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Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. IX, Plate I 


A Trustee of the Museum and Patron of the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts 
Expedition to Eastern Asia of 1928-29 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Publication 306 
Report Series Vol. IX, No. 1 







MAY 1 8 1932 


January, 1932 


£-0 7 


Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may be made in 
securities, money, books or collections. They may, if desired, take 
the form of a memorial to a person or cause, to be named by the 
giver. For those desirous of making bequests to the Museum, the 
following form is suggested : 


I do hereby give and bequeath to Field Museum of Natural 
History of the City of Chicago, State of Illinois, 

Cas/i contributions made vnthin the taxable year to Field 
Museum of Natural History to an amount not in excess of 
1 5 per cent of the taxpayer's net income are allowable as deduc- 
tions in compviing net income under Article 251 of Regular- 
tion 69 relating to the income tax under the Revenue Act of 

Endowmenis m^y be made to the Museum with the pro- 
vision that an annuity be paid to the patron during his or 
her lifetime. These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed 
against fluctuation in amount. 




List of Plates 7 

Board of Trustees 8 

Officers and Committees 9 

Former Members of the Board of Trustees 10 

Former Officers 11 

List of Staff 12 

Report of the Director 15 

Lectures and Entertainments 47 

James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for 

Public School and Children's Lectures 48 

Lecture Tours and Meetings for Adults 56 

Summary of Attendance at Lectures, etc 56 

Division of Publications 56 

Library . 60 

Expeditions and Research . 62 

Anthropology 62 

Botany 72 

Geology 93 

Zoology 97 

Accessions 104 

Anthropology 104 

Botany Ill 

Geology 127 

Zoology 134 

Departmental Cataloguing, Inventorying and Labeling . . 139 

Installations and Rearrangements 143 

Anthropology 143 

Botany 150 

Geology 160 

Zoology 170 

The N. W. Harris Public School Extension 174 

Art Research Classes 175 

Division of Public Relations 176 

Division of Printing 182 


6 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Division of Roentgenology 183 

Divisions of Photography and Illustration 184 

Division of Memberships 185 

Cafeteria 185 

Attendance Statistics and Door Receipts 188 

Financial Statement 189 

List of Accessions 190 

Articles of Incorporation 219 

Amended By-Laws 221 

List of Members 226 

Benefactors 226 

Honorary Members . 226 

Patrons 227 

Corresponding Members 227 

Contributors 228 

Corporate Members 230 

Life Members 231 

Non-Resident Life Members 234 

Associate Members 234 

Non-Resident Associate Members 257 

Sustaining Members 257 

Annual Members 259 



L William V. Kelley 1 

IL The Late Richard T. Crane, Jr 16 

IIL Reproduction of an Illinois Mound-Builder's Grave 20 

IV. Detail of Carboniferous Forest Group 28 

V. Carboniferous Forest Group 32 

VI. American Tapir 48 

VII. Type of Case Loaned to the Schools of Chicago by 

the N. W. Harris Public School Extension ... 52 
VIII. Miniature of a Village of the Menangkabau, 

Sumatra 60 

IX. Detail of Carboniferous Forest Group 64 

X. Restoration of a Group of Titanotheres {Brontops 

robustus) 80 

XI. North American Geese and Swans 84 

XII. Model of a Zapotec Palace at Mitla, Mexico ... 92 

XIII. Detail of Carboniferous Forest Group 96 

XIV. Mural Painting, Restoration of the Great Homed 

Mammal Uintathere and Four-toed Horses 

(prohippus) 112 

XV. Reticulated Python, Sumatra 116 

XVI. Painted Pottery from Burial Mounds in Arkansas . 124 

XVII. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) 128 

XVIII. Mounted Skeletons of Fossil South American Ground 

Sloth (Scelidodon) 144 

XIX. Scorpion Fish 148 

XX. Granadilla (Passiflora quadrangularis) 156 

XXI. Type of Case Loaned to the Schools of Chicago by 

the N. W. Harris Public School Extension ... 160 

XXII. Cafeteria 176 

8 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 


John Borden 
William J. Chalmers 
R. T. Crane, Jr.* 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W. Harris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kelley 
Cyrus H. McCormick 


William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Martin A. Ryerson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Simms 
James Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Sprague 
Silas H. Strawn 
Wrigley, Jr. 


Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Stanley Field, President 

Martin A. Ryerson, First Vice-President 
Albert A. Sprague, Second Vice-President 
James Simpson, Third Vice-President 
Stephen C. Simms, Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

Stanley Field 
Albert W. Harris 
William J. Chalmers 
James Simpson 

Albert W. Harris 
Martin A. Ryerson 



Albert A. Sprague 
Marshall Field 
John Borden 
Silas H. Strawn 


James Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 

Frederick H. Rawson 


William J. Chalmers Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Cyrus H. McCormick Ernest R. Graham 

William H. Mitchell 

James Simpson 


George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 


Albert A. Sprague William V. Kelley 

Solomon A. Smith 

10 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 


George E. Adams* 1893-1917 

Owen F. Alois* 1893-1898 

Allison V. Armour 1893-1894 

Edward E. Ayer* 1893-1927 

John C. Black* 1893-1894 

M. C. Bullock* 1893-1894 

Daniel H. Burnham* 1893-1894 

George R. Davis* 1893-1899 

James W. Ellsworth* 1893-1894 

Charles B. Farwell* 1893-1894 

Frank W. Gunsaulus* 1893-1894, 1918-1921 

Emil G. Hirsch* 1893-1894 

Charles L. Hutchinson* 1893-1894 

John A. Roche* 1893-1894 

Edwin Walker* 1893-1910 

Watson F. Blair* 1894-1928 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1894-1919 

Huntington W. Jackson* 1894-1900 

Arthur B. Jones* 1894-1927 

George Manierre* 1894-1924 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1910 

Norman Williams* 1894-1899 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1899-1905 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1902-1921 

George F. Porter* 1907-1916 

John Barton Payne 1910-1911 

Chauncey Keep* 1915-1929 

Henry Field* 1916-1917 

Harry E. Byram 1921-1928 

D. C. Davies* 1922-1928 

Charles H. Markham* 1924-1930 


Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 11 



Edward E. Ayer* 1894-1898 

Harlow N. Higinbotham* 1898-1908 

Second Vice-Presidents 

Norman B. Ream* 1894-1902 

Marshall Field, Jr.* 1902-1905 

Stanley Field 1906-1908 

Watson F. Blair* 1909-1928 

Third Vice-Presidents 

Albert A. Sprague 1921-1928 


Ralph Metcalf 1894 

George Manierre* 1894-1907 

Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1907-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 


Byron L. Smith* 1894-1914 


Frederick J. V. Skiff* 1893-1921 

D. C. Davies* 1921-1928 


12 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 


Stephen C. Simms 


Berth OLD Laufer, Curator 

A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate in American Archaeology 


Albert B. Lewis, Melanesian Ethnology 

J. Eric Thompson, Central and South American Archaeology 

Paul S. Martin, North American Archaeology 

W. D. HAiiBLY, African Ethnology 

Henry Field, Physical Anthropology 

T. George Allen, Egyptian Archaeology 

John G. Prasuhn, Modeler 


B. E. Dahlgren, Acting Curator 

Paul C. Standley, Associate Curator of th^ Herbarium 

J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator of Taxonomy 

James B. McNair, Assistant Curator of Economic Botany 

SAMUE3L J. Record, Research Associate in Wood Technology 

Llewelyn Williams, Assistant in Wood Technology 

Carl Neuberth, Custodian of the Herbarium 


Oliver C. Farrington, Curator 

Henry W. Nichols, Associate Curator 

Elmer S. Riggs, Associate Curator of Paleontology 

Sharat K. Roy, Assistant Curator of Invertebrate Paleontology 

Bryan Patterson, Assistant in Paleontology 


Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator 

William J. Gerhard, Associate Curator of Insects 

C. E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator of Birds 

H. B. Conover, Associate in Ornithology 

assistant curators 

R. Magoon Barnes, Birds' Eggs Edmond N. Gueret, Vertebrate Skeletons 
Karl P. Schmidt, Reptiles Colin C. Sanborn, Mammals 

Alfred C. Weed, Fishes Rudyerd Boulton, Birds 

*Walter a. Weber, Assistani and Artist 
Dwight Davis, Assistant in Osteology 
Emil Liljeblad, Assistant in Entomology 


Julius Friesser C. J. Albrecht 

L. L. Pray Leon L. Walters 

Arthur G. Rueckert Ashley Hine 


Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 13 

department of the n. w. harris public school extension 

Cleveland P. Grant, Acting Curator 
A. B. WOLCOTT, Assistant Curator 


Emily M. Wilcoxson, Librarian 

Mary W. Baker, Assistant Librarian 


Henry F. Ditzel Benjamin Bridge 

Clifford C. Gregg 


Elsie H. Thomas 

J. L. Jones 


Margaret M. Cornell, Chief 
Franklin C. Potter June Work 

Miriam Wood Gordon S. Pearsall 

H. B. Harte, in charge 

Pearle Bilinske, in charge 


Dewey S. Dill, in charge 

Lillian A. Ross, Editor 

C. H. Carpenter, Photographer Carl F. Gronemann, Artist 

A. A. Miller, Photogravurist 

Anna Reginalda Bolan, in charge 

Charles A. Corwin 

John E. Glynn 


W. H. Corning 

William E. Lake, Assistant Engineer 



To the Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History: 

I have the honor to present a report of the operations of the 
Museum for the year ending December 31, 1931. 

The most impressive and gratifying fact about the year just 
closed is that the increase in attendance which has been noted 
annually for several years continued, bringing the total number of 
visitors for the twelve months to 1,515,540, a number exceeding by 
far any previous record in the history of the institution. This was 
the fifth consecutive year in which the number of visitors exceeded 
one million. The increase over the 1930 total of 1,332,799 is 182,741, 
or approximately 13.5 per cent, and compares with a gain of 164,369 
made in 1930 over the preceding year. 

While the total attendance increased so notably, the paid admis- 
sions decreased from 160,924 in 1930 to 126,209 in 1931, a develop- 
ment which undoubtedly may be largely attributed to the depressed 
economic conditions which have prevailed during the past year. The 
attendance on free days totaled 1,302,508, while the free admissions 
on pay days due to the special privileges granted Members, children, 
teachers, students, etc., numbered 86,823. Thus the total of free 
admissions in 1931 was 1,389,331, or considerably more than the 
total of free and paid admissions together in 1930. It is estimated 
that more than one-third of the total number of visitors were children. 

The highest attendance for any single day during 1931 was on 
May 21, when 51,917 visitors were received. This vast number of 
people came to the Museum as a result of the fact that Grant Park 
was thronged that day with spectators viewing the United States 
Army Air Corps parade on the lake front. This attendance was 
exceeded on only two previous days in the Museum's history — 
June 20, 1926, when 54,024 visitors were received, and May 24, 1929, 
when the number of visitors was 59,843. On both of these occasions 
also there were special attractions in Grant Park which drew large 

A second unusually large day during 1931 was Sunday, September 
6, when 30,068 persons visited the Museum, and in a sense this 
attendance is even more gratifying than those of the other big days, 
because there were no special events drawing the people to Grant 
Park on this day. 


16 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

In addition to the visitors received at the Museum, several 
hundred thousand children have been reached by the institution's 
educational influence as extended in extra-mural work carried on 
in the public schools and elsewhere by two units of the Museum 
organization. These are the James Nelson and Anna Louise Ray- 
mond Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures which, 
in addition to providing programs and tours at the Museum itself 
for 76,342, reached 227,351 school pupils through lecturers sent out 
to address them in their class rooms and assembly halls; and the 
Department of the N. W. Harris Public School Extension, which, by 
means of traveling exhibition cases displayed in all the public and 
many other schools, with changes of subjects every two weeks, 
reached approximately 500,000 children over and over again during 
the school year. Thus, including both the general attendance (i.e., 
adults as well as children) at the Museum, and the children reached 
by the institution's outside activities, the Museum's educational 
influence reached directly more than 2,240,000 individuals. 

It should be considered further that by various other means, such 
as the circulation of the publications of the Museum, reports in the 
newspapers, radio broadcasting, motion picture newsreels, etc., there 
is reached a still wider pubUc on the number of which no calculation 
is possible, but which without question is of very large extent, run- 
ning into millions. 

The second day of May in 1931 marked the tenth anniversary 
of the occupation of the Museum's present building. The foresight 
in choosing the present site, which is almost equally convenient from 
all sides of the city, has been proved during this time by the attend- 
ance figures. During the more than twenty-five years of occupancy 
of the old Jackson Park building the total number of visitors to the 
Museum was 5,839,579, while in the ten years from the opening of 
the new building on May 2, 1921, to May 1, 1931, the total was 

At the request of the committee in charge of the Chicago Jubilee 
held May 11-20, Field Museum participated by remaining open in 
the evening from 6 P.M. to 10 P.M. on May 12. Although the day 
was one when admission normally is charged, during the evening 
hours the public was admitted free. There were 452 visitors during 
these hours. 

The name of Mrs. E. Marshall Field was added in 1931 to the 
list of the Museum's Benefactors, as a result of her continued gener- 
ous gifts to the institution, now totaling $100,000. 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. IX, Plate II 

A Trustee of the Museum from 1908 to 1912 and from 1921 until his death on November 7, 1931 





^t -' 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 17 

In recognition of his services to the Museum as Director of the 
Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia 
(Kish), and the fruitful researches he has conducted in connection 
with this work, Professor Stephen Langdon of Oxford University was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the Museum. Dr. Ludwig 
Diels, Director of the Botanical Garden and Museum of Berlin- 
Dahlem, was also elected a Corresponding Member in recognition 
of the noteworthy cooperation he has extended to Field Museum in 
the work of the Department of Botany, especially in its activities 
abroad conducted under the provisions of the Rockefeller Foundation 
fund for obtaining photographs of type specimens of plants. 

Five names were added to the list of Contributors to the Museum. 
Mr. Frank P. Hixon became a Contributor as a result of gifts totaling 
$1,000 in cash; Dr. Robert Van Valzah through a gift of $1,000 in 
cash; R. Bensabott, Inc., as a result of gifts of material valued at 
$1,200; Mr. Charles E. Raymond as a result of a gift of material 
valued at $1,000; and Mr. Alfred T. Martin through a bequest of 
$1,000 in cash. 

The following persons were elected in 1931 as Life Members of 
the Museum: Mr. Max Epstein, Mr. Walter S. Carr, Mr. Scott S. 
Durand, and Mr. Newton Camp Farr. 

Mr. Harold J. Coolidge, Jr., of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and 
Mr. W. C. Stephens of Chula Vista, California, were elected Non- 
Resident Life Members. 

A list of Members in all classes will be found at the end of this 
Report (p. 226). 

It is with deepest regret that there must be recorded here the 
death of Mr. Richard T. Crane, Jr., who had rendered the Museum 
incalculable services both as a Trustee and as a Benefactor. Mr. 
Crane had not only given unsparingly of his time and efforts to the 
work of the Museum, but he was also the donor of gifts to the institu- 
tion totaling more than $100,000 in value. In addition to being a 
Trustee and Benefactor, he was an Honorary Member, a Corporate 
Member, and a Life Member. What Mr. Crane stood for, and what 
he represented to the Museum, is expressed in the following resolu- 
tion in tribute to his memory, adopted by his fellow Trustees on 
November 16: 

"With profound sorrow and a keenly felt sense of great loss, the 
Board of Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History records the 
death, on November 7, 1931, of Richard T. Crane, Jr., long one of 
the most active of its members. Great homage is due this man who 

18 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

in the fifty-eight years of his life had become an outstanding leader 
in both industrial and civic affairs. Endowed with capacities which 
made him a brilliant success, he was well-known also for his sym- 
pathetic interest in the welfare of all who were engaged in the enter- 
prises he directed, and for his contributions to the welfare of the 
community as a whole. There was a charm, a gentleness, and sim- 
plicity about him, and a complete lack of affectation, which endeared 
him to all with whom he came in contact. The deepest loyalty was 
another quality with which he was imbued, and this was constantly 
manifest in his services to Field Museum, as in his other activities. 

"Mr. Crane served as a Trustee of Field Museum during two 
periods: from 1908 to 1912, and again from 1921 until his death. 
His fellow members of the Board had a high regard for his counsel, 
and he was ever ready to give freely of his time and energy to assist 
in the best solution of all problems presented before the Board. 
That the Museum was at all times close to his heart is evidenced 
not only by his labors for it, but by his many generous gifts to the 
institution, in consequence of which his name will be perpetuated 
among the Benefactors of the Museum. He had also been elected 
an Honorary Member of the Museum, in recognition of other 
eminent services. 

"Therefore, be it resolved that this expression of our admiration 
and esteem for Mr. Crane, and our grief at his passing from our 
midst, be permanently preserved on the records of the Board. 

"And be it further resolved that our deep sympathy be conveyed 
to the members of his family in their bereavement, and that a copy 
of this resolution be sent to his widow." 

Because of business demands upon his time, Mr. William 
Wrigley, Jr., resigned from the Board of Trustees at the close of 
the year. He continued his connection with the Museum, however, 
as a Corporate Member and a Life Member. 

At the meeting of the Board on December 21, Mr. John P. 
Wilson and Mr. Sewell L. Avery were placed in nomination to fill 
the vacancies caused by the death of Trustee Crane and the resigna- 
tion of Trustee Wrigley. Final action on these nominations was 
scheduled for the Annual Meeting and election to be held on 
January 18, 1932. 

There were completed during 1931 a great number of new exhibits, 
some of which rank among the most important in the institution. 
In addition, noteworthy progress was made with the reinstallation 
of older exhibits in many halls. These new and reinstalled exhibits, 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 19 

which reached a total of 237, are reported upon in detail under the 
heading Installations and Rearrangements (p. 143). A general 
idea of their scope may be obtained from the following brief notes: 

The most unusual and imposing new exhibit is the restoration 
of a scene in a swamp forest of the Coal age, some 250,000,000 
years ago, vividly represented in all its luxuriance, and in natural 
size. This was installed in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). This 
group (see Plates IV, V, IX, and XIII), twenty-eight feet wide, fifteen 
feet deep, and nineteen feet high, probably represents the first 
serious effort to reconstruct in three-dimensional form a whole assem- 
blage of plants of Carboniferous time. A vast amount of intensive 
research, and three years of exacting labor in the Stanley Field 
Plant Reproduction Laboratories of the Museum, were necessary 
to produce this group. The exhibit was planned, and its construc- 
tion supervised, by Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, Acting Curator of Botany. 

Another striking new installation in Graham Hall is a life size 
restoration of titanotheres — gigantic extinct animals of North 
America which resembled rhinoceroses in general appearance, but 
were almost as tall as elephants (see Plate X). The group consists 
of an adult male and female, and one young titanothere. It is the 
work of Mr. Frederick A. Blaschke, sculptor of Cold Spring-on- 
Hudson, New York, and results from the generous fund for groups 
and mural paintings in this hall provided by Mr. Ernest R. Graham. 

The new hall of Chinese jades (Hall 30) was opened during the 
year. This hall contains one of the world's finest and most compre- 
hensive collections of jade objects, ranging from the archaic periods 
down to the end of the eighteenth century. There are more than 
1,200 pieces, carved in a great variety of forms, in the exhibit, and 
they have an aggregate value of several hundred thousand dollars. 
The collection is annotated with informative labels prepared by 
Dr. Berthold Laufer, Curator of Anthropology, and one of the most 
eminent authorities on the subject. The foundation of this collec- 
tion was laid by the Blackstone Expedition to China, 1908-10, 
under the leadership of Curator Laufer. Many additions were made 
during a subsequent expedition in 1923, known as the Marshall 
Field Expedition to China, also led by Dr. Laufer. In 1927 the 
Bahr collection of Chinese jades was acquired by the Museum 
with a fund contributed jointly by Mrs. George T. Smith, Mrs. 
John J. Borland, Miss Kate S. Buckingham, and Messrs. Martin 
A. Ryerson, Julius Rosen wald. Otto C. Doering, and Martin C. 
Schwab. Other objects were presented by individuals and corpora- 

20 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

tions, chiefly Mr. John J. Abbott, American Friends of China, R. 
Bensabott, Inc., Mr. Richard T. Crane, Jr. (deceased), Dr. I. W. 
Drummond, Mr. Fritz von Frantzius (deceased), Mr. Charles B. 
Goodspeed, Mr. H. N. Higinbotham (deceased), Mr. Linus Long, 
Mr. J. A. L. Moeller, Mrs. William H. Moore, and Mrs. George 
T. Smith. 

A full size reproduction of a grave of the prehistoric mound- 
builders of Illinois (see Plate III), with an actual skeleton and various 
artifacts brought from the original mound near Lewistown in Fulton 
County, was installed in Mary D. Sturges Hall (Hall 3). In the 
exhibit the mound is shown with the earth partly cut away so as 
to reveal its interior with the skeleton and artifacts exposed. 

Four fine new groups of animals were added to the series in the 
Hall of American Mammal Habitat Groups (Hall 16). These bring 
the total number of such groups to twenty-one, and only one more 
group remains to be installed to complete the hall. The groups 
installed during 1931 are one of South American guanacos; one of 
South American tapirs (see Plate VI); one of South American 
anteaters; and one of mountain lions, which are found in both North 
and South America. The specimens for the three South American 
groups were obtained by the Marshall Field South American Expedi- 
tions. They were the work of Taxidermist Julius Friesser, while 
the mountain lion group was prepared by Taxidermist L. L. Pray. 
Backgrounds for all four were painted by Staff Artist C. A. Corwin. 

A reproduction in cellulose-acetate of a twenty-six foot retic- 
ulated python of the East Indies has been placed on exhibition in 
Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18). The reproduction (see Plate XV), 
which shows the reptile coiled around a clutch of eighty-two eggs, 
is the work of Taxidermist Leon L. Walters. The original specimen 
was secured in Sumatra by the Philip M. Chancellor-Field Museum 
Expedition to the South Pacific in 1929. 

A collection of several hundred examples of Coptic textiles, and 
another of tombstones and memorial and votive stelae, were installed 
in the hall devoted to Egyptian archaeology (Hall J). All phases 
of textile making and decorative design of the Coptic period in 
Egypt (first centuries of the Christian era) are represented in the 
first of these exhibits, which is one of the two largest collections of 
its kind in the country. The tombstones and tablets represent various 
epochs from 2200 B.C. down to the Christian era. 

A miniature of a village which shows the dwellings and illus- 
trates the varied activities of the Menangkabau, a Malayan tribe 






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Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 21 

of the Padang Highlands of Sumatra, was completed and placed on 
exhibition in Hall G (see Plate VIII). Modeler John G. Prasuhn 
prepared this exhibit in accordance with data collected by a Museum 
expedition of several years ago. 

Skeletons of two South American ground sloths of the Pleistocene 
age (one to one and one-half million years ago), mounted in positions 
characteristic of their habits in life (see Plate XVIII), have been 
placed on exhibition in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). The 
specimens were collected by the Marshall Field Paleontological 
Expedition which spent some months in Argentina and Bolivia 
several years ago. 

Several excellent celluloid reproductions of unusual fishes were 
installed in Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18). Among these are the 
pelican flounder, winter flounder, frostfish, wolf herring, scorpion 
fish (see Plate XIX), and poison fish. The reproductions are the 
work of Taxidermist Arthur G. Rueckert. 

In Hall 15, containing the systematic series of mammals, there 
was installed a new exhibit of monkeys from various parts of Africa, 
Asia, and the East Indies, including a number of specimens obtained 
by recent expeditions. Of unusual interest is an excellent specimen 
of the rare golden (or snub-nosed) monkey which was secured by 
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and Mr. Kermit Roosevelt while leading 
the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to Eastern Asia for 
Field Museum. The C. Suydam Cutting Expedition to Sikkim, 
the Harold White- John Coats African Expedition, the Field Mu- 
seum-Chicago Daily News Abyssinian Expedition, and the Cornelius 
Crane Pacific Expedition all contributed specimens to this exhibit. 
The animals were prepared for exhibition by Taxidermist Rueckert. 

A new exhibit in Hall 34 of the Department of Geology shows 
the eight principal gases which occur as elements in the atmosphere. 
The gases are in separate glass tubes, and are made visible by passing 
an electric current through them, thus producing the characteristic 
spectrum of each. 

The exhibits of North American birds in Hall 21 were augmented 
by a case containing 145 specimens of a great variety of species, 
and one side of a screen of swans and geese (see Plate XI). 

A splendid skull of the great woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta anti- 
quitatis, acquired by the Museum from the Royal Museum of 
Brussels, Belgium, was placed on exhibition in Ernest R. Graham 
Hall (Hall 38). 

22 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

An exhibit of the principal materials used in basket making, and 
another of dyes and tannins, were added to the economic botany 
collections in Hall 28. 

Four remarkable gold earrings from ancient Kish, obtained by 
the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Mesopo- 
tamia, were added to the exhibit of Kish antiquities in Stanley 
Field Hall. 

A collection of two dozen planks representing the principal species 
of woods of economic importance which are obtained from the 
Amazon valley, was placed on exhibition in the Hall of Foreign Woods 
(Hall 27). These were collected by the Marshall Field Botanical 
Expedition to the Amazon. 

An exhibit illustrating a quick method of testing minerals for 
radium as well as showing the relative radioactivity of different 
mineral species was arranged in Hall 34 by the Curator of Geology, 
Dr. Oliver C. Farrington. All the principal minerals which are 
used as commercial sources of radium are included. 

Among the reinstallations or other changes made in the various 
exhibition halls of the Museum, to bring about desired improvements 
which may be mentioned as especially noteworthy are those in Hall J 
devoted to Egyptian archaeology, where reinstallation work has been 
in progress several years and was completed in 1931; Hall 20, in 
which the eighteen habitat groups of birds were completely rearranged 
so as to display them to better advantage and make a much more 
attractive hall; Mary D. Sturges Hall (Hall 3), in which the North 
American archaeological exhibits were reinstalled and augmented 
by the addition of much important new material; Charles F. Mills- 
paugh Hall (Hall 26), in which the comprehensive reinstallation 
of the North American wood collections as planned several years 
ago by Professor Samuel J. Record of Yale University School of 
Forestry (who is also the Museum's Research Associate in Wood 
Technology) was nearly completed; the collection of models of 
Chinese pagodas, which was reinstalled and relabeled in the South 
Gallery; an exhibit of skeletons of carnivorous mammals, which was 
reinstalled on a light-colored screen, in accordance with a new and 
improved method of display, in Hall 19, devoted to osteology; James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Hall (Hall 4), in which three 
cases of Naskapi material were installed, and Hall 10, in which five 
cases of Northwest Coast Indian material were reinstalled; the case 
in Stanley Field Hall illustrating the evolution of the horse, to which 
was added a model of the race horse "Man o' War" and in which 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 23 

general improvements were made; a case in Frederick J. V. Skiff 
Hall (Hall 37) devoted to ores, which was revised to afford an 
interesting comparison of the amount of iron obtained from quantities 
of iron ore on exhibition; and the reinstallation of forty-four other 
cases in Skiff Hall, and forty-one cases in Ernest R. Graham Hall 
(Hall 38). These are but a few of the many reinstallations made. 

Structural work on eight large built-in cases for groups in the 
Hall of Prehistoric Man (Hall C), begun late in the year 1930, was 
completed in 1931. 

As a result of the removal of many duplicate anthropological 
specimens from exhibition during the past few years, many standard 
cases have been made available for new exhibition material. It 
has also been possible to convert some of these cases into new or 
special types of cases more suitable for some kinds of installations. 
This procedure has resulted in a large saving in expenditures for 
additional cases, and it will be continued wherever practicable. 

Including parties engaged in local field work in near-by collecting 
grounds, the Museum had sixteen expeditions in operation during 

1931. In addition to these, the institution benefited by receiving 
a number of excellent zoological specimens as the result of a hunting 
trip in Persia, made by Mr. James E. Baum, Jr., of Lake Forest, 

In general, due to the financial situation existing during the year, 
and also to the necessity of slowing down field work in order to 
complete work on material accumulated by the unprecedented 
expeditionary activities of the several preceding years, most of the 
expeditions of 1931 were on a smaller scale than in the recent past. 
Of the sixteen expeditions, eleven were in foreign countries, three 
in the western United States, one close to Chicago, and one in Maine. 
Full details concerning the work performed and the personnel on 
all the expeditions will be found in the section of this Report under 
the heading Expeditions and Research, beginning on page 62. 
Following is a brief summary of some of the most important 

The ninth season of excavations on the site of the ancient city 
of Kish by the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition 
to Mesopotamia was concluded during the early part of 1931, and 
toward the end of the year the tenth season, which carries on into 

1932, was begun. As in previous years, Mr. Marshall Field gener- 
ously provided the funds for Field Museum's participation in this 
expedition. Professor Stephen Langdon continued as director of 

24 Field Museum op Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

the expedition and conducted research upon the antiquities un- 
earthed, while Mr. L. C. WateUn remained in charge of operations 
in the field. Adding to the remarkable accumulation of archaeo- 
logical collections and historical data from its work of previous 
years, the expedition in 1931 discovered the first well-preserved 
palaces of the Sassanian dynasty (a.d. 226-636) of Persian kings 
ever found. The expedition also brought to light Sumerian royal 
tombs more than 5,500 years old, while in another section of the 
ruins it found jewelry which was probably worn at the court of 
Nebuchadnezzar some 2,500 years ago. 

Mr. C. Suydam Cutting, of New York, organized and wholly 
financed an expedition to Sikkim, India, on behalf of the Museum's 
Department of Zoology. This was the fifth Museum expedition in 
which Mr. Cutting has participated. He personally led the big 
game hunting division of the expedition, and among the outstanding 
specimens in his collections were three of argali or Hodgson's sheep, 
a mountain animal very difficult to obtain. Mr. Herbert Stevens of 
Tring, England, accompanied Mr. Cutting, and remained in the field 
for further collecting after Mr. Cutting's return home. The expedi- 
tion obtained rare animals found only in the highest parts of the 
Himalayas; a specimen of the rare Tibetan water shrew; an excep- 
tionally fine series of monkeys; and large general collections totaling 
about 2,000 specimens, which included mammals, birds, reptiles, 
amphibians, and fishes. Many new and unusual species in the 
collection are of great value for scientific research. 

The Carey-Ryan Expedition to Indo-China resulted in excellent 
specimens of the seladang (gaur ox or Indian bison) and of Indian 
water buffalo, which will be used in the series of Asiatic mammal 
habitat groups in William V. Kelley Hall. This expedition was 
financed by Mr. George F. Ryan of Lutherville, Maryland, who led 
it jointly with Mr. George G. Carey, Jr., of Baltimore. 

As a result of an expedition to central Africa, financed and led 
by Captain Harold A. White of New York and Major John Coats of 
London, the Museum received five specimens of the bongo, one 
of the rarest and handsomest of all antelopes. A gift to the Museum 
of motion and still photographs of living bongos, the first ever made, 
also resulted from the activities of this expedition. 

The Marshall Field Zoological Expedition to China, under the 
leadership of Mr. Floyd T. Smith of New York, continued work 
on its mission of making a comprehensive collection of the fauna 
of western and southern China. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 25 

The Third Marshall Field Archaeological Expedition to British 
Honduras conducted excavations on ancient Maya sites for several 
months. Collections of rare and curious objects, and many scientific 
data on both the ancient and modern Mayas, were brought back 
by Mr. J. Eric Thompson, Assistant Curator of Central and South 
American Archaeology, who was leader. 

Valuable collections, and important discoveries which may change 
a number of archaeological concepts, were made by the Field Museum 
Archaeological Expedition to the Southwest in its second season of 
operations on the Lowry ruin in Colorado. The expedition was 
financed from funds provided by Mr. Julius Rosenwald and the 
late Augusta N. Rosenwald. Dr. Paul S. Martin, Assistant Curator 
of North American Archaeology, was the leader. 

Toward the end of the year an expedition to French Indo-China, 
led by Mr. Jean Delacour, well-known French zoologist, departed 
from Paris to begin operations. Field Museum's participation is 
sponsored by Mr. William V. Kelley. The Museum will receive the 
bulk of the collections, the remainder going to the Paris Museum 
of Natural History and the British Museum (Natural History). 

Still later in the year an expedition was organized and financed 
by Mr. Leon Mandel II of Chicago, to make zoological collections 
along the lower Orinoco River in Venezuela. Mr. Mandel sailed 
from Miami, Florida, on December 29, aboard his yacht Buccaneer 
with a small party including his brother, Mr. Frederick Mandel, 
and Mr. Emmet Blake, zoologist of the University of Pittsburgh 
engaged especially to collect for Field Museum. 

An expedition to Nebraska, sponsored by Mr. Marshall Field, 
collected fossil mammals of Miocene age (19,000,000 to 23,000,000 
years ago). It was under the leadership of Associate Curator of 
Paleontology Elmer S. Riggs, and the personnel included several 
members of the staff of the Department of Geology. 

Miss Malvina Hoffman, the sculptor of international reputation 
who has been commissioned to prepare the life size bronze figures, 
busts and heads of types of the principal races of the world for the 
exhibits to be installed in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall, was engaged 
in research work in Europe during the early part of the year, and in 
Hawaii, Japan and China during the later months. During her 
visits in these countries she modeled Hawaiian, Samoan, Japanese, 
Ainu, and Chinese types. She also collected necessary data which 
will be of use in completing certain of her sculptures in bronze. 
With her work in China finished at the end of the year, Miss Hoffman 

26 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

left for the Philippine Islands, Bali, Java, Sumatra, the Andamans, 
and India, where she will do similar work. By such extended travels 
Miss Hoffman is enabled to select and model directly from life the 
best representative types of the various races, and her efforts are 
meeting with remarkable success. She has already completed a 
number of the figures even through the final stages of the work 
in bronze, and these have been acclaimed by both anthropologists 
and art critics — by the former for their scientific accuracy, and by 
the latter for their beauty. They represent probably the finest 
work of this eminent artist whose previous sculptures had already 
won her a high place in the world of art. It is appropriate here 
to express the Museum's appreciation of the courtesies and valuable 
assistance rendered to Miss Hoffman by anthropologists and govern- 
ment officials of the various countries she has visited. They have 
cooperated wholeheartedly in furnishing necessary data, and in 
helping her to obtain the services as models of natives who best 
illustrate the characteristics of the racial types she is depicting in 
her work. 

Mr. J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator of Taxonomy, 
continued the work of obtaining photographs of type specimens of 
tropical plants of the Americas in European herbaria, in which he 
has been engaged since 1929. This is a project sponsored by the 
Rockefeller Foundation, and conducted by Field Museum, to provide 
botanists with a vast reference collection of such photographs, which 
are of tremendous importance to persons engaged in botanical re- 
search. To date more than 18,000 photographs have been assembled. 

Through the good offices of Mr. Bruce Thome, a vice-president 
of Alaska Guides, Inc., arrangements were made whereby that 
organization obtained for the Museum five specimens of caribou 
for a proposed group to be installed in Hall 16. This was made 
possible through the cooperation of the United States Biological 
Survey which had previously granted the Museum's request for a 
renewed permit for this purpose. The animals were obtained toward 
the end of the year in the Rainy Pass region of Alaska. 

As a result of the Vemay-Lang Kalahari Expedition of 1930, 
the Museum received in 1931 a specimen of the rare giant sable 
antelope of Africa, in size extremely close to the record specimen 
ever taken by any hunters. The horns of the specimen are five 
feet two and one-half inches long, which is only one and one-half 
inches less than the record. This animal is found only in a limited 
area of Angola (Portuguese West Africa). As a result of the same 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 27 

expedition the Museum will receive a large collection, including repre- 
sentatives of practically all the large mammals of South Africa, 
and several thousand specimens of small mammals, birds, reptiles, 
fishes, and invertebrates. The expedition was financed by Mr, 
Arthur S. Vemay of New York and London, and led by him jointly 
with Mr. Herbert Lang of Pretoria, South Africa. 

Under a grant of $3,000 made by Mr. William V. Kelley, which 
contribution was reported in 1930, arrangements were made with 
the Bombay Natural History Society, through Sir Reginald Spence, 
its honorary secretary, whereby the society will furnish its services 
in procuring accessory material, notes, photographs, etc., necessary 
for the construction of eight proposed habitat groups of Asiatic 
mammals in William V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17). 

The general economic depression from which the world has been 
suffering has naturally had an effect upon the Museum finances. 
The difficulties thus presented have been met as far as possible by 
curtailing certain activities to some extent, and by effecting more 
than usual economies wherever it has been found practicable. The 
Museum's expeditions and field activities especially have been 
reduced in size and extent because of these conditions, and it is 
expected that this type of work will be kept at a minimum also 
during the ensuing year. It has been necessary also to cut down 
somewhat the working force of the Museum. 

Although the total expenditures for the year 1931, amounting 
to $841,740.85, were $58,479.95 less than the expenditures in the 
year 1930, there was a deficit of $7,211.39, which, added to notes 
payable on account of money borrowed for previous years' deficits, 
brought the notes payable at the close of the year to a total of 

The Museum received various benefactions, both in money and 
material, for which expressions of gratitude are herewith renewed. 
Acknowledgments of gifts of funds follow: 

Mr. Marshall Field contributed $150,000 for use in meeting part 
of the operating expenses of the Museum during 1931. 

President Stanley Field contributed a total of $120,476.47. This 
amount represents four different contributions, distributed as 
follows: $91,099.44, towards liquidation of the building fund deficit; 
$1,000, which the Museum turned over as a gift to the International 
Office for the Protection of Nature, at Brussels, Belgium; $16,177.03, 
to cover the operating expenses of the Stanley Field Plant Repro- 
duction Laboratories of the Museum during 1931; and $12,200, to 

28 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

cover the cost of twenty-one less than life size and two larger than 
life size figures in bronze of various racial types of the world, made 
by the sculptor, Miss Malvina Hoffman. The bronzes are reproduc- 
tions of some of the life size sculptures Miss Hoffman is making for 
Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall, and are not included in the con- 
tract for that work for which funds were provided by the late Mr. 
Chauncey Keep, Mr. Marshall Field, and Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe. 

A gift of $50,000 was received from Mrs. E. Marshall Field, 
representing her annual contribution. 

Mrs. James Nelson Raymond made two contributions, one of 
$2,500 and another of $1,000, toward the operating expenses of the 
James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public 
School and Children's Lectures, which was established by her in 1925. 

Mr. Frederick H. Rawson contributed $5,000 for use in connection 
with the projected Hall of Prehistoric Man. 

The Rockefeller Foundation made a further grant of $5,000 for 
continuing the work of photographing type specimens of plants. 
This was the third and final payment in a series totaling $15,000. 

Contributions totaling $3,252.30 were made by Mr. C. Suydam 
Cutting for payment of the salary and expenses of a collector em- 
ployed in connection with the C. Suydam Cutting Expedition to 
Sikkim, India, conducted for Field Museum. 

Dr. Robert Van Valzah contributed $1,000 to the Field Museum- 
Oxford University Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia. 

Contributions totaling $750 were made by Mr. Henry J. Patten, 
also for use in connection with the Kish expedition. 

From the American Friends of China, Chicago, the sum of $625 
was received for the purchase of material for addition to the Mu- 
seum's Chinese collections. 

Mr. Frank P. Hixon made a contribution of $250. 

Mr. Joseph Simons contributed $250 towards the expense of 
sending Taxidermist Ashley Hine to southern California to make a 
collection of the birds of that region. 

Mr. William J. Chalmers contributed $67.75 for the purchase of 
additional specimens for the crystal collection. 

The South Park Commissioners turned over to the Museum 
$167,360.43, representing the amount due the Museum under the 
tax levy for this purpose authorized by the state legislatiire. 

Many gifts of valuable material for the collections in the various 
Departments of the Museum have been received in 1931. Gifts of 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. IX, Plate IV 


Ernest R. Graham Hall (HaU 38) 

A primitive conifer, Cordaites, a long extinct type of gymnosperm of the Pennsylvanian 

period, reconstructed in Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories, 

Department of Botany of the Museum 


iJ»iiyEr.:!Ty of illijjois 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 29 

this kind, continuing as they do year after year, are very gratifying 
not only because of the enrichment of the collections, but also because 
of the indication they give of a great and active interest which is 
being taken by friends of the Museum in the development and 
improvement of the institution. Details of the acquisitions of the 
year are given in the departmental sections of this Report under 
the heading Accessions (p. 104), and in the List of Accessions 
beginning on page 190. 

Special mention seems due here in regard to certain outstanding 
gifts of material : 

With the delivery in 1931 of the five final canvases in the series 
of twenty-eight murals representing the life and scenery of pre- 
historic ages, presented by Mr. Ernest R. Graham, one of the largest 
and most remarkable gifts ever received by the Museum was com- 
pleted. These paintings by Mr. Charles R. Knight, an artist who 
probably has no peer in his specialty of depicting animals of the past, 
are now to be seen on the walls of Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). 
They are of dimensions making possible the presentation of their 
subjects vividly and strikingly, one-half of them being twenty-five 
by nine feet in size, and the others eleven by nine. They have been 
much praised as works of art, but in addition, and more important 
from Field Museum's standpoint, they incorporate the most recent 
and accurate scientific knowledge of their subjects, as agreed upon 
by leading authorities. 

Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Field gave the Museum four specimens 
of lions. These are the animals they shot during their African hunt 
in 1930 (Annual Report of the Director for 1930, p. 288), and the 
specimens are to be used in the preparation of a habitat group 
which has long been desired for addition to the Museum's African 
mammal exhibits. Mr. and Mrs. Field presented the Museum also 
with several thousand feet of excellent motion picture films which 
they made of life in the African wilds. 

Shortly before he died, the late Mr. Richard T. Crane, Jr., pre- 
sented to the Museum two remarkable and unusually valuable gem 
specimens. One of these is a flawless cut ruby topaz, weighing 97.55 
carats. It is about one and one-quarter by seven-eighths inches in 
size, and is believed to be the finest example ever produced of rose 
or Brazilian ruby. The other stone is a plaque of black Australian 
opal weighing 148 carats, with a polished surface two by one and 
one-half inches, in which are blended tints of the rarest and most 
desirable type, which change according to the angle from which it 

30 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

is inspected. Both of these gems have been added to the exhibits 
in Harlow N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31). 

Two bricks of silver, historically as well as intrinsically valuable, 
were presented by Mr. William J. Chalmers. One of these was made 
in 1878 by the first water-jacket furnace at Leadville, Colorado, and 
the other was made from ore brought from some of the first silver 
mines operated in Montana. Mr. Chalmers also gave the Museum 
material for addition to the crystal collection, and a number of 
desirable mineral specimens. 

Mr. Frederick Blaschke, the sculptor, of Cold Spring-on-Hudson, 
New York, was the donor of a beautiful model of "Man o' War," 
famous race horse, which he made from life. This has been added 
to the exhibit in Stanley Field Hall illustrating the evolution of the 

Among other gifts received for the collections of the Department 
of Geology are a series of very rare metal specimens presented by 
Mr. Herbert C. Walther of Chicago; a collection of Arkansas minerals 
given by Mr. Frank von Drasek of Cicero, Illinois; a collection of 
remarkable cave photographs contributed by Mr. Russell T. Neville 
of Kewanee, Illinois; a remarkable series of 301 fulgurites or "Ughtning 
tubes" received from Mr. E. A. Mueller of Chicago; and a fossil 
skull and jaw of the so-called four-tusked mastodon, Trilophodon, 
presented by Messrs. Roy Muhr of Redington, Nebraska, and Anton 
C. G. Kaempfer of Bridgeport, Nebraska. 

An important gift was received from Dr. Don F. Dickson of 
Lewistown, Illinois, consisting of material from the Indian mounds 
which he has excavated in the vicinity of Lewistown. Included 
are a complete Indian skeleton, two skulls, and twenty-six speci- 
mens of pottery, flint implements and shell ornaments. This material 
was used in preparation of the exhibit of a mound-builder's grave 
(see Plate III). 

Some valuable additions to the Chinese jade collection were 
made by the firm of R. Bensabott, Inc., of Chicago, which presented 
a beautifully decorated square green jade box, and by Mr. Linus 
Long, who gave two ceremonial jade axes. 

Two specimens of red deer from Scotland were received from 
Viscount Fumess of Invernesshire, Scotland. 

Mr. James E. Baum, Jr., of Lake Forest, Illinois, presented six 
specimens of the Persian wild ass and two of Persian wild goat to 
the Museum. These specimens resulted from a recent hunting trip 
which he made in Persia. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 31 

Mr. Arthur S. Vemay of New York gave the Museum a valuable 
collection of ethnological material representing the Bushmen of 
Africa, who are probably the most primitive people in existence 
today. The objects in this collection were obtained by Mr. Vernay 
while he was leading the Vemay-Lang Kalahari Expedition for 
Field Museum in 1930. 

Mr. C. Suydam Cutting of New York presented three specimens 
of the argali or Hodgson's sheep, a mountain animal which is very 
difficult to obtain. He secured these on his expedition to Sikkim, 
India, mentioned elsewhere. 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward W. Everett of Hinsdale, Illinois, presented 
a rare Chinese painting, done on silk, of a school of carp. This is 
an exquisite example of Chinese art. It is thirty-two by sixty-six 
inches in dimensions. 

President Stanley Field presented anthropological books valued 
at $157 to the Museum Library. 

Shortly before his death the late Mr. Robert H. Everard of 
Arusha, Africa (formerly of Detroit, Michigan) presented the Mu- 
seum with a specimen of scaly anteater obtained in Tanganyika 
Territory, Africa. 

Mr. A. A. Dunbar Brander of Elgin, Scotland, gave the Museum 
nineteen specimens of birds of the English countryside. Among 
other important gifts of zoological material are a collection of 345 
salamanders of Tennessee received from Mr. D. C. Lowrie of the 
University of Chicago; 173 reptiles and amphibians of Texas from 
Dr. C. E. Burt of Winfield, Kansas; a Florida tarpon from Mr. C. 
Irving Wright of Pirates' Cove Fishing Camp, Florida; five Japanese 
toads from Dr. K. K. Chen of Indianapolis, Indiana; two cave sala- 
manders from Dr. Karl Absolon of Briinn, Czechoslovakia; fifty 
Tennessee reptiles and amphibians from Mr. A. S. Windsor of 
Chicago; a giant snapping turtle from Mr. G. M. Stevens of Mar- 
cella, Arkansas; twenty-one frogs from Major Chapman Grant of 
San Juan, Porto Rico; and a specimen of capercaillie from Count 
Degenhard Wurmbrand of Vienna, Austria. 

Among important contributions to the collections of the Depart- 
ment of Botany are eight boards of African and Mexican mahogany 
and teak given by Mr. T. R. Williams of New York; twenty veneered 
panels of foreign woods and ninety-six other foreign wood specimens 
presented jointly by J. H. Smith Veneers, Inc., and Schick-Johnson 
of Chicago; a board of ipil wood from Mr. Ralph A. Bond of Chicago; 
8,925 negatives of type specimens of tropical American plants 

32 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

in European herbaria obtained by Assistant Curator J. Francis 
Macbride under a grant of funds from the Rockefeller Foundation, 
New York; the trunk of a rubber tree presented by Mr. Paul Van 
Cleef and the Wilkinson Rubber Process Company of Chicago; 
twenty samples of tobacco from John H. Meyer and Son of Chicago; 
353 specimens of plants from Alberta and Colorado given by the 
Department of Botany of the University of Chicago; twenty-eight 
specimens of fiber plants received from the Companhia Ford Indus- 
trial do Brasil, of Para, Brazil; and 100 specimens of trees and 
shrubs of tropical America from the School of Forestry of Yale 

The collections of the various Departments of the Museum were 
augmented also by accessions obtained through Museum expeditions, 
purchases, and through exchange with other institutions. Details 
of these will be found in the section of this Report devoted to Acces- 
sions (p. 104), and the List of Accessions (p. 190). 

Among the most notable of such acquisitions in the Department 
of Anthropology are the following: a collection of Eskimo archaeo- 
logical material from the Bering Strait region, acquired by the 
Museum through an exchange with the United States National 
Museum at Washington, D.C.; a skeleton of a man who lived 
7,000 to 10,000 years ago in what is now Hungary (this is the only 
practically complete human skeleton representing this period of 
neolithic culture which has reached the United States and is there- 
fore of great scientific importance), acquired by purchase; a collec- 
tion of flint implements approximately 1,000,000 years old, repre- 
senting the earliest definitely determined handiwork of prehistoric 
man yet discovered anywhere in the world, obtained as a result of 
excavations conducted for the Museum near Ipswich, England, by 
Mr. J. Reid Moir of that locality; and an important collection of 
fifty-four specimens of ancient Brazilian pottery, probably dating 
back to about a.d. 1200, obtained through an exchange with the 
Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

The Department of Botany received 1,098 specimens of plants 
from Mexico and Sumatra by exchange with the Department of 
Botany of the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor; and 1,336 
herbarium specimens of plants chiefly from Brazil and Cuba, by 
exchange with the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden. 
A collection of 964 herbarium specimens of Paraguayan plants was 
purchased from Mr. Pedro Jorgensen, of Villarica, Paraguay. 





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Jan. 1932 Annual Report op the Director 33 

Important accessions received by the Department of Geology 
by exchange included one complete skeleton each of extinct horse, 
bison, ground sloth and carnivore from the so-called "tar beds" of 
Los Angeles, California, received from the Los Angeles Museum of 
History, Science and Art; a complete and well-preserved skull and 
jaws of the woolly rhinoceros which ranged in Europe during the 
glacial period, from the Royal Natural History Museum at Brussels, 
Belgium; three species of Cambrian trilobites from the British 
Museum (Natural History), London; a specimen of the Olmedilla 
(Spain) meteorite from Mr. C. Wendler, Geneva, Switzerland; and an 
etched section of the Tacubaya (Mexico) meteorite from Professor 
H. H. Nininger of Denver. Specimens of two other meteorites from 
Brule, Nebraska, and Adams County, Colorado, were received 
partly by exchange and partly by purchase. There were also received 
by exchange from Mr. H. G. Clinton of Manhattan, Nevada, 
twenty-one specimens of rare aluminum phosphates and associated 
minerals; from Mr. Joseph Linneman of Buffalo, New York, thirteen 
specimens of various rare minerals; and from Mr. Joseph Bianchi of 
Paterson, New Jersey, a fine specimen of the newly described silicate, 
norbergite, with associated minerals. Important purchases included 
the complete fall of the Breece (New Mexico) meteorite, weighing 
115 pounds; a representative specimen of the Newport (Arkansas) 
ironstone meteorite; two skulls and jaws, and other skeletal parts, 
of the rare fossil ungulate, Protitanotherium, giving the Museum 
the best representation known of this important genus; a head of the 
great fossil fish, Portheus; a horn, three and one-half feet in length, 
of the fossil bison, Bison regius, an extinct species remarkable for 
the great length of its horns; six specimens of beautifully preserved 
crinoids and starfish from Bundenbach, Germany; and a set of the 
eight principal gases of the atmosphere. 

The Department of Zoology received 708 selected zoological 
specimens by various exchanges, mainly from the following institu- 
tions: British Museum (Natural History), London; Cincinnati 
Society of Natural History; Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts; New York University; and Senckenberg 
Museum, Frankfort-on-the-Main. 

Through a most gracious and generous act on the part of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ownership of a cut leather 
ceremonial corselet of a priest of ancient Thebes was assigned to 
Field Museum. This valuable archaeological specimen, which is 
one of the only two known examples of this kind of corselet in the 

34 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

world, had been on exhibition in Field Museum's Egyptian collec- 
tions for many years, as a permanent loan from Mr. Theodore M. 
Davis of Newport, Rhode Island. Mr. Davis died in 1931, leaving 
all of his Egyptian collections to the Metropolitan Museum, and 
there was a question as to whether he intended to include this corselet 
in the bequest or not. Agreement was made between the two 
museums to submit the question privately to Judge Julian Mack. 
Judge IMack made a thorough study of all data pertaining to the 
matter, and reported that in his opinion Field Museum had a proper 
claim to the corselet, whereupon the Metropolitan Museum accepted 
his decision and relinquished its claim. 

Field Museimi made a contribution of $300, representing its 
annual payment, to the Institute for Research in Tropical America, 
located on Barro Colorado Island, Gatun Lake, Canal Zone, Panama. 

The Museum turned over to the Century of Progress Exposition 
ten totem poles, one mortuary pole, one Haida Indian house, one 
Eskimo whalebone house, and three carved wooden figures. This 
material will be exhibited during the exposition in 1933. 

Negotiations were instituted between the Consul-General of the 
republic of China at Chicago, Dr. Koliang Yih, and the Museum, 
which are expected to lead to the loan of the Chinese gateway, 
which the Museum formerly had on display in Stanley Field Hall, 
to the Chinese government for use in its exhibit at the Century 
of Progress Exposition. This gateway, a remarkable and artistic 
creation carved from teakwood, was an exhibit at the Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco, and was purchased 
by the Museum at the close of the exposition. 

The work of all Departments and Divisions of the Museum 
showed satisfactory progress during the year. Proper attention 
has been given to the cataloguing, inventorying and labeling of 
thousands of specimens; to the conducting of scientific research 
upon many subjects; to enlargement and improvement of the study 
collections and facilities; and to public service in the form of supply- 
ing information to hundreds of inquirers upon subjects falling within 
the scope of the Museum. Details of these and other routine activi- 
ties appear elsewhere in this Report. 

Gratifying response was made to the annual spring and autumn 
courses of free illustrated lectures on science and travel given for the 
general public in the James Simpson Theatre of the Museum, and 
also to a series of special lectures for Members of the Museum given 
during the winter. The programs of these, and statistics on attend- 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 35 

ance, will be found under the heading Lectures and Entertain- 
ments, beginning on page 47. 

A greater number of children than in any previous year was 
reached by the acti\'ities of the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Ra>Tnond Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures, 
which was established in 1925 by Mrs. James Nelson Raymond. 
The Foundation in 1931 continued all the branches of its work con- 
ducted in former years, such as the sending of extension lecturers 
to the schools to give talks illustrated with lantern slides; the pre- 
sentation of series of free motion pictures and other educational 
entertainments in the James Simpson Theatre during the spring, 
summer and autumn months; the tours of Museum exhibits con- 
ducted by guide-lecturers for groups of visiting children; and other 
activities. There was a notable increase both in the number of 
groups of children receiving these services, and in the total number 
of individuals affected, which aggregated 303,693. This upward 
trend in the number of children reached by Raymond Foundation 
activities has continued year after year since the work was first 
undertaken. There can be no doubt as to its great value as a medium 
of supplementary education which brings to the children of Chicago 
schools both knowledge and pleasure which would not ordinarily 
be available to them in the regular routine of their class rooms. 
The work of the Foundation is highly appreciated by educational 
authorities, school officials, principals and teachers, as well as 
by the children themselves, and many expressions of praise for it 
have been received. It has been particularly gratifying to receive 
such expressions from the children, as their favorable opinion 
indicates that the work is succeeding thoroughly with the ones for 
whom it was planned. It may be mentioned as of especial significance 
that this past year, and in several years preceding, a large number 
of letters have been received from children of the Four-H Clubs 
(an organization for rural young people which brings thousands of 
children annually to Chicago for the International Live Stock 
Exposition and invariably includes Field Museum among the places 
to be visited during their stay in the city) acknowledging with thanks 
the pleasure they have received due to the attentions given them 
by members of the Raymond Foundation staff. 

A notable educational contribution in 1931, in addition to its 
regular activities, was made by the Rajmiond Foundation in coopera- 
tion with Radio Station WMAQ, operated by the Chicago Daily 
News. Each week over a long period an educational lecture for 

36 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

children was given from this radio station by Miss Margaret M. 
Cornell, Chief of the Foundation staff. These lectures were heard 
by the children in the many schools which are equipped with radio 
receiving apparatus, as well as in the homes. Probably several 
hundred thousand composed the audience for each radio lecture. 

The Museum's educational media have been increased by gifts 
from various sources of reels of motion pictures which are excellent 
material for use in the programs of the Raymond Foundation. Still 
other reels available for this use have resulted from Museum expedi- 
tions. During 1931 these were assembled, classified, and filed in 
fireproof containers which meet insurance requirements. The collec- 
tion includes 153 positive reels of motion picture film, and thirty-one 

More detailed accounts of the work of the Raymond Foundation, 
and statistics upon it, will be found in this Report beginning on 
page 48. 

The Department of the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
carried on as usual its work of supplementing the studies in the city 
schools by circulating among them traveling exhibition cases illus- 
trating natural history and economic subjects. These reached, 
as previously stated, approximately 500,000 children, bringing them 
new material every two weeks during the school year. The Harris 
Extension has been in operation since 1912, and, as is generally 
known, its scope is confined principally to illustrating the flora and 
fauna of the Chicago area (defined for this purpose as the region 
within 100 miles of the city limits), and also the products of typical 
industries with the progressive steps occurring in their manufacture. 
Every effort is constantly made to attain as nearly as possible a 
complete representation of these subjects. More than 1,200 exhibi- 
tion cases have been prepared to date. Due to the exigencies of 
transporting these to the schools, and the handling they get by the 
children, a number of these are always necessarily out of circulation 
for repairs, while others are withdrawn from time to time for improve- 
ments or reinstallations. However, in 1931 there were 1,136 cases 
available for circulation. Of these, 343 are devoted to botanical 
subjects (scientific and economic), 170 to geological subjects (scien- 
tific and economic), and 623 to zoological subjects. The zoology 
cases are divided as follows: birds, 319; mammals, 36; reptiles and 
amphibians, 40; fishes, 30; insects, 182; and economic zoology, 16. 
During 1931 the number of schools and other institutions served 
showed an increase, and the number of cases available was augmented 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 37 

by the preparation of many new ones. The service of the Harris 
Extension is highly appreciated by educational authorities and by 
the school pupils, and there are frequent requests made by institu- 
tions not on the regular list to have the service extended to them. 
Where such institutions are of a type within the field designated 
for the Department, and where other factors make it practicable 
to do so, these requests are granted. The Department's activities 
are treated in full on page 174. 

The plan of providing guide-lecture tours for adults on a schedule 
of two each day except Saturdays and Sundays was continued along 
the lines developed in the past few years. As usual, the variety of 
subjects covered was extensive, and the public responded in grati- 
fying numbers to the opportunities presented through these tours. 
Besides the regular public tours, special guide-lecture service for 
groups requesting it was made available in accordance with the 
practice of past years. 

Service to the general public by the Library of the Museum was 
increased as the facilities offered became more widely known. The 
outside visitors to the Library were largely students and members 
of the faculties of educational institutions in Chicago and vicinity. 
The books and pamphlets in the collection, now niunbering approxi- 
mately 93,000, were of service also to many others, such as represen- 
tatives of industries, editors, authors, and researchers of various 
kinds. As usual the Museum staff was aided greatly in many 
branches of its work by the Library. 

The study collections made available in each Department to 
students, persons engaged in research, and others, were used by 
many persons, and many expressions were heard indicating the value 
of this service to those who took advantage of it. 

Normal activities were maintained in such Divisions of the 
Museum as Public Relations, Publications, Memberships, Printing, 
Roentgenology, Photography and Illustration. Detailed accounts 
of the work accomplished by these Divisions will be found in various 
sections of this Report. 

A greater number of scientific publications were issued than in 
any previous year of the Museum's history. Among these were 
several outstanding works, upon which report will be foimd on 
page 56. 

The monthly bulletin for Members of the Museum, Field Museum 
News, was published and distributed regularly each month. Every 
effort has been made to increase the value and attractiveness of this 

38 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

publication, so that Members might receive complete news reports 
of the activities of the institution, advance notice of all special 
events in which they might be interested, and pictures of new or 
outstanding exhibits. Details of this work, and also a summary 
of general publicity and advertising carried on through the news- 
papers and various other media generously placed at the disposal 
of the Museum, will be found under the heading Division of Public 
Relations (p. 176). 

Some very interesting results have been obtained during the 
year from a series of research experiments on various problems carried 
out in the Division of Roentgenology. Among these was the develop- 
ment of a new technique whereby there was produced what is believed 
to be the largest x-ray film ever made, having as its subject an 
Egyptian mummy. The dimensions of the films are seven by two 
feet. This is the first time an entire adult mummy in its casket 
has ever been x-rayed on one film and with only one exposure. 
A more detailed account will be found on page 183 of this Report 
under the heading Division of Roentgenology. 

A Handbook of Field Museum, supplanting the former Manual, 
was published in 1931. This booklet gives in brief but comprehen- 
sive form general information concerning the Museum, its history, 
its building, its expeditions, and its varied activities. It is sold at 
a nominal price. 

Various forms of cooperation were carried on during the year 
between the Museum and the University of Chicago. The students 
and faculty of the university were encouraged to make use of the 
study collections and special facilities of each Department of 
the Museum, and every possible aid was extended to them by the 
Museum staff. The general Library, and the departmental libraries 
of the Museum, were frequently consulted by groups of students, 
as well as individual students and members of the university faculty. 
Loans of books were made by the Museum Library to the libraries 
of the university, and vice versa. Members of the university faculty, , 
especially Professors A. C. No6 and A. S. Romer, rendered invaluable 
services in connection with the preparation of the Carboniferous 
forest group in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). The university' 
made notable additions to the herbarium it has on deposit in the 
Museum Herbarium. Assistance in the identification of species was 
given in the Department of Zoology of the Museum to research 
workers from the university zoological faculty. Assistant Curator 
Karl P. Schmidt gave a lecture before the Biological Club of the 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 39 

university. In the Museum's Department of Geology two Assyrian 
bronzes of great value belonging to the Oriental Institute of the 
university, which were in danger of destruction from corrosion, were 
restored by means of the Fink electrolytic process. Instruction in 
the installation and operation of the apparatus used in this process 
was given to a representative of the Oriental Institute by Associate 
Curator Henry W. Nichols. A series of minerals was sent on loan 
to a university worker for a study of their electrical properties. 
Work in the IMuseum's Egyptian hall, which has been in process 
of rearrangement and relabeling since 1927, was completed in 1931 
by Dr. T. George Allen, whose part time services for this purpose 
were obtained through the cooperation of Professor James H. 
Breasted, Director of the Oriental Institute. In compliance with 
a request of the University High School of the University of Chicago, 
that school was added to the list of institutions receiving on regular 
schedule loans of traveling exhibition cases circulated by the N. W. 
Harris Public School Extension of Field Museum. 

The Museum was host to a number of distinguished foreign 
guests during the year. Among these were Prince and Princess 
Takamatsu of Japan, who, attended by their suite, were visitors 
at the Museum on May 12; Count Hirotaro Hayashi, member of 
the House of Peers of Japan, and Professor of Pedagogy in the 
Imperial University of Tokyo, who visited the Museum on August 
12; Dr. Julius Magnes, President of the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem, who was a visitor on May 8; and Dr. N. I. Vavilov 
of the Institute of Plant Industry, Leningrad, who made a visit 
in March. Dr. Magnes consulted with members of the scientific 
staff and formulated plans for exchange of specimens and publica- 
tions between his university and Field Museum. Dr. Vavilov, 
who was returning from a tour of Mexico and Central America, 
consulted with members of the staff of the Department of Botany 
regarding economic plants of tropical America. 

The Curator of Anthropology, Dr. Berthold Laufer, received an 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from the University of Chicago 
during the June commencement exercises at the university. This 
honor was in recognition of the important work in Asiatic research 
which has been conducted by Dr. Laufer. 

There were several changes in the Museum staff during the year: 

In November Mr. Rudyerd Boulton, formerly a member of 
the staff of the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh, joined the staff of 
Field Museum as Assistant Curator of Birds. 

40 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Mr. Colin C. Sanborn, formerly Assistant in Mammalogy, was 
promoted to the position of Assistant Curator of Mammals. 

The services of Dr. T. George Allen of the Oriental Institute, 
University of Chicago, were re-engaged through 1931 in order to 
continue the work necessary for completion of the classification and 
labeling of the Egyptian archaeological material. 

Dr. Ralph Linton, Professor of Anthropology at the University 
of Wisconsin, formerly an assistant curator at the Museum, was 
temporarily re-employed during the three months of his summer 
vacation from the university, to work on the reinstallation of Eskimo 
and Northwest Coast ethnological material in Hall 10. 

Mr. C. Eliot Underdown was appointed Assistant in Ornithology. 

Mr. Ulrich A. Dohmen, for more than thirty-five years Chief of 
the Division of Printing, died on May 21. Starting with hand-set 
type, foot-operated printing press, and himself as the only printer, 
Mr. Dohmen developed the plant in his charge to meet the increasing 
demands of the Museum's expanding publications, until now the 
plant is a large and complete one, with modem typesetting, printing, 
binding, and cutting machinery, and a large staff of workers. Mr. 
Dohmen's devotion to his duties and the great success he made of 
the printing plant were greatly appreciated by the administrative 
officers of the Museum, and his death represents a serious loss. 

Mr. Dewey S. Dill, an assistant of Mr. Dohmen's for several 
years, has been placed in charge of the Division of Printing. 

Under the Field Museum Employes' Pension Fund, insurance 
amounting to $5,000 was paid to Mr. Dohmen's widow, and $500 
each to his daughters. Miss Gertrude Z. Dohmen and Mrs. Katherine 

Two other Museum employes died during the year. Mr. Stewart 
Herbert, clerk, died on April 10. Insurance of $2,000 was paid to 
his mother, Mrs. Josephine Herbert, under the Museum Employes' 
Pension Fund. Mr. James Gibney, janitor, died on May 17. His 
widow received $4,000 insurance under the same fund. 

Mr. John Duffy, employed as a janitor since 1906, was placed 
on the pension payroll in 1931. He had reached the age of 71. 

Mr. W. E. Eigsti was employed as an assistant taxidermist to 
take the place of Mr. Herman Hinrichs, who resigned. 

Mr. Walter A. Weber, artist and ornithologist, resigned as of 
May 15. Mr. Pierce Brodkorb left the Department of Zoology after 
two months' temporary employment in the Division of Birds. Mr. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 41 

Daniel Clark, volunteer student assistant, served creditably for 
several months in the Division of Reptiles. Mr. G. C. Hixon served 
as special student assistant for some time in the Division of Mammals. 

Dr. C. E. Hellmayr, Associate Curator of Birds, sailed July 9 for 
Europe, to accept, with the permission of the Museum, a position 
in a European university, under an agreement whereby he is to 
furnish the Museum annually with manuscript for further parts of 
the Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. This is a most important 
scientific work of which the first six parts have thus far been published 
by the Museum, and the plans call for four more parts to complete 
it. During the preparation and publishing of these additional parts. 
Dr. Hellmayr is to retain his title of Associate Curator of Birds. 

Mr. James B. McNair, Assistant Curator of Economic Botany, 
terminated his services to the Museum on December 31. With 
the completion of roentgenograms of all Egyptian and Peruvian 
mummies, the Division of Roentgenology was closed, and the 
services of Miss Anna Reginalda Bolan were no longer required 
after November 30. 

The services of Mr. Herman Lusche, assistant photographer, were 
discontinued on October 31. Six printers were removed from the 
payroll as of September 30, while the services of two employes of 
the Department of Botany were dispensed with on October 15, and 
of two preparators in the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Labora- 
tories on October 31. 

Several carpenters who are paid on an hourly basis elected to go 
on a five-day week basis, beginning July 1. Other economies were 
effected in various wage scales. 

Dr. J. Alden Mason, formerly Assistant Curator of Mexican and 
South American Archaeology, who is now Curator of the American 
Section of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, spent several weeks at the Museum completing a manuscript 
for a publication on the results of the Marshall Field Archaeological 
Expedition to Colombia which he led in 1922-23. 

During the autumn, winter, and spring months when the west 
door of the Museum is open, the Chicago Motor Coach Company 
consented to have stops made there by the buses which operate into 
Grant Park (No. 26, Jackson Boulevard line), as well as at the 
north entrance. This additional convenience provided for passengers 
bound for the Museum later had to be discontinued due to the 
modification of traffic regulations made by South Park authorities. 

42 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

The buses now stop at the north entrance on both their eastbound 
and westbound trips. 

That portion of the foot bridge from Michigan Avenue into 
Grant Park erected, at the expense of Field Museum, by the Illinois 
Central Railroad for the convenience of Museum visitors in the 
early days of occupancy of the present building, has been removed. 
The bridge was no longer necessary because of the close proximity 
of two other bridges, and it was thought desirable to eliminate the 
expense incurred in maintaining it. There remains, however, at 
the east end a link which connects with another bridge to the rail- 
road station, thus serving Museum visitors who depend on the 
Illinois Central for transportation. 

Due to the increasing aviation activities in the vicinity of the 
Museum, it was deemed advisable to insure the building and its 
contents against damage by aircraft. Accordingly, a policy covering 
a period of five years, and providing $600,000 insurance against 
this hazard, was taken out. 

Maintenance of the building, and improvements wherever prac- 
ticable, received due attention. A number of the more important 
of such improvements are noted in the pages which follow. 

At a cost of $64,406.85, included in the building fund deficit 
contribution of $91,099.44 paid in 1931 by President Stanley Field, 
the Museum's cafeteria was completely remodeled to provide better 
service and increased comforts for the public and the staff of the 
Museum. In the main cafeteria, with accommodations for 192 
guests, an attractive scheme of decorations was adopted by painting 
maps of the continents, the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and the 
world as a whole on the walls (see Plate XXII). In a special room 
provided for the staff the wall decorations are based on Aztec designs. 
All the tables in this room are in attractive booths, except a large 
round table which is provided for the President, Director, and 
their guests, or for luncheon conference purposes. The special 
room for children and other visitors who bring their own lunches 
was improved, while an additional room close by, formerly used 
for the storage of archaeological material, was painted and provided 
with tables and benches to accommodate the overflow crowds on 
special occasions when the regular children's room is filled to capacity. 
A total of about 450 children can be accommodated in these two 

The main cafeteria and other lunch rooms were provided with 
complete new furnishings, including tables, chairs, floor coverings, 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 43 

china, silver, and all other accessories. The kitchen was provided 
with the most modern cooking, electric refrigeration, dishwashing, 
and other equipment. 

Demands upon the cafeteria facilities have become more and 
more pressing during the past few years, due to the constantly in- 
creasing attendance at the Museum. The improvements which 
have been effected make it possible to meet these demands more 
efficiently. Operation of the cafeteria was placed in the hands of 
the John R. Thompson Company, a firm especially well qualified 
to fill requirements in respect to service, prices, quality of food, 
efficiency of management, and maintenance of the highest sanitary 
standards. Further details regarding the cafeteria will be found 
on page 185 of this Report. 

The Museum's maintenance and engineering forces, in conjunc- 
tion with some outside labor especially hired for the work, completed 
the remodeling of the cafeteria and the supplementary lunch rooms 
for the staff and for children. This task involved running fifteen 
new circuits for fights and eight new circuits for power through 
the tunnel from the switch room ; installation of a ventilating system 
with three fans, and with a heating unit and an oil filter on the 
fresh air inlet; installation of electric washer and refrigerating units; 
removal of the old sewer and installation of a new sewerage system ; 
reconstruction of plumbing; and moving and rebuilding of various 
partitions necessary to lay out the rooms in accordance with the 
new plans provided by the architects. 

Praise for the Museum's system of ventilation was received from 
Dr. Siegfried Maurer, Chicago physician who has been conducting 
research and experiments to assist in the work of eliminating hay 
fever. In pollen counts taken in various Chicago public buildings 
by Dr. Maurer, Field Museum showed the lowest coimt. In certain 
other buildings the count was from ten to twenty times that in the 
Museimi, and the Museum's count was only about one-half of that 
found at several northern resorts to which hay fever sufferers go for 

The maintenance force cooperated with all the Departments in 
the rearrangements and reinstallations of exhibits in various halls, 
which have been mentioned elsewhere. Eighteen cases of a new 
type with a single light of glass on each side were placed in Hall 13. 
Seven of the Knight murals were mounted on vehisote panels and 
fastened in place on the walls of Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38), 
and all of the twenty-eight murals were washed and starched, while 

44 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

their frames were regilded. Thirty-seven cases in Graham Hall were 
fitted with illuminating hoods, revamished on the outside, and 
repainted inside. Various special installation fixtures were made 
for these. Eighteen cases of bird groups in Hall 20 were fitted 
with illuminating hoods. 

All reinstalled cases in the Departments of Anthropology, 
Geolog>', and Zoology were repainted inside. In Hall 30, where 
the jade collection was installed, the walls were cleaned, a new 
linoleum floor covering was laid, and a panel was built over the 
center windows on which was hung an imperial Chinese tapestry. 
Eight new cases were provided to receive the jade installations. 

In the South Gallery, where the Chinese pagoda models were 
reinstalled, the cases were fitted with beaver board bottoms, and 
twenty-seven Chinese paintings and tapestries were hung on the 
walls. In Harlow N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31), devoted to gems 
and jewels, the walls were cleaned and painted, and two ventilator 
grills were cut in the east wall. 

In all, the maintenance force remodeled a total of eighty-one 
exhibition cases for the various Departments, and all of these were 
wired for lights by the engineering force. These cases are assigned 
as follows: eighteen for Hall 20; fourteen for Hall 24; eight for Hall 
30; three for the Hall of Prehistoric Man (Hall C); thirty-seven for 
Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38); and one for Hall 0. Thirty 
electrical outlets were installed on the walls of Hall C. 

In addition, eleven built-in cases were constructed for proposed 
groups in Hall C, and the ground work, framing, trim and glazing 
were furnished for fifteen groups, as follows: the undersea group of 
fishes in Hall 0; the mound-builder's grave in Mary D. Sturges Hall 
(Hall 3); the model of a Mitla temple in Hall 8; the various new 
habitat groups of mammals in Halls 16 and 17; the new exhibits 
in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38); and the collections of Coptic 
textiles, and of tombstones and votive tablets, in the hall of Egj-ptian 
archaeology (Hall J). 

Various work rooms and storage rooms on the third floor were 
repainted and provided with steel storage equipment. The steel 
equipment was provided in furtherance of the Museum's policy to 
eliminate as far as possible all fire hazards caused by wooden shelving, 
cabinets, etc., and to give better protection against all deteriorating 
influences which might harm scientific material in storage and 
supplies and equipment. Included in the new steel equipment 
installed this year are six assemblies of cabinets in the Herbarium, 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 45 

twenty cabinets for bird and mammal storage, twenty-four cabinets 
for miscellaneous purposes, and racks for 136 storage cans containing 
specimens preserved in alcohol. In all, 7,173 square feet of steel 
shelving were provided on the third floor for the various Depart- 
ments. In addition, 175 square feet were provided in the taxi- 
dermists' skin storage vault on the fourth floor, and 225 feet for the 
janitors' supplies on the ground floor. 

Because of the need of beginning work in Hall B on the ground 
floor in preparation for the installation of Chauncey Keep Memorial 
Hall it was necessary to move the research classes of Art Institute 
students from the space they had occupied as quarters in this hall. 
Equally suitable quarters were provided for the art classes in a 
vacated room near the west end of Hall H on the ground floor. 
The rest of Hall B was cleared of material which had been stored in it. 

Painting done during the year included the art students' new 
class room, the corridor leading to the cafeteria, the children's second 
or overflow lunch room, and fifteen rooms used for various purposes 
on the third floor. 

Various rooms on the third floor were provided with additional 
tables and chairs made available when all old cafeteria equipment 
was replaced with new. 

A new work room, eighteen by twenty-eight feet in dimensions, 
was built in the northwest comer of Room 38, the large workshop 
of the Department of Anthropology on the third floor, to provide 
quarters for the pottery mender, who will shortly be moved into 
the new quarters. This will make Room 29, the present pottery 
mending shop, available for a new storage room. 

The old skin storage vault on the ground floor was removed to 
provide a clear floor area and additional space for Hall C, which is 
to be devoted to prehistoric man. The floor of this area was lowered 
to conform with the level of the rest of the hall. Partitions were 
built between Halls C and D. 

The taxidermists' storage room in Hall Q on the ground floor 
was vacated. Part of the stored material was moved to the space 
under the south stairway, and part to Hall L. 

To take care of the ever-increasing demands of the Library for 
additional space to accommodate the overflow of its collections of 
books, pamphlets, and periodicals, six book stacks were extended 
to provide additional shelves, and extra space was cleared and set 
aside in the east portion of Room 120 on the third floor close to the 
Library quarters. During the coming year it is planned to make 

46 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

shelf provision in this space which, it is hoped, will relieve in great 
measure the congestion in the Library. 

Two new rooms on the third floor for the use of students and other 
research workers were furnished and opened during the year. One 
of these is in the Department of Anthropology, and one in the 
Department of Geology. The rooms are appointed with tables, 
chairs, and collections of specimens especially selected for their 
usefulness to students. These rooms, Nos. 55 and 113A, were 
formerly used for storage of material. 

The studio of the Division of Roentgenology was given a consider- 
able overhauling to provide the conditions necessary for making the 
large seven-foot films which resulted from this Division's research 
work. The floor of the operating room was sheeted with lead; 
a mezzanine was built in this room, to facilitate cleaning the x-ray 
lamp; a light-proof ventilator was provided in the dark room; and 
special developing and washing trays with cylinder attachment for 
suspending the large films, and various drying fixtures, were installed. 

Since 1928 tuck pointing of all exterior walls, cornices, and parapet 
walls has been in progress, and this work was completed in 1931. 

The work undertaken in the previous year to provide protection 
against water seepage under the steps at the north and south 
entrances was completed. This involved sinking a caisson, building 
a pier, rebuilding and tuck pointing bulkheads, lowering the terrace 
wall around the shipping room, setting a new level for the lower 
steps at the south entrance, taking up and resetting all lower steps 
at both entrances, building a new cement walk between the upper 
and lower steps of the south entrance, removing all ceiling tiles 
under the steps and replacing them with steel beams, scraping all 
steel work and painting it with a rust preventive compound, filling 
all step and platform joints with mastic top dressing, and sundry 
other operations. Five fans with heating units were installed under 
the north steps to maintain necessary air circulation. 

Electric window fans were installed in the two public toilet 
rooms. Five window frames at road level in the west wall of the 
boiler room were replaced. On the third floor flfty-eight window 
sills, water bars, and lower parts of window frames which had 
rotted, were replaced with new material. A contract was renewed 
with a window cleaning concern to wash all windows periodically. 
The Museum's own maintenance force continued to carry on the 
cleaning of windows at such other times as conditions required it. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 47 

The recommendations made by the underwriters carrying the 
Museum's fire insurance have been put into effect. 

In the boiler room all the boilers were turbined, and the brick 
settings were repaired. The Museum engineering crew also over- 
hauled all other equipment in the boiler room and the pump room. 

A system to effect a saving in the cost of lighting the building 
has been put into force. The saving reached its maximum in 
December when a reduction of 20,000 kilowatts was made in the 
use of electricity as compared with December of the preceding year. 
This is approximately 20 per cent. It is expected that this percentage 
of saving in kilowatts used will be maintained throughout 1932. 

Steam for heating was furnished under contract to the John G. 
Shedd Aquarium during the seasons requiring heat, and to Soldier 
Field from November 6 to December 10. 


General Lectures, — The Museum's fifty-fifth and fifty-sixth 
courses of free lectures for the public were given in the James Simpson 
Theatre on Saturday afternoons during the spring and autumn 
months. They were illustrated by motion pictures and stereopticon 
slides. Following are the programs of both courses: 

Fifty-fifth Free Lecture Course 

March 7 — The Lost Valleys of the Caucasus. 

Mr. William Osgood Field, Lenox, Massachusetts. 

March 14 — The Human Side of the Byrd Expedition. 

Chief Yeoman Charles E. Lofgren, United States Navy (retired); 
Personnel Officer of the Byrd Expedition to the Antarctic. 

March 21 — Australian Life and Scenery. 

Professor Griffith Taylor, Professor of Geography, University of 

March 28 — Exploring the Jungles of Surinam. 

Mr. Jean M. F. Dubois, Denver, Colorado. 

April 4 — Alaska. 

Mr. Amos O. Berg, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 

April 11 — Across Asia's Snows and Deserts. 

Mr. William J. Morden, Associate in Mammalogy, American 
Museum of Natural History, New York. 

April 18 — The Tale of the Ancient Whaleman. 

Mr. Chester Scott Howland, Boston, Massachusetts. 

April 25 — Three-wheeling through Africa. 

Mr. James C. Wilson, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

48 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Fifty-sixth Free Lecture Course 

October 3 — An African Hunting Trip. 

Dr. Thomas S. Arbuthnot, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

October 10 — Burma. 

Mr. Louis H. Baker, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 

October 17 — Bryce, Zion and Grand Canyons. 

(Illustrated with Lumiere Autochrome Plates.) 

Dr. C. O. Schneider, Chicago. 

October 24 — Pioneering in the Canadian Peace River Country. 

Professor Charles C. Colby, Professor of Geography, University 
of Chicago. 

October 31 — East of Suez. 

Mr. H. C. Ostrander, Yonkers, New York. 

November 7 — Mexico. 

Mr. Fred Payne Clatworthy, Estes Park, Colorado. 

November 14 — Explorations in the Old Maya Empire. 

Dr. Sylvanus G. Morley, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. 

November 21 — On the Trail of the Viking. 

Captain Donald B. MacMillan, Provincetown, Massachusetts. 

November 28 — Camera Shooting in the Southern Marshes. 

Mr. Alfred M. Bailey, Director, Chicago Academy of Sciences. 

The total attendance at these seventeen lectures was 22,773. 
In addition to the regular spring and autumn courses, the follow- 
ing special lectures were given for Members of Field Museum: 

January 11 — The Nile and Beyond. 

Major A. RadclifEe Dugmore, F.R.G.S., F.R.P.S., London, 


January 18 — A Naturalist in the South Seas. 

Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant Curator of Reptiles, Field 
Museum; leader of the scientific section of the Cornelius 
Crane Pacific Expedition for Field Museum, 1928-29. 

January 25 — Explorations in Plant and Animal Life. 

Mr. Arthur C. Pillsbury, Berkeley, California. 

The total attendance at these three special lectures was 1,535. 
The total number of lectures for adults was twenty and the total 
attendance at them was 24,308. 




The James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation has 
continued to provide lecture and entertainment programs for children 












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Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


both at the Museum and outside in schools and camps, and has 
endeavored by means of guide-lecture tours, radio talks, and in 
other ways to broaden the contact between the Museum and the 

Entertainments for Children. — Three series of entertainments 
were offered during the year. As in previous seasons, the spring 
and autumn courses were given on Saturday mornings in the James 
Simpson Theatre, and the summer series, offered on Thursday 
mornings during the months of July and August, was given in the 
exhibition halls and in the Theatre. Following are the programs of 
these three series of entertainments: 

February 21- 

Spring CoxmsB 

-Washington Becomes President* 
Alexander Hamilton* 
Washing the Elephants 
Stickleback, the Hedgehog 

February 28 — Beauties of Winter 
The Falls of Iguassu 
A World Unseen 
Insect Farmers and Laborers 
Plant and Animal Death-traps 

March 7 — The Antics of the Kilowatt 
The Eagle's Nest 
Allah il Allah 

March 14- 

March 21- 

-America Raises Rubber 
Thrills in Yellowstone 
Capturing a Giant Anteater 

-Fine Furs on Fine Animals 
Picturesque Roumania 

March 28 — A Jaguar in Stone 
Belgian Cities 
How Buds Become Leaves 
Fishes of Many Waters 
Hagotian, the Rug-maker 

April 4— The Story of Silk 
Life in a Pond 
Undersea Partnerships 
The Life History of a Pearl 

April 11 — The Story of Asbestos 

Firemaking without Matches 
Drummers and Boomers 
Porcupines and Their Neighbors 

April 18— The Island of Sugar 
Prodigal Palms 
Poor Butterfly 
The Message of the Flowers 

*Gitt to the Museum from the late Mr. Chauncey Keep. 

50 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

April 25 — In Batik Land 

A Dyak Wedding 
Teak-logging in Siam 
Elephants on Parade 
Wooden Shoes 

The total attendance at these ten entertainments was 11,711. 

Autumn Course 

September 26 — When Autumn Comes 

Hiawatha's Hunting Grounds 
Feathered Braves 
Naskapi Indians 
The First People 

October 3 — Elephant Seals 
Shooting Rapids 
Sheep in Psalm and Sage 
Cowboy Thrills 

October 10 — Columbus* 

Tricks or Weapons? 
Secrets of the Sea 

October 17— The Sacred Beetle 
Wonder Book III 
From Mountain to Cement Sack 
The Dogville Theatre 

October 24 — Glimpses of India 

People in White (Korea) 
When Elk Come Down 
How Rangers Fight a Fire 

October 31 — The Settlement of Jamestown* 
A Trip to a Zoo 

November 7 — Maizok of the South Seas 
Magic Gems 

November 14 — The Eve of the Revolution* 
A Trip to Banana Land 

Unselfish Shells 

November 21 — The Declaration of Independence* 
The Hamster Family 
A Jungle Roundup 

November 28 — The Pilgrims* 

Animals Prepare for Winter 
Children of the Sun 

December 5 — Winter Birds 

Mr. Groundhog Wakes Up 
Skating in the Spreewald 

* Gift to the Museum from the late Mr. Chauncey Keep. 

The total attendance at the eleven autumn entertainments was 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 51 

The summer course was planned especially for the benefit of 
those young people who remained in the city during the summer 
vacation. As in former years the course consisted of special tours 
in the exhibition halls, and story-hours and motion pictures in the 
James Simpson Theatre. The programs were as follows: 

July 9 — Motion Picture: 

With Byrd at the South Pole. 

July 16 — Story-hour: Giants of Long Ago. 
Tour: Prehistoric Collections. 

July 23— Tour: The Chinese Halls. 
Motion Picture: 
Glimpses of China. 

July 30 — Motion Picture: 

The Silent Enemy. 

August 6 — Story-hour: Children of Many Lands. 

Tour: Exhibits Showing Child Life in Many Lands. 

August 13 — Tour: Animals of Land and Water. 

Motion Pictures: 


Alaskan Sheep. 


Animals of the Galapagos. 

Lions at Home. 

The total number of groups handled during this summer course 
was twenty-three and the attendance was 10,406. Of this niunber 
2,181 represents the special tour attendance and 8,225 the Theatre 

In addition to the two regular courses of entertainments and the 
summer series, four special programs were offered during the winter 
months as follows: 

January 24 — Motion Picture: 

The Black Journey. 

January 31 — Motion Pictures: 

A Dog-sled Trip in Canada. 

The Ojibwa Build a Birch-bark Canoe. 

Gathering in the Wild Rice. 

(Pictures taken and explained by Mr. W. W. Kirkland.) 

February 12 — Motion Pictures: 

Abraham Lincoln: 
My Father. 
Abe's First Law Case. 
The Call to Arms. 

December 19 — Motion Pictures: 

I Am from Siam. 
The Beaver People. 

52 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

The total attendance at the four special programs was 8,001. 

In all, thirty-one different programs were offered free to the 
children of the city and suburbs during the year, and the total 
attendance at these entertainments was 50,729. 

