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Annual report of the Fruit Growers' 

Association of Ontario 




8061 'IZ m IVd 
'A 'N '9snoviAs 


ntario Department of Agriculture 



Fruit Growers^ Association 






Printed by CLARKSON W. JAMES, Pnnter to the King's Most Eacdfcnt Majesty 
i 1922 



Ontario Department of Agriculture^ 

i ^ ^ 



Fruit Growers' Association 







Printed by CLARKSON W. JAMES. Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty 



Printed by 



To His Honour Henry Cockshutt, 

Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Ontario. 

May it Please Your Honour : 

I have the honour to present herewith for your consideration the Sixty-Second 
Eeport of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario for the year 1921. 

Eespectfully yours, 

Manning W. Doherty^ 

Minister of Agriculture. 

Toronto, 1922. 


Officers and Committees for 1922 : 5 

Treasurer's Report 6 

Annual Meeting: 

President's Address ; David Allan 7 

The Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario; P. W. Hodgetts 8 

Report of Committee on Constitution 12 

The Niagara Peninsula Fruit Growers' Association; W. H. Bunting 12 

The Northumberland and Durham Apple Growers' Association; H. Sirrett .. 14 

A National Horticultural Council; C. W. Baxter 16 

Report of the Historical Committee; A. W. Peart and W. T. MaCoun 19 

The Imperial Fruit Show: Its Results; W. L. Hamilton 20 

The Imperial Fruit Show; P. J. Carey 22 

Presentation of Medals to the Winners of the Imperial Fruit Show 25 

Survey by Directors of the Different Districts 27 

Our Small Fruits; E. F. Palmer 33 

Grape Plantings are Increasing — What Kinds are Most Profitable 34 

Experimental Work in Apple Varieties for the Ontario Shore 35 

Our Spraying; Prof. L. Caesar 41 

Our Spraying; W. A. Ross 43 

Pruning and Fertilizing; Prof. J. W. Crow 50 

Our Grading, Packing and Packages 55 

Standardization of Berry Crates 57 

Grades for Tender Fruits in Open Packages 58 

Central Packing Houses for Ontario ; Col. H. L, Roberts 59 

Address : Hon. Manning W. Doherty, Toronto 60 

The Niagara Peninsula Growers Limited ; T. J. Mahoney 63 

The Niagara District Grape Orowers Limited ; W. J. Montgomery 68 

The Norfolk Fruit Growers' Association; Jas. E. Johnson 70 

Specific National Grades for Apples 72 

Our Financial Returns; C. E. Riley 75 

The Future of Fruit Growing in Ontario; Prof. J. W. Crow 78 

Resolutions 80 


President W. J. Bragg, Bowmanville. 

Vice-President Paul Fisher, Burlington. 

Secretary-Treasurer P. W. Hodgetts, Parliament Buildings, Toronto. 

Executive Committee Officers together with J. F. Elliott, Oxford Centre, 

and W. C. Nickerson, St. Catharines. 


Div. 1, B. H. Dangerfield, Kemptville. Div. 9. W. J. Schuyler, Simcoe. 

2. Harold Jones. Pre.scott. 10. John Clarke, Forest. 

3. R, W. Ireland, Wellington. 11. T. J. Salkeld, Lucknow. 

4. A. A. CoLviLL, Newcastle. 12. J. F. Elliott, Oxford Centre. 

5. W. J. Bragg, Bowmanville. 13. W. L. Hamilton, Collingwood. 

6. Paul A. Fisher, Burlington. O.A.C., Prof. J. W. Crow, Guelph. 

7. David Allan, Grimsby. H.E.S., E. P. Palmer, Vineland Station. 

8. W. C. Nickerson, St. Catharines. C.E.F., W. T. Macoun, Ottawa. 

Representatives to Fair Boards and Conventions. 
Canadian National: W. F. W. Fisher, Burlington. 
London: J. C. Harris, Ingersoll, and A. Sadler, Lambeth. 
Ottawa: W. T. Macoun, Ottawa. 


Horticultural Publishing Company: P. W. Hodgetts, Toronto. 

2few Fruits: W. T. Macoun, Ottawa; Prof. J. W. Crow, Guelph; E. F. Palmer, 
Vineland Station. 

Historical: A. W. Peart, Burlington; W. T. Macoun, Ottawa. 

Transportation:^ . H. Bunting, St. Catharines; D. Carpenter, Grimsby; Jas. E. 
Johnson, Simcoe; W. A. Shook, Clarkson; T. Foster. Burlington; M. C. 
Smith, Burlington. 


Balance on hand, Dec. 31, 1920 

Membership Fees 


Imperial Fruit Show 

Grant • 

$2,213 47 

94 00 

36 30 

373 15 

1,700 00 

$4,416 91 


Annual Meeting 

Committee Meetings .... 


Horticultural Pub, Co. . . , 

Imperial Fruit Show 


Balance on Hand 

% 179 14 

395 81 

22 96 

77 60 

1,374 92 

143 59 

2,222 90 

$4,416 92 

Details of Expenditures. 

Annual Meeting. 

Prince George Hotel, Rent Convention Room $50 00 

F. C. Keeler, Delegate, expenses 14 50 

A. W. Peart, " " 3 40 

A. K. Sadler, " " 7 95 

Wm. England, " " 7 95 

David Allan, " " 12 55 

M. E. Coo, Reporting Convention 60 00 

N. R. Peet, Speaker 22 79 

Various Committees. 

Niagara Peninsula F.G.A., Delegate expenses $166 24 

H. Sirett, expenses 16 10 

B. F. Kerr, " 8 00 

David Allan, " 31 80 

W. A. Shook, 56 25 

A. A. Craise, " 6 95 

P. C. Keeler, " 14 35 

W. H. Bunting, " 70 82 

R. W. Ireland, " 25 30 


College Pres.s — Programmes 


Horticultural Publishing Co. — Membership .subscriptions .... 
Imperial Fruit Show: — 

Fruit Bought— C. W. Challand 160 00 

H. C. Breckon 235 50 

Smith Bros 30 00 

Harry Ryrie 154 50 

J. J. Gilbertson 84 00 

W. N. Langell 51 00 

Entry fees 49 50 

Express charges 610 42 


Exchange, interest, etc $1 59 

Auditor 1<) 00 

Insurance — Treasurer's Bond 10 00 

Special Grant— N. &. D. Assn 50 00 

Clerical Help 72 00 


$179 14 

$395 81 

22 96 

77 60 

1,374 92 

143 59 

$2,194 02 

Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario 


The Ontario Fruit Growers' Convention was lield in The Prince (Jeorge 
Hotel, Toronto, February Tth and 8th, 1922. Mr. David Allan, President, in 
the Chair. 

David Allan, Grimsby. 

Having had tlie honour of being elected by my Colleagues as President for 
a second term, I am therefore permitted to welcome you to this, the Sixty- 
second Annual Convention of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association. 

When w^e reflect on the honest endeavour of our Organization to advance the 
interests of fruit growing for a period of over sixty years, with a record of as 
many successful Conventions, we must admit that the Society has proven its 
worth to a very great extent. 

To the founders of t^liis Society — many of whom have passed to the Great 
Beyond — we owe a deep debt of gratitude, for having laid the foundation of our 
Association strong and deep, thus assuring its permanency for all these years, and 
the consequent benefits resulting, therefrom. 

Another year, with its responsibilities and opportunities, is past and gone. 
Coming as it did in the verv centre of the re-adjustment period, we are of the 
opinion, that we should be very well satisfied with the results, considering the 
fact that 1921 will go down as an off year in fruit, especially in tree fruits. 

I am firmly of the opinion that our industry is holding its own during this 
unsettled time, and its condition compares favorably with any of the great 
Canadian industries. It behooves us however, to stand fast and with optimism 
and industry, "Carry On," thus assuring the future greatness of our business. 

We regret that owing to the new Arena not being completed in time, 
our Exhibition, in conjunction with other Societies, had to be cancelled. While 
we l)elieve that we would have had a creditable show, we look forward with con- 
fidence to 1922, when, with a bigger crop to select from, we will be able to put 
up a show well worthy of the best traditions of the Province. 

Your Directors, however, deemed it wise to make an Exhibit at the Imperial 
Fruit Show, held in the Crystal Palace, London, England, from the Twenty- 
eighth of October to the Fifth of November, 1921. While our growers generally 
readily responded to our request for exhibits, we think that special mention 
should be made of the tw-enty boxes of Kings from H. C. Brecken, Bronte; 
twenty boxes of Spies from Chas. Challand, Simcoe; and six boxes of Jonathans 
from W. M. Langell, Point Pelee. It is needless to say we were very gratified 
with the results, securing, as we did, four Firsts and five Seconds, together with 
tlie Silver Cup for highest aggregate of points in fourteen classes. But since 
this will be dealt with during our meeting, I leave the subject now by stating 
that we believe immense value, from an advertising standj^oint, will be obtained 
as a result of this Exhibit. 

In closing I desire to thank everyone for their co-operation and support. 


8 THE REPOKT OF THE ^'o. 44 



The organization meeting of tliis Association was held in Hamilton in the 
Old Mechanics' Hall on January 19, 1859, at which there were eighteen present. 
The Association was continued for several years without incorporation. Its 
first President, Judge Campbell, of N'iagara-on-the-Lake, died soon after the 
organization was effected, and as he was one of the leaders it gave the Association 
quite a blow. In 1861 they held their next meeting, and elected officers, and 
since that time the Association has not missed a year in its history when it has 
not held one or more meetings of dift'erent kinds. 

The Association was incorporated in 1869 by a special act of the Legislature, 
as the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario; previous to that time it was 
known as The Fruit Growers' Association of Upper Canada. The first report 
was published the same year^ 1869, although previous to that time the Associa- 
tion had printed a list of fruits that were recommended for planting in the Province. 
The aims of the Association were, briefly, "the advancement of the science and 
art of fruit culture, by holding meetings for the exhibition of fruit and for 
discussion of all questions relative to fruit culture, by collecting, arranging and 
disseminating information, and by such other means as might from time to time 
seem advisable." 

The methods employed by the officers from that time on up to the present 
in carrying out this programme^ were many and varied, but generally successful. 
Among those that they carried out were the following: In the early days they 
held generally three meetings of the Association, Summer, Fall and Winter 
meetings, at different points throughout the Province, and in that way they 
covered in their history practically every town and city of any size in Ontario. 

Secondly, they collected information on varieties of all fruits, and published 
lists from time to time, so that nien who were starting in the industry would 
have information available to guide them in planting out their orchards. This 
was very useful information indeed. There were some rather strange things 
done in that connection. The Association had then, as it has now, a New 
Fruits Committee, to which new fruits were submitted for examination and ap- 
proval, or otherwise. In going over the fruits I found the Ontario and Mcintosh 
were both mentioned as comparatively new varieties, and the report of the 
Committee on the two varieties was somewhat to this effect: The Ontario was 
a fine, crisp apple of good color and size, and, living up to its reputation, would 
undoubtedly take the place of a good many of our varieties for our foreign 
markets. The Mcintosh was said to be practically a perfect apple as far as 
color and size was concerned, but with a peculiar flavor, and the Committee 
thought in their opinion it should not be placed higher than third class. Now, 
you know the subsequent history of the two varieties. If we could have planted 
out the Mcintosh in the place of the thousands of trees of Ontario that were 
planted at that time, we probably would have had quite a different story to tell 
as to winter injury, western competition etc. The Mcintosh even yet, is not 
forming very much of the bulk of Ontario apples, despite the fact that it 
originated here, and has proven to be one of the most successful on tlie American 

Third. Offering prizes for the best essays on Fruit Culture, to be printed in 
the annual reports. 


Kourth. OiTering prizes for new fruits. Prizes ol' $50, $10, and $oO were 
offered for a number of years. 

Fifth. Sending out for trial all new and promising fruits including the fol- 
lowing: Ontario, Wealthy, Pomme Grise, Grimes Golden, apples; Niagara and 
Salem grapes; Glass Seedling and McLaughlin plums; Clapps Favorite, Anjou 
and Clairgeau pears; Downing gooseberry. 

Sixth. Starting the experimental orchards at the 0. A. C, Guelph, 1880, and 
the variety test stations in 1894, continued for a long period at fourteen points in 
the Province, followed by the larger and permanent experiment station at Vine- 
land in 190T. The original orchards at Guelph were planted by this Association, 
•and a special Committee looked after them for a number of years. Following that, 
variety stations were started in 1894, and fdled a very useful place, testing out for 
ten or fifteen years all of the varieties which are now being grown in the Province. 
This was followed at a later date by an agitation from this Association for the 
instituting of an Experimental Farm at Vineland, and this Association had the 
appointment of the Board. 

Seventh. Continued movement for years for improved transportation for 
our fruit products. Later on in the history of the Association we studied more 
the commercial end of the industry, and for a number of years carried on an 
agitation for lowering of the rates then existing for freight and express, and 
to try to get better and improved service. 

Eighth. Employment of a permanent transportation expert until such work 
was transferred to the Federal Government. Mr. Mcintosh, who is now engaged 
with the Dominion Department, was employed by our Association and went from 
us to the Department at Ottawa. 

Ninth. Passing of Legislation for the creating of uniform packages and 
grades throughout the Dominion. This Association was largely instruinental in 
the passing of the old Act for the grading of apples, which has been improved 
to form the present Inspection and Sales Act. 

Tenth. The holding of a special apple show for fourteen years as a means 
of advertising our Ontario fruit. 

Eleventh. One of the objects of the Association was to disseminate the in- 
formation we were gathering from such meetings as this. With that in view we 
established and carried on for a great many years the Canadian Horticulturist. 
It was afterwards turned over to a Stock Company. 

Since the date of the incorporation, the Association has been served by four 
Secretaries: D. W. Beadle, 1868-1885; L. Woolverton, 1886-1901: G. C. Creel - 
man, 1902-3; P. W. Hodgetts, 1904-23. In addition Mr. Beadle served for five 
years previous to incorporation. Tliirty prominent members of the Association 
have occupied the President's chair, of whom ten are still actively engaged in 
the fruit business in Ontario. The original board of directors consisted of nine 
members, this number beini^ altered from time to time, and now standing at 
fifteen with an executive committee of five. Each director has a number of 
counties to look after, so as to cover all parts of the province. 

I want to call attention to tlie suggestions in reference to the change in 
constitution. I believe there is a feeling amongst the members of the Associa- 
tion that it would be better to make certain changes so as to keep the Association 
up-to-date and prevent it retrograding in any way. I will read o\er the sug- 
gestions and you may perhaps do with them as you iiave done with the suggestio7is 
in regard to the National Horticultural Council. 

10 THE EKPORT OF THE ^o. 44 

1. That the directors would be elected by and from tlie various local and 
district associations, instead of being chosen from the different districts. According 
to our present constitution the Province is divided into thirteen horticultural 
divisions starting from Ottawa and running to Windsor, and a director to re- 
present each of these is . elected here. We propose that we do not elect these 
directors, but that the local associations elect them to the Ontario Association. 
At the present time there are some thirt3^-nine local associations of different 
kinds in the Province. As a matter of fact that number should be increased, 
because there are none of the educational associations in the list I have here ; 
these are purely co-operative associations. These would each send a director to 
form the Provincial Association. 

2. The membership would be composed of the members of such organizations 
by payment of a nominal fee by each association. 

The matter of raising funds, of course, is always a serious one with aiiy 
of these associations, particularly of an educational nature. The suggestion is 
that the local association should pay a nominal fee to the Provincial body. We 
have that regulation now in reference to some associations. We have changed 
it once or twice, but it is still not very satisfactory. 

3. The annual meeting should be purely a business meeting devoted to such 
matters as legislation, transportation, grades, packages, markets, national adver- 
tising, provincial and national exhibitions, etc. That is something after the style 
of the conferences Mr. Baxter holds at Ottawa from time to time, and whicli 
are devoted practically to such matters as they think are purely business, and 
the men who would go from these different local packing associations and educa- 
tional associations in the province would be the best men to discuss matters of 
that kind. 

4. District meetings should have the backing and co-operation of the Pro- 
vincial Association, and should be sufficient in number and location to cover 
every year the various fruit sections of the Province. Summer meetings 
and excursions through the fruit districts are well worth trying out in Ontario. 
My idea would be that if the Northumberland and Durham Association was 
holding a convention or exhibition, the Ontario Association should join witl) 
them, and if necessary pay part of the expense in providing an excellent pro- 
gramme with the very best speakers possible, and having -the directors of the 
Ontario Association who are within the immediate vicinity take an active part 
in the association meeting. Then where there are no organizations in a district, 
an organization might be formed such as we have in the Niagara Peninsula and 
the Northumberland and Durham section. 

5. The Secretary of the Association should preferably be one outside of the 
Department of Agriculture, and the funds of the Association sliould not be so de- 
pendent on the grant from the same source. Such a course as oultined would. 
I believe, make for a more independent and vigorous future. This of course is 
quite a radical change from the present plan. Your Secretary is an official of 
the Ontario Department of Agriculture, and a large part of the funds of the 
association come from the Provincial Government. I do not think that is the 
right policy to follow in a provincial association of this kind. The association 
itself would be more independent if it had a Secretary that could say certain 
things which I might not be able to say because I am an official of the depart- 
ment. Then I think the Association will undoubtedly liecome more and more 


commercial as the fruit industry of the province iiicreases. Certain things that 
have happened in connection with our Chirkson Association show that we should 
be able to get together in reference to our purchasing of supplies. We know 
the prices being paid, as Mr. Sirett said, by the different associations in all parts 
of the province are not uniform, and thousands and thousands of dollars could 
be saved if there was some way of getting together on these different lines. The Asso- 
ciation might start with spray materials in the spring and so on right through 
the list. If the Association was independent entirely of the government it would 
be possible for this to be done. 

As far as the grant is concerned 1 think if the grant from the Provincial 
Government was large enough to warrant the Association employing an outside 
Secretary he would not need to be employed the year round; of course, while 
the work is heavy at periods it would not be heavy when a man would be busy 
on his farm, and I think it would be possible to secure the services of a good live 
man who is actively engaged in fruit growing and yet give the necessary time 
to the Association to do a great deal of work, and it could be done better than 
under the present arrangement. 

6. If thought desirable, the Government departments and Experiment Sta- 
tions could have representation on the Board of Directors, though as Govern- 
ment officials are always at the service of the Association when advice is needed, 
such representation is not essential. At the present time Mr. Palmer and Prof. 
Crow are directors on the Association Board by virtue of their positions, and 
Mr. Macoun, our efficient Dominion Horticulturist is our representative from 
number one district. We have always had a very great deal of very valuable help 
from these men on the Board and this can be continued as at present by allotting 
a certain number of directors to represent these colleges and stations, and the 
Dominion D.epartment if necessary. But I think it would be better for every- 
body if the departments and experimental stations were cut off entirely from the 
actual directorate officering of the Association. These men are always available 
just the same as Mr. Caesar or Mr. Boss or any of the men of the department 
are always available at the call of the directors or the members of the Association 
for help. I would suggest that the original plan which I have outlined; of 
having the directorate come entirely from the local and district associations, be 
follow^ed so that we would have an independent Association, wdiich if necessary 
could go to the government and seek legislation or say anything they liked and 
the Minister could not say, as he intimated to me when we w-ere talking about 
our fruit show, "This is a departmental affair; the Provincial Department of 
Agriculture is running that show; the Association has not very much to do with 
it.'' I would like to see that idea removed from the Provincial Minister's and 
the Dominion Minister's thoughts, and the Association to be absolutely indepen- 
dent to say and do as it pleases. These are my suggestions, after eighteen 
years' experience as Secretary of this Association and you can do with them as 
you please. 


Mr. W. F. W. Fisher, Mr. Fred Watson, Mr. Harry Ryrie, :Mr. B. W 
Grierson, Mr. Harry Sirett, Mr. W. L. Hamilton. 



Your Committee would recommend that the incoming Board of Directors 
revise the mode of appointing directors so as to include more direct representa- 
tion by the leading fruit districts, still leaving representation to those sections 
that are not at the present time vitally interested in fruit growing. We approve 
of the suggestion that the Provincial x4.ssociation assist the holding of district 
meetings, or co-operating with local associations, and that the annual meetings 
should be largely business meetings, not altogether cutting out cultural topics. 
That no action be taken at the present time in respect to suggestions re secretary 
and grant. , 

That the C.E.F. be given representation on Board, similar to O.A.C. and the 
Vineland Station. 

The adoption of the above report was moved by W. F. W. Fisher, seconded 
by Mr. Hamilton, and carried. 

W. II. Bunting, St. Catharines. 

I am very glad to be again at the Annual Convention of the Ontario Fruit 
Growers' Association. This is the thirty-first Convention I have had the pleasure 
of attending, with only one break in all that time. And I have always looked 
forward to this Annual Provincial Convention. 

Our Association is a child in comparison to the Provincial Association. The 
Niagara Peninsula Fruit Growers' Association held its first meeting in November 
of 1896. The primary object in the organization of the Association, was to bring 
together the various local associations throughout the Niagara Peninsula, crystal - 
ize and organize them in such a way that they might be in a position to do effec- 
tive work, which could not be done by the local bodies. I had better differentiate 
between another Society of somewhat similar name and ours ; it is a very much 
younger, but more lusty child, and is known as the Niagara Peninsula Growers, Lim- 
ited. It is a commercial company, formed only a year ago under the aegis of the De- 
partment of Agriculture, and supported by our present Minister of Agriculture, 
the Hon. Manning Doherty. In the past year it has proved that it has filled a 
very important place in the commercial life of tlie Niagara Peninsula. The 
Niagara Peninsula Fruit Growers' Association was formed on somewhat different 
lines to the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association. As Mr. Hodgetts has stated 
the aims and objects of that Association were to disseminate Horticultural educa- 
tion throughout the Province, which at the time of this organization was very 
limited, and to arrange and provide facilities for an increase in fruit production 
throughout the Province of Ontario. 

For twenty-five or thirty years that Association's efforts were very successful, 
and until 1895 or 1896 we were producing in many sections of Ontario, more 
fruit than could be properly handled to advantage; there were no distributing 
channels for it, and there were very often very serious periods of stagnation 
and glut. There was a change of Government about that time, the late Sir 
Wilfred Laurier came into power. There was a feeling there might be a serious 
change in legislation that would still further affect the fruit industry, which 
at that time was not in a very prosperous condition. Consequently, one of 


the very first efforts of the new organization was to secure legislation of such 
a character that would be favourable to the further prosperity of the fruit in- 
dustry, not only of the Niagara Peninsula, but of the entire Province, and the 
Dominion of Canada. At that time they appeared before the tariff commis- 
sion that was sent throughout the country, and in other efforts they made they 
were very successfully headed by the late Minister of Agriculture, the Hon, 
Martin Burrell, who was, at that time, a fruit grower in the vicinity of St, 
Catharines. That was the first concerted effort of the Niagara Peninsula Fruit 
Growers Association that did executive work for the fruit growers of the Province, 
Shortly after that it was discovered a very serious pest had entered our 
fruit growing districts, the San Jose Scale. I brought over with me a few 
photographs, and 1 have two in connection with that particular matter, which 
1 think will be of historic interest. I have one photo taken by the late Prof. 
John Craig, near the town of N'iagara-on-the-Lake, of the farm where San 
Jose Scale was first discovered. Amongst others present at that time were the 
late Prof. Fletcher, Prof. Panton from Guelph, Mr. Lyons, Mr. Wolverton, 
Secretary of this Association, and a number of other gentlemen who were very 
prominent in connection wath fruit growing not only in this province, but the 
Dominion of Canada. At that meeting, held under a magnificent oak tree on 
this farm, the first resolutions were passed in connection with legislation to 
endeavour to eradicate the San Jose Scale from this country, and the gentlemen 
who were present were very active all through the whole course of the anxious 
years that passed from 1897 to 1902 or 1903, until we were able to secure such 
remedies as were thought satisfactory, and were able to overcome the serious 
menace of this pest. As you know, we no longer dread that insect. Those who 
were in the thick of the fight consider it was a blessing in disguise, because if 
compelled us to inaugurate better methods, more thorough spraying operations 
and to take better care of our orchards in general, and consequently put the in- 
dustry on a better footing in many respects. One of our chief inspectors at 
that time was so thoroughly enthused about the necessity of destroying this 
pest that he contemplated that it might be necessary to destroy every fruit tree 
on the peninsula. We were very glad to find remedies that in the course of a 
few years obviated that necessity. 

One of the first resolutions passed in connection with the appointment of 
tlie present body of Railway Commissioners was moved and carried by our As- 
sociation in 1899. That commission, as you know, was appointed in 1904, and 
the Ontario Fruit Growers^ Association in conjunction with our Association sent 
representations to that Board and were successful in presenting to it such facts 
and data as secured very material reduction in the rates of transportation of 
fruit, not only from the eastern provinces but more particularly from the west, 
which at that time had not been able to receive any quantity of fruit from the 
Province of Ontario. Almost immediately following our appearance before the 
Railway Commission in July 1904, experimental cars began to move to the 
west and the opening up of that country for the fruits of Ontario was made pos- 
sible and successful. From that time until the present our fruits liave been 
passing out to the west in increasing quantities. I understand that in the hist 
two years conditions have not been very bright for Ontario fruit in the west. 
Our British Columbia friends have to a large extent captured a portion of that 
market from ns, due to the fact that we have not heen able to keep up the reputation 

U THE FtEPOKT OF THE ' ^'o. 44 

that was secured. One of the things the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association and 
all other districts organizations in the province should endeavour to do is to 
regain, secure and hold that very important and extensive market. 

In 1901 the Niagara Peninsula Association in conjunction with the Ontario 
Fruit Growers' Association was very active in looking after the fruit interests 
of the Province of Ontario at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo. As a 
result of our efforts there, very great advertising for this province was obtained 
and very many important awards of merit were received, not only by the province, 
but by individual growers who had been active and generous in furnishing sup- 
plies for the great display in Buffalo. 

In 1911 the Niagara Peninsula Association came to the fore when it appeared 
the adverse legislation was likely to very seriously affect the fruit industry of 
the province, more particularly in reference to tender fruits. On very short 
notice a delegation, some 1,500 strong, was assembled in the Niagara Peninsula 
nnd sent to Ottawa a resolution to protest against legislation that they thougV 
w^as likely to be adverse to their interests. 

Coming down to later years in the Association, they have been active in 
the standardization of fruit packages, the improvement of packages, and other 
movements of an executive or legislative character that has to do with the im- 
provement of the fruit industry, not only in our immediate district but through- 
out the province. 

In looking over the list of members in 1896 and 1897 I notice there are 6.3 
iDn the roll. Of these 63, 51 or 52 of them have crossed the bar and passed into 
the beyond. There are only some ten or eleven of these gentlemen left to-day 
still actively engaged in fruit growing. I was very struck with that fact in 
looking over the early records of our Association, that so many of the gentlemen 
ivith whom I was connected 25 years ago are no longer in our midst. 

Another picture brings to my mind a very important improvement in con- 
nection with the transportation of fruit. In 1896, 1897, and 1898 we had great 
'difficulty in getting any service from the transportation companies that was at 
:all satisfactory. Finally, in order to force the Grand Trunk Paihvay Company 
to carry out their work in a more satisfactory manner, on one memorable occasion 
the growers in a body abandoned the Grand Trunk shipping station, and went 
over to our local station, shipping in a very round-about way to reach Montreal 
and other shipping points without having to avail ourselves of the Grand Trunk. 
That was a very radical move but it succeeded in accomplishing what we were 

During all the 25 years, Mr. C. E. Fisher has been our valued and honoured 
;Secretarv, and has served the Association without remuneration of anv kind. 



