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IS 

A <± Field Museum of Natural History. 

Publication 202. 



Report Series. 



Vol. V, No. 4. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DIRECTOR 



TO THE 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



FOR THE YEAR 1918. 




Chicago, U. S. A. 

January, 191Q. 



Natural H»u>ry Library 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL'HISTORY. 



REPORTS. PLATE XXXVII 




Photo, by Baker Art Gallery, Columbus. Ohio. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

NATURALIST. 



Field Museum of Natural History. 

Publication 202. 

Report Series. Vol. V, No. 4. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DIRECTOR 



TO THE 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



FOR THE YEAR 1918. 




Chicago, U. S. A. 

January, 19 19. 



CONTENTS. 



Pagb 

Board of Trustees 226 

Officers and Committees 227 

Staff of the Museum 228 

Report of the Director 229 

Maintenance 231 

Publications 231 

Library 231 

Cataloguing, Inventorying, and Labeling 233 

Accessions 235 

Installation and Permanent Improvement 241 

The N. W. Harris Public School Extension 252 

Photography and Illustration 253 

Printing 254 

Financial Statement 255 

Attendance and Receipts 257 

Accessions 258 

Department of Anthropology 258 

Department of Botany 259 

Department of Geology 261 

Department of Zo&logy 264 

Section of Photography 264 

The Library 264 

Articles of Incorporation 277 

Amended By-Laws 279 

List of Honorary Members and Patrons 285 

List of Corporate Members 286 

List of Life Members 287 

List of Annual Members 289 

The Sculpture of the new Museum building 291 



226 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 



Edward E. Ayer. 
Watson F. Blair. 
William J. Chalmers. 
Marshall Field. 
Stanley Field. 
Frank W. Gunsaulus 
Harlow N. Higinbotham. 
Arthur B. Jones. 



Chauncey Keep. 
George Manierre. 
Cyrus H. McCormick. 
Martin A. Ryerson. 
Frederick J. V. Skiff. 
A. A. Sprague, 2nd. 
William Wrigley, Jr. 



HONORARY TRUSTEE. 
Owen F. Aldis. 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 



227 



OFFICERS. 

Stanley Field, President. 

Martin A. Ryerson, First Vice-President. 
Watson F. Blair, Second Vice-President. 
Frederick J. V. Skiff, Secretary. 

D. C. Davies, Assistant Secretary and Auditor. 
Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer. 



Stanley Field. 
Edward E. Ayer. 
Watson F. Blair. 
William J. Chalmers. 

Watson F. Blair. 



William J. Chalmers. 
Frederick J. V. Skiff. 



COMMITTEES. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Marshall Field. 
Arthur B. Jones. 
George Manierre. 
A. A. Sprague, 2nd. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

Arthur B. Jones. 
Martin A. Ryerson. 

BUILDING COMMITTEE. 

Cyrus H. McCormick. 
A. A. Sprague, 2nd. 



Stanley Field. 



SUB-COMMITTEE OF BUILDING COMMITTEE. 

A. A. Sprague, 2nd. 
Frederick J. V. Skiff. 



George Manierre. 

Edward E. Ayer. 
Watson F. Blair. 



Arthur B. Jones. 



AUDITING COMMITTEE. 

Arthur B. Jones. 

ADMINISTRATION COMMITTEE. 

Frank W. Gunsaulus. 
George Manierre. 
Chauncey Keep. 

PENSION COMMITTEE. 

A. A. Sprague, 2nd. 
Frederick J. V. Skiff. 



228 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 



STAFF OF THE MUSEUM. 

DIRECTOR. 

Frederick J. V. Skiff. 

DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Berthold Laufer, Curator. 

Charles L. Owen, Assistant Curator Division of Archeology. 

Fay Cooper Cole, Assistant Curator Physical Anthropology 
and Malayan Ethnology. 
Albert B. Lewis, Assistant Curator of African and Melanesian 

Ethnology. 
J. Alden Mason, Assistant Curator of Mexican and South 
American Archceology. 
Helen C. Gunsaulus, Assistant Curator of Japanese 

Ethnology. 

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY. 

Charles F. Millspaugh, Curator. 

B. E. Dahlgren, Assistant Curator Economic Botany. 

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY. 

Oliver C. Farrington, Curator. H. W. Nichols, Assistant Curator. 
Elmer S. Riggs, Assistant Curator of Paleontology. 

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY. 

Charles B. Cory, Curator. 
Wilfred H. Osgood, Assistant Curator of Mammalogy and Ornithology. 
William J. Gerhard, Assistant Curator Division of Entomology. 
Edmond N. Gueret, Assistant Curator Division of Osteology. 
Carl L. Hubbs, Assistant Curator Division of Ichthyology and 

Herpetology. 
R. Magoon Barnes, Assistant Curator Division of Oology. 

THE N. W. HARRIS PUBLIC SCHOOL EXTENSION. 

S. C. Simms, Curator. 

RECORDER. ASSISTANT RECORDER. 

D. C. Davies. Benj. Bridge. 

THE LIBRARY. 

Elsie Lippincott, Librarian. 

Emily M. Wilcoxson, Assistant Librarian. 
January I, 1919. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR. 

1918 



To the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History: 

I have the honor to present a report of the operations of the Museum 
for the year ending December 31, 1918. 

The negotiations of the National Government to secure the new 
Museum structure for hospital purposes, the contract to this end which 
was entered into, the resulting increase in building operations in accord- 
ance with the terms of the contract and the subsequent sudden cancella- 
tion by the Government of the contract following the European armistice 
had naturally a confusing and disturbing effect upon the affairs of the 
Museum during the later part of the year. The preparations for the 
transfer to the new building had been underway for sometime, but 
work of this character was more actively prosecuted after the contract 
with the Government had been entered into and the methods of packing 
were altered in view of the expectation to store the material for several 
years, or during the operation of the contract or lease. The probability 
as now appears, that the transfer to the new building may take place 
next year and possibly in the autumn, will require continued and 
assiduous efforts in preparation for this event that will leave little else to 
be done in the old building. The progress so far made and the methods 
employed may be said to be satisfactory but not remarkable. 

The Museum has felt the common influence of the war upon its 
economic affairs and, operating upon a fixed income, has reduced its 
expenditures as far as possible to the necessities of maintenance. The 
high prices of fuel and of materials of every variety entering into the 
every day affairs of the Institution have, except for reserves, 
practically exhausted the annual receipts and left little to be 
recorded in the way of new or progressive activities. 

To what may be ascribed the large decrease in attendance is doubtful. 
The public in some way appears to have gained the impression, which it 
has not been easy to correct, that the present building has been closed or 
was in a state of some confusion, because of preparations for immediate 
removal to and storage of its contents in the new building, which was to 
be used for three years as a Government hospital. This may be regarded 
as one reason. Probably, however, the falling off in attendance has been 
due very largely to the consuming interest of the public in the war and 

229 



230 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

in the circumstances reaching into every home immediately or indirectly 
associated with it. People generally have not felt at sufficient ease and 
unconcern to visit places of the character of the Museum for pleasure, 
pastime or study. At the same time the extent of the decrease in attend- 
ance, even with these allowances fully made, is still unaccountable. 

President Field returned from his duties in France in September after 
a year's service. Trustee Sprague, Major of Infantry, has received his 
discharge from the Army and has returned to Chicago. Trustee Marshall 
Field, Captain of Artillery, is still on duty in France. 

Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus, Pastor of the Central Church and President 
of Armour Institute, accepted election as a member of the Board of 
Trustees of the Museum, filling the vacancy caused by the death of 
Honorable George E. Adams. Mr. William Wrigley, Jr., prominent 
manufacturer, has been elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death 
of Mr. Henry Field. 

The general staff of the Museum saw fit to recognize the Twenty- 
fifth Anniversary of the Director's appointment by presenting him with 
an engrossed Appreciation signed by the entire personnel ; an act which 
was sincerely appreciated by its recipient. 

The Assistant Curator of Economic Botany with several laboratory 
assistants transferred the activities of the Mrs. Stanley Field Plant Repro- 
duction section to Miami, Florida, in October, where accommodations 
were secured from the United States Agricultural Department in its 
laboratory there, to carry on the work of reproducing the plants of that 
section; the expedition expecting to be absent six months or more. Re- 
ports from Assistant Curator Dahlgren reflect a gratifying outcome of 
this enterprise. 

Acknowledgment is made of the contributions of funds from Mrs. T. B . 
Blackstone and from Mr. Charles R. Crane, to defray the cost of a 
publication in the Museum series by Curator Laufer of the Department 
of Anthropology, entitled: "Sino-Iranica; Chinese Contributions to 
the History of the Civilization of Ancient Iran." 

Somewhat extensive reference is made elsewhere in this report to the 
Japanese painting presented to the Museum by Trustee Gunsaulus; 
a most valuable gift from both an ethnologic and artistic standpoint. 

The Finance Committee of the Museum authorized an arrangement 
to finance the subscriptions of the employes of the Institution to the 
Third and Fourth Liberty Loan bond issues, under which arrangement a 
most gratifying subscription resulted, both as to individuals and the 
amounts taken. 

The Museum sustained a signal loss in the death of Mr. Odell Edward 
Lansing, Jr., Keeper-of-the-Herbarium, Department of Botany. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



REPORTS. PLATE XXXVIII 




An Enlarged •'Float" or "Bladder" of the Bladder-weed Reproduced in Glass and Natural 

Color. 

It illustrates the carnivorus character of the plant. 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 231 

Mr. Lansing had been in the service of the Museum twenty-three years 
during which his conscientious, untiring devotion to his work, and 
cheerful presence, had endeared him to all his associates. He was a 
diligent and discriminating collector, making his special field of labor 
the Plant Life of the Chicago Basin, in Illinois and Indiana. To this he 
devoted all his spare time and often his periods of vacation. He also 
collected in various parts of Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and in the 
Ozark region of Missouri. In 1903, on a commission from the Museum, 
he made a thorough and comprehensive botanical exploration of all the 
sand keys of Florida from Key West westward. His original collections 
(4,563 specimens) are preserved in the herbarium of the Museum, and 
duplicates in various herbaria of America and Europe. 

maintenance. — The annual Budget Authorized by the Board of 
Trustees provided the sum of $158,496.00 for the maintenance of the 
Museum for the fiscal year. The actual amount expended was $137,- 
740.00, leaving a balance within the anticipated expenses for the year 
of $20,756.00. In addition to the cost of maintenance the sum of 
approximately $5,000.00 was expended for collections and packing sup- 
plies, that brought the total to $142,740.00. 

publications. — During the year four publications were issued, com- 
prising parts of four volumes, details of which follow: 
Pub. 197.— Zoological Series, Vol. XIII, Part II, No. 1. The Birds of 

the Americas. By C. B. Cory. March 1918. 315 pages, 1 

colored plate. Edition 1,150. 
Pub. 198. — Zoological Series, Vol. XII, No. 2. Notes on Fishes from 

the Athi River in British East Africa. By Carl L. Hubbs. 

January 191 8. 4 pages, 3 halftones. Edition 1,000. 
Pub. 199. — Botanical Series, Vol. IV, No. 1. New Species; of Xan- 

thium and Solidago. By C. F. Millspaugh and E. F. Sherff . 

April 191 8. 7 pages, 6 halftones. Edition 1,000. 
Pub. 200. — Report Series, Vol. V, No. 3. Annual Report of the Direc- 
tor for the year 19 17. January 191 8. 74 pages, 11 halftones. 

Edition, 2,000. 
These publications were distributed to individuals and institutions 
whose names appear on the Domestic mailing list. On account of the 
enhanced sea risk a few copies of the Annual Report only were sent 
abroad. 

the library. — The books and pamphlets accessioned during the year 
were 1,484, a decrease from preceding years, but this is amply explained 
by war conditions. In the interest of general economy and the desire 
to cooperate with the War Industries Board in the saving of paper, 
publishers have issued limited editions. Periodicals and serials that 



232 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

had been previously received as gifts or exchanges were discontinued. 
Foreign exchanges were scant and irregular. The total number of 
books and pamphlets in the Library is 71,020, which are distributed as 
follows: 

General Library 44.750 

Department of Anthropology 3, 61 6 

Department of Botany 7,476 

Department of Geology 10,460 

Department of Zoology 4,7 18 

Purchases were made of forty-six books necessary for work in hand 
in the departmental libraries. Among those received are: Crawford's 
History of the Indian Archipelago, 1820; Im Thurm's Among the In- 
dians of Guiana, 1884; Rickard's Ruins of Mexico; Robelo's Diccionario 
de Aztequismos; Walters' Ancient Pottery; Tutton's Crystallography; 
Pennant's Synopsis of Quadrupeds, 1771. Through the continued 
generosity of Mr. Edward E. Ayer, a handsomely bound and illustrated 
copy of Lord Rothschild's Extinct Birds, and continuations of Mat- 
thews' Birds of Australia were purchased for the Ayer Ornithological 
Library. Mr. William S. McCrea donated a copy of Herrick's Audubon 
the Naturalist. Interesting additions were also received from Mr. Wil- 
liam J. Chalmers, Mr. Charles L. Freer, Detroit, Mr. J. Nilsen Laurvik, 
San Francisco, Mr. Elmer D. Merrill, Manila, Mr. Edward S. Morse, 
Salem, Mr. James Weir, Missoula. The general activities of the Library 
have continued in as earnest and energetic a manner as existing con- 
ditions permitted. New work has not been undertaken during the year, 
but the development of resources at hand has progressed. The steadily 
rising cost of binding materials made it impractical to bind the usual 
number of books, and only 227 periodicals and serials were bound during 
the year. There were written and filed in the catalogues 15,612 cards. 
Twelve monthly installments of approximately a thousand cards each 
of the John Crerar Library were received and filed. Preparatory to 
moving to the new building a general weeding out has been made of 
literature no longer of use in the work of the Museum. Much of this 
material had been accessioned before it was definitely determined that 
the scope of the Museum would be confined to natural history. For 
lack of shelf -room these books have been packed in boxes for some years. 
What is of exchange value was checked off the records and repacked; 
all duplicate material was carefully examined and what was of im- 
portance for exchange purposes was also packed. All of these forty- 
eight boxes were properly labeled and stored ready for shipment. What 
was fit only for waste paper was sold. In all 1,780 numbers were checked 
off the records, which reduces to 71,020 the total number of books and 
pamphlets in the Library. 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 233 

DEPARTMENTAL CATALOGUING, INVENTORYING, AND LABELING. During the Cur- 
rent year the work of cataloguing in the Department of Anthropology 
has been carried on as usual, and the total number of catalogue cards 
prepared amounts to 5,441 . These cards are distributed over the various 
divisions as follows: China, India and Philippines 47; Melanesian 
Ethnology 984; North American Ethnology 594; Mexican and South 
American Archaeology 598; and Physical Anthropology 3,218. All these 
cards have been entered in the inventory books of the Department, 
which now number 38. The number of annual accessions amounts to 
16, of these 1 1 have been entered. The total number of catalogue cards 
entered from the opening of the first volume amounts to 153,111. The 
photographer made 63 negatives and supplied 503 prints to the De- 
partment. There were added to the label file 224 new label cards. A 
total number of 2,309 labels was turned out by the printer for use in the 
exhibition cases of the Department. These labels are distributed as 
follows: China and Philippines 20; Melanesian Ethnology 129; and 
Mexican and South American Archaeology 2,160. The printer further 
supplied the Department with 2,050 catalogue cards and 5,600 shipping 
labels. The cataloguing of the collections secured under the auspices of 
the Joseph N. Field Expedition is now completed. All together 11,390 
cards are written on this collection. General case-labels have been 
installed in all cases of Halls 2 and 3 and those in the East Court. 
The condensation and reinstallation of the Philippine collections, 
carried on during 191 7, made necessary the relabeling of a large portion 
of the exhibits. This was completed early in the spring by the labeling 
of sixteen cases covering the Bukidnon tribes of Northern Mindanao and 
the Bagobo of Davao Gulf. Labels have been written for thirty-five 
specimens in the case of Egyptian bronzes. The general case labels for 
six cases of Egyptian archaeology installed last year have been properly 
placed. The Ushebti figures have been classified, and the translations 
of their inscriptions made by Dr. Allen will be utilized for the prepara- 
tion of the labels. The Canopic jars have also been carefully studied, 
classified, and inscriptions read. Under an agreement with the Depart- 
ment of Egyptology at the University of Chicago the Museum received 
for some time the services of Dr. Allen for the translation of Egyptian 
inscriptions in exchange for Egyptian material of the University to 
be treated or repaired by the Department's preparator. Dr. Allen's 
notes will form a useful foundation for the labels to be prepared 
for this section. Since the first of June, the Assistant Curator 
of Mexican and South American Archaeology has concerned himself 
almost entirely with the Zavaleta collection of Calchaqui archaeology. 
This collection consisted of 4,565 numbers; two hundred and 



234 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

seventy-one of these had already been catalogued in the Peruvian 
collection, the remaining 4,294 have been numbered in 2,120 cata- 
logue numbers; about four hundred of these have been catalogued 
to date. 

In the Department of Botany the entries made number 7,754, bring- 
ing the total entries to 477,490. The permanent card reference-indexes 
maintained in the Department of Botany, and their composition, 
are as follows: 

Number of Cards 
Augmented 191 8 Total 

Index of Botanical Species 2,500 147,650 

Index to Common names of plants 1,200 19.950 

Index to Yucatan plants 160 6,362 

Index to Euphorbicas 85 4. 22 5 

Department Labels 262 3,100 

Index to Collectors and Collections 95 91850 

Index to Geographic collections 16 2,750 

Index to Botanical Titles (articles) 178 1,500 

Index to Department Library 137 8,800 

Index to Illinois Flora . 900 900 

Index to Hand Specimens of Woods 800 800 

Index to Cases Installed 595 

Index to Photographs 600 

6,333 207,082 

All accessions in the Department of Geology have been duly cata- 
logued as received. The total record of catalogue entries to date is as 
follows: Number of Record Books 22; Entries during 191 8, 510; Total 
number of entries to December 31, 1918, 140,429; Total number of cards 
written 8,018. The Chalmers Crystal collection has been labeled 
throughout, 166 additional labels having been provided for this purpose. 
Other series for which new labels have been made are those of Quater- 
nary vertebrates and about 500 miscellaneous specimens of ores and 
minerals. The whole comprises a total of 745 labels which have been 
printed and for the most part installed during the year. In addition 168 
labels have been prepared and are ready for printing. 

