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Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VII, Plate XXI 

Trustee of the Museum and member of the Building Committee 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Publication 248 

Report Series 

Vol. VII, No. 2 





THE imm nf -"^ 

JUL 3 1323 


Chicago, U. S. A. 

January, 1928 


tiW^ViiuSHY Of ILimOlS 



i ^ 


Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may be made in 
securities, money, books or collections. They may, if desired, take 
the form of a memorial to the memory of a person or cause, to be 
named by the giver. For those desirous of making bequests to the 
Museum, the following form is suggested: 


I do hereby give and bequeath to Field Museum of Natural 
History of the City of Chicago, State of Illinois, 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year to Field 
Museum of Natural History to an amount not in excess of 
15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income are allowable as deduc- 
tions in computing net income under Article 251 of Regula- 
tion 69 relating to the income tax under the Revenue Act of 

Endovmients may he made to the Museum with the pro- 
vision that an annuity be paid to the patron during his or 
her lifetime. These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed 
against fluctuation in amount. 


Board of Trustees 180 

Officers and Committees 181 

Staff of Museum 182 

Report of the Director 185 

Lectures and Entertainments 197 

The James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Public School and 

Children's Lectures 201 

Publications 204 

Library 205 

Expeditions 208 

Accessions 233 

Cataloguing, Inventorying and Labeling 253 

Installations, Rearrangements and Permanent Improvements 257 

The N. W. Harris Public School Extension 283 

Art Research Classes 284 

Division of Public Relations 285 

Division of Printing 288 

Divisions of Photography, Roentgenology and Illustration 290 

Division of Memberships 291 

Attendance Statistics 293 

Financial Statements 294 

List of Accessions 296 

Department of Anthropology 296 

Department of Botany 299 

Department of Geology 301 

Department of Zoology 304 

Raymond Division 307 

Division of Photography 307 

The Library 308 

Articles of Incorporation 320 

Amended By-Laws 322 

List of Benefactors, Honorary Members, and Patrons 327 

List of Corporate Members 328 

List of Life Members 329 

List of Associate Members 332 

List of Sustaining Members 347 

List of Annual Members 351 

180 Field Museum op Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 


Watson F. Blair 
John Borden 
Harry E. Byram 
William J. Chalmers 
Richard T. Crane, Jr. 
D. C. Davies 
Captain Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W. Harris 

Chauncey Keep 
Charles H. Markham 
Cyrus H. McCormick 
William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
Martin A. Ryerson 
James Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Sprague 
Silas H. Strawn 

William Wrigley, Jr. 

Deceased, 1927 

Edward E. Ayer 

Arthur B. Jones 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 181 


Stanley Field, President 

Martin A. Ryerson, First Vice-President 

Watson F. Blair, Second Vice-President 

Albert A. Sprague, Third Vice-President 
D. C. Davies, Secretary 

♦Arthur B. Jones, Assistant Secretary 
Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer 



Stanley Field Albert A. Sprague 

Watson F. Blair *Edward E. Ayer 

William J. Chalmers Captain Marshall Field 

*Arthur B. Jones John Borden 


Watson F. Blair *Arthur B. Jones 

Martin A. Ryerson Chauncey Keep 

Albert W. Harris 


William J. Chalmers Albert A. Sprague 

Cyrus H. McCormick Ernest R. Graham 

Harry E. Byram 


♦Arthxhi B. Jones Charles H. Markham 

Silas H. Strawn 


Albert A. Sprague Solomon A. Smith 

James Simpson 


182 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 


D. C. Davies 


Berthold Lauper, Curator 
A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate in American Archaeology 

ASSISTANT curators 

Albert B. Lewis, Melanesian Ethnology 

Ralph Linton, Oceanic and Malayan Ethnology 

William D. Strong, North American Ethnology and Archaeology 

J. Eric Thompson, Mexican and Maya Archaeology 

W. D. Hambly, African Ethnology 

Henry Field, Physical Anthropology 

William M. McGovern, South American and Mexican Ethnology 

T. George Allen, Egyptian Archaeology 

John G. Prasuhn, Modeler 

department of botany 

B. E. Dahlgren, Acting Curator 

Paul C. Standley, Associate Curator of the Herbarium 

J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator of Taxonomy 

James B. McNair, Assistant Curator of Economic Botany 

Samuel J. Record, Research Associate in Wood Technology 

Carl Neuberth, Custodian of Herbarium 


O. C. Farrington, Curator 

Henry W. Nichols, Associate Curator 

Elmer S. Riggs, Associate Curator of Paleontology 

Sharat K. Roy, Assistant Curator of Invertebrate Paleontology 


Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator 

William J. Gerhard, Associate Curator of Insects 

C. E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator of Birds 

BoARDMAN CONOVER, Associate in Ornithology 

assistant curators 

♦Edmund Heller, Mammals Karl P. Schmidt, Reptiles 

John T. Zimmer, Birds Alfred C. Weed, Fishes 

R. Magoon Barnes, Oology Edmond N. Gueret, Osteology 

♦Alfred M. Bailey, Assistant Colin C. Sanborn, Assistant 

Julius Friesser, Mammals C. J. Albrecht, Maminals 

L. L. Pray, Fishes Leon L. Walters, Reptiles 

Arthur G. Rueckert, Mammals Ashley Hine, Birds 


Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 183 


Stephen C. Simms, Curator 
A. B. WOLCOTT, Assistant Curator 


Elsie Lippincott, Librarian 
Emily M, Wilcoxson, Assistant Librarian 

registrar auditor 

Henry F, Ditzel Benjamin Bridge 

Clifford C. Gregg, General Assistant 

recorder purchasing agent 

Elsie H. Thomas Douglas W. Gibson 


Dorothy R. Cockrell, Chief 
Margaret Fisher Cleveland P. Grant 

Margaret M. Cornell E.Vance Cooke, Jr. 

division of public relations 
H. B. Harte, in charge 

division of memberships 
*R. R. More, in charge 

division of printing 
U. A. Dohmen, in charge 

divisions of photography, roentgenology and illustration 

C. H. Carpenter, Photographer Carl F. Gronemann, Artist 

A. A. Miller, Photogravurist Charles A. Corwin, Artist 

Anna Reginalda Bolan, Roentgenologist 

superintendent of maintenance 
John E, Glynn 

CHIEF engineer 

W. H. Corning 
William E. Lake, Assistant Engineer 






To the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History: 

I have the honor to present a report of the operations of 
the Museum for the year ending December 31, 1927. 

In reviewing the history of this year, three things stand out 
prominently which alone would make it especially noteworthy in 
the annals of the Institution. They are: first, the year's attendance 
exceeded 1,000,000, outstripping all previous years; second, extensive 
structural changes were made which added fourteen halls to the 
space available for exhibits; and third, through the activities of 
sixteen expeditions, and through the continued expansion of intra- 
mural research, publications, and dissemination of knowledge by 
exhibits and other means, the Museum has again made a great 
contribution to the causes of science and education. 

The number of persons who visited the Museum in 1927 was 
1,043,546. This exceeds the attendance of 1926, the next largest, 
by 112,975. As there were only one or two especially important 
events at Soldier Field or in Grant Park during the year to attract 
crowds into the vicinity of the Museum, this large and gratifying 
gain in attendance can rightfully be assigned to the constantly in- 
creasing interest of the public in the Museum itself. In the six 
years and eight months since the Museum has been in its pre- 
sent building it has received a total of 4,740,877 visitors. This is 
more than the total number for 22 years in its former building in 
Jackson Park. 

The structural changes, above mentioned, were undertaken to 
gain additional exhibition area which was greatly needed for anthro- 
pological and zoological material which either has already been 
acquired or is to be acquired in the future. This reconstruction 
was a vast undertaking, and the large expense involved was met by 
contributions made by President Stanley Field. 

Details of the work of the sixteen Field Museum expeditions in the 
field during the year will be found in the various departmental 
sections of this Report. A brief summary is given herewith: 

The Second Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition set out 
in June for fifteen months in Labrador and Baffin Land, to 


186 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

make explorations, collect anthropological, botanical, geological, 
and zoological material, conduct scientific researches, and make topo- 
graphical studies. The expedition is financed by Mr. Frederick H. 
Rawson, and led by Lieutenant-Commander Donald B. MacMillan. 
A fleet of three vessels, Commander MacMillan's flagship "Bow- 
doin," the schooner "Radio," and the power boat "See-Ko," is 
engaged in the work. The expedition has established a scientific 
station near Nain, in Labrador. Dr. William D. Strong, Mr. Sharat 
K. Roy, Mr. Alfred C. Weed, and Mr. Arthur G. Rueckert are mem- 
bers of the Museum staff on this expedition. 

The Field Museum-Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition 
returned in May after more than eight months in Abyssinia, 
during which 3,500 mammals, birds, fishes and reptiles, many of 
them rare species, were collected. The Chicago Daily News financed 
this expedition. Curator Wilfred H. Osgood was leader. Others 
in the personnel were Mr. C. Suydam Cutting, Mr. James Baum, Mr. 
Alfred M. Bailey, and the late Louis Agassiz Fuertes, noted artist 
and ornithologist who, it is regretfully recorded, was killed in an 
automobile accident shortly after returning to this country. 

The Borden-Field Museum Alaska- Arctic Expedition, sponsored 
and led by Mr. John Borden, on his yacht, the "Northern Light," 
obtained a representative collection of land and sea mammals of 
Alaska and neighboring islands, many birds of the region, and a 
collection of ethnological material. Members of the party, besides 
Mr. Borden, included Mrs. Borden, Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Slaughter, 
Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Goodspeed, Miss Frances Ames, Miss Edith 
Cummings, and Taxidermist Ashley Hine of the Museum staff. 

The Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Meso- 
potamia, of which Captain Marshall Field is sponsor for the Mu- 
seum's share, resumed its operations, carried on during four pre- 
vious seasons. The 1927 season was its most successful one thus far. 
This expedition will continue its work in 1928. 

Ten other expeditions were sponsored by Captain Marshall Field. 
These included the Anthropological Expedition to Madagascar, in 
charge of Assistant Curator Ralph Linton, which concluded its two 
years' activities, obtaining some 4,500 ethnological specimens for 
the Museum, and information of unusual importance to the scientific 
world; the South American Zoological Expedition, begun in 1926, 
and concluded in 1927 with the return of Mr. Colin C. Sanborn 
of the Museum staff, last of its members to remain in the field; 
the Paleontological Expedition to Argentina and Bolivia, headed 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 187 

by Associate Curator Elmer S. Riggs, which obtained a remark- 
able collection of mammal fossils; an anthropological expedition 
in Europe and Asia to collect material for use in the proposed 
Hall of Prehistoric Man, in charge of Assistant Curator Henry- 
Field; a zoological expedition in India, in charge of Colonel J. C. 
Faunthorpe of Bombay; a botanical expedition in South America 
in charge of Dr. A. Weberbauer of Lima, Peru; an expedition in 
British Honduras to conduct ethnological and archaeological re- 
searches in connection with Maya civilization, in charge of Assistant 
Curator J. Eric Thompson; a geological expedition in Maine con- 
ducted by Curator Oliver C. Farrington; a geological expedition in 
Newfoundland under the leadership of Assistant Curator Sharat K. 
Roy; and a joint expedition of Yale University School of Forestry, 
the New York Botanical Gardens, the United Fruit Company, and 
Field Museum to collect botanical specimens in Costa Rica. 

The Conover-Everard Expedition to Tanganyika Territory, 
Africa, returned in June after more than a year's work during 
which approximately 600 mammals, 1,500 birds, and 300 reptiles 
were collected. This expedition was financed and actively partici- 
pated in by Mr. Boardman Conover, Associate in Ornithology, 
and Mr. Robert Everard of Detroit. Assistant Curator John T. 
Zimmer was also a member of the party. 

The Alexander H. Revell-Field Museum Expedition to Alaska 
during the summer obtained several specimens of Kodiak Bear. 
The expedition was, in the main, financed by Mr. Alexander H. 

The Museum was the recipient of many benefactions during the 
year. Mr. Frederick H. Rawson made a gift of $19,000 to cover 
the deficit in the budget for the year 1927. Mr. Rawson also 
contributed $.30,000 for the Second Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic 
Expedition of Field Museum. 

President Field made contributions during the year which 
totaled $274,147. These included $16,654 for the year's operating 
expenses of the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories; 
$68,541 toward the building deficit fund, and $188,952 to cover 
the cost of structural changes described in this Report. 

Captain Marshall Field, in addition to his annual contribution 
of $100,000, gave $10,000 for the continuation of the Museum's 
zoological expedition in South America. 

Mrs, Anna Louise Raymond supplemented her $500,000 endow- 
ment of the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Public School 

188 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

and Children's Lecture Division by a special gift of $10,000 for 
1927, and a gift of $7,000 for 1927 operating expenses of the Divi- 
sion, the latter of which is the first of a series of annual contribu- 

A legacy of $25,000 from the late George F. Porter, and one of 
$2,000 from the late Arthur B. Jones, were bequeathed to the Mu- 
seum. Prior to his death, the late Edward E. Ayer contributed 
$3,123 for the purchase of books and articles of pewter for addi- 
tion to the Ayer Ornithological Library and the Ayer Pewter 

A trust fund of $30,000 was established by Mr. and Mrs. William 
J. Chalmers to assure the continued growth of the William J. 
Chalmers Crystal Collection, to promote its scientific study and 
description, and to make possible publication of the results of these 
researches. This trust fund will be known as the William J. and 
Joan A. Chalmers Trust Fund. A further contribution was made 
by Mr. Chalmers for the purchase of specimens of additional crystals 
for the collection bearing his name, and he added 63 specimens of 
rare minerals and gems to the systematic mineral collection. 

Mr. Ernest R. Graham made a further contribution of $25,000, 
representing his annual gift to the Museum. This donation will be 
devoted toward the completion of Ernest R. Graham Hall of His- 
torical Geology. 

A contract was entered into during the year with Mr. Frederick 
Blaschke of Cold Spring-on- Hudson, New York, for the execution 
and delivery of three groups representing restorations of fossil 
animals and their environments, for installation in Ernest R. Graham 
Hall of Historical Geology. 

A contribution of $20,000 was received from Mrs. Stanley Field 
as the first installment on a fund she is creating for the purchase 
and installation in the Museum of a pipe organ. The organ will 
be used in giving Sunday organ recitals in the Museum, and for 
special occasions. 

Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson contributed $12,000 toward 
the Stanley Field Museum Employes' Pension Fund. 

The American Friends of China contributed $555 as their annual 
gift for the development of the Chinese section of the anthropolo- 
gical collections. 

Mr. Alexander H. Revell contributed $5,000, and Mr. Sewell L. 
Avery $500, toward the expense of the Alexander H. Revell-Field 
Museum Expedition to Alaska. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 189 

The Illinois Chapter of the Wild Flower Preservation Society 
of America contributed $500 for the maintenance during the spring, 
summer and autumn months of an exhibit of living wild flowers of 
the Chicago region in Stanley Field Hall. They have kindly agreed 
to make an annual contribution for this purpose. 

The sum of $51,348 was received from the Estate of the late 
John G. Shedd as paym.ent in full for the Shedd Aquarium's share of 
the cost of the changes in the Museum's heating system necessary 
for the heating of the Aquarium from the Museum's plant. 

The South Park Commissioners turned over to the Museum 
$192,582 derived from the tax levy authorized for this purpose by 
the State Legislature. 

Under the Stanley Field Museum Employes' Pension Fund a 
plan was put into effect whereby a supplementary $1,000 life in- 
surance is made available to each employe, in addition to the life 
insurance previously provided for employes. 

Mr. C. Suydam Cutting of New York, who was a member of the 
Field Museum-Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition, pur- 
chased for $4,500 and presented to the Museum a collection of the 
last paintings of birds and other animals made by the late Louis 
Agassiz Fuertes. The paintings, 108 in number, were made on the 
Abyssinian Expedition by Mr. Fuertes, and are pronounced to be 
the best work of his lifetime, during which he had achieved the dis- 
tinction of being generally conceded as America's foremost painter 
of birds. Mr. Cutting presented the Museum also with eight reels 
of motion pictures which he himself had taken while in the field 
with the Abyssinian Expedition. 

Many other gifts were made to the Museum during the year by 
its hosts of generous friends. Notable among these was a collection 
of beautiful and valuable Chinese money belts embroidered with 
glass beads in intricate designs, presented by Mrs. George T. Smith. 

Another important gift in the Department of Anthropology is 
an excellent collection of Eskimo ethnological material which Mr. 
John Borden gathered while leading the Borden-Field Museum 
Alaska- Arctic Expedition. 

The Department of Botany received a gift of 650 Central Amer- 
1 lean herbarium specimens from Professor Samuel J. Record; another 
of 3,039 United States plants from Dr. E. E. Sherff ; 3,019 herbarium 
specimens by exchange from the United States National Museum, 
and 334 herbarium specimens from the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, England. 

190 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

An unusually well preserved and complete skull and lower jaws, 
with tusks, of a young male mastodon from northern Indiana, was 
a notable addition of the year to the specimens representing these 
extinct animals in the Department of Geology. 

A collection of more than 250 fossil plants of the Coal Period, 
about 300,000,000 years old, was received by exchange from the 
National Museum, Washington, D. C. These will be of great 
value in making restorations of the flora of that period. 

Outstanding among the accessions of the Department of Zoology 
are specimens of Mountain Nyala, Abyssinian Ibex, Abyssinian 
Red Wolf, Gelada Baboon, Grevy's Zebra, Defassa Waterbuck and 
Northern Roan Antelope, which are included in the 3,500 specimens 
obtained by the Field Museum-Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expe- 
dition; the skin and skeleton of the rare White Rhinoceros, an animal 
believed to be on the verge of extinction, obtained by the Conover- 
Everard Expedition to Tanganyika Territory; and several especially 
fine examples of Alaska Brown Bear obtained by the Borden-Field 
Museum Alaska-Arctic Expedition, which fulfill an immediate need 
for the Hall of American Mammal Habitat Groups. Mr. John 
Wentworth of Chicago presented a fine Black Rhinoceros skin from 
Tanganyika Territory, Africa, which will make an exhibit of extreme 
interest. A gift of an important collection of specimens of rare game 
animals of Abyssinia was received from Mr. Harold A. White. 

One of the Museum's notable purchases during the year was the 
Cap Blanc skeleton of a youth who lived in southwestern France 
about 25,000 years ago. This is the only complete skeleton of a 
European prehistoric man of that period in any museum in the 
United States. 

During the year the Museum purchased a Lanston monotype 
keyboard with a caster equipment, and a folding machine, for the 
Division of Printing. These machines enable the Division to handle 
a greater amount of work with increased efficiency. 

The Museum suffered a serious loss during the year by the deaths 
of two of its Trustees, Mr. Arthur B. Jones and Mr. Edward E. 
Ayer. Both of these men had been connected with the Museimi from 
its earliest days, and each of them had contributed generously to 
its collections and given much of their time and effort to the promo- 
tion of the Institution's progress. The Arthur B. Jones Collection 
of ethnological material from the Malay Peninsula and Malay 
Archipelago stands as a permanent testimonial of the unflagging 
interest shown in the Museum by Mr. Jones. Likewise, the Edward 



















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Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 191 

E. Ayer Pewter Collection, the Edward E. Ayer Ornithological 
Library which stands among the foremost in its field, and the many 
contributions of valuable objects and collections made by Mr. Ayer, 
to the Department of Anthropology particularly, but to the other 
Departments of the Museum as well, constitute a memorial to him. 
They remain as evidence of the enthusiam he devoted to the task 
of helping to develop the Museum to give the greatest public service, 
and take its rank among the world's leading institutions of its 

Mr. Jones, who had been a Trustee of the Museum since 1894, 
died on February 21, 1927. He was also an Honorary Member, a 
Corporate Member, and a Life Member. The following tribute in 
the form of a resolution by the Board of Trustees was paid to his 

"The death of Mr. Arthur B. Jones having been announced at 
the monthly meeting of the Board of Trustees of Field Museum of 
Natural History, held March 14, 1927, the following resolution was 
adopted as a Testimonial of his services in behalf of the Institution: 

"With profound regret the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural 
History have learned of the decease of their fellow Trustee, Arthur 
B. Jones. 

"Mr. Jones served as a member of the Board of Trustees with 
great fidelity and ability, his interest in the Museum dating from 
the very beginning of the Institution, and continuing until his 

"Accepting, at the organization of the Board, appointment as 
a member of the Auditing Committee, he remained on this Commit- 
tee during his long association with the Museum and carried on its 
exacting duties with unceasing devotion. Although it involved, 
especially in earlier years, a considerable sacrifice of time, he later 
assumed additional responsibility as a Member of the Finance Com- 
mittee. To all questions of importance affecting the welfare and 
interest of the Museum, he gave unstinted and assiduous attention, 
and always sought to promote the progress of the Institution along 
beneficent lines. 

"His unselfish labors and generous contributions on behalf of 
the Museum have been wrought into the development of the Insti- 
tution and will bear fruit for years to come. 

"The members of the Board of Trustees desire to extend to 
his bereaved widow and family the assurance of their deepest 

192 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

Mr. Ayer, it will be remembered, was the first President of the 
Museum, serving in that capacity from 1893 to 1899, and serving 
as a Trustee from the time of the Institution's establishment until 
his death. He was also a Benefactor, an Honorary Member, a 
Corporate Member and a Life Member. He died on May 3, 1927. 
In tribute to his memory the Board of Trustees adopted the follow- 
ing resolution: 

"The death of Mr. Edward Everett Ayer on May 3, 1927, at 
Pasadena, California, in his eighty-sixth year, removed from the 
closer circle of Field Museum of Natural History one of its most 
sincere friends and devoted supporters. 

"Mr. Ayer gave generous and effective assistance in the initial 
organization of the Museum. He was in the fullest accord with its 
purpose, and contributed to its progress an ever wakeful enthusiam 
which counted far in the councils of the Trustees, and became re- 
flected in a large number of his contemporaries. For five years, 
from 1894 to 1899, Mr. Ayer served the Institution as its first Presi- 
dent, and it fell to his share to formulate and pronounce many of 
the fundamental principles which originated with its founders. 
Continuing his service as a member of the Board of Trustees through- 
out the remainder of his life, Mr. Ayer gave liberally of his time and 
efforts to strengthen and develop the Museum in every way. His 
participation in its active management was dictated by his strong 
faith in the great future of Chicago as an educational center and 
in the importance of organized museum activities as an integral part 
of this development. This conviction prompted Mr. Ayer in con- 
tributing time and again large collections and groups of important 
objects, some of which served in the upbuilding of several unrivalled 
units in the Library, others in extending materially the organized 
collections in other fields. From year to year his contributions, 
chiefly of anthropological interest, continued, and all departments 
of the Museum give some evidence of his zeal as a collector. 

"Mr. Ayer was notably successful in enlisting the aid of others in 
an effort to extend and supplement the collections, and in this way 
adduced much material which otherwise might have been lost to the 
Institution. His enthusiam inspired many of his contemporaries to 
follow his example in this public service. 

"The most important gifts made either wholly or in part by Mr. 
Ayer include several thousand specimens illustrating the archaeology 
and ethnology of the North American Indians, large Egyptian 
collections, valuable antiquities illustrating Greek, Roman and 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 193 

Etruscan archaeology, an important collection of fossil vertebrates 
from the Rancho La Brea beds of California, and, in his later years, 
a large and exhaustive collection illustrating the history and uses 
of pewter in all parts of the world. He also made many contributions 
to the gem exhibits in H. N. Higinbotham Hall. 

"The Museum Library benefited in many ways by Mr. Ayer's 
contributions, but his chief service consisted in building up by his 
donations exceptionally complete collections of books and manu- 
scripts on the subjects of ornithology and ichthyology, including 
numerous works of superior excellence and rarity, v/hich, as a whole, 
would be a notable attraction in any institution. 

"Mr. Ayer's personal character expressed itself in an alert interest 
in even the minutest details of the Museum, from its personnel 
to the administrative details. He confessed himself in a privileged 
position as a member of the Board of Trustees. His sympathies 
included the care of the collections as well as the welfare of every 
employe. He remained in close personal contact with the members 
of the Museum staff and inspired all with his generous, intelligent 
response to earnest work, his high ideals, his reverence of true service 
and his confidence in that form of public enlightment which remains 
the cultural foundation of Field Museum." 

Mr. Frederick H. Rawson was elected as a Trustee to fill the 
vacancy caused by Mr. Ayer's death. Mr. William H. Mitchell was 
also elected during the year as a Corporate Member, and as a Trustee 
to fill the vacancy caused by Mr. Jones' death. 

In July the Museum's Hall of African Mammals was dedicated 
as Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall in honor of the late Carl E. 
Akeley, noted explorer, sculptor, taxidermist and inventor, many of 
whose masterpieces both of taxidermy and sculpture are in Field 
Museum. Mr. Akeley, who was chief taxidermist of the Museum 
from 1895 to 1909, died on November 17, 1926, two days after his 
election as a Patron. 

In recognition of the eminent service they have rendered the 
Museum, Mrs. George T. Smith and Mrs. John J. Borland were 
elected Patrons of the Institution. 

The following were elected Life Members: Mr. Frederick Wes- 
ley Sargent, Judge Elbert H. Gary (who, it is recorded with 
regret, has since died), Mrs. Arthur B. Jones, Mr. F. D. Corley, 
Mr. Edward A. Cudahy, Jr., Mr. Britton I. Budd, Mr. William G. 
Burt, Mrs. Mason Bross, Mr. James Otis Hinkley, Mr. Paul E. 
Gardner, Mr. William B. Mcllvaine, Mrs. Waller Borden, Mr. 

194 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Reuben G. Chandler, Mr. Earle H. Rejmolds, Mr. George Lytton, 
Mr. William N. Jarnagin, Mr. James D. Cunningham, Mr, Ronald 
L. F. Tree, Mr. George W. Dixon, Mr. J. Dorr Bradley, Mr. John 
Stuart, Mr. Wallace De Wolf, and Miss Gwethalyn Jones. 

Mr. Arthur S. Vernay was elected as a non-resident Life 

In other classes of membership, a total of 1,253 was added to 
the Museum's lists. 

The area gained by the reconstruction previously mentioned is 
confined to the ground floor, and it is adaptable to attractive and 
comprehensive arrangements of exhibits. To accomplish this expan- 
sion of exhibition space it was necessary to remove and reroute some 
twenty long pipe lines which had formerly run along the ceilings, 
exposed to view. This involved the installation on the third floor 
of three ten-inch steam pipes, also cold water, hot water and circula- 
ting pipes, and of gas and compressed air lines. In doing this work 
no walls were broken, and there was no interference with the exhibi- 
tion halls on the main and second floors. Approximately 3,800 feet 
of trenches were dug under the ground floor for the drip pipes, which 
now lead to a new pump room which was excavated fourteen feet 
below the southwest corner of the Museum . In these trenches are 
also pipes for high pressure water for fire protection, hot and cold 
water, gas and compressed air. A tunnel fully 1,000 feet long was 
built from the new pump room to the northeast corner of the Mu- 
seum, in which steam feed and return heating pipes for the Shedd 
Aquarium were installed, together with the Museum's piping. 
There were 51,700 feet, or nearly ten miles of pipes laid in the course 
of this work. More than 200 tons of old piping were removed and 
sold. Eleven of the new ground floor halls gained by these changes will 
be used for anthropological and three for zoological exhibits. Struc- 
tural changes, noticeable only from the inside, were made also in 
Ernest R. Graham Hall of Historical Geology. The 72 windows in 
this hall were blocked out, those on the north, west and south 
being insulated with celotex, and those on the east being bricked up. 
This was done to exclude daylight, and make possible the instal- 
lation of a system of artificial lighting better suited to the proper 
display of the material exhibited in the hall. The windows along 
the west wall of the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) have also been 
bricked up for similar reasons. Sixty-six skylights were covered 
with insulating panels and rubberoid. The skylight over the first 
floor was covered with a heavy coat of malleable asphalt. 




Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VII, Plate XXIII 


A community of parasitic and epiphytic plants with a termite nest from a Guiana tree-top 

Temporarily installed in Stanley Field Hall 

Reproduced from nature 

Stanley Field Guiana Expedition, 1922 

One-ninth natural size 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 195 

Two iron hand railings leading up the steps to the north entrance 
of the Museum were installed. 

The work of remodeling Egyptian Hall was begun during the 
year. This consists in the main of the construction of a case as a 
part of the north and east walls for a length of 194 feet. This type 
of case, an entirely new departure from usual museum methods, 
will permit the grouping of mummies, their cases, mummy cloths 
and other mortuary objects. An effective lighting system will be 
arranged for this and the other cases in the hall. 

Several important new installations and reinstallations were 
undertaken during the year. The economic collections of food plants, 
and of woods, in the Department of Botany, are undergoing a pro- 
cess of reinstallation, which includes addition of new specimens, 
and relabeling, which will increase their interest and value. 

In the Department of Zoology, two new habitat groups of 
mammals, one of the Wapiti, or American Elk, from the Olympic 
Mountains of Washington, and the other of Mule Deer from the 
Kaibab Forest of Arizona, were installed in the Hall of American 
Mammal Habitat Groups. The Mule Deer specimens were obtained 
by a Captain Marshall Field expedition in 1926. The taxidermy on 
the American Elk group was the work of Taxidermist Julius Friesser; 
that on the Mule Deer was done by Taxidermist C. J. Albrecht, 
who also, as a member of the expedition, procured the animals. The 
scenic backgrounds of both cases were painted by Staff Artist C. A. 
Corwin, who also painted backgrounds for the Ovis Poli, Ibex, 
Glacier Bear, and Sea Lion groups now in course of construction 
or installation. The Grizzly Bear, Antelope and Moose cases in 
the Hall of American Mammal Habitat Groups were reinstalled, 
and all groups in this hall were furnished with new backgrounds. 

The Department of Zoology also placed on exhibition a repro- 
duction of a hippopotamus, now installed in Stanley Field Hall. 
This is said to be the first life-like preparation of a hippopotamus 
ever shown in any museum. The reproduction is made of a cellulose- 
acetate compound, by a special process invented by Mr. Leon L. 
Walters of the Museum's taxidermy staff, who has by the same 
process reproduced snakes, crocodiles, and other animals which 
readily lend themselves to this treatment. The hippopotamus 
specimen from which the reproduction was made was a gift to the 
Museum of the Cincinnati Zoological Park Association. 

The former Edward E. Ayer Hall of Roman Antiquities was 
renamed Edward E. and Emma B. Ayer Hall. 



198 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

April 2 — "Prehistoric Animal Life," including sketches for the mural 
decorations of the Ernest R. Graham Hall of Paleon- 
Mr. Charles R. Knight, New York. 

April 9 — "Birds of the Chicago Area." 

Dr. Lucius C. Pardee, Chicago. 

April 16— "Life Beyond the Arctic Circle." 

Commander Donald B. MacMillan, Leader of theRawson- 
MacMillan Subarctic Expedition of Field Museum, 

April 23 — "Native Races of Africa." 

Mr. W. D. Hambly, Member of the Wellcome Expedition 
to the Sudan; Assistant Curator of African Ethnology, 
Field Museum. 

April 30— "The Hunting Tribes of North America." 

Dr. William D. Strong, Assistant Curator of North 
American Ethnology and Archaeology, Field Museum. 

October 1 — "The First People of America." 

Professor Arthur Sterry Coggeshall, Carnegie Museum, 

October 8— "Burma." 

Mr. Barnum Brown, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

October 15 — "The Archaeological Investigations of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington at Chichen Itza, Yucatan 
and Uaxactun, Guatemala, in 1927." 
Dr. Sylvanus G. Morley, Carnegie Institution, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

October 22 — "Natural Wonders of American Deserts." 
Mr. Frederick Monsen, Pasadena, California. 

October 29— "A Day in Babylonia." 

Professor A. T. Olmstead, University of Illinois. 

November 5— "The Depths of the Sea." 

Dr. Raymond L. Ditmars, Curator, New York Zoological 

November 12 — "The Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition 
of 1926." 
George K. Cherrie, Leader of the Expedition. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 199 

November 19 — "Explorations at the North Pole of the Winds." 

Professor William H. Hobbs, Leader of the University 
of Michigan Greenland Expedition. 

November 26 — "Sun Dance of the Blackfoot Indians." 
Mr. Walter McClintock, Pittsburgh. 

December 3 — "The Wonders of Marine Life." 

Dr. William Beebe, Director of Tropical Research, New 
York Zoological Society. 

The total attendance at these nineteen lectures was 30,210, which 
is an increase of 7,397 over the attendance of last year. 

In addition to the regular spring and autumn courses, the follow- 
ing special lectures were delivered during the year: 

January 8 — "The Hawaiian Islands." 
Mr. F. P. Clatworthy. 

January 23 — "Racing with Death in Antarctic Blizzards." 
Sir Douglas Mawson. 

February 27 — "To Lhasa in Disguise." 
Dr. William M. McGovern. 

March 6 — "Man-eaters of Tsavo and other Lion Adventures." 
Colonel J. H. Patterson. 

May 7 — "The Dragon Lizards of Komodo." 

Motion pictures taken by the Douglas Burden Expedition 
of the American Museum of Natural History, intro- 
troduced by Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant Curator of 
Reptiles and Amphibians, Field Museum. 

May 8 — "The Dragon Lizards of Komodo" (repeated). 

May 14 — "Racing with Death in Antarctic Blizzards." 

Motion pictures taken by Sir Douglas Mawson. 

November 6— "The Depths of the Sea." 

Dr. Raymond L. Ditmars, Curator, New York Zoological 

November 13 — "The Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition 
of 1926." 
Mr. George K. Cherrie, Leader of the Expedition. 

November 20 — "Abyssinia." 

The Chicago Daily News Expedition of Field Museum. 
Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator of Zoology, Field 
Museum; Leader of the Expedition. 

200 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

December 4 — "Beneath Tropic Seas." 

Dr. William Beebe, Director of Tropical Research, New 
York Zoological Society. 

December 11 — "Adventures, Archaeological and Otherwise in Arabia, 
Egypt, the Sudan, Sinai, Transjordania, Palestine and 
Mr. Lowell Thomas, author and traveler. 

The total attendance at these special lectures was 14,553. 

Concerts. — During the late winter and spring, a series of cham- 
ber music concerts was given by the Gordon String Quartet in the 
James Simpson Theatre. These concerts were sponsored by the Eliza- 
beth Sprague Coolidge Foundation of the Library of Congress, and the 
Chicago Chamber Music Society. They were given on January 16, 
February 20, March 20 and 27, April 3, 10, 17 and 24, and May 1, 
and the attendance totaled 6,090, being an increase of 1,685 over last 
years' attendance. 


An increasing number of groups of teachers and scientific societies 
have made use of the James Simpson Theatre and the Lecture Hall 
for educational meetings under auspices other than those of the 
Museum. Of particular interest in 1927 were the series of meetings 
of teachers addressed by Dr. Alfred Adler, eminent lecturer on child 
psychology. The annual meetings of the American Anthropological 
Association were held in the small lecture hall ; and on several occa- 
sions special programs were arranged for Americanization classes 
from the public schools. In all, there were seventeen such groups, 
with an attendance of 5,748. 


During the year the following radio talks were given by members 
of the Museum staff from the Chicago Daily News Station, WMAQ: 

March 2— "Life of the Ocean." 

Miss Margaret Cornell, Raymond Division. 

June 25 — "Abyssinia." 

Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator of Zoology. 

September 25 — "Roman Home Life." 

Miss Margaret Cornell, Raymond Division. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 201 

On November 15 and five subsequent Tuesdays talks were 
given over the Chicago Tribune Station, WGN. These were broad- 
cast by Miss Cornell, who described the founding of the Museum, 
the acquisition and installation of specimens, the character of 
the collections, and the various educational activities of the 


As in previous years, the services of Museum guide-lecturers 
were offered without charge to clubs, conventions and other organi- 
zations. These groups were conducted on lecture tours planned with 
regard to group interests. Other lecture tours, open to the general 
public, were given at 11 a. m. and 3 p. m. on Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Wednesdays and Fridays. During most of the year these lectures 
were on a weekly basis — each group of eight tours forming a unit 
which was repeated every week. Beginning the first of Decem- 
ber, it was decided to change this system by adding Thursdays to 
the days on which tours are conducted and arranging a new pro- 
gram each month. For adults 290 lecture tours were given during 
the year, the total attendance being 9,528. 


Entertainments for Children. — In the spring and autumn 
of 1927, courses of entertainments for children were offered in 
the James Simpson Theatre under the provisions of the James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Public School and Children's 
Lecture Fund. Each entertainment was given twice. With the 
addition of entertainments given on holidays, these entertainments 
numbered 22, with an attendance of 42,676 children. The programs 
were as follows: 

Spring Course 

March 5~*'Animals Large and Small of the Northwest." 

Motion pictures and lecture. 
Mr. C. J. Albrecht, Field Museum. 

March 12— "Cuba, Island of Sugar." 
"Despoilers of the Jungle." 
"The Jungle Sluggard." 
"Capturing a Giant Anteater." 

202 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

March 19— "The World of Paper." 

"Motherhood in Nature." 
"Marauders of the High Seas." 
"Zoo's Zoo in America." 

March 26— "Sugar Trails (Beet Sugar)." 
"The Story of Wool." 
"Mysteries of Snow." 
"Rare Specimens in the New York Zoo." 
"Animal Life of the River." 

April 2— "The Rawson-MacMillan Expedition of 1926." 

Motion pictures and lecture, Commander Donald B. 
MacMillan, Leader of the Expedition. 

April 9— "Anthracite Coal." 

"The Grand Canyon." 

April 16— "Bituminous Coal." 

"Kindly Fruits of Earth." 
"Birds of Passage." 

April 23— "Land of Cotton." 

"Wild Life in Yellowstone Park." 


"Familiar Birds." 

April 30— *"The Story of Steel." 

*Field Museum makes grateful acknowledgment of the gift of these films by the United Statei 
Steel Corporation. 

Autumn Course 

October 1 — "Alaskan Adventures." 

October 8— "Manchuria." 

"Our Dog Friends." 
"The Silversmith." 
"Peter the Raven." 

October 15 — "Maizok of the South Seas." 

October 22— "Sponge Fishing." 

"Ancient Industries of Modem Days." 
"A Study of Birds." 
"Beasts of Prey." 
"Feathered Aviators." 




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Jan. 1928 Annual Report op the Director . 203 

October 29— "The Gorilla Hunt." 

November 5 — "Adopting a Bear Cub." 

"Tree-top Concert Singers." 
"The Last of the Bison." 
"Gathering of the Clan." 
"The Zoo's Who's Who." 

November 12— "The World's Struggle for Oil." 

November 19 — "Silvery Salmon." 

"Home of the Birds." 

"Leaves from a Ranger's Notebook". 

"Cameraing through Africa." 

November 26 — "Adventures in the Far North." 

Special Entertainments 


February 12 — "Lincoln. 

February 22— "Washington." 

May 7 — "The Dragon Lizards of Komodo." 

May 14 — "Racing with Death in Antarctic Blizzards." 

Lecture Tours for Children. — Lecture tours for children were 
given without charge to groups from public and parochial schools and 
private institutions. In the case of the public schools, these lecture 
tours correlated with the school-room work of the children. In other 
instances, the collections to be visited were chosen by the leaders of 
the groups. There were 428 such classes, numbering 13,683 children, 
which received this service. 

Extension Lectures. — In previous years, extension lectures 
were offered only to elementary public schools of the city of Chicago. 
During 1927, these lectures were offered to junior high schools and 
high schools as well; and a number were given before parent- tea- 
chers' associations. The same illustrative material in the form of 
lantern slides was used for each group of lectures; but varying treat- 
ment adapted it to the interests of children of different ages and to the 
parent-teachers' organizations. The list of lectures was as followa: 

"North American Indians." 
"What We Owe to South America." 
"Coffee, Chocolate and Tea." 
"Flax and Cotton," 

204 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

"African Animals." 

"Glimpses of Chinese Life." 

"The Story of Coal and Iron." 

"Food Fish of the World." 

"Roman Home Life." 

"Silk and Wool." 

"The Life of the Ancient Egyptians." 

"Native Life of the Philippine Islands." 

"Activities of Field Museum." 

"Birds of the Chicago Area." 

"Mammals of the Chicago Area." 

"Fish of the Chicago Area." 

"North American Mammals." 

These lectures were given without charge in school classrooms and 
assembly halls. They numbered 556 with an attendance of 209,290. 

Totals. — In all, 1,006 lectures, tours and entertainments for 
children with an attendance of 265,649 were given under the pro- 
visions of the James Nelson and Anna Louise Rajonond Public School 
and Children's Lecture Fund in the year 1927. If these numbers are 
added to the number of adults attending Museum events throughout 
the year, it will be found that 331,778 persons received Museum 


In the regular series of Field Museum Publications, five were 
issued during the past year, two of which were botanical, one anthro- 
pological, one zoological, and one the Annual Report of the Director. 
In addition to these, seven numbers were added to the general leaflet 
series, and one previously published leaflet (Geology, No. 6) was re- 
printed. Following is a list of these publications and leaflets: 

Pub. 241.— Anthropological Series, Vol. XVII, No. 1. A Correlation 
of Mayan and European Calendars. By J. Eric Thomp- 
son. January, 1927. 24 pages. Edition 1,540. 

Pub. 242.— Zoological Series, Vol. XIII, Part 5. Catalogue of Birds 
of the Americas. Initiated by Charles B. Cory. Con- 
tinued by Charles E. Hellmayr. April 11, 1927. 517 
pages. Edition 1,509. 

Pub. 243.— Report Series, Vol. VII, No. 1. Annual Report of the 
Director for the Year 1926. January, 1927. 174 pp., 20 
photogravures. Edition 4,490. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 205 

Pub. 244. — Botanical Series, Vol. IV, No. 5. I. Various Spermato- 
phytes. By J. Francis Macbride. II. Mosses of Peru. 
By R. S. Williams. May 31, 1927. 44 pp., 10 photo- 
gravures. Edition 1,000. 

Pub. 245. — Botanical Series, Vol. VI, No. 2. Citrus Products. Part 
2. By James B. McNair. November, 1927. 189 pp., 13 
halftones, 5 zinc etchings. Edition 2,512. 


Anthropology, No. 22. Insect Musicians and Cricket Champions of 
China. By Berthold Laufer. 28 pages, 12 photogravures, 1 
cover design. Edition 3,150. 

Anthropology, No. 25. The Civilization of the Mayas. By J. Eric 

Thompson. 110 pages, 14 photogravures, 12 text-figures, 1 map, 

1 cover design. Edition 1,991. 
Anthropology, No. 26. The Early History of Man. By Henry Field. 

18 pages, 8 photogravures, 1 map, 1 cover design. Edition 2,999. 
Botany, No. 13. Sugar and Sugar-making, By James B. McNair. 

34 pages, 8 halftones, 1 cover design. Edition 6,000. 
Geology, No. 6. (Reprint). The Moon. By 0. C. Farrington. 12 

pages, 2 photogravures. Edition 6,020. 
Geology, No. 8. Agate — Physical Properties and Origin. By 0. C. 

Farrington. Archaeology and Folk-lore. By Berthold Laufer. 

36 pages, 10 photogravures, 4 colored plates, 1 colored text- 
figure. Edition 2,856. 
Geology, No. 9. How Old are Fossils? By Sharat K. Roy. 12 pages, 

4 photogravures. Edition 6,091. 
Zoology, No. 9. Pike, Pickerel and Muskalonge. By Alfred C. Weed. 

52 pages, 8 colored plates, 4 text-figures, 1 cover design. Edition 

Miscellaneous Publications 

General Guide. 32 pages. Edition 13,464. 

During the year the Library acquired by purchase, gift and ex- 
change 2,840 books and pamphlets, bringing the total number on the 
shelves to approximately 92,500. These additions greatly strength- 
ened the resources of the Library. Especially helpful are certain sets 
of periodicals which have long been desired for reference purposes in 
the various Departments of the Museum. Among these sets are: 

206 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte in 135 volumes, 1835 to date. 
Gay's Historia fisico y politico de Chile, 30 volumes, 1844-1871. 
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 13 volumes, 1914 to date. 
Zoologische Jahrbiicher, 126 volumes, 1886 to date. 

An opportunity to purchase a selected collection of books on 
Africa and India was presented and taken advantage of. The 
African literature was further supplemented by other purchases 
required by members of the staff who have returned from expe- 
ditions, and need certain books for reference in preparing their 
collections for study and exhibition purposes. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. Thomas Barbour, Director of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, the 
Library has acquired all the early volumes of that institution's 
Bulletins and Memoirs which were lacking from its files. As a num- 
ber of these publications have been long out of print, the Museum 
is fortunate in obtaining them. The Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy presented also ten copper plates used in illustrating the pub- 
lication of Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology in 1808-1844. 
These plates are in a fine state of preservation and have consider- 
able historical value. 

The Kommission for Ledelsen af de Geologiske og Geografiske 
Unders0gelser i Gr^nland presented almost a complete file to date of 
its Meddelser om Gr0nland, in all 62 volumes. These monographs will 
be particularly valuable to the members of the staff who are at 
present in Labrador on the Rawson-MacMillan expedition. Books 
are an important item in the equipment of the Museum's various 
expeditions, and in addition to those taken from the Library, small 
collections are purchased when abroad for further assistance in the 

To the Edward E. Ayer Ornithological Library were added 
167 volumes. Mr. Ayer continued his deep interest in and gener- 
ous donations to this Library until his death, and it is due to his fore- 
sight of years ago that the Library contains so many of the beautifully 
illustrated works of the early eminent ornithological writers that have 
been long out of print and rarely if ever appear on the market. 
Mr. Ayer frequently expressed the desire that this Library should 
have a foremost place among the libraries of its kind. How well he 
succeeded in accomplishing this is shown in the catalogue of this 
Library issued as one of the Museum's publications. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 207 

Notable among the rare works received during the year are: 

A complete set of Isis in 40 volumes covering the years 
1817-1840, the only set of this work in the middle west. 

Buff on Oeu\Tes completes . . Revue par M. Richard. 5 volumes. 

Buller's Supplement to the birds of New Zealand. 1905. 

Crespon. Ornithologie du Gard. 1840. 

F^russac. Bulletin des sciences et de I'industrie. 85 volumes. 

Lefebvre. Voyage en Abyssinie. 4 volumes and atlas. 1845. 
Lesson. Complement des oeuvres de Buffon. 10 volumes. 

Vieillot. Faune frangaise. Oiseaux. 1820-1830. 
Wilson. Illustrations of zoology. 1831. 

Gadow and Selenka, Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des 

Tierreichs. . .Vogel. 3 volumes. 1891, 1893. 
Playfair and Gunther. Fishes of Zanzibar. 1866. 

From contemporary societies, institutions, governments and indi- 
viduals throughout the world the Library has received, as in pre- 
vious years, valuable literature either as gifts or in exchange for 
the publications of the Museum. 

The Library is again indebted to the Library of Congress and to 
the John Crerar Library especially for the loan of books needed by 
members of the staff in their research work. 

The number of individual issues of journals, magazines and serials 
received was 6,316. The number of cards written and inserted in 
the various catalogues was 7,550. From the John Crerar Library 
10,104 cards have been received. 

The periodicals and serials prepared for binding numbered 598. 

The work for the Union list of serials was completed during the 
year. This list, a monumental work, will be invaluable for biblio- 
graphical purposes. 

Early in the year all books and shelves in the general library were 
vacuum cleaned, and the pressing need of shelf room necessitated 
another readjustment of the books. Several hundred volumes were 
transferred temporarily to the anthropological library in order to 
provide room for the normal growth of other sets of periodicals and 

208 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 


Anthropology. — During the year there were five expeditions 
from the Department of Anthropology. 

The Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition, financed 
by Captain Marshall Field and Mr. Herbert Weld, reached the fourth 
season of its operations, working from December 19, 1926 to March 20, 
1927. The excavations were placed in charge of Mr. L. C . Watelin, who 
was assisted by Mr. Eric Schroeder, scholar of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford. Professor S. Langdon of Oxford again assumed the general 
direction of the work. The principal efforts were bent on the huge 
complex of mounds in eastern Kish, known as Ingharra, where two 
sides of the temple tower of the Earth Goddess of Harsagkalama and 
the southwest side of Nebuchadnezzar's and Nabonidus' reconstruc- 
tion of the temple were exposed. The huge temple tower built in 
plano-convex bricks of the early Sumerian period was never again 
repaired. The temple to the northeast of the stage tower was rebuilt 
several times, the last builder being Nabonidus, last king of the 
Babylonian empire and father of Belshazzar, who ruled in the sixth 
century B.C. and then restored the ancient Sumerian temple in the 
prevailing Babylonian style of architecture. Portions of it are in 
an excellent state of preservation with walls standing 20 to 25 
feet high. The edifice now completelj'- exposed was approxi- 
mately 100 feet square, its outer walls being decorated with 
the T-shaped false pillar decoration characteristic of Babylonian 
architecture. Another feature typical of this school of builders is 
found in the huge buttresses flanking the six great gates of the temple. 
There is a spacious central shrine approached from a gate and two 
ante-chambers; this central shrine communicates with two chapels on 
the left and right. So far as present information concerning the dis- 
position of a Babylonian temple permits of conclusions, this structure 
is undoubtedly one of the clearest and best preserved examples. 
The great open court is on the northeast side, and the entrance to the 
inner chapel is from the southwest side of this court. Here were 
found small deposits of cuneiform tablets, but the brick boxes in 
which Nabonidus had placed his foundation deposits at the various 
entrance gates had unfortunately been rifled by the armies of late 
invaders, although some objects of value were still found in them. 
Twenty-seven chambers flanking the court and central chapel have 
been cleared after immense labor. The excavators then descended 
25 feet below the temple of Nabonidus before they reached 
the ancient Sumerian construction built of plano-convex brick, 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 209 

where early Sumerian sculptures and painted pottery were found. 
An illustrated report of the season's work by S. Langdon was pub- 
lished in Art and Archaeology ^ October, 1927. 

The first year's work of the Captain Marshall Field Expedition to 
Madagascar under the leadership of Assistant Curator Ralph Linton 
was summarized in the Director's Report for 1926. The activity of 
the expedition was continued and completed during 1927. Dr. Linton 
left Majunga on the west coast of the island in September, 1926, and 
proceeded up the Betsiboka River to Mahabo, a sacred town of the 
Sakalava, where he took part in the annual purification of the royal 
tombs, being the first white man to witness this ceremony. He then 
continued up the river to Madiravalo, where he turned inland, arriving 
at Kandreo after two weeks of travel through sparsely inhabited 
country. He remained in this region collecting, and studying the 
Sakalava, until the latter part of October, and then proceeded to 
Maevatanana, the end of the projected automobile road across the 
island. From there he retui'ned to Tananarive where he remained a 
month packing collections. He then travelled to Tamatave by train 
and embarked on the east-coast steamer "Imerina" December 1, land- 
ing at Farafangana, on the southeast coast, on December 10. He re- 
mained there until December 30, studying and collecting among 
the Antaifasina tribe, then went by land to Fort Dauphin, arriving 
January 21. He left the latter place February 1 and went west 
to Tsiombe, arriving February 10. There he left the regular route 
and made a detour through the practically unexplored southwestern 
corner of the island, finally turning northward and arriving at Tulear 
February 28. He remained in Tulear until March 28, studying 
the Vezo, a fishing tribe, then traveled eastward, arriving at Betroka, 
at the southern end of the interior plateau in the heart of the territory 
of the Bara tribe, April 2. He remained there, studying and col- 
lecting, until April 21, then went to lakora, also in Bara territory, 
remaining there until May 5. From lakora he went to Ambalavao, 
passing by way of Ivohibe, a distance of 350 miles. Headquarters 
were established at Ambalavao, and an intensive study was made of 
the southern Betsileo tribe. Dr. Linton remained there until July 
16, then went to Mananjary on the east coast, where he arranged 
for shipments of collections. From Mananjary he went to Ambohi- 
manga in the territory of the Tanala tribe, where he remained until 
August 20. From there he proceeded to Ambositra, packed and 
shipped collections, and returned to Tananarive by train and auto- 
mobile. In Tananarive the work of the expedition was wound up. 

210 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

and he descended to Tamatave, sailing from there to Mauritius 
September 12. In Mauritius he made a study of early records, 
then sailed on an American freight boat to Beira in Portuguese East 
Africa. From Beira he went to Salisbury in Rhodesia, from there to 
Sinoia, from Sinoia to Gwelo, and from Gwelo to Fort Victoria, 
whence he visited by automobile the famous ruins at Great Zim- 
babwe, Returning to Fort Victoria, he went to Bulawayo, thence to 
Kimberley, then to Johannesburg, and finally to Capetown. Through- 
out this African territory museums were visited, exchanges arranged, 
and ethnologists interviewed. He sailed from Capetown October 7 
on S. S. "Saxon," arriving at Southampton October 25. He left Eng- 
land November 16, and arrived in Chicago December 25. By the 
end of the first year's work it had become evident that Madagascar 
was divided into three culture areas, and during the past year the 
method was adopted of studying one or two tribes in each area inten- 
sively instead of devoting an equal amount of time to all tribes. Full 
investigations were carried on among the Antaifasina and Antaisaka 
in the southeast coast area, among the Vezo and Bara of the west 
coast area, and among the southern Betsileo and Tanala of the Pla- 
teau Area. The culture of the southeast coast area proved to be 
archaic. The natives of this region have, until recent times, been 
ignorant of the arts of weaving and pottery-making, dressing in mats 
or beaten bark and cooking in bamboo joints. Each tribe has a 
sacred river into which the umbilical cords of all members of the 
tribe are thrown and beside which the tribal tomb is built. All 
members of the tribe are buried in a single tomb, a deep trench sur- 
rounded by a stockade and usually covered by a house. Men are 
placed in the north end of the trench; women and children in the 
south end. Whenever a case of death occurs, all the bodies are lifted 
out, and the new corpse placed at the bottom. There is a special 
official, called the Lahy Kibory ("Chief of the Tomb"), who cares for 
the tomb and also punishes infractions of taboos. The Antaisaka 
tribe still erects memorial pillars of rough stone identical with the 
menhirs of prehistoric Europe. One of these, having nearly the same 
dimensions as the largest monolith at Stonehenge in England, was 
erected within three months of Dr. Linton's visit, and important 
information on primitive engineering methods was obtained. In 
addition to the single stones there are whole groves of menhirs in 
that region. Over 60 were counted in a single group set up so 
close together that it was difficult for a man to walk between them. 
The Vezo and Bara appear to owe their origin to the last large-scale 
















Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 211 

invasion of the island. They are much taller, darker, and more Ne- 
groid in physical type than the natives of the east coast or plateau 
areas. The Vezo are a sea people employing the outrigger canoe and 
double canoe, and making long voyages up and down the west coast. 
They live almost exclusively by fishing, exchanging their surplus fish 
with the Masakora and Mikea tribes of the interior for cattle, vege- 
table foods, and game. The three tribes recognized the same king, 
but considered themselves distinct, each tribe having its definite field 
of activity. While the Vezo fish, the Mikea live in the forest, sub- 
sisting entirely on wild roots and game; and the Masakora, in the 
open country, where they practise agriculture and engage in cattle- 
raising. None of the groups cultivate rice, although this is the 
principal food in the other two areas. Their religion is highly organ- 
ized with hereditary sacrificial priests who have special insignia of 
office. The sacrificial priests and the medicine-men are sharply differ- 
entiated, and no individual may hold both offices. The medicine-men 
practise astrology, and have an unusually elaborate form of divina- 
tion, full details of which were obtained. The Bara, who live in the 
southern interior of the island, are a cattle people of African type. 
They are semi-nomadic, shifting their villages at the slightest excuse. 
They five largely on sour milk and rarely cultivate rice. They are 
expert metal workers, and are the only group in the island who know 
how to cast brass and silver figures by the lost wax process. They are 
also excellent wood-carvers, and know how to weave and make pot- 
tery. They are the most warlike tribe in Madagascar, having retained 
their independence until very recent times. They have hereditary 
ceremonial priests, like the Vezo, and had a highly centralized 
government with kings of the African type, to whom they paid 
exaggerated respect. They declared that when they first entered 
their present territory they found there a race of small brown people 
whom they called the Kimoso. These had straight or wavy hair, and 
the men were heavily bearded. They dressed in bark cloth and fought 
with wooden spears, clubs, and slings. They lived in fortified villages, 
the names of some of which are remembered, and pursued agriculture 
and cattle-raising, being inferior to the Bara only in metal-working. 
After several generations of warfare they were exterminated or 
driven northward, but they were never enslaved, because of their 
fierce and intractable character. Flacourt, who was at Fort Dauphin 
in the beginning of the seventeenth century, heard stories of these 
people which agree in important details with those told Dr. Linton 
by the living Bara, and it seems certain that such a group actually 

212 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

existed. Special attention was devoted to the southern Betsileo 
because they are at the present time the least influenced tribe of 
plateau culture. They lived in long established towns fortified with 
elaborate systems of ditches and walls, subsisted mainly on rice which 
they raised in irrigated terraces, and were well advanced in all the 
arts, although inferior to the Bara in metal-working. They are still 
the best weavers in Madagascar, and very valuable data were ob- 
tained on their methods of preparing native wild silk. The tribe is 
divided into four castes^royalty, nobles, commoners, and slaves. 
Souls of commoners and slaves are supposed to go to Mount 
Ambondrombe, a real locality, and live as on earth; those of nobles to 
enter crocodiles, and those of royalty either to go to the region above 
the sky, where the gods live, or enter snakes. Many individuals 
promise to answer prayers made to them after death, and have 
shrines, usually in the form of cairns or stone tables, where sacrifices 
are made. Menhirs are erected for both men and women of impor- 
tance. The dead are buried in family tombs, vaults dug in the hard 
volcanic soil at the bottom of shafts which are sometimes as much as 
60 feet deep. The Betsileo have stories of an aboriginal tribe, the 
Vazimba, but describe these as a black Negroid people of low culture. 
The Tanala are one of the least known tribes in Madagascar. They 
occupy a mountainous region of heavy jungle and almost constant 
rain, and are really a composite group made up of defeated clans 
forced out of more desirable territory. They have retained many old 
cultural features which throw a flood of light on ancient conditions 
elsewhere. They are the only tribe on the island who remember the 
manufacture of stone implements, and have many traditions of an 
original population of black dwarfs who lived in caves, had no 
weapons except wooden spears and no cutting implements except 
flakes of quartz, and who made fire with the fire saw, although all the 
modern Malagasy use the fire drill. One of the Tanala clans claims 
descent from these aborigines, and one still finds occasional indivi- 
duals of Negrito type among them. Another division of the tribes 
known as the Red Clan, is very light in color, with reddish brown 
hair and almost European features. Marriage is usually within the 
clan, that between the children of a brother and sister being most 
favored. Until recent times descent appears to have been traced in 
the female line, and women have a higher position than in any other 
Malagasy tribe, acting as medicine-men and even as sacrificial priests. 
In ancient times there were no caste distinctions. The principal 
Tanala weapon was the blowgun with poisoned darts. The infor- 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 213 

mation obtained by the expedition makes it possible to outline the 
history of Madagascar as follows: The earliest inhabitants appear 
to have been black pigmies related to those of the Andaman 
Islands, Philippines, and neighboring islands, rather than to those 
of Africa. Following these, but prior to the beginning of our era, there 
was an invasion of brown people from the Indonesian region, who 
had reached about the same stage of culture as the historic Poly- 
nesians and were closely related to them. Still later peoples of mixed 
Negro race came to the west coast from Africa, and gradually forced 
their way inland, driving the brown people before them. There may 
also have been a later migration from the neighborhood of Java and 
Sumatra, and Arab colonies were founded on the east coast between 
the eighth and eleventh centuries of our era. The existence of an 
ancient settlement of Asiatics within 230 miles of the African coast 
has not been suspected before, and will make it necessary to revise 
most of the accepted theories of African culture origins. A race that 
could make the 3,000-mile voyage from Indonesia to Mada- 
gascar could have crossed the Mozambique Channel at will. It 
seems probable that there were Asiatic settlements on the mainland 
itself. Perhaps these were destroyed by the comparatively recent 
southward migration of the Bantu-speaking tribes of Africa. From 
Salisbury in Rhodesia, Dr. Linton made a side trip of about 350 miles 
into Mashonaland to acquire some first-hand knowledge of African 
native life and to determine whether the native culture shows any 
affinity with that of Madagascar. In regard to the ruins of Great 
Zimbabwe it has been suggested that they are the work of semi- 
civilized gold-mining people who used Madagascar as a base of 
operations. The ruins, however, show no close relationship with 
any Madagascar structures. 