H. SiRETT, Brighton. 

The Northumberland and Durham Apple Growers' Association was formed 
in the sunnner of 1909. One of the principal figures in the organization was the 
late W. H. Dempsey, at one time President of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Asso- 
ciation, and for a good many years an active director on the Board. The object 


in organizing the Nortliunihorland and Durham Association was for purely edu- 
cational purposes. Of course in the constitution the objects laid down were 
somewhat ambitious. With your permission 1 would like to- read the purposes 
laid down in the constitution and adopted at tlie inauguration meeting. I think 
they are most wortliy. We still have those objects in mind and are growing in 
that direction as rapidly as possible. 

''Tlie purpose of the Association shall be to foster, to promote and advance 
e\ery department of fruit growing, including nursery culture, planting, cultiva- 
ting and caring for trees at all stages, caring for, handling and selling the fruit, 
holding meetings, distributing suitable literature, making exhibits and in all 
other ways to aid in bringing the orchards in these United Counties to the 
highest state of production, efficiency and profit.^^ 

The apple growing industry of Northumberland and Durham at this time 
was in a very poor condition. There were then very many poor apple orchards 
in these counties. The farmers during the period of the war allowed many or- 
chards to go into neglect and the hard winter of 1917 and 1918 completed what 
had begun. So that in the whole district lying just a few miles back of the 
lake shore, the apple trees are not very productive. 

In 1909 the apple growers in that district were seriously concerned with re- 
gard to the invasion or multiplication of the oyster shell bark lice and perhaps 
that as much as anything else caused concern about the future of that industry 
and the organization of this society whose mission it would be to assist in that 
campaign of education. 

Another reason why we organized: We had an example of the work done in 
Norfolk by th^ Norfolk Fruit Growers' Association and the apple growers of this 
district w^ere impressed with what had been accomplished by the exhibits put 
on by the Ontario Fruit Growers, of the Norfolk Fruit Growers' Association 
and they determined that it would be necessary to do something to bring them- 
selves to the fore and attract attention if they were going to hold their place in 
the production of apples and the sale of apples. So one of the objects they had 
was putting on an exhi))it at the Ontario Fruit Growers' Exhibition. The first 
exhibit was put on in the fall of 1910, and in succeeding years up to 1913 with 
a good deal of success and with a feeling of pride, especially in the 1913 exhibit, 
where we carried off a good deal of the prize money, and some of the important 
prizes in the larger exhibit. 

Following the cessation of the exhibition at Toronto the idea of having ex- 
hibits took a less important place. It was felt what we were accomplishing was 
really a campaign of publicity which had more the effect of enhancing the or- 
chards lands than increasing the value of the apples. We were in the market 
to sell apples and not land, so we decided to go on but in a different way. During 
the past five or six years we have laid stress at the annual meetings on the educa- 
tional side. Our meetings are simply one day meetings and we try to make them 
as attractive and educational as possible. We do not hesitate to go to some ex- 
pense to get good speakers that will be helpful to the growers. As a result we 
have tw^o marked developments in the apple growing industry of our district; 
one is that these men who have not followed practical methods of apple growing 
are dropping out almost entirely; the other is, those who decided to stay in the 
game are practising better methods each year, and it is with these men that the 
Association is working: almost entirelv. Thev are not doino- a orreat deal in the 


way of encouraging new plantations, but they are encouraging the taking care 
of the orchards which are there now, and keeping them up to a certain standard 
of production. 

We have in mind a number of practices. We feel that the educational work 
is not sufficient in itself, but that a great deal could be done to help the growers 
to procure supplies and also to sell apples. We are not anticipating that we are 
going into the securing of supplies, but we hope to keep more closely in touch 
with the cost of supplies in order to advise our growers from time to time just 
what these costs are. The gentlemen present are practically all members of other 
associations and know the cost of supplies this year. I lind that the manufac- 
turers of baskets are demanding fifty per cent, higher from one group than 
from another, and it is our intention to get away from that excessive cost in 
purchasing' supplies and to keep in touch with the market prices, and to advise 
our members. If the growers know what is a fair price they are able to deal 
more successfully with the agents in the purchasing, and we endeavour to 
control the situation in that way. 

In a small association such as ours, there is not a great deal that can be said. 
This year our annual meeting has been one of the most successful we have ever 
held, and we are looking forward to the orchards that are now in the hands of 
men who are making a business of fruit growing having new plants rath-er than 
more replacements in the course of a few years, and that we will win back the 
situation that has fallen away during the course of four or five years. 

I think the production of apples in the counties of Northumberland and 
Durham has fallen away at least forty per cent, in the last seven or eight years, 
due to the disappearance of orchards that were planted away from the lake shore,, 
and which have been neglected and have simply disappeared. 


C. W. Baxter, Fruit Commissioner, Ottawa. 

At the Third Dominion Conference of fruit growers, held in Ottawa in 
1912, a committee composed of representatives of each provincial fmit growers^ 
association was appointed to consider the question of the formation of a Na- 
tional Fruit Growers' Association. The committee, after due consideration, sub- 
mitted a report recommending the organization of a national body to be called 
"The Canadian National Fruit Growers' Association." They also submitted a 
constitution and by-laws. The report was adopted by the conference and the 
fruit division, then a part of the dairy and cold storage branch, was requested 
to elect by correspondence ballot the provisional officers. The late Mr. Robert 
Thompson of St. Catharines was elected president, and Mr. P. W. Hodgetts^ 
secretary of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association, was elected secretary. I am 
not aware that the Provisional Board held more than one meeting. Two years 
later (1914) another conference of the fruit growers of Canada was held, and 
in looking over the report of the proceedings of that conference we cannot find 
that any reference was made to the question of a national organization. How- 
ever, we have been advised that it was generally felt that as the fruit division 
had been raised to the status of a branch and would devote its whole attention 
to fruit, there was very little need for a national organization. 


Ten years have elapsed since the question was first considered, and mauy 
changes have taken place in the horticultural world during tliat time, and to- 
day we find that the horticultural industry is the only branch of agriculture 
that is not represented by a national organization. It is true that we have Pro- 
vincial Fruit Growers^ Associations and other organizations which have done and 
are doing excellent work for the fruit growers in their respective provinces and 
for those engaged in other activities in connection with horticultural work, but 
there is no means of co-ordinating the work of the various organizations within 
the provinces nor of co-ordinating the work of the Provincial Fruit Growers' 
Associations except through the Dominion Fruit Conferences which have been 
arranged by the Dominion Department of Agriculture from time to time. 

The fact that other branches of agriculture have organized into national; 
organizations is not sufficient reason why those engaged in horticultural produc- 
tion and the allied industries should also organize, but it has been suggested that 
there are many advantages to be secured by the formation of a national organiza- 
tion and that the present is a very opportune time to consider the whole mattei-. 
Therefore, it has been arranged that the question shall be discussed at the coming 
Dominion Fruit Conference, which is to be held in Ottawa on February 22nd, 
23rd and 24th next. 

When the matter was discussed in 1912 there was no doubt of including in a 
national organization any but fruit growers, but it is now proposed that the 
national body shall include, in addition to fruit growers, representatives of pro- 
ducers of various horticultural products, such as potatoes, other vegetables, flow- 
ers and nursery stock, manufacturers of fruit, flower and vegetable containers,, 
wholesale dealers in horticultural products, and fruit and vegetable canners, all 
of these being more or less interdependent. 

In order to facilitate discussion it was suggested that the fruit branch out- 
line some of the objects which such an organization might attain, and also pre- 
pare a draft of a constitution and by-laws. This has been done and the con- 
stttution and by-laws of the National Dairy Council were used as a guide. Tlie 
object of such an organization would be the advancement of all matters tending 
towards the improvement of the horticultural industry in Canada, including 
production, grading, packing, transportation, storage, marketing, etc. 

(a) By initiating, fostering and assisting in obtaining such legisla- 
tion and regulations as will be beneficial to the horticultural 

(b) By encouraging the holding of horticultural displa3's, the dis- 
tribution of literature and by systematic advertising, informing 
the general public as to the value and general use of horticultural 

(c) By encouraging the adoption of uniform standards of grading 
and packing and assisting in developing home and foreign 

Time will not permit of taking up the various clauses in the tentative con- 
stitution or the by-laws set forth in the draft but at any rate if the ])rinciple 
meets with approval there will, no doubt, be many changes made. I may say, 
however, that this draft has been submitted to several of those who are actively 
engaged in scientific and commercial horticultural activities, and practically all 
have expressed their approval of the formation of a national body representative 

18 THE KEPOirr OF THE ^'o. 44 

of the industry in its broad sense, and feel that the present time is a very oppor- 
tune one to consider the whole matter. If it is the wish of this Convention to 
discuss the matter, I shall be glad to explain some of the principal points in 
connection with the tentative constitution and by-laws. 

It has been pointed out by some that the policy of the Fruit Branch of the 
Dominion Department of Agriculture in liolding Dominion Fruit Conferences, 
from time to time, and the service which has Ijeen established by the Dominion 
Fruit Braiicli have so far fully met tlie requirements of the industry. However, 
it would appear that a national organization might offer some advantages over 
our past methods, by reason of the fact that it would permit of complete inde- 
pendence from all government bodies or institutions, thereby giving a larger 
feeling of freedom of speech and action. 

The Provincial Fruit Growers' Associations have been very generous in giving 
their support to the fruit branch, which has been very much appreciated, but it 
is generally recognized that weight of numbers having a unanimous opinion 
gives a larger possibility of success when dealing with questions of importance to 
the industry. Matters of policy and procedure requiring urgent attention and 
action could l)e speedily dealt with. A national body also permits of the horticul- 
tural industry taking its place on an equal footing with other agricultural in- 
dustries having national organizations. Occasions may also arise where the com- 
bined efforts of all national organizations may be effective in obtaining for agri- 
culture better conditions. 

Mr. Hodgetts: In connection with this matter there have been a couple 
of meetings held in the province lately called by the Florists' and Gardeners' 
Association. It is an association of the commercial florists, men engaged in 
green-house work and the raising of flowers of all kinds, and they have invited 
representatives of the amateur florists, members of the Horticultural Society, 
civic improvement leagues and so on, to fix a committee meeting in Toronto to 
deal with this matter. The matter came up for discussion a month ago and we 
promised we would put it on our programme for discussion to see if the Fruit 
Growers' Association thought enough of it to go ahead and amalgamate with 

Instead of a National Fruit Council we would have a National Horticul- 
tural Council embracing all lines of horticulture, both commercial and amateur. 
The matter of finance is always a serious one in connection with organizing, 
and to bring the directors from the various parts of the Dominion of Canada 
is an expensive matter. I do not know how they have worked it out in connec- 
tion with the live stock and dairymen's unions, but the cost will probably be one 
of the problems we will have to meet. 

Mr. Baxter : Mr. Hodgetts has stated that the financial .end of an organiza- 
tion is one of the most important points. AVe have given it consideration from 
various angles, and we have felt that as the Provincial Fruit GroAvers' x\sso- 
ciation is probably the biggest association along horticultural lines in the pro- 
vince that they might form the nucleus of the provincial council, or sub-council 
as you might call it. There are various matters to be considered and it must be 
worked out on a membership basis. 

Now I feel that the allied industries are particularly keen to appreciate the 
benefits that would come from a national body and would be prepared to finan- 
cially support such an organization ; but we all realize that the fruit grower* 


are going to be in the majority and should he, because they are probably re- 
presented by the greatest number. The matter of finance is quite a problem, but 
if the work of the national organization could be carried on, and I believe it 
could be carried on to a great extent, by a permanent secretary, the financing 
would not amount to a very great deal when spread over on a membership basis. 
I did not mention the financial policy, because we felt that if the general prin- 
ciple was adopted the financial end could be worked out by the provincial sub- 
committees or provincial councils. 

A. W. Peart and AV. T. Macoux. 

The year 1921 will go down in the history of fruit growing in this Province 
as being remarkable in many respects. 

The winter was mild, with very little snow. As a result trees and bushes 
and vines were practically without injury by frost. 

During the spraying season there were frequent showers which interfered 
materially with the good effect looked for. 

The last week in June and the whole of July were exceptionally hot, being 
several degrees above the normal. The heat was accompanied by a drought which 
lasted well into September. Nothing like this drought had previously occurred 
in the history of this generation. 

Eartlett pears were picked the latter part of August and other varieties of 
pears, as well as apples and grapes, were harvested about two weeks earlier than 

As a result of the adverse conditions apples especially were low in quality, 
being attacked by all the known enemies, and many unknown ones as well. Upon 
the whole the dormant spraying kept the San Jose scale pretty well under con- 
trol, but the black knot, especially on the plum trees, seems to be increasing, and will 
certainly have to be fought with energy in order to save our orchards. 

During the spring the Niagara Peninsula Growers, Limited was organized 
with head office at Grimsb}^, this co-operative association includes the Niagara 
Peninsula and Burlington districts. In spite of the adverse fruit conditions 
this new undertaking, large as it is, has thus far made a success and justified the 
hopes of its promoters, having done a business of about $1,500,000. 

At the Imperial Fruit Show held in London, England, last year, the Pro- 
vince of Ontario made eighty-four entries in the over-seas section and eighty 
in the British Empire section. Ontario was awarded a silver cup, value £100, 
for the highest aggregate of points with exhibits in fourteen classes of the over- 
seas or United Kingdom sections. Ontario also won two cash prizes of ten and 
twenty-five pounds sterling, and W. L. Hamilton, Collingwood, £20 cash for 
exhibits of apples. 

It should have been recorded sooner, that in 1912, at Dundela, Dundas 
County, Ontario, there was a monument erected in honour of the Mcintosh red 
apple and John Mcintosh, its originator. 

Mr. W. W. Ililborn, a well-known Canadian horticulturist, died at Leaming- 
ton, Ontario, on December 10th, 1920. He was the first horticulturist of the 
Central Experimental Farm. Ottawa, ])eino- appointed in 1887. He resigned his 

20 . THE KEPORT OF THE No, 44 

position at Ottawa in 1889 and was a private grower afterwards until his death. 
When he was appointed horticulturist at Ottawa, he had to organize the work 
of the division and to establish the first experimental plantations. At that time 
experimental w^ork was in its infancy in Canada, but Mr. Hilborn, who had been 
a practical fruit grower before that time, knew the problems of the fruit growers 
and was able to begin useful experiments which have since been of much value. 
After leaving Ottawa he went to Leamington and lived there until his death. 


W. L. Hamilton, Collingwood. 

You will all be interested to know the kind of fruit we took over to the 
Show, where we got it and how it was received. In the prize list there were 
fourteen varieties in the over-seas section, namely Snows, Mcintosh, Wealthies, 
King, Golden Russet, Spy, Blenheim, Jonathan, Spitz, Greenings, Cox Orange, 
Newtown, Stark, and any other variety. In the British Empire section, there 
were two classes: One cooking and one dessert. We entered in the over-seas 
section thirteen varieties, being unable to locate Cox Orange. In the BritisJi 
Empire section ^ve made two entries in the dessert class: Russets and Kings; 
and in the cooking class: Spies and Greenings. Mr. Ryrie of Oakville furnished 
the Wealthies and W^ageners. The Kjngs, Blenheims and Greenings were grown 
by Mr. Breckon of Bronte ; Spies and Newtons by Mr. Challand of Simcoe ; 
Spitzenburgs by Smith Brothers of Oakville; Jonathans, Mr. Langell of Point 
Pelee; Starks, Mr. Little of Trenton; Snows, Mcintosh and Russets from 

The fruit landed in excellent condition, and we are very much indebted 
to the Dominion Express Company for the way they handled it and looked after 
us over there. The boat got into Liverpool on Saturday, and the apples were 
unloaded before any passengers were allowed off, wliich was quite a concession 
to us, so we had our exhibit ready by ten o'clock Monday morning as was required. 

The Wealthies were the first to be judged. They were very fine and scored 
100 points. They were so good that the judges were doubtful that they were- 
Wealthies ; so doubtful that they called Mr. Carey over and asked him if Wealthies- 
grew like that in our country. We secured first prize on the Wealthies. 

The Snows scored ninety-nine, being cut one point for colour; I do not 
know^ whether they were cut for too little colour or too much. We got second 
prize on the Snows, being beaten by New Brunswick. 

Mcintosh were also beaten in first place by New B'runswick; the fruit being 
larger than we would have liked. 

Kings were furnished by Mr. Breckon of Bronte, and were the finest Kings 
I ever saw in such quantity in my life. They were of as high colour as the 
Jonathans, but lost two points for having too much colour, and got second place. 
On asking the Judge why he cut them for colour, he said the Chairman of the 
Judges had instructed that the apples should represent normal size and colour 
for variety and these being above normal, w^ere cut tw^o points. 

For Golden Russets, Nova Scotia received first and second, and N"ew Bruns- 
wick third, while we got highly commended. I think the judge was wrong in 
his second placing, both our own and third prize ])oxes boiug superior. 


Spies scored full 100 points; they were easy winners. There was no ques- 
tion that Ontario had them all beaten; British Columbia Spies could not com- 
pare with our apples. 

Blenheims. We did not get any prizes on this variety, but they were very 
fine. They were cut three points for colour, but they were beautiful. British 
Columbia took first place on the Blenheims but they were only No. 2 size; we 
would not consider them No. 1 size at all for Blenheims. 

Jonathans. We did not get a prize on Jonathans, as they were cut for 
colour, but were a very fine lot. 

I think the judges tried to be fair, but they were not box judges; they knew 
nothing about boxed apples nor about the types of varieties or the fullness of 
the pack or alignment. 

Spitzenburgs. We took second place; being cut five points for colour; they 
were fine Spitz, but not high enough colour. 

Greenings took second place; they scored ninety-seven points, and were also 
cut on account of colour. 

K'ewtown Pippins scored 100, and the score card was marked "Excellent.^' 

Starks were cut heavily for colour, and we did not get a prize. We had to 
pick them a week before we left here, and it was away too early for this variety. 

Any other variety. Mr. Eyrie's Wageners were entered in this class, scoring 
100 points. They were very fine. The second prize went to British Columbia 
on Delicious, and the third to Nova Scotia on Princess Louise. 

In the fourteen classes that competed for the Challenge Cup, we got four 
firsts and five seconds, and we secured the cup by winning the most points. Bri- 
tish Columbia boasted of having more medals than we had, which is true, but 
tliey had about four or five entries to each class, and should have taken four or 
five times as many medals. 

In the British Empire section, there were six or seven entries, in the twenty-box 
lots; Ontario had Kings and Eussets; British Colnmbia, Jonathans and Cox 
Orange; Quebec, Mcintosh. 

The three judges judging the over-seas section selected the twenty-boxes of Cox 
Orange; they passed over everything else. The twenty boxes of Kings made the 
finest exhibit in the show; they were perfect, 125 to the box, but the judges did 
not -even look at them; they said nothing could compare with the Cox Orange 
for dessert. 

Considerable trouble arose in the cooking class. Three judges selected 
the Ontario Spies and Greenings as the best entries in that section; Spies first 
and Greenings second. Three judges from the United Kingdom section selected 
the Newtown Wonders and Bramley Seedlings as the best two lots from the 
United Kingdom. Finally, they gave the prize to the Newton Wonders. Then 
one judge wanted the Greenings to take second place, but the other judge wanted 
the Bramley Seedlings in the second place, so they locked on these two. The 
Chairman of the judges gave the prize to the Bramley Seedlings, but he after- 
wards admitted that our Spies and Greenings were very fine; he had not seen 
them before. 

We have pictures of twenty boxes of Spies and of Newtown Wonders. The 
Newtown AVonders had excelsior packed at the sides of the box and the boxes were 
not filled. They nsed the argument that "Yon people have to come 4.000 miles, 
and lots of our exhibitors only "come fifty miles.'' T a-ked one of the judges why 


they put excelsior in the bottom, he said ''For tlie same reason you use paper !" 
I said "We put it around the apples, not at the end of the box." That is the 
reason we lost on the twenty boxes of Spies. It was a £50 special, and we would 
like to have brought it back with us. 

We took enough fruit over for a commercial exhibit also, and put up a very 
nice exhibit for the Province. The show on the whole was ver}^ fine; there were 
about 8,000 cases of apples besides half barrels, though I do not think I noticed 
any full barrels. But the building is so large and the apples were scattered 
around in the different wings, that it did not look as massive as it otherwise 

Our Mcintosh apples got a great boost. Some of the officials of the show 
took a fancy to this variety and getting sev-eral boxes, distributed them among 
their friends. If we got nothing but the boost to our Mcintosh, it paid us well 
for having gone over. Mr. Bussy of the Daily Mail had a party of friends in 
one night; he took several Mclntoshes and Cox Oranges and peeled them and 
passed them around. He asked his friends to decide which was the best variet}^, 
and everyone to a man chose the Mcintosh. 

Mtj. Hodgktts: Do you think it would be worth while going back another 
year ? 

Mr. Hamilton : I would not go back unless we knew who was to judge 
the apples. If we were to have American judges who knew something about box 
apples, it would be all right. I think the judges were honest, but they did not 
know boxes, and did not take into consideration the types of the varieties. 

P. J. Carey, Toronto. 

I was very pleased to have the privilege of being over at the Imperial Fruit 
ShoAV, and do my best for the Dominion. 

I want to say a few words in ex^Dlanation of the story that got considerable 
prominence that the Canadians were not fairly treated over there. It is true 
that we felt in a few cases we were not fairly treated, but on the whole, as Mr. 
Hamilton says, I think the judges did the best they could. The Daily Mail did 
not understand the running of the show, and the judges did not know the work, 
and between tlie two we had some disappointments. That is about all I can 
say in regard to that. As I understand it, The Daily Mail did not have Canada 
in its mind at all when they started the show. The idea was to stimulate the 
growing of home-grown apples. They Avent so far as to say England could 
grow enough apples not only for their own use but leave a margin for export. 
I noticed in their prospectus nothing was said about Canada nor the over-seas 
fruits at all; we were just allowed in to help make the show a better show, to 
lend colour to it, and it was fully understood we were not part of the show to 
begin with. That being the case, we cannot find very much fault. 

I must say I sympathized with Mr. Hamilton in his work for the Province. 
I found the boxes that held these NewtOA^ai Wonders were not lawful boxes at 
all. They were twenty . inches long, when they should have been eighteen inches, 
and they should have been disqualified right at the start. Two young men who 
were teaching box packing there were appointed a committee to cut out all the 
entries that they thought would not be placed in the money, because it was 
thought there was not room enough in the show for all the exhibits, and they 


set these particular Newtown AVonclers aside, because the box was not tlie right size. 
Later ou in the day, they got an order that there was plenty of room for all 
entries, and this lot again slipped in and won first prize, so you can plainly see 
that there was a little room for complaint there. 

I think we are good sports in Canada, and 1 am sorry we said anything about 
tlie matter. It got abroad in the Old C'Ountry that tlie Canadians were not 
treated properly, and of course the newspapers, as usual, made a great deal of it. 
It was a little unfortunate we said as much as we did; it may be the cause of 
not being invited again. Mr. Baxter will be able to say whether wo are to 
exhibit next year, but if we do it will be under different regulations. I would 
say we should have judges from tlie United States or some outside country that 
were not interested. If that is not so, Canada should be represented on the 
judges' staff. 

Then the regulation to remove the wrappings off the two top tiers was 
simply absurd. I am not too modest to say I took a hand for four days in fixing 
and repiling the British Columbia lot, taking off the tops, the wires, unwrapping 
the top two tiers of the boxes and replacing them, and nailing on tlie tops again. 
W« were forced to nail them on because the space was so limited; we had to 
pile them seven and eight deep in order to wait for them to be placed on the 
judges' stand. Some of the boxes were just a mass of apples; they were loose to 
begin with, and when the wrappers were removed they just ran together. 

New Brunswick perhaps won tlie most notable prizes of any Province. New 
Brunswick said, "If we have to remove the wrapper lief ore they are judged, we 
will leave them off," they did not wrap the two top tiers; they simply put them 
in as tight as they could and shipped them over, and they arrived in first-class 
condition. New Brunswick got first prize in Mcintosh Red and Fameuse; Que- 
bec was down to win these two prizes, because they are their special apples. I 
believe the Quebec apples were just as good, but the pack was a little loose and 
the box did not show up. Quebec felt so badly over it, that I believe they blamed 
Mr. Smith and myself for not getting the prizes, but we did everything we could 
do for all the Provinces. There was absolutely no one except Mr. Hamilton, 
Prof. Blair and myself who had a knowledge of fixing up box apples for prizes. 

I think we had better be sports and not say anything about being badly 
treated over there. Perhaps the treatment was coming to us. They had only 
one thing in mind : to make themselves solid with the people of the country and 
the growers of the country. As far as the Daily Mail's idea is concerned, it was 
admirably achieved; they got the people all stirred up, and they are going to 
plant millions of trees, and that may make some difference to the fruit growers 
of Ontario and the other shipping Provinces. But let nie tell you this : the 
life of the English apple, as I judge it, is about over the 1st of December, so 
that there will be no competition against our winter apples, unless they build 
cold storages and prolong the life of their apples. Their present method of 
marketing their apples is picking them from the trees and putting them on tlie 
market. That is all over abont the middle of November, so they cannot hurt 
our competition beyond our fall apples. 

The principal point which we gained over there is this: The English con- 
sumer, for the first time, had an opportunity of seeing Canadian apples in a 
mass. Up to the time of the show, they only saw them when they bought them 
by the pound and took them home. A quarter of a million people passed through 
the show ai\d could see our apples at their best, and they marvelled at the appear- 


ance of them; they could see the superiority of ours over the English apples. It 
was plain to soe— beautiful red shining fruit as compared with fruit lacking 
colour, or with a sickly colour. 

In the English exhibit there was scarcely a box of apples that did not con- 
tain some apples partially decayed. I counted fourteen in one box entirely 
broken down, showing that the keeping qualities were not there. AVhile in the 
Canadian apples, you would think they had just been picked off the tree. I had 
an opportunity of seeing all the Provincial entries, and I did not see one single 
specimen that showed signs of bad handling, and we cannot say too much in 
praise of the Express Companies for the w^ay they handled our shipment. 

I feel honoured in being chosen one of the representatives of the Dominion 
of Canada in the Dominion Exhibit. 

Mr. Baxter: I just wish to correct an impression that might be gained 
from Mr. Carey^s statement wdth regard to Quebec's attaching some blame to 
himself and Mr. Smith for their failure to obtain prizes. As Mr. Carey states, 
that was a fact, but it was due to the report issued that Quebec's exhibit failed 
to arriv.e and did not find a place among the contestants. That report was 
groundless, because every box that Quebec sent over was given a place and com- 
peted for a prize, so while the Quebec people did feel that they did not receive 
the attention from my officials that they should, that has been altogether cor- 
rected, and they now have nothing but appreciation for the efforts put forth 
by Mr. Carey and the other representatives from the Provinces to give Quebec 
the best showing possible. They have expressed to me their hearty appreciation, 
and they regret that such a report had been circulated. 

