911.15 

Annual and Sustaining memberships 24,700.00 

Admissions 40,220.50 

Sundry receipts 14,077.88 

Contributions for general purposes 250,000.00 

Contributions for special purposes (expended per contra) 107,394.99 
Special funds: 

Part expended this year for purposes created (in- 
cluded per contra) 40,321.00 



Collections $138,156.90 

Expeditions 30,814.47 

Furniture and fixtures, equipment, etc 54,572.58 

Plant reproduction 15,395.50 

Pensions, group insurance premiums, etc 16,371.95 

Research fellowship 850.00 

Departmental expenses 98,014.89 

General operating expenses 496,922.21 

Annuities on contingent gifts 38,997.03 

Added to principal of annuity endowments 2,003.99 

Interest on loans and tax anticipation warrants. . . . 8,121.28 

Remaining excess of expenditures over income and receipts $114,898.71 



Interest and dividends on investments $21,405.28 

Operating expenses 19,889.85 

Balance, December 31, 1930 $1,515.43 

424 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 



5 objects: 1 painting on silk repre- 
senting a cockfight, twelfth cen- 
tury; 1 rhinoceros horn carved 
with animals, fifteenth century; 
1 painted neolithic vase, 1 deco- 
rated porcelain jar, 1 gilt bronze 
figure of rhinoceros — China (gift). 

BAHR, A. W., New York. 

4 objects: 1 decorated jade ring, late 

Chou period; 1 notched disk, 1 
small ox-head of steatite, Han 
period; 1 plastron of turtle in- 
scribed and used for divination, 
Shang dynasty, about 1500 B.C. — 
China (gift). 

BOOMER, DR. P. C, Chicago. 

2 tiles: 1 blue-glazed roofing tile, 1 
fragmentary yellow-glazed tile 
disk — Peiping, China (gift). 

River Forest, Illinois. 
8 objects: 7 flint arrowheads and 
spearheads, 1 iron arrowhead — 
Illinois (gift). 

BUHMANN, C. F., Davenport, Iowa. 
2 short swords in carved bone sheaths 
— Japan (gift). 


6 old decorated woolen blankets— 
Navaho and Hopi, New Mexico 

COTTON, REV. H. A., Warrensburg, 
40 objects: chair, baskets, sandals, 
clubs, and tools — Ovimbundu, 
Angola, Africa (gift). 

CRANE, R. T., JR., Chicago. 

5 jade objects: 1 decorated white 
jade ax, 1 inscribed jade slab from 
a jade book, 3 archaic jade carv- 
ings of deer, dragon, and ox — 
China (gift). 

DOHMEN, U. A., Chicago. 

2 flint arrowheads — Serrano and 
Paiute, southern California (gift). 


1 blanket — Navaho, New Mexico 

DRUMMOND, DR. I. W., New York. 
1 steatite symbol of Earth — China 



Collected by Meld Museum-Oxford 
University Joint Expedition to 
Mesopotamia (Marshall Field 
Fund) : 
About 1,200 objects: 47 skulls, 
skeletal material, 60 complete 
pots, pottery sherds, clay figurines, 
flints, shell, bone and metal 
objects, stone door posts — Kish, 

Collected by W. D. Hambly, leader of 
Frederick H. Rawson-Field Mu- 
seum Ethnological Expedition to 
West Africa: 
1,549 ethnological objects — Ovim- 
bundu, Angola; and Yoruba, Nupe, 
Hausa, Budama, Munshi, Beni — 

Collected by Llewelyn Williams, leader 
of Marshall Field Botanical 
Expedition to the Amazon 
(Peruvian Division): 
15 miscellaneous ethnological objects 
— Yahuas, Campas, and Kokama, 
East Andes, Amazon and Ucayali, 

Collected by Dr. Paul S. Martin, leader 
of Field Museum Archaeological 
Expedition to the Southwest 
(Julius and Augusta Rosenwald 
About 200 objects: pottery, bone, 
wood, and stone implements — 
Lowry ruin, Colorado. 

Collected by Arthur S. Vernay 
Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedi- 
tion of Field Museum: 
28 ethnological objects: bows, quivers 
with arrows, ostrich eggs, ostrich- 
eggshell necklaces, head-dresses, 
belts, apron, string-bag, and a 
skull — Bushmen, South Africa. 

5 framed oil paintings representing 
prehistoric scenes of Europe by 
Charles R. Knight — Dordogne, 
France; Neuchatel, Switzerland, 
from Henry Field. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


1 cast of bison — Tuc d'Audoubert, 
Ariege, France, from Count 

2 stone axes — New South Wales, 
Australia, from J. W. Woodhead, 

68 objects: silver jewelry and tools 
of silversmith, 1 pair of bellows, 
30 tools and 1 mold — Navaho, 
New Mexico, from H. Schweizer, 
collector (Julius and Augusta 
Rosenwald Fund). 

1 model of Maya temple Sub EVII — 
Uaxactun, Peten, Guatemala. 

About 24 objects : prehistoric mummy 
of young adult male from burial 
cave with mat, cord blanket, and 
4 pottery sherds, fragmentary 
child's body and 7 detached parts 
of b o d i e s — S ierra Madre, 
Chihuahua, Mexico. 


4 objects: 1 ivory opium pipe — 

China; 1 gilded Buddha image — 

Siam; 1 knife — Nepal; 1 pottery 

lamp — Italy (gift). 

1 plaster cast of the skull of a native 
of Tierra del Fuego, South America 

INSTITUTE, University of 
14 predynastic pottery jars — Pre- 
dynastic, Egypt (deposit). 

HEERAMANECK, N. M., New York. 
6 cast brass figures — Borneo (gift). 


1 inscribed metal coin — Arabs, El- 
Hasa, central Arabia (gift). 

Park, Illinois. 

1 pottery cup from prehistoric tumu- 

lus, bronze period — Province of 
Brandenburg, Prussia (gift). 

HUGHES, THOMAS S., Chicago. 

2 black-red figure craters — Paestum, 

Lucania, southern Italy (gift). 

KRIEGER, E. B., Hubbard Woods, 
1 copper spearhead — Hubbard 
Woods, Illinois (gift). 

Oxford, England. 
1 reproduction of a clay head of a 
Sumerian— Kish, Irak (gift). 

LEE LING YUN, Shanghai, in mem- 
ory of his father, Lee Wan Ching. 
1 gilt bronze statuette of a standing 
Buddha, Ming period (1368-1643) 
—China (gift). 

LINTON, DR. RALPH, Madison, Wis- 
1 jade arrowhead — Tlingit or Haida, 
Northwest Coast, North America 

3 jade objects: 1 green jade brush- 
holder, 1 yellow jade twin vase, 
1 black jade dish, K'ien-lung 
period (1736-95)— China (gift). 

MOSS, MYER H., Chicago. 

1 rug — Navaho, New Mexico (gift). 

1 model of one of Queen Hatshepsut's 
boats — Egypt (gift). 

PATTEN, HENRY J., Chicago. 

6 Babylonian clay tablets— Baby- 
lonia, Mesopotamia (gift). 

PEET, FRED N., Chicago. 

1 decorated birch-bark vessel — 
junction of Current and Squaw 
Rivers, Ontario, Canada (gift). 

Pleasant, Iowa. 
1 gilded brass bracelet inlaid with 
cat's-eye — India ; 1 shell bead neck- 
lace — Prehistoric Indian, Iowa 

New Haven, Connecticut. 

1 stone ax-head — Santa Marta, Co- 

lombia, South America (gift). 

SCHNEIDER, I. S., Chicago. 

2 iron objects: 1 spear and 1 crescent- 

shaped ax — North Africa (gift). 

1 decorated metal mirror, T'ang 
period (A.D. 618-906)— China 


426 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

SEED, WILLIAM H., Chicago. 

1 bone scraper — Waukegan, Illinois 

SKELTON, J. A., Sonsonate, Salvador, 
Central America. 
1 stone figure — Chorotega, Nica- 
ragua; 1 carved stone ring — Pre- 
Columbian, El Salvador, Central 
America (gift). 

SMITH, MRS. GEORGE T., Chicago. 
1 white jade dish in shape of lotus 
leaf — China; 1 jade carving of a 
recumbent lion-like monster de- 
vouring two snakes, T'ang period 
(A.D. 618-906)— China (gift). 

Philippine Islands. 
1 small clay tablet with image of 
Vajrapani — Tibet (gift). 

17 arrowheads and spearheads of 
chalcedony, jasper, and flint — 
Lake Catherine, Magnet Cove, 
Arkansas; 16 flint arrowheads and 

spearheads — Magnet Cove, 
Arkansas (gift). 

WEBER, DAVID, Chicago. 

2 mortuary clay figures of horse- 
women engaged in a polo match, 
T'ang period (A.D. 618-906)— 
China (gift). 

WEISS, SIDNEY, Chicago. 

1 alabaster model of Taj Mahal — 
India (gift). 

6 objects: 3 ear ornaments of beetle 
wings and toucan feathers, 1 cot- 
ton bag, 1 bark-cloth shirt, 1 
comb — Aguaruna Indians (sub- 
tribe of Jivaros), Amazon Region, « 
Brazil (gift). 

WILLIS, L. M., Chicago. 

1 glass amphora set in bronze tripod 

stand — Pompeii, Italy (gift). 

YOUNG, J. W., Chicago. 

2 prehistoric coiled cooking pots — 
Chaco Canyon, Arizona (gift). 


102 specimens of plants (exchange). 

Plain, Massachusetts. 
298 specimens of plants (exchange). 

BAILEY, DANA K., New York. 

4 specimens of plants (gift). 

New York. 

5 photographs and specimens of 
plants from Venezuela (gift). 

BEBB, HERBERT, Chicago. 

2 specimens of plants from Indiana 


BENKE, H. C, Chicago. 

992 specimens of plants from the 
United States (gift). 

Honolulu, Hawaii. 

1 specimen of pia tubers; 2 herbarium 
specimens (gift). 

BLETSCH, W. E., Highland Park, 
34 specimens of North American 
woods (gift). 

BOGUSCH, E. R., Pullman, Wash- 
78 specimens of plants from western 
United States (gift). 


MUSEUM, Berlin-Dahlem, 


4,137 specimens of plants, chiefly 

from South America (exchange). 

HISTORY), London, England. 
137 specimens of plants from South 
America (exchange). 

BRUCE, E. L., COMPANY, Memphis, 
2 red gum boards for exhibition (gift). 

Salvador, Salvador. 
40 specimens of plants; 2 wood 
samples (gift). 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 



SCIENCES, San Francisco, Cali- 
654 specimens of plants (exchange). 

AMERICA, Washington, D.C. 
238 specimens of plants (exchange). 

4 specimens of cycad seeds (gift). 

CHANEY, DR. RALPH W., Berkeley, 
1 specimen of plant from Panama 


sion, Texas. 
3 specimens of plants; 1 wood speci- 
men (gift). 


S., Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

1 specimen of plant from Alaska 

445 specimens of plants from New 
York (exchange). 

CORY, V. L., Sonora, Texas. 
3 specimens of plants (gift). 

Fe, New Mexico. 
144 specimens of plants (gift). 

DEAM, C. C, Bluffton, Indiana. 

2 specimens of plants (gift). 

Honolulu, Hawaii. 
14 specimens of plants (gift). 

CULTURA, Guatemala City, 
133 specimens of plants (gift). 

68 specimens of plants from Kam- 
chatka (gift). 

Collected by Dr. B. E. Dahlgren 
(Marshall Field Botanical Expedi- 
tion to the Amazon, 1929): 
304 economic specimens from Brazil. 

Collected by Llewelyn Williams 
(Marshall Field Botanical Expedi- 
tion to the Amazon, 1929-30, 
Peruvian Division) : 
13,000 herbarium specimens; 2,016 
wood specimens; 73 economic spec- 
imens, from Peru. 

Collected by Dr. O. C. Farrington 
(Marshall Field Brazilian Expedi- 
tion, 1922-23): 
3 economic specimens from BraziL 

Collected by J. Eric Thompson (Second 
Marshall Field Archaeological Ex- 
pedition to British Honduras): 
30 specimens of plants from British 

Collected by Dr. A. W. Herre 
(Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedi- 
tion of Field Museum): 
283 specimens of plants from the 
Pacific Islands. 

Rockefeller Foundation Fund for 
Photographing Type Specimens: 
5,166 negatives of type specimens 
of the Berlin Herbarium; 32 photo- 
graphic prints. 

Transferred from the Department of 
17 economic specimens. 
Transferred from the Division of 
5,847 photographic prints. 

162 specimens of Porto Rican woods, 

collected by Justo D. Barea. 
24 specimens of seeds collected in 

Trinidad by W. E. Broadway. 
100 specimens of Argentine plants 

collected by Dr. Arturo Donat. 
263 specimens of Kamchatka plants 

collected by Walter J. Eyerdam. 
77 specimens of plants collected in 

Uruguay by Dr. Guillermo Herter. 
100 specimens of plants collected in 

Paraguay by Pedro Jorgensen. 
1,460 specimens of Peruvian plants 

collected by G. Klug. 
278 specimens of plants collected in 

British Honduras by C. L. Lundell. 
475 specimens of Venezuelan plants 

collected by Henri Pittier and 

W. Gehriger. 
224 specimens of Venezuelan plants 

collected by Jose Saer d'Hequert. 
720 specimens of Peruvian plants 

collected by Carlos O. Schunke. 

428 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

235 specimens of Brazilian plants 

collected by E. H. Snethlage. 
288 specimens of plants from the 

Dominican Republic, collected by 

E. J. Valeur. 
1,686 specimens of Peruvian plants, 

collected by Dr. August Weber- 

300 specimens of plants collected in 

Chile by Dr. K. Behn. 
100 specimens of plants collected in 

Argentina by Erik Ammann. 
510 specimens of Brazilian plants 

collected by Per Dusen. 
5 economic specimens. 

FISHER, G. L., Houston, Texas. 

193 specimens of plants from Texas 

Forest, Illinois. 
1 specimen of a plant (gift). 

Lake City, Utah. 
158 specimens of plants; 19 packets 
of seeds (gift). 

GRAHAM, EDWARD H., Pittsburgh, 
13 specimens of plants from British 
Guiana and West Indies (gift). 

GRAMS, WILLIAM F. C, Des Plaines, 
34 specimens of plants (gift). 

UNIVERSITY, Cambridge, 
69 specimens of plants, chiefly from 
Brazil (exchange). 

GRISCOM, LUDLOW, Cambridge, 

192 specimens of plants from New- 
foundland (exchange). 

3 specimens of plants (gift). 

Island City, New York. 
1 white pine board for exhibit (gift). 

1 specimen of cotton plant (gift). 

HARRIS, MRS. B., Evanston, Illinois. 
1 specimen of fungus (gift). 

Park, Illinois. 
1 specimen of peanut walnuts from 
Indiana (gift). 

HELLMAYR, DR. C. E., Chicago. 
4 specimens of orchids (gift). 

Wilmington, Delaware. 

31 samples of wood distillation prod- 
ucts; 1 framed picture; 9 photo- 
graphs (gift). 

Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. 

1 specimen of plant (gift). 

14 samples of corn products (gift). 


2 wood specimens of African mahog- 

any; 5 herbarium specimens (gift). 

ZORG, Buitenzorg, Java. 
8 economic specimens (gift). 

Leningrad, U.S.S.R. 
397 specimens of plants from Colom- 
bia and Mexico (exchange), 

4 specimens of plants (gift). 


1 plant specimen (gift). 

4 specimens of plants (gift). 

Kalamazoo, Michigan. 
190 specimens of plants (gift). 

KLUG, G., Iquitos, Peru. 

32 specimens of plants (gift). 

TION, Tela, Honduras. 
7 photographic prints (gift). 

LANKESTER, C. H., Cartago, Costa 

3 specimens of plants (gift). 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


1 plant specimen (gift). 

Baltimore, Maryland. 
1 plant specimen from Florida (gift). 

LUNDELL, C. L., Dallas, Texas. 
156 specimens of plants from British 
Honduras and Texas (gift). 

Mclaughlin brothers and 

COMPANY, Chicago. 

3 economic specimens (gift). 

MINO, Mexico City, Mexico. 
1 photograph of cypress tree (gift). 

MELL, C. D., New York. 

91 specimens of plants from Mexico 

MEXIA, MRS. YNES, Berkeley, Cali- 

1 plant specimen from Mexico (gift). 

MILLAR, JOHN R., Chicago. 

2 economic specimens (gift). 

MILLER, T. O., Evanston, Illinois. 
1 plant specimen (gift). 

Bronx Park, New York. 

4 specimens of plants (exchange). 

TRY, Salem, Oregon. 
6 economic specimens (gift). 

ORTIZ, FABIAN, Guatemala City, 

1 plant specimen (gift). 

COMPANY, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
32 veneers of woods (gift). 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

2 boards of pitch pine for exhibition 


PROBST, DR. RUDOLF, Langendorf 
bei Solothurn, Switzerland. 
8 specimens of plants (gift). 

PUBLIC MUSEUM, Milwaukee, Wis- 
536 specimens of plants from Wis- 
consin (exchange). 

PURPUS, DR. C. A., Zacuapam, 
13 specimens of plants (gift). 

6 specimens of plants (gift). 

Seattle, Washington. 
3 specimens of plants (gift). 

AFDELNING, Stockholm, 

618 specimens of plants, chiefly from 
Cuba (exchange). 

22 specimens of plants from South 
America (exchange). 


Worth, Texas. 
24 specimens of plants; 17 packets 
of seeds (gift). 

SALO, O. J., Red Lodge, Montana. 

1 sample of alder wood (gift). 

311 specimens of plants (gift). 

SCHMIDT, KARL P., Chicago. 

16 specimens of plants from New 
York and Wisconsin (gift). 

SHERFF, DR. EARL E., Chicago. 

28 specimens of plants (gift). 

SIMMONS, MRS. E. C, Valdez, 
3 specimens of plants (gift). 

SLATER, MRS. H. D., El Paso, Texas. 

2 specimens of plants from New 
Mexico (gift). 

SMITH, F. W., Sinaloa, Mexico. 
2 packets of seeds (gift). 

Fort Myers, Florida. 
1 plant specimen; 3 packets of seeds 

124 specimens of plants from-Indiana 
and Illinois (gift). 

STOKES, W. E., Gainesville, Florida. 
1 plant specimen (gift). 

430 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

ington, D.C. 
1 plant specimen (exchange). 

EASE SURVEY, Washington, 
12 specimens of fungi from Central 
America (gift). 

SEUM, Washington, D.C. 
4,014 specimens of plants; 144 photo- 
graphs of plants (exchange). 

MUSEUM, Copenhagen, Den- 
593 specimens of plants from Mexico 
and Central America (exchange). 

Berkeley, California. 
1,112 specimens of plants (exchange). 

ARBORETUM, Ann Arbor, 
116 specimens of plants from Hon- 
duras (exchange). 

Madison, Wisconsin. 
327 specimens of plants (exchange). 

UPHOF, DR. J. C. TH., Winter Park, 
2 specimens of plants (gift). 

VAN CLEEF, PAUL, Chicago. 

1 porcelain cup for gathering rubber 
latex (gift). 

Livingston, Guatemala. 

1 plant specimen (gift). 

WEED, A. C, Chicago. 
1 plant specimen (gift). 

Antonio, Texas. 
1 plant specimen (gift). 

FORESTRY, New Haven, Con- 
501 specimens of plants; 2 photo- 
graphs; 8 wood specimens (gift). 

ZETEK, JAMES, Ancon, Canal Zone. 
6 specimens of plants (gift). 


1 Pleistocene bird bone— Grass Lake, 
Illinois (gift). 

Cast of pine cone, Araucarites obscu- 
rum (exchange); section of silici- 
fied cone of Araucarites obscurum 
Wieland. Type— Como Bluff, 
Wyoming (exchange). 

APPEL, JACK, Chicago. 

6 specimens fossil worms — Sag Canal, 
Illinois (gift). 

BAREMAN, K. S., Chicago. 

1 specimen chert concretion — South- 
eastern Utah (gift). 

Spring-on-Hudson, New York. 
Cave breccia containing imbedded 
artifacts of Neanderthal Man — 
Le Moustier, France (gift). 

BRADY, L. F., Flagstaff, Arizona. 

2 specimens Winona meteorite — 
Winona, Arizona (exchange). 


1 specimen cinnabar — near Phoenix, 
Arizona (gift); 4 specimens twin 
cerussite crystals— Sierra County, 
New Mexico (gift); 6 specimens 
crystallized gold — Placer County, 
California (gift); 9 specimens 
chrysocolla, turquois and other 
minerals — Arizona (gift); 29 spec- 
imens crj'^stallized minerals — vari- 
ous localities (gift); beryl crystal 
weighing 950 pounds — Albany, 
Maine (gift). 

PANY, Detroit, Michigan. 

Crystallized andalusite in quartz— 
Mocalno, Mono County, Califor- 
nia (gift). 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


CLARK, CHARLES B., Glen Ellyn, 
5 specimens Mexican onyx; 2 speci- 
mens calcareous tufa; 3 speci- 
mens glauconite — Vernon County, 
Wisconsin (gift). 

BRYAN, Chicago. 
37 specimens fossil plants — Braid- 
wood, Illinois (gift). 

CRANE, R. T., JR., Chicago. 
1 cut tourmaline — Ceylon (gift). 


5 photographs showing geological 
features in the Atacama Desert — 
Chile (gift). 


6 specimens fossil worms — Sag 
Canal, Illinois (gift). 

Collected by the Braidwood, Illinois, 
126 specimens fossil plants — Braid- 
wood, Illinois. 

Collected by the Florissant, Colorado, 

396 specimens fossil plants — Floris- 
sant, Colorado. 

141 specimens fossil insects and 
spiders — Florissant, Colorado. 

24 specimens fossil mollusks and 
ostracods — Florissant, Colorado. 

1 specimen bird feather — Florissant, 

8 specimens rocks and minerals — 
Florissant, Colorado. 

Collected by the George Bedford Ex- 
pedition, 1928: 

Skulls and paddle bones of Mosasaur 
— Russell Springs, Kansas. 

Slab of Miocene rhinoceroses — Agate 
Springs, Nebraska. 

5 skulls of Diceratherium — Agate 
Springs, Nebraska. 

Collected by the Marshall Field North 
Arabian Desert Expedition, 1928: 

6 specimens sand — North Arabian 

151 specimens flint and associated 
rocks — North Arabian Desert. 

Collected by the Marshall Field Pale- 
ontological Expedition to Argen- 
tina, 1924: 

1 specimen natrolite — Argentina, 
South America. 

Collected by the Marshall Field Botan- 
ical Expedition to the Amazon, 

4 specimens spheroidal (?) lava — 
west slope of the Andes, Peru. 

5 specimens fossil pelecypods — Tara- 

poto. Province of San Martin, 

8 specimens fossil cephalopoda — 
Tarapoto, Province of San Martin, 

2 specimens fossil gastropods — Tara- 

poto, Province of San Martin, 
1 specimen fossil starfish — Tarapoto, 
Province of San Martin, Peru. 

Collected by the Sag Canal, Illinois, 
Expedition : 
22 specimens fossil worms — Sag 
Canal, Blue Island, Illinois. 

3 specimens graptolites — Sag Canal, 

Blue Island, Illinois. 

Collected by the Terre Haute, Indiana, 
35 specimens fossil plants — Terre 
Haute, Indiana. 

1 specimen sodallte — Canada. 

6 specimens rocks — Canada. 

45 specimens fossil plants and fish — 

1 specimen aberrant bivalve — Todos 

Santos Bay, Baja, Cahfomia. 
50 specimens wind-carved pebbles — 
Southwest Africa. 

5 specimens wind-carved pebbles — 
New Zealand. 

2 specimens banded sandstone — 

1 specimen orbicular diabase — 

1 specimen lodestone — Wasatch 
Mountains, Utah. 

Section of iron meteorite — Chihua- 
hua, Mexico. 

Section of iron meteorite — Durango, 

3 slabs of fossil phytosaur teeth — 
Tucumcari, New Mexico. 

1 fossil mammoth tooth — Troy, 

432 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Cast of skull of paleolithic child- 
La Gerniere, France. 

Skull of Protitanotherium — Ouray, 

1 fossil gastropod preserved in pyrite 
— Wright, Iowa. 

58 specimens trilobites— Clear Lake, 

Skeleton of fossil ichthyosaur show- 
ing epidermis — Holzmaden, Ger- 
many (exchange and purchase). 


Stone meteorite weighing 745 pounds 
— Paragould, Arkansas (gift). 


1 specimen opalized wood — Pied- 
mont, South Dakota (gift). 

GEM SHOP, THE, Wolf Creek, 
3 moss agates, cut and polished — 
Terry, Montana (gift). 

PANY, Alexandria, Indiana. 

2 specimens rock wool; 1 specimen 
rock wool cement — Alexandria, 
Indiana (gift). 


6 specimens fossil worms — Sag Canal, 
Illinois (gift). 

1 specimen fossil tree root— Pennsyl- 
vania (gift); 1 specimen fossil 
coral — Wales (gift). 

HUGHES, FRANK, Ingleside, Illinois. 
1 specimen compound siliceous con- 
cretion — Colorado (gift). 

JOHNSON, JOHN O., Marseilles, 
Limonite concretion in matrix — Mar- 
seilles, Illinois (gift). 

JOHNSTON, J. W., Chicago, and 
ROACH, H. S., Silver City, New 
24 specimens siliceous concretions — 
Mogollon Mountains, New 
Mexico (gift). 

KEISER, W. G., Quartzite, Arizona. 
Series of specimens showing petri- 
faction of wood — Quartsite, Ari- 
zona (gift). 

KENT, C. A., Evanston, Illinois. 

5 specimens colored sands — Mc- 
Gregor, Iowa (gift). 

KNUDSON, S. 0., Chicago. 

1 specimen concretion — Mississippi 
LAMON, D. E., Three Lakes, Wis- 
1 crystal of muscovite enclosing 
quartz — northern Wisconsin (gift) . 

1 specimen edible clay — Arizona 
LEE, RALPH, Chicago. 

1 siderite concretion — near Cincin- 
nati, Ohio (gift). 

LETL, PAUL C, Chicago. 

11 specimens fossil worms; 6 speci- 
mens graptolites — Sag Canal, 
Blue Island, Illinois (gift). 

LOREY, ALICE, Chicago. 

2 cabochon cut agates; 1 specimen 
copper — Keeweenaw County, 

Michigan (gift). 

MILLER, A. M., Asheville, Carolina. 

1 specimen cyanite — Asheville, 
North Carolina (gift). 

MOSS, MYER H., Chicago. 

Weathered boulder — near Baldwin, 
Michigan (gift). 


2 specimens calcareous tufa — Jack- 
son, Minnesota (gift). 

5 specimens asphalt — various locali- 
ties (gift); 4 specimens sand — 
various localities (gift). 

NININGER, H. H., Palmer Lake, 
Etched section of Huizopa meteorite 
— Huizopa, Chihuahua, Mexico 
NOVAK, THOMAS, Chicago. 

1 specimen limonite concretion — 
Ellis Lake, Michigan (gift). 

7 specimens fossil worms — Sag Canal, 
Blue Island, Illinois (gift); 1 spec- 
imen concretion containing sphal- 
erite — Mazon Creek, Illinois 
(gift); 1 specimen septaria — 
Mazon Creek, Illinois (gift). 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


PITTS, WILLIAM B., Sunnyvale, 
1 specimen petrified cactus — Adam- 
ana, Arizona (gift); 1 specimen 
stalactitic formation on petrified 
wood — Adamana, Arizona (gift); 
10 specimens polished oolitic and 
orbicular jasper — Santa Clara 
County, California (gift); 2 speci- 
mens black calcareous oolite — 
Saratoga Springs, California (gift). 

PRICE, G. E., Chicago. 

1 specimen fossil gum containing egg- 
shell — East Indies (gift). 

RADEFF, DR. I., Dixon, Illinois. 

1 specimen orthoceras showing si- 
phuncle — Dixon, Illinois (gift), 

REID, JOHN T., Lovelock, Nevada. 

2 specimens thinolite — Lovelock and 

Granite Point, Pershing County, 

Nevada (gift). 

RIGGS, E. S., Chicago. 

34 negatives of views in Yellowstone 
Park (gift). 

SALO, O. J., Red Lodge, Montana. 
2 specimens fossil plants; 3 speci- 
mens fossil moUusks; 2 specimens 
fossil coprolites — Red Lodge, Mon- 
tana (gift). 

SCHURG, HERMAN L., Chicago. 
4 specimens showing pressure struc- 
ture in sandstone — Arkansas 
(gift) ; 1 specimen chert concretion 
— Missouri (gift). 

2 photographs of Meteor Crater, 
Arizona (gift); 1 specimen con- 
cretion — Arizona (gift). 

SMITH, WALTER H., Galesburg, 
7 specimens fossil moUusks — Gales- 
burg, Illinois; 1 specimen fossil 
tracks — Grand Canyon, Arizona; 
36 specimens fossil plants — Gales- 
burg, Illinois (gift). 

(Indiana), Chicago. 
13 specimens grease (gift). 

PANY, Denver, Colorado. 
1 granite core 10 feet in length — 
Colorado (gift). 


56 specimens native copper and asso- 
ciated minerals — Lake Superior, 
Michigan (gift). 

TRAIN, PERCY, Lower Rochester, 
2 specimens glass colored by sun- 
light — Arizona (gift). 

COMPANY, Chicago. 
6 specimens illustrating the manu- 
facture of Portland cement — Buff- 
ington, Indiana (gift). 

VELASCO, M. L., Iquitos, Peru. 

17 specimens fossil pelecypods; 
18 specimens fossil cephalopods; 
1 specimen fossil gastropod — 
Province of Loreto, Peru (gift). 

33 specimens minerals — Magnet 
Cove, Arkansas (gift); 2 speci- 
mens concretions — Magnet Cove, 
Arkansas (gift); 1 specimen sand 
— Magnet Cove, Arkansas (gift); 
9 specimens minerals — Murfrees- 
boro, Arkansas (gift); 1 specimen 
rock — Murfreesboro, Arkansas 
(gift) ; 22 cabochon cut amethysts, 
quartzes, agates and schorlomite 
— Murfreesboro, Arkansas, and 
Magnet Cove, Arkansas (gift); 
group of quartz crystals — Nor- 
man, Arkansas (gift). 

11 specimens fossil worms. Sag Canal, 
Blue Island, Illinois (gift). 


18 specimens fossil plants — Spokane, 
Washington (exchange). 

6 specimens petroleum — Kentucky 
(gift); 4 specimens oil sands — 
Kentucky (gift). 


1 sand picture; 1 specimen banded 

sandstone — McGregor, Iowa 


1 specimen fossil pelecypod — Cali- 
fornia (gift). 

434 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

1 lizard — Solomon Islands (ex- 
change); 2 birdskins — South Pa- 
cific Ocean (exchange). 

more, Illinois. 

1 rough-legged hawk — Sycamore, 
Illinois (gift). 

BAILEY, H. H., Miami, Florida. 

22 birdskins— North America (ex- 


2 moths — Lacon, Illinois (exchange). 

1 lizard — San Diego County, Cali- 
fornia (gift). 

HISTORY), London, England. 
5 mammal skins and skulls and 3 
skeletons — Paraguay (gift). 

1 pigeon, 25 lizards, 9 frogs — Angol, 
Chile (gift). 

1 bog lemming skeleton — Douglas 
County, Kansas (gift). 

Philippine Islands. 

3 crocodiles — Mindoro, Philippine 
Islands (gift). 

19 shells — San Martinho, Portugal 

BURT, CHARLES E., Waxahachie, 

1 lizard, 5 frogs — Nebraska (gift). 

CAMERON, DR. WILL J., Chicago. 
3 lizards — Namib Desert, Africa 

CARLSON, R., Chicago. 
1 spider — Chicago (gift). 

CHEN, DR. K. K., Indianapolis, 

7 green toads — Europe (gift); 6 
Chinese toads — China (gift). 


I lizard — Nigeria (gift). 

CLEGG, W. G., Delamere, England. 
3 red grouse — Yorkshire, England 

COALE, MRS. HENRY K., Chicago. 

8 mammal skins and 7 skulls— La 
Puerta Valley, California (gift). 

CONANT, ROGER, Toledo, Ohio. 

II snakes — Toledo, Ohio (gift); 1 
snake — Monroe County, Michigan 

CONOVER, H. B., Chicago. 

1 red-legged partridge skeleton- 
Austria (gift). 

DAHLGREN, DR. B. E., Chicago. 

1 yaguarundi skin — Bahia, Brazil 

DOYLE, J. E., Winkelman, Arizona. 

2 beetles — Winkelman, Arizona, 

waka, Indiana. 
1 silvery lamprey — St. Joseph River, 
Indiana (gift). 

FIELD, HENRY, Chicago. 

1 Indian python — India (gift); 11 
reptiles — Irak (gift). 


Collected by Philip M. Chancellor and 
Norton Stuart (Chancellor-Stuart- 
Field Museum Expedition to the 
South Pacific) : 

3 mammal skins and skulls, 23 birds, 

2 boxes plant accessories, 1 box of 
casts, 1 lot of python eggs, 55 rep- 
tiles, 437 fishes, 5 squids, 21 crus- 
taceans — Singapore, Sumatra, 
Java, etc. 

Collected by Dr. Bourret, F. J. De- 
fosse, Jean Delacour, M. S. Hsuen, 
Willoughby Lowe, Dr. R. L. Crook, 
Herbert Stevens (William V. 
Kelley-Roosevelts Asiatic Expe- 
dition) : 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


7 mammal skins and skulls, 2,176 
birds, 162 reptiles — French Indo- 
China, Yunnan, Szechwan. 

Collected by W. D. Hambly (Frederick 
H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethno- 
logical Expedition to West Africa) : 
77 reptiles, Angola, Africa. 

Collected by Ashley Hine and John 
W. Moyer: 
79 birds, 4 eggs, 1 nest — Momence, 

Collected by G. C. Hixon: 

2 mammals — Illinois. 
Collected by John W. Moyer: 

7 birds — Illinois. 

Collected by Third Asiatic Expedition 
of American Museum of Natural 
History with Field Museum co- 
153 mammals, 143 skulls — China. 

Collected by Bruce Thorne (Thorne- 
Graves-Field Museum Arctic Ex- 
pedition) : 
2 polar bear skulls — Arctic Ocean. 
Collected by Walter A. Weber: 
2 birds — Illinois. 

Collected by Llewelyn Williams 
(Marshall Field Botanical Expedi- 
tion to the Amazon) : 
4 bat skulls, 27 reptiles, 7 inverte- 
brates — Loreto, Peru. 

100 small mammal skins and skulls — 

2 turtles — Arkansas. 

3 fruit bats — Australia and Borneo. 
38 birds— Bolivia. 

27 mammals, 314 birds, 32 reptiles — 

Santa Catharina, Brazil. 
23 birds — British Guiana. 
3 toads — California. 
7 rattlesnakes — Connecticut. 
38 birds — Costa Rica. 

1 hawk — Egypt. 

2 reptiles — Florida and California. 
2 coral snakes — Eureka, Florida. 
86 birds — Indo-China. 

151 reptiles — Korea. 

1 snake — liOuisiana. 

6 mammal skins and skeletons — 

30 long-horned sculpins — Massachu- 

8 reptiles — Mississippi and Louisiana. 
15 mammal skins, 5 separate skulls — 

New South Wales. 
5,908 birds — North America, South 

America, Japan, etc. 
73 birds — North America, Costa 

1 Steller's sea-lion — Oregon. 
834 birds — Queensland, New South 

Wales, New Guinea, etc. 
23 reptiles — various localities. 
102 reptiles — West Australia. 

FINGULIN, JOE A., Chicago. 

1 sea urchin — Beaufort, North Caro- 
lina (gift). 

FRANZEN, A. J., Chicago. 

1 brown trout, 8 bird lice — Illinois 
and Wisconsin (gift). 

HOUSE, Chicago. 

2 eels — Florida (gift); 8 reptiles — 
Brazil (gift); 35 reptiles — various 
localities (gift); 7 bugs — Idaho 

GRAVE, B. H., Greencastle, Indiana. 
5 salamanders — Greencastle, Indi- 
ana (gift). 

GREEN, MORRIS M., Ardmore, 
1 lemming mouse — New Jersey (ex- 

SEUM, Chicago. 
4 Lapland longspurs — Illinois (gift). 

HAMBLY, W. D., Chicago. 

23 butterflies — Sierra Leone (gift). 

HOGLE, H. C, Watervliet, Michigan. 

I star-nosed mole — Van Buren 
County, Michigan (gift). 

HULL, CLEMENT, Oak Park, Illinois. 

II snakes — River Forest Preserve, 
Illinois (gift). 

25 western box turtles — Chicago 

1 bird — Chicago (gift). 

436 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 


1 weaver bird — Australia (gift). 

KELLEY, JOHN M., Chicago. 

5 salamanders — Adams, New York 

KINSEY, dr. a. C, Bloomington, 
188 gall insects, 407 insect galls — 
Europe and North America (gift). 

LAYBOURNE, E. G., Chicago. 

1 Blanding's turtle — De Motte, 
Indiana (gift). 

LEWIS, FRED, Stadra, California. 
1 black rhinoceros skin — Tanganyika 


79 beetles — Washington and Cali- 
fornia (gift). 


1 frog — Africa (gift). 

LY^ON, DR. M. W., South Bend, 
3 rodents and 1 skull — Indiana (gift) ; 
1 tiger salamander — South Bend, 
Indiana (gift). 

15 reptiles — various localities (gift). 

MOONEY, JAMES J., Deerfield, Illi- 
1 mammal skin and skull — Honduras 
(exchange); 11 reptiles — Illinois 

1 starfish — Florida (gift). 

ing Green, Ohio. 
1 least weasel — Ohio (gift). 

MOYER, JOHN W., Chicago. 

1 Hungarian partridge — Barrington, 
Illinois (gift). 

1 night hawk — Chicago (gift). 

29 snakes — Argentina (exchange). 

ZOOLOGY, Cambridge, 


5 mammals, 3 birds — Africa and Asia 
(exchange); 6 bats — Solomon 
Islands (exchange); 202 mammals 
— various localities (exchange); 1 
deep-sea fish (exchange). 

1 salamander larva, 5 sculpins — 
Leasburg, Missouri (gift). 

OSINGER, F. D., Chicago. 