Assistant Curator William D. Strong, anthropologist on the 
Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition, sailed on the schooner 
Radio from Wiscasset, Maine, on June 25. In the latter part of July 
the party camped at a site about twenty miles northwest of Nain, 
Labrador. Dr. Strong found three cairn burials at Hopedale and 
examined the so-called Norse ruins on Sculpin Island, determining 
that they are of Eskimo and rather recent origin. It has been asserted 
that the Eskimos of Labrador did not inter their dead in cairns, and 
it has been argued that all stone ruins found there must be ascribed 
to the Norsemen. This opinion is now disproved, as Dr. Strong dis- 
covered three stone burials containing Eskimo skeletons accompanied 
by good Eskimoan implements and old European trade goods. The 

214 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

contents of these graves have been secured for the Museum. In 
August a three weeks' reconnaissance tour of Frobisher Bay, Baffin 
Land, was undertaken, and a camp of Eskimos living in quite primi- 
tive style was encountered. Only a few old people and children lived 
there, as the men were in the interior on their annual caribou hunt. 
They were still found in possession of their native fur clothing, seal- 
skin tents, and kayaks. At Brewster's Point on the north shore of 
Frobisher Bay the first good ruins were discovered and marked for ex- 
cavation for the following year; they are apparently of the old Tunit 
type encountered by Rasmussen on the west coast of Hudson Bay. 
From Brewster's Point the expedition proceeded into the Countess 
of Warwick Sound, where in 1756-78 Sir Martin Frobisher carried on 
his ill-fated mining ventures. The ruins of his house and the pits for 
mining which he had dug are still visible, being located on Kodlunarn 
Island, a bleak, barren spot, for the early explorers feared the Eski- 
mos. Digging in these ruins. Dr. Strong brought to light fragments 
of brick, plaster, coal, and porcelain — incontrovertible proof of 
their European origin. In 1861 Charles Francis Hall first located 
the exact site of Frobisher's camp and mapped and described it; 
since that time the ruins have not been visited by any exploring 
party. In a radio communication of November 13, Dr. Strong re- 
ported that he had secured interesting archaeological material sug- 
gestive of an old Indian-like culture on the coast, a problem which 
will be studied more closely next summer. Some collections were ob- 
tained on canoe trips 100 miles up Hunt's River. During the winter 
it is planned to study the nomadic Naskapi v/ho live largely on 
caribou herds in the interior of Labrador. These people are almost 
unknown to science, and it is important that they be fully studied, 
as they still observe their old customs. They represent more nearly 
than any other group the old undifferentiated Algonkin culture, since 
they were forced into their northern habitat at a very early time 
when the Iroquoian tribes pushed up from the south and replaced 
the older Algonkian peoples. 

During the autumn of this year Assistant Curator J. Eric Thomp- 
son was engaged in locating archaeological sites for future excavations 
and making an ethnological study of the Maya Indians of southern 
British Honduras, Central America. The primary object of this 
research was the study of the old religious and magical beliefs that 
might throw light on Maya archaeological problems. Despite several 
centuries of nominal conversion to Christianity practically all the 
Maya stock retains much of its old religion. The Mayas of southern 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 215 

British Honduras comprise two linguistic families. The smaller 
group are Maya-speaking Mopans or Itzas, the larger group are 
Kekchi-speaking Chols, immigrants from the Cajabow area of Guate- 
mala. An attempt was made to concentrate on the Maya-speaking 
Indians of San Antonio, but it was necessary to extend the work to 
embrace the Kekchi-Chols, as the latter had profoundly influenced 
the former. Special attention was paid to the beliefs and practices 
associated with agriculture, and the numerous prayers, ceremonies, 
and inhibitions in connection with each stage of the agricultural 
routine were obtained. Of peculiar interest is the discovery of a 
belief in a corn spirit residing in the crop, who takes refuge in the last 
section of the maize to be harvested. This spirit passes into the seed 
to be sown the following year, and without it the Mayas believe the 
crop would be a failure. A great deal of the culture of these Indians 
appears to have remained almost untouched since the arrival of the 
Spaniards. In recent years, however, this barrier of conservatism is 
breaking down before the pent-up flood of European culture, and 
there is no time to lose to recover this priceless material before the 
Mayas are reduced to a drab colorless "civilized" uniformity. It is 
proposed to continue this work during the coming season, also to 
prepare a publication on the subject. Acting on inform.ation obtained 
from mahogany cutters, Mr. Thompson revisited the site of Pusilha 
at the junction of the Joventud and Pusilha or Machaca Rivers in the 
southwestern part of British Honduras, close to the Guatemalan 
boundary. There he found seven dated stelae and a dated lintel. All 
the stelae were broken and had fallen down. Unfortunately some of 
the pieces were too heavy to be turned; however, the following dates 
were recovered: 





10 Ahan 

8 Yaxkin 

September 1 





2 Ahan 

8 Muan? 

April 3 





6 Ahan 

13 Muan? 

February 3 





7 Ahan 

3 Kankin 

February 8 


All are contemporaneous dates except stele 2, which was prob- 
ably erected at least 150 years later. The readings of stelae 
2 and 3 are doubtful. It is hoped to recover the remaining dates 
in January, 1928, when Assistant Curator Thompson will take 
the field to carry out archaeological and ethnological investigations 
in British Honduras under the Captain Marshall Field endowment 
fund. Excavations will be carried on over a period of four months at 
Corozal in northern Honduras and other sites. Knowledge of the 

216 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

culture and especially the pottery of the Mayas of the Old Empire is 
still weak, and it will be the purpose of the expedition to obtain more 
information on these subjects. The Mayas are but scantily repre- 
sented in the Museum, and an endeavor will be made to remedy this 
deficiency. At the conclusion of the excavations ethnological work 
will be resumed among the Mayas of southern British Honduras and 
the adjacent area of Guatemala, and, if possible, a preliminary investi- 
gation will be made of the culture of the Ixil Mayas of Guatemala. 
No study of this people has ever been attempted. They are extremely 
hostile to the white man. There is reason to believe they may retain 
many traces of their old organization and customs. 

Assistant Curator Henry Field left for Europe in the beginning 
of August to study sites in the prehistoric caves of France and Spain 
and to collect material and data for groups and exhibits to be placed 
in the proposed Hall of Prehistoric Man. In the pursuit of his task he 
was assisted by Professor Breuil, Dr. Obermaier, two artists, and a 
photographer. He secured extensive collections of paleolithic flints 
and numerous casts, photographs, sketches, and oil paintings which 
will furnish the accessories for the cases of the hall in question. In 
November he left Europe for Jerusalem, and while on his way to 
Baghdad, made a collection of 12,000 paleolithic and neolithic imple- 
ments, including a fine and interesting series of worked examples 
in flint. He reports that he discovered 25 new prehistoric sites 
in the North Arabian Desert. He reached Baghdad on November 
28 after a journey of some 1,750 miles through the desert, and will 
join the staff of excavators at Kish during the coming season to 
assist especially in the work of photography and taking care of 
skeletal material. 

The Department also benefited from other museum expeditions, 
notably from the Borden-Field Museum Alaska-Arctic Expedition 
conducted by Mr. John Borden, who presented an excellent collection 
of Eskimo material described under the heading Accessions, and from 
the Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition during which Mr. 
H. W. Nichols, Associate Curator of Geology, had occasion to exa- 
mine the ruins of two deserted Inca towns, Lasana and Pucara, and 
of two Inca burial-places in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, 
from which a series of interesting objects was secured. 

Botany. — The exploration work for the year consisted in the con- 
tinuation of the Captain Marshall Field Botanical Expedition in the 
Peruvian Andes by the well-known botanist. Dr. A. Weberbauer. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 217 

He encountered a favorable season, and in February and March 
collected in the departments of Tumbez and Piura 109 numbers, 
totaling 587 specimens. This collection has not yet been studied, but 
will undoubtedly add many species to the Peruvian collections that 
were hitherto unrepresented and in many cases will prove either to be 
new or known previously only from Ecuador. Especially it will aid 
in a better understanding of the distribution of the species of the 
more northern Andes. Although a purchase, mention may be made 
here of a collection of 700 specimens by Mr. Carlos Schunke from the 
vicinity of La Merced, Peru. This material is considered further in 
this Report under Accessions. 

The Department shared in a number of Museum Expeditions : the 
Borden-Field Museum Alaska- Arctic Expedition, 1927, yielded 106 
specimens, prepared by Miss Frances Ames; the Captain Marshall 
Field Brazilian Expedition, 1926, brought back 14 items of inter- 
est, secured by Messrs. H. W. Nichols and H. Eggers; the Rawson- 
MacMillan Subarctic Expedition of Field Museum in 1926 turned in 
446 specimens of Labrador plants by Messrs. C. S. Sewall and A. 
C. Weed and in 1927, 236 sheets by Mr. Sewall; the Captain 
Marshall Field South American Expedition (Geology) 1925-1927, 
incidentally contributed 29 interesting Argentinian plants collected 
by Mr. Elmer S. Riggs; the Captain Marshall Field Expedition to 
Madagascar, 1925-1927, furnished, through Dr. Ralph Linton, a re- 
presentation of the palm that supplies raffia. Grateful acknow- 
ledgment is made to these scientists in geology, anthropology, 
and zoology for bringing back some representations of the flora of 
faraway lands. 

During the summer 200 herbarium specimens were collected in 
Illinois and Indiana by the Assistant Curator of Taxonomy. These 
are for exchange and for the herbarium, as there are still a number 
of locally occurring species inadequately represented in the study 

The Acting Curator, accompanied by Mr. Sella, spent a few days 
in the mountains near Laramie, Wyoming, at a locality suggested by 
Professor Aven Nelson of the University of Wyoming as a favorable 
collecting ground for alpine plants. The trip was made in connection 
with the plan for an ecological group to show the typical Rocky 
Mountain vegetation above the snow line. A collection was made 
of the relatively few plants which were to be had at the end of the 

218 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Geology. — Early in September, the Curator and Associate Cura- 
tor of Geology went by motor to Smithfield, Illinois, and examined a 
mass of drift copper of unusual size which had been found during 
some ditching operations at that place. The place of discovery of the 
mass was visited, and the geological nature of the formation in which 
it was found carefully investigated. The mass of copper itself was 
measured and photographed, and negotiations were entered into 
which may result in its ultimate acquisition by the Museum. 

Later in the season the Curator visited several pegmatite quarries 
in Maine, where an unusually active season had afforded exceptional 
opportunities for collecting representative mineral specimens. A 
large crystal of beryl, weighing about 100 pounds, was collected; also 
large crystals of orthoclase and spodumene, tourmalines of unusual 
colors, quartz of a quality for fusing, columbite, and several other 
rare minerals. 

The Second >Captain Marshall Field Paleontological Expedition 
to Argentina and Bolivia, in charge of Associate Curator Riggs, 
assisted by Mr. Robert C. Thorne as collector and by Dr. Rudolf 
Stahlecker as stratigrapher and collector, continued field work during 
the greater part of the year. Having finished collecting in the 
Pliocene formations of the Province of Catamarca, Argentina, the 
party, at the end of December, 1926, proceeded to Tucuman and 
thence to Buenos Aires. 

The task which occupied the expedition during 1927 was to make 
collections of the great extinct mammals which are known from the 
Pleistocene formations in South America. The fossil remains of these 
animals have been found in old river channels, in valley deposits, and 
beneath the surface in great plains areas. Such formations are dis- 
tributed through many parts of South America. It therefore remained 
for the expedition to select those localities in which the action of rains 
and streams were laying bare the strata in which the fossils are 
known to occur, in such a way as to make possible discovery of the 

The first locality chosen as a collecting ground was the Pampean 
formations of central Argentina. The sands and the clays of these 
formations are found in the great plains areas in strata 30 to 40 
feet in thickness lying just below the heavy black soil. In this 
fertile belt, covered with abundant vegetation, the fossil remains 
which the expedition was seeking, lie buried. The only places where 
the collector could see what lay below the surface were in the banks 
of streams and in the low cliffs facing the sea. Most of the streams of 

















a D 


















Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 219 

this region, excepting the great rivers at the north, were found to flow 
through marshy lands, where the banks were concealed by the growth 
of grass. Along the southern coast it was observed that some of the 
streams fall over ledges of stone in a series of cataracts and so have 
carved out narrow channels of considerable depth. The walls of 
these channels exposed the fossil-bearing layers and so offered favor- 
able collecting grounds. A similar condition was found in the sea- 
cliffs, where the waves were continually wearing away the harder 
rock-ledges which are there laid bare. 

At the beginning of the j^ear Collectors Thorne and Stahlecker, 
provided with light working equipment, proceeded to the Port of Ne- 
cochea to begin collecting at the coast. The leader of the party was 
occupied, meanwhile, in Buenos Aires with securing the necessary 
permit to export the collections which had arrived from Catamarca. 
Another task was to secure renewal of the annual permit to make 
collections in Argentina. These matters, deferred by tedious delays, 
occupied some weeks. Late in January the leader, with camp man, 
proceeded by railway to Bahia Blanca to bring to the new base of 
operations the motor cars and additional camp equipment which had 
been stored there since the movement northward of the First Expe- 
dition in June of 1924. This equipment was then conveyed by motor 
to Necochea, where a working camp was established. Collecting was 
by this time well begun. 

Operations carried on from the Port of Necochea and from the 
neighboring village of Quequen, consisted in search along the low sea 
cliffs and in the ledges exposed on the beach at low tide. These 
collecting grounds were most readily reached by walking over the 
beach sands. A belt of sand dunes extending some miles inland and 
backed by a zone of marshes and lagoons, made approach to the 
shore with vehicles possible in a few places only. Search was extended 
day by day along the coast eastward and westward from the camp, 
and from such points as it was possible to approach with a light car. 
Six weeks were spent in this locality. The more important specimens 
secured were: a skeleton of the ground sloth, Glossotherium, a heavy- 
bodied animal comparable in size to the modern hippopotamus; some 
skulls and other parts of ground sloths related to the above, and 
specimens of rodents and other smaller animals. 

Reconnaissance was then made some 50 miles westward along 
the coast, and a camp temporarily established there. After a few days 
the party moved to the Quequen River some twenty miles inland. 
Step by step the formations exposed in the river banks and in the 

220 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

lesser tributaries, were gone over. From time to time the camp was 
moved farther upstream so as to keep pace with the work of search 
and excavation. Many times each day the collectors waded or swam 
the stream as they proceeded from point to point. As specimens were 
secured, they were packed and shipped in lots to a warehouse in 
Buenos Aires. The Quequen River and several of its tributaries 
were thus followed to a point some 60 m.iles from the sea, where low 
and swampy banks rendered further collecting in that direction im- 
practical. Specimens secured from the Quequen River consisted of 
one articulated skeleton of the ground sloth Scelidodon, an animal 
somewhat smaller than the Glossotherium found at the coast. One of 
these specimens was almost complete, with head and legs in natural 
position. Other specimens collected, were a skull and various other 
parts of the great saber-tooth tiger Smilodon, parts of a skeleton of the 
southern Mastodon, and other smaller specimens of scientific value. 

Late in March the leader, in company with Dr. Stahlecker, 
visited the classic collecting ground at Miramar and examined the 
formations there. This locality, which has been reported as yielding 
artifacts of human make associated with bones of extinct mammals, 
was examined and a few specimens collected. The control of this 
locality by local museums, as well as the appearance of continued 
rains, made any considerable collecting at that time impractical. 

The two sections of the party then met at Estancia Moro, east 
of Quequen, for a final survey of the coastwise exposures. 
Finding that the fossils there were poorly preserved, the party moved 
westward to the city of Tres Arroyas and to the Quequen Salada 
River. The latter proved to be the most profitable collecting ground 
which this expedition encountered in the Province of Buenos Aires. 
In its lower course this stream plunges over a series of falls, and below 
them has cut a deep and narrow channel through the most fertile 
wheat-lands of Argentina. In the banks of this river-channel, which 
are swept clean every year by high waters, there was found a splendid 
specimen of the greatest of the ground sloths. Megatherium ameri- 
canum. The skull, neck, torso, and many of the leg and foot bones 
were all preserved. This specimen, with additions, will enable the 
Museum to assemble a mounted skeleton of this animal. 

Of special interest was the discovery, in association with the re- 
mains of the great sloth, of a half skeleton of the great saber- tooth 
tiger, Smilodon. These two specimens were discovered by Dr. Stah- 
lecker in the face of a vertical bank of the river some 25 feet 
below the surface of the ground. High waters of previous years had 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 221 

undermined this bank, resulting in a small landslip, which revealed 
the bones of the animals. The specimens were secured by making a 
considerable lateral excavation, or "drift," and by removing them in 
large sections. 

Other specimens secured from this locality include a skull of the 
lesser ground-sloth, Glossotherium, parts of the armament of the great 
ghT)todont, Panochthus, an entire skeleton of a viscaccia-like rodent, 
and various specimens of fossil horses and llamas. The historic local- 
ity of Monte Hermosa, made famous by the early researches of 
Darwin, was visited. A few skulls and jaws were secured there, but 
little collecting could be done on account of the banks of sea-sand 
which covered the principal fossil-bearing reef, and which are 
said to be removed only by the late storms of winter. 

With the close of the southern summer and the approach of un- 
settled weather, the party moved northward into Bolivia. Dr. Stah- 
lecker's services being no longer available, Sefior Jose Strucco was 
employed as a second collector. The scene of the First Expedition's 
labors in the Valley of Tarija was visited. The party was cordially 
received by old friends, but unsettled conditions and threatening 
hostilities placed restraint upon immediate operations. While await- 
ing official sanction, some collecting was done in the vicinity of the 
City of Tarija. 

The objective of the expedition in Bolivia was to make collections 
from the formations of the earlier Pleistocene age which would serve to 
connect, in historical sequence, the Pliocene fauna of Catamarca with 
the later Pleistocene fauna of central Argentina. The earlier Pleisto- 
cene deposits were therefore sought out in the smaller isolated valleys 
of the Department of Tarija. While the larger valley has been known 
for the occurrence of fossil mammals, which the natives have 
designated as the "bones of giants" since the coming of the early 
Jesuit priests to that section, its isolation from the greater avenues of 
travel, and the difficulty of transporting heavy objects across moun- 
tain valleys and over ridges 12,000 feet in elevation has proved an 
effective barrier against the removal of extensive collections. How- 
ever, Argentinian, Norwegian, and French collectors have made 
known to the outside world the scientific treasures of this locality. 
More recently a national highway has admitted travel by motor car 
and has made possible the transportation to railway of objects too 
heavy for pack-mules to carry. 

A camp of the Museum expedition was, in due course, established 
near the village of Patcaya, in a valley where little fossil collect- 

222 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

ing had been carried on. The formation there proved to be relatively- 
rich in remains of ground sloths and in those of fossil horses. An 
almost entire articulated skeleton of Megatherium, of a smaller 
species than that found in Argentina, rewarded careful search by Mr. 
Thorne. An old river channel deposit proved sufficiently rich in 
fossils to make excavation profitable. Such work was carried on 
under personal supervision of the leader, and at the expense of re- 
moving sixteen feet of overljdng clays. Bones sufficient to insure 
mounting a skeleton of the great sloth, Lestodon, were there secured. 
Another locality yielded to the patient search of Sefior Strucco three 
incomplete skeletons of Glossotherium . A large section of the dermal 
armor of this animal, embedded in matrix, with parts of the skeleton, 
was also secured. Other specimens obtained were: skull and leg of 
the immigrant horse, Equus; parts of the large-headed and short- 
legged pseudo-horse, Hippidion; specimens of the camel-like but 
three-toed and trunk-bearing Macrauchenia, and specimens of var- 
ious members of the Llama family. 

The problem of transporting from this isolated valley a collection 
of 5,000 pounds weight proved a difficult one. Ordinarily speci- 
mens secured were carried to camp on the shoulders of the col- 
lectors or their peon-helpers, at the end of the day's work. The 
plaster of paris required for wrapping the specimens was baked in a 
native clay oven. It was made from crystals of gypsum which 
had been gathered by peons from the hillside. This material was 
ground to fineness by hand on a flat stone and sifted through a piece 
of wire screen. Lumber for making packing cases was brought some 
80 miles from the valley of Bermejo on the backs of burros. At 
the camp, or at a native carpenter shop, this timber was further 
sawed by hand into shapes suitable for the purpose. When packing- 
cases had thus been prepared, and the specimens packed in them, 
they were borne either on the backs of burros to Tarija or, if too 
large for the strength of the animals, they were lashed to poles and 
borne by native men to a roadway which was passable for auto- 
mobile transport. More or less injury to specimens was inevitable 
by these methods. 

In October the party returned by way of LaPaz, Lake Titicaca, 
and Mollendo, to Chicago. Most of the collections have now been 
received at the Museum, and from time to time will be placed on 
exhibition. Altogether, 118 specimens of fossil mammals were col- 
lected by the Expedition during the year, and 245 negatives illus- 
trating various phases of the work in Argentina and Bolivia were 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 223 

made. In addition, small collections of modern reptiles, skins of 
modern mammals, and plants found in the regions visited, were 
obtained for the use of other departments of the Museum. 

Assistant Curator Roy accompanied the Rawson-MacMillan 
Subarctic Expedition of the year, as geologist. His efforts were 
chiefly devoted to the study and collection of the invertebrate fossils 
of the regions visited. Typical rock specimens were also collected and 
many general observations made. Some of the localities from which 
representative specimens were obtained in Labrador, were Battle 
Harbor, Hopedale, Nain and adjacent islands. The only fossils found 
in Labrador were a few drift fossils that had been carried down by ice 
from the Hudson Strait region and Baffin Land. With the exception 
of one area north of the Straits of Belle Isle, no sedimentary deposit 
was seen on the entire coast of Labrador. The single area referred to 
has been fully described by members of the Canadian Geological 
Survey. Special attention was devoted to the exploration of such 
portions of Baffin Land as could be visited, chiefly those about Fro- 
bisher Bay. As a result of this work, Mr. Roy was able to prepare a 
more accurate map of the bay and surrounding areas than had 
previously been made, and to determine many of the important 
features of the region. 

He reached Frobisher Bay on the evening of August 9. This 
bay, which is situated on the southeast side of Baffin Land, has an 
entrance 55 miles wide, bounded by Resolution Island on the 
southwest and Lok's Island on the northeast. The bay extends in 
a general northwesterly direction for about 150 miles. The upper 
part of the bay has many rocky capes, numerous islands and 
shoals, and is divided into two arms. A group of larger islands, con- 
taining Chase and Gabriel Islands, occupies the middle of the bay. 
The southeast coast of the bay (Kingsite side) was found to be com- 
posed of high, rugged, barren, igneous hills indented by numerous 
fiords and partially covered by Grinnell Glacier, which discharges by 
way of several tongues into the bay. The general dip of the beds was 
found to be S.70 ° E. and N. 10 ° W. The coast has all the marks com- 
mon in a glaciated region, such as lakes, cirques, hanging valleys and 
deep fiords. In the valleys between the hills, lakes formed by the 
draining of streams by moraines, eskers and kames were common. 
The physiography of the coast was found to be essentially the same, 
except that the hills are not so high and there is no existing glacier. 
The northeast coast of the bay is also a barren, rugged land, but it 
does not show the work of ice as conspicuously as the other coast. 

224 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Another contrasting feature of the northeast coast noted was that 
the hills were massive and seldom showed any bedding planes. While 
the entire coast was essentially barren and covered with glacial debris, 
a few areas of fertile, arable land were noted. 

Both coasts of the bay were examined as thoroughly as time per- 
mitted, and collections were made from eleven different places. The 
fossils found on both coasts were all drift fossils of Trenton and Utica 
stage and had doubtless been brought to the coast from the interior 
of Baffin Land. No sedimentary deposit, either fossiliferous or non- 
fossiliferous, was observed anywhere except at Silliman's Fossil 
Mountain, where the largest and best collection of fossils in situ was 
made. This mountain is in 63° 43'N. Latitude and 69° 02'W. Lon- 
gitude. It lies at the head of the bay, about 300 feet from high 
tide and two and and one-half miles south of the Jordan River. It 
is a hill of limestone and lies unconformably on the hills of Meta 
Incognita. It is about three-quarters of a mile long and 320 feet high 
(by aneroid) and runs in a general northwest and southeast 

The exact number of fossil specimens collected is not yet known, 
but it is doubtless well over 500. Most of them are still in the 
matrix. They are all of the middle Ordovician Period (Trenton and 
Utica stage), and include the classes: Brachiopoda, Lamellibranchiata, 
Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Trilobita and other Arthropoda, Echinta 
odermata, Coelenterata and Porifera — the Cephalopoda being the 
most abundant. Representative collections of the igneous and met- 
amorphic rocks of both coasts were also made. These rocks consist of 
schistose and gneissoid types together with some basalts and perhaps 
some peridotites. All are believed to be of Pre-Cambrian and probably 
Archaean age. The extent of Grinnell glacier, discovered and named 
by Captain Hall in 1865, was determined as far as possible by Mr. 
Roy, and evidence was obtained which indicates considerable decline 
of this body of ice since that time. In the latter part of the year Mr. 
Roy transferred his base of operations to Newfoundland and con- 
tinued collecting there. Localities in which he collected there were 
chiefly those yielding Cambrian fossils, and a number of good speci- 
mens of these have already been obtained. Reconnaissance work 
was carried on in Notre Dame Bay, Trinity Bay and Conception 
Bay. In Notre Dame Bay no Cambrian deposit was observed. 
Collecting in Trinity Bay, however, gave excellent results, upwards 
of 400 specimens of fossils of lower Cambrian age having been 
obtained. These represent the classes : Lamellibranchiata, Annelida, 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 225 

Gastropoda and Trilobita. Many of these fossils are complete, well 
preserved and in excellent condition. Occurring in delicate shales, 
they require considerable preparation, and this work will be carried 
forward during the winter. At Conception Bay, well-preserved fossils 
of lower, middle and upper Cambrian horizons were found, and further 
collecting will be carried on there. Deposits of economic importance 
noted showed ores of iron, copper, lead and manganese. 

Zoology.- — During the year six important expeditions, devoted 
wholly or mainly to zoological work, were in the field. Three of these 
worked in Alaska, Labrador and the Arctic; two were in central and 
eastern Africa; and one was in southern and central South America. 
Field work in India also was done through the cooperation of Colonel 
J. C. Faunthorpe, and zoological specimens in some numbers were 
received from expeditions conducted by other departments of the 
Museum. Cooperation was continued with the Third Asiatic Expe- 
dition of the American Museum of Natural History. 

The Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition, with reduced 
personnel, continued work begun in 1926. The zoological section of 
this expedition included originally Mr. George K. Cherrie, Mrs. 
Marshall Field, Mrs. Grace G. Seton, Mr. Curzon Taylor, Mr. 
Karl P. Schmidt, and Mr. Colin C. Sanborn. Most of the party 
returned in 1926, but Mr. Sanborn, with one native assistant, 
continued until October, 1927. He spent a total of four months in 
Uruguay traveling some 2,000 miles by motor truck, visiting eight 
Departments of the country and making collections at twelve differ- 
ent points. Among the birds obtained were five species not previously 
recorded from Uruguay. Two specimens were secured of a very rare 
bird discovered by Charles Darwin nearly 100 years ago and not 
reported subsequently. It is the Straight-billed Reed Runner, a 
small bird of wren-like habits, and the specimens now in Field 
Museum are the only ones extant with the exception of Darwin's 
original types in the British Museum. The total collections from 
Uruguay number 345 mammals, 462 birds, 786 reptiles, and 2,500 
fish, being the only important collection of Uruguayan vertebrates 
in the United States. 

Uruguayan authorities, both military and civil, were most 
courteous and helpful, furnishing permits, introductions, and infor- 
mation. Mr. H. J. Doyle, of Armour and Company, at Montevideo, 
also extended hospitality and provided letters of introduction. Early 
in February, Mr. Sanborn was directed to collect group material for 

226 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

exhibition. This work first took him to the Territory of Santa Cruz, 
Patagonia, where a group of Guanacos was collected during the 
month of March. Nearly all the young Guanacos, which are born in 
November and December, had been killed for their hides, so it was 
only by great good fortune that three young ones, which had been 
born very late in the season, were secured. Seven adult specimens 
were also taken. This animal is being exterminated as a pest, since it 
interferes with the sheep industry. Messrs. Rollitt and Kendall of 
the firm of that name in Santa Cruz, were very helpful to the party. 
The Santa Cruz collection was shipped from Buenos Aires and on 
April 17 start was made up the Paraguay and Parana Rivers to 
Descalvados, headquarters of the Brazil Land and Cattle Company, 
which was not reached until June 12, after many difficulties and 
delays due mainly to storms and floods. At this point, Mr. J. G. 
Ramsay, who had been host of the expedition in 1926, provided all 
facilities for work and several camps were made in the vicinity. 
Thirteen Swamp Deer, ranging from young fawns to old males with 
large horns, were obtained and prepared for exhibition purposes. 
Blood-sucking vampire bats at one camp made serious attacks on the 
horses, but were prevented from continuing by tying the horses in 
the light of a powerful gasoline lantern which was kept burning all 
night. Further groups were obtained of the American Tapir and the 
Giant Anteater or Antbear. Besides the groups and their accesso- 
ries about 100 other mammals were collected, representing prac- 
tically all the large and medium-sized species found in this part of 
Brazil. Work was concluded on September 5. The expedition 
received much assistance from American diplomatic officers in Rio 
de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires, and Asuncion, for which the 
Museum makes grateful acknowledgment. 

The Field Museum-Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition, 
after getting well started in 1926, as recounted in the report for that 
year, continued with marked success during 1927. Work in the 
Chilalo Mountains of the Province of Arussi was carried on at several 
camps. In addition to the exhibition group of the large beautiful 
antelope known as the Mountain Nyala, mentioned previously, very 
thorough collections were made of all the vertebrate life of this 
peculiar mountain region. On leaving these mountains, the party was 
divided and one section, with Messrs. Osgood and Fuertes, proceeded 
southward, while the other, with Messrs. Baum, Bailey, and Cutting, 
turned eastward. The first section worked around the southern end 
of the Chilalo Mountains and crossed the canyon of the Webbi Shebeli 




Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VII, Plate XXVII 


Front and back with woven designs in purple and red 

An example from an extensive collection of Egyptian fabrics 

Presented by Stanley Field and Ernest R. Graham, Chicago 

One-seventh actual size 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 227 

River near Lajo in the Province of Bale. Thence they ascended the 
Gedeb Mountains and spent some days in a magnificent forest in- 
habited by many interesting birds and by troops of the black and 
white Guereza Monkeys. From this point, they crossed high plateau 
country about the source of the Webbi Shebeli and entered the Pro- 
vince of Sidamo in which considerable time was spent in a bamboo 
forest harboring many animals not met with elsewhere in Abyssinia. 
After visiting the capital of the province at Agara Salaam and its 
hospitable chief, Dejazmatch Balcha, the party turned northward and 
made its way toward Addis Ababa via the chain of lakes which here 
occupy the northerly extension of the famous Rift Valley. Camps 
were made successively on Lakes Awasa, Abyata, Shala and Zwai, 
Some large game was found in this region, including Hippopotamus, 
Greater Koodoo, Hartebeest, and Gazelles, but attention was devoted 
mainly to smaller mammals and birds. Thence return was rapidly 
made, again crossing the Ha wash River and passing through the 
the Province of Gurage to Addis Ababa. 

Meanwhile, the other section of the expedition trekked eastward 
across the open Arussi plateau and descended the the Webbi Shebeli 
River near the foot of Mount Abu Kasim. Owing to recent unseason- 
able rains, the river was found to be in flood, and it was only after 
waiting several days for it to subside that a very difficult crossing was 
made. From this point, the party proceeded to the Mohammedan 
settlement of Sheik Hussein. In this vicinity, which was relatively 
hot and arid, a number of large mammals were collected, including 
Greater and Lesser Koodoo, Warthog, Dik Dik, Hamadryas Baboon, 
and Spotted Hyena. Somewhat farther on, at Luku Wells, consider- 
able game was encountered, the most important being Grevy's Zebra, 
Oryx, Gerenuk, and Koodoo. From Luku Wells, the party continued 
east and northeast and recrossed the Webbi Shebeli and thence on- 
ward through little known and almost waterless country to the 
Chercher Mountains. Thence a difficult trail led to Bodessa and 
Galampso. Pasturage for mules in this region was scanty and loads 
had to be lightened and saddle mules pressed into service. On Janu- 
uary 13 the small station of Arba on the railroad was reached, 
whence the mule caravan proceeded to Addis Ababa and a short 
trip by camel transport was arranged at Hawash Station. In this 
vicinity near the Hawash River, among the large mammals found 
were the Waterbuck, Hartebeest, Bushbuck, and Soemmerring's 
Gazelle. Large collections of birds and small mammals made between 
the Webbi and Hawash rivers included many species not found 

228 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

The two sections of the party rejoined in Addis Ababa January 
22 and, after packing and shipping specimens, reorganizing cara- 
van, and arranging official formalities, the entire expedition started 
northward February 9. Progress was rapid across the upland 
plains of Shoa and, after crossing the canyon of the Muger River 
where a short stop was made, the caravan continued to the Abai or 
Blue Nile which was crossed without especial difficulty February 
16-18. Passage through the districts of Dejem and Gubea led on to 
the village of Bichana, at that time the temporary seat of Ras Hailu, 
ruler of the Province of Go jam. This powerful potentate received the 
expedition with great cordiality, showering its members with gifts, 
entertaining them at feasts, and providing them with guides and 
facilities for travel through his territory. Some days were spent at 
Bichana and its vicinity and, on leaving, the party was again divided. 

Messrs. Osgood and Fuertes went westward via Debra Marcos, 
Dembecha, and Jigga and thence into the knot of high mountains in 
central Gojam, ascending Mount Amedamit and visiting the ultimate 
source of the Blue Nile, a little spring known as Gish Abbai and repre- 
sented on certain maps as Sakalla. Descending via N'jabara, 
Dangela, and Ismala, they worked around the west shore of Lake 
Tsana and then turned northwestward and dropped down over the 
steep escarpment to the upper Jira River, thence to the Gendoa River 
and thence to Gallabat. This trip was productive of a wide variety 
of specimens and much information on the distribution of animals. 
In a small stream near the head of the Blue Nile, an interesting Water 
Rat was discovered, representing a new genus of rodents. Large 
mammals taken included Reedbuck, Defassa Waterbuck, Roan Ante- 
lope, Oribi, and Bush Pig. 

The other section of the party with Messrs. Cutting, Baum, and 
Bailey proceeded northward from Bichana, recrossed the Blue Nile 
and continued over a level plain around the east side of Lake Tsana to 
Gondar. At Gondar, assistance and courtesies were received from 
the Italian Consul, and the march was continued northeast to the 
village of Devart where the local chief, Dejazmatch Ayalu, was most 
hospitable. His permission was obtained to hunt ibex in the moun- 
tains of Simien, and some days later camp was made among the pre- 
cipitous cliffs of these mountains in the heart of the ibex country. 
After difficult and dangerous hunting, a series of the Abyssinian Ibex 
was secured, being the first of the rare species to be obtained by 
American collectors. Among rare birds obtained in the same region 
was a series of a little known Alpine Chough. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 229 

From the Simien Mountains, return was made to Gondar, 
followed by long marches westward through relatively dry country. 
The two sections of the expedition met on the Gendoa River, a few 
days' march from the Sudan border. They proceeded to Gallabat 
where they were cordially received by Captain Gordon, British 
military officer stationed there, and Mr. Emery, British customs 
officer. The caravan was then disbanded and, on April 23, the 
members of the expedition left Gallabat by automobile for Gedaref 
and Wad Medani where railhead was reached. 

By division of the party from time to time, the Abyssinian expe- 
dition was enabled to cover much territory and enter various physical 
areas differing widely in their animal life. In all, nearly 2,000 
miles were traversed, but conditions were such and organization so 
arranged, that the collecting of specimens was almost uninterrupted. 
The result was a very large and varied collection, including some 
1,350 mammals, 2,000 birds, and a small number of reptiles and fishes. 

The Museum is deeply appreciative of the marked courtesy with 
which its Abyssinian expedition was received by His Highness Ras 
Tafari, Prince Regent and Heir to the throne of Ethiopia. Without 
his cordial cooperation the expedition would have been quite im- 
possible. Other Abyssinian officials were uniformly hospitable and 
helpful. Among those to whom grateful acknowledgment is made are 
Fitaurari Hopta Giorgis, Minister of War and Governor of Arussi; 
Ras Hailu, Governor of Gojam; Dejazmatch Ayalu, Governor of 
Simien; Dejazmatch Balcha, Governor of Sidamo; and Belata Herui, 
Adviser to Ras Tafari. The expedition is also indebted for assistance 
to Mr. C. H. Bentinck, British Minister at Addis Ababa, to Colonel 
D. A. Sandford, and Mr. David Hall, of Addis Ababa, and to Dr. A. 
W. Pollock and his staff of the American Mission. 

The Conover-Everard African Expedition continued the import- 
ant work begun in 1926. This expedition consisting of Mr. Boardman 
Conover, Associate in Birds, Mr. R. H. Everard of Detroit, and Mr. 
J. T. Zimmer, Assistant Curator of Birds, sailed from New York 
April 3, 1926 for London, en route to Tanganyika Territory, East 
Africa. Landing at Dar-es-Salaam and later at Tanga, the party 
first visited the Usambara Mountains and the plains at their foot, 
near the Kenya border. Later, it crossed to the central railway and 
worked in the country lying south of Kilossa toward the Mahenge 
district, as detailed in the report for 1926. 

Leaving Kilossa on November 4, the expedition proceeded up 
the line of the central railway to Kigoma and crossed Lake Tangan- 

230 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

yika by boat into the Belgian Congo, landing at Albertville on 
November 9. From Albert\H[lle the route led by rail to Kabalo on 
the upper Congo River or Lualaba River, thence by river steamer 
upstream to the head of navigation at Bukama, which was made 
temporary headquarters. Until January 5, 1927, the expedition re- 
mained in the general neighborhood of Bukama, making one extended 
camp on the river at the native village of Katobwe and another back 
at the foot of the hills near the village of Katapena, thence returning 
to Bukama. 

At Katobwe, a species of Kob was enormously abundant in herds 
of thousands, but was almost the only antelope found in the region. 
A series of skins and many skulls of this species were secured. The 
animal was known locally as "Lechwe." A series of lakes lying back 
from the river, the open plains surrounding the lakes, and a fringe of 
oil palms along the river banks furnished a variety of bird and 
mammal life. 

Owing to heavy rains and flooded land, it required two days to 
reach the foot of the hills at Katapena, and the same conditions im- 
peded work there after arrival. The only large game obtained was 
a single specimen of the White or Yellow-backed Duiker which 
was found at the lower edge of the hillside woods, an unusual situation 
according to native guides who reported that the animal's accustomed 
habitat was the dense forest at the top of these same hills. The 
specimen was of unusual size, apparently a record in length of horn 
for the Congo, although larger examples have been taken in Rhodesia. 
Bird life was interesting in this locality, and a number of new forms 
were added to the collection. 

Retiirning to Kabalo, Albertville, and Kigoma, the party de- 
scended the central railway as far as Tabora. Floods at various 
places impeded movement and threatened to cut off communication 
with Mwanza, the next objective. Accordingly little collecting was 
done at Tabora, and as soon as arrangements could be made and 
reserve supplies brought up from Kilossa, the expedition set out by 
motor lorries for Mwanza on the southern shore of Lake Victoria 
Nyanza. This point was reached in two days, and shortly thereafter 
another day's travel by dhow along the southern end of the lake 
brought the party to Katungulu where another camp was established. 
Here collecting was done until March 4, resulting in more species of 
birds and mammals being added to the series. 

Returning to Mwanza, the party took a lake steamer around the 
western and northern end of the lake to Kampala, landing at Port 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 231 

Bell, Uganda. After arrangements were made to secure game licenses, 
export specimens, etc., the expedition proceeded by motor lorry and 
car to Butiaba, on the shore of Lake Albert Edward, reaching this 
place on March 24 after a delay in Masindi to interview provincial 
officials. At Butiaba, passage was secured by river steamer to the 
foot of the lake and thence down the Nile to Rhino Camp, where it 
was hoped to secure a White Rhinoceros. General collecting was 
postponed until after this desideratum was obtained, except for oc- 
casional specimens obtained near camp. After considerable search a 
suitable White Rhinoceros was killed on April 6, and the complete 
skin and skeleton were preserved following three more days of con- 
tinuous labor to pare and clean the specimen. The party then moved 
up away from the river camp to higher and better ground to continue 
the work of collecting. Here, however, activities were interrupted by 
an officious local game warden to such an extent that it was necessary 
to return to Kampala, where higher authorities, including the Gover- 
nor of Uganda, made such amends as possible and were most cour- 
teous, but much time was lost. The expedition then returned to the 
coast at Mombasa and took ship for Marseilles, reaching Chicago on 
June 16. Total accessions from the expedition comprised 905 birds, 
374 mammals, 303 reptiles, 2 birds' nests and 3 eggs, and a few 

The Borden-Field Museum Alaska-Arctic Expedition, organized 
and financed by Mr. John Borden, a Trustee of the Museum, and 
well known for his personal activity and interest in natural history, 
explored the coast of northwestern Alaska and penetrated the polar 
sea as far as Wrangell Island. The zoological results of this expedition 
include a number of exceptionally fine specimens of large mammals 
much needed for the completion of exhibition groups in the Museum's 
Hall of American Mammal Habitat Groups. Chief of these is a 
group of Peninsula Brown Bears ( Ursus dalli gyas) which are the 
largest carnivorous animals now living, rivalling in size the Cave 
Bear of Pleistocene times. Of the four specimens selected for a 
group, two were shot by Mrs. John Borden, one by Miss Frances 
Ames, and the fourth, an exceptionally large male, by Mrs. R. B. 
Slaughter. The expedition also obtained specimens of Polar Bears 
and the complete skin and skull of a large male Pacific Walrus, a 
species of larger size than the Atlantic Walrus. 

On June 20, Mr. Ashley Hine, taxidermist of the division of 
birds, left for Nome, Alaska, to join the Borden-Field Museum 
Alaska-Arctic Expedition. A number of birds were taken near Nome 

232 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

prior to leaving for Wrangell Island, Arctic Ocean. Considerable 
collecting was done at Little Diomede Island, Bering Strait, Point 
Hope and Wrangell Island. At the latter place only three species of 
birds were taken. Specimens were procured at Kolyuchin Island 
(Siberia), King and St. Lawrence Islands, Dutch Harbor, Bogoslof, 
Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula. Bird life was plentiful at 
most places where collecting was done. On August 27, near Akutan 
Pass, Aleutian Islands, the sea was black with Slender-billed Shear- 
waters in an immense flock 35 miles wide. Many of the 111 speci- 
mens of birds collected on the expedition will be used in the re- 
organization of the systematic series of mounted birds. Mr. Hine 
returned to San Francisco, on September 10. 

The Alexander Revell-Field Museum Alaskan Expedition, led by 
Mr. R. W. Tansill, worked from Puget Sound to the vicinity of 
Pavlof Bay on the Alaska Peninsula where five specimens of the 
Peninsula Brown Bear were obtained, including one large old female. 
A brown bear was also obtained by this expedition on Admiralty 
Island, and at other points thirteen birdskins were taken. 

The Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition sailed from Wis- 
casset, Maine, in June with two zoologists of the Museum staff in 
its personnel, Mr. Alfred C. Weed, Assistant Curator of Fishes and 
Mr. A. G. Rueckert, taxidermist. The expedition made a few stops 
in Labrador and continued northward to Baffin Land, but owing to 
the approach of winter, made only a brief stop there. Animal life was 
scarce and few specimens were collected. Returning to Labrador, 
winter quarters were established at Anatalak Bay, near Nain, and 
some collecting of specimens was begun about October 1. Among 
the few specimens which it was possible to ship out before the close of 
communications were thirteen birdskins from Baffin Land. Last 
mail reports indicated that other birds and a few small mammals had 
been collected in addition to a considerable number of fishes. A num- 
ber of color studies of fresh fish had been prepared by Mr. Rueckert. 

The following list indicates the various expeditions in the field 
during the year: 

Locality Collectors Material 

KiSH, Mesopotamia Stephen Langdon Archaeological Collections. 

L. C. Watelin 
Henry Field 

British Honduras J. Eric Thompson Archaeological Collections. 

Madagascar Ralph Linton Ethnological Collections. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Europe and North 
Arabian Desert Henry Field 

Alaska and Arctic 

Regions Mr. and Mrs. John Bor- 
den, Mr. and Mrs. R. B. 
Slaughter, Miss Frances 
Ames, Ashley Hine 

Peru A. Weberbauer 

Costa Rica G. Proctor Cooper 

Argentina and Bolivia Elmer S. Riggs 

Robert C. Thome. 

Newfoundland S. K. Roy 

Maine O. C. Farrington 

Abyssinia W. H. Osgood 

Alfred M. Bailey 
Louis A. Fuertes 
C. Suydam Cutting 
Jack Baum 

Brazil, Argentina, 
Paraguay AND Urugay Colin C. Sanborn 

Tanganyika, Congo and 

Uganda, Africa Boardman Con over 

Robert T. Everard 
John T. Zimmer 

Alaska R. W. Tansill 

India Col. J. C. Faunthorpe 

Labrador and Baffin 

Land Donald B. MacMillan 

A. C. Weed 
A. G. Rueckert 
S. K. Roy 
W. D. Strong 
Charles S. Sewell 
Dr. E. K. Langford 

Leader of expedition named first in each case. 

Archaeological Collections. 

Zoological and Ethnological 

Botanical Collections. 
Botanical Collections. 
Paleontological Collections. 

Paleontological Collections. 
Geological Collections. 
Zoological Collections. 

Zoological Collections. 

Zoological and Ethnological 

Zoological Collections. 
Zoological Collections. 

Anthropological, Geological, 
Botanical and Zoological 


Anthropology. — The new accessions recorded during the year 
by the Department of Anthropology amount to 55. Of these 36 are 
by gift, ten as the result of expeditions, one by exchange, and eight 
by purchase. These accessions cover numerous parts of the globe and 
aggregate a total of 4,423 objects. The principal accessions are 
briefly reviewed in the geographical order of the countries from which 
the material comes. 

It is a pleasure to record the splendid gift of Mr. John Borden, 
leader of the Borden-Field Museum Alaska-Arctic Expedition, not 

234 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

only on account of the superior quality and rarity of the material, 
but also because it was received carefully labeled as to places of 
origin, and accompanied by complete information from the collector 
and donor. The Curator would deem himself fortunate if all collectors 
would observe the same discriminate care. Mr. Borden's collection 
from the Eskimos of Alaska and Arctic regions of Canada is the 
most important addition made in many years to the Museum's 
previous collections relating to Eskimoan culture. Many objects are 
entirely novel to the Institution, above all, copper knives and copper 
arrowheads from the so-called Blond or Copper Eskimos of northern 
Canada, of which the Museum has heretofore not had a single ex- 
ample. An attractive series of ancient mammoth ivory carvings are 
engraved with designs of a style which reveals a phase of Eskimo art 
hitherto unknown. There is an abundance of carved walrus tusks, 
and figures and toys of walrus ivory, of great beauty and artistic 
merit, which make the collection valuable to the student of primitive 
art and a source of enjoyment to the general public. The stone and 
pottery cooking- vessels in the collection belong to the rarest and most 
treasured of Eskimo objects. Numerous jade axes, bone and ivory 
harpoon-points and other weapons and implements are prominent 
features of this remarkable collection which aggregates a total of 
533 objects and of which the Institution has every reason to be 

Commander D. B. MacMillan added 42 objects from the Eskimos 
of Greenland to the collection received from him last year as a result 
of the Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition of 1926. The new 
accession comprises fine bird-skin mats, a fur shirt decorated with 
glass beads and leather appliqu^ work, clothing and boots, dolls, 
beads, knives, models of boats, and steatite figures of animals. An 
interesting ethnological collection (171 objects) illustrating the life 
of the Montagnais of Labrador was secured by purchase from Dr. 
Frank G. Speck, professor of anthropology at the University of 
Pennsylvania, who had obtained it during an expedition this year to 
the region of Lake St. John Montagnais. The collection is very rich 
in material illustrative of the religious practices of the tribe, and, 
being based on serious research, is accompanied by full data. The 
Montagnais are closely related to the Naskapi of Labrador whose 
culture Assistant Curator Strong is studying while in Labrador 
with the Rawson-MacMillan Expedition of 1927-28, so that in due 
course of time the Museum may hope to have a complete repre- 
sentation of the ethnology of Labrador. 

leld Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VII, Plate XXVIII 


A long-spined palm tree from Surinam 

Recently installed in the palm collection in Hall 25 

Stanley Field Guiana Expedition, 1922 

One-eighteenth natural size 



Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 235 

An exceedingly fine grass woven bag from the Aleutian Islands 
was presented by Mrs. Walter L. Peck of Chicago. 

Thirteen pieces of painted pottery from the Southwest and 
Mexico are a gift of Mrs. Edward E. Ayer. These had been collected 
on his travels by the late Edward E. Ayer. 

A fine old woolen Navaho blanket decorated in native dyes of 
blue, pink, and brown, formerly the proud possession of Spotted Tail, 
chief of the Rosebud Sioux, was presented by Miss M. O'Hara of 
Highland Park, Illinois. 

Father Willard-Jones of Kenosha, Wisconsin, presented an inter- 
esting woman's dress of elk-skin decorated with colored beads and 
fringe of the Sioux of South Dakota. 

The Museum purchased from Dr. S. G. Morley a small private 
collection of Maya and Toltec antiquities obtained by him in the 
course of his numerous expeditions in Central America. Maya 
material is very scarce, and the Maya field is but scantily represented 
in the Museum. The new collection includes a very fine bowl from 
the great Maya metropolis of Copan. The bowl is painted red, black, 
and cream, and portrays the god of the Number Seven. Above is a 
band of slightly conventionalized hieroglyphs. Mercury 1,500 years 
old, found in a vault below a stele at Copan, is a curious feature 
of the collection. Of special interest are two jadeite cores from 
which ear-plugs were cut. These two examples are the only 
ones of their type known from the Maya area. The collection also 
includes a superb Toltec mask of diorite from Cholula, one of the 
three most important Toltec cities. A small ethnological and archae- 
ological collection was obtained by Assistant Curator Thompson in 
Guatemala, Honduras, and British Honduras. It includes examples 
of Kekchi weaving from the Copan region, Guatemala. Hitherto the 
Museum has possessed no ethnological material from any part of the 
Maya area save Yucatan. The archaeological material consists of a 
small series of pottery figurines and a small jadeite amulet. 

Through exchange with the Goteburg Museum of Sweden a collec- 
tion of 105 ethnological objects from Brazil and Bolivia was received. 
These had been gathered by Baron Erland Nordenskiold, the well- 
known expert in South American ethnology, and bear chiefly on two 
groups, the Choroti tribe in the western Chaco and the Yurakare, 
one of the forest tribes in southeastern Boli\da; others are from the 
Parentrintins who live on a tributary of the Rio Madeira in the 
central Am.azon basin, and from the Palikur tribe located near the 
Atlantic coast on the borders of Brazil and French Guiana. Many of 

236 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

these objects are of value in supplementing the Museum's material 
from the regions in question. A collection of weapons, baskets, 
musical instruments, domestic utensils, and paddles was presented 
by Assistant Curator McGovern. It was obtained on his expedition 
to the Northwest Amazon Basin and relates to the tribes bordering 
the Caiary, Papury, Awa, Pira Parana and Apaporis rivers. Most 
of the tribes of this region exhibit a great uniformity of culture, so 
that the artifacts of one tribe are typical of nearly all the other 
tribes in the area. 

An interesting small collection of Inca antiquities exhumed from 
two burial-places in northern Chile was received from Mr. H. W. 
Nichols, Associate Curator of Geology, while he was a member of the 
Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition. Mr. H. Eggers, a 
mining engineer, who cooperated with him in this work, added to 
this collection eight objects among which a limestone image of 
primitive workmanship, a robe of llama-skin, a silver bell and a 
silver vessel merit special mention. 

Mr. Thomas S. Hughes, prominent art-dealer of Chicago, pre- 
sented an interesting archaeological collection including beads from 
Egypt, among these one string of unusually tiny and delicate blue 
glass beads, some ancient Greek and South Italian pottery, minute 
glass vases, fragments of iridescent glass, and a Roman pottery lamp 
beautifully decorated in relief with the story of the rescue of the 
infants Romulus and Remus. 

A rich harvest totaling 1,136 antiquities has been gathered as a 
result of the excavations carried on at Kish. These comprise 153 
plain pottery bowls and domestic utensils, sherds of painted pottery, 
10 pieces of glazed pottery, 159 human clay figurines, 56 animal clay 
figurines, 11 objects of bone and 16 of shell, 106 stone implements, 7 
stone bowls, 7 stone fragments with designs, 2 marble statuettes, 
130 bronze implements, 7 strung necklaces, more than 400 beads of all 
descriptions, 34 cylinder seals, 17 spindle-whorls, 2 arrowheads, and 
an ostrich egg. Jewelry occupies a prominent place: the collection 
contains gold finger-rings, gold studs, gold pins, and gold beads as 
well as bronze rings and pieces of coral. One of the most interesting 
trophies is the foundation brick box of Nabonidus, last king of the 
Babylonian empire, in which were found a gold pin surmounted by a 
bead of lapis lazuli, gold beads, and other jewels. The box consists of 
six bricks — four whole and two half bricks, and was discovered 
under the altar in the great temple. Inside of it was found a statuette 
of unbaked earth in fragmentary condition, representing a god hold- 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 237 

ing a thin blade of gold. One of the important inscribed tablets 
recording a sale of land at Kish and dated in the sixth year of Sinmu- 
ballit, fifth king of the first Babylonian dynasty (2087-67 B.C.), has 
been assigned to the Museum by Professor Langdon who pub- 
lished a detailed description of it in the Revue d'Assyriologie. 
Twelve inscribed Babylonian clay tablets of the Ur and Larsa dy- 
nasties were presented by Mr, Henry J. Patten. 

Mr. Edward E. Ayer, almost until the moment of his death, was 
untiring in his efforts to make notable additions to his pewter col- 
lection. It is characteristic of the man that his genuine love for the 
Museum and its work occupied his mind till the last day of his life. 
The new gifts, consisting of 21 objects, all except one from China, 
include a fine altar set of five pieces (censer, pair of flower- 
vases and a pair of candlesticks) inlaid with decorations in brass of 
dragons, birds, flowers, and Buddha-hand citrus; a pilgrim's bottle 
with copper inlays; pewter boxes with scenery and figures of the 
Eight Immortals in brass inlays; a pewter cash-box, and a number of 
exquisite tea-pots and water-ewers. One of these is of coconut-shell 
mounted on pewter. There is a very artistic pewter bowl, lined with 
a coat of cracked porcelain, and engraved with a spray of orchids and 
a poem of two lines. Two incense-burners in the shape of phoenixes 
and large candlesticks supported by figures are likewise deserving of 
special mention. In memory of her husband, Mrs. Edward E. Ayer 
presented a unique pewter statuette of an Arhat, one of the disciples 
of Buddha, reading a prayer roll, of the Ming period (1368-1643) and 
the graceful Japanese pewter figure of a cat of the eighteenth century. 
A carved stone slab from a funerary chamber of the Han dynasty 
(second century A. D.) is the gift of Mr. A. W. Bahr, New York. It 
shows in flat relief a double-roofed house resting on columns, with 
rafters terminating in dragon-heads, and a chariot drawn by a horse 
in motion. As the Museum heretofore did not possess any sculptures 
of that period, and as they are exceedingly rare and difficult to obtain, 
this gift is deeply appreciated. An ancient Chinese mariner's com- 
pass combined with a sun-dial was secured by purchase. In view of 
the fact that the Chinese are regarded as the inventors of the 
mariner's compass, this is an important addition to a proposed ex- 
hibit of scientific instruments of China for which the Curator has 
been collecting material and data for a number of years. 

Messrs. Grow and Cuttle of Chicago, importers of Oriental goods, 
in view of their interest in the Chinese section of the Department and 
in recognition of services rendered to them in the past in the identi- 

238 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

fication of antiques, entered into an arrangement with the Museum 
by which a certain number of Chinese objects will be donated by 
them every year. The first contribution, made in 1927, consists of 
two very fine and early pieces of celadon pottery, one glazed mortuary 
clay figure of the T'ang and six of the Ming period, a figure carved 
from a root, representing a youth with a deer, a unique vase carved 
from eaglewood root in its natural formation, and a Ju-i sceptre of 
good luck delicately carved from sandalwood. 

Mrs. Charles B. Goodspeed of Chicago presented the complete 
silk dress of a Mongol woman from Urga adorned with a stunning 
head-dress, shoulder piece, ear-rings, and chatelaine of plated jewelry 
wrought in filigree and inlaid with turquoise and coral beads. The 
costume has been installed on a figure with facial cast, and a photo- 
gravure of it illustrates this Report. 

A valuable collection of ancient skulls found in burial caves of 
Bohol Island in the Philippines was purchased from E. B. Christie, a 
student of Philippine ethnology. 

Few primitive peoples are more fascinating than the aborigines of 
Australia, for their culture, though now much disintegrated by Euro- 
pean contact, has always remained in splendid isolation, uncontami- 
nated by outside influences. The Museum has been fortunate in 
securing from western Australia, where the natives are the least 
affected by foreign intrusion, a collection of 450 ethnological ob- 
jects, every one of which is a good and authentic example of native 
skill. This collection was purchased from Mr. John F. Connelly, a re- 
sident of Perth and a lifelong student of aboriginal life, and it is one of 
the most noteworthy accessions of the year. It includes beautifully 
fashioned spear-heads of stone, with minute serrations around their 
edges, which are reminiscent of the very early history of man; so also 
are the stone clubs formed by hafting a ground stone axe-head in a 
cloven stick. Wooden clubs, shields, and boomerangs are represented 
in great variety. These have been well selected with a view to show- 
ing how a particular style of art centralizes in a given locality; while 
not far away another band of aborigines adopts a totally different 
form and pattern to which they rigidly adhere. Personal ornament 
is typified by ingeniously made shell disks, emu plumes, necklaces of 
seeds, bone pins to be stuck through the septum of the nose, and red 
ochre which has a magical import when rubbed on the body or on 
weapons. The bullroarer, a thin slat of wood that can be twirled on a 
string, at first sight appears as a mere toy; but to the Australian it is 
the voice of a spirit or god who speaks in the whining note produced 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 239 

when the roarer is twirled at ceremonies for initiating boys into tribal 
life. Curiously carved pieces of wood, described as "message sticks," 
convey some idea of the first stages in the evolution of writing, and 
these are equaled in interest by the "death pointers." These slender 
bones are taken to a secret spot by a magician who wishes to harm 
his enemy. Directing the point toward his sleeping foe he says, "May 
your heart be torn asunder," The method of making fire by twirling 
one stick upon another is illustrated by several sets of the primitive 

The Captain Marshall Field Expedition to Madagascar under the 
leadership of Assistant Curator Linton was very successful in obtain- 
ing ethnological collections illustrative of the various cultures of the 
island, approximately 2,750 objects being gathered in 1927 as 
against 1,750 the preceding year, making a total of 4,500 objects 
from the expedition. This may be designated without exaggeration 
as by far the largest and most complete Madagascar collection in 
existence. Because of the rapid destruction of the primitive cultures 
many of the objects secured could not be dupHcated even at the 
present time. About 750 objects were obtained from the Sakalava 
tribe, the outstanding features of the collection being about 150 
pieces of old gold and silver jewelry, many of which are of very fine 
workmanship, and 25 pieces of figured rafRa cloth made by the warp- 
dying process. The manufacture of a single strip of this cloth is 
said to require three months of continuous labor, and there are now 
only twelve women who know how to make it. There are no examples 
of these fabrics in English or other American museums. As the 
art will unquestionably become extinct in a few years, the examples 
obtained are priceless. Approximately 700 specimens were collected 
from the tribes of the southeast coast, principally from the Antai- 
fasina and Tanosy. The culture of this region is simple, and the 
material consists largely of ordinary tools and utensils, as well as 
garments made from finely woven flexible mats. An ancient shield, 
the last in the possession of the Antaifasina tribe, and a number of 
well-carved wooden bowls are of especial interest. Included also 
are cleverly made wooden figures of fishes with flexible horn fins, 
which were used as decoys for fish-spearing. 