Owing to the small number of new accessions in the Department of 
Zoology the total number of new entries in the catalogues was the small- 
est in the history of the Department. The total number of regular 
entries was only 185, of which 155 were in Ornithology and 30 in Mam- 
malogy. In the classified card catalogues, the number of entries also 
has been limited. In Ornithology about 150 new entries were made 
and in Mammalogy correction and revision of about 100 cards were 
made. New exhibition labels to complete the relabeling of the synoptic 
collection of mammals were received from the printer and in part have 
been installed, the remainder being held until after removal. The work 
of re-identifying, re-cataloguing and re-tagging the study collections 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 235 

of the Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology has proceeded through- 
out the year. Most of the new material entered and some of the old 
material has been supplied with tin tags, stamped in the machine pur- 
chased for that purpose last year. In the Division of Osteology fifteen 
skeletons were catalogued and index cards were written for the same. 
Including the duplicates, 1,700 shell labels were received from the 
printer. Of this number 1,381 have been installed. There were also 
installed 133 labels for scorpions, tarantulas, centipedes and silkworms. 
The following table shows the work performed on catalogues and 
the inventorying accomplished: 





Number o 


f Total Number 




Total Number 




Record 


of Entries to 


Entries 


of Cards 




Books 


December 31. 19 


[8 During 1918 


Written 


Department of Anthropology . 


38 


i53.HI 


5.441 


i53.HI 


Department of Botany 


• 58 


477-490 


7.754 


83.374 


Department of Geology 


22 


140,429 


510 


8,018 


Department of Zoology 


40 


101,249 


789 


35.713 


The Library 


14 


108,360 


2,640 


258,972 


Section of Photography 


20 


119. 138 


1,299 





accessions. — The Curator of Anthropology makes the following 
observations on the painted Japanese screen of the Tosa school presented 
to the Museum by Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus in commemoration of the 
Director's twenty-fifth anniversary of service: The Tosa school, so 
named for the painter Tsunetaka, a governor of Tosa Province, flour- 
ished in the thirteenth century, and in its artistic aspirations was anti- 
Chinese, cultivating a vigorous nationalism and representing the taste 
of Japanese aristocracy as developed at the court of Kyoto. The char- 
acteristics of the Tosa masters were a magnificent combination of 
harmonious color and remarkable skill of composition. In conformity 
with their national tendencies they turned their attention toward his- 
torical subjects, and as illustrators of historical incidents or court 
romances and ceremonies on a grand scale they are peerless in the 
pictorial annals of Japan. In the epic style of their painted narratives 
they became for Japan what the rhapsodists of the Homeric poems were 
for Greece. Their best work is accordingly found on screens and sliding 
doors which offered the most suitable background for the expression of 
their inspiring conceptions. Distinguished forms, a delicate finesse of 
the brush exhibiting a decided affinity with the best miniatures of 
Persia, and the illustrated missals of our middle ages, a delicate severity 
of outlines, a certain conventionality of aristocratic sentiment, an 
incomparable talent for minutest detail in depicting trees, flowers, and 
birds, vivid, opaque and plastic coloration — these are the predominant 
traits of Tosa art all of which are reflected in this screen. Art was en- 



236 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

riched by these masters with a striking innovation which omitted the 
roofs of the buildings, representing the interiors from a bird's-eye view 
and blending the surrounding scenery with the domestic events. This 
principle is felicitously embodied in this painting which depicts three 
scenes from the famous classical romance Genji Monogatari written in 
a.d. 1004. The scene on the right-hand side shows the hero, Prince 
Genji, engaged with his friends in a discussion of the character of women. 
The scene in the upper portion of the centre illustrates Prince Genji 
gazing through a hedge at a group of ladies in the building. The scene on 
the left-hand side of the screen represents Genji and his friend To-no- 
chujo performing a war dance before the emperor in the palace Suzaku-in, 
accompanied by the orchestra below, of two reed-organs, two flutes, and 
two drums. The audience is formed by the members of the court seated 
in a hall on the left-hand side; the women spectators being confined to a 
special box on a lower level than the men. The characterization of 
the figures is exquisite, and the technical means employed to this end are 
of highest quality. In the costumes of four figures the designs are em- 
bossed or raised in relief in the paper, while a rich scale of pigments is set 
off from a gold-speckled brown background. The whole composition is as 
monumental and artistic as the treatment of details is refined, accurate, 
and instructive. This painting personifies a live source of inspiration for 
the study of ancient Japanese life, customs, and decorative forms, and it 
is no exaggeration to say that this screen is one of the greatest Oriental 
works of art which ever came to the Museum. Dr. Gunsaulus' ingenuity 
and perspicacity in the discovery of this treasure cannot be praised enough, 
and he is deserving of our heart-felt gratitude for his generous presenta- 
tion, as well as for the thoughtfulness and spirit in which it is made. 
In the Department of Anthropology there were received as a gift 
from Mr. H. W. Narjal five pieces of tapa cloth and three war clubs from 
Samoa, a pair of Eskimo skin boots, and an ancient suit of chain mail 
coming from Sweden, but probably manufactured in Persia. A very 
interesting lot of Chinese pottery fragments was presented by Mr. E. B. 
Christie who at a time was connected with the Philippine Museum of the 
Bureau of Science, Manila, and discovered these bits in 19 15 in ancient 
burial caves of Bohol, Philippine Islands. Some of these shards have 
artistic and archaeological value, being as early as the time of the Sung 
dynasty (tenth and eleventh centuries). There are several good ex- 
amples of celadons which show that the sea-green glaze of this ware was 
wrought over a porcelain body at that period, and a large series of other 
glazes, particularly blue and whites. It is hoped that this material will 
give occasion to a renewed and more profound study of the problem of 
Chinese pottery in the Philippines, which was taken up in a pub- 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 237 

lication of the Museum some years ago. A valuable museum purchase is 
represented by the grave material secured from a cave on the Pecos 
River, Val Verde Co., West Texas, by Mr. J. H. Hudson. The principal 
object was dug up four feet underground, being the skeleton of an 
Indian child in excellent state of preservation, wrapped in an antelope 
skin and adorned with a necklace of shell beads of intrinsic value. In 
the same cave were found a finely woven mat with very interesting 
painted designs, two plain undecorated mats, several deer or antelope 
skins, two smaller mats, a rabbit fur robe, and a bone awl. Besides there 
is the skull of an Indian woman and some detached bones discovered 
in another cave. Prominent among the year's accessions is a rare robe, 
the gift of Mr. Homer E. Sargent, which is a welcome addition to the 
choice collection of blankets given by him last year. It is a blanket 
made at Spuzzum, B. C, about 1863; it soon passed into the possession 
of a Hudson Bay Company's factor, in whose family it remained for 
more than fifty years until it was purchased for Mr. Sargent. While this 
type of blanket was formerly produced by Lower Thompson and some 
of the neighboring Lower Frazer Indians of Yale, not more than six are 
known to be now in existence. Through Mr. Edward E. Ayer, the 
Museum purchased several articles from the rapidly vanishing Tolowa 
tribe in the extreme northwestern part of California; among these being 
two fine buckskin festival dresses, also a beautiful head-band worn in 
the Jumping or Fall dance. A mctate with muller from Mexico was 
turned over to the Department as a gift from Mr. Ayer. The most im- 
portant addition of this year is represented by the material received in 
exchange from Mr. George G. Heye, director of the Museum of the 
American Indian, New York, and making a total of seven hundred 
objects. The collection covers two regions: Ecuador and the West 
Indies. The majority of the material comes from the West Indies 
(412 specimens): Trinidad, Carriacou, St. Kitts, St. Vincent, Santa 
Lucia, Grenada, the Virgin Islands, and Cuba. It contains a large 
quantity of stone axes of different shapes and of shell celts which are 
available for exhibition. The balance of the West Indian material 
consists of pottery fragments and sherds, entire vessels being excessively 
rare from this region. A large number of the fragments contain relief 
figures suitable for exhibition, but, on the whole, the collection has 
greater scientific value because of its rarity. The Ecuador collection is 
excellent, consisting of 288 specimens, principally entire pottery vessels 
of high exhibition quality and of types not heretofore possessed by the 
museum. There are also a few stone and a very few metal pieces from 
this region. On the whole it is an excellent collection of almost perfect 
exhibition value. Two sacred bundles from the Sauk and Fox were 



238 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

purch^-r t hroug h Dr. T. Michelson of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology ' form a valuable addition to the sacred bundles from 

other Indian tribes in the collections. 

The Department of Botany received the following important addi- 
tions to its herbarium during the year: The highly valuable "Centurice 
Species Blancoanae/' distributed specially by the Philippine Bureau 
of Sciences, to illustrate, by topotypic plants, the species treated by 
Blanco in his Flora of the Philippines, and in addition to these 374 
further Philippine species; " Plants Wilsonianae," 753 plants of China 
and Japan; 457 Philippine plants from a series specially collected for the 
Arnold Arboretum; the herbarium of Professor Hall, formerly State 
Geologist of New York, 1,311 plants representing the Flora of Troy, 
N. Y.; Earl E. SherrT, 446 plants of Illinois; Dr. Robert Ridgway, 267 
plants of Ill in ois; C. F. Millspaugh, 117 plants of Wisconsin, and 182 
rth Carolina; F. C. Gates, 390 plants of Michigan; Florence Beck- 
th, 85 plants of Illinois; Walter Fischer, 399 plants of Argentina; 
New York Botanical Garden, 363 plants of Jamaica (Harris); A. A. 
Heller, 306 plants of California and Oregon; and Ira W. Clokey, 170 
plants of Colorado. On account of lack of preparatorial assistance for 
poisoning and mounting specimens the additions to the herbarium fall 
far below the usual annual quota. The regional distribution of fully 
organized material added to the herbarium in 1918, is shown in the 
following tabulation: 

locality Added th]g TouI . m 

NORTH AMERICA: Year Herbarium 

Assiniboia I 21 

Manitoba 3 262 

Ontario 3 1,670 

United States: 

Alabama 8 1,468 

Arizona 9 8,221 

California 288 25,583 

Magdalena Islands 17 33 

Colorado 11 12,585 

Connecticut 38 692 

Carolina, North 211 4-754 

Delaware 1 1.338 

District of Columbia 44 2,712 

Florida 5 20,331 

Georgia n 3,995 

Idaho 4 3,655 

Illinois 833 27,968 

Indiana 102 6,943 

Kansas 6 546 

Kentucky 3 1,373 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 239 

LOCALITY 

United States: (continued) Year Herbarium 

Maryland 86 1,366 

Massachusetts 7 5, 350 

Michigan 397 3,912 

Missouri 4 3,886 

Nevada 1 1,295 

New Jersey 30 3,037 

New Mexico 36 3.722 

New York 911 7.471 

Ohio 7 2.070 

Oklahoma 1 296 

Oregon 48 8,986 

Pennsylvania 22 10,158 

Rhode Island 2 602 

Rocky Mountains 2 59 

Tennessee 3 1-370 

Texas 10 9,888 

Utah 3 3.301 

Vermont 6 3,604 

Virginia 107 4,843 

Washington 11 7,51 1 

West Virginia 14 2,042 

Wisconsin 122 5.007 

Bahama Islands: 

Inagua I 444 

Long Cay 1 12 

New Providence 3 2,428 

West Indies: 

Barbados 3 34^ 

Cuba 44 10,957 

Dominica 7 98 

Grand Cayman 2 146 

Jamaica 365 7.694 

Porto Rico 1 4.731 

Santo Domingo I i.3 2 3 

Central America: 

Costa Rica 4 612 

Guatemala 2 3.083 

Mexico 70 3L3I4 

Lower California 1 1.685 

Yucatan 6 6,759 

Cozumel Island 2 200 

South America: 

Columbia 1 2.43* 

Argentina 299 1,368 

Uruguay 2 168 

Venezuela l 7°7 

Europe: 

England I 2,459 



240 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

LOCALITY 

. Added this Total in 

AFRICA : Year Herbarium 

Congo (French) 1 2 

Asia: 

Amboinia 124 124 

China 679 2,260 

Japan 74 339 

Philippines 715 11-653 

Horticultural 127 3, 181 

Illustrations, mounted as Herbarium specimens . . 45 2,236 

The Department of Geology received its most important accession 
during the year from Mr. William J. Chalmers, who provided ninety 
additional specimens for the collection of mineral crystals. These 
specimens are of high quality and interest and greatly enhance the 
value of this already unique and remarkable collection. A valuable 
series of minerals and gems, some of them cut, associated with the dia- 
monds of the Jagersfontein, South Africa, mines, was presented by Mr. 
Alexander Fay Brigham. The Great Northern Railway presented a 
large painting of the Rome glacier of Glacier National Park, Montana. 
Several valuable accessions were received by exchange, among which a 
series of Permian reptiles from the University of Chicago was of first 
importance. The series contains skulls, vertebras and other bones of the 
rare, primitive forms, Eryops, Labidosaurus, Pariotichus and Dimetro- 
don. The great scarcity of remains known from the Permian and the 
primitive characters of these forms, make the addition of these speci- 
mens to the collections a valued accession. From the Australian School 
of Mines, Sydney, Australia, a number of rare Australian minerals were 
secured by exchange. These specimens included chiefly opal, chromite 
and different forms of tetrahedrite. By exchange with Joseph N. Prokes, 
fourteen large specimens of an interesting form of calcareous tufa pro- 
duced by spring deposition were obtained. By purchase, the type speci- 
ment of Paolia stiperba, an insect of the Carboniferous period allied to 
the modern locust was obtained. The specimen shows chiefly the wings 
of the insect, which are about three inches in length and are preserved 
with complete venation in a fossil concretion. Several large specimens 
of minerals were also secured by purchase, of special importance among 
them being some unusually brilliant and well-formed pyrite crystals. 

In the Department of Zoology the accessions of mammals and birds 
during the year have been few, 12 mammals and 66 birds having been 
donated, while only 18 mammals and 4 birds were purchased. Five 
British fishes, representing new groups for synoptic series, were pur- 
chased from the well known fish taxidermist Mr. Sherman F. Denton. 
Mr. L. L. Pray presented to the Museum several small Michigan fishes 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 241 

and two large fishes, a sheepshead and a muskallunge, mounted by 
himself. Some additional fishes and reptiles from California, including 
paratypes of two new species, were presented by Assistant Curator 
Hubbs, who also collected some local cold-blooded vertebrates. By 
exchange the study collection of fishes was enriched in several direc- 
tions, the following list of material having been secured: 375 fishes, 
amphibians and reptiles from British Honduras, comprising the collec- 
tions of the late Dr. B. G. Bailey, Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; 38 
fluviatile fishes from Eastern Mexico, from the Museum of Zoology of 
the University of Michigan; 33 fishes, mostly of the family Atherinidae, 
including the paratype of Ischnomcmbras gabunensis, from the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and four desirable fishes and 
salamanders of Southern California, from the San Diego Society of 
Natural History. The acquisitions in the Division of Entomology 
during the year consisted mainly of small gifts from various donors. The 
large number of insects accessioned is wholly due to the fact that it in- 
cludes the collection received from Dr. William Barnes several years 
ago. A brief description of Dr. Barnes' donation was given in a former 
report. The insects received by donation number 3,148 and by exchange 4. 
Installation, Rearrangement, and Permanent Improvement, Packing for 
removal to new building. — In the Department of Anthropology installa- 
tion was carried on only during the first five months of the year, fifteen 
cases being installed during this period. Thirteen of these belong to 
the section of Mexican and South American archaeology, and comprise 
two cases devoted to Central American archaeology, two to Mexican 
archaeology, four to Mexican ethnology, and five to South American 
ethnology. Labels have been printed for all of these and installed in 
all but four cases. As five cases of Mexican archaeology and ethnology 
were installed in 19 17, a total of eighteen, out of the number of seventy- 
eight cases planned for Hall F in the new building, have been 
completed to date. One four-foot case housing New Guinea material 
was installed. In it are exhibited some fine examples of the carved 
wooden drums known as garamnts and found on the north coast of the 
island. These illustrate the principal variations which occur in this 
region. A case containing more than eighty-five bronze vessels 
collected in Egypt largely through Mr. Edward E. Ayer's efforts, and 
comprising ladles, basins, ewers, bowls, cauldrons, jugs, amphorae, 
vases, plates, libation pourers, pails and strainers, has been carefully 
installed in conformity with the plan previously formulated. In accord- 
ance with instructions issued on May 20 installation was discontinued, 
and preparations were at once initiated to mobilize collections for 
their future reception in the new building. Methods of packing and 