If it is in order to refer to Canada's further participation in an Imperial 
Show, I will refer briefly to a letter I received from our Fruit Commissioner, 
Mr. Forsyth Smith. It was my honour and privilege to act as Canadian Secre- 
tary to this Imperial Fruit .Show, and while, as has been stated, we may not 
have had an altogether fair showing, nevertheless, I think it paid us well, what 
we received together wdth the entertainment. Mr. Howard Shipman, Horticul- 
tural adviser to the Daily Mail, who were the promoters of this show, some time 
ago asked if I would say what they might hope from Canada by way of support 
in future shows. We heard something of the little dissatisfaction that had oc- 
curred, and we replied that we would have to reserve decision or withhold our 
opinion until we received our official report. When this came, the criticisms 
were so severe that we decided it would be better not to publish them. Mr. 
Carey and Mr. Hamilton have said there were probably reasons for the judging — 
inexperience being the greatest of these — being amateurish all through. In future 
we hope for better treatment, but we did not publish that part of the report. We 
sent a confidential report to the newspapers for their future guidance, and also 
our prints of the photographs. 

A meeting of the Advisory Committee was held in London on January 
19th, and I was asked to give an opinion as to the possibilities of Canada again 
participating in future shows, as it is proposed to make this an annual -event. 
My suggestion was that Mr. Smith, being Canada's representative on this com- 
mittee, should assume the attitude that Canada would participate in future shows 
to a much greater extent than in the pa>t. By so doing, it would enable him to 
obtain for us the best regulations possible. After that had been done then we 
-could decide as to whether these regulations and assurances of scientific judging 


and experienced judges was such as would lead to our further participation. I 
have just received a report from Mr. Smith as follows : 

Extracts from Mr. Smith's letter to Mr. Baxter. 

"As your cable expressed the view that Canada would like to participate again, 
and as the Agent-general for Ontario had heard from his people and the representative 
of New Brunswick from his, that they would support another show on a greater' scale, 
we all, finally, agreed to attend the meeting, to raise no awkward question,? at this 
stage, and to convey the general idea that Canada would be glad to be represented. 

"Mr. Bussy announced that the "Daily Mail" would finance another Show, that 
it was proposed that it should again be held in the Crystal Palace, and at approxima- 
tely the same date, the exact date to be settled later. He evidently ha,s it in mind 
that it shall be an annual event, for he said that he did not think it advisable to give 
medal prizes, as medals would then become too common, but would offer Challenge Cups, 
to be held for a year only, until won three times in succession by one competitor, to 
gather with money prizes to be awarded each year. I shall, of course, endeavour to 
have the latter made as substantial as possible. 

"A resolution was, also, passed that the scope of the Show should be enlarged to 
take in citrus fruits, and pineapples, to be furnished by South Africa, and pears. It 
is possible, also, that peaches will be added to the list, in which case I think it would 
be advifSable that Canada should send forward exhibits of the last two fruits. 

"A suggestion was also made that New Zealand and Australia should show cold 
stored apples. (In view of their season, it is manife,stly impossible for them to 
show fresh apples). This, however, did not seem to appeal to the Australian and 
New Zealand representatives, a,s, of course, they have no object in exhibiting cold 
storage apples, which they could never hope to sell commercially in the height of 
the English, Canadian and American fresh apple season. 

"A similar suggestion made with reference to Canada (i.e. as to our showing 
storage apples of the previous year, as a means of reconciling English desire for an 
earlier date for the Show, with the impossibility of our showing new season apples 
at such a date) was promptly negatived by me. There would, of course, be no object 
at all in our showing storage apples which we could never expect to offer ccon- 

"No date has yet been fixed for the meeting of the Advisory Committee, but 
this will probably be held inside of the next month." 

Mr. Smith was instrumental in getting the management to greatly increase 
the financial prizes on the ground that Canada would be put to a great expendi- 
ture in bringing their exhibits som.e 6,000 miles. 

Mr. Smith asks for our further opinion as to Canada's participation and also 
for certain support in his efforts for better conditions. 

''There was another point settled at the meeting to our advantage; it was 
agreed we should have two representatives on the sub-committee. I, of course, 
am one. The other has been left for us to nominate, and will probably be the 
'scrappiest' Agept^General I can select/' Mr. Smith further states. 

Personally I believe if we can succeed in getting better rules and regula- 
tions and some guarantee that they will be strictly adhered to, it has been and 
will be one of the best avenues for advertising the Canadian apple in the Old 
Country markets that we could have. I hope we will succeed in doing so, and if 
we do, we will go back with a much better exhibit, and notwithstanding all the 
handicaps we will still win out. 


At the Imperial Fruit Show. 

The Chairman : I hold in my hand a gold medal, First Prize, Class I. 

Wealthy Apples, won by Mr. Harry Ryrie of Oakville. What I have to say to 

you. Mr. Ryrie, will apply to all the rest; you have done signal honour to the 

26 THE'IiEPOirr OF THE ^■o. 44 

friiit growers oi' Ontario and also to this Association, and we feel as growers that 
we are indebted to you for producing apples of sufficient high standard to 
bring back such a medal as this. 

Second Prize Medal, Mr. Hamilton, Collingwood, for Mcintosh Apples. 

" Mr.Breckon, Bronte, for King Apples. 
First " " Mr. C. W. Challand, Simcoe, for Spies. 

Second " " Mr. Smith, Oakville, for Spitzenburg. 

" " " Mr. Breckon, for Greenings. 

First " " Mr. Challand, for Newtown Pippin. 

Mr. Ryrie, for Wagener. 
Bronze Medal for 20 boxes of Greenings in British Empire Section presented to 
Mr. Breckon. 

Mr. Hodgetts: When the Show was first mooted, and we were asked if 
we would make an Exhibit, our Minister said to go ahead if we could get the 
apples, but he thought it would be better if the Exhibit was put up by the 
Ontario Fruit Growers' Association. We first advertised that the Show would 
be held and anyone wishing to make an entry should write to the Minister, and 
that the Department would pay the expenses of sending over the fruit. There 
was no response, and we had to go up and down the country to locate the apples. 
It was a bad year, and we had trouble in getting apples which could meet the 
competition we knew we would be up against in London. We went first to 
the people who had won prizes at our Provincial Shows in the past, and it was 
not a great while before we located everything except the Cox Orange. Cox 
Orange is a great favourite in the Old Country, and we thought if w^e sent any 
over, we would have a chance to win first prize. The tree was planted here a good 
many years ago, probably by some of the early English settlers; there are trees, 
in some of the older orchards, but we could fine none bearing this past season. 

Jonathan, Spitz and Xewtowns are typical western varieties, and we thought 
it would be nice to beat them with their own varieties. We succeeded with 
Xewtowns from Mr. Challand's orchard at Simcoe, l)ut with the Jonathans we 
were cut for having too much colour. There not being the requisite five -entries 
we failed to get the third prize which we should have been entitled to. 

We secured Wealthies and Wageners from Mr. Eyrie's orchard at Oakville. 
Mr. Eyrie's orchard is one of the largest young orchards of the Province, and 
we had no trouble whatever in securing from him sufficient of the two varieties 
on which we took the two gold medals which have just been presented to him. 

We went to Mr. Challand of Simcoe for Spies, because w^e figured the Nor- 
folk Spies Avould have a better colour and would be in prime condition at the 
time of the Show which was in October. Farther north or east they would not" 
be so ripe. ]\Ir. Challand certainly had Spies to win over there, but we were 
disappointed on the tw-enty box lot in the British Empire Section. In the six box 
lot, we had no trouble in winning the gold medal on the Spies. Mr. Challand 
has an orchard Avhich is certainly a credit to himself and to the Province. Mr. 
( Thailand also ]n'ovided us with the Newtown Pippins which carried off the gold 

When we looked for Kings and Greenings, we turned to Mr. Breckon of 
Bronte, l)ecause he had always run Mr. Hamilton a close race on these varieties, 
])artieularly the Greenings, at the Toronto Show. Mr. Breckon has not a young 
orchard, but there is no cleaner orchard, as far as cultivation and fruit is con- 
cerned, in the Province. If we ever have any excursions from this association, 
1 would like to take the members down to see Mr. Breckon 's orcliard. He not 


only had the twenty box lot and the ><ix bux lot, bnt he could have I'urnished us 
with a 100 boxes. The trees were laden^ and the i'ruit was unirorni in size with 
a nice clean skin. 

As far as Spitzenburg is concerned, there are not many trees in the 
Province. \\'e nnderstoud Smith lirothers oL* Oakville had a few whicli always 
produce nice apples, so we got our Spitz there takijig the silver medal at the 
Show. It was a little early to get the best colour, and we w^re cut on that. Smith 
Brothers, also have extensive orchards showing careful handling. 

The Jonathans came from Point Pelee. There is some discussion on this 
and other varieties later in the programme : it is claimed we cannot grow them in 
Ontario, but we were fortunate in locating the orchard of Mr. Langell which 
is largely planted witli Wealthies, Jonathans, and other western varieties. Mr. 
Langell is growing Jonatlians very successfully in a commercial way near 

For Snows and Mcintosh we turned to Mr. Hamilton of CoUingwood. It 
was difficult to get the Mcintosh small enough to win a prize in Great Britain. 
Mr. Smith had warned us to take the smaller sizes over there because they 
were favourites in the British markets, but this year we could not get the size we 
wanted and had to be content to take second place Avith Snows and Mcintosh. 
Golden Russets came from Mr. Hamilton' orchard also, and were representative of 
the Province, but Xova Scotia had better russets, securing the gold metal. 

We had to go east for Starks, getting them from Mr. Little's orchard at Tren- 
ton. It was too early in the season to get the colour we would like so we were 
not in on the prize money on that variety. 

Mr. Caeey: I would like to say a word about the Federal Exhibit. There 
were four contributors from the Province of Ontario. With the exception of 
five boxes of apples from British Columbia and five from Nova Scotia, the bal- 
ance were taken from Ontario. Snows and Mcintosh we secured from Mr. 
Ernest Robinson. Mr. Harold Jones, jMr. Breckon and Mr. AY. H. Gibson of 
Newcastle were the other contributors, and tlie apples were as near perfection 
as possible. 

Mr. Hodgetts: 1 want to mention the name of Mr. Gilbertson, from 
whom we got apples for our Provincial Exhibit. The lialance we secured from 
Air. Breckon anrl Mr. Eyrie. 

District No. 1: Renfrew, Laxark, Carli:tox, Russell and Prescott. 

Mr. Macoun : I should like to present a more favourable report of that 
section of the country than I am going to do, but I presume you want an honest 
report, so I will stick to facts. 

District No. 1 includes the counties of Renfrew, Lanark, Carleton, Russell 
and Prescott. The fruits which can be grown successfully commercially in this 
district are the apple and the x\merican and hybrid groups of plums among tree 
fruits, and the currant, gooseberry, raspberry and strawberry among small fruits. 
In addition to these the hardiest pears succeed in the most favoured parts of 
the district and are planted, to a limited extent, for home use only. Many 
varieties of grapes will ripen every year, but because the vines have to be covered 
with soil in winter they are not grown commercially. The sour cherry bears 

28 THE KEPOKT OF THE ^b. 44 

a crop, perlmps, two to three years out of five and the same may be said of the 
European or Domestica plums, hence tliese are not commercial fruits, but are 
grown to some extent for home use, and a few may at times be offered for sale. 

All the cities, towns and villages in these counties could be supplied with 
apples, certain kinds of plums, and currants, gooseberries, raspberries and straw- 
berries produced in the district if sufficient growers would undertake to do this, 
but it would seem that persons with the horticultural instinct usually desire to 
be near other horticulturists, hence instead of building up the fruit industry 
in their home district they move to the fruit centres. 

As the Agricultural Eepresentatives who travel much through the counties 
they represent are in the best position to know what is being done in fruit grow- 
ing in their counties, a letter w^as sent to each one of them asking for information. 

Mr. Fred Forsyth, Eepresentative for Lanark County reports: 

"In reply may say the fruit industry is a very neglected branch of farm 
work. True, there are a few odd farmers planting a small number of trees 
solely for local use. Tlie varieties of these trees cover largely Transparents and 
Mcintosh Eeds. Orchards generally have been sadly neglected and little or no 
care is taken of them at all. I do not think I can give you any further informa- 
tion that would be of value as there is so little interest taken in fruit growing- 

Renfrew County : Mr. M. H. Winter, representative for Renfrew County, 
reports as follows: 

"As you know, there are very few apples grown in this county for com- 
mercial purposes. I do not imagine we have over forty acres set out to apples. 
The greater part of this acreage will consist of from five to forty trees around 
a man's home. 

"Some of our younger orchards are looking well, but it usually happens 
that about one-third has to be replanted before the trees reach an age of six 
years. The loss is caused largely by winter killing. While some orchards have- 
been planted over 20 years, and appear fairly hardy, my experience has been 
that trees do not live over 15' years. 

The varieties mostly grown are Yellow Transparent, Duchess, Wealthy, Fameuse 
and Mclntcsh. Of, the Duchess and Wealthy probably give the best yields. We 
also have a considerable number of Alexanders, Wolf Rivers and Scott's Winters. 
I would estimate that from 200 to 300 acres are being planted annually. 

Following is a report from Mr. Ferdinand Larose who represents Prescott 
and Russell Counties: 

"Re fruit growing in Prescott and Russell Counties. I beg to inform you 
that to my knowledge very little is done along that line, except in apple grow- 
ing. The orchards are generally in poor shape due to bad winters of 1917 and 
1918. There are very few good orchards, and in my opinion a campaign should 
be started. There is an exceptionally good section in the vicinity of Vankleek 
Hill which should be utilized to a much larger extent for the purpose of apple 
growing. As to the number of trees which were planted since my appointment 
in the fall of 1919, only two farmers asked information about planting of any 
trees, and this was only for very small quantities of a dozen or so.'^ 

Carleton County: There is no report from the representative of Carleton 
County, but as we live in that County ourselves, we may say that apart from the 
Experimental Farm Orchards at Ottawa, there is little ]3lauting in the County, 
and the orchards are about in the condition described for the other counties. 


The market gardeners about Ottawa are planting a I'ew trees each because they 
find it very profitable to sell apples in baskets with their vegetables. 

After thirty-five years' experience in fruit growing at the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, we should say that there are three main reasons for the 
industry not developing to any extent: First, because, as stated at the outset, 
most men with the horticultural instinct, born in rather rigorous climates, are 
inclined to move to a milder climate where they can grow' a greater quantity 
61 fruit. Second, the winter injury is very great at times. Since 1887, we 
have had winter killing in 1895-1896; 1903-1904 and 1917-1918. Those who 
have not the hardiest varieties become discouraged because of the large pro- 
portion of their trees that are killed. Third, the injury from mice is at time 
very great, unless the trees are protected regularly every year. This one cause 
has discouraged many, as trees just coming into bearing may be destroyed. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties, the great success of the Central Experi- 
mental Farm orchards is good evidence of what can be done if orchards are 
•cared for, and the proper varieties planted. The many new and promising 
varieties of apples originated at Ottaw^a should be of much value in future 
development of the industry in Eastern Ontario. 

District No. 3 : Lennox, Addington, Hastings, Prince Edward. 

Mr. Ireland: In Prince Edward County we can raise the best apples of 
any county in the Province. We have a climate that gives a nice flavour, though 
we do not alw^ays get the best colour. We can grow the very best sour cherries; 
some of the farmers have as many as 20 acres of these. The apple orchards 
have been neglected a great deal for the last seven or eight years, and they are 
planting no new orchards worth mentioning since the over-production scare of 
1910. About dO'yo of the farmers in our county would rather have a farm 
without an orchard than one with it. The side worm was a great drawback to 
lis during the past season ; many of the apples were not fit to market. 

District Xo. 4 : Northumberland, Durham, Peterboro, Victoria. 

Mr. Sirett : My remarks this morning deal with the situation so far as 
apples are concerned, that is, all the districts not approximately near the north 
shore of Lake Ontario are very rapidly going out of apple production. In the 
Counties of Peterboro, and the North part of Northumberland and Durham, there 
are comparatively few orchards that are producing any apples except as incidental 
to their other work; no care is being taken of them. Mr. Ireland's remarks w^th 
regard to men preferring farms without orchards applies to this district. In the 
apple districts, the situation is very much more encouraging of course. Our trade 
is largely an export one, requiring a good shipping apple; an apple such as the 
Mcintosh, Fameuse, Spy and similar varieties are not good export apples. The 
Baldwin perhaps represents more than any other variety the characteristics re- 
quired in a first-class apple. Unfortunately the Baldwin has not given satisfac- 
tion; they produce a considerable quantity of apples, but I question whether you 
can find a Baldwin tree that has not suffered winter injury. The producing of 
a hardier type suitable for our export market is a problem that has concerned our 
local Association for a number of years, and some effort has been directed towards 
interesting the Government in producing such an apple. 

30 THE KEPOHT OF THE ^'o. 44 

An apple that was rather important in our district previous to the winter of 
1917 or 1918 was the Cranberry; it suited our demand admirably, but it was 
almost entirely wiped out in that winter. The Cranberry, Ontario, and to a cer- 
tain extent the Stark and Baldwin suffered most. 

The apples we recommend for planting to-day are : Spy, Fameuse, Mcintosh : 
for early apples, Alexander and Duchess. This year there was a very keen demand 
for early apples in Great Britain. The Ben Davis and Stark are giving consider- 
able satisfaction and are suitable to our conditions, because they produce a crop 
almost annually; they have a good colour, keep well and carry well, and although 
they command a smaller price, nevertheless the net receipts are larger than in 
many instances with higher priced varieties. 

I brought up here a plate of Delicious apples that were grown in the neigh- 
bourhood of Brighton. This variety has not yet become well known. These 
apples were planted in 1912; the trees bore first two years ago, just a few apples,, 
but this year, they bore as much as two barrels per tree. 

We found as a result of our experience in 1917 and 1918 that the trees that 
had a good strong vigorous growth did not necessarily .escape the freezing that 
so many suffered from that year. The Delicious tree may prove altogether lacking 
in hardiness, but if that does not prove to be the case, the Delicious will be 
planted in the Northumberland district in the next few years. The demand for 
the apple has been already made, on account of the advertising it has received 
both in the United States and Canada. I think if we produce fruit, even of that 
colour, there will be a ready demand. These apples were in cold storage, but 
those in ordinary storage are still perfectly firm, and will carry any distance ; 
they come on after Mcintosh and Fameuse have been cleared away; they are 
not only 2)icked later but have a longer season, so that the period for marketing 
is spread over a greater number of months, and there is a better opportunity of 
disposing of the crop. 

Q. — What is the season? 

A. — The season with us is January, February and the early part of March. 
The season is very similar to the Spy. There are comparatively few Spies in bet- 
ter condition than the Delicious is just now. 

I also have set out a variety of Mr. Macoun's Spy Seedlings; the tree fruited 
two years ago for the first time, and again this year. Unfortunately this variety 
does not show enough colour, but that may improve; young Spies, of course, do 
not show good colour as a rule. I opened a barrel of Cobalt apj^les the other day 
and found them in excellent condition, but there was not enough colour to appeal. 
The Cobalt is a vigorous tree, one of the most attractive trees I have seen; it 
bears early and heavily — about four bushels on a Cobalt tree planted in 1914, 
with just ordinary care — but it has this undesirable quality of lack of colour, with 
a very large white spot. 

I would like to emphasize and draw the attention of this Association to the 
need of more systematic and extensive breeding of apples which will be suitable 
for our export trade. The Baldwin would be typical, if we only had a hardy 
tree. The Spy is a high class apple for the domestic market, but not for tlie 
export market for those who make a business of it. 

Never in the history of apple growing have the orchards in our country been 
as well cared for; spraying, fertilizing, cultivating and pruning are all being 
carried on with greater efficiency than in the past, and I look forward to good 


returns for these men. The Delitioiis and Jonathan are apples likely to be 
planted extensively, artd we would like to know whether this should be done. 

District No. G : ITalton and Peel. 

Mr. Foster : Last year, as you all know, was an off year so far as the apple 
.situation is concerned; the crop was below the average, and so far as Halton and 
Peel are concerned, the quality was below the average. There seemed to be a 
great many enemies to combat. In our counties there are not as many orchards 
being neglected as in some of the other sections; I do not think there are many 
being renewed or replanted, which is due probably to lack of help and the higl) 
price of the young trees. The price is a little lower now, but is still high enough. 
What we might expect in the future regarding planting, I do not know, but the 
people feel that they will take care of their trees as well as they can, .and if they 
can produce good clean fruit, they will always have a market for it, especially 
if it is put up well. We have produced good fruit in some sections and have 
fallen down on the pack; we have not been able to hold the confidence of the 
buying public, and that is a very important item in any trade. If we expect to 
continue in the business, we will certainly have to put up the goods in a little 
better shape, in such shape that we will gain the confidence of the buying public 
so that they will come back a second and third and fourth time. AYe cannot afford 
to continue hunting up new customers all the time, but if we can hold the con- 
fidence of the people, there is a great future for the fruit business. 

District N'o. 7 : Lincoln. 

Mr. Craise : The district I represent is rather small, but I think I can shout 
just as strong as my friend from Trenton. I claim we grow as good fruit across 
the lake in the Niagara district as can be ^rown anywhere else in the world. I 
care not whether in British Columbia or elsewhere. But we won't say very much 
for the apple business, that is, in a commercial way. While you hear the Niagara 
district boosted as the peach growing centre, I think a man making his livelihood 
from the growing of fruit is making a mistake if he does not include a certain 
acreage of apples. On my place of forty acres, I have an old orchard of sixty 
trees that have netted me more money than any other two acres I have on the 
farm. I have a small planting now of 105 trees that are ten years old. 

I have made a little estimate in our section between the fruit grown now and 
ten years ago. I started with the apple. In my opinion, there are not more than 
35% of the apples grown ten years ago. Pears — not more than 75'/^ as many as 
there were ten years ago; the same thing is true of peaches, and if anything I am 
a little high on that, and you can scarcely go* through the district and find one 
orchard that is absolutely clean, that is, free from canker, because that is the 
big enemy of the peach grower to-day. The men in charge of our different Depart- 
ments have failed to find anything that will absolutely control the peach canker. 
We have to give credit to our friend, Mr. Palmer of the Vineland Experimental 
Farm, for the policy he is advocating at the present time with regard to pruning. 
He advises moderate pruning in comparison with what we did a few years ago: 
in most cases the canker develops where a wound has been made in the tree, so 
that the less wounds, the less possibility of the canker developing. That is bene- 
ficial also in the matter of producing early bearing. 


In connection with grapes, I have them down at 150%, and by the prices 
we have been receiving in the last year, that might be raised to 200%. The grow- 
ers received $85 a ton last year, while wathin my recollection, we drew grapes to 
the wine factories and received as low as $15 a ton, so there is a vast difference 
in the return of the vineyard. 

In the matter of plums, I think we are 100% strong yet. Some orchards 
have gone out and some have been neglected, but there is a certain amount of 
new planting going on all the time. My brother and I w^ork together; ten years 
ago this fall, we bought a farm of fifty acres, and in that ten years there have 
only been tw^o years when the large plum orchard did not pay; one year was from 
crop failure, and the other was on account of the low prices, so that we have had 
eight successful years out of ten growing plums in that section. 

With regard to cherries — I refer to sour cherries particularly — I have them 
dow^n at 125%, and from our own experience they have been a very good payer. 
While they have not ahvays commanded big prices, there has always been a reason- 
able margin left at the close of the season. 

I put strawberries and raspberries in the same class, and they are alx)ut hold- 
ing their own. Of course they have a great many enemies which have been de- 
veloping in the last few^ years, and men have become discouraged. But I would 
say, from my own observation and experience, that the man who takes proper 
care of his orchard has a future before him, and need not be at all pessimistic 
about the fruit business— but he must take 100% care. 

SiMcoE District: Norfolk. 

Mr. Johnson : Norfolk County is just about the same as other counties as far 
-as the apple business was concerned last year; the fruit was certainly very spotty, 
which cut down our quantity a great deal. We have a good many middle-aged 
-orchards, and during the past few years I consider that the orchards have not 
received the care they should have had. We have a large planting of young 
orchards in the county, which run about ten or twelve years old, and I believe 
probably next year we will shov,^ you a marked improvement in the quantity of 
apples and also the quality of apples shipped out of Norfolk County. We may 
possibly not grow the best flavoured apples — but only possibly — but since people 
liave begun to eat with their eyes, we will do all riglit. Norfolk County has a 
market in the West, and I believe Norfolk is practically the only county that is 
advertising their own apples. Out West, the people know exactly that Norfolk 
apples mean a certain grade. We have representatives out there wdio advertise 
•our apples on their letter heads, and we have always tried to keep up our grade. 

We grow a good quantity of strawberries, producing last year about 500,000 
baskets, around Simcoe alone. 

We have tried peaches and gro\Fn them certain years, but they are not a 
good investment. 

District No 13 : Grey, Simcoe, Muskoka, Parry Sound, Nipissing, Algoma 


Mr. Hamilton : The North part of the district will speak for itself. Around 
Georgian Bay section, with the exception of a few, the orchards are not being well 
cared for. In Clarksburg, Thornbury and a few in Meaford, the growers are 
spraying very well. Mr. Baker, who has a large orchard on his farm, has gone 


altogether to dusting and claims he is getting good results. He has a hard or- 
chard to look after, it being on the side of a mountain. I do not know of a 
single orchard that has heen planted lately; there are a few trees being filled in, 
but practically no planting at all. A few commercial plantings set out some years 
ago are now just coming into bearing. 

E. F. Palmer, Vineland Station. 

"Is there anything better than the Glen Mary and Williams?'-' On the face 
of it that is an impossible question to answer, because the strawberry is very 
variable in its adaptations; a variety which will succeed in one locality may not 
be at all successful in another. Amono- the new varieties we have tested out 


at the Horticultural Experimental Station is the Portia, and we have certainly 
found for a jam and canning berry, this berry far excelling all of our present com- 
mercial varieties. In other new varieties, our breeding work at Vineland is com- 
paratively recent. We have just got to the stage where we are sending out for 
trial half a dozen of our selected new hybrids. Three years ago we sent out 
fifteen or twenty to a dozen or so growers in different parts of the Province, and 
as a result of their test, and further testing of our own, we have cut down that 
number to about five or six, and these five or six we are prepared to send out 
to any one for testing so long ^s the supply of plants last. As to whether there 
is any better than the Glen Mary or the Williams, we cannot say yet. In four 
or five years from now, with your co-operation, we can make a definite recom- 
mendation. I can say for the Portia that it has stood up for years, and we cer- 
tainly consider it, for the purposes of jam and canning, the berry. 

The same holds true of raspberries. We have one very promising seedling 
which we are propagating very fast, but it is still too early to say whether it is 
better than the Cuthbert. 

There are several new diseases; one or two in particular are making very 
heavy inroads in our present varieties of raspberries, the Cuthbert included. The 
Marlboro has completely failed where these diseases have come in. The only 
variety showing resistance is the Herbert. If the disease continues and grows 
worse as it seems to be doing, then the Herbert may take precedence over the 

There are several new varieties put out by the Geneva Station: Donborough, 
June and Ontario, but all of these varieties are susceptible to the raspberry mosaic 
and leaf curl; not only susceptible, but the ^ock sent out is deceased stock, so 
we cannot recommend growers buying these varieties at the present time. There 
are also two or three varieties from the Central Experimental Farm, but I will 
leave that to Mr. Macoun; I have reference to the Count, Sir John and Brighton. 