1 bat — Chicago (gift). 

WORTH, JOHN, Chicago. 
3 mammal skins with skulls, 6 in- 
complete skins without skulls, 40 
mammal scalps and skulls, 6 mam- 
mal scalps without skulls — Kenya 
Colony and Tanganyika Terri- 
tory (gift). 

160 insects — Colorado (gift). 


2 snakes — Honduras (gift); 1 snake 
— Panama (gift). 

PLATH, KARL, Chicago. 

1 Mexican black-headed oriole (gift). 

castle, Indiana. 

2 salamanders — Indiana (gift). 
ROBERTS, C. E., Evanston, Illinois. 

1 abnormal snapping turtle — Charles 
City, Iowa (gift). 

ROMER, DR. ALFRED S., Chicago. 
43 reptiles — Cape Colony, South 
Africa (gift). 

1 hawk owl — Chicago (gift); 25 ticks 
— Haywood, Wisconsin (gift). 

RUSSELL, HENRY B., Chicago. 

1 spider— Chicago (gift). 

RYDELL, CHARLES, San Francisco, 

2 gaur oxen, skins, skulls, and leg 
bones — Indo-China (gift). 

SALGUES, DR. R., Brignoles, Var, 
2 gall insects, 21 insect galls — 
Brignoles, France (gift). 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


SANBORN, COLIN C, Highwood, 
1 least weasel skull — Lake County, 
Illinois (gift). 

SCHMIDT, KARL P., Homewood, 
3 mammal skins and skulls — Cali- 
fornia (exchange); 30 reptiles — 
Idaho (gift); 5 beetles — Miller, 
Indiana (gift). 

SPENCER, DON A., Chicago. 

1 beaver skull— Porter County, 
Indiana (gift). 

1 green turtle, 19 fishes — Key West, 
Florida (gift) ; 1 black drum fish — 
New Jersey (gift) ; 27 fishes — vari- 
ous localities (gift). 

SINGH, DILIPAT, Singahi, Oudh, 
1 Indian sloth bear skin, skull, and 
skeleton — Kheri District, India 

Waco, Texas. 
224 shells — southern United States 

TAYLOR, EDWARD H., Lawrence, 
19 reptiles and batrachians — 
Lawrence, Kansas (gift). 

Lakeside, Michigan. 
1 fruit pigeon — Caroline Islands 

FISHERIES, Washington, D.C. 
1 American sole — Beaufort, North 
Carolina (gift). 

1 Steller's sea-lion — La Push, 
Washington (exchange). 

Norman, Oklahoma. 
8 turtles — Oklahoma (gift). 

VAN CLEAVE, DR. H. J., Urbana, 
1 turtle — Tennessee (gift). 

1 Indigo bunting — Chicago (gift). 

WEBER, WALTER A., Evanston, 
1 meadow lark — Evanston (gift); 10 
bird-lice — Morton Grove, Illinois 

WEIL, MAURICE, Chicago. 

1 glass snake — Sand Dunes, Indiana 


WELD, DR. LEWIS H., East Falls 
Church, Virginia. 
15 gall insects, 16 insect galls — 
Arizona (gift). 

WESTCOTT, CHARLES, Springfield, 
1 bat, 3 newts — Massachusetts (gift). 

WILLIAMSON, E. B., Bluffton, 
3 damselflies — Colombia (gift). 

WOEFFS, HAROLD B., Chicago. 

1 Cooper's hawk — Chicago (gift). 

WONDER, FRANK C, Chicago. 
22 ticks — Tanganyika Territory 

ZIMMER, JOHN T., New York. 

2 Gray's bats — British New Guinea 



From Division of Photography: 576 
sUdes for extension lectures; 22 
negatives for extension lectures; 
125 prints for files. 

16 slides for the lecture "A Trip to 
Banana Land," and 26 copies of 

the revised version of the lecture 

1 set (10 volumes) of Compton's 
Pictured Encyclopedia (gift). 

1 motion picture reel "Washing the 
Elephants" (gift). 

438 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

PORATION, Chicago. 
2 motion picture reels, "Enamel- 
ware"; 3 reels, "Trees to Tribunes" 


1 motion picture reel, "Lions on the 
Rocks" (gift). 

PORATION, New Y'ork. 

Partial motion picture reel on 
"Cement" (gift). 


Philippine Islands. 
95 photographs of pottery from burial 
caves of the Philippines (gift). 


Made by Division of Photography: 
26,225 prints, 3,015 negatives, 
2,111 lantern slides, 272 enlarge- 
ments, and 83 transparent labels. 

Developed for expeditions: 529 nega- 

Made by C. Suydam Cutting: 4,000 
feet of motion picture film taken 
in western China. 

Made by B. E. Dahlgren: 56 negatives 
of landscapes and general views in 
northern Brazil. 

Made by W. D. Hambly: 230 nega- 
tives of natives, landscapes and 
general views in West Africa. 

Made by Paul S. Martin: 59 negatives 
of landscapes and general views in 
the southwestern part of Colorado. 

Made by Elmer S. Riggs: 8 negatives 
of skeleton in process of mount- 
ing; 58 negatives of general views 
in the Grand Canyon, Yellowstone 
Park, and Los Angeles, Cali- 



(Accessions are by exchange, unless otherwise designated) 


Durban Museum, Durban. 

East Africa and Uganda Natural 

History Society, Pretoria. 
Geological Society, Johannesburg. 
Institut d'Egypte, Cairo. 
Rhodesia Museum, Bulawayo. 
Royal Society of South Africa, Cape 

Salammbo-Station Oceanographique, 

Scientific Association of Rhodesia, 

Society d'Histoire Naturelle de I'Af- 

rique du Nord, Algiers. 
Societe de Geographie d'Alger, 

Societe des Sciences Naturelles du 

Maroc, Rabat. 
South African Association for the 

Advancement of Science, Cape 

South African Museum, Cape Town. 
Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. 
University of Stellenbosch, Stellen- 



Ministerio de Agricultura, Buenos 

Museo de La Plata, La Plata. 
Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias 

Naturales, Buenos Aires. 
Sociedad Ornitologica del Plata, 

Buenos Aires. 
Sociedad Physis, Buenos Aires. 
Universidad Nacional, Buenos Aires. 
Universidad Nacional de Tucumin, 



Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Botanic Gardens and Government 
Domains, Sydney. 

Commonwealth of Australia, Mel- 

Council for Scientific and Industrial 
Research, Melbourne. 

Department of Agriculture, Adelaide. 

Department of Agriculture, Brisbane. 

Department of Agriculture, Sydney. 

Department of Agriculture, Well- 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Department of Agriculture of 
Western Australia, Perth. 

Department of Fisheries, Sydney. 

Department of Mines, Brisbane. 

Department of Mines, Sydney. 

Field Naturalists' Club, Melbourne. 

Forestry Commission, Sydney (gift). 

Geological Survey of Western Aus- 
tralia, Perth. 

Linnean Society of New South Wales, 

Melbourne University, Melbourne. 

Ornithological Society of South Aus- 
tralia, Adelaide. 

Public Library, Museum and Art 
Gallery, Adelaide. 

Public Library, Museum and Art 
Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 

Royal Geographical Society of Aus- 
tralasia, Brisbane. 

Royal Society of Queensland, Bris- 

Royal Society of South Australia, 

Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart. 

Royal Society of Victoria, Mel- 

Royal Zoological Society of New 
South Wales, Sydney. 

Technological Museum, Sydney. 


Akademie der Wissenschaften, 

Anthropos Administration, Vienna. 
Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. 
Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, 

Universitat, Vienna. 
Zoologisches Institut, Graz. 


Academic Royale de Belgique, Brus- 
Academic Royale des Sciences, 

Bulletin Agricolc du Congo, Brussels. 
Institut Botanique Leo Errera, 

Jardin Botanique de I'Etat, Brussels. 
Musee du Congo Beige, Tervueren. 
Musec Royal d'Histoire de Belgique, 

Musees Royaux du Cinquantcnaire, 

Nederlandsch Phytopathologische 

(Plantenziekten) Vereenigen, 

Societe Beige dc Geologic, Brussels. 
Societe dc Botanique, Brussels. 

Societe Ornithologique de la Bel- 
gique, Brussels. 
Universite de Louvain. 


Academia Brasileira des Sciencias, 

Rio de Janeiro. 
Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 
Instituto Archeologico Geographico, 

Instituto de Butantun, Sao Paulo. 
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de 

Jardin Botanico, Rio de Janeiro. 
Ministerio de Agricultura, Rio de 

Museo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 
Secretaria de Agricultura, Comercio 

e Obras Publicas, Sao Paulo. 
Scrvigo Geologico e Mineralogico, 

Rio de Janeiro. 


Board of Agriculture, Georgetown. 


Department of Agriculture, Bridge- 
town, Barbados. 

Department of Agriculture, Jamaica, 

Trinidad and Tobago Department 
of Agriculture, Port of Spain, 

Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. 


Art, Historical and Scientific Asso- 
ciation, Vancouver, British 

Canadian Mining Journal, Garden- 
vale, Quebec. 

Department of Agriculture of Nova 
Scotia, Halifax. 

Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, 

Department of Agriculture, Victoria, 
British Columbia. 

Department of Mines, Ottawa, 

Department of Mines, Toronto, 

Entomological Society of Ontario, 
Toronto, Ontario. 

Geological Survey, Ottawa, Ontario. 

National Museum, Ottawa, Ontario. 

Naturalistc Canadien, Quebec, 

Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 
Sciences, New Brunswick, Nova 

Provincial Museum, Toronto, 

440 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Provincial Museum, Victoria, Brit- 
ish Columbia. 

Royal Canadian Institute, Toronto, 

Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa, 

Societe de G^ographie, Quebec, 

University de Montreal, Montreal, 

University of Toronto, Toronto, 


Colombo Museum, Colombo. 
Department of Agriculture, Colombo. 


Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 
Museo Nacional, Santiago. 
Revista Chilena de Historia y Geo- 
grafia, Santiago. 


Botanical and Forestry Department, 

Hong Kong. 
China National Research Institute, 

Geological Society, Peiping. 
Geological Survey, Peiping. 
Hong Kong Naturalist, Hong Kong. 
Kwangtung and Kwangsi Geological 

Survey, Canton. 
Metropolitan Library, Peiping. 
Royal Asiatic Society of North China, 

Science Society of China, Shanghai. 
University of Nanking, Nanking. 
Yenching University, Peiping. 


Ministerio de Industrias, Bogota. 
Sociedad Colombiana de Ciencias 
Naturales, Bogota. 


Academia Nacional de Artes y Letras, 

Asociacion de Dependientes del 

Comercio de la Habana, Havana. 


Academie Tcheque des Sciences, 

Deutscher Naturwissenschaftlich- 

Medizinischer Verein fiir Bohmen 

"Lotos," Prague. 
Narodniho Musea, Prague. 
Societas Entomologicae Cechoslo- 

viniae, Prague. 


Botaniske Have, Copenhagen. 

Dansk Botanisk Forening, Copen- 

Danske Geografiske Selskab, Copen- 

Dansk Geologisk Forening, Copen- 

Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, 

Dansk Ornithologisk Forening, 

Kommisonen for Ledelsen af de 
Geologiske og Geografiske Un- 
ders0gelser i Gr0nland, Copen- 

Nationalmuseet, Copenhagen. 

Universite, Copenhagen. 


Sarawak Museum, Sarawak, Borneo. 


Academia Nacional de Historia, 


Federated Malay States Museums, 
Kuala Lumpur. 

Malayan Agricultural Society, Kuala 

Raffles Museum and Library, Singa- 

Royal Asiatic Society, Malayan 
Branch, Singapore. 


Department of Agriculture, Suva. 


Finska Minnesforening, Helsingfors. 
Suomen Museo, Helsingfors. 


Academie des Sciences, Paris. 

Ecole d'Anthropologie, Paris. 

Institut de Zoologie de I'Universite, 

Musee Guimet, Paris. 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Mar- 

Museum d'HistoireNaturelle, Rouen. 

Museum National d'Histoire Natu- 
relle, Paris. 

Nature, Paris. 

Societe d'Histoire Naturelle 
d'Ardennes, Ardennes. 

Societe d'Histoire Naturelle, 

Societe de Geographie, Paris. 

Societe des Americanistes, Paris. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Societe des Etudes des Sciences 

Naturelles, Rheims. 
Societe des Etudes Scientifiques, 

Societe des Sciences Naturelles, La 

Societe Lineenne, Bordeaux. 
Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation de 

France, Paris. 
Societe Nationale d'Horticulture de 

France, Paris. 
Societe Scientifique du Bourbonnais 

et du Centre de France, Moulins. 
Universite-Faculte des Sciences, 



Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin. 

Akademie der Wissenschaften, Hei- 

Akademie der Wissenschaften, Leip- 

Bayerische Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften, Munich. 

Bayerische Botanische Gesellschaft, 

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches 
Museum, Berlin. 

Botanischer Verein der Provinz Bran- 
denburg, Berlin. 

Deutsche Entomologische Gesell- 
schaft, Berhn. 

Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft, 

Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Anthro- 
pologie, Ethnologie und Urge- 
schichte, Berhn. 

Deutsche Morgenlandische Gesell- 
schaft, Leipzig. 

Deutscher Seefischerei Verein, Berlin. 

Geographische Gesellschaft, Ham- 

Geographische Gesellschaft, Han- 

Geographische Gesellschaft, Munich. 


Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde, Berlin. 

Gesellschaft Naturforschende 
Freunde, Berlin. 

Gesellschaft zur Beforderung 
Gesamten Naturwissenschaften, 

Hamburgische Universitat, 

Hessische Ludwigs-Universitat, 


Museum fiir Natur- und Heimat- 
kunde, Magdeburg. 

Museum fiir Tierkunde und Volker- 
kunde, Dresden. 

Museum fiir Volkerkunde, Berlin. 

Museum fiir Volkerkunde, Hamburg. 

Nassauischer Verein fiir Naturkunde, 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Frei- 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Gor- 

Naturhistorische Gesellschaft, Nur- 

Naturhistorischer Verein, Colmar. 

Naturhistorischer Verein der Preus- 
sischen Rheinlande und West- 
falens, Bonn. 

Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft, 
"Isis," Dresden. 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, 
Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel. 

Ornithologische Gesellschaft in Bay- 
em, Munich. 

Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin. 

Schlesische Gesellschaft fiir Vater- 
land, Breslau. 

Senckenbergische Naturforschende 
Gesellschaft, Frankfort on the 

Societe Geologique du Nord, Darm- 

Stadtisches Volker Museum, Frank- 
fort on the Main. 

Thuringischer Botanischer Verein, 

Universitats Bibliothek, Heidelberg. 

Universitats Bibliothek, Munich. 

Universitats Bibliothek, Tubingen. 

Verein fiir Vaterlandische Natur- 
kunde, Wiirttemberg. 

Verein fiir Volkskunde, Berlin. 

Zoologisches Museum, Berhn. 

Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg. 


Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 
Ashmolean Natural History Society, 

Birmingham Natural History and 

Philosophical Society, Birming- 
Brighton and Hove Natural History 

and Philosophical Society, 

Bristol Museum, Bristol. 
British Library of Political Science, 

British Museum, London. 
British Museum (Natural History), 

Cambridge Philosophical Society, 


442 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Cambridge University, Cambridge. 

Croydon Natural History and Scien- 
tific Society, Croydon. 

Dove Marine Laboratory, Culler- 

Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural 
History Society, Dumfries. 

Fisheries Board, Edinburgh. 

Geological Survey of England and 
Wales, London. 

Geological Survey of Scotland, Edin- 

Geologists' Association, London. 

Hull Museum, Hull. 

Imperial College of Science and 
Technology, London. 

Japan Society of London, London. 

Lancashire Sea Fisheries Laboratory, 

Leicester Museum, Art Gallery and 
Library, Leicester. 

Linnean Society, London. 

Liverpool Biological Society, Liver- 

Manchester Literary and Philosoph- 
ical Society, Manchester. 

Manchester Museum, Manchester. 

Marine Biological Association, Ply- 

Museum and Art Gallery, Sheffield. 

National Indian Association, London. 

National Library, Cardiff. 

National Museum of Wales, Cardiff. 

Natural History Society of Nor- 
thumberland, Durham and New- 
castle-on-Tyne, Newcastle-upon- 

Naturalists' Field Club, Belfast. 

Naturalists' Society, Cardiff. 

Royal Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain and Ireland, Lon- 

Royal Asiatic Society of Great 
Britain and Ireland, London. 

Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

Royal Colonial Institute, London. 

Royal Geographical Society, London, 

Royal Horticultural Society, London. 

Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

Royal Society, London. 

Royal Society of Arts, London. 

Royal Society of Edinburgh, Edin- 

School of Oriental Studies, London. 

South London Entomological and 
Natural History Society, London. 

Southeastern Agricultural College, 

Tring Zoological Museum, Tring. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, Lon- 

Wellcome Research Laboratories, 

Zoological Society, London. 


Sociedad de Geografia e Historia, 
Guatemala City. 


Musee National e Hongrois, Buda- 


Anthropological Society, Bombay. 

Archaeological Survey, Calcutta. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. 

Bihar and Orissa Research Society, 

Department of Agriculture, Bombay. 

Department of Agriculture, Madras. 

Geological, Mining and Metallurgi- 
cal Society of India, Calcutta. 

Geological Survey, Calcutta. 

Government of India, Calcutta. 

Government Museum, Madras. 

Indian Botanical Society, Calcutta. 

Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Mining and Geological Institute of 
India, Calcutta. 

Prince of Wales Museum of West 
India, Bombay. 

Royal Asiatic Society, Ceylon 
Branch, Colombo. 

Ryojun College of Engineering, Ryo- 

University of Calcutta, Calcutta. 

Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 


National Museum, Dublin. 
Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 
Royal Society, Dublin. 
University of Dublin, Dublin. 


Istituto di Botanico, Pavia. 
Istituto Superiore Agrario, Portici. 
R. Accademia d'ltalia, Rome. 
R. Accademia delle Scienze, Turin. 
R. Accademia Nazionale del Lincei, 

R. Societa Geografica Italiana, Rome. 
R. Ufficio Geologico d'ltaha, Rome. 
Societa dei Naturalisti, Naples. 
Societa Reale dei Napoli, Naples. 


Anthropological Society of Tokyo, 

Department of Agriculture of For- 

Imperial Academy of Tokyo, Tokyo. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Imperial Geological Survey, Tokyo. 

Imperial Household Museums, 

Imperial University, Tokyo. 

Imperial University, College of Agri- 
culture, Kyoto. 

Imperial University, College of 
Sciences, Kyoto. 

Miyazaki College of Agriculture and 
Forestry, Miyazaki. 

National Research Council, Tokyo. 

Ornithological Society, Tokyo. 

Tohoku Imperial University, Sendal. 

Tokyo Botanical Society, Tokyo. 

Tokyo-Koko-Gakkwai, Tokyo. 

Tottori Agricultural College, Tottori. 


Anthropological Laboratory of Java, 

Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kun- 

sten en Wetenschappen, Batavia. 
Department of Agriculture, Buiten- 

Encyclopaediseh Bureau, Weltevre- 

Instituut, Weltevreden. 
Jardin Botanique, Weltevreden. 
K. Natuurkundige Vereeniging in 

Nederlandsch-Indie, Weltevreden. 


Direccion General de Estadistica, 

Mexico City. 
Institute de Biologia, Mexico City. 
Institute de Biologico, Mexico City. 
Institute Geologico de Mexico, Mex- 
ico City. 
Musee Nacional de Arqueolegia, 

Histeria y Etnelegia, Mexico City. 
Secretaria de Agricultura y Femente, 

Mexico City. 
Secretaria de Educacion Publica, 

Mexico City. 
Secretaria de Educacion Publica. 

Direccion de Arqueolegia, Mexico 

Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio 

Alzate," Mexico City. 
Sociedad de Geegrafia y Estadista, 

Mexico City. 
Sociedad Forestal de Mexico, Mexico 

Sociedad Mexicana Geografica y 

Estadistica, Mexico City, 


Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wet- 
enschappen, Haarlem. 

Kolonial Institute, Amsterdam. 

K. Akademie van Wetenschappen, 

K. Instituut veer de Taal-Land-en 
Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch 
Indie, The Hague. 

K. Nederlandsch Aardrijkundig Ge- 
nootschap, Amsterdam. 

Landbouwhoegerschool, Wagen- 

Leiden Museum, Leiden. 

Museum veer Land-en Volkenkunde 
en Maritiem Museum "Prinz Hen- 
drik," Rotterdam. 

Nederlandsche Dierkunde Vereenig- 
ing, Helder. 

Nederlandsch Vegelkundigen Club, 

Rijks Ethnegraphisch Museum, Lei- 

Rijks Geologisch-Mineralogisches 
Museum, Leiden. 

Rijks Herbarium, Leiden. 

Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke His- 
torie, Leiden. 

Rijks Universiteit, Greningen. 

Rijks Universiteit, Leiden. 


Auckland Institute and Museum, 

Canterbury College, Christchurch. 

Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Cawthorn Institute, Nelson. 

Department of Agriculture, Welling- 

Department of Mines, Geological 
Survey, Wellington. 

Department of Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research, Wellington. 

Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

New Zealand Institute, Wellington. 


Bergen Museum, Bergen. 

Norges Geolegiske Unders0kelse, 

Norges Svalbad eg Ishav Under- 

s0kelse, Oslo. 
Norsk Geolegisk Ferening, Oslo. 
Nerske Videnskapsakademi, Oslo. 
Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenska- 

berne, Oslo. 
Zoologiske Museum, Oslo. 


Gorgas Memorial Institute for Trop- 
ical Medicine, Panama City. 


Universidad, Cuzce. 


Academie Polonaise des Sciences et 
des Arts, Cracow. 

444 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Musei Polonici Historiae Naturali, 

Musei Zoologici Polonici, Warsaw. 

Polska Akademja Umiejetnosci, Cra- 

Societe Botanique de Pologne, War- 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Porto Rico, Rio Piedras. 


Sociedade Portuguesa de Sciencias 

Naturais, Lisbon. 
Universidade de Coimbra, Museu 

Zoologico, Coimbra. 
Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon. 


Universite de Jassy, Jassy. 


Institucio Catalana d'Historia Na- 
tural, Barcelona. 

Junta para Amplicacion de Estudios 
e Investigaciones Cientificas, 

Musei de Ciencias Naturales, Ma- 

R. Accademia de Ciencias, Madrid. 

Sociedad Espanola de Antropologia, 
Etnografia y Prehistoria, Madrid. 

Sociedad Espanola de Historia Na- 
tural, Madrid. 


Generalslaben Litografiska Anstalt, 

Geologiska Institutet, Stockholm. 
Goteborgs Botanika Tradgrad, Gote- 

Goteborgs Museum, Goteborg. 
K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, 

K. Vetenskaps och Vitterhets Sam- 

halle, Goteborg. 
K. Vitterhets, Historie och Antik- 

vitets Akademien, Stockholm. 
Lunds Universitet, Lund. 
Osasiatiska Samlingarna, Stockholm. 


Botanisches Museum, Zurich. 

Geographisch-Ethnographische Ge- 
sellschaft, Zurich. 

Musei Zoologie e Anatomie, Geneva. 

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Basel. 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Bern. 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Zu- 

Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel. 

Schweizerische Entomologische Ge- 
sellschaft, Bern. 

Schweizerische Gesellschaft fiir 
Volkskunde, Basel. 

Societe Botanique, Geneva. 

Societe de Physique et d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Geneva. 

Societe Helvetique des Sciences Na- 
turelles, Aarau. 

Societe Neuchateloise de Geographie, 

Society Zoologique, Geneva. 

Stadtbibliothek, Bern. 

Universitat, Bern. 


Abhasian Scientific Society, Suchum. 

Academic des Sciences, Leningrad. 

Musee Geologique de Min^ralogie 
Pierre le Grand, Leningrad. 

Revue Zoologique Russe, Leningrad. 

Russian Zoological Journal, Moscow. 

Societe des Naturalistes, Leningrad. 

Societe des Naturalistes, Voronej. 

Soci6te Ouralienne d'Amis des 
Sciences Naturelles, Ekaterinberg. 

University de I'Asie Centrale, Tash- 

Universite Tartu, Tartu. 

Wissenschaftliche Muresinstitut, 

Zoological Museum, Moscow. 


Instituto de Geologia y Perf oraciones, 

Museo de Historia Natural, Monte- 

Cultura Venezolana, Caracas. 



Geological Survey, University. 

Arizona Museum, Phoenix. 

Arizona State Museum, .University 
Station, Tucson. 


Arkansas Geological Survey, Little 
Rock (gift). 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Balboa Park Museum, San Diego. 

California Academy of Sciences, San 

Cooper Ornithological Club, Holly- 

County Free Library, Los Angeles 

Department of Agriculture, Sacra- 

Fish and Game Commission, Sacra- 

Los Angeles Museum, Los Angeles. 

Natural History Museum, San Diego. 

Pomona College, Claremont. 

Santa Barbara Museum, Santa Bar- 

Scripps Institution of Biological Re- 
search, La Jolla. 

Society of Natural History, San 

Southern California Academy of 
Sciences, Los Angeles. 

Southwest Museum, Los Angeles. 

Stanford University, Palo Alto. 

State Mining Bureau, Sacramento. 

Tuna Club, Avalon (gift). 

University of California, Berkeley. 

University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles. 

Zoological Society, San Diego. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Fort Collins. 
Bureau of Mines, Denver. 
Colorado College, Colorado Springs. 
Colorado Scientific Society, Denver. 
Denver Art Museum, Denver (gift). 
Museum of Natural History, Denver. 
State Historical and Natural History 

Society, Denver. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
New Haven. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, New Haven. 

Hartford Pubhc Library, Hartford. 

Osborn Botanical Laboratory, New 

State Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey, Hartford. 

Yale University, New Haven. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Gainesville (gift). 

Bailey Museum and Library of Na- 
tural History, Miami (gift). 

State Geological Survey, Tallahassee. 

University of Florida, Gainesville 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 

Hawaiian Entomological Society, 
Honolulu (gift). 

Hawaiian Historical Society, Hono- 

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, 

University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Art Institute of Chicago. 

Avicultural Society of America, Chi- 

Board of Education, Chicago. 

Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chi- 

Chicago Historical Society, Chicago 

Chicago Public Library, Chicago. 

Division of Natural History Survey, 

Forestry Service, Urbana. 

Geographic Society, Chicago. 

Hardwood Record, Chicago. 

Humanitas Publishing Company, 
Chicago (gift). 

Inland Printer, Chicago (gift). 

Izaak Walton League of Ameriea, 
Chicago (gift). 

John Crerar Library, Chicago. 

Morton Arboretum, Lisle. 

Museum of Science and Industry, 

Newberry Library, Chicago. 

Oologist, Lacon (gift). 

Open Court Publishing Company, 

State Board of Agriculture, Spring- 

State Geological Survey, Springfield. 

State Historical Library, Springfield. 

State Water Survey, Urbana. 

University of Chicago. 

University of Illinois, Urbana. 


Academy of Sciences, Indianapolis. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Butler University, Indianapolis. 

Indiana Department of Conserva- 
tion, Indianapolis. 

Indiana University, Bloomington. 

John Herron Art Institute, Indian- 

446 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Purdue University, Lafayette. 
University of Notre Dame, Notre 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Historical, Memorial and Art De- 
partment, Des Moines. 

Iowa Academy of Science, Des 

Iowa Geological Survey, Des Moines. 

Iowa Horticultural Society, Des 

Iowa State College of Agriculture 
and Mechanical Arts, Ames. 

University of Iowa, Iowa City. 


Academy of Science, Topeka. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Lawrence (gift). 

State Board of Agriculture, Law- 

State Historical Society, Topeka. 

University of Kansas, Lawrence. 


Kentucky Academy of Science, Lex- 

Kentucky Geological Survey, Frank- 

Kentucky University, Lexington. 


Department of Conservation, Baton 

Howard Memorial Library, New 

Orleans (gift). 
Louisiana State Museum, New 

Orleans (gift). 


Bowdoin College, Brunswick. 

Mount Desert Region, Biological 
Survey, Bar Harbor (gift). 

Portland Society of Natural His- 
tory, Portland. 


Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 

Maryland Institute, Baltimore. 

Maryland State Board of Forestry, 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

American Academy of Arts and 

Sciences, Boston. 

American Antiquarian Society, Wor- 

Boston Public Library, Boston. 

Boston Society of Natural History, 

Clark University, Worcester. 

Essex Institute, Salem. 

Harvard College, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge. 

Harvard University, Arnold Arbore- 
tum, Jamaica Plain. 

Harvard University, Department 
Mines and Petrography, Cam- 

Harvard L^niversity, Gray Herba- 
rium, Cambridge. 

Horticultural Society, Boston. 

Marine Biological Laboratory, 
Woods Hole. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

New Bedford Public Library, New 

Peabody Institute, Salem. 

Peabody Museum, Cambridge. 

Smith College, Northampton. 

Springfield City Library Association, 

Williams College, Williamstown. 

Worcester County Horticultural 
Society, Worcester. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Agricultural College. 

Detroit Institute of Art, Detroit. 

Grand Rapids Public Library, Grand 

Michigan Academy of Science, Arts 
and Letters, Ann Arbor. 

Michigan College of Mines, Hough- 

Public Library, Menominee (gift). 

State Board of Agriculture, Lansing. 

Edward K. Warren Foundation, 
Three Oaks. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
University Farm. 

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minn- 

Minnesota Historical Society, St. 

University of Minnesota, Minne- 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Agricultural College. 

Mississippi Plant Board, Agricul- 
tural College. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 



Agricultural Experiment Station, 

City Art Museum, St. Louis. 

Missouri Botanic Garden, St. Louis, 

Missouri Historical Society, Colum- 

St. Louis Public Library, St. Louis. 

Silica Products Company, Kansas 
City (gift). 

University of Missouri, School of 
Mines, Rolla. 

Washington University, St. Louis. 


State University, Bozeman. 


State University, Lincoln. 


Nevada University, Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, Carson City. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Department of Agriculture, Trenton 

Newark Museums Association, New- 

Princeton University, Princeton. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Santa Fe. 
Historical Society, Santa Fe. 
New Mexico Museum, Santa Fe. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

American Academy of Rome, New 

American Geographical Society, New 

American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York. 

American Polish Chamber of Com- 
merce, New York (gift). 

Bingham Oceanographic Collection, 
New York (gift). 

Boyce Thompson Institute, Yonkers 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences, Brooklyn. 

Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 

Columbia University, New York. 

Cornell University, Ithaca. 

Garden Club of America, New York 

Italy-American Society, New York 

Japan Society, New York (gift). 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 

Motion Picture Producers and Dis- 
tributors of America, New York 

Municipal Museum, Rochester. 
Museum of the American Indian, 

New York. 
National Sculpture Society, New 

York (gift). 
New York Academy of Sciences, 

New York. 
New York Botanical Garden, New 

New York Historical Society, New 

New York State Library, Albany. 
Oil and Fat Industries, New York 

Pratt Institute, New York. 
Public Library, New York. 
Rochester Academy of Science, 

Soap, New York (gift). 
Spanish Tourist Information Office, 

New York (gift). 
Spice Mill, New York (gift). 
State College of Forestry, Syracuse. 
State Museum, Albany. 
Staten Island Institution of Arts 

and Sciences, New York. 
Stone Publishing Company, New 

York (gift). 
Tompkins-Kiel Marble Company, 

New York (gift). 
Union College, Schenectady. 
United Fruit Company, New York 

University of the State of New York, 

Vanderbilt Marine Museum, New 

York (gift). 
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie. 
Yonkers Museum of Science and 

Art, Yonkers (gift). 
Zoological Society, New York. 


Duke University, Durham. 
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 
Chapel Hill. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
University (gift). 

State Historical Society, Bismarck. 

University of North Dakota, Uni- 

448 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Cincinnati Museums Association, 

Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleve- 

Cleveland Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Cleveland. 

Cleveland Public Library, Cleveland. 

Denison University, Granville. 

Geological Survey, Columbus. 

Junior Society of Natural Sciences, 
Cincinnati (gift). 

Oberlin College, Oberlin. 

Ohio Academy of Science, Columbus. 

Ohio Archaeological and Historical 
Society, Columbus. 

Ohio State Museum, Columbus. 

Ohio State University, Columbus. 

Wilson Ornithological Club, Oberlin. 


Oklahoma Academy of Sciences, Nor- 

Oklahoma Geological Survey, Nor- 

University of Oklahoma, Norman. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

University of Oregon, Eugene. 


Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 

American Philosophical Society, Phil- 

Antivenin Institute of America, 

Armstrong Cork Company, Lan- 
caster (gift). 

Board of Fish Commissioners, Harris- 
burg (gift). 

Bureau of Topographical and Geo- 
logical Survey, Harrisburg. 

Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh. 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh. 

Commercial Museum, Philadelphia. 

Department of Agriculture, Harris- 

Department of Forests and Waters, 

Dropsie College, Philadelphia. 

Engineers' Society of Western Penn- 
sylvania, Pittsburgh. 

Erie Public Museum, Erie. 

Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. 

Lehigh University, Bethlehem. 

Pennsylvania Museum and School 
of Industrial Art, Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 

Sullivant Moss Society, Pittsburgh. 

University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 

University of Pennsylvania, Mu- 
seum, Philadelphia. 

Wagner Free Institute of Science, 


Bureau of Education, Manila. 
Bureau of Forestry, Manila. 
Bureau of Science, Manila. 
Department of Agriculture and Na- 
tural Resources, Manila. 


Roger Williams Park Museum, Prov- 


State School of Mines, Rapid City. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 



Agricultural Experiment Station, 

College Station. 
Baylor University, Waco. 
Conservation of Wild Life, Austin 

San Antonio Museums Association, 

San Antonio. 
Scientific Society, San Antonio. 
University of Texas, Austin. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 


State Forester, Richmond. 
State Library, Richmond. 
University of Virginia, Charlottes- 

WASHINGTON (State of): 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Mountaineer Club, Seattle. 
Pacific Northwest Bird and Mammal 

Society, Seattle. 
Washington University, Seattle. 
Washington University, Historical 

Society, Seattle. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 



American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. 
American Association of Museums. 
American Mining Congress. 
Archaeological Institute of America. 
Carnegie Institution of Washington 

Library of Congress. 
National Academy of Science. 
National Parks Bulletin. 
National Research Council. 
Pan-American Union. 
Science Service. 
Smithsonian Institution. 
Tropical Plant Research Foundation. 
United States Government. 
United States National Museum. 


State Department of Agriculture, 

West Virginia University, Morgan- 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Beloit College, Beloit. 

Geological and Natural History Sur- 
vey, Madison. 

Logan Museum, Beloit. 

Public Museum of Milwaukee, Mil- 

State Horticultural Society, Madi- 

University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

Washington Park Zoological Society, 

Wisconsin Academy of Arts, Sciences 
and Letters, Madison. . , . vs -.-j. 

Wisconsin ; Archaeological Society- 


State Geologist, Cheyenne. 


(Accessions are by gift unless otherwise designated) 

Abe, Fusajiro, Sumiyoshi, near Kobe, 

Adams, J., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 

Ames, Oakes, Cambridge, Massachu- 

Babcock, Louis L., Buffalo, New York. 

Baerg, W. J., Columbus, Ohio. 

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, Ithaca, New 
York (exchange). 

M. Baranofif, Belgrade, Jugoslavia. 

Bassler, R. S., Washington, D.C. 

Beaux, Oscar de, Geneva, Switzerland 

Benke, H. C., Chicago. 

Benton, Mabel M., Chicago. 

Berlioz, J., Paris, France (exchange). 

Berry, S. Stillman, Redlands, California. 

Beyer, H. O., Manila, Philippine Is- 

Borodin, Nichols, Cambridge, Massa- 

Buchanan, Francis, Patna, India. 

Chauvet, Stephen, Paris, France. 
Citroen, Andr6, Detroit, Michigan. 
Clark, Herbert C, Panama City, Pan- 
Cockerell, T. D. A., Boulder, Colorado. 
Collins, Charles, Evanston, Illinois. 
Compton, F. E., and Company, Chicago. 
Cook, Harold J., Agate, Colorado. 
Cornell, Margaret M., Chicago. 
Coze, Paul, Paris, France. 

Dahlgren, B. E., Chicago. 
Ditzel, Henry F., Chicago. 
Domin, Karel, Prague. 
Duncan, George, Washington, D.C. 
Dunod, H., Paris, France. 

Evans, Alexander W., New Haven, 

Fabiani, Ramiro, Palermo, Sicily. 
Farwell, Oliver A., Detroit, Michigan. 
Fernald, M. L., Cambridge, Massa- 
Field, Henry, Chicago. 
Field, Stanley, Chicago. 
Friedlander und Sohn, Berlin, Germany. 
Frodl, Friedrich, Briinn, Austria. 

Gates, F. C, Manhattan, Kansas. 

Gee, N. Gist, Peiping, China. 

Gerhard, William J., Chicago. 

Gladwin, Harold S., Pasadena, Cali- 

Green, Morris M., Ardmore, Pennsyl- 

Gregg, Clifford C, Park Ridge, Illinois. 

Gregory, William K., New York. 

Gunder, J. D., Pasadena, California. 

Gusinde, Martin, Modling, Vienna, 


Haardt, Georges-Marie, Paris, France. 
Hatt, Robert T., New York (exchange). 
Heim, Albert, Zurich, Switzerland 

450 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Hendry, G. W., Berkeley, California. 
Herrera, F. L., Cuzco, Peru. 

Imbelloni, Jose, Parand, Argentina. 

Jones, Marcus E., Claremont, Cali- 
fornia (exchange). 

Judd, Neil M., Washington, D.C. (ex- 

Karutz, Richard, Stuttgart, Germany. 
Kroeber, A. L., Berkeley, California 

Lahille, F., Buenos Aires, Argentina. 
Laufer, Dr. Berthold, Chicago. 
Lewis, Dr. Albert B., Chicago. 
Loth, E., Warsaw, Poland. 
Love, Charles A., Aurora, Illinois. 

MacCurdy, George, New Haven, Con- 
necticut (exchange). 

McNair, James B., Chicago. 

Mauro, Francesco, Milan, Italy. 

Mertens, Robert, Frankfort on the 
Main, Germany. 

Meylan, O., Mies, Bohemia. 

Mogensen, Johan, Copenhagen, Den- 

Moodie, Roy L., Santa Monica, Cali- 

Morse, Albert P., Salem, Massachusetts. 