242 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

material required for this purpose were discussed at meetings with 
the staff, and the suggestions brought out during these discussions 
proved most helpful. This Department has adopted the principle of 
packing, wherever feasible, in the cases and disturbing the material as 
little as possible. Following is a summary of the material packed dur- 
ing 19 18 in the Department of Anthropology: 150 exhibition cases, 
209 crates, 131 boxes, 1 burlap, and 1,194 carton-boxes. For the 
packing of pottery and bronze the exhibition-case is regarded as 
the safest receptacle: the method followed is to use two boards 
of the dimensions of a shelf and to place one along the front and 
the other along the back of a case against the glass and above the 
floor, whereby a box-like container is insured. The objects are then 
removed from the shelves, wrapped with corrugated paper, and tightly 
placed on the bottom of the case ; the boards prevent them from coming 
in contact with the glass. Delicate pottery pieces or fragile clay figures 
are first packed in carton-boxes stuffed with paper shavings. Halls 
50, 51 and 56 of the East Annex were closed during the summer, and 
the material displayed in the exhibition cases and a great amount of 
storage material were made ready for transportation. In June orders 
were somewhat modified, and instruction was given to spare exhibition- 
cases and to proceed with the packing of storage-material. Efforts then 
turned toward clearing up the West 'Annex which for a number of years 
has been the repository of several ten thousands of objects not yet pre- 
pared for exhibition. These were brought to light, assembled, sorted, 
and classified to be finally boxed or crated. This material embraces 
collections from the Philippines, Java, India, Turkey, Egypt, New 
Guinea, Mexico, and South America. Throughout this work has been 
done intelligently: exchange and study collections are grouped and 
packed separately, while all exhibition material is selected and so cut 
out and arranged that it is in readiness for installation in the new build- 
ing without delay. Exact records were kept of all cases packed and all 
crates, boxes, and other packages made. As far as possible, labeling 
was also continued, the labels being placed with the material to which 
they belong. In the autumn the embargo on closing exhibition-halls 
was raised, and accordingly Hall 17, sheltering the Hopi altars and the 
Hopi home-scene, was broken up. Fifteen large cases were dismantled 
and their contents packed in nine crates, nine boxes, and four standard 
cases, while seven altar cases were packed in situ. The Eskimo Hall is 
now undergoing the same operation, but simultaneously it is planned to 
raise this interesting collection to a higher standard of exhibition. First 
installed some twenty years ago, it has long since outgrown its present 
system of arrangement. Collections have been secured from new 



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Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 243 

localities, while notable additions have been made to districts already 
represented. It is now possible to present an adequate picture of Eskimo 
life and to illustrate minor variations in the culture of the tribes, due to 
contact with other peoples, environment, and similar factors. Of the 
Zavaleta collection, five cases have been arranged for future exhibition. 
Labels have been written for three of these and are now being printed. 
One case has been completely catalogued and packed for shipment. 
The archaeological collection from La Plata Island was examined, ar- 
ranged for installation in one case, labels written, and the material 
packed. The balance of this collection, as far as it has not been sent to 
the Museum of the American Indian for exchange, is likewise packed and 
labeled as study material. Two cases of the Mexican section have been 
packed for transportation, and the study material from the South Ameri- 
can collections is packed in forty-three boxes. During the past year 
the entire collection of skeletal material has been thoroughly over- 
hauled, sorted, cleaned, arranged geographically, and numbered by the 
assistant curator of physical anthropology. The cataloguing of it is 
now complete, so that data relating to any part of the collection are 
readily available. In addition to the descriptive catalogue cards, a 
considerable amount of laboratory work was done on the Peruvian 
material. Carton-boxes of two sizes have been provided, and the entire 
collection, including the portion displayed in the exhibition-cases on 
the east gallery, has been carefully packed in cartons which are num- 
bered and labeled. A list of this material has been prepared in duplicate 
for future reference in the moving operations. The collections of facial 
masks and plaster busts of racial types are included in this lot. As 
this material has been accumulating through twenty years, and an 
account of its scientific value has not yet been offered, a short summary 
may be of interest. The total number of crania and skeletons is approx- 
imately three thousand six hundred, while casts number about two 
hundred. There are four hundred and fifty specimens from South Ameri- 
ca, chiefly from Peru, Bolivia, and Argentine. Among these are many 
interesting examples which show deformation and trepanning. A large 
collection of busts has been obtained from Mexico ; also a very interesting 
series of crania excavated in the vicinity of an old temple site at Tezon- 
tepec. All these skulls are broken in the occipital region, and it is 
supposed that they were once displayed on a pole in sacrificial cere- 
monies. Artificial deformation is found in nearly all these specimens. 
Prehistoric American burials are well represented by collections from 
the neighborhood of Trenton, New Jersey; the Hopewell, Oregonia, 
and the Warren County mounds of Ohio; as well as from various sites 
in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Indiana. Cliff Dweller crania and skeletons 



244 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

amount to two hundred, while prehistoric Hopi is adequately illustrated 
by more than three hundred objects. Representative collections have 
been obtained from the Huron, Blackfoot, Iroquois, Pawnee, and 
Sioux, while collections in smaller numbers come from Central and 
Southern groups. The most complete collections from North America 
relate to the Northwest Coast, those from the Haida numbering one 
hundred and twenty, Kwakiutl one hundred, Nootka forty-five, Chi- 
nook sixty. Other groups are also represented. The California material, 
while small in number, contains many interesting specimens, two of 
which gathered by Dr. Hudson are of an exceedingly primitive type. 
Oceanica (South Seas) is particularly well illustrated by six hundred and 
forty skulls, many of which exhibit instructive examples of carving and 
face moulding; while small types of skull deformation, trepanning, etc., 
are found; the collection also contains mortuary figures provided with 
human heads and other parts of the skeleton. Malaysia and China yield 
one hundred and twenty-five objects gathered in connection with the 
Museum's ethnological expeditions. Owing to the scarcity of skeletal 
material from these regions in our museums the specimens are of especial 
interest. The bulk of the material relative to Negroes and Whites 
consists of complete skeletons, secured in the Middle West and macer- 
ated at the Museum. Some one hundred and seventy-five individuals 
are represented in this section. Many minor collections covering 
Egypt, ancient Sardinia, and parts of Africa and Europe, are also in- 
cluded in the lists. Since the organization of the section of Physical 
Anthropology, considerable attention has been paid to measurements 
on the living, and charts representing more than four thousand in- 
dividuals are now on file. Of this number the greater part refers to the 
pagan tribes of the Philippines. Various rearrangements were made 
in the course of the year. In the Egyptian Hall three hanging wall cases 
were emptied of their contents consisting of mummies of hawks, cats, 
alligators, and other small animals; Ushebti figures, basketry and writ- 
ing materials, for future re-installation in standard cases. Two cases of 
small working groups and wooden burial figures were also vacated, 
studied with reference to labels, and packed for transportation in a 
standard case. One case of vases and mortuary jars, one of boxes and 
biers, and another of canopies or viscera jars, were dismantled, the 
contents studied and packed in a standard case. In the East Court, 
three cases of Mexican, Venezuela and British Guiana ethnology were 
stripped for immediate installation, following the elimination of study 
and duplicate material. One Peabody case containing archaeological 
collections from Nicaragua, Bahama and Santo Domingo was released 
for storage, the material being properly divided for re-installation. The 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 245 

Shastan collection was removed from a standard case to storage and 
will be re-installed at a later date. This change was made necessary by 
the arrival of new material. Six Peabody cases formerly used for storage 
purposes in Halls 68, 69 and 72, emptied of their contents in the process 
of packing, were removed and stored in the basement to give floor 
space for the cartons containing skeletal material in Hall 69 and the 
crated Melanesian material in Hall 72. In the repair section of the 
Department four hundred and forty-nine objects were restored, and 
more than two hundred and fifty received treatment. There were 
50,591 new numbers marked on specimens, chiefly those relating to 
physical anthropology and archaeological collections from Columbia, 
Peru and Argentine. 

In lieu of installation in the Department of Botany this year, all 
effort of the staff, with the exception of herbarium installations and 
the work of plant reproduction, was expended in preparation for moving 
the collections to the new building. All those exhibition-cases designed 
to be moved without disinstallation, and intended to be kept on exhibi- 
tion until moved, have been opened, their contents and labels securely 
anchored in place, and the storage locker contents packed in containers 
therein. In the east and west court galleries two hollow rectangular 
spaces were enclosed by these cases and within them 60 cases, secluded 
from public view, were completely disinstalled and their contents 
packed for shipment in the lockers beneath. In this manner more than 
half of the Department cases are now ready for shipment without seri- 
ously impairing the public attractiveness of the botanical display as 
long as the present building may be open. The activities of the Mrs. 
Stanley Field Plant Reproduction section have resulted in the production 
of the following life-like studies that have either been installed in the 
families to which they pertain or cased on view temporarily, awaiting 
true installation: A complete Pitcher-leaf plant (Nepenthes) in full leaf, 
flower and ' ' pitcher, ' ' enlarged male and female flowers, and a ' ' pitcher "in 
section showing its contents of partly digested insects; a large Trumpet 
Creeper vine (Bignonia) in full leaf, flower and fruit, a Catalpa flower 
in section, revealing its essential organs, a long rachis of Saussage 
fruits (Kigelia) with leaf above and two clusters of Candle-tree fruits 
(Parmentiera) suspended from the trunk of the tree; a complete plant 
of Poison Ivy {Toxicodendron) in full vernal leaf and flower, another in 
autumnal maturity with colorate leaves and ripe fruit, a section of a 
floral cluster enlarged to reveal the tree distinctive floral characters of 
the family, a leafy twig of the Mango (Mangifera) in ripe fruit and 
another of Kemanga in like condition; a large branch of Gonocaryum 
in full leaf, flower and fruit, produced from material and studies secured, 



246 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

by the Curator, in the Botanical Gardens of Buitenzorg, Java, also an 
enlargement of the peculiar fleshy flower of the species; a complete, 
leafy, fruiting branch of the Sassafras, with an enlarged flower of the 
Alligator-pear (Persea) also a twig of the latter in leaf and ripe fruit 
and a fruit in section; summit of a Bitter-sweet vine (Celastrus) in full 
leaf and ripe fruit, a small twig in full flower, and a single flower enlarged ; 
a large branch of Witch Hazel (Hamamelis) in full autumn leaf, flower 
and fruit and a single flower enlarged; a series of enlarged flowers of 
Grevillea showing the peculiar character of anthesis in the Proteaceae; 
cluster of three plants of Galax, growing in situ, in full leaf and flower 
and a portion of a floral cluster, enlarged, showing buds and two flowers 
in different stages of anthesis; a Passion-flower vine (Passiflora) in 
full leaf, flower and fruit ; a complete plant of the Fox-glove {Digitalis) 
in full leaf and flower; a large flower of the Corn Poppy (Papaver) sec- 
tioned to reveal its essential organs; a complete Arrow-head plant 
(Sagittarid) , in situ, in full leaf and flower; a frond of the Tuna cactus 
(Opuntia) in full ripe fruit illustrating one of the cultivated varieties 
now becoming prominent in the fancy fruit shops of our cities; a leafy, 
flowering and fruiting branch of the Indian Mulberry (Morinda), 
another peculiar fruit now and then reaching our northern markets; an 
enlarged flower of the Bladder- wort (Utricularia) sectioned to reveal 
its peculiar structure, an enlarged leaf of the plant with its interesting 
bodies commonly known as "floats," a single float, or bladder, highly 
enlarged and opened to reveal its contents (partly digested larvae 
and minute water animals) proving these "bladders" to be, in reality, 
stomachs, and the plant to be carnivorous; the smaller Algas, the 
Flagellatae, Dinoflagellatae and Peridinae, groups of micro-plants, have 
been completed through the production of single individuals or several 
forms in the following genera : Spirogyra, Spirulina, Nostoc, Rivularia, 
Trichodesmium, Lingyba, Oscillatoria, Clathrocystis, Coccolithophora, 
Discosph&ra, Syncrypta, Euglena, Conodadium, Rhabdosphceria, Ornitho- 
ceras, Ceratium, Peridenium, Gymnodenium, Spirodenium and Cochlo- 
denium. In October it was decided to transfer the laboratories and staff 
to Miami, Florida, where, through the courtesy of the Bureau of Plant 
Introduction of the United States Department of Agriculture, quarters 
were granted this Museum in the Department Laboratory Building at 
that place. All necessary appliances and apparatus were shipped forward 
and the staff left in a specially equipped automobile on the 19th of that 
^^rhonth. On the way south studies and casts of the cotton plant were 
secured. Arriving at Miami, without special incident, immediate prep- 
arations were begun for the re-establishment of the work which is now 
progressing as before removal. The opportunity to thus secure needed 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 247 

semi-tropical representative plants is an excellent one. The Section of 
Plant Reproduction will remain in Florida until April or early May. 

In the Department of Geology about one hundred and twenty-five 
specimens were added to the Chalmers Crystal collection and the whole 
series re-installed, the additions making it necessary to move part of the 
collection to another case. The specimens are all mounted in correct 
crystallographic positions on individual mahogany stands and have 
separate individual labels. In the arrangement of the collection as 
exhibited, specimens illustrating the six crystallographic groups are 
first shown in order and subsequent to these, specimens of twin crystals, 
crystal groupings, crystal inclusions, crystal distortions, etc. The work 
begun last year of repolishing and re-etching the sections of iron mete- 
orites, has been continued, thirty-six specimens having been thus treated 
during the year. These specimens have been re-installed as fast as 
the work upon them has been completed. Several relief maps that had 
been exhibited in the Court were removed and packed, while others 
were re-installed. The large painting of a Montana glacier presented by 
the Great Northern Railway was installed in this court in connection 
with large specimens showing glaciated surfaces. A model of the Natural 
Bridge of Virginia, based on the accurate survey and studies in the 
field made by the Assistant Curator last year, has been executed by the 
Assistant Curator and also placed on exhibition in the West Court. The 
model is five feet six inches long, three feet three inches wide, and two 
feet ten inches high, thus being of a size which is as large as will fit into 
the ordinary type of case. The scale is ten feet to the inch. This scale, 
without producing a model of unwieldy size, is large enough to show 
minor details distinctly. In this model an attempt has been made to 
simulate nature as closely as possible and to avoid the conventionalized 
and generalized systems of representation frequently employed in 
geological modeling. Also the vertical and horizontal scales are the 
same, thus avoiding the distortion which is also frequently employed 
in geological models. The model represents a length of 660 feet of the 
gorge of Cedar Creek in Rockbridge County, Virginia, with the well- 
known Natural Bridge of limestone spanning it at an elevation of 215 
feet above the water. The stream bed and the vertical cliffs are of lime- 
stone, with coatings of bright-colored clays. The higher levels and the 
more sloping portions of the canon walls are densely wooded. The basis 
of the model is reinforced concrete. The limestone surfaces and cliffs 
are modeled, the concrete mixtures at the surface being varied to meet 
the changing requirements of the rock texture. The strongly colored 
surfaces of the limestone have been reproduced in the model by perma- 
nent pigments which have been introduced into the pores of the con- 



248 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

crete, thus avoiding a painted effect. Some carved pebbles were em- 
ployed to represent individual rock features. The wooded portions of 
the model contain over 1000 miniature trees. The most prominent 
geological feature illustrated by this model is the formation of a natural 
bridge by the collapse of the roof of a cave, leaving only a fragment in 
the form of a bridge. The canon of Cedar Creek marks the position of 
the former cave and traces of the latest falling of the roof appear as large 
limestone boulders in the creek immediately above and below the 
bridge. The geological reason for the location of the bridge in its 
present position is indicated by the appearance of the rock on the west 
wall of the gorge, which shows distinctly at the bridge the axis of a 
syncline where the beds of limestone lie level and also tend to be less 
broken than elsewhere. Other characteristic cave features illustrated 
by the model are light-colored stagmalitic deposits on the wall under 
the bridge and two vertical pits, one above and one below the bridge. 
The skeleton of the Irish Deer in Hall 36, having been found to be 
undergoing injury on account of imperfect mounting, was in part 
disarticulated and the supporting framework reconstructed. The up- 
right rods were lengthened, reinforced and attached to the base in such 
a manner as to give a rigid support. Some fractures in the skeleton were 
repaired and a few missing parts restored. In remounting, also, the 
posture of the body was improved. Considerable progress has been 
made also towards mounting a skeleton of Megacerops. This is an 
Oligocene titanothere collected in South Dakota by the Museum ex- 
pedition of 1898. While the greater part of the skeleton was obtained, 
restoration of some components was found necessary. Most of these 
it was possible to model from corresponding parts of the same individual, 
but in some cases comparative studies of related animals were used 
as a basis for modeling. It is intended to display the skeleton in 
three-quarters relief on a combined base and background, these 
reproducing so far as possible the .'matrix from which the specimen 
was taken. 

In addition to the attention given to preparation and installation of 
new material, a large amount of time has been occupied in packing in 
preparation for removal to the new building. For the most part the 
collections packed have not been of exhibited material, it being deemed 
desirable to allow this to remain exhibited as long as possible. The study 
and stored collections have therefore been those which have been chiefly 
boxed. This work has so far progressed as now to include the vertebrate 
paleontological collections which have been stored in the basement of 
the taxidermy building, and the entire study collections of vertebrate 
and invertebrate fossils, ores and other economic specimens, lithological 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 249 

specimens and some apparatus. Careful records of the contents of each 
box have been made and each box has been marked in such a way as to 
secure its identification for unpacking and delivery at its appropriate 
destination in the new building. The record of the material packed 
during the year is as follows: Invertebrate fossils, 87 boxes; large field 
specimens of vertebrate fossils, 58 boxes; smaller vertebrate fossils, 
48 boxes; lithology specimens, 27 boxes; ores, 67 boxes; apparatus and 
miscellaneous, 22 boxes and 22 barrels; relief maps, 10 boxes, making 
a total of 331 barrels and boxes. 