That the children's entertainments are now recognized as a 
definite part of child education in the community is evidenced by 
the great mmiber of schools and social organizations which regularly 
send groups, and by the excellent cooperation extended to the 
Museum in giving publicity to these programs. Posters and programs 
are now shown in both city and suburban libraries, in public and 
parochial schools, in social settlements, clubs and churches. Many 
newspapers and radio stations have helped. Not only Chicago 
but suburban newspapers have printed the programs and have fre- 
quently given much space to special attractions. Parent-teacher 
associations have distributed programs and chaperoned groups 
which otherwise would not be able to attend. The children's depart- 
ment of the Chicago Daily News has frequently carried the features 
of the children's programs in its section of the paper. The following 
newspapers and radio stations were especially consistent in giving 
publicity to the entertainments: the Chicago Daily News and Radio 
Station WMAQ; the Prairie Farmer and Radio Station WLS; the 
Chicago Tribune; Radio Station WCFL; the Chicago Evening Ameri- 
can; the Chicago Herald and Examiner; and the Chicago Evening Post. 

An expression of appreciation for films loaned for the programs 
is due to the United States Department of Agriculture, the Izaak 
Walton League, the General Electric Company, the Commonwealth 
Edison Company, the Citroen Motor Company of Paris, the Chicago, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad, the Natural History Museum 
of the University of Minnesota, and the Department of the Interior, 

Museum Stories for Children. — Two series of Museum Stories 
for Children were written by members of the Raymond Foundation 
staff, and copies were handed to all attending the entertainments. 
The demand for stories has increased greatly during the past year. 
An encouraging feature is the number of children who have bound 
their copies of Museum Stories into book form for use as permanent 
reference material. During the summer, the stories were also kept 
at the main entrance and handed to visiting children, or to teachers, 
for use as source material. 

O • 




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Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


The following list gives an idea of the variety of topics to be 
found in Series XVI and Series XVII of Museum Stories for Children, 
published in 1931: 

Sir Stickleback, the Hedgehog 

Glimpses of Ant Life 



The Weasel and the Mink 

Deep Sea Fishes 




In the Land of Dikes and Windmills 

Games and Toys of Indian Children 



The Sacred Beetle of Egypt 

The Land of the Morning Calm 

The Anteaters 

Precious Stones 



Children of the Sun 


A total of 50,740 copies of Museum Stories for Children was 
distributed during the year. 

Lecture Tours for Children. — The number of groups of 
children from public, parochial and private schools coming to the 
Museum for lecture tours established a new record. Special emphasis 
was laid on work with the younger children, and with high school 
students. Crane High School led in the number of pupils taking 
advantage of the intensive work given in the various halls. During the 
year 1,513 pupils from that school, with eleven different instructors, 
visited the botanical, paleontological and zoological exhibits under 
the leadership of lecturers of the Raymond Foundation. May 27 
was an outstanding day, with groups received from nineteen schools, 
and also a large party from downstate brought by the Illinois Central 
Railway. Each group was given a lecture tour. The number of 
suburban schools asking guide-lecture service showed a marked 
increase over former years. The following table shows how the 
groups were distributed: 

Number of a *■*-.., j„„„ 

schools Attendance 

Tours for children of the Chicago schools 

Chicago public schools 275 11,399 

Chicago parochial schools 23 962 

Chicago private schools 18 389 

Tours for children of suburban schools 

Suburban public schools 238 8,400 

Suburban parochial schools 17 642 

Suburban private schools 13 361 

Tours for special groups 

Children's clubs 31 900 

Other organizations 20 2,282 

Out-of-town groups 16 1,426 

54 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

In all, 651 groups were given guide-lecture service and the 
attendance was 26,701. 

Educational Meetings. — The small lecture hall was used for 
seventeen meetings of an educational or civic nature given for 
children. The total attendance at these was 1,093. 

Extension Lectures. — Extension lectures were offered, as in 
previous years, to the public schools of the city. For the first time, 
requests for the lectures were received from parochial schools, and 
it is hoped that the service will be gradually extended to all kinds 
of educational institutions. 

The subjects offered for high school classes and assembhes were: 

Field Museum and Its Work 

The Ancient Egyptians 

The Romans: Their Arts and Customs 

Prehistoric Animals 

Reptiles and Insects 

Bird Life in the Chicago Area 
Animal Life in the Chicago Area 
Trees of the Chicago Area 
Wild Flowers of the Chicago Area 
Story of Iron and Steel 

For presentation in the elementarj^ schools the following series 
were offered: 

South America 

North American Indians 

Glimpses of Chinese liife 

Marcus, the Roman 

Ptahhotep, the Egj^ptian 

Migisi, the Indian Lad (lower grades) 

Native Life in the Philippines 

For Geography and History Groups 

For Science Groupw 

Field Museum and Its Work 

A Trip to Banana Land 

Coffee, Chocolate and Tea 

Coal and Iron 

Flax and Cotton 

Silk and Wool 

Food Fishes of the World 

Animal Life in the Chicago Area 

Birds of the Chicago Area 

Trees of the Chicago Area 

Wild Flowers of the Chicago Area 

Animals at Home 

Our Outdoor Friends (lower grades) 

These lectures were given also before school clubs, parent-teacher 
associations and at Camp Algonquin. The following table gives the 
classification of groups, number of groups and attendance of the 
groups reached by the extension lecturers of the Museum during 
the year: 

Number of 

In Chicago schools 657 

Parent-teacher associations 2 

School clubs 7 

Camp Algonquin 17 






Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 55 

The total number of extension lectures presented by the staff 
of the Rajmiond Foundation was 683, and the total attendance at 
these was 227,351. 

Nature Study Course. — At the request of the Chicago Council 
of Boy Scouts of America, the third series of talks on natural history 
topics was arranged for the scoutmasters of the city. The series 
consisted of five meetings. At each a member of the Raymond 
Foundation staff presented a subject which would be of value to 
leaders of Scout groups, and also assisted in the conference which 
followed. The subjects were as follows: 

February 28 — Birds of the Chicago Area 

March 7 — Ecology of the Chicago Area 

March 14 — Insects and Reptiles 

March 21 — Trees and Flowers of the Chicago Area 

March 28 — Geology and Mammals of the Chicago Area 

The total attendance at these lectures and conferences was 642. 

Radio Broadcasting. — Radio broadcasts by the Raymond 
Foundation staff were given in connection with the school radio 
programs sponsored by Station WMAQ. During the year, twenty- 
eight talks were presented to grades ranging from the first to the 
fifth. The talks given were planned to correlate with the course of 
nature study being given in the elementary grades. The manager of 
one of the radio stations reports that these nature study talks are 
being used regularly in schools in Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin 
and Nebraska, and that the published outlines are sent each month 
to many other states. 

During the summer course of entertainments, broadcasting 
material was prepared each week for the radio stations giving 
publicity to the children's programs. 

Accessions. — The Raymond Foundation acquired during the 
year 208 stereopticon slides for use in the Theatre and in the exten- 
sion lectures; fourteen negatives for making slides; and thirty-three 
prints for the office records, all made by the Division of 

The Raymond Foundation also was the beneficiary of the follow- 
ing gifts to the Museum: two motion picture reels. From Mountain 
to Cement Sack, presented by the Atlas Cement Company; 2,300 feet 
of film made in Africa and presented by Mrs. Marshall Field; two 
reels and two negatives of African animals given by Captain Harold 

56 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

A. White; and eighty stereopticon slides of scenes in the Near East 
received from Mr. Henry Field. 


As in preceding years, the services of Museum guide-lecturers 
were offered, without charge, to clubs, conventions, and other 
organizations, and to Museum visitors in general. For the public 
138 general tours and 376 tours covering specific exhibits were 
arranged. Printed monthly tour schedules were placed at the main 
entrance for distribution to visitors. Each month copies of the 
schedule were sent to libraries, social settlements, retail stores and 
to some of the railroads bringing special groups into the city, while 
the schedule for each week was published in Chicago and suburban 

The groups which took advantage of the guide-lecture service 
during the year numbered 555, with a total attendance of 7,256 

The use of the small lecture hall was extended to six adult 
educational and civic groups. These meetings were attended by 
339 persons. 

On May 27 the graduating exercises of the foreign adults who 
had been studying in the public schools of the city were held in the 
James Simpson Theatre. The attendance was 854. 

On Armistice Day an Americanization program under the auspices 
of the Chicago Board of Education was held in the James Simpson 
Theatre. The attendance was 362. 


The total number of groups receiving instruction by means of 
lectures, entertainments and tours was 1,965 with an aggregate 
attendance of 336,812. This figure includes both the adults and the 
children participating in Museum educational activities. Of these 
totals, 1,382 groups with an aggregate attendance of 303,693 were 
reached through the activities of the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 


The number of scientific publications issued by Field Museum 
in 1931 exceeded that of any previous year. The Museum dis- 
tributed to the institutions on its exchange lists 14,726 copies of 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 57 

scientific publications and 1,121 copies of miscellaneous publications 
and pamphlets. In addition, 5,623 copies of the 1930 Annual Report 
of the Director were sent to Members of the Museum. Sales 
during the year totaled 1,136 publications, 6,982 leaflets, and 9,647 
miscellaneous publications and pamphlets. 

Twenty-eight large boxes containing publications for foreign 
institutions were packed and shipped to the Smithsonian Institution 
at Washington, D.C., for distribution through its bureau of inter- 
national exchanges. For future sales and distribution 905 packages, 
containing more than 25,500 copies of books issued in 1931, were 
wrapped, labeled, and stored in the stock room. 

During the year forty-nine new exchange arrangements with 
domestic and foreign institutions were established. 

A most interesting volume was added to the Anthropology 
Memoirs Series in November. This is a monograph by Professor 
Roy L. Moodie, entitled Roentgenologic Studies of Egyptian and 
Peruvian Mummies. Its purpose is to add to knowledge about 
mummification through an interpretation of roentgenograms of un- 
opened mummy packs in Field Museum. It discusses conditions 
revealed in Egyptian and Peruvian mummies by roentgenograms 
prepared in the Division of Roentgenology of Field Museum, and 
places particular emphasis on the search for evidences of disease 
and injury. The book is of especial interest to pathologists, odontol- 
ogists, students of the history of medicine, roentgenologists and 
archaeologists. The volume, complete in one number, contains 
sixty-six printed pages and seventy-six plates in photogravure, 
chiefly from roentgenograms. 

The Handbook of Field Museum, published in June, is an informa- 
tive illustrated booklet of convenient size. The number of requests 
for it during the past six months has been very gratifying. It is 
designed to give briefly general information concerning the Museum, 
its founding and its present organization, the building in which it 
is housed, its exhibits, expeditions and various activities, its endow- 
ments, and many other matters regarding which inquiries are con- 
stantly received. 

Of the portfolio of lithographic reproductions of Abyssinian birds 
and mammals published in 1930, nearly 400 additional copies were 
sold during 1931. This can be accounted for by the prominence of 
the artist, the late Louis Agassiz Fuertes, who made the original 
paintings, and by the excellence of the reproductions. The portfolio 
was distributed late in 1930 to the Museum's ornithological exchange 

58 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

list, and numerous letters of praise have been received from institu- 
tions and scientists in this country and abroad. An expression of 
appreciation is again due to Mr. C. Suydam Cutting, whose generosity 
made possible the publishing of this album. 

Twenty-two additions to the regular series of Field Museum 
publications were issued, four of which were anthropological, nine 
botanical, three geological, five zoological, and one the Annual 
Report of the Director for 1930. Besides these, two anthropology 
memoirs, a design series number, a handbook and a general guide 
were published. Following is a detailed Hst: 


283. — Botanical Series, Vol. X. Flora of the Lancetilla Valley, Honduras. 
By Paul C. Standley. January 15, 1931. 418 pages, 68 photo- 
gra\'ures. Edition 1,034. 

284. — Botanical Series, Vol. VIII, No. 4. The Cyperaceae of Central America. 
By Paul C. Standley. January 26, 1931. 56 pages. Edition 1,073. 

285. — Botanical Series, Vol. VII, No. 2. The Rubiaceae of Ecuador. By 
Paul C. Standley. February 5, 1931. 76 pages. Edition 1,056. 

286. — Zoological Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 2. Bats from Polynesia, Melanesia 
and Malaysia. By Colin Campbell Sanborn. February 12, 1931. 
26 pages. Edition 1,072. 

287. — Report Series, Vol. VIII, No. 2. Annual Report of the Director for 
the Year 1930. January, 1931. 256 pages, 20 photogravures. 
Edition 7,541. 

288. — Botanical Series, Vol. XI, No. 1. Spermatophytes, Mostly Peruvian — 

III. By J. Francis Macbride. May 29, 1931. 36 pages. Edition 

289. — Anthropological Series, Vol. XXI, No. 1. Serpent Worship in Africa. 
By Wilfrid D. Hambly. July 29, 1931. 86 pages, 8 photogravures 
and 1 map. Edition 1,051. 

290. — Zoological Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 3. Birds of the Kelley-Roosevelts 
Expedition to French Indo-China. By Outram Bangs and Josselyn 
Van Tyne. June 10, 1931. 90 pages, 2 colored plates and 1 map. 
Edition 1,203. 

291. — Botanical Series, Vol. XI, No. 2. Spermatophytes, Mostly Peruvian — 

IV. By J. Francis Macbride. July 29, 1931. 34 pages. Edition 

292.— Botanical Series, Vol. VII, No. 3. The Rubiaceae of Bolivia. By Paul 
C. Standley. June 16, 1931. 88 pages. Edition 1,036. 

293.— Zoological Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4. The Painted Turtles of the Genus 
Chrysemys. By Sherman C. Bishop and F. J. W. Schmidt. June 18, 
1931. 20 pages, 5 zinc etchings. Edition 1,044. 

294. — Botanical Series, Vol. VIII, No. 5. Studies of American Plants — V. By 
Paul C. Standley. June 25, 1931. 106 pages. Edition 1,041. 

295.— Zoological Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 5. Two New Rodents from Costa 
Rica. By Wilfred H. Osgood. August 3, 1931. 6 pages, 1 photo- 
gravure. Edition 1,073. 

296.— Zoological Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 6. Notes on Dinomys. By Colin 
Campbell Sanborn. August 31, 1931. 10 pages, 1 photogravure. 
Edition 1,054. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 59 

297. — Geological Series, Vol. IV, No. 6. Occurrence of the Alligatoroid Genus 
Allognathosuchus in the Lower Oligocene. By Bryan Patterson. 
August 31, 1931. 8 pages, 1 photogravure. Edition 1,055. 

298. — Geological Series, Vol. IV, No. 7. A Silurian Worm and Associated 
Fauna. By Sharat Kumar Roy and Carey Croneis. September 24, 
1931. 22 pages, 4 photogravures. Edition 1,021. 

299. — Geological Series, Vol. IV, No. 8. A Fossil Turtle from Peru. By Karl 
P. Schmidt. September 4, 1931. 6 pages, 2 photogravures. Edition 

300. — Anthropological Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 3. The Domestication of the 
Cormorant in China and Japan. By Berthold Laufer. September 8, 
1931. 64 pages, 4 photogra\aires. Edition 1,056. 

301. — Anthropological Series, Vol. XVII, No. 3. Archaeological Investiga- 
tions in the Southern Cayo District, British Honduras. By J. Eric 
Thompson. September 18, 1931. 148 pages, 28 photogravures. 
Edition 1,020. 

302. — Botanical Series, Vol. VII, No. 4. The Rubiaceae of Venezuela. By 
Paul C. Standley. October 12, 1931. 146 pages. Edition 1,031. 

303. — Botanical Series, Vol. XI, No. 3. The Nyctaginaceae and Cheno- 
podiaceae of Northwestern South America. By Paul C. Standley. 
October 20, 1931. 56 pages. Edition 1,056. 

304. — Anthropological Series, Vol. XX, No. 1. Archaeology of Santa Marta, 
Colombia. The Tairona Culture. Part I. Report on Field Work. 
By J. Alden Mason. December 14, 1931. 130 pages, 64 photo- 
gra^^res, 1 map. Edition 1,016. 

Miscellaneous Publications 

Anthropology, Memoirs, Vol. I, No. 3. Report on Excavations at Jemdet 
Nasr, Iraq. Part III. By Ernest Mackay, with preface by Stephen Langdon. 
August 18, 1931. Quarto size, 88 pages, 18 photogravures. Edition 825. 

Anthropology, Memoirs, Vol. III. Roentgenologic Studies of Egyptian and 
Peruvian Mummies. By Roy L. Moodie, with editor's note by Berthold 
Laufer. November 30, 1931. Quarto size, 66 pages, 76 photogravures. 
Edition 763. 

Anthropology Design Series, No. 5. Carved and Painted Designs from New 
Guinea. By A. B. Lewis. January, 1931. 1 photogravure, preface of 3 pages, 
51 halftones, 1 zinc etching. Edition 1,549. 

Handbook, General information concerning the Museum, its history, building, 
exhibits, expeditions and activities. June 4, 1931. 67 pages, 8 halftones. 
Edition 3,006. 

General Guide. Fifteenth Edition. 40 pages, 1 photograviire, 3 zinc etchings. 
Edition 9,857. 

Post Cards. — The total number of picture post cards sold during 
1931 was 138,514. This represents a decrease, which was noted 
in the volume of sales of both individual cards and sets of cards, 
and undoubtedly it may be attributed to the general depressed 
financial conditions existing during the year. Among new cards 
issued is an attractive view of the Museum building, from a photo- 
graph by Henry Fuermann and Sons, Chicago. 

60 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

A new set was added to those issued by the Department of 
Geology. It consists of six views of the restorations in the Museum's 
group in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) representing Mesohippits, 
the three-toed horse. 

The supply of "school sets," consisting of twenty pictures of 
selected subjects in post card size with descriptions on the reverse 
side, was completely exhausted. To take their place sixteen post 
cards from the general series were placed in packets and sold as sets. 
These have proved to be as popular as the sets for which they were 
substituted, and as each card is suitable for mailing they are even 
more useful. 


The use of the Library by the public has continued to increase, 
as more and more people are learning that here are available books 
on certain subjects which are not easily found elsewhere. Exclusive 
of members of the Museum staff the Library received 995 visitors 
during 1931. Telephone inquiries for various kinds of information 
also have increased greatly. 

There have been 2,900 books accessioned and 10,800 cards have 
been added to the catalogue. 

The shelves in the General Library had become much congested, 
and to relieve one portion six extra stacks were added. This made 
it possible to arrange the books in this section properly, and thus 
make them more accessible. 

In the last Annual Report acknowledgment was made of the 
receipt by the Library of publications from several former exchanges 
which for many years had sent nothing. As the Library depends 
for growth and usefulness largely on its exchanges, it is most 
encouraging to be able to report that this year still other institutions 
have either sent such numbers of their publications as were lacking, 
or have at least sent as many as were available. It is a great satis- 
faction to have these, because broken files of publications always 
make it possible that something most needed will be missing. Much 
of the desirable and necessary material of today appears first in the 
reports and proceedings of various societies and these publications 
are most important. 

Some further advance has been made toward completing files 
of periodicals. Work in disposing of duplicate material has been 
continued. Some new exchange arrangements with other libraries 
and with individuals have been effected and these have helped in 











































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Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 61 

completing files already in the different Departments. Several sales 
have been made to dealers and to private collectors. 

The three concluding volumes of Curtis's The North American 
Indian were presented to the Library this year by I*resident Stanley 
Field. This work, representing thirty years of research, is a highly 
valued acquisition. The volumes previously received have already 
proved their worth, and it is exceedingly gratifying now to have the 
complete set. 

The Marshall Field Archaeological Expedition to Europe in 1930, 
led by Assistant Curator Henry Field, was instrumental in bringing 
to the Library its largest increase at one time from any single source. 
This material arrived early in 1931, adding 5,000 books and pam- 
phlets to the shelves. The assembling of this collection required a 
vast amount of time and patience on the part of Mr. Field and Mr. 
Harper Kelley of Paris, who aided him in selecting the books. 
These works are all on the subject of prehistory, and they cover 
especially well the European phase of the subject. The large collec- 
tion of pamphlets includes many by early authors whose writings 
are available in no other form, and the Library is most fortunate to 
receive these. This collection places the Library in a position to 
be of greater assistance to students of this subject. Already many 
of these publications have been used for reference in connection 
with work being conducted by the Museum and also by outsiders. 

The Marshall Field Archaeological Expedition to British Hon- 
duras, led by Assistant Curator J. Eric Thompson, brought to the 
Library desirable material relating to the Maya people. Included 
in this were Diccionario de Motul Maya Espanol and the two volumes 
of Ximenez, Historia de la provincia de San Vicente de Chiapas y 

The National Geographic Society presented the Museum with a 
copy of Bingham's Machu Picchu, which is a report on explorations 
and excavations conducted in Peru during 1911-12 and 1915 under 
the auspices of the Society and Yale L^niversity. This is of special 
interest because of the work of Field Museum in that country. 

Dr. Sylvanus G. Morley presented a photostated copy of the 
Book of Chilam Balam; from Dr. Casey A. Wood was received a 
copy of his Index to the Literature of Vertebrate Zoology as Found in 
the Library of McGill University; from Mr. A. M. Henderson came 
the second edition of Jappel's Expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. "Dido." 
The Japan Society of New York presented Cram's Impressions of 
Japanese Architecture. The Fisheries Society of Japan sent the first 

62 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

volume of its beautifully illustrated work, Illustrations of Japanese 
Aquatic Plants and Animals. Mr. Jean Delacour of Cleres, France, 
presented the four volumes of his Les oiseaux de V Indo-Chine frangaise 
which will be valuable to the Museum's zoologists in work on the 
large collections of animals recently received from Indo-China. From 
the Harvey Bassler Foundation were received Die Indianer nordost 
Peru and Menschen ohne Gott, both of which are especially valuable 
additions because of Field Museum's work in the part of the world 
with which these books are concerned. From Mr. B. K. Smith 
was received a copy of Buckland's Reliquiae diluvianae. 

Mr. G. A. Pfeiffer, of New York, presented the Library with 
the Einganzungsheft und Register, which adds materially to the work- 
ing value of the reprint of the four volumes of a rare work, Siebold's 
Nippon, which he gave to the Museum in 1930. 

The story of the Vemay-Lang Kalahari Expedition of Field 
Museum is recorded in three albums of photographs presented by 
Mr. Arthur S. Vemay. 

Among the purchases of the past year may be mentioned the 
following: Bailey and Zoe, Hortus; Drude, Handhuch der Pflanzen- 
geographie; Veitch, Hortus Veitchii; Vellosia; Buffon, Historie 
n^turelle mise en ordre par Lacepede, seventy-six volumes, 1799-1809; 
Byron, Voyage of the "Blonde," 1826; Dalgleish, Collection of Birds 
from Uruguay, 1794; Kramer, Blenches vegetahilium et animalium 
per Austrian, etc., 1756; Meyer, Zoologische Annalen, 1794; Peters, 
Check List of the Birds of the World, Volume 1; Siemssen, Handhuch 
zur System kenntnis Mecklenhurguschen Vogel; Stoddard, Bobwhite 
Quail; Fischer, Chinese Painting of the Han Dynasty; Gann and 
Thompson, History of the Mayas; Hooton, Up from the Ape; Sir 
Arthur Keith, Early Man; Leakey, Stone Age Cultures of Kenya 
Colony; Souli^, History of Chinese Art. 

The courtesies of other libraries which have assisted the members 
of the Museum staff by the loan of books are acknowledged with 
appreciation. The John Crerar Library, the Library of Congress, 
and the Library of the United States Department of Agriculture 
have been especially generous with their material. 


Anthropology. — During the year five expeditions were operating 
in the interest of the Department of Anthropology. 

The Field Museum Expedition to the Southwest, which was 
inaugurated in 1930, resumed operations during the summer of this 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 63 

year, continuing its archaeological activities on the Lowry ruin in 
southwestern Colorado. Assistant Curator Paul S. Martin, leader 
of the expedition, left Chicago by motor car on May 30 and returned 
to the city September 28. The length of time spent actually in the 
field amounted to fifteen weeks. As in 1930, the expedition was 
financed from the income of a fund donated by Mr. Julius Rosenwald 
and the late Augusta N. Rosenwald. 

During the expedition's field operations from seven to nine men 
were employed as diggers. The first task was to cap with cement, 
for purposes of preservation, the tops of all the walls exposed last 
year. Cement and sand were trucked from Dolores, Colorado, 
thirty-two miles distant. Due to the local drought, it was necessary 
to haul water fourteen miles. The cement was laid on the wall in 
a trough-like fashion, with short stone gutters set at intervals, so 
that all moisture would be carried away from the walls. 

Excavations had meanwhile been started near the south end of 
the pueblo on a kiva designated by Dr. Martin as Kiva B. Kiva B 
is an early ceremonial chamber which had been abandoned and filled 
with a loess deposit. In later times, another kiva (Kiva A, excavated 
in 1930) had been built over it, so that it was necessary to dig through 
the floor of Kiva A and to re-enforce the upper walls with timbers 
to prevent them from collapsing. This was done so successfully 
that not a single stone of the upper chamber fell. The loess deposit 
which filled the lower kiva was excessively hard. The lowest level 
of dirt had to be shoveled up and out some seventeen feet. 

Particularly gratifying was the fact that the mural decorations 
on the lower walls were well preserved. So far as is known, this is 
the first time that such kiva paintings have ever been found in an 
open, unprotected site. These decorations consist of two bands of 
step designs painted with a white pigment of gypsum on the natural- 
brown adobe plaster. Preservation of this bit of ancient art was 
difficult, but finally eight coats of colorless varnish were applied. 
A complete set of photographs and measurements was obtained, so 
that at any time a replica of the entire design could be made, even 
if the original were destroyed. It was impossible to remove any 
of this painted plaster. Therefore, to protect it from vandals and 
the elements, the kiva was refilled with dirt to a depth of about 
fourteen feet. 

Excavations were then continued in the dwelling rooms, eleven 
of which were completely cleaned out. These rooms measured on 

64 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

the average twenty feet in length, ten feet in width, and fourteen 
feet in depth. In several of the rooms pottery caches were 

The excavations of last year were confined to one portion of the 
pueblo. As a result it had been assumed that the Lowry ruin was 
the work of one people, known as the Mesa Verde people. This 
year, however, the excavations revealed the fact that the rooms 
unearthed in 1930 represented a late addition to and reoccupation 
of the pueblo, and that the major part of the ruin is of a type known 
as Chaco Canyon. The center of the Chaco Canyon culture is 
located in the upper drainage of the San Juan River in New Mexico, 
two hundred miles southeast of the Lowry ruin. The discovery of 
this Chaco colony in Colorado may make it necessary to revise 
some of the current theories regarding Southwest archaeology. 

In addition to the work above described, three more kivas were 
excavated this year, and a fourth was discovered. One of these was 
decorated with mural paintings. Also, the Great Kiva of the Lowry 
ruin was trenched from east to west. The internal construction of 
this is similar to the Great Kiva at Aztec, New Mexico. 

It is now possible to trace five different periods of building activity 
in the Lowry ruin and at least seven separate occupations. Further 
digging may make it necessary to add to this estimate. 

Complete ground plans and cross sections of buildings were care- 
fully made in the field. Drawings were made of designs on all 
potsherds, and records were kept of their location in the stratigraphic 
sequence. Several sketches were made to show the Lowry pueblo 
as it probably looked in its prime. Fragments of ten wooden roof 
beams were recovered, from which it is hoped a chronology of the 
buildings may be obtained. One hundred and eight negatives show- 
ing all phases of the work and much detail of masonry were taken, 
and twelve hundred feet of motion picture film were exposed. 

The results of this season's work are both novel and interesting. 
At the end of last season's excavations it was not expected that 
the Lowry pueblo would turn out to be a Chaco colony; and certainly 
it was never imagined hitherto that the Chaco influence had pene- 
trated to such a distance. Much of the pottery exhibits Chaco 
affinities, and most of it is of a type which cannot, at present, be 
correlated exactly with any other. Therefore, this pottery, which 
is neither true Chaco nor Mesa Verde, will be known as "Lowry," 
pending further discoveries. 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. IX, Plate IX 


Ernest R. Graham HaU (Hall 38) 

Showing one of the gigantic primitive dragonfiies (Meganeura monyi), some of which had a spread 

of wings of almost thirty inches. Reproduced in Stanley Field Plant Reproduction 

Laboratories, Department of Botany of the Museum 

or m 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 65 

Early in the season Dr. A. V. Kidder of the Division of Historical 
Research, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C., visited the camp 
of the expedition for three days and watched the work in progress. 

The Third Marshall Field Archaeological Expedition to British 
Honduras, under the leadership of Assistant Curator J. Eric 
Thompson, reached Belize, capital of British Honduras, at the end 
of Februar>\ After a few days spent in outfitting in Belize, Mr. 
Thompson left by boat for the town of Orange Walk, situated on 
the New River in the north of the colony. Thence he traveled by 
motor boat, lumber railroad, and mule to the village of San Jose in 
the northern section of the Cayo district with the intention of 
excavating a group of ruins at Kaxi Uinik, close to the Guatemalan 
border. Owing to lack of labor and facilities for work this plan 
proved impracticable, whereupon it was decided to excavate a group 
of ruins lying some four miles east of the village of San Jose. This 
site consists of a ceremonial plaza of the usual Maya type; i.e., it con- 
tains one plain stela, and is flanked by a series of mounds the largest 
of which attain heights of some thirty to forty feet. In addition to 
this main group there are two smaller units consisting of low house- 
mounds facing small courts, and a series of scattered mounds and 
structures, including a ball court used for the ancient Maya cere- 
monial ball game. 

A hut was built, the camp was organized, and shortly excavations 
began. During Easter week, when the Mayas can hardly be induced 
to work, Mr. Thompson made a short archaeological reconnaissance 
trip to Kaxi Uinik and the important sites of Chochkitam and La 
Honradez in the Peten District of Guatemala. This trip yielded 
much important information particularly with respect to architectural 

Despite a severe shortage of labor in the early stages of the work, 
excavations continued until May except for a short interval "when 
Mr. Thompson, because of an accident, was forced to spend some 
time away from camp. Owing to the approach of the rainy season, 
and sickness, work at the San Jos^ ruins was stopped in May. 

The pyramidal structures were the first scene of operations. One 
of these proved to be a stone-faced terraced structure, on the summit 
of which a wooden temple presumably once stood. Of this supposed 
temple no traces were found, but the sub-structure revealed many 
architectural details of considerable interest. The stairway on the 
front (east side) was quite different from those usually encountered 
on Maya pyramids, for the upper sections of the two top flights 

66 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

were set within the terraces, instead of against the outside of the 
terrace walls, as is the usual Maya practice. Stairways of a some- 
what similar type have also been reported from Macanxoc and 

In two mounds of the ceremonial group, votive caches containing 
a number of unusual flints were found. Hitherto Field Museum 
had not possessed examples of these peculiar objects. These flints 
have been worked into fantastic designs, some of which undoubtedly 
represent animals and human beings. The workmanship is in many 
cases very delicate, and reveals the great mastery the Mayas had 
over intractable flint. 

Many burials were uncovered. In several cases the head of the 
deceased had been placed in a coarse bowl covered with a second 
bowl of the same type placed over it in an inverted position. Some- 
times the heads apparently were too large for the space, and a 
piece of the skull was then chopped off. The long bones of the 
body usually were found accompanying the bowls containing these 
heads, but in a few cases they were missing entirely. 

With the burials were found numerous interesting objects such 
as pottery vessels, obsidian knives, stone axes, and jade beads. In 
one burial the associated objects included three oyster pearls, a jade 
amulet, small jade ear-plugs, a very fine jade necklace, a small jade 
wristlet, and a hematite disk. The pottery was invariably broken 
into many pieces. This had usually been done before interment, 
as pieces of the same pot were frequently dug up several feet apart. 
One tripod vessel of outstanding merit is carved with a very delicate 
scene showing seated figures with sweeping quetzal-feather head- 
dresses holding ceremonial objects in their hands. The designs on 
this vessel were made by cutting away the soft clay of the back- 
ground before firing, so that they stand out in low relief. Among 
other notable objects there are human teeth inlaid with jade disks, 
and others with lower edges filed across. 

All this material appears to belong to the Holmul V period, the 
culminating point of which was between the seventh and ninth 
centuries of our era. The culture of San Jos6 has much in common 
with that encountered in the neighborhood of Mountain Cow Water 
Hole by the First and Second Marshall Field Expeditions to British 
Honduras. In addition to the collections obtained, much informa- 
tion was gathered as to pottery types and their distribution, as 
well as data on local developments of architecture and methods 
of burial. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 67 

The Museum is much indebted to the Belize Estate and Produce 
Company of London for permission to dig on its lands, for much 
assistance in transport, and for kind aid given in time of sickness. 
The share of the collected objects belonging to this company, 
under the terms of the concession, was subsequently purchased from 
it by the Museum, 

It was necessary to spend some time in Belize for the purpose 
of obtaining permission from the colonial government to export the 
collections. Operations were then transferred to the republic of 
Guatemala. There the archaeological collections made by the 
Carnegie Institution in the Peten District were studied in relation 
to Field Museum collections from the neighboring regions, including 
that of the present expedition. Ethnological work was carried on 
both in Guatemala and British Honduras, and much folklore material 
was collected. 

A survey was made of the western highland region in anticipation 
of an intensive study to be made of a single community at some future 
date. After another week in Belize shipment of the collections was 
completed, and the expedition returned to the United States early 
in July. Mr. Thompson, on his way back, visited museums in New 
York and Philadelphia for the purpose of discussing exchanges of 
Central American material not at present represented in Field 
Museum collections. 

The Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Meso- 
potamia resumed operations at Kish. This, its ninth consecutive 
season, ran from November 15, 1930, to March 15, 1931. Field 
Museum's participation in this expedition is sponsored by Mr. 
Marshall Field. Mr. L. C. Watelin again was director of excavations 
and was assisted by his son, Mr. Ren4 Watelin, and three assistants, 
among whom is Mr. Robert Van Valzah, Jr., of Chicago. The 
general supervision of the expedition's activities, as in previous 
years, was in the hands of Professor Stephen Langdon of Oxford 

Operations on the great temple area of Kish continued, yielding 
inscribed tablets, quantities of cylinder seals, and royal tombs at 
deep levels. Many other tombs were opened, revealing new types 
of pottery. In one of these was found a chariot, but unfortimately 
it was in bad condition. Some gold objects were found lying near 
one of the tombs, testifying that gold circulated freely in the Kish 
area at an early date. The northwest side of the stage tower was 
cleared, and also the wide area north of the temple, which exposed 

68 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

the side of the temple of the Hammurabi period. Important data 
were secured as to the construction and extent of the grand ziggurat 
or temple tower of Harsagkalamma. It was ascertained that the great 
stage tower, constructed about 3000 B.C., lies directly over the old 
Sumerian city. Beneath its outer western base were found the 
richest early Sumerian tombs thus far found at Kish. Some of them 
harbored chariots, skeletal remains of oxen, and harnesses. In the 
neo-Babylonian temple glazed coffins containing magnificent gold 
jewelry were brought to light. 

Among interesting discoveries is a seal found about thirty feet 
below the surface of the mound at plain level, bearing an inscription 
in the style of the seals excavated at Mohenjo Daro and Harappa in 
the upper Indus Valley. This is the first time that a seal of this 
Indian type has been found in an early stratum in Mesopotamia. 
With it was an object bearing a cuneiform inscription of a style 
that assigns it to a date of about 2800 B.C. 

The most interesting event of the season was the unexpected 
discovery of two Persian palaces of the Sassanian dynasty (A.D. 226- 
636). A palace building decorated with elaborate sculptures was 
laid bare within a stone's throw of the expedition's major field of 
operations. In the fourth century a.d. the power of the Persian 
kings extended as far as the Euphrates Valley, and they were involved 
in many wars with the Greek emperors of Byzantium. Hitherto 
only one palace of the Sassanians had been known in Mesopotamia — 
that at Ctesiphon near Bagdad. The first of the palaces now revealed 
at Kish was laid out around a spacious court with a fountain. It 
was supported by columns of bricks with glazed yellow bases. From 
the court, doorways led into suites of rooms. The walls and the 
interior of the doorways were covered with friezes carved in low 
relief, and with sculptured heads. Fourteen finely modeled busts 
were recovered in one of the doorways. Some of these may repre- 
sent kings of the Sassanian dynasty and royal ladies. In one door- 
way, on each side of the door posts, were twelve heads of women 
arranged one above the other. There were numerous mural stuccos 
with floral designs such as pomegranates, lotus, vine and grape, 
and conventional rosettes, palmettos, and foliage. Others were 
decorated with animal designs, such as a lion attacking a zebu, a 
stag led by a chain fastened to its nostrils, and a naturalistic ram's 
head surroimded by eagle's wings. 

The second of the palaces discovered adjoined the first, and con- 
sisted mainly of a large nave which may have served as a court 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 69 

room. This was supported by two rows of pillars. The walls of 
this palace were decorated like those of the first, and yielded four 
busts of a crowned and bearded Sassanian king with strong individ- 
ualistic features. Blue and yellow glazed pottery was found in both 

The importance of these discoveries can hardly be exaggerated, 
since but little of Sassanian art has survived in Persia proper owing 
to the ravages of the country by the conquering Arabs. Sassanian 
art made its influence widely felt in central Asia, and in China 
under the T'ang dynasty. As the Museum's Chinese collections 
contain a great deal of material which shows the Persian influence 
of that epoch, especially in decorative design, the unexpected Persian 
acquisitions coming from Kish are particularly welcome for com- 
parative studies of art forms and motifs. 

Word was received from Professor Langdon that, imder the 
direction of Mr. Watelin, Mr. Gerald Reitlinger of Oxford has con- 
ducted excavations at Abu Sudaira, three miles to the east of the 
main complex of mounds, revealing a large city of the Mongol period 
(thirteenth to fourteenth century). 

During the first half of 1931 Mr. J. Reid Moir successfully con- 
tinued his excavations, inaugurated during the preceding year, at 
the brickyards of Bolton and Company near Ipswich, England. 
Mr. Moir reports that the finished flint implements from the pre- 
Crag horizon show clearly that their makers had progressed a con- 
siderable way on the evolutionary path. These flints belong to the 
earliest period of human workmanship, and represent an important 
collection of Pliocene artifacts from beneath the Red Crag of East 
Anglia. Mr. Moir is at present engaged in preparing a complete 
report on his excavations, which will be sent to the Museum in due 

The work of Miss Malvina Hoffman, the sculptor commissioned 
to model life size flgures, busts, and heads of the representative 
types of the principal human races, made rapid progress during 1931. 
Her sculptures will be executed in bronze, and will be exhibited in 
Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall, which is to be devoted to the races 
of mankind. 

In the first part of the year Miss Hoffman worked at her Paris 
studio and availed herself of the presence of African natives, who 
had been brought to Paris for the Colonial Exposition, and who 
served as models for her sculptures. Many of the full length subjects, 
and also heads and busts, have already been completed in bronze. 

70 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

During May Miss Hoffman visited museums at Hamburg, Berlin, 
Munich, Prague, and Vienna, and consulted the most eminent 
anthropological authorities in these cities to familiarize herself with 
the characteristic traits of European racial types. She was received 
everywhere with great cordiality, and her requests for information 
and photographs met with hearty response and many helpful sugges- 
tions. In Vienna Miss Hoffman studied a new method of casting 
in a material known as hominite. 

After spending a week in Field Museum in consultation with the 
staff of the Department of Anthropology, Miss Hoffman sailed from 
San Francisco on October 2 for the Far East. She spent the month 
of October in Hawaii, November in Japan, and December in the 
capital of China. 

The Bishop Museum of Honolulu accorded her full cooperation. 
The chief result of her work in Hawaii is a life size portrait head of 
a Hawaiian and another of a Samoan youth, from whom also a 
sample of his wavy hair was obtained; also a life size drawing in 
sanguine of a Samoan chief. 

At Tokyo Miss Hoffman modeled life size heads of a Japanese 
man and woman. While in Japan she was the recipient of courtesies 
from Count Hirotaro Hayashi, member of the House of Peers and 
professor of pedagogy in the Imperial University of Tokyo, and 
many other officials and scholars. 

From Tokyo she went to Tomakomai on the island of Yezo, 
the home of the Ainu. With the assistance of Miss Yae Batchelor, 
an Ainu and adopted daughter of Mr. John Batchelor, the famous 
eighty-eight-year-old missionary, who has spent almost his entire 
life among the Ainus, Miss Hoffman succeeded in obtaining as 
subjects for study a typical old Ainu man and a middle-aged Ainu 
woman and taking all necessary data, measurements, and photo- 
graphs. These, with a model she made of a male Ainu head, will 
enable her to make a full-length statue of an Ainu. As additional ] 
data, many still and motion pictures were taken of Ainus of all ages 
from a number of villages. 

Thanks to the courtesy of Dr. Davidson Black, Miss Hoffman 
was permitted to make her headquarters in the Peking Union Medical 
College, one of the Rockefeller foundations at Peiping, China. Miss , 
Hoffman made casts of two Chinese skulls showing the greatest j 
contrast in bone construction, and completed the life size heads of I 
a northern Chinese and a Manchu. A riksha coolie was photographed 
between the shafts of his carriage in characteristic action, and casts 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 71 

of his hands on the shafts were made. A venerable Chinese artist 
consented to pose with his paint brush in his right hand, of which 
she made a negocoll cast. This was very difficult owing to the 
position of the fingers, but the cast is reported as being perfect. 
Numerous photographs were taken of both men and women, the 
most prominent persons being the Living Buddha of Outer Mongolia 
and his secretary, a Mongol Lama of high rank. Miss Hoffman left 
China on the first of January to proceed to Bali, Java, Sumatra, 
the Andamans, and India. 

Much research work was performed by members of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, and the large number of publications turned 
out this year is especially gratifying. Mr. Ernest Mackay's Report 
on Excavations at Jemdet Nasr (Field Museum-Oxford University 
Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia) was published, completing the 
first volume of the Anthropology Memoirs of which it constitutes 
the third number. It is provided with an index covering the entire 
volume. This report is of interest to archaeologists in general in 
that it deals with the painted pottery of Jemdet Nasr. As painted 
pottery of this type has been found in recent years distributed over 
a vast area, it presents an interesting problem that has aroused 
much discussion. 

Professor Roy L. Moodie's Roentgenologic Studies of Egyptian 
and Peruvian Mummies was issued as the third volume of the 
Anthropology Memoirs. This study is based on roentgenograms of 
mummies most of which are in the Museum's collections. The x-ray 
work was done, for the most part, by the Museum's Division of 

Curator Berthold Laufer is author of a paper, published by the 
Museum, on The Domestication of the Cormorant in China and Japan 
— the first of a series dealing with animal domestications in Asia. 
Dr. J. Alden Mason, formerly on the staff of the Department and 
now connected with the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania 
in Philadelphia, prepared the first part of a report on his excavations 
in Colombia carried on in 1922, and this was published by Field 
Museum Press. An archaeological report by Assistant Curator 
J. Eric Thompson on the work of the Marshall Field Archaeological 
Expeditions to British Honduras, and a paper on Serpent Worship in 
Africa by Assistant Curator Wilfrid D. Hambly, were also published. 
Carved and Painted Designs from New Guinea by Assistant Curator 
Albert B. Lewis, illustrated by fifty-two plates, forms No. 5 of the 

72 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Anthropological Design Series and was issued in the beginning of 
the year. 

A report on the work in Angola, Africa, of the Frederick H. 
Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological Expedition to West Africa, 
prepared by Assistant Curator Hambly, leader of the expedition, 
is now in press. The manuscript of Mr. Hambly's report on the 
same expedition's work in Nigeria is almost completed. Dr. Ralph 
Linton completed his work on the ethnology of the Tanala, based 
on the results of the Marshall Field Anthropological Expedition to 
Madagascar (1925-27), and this publication is now in press. A 
handbook on the Ethnology of Melanesia, written by Assistant 
Curator Lewis, is now in press and will be issued as Part 5 of the 
Museum's series of guide books. 

Mr. Rowland Rathbun, Assistant Professor of the History of 
Architecture at Armour Institute, Chicago, has begun a study of 
the plan and structure of the Sassanian palaces discovered at Kish 
and submits the following preliminary report: "The fragments of 
bas-reliefs from the two Sassanian palaces at Kish thus far received 
have been sorted as to locations in the palaces and as to decorative 
motives. Many of these fragments are being pieced together and 
repaired. Restorational drawings are being made of the plans and 
interior rooms from these sculptured examples. Upon reviewing 
this material one is greatly impressed by the extreme variety of 
patterns and the character in which they are executed. The balance 
of these fragments expected next year will fill in many of the missing 
pieces needed for a more complete restoration of these two palaces." 

Botany. — During 1931 no expeditions were conducted by the 
Department of Botany for the purpose of obtaining exhibition or 
study material. However, the work of photographing historic type 
specimens of tropical American plants in European herbaria, under 
a generous grant of funds made for the purpose by the Rockefeller 
Foundation, was continued by Assistant Curator J. Francis Macbride, 
who has been engaged in this task since the summer of 1929. 

Excellent progress may now be reported in the prosecution of 
this important undertaking. There have been prepared during the 
past three years approximately 18,500 negatives illustrating type 
or other historic specimens of American plants, a series whose value 
for study purposes scarcely can be overestimated. Prints from these 
negatives, when distributed into a herbarium, facilitate the work of 
determination to an astonishing degree. They add to any American 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 73 

herbarium representation of thousands of species confined hitherto 
to the larger European herbaria, and therefore formerly studied in 
American herbaria only through the original descriptions. 

Many of the early descriptions of American plants are annoyingly 
deficient, and so brief that they fail to mention many of the characters 
now considered important by systematic botanists. The photographs 
are often nearly as good for study purposes as the specimens them- 
selves. In consulting the prints as they are filed in the Herbarium 
of Field Museum, ordinarily a mere glance is sufficient to give a 
definite idea of the plant represented. Thus the species illustrated 
may be excluded from further consideration, without the necessity 
of searching out and reading the original description. 

Mr. Macbride has spent the greater part of his time at the 
extraordinarily rich herbarium of the Botanical Museum at Berlin- 
Dahlem, Germany, and he has now practically completed the photo- 
graphing of the So'^th American types in that collection. The work, 
therefore, will be extended to other institutions possessing important 
collections of South American plants. 

In 1930 many types of the Munich Herbarium, particularly those 
of the Martius Brazilian herbarium and others studied by the late 
Dr. Ludwig Radlkofer, were photographed. In the winter of 1930-31 
Mr. Macbride spent several weeks at Geneva, Switzerland. There 
he obtained photographs of South American types in the DeCandolle 
Herbarium, one of the most famous and most important of all the 
herbaria in the world, because it was the basis of the first serious 
attempt to publish a flora of the whole earth. Since specimens of 
this collection never are lent, photographs of them are extremely 
desirable not only for American herbaria but almost equally so for 
those of Europe. 

Mr. Macbride also photographed certain types of the Delessert 
Herbarium, maintained by the city of Geneva, with which the 
DeCandolle Herbarium is housed. In his work at the Conservatory 
and Botanic Garden he was extended every possible assistance 
through the unfailing courtesy of Dr. John Isaac Briquet, whose 
recent untimely death is mourned by botanists the world over, 
many of whom had enjoyed his hospitality and kindness. 

Other types were photographed at the Boissier Herbarium of the 
University of Geneva, which likewise contains important collections 
of South American plants, particularly the extensive Hassler series 
from Paraguay. At the university the success of Mr. Macbride's 
work was due largely to the sympathetic reception that he received 

74 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

from Dr. Robert Chodat, the well-known monographer of the 
family Polygalaceae. 

The completion of the task of photographing the Berlin types 
represents an immense amount of labor that has been well and faith- 
fully accomplished. It is not to be assumed that every tropical 
American type in this vast herbarium has been photographed. 
Certain groups have been omitted purposely, since the plants belong- 
ing to them are of such a nature — species based usually upon minute 
or microscopic characters — that photographs of them would have 
little value for determinative or descriptive work. 

The superior quality of the photographs thus far obtained is 
attested to by all competent persons who have examined them. As 
a result of the care exercised the specimens are reproduced with 
unusual fidelity to detail. To those engaged in monographic work, 
who are unable to visit personally the European herbaria, they are 
indispensable. There has been a gratifying demand upon the part 
of North and South American institutions for prints of these type 
negatives; indeed, a desire for them has been almost unanimous 
among the institutions approached, the only obstacle to the distri- 
bution of a large number of sets being financial difficulties upon the 
part of the herbaria concerned. Under improved economic condi- 
tions there should be a large demand. The prints, of course, are 
being offered for sale at the mere cost of making them. 

As it is, complete or partial sets of the prints, so far as they have 
become available, have been supplied through sale or exchange to 
five of the principal herbaria of the United States. A complete set 
of prints from the negatives obtained at Geneva has been deposited 
in the Berlin herbarium. At Field Museum prints have been made 
from the negatives as rapidly as possible, and mounted and dis- 
tributed into the Herbarium. Here they are available to any visiting 

It would be amiss to record the completion of the work at Berlin 
without mentioning the unfailing consideration of the Director, Dr. 
Ludwig Diels, and the members of his staff, who patiently and con- 
scientiously have contributed to the success of this long task. Their 
continued courtesy is deeply appreciated by Field Museum. 

Through the year constant use of the Museimi Herbarium has 
been made by members of the staff of the Department of Botany 
and by visitors to the Museum. During 1931 there were published 
at least thirty-three papers based wholly or in part upon the collec- 
tions — probably the number is greater, since it is almost certain 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 75 

that some papers by outside writers have not come to the attention 
of the Museum. The majority of these papers were written by 
members of the staff, but others were prepared by persons who 
had borrowed material for study. 

During 1931 Associate Curator Paul C. Standley published twenty 
papers based more or less directly upon collections in the Museum 
Herbarium. The largest of these was Volume X of the Botanical 
Series of Field Museum, devoted to Flora of the Lancetilla Valley, 
Honduras. This publication consists of 418 pages of descriptive text, 
accompanied by sixty-eight photogra\nire plates illustrating scenery 
and plants of the northern coast of Honduras. It is based upon collec- 
tions made by the author about the port of Tela during the winter of 
1927-28, and contains brief descriptions of the plants found there, 
with notes regarding their local uses and their vernacular names. 
The introduction describes the more prominent general features of 
the vegetation. The volume is the first complete descriptive flora 
ever published for any part of Central America. 

A paper of fifty-six pages, written by ]Mr. Standley and published 
by Field Museum, is devoted to The Cyperaceae of Central America, 
being an account of the sedges native to the area treated. He is 
the author also of three parts of Volume VII of the Botanical Series 
of Field Museum, all devoted to plants of the family Rubiaceae, the 
group containing coffee, madder, and the cinchona or quinine- 
producing trees. These parts deal respectively with The Rubiaceae of 
Ecuador, The Rubiaceae of Bolivia, and The Rubiaceae of Venezuela, 
each paper being a complete enumeration of the plants of the family 
known from the country covered. These three papers, with one upon 
the same group as represented in Colombia that was published in 
1930, complete Volume VII, which consists wholly of studies upon 
this group of plants. The volume contains descriptions of a large 
number of new species found in the collections made recently in 
South America by North American collectors, or in older series from 
European herbaria that were lent for study by the institutions 
possessing them. 

In Tropical Woods, the periodical published under the editor- 
ship of Professor Samuel J. Record of the School of Forestry of 
Yale University, who is also Associate in Wood Technology'' of Field 
Museum, Mr. Standley published three brief papers: one describing 
Talisia Floresii, a new fruit tree of the soapberry- family discovered 
in Yucatan by Dr. Roman S. Flores; another entitled "Two New 
Trees from South America"; and a third upon "Vernacular Names 

76 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

of Sinaloa Trees Collected by J. G. Ortega." In Science for March 6, 
1931, he published brief obituary notices and appreciations of Dr. 
Ignatius Urban of Berlin-Dahlem, one of the most eminent and 
most beloved of German botanists, and of Dr. Erik L. Ekman, a 
Swedish botanist whose exploration in Cuba and Haiti during the 
past few years has revealed an abundance of new species whose 
existence there scarcely had been suspected. Dr. Ekman's collec- 
tions are represented in a gratifying manner in the Museum Her- 
barium, through large series of duplicates of them received from 
the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet of Stockholm. 

Other Field Museum contributions to Tropical Woods were "The 
Forests of Northeastern Peru" and "The Occurrence of Walnut in 
Northeastern Peru" by Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Assistant in Wood 
Technology, both based on observations made by him during his 
work as a member of the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition to 
the Amazon in 1929-30. There also appeared in this publication 
some reviews of recent Brazilian botanical literature by Acting 
Curator B. E. Dahlgren. 

A paper by Associate Curator Standley appeared in Unifruitco 
for July, 1931, and was entitled "The Debt of Natural History to 
the United Fruit Company." It dealt with the generous cooperation 
of that American corporation in scientific exploration and study in 
Central America and other parts of the tropics. 

The third number of Volume XI of the Botanical Series of Field 
Museum consists of two papers by Mr. Standley, entitled The 
Nyctaginaceae of Northwestern South America, and The Chenopodiaceae 
of Northwestern South America. The former describes all the members 
of the four-o'clock family that are known to occur in Venezuela, 
Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia, and the second the plants of the 
pigweed family that grow in the same countries. These papers, 
like the one upon the sedges of Central America, are not monographic 
in treatment, but are intended to serve as aids to the determination 
of material collected in the regions covered. 

Mr. Standley published as No. 5 of Volume VIII of the Botanical 
Series of Field Museum a paper entitled Studies of American Plants 
— V. This consists largely of descriptions of new plants of the family 
Rubiaceae that were detected during the study of a large number 
of plants received during the year by the Museum, either on loan 
or for its permanent collections. 

During the year Assistant Curator Macbride published two papers 
as Nos. 1 and 2 of Volume XI of the Botanical Series — Spermato- 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 77 

phytes, Mostly Peruvian — III, and Spermatophytes, Mostly Peruvian — 
IV. These are devoted chiefly to descriptions of important new 
species of Peruvian plants discovered by the various Marshall Field 
expeditions of Field Museum to Peru in recent years. 

A large quantity of miscellaneous palm material has in the course 
of years been accumulated in the Museum, especially in the economic 
and exhibition collections. Efforts to reduce this to order and to 
determine unidentified material led first to a card index of the collec- 
tions, and later to a list of genera and species with common names, 
in which corrections were made from time to time in accordance 
with changes in the synonymy. Begun years ago, this was carried 
on intermittently with slight promise of reaching completion to any 
definite date until recently, when Field Museum, with the financial 
assistance of the Rockefeller Foundation, undertook the task of 
obtaining photographs of type specimens of tropical American plants 
in foreign herbaria. In this connection the desirability of a complete 
check list of species of American palms, with indication of the type 
collections to be photographed, became evident. This prompted 
some intensive work, with a checking of all references on the American 
part of the list and as a result an Index to New World Palms, by 
Acting Curator B. E. Dahlgren and Mr. Jos^ Frambach, will be 
published as No. 1 of Volume XIII of the Field Museum Botanical 

The Bulletin of the Pan American Union in its June issue carried 
an illustrated article by Mr. Williams entitled "East of the Andes." 
The account deals with the principal commodities exported from 
that vast and largely undeveloped territory. The writer also traces 
the development of aviation and lumbering in those regions during 
recent years. 

A similar article by Mr. Williams appeared in the March issue 
of the Pan-American Magazine. In this article the author set forth 
his impressions of the montana or forest region of Peru. 

For the Journal of Forestry, Mr. Williams prepared an article 
on "Woods and Forest Botany at Field Museum of Natural History." 
In this paper he traces the history of the Museum's collection of 
North American woods and describes the manner in which the 
specimens have been secured and the present method of displaying 
them. A brief description of the installations in the Hall of Foreign 
Woods is followed by an account of other activities, such as expedi- 
tions and researches of the Museum in their bearing on forestry. 

78 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Of papers issued by botanists of other institutions, several of 
importance contain mention of Field Museum material. Most 
important, perhaps, is one by Dr. H. A. Gleason of the New York 
Botanical Garden, appearing in the April number of the Bulletin of 
the Torrey Botanical Cluh. This paper of forty-eight pages, entitled 
"Recent Collections of IMelastomataceae from Peru and Amazonian 
Brazil," enumerates the plants of this important tropical family 
obtained by Mr. Williams for Field Museum during the course of 
his explorations in Amazonian Peru. 

Mr. Ellsworth P. Killip of the United States National Museum 
published in the Journal of the Washiiigton Academy of Sciences, 
Volume 21, No. 15, a paper entitled "New Plants Mainly from 
Western South America — III," in which he described a new passion- 
flower, Passiflora loretensis, based upon specimens collected in the 
department of Loreto, Peru, by Mr. Williams; also Valeriana 
oligodonta, the type of which is a Peruvian specimen in the Field 
Museum Herbarium presented by Professor Fortunato L. Herrera. 
Mr. Emery C. Leonard of the same museum published in the Journal 
of the Washington Academy of Sciences a paper upon "The Genus 
Mendoncia in Peru." In his account of this group of the acanthus 
family various collections from Field Museum expeditions were cited. 

Dr. S. F. Blake of the United States Department of Agriculture 
published in the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
a paper with the title "Six New South American Species of Verbesina." 
Two of the species that he describes are based upon material collected 
for Field Museimi in Peru by Dr. August Weberbauer. Mrs. Eva 
M. Fling Roush of the Arnold Arboretum in her "Sjmopsis of 
Robinsonella," in Volume XII of the Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 
lists the specimens of this genus that exist in the Field Museum 
Herbarium. This genus of the mallow family is confined to Mexico 
and Central America, and is remarkable for the great beauty of the 
trees composing it. 

Rev. F. E. Wimmer, the well-known authority upon the lobelia 
family, in a paper published in the Repertorium specierum novarum, 
Volume 29, described a new species from Costa Rica, Burmeistera 
ohtusifolia, based upon a specimen in the Herbarium of Field Museum. 

In naming the large series of specimens sent him for study at 
Berlin, Assistant Curator Macbride has had the kind assistance of 
some of the specialists on the staff of the Berlin Museum. Mr. M. 
Burret has determined some of the palms, and in a recent paper 
upon American palms in the Notizblatt of the Berlin Garden he 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 79 

has described two new ones, Geonoma comptoneura and Taenianthera 
oligosticha, collected in the department of Loreto, Pern, for Field 
Museum by Mr. Williams. Dr. Reinhard Knuth of the Berlin staff 
has described in Volume 29 of the Repertorium specierum novarum 
a plant of the yam family, Dioscorea quispicanchensis, collected for 
Field Museum in Peru by Dr. Weberbauer. 

The extensive collections of plant specimens received during the 
year have so fully occupied the staff of the Herbarium that at times 
it has been difficult to care for all of them, promptly. Their prepara- 
tion for study, labeling in many instances, mounting, and distribu- 
tion into the Herbarium have required constant attention. Even 
more exacting was the task of determining many thousands of them 
in order that they might be distributed into their proper places in 
the Herbarium. Nevertheless all specimens received have been 
given reasonably prompt attention. The only work in arrears is 
the mounting, and this is largely a legacy from former years. 

There have been submitted to the Museum Herbarium for 
critical determination 163 lots of plants of which a record was kept, 
and these comprised 11,186 specimens, an impressive total. The 
material was received from indi\4duals and institutions in all parts 
of the United States and Alaska. Of the foreign countries from 
which material was sent for determination, either on loan or for 
permanent preser\^ation in the Herbarium, there may be mentioned 
Germany, Sweden, France, Union of Socialistic Soidet Republics, 
Switzerland, England, Denmark, Japan, Hawaii, Argentina, Brazil, 
Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Cuba, Panama, 
Costa Rica, Salvador, Guatemala, and Mexico. 

Many fresh plants from the Chicago region were identified for 
a large number of persons who brought them to the IMuseum or 
forwarded them by mail. Since in most instances these specimens 
were not preserved, no statistical account of them can be furnished. 
They were submitted chiefly by teachers and students, or by indi- 
viduals particularly interested in local natural histon.'. It might be 
remarked that while most of the plants received in this manner are 
common ones of no value for permanent presen,'ation, there often 
are acquired plants extremely rare or not previously recorded in 
the area, and these furnish data of value for a record of the local 
flora. There have been identified, also, a large number of plants 
received by the General Biological Supply House of Chicago from 
its correspondents in all parts of the United States. 

80 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Much of the material received for determination in 1931, espe- 
cially in the case of collections submitted on loan, consisted of 
tropical American Rubiaceae. Since this material had not been 
identified previously, study of it disclosed a substantial number of 
new species, and specimens that illustrated important extensions of 
distribution for species already described. The new information 
thus brought to light has been made the basis of several papers by 
Associate Curator Standley, already published or in press, upon the 
Rubiaceae of South America and other parts of tropical America. 

The largest collection studied and determined during the year 
consisted of 1,348 specimens of Rubiaceae from the Delessert Her- 
barium of the Conservatory and Botanic Garden of Geneva, Swit- 
zerland. It comprised all the tropical American material of the 
first part of the family in that herbarium, and, although most of 
the specimens already had been named, they were sent for critical 
revision. Its packing and shipment required a large amount of labor, 
for which Field Museum is greatly indebted to the courtesy of the 
late Dr. John Isaac Briquet. The shipment was rich in collections 
of early botanical explorers, such as Ruiz and Pavon in Peru, and 
contained numerous historic specimens that were photographed 
before they were returned to Geneva. It included also many species 
of which no authentic material had been examined previously, and 
thus made possible a more critical revision of the determinations of 
the Museum collections. 

A shipment of Rubiaceae almost equally extensive was received 
on loan from the Museum of Natural History of Paris. This sending 
of 1,226 specimens consisted of undetermined tropical American 
material from the vast Paris Herbarium, some of which was collected 
more than a century and a half ago. Especially valuable was the 
great number of Venezuelan plants, particularly those obtained along 
the Orinoco by the French explorer Chaffanjon, who ascended that 
river almost to its source. The Paris series contained hundreds of 
Brazilian plants from pioneer collections such as those made by 
Saint-Hilaire, Gay, Weddell, and Goudot. Even more welcome 
were the plants of Funck and Schlim, Triana, and Linden from 
Colombia and Venezuela. The Brazilian collections mentioned were 
for the most part not available to the compilers of the Flora Brasili- 
ensis, and they contained a surprisingly large number of species 
not reported for the Brazilian fiora in that exhaustive monograph. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. Gunnar Samuelsson there arrived 
from the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet of Stockholm two loans total- 

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Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 81 

ing 651 specimens, chiefly of South American Rubiaceae. While 
they included many unusual plants obtained by older collectors, 
such as Mos^n and Regnell, they were more remarkable for the 
collections of recent explorers, notably Dus^n and Malme who col- 
lected in southern Brazil. These collections yielded an unexpectedly 
large number of species that had not been known to earlier students 
of the family. 

An important loan from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
England, submitted by the Director, Sir Arthur W. Hill, contained 
737 mounted sheets, principally of South American plants of the 
same family. The Kew collections were interesting on account of 
the many specimens obtained almost a hundred years ago in Brazil 
by Gardner and Burchell, as well as for those obtained later in the 
same country by Glaziou and Ule, and for the plants collected in 
the Amazon Valley by Traill and Weir. There were also specimens 
of the incomparable collection made along the Amazon and its 
tributaries by Richard Spruce, who was the first to explore inten- 
sively that inexhaustible region. Although Spruce's series always 
have been a desideratum among monographers of plant groups, 
some of them still await study, and they are rich in rare or unnamed 
species, since regions that he visited never have been reached by 
recent collectors. The Kew sending included a few exceptionally 
interesting plants from the state of Tabasco, discovered by J. N. 
Rovirosa, the only collector who has worked in that remote part 
of Mexico. 

From the Jardin Botanique Principal of Leningrad there were 
received on loan for determination 766 sheets of American plants, 
chiefly Mexican. These represented the work of some of the earliest 
botanists who visited Mexico, and while most of the collections had 
been determined previously in other herbaria, there was a notable 
exception in the plants gathered by Karwinsky. His admirably 
annotated series is represented but meagerly elsewhere than at 
Leningrad, and it was found to contain several plants new to the 
Mexican flora, in addition to material of many rare species. 

From the University Botanic Museum of Copenhagen, through 
the kindness of Dr. Carl Christensen, there were lent for study 178 
specimens from Mexico and Central America obtained by the cele- 
brated collectors. Oersted and Liebmann. The latter assembled in 
Mexico probably the largest number of herbarium specimens ever 
collected there by any one man. Oersted was the pioneer collector in 
Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Dr. Christensen generously permitted 

82 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Field Museum to retain fragments of some of the more ample speci- 
mens, and thus there was added to the Herbarium a representation 
of several species of Mexican and Central American plants previously- 

In the case of all the collections mentioned, the more interesting 
specimens were photographed in the Museum. The photographs 
thus obtained form a valuable addition to the study collections, 
and also are available for exchange with other herbaria. 

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University submitted for 
determination 143 sheets of Rubiaceae from various parts of tropical 
America. The majority of them were collected in Cuba. 

Associate Curator Standley devoted much time to critical deter- 
mination of these various collections of American Rubiaceae, and 
included part of the information obtained from their study in his 
paper upon The Rubiaceae of Venezuela which was published during 
the year. Descriptions of many of the new species from other 
countries appeared in Studies of American Plants — V, issued in June, 
1931, and others are included in a similar paper now in press. 

Much of the most valuable herbarium material acquired by the 
Museum each year is received in return for determinations supplied 
for the plants. During 1931 several particularly valuable lots were 
secured in this manner. 

The past twelve months have seen unprecedented botanical 
activity on Barro Colorado Island in Gatun Lake in the Canal 
Zone, where there is maintained the laboratory of the Institute for 
Research in Tropical America, to which Field Museum is a con- 
tributor of funds. Several botanists visited the island in 1931, and 
obtained there ample series of specimens. Dr. L. H. Bailey of 
Ithaca, New York, and his daughter. Miss Ethel Zoe Bailey, pre- 
sented to Field Museum 250 desirable specimens which they collected 
on Barro Colorado during the summer, and submitted an equal 
number of others that were named and returned. Professor C. L. 
Wilson of Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, presented 
an interesting series of 135 numbers of the island plants. From Mr. 
James Zetek, the Curator of the Barro Colorado laboratory, there 
have been received several collections obtained during the late 
summer and early winter, amounting in all to 928 well-prepared 
specimens of plants. These were made by several collectors who 
have visited the island lately. Besides those retained by Field 
Museum, there were returned to Mr. Zetek a large number of 
duplicate specimens to be used in forming a herbarium on Barro 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 83 

Colorado Island. Such a reference collection will now be available 
to the increasing number of scientists who visit the laboratory each 
year to conduct research in the several branches of natural science. 

The most noteworthy part of the sendings made by Mr. Zetek 
consisted of plants from a native Panamanian collector, Mr. Silvestre 
Aviles, whose intimate knowledge of the forest has enabled him to 
discover a large number of rare plants that had escaped eyes not 
so well trained to the details of the forest. 

As a result of recent collecting on Barro Colorado Island, the 
list of the known flora has been greatly extended, until it now 
amounts to almost a thousand species, a remarkable record for an 
area of only six square miles. Mr. Standley has pubhshed three 
lists of Barro Colorado plants, one of them in Volume IV of the 
Botanical Series of Field Museum. There is now being prepared a 
paper listing the recent additions and describing several new species, 
which will be published early in the coming year. 

Another large collection of plants determined during 1931 con- 
sisted of 576 specimens collected in 1930 in the Sierra de San Carlos, 
Tamaulipas, Mexico, by Professor H. H. Bartlett of the University 
of Michigan. This remote rocky range never had been visited 
previously by a botanical collector. Consequently, taking into con- 
sideration the fact that these isolated mountains of the desert regions 
almost always possess endemic species, it was not surprising to find 
that this collection contained a substantial number of plants new 
to the Mexican flora. It included also several plants that had not 
before been found so far north in Mexico, and, rather surprisingly, 
others from the United States whose existence in Mexico had not 
been suspected. 

Two important lots of British Honduras plants were received for 
determination during the year. One consisted of 147 specimens made 
in the northern part of the colony by Mr. William C. Meyer of 
Columbia University in connection with his work upon chicle- 
producing plants. The other contained 155 numbers collected in 
southern British Honduras by Mr. William A. Schipp. Like Mr. 
Schipp's collections of previous years, this sending contained a high 
percentage of unusual or new plants. Some of those collected in 
the pine woods that characterize the region are reminiscent of the 
flora of the pinelands of southern Florida. Particularly is this true 
in the case of the rather numerous Utricularias or bladderworts — 
small, curiously constructed plants that grow in water or in wet soil. 

84 FkBU> MiKBDM OP Naxusal HKaronY— Rz?:?.-s, Vol IX 

Tliere ivoe detBcmiiied suly-UmB plants sent irani tiie mpfjtiic 
cf Sshrador lifj Dr. Salvador Calderan, idiose dDigent labors in tliat 
CM iMniiy lia¥e resulted in tiie compilation of mudi infoimation re e?j-d- 
ing its Yaried flora. Mr. C. H. Lanfcester of Cartago» Cos:?. Rira 
submitted e^l^-one ^pedmens of tbe rare? Costa Sicar j.i: :s 
indnding mata i a l of tbe recentijr desczrrfi 5^ , i./iia n/^L : . 

eoBected on his property. This is an ep:: :::::: ^ivoody -^'.3.1.'. c: :i^ 
Mav^pravia family. 

Flor tiie Corapanliia Fiord Industrial do B^rasfl there were deter- 
mined 228 speomensy many of which were important fiber plants 
now being tested at that oompansr's plantations on the Amazon 
EivfT 7r± 2 Tie— :: ascertaining liieir commercial possifailities. 
Thoe ~is : i~ f : :-r. Field Mnseom also a portioa of the coIlectMEi 
made by ^Ir. Gu: fr-o Khig in Peru and Colombia, along the 
Putumayo Eiver. T:ic expedition made by Mr. Ehig along this 
stream of notorious reputation is Tahiable because it serves to connect 
the floras of Colombia and Pou. He seems to possess an excq>- 
tionaDy keen eye for detecting tbe mmsaal among i^ants, and all 
his coiledAMS from tiie eastern Andean r^on have given most 
satirfactory resnlts when studied. 

Two hundred numbers of Mexi:a.:i ; :.r:s -f:r !r: : :: ed for 
Mr. Jesus Gonzalez Ortega, an engineer of ]!vlazarlan, ] I f i: : . These 
are a continnatian of Mr. Gonzalez's cdlections of former years, 
irtiich amrir': *: : several thousand numbers of wefl-prcpared plant 
apedmens ^ -r.-mgjh Sjnaloa is not one of the least eaqilored of 
Mgriwm 5:.3.:rs, his work has established the occurrence there of 
hundreds li ^iaaats overiooloed by less capable ooDectors. Another 
Mi»gipgm collection, presented to the Museum in return for deter- 
^miwtaitim^ consisted of 135 specimens gathered by Mr. H. W. Yon 
RaEyDtdd in the vicinity of Janmave, Meiico. Althoogji small, 
this eolieetion contained one new apedes, and in the comparar 
tively wdMrorlcBd nortb llfeziean flora new spedes are now rather 

There were determined for Mr. George L. Fisher c^ Houston, 
Teaas, 221 numbers of idants v^iieh he hai :oIlected in various 
parts of T^xas and in southern New Menc : Aisistance was given 
abo in the determination of forty-eig^t plE:.r.:5 received from Dr. 
Rudolf Probst of Langendorf, Switzerland. These were cdlected 
in waste ground in Switzerlari. z.nd coii;i:ei largely of North 
American plants the seeds of w:. ::. bad been imported hy accident 
wiQi wool from the United StatesL 

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Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 85 

Associate Curator Standley prepared for the Flora of Peru a 
treatment of the famihes Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae. In 
connection with this work there were prepared accounts of the 
same families as they are represented in Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, 
and Venezuela. A short paper enumerating the Chenopodiaceae 
already has been published in the Botanical Series of Field Museum, 
under the title The Chenopodiaceae of Northwestern South America. 
A paper treating the Amaranthaceae is ready for the press. Work 
upon these two groups was aided substantially by a loan from the 
United States National Museum of 679 sheets of South American 
plants. This loan was made through the courtesy of Dr. William 
R. Maxon and Mr. Ellsworth P. Killip. 

By working long hours outside the customary scheduled ones. 
Assistant Curator Macbride has completed the first installment of 
the Flora of Peru, upon which he has been engaged for several years 
through field exploration and herbarium study. The first part of 
the proposed flora, covering the early families of the usual sequence 
of flowering plants up to the Orchidaceae, has been submitted for 
printing. It will form by itself a fair-sized volume, which will be 
of the highest value to all students of the Andean vegetation. The 
Flora is a descriptive one, containing an account of all the families, 
genera, and species known to occur in Peru, with keys for their 
recognition. The account of the grasses has been compiled by 
Associate Curator Standley. The treatment of the bromehads or 
Bromeliaceae, the pineapple family so lavishly represented in Peru, 
has been contributed by Dr. Lyman B. Smith of the Gray Herbariimi 
of Harvard University; that of the highly ornamental plants of the 
genus Bomarea of the family Amaryllidaceae by Mr. Ellsworth P. 
KiUip of the United States National Museum. 

During the year Mr. Macbride prepared various papers deal- 
ing with rare Peruvian plants collected by the several Museum 
expeditions to Peru, under Mr. Macbride, Mr. Williams, and Dr. 
Weberbauer. He also studied some of the early and historically 
important Peruvian collections which are preserved in the herbaria 
of Berlin and Geneva. 

Mr. Hermann C. Benke of Chicago has devoted some of his 
time to study of Mississippi Valley plants in the Museum Herbarium. 
He has determined, also, portions of his own extensive collections 
of United States plants which he has contributed so generously from 
time to time to the Herbarium. 

86 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

The numerous reconstructions of fossil plants which compose 
the Carboniferous swamp forest group completed during the year 
for the historical geology exhibits in Ernest R. Graham Hall, were 
prepared in the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories 
in the Department of Botany. The planning and the scientific 
responsibility for the paleontological reconstructions, botanical and 
zoological, devolved on the Acting Curator of Botany who through- 
out the course of the work enjoyed the generous cooperation of 
Professor A. C. No^, the paleobotanist of the University of Chicago. 
Professor No6's intimate knowledge of the Pennsylvanian flora was 
freely placed at the disposal of the Museum. His advice and 
collaboration in the solution of the many technical paleobotanical 
questions arising at all stages of the work have contributed greatly 
to the final success of the undertaking. His readiness to grant to 
the Museum the loan of specimens from the extensive collections 
in his care, and his many visits, often accompanied by sections of his 
classes, to the laboratories of the Department of Botany, furnish 
an example of the perfect kind of cooperation which at times may 
be effected between related departments of the Museum and the 

Details concerning the reconstructions of fossil plants and animals 
which enter into the Carboniferous forest group will be found in the 
section of this Report that deals with the new exhibits of the Depart- 
ment of Geology (p. 160). A brief description of the group appeared 
in Field Museum News of October, 1931. A more extended account 
of it has been prepared by the Acting Curator of Botany for 
publication in the Museum's Geological Leaflet Series and is now 
in press. 

During 1931 the Department of Botany distributed in exchange 
15,641 herbarium specimens and photographs of plants to a large 
number of institutions and individuals in many parts of the United 
States and Europe. Through its exchanges with other institutions 
the Museum receives some of the most valuable herbarium material 
that it acquires, collections that could not be obtained in any other 
manner. During the past year the Herbarium has received approx- 
imately 11,000 specimens as return exchanges. A large part of the 
exchange material dispatched from the Museum consisted of dupli- 
cate specimens obtained in Peru by the Marshall Field Expeditions, 
and there were shipped, besides, several sets of the plants gathered 
in Yucatan by the late Dr. G. F. Gaumer, which formed the basis 
of the Flora of Yucatan published by the Museum in 1930. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 87 

Part of the material distributed consisted of duplicate mounted 
sheets removed from the Herbarium. Years ago there were purchased 
by the Museum several large private herbaria, all of whose specimens 
were distributed into the permanent collections. It has been found 
that these often duplicate one another, and such duplicates are being 
removed as they are discovered in order to provide needed room in 
the storage cases. 

The loans of mounted sheets from the Herbarium during the 
past year amounted to 4,815 specimens, sent out in forty-three lots 
to almost as many institutions and individuals. Of this total, 2,213 
represent Peruvian collections sent to Assistant Curator Macbride 
at Berlin for study and determination in connection with his work 
upon the flora of Peru. The rest of the material consisted partly 
of collections that were sent to specialists for identification, but 
chiefly of loans made to students engaged in monographing limited 
groups of American plants. 

To Dr. Carl Epling of the University of California at Los Angeles, 
there were lent 624 sheets of Salvia from North America, to facilitate 
his monographic studies of that large genus of the mint family. 
There were sent to Dr. Francis W. Pennell of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia 469 sheets of the family Scrophulariaceae, 
for use in a detailed account that he is preparing of this family as 
it is represented in the northwestern United States. To the Phila- 
delphia Academy there were lent also thirty-eight specimens of 
Phlox, for study by Dr. E. T. Wherry of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, who is engaged in monographing this complicated group of 
United States plants. 

There were forwarded to the New York Botanical Garden sixty- 
three specimens of Callicarpa, at the request of Mr. Harold Moldenke, 
who, after completing his account of the genus Aegiphila, for which 
the Musevmi material was borrowed, is continuing with this second 
group of the same family, the Verbenaceae. In this connection 
should be mentioned the Museum's indebtedness to Mr. Moldenke 
for his loan of sixty-five negatives of type and other important speci- 
mens of the genus Aegiphila from American and European herbaria. 
Prints of these negatives were made in the Museum and are now 
deposited for reference in the Herbarium. 

To the New York Botanical Garden there were lent twenty 
specimens of the genus Maieta, for study by Dr. H. A. Gleason, 
and 226 Peruvian plants of the family Melastomataceae, including 
the types of several species described by Assistant Curator Macbride. 

88 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Professor M. L. Femald of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard 
University received from Field Museum on loan 216 sheets of 
Potamogeton of the United States, the material of a particular group 
in this genus of pondweeds with the study of which he is engaged. 
He returned the material carefully annotated, and with unusual H 

Another loan of herbarium specimens made during 1931 consisted 
of thirty-one sheets of the genus Swertia, for study at the Missouri 
Botanical Garden, St. Louis. To Miss Ethel I. Sanborn of the 
University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, thirty-two sheets of American 
plants were lent for comparison with fossil plants in the study of 
which she is interested. 

Of several sendings of Peruvian plants for study, the largest 
consisted of 365 sheets of Piper and Peperomia to Dr. William 
Trelease of the University of Illinois, who is preparing for the Flora 
of Peru the account of this difficult and complex group of tropical 
plants. Among the Museum collections of Piperaceae Dr. Trelease 
has discovered a large number of new species, as was confidently to 
be expected in a region where so little collecting had been done 

Twenty-five specimens of Peruvian plants of the lobelia family 
were lent to Rev. F. E. Wimmer of Vienna, the well-known monog- 
rapher of the group. Eighty-seven Polygalaceae were sent to Dr. 
Robert Chodat of the University of Geneva, Switzerland, who for 
many years has been publishing monographic accounts of the family. 

Fourteen sheets of critical lichen species were lent to Miss Joyce 
Hedrick of the University of Michigan, who is completing the manual 
of North American lichens left unfinished by the late Professor 
Bruce Fink. In addition, there were sent to Miss Hedrick twenty- 
one photographs of lichens, with a view to their possible use as 
illustrations in the forthcoming volume. 

As in previous years exchanges of hand specimens from the 
Museum's duplicate collection were made with individuals and 
institutions interested in the study of woods. To Professor Emanuel 
Fritz of the University of California the Museum sent 137 specimens 
of East Indian, Paraguayan, Brazilian and North American woods 
for study purposes. Yale University School of Forestry received 
123 study and exhibition specimens of woods of Brazil, Paraguay, 
and the United States. 

In exchange for material received by the Museum in 1929, 146 
hand samples of woods of the United States, Brazil, Paraguay, 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 89 

India and British Honduras, were sent to the United States National 
Museum. Specimens of woods for study were sent also to Mr. 
Alexander L. Howard of London and Dr. Ryozo Kanehira of the 
Kyusha Imperial University, Fukuoka, Japan, at the suggestion of 
Dr. John Cameron of Union Medical College, Peiping, China, who 
visited the Department in the course of the year. 

Dr. K. K. Chen, Director of Pharmacologic Research of Eli Lilly 
and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, received from the Museum 
for study and experiment samples of leaves, stems and roots of a 
malpighiaceous liana, ayahuasca, which occurs in northeastern Peru. 
A sample of an infusion prepared by the natives from the leaves 
of this vine was also sent to him. 

As usual, the Museum has received appreciated assistance from 
many botanists of the United States and Europe in the determination 
of its current collections. While in some instances it has been 
necessary to lend mounted specimens for naming, in most cases it 
has been possible to send duplicate specimens to be retained by the 
recipients as a partial return for their labor in making determinations. 

The staff of the Botanical Museum and Garden of Berlin-Dahlem 
has furnished determinations of a part of the Chinese plants collected 
by the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to Eastern Asia for 
Field Museum, which were sent to that institution last year. Assist- 
ant Curator Macbride writes most appreciatively of the continued 
assistance he has received from the Berlin staff in determining the 
extensive collections being studied as a basis for the Flora of Peru. 

Among those for whose continued aid in the determination of 
material the Museum is grateful there should be mentioned the 
following: Professor Oakes Ames of the Botanical Museum of 
Harvard University, who has identified numerous miscellaneous 
lots of orchids from tropical America, and now is preparing an 
account of the orchids of Peru for the Museum's Flora of that country; 
Mr. Edwin B. Bartram, Bushkill, Pennsylvania, who always may 
be relied upon to name tropical mosses with a gratifying promptness 
that doubles the Museum's obligation for the favor; Dr. C. W. 
Dodge of the Farlow Herbarium of Harvard University, who has 
given assistance with lichens; Dr. William R. Maxon of the United 
States National Museum, who has been kind in determining many 
of the tropical ferns received currently; Mr. Ellsworth P. Killip of 
the same institution, who has named various lots of tropical American 
plants, especially Passifloraceae, Urticaceae, and Boraginaceae; Dr. 
B. L. Robinson of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, who 

90 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

has determined Compositae of the Eupatorium alliance; Dr. H. A. 
Gleason of the New York Botanical Garden, who has determined 
a large number of plants of the vast family Melastomataceae, that 
forms so important an element in the flora of Peru; Mr. Albert C. 
Smith of the same institution, who has named the Museum's collec- 
tion of South American Ericaceae of the groups in which he is 
particularly interested; Dr. A. S. Hitchcock of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., who has identified 
critical specimens of Peruvian grasses; Dr. S. F. Blake of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, who has supplied names for 
several difficult collections of Compositae; Dr. William Trelease of 
the University of Illinois, who has been prompt in furnishing deter- 
minations for plants of the family Piperaceae; and Dr. Carl Epling 
of the University of California at Los Angeles, who has named with 
equal promptness a large number of plants of the mint family from 
Peru and elsewhere. 

Most of the time of Assistant Curator James B. McNair during 
the year has been occupied in routine work of accessioning and 
cataloguing, and in preparations for the installation of exhibits. 
Nevertheless he has found time to carry on research concerned with 
the physical and chemical properties of substances formed by plants 
in relation to climate, the interrelation of chemical compounds in 
plants, and the identification and quantitative determination of 
various acids formed by plants, along the lines of his A Study of 
Some Characteristics of Vegetable Oils, published in 1930. Since then 
he has published similar papers on alkaloids and waxes in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Botany (Vol. XVIII, pp. 416-424, 518-526). Studies 
on volatile oils, cyanogenetic glucosides, saponins, carbohydrates, 
dyestuffs, and proteins were also undertaken by Mr. McNair. He 
has shown that some of these substances have individual variations 
which may be correlated with climate, and he has found that all 
of them apparently have greater potential energy when produced 
by plant families of temperate climates. 

Mr. McNair's study of the interrelation of chemical compounds 
in plants has been confined thus far to the relationship between 
oxalate and cyanogen and the relationship between essential oils 
and resin. It has been shown that the presence of oxalate in plants 
may be contingent upon the presence of cyanogen, and likewise that 
resins are formed from some of the constituents of essential oils. 

His investigation of acids formed by plants has to date been 
confined chiefly to the volatile fatty acids produced by fungi. His 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 91 

typewritten manuscript upon this subject comprises some seven 
hundred pages. 

While the taxonomist identifies plants by their flowers and leaves, 
the worker in economic botany has his chief analytical problem in 
the determination of such detached plant products as fibers, gums, 
resins, oils, sugars, and starches. The chemical and botanical 
knowledge required for analytical problems in economic botany 
sometimes proves to be of direct service in other fields. The identi- 
fication of the textile fibers used at various periods in Egypt indicates 
not only the progress of the textile art at these periods but also the 
state of agriculture and international commerce. In connection 
with studies of the cultural history of Egypt by Dr. T. George Allen, 
Assistant Curator of Egyptian Archaeology, cotton and linen textiles 
were identified by Mr. McNair. 

Fiber identifications have been useful also in the study of the 
artifacts left by American aborigines. In the southwestern states 
there once existed tribes now known as Pueblo Indians and Basket 
Makers. The places in which they lived may be determined by the 
artifacts left by them. The Basket Makers antedate the Pueblos 
and did not use cotton, while the Pueblos did. The simple deter- 
mination of a fiber as non-cotton for Dr. Paul S. Martin, Assistant 
Curator of North American Archaeology, thus aided in determining 
a collection of artifacts from San Juan County in southeastern Utah 
as belonging to the Basket Makers. In connection with the ethno- 
logical researches of Dr. John Alden Mason of the University of 
Pennsylvania Museum, resins used by the Indians of Colombia, 
South America, were determined by Assistant Curator McNair as 
being derived from trees of the bean and myrrh families. 

For many years Mr. McNair has been recognized as an authority 
on poison ivy. Two articles on this subject were written by him 
during the year; viz. "Ivy Poisoning," for Collier's Encyclopedia, and 
"Ivy Poisoning and Lobinol," which appeared in the Journal of the 
American Medical Association, August 1, 1931, Volume 97, page 341. 
On the evening of June 25, 1931, Mr. McNair lectured on poison 
ivy over Radio Station WENR through the courtesy of the National 
Broadcasting Company. 

Mr. Llewelyn Williams, Assistant in Wood Technology, has been 
engaged in preparing for publication the results of his researches on 
the woods of northeastern Peru. The specimens studied form a 
part of the comprehensive collection assembled by the Peruvian 

92 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

division of the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition to the Amazon, 

This year, as in the past, members of the Department were 
consulted by many scientific institutions, business houses, and 
individuals upon matters pertaining to botany. Much time is 
required to supply information asked by correspondents or by 
visitors, but a thorough effort is always made to answer their 

Miss Edith M. Vincent, Librarian of the Department, has devoted 
a great deal of time to compiling bibliographic information for 
visitors to the Museum who desired to consult its extensive botanical 
library. Especially numerous are those who wish to see illustrations 
of plants. Many of them are artists engaged in illustrating encyclo- 
pedias and other reference works. Others examine plant portraits 
in order to use them for designs and for illustrating advertising 

The Department of Botany has enjoyed visits from a large 
number of botanists of the United States, but foreign visitors have 
been fewer than in preceding years. Professor H. M. Hall of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington visited the Department in 
January to consult its Herbarium and library. Dr. Francis W. 
Pennell and Dr. E. T. Wherry of Philadelphia, after a summer of 
botanical collecting in the northwestern states, spent two days in 
the Herbarium in the autumn, studying respectively Scrophulariaceae 
and the genus Phlox. Mr. Charles C. Deam of Bluff ton, Indiana, 
spent a few days in the Herbarium, collecting data for one of his 
intensive reports upon the Indiana flora. Dr. Robert E. Woodson 
of the Missouri Botanical Garden studied some of the Herbarium 
collections of the family Apocynaceae, in which he is specializing. 
Dr. Earl E. Sherff of Chicago Normal College visited the Herbarium 
almost every week, in order to study the several groups of the family 
Compositae with whose study he is engaged. A welcome visitor to 
the Herbarium upon several occasions has been Dr. Th. Just of 
the University of Notre Dame, who is keenly interested in the flora 
of the Lake Michigan region, and especially in the family Cyperaceae. 