The Antandroy and Mahafaly, little known tribes in the extreme 
south of the island, are represented by unusually good collections. 
These comprise many examples of weaving and beadwork, silver 
jewelry, stone tobacco-pipes, many charms, and sacred objects, 
as well as a large number of very fine wood-carvings, including a 

240 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

series of original memorial carvings of the sort placed on tombs. 
Wooden pillows delicately carved with figures of birds, men, and 
animals are especially noteworthy, as they have not previously been 
represented in museum collections. This tribe, although semi- 
nomadic, makes excellent wood-carvings, and does the best metal 
work in Madagascar. A portrait of a young woman, carved in hard 
red wood, and several groups of smaller figures showing dancers and 
wrestlers in life-Hke poses are deserving of especial mention. Two 
spears with figures of oxen on the blades in high relief and two old 
war-knives with cast brass hilts — one representing a horse, the other 
a man, ox, crocodile, and chicken — mark the highest point reached 
by the native smiths. Skin garments of a hitherto unknown type 
were collected among the eastern Bara. A nearly complete collection 
from the Tanala shows the arts and industries of this interesting and 
isolated tribe. Especially noteworthy are the finely made boxes of 
wood and horn which serve as purses, and the mantles of woven bast 
dyed throughout with old vegetable pigments in soft blues, reds, and 
yellows. This tribe is ignorant of spinning, but weaves cloths from 
coarse threads made by rolling on the thigh, and afterwards beating 
the fabric to a felt-like consistency. Additional collections were made 
among the Betsileo, a number of unique objects being obtained. 
The most important of these are two royal cloaks or lambas, dyed 
with a sacred blue dye, the making of which was attended with ela- 
borate observances; a battle-axe carried as a royal emblem, and the 
lamp of the last Betsileo king, a magnificent piece of wrought iron 
over five feet high. Many rare old cloaks were also obtained, the 
most valuable being a silk shroud woven by a woman of royal caste 
for her own use. Material was collected for four miniature groups, 
three of which are designed to show typical village scenes in each of 
the three Madagascar culture areas, and one to illustrate the erection 
of megalithic monuments as practised by the natives. These monu- 
ments are identical with the menhirs of prehistoric Europe, and 
the native engineering methods are probably nearly the same as 
those used in the erection of Stonehenge, and ' Carnac in Brittany. 
Some collecting was done in Africa, small collections from the 
Barotse and Bushmen being obtained; likewise a good and thor- 
oughly documented collection of South African paleolithic imple- 
ments, showing all the recognized cultures, was purchased from 
Dr. Neville Jones of Bulawayo, the acknowledged authority on the 
subject. This is the first collection of the sort to be brought to 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 241 

The Museum has been fortunate in obtaining through purchase 
from M. Grimaud an original skeleton coming down from the 
Magdalenian age, the last of the three periods which form the Upper 
Paleolithic of France. This is the skeleton of a young man, about 25 
years of age, judging from the perfect condition of the teeth; and, 
considering the fact that he was alive some 25,000 years ago in south- 
western France, it is in a truly remarkable state of preservation. The 
man was about five feet, nine inches in height, and belonged to the 
late Cro-Magnon race, which was tall and of excellent physique. The 
skeleton was discovered in a small rock-shelter called Cap-Blanc near 
Laussel in the Dordogne region of France. In the strata of this cave 
a fine series of early Magdalenian implements were unearthed by Dr. 
Lalanne during 1910. On the wall of the rock-shelter was found a 
carved frieze of six wild horses following one another in line. Work 
was considered at an end when one of the workmen accidentally 
drove his pickaxe into a skull lying some three feet beneath the nose 
of the largest sculptured horse. Work was resumed, and the com- 
plete skeleton brought to light. The body had been covered with 
small stones, and had not been buried. Three blocks of stone were 
lying on the head, and these had unfortunately crushed the top jaw 
through the lower. This is at present the only paleolithic skeleton 
from France in this country. 

Botany. — It is gratifying, indeed, to be able to record a very 
substantial gain over the previous year in the number of specimens 
added to the study collections and the exhibits in the Department 
of Botany. During 1927, 14,918 specimens were received in this 
Department as compared with about 12,500 in 1926 and about 
9,000 in 1925. More than 4,000 of these were gifts, and nearly 4,000 
came in exchanges — a very gratifying proportion indicative of the 
interest and good will of individuals and of other institutions. 
There was an increase both in the herbarium and in the economic 
material received, including additions to the exhibits, the accessions 
totaling 272. 

The largest gift of the year, numerically speaking, was from Dr. 
E. E. Sherff of Chicago, whose studies in the genus Bidens of the 
Compositae have made him known to all botanists. This gift-collec- 
tion consists of over 3,000 specimens constituting Dr. Sherff 's private 
herbarium. It is especially rich in the plants of Illinois and adjacent 
or nearby states, and will add many things to both the Illinois and 
general herbaria heretofore lacking or imperfectly represented. This 

242 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

gift to the herbarium is undoubtedly the outstanding one received in 
a long time, considered from the standpoint of its permanent value 
and its interest to students of the local flora. 

Professor Record of Yale University has shared with the Depart- 
ment various collections of tropical American plants which he has re- 
ceived in connection with his well-known studies on tropical 
American woods. The specimens for the herbarium number 640, of 
which 150 are accompanied by examples of the wood. This gift is 
particularly welcome, for it adds to the herbarium and to the wood 
collections much new material of importance for reference in con- 
nection with taxonomic work on plants of the American tropics. 

It is a pleasure to record a further contribution to the herbarium 
from the indefatigable collector, Mr. H. C. Benke, whose generosity 
and interest in building up the herbarium of Illinois plants has 
prompted him to add 238 specimens, either new to the collection or 
from new localities. He has also kindly presented the Department 
with 116 sheets for exchange. 

Professor C. J. Chamberlain of the University of Chicago has 
further enriched the Cycad collection, which his gift of last year so 
greatly augmented, by the presentation of a series of seeds of 

Several lots of photographs of type-specimens have been donated 
during the year, notably 42 prints, m.ostly of mints, from Dr. Carl 
Epling of the University of California, Southern Branch; 6 of types 
of Oenothera, courtesy of Dr. H. M. Hall; 8 of Borages and 1 of 
Parosela from Dr. I. M. Johnston, the Parosela very kindly obtained 
by Dr. Johnston at Kew on special request. 

Further gifts during the year were 17 Florida herbarium speci- 
mens from Mr. H. E. Wheeler, Curator, Alabama Museum of Natural 
History; 39 herbarium specimens of Bidens, Dr. E. E. Sherff, Chicago 
Normal School; 1 specimen of Liparis Loeselii (L.) Richard, one of 
the rarer orchids from the dunes of Indiana, Dr. C. E. Hellmayr; 2 
herbarium specimens of Euphorbia Esula L., a species new to Elgin, 
Illinois, Mr. C. F. Gronemann; 15 herbarium specimens of palm 
grown from seed furnished by the Museum, Garfield Park Conser- 
vatory, Chicago; 2 herbarium specimens of Polygonum Sieholdii 
Fries, the first material in the herbarium of this frequently culti- 
vated Asiatic ornamental, courtesy of Mrs. Stanley Field; 1 herbar- 
ium specimen of a hybrid pigweed. Ambrosia bidentata x trifida, Mr. 
O. C. Durham, Swan-Myers Company, Indianapolis; 1 Florida spe- 
cimen of Pterospermum acerifolium Willd., the first representation 
















Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 243 

in the herbarium of this cultivated tree; 2 herbarium specimens of 
Bidens bidentoides (L.) Britton from Maryland, Dr. S. F. Blake, 
United States National Museum; 1 specimen of palmetto collected 
in British Honduras, Professor Samuel J. Record, Yale University; 
seeds and fruits of ten various palms from Trinidad, Dr. B. E. 
Dahlgren; a vine of Lonchocarpus densiflorus, collected in British 
Guiana, Mr. W. J. McGill, Whiting, Indiana; and a specimen of Dioon 
spinulosurrij received from Garfield Park Conservatory, Chicago. 

In addition to the Central American woods donated by Professor 
Record, already mentioned, some other important material has been 
acquired for the wood collections. Twelve large panels of African and 
American mahogany were given by the Mahogany Association of 
New York City. To the Florida woods were added a specimen of 
Bauhinia tomentosa, collected and presented by Mr. Jens Jensen, 
Ravinia, Illinois, and a section of a large cocopalm trunk from Mr. F. 
Gerry Curtis of Miami. A piece of olive wood was given by the 
Glendora Chamber of Commerce, Glendora, California. The Ameri- 
can Walnut Association, through its secretary, Mr. G. N. Lamb, 
supplied two specimens for the improvement of the walnut exhibit, 
as well as one each of cherry and hackberry. Mr. W. E. Bletsch of 
Highland Park, Illinois, an Associate Member of the Museum who 
has a private collection of domestic and foreign woods, presented the 
Department with 18 Cuban and Australian specimens for the refer- 
ence collection. 

The Boise-Payette Lumber Company of Boise, Idaho, through 
the courtesy of Mr. F. W. Hewitt, District Sales-Manager of the 
Weyerhaeuser Sales Company, donated four boards of western 
yellow pine {Pinus ponderosa) hitherto lacking in the American 
Wood Hall. Mr. Macbride, at whose personal solicitation this gift 
was made, at the same time secured in Idaho a fruiting branch of this 
tree for the herbarium and for use in connection with the exhibits. 

The Rakuda Wood Products Company, Pittsburgh, donated two 
veneered pieces of "Rakuda" or sand-box wood {Hura crepitans) 
from Surinam. 

The material on fibers has been enhanced by gifts of flax fiber, 
grown in Holland, from Mr. John Van Keppel, Harvey, Illinois, and 
by a specimen of Raphia ruffia, grown in Madagascar, obtained by 
the Captain Marshall Field Madagascar Expedition. 

Accessions for the exhibit of plant food products (Hall 25) during 
the year include 16 samples of beet sugar factory products from 
the Great Western Sugar Company, Fort Collins, Colorado. 

244 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

The collection of grain was enlarged by a number of gifts of corn, 
wheat, barley, rice and rye. Six ears of Yellow Cuban Flint corn 
grown in Florida were sent by Mr. J. M. Rogers, Gainesville, Florida; 
6 ears of Learning corn and 6 ears of Clarage corn, both grown in 
Ohio, came from Mr. M. F. Meyers, Ohio State University, Colum- 
bus, Ohio; 6 ears of Krug corn and 6 ears of Reid Yellow Dent 
corn, both grown in Illinois, were sent by Mr. George C. Dungan, 
Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Illinois, Urbana, 
Illinois; a large bunch of rye stalks, collected in western Canada, was 
given by Mr. E. R. Bruce, Canadian Pacific Railway, Montreal, 
Canada; 5 samples of Rivet wheat grain arrived from Sir John Per- 
cival, Berks, England; 7 trays containing United States government 
grain standards were obtained from Mr. 0. F. PhilHps, United States 
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Chicago; Mr. Phillips is also the 
donor of 2 bona fide samples of the grains of Blue Stem wheat 
and Kitchener wheat; 5 specimens of matured rice stalks and rice 
grain came from the Louisiana station of the United States 
Department of Agriculture; heads of 15 species of barley were given 
by the Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of 

The material received in exchange during the year consisted of 
3,972 herbarium specimens. The majority of these were sent by the 
United States National Museum, Washington, D. C, in five ship- 
ments comprising 3,019 sheets. More than 2,000 of these are 
mounted duplicates of the greatest value and were sent through 
the personal interest of Dr. Paul C. Standley. They are chiefly Mex- 
ican and Central and South American plants which most desirably 
augment the Museum collections from that part of the world. Other 
institutions or individuals sending specimens in exchange were the 
Botanische Garten und Museum, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany, 20 re- 
presentatives of co-types of the Weberbauer Peruvian collections 
on deposit at Berlin, a valuable exchange recorded with appreci- 
ation; the Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 7 Chilean 
plants new to this herbarium, courtesy Dr. I. M. Johnston; the 
same institution also forwarded 111 Newfoundland specimens, 
courtesy Professor M. L. Fernald, an important set, rich in this 
author's own species; Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford, England, 
Dr. J. Burtt Davy, 94 herbarium specimens of interesting woody 
plants; University of California, 125 desirable North American 
specimens; Frere Marie Victorin, Laboratoire de Botanique, Uni- 
versity de Montreal, 262 herbarium specimens of rare or little known 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 245 

Quebec plants; 3 specimens of palm seeds from Madagascar, sent 
by the Station Agricole of Tamatave. 

The accessions of the herbarium credited to expeditions are as 

Dr. A. Weberbauer collected 587 specimens in extreme northern 
Peru under the Captain Marshall Field Fund, in continuation of the 
botanical exploration work commenced in 1922. Further details 
regarding this accession are given under the heading Expeditions. 

Miss Frances Ames of the Borden -Field Museum Alaska- Arctic 
Expedition collected 107 well prepared specimens of Alaskan plants. 

Associate Curator of Geology H. W. Nichols and Mr. H. Eggers 
secured 14 plant specimens from high altitudes in the Chilean 
Andes on the Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition. 

Mr. C. S. Sewall and Assistant Curator A. C. Weed of the Raw- 
son-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition of Field Museum obtained 446 
specimens in 1926 and Mr. Sewall secured 256 plants from Labrador 
in 1927. 

Associate Curator of Paleontology Elmer S. Riggs contributed 29 
plants collected by him in Argentina during 1925-1927 on the 
Captain Marshall Field Paleontological Expedition to Argentina 
and Bolivia. 

The Captain Marshall Field Madagascar Expedition contributed 
a specimen of Raphia ruffia. 

Professor S. Langdon of Oxford University secured on the Field 
Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia some 
ancient wheat kernels found in a painted jar excavated at Jemdet 

As usual, the yearly purchases were of collections either signifi- 
cant because of the rarity of the plants or their inadequate repre- 
sentation in the herbarium. For such reasons 121 specimens, partly 
consisting of packets of seeds, of British West Indian woody plants 
were purchased from Mr. W. E. Broadway, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 
British West Indies. 

The purchases of the year added a number of very much desired 
collections from tropical parts of the world and especially from South 
America. Among the most noteworthy may be mentioned 500 sheets 
of Brazilian plants prepared by the famous collector, Dus^n, a most 
important acquisition; 700 herbarium specimens collected by Mr. 
Carlos Schunke of La Merced, Peru, from the foothills of the eastern 
Andes, a region more tropical and Amazonian in character of vege- 

246 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

tation than Andean, but nevertheless a collection that ultimately 
will be of scientific value when a more complete knowledge of the 
sub-tropical flora of the region makes practical its critical study; 
438 Haitian specimens collected by Mr. E.G. Leonard of the United 
States National Museum; 470 Chilean plants collected by Dr. E. 
Werderman, in continuation of his botanical explorations of that 
country; 197 New Guinea specimens collected by Mr. R. Schlechter, 
an important series; 150 Bolivian plants collected by Mr. J. 
Steinbach ; 600 sheets of Michigan and Illinois flora collected by Dr. 
H. R. Glayberg, useful in building up the local herbarium; 330 Wash- 
ington plants collected by Mr. J. M. Grant; 1,000 Oregon plants col- 
lected by Professor M. E. Peck, and 390 from California and other 
states collected by Mr. A. A. Heller; 229 specimens from Uruguay 
collected by Dr. G. Herter, in continuation of recent collections; 
100 Mexican Gulf Coast plants collected by Mr. F. C. Seymour; 50 
cryptogams, continuing a series from Mr. G. K. Merrill. 

Geology. — Accessions were received by the Department of 
Geology during the year from 55 different individuals and institu- 
tions. Of these, 44 were received by gift, three by exchange, three 
by purchase and five from Museum expeditions. The total number 
of new specimens received and catalogued from these accessions was 
1,391. Of these, 1,031 were from Museum expeditions, the re- 
mainder from gifts, exchanges and purchases. Among the gifts, Mr. 
William J. Chalmers gave evidence of continued generous interest 
by enlarging the collection of crystallized minerals by the gift of 63 
specimens. These are all of fine quality and represent both a num- 
ber of rare species and new localities. Some of the specimens in 
this series, such as orthoclase from Madagascar and spodumene 
from California, were of gem quality and illustrate the use of these 
minerals for gem purposes. Some of the rarer species also repre- 
sented in the specimens presented are : argento-jarosite, Utah ; beni- 
toite, California; demantoid, Italy; eosphorite, Maine; eudialyte. 
Kola Peninsula; hillebrandite, Mexico; melilite, Mexico; purpurite, 
Maine; crystallized rose quartz, Maine. One of the specimens pre- 
sented by Mr. Chalmers is of unusual size and beauty. It consists 
of seven large crystals of tourmaline of the "watermelon" type 
enclosed in a matrix of quartz. Several small donations from indi- 
viduals afforded appreciable additions to the Higinbotham Hall 
collections. Among these were a fine specimen of rainbow quartz 
and another of phantom quartz from Mr. Francis M. Arnold. A 
pendant of polished amber containing a fossil spider, presented by 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 247 

Mr. S. C. Simms, attractively illustrates the use of this material 
in jewelry. Miss Ellen H. Douglass presented a beautiful set of 
carved pink coral consisting of bracelet, breastpin, and earrings. 
They are of value not only for the unusually fine quality of the coral, 
but also for the beauty of the design and the skill with which it has 
been executed. These were cut in Italy in 1850. Several specimens 
of polished jasper, kinradite and chrysoprase presented by Mr. 
William B. Pitts, are also interesting additions to the exhibit of 
semi-precious stones. A series of nineteen photographs given by 
Mr. A. K. Coomaraswamy, affords interesting illustrations of the 
methods of gem mining in Ceylon. 

Through the Imperial Japanese Commission to the Philadelphia 
Sesquicentennial Exposition the Association of Mine Owners, 
Tokyo, Japan, presented 26 specimens of the gold, silver, copper, 
tungsten and iron ores of Japan. The specimens are from repre- 
sentative Japanese localities and are of sufficiently large size so 
that they fully illustrate the nature of the occurrences. They help 
to fill a gap in the ore collections, as the ores of Japan had 
hitherto been but little represented here. Mr. George H. Adamson 
presented a specimen of metallic beryllium which well illustrates 
the properties of this rarely prepared substance. A large specimen 
of oil sand, weighing 450 pounds, and measuring 36x24x14 
inches, obtained from an oil-bearing stratum at a depth of 110 feet 
at Electra, Texas, and believed to be one of the largest specimens of 
oil-bearing sand ever mined, was presented by Mr. Roy B. Jones. 
The Standard Oil Company (Indiana) added to the specimens of 
petroleum products which they had previously presented, four speci- 
mens of wax, 51 specimens of decorative candles and 20 specimens 
of refined oils. While some of these specimens were furnished for 
the purpose of replacing similar products which had deteriorated, the 
greater part represent new products which have important uses. A 
large specimen of sphagnum from Esthonia presented by Mr. Marcus 
Stow Hill illustrates the material from which the great beds of peat 
spread over thousands of acres in that country are chiefly formed. 
From the United States National Museum, a large and important 
series of fossil plants was received by exchange. This series numbered 
251 specimens. Through the courtesy of the National Museum, Dr. 
Dahlgren was permitted to select for this exchange such specimens as 
showed especially well features desirable as models in making 
restorations of the flora of that period. Many of the specimens fur- 
nished were of large size and show in detail the characters of the 

248 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

leading plant groups of the Carboniferous period. Another valuable 
feature of this accession consists in the fact that all specimens are 
fully labelled as to genus, species and locality, most of the identifi- 
cations having been made by such well-known authorities as David 
White and the late Leo Lesquereux. Representative specimens of 
the very rare Cincinnati and Garraf meteorites were obtained by 
exchange, thus adding to the meteorite collection one new fall and an 
adequate specimen of one which had hitherto been imperfectly 
represented. A large specimen, weighing about 75 pounds, of the 
fossil coral Syringopora, was obtained by exchange from Mr. Her- 
man Lieberz. Specimens of raw and treated "Zonolite," received by 
exchange from the University of Arizona, give a good representation 
of this interesting mineral which has been found to possess properties 
of commercial value. 

A considerable portion of the skeleton of a Mastodon, including 
skull, tusks, lower jaws and 31 other bones and fragments was ob- 
tained by purchase from the finder. The place of find of this indivi- 
dual was near Rensselaer, Indiana. The skull, tusks and other 
characters show it to have been a young male. Of especial interest 
is the well-preserved dentition, showing the nearly worn-out milk 
teeth and permanent molars forming to replace them. An unusually 
large specimen of an ammonite of the genus Prionotropis, from Kan- 
sas, with the original pearly luster of the shell almost perfectly 
preserved, was also obtained by purchase. Three stalagmites of an 
unusual character from a cave in Italy complete the list of specimens 
obtained by purchase. 

From Museum expeditions a considerable number of specimens 
was received, mostly through the arrivals of collections made at an 
earlier period. From the Third Asiatic Expedition of the American 
Museum of Natural History with Field Museum cooperating, 94 
specimens of vertebrate fossils which had been prepared and identified 
by courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History were re- 
ceived. These specimens were from Mongolia and Szechuen, China. 
They include 38 specimens of fossil Glires, 28 specimens of fossil 
Artiodactyls, 16 specimens of fossil Perissodactyls, 2 specimens 
fossil Insectivora, 3 specimens fossil Notoungulata, 4 specimens fossil 
Carnivora and 3 specimens fossil Proboscidea. There were also re- 
ceived from the American Museum of Natural History's Mongolian 
collections a number of fragments of the shells of eggs of Protocera- 
tops and of another dinosaur, and of those of the giant ostrich, 
Struthiolithus. These illustrate in an interesting way the variations 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 249 

of shell markings in the eggs of different species. From the collections 
made by the Captain Marshall Field Paleontological Expedition to 
Argentina, 38 boxes of fossils were received during the year. These 
are largely Pleistocene fossils of the Pampean formations and re- 
present 61 field numbers. They include nearly complete skeletons 
of the great ground sloths Glossotherium, Scelidodon and Mega- 
therium and less complete ones of Glyptodon, the saber-tooth tiger, 
South American Mastodon, and of fossil horses, llamas and rodents. 

The remainder of the specimens collected by Associate Curator 
Nichols as a member of the Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expe- 
dition of 1926 were received during the year. These totalled 308 
specimens, chiefly from localities in Chile and Bolivia. The speci- 
mens from Chile include the following: a suite of specimens from the 
remarkable iron mountain mined by an American company at Tofo; 
an exceptionally complete series of ores and rocks from the large 
porphyry copper deposit at Poterillos, as well as invertebrate fossils 
which occur in the vicinity; numerous specimens of brilliantly 
colored copper minerals from the important copper mines at Chuqui- 
camata, seldom found elsewhere as they are of such a nature that 
they can exist only in a desert country; specimens from the Chilean 
nitrate fields which include several varieties of the nitrates and of the 
interesting associated minerals and guanos; sulphur from Chilean 
volcanoes, borax from lakes whose waters are impregnated with 
emanations from the volcanoes, and native alums, which result 
from the action of volcanic gases and waters upon the lavas; a variety 
of ores from smaller mines of the same region; a series of speci- 
mens illustrating such desert phenomena as desert varnish, sand- 
polished pebbles and salt incrustations; and among the latter, of 
special interest, a cake of salt about two inches thick which shows a 
small plant growing through it. The collections from Bolivia con- 
sist largely of ores and minerals from the large tin deposits at 
Caracolles and Atocha and the rich tin and silver mines of Oruro, 
Llallagua and Potosi. Besides the ores, this series includes many 
choice mineral specimens. Such complete collections of choice 
specimens were made possible by the hearty cooperation of the 
Chilean and Bolivian representatives of Guggenheim Brothers and 
the Anaconda Copper Company. 

Sixty specimens of minerals and rocks were collected by the 
Curator in Maine. These specimens include a crystal of beryl one 
foot in diameter, several crystals of the so-called "watermelon" 

250 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

tourmalines, crystallized spodumene and orthoclase and some mas- 
sive topaz. 

From the Captain Marshall Field Expedition to Madagascar 
there was received for the gem collection a mass of transparent, green 
aquamarine weighing 4,770 carats. This is all of gem quality and if 
cut as a single stone would undoubtedly afford one of the largest gem 
aquamarines known. 

Zoology. — Zoological specimens were accessioned to the number 
of 14,684 as against 14,689 in 1926 and 11,453 in 1925. The propor- 
tion of vertebrates is unusually large, and the total for these is 13,386. 
The accessions are divided as follows: 

Mammals, 2,903; birds, 3,666; bird's eggs, 14; fishes, 4,012; reptiles 
and amphibians, 2,791; skeletons, 22; insects, 1,094; mollusks, 204. 
The number obtained by m.useum expeditions is 12,555 and the num- 
ber by gift is 1,249. 

Among the gifts of mammals are two specimens of the Scottish 
Red Deer and the head of a so-called "Cromie," a pecuhar variant of 
the Red Deer found mainly or exclusively on the island of Jura, 
Scotland. These were obtained through the interest and generosity 
of Lord Astor. A Black Rhinoceros skin from Tanganyika Territory, 
Africa, presented by Mr. John Wentworth of Chicago, is one of the 
year's outstanding gifts. An important and valuable gift of mammals 
was made by Mr. Harold A. White of New York, who was for a few 
days in touch with the Abyssinian Expedition while in the field. It 
comprises a number of Abyssinian mammals, 8 Mountain Nyalas, 
including one large male with horns nearly of record size, 6 Black 
Bushbucks, 2 Abyssinian Duikers, 1 Oribi, 1 Abyssinian Wolf, 
and the skull of an Aard Vark. Other gifts of mammals include 
2 Chinchillas, presented by Mr. M. F. Chapman of Inglewood, 
California; a rare West African Pigmy Antelope, from Miss Josephine 
Hammond of Wheaton, Illinois; and the skull of a Least Weasel, 
representing the first record of that animal from Illinois, from Mr. 
Tappan Gregory of Chicago. Large and important accessions of 
mammals were received from various museum expeditions, detailed 
account of which is given elsewhere. Among the most noteworthy 
individual specimens was the fine White Rhinoceros secured by the 
Conover-Everard African Expedition, which also obtained many 
smaller mammals new to the Museum's collections. Among these 
was an exceptionally large example of the Yellow-backed Duiker, a 
series of the antelope known as the Lechwe, and besides many small 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VII, Plate XXX 


Complete with jewelry studded with turquoise and coral 

Presented by Mrs. Charles B. Goodspeed, 1927 

Modeling of head by John G. Prasuhn 

West GaUery (HaU 34) 




Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 251 

rodents, a wide variety of the insectivorous mammals called elephant 
shrews. The Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition extended 
its field into Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina, obtaining material 
for four groups of large mammals, and important series of smaller 
animals including much needed representatives of species discovered 
there by Darwin but not duplicated since in any American museum. 
The largest single accession of mammals came from the Field Mu- 
seum-Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition with a total of 
1,339 specimens, constituting by far the largest existing collection 
from this region. Outstanding large mammals included are the 
Mountain Nyala, Abyssinian Ibex, Abyssinian Red Wolf, Gelada 
Baboon, Grevy's Zebra, Defassa Waterbuck and Northern Roan 
Antelope. The collection of smaller mammals is practically ex- 
haustive for the localities \asited, and preliminary examination 
indicates that careful study will reveal a number of heretofore un- 
known species. The Borden-Field Museum Alaska-Arctic Expedi- 
tion yielded exceptionally fine m.aterial for a group of the gigantic 
Alaska Brown Bear, and also obtained fine specimens of the Polar 
Bear, the Pacific Walrus, and the Bearded Seal. Additional speci- 
mens of the Alaska Brown Bear were obtained by the Alexander 
H. Revell-Field Museum Alaskan Expedition. A further consign- 
ment of 270 mammals from Asia was received from the Third Asiatic 
Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. Through 
the kind cooperation of Colonel J. C. Faunthorpe, 36 large mammals 
from India were obtained for proposed habitat groups. An important 
exchange with the British Museum resulted in the accession of 297 
specimens of small and medium-sized mammals from Asia, Africa 
and South America, mostly belonging to species not heretofore repre- 
sented in American museums. In all, the accessions of mammals for 
the year are gratifying both in point of numbers and in quality. 
They represent an increase in the entire collection of about ten 
per cent. 

Mr. C. Suydam Cutting of New York made a unique and highly 
prized gift consisting of 108 paintings and field studies of birds and 
mammals made by the late Louis Agassiz Fuertes in Abyssinia. 
Thanks are also due to Mrs. Margaret Sumner Fuertes for offering 
the first option on this valuable collection to Mr. Cutting for the 
purpose of presentation to the Museum. The careful studies made 
directly from nature in the field are of much scientific value, and the 
many finished paintings represent the latest and perhaps the finest 
examples of the artist's work, altogether furnishing a most interesting 

252 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

and priceless adjunct to the large collections of Abyssinian animals 
now possessed by the Museum. Mr. Cutting also presented some 
8,000 feet of finished motion picture film taken by himself in 

Accessions of birds were principally from Museum expeditions. 
Out of 3,664 birdskins or birds in the flesh which were accessions, 
3,348 came from expeditions. The largest accession, consisting of 
2,090 specimens, was from the Field Museum-Chicago Daily News 
Abyssinian Expedition. This collection is widely representative, and 
is the most important single lot of African birds ever received at the 
Museum. It contains many rarities and novelties, a full enumeration 
of which will be possible only after detailed study. African birds to 
the number of 905, exclusive of those deposited in the Conover 
collection, were obtained by the Conover-Everard Expedition. The 
Borden-Field Museum Alaska-Arctic Expediton secured 111 birds, 
mostlj'" water birds especially selected and prepared for exhibition 
purposes. Among the 526 birds collected by the Captain Marshall 
Field Brazilian Expedition was one of great rarity, a small bird 
known as a Reed Runner (Limnoctites rectirostris) and often referred 
to as "Darwin's Lost Bird" because Darwin's original specimens, 
discovered some 75 years ago, had never been duplicated. Another 
rare South American bird, a racket-tailed hummingbird (Loddigesia) 
was obtained by exchange. The Conover collection of game birds, 
deposited in the Museum, received numerous additions during the 
year, and has now reached a total of more than 6,000 specimens 
belonging to some 700 species. Its relative size is measured by the 
fact that in most general collections of birds the proportion of game 
birds is only about five per cent. 

The total accessions of reptiles and amphibians amount to 2,791 
specimens, of which 474 were gifts, 59 were received in exchange, 216 
were purchased, and 2,042 were obtained by museum expeditions. 
Important gifts include 122 specimens from Cuba, Africa, and south- 
eastern Asia, from Dr. Thomas Barbour; 89 from Mr. Axel A. 
Olsson, Peru; 40 from Colegio San Pedro Nolasco, Santiago, Chile; 
20 from Mr. Oscar Adam, Iguazu Falls, Argentina; 95 from Mr. F. 
J. W. Schmidt, Stanley, Wisconsin; and 44 from Mr. A. I. Orten- 
burger, Norman, Oklahoma. The principal purchase was of 139 
specimens from Porto Rico. 

The number of fishes accessioned was 4,012, of which three were 
gifts, one was purchased, and 4,008 were obtained by Museum expe- 
tions. The specimen purchased was an African Lung-fish, a member 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 253 

of an interesting but now very limited group of fishes, the ancestore 
of which are found as fossils in ancient Paleozoic rocks. As its name 
impHes, this fish has a cellular air-bladder analogous in function to a 
lung. A very large proportion of the fishes received came from the 
Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition which collected no less 
than 3,997 specimens, mainly in Uruguay. Although this collection 
has not yet been studied, cursory examination reveals that it contains 
many species new to the Museum's collection and otherwise very 

The number of insects accessioned was 1,094, of which two were 
received by exchange, 482 from Museum expeditions, and 585 from 
various donors. Among the donations worthy of mention was a 
small but valuable collection of 192 gall insects and 126 insect galls 
which were presented by Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey. This collection is 
especially desirable in that it contains 35 authoritatively named 
species representing 111 paratjTDes, and the 126 galls illustrate the 
peculiar plant growth caused by 93 species of gall insects. From Mrs. 
Irma B. Coale there was received as a gift a series of 205 butterflies 
and moths from Japan and Paraguay. Through the Rawson-Mac- 
Millan Subarctic Expedition 302 insects were obtained from the 
eastern United States, Nova Scotia, Labrador, and Baffin Land. 
The Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition collected 86 desir- 
able specimens of insects in South America, and among the 58 insects 
from the Conover-Everard Expedition were interesting species new 
to the Museum's collection. 

Accessions of invertebrates other than insects included 204 
specimens. Of this number, an octopus was donated by Mr. George 
M, Kendall; 140 were shells from the northwest coast of West 
Australia, presented by Mr. J. F. Connelly, Perth, West Australia; 
and 63 were obtained by Museum expeditions. 



Anthropology. — The work of cataloguing in the Department of 
Anthropology has been continued as usual during the past year, 
the number of catalogue cards prepared totaling 5,994. 

These cards written for accessions received during the year are 
distributed geographically as follows: North American archaeology 
and ethnology, 14; Mexican, Central and South American archae- 
ology and ethnology, 281; Australian ethnology, 439; Egyptian 

254 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

archaeology, 12; Mesopotamian archaeology, 12; prehistoric archae- 
ology of Europe, 20; archaeology and ethnology of China, MongoHa, 
and Japan, 24; Edward E. Ayer pewter collection, 23; physical 
anthropology, 24. Total, 849. 

The following cards were prepared this year for accessions re- 
ceived previous to 1927: North American archaeology and ethnology, 
204; Mexican and South American archaeology and ethnology, 1,391; 
African ethnology, 1,552; Egyptian archaeology, 727; prehistoric 
archaeology of Europe, 890; archaeology and ethnology of China, 
Tibet, and Borneo, 378; physical anthropology, 3. Total, 5,145. 

Of the total of 5,994 catalogue cards prepared, 5,502 have 
been entered in the inventory books, which now number 46. 

The number of annual accessions amounts to 55, of which 29 have 
been entered. Fifteen accessions from previous years were also en- 
tered. The total number of catalogue cards entered from the opening 
of the first volume is 175,307. 

More than 6,000 labels for use in exhibition cases were prepared, 
and for the greater part installed, during the year, the number of 
labels supplied by the printer amounting to 6,679. These labels are 
distributed as follows: ethnology of Calif omian Indians, 2,178; 
Eskimo, 99; archaeology of Mexico, 73; ethnology and archaeology 
of South America, 1,193; archaeology of China, 450; New Guinea 
masks, 10; ethnology of Africa, 2,226; ethnology of Madagascar, 75; 
physical anthropology, 375; total 6,679. 

The Department was further supplied by the printer with 7,400 
catalogue cards, 4,000 identification cards for the trays and cabinets 
containing skulls and skeletal material, 5,000 forms for recording 
anthropological measurements in the field, 135 location maps for 
use in exhibition cases, and 1,250 case numbers. To the depart- 
mental albums 363 photographs were added. 

Botany. — The new entries made in the accession catalogue 
of the Department of Botany numbered 8,340 during the year, 
bringing the total up to 570,729. The Card Index of Collectors 
received 138 new cards and now totals 11,159. Sixteen new geogra- 
phical index cards were added, increasing the total to 3,009. 

For the classified index of the specimens in the economic collec- 
tions many thousand new cards were written and filed. A large part 
of the material in the economic reference and storage collections, 
hitherto identified only by catalogue numbers, was supplied with 









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Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 255 

labels and card indexed during the year. Labels were written for 
some 1,500 wood specimens in the reference collection, and for 
about 20,000 Yucatan and other duplicates, intended for exchange, 
in the herbarium. 

Descriptive labels were written for all new installations in the 
exhibition halls, and some diagrams showing chemical composition 
and distribution maps were prepared for various economic exhibits. 

Geology. — The total number of specimens catalogued during the 
year in the Department of Geology was 2,415, making a total of 
179,897 now recorded. Of those catalogued during the year, the 
largest number were invertebrate fossils of the Borden collection, 
the identification and recording of which has been continued as 
opportunity permitted. From this collection and some other small 
accessions of invertebrate fossils, 1,003 specimens were entered dur- 
ing the year. Another large series catalogued during 1927 was 
that of the entire geological collections made by the Rawson-Mac- 
Millan Subarctic Expedition of 1926. These numbered 580 speci- 
mens. The cataloguing of the geological collections made by the 
Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition of 1926, numbering 
308 specimens, was also completed. These were chiefly specimens 
from Chile and Bolivia, those obtained in Brazil and Uruguay by this 
expedition having been recorded in 1926. All of the specimens from 
this expedition entered this year were not only catalogued and num- 
bered, but were also checked against the field notes and provided with 
temporary labels. Other series catalogued were those of 63 mineral 
specimens presented by Mr. William J. Chalmers, 60 collected by the 
Curator in Maine, and 103 specimens of the vertebrate fossils col- 
lected by the Captain Marshall Field Paleontological Expedition to 
Argentina. In order to have more complete and accurate data on 
hand regarding the more important gem specimens in the Higin- 
botham Hall collection, 120 of these were weighed and measured and 
the results recorded. Those so catalogued included the larger dia- 
monds, all the emeralds, and the larger sapphires, aquamarines, 
beryls, topazes, amethysts, citrines, and rock crystals. 

Successful efforts were made to complete the mounting in the 
departmental albums of the photographic prints received during the 
year. In this work 623 prints were classified and mounted. The 
larger number of these were from photographs made by the Asso- 
ciate Curator in South America in the previous year, or pre- 
sented to him by residents of that continent. Another large series 

256 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

was one of 181 prints of geological photographs made by the 
Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition. In most cases, all prints 
mounted were labeled fully. The total number of prints preserved 
is now 5,871, and they are mounted in 15 albums. 

To the series of United States Geological Survey topographic 
maps on file, 82 were added during the year, making a total of 3,145 of 
these maps now available for reference. As in previous cases, brief 
descriptive labels were filed with the maps newly added to the 

The decision that was reached early in the year to change the 
color of the label stock from black to buff necessitated the reprinting 
of many labels as exhibits were newly installed. Labels printed for 
this purpose and installed during the year numbered 287. These 
were chiefly for two cases of concretions and one of peat products. 
In addition, 50 miscellaneous labels were printed and installed, mak- 
ing a total of 307 labels. These were all that were received from the 
printer during the year. In some cases, where printed labels could 
not be furnished, temporary tjT)ewritten labels were installed. 
The number of these, together with those for which copy was 
written during the year, amounted to 584. Two descriptive labels, 
one for the brickyard model and one for the relief map of the 
Niagara river, were written. Of these, that of the brickyard model 
was printed and installed. A complete series of labels giving the 
grouping of each meteorite according to the Berwerth classification, 
was made for the study collection of iron meteorites, numbering 300 
specimens. These labels were filed with the specimens. 

Zoology. — Regular cataloguing of specimens in the Department 
of Zoology proceeded at an increased rate, but owing to the large 
number of accessions, much of this work remains to be done. The 
total number of regular entries was 9,673 as against 6,327 in 1926 and 
6,079 in 1925. They were distributed as follows: mammals, 1,600; 
birds, 4,213; fishes, 905; reptiles and amphibians, 2,832; skeletons, 
23; insects, 100. 

Specimens of mammals have been numbered as catalogued so far 
as possible, but skulls cannot be numbered until after they are 
cleaned, and several thousand of these have not received numbers. 
Birds and mammals from museum expeditions are supplied with 
permanent labels by the collectors, but those from other sources 
require new labels. Such labels have been supplied during the year 
to some 2,000 birds and to a small number of mammals. Con- 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


siderable further work of this kind remains to be done. Labeling 
and numbering of reptiles and amphibians has kept pace with the 
accessioning of them, and is nearly up to date. On account of 
pressure of other work, labeling of fishes and insects has received 
only slight attention. 

Exhibition labels were prepared and installed for five mammal 
groups, and for fourteen single specimens. Exhibition labels were 
also made for 68 paintings of birds and mammals. Black labels on 
seven screens of fishes were replaced by new ones of light color. 
Label copy was prepared for 335 species of butterflies intended for 

Photographic prints were mounted in the departmental albums 
to the number of 632. The total number of prints now in the albums 
is 7,186. 

The state of the catalogues at the end of the year is as follows: 

Department of Anthropology . 

Department of Botany 

Department of Geology 

Department of Zoology 


Total of 

Number of 

entries to 


Totel of 

record books 

Dec. 31, 



























Anthropology. — The activity of the Department of Anthro- 
pology during the year under review was largely centered on the 
completion of the California Hall, the installation of which was 
inaugurated last year, and the installation of African ethnology for 
the proposed African Hall. A total of 70 exhibition cases were 
installed, distributed as follows: 


Stanley Field Hall 4 

Edward E. and Emma B. Ayer Hall 1 

South America (Hall 9) • 7 

Mexico (Hall 8) 1 

California (Hall 6) 8 

China 14 

Africa ^^ 

Total 70 

Two novel technical features have been introduced: the former 
black screens and black label cards with type set off in aluminum have 

258 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

been abandoned, and are replaced with light-colored screens and a 
label card corresponding in color printed with black type. Through 
long experiments it has been determined that this scheme is best 
suited for the halls with artificial lighting. A new and better method 
of arranging objects on screens has also been inaugurated. Instead 
of spreading objects out in horizontal rows the entire length of the 
screen, a plan of panel arrangement has been devised by which the 
screen is divided, as dictated by the requirements of the exhibit, into 
three, four or more vertical panels, somewhat like the columns of a 
newspaper. In this manner it is easier to single out groups or types 
that belong together, or, wherever archaeological periods are involved, 
to accentuate developments in time sequences. Labeling and position 
of labels are also facilitated under this plan, and the exhibits become 
more "readable." Examples of this new method may be viewed in 
Case 12 of Stanley Field Hall and in a case of Chinese metal mirrors 
recently installed. 

Four notable additions were made to Stanley Field Hall. A 
selection of 222 pieces from the collection of archaic Chinese jades 
presented last year by Mrs. George T. Smith, Mrs. John J. Borland, 
Miss K. S. Buckingham, and Messrs. Martin A. Ryerson, Julius 
Rosen wald. Otto C. Doering, and Martin C. Schwab, has been in- 
stalled in Case 12 of Stanley Field Hall. The upper compartment 
has been arranged in three panels showing ceremonial swords, 
knives, and daggers; large disks; and ceremonial weapons. The lower 
compartment illustrates decorated girdle-ornaments, carvings of ox- 
heads, figures of tigers, hares, birds, tortoises, snake, alligator, 
dolphins, fishes, insects, charms, and implements, laid out in twelve 
panels. A gray art-linen has been chosen for mounting the back- 
ground of this exhibit which is explained by 110 labels. 

The Magdalenian skeleton from Cap-Blanc has been exhibited in 
an A-shaped case which was placed on view in Stanley Field Hall for 
several months. The exhibit is enlivened and rendered very instruc- 
tive by a series of flint implements from the Upper Paleolithic of 
France and by photographs illustrating the rock-shelter where the 
skeleton was discovered, and the frieze of horses carved on the wall 
of the cave. 

A selection of Mr. John Borden's Eskimo collection has been dis- 
played in an A-shaped case in Stanley Field Hall. The exhibits 
embrace jade adzes from Cape Prince of Wales; jade adze-heads from 
Point Hope; copper arrowheads, a copper and an iron knife, and a 
specimen of native copper from which needles are made, from Victoria 


















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Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 259 

Land, northern Canada; bone arrowheads and decorated bone 
needle-cases from the same area; four wooden masks, carved ivory 
drill-bows, ivory tobacco-pipes, and walrus tusks engraved with 
scenes; further, ivory human and animal figures, fish-hooks, har- 
poons, ice-picks, toggles, and toys. 

At the end of the year a selection of Madagascar material brought 
here by Assistant Curator Linton was installed in Stanley Field 
Hall as a temporary exhibit. Examples are shown of the best 
native weaving in wild and domestic silk, bast and raffia, and a num- 
ber of small objects including silver-mounted snuff-bottles from the 
Imerina tribe, wood-carvings of the Mahafaly tribe, brass work of the 
Bara tribe, and native jewelry, including a gold necklace which 
formerly was the property of a queen of the Sakalava in the northern 
part of the island. New labels on buff cards were prepared for Case 
11 (antiquities of Benin) in Stanley Field Hall. 

The Roman bronze table from Boscoreale with seven associated 
bronze vessels and two glass pitchers, formerly shown in Stanley 
Field Hall, has been reinstalled and placed in Edward E. and Emma 
B. Ayer Hall. 

The reinstallation of collections from the California Indians in 
Hall 6 has been completed by Assistant Curator Strong according to 
the plan outlined in the 1926 Report (p. 79). Eight additional 
cases have been placed on exhibition, containing clothing, games, 
household utensils, baskets, fishing implements, ceremonial and war 
equipment of the Klamath, Hupa, Yurok, Yokut and Pomo tribes. 
The total number of standard exhibition cases devoted to Calif ornian 
ethnology now amounts to seventeen. All these exhibits are com- 
pletely labeled and illustrated by photographs. 

The installation of Hall 9 devoted to South America was con- 
tinued in the beginning of the year by Assistant Curator Thompson. 
The remainder of the Calchaqui archaeological collection from Ar- 
gentina was placed on exhibition. This collection is the finest repre- 
senting this culture in the United States, and, with the exception of 
collections in Argentina, it may be safely said, in the world. A case 
of Inca pottery and stone work, which for lack of space had not 
previously been exhibited in this building, was added to Hall 9. Very 
interesting material from graves at Ancon, Peru, was reinstalled on 
light screens. A beginning was made with the reinstallation of the 
ethnological section, a case containing material from British Guiana 
being reinstalled in the newly adopted style. This work was con- 
tinued by Assistant Curator McGovem at the end of the year, who 

260 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

took charge of the installation of two cases of Gran Chaco ethnology, 
illustrating dress, personal ornaments and equipment for securing 
and preparing food. 

In Hall 8, now devoted exclusively to Mexican and Central Ameri- 
can anthropology, a case of Casas Grandes pottery was placed on 
exhibit. Casas Grandes culture, situated in the state of Chihuahua, 
northern Mexico, marks a local southern development of the Pueblo 
cultures of the Southwest of the United States. The exhibit em- 
braces two collections, one donated by Mr. Homer E. Sargent, the 
other presented to the Museum through General Pershing by Cap- 
tains Wright and Cooper. 

Several important additions were made to the East and West 
Galleries. The collection of South Chinese beadwork presented by 
Mrs. George T. Smith last year (1926 Report, p. 38) has been 
installed in a screen case. This unique collection consists of a large 
series of bead-embroidered money-belts, money-bags, pouches, spec- 
tacle-cases, slippers, bed-ornaments, and patterns for dresses. Archaic 
Chinese sacrificial bronze vessels and implements of the Bronze Age 
were effectively reinstalled in accordance with the newly adopted 
standard. To the former case has been added a series of rubbings 
taken by Chinese from famous ancient bronzes, at which they are 
unsurpassed masters. The great Chinese religious drama showing the 
ten purgatories formerly distributed over four cases has been installed 
in a built-in case at the south end of Hall 32. The entire performance 
is now concentrated in a single case divided into seven compartments. 
In Cases 32 and 33 of Hall 32 new-style labels have been substituted 
for the old ones. The dress of a Mongol woman with her jewelry, 
presented by Mrs. Charles B. Goodspeed, has been installed on a 
figure, and is shown together with another set of Mongol jewelry 
obtained by Dr. Laufer in 1910 on the Blackstone Expedition. 

During the year under review 35 cases of African ethno- 
logical material have been installed by Assistant Curator Hambly. 
Thirteen of these cases contain the extensive Cameroon collection 
acquired a few years ago and now installed for the first time. The 
remaining cases are reinstallations, but the material contained in 
these was carefully gone over, sifted, and selected with discrimination. 
The grouping of cases is geographical, the main divisions being 
Cameroon (13 cases). West Africa in general (3 cases), Benin (2 
cases), the Congo Basin (4 cases), Angola (1 case), Southeast Africa 
(4 cases) , Kenya Colony (4 cases) , Somaliland and the eastern Sudan 
(4 cases). Within these broad geographical areas the material has 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 261 

been arranged according to tribes whose industries, household tasks, 
rehgious behefs, and magical practices have been illustrated more or 
less completely as far as the material available permits. By exhibiting 
in a special case three life-size figures of Cameroon medicine-men with 
their equipment, prominence has been given to magical rites which 
are fundamental in primitive society. In the Cameroon section Cases 
1 and 2 illustrate masks and wooden figures, which are closely associ- 
ated with the religious life of many tribes within this area. Wooden 
masks and head-ornaments are indispensable paraphernalia used 
during ceremonial dances of secret societies, initiation lodges, and 
other tribal functions. Among the wooden effigies of human beings 
is one of particular interest, namely the doorkeeper, an image placed 
at the entrance to a small hut where the chief's skull is buried. In 
Case 3 skin-covered heads are of exceptional interest; for these, when 
not in use as part of a dancer's costume, are carefully concealed in 
small houses away from the sight of women. On the reverse side of 
the screen in this case have been arranged a series of articles, 
such as fibre costume, gong, pipe and staff, which are used by 
a reigning chief when celebrating the ceremony known as feeding 
the ghost of a former chief. In Cases 4 and 5 dealing with Came- 
roon warfare is displayed a variety of leather, wooden, and wicker 
shields. A richly carved war-canoe from Dualla is an unusual object, 
while ordinary equipment of men on the war-path is amply repre- 
sented by a variety of swords, daggers, spears, powder-flasks, life- 
preserving charms, clubs, bows and arrows, and also a very ancient 
type of flintlock gun. Household occupations of women are exhibited 
in Cases 6 and 7, shov/ing bags, baskets, wooden bowls, gourds, and 
pottery. This domestic material is followed by a collection of fish- 
traps and small cross-bows used for shooting small birds. Case 8 
contains a remarkably fine collection of beadwork including large 
gourds which serve for holding palm-wine, personal ornaments, and 
grotesque masks employed in death dances for driving away ghosts. 
Exhibitions of wood-carving (Cases 9 and 12) comprise several excel- 
lent examples of ornamental posts, window frames, and large upright 
drums. Handwork of many kinds is illustrated by objects assembled 
in Cases 10 and 11. Here may be found clothing, woven chiefly by 
men who use primitive looms; pipes of clay with beaded stems; 
carved staffs; ivory tusks; and ornamented drinking horns. Brass 
casting and iron work have received special attention, while artistic 
leather goods are exemplified by cushions, saddle-covers, and horse 
trappings. In proximity to the Cameroon collection are two cases of 

262 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

valuable cast bronze and carved ivory illustrating the life and in- 
dustries of Benin, a city which has for several centuries been as famous 
for its works of art as it has been notorious for human sacrifice. 
Material from the Congo is scanty in relation to the enormous area 
drained by that river, but in spite of this obvious difficulty four cases, 
each representing one principal culture area, have been installed. 
Zulu life has been represented in relation to warfare and personal 
ornament, while a series of well-carved staffs is an attractive feature 
of this exhibit. A small area near Mount Kenya, visited by Carl 
Akeley in 1896 and subsequent years, has been dealt with in Cases 
27-30 which present the warfare, hunting, handicrafts, and domestic 
work of the Masai, Akikuyu, and Wandorobo tribes. Finally the 
nomadic life of Somaliland and the Eastern Sudan is depicted in Cases 
31-34 by a collection of equipment for camels, mats used in house- 
building, clothing, personal ornament, spears, swords, shields, bows 
and quivers. This section also contains a few objects from the 
Dinkas and Shilluks, who are Nilotic Negroes dwelling near the banks 
of the Upper White Nile. All African exhibits have been illustrated 
by photographs, sketches, and watercolors. Owing to building altera- 
tions on the ground floor it has as yet been impossible to open the 
African Hall. The cases installed have been temporarily stored in 
the clerestories and, as soon as conditions permit, will be arranged 
in the hall assigned to them. 

The collection of Japanese Surimono in Frank W. Gunsaulus Hall, 
a gift of Miss Helen C. Gunsaulus, was withdrawn from exhibition in 
the latter part of the year. As the coloring of these prints is of great 
dehcacy and the pigments are apt to fade in course of time, it has 
been thought advisable in the interest of their preservation not to 
expose them any longer to the hazards of daylight. Four large port- 
folios have been specially made for these prints which are now kept in 
the Curator's office, where they are accessible to students interested 
in the subject. 

Four cases in Higinbotham Hall (Gem Room) were cleaned, and 
the exhibits rearranged. 

Material in the Room of Physical Anthropology has been defi- 
nitely arranged and classified. Each row of cabinets has been provided 
with printed labels framed under glass specifying the geographical 
area and tribes involved. 

A study room for the use of students has been made available in 
Room 39. It is well furnished with large working-tables and well 
lighted. The walls are lined by exhibition cases in which is displayed 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 263 

selected material from all parts of the world, with special regard to 
the needs of designers. They will find here neat baskets of the Ameri- 
can Indians, Mexican and Chinese pottery, Chinese bronzes, wood- 
carvings from Africa and Australia, and many other things. A series 
of skulls and skeletal material, and measuring instruments, are like- 
wise accessible in the room. The study room was frequented chiefly 
by students of physical anthropology such as Professor F. E. Wood 
who made a thorough study of Philippine and Peruvian skulls; Dr. H. 
Gray from the Institute of Juvenile Research, who studied problems 
of head heights; Dr. T. Michelson of the Bureau of American Ethno- 
logy, who made a series of measurements upon Blackfoot crania; Dr. 
G. Bergfors of the Swedish Race-biological Institute at the University 
of Upsala, who studied the Polynesian collections of skulls; and Dr. 
G. A. Montelius, head of the Department of Dentistry at the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota, who examined Hopi skulls with special reference 
to teeth. Copies of all measurements and observations made by 
these scholars have been retained on the departmental files. 

The arrangement of the ancient Egyptian and Coptic textiles 
obtained for the Museum by Professor James H. Breasted in 1925 
proved a complex task. As received from Egypt, the fabrics were 
mostly mounted on cardboard, and pieces that belong together had 
been frequently split up to make more units. Even when fragments 
of the same garment had been left together, they were in many cases 
assembled in quite hit-and-miss fashion. These fragments therefore 
had to be matched and rearranged to show the original make-up of 
the costumes from which they came. For better preservation, as well 
as to effect the necessary rearrangement, all fabrics and garments 
are being mounted on linen by a skillful seamstress engaged for this 

Material in all work-rooms and storage-rooms has been rear- 
ranged, and conditions improved. Room 30 has been cleared and set 
aside for study collections of African ethnology. Collections from 
India, Burma, and Ceylon were consolidated in Room 31. Room 66 
was cleared, a new storage rack added to it, and it is now used for 
American Indian baskets. Material in Room 65 was rearranged; it 
now contains Chinese, Tibetan, Kish, and Egyptian antiquities. Re- 
arrangements were likewise made in the Poison Room on the fourth 

Thirteen frames were made for Chinese paintings, and these were 
framed under glass; one frame was made for a large wall-map of 
Africa to be posted in the African Hall. 

264 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Considerable progress has been made by Modeler Prasuhn on a 
miniature group of a Menangkabau village of Sumatra. Six granaries 
with elaborate carved and colored designs and a large community 
house were completed for this group. A head was modeled and cast 
for the figure of a Mongol woman, and four life-size casts were made 
for the huge New Guinea dance-masks to be shown in Stanley Field 
Hall. Modeler Prasuhn also took part in the electro-chemical treat- 
ment of bronzes. 

In the Repair Section of the Department 396 objects were repaired 
or restored as follows: 9 pieces of painted pottery and 38 pieces of 
plain pottery, bone, and stone from Kish; 197 pieces of Peruvian, 21 
pieces of Calchaqui, and 155 pieces of Mexican pottery; 6 Chinese 
paintings, 33 Chinese bronzes and jades, 2 Tibetan statues, 8 objects 
of pewter, 3 Roman bronzes and 1 Egyptian alabaster vase ; of ethno- 
logical material 27 African, 16 South American, and 12 Madagascar 
objects; and 8 bones. 

Seven Egyptian bronze figures and one Calchaqui bronze axe 
were cured of malignant patina, and 24 Egyptian fabrics were treated. 
A Chinese bronze vessel affected by malignant patina was restored by 
means of the electro-chemical process. A total of 10,910 identification 
numbers were marked on specimens. Forty-five exhibition cases were 
poisoned during the year. Material stored in the Poison Room was 
taken care of in the usual manner, and is in excellent condition. 

Botany. — In 1927 new interest was added to the exhibit of 
native plants in Stanley Field Hall by the support of the Wild Flower 
Preservation Society. This organization, which had given its en- 
dorsement to the undertaking during previous seasons, this year 
contributed financial aid. The Society, through its treasurer, Miss 
C. B. Neely, took an active interest by way of encouragement 
and helpful suggestions with the result that the exhibit was main- 
tained by the Assistant Curator of Taxonomy even more success- 
fully than during 1924 and 1926, as described and illustrated in 
the Annual Reports for those years. Among the several thousand 
specimens exhibited, representing about 300 species of wild flow- 
ers found within a radius of 50 miles of the city limits, special 
mention may be made of such rarities (for the district) as the 
Pitcher Plant, the White, Yellow and Showy Lady's Slipper, the 
Grass Pink and Pogonia, three species of Fringed Orchids, Ladies' 
Tresses, the Cranberry plant in fruit, the curious Indian Pipe and the 
related red-colored Pine Drops — all worth knowing by their common 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 265 

names at least. That the exhibit served as a means of interesting city 
children and their parents in our native plants was obvious from the 
attention it attracted and the inquiries it prompted. A widespread 
interest in our native plants is a prerequisite to the success of all 
efforts to secure their conservation. Many of the rarer species were 
replaced where collected, in most cases on private property. Special 
thanks in this connection is due to Mr. Ralph B. Bradford and Miss 
Mary Bremer, Gary, Indiana, owners of Dune Forest, Porter, Indiana, 
and to Mr. William A. Wirts and his associates, Mr. A. P. Melton and 
Mr. C. R. Kuss, proprietors of Dunes Acres, Inc., at Mineral Springs, 
Indiana. The latter property, especially, harbors certain species 
found nowhere else in the vicinity of Chicago, and the private club 
that owns it is to be congratulated on conserving the natural vege- 

Some hundreds of labels printed during the year have been placed, 
and many new specimens have been added to the exhibits. The most 
important single new exhibit is a Tucum Palm from Dutch Guiana, 
secured by the Stanley Field Guiana Expedition of 1922. This well- 
preserved dried specimen has found a place in a special case in the 
center of Hall 25. It consists of essentially the entire top of the tree 
with its crown of spiny leaves among which may be seen an unopened 
flower spadix and a cluster of fruit projecting in characteristic 
fashion. The terminal part of the leaves has had to be cut away for 
economy of space, but what remains of them gives a good idea of their 
appearance. The striking feature of this palm is its armament of 
spines which covers every part of the plant except the fruits, and ap- 
pears particularly formidable on the trunk, of which a five-foot length 
is displayed. 

A large number of palm specimens obtained by the Captain 
Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition of 1926 have been added during 
the year to the exhibits in this hall. Notable among them are fruit- 
clusters of a Brazilian Iriartea, of some Attaleas, Scheeleas, Pseudo- 
cocos, as well as many specimens of palms foreign to Brazil but 
grown in the Botanic Garden of Rio de Janeiro and obtained through 
the courtesy of its Director, Dr. Pacheco Leao, by members of the 
Captain Marshall Field Expedition. 

Two well-preserved flowering and fruiting stems of a Nipa Palm, 
secured from the Georgetown Botanic Garden, are to be credited to 
the Stanley Field Guiana Expedition. These have been installed in a 
case together with a fine series of specimens of the Ivory-nut Palm 
brought together from various places. 

266 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

Among other additions of palm exhibits installed during the year 
is a fine reproduction of a mature cluster of the fruit of the Betel 
Palm, the kernels of which furnish the well-known masticatory "betel 
nut." The original of this was grown in Paramaribo, Surinam, where 
the Javanese element introduced by the Dutch is responsible for the 
frequent planting of the palm. 

In the Hall of Plant Life a number of other installations have 
been made, and some reinstallations have been made possible by the 
addition of new material resulting for the most part from the repro- 
duction of various plants and the preparation of other specimens in 
the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories, partly based 
on collections made by the Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Ex- 
pedition of 1926, and partly on local material secured near Chicago. 