In the Department of Zoology the work of the year has been largely 
directed to matters looking toward removal to new quarters. This has 
involved some rearrangement of specimens, some elimination of un- 
desirable material, considerable planning and estimating and actual 
packing. The usual care in preventing damage to specimens from insects 
has been exercised. The skin dresser has been occupied chiefly in 
preparing skins of large mammals which have been in the possession of 
the Museum for a number of years but which, owing to pressure of 
other work, have remained in the raw state. These were found in good 
condition. Recently obtained skins, principally from South America, 
also were dressed for permanent preservation or for mounting. Plans 
for moving specimens of mammals and birds have been made by which 
the majority of such specimens will be packed in the storage cases where 
they are now kept and thus they may remain accessible until shortly 
before the actual time of moving. Considerable progress has been made 
in packing other material. In Taxidermy, a large number of casts and 
material for preparing bird and mammal groups has been boxed or 
crated and similar material not required for immediate use, including 
field equipment, etc., has also been packed. The collection of leg bones 
of large mammals reserved for mounting has been reassorted, relabeled, 
and packed after the elimination of duplicate or unnecessary specimens. 
Revision of the synoptic exhibit of mammals has continued and a 
number of specimens have been provided with new bases, while a few 
others have been set aside for remounting. A large mounted elephant 
seal was discarded. A group of the common Ruffed Grouse or "part- 
ridge" of the Northeastern United States was installed, completing a 
four-section case of local bird groups. It shows a pair of old birds and 
their nest under a log, the old female just leaving her eggs in fright at 
a raccoon which is approaching. A painted background shows a scene 
from the Forest of Arden near Joliet, Illinois, and the foreground shows 
an attractive reproduction of characteristic shrubs and smaller plants. 
The following four groups are now included in this, the latest of the 
four-section bird cases: Winter Bird of Lake Michigan; Bird Life of 



250 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

Fox Lake; Winter Bird Life of Northern Illinois, and Ruffed Grouse in 
its Summer Home. The several animals for the group of American Bison 
provided through the generosity of Mr. Arthur B. Jones and mentioned 
in a former report, were mounted during the year; but owing to the 
large size of the group and the difficulty of obtaining a proper case for 
it, the final installation was postponed until after removal to the new 
building. Therefore the animals, mounted on movable bases, have been 
temporarily placed on exhibition without background or accessories in a 
large case in the Rotunda of the Museum. Additions to the synoptic 
exhibition of mammals have been few, the most important being a large 
male specimen of the extraordinary baboon known as the Mandrill. 
Work has progressed on accessory material for projected groups of 
large mammals, especially that of the Olympic Elk, for which the painted 
background and the specimens of the animals have been in hand for 
some time. The exhibition work of the Division of Ichthyology and 
Herpetology was almost wholly of a preparatory character, it being 
considered unwise to install new material prior to the time of moving. 
Three snakes (two rattle-snakes and one fox snake) , mounted on sanded 
bases, were the only specimens placed on exhibition during the year. A 
few fishes already on exhibition were remounted for more effective dis- 
play. All of the sixty food and game fishes of the Mississippi River, 
obtained by a Museum Expedition in 19 17, were mounted. After con- 
siderable planning and experimenting, a type of habitat group for small 
fishes was developed which promises gratifying results. A sample 
group which has been prepared shows an excellent sub-aquatic effect, an 
improvement on groups previously prepared. This group is installed in 
one of the rectangular glass jars originally designed for the display of 
fishes in fluid, a practice which has proved by experience in both this 
Museum and elsewhere to be unsuccessful. By using the type of habitat 
group mentioned above, seventy-two of the more important of the 
smaller local fishes can attractively be displayed in their proper en- 
vironmental setting, in the two twelve-foot cases now utilized for the 
unsatisfactory exhibition of fishes in fluid. In addition to the actual 
work outlined above, the whole fish exhibit plans for the new Museum 
have received further consideration. The number of cases to be used, 
and to a large degree the detailed contents of each case, have been de- 
cided upon. The replacing of the old bottles of varied sorts now used in 
the collection of the Division with a more uniform and more economical 
type of specimen jar has been continued. The supply of such jars pur- 
chased in 191 7 having been largely absorbed in the collection, a new 
order for 97 dozen jars of appropriate sizes was placed and filled. The 
most noteworthy work to which the Division of Entomology was de- 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 251 

voted during the first five months of the year was the completing of an 
exhibit of scorpions and centipedes and the making of a sample habitat 
group of insects. Some time also was spent on a group that will represent, 
the well-known and injurious tomato worm in its usual surroundings. 
The scorpion and centipede exhibit consists of a series of special tablet 
mounts, of which 29 contain different species of scorpions; 2 show harm- 
less but much feared whip-tailed scorpions, 3 the agile solpugids, the 
nature of which has been the subject of much controversy, 1 1 illustrate 
some of the giant spiders including the tarantulas and trap-door spiders, 
and 14 tablets contain examples of the larger and hence more poisonous 
centipedes. This series of specimens with their labels occupies seven of 
the twelve panels in one of the new A-cases. As an experiment as to 
what might be done in the way of making groups of insects with accessor- 
ies to represent natural surroundings, there was prepared a sample case 
containing the most conspicuous and characteristic insects found in the 
sand dune region. The group was regarded as a step in the right direc- 
tion and a case was ordered capable of accommodating two groups and 
a space for illustrated labels. In addition to the above mentioned groups, 
the silkworm exhibit was also completed by supplementing photographs 
illustrating the industry in Japan and by the installation of suitable 
descriptive labels. The Barnes-Poling collection of moths was taken 
from the unsafe boxes in which it was received several years ago and 
transferred to insect-proof drawers. As a result of this work these insects 
are now arranged systematically in safe, glass-topped drawers and the 
storage or shipping boxes have been returned to the donors of the col- 
lection. Considerable preliminary work was essential before the insects 
in the laboratory could be actually packed for moving. This was espec- 
ially true of the large number of specimens that were simply lying loose 
in shallow trays. As they could not be safely moved in this condition, 
they were relaxed and then placed between layers of cotton in small 
boxes. Every specimen in the Strecker collection were next examined in 
order to ascertain whether its pin was held securely, and, as a precau- 
tionary measure, all of the large butterflies and moths were secured by 
pins so as to prevent them from turning. The other pinned material 
was treated in a similar manner, but for the insects packed in papers and 
in small boxes different protective measures were adopted. A limited 
number of the loose specimens were pinned and labeled, because they 
could be more safely shipped in that condition. In order that the cases 
containing insects could be put in proper place in the new building, it 
was quite evident that they should be numbered before any attempt 
was made to pack the exhibits. This work was promptly given attention 
and all of the cases are now numbered so as to correspond with the 



252 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

numbered space assigned to them on the floor plans of the exhibition- 
halls. Little was done toward completing the re-installation of the shell 
exhibit. Fifteen skeletons that were stored in Taxidermy were turned 
over to the Division of Osteology. These were prepared, catalogued and 
index cards written for the same. Eighty- seven skulls were cleaned for 
the Division of Mammalogy. Three skeletons were cleaned for the 
collection of Comparative Osteology. Since the middle of May the 
entire time of the Assistant Curator has been devoted to packing 
skulls and skeletons for moving. During that time fifty-three boxes and 
crates of large skulls and skeletons were packed. Six drawers of the 
storage cabinet were packed with small ligamentary skeletons. 

The N. w. Harris Public School Extension of Field Museum of Natural History. 
— At the close of the year there were 588 cases available for circulation 
among the public schools of Chicago. It is very gratifying to be able 
to report that despite a reduction in the number of the staff, owing to 
the enlistment of two of its members in the United States Army and the 
resignation of another, fifty-four cases were installed during the year. 
It was necessary to alter hanging and increase storage facilities for cases 
in order to accommodate 250 new cases. It may be said, and with some 
pride, that the type of case originally adopted by this Department 
continues to meet the many demands made upon it. The schedule 
prepared at the beginning of the year for the delivery of cases to public 
schools during the scholastic year was maintained, except for a period 
of several days during the early part of January, when deep snow pre- 
vented delivery of cases to schools. In connection with civic activities 
held on the Municipal Pier during the summer, a loan of cases from this 
Department was requested. During the first part of July twelve cases 
were sent to the pier in compliance with this request. After these cases 
had been on exhibition but a few days, the Superintendent of the pier, 
in a communication, expressed his and the public's appreciation of 
"the very interesting and highly educational exhibits" and adding 
"these exhibits are studied with great interest by young and old, and 
many enthusiastic statements are made concerning them. They are a 
real attraction to the pier and I am writing you for the purpose of 
asking you to supplement the present exhibit." In compliance with 
this later request, twelve cases were sent. The twenty-four cases were 
on exhibition in a large, well-lighted hall, in which were also exhibited 
paintings and sculptures. A request was granted to the Twenty-sixth 
Ward Woman's Civic League for several cases to be exhibited in the 
field house in Welles Park for the purpose of illustrating a lecture on 
the extension work of the Museum. The Curator of the Children's 
Museum of Brooklyn stated in a communication received early in the 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



REPORTS, PLATE XL 




POSTERIOR HALF OF A SKELETON OF THE RARE OLIGOCENE AQUATIC RHINOCEROS. 

METAMYNODON. 

Collected in South Dakota by Museum Expedition of 1905. 



Jan., 1919. 



Annual Report of the Director. 



253 



year, that their Museum was raising by popular subscription a sum of 
money to be expended in extending the Museum in the public schools 
of that city, and requested the loan of a typical case of this Department 
together with the motion picture film showing methods of storing, de- 
livering cases, etc., which was shown at the Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition as a part of this Department's exhibit there. In making this 
request the Curator stated: "The N. W. Harris Public School Exten- 
sion has set a glorious example for the whole land and an example 
which I hope we will be able to follow with success. It would help us 
out immensely and be of great assistance in educating the people up to 
the meaning of loan collections, and it would have much to do with 
the success of our campaign." A case and the motion picture film were 
sent as requested. After using them for several weeks for the purpose 
desired, an extension of the time of the loan of the case was asked. 
In support of this request it was stated, "The case and motion picture 
film were being used quite effectively, and that people here seem to be 
delighted with the conception of such a loan, and the comments are 
uniformly enthusiastic." Requests for information concerning con- 
struction of cases, methods of installing, distributing and loaning them 
have been received from various institutions. 

photography and illustration. — The following is a tabulation of the 
work performed in this Section during the year: 



Number of Number 
Negatives of Prints 



General . 
Anthropology 
Botany 
Geology . 
Zoology . 
Harris Extension 
Gift ... . 
Sale . . . . 



made 
12 

63 
41 
II 
IO 
24 



made 

213 

503 
98 

49 
29 

25 
70 

95 



Number of 

6Mx8K 

Number of Positives 

Number of Negatives made. Used 

Lantern Developed in making 

Slides for Expe- large 

made dition Negatives 



Totals 161 1,082 

Total number of Catalogue entries during 1918 . 

Total number of Catalogue entries to December 31, 191 8 

Total number of Record Books 



1 

32 

33 



10 



10 



4 
1,290 
"9.138 
20 



254 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

printing. — The number of labels and other impressions made by the 
Section of Printing during the year is as follows: 

Exhibition Other 

Labels Impressions 

Anthropology 2,341 8,210 

Botany 2,167 10,140 

Geology 2,529 7,000 

Zoology 1,902 6,700 

General 22,400 

Library 1,900 

Harris Extension 551 150 

Herewith are also submitted financial statements, list of accessions, 
names of members, etc. 

Frederick J. V. Skiff, Director. 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 255 



Financial Statement. 



RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS. 
January 1, 1918, to December 31, 1918. 



R.ECEIPT3 

Cash in Treasurer's hands December 31, 191 7: 

General Fund $2,417.05 

Picture Post Card Fund 275.25 

Endowment Sinking Fund 243.83 $ 2,936.13 

Petty Cash on hand December 31, 19 1 7 739-95 

Dues of Annual Members 810.00 

Admissions and Check Rooms 3,721.05 

South Park Commissioners 15,000.00 

Interest on Investments and Bank Balances .... 9,505.17 

Field Endowment Income 131,500.00 

Field Endowment Sinking Fund 4,676.26 

Field Endowment Sinking Fund Income 1,477.87 

New Building Moving and Furnishing Fund .... 23,885.00 

Picture Post Cards — Sales 595 . 42 

Mrs. Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Fund .... 8,490.00 

Arthur B. Jones Buffalo Group Fund 138.59 

Joseph N. Field South Pacific Islands Fund .... 648.00 

Sundry Funds — Investments Interest 5,198.91 

Sundry Receipts 357. 18 

Donations — special 

Homer E. Sargent $ 250.00 

Charles R. Crane 500.00 

Edward E. Ayer 50 . 00 800 . 00 

$210,479.53 



256 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 



Disbursements 

Salaries $74,945.04 

Guard Service 11,347.66 

Janitor Service 6,528.80 

Fire Protection 4,177.96 

Heat and Light 22,487.19 

Repairs and Alterations: 

Wages — Carpenters, Painters and Roofers . . . . $8,784.08 

Material used — Lumber, Paint, Oils and Glass . . 335 .62 9,119.70 



Packing Supplies 2,000.27 

Furniture and Fixtures 512.00 

The Library: 

Books and Periodicals $554-53 

Binding 3 20 - 6 7 

Sundries 57-90 933-10 

Collections Purchased 1 ,243 . 82 

Installation Supplies 2,229.94 

Publications 2,449.55 

Picture Post Cards 9-00 

Sections of Photography and Printing — Supplies . . . 3°° • 5° 
General Expense Account: 

Freight, Expressage and Teaming $1,288.49 

Stationery, Postage and Telephone 55 x -33 

Liability Insurance 670.81 

Sundries 1,020.20 3,530.83 

Mrs. Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Fund .... 7,781.80 

Stanley Field Ornithology Fund 1500 

William J. Chalmers Crystal Fund 165.30 

Arthur B. Jones Buffalo Group Fund 28.59 

Life Memberships Fund — Investments 1,800.00 

Endowment Sinking Fund — Investments 6,050 . 00 

New Building Moving and Furnishing Fund — Investments 27,995.00 

Sundry Funds — Investments 17,560.00 

Employers Liberty Loan Bonds 3, 35-°o 

In Treasurer's hands, December 31, 1918: 

General Fund $3,103.19 

Picture Post Cards Fund 42-32 

Endowment Sinking Fund 347-96 3.493-47 

Petty Cash on hand, December 31, 19 1 8 739-95 

$210,479.53 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 257 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS FROM JANUARY 1, 1918, TO 

DECEMBER 31, 1918. 

Attendance 

Paid Attendance: 

Adults 12,530 

Children 1,240 13.770 

Free Admission on Pay Days : 

School Children 7,790 

Students 3-154 

Teachers 545 

Members 37 

Officers' Families 44 

Press 2 

Special 643 12,215 

Admissions on Free Days: 

Saturdays 28,035 

Sundays 103,021 131.056 

♦Total Attendance 157.041 

Highest Attendance on any one day (August 18, 1918) . . 5,692 

Highest Paid Attendance on any one day (July 4, 19 18) . 372 

Average Daily Admissions (350 days) 448 

Average Paid Attendance (259 days) 53 

Receipts 

Articles checked — 9,291 at 5 cents each $ 46455 

Admissions 3.256.5° 

$3,721.05 

*Museum closed fifteen days during the year. 



258 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 



Accessions. 



DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY. 

AYER, EDWARD E. ( Chicago. 

1 Mexican metate with muller — Monterey, California (gift). 
CHRISTIE, EMERSON B., Washington, D. C. 

Pottery and porcelain fragments from caves — Bohol, Philippine Islands 

(gift). 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 
Purchases : 

1 bone awl, 2 coarse mats, 1 decorated mat, 5 detached bones, 2 dressed 
antelope hides, 1 rabbit-fur blanket, 1 skeleton of child with shell necklace, 
1 skull of woman, 5 wooden implements — Cave in Val Verde County, 
Texas. 

2 Tolowa buckskin dresses, 1 Tolowa feather head-dress, 1 Tolowa stone 
dish, 1 Yurok feather head-dress — California. 

2 sacred bundles of the Sauk and Fox — Tama, Iowa. 
JOSEPH N. FIELD SOUTH PACIFIC ISLANDS FUND. 

4 trophy skulls — British New Guinea (gift). 
GUNSAULUS, FRANK W., Chicago. 

Painted screen of the Tosa School, 13th century — Japan (gift). 
HAMILTON, THEODORE, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Necklace of boar's tusks — Impur, Naga Hills, Assam, India (exchange). 
HARVEY, CHARLES A., Chicago. 

Archaeological material — Marblehead, Adams County, Illinois (gift). 
HOEFELD, NORMAN A., Chicago. 

Collection of ethnological objects, chiefly from the Ute — Colorado (gift). 
MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN, New York City. 

342 pottery fragments, 29 shell implements, no stone implements — West 
Indies (exchange). 

91 clay figures, 13 specimens bronze, carved stone and bead necklace, 
123 pottery vessels, 41 spindle-whorls, 20 stone implements — Ecuador 
(exchange) . 
NARJAL, H. W., Chicago. 

1 pair Eskimo skin boots, 1 suit chain mail — Alaska and Sweden (gift). 

5 pieces tapa cloth, 3 war clubs, shell and seed ornaments, miscellaneous 
objects — Samoa, South Sea (gift). 

PARSONS, ELSIE CLEWS, New York City. 

8 prayer sticks — Zufii, New Mexico (gift). 
SARGENT, HOMER E., Pasadena, California. 

1 blanket with colored designs of Lower Thompson Indians, B. C. — Spuz- 
zum, British Columbia (gift). 



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Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 259 

WATSON, J. A., Chicago. 

Miscellaneous textiles from northern Mexico, Liberia, and Canary Islands 
(gift). 

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY. 

AMERICAN CUTLERY COMPANY, Chicago. 

8 specimens woods used for handles for cutlery — various localities (gift). 
AMES BOTANICAL LABORATORY, North Easton, Massachusetts. 

8 herbarium specimens — Philippine Islands (exchange). 
BUREAU OF SCIENCES, Manila, Philippine Islands. 

374 herbarium specimens — various localities (exchange). 

Centuria 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, "Species Blancoanae" — Philippine 
Islands (exchange). 
BECKWITH, MISS FLORENCE, Rochester, New York. 

89 herbarium specimens — Illinois, Indiana and Kansas (gift). 
BRAINERD, EZRA, Middlebury, Vermont. 

2 herbarium specimens — Vermont (gift). 
BROADWAY, W. E., Tobago, British West Indies. 

3 herbarium specimens — Barbadoes (gift). 
BUSH, BENJAMIN F., Courtney, Missouri. 

4 herbarium specimens — Missouri (gift). 
CLOKEY, IRA W., Denver, Colorado. 

177 herbarium specimens — Colorado and Wyoming (exchange). 
COLTON, MRS. THERON, Chicago. 