Because of its unique position as a connecting point between the 
railroads of the east and west, Chicago is visited by many botanists 
who, although lacking time for work in the Herbarium, nevertheless 
visit it while waiting for train connections. In this manner, with 
only an hour or two available, they have an opportunity to become 
acquainted with the activities of the Department. 












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Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 93 

Geology. — Curator Oliver C. Farrington in June visited sev- 
eral quarries in Oxford County, Maine, where mining for feldspar, 
mica, etc., was being carried on. Sixty-seven specimens of minerals 
and rocks were collected. These were such as had been brought to 
light by recent activities at the quarries and for the most part had 
not been previously represented in the Museum collections. They 
included rare specimens of arsenopyrite from two localities, an 
unusually large and complete series of the mineral montmorillonite, 
various forms of muscovite, and some rare varieties of quartz. A 
quartz crystal weighing 800 pounds was also examined with a view 
to determining its desirability as a Museum acquisition. Other 
specimens obtained illustrated unusual mineral associations. 

An expedition to Nebraska for the purpose of collecting vertebrate 
fossils of Upper Miocene age was carried on under the leadership 
of Mr. Elmer S. Riggs, Associate Curator of Paleontology, accom- 
panied by Messrs. Bryan Patterson, J. H. Quinn and Sven Dorf of 
the paleontological staff. About five weeks in June and July were 
spent in the region. The areas visited were chiefly in northern and 
western Nebraska along the Niobrara and North Platte Rivers. 
Some side trips were also made to the eastern part of Wyoming. 
Camps were established at Valentine and on Sand Creek, Nebraska. 
While surface indications were abundant in many of the localities 
visited, the fossils were found in many cases to be disarticulated 
and waterwom. Fencing and private ownership of a large part of 
the area, and the unusually intense heat of the season, also interfered 
with obtaining as good results as had been expected. Specimens of 
most importance obtained were jaws of a fossil rhinoceros and remains 
of saber-tooth cats, oreodonts and a few other fossil mammals. 
Opportunity was also afforded, through knowledge of previous burials 
of domestic animals, to secure skeletons of the modem horse and 
cow, and of several other small domestic animals. A series of such 
skeletons had long been desired for use in the laboratory. 

In the latter part of their stay, Messrs. Riggs and Patterson 
moved west to Bridgeport, Nebraska, where through acquaintance 
formed with Messrs. S. R. Sweet and Anton C. G. Kaempfer, local resi- 
dents and amateur collectors, knowledge was gained of more favorable 
localities and collecting was carried on along the North Platte River. 
From this region a skull of a large oreodont, and a large, fine carapace 
and part of the internal skeleton and legs of a Miocene tortoise, 
forty-four inches in length, were obtained. Also, a skull and a 
ramus of the lower jaw of the four-tusked mastodon, Trilophodon, 

94 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

were secured by gift. Altogether the expedition obtained thirty- 
eight specimens of fossil mammals, two of fossil turtles and six 
skeletons of recent mammals. 

About one-third of the expense of the expedition was contributed 
by Messrs. Riggs and Patterson. Mr. Dorf contributed the use of 
his car. Grateful acknowledgment is also due to Mr. Sweet for giving 
freely of his time and the use of his car for several of the trips, and 
for assisting members of the expedition to become acquainted with 
local residents from whom valuable information was obtained and 
gifts of specimens were received. 

Mr. Henry Field, Assistant Curator of Physical Anthropology, 
contributed the use of his car and his time on several holidays to 
transport Assistant Curator Sharat K. Roy and Assistant Bryan 
Patterson of the geological staff, and Mr. J. Eric Thompson, Assistant 
Curator of Central and South American Archaeology, to Blue Island, 
Illinois, in order to continue collecting of fossil worms of Silurian 
age of species which had previously been collected there, and studied 
and described by Mr. Roy. These fossils occur in a restricted area, 
so that it was desirable to secure as full a representation of them 
as possible in advance of a possible exhaustion of the locality. 
The results of the collecting were very gratifying, about 200 speci- 
mens being obtained. Besides an excellent series of the fossil worms, 
a number of fossil trilobites, brachiopods, gastropods and bryozoans 
were collected. Among the entire series, at least one species of 
worm and one of trilobite are new to science. 

Research on the collection of South American fossil mammals 
has been carried forward concurrently with the preparation and 
determination of the specimens. Special attention has been given 
to the study of mammals from the Lower Eocene formations of 
Argentina, and a systematic account of this fauna in preparation 
by Associate Curator Elmer S. Riggs is nearing completion. Special 
studies in the morphology of some of the groups have been made, 
and some of the results have been presented in a Museum publica- 
tion by Mr. Bryan Patterson, Assistant in Paleontology, under the 
title The Auditory Region of the Toxodontia. This paper describes 
certain similarities among the larger groups of South American fossil 
ungulates and indicates that some changes should be made in the 
classifications previously adopted. During the preparation and 
identification of the extensive collection of fossil South American 
ground sloths obtained by the Marshall Field Paleontological Expedi- 
tions, a large number of studies and measurements have been made 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 95 

under the direction of Associate Curator Riggs with a view to pre- 
paring a systematic treatise on this great group of mammals also. 

A second Museum publication by Mr. Patterson issued during 
the year, describes a new species of alligatoroid reptile from rocks 
of Oligocene age in South Dakota. The specimen upon which the 
paper is based was collected by a Museum expedition in 1898. Mr. 
Patterson also collected and collated an extensive bibliography of 
South American fossil mammals. 

A publication in the Geological Series of the Museum, entitled 
A Fossil Turtle from Peru, written by Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant 
Curator of Reptiles, Department of Zoology, describes a new species 
of Podocnemis of Eocene age presented by Dr. Axel A. Olsson of 
Gloversville, New York. It shows an earlier dispersal than had 
hitherto been known of this genus, of which some species are still 

Two Museum publications were prepared by Assistant Curator 
Sharat K. Roy during the year. They are A Silurian Worm and 
Associated Fauna and Upper Canadian (Beekmantown) Drift Fossils 
from Labrador. The first paper, issued during the year as No. 7 of 
Volume IV of the Geological Series of Field Museum, was written in 
collaboration with Associate Professor Carey Croneis of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, and is devoted to a revised description of an 
extremely interesting fossil worm, Lecthaylus gregarius Weller, and 
a critical survey of modem and fossil organisms allied to it. The 
study indicates that this worm was closely allied to modem geph- 
yreans. The paper also describes a new species of worm and a number 
of graptolites found at the same locality, all of which are recorded 
for the first time from the state of Illinois. 

The second paper. Upper Canadian (Beekmantown) Drift Fossils 
from Labrador, is now in press. It is based on collections made by Mr. 
Roy while a member of the Second Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic 
Expedition (1927-28). Specimens of a t5T)ical Upper Canadian 
(Beekmantown) fauna of the Atlantic American phase, not pre- 
viously known to occur in the American Arctic and eastern Subarctic 
regions, are described. It is shown that this fauna closely resembles 
those of Vermont and Newfoundland and indicates a much greater 
northern extension of the seas of that period than had hitherto been 
supposed. Since knowledge of the geology of the Arctic and Subarctic 
regions is at best fragmentary and disconnected, this contribution is 
a valuable one. 

96 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Mr. Roy has also been engaged during the year in the preparation 
of a paper based on the collection of invertebrate fossils he made at 
Silliman's Fossil Mount, Frobisher Bay, Baffin Land, while a member 
of the Second Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition. Prepara- 
tion of the specimens has brought to light many not previously 
observed, and a total of 301 is now available for study. Of these, 
the echinoderms, corals, brachiopods, pelecypods and trilobites have 
been identified and, with the exception of a few species of pelecypods 
and corals, all have been described. Twenty-five new species have 
been discovered in this series so far. 

Dr. George R. Wieland of Yale University has continued work 
on the elaborate monograph on the Triassic Araucaria of Argentina 
on which he has been engaged for several years. This monograph 
is based upon a series of 250 specimens collected by the Marshall 
Field Expedition to Argentina in 1924. Material has already been 
prepared by Dr. Wieland for making thirty-five plates and forty 
text figures, and a large amount of the manuscript has been completed. 

The apparatus for the preparation of micro-fossils, and the bake- 
lite method for hardening fossil bones, both of which were developed 
in the Department laboratories as described in previous Reports, 
attracted considerable attention during the year. At the request 
of the editor of the British Museums Journal, articles describing 
both methods in detail were prepared for that journal by Associate 
Curator Henry W. Nichols, Assistant Curator Roy and Preparator 
P. C. Orr. 

In response to a widespread and continued demand for descrip- 
tions to be used in connection with photographs of the twenty- 
eight mural paintings of prehistoric life by Mr. Charles R. Knight in 
Ernest R. Graham Hall, a complete series of such descriptions was 
prepared by Curator Farrington and Associate Curator Riggs for 
distribution with the photographs. 

Thirteen signed articles and six briefer notes were contributed 
by members of the Department staff to Field Museum News during 
the year. 

Supplying information to correspondents and visitors continued 
to be an appreciable part of the work of the staff. Replies were 
made to correspondence from a total of 648 writers referred to the 
Curator's office. Information was given to 313 visitors. For the 
latter, many identifications of minerals and fossils were made, those 
of invertebrate fossils alone numbering 239. 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. IX, Plate XIII 


Showing the trunk and foliage of the tree-like clubmosses, Sigillarias and Lepidodendrons, 

tree-ferns and seed-bearing plants with fern-like foliage. Reproduced 

in Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories, 

Department of Botany of the Museum 


^«e imm 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 97 

Through cooperation with the University of Chicago, valuable 
assistance was received from several members of its faculty, and it 
was possible to render some favors in return. At the request of Pro- 
fessor James H. Breasted of the university, two AssjTian bronzes 
of great value which were seriously corroded and in danger of com- 
plete destruction were restored by Associate Curator Nichols, by 
means of the Fink electrolytic process. Remarkably complete 
restorations of each were attained. In this connection, Mr. X'ichols 
also gave Mr. Stephen Burtch of the Oriental Institute instruction 
in the installation and operation of the apparatus, so that further 
work of this kind could be carried on at the institute. A series of 
twenty minerals was lent to Mr. John McCormack for thesis 
work at the university. These minerals are to be used for study of 
their electrical properties. A room on the third floor of the ^Museum 
was set aside for the use of students who wish to carrj- on research. 
Tables and chairs were provided, and a series of relief maps illus- 
trating the geography and topography of the continents was hung 
on the walls. 

To the university grateful acknowledgments are made for the 
assistance and ad\ice rendered in the construction of the Carbonif- 
erous swamp forest exhibit by Professor A. C. No^ of the Depart- 
m.ent of Botany and Professor A. S. Romer of the Department of 
Paleontology-. Professor No6 lent a number of specimens for 
reproduction and gave much valuable ad\ice as to details of struc- 
ture of extinct plant species used in the restoration. Professor 
Romer gave information which assisted in the restoration of the 
amphibian, Diplovertebron, used in the group, and also furnished 
information as to details of the structure of the reptiles represented 
in the mural painting African Reptiles of the Permian Period. 

Zoology. — Zoological expeditions in 1931 were mainly those 
continued from 1930. The most important of these were the 
Harold White-John Coats Central African Expedition, the C. 
Suydam Cutting Sikkim Expedition, and the Marshall Field 
Chinese Expedition. 

After its success in securing material for a group of bongo and 
various other large mammals especially needed, the Harold White- 
John Coats Expedition made a trip into northeastern Kenya near 
the north bank of the Tana River in search of the rare and local 
Hunter's antelope {Damaliscus hunteri). This species, which is 
probably approaching extinction, was found in small numbers, and 
two fine specimens representing both sexes were taken. In the 

98 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

same region interesting monkeys and other valuable material were 
collected. The work of the expedition was then brought to a close 
early in 1931. 

The C. Suydam Cutting Sikkim Expedition, which had already 
accomplished much in 1930, was continued through the first half of 
1931. Mr. Cutting himself returned before the winter season, but 
detailed work was carried on by Mr. Herbert Stevens, assisted by 
Mr. V. S. La Personne of the Bombay Natural History Society. 
After completing work in the Darjeeling district, the higher parts of 
central Sikkim were visited, and during the summer months altitudes 
up to 16,000 feet were reached, resulting in the acquisition of scarce 
and interesting animals found only in the highest parts of the 
Himalayas. By concentrating on a relatively limited area, the 
expedition was able to obtain a widely varied and representative 
collection, including a number of species not heretofore represented 
in American museums. An exceptionally fine series of monkeys was 
secured, and among smaller mammals the rare Tibetan water shrew 
(Nectogale) is notable. The birds include handsome examples of 
the magnificent Impeyan pheasant, tragopans, and various other 
pheasants. Approximately two thousand specimens were added to 
the collections as a result of this expedition. Some fourteen hundred 
of these are birds and four hundred are mammals. There are smaller 
numbers of reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. 

The Marshall Field Chinese Expedition, under the leadership of 
Mr. Floyd T. Smith, was engaged largely in organization, prepara- 
tion, and negotiation during the latter part of 1930. By January, 
1931, Mr. Smith with a corps of Chinese assistants had completed 
all arrangements in Shanghai and proceeded up the Yangtze River 
by steamer to Suifu in the southeastern part of the province of 
Szechwan. Thence the expedition continued up the Min River in 
small boats propelled by oars or hauled by trackers to Kiatingfu. 
Here a caravan of coolie carriers was organized and the expedition 
went northward on foot to Yachowfu, near which the first collecting 
camp was established. 

From Yachowfu Mr. Smith then proceeded with special native 
collectors to Mouping in northeastern Szechwan, a locality made 
famous by the pioneer collections of the French monk Armand 
David, which furnished the foundation for much of our knowledge 
of the fauna of central China. These collections, obtained over a 
period of years, have never been duplicated and, since they are 
practically inaccessible to American zoologists, it is a most important 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 99 

preliminary to the study of Chinese vertebrates to have material 
at hand from this exact region for use as a standard of comparison. 
Therefore, the work of the expedition was largely concentrated in 
the Mouping region during the first half of the year. 

Large and varied collections were made, including practically 
the entire known fauna. Detailed information in regard to the 
material, which is in transit at this writing, must await its receipt 
and study, but correspondence sent from the field indicates important 
results. Among the larger mammals obtained is an additional 
perfect specimen of the giant panda which augments the series 
received through the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to 
Eastern Asia for Field Museum, making a total representation of 
this rare animal which without doubt is larger than is to be found 
elsewhere in any one institution. Several specimens of the small 
panda were also obtained, and interesting notes were made on its 
habits and distribution. Other mammals include the takin, goral, 
serow, and various cats and monkeys. A large collection of birds, 
reptiles, and amphibians also is reported. 

Travel in the interior of China was beset with more than usual 
difficulties on account of an unfortunate increase in anti-foreign 
feeling, and also because of the disastrous floods and famine which 
prevailed during a part of the summer. Mr. Smith, who was unable 
to communicate with the outside world for some time and was 
falsely reported lost, succeeded in getting most of the collections 
safely transported to the coast in advance of the floods. Largely 
through the cooperation of the Academia Sinica in Nanking and its 
president. Dr. Tsai Yuan-pei, cordial relations were maintained with 
all the higher officials of the region traversed. Certain material was 
presented to the Metropolitan Museum of Natural History in 
Nanking, and arrangements were made whereby a complete duplicate 
set of specimens will revert to that institution after it has been studied 
and classified at Field Museum. 

After bringing the collections to the coast, Mr. Smith arranged 
for their shipment and returned to the interior via the Yangtze 
River to Yachowfu where work had been continued by native 
collectors during his absence. Plans were then matured to have 
three or more different camps organized for simultaneous work in 
different regions, one north of the Yangtze, one just south of it, and 
one still farther south in the province of Kweichow. When last 
reported upon in November this program was well under way. 

100 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

The Carey-Ryan Expedition to Indo-China, consisting of Mr. 
George G. Carey, Jr., of Baltimore and Mr. George F. Ryan of 
Lutherville, Maryland, made a successful trip during the year to 
the hunting fields of southern Annam and Cochin China. The 
expedition's especial object was to secure additional and much 
needed material for the completion of habitat groups of the Indian 
water buffalo and the gaur or seladang, two magnificent species 
which vie with each other for the title of largest living member of 
the ox tribe. The results were all that could be desired and included 
fine examples of both species. The bull seladang which fell to the 
rifles of Messrs. Carey and Ryan is one of exceptional size and fine 
coat. With it is a young calf which will add greatly to the interest 
of the group. The specimens were prepared with great care and 
are accompanied by full data, including photographs and plant 
accessories. The Museum is greatly indebted to Mr. Ryan, who 
financed the trip, and to Mr. Carey, whose experience on previous 
expeditions was used so effectively. 

Through cooperation with Mr. Jean Delacour, well-known 
French zoologist, the Museum is participating in another expedition 
to French Indo-China. This expedition, under the personal direc- 
tion of Mr. Delacour, was ready to start in November and will 
continue in the field at least until May, 1932. Little-known regions 
in the province of Laos, from Vientiane to Muong Ting, will be 
covered, and large collections of mammals and birds are expected 
to result. The Paris Museum and the British Museum (Natural 
History) will share with Field Museum in a division of these collec- 
tions. The participation of Field Museum is financed by Mr. 
William V. Kelley. 

A brief trip to California during the month of April was made 
by Taxidermist Ashley Hine to secure fresh specimens of birds 
needed for exhibits upon which work is in progress. A substantial 
contribution to the field expenses of Mr. Hine was made by Mr. 
Joseph Simons of Chicago, whose generosity is gratefully acknowl- 
edged. Mr. Hine was assisted in his work by local ornithologists in 
California, especially Mr. R. H. Beck of Planada. The birds obtained 
included several species of humming birds, various other small birds, 
and a number of geese and ducks not readily obtainable except in 
California. One of the results was the rapid completion of a hand- 
some screen of American geese after Mr. Hine's return to the Museum. 

A new zoological expedition was organized during the last weeks 
of December. It is financed by Mr. Leon Mandel II, of Chicago, 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 101 

and its objective is the lower Orinoco River of Venezuela. Mr. 
Mandel sailed from Miami, Florida, December 29 on his yacht 
Buccaneer with a small party including his brother, Mr. Frederick 
Mandel, and Mr. Emmet R. Blake, a zoologist of the University 
of Pittsburgh, especially engaged to make zoological collections for 
Field Museum. It is planned to make a few stops in the West 
Indies and then to enter the delta of the Orinoco and proceed up- 
stream as far as the stage of the water permits. 

Along the lower river, at selected points, short trips inland will 
be made and investigations of the fauna will proceed at all possible 
places. Mr. Mandel's time being limited, it is probable that he 
will return with the yacht in February, leaving Mr. Blake to con- 
tinue for several months making collections in the region between 
the Orinoco and the Caribbean Sea. Mr. Blake's recent experience 
in Venezuela as a member of an expedition for the National Geo- 
graphic Society gives him special qualifications for independent work 
in the region, and results of considerable importance are expected. 

Much research was conducted during the year by members of 
the staff of the Department of Zoology. 

Curator Osgood from time to time continued study of the mam- 
mals obtained in Asia by the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedi- 
tion to Eastern Asia for Field Museum. A full report on this 
collection, which has proved to be of very great interest, was brought 
to an advanced stage of preparation and it is hoped it may be ready 
for publication during the coming year. 

Associate Curator C. E. Hellmayr completed an exhaustive work, 
Birds of Chile, and the manuscript for this large volume was sent 
to press. Before leaving for Europe in July, Dr. Hellmayr had 
finished approximately half the manuscript of Part VII, Catalogue 
of Birds of the Americas. This volume will contain a list of all the 
thrushes, crows and jays, titmice, wrens, creepers, larks, nuthatches, 
mockingbirds, and dippers of North, Central and South America, 
with critical remarks on classification and distribution. 

Assistant Curator Colin C. Sanborn made a study of variation 
in the rare South American rodent, Dinomys, the results of which 
were issued in a Museum publication, Notes on Dinomys. He also 
continued studies on the classification of American bats and prepared 
a list of the mammals obtained by the C. Suydam Cutting Sikkim 

Other zoological publications issued by the Museum during the 
year are as follows: Bats from Polynesia, Melanesia, and Malaysia, 

102 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

by Assistant Curator Sanborn; Birds of the Kelley-Roosevelts Expedi- 
tion to French Indo-China, by Mr. Outram Bangs and Dr. Josselyn 
Van Tyne; The Painted Turtles of the Genus Chrysemys, by Dr. 
Sherman C. Bishop and Mr. F. J. W. Schmidt; Two New Rodents 
from Costa Rica, by Curator Wilfred H. Osgood. 

At the close of the year there was in press a paper on birds from 
western China by Mr. Outram Bangs. Manuscript in the hands of 
the editor or awaiting publication includes a report on the Fishes 
of the Crane Pacific Expedition by Dr. A. W. Herre, one on Types 
of Lepidoptera in the Strecker Collection by Messrs. William Barnes 
and F. H. Benjamin, and one on Reptiles and Amphibians of the 
Solomon Islands (as represented in collections of the Crane Pacific 
Expedition) by Assistant Curator Karl P. Schmidt. 

Mr. Schmidt described a new species of fossil turtle in a publica- 
tion entitled A Fossil Turtle from Peru, issued in the Museum's 
Geological Series. He also published, in the journal Copeia (No. 3, 
pp. 93-94, 1931), the description of a new toad from Korea. 

Other papers by members of the staff which appeared in zoological 
journals are as follows: "Obituary of Count de Palmas," by Associate 
Curator C. E. Hellmayr, published in The Auk (Vol. XLVIH, p. 
163), and "Obituary of Miss E. Snethlage," also by Dr. Hellmayr 
and published in the same volume of The Auk (p. 161); "A New 
Oxymycterus from Misiones," by Assistant Curator Colin C. Sanborn, 
published in the Proceedings, Biological Society of Washington (Vol. 
XLIV, pp. 1-2); "Protection Against Vampire Bats," also by Mr. 
Sanborn, published in the Journal of Mammalogy (Vol. XII, pp. 
312-313); and two papers by Assistant C. E. Underdown — "Original 
Publication of Chionophilos alpestris insularis," and "On the Status 
of Chlorospingus olivaceus (Bonaparte)" published in The Auk 
(Vol. XLVIII, p. 441 and p. 612). 

Assistant Curator Schmidt continued to accumulate information 
on the snakes of the local fauna with a view to the preparation of 
a fourth leaflet in the Museum's series on the amphibians and 
reptiles of the Chicago area. Certain problems regarding the garter 
snakes of the region were assigned to Mr. Dwight Davis, Assistant 
in Osteology. Mr. Walter L. Necker, of the Chicago Academy of 
Sciences, has also been working, under the direction of Assistant 
Curator Schmidt, upon certain problems dealing with the reptiles 
and amphibians of the local area and of Illinois as a whole. 

Mr. Schmidt likewise devoted much time to classification and 
study of material received from recent expeditions. Reports on the 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 103 

collections of the Smithsonian Biological Survey of the Canal Zone 
and those of the Marshall Field Central American Expedition of 
1923 were well advanced. The identification of the amphibians and 
reptiles of the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition was com- 
pleted. A paper on the collections made by the Cornelius Crane 
Pacific Expedition was completed and sent to press. 

The collections made by the C. Suydam Cutting Expedition to 
Sikkim were identified, and a list of the species was supplied to 
Dr. Malcolm Smith of the British Museum (Natural History) for 
use in a forthcoming work on the amphibians and reptiles of 
British India. 

Dr. A. W. Herre of Stanford University, ichthyologist of the 
Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedition, concluded a lengthy illustrated 
report on the fishes obtained by this expedition. A new family of 
fishes, six new genera, and forty-six new species are described in 
this report. 

Assistant Curator Alfred C. Weed devoted considerable time 
to checking the records of Dr. Herre's report with the specimens 
in the Museum and to revision of the manuscript preparatory 
to publication. Mr. Weed was also engaged in studies for a report 
on the fishes from Aitutaki Island, collected by the Philip M. 
Chancellor Expedition which worked for several months in 1929 on 
that little-known island of the East Indies. 

Cooperation with the zoological faculty of the University of 
Chicago was carried on as far as possible. Advanced classes from 
the university visited the Museum on a number of occasions. Assist- 
ance in the identification of specimens was given to research workers 
in several instances. Assistant Curator Schmidt made an address 
before the Biological Club of the university. 

During the year various signed articles for Field Museum News 
were prepared by members of the staff, and fifteen such articles 
were pubHshed. 

Office routine continued to increase, and the zoological staff 
devoted much time to necessary correspondence, interviews with 
visitors, inter-museum activities, and the transaction of routine 
business. In the Curator's office, alone, 1,189 letters were received 
and answered. 

Records show the dispatch of 120 shipments, mainly of speci- 
mens of various kinds, and the receipt of ninety-one, not including 
supplies or office equipment. 

104 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 


The following list indicates the various expeditions and other 
field work conducted during 1931 for all Departments of the Museum: 

Locality Collectors Material 

KiSH, Mesopotamia L. C. Watelin Archaeological collections 

(Ninth season) Rene Watelin 

Robert Van Valzah, Jr. 

Colorado Paul S. Martin Archaeological collections 

British Honduras J. Eric Thompson Archaeological and ethno- 

logical collections 

The Far East Miss Malvina Hoffman Miss Hoffman is engaged 

in making sculptures of 
racial types 

England J. Reid Moir Archaeological collections 

Europe J. Francis Macbride Photographs of botanical 

type specimens 

Nebraska Elmer S. Riggs Paleontological collections 

and assistants 

Illinois Sharat K. Roy Paleontological collections 

(Sag Canal) Bryan Patterson 

Henry Field 
J. Eric Thompson 

Maine O. C. Farrington Mineralogical collections 

SzECHWAN, China Floyd T. Smith Zoological collections 

French Indo-China Jean Delacour Zoological collections 

Central Africa Captain Harold A. White Zoological collections 

Major John Coats 

SiKKiM, India C. Suydam Cutting Zoological collections 

Herbert Stevens 
V. S. La Personne 

Indo-China George G. Carey, Jr. Zoological collections 

George F. Ryan 

California Ashley Hine Ornithological collections 

Venezuela Leon Mandel II Zoological collections 

Frederick Mandel 
Emmet R. Blake 


Anthropology. — The number of new accessions received and 
recorded during 1931 was fifty-six. Of these, forty-one were gifts, 
five resulted from expeditions, eight from exchanges, and two from 
purchases. These accessions aggregate a total of about 38,000 

A gift was received from President Stanley Field of a series of 
twenty-one bronze figures, busts and heads, reduced from life size, 
and two heads larger than life size, representing types of various 
races. These sculptures are the work of Miss Malvina Hoffman 
who is preparing similar figures, busts and heads in actual life size 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 105 

to be used as exhibits in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall, which is 
to be devoted to the subject of physical anthropology. 

An Eskimo collection received in exchange from the United 
States National Museum at Washington, D.C., comprises material 
from the two oldest cultures which have so far been identified in 
the region of Bering Strait. This fine collection was obtained by 
Dr. Henry Collins from sites which he excavated personally. By 
using these objects for comparison with those already in Field 
Museum, it will be possible to identify and determine most of the 
Museum's Alaskan archaeological material which has not been 
previously identified by period. 

By exchange with Mr. David Vernon of Chicago, there were 
acquired nineteen prehistoric stone carvings from the Mississippi 
Valley region. They belong to the problematical class, sometimes 
known as "ceremonial stones." Mr. A. B. Scott of Chicago pre- 
sented a rare type of decorated stone ear ornament found near the 
famous Indian mounds of Arkansas. 

An exchange made with Mr. Donald O. Boudeman of Kalamazoo, 
Michigan, resulted in an acquisition of 171 archaeological objects 
from his state, such as tobacco pipes, stone artifacts, axes, a maul, 
celts, a pestle, and polished slate problematical objects. Mrs. 
Frances Cowles Badger, of Barrington, Illinois, presented a large 
globular steatite jar from the Santa Barbara Islands. This jar, which 
is in perfect condition, is rare and valuable. 

An important gift was received from Dr. Don F. Dickson of 
Lewistown, Illinois, who for years has carried on excavations in 
the Indian mounds around that town, and has founded a very in- 
teresting museum of mound-builders' material. Dr. Dickson's gift 
was a complete Indian skeleton in an excellent state of preservation, 
two skulls, and a collection of twenty-six specimens of pottery, 
flint implements and shell ornaments, all excavated by him from 
an Indian mound located on his property. This mortuary equip- 
ment was placed in a reproduction of a mound-builder's grave 
constructed in the Museum and now on exhibition in Mary D. 
Sturges Hall (Hall 3). It contributes a great deal toward making 
this group exact and complete in all particulars (see Plate III). 

Four flint points, an Indian skull, and fragments of an Indian 
skeleton were presented by Mr. Byron Knoblock of La Grange, 
Illinois. The flint points were found associated with mastodon bones 
near Kimmswick, Missouri. Another flint is a so-called "Folsom 
type" (that is, a projectile of a type found at Folsom, New Mexico), 

106 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

and represents, so far as is known at present, the oldest type of 
projectile in North America. By exchange with Mr. Knoblock, the 
Museum acquired also fifty- two prehistoric objects, including prob- 
lematical tjrpes, tobacco pipes, beads, and stone artifacts from the 
Mississippi Valley region. 

Seven hundred and thirty-nine objects were brought back by 
Assistant Curator Paul S. Martin as the result of his excavations 
of the Lowry ruin while in charge of the Second Field Museum 
Archaeological Expedition to the Southwest. This collection con- 
sists of decorated pottery, including types rarely found in Colorado, 
tobacco pipes, pendants, bone awls, prayer sticks, shell and stone 
beads, butts of roof beams (from which it is hoped chronological 
indications may be drawn), a stone sandal last, animal bones, pot- 
sherds for study, and ground plans. Negatives of both still and 
motion pictures were made. 

Some of the roof logs from the rings of which approximate dates 
for the buildings of the Lowry ruin may be computed were sent 
for examination to Dr. A. E. Douglass of the University of Arizona 
at Tucson. Dr. Douglass has developed a method for determining 
the cutting dates of certain species of trees which were used as roof 
beams and door lintels in Pueblo houses. He reports that the date 
ascertained from one of the logs is a.d. 894, which means that the 
pine in question was cut in that year. It is impossible, of course, 
to state whether or not this log was immediately fashioned and 
incorporated as the lintel of the doorway of a room in the Lowry 
structure. However, it is highly probable that shortly after cutting 
it was trimmed and fixed in that position, and therefore it seems 
likely that it had remained there for more than a thousand years. 

The collections made by Assistant Curator J. Eric Thompson 
as leader of the Third Marshall Field Archaeological Expedition to 
British Honduras consist of 376 archaeological and ethnological 
objects obtained in British Honduras and Guatemala. All of these, 
with the exception of some sixty objects, were obtained at the site 
of San Jos6 in the north of the Cayo district of British Honduras, 
about six miles east of the Guatemalan border. The site in question 
is a small religious center complete with ceremonial plaza and one 
plain stela, and it is surrounded by a number of scattered courts 
flanked by house mounds and a detached ball court. 

Votive caches in pyramids yielded a number of peculiarly shaped 
flint objects, generally known as "eccentric flints." Some of these 
are in the shapes of animals and insects, but their use is unknown. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 107 

Some are large and crudely made, but in other cases the workman- 
ship is very delicate. With them were found fine examples of thin, 
pressure-flaked spearheads of flint, as well as obsidian knives, and 
a circular mirror of iron pyrite. Burials yielded some very interesting 
pottery types. One vase, in particular, is an excellent example of 
carved pottery. It is decorated with two panels showing five seated 
individuals elaborately dressed. 

Other graves contained vessels of peculiar shapes. Polychrome 
pottery was relatively scarce. Several different types of decorated 
human teeth were found. The finest of these consists of the four 
incisors and two canines of an upper jaw, all of which are inlaid 
with small jade disks, and in addition are filed to give a serrated 
appearance. So far as is known, no such complete set exists in any 
other museum in this country. 

A number of jade objects were found with these burials. The 
most interesting of these is a small amulet of human shape found 
on the breast of a skeleton. Three fine pearls pierced for suspension 
were found around the neck of the same skeleton, as well as two 
small jade ear plugs. 

From other localities a small collection of Maya jade objects was 
assembled, several of the pieces being of very good quality. Some 
fine examples of Maya pottery were obtained from other sites. Of 
unusual interest is a fine example of the so-called plumbate pottery, 
a ware containing a high proportion of lead, which gives the pottery 
a dull glaze after firing. This ware was manufactured in a very 
restricted region of El Salvador, and thence exported far and wide 
over the Maya and Mexican areas. Owing to its peculiar properties 
and rarity it was much prized by its ancient owners. The example 
procured for the Museum is decorated on the front with a design 
in relief representing a warrior. It is now on exhibition in Hall 8 
(Case 13). 

In Guatemala some modem textiles were collected. These are 
hand-woven of cotton with embroidered decorations. Good examples 
of these modem Maya textiles are becoming increasingly difficult to 
obtain since the advent of modem machinery and commerce. 

A collection of fifty-four archaeological objects was secured 
through an exchange with the Museum of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia. This material is representative of the culture 
of the prehistoric inhabitants of Marajo Island and other parts of 
the delta of the Amazon River. The greater part of the collection 

108 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

consists of pottery vessels decorated with painted designs or reliefs. 
Some of the vessels, which were used as burial urns, are of consider- 
able size, exceeding three feet in height. A fine example of an ancient 
Maya mirror from the Alta Vera Paz district of Guatemala was 
also obtained through exchange with the Museum of the University 
of Pennsylvania. The ancient Maya mirrors were made of iron 
pjrrites arranged in mosaic fashion on a pottery or stone background. 

As a result of the excavations of the Field Museum-Oxford 
University Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia, a vast amount of 
material excavated from the Kish ruins was received, particularly 
pottery, bronze implements, and glass. Numerous stuccos from the 
Sassanian palaces are included in this collection, and another ship- 
ment of these is expected to arrive early in 1932. 

Dr. Arthur U. Pope of New York presented a small but significant 
ancient bronze fragment from Luristan, Persia. The Luristan bronzes 
have come to light in recent years, and have aroused much interest 
on account of their age and their beauty of form and design. 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward W. Everett of Hinsdale, Illinois, presented a 
fine sixteenth century Chinese painting on silk. It represents in 
pleasing colors a school of carp. The painting has been hung in the 
South Gallery together with other Chinese paintings from the 
Museum's collection. 

Mr. Linus Long of Chicago contributed two exquisite ceremonial 
jade axes of the Sung and K'ien-lung periods, respectively. A jade 
chape and ring and four jade girdle pendants are a gift of Dr. I. W. 
Drummond of New York. Another addition to the jade collection 
was made by the firm of R. Bensabott, Inc., of Chicago, which pre- 
sented a large, square, green jade box, beautifully decorated, in which 
were kept official seals of the eighteenth century. The Bensabott 
firm also presented twenty-two oracle bones of the Shang dynasty 
(about 1500 B.C.). This is important material because the inscrip- 
tions carved on these bones contain the earliest form of Chinese 
writing now extant. Mr. Ralph M. Chait of New York presented 
a barrel-shaped pottery wine vessel of the Han period, larger than 
two examples of the same type which were in the Museum's collec- 
tions previously. A neatly carved Chinese ink pallet is the gift of 
Dr. Gerhardt von Bonin of Chicago. 

Mr. William J. Chalmers of Chicago, a Trustee of the Museum, 
presented a group of Algerian and Moroccan jewelry comprising 
silver bracelets, necklaces, earrings, pendants, and a gold charm 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the DraECTOR 109 

with chain. These objects are welcome additions to a collection of 
North African material which is being assembled. The jewelry- 
presented by Mr. Chalmers is of native workmanship — a fact to be 
emphasized because the rapid extension of European influence and 
importations in North Africa is making such native work rare. 

A number of archaeological collections purchased in Europe 
during 1930 by Assistant Curator Henry Field were received in 1931. 
This material is intended for exhibition in the proposed Hall of 
Prehistoric Man (Hall C), and some references to it were made in 
the Annual Report of the Director for 1930 (pp. 322-323). As the 
result of excavations at Ipswich, England, conducted by Mr. J. 
Reid Moir of that place, about 1,000 flints, including many imple- 
ments of various types, have reached the Museum. In this collection 
are also a large number of bone fragments of cetaceous mammals 
which are fossilized to a marked degree. A selection of this material 
containing representative examples of the earliest implements known 
to have been made by man will be placed on exhibition in Hall C. 

A valuable paleolithic collection made by the late Charles Edward 
Brown of Mildenhall in Suffolk, England, was obtained. It contains 
approximately 500 specimens, among which are many important 
implements of the lower paleolithic period from the Warren Hill 
gravel pits. An Acheulean cleaver in this collection is one of the 
largest of its kind in existence. Since this is a unique specimen, a 
mold was made from it under the direction of Mr. Reginald Smith 
at the British Museum, and casts were presented to the Museum 
of Ethnology and Archaeology at Cambridge, the Museum at 
Ipswich, and to Abb^ Henri Breuil for the Institut de Pal^ontologie 
Humaine in Paris. In London a series of casts of paleolithic human 
remains was purchased from Mr. F. 0. Barlow of Damon and Com- 
pany, in consequence of which the Museum now has casts of the 
most important prehistoric human skeletal fragments found through- 
out the world. 

As it is desirable to show objects representative of the Pleistocene 
fauna contemporaneous with prehistoric man, an excellent pair of 
mammoth tusks which had been shipped to London from northern 
Siberia was acquired. 

Mr. Frank Munro, modeler, of Glasgow, Scotland, was commis- 
sioned to make two models of Stonehenge. One is a small round 
model designed to show Stonehenge as it is at present, while the 
other, large and rectangular, presents a reconstruction of the stone 

110 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

circle and the various alignments leading away from the central 
group of triliths. 

A series of flint and bone implements from the cave of Wady-el- 
Mughara in Mount Carmel, Palestine, was received from Miss 
Dorothy Garrod of Newnham College, Cambridge. 

A series of twenty-one drawings by the late Amed^e Forestier 
depicting life in prehistoric times was received, and these will form 
attractive additions to Hall C. 

In France archaeological material was acquired by Assistant 
Curator Field to supplement collections already in the Museum. 
The most important collection purchased is that of Mr. Eugene 
Viot of Loiret. This is an excellent series of paleolithic, neolithic, 
bronze and iron age objects, including also many fine original 
Magdalenian drawings on bone, and many other examples of pre- 
historic human workmanship. Additions were also made to previous 
collections from the Dordogne region. An important acquisition, 
arranged through the courtesy of Abb6 Breuil and Mr. L. Coulonges 
of Sauveterre-la-Lemance, Lot-et-Garonne, is a series of Tardenoisean 
microlithic implements, which are extremely rare. The archaeological 
collections from France now in the Museum contain a remarkably 
complete series of artifacts bearing on the various prehistoric periods 
of western Europe. 

In Germany a small series of casts of neolithic pottery was 
obtained from the Museum flir Geologic und Vorgeschichte in 
Dresden. A collection of mammoth bones was received from Dr. 
Karl Absolon of the Moravske Zemske Museum in Briinn, Czecho- 
slovakia. These bones were excavated from the famous mammoth 
pit at Predmost in Moravia. Many of the long bones were split 
by the Aurignacian hunters in order to extract the marrow. Casts 
of the skeletal remains of these hunters, as well as of their artifacts, 
are included in this collection. From Hungary two complete burials 
from Szentes were received through the courtesy of the National 
Museum in Budapest. These graves belong to the neolithic and 
bronze periods respectively. Mr. Franz Roubal, Vienna artist, 
completed for Field Museum a series of twenty-four pencil sketches 
of the more important Pleistocene fauna contemporaneous with 
prehistoric man in western Europe. 

An unusually large flint spearhead, about ten inches long, of the 
neolithic period of Sweden, was acquired by purchase for the Hall 
of Prehistoric Man. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 111 

An interesting collection of Solutrean material was purchased 
through an arrangement with the Museum of Paray-le-Monial, 
France. This material is valuable because it consists entirely of 
type specimens of flint gathered directly from the famous paleolithic 
station Solutr^ in France. Notable is a perfectly chipped dagger 
five and one-half inches long, which is an example of the highest 
craftsmanship of prehistoric man. The collection includes also bone 
scrapers for smoothing skins and a large quantity of bones of wild 
horses and reindeer hunted by Solutrean men. 

Mr. L. C. Watelin, residing near Sarlat, Dordogne, France, 
presented twenty-six flint implements of the Campignian period, 
representative of the late transition age between the paleolithic and 
neolithic periods. 

Twenty-three stone implements from Denmark obtained through 
exchange with Mr. Bjo-on Knoblock of La Grange, Illinois, include 
some interesting types that are different from any previously in the 
possession of the Museum. 

The material relating to prehistoric man now in the Museum 
comprises important collections from Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, 
and Tasmania. Besides the specimens reserved for exhibition in 
Hall C there is a study collection available for students. 

In addition to the material relating to prehistoric man, some 
of the collections acquired by Assistant Curator Field in 1930 for 
exhibition in Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall B) were received 
in 1931. These collections include three skulls with pathological 
features, from France; casts of six deformed skulls from ancient 
Egypt; fifteen hair samples of various races; about eighty casts of 
heads, hands, and feet of various racial types; and 391 negatives 
and 618 photographs of representative racial types. Of these photo- 
graphs, twenty-three which show natives of the Belgian Congo are 
the gift of the Ministry of Colonies, Brussels. 

A large number of photographic negatives and prints, and various 
series of casts of racial types secured by Mr. Field, were shipped to 
Paris to assist Miss Malvina Hoffman, the sculptor preparing exhibits 
for Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall, in her study of racial charac- 
teristics. This material, together with a coflection of reference 
books, will revert to the Museum when Miss Hoffman's work has 
been completed. 

Botany. — During 1931 the Department of Botany received 255 
accessions totaling 33,788 specimens. These consisted of material 

112 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

for the Herbarium and the wood and economic collections. Of these 
specimens, 4,206 were gifts to the Museum; 11,112 were received 
through exchange; 3,776 were purchased; and the balance came 
from miscellaneous sources. 

The accessions which were received during the year by the Her- 
barium numbered 185, comprising 33,236 specimens of plants, photo- 
graphs, and negatives. Of these, 3,788 herbarium specimens were 
presented by correspondents of the Museum; 10,991 herbarium 
specimens and photographs were received in exchange; and 3,763 
specimens of plants were purchased. The Herbarium acquired, 
principally from the Division of Photography of the Museum, 5,669 
photographic prints of plants, chiefly of type specimens, most of 
which have been mounted and distributed into the study collections. 

The most useful and therefore the most valuable addition to the 
Department's collections during the year consisted of 8,925 negatives 
of type specimens existing in the herbaria of Berlin, Munich, and 
Geneva, which were prepared under the direction of Assistant Curator 
J. Francis Macbride. These have been discussed at greater length 
elsewhere. They were made possible by a fund generously granted 
for the purpose by the Rockefeller Foundation. At the present 
time Mr. Macbride has in Berlin ready for shipment approximately 
two thousand additional negatives. These negatives are a permanent 
addition to the Museum collections. Prints will be supphed at 
cost to institutions and individuals desiring them. 

The most valuable accession to the Herbarium during the year 
consists of the 5,669 prints above mentioned, chiefly of type or other 
historic specimens. All these have been distributed promptly into 
the Herbarium, adding immeasurably to its value as a study series. 
In the various groups of plants thus supplemented by photographs, 
the Herbarium of Field Museum now has a better representation 
of the American species than is possessed by any other herbarium 
in America. 

It is gratifying to find that the largest accessions of the Herbarium 
during 1931 have consisted of tropical American plants, and especially 
of collections from South America, the region with which the staff 
at present is primarily concerned. The South American additions 
have been acquired by gift, exchange, and purchase. 

From Peru fewer specimens were received than in previous years, 
because there were no expeditions conducted in that country in 
1931. However, a few important collections have arrived. Professor 
Fortunato L. Herrera of Cuzco, Peru, continued his generous dona- 




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Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 113 

tions of Peruvian plants, and presented thirty-three specimens from 
the department of Cuzco in which he hves, a most desirable lot 
because this department has been neglected by other botanical 
collectors. There were received in exchange from the Gray Her- 
barium of Harvard University a few Peruvian plants collected by 
Dr. Ivan M. Johnston of that institution, particularly valuable 
because they were collected in the little-known southern extremity 
of Peru. Most of the 524 specimens received from the Gray Her- 
barium consisted of Chilean plants from Dr. Johnston's collection, 
but these are useful in the study of the Peruvian flora because of 
the proximity of the two countries. 

The largest Peruvian collection received in 1931 consisted of 
a purchase of 496 specimens collected by Mr. Guillermo Klug of 
Iquitos, Peru, who in the winter of 1980-31 botanized along the 
Putumayo River. Part of his collections were made in Peru and 
part in adjacent Colombia. They illustrate the relationship between 
these two floras, and their similarity. Although thus far only a 
small part of Mr. Klug's most recent sending has been determined, 
casual inspection justifies the prediction that it will be found rich 
in new species. This is not surprising, since the Putumayo River 
had not been explored previously by botanical collectors. 

The largest South American collection that came to the Museum 
during the year consisted of 964 specimens purchased from Mr. 
Pedro Jorgensen of Villarica, Paraguay. Since this country is poorly 
represented in North American herbaria, this accession is an especially 
welcome one. 

From Dr. Arturo Donat of Puerto Deseado, Argentina, there 
were purchased 100 plants which he had collected in Patagonia, 
and these added numerous species to the Museum Herbarium. 
Fifty-five specimens purchased from Dr. Guillermo Herter of 
Asuncion, Uruguay, likewise represented species that were mostly 
new to the Herbarium. 

It was most satisfactory to acquire several important additions 
to the Museimi's rapidly growing herbarium of Brazilian plants. 
The largest of these comprised 457 plants collected by the late 
Per Dus^n. These were an exchange from the Naturhistoriska 
Riksmuseet of Stockholm, a continuation of the generous sendings 
of Per Dus^n's plants transmitted in previous years through the 
courtesy of Dr. Gunnar Samuelsson. This fine series of Brazilian 
plants, chiefly from the state of Parana, is a most desirable one 
because of the exceptionally high quality of the specimens, which, 

114 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

in a large measure, have retained their natural colors, and are 
unusually ample. 

PYom Mr. J. P. Schmalz of Chicago there were purchased 311 
sheets of ferns, including several new species chiefly from the state 
of Santa Catharina, mostly determined by Eduard Rosenstock, the 
noted fern specialist. The Gray Herbarium sent in exchange 265 
plants collected recently in Brazil by Dr. Lyman B. Smith of that 
institution. These were noteworthy for the large number of brome- 
liads collected and critically determined by Dr. Smith. Mrs. Ynes 
Mexia of San Francisco, California, presented forty-two specimens 
of plants, chiefly Rubiaceae, collected during her extended travels 
in Brazil and neighboring countries, which are still in progress. 
Names for this sending were supplied by Associate Curator Standley. 

There were purchased 200 specimens of plants collected near 
Pemambuco by Dr. Bento Pickel. The Companhia Ford Industrial 
do Brasil of Belem, state of Para, submitted 228 well-prepared 
specimens of trees and fiber plants. These were determined in the 
Department of Botany. 

The Chilean herbarium was increased by the purchase of 200 
specimens collected by Dr. Karl Behn, and 100 others gathered by 
Mr. Hugo Gunckel. To the Venezuelan collections were added 
eighty-one plants collected by Mr. W. Gehriger, and ninety-five 
purchased from Mr. Jos^ Saer of Caracas. The value of these 
plants was enhanced by the fact that many of them were determined 
by Professor Henry Pittier of Caracas, the foremost authority upon 
the Venezuelan flora. 

From the United States National Museum, through the continued 
interest and courtesy of Dr. William R. Maxon and Mr. Ellsworth 
P. Killip, there was received during the year a large amount of 
exceptionally valuable herbariimi material. The largest shipment 
consisted of 705 sheets of fully determined plants collected in Colom- 
bia by Mr. Killip and Mr. Albert C. Smith. This collection included 
type material of a large mmiber of recently described species, and 
many other additions to the Museum's representation of the Colom- 
bian flora. Other sendings from the National Museum consisted 
of 116 miscellaneous South American plants, largely those of recent 
collectors in Venezuela, Colombia, and Peru. Most of them belonged 
to groups upon which Associate Curator Standley was working, 
especially the Rubiaceae, and for these he supplied determinations. 
Several new species were described from these collections. A most 
welcome sending from the National Museum consisted of 500 photo- 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 115 

graphic prints of type specimens of plants, chiefly South and Central 
American. The prints are of remarkably high quality, and form 
an immediately useful addition to the study collections. 

From the Botanical Museum and Garden, Berlin-Dahlem, Ger- 
many, through the courtesy of Dr. Ludwig Diels, the Director, and 
his staff, there were received in exchange two shipments, consisting 
of 351 complete or fragmentary specimens of plants, with numerous 
tracings of type specimens of the family Araceae. The fragmentary 
specimens represent authentic material of rare species, chiefly 
Peruvian, and give the Museum reference standards for many 
species not represented otherwise in the Herbarium. 

The Conservatory and Botanic Garden of Geneva, Switzerland, 
forwarded in exchange, through its director. Dr. John Isaac Briquet, 
a valuable collection of seventy-nine mounted specimens of Mal- 
vaceae, mostly South American, determined by Dr. B. P. G. 
Hochreutiner, the eminent authority upon the group. From Mr. 
Harold N. Moldenke of the New York Botanical Garden there were 
purchased seventy photographic prints of type and other specimens 
of the genus Aegiphila, with which he has been working. The type 
photographs acquired from Mr. Moldenke, together with the Mu- 
seum's own series of prints and its ample collections from the Andean 
region, give it an almost complete representation of this large genus 
of tropical plants. 

There were presented by Professor Samuel J. Record of the 
School of Forestry of Yale University, who is Research Associate 
in Wood Technology on the staff of Field Museum, numerous small 
lots of tropical American plants and photographs, amounting in all 
to 113 items. Part of the plants were South American, the rest 
Central American. The former included type material of several 
species described during the year by Mr. Standley. The extensive 
sendings from Professor Record during past years have added to 
the Museum Herbarium a large amount of material of the highest 
value and of the most desirable character. 

The current receipts of plants from Mexico and Central America 
have been almost as voluminous and valuable as those from South 
America. The largest number of them consisted of several sendings 
from Mr. James Zetek of Balboa, Canal Zone, totaling 928 sheets 
of plants collected on Barro Colorado Island in Gatun Lake. These 
have been described in more detail elsewhere in this Report. There 
were received further, as a gift, 250 specimens of plants collected 
on Barro Colorado Island by Dr. L. H. Bailey of Ithaca, New York, 

116 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

and his daughter, Miss Ethel Zoe Bailey. Professor C. L. Wilson 
of Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, presented 135 
specimens which he had collected earlier in the year upon the same 
island. All this material was named in the Department of Botany. 
With the extensive collections received in former years from this 
island which is the present center of greatest scientific activity in 
tropical America, Field Museum now possesses the largest series of 
Barro Colorado plants that exists anywhere, and consequently one 
of the best collections of the flora of the whole Panama Canal Zone. 
Recent work on the island has revealed many additions to the list 
of Canal Zone plants published a few years ago by Associate Curator 

Mr. C. H. Lankester of Cartago, Costa Rica, presented eighty- 
one specimens of Costa Rican plants, most of which represented the 
rarer species of the apparently inexhaustible flora of that country. 
Dr. Salvador Calderon of San Salvador, republic of Salvador, pre- 
sented sixty-three specimens of plants from that country, to the 
botanical exploration of which he has contributed so freely of his 
time. Several of the species represented were additions to the already 
long list of Salvador plants published some years ago by Dr. Calderon 
and Mr. Standley. 

Mr. Jorge Garcia Salas of Guatemala City, Director General of 
Agriculture for Guatemala, presented forty-one exceptionally desir- 
able specimens of Guatemalan plants. Most of them were gathered 
in the higher mountains, and they included two species apparently 
new, besides several rare ones not represented previously in the 
Museum Herbarium. 

From British Honduras, in addition to a few small lots forwarded 
by Professor Record, there were received two important collections. 
One was made in the northern region of the colony by Mr. William 
C. Meyer of Columbia University, New York, by whom it was pre- 
sented; the other was made in southern British Honduras by Mr. 
William C. Schipp of Belize. Mr. Schipp, who has been collecting 
for several years, has made what is probably the best collection of 
plants ever assembled in British Honduras, and he has found there 
an astonishingly large number of new species, or plants otherwise 

The largest of the year's collections of Mexican plants was made 
in the Sierra de San Carlos in the state of Tamaulipas by Professor 
H. H. Bartlett of the University of Michigan, by whom it was sub- 
mitted to the Museum for determination. It consisted of 576 speci- 















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Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 117 

mens, representing a great number of species, several of which were 
new to science, while others represented important extensions of 
range. Mr. Jesus Gonzalez Ortega of Mazatldn, Mexico, presented 
200 handsomely prepared specimens from the state of Sinaloa on 
the Pacific coast, which were determined by Mr. Standley. Mrs. 
Ynes Mexia of San Francisco transmitted thirty-nine specimens of 
rare plants, chiefly from central Mexico, which likewise were named 
in the Department of Botany. 

Professor Antonio Ramirez of the Instituto de Biologia of 
Mexico presented complete material of the huanita tree (Beureria 
huanita) from the state of Michoacdn. This is probably the first 
authentic specimen to reach the United States. The tree was de- 
scribed a century ago by the Mexican botanists La Llave and Lexarza, 
who knew it only by a single specimen. No one else had found it 
since at the original locality until it was discovered there by Professor 
Ramirez, who likewise could find only a single individual. He very 
generously presented part of his material, with the kind approval of 
the Director of the Instituto de Biologia, Dr. Isaac Ochoterena, to 
Field Museum, where it was studied by Associate Curator Standley, 
who has been able to place it definitely among the various Mexican 
species of Beureria. 

From the Dudley Herbarium of Stanford University, California, 
through Dr. LeRoy Abrams, there were received in exchange 412 
specimens of plants, the majority of which were from Lower Cali- 
fornia, which botanically is one of the most interesting regions of 
all Mexico. The United States National Museum forwarded in 
exchange 203 plants collected in Mexico by Mr. Edward Palmer, 
representing one of his sets previously lacking in the Museum's 
already large series of his plants. 

Mr. Robert M. Zingg of the University of Chicago presented 
forty-one specimens of plants that he had collected during the past 
winter in the mountains of southern Chihuahua, Mexico, while accom- 
panying an ethnological expedition of the university to that region. 
Mr. Zingg's large accumulation of plants was determined during the 
year by Associate Curator Standley, and will form the basis of a 
detailed report upon the ethnobotany of the area in which the work 
was conducted. 

From Mr. H. W. von Rozynski of Jaumave, Tamaulipas, Mexico, 
there were received as a gift 135 specimens of plants from the vicinity 
of Jaumave. One of the most significant collections received on loan 
during the year came from the University Botanical Museum of 

118 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Copenhagen, Denmark, and consisted of remnants of the century- 
old exsiccatae of Liebmann from southern Mexico and of Oersted 
from Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The material was determined by- 
Mr. Standley, and the Museum was permitted, through the courtesy 
of Dr. Carl Christensen, to retain fragmentary material, amounting 
to eighty-three specimens, of some of the rare species represented, 
a few of which were types. Several of the species thus acquired were 
additions to the Museum's list of Mexican and Central American 

From the Director of the Jardin Botanique Principal of Leningrad 
there were received 105 duplicate specimens of Mexican and Guate- 
malan plants, obtained through recent expeditions sent out from that 
institution. The collection was determined in the Department of 
Botany and found to be unusually rich in rare species. Dr. Roman 
S. Flores of Progreso, Yucatan, presented twelve photographs and 
specimens of Yucatan plants, two of which proved to represent 
important new species. Dr. Flores also has supplied several im- 
portant Maya names which were either not included or not identified 
in the Flora of Yucatan pubUshed in 1930 by Field Museum. 

The most important collection of West Indian plants accessioned 
during the year consisted of 642 Cuban specimens made by Dr. 
Erik L. Ekman, whose death occurred at the beginning of the year. 
They were received in exchange from the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet 
of Stockholm, and supplement others acquired in the same manner 
in 1930. The Ekman plants included dozens of new species and 
many others of great rarity, consequently the Museum is fortunate 
in securing them. Dr. Ekman's collections are the richest made 
in Cuba by any collector, at least since the classic ones of Charles 
Wright seventy years ago. 

From Mr. W. E. Broadway of Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, veteran 
collector of the floras of Trinidad and Tobago, there were purchased 
115 specimens of the rarer Trinidad plants, in continuation of his 
numerous earlier sendings to the Museum. From Mr. E. J. Valeur 
of Moncion, Dominican Republic, there were purchased 145 plants 
of that country, botanically the least known region of the Antilles. 

No special effort was made during 1931 to obtain collections of 
plants of the United States, but several of importance were received in 
various ways, mostly in return for determinations, but also through 
gift and exchange. The only United States plants purchased were 
520 specimens from Mr. C. L. Hitchcock of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden, St. Louis, who collected them in the western United States. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 119 

The largest lot of United States plants acquired during 1931 
consisted of 1,987 specimens from the southern and southwestern 
states, transmitted in exchange by the Missouri Botanical Garden, 
St. Louis. Most of them represented the field work of Mr. E. J. 
Palmer, who has contributed so much to the knowledge of the flora 
of that region, particularly in the case of the woody plants. From 
the University of California, through Dr. E. B. Copeland, there 
were received several exchanges, totaling 854 specimens, principally 
Calif omian plants, with, however, some from other regions, especially 
the Pacific islands. Included were 100 specimens of willows from 
the western United States, all with critical determinations. These 
are a substantial addition to the Museum's representation of the 
genus Salix, which includes the famous Bebb willow herbarium. 

From the University of California at Los Angeles, through Dr. 
Carl Epling, there were received in exchange 599 sheets of plant 
specimens, half of which were from southern California, the rest 
from India. Mr. Ralph Hoffmann, Director of the Santa Barbara 
Museum of Natural History, presented 105 specimens of critical 
California plants, largely from the islands off the coast. Included 
in his gifts were many plants of special families such as Amaran- 
thaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Nyctaginaceae, which were determined 
by Associate Curator Standley. 

The United States National Museum sent in exchange thirty- 
nine plants collected in the western United States by Mr. W. W. 
Eggleston. Professor A. 0. Garrett of Salt Lake City, Utah, gave 
forty-eight plants of Utah, which were named in the Department 
of Botany. From the University of Washington, Seattle, were sent 
102 Alaskan plants, collected by Professor G. B. Riggs, which also 
were determined at Field Museum. The University of Chicago, 
through Professor George D. Fuller, presented two valuable lots of 
plants, the larger one, of 272 mounted specimens, obtained by Mr. 
C. F. Cox in connection with his studies of the alpine vegetation 
of Colorado. The other, of eighty-one numbers of willows, with 
flowering and fruiting specimens taken from the same individual, 
was made some years ago in Alberta by Mr. R. H. Dixon, a resident 
botanist of that province. 

Mr. George E. Osterhout of Windsor, Colorado, one of the most 
active local botanists of the whole Rocky Mountain region, gener- 
ously presented to Field Museum type material of two new species 
of Colorado plants that he described recently. From Mr. George 
L. Fisher of Houston, Texas, there came as a gift 221 plants gathered 

120 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

in western Texas and southern New Mexico. They included many- 
rare species, and two color forms that seem to have escaped the 
attention of other collectors. Among the specimens from the New 
Mexican mountains were a number of rare species collected at their 
type localities, and therefore of more than ordinary value for purposes 
of study and comparison. The Witte Memorial Museum of San 
Antonio, Texas, through Mrs. Ellen Schulz Quillin, presented fifty- 
four specimens of Texas plants that were determined in the Depart- 
ment of Botany. 

From the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, Jamaica 
Plain, Massachusetts, there were transmitted in exchange by Dr. 
Alfred Rehder 387 specimens of plants from different regions. Part 
were woody plants from the United States, some were collected in 
Cuba, and others were from China. Professor Stanley A. Cain of 
Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana, presented thirty-seven 
plants of the heath family which he had obtained in Tennessee and 
North Carolina. Most remarkable among them was a specimen of 
the box huckleberry, Gaylussacia hrachycera, from Tennessee, a state 
in which this exceedingly rare plant was not previously known to 
occur. The box huckleberry is a creeping shrub, a single individual 
of which sometimes covers an acre or more of ground, and it is esti- 
mated that it lives hundreds, if not thousands, of years. 

From the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., 
there were acquired through exchange 275 sheets of plants. While 
the majority of these were from Florida, a considerable number 
were collected in Brazil. 

An important exchange from Dr. Morten P. Porsild of the Danish 
Arctic Station, Disko, Greenland, consisted of 365 Greenland plants. 
These well-prepared and authoritatively determined specimens are 
a useful aid to studies upon the flora of northern North America. 

Dr. C. E. Hellmayr of the Department of Zoology of Field 
Museum presented twenty-six specimens of rare orchids of North 
America and Europe. Among them was type material of a new 
species of coral-root or Corallorrhiza, collected by Dr. and Mrs. 
Hellmayr in Wyoming, and described in a recent number of Rhodora. 

Of the plants having special interest in connection with the floras 
of the Chicago region and the states of Illinois and Indiana several 
lots of particular interest reached the Museum during 1931. Rev. 
J. A. Nieuwland of the University of Notre Dame, who knows so 
well the plants of the Great Lakes region, presented material of an 
interesting orchid that he had collected. Dr. Th. Just of the same 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 121 

university presented another rare orchid, an Isotria, from Indiana. 
Mr. Charles C. Deam of Bluff ton, Indiana, who is preparing a 
detailed account of the Indiana flora, presented six specimens of 
Indiana plants, including a hybrid oak, Quercus Deamii. From 
Mrs. Ralph Clarkson of Chicago there were received for determina- 
tion several lots of local and other plants. In Illinois Mrs. Clarkson 
obtained a quantity of curious "double" wild plums. These double 
fruits prevailed on several wild bushes. Each consisted of two small 
red plums grown together and having in common a single pit. While 
scattered "double" fruits of this sort are not particularly rare, 
it is most unusual to find a large number of them upon a single 

The receipts of plants other than American in 1931 were rather 
meager, and no special effort was made to obtain them, since the 
large collections of tropical American plants arriving at the Museum 
occupy the staff of the Herbarium too fully to justify a special effort 
toward increasing the foreign collections. From the National Her- 
barium of Victoria, Australia, there were received in exchange fifty 
specimens of Australian plants; from the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet 
of Stockholm, 327 European plants. The New York Botanical 
Garden submitted in exchange 249 valuable photographic prints of 
type specimens, largely of important species of the citrus group of 
the family Rutaceae. An important exchange from the same insti- 
tution consisted of the many volumes of Gartenflora needed to com- 
plete the Musemn set of this useful publication, the chief interest 
of which is its many illustrations of plants. 

Dr. Rudolf Probst of Langendorf, Switzerland, presented forty- 
eight specimens of the adventive plants of Switzerland, most of 
them of North American origin. From Mr. T. 0. Weigel of Leipzig, 
Germany, there were purchased 311 specimens of plants of the 
family Rubiaceae, the majority of them from Europe and northern 

Through Dr. A. S. Hitchcock of the Office of Systematic Agros- 
tology of the United States Department of Agriculture there were 
received 289 specimens of grasses of tropical America. These make 
a practical addition to the grass herbarium of Field Museum because 
they are critically determined, and therefore dependable for purposes 
of comparison when making determinations. Dr. Earl E. Sherff of 
Chicago, who has visited the Museum many times during the year 
for study in the Herbarium, presented fifteen specimens of Com- 
positae referable to groups in which he is especially interested. 

122 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

An important accession from the Department of Botany of the 
University of Michigan, received in exchange, consisted of 522 plants 
from Sumatra, a country otherwise hardly represented in the Her- 
barium. They were collected a few years ago by Professor H. H. 
Bartlett, head of the Department of Botany of the university. 

During the year the Museum received 282 specimens of woods, 
partly for study and partly for exhibition purposes. These were 
obtained from correspondents of the Museum, lumber concerns, 
forestry organizations and individuals. The Museum gratefully 
acknowledges the generous assistance which has enabled it to obtain 
so many representative specimens of both domestic and foreign 
woods for display. 

A fine board of Monterey cjrpress was given by Professor Emanuel 
Fritz of the University of California and is now on exhibition in 
the Hall of North American Woods. Professor Fritz also contributed 
six large boards of sugar pine, four pine cones of the same species 
and a board of blue gum {Eucalyptus globulus). 

From the W. O. King Lumber Company of Chicago there were 
received, through the cooperation of Mr. Charles S. B. Smith, two 
excellent boards, eight feet in length, of sugar maple, one of which 
shows beautiful bird's eye figure and the other flat grain. Mr. 0. H. 
Campbell of the Great Southern Lumber Company, Bogalusa, 
Louisiana, gave two boards of longleaf pine. These form a desirable 
addition, completing an exhibit of this species. 

A complete series of western larch, consisting of slab sections of 
trunk, a wheel section and boards, was presented by the J. Neils 
Lumber Company of Libby, Montana. A trunk section of tamarack 
and a small board of sugar maple were presented by the Von Platen- 
Fox Company of Iron Mountain, Michigan, through the courtesy 
of Mr. Allott M. Fox. The Edward Hines Lumber Company, 
Chicago, through its unit at Burns, Oregon, sent two excellent 
boards of western larch. 

Fine exhibition material, consisting of a trunk section and two 
boards of southern white cedar, was presented by the Richmond 
Cedar Company of Richmond, Virginia. The Seattle Cedar Lumber 
Manufacturing Company furnished, at the request of the West 
Coast Lumbermen's Association, excellent material of western red 
cedar. The series consists of trunk slabs, wheel section, and two 
boards, forming an important addition to the collection of the 
principal commercial woods of the west coast. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 123 

The Eastman-Gardiner Hardwood Company of Laurel, Missis- 
sippi, contributed a complete exhibit series of sycamore — trunk slabs, 
wheel section and two boards. To augment this the Keith Lumber 
Company, Chicago, gave a fiat-grained board of the same species. 
Through the courtesy of Mr, H. M. Dickman, the Berst-Forster- 
Dixfield Company of Cloquet, Minnesota, presented a trunk, wheel 
section and boards of paper birch. 

From the H. R. Crews Lumber Company of Tulsa, Oklahoma, 
the Museum received, through Mr. Ira D. Crews, a log section, 
wheel section and two boards of Osage orange from the company's 
mill at Paris, Texas. This material had not previously been repre- 
sented in the Museum's collection and forms a welcome addition. 
Two specimens of unusual interest are "knees" of southern cypress, 
obtained through the assistance of the Chicago office of the Florida- 
Louisiana Red Cypress Company. 

New material of foreign woods for exhibition purposes has been 
received through the cooperation of various friends of the Museum 
and from importers and manufacturers of such woods. During the 
past year the valuable assistance obtained has resulted in the 
acquisition of a great number of commercially important woods of 
Europe, Africa and India, hitherto not represented in the collection. 

From the Yale University School of Forestry, through the cour- 
tesy of Professor Samuel J. Record, Research Associate in Wood 
Technology of the Museimi, there were received two boards of 
jequitiba {Cariniana legalis), a tree of immense size native to southern 
Brazil. In addition the Museum received in exchange from the 
same institution 119 hand specimens of woods from the republic of 
Liberia, West Africa. These form a part of the collection assembled 
by Mr. G. Proctor Cooper during 1928 and 1929 for the Yale Uni- 
versity School of Forestry in cooperation with the Firestone Planta- 
tions Company. The International Paper Company of New York, at 
the suggestion of Professor Record, contributed ten samples of 
Brazilian pulpwoods. The Conservator of Forests of British Hon- 
duras presented a collection of sixty-two hand specimens of the 
principal woods of the colony. A large board of ipil, an important 
wood of the Philippine Islands, was presented by Mr. Ralph A. 
Bond of Chicago. 

One of the most important gifts of foreign woods was that received 
from Ichabod T. Williams and Sons of New York, through the 
generosity of Mr. T. R. Williams. The series consists of veneered 
panels of mahogany, eight feet long, representing the Cuban, Mexi- 

124 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

can, and African species. In order to show the variation of figure 
and color obtained, two or three panels of each species have been 
included. In addition Mr. Williams donated a board of figured 
teak from Burma. From J. H. Smith Veneers, Inc., of Chicago, 
there were received fifteen face veneers of important European, 
Australian, and Indian woods. Attractive panels of these were 
kindly prepared by the Schick-Johnson Company of Chicago. In 
addition, through the courtesy of Mr. J. H. Smith, president of the 
veneer company, there were also received sixteen small veneer 
samples of foreign woods of importance in the American trade. 

The R. S. Bacon Company of Chicago contributed eleven face 
veneers of African and East Indian woods. These were made up 
into panels by the American Plywood Corporation of New London, 
Wisconsin. The Williamson Veneer Company of Baltimore, Mary- 
land, presented two veneered panels of Santa Maria {Calophyllum 
calaba), a species of tall timber tree occurring in Central America 
and northern South America. From Mr. Howard Spence of South- 
port, England, the Museum received, in exchange, hand specimens 
of English and Venezuelan walnut. From Dr. Roman S. Flores of 
Progreso, Yucatan, there was received a hand specimen of a new 
species of fruit tree known in Yucatan by the Maya name Coloc. 
Associate Curator Standley identified the species as Talisia Floresii 
and it was described by him in the June issue of Tropical Woods. 

The accessions of economic botanical material, other than woods, 
were obtained principally for exhibition purposes in Hall 28. They 
may be separated into six classes: fibers and cellulose products, tans, 
dyes, resins, rubber, and tobacco. By far the greatest number of 
these accessions fall under the heading of fibers and cellulose prod- 
ucts. They include baskets and basketry materials, brushes and 
brooms, hats, textiles, twine, paper-making materials, and celluloid. 

The baskets and basketry materials were obtained from five 
sources. Six mats woven from thin strips of conifer wood were 
presented by the Raedlein Basket Company of Chicago. The 
Artistic Reed and Willow Manufacturing Company, Chicago, was 
the source of two trays of willow wickerwork and a bundle of osiers. 
Rattan chair seating and a bundle of rattan splints came from May's 
Rattan Works, Chicago. Two baskets made of camauba palm, 
obtained by the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition to the Amazon 
in 1929, were accessioned. Mrs. Berthold Laufer of Chicago pre- 
sented a coil basket made of the silver-top palm from New Providence, 
Bahama Islands. 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. IX, Plate XVI 


Mary D. Sturges Hall (Hall 3) 

Illustrating installation of specimens on individual shelves against light-colored screen 

About one-tenth actual size 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report op the Director 125 

Additions to Field Museum's collection of brushes and brooms 
have been secured from two Chicago firms this year. The Haisler 
Brothers Company supplied fibers and brushes of bassine, Mexican 
grass, Bahia fiber, piassaba fiber, and palmyra fiber, all of which 
are in everyday use in this locality. The common house broom and 
whisk broom, both of which are made from the tops of broom com 
(sorghum), were furnished by the Imperial Broom Company. 

The exhibit of material used for hat making has been augmented 
by gifts of material from three firms. Frank Schoble and Company 
of New York furnished many specimens of hats in various stages of 
manufacture. These include materials from Japan, China, Italy, 
Philippine Islands, and Switzerland. Among the materials repre- 
sented are hats of sennit braid, leghorn, bangkok, yeddo, baku, 
mackinaw, and balibuntal. The John B. Stetson Company of 
Philadelphia supplied an excellent exhibit of the panama hat in its 
many stages of manufacture. Through the kindness of the Italian 
Chamber of Commerce of Chicago there were obtained from Giulio 
Corti and Fillo of Signa, Italy, a number of hats made in Italy. These 
include the materials known as charmeuse, pedal raveggiolo, ramio, 
racello, ramie, and cincina. 

The various fibers and textile materials accessioned during 1931 
consist of Asiatic cotton bolls received from the Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Washington, D.C.; stalks of bamboo from Garfield Park 
Conservatory, Chicago; chair seats woven of cat- tail fiags from the 
Heywood-Wakefield Company, Chicago; sedge plants, twine, and 
matting from the Deltox Rug Company, Oshkosh, Wisconsin; sisal 
and manila hemp twine and slivers from the International Harvester 
Company, Chicago; coconut fiber rug, manila fiber rug, and rush 
and sedge matting from Marshall Field and Company, Chicago; 
and raffia baskets and cloth from Madagascar, supplied by the 
Department of Anthropology from material obtained by the Marshall 
Field Anthropological Expedition to Madagascar a few years ago. 

To supplement the exhibit of paper-making materials some gifts 
of cornstalk paper and cotton paper were solicited. The Kalamazoo 
Vegetable Parchment Company, of Kalamazoo, Michigan, supplied 
cornstalk paper, and the American Writing Paper Company, of 
Holyoke, Massachusetts, furnished samples of cotton paper in its 
several steps of manufacture. 

In modernizing the celluloid exhibit it was found advisable to 
add some moving picture film. This was obtained from the Universal 
Film Exchange, Chicago. 

126 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

The exhibit of vegetable tanning materials was made more com 
plete by the addition of some bark of the California tanbark oak 
presented at the suggestion of Professor Emanuel Fritz by Mr. 
S. H. Frank, of Redwood City, California. To show the effect of 
different vegetable tanning materials used in leather manufacture 
samples of chrome, quebracho, and sumac tanned leather were 
given by the Monarch Leather Company, Chicago. 

The vegetable dye exhibit was supplemented with henna leaves 
obtained by purchase. 

An improvement in the exhibit of products obtained from longleaf 
pine by distillation was effected by the addition of a sample of com- 
mercial abietic acid received from the Hercules Powder Company 
of Wilmington, Delaware. Abietic acid is the principal constituent 
of rosin. 

A trunk of a Hevea rubber tree suitable for exhibition was pre- 
sented to the Museum by Mr. Paul Van Cleef, Chicago. This trunk, 
a large specimen more than a foot in diameter, is from a tree which 
was at least fourteen years old. The tapping marks and the planta- 
tion number on the tnmk add to the educational value of the speci- 
men. This gift fills a long-felt need in the Department of Botany. 

The accessions of tobacco received during the year have been of 
material benefit in the revision of the exhibits of this important plant 
and its products. John H. Meyer and Son, Chicago, presented many 
excellent specimens of cigar leaf tobacco. A. Zaphirio and Company, 
Chicago, furnished splendid samples of Turkish cigarette tobacco, 
and the firm of Kuttnauer and Franke, Chicago, supplied a series 
of tobacco insecticides and other products. 

A number of additions to exhibition material designed for use in 
the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) were accessioned as a result of the 
activities of the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories of 
the Department. Among these are the following: a small-scale model! 
of a clubmoss tree of the genus Lepidodendron to show the dichoto-| 
mous branching of the aerial as well as the terrestrial parts of these! 
Paleozoic forest trees; a restoration of a fruiting branch of Lepi- 
dodendron obovatum with numerous small cones; another of Lepi- 
dostrobus ovatifolius; a restoration of a plant of Sphenophyllum 
emarginatum; a restoration of a fruiting branch of Cordaites borassi- 
folius; a reproduction of a flowering branch of the tulip tree (Ldrio- 
dendron tulipifera) ; a reproduction of a flowering and fruiting branch 
of amatto (Bixa Orellana) ; a reproduction of a large yam (Dioscorea 
batatas); reproductions of two enormous fruits of the milkweed 


Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 127 

family, both fleshy pods more than a foot in length produced by 
tropical vines of the genera Marsdenia and Vincetoxicum, native to 
British Honduras. The originals of the milkweed fruits were received 
at the Museum in 1930 through the kindness of Professor Samuel J. 
Record, of Yale University School of Forestry (who is also Research 
Associate in Wood Technology on the Museum staff). The original 
specimen of Bixa Orellana was obtained in Para by the Marshall 
Field Botanical Expedition to the Amazon in 1929. 

Geology. — Accessions were received during the year from eighty- 
seven individuals and institutions. Of these, fifty-eight were by 
gift, twelve by exchange, five by collection, and twelve by purchase. 
These accessions included a total of 1,949 specimens. 

One of the most important gifts the Museum has ever received 
was completed during the year by the delivery of the final canvases 
in the series of twenty-eight murals representing the life and scenery 
of past geological periods, presented by Mr. Ernest R. Graham. 
These paintings by the noted artist, Mr. Charles R. Knight, represent 
the culmination of the skill and experience of a lifetime devoted 
largely to depicting the animals of the past. The paintings restore 
vividly the often strange and curious shapes of prehistoric life, 
both plant and animal, and show the gradual development and 
enlargement of life from its beginning up to historic times. This 
work has been done not only in accord with the highest principles 
of art, but also incorporates the latest and most accurate scientific 
knowledge as obtained from leading authorities. The appreciation 
which these paintings have received, is shown not only by the 
interest in them manifested by visitors, but also by a world-wide 
demand for photographs of them. Of the twenty-eight paintings, 
fourteen are twenty-five by nine feet in size and fourteen are eleven 
by nine. One of them is represented in Plate XIV of this Report. 

Two magnificent and extremely valuable gem specimens were 
presented by the late Mr. Richard T. Crane, Jr., a few months before 
his death. One is a cut ruby topaz weighing 97.55 carats. It is 
cut in the form known as "table cut" and is one and one-quarter 
by seven-eighths inches in size. This is a flawless stone of a color 
known as rose or Brazilian ruby. It is probably the finest example 
of this type that has yet been produced. The second stone is a 
plaque of black Australian opal weighing 148 carats and having a 
polished surface of two by one and one-half inches. On the black 
background of this stone brilliant colors are thickly displayed, blend- 

128 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

ing into changing tints as seen at different angles. These colors are 
of the rarest and most desirable type. Both of these specimens have 
been added to the exhibits in Harlow N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31). 

Mr. William J. Chalmers presented two silver bricks of historic 
as well as intrinsic value. One of these bricks, weighing thirty- 
seven ounces, was made in 1878 by the first water-jacket furnace 
operated at Leadville, Colorado. The second specimen was a bar 
of silver, weighing eight and one-half ounces, made from the ore 
of some of the first silver mines that were operated in Montana. 
Mr. Chalmers also made additional gifts to the crystal collection, 
including a geode six inches in diameter containing extraordinarily 
large crystals of cuprite. In addition he presented eight specimens 
of rare minerals occurring in the pegmatite of Newry, Maine. These 
included several specimens of unusual perfection of the rare manganese 
phosphate, eosphorite, and of the beryllium phosphates, herderite and 
beryllonite. The specimens of the last named represent the second 
known discovery of the mineral. 

To complete the exhibit representing the evolution of the horse, 
Mr. Frederick Blaschke, the sculptor, of Cold Spring-on-Hudson, 
New York, prepared and presented to the Museum a beautiful 
model of the famous race horse, "Man o' War," as a representation 
of the highest type of a modem horse. This model, one-fifth actual 
size, was made from life and is a fine example of this sculptor's skill. 

A series of twenty-six specimens of rare metals was presented by 
Mr. Herbert C. Walther of Chicago. Only one or two of those 
presented have been previously represented in the Museum collec- 
tions. The gift included examples of metallic tungsten, palladium, 
thallium, tellurium and titanium. 

Mr. Frank von Drasek of Cicero, Illinois, continued his contri- 1 
butions of representative specimens of the minerals of Arkansas by 
presenting 105 new examples. Those presented include some large 
and brilliant groups of crystallized quartz, a number of specimens 
of the peculiar acicular apatite of Magnet Cove, and specimens of 
typical elaeolite, schorlomite, brookite, etc., besides eight specimens 
of the satellites of diamond occurring at Murfreesboro, Arkansas. 

Ten photographs, eleven by fourteen inches in size, representing 
various formations in the interior of limestone caves, were presented 
by Mr. Russell T. Neville of Kewanee, Illinois. These photographs 
were made by Mr. Neville in the course of many years of cave 
explorations and illustrate some unusual and remarkable formations. 
They are from such well-known caves as Carlsbad, Mammoth and 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports. Vol. IX, Plate XVII 

OKRA (Hibiscus esculentus) 

(Hall 29) 

Reproduced from nature in Stanley Field Plant Reproduction 

Laboratories, Department of Botany of the Mxiseum 

J«t imm 

Of m 

mnmr of umi^ 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 129 

Wyandotte, as well as from others less known, such as Onondaga 
and Dossey's caves. 

A remarkable series of fulgurites, or what are commonly known 
as "lightning tubes," was presented by Mr. E. A. Mueller of Chicago. 
His gift comprises 301 specimens from two localities not previously 
represented. One series was found in Ableman, Wisconsin; the other 
near Saugatuck, Michigan. These fulgurites represent a large variety 
of the forms produced by lightning, such as forked, sintered, winged, 
smooth and rough tubes. Since Mr. Mueller is an electrical engineer 
he collected the tubes with unusual skill, preserving their unique 

Messrs. Roy Muhr of Redington, Nebraska, and Anton C. G. 
Kaempfer of Bridgeport, Nebraska, presented a skull and jaw of 
the so-called four-tusked mastodon, Trilophodon. These examples 
of this rare animal furnish the best representation of the skull and 
jaws which has thus far been obtained by the Museum. 

A welcome gift for addition to the meteorite collection was a 
portion of a newly discovered meteorite from Randolph County, 
North Carolina, presented by Mr. Harry T. Davis of Raleigh, North 
Carolina. This specimen well illustrates the essential characters 
of the meteorite. 

A specimen illustrating a new occurrence of the rare mineral 
volborthite and representing the second known occurrence of this 
mineral in the United States, was a gift, highly appreciated, from 
Mr. F. H. Rough of St. Louis. 

A group of amazonite crystals of unusually good color and well- 
defined form from Amelia Courthouse, Virginia, presented by the 
American Gem and Pearl Company of New York, gives the best 
representation that has been thus far obtained for the Museum of 
the amazonite of that locality. 

A specimen of the new borax mineral, kemite, which now con- 
stitutes the principal source of crude borax, was presented by the 
Western Borax Company of Los Angeles. This mineral, being a 
sodium borate, requires much less treatment to prepare for the 
market than the calcium borate which hitherto has been the chief 
source of commercial borax. 

Through the kind interest of Mr. R. E. Demmon, president of the 
Stauffer Chemical Company of Freeport, Texas, a number of speci- 
mens which illustrate the deposits now supplying the bulk of the 
world's sulphur were received. These specimens include three from 

130 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

the Stauffer Chemical Company and four specimens and four charts 
from the Freeport Sulphur Company. A section of a drill core 
showing sulphur intercalated with limestone, and charts showing 
the structure of the dome in which the sulphur occurs, are of especial 
interest in this series. From the details given in the charts, it is 
hoped soon to prepare a small model of a sulphur-bearing dome. 

Mr. J. K. Hawkes of Kansas City, Missouri, donated a number 
of large sheets of transparent gypsum from a recently discovered 
outcrop at Barton, Oklahoma. 

A specimen of bog-iron ore from Indiana was a welcome accession 
received from Mr. John Palm of Lakeside, Michigan. Typical 
specimens of this ore had been lacking hitherto in the Museum 

Some specimens of a newly discovered black, oolitic marble from 
Death Valley, California, with three other specimens of rocks and 
minerals from the region, were presented by Mr. William B. Pitts 
of Sunnyvale, California. The oolitic specimens are of large size 
and were polished by the donor in order to show the oolitic structure 
more clearly. 

Mr. George M. Coram of Utica, New York, presented a large 
specimen of the so-called "box crystal" from Port Ley den, New 
York. This unusual formation represents a succession of changes 
of minerals which has been the subject of considerable study, and 
as the occurrence was a limited one and is now exhausted it is 
gratifying to have this representative specimen. 

Mr. R. C. Swank of Chicago was the donor of a concretion from 
Kansas of unusual size and peculiar shape. The shape is disk-like 
and the diameter is fifteen inches. This concretion had been treasured 
for many years by a friend of Mr. Swank, Mr. John Klopper, and 
on the death of the latter, Mr. Swank kindly procured the concretion 
as a gift for the Museum. 

Other unusual specimens presented were two chalcedony geodes 
containing water. They were given by Mr. Ralph M. Chait of 
New York. 

Seven specimens of skulls and jaws of fossil vertebrates, repre- 
senting some of the smaller Miocene ungulates, were presented by 
Mr. S. R. Sweet. These specimens were collected by Mr. Sweet 
in the neighborhood of his home in Bridgeport, Nebraska. 

Some remarkably well-preserved specimens of fossil coal plants 
from Nanticoke, Pennsylvania, were presented by John Bigane and 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 131 

Sons of Chicago. The specimens of Sphenophyllum, showing several 
slender, jointed stems to which are attached whorls of the wedge- 
shaped leaves, are especially fine for both study and exhibition 

A jaw of one of the extinct group of short-footed ungulates 
known as amblypods was presented by Mr. E. B. Faber of Grand 
Junction, Colorado. It was found near Grand Junction. Preliminary 
examination indicates that the animal which the specimen represents 
had specific characters distinguishing it from any previously known. 

Another rare fossil jaw presented was one of the extinct giant 
beaver known as Castoroides. This was found at Mount Ayr, 
Indiana, the locality from which a large mastodon skull was procured 
for the Museum some years ago. The Castoroides jaw is a gift from 
Mr. Joseph Comer of Rose Lawn, Indiana. 

Messrs. Bryan Patterson and Frank Letl of the Museum staff, 
and Mr. Paul Letl and Miss Nan Mason of Chicago, presented a 
number of specimens of fossil plants, two insects and a septarium 
which they obtained on two trips to Braidwood, Illinois. A total 
of twenty-six specimens was received, among which were well- 
preserved impressions of leaves, of several species of seed-ferns and 
of two specimens of insects. One of the last was an insect allied 
to modem cockroaches which was preserved nearly complete. 

A skilfully carved object of green fluorite from Cumberland, 
England, was presented by Mr. Martin L. Ehrmann of New York. 
It was cut from a rough mass of fluorite in the form of capped twin 
vases, eight by nine inches in size, with an elaborate pattern in 
low relief carved upon them. This is the only specimen thus far 
received by the Museum which illustrates the possibilities of this 
mineral as a medium for engraving. 

By exchange an unusual amount of valuable material was received. 
First in importance may be mentioned four complete skeletons of 
vertebrate fossils from the so-called "tar beds" at Los Angeles, 
California. They were received from the Los Angeles Museum of 
History, Science and Art. The skeletons represent extinct species 
of horse, bison, ground sloth and carnivore. The completeness and 
authenticity of these specimens make them of great value. Prac- 
tically all of them will be suitable for articulation and mounting as 
opportunity permits. 