Mr. Hodgetts : Have you tried the King Raspberry ? 

Mr. Palmer: We have the King growing, but it is susceptible to disease. I 
want to state here that the raspberry yellow, and mosaic is from all indications 
a very serious disease, and one which may entirely revolutionize our varieties. We 
must get resisting varieties if the disease is to continue, as it is giving promise- 
of continuing at the present time. 

34 THE REPOET OF THE ^:b. 4 4 


The Chairman: Personally I have planted two varieties for commercial 
purposes: the Concord for a blue grape, and the Niagara. AYe have a certain 
number of other kinds, but they are much more susceptible to disease, such as- 
rot and mildew, than these two. 

Mr. Bunting: The Concord variety is in demand and is planted more 
largely than anything else. There is nothing better than the Concord. 

The Chairman : There is another blue grape which is being largely planted^, 
called the Worden. It is an -earlier grape than the Concord, but is very thin- 
skinned; and our experience is that it does not stand shipping very well, and 
cracks in the baskets and blows open, but it is a beautiful grape. 

Mr. Peart : I know of no grape better than the Campbell's Early; there- 
just seems to be one requisite for success in that grape, and that is that you must 
prune it about three times as short as any other kind. It is a very heavy bearer^ 
and hardy and will hang on from first to last. 

The Chairman : Campbell's Early is a new variety compared with the Con- 
cord; it would be another of these grapes that calls for a special market. It is 
the only early blue grape we have that is edible, or really satisfactory. We have 
had for a long while the Champion; it produced heavily, but the trouble was the 
growers would not wait until it was ripe — and it was bad enough when it 
was ripe. The Concord for the Blue, and the Niagara for the White are the best 
commercial grapes; any other varieties are more of a special grape and have to b-? 
sold as such. 

Mr. Palmer: I would like to ask whether it is advisable to plant a large 
acreage of Concords? They are not a shipping grape, and if the local markets 
will not take the increased plantings, there will be a surplus of them. 

The Chairman: It seems to me that the history of the industry so far 
would hardly uphold the statement that the Concord is not a good shipping 
grape. We have shipped Concords to the end of the earth nearly — carload after 
carload into the West — and they have all been satisfactory. 

Mr. Craise: During the glut of the season, the grape growers this year put 
fifty carloads of Concords in storage in Hamilton and held them for two weeks — 
some longer than that. They were dead ripe when they went in, and the report 
is 97% came out in as good condition as they went in, and were sold at a very 
much higher price, and were very satisfactory to the purchaser, so I do not think 
the statement that the Concord is not standing up is justified. 

Mr. Hodgetts: In the report of the Fruit Growers' Associaj;ion for 1868.. 
I notice that outside of the Keefer, the varieties being grown at the present time, 
were recommended by our Association. The same thing applies with plums with 
the exception of the Japanese plums which have come in since that time. 

In looking over the Census Bureau report at Ottawa for last year, I find the- 
planting in order of preference in plums : Lombard ; Reine Claude, Burbank and 
Bradshaw. The Lombard and Reine Claude were recommended in 1868; prac- 
tically the only new variety is the Burbank. 

Strawberries: Senator Dunlap, followed by Williams and Glen Mary. 

Raspberries: Cuthbert, followed by Herbert and King, 

Grapes', 'Concord first, then Niagara and Worden. 


Apples: In apples, the favourites were Mcintosh, Snow, followed by Wealthy, 
Duchess, Yellow Transparent and Spy. There has not been a great deal of pro- 
gress since 1868 in the varieties grown outside of the small fruits and peaches, 
the small fruits however, changed completely: in 1868 there were no varieties 
of strawberries grown that are grown to-day, and raspberries the same way. In 
peaches there is quite a change; outside of the two Crawfords which were recom- 
mended by our Association in 1868, none of the present peaches were being grown 
at that time. There seems to be very little progress in apples, pears and plums in 
that fifty odd years. 

The Chairman: This would seem to bear out the statement that the old 
varieties are holding their own, and are possibly yet the best. 

Mr. Macoun: Are they perfect? 

The Chairman: Well, apparently not. The Lombard plums depend on the 
canners for their market, to a great extent; if the canners shut down on the 
Lombard Plum, and if Providence is as kind as it was in 1920. then we might as 
well scrap the Lombards. The Lombard is a vigorous grower, an early bearer 
and sure cropper once every two years. I think if we thinned them like we thin 
the peaches and apples, we might get a crop annually. The Lombard used to be 
called the people's plum, and I believe it is the people's plum yet, and it will be 
the people's plum from now on. 

The Peine Claude plum is a good seller of high quality, but we found that 
some of the trees seem to have been badly grafted and do not bear, but the others 
that do bear are a good proposition. 

The Japanese varieties are changing; some of them are fair and some not 
worth considering. 

A Member: Has Mr. Craise any new varieties in peaches? 

Mr. Craise : The only one I know that is being planted commercially is the 
Rochester; it is new on the American side. One orchard has been in bearing for 
two years in the Niagara Peninsula. It follows the same characteristics as other 
varieties of peaches; as the tree developes and gets a little aged, it will mature 
its fruit a little earlier ; it is going to be a week earlier than the Yellow St. John, 
which will be a marked feature in the price. It is a good colour, free-stone 
peach. Mr. Fisher's first shipment of Rochesters sold at a very high figure. 
I have 400 trees growing, some three years and others two ; I had as high as 
nineteen buds the second year they were in the ground, and the third year they 
produced an eleven quart basket to the tree. 


Shall we plant Delicious, Jonathans, Winesap, Newtown, Cox 
Orange and Rome Beauty? 

Mr. Ryrie : Although I have planted five hundred odd trees of Delicious, I 
feel that it is somewhat in the nature of an experiment. That variety is bringing 
the high price, selling at $4.50 and higher in Toronto as compared with $3.00 and 
$3.25 for the Western Mcintosh Red. It seems to me the only satisfactory varie- 
ties for boxing in Ontario would be the Spy, Mcintosh, some would include the 
Snow, (but I consider the size is too small), and the Delicious. The Delicious 


is probably th^e best dessert apple that the West has produced, but it has the de- 
fect of a tough skin and is somewhat mealy. I feel safe in saying we will grow 
a much better Delicious apple than the West, that is, if we can get the colour. 
In every way it has the qualities for box packing, and for that reason I have 
ventured with a small planting. I would like to know if anyone else, besides Mr. 
Sirett, who prophesies in Northumberland and Durham there will be large 
plantings, has had experience with the Delicious apple. 

Me. Palmer: We have tried the Delicious for several years, and we are not 
prepared yet to recommend it without a qualification. The Delicious certainly 
does command a big price, but the reason is that it is a light yielder. In the 
second place, the Delicious is inclined to grow "punky" at the centre while the 
apple looks normal from the outside. While that may be alright from the pro- 
ducers' standpoint, yet eventually when the consumer is not satisfied, he won't 
come back. It is entirely a question of handling the apple. The tree is also 
slow coming into bearing, but with lighter pruning that fault can be practically 

There is still a more serious consideration, and that is the matter of hardi- 
ness. We do not know yet what the hardiness of the Delicious is. 

Q. — What time of the year do they grow punky in the centre? 

A. — It is merely a question of holding them too long in the season. Grown 
in Vineland and in the Magara Peninsula, they will grow punky by Christmas ; that 
is, they did this past year. 

Mr. Neilson: During the past two years I have had an opportunity of 
watching some of the varieties enumerated in this list. With regard to the 
Delicious we have contradictory reports. One grower on St. Joseph's Island 
informed us that he had grown Delicious with a fair degree of success. He is 
of the opinion that up to date the Delicious cannot be recommended without 
qualifications. I wrote to Prof. Lane of the Iowa State College and asked him 
his opinion about the Delicious — most of you know the Delicious originated in 
the State of Iowa — and although it originated there they cannot recommend it 
generally over the State as yet. In the State of Michigan it is not recommended 
by the authorities. In Ontario I know of a few cases where it has been grown. 
Mr. Palmer has said it has some defects, and perhaps the greatest is lack of 
hardiness, which has been shown not so much in Ontario but in the State of 
Iowa where the latitude is about the same, and the climate similar. It kills back, 
and is subject to sunscald to a slight extent. From my general knowledge of 
the Delicious, I would say we should go a little slower in planting it than in plant- 
ing some of the other varieties. We have some excellent varieties in this country, 
and we had better confine our plantings to the varieties we know are satisfactory 
rather than take a chance on extensive planting of these comparatively unknown 

The Jonathan, as we all know, is a good apple, with excellent qualities, but 
it is not entirely ideal. It is not one of the hardiest varieties, and in Ontario it 
is inclined to grow rather small. Mr. Sheppard, who has quite a large orchard 
would not recommend the Jonathan except where the best kind of soil can be 
obtained and the best cultural methods followed. I am of the opinion it would 
not be well to plant this variety outside of the Lake Erie Counties and the Nia- 
gara Section, and perhaps in the immediate vicinity of Lake Ontario. 


The Winesap is not hardy enough for our climatic conditions. It is a very 
good apple in some parts of the United States; but is somewhat lacking in hardi- 
ness here, according to the results of my work. 

The Newtown is an excellent variety, and more promising than the others for 
hardiness, but here again, I would not want to recommend that except in the 
warmer districts of the Province. 

The Cox Orange I would not recommend at all. While the British like it 
very well, we find it is a light bearer, and it is inclined to be small, and is subject 
to cracking, and I certainly would not recommend it, with my present knowledge 
of it. 

Rome Beauty is one of the most promising on the list. It is hardier than 
any of these others, and it is a very beautiful apple Avith a good flavour. 

I would like to make this general recommendation that you had better go 
slow in planting most of these varieties. We already have some excellent varie- 
ties, and why not stick to them? Because a variety does well in Illinois or Iowa, 
does not necessarily mean it will do well here, nor does it mean that the varieties 
that do well here will do well in these States. As a matter of fact, our Spy 
and Greening and Baldwin which have done so well in Ontario are not satisfac- 
tory in the middle Western States. If we do plant these new varieties, just 
plant them in small quantities until we know more about them. 

Mr. Hodgetts: A number of letters have appeared in The Canadian Horti- 
culturist on this matter. I do not agree with Mr. Neilson in reference to going 
slow on a lot of our new varieties. Ontario has gone too slow in planting a lot 
of the new varieties, and our Western friends are getting the cream of the prices. 
At the present time, the Delicious and Jonathan are beating us out in our home 
market because they are good box apples. There are faults with all the apples 
we grow at the present time. Take the Spy, recommended as about the best 
for Ontario, it is hard to grow a uniform lot of apples necessary for boxing on the 
orchard year after year. The Mcintosh is pretty close to a good box apple, and 
if we had not taken the recommendation of our Fruit Committee forty or fifty 
years ago, we would not have had carloads of Mcintosh coming in here from the 
West. I think if we had speculated a little more and taken advantage of the 
advertising some of the States and the other Provinces were doing we would have 
been farther ahead. 

Let us try these varieties out. It would not do the large grower any harm to 
plant 100 trees of these varieties and we will soon find out about the hardiness. 
Let us speculate a little more on some of these newer varieties. If I had room I 
would plant lO'O Delicious trees, and give it a trial. Mr. Sirett showed this morn- 
ing some Delicious apples that were grown at Brighton, and grown to perfection 
down there. It may be a winter will come along and clean them out, but in the 
winter of 1917-1918, a lot of our best varieties were cleaned out, including the 
Spy. At our Show a year ago we had Delicious from the Western part of the 
Province, and Mr. Maycock brought Jonathans to our Convention for two years 
in succession which are good specimens of the variety. 

Mr. Neilson talks about Cox Orange running too small. If we grow the 
Cox Orange for the British market, we want them small, and they are willing to 
pay 100s, a case for Cox Orange, where they would not go higher than 2.5s. for 
Mcintosh. If they want these apples and we can grow them, let us grow them and 
send them to them. If we can make three times the money as on other varie- 
ties, let us take a chance and speculate on some of the newer varieties. 


Mr. Neilson: I hope the audience did not understand me to say that I 
would not plant any of these apples, but what I wanted to say is this : You need 
not rush off and plant these varieties extensively until we know more about them. 
I will admit that the Delicious apples grown down at Brighton are fine looking; 
I have not had a chance to taste them yet, but I would like to know how these 
varieties will behave in a trying season such as we had in 1917-1918, especially 
after bearing a heavy crop. The observation we have made in the middle Western 
States is that they went out wherever there was a heavy crop — and their condi- 
tions are no worse than here, even though our climate is modified by the Lake. 
It is all right to plant these varieties for a trial, but when it comes to speculating 
with a lot of trees, it is a risky proposition, and again I would say, I would just 
urge you to be cautious. 

Mr. Hodgetts: What varieties would you recommend for the Lake Ontario 
shore ? 

Mr.- Neilson: I could not recommend, with my present knowledge, any 
other varieties than they are growing there — Mcintosh and Snow — you are safe 
on them. That is just my opinion. I do not want to force my opinion on any 
members here, but it is based on a rather wide study of the behaviour of seme of 
these varieties in many parts of the United States and some parts of Canada. 
It is all right to grow trees of gocd quality fruit and beautiful colour, but there 
is not much use in growing trees that will not stand our climate under bad 

Prof. Caesar : It seems to me that Mr. Neilson's remarks may be misunder- 
stood. He speaks in general terms of winter injury ; I know he referred in a way 
to particular districts, but in the Province as a whole, there is the greatest degree 
of variation in regard to winter injury. In the Niagara District you can plant 
almost any of our varieties without fear of winter injury. You can do the same 
thing all along by Burlington and around Toronto. The Baldwin is quite hardy 
for all these districts, and I should say the Baldwin is probably the most tender 
of all our commercial varieties. When you get farther east, it is a different 
problem. Take an apple like the Winesap, which is an excellent apple, I should 
think it would be very unwise to condemn that over the Province as a whole. 
Growers should be very cautious with it in the colder parts of the Province, from 
Toronto on east and farther north than here, but for the Niagara District, which is so 
temperate you can grow peaches, it is an entirely different problem. Over in the 
Niagara District, we can grow several of these new varieties that have excellent 
colour and excellent packing qualities. 

It seems to me if the Delicious apple can be grown on St. Joseph's Island, 
they could be grown any place. But you have to see where they were grown there : 
they are fairly far fom the water, but on sandy soil in which the roots get wonder- 
ful protection. But when you cross to Ottawa and try to grow most of our apples 
on cold land, the result is they die out. On sandy land our hardier varieties will 
stand the climate. That is one of the recommendations in regard to hardiness. 

While Iowa may not be any colder than Ontario, one great principle in con- 
nection with winter injury is this: constant extremes of temperature are one 
of the most dangerous of all conditions for producing winter injury. Iowa is- in 
the central plain wliere you get a great sweep of cold spells, when the thermo- 
meter may go down very low suddenly. That is a most dangerous condition for 
producing certain kinds of winter injury. I doubt if we have any place in On- 


iario where we are subject to these very sudden and extreme changes of tem- 
perature. I think it is a local matter, and each of these points should be decided 
for the special locality in which the grower lives. 

Mr. Baxter : It seems to to me we are now in a very serious state with respect 
to our apple industry in Canada. This is a very important question, and we should 
also profit by our past experience. Certain varieties were planted out in the 
N orth- Western States and British Columbia that did not do as well as in On- 
tario, which means that the growers in the West who planted these varieties are 
under a handicap as far as marketing is concerned, in coming in competition with 
the Province of Ontario, so I think we have come to the point where each Pro- 
vince and certain districts within the Province, should specialize with the variety 
that has proven to be of good commercial value, and that will do best in that 

I heartily endorse what our Secretary has said, that we should step out and 
experiment, as Mr. Eyrie is doing, by planting a few trees and finding out just 
what they will do before we embark on any extensive planting of these varieties 
that are now bringing maximum prices, such as the Delicious. The Delicious 
we know is probably the best advertised apple we have. 

Mr. Macoun : I would like to add a few words to help the discussion on this 
subject, on account of our great experience on varieties at Ottawa and the tests 
in regard to hardiness there. I was interested in what the secretary said with 
regard to the fact that there are very few new varieties of apples recommended to- 
day over what the Association recommended away back in 1868. There are a few good 
reasons for that, the principal reason being that the varieties of apples we have 
to-day have nearly all been tlie result of a test of about 300 years; that is, when 
the settlements began in America in the seventeenth century, people began plant- 
ing apple seeds, and before very long these trees came into bearing. Down through 
the past 300 years people have sifted out the best of these seedlings, and the 
principal apples that we grow to-day — the Northern Spy, the Rhode Island, the 
Greening, the Baldwin, and so on — were originated during the past 300 years. 
The Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening and Newtown Pippin were originated in the 
eighteenth century, and the Spy and Wagener were originated in the early part 
of the seventeenth century. During the past thirty or forty or fifty years, we 
have a few new varieties which are taking a very high place to-day. Take, for 
instance, the Wealthy apple; that apple was only introduced to Canada in the 
seventies of the last century, and the Mcintosh I think was recommended about 
1879, so those apples are of comparatively recent origin. We have an odd new 
variety coming to tlie front, but if we do not get rapid change of variety, I do 
not think we should be disappointed. It is only during comparatively recent 
years that any systematic effort was made in regard to the origination of new 
varieties, that is. by crossing varieties so as to combine in a new sort, the good 
qualities of both. We have at the Experimental Farm crossed the Delicious and 
the Mcintosh in order to get a hardier apple than the Delicious, and perhaps 
a longer keeping apple than the Mcintosh. We have a cross between the Mcin- 
tosh and the Cox Orange; between the Mcintosh and Wealthy, and perhaps 100 
different combinations of apples, and we hope to get some day a variety or varie- 
ties that will take the place of what we have to-day. 

I will give you an id-ea of the length of time it takes when you start to sys- 
tematically originate a new variety and popularize it. From the sowing of the seed 

40 THE EEPORT OF THE ^'o. 44 

of the apple, (after you have made the cross from the orchard in the spring and 
you plant the seed in the fall), to the planting of the seedling it takes three 
years. From the planting of the seedling tree to the time of bearing, another five 
years, atthe very least, and sometimes ten or twelve years. From the time of 
bearing to confirming the characteristics of the fruit, another five years. You 
cannot say the first year the tree fruits that such fruit is going to be characteristic 
of the variety; you might have to wait for several seasons, because you may not 
have a particularly favourable season, and the next year it may not bear at all. 
So it takes about five years to find out whether that variety is going to be really 
a promising one or not. Then you start to propagate it, and from the propaga- 
tion of that tree, another three years. Now you have your propagated tre-e in 
the orchard, and from the planting of the propagated tree in the orchard to the 
fruit is another six years, that is, your grafted tree is planted out in the orchard. 
Then you ask the nurseryman to come and take a look at your new product and 
see whether it is going to be popular or not, and if he says, ^'We will multiply 
that," it will take him three years to have a stock for sale. Then a fruit grower comes 
along and orders that from the nurseryman. And from the time of the sale until the 
tree is in full bearing is another ten years. Now you have the fruit, perhaps in fairly 
large quantities, offered for sale, but before the consumer knows anything much about 
that variety, unless it is highly advertised as the Delicious was, it will take five 
jrears at least. If you add all things together, you have forty years — and we 
have been at the work at Ottawa for twenty-four years, so we have sixteen years 
yet to work on, before any of our varieties will be a popular commercial sort. 
I venture to make a prophecy that our variety, the Melba, will be a popular com- 
mercial sort within the next fifteen or sixteen 3r,ears. It is very similar to the 
Mcintosh in appearance and quality. We have a lot of very promising seedlings 
of the Mcintosh type that are in season earlier than the Mcintosh. When I tell 
you that twenty-five years ago we had only five varieties of long keeping apples 
that we could say were hardy, and that we have to-day over 200 long keeping 
varieties that stood the test of 1917-1918, you can see we have made a great deal 
of progress in that time, but it will take many years more to sift them out. 

Just a word about the Delicious apple. It is my privilege to go to British 
Columbia every summer, and I find it is the most popular apple in the Okanagan 
District of British Columbia, because there is a shortage of them. It is hardier 
than the Jonathan apple, which is not being planted at all. The Jonathan was 
badly injured a few winters ago, whereas the Delicious stood the test, and the 
growers are banking on the Delicious as their most popular and most paying 
apple. But at Ottawa it has not proved hardy, and Mr. Neilson pointed out it 
is not hardy in the State of Iowa, so I think it is just as well to plant it with a 
fair amount of caution, although if a man loses 100 trees, it would not be a 
great loss. 

A Member: I have a few Delicious trees in Northumberland County. The 
oldest are ten years, but they stood that hard winter well as young trees, and they 
have been bearing for three years and are very prolific. We have yet to find any 
punkiness in the centre, and they carry splendidly. We consider they will grow 
with us and do fine. 


Peof. L. Caesak, O.A.C. Guelpii. 

I want to speak to you about the value of spraying as a means of securing 
good crops, not necessarily this year or next year but every year, and as a means 
of making apple orchards, particularly, profitable. I am not going to tell you 
how to spray or what sprays to put on. Mr. Ross will do that for you. I believe 
the biggest need of the fruit industry to-day is better marketing; that is what is 
holding everything else back. Every man should have this thought in his mind: 
that some day we must get all the fruit growers into one big organization. I 
am not at all disappointed at so many people having dropped out of the fruit 
growing business; perhaps in the long run it may be a good thing. The best of 
the men are in, and in every district we have some man who is a good leader, and 
the other growers will follow that man. But we have got to get the marketing 
end before we can talk spraying or anything else, because you can talk to a man 
about how to make his orchard clean, but what good is it to him if he cannot sell 
his apples, and we have to have an assured market to get the results. 

The first proposition I have to give you in regard to spraying is this : Spray- 
ing helps to keep your trees healthy. If you want a profitable orchard you must 
have healthy trees. Supposing you have trees well adapted to your district, spray- 
ing will help to keep your trees healthy. That does not mean merely clean crops; 
spraying does something else besides keeping the crops clean. In the first place, 
spraying will remove from the bark in the trunk of the tree certain insects that 
are extracting the life of that tree. The San Jose scale alone has destroyed over 
2,00(},000 trees in this Province, and perhaps more than that. We have all over the 
Province, the oyster shell scale, and I can take you out around Mimico and 
.'how you orchard after orchard that is dying as a result of oyster shell scale. 
As a rule, this scale does not kill, but it is killing there. In Cobourg and Port 
Hope, there are fine orchards nearly dead with oyster shell scale. The point 
is this: when you get certain insects on the bark of your tree and on the trunk, 
the main branches and the twigs of your tree, extracting the food out of that 
tree, you cannot help but have a weakened tree, and you cannot expect a profit- 
able orchard. 

There is another way in which spraying gives you healthy trees. If the 
trees are not sprayed, in 50% of the years, the foliage is badly injured by insects 
or by disease. What does it mean when the foliage, particularly in the early part 
of the season, is injured in this way? Coming in the early part of the season 
(if the insects came in the latter part we would not mind it very much), they 
spoil the orchard for the whole year. They destroy the foliage and do an immense 
amount of damage to the tree in this way : the leaves of the tree are to a large 
extent the part of the tree that feeds the rest. The food substances — most of 
them — come up from the ground in a raw condition as liquid, or as substances 
taken in out of the air, and the two of these substances unite together. The 
substances taken out of the air and the raw material from the liquid are turned 
over in the leaves, and a great part of the good of your tree is made in these 
leaves, but it cannot be made unless you have good healthy foliage. A bad leaf 
cannot manufacture food; a leaf that has half of its surface eaten out by insects 
cannot manufacture the amount of food it should, and therefore, the injuries 
from these diseases and insects are lessening tlie vigour of your trees. 

43 THE KEPORT OF THE ^o. 44 

You can keep these sucking insects, then, off the trunks of your trees, and 
off the main branches and the twigs by spraying. You can protect the foliage 
against the insects that are eating the leaves by spraying. Spraying helps to keep 
good healthy trees, and therefore, is an immense factor in connection with the 
profit of the orchard. 

The next point I want to impress upon you is this: Spraying will help 
to produce annual crops. One of the great things now being advocated is pruning 
to produce annual crops — thinning to produce annual crops. You may do your 
pruning and your cultivating and your fertilizing, and if you do not spray, what 
happens if it is a bad year for apple scab? All of these things go for nothing 
simply because the scab will get on your leaves and will destroy them, and no 
matter what your fertilizer is, the tree cannot be fed. If you have not got healthy 
foliage, you cannot expect to have these other things work to their best advantage. 
Therefore, the spraying of your orchard is going to help your pruning, your 
cultivation and your fertilizing. 

I said spraying will help to give you annual crops. One of the biggest 
factors in procuring annual crops is to have good vigorous trees and healthy foliage. 
You can go through the country and pick out the orchards which will be gone in 
five years, or the orchards which will bear this summer. How? The orchard 
that has miserable, scaby foliage is not going to give you a crop next year. I 
know a man in Picton, who tells me that only once has he had a failure of the 
crop, and the reason this man has a better crop than his neighbour is because 
his foliage is healthy. The tree must be in good vigour to produce annual crops: 
the fruit buds should set early in the season, and the tree must have stored up 
in itself a lot of food. 

The third thing about spraying is that it gives you clean fruit. "We know 
that really good spraying will give you clean apples. This, of course, must be 
good spraying. What does clean fruit mean? Does not it mean almost every- 
thing? Does not it mean a tremendous amount to have clean fruit in 3'our or- 
chard? If you only have 50% clean apples, you are not going to have anything 
like the profit as if you had 95% or 98% clean, and that is not too high. Every 
man should aim at, at least 95%. I know a number of men, in this audience^ 
who had last year 99% absolutely clean. Take the orchard of Mr. Phillips, at Co- 
bourg; you could hardly find a scab or an insect in his orchard. And the orchard 
of»Mr. Sirett, of Mr. Watson, and others, the Government orchard at Simcoe 
last year and the year before; scarcely any apples not clean, scarcely any insects 
or any disease. It must be a great encouragement to a man to look at his orchard 
and find beautiful clean fruit, and it means a lot to him on the market. When 
a buyer comes into an orchard and sees it free from disease and insects, he wants 
to come back to that place; it gives the orchard a reputation. Clean fruit is an 
encouragement to yourself, to the buyer and to the foreign markets. 

As a result of spraying you get healthy trees, and vigorous foliage, and from 
that you get good annual crops — one of the biggest factors — and then you get a 
clean crop, which gives you the full benefit of market conditions. If you are go- 
ing into spraying, make a study of it and try to get the best you can ; and the man 
who makes a study of it, gets rather fond of spraying and he enjoys it. It is 
always a problem, and he wants to do it so that he knows that tree is well sprayed. 
Spraying means thorough spraying; you cannot call good spraying, one applica- 
tion; you cannot be sure that one spraying will give you good clean fruit. Two- 


sprayings won't give you as good fruit, but three sprayings sometimes will. I my 
self recommend four; Mr. Boss recommends three. 

. Another thing about good spraying is this: It cannot be done at random in 
regard to time. It is just as important to spray at the right time as to spray 
well at any one time. Some of us overlook that, and say "I am too busy to-day; 
I will put that off until next week or three or four days/' but that means the whole 
loss of your efforts. We must fit spraying in with the time of blossoms and with 
the setting of the fruit, and we have no latitude at all or very little. We have 
to put on one spray just before the blossoms come, and unless you can get it on 
as near as possible to that time, you may fail, and unless you put it on as soon as 
possible after the blossoms drop you may fail. Spraying means not only doing it well 
and making at least three applications, but putting it on at a certain time. You 
have to follow for success, the times laid down in the spraying calendars: they are 
the results of years of experience, not of one man, but of many men. 