13 herbarium specimens — Illinois and Indiana (gift). 
DEAM, CHARLES C, Bluffton, Indiana. 

20 herbarium specimens — Indiana (gift). 
EVANS, ALEXANDER W., New Haven, Connecticut. 

35 herbarium specimens — Mexico (gift). 
FARRINGTON, O. C, Chicago. 

2 specimens sphagnum moss — Maine (gift). 
FLYNN, MRS. NELLIE F., Burlington, Vermont. 
12 herbarium specimens — Vermont (gift). 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 
Collated by C. F. Millspaugh: 

7 herbarium specimens — Chicago. 
Transfer from Department of Anthropology : 

1 specimen lace bark — Jamaica. 
Transfer from Department of Geology: 

1 fossil cryptozoon — Saratoga, New York. 
Transfer from Section of Photography: 
7 photographs of types — herbarium. 
Purchases : 

753 herbarium specimens — China and Japan. 
457 herbarium specimens — Philippine Islands. 
299 herbarium specimens — Argentina. 
306 herbarium specimens — California and Oregon. 
Mrs. Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratory: 

Reproduction in glass and wax of pitcher-leaf plant, sectioned leaf, enlarged 
flowers; Sausage-tree fruits; Candle-tree fruits. 



260 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

Reproductions of Poison Ivy plant in leaf, flower and fruit; poison ivy 
enlarged flowers; Mango fruits and leaves; Kemang fruit and leaves. 

12 reproductions in glass of species of Flagellatae and Peridineae. 

Models in glass of Nostoc, Rivularia, Trichodesmium, Spirulina, Sporogyra. 

Reproductions of Gonocaryum pyriforme, branch flower and fruit, and 
enlarged flowers. 

Reproductions of Branch of Sassafras; enlarged flower and fruit of alligator 
pear and its fruit in section; Micro, plants of Lingbya, Oscillatoria, and 
Clathrocystis. 

Reproductions of plant, flowers and enlarged flowers of Bitter-sweet. 

Living plants of Calycanthus, Galax; fruits and seeds of Calycanthus; 
flowers in formalin, of Calycanthus, Galax, Diospyros. 

Reproductions in glass and wax of Galax plant and flowers ; Grevillea flowers ; 
Witch-hazel branch and flower; Catalpa flower. 

Reproductions of Trumpet-creeper vine; Catalpa flower; Indian Mulberry- 
Fruit; Passion-flower vine; Fox-glove plant; Poppy flower; Arrow-head 
plant; Tuna Cactus fruits; Bladder- wort enlarged leaf and enlarged float. 
GATES, FRANK C, Carthage, Illinois. 

390 herbarium specimens — Michigan (exchange). 
GRAY HERBARIUM, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

1 photograph of Vellozo's plate 25, Xanthium brasilicum (exchange). 
JEPSON, WILLIS L., Berkeley, California. 

1 herbarium specimen — California (gift). 
JOHNSON, ARTHUR E., Chicago. 

68 herbarium specimens — Illinois (gift). 
LANSING, O. E., Jr., Chicago. 

2 fruits and seeds of Staphylea — Jackson Park, Chicago (gift). 
LAUFER, BERTHOLD, Chicago. 

1 specimen dried opium — Hankow, China (gift). 
LEWIS, A. B., Chicago. 

1 specimen of fungus — Jackson Park, Chicago (gift). 
MATRACIA, A., San Jose\ California. 

1 ripe fruiting frond of Tuna cactus — his cultivation (gift). 
MILLSPAUGH, CHARLES P., Chicago. 

183 herbarium specimens — North Carolina and Illinois (gift). 

118 herbarium specimens — Wisconsin and Illinois (gift). 

I photograph of type of Xanthium canadense — London (gift). 

I photograph of type of Xanthium echinatum Mur. in herbarium de 
Candolle, Geneva — Italy (gift). 

I photograph of co-type of Xanthium oviforme in herbarium British 
Museum, London — Washington (gift). 

MILLSPAUGH, CLARA MITCHELL, Chicago. 

II herbarium specimens — North Carolina (gift). 
NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN, New York City. 

217 herbarium specimens — various localities (exchange). 
44 herbarium specimens — Jamaica (exchange). 
148 herbarium specimens — Jamaica and Inagua Island (exchange). 
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM, Albany, New York. 

1 photograph of "Cryptozoon Ledge" — Lester Park, Saratoga, New York 
(gift). 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 261 

POPE, MRS. FREDERIQUE EUGENIA, Racine, Wisconsin. 

1 photograph of Linnaea boralis in situ — Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin (gift). 
I herbarium specimen — Beach, Illinois (gift). 

RIDGWAY, ROBERT, Olney, Illinois. 

1 photograph of Tacoma radicans — Richmond County, Illinois (gift). 
267 herbarium specimens — Illinois and Indiana (gift). 

SEELEY, MR., Asheville, North Carolina. 

2 specimens wool, dyed with walnut bark and hickory bark — Asheville, 
North Carolina (gift). 

SHERFF, EARLE., Chicago. 

188 herbarium specimens — various localities (gift). 

1 herbarium specimen — Nukahiva Island (gift). 

2 descriptions of species — Library (gift). 

281 herbarium specimens — various localities (gift). 

10 herbarium specimens — Illinois (gift). 

SHULL, CHARLES A., Lawrence, Kansas. 

4 type specimens of Xanthium — Kansas (gift). 
STONE, FRANK B., Chicago. 

1 specimen fungus — Chicago (gift). 

TUNDUZ, ADOLF, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

3 herbarium specimens — Costa Rica (gift). 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM, Washington, D. C. 
Division of Plants: 
246 herbarium specimens — various localities (exchange). 
19 photographs of types — Herbarium (exchange). 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, Chicago. 

Department of Botany: 

2 herbarium specimens, type — China (gift). 
Department of Geology: 

131 1 specimens, Herbarium of William Hall (gift). 

WHERRY, EDGAR T., Washington, D. C. 

3 herbarium specimens — West Virginia (gift). 

WILSON & COMPANY, LABORATORIES, Chicago. 
15 palm products — Brazil (gift). 

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY. 

AMERICAN MANGANESE COMPANY, Chicago. 

1 specimen manganese ore — Laramie, Wyoming (gift). 
AUSTRALIAN MINING MUSEUM, Sydney, New South Wales. 

11 specimens minerals — Australia (exchange). 

AXEL, CHARLES O., Chicago. 

1 specimen gold-silver ore — Platoro, Colorado (gift). 

BAILEY, E. S., Chicago. 

2 specimens radium ore — Wyoming (gift). 

BRIGHAM, ALEXANDER FAY, New York City. 

33 specimens gem and other minerals associated with the diamond — Jagers- 
fontein, South Africa (gift). 



262 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

CHALMERS, W. J., Chicago. 

42 specimens crystals — various localities (gift). 

26 specimens crystals — various localities (gift). 

21 specimens crystals — various localities (gift). 
COOPER, E. R., Rochester, New York. 

1 specimen volcanic ash — Yukon Crossing, Alaska (gift). 
FARGO, L. W., Chicago. 

1 specimen titaniferous iron ore — Cook County, Minnesota (gift). 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 
Collected by B. E. Dahlgren: 

83 specimens fossils and ores — Huntsville, Alabama. 
Collected by H. W. Nichols: 

1 specimen Niagara Limestone — Clarendon Avenue, Chicago. 
Purchases: 

3 mineral specimens — Utah. 

Type specimen of Paolia superba — Mazon Creek, Illinois. 
FISHER, MRS. H. S., Chicago. 

15 specimens minerals and fossils — various localities (gift). 
GALLAGHER, J. P., Chicago. 

1 specimen chalk, Scotia, Nebraska (gift). 
GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY COMPANY, Chicago. 

1 painting of Rome Glacier — Montana (gift). 
HAM, FLOYD, Twin Falls, Idaho. 

1 specimen soda niter — Malheur County, Oregon (gift). 
HARRIS, B. E., Chicago. 

1 specimen quartzite breccia — Arkansas (gift). 
HUBBS, CARL L., San Diego, California. 

9 specimens ores and minerals — California (gift). 
KANST, EDWIN A., Chicago. 

1 specimen black earth, Chicago, (gift). 
NICHOLS, CARRIE R., Waltham, Massachusetts. 

7 specimens fossil shells — Canal near West Palm Beach, Florida (gift). 
OSGOOD, S. W., Chicago. 

2 specimens synthetic graphite — South Chicago (gift). 
PATENT VULCANITE ROOFING COMPANY, Chicago. 

5 specimens crushed rock for roofing — various localities (gift). 
PAYSON, C. H., Watseka, Illinois. 

I specimen volcanic tuff — Pocatello, Idaho (gift). 
PROKES, JOSEPH N., Jackson, Minnesota. 

14 specimens calcareous tufa — Jackson, Minnesota (exchange). 
SCHOLZ, CARL, Chicago. 

Photograph of fossil tree — Alderson, Oklahoma (gift). 
TUNNELL, G. G., Jr., Evanson, Illinois. 

I I specimens minerals and rocks — California, Arizona and Mew Mexico 
(gift). 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, Chicago. 

Skull of Permian reptile — Brush Creek, Texas (exchange). 
24 specimens of Permian reptiles — Texas (exchange). 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE XLII 




Figure of Woman from Central Tibet, in Festive Attire. 
Complete with Jewelry. 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 263 

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY. 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 

33 Atherine and Cyprinoid fishes — various localities (exchange). 
ALLEN, MRS. HARRY, Rockford, Illinois. 

2 sponges — Florida (gift). 
AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, New York City. 

2 bees — New Jersey and Long Island (exchange). 
BARNES, WILLIAM, Decatur, Illinois. 

2950 moths — Canada, United States and Mexico (gift). 
BLATCHLEY, W. S., Indianapolis, Indiana. 

1 beetle — Dunedin, Florida (gift). 
COALE, HENRY K., Highland Park, Illinois. 

2 jays — Amami Oshima, Loo Choo Islands (gift). 
COE COLLEGE, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

375 fishes, amphibians and reptiles — British Honduras (exchange). 
COVERT, A. B., Hannibal, Missouri. 

1 silver-haired bat — South Haven, Michigan (gift). 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Purchases: 

2 odd skulls, 1 1 South American mammals with skulls — French Guiana, 
South America. 

5 glacier bears — skins and skulls — Yakutat, Alaska. 

5 mounted fishes — England. 

5 small mammals — South America. 

3 thick-billed parrots — Paradise, Arizona. 

2 waterbugs — Rio Blanco at Orizaba, Mexico. 
Transfer from Department of Anthropology: 
1 crocodile skull — New Guinea. 
STANLEY FIELD ORNITHOLOGY FUND. 

1 passenger pigeon (gift). 
FRIESSER, JULIUS, Chicago. 

2 beetles — Chicago (gift). 
GERHARD, WILLIAM J., Chicago. 

I tree frog — Illinois (gift). 
GUERET, MRS. E. N., Chicago. 

1 bug — Dawson County, Montana (gift). 
GUNTHER, F. E., La Crosse, Wisconsin. 

1 extra large sheepshead — Lake Pepin (gift). 
HUBBS, CARL L., Chicago. 

7 Atherinoid fishes — southern and lower California (gift). 
133 dragonfiies, grasshoppers, moths, flies, bees, wasps and parasites — Cali- 
fornia (gift). 
7 reptiles and amphibians — California (gift). 

2 snakes — Pacific Beach, California (gift). 
II toads — Indiana (gift). 

4 turtles — northern Indiana (gift). 
15 water bugs — California (gift). 

KEEDY, H. W., Chicago. 

2 fresh- water fishes — Florida (gift). 



264 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

KWIAT, ALEXANDER, Chicago. 

1 cicada — Palos Park, Illinois (gift). 
LILJEBLAD, E., Chicago. 

13 ant-lions, bugs, beetles, and velvet-ants — northern Indiana and northern 
Illinois (gift). 

3 salamanders and lizards — Illinois (gift). 
NARJAL, II. W., Chicago. 

1 snake skin — San Jose\ Costa Rica (gift). 
NOLAN, MRS. M. C, Chicago. 

54 mounted birds, 10 mounted mammals — Pennsylvania and Kansas (gift). 
ODELL, C. L., Chicago. 

1 dobson (male) — Geneva, Illinois (gift). 
PRAY, LEON L., Chicago. 

8 bird-lice — Illinois (gift). 
10 fishes — Michigan (gift). 
8 frogs and toads — Michigan (gift). 
RAMSDEN, CHARLES T., Guantanamo, Cuba. 

12 birds — Cuba (gift). 
SAN DIEGO SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY, San Diego, California. 

4 fishes and salamanders — southern California (exchange). 
WALTERS, LEON L., Chicago. 

6 catfishes — Chicago Ridge, Illinois (gift). 
WEISS, HARRY B., New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

3 beetles — Summit and Riverton, New Jersey (gift). 
WILLIAMSON, E. B., Bluffton, Indiana. 

1 albino red squirrel — Bluffton, Indiana (gift). 
WOLCOTT, A. B., Chicago. 

20 sawflies — Chicago (gift). 

SECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 
Made by Section: 

1290 negatives and prints of Museum specimens. 

THE LIBRARY. 

BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND SERIALS 
(accessions are by exchange unless otherwise designated.) 

AFRICA 

Durban Museum 2 

East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society, Nairobi I 

Geological Society, Johannesburg 2 

Rhodesia Scientific Association, Bulawayo I 

Royal Society, Cape Town 1 

South African Association for Advancement of Science, Cape Town . . I 

South African Museum, Cape Town 2 

ARGENTINA 

Academia de Ciencias, Cordoba 1 

Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Buenos Aires 1 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 265 

AUSTRALIA 

Austalian Museum, Sydney 1 

Australian Ornithologists' Union, Melbourne I 

Botanic Gardens and Government Domains, Sydney 1 

Department of Agriculture, Adelaide 1 

Department of Agriculture, Sydney I 

Department of Fisheries, Sydney 2 

Department of Mines, Sydney 4 

Field Naturalists' Club, Melbourne I 

Forestry Commission, Sydney (gift) 2 

Geological Survey, Perth 3 

Government of the Commonwealth, Melbourne 3 

Linnean Society of New South Wales, Sydney 1 

National Herbarium, Melbourne I 

Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery, Adelaide I 

Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne . 2 

Queensland Department of Mines, Brisbane 4 

Royal Society of New South Wales, Sydney 1 

Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane 2 

Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart 2 

Royal Society of Victoria, Melbourne 1 

South Australia Ornithological Society, Adelaide I 

Tasmania Department of Agriculture, Hobart 2 

Technical Museum, Sydney 1 

Victoria Department of Agriculture, Melbourne 2 

Western Australia Geological Survey, Perth 2 

BRAZIL 

Bibliotheca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro I 

Escola Superior de Agricultura e Medicina Veterinaria, Pinheiro . 1 

Instituto Agronomico de Estado, Sao Paulo I 

Institute Archeologico e Geographico Pernambucano, Recife 1 

BRITISH GUIANA 

Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society, Demerara I 

CANADA 

British Columbia Bureau of Mines 1 

Department of Agriculture, Ottawa 7 

Department of Agriculture, Victoria 2 

Department of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa 1 

Department of Mines, Ottawa 2 

Department of Mines, Victoria x 

Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, Ottawa 8 

Horticultural Societies of Ontario, Toronto I 

McGill University, Montreal 3 

Minister of Education, Toronto I 

Naturaliste Canadien, Quebec l 

Numismatics and Antiquarian Society, Montreal I 

Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club, Ottawa 1 

Provincial Museum, Victoria * 

Royal Canadian Institute, Toronto x 

Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa J 



266 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

CEYLON 

Royal Botanic Garden, Peradeniya 2 

CHILE 

Biblioteca National, Santiago de Chile I 

CHINA 

Botanical and Forestry Department, Hong-Kong I 

Royal Asiatic Society, North China Branch, Shanghai I 

DENMARK 

Naturhistorisk Forening, Copenhagen 2 

Sotiete" Royale des Antiquites du Nord, Copenhagen 3 

FIJI ISLANDS 

Fijian Society, Suva, Fiji Islands (gift) I 

FRANCE 

Acad^mie des Sciences, Paris 2 

L'Ecole Langues Orientales Vivantes, Paris 3 

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 

La Nature, Paris 

Societe" de Geographie, Paris 

Soci^te" de Geographie, Toulouse 

Societe" Nationale dAgriculture, Sciences et Arts, Angers 

Soci£t£ Zoologique, Paris 

GREAT BRITAIN 

Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, London .... 

Ashmolean Natural History Society of Oxfordshire, Oxford 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society 

Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philosophical Society, Brighton . 

Bristol Museum and Art Gallery 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, London .... 