Another valuable specimen of a recently extinct animal obtained 
by exchange was that of a very complete and well-preserved skull 
and jaws of the so-called woolly rhinoceros. The large size of the 

132 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

skull well illustrates the proportions of this animal, which was 
abundant in Europe during the glacial period, and contemporaneous 
with early man. It had not previously been represented in the 
Museum collections. The specimen was obtained from the Royal 
Natural History Museum of Brussels, Belgium. 

From the British Museum (Natural History), London, specimens 
of three different species of trilobites from the Cambrian beds of 
Wales, form a valuable addition to the representation of fossils of 
Cambrian age. 

Some remains of fossil vertebrates from Cumberland Cave, 
Maryland, received from Mr. C. W. G. Eifrig of River Forest, 
Illinois, by exchange, illustrate some of the extinct species found 
in that cave. Of especial importance among these is a species of dog. 
A study of the teeth of this species by Assistant Bryan Patterson 
has afforded new data which will soon be published. 

Four representative specimens of meteorites were obtained by 
exchange. Of these, one was of the Olmedilla (Spain) meteorite. 
This specimen weighs 397 grams and shows both interior and crust. 
It came from Mr. C. Wendler of Geneva, Switzerland. A large, 
etched section of the Tacubaya (Mexico) meteorite, weighing 276 
grams, was received from Professor H. H. Nininger of Denver. 
Through Professor Nininger there was also obtained, partly by 
exchange and partly by purchase, a section weighing forty-eight 
grams and a cast of the Brule (Nebraska) iron meteorite. A section 
of the Adams County (Colorado) meteorite weighing 250 grams and 
showing crust and interior, was also received partly by exchange. 
All the meteorites obtained represent falls not hitherto possessed in 
the Museum's collection. 

From Mr. H. G. Clinton of Manhattan, Nevada, there were 
received by exchange twenty-one specimens of minerals, few of which 
had been previously represented in the Museum's collection. Of 
especial importance was a series of the rare aluminum phosphates 
vashegyite and barrandite, and of the semi-precious stone called 
utahlite. The utahlite series included a number of cut and polished 
specimens. The material will probably also yield a number of 
the recently described phosphates known as englishite, demite, 
etc. A specimen of the little-known mineral belmontite, a rare lead 
silicate, was also included in this accession. Only a few specimens 
of this mineral are in existence. 

Thirteen specimens of rare minerals were obtained from Mr. 
Joseph Linneman of Buffalo, New York, by exchange. They included 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 133 

specimens of delafossite, tungstenite, franckeite, plumbojarosite, and 
the rare mercuric oxide, montroydite. 

Nine gems were cut from rough material of beryl, zircon and 
tourmaline, most of which was collected in Brazil by the Marshall 
Field Expedition of 1922. The cutting was done by an expert, 
Mr. Stuart D. Noble, of Minneapolis, whose services were obtained 
in exchange for a portion of the material. The golden beryl and 
tourmaline from this cutting are of unusual beauty. 

From Mr. Joseph Bianchi of Paterson, New Jersey, there were 
received by exchange a large, representative specimen of the newly 
described silicate called norbergite, an excellent specimen of the 
manganesian pyroxene known as schefferite, and two other minerals. 

Accessions obtained on collecting trips included sixty-seven speci- 
mens of minerals and rocks procured by Curator Oliver C. Farrington 
from quarries in Oxford County, Maine. In this series were incor- 
porated a number of minerals not previously represented from these 
localities, as well as larger and more representative specimens of 
minerals than had been previously collected. From the Marshall 
Field Expedition to Nebraska for collecting fossil vertebrates there 
were received thirty-eight specimens of fossil mammals, two of fossil 
tortoises and six skeletons of recent mammals. These were all 
much-desired additions. Among the vertebrate fossils represented 
in the material collected are the aquatic rhinoceros, Teleoceras, the 
early horse, Mesohi'p'pus, the camel-like Procameliis and the carnivore, 
Hoplophoneus. Among skeletons of modem domestic animals col- 
lected were those of a cow, horse, sheep and dog. These will be of 
much service for comparison with fossil allied species. 

By means of two collecting trips made by members of the Depart- 
ment staff to Sag Canal, Illinois, the representation of fossil worms 
of the locality was increased by a large number of specimens, one 
group being the finest yet secured. There were also collected fossil 
trilobites, brachiopods, gastropods and bryozoans, making a total 
of 300 specimens. 

Specimens obtained by purchase were chiefly additions to the 
meteorite and vertebrate fossil collections. An iron meteorite from 
Breece, New Mexico, weighing 115 pounds, was obtained by purchase. 
It represents the entire mass of this fall, and is a well-preserved, 
typical iron meteorite which gives figures of unusual beauty when 
etched. An end piece of the Newport (Arkansas) ironstone meteorite 
was also purchased, giving an excellent representation of this rare 
type of meteorite. The purchase of two skulls and jaws and other 

134 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

skeletal parts of Protitanotherium places the Museum in possession of 
the largest representation thus far known of this important ancestor 
of the titanotheres. A head of the great fossil fish, Portheus, mounted 
for exhibition, was another purchase. A horn, three feet six inches 
long, attached to a part of the skull of the fossil bison, Bison regius, 
from Oklahoma, was purchased. It not only represents a species 
new to the collection but is probably a record length for a bison 
horn. Two casts of dinosaur tracks from Grand Junction, Colorado, 
were purchased. They illustrate the size and character of footprints 
of these great reptiles. One of the slabs shows a footprint about 
two feet in diameter. 

To the collection of invertebrate fossils, six specimens of crusta- 
ceans, crinoids and starfish from the Lower Devonian of Bundenbach, 
Germany, were added by purchase. These specimens are notable 
for the perfection and delicacy with which the details of their struc- 
ture have been preserved. 

A collection containing twenty species of fossil leaves and flowers 
of Miocene age from Oregon gives a very complete representation 
of a newly discovered deposit there. The fossils are dark in color 
on a pure white matrix, and thus furnish specimens not only of 
scientific importance but of attractive appearance. Identifications of 
all the species were made by Dr. R. W. Chaney of Washington, D.C. 

An exhibit illustrating the variety of gases of the atmosphere 
was also obtained by purchase. These specimens represent the eight 
principal gases of the air, not including carbon dioxide. The gases 
are enclosed in tubes furnished with electrodes which permit the 
passage of an electric current to show the spectrum of each. 

Zoology. — Zoological specimens were accessioned to a total of 
11,332 during 1931, which is somewhat less than in recent years, 
the average number for the past six years having been 14,418. The 
year's accessions are distributed among the different divisions as 
follows: mammals, 1,358; birds, 2,432; reptiles and amphibians, 
1,369 ; fishes, 4,220 ; insects, 1,953. The number obtained by Museum 
expeditions is 6,624; by gift, 2,846; by purchase, 1,154; and by 
exchange, 708. 

Gifts of mammals, while not large numerically, include some 
important and valuable additions to the collections. Mr. Marshall 
Field of New York presented four lions shot by himself and Mrs. 
Field in Africa. These are of fine quality, and include a male, a 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 135 

female, and two kittens. They provide material especially needed 
for a proposed group in Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall. 

Mr. James E. Baum, Jr., of Lake Forest, Illinois, presented six 
Persian goats and two Persian wild asses which he shot during the 
course of a personal expedition. Viscount Fumess of Invemesshire, 
Scotland, gave the Museum two very complete specimens, including 
skins, skulls, and skeletons, of the Scotch red deer. From Tanganyika 
Territory, Africa, the late Mr. R. H. Everard of Arusha, Africa, shortly 
before his death, sent an exceptionally large and fine specimen of 
scaly anteater. Mrs. Grace Thompson Seton of Greenwich, Con- 
necticut, gave fifty-four bats which she personally collected in the 
Philippine Islands. Twenty-eight Mexican mammals were given 
by Mr. Robert M. Zingg of Chicago. 

In addition to various fishes, mentioned elsewhere, the John G. 
Shedd Aquarium presented a Florida manatee. This was received 
in excellent condition, just after death, and served as the basis for 
a mold from which a reproduction in cellulose-acetate will be made, 
showing the animal in natural position. The skull and skeleton 
also were preserved. 

By exchange, 108 mammals were received from the British 
Museum (Natural History), London, including many genera and 
species new to the collections. This material is from all parts of 
the world. 

A very fine collection of unusually well-prepared specimens of 
large mammals from South Africa was received from the Vemay- 
Lang Kalahari Expedition. This consists of 197 specimens repre- 
senting thirty-two species. Of outstanding interest is a giant sable 
antelope with horns of nearly record size, which is being prepared 
for exhibition. Other material from this expedition, including 
vertebrates of small and medium size, is expected in the near future, 
after it has been studied at the Transvaal Museum in Pretoria. 
A full account of the expedition appears in the Annual Report of the 
Director for 1930 (p. 347). 

The 465 mammals obtained by the C. Suydam Cutting Sikkim 
Expedition form a very important addition to the Museum's collec- 
tion, which contains but few of the many Indian forms. This material 
includes three genera not heretofore represented, and fifty-seven 
species most of which are new to the Museum. A large and hand- 
some example of the Himalayan langur from this collection has been 
moimted and placed on exhibition in Hall 15. 

136 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Specimens from the Harold White- John Coats African Expedi- 
tion, which were collected in 1930 but not accessioned until 1931, 
include choice specimens of the bongo and Hunter's antelope. 

Specimens of Indian water buffalo and of gaur ox or seladang 
were received from the Carey-Ryan Expedition to Indo-China, 
which was conducted by Mr. George G. Carey, Jr., of Baltimore, 
and Mr. George F. Ryan of Lutherville, Maryland. 

Among mammals purchased during the year was a collection of 
122 specimens from Costa Rica, including types of two new species 
of rodents, which have been described in a Museum publication. 

The most important accession of birds was the collection made by 
the C. Suydam Cutting Sikkim Expedition, totaling 1,379 specimens. 
Previously there were no specimens in the Museum from this far-off 
comer of India. Of special interest is the rare snow partridge 
(Lerwa lerwa), which was obtained at an altitude of 17,000 feet. 
Another interesting species from high altitudes is Grandala coelicolor, 
which is related to our common bluebird and resembles it in its 
azure plumage. 

Also worthy of special mention is a collection of birds from Goyaz, 
Brazil, which was obtained by purchase. Included in it are the 
type specimens of two recently described birds, Conopophaga lineata 
ruhecula and Knipolegus lophotes maximus. This collection is en- 
riched further by many specimens that fill gaps in Field Museum's 
extensive series of South American birds, or that are new records 
for the region and therefore extensions of hitherto known ranges. 

By exchange, 100 birds from various localities were received 
from Mr. H. B. Conover of Chicago. Most of these were new to 
the Museum's collections. Outstanding among them is Grallaria 
gigantea, largest of the South American ant thrushes, a passerine 
bird superficially resembling a quail or small partridge. 

Notable gifts of amphibians and reptiles during 1931 include 
two specimens of the blind European cave salamander, received from 
Dr. Karl Absolon of Briinn, Czechoslovakia; two paratypes of a 
salamander, Plethodon welleri, from the Cincinnati Society of Natural 
History; 345 salamanders from the Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park, presented by Mr. D. C. Lowrie of the University of Chicago; 
fifty specimens from Mr. A. S. Windsor of the General Biological 
Supply House, Chicago; and thirty-four from Mr. Walter L. Necker 
of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, supplementary to the Great 
Smoky Mountain material. Mr. Robert M. Zingg of the University 
of Chicago collected and presented sixty specimens of amphibians 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 137 

and reptiles from the Sierra Tarahumari in southern Chihuahua, 
Mexico. Dr. Charles E. Burt of Southwestern College, Winfield, 
Kansas, presented 173 specimens from Texas. The General Bio- 
logical Supply House, Chicago, presented twenty specimens from 
various localities. The John G. Shedd Aquarium presented one 
tree frog, one Galapagos marine iguana and ten turtles, which include 
a specimen of the remarkable giant snapping turtle of the Mississippi. 
Gifts from members of Field Museum's staff amount to 143 specimens. 

A single gecko from Aitutaki Island, Cook Islands, was received 
from the Philip M. Chancellor-Field Museum Expedition to Aitutaki 
(1930). The C. Suydam Cutting Expedition collected six frogs, fifty- 
nine lizards and thirty-nine snakes in Sikkim. These are of interest 
for comparison with other material in Field Museum's collections 
from southeastern Asia. 

Exchanges with the University of Oklahoma, in return for identi- 
fications, added fourteen specimens from Oklahoma to the study 
collections. An exchange with the Senckenberg Museum, Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, Germany, brought a paratype of the limbless lizard 
(Voeltzkowia mira) of Madagascar. Thirty-nine salamanders from 
North Carolina and Tennessee were obtained by exchange with 
the Cincinnati Society of Natural History. Two crocodilians pre- 
served in alcohol and two South American turtles were received 
by exchange from the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 

Notable among purchases of reptiles and amphibians are forty- 
four specimens from southwestern Africa; five frogs from West 
Africa; forty-two specimens from Colombia; and 143 from Western 

Five specimens of the ratfish, Hydrolagus colliei, were purchased 
from the Pacific Biological Laboratories, Pacific Grove, California, 
to be used for study purposes in the preparation of a specimen of 
the long-snouted chimaera of Japan for exhibition. Twenty-three 
specimens of rare fishes from the Gulf of Mexico were purchased 
from the Caribbean Biological Laboratories of New Orleans, to fill 
vacancies in the study series. 

Twenty-three specimens of fishes from a region not previously 
represented in the Museum collections were received from the C. 
Suydam Cutting Expedition to Sikkim. From the Philip M. 
Chancellor-Field Museum Expedition (1930) to Aitutaki Island were 
received 210 specimens, including three that seem to be new to science. 
From the Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedition (1928-29) were received 

138 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

3,850 specimens, including types and paratypes of a large number 
of new species. These had been temporarily in the custody of 
Leland Stanford University in California, which cooperated with 
Field Museum in the ichthyological work of this expedition. 

From the John G. Shedd Aquarium were received seventy-six 
specimens in excellent condition. Several of these were used directly 
or indirectly in the preparation of exhibits. Most interesting was 
a series of four electric eels. These are being used in the preparation 
of study and exhibition material. It is hoped that from the lot 
there may be produced a mounted specimen, a mounted skeleton, 
a study skeleton of the head, and two study specimens. 

The General Biological Supply House of Chicago gave twelve 
specimens of the guppy, Lehistes reticulatus, from St. Croix, Virgin 
Islands, and an egg of the nurse shark with a very large embryo. 
Captain R. J. Walters of the Miami Aquarium, Miami, Florida, 
gave a large scorpion fish and a large shark-sucker. The scorpion 
fish has been used in the preparation of a very excellent exhibition 
specimen that is already installed in the systematic series of fishes. 
The shark-sucker is being prepared for exhibition. A large tarpon 
in excellent condition was received from Mr. C. Irving Wright of 
Pirates' Cove Fishing Camp, Florida. A cast of the specimen was 
made in preparation for an exhibit to be produced later. Mr. P. B. 
Clark of San Francisco gave twelve specimens of the Alaskan black- 
fish. This fish is common in the fresh-water swamps of Alaska, 
but comparatively few have ever reached museums. 

The fifty-six acquisitions of insects consisted mostly of small 
collections, two-thirds of which comprised species from various parts 
of North America. The largest gift was a series of 392 beetles from 
Idaho, presented by Mr. Emil Liljeblad of Chicago. From Mr. 
Bryan Patterson of Chicago there were received as a gift 154 desirable 
insects of various orders from Nebraska, a state from which the 
Museum hitherto had very few specimens. From the same state 
there were also acquired 144 miscellaneous insects collected by the 
Marshall Field Paleontological Expedition to Nebraska. 

Much appreciated is a gift from Mr. Bernard Benesh of North 
Chicago, consisting of a rare beetle from Illinois, fifty-two insects 
of the same order from Arizona and California, thirty-four cockchafers 
from Germany, and seventeen named beetles, including two para- 
types, from Uruguay. Dr. and Mrs. C. E. Hellmayr of Chicago 
increased the usefulness of the Museum's series of European insects 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 139 

by presenting 226 specimens, mostly butterflies, which they collected 
in Bavaria and Switzerland. 

A notable accession obtained by exchange with Dr. T. C. Schneirla 
of New York University is a collection of 244 identified ants repre- 
senting thirty-five species from Illinois and the surrounding states. 
This is a much-needed addition to the collection of these interesting 
insects. An unexpected acquisition of 284 ticks was the result of 
an examination of the specimens of exotic toads, frogs, lizards, 
snakes, and turtles in the Museum's Division of Amphibians and 
Reptiles. As these annoying and harmful parasites deserve investiga- 
tion, this lot, together with other ticks obtained previously, has 
been submitted for study and determination to Dr. Joseph C. 
Becquaert, of the School of Tropical Medicine of Harvard University. 

The invertebrates other than insects received by the Museum 
during the year totaled 380 specimens. Of this number 217 were 
donations and 163 were obtained by Museum expeditions. A note- 
worthy acquisition was the gift of fourteen European and 184 
North American sea urchins which were received from the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. These speci- 
mens have added value in that they are all authoritatively identified. 
Through the Philip M. Chancellor-Field Museum Expedition to 
Aitutaki Island in the Cook Archipelago, there were added to 
the collection 100 desirable specimens of various species of corals, 
twenty-one crustaceans, and twenty-seven other invertebrates. A 
small but important donation of two land shells from Professor T. D. 
A. Cockerell of the University of Colorado was of special interest 
in that the specimens are paratypes of a subspecies described by the 



Anthropology. — Forty-five of the fifty-six accessions received 
in the Department of Anthropology during the year have been 
entered. Fifteen accessions from previous years were also entered. 

The work of cataloguing has been continued as usual, the number 
of catalogue cards prepared during the year totaling 4,554. The 
total number of catalogue cards entered from the opening of the 
first volume is 197,256. 

The 4,554 catalogue cards prepared are distributed as follows: 
archaeology and ethnology of North America, 1,275; archaeology 

140 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

and ethnology of Mexico, Central and South America, 898; archae- 
ology and ethnology of China and Japan, 564; ethnology of India, 1; 
ethnology of Polynesia, 16; ethnology of Africa, 302; archaeology 
of the Near East, 4; prehistoric archaeology of Europe, 1,488; 
physical anthropology, 6. These 4,554 cards have been entered in 
the inventory books which now number fifty-seven volumes. 

A total of 13,643 copies of labels for use in exhibition cases was 
supplied by the Division of Printing. These labels are distributed 
as follows: ethnology of North America, 1,152; archaeology of North 
America, 1,083; ethnology of the Southwest, 171; archaeology of 
Mexico, 208; ethnology and archaeology of South America, 903; 
ethnology of Melanesia, 3,263; ethnology of Polynesia, 247; ethnology 
of Malaysia, 6; Chinese jades, 5,029; archaeology of China (other 
than jade), 767; archaeology of Egypt, 119; archaeology of Kish, 6; 
ethnology of India, 6; busts of prehistoric man, 33; identification 
cards for skulls and skeletal material, 650. The Division of Printing 
also supplied the Department of Anthropology with 4,390 catalogue 
cards, 85 sketch maps for exhibition cases, 50 forms for archaeological 
surveys, and 120 numbers for exhibition cases. 

The total number of photographs mounted in albums is 2,514. 
Eleven new albums were opened — one for China, four for Egyptian 
textiles, one for prehistoric man, one for the Field Museum Archaeo- 
logical Expedition to the Southwest, one for the Marshall Field 
Archaeological Expedition to British Honduras (1931), one for 
Melanesian industries, one for types of men in the Irak army and 
Bedouins, and another for types of Arabs of the Kish area. To the 
label file 535 cards have been added. 

Botany. — During 1931 cards were written and added to the 
catalogue of the Department library by the Librarian, Miss Edith 
M. Vincent, for the floras of the Arctic regions, Canada, the United 
States, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Hawaii, the East Indies, and 
other Pacific islands. A list was made of the duplicate books and 
pamphlets in the library of the Department for use in disposing of 
them by sale or exchange. 

More than 5,000 cards were received from the Gray Herbarium 
of Harvard University in continuation of the index of new species 
of American plants. These were inserted by the Librarian in their 
proper places in the file of cards which composes this indispensable 
index. The Librarian also kept up to date the Department records of 
accessions, exchanges, and loans, besides preparing indexes for two 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 141 

volumes of the Botanical Series of Field Museum, and compiling a 
great amount of bibliographic data for the use of the staff of the 

More than 1,500 index cards to the literature of tropical agri- 
culture were received this year from the Institute Colonial de Mar- 
seille, Marseilles, France, and the cards of this catalogue now number 
7,816. They have been sorted and filed by Assistant Curator James 
B. McNair. 

The Custodian of the Herbarium, Mr. Carl Neuberth, maintains 
a card catalogue of the contents of the Herbarium, from which there 
may be obtained in a few moments information regarding any 
collector whose plants are in the collections, or the extent to which 
any country's flora is represented in them. This collector index 
now contains 11,970 cards, with the names of almost as many 
collectors whose work has contributed to the Herbarium. To this 
catalogue 159 cards were added during 1931. The geographical 
index consists of 3,151 cards, of which twenty-nine were added during 
the past twelve months. 

During the year 20,469 sheets of plants and photographs were 
added to the permanent collections of the Herbarium, in which the 
total number of mounted specimens is now 642,720. For the her- 
barium specimens acquired during the year it was necessary to write 
several thousand labels, and other labels had to be written for dupli- 
cate specimens sent out in exchange. There were prepared type- 
written data to accompany the sets of photographic prints from type 
negatives which were dispatched to various institutions. 

The work of cataloguing wood specimens has continued. Descrip- 
tive labels for the various species installed in the Hall of North 
American Woods were prepared and placed with the respective 
exhibits. Descriptive labels were written, also, for the specimens 
placed on exhibition in the Hall of Foreign Woods (Hall 27). More 
than 2,000 specimens obtained in Peru by Assistant Llewelyn 
Williams were labeled and placed in the study collection of woods. 

All economic material, other than woods, received during the 
year was accessioned and catalogued by Assistant Curator McNair. 
Most of this material has been stored by him in its proper place 
in the study and reserve collections. 

The poisoning, bottling, labeling, and cataloguing of economic 
botanical specimens has been continued as described in the Annual 
Report of the Director for 1928 (p. 473). 

142 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Descriptive labels were written by Mr. McNair for various ex- 
hibits in Hall 28. These comprised general and detailed descriptions 
of the fibers of pineapple, sedges, rushes, grasses, bananas, screw- 
pine, cat-tail, raffia, pine, cedar, and fir. Others were written for 
exhibits of baskets, brushes, and brooms, straw hats, tans, and dyes, 
tobacco, cork, com products, and paper. 

The card file of copies of the labels in the exhibition halls has 
been continued by Mr. McNair, and the office files of labels for the 
economic specimens on display is complete to date, including all 
printed during the year. 

To the albums of the Department 107 photographs were added. 

Geology. — The number of specimens catalogued in the Depart- 
ment of Geology during the year was 2,050, making the total number 
of departmental catalogue entries 189,408. The additions of sys- 
tematically grouped minerals numbered 606 and those of fossils 
962. Other entries related to a variety of specimens. Previously 
entered specimens to the number of 272 were withdrawn for exchange 
or were discarded, and notations of the withdrawals were made in 
the catalogues against the entry number of each. Additions to the 
card catalogue of vertebrate fossils numbered forty. 

Labeling has consisted chiefly in substituting buff cards for those 
of black color previously used, although a considerable number of 
new labels have also been prepared. The change from black to buff 
cards has necessitated rewriting many of the labels and reprinting 
all of them. Also, as a result of the reinstallation of more than 
one hundred cases during the year, it was often necessary to change 
the size as well as the text of the labels. Altogether, copy for 1,936 
labels was prepared. Seventy-six of these were descriptive labels 
prepared for the reinstalled cases in Skiff Hall. A total of 2,425 
labels was received from the Division of Printing and installed. 
Of these, 988 were for Skiff Hall exhibits, 786 for minerals and 
meteorites, and 129 for exhibits in Stanley Field Hall. A total of 
528 labels which have not yet been printed was written. For im- 
mediate use until the printed labels were received, 148 temporary- 
labels were prepared and installed. For the group of titanothere 
restorations and the Carboniferous swamp forest, illuminated labels 
were prepared and installed. Labeling of the mural paintings in 
Ernest R. Graham Hall was completed. 

New photographic prints added to the Department albums 
during the year numbered 242. Typewritten labels were provided 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 143 

for all of these. The total of album prints in the Department now 
mounted and labeled is 7,378. Eighty-four topographic maps of 
the United States Geological Survey were received during the year 
and filed with descriptive labels attached. With those previously 
recorded, a total of 3,416 of these maps is now available. 

Zoology. — Zoological specimens to a total of 12,275 were num- 
bered and entered in the departmental catalogues. They were 
distributed, by divisions, as follows: mammals, 1,636; birds, 8,469; 
reptiles and amphibians, 885; fishes, 1,242; skeletons, 43. 

About 1,000 skulls of mammals were numbered and labeled, and 
300 cards were added to the index of the mammal collection. Old- 
style black exhibition labels for mammals were entirely replaced 
with buff labels. Labels for all new or reinstalled exhibits have been 
prepared, including a complete revised set with maps for all habitat 
groups of birds and thirty labels for exhibition reproductions of 
reptiles and amphibians. 

The card index of the genera and families of recent fishes has 
been completed, except for a few recent names, and now totals 
6,600 cards, which afford a ready means of finding specimens in 
the systematic collection. 

All accessions of insects for the year were pinned, labeled, and 

A large increase in the Department's files of photographic prints 
was made, amounting to 3,290 prints in six new albums. 

The state of the catalogues at the end of the year is as follows: 

Number of Total of entries Entries Total of 

record to during cards 

books Dec. 31, 1931 1931 written 

Department of Anthropology. 57 197,256 4,554 201,376 

Department of Botany 63 655,287 33,627 16,471 

Department of Geology 26 189,408 2,050 7,144 

Department of Zoology 47 166,721 12,275 42,103 

Library 17 80,504 2,843 404,602 


Anthropology. — The main efforts of this Department during 
1931 were directed toward the installation of Mary D. Sturges Hall 
(Hall 3) devoted to North American archaeology, and the completion 
of the Jade Room (Hall 30). A noteworthy beginning was made in 
the reinstallation of Joseph N. Field Hall (Hall A), and many 
additions and improvements were made in almost all other halls 
of the Department. 

144 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

A total of seventy-three exhibition cases was installed or rein- 
stalled during the year, distributed as follows: 

Egypt (Hall J) 5 

Joseph N. Field Hall (Hall A) 7 

Polynesia (Hall F) 4 

Arthur B. Jones collection (Hall G) 1 

Stanley Field Hall 4 

Mary D. Sturges Hall (Hall 3) 17 

James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Hall (Hall 4) 3 

California and Southwest Nomadic Tribes (Hall 6) 7 

Mexico and Central America (Hall 8) 4 

South America (Hall 9) 2 

Eskimo and Northwest Coast Ethnology (Hall 10) 5 

Chinese Jade (Hall 30) 8 

Models of pagodas (South Gallery) 5 

Ethnology of China and Tibet (Hall 32) 1 

Total 73 

The installation of Hall J, devoted to the archaeology of ancient 
Eg}T)t, may be reported as complete. Two large built-in cases 
along the south wall of the hall were installed this year. The bril- 
liantly ornamented Egyptian textiles, which had been mounted and 
stretched on frames at the end of 1930, now occupy eight large sec- 
tions of a built-in case along the south wall. The greater part of 
the textile exhibit, including specimens previously installed in the 
case on the north wall, belongs to post-Christian centuries. During 
the so-called Coptic period, chiefly in the first millennium after our 
era, Hellenistic and Western Asiatic art influences mingled with 
those of ancient Egypt to produce the varied patterns which make 
this a collection of treasures for the modem designer. Some inscribed 
and decorated mimimy wrappings of the pre-Christian era are 
included in the exhibit. 

In the case at the west end of the south wall have been placed 
fifty Egyptian tombstones or memorial tablets, ranging in date from 
the Middle Kingdom (about 2000 B.C.) to the Coptic period. The 
compartment above them has been used to display further examples 
of Egyptian sculpture or craftsmanship in stone, partly originals and 
partly casts, from tomb and temple walls still standing in Egypt. 

A beginning was made toward the end of the year with the 
reinstallation of Joseph N. Field Hall (Hall A) which contains the 
most comprehensive known collection of Melanesian ethnological 
material. So far seven cases of very beautiful wood carvings and 
other specimens from New Ireland have been reinstalled on buff- 
colored screens. 


















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Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 145 

In Hall F (Polynesia and Micronesia) four cases containing Maori 
irobes, wood carvings, jade ornaments, and utensils were reinstalled. 
The old-style black labels were replaced with buff cards in black 
4ype in twenty-one cases of this hall, and also on the Maori council- 

A miniature group representing a village of the Menangkabau, 
a Malayan tribe of Sumatra (in Hall G, Arthur B. Jones collection), 
was completed this year. Data for this group were collected by 
Dr. Fay-Cooper Cole, now of the University of Chicago, while on 
the Arthur B. Jones Expedition to Malaysia, 1922-23. The modeling 
was done by Mr. John G. Prasuhn, and the painted background is 
the work of Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin. The model is illustrated 
in l^late VHI of this Report. 

Four cases in Stanley Field Hall, containing Sung porcelain 
from China, gold ornaments from Colombia, jewelry from India, and 
busts of prehistoric man, were reinstalled with new buff labels. The 
case of Sung porcelain (Case 6) was entirely rearranged. To Case 
11 in Stanley Field Hall were added gold earrings and a lapis-lazuli 
head from Kish. The latter represents a typical Sum.erian head 
of the fourth millennium before our era. It is probably the tiniest 
bit of sculpture ever made, and a magnifying lens has been placed 
in front of it to make possible a better study of its fine details. 

In Edward E. and Emma B. Ayer Hall (Hall 2) the backgrounds 
of two cases containing Roman frescoes from Pompeii were repainted 
in light colors and provided with labels in the new style. 

Seventeen cases of North American archaeological material, and 
an actual size model of an Illinois mound-builder's grave have been 
placed on exhibition in Mary D. Sturges Hall (Hall 3). Most of the 
objects installed in the cases are of stone, but objects of bone, wood, 
shell, copper, and pottery are likewise exhibited. It is customary 
to divide prehistoric North America into twelve culture areas. This 
classification has been made on the basis of similarity of traits; for 
example, pottery, weaving, stone and copper artifacts, burials, and 
houses. The main object of Hall 3 is to illustrate the prehistoric 
cultures of these different areas (excepting that of the Southwest, 
which is shown in Hall 7). With this end in view, the material has 
been chosen to illustrate the development, skill, and resourcefulness 
of the Indians of each region. 

The culture areas represented are: Mississippi-Ohio, South 
Atlantic, North Atlantic, Iroquoian, Great Lakes, Columbia-Eraser, 
North Pacific Coast, and California. The exhibits have been 

146 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

labeled with reference to these areas and also sublabeled, so far as/ 
possible, according to the more familiar, political state boundaries! 
for example, the state of Illinois comprises two distinct cultures/, 
one in the northern and another in the southern portion. The cas/e 
label, accordingly, reads, "Archaeology of the Great Lakes Ares 
Northern Illinois." In this manner, the layman, even though h(e 
may be unfamiliar with the conceptions of the archaeologist, neve^-- 
theless can easily find the region in which he is interested. 

As the archaeology of Illinois is of great local interest, the ca^^es 
devoted to that region have been placed at the west end near the 
entrance to the hall. To the right of the west entrance stands the 
model of an Illinois mound which is shown partially excavated (see 
Plate III of this Report). In the foreground is shown a typical 
burial with the accompanying grave furniture, consisting of pott:ery, 
beads, shell spoons, and stone artifacts. The skeleton and acces- 
sories for this group were contributed by Dr. Don F. Dickson of 
Lewistown, Illinois (see p. 105). To the left of the west entrance 
is a typological exhibit containing the various types of stone and 
copper artifacts, ornaments, and pottery, and showing by means 
of maps the distribution in North America of each. An idea of this 
new method of installation followed in Hall 3 may be obtained from 
Plate XVI of this Report, which shows painted pottery from burial 
mounds of Arkansas. 

Three cases illustrating the ethnology of the Naskapi of Labrador 
were added to James Nelson and Anna Louise Rajrmond Hall (Hall 4). 
They contain clothing, weapons, hunting and fishing implements, 
means of transportation, charms, and ceremonial objects collected 
by Dr. William D. Strong, former Assistant Curator, during the 
Second Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition, 1927-28. The 
installation of Hall 4 has been completed. 

Seven newly installed cases were placed in Hall 6. These illustrate 
the cultures of the Thompson River, Wasco, Klikitat, Yakima, and 
Skokomish Indians by means of buckskin garments, bags, baskets, 
tools, weapons, ornaments, and ceremonial objects. 

One case of archaeological material representing the Highland 
Maya culture of Guatemala was installed and placed on exhibition 
in Hall 8. Most of the objects in this case were collected by Assistant 
Curator J. Eric Thompson as leader of the Second and Third Marshall 
Field Archaeological Expeditions to British Honduras. A case of 
Costa Rican archaeological material, chiefly pottery, was also 
installed. Three cases were removed from Hall 8, and the material 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 147 

in them, representing the civilization of the Toluca Valley of central 
Mexico, was reinstalled in two screen cases. A previously installed 
case of Nicaraguan archaeology was labeled. 

Two cases of newly installed material have been added to Hall 9. 
In one of these is displayed a representative collection of the fine 
Nazca pottery of southern Peru, collected by Dr. A. L. Kroeber, 
Research Associate in American Archaeology, while leading the First 
and Second Marshall Field Archaeological Expeditions to Peru. The 
other case displays ethnological material collected in Colombia 
by Dr. J. Alden Mason, former Assistant Curator, as leader of the 
Marshall Field Archaeological Expedition to Colombia. Five cases 
previously installed in this hall were labeled. 

In Hall 10 five cases were reinstalled on light-colored screens. 
These illustrate the ethnology of the Chinook, Cowichan, and Puget 
Sound Salish of the Northwest Coast of America. A loom and 
textiles, wood carvings, utensils, baskets, and ceremonial objects 
are included in this exhibit. It is planned to proceed with the rein- 
stallation of this hall in the coming year. 

On October 31 the Jade Room (Hall 30) was opened to the 
public. About 1,200 jade carvings are installed in chronological 
order in eight cases, individually lighted. In each case a flowered 
yellow silk, woven on a hand-loom at Lyons, France, after a Chinese 
sample of the K'ien-lung period, has been used as background. Each 
case contains a general descriptive label which sets forth the charac- 
teristic features of the period in question. In addition, there are 
smaller labels for groups of objects or individual pieces. A total of 
717 stands were carved as supports for the jades. A number of the 
objects in this room were received as far back as 1899 as a gift 
of the late Mr. H. N. Higinbotham, but the foundation of the 
collection was laid by the Blackstone Expedition to China, 1908-10, 
under the leadership of Dr. Berthold Laufer, Curator of Anthro- 
pology, who was the first to collect the archaic jades of China and 
to study and interpret them. Many additions to the collection were 
made by him in 1923 during the Marshall Field Expedition to China. 
In 1927 the Bahr collection of Chinese jades was acquired by the 
Museum with a fund to which Mrs. George T. Smith, Mrs. John J. 
Borland, Miss Kate S. Buckingham, Mr. Martin A. Ryerson, Mr. 
Julius Rosenwald, Mr. Otto C. Doering, and Mr. Martin C. Schwab 
contributed. Other objects were presented by individuals, among 
whom Mrs. William H. Moore, the late Mr. Richard T. Crane, Jr., 
and Mr. J. A. L. Moeller are prominent. An imperial yellow silk 

148 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

tapestry, decorated with nine dragons, has been hung on the wall 
of this room, and its color harmonizes well with that of the silk 
used in the exhibition cases. The tapestry was presented to the 
Museum by the American Friends of China, Chicago. 

The models of Chinese pagodas have been rearranged and pro- 
vided with new and revised labels. Twenty-six Chinese paintings 
were hung in the South Gallery. A case of Chinese tobacco pipes 
in Hall 32 has been reinstalled. 

A study room (Room 55) located opposite the Department 
library was completed and opened this year. It is well lighted and 
well equipped with tables and chairs for the use of students, many 
of whom availed themselves of the opportunity presented. Three 
of the walls are lined with cases containing collections arranged in 
geographical order. Among these are a selection of American Indian 
baskets; pottery of Mexico and Peru, including an instructive series 
of modem forgeries; bronzes and ceramics of China; wood carvings 
and other material from Japan; brasses, pottery, and metal stamps 
for textiles from India; string bags and wood carvings of Melanesia; 
a large variety of African objects; and ancient Egyptian fabrics. 
An alabaster model of the Taj Mahal occupies the center of the room. 
The material in the cases has been specially selected with reference 
to the needs of designers. It is accessible to all students who are 
seriously interested. Material in storage rooms can also be made 
available to students if proper notice is given in advance. 

Under the plan of cooperation with the University of Chicago 
study material was largely used by the professors and students of 
the Oriental Institute, Department of Anthropology, and Department 
of Art of the university. 

The cooperation of the university with the Museum is best 
illustrated in the collections of Egyptian archaeology. Professor 
James H. Breasted, Director of the Oriental Institute, has always 
rendered generous assistance to the Museum in securing valuable 
collections, identifying material, and translating Egyptian inscrip- 
tions. In 1927 Professor Breasted obligingly consented to grant the 
Museum the part-time services of Dr. T. George Allen for the pur- 
pose of installing and labeling the Museum's Egyptian collections. 
Dr. Allen, who was appointed Assistant Curator of Egyptian Archae- 
ology in 1927, acquitted himself of this task in the most creditable 
manner, and the Eg5T)tian hall is now well arranged and labeled. 

Miss Elizabeth Stefanski of the Oriental Institute published, 
under the supervision of Assistant Curator Allen, descriptions of 









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Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 149 

several inscribed and decorated mummy-wrappings included in the 
Museum's exhibit of Egyptian textiles (American Journal of Semitic 
Languages, Vol. XLVIII, pp. 45-50). Dr. Allen completed a manu- 
script describing and translating the fifty Egyptian tombstones 
which are now on exhibition in the Egyptian hall. 

The archaeological material from Kish has proved a constant 
attraction to Dr. Albert T. Olmstead, professor of ancient history 
at the Oriental Institute, and his students, who have come several 
times to study it. Miss Lucy C. Driscoll, professor of the history 
of art at the university, brought her students occasionally to discuss 
and study Chinese paintings and jades. 

Dr. George Herzog, a student in the department of anthropology 
at the University of Chicago, transcribed dictaphone records of 
drum music and songs of the Ovimbundu of Angola, taken by 
Assistant Curator W. D. Hambly while leading the Frederick H. 
Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological Expedition to West Africa. 
Mr. C. P. Watkins, a student in the same department, studied 
linguistic records from the same tribe and prepared a short paper 
on the tones and syntax of the Umbundu language. 

Dr. Gerhardt von Bonin, associate in anatomy at the University 
of Illinois, continued his anthropometric study of skulls from New 
Britain, and assisted in the restoration of the Cap Blanc Magdalenian 
skull and in measurements of all bones of the Cap Blanc skeleton. 

In the Department's carpenter shop, thirty new screens, forty- 
four bases, and 168 frames were turned out. 

In the modeling section of the Department the Menangkabau 
village group and a restoration of the Mitla temple model were 
completed by Modeler John G. Prasuhn. He likewise modeled and 
constructed the grave of the mound-builder from Illinois, and 
modeled and cast twenty-one Eskimo heads to be used in connec- 
tion with an exhibit of Eskimo costumes. In addition, Mr. Prasuhn 
made a small working model of an Indian copper mine, made casts 
of four Chinese jade seals and of a mold from Guatemala, treated 
an Egyptian bronze cat by means of the electrochemical process, 
made a plaster bed for a neolithic skeleton, and repaired two Cliff- 
dwellers' models, a model of Stonehenge, and the plaster figure of 
an African medicine-man. 

There were 276 objects treated, repaired or restored in the 
Department's repair shop. These comprise two antiquities from 
Egypt, forty-nine from Kish, seventy-seven from China, forty-nine 

150 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

from America, two from Melanesia, fifty-three from Europe, and 
forty-four bones. Five hundred stands for jades were also made in 
the repair shop. 

Numbers marked on specimens totaled 16,282. Material in 
twenty-two exhibition cases was poisoned. Material stored in the 
poison room on the fourth floor was cared for in the usual manner 
and is in excellent condition. 

Stored material in Room 28, consisting of duplicate objects 
available for exchange, was rearranged. Skulls and skeletal material 
were moved from Room 35 to Room 39 which is now assigned to 
physical anthropology. The material is permanently housed there 
in six steel-encased cabinets provided with identification labels. 
Room 36A is set aside for the archaeological material from Kish, 
Room 30 for ethnology of the Northwest Coast of America, Room 31 
for material from Africa, Room 33 for material from India, Room 
34 for Mayan archaeology and South American ethnology, Room 35 
for Melanesian ethnology, and Room 36 for ethnology of the Philip- 
pines and Malay Archipelago. Room 66 has been equipped with 
seven steel racks, on which Chinese material has been rearranged. 
A section in the northwest comer of Work Room 38 has been 
partitioned off and fitted with steel shelves. The repair shop now 
located in Room 29 will be transferred there, and Room 29 will be 
provided with storage racks for study material. 

Botany. — The studies on Carboniferous plants and the material 
accumulated incidentally to the work on the Carboniferous forest 
group for Ernest R. Graham Hall of Historical Geology (Hall 38), 
have enabled the Department of Botany to make some important 
additions also to the exhibits in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29). 

The Lycopods or clubmosses were formerly represented there 
only by specimens of the small modem ground pines and selaginellas, 
with a few fossil specimens to indicate the existence of extinct 
members of this order. To these it has now been possible to add 
reconstructions of some of the extinct representatives of this order. 
There have thus been added to the former exhibit two restora- 
tions of fertile branches of Lepidodendron, showing in detail the 
dichotomous branching, the sculptured surface pattern, the grass- 
like foliage, and the spore-bearing cones of large size, which distin- 
guished the clubmosses of this genus. With them has been placed 
a small-scale model of an ancient clubmoss tree and a reconstruction 
of a five-foot length of the trunk of a Sigillaria. The result is a 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 151 

different and much more adequate representation of an order of 
plants at present relatively insignificant, but formerly of great 
importance as they once constituted a large if not the principal 
part of the land flora of the world. 

Other classes and orders of nonflowering plants entirely absent 
from the present-day vegetation, or existing now only as a dwindling 
remnant of a once magnificent development, are similarly being added 
to the exhibits in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29). Such are the 
Equisetums or horsetails, the Cycadofilices or seed-bearing ferns, the 
Cordaites, the primitive conifers of Paleozoic time, the Cycadeoids of 
the Mesozoic, etc. Reconstructions of a plant of Sphenophyllum (S. 
emarginatum) and of a seed-bearing branch of Cordaites {C. boras- 
sifolius) have thus recently been installed in their appropriate places 
in the botanical exhibits. These reconstructions have been pre- 
pared in the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories. 

Botanical classifications usually pay scant attention to whole 
classes and orders of plants that have become extinct. It is often 
forgotten that the present-day vegetation represents in part the 
survival of vegetation of the past, and in part the end products 
of a long line of evolution, some of relatively recent time. For an 
understanding of modem vegetation, a knowledge of that which has 
preceded it is important. The exhibits in the Hall of Plant Life, 
bringing together, as they do, a large assemblage of interesting plants 
from all parts of the world, are at the present stage far from complete, 
but even now they offer the most extensive Museum display of 
plants in existence. With the inclusion of a selected number of 
restorations of outstanding extinct types, for some of which almost 
perfect data exist, the botanical exhibits will become much more 
truly representative of the plant kingdom as a whole than if the 
extinct groups were disregarded. 

The liverworts and true mosses in this hall have recently been 
reinstalled to great advantage, and space has thereby been released 
for a more adequate treatment of the fungi, shown at present 
especially by a number of common mushrooms. 

From material obtained in Para by members of the Marshall 
Field Botanical Expedition to the Amazon in 1929, there has been 
reproduced for the Hall of Plant Life a branch of amatto (Bixa 
Orellana). This handsome tropical shrub or small tree is best known 
as the source of the yellow coloring matter employed for improving 
the appearance of dairy butter and imparting color to its substitutes. 
It is less generally known that it is commonly used by the South 

152 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

American Indians for painting their bodies. The color is obtained 
from the seeds which in certain places form an important article 
of commerce. With its characteristic red-veined leaves, its pink 
flowers, and its bright red prickly pods, which are probably responsible 
for its Indian name "Urucu" (red), the amatto makes an interesting 
addition to the number of useful plants already represented in this 
hall. The specific name of this plant recalls one of the most adven- 
turous characters in the history of the European occupation of South 
America, the Spaniard Francisco de Orellana, who was the first white 
man to descend the entire length of the Amazon in futile search of 
the city of Manoa. The brilliant color of the plant extract of this 
Amazonian species may be presumed to have suggested to the 
botanist responsible for the name the golden hallucinations of the 
Spanish adventurers among whom Orellana is an outstanding type. 

A less exotic addition to the exhibits of recent date in the same 
hall is a handsome reproduction of a branch of a tulip tree. It was 
prepared from material obtained in Indiana. This splendid North 
American forest tree, related to the magnolias, has a wide distribution 
in the states to the south and east of Illinois and approaches its 
northern limit in this region. The specimen is designed to be placed 
eventually in Charles F. Millspaugh Hall (Hall 26, North American 
Woods) in connection with the display of the trunk and wood of 
yellow poplar, under which name it is generally known commercially. 

With resumption of active work on exhibits in this hall the black 
labels are gradually being replaced with light-colored ones to con- 
form with the now generally prevalent color scheme in the Museum. 
In connection with this the opportunity is being taken to rewrite 
many of the case labels and to revise carefully all others. 

The installation of the economic botanical exhibits in Hall 28 
has been continued during the year by Assistant Curator James 
B. McNair. Additional reinstallations were made of the various 
fibers and fibrous plants that serve as raw material for the textile 
and kindred industries. The list for the year is essentially as follows: 
longleaf pine and other coniferous fibers, raffia, manila hemp, sedges, 
grasses, sisal, rushes, and bamboo, almost all of which are used for 
rope and twine as well as for mats and textiles. 

Some entirely new exhibits have been added to these. Various 
other fibrous materials find application in certain fundamental 
industries common to humanity in all stages of cultural development. 
Such are the basketry, brush, and broom materials. The many 


Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 153 

kinds of plant material used for straw hats belong in the same 

The basketry material has been arranged in three groups: (1) 
the principal commercial products of willow, rattan, bamboo, and 
mucroo; (2) baskets constructed of miscellaneous materials, such 
as fern stems, seaweeds, manila hemp, akebi vine, sedge, grass, 
grape, cane, and palm; and (3) baskets made by North American 
Indians, such as those of pine needles, yuca leaf fiber, sumac, willow 
and hazel twigs, rushes, cat-tail flags, and spruce roots. In industrial 
importance the four materials in the first group stand out above 
all others: twigs of willows and the stems of the slender rattan 
palm are used especially in Europe and North America; mucroo, 
the stem of a marantaceous reed, is peculiar to South America; 
and bamboo, the woody stem of a giant grass, furnishes the most 
popular basket material of the Orient. 

Brooms represent an industry almost as primitive as basket 
making, and one case is devoted to various forms of brushes and 
brooms made of a large variety of materials. Emphasis is given 
to those used in the United States, including the ordinary house 
broom and whisk broom of sorghum. There are scrubbing brushes 
of Mexican grass roots, palmyra and other palm fiber, the white- 
wash brush of coconut-husk fiber, and coarse street brooms of 
piassaba, African bass, and sugar-palm fiber. 

An exhibit of the plant materials commonly used for hat making 
shows that many different plant stems and fibers of widely different 
origin are used for this purpose in various parts of the world, e.g. : 
splints from the stems of bamboo and rattan; strips from the leaves 
of screwpine, palmyra, and other palms; fiber from the young leaves 
of the so-called panama hat palm which is a near-palm; wheat straw, 
spruce roots, and manila hemp. The most common type of straw 
hat in the United States is made of wheat straw in some form, and 
one half of a case has been given over to the varieties of this well- 
known article of common use so popular during a part of the year. 
Another half-case shows the material and various stages in the 
weaving of panama hats. Photographs in the exhibit portray the 
panama hat plant, the weaving of a panama hat, and the manu- 
facture of hats in Italy. The exhibit includes many other common 
types of hats, such as leghorn, balibuntal, baku, yeddo, bamboo. 

The cork and cork products exhibit is much more attractive as 
reinstalled on its light background than on the black of the old 
installation. This exhibit shows vertical and horizontal cross sec- 

154 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

tions of the cork oak tree in typical stages of growth, the separated 
cork layer, and various products, from pen holders to life preservers, 
made of cork. 

Another near-by exhibit, the tans and dyes, likewise includes 
forms of bark. Among dyestuffs are many which have been in 
common use throughout historic time, such as the well-known 
henna, indigo, madder, turmeric, catechu, and Persian berries. 
Other materials displayed are brazilwood, logwood, fustic, cochineal, 
and amatto, used for many centuries by American Indians, who 
introduced them to Europeans. \"\Tiile the use of artificial dyes, 
especially from coal tar, has reduced the importance of natural dye- 
stuffs, many of them still find application, and those no longer 
widely employed have a value in demonstrating the coloring matters 
produced by plants, and in showing plants used for dyeing by ancient 
and aboriginal peoples such as the ancient Egyptians, Peruvians, 
and North American Indians. The employment of harmless plant 
dyes for coloring foods, oils, cosmetics, and other such products 
is becoming more widespread. 

The exhibit of tanning materials includes hemlock bark, que- 
bracho wood, gambler, mangrove bark, sumac, myrobalan nuts, 
valonia acorns, and other plant products. 

An alcove consisting of two vertical cases with a table case 
between has been given over to a display of tobacco. This exhibit 
shows the principal cigarette, cigar, chewing, and pipe tobaccos 
from many parts of the world, as well as forms of tobacco seldom 
encountered. Unusual cigarettes and cigars from many countries 
are shown, including Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Japan, and Siam. 

Fiber plants have long been useful to man in the manufacture 
of mats and clothing; comparatively recently they have become 
equally important in paper making. The fast-growing paper- 
making industry makes use of many kinds of plants and several 
exhibition cases have been given over to the plants processed for 
paper pulp. Many herbs, shrubs, and trees are made to yield 
this material, the plants thus utilized including grasses, cotton, flax, 
hemlock, pine, and spruce. 

Several years ago the edible products from com were installed 
in Hall 25. Now the fibrous and other inedible products from the 
com plant have been arranged in Hall 28. All parts of the com 
are found to be capable of useful application. Wall board and paper 
are made from the leaves and stalks; cigarette papers and tamale 
wrappers from the husks; distillation products, charcoal, and pipe 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 155 

bowls from the cobs; and fermentation products such as butyl and 
amyl alcohols from the kernels. 

In continuation of the work begun early in 1929, satisfactory 
progress was made during the year in the reinstallation of available 
specimens of the principal species of North American trees in Charles 
F. Millspaugh Hall (Hall 26). Of the eighty-four species selected 
to complete the series, sixty-nine are now installed. 

The following ten species have been placed on exhibition during 
the year: longleaf pine, western hemlock, Douglas fir, Monterey 
cypress, red mulberry, black locust, sugar maple, basswood, black 
gum and tupelo. Photographic enlargements to accompany some 
of these were made from prints kindly loaned by the United States 
Forest Service. 

Specimens of various other species intended for the same hall 
are on hand as follows: western larch, western red cedar, tamarack, 
sycamore, southern white cedar and paper birch. These were 
generously furnished by individuals and concerns associated with 
the lumber industry and will be placed on exhibition as soon as the 
specimens are sufficiently dry. 

Considerable progress was made with the exhibits in the Hall of 
Foreign Woods (Hall 27). The black backgrounds have been 
eliminated as far as possible and many specimens and whole exhibits 
have been retired to the study collections to make room for new 
ones. The best of the foreign wood exhibits have been or will 
be reinstalled in the hall, e.g. the remarkable Japanese collection, 
the Australian and New Zealand woods, etc. In view of the impos- 
sibility of showing all the woods of every foreign country, attention 
is being given first to the representation of those species that have 
assumed commercial importance in the trade of the United States 
and are thus of special and immediate interest in this country. 

Of the reinstallations completed, one of the most attractive is 
the case in which are displayed large boards of Parana or Brazilian 
pine, and embuia, the two most important timber trees of southern 
Brazil. Enlarged photographs, showing the trees in their natural 
environment, add to the interest of the exhibit. 

The table-top made of a single board roughed out of the buttress 
root of Andaman padauk was hand polished and reinstalled. The 
addition of veneered panels of East Indian rosewood and Andaman 
padauk, placed on each side, affords an opportunity for a compari- 
son of these woods. 

156 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

A series of twenty-four boards of the principal woods of the lower 
Amazon Valley was placed on exhibition. These specimens were 
secured in Para by the Marshall Field Botanical Expedition to the 
Amazon, and are of unusual interest in that they show the wide 
variation in color, density, and other features displayed by the woods 
of that region. 

Eleven boards of the principal commercial woods of Argentina, 
and a wheel section of the famous tannin-yielding quebracho, have 
been installed in cases adjoining the Brazilian collection. 

Another attractive exhibit is the series of twelve veneered panels 
representing important timber trees occurring in Madagascar and on 
the west coast of Africa. Many of those shown have become known 
in the American market only during the last few years, while a few 
of them are practically unknown. 

Installation of the European woods in the section of the hall set 
aside for them has been inaugurated with the placing on exhibition 
of panels of Circassian, French and English walnut, English brown 
oak, Italian olive and sycamore-maple. 

Many panels of other European, African and Indian woods are 
on hand, ready to be added to the foreign wood exhibits. Prepara- 
tions have been made to reinstall the Museum's collection of Aus- 
tralian woods. The large planks have been planed and hand polished 
and these will eventually be placed on exhibition in the Hall of 
Foreign Woods. 

As in previous years, Professor Samuel J. Record, the Museum's 
Research Associate in Wood Technology, spent a month at the 
institution, working on the collection of Peruvian, Brazilian, and 
Paraguayan woods and other material in the study series. In addi- 
tion, he supervised the work of installing new specimens in the Hall 
of Foreign Woods and formulated plans for the arrangement of 
others when they become available. He also prepared labels for 
several exhibits of North American woods in Charles F. Millspaugh 
Hall, as well as for the various panels of African and Indian woods 
placed on exhibition during the year. 

A recent issue of the American Lumberman carried an illustrated 
article about the Museum's wood exhibits. Various organizations 
and individuals have expressed an interest in the foreign woods and 
have signified a willingness to furnish many specimens now lacking. 
These will become available as soon as they have been prepared or 
procured from their countries of origin. 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Reports, Vol. IX, Plate XX 

GRANADILLA {Pastifiora quadrangularig) 

(Hall 29) 

One of the large-fruited Passionflowers of the American tropics. Reproduced in 

Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories, Department of Botany, 

from material obtained by the Stanley Field Guiana Expedition 


Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 157 

During 1931 the collections of the Herbarium have increased in 
a most satisfactory and encouraging manner. Its permanent scien- 
tific value and importance have been enhanced by the large amount 
of tropical American material added to it, with a corresponding 
increase in the number of species available for study. Of greatest 
importance in the progress of the Herbarium has been the insertion 
of many thousands of photographs of type specimens from European 
herbaria, the majority of which represent species new to the collec- 
tions, and for the most part species lacking in other American 

The Museum Herbarium now contains more than 642,000 
mounted sheets of plants, representing the floras of every region 
of the earth, but most fully those of North and South America. 
There are in storage, awaiting mounting, probably 100,000 additional 
specimens, the majority of which are from the Old World. There 
are arrears, also, of American plants, for it has been impossible to 
prepare for the Herbarium all the tropical Am^erican collections as 
rapidly as they have arrived during the past two years. 

The plant mounter, with the aid of an assistant for a part of the 
year, has prepared for incorporation in the Herbarium, by gluing 
and strapping, 21,620 specimens of plants. This number includes 
some thousands of photographs which were mounted with their 
labels upon herbarium sheets and stamped so that they could be 
distributed into the study series. The work has been done most 
efficiently, as a result of long years of experience, and it is safe to 
say that in no herbarium are the plant specimens better or more 
enduringly mounted than in Field Museum. 

The output of mounted plants would have been greater if the 
time of the mounter had not been used for other necessary purposes. 
All lots of specimens received were fumigated promptly in order to 
destroy any insects lurking in them, and prevent their introduction 
into the Herbarium, where they could cause serious damage. The 
Herbarium in recent years has been gratifyingly free of insects, for 
only in one or two instances have beetles been found. In the general 
Herbarium no beetles have been seen during the past four years. 

The plant mounter prepared 18,000 packets for attaching loose 
material to the sheets on which specimens are mounted. He also 
packed for shipment no less than 171 lots of plants. Some of these 
consisted of only one or two small specimens, but others comprised 
hundreds of them, which had to be counted, wrapped, and packed 

158 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

in boxes or other containers, often in such form that they could be 
shipped safely to distant countries. 

The Custodian of the Herbarium, Mr. Carl Neuberth, was absent 
upon vacation and leave for three months of the year, but he kept 
the Herbarium in perfect order. All lots of mounted plants were 
distributed as quickly as they came from the mounting room, a 
degree of efficiency seldom encountered in herbaria, in many of 
which mounted plants sometimes accumulate for several years before 
being distributed and thus made available for study. Specimens of 
unusual importance arriving at Field Museum sometimes are filed 
in the Herbarium the same day that they are received. 

The work of the Custodian was increased by the installation 
during the year of six additional steel herbarium cases, to accom- 
modate the growth and rearrangement of the collections. This 
necessitated the shifting of a large part of the main Herbarium, 
with a consequent preparation of new case labels. Three of the 
cases were placed in the general Herbariimi, and three others in 
Room 4 which is adjacent to the Department library. To Room 4 
was transferred the Illinois herbarium, previously stored in tem- 
porary cases in a less accessible part of the building. The collections 
of lower plants, with the exception of the Harper collection of fungi, 
were also moved to this room. In Room 4 there are now six steel 
unit cases which accommodate admirably all the collections assigned 
to this location. Being spacious and well lighted, the room is a 
most agreeable and comfortable one in which to work. There are 
stored in it in temporary cases a part of the Peruvian collection which 
is being kept separate from the general Herbarium until no longer 
needed for study. Also stored there are the Peruvian duplicates 
that are awaiting distribution. 

The distribution into the Herbarium of so many sheets involved 
the writing by the Custodian of hundreds of new genus and species 
covers. The Custodian also devoted a great deal of time to rear- 
rangement of the Herbarium, excluding synonymous names, and 
bringing together in one place all material of a given genus or species. 

The Herbarium is now in an enviable condition so far as order 
and accessibility are concerned. Practically all the Museum's plant 
collections are arranged in a single sequence, making all specimens 
immediately available for examination. 

The staff of the Herbarium has determined during the year 
many thousands of specimens, in order that they might receive 
their proper place in the study series. The determinations of many 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 159 

sheets already in the collections have been corrected from time to 
time, as special groups were studied or mistakes in names were 
discovered. The Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Opiliaceae 
have been revised during the year, also some genera of the Moraceae, 
and many isolated groups of less importance. An attempt has been 
made to reduce the accumulation of undetermined material in some 
of the larger South American genera, such as Solanum, a task 
that is greatly simplified by use of the type photographs obtained 
through the work conducted with the aid of the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion Fund. 

More than 20,000 mounted specimens were added to the Her- 
barium during the year. The majority of them were tropical Ameri- 
can and especially South American plants, and of the latter several 
thousand were species heretofore absent from the collections. At 
present, especially for the groups in which type photographs have 
been inserted, the Herbarium of Field Museum possesses facilities 
for the study of South American plants such as exist in no other 
American institution. 

Particularly striking have been the additions to the Euphorbi- 
aceae or spurge family, in specimens of which the Herbarium is 
very rich because of special interest taken in this group by the 
late Dr. Charles F. Millspaugh, former Curator of Botany. There 
probably can be found nowhere else so complete a representation 
of the vast genus Euphorbia, and there are hundreds of species, also, 
of Croton, which in America is an even larger group. In the genus 
Hevea, comprising the trees that yield Para rubber, and therefore 
one of the world's most important genera economically, the Museum 
now has represented nineteen species, illustrated by fifty-eight speci- 
mens from South America and elsewhere. The wealth of available 
material could be exemplified by other cases based upon even more 
impressive statistics. 

Although, as recorded in the Report for 1930, the Museum's 
collection of the tropical family Rubiaceae, which contains such 
plants as coffee, cinchona or quinine, and ipecac, at that time was 
extraordinarily rich, it has been greatly enlarged during the past 
year. There have been added photographs of the many types in 
the Munich and Geneva herbaria, particularly those of the classic 
DeCandolle Herbarium of Geneva. Almost all the American species 
of the family are now represented by authentic material. Photo- 
graphs have been added of the type specimens sent for study by 
European herbaria and described by Associate Curator Paul C. 

160 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX | 

Standley, while the number of original type specimens has advanced 
as a result of recent accessions of newly collected material. . 

Geology. — Installation activities in the Department of Geology 
have been devoted chiefly to changing the color of the case interiors 
and labels to the standard buff recently adopted. This has involved 
the complete removal of the contents of the cases, their reinstalla- 
tion, and the printing and installation of entirely new labels. The 
opportunity has been taken at the same time to make such changes 
as seemed desirable in the contents of the cases, and to substitute 
for less important specimens others of more interest and value. 
While the general plan of installation has remained much the same 
and most of the material shown is that formerly exhibited, additions 
and alterations have been made which materially improve the 
appearance and value of the exhibits, - 

In Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) all the upright cases, forty-" 
one in number, were also altered in design, thus necessitating many 
changes in the shelving and the character of installation. In addition 
to cases reinstalled, three cases with entirely new contents were 
added to the Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37) series, and five 
new cases to Graham Hall, making a total for the Department of 
eight new cases. 

The cases reinstalled included three in Stanley Field Hall, five 
in Hall 34, one in Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35), one in Hall 
36, forty-seven in Skiff Hall, and forty-one in Graham Hall. These 
make a total of 106 cases either reinstalled or newly installed during 
the year. 

In Stanley Field Hall the three cases reinstalled were those illus- 
trating varieties of quartz, comparison of ancient and modem 
animals and plants, and the evolution of the horse. To the case 
of varieties of quartz there were added a number of specimens of 
Brazilian rock crystal collected by the Curator on the Marshall 
Field Brazilian Expedition of 1922. To the case showing comparison 
of ancient and modem animals and plants, four specimens were 
added and the liquids of such specimens as were contained in fluids 
were renewed. To the case illustrating evolution of the horse, the 
superb model of the race horse "Man o' War," presented by Mr. 
Frederick Blaschke, of Cold Spring-on-Hudson, New York, was added 
and some other alterations were made. Previous to installation the 
cases were relined with buff-colored fabric. 

In H. N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31) the beautiful ruby topaz 
and black opal gems presented by the late Mr. Richard T. Crane, Jr., 











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Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 161 

were installed in the groups to which they belong, and the five gem 
cases in the hall were opened and cleaned. 

In Hall 34 three cases of meteorites and two of minerals were 
reinstalled. To the case of Brenham meteorites, several specimens 
of the oxidized meteorites of this fall, found in 1928, were added. 
The case containing the Long Island meteorite was provided with 
a new label so placed as to make reading easy, and specimens of the 
slickensided and polished interior of the meteorite were put in 
prominent positions. Labeling of the exhibit of meteorites was 
completed, a total of 1,215 labels being installed. 

In the collection of systematic minerals, an exhibit of gases of 
the atmosphere, transmitting an electric current so as to show the 
spectrum of each, was added to the case of elements, and the entire 
case was reinstalled. Specimens of other ingredients of the atmos- 
phere, such as water and carbonic acid gas, were added to the case 
of oxides. The series of radioactive minerals, numbering seventeen 
specimens and an equal number of roentgenograms, was completely 
reorganized. New roentgenograms were made by the Museum's 
roentgenologist for each specimen, and the series was reinstalled. A 
number of additions were made to the minerals shown in other cases, 
especially to the quartz series and some of the sulphides. The cases 
containing the William J. Chalmers crystal collection were cleaned, 
some specimens added, and the labeling of the collection completed. 

In Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35) a case of volcanic prod- 
ucts was reinstalled in order to introduce large specimens of malpais 
collected near Grant, New Mexico, by the Marshall Field Expedition 
to that region in 1929. In Hall 36 a case devoted to sulphur and 
magnesia products was reinstalled in order to include the sulphur 
exhibits from Freeport (Texas) localities which had been received 
during the year. Some minor additions were also made to the con- 
tents of this case. In this hall, also, the large painting of the Minne- 
sota Iron Mine at Soudan, Minnesota, which had been exhibited 
in the Jackson Park building but not previously in the present 
building, was hung adjoining the Chandler Iron Mine model. 

In Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37) three cases were newly 
installed. Two of these were devoted to the ores of Japan which 
had been received from the Sesquicentennial Exposition, Philadelphia, 
but had not been displayed. This exhibit shows the most important 
gold, silver and copper ores of Japan. Another newly installed case 
was devoted to ornamental minerals, chiefly of copper compounds. 
Reinstallation of forty-seven additional cases in this hall was com- 

162 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

pleted. Beginning where work had been discontinued the previous 
year, the cases were reinstalled in a similar order. The first series 
reinstalled was that of nine cases of marbles. These were grouped 
into English and Irish marbles, English and Norwegian marbles, 
Alabama, Virginia and Tennessee marbles, Vermont and Georgia 
marbles, Winooski marbles, Greek marbles, Japanese marbles and 
two cases of serpentine marbles. Complete descriptive labels were 
prepared and installed in all these cases. A single case was also 
devoted to Mexican onyx. Connected with this series, the building 
stones were reinstalled in flat cases, divided into groups of granite, 
marble, sandstone and limestone. 

Representing the non-metallic minerals of economic importance, 
two cases were devoted to asbestos and its products and one case 
to abrasives, thus giving a much better grouping of this series than 
existed before. Other cases devoted to non-metallic, economic 
minerals were one each to the phosphate of lime, apatite, and the 
ore of lithium which occurs as rubellite, from San Diego County, 
California. The case devoted to models showing the development of 
the blast furnace was reinstalled with new and complete labels, and 
a series of typical iron ores was added. In the contents of two cases 
of iron ores and iron and manganese ores a number of changes of 
specimens were made in order to give a representative series of the 
ores principally in use at the present time. 

A single case was devoted to ores of mercury, chromium and 
tungsten, the series of ores of the two latter metals being enlarged 
because of the increased industrial importance which these metals 
are assuming at present. One case of what are known as porphyry 
copper ores and two cases of the Michigan copper ores were rein- 
stalled. One of these was largely devoted to the collection of crys- 
tallized copper presented several years ago by Messrs. N. F. and 
A. F. Leopold of Chicago. Of ores of zinc, one case of those from 
Greece and another of large specimens from Joplin, Missouri, were 

In the series of gold, silver and lead ores, eight cases, containing 
ores of South America, Mexico, New Mexico, Colorado, Alaska, and 
various other localities, were reinstalled. A single case was devoted 
to the nickel ores of New Caledonia, and a single case has also been 
devoted to ores of platinum, chiefly those of the Russian deposits. 

Certain new features which have been introduced into the installa- 
tion deserve mention. In the series of iron ores, an exhibit showing 
the composition of the four principal ores was prepared and installed. 


Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 163 

One pound of each ore, with a mass of iron beside it of a size repre- 
senting its iron content, is included in this series. A tray of the 
powder of each ore is also shown, as the color of the powder is a 
distinguishing characteristic. Since limonite is a hydrous ore, a bottle 
containing the quantity of water in this ore is shown in addition to 
the cylinder representing the amount of iron. 

In connection with two large specimens of gold ore, there was 
prepared an exhibit to indicate the quantity of gold present in each. 
Thus, for a large mass of gold ore weighing 634 pounds and estimated 
to carry a value of $25 per ton of gold, a cube of metal representing 
the quantity of gold in the ore was prepared and placed beside it. 
The cube of metal in this instance is only about one-fourth of an 
inch in diameter. Beside another mass of gold ore of lower grade, 
weighing 240 pounds and carrying a value of only $10 per ton, 
there is shown a similar cube representing the quantity of gold it 
contains. Owing to the low grade of the ore, this cube is less than 
three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter. There have also been intro- 
duced into the cases in appropriate places, specimens of a number 
of elements in the metallic state, which are either, like thallium, 
rare, or, like calcium, seldom seen. For this addition the Museum 
is chiefly indebted to Mr. Herbert C. Walther, of Chicago, who 
presented these specimens. They include, besides specimens of 
metallic thallium and calcium, palladium, tellurium, molybdenum, 
titanium, tungsten and cobalt. 

In order to show the geographic distribution of ores, seventeen 
maps were supplied. Seventy-four descriptive labels, setting forth 
the principal facts regarding the ores and metals exhibited and their 
uses, were prepared and installed in the various cases. The majority 
of the large labels were installed in the bays of the cases so that they 
could be easily read. 

In Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38), as has been mentioned, 
forty-one cases were reconstructed. The reconstruction consisted 
of paneling the upper portion of each case and reducing the size of 
the glass front by an equal amount. In the paneled portion were 
installed the electric lights which had previously been placed in 
boxes above the cases. By this change, the lighting elements were 
brought nearer to the contents of the case, thus providing greater 
illumination of its interior, and the boxes above the cases which had 
interfered somewhat with the view of the mural paintings in the 
hall were eliminated. 

164 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

As fast as the cases were reconstructed they were reinstalled, 
such changes being made in the exhibits as proved necessary or 

The reinstalled cases are devoted to the following subjects: "Tar 
beds" Pleistocene mammals, North American fossil bison, European 
and African Pleistocene birds and mammals, North American Pleis- 
tocene mammals, Illinois mastodons. South American ground sloths, 
North American Miocene mammals (two cases), South American 
Miocene mammals, Miocene "corkscrews," Oligocene mammals, 
Oligocene titanotheres (two cases), Middle Eocene mammals, South 
American Eocene and Oligocene mammals, Eocene fishes, Eocene 
shells and plants, Cretaceous reptiles, Cretaceous dinosaurs, Creta- 
ceous fishes, Cretaceous invertebrates. Cretaceous plants and mol- 
lusks, Jurassic dinosaurs (three cases), European Jurassic reptiles (two 
cases), European Jurassic fishes, Permian reptiles and plants, Jurassic 
invertebrates (two cases), Jurassic cephalopods, Carboniferous fossils, 
Devonian fishes, Devonian corals. Paleozoic sponges, Silurian fossils 
(two cases), Ordovician fossils, Cambrian fossils and comparative 

In addition to the cases reinstalled, three new groups were added 
to the hall during the year. The three groups are of large size, 
two occupying central positions at the ends of the hall. The group 
installed at the north end of the hall is a life size restoration of 
titanotheres (see Plate X), extinct animals which resembled rhinoc- 
eroses in appearance but were as tall and bulky as elephants. The 
group is composed of three animals — an enormous male which is in 
standing position, and a female and young animal Ijang down. The 
background and accessories reproduce a supposed habitat of these 
huge beasts. The large male figure is thirteen feet eight inches in 
length and eight feet seven inches high. This is the first time an 
attempt has been made to reproduce with scientific accuracy in full 
size and three-dimensional form in natural surroundings, a group of 
these great beasts. The male figure was constructed from measure- 
ments and studies of the fossil skeleton at Peabody Museum, Yale 
University; the female figure from a skeleton at the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York; and the young one from 
a skeleton at the University of Wyoming. These titanotheres were 
great, two-homed, hoofed mammals which lived about 30,000,000 
years ago in what are now the so-called "Bad Lands" of Nebraska 
and the Dakotas. They were a unique class of animals which became 
extinct at a very remote period. The eminent sculptor, Mr. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 165 

Frederick Blaschke, designed and constructed the restorations as 
he did also the adjoining groups of the Neanderthal family and the 
Mesohippus. The titanothere group, as well as these others, are 
results of the contribution made by Mr. Ernest R. Graham. 

At the south end of the hall another group illustrates a scene 
in a swamp forest of the Coal age (see Plates IV, V, IX and XIII). 
Much research and three years of exacting labor were devoted 
in the Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratories of the Museum 
to the preparation of this magnificent work. It represents the most 
serious effort ever made to reconstruct in three-dimensional form a 
whole assembly of plants of the Carboniferous age. 

The group illustrates a scene in a dense swamp forest, at the 
margin of a stretch of stagnant water. Plants of the period, which 
is estimated to have been 250,000,000 years ago, were of low orders, 
far removed in structure and constitution from the forest-producing 
flora of the present day. The forms in the group which attained the 
size of trees, belonged to orders such as are known today as club- 
mosses and "horsetails" or "scouring rushes." There are also 
represented some tree-ferns resembling those of the present day and 
plants of other groups which have become extinct. 

As a source for the restorations, remains preserved in fossil form 
were used for making casts giving the characters of the leaf scars 
and other exterior features of the trees, as well as of the details of 
the foliage. The giant "horsetails" or calamites of the period are 
represented by a number of trunks carrying characteristic foliage. 
Trunks of various sizes and species also illustrate the great club- 
mosses which formed the bulk of vegetation of that period. One 
of these, several feet in diameter, is shown, and several have a 
height of fifteen feet. There are also shown several species belonging 
to the important group of seed-ferns, now extinct, and of the early 
gymnosperms, called Cordaites, which later gave rise to certain of 
the conifers. 

Fossils found at Mazon Creek, Illinois, were used as the chief 
source from which casts and impressions were obtained for the 
reproductions, and on the whole the scene represents such a forest 
as probably existed in that locality during the coal-forming period. 
Besides the plant life, animal life characteristic of the period is 
represented by typical specimens. Of these the most prominent is 
a primitive dragonfly having a wing spread of more than two feet. 
Cockroaches, which were abundant during the period, are also 
represented. The earliest four-legged animals had begun to appear 

166 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

in this period in the form of amphibians, and these are represented 
by several restorations, the largest being that of the amphibian 
known as Diplovertebron punctatus. Illuminated labels and large 
numbered charts indicating the name and position of each object in 
the group are installed adjoining the case. 

Great credit is due to Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, Acting Curator of 
Botany, for his work in designing the group, for the research he 
carried out to insure accuracy of details, and for the constant super- 
vision he exercised over execution of the plans. Messrs. John Millar, ' 
Emil Sella, George Peterson, Isidor Ilekis, Milton Copulos and 
John Wolcott of the botanical staff also devoted themselves most 
earnestly and unremittingly to the work. Professor A. C. No6, 
paleobotanist of the University of Chicago, gave constant advice 
and cooperation, while Mr. Samuel Chambers of the Redpath 
Museum of McGill University, Montreal, and Dr. R. C. Bassler 
of the United States National Museum, assisted by furnishing fossils 
which were used to obtain data for the reproductions. Professor 
W. K. Gregory of Columbia University and Professor A. S. Romer 
of the University of Chicago, also gave valuable advice and assist- 
ance, especially in the restorations of the amphibians. 

The third group added to the hall during the year shows skeletons 
of two South American ground sloths of Pleistocene age mounted 
in life-like positions (see Plate XVIII). These sloths, belonging to 
the genus Scelidodon, were collected by the Marshall Field Paleonto- 
logical Expedition to Bolivia in 1927. They were excavated from 
accumulated valley clays and sands. The skeletons are mounted 
in positions such as the animals would have assumed either in 
feeding upon the leaves of trees or in digging for roots and tubers. 
The skeletons have the massiveness characteristic of these animals 
and show admirably the peculiar features of their anatomy. One 
skeleton, eight feet in height, is in an erect position, and the other, 
nine feet eight inches in length, is in a burrowing position. The 
breadth of the body is also remarkable, the larger skeleton being 
four feet in width. The preparation, articulation and mounting 
of the bones, as well as the construction of the model of the tree, 
were the work of Preparator P. C. Orr, under the direction of the 
Associate Curator of Paleontology, Elmer S. Riggs. 

Adjoining this group is a case devoted largely to specimens 
representing other members of the varied family of ground sloths 
which form so conspicuous a part of the extinct life of South America. 
The genera represented from the Pleistocene formation in this exhibit 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 167 

include skulls of two species each of Megatherium and Mylodon and 
one species each of Glossotherium, Scelidotherium and Scelidodon. 
Besides skulls of the above, part of the bony covering of one species 
is shown. The sloths of Pliocene age will be represented by a skeleton 
of Pronothrotherium which is now being mounted. 

In addition to the new groups, there was installed a complete 
skeleton of Trigonias, the most ancient and primitive North Ameri- 
can representative of the true rhinoceroses. Besides peculiarities of 
the teeth, this animal is of interest in having had four toes on the 
front foot instead of three, as in the modem rhinoceros. The skeleton 
is mounted against a matrix background occupying one-half of an 
upright case, the other half of which is devoted to a partial skeleton 
of the aquatic rhinoceros Metamynodon. 

To the case of European Pleistocene mammals there were added 
the large skull and jaws of the woolly rhinoceros received during 
the year. 

The final five mural paintings in the series of twenty-eight pre- 
sented by Mr. Ernest R. Graham, which have been in preparation 
during the past five years, were received from the artist, Mr. Charles 
R. Knight, of New York. The titles of these paintings are: Crested, 
Duck-billed and Armored Dinosaurs; Great Hoofed Mammals 
(Titanotheres) ; Flying Reptiles and Primitive Birds; Great Homed 
Mammal and Four-toed Horse (see Plate XIV) ; and African Reptiles 
of the Permian Period. The two first mentioned are twenty-five 
by nine feet and the others are ten by nine feet. These were hung 
in the locations reserved for them, and together with the twenty- 
three previously received they provide on the walls of this hall a 
remarkably vivid representation of the scenery, plants and animals 
of past geologic periods. In connection with the installation, all 
of the paintings were cleaned and a protective coating was applied 
to their surfaces. Framed labels were provided for the entire series. 

In the paleontological laboratory, forty-two specimens of South 
American fossil mammals were prepared for study and determina- 
tion. Skeletons of the Pliocene glyptodon, Sclaerocalyptus, and the 
rare Pliocene ground sloth, Pronothrotherium, were prepared, and 
they are now in process of being mounted as a group with back- 
ground and accessories. Owing to the extreme rarity of parts of 
the skeleton of the Pronothrotherium, five series of casts of its skull 
and many other bones were made before it was mounted, in order 
to provide for further study and for distribution to other institutions 
which might desire replicas of the specimen. A skull of the South 

168 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

American fossil mammal, Trachytypotherium, and of the woolly 
rhinoceros, Coelodonta, from the Pleistocene of Europe, were also 
prepared for installation. Of North American fossil mammals, a 
skeleton of the Lower Oligocene rhinoceros, Trigonias, and skulls 
of the rare Eocene mammals, Protitanotherium and Eohasileus, were 
likewise prepared. A series of casts of the jaw of a rare Lower 
Eocene uintathere was made to be used for distribution. For the 
study collection, fifty-five skulls or skeletons of recent animals were 

A marked advance in the completeness and accessibility of the 
study collection was made by rearrangement of the entire collection 
of North American fossil mammals. This was carefully grouped in 
stratigraphical order and labeled. The collection occupies 370 trays 
of the standard size, eighteen by twenty-seven inches. Twenty-nine 
boxes of fossil reptiles and mammals which had not been opened since 
their transfer from the Jackson Park building were unpacked and 
distributed to the proper groups. The collections of fossil mammals 
now occupy Rooms 101 and 107, and those of the dinosaurs from 
the Morristown and Lance Beds were transferred to the ground floor 
store room. In Room 107 a large closet was fitted with shelves and 
is devoted to the storing of the field-collecting equipment. 

The stacks containing trays devoted to the study collections of 
ores, minerals and invertebrate fossils in Room 120 were rearranged 
and moved so as to make about one-fourth of the floor space of the 
room available for use by the general Library. Fourteen steel 
cabinets were provided, and the rearranged collections were trans- 
ferred to them. About 200 specimens, most of which were of large 
size, were discarded. At the same time the walls and ceiling of the 
room were painted and the woodwork renovated. Walls and ceilings 
of Rooms 118, 122, 123 and 124 were also cleaned and the woodwork 

Analyses and investigations of various substances, both for scien- 
tific and technical purposes, were carried on in the chemical labora- 
tory. Seven analyses of limestones and shales from the Arctic 
regions were made by Associate Curator Henry W. Nichols, as a 
contribution to a publication on the Arctic fauna by Assistant 
Curator Sharat K. Roy. Besides their technical value, these analyses 
were useful in affording comparisons of the rock matrices in which 
the fossils from the different localities occurred. Determinations of I 
the quantity and nature of the organic matter of some fossil worms 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 169 

were also made in the laboratory by Mr. Nichols for use in another 
paper by Mr. Roy. 

A complete quantitative analysis of the Breece iron meteorite 
received during the year was made. An unusual mineral phosphate 
found in a Missouri cave was given a preliminary analysis with 
results indicating a possible new mineral. Numerous minor identi- 
fications of minerals were made by the Curator and Associate 
Curator. An incrustation on an archaeological specimen was 
analyzed for the Department of Anthropology. A liquid for exter- 
minating moths, and a paper to be used for photogravures, were tested 
to determine their fitness for these uses. Restoration of ancient 
bronzes by the Fink electrolytic process as modified by Mr. Nichols 
was carried on. Two Assyrian bronzes were restored for the Oriental 
Institute of the University of Chicago, and four bronzes from Kish, 
belonging to Field Museum, were renovated. The large bronze 
Egj'ptian cat from Hall J, which prior to 1931 had been restored by 
the Fink process, was found to be undergoing additional corrosion 
and it was given some further treatment to prevent continuance of the 
damage. It was found that in the original treatment an insufficient 
amount of time had been allowed for the removal of the soluble 
salts, and this defect was remedied. 

Considerable experimenting was carried on with a view to per- 
fecting the exhibit of atmospheric gases (see p. 134). When first 
installed, this exhibit failed to give satisfactory results. By providing 
an eliminator for reducing the lighting current and by adjusting the 
wiring in the set of tubes, the operation of the exhibit was much 

The rock-cutting and grinding machine was given a needed over- 
hauling, and is now in good running order. Mr. Henry Essig of 
Chicago, a skilled lapidary, kindly gave advice gained from his long 
experience as to desirable changes to be made in the reconstruction 
of the machine. A new counter shaft with babbitted bearings was 
connected both with the saw and the lap, and in place of the diamond 
saws previously used, which are expensive and difficult to secure, 
metal disks to which carborundum powder is automatically fed were 
substituted. A specially designed hood for holding and supplying 
abrasives was also provided, and this avoids the spattering and 
waste which was one of the worst faults of the machine formerly. 
Sawing can now be automatically performed and narrower cuts are 
made. This equipment has been especially useful for the study of 
the internal structure of invertebrate fossils, especially that of bryo- 

170 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

zoans, corals, gastropods and cephalopods, upon which generic and 
specific differentiations are now largely based. Sixty-eight thin and 
seven polished sections were made for this purpose during the year 
by Assistant Curator Roy, and these were of much service in the 
identification and description of Baffin Land fossils. 

Zoology. — Much progress was made in the preparation and 
installation of large mammal groups. Actual installation was con- 
fined to the Hall of American Mammal Habitat Groups (Hall 16) 
where four groups were completed and opened to the public. Three 
of these represent South American subjects — the guanaco, the tapir, 
and the great anteater. The foiirth — the mountain lion or cougar — 
is both North and South American. There now remains only one 
more subject, the caribou, to complete all the groups planned for 
this hall. 

The guanaco group contains five specimens, adults and young, 
of the so-called "South American camel." They occupy a setting 
representing the pampas of southern Patagonia which are shown 
stretching away behind the animals, and which are reminiscent of 
the sage-brush plains of some parts of the western United States. 
A large male guanaco stands alert, while two females accompanied 
by the young are seen about to move off. Under their feet are the 
dry grasses on which they feed and the small scrubby brush of the 

The group of American tapir (see Plate VI) shows three of these 
shy animals, two adults and one partly grown young. They are 
represented in mid-day under the shade of a tree at the edge of a 
grassy swamp. Beyond them extends a painted scene typical of 
southwestern Brazil — open marsh and scattered clumps of small 
trees with here and there a slender palm. In the tree above them, 
partly concealed by foliage, is a large, handsome, blue macaw. 

The great anteater, which is the subject of the third South 
American group completed during the year, is one of the most peculiar 
of the many queer animals inhabiting the American tropics. Its 
very long, slender head, small mouth, great claws, and enormous 
bushy tail combine to give it a grotesque appearance. In the group 
three animals are shown, two adults and one partly grown young, 
engaged in tearing open a termites' nest. The setting is an opening 
in the light forest or semi-savanna which these animals prefer. 

The specimens for all three of the South American groups were 
obtained by Assistant Curator Colin C. Sanborn while he was a 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 171 

member of the Marshall Field South American Expedition of 1926. 
The taxidermy in all three cases is by Mr. Julius Friesser of the 
Department of Zoology, and the backgrounds were painted by Mr. 
Charles A. Corwin, Staff Artist. 

The group of mountain lion or cougar shows an old female fond- 
ling her two small spotted kittens in front of her den in a secluded 
mountain retreat. The male animal, as is natural during the period 
of rearing the young, does not appear. The subject is skilfully 
handled to bring out the idea of the peaceful home life of a wild 
beast sequestered from all disturbance. Bits of deer skin and 
fragments of bone are strewn about the mouth of the den, which is 
shaded by an overhanging pinon tree. A deep canyon lies below 
and the farther side of it rises in sheer cliffs of bright-colored sand- 
stone bathed in sunlight. The group was prepared by Staff Taxi- 
dermist Leon L. Pray, with painted background by Mr. Corwin. 
For indispensable assistance in procuring accessories and photo- 
graphic data for this group, the Museum is indebted to Mr. J. D. 
Figgins, Director of the Colorado Museum of Natural History, 

In Hall 15, where animals are exhibited in systematic order, an 
important improvement was made by the reinstallation of a case 
of monkeys with the addition of six interesting specimens obtained 
by recent expeditions. Most important are the golden or snub- 
nosed monkey, obtained by the William V. Kelley-Roosevelts 
Expedition to Eastern Asia for Field Museum; the Abyssinian 
guereza or colobus, obtained by the Field Museum-Chicago Daily 
News Abyssinian Expedition; the Himalayan langur, from the C. 
Suydam Cutting Sikkim Expedition; Kolb's white- throated guenon, 
from the Harold White-John Coats African Expedition; and the 
maroon langur, from the Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedition. The 
taxidermy for this very successful case was done by Mr. Arthur 
G. Rueckert of the staff. 

Other additions in Hall 15 include a British wildcat and two 
South American monkeys. 

A number of hoofed mammals in George M. Pullman Hall (Hall 
13) were removed from mahogany bases and reinstalled without such 
bases in new cases. This resulted in greatly improved appearance 
not only of individual specimens but also of the whole hall. 