A preserved branch of the South American Araucaria imhricata 
obtained during the previous year has made possible a reinstallation 
of the Auracaria case and a better display of the essential character- 
istics of this group of plants. The nature of the material permits the 
use of actual dried specimens for exhibition. Unfortunately the 
number of plants that need little preparation for their display is very 

Among the plants reproduced for the Hall of Plant Life, one of the 
most important during the year is a characteristic piece of Black 
Pepper vine in fruit. This was grown in the Botanic Garden of Rio 
de Janeiro where it was obtained, though of East Indian origin. 
Molds of the fresh leaves, color studies and photographs made on the 
spot, together with a section of the vine preserved in formalin 
solution, served as material for the production of a replica of the 
living plant in the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories. 

A young cinnamon plant, likewise secured in Rio de Janeiro, was 
reproduced and added to the case containing the laurel family. A re- 
production of a handsome flowering branch of the well-known San- 
chezia nobiliSy the "folha da independencia" native to Ecuador, one 
of the most striking of the Acanthaceae of tropical South America, 
was added in the space reserved for this family. A reproduction of 
Cassava or Mandioca plant, based on material also secured in South 
America, was not completed in time to be installed during the year. 
To the exhibit of Cucurbitaceae, the Cucumber or Gourd family, was 
added a piece of the vine of Trichosanthes anguina with its extra- 
ordinary snake-like orange and red fruits, this from a specimen grown 
in the Garfield Park Greenhouses. A branch of Sugar Maple repro- 
duced during the year served as the occasion for the addition of the 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VII, Plate XXXIII 


A fruit-cluster of an East Indian palm grown in the Botanic Garden of Uio de Janeiro 

Obtained by Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition, 1926 

One twenty-fourth natural size 



Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 267 

maple family to those already in the hall. A specimen of Venus 
Fly-Trap, Dionaea muscipulaj was secured in season and reproduced 
for the exhibits; likewise the Indian Pipe, Monotropa uniflora. 

To the generosity of Mr. Pray of the Department of Zoology are 
due several contributions during the year to the exhibit of fleshy 
fungi — viz., reproductions of an Ink Cap Mushroom, a Polypore and 
a Clitocybe, all common species in the Chicago region. The Depart- 
ment of Botany desires to record its indebtedness to Mr. Pray and 
its appreciation of his interest in fungi. 

One of the most notable single exhibits produced during the year 
is a group of epiphytic and parasitic plants which may be described 
as an aerial or treetop garden. It consists of a typical cluster of 
epiphytes from Demerara, a perching young strangler fig growing in 
the midst of a clump of large air plants or Bromeliads {Aechmea)^ to- 
gether with a flat-jointed cactus {Rhipsalis), an orchid (Dendrobium) 
and an aroid, the whole further complicated by the presence of a 
tropical mistle (Loranthus)^ while about the entire clump a colony of 
white ants or termites have built their arboreal nest. This was based 
on material and data secured by the Stanley Field Guiana Expe- 
dition and has been placed on exhibition in Stanley Field Hall. 

The output of plant reproductions for the botanical exhibits 
suffered somewhat early in the year by the employment for some 
time of almost the entire force of the Stanley Field Plant Repro- 
duction Laboratories on parts for a small scale model for the Carbo- 
niferous Forest group which has been undertaken for the north end 
of the Hall of Historical Geology. 

In connection with the plans for the ecological groups to be placed 
in the two ends of the Hall of Plant Life, the Acting Curator, accom- 
panied by Mr. Sella, visited the Snow Mountains in Wyoming for the 
purpose of locating a suitable and convenient collecting ground and to 
secure material for a group of alpine vegetation. This locality was 
suggested by Professor Nelson of the University of Wyoming. The 
trip was made late in the season, but a considerable number of 
alpine plants were still available and were collected. These furnish 
material for a beginning on this group, and the reproduction of these 
has occupied much of the glassblower's time during the latter part of 
the year. It is expected that further material and studies for this 
group may be obtained in the Rocky Mountains during the coming 
year. It is planned to represent the typical vegetation above the 
snow line with an alpine landscape for a background. With the 
assistance of Mr. Corwin a small scale model was prepared. 

268 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

In the plant economics exhibits in Hall 25 a collection of heads of 
37 commercial varieties of wheat grown in the United States, and 
corresponding samples of grain received in 1926 from the United 
States Bxireau of Plant Industry have been placed on exhibition in 
a table case together with explicit labels. 

Adjacent to the 37 modern commercial varieties of wheat are 
shown two samples of ancient wheat. One of these was found by the 
Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition in Jemdet Nazr, 
Mesopotamia, in 1926. This specimen of ancient Mesopotamian 
wheat, estimated to be 5,500 years old, was found during excavations 
of Sumerian remains. The wheat was contained in a painted jar, 
much blackened, supposedly by the fire which destroyed the ancient 
city of Jemdet Nazr, which lies eighteen miles northeast of Kish and 
some 65 miles from the present city of Baghdad. The charred 
condition of the kernels and the arid climate has undoubtedly been 
responsible for the preservation of this wheat, the most ancient in 

The other ancient wheat is Egyptian. Although slightly carbon- 
ized with age, it is much better preserved than the Mesopotamian. 
It is also of a different kind and has been identified as emmer 
( Triticum sativum dicoccum Hackel) . This wheat is about 4,600 years 
old, as it was found in two graves of the "Middle Kingdom" which 
existed about 1900 B.C. It is a gift of the Deutsche Orient-Gesell- 
schaft. It is significant to note that both these ancient wheats are 
apparently identical with varieties grown today after the lapse of 
more than 4,000 years and a corresponding number of generations 
of wheat plants. 

Eleven trays illustrating the official grain standards of the United 
States, obtained from the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, have 
been placed in the same table case with the commercial varieties of 
wheat and barley, and constitute a valuable acquisition to the econo- 
mic exhibits of the museum, for Chicago is the largest wheat market 
in the world, and the exhibits are yearly inspected by thousands of 
visitors directly connected with the production of wheat and other 
grains. This exhibit, which has been prepared with great care, shows 
the standard employed in grading grain. 

Fifteen commercial varieties of barley heads and grain, received 
from the United States Bureau of Plant Industry, have been placed 
on exhibition in the same case with the wheat varieties and grain 
standards. These represent all the main types of cultivated barley 
grown in this country, and their distinguishing characteristics are 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 269 

noted on the labels. There may be seen among them some ex- 
amples of successful results in plant breeding. 

The scale model of a modern flour mill in vertical section, donated 
last year by the Pillsbury Flour Mill Company, has been placed on 
exhibition and labeled to explain the course of the grain through the 
mill in process of manufacture. It has been installed along with 
properly labeled samples illustrating the steps in the process by 
which the wheat grain is broken up into flour, and properly labeled 
specimens of the various main types of flour. Most of the flour 
samples used were selected from the large assortment received last 
year from the Red Star Milling Company of Kansas. A figure of 
an enlarged wheat grain serves to indicate graphically the chemical 
composition, and the percentage of starch, gluten, oil, etc., found in 
wheat grain. 

The exhibit of corn which formerly occupied eight or nine cases 
has been reinstalled in two cases, one devoted to specimens of 
prehistoric and ancient corn, and corn of the North American Indians, 
and another showing the principal types of cultivated corn. In the 
former is corn which was used by the cliff dwellers, found in the ruins 
of the habitations of those early people in Arizona; corn of the mound 
builders, found in Ohio mounds; and mummy corn, from the ancient 
Peruvian graves at Ancon and Iquique, Peru. Alongside the ancient 
Inca corn is shown corresponding modem Peruvian corn, recently 
collected by the Captain Marshall Field Peruvian Expeditions, and 
the striking similarity is notable. In the same case is included some 
so-called pod, or reverted, corn which is sporadically encoun- 
tered in cultivated fields today. Seeds of Indian corn obtained from 
the North American Indians includes bright pink corn grown by the 
Arikara tribes; blue corn grown by the Zuni; and a type in which 
blue, yellow and red kernels appear, known as Fort Berthold squaw 
corn; as well as other Indian varieties. Many of these North American 
Indian corns were presented last year by O. H. Will and Company, 
Bismarck, North Dakota. There is a hybrid com grown at Wichert, 
Illinois, in which appear strains of various Indian corns, mixed with 
modern varieties. 

Indicative of the high esteem in which corn was held by the 
ancient peoples of Peru, there is in the collection a stone carving 
of an ear of corn, found among the remains of the Inca civilization 
at Cuzco, and a jar, 500 years old, shaped in the form of a Peruvian 
god of maize or of the harvest, with round grinning face and round 
body, from whose neck to waist are suspended ears of corn. This jar 

270 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

was found in the ruins left by the Uncay peoples in the Santo Valley 
of Peru. These ancient representations of corn are placed adjacent to 
modern Peruvian corn and show apparently no difference in appear- 

In the second case has been placed an exhibit of modern corn 
showing the six main types of corn cultivated today, namely: sweet 
corn, pop corn, starchy sweet corn, flint corn, dent corn and soft corn. 
Some ears of corn are shown in section, cut longitudinally and trans- 
versely to show the grains in section and in relation to the cob. 
Colored diagrams of kernel sections illustrate especially the charac- 
teristics of the different types. Most of the commercial corn shown is 
from the I. M. Thorburn Company, New York; Mr. I. M. Holder, La w- 
rens, Iowa: Mr. L. S. Mayer, State Experiment Station, Knoxville, 
Tennessee; Mr. W. H. Neal, Lebanon, Tennessee; Mr. Redfern, Yar- 
mouth, Iowa; the State Agricultural Experiment Station, Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana; and Mr. F. K. Crandall, State Agricultural Exper- 
iment Station, Kingston, Rhode Island. 

In a special case nearby there has been placed on exhibition a 
Peruvian bunch of corn, a typical small corn harvest from the Andes, 
collected by Mr. Macbride on the Captain Marshall Field Peruvian 
Expedition, 1922. One table case has been devoted to the display of a 
variety of products of the small grains, and kindred material such as 
strange types of bread from many parts of the world, beginning with 
an ancient Egyptian loaf found near the pyramids, various kinds of 
farinha and cassava cakes prepared by the natives of British Guiana 
and Paraguay, Klow Kow Niew and Cow Kliop cakes of Siam, piki 
bread of the Hopi Indians, a 28-pound loaf of Russian bread and 
and many other varieties. Among the objects added to the wheat 
products are sixteen varieties of macaroni, product of durum wheat, 
in as many different sizes and shapes, many greatly different from 
the familiar kind. All of these cases are additions to the economic 
series of food plants and their products. 

Adjoining the maize exhibit a case of sorghum and millet has 
been installed. Field Museum is thus able to show this interesting 
group of plants which are extensively grown in the Great Plains, 
especially in Oklahoma, Kansas and Texas. Sorghum syrup is one 
of the competitors of cane sugar in the United States, and is manu- 
factured chiefly in Tennessee. The plants of sorghum and millet used 
in the exhibit were grown at the Garfield Park Greenhouses from seed 
furnished by Field Museum. These plants serve to show the habit 
of growth, and they are shown surrounded by the fruiting heads 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 271 

of the principal varieties of sorghum and millet, together with speci- 
mens of their seeds. The fruiting heads and seeds of the sorghums 
were supplied through the courtesy of the Oklahoma Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 

Near the flour mill model is a case containing the stalks, grain and 
principal products of rye and barley. The use of rye for flour, whiskey 
and paper-making is described, and samples illustrative of such use 
are shown. Four bunches of barley stalks with matured grain of erect 
six-rowed barley, nodding six-rowed barley, two-rowed barley and 
beardless barley are exhibited; also tubes containing pearl barley, 
beer and barley flour. The stalks of barley and rye were donated by 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, while the manufactured products are 
gifts from the American Cereal Company and the Old Times Distil- 
ling Company. A general label states places in which rye and barley 
are grown, their antiquity, uses, and the countries of maximum pro- 

Adjoining the rye and barley exhibit is a similar one of oats, rice 
and their products. Headed stalks of the white awnless Tartar King 
Oats, the awned Swedish Oats Select and the black-hulled Joanette 
Oats are shown. These were given to Field Museum by the Idaho 
Agricultural Experiment Station. Through the courtesy of the Amer- 
ican Cereal Company some products such as rolled oats, oat meal and 
oat flour are exhibited. The United States Department of Agriculture 
has assisted by giving excellent matured stalks of the short-kerneled 
awnless Blue Rose Rice, the long-kerneled awnless Honduras Rice 
and the small round-kerneled awned Wataribune Rice, all of them 
more or less extensively cultivated in the United States. Out of more 
than 1,000 known varieties of rice these serve to show to the 
public the general habit of rice. Tubes containing unpolished rice, 
polished rice and rice flour are placed adjacent to the stalks. A gene- 
ral label for rice and a general label for oats placed in the case give 
information as to the climatic conditions suitable for these grains, 
principal regions of production, and uses and value for nutrition. 

In the central portion of Hall 25, near its west entrance, has been 
placed a case containing an exhibit which serves chiefly to call atten- 
tion to the general nature of the exhibits in the hall. In it is found 
the bunch of Peruvian corn mentioned above, suspended as is cus- 
tomary in that country. It consists of a mixture of differently colored 
and shaped varieties, and affords an interesting comparison with the 
more complete showing of corn in nearby cases. On the floor of the 
case is a group of ears of fancy colored dent corn from Missouri. 

272 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

In the reinstallation of economic botanical exhibits in Hall 25 
the method of installation initiated last year has been continued, all 
bottles and jars having been removed, as well as all trays above the 
level of the eye. The products, particularly the most perishable ones, 
those subject to change from oxidation, deliquescence or insect in- 
jury, have been hermetically sealed in glass tubes of suitable dia- 
meters, which vary somewhat with the products. These tubes set 
vertically, each properly supported in its own label block, provide a 
high degree of visibility as well as protection for the contents. The 
individual label block-support fastened to the back of the case per- 
mits the arrangement of the material in any manner desired in a 
vertical case; for example, in the form of a flowsheet, which was not 
possible with the linear series of trays and bottles on shelves. In the 
case of closely related products from the same source, their arrange- 
ment with reference to each other or in relation to their production 
or manufacture, adds greatly to the intelligibility and interest of 
their display. 

Many thousand specimens have been transferred from cardboard 
boxes and tin cans to screw-cap glass jars and poisoned. In this way 
they have been protected from fungi, rodent and insect injury, and 
their visibility has been increased. Each specimen, which heretofore 
had been identified only by a number referring to a catalogue entry, 
has had a label and index card made out for it and has been system- 
atically stored. Specimens treated in the above manner include 
wheat, oats, barley, rye, rice, millet, sorghum, corn, corn products, 
starch, sugar, beet products, macaroni, cassava products, the thou- 
sands of specimens of 72 plant families in Hall 29, and the palm 
material in Hall 25. 

The study collection of woods, consisting of several thousand 
hand specimens from the United States and foreign countries, was 
formerly stored under the lockers of the exhibition cases. They have 
now been brought together in one room on the third floor and 
arranged in storage cases in such manner that they are readily 
accessible. The present arrangement adopted in the case of this 
wood collection is geographical, which has the virtue for the time 
being of keeping separated the various lots received from various 
foreign countries, useful pro\asionally as long as many determinations 
are still uncertain. The arrangement of each geographical unit 
is, however, into plant families. 

Mr. Samuel J. Record, Professor of Forest Products in Yale 
School of Forestry, who has joined the staff of the Museum as Re- 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 273 

search Associate in Wood Technology, spent the month of August in 
supervising the organization of this reference collection, checking up 
and correcting the determination of the specimens. Their number 
was also considerably increased, partly by gift or exchange from the 
Yale School of Forestry, and partly by cutting pieces of suitable size 
from many large exhibition and storage specimens.. 

Plans were also made by Professor Record for many improve- 
ments in the exhibits in the wood halls, both of American and foreign 
woods. It is expected that with the cooperation of Professor Record, 
and his guidance, the wood collection will become of greatly in- 
creased importance and the exhibits more adequate and representa- 

Some of the exhibition specimens in the Hall of North American 
Woods (Millspaugh Hall) have been condemned as not representative 
of the best quality of lumber in present use, and these it has been 
decided to replace. Various associations, such as the American Wal- 
nut Growers' Association, and firms specializing in certain woods, 
have signified their willingness to cooperate in securing typical 
display material. 

The Department's activities in the herbarium were directed to the 
requirements of botanical investigation. In a rapidly growing her- 
barium (such as that of Field Museum, which now has over 570,000 
mounted sheets, ranking it in size among the most important 
herbaria of the world) there is a vast amount of routine clerical work 
connected with the preparation, organization, cataloguing and filing 
of collections, so that, this year as in previous years, the small staff 
has been occupied in keeping up with the work incident to the growth 
of the collections. The plant mounter attained the very satisfactory 
total of over 10,000 in number of specimens mounted. In addition he 
strapped many thousands of sheets needing this greater protection, 
and attended to the fumigation and storage of collections awaiting 
disposition. The Custodian of the Herbarium completely worked over 
the Moffat collection of higher fungi, totaling 1,128 examples, freshly 
labeling, boxing and filing them so that this important gift (recorded 
in the 1926 Report) is now available for reference. He also in- 
serted in the herbarium over 12,000 specimens, which involved the 
writing of several thousand folder-covers for the large number of 
genera and species not before represented in the collections. His 
cataloguing recorded over 8,000 new sheets, and in addition he wrote 
about 4,000 labels for duplicate specimens to be used in exchange. 
Most of these were for the Gaumer collections from Yucatan. Their 

274 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

labeling is now nearly completed, as many thousands were also writ- 
ten by the Librarian of the Department. The most important un- 
finished work in hand in the herbarium has for some years past been 
the Peruvian collections secured by Messrs. Macbride and Feather- 
stone in 1922 and by Mr. Macbride in 1923 on the two Captain 
Marshall Field Expeditions to the Peruvian Andes, supplemented 
since by additions made each year by Dr. Weberbauer. During the 
present year these have had to be held in abeyance in favor of the 
important Yucatan collections of Messrs. Millspaugh and Gaumer, 
which had remained untouched for over a dozen years. These have 
now been almost completely organized and made up in sets for dis- 
tribution. The study of the Yucatan material, begun by Dr. Mills- 
paugh in 1895 and resulting in publications by him in that year, and 
others in 1903 and 1904, was, at the request of the Museum, con- 
tinued by Dr. Paul C. Standley of the United States National 
Museum. In this connection Dr. Standley spent the month of 
September at the Museum checking over the entire Millspaugh- 
Gaumer collections of several thousand sheets, and making neces- 
sary changes in determinations in conjunction with the preparation 
of a list of the plants of Yucatan which is expeected to be ready 
for publication in 1928. During his stay in the Museum Dr. Standley 
also found time to name thousands of specimens from various parts 
of the world that heretofore had been stored awaiting determinations 
before they could be filed in the herbarium. Altogether he handled 
some 8,000 sheets, naming or renaming most of them. The Depart- 
ment records its appreciation of Dr. Standley's work, which thus 
added a large number of sheets to the collection available for reference. 

The only specimens sent out in exchange from the herbarium 
during the year were 42 co-types of Peruvian plants in return for 
similar material from the Museum at Berlin-Dahlem, and 103 dupli- 
cates to the Gray Herbarium in exchange for determinations. From 
the loan records kept in the Department, it appears that the more 
important loans include the following: 

Fifty sheets of Bidens to the University of Iowa; 220 South Amer- 
ican plants, including 48 specimens of Heliotropiumj to Dr. I. M. 
Johnston of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University; 78 Labiatae 
to Dr. Carl Epling, University of California, Southern Branch; 376 
South American Compositae to Dr. S. F. Blake, United States 
National Museum ; and numerous smaller loans. Most of these loans 
represent further progress on the part of specialists in their study of 
the Peruvian collections. 

























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Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 275 

There remains for mention one other important loan — 231 lichens 
to the late Professor Bruce Fink of Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, 
well-known lichenologist, who last year worked over the Museum 
collection of lichens and whose death is recorded regretfully. 

Geology. — To the exhibit of South American minerals and ores 
in Stanley Field Hall, a number of specimens and photographs were 
added from the collections made by the Associate Curator in Brazil 
in 1926. These additions chiefly illustrate Chilean and Bolivian cop- 
per and tin ores and minerals, and those of the Chilean nitrate-pro- 
ducing areas. A number of specimens of gems received by gift during 
the year were added to the Higinbotham Hall exhibits. These in- 
cluded specimens of chrysoprase, amber, opal and precious ortho- 
clase and spodumene. 

In Hall 34, devoted to systematic minerals and meteorites, most 
of the specimens presented by Mr. W. J. Chalmers during the year 
were installed in their appropriate places in the crystal and systematic 
collections. The large beryl crystal collected by the Curator in Maine 
was also installed here. A special exhibit of agate, numbering about 
40 specimens and illustrating many features described in the Museum 
leaflet on Agate which was published during the year, was installed 
in a wall case in this hall. The principal varieties of agate, based on 
differences of pattern, are illustrated by cut specimens, as are also 
natural and artificial colorings of agate and agates in the rough as 

Change of the color of the case interiors in this hall to conform to 
that adopted for the other halls has been carried on during the year as 
opportunity permitted. This has now been completed for all cases 
with sloping tops, sixteen in number. For this work it was neces- 
sary to remove all the specimens and label and reinstall them. This 
involved the double transfer of over 2,000 specimens and labels. 

A number of changes were made in the installation of the relief 
maps in Buckingham Hall, chiefly by providing inclined bases for 
mounting. These facilitate observation of the maps, both by bring- 
ing them nearer to the eye of the observer and by lessening reflections 
from the cover glasses. Considerable economy of floor space is also 
afforded by this method of installation. The maps of the Grand 
Canyon, of the states of Missouri, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, New Jersey and New York, of the Catskill Mountains and 
of the Chattanooga District were mounted in this way. Indivi- 
dual tables were made for the relief maps of Illinois and Chicago and 

276 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

the maps installed on them, likewise in an inclined position. The 
saving in space gained by these changes of installation made it pos- 
sible to remove one of the map tables from the hall and give its place 
to the model of the Virginia Natural Bridge, thus providing better 
lighting for the latter. All of the small relief maps, eleven in number, 
which had hitherto been scattered, were installed on one table. 

Several specimens collected by the Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic 
Expedition of 1926 were installed in cases in the structural geology 
division of this hall. These specimens included three large slabs of 
ripple-marked sandstone from Nova Scotia, two specimens showing 
joint structure, and one of contorted gneiss from Indian Harbor, 
Labrador; two specimens of veins from Battle Harbor, Labrador, and 
one large specimen of conglomerate from Nova Scotia. Three speci- 
mens of calcareous tufa and one of dendrites from Chile, collected by 
the Captain Marshall Field Brazilian Expedition of 1926, were also 
installed here, and to the case of cave products in the same hall were 
added three recently obtained specimens of stalagmites from Italy. 

In this hall the work of changing the color of the case backgrounds 
has been started. Four cases of the systematic rock collection have 
been dismantled for this purpose, the screens painted and the speci- 
mens reinstalled. 

Owing to the proposed change of color to be made in the case 
backgrounds and labels of the economic sections in Hall 36 and Skiff 
Hall, and the entire removal and reinstallation of specimens which 
this will involve, comparatively few changes in installation in these 
halls were made during the year. The interiors of two cases in Hall 
86, containing exhibits of peat and its products, were recolored, and 
the specimens were rearranged and some added, the most important 
being a large mass of sphagnum peat from Esthonia. To the petro- 
leum exhibit there were added the large mass of oil-bearing sand re- 
ceived during the year and new petroleum products presented by the 
Standard Oil Company (Indiana). Several of the lubricating and 
other oils made from petroleum, which had been on exhibition and had 
deteriorated, were replaced by fresh specimens also presented by the 
Standard Oil Company (Indiana). Several specimens of volcanic 
sulphur from the Andes were added to the exhibit of sulphur, and 
specimens of other South American products which were collected by 
the Associate Curator were added to the corresponding exhibits. The 
latter included chiefly specimens of niter, salt and guano. Minor 
revisions were made in the exhibits of tin, zinc, copper and silver ores. 
To illustrate the lightness of metallic beryllium, a metal now coming 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 277 

into commercial use, a small balance was made on which is shown a 
prism of iron that is equalized in weight by a prism of beryllium 
nearly five times as large. 

In preparation for changes in installation in Skiff Hall, much 
economic material which had been held in temporary storage was 
assorted and placed in trays so that selection of specimens for exhi- 
bition may be more readily made. 

The munificent gift contributed by Mr. Ernest R. Graham for the 
purpose of making important additions to the Hall of Historical 
Geology has enabled work to be begun which will bring about a 
considerable reorganization of the installation in this hall, now known 
as Graham Hall. 

One of the most important features to be added will be a con- 
tinuous frieze of paintings around the walls of the hall. These paint- 
ings are to represent typical life and scenery of successive geologi- 
cal periods. They are to be comprised in 28 panels, fourteen of 
which will be approximately 25x9 feet in size and fourteen 11x9 feet. 

The ser\'ices of Mr. Charles R. Knight, the well-known artist who 
has specialized in this field, were fortunately secured for the execution 
of these paintings. He has already completed four and they have been 
given temporary exhibition in the hall. These represent the following 
subjects: The Beginnings of Life, Egg-Laying Dinosaurs, Moas of 
New Zealand and Australian Giant Kangaroos and Diprotodons. 

There is also contemplated for the hall preparation of eleven 
groups, modelled in three dimensions, by which the life of the past 
will be further visualized and its form restored. The construction of 
one of these groups, that representing a forest of the Carboniferous 
Period, was begun by Dr. Dahlgren during the year and considerable 
progress made. A working model on the scale of one inch to a foot was 
first made. A technique was then developed adapted to the faithful 
reproduction of the character of the fossil plants. The surface mark- 
ings of the giant club-moss stems which formed the trunks of the 
forest trees have been transferred wholesale by mechanical means 
to their reconstructed counterparts which will make up a large 
part of this forest group. There are many difficulties and new pro- 
blems of technique, as well as of paleobotanical science, to be solved 
or disposed of in the course of such an undertaking, but it is expected 
that with the promising beginning made, the end of another year will 
see this group far along toward completion. 

The arrangement of the paintings and groups in the hall, will, like 
that of the specimens exhibited, be in chronological|order, corres- 

278 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

ponding with that of geological periods, and will illustrate the gradual 
expansion and diversification of life as well as the rise and fall of 
species, which took place during successive stages of the earth's 

In order to secure uniform and accurate lighting for the paintings 
and specimens, it is intended to use artificial light only in the 
hall. Not only will the paintings and groups be lighted in this way, 
but each of the large cases of fossils will have a special series of lights. 
Most of the wires for this lighting have already been laid. 

In preparation for the changes to be made in the hall, the entire 
group of fifteen windows on the east side was bricked up and plas- 
tered, and the windows on the west side were covered with tightly- 
fitting composition board of a color harmonizing with that of the 
exterior of the building. During the progress of this work the exhibits 
were moved to the center of the hall, but changed in position so as to 
allow the cases to be viewed by visitors and at the same time permit 
the alterations to be carried on. During a period of several weeks 
allowed for the drying of the plaster the cases were returned to their 
former positions. At the end of this time the cases were again removed 
to the center of the hall and the hall closed for painting. The walls 
and ceiling were then cleaned and painted, and the hall was made 
ready for installation of the paintings and other exhibits. 

In order to provide space at the south end of the hall for three of 
the groups, five upright and two sloped-top cases were removed from 
that area. Of these, three were moved outside the hall; the others 
were transferred to new positions within the hall. 

As in the other halls of the Department, the color of the case 
interiors is being changed to buff. In connection with this work it has 
been found desirable to line the backs of the cases with composition 
board and to incline the upper shelves. Supporting brackets are thus 
made less conspicuous and a better visibility of the specimens is 
obtained. These alterations make it necessary to remove all speci- 
mens and reinstall them. The cases in which these alterations have 
thus far been made are: one of European Quaternary Mammals, two 
of American fossil elephants, one of Rancho La Brea fossils, two of 
South American fossil mam^mals, and one of dinosaur restorations. 

The large skull and tusks with lower jaws of the Mastodon found 
near Rensselaer, Indiana and received early in the year were, after 
preparation, mounted upon a base similar to those employed for other 
large mounts of this character and installed with the other North and 
South American Mastodon specimens at the north end of the hall. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 279 

A base was also made for one of the large trunks of Devonian trees 
collected in New York in 1926, and this was installed in the Devo- 
nian section of the hall. As fast as prepared, specimens of the South 
American fossil mammals collected by the Captain Marshall Field Ex- 
pedition to Argentina have been installed in the two cases devoted to 
this purpose in this hall. Important specimens of this group added 
during the year include a skull and other parts of the rare tapir-like 
Homalodontotherium, lower jaws of the seldom obtained Astrapan- 
otus, upper and lower jaws of the elephant-like Pyrotherium, and a 
skull and parts of a skeleton of Eucinepeltus. An excellent skull 
from Texas of the Permian amphibian Eryops was also installed 
in the Permian exhibit. 

The walls and ceilings of the office and laboratory of the Curator 
and of the Department library have been cleaned and painted. In 
Room 121 of the Department library, which had been darkened 
by covering the skylight, large lights were installed, and the 
lighting of Room 119 of this library was changed so as to provide 
individual lights for each alcove instead of the general illumination 
previously used. Room 120, devoted to general study collections, 
was also furnished with more artificial light in order to compensate 
for covering the skylight. The tray racks in this room were fitted with 
89 full-sized steel doors in order to protect the contents of the trays 
from dust and other possible injury. Each door was provided with a 
neat label holder, and labels indicating the contents of the trays were 
provided for these. Similar doors, label holders and labels were pro- 
vided for the tray racks containing the vertebrate paleontology study 
collections in Rooms 101 and 102. There were 60 of these doors. The 
tray racks in the laboratory of invertebrate paleontology. Room 110, 
were also provided with similar doors, seventeen in number. A large 
cement-walled room, capable of being hermetically sealed, was con- 
structed on the ground floor of the building for the purpose of storing 
the field bundles of vertebrate paleontology. Since the exigencies of 
field work sometimes require the use of flour paste in wrapping the 
bundles, this room affords a place where such bundles can be protected 
from mice and other vermin which might have infested them during 
their period of transit or subsequently. Being air-tight, the room can 
at any time be fumigated and any vermin destroyed. Three tiers of 
plank shelving were built entirely around the interior of this room, 
thus affording space for storing the bundles. Sixty-one boxes of fossils 
collected by the Captain Marshall Field Paleontological Expedition 
to Argentina were unpacked and their contents distributed in this 

280 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

room during the year, the bundles being placed serially according 
to field numbers, so as to permit easy selection of any desired number. 

In the paleontological laboratory the following specimens were 
prepared for exhibition: various parts of the great birds, Phoro- 
rachus and Physornis, and two smaller birds; upper jaws, with 
dentition, of the elephant-like Pyrotherium; lower jaws of Astrapa- 
notus; skull and three-fourths of a skeleton of Hapalops; skull and 
two-thirds of a skeleton of Homalodontotherium; skull and jaws of 
Equus Andeum, and skull and jaws of a young adult Mastodon 
Americanus. The preparation of two skeletons of the large South 
American ground-sloth, Scelidotherium, was partially completed. 

All of the above specimens, except that of Mastodon, were South 
American fossil vertebrates collected by the Captain Marshall Field 
Paleontological Expeditions to Argentina and Bolivia. 

In the chemical laboratory, complete quantitative analyses were 
made of the Coldwater and Navajo No. 2 meteorites. The nickel 
content of another Arizona meteorite was also determined. Partial 
analyses of several rocks and minerals for the purpose of identification 
were also made. Work on the restoration, by the Fink electrical pro- 
cess, of a number of oxidized bronzes from Kish, has been carried on 
at intervals during the year, with results that continue to be eminent- 
ly satisfactory, even with some objects so decomposed that their 
restoration seemed hopeless. Some analyses of archaeological speci- 
mens and some of industrial substances used in the museum building 
were also made in this laboratory. The Curator and Associate Cura- 
tor made a number of experiments which resulted in evolving a 
satisfactory method for covering the windows in Graham Hall. 

Besides constructing bases for the Mastodon skull and Devonian 
trees, Preparator Legault made frames for ten large Carboniferous 
trees for the Carboniferous Forest group. He also polished fourteen 
large sections of meteoric irons. Of these eleven were etched. 

The Curator, besides assisting in the preparation of a leaflet on 
Agate which was published during the year, completed the text of one 
on Famous Diamonds. 

Associate Curator Nichols prepared a leaflet on Portland cement. 
Assistant Curator Roy prepared a leaflet with the title, "How Old 
are Fossils?" which was published during the year. He also com- 
pleted a paper describing a number of new specimens of inverte- 
brate fossils. These were chiefly specimens contained in the Borden 
collection or in collections made by Associate Curator Nichols in 
South America in 1926. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 281 

Zoology. — Notable improvements and additions to the zoolo- 
gical exhibits were made during the year. Especially good progress 
was made in the production of large mammal groups and in reinstal- 
lations to conform to plans for special halls of such groups. 

Hall 22, devoted to the larger mammals of Africa, was dedicated 
to the late Carl E. Akeley by vote of the Board of Trustees, and will 
be known as Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall. Early in the year, a new 
group for this hall was completed and installed. This is a group of 
the graceful antelopes known as the Uganda Kob. It contains five 
animals collected and presented by Messrs. John T. McCutcheon 
and Fred M. Stephenson. They are represented on open grassy 
veldt in gradual motion as part of a herd feeding. The group was 
prepared by Mr. Leon L. Pray. 

Another important addition to the display of large African mam- 
mals is the Hippopotamus which was finished and placed temporar- 
ily in a prominent position in Stanley Field Hall. It is a single animal 
of large size, prepared by Mr. Leon L. Walters by the so-called "cel- 
luloid" process of reproduction heretofore employed mainly in pre- 
parations of reptiles and amphibians. The material used in this case | 
is cellulose acetate, and the result is a completely lifelike presentation ; 
of an animal which has never before been satisfactorily prepared for 
museum exhibition. Fine details in the texture of the skin and lifelike 
translucent color effects are fully achieved and, although the com- 
pleted specimen is almost wholly artificial, it is far superior to any 
preparation in which the skin itself is preserved. Its strength and 
durability seems assured, and these features serve to recommend it 
further. It is not a model in the usual sense, but a reproduction in 
which the use of an actual specim.en is essential to the process. 

In Hall 16, habitat groups of large American mammals, two 
new groups were installed and three others were transferred from open 
fxoor cases and reinstalled in built-in spaces with painted backgrounds 
and well-controlled lighting. This hall now contains eleven finished 
groups of high quality and permanence, and the twelfth, a group of 
Glacier Bears, which will complete the east half of the hall, is far 
advanced in preparation. The two new groups installed in 1927 are 
those of the Olympic or Roosevelt Elk and the Mule Deer. The Elk 
group, collected and prepared by Mr. Julius Friesser, is a large one of 
great beauty, occupying a space of 24 feet and including five large 
majestic animals. The painted background depicts a scene in the 
luxuriant forests of western Washington, and the accessories of the 
foreground not only include faithful reproductions in wax of the small- 

282 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

er plants and flowers of the forest floor, but several actual trunks of 
large forest trees standing in natural positions. The Mule Deer 
group reproduces a scene on the famous Kaibab Plateau of Arizona 
near the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. A family group of deer are 
shown, a large buck, two does, and two spotted fawns, pausing before 
they start down a trail leading into the canyon, the vivid colors of 
which appear on the background. The group was collected and pre- 
pared by Mr. C. J. Albrecht and the background was painted by 
Staff Artist C. A. Corwin from personal studies made in the field. 
The reinstalled groups in Hall 16 are those of the Alaska Moose, 
Pronghorn Antelope, and Sonora Grizzly, all of which are greatly 
improved in their new positions with new paintings as backgrounds 
and new conditions of lighting and arrangement. 

The exhibition of mammals was further improved by the com- 
plete elimination of old style cases from Hall 15, and some alterations 
were made possible in the systematic collections shown there. Four 
cases of mammals were completely reinstalled in this hall and minor 
changes were made elsewhere. 

Two new cases of fishes were finished and placed in Hall 18. One 
of these contains sharks obtained on recent expeditions, and the other 
is devoted to ganoids, garpikes, etc. Two old style cases were re- 
moved from this hall, and extensive substitution of light colored labels 
for black ones was carried on throughout the hall. For further ex- 
pansion of the exhibit of fishes, Taxidermist Pray completed the 
preparation of 80 specimens which are awaiting installation. 
These include rays, skates, and a variety of small food and game 

Development of the systematic exhibit of birds was continued, 
and, despite a considerable absence of Taxidermist Hine in the field, 
one case of large waterbirds was finished and installed. It contains 
no less than 54 specimens of 50 different species consisting of freshly 
mounted or carefully renovated specimens of gulls, auklets, loons, 
grebes, and their allies. The extinct Great Auk, of which the Museum 
does not possess a specimen, is represented by a replica manufactured 
from the feathers of other birds, but presenting the true appearance 
of the species. A considerable number of additional birds were 
mounted during the year to be utilized in later installations. Three 
cases containing Abyssinian paintings of birds by the late Louis A. 
Fuertes, presented to the Museum by Mr. C. Suydam Cutting, were 
installed in Stanley Field Hall. At the same time a case of Birds of 
Paradise was removed from this hall to Hall 21. 



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Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 283 

The preparation of reproductions of reptiles and amphibians in 
pyroxylin and cellulose acetate has continued. A number of specimens 
prepared from field molds secured on the Captain Marshall Field 
Central American Expedition have been completed, but their ex- 
hibition has been delayed. 

Improvements in the care and arrangement of reference collec- 
tions and in efficient handling and disposition of incoming material 
have received attention. Sixteen new steel cases for the storage of 
birdskins, as yet unprovided with trays, were placed in Room 76, and 
the same number for mammals were received in Room 77. In the 
division of reptiles, doors were provided for the storage cases, and the 
metal tanks used for large specimens were equipped with movable 

The osteologist and the tanners have continued with their work 
at the usual rate, but owing to the large accessions from expeditions, a 
considerable number of skulls for cleaning and certain skins of large 
mammals for tanning have been sent to outside agencies. 

The preparation of the long delayed exhibit of North American 
butterflies received attention, but no permanent installations were 
made. The exhibit of scorpions and centipedes was subjected to 
revision and prepared for reinstallation. Much work of a routine 
order occupied the time of the staff. The giving of information to the 
public directly and through correspondence, and the general demands 
of all sorts were greatly increased over former years. The books of 
the departmental library were rearranged to accommodate extensive 
additions, the equipment returned from expeditions was classified 
and stored in a special room, specimens were selected and provided as 
photographic subjects for postcards, storage cases were rearranged 
practically throughout the Department, and much work of a mis- 
cellaneous character was done. 


For fifteen years, since 1912, the date it began to function, this 
Department of the Museum has prepared small, portable exhibition 
cases of natural history and economic subjects, and made loans of 
them to the schools of Chicago. Up to the present time 1,020 such 
cases have been prepared, and are now available for school purposes. 
Fifty-five of them were prepared during the period under review. In 
addition to the cases completed during the past year there are also 
a number of them in various stages of preparation. In the total 
number of completed cases there are 350 botanical, geological and 

284 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

zoological subjects. Members of the staff of this Department install 
all of its cases, collect natural history specimens, and prepare them 
for exhibition. When this, and the nature and scope of the work they 
have done are considered, the Curator believes there is justification 
for the pride and gratification he has in the result that has been 
accomplished by this Department. By the middle of 1913 only enough 
cases had been prepared to loan to six schools. At the present time 
there are 386 schools in Chicago that daily make use of the cases 
prepared by this Department. Of these 360 are public ones, five 
private, four Roman Catholic, seven are Y.M.C. A. branches, three 
are community settlements, two are boys' clubs, three are branches of 
the Chicago Public Library, one is an orphan asylum and one is a 
reformatory^ for boys. During the present school-year (1927-1928) 
cases are being loaned to fifteen more schools than during the last 
school-year. The past year, as in previous ones, cases were loaned 
to schools on scheduled deliveries made by this Department's 
two motor-trucks. In making these deliveries last year a total of 
approximately 12,000 miles was traveled. In order to maintain 
regularity of loans to the 386 listed schools, 772 cases were in daily use 
by them. In following the policy of the Museum in furthering and 
broadening the educational work of this Department, twelve of its 
cases were loaned to the Art Institute of Chicago during July and 
August for use in its juvenile classes. The Superintendent of the 
Municipal Pier requested the loan of a number of cases for exhibition 
on the pier during the summer months. Twenty-four of them were 
sent and were prominently displayed there. At the request of the 
Superintendent of the United Charities of Chicago twelve cases were 
sent to Camp Algonquin, a camp for under-nourished children of 
Chicago, where they were displayed during the summer. The manage- 
ment of the Outdoor Life Exposition held in the Coliseum during 
May asked for and was loaned for exhibition fifteen cases of game 
birds and their enemies. Six cases were exhibited at the Merit Badge 
exposition of the Boy Scouts held in the First Regiment Armory 
during February. During the summer months several cases were 
loaned to each of the several branches of the Y.M.C. A. for use in 
their summer schools. 


During the past year, as in previous ones, classes in research from 
the Art Institute of Chicago were given instruction at the Museum 
by members of the staff of the Institute. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 285 

The popularity of these classes is evidenced by their steady in- 
crease in enrollment, which now amounts to several hundred students. 
Great benefits are derived by the students from study of the ex- 
tensive and varied collections in the Museum, and the notable re- 
sults obtained by these classes in their research work in this Insti- 
tution are highly encouraging both to the students, and to their 
instructors. Heretofore only the first year students from the Art 
Institute participated in these studies, but this year classes of 
advanced students of the Institute visited the Museum, and their 
work especially reveals the unlimited resources and potential value 
of art research in a natural history museum. 


Publicity.- — Through expansion of its publicity efforts the Mu- 
seum has become more firmly established as an important source of 
news, news features and news photographs, to which the newspapers 
and the national press services look for a constant supply of inter- 
esting and informative material. The Division of Public Relations 
was reorganized in July, and now operates, in effect, as a news bureau, 
gi^dng world-wide circulation to publicity matter on the aims, 
functions and activities of the Institution. News stories designed to 
promote interest in the exhibits, and containing a direct invitation to 
the public to visit the Museum, have been broadcast, as in the past. 
Making public through the press the work of expeditions, research 
by the scientific staff, new installations and reinstallations, changes 
in the Museum building, publications issued by the Museum, 
appointments to the personnel and other such matters has been 
continued on an increasing scale. 

As heretofore, the principal efforts have been directed upon local 
publicity, in order to reach residents of Chicago and its environs, and 
visitors to the city. These local efforts have been expanded by 
supplying the Museum's news service to a list of 60 community and 
neighborhood newspapers in various parts of Chicago, 53 foreign 
language newspapers of the city, and 50 suburban newspapers 
covering all principal suburbs, towns and cities within a 50-mile 
radius of Chicago, as well as to the seven major daily newspapers 
of the city. 

By continuance of its national and international publicity, the 
name and activities of Field Museum have been kept before the eyes 
of the world in general, as well as the local public. The cooperation 
extended by newspapers and news agencies, locally, nationally and 

286 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

internationally, which has contributed to the success of these efforts, 
is herewith given grateful recognition. 

Efforts to acquaint strangers in the city with the ways to reach 
the Museum were continued. As in past years, various advertis- 
ing media were generously placed at the disposal of the Museum 
without charge, and this opportunity is taken to extend the gratitude 
of the Institution to the donors of the space. Other media of publicity 
which have given attention to the Museum and its activities include 
general and popular magazines, scientific publications, trade journals, 
moving picture newsreels, and radio stations. 

Press Publicity. — The number of news stories emanating di- 
rectly from the Museum during the year totalled 246, or an average 
of nearly five each week; the Museum also supplied 153 photographs 
and groups of photographs to newspapers and news agencies. Each 
of these was printed in several of Chicago's daily newspapers ; many 
were printed in all. They were given a large amount of space also in 
the community, suburban and foreign language groups of newspapers. 
The majority of the stories, and many of the photographs, were given 
nationwide circulation by news agencies, and printed in hundreds of 
newspapers from coast to coast. 

In addition to the publicity stories released by the Museum itself, 
hundreds of other stories and news photographs in which the Museum 
appeared either as a major element or incidentally, were published 
both in the newspapers of Chicago, and in newspapers throughout 
the country. Two newspaper serials, "To the 'Mountains of the 
Moon' " by Jack Baum, historian of the Field Museum-Chicago Daily 
News Abyssinian Expedition, published in the Chicago Daily News 
and associated newspapers in other cities, and "East of the Sun and 
West of the Moon," an account of the James Simpson-Roosevelt 
Asiatic Expedition, by Theodore and Kermit Roosevelt, published 
in the Chicago Daily Journal, and syndicated nationally, gave the 
Museum widespread and long continued publicity. 

News stories about the Museum ranged from items of 50 words 
and up to half or full column articles, and in many cases full page 
feature articles. Editors have been so impressed with the Institution's 
activities that in many cases they have written laudatory editorials 
in the columns of their papers. Clippings of more than 100 
such editorials, both from papers in Chicago and from widely scat- 
tered cities, have been received. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 287 

Among the agencies which have cooperated in giving nationwide 
and world-wide distribution to Field Museum news and photographs 
are the Associated Press, United Press, International News Service, 
Universal Service, Newspaper Enterprise Association, Central Press 
Association, Science Service, Chicago Tribune news service. Consoli- 
dated Press, New York Times news service. New York Herald-Tri- 
bune news syndicate. New York World news service, North American 
Newspaper Alliance, Pacific and Atlantic Photos, United News, 
Underwood and Underwood, International Newsreel, Wide World 
Photos, Renter's, Havas, Exchange Telegraph, Central News, Agence 
Radio, Rosta, British United Press, Nippon, Dempo and others. 

Publicity in Periodicals. — A great amount of space was given 
to Museum activities in general and popular magazines, trade jour- 
nals, scientific publications and other periodicals. Many of these 
articles were prepared at the Museum at the request of editors; others 
were written by outside writers. They were usually profusely illu- 
strated with pictures of Museum exhibits. Included among 49 maga- 
zines publishing such articles were Saturday Evening Post, Liberty, 
Scientific American, Chicago Commerce, Popular Mechanics, Archi- 
tectural Record, Science, American Journal of Science, Nature Maga- 
zine, Popular Science, St. Nicholas, Century, and Atlantic Monthly. 

Advertising. — A wide variety of advertising media have called 
attention of the public to Museum exhibits and activities. The 
Chicago Rapid Transit Company, as in previous years, kindly dis- 
played in elevated stations a series of six colored posters depicting 
Museum exhibits. The Chicago, North Shore and Milwaukee Rail- 
road allotted space throughout the year to Museum exhibits and 
lectures in its "This Week's Events" posters displayed at all stations 
between Chicago and Milwaukee. The Chicago Surface Lines printed 
at their own expense and displayed in the street cars overhead posters 
advertising the Museum. The Illinois Central Railroad displayed at 
its city and suburban stations placards announcing the spring and 
autumn lecture courses. These posters were also displayed in Marshall 
Field and Company's retail store, and in libraries, schools and other 

The Clyde W. Riley Advertising System, which publishes the 
programs for seventeen theatres, continued its courtesy of giving the 
Museum from a half page to a page of advertising space in each 
program. Likewise, space was again given by officials of the Audi- 

288 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

torium Theatre for a Museum advertisement in each program issued 
during the 1927 season of the Chicago Civic Opera Company, this 
courtesy being secured through the interest of President Field. 

Through the courtesy of officials of the International Live Stock 
Exposition, Field Museum posters and direction folders were brought 
to the crowds attending. Parts of newspaper advertisements of 
Marshall Field and Company, the People's Gas Light and Coke 
Company, the Yellow Taxicab Company, and other firms were de- 
voted to advertising the Museum. Space was devoted to the Museum 
also in the house organs for customers and employes of the Stevens 
Hotel, People's Gas Light and Coke Company, Commonwealth Edi- 
son Company, Illinois Bell Telephone Company, and in the adver- 
tising folders and posters of many railroads, lake steamship lines and 
hotels. The "Bulletin of Educational Events in Chicago" generously 
gave the Museum advertising space. 

A new folder was issued by the Museum, in which a brief outline 
was given of some of the outstanding exhibits, as well as directions 
for reaching the Institution. Through the cooperation of local trans- 
portation companies, railroads, hotels, clubs, travel bureaus, depart- 
ment stores, and other such agencies, 187,000 of these folders were 
distributed. These were also sent to chairmen and secretaries of 
conventions meeting in Chicago, with invitations for delegates to 
visit the Museum. 

Newsreels. — Field Museum activities were also brought before 
the public in motion pictures by Kinograms Newsreel, Chicago 
Daily News, Pathe, International Newsreel, and in a special film 
taken by the Chicago, South Shore and South Bend Railroad, which 
was exhibited in all towns and cities along its lines. 

Radio. — The Museum received publicity through radio broad- 
casting by stations WMAQ of the Chicago Daily News, WGN of the 
Chicago Tribune, and other stations. The Outing and Recreation 
Bureau, maintained by a group of transportation companies and 
other public utilities, had a special radio talk on the Museum broad- 
cast by one of its lecturers. 


Never before has the Division of Printing printed so large an 
amount and so extensive a variety of matter as it did during the year 
1927. This was foreseen as the requisitions made upon the Division 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 289 

have been steadily increasing. This increase in the output of the 
Division has been, in part, due to the result of several noteworthy 
additions to the equipment. 

During the forepart of the year a monotype equipment was in- 
stalled in the Museum, so that all of the composition work for scienti- 
fic publications, leaflets, etc. could be done under direct supervision. 
This addition has already resulted in a considerable saving of time 
and labor. The acquisition of a folding machine has been the means 
of increasing the output of the bindery. For the printing of colored 
plates a complete set of patent steel unit bases was purchased, thus 
rendering it possible to print more than one color process plate at 
a time. These bases proved their usefulness in printing the colored 
plates for the Pike and the Agate leaflets. 

The following publications were printed and bound during the 
period under review: 

Regular Publication Series 10,966 copies 

Leaflet Series 35,987 

Direction Folders for Rapid Transit Company (8 pages) 86,516 " 

Direction Folders for Public Relations Division (8 pages) 100,450 " 

General Guides 7,200 

Illustration Index for Report Vol. VI 1,800 

Publication Price List 300 

Leaflet Price List 200 

Large Post Card Albums 145 

Miniature Sets of Exterior and Interior of Building 600 " 

Pictorial Post Card Albums 2,800 

^Post Cards — New View of Building 6,000 

Post Cards— Old View of Building 7,675 

Educational Post Cards (20 cards in set) 10,400 

Total 271,039 copies 

The number of labels and other impressions follows: 





Harris Extension 


Raymond Division 

The Geographic Society 

Total 12,145 680,189 















• •  • 


•   • 




290 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 



Photography. — The total number of lantern slides, negatives, 
and prints made by the Division of Photography during the year 
amounted to 14,836. The following tabulation is a summary of the 
work performed : 






Anthropology 475 



Zoology 446 

Harris Extension 


Gift 6 

Sale 15 

Public Schools 1,899 

Photogravure ... 


Totals 2,841 




Number of 












for field 




• • • 








• • • 








• • • 



•  > 



• • • 


 • • 



 • • 




• • • 




• • • 

3,535 8,044 



Roentgenology.— During the year the Division of Roentgen- 
ology X-rayed many unusual specimens for the various Depart- 
ments of the Museum, which resulted in interesting developments. 
In this work, 463 films and 1,150 prints were made. A series 
of prints of Egyptian and Peruvian mummies have been sent to 
Dr. Roy L. Moodie, who is studying them from a paleopatho- 
logical standpoint, and plans to prepare a publication on the subject 
for the Museum series. 

In response to a request from the Nebraska Medical Association, 
prints of anthropological and zoological specimens were sent for ex- 
hibition at the Nebraska State Fair. Programs were arranged for the 
members of the North American Radiological Technicians' Associ- 
ation, at their annual meeting held at the Museum, and for the 
Chicago Dental Society's Annual Convention held at the Drake 
Hotel, at which times demonstrations were given of the work done 
in the Division of Roentgenology. 

Photogravure. — The following statement shows the number of 
photogravures made by this Division during the year for illustrations 

























w ^ 

W 2 

ra O 

e« p 

"2 -^  

- n ' 


S 2 

_ ^ 
W E 



Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 291 

for the publications and portfolios printed by the Museum and for 
picture postal cards: 

Number of prints 

Publication illustrations 104,000 

Leaflet illustrations 114,000 

Design Series illustrations 48,000 

Akeley Memorial Portfolio 240,000 

Carl E. Akeley portrait 5,000 

Postal cards of Field Museum building 38,300 

Special 290 

Total 549,590 

Artist. — The following record of work accomplished during the 
year by this Division will show a very large increase over that of the 
year 1926: 

Drawings made 253 

Lantern slides colored 970 

Photographs retouched 76 

Photographs colored 31 

Negatives blocked 81 

Maps drawn 13 

Steel dies engraved 3 

Cuts and letters tooled 12 

Letters repaired 14 

Lettering for Akeley Memorial Portfolio 1 

Miscellaneous items made 25 

Total 1,479 


Following is a classified list of the total number of members of the 
Museum, of whom 1,278 were added during the year 1927. The 
names of the members will be found elsewhere in this report. 

Benefactors 14 

Honorary Members 21 

Patrons 27 

Corporate Members 49 

Life Members 315 

Non-resident Life Members 6 

Associate Members 1,564 

Non-resident Associate Members 1 

Sustaining Members 383 

Annual Members 2,308 

Total 4,688 


During the year 84,352 visitors to the Museum were served re- 
freshments in the cafeteria located on the ground floor, which is not 

292 Field Museum op Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

operated by the Museum, but is under the management of a con- 

Herewith are also submitted financial statements, lists of access- 
ions, names of members, etc. 

D. C. Davies, Director. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 293 


FROM JANUARY 1, 1927 TO DECEMBER 31, 1927 

Total Attendance 1,043,546 

Paid Attendance 144,443 

Free Admissions on Pay Days: 

Students 11,471 

School Children 53,021 

Teachers 3,000 

Members 1,324 

Special (including attendance account National Safety 

Council Exercises at Soldier Field, October 5, 1927) 30,714 

Admissions on Free Days: 

Thursdays (52) 121,573 

Saturdays (53) 227,862 

Sundays (52) 450,138 

Highest Attendance on any day (October 5, 1927) 31,085 

Lowest Attendance on any day (December 19, 1927) 173 

Highest Paid Attendance (September 5, 1927) 7,971 

Average Daily Admissions (365 days) 2,859 

Average Paid Admissions (208 days) 694 

Number of Guides sold 7,481 

Number of Articles checked 20,887 

Number of Picture Postal Cards sold 105,281 

Sales of Publications, Leaflets, Handbooks and Photographs $3,467.91 

294 Field Museum op Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 



AT DECEMBER 31, 1927 

Overdraft, December 31, 1926 $ 586.86 


Income — Endowment, General, Miscellaneous and 

Door Receipts $ 311,318.48 

South Park Commissioners 192,582.08 

Sundry Receipts 28,310.90 

Memberships 66,655.00 

Contributions 341,647.92 

Securities Sold and Matured 516,970.99 

Bank Loans 212,600.00 1,670,085.37 



Operating Expenses $ 515,401.98 

Expeditions 111,095.62 

Collections Purchased 46,586.03 

Furniture and Fixtures 50,074.79 

Securities Purchased 643,105.40 

Annuities on Contingent Gifts 39,665.00 

Additions to Building and Equipment 151,935.86 

Bank Loans Repaid 69,348.00 

Transferred to Sinking Fund 10,000.00 1,637,212.68 

Balance, December 31, 1927 $ 32,285.83 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 295 


Interest and Dividends on Investments $ 21,604.28 

Operating Expenses 22,730.05 

Excess of Expenses over Income $ 1,125.77 



Balance, December 31, 1926 $ 533.65 

Contributions by Stanley Field during 1927 16,654.32 

$ 17,187.97 
Operating Expenses— 1927 17,001.80 

Balance, December 31, 1927 $ 186.14 

296 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 



ABBOTT, J. M., Webb, Arizona. 

1 small stone mortar — Webb, Co- 
chise County, southern Arizona 

ADAMS, EVERED N., Cornish.Colo- 

37 prehistoric flint implements, 
chiefly arrowheads — Weld 
County, Colorado (gift). 

AYER, EDWARD E., Chicago. 

3 pewter tea-pots inlaid with designs 

in brass and copper — China 
7 pewter objects: figure candlesticks, 
2 censers in shapes of phoenixes, 
1 tea-pot of coconut shell 
mounted on pewter, 1 tazza en- 
graved with floral designs, 1 bowl 
lined with crackled porcelain, 
and 1 cylindrical vessel in three 
compartments with brass in- 
lays — South China (gift). 

7 pewter objects: 1 altar set of 5 
pieces, 1 pilgrim's bottle with 
copper inlays, 1 round box with 
scene in brass inlays, 1 octagonal 
box with Eight Immortals in 
brass, 2 octagonal water ewers, 
1 cash box with figures in brass — 
China (gift). 

4 pewter objects: 1 pair of candle- 

sticks in shape of elephants, 2 
candlesticks in shape of figures, 
1 square chafing dish — China 

1 child's beaded buckskin coat with 

1 pair of moccasins and belt — 
Plains Indians, United States 


2 objects of pewter: 1 statuette of 

Buddhist saint (Arhat), Ming 
period, and 1 figure of cat, 18th 
century — China and Japan — 
13 pieces of decorated pottery — 
Pueblos, Toltecs, and Nazca, 
Southwest United States, Mexi- 
co, and Peru (gift). 

BAHR, A. W., New York City. 

1 carved slab from funerary chamber 
of Han period (second century 
A.D.) — Shantung, China (gift). 

BENJAMIN, JESSE E., Clinton, Iowa. 

15 ethnological objects: 2 bows, 12 
arrows, and 1 alcalde staff — 
Mexico City, Mexico (gift). 

king, China. 

Set of blackwood figures of the Eight 
Immortals inlaid with silver wire 
—China (gift). 

TRUDE, British School of Ar- 
chaeology, Egypt. 
About 100 prehistoric flint imple- 
ments — Fayum Desert, Egypt. 

DRUMMOND, DR. I. W., New York 


5 carved amber beads — Lake Guat- 
avita, Colombia, South America 

EGGERS, HERMAN, Hamburg, Ger- 

8 archaeological objects: 1 pottery 
beaker, 1 limestone image, 1 
llama-skin robe, 1 silver bell, 1 
silver vessel, 1 bone spoon, 1 
string of turquois beads, 1 copper 
hatchet — Inca, Chiu-chiu, Chile 


1 almost complete human skeleton 
found in excavations on Chestnut 
Street — Scandinavian, Chicago. 


1 copper battle-axe — Yaqui, Mexico 


FIELD, HENRY, Chicago. 

2 casts: 1 of new reconstruction of 

Eoanthropus dawsoni and endo- 
cranial cast of the same by Pro- 
fessor G. Elliot Smith— England 

3 casts: 1 of Neanderthal cranium 

from Podbada, 1 endo-cranial 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 


cast of same, and cast of Neand- 
erthal frontal bone fragment 
from Krapina — Podbada near 
Prague, and Krapina, Yugosla- 
via (gift). 

200 prehistoric flint implements — 
North Arabian Desert between 
Jerusalem and Baghdad (gift). 

field museum of natural 

Collected by Ralph Linton, leader 
of Captain Marshall Field Expe- 
dition to Madagascar: 

280 specimens: gold and silver jewel- 
ry — Sakalava, Madagascar. 

980 ethnological objects: textiles, 
baskets, mats, pillows, imple- 
ments, weapons, etc. — Madagas- 

Collected by Commander D. B. 
MacMillan, leader of Rawson- 
MacMillan Subarctic Expedi- 

42 objects: clothing, dolls, bird-skin 
mats, knife, beads, models of 
boats, and steatite figures of ani- 
mals — Eskimo, Greenland. 

Collected by H. W. Nichols (Captain 
Marshall Field Brazilian Expe- 
dition) : 

23 archaeological objects: pottery 
sherds, textile fragments, cord- 
age, part of basket, arrow shafts, 
wooden llama bit and handle, 
chipped flints, maize cobs — 
from Inca burial place and kit- 
chen mid'dens, Chiu-chiu, Chile. 