Motohashi, Heiichoro, Tottori, Japan. 

Mottaz, Charles, Geneva, Switzerland. 

Mullerried, Federico, Mexico. 

Nelson, E. W., and Goldman, E. A., 

Washington, D.C. 
Nordenskiold, Erland, Goteborg. 
North, Robert C, New York. 

Olbrechts, F., Brussels, Belgium. 
Osborn, Dr. Henry Fairfield, New York. 
Osgood, Dr. Wilfred H., Chicago. 

Pammel, Louis H., Ames, Iowa (ex- 

Parodi, Lorenzo R., Buenos Aires, Ar- 

Peters, James L., Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts (exchange). 

Pettazzoni, R., Rome, Italy. 

Pfeiffer, C. A., New York. 

Pittier, Henry, Caracas, Venezuela (ex- 

Porter, Carlos E., Santiago, Chile (ex- 
Potter, Frank C, Chicago. 
Psota, Frank J., Chicago. 

Ravn, O. E., Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Reed, W. M., New York. 

Riggs, Elmer S., Chicago. 

Rivet, Paul, Paris, France (exchange). 

Rosch, Siegfried, Leipzig, Germany. 

St. John, Harold, Seattle, Washington. 

Sanborn, Colin C, Chicago. 

Sanchez y Roig, Mario, Havana, Cuba. 

Sarkar, Benoy Kumar, Munich, Ger- 

Schinz, Hans, Zurich, Switzerland (ex- 

Schlaginhaufen, Otto, Zurich, Switzer- 
land (exchange). 

Schmidt, Karl P., Chicago. 

Sherff, Earl E., Chicago. 

Simms, Stephen C, Chicago. 

Spencer, L. J., London, England. 

Standley, Paul C, Chicago. 

Sternberg, C. M., McKittrick, Cali- 

Stevens, H., London, England. 

Stiles, C. Warden, Washington, D.C. 

Strand, Embrik, Riga, U.S.S.R. 

Strausbaugh, P. D., Morgantown, West 

Streeter, Lafayette P., Avalon, Cali- 

Tanaka, Shigeho, Tokyo, Japan (ex- 

Terron, Carlos C, Chapultepec, Mex- 

Thompson, J. Eric, Chicago. 

Vignati, Milciades A., Buenos Aires, 

Ward, F. Kingdon, Clifton Hill, Aus- 

Weber, Walter A., Chicago, Illinois 

Whitnall, Harold 0., Hamilton, New 

Whittard, W. F., London, England. 

Williams, Llewelyn, Chicago. 

Wilson, H. v.. Chapel Hill, North 

Zammarano, V. T., Rome, Italy. 
Zimmer, John T., New York. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 451 




William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State 

To All to Whom These Presents Shall Come, Greeting: 

Whereas, a Certificate duly signed and acknowledged having been filed in the 
office of the Secretary of State, on the 16th day of September, a.d. 1893, for the 
organization of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO, under and in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of "An Act Concerning Corporations," approved 
April 18, 1872, and in force July 1, 1872, and all acts amendatory thereof, a copy 
of which certificate is hereto attached. 

Now, therefore, I, William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State of the State of 
Illinois, by virtue of the powers and duties vested in me by law, do hereby certify 
that the said COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO is a legally organized 
Corporation under the laws of this State. 

In Testimony Whereof, I hereto set my hand and cause to be affixed the 
Great Seal of State. Done at the City of Springfield, this 16th day of September, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, and of the 
Independence of the United States the one hundred and eighteenth. 


[Seal] Secretary of State. 


Secretary of State: 

We, the undersigned citizens of the United States, propose to form a cor- 
poration under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, entitled 
"An Act Concerning Corporations," approved April 18, 1872, and all acts 
amendatory thereof; and that for the purposes of such organization we hereby 
state as follows, to-wit: 

1. The name of such corporation is the "COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF 

2. The object for which it is formed is for the accumulation and dis- 
semination of knowledge, and the preservation and exhibition of objects illus- 
trating Art, Archaeology, Science and History. 

3. The management of the aforesaid museum shall be vested in a Board of 
Fifteen (15) Trustees, five of whom are to be elected every year. 

4. The following named persons are hereby selected as the Trustees for the 
first year of its corporate existence: 

Edward E. Ayer, Charles B. Farwell, George E. Adams, George R. Da^is, 
Charles L. Hutchinson, Daniel H. Burnham, John A. Roche, M. C. Bullock, 
Emil G. Hirsch, James W. Ellsworth, Allison V. Armour, O. F. Aldis, Edwin 
Walker, John C. Black and Frank W. Gunsaulus. 

5. The location of the Museum is in the City of Chicago, County of Cook, 
and State of lUinois. 


George E. Adams, C. B. Farwell, Sidney C. Eastman, F. W. Putnam, Robert 
McCurdy, Andrew Peterson, L. J. Gage, Charles L. Hutchinson, Ebenezer 
Buckingham, Andrew McNally, Edward E. Ayer, John M. Clark, Herman H. 
Kohlsaat, George Schneider, Henry H. Getty, WilUam R. Harper, Franklin H. 

452 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Head, E. G. Keith, J. Irving Pearce, Azel F. Hatch, Henry Wade Rogers, 
Thomas B. Bryan, L. Z. Leiter, A. C. Bartlett, A. A. Sprague, A. C. McClurg, 
James W. Scott, Geo. F. Bissell, John R. Walsh, Chas. Fitzsimmons, John A. 
Roche, E. B. McCagg, Owen F. Aldis, Ferdinand W. Peck, James H. Dole, 
Joseph Stockton, Edward B. Butler, John McConnell, R. A. Waller, H. C. 
Chatfield-Taylor, A. Crawford, Wm. Sooy Smith, P. S. Peterson, John C. 
Black, Jno. J. Mitchell, C. F. Gunther, George R. Davis, Stephen A. Forbes, 
Robert W. Patterson, Jr., M. C. Bullock, Edwin Walker, George M. Pullman, 
WiUiam E. Curtis, James W. Ellsworth, William E. Hale, Wm. T. Baker, 
Martin A. Ryerson, Huntington W. Jackson, N. B. Ream, Norman Williams, 
Melville E. Stone, Bryan Lathrop, Eliphalet W. Blatchford, Philip D. Armour. 

State of Illinois 
Cook County 

I, G. R. Mitchell, a Notary Public in and for said County, do hereby 
certify that the foregoing petitioners personally appeared before me and 
acknowledged severally that they signed the foregoing petition as their free and 
voluntary act for the uses and purposes therein set forth. 

Given under my hand and notarial seal this 14th day of September, 1893. 

[Seal] Notary Public, Cook County, III. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 25th day of June, 1894, the name of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM was 
changed to FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. A certificate to this effect was 
filed June 26, 1894, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 8th day of November, 1905, the name of the FIELD COLUMBIAN 
A certificate to this effect was filed November 10, 1905, in the office of the Secretary 
of State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 10th day of May, 1920, the management of FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY shall be invested in a Board of Twenty-one (21) Trustees, who 
shall be elected in such manner and for such time and term of office as may 
be provided for by the By-Laws. A certificate to this effect was filed May 21, 
1920, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 453 





Section 1. Members shall be of twelve classes, Corporate Members, Hon- 
orary Members, Patrons, Corresponding Members, Benefactors, Contributors, 
Life Members, Non-Resident Life Members, Associate Members, Non-Resident 
Associate Members, Sustaining Members, and Annual Members. 

Section 2. The Corporate Members shall consist of the persons named in 
the articles of incorporation, and of such other persons as shall be chosen from 
time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, upon the recom- 
mendation of the Executive Committee; provided, that such person named in 
the articles of incorporation shall, within ninety days from the adoption of these 
By-Laws, and persons hereafter chosen as Corporate Members shall, within 
ninety days of their election, pay into the treasury the sum of Twenty Dollars 
($20.00) or more. Corporate Members becoming Life Members, Patrons or 
Honorary Members shall be exempt from dues. Annual meetings of said Corporate 
Members shall be held at the same place and on the same day that the annual 
meeting of the Board of Trustees is held. 

Section 3. Honorary Members shall be chosen by the Board from among 
persons who have rendered eminent service to science, and only upon unanimous 
nomination of the Executive Committee. They shall be exempt from all dues. 

Section 4. Patrons shall be chosen by the Board upon recommendation of 
the Executive Committee from among persons who have rendered eminent ser- 
vice to the Museum. They shall be exempt from all dues, and, by virtue of their 
election as Patrons, shall also be Corporate Members. 

Section 5. Any person contributing or devising the sum of One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars ($100,000.00) in cash, or securities, or property to the funds 
of the Museum, may be elected a Benefactor of the Museum. 

Section 6. Corresponding Members shall be chosen by the Board from among 
scientists or patrons of science residing in foreign countries, who render important 
service to the Museum. They shall be elected by the Board of Trustees at any 
of its meetings. They shall be exempt from all dues and shall enjoy all courtesies 
of the Museum. 

Section 7. Any person contributing to the Museum the sum of One Thousand 
Dollars ($1,000.00) or more in cash, securities, or material, may be elected a 
Contributor of the Museum. Contributors shall be exempt from all dues and 
shall enjoy all courtesies of the Museum. 

Section 8. Any person paying into the treasury the sum of Five Hundred 
Dollars ($500.00), at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, 
become a Life Member. Life Members shall be exempt from all dues, and shall 
enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that are accorded to mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees. Any person residing fifty miles or more from 
the city of Chicago, paying into the treasury the sum of One Hundred Dollars 
($100.00) at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, become 
a Non-Resident Life Member. Non-Resident Life Members shall be exempt 
from all dues, and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that 
are accorded to members of the Board of Trustees. 

Section 9. Any person paying into the treasury of the Museum the sum of 
One Hundred Dollars ($100.00), at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote 
of the Board, become an Associate Member. Associate Members shall be exempt 
from all dues, and shall be entitled to tickets admitting member and members 
of family, including non-resident home guests; all publications of the Museum, 
if so desired; reserved seats for all lectures and entertainments under the auspices 

454 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

of the Museum, provided reservation is requested in advance; and admission of 
holder of membership and accompanying party to all special exhibits and Museum 
functions day or evening. Any person residing fifty miles or more from the city 
of Chicago, paying into the treasury the sum of Fifty Dollars ($50.00) at any 
one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, become a Non-Resident 
Associate Member. Non-Resident Associate Members shall be exempt from all 
dues, and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that are 
accorded to Associate Members. 

Section 10. Sustaining Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00), payable within thirty 
days after notice of election and within thirty days after each recurring annual 
date. This Sustaining Membership entitles the member to free admission for 
the member and family to the Museum on any day, the Annual Report and such 
other Museum documents or publications as may be requested in writing. When 
a Sustaining Member has paid the annual fee of $25.00 for six years, such mem- 
ber shall be entitled to become an Associate Member. 

Section 11. Annual Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of Ten Dollars ($10.00), payable within thirty days after 
each recurring annual date. An Annual Membership shall entitle the member 
to a card of admission for the member and family during all hours when the 
Museum is open to the public, and free admission for the member and family 
to all Museum lectures or entertainments. This membership will also entitle 
the holder to the courtesies of the membership privileges of every Museum of 
note in the United States and Canada, so long as the existing system of co-operative 
interchange of membership tickets shall be maintained, including tickets for any 
lectures given under the auspices of any of the Museums during a visit to the cities 
in which the cooperative museums are located. 

Section 12. All membership fees, excepting Sustaining and Annual, shall 
hereafter be applied to a permanent Membership Endowment Fund, the interest 
only of which shall be applied for the use of the Museum as the Board of Trustees 
may order. 


BOARD OF trustees 

Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-one members. 
The respective members of the Board now in office, and those who shall here- 
after be elected, shall hold office during life. Vacancies occurring in the Board 
shall be filled at a regular meeting of the Board, upon the nomination of the 
Executive Committee made at a preceding regular meeting of the Board, by a 
majority vote of the members of the Board present. 

Section 2. Regular meetings of the Board shall be held on the third Mon- 
day of each month. Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, 
and shall be called by the Secretary upon the written request of three Trustees. 
Five Trustees shall constitute a quorum, except for the election of officers or the 
adoption of the Annual Budget, when seven Trustees shall be required, but meet- 
ings may be adjourned by any less number from day to day, or to a day fixed, 
previous to the next regular meeting. 

Section 3. Reasonable written notice, designating the time and place of 
holding meetings, shall be given by the Secretary. 


honorary trustees 

Section 1. As a mark of respect, and in appreciation of services performed 
for the Institution, those Trustees who by reason of inability, on account of 
change of residence, or for other cause or from indisposition to serve longer in 
such capacity shall resign their place upon the Board, may be elected, by a majority 
of those present at any regular meeting of the Board, an Honorary Trustee for life. 


Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 455 

Such Honorary Trustee will receive notice of all meetings of the Board of Trustees, 
whether regular or special, and will be expected to be present at all such meetings 
and participate in the deliberations thereof, but an Honorary Trustee shall not 
have the right to vote. 



Section 1. The officers shall be a President, a First Vice-President, a 
Second Vice-President, a Third Vice-President, a Secretary, an Assistant Secretary 
and a Treasurer. They shall be chosen by ballot by the Board of Trustees, a 
majority of those present and voting being necessary to elect. The President, 
the First Vice-President, the Second Vice-President, and the Third Vice-Presi- 
dent shall be chosen from among the members of the Board of Trustees. The 
meeting for the election of officers shall be held on the third Monday of January 
of each year, and shall be called the Annual Meeting. 

Section 2. The officers shall hold office for one year, or until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified, but any officer may be removed at any regular 
meeting of the Board of Trustees by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of 
the Board. Vacancies in any office may be filled by the Board at any meeting. 

Section 3. The officers shall perform such duties as ordinarily appertain 
to their respective offices, and such as shall be prescribed by the By-Laws, or 
designated from time to time by the Board of Trustees. 


the treasurer 

Section 1. The Treasurer shall be custodian of the funds of the Corpo- 
ration except as hereinafter provided. He shall make disbursements only upon 
warrants drawn by the Director and countersigned by the President. In the 
absence or inability of the Director, warrants may be signed by the Chairman 
of the Finance Committee, and in the absence or inability of the President, may 
be countersigned by one of the Vice-Presidents, or any member of the Finance 

Section 2. The securities and muniments of title belonging to the cor- 
poration shall be placed in the custody of some Trust Company of Chicago to 
be designated by the Board of Trustees, which Trust Company shall collect 
the income and principal of said securities as the same become due, and pay 
same to the Treasurer, except as hereinafter provided. Said Trust Company 
shall allow access to and deliver any or all securities or muniments of title to the 
joint order of the following officers, namely: the President or one of the Vice- 
Presidents, jointly with the Chairman, or one of the Vice-Chairmen, of the Finance 
Committee of the Museum. 

Section 3. The Treasurer shall give bond in such amount, and with such 
sureties as shall be approved by the Board of Trustees. 

Section 4. The Harris Trust & Savings Bank of Chicago shall be Cus- 
todian of "The N. W. Harris Public School Extension of Field Museum" fund. 
The bank shall make disbursements only upon warrants drawn by the Director 
and countersigned by the President. In the absence or inability of the Director, 
warrants may be signed by the Chairman of the Finance Committee, and in the 
absence or inability of the President, may be countersigned by one of the Vice- 
Presidents, or any member of the Finance Committee. 



Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall elect a Director of the Museum, 
who shall remain in office until his successor shall be elected. He shall have im- 
mediate charge and supervision of the Museum, and shall control the operations 
of the Institution, subject to the authority of the Board of Trustees and its Com- 

456 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

mittees. The Director shall be the official medium of communication between the 
Board, or its Committees, and the scientific staff and maintenance force. 

Section 2. There shall be four scientific Departments of the Museum — 
Anthropology, Botany, Geology and Zoology; each under the charge of a Curator, 
subject to the authority of the Director. The Curators shall be appointed by 
the Board upon the recommendation of the Director, and shall serve during the 
pleasure of the Board. Subordinate staff officers in the scientific Departments 
shall be appointed and removed by the Director upon the recommendation of the 
Curators of the respective Departments. The Director shall have authority to 
employ and remove all other employees of the Museum. 

Section 3. The Director shall make report to the Board at each regular 
meeting, recounting the operations of the Museum for the previous month. At 
the Annual Meeting, the Director shall make an Annual Report, reviewing the 
work for the previous year, v/hich Annual Report shall be published in pamphlet 
form for the information of the Trustees and Members, and for free distribution 
in such number as the Board may direct. 



Section L The Board shall appoint an Auditor, who shall hold his office 
during the pleasure of the Board. He shall keep proper books of account, setting 
forth the financial condition and transactions of the Corporation, and of the 
Museum, and report thereon at each regular meeting, and at such other times as 
may be required by the Board. He shall certify to the correctness of all bills 
rendered for the expenditure of the money of the Corporation. 



Section 1. There shall be five Committees, as follows: Finance, Building, 
Auditing, Pension and E.xecutive. 

Section 2. The Finance Committee shall consist of five members, the 
Auditing and Pension Committees shall each consist of three members, and the 
Building Committee shall consist of five members. All members of these four 
Committees shall be elected by ballot by the Board at the Annual Meeting, and 
shall hold office for one year, and until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied. In electing the members of these Committees, the Board shall designate 
the Chairman and Vice-Chairman by the order in which the members are 
named in the respective Committee; the first member named shall be Chair- 
man, the second named the Vice-Chairman, and the third named. Second Vice- 
Chairman, succession to the Chairmanship being in this order in the event of the 
absence or disability of the Chairman. 

Section 3. The Executive Committee shall consist of the President of the 
Board, the Chairman of the Finance Committee, the Chairman of the Building 
Committee, the Chairman of the Auditing Committee, the Chairman of the 
Pension Committee, and three other members of the Board to be elected by 
ballot at the Annual Meeting. 

Section 4. Four members shall constitute a quorum of the Executive Com- 
mittee, and in all standing Committees two members shall constitute a quorum. 
In the event that, owing to the absence or inability of members, a quorum of 
the regular elected members cannot be present at any meeting of any Com- 
mittee, then the Chairman thereof, or his successor, as herein provided, may 
summon any members of the Board of Trustees to act in place of the absentee. 

Section 5. The Finance Committee shall have super\'ision of investing the 
endowment and other permanent funds of the Corporation, and the care of such 
real estate as may become its property. It shall have authority to invest, sell, 
and reinvest funds, subject to the approval of the Board. 

Jan. 1931 Annual Report of the Director 457 

Section 6. The Building Committee shall have supervision of the con- 
struction, reconstruction, and extension of any and all buildings used for 
Museum purposes. 

Section 7. The Executive Committee shall be called together from time 
to time as the Chairman may consider necessary, or as he may be requested 
to do by three members of the Committee, to act upon such matters affecting 
the administration of the Museum as cannot await consideration at the Regular 
Monthly Meetings of the Board of Trustees. It shall, before the beginning of 
each fiscal year, prepare and submit to the Board an itemized Budget, setting 
forth the probable receipts from all sources for the ensuing year, and make 
recommendations as to the expenditures which should be made for routine 
maintenance and fixed charges. Upon the adoption of the Budget by the 
Board, the expenditures stated are authorized. 

Section 8. The Auditing Committee shall have supervision over all ac- 
counting and bookkeeping, and full control of the financial records. It shall 
cause the same, once each year, or oftener, to be examined by an expert indi- 
vidual or firm, and shall transmit the report of such expert individual or firm 
to the Board at the next ensuing regular meeting after such examination shall 
have taken place. 

Section 9. The Pension Committee shall determine by such means and 
processes as shall be established by the Board of Trustees to whom and in what 
amount the Pension Fund shall be distributed. These determinations or findings 
shall be subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees. 

Section 10. The Chairman of each Committee shall report the acts and 
proceedings thereof at the next ensuing regular meeting of the Board. 

Section 11. The President shall be ex-officio a member of all Committees 
and Chairman of the Executive Committee. Vacancies occurring in any Com- 
mittee may be filled by ballot at any regular meeting of the Board. 


nominating committee 

Section 1. At the November meeting of the Board each^ year, a Nomi- 
nating Committee of three shall be chosen by lot. Said Committee shall make 
nominations for membership of the Finance Committee, the Building Commit- 
tee, the Auditing Committee, and the Pension Committee, and for three mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee, from among the Trustees, to be submitted 
at the ensuing December meeting and voted upon at the following Annual 
Meeting in January. * 


Section 1. Whenever the word "Museum" is employed in the By-Laws of 
the Corporation, it shall be taken to mean the building in which the Museum 
as an Institution is located and operated, the material exhibited, the material in 
study collections, or in storage, furniture, fixtures, cases, tools, records, books, 
and all appurtenances of the Institution and the workings, researches, installa- 
tions, expenditures, field work, laboratories, Ubrary, pubHcations, lecture courses, 
and all scientific and maintenance activities. 

Section 2. These By-Laws may be amended at any regular meeting of the 
Board of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of all the members present, provided 
the amendment shall have been proposed at a preceding regular meeting. 

458 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 


* Marshall Field 


Those who have contributed $100,000 or more to the Museum 

*Ayer, Edward E. 

Buckingham, Miss Kate S, 

Crane, Cornelius 
Crane, R. T., Jr. 

*FiELD, Joseph N. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 
Harris, Albert W. 

*Harris, Norman W. 
*Higinbotham, Harlow N. 

Kelley, William V. 

♦Pullman, George M. 

Raymond, Mrs. Anna Louise 
♦Raymond, James Nelson 

Simpson, James 
*Sturges, Mrs. Mary D. 


Those who have rendered eminent service to Science 
Ayer, Mrs. Edward E. 
Breasted, Professor James H. 

LuDwiG, H. R. H. GusTAF Adolf, 
Crown Prince of Sweden 

Chalmers, William J. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Crane, R. T., Jr. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 

Kelley, William V. 


McCoRMicK, Stanley 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 
RosENWALD, Julius 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Simpson, James 
Spragub, Albert A. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 



Those who have rendered eminent service to the Museum 
Armour, Allison V. 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily Crane 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Coats, John 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
CuMMiNGS, Mrs. Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Insull, Samuel 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 

Knight, Charles R. 
KuNz, George F. 

Langdon, Professor Stephen 

Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Payne, John Barton 
Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Strawn, Silas H. 
Strong, Walter A. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

White, Harold A. 
White, Howard J. 

Deceased, 1930 

Faunthorpe, J. C. 

Markham, Charles H. 


Scientists or patrons of science, residing in foreign countries, who have rendered 
eminent service to the Museum 

Breuil, Abbe Henri 

Elliot-Smith, Professor Grafton 

Keith, Professor Sir Arthur 

460 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 


Those who have contributed $1,000 to $100,000 to the Museum 
in money or materials 

$75,000 to $100,000 

Chancellor, Philip M. 
Rawson, Frederick H. 

$50,000 to $75,000 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 

*Keep, Chauncey 

*Rosenwald, Mrs. Augusta N. 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

$25,000 to $50,000 

*Blackstone, Mrs. Timothy B. 

Coats, John 
Crane, Charles R. 

Field, Mrs. Stanley 

* Jones, Arthur B. 
♦Porter, George F. 

Rosenwald, Julius 
Vernay, Arthur S. 
White, Harold A. 

$10,000 to $25,000 

Armour, Allison V. 
*Armour, p. D. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily Crane 
Conover, Boardman 
*cummings, r. f. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

everard, r. t. 

*GuNSAULUs, Dr. F. W. 

Insull, Samuel 

McCoRMiCK, Cyrus (Estate) 
McCormick, Stanley 

* Mitchell, John J. 


''Reese, Lewis 
RoBB, Mrs. George W. 
Rockefeller Foundation, The 

Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Strong, Walter 

Wrigley, William, Jr. 

$5,000 to $10,000 

* Adams, George E. 

* Adams, Milward 

*Bartlett, a, C. 
Bishop, Hbber (Estate) 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay 

Chalmers, William J. 
*Crane, R. T. 

*DOANE, J. W. 

♦Fuller, William A. 

Graves, George Coe, II 

Harris, Hayden B. 

Harris, Norman Dwight 
*Harris, Mrs. Norman W. 
♦Hutchinson, C. L. 

♦Keith, Edson 

Langtry, J. C. 

MacLean, Mrs. M. H addon 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

♦Pearsons, D. K. 
♦Porter, H. H. 

♦Ream, Norman B. 
Revell, Alexander H. 

Sargent, Homer E. 
♦Sprague, a. a. 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Thorne, Bruce 
♦Tree, Lambert 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


$1,000 to $5,000 

American Friends of China 
Ayer, Mrs. Edward E. 

Barrett, Samuel E. 
*Blair, Watson F. 
Borden, John 

Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 
Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr. 
CuMMiNGS, Mrs. R. F. 

Doering, O. C. 

Field, Henry 

Graves, Henry, Jr. 
GUNSAULUS, Miss Helen 

*Hibbard, W. G. 

Higginson, Mrs. Charles M. 
*HiLL, James J. 

Hughes, Thomas S. 

*Jackson, Huntington W. 
James, S. L. 

Lee Ling Yun 

*Manierre, George 
McCoRMiCK, Cyrus H. 
McCoRMiCK, Mrs, Cyrus 

*Ogden, Mrs. Frances E. 

Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 

Rauchfuss, Charles F. 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Martin A. 

Schwab, Martin C. 
ScHWEPPE, Mrs. Charles 
Shaw, William W. 
♦Smith, Byron L. 
Sprague, Albert A., II 

Thompson, E. H. 
Thorns, Mrs. Louise E. 

*VonFrantzius, Fritz 

Willis, L. M. 


462 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 


Armour, Allison V. 

Borden, John 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay 
Byram, Harry E. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily Crane 
Chalmers, W. J. 
Chatfield-Taylor, H. C. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Coats, John 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Crane, R. T., Jr. 
CuMMiNGS, Mrs. Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 

Insull, Samuel 

Kelley, William V. 
Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 

Knight, Charles R. 
KuNZ, George F. 

Langdon, Professor Stephen 

McCormick, Cyrus H. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Payne, John Barton 
Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Richardson, George A. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

Sargent, Homer E. 
SIMMS, Stephen C. 
Simpson, James 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Strawn, Silas H. 
Strong, Walter A. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

White, Harold A. 
White, Howard J. 
Wrigley, William, Jr. 

Deceaskd, 1930 

Eastman, Sidney C. 

Faunthorpe, J. C. 

Markham, Charles H. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 



Those who have contributed $500 to the Museum 

Abbott, John Jay 
Abbott, Robert S. 
Adler, Max 
Alois, Arthur T. 
Alexander, William A. 
Allerton, Robert H. 
Ames, James C. 
Ames, Knowlton L. 
Armour, Allison V. 
Armour, A. Watson 
Armour, Lester 
AsHER, Louis E. 
Austrian, Alfred S. 
AvERY, Sewell L. 

Babcock, Frederick R. 

Babson, Henry B. 

Bacon, Edward Richardson, Jr. 

Banks, Alexander F. 

Barrett, Mrs. A. D. 

Barrett, Robert L. 

Bartlett, Miss Florence Dibell 

Bassford, Lowell C. 

Baur, Mrs. Jacob 

Bendix, Vincent 

Bensabott, R. 

Bermingham, Edward J. 

Billings, C. K. G. 

Billings, Dr. Frank 

Blaine, Mrs. Emmons 

Blair, Chauncey B. 

Blair, Henry A. 

Blair, Mrs. Watson F. 

Block, L. E. 

Block, Philip D. 

Booth, W. Vernon 

Borden, John 

Borden, Mrs. Waller 

Borland, Chauncey B. 

Boyd, Thomas M. 

Brassert, Herman A. 

Brewster, Walter S. 

Brown, Charles Edward 

Browne, Aldis J. 

Buchanan, D. W. 

Budd, Britton I. 

buffington, eugene j. 

Burnham, John 

Burt, William G. 

Butler, Julius W. 

Butler, Rush C. 

Byram, Harry E. 

Carpenter, Augustus A. 
Carpenter, Mrs. Hubbard 
Carr, George R. 
Carr, Robert F. 
Carton, L. A. 
Casalis, Mrs. Maurice 
Chalmers, William J. 
Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 
Chatfield-Taylor, Wayne 
Clark, Eugene B. 
Clay, John 

Clegg, Mrs. Henry G. 
Clegg, William G. 
Clegg, Mrs. William G. 
Clow, William E. 
Coburn, Mrs. Lewis L. 
Collins, William M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Cooke, George A. 
corley, f. d. 
Cowles, Alfred 
Cramer, Corwith 
Cramer, E. W. 
Cramer, Mrs. Katharine S. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Crane, R. T., Jr. 
Crossett, Edward C. 
Crossley, Lady Josephine 
Crossley, Sir Kenneth 
Crowell, H. p. 
CuDAHY, Edward A. 
Cudahy, Edward A., Jr. 
Cudahy, Joseph M. 
Cummings, D. Mark 
Cunningham, Frank S. 
Cunningham, James D. 
Gushing, Charles G. 
Cutten, Arthur W. 

Dau, J. J. 

Da VIES, Mrs. D. C. 
Dawes, Charles G. 
Dawes, Henry M. 
Dawes, Rufus C. 
Day, Albert M. 
Decker, Alfred 
Delano. Frederic A. 
Dick, Albert Blake 
DiERSSEN, Ferdinand W. 
Dixon, George W. 
Dixon, Homer L. 
Donnelley, Thomas E. 

464 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Douglas, James H. 
Doyle, Edward J. 
Drake, John B. 
Drake, Tracy C. 
Dreyfus, MoKse 

Eckhart, B. a. 
Eckstein, Louis 
Edmunds, Philip S. 
EvERiTT, George B. 
Ewing, Charles Hull 

Farnum, Henry W. 
Farr, Miss Shirley 
Farrington, Dr. Oliver C. 
Farwell, Arthur L. 
Farwell, Francis C. 
Farwell, John V. 
Farwell, Walter 
Fay, C. N. 
Felt, Dorr E. 
Fenton, Howard W. 
Fentress, Calvin 
Ferguson, Louis A. 
Fernald, Charles 
Ferry, Mrs. Abby Farwell 
Field, Joseph Nash, II 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Norman 
Field, Mrs. Norman 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 
Fleming, John C. 
Florsheim, Milton S. 
Forgan, David R. 
Fyffe, Colin C. H. 

Gardner, Paul E. 
Gardner, Robert A. 
Gartz, a. F., Jr. 
Gary, Mrs. John W. 
Getz, George F. 
Gilbert, Huntly H. 
Glessner, John J. 
Glore, Charles F. 
Goddard, Leroy a. 
Goodman, William 0. 
Goodrich, A. W. 
Goodspeed, Charles B. 
Gowing, J. Parker 
Graham, Ernest R. 
Griffiths, John 
Griscom, Clement A. 

Hack, Frederick C. 
Hamill, Alfred E. 

Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W. 
Haskell, Frederick T. 
Hastings, Samuel M. 
Hayes, William F. 
Hecht, Frank A., Jr. 
HiBBARD, Frank 
HiCKOx, Mrs. Charles V. 
Hill, Louis W. 
HiNDE, Thomas W. 
Hinkley, James Otis 
Hippach, Louis A. 
HixoN, Frank P. 
Hopkins, J. M. 
Hopkins, L. J. 
Horowitz, L. J. 
HoYT, N. Landon 
Hughes, Thomas S. 
Hurley, Edward N. 
HuTCHiNS, James C. 

Insull, Martin J. 
Insull, Samuel 
Insull, Samuel, Jr. 

Jarnagin, William N. 
Jelke, John F. 
Jelke, John F., Jr. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth Ayer 
Joiner, Theodore E. 
Jones, Mrs. Arthur B. 
Jones, Miss Gwethalyn 

Kelley, Mrs. Daphne Field 
Kelley, Russell P. 
Kelley, William V. 
Kelly, D. F. 
KiDSTON, William H. 
King, Charles Garfield 
King, Francis 
King, James G. 
Kirk, Walter Radcliffe 
Knickerbocker, Charles K. 
Kuppenheimer, Louis B. 

Lamont, Robert P. 
Legge, Alexander 
Lehmann, E. J. 
Leonard, Clifford M. 
Leopold, Mrs. Harold E. 
Levy, Mrs. David M. 
Logan, Spencer H. 
Lord, John B. 
Lowden, Frank O. 
Lytton, George 
Lytton, Henry C. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


MacDowell, Charles H. 
MacLeish, John E. 
MacVeagh, Eames 
MacVeagh, Franklin 
Madlener, Mrs. Albert F. 
Mark, Clayton 
Marshall, Benjamin H. 
Mason, William S. 
McCormick, Cyrus H. 
McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus, Jr. 
McCormick, Mrs. Edith 

McCormick, Harold F. 
McCormick, Stanley 
McCutcheon, John T. 
McGann, Mrs. Robert G, 
McIlvaine, William B. 
McInnerney, Thomas H. 
McKiNLAY, John 
McKinlock, George A. 
McLaughlin, Frederic 
McLaughlin, George D. 
McLennan, D. R. 
McLennan, Hugh 

Meyer, Carl 
Meyne, Gerhardt F. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Edward S. 
Morse, Charles H., Jr. 
Morton, Joy 
Morton, Mark 
Munroe, Charles A. 
Murphy, Walter P. 

Newell, A. B. 
Nikolas, G. J. 
Noel, Joseph R. 

O'Brien, John J. 
Ormsby, Dr. Oliver S. 
Orr, Robert M. 

Pabsch, Charles A. 
Palmer, Honore 
Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 
Patten, Mrs. James A. 
Patterson, Joseph M. 
Payne, John Barton 
Payson, George S. 
Peabody, Augustus S. 
Peabody, Stuyvesant 
Perkins, Herbert F. 
Pick, Albert 

PiEz, Charles 
Pike, Charles B. 
Pike, Eugene R. 
PoppENHUSEN, Conrad H. 
Porter, Frank W. 
Porter, Gilbert E. 
Porter, H. H. 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Raymond, Mrs. James Nelson 
Rea, Mrs. Robert L. 
Revell, Alexander H. 
Reynolds, Arthur 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Reynolds, George M. 
Riley, Harrison B. 
Ripley, Robert H. 
Robinson, Theodore W. 
Robson, Miss Alice 
Rodman, Mrs. Katherine Field 
Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
RosENWALD, Julius 
RosENWALD, William 


Russell, Edmund A. 
Russell, Edward P. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Carrie H. 
Ryerson, Edward L., Jr. 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

Sargent, Fred W. 
Schweppe, Charles H. 
Scott, Frank Hamline 
Scott, George E. 
Scott, Harold N. 
Scott, John W. 
Seabury, Charles W. 
Shaffer, John C. 
Shirk, Joseph H. 
Simpson, James 
Simpson, William B. 
Smith, Alexander 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Spalding, Keith 
Spalding, Vaughan C. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Sprague, Mrs. A. A., II 
Stern, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Stevens, Charles A. 
Stevens, Eugene M. 
Stewart, Robert W. 
Stirton, Robert C. 
Storey, W. B. 
Stuart, H. L. 
Stuart, John 

466 Field Museum of Natural History^Reports, Vol. VIII 

Stuart, R. Douglas 
Strawn, Silas H. 
Studebaker, Clement, Jr. 
Sturges, George 
Sunny, B. E. 
Swift, Charles H. 
Swift, Edward F. 
Swift, G. F., Jr. 
Swift, Harold H. 
Swift, Louis F. 

Thorne, Charles H. 
Thorne, Robert J. 
Traylor, Melvin a. 
Tree, Ronald L. F. 
Tyson, Russell 

Uihlein, Edgar J. 
Underwood, Morgan P. 

Valentine, Louis L. 
Veatch, George L. 
ViLES, Lawtrence M. 

Chandler, Reuben G. 
Clinch, R. Floyd 

DeWolf, Wallace L. 

Gartz, a. F., Sr. 

Jones, Thomas D. 

Keller, Theodore C. 

Wanner, Harry C. 
Ward, P. C. 
Warner, Ezra Joseph 
Weber, David 
Welch, Mrs. Edwin P. 
Welling, John P. 
Wheeler, Charles P. 
White, F. Edson 
Whitney, Mrs. Julia L. 
Wickwire, Mrs. Edward L. 
WiEBOLDT, William A. 


WiLLiTS, Ward W. 
Wilson, John P., Jr. 
Wilson, Oliver T. 
Wilson, Thomas E. 
Wilson, Walter H. 
Winston, G.4RRArd B. 
Winter, Wallace C. 
Woolley, Clarence M. 
Wrigley, Philip K. 
Wrigley, William, Jr. 

Yates, David M. 

Deceased, 1930 

Linn, W. R. 

Markham, Charles H. 
Miner, William H. 

SoPER, James P. 

Wetmore, Frank O. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $100 to the Museum 

Copley, Ira Cliff 
Davis, Livingston 
Ellis, Ralph, Jr. 

Landon, Mrs. Jessie Spalding 
Rosenwald, Lessing J. 
Stern, Mrs. Edgar B. 
Vernay, Arthur S. 


Those who have contributed $100 to the Museum 

Aaron, Charles 
Aaron, Ely M. 
Abbott, Donald P., Jr. 
Abbott, Gordon C. 

Abbott, Guy H. 
Abbott, W. R. 
Abbott, William L. 
ABRAiis, Professor Duff A. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


AcKERMAN, Charles N. 
Adamick, Gustav H. 
Adams, Benjamin Stearns 
Adams, Mrs. Frances Sprogle 
Adams, John Q. 
Adams, Joseph 
Adams, Mrs. Samuel 
Adams, Mrs. S. H. 
Adams, William C. 
Adcock, Mrs. Bessie 
Addleman, Samuel W. 
Adler, David 
Adler, Mrs. Max 
Affleck, Benjamin F. 
Ahlschlager, Walter W. 
Albee, Mrs. H.arry W. 
Allbright, William B. 
Allen, Mrs. Fred G. 
Allensworth, a. p. 
Alling, Mrs. C. A. 
Alling, Charles 
Alling, Mrs. VanWagenen 
Almes, Dr. Herman E. 
Alschuler, Alfred S. 
Alsip, Charles H. 
Alter, Harry 
Anderson, Arthur 
Andreen, Otto C. 
Andrews, Alfred B. 
Andrews, Mrs. E. C. 
Andrews, Milton H. 
Anstiss, George P. 
Appelt, Mrs. Jessie E. 
Armbrust, John T. 
Armbruster, C. a. 
Armour, Philip D. 
Armstrong, Arthur W. 
Armstrong, Edward E. 
Arn, W. G. 
Arnold, William G. 
Artingstall, Samuel G., Jr. 
Ascher, Fred 
AsHCRAFT, Raymond M. 