The habitat groups of birds in Hall 20, eighteen in number, 
were completely rearranged. All the groups were removed from 
the center of the hall and placed at the sides in pairs, thus preserving 

172 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

the view from two sides and creating a pleasing arrangement. A 
wide central aisle is now provided from which visitors may view 
the groups to best advantage. During the process of making the 
changes all the groups were thoroughly cleaned and renovated, 
giving them the appearance of newly prepared groups. Improved 
lighting was installed, and new labels and distribution maps were 

In Hall 21 the serial exhibit of North American birds received 
the important addition of a screen showing the principal species of 
geese and swans (see Plate XI). A number of these were obtained 
in California during a field trip made by Staff Taxidermist Ashley 
Hine, and they were prepared immediately after his return. Thirty- 
three additional birds were mounted for systematic exhibits and 
much work of a preparatory nature was done. 

An important addition to the reptile exhibits in Albert W. Harris 
Hall (Hall 18) is a reproduction of the reticulated python, largest 
of living snakes (see Plate XV). This was prepared by Staff Taxi- 
dermist Leon L. Walters and Mr. E. G. Layboume from a specimen 
collected in Sumatra by the Philip M. Chancellor Expedition of 1929. 
It is twenty-six feet long, and is shown in coiled position surrounding 
its eighty-three eggs which were collected with it. 

Models in cellulose-acetate were produced of six salamanders, 
ten lizards and eleven snakes for addition to the systematic exhibits 
in Harris Hall. A plaque exhibiting the hind limbs of a python, 
to illustrate the little-known fact that primitive snakes have vestiges 
of limbs, also was completed. 

A large number of fishes were prepared or partly prepared for 
exhibition, including all those intended for use in the Bahama under- 
sea group. Actual installation of fishes, however, was confined to 
certain species of special interest which were added as substitutes 
or additions to cases already occupied. Among these are six repro- 
ductions in cellulose-acetate, representing a poison fish, scorpion 
fish (see Plate XIX), winter flounder, pelican flounder, frostfish, 
and wolf herring. 

Reorganization of the osteological exhibits in Hall 19 was begun 
with the transfer of various skeletons to new cases released from 
George M. Pullman Hall (Hall 13). As a trial installation to deter- 
mine matters of arrangement, labeling, backgrounds, and educational 
possibilities, a case of skeletons of carnivorous mammals was pre- 
pared, containing one example of each family. Individual and case 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 173 

labels were introduced, calling attention to the structural peculiarities 
illustrated by the specimens. 

The condition of the reference collections of mammals and birds 
was greatly improved by the addition of twenty-six steel storage 
cases. Sixteen of these were assigned to birds, four to mammal 
skins, and six to mammals in alcohol. It is still necessary to use 
old-style cases for a considerable proportion of the bird collection, 
but enough new cases are now available to serve as a foundation for 
a permanent, well-ordered arrangement. 

Much progress was made in rearranging the mammal collection 
and especially in dressing skins and "making up" raw skins of medium 
and large size. With the exception of the large skins recently received 
from the Vemay-Lang Kalahari Expedition, the number of unpre- 
pared mammal skins is now comparatively small. 

Largely through the services of Mr. Daniel Clark, volunteer 
student assistant, the condition of the collection of reptiles and 
amphibians was much improved. Tanks and glass jars were 
thoroughly cleaned, fresh alcohol was supplied wherever necessary, 
and the entire collection was overhauled. Turtles and crocodilians 
were transferred to two steel cases on the fourth floor in space 
intended later for expansion of storage for large mammal skulls 
and bones. Some relief was thus afforded to the congestion in Room 
88 caused by the recent rapid growth of the collections. 

Pending the provision of space and cases for the exhibition of 
insects, this division was largely occupied in the much-needed colla- 
tion and rearrangement of the reference collection. This is work 
which proceeds slowly since it requires the determining of many 
species, the assembling of material of like kind from different sources, 
and the repinning and relabeling of many specimens. The new 
drawers and steel cabinets obtained in 1930 were utilized, eleven 
drawers of North American roaches, mantids, walking-sticks, and 
grasshoppers were arranged in systematic order, and twelve drawers 
of beetles were rearranged. 

Detailed plans were prepared for use in connection with various 
groups of Indian mammals for William V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17). 
Through the cordial cooperation of Sir Reginald Spence of the 
Bombay Natural History Society, arrangements were made to secure 
accessories and field sketches for these groups. Under this coopera- 
tive plan, members of the staff of the Bombay Society's museum will 
make a special field trip for this purpose early in 1932. 

174 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 


Twenty years have now passed since December, 1911, when the 
late Norman Wait Harris gave Field Museum a generous fund to 
endow the institution's extension work for the schools of Chicago. 
The N. W. Harris Public School Extension of Field Museum has 
grown steadily during this period. Today its activities reach every 
part of Chicago, and it is serving the youth of the city as Mr. Harris 
hoped that it would. 

Mr. Harris's gift enabled Field Museum to pioneer in what was 
a new field. A careful survey of the work to be done and compre- 
hensive plans for the best possible methods of accomplishing it were 
necessary. The steady growth of this Department and the fact 
that many institutions in other communities have followed its lead 
attest to the wisdom incorporated in those first plans. 

By the end of 1913 seven schools had received Harris Extension 
cases. At the close of 1931 this Department is regularly serving 
445 schools and children's institutions with forty cases each a year. 
There are more than a half million pupils in daily attendance at 
the 390 public schools receiving these exhibits. Many thousands 
more attend the fifty-five private and religious schools, branch 
libraries, social settlements and boys' clubs which Harris Extension 
also serves. Fifteen new schools were added to the regular routes 
in 1931. The Department's two motor trucks traveled more than 
12,000 miles making deliveries during the year. 

A map showing the location of each institution receiving Harris 
Extension cases has been made. This shows graphically that no 
part of Chicago is being neglected, and that Harris Extension service 
literally covers the city. As in former years, a large number of 
requests for this service have been received from suburban towns. 
It is regretted that these requests cannot be granted. The regular 
service of the Harris Extension has always been confined to the 
city of Chicago. 

With the growth of the work of this Department and the increased 
use of the exhibits by the schools some wear and breakage of cases 
have been inevitable. In recent years the necessity of repairing and 
reconditioning cases has made ever-growing demands on the time 
of the preparators and cabinet-maker. During 1931 twelve cases 
were completely reinstalled and 446 repaired. In the construction 
of new exhibits, which is going on constantly, every possible effort 
is being made to produce cases that will be lasting. The fifty-three 
new cases completed in 1931 have been made as light and durable 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 175 

as possible to reduce wear and accidental breakage. With a thousand 
cases in almost constant use this is of the greatest importance. 

In addition to the regular route service maintained throughout 
the school year cases have been sent in response to special requests. 
Eighteen requests from the public schools for cases in addition to 
those regularly supplied were granted this year. Exhibitions of 
from two to twenty cases each were sent to Marshall Field and 
Company's Book Section, the booth of the Wild Flower Preservation 
Society at the Flower Show in the Merchandise Mart, the Y.M.C.A. 
Hotel, Camp Algonquin, Wieboldt Stores, and the University High 
School. A large booth was maintained at the International Live 
Stock Exposition in the Union Stock Yards. As in previous years, 
institutions have requested the loan of Harris Extension cases either 
to study their construction for adaptation in their own extension 
work, or to stimulate interest in the foundation of such extension 
departments. In the past year two cases were sent to the Cranbrook 
Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, and six cases to 
the St. Paul Institute, St. Paul, Minnesota. As a result of the interest 
shown in three Harris Extension cases borrowed for its book fair, the 
University High School of the University of Chicago requested that 
it receive regular scheduled loans of cases as the public schools do. 
This request was granted. 

With the opening of schools in September a new motor delivery 
truck went into service for the Department. This truck was especially 
constructed to carry Harris Extension cases safely and efficiently, 
and it has proved most satisfactory. It is a gift from Mr. Albert 
W. Harris. 


The value of the art research classes conducted at Field Museum 
under a cooperative arrangement with the Art Institute of Chicago 
is emphasized by the fact that the curriculum of the School of the 
Art Institute has been revised so as to require all students in its 
teachers' training classes to spend at least one year in research at 
Field Museum. 

The art research classes receive instruction from Mr. John 
Gilbert Wilkins, a member of the Art Institute faculty especially 
assigned to conduct the work at Field Museum. These classes were 
established eight years ago, and have shown consistent progress in 
the artistic merit of their students' work throughout that period. 
Painting, illustration, decorative design, sculpture and other branches 
of art are studied in the courses offered. 

176 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

The courses provided include the regular ones planned to fit the 
needs of students specializing in illustration and design, and thej 
teachers' training coiirse. Both classes are enabled to make nature 
studies from a wealth of specimens which would be available toj 
them nowhere else in Chicago, and under especially favorable con- 
ditions. Slow motion pictures are used by the classes as a supple- 
mentary aid in studying the structure and action of animal life. 

The second and revised edition of the book Research Design in 
Nature, compiled by Instructor Wilkins, was published in 1931. It 
is in two volumes, and contains several hundred plates (including 
color plates) of work done by Mr. Wilkins' students, based wholly 
on subjects studied among the exhibits of Field Museum. The 
book is widely used for educational and reference purposes. 

The Museum has assigned a new class room to the art students. 
It is decorated in two tones of soft gray-green, which make it attrac- 
tive and at the same time provide an excellent light in which to 
work. New tables and desks, and a large cloak room and lockers 
provided this year, increase the conveniences available to students. 


In the work of the Division of Public Relations during 1931 the 
principal emphasis, as usual, was placed upon distribution of infor- 
mation through the daily press. On the average, nearly six articles 
a week were prepared at the Museum and published in the news- 
papers. While publicity efforts were concentrated chiefly upon 
newspapers of Chicago and vicinity, the Museum's activities have 
received attention also in the press of the entire nation, and in 
many other countries, through the cooperation extended by national 
and international news agencies. 

Especially gratifying has been the response made by the Chicago 
newspapers not only in publishing the news sent out by the Museum, 
but in following this up by sending reporters, photographers and 
artists to the institution to obtain material for special articles and 
series of pictures, the extent of which this year exceeded similar 
publicity in the past. Those newspapers which have always given 
generous space in their columns to the Museum continued to do so, 
while others, which in the past have been inclined to give more 
sparingly of their space, this year displayed a much stronger interest 
in the Museum. 

In addition to its work with the newspapers, the Division of 
Public Relations carried on the publication of Field Museum News, 





••/ t 

""^^'-nr Of 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 177 

the monthly bulletin for members, and continued all its other regular 
activities, such as preparation of special articles for magazines and 
periodicals of various types; preparation of advertising copy for use 
in various media generously placed at the disposal of the Museum 
by a number of organizations; extension of publicity by cooperation 
with radio broadcasting stations and makers of motion picture news- 
reels; distribution of descriptive folders and other material to attract 
visitors; and editorial work on certain general publications and other 
printed matter of the Museum. 

Field Museum News. — Every effort has been made to improve 
constantly the contents of Field Museum News so that its interest 
and service to Members of the Museum might increase. Because 
of the appeal of pictures to most readers, the number of illustrations 
published was increased as far as possible. The news columns of 
the bulletin have kept Members informed of all important activities 
of the Museum, and have announced well in advance all lectures, 
children's entertainments and other such events. Special articles 
by many members of the scientific staff have presented a large 
amount of information on a variety of subjects, much of it of a 
character not duplicated in other periodicals. 

Distribution of Field Museum News has been made promptly 
to all Members of the Museimi before the beginning of each month, 
and it has also been circulated as an exchange unit to a list of other 
scientific institutions, and to the press. Editors of many newspapers 
and magazines have reprinted or quoted in part articles from this 
bulletin, and it thus has served as an additional medium in the 
Museum's general publicity campaign. 

Newspaper Publicity. — The Division of Public Relations 
released 297 news stories during 1930, or an average of close to six 
each week. In addition, 101 brief or "filler" items were distributed, 
thus bringing the total of notices obtained for the Museum by its 
own direct efforts to a total of 398. 

Copies of this publicity matter were supplied to the seven prin- 
cipal daily newspapers and the City News Bureau of Chicago; to 
some sixty community and neighborhood papers published in the 
city; to more than fifty Chicago foreign language newspapers; to 
about sixty newspapers covering the principal suburbs, cities and 
towns within a 100-mile radius of Chicago; to all the principal 
national and international news agencies; and to the Springfield 
bureau of the Associated Press for its special service to newspapers 

178 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

throughout the state of Illinois, which obtains publicity additional 
to that effected in the national distribution carried out through 
the Chicago office of the same organization. 

Photographs were sent with many of the publicity stories, prints 
from 103 negatives having been released by the Museum. Copies 
of each of these photographs were furnished to thirty-one leading 
newspapers and news photograph agencies, through which hundreds 
of additional copies were made and distributed to newspapers all 
over the world. Photographs published in rotogravure sections of 
newspapers make an especially desirable form of publicity, and many 
papers with such sections made splendid use of these pictures. 

As in other years, news emanating from the Museum frequently 
has inspired editorials in important newspapers all over America 
and occasionally abroad. 

The majority of the Museum's releases were news stories of from 
one-half to two- thirds of the average newspaper column. Others 
ranged from a column to items of fifty words or less. Practically 
every story released was printed in several Chicago newspapers, 
and many in all of them ; most of the releases also received extensive 
space throughout the country. Frequently, as has been the case 
in past years, newspaper staff writers have expanded these releases 
into half-page and full-page Sunday feature articles. 

The cooperation of the newspapers is, naturally, the most im- 
portant factor in the success of the Museum's pubhcity efforts, and 
for their generosity in this respect grateful recognition is herewith 
accorded to the American press in general, and especially to the 
Chicago Tribune, Chicago Daily News, Chicago Evening Post, Chicago 
Evening American, Chicago Herald and Examiner, Chicago Daily 
Illustrated Times, Chicago Journal of Commerce, and the national 
and international news agencies such as the Associated Press, United 
Press, International News Service, Universal Service, and Science 

It is difficult to make from the clippings received any accurate 
estimate of the amount of publicity obtained. Through the clip- 
ping bureaus it is not possible to obtain even a complete coverage 
of the English language newspapers, while certain groups, such as 
foreign language papers, are not covered at all by the bureaus. 
During 1931, as a measure of economy, Field Museum discontinued 
part of its clipping bureau service. The figures on clippings there- 
fore represent only part of the actual number of notices concerning 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 179 

the Museum which were published. The total number of clippings 
received for the year was 18,384, or an average of 1,532 each month. 

Especially gratifying were the relations between the Museum 
and the Chicago Tribune during the year. In the Sunday edition 
of June 14 there appeared a special article on the educational 
value of the Museum, running for several columns, and accompanied 
by a picture in the rotogravure section. This article was written 
by Mr. James O'Donnell Bennett, noted feature writer, as the result 
of interviews with the President and Director of the Museum, and 
it has since been published by the Tribune in a pamphlet about 
Chicago institutions. Later in the year the Tribune sent several 
staff writers, photographers and artists to the Museum to accumu- 
late a large collection of data and pictures for use in its new Sunday 
magazine section. The Graphic Weekly, at present published in out- 
of-town editions of the paper, and shortly to be published also in 
Chicago. Before the end of the year six full pages in colors presenting 
reproductions of all the twenty-eight paintings by Mr. Charles R. 
Knight in Ernest R. Graham Hall, and a similar page of pictures of 
objects selected from the Museum's Chinese jade collection, accom- 
panied by extensive articles, had been published. Data and pictures 
had been collected by the Tribune for similar pages on the African 
elephants in Stanley Field Hall, the man-eating lions of Tsavo, most 
of the habitat groups of American mammals and birds, the Nean- 
derthal family restoration, the meteorite collection, the Musemn's 
industrial models, and various other subjects. The proposed publica- 
tion of this matter, especially as this magazine section will soon be 
distributed in Chicago, promises to develop into the most prominently 
displayed, most widely read, and most continuous publicity the 
Museum has ever received. 

Other especially important publicity during 1931 was an article 
of several columns on the Museum's contributions to the advance- 
ment of science, published in the Chicago Evening Post of November 
13, and several pages and half pages published at various times in 
The American Weekly, Sunday supplement of the Chicago Herald 
and Examiner and associated newspapers all over the United States 
with a total of some twenty million circulation. Full pages in colors 
and rotogravure were devoted to the complete series of the Knight 
paintings in newspapers in various cities. 

PUBUCITY IN Periodicals. — The Museum and its activities have 
again been the subject of numerous special articles which appeared 
in general and popular magazines, trade journals, scientific publica- 

180 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

tions, and other periodicals. Of these, some were prepared at the 
Museum on the request of editors, and others were written by out- 
side writers. They were usually based on data supplied by the staff, 
and illustrated with photographs furnished by the Museum. Among 
some of the publications in which this material has appeared are 
Scientific American, Chicago Commerce, Science, Popular Mechanics, 
Popular Science, Americana Annual, International Year Book, Science 
News Letter, U Illustration, Illustrated London News, Museums Journal 
(London), Chicago Visitor, Rocks and Minerals, Mid-week Pictorial 
of the New York Times, Collier's Encyclopedia, American Anthropol- 
ogist, textbooks published by Scott Foresman and Company, 
Outdoor America, Museums of Peaceful Arts, and The Rotarian. 

Advertising. — Space in various advertising media has been 
given to the Museum, free of charge, as in previous years. The 
Illinois Central Railroad and the Chicago and North Western Rail- 
way, which have been cooperating with the Museum for a number 
of years, again displayed at their city and suburban stations posters 
announcing Field Museum lecture courses. These posters were 
likewise displayed in Marshall Field and Company's retail store, 
in libraries, schools, and other institutions, and in many of the 
principal hotels and clubs of Chicago. 

P\ill-page and half-page advertisements of the Museum appeared 
in the programs of the Chicago Civic Opera Company, which has 
extended this courtesy for a number of years. For several months 
similar advertisements appeared in all the theatre programs published 
under the title The Playgoer, issued by the Clyde W. Riley Adver- 
tising System. 

Colored placards calling attention to striking exhibits at the 
Museum were again displayed in the Chicago street cars. These 
were printed and distributed at the expense of the Chicago Surface 
Lines, a company which has thus cooperated for years. 

The Chicago Rapid Transit Company and associated interurban 
lines, including the Chicago, North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad, 
the Chicago, South Shore and South Bend Railroad, and the Chicago, 
Aurora and Elgin Railroad, distributed 50,000 Field Museum descrip- 
tive folders among their patrons. Space was again allotted through- 
out the year to Museum lectures and exhibits in the This Week's 
Events Along the North Shore Line posters which are displayed 
at all stations of the Chicago, North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad 
between Chicago and Milwaukee. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 181 

The Chicago Motor Coach Company continued extensive coopera- 
tion with the Museum. It distributed thousands of the Museum's 
descriptive folders, and in addition printed folders of its own, devoted 
to the Museum and other institutions in Grant Park, which it 
distributed in great quantities. 

The Museum was widely advertised in connection with excursion 
trips from various cities conducted by practically all railroads 
entering Chicago. More than 115,000 Field Museum descriptive 
folders (in addition to the 50,000 distributed by the Rapid Transit 
and associated companies) were distributed by the Museum and 
cooperating agencies including practically every railroad and lake 
steamship line entering the city, and most of the principal hotels, 
clubs, travel bureaus, and department stores. The officers and 
delegates to many of the conventions held in Chicago were also 
furnished with supplies of folders. 

Through the courtesy of the Chicago regional office of the Coca 
Cola Company the Museum was advertised on a large electrical 
sign of the type with moving letters, operated in a prominent position 
in the down-town part of the city. 

Advertising was given to the Museum in the house organs for 
customers and employes published by many large Chicago corpora- 
tions, and in the travel folders issued by railroads, steamship com- 
panies, tourist bureaus and hotels. The Museum cooperated to 
some extent with the International Live Stock Exposition in publicity 
and advertising. 

Radio. — More attention was given to extending the Museum's 
publicity by means of radio broadcasting than in previous years. 
The news releases sent to the press were also distributed to important 
local radio stations. Cooperation in broadcasting some of this 
material was received from WMAQ, the Chicago Daily News station; 
the Chicago Evening Post broadcasting over WLS, The Prairie Farmer 
station; WCFL, the Chicago Federation of Labor station; WGN, 
the Chicago Tribune station; and KYW, the Westinghouse-Chicago 
Herald and Examiner station. Also, through the courtesy of the 
National Biscuit Company and its advertising agency, Batten, 
Barton, Durstine and Osbom, frequent references to the Museum 
were made in their programs broadcast from WMAQ, while a special 
feature program devoted to the Museum was broadcast on July 23 
from the same station through the courtesy of the Northern Trust 
Company and its advertising agency, the J. Walter Thompson 

182 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Newsreels. — Museum activities of exceptional interest were 
covered in films taken by newsreel producers. Among these were 
the Chicago Daily News-Universal Newsreel, Kinograms-Universal 
Newsreel, and M-G-M International Newsreel. 

Editorial Work. — Writing and editorial work on certain publi- 
cations and other printed matter of the Museum, in addition to 
that on Field Museum News, occupied a large amount of time in 
the Division of Public Relations. Among the more important tasks 
of this kind was the new Hayidhook of Field Museum which was 
compiled and edited, and largely written by the Division; and 
the preparation of a new edition of the General Guide to the 


The output of the Division of Printing during 1931, including 
publications, labels, post cards and miscellaneous job work, was 
extremely large and varied. The production of publications exceeded 
that of previous years, totaling 28,589 copies of the various books 
in the regular scientific series. These works required a total of 
1,470 pages of type composition. Additional miscellaneous publica- 
tions required 315 pages of composition, and a total of 16,000 copies 
of these was printed. Of major importance also was the printing 
of twelve issues of the four-page monthly bulletin. Field Museum 
News, with an average of nearly 7,000 copies a month. 

Prompt service was given in printing exhibition labels required 
by the various Departments, the total number produced being 
24,695. By concentrating on labels during the first part of the year, 
the Division of Printing enabled the Departments to bring to a 
highly satisfactory stage the work of relabeling exhibition cases 
which is being carried on throughout the building at the present 
time on a large scale. 

A large part of the time of the Division of Printing was consumed 
by miscellaneous job work, in which the total number of impressions 
or pieces of printed matter produced was 808,875. 

While it was necessary after September 30 to discontinue the 
services of six printers employed in the Division, the remaining 
employes continued the work in a most gratifying manner. There 
was naturally a decrease in production, but nevertheless production 
of labels, publications, and other printed matter continued on a 
satisfactory basis. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 183 

A summary of the publications of the year may be found under 
the heading Division of Publications, page 56. Following is a 
tabulation of other work done in the Division of Printing: 

Exhibition Other 

labels impressiona 

Anthropology 12,588 8,633 

Botany 4,624 15,000 

Geology 6 , 512 

Zoology 669 17,757 

Harris Extension 302 4,400 

Raymond Foundation 160 , 508 

General 121,104 

Library 700 

Public Relations 102,000 

Field Museum News 82 , 943 

Direction Folders for Chicago Rapid Transit Company 125,000 

Direction Folders for Division of Public Relations 50 , 000 

Division of Memberships 60 , 830 

Post cards 60,000 

Total 24,695 808,875 

Much important research work was carried on in the Division 
of Roentgenology during 1931. A new and unique x-ray technique 
which produces films of greater brilliancy than it is possible to 
obtain by the usual methods, and is peculiarly adapted to museum 
work, was developed by Miss Anna Reginalda Bolan, the roent- 
genologist. The ray used in this technique could not be used on 
living tissue because of its caustic effect, but it does not in any way 
harm the Museum materials submitted for examination. 

Work on Egyptian and Peruvian mummies, which has been 
under way for several years, was continued. Photogravures of a 
large number of the roentgenograms produced in the Division, 
including many which reveal traces of the existence of common 
present-day diseases in ancient times, were published in the book. 
Roentgenologic Studies of Egyptian and Peruvian Mummies, by Pro- 
fessor Roy L. Moodie, which was issued from Field Museum Press 
during the year. 

After a long series of experiments, the Division of Roentgenology 
succeeded in producing a new type of large roentgenogram which it 
is expected will mark the opening of a new chapter in x-ray work. 
The first roentgenogram of this type, with an Egyptian mummy 
as its subject, was completed on July 7. The dimensions of the 
film are seven feet by two feet. This is the first time that an entire 
adult mummy in its casket has ever been x-rayed on one film and 
with only one exposure. It is also, so far as is known, the largest 

184 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

roentgenogram ever made of any subject. Heretofore mummies 
have been x-rayed in sections on the regulation size film, fourteen 
by seventeen inches. These smaller films were then pieced together 
and from this "mosaic" the specimen was viewed and its anatomical 
relation to cartonnage and casket estimated. There are obvious 
advantages in the new type in simplifying the process and insuring 
greater accuracy. 

For the Department of Geology a series of exposures and prints 
for an exhibit illustrating the radioactivity of various minerals was 
made in the Division of Roentgenology. 


Photography. — The total number of lantern slides, negatives, 
and prints made by the Division of Photography during 1931 was 
29,367. The following tabulation gives a simimary of the work 
performed : 

Lantern Nega- 
slides tives 
made made 

Anthropology 24 1 ,195 

Botany 80 571 

Geology 337 

Zoology 262 

Harris Extension 87 

Raymond Foundation 208 14 

Photogravure 648 

Publicity 66 

General 6 30 

Gift 7 

Sales 76 

Total 401 3,210 

Prints Enlarge- Negatives Trans- 
made ments developed parent 









25,284 244 

for labels 

expedi- made 







Photogravure. — Following is a summary of the photogravures 
produced during 1931 by this Division: 

Number of 

Publication illustrations 310,600 

Guide illustrations 54,400 

Memoirs Series illustrations 64,600 

Guide covers 10,600 

Membership headings 1,000 

Poster headings 3,500 

Post cards 60,000 

Total 504,700 

Artist. — Following is a summary of the work done during 1931 
by this Division: 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 185 

Pen and wash drawings 660 

Lantern slides colored 308 

Publication maps drawn and lettered 26 

Case maps drawn and lettered 7 

Chinese characters drawn 15 

Pages of numerals drawn 7 

Outline drawing of Carboniferous forest 1 

Posters drawn 1 

Photograph albums lettered 4 

Negatives lettered for copyright 25 

Floor plans lettered 3 

Photographs retouched 59 

Negatives blocked 60 

X-ray negatives tinted 1 

X-ray negatives blocked 2 

Plant specimens colored 3 

Cuts tooled 3 

Miscellaneous items 25 

Total 1,210 


The membership of the Museum decreased somewhat in 1931 
as compared to 1930. The following list shows the number of names 
on the membership rolls in each of the Museum's membership 
classifications at the end of 1931: 

Benefactors 18 

Honorary Members 20 

Patrons 30 

Corresponding Members 5 

Contributors 101 

Corporate Members 48 

Life Members 345 

Non-Resident Life Members 9 

Associate Members 2 , 394 

Non-Resident Associate Members 1 

Sustaining Members 143 

Annual Members 2,227 

Total memberships 5 , 341 

The names of all Members on the rolls as of December 31, 1931, 
will be found elsewhere in this Report. 


During the past few years the cafeteria has become an increas- 
ingly important adjunct to the Museum, due to the ever increasing 
numbers of visitors, of whom so many are in the building at lunch 
time. In 1931, in order to serve better the comfort and convenience 
of the public, the cafeteria was completely remodeled, redecorated 
and equipped with the most modem facilities. This was done at 
great expense, and, as has been the case with so many of the improve- 

186 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

ments made in the Museum, the burden of its cost and the work 
of planning for it were borne by President Stanley Field. 

The remodeling has resulted in a completely new cafeteria of a 
type unique in institutions of this kind. While it is in the same 
location on the ground floor as the old one, everything in the large 
room is new, and even the ceiling has been reconstructed of a sound- 
proof material which produces a far quieter and pleasanter atmos- 
phere for the patrons. During the reconstruction a smaller temporary 
room was fitted out and used so that there would be no interruption 
in service to the public. 

An attractive scheme of decoration has been adopted in the 
cafeteria. On the walls have been painted in pleasing pastel colors 
large maps of all the continents, of the Arctic and Antarctic regions, 
and of the world as a whole. These suggest the worldwide scope of 
the expeditions and other activities of the Museum, and the vast 
sweep of lands and seas from which have been gathered its collections. 
The rest of the color scheme is in two shades of green with trim of 
harmonious woods and marble, and an attractive floor covering. 
Colorful new tables and chairs, new blue china, new silverware, 
and other table service, enhance the pleasant atmospher« created. 

The most modem and complete equipment for cooking, electric 
refrigeration and dishwashing has been installed. The remodeling 
was completed and the new cafeteria opened to the public in June. 

The number of persons served during 1931 was 94,456. This is 
a small decrease from the number served in 1930. The difference is 
probably due partly to the fact that during the period of remodeling 
the limited temporary facilities available could not accommodate 
all those who otherwise would have patronized the cafeteria, and 
partly to the economic depression which prevailed during the year. 

As previously, the Museum makes available also accommodations 
for children and other persons bringing their own lunches. The 
room provided for this purpose, equipped with many tables and 
chairs, has also been improved. Those using these facilities have 
the privilege of supplementing their lunches with coffee, tea, milk, 
and other beverages and light foods sold at especially low prices 
at a service counter in this room. For extra-large assemblages of 
children a second auxiliary lunch room is provided. 

A special lunch room has been provided for the scientific and 
administrative staffs of the Museum. This room has been equipped 
to permit of luncheon conferences to discuss Museum business when 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 187 


required. Its walls are attractively decorated with enlarged repro- 
ductions of designs from a codex of the Aztecs, the original of which 
is in the possession of the Vatican. The room connects with the 
pantry of the main cafeteria and is served from there. 

In the pages which follow are submitted the Museum's financial 
statements, lists of accessions, names of members, et cetera. 

Stephen C. Simms, Director 

188 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 


FROM JANUARY 1, 1931 TO DECEMBER 31, 1931 

Total attendance 1,515, 540 

Paid attendance 126,209 

Free admissions on pay days: 

Students 15,960 

School children 67,478 

Teachers 1 ,868 

Members 1 , 517 

Admissions on free days: 

Thursdays (53) 293,654 

Saturdays (52) 407,303 

Sundays (52) 601 , 551 

Highest attendance on any day (May 21, 1931) 51 ,917 

Lowest attendance on any day (March 9, 1931) 130 

Highest paid attendance (September 7, 1931) 4,513 

Average daily admissions (365 days) 4 , 152 

Average paid admissions (208 days) 607 

Number of guides sold 7 , 634 

Number of articles checked 17 , 515 

Number of picture post cards sold 138 , 514 

Sales of publications, leaflets, handbooks, portfolios and 

photographs $5,351.54 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 189 



Endowment Fund income $197,873.35 

Less: Transferred to reserve against 
security investments — all 
funds 10,000.00 


Income from funds held under annuity agreements 42,044.16 

Life Membership Fund income 14,824.77 

Associate Membership Fund income 13,491.20 

South Park Commissioners 167,360.43 

Annual and Sustaining Memberships 14,655.00 

Admissions 31,552.25 

Sundry receipts 11,715.67 

Contributions for general purposes 200,000.00 

Contributions for special purposes (expended per contra) 110,944.82 
Special funds: 

Part expended this year for purposes created (in- 
cluded per contra) 40,067.81 



Collections $179,603.62 

Expeditions 34,868.69 

Furniture and fixtures, equipment, etc 24,461.58 

Plant reproduction 16,362.54 

Pensions, group insurance premiums, etc 17,918.03 

Research fellowship 1,000.00 

Departmental expenses 110,475.70 

General operating expenses 407,431.95 

Annuities on contingent gifts 40,176.23 

Added to principal of annuity endowments 1,867.93 

Interest on loans 7,574.58 


Remaining excess of expenditures over income and receipts $ 7,211.39 

Notes payable, caused by this and previous years' operating deficits $184,800.00 


statement of income and EXPENSES FOR THE YEAR 1931 

Interest and dividends on investments $ 21,008.36 

Operating expenses 19,028.69 

Balance, December 31, 1931 $ 1,979.67 

190 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 



AucKLANB Institute and Museum, 
Auckland, New Zealand: 1 face mask 
of a Maori, with tattoo marks — Maori, 
New Zealand (exchange). 

Badger, Mrs. A. Shrev'e, Chicago: 
23 objects — 3 bows, 1 quiver with 
arrows, 2 pairs of moccasins, 4 beaded 
deer-skin bags, 1 deer-skin saddle-bag, 1 
medicine-man's head-dress, 1 basket — 
Apache; 3 woolen blankets — Navaho; 
1 basket — Hupa; 3 baskets — Hooquam, 
Washington; 1 basket bottle — Nevada; 
1 yucca fiber pouch — Mexico; parts of 
abalone_ shell necklace — California, Ari- 
zona, "Washington, Nevada, and Mexico 

Badger, Mrs. Frances Cowxes, 
Barrington, Illinois: 1 globular stone 
jar with band of incised designs — Cali- 
fornia (gift). 

Baker, C. L.: 1 boat-shaped pre- 
historic stone ax — lola. Grimes County, 
Texas (gift). 

Bassett, Charles K., Buffalo, New 
York: 85 prehistoric arrow points and 
knives — Columbia River, Central Ore- 
gon (gift). 

Beckman, Charles, Arlington, Ore- 
gon: 72 objects — prehistoric arrowheads, 
knives and pendants — Roosevelt, Klic- 
kitat County, Washington (gift). 

Bensabott, R., Inc., Chicago: 1 
carved green jade box, K'ien-lung 
period (1736-95), 22 inscribed oracle 
bones, Shang dynasty (about 1500 B.C.) 
—China (gift). 

BoNiN, Dr. Gerhardt von, Chicago: 
1 ink stone — China (gift). 

BouDEMAN, Donald 0., Kalamazoo, 
Michigan: 171 archaeological objects — 
8 stone pipes, 40 arrowheads, 3 grooved 
axes, 3 celts, 1 grooved maul, 1 roller 
pestle, 23 spearheads, 19 stone knives, 
35 problematical objects of slate, 18 
drills, 20 scrapers — Michigan (ex- 

Breuil, ABBfi Henri, Paris, France: 
41 prehistoric flint implements — Mas 
d'Azil, France (gift). 

Bush, Mrs. William H., Chicago: 1 
glass snuff-bottle with landscape paint- 
ing — China (gift). 

Chait, Ralph M., New York: 1 large 
barrel-shaped pottery wine-jar, Han 
period — China (gift). 

Chalmers, William J., Chicago: 1 
pair of silver bracelets, 2 silver neck- 
laces, 1 pair silver earrings, 2 enameled 
pendants, 1 gold charm with chain — 
Algeria and Morocco, North Africa 

Dickson, Dr. Don F., Lewistown, 
Illinois: 29 specimens — 1 skeleton, 2 
skulls, 4 pieces of pottery, 2 shell spoons, 
1 stone celt, 1 awl sharpener, 15 flint 
spearheads, arrowheads, etc., 1 flaker, 

1 conch-shell ornament, 1 conch-shell 
bead — Illinois (gift). 

Drummond, Dr. I. W., New York: 1 
jade chape, 4 jade girdle pendants, 1 
jade ring, 1 ivory funnel and ladle for 
snuff, 1 green glass charm with Arabic 
inscription, 1 jasper charm with Kufic 
inscription, 1 chisel — China, Near East, 
and Switzerland (gift). 

Everett, Mr. and Mrs. Edward 
W., Hinsdale, Illinois: 1 painting on silk 
representing a school of carp, sixteenth 
century — China (gift). 

Field, Mr. and Mrs. George W., 
Waukegan, Illinois: 71 prehistoric arrow 
and spear points, rejects, fragments, 
etc. — Illinois and Wisconsin (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 
Collected by Field Museum-Oxford 
University Joint Expedition to Meso- 
potamia (Marshall Field Fund): about 
600 objects — flint, bone, and copper im- 
plements, beads, alabaster bowls, glass, 
stuccos and heads from Sassanian pal- 
aces, skeletal material — Kish, Meso- 

Collected by Dr. Paul S. Martin, 
leader of Second Archaeological Ex- 
pedition to the Southwest (Julius and 
Augusta N. Rosenwald Fund): 739 
objects — 76 pottery vessels, 2 pottery 
pipes, 1 pottery pendant, 625 pottery 
sherds, 10 bone awls, 10 prayer sticks, 

2 strings of shell and bone beads, 10 
butts of roof beams, 1 stone "sandal 
last," 1 lot of calcined maize, 1 lot 
of animal bones — Lowry ruin, Colo- 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Collected by Henry Field, leader of 
Second Marshall Field Archaeological 
Expedition to Europe: Prehistoric 
archaeological material — England, 
France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, 
Austria, and Hungary. 

Collected by Henry Field, leader of 
Chauncey Keep Expedition to Europe: 
102 objects — 3 skulls, 6 casts of de- 
formed skulls, 78 casts of heads, hands, 
and feet of various racial types, 15 hair 
samples of various races; 618 photo- 
graphs of racial types. 

Collected by J. Eric Thompson, leader 
of Third Marshall Field Archaeological 
Expedition to British Honduras: 371 
objects — 60 pottery vessels, 5 pottery 
figurines, 150 flints and obsidians, 35 
shell, pumice, and coral objects, 30 
jades, 13 bone objects, 10 stone objects, 
60 miscellaneous objects, 8 ethnological 
objects — British Honduras and Guate- 

Purchases: 1 flint spearhead — Vis- 
ingo Island, Sweden, from Victor B. 
Lindgren, collector (Fund for Hall of 
Prehistoric Man); 1,528 objects— 1,000 
Solutrean flints, 10 pieces of worked 
bone, 18 pierced teeth and art objects, 
500 animal bones — France, from Mu- 
seum at Paray-le-Monial. 

Field, Stanley, Chicago: 23 bronze 
figures, busts and heads of racial types 

Fitch, Mrs. Margaret S., Chicago: 

1 piece of barkcloth, 1 dipper, 2 ladles, 
and 1 broom — Batonga, Portuguese 
East Africa (gift). 

Herskovitz, Dr. Melville J., 
Evanston, Illinois: 1 specimen of white 
edible clay — Dahomey, Africa (gift). 

Hurley, Jorge, Bel6m-Para, Brazil: 

2 stone axes and 2 feather head-bands — 
Gurupy, Pard, Brazil (exchange). 

Johnston, L. K., Knox, Indiana: 1 
prehistoric stone ax, 1 scraper, 3 arrow- 
heads — Northern Indiana (gift). 

Jones, Robert B., Chicago: 1 
grooved stone ax, 10 flint spearheads — 
Ridgeville, Indiana (gift). 

Knoblock, Byron, La Grange, Illi- 
nois: 1 quartzite point of Folsom type — 
Wisconsin; 4 flint points, fragments of 
Indian skeleton — Kimmswick, Missouri; 
human skull and lower jaw — Pike 
County, Illinois (gift); 75 objects — 23 
prehistoric stone implements — Den- 
mark; 8 discoidals, 4 celts, 4 problem- 

atical stone objects, 1 bird stone, 
1 plummet, 14 gorgets, 1 hematite ax, 
1 stone tube, 6 stone pipes, 2 pottery 
pipes, 1 decorated shell, 9 French trade 
glass beads — Mississippi Valley (ex- 

Long, Linus, Chicago: 2 ceremonial 
jade axes, Sung and K'ien-lung periods 
—China (gift). 

Mollison, Professor T., Munich, 
Germany: 49 objects — 10 casts of pre- 
historic human and anthropoid bones, 
3 fragments of human skeleton, 36 
racial hair samples; 110 enlarged photo- 
graphs of racial types (exchange). 

Museum of the Uni\'ersity of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia: 54 speci- 
mens of prehistoric pottery — Marajo 
and other islands at mouth of Amazon, 
Brazil; 1 iron pyrite mirror — -Guatemala 

Parmelee, Mrs. William B., Chi- 
cago: 3 paper carps used at boy's 
festival — Japan (gift). 

Petrie, Professor Sir Flinders, 
London, England: 2 hair samples from 
Egyptian mummies of Roman period — • 
Egypt (gift). 

Pope, Dr. Arthur U., New York: 
1 decorated bronze plaque (fragment) — 
Luristan, Persia (gift). 

Reed, James Britton and 
Lawrence Britton, Woodstock, Illi- 
nois: 24 prehistoric flint arrowheads 
and spearheads — Indian camp site on 
Clarion River, Pennsylvania (gift). 

Reid, John T., Lovelock, Arkansas: 
1 metate with grinder^Paiute, Hum- 
boldt Lake, Pershing County, Nevada 

Roberts, Mrs. J. W., Oswego, Illi- 
nois: 1 fragmentary Indian female 
skeleton— Oswego, Illinois (gift). 

Scott, A. B., Chicago: 1 prehistoric 
stone ear plug — White River, Arkansas 

Sellers, Professor Ovid R., Chi- 
cago: 1 lower mandible of member of 
Equidae from a reservoir of Hellenistic 
period (5th-3rd century B.C.) — Beth- 
Zur, Palestine (gift). 

Starr, Mrs. Merritt, Winnetka, 
Illinois: 1 papoose cradle, 3 umbilical 
cord charms, 2 sheaths for knives, 1 
awl case — Kiowa tribe, Oklahoma; 1 
bow and 3 arrows — China (gift). 

192 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Swift, Charles H., Chicago: 1 
beaded buckskin vest, 1 beaded belt — 
Menominee and Dakota Indians, United 
States (gift). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 136 archaeological 
objects, chiefly bone, ivory, wooden im- 
plements, and pottery — Eskimo, Alaska 

Vernon, David, Chicago: 19 objects 
— prehistoric ornamental stones and 
pottery pipe — Wisconsin, Illinois, Ken- 
tucky, Iowa, Tennessee, Michigan, and 
Georgia (exchange). 

Von Drasek, Frank, Cicero, Illinois: 
68 prehistoric arrowheads — Magnet 
Cove, Arkansas (gift). 

Walker, Dr. James W., Chicago: 1 
knife with sheath — Mandingo, West 
Africa (gift), 

Watelin, L. C, Paris, France: 26 
flint implements of Campignian period 
— Dordogne, France (gift). 

Wicker, Miss Carolyn, Chicago: 1 
nest of boxes — Japan; 1 pair of flutes — 
hill tribes of Darjeeling, India; 12 post 
cards representing natives of Borneo — 
Japan, India, and Borneo (gift). 

Woodbury, Edmond I., Burlington, 
Iowa: 3 caps, 3 bags, 1 body belt, 1 
pair of gloves, and 2 dolls, all of wool 
— Aymara and Quechua, Peru (gift). 

Zimmer, John, Chicago: 1 prehistoric 
stone pounder — Illinois (gift). 


Abbott Laboratories, Chicago: 1 
specimen of plant from Texas (gift). 

Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 2 speci- 
mens of plants (gift). 

American Writing Paper Company, 
Holyoke, Massachusetts: 5 specimens 
showing steps in paper manufacture 


Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, 
Massachusetts: 387 specimens of plants 

Arthur, Dr. J. C, Lafayette, In- 
diana: 1 specimen of plant from Texas 

Bacon, R. S., Company, Chicago: 10 
veneered panels of foreign woods, 1 
board Maidhu crotch (gift). 

Bailey, Mrs. Dana K., Aripine, 
Arizona: 1 specimen of plant from 
Arizona (gift). 

Bailey, J. W., Laurel, Mississippi: 
4 trunk slabs, 1 wheel section, and 2 
boards of sycamore (gift). 

Bailey, Dr. L. H., Ithaca, New 
York: 250 plant specimens (gift). 

Bebb, Herbert, Chicago: 1 plant 
specimen (gift). 

Benke, Hermann C, Chicago: 11 
specimens of plants (gift). 

Berst-Forster-Dixfield Company, 
Cloquet, Minnesota: 1 trunk, 1 wheel 
section, and 2 boards of paper birch 

Bishop Museum, Bernice P., Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii: 1 plant specimen from the 
Galapagos Islands (gift). 

Bond, Ralph A., Chicago: 1 board 
of ipil (gift). 

Botanic Garden and Museum, 
Berlin-Dahlem, Germany: 261 speci- 
mens of plants, 90 tracings (exchange). 

Bravo H., Miss Helia, Chapultepec, 
Mexico: 2 plant specimens (gift). 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brook- 
lyn, New York: 12 plant specimens, 1 
packet of seeds (exchange). 

Cabrera, Professor Angel L., La 
Plata, Argentina: 5 specimens of plants 

Cain, Professor Stanley A., Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana: 37 specimens of 
plants (gift). 

C alder on. Dr. Salvador, San Sal- 
vador, Salvador: 63 specimens of plants 


California Academy of Sciences, 
San Francisco: 17 specimens of plants 
from the Galapagos Islands (exchange) ; 

3 plant specimens (gift). 

Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D.C.: 275 plant specimens 

Clarkson, Mrs. Ralph, Chicago: 

4 specimens of plants (gift). 

Clemens, Mrs. Joseph, Kew, Surrey, 
England: 1 tracing of plant (gift). 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


CoMPANHiA Ford Industrial do 
Brasil, Pard, Brazil: 228 plant speci- 
mens from Brazil (gift). 

Conservatoire et Jardin Botani- 
QUE, Geneva, Switzerland: 79 speci- 
mens of South American plants (ex- 

Conservator of Forests, Belize, 
British Honduras: 62 wood samples 

CORTI, GiULio AND FiLLO, Signa, 
Italy: 15 samples of hats and hat- 
making materials (gift). 

Cox, F. NOTTER, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Crews, Ira D., Tulsa, Oklahoma: 
1 log section, 1 wheel section, and 2 
boards of Osage orange (gift). 

Davidson, Mrs. S. B., San Francisco, 
California: 1 specimen of acorn from 
Panama (gift). 

Deam, C. C, Bluffton, Indiana: 6 
specimens of Indiana plants (gift). 

Deltox Rug Company, Oshkosh, 
Wisconsin: 3 specimens of sedge mats, 
twine, and plants (gift). 

Dudley Herbarium, Stanford Uni- 
versity, California: 412 specimens of 
plants (exchange). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 
Collected by Dr. B. E. Dahlgren 
(Marshall Field Botanical Expedition 
to the Amazon, 1929): 2 specimens of 
Copernicia baskets from Brazil. 

Collected by Dr. Ralph Linton 
(Marshall Field Expedition to Mada- 
gascar) : 8 specimens of raffia mats. 

Rockefeller Foundation Fund for 
Photographing Type Specimens: 8,925 
negatives of type specimens of the 
Berlin, Munich, and Geneva herbaria. 

Transferred from the Division of 
Photography : 5,669 photographic prints. 

Purchases: 200 specimens of Chilean 
plants, collected by K. Behn; 115 speci- 
mens of plants from Trinidad, collected 
by W. E. Broadway; 100 specimens of 
Patagonian plants, collected by Dr. 
Arturo Donat; 81 specimens of plants 
collected in Venezuela by W. Gehriger; 
100 specimens of Chilean plants, col- 
lected by Hugo Gunckel; 55 specimens 
of plants collected in Uruguay by Dr. 
Guillermo Herter; 520 specimens of 
plants collected in western United 

States by C. L. Hitchcock; 964 speci- 
mens of plants collected in Paraguay 
by Pedro Jorgensen; 496 specimens of 
plants collected in Peru and Colombia 
by G. Klug; 200 specimens of Brazilian 
plants, collected by Dr. Bento Pickel; 
95 specimens of Venezuelan plants, 
collected by Jos6 Saer; 311 specimens 
of Brazilian ferns, collected by J. P. 
Schmalz; 145 specimens of plants col- 
lected in the Dominican Republic by 
E. J. Valeur; 311 specimens of Rubia- 
ceae, chiefly from Europe and Africa; 
70 photographic prints of types of Aegi- 
phila; 13 economic specimens. 

Fisher, George L., Ho;:iston, Texas: 
221 specimens of plants from Texas and 
New Mexico (gift). 

Flores, Dr. Roman S., Progreso, 
Yucatan: 9 specimens of plants, 3 
photographic prints, 1 wood specimen 

Florida-Louisiana Red Cypress 
Company, Jacksonville, Florida: 2 
"knees" of southern cypress (gift). 

Fox, Allott M., Iron Mountain, 
Michigan: 1 board of sugar maple, 1 
trunk of tamarack (gift). 

Frank, S. H., Redwood City, Cali- 
fornia: 1 specimen of tanbark (gift). 

Fritz, Professor Emanuel, Berke- 
ley, California: 6 boards and 4 cones 
of sugar pine, 1 board of Monterey 
cypress, 1 board of eucalyptus (gift). 

Garfield Park Conservatory, Chi- 
cago: 1 specimen of bamboo (gift). 

Garrett, Professor A. 0., Salt Lake 
City, Utah: 48 specimens of plants (gift). 

Gillett Saffron Company, Chicago: 
1 specimen saffron (gift). 

Grams, Willlui F. C, Des Plaines, 
Illinois: 1 plant specimen, 2 packets of 
seeds (gift). 

Gray Herbarium of Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Massachusetts: 
789 specimens of plants (exchange). 

Great Southern Lumber Company, 
Bogalusa, Louisiana: 2 boards of long- 
leaf pine (gift). 

Gronemann, Carl F., Elgin, Illinois: 
5 plant specimens (gift). 

Haisler Brothers Company, Chi- 
cago: 8 specimens of brush and broom 
material (gift). 

194 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Harper, Dr. R. M., Tallahassee, 
Florida: 8 specimens of plants (gift). 

Hart, Mrs. Edward S., Hartford, 
Connecticut: 2 specimens of plants 

Hellmayr, Dr. C. E., Chicago: 26 
specimens of orchids (gift). 

Hercules Powder CoMPA^nr, Wil- 
mington, Delaware: 1 sample of abietic 
acid (gift). 

Herrera, Professor Fortunato L., 
Cuzco, Peru: 33 specimens of Peruvian 
plants (gift). 

Heywood -Wakefield Company 
(branch), Chicago: 1 chair seat (gift). 

Heywood -Wakefield Company 
(home office), Gardner, Massachusetts: 
1 chair seat (gift). 

Hines, Edward, Lumber Company, 
Burns, Oregon: 2 boards of western 
larch (gift). 

Hoffmann, Ralph, Santa Barbara, 
California: 105 specimens of California 
plants (gift). 

Imperial Broom Company, Chicago: 
4 specimens of broom materials (gift). 

International Harvester Com- 
pany, Chicago: 5 samples of manila 
and sisal fiber (gift). 

International Paper Company, 
New York: 10 specimens of Brazilian 
pulpwoods (gift). 

Italian Chamber of Commerce, 
Chicago: straw hat material. 

Jardin Botanique Principal, Len- 
ingrad, U.S.S.R.: 105 specimens of 
plants from Mexico and Guatemala 

Just, Dr. Th., Notre Dame, Indiana: 
1 specimen of Indiana plant (gift). 

Kalamazoo Vegetable Parchment 
Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan: 5 
specimens of paper-making material 

Karling, J. S., New York: 3 speci- 
mens of plants from British Honduras 

Keith Lumber Company, Chicago: 
1 board of sycamore (gift). 

King, W. O., Lumber Company, 
Chicago: 2 boards of sugar maple (gift). 

KuTTNAUER AND Franke, Chicago: 
7 tobacco samples (gift). 

Lang, Herbert, Pretoria, South 
Africa: 40 photographic prints (gift). 

Lankester, C. H., Cartago, Costa 
Rica: 81 plant specimens from Costa 
Rica (gift). 

Laufer, Mrs. Berthold, Chicago: 
1 basket (gift). 

Macbride, J. Francis, Chicago: 8 
specimens of plants from Switzerland 

McCurrach, James, Evanston, Illi- 
nois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Marshall Field and Company, 
Chicago: 7 specimens of fiber rugs and 
matting, 2 specimens of hat material 

Mexia, Mrs. Ynes, San Francisco, 
California: 81 specimens of plants from 
Brazil and Mexico (gift). 

Meyer, John H., and Son, Chicago: 
20 tobacco samples (gift). 

Meyer, William C, New York: 
147 specimens of British Honduras 
plants (gift). 

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. 
Louis, Missouri: 1,987 specimens of 
plants from southwestern United States 

MoLDENKE, Harold N., New York: 
4 photographic prints, 3 descriptions of 
plants from Flora Fluminensis (gift). 

Monarch Leather Company, Chi- 
cago: 4 leather samples (gift). 

National Herbarium of Victoria, 
South Yarra, Australia: 50 specimens 
of Australian plants (exchange). 

Neils, J., Lumber Company, Libby, 
Montana: 7 wood specimens (gift). 

New York Botanical Garden, 
Bronx Park, New York: 249 photo- 
graphic prints, 2 plant specimens (ex- 

NiEUWLAND, Rev. J. A., Notre Dame, 
Indiana: 1 specimen of orchid from 
Michigan (gift). 

Ortega, JesIjs Gonzalez, Mazatlan, 
Mexico: 200 specimens of Sinaloa plants 

OsTERHOUT, George E., Windsor, 
Colorado: 2 specimens of Colorado 
plants (gift). 

Palm, Professor Bjorn, Urbana, 
Illinois: 28 plant specimens (gift). 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Phillips, D. O., Little Rock, Ar- 
kansas: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

PoRsiLD, Dr. Morten P., Disko, 
Greenland: 365 specimens of plants 
from Greenland (exchange). 

Probst, Dr. R., Langendorf, Swit- 
zerland: 48 specimens of adventive 
plants from Switzerland (gift). 

Raedlein Basket Company, Chi- 
cago: 1 specimen of basketry material 

Ram!rez, Professor Antonio, Cha- 
pultepec, Mexico: 1 specimen of Mexi- 
can plant (gift). 

Rhoades, William, Indianapolis, 
Indiana: 89 plant specimens (exchange). 

Richmond Cedar Company, Rich- 
mond, Virginia: 1 trunk and 2 boards 
of southern white cedar (gift). 

Riksmuseets Botaniska Afdel- 
NING, Stockholm, Sweden: 1,336 speci- 
mens of plants (exchange). 

RozYNSKi, H. W. VON, Jaumave, 
Mexico: 135 specimens of Mexican 
plants (gift). 

Salas, Jorge GarcIa, Guatemala 
City, Guatemala: 41 specimens of plants 
from Guatemala (gift). 

SCHipp, Willl^m a., Belize, British 
Honduras: 155 specimens of plants from 
Honduras (gift). 

Schoble, Frank, and Company, 
New York: 28 samples of hats and hat- 
making materials (gift). 

Seattle Cedar Lumber Manufac- 
turing Company, Seattle, Washington: 
4 trunks, 1 wheel section, and 2 boards 
of western red cedar (gift). 

Serraru Frritas Dias e Compan- 
HlA, Belem, Pard, Brazil: 3 wood speci- 
mens (gift). 

Shambow Shuttle Company, Woon- 
socket, Rhode Island: 1 shuttle of per- 
simmon wood, 1 shuttle of dogwood 

Sherff, Dr. Earl E., Chicago: 15 
plant specimens (gift). 

Smith, J. H., Veneers, Inc., Chicago: 
116 veneered panels of foreign woods 

Spence, Howard, Southport, Eng- 
land: 3 wood specimens (gift). 

Standley, Paul C, Chicago: 17 
specimens of Indiana plants (gift). 

Stetson, John B., Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania: 13 samples of 
hate and hat-making materials (gift). 

Stevens, Professor O. A., State 
College Station, Fargo, North Dakota: 
2 specimens of North Dakota plante 

Steyermark, Julian A., St. Louis, 
Missouri: 1 plant specimen from Texas 


Torres R., Professor Ruben, Car- 
tage, Costa Rica: 1 plant specimen 
from Costa Rica (gift). 

United States Department op 
Agriculture, Bureau of Plant In- 
dustry, Washington, D.C.: 1 specimen 
of cotton bolls (gift). 

United States Department of 
Agriculture, Office of Systematic 
Agrostology, Washington, D.C.: 289 
specimens of grasses (exchange). 

United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: 1,063 specimens of 
plante, 500 photographic printe of 
plants (exchange). 

Universal Film Exchange, Inc., 
Chicago: 1 specimen of moving picture 
film (gift). 

Universitetets Botaniske Mu- 
seum, Copenhagen, Denmark: 83 plant 
specimens from Mexico and Central 
America (exchange). 

University of California, Depart- 
ment OF Botany, Berkeley, California: 
854 specimens of plante (exchange). 

University of California at Los 
Angeles, Department of Botany, Los 
Angeles, California: 599 specimens of 
plants (exchange). 

University of Chicago, Depart- 
ment OF Botany, Chicago: 353 speci- 
mens of plante (gift). 

University op Michigan, Depart- 
ment OP Botany, Ann Arbor, Michigan : 
1,098 specimens of plante from Mexico 
and Simiatra (exchange). 

University of Washington, De- 
partment OP Botany, Seattle, Wash- 
ington: 102 specimens of plante from 
Alaska (gift). 

Van Cleep, Paul, Chicago: 1 trunk 
of a rubber tree, 1 sample of rubber 

196 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Williams, I. T., and Sons, New 
York: 8 specimens of mahogany and 
teak (gift). 

Williams, R. O., Port-of-Spain, 
Trinidad: 2 specimens of Trinidad 
plants (gift). 

Williamson Veneer Company, Bal- 
timore, Maryland: 2 boards of Santa 
Maria (gift). 

Wilson, Professor C. L., Hanover, 
New Hampshire: 135 specimens of 
Barro Colorado Island plants (gift). 

WiTTE Memorial Museum, San An- 
tonio, Texas: 54 specimens of Texas 
plants (gift). 

WORTHINGTON, Dr. Harry C, Oak 
Forest, Illinois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

Yale University, School of Fores- 
try, New Haven, Connecticut: 83 speci- 
mens of plants, 30 photographic prints 
(gift); 121 wood specimens (exchange). 

Zaphirio, a., and Company, Chicago: 
7 tobacco samples (gift). 

Zetek, James, Balboa, Canal Zone, 
Panama: 928 specimens of plants from 
Barro Colorado Island (gift). 

Zimmerman, H. E., Mt. Morris, Illi- 
nois: 1 plant specimen (gift). 

ZiNGG, Robert M., Chicago: 41 
specimens of plants from Chihuahua 


Aldrich, Jack, Oak Park, Illinois: 
1 specimen fossil coral — Delavan, Wis- 
consin (gift). 

American Gem and Pearl Com- 
pany, New York: Cluster of amazonite 
crystals — Virginia (gift). 

American Museum of Natural 
History, New York: 5 photographs 

Barnes, R. M., Lacon, Illinois: 
Marcasite concretion — Lacon, Illinois 

Berghoefer, Rev. Frederick J., 
Chicago: 3 specimens gas-bearing sand 
— Lake Forest, Illinois (gift). 

BiANCHi, Joseph, Paterson, New 
Jersey: 4 specimens minerals — New 
Jersey (exchange). 

BiGANE, John, and Sons, Chicago: 
3 specimens fossil plants — Nanticoke, 
Pennsylvania (gift). 

Blaschke, Frederick, Cold Spring- 
on-Hudson, New York: Model of the 
horse "Man o' War" (gift). 

Boreman, K. S., Chicago: 1 specimen 
halite — Washington County, Utah 

British Museum (Natural His- 
tory), London, England: 3 specimens 
Cambrian trilobites— Wales (exchange). 

Chalmers, William J., Chicago: 2 
silver bricks — Colorado and Montana; 
group of crystallized cuprite — Bisbee, 
Arizona; 8 specimens crystallized min- 
erals — Maine and New Mexico; 1 vari- 
colored tourmaline— Madagascar (gift). 

Chait, Ralph M., New York: 2 
specimens chalcedony geodes — Uruguay 

Clinton, H. G., Manhattan, Nevada: 
21 specimens minerals — Manhattan, 
Nevada (exchange). 

Comer, Joseph, Rose Lawn, Indiana: 
Lower jaw of fossil beaver — Mount Ayr, 
Indiana (gift). 

Coram, George M., Utica, New 
York: 1 specimen "box crystal" — Port 
Leyden, New York (gift). 

Crane, Richard T., Jr., Chicago: 1 
cut ruby topaz — Brazil; 1 polished 
black opal — Australia (gift). 

Curtis, Theodore H., Chicago: 
2 specimens sand-lime concretions — 
Adams County, South Dakota (gift). 

Davis, Harry T., Raleigh, North 
Carolina: Etched fragment of Randolph 
County meteorite — North Carolina 

Dingeldein, Karl, New York: 1 
specimen carved amazonite — Amelia 
Court House, Virginia (exchange). 

Eggers, Herman C, Hamburg, Ger- 
many: 5 photographs illustrating desert 
phenomena — Chile (gift). 

Eifrig, C. W. G., River Forest, 
Illinois: Bones of fossil vertebrates — 
Cumberland, Maryland (exchange). 

Ehrmann, Martin L., New York: 
Large carved fluorite vase — Cumber- 
land, England (gift). 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Faber, E. B., Grand Junction, Colo- 
rado: 2 specimens fossil pelecypods, 
4 specimens fossil gastropods, fossil 
amblypod jaw — Grand Junction, Colo- 
rado (gift). 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 16 specimens 
rock types — Inverness, Scotland (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History: 
Collected by Dr. O. C. Farrington: 67 
specimens minerals — Maine. 

Collected by the Marshall F^eld 
Paleontological Expedition to Argentina 
and Bolivia, 1923-27: Chalcedony 
geode — Patagonia; 28 skulls and skele- 
tons of South American fossil mammals 
and birds — Argentina and Bolivia. 

Collected by the Marshall Field 
Paleontological Expedition to Nebraska: 
48 specimens vertebrate fossils — Ne- 

Collected by the Rawson-MacMillan- 
Field Museum Subarctic Expedition of 
1927-28: 23 specimens invertebrate 
fossils — Labrador. 

Collected by various expeditions: 14 
skulls and other bones of modern 

Purchases: 1 iron meteorite — Breece, 
New Mexico; section of Newport mete- 
orite — Newport, Arkansas; septarium 
of hematite — Vandalia, Missouri; set 
of gases of the atmosphere; 20 species 
of Middle Miocene fossil leaves and 
flowers — Harney County, Oregon; horn 
of fossil bison — Gage, Oklahoma; 2 
skulls and other skeletal parts of Pro- 
titanotherium — Vernal, Utah; partial 
skeleton of fossil crocodile — Vernal, 
Utah; mounted head of Portheus — 
Hays, Kansas; 2 natural casts of dino- 
saur tracks — Grand Junction, Colorado; 
6 specimens invertebrate fossils— Bun- 
denbach, Germany. 

Fisher, G. L., Houston, Texas: 1 
photograph of lava beds — Carrizozo, 
New Mexico (gift). 

Freeport Sulphur Company, Free- 
port, Texas: 4 specimens sulphur, 
4 charts — Freeport, Texas (gift). 

Friesser, Julius, Chicago: 1 skull 
of American bison — Iowa; 1 skull of 
black rhinoceros — Florida (gift). 

General Biological Supply House, 
Chicago: 1 specimen modern squid — 
Florida (gift). 

Gibbons, Patrick, Lewiston, Idaho: 
Photograph of opal — Idaho (gift). 

Gloski, Joseph A., Brentwood 
Heights, California: 269 specimens 
agate— California (gift). 

Graham, Ernest R., Chicago: 28 
mural paintings (gift). 

Green, Morris M., Ardmore, Penn- 
sylvania: Fossil shark's tooth — near 
Charleston, South Carolina; fossil pelec- 
ypod — Columbus, Mississippi (gift). 

Hawkes, J. K., Kansas City, Mis- 
souri: 5 specimens transparent gypsum 
— Barton County, Oklahoma (gift). 

John, E. W., Clear Lake, Utah: 7 
specimens fossil invertebrates — Utah 

Jones, A. C, Cicero, Illinois: 1 group 
of fossil brachiopods — Mayville, Wis- 
consin; 1 specimen aragonite — Colorado 


Jones, Robert B., Chicago: 15 speci- 
mens minerals, 3 specimens inverte- 
brate fossils — Various localities (gift). 

Kaempfer, Anton C. G., Bridgeport, 
Nebraska: Right mandible and sym- 
physis of Trilophodon — Bridgeport, Ne- 
braska (gift). 

Lechler, E. Fred, Chicago: 1 speci- 
men sandstone with intersecting veins — 
Wisconsin (gift). 

Letl, Frank; Letl, Paul; Mason, 
Miss Nan ; Patterson, Bryan, Chicago : 
26 specimens fossil plants and insects, 
1 specimen septarium — Braidwood, 
Illinois (gift). 

LiNNEMAN, Joseph P., Buffalo, New 
York: 1 specimen galena and calcite — 
Nevada; 1 specimen wad — Ottawa, 
Canada (gift); 13 specimens minerals — 
Various localities (exchange). 

LiPMAN, Robert R., Chicago: Cluster 
of calcite crystals — Gunnison County, 
Colorado (gift). 

Los Angeles Museum of History, 
Science, and Art, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia: 1 skeleton each of fossil horse, 
bison, sloth and carnivore — Los Angeles, 
California (exchange). 

Mariner and Hoskins, Chicago: 1 
specimen magnetite, apatite and calcite 
— Wilberforce, Ontario (gift). 

Mueller, E. A., Chicago: 127 speci- 
mens fulgurites — Saugatuck, Michigan; 
174 specimens fulgurites, 1 photograph 
— Ableman, Wisconsin (gift). 

198 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol, IX 

MuHR, Roy, Redington, Nebraska: 
Cranium of Trilophodon — Bridgeport, 
Nebraska (gift). 

MusfiB Royal d'Histoire Nat- 
URELLE DE Belgique, Brussels, Bel- 
gium: Skull and jaws of Rhinoceros 
tichorhinus — Malines, Belgium (ex- 

Neville, Russell T., Kewanee, Illi- 
nois: Photograph of stalagmite on wood 
—Sullivan, Missouri; 10 photographs 
of cave formations — Various localities 

New York Zoological Society, 
New York: 1 photograph of Asiatic 
horse (gift). 

NiNiNGER, H. H., Denver, Colorado: 
Etched section of the Tacubaya meteor- 
ite— Tacubaya, Mexico (exchange); 
section and cast of Brule meteorite — 
Brule, Nebraska (exchange and pur- 

Noble, Stuart D., Minneapolis, 
Minnesota: 9 specimens cut gems — 
Brazil and Australia (exchange). 

Palm, John, Lakeside, Michigan: 1 
specimen bog iron ore — Rolling Prairie, 
Indiana (gift). 

Phillips, D. L., Little Rock, Ar- 
kansas: 10 specimens fossil resin, 7 
specimens lignite impregnated with 
resin — near Gifford, Arkansas (gift). 

Pitts, William B., Sunnyvale, Cali- 
fornia: 2 polished specimens of oolite 
and jasper — California; 3 rock and 
mineral specimens — Nevada (gift). 

PouGH, Frederick H., St. Louis, 
Missouri: 1 specimen volborthite — 
Stanton, Missouri (gift). 

Ranezeel, Walter Anthony, Los 
Angeles, California: 4 photographs of 
rock pillars produced by erosion — Death 
Valley, California (gift). 

Reid, John T., Lovelock, Nevada: 
2 specimens mercury and antimony 
ores, 1 specimen dendrite, 8 specimens 
concretions, 1 specimen fossil moUusk — 
Nevada (gift). 

Sellers, Gilbert, Chicago: Iron- 
stone concretion — Avon, Illinois (gift). 

Sinclair, Willum J., Princeton, 
New Jersey: Photograph of restoration 
of Eohippus (gift). 

Stauffer Chemical Company of 
Texas, Freeport, Texas: 3 specimens 
sulphur — Freeport, Texas (gift). 

Steward, W. G., Salida, Colorado: 
10 specimens minerals — Colorado (gift). 

Swank, Richard C, Chicago: 1 speci- 
men clay concretion — Kansas (gift). 

Sweet, S. R., Bridgeport, Nebraska: 
7 specimens skulls and jaws of fossil 
vertebrates — Bridgeport, Nebraska 

Trickett, O., North Sydney, New 
South Wales: Map of Jenolan caves — 
Aiistralia (gift). 

Von Drasek, Frank, Cicero, Illinois; 
100 specimens minerals and rocks, 5 
specimens cut quartz, 9 photographs 
illustrating diamond mining — Arkansas 
(gift); 6 specimens quartz — Arkansas 

Walker, Mrs. C. B., Sioux Falls, 
South Dakota: 29 photographs — Al- 
berta, Canada (gift). 

Walther, Herbert C, Chicago: 26 
specimens rare metals (gift). 

Ward's Natural Science Estab- 
lishment, Rochester, New York: Pol- 
ished section with crust of Adams 
County meteorite — Colorado (exchange 
and purchase). 

Wendler, C, Geneva, Switzerland: 
Mass with crust of Olmedilla stone 
meteorite — Olmedilla de Alarcon, Spain 


Western Borax Company, Ltd., Los 
Angeles, California: 1 specimen borax 
ore — Kramer, California (gift). 

Williams, C. S., Chicago: 1 fossil 
crinoid — Mission Creek, Illinois (gift). 


Abbott, Thomas R., Peiping, China: 
35 crickets — China (gift). 

Albrecht, C. J., Homewood, Illinois: 
1 house cricket — Illinois (gift). 

Absolon, Dr. Karl, Brunn, Czecho- Andersson, Lieutenant K. S., 
Slovakia: 2 cave salamanders — Czecho- Canal Zone, Panama: 2 snakes, 2 
Slovakia (gift). lizards, 2 bats — Panama (gift). 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Baker, J. S., Charlevoix, Michigan: 
1 walking stick — Michigan (gift). 

Baum, James E., Jr., Lake Forest, 
Illinois: 4 Persian goats, 2 wild asses — 
Persia (gift). 

Benesh, Bernard, North Chicago. 
Illinois: 103 beetles — United States. 
Brazil, and Germany (gift). 

Bennitt, Professor Rudolph, Co- 
Iximbia, Missouri: 1 Fowler's toad — 
Cole County, Missouri (gift). 

Berek, Frank J., Chicago: 1 rattle- 
snake — Wheeling, Illinois (gift). 

BiRKS, Thomas K., Chicago: 2 snakes 
— Okee, Wisconsin (gift). 

Boehm, 0. W., Chicago: 4 ichneu- 
mon flies — Indianapolis, Indiana (gift). 

Brander, a. a. Dunbar, Elgin, 
Scotland: 2 mounted birds, 17 birdskins 
— England (gift). 

British Museum (Natural His- 
tory), London, England: 108 mammal 
skins and skulls — Asia, Africa, Aus- 
tralia, South America (exchange). 

Burt, Dr. Charles E., Winfield, 

Kansas: 1 gecko — Garagoa, Colombia; 

17 salamanders, 104 frogs and toads, 

. 13 lizards, 8 snakes — Texas; 14 frogs 

p and toads, 10 lizards, 6 snakes — Various 

localities (gift). 

Carsley, Harold, Waukegan, Illi- 
nois: 4 beetles — Beach, Illinois (gift). 

Chen, Dr. K. K., Indianapolis, 
Indiana: 5 Japanese toads — Tokyo, 
Japan (gift). 

Cincinnati Society of Natural 
History, Cincinnati, Ohio: 39 sala- 
manders — North Carolina and Tennes- 
see (exchange); 2 salamanders — Grand- 
father's Mountain, North Carolina 

Clark, P. B., San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia: 12 Alaskan blackfish — Bristol 
Bay District, Alaska (gift). 

Clow, Harry, Plainfield, Illinois: 1 
tiger salamander — Illinois (gift). 


Boulder, Colorado: 2 shells — New Cale- 
donia; 1 lot scale insects — Manila, 
Philippine Islands (gift). 

Cole, R. V., Blan chard, Louisiana: 
1 beetle — Blanchard, Louisiana (gift). 

Conover, H. B., Chicago: 3 doves — 
Costa Rica and Panama (gift) ; 70 bird- 
skins — Ecuador (exchange); 6 ducks — 
Marshall County, Illinois (gift) ; 6 quail 
— Sonora, Mexico (exchange) ; 1 Canada 
goose — Currituck Sound, North Caro- 
lina (gift) ; 2 hawks — Mosquerula, Spain; 
102 birdskins — Various localities (ex- 

Cronican, Mrs. W. P., Homewood, 
Illinois: 1 fox snake — Illinois (gift). 

Daniel, Mrs. Nora, Kuttawa, Ken- 
tucky: 1 horned corydalis — Kentucky 

Davis, D. Dwight, Naperville, Illi- 
nois: 13 mammals, 28 frogs and toads, 
1 turtle, 4 snakes — Houston County, 
Minnesota; 1 Franklin ground squirrel, 
1 snake— Naperville, Illinois (gift). 

Davis, T. Gunning, Chicago: 1 
squirrel monkey — Paraguay (gift). 

EiGSTi, E. W., Matteson, Illinois: 1 
cicada — Illinois (gift). 

Erwin, Richard P., Boise City, 
Idaho: 7 bugs, 1 beetle — Idaho (gift). 

Everard, R. H., Anisha, Africa: 
1 scaly anteater — Tanganyika Terri- 
tory, Africa (gift). 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 1 chiton — 
California; 4 scorpions, 6 jointed spiders 
— Rutba Post, Irak (gift). 

Field, Marshall, New York: 4 lions 
— Africa (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 
Collected by C. J. Albrecht (Harold 
White- John Coats Abyssinian Expedi- 
tion of Field Museum) : 12 ants — Gelata 
River, Abyssinia. 

Collected by George G. Carey, Jr., and 
George F. Ryan (Carey-Ryan Expedi- 
tion to Indo-China): 3 mammal skins 
and skulls, 1 box accessories — Indo- 

Collected by Philip M. Chancellor 
(Chancellor-Field Museum Expedition 
to Aitutaki Island): 1 gecko, 210 fishes, 
148 lower invertebrates — Aitutaki Is- 
land, Cook Archipelago. 

Collected by Daniel Clark: 284 ticks 
— Various localities. 

Collected by C. Suydam Cutting, Her- 
bert Stevens, V. S. La Personne (C. Suy- 
dam Cutting Sikkim Expedition): 465 
mammal skins and skulls, 1,379 birds, 
6 frogs, 59 lizards, 39 snakes, 23 fishes, 
1 scorpion — Sikkim, Darjeeling, Bengal, 

200 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Collected by Henry Field (Third 
Marshall Field Archaeological Expedi- 
tion to Europe) : 1 beaver skull. 

Collected by W. D. Hambly (Fred- 
erick H. Rawson-Field Museum Eth- 
nological Expedition to West Africa): 
4 mammal skins without skulls, 2 in- 
sects — Angola, Africa. 

Collected by Dr. A. W. Herre (Crane 
Pacific Expedition of Field Museum): 
3,850 fishes — Canal Zone and Pacific 

Collected by Ashley Hine (Field Mu- 
seum Ornithological Expedition to Cali- 
fornia): 177 birds, 1 bird's nest — Cali- 

Collected by John Moyer: 3 birds — 
Pistakee Bay, Illinois. 

Collected by John Moyer and W. A. 
Weber: 11 birds — Sparland, Illinois. 

Collected by Bryan Patterson (Mar- 
shall Field Paleontological Expedition 
to Nebraska): 144 insects — Nebraska. 

Collected by Colin C. Sanborn (Mar- 
shall Field Brazilian Expedition): 15 
shells — Matto Grosso, Brazil. 

Collected by Arthur S. Vernay, 
Herbert Lang, and Allan Chapman 
(Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition) : 
185 mammal skins and skulls, 12 large 
mammal skeletons — Angola and Kala- 
hari Desert, Africa. 

Collected by Harold A. White and 
John Coats (Harold White-John Coats 
Central African Expedition): 25 mam- 
mal skins — Kenya Colony, Africa. 

Purchases: 39 small mammal skins 
and skulls, 9 native mammal skins, 1 
crane- — Northwestern Rhodesia, Africa; 
6 frogs, 25 lizards, 10 snakes, 3 turtles, 
2 scorpions, 3 insects — Kleinzee, South 
Africa; 3 Goliath frogs, 2 haired frogs — 
Cameroons, West Africa; 7 weasel skins 
and skulls — Point Barrow, Alaska; 22 
small mammal skins and skulls — Tucu- 
man, Argentina; 23 rodent skins and 
skulls — Western Argentina; 3 birds — 
Huachuca Mountains, Arizona; 1 mar- 
supial anteater skin and skeleton, 1 
rodent, 6 mammal embryos, 30 frogs, 
94 lizards, 7 snakes, 2 turtles — West 
Australia; 1 cave salamander — Austria; 
248 birds — Goyaz, Brazil; 5 ratfish— 
Pacific Grove, California; 7 birds — 
Drahgumna, China; 56 mammal skins 
and skulls, 293 birds — Fukien, China; 
19 frogs and toads, 23 lizards — Choco 
District, Colombia; 122 mammal skins 
and skulls — Costa Rica; 10 salamanders 

— Italy and Roumania; 6 cusk eels — 
Pass a L'Outre, Louisiana; 17 fishes — 
Gulf of Mexico; 2 European glass 
snakes, 2 European pond turtles — 
Dalmatia, Austria; 1 salamander, 2 
tree frogs, 1 snake — Biloxi, Mississippi; 
2 snakes — Atlas Mountains, Morocco; 
1 wildcat skin and skeleton — Inverness, 
Scotland; 1 tawny owl (mounted), 37 
birds — Teruel, Spain; 2 mouse-hare 
skins and skulls, 2 yellow-throated 
martens— Tibet; 6 salamander and 
snake reproductions. 

FiKAR, Charles, Cicero, Illinois: 1 
mud puppy — Fox River, Illinois (gift). 

Franzen, a. J., Chicago: 1 prairie 
horned lark — Orland, Illinois; 1 garter 
snake — Peotone, Illinois; 17 insects — 
Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin (gift). 

Franzen, A. J. and Laybourne, E. 
G., Chicago: 12 salamanders, 3 fishes — 
Turkey Run, Indiana (gift). 

Friesser, Julius, Chicago: 2 sphinx 
moths — Chicago (gift). 

Frintz, Ralph, Homewood, Illinois: 
1 tiger salamander — Homewood, Illi- 
nois (gift). 

FuRNESS, Viscount, Invernesshire, 
Scotland: 2 Scotch red deer — Invernes- 
shire, Scotland (gift). 

General Biological Supply House, 
Chicago: 1 pocket gopher skin without 
skull — San Jose, Illinois; 1 salamander 
— Georgia; 1 nurse shark egg — Key 
West, Florida; 1 scarlet king snake — 
Florida; 1 brown bat — Dubuque, Iowa; 
6 frogs — Minnesota; 2 crayfish frogs^ 
Louisiana; 2 salamanders, 2 frogs, 2 
lizards, 1 snake — Brazil; 12 guppies — 
St. Croix, Virgin Islands; 1 lizard, 1 
California salamander, 1 western hog- 
nosed snake — Various localities (gift). 

Gerhard, W. J., Chicago: 71 insects 
— Colorado and Illinois (gift). 

Grant, Major Chapman, San Juan, 
Porto Rico: 21 frogs — Porto Rico (gift). 

Grant, C. P., Chicago: 1 red fox 
skull — Wilmington, Illinois (gift). 

Guthrie, Dr. Mary J., Columbia, 
Missouri: 16 bats — Rocheport, Missouri 

Harris, William P., Grosse Pointe 
Park, Michigan: 10 mammals — Various 
localities (exchange). 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Hebard, Morgan, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania: 34 grasshoppers — south- 
western United States and Mexico (ex- 

Hellmayr, Dr. and Mrs. C. E., 
Chicago: 226 insects — Bavaria and 
Switzerland (gift). 

Henderson, Dr. William F., Chi- 
cago: 21 butterflies — Selma, Alabama 

Hess, Mrs. William H., Madison, 
Wisconsin: 1 weaverbird's nest — India 

Hine, Ashley, Chicago: 1 sooty 
shearwater — California (exchange); 10 
bird-lice — Chicago (gift). 

HIXON, G. C, Chicago: 2 rnuskalonge 
heads — Sayner, Wisconsin (gift). 

Hoffman, C. Von, New York: 1 ant 
thrush — Formosa (gift). 

Holmes, Mrs. Maude, Chicago: 1 
introduced green roach — Chicago (gift). 

Hull, C. M., Oak Park, Illinois: 15 
fly larvae (gift). 

Jordan, Dr. Karl, Tring, Herts, 
England: 50 mammal skins with 49 
skulls — Europe and Africa (gift). 

Kuschel, R., Chicago: 1 ichneumon 
fly — Chicago (gift). 

Laybourne, Edgar G., Homewood, 
Illinois: 1 13-lined ground squirrel — 
Manitowoc, Wisconsin; 2 red-backed 
salamanders, 2 garter snakes — Michigan 
and Wisconsin (gift). 

Letl, Frank H., Chicago: 3 ribbon 
snakes — Sublette, Illinois; 1 Blanding's 
turtle — Orland Park, Illinois; 1 mole 
cricket — Palos Park, Illinois (gift). 

Lewis, Charles, Elmwood Park, 
Illinois: 1 house centipede — Illinois 

Lincoln Park Commission, Chicago: 
1 lion skull (gift). 

Lind, G. W., Chicago: 2 camel 
crickets — Chicago (gift). 

Liljeblad, Emil, Chicago: 402 in- 
sects — Illinois, Idaho and Washington 

LowRiE, D. C, Chicago: 345 sala- 
manders — Great Smoky Mountains, 
Tennessee (gift). 

McGovERN, Dr. William M., 
Evanston, Illinois: 1 monkey without 
skull, 4 birds — Rio Negro, Brazil (gift). 

MooNEY, J. J., Deerfield, Illinois: 
8 frogs — Illinois (gift). 

Moore, H. G., Peoria, Illinois: 1 rail 
skeleton — Tristan da Cunha Island 

Moyer, John, Chicago: 20 insects — 
Illinois and Wisconsin (gift). 

Museitm of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: 2 coney 
skins and skulls — Tanganyika Territory 
(exchange); 7 salamanders, 3 frogs, 6 
lizards, 3 snakes, 4 turtles, 1 caiman, 
1 African crocodile — Various localities 
(exchange); 198 sea urchins — Europe 
and North America (gift). 

Necker, Walter L., Chicago: 28 
salamanders, 4 toads, 2 tree frogs — 
Sevier County, Tennessee (gift). 

Neville, Russell T., Kewanee, Illi- 
nois: 2 spotted salamanders — Leasburg, 
Missouri (gift). 

O'Brien, William, Chicago: 15 ticks 
— Rainy River, Ontario (gift). 

O'Connor, Albert, Chicago: 1 king- 
fisher — Chicago (gift). 

Park, Dr. Orlando, Champaign, 
Illinois: 13 beetles — Ohio, New Mexico 
and Washington (gift). 

Patterson, Bryan, Chicago: 154 in- 
sects — Meadville, Nebraska (gift). 

Patterson, James, Plainfield, Illi- 
nois: 1 swamp tree frog — Will County, 
Illinois (gift). 

Pearsall, Gordon S., Batavia, Illi- 
nois: 1 screech owl — Batavia, Illinois; 
1 tiger salamander, 7 snakes, 4 beetles — 
Michigan (gift). 

Plath, Karl, Chicago: 1 green lizard 
— Dalmatia, Austria (gift). 

Platt, Frederick C, Santiago, 
Chile: 4 rodent skins and skulls, 16 
birds — Santiago, Chile (exchange). 

Potter, F. C, Chicago: 1 leech, 1 
dragon fly — Minnesota (gift), 

PsoTA, Dr. Frank J., Chicago: 6 
damsel flies — Mindanao, Philippine Is- 
lands; 3 scorpions, 1 mantis — Laredo, 
Texas (gift). 

Reed, Mrs. C. J., Oak Park, Illinois: 
1 yellow-bellied flycatcher — Oak Park, 
Illinois (gift). 

Romano, William, Chicago: 7 in- 
sects — Osage City, Missouri (gift). 

202 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Sanborn, Colin C, Highland Park, 
Illinois: 18 snakes — Braeside, Illinois; 
18 mammals, 4 birds, 1 salamander, 4 
frogs, 2 snakes — Missouri (gift). 

Sasko, V. S., Chicago: 3 beetles— Sul- 
phur Springs, Utah (gift). 

Schmidt, F. J. W., Madison, Wiscon- 
sin: 1 flying squirrel, 1 prairie mole, 2 
fox snakes, 1 painted turtle — Wisconsin 

Schmidt, John M., Homewood, Illi- 
nois: 9 snakes, 1 soft-shelled turtle — 
Wisconsin (gift). 

Schmidt, Karl P., Homewood, Illi- 
nois: 1 red-backed salamander, 11 
northern skinks — Wisconsin; 1 frog — 
Porto Rico (gift). 

SCHNEIRLA, Dr. T. C, New York: 
244 ants — North America (exchange). 

Senckenberg Museum, Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, Germany: 1 limbless lizard 
— West Madagascar (exchange). 

Seton, Mrs. Grace Thompson, 
Greenwich, Connecticut: 54 bats, 3 
tailless whip-scorpions — Philippine Is- 
lands (gift). 

Shedd, John G., Aquarium, Chicago: 
1 Florida manatee — Florida; 9 turtles — 
White River, Arkansas; 4 electric eels — 
South America; 1 tree frog, 1 geographic 
turtle, 1 marine iguana, 72 fishes — 
Various localities; 15 crustaceans — 
Arkansas (gift). 

Smith, Hobart M., Manhattan, 
Kansas: 15 lizards— Oklahoma, Texas 
and New Mexico (gift). 

Stephen, John L., Chicago: 1 grass- 
hopper — Florida (gift). 

Stevens, George M., Marcella, 
Arkansas: 1 giant snapping turtle — 
White River, Arkansas (gift). 

SviHLA, Dr. Arthur, Pullman, Wash- 
ington: 4 rodent skins and skulls — 
Whitman County, Washington (ex- 

Swank, R. C, Chicago: 1 hornet's 
nest — Saginaw, Missouri (gift). 

Todd, J. D., Chicago: 2 spiders, 1 
sphinx moth — Chicago (gift). 

University of Oklahoma, Norman, 
Oklahoma: 1 salamander, 4 toads, 6 
frogs, 7 snakes, 11 turtles — Oklahoma 
and Colorado (exchange). 

Walters, Leon L., Chicago: 3 snakes 
— North Dakota; 4 ticks — Komodo Is- 
land, Dutch East Indies (gift). 

Walters, Captain R. J., Miami, 
Florida: 2 fishes — Florida (gift). 

Wasson, Theron, Chicago: 1 bird- 
skin — Ecuador (gift). 

Weber, Walter A., Evanston, Illi- 
nois: 10 mammal skins and skulls — 
Nebraska and Canada (exchange); 2 
birds — Babcock, Wisconsin; 1 sala- 
mander, 25 frogs and toads, 1 lizard, 5 
snakes — Montana and British Columbia 

Weed, Alfred C, Chicago: 7 snakes 
— Chicago (gift). 

White, Captain Harold A., New 
York: 33 negatives of antelopes (gift). 

Whitson, T. M., Park Ridge, Illinois: 
1 green snake — Illinois (gift). 

Windsor, A, S., Chicago: 48 sala- 
manders, 2 snakes — Tennessee (gift). 

WoLCOTT, A. B., Downers Grove, 
Illinois: 1 spider, 46 insects — Illinois 

Wonder, Frank C, Chicago: 1 red 
bat — Chicago; 3 mammal skulls, 3 
mammal skeletons, 15 mammal skins 
and skulls — North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee; 18 salamanders — North Caro- 
lina (gift). 

Wurmbrand, Count Degenhard, 
Vienna, Austria: 1 mounted capercaillie 
— Austria (gift). 