British Museum (Natural History), London 5 

Cambridge Philosophical Society 

Cambridge University Library 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society 

Dove Marine Laboratory, Cullercoats, Northumberland 

Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society, 

Dumfries 

Fisheries Board, Edinburgh 

Geographical Society. London 

Great Britain Geological Survey, London 

Imperial Bureau of Entomology, London 

Imperial College of Science and Technology, London 

Japan Society of London 

Lancashire Sea Fisheries Laboratories, Liverpool 

Linnean Society, London 

Liverpool Biological Society 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 

Manchester Museum 

Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth ... 2 

National Museum of Wales, Cardiff I 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh 2 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 267 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2 

Royal Colonial Institute, London I 

Royal Geographical Society, London 2 

Royal Society, London 1 

Royal Society of Arts, London 1 

Royal Society of Edinburgh 2 

Tring Zoological Museum 1 

INDIA 

Anthropological Society, Bombay 2 

Archaeological Survey, Calcutta 4 

Archaeological Survey, Lahore I 

Botanical Survey, Calcutta I 

Department of Agriculture, Madras I 

Department of Agriculture, Pusa 2 

Geological Survey, Calcutta I 

Government Museum, Madras 1 

Hyderabad Archaeological Society (gift) 3 

National Indian Association, Calcutta (gift) I 

Royal Asiatic Society, Straits Branch, Singapore 3 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta 1 

Superintendent of Government Printing 2 

ITALY 

Accademia Giornia di Scienze Naturali, Catania I 

Instituto Botanico Dell'Universita de Pavia I 

Instituto Geografico de Agostini, Novara I 

Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali, Milan I 

Societa Romana di Antropologia, Rome I 

JAPAN 

Bureau of Productive Industry Formosa Government, Taihoku .... I 

Geological Survey, Tokyo 1 

Imperial University of Tokyo, College of Agriculture 1 

Imperial University of Tokyo, College of Science 2 

Tohoku Imperial University, Sendai I 

Tokyo Botanical Society 1 

JAVA 

Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, Batavia . . 2 

Department of Agriculture, Buitenzorg 5 

Department van Landbouw, Buitenzorg 3 

Jardin Botanique, Buitenzorg I 

KOREA 

Government-General Chosen, Seoul 1 

MEXICO 

Director General de Estadistica, Mexico 2 

Instituto Geologico, Mexico 2 

Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate," Mexico 1 

Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica, Mexico 2 

NETHERLANDS 

Bataafsch Genootschap der Proefonde r-vindelijke Wijsbegeerte, Rotterdam 1 

K. Bibliotheek, Hague 1 



268 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

K. Instituut voor de Taal, Land-en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indie, 

's Gravenhage 2 

K. Nederlandsch Aardijkskundig Genootschap, Amsterdam I 

Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, Leiden I 

Rijks Museum van Natuurlijks Histoire, Leiden 2 

NEW ZEALAND 

Auckland Institute and Museum, Wellington 2 

Department of Agriculture, Wellington 1 

Department of Mines, Wellington 2 

Geological Survey, Wellington 4 

New Zealand Institute, Wellington 2 

NORWAY 

Bergens Museum 2 

Physiografishe Forening, Christiania 2 

Tromso Museum 2 

PERU 

Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas, Lima 1 

Sociedad Geografica, Lima 2 

PORTUGAL 

Academia das Sciencias, Lisbon 3 

Instituto D'Anatomie, Lisbon 2 

Soci6t6 Portugaise de Science Naturelle, Lisbon 

SPAIN 

Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid 8 

Sociedad Espafiola de Historia Natural, Madrid 2 

SWEDEN 

K. Biblioteket, Stockholm 2 

Svenska Sallskapet for Antropologi och Geografi, Stockholm 1 

SWITZERLAND 

Botanic Garden, Zurich I 

Mus6e d'Histoire Naturelle, Lausanne 1 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Basel I 

Ostschweizerische Geograph. — Commerc. Gesellschaft, St. Gallen 1 

Socie^ Botanique de Geneve, Geneva I 

SocifSte' de Physique et d' Histoire Naturelle, Geneva 2 

Soci^te" des Sciences Naturelles, Fribourg I 

Soci6t6 Neuchateloise de G6ographie 2 

Socidit£ Zoologique de Geneve, Geneva 1 

WEST INDIES 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Porto Rico 1 

Biblioteca Nacional, Havana I 

Department of Agriculture, Kingston I 

Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbadoes 1 

Jamaica Institute, Kingston I 

Trinidad and Tobago Department of Agriculture, Port of Spain ... 2 

Universidad de la Habana, Havana 2 

Baker, R. T., Sydney, N. S. W 2 

Best, Elsdon, Wellington, New Zealand (gift) I 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 269 

Carpenter, G. H., Dublin, Ireland 1 

Chodat, R., Geneva, Switzerland (gift) I 

Costantin, M. J., Paris, France (gift) I 

Debenedetti, Salvador, Buenos Aires, Brazil (gift) I 

Despoil, Giuseppe, Malta 8 

Dunod, H., Paris, France 3 

Gleerup, C. W. K., Lund, Sweden 1 

Lambe, Lawrence, Ottawa, Canada (gift) 1 

Larrea, C. M., Quito, Ecuador (gift) I 

Lehmann, Netsche R., Buenos Aires, Brazil I 

Maiden, J. H., Sydney, N. S. W. . • 1 

Marshall, Sir John, Calcutta, India (gift) I 

Rosenburg, G. A., Copenhagen, Denmark (gift) I 

Steensby, H. P., Copenhagen, Denmark (gift) 1 

ALABAMA 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn 1 

ARIZONA 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Tucson 2 

CALIFORNIA 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Berkeley 1 

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco 2 

Cooper Ornithological Club, Hollywood I 

Fish and Game Commission, San Francisco 1 

Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University 2 

Los Angeles County Museum of History, Science and Art i 

Pioneer Western Lumberman, Sacramento i 

Pomona College, Claremont 2 

State Board of Forestry, Sacramento 1 

State Mining Bureau, Sacramento 4 

University of California, Berkeley 18 

COLORADO 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Collins 1 

Bureau of Mines, Denver 1 

Colorado College, Colorado Springs 1 

Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver 1 

State Geological Survey, Boulder 3 

CONNECTICUT 

Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 2 

American Oriental Society, New Haven I 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, New Haven 2 

Hartford Public Library 2 

Hartford Public Museum I 

Meriden Bird Club (gift) 2 

Wesleyan University, New Haven 1 

Yale University, New Haven 2 

FLORIDA 

Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee 2 

GEORGIA 

Geological Survey, Atlanta 1 



270 Field Museum op Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Honolulu 2 

Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu I 

Board of Commissions of Agriculture and Forestry, Honolulu .... I 

Hawaiian Entomological Society, Honolulu 3 

Honolulu Historical Society, 2 

IDAHO 

Mining Industry, Boise 1 

University of Idaho, Moscow 1 

ILLINOIS 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana 1 

Art Institute of Chicago 1 

Chicago Academy of Sciences 3 

Chicago Historical Society I 

Chicago Library Club (gift) 1 

Chicago Public Library 2 

Engineering and Cement World, Chicago (gift) I 

Hardwood Record, Chicago (gift) I 

John Crerar Library, Chicago 3 

Lake Forest College ... 1 

Lewis Institute, Chicago 1 

Newberry Library, Chicago I 

Northwestern University, Evanston 1 

Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago I 

State Academy of Science, Springfield I 

State Board of Agriculture, Springfield 1 

State Historical Library, Springfield 2 

State Laboratory of Natural History, Urbana 1 

Sweet, Wallach and Company, Chicago (gift) I 

University of Chicago 26 

University of Illinois, Urbana 10 

INDIANA 

Department of Geology and Natural History, Indianapolis 

Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis 

Purdue University, Lafayette 12 

State Entomologist, Indianapolis (gift) 2 

Studebaker Corporation, South Bend (gift) 

University of Notre Dame 

IOWA 

Academy of Sciences, Des Moines 

Geological Survey, Des Moines 

Iowa State College, Ames 6 

Iowa State Horticultural Society, Des Moines 

State Highway Commission, Des Moines 

University of Iowa, Iowa City 2 

KANSAS 

Academy of Science, Topeka 2 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan 2 

State Board of Agriculture, Topeka 1 






FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



REPORTS, PLATE XLI. 




HABITAT GROUP 

Ruffed Grouse l "Partridge"; Bonasa umbdlus (Linn.) 

A nesting pair disturbed by a Raccoon. 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 271 

State Geological Survey, Lawrence 3 

University of Kansas, Geological Survey, Lawrence 2 

KENTUCKY 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington 2 

Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (gift) 2 

LOUISIANA 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Baton Rouge 2 

Department of Conservation, New Orleans (gift) 2 

State Museum, New Orleans 1 

MAINE 

Bowdoin College, Brunswick 2 

State Horticulturalist, Waterville 1 

State Library, Augusta 4 

MARYLAND 

Agricultural Experiment Station, College Park 2 

Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore 2 

Geological Survey, Baltimore 3 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore 2 

Maryland Institute, Baltimore I 

State Board of Forestry, Baltimore 2 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Amherst 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston 

American Antiquarian Society, Boston 

Amherst College 

Archaeological Institute of America, Boston 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts 2 

Boston Public Library 2 

Clark University, Worcester I 

Essex Institute, Salem 2 

Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge 2 

Harvard University, Gray Herbarium, Cambridge 2 

Horticultural Society, Boston 2 

New Bedford Free Public Library 2 

Peabody Institute I 

Peabody Museum, Cambridge I 

Peabody Museum, Salem 2 

Salem Public Library 2 

Springfield City Library Association 1 

Springfield Natural History Museum 1 

Tufts College, Boston 1 

Williams College, Williamstown 2 

Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester 2 

Worcester Free Public Library I 

MICHIGAN 

Academy of Sciences, Ann Arbor 1 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural College 3 

Art and Museum Commissioners, Grand Rapids 1 

Department of Parks and Boulevards, Detroit 1 



272 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

Detroit Museum of Art I 

Game, Fish and Forest Commission, Lansing (gift) I 

Geological and Biological Survey, Lansing 2 

Grand Rapids Public Library 2 

Michigan College of Mines, Houghton I 

National Educational Association of the United States, Ann Arbor I 

Parke Davis and Company, Detroit (gift) I 

State Board of Agriculture, Lansing I 

State Board of Library Commissions, Lansing I 

State Library, Lansing I 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 2 

MINNESOTA 

Academy of Sciences, Minneapolis I 

Agricultural Experiment Station, St. Paul 2 

Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts I 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 4 

MISSISSIPPI 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural College 

MISSOURI 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Columbia I 

Bureau of Geology and Mines, Jefferson City 2 

City Art Museum, St. Louis I 

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis I 

St. Louis Academy of Sciences I 

St. Louis Natural History Museum Association (gift) I 

St. Louis Public Library 2 

St. Louis University I 

University of Missouri, Columbia 2 

Washington University, St. Louis 2 

NEBRASKA 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Lincoln I 

Game and Fish Commission, Lincoln (gift) I 

Public Library, Omaha I 

University of Nebraska, Lincoln 2 

NEVADA 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Carson City 2 

State University, Reno 2 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Meriden Bird Club (gift) I 

NEW JERSEY 

Department of Conservation and Development, Trenton 2 

Geological Survey, Trenton i 

Horticultural Society, Trenton I 

New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association, Trenton (gift) ... 2 

Newark Museum Association 2 

Princeton University I 

Rutgers College, New Brunswick I 

State Agricultural Experiment Station, Trenton I 

State Museum, Trenton 2 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 273 

NEW YORK 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva 3 

American Geographical Society, New York City 3 

American Hellenic Society, New York City (gift) 1 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, New York City 2 

American Museum of Natural History, New York City 20 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden 3 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 5 

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (gift) 1 

Columbia University, New York City 1 

Conservation Commission, Albany (gift) 3 

Cornell University, Ithaca 29 

Forest and Stream Publishing Company, New York City 2 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City 3 

New York Academy of Sciences, New York City 1 

New York Botanical Garden, New York City 1 

New York Historical Society, New York City 2 

Pratt Institute Free Library, Brooklyn 2 

Public Library, New York City 1 

Rochester Academy of Sciences 1 

State College of Forestry, Syracuse 1 

State Library, Albany I 

State Museum, Albany 8 

Staten Island Association of Arts and Sciences, New York City .... 2 

Stone Publishing Company, New York City 2 

Syracuse University 1 

Zoological Society, New York City 2 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, Chapel Hill 3 

Geological and Economic Survey, Raleigh 1 

OHIO 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster 2 

Cincinnati Museum Association 1 

Cleveland Art Museum 1 

Cleveland Public Library 2 

Geological Survey, Columbus 3 

Lloyd Library, Cincinnati I 

Marietta College 1 

Oberlin College 1 

State Archaeological and Historical Society, Columbus 1 

State University, Columbus 8 

University of Cincinnati 2 

Wilson Ornithological Club, Oberlin I 

OKLAHOMA 

Geological Survey, Norman 5 

OREGON 

State Forester, Salem 2 

PENNSYLVANIA 

American Entomological Society, Philadelphia 4 



274 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

American Journal of Pharmacy, Philadelphia I 

American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia I 

Association of Engineering Societies, Philadelphia I 

Bryn Mawr College i 

Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh 2 

Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh 2 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh 2 

Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh I 

Franklin Institute, Philadelphia 2 

Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia I 

Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art, Philadelphia ... I 

Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences I 

Philadelphia Commercial Museum I 

State Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg I 

Sullivant Moss Society, Pittsburgh I 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 2 

Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philadelphia I 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Bureau of Education, Manila 2 

Department of Agriculture, Manila I 

Department of Interior, Bureau of Forestry, Manila I 

Department of Interior, Bureau of Science, Manila 8 

Department of Public Instruction, Manila 2 

RHODE ISLAND 

Roger Williams Park Museum, Providence l 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston Museum I 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Brookings 2 

Geological Survey, Vermillion 2 

TENNESSEE 

Department of Game and Fish, Nashville (gift) 

State Geological Survey, Nashville 

TEXAS 

Scientific Society, San Antonio 

UTAH 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Logan 

VERMONT 

State Forester, Burlington 

VIRGINIA 

State Library, Richmond 

WASHINGTON 

State Geological Survey, Olympia 

State Library, Seattle 

State University, Seattle 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

American Academy in Rome 

American Mining Congress 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 275 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (gift) 

National Academy of Sciences 9 

National Education Association (gift) 2 

National Geographic Society 2 

National Zoological Park I 

Pan-American Union 7 

United States Government 541 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Morgantown 2 

WISCONSIN 

Academy of Sciences, Madison 1 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Madison 2 

Archaeological Society, Milwaukee I 

Beloit College 2 

Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison 13 

Natural History Society, Madison 1 

State Historical Society, Madison 1 

State Horticultural Society, Madison 2 

University of Wisconsin, Madison 7 

WYOMING 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Laramie 1 

Ayer, Edward E., (gift) 3 

Barnes, William, Decatur, Illinois I 

Beckwith, Florence, Rochester, New York (gift) 3 

Burkholder, Walter H., Ithaca, New York (gift) 4 

Casey, Thomas L., Washington, D. C. (gift) 2 

Chalmers, William J., Chicago (gift) 1 

Cockerell, T. D. A., Boulder, Colorado 14 

Cole, Fay-Cooper, Chicago 1 

Cook, Melville T., New Brunswick, New Jersey 3 

Evans, Herbert H., Norfolk, Virginia (gift) 1 

Farwell, Oliver A., Detroit, Michigan 2 

Fernald, M. L., Cambridge, Massachusetts 2 

Ford, W. E., New Haven, Connecticut (gift) 4 

Freer, Charles L., Detroit, Michigan (gift) I 

Gerhard, W. J., Chicago 16 

Hall, Ivan C, Berkeley, California (gift) 6 

Holland, W. J., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (gift) 1 

Hubbs, Carl L., Chicago 94 

Kendall, W. C, Washington, D. C 1 

Knotts, A. F., Gary, Indiana (gift) 1 

Laufer, Berthold, Chicago 9 

Laurvik, J. Nilsen, San Francisco, California (gift) I 

Liljeblad, Emil, Chicago T 

McCrea, William S., Chicago (gift) 2 

Mason, J. Alden, Chicago 2 

Massey, L. M., Ithaca, New York 6 

Merrill, Elmer D., Manila, Philippine Islands 5 8 

Millspaugh, C. F., Chicago 30 



276 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

Moore, Clarence S., Philadelphia 1 

Morse, Edward S., Salem, Massachusetts 1 

Osgood, W. H., Chicago 42 

Owen, C. L., Chicago 2 

Payser, W. A., Philadelphia I 

Penrose, R. A. F., Jr., Philadelphia 1 

Randall, T. A. and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana I 

Redfield, Casper L., Chicago (gift) 2 

Sargent, C. S., Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts I 

Sawyer, W. H., Jr., Lewiston, Maine (gift) 1 

Schaff, Wilfred H., Philadelphia (gift) I 

Starr, Frederick, Chicago 2 

Weir, James R., Missoula, Montana (gift) 33 

Whitehouse, F. C, Red Deer, Alta, Canada (gift) 1 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE XLIV 




A TRUMPET-VINE REPRODUCED IN GLASS AND WAX. 

A characteristic plant of the Bignonia Family. This reproduction is 
natural size and five feet high. 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 277 



Articles of Incorporation. 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE. 

William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State. 
To All to Whom These Presents Shall Come, Greeting: 

Whereas, a Certificate duly signed and acknowledged having been filed in the 
office of the Secretary of State, on the 16th day of September, a. d. 1893, f° r the 
organization of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OP CHICAGO, under and in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of "An Act Concerning Corporations," approved 
April 18, 1872, and in force July [, 1872, and all acts amendatory thereof, a copy 
of which certificate is hereto attached. 

Now, therefore, I, William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State of the State of 
Illinois, by virtue of the powers and duties vested in me by law, do hereby certify 
that the said COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO is a legally organized 
Corporation under the laws of this State. 

In Testimony Whereof, I hereto set my hand and cause to be affixed the Great 
Seal of State. Done at the City of Springfield, this 16th day of September, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States the one hundred and eighteenth. 

W. H. HINRICHSEN, 
[Seal.] Secretary of State. 

TO HON. WILLIAM H. HINRICHSEN, 

Secretary of State: 

Sir: 

We, the undersigned citizens of the United States, propose to form a corporation 
under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, entitled "An Act Con- 
cerning Corporations," approved April 18, 1872, and all acts amendatory thereof; 
and that for the purposes of such organization we hereby state as follows, to- wit: 

1. The name of such corporation is the "COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF 
CHICAGO." 

2. The object for which it is formed is for the accumulation and dissemination 
of knowledge, and the preservation and exhibition of objects illustrating Art, Archae- 
ology, Science and History. 

3. The management of the aforesaid museum shall be vested in a Board of 
Fifteen (15) Trustees, five of whom are to be elected every year. 

4. The following named persons are hereby selected as the Trustees for the 
first year of its corporate existence: 

Ed. E. Ayer, Charles B. Farwell, George E. Adams, George R. Davis, Charles 
L. Hutchinson, Daniel H. Burnham, John A. Roche, M. C. Bullock, Emil G. Hirsch, 



278 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

James W. Ellsworth, Allison V. Armour, O. F. Aldis, Edwin Walker, John C. Black 
and Frank W. Gunsaulus. 