Atwater, Walter Hull 
Aurelius, Mrs. Marcus A. 
Austin, Henry W. 
Austin, Dr. Margaret Howard 
Avery, Miss Clara 

Baackes, Mrs. Frank 
Babson, Fred K. 
Bach, Julius H. 
Bachmann, Dr. Harrold A. 

Badger, Shreve Cowles 

Baer, Mervin K. 

Baer, Walter S. 

Baggaley, William Blair 

Bagge, Christian U. 

Bailey, Mrs. Edward W. 

Baird, Harry K. 

Baker, Mrs. Alfred L. 

Baker, Frank H. 

Baldwin, Vincent Curtis 

Baldwin, William W. 

Balgemann, Otto W. 

Balkin, Louis 

Ball, Dr. Fred E. 

Ball, Mrs. Robert G. 

Ball, Sidney Y. 

Ballard, Thomas L. 

Ballenberg, Adolph G. 

Barber, Phil C. 

Barbour, Harry A. 

Barbour, James J. 

Barley, Miss Matilda A. 

Barnes, Cecil 

Barnes, Mrs. Charles Osborne 

Barnes, James M. 

Barnes, Miss Muriel 

Barnett, Otto R. 

Barnhart, Mrs. A. M. 

Barnhart, Mrs. Clare S. 

Barnhart, Miss Gracia M. F. 

Barnum, Harry 

Barr, Mrs. Alfred H. 

Bartelme, John H. 

Bartholomae, Mrs. Emma 

Bartholomay, F. H. 

Bartholomay, Henry 

Bartholomay, Mrs. William, Jr 

Bartlett, Frederic C. 

Bass, John F. 

Bass, Mrs. Perkins 

Bastian, Charles L. 

Bateman, Floyd L. 

Bates, Mrs. A. M. 

Bates, Joseph A. 

Battey, p. L. 

Bauer, A. 

Baum, Mrs. James 

Baum, Mervyn 

Bausch, William C. 

Beach, Miss Bess K. 

Beachy, Mrs. P. A. 

Beacom, Harold 

Bear, Alvin L. 

Beatty, H. W. 

Beck, Herbert 

468 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Becker, Benjamin F. 
Becker, Benjamin V. 
Becker, Frederick G. 
Becker, H. T. 
Becker, James H. 
Becker, Leon V. 
Becker, Louis 
Behr, Mrs. Edith 
Beidler, Francis, II 
Belden, Joseph C. 
Bell, Mrs. Laird 
Bell, Lionel A. 
Bellinghausen, Miss C. 
Bender, C. J. 
Benjamin, Jack A. 
Benner, Harry 
Bensinger, Benjamin E. 
Benson, John 
Bentley, Arthur 
Benton, Miss Mabel M. 
Berend, George F. 
Berkowitz, Dr. J. G. 
Berndt, Dr. George W. 
Berryman, John B. 
Beksbach, Elmer S. 
Bertschinger, Dr. C. F. 
Besly, Mrs. C. H. 
Bevan, Dr. Arthur Dean 
BiCHL, Thomas A. 
BiDWELL, Charles W. 
BiEHN, Dr. J. F. 
Bigler, Mrs. Albert J. 
Billow, Elmer E. 
Billow, Miss Virginia 
Bird, George H. 
Birk, Miss Amelia 
BiRK, Edward J. 
Birk, Frank J. 
Birkenstein, George 
Birkholz, Hans E. 
Bishop, Howard P. 
Bishop, Mrs. Martha V. 
BisTOR, James E. 
Bittel, Mrs. Frank J. 
BixBY, Edward Randall 
Black, Dr. Arthur D. 
Blackman, Nathan L. 
Blair, Edward T. 
Blair, Mrs. M. Barbour 
Blake, Tiffany 
Blatchford, Carter 
Blatchford, Dr. Frank Wicks 
Blayney, Thomas C. 
Blessing, Dr. Robert 
Bletsch, William E. 

Blish, Sylvester 

Block, Emanuel J. 

Blome, Rudolph S. 

Bloom, Mrs. Leopold 

Bluford, Mrs. David 

Blltvi, David 

Blum, Harry H. 

Blunt, J. E., Jr. 

BoAL, Ayres 

Bodman, Mrs. Luther 

Boericke, Mrs. Anna 

Bohn, Mrs. Bertha Bowlby 

Bolten, Paul H. 

Bolter, Joseph C. 

Bondy, Berthold 

Boomer, Dr. Paul C. 

Boorn, William C. 

Booth, Alfred V. 

Booth, George E. 

BoRG, George W. 

Borland, Mrs. Bruce 

Born, Moses 

Bosch, Charles 

Bosch, Mrs. Henry 

Both, William C. 

BoTTS, Graeme G. 

BousA, Dr. B. 

BowEN, Mrs. Louise DeKoven 

Bowes, William R. 

BowEY, Mrs. Charles F. 

Bowman, Johnston A. 

BoYACK, Harry 

BoYDEN, Miss Ellen Webb 

Boyden, Miss Rosalie S. 

BoYNTON, Mrs. C. T. 


Brach, Mrs. F. V. 

Bradley, Mrs. A. Ballard 

Bradley, Charles E. 

Bradley, Mrs. Natalie Blair 

Brainerd, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Bramble, Delhi G. C. 
Brand, Mrs Edwin L., Jr. 
Brand, Mrs. Rudolf 
Brandes, a. G. 
Brandt, Charles H. 
Bransfield, John J. 
Brauer, Mrs. Paul 
Breckinridge, Professor S. P. 
Bremer, Harry A, 
Bremner, Mrs. David F. 
Brendecke, Miss June 
Brennwasser, S. M. 
Brewer, Mrs. Angeline L. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Bridge, George S. 
Briggs, Mrs. Gertrude 
Brigham, Miss F. M. 
Bristol, James T. 
Brock, A. J. 
Brodribb, Lawrence C. 
Broome, Thornhill 
Brown, A. W. 
Brown, Benjamin R. 
Brown, Charles A. 
Brown, Christy 
Brown, Dr. Edward M. 
Brown, George D. 
Brown, Mrs. George Dev^^s 
Brown, Mrs. Henry Temple 
Brown, John T. 
Brown, Scott 
Bruckner, William T. 
Brugman, John J. 
Brundage, Avery 
Brunswick, Larry 
Bryant, John J., Jr. 
Buck, Guy R. 
Buck, Mrs. Lillian B. 
Buck, Nelson Leroy 
Bucklin, Mrs. Vail R. 
Budlong, Joseph J. 
Buehler, Carl 
Buehler, H. L. 
Buettner, Walter J. 
Buffington, Mrs. M. A. 
Buhmann, Gilbert G. 
Bullock, Carl C. 
Bullock, Mrs. James E. 
Bunge, Mrs. Albert J. 
Burgess, Charles F. 


Burke, Mrs. Lawrence N. 


BuRNHAM, Mrs. E. 
Burns, Mrs. Randall W. 
Burrows, Mrs. W. F. 
Burry, Mrs. William 
Burtch, Almon 
Burton, Mrs. Ernest D. 
Bush, David D. 
Bush, Mrs. Lionel E. 
Bush, Mrs. William H. 
Butler, Mrs. Hermon B. 
Butler, John 
Butler, J. Fred 
Butler, Paul 
BuTZ, Herbert R. 
BuTZ, Robert O. 
BuTZ, Theodore C. 

BuTzow, Mrs. Robert C. 
BuzzELL, Edgar A. 
Byfield, Dr. Albert H. 
Byrne, Miss Margaret H. 

Cable, J. E. 
Cahn, Dr. Alvin R. 
Cahn, Bertram J. 
Cahn, Morton D. 
Caldwell, CD. 
Caldwell, Mrs. F. C. 
Caldwell, J. T. 
Cameron, Dr. Dan U. 
Cameron, John M. 
Cameron, Will J. 
Camp, Mrs. Arthur Royce 
Campbell, Delwin M. 
Campbell, Herbert J. 
Canby, Caleb H., Jr. 
Capes, Lawrence R. 
Capps, Dr. Joseph A. 
Carney, William Roy 
Caron, 0. J. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Benjamin 
Carpenter, Frederic Ives 
Carpenter, Mrs. George A. 
Carpenter, George S. 
Carpenter, Hubbard 
Carpenter, Miss Rosalie S. 
Carpenter, W. W. S. 
Carquevillb, Mrs. A. R. 
Carr, Mrs. Clyde M. 
Carr, Walter S. 
Carroll, John A. 
Carry, J. C. 

Carter, Mrs. Armistead B, 
Carton, Alfred T. 
Gary, Dr. Eugene 
Case, Elmer G. 
Casey, Mrs. James J. 
Casselberry, Mrs. William 

Evans, Sr. 
Cassels, Edwin H. 
Castle, Alfred C. 
Gates, Dudley 
Cernoch, Frank 
Chadwick, Charles H. 
Chamberlin, George W. 
Chapin, Henry K. 
Chapin, Homer C. 
Chappell, Mrs. Charles H. 
Chase, Frank D. 
Cheever, Mrs. Arline V. 
Cheney, Dr. Henry W. 
Chisholm, George D. 

470 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Chislett, Dr. H. R. 
Chritton, George A, 
Churan, Charles A. 
Clark, Ainsworth W. 
Clark, Miss Alice Keep 
Clark, Charles V. 
Clark, Miss Dorothy S. 
Clark, Edwin H. 
Clark, Dr. Peter S. 
Clarke, Charles F. 
Clarke, Fred L. 
Clarke, Harley L. 
Clarke, Henry 
Clas, Miss Mary Louise 
Clemen, Dr. Rudolf A. 
Cleveland, Paul W. 
Clifford, F. J. 
Clough, William H. 
Clow, Mrs. Harry B. 
Clow, William E., Jr. 
Cohen, George B. 
Cohen, Mrs. L. Lewis 
Colburn, Frederick S. 
Colby, Mrs. George E. 
Coldren, Clifton C. 
Coleman, Dr. George H. 
Coleman, Loring W., Jr. 
Coleman, William Ogden 
CoLiANNi, Paul V. 
COLLIS, H.-^rry J. 
Colvin, Mrs. W. H., Sr. 
CoLWELL, Clyde C. 
Combes, Mrs. Dora F. 
Compton, D. M. 
CoMPTON, Frank E. 
Condon, Mrs. James G. 
Conger, Miss Cornelia 
Connell, p. G. 
Conners, Harry 
Connor, Mrs. Clara A. 
Connor, F. H. 
Cook, Miss Alice B. 
Cook, Mrs. David S., Jr. 
Cook, Mrs. Wallace L. 
Cooke, Charles E. 
Cooke, Miss Flora 
Cooke, Leslie L. 
CooLiDGE, Miss Alice 
Coolidge, E. C. 
Coombs, James F. 
Coonley, J. S. 
Coonley, John Stuart, Jr. 
Coonley, Prentiss L. 
Cooper, Samuel 
Copland, David 

Corbett, Mrs. William J. 

Corey, Chester 

CoRMACK, Charles V. 

Cornell, John E. 

Cosford, Thomas H. 

CosTON, James E. 

Counselman, Mrs. Jennie E. 

Courvoisier, Dr. Earl A. 

CowDERY, Edward G. 

Cox, Mrs. Howard M. 

Cox, James A. 

Cox, James C. 

Cox, Mrs. Rensselaer W. 

Crane, Charles R. 

Crego, Mrs. Dominica S. 

Crerar, Mrs. John 

Crilly, Edgar 

Cromer, Clarence E. 

Cromwell, George O. 

Cromwell, Miss Juliette Clara 

Cross, Henry H. 

Crowder, Dr. Thomas R. 

Cubbins, Dr. William R. 

CuDAHY, Edward I. 

Culbertson, Dr. Carey 

Cunningham, Mrs. Howard J. 

Cunningham, John T. 

CuRRAN, Harry R. 

Curtis, Augustus D. 

Curtis, Mrs. Charles S. 

Curtis, Miss Frances H. 

Curtis, John F. L. 

CusACK, Harold 

Gushing, John F. 

Cushman, a. W. 

Cutler, Henry E. 

Cutting, Charles S. 

Dahlberg, Bror G. 
Daily, Richard 
Dakin, Dr. Frank C. 
Dammann, J. F. 
D'Ancona, Edward N. 
Danforth, Dr. William C. 
Daniels, H. L. 
Dantzig, Leonard P. 
Darrow, William W. 
Dashiell, C. R. 
Davey, Mrs. Bruce C. 
David, Dr. Vernon C. 
Davidonis, Dr. Alexander L. 
Davidson, Miss Mary E. 
Davies, Marshall 
Davies, Warren T. 
Davis, Abel 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Davis, Arthur 
Davis, C. S. 
Davis, Dr. Carl 
Davis, Frank S. 
Davis, Fred M. 
Davis, James 
Davis, Dr. Nathan S., Ill 
Davis, Ralph 
Dawes, E. L. 
Day, Mrs. Winfield S. 
DeAcres, Clyde H. 
Deagan, John C, Sr. 
Deahl, Uriah S. 
Decker, Charles O. 
DeCosta, Lewis M. 
DeDardel, Carl 0. 
Dee, Thomas J. 
Deery, Thomas A., Jr. 
DeGolyer, Robert S. 
DeKoven, Mrs. John 
DeLang, Theodore O. 
DeLee, Dr. Joseph B. 
Deming, Everett G. 
Dempster, Mrs. C. W. 
Deneen, Mrs. Charles S. 
Denman, Mrs. Bltrt J. 
Dennehy, T. C. 
Dennis, Charles H. 
Dent, George C. 
Deutsch, Joseph 
Deutsch, Mrs. Percy L. 
Deutsch, Samuel 
DeVries, David 
DeVries, Peter 
Dewes, Rudolph Peter 
Dewey, Albert B., Sr. 
Dewey, Mrs. Albert B., Sr. 
Dick, Albert B., Jr. 
Dick, Elmer J. 
Dick, Mrs. Homer T. 
Dickey, Roy 
Dickinson, F. R. 
Dickinson, Robert B. 
Dickinson, Mrs. W. F. 
Diestel, Mrs. Herman 
Dikeman, Aaron Butler 
Dillon, Miss Hester May 
Dimick, Miss Elizabeth 
Dixon, Alan C. 
Dixon, Homer L. 
Dixon, William Warren 
Dobson, George 
Doctor, Isidor 
Dodge, Mrs. Paul C. 
Doering, Otto C. 

Doerr, William P., Sr. 
Doetsch, Miss Anna 
Dole, Arthur, Sr. 
Donahue, William J. 
DoNKER, Mrs. William 
Donlon, Mrs. S. E. 
Donnelley, Miss Naomi 
Donnelley, Mrs. R. R. 
Donnelley, Mrs. Thorne 
Donnelly, Frank 
Donohue, Edgar T. 
Douglass, W. A. 
Dreiske, George J. 
Drummond, James J. 
Dryden, Mrs. George B. 
Dudley, Laurence H. 
DuGAN, Alphonso G. 
Dulany, George W., Jr. 
DuLSKY, Mrs. Samuel 
Duner, Dr. Clarence S. 
Dunham, John H. 
Dunham, Miss Lucy Belle 
DuNLOP, Mrs. Simpson 
Dupee, Mrs. F. Kennbtt 
Durand, Scott S. 
Durbin, Fletcher M. 
Dux, Joseph G. 
Dyche, William A. 

Easterberg, C. J. 
Eastman, Mrs. George H. 
Eastman, R. M. 
Ebeling, Frederic O. 
EcKHART, Percy B. 
Eckstein, H. G. 
Eddy, Mrs. Arthltr J. 
Eddy, George A. 
Eddy, Thomas H. 
Edmonds, Harry C. 
Edwards, Miss Edith E. 
Egan, W. B. 
Ehrman, Edwin H. 
Eiger, Oscar S. 
EiSBLEN, Frederick Carl 
Eisendrath, Edwin W. 
Eisendrath, Robert M. 
Eisendrath, Mrs. William N. 
Eisenschiml, Mrs. Otto 
EiTEL, Max 
Elcock, Edward G. 
Elenbogen, Herman 
Ellbogen, Albert L. 
Elliott, Dr. Charles A. 
Elliott, Frank R. 
Ellis, Howard 

472 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Ely, Mrs. C. Morse 
Engel, E. J. 

Engelhard, Benjamin M. 
Engwall, John F. 
Epstein, Max 
Erdmann, Mrs. C. Pardee 
Ericson, Mrs. Chester F. 
Ericson, Melvin B. 
Ericsson, Clarence 
Ericsson, H. 
Ericsson, Walter H. 
Ernst, Mrs. Leo 
Erskine, Albert DeWolf 
Etten, Henry C. 
Eustice, Alfred L. 
Evans, Mrs. Albert Thomas 
Evans, Mrs. David 
Evans, David J. 
Evans, Hon. Evan A. 
EwEN, William R. T. 

Fabian, Francis G. 
Fabry, Herman 
Fackt, Mrs. George P. 
Fader, A. L. 
Facet, James E. 
Faherty, Roger 
Fahrenwald, Frank A. 
Fahrney, Emery H. 
Faithorn, Walter E. 
Falk, Miss Amy 
Falk, Lester L. 
Farnham, Mrs. Harry J. 
Farr, Newton Camp 
Farrell, Mrs. B. J. 
Farrell, Rev. Thomas F. 
Faulkner, Charles J., Jr. 
Faulkner, Miss Elizabeth 
Faurot, Henry, Sr. 
Faurot, Henry, Jr. 
Fay, Miss Agnes M. 
Fecke, Mrs. Frank J. 
Feigenheimer, Herman 
Feiwell, Morris E. 
Felix, Benjamin B. 
Fellows, W. K. 
Feltman, Charles H. 
Fergus, Robert C. 
Ferguson, William H. 
Fernald, Robert W. 
Fetzbr, Wade 
Filek, August 
FiNLEY, Max H. 
Finn, Joseph M. 

FiscHEL, Frederic A. 
Fish, Isaac 
FiSHBEiN, Dr. Morris 
Fisher, Mrs. Edward Metcalf 
Fisher, George P. 
Fisher, Hon. Harry M. 
Fitzpatrick, Mrs. John A. 
Flavin, Edwin F., Sr. 
Flesch, Eugene W. P. 
Flexner, Washington 
Florian, Mrs. Paul A., Jr. 
Florsheim, Irving S. 
Flosdorf, Mrs. G. E. 
Foley, Rev. William M. 
FoLONiE, Mrs. Robert J. 
FoLSOM, Mrs. Richard S. 
Foote, Peter 
Foreman, Mrs. E. G. 
Foreman, Edwin G., Jr. 
Foreman, Harold E. 
Foreman, Henry G. 
Foreman, Oscar G. 
Foresman, Mrs. W. Coates 
FoRGAN, James B., Jr. 
Forgan, Robert D. 
FoRMAN, Charles 
FoRSTALL, James J. 
Fortune, Miss Joanna 
Foster, Stephen A. 
Foster, Volney 
Foster, Mrs. William C. 
Fowler, Miss Elizabeth 
Fox, Charles E. 
Fox, Jacob Logan 
Fox, Dr. Paul C. 
Frank, Dr. Ira 
Frank, Mrs. Joseph K. 
Frankenstein, Rudolph 
Frankenstein, W. B. 
Frankenthal, Dr. Lester E., Jr. 
Franklin, M. E. 
Freedman, Dr. I. Val 
Freeman, Charles Y. 
Freeman, Walter W. 
Freer, Archibald E. 
Frenier, a. B. 
Freudenthal, G. S. 
Freund, Charles E. 
Freund, I. H. 
Frey, Charles Daniel 
Freyn, Henry J. 
Fridstein, Meyer 
Friedlander, Jacob 
Friedlich, Mrs. Herbert 
Friedman, Mrs. Isaac K. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Friedman, Oscar J. 

Friestedt, Arthur A. 

Frisbie, Chauncby 0. 

Frost, Mrs. Charles 

Fuller, Mrs. Charles 

Fuller, Mrs. Greeta Patterson 

Fuller, Judson M. 

Fuller, Leroy W. 

Furry, William S. 

Furst, Eduard a. 

Gabathuler, Miss Juanita 
Gabriel, Charles 
Gaertner, William 
Gale, G. Whittier 
Gale, Henry G. 
Gall, Charles H. 
Gall, Harry T. 
Gallagher, Vincent G. 
Gallup, Rockwell 
Galt, Mrs. A. T. 
Galvin, Wm. a. 
Gann, David B. 
Gansbergen, Mrs. F. H. 
Garard, Elzy a. 
Garcia, Jose 
Garden, Hugh M. G. 
Gardner, Addison L., Sr. 
Gardner, Addison L., Jr. 
Gardner, Henry A. 
Gardner, Mrs. James P. 
Garner, Harry J. 
Garrison, Dr. Lester E. 
Gary, Fred Elbert 
Gately, Ralph M. 
Gates, Philetus W. 
Gatzert, August 
Gawne, Miss Clara J. 
Gay, Rev. A. Royal 
Gaylord, Duane W. 
Gehl, Dr. William H. 
Gehrmann, Felix 
George, Mrs. Albert B. 
George, Fred W. 
Gerngross, Mrs. Leo 
Gbrrity, Thomas 
Gerts, Walter S. 
Getzoff, E. B. 
Gheen, Miss Marian H. 
Gibbons, John W. 
GiBBS, Dr. John Phillip 
GiELOW, Walter C. 
Giffert, Mrs. William 
Gilbert, Miss Clara C. 
Gilchrist, Mrs. John F. 

Gilchrist, Mrs. William Albert 

Giles, Carl C. 

Gillman, Morris 

GiLLSON, Louis K. 

Gilmer, Dr. Thomas L. 

Ginther, Miss Minnie C. 

GiRARD, Mrs. Anna 

Glaescher, Mrs. G. W. 

Glasgow, H. A. 

Glasner, Rudolph W. 

Glenn, Mrs. J. M. 

Godehn, Paul M. 

GoEDKE, Charles F. 

GoEHST, Mrs. John Henry 

Goes, Mrs. Arthur A. 

Golden, Dr. Isaac J. K. 

Goldenberg, Sidney D. 

GoLDFiNE, Dr. Ascher H. C. 

GoLDSTiNE, Dr. Mark T. 

GoLDY, Walter I. 


GooDKiND, Dr. Maurice L. 

Goodman, Benedict K. 

Goodman, Mrs. Herbert E, 

Goodman, Miss Jean Ellen 

Goodman, W. J. 

Goodman, William E. 

GooDRow, William 

Goodspeed, Mrs. Wilbur F. 

Goodwin, Hon. Clarence Norton 

Goodwin, George S. 

Gordon, Mrs. Robert D. 

Gorham, Sidney Smith 

Gorman, George E. 

Gorrell, Mrs. Warren 

Gottfried, CM. 

Gottschalk, Gustav H. 

Gradle, Dr. Harry S. 

Grady, Dr. Grover Q. 

Graf, Robert J. 

Graff, Oscar G. 

Graham, Douglas 

Graham, E. V. 

Gramm, Mrs. Helen 

Granger, Alfred 

Grant, Alexander R. 

Grant, John G. 

Graves, Howard B. 

Gray, Rev. James M. 

Green, J. B. 

Green, Dr. Raphael B. 

Green, Robert D. 

Green, Zola C. 

Greenberg, Andrew H. 

Greenburg, Dr. Ira E. 

474 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Greene, Carl D. 
Greenebaum, James E. 
Greenebaum, M. E. 
Greenebaltm, M. E., Jr. 
Greenlee, James A. 
Greenman, Mrs. Earl C. 
Gregory, Clifford V. 
Gregory, Stephen S., Jr. 
Gregory, Tappan 
Gregson, William L. 
Grey, Charles F. 
Grey, Dr. Dorothy 
Grey, Howard G. 
Griffenhagen, Mrs. Edwin O. 
Griffith, Enoch L. 
Griffith, Melvin L. 
Griffith, Mrs. William 
Griffiths, George W. 
Grimm, Walter H. 
Griswold, Harold T. 
Grizzard, James A. 
Gronkowski, Rev. C. I. 
Gross, Mrs. Emily 
Gross, Henry R. 
Grossman, Frank I. 
Grotenhuis, Mrs. William J. 
Grotowski, Dr. Leon 
Grulee, Lowry K. 
Grunow, Mrs. William C. 
Guenzel, Louis 
Guest, Ward E. 
gulbransen, axel g. 
GuLicK, John H. 
Gundlach, Ernest T. 
GuNTHORP, Walter J. 
Gwinn, William R. 

Haas, Maurice 
Haas, Dr. Raoul 
Hadley, Mrs. Edwin M. 
Hagen, Mrs. Daise 
Hagen, Fred J. 
Hagens, Dr. Garrett J. 
Haggard, John D. 
Hagner, Fred L. 
Haight, George I. 
Hair, T. R. 
Hajicek, Rudolph F. 
Haldeman, Walter S. 
Hale, Mrs. Samuel 
Hale, William B. 
Hall, David W. 
Hall, Edward B. 
Hall, Mrs. J. B. 
Hallmann, August F. 

Kallmann, Herman F. 

Halperin, Aaron 

Hamill, Charles H. 

Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 

Hamill, Robert W. 

Hamilton, Thomas B. 

Hamlin, Paul D. 

Hamm, Edward F. 

Hammerschmidt, Mrs. George F. 

Hammitt, Miss Frances M. 

Hammond, Thomas S. 

Hand, George W. 

Hanley, Henry L. 

Hansen, Mrs. Carl 

Hansen, Jacob W. 

Harbison, L. C. 

Harder, John H. 

Hardie, George F. 

Hardin, John H. 

Harding, G. F. 

Harding, John Cowden 

Harding, Richard T. 

Hardinge, Franklin 

Harker, H. L. 

Harms, John V. D. 

Harper, Alfred C. 

Harris, David J. 

Harris, Gordon L. 

Harris, H. B. 

Harris, Miss Martha E. 

Hart, Mrs. Herbert L. 

Hart, William N. 

Hartshorn, Kenneth L. 

Hartwell, Fred G. 

Hartwig, Otto J. 

Harvey, Hillman H. 

Harvey, Richard M. 

Harwood, Thomas W. 

Haskell, Mrs. George E. 

Haugan, Charles M. 

Haugan, Oscar H. 

Havens, Samuel M. 

Hayes, Charles M. 

Hayes, Harold C. 

Hayes, Miss Mary E. 

Haynie, Miss Rachel W. 

Hays, Mrs. Arthur A. 

Hazlett, Dr. William H. 

Healy, Mrs. Marquette A. 

Heanby, Dr. N. Sproat 

Heaton, Harry E. 

Heaton, Herman C. 

Heberlein, Miss Amanda F. 

Heck, John 

Heckendorf, R. a. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Hedberg, Henry E. 
Heidke, Herman L. 
Heiman, Marcus 
Heine, Mrs. Albert 
Heineman, Oscar 
Heinzelman, Karl 
Heinzen, Mrs. Carl 
Heldmaier, Miss Marie 
Helfrich, J. Howard 
Heller, Albert 
Heller, Mrs. Walter E. 
Hellman, George A. 
Hellyer, Walter 
Hemmens, Mrs. Walter P. 
Henderson, Thomas B. G. 
Henkel, Frederick W. 
Henley, Eugene H. 
Hennings, Mrs. Abraham J. 
Henry, Otto 

Henshaw, Mrs. Raymond S. 
Hbrrick, Miss Louise 
Herrick, W. D. 
Herron, James C. 
Herron, Mrs. Ollie L. 
Hershey, J. Clarence 
Hertz, Mrs. Fred 
Herwig, George 
Her wig, William D., Jr. 
Hess, Mrs. Charles Wilbur 
Heun, Arthur 
Heverly, Earl L. 
Heyworth, Mrs. James O. 
HiBBARD, Mrs. Angus S. 
Hibbard, Mrs. W. G. 
HiGGiNs, John 
Higgins, John W. 
Higinbotham, Harlow D. 
HiGLEY, Mrs. Charles W. 
Hildebrand, Eugene, Jr. 
Hildebrand, Grant M. 
Hill, Mrs. Lysander 
Hill, William E. 
hillbrecht, herbert e. 
HiLLE, Dr. Hermann 
HiLLis, Dr. David S. 
Himrod, Mrs. Frank W. 


Hinman, Mrs. Estelle S. 
HiNRicHS, Henry, Jr. 
HiNSBERG, Stanley K. 
HiNTON, E. W. 
HiRD, Frederick H. 
HiRSCH, Henry H. 
Hirsch, Jacob H. 
Hiscox, Morton 

HiSTED, J. Roland 

HixoN, Robert 

HoELSCHER, Herman M. 

Hoffman, Glen T. 

Hoffmann, Miss Caroline Dickinson 

Hoffmann, Edward Hempstead 

HoGAN, Frank 

HoGAN, Robert E. 

HoiER, William V. 

HoLDEN, Edward A. 

Holland, Dr. William E. 

HoLLis, Henry L. 

Hollister, Francis H. 

Holmes, Miss Harriet F. 

Holmes, William N. 

Holt, Miss Ellen 

HoMAN, Miss Blossom L. 

HoNNOLD, Dr. Fred C. 

Honsik, Mrs. James M. 

Hoover, F. E. 

Hoover, Frank K. 

Hoover, Mrs. Fred W. 

Hoover, H. Earl 

Hoover, Ray P. 

Hope, Alfred S. 

Hopkins, Farley 

Hopkins, Mrs. James M. 

Hopkins, John L. 

HoRAN, Dennis A. 

Horcher, William W. 

Horner, Dr. David A. 

Horner, Mrs. Maurice L., Jr. 

HoRST, Curt A. 

Horton, George T. 

HoRTON, Hiram T. 

Horton, Horace B. 

HosBEiN, Louis H. 

Hosmer, Philip 

Hottinger, Adolph 

Howard, Harold A. 

Howard, Willis G. 

Howe, Charles Arthur 

Howe, Clinton W. 

Howe, Warren D. 

Howe, William G. 

Howell, Albert S. 

Howell, William 

Howes, Frank W. 

HowsE, Richard 

HoYNE, Frank G. 

HoYNE, Thomas Temple 

HoYT, Frederick T. 

HoYT, Mrs. Phelps B. 

HuBER, Dr. Harry Lee 

Hudson, Mrs. H. Newton 

476 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Hudson, Walter L. 
Hudson, William E. 
HuEY, Mrs. Arthur S. 
Huff, Thomas D. 
Hughes, John E. 
Hughes, John W. 
HuLBERT, Mrs. Charles Pratt 
HuLBERT, Mrs. Milan H. 
HuLTGEN, Dr. Jacob F. 
Hume, John T. 
HuNCKE, Herbert S. 
Huncke, Oswald W. 
Hunter, Samuel M. 
HuRD, N. L. 

Hurley, Edward N., Jr. 
Huston, W. L. 
Huston, Ward T. 
Huszagh, Ralph D. 
HuszAGH, R. LeRoy 
Hutchinson, Foye P. 
Hutchinson, John W. 
Hutchinson, Samuel S. 
Hynes, Rev. J. A. 

IcKES, Raymond 
Idelman, Bernard 
Ilg, Robert A. 
Inlander, Samuel 
Irons, Dr. Ernest E. 
Isham, Henry P. 
Ives, Clifford E. 

Jackson, Allan 

Jackson, Archer L. 

Jackson, Arthur S. 

Jackson, W. J. 

Jacobi, Miss Emily 

Jacobs, Hyman A. 

Jacobs, Julius 

Jacobs, Louis G. 

Jacobs, Siegfried T. 

Jacobson, Raphael 

Jaeger, George J., Jr. 

Jaffe, Dr. Richard Herman 

Jaffray, Mrs. David S., Jr. 

James, Edward P. 

James, William R. 

Jameson, Clarence W. 

Janusch, Fred W. 

Jarchow, Charles C. 

Jarratt, Mrs. Walter J. 

Jefferies, F. L. 

Jeffery, Mrs. Thomas B. 

Jenkins, Mrs. John E. 

Jenkinson, Mrs. Arthur Gilbert 

Jenks, R. William Shippen 

Jennings, Ode D. 

Jerger, Wilbur Joseph 

Jetzinger, David 

JiRKA, Dr. Frank J. 

Jirka, Dr. Robert 

John, Dr. Findley D. 

Johnson, Albert M. 

Johnson, Alfred 

Johnson, Alvin O. 

Johnson, Arthur L. 

Johnson, Mrs. Harley Alden 

Johnson, Joseph F. 

Johnson, Nels E. 

Johnson, Olaf B. 

Johnson, Mrs. O. W. 

Johnson, Philip C. 

Johnson, Ulysses G. 

Johnston, Arthur C. 

Johnston, Edward R. 

Johnston, Mrs. Hubert McBean 

Johnston, Mrs. M. L. 

Johnstone, Dr. A. Ralph 

Johnstone, George A. 

Johnstone, Dr. Mary M. S. 

Jones, Albert G. 

Jones, Fred B. 

Jones, G. H. 

Jones, James B. 

Jones, Dr. Margaret M. 

Jones, Melvin 

Jones, Warren G. 

Joseph, Louis L. 

Joy, Guy A. 

Joyce, David G. 

Joyce, Joseph 

Judah, Noble Brandon 

JuDAH, Mrs. Noble Brandon 

Juergens, H. Paul 

JuERGENS, William F. 

JuLiEN, Victor R. 

JuNKUNC, Stephen 

Kaercher, a. W. 
Kahn, Gus 
Kahn, J. Kesner 
Kahn, Louis 
Kaine, James B. 
Kalacinski, Mrs. Felix 
Kane, Jerome M. 
Kaplan, Nathan D. 
Karpen, Adolph 
Kaspar, Otto 
Katz, Mrs. Sidney L. 
Kauffman, Mrs. R. K. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Kauffmann, Alfred 

Kavanagh, Maurice F. 

Keehn, George W. 

Keehn, Mrs. Theodore C. L. 

Keene, Mrs. Joseph 

Keeney, a. F. 

Kehl, Robert Joseph 

Keith, Stanley 

Kellogg, John L. 

Kellogg, Mrs. M. G. 

Kelly, Edward T. 

Kelly, James J. 

Kemp, Mrs. E. M. 

Kempner, Harry B. 

Kempner, Stan 

Kendrick, John F. 

Kennedy, Miss Leonore 

Kennelly, Martin H. 

Kent, Dr. O. B. 

Keogh, Gordon E. 

Kern, Trude 

Kesner, Jacob L. 

Kilbourne, L. B. 

Kile, Miss Jessie J. 

Kimbark, Mrs. Eugene Underwood 

KiMBARK, John R. 

King, Joseph H. 

Kingman, Mrs. Arthur G. 

Kinney, Mrs. Minnie B. 

Kinsey, Frank 

KiNTZEL, Richard 

Kipp, Carl P. 

KiRCHER, Rev. Julius 

Kirchheimer, Max 

KiRKLAND, Mrs. Weymouth 

Kittredge, R. J. 


Klee, Nathan 

Klein, Henry A. 

Klein, Mrs. Samuel 

Kleist, Mrs. Harry 

Kleppinger, William H., Jr. 

Kleutgen, Dr. Arthur C. 

Kline, Sol 

Klinetop, Mrs. Charles W. 

Klink, a. F. 

Knox, Harry S. 

Knutson, G. H. 

Koch, Paul W. 

KocHS, Mrs. Robert T. 

Kohl, Mrs. Caroline L. 

KoHLER, Eric L. 

KoHLSAAT, Edward C. 

KoMiss, David S. 

Konsberg, Alvin V. 

KoPF, William P. 
KosoBUD, William F. 
KoTAL, John A. 
KoTiN, George N. 
KoucKY, Dr. J. D. 
KovAC, Stefan 
Kraber, Mrs. Fredericka 
Kraft, C. H. 
Kraft, James L. 
Kraft, Norman 
Kralovec, Emil G. 
Kralovec, Mrs. Otto J. 
Kramer, Leroy 
Kraus, Peter J. 
Krause, John J. 
Kretschmer, Dr. Herman L. 
Kretzinger, George W., Jr. 
Kritchevsky, Dr. Wolff 
Kroehl, Howard 
Krohmer, William F. 
Kropff, C. G. 
Krost, Dr. Gerard N. 
Krueger, Leopold A. 
Krutckoff, Charles 
Kuehn, a. L. 
KuH, Mrs. Edwin J., Jr. 
KuHL, Harry J. 
KuHN, Frederick 
KuHN, Dr. Hedwig S. 
Kunstadter, a. 
KuRTZON, Morris 

Lacey, Miss Edith M. 

Lackowski, Frank E. 

Laflin, Mrs. Louis E. 

Laflin, Louis E., Jr. 

LaGuske, Mrs. Chester 

Lampert, Mrs. Lydia 

Lampert, Wilson W. 

Lamson, W. a. 

Lanahan, Mrs. M. J. 

Landry, Alvar A. 

Lane, F. Howard 

Lane, Ray E. 

Lane, Wallace R. 

Lang, Edward J. 

Lang, Mrs. W. J. 

Lange, Mrs. August 

Langenbach, Mrs. Alice R. 

Langhorne, George Tayloe 

Langland, James 

Langworthy, Benjamin Franklin 

Lansinger, Mrs. John M. 

Larimer, Howard S. 

Larson, Bror O. 

478 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Lasker, Albert D. 
Lau, Max 

Lauren, Newton B. 
Lauritzen, cm. 
Lauter, Mrs. Vera 
Lautmann, Herbert M. 
Lavezzorio, Mrs. J. B. 
Lawless, Dr. Theodore K. 
Lawrence, W. J. 
Lawson, a. J. 
Lawson, Mrs. Iver N. 
Lawton, Frank W. 
Laylander, O. J. 
Leahy, Thomas F. 
Learned, Edwin J. 
Lbavell, James R. 
Leavitt, Mrs. Wellington 
Lebensohn, Dr. Mayer H. 
Lebolt, John Michael 
Lederer, Dr. Francis L. 
Lefens, Miss Katherine J. 
Lefens, Walter C. 
Lehmann, Miss Augusta E. 
Leichenko, Peter M. 
Leistner, Oscar 
Leland, Miss Alice J. 
LeMoon, a. R. 
Lenz, J. Mayo 
Leonard, Arthur G. 
Leonard, Arthur T. 
Leopold, Foreman N. 
Leslie, John H. 
Letts, Mrs. Frank C. 
Lev AN, Rev. Thomas F. 
Leverone, Louis E. 
Levinson, Mrs. Salmon O. 
Levitan, Benjamin 
Levitetz, Nathan 
Levy, Alexander M. 
Levy, Arthur G. 
Lewis, David R. 
Lewy, Dr. Alfred 
LiBBY, Mrs. C. P. 
Liebman, a. J. 
LiLLiE, Frank R. 
LiNDAHL, Mrs. Edward J. 
Linden, John A. 
Lindenberg, Albert 
Lindheimer, B. F. 
LiNDHOLM, Charles V. 
LiNDLEY, Mrs. Arthur F. 
LiNGLE, Bowman C. 
Linton, Ben B. 
Lipman, Robert R. 