Collected by John Borden, leader of 
Borden-Field Museum Alaska- 
Arctic Expedition: 

533 ethnological and archaeological 
objects: clothing, weapons, pot- 
tery, stone vessels, implements 
of ivory, bone, jade and flint, 
copper and iron, etc. — Eskimo, 
Alaska and Antarctic Regions of 

Collected by J. Eric Thompson, 
leader of Captain Marshall Field 
Expedition to British Honduras: 

20 ethnological and archaeological 
objects: 1 loom, 1 spindle, 2 
blouses, 2 haversacks, — Kekchi; 
6 clay heads of figurine whistles, 
1 figurine whistle with seated 
figure, 3 axe-heads, 1 jade pen- 
dant in shape of human head — 
Maya of Old Empire; 2 gourd 

carriers, — Maya; 1 hollow clay 
head, — San Pedro, Sula, Hondu- 
ras — Maya and Kekchi, British 
Honduras, Republic of Hondu- 
ras, and Guatemala. 
Collected by C. C. Sanborn (Captain 
Marshall Field Brazilian Expe- 

1 prehistoric stone implement — 
Passo Ibanez, Santa Cruz, Pata- 


1 prehistoric skeleton of Magda- 
lenian epoch — Le Cap Blanc, 
Laussel, France, from M. Gri- 

100 prehistoric flint implements — 
Northern France, from A. Com- 
mont, collector. 

1 ancient mariner's compass — China, 
from Mrs. Ralph M. Easley. 

25 objects: 22 ancient skulls, detach- 
ed bones, sherds of pottery from 
burial caves — Guindulman Bay, 
Bohol, Philippines, from Emerson 
B. Christie, collector. 

400 ethnological objects: spears, 
clubs, boomerangs, spear-throw- 
ers, tomahawks, shields, bowls, 
fire-sticks, message sticks, in- 
cised shell work, hair belts, 
spindles, ceremonial slabs and 
boards — West Australia, from J. 
F. Connelly. 

155 ethnological objects: clothing, 
ornaments, charms, implements, 
birchbark vessels, bags and 
pouches — Montagnais, Labra- 
dor, from Dr. Frank G. Speck, 

16 ethnological objects: spoons, 
pouches, leggings, spinning top, 
pipe cleaners, etc. — Montagnais- 
Naskapi, Labrador, from Dr. 
Frank G. Speck, collector. 

20 archaeological objects: 1 sculp- 
tured stone head, 2 painted pot- 
tery vessels, 1 jade amulet, 1 jade 
ear-plug, 5 jade beads, 2 halves 
of jade pebble, 1 obsidian nuc- 
cleus, 1 chloromelanite celt, 1 
clay Toltec head, 1 clay paint 
pot, 1 clay pot, etc. — Mexico, 
Guatemala, and Honduras, from 
from S. G. Morley, collector. 

(Captain Marshall Field Fund). 
About 18 objects: gold finger ring. 

298 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

gold pin, gold beads, 2 marble 
statuettes, 5 clay figures, 3 
strings of beads, 3 bronze rings, 
pieces of coral and various beads, 
fragments of painted pottery 
— Kish, Mesopotamia. 

1 inscribed tablet concerning a sale 

of land at Kish, dated in the 
sixth year of Sinmuballit, fifth 
king of the first Babylonian dy- 
nasty (2087-67 B.C.)— Kish, 

1,117 objects: pottery, bone, shell, 
beads, necklaces, and bronze 
implements — Kish, Mesopo- 


Complete dress of Mongol woman 
with gold-plated silver jewelry 
inlaid with turquoise and coral — 
Mongols, Urga, Mongolia (gift). 


(Baron Nordenskiold, collector). 

105 ethnological objects: bows, ar- 
rows, war-clubs, bark fabrics, 
spindles, necklaces, ornaments, 
bags, baskets, musical instru- 
ments, feather head-dress — 
Brazil and Bolivia, South Ameri- 
ca (exchange). 


10 archaeological objects: 1 celadon 
plate, 1 celadon cylindrical jar, 
1 figure carved from root, 7 mor- 
tuary clay figures — China (gift). 

2 objects: 1 vase carved from tree- 

root and 1 wooden Ju-i sceptre 
carved in open work and relief — 
China (gift). 

HARRIS, A. B. B., Chicago. 

1 prehistoric grooved hammer — 
southern Illinois (gift). 

1 basket — Apache, New Mexico or 
Arizona (gift). 

HUGHES, THOMAS S., Chicago. 
23 archaeological objects: 3 strands 
of glazed beads, 1 Ushebti figure, 
1 alabaster jar, 7 scarabs, — 
Egypt; 2 Tanagra heads, 6 pieces 
of decorated pottery — Greece; 3 

tear bottles, 4 fragments of color- 
ed glass, and 1 lamp with figure- 
scene in relief, Roman — Egypt, 
Greece, and Italy (gift). 

ITO, T., Chicago. 

1 ancient inkstone with designs in 
gold lacquer — Japan (gift). 


100 ethnological objects: domestic 
utensils, baskets, weapons, pad- 
dles, and musical instruments — 
Brazil and Colombia, South 
America (gift). 

MEAD, MRS. ALMA, Chicago. 

1 birchbark basket with flowers in 
porcupine quill work — Northern 
Plains Tribes, United States 

1 robe with designs painted in black 
— Moro, PhiHppine Islands (gift). 

O'HARA, MISS M., Highland Park, 

1 old woolen blanket with stripes in 
blue, pink, and brown, formerly 
in possession of Spotted Tail, 
chief of Rosebud Sioux — Navaho, 
Arizona (gift). 

PATTEN, HENRY J., Chicago. 

12 inscribed clay tablets of the Ur 
and Larsa dynasties — Mesopo- 
tamia (gift). 

PECK, MRS. WALTER L., Chicago. 
1 grass-woven bag with drawing 
string — Aleutian Islands, Alaska 

sha, Wisconsin. 
1 woman's dress of elk-skin deco- 
rated at top and bottom with 
colored beads and fringe — Sioux, 
Flandeau, South Dakota (gift). 

WITTE, MRS. LOUIS, Wever, Iowa. 

1 prehistoric grooved stone axe — 

Green Bay Township, Lee 
County, Iowa (gift). 

wood, professor F. E., Chicago. 

2 fragmentary prehistoric pottery 

vessels — Mutsu Province, Hondo, 
Japan (gift). 


Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VII, Plate XXXVII 

Bara Tribe, Madagascar 
Captain Marshall Field Expedition to Madagascar 
One-third actual size 


Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 



4 wood specimens (gift). 

BENKE, H. C, Chicago. 

238 herbarium specimens (gift). 
106 duplicate specimens (gift). 

BLAKE, Dr. S. F., Washington, D. C. 
2 herbarium specimens (gift). 

BLETSCH, W. E., Highland Park, Illi- 
18 wood specimens (gift). 

PANY, Boise, Idaho. 
4 wood specimens (gift). 

SEUM, Berlin-Dahlem, Ger- 
20 herbarium specimens (exchange). 

Montreal, Canada, E. R, Bruce, 
Director of Exhibits. 
1 economic specimen, stalks of rye 


J., University of Chicago. 

12 herbarium specimens (gift). 

1 herbarium specimen (gift). 

DAHLGREN, DR. B. E., Chicago. 
10 economic specimens, seeds of 
palms (gift). 

seed merchants, Chicago. 

1 economic specimen, alfalfa seeds 


versity of Illinois, Urbana, Illi- 

2 economic specimens, 6 ears of 

Krug and Reid Yellow Dent Corn 

DURHAM, 0. C, Indianapolis, Indi- 

1 herbarium specimen (gift). 

EPLING, DR. CARL, University of 
California, Southern Branch, Los 

42 herbarium specimens, photos of 
plants (gift). 

2 herbarium specimens (gift). 


Collected by Miss Francis Ames (Bor- 
den-Field Museum Alaska-Arctic 
Expedition, 1927): 

106 herbarium specimens. 

Collected by Ralph Linton (Captain 
Marshall Field Expedition to 
Madagascar, 1927): 

1 economic specimen, palm, leaf 
and section, spadix and section, 

Collected by J. F. Macbride (Field Mu- 
seum Expedition in Illinois and 
Indiana, 1927): 
200 herbarium specimens. 

Collected by H. W. Nichols and H. 
Eggers (Captain Marshall Field 
Brazilian Expedition, 1926): 
14 herbarium specimens. 

Collected by Elmer S. Riggs (Captain 
Marshall Field Paleontological 
Expedition, 1927, Argentina): 
29 herbarium specimens. 

Collected by C. S. Sew&ll and A. C. 
Weed (Rawson-MacMillan Sub- 
arctic Expedition, 1926): 
265 herbarium specimens. 
181 duphcate specimens. 

Collected by C. S. Sewall (Rawson- 
MacMillan Subarctic Expedi- 
tion, 1927): 
236 herbarium specimens. 

Collected by A. Weberbauer (Captain 
Marshall Field Expedition to the 
Peruvian Andes, 1927): 
152 herbarium specimens. 
488 duplicate specimens. 

Stanley Field Plant Reproduction 

13 models and reproductions of 


5,283 herbarium specimens. 

300 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

TORY, Chicago. 
1 economic specimen, Cycad cone 

15 herbarium specimens (gift). 

glendora chamber of com- 
merce, Glendora, California. 

1 wood specimen (gift). 

GRAY" HERBARIUM, Cambridge, 

118 herbarium specimens (exchange). 
10 duplicate specimens (exchange). 

PANY, Fort Collins, Colorado. 

1 economic specimen, 16 samples of 
beet sugar factory products (gift). 

GRONEMANN, C. F., Elgin, Illinois. 
1 herbarium specimen (gift). 
1 duplicate specimen (gift). 

versity of California, Berkeley, 

6 herbarium specimens, photos of 
Oenotheras (gift). 

HELLMAYR, DR. C. E., Chicago. 
1 herbarium specimen (gift). 

HENDRICKSON, W. S., Chicago. 
1 economic specimen, hickory nuts 

TUTE, Oxford, England. 

94 herbarium specimens (exchange). 

JENSEN, MRS. JENS, Ravinia, Illi- 
1 wood specimen (gift). 

JOHNSTON, DR. I. M., Cambridge, 
8 herbarium specimens, photos of 
Boraginaceous plants (gift). 


1 economic specimen, wheat kernels 
excavated at Jemdet Nazr (gift). 

McGILL, W. J., Whiting, Indiana. 

1 economic specimen, leguminous 
vine (gift). 

York City. 

1 wood specimen, 12 panels of maho- 

gany (gift). 

MEYERS, M. T., Ohio State Univer- 
sity, Columbus, Ohio. 

2 economic specimens, Leaming and 

Clarage corn (gift). 


5 economic specimens, samples of 
Rivet wheat (gift). 

PHILIPPS, O. F., Chairman Board of 
Review, Bureau of Agricultural 
Economics, Chicago. 

9 economic specimens, various wheat 
grains (gift). 

PRAY, L. L., Chicago. 

2 reproductions of mushrooms (gift). 

PANY, Pittsburgh. 

2 wood specimens (gift). 

University, New Haven, Con- 

1 economic specimen, seeds of Pal- 
metto (gift). 

650 herbarium specimens (gift). 

150 wood specimens (gift). 

ROGERS, J. M., Gainesville, Florida. 
1 economic specimen, 6 ears of Yel- 
low Cuban Flint corn (gift). 



334 herbarium specimens (exchange) . 

SHERFF, DR. E. E., Chicago. 

3,039 herbarium specimens (gift). 

LOIN A, Tamatave, Madagascar. 

3 economic specimens, palm seeds 


ton, D. C. 
20 economic specimens, various bar- 
ley heads and seed rice (gift). 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 


STITUTION, Washington, D. C. 

3,019 herbarium specimens (ex- 

Department of Botany, Berke- 
ley, California. 

125 herbarium specimens (exchange) . 

VAN KEPPEL, JOHN, Harvey, Dli- 

1 economic specimen, flax (gift). 

versity of Montreal, Montreal, 

262 herbarium specimens (exchange) 

WHEELER, H. E., University, Ala- 

17 herbarium specimens (gift). 


ABBOTT, J. M., Webb, Arizona. 
1 specimen fossil wood — Adamana, 

Arizona (gift). 
1 specimen organic pebble — near 

Los Angeles, California (gift). 

1 specimen fossil coral — Whiteside 
County, Illinois (gift). 


1 specimen metallic beryllium (gift). 

6 specimens fossil coral — Slocom 
Lake, Illinois (gift). 

1 specimen rainbow quartz — Brazil 

1 specimen phantom quartz — Brazil 

1 specimen mossy quartz — Brazil 


Tokyo, Japan, through courtesy 
of Imperial Japanese Com- 
mission to Philadelphia Ses- 
quicentennial Exposition. 
26 specimens gold, silver, copper and 
iron ores — Japan (gift). 

10 specimens salt and borax — Hano- 
ver, Germany (gift). 

5 specimens beryl — Brown's Creek, 

Buena Vista, Colorado (gift). 
1 specimen hatchettolite Hybla, 

Ontario, Canada (gift). 
26 specimens crystallized minerals — 

various localities (gift). 

24 specimens crystallized minerals — 
Italy (gift). 

7 specimens crystallized minerals — 
Maine and Nevada (gift). 

CITY OF CHICAGO.Bureau of Streets 
4 specimens asphalt and sand — var- 
ious localities (exchange). 

COAN, H. W., Chicago. 

1 specimen clay concretion — Bell- 
wood, Illinois (gift). 

West Australia. 

1 specimen fossil Pelecypod — Cent- 
tral Queensland, Australia (gift). 

CONNELLY, JOHN F., Perth, West 

1 specimen (15 grams) of the Tieraco 

meteorite — West Australia (gift) 

2 photographs of the Tieraco mete- 

orite — (gift). 

19 prints illustrating gem mining in 
Ceylon, India — (gift). 


2 specimens black gabbro — Mellen, 

Wisconsin — (gift) . 

de Caldas, Brazil. 

3 photographs illustrating zirkite 
deposits — Cascata, Sao Paolo, 
Brazil — (gift). 

Coral set, consisting of bracelets, 
breast pin and earrings — Italy 

302 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

DRUMMOND, I. W., New York City. 

4 specimens amber in coal — Navajo 

Mine, Gallup, New Mexico (gift). 

EGGERS, HERMAN, Hamburg, Ger- 

13 prints of scenes in the Atacama 
Desert, Chile— (gift). 

FAIRBROTHER, R. L., Quincy, Illi- 

1 specimen folded hematite, Lake 
Superior — (gift). 


Collected by O. C. Farrington: 
60 specimens minerals — Maine. 

Collected by Barney Goodspeed, (Al- 
exander Revell-Field Museum 
Expedition) : 

1 specimen rolled pebble of volcanic 
rock — Unga Island, Alaska. 
Collected by Ralph Linton (Captain 
Marshall Field Expedition to 

1 specimen aquamarine — Bed of 
River Mitsikivy, Province of Va- 
kin-ankaratra, Madagascar. 

1 specimen aquamarine and 1 speci- 

men beryl — Province of Imerina, 

42 specimens garnets — Madagascar. 
Collected by J. H. C. Martens (Raw- 
son-MacMillan Subarctic Expe- 
dition, 1926): 

580 specimens minerals and rocks 
— various localities. 

Collected by H. W. Nichols (Captain 
Marshall Field Brazilian Expe- 
dition, 1926-27): 
55 specimens ores, minerals and fos- 
sils — Tofo and Potrerillos, Chile. 

124 specimens ores, minerals and 
fossils — North Chile. 
85 specimens ores and minerals — 

44 specimens minerals and fossils — 
Collected by H. W. Nichols: 

2 specimens telluride gold ore — 

Kirkland Lake, Ontario. 
1 specimen peat — Antioch, Illinois. 
Collected by Third Asiatic Expedition 
of American Museum of Natural 
History with Field Museum co- 

38 specimens fossil Glires — 

28 specimens fossil Artiodactyls — 

16 specimens fossil Perissodactyls — 

2 specimens fossil Insectivores — 

3 specimens fossil Notoungulata — 


4 specimens fossil Carnivora — Mon- 


3 specimens fossil Proboscidea — 


3 specimens stalagmites — Italy. 
Skull, jaws and partial skeleton of 

Mastodon — Mount Ayr, Indiana. 
1 specimen ammonite — Kansas. 

FRANK, MRS. SAM, Waterloo, Iowa. 
1 specimen fossil cephalopod — Wat- 
erloo, Iowa (gift). 

GERHARDT, PAUL, Staley, North 

1 specimen talc — Staley, North Ca- 

olina (gift). 

GLYNN, PAUL, Chicago. 

2 specimens glacial boulders — Mon- 

terey, Pulaski County, Indiana 


1 specimen fossil coral — Dubuque, 
Iowa (gift). 

1 specimen sphagnum — Esthonia 

JONES, ROY B., Wichita Falls, Texas. 

1 specimen oil sand weighing 450 
pounds — Electra, Wichita 
County, Texas (gift). 

KELLY, P. A., Chicago. 
3 specimens minerals- 


1 specimen silicified wood — Ferry, 

Montana (gift). 

LIEBERZ, HERMAN, Brookfield, 111- 

2 specimens fossil coral — Brookfield, 

Illinois (gift). 



d — Ferry,  

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


2 specimens fossil coral — Brookfield, 

Illinois (exchange). 

Costa Rica. 
13 specimens minerals and rocks — 
Costa Rica (gift). 

MARYOTT, FRED, Carrizozo, New 

3 specimens bentonite — Espanola, 

New Mexico (gift). 

MOORE, E. T., St. Charles, Illinois. 
2 specimens manganese ore — Chil- 
ton, Carter County, Missouri 

MUIR, JOHN R., Chicago. 

1 specimen fossil trilobite (Calymene 
niagarensis) — Illinois (gift). 

NEVEL, W. D., Andover, Maine. 
15 photographs of scenes in South 
America — (gift). 

O'BRIEN, GEORGE F., East Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. 

1 specimen crystallized galena — 
Madison County, Missouri (gift). 

O'HARA, M. A., Winnetka, Illinois. 

1 specimen Astylospongia praemorsa 


OLAS, MONTE, Chicago. 

2 specimens enargite — Swift Creek, 

British Columbia (gift). 

PAVEY, BILL, Winnetka, Illinois. 

1 specimen sand concretion — near 

Frankfort, Michigan (gift). 

PITTS, W. B., Sunnyvale, California. 

2 specimens chrysoprase — near Por- 

terville, California (gift). 

3 specimens polished kinradite — 

Santa Clara County, California 
3 specimens polished jasper — Sal- 
mon City, Idaho (gift). 

5 specimens minerals — various local- 
ities (gift). 

5 specimens rocks and fossils — var- 
ious localities (gift). 

SCHMIDT, KARL P., Chicago. 

1 specimen Ensis schmidti — Suffolk, 
Virginia (gift). 

SCHNEIDER, MRS. I. S., Chicago. 

8 specimens minerals — various local- 
ities (gift). 

1 specimen fossil fern — (gift). 



1 specimen concentrically stained 
sandstone — Elkhom, Wisconsin 

SCOTT, G. S., Timmins, Ontario, Can- 

6 specimens minerals — various local- 
ities (gift). 


1 specimen stalactite — Wind Cave, 
South Dakota (gift). 

SIMMS, S. C, Chicago. 

Amber pendant enclosing fossil spi- 
der — (gift). 

Braden, Illinois. 
1 specimen fossil coral — Braden, Ill- 
inois (gift). 
8 specimens fossil ferns — Braden, 
Illinois (gift). 

iana), Chicago. 
4 specimens wax — (gift). 
20 specimens oils — (gift). 
51 specimens decorative candles — 


1 specimen fossil fern — (gift). 

SEUM, Washington, D. C. 

3 photographs of a mounted skeleton 
of Brontotherium hatcheri (gift). 

261 specimens fossil plants — vari- 
ous localities (exchange). 

10 specimens raw and treated zono- 
lite-Libby, Montana (exchange). 

WENDLER, C, Geneva, Switzerland. 
Powder and section of the Cincinnati 
meteorite-Cincinnati, Ohio (ex- 

2 fragments with crust of the Garraf 

meteorite — Garraf, Barcelona, 
Spain (exchange). 

304 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

ADAM, OSCAR, Porto Aguirre, Mis- 
iones, Argentina. 
1 lizard, 19 snakes — Iguazu Falls, 
Misiones, Argentina (gift). 


1 cast of African frog, 1 cast of New 
Zealand tuatera (exchange). 

1 bird — Manaos, Brazil (exchange). 

1 bird — Palamba, Peru (exchange). 

APPLEBAUM, A. A., Chicago. 
1 spider — Honduras? (gift). 

1 Hzard (gift). 

ASTOR, LORD, London, England. 

2 red deer, 1 mounted "cromie" 

head — Island of Jura, Scotland 

COMPANY, Chicago. 
1 boa constrictor (gift). 

bridge, Massachusetts. 

13 frogs, 20 Uzards— Soledad, Cien- 
fuegos, Cuba (gift). 

4 chameleons — Tanganyika Terri- 
tory, Africa (gift). 

3 frogs, 1 snake, 81 lizards — Annam, 

Indo-China (gift). 

BEBB, HERBERT, Chicago. 
1 beetle — Michigan (gift). 

BERG, MISS L., Evanston, Illinois. 

1 cricket, 2 beetles, 1 lizard — Ben- 
kulen, Sumatra (gift). 

BISHOP, S. C, Albany, New York. 
1 fish, 1 snake, 11 lizards — Tela, 
Honduras (gift). 

BLANCHARD, DR. F. N., Ann Arbor, 

2 snakes — Michigan and California 


BOGEN, DON A., Kansas City, Mis- 

1 Yorkshire canary (gift.) 

BOOTH, O. E., Des Moines, Iowa. 

2 butterflies — Des Moines, Iowa 


BORDEN, JOHN, Chicago. 
1 walrus skull — Alaska (gift). 

1 salamander — Algonquin, Illinois 

giac, Michigan. 

1 honey bee's nest — Dowagiac, 
Michigan (gift). 

HISTORY), London, England. 

297 mammals — Asia, Africa, South 
America (exchange). 

BURT, CHARLES E., Ann Arbor, 

2 salamanders, 4 frogs, 16 lizards, 5 

snakes — various localities (gift). 

12 lizards — various localities (ex- 

BUTLER, A. L., Horsham, Sussex, 

1 hummingbird — San Pedro, Peru 

CHALMERS, W. J., Chicago. 

1 watercolor of Australian birds 


CHAPMAN, M. F., Inglewood, Cali- 

2 chinchillas — South America (gift). 

CLEGG, W. G., Delamere, England. 

3 capercaillie, 3 black grouse, 6 ptar- 

migan—Scotland (gift). 

COALE, MRS. IRMA B., Highland 
Park, Illinois. 
7 butterflies — Japan (gift). 
181 butterflies, 17 moths — Paraguay 

CONNELLY, J. F., Perth, West Aus- 
140 shells — Coast of West Australia 

CONNOR, DR. D. F., Chicago. 
1 mounted swan skeleton (gift). 

1 ringed-neck duck — Illinois (gift). 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 


4 partial bird skeletons — Germany, 
Madagascar (gift). 


Pismo Beach, California. 
3 clam shells — Pismo Beach, Cali- 
fornia (gift). 


108 paintings and sketches of Abys- 
sinian birds and mammals, 8 
reels motion picture film (gift). 



3 lizards — Neuquen and La Plata, 
Argentina (gift). 

DICKEY, DONALD R., Pasadena, 

2 mammals — Palm Springs, Cali- 
fornia (gift). 

LEZ, A., Chicago. 

1 snake — La Estrella, Costa Rica 

ERWIN, RICHARD P., Boise, Idaho. 
6 spiders — Boise, Idaho (gift). 

Collected by Mr. and Mrs. John Bor- 
den, Miss F. Ames, Mr. and 
Mrs. R. B. Slaughter and Ash- 
ley Hine (Borden-Field Museum 
Alaska-Arctic Expedition) : 

1 seal, 4 walrus, 4 polar bears, 4 

Alaska brown bears, 111 bird- 
skins, 1 box group accessories — 
Arctic Ocean, Alaska. 
Collected by H. Boardman Conover, 
Robert Everard and John T. 
Zimmer (Conover-Everard Afri- 
can Expedition) : 

238 mammal skins and skulls, 1 
white rhino skeleton, 578 birds, 
9 nests and eggs, 1 turtle, 127 
lizards, 40 snakes, 131 frogs, 58 
insects — Tanganyika Territory, 
Belgian Congo, Uganda. 

Collected by George A. Dorsey (De- 
partment of Anthropology') : 

2 crocodile skulls — New Guinea. 
Collected by Colonel J. C. Faunthorpe 

(Captain Marshall Field Expedi- 
tion to British India) : 

38 mammal skins and skulls — Bri- 
tish India. 

Collected by W. H. Osgood, L. A. 
Fuertes, A. M. Bailey, J. E. 
Baum and C. S. Cutting (Field 
Museum -Chicago Daily News 
Abyssinian Expedition) : 
1,339 mammals, 2,090 birds, 2 eggs, 
22 lizards, 8 snakes, 32 frogs, 2 
fishes — Abyssinia. 

Collected by Edmund Heller (Captain 
Marshall Field African Expedi- 

244 mammals, 6 birds, 82 lizards, 31 
snakes, 24 frogs, 9 fishes, 7 inver- 
tebrates — Belgian Congo, Ugan- 

Collected by members of Museum 
staff (local field work) : 
33 frogs, 20 salamanders, 7 snakes, 7 
turtles — Chicago Area. 

Collected by E. S. Riggs (Captain 
Marshall Field Paleontological 
Expedition to Argentina) : 
11 mammal skins and skulls, 27 
lizards, 6 snakes, 5 frogs, 11 in- 
sects — Argentina. 

Collected by K. P. Schmidt and C. C. 
Sanborn (Captain Marshall Field 
Brazilian Expedition): 

424 mammal sldns and skulls, 526 
birds, nests and eggs, 11 turtles, 
6 caimans, 157 lizards, 105 snakes, 
l,145frogs,3,997fishes, 153 inver- 
tebrates, 3 boxes group accesso- 
ries — Argentina, Brazil, Chile, 
Paraguay, Uruguay. 

Collected by Robert W. Tansill (Alex- 
ander Revell-Field Museum Alas- 
ka Expedition): 

7 Alaska brown bears, 14 birds — 

Collected by Third Asiatic Expedition 
(American Museum of Natural 
History) : 

270 mammals — Mongolia, China. 

Collected by A. C. Weed and A. G. 
Rueckert (Rawson-MacMillan 
Subarctic Expedition) : 

2 polar bear skulls, 1 caribou skull — 
Sukkertoppen, Greenland. 

1 lemming, 13 birds — Baffin Land. 

320 insects — various localities. 


1 African lung fish — Buddhu Coast, 

Uganda, Africa. 
4 birds — Chile, Argentina. 
4 snakes — Glendale, Arizona. 

306 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

10 frogs, 7 turtles, 47 snakes — Im- 
boden, Arkansas. 

273 birds— Bolivia. 

2 woodpeckers — Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

8 birds— Chile. 

8 turtles — Gainesville, Florida. 

7 mammals, 1 parrot — Kashmir. 

16 turtles, 105 lizards, 4 snakes, 14 

frogs — Porto Rico. 
2 hair seals — LaPush, Washington. 

1 replica of great auk, 1 cast of great 

auk's egg. 
7 celluloid models of salamanders, 

frogs and lizards. 
1 Mexican gila monster. 


1 woodpecker — British Guiana 

1 giraffe skull — Uganda, Africa 

1 moth — Chicago (gift). 

general biological supply 

house, Chicago. 
1 salamander — Eddyville, Illinois 

13 roaches — Key West, Florida 


GERHARD, W. J., Chicago. 
1 beetle — Chicago (gift). 

GOODEN, G. E., Homewood, Illinois. 
1 snake — Homewood, Illinois (gift). 

GREEN, M. M., Ardmore, Pennsyl- 

5 small mammals — Oregon (gift). 

1 least weasel skull — Illinois (gift). 

HAIDER, JUAN, Alto Parana, Misi- 
ones, Argentina. 

1 tayra — Misiones, Argentina (gift). 


1 pigmy antelope — Elat, Cameroun, 
West Africa (gift). 

HANDY', E. E., Duluth, Minnesota. 
1 whistling swan — Minnesota (gift). 

1 Canadian warbler — Chicago (gift). 

JENNINGS, MRS. J. E., Chicago. 
1 snake skin — Florida (gift). 

KENDAL, GEORGE M., Chicago. 

I octopus — (gift). 


ington, Indiana. 

318 gall insects and galls — Europe, 
North America (gift). 

LAKE, W. E., Chicago. 

II turtles — Pell Lake, Wisconsin 


LETL, FRANK H., Chicago. 

3 frogs, 7 salamanders, 2 lizards, 2 

snakes — Southern Illinois (gift). 

LILJEBLAD, E., Chicago. 
12 beetles — Chicago (gift). 


1 baboon — Africa (gift). 

Mccormick, gyrus, jr., Chicago. 

4 flamingos — Cuba (gift). 

WILKES, Chicago. 
1 tarantula — Osage Hills, Oklahoma 


MILLRAY, JOE, Homewood, Illinois. 
1 salamander — Homewood, Illinois 


Santiago, Chile. 

6 frogs, 12 snakes, 22 lizards — Chile 


Santiago, Chile. 
1 snake, 11 frogs, 23 lizards — Chile 

ELLE, La Rochelle, France. 

1 fish — Cameroon, West Africa 

OLSSON, AXEL, Negritos, Peru. '■ 

26 frogs, 18 snakes, 45 lizards — 
Department Piura, Peru (gift). 

ORTENBURGER, DR. A. I., Norman, 
15 frogs, 25 salamanders, 4 turtles — 
Arkansas and Oklahoma (gift). 


Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


tiago, Chile. 
1 cling fish — Valparaiso, Chile (gift). 

Bucks, England. 

1 mounted rabbit, 1 zebra skin 

RAMSEY, JACK, Matto Grosso, 

Leg bones of red wolf, Matto Grosso, 
Brazil (gift). 

RUCKDESCHEL, E. B., Chicago. 
1 snake — Chicago (gift). 

1 goshawk — Illinois (gift). 

SCHMIDT, F. J. W., Stanley, Wiscon- 

63 frogs, 5 salamanders, 19 snakes, 6 
turtles — Clark County, Wiscon- 
sin (gift). 

SCHMIDT, K. P., Homewood, Illinois. 

1 cockroach — Homewood, Illinois 


2 bugs, 25 beetles — Dune Park, Ind- 

iana (gift). 

SMITH, S. G., Chicago. 

1 desert tortoise — Needles, Califor- 
nia (gift). 

SOWARD, H. E., Chicago. 

1 whistling swan — Custer, Michigan 


1 emperor goose 
sin (gift). 

-Madison, Wiscon- 

SWEETMAN, C. T., Chicago. 
1 salamander — Chicago (gift). 

1 agouti — (gift). 


5 turtles — Deep River, Indiana 

6 insects — Chicago (gift). 

SEUM, Washington, D. C. 

1 sparrow — La Raya, Peru (ex- 


VOLKERS, CLYDE E., Terre Haute, 

2 turtle eggs — Terre Haute, Indiana. 


WENTWORTH, J. R., JR., Chicago. 

3 red-billed ox-peckers — Nairobi, 
East Africa (gift). 

1 black rhinoceros skin — Tangan- 
yika Territory, Africa (gift). 

WHITE, HAROLD A., New York City. 

22 large mammal skins and skulls — 

Gugu Mts., Arussi, Abyssinia 


1 aard vark skull — Muger River, 

Abyssinia (gift). 

WOLCOTT, A. B., Downers Grove, 

14 insects — Downers Grove, Illinois 


HISTORY: Purchase. 
30 photographs. 

81 lantern slides (gift). 



Made by Division: 

8,044 prints, 3,535 negatives, 
2,841 lantern slides, 326 bromide 

Developed for Expeditions: 
90 negatives. 

Made by Ralph Linton: 

93 negatives of types of people and 
scenes in Madagascar, 12 por- 
traits of natives, landscapes, etc. 

308 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

—Captain Marshall Field Expe- 
dition to Madagascar, 

Made by Elmer S. Riggs: 

244 negatives of fossils, landscapes, 
views, etc. — Captain Marshall 
Field Paleontological Expedition 
to Argentina and Bolivia. 

Made by A. C. Weed: 

253 negatives of seascapes, land- 
scapes, natives, etc. — Rawson- 

MacMillan Subarctic Expedi- 
tion of Field Museum. 
Made by J. T. Zimmer: 

109 negatives of seascapes, village 
scenes, African natives and ani- 
mals, etc. — Conover-Everard Af- 
rican Expedition of Field Mu- 

RAYMOND, C. E., Chicago. 

Bird's-eye view of the World's Fair 
by Childe Hassam. 



Albany Museum, Grahamstown. 
Department of Mines and Industries, 

Geological SocietJ^ Johannesburg. 
Institut d' Egypte, Cairo, 

Ministry of Public Works. Cairo. 
Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg. 
Rhodesia Museum, Bulawayo. 
Rhodesia Museum, Bulawayo. 
Royal Society of South Africa, Cape 

Societe de Geographic d'Alger. 
Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de I'Afri- 

que du Nord, Algeria. 
Societe des Sciences Naturelles du 

Maroc, Rabat. 
South African Association for the 

Advancement of Sciences, Cape 

South African Department of Agri- 
culture, Pretoria. 
South African Museum, Cape Town. 
Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. 


Academia Nacional de Ciencias, Cor- 

Institute Geografico Argentine, Bue- 
nos Aires. 

Ministerio de Agricultura, Buenos 

Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias Nat- 
urales, Buenos Aires. 

Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, Bue- 
nos Aires. 

Sociedad Ornitologica del Plata, 
Buenos Aires. 

Universidad Nacional de Tucuman. 


Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Botanic Gardens and Government 
Domains, Sydney, 

Commonwealth of Australia, Mel- 

Department of Agriculture Adelaide. 

Department of Agriculture, Sydney. 

Department of Agriculture, Well- 

Department of Mines, Brisbane, 

Department of Mines, Sydney, 

Field Naturalists' Club, Melbourne. 

Forestry Commission, Sydney (gift.) 

Geological Survey of New South 
Wales, Sydney. 

Geological Survey of Western Aus- 
tralia, Perth. 

Linnean Society of New South Wales, 

Melbourne University. 

National Herbarium, South Yarra. 

Ornithological Society of South Aus- 
tralia, Adelaide. 

Public Library, Museum and Art 
Gallery, Adelaide. 

Public Library, Museum and Art 
Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Queensland Geological Survey, Bris- 

Royal Geographical Society of Aus- 
tralasia, Brisbane. 

Royal Society of Queensland, Bris- 

Royal Society of South Australia, 

Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart. 

Royal Society of Victoria, Mel- 

Royal Society of Western Australia, 

Royal Zoological Society of New 
South Wales, Sydney. 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Technological Museum, Sydney. 


Akademie der Wissenschaften, 

Anthropos Administration, Vienna. 
Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 


Zoologisch-B otan ische Gesellschaf t, 


Academie Royale d'ArcheoIogie, 

Academie Royale de Belgique, Brus- 

Direction d'Agriculture. Brussels. 

Jardin Botanique de I'Etat, Brussels. 

Musee Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de 
Belgique, Brussels. 

Musees Royaux du Cinquantenaire, 

Nederlandsch Phytopathologische 
(Plantenziekten) Vereenigen, 

Society Beige de Geologie, Brussels. 

Societe d'ArcheoIogie, Brussels. 

Societe de Botanique Brussels. 

Societe Ornithologique de la Belgi- 
que, Brussels. 

Societe Royale des Sciences, Liege. 

Universite de Louvain 


Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 
Cuerpo de Sciencias, Letras e Artes, 

Instituto de Butantan, Sao Paulo. 
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de 

Ministerio de Agricultura, Rio de 

Museo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 
Secretaria de Agricultura, Comercio 

e Obras Publicas, Sao Paulo. 
Servico Geologico e Mineralogica, 

Rio de Janeiro. 


Board of Agriculture, Georgetown. 
Forestry Department, Georgetown. 
Royal Agricultural and Commercial 
Society, Demara. 


Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Department of Agriculture, Victoria. 

Department of Mines, Ottawa. 

Department of Mines, Toronto. 

Department of the Interior, Geolo- 
gical Survey, Ottawa. 

Entomological Society of Ontario, 

Horticultural Societies, Toronto. 

McGill University, Montreal. 

Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 
Sciences, New Brunswick. 

Provincial Museum, Toronto. 

Provincial Museum, Victoria. 

Queen's University, Kingston. 

Royal Canadian Institute, Toronto. 
Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa. 
Universite de Montreal. 
University of Toronto. 


Colombo Museum. 

Department of Agriculture, Colombo. 

Mineralogical Survey, Colombo. 


Commercial Press Publishers, Shang- 
hai (gift). 

Geological Survey, Pekin. 

Royal Asiatic Society of North China, 

Science Society of China. 

University of Nanking. 


Academie Tcheque des Sciences, 

Deutscher Naturwissenschaftlich 

Medizinischer Verein fiir Bohmen 

"Lotos," Prague. 


Dansk Botanisk Forening, Copen- 

Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Co- 

Dansk Omithologisk Forening, Co- 

K. Bibliotek, Copenhagen. 

Naturhistorisk Forening, Copenha- 

Universite, Copenhagen. 


Academia Nacional de Historia, 


Federated Malay States Museums, 

Royal Asiatic Society, Malayan 

Branch, Singapore. 
Sarawak Museum, Singapore. 

Fijian Society, Suva. 

Abo Akademi. 

Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 


Academie des Sciences, Paris. 
Ecole d'Anthropologie, Paris. 
Hiler Costume Library, Paris (gift). 
Musee Guimet, Paris. 

310 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

Museum National d'Histoire Natu- 
relle, Paris. 

Nature, Paris. 

Societe Botanique de France, Paris. 

Societe Dauphinoise d'Ethnologie et 
d'Anthropologie, Grenoble. 

Societe d'Ethnographie, Paris. 

Societe d'Etude des Sciences Natu- 
relles, Reims. 

Societe d'Etudes Scientifiques, An- 

Societe d'Histoire Naturelle, Tou- 

Societe de Geographie, Paris. 

Societe des Americanistes, Paris. 

Societe des Sciences, Nancy. 

Societe des Sciences Naturelles, Ar- 

Societe des Sciences Naturelles de 
Sa6ne-et-Loire, Chalon-sur-Saone. 

Societe Linneenne, Bordeaux. 

Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation de 
France, Paris. 

Society Nationale d'Agriculture, 
Sciences et Arts, Angers. 

Societe Nationale d'Horticulture de 
France, Paris. 

Societe Scientifique du Bourbonnais 
et du Centre de France, Moulins. 


Akademie der Wissenschaften, Ber- 

Akademie der Wissenschaften, Hei- 

Bayerische Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften, Munich. 

Bayerische Botanische Gesellschaft, 

Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich. 

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches 
Museum, Berhn. 

Botanischer Verein der Provinz Bran- 
denburg, Berlin. 

Deutsche Dendrologische Gesell- 
schaft, Bonn-Poppelsdorf. 

Deutsche Entomologische Gesell- 
schaft, Berlin. 

Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Anthrop- 
ologie, Ethnologie und Urge- 
schichte, Berlin. 

Deutsche Morgenlandische Gesell- 
schaft, Leipzig. 

Deutscher Seefischerei Verein, Berlin. 

Frankfurter Gesellschaft fiir An- 
thropologie, Ethnologie und Ur- 

Friedrich Wilhelms Unversitat, Ber- 

Geographische Gesellschaft, Miinich. 

Georg- August -Universitat, Gottin- 

Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde, Berlin. 

Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde, Leipzig. 

Hamburgische Universitat. 

Mineralogisch-Geologisches Museum , 
Dresden. ' 

Museum fiir Tierkunde und Volker- 
kunde, Dresden. 

Museum fiir Volkerkunde, Berlin. 

Museum fiir Volkerkunde, Hamburg. 

Nassauischer Verein fiir Natur- 
kunde, Wiesbaden. 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Frei- 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Gor- 

Naturhistorische Gesellschaft, Niirn- 

Naturhistorische Verein der Preus- 
sischen Rheinlande und West- 
falens, Bonn. 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, Bre- 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, Pas- 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein fiir 
Schwaben und Augsburg. 

Ornithologische Gesellschaft in Bay- 
ern, Miinich. 

Sachsische Akademie der Wissen- 
schaft, Leipzig. 

Schlesische Gesellschaft fiir Vater- 
landische Cultur, Breslau. 

Senckenbergische Naturforschende, 
Gesellschaft, Frankfurt a M. 

Thuringischer Botanischer Verein, 

Tubingen University. 

Universitats Bibliothek, Marburg. 

Unversitats Bibliothek, Miinich. 

Verein fiir Naturkunde, Cassel. 

Verein fiir Vaterlandische Natur- 
kunde, Wiirttemberg. 

Verein fiir Volkskunde, Berlin. 

Zoologisches Museum, Berlin. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Newcastle upon Tyne. 
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 
Ashmolean Natural History Society, 

Birmingham Natural History and 

Philosophical Society. 
Brighton and Hove Natural History 

and Philosophical Society. 
Bristol Museum. 
British Library of Political Science, 

British Museum, London. 
British Museum (Natural History), 

Cambridge Philosophical Society. 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VII, Plate XXXVIII 

/ \ 




A piece of a fruiting pepper vine reproduced from nature 

Installed in Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) 

Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories 

One-eighth natural size 



Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Cambridge University. 

Department of Science and Industrial 
Research, London. 

Dove Marine Laboratory, Culler- 

Fisheries Board, Edinburgh. 

Geological Society, Edinburgh. 

Geological Society, Liverpool. 

Geological Survey England and 
Wales, London. 

Geological Survey of Scotland, Edin- 

Geologists' Association, London. 

Hull Municipal Museum. 

Imperial Bureau of Entomology, 

Japan Society of London. 

Lancashire Sea Fisheries Laboratory, 

Leicester Museum, Art Gallery and 

Linnean Society, London. 

Liverpool Biological Society. 

Liverpool Free Public Museum. 

London School of Economics and 
PoUtical Science. 

Manchester Literary and Philosoph- 
ical Society. 

Manchester Museum. 

Marine Biological Association, Ply- 

National Indian Association, London. 

National Museum of Wales, Cardiff. 

Natural History Society of Glasgow. 

Oriental Ceramic Society, London 

Royal Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain and Ireland, London. 

Royal Asiatic Society of Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland, London. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

Royal Colonial Institute, London. 

Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 

Royal Geographical Society, London. 

Royal Horticultural Society, London. 

Royal Society, London. 

Royal Society of Arts, London. 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

School of Oriental Studies, London, 

South London Entomological and 
Natural History Society. 

Speleological Society, Bristol. 

Tring Zoological Museum. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

Wellcome Research Laboratories, 

Zoological Society, London. 


Magyar Termeszettudomanyi T4r- 
sulat, Budapest. 

Mus^e National Hongrois, Budapest. 

Royal Hungary School of Engineer- 
ing, Mines and Forests, Budapest. 


Anthropological Society, Bombay. 

Archaeological Department, Hyder- 

Archaeological Survey, Allahabad. 

Archaeological Survey, Burma, Ran- 

Archaeological Survey, Calcutta. 

Archaeological Survey, Madras. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. 

Bihar and Orissa Research Society, 

Botanical Survey, Calcutta. 

Department of Agriculture, Bombay. 

Department of Agriculture, Madras. 

Department of Agriculture, Poona. 

Department of Agriculture, Pusa. 

Geological Survey, Calcutta. 

Government Cinchona Plantations, 

Government of India, Calcutta. 

Government Museum, Madras. 

Hyderabad Archaeological Society. 

Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Journal of Indian Botany, Madras. 

Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 

University of Calcutta. 

Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 


Belfast Natural History and Philo- 
sophical Society. 
Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 
University of Dublin. 


Musei Zoologia e Anatomia, Genoa. 
Musei Zoologia e Anatomia Compa- 

rata, Turin. 
Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, 

R. Accademia della Scienze, Naples. 
R. Accademia delle Scienze, Turin. 
R. Accademia Nazionale del Lincei, 

R. Orto Botanico Giardino Coloniale, 

R. Scuola Superiore di Agricultura, 

R. Societa Geografica Italiana, Rome. 
Societa dei Naturalisti, Naples. 
Societa di Scienze Naturali ed Eco- 

nomiche, Florence. 
Societa Geologica Italiana, Rome. 

312 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Societa Italiana de Scienze Naturali, 

Societa Reale dei Napoli. 
Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali, 

UfRcio Geologico d'ltalia, Rome. 


Anthropological Society of Tokyo. 

Department of Agriculture of For- 

Government General, Museum of 

Government Research Institute, Tao- 
hoku, Formosa. 

Imperial Academy of Tokyo. 

Imperial Geological Society, Tokyo. 

Imperial Geological Survey, Tokyo. 

Imperial Household Museums, Tokyo. 

Imperial University, Tokyo. 

Imperial University, College of Agri- 
culture, Kyoto. 

Ornithological Society, Tokyo. 

Tohoku Imperial University, Sendai. 

Tokyo Botanical Society. 


Bata\'iaasch Genootschap van Kun- 

sten en Wetenschappen, Batavia. 
Department of Agriculture, Buiten- 

Encyclopaedisch Bureau, Weltevre- 

Jardin Botanique, Weltevreden. 
K. Natuurkundige Vereeniging in 

Nederlandsch-Indie, Weltevreden. 


Instituto Geologico de Mexico. 
Museo Nacional de Arqueologia, 

Historia y Ethnografia, Mexico. 
Secretaria de Agricultura y Fomen- 

to, Direccion de Antropologia, 

Secretaria de Educacion Publica, 

Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate" 

Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica, 

Sociedad Forestal de Mexico. 
Sociedad Geologica Mexicana, Mex- 


Bataafsch Genootschap der Proef- 

ondervinde lijke Wijsgegierte, 

K. Akademie van Wetenschappen, 

K. Instituut voor de Taal-Land-en 

Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch 
Indie, Hague. 

K. Nederlandsch Aardrijkundig Ge- 
nootschap, Amsterdam. 

Leiden Museum. 

Museum voor Land-en Volkenkunde 
en Maritiem Museum "Prinz 
Hendrik," Rotterdam. 

Nederlandsche Phytopathologische 
Vereeniging, Wageningen. 

Nederlandsch Vogelkundigen Club, 

Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, Lei- 

Rijks Geologisch-Mineralogisches 
Museum, Leiden. 

Rijks Herbarium, Leiden. 

Rijks Hoogers Land-Tuin-en Bosch- 
bousschool, Wageningen. 

Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke His- 
torie, Leiden. 

Rijks Universiteit, Leiden. 

Universiteit van Amsterdam. 


Auckland Institute and Museum, 

Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Cawthorn Institute, Nelson. 

Department of Agriculture, Well- 

Department of Mines, Wellington. 

Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Geological Survey, Wellington. 

New Zealand Board of Science and 
Art, Wellington. 


Bergen Museums. 
Ethnographical Museum of Oslo 
Norges Geologiske Unde^rskelse, 

Norsk Geologisk Forening, Oslo. 
Physiographiske Forening, Oslo. 
Tromso Museum. 
Zoologiske Museum, Oslo. 


Institute of Agriculture and Natural 

History, Tel-Aviv. 
Palestine Oriental Society, Jerusalem. 


Sociedad Cientifica, Asuncion. 

Revista del Archivo Nacional, Lima. 


Academie Polonaise des Sciences et 

des Amis, Cracow. 
Instytut nauk Antropologicznych 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Towarzystwa Naukwego Wars- 
zawskiego, Warsaw. 

Musei Polonici Historiae Naturalia, 

Society Botanique de Pologne, War- 


Academia Real Sciencias, Lisbon. 
Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 
Universidade de Coimbra, Museu 

Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon. 

Universite de Jassy. 


Academie des Sciences, Leningrad. 

Botanical Garden, Leningrad. 

Institute of Economic Mineralogy 
and Petrography, Moscow. 

Musee d'AnthropoIogie, Leningrad. 

Musee d'Etat de la Region Indus- 
trielle Centrale, Moscow. 

Musee Geologique de Mineralogie 
Pierre le Grande, Leningrad. 

Russian Zoological Journal, Moscow. 

Societe des Amis des Sciences Na- 
turelles, d' Anthropologie et d'Eth- 
nographie, Moscow. 

Societe des Naturalistes, Leningrad. 

Societe Ouralienne d'Amis des Sci- 
ences Naturelles, Ekaterinberg. 


Institucio Catalana d'Historia Na- 
tural, Barcelona. 

Associacio Catalana d'Antropologia, 
Etnologia i Prehistoria, Barcelona. 

Junta de Ciencies Naturals, Barce- 

Junta para Amplicacion de Estudios 
e Investigaciones Cientificas, Ma- 

Musei de Ciencias Naturales, Ma- 

R. Academia de Ciencias Exactas, 
Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid. 

Sociedad Espanola de Antropologia, 
Etnografia y Prehistoria, Madrid. 

Sociedad Espanola de Historia Na- 
tural, Madrid. 


Goteborgs Botanika Tradgrad. 
Geologiska Institutet, Stockholm. 
K. Biblioteket, Stockholm. 
K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, 

K. Vetenskaps-och Vitterhets-Sam- 

halle, Goteborg. 

K. Vitterhet Historie och Antikvitets 

Akademien, Stockholm. 
Lunds Universitet. 


Botanischer Garten, Bern. 

Botanisches Museum, Zurich. 

Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, 

Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, Lau- 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Basel. 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Zu- 

Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel. 

Schweizerische Entomologische Ge- 
sellschaft, Bern. 

Societe Botanique, Geneva. 

Societe de Physique et d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Geneva. 

Societe Helvetique des Sciences Na- 
turelles, Bern. 

Society Neuchateloise de Geographie, 

Societe Suisse d'AnthropoIogie et 
d'Ethnologie, Bern. 

Societe Zoologique, Geneva. 


Museo Nacional, Montevideo. 


Cultura Venezolana, Caracas. 
Museo Comercial de Venezolana, 


Academia Nacional de la Artes y 
Letras, Havana. 

Biblioteca Nacional, Havana. 

Department of Agriculture, Bridge- 

Department of Agriculture, King- 

Insular Experiment Station, Rio 

Trinidad and Tobago Department of 
Agriculture, Port of Spain. 

Universidad de Habana. 

Alvarez, Antenor, Santiago del Estero 

Beaux, Oscar de, Geneva. 
Borodin, N., (gift). 
Castellanos, Alfredo, Buenos Aires 

Collinge, Walter E., York. 
Dingwall, Kenneth, London (gift). 
Dunod, Henri, Paris. 
Dyes, W. A., Berlin (gift). 
Frankenberg, G., Braunschweig. 
Frankfort, H., London (gift). 

314 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Friedlander und Sohn, Berlin (gift). 
Gladstone, Hugh S., Dumfriesshire 

Gleerup, C. W. K., Lund. 
Gowdey, C. C, Kingston. 
Gumaraes, Antonio, Jr., Sao Paulo 

Heim, Albert, Zurich. 

Herter, Guillermo, Montevideo (gift). 

Hertzel, Harry J. S., Brussels (gift). 

Hornell, James, London (gift). 

Huard, V. A., Quebec. 

Hunke, Hugo, Berlin (gift). 

Joicey, J. J., Witley. 

Joyce, T. A., London. 

Kuroda, N , Tokyo (gift). 

Langdon, S., Oxford (gift). 

Lecomte, Henri, Paris (gift). 

Levy-Bruhl, Lucien, Paris. 

Lindblom, Gerhard, Stockholm (gift). 

Looser, Gualterio, Santiago (gift). 

Loppe, Etienne, LaRochelle. 

Lowe, Percy R., London. 

Maisonneuve, Adrien, Paris. 

Martinez, J. Hernandez, Merida. 

Meek, Alexander, Durham. 

Mertens, Robert, Frankfurt a M. (gift). 

Miiller, Lorenz, Munich. 

Nandor, Gimesi, Budapest (gift). 

Outes, Felix F., Buenos Aires. 

Passerini, N., Florence (gift). 

Pinto do Fonseca, Jose, Sao Paulo (gift). 

Pittier, Henri, Caracas. 

Richter, R. E., Frankfurt a. M. 

Rinne, Friedrich, Leipzig.. 

Rivet, P., Paris. 

Rodrigues da Silveira, Fernando, Rio 

de Janeiro (gift). 
Roeder, Gunther, Hildesheim (gift). 
Roth, Walter E., Christianburg. 
Rout, Ettie A., London (gift). 
Schinz, Hans, Zurich. 
Schlaginhaufen, Otto, Zurich. 
Spencer, L. J., London. 
Soderstrom, Adolf, Upsala (gift). 
Strand, Embrik, Riga (gift). 
Sztolcman, Jan, Warsaw (gift). 
Talbot, G., Witley (gift). 
Tratz, Edward Paul, Salzburg (gift). 
Tyties, Edward J. Mrs., London (gift). 
Uchida, Leinosuke, Tokyo (gift). 
Walsh, George B., Scarborough. 
Wuelff, E. W., Leningrad. 
Zimanyi, Karl, Budapest. 


Geological Survey, University. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Balboa Park Museum, San Diego. 

Board of Fish and Game Commis- 
sioners, Sacramento. 

California Academy of Sciences, San 

Cooper Ornithological Club, Holly- 

Los Angeles Museum. 

Natural History Museum, San Diego. 

Pomona College, Claremont. 

San Diego Society of Natural His- 

San Diego Zoological Society. 

Scripps Institution of Biological 
Research, La JoUa. 

Southern California Academy of 
Sciences, Los Angeles. 

Southwest Museum, Los Angeles. 

Stanford Museum. 

State Mining Bureau, Sacramento. 

University of California, Berkeley. 

University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles. 


Agri cultural Experiment Station, 
Forth Collins. 

Bureau of Mines, Denver. 

Colorado College, Colorado Springs. 

Colorado Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Denver. 

State Agricultural College, Fort 

State Historical and Natural History 
Society, Denver. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
New Haven. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, New Haven. 

Hartford Public Library. 

Osborn Botanical Laboratory, New 

State Board of Fisheries and Game, 

State Geological and Natural History 
Survey, Hartford. 

Storrs Agricultural Experiment Sta- 

Yale University, New Haven. 


State Geological Survey, Tallahasee. 


Arizona Museum, Phoenix. 

Geological Survey, Atlanta. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 



Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Be-nice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 

Board of Commissioners of Agricul- 
ture and Forestry, Honolulu. _ 

Hawaiian Entomological Society, 

Hawaiian Historical Society, Hono- 

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Associa- 
tion, Honolulu. 

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Hon- 

University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 


State Historical Society of Idaho, 


Agricultural Experiment Station* 

Art Institute of Chicago, 

Board of Education, Chicago. 

Chicago Academy of Science. 

Chicago Historical Society. 

Consulate of Japan, Chicago. 

Division of Natural History Survey, 

Forestry Service, Urbana. 

Geographic Society, Chicago. 

Hardwood Record, Chicago (gift). 

Inland Printer, Chicago (gift). 

Izaak Walton League of America, 
Chicago (gift). 

John Crerar Library, Chicago. 

Knox College, Galesburg (gift). 

Newberry Library, Chicago. 

Northwestern University, Evanston. 

Open Court Publishing Company, 

State Academy of Science, Spring- 

State Board of Agriculture, Spring- 

State Geological Survey, Springfield. 

State Historical Library, Springfield. 

State Water Survey, Urbana. 

University of Chicago. 

University of Illinois, Urbana. 


Academy of Science, Indianapolis. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Department of Conservation, Indi- 

Indiana Historical Society, Indian- 
apolis (gift). 

Indiana University, Bloomington. 

John Herron Art Institute, Indian- 
Purdue University, Lafayette. 
State Board of Forestry, Indianapolis. 
University of Notre Dame. 


Academy of Science, Des Moines. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Historical, Memorial and Art De- 
partment, Des Moines. 

Iowa Geological Survey, Des Moines. 

Iowa Horticultural Society, Des 

University of Iowa, Iowa City. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

State Board of Agriculture, Topeka. 
State Geological Survey, Lawrence. 
State Historical Society, Topeka. 
University of Kansas, Lawrence. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Kentucky Geological Survey, Frank- 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Baton Rouge. 
Department of Conservation, Baton 



Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Bowdoin College, Brunswick. 
Portland Public Library. 


Academy of Science, Baltimore. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 
College Park. 

Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore. 

Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, Boston. 

American Antiquarian Society, Wor- 

Boston Public Library. 

Harvard College, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge. 

316 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Harvard University, Arnold Arbore- 
tum, Jamaica Plain. 

Harvard University, Gray Herbar- 
ium, Cambridge. 

Horticultural Society, Boston. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

New Bedford Free Library. 

Peabody Institute. 

l*eabody Museum, Cambridge. 

Peabody Museum, Salem. 

Phillips Academy, Andover. 

Salem Public Library. 

Smith College, Northampton. 

Springfield City Library Association. 

Williams College, Williamstown 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Agricultural College. 

Department of Conservation, Geolog- 
ical Survey Division, Lansing. 

Detroit Institute of Art. 

Grand Rapids Public Library. 

Michigan Academy of Science, Ann 

Michigan College of Mines, Hough- 

Michigan State Library, Lansing. 

State Board of Agriculture, Lansing. 

State Board of Library Commissions, 

Three Oaks Historical Society. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
University Farm. 

Minneapolis Institute of Arts. 

Minnesota Geological Survey, Min- 

Minnesota Historical Society, St. 

Saint Paul Institute, St. Paul. 

University of Minnesota, Minnea- 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Agricultural College. 
Mississippi Plant Board, Agricultural 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Bureau of Geology and Mines, Rolla. 

City Art Museum, St. Louis. 

Missouri Botanic Garden, St. Louis. 

Missouri Historical Society, Colum- 

Missouri State Game and Fish De- 
partment, Columbia. 

St. Louis Public Library. 

University of Missouri, School of 
Mines, Rolla. 

Washington University, St. Louis. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Department of Conservation and 

Development, Trenton. 
Horticultural Society, Trenton. 
Newark Museums Association. 
Princeton University. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Santa Fe. 
Historical Society, Santa Fe. 
New Mexico Museum, Santa Fe. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

American Academy in Rome, New 

American Geographical Society, 
New York. 

American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York. 

American Polish Chamber of Com- 
merce, New York. 

Barrett Company, Agricultural De- 
partment, New York (gift). 

Bingham Oceanographic Collection, 
New York (gift). 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sci- 

Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. 

Columbia University, New York. 

Cooper Union for the Advancement 
of Science and Art, New York. 

Cornell University, Ithaca. '1 

Garden Club of America, New York. 

Japan Society, New York. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 


Museum of the American Indian, 

New York. 
New York Academy of Sciences, 

New York. 
New York Botanical Garden, New 

New York Historical Society, New 

New York Linnean Society, New 

New York State Library, Albany. 
Pratt Institute, New York. 
Public Library, New York. 
Rochester Academy of Science. 
Rochester Municipal Museum. 
Rockefeller Foundation, New York. 
State College of Forestry, Syracuse. 
State Museum, Albany. 
Staten Island Institute of Arts and 

Sciences, New York. 
Stone Publishing Company, New 

Tompkins- Kiel Marble Company, 

New York (gift). 
United Fruit Company, New York. 
University of the State of New York, 

Vassar College, Poughkeepsie. 
Zoological Society, New York. 

Duke University, Durham. 
Geological and Economic Survey, 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 
Chapel Hill. 


Geological Survey, University Sta- 

State Historical Society, Bismarck. 

University of North Dakota, Uni- 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Cincinnati Museums Association. 

Cleveland Museum of Art. 

Cleveland Museum of Natural His- 

Cleveland Public Library. 

Denison University, Granville. 

Geological Survey, Columbus. 

Oberlin College. 

Ohio Academy of Science, Columbus. 

State Archaeological and Historical 
Society, Columbus. 

State University, Columbus. 

University of Cincinnati. 

Wilson Ornithological Club, Oberlin. 


Oklahoma Academy of Science, Nor- 

Oklahoma Geological Survey, Nor- 

University of Oklahoma, Norman. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

University of Oregon, Eugene. 


Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 

American Philosophical Society, 

Antivenin Institute of America, 

Bryn Mawr College. 