Then again, you cannot spray well unless you have a good outfit, and you 
have to keep it in good shape. You lose courage, you become impatient, and you 
will let th-e spraying go if your outfit is not in good shape, so keep it in good shape, 
and that will help you and encourage you. As to mixtures, I would not try a 
material unless you are sure of it. The old mixtures recommended for our 
province are quite safe for our province; they may not work in every province, 
but we know about our own. 

These are the main points I w^ould urge upon you in connection with 
spraying. I want you to get the idea that good spraying will pay you in many 
ways many fold each year, and that means that your little trees should be 
spra3'ed and the trees that are not bearing as well as the trees that are. 

W. A. Ross, ViNELAND Station. 

I should like first of all to discuss briefly the spraying of apples and pears, 
and then I may have a word to say about dusting. Some men grumble about 
the amount of spraying they have to do, but after all, there is no fruit growing 
section on the North American Continent where growers have to do less spraying 
than right here in Ontario. In some places it is necessary to spray apple trees 
four, five, six or more times, but in Ontario three applications as a rule are suffi- 
cient to give us excellent commercial control of most of the common orchard 
pests. In some years and in some orchards, for example in orchards inf-ested with 
apple maggot, one or more extra applications are necessary, but in the average 
season and in orchards free of such pests, three applications are sufficient. 

These three sprays should be put on every year. This cannot be over em- 
phasized. A grower cannot afford in actual dollars and cents to leave out on^ of 
them. Each should be put on very thoroughly and each should be put on at the 
right time. In working among orchardists nothing has impressed itself more on 
my mind than this: that few growers use sufficient material to do a thorough 
job; few growers spray thoroughly enough. 

The first application should be put on about the time the buds are bursting. 
This spray is applied primarily for the control of scale insects and blister mite, 
but it is also of great value in controlling black rot canker and apple scab. 


What material should we use for this application? In the scale infested 
sections of the Niagara District, use lime sulphur, 1-7; in Eastern Ontario lime 
sulphur, 1-9. If you are satisfied there is no scale or blister mite, you can use 
lime sulphur 1-20, or Bordeaux mixture. In orchards subject to injury from 
aphids, which are the small soft -bodied sucking lice you find clustering on the 
leaves, and sometimes on the fruit. Black Leaf 40, at the rate of three-eighths 
of a pint to 40 gallons, should be added to this first spray; and the spray should 
be applied with great thoroughness so that you will hit practically all the newly 
hatched lice which are found clustering on the buds at this time of year. 

The second spray should be put on just before the blossoms, or in other words 
at the time the blossom buds are showing pink. This application controls bud 
moth, case bearers, green fruit worm, and some other biting insects; but it is 
put on chiefly for the control of apple scab. 

The third application should be put on immediately after nearly all the 
the petals have fallen. This spray controls scab and codling moth. In applying 
it, care must be taken to wet all the fruit so that some of the poison will be 
lodged in the calyx cups. Most of the codling worms enter the fruit through 
the calyx end and on feeding on the poisoned tissues they succumb. 

There is only the one spray material to use for this application, and that 
is lime sulphur 1-40 with an arsenical — arsenate of lime or arsenate of lead. 
Bordeaux applied at this stage may cause very serious russetting. The last time 
we used bordeaux mixture for this spray — in 1918 — 70% of the Mcintosh apples, 
38% Jonathon and 27% Wealthy were badly russetted, and the owner of the 
orchard considered that the bordeaux spray had injured his apples almost as 
much as a severe attack of apple scab. 

If June is very wet, it is advisable to make a fourth application on varieties, 
such as Mcintosh and Snow, which are very subject to scab. But in the average 
season a fourth spray is unnecessary, according to the experiments we conducted 
in various parts of the province. For the fourth spray, whenever it is necessary, 
I would use lime-sulphur 1-40. 

In connection with the control of codling moth, it is sometimes necessary, 
in order to prevent serious '^^side-worm'^ injury, to make a special application of 
arsenate of lead 2 lbs. of powder or 3-4 lbs. paste. This spray should be put 
on three or four weeks after the blossoms fall; that is about the time the codling 
moth eggs begin to hatch. However, after all the application, which is by far 
the most important in preventing ^^side-worm" injury, is the third or codling 
moth spray. 

Only too many growers do not make this application and then wonder why 
they cannot control scab. How can they expect to control scab when they leave 
the foliage and blossoms, which later on develop into the fruit, unprotected at this 
critical stage when so much scab infection is liable to take place? If the base of 
the calyces becomes infected at this stage, no amount of later spraying will pro- 
duce clean fruit. 

What spray materials should be used? Two mixtures are generally recom- 
mended : 

(1) Lime sulphur 1-40 and calcium arsenate 1 lb. per 40 gallons or arsenate of lead 
IVz lbs. powder or 3 lbs. paste per 40 gallons. If calcium arsenate is used, hydrated 
lime, 3 lbs. per 40 gallons, should be added to the lime sulphur. 

(2) Bordeaux mixture 3-10-40 and the same amount of calcium arsenate or 
arsenate of lead as in (1). 


Mr. Johnson, of Simcoe, is a great advocate of bordeaux mixture, but per- 
sonally, I prefer the lime sulphur for this application, because the comparative 
orchard spraying experiments which the Entomological Branch have been con- 
ducting during the past four years have shown: (1) That bordeaux mixture 
used at this time will on some varieties, and under certain conditions, cause 
vsufficient russetting to detract from the appearance of the fruit. (2) That under 
some conditions, bordeaux mixture will deaden the color of the fruit — rob it 
of lustre. I have noticed this on several occasions, but it was most marked in 
a Collingwood orchard where we carried on some experiments in 1920. The 
Greening, Snow and Ben Davis apples, sprayed with lime sulphur, were very 
much superior in finish to those sprayed with bordeaux. Even the pickers were 
struck by the difference, and were curious to know why the apples in the one block 
were so superior in appearance to those in the other. I am aware that bordeaux 
mixture is slightly better than lime sulphur as a fungicide, although as a matter 
of fact, in our own work it has always controlled apple scab every bit as well as 
bordeaux. I am also aware that on some varieties, notably Duchess, foliage 
sprayed with bordeaux may be more vigorous that that sprayed with lime sulphur. 
However, I am satisfied that these two advantages are more than offset by the 
disadvantage bordeaux mixture has of robbing some varieties of a superior com- 

Q. — Do you use liquid sulphur or soluble? 

A. — Lime sulphur. Soluble sulphur is all right as a dormant spray, but I 
do not care for it as a summer application, because it is not as good a fungicide 
as the lime sulphur; in fact, I know \he Niagara Spray Company are not re- 
commending it for summer sprays. 

In most pear orchards in Ontario, two application are sufficient: the first 
one put on just before or as the buds are bursting — lime sulphur 1-7 or 1-9. This 
is for the control of scale insects and blister mite. In orchards not troubled 
with these insects, I can see no object in making this application. The second 
application should be put on after the blossoms drop. For this I would use lime 
sulphur 1-40 or 1-50, and Arsenate of Lead, II/2 lbs. powder, or twice that 
amount of paste, or one lb. of Arsenate of Lime with hydrate of lime added — 
3 lbs. to every barrel of spray. 

Q. — Do you consider calcium arsenate is as good as lead? 

A. — Yes, I do, provided you add the lime. I have been using arsenate of 
lime or calcium arsenate since 1914, and I have never had any serious burning, 
but I saw some orchards scorched pretty badly by spraying with lime-sulphur 
and calcium arsenate without the lime, but you can prevent injury altogether 
by adding the lime. I have noticed that pears seem to be very easily burned at 
the stage after the blossoms drop; but by adding lime to the lime sulphur be- 
fore putting in the arsenate of lime that can be overcome. 

Prof. Caesar: I used calcium arsenic one year and had no burning? 

Mr. Ross: I have used it alone too and had no burning but other growers 
had. But injury can be eliminated by adding the lime. Calcium arsenate is 
considerably cheaper than the arsenate of lead. As far as I am concerned, I 
would use it altogether on apples and pears instead of the lead, but it cannot be 
used with safety in combination with lime sulphur on stone fruits. 

If you have varieties of pears which are subject to scab, such as Flemish 
Beauty, it is necessary to spray four times. For the last three applications, 


I would use lime sulphur 1-40. The first application is the dormant spray; the 
second should be put on just before the blossoms and the third just after the 
blossoms^ and the fourth ten to fourteen days later. 

What I want to speak about chiefly, in connection with the spraying of 
pears, is the control of the pear psylla. I have found this pest as far East as 
Trenton, and it most probably occurs in all sections where pears are grown, but 
so far it has only been troublesome in the warmer parts of the province. At 
Burlington and in parts of the Xiagara district, it is very injurious and, without 
doubt, is one of the worst pests the grower has to contend with. Personally, 
after studying the psylla for the past four or five years, and after observing it 
at work in Xew York State, I am of the opinion that with the planting out of 
more pears in the warmer sections, this pest will become increasingly important, 
and that its control will be one of the biggest problems confronting the pear grower. 
Burling-ton men have said that the psylla is more troublesome that fire-blight. 

How is the psylla controlled? Our experiments have shown that by modify- 
ing the spray schedule as follows the psylla can be reduced to such insignificant 
numbers that it will cause no appreciable injury. 

The first application should be put off until shortly before the trees bloom. 
The trees should then be very thoroughly drenched with lime sulphur 1-T if 
there is any scale present, if there is no scale, lime sulphur 1-9 and 5 or 10' lbs. 
hydrated lime per barrel. 

For the second application, that is the codling moth spray, 14 pint of nicotine 
sulphate or Black Leaf 40 and 5 lbs. hydrated lime should be added to every 
barrel of spray mixture. In mixing up a tank for this application, the procedure 
should be as follows: 

Fill the tank with water then, with the agitator running, add the lime sul- 
phur, then the lime, then the arsenical, and finally the nicotine. This spray 
must also be applied with great care, so as to thoroughly wet all parts of the 
trees. Personally, I do not know of any pest which calls for more thorough 
spraying than the pear psylla. 

In large plantings which cannot be sprayed in about four days' time, it is ad- 
visable to spray part of the orchard in the fall or early spring with a miscible oil 
such as Scalecide in order to destroy the overwintering adults. This spraying 
should be done in November. December, March or early April, during a period 
of warm weather. As shown by an experiment in a BurJington orchard last year, 
one very thorough application of Scalecide put on at the right time will certainly 
give splendid results in controlling the pear psylla. 

I want to say a word or two about the somewhat controversial subject of 
dusting. For the sake of convenience orchard pests can be divided into three 
categories. In the first category are the sucking insects which are controlled by 
me^ns of contact sprays : in the second, biting insects, controlled by means of 
poisons ; and in the third injurious fungi controlled by spraying with fungicides. 
What is the present status of dusting in connection with the control of these 
categories? For the control of sucking insects orchard contact dusts are still 
wholly in the experimental stage. We have tested some contact dusts which appear 
very promising, but I am sorry to say they are a little too costly to be of any 
use, at least in Ontario, for controlling our orchard pests; however, I hop--? in the 
future we will be able to get these contact dusts a little lower in price. I expect 
this vear to do a considerable amount of work with some more contact dusts, but 


the fact remains that contact dusts from our point of view are still wlioU}' in 
the experimental stage. 

Orchard dusts have on the whole proved to be as effective as spraying mixtures 
for the control of biting insects. That is the case at least in Canada and the 
northern states. In the southern states and in a state like Colorado where they 
have several broods of codling moth these orchard dusts have been quite ineffective. 

In regard to the control of fungus diseases, an examination of the experi- 
ments, wliich have been conducted in the different parts of the North American 
Continent, shows a very great variation in the results secured by different in- 
vestigators in the same year, and by the same investigators in different years. 
AVe notice the same thing in the work done by growers. Some years they have 
had excellent results; in other years the dusts have fallen down badly, particularly 
in the control of apple scab. How are we to account for these differences? As I 
see it they can be accounted for by the varying weather conditions under which 
"the experiments have been conducted. It is a fact, which no one who has in- 
vestigated the matter would deny, that orchard dusts are more easily washed off 
than liquid materials. For this reason, in seasons when there is very much rain, 
dust mixtures will not protect the trees over as long a period from injurious 
fungi as liquid sprays will. Orchard dusts I am satisfied, are very efficient 
fungicides as long as they are on the trees, but of course when they are washed 
off you can scarcely expect them to function. 

I wish to refer for a moment to some experiments which Prof. Caesar and 
I conducted last year with liquid sprays and orchard dusts in the Newcastle Dis- 

Last year in most parts of Ontario we had possibly the worst infection of 
apple scab that we have had for many years back. We had two apple orchards 
and divided each orchard into four blocks,. We tested two dusts (1) copper 
arsenic dust, composed of copper sulphate or blue stone, hydrated 
lim.e and arsenate of lime; and (2) 90-10 sulphur and arsenate of lead dust. We 
also tested liquid sprays of Bordeaux mixture and lime sulphur. We put on all 
three regular applications: (1) after the buds had burst, (2) before the blossoms 
and (3) after the blossoms, and in all cases th-e work was done very thoroughly. 

As to results: I will not refer to the results secured in controlling biting 
insects, because in all cases we had satisfactory codling moth control; I wish to 
refer only to the control of scab and sooty fungus or blotch. 

On Mcintosh: Where we used copper arsenate we had 92% scab; where we 
used sulphur and lead dust we had 76% scab ; with a fraction in both cases. Where 
we used liquid spray 7% scab. 

On Stark : AVhich is very subject to scab, where we used copper arsenic dust 
we had S2^c scab; sulphur and lead dust 74% scab. Where we used the liquid, 
T\'hich was lime sulphur, 2% scab, practically nothing at all. 

On Spy: The differences were not at all marked; copper arsenic 11%, 
sulphur and lead dust, 13%, liquid 3%. 

In regard to the sooty fungus, we had not any on Mcintosh or Stark, or the 
apples were so scabby we did not notice any. On the Spy where we used copper 
arsenic we had 10.47% sooty fungus, sulphur and lead dust 2.7%, liquid spray 
four-tenths of 1%. 

Q. — AYhat was the date you applied the material for sooty fungus? 

48 THE EEPOKT OF THE ^'o. 44 

A. — We made no special application for sooty fungus at all. We found in 
the two orchards, that the three regular applications of liquid sprays controlled 
the disease. I suppose it would be the codling moth spray which would be most 
€ifective. We made no special application but where it is necessary to make a 
special application for sooty fungus it should be put on about the first or second 
week of August. Of course in controlling sooty fungus the first thing you want to 
do is to improve the air drainage by opening up the trees and by getting rid of 
wind breaks which make the orchard conditions so favourable for the development 
of this disease. Where you have good air circulation, as a general rule, sooty 
fungus won't trouble you at all. 

Q. — Do you think those early sprays have an effect on sooty fungus? A. — I 
am sure they have. Where we used liquid sprays we only had four-tenths of 1%, and 
the trees just got the three regular applications. The conditions in the block 
which was sprayed were really more favourable for sooty fungus than were the 
conditions in the dusted blocks, because the liquid block happened to be in the 
centre of the orchard. 

Q. — ^^What sproy would you use for sooty fungus? A. — Lime sulphur one 
to forty. 

Q. — Do you use one to forty for the summer spray? 

A.— Yes. 

Q. — Never one to thirty-five? 

A. — I have been using one to forty right along and it has always given me 
good results; you can use one to thirty-five for the second spray. 

Q. — Would not you be apt to burn the foliage if you used one to thirty-five for 
the second spray? 

A. — Not to any appreciable extent. 

In the case of the Mcintosh and Stark apples the scab on the trees dusted 
with copper dust was of a more severe type than that on the trees dusted with 
sulphur, and in the case of the apples that were sprayed, many of the scab spots 
were so small that the average grower would never have noticed them. 

Dusting not only fell down badly in the Newcastle district but it failed 
to control scab in all sections of Ontario where scab infection was very severe. 
I spent considerable time last year going around examining the orchards and 
in all cases I noticed where the trees were very thoroughly sprayed with the three 
regular applications there was very little scab; whereas where the trees had been 
dusted they were badly infected with scab. 

There was one orchard I came across in Norfolk County that proved to be 
rather interesting — a forty acre orchard of Baldwins, ,Spys and Greenings. The 
Greenings were sprayed three times; the Baldwins and Spys "were dusted four 
times; for the first, second and fourth applications copper arsenic dust was used, 
and for the third or codling moth spray, sulphur dust was applied. The Green- 
ings had not any more than 2% scab. The Spys had in the neighbourhood of 
75% scab. The Baldwin is not at all susceptible to scab but it showed 50% scab. 

It is only fair to state that in other sections, for instance in the Brighton 
and Trenton district, orchard dust gave very good results but there was a reason 
for that. Apple scab infection was comparatively slight in that district. I be- 
lieve that was also the case in some other sections which I was not in. 

My ideas about the status of dusting can be summed up in a few words. Dust- 
ing is not a substitute for spraying but it is an extremely useful adjunct to 


spraying. The owner of a large orchard who tor various reasons cannot get 
oyer all his trees with liquid sprays can use dust to advantage, especially on the 
varieties not very subject to scab. Then again dusting has proved to be of great 
value for special purposes; it has proved to be of value in the Niagara District 
in controlling grape mildew and in preventing the development of brown rot on 
ripening cherries and plums, and in controlling strawberry weevil. 

Q. — What about the grape leaf hopper? 

A. — We have been trying some contact dusts on that pest but our work so 
far is still in the experimental stage. In your case I would advise you to stick 
to the liquid, you can control the grape leaf hopper by spraying with Black 
Leaf 40 at the rate of half a pint to one hundred gallons. The time to put 
the application on in your section would be about the second week in July; 
thoroughly drench the undersurface of the leaf and you will control the hopper. 

Prof. Caesak: Most of them are in the immature state and you have to 
get them before they grow wings. 

Mr. Ross : We had very striking results in controlling the hopper in one of Mr. 
J. W. Smithes graperies. We thoroughly drenched the vines about July 9th, and from 
then on to the end of the season the foliage remained green in this particular 
grapery. Whereas in neighbouring graperies the foliage was brown and rusty in 

To get back to dusting, the only advice entomologists can give to growers is 
this: Spray by all means if you can possibly do it. But if for various reasons 
you cannot spray all of your trees by all means use dust, especially on the vari- 
eties not very susceptible to scab. Growers who depend on dust for controlling 
their orchard pests will have to be prepared to put on extra applications, timed 
according to the weather. Under Ontario conditions the control of apple scab 
seems to be largely a question of keeping the leaves and blossoms coated with a 
fungicide from the bursting of the buds up to two weeks or so after the blossoms 
drop. Three applications of liquid sprays will generally protect the trees over 
this period, but in the case of dusts more applications may be necessary, de- 
pending on the weather. For .these extra applications sulphur dust without a 
poison should be of use. 

In conclusion I wish to state that although I am fully aware of the present 
limitations of dusting as a method of controlling orchard pests, at the same time 
I recognize that it has great possibilities. The big advantage it has over spray- 
ing, namely speed of application and economy of labour, make me hope that 
further improvements in dusting machinery and in dust mixtures will make 
dusting as reliable as spraying. 

Q. — Not to mention the price? 

A. — That will come down too. 

Q. — Is the composition of the dust similar to the composition of the liquid 
with the exception of the water? 

A. — It is not. 

Q. — Could not it be made that way? 

A. — I do not know whether that could be done or not. In the case of copper 
arsenic dust the composition is quite similar to Bordeaux mixture, but unlike 
Bordeaux mixture the dust has the great weakness that it is washed off too 
easily. Some will tell you it will form a film of Bordeaux mixture on the leaf. 
I have used it since 1915 and I have never yet found that film of Bordeaux on 

50 THE EEPORT OF THE ]S"o. 44 

the leaf. If heavy rains come along they will wash the dust off. What we want 
from our manufacturers of dust materials is dust which will adhere to the leaves 
and stand a little rain. 

Q. — What has been your experience with dusting plums and cherries for 
the rot? 

A. — As I said before, dusting plums with sulphur is undoubtedly of great 
value in preventing the development of brown rot. The same thing holds good 
in the case of sweet cherries. 

Q. — What preparation of liquid spray would you use to prevent cherry rot on 
sour cherries? 

A. — This year we also conducted, as we have been doing for several 
years, spraying and dusting experiments in cherry orchards. The trees received 
the three regular applications ; for the dormant application lime sulphur was u&ed 
on all the trees. The second application was put on just after the fruit had 
set and w^hen most of the shucks were off, and the third application was made 
about the time the early cherries were beginning to colour. For the second and 
third applications, Bordeaux mixture, lime sulphur, copper arsenic dust and 
90-10 sulphur and arsenic of lead dust were used in the various blocks. All 
these materials gave us control of brown rot on sour cherries. On unsprayed 
sour cherry trees we had 50% brown rot. In connection with the control of 
yellow leaf or leaf spot on sour cherries, Bordeaux mixture gave by far the 
best results. Notes made in August give the following percentages: Check — 
sevent3^-five per cent, fallen or yellow: Copper-arsenic dust — thirty per cent, fallen 
or yellow; Bordeaux mixture — foliage in beautiful condition, no yellow leaf; 
Sulphur dust — twenty-five per cent, fallen or yellow; Lime-sulphur — ten per 
cent, fallen or yellow. You can see from this that both lime sulphur and 
Bordeaux mixture will control brown rot on sour cherries, but in view of the 
fact that Bordeaux mixture gives better results in controlling leaf spot, I pre- 
fer to use it. This year brown rot was bad on sweet cherries. In spite of this, 
however, in our experiments the three regular applications of lime sulphur or 
Bordeaux mixture controlled the disease. 


New Light on Old Prohlems. 

Prof. J. W. Crow, GtUelph. 

The chief contribution of recent years to our knowledge of fruit tree man- 
agement is that fruit bud determination takes place much earlier in the season 
than we formerly thought. I well remember when it was first stated that fruit 
buds had been detected under the microscope in July. Later investigators found 
that in some cases fruit buds showed very distinct differentiation as early as 
June. We know now that in the apple, fruit bud formation actually begins 
about blossom time and, what is far more important, that the condition of nutrition 
of the tree prior to blossom time determines whether or not there will be any fruit 
buds formed. This information appears to be fully authenticated for the apple, 
and I have no doubt in my own mind that it will be found to apply also to 
pears, plums and cherries. 


We find by careful observation of the Wealthy apple that fruit bud deter- 
mination is completed for the season by the time the variety has finished bloom- 
ing. In some seasons at Guelph this will be toward the end of May, in other 
seasons it will be as early as May 24th or perhaps earlier. I do not mean that 
fruit bud development is complete at that time, but simply that fruit buds ^^'ili 
be formed if they are formed at all as the result of conditions existing within 
the tree prior to that date. The Wealthy apple is, of course, very pronounced 
in its biennial fruiting habit. The tree produces fruit buds one year and blos- 
soms the year following. Determination of fruit buds on the non-bearing tree 
is practically complete by the^ time the bearing tree of the same variety has 
finished blooming. 

Th-e practical application of this new information is of chief interest with 
respect to the possibility of securing annual crops in those varieties which fruit 
alternately. This will include many important varieties of apples, pears and 
plums. It is for this reason that our attention is now centered upon the condi- 
tions surrounding the tree in early spring, and which have to do with the amount 
and vigor of grow^th made at that season. Biennial bearing is a condition of 
over-fruitfulness for which the only treatm-ent is to prevent the formation of so 
many fruit buds in the off-year. Moderate heading back of small branches 
throughout the top of the tree will force into vegetative shoots a considerable 
number of growths which in that year would otherwise form fruit buds. This 
stimulus to vegetative growth early in the spring of the off-y-ear can be given 
also by the use of Nitrate of Soda and applications of stable manure at that time 
would no doubt have a similar effect. It is probable also that thorough soil drainage 
and early tillage may likewise contribute to the desired vigour of growth in early 
spring. It is highly probable that cold soil may act in early spring as a check 
upon growth and with trees of this kind under the conditions we have in mind, 
a check in vegetative growth in the early spring of the off-year is certain to 
result in a larger number of fruit buds. 

If this \'iewpoint is correct one could insist, first of all, on the best of drain- 
age for fruit land, also on early tillage in case tillage is to be practised. 

So far as I am aware the above statements cover all that is at present known 
regarding pruning and fertilizing in relation to annual bearing. As has been 
suggested the problem in this connection lies actually in the direction of check- 
ing fruitfulness somewhat by stimulating veg-etative growth. I am most anxious 
to see this matter tried out in commercial orchards, and may say we have at 
Guelph Wealthy trees which formerly bore in alternate years and which are 
now bearing annually, having produced full crops in 1920 and 1921 and being 
well set with fruit buds for 1922. 

You will be interested in knowing whether the new information presented 
herein will have any relation to the problem of bringing young trees into bearing 
at an earlier date or of securing heavier yields from shy bearing trees. I am 
inclined to think that, in general, trees on cold soils tend to come into bearing 
later and to bear less heavily than those on well drained land. If this is correct 
the explanation lies no doubt in the better aeration and higher temperature of 
the drained soil in early spring. At the Indiana Experiment Station it was found 
that apple trees grown under straw mulch without fertilizer came into bearing 
earlier than those grown under' tillage, although the tilled trees were consider- 
ably taller and larger. The explanation seems to lie in the soil conditions, as 

52 THE EEPORT OF THE ^'o. 44 

the till-ed trees rooted deeply, whereas the trees under straw mulch developed 
roots at or near the surface. Aside from the conditions which may enter into 
the two cases just mentioned I know of no way to hasten the bearing period of young 
trees, except by root pruning. There is some reason to suggest that phosphatic 
fertilizers may in some cases promote earlier bearing by their corrective effect 
on excessive vegetative growth. Certainly there is no method of pruning the 
top of the tree Avhich will produce the desired result. We have been told for 
many years that summer pruning is a means of inducing fruitfulness, and many 
growers practise dormant pruning under the impression that they are likewise stimu- 
lating the fruit bearing tendency. The fact is that fruit trees come into bearing earlier 
with no pruning whatever, and actually bear more heavily if unpruned. The fact 
is also that the most important effect of pruning and the main object thereof in 
nearly all cases is simply to change the nature of the growth produced. We know 
that pruning gives results, but we should know also that the result on the tree is 
chiefly a matter of reducing the number and increasing the vigor of the shoots 
produced. The result on the fruit is similar. We reduce the number but greatly 
increase the size. 

Summer pruning of bearing trees admits sunlight to the fruit and ma}^ 
greatly improve the colour but has no other value so far as I know. Dormant 
pruning may help to secure annual bearing if done prior to the off-year, or may 
increase the size of fruit if done prior to the bearing year. Aside from these 
the only important purposes served by pruning are in respect to forming the 
head of the young tree for maximum strength and securing the most convenient 
form and height of the same. 

In general I am inclined to think we should aim to secure rather more 
growth on apples, pears, plums and cherries than we have been getting, and I 
would also suggest the liberal use of phosphate fertilizers for heaviest yields 
after trees come into bearing. In order to avoid winter killing it may be neces- 
sary to sow cover crops rather earlier than we have been in the habit of doing. 