Liss, Samuel 
Littler, Harry E., Jr. 
Livingston, Julian M. 
Livingston, Mrs. Milton L. 
Llewellyn, Paul 
Llewellyn, Mrs. S. J. 
Lloyd, Edward W. 
Lloyd, William Bross 
LoBDELL, Mrs. Edwin L. 
LoEB, Hamilton M. 
LoEB, Jacob M. 
LoEB, Leo A. 
LoESCH, Frank J. 


Logan, John I. 
Long, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Long, William E. 
Lord, Arthur R. 
Lord, Mrs. Russell 
LoucKS, Charles 0. 
Louderback, William J., Jr. 
Louer, Albert S. 
Love, Chase W. 
Lovell, William H. 
LovGREN, Carl 
LowNiK, Dr. Felix J. 
Lucas, Mrs. Robert M. 
LucEY, Patrick J. 
LuDiNGTON, Nelson J. 
LuDOLPH, Wilbur M. 
LuEDER, Arthur C. 
LuEHR, Dr. Edward 
Lufkin, Wallace W. 
LuRiA, Herbert A. 
Lustgarten, Samuel 
LuTTER, Henry J., Sr. 
Lydon, Mrs. William A. 
Lyford, Harry B. 
Lyford, Will H. 
Lyman, Thomas T. 
Lynch, William Joseph 
Lynne, Mrs. Archibald 
Lyon, Charles H. 
Lyon, Frank R. 
Lyon, Mrs. Thomas R. 

Maass, J. Edward 
Mabee, Mrs. Melbourne 
MacCardle, H. B. 
MacDougal, Mrs. T. W. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Mackey, Frank J. 
Mackinson, Dr. John C. 
MacLellan, K. F. 
Magan, Miss Jane A. 
Magee, Henry W. 
Magill, Henry P. 
Magill, Robert M. 
Magnus, Albert, Jr. 
Magnus, August C. 
Magnus, Edward 
Magwire, Mrs. Mary F. 
Maker, Mrs. D. W. 
Main, Walter D. 
Malone, William H. 
Manaster, Harry 
Mandel, Mrs. Aaron W. 
Mandel, Mrs. Babette F. 
Mandel, Edwin F. 
Mandel, Mrs. Frederick 
Mandl, Sidney 
Manierre, Francis E. 
Manierre, Louis 
Mann, Albert C. 
Mann, John P. 
Mannheimer, Mrs. Morton 
Manson, David 
Mansure, Edmund L. 
Marhoefer, Edward H. 
Mark, Anson 
Mark, Mrs. Cyrus 
Marks, Arnold K. 
Marquis, A. N. 
Marriott, Abraham R. 
Mars, G. C. 
Marsh, A. Fletcher 
Marsh, John P. 
Marsh, Mrs. Marshall S. 
Martin, Mrs. Franklin H. 
Martin, Samuel H. 
Martin, W. B. 
Martin, Wells 
Marx, Frederick Z. 
Marzluff, Frank W. 
Marzola, Leo A. 
Mason, Willard J. 
Massee, B. a. 
Massey, Peter J. 
Mathesius, Mrs. Walther 
Matson, J. Edward 
Matter, Mrs. John 
Matthiessen, Frank 
Matthiessen, Mrs. Peck- 
Matz, Mrs. Rudolph 
Mauran, Charles S. 
Maurer, Dr. Siegfried 

Maxwell, Lloyd R. 
Mayer, Mrs. David 
Mayer, Isaac H. 
Mayer, Theodore S. 
McAuLEY, John E. 
McBiRNEY, Mrs. Hugh J. 
McBride, Mrs. Walter J. 
McCarthy, Edmond J. 
McCarthy, Joseph W. 
McClellan, Dr. John H. 
McCluer, W. B. 
McClun, John M. 
McCoRD, Downer 
McCoRMACK, Professor H. 
McCoRMiCK, Mrs. Alexander A. 
McCormick, Mrs. Chauncey 
McCoRMiCK, Howard H. 
McCormick, L. Hamilton 
McCoRMicK, Leander J. 
McCormick, Robert H., Jr. 
McCoy, Herbert N. 
McCracken, Miss Willietta 
McCrea, Mrs. W. S. 
McCready, Mrs. E. W. 
McDouGAL, Mrs. James B. 
McDouGAL, Mrs. Robert 
McDougall, Mrs. Arthur R. 
McErlean, Charles V. 
McGraw, Max 
McGuRN, Mathew S. 
McHugh, Mrs. Grover 
McIntosh, Arthur T. 
McIntosh, Mrs. Walter G. 
McIver, Dana T. 
McKay, James M. 
McKeever, Buel 
McKiNNEY, Mrs. Hayes 
McLaury, Walker G. 
McLennan, Mrs. John A. 
McMillan, John 
McMillan, W. B. 
McMillan, William M. 
McNamara, Louis G. 
McNuLTY, Joseph D. 
McQuarrie, Mrs. Fannie 
Medsker, Dr. Ora L. 
Mehring, George 
Melchione, Joseph 
Melendy, Dr. R. A. 
Melnick, Leopold B. 
Merrill, Henry S. 
Merrill, James S. 
Merrill, William W. 
Merz, Edward E. 
Metz, Dr. a. R. 

480 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Meyer, Mrs. A. H. 

Meyer, Abraham 

Meyer, Abraham W. 

Meyer, Albert 

Meyer, E. F. 

Meyer, Oscar 

Meyer, Sam R. 

Meyer, William 

Meyercord, G. R. 

Mickelberry, Mrs. Charles M. 

MiDowicz, C. E. 

Milhening, Frank 

MiLHENiNG, Joseph 

Miller, Charles B. 

Miller, Mrs. Clayton W. 

Miller, Mrs. Darius 

Miller, Mrs. F. H. 

Miller, Hyman 

Miller, John S., Jr. 

Miller, Dr. Joseph L. 

Miller, Oscar C. 

Miller, Walter E. 

Miller, Mrs. Walter H. 

Miller, William E. 

Miller, William S. 

Mills, Allen G. 

Mills, John, Sr. 

Miner, Dr. Carl 

Miner, H. J. 

Mitchell, Charles D. 

Mitchell, John J. 

Mitchell, Mrs. John J. 

Mitchell, Leeds 

Mitchell, Oliver 

Mock, Dr. Harry Edgar 

moderwell, cm. 

MOELLER, Rev. Herman H. 

Moeng, Mrs. Edward D. 

MoFFATT, Mrs. Elizabeth M. 

Mohr, Albert 

MoHR, William J. 

Molloy, David J. 

MoLTZ, Mrs. Alice 

Monheimer, Henry I. 

Monroe, William S. 

Montgomery, Dr. Albert H. 

Moody, Mrs. William Vaughn 

Moore, C. B. 

Moore, Philip Wyatt 

Moos, Joseph B. 

MoRAN, Brian T. 

Moran, Miss Margaret 

MoRAND, Simon J. 

More, Roland R. 

MoREY, Charles W. 

MoRF, F. William 
Morgan, Alden K. 
Morgan, Mrs. Kendrick E. 
Morrill, Nahum 
Morris, Edward H. 
Morris, F. C. 
Morris, Mrs. Seymour 
Morrison, Mrs. Charles E. 
Morrison, Mrs. Harry 
Morrison, James C. 
Morrison, Matthew A. 
Morrisson, James W. 
Morse, Mrs. Charles J. 
Morse, Leland R. 
Morse, Mrs. Milton 
Morse, Robert H. 
Mortenson, Mrs. Jacob 
Morton, Sterling 
Morton, William Morris 
Moses, Howard A. 
Moss, Jerome A. 
MouAT, Andrew 
MowRY, Louis C, 
MuDGE, Mrs. John B. 
Muehlstein, Mrs. Charles 
Mueller, A. M. 
Mueller, J. Herbert 
Mueller, Paul H. 
Mulford, Miss Melinda Jane 
Mulholand, William H. 
Murphy, John P. V. 
Murphy, Robert E. 
Musselman, Dr. George H. 

Naber, Henry G. 
Nadler, Dr. Walter H. 
Nash, Charles J. 
Nason, Albert J. 
Nathan, Claude 
Naugle, Mrs. Archibald 
Neely, Miss Carrie Blair 
Neff, Nettelton 
Nehls, Arthur L. 
Nellegar, Mrs. Jay C. 
Nelson, Charles G. 
Nelson, Donald M. 
Nelson, Edward A. 
Nelson, Frank G. 
Nelson, Murry 
Nelson, Nils A. 
Nelson, N. J. 
Nelson, Mrs. Oliver R. 
Nelson, Victor W. 
Neu, Clarence L. 
Neuffer, Paul A. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Newhall, R. Frank 
Nichols, George P. 
Nichols, Mrs. George R. 
Nichols, Mrs. George R., Jr. 
Nichols, J. C. 
Nichols, S. F. 
Nichols, Warren 
Nicholson, Thomas G. 
Noble, Orlando 
Noelle, Joseph B. 
NoLLAU, Miss Emma 
Noonan, Edward J. 
NoRCROSS, Frederic F. 
NoRRis, Mrs. Lester 
NoRRis, Mrs. William W. 
Norton, Mrs. O. W. 
Norton, R. H. 
Novak, Charles J. 
NoYES, Allan S. 
Noyes, David A. 
NoYES, Mrs. May Wells 
NusBAUM, Mrs. Carl B. 
Nyman, Dr. John Egbert 

Oberfelder, Herbert M. 
Oberpelder, Walter S. 
O'Brien, Frank J. 
O'Brien, Mrs. William 

Vincent, Jr. 
Odell, William R. 
O'Donnell, Miss Rose 
Off, Mrs. Clifford 
Offield, James R. 
Oglesbee, Nathan H. 
O'Keefe, Mrs. Dennis D. 
Olcott, Mrs. Henry G. 
Oldefest, Edward G. 
Oliver, F. S. 
Oliver, Gene G. 
Oliver, Mrs. Paul 
Olsen, Gustaf 
Omo, Don L. 
Oppenheimer, Alfred 
Oppenheimer, Mrs. Harry D. 
Oppenheimer, Julius 
Orndoff, Dr. Benjamin H. 
O'Rourke, Albert 
Orr, Mrs. Robert C. 
Orthal, a. J. 
Ortmayer, Dr. Marie 
OsBORN, Theodore L. 
OsTROM, Charles S. 
Ostrom, Mrs. James Augustus 
Otis, Miss Emily H. 
Otis, J. Sanford 

Otis, Joseph E. 

Otis, Joseph Edward, Jr. 

Otis, Lucius J. 

Otis, R. C. 

Otis, Raymond 

Otis, Stuart H. 

Otis, Mrs. Xavier L. 

Ouska, John A. 

Paasche, Jens A. 
Pace, J. Madison 
Packard, Dr. Rollo K. 
Paepcke, Mrs. Elizabeth J. 
Paepcke, Walter P. 
Page, Mrs. William R. 
Page-Wood, Gerald 
Pagin, Mrs. Frank S. 
Palmer, Percival B. 
Pam, Miss Carrie 
Pardridge, Albert J. 
Pardridge, Mrs. E. W. 
Park, R. E. 
Parker, Frank B. 
Parker, Norman S. 
Parker, Dr. Ralph W. 
Parker, Troy L. 
Parks, C. R. 

Paschen, Mrs. Annette A. 
Paschen, Mrs. Henry 
Patrick, Miss Catherine 
Patrick, Dr. Hugh T. 
Pauling, Edward G. 
Peabody, Mrs. Francis S. 
Peabody, Howard B. 
Peabody, Miss Susan W. 
Peacock, Robert E. 
Peacock, Walter C. 
Pearse, Langdon 
Pearson, F. W. 
Pearson, George Albert, Jr. 
Peet, Mrs. Belle G. 
Peet, Fred N. 
Peirce, Albert E. 
Pelley, John J. 
Peltier, M. F. 
PenDell, Charles W. 
Percy, Dr. Nelson Mortimer 
Perkins, A. T. 
Perkins, Mrs. Herbert F. 
Perry, Dr. Ethel B. 
Perry, I. Newton 
Peter, William F. 
Peterkin, Daniel 
Peters, Harry A. 
Petersen, Dr. William F. 

482 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Peterson, Albert 

Peterson, Alexander B. 

Peterson, Axel A. 

Peterson, Jurgen 

Petru, E. J. 

Pflaum, a. J. 

Pflock, Dr. John J. 

Phelps, Mrs. W. L. 

Phemister, Dr. D. B. 

Phillip, Peter 

Phillips, Herbert Morrow 

PicHER, Mrs. Oliver S. 

Pick, Albert, Jr. 

Pick, George 

Pierce, J. Norman 

Pierce, Paul 

Pinter, Mrs. Isabelle Segersten 

PiOTROWSKi, Nicholas L. 

PiRiE, Mrs. John T. 

Pitcher, Mrs. Henry L. 

Plapp, Miss Doris A. 

Platt, Henry Russell 

Platt, Mrs. Robert S. 

Plunkett, William H. 

PoDELL, Mrs. Beatrice Hayes 

Polk, Mrs. Stella F. 

Pollock, Dr. Harry L. 

PoMEROY, Mrs. Frank W. 

Pond, Irving K. 

Pool, Marvin B. 

Pool, Mrs. W. Cloyd 

Poole, Mrs. Frederick Arthur 

Poole, George A. 

Poole, Mrs. Ralph H. 

Poor, Fred A. 

Poor, Mrs. Fred A. 

Pope, Frank 

Pope, Henry, Sr. 

Pope, Herbert 


Porter, Mrs. Frank S. 
Porter, Henry H., Jr. 
Porter, James F. 
porterfield, mrs. john f. 
Post, Frederick, Jr. 
Post, Gordon W. 
Post, Mrs. Philip Sidney 
pottenger, william a. 
Powell, Mrs. Ambrose V. 
Powell, Isaac N. 
Prahl, Frederick A. 
Pratt, Mrs. William E. 
Primley, Walter S. 
Prince, Leonard M. 
Prussing, Mrs. George C. 

Psota, Dr. Frank J. 
PuLVER, Hugo 
PuRCELL, Joseph D. 
PusEY, Dr. William Allen 
Putnam, Miss Mabel C. 

Quigley, William J. 
QuiNLAN, Dr. William W. 

Radau, Hugo 
Radford, Mrs. W. A., Jr. 
Raff, Mrs. Arthur 
Raftree, Miss Julia M. 
Randall, Charles P. 
Randall, Rev. Edwin J. 
Randall, Irving 
Randle, Guy D. 
Randle, Hanson F. 
Raschke, Dr. E. H. 
Rasmussen, George 
Ray, Hal S. 

Raymond, Mrs. Howard D. 
Razim, a. J. 
Reach, Benjamin 
Redington, F. B. 
Redington, Mrs. W. H. 
Reed, Mrs. Kersey Coates 
Reed, Norris H. 
Reed, Mrs. Philip L. 
Reeve, Mrs. Earl 
Reeve, Frederick E. 
Regensteiner, Theodore 
Regnery, William H. 
Rehm, Frank A. 
Rehm, William H. 
Reich, Miss Annie 
Reichmann, Alexander F. 
Reid, Mrs. Bryan 
Reiter, Joseph J. 
Renshaw, Mrs. Charles 
Renwick, Edward A. 
Rew, Mrs. Irwin 
Reynolds, Mrs. J. J. 
Rice, Arthur L. 
Rice, George L. 
Rice, Lawrence A. 
Rich, Edward P. 
Richards, J. Deforest 
Richardson, Guy A. 
RiCHTER, Mrs. Adelyn W. 
Richter, Bruno 
RiCKCORDS, Francis S. 
Ricketts, C. Lindsay 
Riddle, Herbert H. 
Ridge WAY, E. 
Ridgway, William 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 



RiES, Dr. Emil 
RiESER, Mrs. Herman 
RiETZ, Elmer W. 
RiETZ, Walter H. 
RiGNEY, William T. 
RiNALDO, Philip S. 

RiNDER, E. W. 

Ring, Miss Mary E. 
RiPSTRA, J. Henri 
rittenhouse, charles j. 
Roach, Charles 
Roberts, Clark T. 
Roberts, John M. 
Roberts, S. M. 
Roberts, Mrs. Warren R. 
Roberts, William Munsell 
Robinson, Mrs. Milton E., Sr. 
RoBsoN, Mrs. Sarah C. 
Roche, Miss Emily 
Rockwell, Harold H. 
Roderick, Solomon P. 
RoDGERS, Dr. David C. 
Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
roehling, c. e. 
Roehling, Mrs. Otto G. 
RoEHM, George R. 
Rogers, Miss Annie T. 
Rogers, Bernard F. 
Rogers, Dr. Cassius C. 
Rogers, Joseph E. 
RoLOSON, Robert M. 
RoMER, Miss Dagmar E. 
RoMPEL, Mrs. Walter 
Root, John W. 
Rosen, M. R. 
RosENBAUM, Mrs. Edwin S. 


rosenfield, william m. 

Rosenthal, James 

Rosenthal, Lessing 

Ross, Charles S. 

Ross, Robert C. 

Ross, Mrs. Robert E. 

Ross, Thompson 

Ross, Walter S. 

Roth, Aaron 

Roth, Mrs. Margit Hochsinger 

Rothacker, Watterson R. 

Rothschild, George William 

Rothschild, Maurice L. 

Rothschild, Melville N, 

Rowe, Edgar C. 

Rozelle, Mrs. Emma 

Rubel, Dr. Maurice 

Rubens, Mrs. Charles 
Rubovits, Toby 
Ruckelhausen, Mrs. Henry 
rueckheim, f. w. 
RuECKHEiM, Miss Lillian 
RuEL, John G. 
RusHTON, Joseph A. 
Russell, Dr. J. W. 
Russell, Paul S. 
Rutlbdge, George E. 
Ryerson, Joseph T. 

Sackley, Mrs. James A. 
Sage, W. Otis 

Salisbury, Mrs. Warren M. 
Salmon, Mrs. E. D. 
Sammons, Wheeler 
Sandidge, Miss Daisy 
Sardeson, Orville a. 
Sargent, Chester F. 
Sargent, John R. W. 
Sargent, Ralph 
Sauer, William A. 
Sauter, Fred J. 
Sauter, Leonard J. 
Sawyer, Dr. Alvah L. 
Schacht, John H. 
ScHAFFER, Dr. David N. 
Schaffner, Mrs. Joseph 
schaffner, robert c. 
Scheidenhelm, Edward L. 
schermerhorn, w. i. 
Scheunemann, Robert G. 


Schmidt, Dr. Charles L. 
Schmidt, Mrs. Minna 
Schmitz, Dr. Henry 
Schmitz, Nicholas J. 
ScHMUTz, Mrs. Anna 
Schneider, F. P. 
ScHNERiNG, Otto Y. 
ScHNUR, Ruth A. 
ScHRAM, Harry S. 



Schukraft, William 
schulman, a. s. 
ScHULZE, Mrs. Mathilde 
ScHULZE, William 
ScHUPP, Philip C. 
Schuyler, Mrs. Daniel J., Jr. 
Schwanke, Arthur 
Schwartz, Charles K. 
Schwartz, Charles P. 
ScHWARZ, Herbert 

484 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 


sclanders, mrs. alexander 

Scott, Frank H. 

Scott, Robert L. 

scovillb, c. b. 

Scully, Mrs. D. B., Sr. 

Seaman, George M. 

Seames, Mrs. Charles O. 

Sears, J. Alden 

Sears, Richard W., Jr. 

Seaver, a. E. 

Seaverns, George A. 

See, Dr. Agnes Chester 

Sbeberger, Miss Dora A. 

Seeburg, Justus P. 

Seip, Emil G. 

Seipp, Clarence T. 

Seipp, Edwin A. 

Seipp, William C. 

Sello, George W. 

Sencenbaugh, Mrs. G. W. 

Seng, Frank J. 

Seng, J. T. 

Seng, V. J. 

Senne, John A. 

Shaffer, Carroll 

Shaffer, Charles B. 

Shambaugh, Dr. George E. 

Shanesy, Ralph D. 

Shannon, Angus R. 

Shapiro, Meyer 

Sharpe, N. M. 

Shaw, Alfred P. 

Shaw, Mrs. Howard 

Shaw, Theodore A. 

Sheehy, Edward 

Sheldon, James M. 

Shelton, Dr. W. Eugene 

Shepherd, Mrs. Edith P. 

Sheridan, Albert D. 

Shields, James Culver . 

Shillestad, John N. 

Shire, Moses E. 

Shoan, Nels 

Shockey, Mrs. Willis G. 

Shorey, Clyde E. 

Shoup, a. D. 

Shumway, Mrs. Edward DeWitt 

Shumway, p. R. 

Shutz, Albert E. 

Sigman, Leon 

Silander, a. I. 

Silberman, Charles 

Silberman, David B. 

Silberman, Hubert S. 

Sills, Clarence W. 
Silverthorne, Geo. M. 
Simond, Robert E. 

SiMONEK, Dr. B. K. 

Sincere, Benjamin 

Sinclair, Dr. J. Frank 

Sinden, Henry P. 

Singer, Mrs. Mortimer H. 

Sitzer, Dr. L. Grace Powell 

Smith, Mrs. C. R. 

Smith, Mrs. Emery J. 

Smith, Mrs. Frank S. 

Smith, Franklin P. 

Smith, Harold Byron 

Smith, Jens 

Smith, Jesse E. 

Smith, Mrs. Katherine Walker 

Smith, Samuel K. 

Smith, Sidney 

Smith, Mrs. Theodore White 

Smith, Walter Bourne 

Smith, Walter Byron 

Smith, Mrs. William A. 

Smith, Z. Erol 

Smullan, Alexander 

Snow, Edgar M. 

Snow, Fred A. 

Socrates, Nicholas 

SoLEM, Dr. George O. 


SopER, Henry M. 

SoPKiN, Mrs. Setia H. 

SoRAViA, Joseph 

Sorensen, James 

Spiegel, Mrs. Mae 0. 

Spindler, Oscar 

Spitz, Joel 

Spitz, Leo 

Spitzglass, Mrs. Leonard M. 

Spohn, John F. 

Spoor, Mrs. John A. 

Sprague, Dr. John P. 

Springer, Mrs. Samuel 

Squires, John G. 

Staley, Miss Mary B. 

Stanton, Edgar 

Stanton, Dr. E. M., Sr. 

Stanton, Henry T. 

Starrels, Joel 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Steffens, Ralph Sutherland 

Steffey, David R. 

Stein, Benjamin F. 

Stein, Dr. Irving 

Stein, L. Montefiore 

Stein, Samuel M. 

Stenson, Frank R. 

Stephens, W. C. 

Sterba, Dr. Joseph V. 

Stern, Alfred Whital 

Stern, David B. 

Stern, Felix 

Stern, Maurice S. 

Stern, Oscar D. 

Stevens, Delmar A. 

Stevens, Edward J. 

Stevens, Elmer T. 

Stevens, Harold L. 

Stevens, James W. 

Stevens, Mrs. James W. 

Stevens, R. G. 

Stevens, Raymond W. 

Stevenson, Dr. Alexander F. 

Stevenson, E. 

Stewart, Miss Agnes N. 

Stewart, Miss Eglantine Daisy 

Stewart, James S. 

Stewart, Miss Mercedes Graeme 

Stibolt, Mrs. Carl B. 

Stirling, Miss Dorothy 

Stone, Mrs. Jacob S. 

Strandberg, Erik P., Sr. 

Straus, David 

Straus, Martin L. 

Straus, Melvin L. 

Straus, S. J. T. 

Strauss, Dr. Alfred A. 

Strauss, Henry X. 

Strauss, John L. 

Street, Mrs. Charles A. 

Strobel, Charles L. 

Stromberg, Charles J. 

Strong, Edmund H. 

Strong, Walter A. 

Strotz, Harold C. 

Struby, Mrs. Walter V. 

Stulik, Dr. Charles 

Sturges, Hollister 

Sturges, Solomon 

Sturtevant, Henry D. 

SuEKOFF, Louis A. 

Sullivan, Hon. John J, 

Sulzberger, Frank L. 

Sumner, Stephen C. 

SuTCLiFFE, Mrs. Gary 

Sutherland, William 
Swan, Oscar H. 
Swanson, Joseph E. 
Swartchild, Edward G. 
Swartchild, William G. 
swenson, s. p. o. 
Swift, Alden B. 
Swift, Edward F., Jr. 
Sykes, Mrs. Wilfred 

Taft, John H. 
Tarrant, Robert 
Tatge, Mrs. Gustavus J. 
Taylor, Charles C. 
Taylor, George Halleck 
Taylor, J. H. 
Templeton, Stuart J. 
Templeton, Mrs. W. 
Templeton, Walter L. 
Tenney, Horace Kent 
Terry, Foss Bell 
Teter, Lucius 
Thatcher, Everett A. 
Theobald, Dr. John J. 
Thomas, Edward H. 
Thomas, Emmet A. 
Thomas, Frank W. 
Thomas, Mrs. Harry L. 
Thomas, Dr. William A. 
Thompson, Arthur H. 
Thompson, Charles E. 
Thompson, Charles F. 
Thompson, Edward F. 
Thompson, Dr. George F. 
Thompson, Mrs. John R. 
Thompson, John R., Jr. 
Thompson, Mrs. Lbverett 
Thorne, Hallett W. 
Thorne, James W. 
Thornton, Charles S. 
Thornton, Dr. Francis E. 
Thorp, Harry W. 
Thresher, C. J. 
Thulin, F. a. 
Tighe, Mrs. B. G. 
Tilden, Averill 
Tilden, Louis Edward 
Tilt, Charles A. 
Tobias, Clayton H. 
torbet, a. w. 
Touchstone, John Henry 
TowLE, Leroy C. 
TowLER, Kenneth F. 
TowNE, Mrs. Arthur F. 
TowNE, Mrs. John D. G. 

486 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Trainer, J. Milton 
Traylor, Mrs. Dorothy J. 
Tredwell, John 
Trench, Mrs. Daniel G. 
Tripp, Chester D. 
Trombly, Dr. F. F. 
Trowbridge, Raymond W. 
Trude, Mrs. Mark W. 
Turner, Alfred M. 
Turner, Dr. B. S. 
Turner, Mrs. Charlton A. 
Turner, Tracy L. 
Tuthill, Mrs. William H. 

Tuttle, Henry Emerson 
TuTTLE, Mrs. Henry N, 
Tyler, Albert S. 
Tyler, Orson K. 
Tyrrell, Mrs. Percy 

Uhlmann, Fred 
Ullman, Mrs. N. J. 
Upham, Mrs. Frederic 

Valentine, Joseph L. 
Valentine, Mrs. May L. 
Valentine, Patrick A. 
VanCleef, Mrs. Noah 
VanCleef, Paul 
VanDeventer, Christopher 
VanNess, Gardiner B. 
VanSchaick, Gerard 
VanZwoll, Henry B. 
Vaughan, Leonard H. 
Vawtbr, William A., II 
Veeder, Mrs. Henry 
Veeder, Miss Jessie 
Vehe, Dr. K. L. 
Vehon, Morris 
Vehon, William H. 
Vial, Charles H. 
Vial, Miss Mary M. 
Vickery, Miss Mabel S. 
Victor, Mrs. Jessie K. 
Vierling, Louis 

Vincent, Mrs. William Watkins 
VoLiCAS, Dr. John N. 
VoLK, Mrs. John H. 
VonColditz, Dr. G. Thomsen- 
VonGlahn, Mrs. August 
VooRHEES, Mrs. Condit 
VopiCKA, Charles J. 

Wagner, Fritz, Jr. 
Wagner, Dr. G. W. 
Wagner, John E. 

Wagner, Mrs. Mary G. 
Walgreen, Mrs. Charles R. 
Walker, James 
Walker, Mrs. Paul 
Walker, William E. 
Wallace, R. Y. 
Wallace, Walter F. 
Waller, E. C. 
Waller, H. P. 
Waller, J. Alexander 
Waller, Mrs. James B. 
Waller, James B., Jr. 
Wallerich, George W. 
Wallovick, J. H. 
Wanner, Mrs. Henry J. 
Ward, Edward J. E. 
Ward, Mrs. N. C. 
Ware, Mrs. Lyman 
Warfield, Edwin A. 
Warren, Allyn D. 
Warren, J. Latham 
Warren, Paul C. 
Warren, Walter G. 
Warwick, W. E. 
Washbltrne, Clarke 
Washbltrne, Hempstead, Jr. 
Washington, Laurence W. 
Wassell, Joseph 
Waterman, Dr. A. H. 
Watts, Harry C. 
Waud, E. p. 

Wayman, Charles A. G. 
Wean, Frank L. 
Weaver, Charles A. 
Webb, George D. 
Webb, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Weber, Bernard F. 
Weber, Frank C. 
Webster, Arthur L. 
Webster, Miss Helen R. 
Webster, Dr. Ralph W. 
Wedelstaedt, H. a. 
Weil, Isidor 
Weil, Martin 
Weiler, Rudolph 
Weinstein, Dr. M. L. 
Weinzelbaum, Louis L. 
Weisbrod, Benjamin H. 
Weiss, Mrs. Morton 
Weissenbach, Mrs. Minna K. 
Weisskopf, Maurice J. 
Weisskopf, Dr. Max A. 
Wells, Arthur G. 
Wells, Arthur H. 
Wells, Harry L. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Wells, John E. 
Wells, Preston A. 
Wells, Thomas E. 
Wells, Mrs. Thomas E. 
Wendell, Barrett, Jr. 
Wentworth, Mrs. Moses J. 
Wermuth, William C. 
Werner, Frank A. 
West, J. Roy 
West, Miss Mary Sylvia 
Westerfeld, Simon 
Westrich, Miss T. C. 
Wetten, Albert H. 
Wettling, Louis E. 
Weymer, Earl M. 
Whealan, Emmett 
Wheeler, George A. 
Wheeler, Leo W. 
Wheeler, Leslie 
Wheeler, Mrs. Robert C. 
Whinery, Charles C. 
White, Harold F. 
White, Mrs. James C. 
White, James E. 
White, Joseph J. 
White, Richard T. 
White, Robert 
Whitehouse, Howard D. 
Whiting, Mrs. Adele H. 
Whiting, J. H. 
Whitlock, William A. 
Wiborg, Frank B. 
Widdicombe, Mrs. R. A. 
WiELAi^D, Charles J. 
Wieland, Mrs. George C. 
Wilder, Harold, Jr. 
Wilder, John E. 
Wilder, Mrs. John E. 
Wilder, Mrs. T. E., Sr. 
WiLKiNS, George Lester 
Wilkinson, Mrs. George L. 
Wilkinson, John C. 
Willetts, George M. 
Willey, Mrs. Charles B. 
Williams, Miss Anna P. 
Williams, Dr. A. Wilberforce 
Williams, Harry L. 
Williams, J. M. 
Williams, Lucian M. 
Williamson, George H. 
Willis, Paul, Jr. 
Willis, Thomas H. 
Wilms, Herman P. 
Wilson, Mrs. E. Crane 
Wilson, Harry Bertram 

Wilson, Mrs. John R. 
Wilson, Miss Lillian M. 
Wilson, Morris Karl 
Wilson, Mrs. Robert Conover 
Winans, Frank F. 
Windsor, H. H., Jr. 
Winston, Hampden 
Winston, James H. 
Winter, Irving 
Withers, Allen L. 
Wojtalewicz, Rev. Francis M. 
Woley, Dr. Harry P. 
Wolf, Mrs. Albert H. 
Wolf, Henry M. 
Wolf, Walter B. 
Wolff, Louis 
Wood, Mrs. Gertrude D. 
Wood, Mrs. Harold F. 
Wood, John G. 
Wood, John H. 
Wood, Robert E. 
Wood, William G. 
Woodmansee, Fay 
Woodruff, George 
Woods, Weightstill 
Woodward, C. H. 
Worcester, Mrs. Charles H. 
Work, Robert 
WoRMSER, Leo F. 
Worth, Miss Helen E. 
Worthy, Mrs. S. W. 
Wrenn, Mrs. Everts 
Wright, Warren 
Wrigley, Mrs. Charles W. 
wunderle, h. 0. 
Wyeth, Harry B. 

Yegge, C. Fred 
Yerkes, Richard W. 
Yondorf, John David 
Yondorf, Milton S. 
Yondorf, Milton S., Jr. 
Young, George W. 
Young, Hugh E. 

Zabel, Max W. 
Zapel, Elmer 
Zeisler, Mrs. Erwin P. 
Zerler, Charles F. 
Zeuch, Dr. Lucius H. 
ZiEBARTH, Charles A. 
ZiMMER, Mrs. Rudolph E. 
Zimmerman, Herbert P. 
Zimmerman, Louis W. 
ZoRK, David 
Zulfbr, p. M. 

488 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Deceased, 1930 

JoHNSEN, Charles 
Millard, Frank H. 
O'Callaghan, Edward 

Baumgarten, C. 
Bentley, Cyrus 
Bliss, Miss Amelia M. 
Brennan, Bernard G. 
Busby, Leonard A. 

Cleary, John J., Jr. 
Coleman, Adelbert E. 
Coleman, Seymour 
Cragg, George L. 

Davis, James C. 
Dewes, Edwin P. 

Fahrney, Ezra C. 
Felton, S. M. 
Ferguson, Charles W. 

Goodman, Milton F. 
Goss, Charles 0. 

Henderson, Dr. Elmer E. 

Pam, Hon. Hugo 
Parker, Woodruff J. 

Reade, William A. 
Robertson, William 

Schoellkopf, Henry 
Sharp, William N. 
Stein, William D. 

Thompson, David P. 
Thompson, Thomas W. 

Winters, Leander LeRoy 
Winterbotham, John H. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $50 to the Museum 

Phillips, Montagu Austin 

Those who contribute $25 annually to the Museum 

Abbott, Stanley N. 
Abrahamson, Henry M. 
Aldrich, Mrs. George Capron 
Alsip, Mrs. Charles H. 
Alton, Carol W. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Jltlian 
Atlass, H. Leslie 

Barothy, Dr. A. M. 
Barry, Edward C. 
Baumrucker, Charles F. 
Beach, E. Chandler 
Becker, Mrs. A. G. 
Belding, Mrs. H. H., Jr. 
Bernstein, Fred 
Binga, Jesse 
Blackburn, Oliver A. 
Blair, Wolcott 
Blatchford, Mrs. Paul 

Blomgren, Dr. Walter L. 
Bluthardt, Edwin 
Bode, William F. 
boettcher, arthur h. 
Bohasseck, Charles 
bokum, norris h. 
boynton, a. j. 
Brenza, Miss Mary 
Briggs, J. H. 
Bryan, Benjamin B., Jr. 
Burgstreser, Newton 
Burke, Webster H. 
Butler, Burridge D. 
Butler, Dr. Craig D. 

Gary, Dr. Frank 
Challenger, Mrs. Agnes 
Chandler, Henry P. 
Channon, Harry 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Chapman, Arthur E. 
Chapman, Mrs. Doris L. 
Churchill, E. F. 
Clark, Lincoln R. 
Clinch, Duncan L. 
Cogswell, Elmer R. 
Cohen, Louis 


Craigie, a. M. 

Cratty, Mrs. Josiah 

CuNEO, John F. 

Curtis, Austin Guthrie, Jr. 

Curtis, Benjamin J. 

Danz, Charles A. 

Dauchy, Mrs. Samuel 

Degen, David 

DeLemon, H. R. 

Denkew alter, W. E. 

DesIsles, Mrs. Carrie L. 

Dickey, William E. 

Dickinson, Augustus E. 

Dickinson, Theodore 

Dickinson, Mrs. W. Woodbridge 

Dodge, O. V. 

Doering, Walter C. 

Douglass, Kingman 

DowDLE, John J. 

Duncan, Albert G. 

DuNER, Joseph A. 

Dunham, Robert J. 

Dunn, Samuel O. 

Dvorak, B. F. 

Eddy, Mrs. Augustus W. 
Edwards, Kenneth P. 
Eisenstaedt, Harry 
Elting, Howard 
Evans, John W. 

Felsenthal, Edward George 
Fetcher, Edwin S. 
FiNNERUD, Dr. Clark W. 
Fisher, Walter L. 
Fix, Frederick W. 
Fletcher, Mrs. R. V. 


FoRGAN, Mrs. J. Russell 
Forsyth, Mrs. Holmes 
Foster, Mrs. Charles K. 
French, Dudley K. 
Friestedt, Mrs. Herman F. 

Gallagher, Mrs. M. F. 
Gear, H. B. 

GiFFORD, Mrs. Frederick C. 
Glaser, Edward L. 
Goldsmith, Bernard H. 
GooDE, Mrs. Rowland T. 
GooDER, Seth MacDonald 
Gordon, Leslie S. 
Granger, Mrs. Everett J. 
Grant, James D. 
Greene, Henry E. 
Greenlee, Mrs. William Brooks 

Hammond, Mrs. Gardiner 
Hammond, Luther S., Jr. 
Hardy, Miss Marjorie 
Harris, Miss Lillian 
Harrison, Mrs. Frederick J. 
Hart, Mrs. Harry 
Hartmann, a. O. 
Hayslett, Arthur J. 
Henry, Huntington B. 
Herrick, Charles E. 
Hill, Mrs. Russell D. 
Hines, Charles M. 
HiNTZ, John C. 
Hodgkins, Mrs. W. L. 
Hohman, Dr. E. H. 
hollingsworth, r. g. 
Holmes, George J. 
Houston, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Howard, Mrs. Elmer A. 
Howard, P. S. 
Hubbard, George W. 
Hunter, Robert H. 

Ingalls, Mrs. Frederick A. 
Ingeman, Lyle S. 
Isaacs, Charles W., Jr. 