Bureau of Topographical and Geolog- 
ical Survey, Harrisburg, 

Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh. 

Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh. 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh. 

Delaware County Institute of Sci- 
ence, Media. 

Department of Agriculture, Harris- 

Department of Forests and Water, 

Dropsie College, Philadelphia. 

Engineers' Society of Western Penn- 

Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. 

Lehigh University, Bethlehem. 

Pennsylvania Museum and School of 
Industrial Art, Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

Philadelphia Commercial Museum. 

Sullivant Moss Society, Pittsburgh. 

University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 

University of Pennsylvania, Museum, 

Wagner Free Institute of Science, 

Wistar Institute of Anatomy and 
Biology, Philadelphia. 


Bureau of Education, Manila. 

Department of Agriculture, Manila. 

Department of Agriculture and Nat- 
ural Resources, Manila. 

Department of Interior, Bureau of 
Science, Manila. 

318 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 


Geological and Natural History Sur- 
vey, Vermilion. 
State School of Mines, Rapid City. 


Academy of Science, Nashville. 
Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 

College Station. 
Baylor University, Waco. 
Scientific Society, San Antonio. 
University of Texas, Austin. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
State Library, Richmond. 
University of Virginia, Charlottes- 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Department of Conservation and 

Development, Division of Geology, 

Mountaineers, Seattle. 
Pacific Northwest Bird and Mammal 

Society, Seattle. 
Puget Sound Biological Station, 

Washington University, Seattle. 
Washington University, Historical 

Society, Seattle. 


American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. 

American Association of Museums. 

American Mining Congress. 

Carnegie Endowment for Interna- 
tional Peace (gift). 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 

Library of Congress. 

National Academy of Science. 

National Parks Bulletin. 

National Research Council. 

Pan American Union. 

Science Service. 

Smithsonian Institution. 

United States Government. 

United States National Museum. 


Academy of Science, Morgantown. 

State Department of Agriculture, 

West Virginia University, Morgan- 


Agricultural Experiment Station^ 

Beloit College. 

Geological and Natural History Sur- 
vey, Madison. 

Public Museum of Milwaukee. 

State Horticultural Society, Madison. 

University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

Wisconsin Archaeological Society, 

Allen, T. George, Chicago (gift). 

Allen, W. E., Berkeley, California. 

Ames, Oakes, Boston (gift). 

Ayer, Edward E., Chicago (gift). 

Baker, Frank C, Urbana, Illinois. 

Bangs, Outram, Cambridge, Massa- 

Barnes, R. Magoon, Lacon, Illinois 

Bergfors, G., New York City (gift). 

Buckstaff, Ralph, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 

Cook, Harold J., Agate, Nebraska (gift). 

Davies, D. C, Chicago (gift). 

Davis, E. P., Washington, D. C. (gift). 

Degener, Otto, Honolulu. 

Essenberg, J. M., Norman, Oklahoma, 

Farwell, Oliver A., Detroit (gift). 

Field, Henry, Chicago (gift). 

Field, Stanley, Chicago (gift). 

Firth, Raymond. 

Friedmann, Herbert, Amherst, Massa- 

Friesser, J., Chicago (gift). 

Gerhard, W. J., Chicago (gift). 

Glessner, John J., Chicago (gift.) 

Gordon, Myron, Ithaca, New York. 

Greenman, Emerson, Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan (gift). 

Gunder, J, D., Pasadena, California 

Hellmayr, C. E., Chicago (gift). 

Hubbs, Carl L., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 

Hutchinson, Mrs. Charles L., Chicago 

Jillson, Willard R., Frankfort, Kentucky 

Jones, E. T., New York City, (gift). 

Kenyon, A. S. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Kroeber, A. L., Berkeley, California. 

Larsen, Esther L., St, Louis (gift). 

Lathrop, S. K., Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts (gift). 

Laufer, Berthold, Chicago (gift). 

Lyon, M. W., Jr. South Bend, Indiana. 

McNair, James B., Chicago (gift). 

Osborn, Henry F., New York City. 

Osgood, Wilfred H., Chicago (gift). 

Pallister, John C, Cleveland (gift). 

Patten, Henry J., Evanston, Illinois 

Peters, James L., Cambridge, Massa- 

Procter, William, Bar Harbor, Maine, 

Psota, Frank J., Chicago (gift). 

Schmidt, Karl P., Chicago (gift). 

Simms, S. C, Chicago (gift). 

Spivey, Thomas S., Beverly Hills, 

California (gift). 
Standley, Paul C, Washington, D. C. 

Starr, Frederick, Seattle, Washington. 
Sternberg, Charles M., Ottawa, Ontario, 

Canada (gift). 
Strong, R. M., Chicago (gift). 
Thompson, J. Eric, Chicago (gift). 
Todd, W. E. Clyde, Pittsburgh. 
Valentine, Hazel, Chicago (gift). 
Walker, James W., Chicago (gift), 
Walpole, Branson A., East Lansing, 

Michigan (gift). 
Whitlock, Herbert P., New York City 

Young, F. B., (gift). 
Zimmer, John T., Chicago (gift). 

320 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 



William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State 

To All to Whom These Presents Shall Come, Greeting: 

Whereas, a Certificate duly signed and acknowledged having been filed in the 
office of the Secretary of State, on the 16th day of September, A. D. 1893, for the 
organization of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO, under and in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of "An Act Concerning Corporations," approved 
April 18, 1872, and in force July 1, 1872, and all acts amendatory thereof, a copy 
of which certificate is hereto, attached. 

Now, therefore, I, William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State of the State of 
Illinois, by virtue of the powers and duties vested in me by law, do hereby certify 
that the said COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO is a legally organized 
Corporation under the laws of this. State. 

In Testimony Whereof, I hereto set my hand and cause to be affixed the 
Great Seal of State. Done at the City of Springfield, this 16th day of September, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, and of the 
Independence of the United States the one hundred and eighteenth. 

[Seal] Secretary of State. 


Secretary op State: 

We, the undersigned citizens of the United States, propose to form a cor- 
poration under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, entitled 
"An Act Concerning Corporations," approved April 18, 1872, and all acts 
amendatory thereof; and that for the purposes of such organization we hereby 
state as follows, to-wit: 

1. The name of such corporation is the "COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF 

2. The object for which it is formed is for the accumulation and dis- 
semination of knowledge, and the preservation and exhibition of objects illus- 
trating Art, Archaeology, Science and History. 

3. The management of the aforesaid museum shall be vested in a Board of 
Fifteen (15) Trustees, five of whom are to be elected every year. 

4. The following named persons are hereby selected as the Trustees for the 
first year of its corporate existence: 

Edward E. Ayer, Charles B. Farwell, George E. Adams, George R. Davis, 
Charles L. Hutchinson, Daniel H. Burnham, John A. Roche, M. C. Bullock, 
Emil G. Hirsch, James W. Ellsworth, Allison V. Armour, O. F. Aldis, Edwin 
Walker, John C. Black and Frank W. Gunsauhis. 

5. The location of the Museum is in the City of Chicago, County of Cook, 
and State of Illinois. 


George E. Adams, C. B. Farwell, Sidney C. Eastman, F. W. Putnam, Robert 
McCurdy, Andrew Peterson, L. J. Gage, Charles L. Hutchinson, Ebenezer 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 321 

Buckingham, Andrew McNally, Edward E. Ayer, John M. Clark, Herman H. 
Kohlsaat, George Schneider, Henry H. Getty, William R. Harper, Franklin H. 
Head, E. G. Keith, J. Irving Pearce, Azel F. Hatch, Henry Wade Rogers, 
Thomas B. Bryan, L. Z. Leiter, A. C. Bartlett, A. A. Sprague, A. C. McClurg, 
James W. S«cott, Geo. F. Bissell, John R. Walsh, Chas. Fitzsimmons, John A. 
Roche, E. B. McCagg, Owen F. Aldis, Ferdinand W. Peck, James H. Dole, 
Joseph Stockton, Edward B. Butler, John McConnell, R. A. Waller, H. C. 
Chatfield-Taylor, A. Crawford, Wm. Sooy Smith, P. S. Peterson, John C. 
Black, Jno. J. Mitchell, C. F. Gunther, George R. Davis, Stephen A. Forbes, 
Robert W. Patterson, Jr., M. C. Bullock, Edwin Walker, George M. Pullman, 
William E. Curtis, James W. Ellsworth, William E. Hale, Wm. T. Baker, 
Martin A. Ryerson, Huntington W. Jackson, N. B. Ream, Norman Williams, 
Melville E. Stone, Bryan Lathrop, Eliphalet W. Blatchford, Philip D. Armour. 

State of Illinois 
Cook County 


I, G. R. Mitchell, a Notary Public in and for said County, do hereby 
certify that the foregoing petitioners personally appeared before me and 
acknowledged severally that they signed the foregoing petition as their free and 
voluntary act for the uses and purposes therein set forth. 

Given under my hand and notarial seal this 14th day of September, 1893. 

ISeal] Notary Public, Cook County, III. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 25th day of June, 1894, the name of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM was 
changed to FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. A certificate to this effect was 
filed June 26, 1894, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 8th day of November, 1905, the name of the FIELD COLUMBIAN 
A certificate to this effect was filed November 10, 1905, in the office of the 
Secretary of State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution at a meeting of the corporate members held the 
10th day of May, 1920, the management of FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY shall be invested in a Board of Twenty-one (21) Trustees, who 
shall be elected in such manner and for such time and term of office as may 
be provided for by the By-Laws. A certificate to this effect was filed May 21, 
1920, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 

322 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 




Section 1. Members shall be of eleven classes, Corporate Members, Hon- 
orary Members, Patrons, Benefactors, Fellows, Life Members, Non-Resident 
Life Members, Associate Members, Non-Resident Associate Life Members, 
Sustaining Members, and Annual Members. 

Section 2. The Corporate Members shall consist of the persons named in 
the articles of incorporation, and of such other persons as shall be chosen from 
time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, upon the recorn- 
mendation of the Executive Committee; provided, that such person named in 
the articles of incorporation shall, within ninety days from the adoption of these 
By-Laws, and persons hereafter chosen as Corporate Members shall, within 
ninety days of their election, pay into the treasury the sum of twenty dollars 
($20.00) or more. Corporate Members becoming Life Members, Patrons or 
Honorary Members shall be exempt from dues. Annual meetings of said 
Corporate Members shall be held at the same place and on the same day that the 
annual meeting of the Board of Trustees is held. 

Section 3. Honorary Members shall be chosen by the Board from among 
persons who have rendered eminent service to science, and only upon unanimous 
nomination of the Executive Committee. They shall be exempt from all dues. 

Section 4. Patrons shall be chosen by the Board upon recommendation of 
the Executive Committee from among persons who have rendered eminent ser- 
vice to the Museum. They shall be exempt from ail dues, and, by virtue of their 
election as Patrons, shall also be Corporate Members. 

Section 5. Any person contributing or devising the sum of One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars ($100,000.00) in cash, or securities, or property to the funds 
of the Museum, may be elected a Benefactor of the Museum. 

Section 6. Any person contributing the sum of Five Thousand Dollars 
($5,000.00) in cash or securities to the funds of the Museum, may be elected 
a Fellow of the Museum, who after being so elected shall have the right in 
perpetuity to appoint the successor in said Fellowship. 

Section 7. Any person paying into the treasury the sum of Five Hundred 
Dollars ($500.00), at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, 
become a Life Member. Life Members shall be exempt from all dues, and shall 
enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that are accorded to mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees. Any person residing fifty miles or more from 
the city of Chicago, paying into the treasury the sum of One Hundred Dollars 
($100.00) at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, become 
a Non-Resident Lif,e Member. Non-Resident Life Members shall be exempt 
from all dues, and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum 
that are accorded to members of the Board of Trustees. 

Section 8. Any person paying into the treasury of the Museum the sum 
of one hundred dollars ($100.00), at any one time, shall upon the unanimous 
vote of the Board, become an Associate Member. Associate Members shall be 
entitled to: tickets admitting member and members of family, including non- 
resident home guests; all publications of the Museum, if so desired; reserved 
seats for all lectures and entertainments under the auspices of the Museum, pro- 
vided reservation is requested in advance; and admission of holder of member- 
ship and accompanying party to all special exhibits and Museum functions day 
or evening. Any person residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, 
paying into the treasury the sum of Fifty Dollars ($50.00) at any one time, shall, 
upon the unanimous vote of the Board, become a Non-Resident Associate Life 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 323 

Member. Non-Resident Associate Life Members shall be exempt from all dues, 
and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that are accorded 
to Associate Members. 

Section 9. Sustaining Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of twenty-five dollars ($25.00), payable within thirty 
days after notice of election and within thirty days after each recurring annual 
date. This Sustaining Membership entitles the member to free admission for 
the member and family to the Museum on any day, the Annual Report and such 
other Museum documents or publications as may be requested in writing. When 
a Sustaining Member has paid the annual fee of $25.00 for six years, such mem- 
ber shall be entitled to become an Associate Member. 

Section 10. Annual Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of ten dollars ($10.00), payable within thirty days after 
each recurring annual date. An Annual Membership shall entitle the member 
to a card of admission for the member and family during all hours when the 
Museum is open to the public, and free admission for the member and family 
to all Museum lectures or entertainments. This membership will also entitle 
the holder to the courtesies of the membership privileges of every Museum of 
note in the United States and Canada, so long as the existing system of co- 
operative interchange of membership tickets shall be maintained, including 
tickets for any lectures given under the auspices of any of the Museums during a 
visit to the cities in which the cooperative museums are located. 

Section 11. All membership fees, excepting Sustaining and Annual, shall 
hereafter be applied to a permanent Membership Endowment Fund, the interest 
only of which shall be applied for the use of the Museum as the Board of 
Trustees may order. 



Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-one members. 
The respective members of the Board now in office, and those who shall here- 
after be elected, shall hold office during life. Vacancies occurring in the Board 
shall be filled at a regular meeting of the Board, upon the nomination of the 
Executive Committee made at a preceding regular meeting of the Board, by a 
majority vote of the members of the Board present. 

Section 2. Regular meetings of the Board shall be held on the third Mon- 
day of each month. Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, 
and shall be called by the Secretary upon the written request of three Trustees. 
Five Trustees shall constitute a quorum, except for the election of officers or the 
adoption of the Annual Budget, when seven Trustees shall be required, but meet- 
ings may be adjourned by any less number from day to day, or to a day fixed, 
previous to the next regular meeting. 

Section 3. Reasonable written notice, designating the time and place of 
holding meetings, shall be given by the Secretary. 



Section 1. As a mark of respect, and in appreciation of services performed 
for the Institution, those Trustees who by reason of inability, on account of 
change of residence, or for other cause or from indisposition to serve longer 
in such capacity shall resign their place upon the Board, may be elected, by a 
majority of those present at any regular meeting of the Board, an Honorary 
Trustee for life. Such Honorary Trustee will receive notice of all meetings 
of the Board of Trustees, whether regular or special, and will be expected to be 
present at all such meetings and participate in the deliberations thereof, but an 
Honorary Trustee shall not have the right to vote. 

324 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 



Section 1. The officers shall be a President, a First Vice-President, a 
Second Vice-President, a Third Vice-President, a Secretary, an Assistant Secre- 
tary and a Treasurer. They shall be chosen by ballot by the Board of Trustees, 
a majority of those present and voting being necessary to elect. The President, 
the First Vice-President, the Second Vice-President, and the Third Vice-Presi- 
dent shall be chosen from among the members of the Board of Trustees. The 
meeting for the election of officers shall be held on the third Monday of January 
of each year, and shall be called the Annual Meeting. 

Section 2. The officers shall hold office for one year, or until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified, but any officer may be removed at any regular 
meeting of the Board of Trustees by a vote of two-thirds of all the members 
of the Board. Vacancies in any office may be filled by the Board at any meeting. 

Section 3. The officers shall perform such duties as ordinarily appertain 
to their respective offices, and such as shall be prescribed by the By-Laws, or 
designated from time to time by the Board of Trustees. 

THE treasurer 

Section 1. The Treasurer shall be custodian of the funds of the Corpor- 
ation except as hereinafter provided. He shall make disbursements only upon 
warrants drawn by the Director and countersigned by the President. In the 
absence or inability of the Director, warrants may be signed by the Chairman 
of the Finance Committee, and in the absence or inability of the President, may 
be countersigned by one of the Vice-Presidents, or any member of the Finance 

Section 2. The securities and muniments of title belonging to the cor- 
poration shall be placed in the custody of some Trust Company of Chicago to 
be designated by the Board of Trustees, which Trust Company shall collect 
the income and principal of said securities as the same become due, and pay 
same to the Treasurer, except as hereinafter provided. Said Trust Company 
shall allow access to and deliver any or all securities or muniments of title to 
the joint order of the following officers, namely The President or one of the 
Vice-Presidents, jointly with the Chairman, or one of the Vice-Chairmen, of the 
Finance Committee of the Museum. 

Section 3. The Treasurer shall give bond in such amount, and with such 
sureties as shall be approved by the Board of Trustees. 

Section 4. The Harris Trust & Savings Bank of Chicago shall be Cus- 
todian of "The N. W. Harris Public School Extension of Field Museum" fund. 
The bank shall make disbursements only upon warrants drawn by the Director 
and countersigned by the President. In the absence or inability of the Director, 
warrants may be signed by the Chairman of the Finance Committee, and in the 
absence or inability of the President, may be countersigned by one of the Vice- 
Presidents, or any member of the Finance Committee. 

the director 

Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall elect a Director of the Museum, 
who shall remain in office until his successor shall be elected. He shall have im- 
mediate charge and supervision of the Museum, and shall control the operations 
of the Institution, subject to the authority of the Board of Trustees and its 
Committees. The Director shall be the official medium of communication be- 
tween the Board, or its Committees, and the scientific stafif and maintenance 

Section 2. There shall be four scientific departments of the Museum — 
Anthropology, Botany, Geology and Zoology; each under the charge of a 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 325 

Curator, subject to the authority of the Director. The Curators shall be ap- 
pointed by the Board upon the recommendation of the Director, and shall 
serve during the pleasure of the Board. Subordinate staff officers in the 
scientific departments shall be appointed and removed by the Director upon 
the recommendation of the Curators of the respective Departments. The 
Director shall have authority to employ and remove all other employees of the 

Section 3. The Director shall make report to the Board at each regular 
meeting, recounting the operations of the Museum for the previous month. At 
the Annual Meeting, the Director shall make an Annual Report, reviewing 
the work for the previous year, which Annual Report shall be published in 
pamphlet form for the information of the Trustees and Members, and for free 
distribution in such number as the Board may direct. 



Section 1. The Board shall appoint an Auditor, who shall hold his office 
during the pleasure of the Board. He shall keep proper books of account, set- 
ting forth the financial condition and transactions of the Corporation, and of the 
Museum, and report thereon at each regular meeting, and at such other times 
as may be required by the Board. He shall certify to the correctness of all 
bills rendered for the expenditure of the money of the Corporation. 


Section 1. There shall be five Committees, as follows: Finance, Building, 
Auditing, Pension and Executive. 

Section 2. The Finance Committee shall consist of five members, the 
Auditing and Pension Committees shall each consist of three members, and the 
Building Committee shall consist of five members. All members of these four 
Committees shall be elected by ballot by the Board at the Annual Meeting, and 
shall hold office for one year, and until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied. In electing the members of these Committees, the Board shall designate 
the Chairman and Vice-Chairman by the order in which the members are 
named in the respective Committee; the first member named shall be Chair- 
man, the second named the Vice-Chairman, and the third named. Second Vice- 
chairman, succession to the Chairmanship being in this order in the event of 
the absence or disability of the Chairman. 

Section 3. The Executive Committee shall consist of the President of the 
Board, the Chairman of the Finance Committee, the Chairman of the Building 
Committee, the Chairman of the Auditing Committee, the Chairman of the 
Pension Committee, and three other members of the Board to be elected by 
ballot at the Annual Meeting. 

Section 4. Four members shall constitute a quorum of the Executive Com- 
mittee, and in all standing Committees two members shall constitute a quorum. 
In the event that, owing to the absence or inability of members, a quorum of 
the regular elected members cannot be present at any meeting of any Com- 
mittee, then the Chairman thereof, or his successor, as herein provided, may 
summon any members of the Board of Trustees to act in place of the absentee. 

Section 5. The Finance Committee shall have supervision of investing the 
endowment and other permanent funds of the Corporation, and the care of such 
real estate as may become its property. It shall have authority to invest, sell, 
and reinvest funds, subject to the approval of the Board. 

Section 6. The Building Committee shall have supervision of the con- 
struction, reconstruction, and extension of any and all buildings used for 
Museum purposes. 

Section 7. The Executive Committee shall be called together from time 
to time as the Chairman may consider necessary, or as he may be requested 

326 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

to do by three members of the Committee, to act upon such matters affecting 
the administration of the Museum as cannot await consideration at the Regular 
Monthly Meetings of the Board of Trustees. It shall, before the beginning of 
each fiscal year, prepare and submit to the Board an itemized Budget, setting 
forth the probable receipts from all sources for the ensuing year, and make 
recommendations as to the expenditures which should be made for routine 
maintenance and fixed charges. Upon the adoption of the Budget by the 
Board, the expenditures as stated are authorized. 

Section 8. The Auditing Committee shall have supervision over all ac- 
counting and bookkeeping, and full control of the financial records. It shall 
cause the same, once each year, or oftener, to be examined by an expert indi- 
vidual or firm, and shall transmit the report of such expert individual or firm 
to the Board at the next ensuing regular meeting after such examination shall 
have taken place. 

Section 9. The Pension Committee shall determine by such means and 
processes as shall be established by the Board of Trustees to whom and in what 
amount the Pension Fund shall be distributed. These determinations or findings 
shall be subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees, 

Section 10. The Chairman of each Committee shall report the acts and 
proceedings thereof at the next ensuing regular meeting of the Board. 

Section 11. The President shall be ex-officio a member of all Committees 
and Chairman of the Executive Committee. Vacancies occurring in any Com- 
mittee may be filled by ballot at any regular meeting of the Board. 



Section 1. At the November meeting of the Board each year, a Nomi- 
nating Committee of three shall be chosen by lot. Said Committee shall make 
nominations for membership of the Finance Committee, the Building Commit- 
tee, the Auditing Committee, and the Pension Committee, and for three mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee, from among the Trustees, to be submitted 
at the ensuing December meeting and voted upon at the following Annual 
Meeting in January. 


Section 1. Whenever the word "Museum" is employed in the By-Laws of 
the Corporation, it shall be taken to mean the building in which the Museum 
as an Institution is located and operated, the material exhibited, the material in 
study collections, or in storage, furniture, fixtures, cases, tools, records, books, 
and all appurtenances of the Institution and the workings, researches, installa- 
tions, expenditures, field work, laboratories, library, publications, lecture 
courses, and all scientific and maintenance activities. 

Section 2. These By-Laws may be amended at any regular meeting of the 
Board of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of all the members present, provided 
the amendment shall have been proposed at a preceding regular meeting. 

** .'^ . 

O fed — 

^ t 2 


O .2 tf 

§ p. m 

HH , (!> 



Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 



♦Marshall Field 


Those who have contributed $1 00,000 or more to the Miiseum 
*Ayer, Edward E. 
Buckingham, Miss Kate S, 

♦Field, Joseph N. 
Field, Captain Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 

♦Harris, Norman W. 
♦Higinbotham, Harlow N. 

♦Pullman, George M. 

Raymond, Mrs. Anna Louise 
♦Raymond, James Nelson 

Simpson, James 
♦Sturges, Mrs. Mary D. 


Those who have rendered 

*Ayer, Edward E. 
Ayer, Mrs. Edward E. 

Blackstone, Mrs. T. B. 
Breasted, Prof. James H. 

Chalmers, William J. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Crane, Richard T., Jr. 

Field, Captain Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 


eminent service to Science 

*Jones, Arthur B. 

Keep, Chauncey 

LuDwiG, H. R. H. GusTAF Adolf, 
Crown Prince of Sweden 

McCoRMiCK, Stanley 

Rosenwald, Julius 
Rosenwald, Mrs. Augusta N. 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Simpson, James 
Sprague, Albert A. 


Those who have rendered eminent service to the Museum 

Knight, Charles R. 
KuNZ, George F. 

Langdon, Prof. Stephen 

♦Akeley, Carl E. 
Armour, Allison V. 

Borland, Mrs. John Jay 
Butler, Edward B. 

Cherrie, George K. 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Board man 
Cummings, Mrs. Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Kelley, William V. 
Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 


Markham, Charles H. 
♦Mitchell, John J. 

Payne, John Barton 
Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Strawn, Silas H. 

White, Howard J. 

328 Field Museum of Naturax, History— Reports, Vol. VII 


♦Akeley, Carl E. 
Armour, Allison V. 
*Ayer, Edward E. 

Blair, Watson F. 
Borden, John 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay 
Butler, Edward B. 
Byram, Harry E. 

Chalmers, W. J, 
Chatpield-Taylor, H. C. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
Crane, Richard T., Jr. 
CuMMiNGS, Mrs. Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Davies, D. C. 
Day, Lee Garnett 

Eastman, Sidney C. 
Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Field, Captain Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

♦Gage, Lyman J. 
Graham, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 

♦Jones, Arthur B. 

Keep, Chauncey 
Kelley, William V. 
Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 
Knight, Charles R. 
Kunz, George F. 

Langdon, Prof. Stephen 

McCoRMiCK, Cyrus H. 
Markham, Charles H. 
♦Mitchell, John J. 
Mitchell, William H. 

Payne, John Barton 
♦Porter, George F. 
Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Simpson, James 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Stone, Melville E. 
Strawn, Silas H. 

White, Howard J. 
Wrigley, Willlam, Jr. 


Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 



Those who have contributed $500 to the Museum 

Abbott, Robert S. 
Aldis, Arthur T. 
Alexander, Willl4.m A. 
Allerton, Robert H. 
Ames, James C. 
Ames, Knowlton L. 
Armour, Allison V. 
Armour, A. Watson 
Armour, Lester 
Avery, Sewell L. 

Babcock, Frederick R. 
Bacon, Edward Richardson, Jr. 
Banks, Alexander F. 
Barrett, Mrs. A. D. 
Barrett, Robert L. 
Bassford, Lowell C. 
Bendix, Vincent 
Bensabott, R. 
Billings, C. K. G, 
Billings, Dr. Frank 
Blackstone, Mrs. T. B. 
Blaine, Mrs. Emmons 
Blair, Henry A. 
Blair, Watson F. 
Block, L. E. 
Block, Philip D. 
Booth, W. Vernon 
Borden, John 
Borden, Mrs. Waller 
Borland, Chauncey B. 
Bradley, J. Dorr 
Brannan, George E. 
Brewster, Walter S. 
Bross, Mrs. Mason 
Brown, Charles Edward 
Brown, William L. 
Buchanan, D. W. 
BuDD, Britton I. 
buffington, eugene j. 
Burntiam, John 
Burt, William G. 
Butler, Edward B. 
Butler, Julius W. 
Byram, Harry E. 

Carpenter, Augustus A. 
Carpenter, Mrs. Hubbard 
Carr, Robert F. 
Carry, Edward F. 

Carton, L. A. 
Chalmers, William J. 
Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 
Chandler, Reuben G. 
Clark, Eugene B. 
Clay, John 

Clegg, Mrs. Henry G. 
Clegg, William G. 
Clegg, Mrs. William G. 
Clinch, R. Floyd 
Clow, William E. 
Conover, Boardman 
Copley, Col. Ira Cliff, (N. R.) 
Corley, F. D. 
CowLES, Alfred 
Cramer, Corwith 
Cramer, E. W. 
Cramer, Mrs. Katharine S. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Crane, Richard T., Jr. 
Crossett, Edward C. 
Crossley, Sir Kenneth 
Crossley, Lady Josephine 
Crowell, H. p. 
Cudahy, Edward A., 
Cudahy, Edward A., Jr. 
Cudahy, Joseph M. 
Cummings, D. Mark 
Cunningham, Frank S. 
Cunningham, James D. 
Curtis, Mrs. Robert M. 
Cutten, Arthur W. 

Dau, J. J. 
Davies, D. C. 
Davies, Mrs. D. C. 
Dawes, Charles G. 
Day, Albert M. 
Decker, Alfred 
Defrees, Joseph H. 
Delano, Frederic A. 
DeWolf, Wallace L, 
Dick, Albert Blake 
DiERSSEN, Ferdinand W. 
Dixon, George W. 
Donnelley, Reuben H. 
Donnelley, Thomas E. 
Douglas, James H. 
Drake, John B. 
Drake, Tracy C. 

330 Field Museum op Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

eckhart, b. a. 
Edmunds, Philip S. 
EwiNG, Charles Hull 

Farnum, Henry W. 

Farr, Miss Shirley 
Farrington, Dr. Oliver C. 
Farwell, Arthur L. 
Farwell, Francis C. 
Farwell, John V. 
Farwell, Walter 
Fay, C. N. 
Felt, Dorr E. 
Fenton, Howard W. 
Ferguson, Louis A. 
Ferry, Mrs. Abby Farwell 
Field, Joseph Nash, II 
Field, Captain Marshall 
Field, Norman 
Field, Mrs. Norman 
Field, Mrs. Sara Carroll 
Field, Stanley 
Fleming, John C. 
FoRGAN, David R. 
Fyffe, Colin C. H. 

Gardner, Paul E. 
Gartz, a. F. 
Gary, Mrs. John W. 
Getz, George F. 
Glessner, John J. 
Goddard, Leroy a. 
Goodman, William O. 
Goodrich, A. W. 
Goodspeed, Charles B. 
GowiNG, J. Parker 
Graham, Ernest R. 
Griscom, Clement A. 

Hack, Frederick C. 
Hamill, Alfred E. 
Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W. 
Harvey, Ford F. (N. R.) 
Haskell, Frederick T. 
Hastings, Samuel M. 
Hey WORTH, James O. 
Hibbard, Frank 
Hill, Louis W. 
HiNDE, Thomas W. 
Hinkley, James Otis 
HIPPACH, Louis A. 
Hopkins, J. M. 
Hopkins, L. J. 
Horowitz, L. J, 

HOYT, N. Landon 
Hughes, Thomas S. 
Hughitt, Marvin 

Insull, Samuel 
Insull, Samuel, Jr. 

Jarnagin, William N. 
Jelke, John F. 
Jelke, John F., Jr. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth Ayer 
Jones, Mrs. Arthur B. 
Jones, Miss Gwethalyn 
Jones, Thomas D. 

Keep, Chauncey 
Keller, Theodore C. 
Kelley, Mrs. Daphne Field 
Kelley, Russell P. 
Kelley, William V. 
King, Charles Garfield 
King, Francis 
King, James G. 
Kirk, Walter Radcliffe 
Kittle, C. M. 

Knickerbocker, Charles K. 
Kuppenheimer, Louis B. 

Lamont, Robert P, 

Landon, Mrs. Jessie Spalding 

(N. R.) 
Lehmann, E. J. 
Leonard, Clifford M. 
Levy, Mrs. David M. 
Linn, W. R. 
Logan, Spencer H. 
Lord, John B. 
Lowden, Frank O. 
Lytton, George 
Lytton, Henry C. 

Mac Do WELL, Charles H. 
MacVeagh, Franklin 
Manierre, Mrs. George 
Mark, Clayton 
Markham, Charles H. 
Marshall, Benjamin H. 
Martin, William P., Sr. 
Mason, William S. 
McCoRMiCK, Cyrus H. 
McCormick, Mrs. Edith 

McCormick, Harold F. 
McCormick, Stanley 
McCuTCHEON, John T. 
MclLVAiNE, William B. 
McInnerney, Thomas H. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


McKiNLAY, John 
McKiNLOCK, George A. 
McLaughlin, Frederic 
McLaughlin, George D. 
McLennan, D. R. 
McLennan, Hugh 

Meyne, Gerhardt F. 
Miner, W. H. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Edward S. 
Morse, Charles H., Jr. 
Morton, Joy 
Morton, Mark 
MuNROE, Charles A. 

Newell, A. B. 
Nikolas, G. J. 
Noel, Joseph R. 

Oakley, Horace S. 
O'Brien, John J. 
Ormsby, Dr. Oliver S. 
Orr, Robert M. 

Paesch, Charles A. 
Palmer, Honore 
Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 
Patten, Mrs. James A, 
Patterson, Joseph M. 
Payne, John Barton 
Payson, George S. 
Peabody, Augustus S. 
Perkins, Herbert F, 
Pick, Albert 
Pierce, Charles I. 
PiEz, Charles 
Pike, Charles B. 
Pike, Eugene R. 
PoppENHUSEN, Conrad H, 
Porter, Frank W. 
Porter, Gilbert E. 
Porter, H. H, 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Raymond, Mrs. James Nelson 
Rea, Mrs. Robert L. 
Revell, Alexander H. 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Reynolds, George M. 
Riley, Harrison B. 
Robinson, Theodore W. 
RoBSON, Miss Alice 
Rodman, Mrs. Katherine Field 

Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
RosENWALD, Julius 
RosENWALD, Lessing J. (N. R.) 
RosENWALD, William 


Runnells, John S. 
Russell, Edmund A. 
Russell, Edward P. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Carrie H. 
Ryerson, Edward L. 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

Sargent, Fred Wesley 

Schweppe, Charles H. 

Scott, Frank H. 

Scott, George E. 

Scott, Harold N. 

Scott, John W. 

Shaffer, John C. 

Shirk, Joseph H. 

Simpson, James 

Simpson, William B. 

Smith, Alexander 

Smith, Solomon A. 

SoPER, James P. 

Spalding, Keith 

Spaulding, Mrs. Howard H., Jr. 

Sprague, Albert A. 

Stern, Mrs. Alfred K. 

Stern, Mrs. Edgar B. (N. R.) 

Stevens, Charles A. 

Stewart, Robert W. 

Stirton, Robert C. 

Storey, W. B. 

Stout, Frank D. 

Stuart, John 

Stuart, R. Douglas 

Strawn, Silas H. 

Studebaker, Clement, Jr. 

Sturges, George 

Sunny, B. E. 

Swift, Charles H. 

Swift, Edward F. 

Swift, G. F., Jr. 

Swift, Harold H. 

Swift, Louis F. 

Thorne, Charles H. 
Thorne, Robert J. 
Traylor, Melvin a. 
Tree, Ronald L. F. 
Tyson, Russell 

Uihlein, Edgar J. 
Underwood, Morgan P. 

332 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Valentine, Louis L. 
Veatch, George L. 
Vernay, Arthur S. (N. R.) 
Viles, Lawrence M. 

Wacker, Charles H. 
Wanner, Harry C. 
Warner, Ezra Joseph 
Weber, David 
Welling, John P. 
Wetmore, Frank O. 
Wheeler, Charles P. 
White, F. Edson 
Whitney, Mrs. Julia L. 

Armour, J. Ogden 
Ayer, Edward E. 

Carpenter, Benjamin 
Clegg, Henry G. 

Deering, Charles 

Fair, Robert M. 
Forsyth, Robert 

Gary, Judge Elbert H. 

WiCKWiRE, Mrs. Edward L. 
WiEBOLDT, William A. 


WiLLiTS, Ward W. 
Wilson, John P., Jr. 
Wilson, Oliver T. 
Wilson, Thomas E. 
Wilson, Walter H. 
Winston, Garrard B. 
Winter, Wallace C. 
WooLLEY, Clarence M. 
Wrigley, William, Jr. 

Yates, David M. 
Deceased, 1927 

Hamill, Ernest A. 

Jones, Arthur B. 

King, Francis 

McElwee, Robert H. 
Mitchell, John J. 

Porter, George F. 

Stearns, Charles B., Sr. 

VanVechten, Ralph 

Those who have contributed $100 to the Museum 

Aaron, Charles 
Abbott, Donald P., Jr. 
Abbott, Gordon C. 
Abbott, W. R. 
Abbott, William L. 
Abrams, Prof. Duff A. 
Ackerman, Charles N. 
Acomb, Jesse P. 
Adamick, Gustav H. 
Adams, Joseph 
Adams, William C. 
Adcock, Mrs. Bessie 
Addleman, Samuel W. 
Adler, David 
Adler, Max 
Adler, Mrs. Max 
Ahlschlager, Walter W. 
Albee, Mrs. Harry W. 
Allbright, William B. 
Allen, Mrs. Fred G. 
Alling, Charles 

Alsberg, Lewis 
Alschuler, Alfred S. 
Alsip, Charles H. 
Alter, Harry 
Anderson, Arthur 
Andrews, Alfred B. 
Andrin, Miss Katherine L. 
Annan, Mrs. Miriam Ormsby 
Armbrust, John T. 
Armbruster, C. a. 
Armour, Philip D. 
Armstrong. Arthur W. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Frank H. 
Ascher, Fred 
ashenhurst, harold s. 
Asher, Louis E. 
Atwater, Walter Hull 
AuRELius, Mrs. Marcus A. 
Austin, Henry W. 
Austin, Dr. Margaret Howard 
Austrian, Alfred S. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Baackes, Mrs. Frank 

Babson, Fred K. 

Babson, Henry B. 

Bach, Julius H. 

Baer, Mervin K, 

Baer, Walter S. 

Baggaley, William Blair 

Baird, Harry K. 

Baird, Wyllys W. 

Baker, Mrs. Alfred L. 

Baker, L. K. 

Baldwin, Vincent Curtis 

Balgemann, Otto W. 

Ball, Dr. Fred E. 

Ball, Sidney Y. 

Ballard, Thomas L. 

Ballenberg, Adolph G. 

Barbour, Harry A. 

Barbour, James J. 

Barley, Miss Matilda A. 

Barnes, Cecil 

Barnes, James M. 

Barnett, Otto R. 

Barnhart, Mrs. A. M. 

Barnhart, Miss Gracia M. F. 

Bartelme, John H. 

Bartholomae, Mrs. Emma 

Bartholomay, Henry 

Bartholomay, Mrs. William, Jr. 

Bartlett, Miss Florence D, 

Bartlett, Frederic C. 

Bass, Mrs. Perkins 

Bastlan, Charles L. 

Bateman, Floyd L. 

Battey, p. L. 

Bauer, A. 

Baum, Mervyn 

Baumgartbn, C. 

Bausch, William C. 

Beach, Miss Bess K. 

Beck, Herbert 

Becker, Benjamin F. 

Becker, Benjamin V. 

Becker, H. T. 

Becker, Louis 

Behr, Mrs. Edith 

Beidler, Francis, II 

Beil, Carl 

Bell, Lionel A. 

Bell, Robert W. 

Bender, C. J. 

Bensinger, Benjamin E. 

Benson, John 

Bentley, Arthur 

Bentley, Cyrus 

Benton, Miss Mabel M. 
Bermingham, Edward J. 
Besly, Mrs. C. H. 
Bevan, Dr. Arthur Dean 
BicHL, Thomas A. 
Bidwell, Chas. W. 
BiGLER, Mrs. Albert J. 
Billow, Elmer E. 
Billow, Miss Virginia 
Bird, George H 
BiRK, Frank J. 
BiRKHOLZ, Hans E. 
Bishop, Howard P. 
Bishop, Mrs. Martha V. 
BisTOR, James E. 
BiTTEL, Mrs. Frank J. 
Blackman, Nathan L. 
Blair, Edward T. 
Blake, Tiffany 
Blatchford, Carter 
Blatchford, N. H., Sr., 
Blayney, Thomas C. 
Bletsch, William E. 
Bliss, Miss Amelia M. 
Block, Emanuel J. 
Blome, Rudolph S. 
Blum, David 
Blum, Harry H. 
Blunt, J. E., Jr. 
BOAL, Ayres 
Bodman, Mrs. Luther 
Boericke, Mrs. Anna 
Bolter, Joseph C. 


Boomer, Dr. Paul 

BooRN, William C. 

Booth, Alfred 

Booth, George E. 

Borland, Mrs. Bruce 

Born, Moses 

Bosch, Charles 

Both, William C. 

Botts, Graeme G. 

Bourne, Ralph H. 

Bowen, Mrs. Louise De Kovbn 

BowEY, Mrs. Charles F. 

BoYACK, Harry 

Boyd, Thomas M. 

BoYDEN, Miss Ellen Webb 

Boyden, Miss Rosalie S. 

Boyden, Mrs. William C, Jr. 

Boynton, Mrs. C. T. 

boynton, f. p. 

Bradley, Mrs. Natalie Blair 


334 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

Bramble, Delhi G. C. 
Brand, Mrs. Edwin L., Jr. 
Brand, Mrs. Rudolph 
Brandes, a. G. 
Brandt, Charles H. 
Brassert, Herman A. 
Brauer, Mrs. Paul 
Braun, Mrs. Martha E. 
Breckinridge, Prof. S. P. 
Bremner, Mrs. David F. 
Brendecke, Miss June 
Brennan, Bernard G. 
Bridge, George S. 
Briggs, Mrs. Gertrude 
Brigham, Miss F. M. 
Brock, A. J, 

Brodribb, Lawrence C, 
Broome, Thornhill 
Brown, A. W. 
Brown, Benjamin R. 
Brown, Christy 
Brown, Dr. Edward M. 
Brown, George D. 
Brown, Mrs. George Dewes 
Brown, John T. 
Browne, Aldis J. 
Bruckner, William T. 
Brugman, John J. 
Brundage, Avery 
Bryant, John J., Jr. 
Buck, Guy R. 
Buck, Nelson Leroy 
BuDLONG, Joseph J. 
Buehler, Carl 
buehler, h. l. 
Buettner, Walter J. 
buffington, mrs. m. a. 
Buhmann, Gilbert G. 
Bullock, Carl C. 
Burkholder, Dr. J. F. 
Burley, Clarence A. 
Burnham, Mrs. E. 
BuRRY, Mrs. Willlam 
Busby, Leonard A. 
Bush, David D. 
Bush, Mrs. William H. 
Butler, Mrs. Hermon B. 
Butler, Paul 
Butler, Rush C. 
BuTZ, Herbert R. 
BuTZ, Robert O. 
BuTZ, Theodore C. 
BuTzow, Mrs. Robert C. 
BuzzELL, Edgar A. 
Byfield, Dr. Albert H, 

Cable, J. E. 
Cahn, Dr. Alvin R. 
Cahn, Morton D. 
Caldwell, C. D. 
Caldwell, J. T. 
Cameron, Dr. Dan U. 
Cameron, John M. 
Cameron, W. J. 
Camp, Mrs. Arthur Royce 
Campbell, Delwin M. 
Campbell, Herbert J. 
Capes, Lawrence R. 
Capps, Dr. Joseph A. 
Caron, O. J. 

Carpenter, Frederic Ives 
Carpenter, George S. 
Carpenter, Hubbard 
Carpenter, Miss Rosalie S. 
Carqueville, Mrs. A. R. 
Carr, Mrs. Clyde M. 
Carr, Edmund S. 
Carr, George R. 
Carr, Walter S. 
Carroll, John A. 
Carry, J. C. 
Carton, Alfred T. 
Cary, Dr. Eugene 
Case, Elmer G. 
Casey, Mrs. James J. 
Cassels, Edwin H. 
Cessna, Dr. Charles E. 
Chapin, Henry K. 
Chapin, Homer C. 
Chappell, Mrs. Charles H. 
Chase, Frank D. 
Chatfield-Taylor, Wayne 
Cheever, Mrs. Arline V. 
Cheney, Dr. Henry W. 
Chisholm, George D. 
Chislett, Dr. H. R. 
Chritton, George A. 
Churan, Charles A. 
Clark, Ainsworth W. 
Clark, Charles V. 
Clark, Miss Dorothy S. 
Clark, Edwin H. 
Clark, Dr. Peter S. 
Clarke, Charles F. 
Clarke, Fred L. 
Cleveland, Paul W. 
Clough, Willlam H. 
Clow, William E., Jr. 
Coburn, Mrs. Lewis L. 
Cody, Arthur B. 
Cohen, George B. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Cohen, Mrs. L. Lewis 
CoLBURN, Frederick S. 
Coleman, Adelbert E. 
Coleman, Dr. George H. 
Coleman, Loring W., Jr. 
Coleman, Wm. Ogden 
Colianni, Paul V. 
Collins, Willl\m M. 
CoLViN, Mrs. W. H., Sr. 
Combes, Mrs. Dora F. 
Compton, Frank E. 
Condon, Mrs. James G. 
Connor, F. H. 
Cook, Miss Alice B. 
Cooke, George Anderson 
Cooke, Leslie L. 
coolidge, e. c. 
Coombs, James F. 
coonley, j. s. 
CooNLEY, John Stuart, Jr. 
CooNLEY, Prentiss L. 
Cooper, Samuel 
Corey, Chester 
CoRMACK, Charles V. 
Cornell, John E. 


Cowdery, Edward G. 
Cox, Mrs. Howard M. 
Cox, James A. 
Cox, James C. 
Cox, Mrs. Rensselaer W. 
Cragg, George L. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Cromer, Clarence E. 
Cromwell, Miss Juliette C. 
CuBBiNS, Dr. William R. 
Cud AH Y, Edward I. 
Culbertson, Dr. Carey 
Cunningham, John T. 
Curran, Harry R. 
Curtis, Augustus D. 
Curtis, John F. L. 
CusACK, Harold 
Gushing, John F. 
cushman, a. w. 
Cutting, Charles S. 

Dahlberg, Mrs. B. G. 
Daily, Richard 
Dakin, Dr. Frank C. 
Dashiell, C. R. 
Davey, Mrs. Bruce C. 
Davis, Abel 
Davis, C. S. 
Davis, Dr. Carl 

Davis, Frank S. 
Davis, Fred M. 
Davis, James 
Davis, James C. 
Davis, Dr. Nathan S., Ill 
Dawes, E. L. 
Dawes, Hentiy M. 
Day, Mrs. Mark L. 
Deagan, John C, Sr. 
Deahl, Uriah S. 
DeCosta, Lewis M. 
Dee, Thomas J. 
Deery, Thomas A., Jr. 
DeGolyer, Robert S. 
DeKoven, Mrs. John 
DeLang, Theodore O. 
DeLee, Dr. Joseph B. 
Dempster, Mrs. C. W. 
Deneen, Mrs. Charles S. 
Dennehy, T. C. 
Dennis, Charles H. 
Dent, George C. 
Deutsch, Joseph 
Deutsch, Mrs. Percy L. 
Deutsch, Samuel 
DeVries, David 
DeVries, Peter 
Dewes, Edwin P. 
Dick, Albert B., Jr. 
Dickey, Roy 
Dickinson, F. R. 
Dixon, Alan C. 
Dixon, Homer L. 
Dixon, William Warren 
Dobson, George 
Doctor, Isidor 
Doering, Otto C. 
DoERR, William P., Sr. 
Doetsch, Miss Anna 
Dole, Arthur, Sr. 
Donahue, Willl\m J. 
DoNLON, Mrs. S. E. 
Donnelley, Miss Eleanor 
Donnelley, Miss Naomi 
Donnelley, Mrs. R. R. 
Donnelly, Frank 
Donohue, Edgar T. 
Doud, Mrs. Levi B. 
Dreyfus, Moise 
Drummond, James J. 
Dudley. Laurence H. 
DuLANY, George W., Jr. 
DuLSKY, Mrs. Samuel 
Dunham, John H. 
Dunham, Miss Lucy Belle 

336 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Dunham, Miss M. V. 
DuPEE, Mrs. F. Kennett 
DuRAND, Scott S. 
DuRBiN, Fletcher M, 
Dux, Joseph G. 

Easterberg, C, J. 
Eastman, Mrs. George H. 
Eastman, R. M. 
Eckhart, Percy B. 
Eckstein, H. G. 
Eckstein, Louis 
Eddy, Mrs. Arthur J. 
Eddy, George A. 
Eddy, Thomas H. 
Edwards, Miss Edith E. 
Egan, W. B. 
Ehrman, Edwin H. 
EiGER, Oscar S. 
Eisendrath, Robert M. 


Elcock, Edward G. 
Elenbogen, Herman 
Ellbogen, Albert L. 
Elliott, Dr. Charles A. 
Elliott, Frank R. 
Ellis, Howard 
Ellsworth, Mrs. E. 0. 
Elting, Philip L. F. 
Ely, Mrs. C. Morse 
Engwall, John F. 
Epstein, Max 
Ericson, Melvin B. 
Ericsson, Clarence 
Ericsson, H. 
Ericsson, Walter H. 
Ernst, Mrs. Leo 
Erskine, Albert De Wolf 
Eustice, Alfred L. 
Evans, Mrs. David 
Evans, Hon. Evan A. 
Evans, Mrs. Grace Ross 
Ewell, C. D. 

Fabian, Francis G. 
Fabry, Herman 
Fader, A. L. 
Facet, James E. 
Fahrney, Ezra C. 
Fahrney, E. H. 
Faithorn, Walter E. 
Farnham, Mrs. Harry J. 
Farr, Newton Camp 
Farrell, Mrs. B. J. 
Farrell, Rev. Thomas F. 

Faulkner, Charles J., Jr. 

Faulkner, Miss Elizabeth 

Faurot, Henry, Sr. 

Faurot, Henry, Jr. 

Fay, Miss Agnes M. 

Fecke, Mrs. Frank J. 

Felix, Benjamin B. 

Fellows, W. K. 

Felton, S. M. 

Fentress, Calvin 

Ferguson, Charles W. 

Fernald, Charles 

Fernald, Robert W. 

Fetzer, Wade 

Filek, August 

Finn, Joseph M. 

Fish, Isaac 

Fisher, Mrs. Edward Metcalf 

Flavin, Edwin F., Sr. 

Flexner, Washington 

Florsheim, Milton S. 

Folds, Charles W. 

Foley, Rev. William M. 

Foote, Peter 

Foreman, Edwin G., Jr. 

Foreman, Harold E. 

Foreman, Henry G, 

Foreman, Oscar G. 

FoRESMAN, Mrs. W. Coates 

Forgan, Robert D. 

FoRMAN, Charles 

Foster, Stephen A. 

Foster, Volney 

Foster, Mrs. William C. 

Frank, Dr. Ira 

Frankenstein, W. B. 

Freedman, Dr. I. Val 

Freer, Archibald E. 

Frenier, a. B. 

Freunt), Charles E, 

Freund, I. H. 

Frey, Charles Daniel 

Fridstein, Meyer 

Friedlander, Jacob 

Friedman, Oscar J. 

Friestedt, Arthur A. 

Frisbie, Chauncey O. 

Frost, Mrs. Charles 

Fry, Henry T. 

Fuller, Mrs. Greeta Patterson 

Fuller, Judson M. 

Fuller, Leroy W. 

FuRST, Eduard a. 

Gabriel, Charles 
Gaertner, William 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Gale, G. Whittier 

Gall, Harry T. 

Gallagher, Vincent G. 

Gallup, Rockwell 

Galvin, Wm. a. 

Garard, Elzy a. 

Garcla, Jose 

Garden, Hugh M. G. 

Gardner, Addison L., Sr. 

Gardner, Addison L., Jr. 

Gardner, Mrs. James P. 

Gardner, Robert A. 

Garner, Harry J. 

Gary, Fred Elbert 

Gately, Ralph M. 

Gates, L. F. 

Gates, Philetus W. 

Gatzert, August 

Gawnb, Miss Clara J. 

Gay, Rev. A. Royal 

Gaylord, Duane W. 

Gehl, Dr. William H. 

George, Fred W. 

Gerngross, Mrs. Leo 

Gerts, Walter S. 

Getzoff, E. B. 

Gibbons, John W. 

GiBBs, Dr. John Phillip 

Gilbert, Miss Clara C. 

Giles, Carl C. 

GiLLMAN, Morris 

Gillson, Louis K. 

GiNTHER, Miss Minnie C. 

GiRARD, Mrs. Anna 

Glasner, Rudolph W. 

Glore, Charles F. 

Goedke, Chas. F. 

Goehst, Mrs. John Henry 

Golden, Dr. Isaac J. K. 

Goldenberg, Sidney D. 

GoLDY, Walter I. 

Goodman, Benedict K. 

Goodman, Mrs. Herbert E. 

Goodman, Mrs. Kenneth S. 

Goodman, Milton F. 

Goodman, William E. 

GooDROw, William 

Goodspeed, Mrs, W. F. 

Goodwin, Hon. Clarence Norton 

Gordon, Mrs. Robert D. 

Gorman, George E. 

GosHERT, J. Fred 

Goss, Charles O. 

Gottfried, C. M. 

gottschalk, gustav h, 

Gradle, Dr. Harry S. 
Graf, Robert J. 
Graham, Douglas 
Gramm, Mrs. Helen 
Granger, Alfred 
Graves, Howard B. 
Green, Zola C. 
Greenberg, Andrew H. 
Greene, Charles F. 
Greenebaum, James E. 
Greenebaum, M. E., Jr. 
Greenlee, James A. 
Greenspelder, Dr. Louis A. 
Gregory, Clifford V. 
Gregory, Stephen S., Jr. 
Gregson, William L. 
Grey, Charles F. 
Grey, Dr. Dorothy 
Grey, Howard G. 
Grey, Walter Clark 
Griffith, Enoch L. 
Griffiths, George W. 
Griffiths, John 
Grimm, Walter H. 
Griswold, Harold T, 
Grizzard, James A. 
Gronkowski, Rev. C. I. 
Gross, Mrs. Emily 
Grossman, Frank I. 
Grotowski, Dr. Leon 
Grulee, Lowry K. 
GuENZEL, Louis 
Gulbransen, Axel G. 
Gulick, John H. 
Gundlach, Ernest T. 
GuNTHORP, Walter J. 
GwiNN, William R. 

Haas, Maurice 
Haas, Dr. Raoul 
Hadley, Mrs. Edwin M. 
Hagen, Mrs. Daise 
Haggard, John D. 
Hagner, Fred L. 
Haight, George I. 
Hair, T. R. 
Haldeman, Walter S. 
Hale, Mrs. Samuel 
Hale, William B. 
Hall, David W. 
Hall, Mrs. J. B. 
Hallmann, August F. 
Halperin, Aaron 
Hamill, Charles H. 
Hamill, Robert W. 

338 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Hamlin, Paul D. 
Hamm, Edward F. 
Hammitt, Miss Frances M. 
Hanley, Henry L, 
Hansen, Jacob W. 
Hanson, James L. 
Harbison, L. C. 
Hardie, George F. 
Hardin, John H. 
Harding, G. F. 
Harding, Richard T. 
Hardinge, Franklin 
Harper, Alfred C. 
Harris, Gordon L. 
Hart, Mrs. Herbert L. 
Hart, William N. 
Hartshorn, Kenneth L. 
Hart well, Fred G. 
Harvey, Richard M. 
Harwood, Thomas W. 
Haskell, Mrs. George E. 
Havens, Samuel M. 
Healy, Mrs. Marquette A. 
Heaney, Dr. N. Sproat 
Heaton, Herman C. 
Heberlein, Miss Amanda F. 
Hecht, F. a., Jr. 
Hegg, Miss Anna 
Heiman, Marcus 
Heine, Mrs. Albert 
Heineman, Oscar 
Heller, Albert 
Heller, Mrs. Walter E. 
Hellman, George A. 
Hellyer, Walter 
Henley, Eugene H. 
Henry, Otto 

Henshaw, Mrs. Raymond S. 
Herrick, Miss Louise 
Herrick, W. D. 
Herron, James C. 
Herwig, George 
Herwig, William D., Jr. 
Hess, Mrs. Charles Wilbur 
Hettler, Herman H. 
Heun, Arthur 
Heyworth, Mrs. James O. 
Hibbard, Mrs. Angus S. 
Hibbard, Mrs. W. G. 
HiGGiNS, John 
Higgins, John W. 


Higley, Mrs. Charles W. 


Hill, William E. 
Hillbrecht, Herbert E. 
HiLLE, Dr. Hermann 
HiNRiCHs, Henry, Jr. 
Hinsberg, Stanley K, 
Hinton, E. W. 
Hird, Frederick H. 
Hirsch, Jackson H. 
Histed, J. Roland 
Hixon, Robert 
Hoffmann, Miss Caroline 

Hoffman, Edward Hempstead 
Hogan, Robert E. 
HoiER, William V. 
Holden, Edward A. 
HoLLis, Henry L. 
Holmes, Miss Harriet F. 
HoNSiK, Mrs. James M. 
Hoover, F. E. 
Hoover, Frank K. 
Hoover, Mrs. Fred W. 
Hoover, H. Earl 
Hoover, Ray P. 
Hope, Alfred S. 
Hopkins, Farley 
Hopkins, John L. 
Horan, Dennis A. 
HoRCHER, William W. 
HoRST, Curt A. 
HoRTON, George T. 
HoRTON, Horace B. 
HosBEiN, Louis H. 
Hosmer, Philip 

Houghteling, Miss Harriot P. 
Howard, Harold A. 
Howard, Willis G. 
Howe, Charles Arthur 
Howe, Warren D. 
Howe, William G. 
Howell, Albert S. 
Howell, William 
HowsE, Richard 
Hudson, Mrs. H. Newton 
Hudson, William E. 
Huey, Mrs. Arthur S. 
Huff, Thomas D. 
Hughes, John E. 
Hulbert, Mrs. Milan H. 
Hume, John T. 
Hunter, Samuel M, 
HuRD, N. L. 

Hurley, Edward N., Sr. 
Huston, Ward T. 




Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. VII, Plate XL 




«^ -«- 


(Megatherium Americanum) 

Rio Quequen Salada, Argentina, South America 

Captain Marshall Field Paleontological Expedition to Argentina and Bolivia, 1925-7 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


HuTCHiNS, James C. 
Hutchinson, Foye P. 
Hutchinson, Samuel S. 
Hynes, Rev. J. A. 

ICKES, Raymond 
ILG, Robert A. 
Inlander, Samuel 
ISHAM, Henry P. 
Ives, Clifford E. 

Jackson, Allan 
Jackson, W. J. 
Jacobi, Miss Emily 
Jacobs, Hyman A. 
Jacobs, Siegfried T. 
Jaffray, Mrs. David S., Jr. 
James, Edward P. 
James, William R. 
Janusch, Fred W. 
Jarratt, Mrs. Walter J. 
JEFFERY, Mrs. Thomas B. 
Jenkins, Mrs. John E. 
Jenks, R. William Shippen 
Jennings, Ode D. 
Jerger, Wilbur Joseph 
Jetzinger, David 
JiRKA, Dr. Frank J. 
Jirka, Dr. Robert 
Johnsen, Charles 
Johnson, Albert M. 
Johnson, Alfred 
Johnson, Alvin O. 
Johnson, Arthur L. 
Johnson, Joseph F. 
Johnson, Olaf B. 
Johnston, Arthur C. 
Johnstone, George A. 
Johnstone, Dr. Mary M. S. 
Jones, Albert G. 
Jones, Fred B. 
Jones, G. H. 
Jones, James B. 
Jones, Melvin 
Jones, Warren G. 
Joseph, Louis L. 
Joy, Guy A. 
Joyce, David G. 
Joyce, Joseph 
Judah, Noble Brandon 
Juergens, H. Paul 
Juergens, Wm. F. 
Junkunc, Stephen 

Kahn, Gus 
Kahn, Louis 

Kaine, Col. James B. 
Kalacinski, Mrs. Felix 
Kane, Jerome M. 
Kaplan, Nathan D. 
Karpen, Adolph 
Kaspar, Otto 
Katz, Mrs. Sidney L. 
Kavanagh, Maurice F. 
Keehn, George W. 
Keeney. a. F. 
Kehl, Robert Joseph 
Keith, Stanley 
Kellogg, John L. 
Kellogg, Mrs. M. G. 
Kelly, James J. 
Kemp, Mrs. E. M. 
Kempner, Harry B. 
Kempner, Stan 
Kern, Trude 
Kbsner, Jacob L. 
Kilbourne, L. B. 
Kimbark, Mrs. Eugene Under- 
Kimbark, John R. 
Kinsey, Frank 
KiNTZEL, Richard 
KiRCHER, Rev. Julius 


Klee, Nathan 

Klein, Henry A. 

Klein, Mrs. Samuel 

Kline, Sol 

Klinetop, Mrs. Charles W. 

Klink, a. F. 

Knutson, G. H. 

KocHS, Mrs. Robert T. 

Kohl, Mrs. Caroline L. 

KoHLER, Eric L. 

KoPF, William P. 

KoTAL, John A. 

Kraft, C. H. 

Kraft, James L. 

Kraft. Norman 

Kralovec, Emil G. 

Kramer, Leroy 

Kraus, Peter J. 

Krause, John J. 