Wright, C. Irving, Pirates' Cove 
Fishing Camp, Florida: 1 large tarpon 
—Florida (gift). 

Wright, Thurston, Birmingham, 
Alabama: 1 pine warbler — Alabama 

ZiNGG, Robert M., Chicago: 28 
mammal skins and skulls, 26 birds, 3 
frogs and toads, 42 lizards, 15 snakes — 
Chihuahua, Mexico (gift). 


Atlas Cement Company, Chicago, 
Illinois: 2 motion picture reels. From 
Mountain to Cement Sack (gift). 

Field, Mrs. Marshall, New York: 
2,300 feet of 16 mm. film on Africa 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the DreECTOR 


Field, Henry, Chicago, Illinois: 80 
Near East stereopticon slides (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History : 
From Division of Photography: 208 
stereopticon slides for extension lectures; 

14 negatives for extension lectures; 33 
prints for files. 

White, Captain Harold A., New 
York: 2 reels and 2 negatives of African 
Animals (gift). 


Auckland Institute and Museum, 
Auckland, New Zealand: 9 photographs 
of Maori types (exchange). 

Dickson, Dr. Don F., Lewistown, 
Illinois: 6 photographs of Dickson 
Mound burials (gift). 

Field, Henry, Chicago: 9 portraits 
and group pictures of natives — Kish, 
Irak (gift). 

Field Museum of Natural History: 
Made by Division of Photography: 
25,284 prints, 3,210 negatives, 401 

stereopticon slides, 244 enlargements 
and 21 transparent labels. 

Developed for expeditions: 207 nega- 

Made by Dr. Paul S. Martin: 100 
negatives of Lowry ruin, Colorado. 

Made by J. Eric Thompson: 223 
negatives of natives and general views 
in Guatemala and British Honduras. 

Purchases: 30 photographs of types 
of Australian aborigines, from Captain 
Kilroy Harris; 130 negatives of natives 
of central and eastern Europe, from 
the Anthropological Institute, Vienna. 



(Accessions are by exchange, unless otherwise designated) 


Albany Museum, Grahamstown. 
Botanical Survey of South Africa, 
Durban Museum, Durban. 

East Africa and Uganda Natxiral 
History Society, Nairobi. 

Exploration Society of Egypt, Cairo. 

Geological Society, Johannesburg. 

Institut d'Egypte, Cairo. 

Ministry of Public Works, Cairo. 

Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein. 

Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg. 

Rhodesia Museum, Bulawayo. 

Royal Society of South Africa, Cape 

Scientific Association of Rhodesia, 

Society d'Histoire Naturelle de I'Af- 
rique du Nord, Algiers. 

Society de Geographie d' Alger, Algiers. 

Soci6t6 des Sciences Naturelles du 
Maroc, Rabat. 

South African Botanical Survey, 

South African Geological Survey, 

South African Museum, Cape Town. 

Station Oceanographique, Salammbo. 

Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. 

University of Stellenbosch, Stellen- 

University of Witwatersrand, Johan- 


Ministerio de Agricultura, Buenos 

Museo de La Plata, La Plata. 

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural 
"Bernardino Rivadavia," Buenos Aires. 

Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias 
Naturales, Buenos Aires. 

Sociedad Ornitologica del Plata, 
Buenos Aires. 

Sociedad Physis, Buenos Aires. 

Universidad Nacional, Buenos Aires. 

Universidad Nacional de Tucumdn, 

204 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 


Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Botanic Garden of Adelaide, Adelaide. 

Botanic Gardens and Government 
Domains, Sydney. 

Commonwealth of Australia, Mel- 

Council for Scientific and Industrial 
Research, Melbourne. 

Department of Agriculture, Adelaide. 
Department of Agriculture, Brisbane. 
Department of Agriculture, Hobart. 
Department of Agriculture, Perth. 
Department of Agriculture, Sydney. 
Department of Agriculture, Welling- 

Department of Fisheries, Sydney. 
Department of Mines, Brisbane. 
Department of Mines, Sydney. 
Field Naturalists' Club, Brisbane. 
Field Naturalists' Club, Melbourne. 
Forestry Commission, Sydney (gift). 
Geological Survey, Perth. 

Geological Survey of New South 
Wales, Sydney. 

Great Barrier Reef Committee, Bris- 
bane (gift). 

Linnean Society of New South Wales, 

Melbourne University, Melbourne. 

Ornithological Society of South Aus- 
tralia, Adelaide. 

Public Library, Museum and Art 
Gallery, Adelaide. 

Public Library, Museum and Art 
Gallery, Melbourne. 

Queensland State Forest Service, 
Brisbane (gift). 

Royal Geographical Society of Aus- 
tralasia, South Australian Branch, Ade- 

Royal Society of New South Wales, 

Royal Society of South Australia, 

Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart. 

Royal Society of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Royal Society of Western Australia, 

Royal Zoological and Acclimatization 
Society, Melbourne. 

Royal Zoological Society of New 
South Wales, Sydney. 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 
Technological Museum, Sydney. 


Akademie der Wissenschaften, 

Anthropos Administration, Vienna. 

Landesamt fiir Fremdenverkehr, 

Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Vereih fiir 
Steiermark, Graz. 

Universitat, Vienna. 

Verein der Freunde Asiatischer Kunst 
imd Kultur, Vienna. 

Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft, 

Zoologisches Institut, Graz. 


Acad^mie Royale des Sciences, Brus- 

Direction d'Agriculture, Brussels. 

Institut Botanique lAo Errera, Brus- 

Institut des Colonies, Brussels. 

Instituts Solvay, Brussels. 

Jardin Botanique de I'Etat, Brussels. 

Musee du Congo, Brussels. 

Musee Royale d'Histoire Naturelle de 
Belgique, Brussels. 

Musees Royaux du Cinquantenaire, 

Nederlandsch Phytopathologische 
(Plantenziekten) Vereenigen, Ghent. 

Office International pour la Protec- 
tion de la Nature, Brussels. 

Societe Beige de Geologie, Brussels. 

Societe de Botanique, Brussels. 

Societe Ornithologique Beige, Lou- 

Societe Royale d'Arch^ologie, Brus- 

Societe Royale des Sciences, Liege. 

Universite de Louvain, Louvain. 

Sarawak Museiun, Sarawak. 


Academia Brasileira de Sciencias, Rio 
de Janeiro. 

Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 

Instituto de Butantun, Sao Paulo. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Institute Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de 

Museo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 

Mxiseu Paulista, Sao Paulo. 

Secretaria de Agricultura, Comercio e 
Obras Publicas, Sao Paulo. 

Servigo Geologico e Mineralogico, Rio 
de Janeiro. 


Board of Agriculture, Georgetown. 


Department of Agriculture, Bridge- 
town, Barbados. 

Trinidad and Tobago Department of 
Agriculture, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 


Art, Historical and Scientific Associa- 
tion, Vancouver, British Columbia. 

Canadian Mining Journal, Garden- 
vale, Quebec (gift). 

Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, 

Department of Agriculture, Victoria, 
British Columbia. 

Department of Mines, Ottawa, On- 

Department of Mines, Toronto, On- 

Department of the Interior, Geolog- 
ical Survey, Ottawa, Ontario. 

Entomological Society of Ontario, 
Toronto, Ontario. 

McGill University, Montreal, Que- 

Museum of Zoology, Ottawa, On- 

National Museum, Ottawa, Ontario. 

Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 
Sciences, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia. 

Provincial Museum, Regina, Sas- 

Provincial Museum, Toronto, On- 

Provincial Museum, Victoria, British 

Royal Canadian Institute, Toronto, 

Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa, 

Soci6t6 de G^ographie, Quebec, Que- 

University de Montreal, Montreal, 

Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec. 

University of Toronto, Toronto, On- 


Museo Nacional, San Jos6, Costa 


Colombo Museum, Colombo. 
Department of Agriculture, Colombo. 


Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 

Museo Historico Nacional de Chile, 

Museo Nacional, Santiago. 

Revista de Bibliografia, Santiago. 

Sociedad de Biologia de Concepci6n, 


Botanical and Forestry Department, 
Hong Kong. 

Bureau of Entomology of Chekiang 
Province, Hangchow (gift). 

Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, 

Fukien Christian University, Foo- 

Geological Society, Peiping. 

Geological Survey, Peiping. 

Geological Survey of Kwangtung and 
Kwangsi, Canton. 

Hong Kong Naturalist, Hong Kong. 

Lingnan University, Canton. 

Metropolitan Museum of Natural 
History, Nanking. 

Nanking University, Nanking. 

National Library, Peiping. 

National Research Institute, Shang- 

Science Society of China, Shanghai. 

Society of Natural History, Peiping. 

Sun Yatsen University, College of 
Agriculture, Botanical Institute, Can- 

University of Nanking, Nanking. 

Yenching University, Peiping. 


Ministerio de Industrias, Bogota. 
Sociedad Colombiana de Ciencias 
Naturales, Bogota. 

206 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 


Academia Nacional de Artes y Letras, 


Academie Tcheque des Sciences, 

Deutscher Naturwissenschaftlich- 
Medizinischer Verein fiir Bohmen 
"Lotos," Prague. 

Karlova Universita, Prague. 

Narodniho Musea, Prague. 

Societas Entomologicae, Warsaw. 

Soci^te Royale des Sciences de 
Boh§me, Prague. 


Botaniske Have, Copenhagen. 

Danish Expedition to Arctic — Fifth 
Thule Expedition, Copenhagen. 

Dansk Botanisk Forening, Copen- 

Dansk Geologisk Forening, Copen- 

Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Co- 

Dansk Ornithologisk Forening, Co- 

Kommission for Videnskabelige Un- 
ders0gelser i Gr0nland, Copenhagen. 

Universitet-Zoologiske Museum, 


Academia Nacional de Historia, 


Botanic Gardens, Singapore. 

Department of Agriculture, Kuala 

Federated Malay States Museum. 
Kuala Lumpur. 

Malayan Agricultural Society, Kuala 

Raffles Museum, Singapore. 

Royal Asiatic Society, Malayan 
Branch, Singapore. 

Straits Settlements Botanic Garden, 

Department of Agriculture, Suva. 


Finska Fornminnesforeningen, Hel- 

Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 
Suomen Museo, Helsingfors. 


Academie des Sciences, Paris. 

Ecole d'Anthropologie, Paris. 

Mus6e Guimet, Paris. 

Mus^e d'Histoire Naturelle, Mar- 

Museum National d'Histoire Natu- 
relle, Paris. 

Nature, Paris. 

Salgues Museum, BrignoUes. 
Society Botanique de France, Paris. 
Soci6t6 Dauphinoise d'Ethnologie et 
d'Anthropologie, Grenoble. 

Society d' Agriculture, Sciences et 
Arts, Angers. 

Soci^te d'Histoire Naturelle d' Arden- 
nes, Ardennes. 

Society d'Histoire Naturelle, Tou- 

Soci6t6 de Geographic, Paris. 

Soci6t6 des Americanistes, Paris. 

Soci6t6 G6ologique du Nord, Lille. 

Societe Linn6enne, Bordeaux. 

Soci^te Nationale d'Acclimatation de 
France, Paris. 

Societe Nationale d' Horticulture de 
France, Paris. 

Societe Scientifique du Bourbonnals 
et du Centre de France, Moulins. 

Societe Zoologique de France, Paris. 
Universite de Montpellier, Montpel- 


Akademie der Wissenschaften, Hei- 

Akademie der Wissenschaften, Leip- 

Bayerische Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften, Munich. 

Bayerische Botanische Gesellschaft, 

Bayerische Ornithologische Gesell- 
schaft, Munich. 

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches 
Museum, Berlin. 

Botanischer Verein der Provlnz Bran- 
denburg, Berlin. 

Deutsche Dendrologische Gesell- 
schaft, Thyrow. 

Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft, 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Saugetier- 
kunde, Berlin. 

Deutsche Morgenlandische Gesell- 
schaft, Leipzig. 

Deutscher Seefischerei Verein, Berlin. 

Friedrich Wilhelms Universitat, Ber- 

Geographische Gesellschaft, Munich. 

Georg-August-Universitat, Gottin- 

Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde, Berlin. 

Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde, Leipzig. 

Gesellschaft Naturf orschender 
Freunde, Berlin. 

Gesellschaft zur Beforderung der 
gesamten Naturwissenschaften, Mar- 

Hamburgische Universitat, Hamburg. 

Hessische Geologische Landesanstalt, 

Hessische Ludwigs Universitat, Gies- 

Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut, Berlin. 

Museum fiir Mineralogie, Geologie 
und Vorgeschichte, Dresden. 

Museum fiir Tierkunde und Volker- 
kunde, Dresden. 

Mviseum fiir Volkerkunde, Berlin. 

Museum fiir Volkerkunde, Hamburg. 

Naturf orschende Gesellschaft, Frei- 

Naturf orschende Gesellschaft, Gorlitz. 

Naturhistorische Gesellschaft, Han- 

Naturhistorischer Verein der Preus- 
sischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, 

N aturwissenschaf tliche Gesellschaft, 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, Bre- 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, 
Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel. 

Preussische Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften, Berlin. 

Preussische Stadtsbibliothek, Berlin. 

Schlesische Gesellschaft fiir Vater- 
land, Breslau. 

Senckenbergische Naturf orschende 
Gesellschaft, Frankfort-on-the-Main. 

Universitats Bibliothek, Berlin. 

Universitats Bibliothek, Hamburg. 

Universitats Bibliothek, Heidelberg. 

Universitats Bibliothek, Marburg. 

Universitats Bibliothek, Tiibingen. 

Verein fiir Erdkunde, Leipzig. 

Verein fiir Vaterlandische Natur- 
kunde, Wiirttemberg. 

Verein fiir Volkskunde, Berlin. 

Verwaltung der Staat Sammlungen 
fiir Kunst und Wissenschaft, Dresden. 

Zoologisches Museum, Berlin. 

Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 

Ashmolean Natural History Society, 

Birmingham Natural History and 
Philosophical Society, Birmingham. 

Brighton and Hove Natural History 
and Philosophical Society, Brighton. 

Bristol Museum, Bristol. 

British Library of Political Science, 

British Museum, London. 

British Museum (Natural History), 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 

Cambridge Philosophical Society, 

Cambridge University, Cambridge. 

Dove Marine Laboratory, Culler- 

Fisheries Board, Edinburgh. 

Geological Society, Liverpool. 

Geological Survey of England and 
Wales, London. 

Geological Survey of Scotland, Edin- 

Geologists' Association, London. 

Hull Museum, Hull. 

Japan Society of London, London. 

Lancashire Sea Fisheries Laboratory, 

Leicester Museum, Art Gallery and 
Library, Leicester. 

Linnean Society, London. 

Liverpool Biological Society, Liver- 

Manchester Literary and Philosoph- 
ical Society, Manchester. 

Manchester Museum, Manchester. 

Marine Biological Association, Ply- 

Marine Biological Station, Liverpool. 

208 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

National Indian Association, London, 

National Library of Wales, Aber- 

National Museum of Wales, Cardiff. 

Natural History Society, Glasgow. 

Natural History Society of Nor- 
thumberland, Durham and Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Naturalists' Society, Cardiff. 

Oriental Ceramic Society, London 

Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, 

Royal Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain and Ireland, London. 

Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain 
and Ireland, London. 

Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

Royal Colonial Institute, London. 

Royal Geographical Society, London. 

Royal Horticultural Society, London. 

Royal Society, London. 

Royal Society of Arts, London. 

Royal Society of Edinburgh, Edin- 

School of Oriental Studies, London. 

Society of Antiquaries, Edinburgh. 

Society of Antiquaries, London. 

South London Entomological and 
Natural History Society, London. 

Southeastern Agricultural College, 

Speleological Society, Bristol. 

Tring Zoological Museum, Tring. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

Wellcome Research Laboratories, 

Zoological Society, London. 


Sociedad de Geografia e Historia, 


Magyar Termeszettudomanyi Tar- 
sulat, Budapest. 

Musee National e Hongrois, Buda- 


Anthropological Society, Bombay. 
Archaeological Department, Hydera- 

Archaeological Survey, Calcutta. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. 

Bihar and Orissa Research Society, 

Botanical Survey, Calcutta. 

Department of Agriculture, Bombay. 

Department of Agriculture, Madras. 

Geological, Mining and Metallurgical 
Society of India, Calcutta. 

Geological Survey, Calcutta. 

Government Museum, Madras. 

Imperial Institute of Agriculture, 

Indian Botanical Society, Calcutta. 

Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Mining and Geological Institute of 
India, Calcutta. 

Prince of Wales Museum of West 
India, Bombay. 

Ryojun College of Engineering, Ryo- 

University of Calcutta, Calcutta. 

Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 


Belfast Natural History and Philo- 
sophical Society, Belfast. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, Bel- 

National Museum, Dublin. 

Queen's University, Department of 
Botany, Belfast (gift). 

Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 

Royal Society, Dublin. 

Trinity College Library, Dublin. 

University of Dublin, Dublin. 


Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, 

R. Accademia delle Scienze, Naples. 

R. Accademia delle Scienze, Turin. 

R. Accademia d'ltalia, Rome. 

R. Accademia Nazionale del Lincei, 

R. Orto Botanico Giardino Coloniale, 

R. Scuola Superiore di Agricolturai 

R. Societa Geografica Italiana, Rome. 

Societa Botanica Italiana, Florence. 

Societa dei Naturalisti, Naples. 

Societa Italiana d'Antropologia e 
Etnologia, Florence. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Societa Italiana di Scienze Natural!, 

Societa Reale di Napoli, Naples. 

Societa Romana d'Antropologia, 

Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali, 

Universita, Genoa. 

Universita di Napoli, Museo Zoolo- 
gico, Naples. 


Biogeographical Society, Tokyo. 

Department of Agriculture of For- 
mosa, Taihoku. 

Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Natur- und 
Volkerkunde Ostasiens, Tokyo. 

Government Research Institute, Tai- 
hoku, Formosa. 

Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 

Hokkaido Imperial University, Sap- 

Imperial Academy of Tokyo, Tokyo. 

Imperial Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Nishigaha, Tokyo (gift). 

Imperial Geological Society, Tokyo. 

Imperial Geological Survey, Tokyo. 

Imperial Household Museums, Tokyo. 

Imperial University, Kyoto. 

Imperial University, Tokyo. 

Kyushu University, Fukuoka (gift). 

Miyazaki Imperial College of Agri- 
cultiu-e and Forestry, Miyazaki. 

Museum Work Promotion Associa- 
tion, Tokyo. 

National Research Council, Tokyo. 
Ornithological Society, Tokyo. 
Tohoku Imperial University, Sendai. 
Tokyo Botanical Society, Tokyo. 
Tottori Agricultural College, Tottori. 


Bataviaasch Genootschap en Recht- 
shoogeschool, Weltevreden. 

Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kun- 
sten en Wetenschappen, Batavia. 

Department of Agriculture, Buiten- 

Jardin Botanique, Weltevreden. 

Java Institute, Weltevreden. 

K. Natuurkundige Vereeniging in 
Nederlandsch-Indie, Weltevreden. 


Institute de Biologia, Mexico. 

Institute Geologico de Mexico, Mex- 

Museo Nacional de Arqueologfa, His- 
toria y Etnologla, Mexico. 

Secretaria de Educacion Publica, 

Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate," 

Sociedad Cooperativa Limitada Pro- 
cultura Regional, Mazatlan (gift). 

Sociedad de Antropologia y Etno- 
logla, Mexico. 

Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica, 

Sociedad Forestal de Mexico, Mexico. 


Koloniaal Instituut, Amsterdam. 

K. Instituut voor de Taal-Land-en 
Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indie, 
The Hague. 

K. Nederlandsch Aardrijkundig Gen- 
ootschap, Amsterdam. 

Landbouwhoogerschool, Wageningen. 

Nederlandsch Vogelkundigen Club, 

Nederlandsche Dierkunde Vereeni- 
ging, Helder. 

Nederlandsche Ornithologische Ver- 
eeniging, Utrecht. 

Nederlandsche Plantenziekten- 
kundige Vereeniging, Wageningen. 

Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, Lei- 

Rijks Geologisch-Mineralogisch Mu- 
seum, Leiden. 

Rijks Herbarium, Leiden. 

Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke His- 
torie, Leiden. 

Rijks Universiteit, Leiden. 


Auckland Institute and Museum, 

Canterbury Museum, Christchurch. 

Cawthron Institute, Nelson. 

Department of Agriculture, Welling- 

Department of Mines, Geological 
Survey, Wellington. 

New Zealand Institute, Wellington. 

Otago Museum, Dunedin. 

210 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Wanganxii Public Museum, Wanga- 


Bergen Museum, Bergen. 
Norges GeologiskeUnders0kelse, Oslo. 
Norges Svalbard og Ishavs Under- 
s0kelse, Oslo. 

Norsk Geologisk Forening, Oslo. 
Norsk Ornithologisk Forening, Oslo. 
Norske Geografiske Selskab, Oslo. 
Norske Videnskapsakademi, Oslo. 

Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, 

Tromso Museum, Tromso. 
Zoologiske Museum, Oslo. 


Institute of Agriculture and Natural 
History, Tel-Aviv. 

Institutum Historiae Naturalis, Jeru- 

Jewish National and University Li- 
brary, Jerusalem. 


Canal Zone Plant Introduction Gar- 
dens, Panama (gift). 


Archivo Nacional, Lima. 
Instituto Historico, Lima. 
Sociedad Geologica del Peru, Lima. 
Universidad, Cuzco. 


Academie Polonaise des Sciences et 
des Arts, Cracow. 

Musei Polonici Historiae Naturali, 

Musei Zoologici Polonici, Warsaw. 

Panstwowego Muzeum Archeolo- 
gicznego, Warsaw. 

Soci6te Botanique de Pologne, War- 

Uniwersytet Poznanski, Posen. 

Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warsaw. 


Academia das Sciencias, Lisbon. 
Instituto Superior de Commercio, 
Lisbon (gift). 

Soci^te Portuguaise des Sciences 
Naturelles, Lisbon. 

Universidade de Coimbra, Museu 
Zoologico, Coimbra. 


Jardin et Mus^e Botaniques, Cluj. 
Universite de Jassy, Jassy. 


Junta para Amplicacion de Estudios 
e Investigaciones Cientifiicas, Madrid. 
R. Academia de Ciencias, Madrid. 

Sociedad Espanola de Antropologia, 
Etnografia y Prehistoria, Madrid. 

Sociedad Espaiiola de Historia 
Natural, Madrid. 


Generalstabens Litografiska Anstalt, 

Goteborgs Botaniska Tradgrad, Gote- 

Goteborgs Museum, Goteborg. 
K. Biblioteket, Stockholm. 
K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, 

K. Universitet, Upsala. 

K. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Sam- 
halle, Goteborg. 

K. Vitterhets-, Historie- och Antik- 
vitetsakademien, Stockholm. 

Svenska Sellskapet for Antropologi 
och Geografi, Stockholm. 


Botanisches Museum, Zurich. 

Gesellschaft, Zurich. 

Kantonale Universitat, Bern. 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Basel. 

Naturf orschende Gesellschaft, Zurich. 

Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel. 

Schweizerische Entomologische 
Gesellschaft, Bern. 

Schweizerische Gesellschaft fiir Volks- 
kunde, Basel. 

Societe de Physique et d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Geneva. 

Soci6t6 Fribourgeoise des Sciences 
Naturelles, Fribourg. 

Societe Helv^tique des Sciences 
Naturelles, St. Gall. 

Societe Neuchateloise de Geographic, 

Soci6t6 Zoologique, Geneva. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 



Abhasian Scientific Society, Suchum. 

Academie des Sciences, Leningrad. 

Botanical Garden, Leningrad. 

Eesti Rahva Museum, Tartu. 

Institut des Recherches, Voronez. 

Institute for Plant Protection, Len- 

Institute of Applied Mineralogy and 
Petrography, Moscow. 

Soci6t6 des Naturalistes, Leningrad. 

Societe Russe de Geographie, Len- 

University de I'Asie Centrale, Tash- 


Instituto de Geologia y Perferaciones, 

Jardin Bot^nico, Montevideo (gift). 

Cultura Venezolana, Caracas. 



Arizona Museum, Phoenix. 
Arizona University, Tucson. 

State Geological Survey, Little Rock 


Balboa Park Museum, San Diego. 

California Academy of Sciences, San 

Cooper Ornithological Club, Holly- 

County Free Library, Los Angeles. 

Department of Agriculture, Sacra- 
mento (gift). 

Fish and Game Commission, Sacra- 

Henry E. Huntington Library and 
Art Gallery, San Marino (gift). 

Natural History Museum, San Diego. 

Pomona College, Claremont. 

Riverside Public Library, Riverside 

San Diego Zoological Society, San 

Santa Barbara Museum, Santa Bar- 

Scripps Institution of Biological Re- 
search, La Jolla. 

Society of Natural History, San 

Southern California Academy of 
Sciences, Los Angeles. 

Southwest Museum, Los Angeles. 

Stanford University, Stanford. 

State Mining Bureau, Sacramento. 

University of California, Berkeley. 

University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort 

Bureau of Mines, Denver. 

Colorado College, Colorado Springs. 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver. 

Denver Art Museum, Den vert (gift). 

Museum of Natural History, Denver. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, New 

American Oriental Society, New 

Children's Museum, Hartford (gift). 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, New Haven. 

Hartford Public Library, Hartford. 

Osborn Botanical Laboratory, New 

State Board of Fisheries and Game, 

State Geological and Natural History 
Survey, Hartford. 

Yale University, New Haven. 


State Geological Survey, Tallahassee. 
University of Florida, Gainesville. 

Geological Survey, Atlanta. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

212 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Bemice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 

Board of Commissioners, Honolulu. 

Hawaiian Entomological Society, 
Honolulu (gift). 

Hawaiian Historical Society, Hono- 

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association 
Experiment Station, Honolulu. 

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, 

University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 


Inspector of Mines, Boise. 
State Historical Society, Boise. 
University of Idaho, Moscow. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, Ur- 

Armour Institute, Chicago. 

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago. 

Avicultural Society of America, Chi- 

Board of Education, Chicago. 

Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chi- 

Chicago Association of Commerce, 
Chicago (gift). 

Chicago Public Library, Chicago. 

Chicago Zoological Society, Brook- 
field (gift). 

General Biological Supply House, 
Chicago (gift). 

Hardwood Record, Chicago (gift). 

Illinois Bell Telephone Company, 
Chicago (gift). 

Inland Printer, Chicago (gift). 

Izaak Walton League of America, 
Chicago (gift). 

John Crerar Library, Chicago. 

Lewis Institute, Chicago. 

Morton Arboretum, Lisle. 

Museum of Science and Industry, 

National College of Education, 
Evanston (gift). 

Newberry Library, Chicago. 

Northwestern University, Evanston. 

Open Court Publishing Company, 

State Geological Survey, Springfield, 

State Historical Library, Springfield. 

State Water Survey, Urbana. 
Union League Club, Chicago (gift). 
University of Chicago, Chicago. 
University of Illinois, Urbana. 
Wesleyan University, Bloomington. 


Academy of Sciences, Indianapolis. 

Butler University, Indianapolis. 

Indiana Department of Conservation, 

Indiana University, Bloomington. 

John Herron Art Institute, Indian- 

Purdue University, Lafayette. 

University of Notre Dame, Notre 


Historical, Memorial and Art Depart- 
ment, Des Moines. 

Iowa Academy of Science, Des 

Iowa Horticultural Society, Des 

University of Iowa, Iowa City. 


Academy of Science, Topeka. 
Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Manhattan (gift). 
State Board of Agriculture, Lawrence. 
State Historical Society, Topeka. 
University of Kansas, Lawrence. 

Williams Natural History Society, 



Department of Conservation, Baton 

Howard Memorial Library, New 

Louisiana State University, Baton 
Rouge (gift). 

Tulane University, New Orleans. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Bowdoin College, Brunswick. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 
Maryland Institute, Baltimore. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 



Agricultural Experiment Station, 

American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, Boston. 

American Antiquarian Society, 

Boston Public Library, Boston. 

Boston Society of Natural History, 

Children's Museum, Boston (gift). 

Clark University, Worcester. 

Essex Institute, Salem. 

Harvard College, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge. 

Harvard University, Arnold Arbore- 
tum, Jamaica Plain. 

Harvard University, Gray Herba- 
rium, Cambridge. 

Horticultural Society, Boston. 

Marine Biological Laboratory, 
Wood's Hole. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

New Bedford Public Library, New 

Peabody Museum, Cambridge. 

Springfield City Library Association, 

Williams College, Williamstown. 

Worcester County Horticultural 
Society, Worcester. 


Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, 
Ann Arbor. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Agricultural College. 

College of Mines, Houghton. 

Cranbrook Institute of Science, 
Bloomfield Hills (gift). 

Detroit Institute of Art, Detroit. 

Edward K. Warren Foundation, 
Three Oaks. 

Grand Rapids Public Library, Grand 

Michigan State Library, Lansing. 

State Board of Agriculture, Lansing. 

State Board of Library Commission, 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
University Farm. 

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minne- 

Minnesota Historical Society, St. 

University of Minnesota, St. Paul. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Agricultural College. 

Mississippi Plant Board, Agricultural 

State Geological Survey, Jackson 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

City Art Museum, St. Louis. 

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. 

Missouri Historical Society, Colum- 

St. Louis Public Library, St. Louis. 

St. Louis University, St. Louis. 

University of Missouri, Columbia. 

Washington University, St. Louis. 


State Bureau of Mines and Geology, 
Butte (gift). 

State University, Missoula. 


Omaha Public Library, Omaha. 
State University, Lincoln. 


Nevada University, Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, Carson City. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Drew University, Madison (gift). 

Newark Museums Association, New- 

Newark Public Library, Newark. 

Princeton University, Princeton. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Santa Fe. 

American School of Prehistoric Re- 
search, Santa Fe. 

Historical Society, Santa Fe. 

New Mexico Museum, Santa Fe. 

214 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

American Academy of Rome, New 

American Geographical Society, New 

American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York. 

American Polish Chamber of Com- 
merce, New York (gift). 

Amtorg Trading Corporation, New 
York (gift). 

Bingham Oceanographic Collection, 
New York (gift). 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences, Brooklyn. 

Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 

Colgate and Company, New York 

College Art Association, New York 

Columbia University, New York. 

Cornell University, Ithaca. 

Drug Markets, New York (gift). 

Eastman Kodak Company, Roches- 
ter (gift). 

Garden Club of America, New York 

General Society of Mechanics and 
Tradesmen, New York (gift). 

Institute of International Education, 
New York (gift). 

Japan Society, New York. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 

Municipal Museum, Rochester. 

New York Botanical Garden, New 

New York Historical Society, New 

New York State Library, Albany. 

New York University, New York. 

Oil and Fat Industries, New York 

Pratt Institute, New York. 

Public Library, Brooklyn. 

Public Library, New York. 

Rochester Academy of Science, 

Roerich Museum-Himalayan 
Research Institute, New York. 

Soap, New York (gift). 

South Manchuria Railway Company, 
New York (gift). 

Spice Mill, New York (gift). 

State College of Forestry, Syracuse. 

State Museum, Albany. 

Staten Island Institute of Arts and 
Sciences, New York. 

Stone Publishing Company, New 
York (gift). 

Syracuse University, Syracuse. g 

Taylor Instrument Companies, 
Rochester (gift). 

Tompkins-Kiel Marble Company, 
New York (gift). „ 

Union College, Schenectady (gift). * 
United Fruit Company, New York 
(gift). I 

Vassar College, Poughkeepsie. 1 

Yonkers Museum of Science and Art, 
Yonkers (gift). 

Zoological Society, New York. 

Department of Agriculture, 

Department of Conservation and 
Industry, Raleigh (gift). 

Duke University, Durham. 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 
Chapel Hill. 


State Historical Society, Bismarck. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

American Chemical Society, Colum- 

Cincinnati Museums Association, 

Cincinnati Public Library, Cincin- 

Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleve- 

Cleveland Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Cleveland. 

Cleveland Public Library, Cleveland. 

Denison University, Granville. 

General Electric Company, Cleve- 
land (gift). 

Geological Survey, Columbus (gift). 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Junior Society of Natural Sciences, 
Cincinnati (gift). 
Lloyd Library, Cincinnati. 
Oberlin College, Oberlin. 

Ohio Archaeological and Historical 
Society, Columbus. 

Ohio State Museum, Columbus. 
Ohio State University, Columbus. 
Proctor and Gamble Company, Cin- 
cinnati (gift). 
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati. 

Western Reserve University, Cleve- 
land (gift). 
Wilson Ornithological Club, Oberlin. 


Oklahoma Academy of Sciences, Nor- 

Oklahoma Geological Survey, Nor- 

Oklahoma Historical Society, Okla- 
homa City (gift). 
University of Oklahoma, Norman. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
University of Oregon, Eugene. 


Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 

American Philosophical Society, 

Antivenin Institute of America, Phila- 

Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh. 

Commercial Museum, Philadelphia. 

Department of Agriculture, Harris- 

Department of Forests and Waters, 

Dropsie College, Philadelphia. 

Engineers' Society of Western Penn- 
sylvania, Pittsburgh. 

Erie Public Museum, Erie. 

Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. 

Lehigh University, South Bethlehem. 

Library Company of Philadelphia, 

Pennsylvania Museum and School of 
Industrial Art, Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 

Sullivant Moss Society, Pittsburgh. 

Topographical and Geological Survey, 
Harrisburg (gift). 

University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 

University of Pennsylvania, Museum, 

Wagner Free Institute of Science, 

Wyoming Historical and Geological 
Society, Wilkes-Barre. 


Bureau of Education, Manila. 

Bureau of Science, Manila. 

Department of Agriculture and Nat- 
ural Resources, Manila. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Rio Piedras. 

Department of Agriculture of Porto 
Rico, San Juan. 


Roger Williams Park Museum, Prov- 

Charleston Museum, Charleston. 


Black Hills Engineer, Rapid City 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Geological Survey, Nashville. 

Tennessee Academy of Science, Nash- 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 
College Station. 

Baylor University, Waco. 

Houston Museum and Scientific 
Society, Houston. 

Museum Association, San Antonio 
University of Texas, Austin. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

216 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 


State Library, Richmond. 
Virginia Geological Survey, Char- 

WASHINGTON (State of): 

Mountaineer Club, Seattle. 

Puget Sound Biological Station, 

Washington State College, Pullman. 

Washington University, Seattle. 

Washington University, Historical 
Society, Seattle. 


American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. 

American Association of Miiseums. 

American Mining Congress. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 

Catholic Anthropological Conference. 

Legacion de Guatemala. 

Library of Congress. 

National Academy of Science. 

National Geographic Society (gift). 
National Parks Bulletin. 
National Research Council. 
Pan-American Union. 
Science Service. 
Smithsonian Institution. 
Tropical Plant Research Foundation. 
United States Government. 
United States National Miiseum. 


State Department of Agriculture, 

West Virginia University, Morgan- 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Beloit College, Beloit. 

Logan Museum, Beloit. 

Public Museum of Milwaukee, Mil- 

State Horticultural Society, Madison. 

University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

Wisconsin Academy of Arts, Sciences 
and Letters, Madison. 

Wisconsin Archaeological Society, 


(Accessions are by gift unless otherwise designated) 

Ackert, James E., Manhattan, Kan- 

Adams, Charles C, Albany, New 
York (exchange). 

Allen, Glover M., Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts (exchange). 

Ames, Oakes, Cambridge, Massachu- 

Arthur, J. C, Lafayette, Indiana 

Baerg, W. J., Fayetteville, Arkansas. 

Barnes, R. Magoon, Lacon, Illinois. 

Baschmakoff, Alexandre, Paris, 

Beaux, Oscar de, Geneva, Switzer- 
land (exchange). 

Blanchard, Frank N., Ann Arbor, 
Michigan (exchange). 

Brandstetter, Renward, Lucerne, 
Switzerland (exchange). 

Browning, William, Brooklyn, New 

Bychowska, Marta, Warsaw, Poland. 

Carpenter, E. M., Cambridge, Massa- 

Castellanos, Alfredo, Buenos Aires, 

Cockerell, T. D. A., Boulder, Colorado 

Collinge, Walter E., York, England 

Colon, E. D., San Juan, Porto Rico. 

Colyer, Sir Frank, London, England. 

Cook, Harold J., Agate, Colorado. 

Cook, Melville T., Rio Piedra, Porto 
Rico (exchange). 

Coolidge, Harold J., Jr., Cambridge, 

Cornell, Margaret, Chicago. 

Darlington, Henry Townsend, Lan- 
sing, Michigan. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


De Sushko, Alexander, Chicago. 

Domin, Karel, Prague, Czechoslo- 
vakia (exchange). 

Du Mont, Philip A., Des Moines, 

Eggleton, Frank E., Ann Arbor, 

Farwell, Oliver A., Detroit, Michigan. 

Fernald, M. L., Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts (exchange). 

Field, Henry, Chicago. 

Field, Stanley, Chicago. 

Fontana, Mario A., Montevideo, 

Friedlander and Son, Berlin, Ger- 

Fryxell, Fritiof M., Moline, Illinois. 

Gainey, P. L., St. Louis, Missouri. 

Garay, N., Panama. 

Gates, Frank C, Manhattan, Kansas. 

Gee, N. Gist, Shanghai, China (ex- 

Geiser, S. W., Dallas, Texas. 

Gerhard, William J., Chicago. 

Goldman, E. A., Washington, D.C. 

Gordon, Myron, Ithaca, New York. 

Gregg, Clifford C, Park Ridge, Illi- 

Gregory, William K., New York (ex- 

Grinnell, Joseph, Berkeley, California 

Gusinde, Martin, Vienna, Austria. 

Haenisch, Erich, Leipzig, Germany. 

Hawley, Florence M., Tucson, Ari- 

Heck, Lutz, Berlin, Germany (ex- 

Hendry, G. W., Berkeley, California. 

Hicken, C. M., Buenos Aires, Argen- 
tina (exchange). 

Hickman, Jennings R., Ann Arbor, 

Hubbs, Carl L., Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Hurley, Jorge, Belem-Para, Brazil 

Jijon y Caamano, J., Quito, Ecuador. 
Judd, Neil M., Washington, D.C. 
Kelley, Harper, Paris, France. 

Kempf, E. J., Wading River, New 

Kidder, Alfred Vincent, Andover, 

Knowlton, Clarence Hinckley, Boston, 

Kosaka, Hirosi, Fukuoka, Japan. 

Krafft, C. F., Washington, D.C. 

Krajewski, Franciszck, Warsaw, Po- 

Krenner, Josef, Budapest, Hungary. 

Kurvabara, Yojiro, Matsue, Japan. 

Langdon, Stephen, Oxford, England. 

Laufer, Berthold, Chicago. 

Lehmann, E., Giessen, Germany. 

Leon, Hermano, Havana, Cuba. 

Leung, George Kin, Shanghai, China. 

Levy-Bruhl, Lucien, Paris, France 

Lewis, A. B., Chicago. 

Lindblom, K. G., Stockholm. 

Lindsey, Arthur W., Granville, Ohio. 

Lonnberg, Einar, Stockholm, Sweden 

Loo, C. T., Chicago. 

Looser, G., Santiago, Chile. 

Lowe, Charles W., Ottawa, Canada. 

Lowe, Percy, London, England (ex- 

Mcintosh, Arthur C, Rapid City, 
South Dakota. 

McNair, James B., Chicago. 

Maisch, Karl, Lima, Peru. 

Meek, Alexander, Durham, England. 

Mertens, Robert, Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, Germany. 

Meylan, O., Geneva, Switzerland. 

Moir, J. Reid, Ipswich, England. 

Moorehead, Warren, Andover, Massa- 
chusetts (exchange). 

Mori, Kinjiro, Tokyo, Japan. 

Miiller, Lorenz, Munich, Germany 

Neugebauer, Kazimierz, Warsaw, Po- 

Neumayer, — , Vienna, Austria. 

Noguera, Eduardo, Mexico, Mexico. 

Olson, Ronald L., New York. 

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, New York 

Osgood, Wilfred H., Chicago. 

Outes, Felix F., Buenos Aires, Argen- 

Peters, James L., Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts (exchange). 

218 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Pittier, Henry, Caracas, Venezuela 

Poole, Earl L., Reading, Pennsyl- 

Psota, Frank J., Chicago. 
Rawleigh, W. T., Freeport, Illinois. 
Robinson, Benjamin L., Cambridge, 
Massachusetts (exchange). 

Rosch, Siegfried, Leipzig, Germany 

Sanborn, Colin C, Highland Park, 

Sarkar, Benoy Kumar, Calcutta, 

Satterthwaite, A. F., Washington, 

Scheumann, K. H., Leipzig, Germany. 

Schmidt, Johannes, Copenhagen, 

Schmidt, Karl P., Chicago. 

Schneirla, T. C, New York. 

Schoute, J. C, Groningen, Holland. 

Schiiz, Ernst, Dresden, Germany. 

Sheldon, J. M. Arms, Deerfield, Massa- 

Shelford, Victor E., Champaign, Illi- 
nois (exchange). 

Sherff, Earl E., Chicago. 

Shoemaker, Henry W., Altoona, 

Silverman, Alexander, Pittsburgh, 

Simms, Stephen C, Chicago, 

Snelleman, J. F., The Hague, Holland. 

Spencer, L. J., London, England (ex- 

Standley, Paul C, Chicago. 

Starr, Frederick, Seattle, Washington 

Stearns, Harold T., Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Stefanski, Elizabeth, Chicago. 

Sternberg, C. M., Hays, Kansas. 

Strand, Embrik, Riga, U.S.S.R. 

Sunamoto Shoten, F., Osaka, Japan. 

Svihla, Arthur, Pullman, Washington. 

Svihla, Ruth, Pullman, Washington. 

Taylor, Griffith, Chicago. 

Thompson, J. Eric, Chicago. 

Townsend, M. T., Bloomington, Illi- 
Underdown, C. E., Chicago. 

Van den Brink, F. H., Utrecht, Hol- 
Walker, James W., Chicago. 
Zaborski, Bogdan, Cracow, Poland. 

Zimanyi, Karl, Budapest, Hungary 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 219 




William H. Hinrichsbn, Secretary of State 

To All to Whom These Presents Shall Come, Greeting: 

Whereas, a Certificate duly signed and acknowledged having been filed in the 
office of the Secretary of State, on the 16th day of September, A.D. 1893, for the 
organization of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO, under and in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of "An Act Concerning Corporations," approved 
April 18, 1872, and in force July 1, 1872, and all acts amendatory thereof, a copy 
of which certificate is hereto attached. 

Now, therefore, 1, William H. Hinrichsen, Secretary of State of the State of 
Illinois, by virtue of the powers and duties vested in me by law, do hereby certify 
that the said COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF CHICAGO is a legally organized 
Corporation under the laws of this State. 

In Testimony Whereof, I hereto set my hand and cause to be affixed the 
Great Seal of State. Done at the City of Springfield, this 16th day of September, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, and of the 
Independence of the United States the one hundred and eighteenth. 

[Seal] Secretary of Staie. 


Secretary of State: 

We, the undersigned citizens of the United States, propose to form a cor- 
poration under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, entitled 
"An Act Concerning Corporations," approved April 18, 1872, and all acts 
amendatory thereof; and that for the purposes of such organization we hereby 
state as follows, to- wit: 

1. The name of such corporation is the "COLUMBIAN MUSEUM OF 

2. The object for which it is formed is for the accumulation and dis- 
semination of knowledge, and the preservation and exhibition of objects illus- 
trating Art, Archaeology, Science and History. 

3. The management of the aforesaid museum shall be vested in a Board of 
Fifteen (15) Trustees, five of whom are to be elected every year. 

4. The following named persons are hereby selected as the Trustees for the 
first year of its corporate existence: 

Edward E. Ayer, Charles B. Farwell, George E. Adams, George R. Davis, 
Charles L. Hutchinson, Daniel H. Burnham, John A. Roche, M. C. Bullock, 
Emil G. Hirsch, James W. Ellsworth, Allison V. Armovu-, 0. F. Aldis, Edwin 
Walker, John C. Black and Frank W. Gunsaulus. 

5. The location of the Museum is in the City of Chicago, County of Cook, 
and State of Illinois. 


George E. Adams, C. B. Farwell, Sidney C. Eastman, F. W. Putnam, Robert 
McCurdy, Andrew Peterson, L. J. Gage, Charles L. Hutchinson, Ebenezer 
Buckingham, Andrew McNally, Edward E. Ayer, John M. Clark, Herman H. 
Kohlsaat, George Schneider, Henry H. Getty, William R. Harper, Franklin H. 

220 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Head, E. G. Keith, J. Irving Pearce, Azel F. Hatch, Henry Wade Rogers, 
Thomas B. Bryan, L. Z. Leiter, A. C. Bartlett, A. A. Sprague, A. C. McClurg, 
James W. Scott, Geo. F. Bissell, John R. Walsh, Chas. Fitzsimmons, John A. 
Roche, E. B, McCagg, Owen F. Aldis, Ferdinand W. Peck, James H, Dole, 
Joseph Stockton, Edward B. Butler, John McConnell, R. A. Waller, H. C. 
Chatfield-Taylor, A. Crawford, Wm. Sooy Smith, P. S. Peterson, John C. 
Black, Jno. J. Mitchell, C. F. Gunther, George R. Davis, Stephen A. Forbes, 
Robert W. Patterson, Jr., M. C. Bullock, Edwin Walker, George M. Pullman, 
William E. Curtis, James W. Ellsworth, William E. Hale, Wm. T. Baker, 
Martin A. Ryerson, Huntington W. Jackson, N. B. Ream, Norman Williams, 
Melville E. Stone, Bryan Lathrop, Eliphalet W. Blatchford, Philip D. Armour. 

State of Illinois "i 

> ss. 
Cook County J 

I, G. R. Mitchell, a Notary Public in and for said County, do hereby 
certify that the foregoing petitioners personally appeared before me and 
acknowledged severally that they signed the foregoing petition as their free and 
voluntary act for the uses and purposes therein set forth. 

Given under my hand and notarial seal this 14th day of September, 1893. 

[Seal] Notary Public, Cook County, III. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 25th day of June, 1894, the name of the COLUMBIAN MUSEUM was 
changed to FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. A certificate to this effect was 
filed June 26, 1894, in the office of the Secretary of State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 8th day of November, 1905, the name of the FIELD COLUMBIAN 
A certificate to this effect was filed November 10, 1905, in the office of the Secretary 
of State for Illinois. 


Pursuant to a resolution passed at a meeting of the corporate members held 
the 10th day of May, 1920, the management of FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY shall be invested in a Board of Twenty-one (21) Trustees, who 
shall be elected in such manner and for such time and term of office as may 
be provided for by the By-Laws, A certificate to this effect was filed May 21, 
1920, in the office of the Secretary of State for IlUnois. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 221 


DECEMBER 31, 1931 


Section 1. Members shall be of twelve classes, Corporate Members, Hon- 
orary Members, Patrons, Corresponding Members, Benefactors, Contributors, 
Life Members, Non-Resident Life Members, Associate Members, Non-Resident 
Associate Members, Sustaining Members, and Annual Members. 

Section 2. The Corporate Members shall consist of the persons named in 
the articles of incorporation, and of such other persons as shall be chosen from 
time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, upon the recom- 
mendation of the Executive Committee; provided, that such person named in 
the articles of incorporation shall, within ninety days from the adoption of these 
By-Laws, and persons hereafter chosen as Corporate Members shall, within 
ninety days of their election, pay into the treasury the sum of Twenty Dollars 
($20.00) or more. Corporate Members becoming Life Members, Patrons or 
Honorary Members shall be exempt from dues. Annual meetings of said Corporate 
Members shall be held at the same place and on the same day that the annual 
meeting of the Board of Trustees is held. 

Section 3. Honorary Members shall be chosen by the Board from among 
persons who have rendered eminent service to science, and only upon unanimous 
nomination of the Executive Committee. They shall be exempt from all dues. 

Section 4. Patrons shall be chosen by the Board upon recommendation of 
the Executive Committee from among persons who have rendered eminent ser- 
vice to the Museum. They shall be exempt from all dues, and, by virtue of their 
election as Patrons, shall also be Corporate Members. 

Section 5. Any person contributing or devising the sum of One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars ($100,000.00) in cash, or securities, or property to the funds 
of the Museum, may be elected a Benefactor of the Museum. 

Section 6. Corresponding Members shall be chosen by the Board from among 
scientists or patrons of science residing in foreign countries, who render important 
service to the Maseum. They shall be elected by the Board of Trustees at any 
of its meetings. They shall be exempt from all dues and shall enjoy all courtesies 
of the Museum. 

Section 7. Any person contributing to the Museum One Thousand Dollars 
($1,000.00) or more in cash, securities, or material, may be elected a Contributor 
of the Museum. Contributors shall be exempt from all dues and shall enjoy 
all courtesies of the Museum. 

Section 8. Any person paying into the treasury the sum of Five Hundred 
Dollars ($500.00), at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, 
become a Life Member. Life Members shall be exempt from all dues, and shall 
enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that are accorded to mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees. Any person residing fifty miles or more from 
the city of Chicago, paying into the treasury the sum of One Hundred Dollars 
($100.00) at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, become 
a Non-Resident Life Member. Non-Resident Life Members shall be exempt 
from all dues, and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that 
are accorded to members of the Board of Trustees. 

Section 9. Any person paying into the treasury of the Museum the sum of 
One Hundred Dollars ($100.00), at any one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote 
of the Board, become an Associate Member. Associate Members shall be exempt 
from all dues, and shall be entitled to tickets admitting member and members 
of family, including non-resident home guests; all publications of the Museum, 
if so desired; reserved seats for all lectures and entertainments under the auspices 

222 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

of the Museum, provided reservation is requested in advance; and admission of 
holder of membership and accompanying party to all special exhibits and Museum 
functions day or evening. Any person residing fifty miles or more from the city 
of Chicago, paying into the treasury the sum of Fifty Dollars ($50.00) at any 
one time, shall, upon the unanimous vote of the Board, become a Non-Resident 
Associate Member. Non-Resident Associate Members shall be exempt from all 
dues, and shall enjoy all the privileges and courtesies of the Museum that are 
accorded to Associate Members. 

Section 10. Sustaining Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Tr^lstees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00), payable within thirty 
days after notice of election and within thirty days after each recurring annual 
date. This Sustaining Membership entitles the member to free admission for 
the member and family to the Museum on any day, the Annual Report and such 
other Museum documents or publications as may be requested in writing. When 
a Sustaining Member has paid the annual fee of $25.00 for six years, such mem- 
ber shall be entitled to become an Associate Member. 

Section 11. Annual Members shall consist of such persons as are selected 
from time to time by the Board of Trustees at any of its meetings, and who 
shall pay an annual fee of Ten Dollars ($10.00), payable within thirty days after 
each recurring annual date. An Annual Membership shall entitle the member 
to a card of admission for the member and family during all hours when the 
Museum is open to the public, and free admission for the member and family 
to all Museum lectures or entertainments. This membership will also entitle 
the holder to the courtesies of the membership privileges of every Museum of 
note in the United States and Canada, so long as the existing system of co-operative 
interchange of membership tickets shall be maintained, including tickets for any 
lectures given under the auspices of any of the Museums during a visit to the cities 
in which the cooperative museums are located. 

Section 12. All membership fees, excepting Sustaining and Annual, shall 
hereafter be applied to a permanent Membership Endowment Fund, the interest 
only of which shall be applied for the use of the Museum as the Board of Trustees 
may order. 


BOARD OF trustees 

Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-one members. 
The respective members of the Board now in office, and those who shall here- 
after be elected, shall hold office during life. Vacancies occurring in the Board 
shall be filled at a regular meeting of the Board, upon the nomination of the 
Executive Committee made at a preceding regular meeting of the Board, by a 
majority vote of the members of the Board present. 

Section 2. Regular meetings of the Board shall be held on the third Mon- 
day of each month. Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, 
and shall be called by the Secretary upon the written request of three Trustees. 
Five Trustees shall constitute a quorum, except for the election of officers or the 
adoption of the Annual Budget, when seven Trustees shall be required, but meet- 
ings may be adjourned by any less number from day to day, or to a day fixed, 
previous to the next regular meeting. 

Section 3. Reasonable written notice, designating the time and place of 
holding meetings, shall be given by the Secretary. 

honorary trustees 

Section 1. As a mark of respect, and in appreciation of services performed 
for the Institution, those Trustees who by reason of inability, on account of 
change of residence, or for other cause or from indisposition to serve longer in 
such capacity shall resign their place upon the Board, may be elected, by a majority 
of those present at any regular meeting of the Board, an Honorary Trustee for life. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 223 

Such Honorary Tnistee will receive notice of all meetings of the Board of Trustees, 
whether regular or special, and will be expected to be present at all such meetings 
and participate in the deliberations thereof, but an Honorary Trustee shall not 
have the right to vote. 



Section 1. The officers shall be a President, a First Vice-President, a 
Second Vice-President, a Third Vice-President, a Secretary, an Assistant Secretary 
and a Treasurer. They shall be chosen by ballot by the Board of Trustees, a 
majority of those present and voting being necessary to elect. The President, 
the First Vice-President, the Second Vice-President, and the Third Vice-Presi- 
dent shall be chosen from among the members of the Board of Trustees. The 
meeting for the election of officers shall be held on the third Monday of January 
of each year, and shall be called the Annual Meeting. 

Section 2. The officers shall hold office for one year, or until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified, but any officer may be removed at any regular 
meeting of the Board of Trustees by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of 
the Board. Vacancies in any office may be filled by the Board at any meeting. 

Section 3. The officers shall perform such duties as ordinarily appertain 
to their respective offices, and such as shall be prescribed by the By-Laws, or 
designated from time to time by the Board of Trustees. 

the treasurer 

Section 1. The Treasurer shall be custodian of the funds of the Corpo- 
ration except as hereinafter provided. He shall make disbursements only upon 
warrants drawn by the Director and countersigned by the President. In the 
absence or inability of the Director, warrants may be signed by the Chairman 
of the Penance Committee, and in the absence or inability of the President, may 
be countersigned by one of the Vice-Presidents, or any member of the Finance 

Section 2. The securities and muniments of title belonging to the cor- 
poration shall be placed in the custody of some Trust Company of Chicago to 
be designated by the Board of Trustees, which Trust Company shall collect 
the income and principal of said securities as the same become due, and pay 
same to the Treasurer, except as hereinafter provided. Said Trust Company 
shall allow access to and deliver any or all securities or muniments of title to the 
joint order of the following officers, namely: the President or one of the Vice- 
Presidents, jointly with the Chairman, or one of the Vice-Chairmen, of the Finance 
Committee of the Museum. 

Section 3. The Treasurer shall give bond in such amount, and with such 
sureties as shall be approved by the Board of Trustees. 

Section 4. The Harris Trust & Savings Bank of Chicago shall be Cus- 
todian of "The N. W. Harris Public School Extension of Field Museum" fund. 
The bank shall make disbursements only upon warrants drawn by the Director 
and countersigned by the President. In the absence or inability of the Director, 
warrants may be signed by the Chairman of the Finance Committee, and in the 
absence or inability of the President, may be countersigned by one of the Vice- 
Presidents, or any member of the Finance Committee. 



Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall elect a Director of the Museum, 
who shall remain in office until his successor shall be elected. He shall have im- 
mediate charge and supervision of the Museum, and shall control the operations 
of the Institution, subject to the authority of the Board of Trustees and its Com- 

224 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

mittees. The Director shall be the official medium of communication between the 
Board, or its Committees, and the scientific staff and maintenance force. 

Section 2. There shall be four scientific Departments of the Museum — 
Anthropology, Botany, Geology and Zoology; each under the charge of a Curator, 
subject to the authority of the Director. The Curators shall be appointed by 
the Board upon the recommendation of the Director, and shall serve during the 
pleasure of the Board. Subordinate staff officers in the scientific Departments 
shall be appointed and removed by the Director upon the recommendation of the 
Curators of the respective Departments. The Director shall have authority to 
employ and remove all other employees of the Museum. 

Section 3. The Director shall make report to the Board at each regular 
meeting, recounting the operations of the Museum for the previous month. At 
the Annual Meeting, the Director shall make an Annual Report, reviewing the 
work for the previous year, which Annual Report shall be published in pamphlet 
form for the information of the Trustees and Members, and for free distribution 
in such number as the Board may direct. 


Section 1. The Board shall appoint an Auditor, who shall hold his office 
during the pleasure of the Board. He shall keep proper books of account, setting 
forth the financial condition and transactions of the Corporation, and of the 
Museum, and report thereon at each regular meeting, and at such other times as 
may be required by the Board. He shall certify to the correctness of all bills 
rendered for the expenditure of the money of the Corporation. 



Section 1. There shall be five Committees, as follows: Finance, Building, 
Auditing, Pension and Executive. 

Section 2. The Finance Committee shall consist of five members, the 
Auditing and Pension Committees shall each consist of three members, and the 
Building Committee shall consist of five members. All members of these four 
Committees shall be elected by ballot by the Board at the Annual Meeting, and 
shall hold office for one year, and until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied. In electing the members of these Committees, the Board shall designate 
the Chairman and Vice-Chairman by the order in which the members are 
named in the respective Committee; the first member named shall be Chair- 
man, the second named the Vice-Chairman, and the third named. Second Vice- 
Chairman, succession to the Chairmanship being in this order in the event of the 
absence or disability of the Chairman. 

Section 3. The Executive Committee shall consist of the President of the 
Board, the Chairman of the Finance Committee, the Chairman of the Building 
Committee, the Chairman of the Auditing Committee, the Chairman of the 
Pension Committee, and three other members of the Board to be elected by 
ballot at the Annual Meeting. 

Section 4. Four members shall constitute a quorum of the Executive Com- 
mittee, and in all standing Committees two members shall constitute a quorum. 
In the event that, owing to the absence or inability of members, a quorum of 
the regular elected members cannot be present at any meeting of any Com- 
mittee, then the Chairman thereof, or his successor, as herein provided, may 
summon any members of the Board of Trustees to act in place of the absentee. 

Section 5. The Finance Committee shall have supervision of investing the 
endowment and other permanent funds of the Corporation, and the care of such 
real estate as may become its property. It shall have authority to invest, sell, 
and reinvest funds, subject to the approval of the Board. 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 225 

Section 6. The Building Committee shall have supervision of the con- 
struction, reconstruction, and extension of any and all buildings used for 
Museum purposes. 

Section 7. The Executive Committee shall be called together from time 
to time as the Chairman may consider necessary, or as he may be requested 
to do by three members of the Committee, to act upon such matters affecting 
the administration of the Museum as cannot await consideration at the Regular 
Monthly Meetings of the Board of Trustees. It shall, before the beginning of 
each fiscal year, prepare and submit to the Board an itemized Budget, setting 
forth the probable receipts from all sources for the ensuing year, and make 
recommendations as to the expenditures which should be made for routine 
maintenance and fixed charges. Upon the adoption of the Budget by the 
Board, the expenditures stated are authorized. 

Section 8. The Auditing Committee shall have supervision over all ac- 
counting and bookkeeping, and full control of the financial records. It shall 
cause the same, once each year, or oftener, to be examined by an expert indi- 
vidual or firm, and shall transmit the report of such expert individual or firm 
to the Board at the next ensuing regular meeting after such examination shall 
have .aken place. 

Section 9. The Pension Committee shall determine by such means and 
processes as shall be established by the Board of Trustees to whom and in what 
amount the Pension Fund shall be distributed. These determinations or findings 
shall be subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees. 

Section 10. The Chairman of each Committee shall report the acts and 
proceedings thereof at the next ensuing regular meeting of the Board. 

Section 11. The President shall be ex-officio a member of all Committees 
and Chairman of the Executive Committee. Vacancies occurring in any Com- 
mittee may be filled by ballot at any regular meeting of the Board. 


nominating committee 

Section 1. At the November meeting of the Board each year, a Nomi- 
nating Committee of three shall be chosen by lot. Said Committee shall make 
nominations for membership of the Finance Committee, the Building Commit- 
tee, the Auditing Committee, and the Pension Committee, and for three mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee, from among the Trustees, to be submitted 
at the ensuing December meeting and voted upon at the following Annual 
Meeting in January. 


Section 1. Whenever the word "Museum" is employed in the By-Laws of 
the Corporation, it shall be taken to mean the building in which the Museum 
as an Institution is located and operated, the material exhibited, the material in 
study collections, or in storage, furniture, fixtures, cases, tools, records, books, 
and all appurtenances of the Institution and the workings, researches, installa- 
tions, expenditures, field work, laboratories, library, publications, lecture courses, 
and all scientific and maintenance activities. 

Section 2. These By-Laws may be amended at any regular meeting of the 
Board of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of all the members present, provided 
the amendment shall have been proposed at a preceding regular meeting. 

226 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 


♦Marshall Field 


Those who have contributed $100,000 or more to the Museum 
*Ayer, Edward E. 

Buckingham, Miss Kate S. 

Crane, Cornelius 
*Crane, R. T., Jr. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
•Field, Joseph N. 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 
*Harris, Norman W. 


Kelley, William V. 

♦Pullman, George M. 

Raymond, Mrs. Anna Louise 
♦Raymond, James Nelson 

Simpson, James 
♦Sturges, Mrs. Mary D. 


Those who have rendered eminent service to Science 
Ayer, Mrs. Edward E. 

Breasted, Professor James H. 

Chalmers, William J. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 

Graham, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 

Kelley, William V. 

Ludwig, H. R. H. Gustaf Adolf, 
Crown Prince of Sweden 

McCoRMicK, Stanley 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 
Rosenwald, Julius 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Simpson, James 
Sprague, Albert A. 

Vebnay, Arthur S. 

Deceased, 1931 

Crane, R, T., Jr. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 



Those who have rendered eminent service to the Museum 

Armour, Allison V. 

Borland, Mrs. John Jay 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily Crane 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Coats, John 
Collins, Alfred M. 
conover, boardman 
CuMMiNGS, Mrs. Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

Insull, Samuel 

Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 

Knight, Charles R. 
Kunz, George F. 

Langdon, Professor Stephen 

Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Payne, John Barton 
Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H, 
Roosevelt, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Sargent, Homer E. 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

White, Harold A. 
White, Howard J. 

Deceased, 1931 

Strong, Walter A. 


Scientists or patrons of science, residing in foreign countries, who have rendered 

eminent service to the Museum 

Breuil, ABBfe Henri 
DiELS, Dr. Ludwig 

Keith, Professor Sir Arthur 
Langdon, Professor Stephen 

Smith, Professor Grafton Elliot 

228 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 


Those who have contributed $1 ,000 to $1 00,000 to the Museum 
in money or materials 

$75,000 to $100,000 

Chancellor, Philip M. 
Rawson, Frederick H. 

$50,000 to $75,000 

♦Keep, Chauncey 

*RosE^fWALD, Mrs. Augusta N. 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

$25,000 to $50,000 

*Blackstone, Mrs. Timothy B. 

Coats, John 
Crane, Charles R. 

Field, Mrs. Stanley 
*Jones, Arthur B. 
*Porter, George F. 

RosBNWALD, Julius 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

White, Harold A. 

$10,000 to $25,000 

Armour, Allison V. 
♦Armour, P. D. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily Crane 
Chalmers, William J. 


♦cummings, r. f. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

*Everard, R. T. 

*GuNSAULus, Dr. F. W. 

Insull, Samuel 

McCoRMiCK, Cyrus (Estate) 
McCoRMiCK, Stanley 
♦Mitchell, John J. 


♦Reese, Lewis 
RoBB, Mrs. George W. 
Rockefeller Foundation, The 

Smith, Mrs. George T. 
♦Strong, Walter A. 

Wrigley, William, Jr. 

$5,000 to $10,000 

♦Adams, George E. 
♦Adams, Milward 

♦Bartlett, a. C. 
Bishop, Heber (Estate) 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay 

♦Crane, R. T. 

♦DOANE, J. W. 

♦Fuller, William A. 

Graves, George Cob, II 

Harris, Hayden B. 

Harris, Norman Dwight 
♦Harris, Mrs. Norman W. 
♦Hutchinson, C. L. 

♦Keith, Edson 

Langtry, J. C. 

MacLean, Mrs. M. H addon 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

♦Pearsons, D. K. 
♦Porter, H. H. 

♦Ream, Norman B. 
♦Revell, Alexander H. 

Sargent, Homer E. 
♦Sprague, a. a. 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Thorne, Bruce 
♦Tree, Lambert 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


$1,000 to $5,000 

American Friends of China 
Ayer, Mrs. Edward E. 

Barrett, Samuel E. 
Bensabott, R., Inc. 
*Blair, Watson F. 
Borden, John 

Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 
Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr. 
Cummings, Mrs. R. F. 

Doering, O, C. 

Field, Henry 

Graves, Henry, Jr. 
Gunsaulus, Miss Helen 

♦HiBBARD, W. G. 

HiGGiNSON, Mrs. Charles M. 
*HiLL, James J. 
*HixoN, Frank P. 

Hughes, Thomas S. 

♦Jackson, Huntington W. 
James, S. L. 

Lee Ling Yun 

*Manierre, George 
♦Martin, Alfred T. 

McCormick, Cyrus H. 

McCoRMicK, Mrs. Cyrus 

*Ogden, Mrs. Frances E. 

Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 

Rauchfuss, Charles F. 
Raymond, Charles E. 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Martin A. 

Schwab, Martin C. 
ScHWEPPE, Mrs. Charles H. 
Shaw, William W. 
*Smith, Byron L. 
Sprague, Albert A. 

Thompson, E, H. 
Thorne, Mrs. Louise E. 

VanValzah, Dr. Robert 
♦VonFrantzius, Fritz 

Willis, L. M. 


230 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 


Armour, Allison V. 

Borden, John 
Borland, Mrs. John Jay 
Byram, Harry E. 

Chadbourne, Mrs. Emily Crane 
Chalmers, William J. 
Chatfield-Taylor, H. C. 
Cherrie, George K. 
Coats, John 
Collins, Alfred M. 
Conover, Boardman 
CuMMiNGS, Mrs. Robert F. 
Cutting, C. Suydam 

Day, Lee Garnett 

Ellsworth, Duncan S. 

Field, Mrs. E. Marshall 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 

GRAHAii, Ernest R. 

Harris, Albert W. 

Insull, Samuel 

Kelley, William V. 
Kennedy, Vernon Shaw 

Knight, Charles R. 
KuNZ, George F. 

Langdon, Professor Stephen 

McCormick, Cyrus H. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Mrs. William H. 

Payne, John Barton 
Probst, Edward 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Richardson, George A. 


Roosevelt, Theodore 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

Sargent, Homer E. 
SIMMS, Stephen C. 
Simpson, James 
Smith, Mrs. George T. 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Strawn, Silas H. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 

White, Harold A. 
White, Howard J. 
Wrigley, William, Jr. 

Deceased. 1931 

Crane, R. T., Jr. 

Strong, Walter A. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the DraECTOR 


Those who have contributed $500 to the Museum 

Abbott, John Jay 
Abbott, Robert S. 
Abler, Max 
Alois, Arthur T. 
Alexander, William A. 
Allerton, Robert H. 
Ames, James C. 
Armour, Allison V. 
Armour, A. Watson 
Armour, Lester 
Armstrong, Mrs. Frank H. 
Asher, Louis E. 
Austrian, Alfred S. 
Avery, Sewell L. 

Babcock, Frederick R. 

Babson, Henry B. 

Bacon, Edward Richardson, Jr. 

Banks, Alexander F. 

Barrett, Mrs. A. D. 

Barrett, Robert L. 

Bartlett, Miss Florence Dibell 

Bassford, Lowell C. 

Baur, Mrs. Jacob 

Bendix, Vincent 

Bensabott, R. 

Bermingham, Edward J. 

Billings, C. K. G. 

Billings, Dr. Frank 

Blaine, Mrs. Emmons 

Blair, Chauncey B. 

Blair, Henry A. 

Block, L. E. 

Block, Philip D. 

Booth, W. Vernon 

Borden, John 

Borden, Mrs. Waller 

Borland, Chauncey B, 

Boyd, Thomas M. 

Brassert, Herman A. 

Brewster, Walter S. 

Brown, Charles Edward 

Browne, Aldis J. 

Buchanan, D. W. 

Budd, Britton I. 

Buffington, Eugene J. 

Burnham, John 

Burt, William G. 

Butler, Julius W. 

Butler, Rush C. 

Byram, Harry E. 

Carpenter, Augustus A. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Hubbard 

Carr, George R. 

Carr, Robert F. 

Carr, Walter S. 

Carton, L. A. 

Casalis, Mrs. Maurice 

Chalmers, William J. 

Chalmers, Mrs. William J. 

Chatfield-Taylor, Wayne 

Clark, Eugene B. 

Clay, John 

Clegg, Mrs. Henry G. 

Clegg, William G. 

Clegg, Mrs. William G. 

Clow, William E. 

Cob URN, Mrs. Lewis L. 

Collins, William M. 

CONO\^R, Boardman 

Cooke, George A. 

CooLBAUGH, Miss Wilhelmine F. 


Cowles, Alfred 
Cramer, Corwith 
Cramer, E. W. 
Cramer, Mrs. Katharine S. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Crossett, Edward C. 
Crossley, Lady Josephine 
Crossley, Sir Kenneth 
Crowell, H. p. 
Cudahy, Edward A. 
CuDAHY, Edward A., Jr. 
Cudahy, Joseph M. 
CuMMiNGS, D. Mark 
Cunningham, Frank S. 
Cunningham, James D. 
Gushing, Charles G. 
Cutten, Arthur W. 

Dau, J. J. 

Da vies, Mrs. D. C. 
Dawes, Charles G. 
Dawes, Henry M. 
Dawes, Rufus C. 
Day, Albert M. 
Decker, Alfred 
Delano, Frederic A. 
Dick, Albert Blake 
Dierssen, Ferdinand W. 
Dixon, George W. 
Dixon, Homer L. 

232 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Donnelley, Thomas E. 
Doyle, Edward J. 
Drake, John B, 
Drake, Tracy C. 
Dreyfus, Moise 
Durand, Scott S. 

Eckstein, Louis 
Edmunds, Philip S. 
Epstein, Max 
Ev'ERiTT, George B. 
EwiNG, Charles Hull 

Farnum, Henry W. 
Farr, Newton Camp 
Farr, Miss Shirley 
Farrington, Dr. Oliver C. 
Farwell, Arthur L. 
Farwell, Francis C. 
Farwell, John V. 
Farwell, Walter 
Fay, C. N. 
Felt, Dorr E. 
Fenton, Howard W. 
Fentress, Calvin 
Ferguson, Louis A. 
Fernald, Charles 
Ferry, Mrs. Abby Farwell 
Field, Joseph Nash, II 
Field, Marshall 
Field, Norman 
Field, Mrs. Norman 
Field, Stanley 
Field, Mrs. Stanley 
Fleming, John C. 
Florsheim, Milton S. 

Gardner, Paul E. 
Gardner, Robert A. 
Gartz, a. F., Jr. 
Gary, Mrs. John W. 
Getz, George F. 
Gilbert, Huntly H. 
Glessner, John J. 
Glore, Charles F. 


Goodman, William O. 
Goodrich, A. W. 
Goodspeed, Charles B. 
GowiNG, J. Parker 
Graham, Ernest R. 
Griffiths, John 
Griscom, Clement A. 

Hack, Frederick C. 
Hamill, Alfred E. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 

Harris, Albert W. 
Harris, Norman W. 
Haskell, Frederick T. 
Hastings, Samuel M. 
Hayes, William F. 
Hecht, Frank A., Jr. 
Hibbard, Frank 
HicKox, Mrs. Charles V. 
Hill, Louis W. 
HiNDE, Thomas W. 
HiNKLEY, James Otis 
HippACH, Louis A. 
Hopkins, J. M. 
Hopkins, L. J. 
Horowitz, L. J. 
HoYT, N. Landon 
Hughes, Thomas S. 
Hurley, Edward N. 
Hutchins, James C. 

Insull, Martin J. 
Insull, Samuel 
Insull, Samuel, Jr. 

Jarnagin, William N. 
Jelke, John F., Jr. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth Ayer 
Joiner, Theodore E. 
Jones, Mrs. Arthur B. 
Jones, Miss Gwethalyn 

Kelley, Mrs. Daphn-e Field 
Kelley, Russell P. 
Kelley, William V. 
Kelly, D. F. 
Kidston, William H. 
King, Charles Garfield 
King, Francis 
King, James G. 
Kirk, Walter Radcliffe 
Knickerbocker, Charles K. 
Kuppenheimer, Louis B. 

Lamont, Robert P. 
Legge, Alexander 
Lehmann, E. J. 
Leonard, Clifford M. 
Leopold, Mrs. Harold E. 
Levy, Mrs. David M. 
Linn, Mrs. Dorothy C. 
Logan, Spencer H. 
Lord, John B. 
LowDEN, Frank O. 
Lytton, George 
Lytton, Henry C. 

MacDowell, Charles H. 
MacLeish, John E. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


MacVeagh, Eames 
MacVeagh, Franklin 
Madlener, Mrs. Albert F. 
Mark, Clayton 
Marshall, Benjamin H. 
Mason, William S. 
McCormick, Cyrus H. 
McCormick, Mrs. Edith 

McCormick, Harold F. 
McCormick, Stanley 
McCutcheon, John T. 
McGann, Mrs. Robert G. 
McIlvaine, William B. 
McInnerney, Thomas H. 
McKinlay, John 
McKinlock, George A. 
McLaughlin, Frederic 
McLennan, D. R. 
McLennan, Hugh 
McNulty, T. J. 
Meyer, Carl 
Meyne, Gerhardt F. 
Mitchell, William H. 
Moore, Edward S. 
Morse, Charles H., Jr. 
Morton, Joy 
Morton, Mark 
MuNROE, Charles A. 
Murphy, Walter P. 

Newell, A, B. 
Nikolas, G. J. 
Noel, Joseph R. 

O'Brien, John J. 
Ormsby, Dr. Oliver S. 
Orr, Robert M. 

Paesch, Charles A. 
Palmer, Honors 
Palmer, Potter 
Patten, Henry J. 
Patten, Mrs. James A. 
Patterson, Joseph M. 
Payne, John Barton 
Payson, George S. 
Peabody, Augustus S. 
Peabody, Stuyvesant 
Perkins, Herbert F. 
Pick, Albert 
PiEz, Charles 
Pike, Charles B. 
Pike, Eugene R. 
Poppenhusen, Conrad H. 

Porter, Frank W. 
Porter, Gilbert E. 
Porter, H. H. 

Rawson, Frederick H. 
Raymond, Mrs. James Nelson 
Rea, Mrs. Robert L. 
Reynolds, Arthur 
Reynolds, Earle H. 
Reynolds, George M. 
Riley, Harrison B. 
Robinson, Theodore W. 
Robson, Miss Alice 
Rodman, Mrs. Katherine Field 
Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
Rosenwald, Julius 
Rosenwald, William 


Russell, Edmund A. 
Russell, Edward P. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Carrie H. 
Ryerson, Edward L., Jr. 
Ryerson, Martin A. 

Sargent, Fred W. 
Schweppe, Charles H. 
Scott, George E. 
Scott, Harold N. 
Scott, John W. 
Seabury, Charles W. 
Shaffer, John C. 
Shirk, Joseph H. 
Simpson, James 
Simpson, William B. 
Smith, Alexander 
Smith, Solomon A. 
Spalding, Keith 
Spalding, Vaughan C. 
Sprague, Albert A. 
Sprague, Mrs. Albert A. 
Stern, Mrs. Alfred K. 
Stevens, Charles A. 
Stevens, Eugene M. 
Stewart, Robert W. 
Stirton, Robert C. 
Storey, W. B. 
Stuart, H. L. 
Stuart, John 
Stuart, R. Douglas 
Strawn, Silas H. 
Studebaker, Clement, Jr. 
Sturges, George 
Sunny, B. E. 
Swift, Charles H. 
Swift, Edward F. 

234 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 


Swift, G. F., Jr. 
Swift, Harold H. 
Swift, Louis F. 

Thorne, Charles H. 
Thorne, Robert J. 
Traylor, Melvin a. 
Tree, Ronald L. F. 
Tyson, Russell 

UiHLEiN, Edgar J. 
Underwood, Morgan P. 

Valentine, Louis L. 
Veatch, George L. 
ViLES, Lawrence M. 

Wanner, Harry C. 
Ward, P. C. 
Warner, Ezra Joseph 

Ames, Knowlton L. 

Blair, Mrs. Watson F. 

Crane, R. T., Jr. 

eckhart, b. a. 

Forgan, David R. 
Fyffe, Colin C. H. 

HixoN, Frank P. 

Weber, David 
Welch, Mrs. Edwin P. 
Welling, John P. 
Wheeler, Charles P. 
Whitney, Mrs. Julia L. 
WiCKWiRE, Mrs. Edward L. 
WiEBOLDT, William A. 


WiLLiTS, Ward W. 
Wilson, John P. 
Wilson, Thomas E. 
Wilson, Walter H. 
Winston, G.^rrard B. 
Winter, Wallace C. 
WooLLEY, Clarence M. 
Wrigley, Philip K. 
Wrigley, William, Jr. 

Yates, David M. 

Deceased, 1931 

Jelke, John F. 

McLaughlin, George D. 

Revell, Alexander H. 
Ripley, Robert H. 

Scott, Frank Hamline 

White, F. Edson 
Wilson, Oliver T. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $1 00 to the Museum 

Coolidge, Harold J., Jr. 
Copley, Ira Cliff 

Davis, Livingston 

Ellis, Ralph, Jr. 

Landon, Mrs. Jessie Spalding 


Stephens, W. C. 
Stern, Mrs. Edgar B. 

Vernay, Arthur S. 


Those who have contributed $1 00 to the Museum 

Aaron, Charles 
Aaron, Ely M. 
Abbott, Donald P., Jr. 
Abbott, Gordon C. 

Abbott, Guy H. 
Abbott, W. R. 
Abbott, William L. 
Abrams, Professor Duff A. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


AcKERMAN, Charles N. 
Adamick, Gustav H. 
Adams, Benjamin Stearns 
Adams, Mrs. Frances Sprogle 
Adams, John Q. 
Adams, Joseph 
Adams, Mrs. Samuel 
Adams, Mrs. S. H. 
Adams, William C. 
Adcock, Mrs. Bessie 
Addleman, Samuel W. 
Adler, David 
Adler, Mrs. Max 
Affleck, Benjamin F. 
Ahlschlager, Walter W. 
Albee, Mrs. Harry W. 
Allais, Arthur L. 
Allbright, William B. 
Allen, Mrs. Fred G. 
Allensworth, a. p. 
Alling, Mrs. C. A. 
Alling, Mrs. VanWagenbn 
Allison, Dr. Nathaniel 
Almes, Dr. Herman E. 
Alschuler, Alfred S. 
Alsip, Charles H. 
Alter, Harry 
Alton, Carol W. 
Anderson, Arthur 
Andreen, Otto C. 
Andrews, Alfred B. 
Andrews, Mrs. E. C. 
Andrews, Milton H. 
Anstiss, George P. 
Appelt, Mrs. Jessie E. 
Armbrust, John T. 
Armbruster, C. a. 
Armour, Mrs. J. Ogden 
Armour, Philip D. 
Armstrong, Arthur W. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Julian 
Arn, W. G. 
Arnold, William G. 
Artingstall, Samuel G., Jr. 
AscHER, Fred 
AsHCRAFT, Raymond M. 
Ashenhurst, Harold S. 
Atwater, Walter Hull 
Aurelius, Mrs. Marcus A. 
Austin, Henry W. 
Austin, Dr. Margaret Howard 
Avery, Miss Clara 

Baackes, Mrs. Frank 
Babson, Fred K. 

Bach, Julius H. 

Bachmann, Dr. Harrold A. 

Badger, Shreve Cowles 

Baer, Mervin K. 

Baer, Walter S. 

Baggaley, William Blair 

Bagge, Christian U. 

Bailey, Mrs. Edward W. 

Baird, Mrs. Clay 

Baird, Harry K. 

Baker, Mrs. Alfred L. 

Baker, Frank H. 

Baldwin, Vincent Curtis 

Baldwin, William W. 

Balgemann, Otto W. 

Balkin, Louis 

Ball, Dr. Fred E. 

Ball, Mrs. Robert G. 

Ball, Sidney Y. 

Ballard, Thomas L. 

Ballenberg, Adolph G. 

Bannister, Miss Ruth D. 

Bantsolas, John N. 

Barber, Phil C. 

Barbour, Harry A. 

Barbour, James J. 

Barley, Miss Matilda A. 

Barnes, Cecil 

Barnes, Mrs. Charles Osborne 

Barnes, James M. 

Barnes, Miss Muriel 

Barnett, Otto R. 

Barnhart, Mrs. A. M. 

Barnhart, Mrs. Clare S. 

Barnhart, Miss Gracia M. F. 

Barnum, Harry 

Barr, Mrs. Alfred H. 

Bartelme, John H. 

Bartholomae, Mrs. Emma 

Bartholomay, F. H, 

Bartholomay, Henry 

Bartholomay, Mrs. William, Jr. 

Bartlett, Frederic C. 

Barton, Mrs. Enos M. 

Bass, Mrs. Perkins 

Bastian, Charles L. 

Bateman, Floyd L. 

Bates, Mrs. A. M. 

Bates, Joseph A. 

Battey, P. L. 

Bauer, A. 

Baum, Mrs. James 

Baum, Mrs. James E. 

Baum, Mervyn 

Baldmrucker, Charles F. 

236 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Bausch, William C. 
Beach, Miss Bess K. 
Beachy, Mrs. P. A. 
Beacom, Harold 
Bear, Alvin L. 
Beatty, H. W. 
Beck, Herbert 
Becker, Benjamin F. 
Becker, Benjamin V. 
Becker, Frederick G. 
Becker, H. T. 
Becker, James H. 
Becker, Leon V. 
Becker, Louis 
Becker, Louis L. 
Behr, Mrs. Edith 
Beidler, Francis, II 
Belden, Joseph C. 
Bell, Mrs. Laird 
Bell, Lionel A. 
Bellinghausen, Miss C. 
Bender, C. J. 
Benjamin, Jack A. 
Benner, Harry 
Bensinger, Benjamin E. 
Benson, John 
Bentley, Arthur 
Benton, Miss Mabel M. 
Berend, George F. 
Berkowitz, Dr. J. G. 
Berndt, Dr. George W. 
Berryman, John B. 
Bersbach, Elmer S. 
Bertschinger, Dr. C. F, 
Besly, Mrs. C. H. 
Bevan, Dr. Arthur Dean 
Bichl, Thomas A. 
Bidwell, Charles W. 
Biehn, Dr. J. F. 
BiGLER, Mrs. Albert J. 
Billow, Elmer E. 
Billow, Miss Virginia 
Bird, George H. 
BiRK, Miss Amelia 
Birk, Edward J. 
BiRK, Frank J. 


BiRKHOLZ, Hans E. 
Bishop, Howard P. 
Bishop, Mrs. Martha V. 
BisTOR, James E. 
BiTTEL, Mrs. Frank J. 
BixBY, Edward Randall 
Black, Dr. Arthur D. 
Blackburn, Oliver A. 

Blackman, Nathan L. 
Blair, Edward T. 
Blair, Mrs. M. Barbour 
Blake, Tiffany 
Blatchford, Carter 
Blatchford, Dr. Frank Wicks 
Blayney, Thomas C. 
Blessing, Dr. Robert 
Bletsch, William E. 
Blish, Sylvester 
Block, Emanuel J. 
Blome, Rudolph S. 
Blomgren, Dr. Walter L. 
Bloom, Mrs. Leopold 
Bluford, Mrs. David 
Blum, David 
Blum, Harry H. 
Blunt, J. E., Jr. 
Bluthardt, Edwin 
BOAL, Ayres 
Bode, William F. 
Bodman, Mrs. Luther 
BoERiCKE, Mrs. Anna 
Boettcher, Arthur H. 
Bohasseck, Charles 
BoHN, Mrs. Bertha Bowlby 
Bolten, Paul H. 
Bolter, Joseph C. 


Boomer, Dr. Paul C. 

Boorn, William C. 

Booth, Alfred V. 

Booth, George E. 

BoRG, George W. 

Borland, Mrs. Bruce 

Born, Moses 

Bosch, Charles 

Bosch, Mrs. Henry 

Both, William C. 

Botts, Graeme G. 

BousA, Dr. B. 

BowEN, Mrs. Louise DeKoven 

Bowes, William R. 

Bowey, Mrs. Charles F. 

Bowman, Johnston A. 

Boyack, Harry 

BoYDEN, Miss Ellen Webb 

BoYDEN, Miss Rosalie S. 

B0\'NT0N, A. J. 

Boynton, Mrs. C. T. 

boynton, f. p. 

Brach, Mrs. F. V. 

Bradley, Mrs. A. Ballard 

Bradley, Charles E. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Bradley, Mrs. Natalie Blair 


Brainerd, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Bramble, Delhi G. C. 
Brand, Mrs Edwin L., Jr. 
Brand, Mrs. Rudolf 
Brandes, a. G. 
Brandt, Charles H. 
Bransfield, John J. 
Brauer, Mrs. Paul 
Breckinridge, Professor S. P. 
Bremer, Harry A. 
Brbmner, Mrs. David F. 
Brendecke, Miss June 
Brennwasser, S. M. 
Brenza, Miss Mary 
Brewer, Mrs. Angeline L. 
Breyer, Mrs. Theodor 
Bridge, George S. 
Briggs, Mrs. Gertrude 
Brigham, Miss F. M. 
Bristol, James T. 
Brock, A. J. 
Brodribb, Lawrence C. 
Broome, Thornhill 
Brown, A. W. 
Brown, Benjamin R. 
Brown, Charles A. 
Brown, Christy 
Brown, Dr. Edward M. 
Brown, George D. 
Brown, Mrs. George Dewes 
Brown, Mrs. Henry Temple 
Brown, John T. 
Brown, Scott 
Bruckner, William T. 
Brugman, John J. 
Brundage, Avery 
Brunswick, Larry 
Bryant, John J., Jr. 
Buck, Guy R. 
Buck, Mrs. Lillian B. 
Buck, Nelson Leroy 
Bucklin, Mrs. Vail R. 
BuDLONG, Joseph J. 
Buehler, Carl 
buehler, h. l. 
Buettner, Walter J. 
Buffington, Mrs. M. A. 
Buhmann, Gilbert G. 
Bullock, Carl C. 
Bullock, Mrs. James E. 
Bunge, Mrs. Albert J. 
Burgess, Charles F. 



Burke, Mrs. Lawrence N. 
Burkholder, Dr. J. F. 
Burnham, Mrs. E. 
Burns, Mrs. Randall W. 
Burrows, Mrs. W. F. 
Burry, Mrs. William 
Burtch, Almon 
Burton, Mrs. Ernest D. 
Bush, David D. 
Bush, Mrs. Lionel E. 
Bush, Mrs. William H. 
Butler, Mrs. Hermon B. 
Butler, John 
Butler, J. Fred 
Butler, Paul 
Butz, Herbert R. 
Butz, Robert O. 
Butz, Theodore C. 
Butzow, Mrs. Robert C. 
Buzzell, Edgar A. 
Byfield, Dr. Albert H. 
Byrne, Miss Margaret H. 