Jenkins, David F. D. 
Johnson, Chester H. 
Johnson, Isaac Horton 

Kaiser, Mrs. Sidney 
Karpen, Michael 
Kavanagh, Clarence H. 
Kelker, Rudolph F., Jr. 
Kemper, Dr. Malcolm 
Kendall, Mrs. Virginia H. 
Kleinpell, Dr. Henry H. 
Klenk, Paul T. 
Knopf, A. J. 
Kochs, August 
kopp, gustave 
kortzeborn, jacob e. 
Kraus, Samuel 

490 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

LaChance, Mrs. Leander H. 
Ladenson, N. T. 
Lathrop, Mrs. Bryan 
Lee, Mrs. John H. S. 
Leight, Albert E. 
Lewis, Mrs. Edward 
Little, Mrs. E. H. 
Llewellyn, Mrs. John T. 
LoEB, Mrs. A. H. 
Loewenthal, Mrs. Julius W. 
LuDwiG, J. Leo 

MacLeish, Mrs. Andrew 
Mallinson, Edwin 
Manley, John A. 
Marcus, Maurice S. 
Mautner, Leo A. 
Mayer, Oscar F., Sr. 
McMenemy, L. T. 
McVoY, John M. 
Merrell, John H. 
Mertens, Cyril P. 
Miles, Mrs. Ethel Edmunds 
Miller, Mrs. Olive Beaupre 
MiNOTTO, Mrs. James 
Mitchell, George F. 
Moeling, Mrs. Walter G. 
MoHR, Edward 
Moist, Mrs. S. E. 
Monaghan, Thomas H. 
MoREY, Walter W. 
Mulligan, George F. 

Nebel, Herman C. 
Neilson, Mrs. Francis 
Newhouse, Karl 
Noble, Samuel R. 
NoYES, A. H. 

Odell, William R., Jr. 
O'Leary, John W. 
Olsen, Mrs. Clarence • 
Orr, Thomas C. 

Packer, Charles Swasey 
Pardridge, Mrs. Frederick C. 
Parker, Dr. Gaston C. 
Parmelee, Dr. A. H. 
Partridge, Lloyd C. 
Peck, Dr. David B. 
Pennington, Lester E. 
Peter, E. E. 
Peterson, Arthur J. 
Peterson, Mrs. Bertha I. 
Pole, James S. 
Poole, Miss Lois 

Portman, Mrs. Edward C. 
Prebis, Edward J. 
Prentice, John K. 
Press, Mrs. Jacob H. 
Puckey, F. W. 
PuRDY, Sparrow E. 

Randle, Mrs. Charles H. 
Raney, Mrs. R. J. 
Rankin, Miss Jessie H. 
Rathje, William J. 
Rayner, Arnold P. 
Rea, Dr. Albertine L. 
Rellihen, Edwin G. 
Rich, Elmer 
Richards, Marcus D. 
Richardson, George A. 
Robbins, Henry S. 
RoBBiNS, Percy A. 
Roberts, Shepard M. 
RoRRisoN, James 
Rosenthal, Benjamin J. 
Rosenthal, Kurt 
Rothschild, Justin 
RouTH, George D., Jr. 
Ryerson, Donald M. 

Sampsell, Marshall E. 
Sargent, Mrs. George H. 
Scholl, Dr. William M. 
ScRiBNER, Gilbert 
Seelen, Mark B. 
Seggerman, Mrs. Richard 
Shaw, Andrew H. 
Shaw, E. R. 

Short, Miss Shirley Jane 
Simpson, C. G. 
Skooglund, David 
Slade, Mrs. Robert 
Smith, Charles S. B., Sr. 
Sperling, Samuel 
Spielmann, Oscar P. 
Stearns, Mrs. Richard I. 
Stebbins, Fred J. 
Stevenson, Mrs. Robert 
Stockton, Eugene M. 
SuDLER, Carroll H., Jr. 
Sutton, Harold I. 
SwiECiNSKi, Walter 

Teninga, Cornelius 
Thompson, Mrs. Charles M. 
Thompson, Fred L. 
Thorne, Mrs. Virginia Hubbell 
Tilden, Mrs. Edward 
TiTZEL, Dr. W. R. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Trammell, Niles 
Trude, Hon. Daniel P. 
Tucker, S. A. 

Vail, Carlton M. 
Vehon, Simon Henry 
ViGNES, Miss Laura Alice 

Walker, Samuel J. 
Ware, Mrs. Charles W. 
Warner, John Eliot 

Warren, C. Roy 
Watson, Miss Mina M. 
Weis, S. W. 
Welter, John N. 
Werth, a. Herman 
White, Sanford B. 
White, Selden Freeman 
Whiting, Lawrence H. 


Wienhoeber, William H. 
Wood, Kay, Jr. 
Wright, H. K. 

Deceased, 1930 

Hanson, Mrs. Burton 

Hill, Samuel B. 
Roessler, Carl C, Sr. 

Those who contribute $10 annually to the Museum 

Aagaard, Walter S., Jr. 
Abbott, Edwin H. 
Abbott, Ernest V. 
Abbott, Mrs. Katherine M. 
Abells, H. D. 
Abegg, Eugene 
Abney, M. D. 
Aborn, E. a. 
Abrahamson, John 
Abrahamson, Mrs. Paul 
Abrams, Hyman B. 
Abt, Hugo A. F. 
Abt, Dr. Isaac A. 
Abt, Mrs. J. J. 
AcKERT, Mrs. Charles H. 
Adair, Hugh G. 
Adams, C. E. B. 
Adams, Cyrus H., Jr. 
Adams, Mrs. David T. 
Adams, Harvey M. 
Adams, Mrs. Henry T. 
Adams, Hugh R. 
Adams, J. Kirk 
Adams, Miss M. Joice 
Adams, Miss Nellie Malina 
Adams, Samuel P. 
Addams, Miss Jane 
Adler, Dr. Herman M. O. 
Agar, Mrs. William Grant 
Agar, W. S., Sr. 
Ahnfelt, John 

AiLES, Adrian S. 
AiSHTON, Richard A. 
Albers, Dr. Edgar H. 
Alden, W. T. 
Aldrich, Frederick C. 
Aleshire, Mrs. O. E. 
Alessio, Frank 
Alexander, Harry T. 
Allais, Arthltr L. 
Allen, Dr. A. V. 
Allen, Amos G. 
Allen, CD. 
Allen, Edwin D. 
Allen, Harry W. 
Allen, Mrs. J. W. 
Allen, John D. 
Allen, O. T. 
Alrutz, Dr. Louis F. 
Alsaker, Mrs. Alfred 
Alschuler, Hon. Samuel 
Alt, George E. 
Altheimer, Ben J. 
Altman, Robert M. 
Alvarez, Dr. Walter C. 
Amberg, J. Ward 
Amberg, Miss Ethel M. 
Amberg, Miss Mary Agnes 
Anderson, Mrs. A. S. 
Anderson, Mrs. K. W. 
Anderson, Adolph 
Anderson, B. G. 

492 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Anderson, Brooke 
Anderson, David G. 
Anderson, Mrs. Harry 
Anheiser, Hugo 
Anofp, Isador S. 
Anthony, Charles E. 
Anthony, Joseph R. 
Antonow, Samuel L. 
Arbuckle, Mrs. G. S. 
Arden, Percy H. 
Arens, Dr. Robert A. 
Arms, Herbert C. 
Armstrong, Mrs. H. W. 
Arnold, Francis M. 
Arnold, Mrs. Hugo F. 
Arnold, Marshall 
Arntzen, B. E. 
Arthur, Miss Minnie J. 

Ashcraft, Edwin M., Jr. 
Ashley, Noble W. 
Atkeisson, Dr. J. E. H. 
Atkins, Paul M. 
Atkinson, Mrs. A. L. C. 
Atkinson, Charles T. 
Atkinson, Roy R. 
Atlass, Mrs. Frank 
Atwell, W. C. 
Atwood, Fred G. 
Auble, Wilson C. 
Austin, E. F. 
Austin, M. B. 
Austin, William B. 
AxELSON, Charles F. 

Babb, W. E. 
Babcock, F. M. 
Babcock, Orville E. 
Babcock, William H. 
Bachrach, I. 
Bacon, Asa 
Bacon, Dr. C. S. 
Badenoch, David A. 
Baer, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Bagby, Mrs. C. B. 
Bailey, Dr. G. T. 
Baird, Mrs. Clay 
Bairstow, Mrs. Arthur 
Baker, CM. 
Baker, Claude M. 
Baker, Edward L. 
Baker, G. W. 
Baker, James Childs 
Balaban, Max 

Balch, Howard K. 
Balderston, Mrs. Stephen V. 
Ball, John 

Ballard, Mrs. Charles M. 
Ballard, Mrs. E. S. 
Bangs, William B. 
Bankard, E. Hoover, Jr. 
Banning, Samuel W. 
Bannister, Mrs. A. H. 
Barber, Mrs. F. L. 
Bard, Ralph A. 
Bard, Mrs. Roy E. 
Barger, Mrs. Walter C. 
Barnes, William H. 
Barrett, Miss Adela 
Barrett, M. J. P. 
Barry, Mrs. Rupert J. 
Bartells, Dr. Henry W. F. 
Barth, Lewis L. 
Bartholomay, Herman 
Bartholomay, William, Jr. 
Bartholomew, Mrs. F. H. 
Bartlett, Charles C. 
Bartlett, Mrs. Frederick H. 
Bartlett, R. D. 
Barton, Mrs. Enos M. 
Barton, S. G. 
Bascom, F. T. 
Bates, Mrs. Harry C. 
Baum, James E. 
Baum, Mrs. James E. 
Baumann, Mrs. F. O. 
Baumgarden, Nathan W. 
Baxter, John E. 
Baylor, Dr. Frank W. 
Beach, Calvin B. 
Bean, Edward H. 
Beatty, Mrs. R. J. 
Beck, Dr. Joseph C. 
Becker, Mrs. Herbert W. 
Becker, Lothar 
Becker, Louis L. 
Beda, Paul W. 
Bede, Howard H. 
Beer, Fred A. 
Beeson, Mrs. F. C. 
Behrens, George A. 
Beidler, Augustus F. 
Beifus, Morris 
Bein, Maurice L. 
Beirnes, Mrs. Alvin E. 
Belding, Dr. C. R. 
Bell, George Irving 
Bell, Hayden N. 
Bellows, Mrs. L. E. H. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Benario, Mrs. Gus 
Bendelari, Arthur E. 
Bender, Mrs. Charles 
Bengtsen, H. O. 
Bennet, William S. 
Bennett, E. H. 
Bennett, Mrs. Harold D. 
Bennett, Mrs. Ira F. 
Bennett, Mrs. William H. K. 
Bennington, Harold 
Benoist, Mrs. William F, 
Benson, Mrs. T. R. 
Bent, Mrs. M. H. 
Bentley, Richard 
Berens, Mrs. H. 
Berg, Dr. 0. H. 
Berg, Sigard E. 
Bergbom, Mrs. M. S. 
Berger, Miss Marie S. E. 
Bergh, Ross F. 
Bergren, E. L. 
Bergstrom, O. 
Berkey, Mrs. Peter 
Berliner, Emanuel F. 
Bernard, Peter J. 
Bernhard, Raymond S. 
Bernstein, Aaron D. 
Bernstein, Gottfried D. 
Bernstein, Mrs. Jack 
Berry, V. D. 
Bestel, Oliver A. 
Bettman, Dr. Ralph B. 
Biddle, Robert C. 
Bidwell, Mrs. Edith D. 
Bigane, Mrs. John Edward 
Bilsky, Samuel 
Bingham, S. H. 
Binkley, Mrs. L. G. 
BiNKS, Mrs. Harry D. 
Bird, Miss Frances 
Bird, Herbert J. 
Birkenstein, Louis 
Birkhoff, Miss Gertrude 
Bisbee, W. G. 
Bishop, Mrs. Alice M. 
Bishop, Mrs. Howard F. 
BissELL, Arthur 
BixBY, Charles R. 
Black, Alfred B. 
Black, Mrs. Herbert G. 
Black, Dr. R. E. 
Black, Mrs. T. S. 
Blackwood, Mrs. A. E. 
Blair, Mrs. Henry A. 
Blake, Mrs. F. B. 

Blakeley, John M. 
Blatchford, N. H., Jr. 
Blazon, John J. 
Blessing, Lewis G. 
Bliss, Charles F. 
Blitzsten, Dr. N. Lionel 
Block, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Block, Dr. Louis H. 
Blocki, Mrs. Fred W. 
Blomquist, Alfred 
Blood, L. A. 

Bloomfield, Mrs. Leonard 
Blue, John 
Blum, Henry S. 
BOBB, Dwight S. 
BoDiNSON, Frederick P. 
Bogert, Mrs. George G. 
BoHNiNG, Dr. Anne 
Bolles, Mrs. C. E. 
Bolt, M. C. 
Bolton, John F. 
Bone, A. R. 
Bonner, Francis A. 
Boone, Arthur 
Boone, Charles Leveritt 
Boot, Dr. G. W. 
Booth, Mrs. George 
Booth, Mrs. K. A. 
Booz, Norton A. 
Boozer, Mrs. Ralph C. 
Borcherding, E. P. 
Borcherdt, Mrs. H. A. 
Borland, Carl A. 
borman, t. a. 
Born, Edgar R. 
Borsch, Mrs. Mary 
Botthof, Mrs. W. 
Boughton, Frank M. 
Bourland, Mrs. Norman T. 


BouRQUE, Dr. N. Odeon 
BowE, Augustine J. 
BowEN, Joseph T., Jr. 
Bowes, Frederick M. 
Bowes, William R. 
Bowman, Jay 
Boyd, Mrs. E. B. 
Boyd, Joseph K. 
Brachvogel, Mrs. Christiana 
Bradbury, Mrs. F. C. 
Braddock, Mrs. Louis J. 
Bradford, Frederick H. 
Bradley, Fred J. 
Bradley, Herbert E. 

494 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Brandenburg, Mrs. O. H. 
Brandt, Frederic T. 
Branigar, Mrs. W. W. 
Brant, Melburn 
Braucher, Mrs. Ernest N. 
Braudy, Mrs. Louis C. 
Brauer, Mrs. Caspar 
Braun, Arthur J. 
Breckenridge, Karl S. 
Breed, Frederick S. 
Breen, J. W. 
Bremner, Dr. David K. 
Brennan, Mrs. George E. 
Brennemann, Dr. Joseph 
Brenner, Mrs. Louis N. 
Brewer, Edward H. 
Brewer, Harry F. 
Brewerton, William A. 
Brewster, William E. 
Breyer, Mrs. Theodor 
Briggs, a. G. 
Brigham, Dr. L. Ward 
Brimstin, W. E. 
Brin, Harry L. 
Briney, Mrs. H. C. 
Bringolf, Mrs. Floyd A. 
Brinson, Mrs. Earl W. 
Briscoe, George L. 
Brister, Mrs. C. J. 
Brock, Mrs. Frank P. 
Brodt, Irwin W. 
Brooke, Fred L. 
Brooks, Robert E. L. 
Broome, John Spoor 
Broome, Mrs. Thornhill 
Broomell, Chester C. 
Brougham, Dr. Edward J. 
Brouillett, Dr. R. J. 
Brower, Jule F. 
Brown, Alvia K. 
Brown, Dr. Calvin E. 
Brown, Charles W. 
Brown, Charles W. 
Brown, Miss Clara M. 
Brown, Edward Eagle 
Brown, Miss Eleanor M. 
Brown, Miss Ella W. 
Brown, George A. 
Brown, Gerard S. 
Brown, H. A. 
Brown, J. D. 
Brown, James Earl 
Brown, Robert B. 
Brown, Wilbur M. 
Browne, Theodore C. 

Browning, Mrs. Luella A. 
Brucker, Dr. Edward A. 
Brucker, Dr. Matthew W. 
Brugge, Mrs. Caroline 
Brumback, Mrs. A. H. 
Brumley, Daniel Joseph 
Bruner, Henry P. 
Brunker, a. R. 
Brunt, J. P. 
Bryant, Donald R. 
Bryant, Mrs. Edward F. 
Bryant, John M. 
Bryce, T. Jerrold 
Buchanan, Mrs. Gordon 
Buchbinder, Dr. J. R. 
Buchen, Mrs. Walther 
Buchholz, Eric 
Buckingham, Mrs. John 
Buckingham, Tracy W. 
Buckley, Mrs. Warren 
BucKNER, Mrs. John L., Jr. 
Buddeke, I. W. 
BuEHLER, Mrs. Ernest 
Buell, Mrs. Charles C. 
Buhlig, Paul 
Buhlig, Miss Rose 
Bull, Gordon W. 


BuLLEN, Mrs. F. F. 
BuNCK, Edward C. 
BuNGE, August H., Sr. 
Bunker, Charles C. 
BuNN, B. H. 
Bunnell, John A. 
BuNTE, Mrs. Theodore W. 
Bunting, Guy J. 
BuRCH, Mrs. W. E. 
BuRDiCK, Dr. Alfred S. 
BuRKE, Edward H. 
Burkhardt, Charles E. 
BuRKiTT, Mrs. Beulah E. 
Burnet, Mrs. W. A. 
Burnham, D. H. 
Burnham, HufeERT 
Burns, Miss Ethel R. 
Burns, Mrs. J. S. 
Burns, John J. 
burritt, d. f. 
Burrows, Miss Louisa L. 
BuRSiK, Miss Emilie G. 
Burton, Miss Claribel 
BtTRTON, Fred A. 
BuscH, Francis X. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


BuswELL, Mrs. Henry Lee 
Butler, Mrs. Russell E. 
Butt, Frank Eastman 
Buttner, William C. 
Butts, 0. W. 
BuxBAUM, Morris 
Byersdorf, Sidney R. 
Byfield, Ernest L. 
Byfield, Mrs. Herbert A. 
Byfield, Miss Lillian R. 

Cable, Arthur G. 
Cahill, William A. 
Cahn, Benjamin R. 
Cain, G. R. 

Caldwell, Mrs. Asa J. 
Caldwell, H. Ware 
Caldwell, Louis G. 
Callahan, Mrs. A. F. 
Calvin, Dr. Joseph K. 
Cameron, Ossian 
Cammack, Herbert M. 
Camp, Benjamin B. 
Camp, Curtis B. 
Camp, J. Beidler 
Campbell, Argyle 
Campbell, Donald A. 
Campbell, Mrs. John G. 
Campbell, Mrs. R. D. 
Campbell, Robert W. 
Campe, Frank O. 
Canavan, J. Newell 
Capodice, J. J. 
Capper, John S. 
Carlin, Leo J. 
Carlson, Miss Beata M. 
Carlson, Mrs. Carl T. 
Carman, S. S. 
Carnahan, Mrs. Glen C. 
Carpenter, Harold B. 
Carpenter, John Alden 
Carr, H. C. 
Carr, Dr. James G. 
Carrington, Edmund 
Carroll, M. V. 
Carteaux, Leon L. 
Carter, Allan J. 
Carter, C. B. 
Carter, Mrs. L. D. 
Cary, Dr. William 
Casavant, Gustav a. 
Casey, J. R. 

C ASSAD ay, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Cassels, G. J. 
Cassidy, William J. 

Castenholz, W. B. 
Castle, C. S. 
Castle, Mrs. Charles S. 
Castle, Sydney 
Castruccio, Guiseppe 
Caswell, Mrs. A. B. 
Caughlin, Mrs. F. P. 
Cavanagh, Harry L. 
Cavenee, Mrs. C. M. 
Cervenka, John A. 
Chadwick, Mrs. Griffith 
Chalmers, Mrs. J. Y. 
Chamberlin, Mrs. Adele R. 
Chambers, Mrs. Helen S. 
Chandler, C. F. 
Chandler, Charles H. 
Chandler, Frank R. 
Chandler, Dr. Fremont A. 
Chandler, George M. 
Chapin, Rufus F. 
Chapman, William Gerard 
Chase, Mrs. Edward G, 
Chase, Miss Florence 
Chase, Mrs. Leona 
Chase, Roy W. 
Chase, Samuel T. 
Chase, Mrs. William H. 
Chavis, Dr. Samuel W. 
Chessman, L. W. 
Childs, Mrs. Fred B. 
Childs, Kent C. 
Childs, Mrs. R. W. 
Childs, Theron W. 
Christensen, Henry C. 
Christiansen, Dr. Henry 
Christopher, Mrs. Carl J. 
Christy, Mrs. F. V. 
Churchill, Richard S. 
Clancy, William L. 
Claney, Miss M. T. 
Clare, Herbert O. 
Clark, Mrs. Arthur M. 
Clark, C. P. 
Clark, James D. 
Clark, Miss Maud F. 
Clark, Mrs. Ralph E. 
Clark, Robert H. 
Clark, William Jerome 
Clarke, Broadus J. 
Clarke, Mrs. Fred A. 
Clarke, Mrs. Henry S., Jr. 
Claussen, Edmund J. 
Claypool, Glen F. 
Clayton, Frederick W. 
Cleary, Charles H. 

496 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Cleary, John J. 
Clement, Mrs. Allan M. 
Clements, Miss Ellen N. 
Clements, Rev. Robert 
Cleveland, Mrs. A. F. 
Clifford, Thomas R. 
Clithero, W. S. 
Clizbe, Mrs. F. O. 
Cloney, T. W. 
Cloyes, William E. 
Cluff, Edwin E. 
Coale, George M. 
CoBURN, Alonzo J. 
CoBURN, E. Warner 
Cochran, J. L. 
Cochran, Mrs. J. L. 
Cochran, Miss Nellie 
Cochrane, Mrs. A. B. 
Cochrane, A. K. O. 
Cochrane, Mrs. Robert M. 
CoE, Frank Galt 
Coffin, Mrs. Fred Y. 
Coffin, Fred Y., Sr. 
Coffin, Percy B. 
Coffman, a. B. 
Cohen, A. E. 
Cohen, Archie H. 
Cohen, Irving Leslie 
Cohen, Irwin 
Cohien, Henry 
Cohn, Charles 
Cohn, Samuel A. 
Cohn, Mrs. Samuel J. 
Colburn, Warren E. 
Cole, Lawrence A. 
Coleman, Algernon 
Coleman, B. R. 
Coleman, Clarence L. 
Coleman, Hamilton 
Collins, Arthur B. 
Collins, Arthur W. 
Collins, Beryl B. 
Collins, Charles W. 
CCH.LINS, Chilton C. 
Collins, George R. 
Collins, Dr. Lorin C. 
Collins, Dr. Rufus G. 
Colnon, Philip 
CoNDiT, Mrs. J. S. 
Condon, Mrs. John 
Condon, Thomas J. 
Conger, Mrs. William Perez 
conkey, h. p. 
Connor, Mrs. Frederick T. 
CoNOVER, Harvey 

Conover, Mrs. Luther W. 
CoNRAN, Mrs. Walter A. 
CoNROY, Mrs. Esther F. 
CoNSOER, Arthur W. 
Consoer, Miss Meta 
Converse, Earl M. 
Converse, William A. 
Cooban, Frank G. 
Cook, Miss Edith S. 
Cook, Dr. Frances H. 
Cook, J. B. 
Cook, Louis T. 
Cook, Sidney A. 
Cooke, Mrs. George J. 
Coon, Robert E. 
Cooper, Miss Adelaide 
Cooper, Charles H. 
Cooper, Frederick A. 
Cooper, Mrs. Henry N. 
Cooper, R., Jr. 
Copeland, T. a. 
CoppEL, Mrs. Charles H. 
Corbin, Mrs. Dana 
CoRBiN, Mrs. F. N. 
CoRBOY, Miss C. M. 
CoRBOY, William J. 
Core, Mrs. J. D. 
Corey, Miss W. Jennette 
Cornelius, J. F. 
Cornell, Dr. Edward L. 
Cornet, Mrs. A. L. 
CoRPER, Erwin 
CoRRiGAN, James 
CoRRY, Mrs. Adeline M. 
CoRSANT, Mrs. Charles King 
Cor WIN, Dr. Arthur M. 
Costello, Thomas J. 
CoTTELL, Miss Louisa 
CouRSON, Harry C. 
Courtney, Miss Martha A. 
Cox, Arthur M. 
CozzENS, Mrs. Frederick B. 
Craddock, J. F. 
Craig, H. W. 
Cramer, Mrs. Ambrose 
Cramer, Mrs. S. B. 
Crawford, Adam W. 
Crawtord, Mrs. Warren 
Creber, Mrs. Walter H. 
Creed, Daniel A. 
Creedon, Mrs. Clara W. 
Crego, Frank A. 
Crellin, Miss Mary F. 
Crile, Mrs. Dennis W. 
Cronkhite, Albion C. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Crooks, Mrs. H. D. 

Cropp, Carl 

Crosby, Mrs. Frederick W. 

Crosby, Miss Samuella 

Cross, George B. 

Crow, W. R. 

Crowder, J. L. 

Crowe, Miss Eva B. 

Crowell, Dr. Bowman Corning 

Crowell, Lucius A. 

CuLLEN, Dr. George 

CuLLEY, Mrs. A. B. 

CuNEO, Frank 

Cunningham, Robert 

Cunningham, Robert M. 

CuRRAN, Peter A. 

Dahlquist, C. M. 
Dahnel, Mrs. E. R. 
Daiches, Eli 
Daley, Harry C. 
Dallas, C. Donald 
Dallstream, Andrew J. 
Dalton, Ernest E. 
Daly, Dr. T. A. 
Dalziel, Davison 
Dammann, Edward C. 
D'Ancona, a. E. 
Daniels, James E. 
Danielson, Mrs. A. E. 
Danielson, Fred V. 
Dankowski, I. F. 
Darling, Dr. U. G. 
Date, Mrs. S. S. 
Dauchy, Miss Barbara 
Daughaday, C. Colton 
David, Sidney S. 
Davidson, Lucius H. 
Davidson, Morton S. 
Davies, p. W. 
Davies, William B. 
Davis, A. M. 
Davis, Alexander M. 
Davis, Dr. Amy Reams 
Davis, Brode B. 
Davis, Charles E. 
Davis, Mrs. Charles P. 
Davis, Don 
Davis, E. E. 
Davis, Mrs. F. Ben 
Davis, Mrs. George A. 
Davis, Dr. H. I. 
Davis, Dr. Loyal 
Davis, Mrs. Newton E. 
Davis, Paul H. 

Davis, W. Harry 
Davis, Warren T. 
Dawes, Neil B. 
Dawson, William L. 
Day, Clyde L. 
Day, Mrs. Lewis J. 
Dean, William D. 
Deane, Ruthven 
Deans, Mrs. Herbert G. P. 
DeBerard, Miss Grace 
DeBoer, Mrs. Klaas C. 
Debs, Louis H. 
Decker, Mrs. Halford H. 
Decker, Hiram E. 
Dee, Mrs. William E. 
Deery, Miss Helen C. 
Defrees, Mrs. Donald 
Defrees, Mrs. Joseph H. 
DeFrees, Miss Mary L. 
Degener, August W. 
Degenhardt, Dr. Edgar 
Dehning, Mrs. C. H. 
Deimel, Mrs. Jerome L. 
Deininger, Mrs. D. M. 
DeLamarter, Mrs. Eric 
DeLoach, Dr. R. J. H. 
DeLong, F. T. 
Delson, Louis J. 
Demaree, H. S. 
Demont, Carl 
DeMuth, Mrs. Elizabeth S. 
Deneen, Robert J. 
Deniston, Mrs. Albert J., Jr. 
Dennis, Willard P, 
DePeyster, Frederic A. 
Dering, Mrs. Edith S. 
DeSauty, Sydney 
D'EsposiTO, J. 
Deutschmann, Rudolph 
DeVaney, Miss Marie A. 
DeVries, George 
DeWolf, Mrs. John E., Sr. 
Dewson, Mrs. John R. 
Dick, Miss F. Louise 
DiENER, George W. 
Dienstag, Mrs. Benno 
DiGNAN, Frank W. 
Dillbahner, Frank 
Dingle, Mrs. Florence Thomas 
Dixon, Mrs. Wesley M. 
DoERiNG, Mrs. Edmund J., Jr. 
Dolese, Mrs. John 
DoLESE, Miss Marie 
Donahey, Mrs. William 
Donnelley, Thorne 

498 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

DoRNEY, Rev. Maurice A. 
Dors, George B. 
DoscH, Henry C. 
Doubt, Mrs. T. E. 
dowling, t. f. 
Doyle, Edward V. 
Doyle, Leo J. 
Drell, Mrs. J. B. 
Drennan, John G. 
Drew, Miss E. L. 
Drew, Mrs. Leslie A. 
Drews, William F. 
Drezmal, Max A. 
Drielsma, I. J. 


Dryden, Mrs. George B. 
Drymalski, Paul 
Dudley, W. W. 
Duffy, Mrs. Mary E. 
Dunbaugh, George J. 
Dunbaugh, Harry J. 
Duncan, W. S. 
Dunham, Mrs. W. H. 
DuNLAP, Mrs. T. M. 
Dunn, Edward J. 
Dunning, N. Max 
Dufee, Eugene H. 
Durfee, Carlisle 
Durham, Raymond E. 
DuRLAND, Miss Ethel Grace 
DuRR, Mrs. Herbert A, 

Easthope, Joseph 
Eaton, Mrs. Marquis 
Ebeling, Mrs. George 
Eberle, William C. 
EcKART, Mrs. Robert P. 
EcKSTORM, Mrs. Paul 
Edmonds, Miss Nora 
Ehrlich, M. J. 
Ehrman, Walter E. 
Ehrmann, Dr. Fred J. E. ' 
Eichstaedt, Dr. J. J. 
Eisendrath, Miss Elsa B. 
Eisendrath, Joseph L. 
Eitel, Emil 

Elam, Mrs. Frank Harris 
Eley, Ning 
Elich, Mrs. Herman 
Eliel, Mrs. Theresa G. 
Elkington, Charles S. 
Ellbogen, Mrs. Max 
Ellert, Arnold M. 
Ellicson, S. Adelbert, Sr. 
Ellinson, Mrs. William J. 

Elliot, Mrs. Frank M. 
Elliott, Dr. A. R. 
Elliott, Mrs. E. N. 
Elliott, Francke C. 
Elliott, Mrs. O. Earl 
Elliott, Mrs. R. H. 
Ellis, Frank I. 
Elmer, Miss Lulu Shepard 
Elmslie, George G. 
Elting, Victor 
Emery, William H. 
Emig, Howard A. 
Engelhart, Frank C. 
Emery, Mrs. Fred A. 
England, Edward L. 
Englander, Mrs. Marcelite 
Engle, Mrs. Walter 
English, John J. 
Engstrom, Harold 
Epstein, Albert K. 
Erd, Arthur A. 
Erickson, Mrs. Alfred 0. 
Erickson, Mrs. E. T. 
Erickson, Elmer 
Erickson, H. E. 
Erickson, Hubbard H. 
Erikson, Mrs. G. F, 
Erley, Walter 
Erwin, Mrs. Charles R. 
Erzinger, Mrs. Minnie C. 
Eschner, Leroy 
Esdohr, F. H. 
Esmond, John W. 
Espenshade, Mrs. E. B. 


Ettelson, Mrs. Samuel A. 

EuLASS, Elmer A. 

Evans, Miss Anna B. 

Evans, Miss Bertha K. 

Evans, Eliot H. 

Evans, Floyd Butler 

Evans, Mrs. Timothy Wallace 

Everett, Edward W. 

Ewing, Mrs. Hugh W. 

Falls, Dr. S. H. 
Faltysek, E. J. 
Fani, Father Charles 
Fanning, C. G. 
Fantus, Dr. Bernard 
Farley, Mrs. John W. 
Farnsworth, G. J. 
Farquharson, William J. 
Farrell, William W. 
Far well, Albert D. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Farwell, Edward P. 
Farwell, Stanley P. 
Faulkner, Dr. Louis 
Favorite, Mrs. Isabel C. 
Fell, A. L. 
Fell, Miss Frances 
Felsenthal, Herman 
Fenn, Dr. G. K. 
Fenton, J. R. 
Ferguson, Mrs. W. J. 
Ferrer, Mrs. Lorraine L. 
Ferrier, Miss Mary 
Ferris, L. G. 
Ferris, Miss Sarah L. 
Fetters, Judson H. 
Fetzer, Wade, Jr. 
Fetzer, William R. 
Field, Forrest Whipple 
Field, Heman H. 
Field, Henry 
Field, Mrs. J. A. 
Field, Mrs. Wentworth G. 
Fieldhouse, Clarence B. 
Fiery, E. Irving 
FiNDLEY, Dr. Ephraim K. 
Finigan, Thomas 
Fink, Mrs. Arthur G. 
Fink, R. A. 
Fischer, Arthur 
Fischer, Charles H. 
Fischer, Mrs. Charles W. 
FiscHRUPP, George 
Fish, Irving D. 
Fisher, Mrs. Howard A. 
Fisher, Mrs. Vories 
Fisher, Mrs. Walter E. 
FisKE, Kenneth B. 
Fitch, Thomas 
Fitzmorris, Charles C. 
FiTZPATRiCK, Miss Anna E. 
FiTZPATRiCK, Mrs. H. P. 
FiTZPATRicK, James R. 
FiTZPATRiCK, Mrs. T. F. 
Flaherty, Mrs. Earl V. 
Flaherty, Joseph F. 
Flanigan, Arthur H. 
Fleischhauer, Herbert 
Fleming, Miss Ada M. 
Fleming, Edward J. 
Fleming, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Flinn, Mrs. F. B. 
Flinn, James M. 
Flocken, Mrs. F. A. 
Floreen, Mrs. Adolph R. 
Floyd, Paul E. 

Flynn, Maltrice J. 
fockler, l. h. 
Foley, Mrs. John Burton 
FoLSOM, Mrs. William R. 
Forbes, Lester H. 
FoRCH, Mrs. John L., Jr. 
Ford, Mrs. Charles E. 
Ford, James S. 
Ford, Mrs. Norman J. 
Ford, Mrs. T. A. 
Fordyce, Mrs. R. L. 
Foreman, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Foreman, Dr. Oliver C. 
Forrest, George D. 
Forrest, Maulsby 
Forrester, Mrs. W. W. 
Forster, J. G. 
Fortelka, Dr. Frank L. 
Fortune, John L. 
Fosburg, H. a. 
fosdick, k. i. 
Foster, Mrs. A. H. 
Foster, Mrs. Gertrude L. 
FoucEK, Charles G. 
Fowler, G. F. 
Fox, Harvey 
FoY, John J. 

Fraizer, Mrs. Lawrence 
Frame, C. L. 
Francis, Mrs. Daisy G. 
Frank, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Frank, David 
Frank, John M. 
Frank, Samuel I. 
Franke, Dr. Meta E. 
Franklin, Abraham M. 
Franklin, Egington 
Eraser, Angus 
Eraser, N. D. 
Frazee, Seward C. 
Frederick, Mrs. Clarence L. 
Frederick, R. L. 
Freehof, Dr. Solomon B. 
Freeman, Mrs. Ernest H. 
Freeman, Victor E. 
Freitag, F. J. 
French, Mrs. Harry P. 
French, Mrs. L. B. 
Freund, Erwin O. 
Fried, Harry N. 
Friedberg, Mrs. Stanton 
Frieder, Edward N. 
Friedman, I. S. 
Friedrichs, Mrs. Edith E. 

500 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

Friend, Mrs. Alexander 
Friend, Oscar F. 
Friend, Mrs. R. O. 
Frisbie, Mrs. Ida D. 
Frisk, Miss Auda 
Froebe, Miss Edith 
Froehling, Arthur F. 
Frymark, August A. 
FuciK, E. J. 

Fuller, Mrs. Eugene W, 
Fuller, Dr. George Damon 
Fuller, Mrs. J. G. 
FuLMER, Mrs. S. Guy 
Fulton, Mrs. Frank M. 
Funk, Mrs. C. S. 
Funk, G. W. 
Funkhauser, Leonard K. 

Gabel, Walter H. 

Gabriel, Frank J. 

Gaither, Otho S. 

Gale, Abram 

Gale, Frederick A. 

Gallagher, Mrs. F. H. 

Gallagher, Mrs. George F. 

Gallagher, Dr. William J. 

Gallauer, C. 

Galloway, Dr. Charles E. 

Galloway, William Marshall 

Galvin, Joseph X. 

Gamble, James A. 

Gano, David R. 

Gans, Daniel 

Garlick, R. C. 

Garner, F. J. 

Garrison, Bernard C. 

Gartside, John L. 

Garvey, Mrs. W. H. 

Garwood, Victor E. 

Gary, Dr. I. Clark 

Gates, Philip R. 

Gathman, Arthur E. 

Gaul, H. J. 

Gaylord, Miss Anna E. 

Gebhardt, Ernest A. 

Geer, Mrs. Ira J. 

Gehm, Mrs. F. E. 

Geib, Miss MarGv^erite F. 

Geiger, Dr. a. H. 

Gentzel, Emil a. 

George, Calvin M. 

Geraghty, Mrs. Thomas F. 

Gerding, R. W. 

Gere, Mrs. Albert H. 

Geringer, Charles M. 

Gertz, Rudolph V. 
Gervais, Mrs. W. B. 
Getschow, George M. 
Gettelman, Mrs. Sidney H. 
Gibbs, Mrs. Walter M. 
GiBBS, William J. 
Gibson, Carl L. 
Gibson, Clinton E. 
Gibson, Mrs. Irene M. 
Gibson, Dr. Stanley 
Gibson, Mrs. Will A., Jr. 
GiELOW, Walter C. 
Gielsdorf, Miss Helen P. 
GiESSEL, Mrs. Henry 
Gilbert, Allan T. 
Gilbert, Mrs. George A. 
Gilbert, Miss Helen R. 
Gilbert, Mrs. N. C. 
Gilbert, Mrs. T. G. 
Gilchrist, Miss Harriet F. 
Giles, Miss A. H. 
Giles, Mrs. I. K. 
Giles, Dr. Roscoe 
Gilkes, William H. 
Gill, Adolph 
Gill, Dr. John Granville 
Gill, Wallace 
Gillanders, Kenneth 
Gilleland, p. H. 
Gillet, Harry O. 
Gillette, Mrs. Ellen D. 
Gillette, Howard F. 
Gilpin, Garth G. 
Gindele, Mrs. C. W. 
Glader, Frank J. 
Gladish, Rev. W. L. 
Glass, J. R. 
Glass, William Q. 
Glick, Emanuel M. 
Glidden, Mrs. H. L. 
Glover, Mrs. Manson 
Glynn, Mrs. John E. 
GoBLE, Mrs. E. R. 
GoDDARD, Mrs. Convers 
GoELiTZ, Mrs. Harry, Jr. 
GoETZ, Mrs. Isabelle R. 
Golding, Gustav 
Goldman, Mrs. Louis 
Goldman, Mrs. M. 
Goldsmith, Henry M. 
Goldsmith, M. A. 
Goldsmith, Moses 
Goldstein, Benjamin F. 
Good, Mrs. James W. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Good, Macy S. 
GooDKiND, Mrs. A. L. 
Gordon, Mrs. Harold J. 
Gordon, Dr. L. E. 
Gore, Mrs. Edward E. 
GoRHAM, Miss Kathryn C. 
Gorman, Mrs. Mervyn J. 