Kretschmer, Dr. Herman L. 

Kretzinger, George W., Jr. 

Kroehl, Howard 

Krohmer, William F. 

Krost, Dr. Gerard N. 

Krueger, Leopold A. 

Krutckoff, Charles 

KuH, Mrs. Edwin J., Jr. 

340 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. Vll 

KuHN, Frederick 
KuRTzoN, Morris 

Lackowski, Frank E. 
Laplin, Mrs. Louis E. 
Laflin, Louis E., Jr. 
LaGuske, Mrs. Chester 
Lampert, Mrs. Lydia 
Lanahan, Mrs. M. J, 
Landry, Alvar A. 
Lane, F. Howard 
Lane, Ray E. 
Lane, Wallace R. 
Langland, James 
Larimer, Howard S. 
Larson, Bror O. 
Lasker, Albert D. 
Lauren, Newton B. 
Lauritzen, cm. 
Lautmann, Herbert M. 
Lawson, a. J. 
Laylander, O. J. 
Leahy, Thomas F. 
Learned, Edwin J. 
Lebbnsohn, Dr. Mayer H. 
Lederer, Dr. Francis L. 
Lepens, Miss Katherine J. 
Lefens, Walter C. 
Legge, Alexander 
Lehmann, Miss Augusta E. 
Leichenko, Peter M. 
Leistner, Oscar 
LeMoon, a. R. 
Lenz, J. Mayo 
Leonard, Arthur G. 
Leonard, Arthur T. 
Leslie, John H. 
Letts, Mrs. Frank C. 
Levan, Rev. Thomas F. 
Leverone, Louis E. 
Levinson, Mrs. Salmon O. 
Levitan, Benjamin 
Levy, Alexander M. 
Lewis, David R. 
Lewis, Fay J. 
Lewy, Dr. Alfred 
Lichtstern, Adolph J. 
Liebman, a. J. 


Lindheimer, B. F. 
Lindholm, Charles V. 
LiNGLE, Bowman C. 
LiPMAN, Robert R. 
Liss, Samuel 
Littler, Harry E., Jr. 
Livingston, Julian M. 

Livingston, Mrs. Milton L, 
Llewellyn, Paul 
Llewellyn, Mrs. S. J. 
Lloyd, Edward W. 
Lloyd, William Bross 
LoBDELL, Mrs. Edwin L. 
LoEB, Hamilton M. 
LoESCH, Frank J. 


Logan, John I. 
Long, William E. 
Lord, Arthur R. 
Lord, Mrs. Russell 
LoucKS, Charles O. 
Love, Chase W. 
Lovell, William H. 
Lovgren, Carl 
LowNiK, Dr. Felix J. 
LucEY, Patrick J. 
Ludington, Nelson J. 
LuEDER, Arthur C. 
LuPKiN, Wallace W. 
Lutter, Henry J., Sr. 
Lydon, Mrs. William A. 
Lyford, Harry B. 
Lyford, William H. 
Lynne, Mrs. Archibald 
Lyon, Charles H. 
Lyon, Frank R. 
Lyon, Mrs. Thomas R. 

Maass, J. Edward 
MacCardle, H. B. 
Mackinson, Dr. John C. 
MacLeish, John E. 
MacRae, Thaddeus B. 
Madlener, Mrs. Albert F. 
Magan, Miss Jane A. 
Magee, Henry W. 
Magnus, August C. 
Magwire, Mrs. Mary F. 
Maher, Mrs. D. W. 
Main, Walter D. 
Malone, Willlam H. 
Mandel, Mrs. Aaron W. 
Mandel, Mrs. Babette F. 
Mandel, Edwin F. 
Mandel, Mrs. Frederick 
Manierre, Francis E. 
Manierre, Louis 
Mann, Albert C. 



Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Mann, John P. 
Mansure, Edmund L. 
Marhoefer, Edward H. 
Mariner. W. E. 
Mark, Anson 
Marquis, A. N. 
Mars, G. C. 

Martin, Mrs. Franklin H. 
Martin, W. B. 
Martin, Wells 
Marzola, Leo A. 
Mason, Willard J. 
Masses, B. A. 
Massey, Peter J. 
Matthiessen, Frank 
Matz, Mrs. Rudolph 
Mauran, Charles S. 
Mauritzen, H. a. 
Mayer, Isaac H. 
McAuley, John E. 
McBride, Mrs. Walter J. 
McCarthy, Edmond J. 
McCarthy, Joseph W. 
McClellan, Dr. John H. 
McCluer, W. B. 
McCoRD, Downer 
McCormick, Mrs. Alexander A. 
McCoRMiCK, Mrs. Chauncey 
McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus, Jr. 
McCormick, Howard, H. 
McCormick, L. Hamilton 
McCormick, Leander J. 
McCormick, Robert H., Jr. 
McCracken, Miss Willietta 
McDougal, Mrs. James B. 
McDougal, Mrs. Robert 
McErlean, Charles V. 
McHugh, Mrs. Grover 
MclNTOsH, Arthur T. 
McKay, James M. 
McKeever, Buel 
McLaury, Walker G. 
McLennan, Mrs. John A. 
McMillan, Comm. John 
McMillan, W. B. 
McNai \ra, Louis G. 
McNulty, Joseph D. 
Medsker, Dr. Ora L. 
Melchione, Joseph 
Merrill, Henry S. 
Merz, Edward E. 
Metz, Dr. a. R, 
Meyer, Abraham 
Meyer, Abraham W. 
Meyer, Albert 

Meyer, Carl 
Meyer, E. F. 
Meyer, Oscar 
Meyercord, G. R. 
Midowicz, C. E. 
Milhening, Frank 
Milhening, Joseph 
Millard, Frank H. 
Miller, Charles B. 
Miller, Mrs. Clayton W. 
Miller, Mrs. Darius 
Miller, Hyman 
Miller, John S. Jr. 
Miller, Dr. Joseph L. 
Miller, Walter F. 
Mills, Allen G. 
Mills, John, Sr. 
Miner, Dr. Carl 
Miner, H. J. 
Mitchell, Leeds 
Mitchell, Oliver 
Mock, Dr. Harry Edgar 
moderwell, c. m. 
Moeller, Rev. Herman H. 
MoFPATT, Mrs. Elizabeth M. 
Mohr, Albert 
MOHR, Wm. J. 
MoLLOY, David J. 
Monheimer, Henry I. 
Monroe, Willlam S. 
Moody, Mrs. Wiluam Vaughn 
Moore, Philip Wyatt 
Moos, Joseph B. 
MoRAN, Miss Margaret 
MoRAND, Simon J. 
MoREY, Charles W. 
Morgan, Alden K. 
Morgan, Mrs. Kendrick E. 
Morrill, Nahum 
Morris, Edward H. 
Morris, F. C. 
Morris, Mrs. Seymour 
Morrison, Mrs. Charles E. 
Morrison, James C. 
Morrison, Matthew A. 
MoRRissoN, James W. 
Morse, Robert H. 
Morton, Sterling 
Moses, Howard 
Moss, Jerome A. 
MouAT, Andrew 
MowRY, Louis C. 
Mudge, Mrs. John B. 


Mueller, A. M. 

342 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Mueller, Paul H. 
mulholand, willlam h. 
Murphy, Robert E. 
Murphy, Walter P. 

Nason, Albert J. 
Neely, Miss Carrie Blair 
Nehls, Arthur L. 
Nellegar, Mrs. Jay C. 
Nelson, Charles G. 
Nelson, Edward A. 
Nelson, Frank G. 
Nelson, Nils A. 
Nelson, N. J. 
Nelson, Mrs. Oliver R. 
Neu, Clarence L. 
Newhall, R. Frank 
Nichols, George P. 
Nichols, Mrs. George R. 
Nichols, Mrs. George R., Jr. 
Nichols, J. C. 
Nichols, S. F. 
Nicholson, Thomas G. 
Noble, Orlando 
NoELLE, Joseph B. 
NooNAN, Edward J. 
NoRCROSs, Frederic F. 
NoRRis, Mrs. Lester 
Norton, R. H. 
Novak, Charles J. 
NoYES, Daved a. 
Nyman, Dr. John Egbert 

Oberfelder, Herbert M. 
Oberfelder, Walter S. 
O'Brien, Frank J. 
O'Callaghan, Edward 
Odell, William R. 
O'Donnell, Miss Rose 
Offield, James R. 
O'Keefe, Mrs. Dennis D. 
Oldefest, Edward G. 
Oliver, F. S. 
Oliver, Mrs. Paul 
Olsen, Gustaf 
Omo, Don L. 

Oppenheimer, Mrs. Harry D. 
Oppenheimer, Julius 
Orndoff, Dr. Benjamin H. 
O'Rourke, Albert 
Orthal, a. J. 
Ortmayer, Dr. Marie 
Osborn, Theodore L. 
Ostrom, Charles S. 
Otis, Miss Emily H. 

Otis, J. Sanford 

Otis, Joseph E. 

Otis, Joseph Edward, Jr. 

Otis, R. C. 

Otis, Raymond 

Otis, Stuart H. 

Ouska, John A. 

Paasche, Jens A. 

Pace, J. Madison 

Paepcke, Mrs. Elizabeth J. 

Paepcke, Walter P. 

Page-Wood, Gerald 

Pardridge, Albert J. 

Pardridge, Mrs. E. W. 

Parker, Frank B. 

Parker, Woodruff J. 

Parks, C. R. 

Paschen, Mrs. Annette A. 

Paschen, Mrs. Henry 

Patrick, Miss Catherine 

Patrick, Dr. Hugh T. 

Pauling, Edward G. 

Peabody, Howard B. 

Peabody, Stuyvesant 

Peabody, Miss Susan W. 

Peacock, Robert E. 

Peacock, Walter C. 

Pearse, Langdon 

Pearson, F. W. 

Pearson, George Albert, Jr. 

Pelley, John J. 

Peltier, M. F. 

Pen Dell, Charles W. 

Perkins, A. T. 

Perkins, Mrs. Herbert F. 

Perry, Dr. Ethel B. 

Perry, I. Newton 

Peterkin, Daniel 

Peters, Harry A. 

Petersen, Dr. Willla.m F. 

Peterson, Alexander B. 

Peterson, Jurgen 

Petru, E. J. 

Pflaum, a. J. 

Pflock, Dr. John J. 

Phemister, Dr. D. B. 

Phillip, Peter 

Phillips, Montagu Austin, (N.R.). 

Picher, Mrs. Oliver S. 

Pick, Albert, Jr. 

Pierce, Paul 

PioTRowsKi, Nicholas L. 

PiRiE, Mrs. John T. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Platt, Henry Russell 

Polk, Mrs. Stella F. 

Pollock, Dr. Harry L. 

PoMEROY, Mrs. Frank W. 

Pond, Irving K. 

Pool, Marvin B. 

Poole, Mrs. Frederick Arthur 

Poole, George A. 

Poor, Fred A. 

Poor, Mrs. Fred A. 

Pope, Frank 

Pope, Henry, Sr. 

Pope, Herbert 

Poppenhagen, Henry 

Porter, Mrs. Frank S. 

Porter, James F. 

Post, Gordon W. 

Post, Mrs. Philip Sidney 

Pottenger, William A. 

Powell, Mrs. Ambrose V. 

Powell, Isaac N. 

Prahl Frederick A. 

Primley, Walter S. 

Prince, Leonard M. 

Prussing, Mrs. George C. 

PusEY, Dr. William Allen 

Quinlan, Charles Shepard 
Quinlan, Dr. William W. 

Radau, Hugo 
Raftree, Miss Julia M. 
Randle, Hanson F. 
Rasmussen, George 
Reade, William A. 
Redington, F. B. 
Redington, Mrs. W. H. 
Reed, Kersey Coates 
Reed, Norris H. 
Regensteiner, Theodore 
Regnery, William H. 
Rehm, Frank A. 
Rehm, William H. 
Reich, Miss Annie 
Reid, Mrs. Bryan 
Reiter, Joseph J. 
Renwick, Edward A. 
Rew, Mrs. Irwin 
Reynolds, Arthur 
Rice, Arthur L. 
Rice, George L. 
Rice, Laurence A. 
Rich, Edward P. 
Richter, Mrs. Adelyn W. 
Richter, Bruno 

RiCKETTS, C. Lindsay 
Riddle, Herbert H. 


RiDGWAY, William 
Riemenschneider, Mrs. J. H. 
RiETz, Elmer W. 
RiGNEY, William T. 
RiNALDO, Philip S. 
Ripley, Robert H. 
Riser, John A. 
Ritman, Hyman B. 
Rittenhouse, Chas. J. 
Roach, Charles 
Roberts, Clark T. 
Roberts, John M. 
Roberts, S. M. 
Roberts, William Munsell 
Robertson, William 
Robinson, Mrs. Milton E., Sr. 
Robson, Mrs. Sarah C. 
Roche, Miss Emily 
Rockwell, Harold H. 
Roderick, Solomon P. 
Rodgers, Dr. David C. 
Roehling, C. E. 
Roehling, Mrs. Otto G. 
Roehm, George R. 
Rogers, Bernard F. 
Rogers, Dr. Cassius C. 
RoMER, Miss Dagmar E. 
Rosenfield, Mrs. Maurice 
Rosenthal, James 
Rosenthal, Lessing 
Ross, Thompson 
Ross, Walter S. 
Roth, Aaron 

Rothacker, Watterson R. 
Rothschild, George W. 
Rothschild, Maurice L. 
Rothschild, Melville N. 
Rowe, Edgar C. 
Rozelle, Mrs. Emma 
Rubovits, Toby 
Rueckheim, F. W. 
Russell, Dr. J. W. 
Rutledge, George E, 
Ryerson, Edward L., Jr. 
Ryerson, Joseph T. 

Salisbury, Mrs. Warren M. 
Sammons, Wheeler 
Sargent, John R. W. 
Sargent, Ralph 
Sauter, Fred J. 
Sauter, Leonard J. 

344 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

ScHACHT, John H. 
ScHAFFER, Dr. David N. 


ScHLAKE, William 
Schmidt, Dr. Charles L. 
ScHMiTZ, Dr. Henry 
ScHMiTZ, Nicholas J. 
ScHMUTZ, Mrs. Anna 
ScHNERiNG, Otto Y. 
ScHNUR, Ruth A. 


Schukraft, William 
schulman, a. s. 
Schulze, Willlam 
Schuyler, Mrs. Daniel J., Jr. 
Schwartz, Charles K. 
Schwartz, Charles P. 
ScHWARZ, Herbert 
Schwarzhaupt, Emil 
Scott, Frank H. 
Scott, Robert L. 
Seabury, Charles W. 
Seaman, George M, 
Sears, J. Alden 
Seaver, a. E. 
See, Dr. Agnes Chester 
Seeburg, Justus P. 
Seip, Emil G. 
Seipp, Clarence T. 
Seipp, Edwin A. 
Seipp, Willlam C. 
Sello, George W. 
Sencenbaugh, Mrs. G. W. 
Seng, Frank J. 
Seng, J. T. 
Shaffer, Carroll 
Shaffer, Charles B. 
Shambaugh, Dr. George E. 
Shannon, Angus R. 
Shapiro, Meyer 
Sharp, William N. 
Sharpe, N. M. 
Shaw, Alfred P. 
Shaw, Mrs. Howard 
Shaw, Theodore A. 
Sheehy, Edward 
Shelton, Dr. W. Eugene 
Shepherd, Mrs. Edith P. 
Sheridan, Albert D. 
Shillestad, John N. 
Shire, Moses E. 
Shockey, Mrs. Willis G. 

Shoup, a. D. 

Shumway, Mrs. Edward De Witt 

Shumway, p. R. 

Shutz, Albert E. 

SiGMAN, Leon 


Silberman, Charles 
Silberman, David B. 
Silberman, Hubert S. 

SiMONDS, J. p. 

Simonds, O. C. 

SiMONEK, Dr. B. K. 

Sincere, Benjamin 

Sinclair, Dr. J. Frank 

Singer, Mrs. Mortimer H. 

Smith, Mrs. Frank S. 

Smith, Franklin P. 

Smith, Harold Byron 

Smith, Jens 

Smith, Jesse E, 

Smith, Mrs. Katherinb Walker 

Smith, Samuel K. 

Smith, Mrs. Theodore White 

Smith, Walter Byron 

Smith, Mrs. Willlam A. 

Smith, Z. Erol 

Smullan, Alexander 

Smulski, J. F. 

Snow, Edgar M. 

Solem, Dr. George O. 

Somerville, Robert 

Sommer, Adam 


Sonnenschein, Dr. Robert 
SoPER, Henry M. 
SoRAviA, Joseph 
SoRENSEN, James 
Spindler, Oscar 
Spitz, Joel 
Spoor, Mrs. John A. 
Steffens, Ralph Sutherland 
Steffey, David R. 
Stein, Benjamin F. 
Stein, Dr. Irving 
Stein, L. Montefiorb 
Stein, Samuel M. 
Stein, Mrs. Setia H. 
Stein, Willlam D. 
Stephens, W. C. 
Sterba, Dr. Joseph V. 
Stern, Alfred WAital 
Stern, David B. 
Stern, Oscar D. 
Stevens, Delmar A. 



Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 


Stevens, Edward J. 
Stevens, Elmer T. 
Stevens, Eugene M. 
Stevens, Harold L. 
Stevens, James W. 
Stevens, Mrs. James W. 
Stevens, R. G. 
Stevens, Raymond W. 
Stevenson, Dr. Alexander F. 
Stevenson, E. 
Stewart, Miss Agnes N. 
Stewart, Miss Eglantine Daisy 
Stewart, Miss M. Graeme 
Stirling, Miss Dorothy 
Straus, David 
Straus, Martin L. 
Straus, S. J. T. 
Strauss, Henry X. 
Street, Mrs. Charles A. 
Strobel Charles L. 
Stromberg, Charles J. 
Strong, Walter A. 
Strotz, Harold C. 
Sturges, Hollister 
Sturges, Solomon 
Sturtevant, Henry D. 
SuEKOFF, Louis A. 
Sullivan, Mrs. Roger C. 
Sulzberger, Frank L. 
SuTCLiFFE, Mrs. Gary 
Sutherland, William 
Swan, Oscar H. 
SwANSON, Joseph E. 
Swartchild, Edward G. 
swartchild, willlam g. 
Swift, Alden B. 
Swift, Edward F., Jr. 

Taft, John H. 
Tarrant, Robert 
Taylor, George Halleck 
Templeton, Stuart J. 
Templeton, Walter L. 
Tenney, Horace Kent 
Teter, Lucius 
Theobold, Dr. John J. 
Thomas Edward H. 
Thomas, Emmet A. 
Thomas, Frank W. 
Thomas, Dr. William A. 
Thompson, Charles F. 
Thompson, D. P. 
Thompson, Edward F. 
Thompson, John R., Jr. 
Thompson, Mrs. Leverett 

Thompson, Thomas W. 
Thorne, George A. 
Thorne, Hallett W. 
Thorne, James W. 
Thornton, Charles S. 
Thornton, Dr. Francis E. 
Thorp, Harry W. 
Thresher, C. J. 
Thulin, F. a. 
Tilt, Charles A. 
ToBLAS, Clayton H. 
Touchstone, John Henry 
TowLE, Leroy C. 
TowLER, Kenneth F. 
Towne, Mrs. Arthur F. 
Towne, Mrs. John D. G. 
Trainer, J. Milton 
Traylor, Mrs. Dorothy J. 
Tredwell, John 
Trench, Mrs. Daniel G. 
Tripp, Chester D. 
Trombly, Dr. F. F. 
Trude, Mrs. Mark W. 
Turner, Alfred M. 
Turner, Mrs. Charlton A. 
Turner, Tracy L. 
Tuttle, Henry Emerson 
Tyler, Albert S. 
Tyler, Orson K. 

Uhlmann, Fred 
Upham, Mrs. Frederic 

Valentine, Joseph L. 
Valentine, Mrs. May L, 
Valentine, Patrick A. 
VanCleef, Paul 
VanDeventer, Christopher 
VanNess, Gardiner B. 
VanSchaick, Gerard 
VanZwoll, Henry B. 
Veeder, Miss Jessie 
Vehon, Morris 
Vehon, William H. 
Victor, Mrs. Jessie K. 
Vierling, Louis 
VoLiCAS, Dr. John N. 


VopicKA, Charles J. 

Wagner, Dr. G. W. 
Wagner, John E. 
Wagner, Mrs. Mary G. 
Walker, William E. 
Wallace, R. Y. 
Waller, E. C. 

346 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Waller, H. P. 
Waller, J. Alexander 
Waller, Mrs. James B. 
Waller, James B., Jr. 
Wallerich, George W. 
Wallovick, J. H. 
Wanner, Mrs. Henry J. 
Ward, Edward J. E. 
Ware, Mrs. Lyman 
Warfield, Edwin A. 
Warren, J. Latham 
Warren, Paul C. 
Warwick, W. E. 
Washburne, Clarke 
Wassell, Joseph 
Waterman, Dr. A. H. 
Watts, Harry C. 
Walt), E. p. 

Wayman, Charles A. G. 
Wean, Frank L. 
Weaver, Charles A. 
Webb, George D. 
Weber, Bernard F. 
Weber, Frank C. 
Webster, Arthur L. 
Webster, Miss Helen R. 
Wedelstaedt, H. a. 
Weil, Isadore 
Weil, Martin 
Weiler, Rudolph 
Weinzelbaum, Louis L. 
Weissenbach, Mrs. Minna K. 
Weisskopf, Maurice J. 
Weisskopf, Dr. Max A. 
Wells, Arthur H. 
Wells, John E. 
Wells, Preston A. 
Wells, Thomas E. 
Wells, Mrs. Thomas E. 
Wendell, Barrett, Jr. 
Went WORTH, Hunt 
Wentworth, Mrs. Moses J. 
Werner, Frank A. 
West, Miss Mary Sylvia 
Westerfeld, Simon 
Westrich, Miss T. C. 
Wetten, Albert H. 
Wettling, Louis E. 
Whealan, Emmett 
Wheeler, George A. 
Wheeler, Leo W. 
Wheeler, Leslie 
Wheeler, Mrs. Robert C. 
Whinery, Charles C. 
White, Joseph J. 

White, Robert 
Whitehouse, Howard D. 
Whiting, Mrs. Adele H. 
Whiting, J. H. 
Whitlock, Willmm a. 
WiBORG, Frank B. 
Wilder, Mrs. John E. 
WiLKiNS, George Lester 
Wilkinson, John C. 
WiLLEY, Mrs. Charles B. 
Williams, Miss Anna P. 
Williams, Harry L. 
Williams, Lucian M. 
Williamson, George H. 
Willis, Paul, Jr. 
Willis, Thomas H. 
Wilms, Herman P. 
Wilson, Mrs. E. Crane 
Wilson, Harry Bertram 
Wilson, Mrs. John R. 
Wilson, Miss Lillian M. 
Wilson, Mrs, Margaret H. 
Wilson, Mrs. Robert Conover 
Winston, Hampden 
Winston, James H. 
Winterbotham, John H. 
WojTALEWicz, Rev. Francis M. 
Woley, Dr. Harry P. 
Wolf, Henry M. 
Wolf, Walter B. 
Wolff, Louis 
Wood, John G. 
Wood, Robert E. 
Wood, William G. 
Woodruff, George 
Woods, Weightstill 
Woodward, C. H. 
WooLLEY, Charles F., Jr. 
Worcester, Mrs. Charles H. 
Work, Robert 
WoRMSER, Leo F. 
Worth, Miss Helen E. 
Worthy, Mrs. S. W. 
Wrenn, Mrs. Everts 
Wrigley, Mrs. Charles W. 
Wrigley, Philip K. 

Yegge, C. Fred 
Yerkes, Mrs. Charles E. 
Yerkes, Richard W. 
Yondorf, Milton S. 

Zeisler, Mrs. Erwin P. 
Zimmer, Mrs. Rldolph E. 


W S 
, I-. 

O o 
Z .2 
< .-te 
O 5 

Pi X 

a ■" I 




0) <1> 

>> »> 

a i 





Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Zimmerman, Herbert P. 
Zimmerman, Louis W. 

Armour, Mrs. Philip D, 
CoLViN, Edwin M. 
Frear, a. Edward 
Gray, Charles W. 

ZoRK, David 
ZuLFER, p. M. 

Deceased, 1927 

hodgkins, w. l. 

McKay, James R. 

Marks, Louis 

Martin, Horace Hawes 

O'DoNNELL, Simon 

Smith, Douglas 

Those who contribute $25 annually to the Museum 

Abbott, Stanley N. 
Abrahamson, Henry M. 
Adams, Mrs. Frances Sprogle 
Adgate, Frederick W. 
Alderman, Jerome C. 
Alexander, Walter 
Allen, Mrs. Emma W. 
Alling, Mrs. Van Wagenen" 
Almes, Dr. Herman E. 
Alsip, Mrs. Charles H. 
Alton, Carol W. 
Amidon, Alfred T, 
Anderson, 0. Helge 
Andrews, Dr. Albert H. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Julian 
Arnold, O. L. 

Artingstall, Samuel G., Jr. 
Ayres, Harry M. 

Bailey, Mrs. Edward W. 

Baker, Francis S. 

Barnes, Mrs. Charles Osborne 

Barnum, Harry H. 

Barry, Edward C. 

Bass, John F. 

Baumrucker, Charles F. 

Bautz, Robert A. 

Beach, E. Chandler 

Beatty, Lester A. 

Becker, Mrs. A. G. 

Benjamin, Jack A. 

Berend, George F. 

Bernstein, Fred 

Berryman, John B. 

Bertschinger, Dr. C. F. 

Beven, J. L. 

BiNGA, Jesse 

Blackburn, Oliver A. 

Blair, Chauncey B. 

Blair, Samuel 

Blair, Wolcott 

Blake, William J. 

Blomgren, Dr. Walter L, 

Blount, Frederick M. 

Blumenthal, Oscar 

Bluthardt, Edwin 

Bode, Willl^m F. 

Boettcher, Arthur H. 

Bohasseck, Charles 

BoHN, Mrs. Bertha Bowlby 

BOKUM, Norris H. 


boynton, a. j. 

Bradford, Ralph B. 

Brenza, Miss Mary 

Brown, Charles A. 

Brown, Kenneth C. 

Bullock, Mrs. James E. 

Burgstreser, Newton 

Burgweger, Mrs. Meta Dewes 

Burke, Webster H. 

BURTCH, Almon 

BuscH, Albert 

Butler, John 

Cahill, James B. 
Cahn, Betram J. 
Cairns, Miss Ann May 
Canby, Caleb H., Jr. 
Cannon, W. J. 
Carbery, Norman A. 
Carey, Mrs. William P, 
Carney, William Roy 
Carter, Dr. Randall A. 
Gary, Dr. Frank 
Casselberry, Mrs. William E. 
Chadwick, Charles H. 
Challenger, Mrs. Agnes 

348 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Chandler, Henry P. 
Chapman, Arthur E. 
Chapman, Mrs. Doris L. 
Clinch, Duncan L. 
Cohen, Benjamin 
Cohen, Louis 
Cohn, Milton M. 
Compton. D. M. 
Connell, Phillip G. 
Cooke, Miss Flora 
CoYLE, Edwin L. 
Craigie, a. M, 
Cratty, Mrs. Josiah 
Crilly, Edgar 
Cromwell, George O. 
Cronwall, Edward C. 
CuNEo, John F. 

Dalmar, Hugo 
Dana, W. D. 
Daniels, H. L. 
Danz, Charles A. 
Dauchy, Mrs. Samuel 
David, Dr. Vernon C. 
Davies, Warren T. 
Dearbeyne, Arden 
DeDardel, Carl O. 
Degan, David 
Deiches, Sigmund 
DeLemon, H. R. 
Deming, Everett G. 
Denkewalter, W. E. 
DeWindt, Heyliger A. 
Dickinson, J. M. Jr. 
Dickinson, Theodore 
Dodge, O. V. 
Donnelly, Chris J. 
Dormand, W. L. 
Douglass, Kingman 
Douglass, William A. 
Dowdle, John J. 
Dreiskb, George J. 
DuBow, Jacob A. 
DuGAN, Alphonso G. 
Duncan, Albert G. 
DuNER, Joseph A. 
Dunham, Robert J. 
Dunn, Samuel O. 
Dunn, W. Frank 
Dyche, William A. 

Edmonds, Harry C. 
Edwards, Kenneth P. 
Eisenstaedt, Harry 
Eisenstein, Sol 

Eitel, Max 
Ellingsen, E. 
Elting, Howard 
Elworthy, Robert S. 

Felsenthal, Edward George 
Feltman, Charles H. 
Fergus, Robert C. 
Ferguson, William H. 
Fetcher, Edwin S. 
Fisher, George P. 
Fisher, Hon. Harry M. 
Fisher, Walter L. 
Flesch, Eugene W. P. 
Follansbee, Mitchell D. 
Foster, Mrs. Charles K. 
Frank, Jerome N. 
French, Dudley K. 
Fulton, Frank D. 
Furry, William S. 

Gall, Charles H. 

Gallagher, Mrs. M. F. 

Gardner, Henry A. 

Garraway, S. G. 

Gaw, George T. 

Gay, Dr. Robert J. 

Gear, H. B. 

Gilchrist, Mrs. William A. 

Gilmer, Dr. Thomas L. 

Glaser, Edward L, 

Glenn, Mrs. J. M. 

Click, Harry 

GoLDSTiNE, Dr. Mark T. 

Goode, Rowland T. 

gooden, g. e. 

Goodwin, George S. 

Gordon, Leslie S. 

Grant, James D. 

Grant, John G. 

Graver, James P. 

Gray, Rev. James M. 

Green, J. B. 

Greenlee, Mrs. William Brooks 

Grotenhuis, Mrs. Willlam J. 

Gustafson, John C. 

Hagen, Fred J. 
Haigh, Albert E. 
Hajicek, Rudolph F. 
Hall, Edgar A., Jr. 
Hamilton, Thomas B. 
Hand, George W. 
Hanson, Mrs. Burton 
Hardy, Miss Marjorie 
Hart, Gilbert 


Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 


Hartmann, a. O. 
Hattstaedt, William O. J. 
Haugan, O. H. 
Hedberg, Henry E. 
Heidke, Herman L. 
Heinemann, Earl 
Helfrich, J. Howard 
Henderson, Dr. Elmer E. 
Henderson, Thomas B. G. 
Henkel, Frederick W. 
Henry, Huntington B. 
Herrick, Charles E. 
Hershey, J. Clarence 
Hewitt, Mrs. Charles M. 
Hill, Mrs. Lysander 
Hill, Mrs. Russell D. 
Hill, Samuel B. 
HiMROD, Mrs. Frank W. 
Hines, J. W. 
Hintz, John C. 
Hodgkins, Mrs. W. L. 
Hogan, Frank 
Hohman, Dr. E. H. 
Holmes, George J. 
Holmes, William N. 
Horner, Dr. David A, 
HoRNUNG, John C. 
Hotchkiss, Miles E. 
Hottinger, Adolph 
Hoyne, Frank C. 
HoYT, Mrs. Phelps B. 
Hubbard, George W. 
Hughes, John W. 
Huncke, O. W. 

Ingeman, Lyle S. 
Isaacs, Charles W., Jr. 

Jackson, Archer L. 
Jaffe, Dr. Herman 
Jenkins, David F. D. 
Jerrems, Mrs. D. Edwin 
Johnson, Arthur 
Johnson, Chester H. 
Johnson, Isaac Horton 
Johnson, Theodore H. 
Johnstone, Dr. A. Ralph 
Jones, W. Clyde 

Karpen, Michael 
Kavanagh, Clarence H. 
Keene, Mrs. Joseph 
Kelker, Rudolph F., Jr. 
Kelly, D. F. 

Kendall, Mrs. Virginia H. 
Kennedy, David E. 
Kleinpell, Dr. Henry H. 
Koch, Louis G. 
KoHLSAAT, Edward C. 
KoMiss, David S. 
Kopp, Gustave 
Kortzeborn, Jacob E. 
Kraus, Samuel 
Kretske, Abel B. 
Kuehlhorn, Arnold A. 
KuRZ, Dr. Henry G. 

LaChance, Mrs. Leander H, 
Lang, Edward J. 
Langston, Tony 
Lathrop, Gardiner 
Lawless, Benjamin W. 
Lawrence, W. J. 
Lee, Mrs. John H. S. 
Leight, Albert E. 


Linton, Benjamin B. 

Llewellyn, Mrs. John T. 

lockwood, w. s. 

Loeb, Mrs. A. H. 

LoEB, Leo A. 

Loewenthal, Mrs. Julius W. 

Lord, Harry J. 

LouER, Albert S. 

Lynch, William Joseph 

MacLeish, Mrs. Andrew 
Magill, Robert M. 
Mallinson, Edwin 
Manley, John A. 
Marcus, Maurice S. 
Marcy, George E. 
Markman, S. K. 
Marriott, Abraham R. 
Martin, Samuel H. 
Mathias, Lee D. 
Mayer, Oscar F., Sr. 
McCarthy, James I. 
McCaughey, Frank J. 
McCormack, Prof. Harry 
McCrea, W. S. 
McDivitt, Herbert J. 
McIntosh, Mrs. Walter G. 
McIver, Dana T. 
McMenemy, L. T. 
McVoy, John M. 
Meerhoff, Dr. Charles E. 
Melnick, Leopold B. 
Miles, Mrs. Ethel Edmunds 

350 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Miller, John J. 
Miller, Mrs. Olive Beaupre 
MiNOTTO, Mrs. James 
Mitchell, George F. 
Mitchell, John J., Jr. 
Mitchell, Mrs. John J., Jr. 
MoHR, Edward 
Mohr, Miss Harriet 
Moist, Mrs. S. E. 
Monaghan, Thomas H. 
Morse, Mrs. Charles J. 
Murphy, John P. V. 

Nadler, Dr. Walter H. 
Nathan, Claude 
Nebel, Herman C. 
Neilson, Mrs. Francis 
Neuffer, Paul A. 
Newhouse, Karl 
Niemann, Fred W. 

O'Connor, Mrs. John R. 
O'Neil, John P. 
Oppenheimer, Alfred 

Packer, Charles Swasey 
Parker, Dr. Gaston C. 
Parker, Dr. Ralph W. 
Parkinson, Robert H. 
Parmelee, Dr. A. H. 
Partridge, Lloyd C. 
Payne, Arthur W. 
Peck, Dr. David B. 
Peterson, Arthur J. 
Peterson, Axel A. 
Peterson, Mrs. Bertha I. 
Phelps, Mrs. W. L. 
Pierce, Mrs. Frank E. 
Pierce, J. Norman 
Piszatowski, Edward B. 
Pitcher, Mrs. Henry L. 
Plunkett, William H. 
Pole, James S. 
Post, Frederick, Jr. 
Press, Mrs. Jacob H. 
Pritzker, I. L. 
Prothero, Dr. James H. 
PsoTA, Dr. Frank J. 
Puckey, F. W. 
Purcell, J. D. 
PuRDY, Sparrow E. 
Putnam, Miss Mabel C. 

Randall, Irving 
Rathje, William J. 
Rayner, Arnold P. 
Rea, Dr. Albbrtine L. 
Reinhardt, S. Louis, Jr. 
Rellihen, Edwin G. 
Rentner, Otto C. 
Rich, Elmer 
Richards, Marcus D. 
Richardson, George 
Richardson, Guy A. 
RiCKCORDs, Francis 
RiES, Dr. Emil 
Rinder, E. W. 
Robbins, Henry S. 
RoBBiNS, Percy A. 
Roessler, Carl C. 
Rosenthal, Kurt 
Rothschild, Justin 
Routh, George D., Jr. 
Rutherford, John J. 
Ryerson, Donald M. 

Sanborn, E. W. 
Sawyer, Dr. Alvah L. 
Scheunemann, Robt. G. 
Schireson, Dr. Henry J. 
Schlitt, Herman J. 
ScHOLL, Dr. William M. 
Schulze, Mrs. Mathilde 
Scott, E. H. 
Scribner, Gilbert 
Shattuck, Walter F. 
Shaw, Andrew H. 
Sheldon, James M. 
Sills, Clarence W. 
Sincere, Charles 
Skooglund, David 
Slader, Thomas 
Smith, Walter Bourne 
Smithies, Dr. Frank 


Spalding, Mrs. Charles F. 
Sperling, Samuel 
Stearns, Mrs. Richard I. 
Stebbins, Fred J. 
Stockton, Eugene M. 
Strandberg, Eric P. 
Sutton, Harold I. 

Taylor, Charles Cortland 
Teed, Frank B. 
Teninga, Cornelius 
Thompson, C. E. 
Thompson, Mrs. Charles 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Thompson, Fred L. 
TiLDEN, Mrs. Edward 
TiLDEN, Louis Edward 


TiTZEL, Dr. W. R. 
TooLEN, Clarence A. 
Trude, Hon. Daniel P. 
Tucker, S. A. 
Turner, Dr. B. S. 
tuttle, f. b. 

Ulrich, Perry 

Valentine, Stephen 
Vehon, Simon Henry 
Voss, Adolph G. Sr. 

Walker, Edgar H. 
Ward, Miss Marjorie 
Ware, Mrs. Charles W. 
Washburne, Hempstead, Jr. 
Washington, Laurence W. 

Watson, Miss Mina M. 
Webster, Dr. Ralph W. 
Wecker, Walter A. 
Weil, David Maxwell 
Weinhoeber, George V. 
Weis, S. W. 
Wells, Harry L. 
Welter, John N. 
Werth, a. Herman 
White, Selden Freeman 
Whiting, Laurence H. 
Wilder, John E. 
Williams, J. M. 
Wilson, Morris Karl 
Windsor, H. H., Jr. 
Wolf, Mrs. Albert H. 
Wood, Kay, Jr. 

YoNKERS, Edward H, 

Zerler, Charles F. 
ZiELiNSKi, Theodore J. 

Deceased, 1927 

Cowles, Thomas H. 
Darling, Charles 

Roche, Martin 
Rueckheim, Louis 


Those who contribute $1 annually to the Museum 

Aagaard, Walter S., Jr. 

Aaron, Ely M. 

Abbott, Edwin H. 

Abbott, Guy H. 

Abbott, Mrs. Katherine M. 

Abbott, Dr. W. R. 

Abel, Harry 

Abel, William H. 

Abell, Miss I^ily Carolyn 

Abells, Col. H. D. 

Abney, M. D. 

Aborn, E. a. 

Abrahamson, John 

Abrams, Hyman B, 

Abt, Hugo A. F. 

Abt, Dr. Isaac A. 

Abt, Mrs. J. J. 

AcKERT, Mrs. Charles H. 

Adams, Albert S. 

Adams, C. E. B. 

Adams, Cyrus H., Jr. 
Adams, David 
Adams, Ernest E. 
Adams, Frank R. 
Adams, Mrs. Henry T. 
Adams, J. Kirk 
Adams, John Q. 
Adams, M. G. 
Adams, Miss M. Joice 
Adams, Myron E. 
Adams, Samuel P. 
Adams, Mrs. W. T. 
Addams, Miss Jane 
Adler, Dr. Herman M. O. 
Adler, Leo 
Affleck, Benjamin F. 
Ahlborn, Frank H. 
Ahnfelt, John 
Aiken, Mrs. Robert J. 
AiLES, Adrian S. 

352 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

AisHTON, Richard A. 
Albers, Dr. Edgar H. 
Alcorn, William R. 
Alden, W. T, 
Aldrich, Frederick C. 
Alexander, Franklin E. 
Alford, O. p. 
Allais, Arthur L. 
Allen, Dr. A. V. 
Allen, Amos G. 
Allen, Augustus C. 
Allen, Harry W. 
Allen, J. B. 
Allen, John D. 
Allen Philip S. 
Allensworth, a. p. 
Allman, George D. 
Alschuler, Hon. Samuel 
Altman, Robert M. 
Alton, Mrs. Jesse B. 
Amberg, J. Ward 
Andel, John 
Anderson, Mrs. A. S. 
Anderson, Mrs. Adele 
Anderson, B. G. 
Anderson, Benjamin N. 
Anderson, Brooke 
Anderson, David G. 
Anderson, John Arthur 
Anderson, John E. 
Anderson, Norman K. 
Andreen, Otto C. 
Andrews, Dr. Benjamin F. 
Andrews, Dr. Edmund 
Anoff, Isidor S. 
Anthony, Charles E. 
Anthony, Joseph R. 
Antonow, Samuel L. 
Antrim, Mrs. Elbert M. 
Arbuckle, Mrs. G. S. 
Arens, Dr. Robert A. 
Arms, Herbert C. 
Armstrong, Edward E. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Katherine 
Arn, W. G. 

Arnold, Mrs. DeWitt R. 
Arnold, Francis M, 
Arnold, Mrs. Hugo F. 
Arnold, Marshall 
Arquette, George L. 
Arthur, George E. 
AscHER, Nathan 
Ashcraft, Edwin M., Jr. 
ashcraft, r. m. 
AsMA, Dr. F. M. 

Atkeisson, Dr. J. E. H. 
Atkinson, Charles T. 
Auble, Wilson C. 
Aubry, Numa G. 
Austin, M. B. 
Austin, William B. 
Austrian, Mrs. Edwin 
Avery, A. E. 
Axelson, Charles F. 
AxMAN, Samuel H. 
Ayers, Burley B. 

Babcock, Adolph 
Babcock, Mrs. E. N. 
Babcock, F. M. 
Babcock, Orville E. > 
Bachmann, Dr. Harrold A. 
Bacon, Dr. C. S. 
Bacon, Mrs. Edson C. 
Badenoch, David A. 
Badger, Shreve Cowles 
Baer, Dr. Joseph L. 
Bagby, Mrs. C. B. 
Bagge, Christian U. 
Baggot, Edward B. 
Bailey, Dr. G. T. 
Bailey, W. H. 
Baird, Mrs, Edith G. 
Baker, Arthur R. 
Baker, CM. 
Baker, Claude M. 
Baker, Mrs. Dora H. 
Baker, G. W. 
Baker, James Childs 
Baker, James R. 
Baker, Miss Julia A. 
Baker, Miss Lillian 
Balaban, Mrs. A. J. 
Balch, Howard K. 
Balderston, Mrs. Stephen V. 
Baldwin, E. H. 
Baldwin, J. F. 
Baldwin, Mrs. Rosecrans 
Baldwin, William 
Balkin, Louis 
Ball, Mrs. Godfrey H. 
Ball, John 
Ballard, Mrs. E. S. 
Ballas, a. L. 
Bame, Adolph 
Bangs, William D. 
Bankard, E. Hoover, Jr. 
Banks, Charles Ackert 
Banning, Samuel W. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Barker, Edward E. 
Barker, Lewis 
Barlow, Mrs. Henry C. 
Barnard, Harry 
Barnes, Carl L. 
Barnes, Prof. Nathaniel W. 
Barnes, Sydney G. 
Barnes, W. 
Barrett, M. J. P. 
Barrett, Oliver R. 
Barsaloux, Paul K. 
Bartells, Dr. Henry W. F. 
Barth, Lewis L. 
Bartholf, William J. 
Bartholomay, Herman 
Bartholomay, William., Jr. 
Bartlett, Charles C. 
Bascom, F. T. 
Bass, Dr. G. E. 
Bates, Joseph A. 
Baum, James E., Jr. 
Baum, Mrs. James E., Jr. 
Baumann, Mrs. F. 0. 
Baumgarden, Nathan W. 
Baxter, Dr. George E. 
Baxter, John E. 
Bayless, Harry C. 
Bayley, Mrs. Edwin F. 
Baylor, Dr. Frank W. 
Beach, Calvin B. 
Beacom, Harold 
Beardsley, Mrs. Madeline I. 
Beck, Dr. E. G. 
Beck, H. Frederic 
Beck, Dr. Joseph C. 
Becker, Mrs. Herbert W. 
Becker, Leon V. 
Becker, Lothar 
Beckwith, Mrs. Edwin B. 
Beerly, G. E. 
Beers, Dr. Bertram R. 
Behrens, George A. 
Beidlbr, Augustus F. 
Beil, Mrs. Harry H. 
Belden, Joseph C. 
Belinski, S. a. 
Bell, Hayden N. 
Bellows, Mrs. L. E. H. 
Bemis, Anthony J. 
Bendelari, Arthur 
Bennet, William S. 
Bennett, E. H. 
Bennington, Harold 
Benoist, William F. 

Bensler, Ernest 
Bentley, Richard 
Berenbaum, Samuel 
Berg, Dr. O. H. 
Berg, Otto 
Berger, Henry A. 
Bergh, E. G. 
Bergh, Ross F. 
Bergstrom, O. 
Berkowitz, Dr. J. G. 
Bernstein, Aaron D. 
Berry, H. Roy 
Berry, V. D. 
Bersbach, Elmer S. 
Beshears, Mansfield 
Bestel, Oliver A. 
Bettelheim, Bert 
Bettman, Dr. R. B. 
Bibber, Thomas H. 
Biddle, Robert C. 
Biehn, Dr. J. F. 
Bird, Herbert J. 
Birkenstein, George 
Birkenstein, Louis 
Birmingham, Mrs. Eugene E. 
BiSBEE, Charles A. 
Bisbee, W. G. 
Black, Benjamin H. 
Black, Herman 
Black, W. J. 
Blackford, Wilbur F. 
Blackman, Herbert F, 
Blackwood, Dr. L. W. 
Blaine, Dr. Edward S. 
Blair, Mrs. M. Barbour 
Blair, Thomas S., Jr. 
Blakeley, John M. 
Blessing, Lewis G. 
Bliss, Charles F. 
Blitzsten, Dr. N. Lionel 
Block, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Block, Dr. Louis H. 
Blomquist, Alfred 
Blonder, Edward G. 
Bloomfield, Dr. James H. 
Blount, M. A. 
Blythe, Mrs. J. W. 
BoBB, Dwight S. 
BoDMAN, Mrs. Edward W. 
Boehm, Bruno J. 
BoGAN, William J. 
BoHNER, William F. 
BoHNETT, Harry W. 
BoLLENS, Walter 

354 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

Bolt, M. C. 
BoLTEN, Paul H. 
Bolton, John F. 
Bonner, Francis A. 
Boone, Arthur 
Boot, Dr. G. W. 
BoRCHERT, Dr. Robert L. 
borman, t. a. 
Born, Edgar R. 
Bournique, Alvar L. 
Bourque, Dr. N. Odeon 
BousA, Dr. B. 
BoviK, Mrs. Anna 
BowE, Augustine J. 
Bowen, Joseph T., Jr. 
Bowes, Dr. William J. 
Brach, Mrs. Edwin J. 
Brachvogel, Mrs. Christina 
Bradford, Thomas H. 
Bradley, Charles E. 
Bradley, Fred J. 
Bradley, Herbert E. 
Bradstreet, Percy W. 
Brandenburg, Mrs. 0. H. 
Brannen, George L. 
Braun, Arthur J. 
Braun, Dr. Samuel A. 
Brawley, Dr. Frank E. 
Breen, J. W. 
Brennemann, Dr. Joseph 
Brewer, Edward H. 
Brewer, Harry F. 
Brewster, William E. 
Briggs, Carl R. 
Brin, Harry L. 
Brink, Mrs. E. S. 
Briscoe, George L. 
Bristol, James T. 
Broadice, Mrs. J. L. 
Brodkorb, William P. 
Brodsky, Dr. Jacob 
Brodsky, J. J. 
Brodt, Irwin W. 
Broman, Dr. Robert 
Bronson, Mrs. Mary Horton 
Brooks, Robert E. L. 
Brookes, Ralph W. 
Broome, John Spoor 
Broome, Mrs. Thornhill 
Broomell, Chester C. 
Brougham, Dr. Edward J. 
Brouillett, Dr. R. J. 
Brower, Jule F. 
Brown, Alvia K, 

Brown, Dr. Calvin E. 
Brown, Charles W. 
Brown. Edward Eagle 
Brown, H. A. 
Brown, Dr. Joshua M. 
Brown, J. Rice 
Brown, Stewart R. 
Brown, W. Gray 
Brown, Wilbur M. 
Brown, Dr. William Culp 
Brucker, Dr. Edward A. 
Brucker, Dr. Matthew W. 
Brumley, Daniel Joseph 
Brunker, a. R, 
Bryant, Donald R. 
Buchannon, Byron 
Buchbinder, Dr. J. R. 
BucHEN, Mrs. Walther 
Buck, Dr. Alfred L. 
Buck, Mrs. Lillian B. 
Buckingham, John 
Buckingham, Tracy W. 
Buckley, Mrs. Warren 
BucKLiN, Mrs. Vail R. 

BuEHLER, Mrs. Ernest 
BuELL, Mrs. Charles C. 
BuKOFZER, Dr. Erik 
BuKOWSKi, Peter I. 
Bull, Gordon W. 


BuNCK, Edward C. 
BuNGE, August H., Sr. 
Bunker, Charles C. 
BUNN, B. H. 
Bunting, Guy J. 
BuNZEL, Paul M. 
BuRDiCK, Dr. Alfred S. 
Burgmeier, John M. 
Burke, Dr. Samuel T. 


BuRNHAM, Claude G. 
Burnham, D. H. 
BuRNHAM, Hubert 
Burns, John J. 
Burnstine, I. H. 
Burr, Maurice 
Burrows, Dr. Gene 
Burry, William, Jr. 
Burton, Fred A. 
BuscH, Francis X. 
Bushonville, James T, 
BussiAN, John A. 
Butler, Charles E, 
Butler, Edward P. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


BuTzow, Dr. Arthur M. 
BuxBAUM, Dr. Henry 
Byrne, Dr. M. W. K. 
Byrne, Thomas H. 

Cahill, William A. 
Cahn, Benjamin R. 
Cain, Charles N. 
Cain, G. R. 

Caldwell, Dr. Charles P. 
Caldwell, H. Ware 
Caldwell, Louis G. 
Callahan, Mrs. A. F. 
Callner, Joseph M. 
Calvin, Dr. Joseph K. 
Camp, Benjamin B. 
Camp, Curtis B. 
Campbell, Andrew L. 
Campbell, Argyle 
Campbell, Donald A. 
Campbell, Mrs. Isaiah 
Campbell, Mrs. John G. 
Campbell, Robert A. 
Campbell, Robert W. 
Campb, Frank O. 
Canavan, J. Newell 
Canepa, James P. 
Canning, Andrew P. 
Capper, John S. 
Card, Joseph B. 
Carey, Frank L. 
Carleton, Stanley 
Carlile, William B. 
Carlin, Leo J. 
Carls, Dr. Fred G. 
Carlsen, Charles J. 
Carlsen, Dr. Haldor 
Carnahan, Mrs. Glen C. 
Carpenter, John Alden 
Carpenter, W. W. S. 
Carr, Dr. James G. 
Carroll, Michael A. 
Carteaux, Leon L. 
Carter, Allan J. 
Carter, C. B. 
Carter, Frederick M. 
Gary, George B., Sr. 
Casavant, Gustav a. 
Case, Horace D. 
Casey, J. R. 
Casey, Thomas 
Cass, Mrs. Roy H. 
Cassels, G. J. 
Cassidy, William J, 
Castenholz, W. B. 

Castle, Sydney 
Gates, Dudley 
Cavenee, Mrs. C. M. 
Cerf, Louis R. 
Cervenka, John A. 
Chamblin, Mrs. William F. 
Champion, Harry A. 
Chandler, C. F. 
Chandler, Charles H. 
Chandler, Frank R. 
Chapin, Rufus, F. 
Chapman, Mrs. Frank A. 
Chapman, Mrs. John A. 
Chapman, William Gerard 
Chase, Mrs. Leona 
Chase, Samuel T. 
Chattin, William 
Chavis, Dr. Samuel W. 
Chester, H. H. 
Childs, Kent C. 
Childs, Lester C. 
Chrissinger, Horace B. 
Christensen, Henry C. 
Christiansen, Dr. Henry 
Christie, Dr. Roy E. 
Christie, Sigurd A. 
Christofferson, Dr. E. A. 
Chunn, Clay D. 
Churan, Leo M. 
Church, Mrs. Emma 
Churchill, Richard S. 
CiOTOLA, Dr. E. 
Clapp, Dr. Hubert B. 
Clare, Herbert O. 
Clark, Dr. Charles C. 
Clark, H. K. 
Clark, Harry B. 
Clark, James D. 
Clark, Mancel T. 
Clark, Ralph C. 
Clarke, Broadus J. 
Clarke, Frederick E. 
Claussen, Edmu>jd. J. 
Clavey, F. B. 
Claypool, Glen F. 
Clayton, Benjamin W. 
Cleary, Charles H. 
Cleary, John J., Jr. 
Cleave, Mrs. Frances D. 
Cleminson, Dr. Haldane 
Cleveland, Mrs. A. F. 
Clithero, W. S. 
Cloney, T. W. 

356 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Clow, Mrs. Harry B. 
Cloyes, William E. 
Cluff, Edwin E. 
COBURN, Alonzo J. 

CoBURN, John J. 
Cochran, J. L. 
CoE, Frank Galt 
Coffin, Mrs. Fred Y. 
Coffin, Percy B. 
CoHN, Charles 
Colburn, Warren E. 
CoLDREN, Clifton C. 
Cole, E. Leslie 
Coleman, B. R. 
Coleman, Clarence L. 
Collins, Arthur W. 
Collins, Beryl B. 
Collins, George R. 
Collins, Dr. Lorin C. 
Collins, Dr. Rufus G. 
CoLLisoN, Edgar K. 
CoLNON, Philip 
CoLVER, Herbert L. 
comerford, frank 
Comstock, Miss Ethel 
Condon, Thomas J. 
CoNDY, Louis H. 
Cone, Albert P. 
Conger, Mrs. William Perez 
CoNGLis, Nicholas P. 
Conkey, H. P, 
CoNLON, William F. 
Conran, Mr-. Walter A. 
CoNsoER, Arthur W. 
Cook, Miss Edith S. 
Cook, Mrs. George E. 
Cooke, Charles E. 
Cooke, Mrs. David S., Jr. 
Cooke, Mrs. George J. 
Cooley, Asa B. 
Coon, Robert E. 
Cooper, Charles H. 
Cooper, Fred W. 
Cooper, Frederick A. 


CoRDELL, Arthur N. 
Corey, Ralph L. 
Corey, William H. 
CoRPER, Erwin 
Corsant, Mrs. Charles King 
CoRSER, Charles B. 
Corwin, Dr. Arthur M. 
Costa, Mrs. Joseph C. 
CosTELLO, Thomas J. 

CosTiGANE, William B. 
CosTON, James E. 
CouRvoisiER, Dr. Earl A. 
Cowan, Mrs. Grace L. 
Cowan, Mrs. Lora S. 
Cox, Arthur M. 
Cox, Henry J. 
Craddock, J. F. 
Crane, George E. 
Crane, Jacob L., Jr. 
Crawford, Adam W. 
Crawford, Frederick E. 
Creed, Daniel A. 
Creedon, Mrs. Clara W. 
Crego, Frank A. 
Crerar, Mrs. John 
Croftan, Dr. Alfred C. 
Cronkhite, Albion C. 
Crosby, Mrs. Frederick W. 
Crumrine, Dr. L. B. 
CuDNEY, Harold N. 
CuLLisoN, James B., Jr. 
Cummings, Mrs. John L. 
CuNEo, Frank 
Cunnea, William A. 
Cunningham, Dr. Joseph L. 
Cunningham, Robert D. 
Cunningham, Robert M. 
Curran, O. p., Jr. 
Curran, Peter A. 
Curshan, Marcus 
Curtis, Miss Francis H. 
Curtis, Louis R. 
CusACK, Francis J. 
Cutler, Henry E. 

Dahl, Dr. Petra M. 
Dahlquist, C. M. 
Daiches, Eli 
Dallager, Dr. Roy A. 
Dallas, Charles D. 
Dallstream, Andrew J, 
Dalton, Ernest E. 
Daly, Dr. T. A. 
Dammann, J. F., Jr. 
Danielson, Fred V. 
Dankowski, I. F. 
Daughaday, C. Colton 
David, Sidney S. 
Davidonis, Dr. Alexander L. 
Davidson, Mrs. George M. 
Davidson, Julius 
Davidson, Lucius H. 
Davidson, Miss Mary E. 
Davies, J. E. 



Jan. 1928 

Annual Report op the Director 


Davies, Marshall 
Davies, p. W. 
Davies, William B. 
Davis, Col. Alexander M. 
Davis, Dr. Amy Reams 
Davis, Arthur 
Davis, Charles E. 
Davis, Charles H. 
Davis, Don- 
Davis, Dr. H. I. 
Davis, J. N. 

Davis, Mrs. Newton E. 
Davis, Paul H. 
Davis, W. Owen 
Day, Clyde L. 
Day, Stephen A. 
Dean, Mrs. Ella Wood 
Deason, Dr. Wilborn J. 
Decker, Mrs. John E. 
DeField, William R. 
Delaney, John V. 
Delano, Horace H. 
Delany, Faustin S. 
DeLoach, R. J. H. 
DeLong, F. T. 
Delson, Louis J. 
DeMuth, Mrs. Elizabeth S. 
Deneen, Robert J. 
Dengler, Albert C. 
Depue, Oscar B. 
DeSauty, Mrs. Sydney 
DeSmet, Rene C. 
DeStefani, Tully 
Deubert, Fred E. 
Deutschmann, Rudolph 
DeVries, George 
Dickinson, Phil S. 
Dickinson, Robert B. 
Diener, George W. 
DiGNAN, Frank W. 
DiLKES, Howard B. 
Dingle, Frank E. 
Dixon, Mrs. Arthur, III 
Dixon, Simeon W. 
DoLKE, Mrs. W. Fred, Jr. 
DoNKLE, Mrs. L. B. 
Donnelly, Thorne 
Donovan, Dr. W. R. 
Dors, George B. 
DoRSEY, John T., Jr. 
Douglas, Scott Morgan 
Doyle, Edward J. 
Doyle, Edward V. 
Doyle, Leo J. 
Doyle, Thomas J. 

Drake, Lyman M., Jr. 
Drell, Mrs. J. B. 
Drennan, John G. 
Dressel, Frederick C. 
Drezmal, Max A. 
Drielsma, I. J. 
Dryden, Mrs. George B. 
Drynan, William G. 
DucE, Albert 
DuGGAN, Mrs. Henry 
DuNBAUGH, Harry J. 
Duncan, W. S. 
DuNER, Dr. Clarence S. 
DuNLAP, George H. 
Dunlap, Mrs. Samuel A. 
DuNLAP, Mrs. T. M. 
Dunn, Edward J. 
Dunning, N. Max 
Dunscomb, George H. 
Dupee, Eugene H. 
Durham, Mrs. Eleanor G. 
Duval, Carl E. 
DuVal, Dr. Emile C. 

Easthope, Joseph 
Eaton, Dr. D. B. 
Eaton, William A. 
Ebbesen, a. C. 
EcK, Dr. Charles P. 
Eddy, Mrs. Morris R. 
Edlin, Dr. J. V. 
Edmonds, Miss Nora 
Edmondson, Edmunt) P. 
Ehrman, Walter E. 
Ehrmann, Dr. Fred J. E. 
Eichman, Mrs. Harvey F. 
Eisendrath, Edwin W. 
EiSEiwRATH, Joseph L. 
Elam, Mrs. M. A. 
Eldred, H. Ward 
Eley, Ning 
Elich, Mrs. Herman 
Eliel, Mrs. Theresa G. 
Ellbogen. Mrs. Max 
Ellert, Arnold M. 
Elliott, Dr. Clinton A. 
Elliott, Francke C. 
Elliott, L. G. 
Elmer, Dr. Raymond F, 
Elmslie, George G. 
Elting, Mrs. M. W. 
Emery, William H. 
Emig, Howard A. 
Engelhard, Benjamin M. 
Engelhart, Frank C. 

358 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Engels, Dr. Nicholas R. 
England, Edward L. 
Engle, Mrs. Walter 
English, John J. 
Enright, Frank J. 
Epstein, Benjamin P. 
Epstein, Henry P. 
Erd, Arthur A. 
Erickson, Elmer 
Erickson, Hubbard H. 
Esmond, John W. 
Eterno, Dr. John 
Evans, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Everett, Edward W. 
Ewen, William R. T. 

Fair, Dr. Fred F. 

Falk, Lester L. 

Fanning, C. G. 

Fantus, Dr. Bernard 

Farnsworth, G. J. 

Farquhar, R. C. 