5. The location of the Museum is in the City of Chicago, County of Cook, and 
State of Illinois. 

(Signed), 

George E. Adams, C. B. Farwell, Sidney C. Eastman, F. W. Putnam, Robert 
McMurdy, Andrew Peterson, L. J. Gage, Charles L. Hutchinson, Ebenezer Bucking- 
ham, Andrew McNally, Edward E. Ayer, John M. Clark, Herman H. Kohlsaat, 
George Schneider, Henry H. Getty, William R. Harper, Franklin H. Head, E. G. 
Keith, J. Irving Pearce, Azel F. Hatch, Henry Wade Rogers, Thomas B. Bryan, 
L. Z. Leiter, A. C. Bartlett, A. A. Sprague, A. C. McClurg, James W. Scott, Geo. F. 
Bissell, John R. Walsh, Chas. Fitzsimmons, John A. Roche, E. B. McCagg, Owen 
F. Aldis, Ferdinand W. Peck, James H. Dole, Joseph Stockton, Edward B. Butler, 
John McConnell, R. A. Waller, H. C. Chatfield-Taylor, A. Crawford, Wm. Sooy 
Smith, P. S. Peterson, John C. Black, Jno. J. Mitchell, C. F. Gunther, George R. 
Davis, Stephen A. Forbes, Robert W. Patterson, Jr., M. C. Bullock, Edwin Walker, 
George M. Pullman, William E. Curtis, James W. Ellsworth, William E. Hale, 
Wm. T. Baker, Martin A. Ryerson, Huntington W. Jackson, N. B. Ream, Norman 
Williams, Melville E. Stone, Bryan Lathrop, Eliphalet W. Blatchford, Philip D. 
Armour. 

State of Illinois 

• ss. 
Cook County 

I, G. R. Mitchell, a Notary Public in and for said County, do hereby certify 
that the foregoing petitioners personally appeared before me and acknowledged 
severally that they signed the foregoing petition as their free and voluntary act for 
the uses and purposes therein set forth. 

Given under my hand and notarial seal this 14th day of September, 1893. 

G. R. MITCHELL, 
[Seal.] Notary Public, Cook County, III. 



CHANGE OF NAME. 



Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held the 
25th day of June, 1894, the name of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM was changed to 
FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. A certificate to this effect was filed June 26, 
1894, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 



CHANGE OF NAME. 



Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held the 
8th day of November, 1905, the name of the FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM 
was changed to FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. A certificate to 
this effect was filed November 10, 1905, in the office of the Secretary of State for 
Illinois. 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 279 



AMENDED BY-LAWS. 



(June 12, 1916.) 



ARTICLE I. 

MEMBERS. 

Section i. Members shall be of five classes, Annual Members, Corporate 
Members, Life Members, Patrons and Honorary Members. 

Sec. 2. Annual Members shall consist of such persons as are selected from 
time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who shall pay an 
annual fee of ten dollars ($10.00), payable within thirty days after notice of election, 
and within thirty days after each recurring annual date. The failure of any person 
to make such initiatory payment and such annual payments within said time shall, 
at the option of the Board of Trustees, be sufficient grounds for the forfeiture of an 
annual membership. 

This said annual membership shall entitle the member to: 

First. — Free admittance for the member and family, to the Museum on any day. 

Second. — Ten tickets every year, admitting the bearer to the Museum on pay 
days. 

Third. — A copy of all publications of the Museum when requested. 

Fourth. — Invitations to all special exhibits, receptions, lectures, or other 
functions which may be given at the Museum. 

Sec. 3. The Corporate Members shall consist of the persons named in the 
articles of incorporation, and of such other persons as shall be chosen from time to 
time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, upon the recommendation 
of the Executive Committee; provided, that such persons named in the articles of 
incorporation shall, within ninety days from the adoption of these By-Laws, and 
persons hereafter chosen as Corporate Members shall, within ninety days of their 
election, pay into the treasury the sum of twenty dollars ($20.00) or more. The 
failure of any person to make such payment within said time, shall, at the option of 
the Board of Trustees, be ground for forfeiture of his corporate membership. Cor- 
porate Members becoming Life Members, Patrons or Honorary Members shall be 
exempt from dues. Annual meetings of said Corporate Members shall be held at 
the same place and on the same day that the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees 
is held. 

Sec. 4. Any person paying into the treasury the sum of five hundred dollars 
($500.00), at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, become a 
Life Member. Life Members shall be exempt from all dues. 

Sec. 5. Patrons shall be chosen by the Board upon recommendation of the 
Executive Committee from among persons who have rendered eminent service to 



280 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

the Museum. They shall be exempt from all dues, and, by virtue of their election 
as Patrons, shall also be Corporate Members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary Members shall be chosen by the Board from among persons 
who have rendered eminent service to science, and only upon unanimous nomination 
of the Executive Committee. They shall be exempt from all dues. 

ARTICLE II. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Section i. The Board of Trustees shall consist of fifteen members. The 
respective members of the Board now in office, and those who shall hereafter be 
elected, shall hold office during life. Vacancies occurring in the Board shall be filled 
at a regular meeting of the Board, upon the nomination of the Executive Committee 
made at a preceding regular meeting, by a majority vote of the members of the 
Board present. 

Sec. 2. Regular meetings of the Board shall be held on the second Monday of 
each month. Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, and shall 
be called by the Secretary upon the written request of three Trustees. Five Trustees 
shall constitute a quorum, except for the election of officers or the adoption of the 
Annual Budget, when seven Trustees shall be required, but meetings may be ad- 
journed by any less number from day to day, or to a day fixed, previous to the next 
regular meeting. 

Sec. 3. Reasonable written notice, designating the time and place of holding 
meetings, shall be given by the Secretary. 

ARTICLE III. 

HONORARY TRUSTEES 

Section i. As a mark of respect, and in appreciation of services performed 
for the Institution, those Trustees who by reason of inability, on account of change 
of residence, or for other cause or from indisposition to serve longer in such capacity 
shall resign their place upon the Board, may be elected, by a majority of those present 
at any regular meeting of the Board, an Honorary Trustee for life. Such Honorary 
Trustee will receive notice of all meetings of the Board of Trustees, whether regular 
or special, and will be expected to be present at all such meetings and participate in 
the deliberations thereof, but an Honorary Trustee shall not have the right to vote. 

ARTICLE IV. 

OFFICERS. 

Section 1. The officers shall be a President, a First Vice-President, a Second 
Vice-President, a Secretary, an Assistant Secretary and a Treasurer. They shall be 
chosen by ballot by the Board of Trustees, a majority of those present and voting 
being necessary to elect. The President, the First Vice-President, and the Second 
Vice-President shall be chosen from among the members of the Board of Trustees. 
The meeting for the election of officers shall be held on the second Monday of January 
of each year, and shall be called the Annual Meeting. 

Sec. 2. The officers shall hold office for one year, or until their successors are 
elecied and qualified, but any officer may be removed at any regular meeting of the 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 281 

Board of Trustees by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of the Board. Vacancies 
in any office may be filled by the Board at any meeting. 

Sec. 3. The officers shall perform such duties as ordinarily appertain to their 
respective offices, and such as shall be prescribed by the By-Laws, or designated 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees. 



ARTICLE V. 

THE TREASURER. 

Section i. The Treasurer shall be custodian of the funds of the Corporation, 
except as hereinafter provided. He shall make disbursements only upon warrants 
drawn by the Director and countersigned by the President. In the absence or 
inability of the Director, warrants may be signed by the Chairman of the Finance 
Committee, and in the absence or inability of the President, may be countersigned 
by one of the Vice-Presidents. But no warrants shall be issued, except in conformity 
with a regularly prepared voucher, giving the name of the payee and stating the 
occasion for the expenditure, and verified and approved as hereinafter prescribed. 
It shall be no part of the duties of the Treasurer to see that the warrants have been 
issued in conformity with such vouchers. 

Sec. 2. The securities and muniments of title belonging to the corporation 
shall be placed in the custody of some Trust Company of Chicago to be designated 
by the Board of Trustees, which Trust Company shall collect the income and prin- 
cipal of said securities as the same become due, and pay same to the Treasurer, except 
as hereinafter provided. Said Trust Company shall allow access to and deliver any 
or all securities or muniments of title to the joint order of the following officers, 
namely: The President or one of the Vice-Presidents, jointly with the Chairman, or 
one of the Vice-Chairmen, of the Finance Committee of the Museum. 

Sec. 3. The Treasurer shall give bond in such amount, and with such sureties, 
as shall be approved by the Board of Trustees. 

Sec. 4. All vouchers executed for the payment of liabilities incurred in the 
administration of the Museum, shall be verified by the Auditor, and approved for 
payment by the Director, and the Chairman of the Administration Committee. 
All vouchers executed for expenditures for the construction or reconstruction of the 
Museum building, or buildings, shall be verified by the Auditor and approved for 
payment by the Chairman of the Building Committee. All vouchers executed in 
connection with the investments of the Corporation, or, in any way having to do 
with the endowment funds of the Corporation, shall be verified by the Auditor and 
approved for payment by the Chairman of the Finance Committee. 

Sec. 5. The Harris Trust and Savings Bank of Chicago shall be Custodian of 
"The N. W. Harris Public School Extension of Field Museum" fund. The Bank 
shall make disbursements only upon warrants drawn by the Director and counter- 
signed by the President. In the absence or inability of the Director, warrants may 
be signed by the Chairman of the Finance Committee, and in the absence or inability 
of the President, may be countersigned by one of the Vice-Presidents. But no war- 
rant shall be issued, except in conformity with a regularly prepared voucher, giving 
the name of the payee and stating the occasion for the expenditure, and verified and 
approved by the Auditor, the Director and Chairman of the Administration Com- 
mittee. It shall be no part of the duties of the said Custodian to see that the war- 
rants have been issued in conformity with such vouchers. 



282 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

ARTICLE VI. 

THE DIRECTOR. 

Section i. The Board of Trustees shall elect a Director of the Museum, who 
shall remain in office until his successor shall be elected. He shall have immediate 
charge and supervision of the Museum, and shall control the operations of the 
institution, subject to the authority of the Board of Trustees and its Committees. 
The Director shall be the official medium of communication between the Board, or 
its Committees, and the scientific staff and maintenance force. 

Sec. 2. There shall be four scientific departments of the Museum — Anthro- 
pology, Botany, Geology and Zoology, each under the charge of a Curator, subject 
to the authority of the Director. The Curators shall be appointed by the Board 
upon the recommendation of the Director, and shall serve during the pleasure of 
the Board. Subordinate staff officers in the scientific departments shall be appointed 
and removed by the Director upon the recommendation of the Curators of the 
respective Departments. The Director shall have authority to employ and remove 
all other employees of the Museum. 

Sec. 3. The Director shall make report to the Board at each regular meeting, 
recounting the operations of the Museum for the previous month. At the Annual 
Meeting, the Director shall make an Annual Report, reviewing the work of the 
Museum for the previous year, which Annual Report shall be published in pamphlet 
form for the information of the Trustees and Members, and for free distribution in 
such number as the board may direct. 

ARTICLE VII. 

AUDITOR. 

Section 1. The Board shall appoint an Auditor, who shall hold his office 
during the pleasure of the Board. He shall keep proper books of account, setting 
forth the financial condition and transactions of the Corporation, and of the Museum, 
and report thereon at each regular meeting, and at such other times as may be 
required by the Board. He shall certify to the correctness of all vouchers for the 
expenditure of the money of the corporation. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

COMMITTEES. 

Section i. There shall be six Committees as follows: Finance, Building, 
Auditing, Pension, Administration and Executive. 

Sec. 2. The Finance, Auditing and Pension Committees shall each consist of 
three members, and the Building and Administration Committees shall each consist 
of five members. All members of these five Committees shall be elected by ballot 
by the Board at the Annual Meeting, and shall hold office for one year, and until 
their successors are elected and qualified. In electing the members of these Com- 
mittees, the Board shall designate the Chairman and Vice-Chairman by the order 
in which the members are named in the respective Committee; the first member 
named shall be Chairman, the second named the Vice-Chairman, and the third 
named, Second Vice-Chairman, succession to the Chairmanship being in this order 
in the event of the absence or disability of the Chairman. 

Sec. 3. The Executive Committee shall consist of the President of the Board, 
the Chairman of the Finance Committee, the Chairman of the Building Committee, 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 283 

the Chairman of the Administration Committee, the Chairman of the Auditing Com- 
mittee, the Chairman of the Pension Committee, and two other members of the 
Board to be elected by ballot at the Annual Meeting. 

Sec. 4. Four members shall constitute a quorum of the Executive Committee; 
three members shall constitute a quorum of the Administration Committee, and in 
all other standing Committees, two members shall constitute a quorum. In the 
event that, owing to the absence or inability of members, a quorum of the regularly 
elected members cannot be present at any meeting of any Committee, then the 
Chairman thereof, or his successor, as herein provided, may summon any member of 
the Board of Trustees to act in place of the absentee. 

Sec. 5. The Finance Committee shall have supervision of investing the endow- 
ment and other permanent funds of the Corporation, and the care of such real 
estate as may become its property. It shall have authority to invest, sell, and re- 
invest funds, subject to the approval of the Board. 

Sec. 6. The Building Committee shall have supervision of the construc- 
tion, reconstruction, and extension of any and all buildings used for Museum 
purposes. 

Sec. 7. The Executive Committee shall be called together from time to time 
as the Chairman may consider necessary, or as he mav be requested to do by three 
members of the Committee, to act upon such matters affecting the administration 
of the Museum as cannot await consideration at the Regular Monthly Meetings 
of the Board of Trustees. It shall, before the beginning of each fiscal year, prepare 
and submit to the Board an itemized Budget, setting forth the probable receipts from 
all sources for the ensuing year, and make recommendations as to the expenditures 
which should be made for routine maintenance and fixed charges. Upon the adoption 
of the Budget by the Board, the respective Committees shall be considered as 
authorized to make the expenditures detailed therein. No increase in the expendi- 
tures under any items of the Budget shall be made, except by authority of the Board 
of Trustees, but the Executive Committee shall have authority, in cases of emer- 
gency, to expend a further total sum not exceeding two thousand dollars in any one 
month. 

Sec. 8. The Administration Committee shall have general supervision of the 
affairs of the Museum. The Committee shall hold one meeting each month with 
the Director at the Museum within a week preceding each Monthly Meeting of the 
Board of Trustees. 

Sec. 9. The Auditing Committee shall have supervision over all ac- 
counting and bookkeeping, and full control of the financial records. It shall 
cause the same, once each year, or oftener, to be examined by an expert indi- 
vidual or firm, and shall transmit the report of such expert individual or firm 
to the Board at the next ensuing regular meeting after such examination shall 
have taken place. 

Sec. 10. The Pension Committee shall determine by such means and processes 
as shall be established by the Board of Trustees to whom and in what amount the 
Pension Fund shall be distributed. These determinations or findings shall be subject 
to the approval of the Board of Trustees. 

Sec. 11. The Chairman of each Committee shall report the acts and proceed- 
ings thereof at the next ensuing regular meeting of the Board. 

Sec. 12. The President shall be ex-officio a member of all Committees and 
Chairman of the Executive Committee. Vacancies occurring in any Committee may 
be filled by ballot at any regular meeting of the Board. 



284 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

ARTICLE IX. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 

Section i. At the November meeting of the Board, each year a Nominating 
Committee of three shall be chosen by lot. Said Committee shall make nominations 
for membership of the Finance Committee, the Building Committee, the Administra- 
tion Committee, the Auditing Committee, and the Pension Committee, and for two 
members of the Executive Committee, from among the Trustees, to be submitted 
at the ensuing December meeting and voted upon at the following Annual Meeting 
in January. 

ARTICLE X. 

Section i. Whenever the word "Museum" is employed in the By-Laws of 
the Corporation, it shall be taken to mean the building in which the Museum as an 
Institution is located and operated, the material exhibited, the material in study 
collections, or in storage, furniture, fixtures, cases, tools, records, books, and all 
appurtenances of the Institution, and the workings, researches, installations, ex- 
penditures, field work, laboratories, library, publications, lecture courses, and all 
scientific and maintenance activities. 

Sec. 2. These By-Laws may be amended at any regular meeting of the Board 
of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of all the members present, provided the amend- 
ment shall have been proposed at a preceding regular meeting. 



Jan., 1919. 



Annual Report of the Director. 



285 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

edward e. ayer charles b. cory 

mrs. timothy b. blackstone harlow n. higinbotham 

Stanley Mccormick 



PATRONS. 



ALLISON V. ARMOUR 
EDWARD B. BUTLER 
ALBERT M. COLLINS 
LEE GARNETT DAY 
ERNEST R. GRAHAM 
FRANK W. GUNSAULUS 
CHARLES L. HUTCHINSON 
VERNON SHAW KENNEDY 



GEORGE MANIERRE 
CHARLES H. MARKHAM 
JOHN S. MILLER 
JOHN BARTON PAYNE 
HOMER E. SARGENT 
FREDERICK J. V. SKIFF 
WILLARD A. SMITH 



286 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 



CORPORATE MEMBERS. 



ALDIS, OWEN F. 
ARMOUR, ALLISON V. 
AYER, EDWARD E. 

BARTLETT, A C. 
BLAIR, WATSON P. 
BUTLER, EDWARD B. 

CHALMERS, W. J. 
CHATFIELD-TAYLOR, H. C. 
COLLINS, ALBERT M. 
CRANE, RICHARD T. 

DAY, LEE GARNETT 

EASTMAN, SIDNEY C. 
ELLSWORTH, JAMES W. 

FIELD, MARSHALL 
FIELD, STANLEY 

GAGE, LYMAN J. 
GETTY, HENRY H. 
GRAHAM, ERNEST R. 
GUNSAULUS, FRANK W. 
GUNTHER, C. F. 



higinbotham, h. n. 
hutchinson, charles l. 

jones, arthur b. 

keep, chauncey 
kennedy, vernon shaw 
kohlsaat, herman h. 