Cable, J. E. 
Cahn, Dr. Alvin R. 
Cahn, Bertram J. 
Cahn, Morton D. 
Caldwell, C. D. 
Caldwell, Mrs. F. C. 
Caldwell, J. T. 
Cameron, Dr. Dan U. 
Cameron, John M. 
Cameron, Will J. 
Camp, Mrs. Arthur Royce 
Campbell, Delwin M. 
Campbell, Herbert J. 
Canby, Caleb H., Jr. 
Capes, Lawrence R. 
Capps, Dr. Joseph A. 
Carlin, Leo J. 
Carney, William Roy 
Caron, 0. J. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Benjamin 
Carpenter, Frederic Ives 
Carpenter, Mrs. George A. 
Carpenter, George S. 
Carpenter, Hubbard 
Carpenter, Miss Rosalie S. 
Carpenter, W. W. S. 
Carqueville, Mrs. A. R. 
Carr, Mrs. Clyde M. 
Carroll, John A. 
Carry, J. C. 
Carter, Mrs. Armistead B. 

238 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Carton, Alfred T. 

Gary, Dr. Eugene 

Gary, Dr. Frank 

Gase, Elmer G. 

Gasey, Mrs. James J. 

Casselberry, Mrs. William 

Evans, Sr. 
Gassels, Edwin H. 
Gastle, Alfred G. 
Gastruccio, Giuseppe 
Gates, Dudley 
Gernoch, Frank 
Ghadwick, Gharles H. 
Ghamberlin, George W. 
Ghandler, Henry P. 
Ghapin, Henry K. 
Ghapin, Homer G. 
Ghapman, Arthur E. 
Ghappell, Mrs. Gharles H. 
Ghase, Frank D. 
Ghavis, Dr. Samuel W. 
Gheever, Mrs. Arline V. 
Gheney, Dr. Henry W. 
Ghisholm, George D. 

Ghritton, George A. 
Ghuran, Charles A. 

Clark, Ainsworth W. 

Clark, Miss Alice Keep 

Clark, Charles V. 

Clark, Miss Dorothy S. 

Clark, Edwin H. 

Clark, Dr. Peter S. 

Clarke, Charles F. 

Clarke, Fred L. 

Clarke, Harley L, 

Clarke, Henry 

Glas, Miss Mary Louise 

Clemen, Dr. Rudolf A. 

Cleveland, Paul W. 

Clifford, F. J. 

Clinch, Duncan L. 

Clough, William H. 

Clow, Mrs. Harry B. 

Clow, William E., Jr. 

Cohen, George B. 

Cohen, Mrs. L. Lewis 

Colburn, Frederick S. 

Colby, Mrs. George E. 

Goldren, Clifton G. 

Coleman, Dr. George H. 

Coleman, Loring W., Jr. 

Coleman, William Ogden 

CoLiANNi, Paul V. 

Collins, Beryl B. 

Gollis, Harry J. 

GoLViN, Mrs. W. H., Sr. 
Golwell, Clyde C. 
gompton, d. m. 
GoMPTON, Frank E. 
Condon, Mrs. James G. 
Conger, Miss Cornelia 
gonnell, p. g. 
Gonners, Harry 
Connor, Mrs. Clara A. 
Connor, F. H. 
Cook, Miss Alice B. 
Cook, Mrs. David S., Jr. 
Cook, Mrs. Wallace L. 
Cooke, Charles E. 
Cooke, Miss Flora 
Cooke, Leslie L. 
CooLiDGE, Miss Alice 
Coolidge, E. G. 
GooMBs, James F. 
Coonley, J. S. 
Goonley, John Stuart, Jr. 
Coonley, Prentiss L. 
Cooper, Samuel 
Copland, David 
CoRBETT, Mrs. William J. 
Gormack, Charles V. 
Cornell, John E. 
CosFORD, Thomas H. 
GosTON, James E. 


GouRVOisiER, Dr. Earl A. 
Cowdery, Edward G. 
Gox, Mrs. Howard M. 
Cox, James A. 
Cox, James G. 
Cox, Mrs. Rensselaer W. 
Crane, Charles R. 
Cratty, Mrs. Josiah 
Grego, Mrs. Dominica S. 
Grerar, Mrs. John 
Crilly, Edgar 
Cromer, Clarence E. 
Cromwell, George O. 
Cromwell, Miss Juliette Clara 
Gross, Henry H. 
Growder, Dr. Thomas R. 
CuBBiNS, Dr. William R. 
GuDAHY, Edward I. 
Gulbertson, Dr. Carey 
GuNEO, John F. 
Cunningham, Mrs. Howard J. 
Cunningham, John T. 
GuRRAN, Harry R. 
Curtis, Mrs. Charles S. 
Curtis, Miss Frances H, 


Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Curtis, John F. L. 
CusACK, Harold 
Gushing, John F. 
cushman, a. w. 
Cutler, Henry E. 
Cutting, Charles S. 

Dahlberg, Bror G. 
Daily, Richard 
Dakin, Dr. Frank C. 
Daley, Harry C. 
Dammann, J. F. 
D'Ancona, Edward N. 
Dantorth, Dr. William C. 
Daniels, H. L. 
Dantzig, Leonard P. 
Danz, Charles A. 
Darrow, William W. 
Dashiell, C. R. 
Daughaday, C. Colton 
Davey, Mrs. Bruce C. 
David, Dr. Vernon C. 
Davidonis, Dr. Alexander L. 
Davidson, Miss Mary E. 
Davies, Marshall 
Davies, Warren T. 
Davis, Abel 
Davis, Arthur 
Davis, C. S. 
Davis, Dr. Carl 
Davis, Frank S. 
Davis, Fred M. 
Davis, James 

Davis, Dr. Nathan S., Ill 
Davis, Ralph 
Dawes, E. L. 
Day, Mrs. Winfield S. 
DeAcres, Clyde H. 
Deagan, John C, Sr. 
Deahl, Uriah S. 
Decker, Charles 0. 
DeCosta, Lewis M. 
DeDardel, Carl O. 
Dee, Thomas J. 
Deery, Thomas A., Jr. 
Degen, David 
DeGolyer, Robert S. 
DeKoven, Mrs. John 
DeLang, Theodore O. 
DeLee, Dr. Joseph B. 
Deming, Everett G. 
Dempster, Mrs. C. W. 
Deneen, Mrs. Charles S. 
Denman, Mrs. Burt J. 
Dennehy, T. C. 

Dennis, Charles H. 
Dent, George C. 
Deutsch, Joseph 
Deutsch, Mrs. Percy L. 
Deutsch, Samuel 
DeVries, David 
DeVries, Peter 
Dewes, Rudolph Peter 
Dewey, Albert B., Sr. 
Dick, Albert B., Jr. 
Dick, Elmer J. 
Dick, Mrs. Homer T. 
Dickey, Roy 
Dickinson, F. R. 
Dickinson, Robert B. 
Dickinson, Theodore 
Dickinson, Mrs. W. F. 
DiESTEL, Mrs. Herman 
Dikeman, Aaron Butler 
Dillon, Miss Hester May 
Dimick, Miss Elizabeth 
Dixon, Alan C. 
Dixon, Homer L. 
Dixon, William Warren 
Dobson, George 
Doctor, Isidor 
Dodge, Mrs. Paul C. 
Doering, Otto C. 
DoERR, William P., Sr. 
Doetsch, Miss Anna 
Dole, Arthur, Sr. 
Dolese, Mrs. John 
Donahue, William J. 
DoNKER, Mrs. William 
DoNLON, Mrs. S. E. 
Donnelley, Miss Naomi 
Donnelley, Mrs. R. R. 
Donnelley, Mrs. H. P. 
Donnelly, Frank 
Donohue, Edgar T. 
Douglas, James H., Jr. 
Douglass, Kingman 
Douglass, W. A. 
Dreiske, George J. 
Drummond, James J. 
Dryden, Mrs. George B. 
Dudley, Laurence H. 
DuGAN, Alphonso G. 
DuLANY, George W., Jr. 
DuLSKY, Mrs. Samuel 
Duncan, Albert G. 
DuNER, Dr. Clarence S. 
Dunham, John H. 
Dunham, Miss Lucy Belle 

240 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Dunham, Robert J. 
DuNLOP, Mrs. Simpson 
DuPEE, Mrs. F. Kennett 
DuRBiN, Fletcher M. 
Dyche, William A. 

Easterberg, C. J. 
Eastman, Mrs. George H. 
Eastman, R. M. 
Ebeling, Frederic O. 
EcKHART, Percy B. 
Eckstein, H. G. 
Eddy, Mrs. Arthur J. 
Eddy, George A. 
Eddy, Thomas H. 
Edmonds, Harry C. 
Edwards, Miss Edith E. 
Edwards, Kenneth P. 
Egan, W. B. 
Ehrman, Edwin H. 
Eiger, Oscar S. 
Eiselen, Frederick Carl 
Eisendrath, Edwin W. 
Eisendrath, Robert M. 
Eisendrath, Mrs. William N. 
EisENSCHiML, Mrs. Otto 
Eisenstaedt, Harry 
EisENSTEiN, Sol 
EiTEL, Max 
Elcock, Edward G. 
Elenbogen, Herman 
Ellbogen, Albert L. 
Elliot, Mrs. Frank M. 
Elliott, Dr. Charles A. 
Elliott, Frank R. 
Ellis, Howard 
Elting, Howard 
Ely, Mrs. C. Morse 
Engel, E. J. 

Engelhard, Benjamin M. 
Engwall, John F. 
Erdmann, Mrs. C. Pardee 
Ericson, Mrs. Chester F. 
Ericson, Melvin B. 
Ericsson, Clarence 
Ericsson, H. 
Ericsson, Walter H. 
Ernst, Mrs. Leo 
Erskine, Albert DeWolf . 
Etten, Henry C. 
EusTicE, Alfred L. 
Evans, Mrs. Albert Thomas 
Evans, Mrs. David 
Evans, David J. 
Evans, Eliot H. 

Evans, Hon. Evan A. 
Ewell, C. D. 
EwEN, William R. T. 

Fabian, Francis G. 
Fabry, Herman 
Fackt, Mrs. George P. 
Fader, A. L. 
Facet, James E. 
Faherty, Roger 
Fahrenwald, Frank A. 
Fahrney, Emery H. 
Faithorn, Walter E. 
Falk, Miss Amy 
Falk, Lester L. 
Farnham, Mrs. Harry J. 
Farrell, Mrs. B. J. 
Farrell, Rev. Thomas F. 
Faulkner, Charles J., Jr. 
Faulkner, Miss Elizabeth 
Faurot, Henry, Sr. 
Faurot, Henry, Jr. 
Fay, Miss Agnes M. 
Fecke, Mrs. Frank J. 
Feigenheimer, Herman 
Feiwell, Morris E. 
Felix, Benjamin B. 
Fellows, W. K. 
Felsbnthal, Edward George 
Feltman, Charles H. 
Fergus, Robert C. 
Ferguson, William H, 
Fernald, Robert W. 
Fetzer, Wade 
FiLEK, August 
FiNLEY, Max H. 
Finn, Joseph M. 
FiscHEL, Frederic A. 
Fish, Isaac 
FisHBEiN, Dr. Morris 
Fisher, Mrs. Edward Metcalf 
Fisher, George P. 
Fisher, Hon. Harry M. 
Fisher, Walter L. 
FiTZPATRiCK, Mrs. John A, 
Flavin, Edwin F., Sr. 
Flesch, Eugene W. P. 
Flexner, Washington 
Florian, Mrs. Paul A., Jr. 
Florsheim, Irving S. 
Flosdorf, Mrs. G. E. 
Foley, Rev. William M. 
Follansbee, Mitchell D. 
Folonie, Mrs. Robert J. 
Folsom, Mrs. Richard S. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


FooTE, Peter 

Foreman, Mrs. Alfred K. 

Foreman, Mrs. E. G. 

Foreman, Edwin G., Jr. 

Foreman, Harold E. 

Foreman, Henry G. 

Foreman, Oscar G. 

Foresman, Mrs. W. Coates 

Forgan, James B., Jr. 

FoRGAN, Robert D. 

Forman, Charles 

forstall, j.ames j. 

Fortune, Miss Joanna 

Foster, Mrs. Charles K. 

Foster, Volney 

Foster, Mrs. William C. 

Fowler, Miss Elizabeth 

Fox, Charles E, 

Fox, Jacob Logan 

Fox, Dr. Paul C. 

Frank, Dr. Ira 

Frank, Mrs. Joseph K. 

Frankenstein, Rudolph 

Frankenstein, W. B, 

Frankenthal, Dr. Lester E., Jr. 

Franklin, M. E. 

Freedman, Dr. I. Val 

Freeman, Charles Y. 

Freeman, Walter W. 

Freer, Archibald E. 

Frenier, a. B. 

Freudenthal, G. S. 

Freund, Charles E. 

Freund, I. H. 

Frey, Charles Daniel 

Freyn, Henry J. 

Fridstein, Meyer 

Friedlander, Jacob 

Friedlich, Mrs. Herbert 

Friedlund, Mrs. J. Arthur 

Friedman, Mrs. Isaac K. 

Friedman, Oscar J. 

Friestedt, Arthur A. 

Frisbie, Chauncey O. 

Frost, Mrs. Charles 

Fuller, Mrs. Charles 

Fuller, Mrs. Greeta Patterson 

Fuller, Judson M. 

Fuller, Leroy W. 

Furry, William S. 

FuRST, Eduard a. 

Gabathuler, Miss Juanita 
Gabriel, Charles 
Gaertner, William 

Gale, G. Whittier 

Gale, Henry G. 

Gall, Charles H. 

Gall, Harry T. 

Gallagher, Vincent G. 

Gallup, Rockwell 

Galt, Mrs. A. T. 

Galvin, Wm. a. 

Gann, David B. 

Gansbergen, Mrs. F. H. 

Garard, Elzy a. 

Garcia, Jose 

Garden, Hugh M. G. 

Gardner, Addison L., Sr. 

Gardner, Addison L., Jr. 

Gardner, Henry A. 

Gardner, Mrs. James P. 

Garner, Harry J. 

Garrison, Dr. Lester E. 

Gary, Fred Elbert 

Gately, Ralph M. 

Gates, Philetus W. 

Gawne, Miss Clara J. 

Gay, Rev. A. Royal 

Gaylord, Duane W, 

Gear, H. B. 

Gehl, Dr. William H. 

Gehrmann, Felix 

George, Mrs. Albert B. 

George, Fred W. 

Gerding, R. W. 

Gerngross, Mrs. Leo 

Gerrity, Thomas 

Gerts, Walter S. 

Gettelman, Mrs. Sidney H. 

Getzofp, E. B. 

Gheen, Miss Marian H. 

Gibbons, John W. 

Gibbs, Dr. John Phillip 

Gibson, Dr. Stanley 

GiELOw, Walter C. 

GiFFERT, Mrs. William 

Gilbert, Miss Clara C. 

Gilchrist, Mrs. John F. 

Gilchrist, Mrs. William Albert 

Giles, Carl C. 

GiLLMAN, Morris 

GiLLSON, Louis K. 

GiNTHER, Miss Minnie C. 

GiRARD, Mrs. Anna 

Glaescher, Mrs. G. W. 

Glasgow, H. A. 

Glasn^r, Rudolph W. 

Glenn, Mrs. J. M. 

GoDEHN, Paul M. 

242 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

GoEDKE, Charles F. 

GoEHST, Mrs. John Henry 

Goes, Mrs. Arthur A. 

Golden, Dr. Isaac J. K. 

goldenberg, sidney d. 

Goldfine, Dr. Ascher H. C. 

GoLDSTiNE, Dr. Mark T. 

GoLDY, Walter I. 

Goode, Mrs. Rowland T. 

gooden, g. e. 

GooDKiND, Dr. Maurice L. 

Goodman, Bent:dict K. 

Goodman, Mrs. Herbert E. 

Goodman, Miss Jean Ellen 

Goodman, W. J. 

Goodman, William E. 

GooDROw, William 

Goodspeed, Mrs. Wilbur F. 

Goodwin, Hon. Clarence Norton 

Goodwin, George S. 

Gordon, Harold J. 

Gordon, Mrs. Robert D. 

Gorham, Sidney Smith 

Gorman, George E. 

Gorrell, Mrs. Warren 

Gottfried, C. M. 

gottschalk, gustav h. 

Gradle, Dr. Harry S. 

Grady, Dr. Grover Q. 

Graf, Robert J. 

Graff, Oscar G. 

Graham, Douglas 

Graham, E. V. 

Graham, Miss Margaret H. 

Gramm, Mrs. Helen 

Granger, Alfred 

Grant, Alexander R. 

Grant, James D. 

Grant, John G. 

Graves, Howard B. 

Gray, Rev. James M. 

Green, J. B. 

Green, Dr. Raphael B. 

Green, Robert D. 

Green, Zola C. 

Greenberg, Andrew H. 

Greenburg, Dr. Ira E. 

Greene, Carl D. 

Greenebaum, James E. 

Greenebaum, M. E. 

Greenebaum, M. E., Jr. 

Greenlee, James A. 

Greenlee, Mrs. William Brooks 

Greenman, Mrs. Earl C. 

Gregory, Clifford V. 

Gregory, Stephen S., Jr. 
Gregory, Tappan 
Grey, Charles F. 
Grey, Dr. Dorothy 
Grey, Howard G. 
Griest, Mrs. Marianna L. 
Griffenhagen, Mrs. Edwin 0. 
Griffith, Enoch L. 
Griffith, Melvin L. 
Griffith, Mrs. William 
Griffiths, George W. 
Grimm, Walter H. 
Griswold, Harold T. 
Grizzard, James A. 
Gronkowski, Rev. C. I. 
Gross, Mrs. Emily 
Gross, Henry R. 
Grossman, Frank I. 
Grotenhuis, Mrs. Willlam J. 
Grotowski, Dr. Leon 
Grulee, Lowry K. 
Grunow, Mrs. William C. 
GtTENZEL, Louis 
Guest, Ward E. 
Gulbransen, Axel G. 
GuLiCK, John H. 
GuNDLACH, Ernest T. 
GuNTHORP, Walter J. 
Gwinn, William R. 

Haas, Maurice 
Haas, Dr. Raoul 
Hadley, Mrs. Edwin M. 
Hagen, Mrs. Daise 
Hagen, Fred J. 
Hagens, Dr. Garrett J. 
Haggard, John D. 
Hagner, Fred L. 
Haight, George I. 
Hair, T. R. 
Hajicek, Rudolph F. 
Haldeman, Walter S. 
Hale, Mrs. Samuel 
Hale, William B. 
Hall, David W. 
Hall, Edward B. 
Hall, Mrs. J. B. 
Hallmann, August F. 
Kallmann, Herman F. 
Halperin, Aaron 
Hamill, Charles H. 
Hamill, Mrs. Ernest A. 
Hamill, Robert W. 
Hamilton, Thomas B. 
Hamlin, Paul D. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Hamm, Edward F. 

Hammerschmidt, Mrs. George F. 

Hammitt, Miss Frances M. 

Hammond, Thomas S. 

Hand, George W. 

Hanley, Henry L. 

Hansen, Mrs. Carl 

Hansen, Jacob W. 

Harbison, L. C. 

Harder, John H. 

Hardie, George F. 

Hardin, John H. 

Harding, G. F. 

Harding, John Cowden 

Harding, Richard T. 

Hardinge, Franklin 

Harker, H. L. 

Harms, John V. D. 

Harper, Alfred C. 

Harris, David J. 

Harris, Gordon L. 

Harris, H. B. 

Harris, Miss Martha E. 

Hart, Mrs. Herbert L. 

Hart, William N. 

Hartmann, a. 0. 

Hartshorn, Kenneth L. 

Hartwell, Fred G. 

Hartwig, Otto J. 

Harvey, Hillman H. 

Harvey, Richard M. 

Harwood, Thomas W. 

Haskell, Mrs. George E. 

H AUG an, Charles M. 

Haugan, Oscar H. 

Havens, Samuel M. 

Hayes, Charles M. 

Hayes, Harold C. 

Hayes, Miss Mary E. 

Haynie, Miss Rachel W. 

Hays, Mrs. Arthur A. 

Hazlett, Dr. William H. 

Healy, Mrs. Marquette A. 

Heaney, Dr. N. Sproat 

Heaton, Harry E. 

Heaton, Herman C. 

Heberlein, Miss Amanda F. 

Heck, John 

Heckendorf, R. a. 

Hedberg, Henry E. 

Heidke, Herman L. 

Heiman, Marcus 

Heine, Mrs. Albert 

Heineman, Oscar 

Heinzelman, Karl 

Heinzen, Mrs. Carl 
Heldmaier, Miss Marie 
Helfrich, J. Howard 
Heller, Albert 
Heller, John A. 
Heller, Mrs. Walter E. 
Hellman, George A. 
Hellyer, Walter 
Hemmens, Mrs. Walter P. 
Hemple, Miss Anne C. 
Henderson, Thomas B. G. 
Henkel, Frederick W. 
Henley, Eugene H. 
Hennings, Mrs. Abraham J. 
Henry, Otto 

Henshaw, Mrs. Raymond S. 
Herrick, Charles E. 
Herrick, Miss Louise 
Herrick, W. D. 
Herron, James C. 
Herron, Mrs. Ollie L, 
Hershey, J. Clarence 
Hertz, Mrs. Fred 
Herwig, George 
Herwig, William D., Jr. 
Hess, Mrs. Charles Wilbur 
Heun, Arthur 
Heverly, Earl L. 
Heyworth, Mrs. James O. 
HiBBARD, Mrs. Angus S. 
HiBBARD, Mrs. W. G. 
HiGGiNS, John 
HiGGiNS, John W. 


Higley, Mrs. Charles W. 


Hill, Mrs. E. M. 
Hill, Mrs. Lysander 
Hill, William E. 
Hillbrecht, Herbert E. 
HiLLE, Dr. Hermann 
HiLLis, Dr. David S. 
HiMROD, Mrs. Frank W. 
Hindman, Biscoe 
HiNKLE, Ross O. 
HiNMAN, Mrs. Estelle S. 
HiNRiCHS, Henry, Jr. 
HiNSBERG, Stanley K. 
HiNTON, E. W. 
HiRD, Frederick H. 
HiRSCH, Henry H. 
HiRSCH, Jacob H. 
Hiscox, Morton 
Histed, J. Roland 

244 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

HixoN, Robert 

HoELSCHER, Herman M. 

Hoffman, Glen T. 

Hoffmann, Miss Caroline Dickinson 

Hoffmann, Edward Hempstead 

HoGAN, Frank 

HoGAN, Robert E. 

Hoier, William V. 

HoLDEN, Edward A. 

Holland, Dr. William E. 

HoLLis, Henry L. 

HoLLisTER, Francis H. 

Holmes, George J. 

Holmes, Miss Harriet F. 

Holmes, William N. 

Holt, Miss Ellen 

Homan, Miss Blossom L. 

HoNNOLD, Dr. Fred C, 

Honsik, Mrs. Jambs M. 

Hoover, F. E. 

Hoover, Mrs. Fred W. 

Hoover, H. Earl 

Hoover, Ray P. 

Hope, Alfred S. 

Hopkins, Farley 

Hopkins, Mrs. James M. 

Hopkins, John L. 

HoRAN, Dennis A. 

Horcher, William W. 

Horner, Dr. David A. 

Horner, Mrs. Maurice L., Jr. 

HoRST, Curt A. 

Horton, George T. 

Horton, Hiram T. 

Horton, Horace B. 

Hosbein, Louis H. 

Hosmer, Philip 


Howard, Harold A. 
Howard, Willis G. 
Howe, Charles Arthur 
Howe, Clinton W. 
Howe, Warren D. 
Howe, William G. 
H0WEL17, Albert S. 
Howell, William 
Howes, Frank W. 
HowsE, Richard 
HoYNE, Frank G. 
HoYNE, Thomas Temple 
Hoyt, Frederick T. 
HoYT, Mrs. Phelps B. 
Hubbard, George W. 
HuBER, Dr. Harry Lee 
Hudson, Mrs. H. Newton 

Hudson, Walter L. 
Hudson, William E. 
HuEY, Mrs. Arthur S. 
Huff, Thomas D. 
Hughes, John E. 
Hughes, John W. 
HuLBERT, Mrs. Charles Pratt 
HuLBERT, Mrs. Milan H. 
Hultgen, Dr. Jacob F. 
Hume, John T. 
HuNCKE, Herbert S. 
HuNCKE, Oswald W. 
Hunter, Samuel M. 
HuRD, N. L. 

Hurley, Edward N., Jr. 
Huston, W. L. 
Huston, Ward T. 
Huszagh, Ralph D. 
HuszAGH, R. LeRoy 
Hutchinson, Foye P. 
Hutchinson, John W. 
Hutchinson, Samuel S. 
Hynes, Rev. J. A. 

ICKES, Raymond 
Idelman, Bernard 
Ilg, Robert A. 
Inlander, Samuel 
Irons, Dr. Ernest E. 
Isaacs, Charles W., Jr. 
ISHAM, Henry P. 
Ives, Clifford E. 

Jackson, Allan 
Jackson, Archer L. 
Jackson, Arthur S. 
Jackson, W. J. 
Jacobi, Miss Emily 
Jacobs, Hyman A. 
Jacobs, Julius 
Jacobs, Louis G. 
Jacobs, Siegfried T. 
Jacobson, Raphael 
Jaeger, George J., Jr. 
Jaffe, Dr. Richard Herman 
Jaffray, Mrs. David S., Jr. 
James, Edward P. 
•James, William R. 
Jameson, Clarence W. 
Janusch, Fred W. 
Jarchow, Charles C. 
Jarratt, Mrs. Walter J. 
Jefferies, F. L. 
Jeffery, Mrs. Thomas B. 
Jenkins, Mrs. John E. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Jenkinson, Mrs. Arthur Gilbert 

Jenks, R. William Shippen 

Jennings, Ode D. 

Jennings, Mrs. Rosa V. 

Jerger, Wilbur Joseph 

Jetzinger, David 

JiRKA, Dr. Frank J. 

JiRKA, Dr. Robert 

John, Dr. Findley D. 

Johnson, Albert M. 

Johnson, Alfred 

Johnson, Alvin 0. 

Johnson, Arthur L. 

Johnson, Mrs. Harley Alden 

Johnson, Isaac Horton 

Johnson, Joseph F. 

Johnson, Nels E. 

Johnson, Olaf B. 

Johnson, Mrs. O. W. 

Johnson, Philip C. 

Johnson, Ulysses G. 

Johnston, Arthur C. 

Johnston, Edward R. 

Johnston, Mrs. Hubert McBean 

Johnston, Mrs. M. L. 

Johnstone, Dr. A. Ralph 

Johnstone, George A. 

Johnstone, Dr. Mary M. S. 

Jones, Albert G. 

Jones, Fred B. 

Jones, G. H. 

Jones, James B. 

Jones, Dr. Margaret M. 

Jones, Melvin 

Jones, Warren G. 

Joseph, Louis L. 

Joy, Guy A. 

Joyce, David G. 

Joyce, Joseph 

Judah, Noble Brandon 

Judah, Mrs. Noble Brandon 

Juergens, H. Paul 

Julien, Victor R. 

JuNKUNC, Stephen 

Kaercher, a. W. 
Kahn, Gus 
Kahn, J. Kesner 
Kahn, Louis 
Kaine, James B. 
Kalacinski, Mrs. Felix 
Kane, Jerome M. 
Kaplan, Nathan D. 
Karpen, Adolph 
Karpen, Michael 

Kaspar, Otto 

Katz, Mrs. Sidney L. 

Kauffman, Mrs. R. K. 

Kauffmann, Alfred 

Kavanagh, Maurice F. 

Keehn, George W. 

Keehn, Mrs. Theodore C. L. 

Keene, Mrs. Joseph 

Keeney, a. F. 

Kehl, Robert Joseph 

Keith, Stanley 

Kellogg, John L. 

Kellogg, Mrs. M. G. 

Kelly, Edward T. 

Kelly, James J. 

Kemp, Mrs. E. M. 

Kempner, Harry B. 

Kempner, Stan 

Kendall, Mrs. Virginia H, 

Kendrick, John F. 

Kennedy, Miss Leonore 

Kennelly, Martin H. 

Kent, Dr. O, B. 

Keogh, Gordon E. 

Kern, Trude 

Kesner, Jacob L. 

Kilbourne, L. B. 

Kile, Miss Jessie J. 

KiMBARK, Mrs. Eugene Underwood 

KiMBARK, John R. 

King, Joseph H. 

Kingman, Mrs. Arthur G. 

Kinney, Mrs. Minnie B. 

KiNSEY, Frank 

Kinsey, Robert S. 

KiNTZEL, Richard 

Kipp, Carl P. 

KiRCHER, Rev. Julius 

Kirchheimer, Max 

KiRKLAND, Mrs. Weymouth 

Kitchell, Howell W. 


Kitzelman, Otto 

Klee, Nathan 

Klein, Arthur F. 

Klein, Henry A. 

Klein, Mrs. Samuel 

Kleinpell, Dr. Henry H. 

Kleist, Mrs. Harry 

Kleppinger, William H., Jr. 

Kleutgen, Dr. Arthur C. 

Kline, Sol 

Klinetop, Mrs. Charles W. 

Klink, a. F. 

Knox, Harry S. 

246 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Knxjtson, G. H. 
Koch, Paul W. 
KocHS, Mrs. Robert T. 
Kohl, Mrs. Caroline L. 
KoHLER, Eric L. 
Kohls AAT, Edward C. 
KoMiss, David S. 
Konsberg, Alvin V. 
KoPF, William P. 
KosoBUD, William F. 
KoTAL, John A. 
KoTiN, George N. 
KoucKY, Dr. J. D. 
KovAC, Stefan 
Kraber, Mrs. Fredericka 
Kraft, C. H. 
Kraft, James L. 
Kraft, Norman 
Kralovec, Emil G. 
Kralovec, Mrs. Otto J. 
Kramer, Leroy 
Kraus, Peter J. 
Krause, John J. 
Kretschmer, Dr. Herman L. 
Kritchevsky, Dr. Wolff 
Kroehl, Howard 
Krohmer, William F. 
Kropff, C. G. 
Krost, Dr. Gerard N. 
Krueger, Leopold A. 
Krutckoff, Charles 
Kuehn, a. L. 
KuH, Mrs. Edwin J., Jr. 
Kuhl, Harry J. 
KuHN, Frederick 
KuHN, Dr. Hedwig S. 
KuNKA, Bernard J. 
Kunstadter, a. 
KuRTzoN, Morris 

Lacey, Miss Edith M. 
LaChance, Mrs. Leander H. 
Lackowski, Frank E. 
Laflin, Mrs. Louis E. 
Laflin, Louis E., Jr. 
LaGuske, Mrs. Chester 
Lampert, Mrs. Lydia 
Lampert, Wilson W. 
Lamson, W. a. 
Lanahan, Mrs. M. J. 
Landry, Alvar A. 
Lane, F. Howard 
Lane, Ray E. 
Lane, Wallace R. 
Lang, Edward J. 

Lang, Mrs. W. J. 

Lange, Mrs. August 

Langenbach, Mrs. Alice R. 

Langhorne, George Taylob 

Langland, James 

Langworthy, Benjamin Franklin 

Lansinger, Mrs. John M. 

Larimer, Howard S. 

Larson, Bror 0. 

Lashley, Mrs. Karl S. 

Lasker, Albert D. 

Lau, Max 

Lauren, Newton B. 

Lauritzen, cm. 

Lauter, Mrs. Vera 

Lautmann, Herbert M. 

Lavezzorio, Mrs. J. B. 

Lawless, Dr. Theodore K. 

Lawrence, W. J. 

Lawson, a. J. 

Lawson, Mrs. Iver N. 

Lawton, Frank W. 

Laylander, 0. J. 

Leahy, Thomas F. 

Learned, Edwin J. 

Leavell, James R. 

Leavitt, Mrs. Wellington 

Lebensohn, Dr. Mayer H. 

Lebolt, John Michael 

Lederer, Dr. Francis L. 

Lefens, Miss Katherine J. 

Lefens, Walter C. 

Lehmann, Miss Augusta E. 

Leichenko, Peter M. 

Leight, Mrs. Albert E. 

Leistner, Oscar 

Leland, Miss Alice J. 

LeMoon, a. R. 

Lenz, J. Mayo 

Leonard, Arthur G. 

Leonard, Arthur T. 

Leopold, Foreman N. 

Leslie, John H. 

Letts, Mrs. Frank C. 

Levan, Rev. Thomas F. 

Leverone, Louis E. 

Levinson, Mrs. Salmon 0. 

Levitan, Benjamin 

Levitetz, Nathan 

Levy, Alexander M. 

Levy, Arthur G. 

Lewis, David R. 

Lewy, Dr. Alfred 

LiBBY, Mrs. C. P. 

Liebman, a. J. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


LiLLiE, Frank R. 
LiNDAHL, Mrs. Edward J. 
Linden, John A. 
Lindenberg, Albert 
Lindheimer, B. F. 
Lindholm, Charles V. 
Lindley, Mrs. Arthur F. 
Lindquist, J. E. 
Lingle, Bowman C. 
Linton, Ben B. 
Lipman, Robert R. 
Liss, Samuel 
Littler, Harry E., Jr. 
Livingston, Julian M. 
Livingston, Mrs. Milton L. 
Llewellyn, Paul 
Llewellyn, Mrs. S. J. 
Lloyd, Edward W. 
Lloyd, William Bross 
LoBDELL, Mrs. Edwin L. 

LoEB, Hamilton M. 
LoEB, Jacob M. 
LoEB, Leo A. 
LoESCH, Frank J. 
Loewenberg, I. S. 
loewenberg, m. l. 
Loewenstein, Sidney 
loewenthal, mrs. julius w. 
Loewenthal, Richard J. 
Logan, John L 
Long, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Long, William E. 
Lord, Arthur R. 
Lord, Mrs. Russell 
LoucKS, Charles O. 


LouER, Albert S. 
Love, Chase W. 
Lovell, William H. 
Lovgren, Carl 
Lownik, Dr. Felix J. 
Lucas, Mrs. Robert M. 
LucEY, Patrick J. 
Ludington, Nelson J. 
Ludolph, Wilbur M. 
LuEDER, Arthur C. 
LuEHR, Dr. Edward 
Lufkin, Wallace W. 
LuRiA, Herbert A. 
Lustgarten, Samuel 
LuTTER, Henry J., Sr. 
Lydon, Mrs. William A. 
Lyford, Harry B. 

Lyford, Will H. 
Lyman, Thomas T. 
Lynch, William Joseph 
Lyon, Charles H. 
Lyon, Frank R. 
Lyon, Mrs. Thomas R. 

Maass, J. Edward 
Mabee, Mrs. Melbourne 
MacCardle, H. B. 
MacDonald, E. K. 
MacDougal, Mrs. T. W. 
Mackey, Frank J. 
Mackinson, Dr. John C. 
MacLeish, Mrs. Andrew 
MacLellan, K. F. 
Magan, Miss Jane A. 
Magill, Henry P. 
Magill, Robert M. 
Magnus, Albert, Jr. 
Magnus, August C. 
Magnus, Edward 
Magwire, Mrs. Mary F. 
Maher, Mrs. D. W. 
Main, Walter D. 
Malone, William H. 
Manaster, Harry 
Mandel, Mrs. Aaron W. 
Mandel, Mrs. Babette F. 
Mandel, Edwin F. 
Mandel, Mrs. Frederick 
Mandl, Sidney 
Manegold, Mrs. Frank W. 
Manierre, Francis E. 
Manierre, Louis 
Mann, Albert C. 
Mann, John P. 
Manson, David 
Mansure, Edmund L. 
Marcus, Maurice S. 
Marhoefer, Edward H. 
Mark, Mrs. Cyrus 
Marks, Arnold K. 
Marquis, A. N. 
Mars, G. C. 
Marsh, A. Fletcher 
Marsh, John P. 
Marsh, Mrs. Marshall S. 
Martin, Mrs. Franklin H. 
Martin, Samuel H. 
Martin, W. B. 
Martin, Wells 
Marx, Frederick Z. 
Marzluff, Frank W. 

248 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports ,Vol. IX 

Marzola, Leo A. 
Mason, Willard J. 
Massbe, B. a. 
Massey, Peter J. 
Mathesius, Mrs. Walther 
Matson, J. Edward 
Matter, Mrs. John 
Matthiessen, Frank 
Matz, Mrs. Rudolph 
Mauran, Charles S. 
Maurer, Dr. Siegfried 
Maxwell, Lloyd R. 
Mayer, Mrs. David 
Mayer, Isaac H. 
Mayer, Oscar F. 
Mayer, Theodore S. 
McAuley, John E. 
McBirney, Mrs. Hugh J. 
McBride, Mrs. Walter J. 
McCarthy, Edmond J. 
McCarthy, Joseph W. 
McClellan, Dr. John H. 
McCluer, W. B. 
McClun, John M. 
McCoRD, Downer • 

McCormack, Professor H, 
McCoRMiCK, Mrs. Alexander A. 
McCoRMicK, Mrs. Chauncey 
McCormick, Fowler 
McCoRMiCK, Howard H. 
McCormick, L. Hamilton 
McCormick, Leander J. 
McCormick, Robert H., Jr. 
McCoy, Herbert N. 
McCracken, Miss Willietta 
McCrea, Mrs. W. S. 
McCready, Mrs. E. W. 
McDouGAL, Mrs. James B. 
McDougal, Mrs. Robert 
McDougall, Mrs. Arthur R. 
McErlean, Charles V. 
McGarry, John A. 
McGraw, Max 
McGuRN, Mathew S. 
McHugh, Mrs. Grover 
McIntosh, Arthur T. 
MclNTOSH, Mrs. Walter G. 
McKay, James M. 
McKeever, Buel 
McKiNNEY, Mrs. Hayes 
McLaury, Mrs. C. W. 
McLaury, Walker G. 
McLennan, Mrs. John A. 
McMenemy, L. T. 
McMillan, John 

McMillan, W. B. 
McMillan, William M. 
McNamara, Louis G. 
McNulty, Joseph D. 
McQuARRiE, Mrs. Fannie 
McVoY, John M. 
Medsker, Dr. Ora L. 
Mehring, George 
Melchione, Joseph 
Melendy, Dr. R. A. 
Melnick, Leopold B. 
Merrill, Henry S. 
Merrill, James S. 
Merrill, William W. 
Merz, Edward E. 
Metz, Dr. a. R. 
Metzel, Mrs. Albert J. 
Meyer, Mrs. A. H. 
Meyer, Abraham 
Meyer, Abraham W. 
Meyer, Albert 
Meyer, Charles Z. 
Meyer, Oscar 
Meyer, Sam R. 
Meyer, William 
Meyercord, G. R. 
Mickelberry, Mrs. Charles M. 
MiDowicz, C. E. 
Milhening, Frank 
Milhening, Joseph 
Miller, Charles B. 
Miller, Mrs. Clayton W. 
Miller, Mrs. Darius 
Miller, Mrs. F. H. 
Miller, Hyman 
Miller, John S., Jr. 
Miller, Dr. Joseph L. 
Miller, Oscar C. 
Miller, Walter E. 
Miller, Mrs. Walter H. 
Miller, William E. 
Miller, William S. 
Mills, Allen G. 
Mills, Fred L. 
Mills, John, Sr. 
Miner, Dr. Carl 
Miner, H. J. 
Mitchell, Charles D. 
Mitchell, George F. 
Mitchell, John J. 
Mitchell, Mrs. John J. 
Mitchell, Leeds 
Mitchell, Oliver 
Mock, Dr. Harry Edgar 
Modbrwell, C. M. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


MoELLER, Rev. Herman H. 

MoENG, Mrs. Edward D. 

MoFFATT, Mrs. Elizabeth M. 

MoHR, Albert 

Mohr, Edward 

MoHR, William J. 

Molloy, David J. 

MoLTZ, Mrs. Alice 

MoNAGHAN, Thomas H. 

Monheimer, Henry I. 

Monroe, William S. 

Montgomery, Dr. Albert H. 

Moody, Mrs. William Vaughn 

Moore, C. B. 

Moore, Philip Wyatt 

Moos, Joseph B. 

Moran, Brian T. 

Mohan, Miss Margaret 

More, Roland R. 

Morey, Charles W. 
[MoRF, F. William 

Morgan, Alden K. 
! Morgan, Mrs. Kendrick E. 

Morrill, Nahum 

Morris, Edward H. 

Morris, F. C. 

Morris, Mrs. Seymour 

Morrison, Mrs. Charles E. 

Morrison, Mrs. Harry 

Morrison, James C. 

Morrison, Matthew A. 

MoRRissoN, James W. 

Morse, Mrs. Charles J. 

Morse, Leland R. 

Morse, Mrs. Milton 

Morse, Robert H. 

Mortenson, Mrs. Jacob 

Morton, Sterling 

Morton, William Morris 

Moses, Howard A. 

Moss, Jerome A. 

MouAT, Andrew 

Mowry, Louis C. 

Mudge, Mrs. John B. 

Muehlstein, Mrs. Charles 

Mueller, A. M. 

Mueller, J, Herbert 

Mueller, Paul H. 

Mulford, Miss Melinda Jane 

Mulholand, William H. 

Murphy, John P. V. 

Murphy, Robert E. 

Musselman, Dr. George H. 

Naber, Henry G. 
Nadler, Dr. Walter H. 

Nash, Charles J. 
Nason, Albert J. 
Nathan, Claude 
Naugle, Mrs. Archibald 
Neely, Miss Carrie Blair 
Nehls, Arthur L. 
Neilson, Mrs. Francis 
Nellegar, Mrs. Jay C. 
Nelson, Charles G. 
Nelson, Donald M. 
Nelson, Edward A. 
Nelson, Murry 
Nelson, Nils A. 
Nelson, N. J. 
Nelson, Mrs. Oliver R. 
Nelson, Victor W. 
Neu, Clarence L. 
Neuffer, Paul A. 
Newhall, R, Frank 
Nichols, George P. 
Nichols, Mrs. George R. 
Nichols, Mrs. George R., Jr. 
Nichols, J. C. 
Nichols, S. F. 
Nichols, Warren 
Nicholson, Thomas G. 
Noble, Orlando 
NoELLE, Joseph B. 
NoLLAU, Miss Emma 
NooNAN, Edward J. 
NoRCROSs, Frederic F. 
NoRRis, Mrs. Lester 
NoRRis, Mrs. William W. 
Norton, Mrs. 0. W. 
Norton, R. H. 
Novak, Charles J. 
NoYES, Allan S. 
Noyes, David A. 
Noyes, Mrs. May Wells 
NusBAUM, Mrs. Carl B. 
Nyman, Dr. John Egbert 

Oberfelder, Herbert M. 
Oberfelder, Walter S. 
O'Brien, Frank J. 
O'Brien, Mrs. William 

Vincent, Jr. 
Odell, William R. 
O'Donnell, Miss Rose 
Off, Mrs. Clifford 
Offield, James R. 
Oglesbee, Nathan H. 
O'Keefe, Mrs. Dennis D. 
Olcott, Mrs. Henry G. 
Oldefest, Edward G. 
Oliver, Gene G. 

250 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Oliver, Mrs. Paul 

Olsen, Gustaf 

Omo, Don L. 

Oppenheimer, Alfred 

Oppenheimer, Mrs. Harry D. 

Oppenheimer, Julius 

Orndoff, Dr. Benjamin H. 

O'RouRKE, Albert 

Orr, Mrs. Robert C. 

Orthal, a. J. 

Ortmayer, Dr. Marie 

Osborn, Theodore L. 

Ostrom, Charles S. 

OsTROM, Mrs. James Augustus 

Otis, J. Sanford 

Otis, Joseph E. 

Otis, Joseph Edward, Jr. 

Otis, Lucius J. 

Otis, R. C. 

Otis, Raymond 

Otis, Stuart H. 

Otis, Mrs. Xavier L, 

OusKA, John A. 

OwiNGS, Mrs. Nathaniel A. 

Paasche, Jens A. 
Pace, J. Madison 
Packard, Dr. Rollo K. 
P.iEPCKE, Walter P. 
Page, Mrs. William R. 
Page-Wood, Gerald 
Pagin, Mrs. Frank S. 
Palmer, Percival B. 
Pam, Miss Carrie 
Pardridge, Albert J. 
Pardridge, Mrs. E. W. 
Park, R. E. 
Parker, Frank B. 
P.^rker, Dr. Gaston C. 
P.A.RKER, Norman S. 
Parker, Troy L. 
Parks, C. R. 
Parmelee, Dr. A. H. 
Paschen, Mrs. Annette A. 
Paschen, Mrs. Henry 
Patrick, Miss Catherine 
Patrick, Dr. Hugh T. 
Pauling, Edward G. 
Peabody, Mrs. Fr.^ncis S. 
Peabody, Howard B. 
Peabody, Miss Susan W. 
Peacock, Robert E. 
Peacock, Walter C. 
Pearse, Langdon 
Pearson, F. W. 

Pearson, George Albert, Jr. 

Peck, Dr. David B. 

Peet, Mrs. Belle G. 

Peet, Fred N. 

Peirce, Albert E. 

Pelley, John J. 

Peltier, M. F. 

PenDell, Charles W. 

Percy, Dr. Nelson Mortimer 

Perkins, A. T. 

Perkins, Mrs. Herbert F. 

Perry, Dr. Ethel B. 

Perry, I. Newton 

Peter, William F. 

Peterkin, Daniel 

Peters, Harry A. 

Petersen, Dr. William F. 

Peterson, Albert 

Peterson, Alexander B. 

Peterson, Mrs. Anna J. 

Peterson, Arthur J. 

Peterson, Axel A. 

Peterson, Jurgen 

Pflaum, a. J. 

Pflock, Dr. John J. 

Phelps, Mrs. W. L. 

Phemister, Dr. D. B. 

Phillip, Peter 

Phillips, Herbert Morrow 

PiCHER, Mrs. Oliver S. 

Pick, Albert, Jr. 

Pick, George 

Pierce, J. Norman 

Pierce, Paul 

Pinter, Mrs. Isabelle Segersten 

PiOTROwsKi, Nicholas L. 

PiRiE, Mrs. John T. 

Pitcher, Mrs. Henry L. 

Plapp, Miss Doris A. 

Platt, Mrs. Robert S. 

Plunkett, William H. 

Podell, Mrs. Beatrice Hayes 

Polk, Mrs. Stella F. 

Pollock, Dr. Harry L. 

Pomeroy, Mrs. Frank W. 

Pond, Irving K. 

Pool, Marmn B. 

Pool, Mrs. W. Cloyd 

Poole, Mrs. Frederick Arthur 

Poole, George A. 

Poole, Mrs. Ralph H, 

Poor, Fred A. 

Poor, Mrs. Fred A. 

Pope, Frank 

Pope, Henry, Sr. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Pope, Herbert 


Porter, Mrs. Frank S. 
Porter, Henry H., Jr. 
Porter, James F. 
Porterfield, Mrs. John F. 
Post, Frederick, Jr. 
Post, Gordon W. 
Post, Mrs. Philip Sidney 
pottenger, william a. 
Powell, Mrs. Ambrose V. 
Powell, Isaac N. 
Prahl, Frederick A. 
Pratt, Mrs. William E. 
Primley, Walter S. 
Prince, Rev. Herbert W. 
Prince, Leonard M. 
Prussing, Mrs. George C. 
Psota, Dr. Frank J. 
PuLVER, Hugo 
Purcell, Joseph D. 
Purdy, Sparrow E. 
PusEY, Dr. William Allen 
Putnam, Miss Mabel C. 

QuiGLEY, William J. 
QuiNLAN, Dr. William W. 

Radau, Hugo 
Radford, Mrs. W. A., Jr. 
Raff, Mrs. Arthur 
Raftree, Miss Julia M. 
Railton, Miss Frances 
Randall, Charles P. 
Randall, Rev. Edwin J. 
Randall, Irving 
Randle, Guy D. 
Randle, Hanson F. 
Rankin, Miss Jessie H. 
Rasmussen, George 
Rathje, William J. 
Ray, Hal S. 

Raymond, Mrs. Howard D. 
Rayner, Arnold P. 
Razim, a. J. 
Reach, Benjamin 
Redington, F. B. 
Redington, Mrs. W. H. 
Reed, Mrs. Kersey Coates 
Reed, Norris H. 
Reed, Mrs. Philip L. 
Reeve, Mrs. Earl 
Reeve, Frederick E. 
Regensteiner, Theodore 
Regnery, William H. 
Rehm, Frank A. 

Reich, Miss Annie 
Reichmann, Alexander F. 
Reid, Mrs. Bryan 
Reiter, Joseph J. 
Remy, Mrs. William 
Renshaw, Mrs. Charles 
Renwick, Edward A. 
Rew, Mrs. Irwin 
Reynolds, Harold F. 
Reynolds, Mrs. J. J. 
Rice, Arthur L, 
Rice, George L. 
Rice, Lawrence A. 
Rich, Edward P. 
Richards, J. Deforest 
Richardson, George A. 
Richardson, Guy A. 
RicHTER, Mrs. Adelyn W. 
Richter, Bruno 
RiCKCORDS, Francis S. 
Ricketts, C. Lindsay 
Riddle, Herbert H. 
Ridgeway, E. 
Ridgway, William 
riemenschneider, mrs. j. h, 
Ries, Dr. Emil 
RiESER, Mrs. Herman 
RiETZ, Elmer W. 
RiETZ, Walter H. 
RiGNEY, William T. 
RiNDER, E. W. 
Ring, Miss Mary E. 
RipSTRA, J. Henri 
rittenhouse, charles j. 
Roach, Charles 
Robbins, Henry S. 
Roberts, Clark T. 
Roberts, John M. 
Roberts, S. M. 
Roberts, Mrs. Warren R. 
Roberts, William Munsell 
Robinson, Mrs. Milton E., Sr. 
RoBSON, Mrs. Sarah C. 
Roche, Miss Emily 
Rockwell, Harold H. 
Roderick, Solomon P. 
Rodgers, Dr. David C. 
Rodman, Thomas Clifford 
Roehling, C. E. 
RoEHLiNG, Mrs. Otto G. 
RoEHM, George R. 
Rogers, Miss Annie T. 
Rogers, Bernard F. 
Rogers, Dr. Cassius C. 
Rogers, Joseph E. 
RoGERSON, Everett E. 

252 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

RoLosoN, Robert M. 
RoMER, Miss Dagmar E. 
RoMPEL, Mrs. Walter 
Root, John W. 
Rosen, M. R. 

Rosenbaum, Mrs. Edwin S. 
Rosenfield, Mrs. Maurice 
rosenfield, william m. 
Rosenthal, James 
Rosenthal, Kurt 
Rosenthal, Lessing 
RosEN\^'ALD, Richard M. 
Ross, Charles S. 
Ross, Robert C. 
Ross, Mrs. Robert E. 
Ross, Thompson 
Ross, Walter S. 
Roth, Aaron 

Roth, Mrs. Margit Hochsinger 
Rothacker, Watterson R. 
Rothschild, George William 
Rothschild, Maurice L. 
Rothschild, Melville N. 
RowE, Edgar C. 
RozELLE, Mrs. Emma 
RuBEL, Dr. Maurice 
Rubens, Mrs. Charles 
Rubovits, Toby 
Ruckelhausen, Mrs. Henry 
Rueckheim, F. W. 
RuECKHEiM, Miss Lillian 
RuEL, John G. 
Rushton, Joseph A. 
Russell, Dr. J. W. 
Russell, Paul S. 
Rutledge, George E. 
Ryerson, Mrs. Edward L., Sr. 
Ryerson, Joseph T. 

Sackley, Mrs. James A. 
Sage, W. Otis 

Salisbury, Mrs. Warren M. 
Salmon, Mrs. E. D. 
Sammons, Wheeler 
Sandidge, Miss Daisy 
Sands, Mrs. Frances B. 
Sardeson, Orville a. 
Sargent, Chester F. 
Sargent, John R. W. 
Sargent, Ralph 
Sauer, William A. 
Sauter, Fred J. 
Sauter, Leonard J. 
Sawyer, Dr. Alvah L. 
Schacht, John H. 

Schaffer, Dr. David N. 
Schaffner, Mrs. Joseph 
schaffner, robert c. 
Scheidenhelm, Edward L. 
Scheinman, Jesse D. 
schermerhorn, w. i. 
Scheunemann, Robert G. 
ScHLAKE, William 
Schmidt, Dr. Charles L. 
Schmidt, Mrs. Minna 
ScHMiTz, Dr. Henry 
Schmitz, Nicholas J. 
ScHMUTZ, Mrs. Anna 
Schneider, F. P. 
ScHNERiNG, Otto Y. 
ScHNUR, Ruth A. 
ScHOLL, Dr. William M. 
Schram, Harry S. 
schreiner, s. 
Schroeder, Dr. George H. 


schulman, a. s. 
Schulze, Mrs. Mathilde 
ScHULZE, William 
ScHUPP, Philip C. 
Schuyler, Mrs. Daniel J., Jr. 
ScHWANKE, Arthur 
Schwartz, Charles K. 
Schwartz, Charles P. 
Schwarz, Herbert 


Sclanders, Mrs. Alexander 
Scott, Frank H. 
Scott, Robert L. 
Scully, Mrs. D. B., Sr. 
Seaman, George M. 
Seames, Mrs. Charles 0. 
Sears, J. Alden 
Sears, Richard W., Jr. 
Seaver, a. E. 
Seaverns, George A. 
See, Dr. Agnes Chester 
Seeberger, Miss Dora A. 
Seeburg, Justus P. 
Seifert, Mrs. Walter J. 
Seip, Emil G. 
Seipp, Clarence T. 
Seipp, Edwin A. 
Seipp, William C. 
Sello, George W, 
Sencenbaugh, Mrs. G. W. 
Seng, Frank J. 
Seng, J. T. 
Seng, V. J. 
Senne, John A. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Shaffer, Carroll 

Shaffer, Charles B. 

Shambaugh, Dr. George E. 

Shanesy, Ralph D. 

Shannon, Angus R. 

Shapiro, Meyer 

Sharpe, N. M. 

Shaw, Alfred P. 

Shaw, Mrs. Howard 

Shaw, Theodore A. 

Sheehy, Edward 

Sheldon, James M. 

Shelton, Dr. W. Eugene 

Shepherd, Mrs. Edith P. 

Sheridan, Albert D. 

Sherman, Mrs. Francis C, Sr. 

Shields, James Culver 

Shillestad, John N. 

Shire, Moses E. 

Shoan, Nels 

Shockey, Mrs. Willis G. 

Shorey, Clyde E. 

Shoup, a. D. 

Shumway, Mrs. Edward DeWitt 

Shumway, p. R. 

Shutz, Albert E. 

Sigman, Leon 


Silberman, David B. 


Sills, Clarence W. 


Simond, Robert E. 

Simonds, J. P. 

SiMONEK, Dr. B. K. 

Sincere, Benjamin 

Sinclair, Dr. J. Frank 

Singer, Mrs. Mortimer H. 

SiTZER, Dr. L. Grace Powell 

Skooglund, David 

Sleeper, Mrs. Olive C. 

Sloclth, J. E. 

Smith, Mrs. C. R. 

Smith, Mrs. Emery J. 

Smith, Mrs. Frank S. 

Smith, Franklin P. 

Smith, Harold Byron 

Smith, Jens 

Smith, Jesse E. 

Smith, Mrs. Katherine Walker 

Smith, Mrs. Kinney 

Smith, Samuel K. 

Smith, Sidney 

Smith, Mrs. Theodore White 

Smith, Walter Bourne 
Smith, Walter Byron 
Smith, Mrs. William A. 
Smith, Z. Erol 
Smullan, Alexander 
Snow, Edgar M. 
Snow, Fred A. 
Socrates, Nicholas 
SoLEM, Dr. George 0. 
Somerville, Robert 


Sonnenschein, Hugo 


Sonneveld, Jacob 

SoPER, Henry M. 

SoPKiN, Mrs. Setia H. 

Soravia, Joseph 

Sorensen, James 

Spiegel, Mrs. Frederick W. 

Spiegel, Mrs. Mae O. 

Spitz, Joel 

Spitz, Leo 

Spitzglass, Mrs. Leonard M. 

Spohn, John F. 

Spoor, Mrs. John A. 

Sprague, Dr. John P. 

Springer, Mrs. Samuel 

Squires, John G. 

Staack, Otto C. 

Staley, Miss Mary B. 

Stanton, Edgar 

Stanton, Dr. E. M., Sr. 

Stanton, Henry T. 

Starrels, Joel 

Stebbins, Fred J. 

Steffens, Ralph Sutherland 

Steffey, David R. 

Stein, Benjamin F. 

Stein, Dr. Irving 

Stein, L. Montefiore 

Stein, Samuel M. 

Stenson, Frank R. 

Sterba, Dr. Joseph V. 

Stern, Alfred Whital 

Stern, David B. 

Stern, Felix 

Stern, Maurice S. 

Stern, Oscar D. 

Stevens, Delmar A. 

Stevens, Edward J. 

Stevens, Elmer T. 

Stevens, Harold L. 

Stevens, James W. 

Stevens, Mrs. James W. 

Stevens, R. G. 

254 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Stevens, Raymond W. 
Stevenson, Dr. Alexander F. 
Stevenson, E. 
Stewart, Miss Agnes N. 
Stewart, Miss Egij^ntine Daisy 
Stewart, James S. 
Stewart, Miss Mercedes Graeme 
Stibolt, Mrs. Carl B. 
Stiger, Charles W., Sr. 
Stirling, Miss Dorothy 
Stockton, Miss Josephine 
Stone, Mrs. Jacob S. 
Strandberg, Erik P., Sr. 
Straus, David 
Straus, Martin L. 
Straus, Melvin L. 
Straus, S. J. T. 
Strauss, Dr. Alfred A. 
Strauss, Henry X. 
Strauss, John L. 
Street, Mrs. Charles A. 
Strobel, Charles L. 
Stromberg, Charles J. 
Strong, Edmund H. 
Strotz, Harold C. 
Struby, Mrs. Walter V. 
Stulik, Dr. Charles 
Sturges, Hollister 
Sturges, Solomon 
Sturtevant, Henry D. 
SuEKOFF, Louis A. 
Sullivan, Hon. John J. 
Sulzberger, Frank L. 
Sumner, Stephen C. 
Sutcliffe, Mrs. Gary 
Sutherland, William 
Swan, Oscar H. 
SwANSON, Joseph E. 
Swartchild, Edward G. 
Swartchild, William G. 
swenson, s. p. 0. 
SwETT, Robert Wheeler 
Swift, Alden B. 
Swift, Edward F., Jr. 
Sykes, Mrs. Wilfred 

Taft, John H. 
Tarrant, Robert 
Tatge, Mrs. Gustavus J. 
Taylor, Charles C. 
Taylor, George Halleck 
Taylor, J. H. 
Templeton, Stuart J. 
Templeton, Mrs. W. 
Templeton, Walter L. 

Tenney, Horace Kent 
Terry, Foss Bell 
Teter, Lucius 
Thatcher, Everett A. 
Theobald, Dr. John J. 
Thomas, Edward H. 
Thomas, Emmet A. 
Thomas, Frank W. 
Thomas, Mrs. Harry L. 
Thomas, Dr. William A. 
Thompson, Arthur H. 
Thompson, Charles E. 
Thompson, Charles F. 
Thompson, Edward F. 
Thompson, Dr. George F. 
Thompson, Mrs. John R. 
Thompson, John R., Jr. 
Thompson, Mrs. Leverett 
Thorne, Hallett W. 
Thorne, James W. 
Thornton, Charles S. 
Thornton, Dr. Francis E. 
Thorp, Harry W. 
Thresher, C. J. 
Thulin, F. a. 
Tighe, Mrs. B. G. 
Tilden, Averill 
Tilden, Louis Edward 
Tilt, Charles A. 
Tobias, Clayton H. 
torbet, a. w. 
Touchstone, John Henry 
TOWLE, Leroy C. 
TowLER, Kenneth F. 
Towne, Mrs. Arthur F. 
Towne, Mrs. John D. G. 
Trainer, J. Milton 
Traylor, Mrs. Dorothy J. 
Tredwell, John 
Trench, Mrs. Daniel G. 
Tripp, Chester D. 
Trombly, Dr. F. F. 
Trowbridge, Raymond W. 
Trude, Mrs. Mark W. 
Tucker, S. A. 
Turner, Alfred M. 
Turner, Dr. B. S. 
Turner, Tracy L. 
Tuthill, Mrs. William H. 
tuttle, f. b. 
Tuttle, Henry Emerson 
TuTTLB, Mrs. Henry N. 
Tyler, Albert S. 
Tyler, Orson K. 
Tyrrell, Mrs. Percy 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Uhlmann, Fred 
Ullman, Mrs. N. J. 
Upham, Mrs. Frederic 

Valentine, Joseph L. 
Valentine, Mrs. May L. 
Valentine, Patrick A. 
VanCleef, Mrs. Noah 
VanCleef, Paul 
VanDeventer, Christopher 
VanNess, Gardiner B. 
VanSchaick, Gerard 
Van Winkle, James Z. 
VanZwoll, Henry B. 
Vaughan, Leonard H. 
Vawter, William A., II 
Veeder, Mrs. Henry 
Veeder, Miss Jessie 
Vehe, Dr. K. L. 
Vehon, Morris 
Vehon, William H. 
Vial, Charles H. 
Vial, Miss Mary M. 
Vickery, Miss Mabel S. 
Victor, Mrs. Jessie K. 
Vierling, Louis 

Vincent, Mrs. William Watkins 
VoLiCAS, Dr. John N. 
VoLK, Mrs. John H. 
VonColditz, Dr. G. Thomsen- 
VonGlahn, Mrs. August 
Voorhees, Mrs. Condit 
VopiCKA, Charles J. 

Wagner, Fritz, Jr. 
Wagner, Dr. G. W. 
Wagner, John E. 
Wagner, Mrs. Mary G. 
Walgreen, Mrs. Charles R. 
Walker, James 
Walker, Mrs. Paul 
Walker, William E. 
Wallace, R. Y. 
Wallace, Walter F. 
Waller, H. P. 
Waller, J. Alexander 
Waller, Mrs. James B. 
Waller, James B., Jr. 
Wallerich, George W. 
Wallovick, J. H. 
Wanner, Mrs. Henry J. 
Ward, Edward J. E. 
Ward, Mrs. N. C. 
Ware, Mrs. Charles W. 
Ware, Mrs. Lyman 
Warfield, Edwin A. 

Warren, Allyn D. 
Warren, J. Latham 
Warren, Paul C. 
Warren, Walter G. 
Warwick, W. E. 
Washburne, Clarke 
Washburne, Hempstead, Jr. 
Washington, Laurence W. 
Wassell, Joseph 
Waterman, Dr. A. H. 
Watson, William Upton 
Watts, Harry C. 
Watzek, J. W., Jr. 
Waud, E. p. 

Wayman, Charles A. G. 
Wean, Frank L. 
Weaver, Charles A. 
Webb, George D. 
W^EBB, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Weber, Bernard F. 
Weber, Frank C. 
Webster, Arthur L. 
Webster, Miss Helen R. 
Webster, Dr. Ralph W. 
Wedelstaedt, H. a. 
Weil, Isidor 
Weil, Martin 
Weiler, Rudolph 
Weinstein, Dr. M. L. 
Weinzelbaum, Louis L. 
Weis, Samuel W. 
Weisbrod, Benjamin H. 
Weiss, Mrs. Morton 
Weissenbach, Mrs. Minna K. 
Weisskopf, Maurice J. 
Weisskopf, Dr. Max A. 
Wells, Arthur G. 
Wells, Arthur H. 
Wells, Harry L. 
Wells, John E. 
Wells, Preston A. 
Wells, Thomas E. 
Wells, Mrs. Thomas E. 
Wendell, Barrett, Jr. 
Wentworth, Mrs. Moses J. 
Wermuth, William C. 
Werner, Frank A. 
West, J. Roy 
West, Miss Mary Sylvla 
Westerfeld, Simon 
Westrich, Miss T. C. 
Wetten, Albert H. 
Wettling, Louis E. 
Weymer, Earl M. 
Whealan, Emmett 

256 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Wheeler, George A. 
Wheeler, Leo W. 
Wheeler, Leslie 
Wheeler, Mrs. Robert C. 
Whinery, Charles C. 
White, Harold F. 
White, Mrs. James C. 
White, James E. 
White, Joseph J. 
White, Richard T. 
White, Robert 
White, Selden Freeman 
Whitehouse, Howard D. 
Whiting, Mrs. Adele H. 
Whiting, J. H. 
Whitlock, William A. 
WiBORG, Frank B. 
Widdicombe, Mrs. R. A. 
Wieland, Charles J. 
Wieland, Mrs. George C. 
Wienhoeber, George V. 
Wilder, Harold, Jr. 
Wilder, John E. 
Wilder, Mrs. John E. 
Wilder, Mrs. T. E., Sr. 
Wilkins, George Lester 
Wilkinson, Mrs. George L, 
Wilkinson, John C. 
Willetts, George M. 
WiLLEY, Mrs. Charles B. 
Williams, Miss Anna P. 
Williams, Dr. A. Wilberforce 
Williams, Harry L. 
Williams, J. M. 
Williams, Lucian M. 
Williamson, George H. 
Willis, Paul, Jr. 
Willis, Thomas H. 
Wilms, Herman P. 
Wilson, Mrs. E. Crane 
Wilson, Harry Bertram 
Wilson, Mrs. John R. 
Wilson, Miss Lillian M. 
Wilson, Morris Karl 
Wilson, Mrs. Robert Conover 
Winans, Frank F. 
Windsor, H. H., Jr. 
Winston, Hampden 
Winston, James H, 

Alling, Charles 

Bass, John F, 

Chislett, Dr. H. R. 
Combes, Mrs. Dora F. 

Winter, Irving 

Withers, Allen L. 

Wojtalewicz, Rev. Francis M. 

Woley, Dr. Harry P. 

Wolf, Mrs. Albert H. 

Wolf, Henry M. 

Wolf, Walter B. 

Wolff, Louis 

Wood, Mrs. Gertrude D. 

Wood, Mrs. Harold F. 

Wood, John G. 

Wood, John H. 

Wood, Kay, Jr. 

Wood, Robert E. 

Wood, William G. 


Woodruff, George 
Woods, Weightstill 
Woodward, C. H. 
Worcester, Mrs. Charles H. 
Work, Robert 
Wormser, Leo F. 
Worth, Miss Helen E. 
Worthy, Mrs. S. W. 
Wrenn, Mrs. Everts 
Wright, Warren 
Wrigley, Mrs. Charles W. 
wunderle, h. 0. 
Wyeth, Harry B. 

Yegge, C. Fred 
Yerkes, Richard W. 
Yondorf, John David 
YoNDORF, Milton S. 
Yondorf, Milton S., Jr. 
Young, George W. 
Young, Hugh E. 

Zabel, Max W. 
Zapel, Elmer 
Zeisler, Mrs. Erwin P. 
Zerler, Charles F. 
Zeuch, Dr. Lucius H. 
Ziebarth, Charles A. 
ZiMMER, Mrs. Rudolph E. 
Zimmerman, Herbert P. 
Zimmerman, Louis W. 
Zork, David 
Zulfer, p. M. 

Deceasbd. 1931 

Corey, Chester 
Curtis, Augustus D. 

Dewey, Mrs. Albert B., Sr. 
Dux, Joseph G. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Foster, Stephen A. 

Gatzert, August 
Gilmer, Dr. Thomas L. 
Gregson, William L. 

Hoover, Frank K. 
JuERGENS, William F. 

Magee, Henry W. 
Mark, Anson 
Marriott, Abraham R. 
Matthiessen, Mrs. Peck- 
Meyer, Edwin F. 
Morand, Simon J. 

Neff, Nettelton 
Nelson, Frank G. 

Oliver, Fred S. 

Palmer, Professor Claude Irwin 

Parker, Dr. Ralph W. 

Petru, E. J. 

Platt, Henry Russell 

Raschke, Dr. E. H. 
Rehm, Willlam H. 
Rinaldo, Philip S. 

SmoNDS, O. C. 
Sinden, Henry P. 
Spindler, Oscar 
Staiger, Mrs. Chahles 
Strong, Walter A. 

Turner, Mrs. Charlton A. 

Waller, Edward C. 


Those, residing fifty miles or more from the city of Chicago, who have 
contributed $50 to the Museum 

Phillips, Montagu Austin 

Those who contribute $25 anmially to the Museum 

Abrahamson, Henry M. 
Aldrich, Mrs. George Capron 
Alsip, Mrs. Charles H. 
Atlass, H. Leslie 

Barry, Edward C. 
Beach, E. Chandler 
Becker, Mrs. A. G. 
Belding, Mrs. H. H., Jr. 
Binga, Jesse 
Blair, Wolcott 
Blatchford, Mrs. Paul 
bokum, norris h. 
Briggs, J. H. 
Bryan, Benjamin B., Jr. 
Burke, Webster H. 
Butler, Burridge D. 
Butler, Dr. Craig D. 

Challenger, Mrs. Agnes 
Chapman, Mrs. Doris L. 
Churchill, E. F. 

Clark, Lincoln R. 

Cogswell, Elmer R. 

Cohen, Louis 

Craigie, a. M. 

Curtis, Austin Guthrie, Jr. 

Curtis, Benjamin J. 

Dauchy, Mrs. Samuel 
DeLemon, H. R. 


DesIsles, Mrs. Carrie L. 
Dickey, William E. 
Dickinson, Augustus E. 
Dickinson, Mrs. W. Woodbridge 
Dowdle, John J. 
DuNER, Joseph A. 
Dunn, Samuel O. 
Dvorak, B. F. 

Eddy, Mrs. Augustus W. 
Evans, John W. 

258 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Fetcher, Edwin S. 
FiNNERUD, Dr. Clark W. 
Fix, Frederick W. 
FoRGAN, Mrs. J. Russell 
French, Dudley K. 
Friestedt, Mrs. Herman F. 

Gallagher, Mrs. M. F. 
Gifford, Mrs. Frederick C. 
Glaser, Edward L. 
Goldsmith, Bernard H. 
GooDER, Seth MacDonald 
Goodman, Mrs. Milton F. 
Gordon, Leslie S. 
Granger, Mrs. Everett J, 
Greene, Henry E. 

Hammond, Mrs. Gardiner G. 
Hammond, Luther S., Jr. 
Harris, Miss Lillian 
Harrison, Mrs. Frederick J. 
Hayslett, Arthur J. 
Henry, Huntington B. 
Hill, Mrs. Russell D. 
Hines, Charles M. 
Hintz, John C. 
HoDGKiNSON, Mrs. W. R. 
Hohman, Dr. E. H. 
hollingsworth, r. g. 
Howard, Mrs. Elmer A. 

Ingalls, Mrs. Frederick A. 
Ingeman, Lyle S. 

Jenkins, David F. D. 
Johnson, Chester H. 

Kaiser, Mrs. Sidney 
Kavanagh, Clarence H. 
Kelker, Rudolph F., Jr. 
Kemper, Dr. Malcolm 
Klenk, Paul T. 
Knopf, A. J. 
KocHS, August 
Kopp, Gustave 
Kraus, Samuel B. 

Ladenson, N. T. 
Lathrop, Mrs. Bryan 
Lee, Mrs. John H. S. 
Lewis, Mrs. Edward 
Little, Mrs. E. H. 
Llewellyn, Mrs. John T. 
LoEB, Mrs. A. H. 
Ludwig, J. Leo 

Mallinson, Edwin 
Manley, John A. 
Mannheimer, Mrs. Morton 
Mautner, Leo A. 
Merrell, John H. 
Mertens, Cyril P. 
Miller, Mrs. Olive Beaupre 
MiNOTTo, Mrs. James 
Moeling, Mrs. Walter G. 
Moist, Mrs. S. E. 
Morey, Walter W. 
Mulligan, George F. 

Nebel, Herman C. 
Newhouse, Karl 
Noble, Samuel R. 

Odell, William R., Jr. 
O'Leary, John W. 
Olsen, Mrs. Clarence 
Orr, Thomas C. 

Packer, Charles Swasey 
Partridge, Lloyd C. 
Pennington, Lester E. 
Peterson, Mrs. Bertha I. 
PoRTMAN, Mrs. Edward C. 
Prebis, Edward J. 
Prentice, John K. 
Press, Mrs. Jacob H. 
Puckey, F. W. 

Randle, Mrs. Charles H. 
Raney, Mrs. R. J. 
Rea, Dr. Albertine L. 
Rich, Elmer 
Richards, Marcus D. 
RoBBiNS, Percy A. 
Roberts, Shepard M. 
RoRRisoN, James 
Rosenthal, Benjamin J. 
Rothschild, Justin 
RouTH, George D., Jr. 
Ryerson, Donald M. 

Sampsell, Marshall E. 
ScRiBNER, Gilbert 
Seelen, Mark B. 
Shaw, Andrew H. 
Shaw, E. R. 

Short, Miss Shirley Jane 
Slade, Mrs. Robert 
Smith, Charles S. B., Sr. 
Spielmann, Oscar P. 
Staley, Mrs. Maude 
Stearns, Mrs. Richard I. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Stevenson, Mrs. Robert 
Stockton, Eugene M. 
SuDLER, Carroll H., Jr. 
Sutton, Harold I. 
Swiecinski, Walter 

Thompson, Mrs. Charles M. 
Thompson, Fred L. 
Thorne, Mrs. Virginia Hubbell 
TiLDEN, Mrs. Edward 
TiTZEL, Dr. W. R. 
Trammell, Niles 
Trude, Hon. Daniel P. 
tuttle, f. b. 

Vail, Carlton M. 

Vignes, Miss Laura Alice 

Voorhees, H. Belin 
VoRiES, Harry F., Jr. 

Walker, Samuel J. 
Warner, John Eliot 
Warren, C. Roy 
Watson, Miss Mina M. 
Welter, John N. 
Werth, a. Herman 
White, Sanford B. 
Whiting, Lawrence H. 


Wright, H. K. 
Young, Mrs. Caryl B. 

Deceased, 1931 
Hunter, Robert H. 
Vehon, Simon Henry 


Those who contribute $10 annually to the Museum 

Aagaard, Walter S., Jr. 
Abbott, Edwin H. 
Abbott, Ernest V. 
Abells, H. D. 
Aborn, E. a. 
Abrahamson, John 
Abrams, Hyman B. 
Abt, Hugo A. F. 
Abt, Dr. Isaac A. 
Abt, Mrs. J. J. 
Ackert, Mrs. Charles H. 
Adams, Cyrus H., Jr. 
Adams, Mrs. David T. 
Adams, Harvey M. 
Adams, Mrs. Henry T. 
Adams, Hugh R. 
Adams, J. Kirk 
Adams, Miss M. Joice 
Adams, Miss Nellie Malina 
Adams, Samuel P. 
Addams, Miss Jane 
Agar, Mrs. William Grant 
Agar, W. S., Sr. 
Ahnfelt, John 
Aishton, Richard A. 
Albers, Dr. Edgar H. 
Alden, W. T. 
Aldrich, Frederick C. 

Alessio, Frank 
Alexander, Harry T. 
Allen, Dr. A. V. 
Allen, Amos G. 
Allen, C. D. 
Allen, Edwin D. 
Allen, Harry W. 
Allen, Mrs. J. W. 
Allen, John D. 
Allen, O. T. 
Alrutz, Dr. Louis F. 
Alsaker, Mrs. Alfred 
Alschuler, Hon. Samuel 
Alt, George E. 
Altheimer, Ben J. 
Altman, Robert M. 
Alton, Robert Leslie 
Alvarez, Dr. Walter C. 
Amberg, J. Ward 
Amberg, Miss MaryIAgnes 
Ames, Mrs. Howard 
Anderson, Mrs. A. S. 
Anderson, Mrs. A. W. 
Anderson, Adolph 
Anderson, Arch W. 
Anderson, B. G. 
Anderson, David G. 
Anderson, Elmer T. 

260 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Anderson, Mrs. Harry 
Andesison, Dr. J. B. 
Anheiser, Hugo 
Anoff, Isador S. 
Anthony, Charles E. 
Anthony, Joseph R. 
Arden, Percy H. 
Arens, Dr. Robert A. 
Arms, Herbert C. 
Armstrong, Mrs. H. W. 
Arnold, Francis M. 
Arnold, Mrs. Hugo F. 
Arnold, Marshall 
Arnold, Paul E. 
Arntzen, B. E. 
Arthur, Miss Minnie J. 
Ashburner, Mrs. Helen F. 
Ashcraft, Edwin M., Jr. 
Ashley, Noble W. 
Atkeisson, Dr. J, E. H. 
Atkins, Paul M. 
Atkinson, Mrs. A. L. C. 
Atkinson, Charles T. 
Atkinson, Roy R. 
Atlass, Mrs. Frank 
Atwell, W. C. 
Atwood, Fred G. 
Austin, E. F. 
Austin, M. B. 
Austin, William B. 
Axelson, Charles F. 

Babb, W. E. 
Babcock, F. M. 
Babcock, Orville E. 
Babcock, Mrs. Willlam F. 
Babcock, William H. 
Bachrach, I. 
Bacon, Asa 
Bacon, Dr. C. S. 
Badenoch, David A. 
Bader, Mrs. Gallus J. 
Baer, Mrs. Arthur A. 
Bagby, Mrs. C. B. 
Bailey, Dr. G. T. 
Bairstow, Mrs. Arthur 
Baker, C. M. 
Baker, Claude M. 
Baker, G. W. 
Baker, H. A. 
Balaban, Max 
Balch, Howard K. 
Balderston, Mrs. Stephen V. 
Ballard, Mrs. E. S. 
Bangs, William B. 

Bankard, E. Hoover, Jr. 
Banning, Samltel W. 
Barber, Mrs. F. L. 
Bard, Ralph A. 
Bard, Mrs. Roy E. 
Barger, Mrs. Walter C. 
Barnes, Mrs. Harold Osborne 
Barnes, William H. 
Barrett, Miss Adela 
Barrett, M. J. P. 
Barrett, Marshall Frank 
Barth, Lewis L. 
Bartholomay, Herman 
Bartholomay, William, Jr. 
Bartholomew, Mrs. F. H. 
Bartlett, Charles C. 
Bartlett, R. D. 
Bartman, Mrs. Fred A. 
Bascom, F. T. 
Bates, Mrs. Harry C. 
Baum, James E. 
Baumann, Mrs. F. 0. 
Baxter, John E. 
Baylor, Dr. Frank W. 
Beach, Calvin B. 
Bean, Edward H. 
Beck, Dr. Joseph C. 
Becker, Mrs. Herbert W. 
Beda, Paul W. 
Beer, Fred A. 
Beeson, Mrs. F. C. 
Behrens, George A. 
Beidler, Augustus F. 
Beifus, Morris 
Bein, Maurice L. 
Beirnes, Mrs. Alvin E. 
Belding, Dr. C. R. 
Bell, George Irving 
Bell, Hayden N. 
Bellows, Mrs. L. E. H. 
Bendelari, Arthur E. 
Bender, Mrs. Charles 
Bennet, William S. 
Bennett, E. H. 
Bennett, Mrs. Harold D. 
Bennett, Mrs. Ira F. 
Bennett, Mrs. William H. K. 
Bennington, Harold 
Benoist, Mrs. William F. 
Benson, Mrs. T. R. 
Bent, Mrs. M. H. 
Bentley, Richard 
Berg, Dr. 0. H. 
Berg, Sigard E. 
Bergbom, Mrs. M. S. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Berger, R. O. 
Bergh, Ross F. 
Bergren, E. L. 
Bergstrom, O. 
Berkey, Mrs. Peter 
Berliner, Emanuel F. 
Berlizheimer, Miss Lily A. 
Bernstein, Aaron D. 
Bernstein, Gottfried D. 
Bernstein, Mrs. Jack 
Berry, V. D. 
Bestel, Oliver A. 
Bettman, Dr. Ralph B. 
Biddle, Robert C. 
Bidwell, Mrs. Edith D. 
BiGAi«:, Mrs. John Edward 
Bingham, S. H. 
Binkley, Mrs. L. G. 
BiNKS, Mrs. Harry D. 
Bird, Miss Frances 
Bird, Herbert J. 


Bishop, Mrs. Alice M. 
BixBY, Charles R. 
Black, Alfred B. 
Black, Mrs. Herbert G. 
Black, Dr. R. E. 
Black, Mrs. T. S. 
Blackburn, Burr 
Blackwood, Mrs. A. E. 
Blair, Mrs. Henry A. 
Blair, Mrs. W. McCormick 
Blake, Mrs. F. B. 
Blakeley, John M. 
Blatchford, N. H., Jr. 
Blessing, Lewis G. 
Bliss, Charles F. 
Blitzsten, Dr. N. Lionel 
Block, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Block, Dr. Louis H. 
Blocki, Mrs. Fred W. 
Blomquist, Alfred 
Blood, L. A. 

Bloomfield, Mrs. Leonard 
Blue, John 
Bobb, Dwight S. 
Bodinson, Frederick P. 
Bogert, Mrs. George G. 
Bolles, Mrs. C. E. 
Bolt, M. C. 
Bolton, John F. 
Bone, A. R. 
Bonner, Francis A. 
Boone, Arthur 
Boone, Charles Leveritt 

Boot, Dr. G. W. 
Booth, Mrs. George 
Booth, Mrs. K. A. 
Booz, Norton A. 
Borcherding, E. p. 
Borland, Carl A. 
Borman, T. a. 
Born, Edgar R. 
Borsch, Mrs. Mary 
Bothman, Dr. L. 
BoTTHOF, Mrs. W. 
BouRLA>fD, Mrs. Norman T. 


BouRQUE, Dr. N. Odeon 
BowE, Augustine J. 
BowEN, Joseph T., Jr. 
BowES, Frederick M. 
Bowes, Willl^ R. 
Bowman, Jay 
Boyd, Mrs. E. B. 
Boyd, Joseph K. 
BoYLES, Charles D. 
Brachvogel, Mrs. Christiana 
Bradbury, Mrs. F. C. 
Braddock, Mrs. Louis J. 
Bradford, Frederick H. 
Bradley, Fred J. 
Bradley, Herbert E. 
Braese, Mrs. Otto C. 
Brajtoenburg, Mrs. 0. H. 
Brandt, Frederic T. 
Brant, Melburn 
Brashears, J. W. 
Braudy, Mrs. Loins C. 
Brauer, Mrs. Caspar 
Breckenridge, Karl S. 
Breed, Frederick S. 
Breen, J. W. 

Bremner, Dr. M. David K. 
Brennan, Mrs. George E. 
Brennemann, Dr. Joseph 
Brenner, Mrs. Louis N. 
Brewer, Edward H. 
Brewer, Harry F. 
Brewerton, William A. 
Brewster, Willl^m E. 
Brigham, Dr. L. Ward 
Brimstin, W. E. 
Briney, Mrs. H. C. 
Briscoe, George L. 
Brock, Mrs. Frank P. 
Brodt, Irwin W. 
Broome, John Spoor 
Broome, Mrs. Thornhill 
Broomell, Chester C. 

262 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Brougham, Dr. Edward J. 
Brower, Jule F. 
Brown, Alvia K. 
Brown, Dr. Calvin E. 
Brown, Charles W. 
Brown, Charles W. 
Brown, Miss Clara M. 
Brown, Dr. E. V. L. 
Brown, Edward Eagle 
Brown, Miss Eleanor M. 
Brown, Miss Ella W. 
Brown, George A. 
Brown, Gerard S. 
Brown, H. A. 
Brown, J. D. 
Brown, James Earl 
Brown, Mrs. J. F. 
Brown, Robert B. 
Brown, Wilbur M. 
Brown, William A. 
Brown, Mrs. William F. 
Browne, Theodore C. 
Browning, Mrs. Luella A. 
Brucker, Dr. Edward A. 
Brucker, Dr. Matthew W. 
Brumback, Mrs. A. H. 
Brumley, Daniel Joseph 
Bruner, Henry P. 
Brunker, a. R. 
Brunt, J. P. 
Bryant, Donald R. 
Bryant, Mrs. Edward F. 
Bryce, T. Jerrold 
Buchanan, Mrs. Gordon 
Buchbinder, Dr. J. R. 
Buck, Nelson Earl 
Buckingham, Mrs. John 
Buckingham, Tracy W. 
Buckley, Mrs. Warren 
BucKNER, Mrs. John L., Jr. 
Buddeke, I. W. 
BuELL, Mrs. Charles C. 
BuHLiG, Paul 

BuLLEN, Mrs. F. F. 
BuNCK, Edward C. 
BuNGE, August H., Sr. 
Bunker, Charles C. 
BuNN, B. H. 
Bunnell, John A. 
BuNTE, Mrs. Theodore W. 
Bunting, Guy J. 
Bunts, Frederick W. 
Burch, R. L. 

Burch, Mrs. W. E., Jr. 
BuRDiCK, Dr. Alfred S. 
Burke, Edmund 
burkhardt, charles e. 
Burkitt, Mrs. Beulah E. 
Burnet, Mrs. W. A. 
BuRNHAM, Daniel H. 
Burnham, Hubert 
Burns, John J. 
burritt, d. f. 
Burrows, Miss Louisa L. 
Burrows, Mrs. T. W. 
Burry, William, Jr. 
BuRSiK, Miss Emilie G. 
Burton, Fred A. 
BuscH, Francis X. 
Butler, Mrs. Gerald M. 
Butler, Mrs. Russell E. 
Buttner, William C. 
Butts, O. W. 
Buxbaum, Morris 
Byfield, Ernest L. 
Byfield, Mrs. Herbert A. 
Byrnes, William Jerome 

Cable, Arthur G. 
Cahill, William A. 
Cain, G. R. 
Caldwell, Louis G. 
Callahan, Mrs. A. F. 
Callahan, Mrs. Frank J. 
Calvin, Dr. Joseph K. 
Cameron, Ossian 
Cammack, Herbert M. 
Camp, Benjamin B. 
Camp, J. Beidler 
Campbell, Argyle 
Campbell, Donald A. 
Campbell, Mrs. John G. 
Campbell, Mrs. R. D. 
Campbell, Robert W, 
Campe, Frank O. 
Canavan, J. Newell 
Capper, John S. 
Carey, Charles E. 
Carl, Otto Frederick 
Carlson, Miss Beata M. 
Carman, S. S. 
Carnahan, Mrs. Glen C. 
Carpenter, Harold B. 
Carpenter, John Alden 
Carr, H. C. 
Carr, Dr. James G. 
Carrington, Edmund 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Carteaux, Leon L. 

Carter, Allan J. 

Carter, C. B, 

Cary, Dr. William 

Casavant, Gustav a. 

Case, Dr. James T. 

Cassaday, Mrs. Thomas G. 

Castenholz, W. B. 

Castle, C. S. 

Castle, Mrs. Charles S. 

Castle, Sydney 

Caswell, Mrs. A. B. 

Caughlin, Mrs. F. P. 

Cavanagh, Harry L. 

Cavenee, Mrs. C. M. 

Cervenka, John A. 