One should not omit to mention in a paper of this kind the possibility of in- 
ducing a heavier setting by use of fertilizers and by pruning; some varieties of 
pears and plums particularly, also apples to a less extent, exhaust themselves in 
blossoming and fail to set fruit. Severe pruning before growth starts may help to 
reduce the loss, and nitrate of soda applied ten days ahead of blooming gets 
pronounced results. There is a good reason to suppose that nitrate applied in the 
preceding summer may exercise a similar effect as it is absorbed in the .tree and 
held as a reserve supply. 

Mr. Macoun: I noticed Prof. Crow did not state in his paper how he got 
these Wealthy trees to bear every year. 

Prof. Crow: I have given in my paper two methods to produce that result: 
one by moderate pruning back of small branches in the off year, and the other 
by the use of nitrate of soda supplied in the early spring of the off year. I 
should say a combination of the two methods would probably be more desirable. 
So far as biennial bearing is concerned; I pointed out in my paper the method 
of securing annual crops is to supply some stimulus to growth in the early spring 
of the off year. The same stimulus applied in the spring of the on year has no 
effect on the biennial bearing. If you want to correct biennial bearing we believe 
you may do it; at least in part and in a large measure successfully by stimula- 
ting the growth of the tree in the early spring of the off year, because as I tried 


to point out it is in that year that the tree sets fruit, buds and what you are 
aiming to do is to increase the number of fruit buds set. Then the following- 
year you are due to have a very heavy setting of blossoms and a heavy crop of 

Q. — How much do you apply to your Wealthies? A. — To a Wealthy tree 
eight or ten years old I would think four pounds of nitrate of soda ought to be 

Q. — Would manure applied every year have that same effect? A. — I would be 
inclined to say it would. 

Q. — Every year? A. — If applied in the on year it would develop a crop 
of fruit in the on year ; applied in the off year it may help to give annual bearing. 
Don't you think so, Mr. Lick? 

Me. Lick: I doubt that a little. I find putting on nitrate of soda or fer- 
tilizer when you have some buds on the tree makes those set. You cannot get a 
crop in the off year if you have not any blossom, but if you have blossom the 
nitrate is a factor that carries it through the rain and storm. 

Peof. Ceow: Might I add a word to Mr. Lick's suggestion? Our explana- 
tion of the way this works out is this : — In a Wealthy tree which is bearing every 
other year you get no blossoms whatever in the off year. l\'ow, ordinarily, a tree 
of that kind will set perhaps up to 80% or 90% and we have actually counted 
as high as 93% of the growth on a Wealthy tree as fruit buds in the off year. By 
forcing the growth of that tree somewhat in the early spring of the off year you 
change into vegetating shoots four or five or six inches long and force some of 
these growths, which otherwise form spurs, into shoots, and you reduce the num- 
ber of fruit buds in that off year. The result is in the following year you may 
reduce the percentage of spurs to perhaps fifty; that means that you have about 
40% of spurs which are in a position to set fruit buds for the following 
year, and you arrive at two sets of spurs on that tree, one set bearing one year 
and the other set bearing the next, and no spur bearing two years in succession, 
because each individual spur operates independently, producing buds one year 
and fruit the next. 

Me. Lick : I may be wrong and you may be wrong, but we are both right on 
the practice. 

Q. — Do you advise the use of nitrate for berries? A. — The year they are 
going to bear quite a number use nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia on 
strawberries, and some make two applications before the bearing season; I be- 
lieve that gives results. In regard to raspberries I have not found any grower 
making any particular applications before the fruiting season. 

Q. — How is that applied on the strawberries? A. — Nitrate of soda may be 
applied to strawberries, simply broadcast, with safety ])ut it should not be ap- 
plied when the leaves are covered with dew and especially just before rain. Acid 
phosphate is a valuable fertilizer for strawberries or raspberries. I would like 
to have land in good rich fertile state. These materials are only supplements. 

Q. — Do you advise "commercial fertilizer instead of barn-yard manure? 

A. — I am glad you asked that question. I would not want it to be understood 
at all that I recommended fertilizer in place of stable manure. I believe the pro- 
per use of the fertilizer is a supplement to stable manure. I believe you have a 
difficulty in making commercial fertilizer take the place of farm manure. I real- 
ize many fruit growers are not able to get stable manure but the continued use 


of commercial fertilizer gets you into difficulty with regard to the humus of the 
soil and the soil gets hard and dry and pasty. 

Q. — What kind of fertilizer do you advise? A. — The only fertilizer I can 
recommend, almost without hesitation, for almost any condition in fruit growing is 
acid phosphate. Either phosphate or bone meal. I believe all orchard soils and 
fruit soils are deficient in phosphate. As far as I can learn there is no defi- 
ciency of potash, but phosphates give decided results on the crop. I would 
not want that recommendation applied to every condition indiscriminately; but 
I believe if any general recommendation can be made that would be it. 

Q. — Do you mean acid phosphate? A. — Acid phosphate or super phosphate; 
some growers prefer bone meal. There are only two phosphate fertilizers that 
would be used in general practice, acid phosphate or super phosphate, and the 
other is bone meal. 

Q. — Do you believe heavy cover crops turned in, take the place of barn-yard 
manure? A. — If you turn in a crop like red clover, it has the value of many tons 
of barn-yard manure. 

Q. — Have you ever tried sweet clover? A. — Not particularly, but we have 
our own orchard sown partly to sweet clover now. Sweet clover makes a tremend- 
ous growth the next spring, and that is the time I would w^ant it under ground. 
If we are going to cultivate the orchard at all, cultivate early in the spring, as 
early as the land is fit to work. 

Q. — Do you plow. A. — ^For myself I plow my orchard the first thing in the 
spring. I would not wait for the spring growth in order to turn that soil over; 
I believe that is a mistake. I realize it has a value because you have roots there 
to turn und-er. 

Q. — How late in the fall would it be safe to plow? A. — It is safer to plow 
later than earlier. I would prefer to plow the orchard about the last thing in 
the fall. If you plow an orchard too early, I have seen this work out with peach 
trees, you may actually keep those trees growing in the fall when they should 
stop growing and rest up, and I would leave the plowing until the last thing in 
the fall. 

Q. — With heavy soil . it is dangerous ? A. — Witli heavy soil when plowed 
up rough and cloddy I would harrow it over, break up rather than leave it in 
that condition for the winter, because those big openings will certainly let frost 
into the ground. 

Q. — ^Would you plow your apple orchard every year? A. — Would I recom- 
mend sod mulch of an orchard ? I am not sure but that I might for the reason that 
there are some splendid orchards in this province under sod. I would say in that 
connection of course that sod without fertilizing or mulching is the worst pos- 
sible thing you can do; but there are some good orchards handled by the sod 
mulch method, where grass or clover is cut and the soil is mulched around the 
tree and supplemented with stable manure or fertilizer. 

Mr. Ceaise: In regard to that a neighbour of mine had an apple orchard 
that he had cultivated that way. It is all right in the average year possibly, 
but about three years ago — I think it was that mild winter — there was quite a 
little growth of grass around the trees and a couple of inches of frost, and the 
mice got in there and he had fifty per cent, girdling in the spring. 

Prof. Crow: That sort of thing can be taken care of, but this observation 
might be made in that 'connection: It is a well known fact that where trees are 


grown uuder sod mulch, and the trees are properly fed, those orchards suffer less 
from winter killing. I do not want to make any suggestion here that is likely to 
be misunderstood. I do not want to recommend sod mulching for orchards, but 
I would say if I had an orchard I would certainly consider that practice and per- 
haps try it out, because I am told there are some important advantages. I would 
not want to recommend it, but it is worth thinking about. 

Q. — Do you get better results from phosphate used along with stable manure? 

A. — I would say so decidedly. 

Q. — What chemical do you find most valuable in connection with stable 
manure? A. — I would say phosphate fertilizers. Stable manure gives you all 
the nitrogen you need which for fruit trees is not a large amount. 


0. W. Baxter: This is one of the subjects we have for consideration at the 
forthcoming fruit conference, and I have no doubt the delegates who have been 
selected by this Association to represent the fruit growers of the Province at 
that conference Avould appreciate very much having an expression of opinion from 
the growers here. 

It has been suggested that the advisability of adopting the Imperial 
pint and the Imperial quart boxes as the two standard containers be 
considered at this conference. Last summer the markets across the line were 
very attractive to our berry growers in Ontario. I had occasion to visit Grimsby 
in the height of the season and we found buyers from the largest markets on the 
other side there who assured me they were prepared to buy twenty-five car loads 
of Ontario berries, but they said, "We cannot ship your berries into our markets 
in the. quart boxes unless we stamp the box with the actual contents of the pack- 
age,'' which was not practical at that time . So they asked us if there was any 
objection to importing the standard berry box of the United States. We con- 
sulted our manufacturers to see if it was possible for them to supply these boxes, 
but they said they could not do so. The buyers said, "There is nothing for us 
to do but bring in these packages,^^ but they did not succeed in getting the supply : 
therefore, our growers in Ontario lost the sale of twenty-five car loads of berries. 
While we might not always find such a market in the United States, still I think 
it is the feeling of many that w^e should be prepared to take advantage of these 
markets when they are offered. In British Columbia they use the two-fifth's 
quart box and the pint. 

Mr. Fletcher : I represent the Clarkson Fruit Growers' Association. I have 
made inquiries amongst our growlers to find out the consensus of opinion on this 
matter of standardizing our quart box as compared with the American quart, and 
the members of our Association at Clarkson are not favourable to the American 
quart. They feel that at the present time if we introduced the Imperial quart 
that we will not obtain any more returns for an Imperial quart of berries than 
what we do for the four-fifths quart, and besides we will have to pay more for 
picking. With the present cost of land and of producing a quart of berries we 
feel we cannot afford at the present time to hand out this gift to tlie consumer 
unless we can be assured that we will be suflFiciently remunerated for the in- 
creased size of the box. 

56 THE EEPOl^T OF THE Is'o. 44 

Me. Craise: Speaking for the Niagara Peninsula Growers, last year we did 
not make any exiDeriment with regard to strawberries in the pint box, but we did 
with raspberries, and we just received slightly over two cents less for pints than 
for quarts. I do not think that is making any gift to the consumer, but it is a 
nice thing for the producers. If we can get more money out of the pint box than 
out of the quart, let us have it, for we need it. 

Mr. Baxter : I would not advocate using the quart box for raspberries, the 
pint box would be the largest package suitable, and only in a year of large crops 
would we use the quart box for strawberries. 

Mr. Pallett^ Clarkson : The first market of our Ontario berry is destroyed 
by the importation of American fruit. We supply the home market for the can- 
ners and the housewife; we give her good fresh berries in our own quarts. As 
you all know during the first week of the berry season the berries are firmer 
than during the second week and during the last week the berries become soft. 
If we liold to our quart as at the present time and endeavour to create a better 
home market, I believe every berry will be sold in Ontario. It seems only fair 
if our government at the present time allows the American people to flood the 
market with their quart because the price here is better than in their own mar- 
ket, that w^e should have reciprocity, and our quart should be allowed to go to 
the other side. I think in this case we are giving something to the American 
people and getting nothing in return. It does not seem fair to me if the Ameri- 
can quart can compete with my quart in Toronto why my quart should not com- 
pete with theirs in Buffalo. Our quart up to date is good enough for our own 
people, and should be good enough for the American people. 

Mr. Johnson : They cannot tell early in the season whether they are going 
to have a good crop of berries or not, and they must have a certain amount for 
canning, and making into jam. Any who have been on the other side will know 
that they pay more for the berries than we do over here. The American buyers 
came to us last year and paid thirteen cents a box for our berries in the four- 
fifths quart, and in the full quart they paid one cent more a box for the berries 
than they did in their own state. 

Mr. Armond Smith: In the first place heing a jam maker I will try to 
reply to Mr. Johnson. We do not buy in the United States just to lower the 
price of berries in this country. We buy there in the expectation that they are 
lower there than the berries will eventually be in our own country. Taking a 
span of years we consider it would be safe in buying a certain number of berries 
there cheaper than in our own country, but we only buy a certain proportion over 
there. We are personally in favour of the Imperial quart box and the Imperial 
pint box, and we think our growers should use the same box as the United 
States because we feel we could take advantage of the American market when 
the price is higher there; but I differ from Mr. Johnson that the price is always 
higher in the United States. We cannot tell what price we will get until right 
in the season, and then sometimes it is too late to get the quart boxes. Taking all 
in all, I think it is best to have the Imperial quart box and be able to enter 
the American market when it is higher than ours. 

Me. Fisher : As a grower of strawberries I have heretofore very largely 
held the view that our friend from 'Clarkson expressed, but I have begun of late 


to see things in a little different light. 1 believe it will be beneficial for our 
growers and for our markets if we standardize these packages. 

Mr. Shook: In regard to the standardization of the quart, I do not feel as 
Mr. Fisher does. He says he has seen things in a little different light lately in 
the last few months. I believe the Clarkson Fruit 'Growers' Association are the 
heaviest shippers of strawberries and raspberries of any association in the pro- 
vince. We handled last year in the neighborhood of two million quarts. We feel 
that the quart we have now is the one ^ve want to stay with, and we have found 
out that three of our quarts will make four for the retail dealers and if you 
increase the size of the quart we do not think we would be sufficiently remunerated 
to pay us for the berries. It is an established fact that the Italians make four 
quarts out of three, and our trade is mostly retail. 

Mr. Bunting: I think we will have to meet the American proposition and 
adopt the Imperial pint and quart. 

Mr. Mahoney: It would be a great advantage to our growers in this pro- 
vince if they would adopt as far as possible the American package. 

The experience of our company this year is that the pint package is the 
proper package for raspberries, and if we had the American box for our straw- 
berries we could have unloaded a considerable quantity there and relieved the 
local market. 

Mr. Watson: That being the case why should not the peach and plum 
growers here to-day adopt the American container for these products. I think we 
are losing sight altogether of the keeping qualities of the Canadian berry in 
comparison with the American berry. We all know that the American fruit will 
stand up much longer and much better than the Canadian fruit. On the Toronto 
market, last year there were many consignments of berries which should have 
brought 14 or 15c. but which were sold for 4c. Why? Because the growers are 
not equipped wdth pre-coolers. Large growers with eight or ten acres should 
have pre-coolers. If we ship in American boxes to the Toronto fruit markets 
the loss is going to be very great through spoiling. I am sure the commission 
men in Toronto would bear us out in that statement. I think w'e are making 
a mistake to advocate the standardization of the American package until our pro- 
ducts are handled completely through associations that have pre-cooling plants. 
We have at the present time and the box which we now have is preferred by the 
Toronto consumer. 

The Chairman: The final decision of this matter rests with the con- 
vention at Ottawa. 


Mr. Baxter: We received numerous complaints as to the quality of the 
berry crate which -was being supplied to the growers. Our good basket manu- 
facturers will know in many cases the containers were not sufficiently strong to 
enforce the safe carrying of goods beyond the railway station. We have been 
requested to control the manufactures of berry containers, as we do baskets 


and other packages. I would like to express the Fruit Branch's appreciation of 
the great co-operation we have had from most of the basket and package manu- 
facturers during the last year, and I think they too will be pleased to have the 
berry container clearly defined. 

The Chairman: The question is whether the construction of the 24 or 
27 box crate should be standardized like the baskets and which of these two will 
carry our products more safely to the markets. I think we can leave that in the 
hands of our representatives. 


Me. Baxter: At the present time the only regulations in respect to fruit 
in open packages is that each package shall be marked with the name and ad- 
dress of the packer. The principle of grading farm products is generally 
recognized to-day. I think we feel that any agricultural product that is not stan- 
dardized is not keeping pace with the markets, and I think our growers feel 
there should be grades adopted for fruits. Having that in mind we prepared 
grades for tender fruits two years ago. Nothing was done with it at the time, 
but last year at the annual meeting of the Niagara District Fruit Growers As- 
sociation these tentative grades, prepared largely for the purpose of bringing 
out discussion, were submitted at these meetings and committees were appointed 
to go into them. I do not know that those committees met. But the Niagara 
Peninsula Growers Limited, realizing the advantages of grading, took the mat- 
ter up and in consultation with the committees appointed by the Association 
made certain changes of which we were glad to approve, and the Niagara 
Peninsula Growers Limited used them in their business last year. Mr. Mahoney 
will be glad to tell us with what degree of success. At the time we prepared these 
we had no thought of incorporating them in any legislation. My idea Avas that 
if the growers would adopt these grading rules, the Fruit Branch having federal 
supervision might recommend their adoption and their use probably for a year 
or two to try them out. During that time we could determine what changes may 
be necessary. These grades have been tried out in the Niagara Peninsula to a 
certain extent during the past year, and it may be advisable to recommend their 
adoption for the next year or two. 

Mr. Mahoney : As Mr. Baxter has stated, we established grades for the 
growers, and we met with considerable success in doing so. While it was a dif- 
ficult matter the first year of our operation to secure the co-operation of all the 
growers in observing these grades strictly, still we made considerable progress, 
and we feel in this coming year's business by having a sufficient number of in- 
spectors to see that these grades are maintained it will be a great advantage to 
have in our selling operations. There is no question about it if we had the 
backing of the Fruit Branch in this matter w^e would much more easily accomplish 
the purpose Ave have in view. 

1922 FIJLIT GliOWEliS' A8SOClATlOx\ 59 

Col. H. L. RouEirrs, Gkimsby. 

In regard to central packing houses, the experience of the Niagara Peninsula 
Growers this 3-ear has demonstrated beyond question that the whole crux of the 
tender fruit question lies in the matter of grades. It has also been demonstrated 
how much improvement has been made in grading in localities in which co-opera- 
tion has been enforced as compared with those in which it has not. Anyone who has 
seen the results of handling fruit that has gone through central packing houses 
as compared with fruit that has not gone through will have no doubts of the 
advantages in that regard. I hope it will be possible for the tender fruits to 
be handled through the packing hou&es as well as apples and pears. In the old 
days in Grimsby we started co-operative packing houses for tender fruits, such 
as peaches, and we had considerable difficulties. We had not the facilities to 
handle them. Packing houses should be well adapted for their purposes, both 
in connection wath the location for shipment and its flexibility for the quantities 
of fruit coming in. There are two principal things to be considered in the matter 
of construction. If the stuff is to be handled over a grader then it will have 
to correspond more or less to the methods used in the citrus industry and other 
industries where the crop is graded and where each individual's product is brought 
in and kept separately and then put through the grader and packed out. On the 
other hand if you have tender fruits in many varieties such as St. John and 
Crawford peaches, which will not stand the grading, I do not think there is any 
other method than giving the individual members of the company their own 
location in the packing house and having their fruit put into a recess as it were 
and packed there and graded as it goes out. If that is to be done it is necessary 
that the division between these packing areas should be flexible. These are mat- 
ters that require to be worked out, but I think they can be overcome, but by far 
the more important point is that the locality of the packing house should be 
convenient for shipping purposes. 

We made a fatal mistake in placing our packing house convenient for the 
growers without considering the matter of placing it convenient for shipping. The 
idea of that was to get the grower to bring his stuff to the packing-house early 
in the day so that the packing operations could start early. But you cannot 
get the growers to do that, they wait until they have their load ready, and you 
cannot start your packing until the afternoon. If the packing-house is placed 
convenient for shipment, that is on the rail, you will avoid the rehandling 
necessary when it is placed convenient for the growers. Even if it is not 
possible to have cold storage facijities at each point it is at least possible to have 
refrigerator capacity near the plant, say, an iced car placed to take the surplus 
that does not get off in the shipment. By that method it would be possible to 
work out the packing of tender fruits. I feel that the question of tender fruits 
is a vital one for the Niagara Peninsula and that is my excuse for introducing that 
end of it so much. I do think this problem, although not simple is solvable, 
and it is up to the Niagara Peninsula to solve it, because I do not believe we will 
ever siicceed in grading that will give us the confidence of the consumer and be 
fair to the grower nntil we have fruit moving through central packing houses and 
very rigid inspection on the fruit that does not go through. I think exactly the 
same applies to the apple and pear proposition. There are many districts where 
by far the more satisfactory way of handlinor the fruit would bo throuoli central 


packing houses, and there are other districts where conditions would not allow it. 
In that case, rigid inspection is absolutely necessary. As far as the Peninsula 
Growers are concerned I hope their policy will include at least the beginning of 
a central packing house for tender fruits next year. 

Hon. Manning W. Doherty^ Minister of Agriculture, Toronto. 

I congratulate you on the success of your meeting, and also upon the wisdom 
shown in the making up of your programme. I notice from it that you have not 
devoted your attention alone to one phase of your industry but, in addition to 
considering the best methods for the protection of your crops, you are consider- 
ing also the best methods of marketing your crop. I believe that our farmers in 
this Province and in this Dominion to-day realize that there is but very little 
use in producing anything unless there is a market for it. I have been pleased 
during the last year to see a spirit developing among those engaged in all the 
branches of agriculture, a spirit which would indicate that they realize the prime 
necessity of acting together in the handling of their crops. 

Only two weeks ago I had the pleasure of attending the Agricultual Eco- 
nomic Conference in Washington which was called by President Harding. That 
conference was called because the men in charge of the Government of that coun- 
try realized that the great agricultural industry of the United States was in such 
a critical position and condition that it was jeopardizing the safety of every 
other industry in the country. At that conference we had some of the leading 
bankers and business men of the United States, and we had farmers from every 
branch of the agricultural industry and from every State in the Union. I came 
away from that conference with the feeling that at least the business men in that 
country were fully seized with the importance to them of the agricultural industry 
being stabilized and being put upon a basis where men could go into it, and with 
the exercise of intelligence and industry, be fairly sure of a return on their in- 
vestment and on the labour they put into it. They realize that they are up 
against a condition which has got to be rectified if the whole industrial fabric 
of that country is not to go to the wall. That is why we had on that platform 
men like Mr. Myers, of New York, the multimillionaire banker, who was a most 
enthusiastic advocate of an extension of a grading system which would meet the 
needs of the farmers of the United States. President Harding made a state- 
ment, on which he defied contradiction, that in viewing all the agricultural coun- 
tries of the world, this great truth is brought home to us: the countries which 
are going through this period of deflation best are the countries in which the 
agricultural industry is best organized; and he pointed to the various countries 
and indicated the degree to which they were feeling the depression. He said, 
"We can go one step farther than that: we can go into each and everyone of these 
countries (and he analyzed the conditions prevailing in the various branches of 
the industry in these countries), and we find that the various branches of the 
agricultural industry have prospered in 1921 exactly in proportion to the degree 
of their organization. In the face of this, it behooves every man, professional 
and business, to do everything in his power to enable the farmers of the country 
to become organized.'' It was shown there, and I want that point to be under- 
stood in this country, that whereas in the beginning it was felt by many of those 
who occupied a place in the wheel of machinery by which we transact our busi- 


ness, that the organization of the farmers was going to eliminate them, that feel- 
ing has entirely be-en dissipated, and those who are in the business of handling 
agricultural products to-day — commission men and such like — acknowledge that 
they would not for the world have these organizations go out of existence, and 
they want them to go on and to prosper. 

Let me say in particular reference to the matter under discussion, that I 
have for years held that what we must have, if the industry is to be permanently suc- 
cessful, if it is to be stabilized, is economic production. If we are to compete 
successfully, we must produce economically. Assuming that to have been accom- 
plished, or on a fair way to accomplishment, then the step we have got to look 
to is this: that our products are marketed economically and profitably, and the 
economic and orderly marketing of farm products has never been successfully 
accomplished in any other way than by the organization of the producers them- 

After we had heard men from the livestock industry in the West, men re- 
presenting the corn growers in the Middle West, men representing the cotton 
growers — branches of the industry which were not organized — depict the deplor- 
able conditions which were prevailing, it was very encouraging to have a man 
like Mr. Powell of the Citrus Fruit Organization of California stand up and 
say: "While 1921 was not the best year that our organization ever had^ I can 
say that there was not a member of our organization growing fruit in 1921 but 
made money; we had a big business, over $100,000^000, and everything was sold.^^ 
Now, it was encouraging in a year like we have gone through, with the de- 
creased purchasing power of the people, to find others, by organization, had 
reached out and placed their crop no matter how large the crop was, and no mat- 
ter to what degree the buying power of the public was embarrassed; they simply 
extend their markets. 

In our fruit industry here, I have all along felt a great deal of attention 
should be devoted to this, and as head of the Department of Agriculture I am 
very anxious to have the views of those who are directly concerned in that in- 
dustry, the fruit growers of the Province. 

The matter of the establishment of central packing plants has been brought 
to my attention several times, and I can assure you, it has received sympathetic 
consideration from me, because I have always claimed that we can never place 
our products on the markets of the world, so as to get the greatest returns, with 
the least expense, unless we properly grade, standardize our grades and insist 
upon our grades being lived up to. I feel this is absolutely true in regard to the 
fruit industry because, while I am prepared to acknowledge the intelligence 
shown by the farmers in British Columbia in their organization, I have time 
and time felf that we should wake up, and if we cannot get and hold other 
markets, at least hold the markets right at our own doors, and hold at least a 
fair percentage of the markets not only in Western Canada but in Great Britain. 
It is shown beyond dispute that we can produce in Ontario as fine apples as can 
be grown on earth. But our apples do not occupy the first place in the markets 
of the world, nor in the mind of the buyers of the world because we have not 
sufiiciently established our grades and insisted upon our goods going on the 
markets in those grades. 

This trophy shows that we can produce and we can win. The matter of 
another Show this year in England is under consideration at the present time. 
My own opinion is that we cannot afford to lose the opportunities we have at this 


very critical stage in the history of our agricultural industry, of showing the 
people of the world that we can produce the goods and do produce them, nor 
only in our fruit, but in our livestock, and in every other line. I feel that this 
Show held in England once every two years would be quite sufficient, but a meet- 
ing was held a few days ago over there, and the feeling seemed to be that they 
would like the Show again this year. Our representatives there made the sug- 
gestion that if the Show was to be held again this year, Canada should be a little bet- 
ter represented upon the executive so that they may have a little more to say in the 
selection of those who are going to do the judging. I. believe the suggestion was 
accepted, and although it is not distinctly settled, it looks at the moment as if the 
Show would be held. 

In regard to these packing plants, I believe that every possible encourage- 
ment should be given to the grading of our products. How far should the gov- 
ernment go in these matters? This is a very important question. Personally I 
have always felt that the government should go only so far and then should have 
absolutely nothing to do with the management of the affair. I feel that these 
organizations prosper better if they are founded on proper principles, and are 
left under the management of the right kind of men. 

I would like the department to assist in getting our growers to adopt the 
grading principle for all their fruit. With that in mind, I have drawn up, in 
rough draft form, what was in my mind, and I would like to have from this meet- 
ing suggestions. If you feel that the Department should not assist in any way in 
the establishment of these grading stations, all well and good; if you feel that 
the Department should assist in some other way, than herein suggested, I would 
like to have it; if you feel that we should not assist to the degree that I suggest, 
I would like your recommendation. 

It is not necessary for me to read this in detail. The idea is that the De- 
partment should offer assistance to Co-operative Fruit Organizations in the es- 
tablishment of grading stations. 