Mccormick, cyrus h. 
markham, charles h. 
manierre, george 
miller, john s. 
mitchell, john j. 

payne, john barton 
peck, ferd w. 
porter, george f. 

ryerson, martin a. 

sargent, homer e. 
skiff, frederick j. v. 
smith, willard a. 
sprague, a. a., 2nd 
stone, melville e. 

wrigley, william, jr. 



DECEASED, 1918. 
CLARK, JOHN M. 



Jan., 1919. 



Annual Report of the Director. 



287 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



ALDIS, OWEN F. 
ALLEN, BENJAMIN 

BAKER, MISS ISABELLE 
BANKS, ALEXANDER F. 
BARRELL, FINLEY 
BARRETT, MRS. A. D. 
BARRETT, ROBERT L. 
BARTLETT, A. C. 
BASSFORD, LOWELL C. 
BEALE, WILLIAM G. 
BILLINGS, FRANK 
BLACKSTONE, MRS. TIMOTHY B. 
BLAINE, MRS. EMMONS 
BLAIR, HENRY A. 
BLAIR, WATSON F. 
BOOTH, W. VERNON 
BOYNTON, C. T. 
BREWSTER, WALTER S. 
BROWN, WILLIAM L. 
BUFFINGTON, EUGENE J. 
BUTLER, EDWARD B. 
BYLLESBY, H. M. 

CARR, CLYDE M. 
CARRY, EDWARD F. 
CARTON, L. A. 
CHALMERS, WILLIAM J. 
CLAY, JOHN 
COBE, IRA M. 
CRAMER, CORWITH 
CRANE, CHARLES RICHARD 
CRANE, RICHARD T. 
CUDAHY, JOSEPH M. 
CUMMINGS, D. MARK 

DAU, J. J. 

DAWES, CHARLES G. 
DAY, ALBERT M. 
DEERING, CHARLES 
DEERING, JAMES 
DELANO, FREDERIC A. 
DICK, ALBERT BLAKE 



DONNELLEY, REUBEN H. 
DONNELLEY, THOMAS E. 
DRAKE, TRACY C. 

ECKHART, B. A. 

FAIR, ROBERT M. 
FAR WELL, WALTER 
FAY, C. N. 
FIELD, MARSHALL 
FIELD, STANLEY 
FORSYTH, ROBERT 
FULLER, WILLIAM A. 

GARTZ, A. F. 
GARY, JOHN W. 
GRISCOM, CLEMENT A. 
GROMMES, JOHN B. 

HAMILL, ERNEST A. 
HILL, LOUIS W. 
HOROWITZ, L. J. 
HOXIE, MRS. JOHN R. 
HUGHITT, MARVIN 
HULBURD, CHARLES H. 
HUTCHINSON, C. L. 

INSULL, SAMUEL 

JOHNSON, MRS. ELIZABETH AYER 
JOHNSON, FRANK S. 
JONES, ARTHUR B. 

KEEP, CHAUNCEY 

KELLEY, WILLIAM V. 

KING, FRANCIS 

KING, JAMES G. 

KIRK, WALTER RADCLIFFE 

LAMONT, ROBERT P. 
LAWSON, VICTOR 
LOGAN, SPENCER H. 



288 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 



Mccormick, mrs. 
Mccormick, cyrus h. 
Mccormick, harold f. 

McELWEE, ROBERT H. 

Mclennan, d. r. 
MacVEAGH, franklin 

MARK, CLAYTON 
MASON, WILLIAM S. 
MITCHELL, J. J. 
MUNROE, CHARLES A. 

NEWELL, A. B. 

ORR, ROBERT M. 

PAM, MAX 
PATTEN, HENRY J. 
PIKE, EUGENE S. 
PORTER, GEORGE F. 
PORTER, H. H. 

RAWSON, FREDERICK H. 
REAM, MRS. CAROLINE P. 
REVELL, ALEXANDER H. 
REYNOLDS, GEORGE M. 



ROBINSON, THEODORE W. 
ROSENWALD, JULIUS 
RUNNELLS, JOHN S. 
RUSSELL, EDMUND A. 
RUSSELL, EDWARD P. 
RYERSON, MRS. CARRIE H. 
RYERSON, EDWARD L. 
RYERSON, MARTIN A. 

SHEDD, JOHN G. 
SIMPSON, JAMES 
SMITH, ORSON 
SPOOR, JOHN A. 
SPRAGUE, A. A., 2ND 
STOUT, FRANK D. 
STURGES, GEORGE 
SWIFT, CHARLES H. 
SWIFT, EDWARD F. 
SWIFT, LOUIS F. 

THORNE, CHARLES H. 
THORNE, ROBERT J. 

WILLARD, ALONZO J. 
WILSON, WALTER H. 



DECEASED, 1918. 

STILLWELL, HOMER A. 
THORNE, GEORGE R. 






Jan., 1919. 



Annual Report of the Director. 



289 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



ADAMS, CYRUS H. 
ADAMS, MILWARD 
ALLERTON, ROBERT H. 
ARMOUR, GEORGE A. 

BAILEY, EDWARD P. 
BECKER, A. G. 
BILLINGS, C. K. G. 
BOAL, CHARLES T. 
BURLEY, CLARENCE A. 

COMSTOCK, WILLIAM C. 
COONLEY-WARD, MRS. L. A. 
CUMMINGS, E. A. 
CURTIS, D. H. 

EISENDRATH, W. N. 

FORGAN, JAMES B. 
FRANK, HENRY L. 
FULLER, O. F. 
FURST, CONRAD 

GLESSNER, J. J. 
GOODRICH, A. W. 
GORDON, EDWARD K. 
GREY, CHARLES F. 
GURLEY, W. W. 

HARRIS, JOHN F. 
HASKELL, FREDERICK T. 
HIBBARD, WILLIAM G., Jr. 
HITCHCOCK, R. M. 
HOLT, GEORGE H. 

JENKINS, GEORGE H. 
JONES, J. S. 

KEITH, W. SCOTT 
KIMBALL, EUGENE S. 



LAMB, FRANK H. 
LINCOLN, ROBERT T. 
LINN, W. R. 
LOGAN, F. G. 
LORD, J. B. 
LOWDEN, FRANK O. 
LYTTON, HENRY C. 

McCREA, W. S. 
McWILLIAMS, LAFAYETTE 
MacFARLAND, HENRY J. 
MAGEE, HENRY W. 
MANSURE, E. L. 
MAYER, LEVY 
MEYER, MRS. M. A. 
MOORE, N. G. 
MULLIKEN, A. H. 

NATHAN, ADOLPH 
NOLAN, JOHN H. 
NORTON, O. W. 

PALMER, PERCIVAL B. 
PARKER, FRANCIS W. 
PEARSON, EUGENE H. 
PINKERTON, W. A. 

RIPLEY, E. P. 
ROSENBAUM, JOSEPH 
ROSENFELD MRS. MAURICE 

SCHMIDT, DR. O. L. 
SCHWARTZ, G. A. 
SEIPP, MRS. C. 
SHORTALL, JOHN L. 
SKINNER, THE MISSES 
SOPER, JAMES P. 
SOUTHWELL, H. E. 
SPENCE, MRS. ELIZABETH E. 
STOCKTON, JOHN T. 
STUART, ROBERT 



290 Field Museum of Natural History - - Reports, Vol. V. 
UIHLEIN, EDWARD G. 



WACKER, CHARLES H. 
WALKER, JAMES R. 
WALKER, WILLIAM B. 



WALLER, EDWARD C. 
WHITEHEAD, W. M. 
WILSON, MRS. E. C. 
WILSON, M. H. 



DECEASED. 

HARRIS, GEORGE B. 
HOPKINS, JOHN P. 
KIMBALL, MRS. MARK 
LAY, A. TRACY 
WHITE, A. STAMFORD 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 291 



Reproduced by permission of the "Architectural Record" 

HENRY HERING'S SCULPTURE FOR FIELD MUSEUM 
OF NATURAL HISTORY IN CHICAGO 

By CHARLES OVER CORNELIVS 

Conceived in the mind of a public-spirited citizen, and made possible 
of realization by his generosity, the Field Museum of Natural History 
in Chicago stands as a memorial to Marshall Field, its founder, and 
constitutes one of the chief architectural glories of the city. This great 
museum is destined to house extensive collections associated with the 
natural sciences and will function as an immense educational concord- 
ance. Easy of access from all parts of the city, overlooking the great 
open space of Grant Park to the north, and visible in its white majesty 
from far out upon the nearby lake, its site is unrivaled as a dignified and 
appropriate setting. The design has called forth a sustained architectural 
study with all that this implies, and the architects, Graham, Anderson, 
Probst and White, have given to the country a masterpiece in monu- 
mental building of a distinction and dignity commensurate with its 
purpose and origin. 

The monumental sculptures created in conjunction with such a 
building form an essential element in its design. Their position, while not 
necessarily structural, is in a vital spot of the organism, esthetically 
considered, and the individual works themselves thus assume a responsi- 
bility for the success of the whole work altogether out of proportion to 
their size, since in them is the final focusing of the attention of the 
spectator. 

The larger part of the exterior sculptural decoration of the building 
has been concentrated about the central motif of the north facade — the 
great Ionic portico with its flanking bays. In these two bays caryatid 
porches rest upon the basement course and above are horizontal panels of 
low relief. Against the attic of the portico are eight figures of colossal 
size, which complete the sculptural decoration here. On the south 
facade the caryatid porches are repeated and above the mare horizontal 
panels similar to those facing the north. The interior sculpture consists 
of four figures surmounting engaged columns at either end of the central 
hall. This, then, summarizes the decorative sculpture — the caryatids 
and the four relief panels, the eight attic and the four interior figures. 

For the sculptural embellishment the architects commissioned one 



292 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

sculptor to execute the whole of this decoration — perhaps the second 
time on record that so extensive a task has been entrusted to the hands of 
one American sculptor. Henry Hering has utilized the opportunity 
presented him to create a group of architectural sculptures which is 
unsurpassed in America today. Throughout the work he has kept con- 
sciously before him the purposes for which each piece was designed, both 
as regards its subject and its placing upon the building, with the result 
that he has achieved a superlative consistency in the whole work, at the 
same time infusing into each figure the utmost individuality and dis- 
tinction. 

In the treatment of the caryatid figures there is observable a greater 
conventionality and a less definite expression of personality than in any 
others of the group. Here an actual structural problem had to be met 
and a nice transition from the strong foundation course was desirable. 
There are two types of caryatids which are to be duplicated, and while 
they are very similar in mass and movement, in detail they are absolutely 
individual. The inspiration is frankly Ionian and their dignity is as 
unquestionable as is their structural quality. 

Above each caryatid porch the horizontal panel in relief represents 
one of the four main departments of the Museum — Anthropology, 
Zoology, Botany and Geology. The treatment here is very decorative, 
and by the use of one flying figure in each panel the same scale as that 
adopted in the other figures has been preserved while admitting the 
introduction of a definitely horizontal sense into the whole panel, con- 
trasting effectively with the repeated verticals of the other figures and of 
the surrounding architecture. Interesting color is given by the wings, 
the drapery treatment and the floating ribbon which bears the name of 
the department symbolized in the figure. The length of the panel has 
also allowed of the introduction of vertical bands of exquisite decoration, 
each different in detail, though similar in general tone. The iconography 
of the four panels is exceptionally pleasing and the choice of symbols for 
each has brought into play the originality and discrimination of the 
sculptor. 

The choice of subject for the attic figures exemplifies the generalization 
appropriate to the decoration of such a building. The four central 
figures above the columns represent the elements: Fire, Earth, Air and 
Water; the four flanking figures typify the four points of the compass: 
North, South, East and West. With this choice of subject comes the 
necessity of giving to the figures, each so general in its conception, 
definite and essential qualities and certain attributes which will differ- 
entiate each from the other and at the same time preserve the unity of 
the scheme. Of the attributes given to the figures their selection has 






Jan., 1919. Annual Report of the Director. 293 

been so apt and their display so nice that no discussion need be entered 
into to add to their clarity. 

The subtlety of so large a group fairly escapes expression in words. 
A broad balance has been obtained for the whole by reversing the poses 
of the two end figures and the similarity in the poses of the four centre- 
most figures. The light and shade have been studied for their effect in 
diffused light, and calculation had to be made for the position sixty-five 
feet above the spectator. In the placing of the figures in relation to the 
surrounding space, as in fact throughout most of the architecture of the 
building, the Greek rhythm of 1 '.2 has been observed. 

While in the sculptor's treatment of the group there is this rhythm, 
this subtle balance and calculation of light and shade, there is withal a 
very correct uniformity. The decoration about the heads has a certain 
general similarity in its suggestion of a nimbus, but how infinitely varied 
in its detail and individual in its application! In all the figures the law of 
f rontality is strictly observed ; a knee may be bent or the head inclined, 
but the frontal line remains straight. The dress, although partaking more 
of the quality of costume than of drapery, shows in its treatment a 
reasoned use of the latter tendency with the Dorian chiton as a point of 
departure. The architectonic quality is also observable here in the 
insistent verticals of the folds with their suggested evolution from a 
columnar form. The details of costume are infinitely varied, and upon 
repeated examination the figures reveal great fertility of invention and 
richness of detail. 

Much of the finest characterization has been reserved for the heads, in 
which the varied treatment of the eyes and mouth, the most expressive 
parts of the face, epitomizes the calmness or passion, the mysticism or 
nobility associated with each generality which the marble strives to 
present. The sculpturesque form in which the hair is cast in the figures of 
the "Four Points of the Compass" is particularly fine, and this interest- 
ing conventionality serves to give strength to the neck, a point which may 
also be remarked with reference to the caryatid figures. 

The four interior figures are placed in the great central hall of the 
museum. This immense room, three hundred feet long and lighted from 
above, is entered from either end through a large arch. Each of the 
arches is flanked by tall engaged columns, with entablature decoratively 
used, and upon each stands a symbolic figure. The symbolism of these 
figures makes a subjective application of the building's use and suggests 
the various activities whose inspiration will lie within its walls; Natural 
Science and the Dissemination of Knowledge flanking one archway, 
Record and Research the other. 

These figures appear first at a great distance and are placed where 



294 Field Museum or Natural History — Reports, Vol. V. 

they will be seen under a comparatively steady light from above. Their 
position is of no structural importance and their purpose is a purely 
decorative one. All of which facts contribute to the difference in treat- 
ment from the strictly architectural figures of the attic. The composition 
here is more varied and the feeling more personal. 

The whole group is characterized by the eminent dignity and restraint 
which run throughout all of Mr. Herings' work — a dignity unfettered 
by academic formulae nor yet disturbed by a factitious realism. In the 
sane mind of the trained sculptor these two extremes of classicism and 
realism have been fused into an expressive whole under the spell of his 
own individual approach. In this particular problem there was opportu- 
nity for a variety of treatment into which has been breathed much of the 
spirit of ancient Greece. 

There are many who will concur in the opinion that the art of sculp- 
ture has reached and always will reach the broadest expression of its 
purpose when conceived and carried out with relation to architecture 
which it may be designed to enhance. Of the greatest sculpture which has 
come down to us from the past, by far the larger part is permeated by 
qualities suggested, if not imposed, by the architectural design of which 
it formed an essential part. When the art began to be employed upon 
works not destined as absolute units in an architectural scheme, it is yet 
the presence of definite architectonic qualities which contribute largely 
to the high essence of the creation. The presence of such qualities may 
not in itself be of predominant importance, but with their removal comes 
an immediate tendency toward a less dignified conception, a realism, 
natural perchance, and by reason of its very naturalness a thing to be 
controlled and disciplined. 

The time is not yet ripe when we may judge the relative position of the 
architectural sculpture of today, and particularly that of America, where 
traditions in art are most conspicuous by their absence, and where such 
various traditions as have been carried over into the new world from the 
old are being simultaneously followed in the works of various individuals. 
American sculpture has sprung from the heads and hands of a few scattered 
individuals almost in its present growth, for what is a century and a 
half in the development of an art from the first dawn of its heralding in a 
new land? The largest opportunity for the development of such American 
sculpture must lie in the category of monumental work for public or 
semi-public possession. 

In such work there must be a greater generalization, since its im- 
pression is made upon a myriad different minds and must in each call 
forth some answering response, and it is just such an opportunity as this 
which is presented in the Field Museum. 



Jan., 1919. Annual Report 01 the Director. 295 

In his appreciation of this opportunity, Mr. Hering has created a 
distinguished group of sculptures of an inspiration sustained not only in 
the broad, general conception of the work, but throughout the infinite 
variety of the detail, a group which can only be recognized as one of the 
most important contributions to American sculpture. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE XLV 



Caryatid— Field Museum of Natural History, 
Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE XLVI 



Caryatid-Field Museum of Natural history, 
Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



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FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE LI 




Fire— Attic Figure for Field Museum of Natural 
History, Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE Lll 




Earth — Attic Figure for Field Museum of Natural 
History, Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS. PLATE Llll 




Air Attic Figure for Field Museum of Natural 
History. Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE LIV 




Water— Attic Figure for Field Museum of Natural 
History, Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE LV 




North — attic Figure for Field Museum of natural 
History, Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE LVI 




South-Attic Figure for Field Museum of Natural 
History, Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE LVII 




East attic Figure for Field Museum of Natural 
History, Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE LVIII 




West-Attic Figure for Field Museum of Natural 
History, Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE LIX 




Science Figure in Central Hall of Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE LX 




Dissemination of Knowledge- Figure in Central 

Hall of Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE LXI 




Research— Figure in Central Hall of Field 
Museum of Natural History. Chicago. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. REPORTS, PLATE LXII 




RECORD- FIGURE IN CENTRAL HALL OF FIELD MUSEUM 
OF NATURAL HISTORY, CHICAGO. 

Henry Hering, Sculptor.