GouGET, William T. 
Gould, George W. 
Goven, Edouard T. 
Graham, Mrs. C. Darwin 
Graham, Miss Margaret H. 
Gramm, Dr. Carl T. 
Granstrom, p. M. 
Grapperhaus, Fred W. 
Grauer, Milton H. 
Graver, Mrs. H. S. 
Graver, Philip S. 
Graves, Mrs. B. C. 
Graves, Mrs. George E. 
Graves, Mrs. W. T. 
Grawols, Mrs. G. L. 
Gray, Dr. Horace 
Gray, Mrs. William S. 
Graydon, Charles E. 
Grear, W. S. 
Green, Albert L. 
Green, Mrs. George H. 
Green, Walter H. 
Greenburg, I. G. 
Greenebaum, Mrs. Esther 
Greengard, Max 
Greenleaf, Mrs. William H. 
Gregg, Robert D. 
Gregory, Mrs. Robert B. 
Gregory, Mrs. Seth W. 
Grein, Joseph 
Greiner, Clarence A. 
Grendeske, Mrs. Joseph A. 
Grey, Newton F. 
Gridley, Mrs. B. F. 
Griesel, Edward T. 
Griesser, Mrs. Hans Richard 
Griest, Mrs. Marianna L. 
Griffin, Bennett 
Griffin, Nicholas M. 
Griffin, Thomas D. 
Griffith, Mrs. Carroll L. 
Griffith, Mrs. John L. 
Grimmer, Dr. A. H. 
Grinker, Dr. Roy R. 
Grinnell, Flint 
Grinnell, Robert L. 
Griswold, Roy C. 

Groebe, Louis G. 
Groenwald, Florian a. 
Grosfield, Mme. Bertha M. 
Grossman, Mrs. I. A. 
Grotnes, Miss Alice 
Gruenfeld, Adolph J. 
Grumbine, Miss E. Evalyn 
Grunwald, Mrs. Emil G. 
Gruse, Mrs. Frank A. 
Grut, Harry N. 
GuDEMAN, Dr. Edward 
Guettler, H. W. 
GuHL, Mrs. Otto H. 
GuiLLiAMS, John R. 
GuiNAN, James J. 
GuLLBORG, John S. 
GuNDERsoN, Mrs. George O. 
GuNGGOLL, Mrs. G. A. 
GuNKEL, George P. 
GuNNAR, Mrs. H. P. 


Gunther, Samuel L. 
GuRLEY, Miss Helen K. 
gusfield, julien j. 
Gustafson, Mrs. Andrew 
Guthrie, Miss Mary G. 

Haas, Adolph R. 
Haas, George H. J. 
Haas, Samuel L. 
Hachmeister, Herman 
Hack, Miss Helen V. 
Hackett, Horatio B. 
Hadlock, Gerald B. 
Haedtler, Martin C. 
Haerther, Dr. A. G. 
Haerther, William W. 
Hagey, J. F. 
Haggard, Godfrey 
Haines, Miss Tina Mae 
Hajek, Henry F. 
Halas, Andrew G. 
Haley, Dr. C. O. 
Hall, Mrs. Albert L. 
Hall, Arthur B. 
Hall, Edward B. 
Hall, George C. 
Hall, Henry C. 
Hall, J. Russell 
Hall, Mrs. J. S. 
Hall, Louis W. 
Hall, Robert W. 
Hallenbeck, Mrs. C. W. 
Halsted, Mrs. A. E. 
Halsted, Miss A. W. 

502 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Halverstadt, Mrs. Romaine M. 
Hambleton, C. J. 
Hamilton, Alex K. 
Hamilton, Mrs. Chester F. 
Hamilton, Edgar L. 
Hamilton, Hugo A. 
Hamilton, J. R. 
Hamilton, Mrs. Nellie Y. 
Hamilton, Robert J. 
Hamilton, Mrs. Scott R. 
Hamline, Mrs. John H. 
Hammatt, Mrs. W. P. 
Hammel, George E. 
Hammer, Thomas H. 
Hammill, Miss Edith K. 
Hammond, Mrs. I. L. 
Hammond, Roy E. 
Hammond, Miss Violet F. 
Hammond, William J. 
Hancock, Frank A. 
Hanecy, Mrs. Sarah B. 
Haney, Mrs. S. C. 
Hankins, Harry 
Hanley, Frederick R. 
Hansen, Miss Alma C. 
Hansen, Edward C. 
Hansen, Leslie M. 
Hanskat, Mrs. Rose 
Hanson, August E. 
Hanson, Harry E. 
Hanson, Harry S. 
Hanson, Martin J. 
Harbison, Robert B. 
Harder, Miss Louise 
Hardest Y, Paul L. 
Harding, Mrs. Charles F. 
Harding, Patrick J. 
Hardwicke, Harry 
Hardy, Henry G. 
Harmon, Hubert P. 
Harmon, John H. 
Harper, James H. 
Harper, Miss Nellie M. 
Harries, Mrs. George H. 
Harrigan, E. J. 
Harriman, Frank B., Sr. 
Harris, Mrs. Abraham 
Harris, Ewart 
Harris, Frank F. 
Harris, W. H. 
Harris, Wallace R. 
Harris, William L. 
Harrison, Miss Annie L. 
Harrison, Edward R. 
Harrison, Dr. Edwin M. 

Harrison, Harry P. 
Harrison, James D. 
Harrold, James P. 
Harsh aw, Myron T. 
Harshbarger, Miss Dema E. 
Hart, Mrs. G. H. 
Hart, Harry M. 
Hart, Henry D. 
Hart, Louis E. 
Hart, Max A. 
Hart, Percival G. 
Hart, Mrs. Walter H. 
Hartigan, Mrs. A. F. 
Hartigan, Clare 
Hartmann, Mrs. Emil F. 
Hartmann, Henry, Sr. 
Hartmann, Mrs. Hugo 
Harvey, Byron S. 
Harvey, Harold B. 
Harvey, Dr. Robert H. 
Harvey, W. S., Jr. 
Harwood, Frederick 
Haskell, L. A. 
Haskins, Raymond G. 
Haskins, Mrs. Virginia W. 
Hasler, Mrs. Edward L. 
Hastings, Edmund A. 
Hatmaker, Mrs. Jane K. 
Hattrem, Harold 
Haugan, Jevne 
Haupt, William W. 
Hauser, J. C. 
Hausler, Mrs. M., Jr. 
Hawkes, Mrs. Benjamin C. 
Hawkins, F. P. 
Hawkins, J. C. 
Hawkinson, Dr. Oscar 
Hawley, Clarence E. 
Hawthorne, V. R. 
Haynes, Mrs. J. R. 
Haynes, Ralph B. 
Hayt, William H. 
Haywood, Mrs. William 
Hazard, Miss Carolyn R. 
Healy, John J. 
Heath, A. G. 
Heath, Albert 
Heath, William A. 
Hebel, Hon. Oscar 
Heberling, Russell L. 
Heckel, Edmund P. 
Heckler, Mrs. Andrew F. 
Hector, Dr. William S. 
Hedman, John A. 
Heg, Ernest, Sr. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Hegberg, R. 0. 

Heide, Bernard H. 

Heifetz, Samuel 

Heineke, Carl 

Heineman, Mrs. P. G. 

Heinemann, John B. 

Helebrandt, Louis 

Helenore, John C. 

Heller, Bruno F. 

Henderson, B. E. 

Henderson, Mrs. Burton Waters 

Henderson, Mrs. C. K. 

Henderson, Charles C. 

Henkle, I. S. 

Henning, William C. 

Henrickson, Magnus 

Henry, C. Duff 

Henry, Claude D. 

Henry, Mrs. R. M. 

Henschen, Henry S. 

Henschien, H. Peter 

Hensel, Herman E. 

Hepfner, Mrs. Frank 

Herb, Harry 

Herbert, Mrs. William H. 

Herbst, Mrs. Robert H. 

Herdliska, Mrs. F. I. 

Herring, Garner 

Herriott, Irving 

Hertbl, Hugo S. 

Hertz, Mrs. John D. 

Hertzberg, Edward 

Herzman, Dr. Morris H. 

Hess, Edward J. 

Hess, Mrs. J. H. 

Hess, John L. 

Hess, Mrs. Milton 

Hess, Sol H. 

Hessert, Gust a V 

Hessert, Mrs. William 

Hessler, John B. 

Hettrick, William J. 

Heubach, Mrs. Lydia 

Heym, Dr. a. 

Heymann, Emanuel H. 

Heymann, L. H. 

Heywood, Oliver C. 

Hibbard, Angus S. 

HiBBEN, Mrs. M. B. 

Hibbert, Miss Bertha 

HiBLER, Mrs. John Henry 

Hicklin, John W. 

HiCKOK, Frank M. 

Hicks, Mrs. Elvis L. 

Hicks, Mrs. W. T. 

High, Shirley T. 
HiGHLEY, Miss Lyle A. 
Hill, Duke 
Hill, Mrs. E. M. 
Hill, Mrs. Frank L. 
Hill, Frederick 
Hill, Miss Meda A. 
HiLLiARD, Mrs. William 
Hilliker, Miss Ray 
HiLLMAN, Edward 
Hills, Charles W., Sr. 

HiLLYER, D wight E. 

Hilton, Henry H. 
Hinds, George T. 
Hinkle, Ross O. 
Hinman, Mrs. Curtis M. 
Hirschberg, Dr. Abram 
Hirsh, Morris Henry 
Hitch, Mrs. Rufus M. 
Hitchcock, R. M. 
Hite, Harry A. 
HoADLEY, Mrs. Arthur G. 
HoAG, Mrs. Junius C. 
HocH, Mrs. William 
HocHE, Mrs. Edmond S. 
Hochstadter, G. 
HoDEL, George 
Hodge, Thomas P. 
Hoefer, Ernest 
HoEFT, Mrs. Adolph R. 
Hoellen, John J. 
HOFF, C. W. 

Hoffman, Mrs. Ernst H. 
hoinville, c. h. 
HoLABiRD, John A. 
HoLDEN, Hale, Jr. 
Hole, Perry L. 
Holland, Samuel H. 
Hollenbach, Charles H. 
Hollister, Francis H. 
Hollow AY, Harry C. 
Hollow AY, Owen B. 
Holly, W. H. 
Holm, Gottfried 
Holm, Walter T. 
HoLMAN, Alfred J. 
Holman, Edward 
HoLMEAD, Alfred 
Holmes, Dr. Bayard 
Holmes, James C. 
Holmes, Thomas J. 
Holmes, William 
Holran, Mrs. John Raymond 
Holt, Mrs. ARTHim E. 

504 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Holt, James A. 

Holt, McPherson 

holzer, f. l. 

HoLZWORTH, Christopher E. 

HoNORE, Mrs. Lockwood 

Hood, George A. 

HooGE, Dr. Ludwig F. 

Hoover, George W. 

Hopkins, Alvah S. 

Horn, Mrs. J. M. 

Horner, Walter A. 

HoRNSTEiN, Leon 

Hornung, Joseph J. 

Horton, Ralph 

Horween, Isadore 

Horwich, Philip 

HosFORD, William R. 

HosKiNS, Mrs. E. L. 

Hostetter, G. L. 

Houghteling, James L. 

HousER, Mrs. Agnes Ricks 

Howard, Mrs. O. McG. 

Howard, Dr. Richard H. 

Howard, William H. 

Howe, Edward G. 

Hoik's, Irwin M. 

HOYT, C. E. 

HoYT, N. Landon, Jr. 

HoYT, William M., II 

Hryniewiecki, Dr. Stefan 

HuARD, William G. 

Hubachek, Frank Brookes 

Hubbard, E. J. 

Hubbard, John M. 

Hubbard, Mrs. William Sillers 

Hubbell, Miss Grace 

HuBBELL, William J. 

Huebsch, Mrs. Helen M. 


HuFFAKER, Mrs. O'Bannon L. 
HuFTY, Mrs. F. P. 
Hughes, George E. 
Hughes, Hubert Earl 
Hughes, P. A. 
Hughes, Rev. Richard D. 
Hughes, W. V. 
Hull, Irving W. 
Hull, Mrs. Joseph C. 
Hull, Robert W. 
Hultin, N. H. 
Human, Michael G. 
HuMiSTON, Dr. Charles E. 
Hunt, Jarvis, Jr. 
Hunt, W. Prescott, Jr. 
HuRD, Mrs. F. A. 

HuRD, Harry B. 
HuRD, Max H. 
Hurley, Frank J. 
Hurst, Mrs. Wayne Lloyd 
HuRWiTH, Howard K. 
Hurwitz, Morris J. 
Husak, Mrs. L. Milton 
HusAR, Frank 

HusMANN, Mrs. Theodore F. 
HusTED, Mrs. John C. 
HuszAGH, Mrs. Harold D. 
Hutchinson, Mrs. C. L. 
Hutchison, Miss Jean 
HuTTEL, Mrs. A. N. 
Huxley, Henry M. 
Hyde, Charles W. 
Hyman, R. F. 
Hymers, Mrs. Edward 
Hyndman, Mrs. A. H. 
Hynes, Dibrell 

Icely, Lawrence B. 
Inderrieden, Miss L. E. 
Ingraham, Mrs. Loring 
Ingram, Harold S. 
Ingram, Mrs. John 
Innes, Mrs. Frederick L. 
Iralson, Mrs. Moses 
Irwin, A. Charles 
Irwin, Amory T. 
Irwin, Gordon C. 
Irwin, Mrs. G. Howard 
Irwin, Miss Ruth M. 
Isaacs, Hon. Martin J. 
Isaacs, Michael H. 
Iverson, Harry J. 

Jackson, Howard K. 
Jackson, Mrs. Pleda H. 
Jackson, W. H. 
Jackson, William F. 
Jacobi, Harry 
Jacobs, E. G. 
Jacobs, Harvey F. 
Jacobs, Nate 
Jacobs, Walter H. 
Jacobs, Whipple 
Jacobson, Egbert G. 
Jacobson, Harry 
Jaeger, Edward W. 
Jaegermann, William A. 
Jaffe, Benjamin E. 
Jaicks, Mrs. Stanley H. 
James, Henry D. 
James, Mrs. Ralph H. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


James, R. E. 

James, Dr. R. L. 

Jamieson, Norman R. 

Jampolis, Mrs. Mark 

Janata, Louis J. 

Janda, Rudolph 

Jane, William T. 

Janensch, Mrs. E. 

Janis, Frank H. 

Jannotta, Frank S. 

Jannotta, J. E. 

Jarchow, Mrs. C. E. 

Jarema, Alexander L. 

Jarrett, R. H., Sr. 

Jar vis, William B., Sr. 

Jaycox, Mrs. Mildred E. 

Jefferson, Mrs. Edith H. 

Jenkins, Newton 

Jenkins, Sidney H. 

Jenkins, William E. 

Jenks, Mrs. Virgil A. 

Jennings, Mrs. C. A. 

Jennings, Mrs. Rosa V. 

Jensen, Carl F. 

Jensen, Harold P. 

Jensik, Raymond C. 

Jernberg, C. Edgar 

Jernberg, Carl L. 

Jessup, Theodore 

Jewell, Miss Helen M. 

Jewett, Mrs. George C. 

JiRSA, Dr. Otto J. 

Joern, Wanda M. 

Johnson, Mrs. Alice N. 

Johnson, B. W. 

Johnson, C. Edward 

Johnson, Mrs. Clarence A. 

Johnson, Evan 

Johnson, Mrs. E. G. 

Johnson, Mrs. Francis Theodore 

Johnson, Harry T. 

Johnson, Mrs. Herbert S. 

Johnson, Mrs. J. J. 

Johnson, Mrs. Lorena M. 

Johnson, M. 

Johnson, Martin A. 

Johnson, Mrs. W. B. 

Johnson, Dr. Walter W. 

Johnson, William E. 

Johnston, Mrs. Fred H, 

Johnston, Ira B. 

Johnston, Robert M. 

Johnston, W. Robert 

Johnstone, Mrs. Bruce 

Jones, Ashley Oliver, Sr. 

Jones, Mrs. C. A. 

Jones, D. C. 

Jones, George R. 

Jones, Homer D., Jr. 

Jones, Mrs. Howard A. 

Jones, Howard E. A. 

Jones, Dr. Jay G. 

Jones, J. Harry, Sr. 

Jones, John H. 

Jones, Mrs. John Sutphin 

Jones, Owen Barton 

Jones, Mrs. Roswell N. 

Jones, Victor H. 

Jones, Walter Clyde, Jr. 

Jordan, Miss Irene C. 

Jorgeson, Charles M. 

Joseph, A. G. 

Joseph, W. S. 

Joy, James A. 

Joyce, Marvin Bernard 

Joyce, Thomas F. 

JuDD, Cecil W. 

JuDD, Harry L. 

JuDD, Mrs. Robert Augustine 

JuDSON, Clay 

JuDSON, Raymond T. 

JuERGENS, Miss Anna 

Junker, Richard A. 

Kaempfer, Fred 
Kaericher, Mrs. Grover D. 
Kahlkb, Dr. Charles E. 
Kahn, Albert 
Kahn, Mrs. Louis 
Kahn, Sidney H. 
Kampmeyer, August 
Kampp, j. p. 
Kanavel, Dr. Allen B. 
Kanies, Mrs. William F, 
Kann, Max M. 
Kannally, M. V. 
Kanter, Dr. Aaron E. 
Kanter, Miss Adele 
Karnes, George 
Karpen, S. 
Karstrom, j. O. 
Kaspar, Mrs. Eugene W. 
Kass, Peter 
Katz, Mrs. S. 
Kaufman, D. W. 
Kaufman, Dr. Gustav L. 
Kaye, Joseph M. 
Keeper, Karl F. 
Keene, William J. 
Kegel, Mrs. A. H, 

506 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Keig, Marshall E. 
Keim, Melville 
Kelley, Harper 
Kelley, Mrs. Harper 
Kellogg, Miss Bess 
Kellogg, James G. 
Kellogg, Mrs. Sarah A. 
Kelly, Edmund P. 
Kelly, Mrs. George 
Kelly, Mrs. George V. 
Kelly, Joseph J. 
Kelly, Miss Mary A. 
Kemp, Philip G. 
Kemper, Miss Hilda M. 
Kendrick, W. S. 
Kennedy, Ralph 
Kennedy, Mrs. Robert E. 
Kennedy, Mrs. William J. 
Kenny, Dr. Henry Randal 
Kent, Henry R. 
Kenyon, Mrs. E. F. 
Keplinger, W. a. 
Keppner, H. W. 
Kern, Dr. Maximilian 
Kernott, Mrs. John E. 
Kerr, A. W. 

Kerr, Mrs. Alexander M. 
Kersey, Glen B. 
Kersting, Mrs. A. H. 
Kerwin, Edward M. 
Kesler, Edward C. 
Ketcham, Mrs. Charles E. 
Kibler, Mrs. Harold R. 
Kiehl, Miss A. L. 
KiLBERT, Mrs. Robert 
KiLCOURSE, Miss Marjorie V. 
Kilmer, Mrs. Charles 
Kimball, Ernest M. 
Kimball, George D. 
Kimball, T. Weller 
KiMBELL, Charles Rea 
Kindsvogel, W. G. 
King, Frank O. 
King, Mrs. Grace G. 
King, Hoyt 
King, John Andrews 
King, Joseph M. 
King, Mrs. Nelora S. 
King, Mrs. Rockwell 
King, Mrs. W. H. 
King, William Henry, Jr. 
Kingsley, R. C. 
Kinn, Mrs. Stella R. 
KiNSELLA, Mrs. William P. 
Kinsey, Robert S. 

KiPER, Henry 
KiPLiNGER, Walter M. 
KiRCHER, Mrs. J. G. 
Kirk, Harry I. 
Kirn, Mrs. Ray O. 
KiTCHELL, Howell W. 
Kittleman, Earle B. 
KixMiller, Mrs. William 
Klaas, Mrs. Henry 
Klein, Addie 
Klein, Arthur F. 
Klein, Mrs. A. S. 
Klein, Dr. David 
Klein, Fred W. 
Klein, Michael B. 
Klein, Peter 
Kleinman, Alexander 
Kleinschmidt, Edward 
Klemann, Mrs. C. J. 
Klenha, Joseph Z. 
Klenha, Mrs. Joseph Z. 
Kleppinger, Mrs. F. S. 
Kline, Louis A. 
Kline, William S. 
Klotz, Edward C. 
Knecht, Mrs. Tolbert L. 
Knight, Charles S. 
■ Knight, Newell C. 
Knight, Mrs. Orray T. 
Knobbe, John W. 
KoBicK, Henry G. 
Koch, Mrs. Fred C. 
Koch, Paul W. 
Koch, Dr. Sumner 
Kochale, Miss Clara M. 
koehler, h. a. 
KoENiG, Fred A. 
KoENiG, Mrs. F. William 
Koenig, George W. 
KoENiG, Mrs. S. W. 
KoEPKE, Mrs. Albert C, 
KoHN, Mrs. Frances J. 
KoHN, Oscar 
Kohout, Joseph, Jr. 
KoHR, Arthur G. 
Kollar, Dr. John A. 
KoLSTAD, Odin T. 

KooLisH, Mrs. Michael 
KoPTiK, Ernest A. 
Kordenat, Dr. Ralph A. 
KovoLOFF, Dan 
KowALSKi, August J. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


KoziczYNSKi, Dr. Lucian 
Krafft, Walter A. 
Kraft, Dr. Oscar H. 
Kramer, Cletus F. 
Krausman, Arthur 
Krebs, Charles E. 
Krein, Edward N. 
Krembr, C. E. 
Kremm, Mrs. Elmer W. 
Krensky, a. Morris 
Kretzmann, Miss Mary C. 
Kreuscher, Dr. Philip H. 
Kreuzinger, George W. 
Kriete, Frank L. 
Kristy, Mrs. George A. 
Kroener, Mrs. C. O. 
Krotzsch, Miss Ophelia 
Krueger, 0. W. 
Kuehn, Miss Katherine 
Kubhn, Oswald L. 
KuH, Dr. Sidney 
KuHNEN, Mrs. George H, 
KuNKA, Bernard J. 
Kunstadter, Sigmund 
Kunstmann, Mrs. John 0. 
Kuppenheimer, Mrs. J. 
KuRRiE, Mrs. H. R. 
Kurtz, George R. 
Kussman, a. C. 

Lack, Louis M. 
Lackner, Francis A. 
Ladd, C. M. 
Laemmle, Mrs. Louis 
Lafean, W. L. 
Laflin, Charles W. 
Laird, Robert S. 
Lake, Edward 
Lake, Mrs. R. C. 
Lamb, Frank J. 
Lamont, John A, 
Lampert, Wilson W. 
Landau, Harold 
Lander, Mrs. Lulu Payton 
Landman, L. W. 
Lane, Mrs. Eben 
Lane, Mrs. John F. 
Lane, Steven M. 
Langdon, Buel a. 
Lange, a. G. 
Langert, Abraham M. 
Langhorne, Rev. F. Paul 
Langhorst, Mrs. Henry F. 
Lanius, James C. 
Lansing, A, J. 

Lansinger, Mrs. John M. 
Lapham, F. H. 
Larimer, Robert S. 
Larkin, William J. 
Larsen, Gustave R. 
Larson, Simon P. 
Lasch, Charles F. 
Latham, Carl Ray 
Lathrop, Frederick A. 
Lau, Mrs. John Arnold 
Lauder, Robert E. 
Laufer, Mrs. Berthold 
Lauterbach, Mrs. Julius G. 
Lavender, Mrs. John M. 
Lavidge, Arthur W. 
Lavin, Mrs. D. J. 
Law, M. a, 
Lawrence, B. E. 
Lawrence, Miss Elma V. 
Lawrence, Victor E. 
Lawson, Lowell A. 
Lawton, Samuel T. 
Lazarus, W. H. 
Lazerson, Abraham 
Leach, George T. 
Leal, Miss Rose B. 
Leathers, Mrs. G. M. 
LeDuc, Mrs. A. 
Lee, Andrew 
Lee, Edward T. 
Lee, Ernest E. 
Lee, J. Owen 
Lee, Mrs. Joseph Edgar 
Lee, Mrs. W. George 
Leech, Miss Alice 
Lees, William 
Leete, Robert S. 
Leffel, P. C. 
Leigh, Edward B. 
Leight, Edward A. 
Leman, Mrs. W. T. 
Lemon, Harvey B. 
Lenfestey, Mrs. J. R. 
Lennox, Edwin 
Lenz, Mrs. George 
LeSage, Rev. John J. 
Leslie, John Woodworth 
Lesman, Mrs. George H. 
Lesser, Sol 
Lester, Albert G. 
Levett, Dr. John 
Levey, Clarence J. 
Levin, I. Archer 
Levin, Louis 
Levine, William 

508 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Levinkind, Morris 
Levinson, David 
Levinson, Salmon O. 
Levis, John M. 
Levitt, George G. 
Levy, Mrs. Arthur K. 
Levy, Harry H. 
Levy, Mrs. Samuel 
LeWald, W. B. 
Lewin, Miss Estella 
Lewis, A. A. 

Lewis, Mrs. Charles Rea 
Lewis, Miss Eva 
Lewis, Mrs. Harry G. 
Lewis, J. Henry 
Lewis, Mrs. R. H. 
Lewis, Miss Sara 
Lewis, Mrs. Walker O. 
L'Hommedieu, Arthur 
lichtenstein, walter 
LiDOV, Mrs. Samuel J. 


Lieberthal, Dr. Eugene P. 
LiNDLEY, Mrs. Fred W. 
Lindstrom, Adolph 
Link, Mrs. Robert 
LiNKMAN, Louis B. 
Linn, Mrs. James Weber 
Linn, Mrs. W. Scott 
Lipkin, Maurice S. 
LiPMAN, Abraham 
LiPPERT, Aloysius C. 
LIPPMAN, Mrs. Helen M. 
LiPSEY, William J. 
List, Paulus 
Lister, Harold R. 
LiTsiNGER, Mrs. Edward R. 
Little, Charles G. 
Livingston, Mrs. K. J. 
Llewellyn, Arthur J. 
Lloyd, A. E. 

Lloyd, Mrs. Grace Chapman 
LoBDELL, Harry H. 
Lodge, Fred S. 
LoEB, Arthur A. 
Loeb, Mrs. Estelle T. 
LoEB, Dr. Ludwig M. 
LoEB, Mrs. Michael S. 
LoEBL, Jerrold 
LoEHR, Karl C. 
Loehwing, Marx 
LoESCH, Charles F. 
LoESBR, Louis 
Loewenherz, Emanuel 
Logan. Frank G. 

Logan, Frederic D. 
Logan, Mrs. John A. 
London, Harry 
London, Lionel 
Lorenz, Mrs. George W. 
Lorenzen, a. F. 
Lorenzen, H. 
LouNY, Mrs. E. 
LowENBACH, Mrs. William L. 
Lowenthal, Leo B. 
LowRY, Mrs. Nelson H. 
LowY, Rudolph 
LoziER, Mrs. H. G. 
Lucas, Dr. A. L. 
Luebbert, William C. 
Lusk, Ross C. 
Lust, Mrs. H. C. 
LusTiG, Maurice 
Lutz, Mrs. Edward F. 
LuTZOW, Fred H. 
Lydston, Mrs. G. Frank 
Lyman, Mrs. H. C. 
Lynch, Miss Viola Marion 
Lynch, Mrs. V. Reges 
Lyon, William I. 

MacArthur, Fred V. 
MacClane, Mrs. J. H. 
MacDonald, E. K. 
MacDonald, Mrs. J. P. 
MacFadden, William 
Macfarland, Lanning 
MacFarlane, Wilbert E. 
MacGill, Mrs. William V. 
MacGregor, Mrs. David John 
MacHarg, Malcolm 
MacKellar, Dr. John D. 
Mackenzie, Mrs. G. S. 
MacLean, Mrs. M. H. 
MacLeod, Dr. S. B. 
MacMahon, Mrs. Cornelius C. 
MacMurray, James E. 
MacNeille, Mrs. C. T. 
Macomb, J. DeNavarre 
Maddock, Miss Alice E. 
Madsen, Mrs. T. E. 
Maehle, J. L. 
Maehler, Arthur E. 
Magnus, Philip H. 
Maher, Mrs. Philip B. 
Mahon, Mrs. Mary T. 
Mair, Robert 
Maisel, George 
Majarakis, James 
Maley, Thomas E. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Malkov, David S. 
Maltman, Miss Elizabeth E. 
Maltman, James 
Manasse, Edwin H. 
Manaster, Henry 
Manegold, Frank 
Manegold, Mrs. Frank W. 
Manheimer, Arthur E. 
Manierre, John T. 
Mann, Mrs. C. Hammond 
Mann, Mrs. Louis P. 
Mansfield, Alfred W. 
Markham, H. I. 
Marks, Alexander 
Marks, Arnold K. 
Marks, Ellis 
Marks, Emanuel 
Markus, Joseph E. 
Marling, Mrs. Frank, Jr. 
Marsh, Charles L. 
Marsh, George E. 
Marsh, John McWilliams 
Marshall, G. E. 
Marshall, Raphael P. 
Marston, Mrs. T. B. 
Martin, Miss Bess B. 
Martin, Mrs. C. E. 
Martin, Edward 
Martin, Mrs. Emil 
Martin, Mrs. Glen E. 
Martin, Mellen C. 
Martin, Mrs. Walter G. 
Martin, Z. E. 
Marwig, Edward R. 
Mason, Mrs. George H. 
Massena, Roy 
Masters, Hardin W. 
Mastin, Mrs. W. H. 
Matchett, Mrs. James C. 
Mather, Orian A. 
Mathews, Albert 
Mathews, Miss Jessie 
Mathews, Mrs. Shailer 
Mathison, Howard C. 
Matson, H. M. 
Matson, Mrs. J. Edward 
Matteson, Mrs. DeForrbst A. 
Matthews, Francis E. 
Matthies, Dr. Mabel M. 
Matushek, H. a. 
Matz, Miss Ruth H. 
Maurer, Mrs. John S. 
Mautner, Mrs. Vilma 
Maxwell, Mrs. Edward E. 
May, Mrs. George T., Jr. 

May, Sol 

Mayer, Adolph A. C. 
Mayer, Clarence 
Mayer, Mrs. David, Jr. 
Mayer, Frank 
Mayer, Mrs. Joseph 
Mayland, Dr. Walter C. 
McAlear, James 
McAllister, M. Hall 
McArthur, Dr. Lewis L. 
McArthur, Mrs. S. W. 
McCahey, James B. 
McCall, Mrs. Robert L. 
McCall, S. T. 
McCann, D. 
McCarthy, George H. 
McClain, Dr. Harris W. 
McClelland, Mrs. E. B. 
McClure, Donald 
McClure, D. T. 
McComb, Mrs. James J. 
McConnell, G. Malcolm 
McConnell, John L. 
McConnell, John W. • 
McCoRMAC, David, Sr. 
McCormick, Alister H. 
McCoRMiCK, Miss Elizabeth D. 
McCoy, Charles S. 
McCoy, W. E. 
McCreight, Harry A. 
McDonald, Mrs. Frank W. 
McDonald, L. 
McDonald, W. B. 
McDonnell, Mrs. Michael 
McDougal, David B, 
McDougall, Mrs. C. R. 
McDouGALL, Mrs. Edward G. 
McDowell, Miss Mary E. 
McElhone, Mrs. Fred 
McFadden, Everett R. 
McFarland, Mrs. Ellis 
McGarry, John A. 
McGinty, Miss Alice L. 
McGouGH, S. P. 
McGrath, George E. 
McGrath, Thomas S. 
McGregor, James P. 
McGuinn, Edward B. 
McGuire, Simms D. 
McGuire, Dr. Walter George 
McHenry, Roland 
McIntosh, Mrs. Robert L. 
McKay, Dr. N. B. 
McKenna, Mrs. James J. 

510 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

McKiBBiN, Mrs. George B. 

McKiNNEY, Mrs. James 

mckinney, w. o. 

McKnight, William M. 

McLaughlin, A. G. 

McLaughlin, Daniel F. 

McLaughlin, Frank L. 

McLaughlin, Dr. James H. 

McLaughlin, Dr. John W. 

McLaury, Mrs. C. W. 

McManus, J. P. 

McMurray, Mrs. George Newton 

McNabb, Peter M. 

McNair, Frank 

McNair, Franklin C. 

McNamara, Robert C. 

McNamee, Peter F. 

McNeil, Mrs. Albert G. 

McNerny, Mathew F. 

McPherson, Donald F. 

McQuaid, E. J. 

McSurely, Mrs. William H. 

mcwilliams, e. s. 

Meacham, Miss Kathleen 

Mead, E. Allen 

Mead, Mrs. Olive M. 

Mead, William H. 

Meade, Mrs. Martha 

Meardon, Mrs. Sarah 

Mechem, J. C. 

Meek, Miss Margaret E. 

Meeker, Arthur 

Meeker, Mrs. George W. 

Megaw, Lloyd F. 

Megowan, Lewis E. 

Mehlhop, F. W. 

Meigs, James B. 

Meiners, Mrs. J. C. 

Meinhardt, Harry 

Melaven, J. G. 

Mellander, Paul C. 

Mellen, Miss Martha Jane 

Mellon, Miss Frances A. 

Mengden, Mrs. F. W. 

Menge, Dr. Frederick 

Menten, Thomas H. 

Mentzer, J. P. 

Mercer, Dr. August W. 

Meredith, Davis D. 

Meredith, O. F. 

Merrick, Mrs. Clinton 

Merrifield, Fred 

Merrill, Mrs. J. J. 

Merriman, Mrs. Willis L. 

Messenger, Don E. 

Metcoff, Dr. Samuel 
Mettler, Mrs. L. Harrison 
Metzger, Mrs. George B. 
Metzger, Mrs. J. Fred 
Meyer, Charles Z. 
Meyer, Daniel A. 
Meyer, Howard F. 
Meyer, Dr. Samuel J. 
Michael, Mrs. Herman 
Middleton, Mrs. J. A. 
Middleton, Miss May E. 
Miktyn, Mrs. Anthony I. 
Milchrist, Frank T. 
Mileham, Miss Irene 
Millard, Mrs. E. L. 
Miller, Charles J. 
Miller, Mrs. Edmund T. 
Miller, Edward L. 
Miller, Henry G. 
Miller, Mrs. James A. 
Miller, M. Glen 
Miller, Maxwell P. 
Miller, Paul 
Miller, Richard O. 
Miller, R. T. 


Milligan, S. K. 
MiLLiKEN, Mrs. Kate 
Mills, Mrs. Edwin S. 
Milner, Charles T. 
Miner, Fred G. 
Mink, Dwight L. 
Minsk, Dr. Louis D. 
MiscH, Mrs. Harry N. 
MiSKELLA, William J. 
Mitchell, Abraham 
Mitchell, Clarence B. 
Mitchell, Ernest I. 
Mitchell, Mrs. Frederick R. 
Mitchell, Mrs. George R. 
Mitchell, Dr. James Herbert 
Mitchell, Mrs. 0. L. 
Mizen, Frederick Kimball 
Modene, Oscar F. 
Moe, Mrs. Chester Charles 
MoESSEL, Professor Julius 
Moldenhauer, Dr. William J. 
MoLTER, Mrs. W. H. 
Monaco, Dr. Donat F. 
MONCHOW, Miss Helen C. 
Monighan, Mrs. J. 
MoNiLAw, Dr. William J. 
Monroe, Mrs. H. L. 
Montague, O. O. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


MoNTER, Mrs. Charles G. 
Montgomery, Frederick D. 
Montgomery, Mrs. F. H. 
Montgomery, Mrs. H. M. S. 
Montgomery, John R. 
MooNEY, William H. 
Moore, Mrs. A. Clarke 
Moore, Mrs. Agnes C. 
Moore, Mrs. Arthur W. 
Moore, Dr. Beveridge H. 
Moore, Dr. Frank D. 
Moore, Frederick W. 
Moore, James H. 
Moore, Dr. Josiah J. 
Moore, Mrs. J. W. 
Moore, Miss M. Eleanor 
Moore, Nathan G. 
Moore, North 
Moore, Oscar L. 
Moore, Paul 
Moore, Mrs. S. W. 
Moore, Mrs. W. V. 
Moore, Dr. Willis 
MoRELLE, Mrs. Lela C. 
MoRF, Mrs. Paul F. 
Morgan, Mrs. F. W. 
Morgenthau, Mrs. Sidney L. 
MoRONEY, John J. 
Morris, Ira Nelson 
Morris, Dr. Robert W. 
Morrison, Mrs. C. R. 
Morrison, Theodore S. 
Morse, Cleveland 
Morton, Dr. Edward C. 
MosER, Paul 
Moses, Ernest C. 
MouLTON, Dr. Eugene A. 
MouLTON, William A. 
MowRY, Robert D. 
MoYER, Miss Mabel M. 
MoYLAN, John N. 
Mudge, Burton 
Mueller, Dr. E. W. 
MuLFORD, Frank B. 
MuLLALY, Rev. Edward J, 
Mullen, Timothy F. 
Mulliken, a. H. 
Murphy, Miss C. 
Murphy, Miss Catherine M. 
Murphy, J. P. 
Murphy, Mrs. J. R. 
Murray, Robert H. 
MusGRAVE, Dr. George J. 
Myers, Edwin F. 

Nabors, a. G. 

Nachtrieb, Charles G. 

Nadeau, Mrs. Oscar E. 

Nadler, Charles 

Naess, Sigurd E. 

Naffz, Dr. E. F. 

Naffz, Mrs. Louis E. 