An association shall mean any co-operative organization of fruit growers 
incorporated under the Ontario Companies Act or other Acts of the Province for 
the purpose of marketing any kinds of fruits, and holding at least 100 acres of 
bearing fruit lands, the fruit from which shall be contracted to be sold through 
the association. Upon the recommendation of the Minister a grant shall be 
made in accordance with the provisions of this Act for the purpose of erecting 
or providing for the necessary storage of the fruits grown by the members of 
the association, such grant shall . not exceed 25% of the present value of the 
building or a total of $1,500 in any one case. 

It may be you think 25% is too much or not enough; in eit]>er case your 
views will be very seriously considered. "The plans and location of the buildings 
must be approved before the grant is paid and no such building shall be disposed 
of by any association without the consent of the Minister. The control and 
management shall be invested in the association, and the association shall iix 
the charges and may accept fruit for grading, packing and storing from growers 
not members, on such terms as may seem reasonable.^' I am not sure whether 
that paragraph is satisfactory or not. The idea I had was this: that in these 
grading and packing houses facilities shall be available for all the growers in 
the district, so that it shall not be possible to keep them in the hands of half a 


dozen growers. A grower might not at first see the advantage of such facilities 
and might not come in the first year but in another year he might change his 
mind. I think the facilities should be made available to any grower in the dis- 
trict who wants to come into the association. 

Those are the only paragraphs of any importance. I would like the views 
of the meeting, in the first place, the necessity for the establishment of central 
packing plants, and your suggestions as to how our department can best assist in 
this work. I know that this move has the approval of our friend Mr. Baxter 
and his department, and I am sure that the Federal Fruit Department will co- 
operate and assist in every possible way. No doubt Mr. Baxter himself will 
state to what extent his department will be prepared to assist in carrying out 
this work. 

T. J. Mahoney, Grimsby, General Manager. 

In dealing with the matter of sales organization, I will confine my atten- 
tion to those in the Niagara district, because it is with the sales organizations in 
that district that I am particularly acquainted. It was my privilege last year in 
speaking before this convention to deal with the organization of the Niagara 
District Grape Growlers' Company, and I explained to yon the object for which 
that companv was oro-anized. It was organized in order to deal with an emer- 
gency which had arisen during the year 1920, on account of the basket famine. 
Owing to the acute shortage of baskets in the district it was felt by the grape 
growers, disaster would overtake the grape crop unless some means were taken to con- 
trol the basket famine which was prevalent in the district. In order to meet 
that situation the grape growers, at a meeting held in St. iCatharines on the T'th 
of August, 1920, decided to organize a company in order to secure, in the first 
place, sufficient packages to market their crop, and in the second place to secure 
a fair price for their product, which up to that time had been fixed l)y the wine 
manufacturers and dealers. 

The two-fold object which the grape growers had in organizing were cer- 
tainly accomplished in their first year, because we imported from the LTnited 
States enough bushel hampers to market 200 cars of grapes in the United States. 
Of the 410 cars of grapes which we handled betw^een September the 13th when we 
opened our office in St. Catharines and the 11th day of November when we 
shipped our last car load there were 341 placed on the United States market, the 
balance were sold in Ontario, and the price obtained by the grape growers for 
the crop that year was certainly the highest they had ever obtained in the history 
of the Niagara Peninsula. 

It was the success which the grape growers had the first year of organiza- 
tion which convinced the other grape growers in the district that organization 
and co-operation would possibly solve a good many of their troubles, and if the 
organization had been in existence in 1920 when there was an abnormal fruit 
crop it would have saved the fruit growers much of the loss experienced that 
year. No person was more convinced than the Minister of Agriculture, and it 
was under his auspices that the meeting was held in Vineland on the 26th of 
November 1920, for the purpose of discussing the advisability and practicability 

<64 THE REPOR T OF THE No. 44 

of organizing a fruit marketing company for the remaining fruits of the dis- 
trict. At that meeting there were tAventy-five prominent growers present, also 
representatives from several small co-operative companies in the district. After 
.a thorough consideration of the matter it was decided that the proposition was 
practicable and feasible, a sub-committee was appointed to draft rules and re- 
commendations which were later submitted to a much larger meeting held in 
Hamilton on the 28th of December, 1920. 

That meeting considered the rules and recommendations as drafted by the 
committee, and after some revisions it was decided to adopt these rules and re- 
<;ommendations, and to appoint provisional directors for the organization of the 
company. These provisional directors worked for some four months, and they 
certainly had a very difficult problem to solve. They had to reconcile the con- 
flicting interests in the district, line up the five small co-operative companies 
which had a total membership of eighty, and they also had to persuade some of 
the dealers in the district that it would be in their interest to line up with the 
new organization and help make it a success. In accomplishing these different 
objects they were successful to the extent they were able on the 11th of May, 
1921, to have an organization meeting of the Niagara Peninsula Growers. I may 
say that the fruit growers of the Niagara district certainly owe a debt of gratitude 
to the provisional directors who did such hard and difficult work in order to 
start this company on its way to progress. 

The grape growers' organization included the whole district from Hamilton 
to the Niagara River, and I think it was the first co-operative company organized 
in the district which ever attempted to include such a large extent of territory. 
The Peninsula Growers in organizing included the district from Burlington to 
the Niagara River and the Fonthill district. It was divided into fourteen 
divisions: Burlington, Stoney Creek, Fruitland, Winona, Grimsby, Grimsby East, 
Beamsville, Vineland, Peachland, St. Catharines, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Queenston, 
St. Davids and Fonthill. A manager for each division was appointed to look after 
the shipping and do the other business of the company. 

It might be of interest to know how the stock of the company was made up, 
and the. amount each fruit grower had to subscribe in order to be a member. The 
stock of the company was non-dividend bearing, and the amount each member 
had to subscribe was based on his crop turn-over for the year 1920. If he had 
turned over less than $2,000, one share; between $2,000 and $4,000, two shares; 
$4,000 and $6,000, three shares; $6,000 and $10,000, four shares, and over $10,000, 
five shares. He was required to put all his fruit through the company and the 
fruit was pooled according to grades and varieties, and he was paid for the fruit 
every two weeks, on the 10th and 25th of each month. 20% was held back to 
cover overhead expenses of the company. After the business of the company was 
completed on the 31st of December, the balance from this 20% was returned to 
the owners. We closed our books on that date, and it was found the treasury 
expenses amounted to 12%, and the balance was returned to the growers. Of that 
12% treasury expenses, 11/2^ was absorbed in equipment and organization ex- 
penses, which really should be charged to capital expense, so that the annual cost 
of operating the company was really 101/2% instead of 12%. 

In beginning the first year's work the company had a number of difficulties 
to contend with. The objects of the company were possibly misunderstood by 
some, and we met with difficulty on that account. Of course we expected opposi- 
tion from those interests which had prevailed in the past and whose business 


would he aireeted by the success of an orgauizutiou such as our company aimed to 
become. We were also misunderstood, I think, to some extent by the general 
public. There was an impression created that the company was merely a big 
combine organized for the purpose of boosting prices and it was not going to 
give the public any compensating advantages. The principal object was by pro- 
per grading and systematic marketing to eliminate the waste which "had pre- 
vailed in the district in the past, and we know waste and loss is of no benefit to 
any person. There is no question about it that with proper organization and a 
proper system of marketing, waste can be largely eliminated to' the mutual bene- 
fit of the consumer and producer alike. 

We had every difficulty to contend with in the abnormal weathi^r conditions 
which I think were probably the worst we hav.e had in thirty years. The gov- 
ernment record showed that the summer of 1921 was the hottest in thirty years, 
and as a consequence all crops matured in advance of their normal time. As a 
result the shipping qualities of the fruit were very much inferior to previous 
years. There is also disadvantage in marketing any variety of fruit before its 
proper season because the people are not ready for it, and the result is they do 
not buy as freely as they otherwise would. 

There was another factor which influenced the market to a considerable ex- 
tent, and that was the limited amount of fruit used by jam manufacturers and 
canning factories. As you know the jam manufacturers and canners carried 
over a considerable stock from 1920', and they were not in a position in 1921 to 
take their usual supply, which .had a very serious effect on the marketing prob- 
lem. Another factor also was the high cost of transportation as compared with 
other years. It cost this year to haul an eleven-quart basket of fruit to Winni- 
peg, 40c., and that 40c. had to be paid whether the fruit arrived there in a condi- 
tion to be commercially used or not. That was certainly a very considerable in- 
crease over the year 1920. 

There was another item of expense which we had to meet, and that was 
50% increase in the cost of icing over 1920. 1920, the cost of icing was $4 a toii; 
1921, $C.50. 

Those are factors which certainly affected the market this past year, and 
on top of that we had the great amount of unemployment which existed in Can- 
ada, and which decreased the buying power of the country to a great extent. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties the company has had a successful year. 
We market forty-nine different varieties of fruit and vegetables, and the total 
volume amounted to something .over 1,700 cars. Of the different varieties 
marketed there were eighty-five cars of strawberries; thirty-five cars of raspber- 
ries; 564 cars of peaches, seventy-nine cars of plums; forty-nine cars of cher- 
ries; 324 cars of grapes; 133 cars of tomatoes; fifty-four cars of canteloupes, and 
there were a large number of other varieties of a lesser amount. The whole 
totalled something over 1,700 cars. We succeeded in disposing of them to fairly good 
advantage. A good deal of discussion took place this morning with regard to 
the question of grading. One fact which was impressed upon us more strongly 
than any other was the necessity of grading if we wished to get any place in suc- 
cessfully marketing our fruit. There is no question about it, one of the principal 
handicaps which the fruit growers of the Niagara district have had to contend 
with is the lack of uniform grading, and in order to overcome that handicap one 
of the essential things is a central packing house and better cold storage facili- 
ties than we have had. 


Although the Niagara district is one of the oldest, possibly the oldest, district 
in Canada, it is a remarkable fact we certainly have a lack of facilities for hand- 
ling our fruit profitably and systematically. When our company started business 
this year we did not have a central packing house in the whole district. We know 
it is by means of taking advantage of central packing houses and cold storages 
that the B.C. growers and co-operative companies in the Western States have been 
able not only to drive us out of the western market, but to take our own markets 
here in Ontario; and I think it is safe to say, as has been said on different 
occasion^ before, that the only way to reach our competitors successfully is to 
adopt the methods they have adopted and which have proven successful. There 
is no doubt about it that the means which have enabled the British Columbia 
growers and co-operative companies of the Western States to pack and ship their 
fruits so successfully is because they used central packing houses and cold storage 
facilities and, as I have stated, one of the big handicaps which the company was 
under in its first year's operation was lack of these facilities in the Niagara 
district. We had in the shape of cold storage facilities only the obsolete struc- 
ture at Grimsby with a capacity of fifteen cars, and there is no doubt thousands 
and thousands of dollars have been lost to the fruit growers this year because 
we lacked these necessary facilities. It is true they had cold storage facilities 
in Hamilton, but those were not convenient to the growers and could not be taken 
advantage of in the emergency which arose in the middle of the tender fruit 
crop in a hot season such as last year. 

Possibly no better example can be given than that which was afforded by 
the Grape Growers' Company in storing, during the slump, some fifty cars of 
grapes in Hamilton. It was done under difficulties, because it meant a lot of 
handling and an added expense of something like $3,000. However I think 
it saved the situation with regard to the grape crop in that critical period of tlie 
season. It certainly saved the market from breaking, and those who are engaged 
in marketing know what it means when a market breaks, and how difficult it is 
to get it back. On the grapes which were stored at Hamilton we realized at least 
anywhere from $15,000 to $20,000 more than we would have realized had they 
been sold at that time instead of being put into cold storage, and we did some- 
thing that had not been done before by any other company either in the United 
States or in Canada. The sales manager of the American Fruit Growers who 
handles our American business stated that in his opinion no such attempt had 
ever been made to store grapes, and the fact that it was successful speaks well 
for the judgment of the men who were particularly instrumental in trying out 
that experiment. 

It might be asked what the company has accomplished since it started some 
nine months ago. There is one thing the company has accomplished, and that 
is by its constant driving home to the growers in the district at tlie different 
meetings held, the absolute necessity of better grading of their products. I think 
we have also demonstrated the fact that the best results can be secured through 
grading in a central packing house. One district under our control certainly 
got this idea, and acted on it, and that was the Burlington district. Shortly 
after the Season commenced the growers invested $13,000 in a central packing 
house at Burlington. It may be of interest to those who are thinking of a central 
packing house in tlieir district to know that on the 4,000 or more barrels of apples 
put through the packing house the average cost of packing ran from 15c. to 37c. a 


barrel less than m other parts of the district, so the amount saved in packing 
alone on the 'apples was siitficient to cover the interest on the investment. Pears 
were also packed from that central packing house, and of 119 cars of pears which 
the company handled, eighteen were exported to the Old Country, and they 
brought a very satisfactory price and helped to relieve the market here to that 
extent. There would have been more sent to the Old Country had we the neces- 
sary facilities for packing and grading. We did not have those facilities except 
in the very contracted space in the cold storage at Grimsby and Burlington. Had 
we facilities in other parts of the district to take care of pears we could easily 
have shipped another twenty-five or thirty cars, and the price here would have 
advanced accordingly. 

I am glad to know that the Minister of Agriculture has seen the necessity 
of central packing houses, and is inclined to give some encouragement in the 
way of financial assistance. I do not know whether it is the proper time to 
express my opinion on the amount of assistance he proposes to give. 1 was im- 
pressed by the photograph passed among the members yesterday showing the 
space in the fruit show at the exhibit at London. You might have noticed there 
was a sign which stated that the Province of Ontario had 300,000' acres of land 
planted to fruit. If the Province of Ontario has 300,000 acres of land planted 
to fruit surely it is up to the government to do a little more for the fruit growers 
of this province than they have done in the past. I am not making this statement 
by w^ay of criticism at all, but there is no question about it that Avhen the fruit 
industry of this province is in the condition it is in at the present time, where 
we are practically driven off our own market by British Columbia and the United 
States, it is certainly time for the government to take definite action, and this 
applies to the Dominion Government as well as the Provincial. 

In 1920, the biggest fruit year we have had in this province and possibly 
in the Dominion, there was imported from the United States $19,000,000' worth 
of fresh fruits, and when you consider exchange ranging from 12% to 18% you 
will realize the amount of toll the people of Canada paid the United States fruit 
growers. I consider the giving of some substantial assistance to keep this money 
at home is a matter of sufficient importance to impress on any government, whe- 
ther Federal or Provincial. For that reason I hope that the Minister of Agri- 
culture for the Province of Ontario will endeavour to be a little more generous 
in the grant which he proposes to give to the central packing houses. 

With regard to cold storage facilities I am glad to say that owing to the 
public spirit of one of the citizens of Grimsby, Col. Roberts, to whom the fruit 
growers owe a debt of gratitude, we will have next year in the Grimsby district 
an up-to-date cold storage and pre-cooling plant with a capacity of sixty-five tons 
of ice a day and a storage capacity of fifty cars. Owing to the publicity which 
has been given to the necessity of cold storages for our fruit industry by the Pro- 
vincial Growers' Company and the Niagara District Grape Growlers' Company, 
there is also under way a similar plant in St. Catharines. In fact, I understand 
from Mr. Welsted that $200,000 is already in sight for that project, and we will 
have these facilities in St. Catharines this year. There are also districts where 
cold storage facilities would be commercially profitable, and it is up to the 
government, whether Provincial or Federal, to give the necessary assistance to 
these districts to enable them to have such a building. I do not know what the 
regulations are from the Federal Government, but wliatever they are they should 
be changed if necessar\' in order to applv to sections like Burlington or other 

68 THE EEPOKT OF THE ^'o. 44 

similarly situated sections oi the province. J think these remarks are worthy of 
consideration, and I am glad the Minister of Agriculture and the Chief Fruit 
Commissioner for tlie Dominion are here, and I hope they will impress on their 
departments the matters which have been brought before them. 

There is no question about it that grading is a very important factor ta 
successful fruit marketing. In order to do your grading properly it is necessary 
to have central packing houses; and in order to ship, especially for long dis- 
tances, it is necessary to have cold storage and pre-cooling facilities. If we could 
have these facilities and make use of them as we expect to do there is no reason 
why we should not be able to hold our market here in Ontario, and also gain some 
of th-e advantages we have lost on the western market. There is also no reason 
why we could not sell a good deal of our products in the Old Country. It has- 
been done this year to some extent, and it can be done to a greater extent with 
the proper organization and facilities. When we can be sure our product is pro- 
perly packed and graded and so shipped that it will arrive at its destination in a 
satisfactory condition we can then establish a brand, and when we reach that 
point w^e should make use of an intelligent advertising campaign of our products. 

One reason why our company this year has refrained from any extensive 
advertising has been due to the fact we were not sure of our grades although the 
company established its own grades. We have 650 growers in our company, and 
many of them have had no experience in grading, and they could not be expected 
to learn everything in one year. It would have been a real hardship had the 
company endeavoured to make all the different growers grade np to standard 
because it was simply impossible for them to do so. We hope to arrive very 
shortly at the stage where the growers will grade up to the grades, established by 
the company. When that time comes and our products are properly shipped and 
packed we feel that real advertising will be of some use to the company and the 
fruit growing interests of the province. We certainly think that in the accom- 
plishing of these different objects which I have cited,, w^e should have the assist- 
ance and backing of both the Provincial and Dominion Governments, because 
there is no dou])t about it that other parts of the province and the country is 
watching what might be considered the experiments going on in the Niagara 

Of the 952 shares of stock which we had, 20% was paid up by the members 
of the company amounting to about $18,340. The total cost of our equipment 
and organization was $33,280, and the difference between that and the $18,340 
was made up by deducting an amount from the sales, instead of calling for fur- 
ther payment of stock from the members. The intention was, when the com- 
pany was organized, that 30% should be paid on the 1st of October. 1920, which 
would make 50% paid np, but owing to the short crop it was felt it might be hard 
to call that 30% on the 1st of October, so we omitted doingr so. The balance of 
the organization and equipment expenses was made up bv deducting 1%% from 
the total salcS turn over of the company of $1,501,000, which included $324,000 
worth of grapes sold for tlie Niagara District Grape Growers. 


W. G. Montgomery, Manager, St. Catitarixes. 

Mr. Mahoney has thoroughly outlined the inner workings of the Niagara 
Peninsula Growers. Limited, but he is also President of the Niaa'ara District 


•Grape Growers' Compaii}', uiuL their work is curried on uloiig the same lines as 
the Niagara Peninsuhi (Growers, Limited. It is on a co-operative basis and the 
company has been operating fifteen months to date. The association known as 
the Niagara District (h-ape Growers was formed by a number of the large growers 
throughout the section in lO'^O. hi August 1920 they received their charter as 
a limited company and started doing business on October 5th of the same year. 
In that year they shipped some 410 cars of grapes, 310 cars to the American 
markets and the balance sold on the Canadian markets, making a gross turn- 
over of half a million dollars. That was the first year's operations of the Nia- 
gara District Grape Growers' Company, with some 400 members and from 150 
to 200 shareholders. The past season of 1921 we feel has been the hardest we 
have ever had or will have on account of the market conditions. Th-e grape crop 
this year was at least one month earlier, and conditions throughout the United 
States and Canada were far from normal. Of 752 car loads of grap-es, about 
346 cars were shipped to American markets and 325 cars sold on the Canadian 
market, and the balance sold to the local wine manufacturers; making our gross 
sales turn-over for the year $890,000. You understand the Grape Growers' 
Company handles nothing but grapes, and controls approximately 90% of the 
grapes grown in the Niagara Peninsula between Hamilton and Niagara Falls. 
We have 900 grape growers and 350 of these are shareholders of the company. 

The policy of the company has been, as far as stock is concerned, to make it 
optional for the grower as to whether he takes stock or not. We have $41,000 
stock subscribed to the company; that has all been subscribed voluntarily. 10% 
has been called up, and the stock has not been used in any way. That was the 
policy of the Association before the company was formed. 

In- 1920 we paid back to tlie growers of the Niagara district who delivered 
grapes to the company as a first payment on their entire grape crop $85 a ton. 
and at the end of the season we pooled our profits pro rata and we paid back 
$33,000 to the growers as a bonus. This year we were up against an entirely 
different proposition. We had very serious market conditions throughout Canada 
and the United States, and the biggest problem was the grape crop coming on 
at least one month earlier, and this year we paid the growers the highest price I 
think ever paid in the Niagara Peninsula for any grape crop. We paid the 
growers on an average 40c. per basket, that is six-quart baskets, and $85 a ton 
on bulk shipments. I believe that was due to co-operation as we had prol)ably 
90% of the grape crop under contract and the growers belonging to the company 
stayed with it from start to finish and we finished the year very satisfactorily. 

Mr. Mahoney has mentioned the cold storage facilities, and also that we 
stored fifty cars of grapes in Hamilton. This was just an ordinary storage ware- 
house, not equipped for handling grapes or storing fruit. We got this warehouse 
into the best .shape we could and stored these grapes, putting, them in from the 
15th to the 25th of September and taking them out from the 15tli to the 25th 
of October. They were in on an average of four or five weeks, and we sold that 
fifty cars at a profit of $12,000 over and above the price we would have had to 
sell them at had we sold them at the time we stored them. 

The Niagara Peninsula Grape Growers are anxious to have cold storage facili- 
ties throughout the district. We are quite willing to contribute in any way we 
can. It cost us $5,000 to put those grapes in Hamilton, wliich we could have 
saved had we storage facilities in the heart of tlie district. 


At the present time our market in Western Canada qn grapes is going back, 
due to the fact that the Western fruit jobbers say they cannot handle our pro- 
duct and make a margin of profit on account of the rates. There w-ere eight or 
ten cars of California grapes going into Western Canada in V-)21 to every car of 
Canadian grapes. That is not a very healthy condition, and it is something we 
want to g'et away from as soon as we can. One of the things that will help us 
get the Western market back is cold storage facilities in the Niagara Peninsula. 
Both companies are working along the same line in harmony, and I believ-e the 
two companies will be two of the strongest co-operative companies in Canada, 
financially and as far as membership is concerned. We have only been operating 
fifteen months, and the first year we handled 410 cars and 754 in 1921. W"e have 
used the American market to a great extent in the past two years, but we feel 
the American market will not always be there, and we are anxious to develop 
the Canadian market as much as possible. 

The growers apparently are well satisfied with our operations this year, 
and many men who did not belong to the company are joining with us and put- 
ting their grapes through our association, and I feel that in another year or 
two the Niagara District Grape Growers will be 100% strong. 

We use the standard Canadian package, a six-quart basket, for which we get 
the sam.e price on the American market as the Americans get for their four- 
quart baskets. If we had a standard package between the two countries it would 
make a big difference to the grape growers. 

The Chairman : In reference to the remarks of the Hon. Mr. Doherty, 
Minister of Agriculture, we appreciate very, very much the proposition Mr. 
Doherty has made, but the executive feel that w.e have not the time to take up a 
discussion on the point here, and we have recommended the appointment of a 
committee to consider the matter. Mr. Fairbairn has a motion covering this, and 
I will ask him to present it. 

Mr. Fairbairn: We listened with interest and pleasure to Mr. Doherty this 
morning. It seems to ;me not only in the best interests of this meeting and of 
the fruit growers generally, but also in the best interests of the scheme which the 
Minister proposed, that a committee from this meeting be appointed to confer 
with Mr. Doherty and possibly also with the Dominion Minister of Agriculture, 
Mr. Motherwell, on the matter. I will, therefore, move that the following com- 
mittee be appointed to confer with Hon. Mr. Doherty on the proposed aid re- 
lating to 'Central Packing Houses, and also to take up with the Hon. Mr. Mother- 
well the matter of assistance in financing Cold Storage Warehouses : Mr. 
Fisher, Burlington; Col. Eoberts, Grimsby; Mr. Palmer, Vineland; Mr. Johnson, 
Simcoe; Mr. Craise, St. Catharines; Mr. W. H. Gibson, Newcastle. 

This resolution, seconded by Mr. Grierson, was carried unanimously. 

J. E. Johnson, Simcoe. 
Your secretary has placed my name on the programme to talk to you a few 
minutes on the success of the Norfolk Fruit Growers' Association. 

This association was organized sixteen years ago, appointing myself as 
manager and secretary-treasurer, which position I still hold. I might say that 
we have had sixteen successful years for the apple growers, besides making Norfolk 
County famous as an apple growing county. 

Our success is due to education, jDublicity, and co-operation. 



When we organized in 190G we began to hold educational I'ruit growers meet- 
ings in different jjarts of the county, assisted by the Provincial Department of 
Agriculture. The success or failure of a fruit grower's association depends a 
great deal on quality. Our aim being success, we realized the importance of pro- 
ducing good quality fruit. }n 1908 ^xe co-operated with the Department of Agri- 
culture and made personal visits with every member of the association, talking 
over with them the best way to care for their orchards, besides, apple grower's 
meetings were held in many parts of the County of Norfolk. 

It is useless for m.e to take up time in dealing with the many problems of 
education which we carried on in earino- for the orchards. 


Publicity was our greatest asset after we had produced quality apples. The 
press took a great pride in using a considerable amount of printer's ink in the 
advertising of Norfolk apples which in return, was also a great encouragement 
to our growers. Tn short, the press, and rightly so, put Norfolk on the map as a 
county well adapted for the successful growing of summer, fall, and winter apples. 


Each for all and all for each carried on under good managemejit must suc- 
ceed. I have had the opportunity of personally gathering information from many 
of the largest co-operative societies in America. We also read of the great success 
of co-operative associations across the Atlantic. I believe it would be far easier 
to manage a co-operative association in Denmark, as there for generations they 
have been doing business under strict rules which make it necessary that all mer- 
chantable produce grown by the producers must be turned into the association. 

We are always told by selfish interests in Ontario when we organize a co- 
operative association ''Oh, they will soon go out of business, they cannot last." 
This was the case in Norfolk. The apple dealers who had previously bought 
apples from our Norfolk growers for 50c. to $1.00 per barrel would tell our grow- 
ers all sorts of things to try to discourage them. Their two greatest assertions 
were ''Spraying would kill their trees" as one of our rules was "The memhers 
must spray." Another. "The manager cannot get as much for the apples as he 
could afford to pay the farmer." I have been in places (but not in Norfolk 
County) where this line of talk had the desired effect, as in many places the 
grower's main object is to get more for his produce than his neighbour so he can 
make himself believe that he is a better business man. Jealousy amongst the 
producers has cost this country millions of dollars. 

There is no way produce can he handled to better advantage than by co- 
operation, and be in a position to purchase supplies for the%growing of the crops 
at the minimum price and selling the produce at the maximum price which will 
encourage production. This is the solution for the lowering of our taxes. 

I feel a little timid in talking on management of a co-operative association 
but I am going to give you my personal ideas. 

The manager must be a big man and the larger the association the broader 
ideas he must possess. Therefore, the members of a co-operative association must 
first make up their minds to secure a capable manager and that they are willing 
to pay him a good remuneration for his services. There have been more asso- 
ciations fail by having a manager not bi^ enough for the job than from any 
other caus«. 


Now we will return to Norfolk and deal with our small association, the 
Norfolk Fruit Growers, which does not require a big maji. Our members are all 
Norfolk boosters and rightly so, because they have something to boost for. They 
have handled successfully sixteen crops of apples on the plan of each for all and 
all for each. There is no jealousy there. We are all jolly good fellows, eacli 
one believing that in a few years Norfolk will be the greatest county in Canada 
and his ambition is to do his best to make it so. Our greatest asset to co-opera- 
tion is kind thoughts for one another. 