Farquharson, William J. 

Farwell, Stanley P. 

Faulkner, Dr. L. 

Favorite, Mrs. Isabel C. 

Fell, A. L. 

Felz, Mrs. Harry J. 

Fenger, Mrs. Christian 

Fenley, William H. 

Fentress, James 

Ferguson, Dr. Allen Harvey 

Ferguson, S. Y., Jr. 

Ferguson, William I. 

Fessenden, Asa C. 

Fetzer, William R. 

Field, Heman H. 

Field, Henry 

Field, Mrs. Wentworth G. 

Fieldhouse, Clarence B. 

FiNDLEY, Dr. Ephraim K. 

FiNiGAN, Thomas 

Fink, George E. 

Finney, W. N. 

Fischel, Frederic A. 

Fischer, Miss Alice D. 

Fischer, Anthony C. 

Fischer, Arthur 

FiscHRUPP, George 

Fishbein, Dr. Morris 

Fisher, Dr. Hart E. 

Fisher, S. 

Fiske, Kenneth B. 

Fitch, Thomas 

Fitzgerald, Dr. J. E. 
Flack, Thomas 
Flaherty, Joseph F. 
Flanigan, Arthur H. 
Fleming, Edward J. 
Flinn, Mrs. F. B. 
Flinn, John J. 
Floessler, Arthur M. 
Floyd, Henry B. 
Flynn, Maurice J. 
Foley, Harry B. 
Foley, John M. 
FoLTz, Harry G. 
Fonbs, James J. 
Ford, T. A. 
FoRGAN, James B., Jr. 
Forrest, George D. 
Forsinger, Darwin A. 
FoRTELKA, Dr. Frank L. 
Fortune, John L. 
FosBURG, H. a. 
fosdick, k. i. 
Foster, Chauncey C. 
Foster, Mrs. Hiram E, 
Foster, Dr. Mabel G. 
Fowler, Carl 
Fowler, G. F. 
Fowler, Henry 
Fowler, Mrs. John W. 
Fox, Dr. Paul C. 
Fox, Mrs. William W. 
Frank, Barney 
Frank, David 
Frank, Frederick W. 
Frank, Samuel I. 
Franke, Dr. Fred C. 
Franke, Dr. Meta E. 
Frankenstein, Rudolph 
Franklin, M. E. 
Eraser, Joseph J. 
Eraser, N. D. 
Frazee, Seward C. 
Frederick, R. L. 
Freeman, Mrs. Ernest H. 
Freeman, Theodore F. 
Freeman, Walter W. 
Freeman, William A. 
Freer, H. M. 
French, C. W. 
Frenzel, Mrs. Henry 
Freudenthal, G. S. 
Freund, Erwin O; 
Fried, Harry N. 
Friedberg, Mrs. Stanton 
Frieder, Edward N. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Friedlich, Mrs. Herbert 
Friedman, I. S. 
Friedman, Mrs. Isaac K. 
Friend, Oscar F. 
Froehling, Arthur F. 
FuciK, E. J. 
FuLLAM, Charles J. 
Fyfe, James L. 

Gabathuler, Miss Juanita 
Gabel, Walter H. 
Gaber, Benjamin 
Gabriel, Frank J. 
Gaither, Otho S. 
Gale, Abram 
Gale, Frederick A. 
Galetti, Charles G. 
Gallagher, T. E. 
Gallagher, Dr. William J. 
Gallauer, C. 
Gallup, Harold E. 
Gamble, James A. 
Gannon, George 
Gang, David R. 
Gans, Daniel 
Gans, Glenn R. 
Gardner, Robert H. 
Garlick, Robin C. 
Garrison, Bernard C. 
Garrison, Dr. Lester E. 
Gartside, John L. 
Garver, Jacob Marlowe 
Garvey, B. S. 
Gary, Dr. I. C. 
Gates, Neil H. 
Gates, Phillip R. 
Gathman, Arthur E. 
Gaul, H. J. 
Gebhardt, Ernest A. 
Geddes, Thomas 
Geddes, William H. 
Geer, Mrs. Ira J. 
Gendron, Miss Louise 
Gentry, Mrs. Veit 
George, Mrs. Albert B. 
George, Calvin M. 
George, Marshall W. 
Geraghty, Gerald G. 
Geringbr, Charles M. 
Gertz, Rudolph V. 
Getschow, George M. 
Geuther, Otto R. 
Gibbs, William J. 
Gibson, Charles H. 
Gibson, Mrs. Irene M. 

Gibson, Dr. Stanley 

Gielow, Walter C. 

Giessel, Henry 

Gilchrist, Miss Harriet F. 

Giles, Miss A. H. 

Giles, Dr. Roscoe 

Gilkes, William H. 

Gill, Adolph 

Gill, Wallace 

Gillanders, Kenneth 

GiLRUTH, Irwin T. 

GiNDELE, Mrs. C. W. 

Ginsburg, Harry 

GiTTER, Miss Mary B. 

Glader, Frank J. 

Glass, William Q. 

Glasser, Edward 

Click, Emanuel M. 

Godehn, Paul 

Goelitz, Henry G. 

GoERGEN, Dr. Philip G. 

Goes, Mrs. Josephine 

GoETZ, Adolph 

Goldpine, Dr. A. H. C. 

golding, gustav 

Goldsmith, Edwin 

Goldsmith, Henry M. 

Goldsmith, M. A. 

Goldsmith, Moses 

Goldstein, Abraham 

GoNsioR, Julius 

GooDKiND, Dr. Maurice 

Goodman, David 

Goodman, W. J. 

GooDNOW, E. H. 

GooDwiLLiE, Mrs. Charles F., Sr. 

Gordon, Mrs. Frederick T. 

Gordon, Dr. L. E. 

Gorrell, a. D. 

GosLEE, Dr. Hart J. 

gottschalk, albert l. 

Gould, George W. 

Gould, John 

GOVEN, Edouard T. 

Gowenlock, T. R. 

Grady, Mrs. David E. 

Grady, Dr. G. Q. 

Graf, Charles J. 

Graff, Oscar C. 

Gramm, Dr. Carl T. 

Grant, Alexander R. 

Grant, Luke 

Grapperhaus, Fred W. 

Graver, Philip S. 

360 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

Graves, Ernest H. 
Graves, William C. 
Gray, Dr. Horace 
Graydon, Charles E. 
Grear, W. S. 
Greby, Joseph F. 
Green, John H. 
Green, Dr. Raphael B. 
Green, Robert D. 
Green, Samuel 
Green, Walter H. 
Green, William N. 
Greengard, Max 
Greenhalgh, John H. 
Greenwald, Jacob 
Gregersen, Miss Helga 
Gregory, Mrs. Robert B, 
Gregory, Tappan 
Grein, Joseph 
Greiner, Clarence A. 
Griffin, Bennett 
Griffin, Nicholas M, 
Griffith, Melvin L. 
Griffith, William C. 
Grimshaw, Norman R. 
Grinker, Dr. Roy R. 
Grinnell, Robert L. 
Griswold, Glenn 
Griswold, Roy C. 
Grochowski, G. S. 
Groebe, Louis G. 
Groenwald, Florian a. 
Groome, Richard L. 
Grosberg, Charles 
Grossfeld, Miss Rose 
Gruenfeld, Adolph J. 
Grund, Harry T. 
Grut, Harry N. 
Guettler, H. W. 
Guggenheim, S. 
GuiLLiAMS, John R. 
Gullborg, John S. 
Gullickson, Rollo 
Gumbiner, Robert 
Gunkel, George P. 
GuRLEY, Miss Helen K. 
GusTAvsoN, Victor 
GuTHMANN, William B. 
Guthrie, Miss Mary G. 
GuTowsKi, William A. 
GuYTON, C. Ernest 
GuzowsKi, George B, 
Gyberson, Miss Indiana 

Haas, Adolph R. 
Haas, George H. J. 

Haas, Samuel L. 
Hachmeister, Herman 
Hackett, Horatio B. 
Haedtler, Martin C. 
Haerther, Dr. A. G. 
Haerther, William W. 
Hagelin, E. 

Hagens, Dr. Garrett J. 
Hajek, Henry F. 
Hales, Edward M. 
Hall, Arthur B. 
Hall, Charles R. 
Hall, Edward B. 
Hall, George C. 
Hall, Henry C. 
Hall, J. Russell 
Hall, Louis W. 
Hall, 0. L. 
Hall, Robert W. 
Hallberg, Elmer W. 
Hallett, a. E. 
Haltenhoff, W. C. 
Hambleton, C. J. 
Hambleton, Mrs. Earl L. 
Hamilton, Alex K. 
Hamilton, Hugo A. 
Hamilton, J. R. 
Hamilton, Robert J. 
Hammel, George E. 
Hammer, Hans H. 
Hammer, Thomas H. 
Hammers, M. J. 
Hammond, Roy E. 
Hance, Paul W. 
Hancock, Frank A. 
Hand, H. N. 
Hanly, Clarence P. 
Hanna, Francis D. 
Hannaford, Alfred 
Hannaford, Miss Mildred L. 
Hannah, Alexander W. 
Hannan, Miss Elizabeth Q. 
Hanover, Wiluam 
Hansen, Miss Alma C. 
Hansen, Edward C. 
Hanson, Harry E. 
Hanson, Martin J. 
Harding, Capt. Patrick J. 
Harding, S. Lawrence 
Hardwicke, Harry 
Harmon, Hubert R. 
Harmon, John H. 
Harner, George W. 
Harriman, Frank B., Sr. 
Harriman, Mrs. Karl E, 



Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Harris, D. J. 

Harris, Ewart 

Harris, Frank F. 

Harris, J. Max 

Harris, O. A. 

Harris, Wallace R. 

Harris, William L. 

Harrison, Harry P. 

Harrison, J. 

Harrison, James D. 

Harrold, James P. 

Hart, Mrs. Helena 

Hart, Henry D. 

Hart, Louis E. 

Hartigan, Clare 

Hartmann, Henry, Sr. 

Hartwig, O. J. 

Harvey, Byron S. 

Harwood, Frederick 

Harza, Leroy F. 

Haskell, L. A. 

Hasler, Mrs. Edward L. 

Hastings, Edmund A. 

Hately, Miss Louise 

Hatfield, Mrs. R. Le Fevrb 

Hatterman, Mrs. William E. 

Hattrem, Harold 

Haughey, James M. 

Hauser, J. C. 

Hausse, Richard H, 

Haven, Mrs. Alfred C. 

Hawkins, F. P, 

Hawkins, J. C. 

Hawkinson, J. T. 

Hawley, Albert P. 

Hawley, Clarence E. 

Hawthorne, V. R. 

Haynes, Mrs. Gideon 

Hays, Miss Catherine 

Hayt, William H. 

Hazlett, Dr. William H. 

Headburg, Mrs. Albion Lambert 

Healy, John J. 

Heath, William A. 

Heaton, Harry E. 

Hebel, Hon. Oscar 

Hechler, Valentine 

Heck, John 

Heckel, Edmund P. 

Heckendorp, R. a. 

Heckinger, William J. 

Hector, Dr. William S. 

Hedges, Fleming D. 

Hedman, John A. 
Heerema, Gerrit 
Heg, Ernest, Sr. 
Heide, Bernard H. 
Heidler, Frank J. 
Heifetz, Samuel 
Heineke, Carl 
Heinemann, John B. 
Heinfelden, Curt H. G. 
Heinz, L. Herman 
Heise, William F. 
Heldmaier, Miss Marie 
Heller, Bruno F. 
Henderson, B. E. 
Hendrickson, Olof B. 
Henkle, I. S. 
Henrickson, Magnus 
Henry, C. Duff 
Henry, Charles W. 
Henry, Claude D. 
Henschein, H. Peter 
Hensel, Herman E. 
Hertel, Hugo S. 
Hertz, Mrs. Fred 
Hertz, Mrs. John D. 
Hertzbbrg, Arthur G. 
Hertzberg, Edward 
Herzman, Dr. Morris H. 
Hess, Mrs. J. H. 
Hess, John L. 
Hess, Sol H. 
Hessert, Gustav 
Hessert, Dr. William 
Hettrick, William J. 
Heverly, Earl L. 
Heymann, Emanuel H. 
Heymann, L. H. 
Heyn, William P. 
Hlatt, Mrs. Houston I. 
Hibbard, Angus S. 
Hibbard, F. C. 
Hibshman, Roy S. 
HiCKEY, James J. 
HiCKLiN, John W. 
Higbie, N. Bradley, Jr. 
HiGGiNS, John H. 
HiGGiNS, Miss Lois E. 
High, Shirley T. 


Hilgendorf, George H. 
Hill, Duke 
Hill, Frederick 
HiLLER, J. A. 
HiLLiKER, Miss Ray 

362 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

HiLLis, Dr. David 
HiLLMAN, Edward 
Hills, Charles W., Sr. 
Hills, Mrs. J. M. 

Hilton, Henry H. 
HiMAN, Charles 
Hinckley, Dr. D. H. 
Hinds, Joseph B. 
HiRSCH, Henry H. 
HiRSCH, Martin 
Hiscox, Morton 
Hitchcock, R. M. 
HiTE, Harry A. 
HoAG, Dr. Junius C. 
Hoagland, Walter P. 
Hodel, George 
HoDES, Dr. J. E. 
Hodgdon, William 
Hodge, Thomas P. 
Hoefer, Ernest 
Hoelter, Harry H. 
Hoffman, Jacob 


Hohmann, Mrs. George 
Holabird, John A. 
Holbrook, Frank X. 
holden, c. r. 
Holden, Hale, Jr. 
HoLDOM, Hon. Jesse 
Hole, Perry L. 
Holland, Dr. William E. 
HoLLisTER, Francis H. 
HoLLOWAY, Harry C. 
Hollo way, Owen B. 
hollowell, r. d. t. 
Holm, Gottfried 
Holman, Alfred J. 
Holman, Edward 
Holman, Scott A. 
Holmes, Dr. Bayard 
Holmes, William 
Holmgren, Elmer N. 
Holt, C. McPherson 
Holt, James A. 
Holzworth, Christopher E. 
HoNNOLD, Dr. Fred C. 
Hood, George A. 
HooGE, Dr. Ludwig F. 
Hoot, Miss Emily M. 
Hoover, George W. 
Hopkins, Alvah S. 
Hopkins, Mrs. Louis Fowler 
Hopkins, W. M. 

Horn, Albin 0. 
Hornaday, Thomas F. 
HoRNSTEiN, Leon 
Hornung, Joseph J. 
HoRTON, Hiram T. 
Horween, Isadore 
HoRWEEN, Ralph 
Horwich, Bernard 
HoRwiCH, Philip 
Hosford, William R. 
Hosken, Charles L. 


Howard, Eugene A. 
Howe, Edward G. 
Howe, Mrs. Fanny J. 
Howe, Irwin M. 
Howes, Henry W. 
Howie, Miss Mary A. 
Hoyt, Dr. D. C. 
HoYT, N. L., Jr. 
Hoyt, William M., II 
Hrynieweicki, Dr. Stefan 
Hubbard, E. J. 
Hubbard, John M. 
Hubbard, William C. 
HuBBELL, Arthur C. 
Hubbell, William J. 
HuBER, Mrs. M. J. 
Huber, Dr. Otto C. 
HucK, Carl M. 
Hudson, Edward J. 
HuEBNER, William G. 
Hughes, Mrs. E. H. 
Hughes, Hubert Earl 
Hughes, P. A. 
Hughes, W. V. 
Hughes, Dr. William T. 
Hulbert, Mrs. Charless Pratt 
Hull, Harry W. 
Hull, Irving W. 
Hull, Robert W. 
HuLLHORST, Dr. Paul 
HuMiSTON, Dr. Charles E. 
Hungerford, Louis S. 
HuNSCHE, Frederick 
Hunt, W. Prescott, Jr. 
HuRD, Harry B, 
HuRD, Max H. 
Hurley, Edward N., Jr. 
Hurley, Frank J. 
Hutchinson, A. H. 
Hutchinson, Mrs. C. L. 
Hutchinson, John W. 
Huttner, Robert L. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director. 


HwASS, Lauritz p. 
Hyatt, Albert P. 
Hynes, Dibrell 

Idelman, Bernard 
Iliff, George F. 
Inglesby, Thomas P. 
Ingram, Harold S. 
Insull, Martin J. 
Iralson, Mrs. Moses 
Irwin, Miss Ruth M. 
Isaacs, Michael H. 
IvERSON, Ralph H. 

Jackson, David H. 
Jackson, Mrs. James P. 
Jackson, John B. 
Jackson, Willlam F. 
Jacob, Charles W. 
Jacobi, Harry 
Jacobs, Mrs. C. R. 
Jacobs, E. G. 
Jacobs, Mrs. Howard D. 
Jacobs, Julius 
Jacobs, Nate 
Jacobs, Walter H. 
Jacobs, Whipple 
Jacobson, Egbert G. 
Jacobson, Raphael 
Jacobson, William 
Jaeger, Edward W. 
Jaegermann, Willlam A. 
Jaicks, Andrew 
James, Charles B. 
James, Mrs. Ernest J. 
James, Henry D. 
James, Mrs. Ralph H. 
James, Robert E. 
James, Dr. T. Franklin 
Jameson, Clarence W. 
Jamieson, Norman R. 
Jampolis, Mrs. Mark 
Janata, Louis J. 
J AND A, Rudolph 
Janoff, Abe 
Janovsky, Theodore B. 
Jaques, Louis T. 
Jarchow, Alfred W. 
Jarchow, Charles C. 
Jarema, Alexander L. 
Jarvis, William B.. Sr. 
Jefferson, Mrs. Thomas L. 
Jeffries, Dr. Daniel W. 
Jehn, Rev. Ernest G. 
Jenks, Pierre G. 

Jennings, S. C. 
Jensen, Carl F. 
Jensen, Gorm 
Jernberg, C. Edgar 
Jernberg, Carl L. 
Jessup, Dr. Franklin C. 
Jessup, Theodore 
JiRSA, Dr. Otto J. 
Johanigman, Sterling E. 
John, Dr. Findley D. 
Johnson, August 
Johnson, B. W. 
Johnson, Emil A. 
Johnson, Evan 
Johnson, Harry C. 
Johnson, Henry G. 
Johnson, James C. 
Johnson, Martin A. 
Johnson, Nels E. 
Johnson, P. Robert 
Johnson, Philip C. 
Johnson, Roscoe H. 
Johnson, Ulysses G. 
Johnson, Walter W. 
Johnson, William E. 
Johnston, Edward R. 
Johnston, Ira B. 
Johnston, John R. 
Johnston, Samuel P. 
Johnston, W. Robert 
Johnstone, Balfour 
Jonas, Dr. Emil 
Jonas, S. D. 
Jones, Miss Edna E. 
Jones, George R. 
Jones, Mrs. Homer D. 
Jones, J. Harry, Sr. 
Jones, John H. 
Jones, Mrs. John Sutphin 
Jones, M. H. 
Jones, Dr. Margaret M. 
Jones, Owen Barton 
JoosT, Mrs. William H. 
Jordan, Oran E. 
Jorgensen, Hans L. 
JoRGEsoN, Charles M. 
Joseph, A. G. 
Joseph, Arthur W. 
Joseph, Morris 
Joy, James A. 

JuDAH, Mrs. Noble Brandon 
JuDD, Cecil W. 
JuDD, Mrs. H. S. 
JuLiEN, Victor R. 

364 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Junker, Richard A. 
Just, Frederick M. 

Kaempfer, Fred 
Kaercher, Albert W. 
Kahmann, Karl W. 
Kahn, Albert 
Kahn, Charles E. 
Kahn, I. W. 

Kanavel, Dr. Allen B. 
Kann, Max M. 
Kannally, M. V. 
Kaplan, Dr. Maurice I. 
Kapsa, Ladislav a. 
Karalius, Dr. A. J. 
Karpen, Sol 
Kasehagen, Fred W. 
Kearney, J. J. 

Keehn, Mrs. Theodore C. L. 
Keeler, Edwin R. 
Keene, William J. 
Keig, Marshall E. 
Kellogg, James G. 
Kellogg, Leroy D. 
Kelly, Edward T. 
Kelly, Joseph J. 
Kemper, W. R. 
Kendrick, W. S. 
Kennedy, Clarence C 
Kennedy, James F. 
Kenny, Dr. Henry Randal 
Keogh, Gordon E. 
Keplinger, W. a. 
Kerwin, Edwin M. 
Kesler, Edward C. 
Keyes, Mrs. Rollin A. 
Kidder, Grant L. 
Killinger, George F. 
Kimball, Mrs. Louise L. 
Kimball, T. Weller 
King, Frank J. 
King, Frank 0. 
King, Hoyt 
King, John B. 
King, Lawrence F. 
Kingston, Mrs. Rose L. 
Kinney, Dr. William B. 
KiNSELLA, Dr. L. C. 
Kinsey, Louis A. 
KiNSEY, Robert S. 
Kipp, C. P. 
Kirkley, James M. 
Kitchell, Howell W. 
KixMiller, Mrs. William 
Klee, Max 

Klein, Mrs. Alden J. 
Klein, Arthur F. 
Klein, Dr. David 
Klein, H. S. 
Klein, Michael B. 
Klein, Peter 
Klein, Richard R. 
Klein, T. Henry 
Kleinhans, Dr. Joseph B. 
Kleinman, Alexander 
Klenha, Joseph Z. 
Kline, Abe 
Kline, Louis A. 
Kline, R. R. 
Kliner, John F, 
Klonowski, Louis J. 
Knab, George 
Knapp, Dr. Ernest L. 
Knapp, George S. 
Knight, Charles S. 
Knight, Charles Y. 
Knight, Stanley M. 
Knobbe, John W. 
Knode, Oliver M. 
Knudsen, Harold B. 
Koch, Paul W. 
Koch, Thomas W. 
Koenig, George W. 
KoENiG, Mrs. S. W. 
Koepke, E. E. 
Koepke, Fred J. 
KoESSLER, William S. 
KoHN, Emil 
KoHN, Oscar 
KoHOUT, Joseph, Jr. 
KoHR, Arthur G. 
KoLSTAD, Odin T. 
Komaiko, Sol 
KoMAR, Morris 
Komarek, a. W. 
KoNKOWSKi, Frank E. 
KoNOPA, John S. 
Konsberg, Alvin V, 
KoPF, Charles W. 
KoRDENAT, Dr. Ralph A. 
Koretz, Julius 
Korhumel, Joseph N. 
KoRiNEK, George R. 
Korshak, Maurice J, 
Korten, Mrs. William O. 
KoTiN, George N. 
KoucKY, Dr. J. D. 
KovAC, Stefan 
KovoLOFF, Daniel 
KowALSKi, August J., Jr. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 


KoziczYNSKi, Dr. Lucian 
Kraber, Mrs. Fredericka 
Kracke, Arthur M. 
Kraemer, Otto C. 
Krafft, Walter A. 
Kraft, Dr. Oscar H. 
Krakow, Oscar 
Kralovec, George W. 
Kramer, Cletus F. 
Kranstover Albert H. 
Krausman, Arthur 
Krebs, Charles E. 
Krein, Edward N. 
Krensky, a. Morris 
Kreuscher, Dr. Philip H. 
Kreuzinger, George W. 
Kreuzkamp, a. J. 
Kriebel, Warren W. 
KjiiTCHEvsKY, Wolff 
Kroesen, W. F. 
Krupnick, Ira 
Krysikski, Dr. C. S. 
Kudner, Arthur H. 
Kuehn, Oswald L. 
Klth, Edwin J, 
KuH, Dr. Sidney 
KuHNS, Joseph H. 
KuLPAK, Stephen A. 
KuNKA, Bernard J. 
Kunstadter, a. 
KuRATKO, Frank J. 
Kurtz, George R. 

Lacey, Miss Edith M. 
Lackner, Francis A. 
Lahann, Herman C. 
Lahl, William J. M. 
Lake, Edward 
Lamb, Frank H. 
Lamb, Frank J. 
Lambert, Mrs. Frank B. 
Lamont, John A. 
Lant)eck, George 
Lander, Mrs. Lulu Payton 
Landman, L. W. 
Landreth, John P. 
Lane, Miss Abby E. 
Lane, Steven M. 
Lang, Charles E. 
Lang, Charles E. 
Langdon, Buel a. 
Lange, Frank E. 
Langert, Abraham M. 
Langille, Wilbur F. 
Langston, W. C. 

Langworthy, Benjamin F. 
Lanius, James C. 
Lansing, A. J. 
Lansinger, Mrs. John M. 
Larsen, Gustave R. 
Larsen, Mrs. Otis R, 
Larson, Frank A. 
Larson, Gustaf E. 
Larson, Louis P., Jr. 
Larson, Simon P. 
Latham, Carl Ray 
Lathrop, Frederick A. 
Lau, Max 

Laufer, Dr. Ernest W. D. 
Lavidge, Arthur W. 
Lavin, Joseph P. 
Law, M. a. 
Lawes, Charles A. 
Lawless, Dr. Theodore K. 
Lawrence, B. E. 
Lawrence, Victor E. 
Lawton, George E. 
Lawton, Samuel T. 
Leach, George T. 
Leavell, James R. 
Leavitt, Dr. Sheldon 
LeBolt, J. M. 
Lederer, Emil L. 
Lee, Carl 
Lee, Ernest E. 
Lee, J. Owen 
Lee, Morris 
Lee, Mrs. W. George 
Leeman, Stephen Edgar 
Leemon, Harry C. 
Leete, Robert S. 
Leffingwell, Robert B. 
Lehmpuhl, Herman F. 
Leicht, Mrs. Andrew E. 
Leigh, Edward B. 
Leight, Edward A. 
Leight, Mrs. Edward A. 
Leighton, Miss Adelaide 
Lelivelt, Joseph J. 
Lennox, Edwin 
Leo, Dr. J. E. 
LeSage, Rev. John J. 
Leslie, John Woodward 
Lester, Albert G. 
Levens, W. S. 
Levey, Clarence J. 
Levi, Dr. Gerson B. 
Levi, Maurice 
Levin, I. Archer 
Levin, Louis 

366 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

Levine, George 
Levine, William 
Levinger, David 
Levinkind, Morris 
Levinson, Dr. Benjamin 
Levinson, Salmon O. 
Levis, John M. 
Levis, W. Walter 
Levitan, Louis 
Levitetz, Nathan 
Levy, Arthur G. 
Levy, Asher 
Levy, Harry H. 
Levy, Henry R. 
Lewis, J. Henry 
Lewis, Mrs. R. H. 
Lewis, Walker O. 
Leytze, Mrs. J. 
L'Hommedieu, Arthur 
L'Hommedieu, Clarence H. 
LiBONATi, Roland V. 
Lichtenstein, Walter 
Liddle, Charles A. 
LiDov, Mrs. Samuel J. 
Liebling, Abraham M. 
LiLLiE, Frank R. 
Lindahl, Mrs. Edward J. 
Linden, John A. 
lindheimer, arthur j. 
Lindheimer, Jacob 


Lindsay, Willard C. 
LiNDSTROM, Miss Elizabeth 
Linker, Meyer 

LiNKMAN, Louis B. 

LiNN, Erick N. 
LiPKiN, Maurice S. 
LiPMAN, Abraham 
LiPPERT, Aloysius C. 
LipPERT, David 
LiPSEY, William J. 


Lister, Harold R. 
LiTHGOw, Charles H. 
LiTSiNGER, Fred 
Littell, C. Guy 
Little, Charles G. 
Little, John G. 
LiTZKOw, Fred W. 
Livingston, J. B. 
Llewellyn, Arthur J. 
Lloyd, A. E. 
Lobdell, Harry H. 
Lochner, Frederick H. 

Lockett, Oswald, Jr. 
Lodge, Fred S. 
LoEB, Arthur A. 
Loeb, Jacob M. 
LoEB, Dr. Ludwig M. 
Loeb, Mrs. Nellie B. 
LoEBE, Abraham 
Loehr, Karl C. 
LoEHWiNG, Marx 
LoESER, Joseph A. 
Loewenherz, Emanuel 


loewenstein, nathan 
Logan, Frank G. 
Logan, Frederic D. 
LoMAx, William L. 
London, Harry 
Long, Dr. Esmond R. 
Long, Frank E. 
Long, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Longhi, Emilio 
Loomis, Miss Helen A. 
Loomis, W. Andrew 
Lord, Robert 0. 
LoRENz, Frederick A. 
Lorenz, Mrs. George W. 
lorenzen, h. 

LoTT, James N. 
Loughborough, Mrs. F. E. 
Low, John M. 


LowRY, Mrs. L. E. 
LowRY, Samuel W. 
LowY, Rudolph 
LoziNS, Bert 
Lucas, Dr. A. L. 
Luce, Homer J. 
LuDOLPH, Wilbur M. 
Ludwig, William F. 
Luebbert, Willlam C. 
Luehr, Dr. Edward 
LuM, Merritt B. 
Lund, Hjalmar C. R. 
Lundgren, Dr. A. T. 
Lust, Mrs. H. C. 
lustgarten, samuel 
LuTSCH, William N. 
LuTZOW, Fred H. 
Lyman, Thomas T. 
Lyon, Dr. Will F. 
Lytle, Clinton W. 

MacArthur, Fred V. 
MacDonald, E. K. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 


MacFarlane, Wilbert E. 
MacHarg, Malcolm 
Mackey, Frank J. 
MacLeod, Dr. S. B. 
MacLellan, K. F. 
Mac Murray, James E. 
Maddock, Miss Alice E. 
Maehler, Arthur E. 
Mager, Edward J. 
Magill, Henry P. 
Magnus, Edward 
Magnus, Philip H. 
Maguire, Mrs. Jessie 
Mair, Robert 
Maltman, James 
Manaster, Harry 
Manaster, Henry 
Mandl, Sidney 
Manheimer, Arthur E. 
Mann, William H, 
Manning, Miss E. 
Mansfield, Alfred W. 
Manson, David 
Manson, Mrs. David 
Marchal, Ernest N. 
Marco, Albert C. 
Marks, Arnold K. 
Markus, Joseph E. 
Marsh, A. Fletcher 
Marsh, John McWilliams 
Marsh, Orlando R. 
Marshall, Edward 
Marshall, Raphael P. 
Martin, Miss Lucy 
Martin, Mellen C. 
Martin, Z. E. 
Marxsen, Miss Dorothea 
Marzluff, Frank W. 
Mason, Fred B. 
Mason, George, Jr. 
Massena, Roy 
Massmann, Frederick H. 
Mather, Orian A. 
Mathews, Albert 
Mathews, R. H. G. 
Mathison, Howard G. 
Matson, Mrs. J. Edward 
Matter, Mrs. John 
Matthews, Francis E. 
Maurer, J. S. 
Maxwell, Lloyd R. 
May, Paul 0. 
May, Sol 
May, William W. 
McAlear, James 

McAllister, M. Hall 
McArthur, Dr. Lewis L. 
McCann, D. 
McCann, Robert L. 
McCarthy, Frank M. 
McCarthy, John W. 
McCarty, Charles H. 
McCauley, Mrs. Thomas N. 
McClellan, George W. 
McClelland, Mrs. E. B. 
McClun, John M. 
McConnell, G. Malcolm 
McCoNNELL, John L. 
McConnell, John W. 
McCoy, Charles S. 
McCready, Mrs. E. W. 
McCullough, Leslie F. 
McDonald, Edward 
McDonald, Mrs. John Grant 
McFadden, Everett R. 
McFarland, Mrs. Ellis 
McGarry, John A. 
McGiNTY, Miss Alice L. 
McGooRTY, Hon. J. P. 
McGouGH, S. P. 
McGrath, Dr. James G. 
McGregor, James P. 
McKay, Harry H. 
McKay, Dr. N. B. 
McKee, Philip L. 
McKee, Mrs. William L. 
McLaren, William 
McLaughlin, Daniel F. 
McLaughlin, Frank L. 
McLaughlin, Dr. James H. 
McLaughlin, Dr. John W. 
McLaury, Mrs. C. W. 
McMahon, Mrs. John 
McMahon, Thomas J. 
McManus, Thomas J. 
McNabb, J. H. 
McNair, Frank 
McNamara, Robert C. 
McNerny, Mathew F. 
McPherson, Donald F. 
McQuarrie, Dr. John K. 
McShane, James E. 
Mead, E. Allen 
Mead, Henry C. A. 
Meder, Mrs. Leonora Z, 
Meek, C. 
Meeker, Arthur 
Megaw, Lloyd F. 
Meginnis, Miss May 
Mehlhop, F. W. 

368 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Meinhardt, Harry 
Melaven, J. G. 
Menge, Dr. Frederick 
Mentzer, J. P. 
Mercil, Elmer J. 
Merrill, William W. 
Mershimer, Dr. James M. 
Mettler, Mrs. L. Harrison 
Meyer, Daniel A. 
Meyer, M. K. 
Meyer, Mrs. M. L. 
Meyer, Raymond N. 
Meyer, Sam R. 
Meyers, Robert C. 
Michael, Emil P. 
Michaelson, C. S. 
Milchrist, Frank T. 
Miller, Bernard 
Miller, Charles J. 
Miller, Mrs. Charles P. 
Miller, I. A. 

Miller, Mrs. Marshall D. 
Miller, Dr. William 
Miller, William S. 

Minsk, Dr. Louis D. 
Mitchell, Clarence B. 
Mitchell, Strattis 
Modene, Oscar F. 
MoENG, Edward D. 


MoNiLAW, Dr. William J. 
Montgomery, Frederick D. 
Montgomery, Mrs. F. H. 
Montgomery, John R, 
Mooney, William H. 
Moore, Dr. Beveridge H. 
Moore, Mrs. C. B. 
Moore, Charles Brearley 
Moore, Dr. Frank D. 
Moore, Frederick W. 
Moore, Mrs. Mae C. 
Moore, Nathan G. 
Moore, North 
Moore, Dr. Willis 
Moorman, Roy R. 
Morgan, Clarence 
Morgenthau, Mrs. Sidney L. 
MoRONEY, John J. 
Morris, Ira Nelson 
Morris, Dr. Robert W. 
Morrison, Mrs. C. R. 
Morrison, Theodore S. 
Morse, Mrs. Charles F. 
Morse, Leland R. 

Morse, Mrs. Milton 
MoRSMAN, Joseph J. 
Morton, Dr. Edward C. 
Morton, William Morris 
Moser, Paul 
Moses, Ernest C. 
MoYLAN, John A. 
Muchow, Dr. William M. 
Mueller, Dr. E. W. 
Mueller, J. Herbert 
Muldoon, John A. 
Mullen, Dr. M. C. 
Mullen, Timothy F. 
Mulligan, Hugh E. 
Mulliken, a. H. 
Mulliken, John H. 
Murchison, Mrs. Thomas E. 
Murphy, J. P. 
Murphy, Walter A. 
Musgrave, Dr. George J. 
Musselman, Dr. George H. 
Myers, Edwin F. 

Nance, Willis D. 
Nash, Charles J. 
Nash, John S. 
Nash, Patrick A. 
Nau, Otto F. 
Neal, Thomas C. 
Neise, George N., Sr. 
Nelson, Alvin E. 
Nelson, Harry R. 
Nelson, Peter B. 
Nelson, Roland B. 
Nelson, Willlam H. 
Nesbit, William 
Nessler, Robert W. 
Neuberger, Carl A. 
Nevins, John C. 
Newberry, Miss Mary Louise 
Newmann, Edward R. 
Newmark, John T. 
Newton, Donald W. 
Nicholes, Daniel H. 
Nichols, Edwin G. 
Nichols, Dr. H. 
Nichols, Warren 


NiMMONS, George C. 
NiTKA, Jesse 
Nixon, Albert 
Nixon, George F. 
Noble, F. H. 
Noee, George J. 

Jan. 1928 Annual Report of the Director 


NoLTE, Charles B. 
NORDHOLZ, Dr. William C. 
NoRDQuisT, Charles W. 
NoRTHRUP, Lorry R. 
Norton, Mrs. O. W. 


NouRSE, Frederick W. 
Novak, Frank H. 
Novak, Dr. Frank J., Jr. 
Now, Dr. B. Newton 
Nutting, C. G. 
NuYTTENS, Alfred A. 

O'Brien, George W. 
O'Brien, M. J. 
O'Brien, W. L., Jr. 
O'Brien, Wilbur J. 
O'Bryant, Mrs. Mark 
O'Callaghan, Henry 
O'Connor, James R. 
O'Connor, Mrs. John 
O'DoNovAN, Daniel J. 
O'Keeffe, p. J. 
Olafsson, Dr. O. J. 
Oliver, Royston 
Ollier, Valentine 
Olsen, H. M. 
Olsen, John G. 
Olsen, Olaf C. S. 
O'Neill, Dr. John W. 
Ormsby, Mrs. Frank E. 
Orr, Mrs. Willlam George D. 
Orwig, Ralph F. 
Ossendorff, Dr. K. W. 
Ostermann, Mrs. R. M. 
Ott, John Nash 
Otte, Hugo E. 
Ottman, E. H. 
OuDiN, Ferdinand 

Packard, Dr. Rollo K. 

Paddock, Dr. Charles E. 

Palmer, Prof. Claude Irwin 

Palmer, J. M. 

Palmer, Percival B. 

Pardee, Dr. L. C. 

Parker, Austin H. 

Parker, Mrs. E. Roscob 

Parker, George S. 

Parker, Norman S. 

Parks, O. J. 

Parsons, Ferdinand H. 

Parsons, Mrs. Theodore^Samuel 

Patek, Edward J. 

Paterson, Morton L. 

Patterson, Ernest G. 
Patterson, J. H. 
Patterson, Miss Minnie L. 
Patton, Dr. Fred P. 
Patton, Walter I. 
Paulding, John 
Pauley, Clarence O. 
Paulsen, Dr. J. W. 
Payne, George H. 
Peacock, Charles A. 
Pearl, Allen S. 
Peck, Mrs. Charles G. 
Peerling, Paul 
Peine, Adolphus G. 
Pencock, Mrs. George A. 
Pennington, Frank K. 
Pentecost, Lewis J. 
Percy, Dr. Nelson Mortimer 
Perry, Mrs. Leslie L. 
Peters, G. M. 
Petersen, Mrs. Julius A. 
Peterson, Albert 
Peterson, J. E. 
Peterson, Percival C. 
Peterson, Theodore N. 
Peterson, William F. 
Pflager, Charles W. 
Phelan, Charles 
Phelps, Erastus R. 
Philipson, Isidor 
Phillips, Howard C. 
Pickard, Mrs. W. A. 
Pickel, William 
Pickell, J. Ralph 
Pickbell, Harvey 
Pierce, Ralph S. 
Pierson, Arthur W. 
Pigall, Mrs. Joseph S. 
Pine, William J. 
Place, F. E. 
Plamondon, Alfred D. 
Plamondon, Charles A. 
Plath, Karl 
PoAG, Robert O. 
Podell, Mrs. Beatrice Hayes 
Poehlmann, August F. 
PoGUE, George N. 
Polakow, Louis M. 
PoLLENZ, Henry 
Pomeroy, Mrs. Christine 
Pond, Allen B. 
Pond, George F. 
Pope, S. Austin 
Porter, Henry M. 
porterfield, r. h. 

370 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

PoRTis, Dr. Bernard 
PoRTis, Dr. Sidney A. 
PosNER, Henry 
PossoN, F. E. 
Post, Dr. Wilber E. 
Posvic, Frank 
Potter, Dr. Hollis E. 
PouLTON, John J. 
Powell, Miss Nellie 
Pratt, Thornton M. 
Preble, Andrew C. 
Prentice, Oliver J. 
Prentiss, Mrs. Frank I. 
Prescott, Patrick B., Jr. 
Price, Dorr C. 
Prince, Mrs. A. C. 
Prince, Thomas C. 
Prindle, James H. 
Pronger, Herman F. 
Proffer, William F. 
Prosser, H. G. 
Prosser, Mrs. J. G.. 
Protheroe, Daniel 
Pryor, Maurice G. 
Pullen, Edward W. 
PuLVER, Albert G. 
Pulver, Henri Pierre 
PuLVER, Hugo 
Purnell, James E., Jr. 
Pytlik, Josefh S. 

Quackenbush, Mrs. Samuel H. 
QuiNLAN, Mrs. Roy 
Quinn, Edward J. 

Raber, Franklin 
Radabaugh, Miss Blanche 
Rader, Rector Roscoe 
Raff, Mrs. William J. 
Ramer, George F. 
Randall, CM. 
Randall, Rev. Edwin J. 
Randle, Guy D. 
Ranney, Mrs. George A. . 
Ransom, Albert, Jr. 
Rafaport, Morris W. 
Raff, Fred G. 
Raff, Leo E. 
Rasmussen, Frank 
Rathje, Arthur G. 
Rathje, Mrs. Josefhine L. 
Raulf, Carl A. 
Ray, Hal S. 
Ray, Harry K. 
Raymond, Clifford S. 
Raymont), Mrs. Howard D. 

Raymond, Mrs. James H. 
Reach, Benjamin 
Read, B. K. 
Read, R. G. 

Reed, Earl Howell, Jr. 
Reed, Forrest D. 
Reed, Rufus M. 
Reese, Mrs. C. Henning 
Reeve, Frederick E. 
Regensburg, James 
Rehm, Henry J. 
Reich, August C. 
Reid, p. Gordon 
Reid, Hugh 
Rein, Lester E. 
Renn, Andrew J. 
Requa, William B. 
Reuss, George I. 
Rex, W. H. 

Reynolds, Mrs. Dora E. 
Rice, F. M. 
Rice, Otto M. 
Rich, Kenneth F. 
Richards, George D. 
Richards, H. A. 
RiCHEY, Eugene W. 
Richsteig, Mrs. R. J. 
Rider, William D. 
RiEL, G. a. 
Rieser, Mrs. Herman 
RiGGS, Mrs. Fannie S. 
Ring, Miss Mary E. 
RiFLEY, Mrs. E. P. 
Ritchie, William 


Roach, Willlvm J. 
Roane, Warren 
Robbins, Laurence B. 
Roberts, Francis R. 
Roberts, Jesse E. 
Roberts, Merritt E. 
Robinson, Charles R. 
Robinson, David A. 
Robinson, W. Scott 
Robuck, Dr. S. V. 
Rockwood, Frederick T. 
RoDEN, Carl B. 
Roden, Miss Marion Louise 
Rogers, Dr. Daniel W. 
Rolfes, Gerald A. 
RoLLO, Egbert 
Roodhouse, Benjamin T-. 
Root, John W. 
Rorabach, George E. 
Rosenbaum, Edwin S. 

Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


RosEMBAUM, Mrs. Edwin S. 
Rosenberg, Bernhard 
rosenfeld, m. j. 
RosEXFELS, Irwin S. 


RosENow, Milton C. 
Rosenthal, Nathan H. 
Ross, Dr. Colin K. 
Ross, Frank A. 
Ross, Robert C. 
Ross, William A., Jr. 
Roth, Arthur J. 
Roth, Henry 
Roth, Mrs. Lester 
Rountree, Lingard T. 
RoussiN, Alfred G. 
RuBEL, Mrs. Flora L. 
RuBEL, Dr. Maurice 
Rubin, Joseph E. 


Rltd, Dr. Anthony 
Rudolph, Miss Bertha 
RuEL, John G. 


RuGGLES, Harry Kenneth 
RuGGLES, Dr. Willlam L. 
Ryan, Thomas C. 

Sabath, Hon. Joseph 
Sachs, Paul J. 
Sage, Mrs. William 
Salinger, Harry 
Saltiel, Dr. Thomas P. 
Sampson, H. J. 
Sampson, James 
Sanborn, Frank A. 
Sanders, H. A. 
Sardeson, Orville A. 
Sartain, Charles A. 
Satterlee, Howard B. 
Sauer, Dr. Louis W. 
Sauer, Dr. Raymond J. 
Sauerman, John A. 
Saunders, Percy G. 
Sawyer, Dr. C. F. 
Sawyer, Edwin M. 
Sawyer, Mrs. Percy 
ScHAAR, Bernard E. 
Schafer, 0. J. 
Schaffner, Mrs. Albert 
Schaffner, Arthur B. 
Schaffner, Herbert T. 
Schantz, O. M. 
Schapiro, a. L. 

ScHAUs, Carl J. 
Schiessle, M. 
Schilling, W. 0. 
Schmidt, Adolph 
Schmidt, Ernest A. 
Schmidt, Ernest E. 
Schmidt, Dr. Herbert J. 
Schmidt, Dr. Otto L. 
Schmidt, Paul J. 
Schmidt, Richard E. 
Schneider, Benjamin B. 
Schneider, George A. 
Schnering, Julius 
Schniglau, Charles H. 
Schnuchel, Reinhold H. 
schoen, f. j. 
Schoenbrun, Leo 


Schram, Harry S. 


SCHULTZ, Dr. Oscar T. 
SCHUPP, Philip C. 
Schwab, Dr. Leslie W. 
Schwab, Martin 
Schwabacher, Mrs. AIorris 
Schwaegerman, Mrs. George J. 
Schwager, Dr. Irving 
Schwartz, G. A. 
Schwartz, Louis S. 
ScHWARz, Augustus 
Schweitzer, E. O. 
Schweitzer, Richard J. 
Schweitzer, Samuel 
ScHWEizER, Carl 
Scofield, Timothy J. 
Scott, Dr. E. Newton 
Scott, Dr. James McDonald 
Scott, John D. 
Scott, Walter A. 
Scott, Dr. Walter Dill 
ScuDDER, J. Arnold 
Seames, Charles O. 
Seaton, Strowbridge B, 
Seaverns, George A. 
Seaverns, Louis C. 
Seggerman, Mrs. Richard 
Seibold, Arthur B. 
Seidel, G. W. 
Seip, Fred 
Selz, Emanuel 
Senear, Dr. F. E. 
Senior, Mrs. John L. 
Senne, John A. 
Sethness, C. Henry 
Sethness, Charles 0. 

372 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. VII 

Sexton, Mrs. Thomas G. 

Seyffert, L. 

Shaffer, Harry 

Shanahan, David E. 

Shanesy, Ralph D. 

Shanesy, Mrs. Ralph D. 

Shanks, Oscar 

Shannon, Rev. Frederick F. 

Shapiro, Dr. Henry B. 

Shapiro, I. M, 

Shapiro, J. F. 

Shapker, Edward B. 

Shattuck, Charles H. 

Shaw, A. W. 

Shaw, Joseph J. 

Sheafe, J. S. 

Shearman, C. E. 

Shedd, Charles E, 

Sheean, John A. 

Shepard, Guy C. 

Shepard, Stuart G. 

Shepherd, Miss Edythe T. 

Sherbahn, Jacob M. 

Sherer, Samuel J. 

Sheridan, L. J. 

Sherman, Edwin 

Sherman, Mrs. F. C. 

Sherman, H. C. 

Sherman, Louis A, 

Sherwin, William A. 

Shields, James Culver 

Shinner, Mrs. E. G. 

Shoan, Nels 

Shogran, L. a. 

Shoop, Mrs. Lucile Huntington 

Shores, Dr. Clarence E. 

Shorey, Clyde E. 

Shortall, John L. 

Shotwell, Alfred H. 

Shuesler, Charles R. 

Shuman, Mrs. Helen W. 

Silber, C. J. 

Silberman, a. 


Silverman, Joseph 
Simmons, Parke E. 
Simpson, Dr. Elmer E. 
Simpson, Walter H. 
SiNDiNG, John W. 
Singleton, Mrs. Charles J. 
Sinsheimer, Benjamin 
SiSSON, O. U. 

SiTZBR, Dr. Grace Powell 
Skinner, Miss Frederika 
Slade, Alfred 

Slade, John C. 
Slaten, Mrs. Frederick A. 
Slaughter, Rochester B. 
Smith, C. F. Mather 
Smith, Mrs. C. R. 
Smith, Charles L. 
Smith, Clayton F. 
Smith, D. D. 
Smith, Mrs. Edward E. 
Smith, Mrs. Edwin 
Smith, Frederick W. 
Smith, Gilbert M. 
Smith, Glen E. 
Smith, Dr. Herman 
Smith, John C. 
Smith, Joseph C. 
Smith, Miss Mary Rozet 
Smith, O. Jay 
Smith, Reynolds S. 
Smith, Dr. T. Manuel 
Smith, Walter M. 
Smith, William D. 
Snitzler, Mrs. James M. 
Snow, Fred A. 
Snyder, Erwin P. 
Snyder, Thomas D. 
SoAREs, Prof. Theodore G. 
SoLLE, William H. 
SoLLiTT, Ralph T. 
Somerville, Thomas A. 
Sommers, Werner H. 
Soper, Mrs. J. P., Jr. 
Soper, Thoj/las 
Spades, M. H. 
Speer, Henry D. 
Spensley, H. George 
Spiegel, M. J., Jr. 
Spiegel, Mrs. Mae 0. 
Spiegel, Philip 
Spiegler, Frank F. 
Spiesberger, H. T 
Spieth, W. S. 
Spitz, Leo 
Spivek, Herman 
Spohn, John F, 
Spohr, Frank M. 
Spry, George 
Stafford, Charles W. 
Stahl, Miss Myrtle 
Stallwood, S. C. 
Stanton, Dr. E. M. 
Stanton, Edgar 
Stanton, Henry J. 
Stanton, Howard B. 
Starrett, James W. 


Jan. 1928 Annual Report op the Director 


Stayman, Ralph J. 
Stearns, Fred 
Stecher, Walter R. 
Steele, Sidney J. 
Stein, Mrs. Adolph 
Stein, Dr. Otto J. 
Stein, Mrs. S. Sidney 
Stein, Sidney L. 
Steiner, Max 
Steinhoff, Carroll F. 
Steinson, Henry G. 
Stenson, Frank R. 
Stephen, Edward I. 
Sterling, Douglas T. 
Stern, Felix 
Stern, Mrs. Herbert L. 
Stern, Jacob S. 
Stern, Maurice S. 
Sternberg, Morris 
Stevens, Ernest 
Stevenson, James R. D. 
Stewart, George R. 
Stewart, James S. 
Stewart, Ross E. 
Stewart, S. Chandler 
Stewart, Willlam 
Stobbe, Paul D. 
Stockdale, E. C. 
Stockton, A. C. 
Stockton, Mrs. John Thaw 
Stockton, Miss Josephine 
Stoddart, Charles H. 
Stoll, Mrs. John O. 
Stone, Mrs. Jacob S. 
Storkan, Mrs. James 
Storms, Mrs. John D. 
Straten, Dr. Hubert J. 
Straus, Arthur W. 
Straus, Eli M. 
Strauss, Dr. Alfred A. 
Strauss, Edgar L. 
Strauss, Jesse L. 
Strauss, Joseph L. 
Strauss, Julius 
Strauss, Lee J. 
Strawn, Taylor 
Street, Charles L. 
Street, Edward P. 
Strigl, F. C. 
Stringer, John T. 
Strom, Arthur B. 
Strong, Gordon 
Stuart, Charles W. 
Stumes, Charles B. 
Sturla, Harry L. 

Sullivan, Charles H. 
Sullivan, Frank R. 
Sullivan, Grey 
Sullivan, Hon. John J. 
Sullivan, Mrs. Paul D. 
Sullivan, Mrs. Walter J. 
Sulzberger, S. L. 
Sumerfield, Edward C. 
Summy, Clayton F. 
sundlof, f. w. 
Suthard, James 
Sutton, John M. 
SwATEK, Dr. Edwin Paul 
Swift, Mrs. Alden B. 
Swift, T. Philip 
Swift, William E. 

Taft, Robert H. 
Tash, J. Donald 
Tate, William S. 
Taylor, Mrs. Eugene S. 
Taylor, Graham 
Taylor, L. S. 
Taylor, Mrs. 0. L. 
Teevan, John C. 
Tegtmeyer, Ernest F. 
Teich, Max L. 
Teller, George L. 
Templeton, Andrew 
TenHaagen, Jean E. 
Tenney, Henry F. 
Terry, Dr. C. Roy 
Terry, Mrs. Schuyler B, 
Thatcher, Everett A. 
Thatcher, Fred J. 
Thayer, Harry W. 
Thiebeault, Charles J., Jr. 
Thom, H. C. 

Thomas, Mrs. Edward W. 
Thomas, Rev. George H. 
Thomas, Richard H., Jr. 
Thomas, Roy K. 
Thompson, Hope 
Thompson, Mrs. John R., Sr. 
Thompson, Orville W. 
Thomson, Mrs. Charles M. 
Thomson, George W. 
Thomson, James 
Thornton, Everett A. 
Throop, George Enos 
Thulin, Mrs. C. N. 
Tibbetts, Mrs. N. L, 
Tiedebohl, Edward R. 
Tieken, Dr. Theodore 


374 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 


TippETT, William M. 


ToBiN, Mrs. C. P. 
Todd, A. 
ToNK, Percy A. 
ToRRisoN, Dr. George A. 
Towner, H. C. 
Tracy, George W. 
Trescott, William S. 
Triggs, Charles W. 
Trotzkey, Elias L. 
Troup, Paul V. 
Troy, Leo J. 
Truc, Walter 
Trude, Mrs. A. S. 
Truman, Percival H. 
Tubergen, Mrs. Benjamin F. 
Tucker, Dr. George W. 
Tufts, Prof. James H. 
Turnbull, Gerald 
Turnbull, William J. 
Turner, George 
Turner, Mrs. George T. 
Turner, Marshall S. 
TuTHiLL, James B. 
Tuthill, Richard S. 
Tuttle, Charles 
Tuttle, W. F. 
Twyman, Robert J. 
Tye, Frank E. 
Tyler, Alfred C. 

Uhlemann, William R. 
Ullman, Mrs. N. J. 
Ungrich, Mrs. Henry, Jr. 
Urheim, Dr. O. J. 
Urion, Alfred R., Jr. 
Utley, George B. 
Utter, Arthur J. 

VanBuren, G. B. 
Vance, Walter N. 
VanDellen, Dr. R. L. 
VanDeursen, John S. 
VanDort, G. Broes 
VanEsso, Mrs. Meyer A. 
VanHoosen, Dr. Bertha 
VanSchaick, Mrs. Ethel R. 
VanSchaick, Miss Mary Morris 
Varty, L. G. 
Vaughan, Dr. Perry E. 
Vaughan, Roger T. 
Veatch, Miss Marie 
Vehe, Dr. K. L. 

Venard, Mrs. George C. 
VenDenBroecke, Mrs. Carl 
ViCKERY, Miss Mabel S. 
Vilas, Mrs. George B. 
Vilas, Lawrence H. 
ViSK, Edward J. 
Vocco, Rocco 
VoLK, Carl B. 
VoLK, Paul 
VoLTz, Daniel W. 
Voorhees, James M. 
Vurpillat, Mrs. Frances J. 
Vyse, Arthur J. 

Wagenknight, a. R. 
Wagner, Miss Coletta M. 
Wagner, H. D. 
Wagner, Miss Mabel M. 
Wahl, Albert 
Waite, Miss Muriel W. 
Waldeck, Herman 
Walker, Barton F. 
Walker, James R. 
Walker, Dr. .James W. 
Wallace, Mrs. David 
Wallace, John F. 
Waller, A. Rawson 
Waller, Miss Katherine 
Wallner, Dr. John S. 
Walsh, Miss Mary 
Walsh, Dr. Thomas F. P. 
Walsh, Dr. Thomas G. 
Walton, Lyman A. 
Warner, Mrs. J. C. 
Warren, Allyn D. 
Warren, Mrs. Frank 
Warren, Mrs. Homer S. 
Warren, Walter G. 
Warren, William G. 
Washburn, Dr. James Murray 
Washburne, Mrs. Hempstead 
Waters, R. T. 
Watkins, Frank A. 
Watkins, Frederick A. 
Watkins, Jesse M. 
Watkins, William Waynne 
Watson, Leo M. 
Watson, R. G. 
Waugh, William Francis 
Weary, Edwin D. 
Webb, Mrs. Martha 
Webb, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Weber, Dr. Samuel L. 
Webster, Charles R. 
Webster, Edgar Converse 


Jan. 1928 

Annual Report of the Director 


Webster, Towner K., Jr. 
Weddell, John 
Wegg, Donald R. 
Weigen, Dr. Anders J. 
Weil, Mrs. Victor 
Weinberg, Jacob S. 
Weinstein, Dr. M. L. 
Weisl, E. L. 
Weiss, Samuel H. 
Weisz, Mrs. Charles W. 
Welch, Hon. Ninlan H. 
Welles, Mrs. Edward Kenneth 
Wentworth, John 
Wescott, Dr. Cassius D. 
West, Frederick T. 
West, William C. 
Westbrook, Mrs. E. S. 
Westbrook, Ira E. 
Westbrfield, Henry S. 
Weston, Charles V. 
Westphal, Miss Mary E. 
Westrich,.Mrs. F. a. 
Whamond, Dr. Alex A. 
Whatley, S. T. 
Wheeler, Seymour 
Wheelock, W. W. 
Whise, Dr. Melchior 
White, George H. 
White, Mrs. Linn 
White, Richard T. 
Whitehead, W. M. 
Whiting, Robert B. 
Whitney, Charles P. 
Whitney, Dr. Henry S. 
Wicks, James E. 
WiELAND, Charles J. 
WiELAND, Mrs. George C. 
Wiener, Milton L. 
WiKOFF, Miss Mary Betty 
WiLBORN, Charles 
Wilbur, Fred T. 
WiLCE, George C. 
Wild, A. Clement 
Wild, Payson S. 
Wild, Richard 
Wilder, Mrs. Harold 
Wilder, Mrs. T. E. 
Wiley, Edward N. 
Wilkes, C. H. 
WiLKEY, Fred S. 
WiLLETT, Albert V. 
WiLLETTs, George M. 
Williams, Dr. A. Wilberforce 
Williams, C. ArcH\ 

Williams, Chauncey V. 
Williams, Clifford H. 
Williams, Mrs. Eugene P. 
Williams, Gaar 
Williams, Mrs. Lawrence 
W^iLLiAMS, Lynn A. 
Williams, Dr. Richard A. 
Williamson, D. 
Wilsey, R. E. 
Wilson, Arthur R. 
Wilson, Miss Carolyn 
Wilson, Lucius E. 
Wilson, M. H. 
Wilson, Percival C. 
Wilson, Robert C. 
Wilson, William G. 
Windes, Mrs. Frank A. 


WiNSLOW, Charles S. 
Winston, Bertram M. 
Winter, I. 

Winterbotham, John R. 
W^inters, Leander LeRoy 
Wise, Mrs. Harold 
Witherbee, W. E. 
Withers, Allen L. 
WiTKOwsKY, Miss Esther 
Wolbach, Murray 
Wolf, Robert N. 
Wolfe, William C. 
Wolff, Christian J. 
Wolff, Mrs. Fred H. 
Wolff, George F. 
Wood, Donald 
Wood, Harold L. 
Wood, John H. 
Woodcock, Andrew J. 
Woodward, William 
WooDYATT, Dr. Rollin Turner 
WooLF, Mrs. Olga 
Wordel, William F. 
Worthley, Wallace F. 
Wray, Mrs. James G. 
Wright, Dr. James A. 
Wright, Mrs. Warren 
Wright, William 
Wrisley, George A. 
Wry, C. E. 
Wunderle, H. O. 
Wyneken, Mrs. Annie J. 

Yavitz, Joseph T. 
Yeakel, Dr. William K. 
Yeomans, Charles 

376 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. VII 

YocuM, Reuben E. 
Young, George H. 
Young, George W. 
Young, James W. 
Young, Joseph W. 
Younglove, James C. 
Younker, a. 

Zeitz, Andrew R. 
Zenos, Rev. Andrew C. 

Zeuch, Dr. Lucius P. 
Zeuch, Mrs. William 
ZiFF, Peter 
Zimmerman, Ralph W. 
Zoelck, Mrs. Frank 
ZOLLA, Abner M. 
ZoLLA, David M. 

Deceased, 1927 

Adelman, Sam 

Ferguson, Edward A. 

Gallup, Edward 

Heumos, Alois 
Hook, Arthur S. 
Hurley, Hon. Timothy D. 

King, Dr. C. Bruce 
Knapp, Clifford J. 

Laechle, William C. 

Larsen, Charles 
Little, John L. 

McKeever, R. Townsend 
MacRae, Albert 
Manson, William 

Nesbit, Wilbur D. 

Ransom, J. Otis 

Taylor, Francis W. 

Weller, Stuart 

THE Um^y ri"^ THE 
JUL 3 1928