Chadwick, Mrs. Griffith 

Chamberlain, Professor Charles 

Chamberlin, Mrs. Adele R. 
Chamberlin, Mrs. Rollin T. 
Chambers, Mrs. Helen S. 
Chandler, Charles H. 
Chandler, Frank R. 
Chandler, Dr. Fremont A. 
Chandler, George M. 
Chapin, Rufus F. 
Chapman, William Gerard 
Chase, Samuel T. 
Chase, Mrs. William H. 
Chessman, L. W. 
Childs, Mrs. Fred B. 
Childs, Kent C. 
Childs, Mrs. R. W. 
Childs, Theron W. 
Chittenden, Robert B. 
Christensen, Henry C. 
Christiansen, Dr. Henry 
Christopher, Mrs. Carl J. 
Churchill, Richard S. 
Clancy, James F. 
Claney, Miss M. T. 
Clare, Herbert O. 
Clark, Mrs. Arthur M. 
Clark, C. P. 
Clark, Mrs. Edward S. 
Clark, James D. 
Clark, Miss Maud F, 
Clark, Mrs. Ralph E. 
Clark, Robert H. 
Clark, William Jerome 
Clarke, Broadus J. 
Clarke, Mrs. Fred A. 
Clarke, Mrs. Henry S., Jr. 
Claussen, Edmund J. 

Claypool, Glen F. 
Clayton, Frederick W. 
Cleary, Charles H. 
Cleary, Mrs. D. F. 
Cleary, John J. 
Clement, Mrs. Allan M. 
Clements, Rev. Robert 
Clemer, J. H. 
Cleveland, Mrs. A. F. 
Clifford, Thomas R. 
Clithero, W. S. 
Clizbe, Mrs. F. O. 
Clow, Charles R. 
Clyne, Charles F. 
CoALE, George M. 
Coburn, Alonzo J. 
CoBURN, John J. 
Cochran, J. L. 
Cochran, Mrs. J. L. 
Cochran, Miss Nellie 
Cochrane, Mrs. A. B. 
Cochrane, A. K. O. 
Cochrane, Mrs. Robert M. 
CoE, Frank Galt 
Coffin, Percy B. 
Coffman, a. B. 
Cohen, A. E. 
Cohen, Irving Leslie 
Cohen, Irwin 
Cohien, Henry 
Cohn, Charles 
Cohn, Samuel A. 
CoLBURN, Warren E. 
Cole, Lawrence A. 
Coleman, Algernon 
Coleman, B. R. 
Coleman, Clarence L, 
Coleman, Hamilton 
Collins, Arthur W. 
Collins, Charles W. 
Collins, Mrs. Frank P. 
Collins, George R. 
Collins, Dr. Lorin C. 
Collins, Dr. Rufus G. 
CoLNON, Philip 
CoNDiT, Mrs. J. S. 
Condon, Mrs. John 
Condon, Thomas J. 
conkey, h. p. 
Connor, Mrs. Frederick T. 
CoNOVER, Harvey 
Conran, Mrs. Walter A. 
CoNSOER, Arthur W. 
Converse, Earl M. 
Converse, William A. 

264 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

CooBAN, Frank G. 
Cook, Miss Edith S. 
Cook, Dr. Frances H. 
Cook, Louis T. 
Cook, Sidney A. 
Cooke, Mrs. George J. 
Coon, Robert E. 
Cooper, Miss Adelaide 
Cooper, Charles H. 
Cooper, Mrs. Henry N. 
Cooper, R., Jr. 
Copeland, T. a. 
CoppEL, Mrs. Charles H. 
Corbin, Mrs. Dana 
Cornelius, J. F. 
Cornell, JDr. Edward L. 
cornwell, w. h. 
Corper, Erwin 
CoRRY, Mrs. Adeline M. 
Corsant, Mrs. Charles King 
CoRWiN, Dr. Arthur M. 
CoTTELL, Miss Louisa 
CouRSON, Harry C. 
Courtney, Miss Martha A. 
Cowan, Mrs. Grace L. 
Cox, Arthur M. 
CozzENS, Mrs. Frederick B. 
Craddock, J. F. 
Cramer, Mrs. Ambrose 
Cramer, Mrs. S. B. 
Crawford, Adam W. 
Crawford, Mrs. Warren 
Creber, Mrs. Walter H. 
Creed, Daniel A. 
Creedon, Mrs. Clara W. 
Crego, Frank A. 
Crellin, Miss Mary F. 
Crooks, Mrs. H. D. 
Crosby, Mrs. Frederick W. 
Crosby, Miss Samuella 
Cross, George B. 
Crow, W. R. 
Crowder, J. L. 
Crowe, Miss Eva B. 
Crowell, Dr. Bowman Corning 
Crowell, Lucius A. 
CuLLEN, Dr. George 
Culley, Mrs. A. B. 
CuNEO, Frank 
Cunningham, Robert 
Cunningham, Robert M. 
CuRRAN, Peter A. 

Dahlquist, C. M. 
Dahnel, Mrs. E. R. 

Daiches, Eli 
Dallas, C. Donald 
Dallstream, Andrew J. 
Dammann, Edward C. 
D'Ancona, a. E. 
Daniels, James E. 
Danielson, Fred V. 
Dankowski, I. F. 
Date, Mrs. S. S. 
David, Sidney S. 
Davidson, Lucius H. 
Davidson, Morton S. 
Davies, p. W. 
Davies, William B. 
Davis, A. M. 
Davis, Alexander M. 
Davis, Dr. Amy Reams 
Davis, Brode B. 
Davis, Charles E. 
Davis, Mrs. Charles P. 
Davis, Don 
Davis, E. E. 
Davis, Mrs. F. Ben 
Davis, Mrs. George A. 
Davis, Dr. H. I. 
Davis, Mrs. Newton E. 
Davis, Paul H. 
Davis, Ralph W. 
Davis, Warren T. 
Dawes, Neil B. 
Dawson, William L. 
Day, Clyde L. 
Day, Mrs. Lewis J. 
Dean, William D. 
Deane, Ruthven 
Deans, Mrs. Herbert G. P. 
DeBerard, Miss Grace 
DeBoer, Mrs. Klaas C. 
Debs, Louis H. 
Decker, Hiram E. 
Dee, Mrs. William E. 
Deery, Miss Helen C. 
Defrees, Mrs. Donald 
Defrees, Mrs. Joseph H. 
DeFrees, Miss Mary L. 
Degener, August W. 
Degenhardt, Dr. Edgar 
Dehning, Mrs. C. H. 
Deimel, Mrs. Jerome L. 
Deininger, Mrs. D. M. 
DeLamarter, Mrs. Eric 
DeLoach, Dr. R. J. H. 
DeLong, F. T. 
Demaree, H. S. 
Deneen, Robert J. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Deniston, Mrs. Albert J., Jr. 
Dennis, Willard P. 
DePeyster, Frederic A. 
Derham, John A. 
Dering, Mrs. Edith S. 
DeSauty, Sydney 
D'EsposiTO, J. 
Deutschmann, Rudolph 
Diener, George W. 
Dignan, Frank W. 
Dillbahnbr, Frank 
Dingle, Mrs. Florence Thomas 
DiTTMAR, Miss Louise K. 
Dixon, Mrs. Wesley M. 
Doering, Mrs. Edmund J., Jr. 
Dolese, Miss Marie 
Donahey, Mrs. William 
Donnelley, Thorne 
Dorney, Rev. Maurice A. 
Dosch, Henry C. 
Dowling, T. F. 
Drake, Mrs. Seth C. 
Draper, James 
Drell, Mrs. J. B. 
Drennan, John G. 
Drew, Miss E. L. 
Drezmal, Max A. 
Drielsma, L J. 
Drinkw alter. Miss Kate E. 
Drymalski, Paul 
Duffy, Mrs. Mary E. 
Dunbaugh, George J. 
Dunbaugh, Harry J. 
Duncan, W. S. 
Dunigan, Edward B. 
Dunlap, Mrs. T. M. 
Dunn, Edward J. 
Dunning, N. Max 
Dupee, Eugene H. 
DuRFEE, Carlisle 
Durham, Raymond E. 
Durland, Miss Ethel Grace 
Durr, Mrs. Herbert A. 
DwEN, Robert Greene 

Eaton, Mrs. Marquis 
Ebeling, Mrs. George 
EccLES, Dr. Friend R. 
Eckstorm, Mrs. Paul 
Edlin, Dr. J. Vernon 
Edmonds, Miss Nora 
Ehrlich, M. J. 
Ehrman, Walter E. 
Ehrmann, Dr. Fred J. E. 

Eichstaedt, Dr. J. J. 
Eilert, Mrs. M. A. 
Eisendrath, Miss Elsa B. 
Eisendrath, Joseph L. 
EiTEL, Emil 
Ek, John A. 

Elam, Mrs. Frank Harris 
Eldred, Mrs. Harriot W. 
Eley, Ning 
Elich, Mrs. Herman 
Eliel, Mrs. Theresa G. 
Elkington, Charles S. 
Ellbogen, Mrs. Max 
Ellert, Arnold M. 
Ellicson, S. Adelbert, Sr. 
Ellinson, Mrs. William J. 
Elliott, Dr. A. R. 
Elliott, Francke C. 
Elliott, Mrs. O. Earl 
Elliott, Mrs. R. H. 
Ellis, C. Groverman 
Ellis, Frank L 
Elmendorf, Armin 
Elmer, Miss Lulu Shepard 
Elmslie, George G. 
Elting, Victor 
Emery, William H. 
Emig, Howard A. 
Engelhart, Frank C. 
Emery, Mrs. Fred A. 
England, Edward L. 
Englander, Mrs. Marcelite 
Engle, Mrs. Walter 
English, John J. 
Engstrom, Harold 
Epstein, Albert K. 
Erd, Arthur A. 
Erickson, Mrs. E. T. 
Erickson, Elmer 
Erickson, H. E. 
Erickson, Hubbard H. 
Ericsson, Dewey A. 
Erikson, Mrs. G. F. 
Erley, Walter 
Erzinger, Mrs. Minnie C. 
Esdohr, F. H. 
Espenshade, Mrs. E. B. 

Ettelson, Mrs. Samuel A. 
EuLASS, Elmer A. 
Evans, Miss Anna B. 
Evans, Mrs. Arthur T. 
Evans, Miss Bertha K. 
Evans, Floyd Butler 
Evans, Mrs. Timothy Wallace 

266 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Everett, Edward W, 
EwiNG, Davis 

Fahrenfeld, Mrs. Fred W. 
Falls, Dr. S. H. 
Faltysek, E. J. 
Fani, Father Charles 
Fanning, C. G. 
Fantus, Dr. Bernard 
Farley, Mrs. John W. 
Farnsworth, G. J. 
Farquharson, William J. 
Farrell, William W. 
Far well, Albert D. 
Far WELL, Edward P. 
Farwell, Stanley P. 
Faulkner, Dr. Louis 
Fell, Miss Frances 
Felsenthal, Herman 
Fenton, J. R. 
Ferguson, Mrs. W. J. 
Ferris, Miss Sarah L. 
Fetzer, Wade, Jr. 
Fetzer, William R. 
Feuchtinger, Eugene 
Feuchtwanger, Mrs. Joseph, Sr. 
Field, Forrest Whipple 
Field, Hem an H. 
Field, Henry 
Field, Mrs. J. A. 
Field, Mrs. Wentworth G. 
FiELDHOusE, Clarence B. 
Fiery, E. Irving 
Findley, Dr. Ephraim K. 
Finigan, Thomas 
Fink, Mrs. Arthur G. 
Fink, R. A. 
Fischer, Charles H. 
Fischer, Mrs. Charles W. 
Fischrupp, George 
Fisher, Mrs. Walter E. 
Fitch, Thomas 
Fitzmorris, Charles C. 
Fitzpatrick, Mrs. H. P. 
FiTZPATRiCK, James R. 
Fitzpatrick, Mrs. T. F. 
Flaherty, Mrs. Earl V. 
Flaherty, Joseph F. 
Flanigan, Arthur H. 
Fleming, Miss Ada M. 
Fleming, Edward J. 
Fleming, Mrs. Joseph B. 
Fletcher, Mrs. R. V. 
Flinn, Mrs. F. B. 
Floreen, Mrs. Adolph R. 

Floyd, Paul E. 

Flynn, Maurice J. 

Foley, Mrs. John Burton 

FoLSOM, Mrs. William R. 

Foltz, F. C. 

FoRCH, Mrs. John L., Jr. 

Ford, Mrs. Charles E. 

Ford, James S. 

Ford, N. A. 

Ford, Mrs. Norman J. 

Ford, Mrs. T. A. 

Fordyce, Mrs. R. L. 

Foreman, Dr. Oliver C. 

Forrest, George D. 

Forrest, Maulsby 

Forrester, Mrs. W. W. 

FoRTELKA, Dr. Frank L. 

Fortune, John L. 

Fosburg, H. a. 

fosdick, k. i. 

FoucEK, Charles G. 

Fox, Harvey 

Fox, Hugo E. 

FoY, John J. 

Fraizer, Mrs. Lawrence 

Frame, C. L. 

Francis, Mrs. Daisy G. 

Frank, Mrs. Arthur A. 

Frank, David 

Frank, John M. 

Frank, Samuel I. 

Franke, Dr. Meta E. 

Franklin, Egington 

Eraser, N. D. 

Frazee, Seward C. 

Frazer, Mrs. G. E. 

Frederick, Mrs. Clarence L. 

Freehof, Dr. Solomon B. 

Freeman, Mrs. Ernest H. 

Freeman, Victor E. 

Freitag, F. J. 

French, Mrs. Harry P. 

Frenzel, Mrs. Henry 

Freund, Erwin O. 

Fried, Harry N. 

Friedberg, Mrs. Stanton 

Frieder, Edward N. 

Friedrichs, Mrs. Edith E. 

Friend, Mrs. Alexander 

Friend, Oscar F. 

Frisbie, Mrs. Ida D. 

Froebe, Miss Edith 

Frymark, August A. 

FuciK, E. J. 

Fuller, Mrs. Eugene W. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Fuller, Dr. George Damon 
Fulton, Mrs. Frank M. 
Funk, Mrs. C. S. 
Funk, G. W. 
funkhauser, leonard k. 

Gable, Harley O. 
Gaither, Otho S. 
Gale, Abram 
Gallagher, Mrs. F. H. 
Gallagher, Mrs. George F. 
Gallauer, C. 

Galloway, Dr. Charles E. 
Galloway, William Marshall 
Galvin, Joseph X. 
Gang, David R. 
Gardner, Robert H. 
Garlick, R. C. 
Garner, F. J. 
Gartside, John L. 
Garvey, Mrs. W. H. 
Garwood, Victor E. 
Gary, Dr. I. Clark 
Gates, Philip R. 
Gaul, H. J. 
Gehm, Mrs. F. E. 
Geiger, Dr. a. H. 
Geraghty, Mrs. Thomas F. 
Gere, Mrs. Albert H. 
Geringer, Charles M. 
Gertz, Rudolph V. 
Gervais, Mrs. W. B. 
Getschow, George M. 
Geyer, Mrs. Joseph V. 
Gibbs, Mrs. Walter M. 
Gibbs, William J. 
Gibbs, Dr. William W. 
Gibson, Carl L. 
Gibson, Mrs. Irene M. 
Gibson, Mrs. Will A., Jr. 
Gielsdorf, Miss Helen P. 
Gilbert, Allan T. 
Gilbert, Miss Helen R. 
Gilbert, Mrs. N. C. 
Gilbert, Mrs. T. G. 
Gilchrist, Miss Harriet F. 
Giles, Miss A. H. 
Giles, Mrs. I. K. 
Giles, Dr. Roscoe 
GiLKES, William H. 
Gill, Adolph 
Gill, Wallace 
gillanders, kenneth 
Gilleland, p. H. 

GiLLET, Harry O. 
Gillette, Mrs. Ellen D. 
Gillette, Howard F. 
Gilpin, Garth G. 
Gindele, Mrs. C. W. 
Gits, Mrs. Remi J. 
Glader, Frank J. 
Gladish, Rev. W. L. 
Glass, J. R. 
Glass, William Q. 
Gledhill, Edward 
Glick, Benjamin J. 
Glidden, Mrs. H. L. 
Glover, Mrs. Manson 
Glynn, Mrs. John E. 
GoBLE, Mrs. E. R. 
Goddard, Mrs. Convers 
Godfrey, Joseph, Jr. 
Goetz, Mrs. Isabelle R. 

golding, gustav 
Goldman, Mrs. Louis 
Goldman, Mrs. M. 
Goldsmith, Henry M. 
Goldsmith, M. A. 
GooDKiND, Mrs. A. L. 
Gordon, Mrs. Harold J. 
Gordon, Miss Maude 
Gore, Mrs. Edward E. 
Gorham, Miss Kathryn C. 
Gottschalk, Mrs. Charles H. 
Gould, George W. 
Graham, Mrs. C. Darwin 
Gramm, Dr. Carl T. 
Granstrom, p. M. 
Grauer, Milton H. 
Graver, Philip S. 
Graves, Mrs. B. C. 
Graves, Mrs. George E. 
Graves, Mrs. W. T. 
Gray, Mrs. William S, 
Graydon, Charles E. 
Grear, W. S. 
Green, Albert L. 
Green, Mrs. George H. 
Green, Miss Mary Pomeroy 
Green, Walter H. 
Greenebaum, Mrs. Esther 
Greenlee, William B. 
Gregg, Robert D. 
Gregory, Mrs. Robert B. 
Grein, Joseph 
Greiner, Clarence A. 
Grendeske, Mrs. Joseph A. 
Grey, Newton F. 

268 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Gridley, Mrs. B. F. 
Griesser, Mrs. Hans Richard 
Griffin, Bennett 
Griffin, Thomas D. 
Griffith, Mrs. Carroll L. 
Griffith, Mrs. John L. 
Griffith, Mrs. M. A. 
Grimmer, Dr. A. H. 
Grinnell, Flint 
Grinnell, Robert L. 
Griswold, Roy C. 
Groebe, Louis G. 
Groot, C. 
Groot, Mrs. C. 
Grosfield, Mme. Bertha M. 
Gruenfeld, Adolph J. 
Gruetzmacher, Clyde C. 
Grut, Harry N. 
Gudeman, Dr. Edward 
Guettler, H. W. 
GuiLLLAMS, John R. 
GuiNAN, James J. 
Gullickson, Rollo 
Gxjnderson, Mrs. George O. 
Gunggoll, Mrs. G. A. 
GuNKEL, George P. 
GuNNAR, Mrs. H. P. 


Gunther, Samuel L. 
GuRLEY, Miss Helen K. 


Guthrie, Miss Mary G. 

Haas, Adolph R. 
Haas, Samuel L. 
Hachmeister, Herman 
Hack, Miss Helen V. 
Hackett, Horatio B. 
Hadlock, Gerald B. 
Haedtler, Martin C. 
Haerther, Dr. A. G. 
Haerther, William W. 
Hagey, J. F. 
Haggard, Godfrey 
Haines, Miss Tina Mae 
Hajek, Henry F. 
Halas, Andrew G. 
Haley, Dr. C. 0. 
Hall, Arthur B. 
Hall, Edward B. 
Hall, George C. 
Hall, Henry C. 
Hall, J. Russell 
Hall, Louis W. 
Hall, Robert W, 

Hallenbeck, Mrs. C. W. 
Halsted, Mrs. A. E. 
Hambleton, C. J. 
Hamilton, Alex K. 
Hamilton, Mrs. Chester F. 
Hamilton, Edgar L. 
Hamilton, Hugo A. 
Hamilton, J. R. 
Hamilton, Robert J. 
Hamilton, Mrs. Scott R. 
Hamline, Mrs. John H. 
Hammatt, Mrs. W. P. 
Hammel, George E. 
Hammer, Thomas H. 
Hammill, Miss Edith K. 
Hammond, Mrs. I. L. 
Hammond, Roy E. 
Hammond, Miss Violet F. 
Hammond, William J. 
Hancock, Frank A. 
Haney, Mrs, S. C. 
Hankins, Harry 
Hanley, Frederick R. 
Hann, J. Roberts 
Hansen, Adolph H. 
Hansen, A. S. 
Hansen, Edward C. 
Hanskat, Mrs. Rose 
Hanson, August E. 
Hanson, Harry E. 
Hanson, Harry S. 
Hanson, Martin J. 
Harder, Miss Louise 
Harding, Mrs. Charles F. 
Harding, Charles F., Jr. 
Hardwicke, Harry 
Hardy, Henry G. 
Hardy, Walter Davis 
Harmon, Hubert P. 
Harmon, John H. 
Harpel, Mrs. Charles J. 
Harper, James H. 
Harrigan, E. J. 
Harriman, Frank B., Sr. 
Harris, Mrs. Abraham 
Harris, Ewart 
Harris, Frank F. 
Harris, Mrs. Samuel H. 
Harris, W. H. 
Harris, Wallace R. 
Harris, William L. 
Harrison, Edward R. 
Harrison, Harry P. 
Harrison, James D. 
Harrold, James P. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Harshaw, Myron T. 

Harshbarger, Miss Dema E. 

Hart, Mrs. G. H. 

Hart, Harry M. 

Hart, Henry D. 

Hart, Louis E. 

Hart, Max A. 

Hart, Mrs. Walter H. 

Hartford, Mrs. George Francis 

Hartigan, Mrs. A. F. 

Hartigan, Clare 

Hartmann, Henry, Sr. 

Hartmann, Mrs. Hugo 

Harvey, Byron S. 

Harvey, Harold B. 

Harvey, W. S., -Jr. 

Harwood, Frederick 

Haskell, L. A. 

Haskins, Raymond G. 

Haskins, Mrs. Virginia W. 

Hastings, Edmund A. 

Hattrem, Harold 

Hattstaedt, Mrs. John J. 

Haugan, Jevne 

Haupt, William W. 

Hauser, J. C. 

Hausler, Mrs. M., Jr. 

Hauter, Mrs. A. N. 

Hawkins, F. P. 

Hawkins, J. C. 

Hawkinson, Dr. Oscar 

Hawley, Clarence E. 

Hawthorne, V. R. 

Haynes, Mrs. J. R. 

Haynes, Ralph B. 

Hayt, William H. 

Haywood, Mrs. William 

Hazard, Miss Carolyn R. 

Healy, John J. 

Heath, William A. 

Hebel, Hon. Oscar 

Heberling, Russell L. 

Heckel, Edmund P. 

Heckler, Mrs. Andrew F. 

Hector, Dr. William S. 

Hedblom, Mrs. Carl A. 

Hedges, Fleming D. 

Heding, Gustave 

Hedman, John A. 

Heg, Ernest, Sr. 

Hegberg, R. O. 

Heide, Bernard H. 

Heifetz, Samuel 

Heineke, Carl 

Heineman, Mrs. P. G. 

Heinemann, John B. 

Helebrandt, Louis 

Heller, Bruno F. 

Henderson, B. E. 

Henderson, Mrs. Burton Waters 

Henderson, Mrs. C. K. 

Henderson, Charles C. 

Henkle, I. S. 

Henning, Charles F. 

Henrickson, Magnus 

Henry, C. Duff 

Henry, Claude D. 

Henschen, Henry S. 

Henschien, H. Peter 

Hensel, Herman E. 

Heff, Miss Serena 

Herbert, Mrs. William H. 

Herdliska, Mrs. F. I. 

Hertel, Hugo S. 

Hertz, Mrs. John D. 

Hertzberg, Edward 

Herzman, Dr. Morris H. 

Hess, Edward J. 

Hess, Mrs. J. H. 

Hess, John L. 

Hess, Mrs. Milton 

Hess, Sol H. 

Hessert, Gustav 

Hessler, John B. 

Hettrick, William J. 

Heubach, Mrs. Lydia 

Heym, Dr. a. 

Heymann, Emanuel H. 

Heymann, L. H. 

Heywood, Oliver C. 

Hibbard, Angus S. 

Hibbert, Miss Bertha 

Hibler, Mrs. John Henry 

Hickok, Frank M. 

Hicks, Mrs. Elvis L. 

Hicks, Mrs. W. T. 

High, Shirley T. 

Highley, Miss Lyle A. 

Hill, Mrs. Cyrus G. 

Hill, Duke 

Hill, Mrs. Frank L. 

Hill, Mrs. Marshall W. 

Hill, Miss Meda A. 

HiLLiARD, Mrs. William 

Hilliker, Miss Ray 

HiLLMAN, Edward 

Hills, Charles W., Sr. 


Hilpert, Willis S. 
Hilton, Henry H. 

270 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Hinds, George T. 
HiNES, Ralph J. 


HiRSH, Morris Henry 
Hitch, Mrs. Rufus M. 
Hitchcock, R. M. 
HiTER, Frank A. 
HoADLEY, Mrs. Arthur G. 
HoAG, Mrs. Junius C. 
Hoch, Mrs. William 
Hochb, Mrs. Edmond S. 
hochstadter, g. 
Hodge, Thomas P. 
HoEFER, Ernest 
Hoeft, Mrs. Adolph R. 
Hoellen, John J. 
HoFP, C. W. 

Hoffman, Mrs. Ernst H. 
HoLABiRD, John A. 
HoLDEN, Hale, Jr. 
Hole, Perry L. 
Hollenbach, Charles H. 
HoLLisTER, Francis H. 
Hollo WAY, Harry C. 
Hollow AY, Owen B. 
Holm, Gottfried 
Holm, Walter T. 
HoLMAN, Alfred L. 
HoLMEAD, Alfred 
Holmes, Dr. Bayard 
Holmes, Fred C. 
Holmes, Mrs. Robert L. 
Holmes, Thomas J. 
Holmes, William 
HoLRAN, Mrs. John Raymond 
Holt, Mrs. Arthur E. 
Holt, James A. 
Holt, McPherson 
HoLzwoRTH, Christopher E. 
HoNORE, Mrs. Lockwood 
Hood, George A. 
Hooge, Dr. Ludwig F. 
Hopkins, Alvah S. 
Horner, Hon. Henry 
Horner, Walter A. 
HoRNUNG, Joseph J. 
Horween, Isadore 
HoRWEEN, Ralph 
Horwich, Philip 
Hosford, William R. 


HousER, Mrs. Agnes Ricks 
Howard, Mrs. 0. McG. 
Howard, P. S. 

Howard, William H. 
Howe, Irwin M. 
HoYER, Thomas H. 
HoYT, N. Landon, Jr. 
HoYT, William M., II 
Hryniewiecki, Dr. Stefan 
Huard, William G. 
Hubachek, Frank Brookes 
Hubbard, E. J. 
Hubbard, John M. 
Hubbard, Mrs. Willlam Sillers 
HuBBELL, Miss Grace 
Hubbell, William J. 
Huebsch, Mrs. Helen M. 
Huenink, H. L. 


HuFTY, Mrs. F. P. 
Hughes, George E. 
Hughes, Mrs. James 
Hughes, Rev. Richard D. 
Hughes, W. V. 
HuGUENOR, Lloyd B. 
Hull, Irving W. 
Hull, Robert W. 
hultin, n. h. 
Human, Michael G. 
Humiston, Dr. Charles E. 
Hunt, Mrs. Robert G. 
Hunt, W. Prescott, Jr. 
Hunter, W. Kelso 
Hurd, Mrs. F. A. 
HuRD, Harry B. 
Hurd, Max H. 
Hurley, Frank J. 
Hurst, Mrs. Wayne Lloyd 
Hurwith, Howard K. 
HuRwiTZ, Morris J. 
HusAK, Mrs. L. Milton 
Husar, Frank 

HusMANN, Mrs. Theodore F. 
Hutchinson, Mrs. C. L. 
Hutchison, Miss Jean 
HuTTEL, Mrs. A. N. 
Huxley, Henry M. 
Hymers, Mrs. Edward 
Hyndman, Mrs. A. H. 
Hynes, Dibrell 

ICELY, Lawrence B. 
Inderrieden, Miss L. E. 
Ingram, Harold S. 
Ingram, Mrs. John 
Innes, Mrs. Frederick L. 
Iralson, Mrs. Moses 
Irwin, A. Charles 

Jan. 1932 Annual Report of the Director 


Irwin, Amory T. 
Irwin, Gordon C. 
Irwin, Miss Ruth M. 
Isaacs, Michael H. 
Iverson, Harry J. 

Jackson, Howard K. 
Jackson, Mrs. Pleda H. 
Jackson, W. H. 
Jackson, William F. 
Jacobi, Harry 
Jacobs, E. G. 
Jacobs, Harvey F. 
Jacobs, Nate 
Jacobs, Walter H. 
Jacobs, Whipple 
Jacobson, Egbert G. 
Jacobson, Harry 
Jaeger, Edward W. 
Jaegermann, William A. 
Jaffe, Benjamin E. 
James, Mrs. Ralph H, 
James, Dr. R. L. 
Jamieson, Norman R. 
Jampolis, Mrs. Mark 
Janata, Louis J. 
Jane, William T. 
Janensch, Mrs. E. 
Janis, Frank H. 
Jannotta, Frank S. 
Jannotta, J. E. 
Jarchow, Mrs. C. E. 
Jarema, Alexander L. 
Jarrett, R. H., Sr. 
Jarvis, William B., Sr. 
Jefferson, Mrs. Edith H. 
Jenkins, Newton 
Jenkins, Sidney H. 
Jennings, Mrs. C. A. 
Jensen, Carl F. 
Jensen, Harold P. 
Jensik, Raymond C. 
Jernberg, Carl L. 
Jessup, Theodore 
Jewell, Miss Helen M. 
Jewett, Mrs. George C. 
JiRSA, Dr. Otto J. 
JoERN, Wanda M. 
Johnson, Mrs. Alice N. 
Johnson, B. W. 
Johnson, C. Edward 
Johnson, Mrs. Clarence A. 
Johnson, Miss Edna Gray 
Johnson, Evan 
Johnson, Mrs. E. G. 
Johnson, Frank 

Johnson, Harry T. 
Johnson, Mrs. Herbert S. 
Johnson, Mrs. J. J. 
Johnson, Mrs. Lorena M. 
Johnson, M. 
Johnson, Martin A. 
Johnson, Mrs. W. B. 
Johnson, Mrs. Walter H. 
Johnson, William E. 
Johnston, Ira B. 
Johnston, W. Robert 
Johnstone, Mrs. Bruce 
Jones, Ashley Oliver, Sr. 
Jones, Mrs. C. A. 
Jones, D. C. 
Jones, George R. 
Jones, Homer D., Jr. 
Jones, Mrs. Howard A. 
Jones, Howard E. A. 
Jones, Dr. Jay G. 

Jones, J. Harry, Sr. 

Jones, John H. 

Jones, Mrs. John Sutphin 

Jones, Owen Barton 

Jones, Mrs. Roswell N. 

Jones, Victor H. 

Jones, Walter Clyde, Jr. 

Jordan, Miss Irene C. 

JoRGESON, Charles M. 

Joseph, A. G. 

Joy, James A. 

Joyce, Thomas F. 

Judd, Harry L. 

JuDD, Mrs. Robert Augustine 

JuDSON, Clay 

JuERGENS, Miss Anna 

Junker, Richard A. 

Kaempfer, Fred 
Kahn, Mrs. Louis 
Kahn, Sidney H. 
Kanavel, Dr. Allen B. 
Kann, Max M. 
Kannally, M. V, 
Kanter, Dr. Aaron E. 
Karnes, George 
Karpen, S. 
Karstrom, J. O. 
Kass, Peter 
Katz, Mrs. S. 
Kaufman, Dr. Gustav L. 
Kaye, Joseph M. 
Keene, William J. 
Keig, Marshall E. 
Keim, Melville 

272 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Kelley, Harper 
Kelley, Mrs. Harper 
Kellogg, Miss Bess 
Kellogg, James G. 
Kellogg, Mrs. Sarah A. 
Kelly, Edmund P. 
Kelly, Mrs. Harry L. 
Kelly, John Hayes 
Kelly, Joseph J. 
Kelly, Miss Mary A. 
Kemp, Philip G. 
Kemper, Miss Hilda M. 
Kenly, Mrs. Willl^m K. 
Kennedy, Mrs. Edward A. 
Kennedy, Lesley 
Kennedy, Ralph 
Kennedy, Mrs. Robert E, 
Kennedy, Mrs. William J. 
Kent, Henry R. 
Kenyon, Mrs. E. F. 
Keogh, Mrs. James B, 
Keplinger, W. A. 
Keppner, H. W. 
Kern, Dr. Maximilian 
Kernott, Mrs. John E, 
Kerr, Mrs. Alexander M. 
Kersey, Glen B. 
Kersting, Mrs. A. H. 
Kerwin, Edward M. 
Kesler, Edward C. 
Kestnbaum, Meyer 
Ketcham, Mrs. Charles E. 
Keyser, Charles F., Sr. 
KiBLER, Mrs. Harold R. 
Kiehl, Miss A. L. 
KiLBERT, Mrs. Robert 
Kilcourse, Miss Marjorie V. 
Kilmer, Mrs. Charles 
Kimball, Ernest M. 
Kimball, George D. 
Kimball, T. Weller 
Kimbell, Charles Rea 
Kindsvogel, W. G. 
King, Mrs. Calvin P. 
King, Mrs. Grace G. 
King, John Andrews 
King, Joseph M. 
King, Mrs. Nelora S. 
King, Mrs. Rockwell 
King, Mrs. W. H. 
King, William Henry, Jr. 
Kinn, Mrs. Stella R, 
KiNSELLA, Mrs. William P. 
KiPER, Henry 
KiPLiNGER, Walter M. 

KmcHER, Mrs. J. G. 
Kirk, Harry I. 
KiRKLAND, Mrs. C. Hob art 
KiRKPATRiCK, Donald 
Kirn, Mrs. Ray O. 
KixMiller, Mrs. William 
Klaas, Mrs. Henry 
Klein, Mrs. A. S. 
Klein, Dr. David 
Klein, Fred W. 
Klein, Michael B. 
Klein, Peter 
Kleinschmidt, Edward 
Klemann, Mrs. C. J. 
Klenha, Joseph Z. 
Kleppinger, Mrs. F. S. 
Kline, William S. 
Klotz, Edward C. 
Knautz, Mrs. Grace L. 
Knecht, Mrs. Tolbert L. 
Knight, Newell C. 
Knight, Mrs. Orray T. 
Knobbe, John W. 
Knoke, Mrs. Clara P. 
Knott, Mrs. Stephen R. 
KoBicK, Henry G. 
Koch, Mrs. Fred C. 
Koch, Paul W. 
Koch, Raymond J. 
Koch, Dr. Sumner 
Kochale, Miss Clara M. 
KoENiG, Fred A. 
Koenig, George W. 
KoEPKE, Mrs. Albert C. 
Koepke, E. E. 
KoEPKE, Frank J. 
kohler, g. a. e. 
Kohn, Mrs. Caroline H. 
KoHN, Mrs. Frances J. 
Kohn, Mrs. George G. 
KoHN, Oscar 
KoHOUT, Joseph, Jr. 
KoHR, Arthur G. 
KoLSTAD, Odin T. 
Komarek, a. W. 
KooLisH, Mrs. Michael 
Kordenat, Dr. Ralph A. 
KoRT, George 
KovoLOFF, Dan 
Kowalski, August J. 
Koziczynski, Dr. Lucian 
Kraft, Dr. Oscar H. 
Krausman, Arthur 
Krebs, Charles E. 
Krein, Edward N. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Kremer, C. E. 
Krensky, a. Morris 
Kretzmann, Miss Mary C. 
Kreuscher, Dr. Philip H. 
Kreuzinger, George W. 
Kriete, Frank L. 
Kroener, Mrs. C. O. 
Krotzsch, Miss Ophelia 
Krueger, 0. W. 
Krum, Howard L. 
KuEHN, Miss Katherine 
KuEHN, Oswald L. 
KuH, Dr. Sidney 
KuLLMAN, F. H., Jr. 


KuRRiE, Mrs. H. R. 
Kurtz, George R. 
kussman, a. c. 

Lach, Louis M. 
Ladd, C. M. 
Laemmle, Mrs. Louis 
Lafean, W. L. 
Laflin, Charles W. 
Laird, Robert S. 
Lake, Edward 
Lake, Mrs. R. C. 
Lalley, Henry J. 
Lamb, Frank J. 
Lamont, John A. 
Lampert, Wilson W. 
Landau, Harold 
Lander, Mrs. Lulu Payton 
Landman, L. W. 
Lane, Mrs. Eben 
Lane, Mrs. John F. 
Lane, Steven M. 
Langdon, Buel a. 
Lange, a. G. 
Lange, Miss Clara L. 
Langert, Abraham M. 
Langhorne, Rev. F. Paul 
Langhorst, Mrs. Henry F. 
Lanius, James C. 
Lansing, A. J. 
Lansinger, Mrs. John M. 
Lapham, F. H. 

Laramore, Florian Eugene 
Larkin, William J. 
Larsen, Gustave R. 
Larson, Miss Ida 
Larson, Simon P. 
Lasch, Charles F. 

Latham, Carl Ray 
Lathrop, Frederick A. 
Lau, Mrs. John Arnold 
Lauder, Robert E. 
Laufer, Mrs. Berthold 
Lauterbach, Mrs. Julius G. 
Lavidge, Arthur W. 
Lavin, Mrs. D. J. 
Lavin, H. T. 
Law, M. a. 

Lawrence, Miss Elma V. 
Lawrence, Victor E. 
Lawton, Samuel T. 
Lazarus, W. H. 
Lazear, Dr. Davies 
Lazelle, L. L. 
Leach, George T. 
Leal, Miss Rose B. 
Leathers, Mrs. G. M. 
LeDuc, Mrs. A. 
Lee, Edward T. 
Lee, Mrs. Joseph Edgar 
Lee, Mrs. W. George 
Leech, Miss Alice 
Lees, William 
Leete, Robert S. 
Leffel, p. C. 
Leigh, Edward B. 
Leigh, Maurice 
Leight, Edward A. 
Leiser, Robert S. 
Leitz, Mrs. Robert 
Leitzell, Mrs. Samuel N. 
Leman, Mrs. W. T. 
Lemon, Harvey B. 
Lenfestey, Mrs. J. R. 
Lennox, Edwin 
Lenz, Mrs. George 
LeSage, Rev. John J. 
Leslie, John Woodworth 
Lesman, Mrs. George H. 
Lesser, Sol 
Lester, Albert G. 
Lettermann, a. L. 
Levett, Dr. John 
Levey, Clarence J. 
Levin, I. Archer 
Levin, Louis 
Levinson, David 
Le VINSON, Salmon 0. 
Levis, John M. 
Levitt, George G. 
Levy, Mrs. Arthur K. 
Levy, Harry H. 
Levy, Mrs. Samuel 

274 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

LeWald, w. b. 
Lewin, Miss Estella 
LEW^s, A. A. 
Lewis, Miss Eva 
Le\ms, Mrs. Harry G. 
Lewis, J. Henry 
Lew^s, Miss Sara 
Lewis, Mrs. Walker 0. 
L'Hommedieu, Arthur 
Lichtenstein, Walter 
LiDov, Mrs. S.^ml'el J. 
Liebenthal, Mrs. John Hen-ry 
Lieberthal, Dr. Eugene P. 
Lint)GREn, Mrs. Alex C. 
Lindley, Mrs. Fred W. 


Link, Mrs. Robert 


LiN-N, Mrs. Ja^ies Weber 
Linn, Mrs. W. Scott 
LiPKiN, Maurice S. 
Lipman, Abraham 
Lippert, Aloysius C. 
LIPPMAN, Mrs. Helen M. 
LiPSEY, William J. 
List, Palxus 
Lister, Harold R. 
LiTSiNGER, Mrs. Edward R. 
Little, Charles G. 
Livingston, Mrs. K. J. 
Llewt:llyn, Arthur J. 
Lloyd, Mrs. Grace Chapman 
Lobdell, Harry H. 
Locke, Richard F. 
Lockwood, David W. 
Lodge, Fred S. 
Loeb, Arthur A. 
LoEB, Mrs. Estelle T. 
Loeb, Dr. Ludwig M. 
LoEB, Mrs. Michael S. 
Loehr, Karl C. 
Loehwing, Marx 
LoESCH, Charles F. 
Loeser, Louis 
Loewenherz, Emanuel 
Logan, Frank G. 
Logan, Frederic D. 
Logan, Mrs. John A. 
London, Harry 


Lorenzen, a. F. 
Lorenzen, H. 
Lo\"ETT, Miss Alma J. 
Lo^'enbach, Mrs. William L. 


Lowry, Mrs. Leslie E. 
LoziER, Mrs. H. G. 
Lldlam, Mrs. Bertha S. 
LusK, Ross C. 


Lutz, Mrs. Edward F. 
LuTZOW, Fred H. 
Lydston, Mrs. G. Frank 
Lyman, Mrs. H. C. 
Lynch, Mrs. V. Reges 
Lyon, William I. 

Mac Arthur, Fred V. 
MacClant:, Mrs. J. H. 
MacF.adden, William 
MacFarland, Mrs. Hays 
Macfarland, Lanning 
MacFarl.\n^, Wilbert E. 
MacFerran, Charles S. 
MacGill, Mrs. William V. 
MacGregor, Mrs. David John 
MacKellar, Dr. John D. 
Mackenzie, Mrs. G. S. 
Mack:worth, Mrs. Isabel 
MacLean, Mrs. M. H. 
M.^cLeod, Dr. S. B. 
MacMahon, Mrs. Corn-elius C. 
Macmillan, Mrs. L. W. 


MacNeille, Mrs. C. T. 
Macomb, J. DeNavarre 
Maddock, Miss Alice E. 
Madsen, Mrs. T. E. 
Maehle, J. L. 
Maehler, Arthur E. 
Magntjs, Philip H. 
M.4HER, Mrs. Philip B. 
Mahon, Mrs. Mary T. 
Mair, Robert 
Maisel, George 
Majarakis, James 
Maley, Thomas E. 
Malkov, David S. 
Maltman, Miss Elizabeth E. 
Maltman, J.-^mes 
Manasse, Edwin H. 
Manaster, Henry 
Manegold, Frank 
Manheimer, Arthur E. 
MAN^ERRE, John T. 
Mann, Mrs. C. Hammond 
Mann, Mrs. Louis P. 
Mansfield, Alfred W. 
Markham, H. I. 
Marks, Alexander 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Marks, Arnold K. 

Marks, Ellis 

Marks, Emanuel 

Markus, Joseph E. 

Marling, Mrs. Frank, Jr. 

Marsh, Charles L. 

Marsh, John McWilliams 

Marshall, G. E. 

Marshall, Raphael P. 

Marston, Mrs. T. B. 

Martin, Mrs. Alfred T. 
t Martin, Miss Bess B. 

Martin, Mrs. C. E. 

Martin, Edward 

Martin, Mrs. Emil 
; Martin, Mrs. Glen E. 
1 Martin, I. S. 

Martin, Mellen C. 

Martin, Mrs. Walter G. 

Martin, Z. E. 

Marwig, Edward R. 

Mason, Mrs. George H. 

Massena, Roy 

Massmann, Frederick H. 

Masters, Hardin W. 

Mastin, Mrs. W. H. 

Matchett, Mrs. James C. 

Mather, Orian A. 

Mathews, Miss Jessie 

Mathews, Mrs. Shailer 

Mathison, Howard C. 

Matson, H. M. 

Matson, Mrs. J. Edward 

Matteson, Mrs. DeForrest A. 

Matthews, Francis E. 

Matthies, Dr. Mabel M. 

Matushek, H. a. 

Matz, Miss Ruth H. 

Maxwell, Mrs. Edward E. 

May, Mrs. George T., Jr. 

May, Sol 

Mayer, Adolph A. C. 

Mayer, Clarence 

Mayer, Mrs. David, Jr. 

Mayer, Edwin W. C. 

Mayer, Mrs. Emil 

Mayer, Frank 

Mayer, Mrs. Joseph 

Mayer, Oscar G. 

Mayland, Dr. Walter C. 

McAlear, James 

McAllister, M. Hall 

McArthur, Dr. Lewis L. 

McArthur, Mrs. S. W. 

McCahey, James B. 

McCall, Mrs. Robert L. 
McCall, S. T. 
McCann, D. 

McCarthy, Alexander J. 
McCarthy, George H. 
McClain, Dr. Harris W. 
McClelland, Mrs. E. B. 
McClure, Donald 
McClure, D. T. 
McCoMB, Mrs. James J. 
McCoNNELL, G. Malcolm 
McCoNNELL, John W. 
McCormack, J. W. 
McCormick, Alister H. 
McCoRMiCK, Miss Elizabeth D. 
McCoy, Charles S. 
McCoy, W. E. 
McCreight, Harry A. 
McDonald, L. 
McDonnell, Mrs. Michael 
McDougal, David B. 
McDougall, Mrs. C. R. 
McDougall, Mrs. Edward G. 
McDowell, Miss Mary E. 
McElhone, Mrs. Fred 
McFadden, Everett R. 
McFall, L. 

McFarland, Mrs. Ellis 
McGinty, Miss Alice L. 
McGough, S. p. 
McGrath, George E. 
McGrath, Thomas S. 
McGregor, James P. 
McGuigan, Dr. Thomas 
McGuinn, Edward B. 
mcguire, simms d. 
McGuire, Dr. Walter George 
McHenry, Roland 
MclNNis, E. E. 
McIntosh, Mrs. Robert L. 
McKay, Charles R. 
McKay, Dr. N. B. 
McKenna, Mrs. James J. 
McKibbin, Mrs. George B. 
McKinney, Mrs. James 
mckinney, w. o. 
McKnight, William M. 
McLaren, Miss Mabel 
McLaughlin, A. G. 
McLaughlin, Daniel F. 
McLaughlin, Frank L. 
McLaughlin, Dr. James H. 
McLaughlin, Rev. Jesse]L. 
McManus, J. P. 
McManus, Mrs. James P. 

276 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

McMuRRAY, Mrs. George Newton 

McNabb, Peter M. 

McNair, Frank 

McNamara, Robert C. 

McNeal, S. D. 

McNeil, Mrs. Albert G. 

McPherson, Donald F. 

McQuaid, E. J. 

McSuRELY, Mrs. William H. 

McVay, George Russell 

McWilliams, E. S. 

Meacham, Miss Kathleen 

Mead, H. B. 

Mead, Mrs. Olive M. 

Meade, Mrs. Martha 

Mbardon, Mrs. Sarah 

Mbchem, J. C. 

Meek, Miss Margaret E. 

Meeker, Arthur 

Meeker, Mrs. George W. 

Megaw, Lloyd F. 

Megowan, Lewis E. 

Mehlhop, F. W. 

Mehlhope, Clarence E. 

Meigs, James B. 

Meiners, Mrs. J. C. 

Mellen, Miss Martha Jane 

Mellon, Miss Frances A. 

Mengden, Mrs. F. W. 

Menten, Thomas H. 

Mentzer, J. P. 

Mercer, Dr. August W. 

Meredith, O. F. 

Merrick, Mrs. Clinton 

Merrifield, Fred 

Merrill, Mrs. J. J. 

Merriman, Mrs. Willis L. 

Messenger, Don E. 

Metcoff, Dr. Samuel 

Mettler, Mrs. L. Harrison 

Metzger, Mrs. George B. 

Metzger, Mrs. J. Fred 

Meyer, Howard F. 

Michael, Mrs. Herman 

Middleton, Miss May E. 

Miktyn, Mrs. Anthony I. 

MiLCHRisT, Frank T. 

MiLEHAM, Miss Irene 

Millard, Mrs. E. L. 

Miller, Charles J. 

Miller, Mrs. Edmund T. 

Miller, Edward L. 

Miller, Henry G. 

Miller, Mrs. James A. 

Miller, M. Glen 

Miller, Maxwell P. 
Miller, Paul 
Miller, Richard O. 
Miller, R. T. 

MiLLiKEN, Mrs. Kate 
Mills, Mrs. Edwin S. 


Milner, Charles T. 
Miner, Fred G. 
Mink, Dwight L. 
Misch, Mrs. Harry N. 
Mitchell, Abraham 
Mitchell, Clarence B. 
Mitchell, Ernest I. 
Mitchell, Mrs. Frederick R. 
Mitchell, Mrs. George R. 
Mitchell, Mrs. 0. L. 
Mizen, Frederick Kimball 
Modene, Oscar F. 
MoE, Mrs. Chester Charles 
Moessel, Professor Julius 
Moldenhauer, Dr. William J. 
MoLTER, Mrs. W. H. 
Moment, Asher 
MoNCHOW, Miss Helen C. 
MoNiGHAN, Mrs. J. 
MoNiLAW, Dr. William J. 
Monk, George S. 
Monroe, Mrs. H. L. 
Montague, O. O. 
MoNTER, Mrs. Charles G. 
Montgomery, Frederick D. 
Montgomery, Mrs. F. H. 
Montgomery, Mrs. Frederick H. 
Montgomery, Mrs. H. M. S. 
Montgomery, John R. 
MooNEY, William H. 
Moore, Mrs. A. Clarkb 
Moore, Mrs. Agnes C. 
Moore, Mrs. Arthur W. 
Moore, Dr. Beveridge H. 
Moore, Edward F. 
Moore, Frederick W. 
Moore, James H. 
Moore, Dr. Josiah J. 
Moore, Mrs. J. W. 
Moore, Miss M. Eleanor 
Moore, Nathan G. 
Moore, North 
Moore, Oscar L. 
Moore, Paul 
Moore, Mrs. W. V. 
Moore, William H. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


MoRELLE, Mrs. Lela C. 
MoRP, Mrs. Paul F. 
Morgan, Clarence 
Morgan, Mrs. F. W. 
Morgenthau, Mrs. Sidney L. 
Moroney, John J. 
Morris, Ira Nelson 
Morris, Dr. Robert W. 
Morrison, Mrs. C. R. 
Morse, Cleveland 
Morton, Dr. Edward C, 
MosER, Paul 
Moses, Ernest C. 
Moulton, Dr. Eugene A. 
MouLTON, William A. 
Mowry, Robert D. 
Moyer, Miss Mabel M. 
Mudge, Burton 
Mueller, Dr. E. W. 
Mulford, Frank B. 
MuLLALY, Rev. Edward J. 
MuNROE, Treadway B. 


Murphy, Miss C. 
Murphy, Miss Catherine M. 
Murphy, J. P. 
MtTRPHY, Mrs. J. R. 
Murphy, Leonard E. 
Murray, Martin J. 
Murray, Robert H. 
Musgrave, Dr. George J. 
Myers, Arthur L. 

Nachtrieb, Charles G. 

Nadeau, Mrs. Oscar E. 

Nadler, Charles 

Naess, Sigurd E. 

Naffz, Dr. E. F. 

Nance, Willis D. 

Nash, Patrick A. 

Nath, Bernard 

Nathanson, Maurice J. 

Nau, Otto F. 

Naylor, Miss Marjorie Virginia 

Neal, Thomas C. 

Neal, Mrs. W. B. 

Neely, Mrs. Lloyd F. 

Neff, W. A. 

Neidlinger, Robert J. 

Neise, George N. 

Nellis, Mrs. Frank E., Jr. 

Nelson, Alvin E. 

Nelson, Byron 

Nelson, Charles M. 

Nelson, Hoogner 

Nelson, Mrs. Joseph K. 

Nelson, Dr. Ole C. 
Nelson, Peter B. 
Nelson, Mrs. William D. 
Nelson, William H. 
Nenneman, William T. 
Nergard, Edwin J. 
Nessler, Robert W. 
Netsch, Mrs. Walter A. 
Nevins, John C. 
Newberry, Miss Mary L. 
Newborg, Miss Frances 
Newburger, J. M. 
Newcomb, Mrs. B. V. 
Newman, Mrs. H. H. 
Newman, Mrs. Jacob 
NiBLACK, Mrs. William C. 
Nichelson, Arthur M. 
Nichols, Mrs. Leslie H. 
Nicholson, Mrs. Frank G. 
Nicholson, Mrs. John A. 
Nickelson, S. T. 

NiLES, W. A. 

Nimmons, George C. 
Noble, F. H. 
Norman, Dan 
NORRIS, Eben H. 
NoRRis, Mrs. William S. 
Northrop, Mrs. George N. 
NoRTHRUP, Lorry R. 
Norton, Ellery 
NoTHEis, Mrs. J. F. 
NoTz, Mrs. John K. 
Novak, Dr. Frank J., Jr. 
NowAK, Mrs. Charles A. 
NowAK, Maxwell M. 
NoYES, Ernest H. 
Noyes, Mrs. John High 
Nugent, Dr. 0. B. 
Nutting, C. G. 
NuYTTENS, Alfred A. 
Nye, Mrs. James W. 
Nye, Mrs. William J. 

Gates, James F. 
Ober, Woodbury S. 
O'Brien, George W. 
O'Brien, M. J. 
O'Brien, Quin 
O'Brien, Wilbur J. 
O'Connell, William L. 
Odell, Mrs. James A. 
O'DoNNELL, Mrs. Simon 
O'DoNOVAN, Daniel J. 
Ofner, Jarvis 

278 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Ogawa, Suejiro 

Oleson, Dr. Richard Bartlett 
Olin, Edward L. 
Oliphant, Melville J. 
Oliver, Royston 
Olmstead, Mrs. G. G. 
Olmstead, Ralph W. 
Olsen, Mrs. Arthur O. 
Olsbn, Olaf C. S. 
Olsen, Mrs. Christen 
Olsen, Mrs. Sigurd 
Olsen, Mrs. Walter A. 
O'Neil, J. F. 
O'Reilly, Frank Hugh 
Ormsby, Mrs. Frank E. 
Ormsby, Miss Kathryn L. 
Orrell, Mrs. Mary E. 
Osborne, Mrs. J. Harrison 
Osborne, Mrs. W. Irving 
Osgood, Harry B. 
O'Shea, Thomas M. 
Ossendorff, Dr. K. W. 


Ostermann, Mrs. R. M. 

OsTOTT, Mrs. Murray M. 

O STROM, Charles Rennolds 

O'SuLLivAN, Miss Minnie 

OTooLE, John F. 

O'TooLE, Mrs. Bartholomew 

Ott, John Nash 

Otter, William 

OuTCAULT, Mrs. Richard F., Jr. 

Pabst, F. 

Packman, Clarence E. 
Paczynski, Mrs. Louis J. 
Paddock, Stephen M, 
Pain, Mrs. John T. 
Pajeau, Mrs. Charles H. 
Palmer, George B. 
Palmer, J. M. 
Palmer, P. B., Jr. 
Palmer, Robert F. 
Pandaleon, Costa A. 
Parker, Clifford 
Parker, Mrs. F. W. 
Parker, George S. 
Parks, J. W. 
Parks, O. J. 

Parmly, Mrs. Samuel P. 
Parsons, Ferdinand H. 
Parsons, W. E. 
Patch, Mrs. G. M. 
Patch, Mrs. W. 
Paterson, Morton L. 

Patterson, Mrs. Harry C. 
Patterson, Mrs. H. H. 
Patterson, Mrs. Wallace 
Pattison, William J. 
Patton, Walter I. 
Pauley, Clarence O. 
Pavey, William B. 
Pawley, Mrs. Ernest C. 
Peace, Charles E. 
Peacock, Charles D. 
Pearl, Allen S. 
Pearson, F. J. 
Peck, Mrs. Charles G. 
Peck, Robert G. 
Pedersen, a. R. 
Peirce, Miss Ida 
Pence, E. M. 
Pencik, Miles F. 
Pennington, Mrs. Robert B. 
Penrose, George 
Pentecost, Lewis J. 
Pepple, Mrs. Eloise D. 
Pering, Charles H. 
Perkins, Mrs. George P. 
Perkins, Mrs, Harry F. 
Perry, Mrs. Leslie L. 
Perryman, Mrs. Hattie S. 
Pescherbt, Mrs. Leon R. 
Peters, G. M. 
Petersen, Mrs. C. 
Petersen, Miss Doris 
Peterson, Dr. A. B. 
Peterson, Dr. A. E. 
Peterson, Charles S. 
Peterson, Leonard 
Peterson, Percival C. 
Petrakis, Mrs. Mark E. 
Peyraud, Mrs. Frank C. 
Pfaelzer, Mrs. Lawrence W. 
Pfeifer, Mrs. J. P. 
Pfeiffer, Mrs. Jacob 
Pflager, Charles W. 
Phalen, W. J. 
Phelan, Miss Anna E, 
Phelps, Cassius H. 
Phelps, Erastus R. 
Phelps, Mrs. Louise DeKoven 
Phillips, Floyd M. 
Phillips, Howard C. 
Pickell, J. Ralph 
Pierce, Mrs. C. E. 
Pierce, Miss Elva J. 
Pierce, Ralph S, 
PiETSCH, Mrs. Charles F. 
PiETSCH, Walter G. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


PiGALL, Mrs. Joseph S. 
PiNYERD, Carl A. 
PiowATY, Mrs. Carl 
Piper, Mrs. Adolph H. 
PisTER, Rev. Jacob 
Pitcher, Mrs. John C. 
PiTZNER, Alwin Frederick 
Place, F. E. 
Plamondon, Alfred D. 
Plath, Karl 
Plattenburg, S. R. 
Pletcher, T. M. 
Plimpton, Mrs. Nathan C. 
Plumley, Harold 
Plummer, Daniel C, Jr. 

Pohlmann, Miss Erna M. 
pollak, c. j. 
Pollenz, Henry 
Pope, Mrs. G. J. 
Popp, Mrs. Lee W. 
PoRiKOS, George S. 


Porter, Mrs. Lee W. 

porterfield, r. h. 

PoRTis, Dr. Bernard 

PoRTis, Dr. Sidney A. 

Post, Dr. Wilber E. 

Potter, Dr. Hollis E. 

Powell, Mrs. Charles L. 

Powell, Mrs. John H. 

Powell, Mrs. Lawrence H. 

Poyer, Mrs. Stephen A. 

Pratt, Mrs. E. C. 

Prebis, Mrs. John A. 

Preble, Mrs. A. C. 

Prentice, Oliver J. 

Preus, Mrs. J. A. 0. 

Price, Mrs. Minnie S. 

Price, Mrs. Thomas J. 

Pride, Mrs. Richard 

Prindle, James H. 

Prindle, M. L. 

Pringle, Mrs. George W. 

Pringle, Mrs. James E. 

Proesch, Mrs. L. C. 

Pronger, Herman F. 

Prosser, H. G. 

Prosser, Mrs. John A. 

Protheroe, Daniel 

Proxmire, Dr. Theodore Stanley 

Pruyn, Mrs. William H., Jr. 

Pryor, Maurice G. 

Pryor, Willis S. 

PuLVER, Albert G. 

Pulver, Henri Pierre 
Purcell, Dr. F. A. 
PuRRUCKER, Miss Louise M. 
Putnam, C. 
Putnam, Charles F. 
Putnam, Rufus W. 
puttkammer, mrs. e. 
Pynchon, Mrs. Charles E. 
Pyterek, Rev. Peter H. 

QuiNLAN, James T. 
QuiNN, David H. 
QuiNN, Edward J. 

Rarer, Franklin 
Ragsdale, Lee E. 
Rahm, Miss Kathryn 
Raleigh, James F. 
Ralston, Harris P. 
Ramis, Leon Lipman 
Ramsey, Mrs. George T. 
Randall, CM. 
Randall, Frank A. 
Randick, Miss Sara A. 
Ranney, Mrs. George A. 
Rannby, Mrs. Willett B. 
Ranstead, Merritt M. 
Rapaport, Morris W. 
Rapp, Leo E. 
Rasmussen, Frank 
Rathje, Mrs. Josephine L. 
Rawlings, Mrs. I. D. 
Ray, Harry K. 
Raymer, George L. 
Raymond, C. E. 
Raymond, Mrs. Clifford S. 
Raymond, Edwards Frederic 
Read, Mrs. J. J. 
Redman, Sterling L. 
Redpath, James B. 
Reebie, Mrs. Arthur W. 
Reed, Mrs. Frank C. 
Reed, Mrs. Frank D. 
Reed, Mrs. John W. 
Reed, Rufus M. 
Reed, Walter S. 
Reed, William P. 
Reed, Mrs. William P. 
Reeves, Mrs. Henry 
Reffelt, Miss F. A. 
Regensburg, James 
Rehm, Miss Emily 
Reid, Hugh 
Reid, p. Gordon 
Reilly, John R. 
Rein, Lester E. 

280 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Reineck, Miss Edna M. 
Reiss, Paul 

Renshaw, Mrs. William F., Sr. 
ReQua, Mrs. Charles H. 
Requa, William B. 
Reuss, Mrs. Henry H. 
Reynolds, Miss Florence E. 
Reynolds, George H. 
Reynolds, Mrs. Henry J. 
Reynolds, Miss Marion J. 
Reynolds, Miss Vera 
Rhoades, Mrs. Elmer Lamont 
Rhodes, Mrs. Carey W. 
Rhodes, Mrs. J. H. 
Rhodes, Mrs. Joseph E. 
Rhodes, W. E. 
RiBBACK, Mrs. N. 
Rice, Mrs. Charles R. 
Rice, Mrs. Kenneth E. 
Rice, Otto M. 
Rice, Mrs. W. W. 
Rich, Kenneth F. 
Richards, George D. 
Richardson, Mrs. Addie R. 
Richardson, Henry R. 
Rick, Miss Florence 
RiDDiFORD, Miss Emily J. 

RiEDER, W, F. 

RiEL, G. A. 

RiES, Mrs. Lester S. 


RiGALi, Mrs. L. R. 


RiLEY, Miss Mary A. 
Ritchie, Mrs. John 
roadifer, w. h. 
RoBBiNS, Lawrence B. 
Roberts, Francis R. 
Roberts, George G. 
Roberts, Jesse E. 
Roberts, Miss Nellie E. 
Roberts, Seth B. 
Robinson, Mrs. A. F. 
Robinson, Charles R. 
Robinson, Rev. George L. 
Robinson, Miss Louise C. 
Robinson, Miss Nellie 
Robinson, R. V. 
Robson, Mrs. Oscar 
Rockwell, Lester 
Rockwell, Theodore G. 
RocKWOOD, Frederick T. 
Roden, Carl B. 
RoDRicK, Mrs. Isaac 
Roe, Miss Carol F. 

Roefer, Henry A. 
Rogers, Dr. Daniel W. 
Rogers, Mrs. H. L. 
Rogers, J. W. 
RoLFES, Gerald A. 
RoLLAND, Frederick George 
RoLLO, Egbert 
RoLNiCK, Dr. Harry C. 
ronneberg, conrad e. 
Roodhouse, Benjamin T. 
Roper, F. E. 
rosboro, 0. a. 
Rose, Mrs. Thomas 
RosENAK, Mrs. Theodore 
Rosenbach, Mrs. Morris 
Rosenberg, Bernhard 
Rosenberg, I. 
Rosenfeld, M. J. 
Rosenfels, Irwin S. 
Rosenfield, Morris S. 
Rosenthal, Mrs. Samuel 
Rosenthal, Mrs. W. L. 
Ross, Samuel M. 
Roth, Arthur J. 
Roth, Edward N. 
Rothschild, Mrs. Louis G. 
RoTHSTEiN, Dr. Thor 


RowELL, Dr. L. W. 
RowLES, E. W. A. 
Rowley, Clifford A. 
Rowley, Mrs. James F. 
Roy, Mrs. Ervin L. 
Rud, Mrs. Anthony 
Rudolph, Miss Bertha 
RuGGLES, Dr. William L. 
RuMMLER, Eugene A. 


Rupert, Mrs. F. B. 


Russell, Mrs. Thomas Charles 

Ruth, Miss Thyra J. 

Ryan, Henry B. 

Ryan, Miss Margaret E. 

Sabath, Isidor 
Sachs, Paul J. 
Sachs, Philip G. 
Salinger, Harry 
Salk, Mrs. Jacob 
Saltzstein, Felix C. 
Sampson, H. J. 
Samuels, Mrs. Leo S. 
Sanford, Thomas F. 
Santschi, Mrs. E. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Saplitzky, Miss Bessie M. 
Sauer, Dr. Raymond J. 
Sauerman, John A. 
Savage, Joseph P. 
Sawyer, Miss Anna Grace 
Sawyer, Dr. C. F. 
Saxmann, Dr. Harriet E. 
Sayers, Mrs. A. J, 
Sayre, Dr. Loren D. 
ScALLAN, John William 
ScHAAR, Bernard E. 
ScHAD, Mrs. G. F. 
schafer, 0. j. 
Schaffner, Mrs. Albert 
Schaffner, Arthur B. 
Schantz, O. M. 
Schaps, Dr. Theodore 
ScHAUs, Carl J. 
Schellenberg, Miss Meta 
ScHENCK, Mrs. R. F. 
Schenkel, Mrs. H. A. 
ScHERER, Andrew 
Schermerhorn, Richard A. 
Scheying, Arthur L. 
ScHiEWE, Robert A. 
ScHiFF, Sydney K. 
ScHiMMEL, Philip W. 
Schmidt, Adolph 
Schmidt, Arthur C. E. 
Schmidt, Mrs. Otto G. 
Schmidt, Dr. Otto L. 
Schmidt, Theodore 
ScHMiTT, Mrs. George J. 
Schneider, Benjamin B. 
Schneider, C. A. 
Schneider, Dr. C. O. 
Schneider, George A. 
Schniglau, Charles H. 
Schoellkopf, Mrs. E. C. 
Schoenfeld, Mrs. R. A. 
Schoepfle, Mrs. Martin 
SCHOLL, David H. 
Schrader, Miss Harriet N. 
Schradzki, H. R. 
ScHRAMKA, Mrs. Frank J. 
Schreiner, Mrs. Charles A. 
Schreiner, Mrs. Francis Louis 
Schroeder, August F. 
Schroeder, Dr. Mary G. 
Schroeder, P. A. 
Schroll, W. H. 
ScHUELER, Robert 
Schueller, Werner 
Schulze, Paul 
Schumann, Mrs. F. E. 

ScHUTTE, Mrs. I. W. 
Schwab, Dr. Leslie W. 
Schwab, Martin C. 
Schwartz, Louis S. 
Schwartz, Dr. Otto 
ScHWARz, August 
ScHWARZ, Dr. Leigh E. 
Schweitzer, E. O. 
Schweitzer, Richard J. 
Schweitzer, Samuel 
Schweizer, Carl 
Scofibld, Timothy J. 
Scott, Gerald R. 
Scott, George H. 
Scott, Dr. Walter Dill 
ScuDDER, Mrs. Lawrence W. 
Scully, Miss Florence E. 
Searle, Dr. C. Howard 
Seaton, G. Leland 
Seaverns, Louis C. 
Sebelien, a. E. 
Seed, Miss Ethel W. 
Seehausen, Gilbert B. 
Sefton, Mrs. John 
Seibold, Arthur B. 
Seidscher, Jacob 
Seifert, Mrs. Emma 
Seifert, Mrs. William B. 
Seip, Fred 

Selig, Mrs. Joseph J. 
Sellers, Mrs. O. R. 
Selling, Harold N. 
Selover, Miss Julia M. 
Selz, Emanuel 
Selz, Mrs. J. Harry 
Senear, Dr. F. E. 
Senior, Mrs. John L. 
Sergeant, Walter E. 
Seubold, Dr. F. H. 
Sexton, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Seymour, Fred P, 
Seymour, H. W. 
Shaffer, Mrs. Norman P, 
Shanahan, David E. 
Shanahan, Mrs. F. H. 
Shanks, Oscar 
Shannon, Neil J. 
Shapiro, J. F. 
Sharp, Mrs. W. L. 
Shattuck, Charles H. 
Shaver, John W. 
Shaw, HEtniY P. 
Shaw, Mrs. J. G. 
Shaw, Joseph J. 
Shaw, Mrs. Moses M. 

282 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Shaw, Mrs. Walter A. 
Shay, John B. 
Sheahan, Miss Marie 
Shearman, C. E. 
Shedd, Charles E. 
Shbpard, Guy C. 
Shepard, Stuart G. 
Shepherd, Mrs. Claude H. 
Sheridan, L. J. 
Sheriffs, Walter A. 
Sherman, Edwin 
Sherman, H. C. 
Sherman, Louis A. 
Sherman, Mrs. Robert T. 
Sherman, Mrs. W. W. 
Shibley, a. E. 
Shipley, Mrs. Lionel H. 
Shippey, Mrs. Charles W. 
Shiverick, Mrs. A. F. 
Shonts, Miss Beatrice M. 
Short, Floyd T. 
Short, J. R. 

Shortall, Mrs. John G. 
Shortall, John L. 
Showalter, Miss Anna B. 
Shramek, Mrs, James F. 
Shuman, John R. 
Shurtleff, Miss L. H. 
Sieck, Herbert 
Siegenthaler, Mrs. Jacob L. 
SiERSMA, Mrs. Albert P. 
SiEVERS, William H. 
SiLBER, Clarence J. 


SiLLANi, Mrs. Mabel W. 
Silverberg, William 
Silverman, Edwin 
Silverman, Joseph 
Simmons, Mrs. Charles R. 
Simmons, Parke E. 
Simon, Felix D. 
Simonds, Mrs. Harold B. 
Simons, Mrs. George H. 
Simonson, Roger A., Jr. 
Simpson, Mrs. Mary Edith 
Simpson, Walter H. 
Sindelar, Joseph C. 
Binding, John W. 
Singleton, Mrs. Charles J. 
Singleton, Miss Elizabeth 


Siragusa, Mrs. Ross D. 
SissoN, Mrs. Vinton E. 
Skala, Joseph 
Skala, Rudolph J. 

Skeen, Dawson H. 
Skillman, Mrs. Frederic B. 
Skinner, James G. 
Skog, Mrs. Ludvig 
Slade, Alfred 
Slade, John C. 
Slade, Mason 
Slaten, Mrs. Frederick A. 
Sleight, Miss Barbara H. 
Slingluff, William H. 
Sloan, F. A. 
Smale, Miss Bessie T. 
Small, Miss Jean 
Smart, Charles H. 
Smeeth, Mrs. Edwin E. 
Smeeth, Mrs. Faith Beye 
Smith, Mrs. A. P. 
Smith, Mrs. Edward E. 
Smith, Edward Page 
Smith, Mrs. Edwin 
Smith, Dr. Edwin M. 
Smith, Dr. F. J. 
Smith, Frederick W. 
Smith, Glen E. 
Smith, Mrs. Harold M. 
Smith, Henry Justin 
Smith, Henry T. 
Smith, Dr. Herman 
Smith, Hermon Dunlap 
Smith, Jesse L. 
Smith, Dr. Joseph A. 
Smith, Leatham D. 
Smith, Miss Mary Rozet 
Smith, Paishe B. 
Smith, Sidney H. 
Smith, Mrs. Wilfred M. 
Smith, William D. 
Snitjer, Mrs. Agnes R. 
Snow, Mrs. Sydney B. 
SoBEY, Mrs. Joseph 
SocATCH, Miss Anna 
SoEST, Walter H. 
SoLLiTT, Ralph T. 
Solomon, Mrs. Lewis J. 
SoMERS, Roger W. 
Somerville, Dr. C. W. 
SoMMERS, Werner H, 
Song, A. F. 
SoNTAG, Edward A. 
Soper, Thomas 
Sorber, Miss Mary E. 
SoRENSEN, Mrs. Axel S. 
SoRENSON, Ralph Z. 
SORLEY, Dr. Milford S. 
Spades, M. H. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Sparrow, Mrs. W. W. K. 
Speed, Dr. Kellogg 
Spencer, Mrs. Frank E. 
Sperry, Mrs. Donald D. 
Speyer, Mrs. George W. 
Spiegel, Philip 
Spindler, Mrs. R. W. 
Spohr, Frank M. 
Spooner, Charles W. 
Sprague, Albert A., Jr. 
Spry, George 
Spurgeon, H. F. 
Staar, Rudolph 
Stafford, Charles W. 
Stallwood, S. C. 
Stangle, Mrs. Mary W. 
Staniewicz, Joseph V. 
Stanley, Eben 
Stanton, C. N. 
Staples, Miss Emily 
Starr, Dr. Paul 
States, Mrs. Wilmer M. 
Staltffer, Mrs. Grace Hauser 
Stearns, Fred 
Steele, Leo M. 
Steffensen, Sigurd 
Stein, Mrs. Adolph 
Stein, Mrs. S. Sidney 
Steinberg, Samuel E. 
Steinfeldt, Dr. C. R. 
Steinson, Henry G. 
Stembridge, Harold E. 
Stenson, Miss Jane A. 
Stern, Mrs. Herbert L. 
Stern, Jacob S. 
Sternberg, Morris 
Stevens, Mrs. Clyde G. 
Stevens, Ernest 
Stevens, Mrs. Jessie L. 
Stevenson, Elliott 
Stevenson, James C. 
Stevenson, James R. D. 
Stewart, Mrs. Pritchard 
Stewart, S. Chandler 
Stewart, William 
Stifler, Mrs. J. M. 
Stiles, Mrs. R. B. 
Stille, Ernest T. 
Stobbe, Paul D. 
Stockdale, Dr. Allen A. 
Stockton, A. C. 
Stockton, Mrs. John Thaw 
Stoehr, Kurt 
Stoelting, C. H. 
Stofft, Edmond B. 

Stokes, Miss Marguerite 

Stoll, Mrs. Annie G. 

Stolp, G. E. 

Stolz, Mrs. Leon 

Stolzenbach, Miss Emma W. 

Storkan, Mrs. James 

Sto\^r, Mrs. James D. 

Stover, Mrs. Russell 

Straten, Dr. Hubert J. 

Straus, Eli M. 

Strauss, Mrs. Lee J. 

Strawbridge, Mrs. Charles H. 

Strawn, Taylor 

Street, C. R. 

Striblen, Harry 

Strigl, F. C. 

Strong, Gordon 

Stubbs, J. S. 

Stumes, Charles B. 

Sturla, Harry L. 

Sturtevant, Roy E. 

Sublette, Mrs. Oscar H. 

SuFFERN, Edward E. 

Sullivan, Grey 

Summers, L. F. 

Summy, Clayton F. 

Sundblom, Mrs. Haddon Hubbard 

Sundell, Ernest W. 

sundlof, f. w. 

SuTCH, Dr. Yorke B. 

Sutcliffe, Elbert Gary 

SuTCLiFFE, Miss Sarah E. 

Sutherland, J. D. 

Sutter, Mrs. Harry 

Sutton, J. J. 

Sutton, John M. 

SwANSON, Frank E. 

Swearingen, Henry Curtis 

Sweeney, D. F. 

Sweet, Donald H. 

Sweet, Sidney R. 

Swift, Mrs. Alden B. 

Swift, T. Philip 

Sype, George 

Tabb, H. B. 

Taberner, Miss Mattie E. 
Talbot, Mrs. Eugene S., Jr. 
Tankersley, J. N. 
Tash, J. Donald 
Tatge, Mrs. Paul W. 
Taylor, Arthur E. 
Taylor, Mrs. Daniel 
Taylor, Mrs. Eugene S. 
Taylor, Frank F. 

284 Field Museum of Natural History— Reports, Vol. IX 

Taylor, Graham 
Taylor, L. S. 
Taylor, M. B. 
Taylor, Mrs. O. L. 
Teaglb, E. W. 
Teckembyer, a. 0. 
Tegtmeyer, Ernest F. 
Telfer, Thomas A. 
Teller, George L. 
Temps, Leupold 
Tennant, Colin McK., Sr. 
Terpning, B. E. 
Terry, Dr. C. Roy 
Terry, Mrs. Schuyler B. 
Tevander, Mrs. Olaf N. 
Thal, Miss Elsie 
Tharaldsen, Mrs. H. I. 
Thayer, Harry W. 
Theobald, Dr. Walter H. 
Theurer, Louis F. 
Thiehoff, William F. 
Thom, Henry C. 
Thomas, Charles F. 
Thomas, Rev. George H. 
Thomas, Mrs. Heitoy Bascom 
Thomas, Miss Ida W. 
Thomas, Mrs. Paul Aniandus 
Thomas, Roy K. 
Thomason, S. E. 
Thomlinson, Miss Eva M. 
Thompson, Mrs. Ada R. 
Thompson, Ernest H. 
Thompson, John, II 
Thompson, Lavern W. 
Thompson, Miss Maude 
Thompson, Dr. Orion K. 
Thompson, Mrs. Slason 
Thomson, Herbert B. 
Thorpe, Mrs. A. H. 
Thorsness, Lionel G. 
Throop, George Enos 
Thurstone, Mrs. Louis L. 
TiBBiTS, Mrs. George F. 
TiEKEN, Dr. Theodore 
Tiers, Louis P. 
TiFFEN, Herbert 
TiFFT, Mrs. H. 
TiGHE, Albert D. 
Timberlake, Mrs. Thomas M. 
Tippett, William M. 
Titus, Mrs. Edgar V. 
Tobin, Mrs. Samuel 
Todd, A, 

ToDT, Edward George 
Tomajan, Mrs. D. K. 

ToNK, Percy A. 
TooHEY, Elmer 
Toole, Mrs. Theodore T. 
ToRPE, Miss Pearl 
Tourtelot, Miss Edythe C. 
Towner, Miss Elizabeth W. 
Towner, Frank H. 
Towner, H. C. 
Townsend, Mrs. K. A. 
Tracy, Atlee H. 
Traer, Charles S. 
Tramel, Forsyth 
Triggs, Charles W. 
Triner, Mrs. Joseph 
Trotzkey, Elias L. 
Troup, Paul V. 
Trow, Mrs. William H,, Jr. 
Troxel, Mrs. Thomas G. 
Troy, Leo J. 
Truc, Walter 
Trude, Mrs. A. S. 
Trude, Mrs. George A. 
Truman, Percival H. 
Trumbull, Miss Florence 
Trumbull, Robert F. 
Tubergen, Dr. Benjamin F. 
TuMA, Mrs. Mary 
Turner, Mrs. George T. 
TusKA, Mrs. Alice 
Tuteur, Irving M. 
Tuttle, Charles 
TwYMAN, Robert J. 
Tyler, Alfred C. 

Uhlir, Joseph Z, 
Uhrig, Mrs. Emma 
Ullery, Mrs. C. E. 
Ullmann, Mrs. Albert I. 
Upham, Robert P. 
Urheim, Dr. O. J. 
Utley, George B. 

Vaill, Mrs. J. H. 

Valentine, Miss Margaret G. 
VanBuren, Mrs. Mildred 
Vance, Walter N. 
VanDellen, Dr. R. L. 
Vandenbergh, Mrs. Peter J. 
VanDeursen, John S. 
VanDoren, Mrs. W. H. 
Vandyke, Mrs. Gerard 
VanHoosen, Dr. Bertha 
VanO'Linda, Fred 
VanSickle, K. L. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


Varty, Leo G. 
Vaughan, Mrs. G. M. 
Vaughan, Roger T. 
Vaughn, A. M. 
Venard, Mrs. George C. 
Venning, Frank L. 
Vent, Miss Dorothea E. 
Vernia, Mrs. Edward P. 
Vetterliet, Miss Anna S. 
Victor, Mrs. Felix 
Victor, John H, 
Vilas, Mrs. George B. 
Vlasak, Joseph C. 
VoDoz, Frederick W. 
Voight, John P. 
VoLK, Carl B. 
VoLTZ, Daniel W. 
VooRHEES, James M. 
Voorhees, Mrs. L. P. 
Vose, Mrs. Frederick P. 
VosE, Walter S. 
VosHARDT, Mrs. H. F. 

Waalkes, Miss Flora 
Wadsworth, Miss Helen C. 
Wagner, Edwin L. 
Wagner, Erwin 
Wagner, H. D. 
Wagner, Richard 
Waite, Miss Muriel W. 
Waite, Roy E. 
Walbridgb, John Tuthill 
Waldeck, Herman 
Waldron, John C. 
Waldschmidt, William E. 
Waldschmidt, William K. 
Walker, Barton F. 
Walker, James R. 
Walker, Dr. James W. 
Wallnbr, Dr. John S. 
Walsh, Miss Mary 
Walther, Mrs. S. Arthur 
Walton, Dr. B. C. 
Walton, Lyman A. 
Ward, B. E. 
Warfield, Mrs. W. S. 
Warner, Mrs. David A. 
Warner, Mason 
Warner, Mrs. W. H. 
Warren, Mrs. E. K. 
Warren, William G. 
Washburn, Dr. James Murray 
Washburn, John R. 
Waskow, Mrs. Richard G. 
Wasson, Theron 

Waterman, Mrs. E. H. 
Waters, R. T. 
Waterstraat, George B. 
Watkins, Frank A. 
Watkins, Frederick A. 
Watkins, Jesse M. 
Watkins, W. W. 
Watson, Mrs. Hathaway 
Watson, Mrs. J. K. 
Watson, Vernon S. 
Watson, William R. 
Watterson, Mrs. W. H. 
Waugh, William Francis 
Waxman, Isaac D. 
Weakly, F. B. 
Weary, Edwin F. 
Weaver, Mrs. Katherine P. 
Weaver, Miss Pearl L. 
Weber, Norton H. 
Webster, Charles R. 
Webster, Edgar Converse 
Webster, Mrs. F. N. 
Weddell, John 
Weed, C. Fred 
Wegg, Donald R. 
Weil, C. H. 
Weil, Mrs. Carl H. 
Weil, Mrs. Julius E. 
Weil, Mrs. Victor 
Weintroub, Benjamin 
Weir, Miss Mary D. 
Weisbach, John G. 
Weiss, Mrs. A. J. 
Weiss, Theodore O. 
Weissbrenner, Dr. R. F. 
Welch, L. C. 
Welles, Mrs. Donald P. 
Welles, Mrs. Edward Kenneth 
Wells, Mrs. Eva Thornton 
Wendell, Fred 
Wendell, Miss Josephine A. 
Wengler, Miss Ella E. 
Wentworth, John 
Werelius, Mrs. Axel 
Wernecke, Miss Bertha L. 
Werner, Richard B. 
Wessel, Mrs. Lewis 
West, Frederick T. 
West, Mrs. G. Albert 
West, Dr. G. N. 
West, Thomas H. 
Westbrook, Mrs. E. S. 
Weston, Charles V. 
Westphal, Miss Mary E. 
Whatley, S. T. 

286 Field Museum of Natural History — Reports, Vol. IX 

Whedon, Miss Frances E. 
Wheeler, Mrs. H. E. 
Wheeler, Leslie M. 
Wheeler, Seymour 
Whetzel, Dr. F. F. 
Whidden, Ray A. 
Whidden, Roswell B. 
Whise, Dr. Melchior 
White, Miss Bertha M. 
White, George H. 
White, Miss Laura G. 
White, W. J. 
White, William P. 
Whiteford, Miss Elizabeth A. 
Whiting, Robert B. 
Whitman, Miss Celia M. 
Whitney, Charles P. 
Whitney, Mrs. Jason F. 
Whitty, Elmer J. 
Whitwell, J. E. 
Wickham, Mrs. Thomas Y. 


Wicks, James E. 
WiELAND, Mrs. Agnes 
WiELAND, Harold G. 
WiERSEN, Miss Annie C. 
WiGENT, Miss Zella 
Wilbur, Fred T. 
WiLBY, Mrs. Arthur C. 
WiLCE, George C. 
Wild, A. Clement 
Wild, Payson S. 
Wild, Richard 
Wild, Rudolph L. 
Wilder, Mrs. Loren 
Wilder, Paul 
Wilder, Dr. Russell M. 
Wilds, John L. 
Wiley, Edward N. 
Wiley, Gerald T. 
WiLHELM, Frank Edward 
WiLKEN, Mrs. Theodore 
WiLKEY, Fred S. 
WiLKiNS, Charles L. 
WiLKiNS, Miss Ruth 
Wilkinson, Mrs. George D. 
Willard, Guy 
Willett, Albert V. 
WiLLETT, Howard L. 
Williams, Clifford H. 
Williams, Dr. E. B. 
Williams, Miss Gwendolyn 
Williams, Harvey S. 
Williams, Miss Irene 

Williams, Kenneth 
Williams, Lawrence M. 
Williams, Lucian E. 
Williams, Dr. T. J. 
Williamson, D. 
Willman, Philip E. 
Wills, VanLeer 
Wilson, Miss Carolyn 
Wilson, Mrs. Christopher J. 
Wilson, E. L. 
Wilson, Mrs. Joel R. 
Wilson, Lucius E. 
Wilson, Mrs. Morris K. 
Wilson, Percival C. 
Wilson, Mrs. Percy 
Wilson, R. F. 
Wilson, Mrs. Robert E. 
Wilson, Mrs. Sylvester E. 
Wilson, William G. 
Wilson, William R. 
Wilson, Rev. Willis Ray 
WiNDES, Mrs. Frank A. 
Windsor, Miss Mary L. 
Winterbotham, Mrs. John R., Jr. 
Winters, Mrs. L. D. 
Winters, Mrs. Leander L. 
Wise, Mrs. Harold 
Witkowsky, James 
WiVEL, Mrs. Herbert W. 
WoLBACH, Murray 
WoLCOTT, Carl F. 
Wolf, Miss Prudence 
Wolfe, Joseph J. 
Wolfe, William C. 
Wolff, Christian J. 
Wolff, Mrs. Harry G. 


Wood, Donald M. 
Wood, Milton G. 
Woodcock, Mrs. L. T. 
Woodruff, Miss Florence 
Woodruff, M. P. 
Woods, Edward G. 
Woods, Fred W. 
Woodward, Robert M. 
WooDWORTH, Mrs. C. B. 
WooDYATT, Dr. Rollin Turner 
WooLF, Mrs. James D. 
Workman, Mrs. Dean M. 
Wray, Mrs. James G. 
Wright, Miss Dorothy A. 
Wright, H. C. 
Wright, William V. D. 
Wrisley, George A. 
Wuerst, Mrs. R. J. 

Jan. 1932 

Annual Report of the Director 


wurzburg, h. j. 
Wyszynski, Walter H. 
Wyman, Charles H. 

Yarros, Dr. Rachelle S. 
Yates, George A. 
Yeakel, Dr. William K. 
Yeomans, Charles 
Young, E. Frank 
Young, Ferdinand H. 
Young, James W. 
Young, Mrs. John M. 
Young, Mrs. Joseph W. 
youngberg, arthur c. 
Younglove, James C. 
yuenger, h. t. 

Zacharias, Robert M. 
Zander, Mrs. I. M. 
Zane, John Maxcy 
Zbyszewski, Tytus 
Zeitz, Andrew R. 
Zemon, Miss Edna 
Zenos, Rev. Andrew C. 
ZiPF, Peter 
Zimmerman, Irving 
Zimmerman, Ralph W. 
Zimmermann, Mrs. P. T. 
Zitzewitz, Mrs. H. 
ZOLLA, Abner M. 
ZoRN, Mrs. LeRoy J. 


Deceased, 1931 

Arbuckle, Mrs. G. S. 

Bartells, Dr. Henry W. F. 
Braun, Arthur J. 
Buchholz, Eric 

Cahn, Benjamin R. 
CoRRiGAN, James 

Demont, Carl 
DeVries, George 

Goldsmith, Moses 
Greengard, Max 

HiCKLiN, John W. 
Hinman, Mrs. Curtis M. 

Isaacs, Hon. Martin J, 

Knight, Charles S. 
Kramer, Cletus F. 

Moore, Dr. Frank D. 
Mullen, Timothy F. 
Mulliken, a. H. 

Newton, Donald W. 
NiESz, Homer E. 

Paddock, Dr. Charles E. 
Phelan, Charles 
PoMEROY, Mrs. Christina K. 

Richardson, Granville W. 
Ripley, Mrs. E. P. 
Rycroft, Mrs. Herbert E. 

Sisk, Mrs. Mary A. 
Slocum, Mrs. M. E. 

Thacher, Mrs. F. B. 

MAY 1 8 1932 



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