We can only attain our objective by co-operation. Come to Norfolk, where 
we handle all kinds of produce co-operatively. We will make you feel at home 
by telling you everything we know, believing that frankness is our strongest argu- 
ment in our efforts to secure your confidence. 

This is our co-operative platform in Norfolk County. 


Specific National Gkades for Apples. Box and Barrel Grade Names. 
Shall we adopt the Western Grades for Boxes only? 

Mr. Baxter : The subject of grades for apples opens up a very wide subject, and 
I do not know whether you have the time or inclination to discuss it. I think the 
differentiation of grade names between boxes and barrels is perhaps more 

The Chairman: That is what I think. 

Mr. Baxter : I might explain briefly that this subject refers to a specific 
interpretation of the present grade definitions; in other words: that the size be 
determined in inches and the colour in percentages. My personal opinion is 
that so long as we have one grading law for the Dominion of Canada, it is not 
desirable that we make any changes in the No. 1 aud No. 2 grades, but I think 
it would be to the interest of the industry if you should give a definite opinion 
as to the grades. 

With respect to differentiation in grade names as between boxes and bar- 
rels, this, I believe, will be one of the most important questions discussed at the 
Dominion Conference. Our Commissioner in the United Kingdom sometime 
ago issued a report to the effect that Canadian exporters of boxed apples were 
losiiig money by reason of the fact that their apples were graded 1, 2, and 3, 
and they came in competition with the North-western States apples which were 
graded fancy, extra fancy and-ch'oice. That report has been given publicity and 
our friends in Britisli Columbia, who are in the boxed package altogether, have 
taken the matter up, and at their recent convention they passed a resolution that 
the grade names be changed, and that we adopt the faucy^, extra fancy and choice 
for boxed varieties only. That, of course, involves a new definition, probably, for 
th.e quality which shall be packed in boxes. I asked the Commissioner if he 
would prepare a memorandum in support of his contention that we were losing 
money by reason of this fact, and he has been good enougli to do so. I have that 
report with me, and if it is the wish of this meeting, I will read it because it 
gives a clear description of the situation in the markets of the United Kingdom, 
and will give the members of tliis Association an opportunity of expressing their 


ppiiiiou to the delegates who come to Ottawa, because I am sure the British 
Columbia representatives intend to put forth every effort to have this change 
made. I cannot give you my own opinion, because I have not had the privilege 
of watching the results of our marketing in the Old Country, but I am prepared 
to a(^cept ^Ir. l^Vjrsytli Smith's opinion without question: 

Case for Adoi-ting Amkijuax Gjlvdks and (Jijahr Xamks for Caxadia.v 

Boxed Apples. 

1. United Kingdom importers are practically unanimous in holding the view 
that Canadian boxed apples are seriously handicapped in competition with their 
cpmpetitor.s from Washington and Oregon, by their grade nomenclature as No. 1, 
and No. 2. 

2. The American grade names, Extra Fancy, Fancy and Choice, are all sug- 
gestive of excellence and quality, and tend to reinforce and direct the judgment c.f the 
buyers to the highest limit rendered possible by the actual quality as ascertained 
by inspection. Even No. 1, does not connote as high a degree of quality as Extra 
Fancy, and No. 2. and Nc. 3, definitely tend to suggest inferiority, which is most 

3. The boxed grades of Canadian apples are comparatively new on the market. 
The buyers have been familiar with the No. 1 and No. 2 barrel grades, and what 
they represent in quality and selection, for many years past. They inevitably tend 
to associate the boxed grades with the well-known barrel grades, to the decided dis- 
advantage of the former. American boxed grades are under no such handicap. 
They have no association whatever with barrel grades. 

4. The theory of the Canadian Sales and Inspection Act is that No. 1, and No. 
2, apples as defined, are the ,same whether packed in boxes or in barrels. As the 
Act only indicates the minimum requirements, no account is taken of the fact that 
the grading standard for boxes must necessarily be higher than that for barrels, 
and no account is taken of the fact that a fair proportion of No. 1, barrel apples 
could not be packed at all in boxe,s as No. 1. Again, the Act clearly contemplates a 
definite distinction between the sizes graded as No. 1, and those graded as No. 2, 
and, in practice, this is the case with the barrel-packed apples, No. 2, always being 
so consi,stently smaller than No. 1, that, on this market, size is recognized as the 
principal distinguishing factor, and the only one that is commonly put forward when 
claims of misgrading are made. In the case of boxes, there is no such distinction 
vntil we approach size.s that would justify grading as No. 3, in barrels. Boxed 
apples are commomy pacKea as small as 200, in the No. 1. Grade, although in the 
case of most varieties, these are much smaller than "medium ^ize ^'or the variety." 
Tt would, however, clearly be unreasonable to insist upon a stricter interpretation of 
the Sales and Inspection Act. in view of the fact that these smaller sizes, if of prime 
quality, usually make higher prices on this, perhaps, the most important market 
of the future, than .sizes 96 to 138, which, of course, are No. 1. sizes. The one out- 
standing distinguishing factor between No. 1, and No. 2, barrel apples is, there- 
fore, not a factor at all, or one of negligible importance in distinguishing the two 
grades in the box pack. In other words, Boxed No. 2, in spite of their being covered 
by the same legal definition, are not, and, under existing commercial conditions, 
cannot be, the .same as barrelled No. 2's, and being essentially different, there is 
no good reason for retaining them in a category to which they do not actually belong, 
especially when this carries with it a suggestion of inferiority which is detrimental 
to their competitive situation on the market. The plain fact that will have to be 
faced by Canada sooner or later, is that boxed and barrelled apples are essentially 
different in their grading requirements, and should, therefore, be described by dis- 
tinctive grade names, and by differing definitions, as is done in the United States. 
The American box and barrel grades developed separately, and each does the best 
for its own with outlet or hindrance. The Canadian grades were made for barrel 
apples, and have been applied to boxed apples, to wliich they are not adapted. 

A/ssuming that it will be generally conceded that commercial and not scientific 
or pomological considerations must be the paramount factors in determining grading 
principles, tlie fundamental point must be realized that the conditions affecting the 
sales of barrel apples are and always must be different from those affecting sale.s of 
boxes. Small-sized barrel apples could not be sold at high prices. Small-sized boxed 
apples can and are. The preference for comparatively .small sizes is inherent in the 


box package and is due to conditions that apply to boxes and do not apply to 
barrels. It is not that the market prefers small sizes per se. Other things being 
equal, large size,s would he preferred. But, the higher standard of selection in 
boxes makes them more costly. The public cannot afford to buy large sizes in 
boxes except at a discount, as they would, otherwise, be paying too much per 
apple. They are willing to forego large size, in itself desirable, if they get quality 
in it.s stead, at a lower price per unit. They can afford to pay, and do pay a premium 
for large sizes in barrels. And if boxed apples could be offered at a price equal 
to or less than barrel apples per fruit unit, large boxed apples would also sell at 
a premium. In this connection, it is interesting to note, that, this year, as a result 
of the lower prices of boxed apples, much better relative prices have been paid for 
large sizes than in previous years of high-price boxes. These facts, in all, appear 
to point logically, to the necessity for separate and distinctive grades for distinctly 
different products, boxed and barrelled apples. 

This, however, while so closely connected with the question of the change of 
box grade nomenclature a,s to be quite relevant in discussing it, raises a somewhat 
broader, and, probably, more controversial issue. It may also be objected that the 
size considerations mentioned do not apply to the home market, where the cost 
of boxed apples to the consumer is ao much less than abroad that size preferences 
are reversed, and, size 138 is more desirable, and, if sold by count, as in England, 
would bring more money than 175, and where, in fact, the demand for large apples 
is probably very much the .same whether they are packed in boxes or in barrels. It 
would appear, therefore, that immediate necessities would be met if present legal 
grades were retained as the minimum indications for both boxes and barrels, and 
it were enacted that, for boxes, the grade name.s, Extra Fancy, Fancy and Choice, 
should correspond to iNo. 1, No. 2, and No. 3, with the one modification of expressly, 
or, as at present, tacitly, permitting smaller sizes for .export. Box shipper,? with the 
advantage of distinctive names for the distinctively higher grading that must neces- 
sarily characterize the box pack, could then proceed to make and maintain their 
own grading regulations at as high a level as those of their competitors, Washington 
and Oregon. 

5. If the above recommendation is adopted, it will be necessary to raise the 
color requirements of No. 2 tp^ equality with Wa.shington and Oregon Fancy. 

6. The trade of the United Kingdom is practically unanimous in holding that 
a change to American grading nomenclature would result in higher prices for British 
Columbia apples. 

9. An importer calls attention to a point that is worthy of some consideration. 
A fair proportion of fruit is bought at auction by buyer»s, who are commissioned 
to buy by inland wholesales, who are either not members of the buyers associations, 
and, therefore, have not access to the salesrooms, or who cannot afford to take the 
time to be in per,sonal attendance. These buyers give their orders by mail, and, 
as American 'box grades are long established on the market, they ask for Extra Fancy 
and Fancy. It would be quite impossible to substitute Canadian No. 2, for these re- 
quested Fancy, and so Canada loses this business. 

10. It has been objected to the various considerations set forth above, that the 
Fruit Trade Commissioner has been emphatic in his declaration that the bidding at 
auctions is based upon judgments of quality and value formed after the most minute 
inspection of each particular lot offered for- sale, and that, therefore, there is an 
element of inconsistency in insisting that grade nomenclature is more than of negligable 
importance in determining values. This inconsistency i,s more apparent than real. 
Nothing can alter the fact that, in the case of Fancy Grade inspected for the sale, 
the attractive names act as a plus force reinforcing the buyers' inspection judgment, 
while, in the ca,se of No. 2, this designation is a minus force, working against it. 
The quality of remarkably good No. 2's would probably be able to prevail against this 
adverse influence. They would invite a particularly close inspection, and such in- 
spection confirming first impressions, the influence of known quality would be 
stronger than that of nomenclature. Average or inferior No. 2',s, would .be passed over 
as devoid of particular interest, and the debasing effect of the No. 2 classifications 
would have full effect. 

Me. Foster: Looking at this matter first-lianded, without having time to 
think about it, it appears to me that the Canadian brands would be handicapped 
on the European market in competition with the American, and that is not a good 
position to be in. We certainly are entitled to get all the credit for our fruit, 
and all the money out of it that it is possible to get in an honest way. I do not 

1922 FKUIT Gm)WEl?8^ ASSOC] ATiOX 75 

think it is a good thing- to have too many brands or too many names, and I 
think it is worthy of great consideration j- to whetlier a change should be made. 
Anything that will work out in the best interests of our fruit- and its marketing 
is wliat we want. 

The Chairman : I think we are all prepared to leave our interests so far 
as this is concerned in the liands of our delegates, without any further discussion. 


Investigations into thIi: Fruit Industry in Durham County 
AND tiip: Niagara Peninsula. 

C. E. Riley, O.A.C, Guelph. 

I do not propose to lead you through a maze of analytical figures in regard 
to the fruit business : I would rather discuss some of the general economic fea- 
tures as they exist at the present time. I notice on your programme that you 
have devoted time to the study of methods of controlling and handling those 
pests which affect your business; you have discussed methods of improving your 
crop; you even discussed ^putting labels on your boxes to procure an extra 
iOc. for your product; but the ordinary farmer sows the grain on his land, looks 
up into the sky and prays that the Lord will send rain, and he is pretty well 
finished with it. I have never yet met a really successful fruit grower who was 
not always worr3dng about some problem in connection -with his fruit growing 
business. There is an eternal fight to make a business out of it. AVhy do we have 
a business of that kind? 

If we started away back at the beginning, we might find that the factor of 
land was the important thing. In the beginning of the history of Ontario, we 
had land in abundance with practically no value, except tliat land which might 
be easily cleared would be taken sooner than any other land. All land had prac- 
tically an equal valuation for its ability to grow ordinary grain crops. 

In certain sections, some person discovered the fact that he could grow 
apples, and he could make more money growing apples than growing grain, and 
he immediately raised the value of his farm, because it would produce more than 
his neighbour's would growing grain or other crops. Then his neighbour dis- 
covered he could grow apples, and that his land was as good as the first man's, so 
he raised the value of his farm. We have an. example of that in the counties 
east of Toronto in the apple growing section where all land values are raised. The 
average land value in the survey which we made in Durham County of land 
without apples was $100 or $96 per acre; the fruit lands were valued at $181- 
per acre because they could produce larger revenues per acre. 

In the first survey we had 165 farms of 125 acres each, of a total valuation 
of $16,000, making an average labour income of $896. AYe had thirty-five farms 
devoted to orchards, of an average of 110 acres; average value of each farm 
$184 per acre; average labour income $964, which is $6S higher labour income. 
Those men had increased their revenues by planting apples, but they had raised 
their land values so closely to the increase that to pay 5*/^^ on their investment 
a man was making practically tlT^ ^^anie thinof ii^ the old farming hu>inosv n< in 
the fruit growing business. 


During 1919-1920 and 1920-1921^ the period of deflation started. Increasing 
of land values is good while revenues are increasing^ but in 1920 things began 
to look a little blacker for the fruit grower and for the farmer; the price of 
products dropped, and the costs of running his business if anything went up. 
We found that in 1920, that the mixed farmer instead of receiving interest on his 
money and a labour income of $896, had a minus labour income of $702, that 
is these 165 farmers in Durham €ounty who were not growing apples had nearly 
$1,600 of a drop. The apple growers had a labour income of $298; they sur- 
vived that deflation period a little better. 

That drop of $1,600 might be represented by four things : Two things wiped 
out the labour income of $896 received in 1920; one was the decreased price of 
farm products that brought the average returns down to about $500, and the 
increased cost wiped out the balance. The minus $700 was made up in writing 
off the inventory; values of livestock dropped; values of feed and supplies drop- 
ped. Fruit growers did not have such a large amount of stock on hand, and 
they did not have that deflation in their inventory; apple prices were main- 
tained fairly well, as a matter of fact they increased in 1920. 

Apples in 1919-1920 sold at $3.63; the average cost of producing them was 
$4.17. In the following year, the selling price was $1.02, and the cost of pro- 
duction $4.84, showing an increase not only in price but an increase in cost 
resulting in a decrease of their profits, but they survived that fairly Avell. The 
business should be down pretty well to the bottom now. 

With regard to the Niagara district, we have probably the greatest example 
in Ontario of increased values in farm land. Those old farms once had the same 
values as any other farms, but we have prosperity in the Niagara district — or 
evidence of it at least — that is not equalled in any other part of Ontario in agri- 
cultural lines. We have farms there worth five and ten times the market value 
placed on them. Improvements of all kinds have been made possible by that 
increase in value, which is due to the fact that somebody could grow fruit there and 
make a profit on it. 

Land is difl'erent from any other kind of capital in existence; there is a pos- 
sibility that land will increase in value. That is a speculative element. 

There is another big speculation in the fruit business, and that is in the busi- 
ness itself. In ordinary farming their returns range from zero to $3,000 or 
$4,000, with farms all the way in between. In fruit growing sections, you will 
find a group of say fifteen farmers with incomes quite low and fifteen others with quite high, and there is practically no intermediate stage, which indicates 
a speculative business. That speculative element can be to a certain extent over- 
come by a diversity of business, to cover the greatest possible number of sources of 

We found with a yield of under twenty barrels per acre, the cost of producing 
a barrel of apples was $6.48; where the yield was from twenty to forty barrels 
per acre the cost was $5.36; over forty barrels, $3.76, allowing the owner wages 
and interest on his money. We found the man with the low yields spent $7.60 
per acre for labour, or $23.00 per acre of orchard land. We find the man with the 
high yields spent $11 for every acre in his farm, or $68 for every acre of orchard 
which he had. $23 yielded under twenty barrels of apples; $68 yielded prac- 
tically three times as much money. More money spent for labour resulted in cut- 
ting the cost practically in half by increasing the yield. That is an important 


With regard to our tonuito iiivcstigcitious, although the average cost might 
indicate a loss liguring interest and labour, yet, we find that where a reasonably 
large amount oi* money and labour were expended on the crop, it proved profit- 
a])le. There is one thing in connection with those costs that has to be borne in 
mi-nd : farm costs vary from other manufacturing costs in that so much of it may 
be made up of the owner's own labour and his own capital. We find that the 
tomato growers where the cost, figured on a basis of interest, labour and all ex- 
penses, amounts to 90c. a bushel, had sufficient out of 50c. to pay all direct cash 
expenses. We find the average man in growing tomatoes paid all his expenses, 
had 30c. for labour and 3.1% interest on his investment. 

Studying the returns in other sections of the Niagara district, although we 
found the average returns to be fairly uniform in each section, yet we found in 
St. Catharines, for instance, an average labour income of $2,000 for 1920. We 
found the best 25% of these men making $6,000 labour income, and the poorest 
25% making minus $1,000. There is a difference of $7,000 between the best 
culture and the poorest culture. Around Jordan and Vineland we found the 
largest profits were made on those farms where a large amount of small fruit 
and grapes were grown. Around Beamsville on those little farms, we could not 
find any apparent cause for the difi^erence in income, until we began studying the 
])ersonal factor. 

We divided the farms up according to the years that the men had spent on 
those farms, and we discovered a very important factor in connection with the 
success of the fruit business. We had twenty-two farms on which men had spent 
less than two years, with an average size of thirteen acres, and an average labour 
income of $503 — 39% adjusted labour income. Adjusted labour income means 
adjusted by size; men are buying smaller farms than they were fifteen or twenty 
years ago, on account of the price, so that these farms w^ere not uniform in size, 
and we had to average them, taking 100 acres as the average size. Men who 
had from two to five years' experience, their labour income was 87% of the aver- 
ago; men on the farm for six to ten years had a labour income slightly above the 
average, 106%. Men on farms over twenty years had an adjusted labour income of 
127%, or 27% better than the average. We had fifteen old homestead farm&, farms 
run by young men, some of them graduates of the colleges, averaging thirty-three 
years of age. There were two generations of experience in the fruit growing busi- 
ness there, and their adjusted lal)Our incomes was 157%, or 57% better than the 
average num. Tlieir average was $3,966 actual labour income. Inexperience gave 
39% income: two generations of experience gave 1577c, a difference of 118% due 
to experience. 

There are a number of ways of impro\iiig tlie fruit growing business. The 
easiest way is to improve your markets and raise the price. Another way is to 
reduce the cost, and you can do that by cutting expenses, or increasing expense^ 
and increasing the returns. 

In all the work ^ve have done in the fruit growing liusiness. we liave found the 
increasing of the yields to be the essential thing. I do not want to leave any 
wrong impressions with you. I think I have made it clear that for the average 
man, the fruit growing business offers the same oi)portunity as any other business. 
If he has no experience he will fail to a greater extent than in any other kind 
of farming : if he is a good man ho will make more money in the fruit business 
than in any other kind of farming, and there is probably no department in our 
agricultural development that requires so much experience, so mucli knowledge 
and so much study as the fruit growino- business. 

78 THE EEPORT OF THE i<o. 44 

J. W. Crow, Professor of Horticulture, O.A.C, Guelph. 

The Province of Ontario possesses natural advantages for fruit growing which, 
I fear, are not fully recognized, even by ourselves, and which in some respects 
are not surpassed by those of any State or Province on the continent. Oilr 
climate, soil and location with respect to markets are so much more favorable 
than those enjoyed by any of our competitors as to make our continuance in the 
business certain. Fruit growing ought to be, and eventually will be, a far more 
important source of revenue than it is to-day and the advantages I shall attempt 
to outline are in my judgment actual and real. 

It is not generally realized that in our inland location, a thousand miles 
from seaboard, and lying between latitudes 42° and 45° we nevertheless possess 
extensive areas of good fruit soil ranging in altitude as low as 250 feet above sea 
level. We possess a summer season long enough and warm enough to mature pro- 
perly any variety of apple, pear, plum, cherry or peach which can be grown 
anywhere on this continent. We possess a winter season moderately cold but 
steady and on the whole our climate is singularly free from the extreme changes 
of temperature common to other inland regions and characteristic of almost all 
of the commercial fruit districts of Am.erica. We derive a greater benefit from 
the modifying effect of the Great Lakes upon temperature, snowfall and humidity 
than any of the states lying adjacent thereto. Our summer season has sufficient 
rainfall and is sufficiently free from periods of extreme heat to bring strawberries 
to a high state of perfection with most creditable yields. Raspberries, currants, 
gooseberries and grapes are likewise grown to perfection. 

Our local topography is in some cases of such a nature as to secure for us 
the maximum benefit of our favorable latitude and low altitude. The fruit belt 
proper of the Niagara district in Ontario holds the record, I believe, for continu- 
ous commercial crop production. The only complete peach failure known in this 
district occurred in the year 1914. So far as I am aware no commercial peach 
district in North America can equal this record. The explanation lies in the 
fact that pur winter is sufficiently steady to keep the buds dormant and to pre- 
vent the mid-winter advances which are common and disastrous in other peach 
districts, not excepting even those of Georgia or California. I have no doubt 
the same condition pertains at least in some measure to plums and cherries also, 
as they are likewise easily damaged by cold weather following mild periods in 

In general I believe careful observation would establish the fact that fruit 
trees in our climate bear more heavily than they do farther south; also, that they 
are longer lived and more vigorous. Fruit trees in the north require less heat 
to bring them into bloom, and I am inclined to the view that the heavier bearing 
of trees in the north may be due to the extraordinary vigor of early spring growth 
in our climate. In this connection it may be pointed out that the comparative 
coldness of our winter may be a blessing in disguise. Freezing is well known to 
have the effect of shortening the rest period of hardy plants and there is in my. 
mind no doubt that the resulting vigor of growth may have an important effect 
upon bud formation. In this connection I beg leave to refer you to another 
paper written for this convention and dealing with early spring growth conditions 
as related to fruitfulness. 

It should be remarked also that the climate of the Province of Ontario is 
remarkably free from frosts in the growing season. There are important fruit 


districts lying a thousand miles nearer tlie equator than we are in which frost 
fighting apparatus forms an essential part of orchard equipment. A total crop 
failure among tree fruits due to frosts at blossom time is almost unknown in this 

With respect to markets 1 am very glad indeed that this subject is now be- 
ginning to receive the attention it has long merited. It would appear that there 
is no lack of markets for high grade fruit, although there is still much to be done 
in the direction of organizing for efficient marketing. It might be well to bear 
in mind that there is and can be no profitable market for poor fruit and in this 
sense it seems to me impossible to draw a line between activities which relate to 
marketino- and those whicli relate to the production of fruit of sufficiently high 
grade to be worth marketing. 

That fruit growing is a profitable line of industry is, I believe, very plainly 
brought out in connection with Professor Leitch^s surveys conducted in the Niagara 
District and in Durham County. Land values for fruit growing purposes are 
still rising. Particularly is this true in apple growing, and this industry offers 
unusual opportunities to skilled men. 

The fruit industry in the Niagara Peninsula shows a record of almost con- 
tinuous expansion from 1896 down to the present. This has been brought about 
by improvement in transportation facilities, in marketing methods and in grading 
and packin.o- the product. Throughout the apple districts, however, there has 
been very little commercial planting since 1912, with very heavy losses from 
winter killing occurring in 1913-14 and again in 1917-18. The extent of the 
losses iji the latter winter amounted to nothing less than a national calamity and 
would, no doubt, total one-quarter or one-third of the commercial bearing trees 
of the Province. It might be mentioned here that losses from this cause are pre- 
ventable for it is surely possible to propagate our fruit trees upon hardy roots. 
Efforts in this direction should be undertaken without delay. 

The small farm orchard which formerly produced the bulk of tlie com- 
mercial crop is, in my judgm.ent, a thing of the past and while there will be, no 
doubt, in future many apple orchards operated as side lines on mixed farms we 
need more large orchards operated by specialists. The prospects for apple grow- 
ing were never brighter in Ontario than they are to-day, but if the industry is to 
prosper the orchard must be looked after in poor years as well as in good years. 
Small orchards are certain to l)e neglected in poor years. We need orchards of 
from twenty to fifty acres — the more the better. 

There is much discussion with regard to the most suitable varieties, and a 
great lack of information concerning several which have been suggested. In my 
judgment one of the most regretable occurrences was the discontinuation of the 
Fruit Experiment Stations which for many years furnished reliable information 
on varieties for the several districts. There are, nevertheless, dependable varieties 
for every district. It will probably be many years before we can supersede the 
Spy as a late keeping winter apple of high quality and while in general I do not 
consider the Spy as the most profitable variety which could be grown I feel very 
certain that we are not yet making the most of its valuable qualities. The Spy 
is certainly a box apple, second to none in its season, the most serious objection 
urged against it being that it produces too many low grade fruits. In my judg- 
ment here is a problem to be solved only by hand thinning of fruit on the tree. 
The Wealthy, Snow and Mcintosh cannot be excelled as box apples in their 
proper seasons. 

80 THE REPOKT OF THE ^o. 44 

The future of the fruit, growing industry in this Province will be entirely 
what we make it. Prof. Leitch's survey results show that an orchard properly taken 
care of pays well, and that a neglected orchard is a cause of loss. In other words, 
profit in fruit growing is a matter of spending money in order to make money. 
] believe the fruit grower is anxious to learn of better methods, and I believe 
further that so far as educational agencies are concerned the problem is to show 
him how to invest his time and money to best advantasre in carino- for his orchard. 


The following resolutions were adopted : 

1. That a committee be appointed to bring l^efore the proper authorities 
the desirability of having the duty removed on miscible oils. 

2. That this Convention of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association hereby 
petition the Federal Department of Agriculture to change the regulations with 
regard to Government assistance towards the establishment of cold storage ware- 
houses, so that such assistance may be available for co-operative marketing com- 
panies as well as municipalities. 

3. That the following resolution from the Clarkson Association Ije approved 
and forwarded to the local associations in the Niagara District for joint action: 
That the Clarkson Fruit Growers^ Association are opposed to the present rate 
of commission charged by commission merchants, and asks that such rate be 
loAvered, and that a copy of this resolution be sent to the Secretary of the Ontario 
Fruit Growers' Association." 

4. That this Convention approve of the proposed formation of a national 
Horticultural Council as outlined by Mr. C. W. Baxter. 

o. That the President and Secretary be appointed to meet representatives 
from other horticultural bodies in reference to a National Show and Association. 

6. We, the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association, are convinced that the pre- 
sent condition of the apple-growing industry merits the careful consideration of 
this Association; that the question of desirable varieties for planting in the 
various districts of the Province is one of great importance; that so many new 
and uncommon varieties are being offered and the present list does not entirely 
meet the requirem.ents for hardy and late-keeping varieties demanded for export 
trade; that the experimental orchards at the Ontario Agricultural College. Guelph, 
and at the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, are both situated in districts 
having very severe winters and are therefore handicapped on account of their 
location, and the Experimental Station at Vine] and is located in a district hav- 
ing a much milder climate but has not the space to devote to extensive varietal 

Therefore be it resolved that we petition the Minister of Agriculture for 
Ontario to take the necessary steps to establisli a permanent testino- station at 
some suitable point in one of the principal apple-growing districts not now served 
by any experiment station, so that the many varieties grown at the present time, 
and especially those which seem to be of promise for Ontario conditions, may be 
thoroughly tested, and so new varieties may undergo reliable tests before being 
recommended or planted. We would point out that such a station would greatly 
assist the apple growers of Ontario, and encourage the early planting of desirable 




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