Nance, Willis D. 

Nash, Patrick A. 

Nath, Bernard 

Nathanson, Maurice J. 

Nau, Otto F. 

Naylor, Miss Marjorie Virginia 

Neal, Thomas C. 

Neal, Mrs. W. B. 

Neely, Mrs. Lloyd F. 

Neff, W. a. 

Neidlinger, Robert J. 

Neise, George N. 

Nellis, Mrs. Frank E., Jr. 

Nelson, Alvin E. 

Nelson, Miss Amy L. 

Nelson, Byron 

Nelson, Charles M. 

Nelson, Harold F. 

Nelson, Dr. Ole C. 

Nelson, Peter B. 

Nelson, Roland B. 

Nelson, Mrs. William D. 

Nelson, William H. 

Nemiro, Dr. a. F. 

Nenneman, William T. 

Nergard, Edwin J. 

Netsch, Mrs. Walter A. 

Neuberger, Carl A. 

Nevins, John C. 

Newberry, Miss Mary L. 

Newborg, Miss Frances 

Newburger, J. M. 

Newcomb, Mrs. B. V. 

Newman, Mrs. H. H, 

Newman, Mrs. Jacob 

Newton, Donald W. 

Niblack, Mrs. William C. 

Nichols, Dr. H. 

Nichols, Mrs. Leslie H. 

Nicholson, Mrs. Frank G. 

Nicholson, Mrs. John A. 

Nickelson, S. T. 


Nickey, D. E. 
NiESz, Homer E. 
NiLES, W. A. 

Nimmons, George C. 
Noble, F. H. 

512 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

NoRDHOLZ, Dr. William C. 
Norman, Dan 
NoRRis, Eben H. 
NoRRis, Mrs. William S. 
NORTHAM, Martin Kent 
Northrop, Mrs. George N. 
NoRTHRUP, Lorry R. 
NoTHEis, Mrs. J. F. 
NouRSE, Frederick W. 
Novak, Dr. Frank J., Jr. 
NovoTNY, Edward F. 
Nowak, Maxwell M. 
NoYES, Ernest H. 
NoYES, Mrs. John High 
Nugent, Dr. O. B. 
Nutting, C. G. 
NuYTTENS, Alfred A. 
Nye, Mrs. James W. 
Nye, Mrs. William J. 

Ober, Woodbury S. 
O'Brien, George W. 
O'Brien, M. J. 
O'Brien, Quin 
O'Brien, Wilbur J. 
O'Callaghan, Henry 
O'Connell, William L. 
Odell, Mrs. James A. 
O'Donnell, Mrs. Simon 
O'Donovan, Daniel J. 
Ofner, Jarvis 
Oleson, Mrs. J. P. 
Oleson, Dr. Richard Bartlbtt 
Oliphant, Melville J. 
Oliver, Royston 
Olmstead, Mrs. G. G. 
Olmstead, Ralph W. 
Olsen, Mrs. Arthur 0. 
Olsen, Olaf C. S. 
Olsen, Mrs. Sigurd 
Olsen, Mrs. Walter A. 
Opdyke, Mrs. Russell H. ■ 
O'Reilly, Frank Hugh 
Ordon, Dr. H. J. 
Ormsby, Mrs. Frank E. 
Ormsby, Miss Kathryn L. 
Orr, Mrs. William George D. 
Orrell, Mrs. Mary E. 
Orrico, Joseph R. 
Osgood, Harry B. 


Ostermann, Mrs. R. M. 
OsTOTT, Mrs. Murray M. 
O'SuLLivAN, Miss Minnie 

O'TooLE, Mrs. Bartholomew 
Ott, John Nash 
Otte, E. C. 
Otte, Hugo E. 

Otter, William 

OuTCAULT, Mrs. Richard F., Jr. 

Pabst, F. 

Packman, Clarence E. 

Paczynski, Mrs. Louis J. 

Paddock, Dr. Charles E. 

Pain, Mrs. John T. 

Palmer, Professor Claude Irwin 

Palmer, George B. 

Palmer, J. M. 

Palmer, P. B., Jr. 

Palmer, Robert F. 

Pandaleon, Costa A. 

Pardee, Dr. L. C. 

Parker, Austin H. 

Parker, Clifford 

Parker, Mrs. F. W. 

Parker, George S. 

Parker, Leslie M. 

Parks, J. W. 

Parks, 0. J. 

Parmly, Mrs. Samuel P. 

Parsons, Ferdinand H. 

Parsons, W. E, 

Passow, Mrs. Louis A. 

Patch, Mrs. G. M. 

Patch, Mrs. W. 

Patek, Edward J. 

Paterson, Morton L. 

Patterson, Mrs. Harry C. 

Patterson, Mrs. H. H. 

Patterson, Mrs. Wallace 

Pattison, William J. 

Patton, Dr. Fred P. 

Patton, Walter I. 

Pauley, Clarence 0. 

Pavey, William B. 

Pawley, Mrs. Ernest C. 

Peace, Charles E. 

Peacock, Charles D. 

Pearl, Allen S. 

Peck, Mrs. Charles G. 

Peck, Mrs. James O. 

Peck, Robert G. 

Pedersen, a. R. 

Pence, E. M. 

Pencik, Miles F. 

Pennington, Mrs. Robert B. 

Penrose, George 

Pentecost, Lewis J. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Pepple, Mrs. Eloise D. 
Peking, Charles H. 
Perkins, Mrs. George P. 
Perkins, Mrs. Harry F. 
Perry, Mrs. Leslie L. 
Perryman, Mrs. Hattie S. 
Pescheret, Mrs. Leon R. 
Peters, G. M. 
Petersen, Mrs. C. 
Petersen, Miss Doris 
Petersen, Mrs. Julius A. 
Peterson, Dr. A. B. 
Peterson, Dr. A. E. 
Peterson, Mrs. Anna J. 
Peterson, Charles S. 
Peterson, J. E. 
Peterson, Leonard 
Peterson, Percival C. 
Petrakis, Mrs. Mark E. 
Peyraud, Mrs. Frank C. 
Pfaelzer, Mrs. Lawrence W. 
Pfeiffer, Mrs. Jacob 
Pflager, Charles W. 
Phalen, W. J. 
Phelan, Miss Anna E. 
Phelan, Charles 
Phelps, Cassius H. 
Phelps, Mrs. Edward J. 
Phelps, Erastus R. 
Phelps, Mrs. Louise DeKoven 
Phillips, Floyd M. 
Phillips, Mrs. Herbert E. 
Phillips, Howard C. 
PiCKARD, Mrs. W. A. 
PiCKEL, William 
PiCKELL, J. Ralph 
PiCKRELL, Harvey 
Pierce, Mrs. C. E. 
Pierce, Miss Elva J. 
Pierce, Ralph S. 
PiETSCH, Mrs. Charles F. 
PiETSCH, Walter G. 
PiGALL, Mrs. Joseph S. 
Pinyerd, Carl A. 
PiowATY, Mrs. Carl 
Piper, Mrs. Adolph H. 
PiSTER, Rev. Jacob 
PiTZNER, Alwin Frederick 
Place, F. E. 
Plamondon, Alfred D. 
Plath, Karl 
Plattenburg, S. R. 
Pletcher, T. M. 
Plimpton, Mrs. Nathan C. 
Plumley, Harold 

Pogge, R. C. 
PoisEL, Miss Mary 


PoLLENz, Henry 
Pomeroy, Mrs. Christine 
Pond, George F. 
Pope, Mrs. G. J. 
Pope, S. Austin 
Popp, Mrs. Lee W. 
PoRiKos, George S. 


Porter, Mrs. Lee W. 
Porterpield, R. H. 
Portis, Dr. Bernard 
Portis, Dr. Sidney A. 
Post, Dr. Wilber E. 
Potter, Dr. Hollis E. 
Powell, Mrs. Charles L. 
Powell, Mrs. John H. 
Powell, Mrs. Lawrence H. 
Powell, W. H. 
Powell, Mrs. William H. 
PoYER, Mrs. Stephen A. 
Pratt, Mrs. E. C. 
Prebis, Mrs. John A. 
Preble, Mrs. A. C. 
Prentice, Oliver J. 
Preus, Mrs. J. A. 0. 
Price, Mrs. Minnie S. 
Price, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Pride, Mrs. Richard 
Prince, Rev. Herbert W. 
Prindle, James H. 
Prindle, M. L. 
Pringle, Mrs. George W. 
Pringle, Mrs. James E. 
Proesch, Mrs. L. C. 
Pronger, Herman F. 
Prosser, H. G. 
Prosser, Mrs. John A. 
Protheroe, Daniel 
Pruyn, Mrs. William H., Jr. 
Pry OR, Maurice G. 
Pryor, Miss Shirley K. 
Pryor, Willis S. 
Pulver, Albert G. 
PuLVER, Henri Pierre 
PuRCELL, Dr. F. a. 
Putnam, C. 
Putnam, Charles F. 
Putnam, Rufus W. 
Puttkammer, Mrs. E. 
Pynchon, Mrs. Charles E. 
Pyott, Mrs. D. A. 
Pyterek, Rev. Peter H. 

514 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 


QuiNN, David H. 
QuiNN, Edward J. 

Rabe, Victor H. 

Raber, Franklin 

Ragsdale, Lee E. 

Raleigh, James F. 

Ralston, Harris P. 

Ramis, Leon Lipman 

Ramsey, Mrs. George T. 

Randall, CM. 

Randick, Miss Sara A. 

Ranney, Mrs. George A. 

Ranstead, Merritt M. 

Rapaport, Morris W. 

Rapp, Leo E. 

Rapp, Mrs. Mary G. 

Rasmussen, Frank 

Rathje, Mrs. Fred C. 

Rathje, Mrs. Josephine L. 

Ray, Harry K. 

Raymer, George L. 

Raymond, C. E. 

Raymond, Clifford S. 

Raymond, Edwards Frederic 

Read, Mrs. J. J. 

Redman, Sterling L. 

Redpath, James B. 

Reebie, Mrs. Arthur W. 

Reed, Mrs. John W. 

Reed, Rufus M. 

Reed, Walter S. 

Reed, William P. 

Reed, Mrs. William P. 

Reeder, R. R., Jr. 

Reese, Miss Catherine E. 

Reeves, Mrs. Henry 

Reffelt, Miss F. A. 

Regensburg, James 

Rehm, Miss Emily 

Rehm, Henry J. 

Reid, Hugh 

Reid, p. Gordon 

Rein, Lester E. 

Reineck, Miss Edna M. 

Reinhardt, Mrs. Henry L. 

Reiss, Paul 

Reitz, Miss Carrie E. 

Remy, Mrs. William 

Renshaw, Mrs. William F., Sr. 

Requa, William B. 

Reuss, Mrs. Henry H. 

Reynolds, Miss Florence E. 

Reynolds, George H. 

Reynolds, Harold F. 
Reynolds, Mrs. Henry J. 
Reynolds, Miss Marion J. 
Reynolds, Miss Vera 
Rex, W. H. 

Rhoades, Mrs. Elmer Lamont 
Rhodes, Mrs. Carey W. 
Rhodes, Mrs. J. H. 
Rhodes, W. E. 
Ribback, Mrs. N. 
Rice, Mrs. Charles R. 
Rice, Otto M. 
Rice, Mrs. W. W. 
Rich, Kenneth F. 
Richards, George D. 
Richardson, Mrs. Addie R. 
Richardson, Granville W. 
Richardson, Henry R. 
Rick, Miss Florence 
Riddiford, Miss Emily J. 
Rider, Mrs. W. B. 
RiEDER, W. F. 
RiEL, G. A. 
RiES, Mrs. Lester S. 

Rigali, Mrs. L. R. 
RiGGS, Mrs. Elmer S. 
RiGHEiMER, Miss Lucy F. 
Riley, Miss Mary A. 
Ripley, Mrs. Allen B. 
Ripley, Mrs. E. P. 
Ritchie, Mrs. Robert 
Roach, Mrs. Edward A. 
Roadifer, W. H. 
Roane, Warren 
Robbins, Lawrence B. 
Roberts, Francis R. 
Roberts, Jesse E. 
Roberts, Miss Nellie E. 
Roberts, Seth B. 
Robinson, Mrs. A. F. 
Robinson, Charles R. 
Robinson, Miss Nellie 
Robinson, R. V. 
Robinson, S. O. L. 
RoBSON, Mrs. Oscar 
Rockwell, Theodore G. 
RocKWOOD, Frederick T, 
RoDEN, Carl B. 
RoDRiCK, Mrs. Isaac 
Roe, Miss Carol F. 
Roefer, Henry A. 
Rogers, Dr. Daniel W. 
Rogers, Mrs. H. L. 
Rogers, J. W. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


RoLFES, Gerald A. 
Holland, Frederick George 
RoLLO, Egbert 
RoLNiCK, Dr. Harry C. 
Roodhouse, Benjamin T. 
RooNEY, Hon. John J. 
Roper, F. E. 
rosboro, o. a. 
Rose, E. E. 
Rose, Mrs. Thomas 
Rosenbach, Mrs. Morris 
RosENBAUM, Julius 
Rosenberg, Bernhard 
rosenfeld, m. j. 
Rosenfels, Irwin S. 
rosenfield, morris s. 
RosENOW, Milton C. 
RosENSTEiN, Joseph 
Rosenthal, Nathan H. 
Rosenthal, Mrs. Ralph J. 
Rosenthal, Mrs. Samuel 
Rosenthal, Mrs. W. L. 
Ross, Dr. L. J. 
Ross, Samuel M. 
Roth, Arthur J. 
Roth, Henry 
Roth, Mrs. Lester 
Rothschild, Mrs. Louis G. 
Rountree, Lingard T. 
RowE, Charles B. 
Rowell, Dr. L. W. 
Rowley, Mrs. James F. 
Roy, Mrs. Ervin L. 
RuD, Mrs. Anthony 
Rudolph, Miss Bertha 
Ruettinger, j. C. 
RuGGLES, Dr. William L. 
RuMMLER, Eugene A. 
RUNZEL, W. L., Sr. 
Rupert, Mrs. F. B. 
Russell, Mrs. Thomas Charles 
Ruth, Miss Thyra J. 
Rutherford, M. D. 
Ryan, Henry B. 
Ryan, Miss Margaret E. 
Rycroft, Mrs. Herbert E. 

Sabath, Isidor 
Sachs, Paul J. 
Sachs, Philip|G. 
Sackley, Mrs. John B. 
Salinger, Harry 

Salk, Mrs. Jacob 
Salsman, Mrs. Alice K. 
Saltzstein, Felix C. 
Salzman, Max J. 
Sampson, H. J. 
Samuels, Mrs. Leo S. 
Sanders, Mrs. L. L. 
Sanford, Thomas F. 
Sands, Mrs. Frances B. 
Sands, Mrs. Henry 
Santschi, Mrs. E. 
Saplitzky, Miss Bessie M. 
Sauerman, John A. 
Saunders, Percy G. 
Sawyer, Miss Anna Grace 
Sawyer, Dr. C. F. 
Sawyer, Mrs. Percy 
Saxmann, Dr. Harriet E. 
Sayers, Mrs. A. J. 
Sayre, Dr. Loren D. 
ScHAAR, Bernard E. 
Schad, Mrs. G. F. 
schafer, 0. j. 
Schaffner, Mrs. Albert 
Schaffner, Arthur B. 
Schaffner, Herbert T. 

ScHAus, Carl J. 


ScHENCK, Mrs. R. F. 
ScHENKEL, Mrs. H. a. 
ScHERER, Andrew 


ScHiEWE, Robert A. 
ScHiFF, Sydney K. 
ScHiMMEL, Philip W. 
Schmidt, Adolph 
Schmidt, Arthur C. E. 
Schmidt, Mrs. Otto G. 
Schmidt, Dr. Otto L. 
Schmidt, Richard E. 
Schmidt, Theodore 
Schneider, Benjamin B. 
Schneider, C. A. 
Schneider, George A. 
ScHNiGLAU, Charles H. 


Schoenbrun, Leo 


Schoepfle, Mrs. Martin 
ScHOLL, David H. 
ScHRADER, Miss Harriet N. 
Schradzki, H. R. 
ScHRAMKA, Mrs. Frank J. 
Schreiner, Mrs. Charles A. 

516 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

ScHREiNER, Mrs. Francis Louis 


schroeder, p. a. 
Schroll, W. H. 
ScHUELER, Robert 
ScHULZE, Paul 
Schumann, Mrs. F. E. 
ScHUTTE, Mrs. I. W. 
Schwab, Dr. Leslie W. 
Schwab, Martin C. 
Schwartz, Louis S. 
Schwartz, Dr. Otto 
Schwarz, August 
Schwarz, Dr. Leigh E. 
Schweitzer, E. O. 
Schweitzer, Richard J. 
Schweizer, Carl 
ScoFiELD, Timothy J. 
Scott, Gerald R. 
Scott, George H. 
Scott, Dr. Walter Dill 
ScuDDER, Mrs. Lawrence W. 
Scully, Miss Florence E. 
Searle, Dr. C. Howard 
Seaton, G. Leland 
Seaverns, Louis C. 
Sebelien, a. E. 
Seed, Miss Ethel W. 
Seehausen, Gilbert B. 
Sefton, Mrs. John 
Seibold, Arthur B. 
Seidscher, Jacob 
Seifer, Mrs. N. 
Seifert, Mrs. Emma 
Seifert, Mrs. William B. 
Seip, Fred 

Selig, Mrs. Joseph J. 
Sellers, Mrs. O. R. 
Selling, Harold N. 
Selover, Miss Julia M. 
Selz, Emanuel 
Selz, Mrs. J. Harry 
Senear, Dr. F. E. 
Senior, Mrs. John L. 
Sergeant, Walter E. 
Sethness, Charles O. 
Seubold, Dr. F. H. 
Sexton, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Seymour, Fred P. 
Seymour, H. W. 
Shaffer, Mrs. Norman P. 
Shanahan, David E. 
Shanahan, Mrs. F. H. 
Shanesy, Mrs. Ralph D. 

Shanks, Oscar 
Shannon, Neil J. 
Shapiro, Dr. Hyman B. 
Shapiro, J. F. 
Sharp, Mrs. W. L. 
Shattuck, Charles H. 
Shaw, Henry P. 
Shaw, Mrs. Henry P. 
Shaw, Joseph J. 
Shaw, Mrs. Moses M. 
Shaw, Mrs. Walter A. 
Shay, John B. 
Sheahan, Miss Marie 
Shearman, C. E. 
Shedd, Charles E. 
Shepard, Guy C. 
Shepard, Stuart G. 
Shepherd, Mrs. Claude H. 
Sherbahn, Jacob M. 
Sheridan, L. J. 
Sheriffs, Walter A. 
Sherman, Edwin 
Sherman, Mrs. Francis C, Sr. 
Sherman, H. C. 
Sherman, Louis A. 
Sherman, Mrs. Robert T. 
Shibley, a. E. 
Shipley, Mrs. Lionel H. 
Shipman, George E. 
Shippey, Mrs. Charles W. 
Shiverick, Mrs. A. F. 
Shonts, Miss Beatrice M. 
Short, Floyd T. 
Short, J. R. 

Shortall, Mrs. John G. 
Shortall, John L. 
Showalter, Miss Anna B. 
Shrambk, Mrs. James F. 
Shuman, John R. 
Shurtleff, Miss L. H. 
Siegenthaler, Mrs. Jacob L. 
SiERSMA, Mrs. Albert P. 
SiEVERS, William H. 
SiLBER, Clarence J. 
Silberman, Mrs. J. D. 
Sillani, Mrs. Mabel W. 


Silverman, Edwin 
Silverman, Joseph 
Simmonds, Dr. Walter E. 
Simmons, Parke E. 
Simon, Felix D. 
Simonds, Mrs. Harold B. 
Simons, Mrs. George H. 
SiMONSON, Roger A., Jr. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Simpson, Mrs. Mary Edith 

Simpson, Walter H. 

SiNDELAR, Joseph C. 

SiNDiNG, John W. 

Singleton, Mrs. Charles J. 

Singleton, Miss Elizabeth 

SiPPEL, Mrs. Cornelius 

Siqueland, T. a. 

Siragusa, Mrs. Ross D. 

SiSK, Mrs. Mary A. 

SissoN, Mrs. Vinton E. 

Skala, Joseph 

Skala, Rudolph J. 

Skeen, Dawson H. 

Skillman, Mrs. Frederic B. 

Skinner, James G. 

Skog, Mrs. Ludvig 

Slade, Alfred 

Slade, John C. 

Slaten, Mrs. Frederick A. 

Sleeper, Mrs. Olive C. 

Sleight, Miss Barbara H. 

Slingluff, William H. 

Sloan, F. A. 

Slocum, Mrs. M. E. 

Smale, Miss Bessie T. 

Small, Miss Jean 

Smeeth, Mrs. Edwin E. 

Smebth, Mrs. Faith Beye 

Smith, Mrs. A. P. 

Smith, Mrs. Edward E. 

Smith, Edward Page 

Smith, Mrs. Edwin 

Smith, Dr. Edwin M. 

Smith, Dr. F. J. 

Smith, Frederick W. 

Smith, Gilbert M. 

Smith, Glen E. 

Smith, Mrs. Harold M. 

Smith, Henry T. 

Smith, Dr. Herman 

Smith, Hermon Dunlap 

Smith, Jesse L. 

Smith, Dr. Joseph A. 

Smith, Leatham D. 

Smith, Miss Mary Rozet 

Smith, Paishe B. 

Smith, Sidney H. 

Smith, Mrs. Wilfred M. 

Smith, William D. 

Smith, Mrs. William T. 

Snitjer, Mrs. Agnes R. 

Snow, Mrs. Sydney B. 

Soares, Professor Theodore G. 

Sobey, Mrs. Joseph 

SocATCH, Miss Anna 
Soest, Walter H. 
SoLLiTT, Ralph T. 
Solomon, Mrs. Lewis J. 
Somers, Roger W. 


Sommers, Werner H. 
Song, A. F. 
Sontag, Edward A. 
SoPER, Mrs. J. P., Jr. 
Soper, Thomas 
SoRBER, Miss Mary E. 
SoRENSEN, Mrs. Axel S. 
SoRENSON, Ralph Z. 
SORLEY, Dr. Milford S. 
Spades, M. H. 
Sparrow, Mrs. W. W. K. 
Speed, Dr. Kellogg 
Speer, Henry D. 
Spencer, Mrs. Frank E. 
Sperry, Mrs. Donald D. 
Speyer, Mrs. George W. 
Spiegel, Philip 
Spiesman, Dr. M. G. 
Spindler, Mrs. R. W. 
Spohr, Frank M. 
Spry, George 
Spurgeon, H. F. 
Staar, Rudolph 
Stafford, Charles W. 
Stallwood, S. C. 
Stangle, Mrs. Mary W. 
Staniewicz, Joseph V. 
Stanton, C. N. 
Starr, Dr. Paul 
Stauffer, Mrs. Grace Hauser 
Stearns, Fred 
Steele, Leo M. 
Steffensen, Sigurd 
Stein, Mrs. Adolph 
Stein, Dr. Otto J. 
Stein, Mrs. S. Sidney 
Steinberg, Samuel E. 
Steinfeldt, Dr. C. R. 
Steinson, Henry G. 
Stenson, Miss Jane A. 
Sterling, Douglas T. 
Stern, Mrs. Herbert L. 
Stern, Jacob S. 
Sternberg, Morris 
Stevens, Mrs. Clyde G. 
Stevens, David H. 
Stevens, Ernest 
Stevens, Mrs. Jessie L. 
Stevenson, Elliott 

518 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Stevenson, James C. 
Stevenson, James R. D. 
Stewart, Mrs. Pritchard 
Stewart, S. Chandler 
Stewart, William 
Stifler, Mrs. J. M. 
Stiger, Charles W. 
Stiles, Mrs. R. B. 
Stille, Ernest T. 
Stobbe, Paul D. 
Stockdale, Dr. Allen A. 
Stockton, A. C. 
Stockton, Mrs. John Thaw 
Stockton, Miss Josephine 
Stoehr, Kurt 
Stoelting, C. H. 
Stofft, Edmond B. 
Stokes, Miss Marguerite 
Stoll, Mrs. Annie G. 
Stolp, G. E. 
Stolz, Mrs. Leon 
Stolzenbach, Miss Emma W. 
Storkan, Mrs. James 
Stover, Mrs. James D. 
Stover, Mrs. Russell 
Straten, Dr. Hubert J. 
Straus, Eli M. 
Strauss, Mrs. Lee J. 
Strawbridge, Mrs. Charles H. 
Strawn, Taylor 
Street, C. R. 
Striblen, Harry 
Strigl, F. C. 
Stringer, John T. 
Strom, Arthur B. 
Strong, Gordon 
Strong, Dr. L. Willis 
Stuart, Alexander 
Stuart, Charles W. 
Stubbs, J. S. 

Stubenrauch, William F. . 
Stumes, Charles B. 
Sturla, Harry L. 
Sturm an, M. Robert 
Sturtevant, Roy E. 
Sublette, Mrs. Oscar H. 
SuFFERN, Edward E. 
Sullivan, Frank R. 
Sullivan, Grey 
Sullivan, Michael J. 
Summy, Clayton F. 
SuNDELL, Ernest W. 
sundlof, f. w. 
Sutcliffe, Elbert Gary 
Sutcliffe, Miss Sarah E. 

Sutter, Mrs. Harry 
Sutton, J. J. 
Sutton, John M. 
SwANSON, Mrs. Bertha 
Swanson, Frank E. 
Swearingen, Henry Curtis 
Sweet, Donald H. 
Swift, Mrs. Alden B. 
Swift, T. Philip 
Sype, George 

Tabb, H. B. 
Taft, Robert H. 
Talbot, Mrs. Eugene S., Jr. 
Tankersley, J. N. 
Tash, J. Donald 
Tatge, Mrs. Paul W. 
Taylor, Arthur E. 
Taylor, Mrs. Daniel 
Taylor, Mrs. Eugene S. 
Taylor, Frank F. 
Taylor, Graham 
Taylor, L. S. 
Taylor, M. B. 
Taylor, Mrs. O. L. 
Teagle, E. W. 
Teckemeyer, a. O. 
Tegtmeyer, Ernest F. 
Telfer, Thomas A. 
Teller, George L. 
Tennant, Colin McK., Sr. 
Tenney, Henry F. 
Terpning, B. E. 
Terry, Dr. C. Roy 
Terry, Mrs. Schuyler B. 
Thacher, Mrs. F. B. 
Thal, Miss Elsie 
Tharaldsen, Mrs. H. I. 
Thayer, Harry W. 
Theobald, Dr. Walter H. 
Theurer, Louis F. 
Thom, Henry C. 
Thomas, Charles F. 
Thomas, Rev. George H. 
Thomas, Mrs. Henry Bascom 
Thomas, Richard H., Jr. 
Thomas, Roy K. 
Thomas, Dr. Walter N. 
Thomason, S. E. 
Thomlinson, Miss Eva M. 
Thompson, Mrs. Ada R. 
Thompson, Lavern W. 
Thompson, Miss Maude 
Thompson, Dr. Orion K. 
Thomson, Herbert B. 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


Thorpe, Mrs. A. H. 
Thorsness, Lionel G. 
Throop, George Enos 
Tibbits, Mrs. George F. 
Tiedebohl, Edward R. 
Tieken, Dr. Theodore 
Tiers, Louis P. 
Tiffen, Herbert 
Tighe, Albert D. 
Timberlake, Mrs. Thomas M. 
Titus, Mrs. Edgar V. 
ToBiN, Mrs. Samuel 
Todd, A. 

Todt, Edward George 
ToMAjAN, Mrs. D. K. 
ToNK, Percy A. 
Toohey, Elmer 
Toole, Mrs. Theodore T. 
Towner, Frank H. 
Towner, H. C. 
TowNSEND, Mrs. K. A. 
Tracy, Atlee H. 
Traer, Charles S. 
Tramel, Forsyth 
Traxler, Dr. Abigail 
Triggs, Charles W. 
Trotzkey, Elias L. 
Troup, Paul V. 
Trow, Mrs. William H., Jr. 
Troxel, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Troy, Leo J. 
Truc, Walter 
Trude, Mrs. A. S. 
Trude, Mrs. George A. 
Truman, Percival H. 
Trumbull, Miss Florence 
Trumbull, Robert F. 
TuBERGEN, Dr. Benjamin F. 
TtTRNER, George 
Turner, Mrs. George T. 
Turner, Marshall S. 
TusKA, Mrs. Alice 
TuTTLE, Charles 
Tuttle, W. F. 
TwYMAN, Robert J. 
Tye, Frank E. 
Tyler, Alfred C. 
Tyrrell, Frank J. 

Uhlir, Joseph Z. 
Uhrig, Mrs. Emma 
Ullery, Mrs. C. E. 
Ullman, Mrs. Albert I. 
Upham, Robert P. 
Urheim, Dr. O. J. 

Utley, George B. 
Utter, Arthur J. 

Vail, Mrs. G. B. 
Vaill, Mrs. J. H. 
Valentine, Miss Margaret G. 
VanBuren, Mrs. Mildred 
Vance, Walter N. 
VanDellen, Dr. R. L. 
Vandenbergh, Mrs. Peter J. 
VanDeursen, John S. 
VanDoren, Mrs. W. H. 
VanHoosen, Dr. Bertha 
VanSchaick, Mrs. Ethel R. 
VanSickle, K. L. 
VanWinkle, James Z. 
Varty, Leo G. 
Vaughan, Mrs. G. M. 
Vaughan, Roger T. 
Vaughn, A. M. 
Venard, Mrs. George C. 
Venning, Frank L. 
Vent, Miss Dorothea E. 
Vernia, Mrs. Edward P. 
Vetterliet, Miss Anna S. 
Victor, Mrs. Felix 
Victor, John H. 
Vilas, Mrs. George B. 
Vinton, Mrs. Gertrude J. 
Vlasak, Joseph C. 
Voight, John P. 
VoLK, Carl B. 
VoLK, Paul 
VoLTZ, Daniel W. 
Voorhees, James M. 
VooRHEEs, Mrs. L. P. 
VosE, Mrs. Frederick P. 
VosE, Walter S. 
VosHARDT, Mrs. PL F. 

Waalkes, Miss Flora 
Wadsworth, Charles 
Wadsworth, Miss Helen C. 
Wagner, Miss Coletta M. 
Wagner, Edwin L. 
Wagner, Erwin 
Wagner, H. D. 
Wagner, Miss Mabel M. 
Wagner, Richard 
Waite, Miss Muriel W. 
Walbert, a. J. 
Walcott, Mrs. R. S. 
Waldeck, Herman 
Waldron, John C. 
Waldschmidt, William E. 

520 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VIII 

Waldschmidt, William K. 
Walker, Barton F. 
Walker, James R. 
Walker, Dr. James W. 
Wallner, Dr. John S. 
Walsh, Miss Mary 
Walton, Dr. B. C. 
Walton, Lyman A. 
Ward, B. E. 
Ward, Miss Harriot 
Warpield, Mrs. W. S. 
Warner, Mrs. David A. 
Warner, Mrs. W. H. 
Warren, Mrs. E. K. 
Warren, Mrs. Frank 
Warren, William G. 
Washburn, Dr. Jambs Murray 
Washburn, John R. 
Waskow, Mrs. Richard G. 
Waters, R. T. 
Waterstraat, George B. 
Watkins, Frank A. 
Watkins, Frederick A. 
Watkins, Jesse M. 
Watson, Mrs. Hathaway 
Watson, Mrs. J. K. 
Watson, Vernon S. 
Watson, William R. 
Watterson, Mrs. W. H. 
Waugh, William Francis 
Waxman, Isaac D. 
Weakly, F. B. 
Weary, Edwin F. 
Weaver, Mrs. Katherine P. 
Weaver, Miss Pearl L. 
Weber, Norton H. 
Webster, Charles R. 
Webster, Edgar Converse 
Webster, Mrs. F. N. 
Webster, Towner K., Jr. 
Weddell, John 
Weed, C. Fred 
Wegg, Donald R. 
Weil, C. H. 
Weil, Mrs. Carl H. 
Weil, Mrs. Julius E. 
Weil, Mrs. Victor 
Weintroub, Benjamin 
Weisbach, John G. 
Weisl, E. L. 
Weiss, Mrs. A. J. 
Weissbrenner, Dr. R. F. 
Welch, Dr. John T. 
Welles, Mrs. Donald P. 
Welles, Mrs. Edward Kenneth 

Wells, Mrs. Eva Thornton 
Wells, Howard I. 
Wendell, Fred 
Wendell, Miss Josephine A. 
Wengler, Miss Ella E. 
Wentworth, John 
Wbrelius, Mrs. Axel 
Wernecke, Miss Bertha L. 
Werner, Richard B. 
Wescott, Dr. Cassius D. 
Wessel, Mrs. Lewis 
West, Frederick T. 
West, Dr. G. N. 
West, Thomas H. 
Westbrook, Mrs. E. S. 
Weston, Charles V. 
Westphal, Miss Mary E. 
Whatley, S. T. 
Whedon, Miss Frances E. 
Wheeler, Mrs. H. E. 
Wheeler, Leslie M. 
Wheeler, Seymour 
Whetzel, Dr. F. F. 
Whise, Dr. Melchior 
White, Miss Bertha M. 
White, Emanuel H. 
White, George H. 
White, Miss Laura G. 
White, W. J. 

Whiteford, Miss Elizabeth A. 
Whitehorn, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Whiting, Robert B. 
Whitlock, S. J. 
Whitman, Miss Celia M. 
Whitney, Charles P. 
Whitwell, J. E. 


Wicks, James E. 
WiELAND, Mrs. Agnes 
Wieland, Harold G. 
Wienhoeber, Miss Edna C. 
Wiersma, Asa 
Wigent, Miss Zella 
Wilbur, Fred T. 
WiLBY, Mrs. Arthur C. 
Wilce, George C. 
Wild, A. Clement 
Wild, Payson S. 
Wild, Richard 
Wilder, Mrs. Loren 
Wilder, Paul 
Wilder, Dr. Russell M. 
Wiley, Edward N. 
Wilhelm, Frank Edward 
WiLKEN, Mrs. Theodore 

Jan. 1931 

Annual Report of the Director 


WiLKEY, Fred S. 
WiLKiNS, Miss Ruth 
Wilkinson, Mrs. George D. 
WiLLETT, Albert V. 
WiLLETT, Howard L. 
Williams, Chauncby V. 
Williams, Clifford H. 
Williams, Dr. E. B. 
Williams, Miss Gwendolyn 
Williams, Harvey S. 
Williams, Miss Irene 
Williams, Kenneth 
Williams, Lucian E. 
Williams, Lynn A. 
Williams, Dr. T. J. 
Williamson, D. 
Willman, Philip E. 
Wills, VanLeer 
Wilson, Arthur R. 
Wilson, Miss Carolyn 
Wilson, Mrs. Christopher J. 
Wilson, E. L. 
Wilson, George Landis 

Wilson, Mrs. Joel R. 

Wilson, Lucius E. 

Wilson, Percival C. 

Wilson, Mrs. Percy 

Wilson, R. F. 

Wilson, Mrs. Robert E. 

Wilson, Mrs. Sylvester E. 

Wilson, William G. 

Wilson, William R. 

Wilson, Rev. Willis Ray 

Windes, Mrs. Frank A. 

Windsor, Miss Mary L. 

Wing, John E. 

Winterbotham, Mrs. John R., Jr. 

Winters, Mrs. L. D. 

Wise, Mrs. Harold 


WiVEL, Mrs. Herbert W. 

Wolbach, Murray 

WoLCOTT, Carl F. 

Wolf, Miss Prudence 

Wolfe, William C. 
Wolff, Christian J. 
Wolff, George F. 
Wood, Donald 
Wood, Milton G. 
Woodcock, Mrs. L. T. 
Woodruff, Miss Florence 
Woodruff, M. P. 
Woods Edward G. 
Woods, Fred W. 
Woodward, Robert M. 
WooDWORTH, Mrs. C. B. 
WooDYATT, Dr. Rollin Turner 
Wool, Israel W. 
Workman, Mrs. Dean M. 
Wray, Mrs. James G. 
Wright, Miss Dorothy A. 
Wright, H. C. 
Wright, Dr. James A. 
Wright, William V. D. 
Wrisley, George A. 
Wyman, Charles H. 

Yarros, Dr. Rachelle S. 
Yates, George A. 
Yavitz, Joseph T. 
Yeakel, Dr. William K. 
Yeomans, Charles 
Young, James W. 
Young, Mrs. John M. 
Youngberg, Arthur C. 
YouNGLOVE, James C. 

Zander, Mrs. I. M. 
Zane, John Maxcy 
Zeitz, Andrew R. 
Zenos, Rev. Andrew C. 
ZiFF, Peter 
Zimmerman, Irving 
Zimmerman, Ralph W. 
Zimmermann, Mrs. P. T. 


ZoRN, Mrs. LeRoy J. 


Deceased, 1930 

Anderson, Rt. Rev. C. P. 

Baker, James R. 
Bangs, William D. 
Barstow, Dr. Rhoda Pike 
Brown, J. Rice 
Brown, W. Gray 
Buckingham, John 

Cain, Charles N. 
Clavey, F. D. 
cookson, j. e. 

Davie, George F. 
Dix, Herbert 
DoLESE, Peter 

Ellis, Mrs. J. W. 

522 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VIII 

FoRCH, John L., Jr. 
Ford, Mrs. Charles 

Grant, Luke 

Harvey, Mrs. C. E. 
Heinz, L. Herman 
HoAG, Dr. Junius C. 
HoLDOM, Hon. Jesse 
Hopkins, Willard F. 

Johnstone, Balfour 

Kantrow, Leo S. 
Kline, R. R. 
KoRHUMEL, Joseph N. 
Krebs, C. F. 
KuDERLiNG, Mrs. Mary B. 

Lee, Mrs. William 
LoTKO, Joseph 
Lyman, Mrs. James 

McCarty, Charles H. 

OsBORN, Clark D. 
Owsley, Heaton 

Peacock, Charles A. 

Sayre, Rockwell 
Schwartz, G. A. 
Skinner, Miss Frederika 


Spensley, H. George 
Sulzberger, S. L. 

Thomson, George W. 

Updike, Fred P. 

Veatch, Byron E. 

Wahl, Albert 

Williams, Mrs. Lawrence 

worsley, a. a.