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Full text of "Annual report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service"



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Given By 

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UNITED STAT E S 



ANNUAL REPORT 

y^ OF THE 

^Immigration and Naturalization Service 
Washington, D. C. 




FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 



1955 



PUBLIC 



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DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 
Washington 25, D. C. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER 
OF IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



The Attorney General 

United States Department of Justice 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the Annual Report of the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service for the year ending 
June 30, 1955. This has been a year of gratifying results in some 
of the aggravated trouble spots of the Service, and of the estab- 
lishment of an organization geared for more effective and cohesive 
operation. 

This report narrates our accomplishments of the past year and 
some of our aims for the future. 



Respectfully submitted. 



J. M. Swing 
Commissioner 



Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Foreword 1 

Inspections 2 

Classes of Applicants for Admission 3 

Citizens 3 

Immigrants 3 

Nonimmigrants and resident aliens 4 

Agricultural laborers 4 

Crewmen 5 

Resident aliens 5 

Exclusions 5 

Detention and parole of applicants for admission 6 

Aliens in the United States 6 

Alien registration 6 

Adjustment of status 8 

Refugee Relief Act of 1953 8 

Creation of record of admission 8 

Other adjustment of status 8 

Prevention of Illegal Entry and Expulsion Process 9 

Anti-smuggling and stowaway operations 9 

Land border security operations 10 

Deportation Program 13 

Document control 13 

General searches 14 

Wetbacks 14 

Anti-subversive operations 15 

Anti-criminal operations 16 

Visa fraud and false document operations 16 

Detention and Parole 16 

Deportations 17 

Deportation hearings 17 

Stay of deportation — physical persecution 18 

Trainlift 18 

Boathft 19 

Airlift 19 

Unexecuted orders of deportation 20 

Litigation 20 

iii 



Page 

Nationality 21 

Declaration of intention 21 

Applications for naturalization 22 

Naturalization of members of armed forces 23 

Naturalization courts 23 

Derivative citizenship 23 

Citizenship services 23 

NationaHty investigations 24 

Legislation and Litigation 25 

Public laws 25 

Private legislation 26 

Litigation 26 

Prosecutions 27 

Internal Management 27 

Field inspection and security 29 

Personnel 31 

Recruitment 31 

Promotion 31 

Employee recognition 33 

Training 33 

Budget 34 

Finance, Procurement, and Property Management 35 

Accounting 35 

Procurement and property management 35 

Procurement of office quarters 35 

Information and Records Administration 36 

Statistics 37 



APPENDIX 



Table Page 

1. Immigration to the United States: 1820 to 1955 39 

2. Aliens and citizens admitted and departed, by months: Years ended 

June 30, 1954 and 1955 40 

2-A. Aliens and citizens arrived and examined at United States ports of entry: 

Years ended June 30, 1954 and 1955 41 

3. Aliens admitted, by classes under the immigration laws: Years ended 

June 30, 1951 to 1955 42 

4. Immigration by country, for decades: 1820 to 1955 43 

5. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, by port or 

district: Years ended June 30, 1951 to 1955 47 

6. Immigrant aliens admitted, by classes under the immigration laws and 

country or region of birth: Year ended June 30, 1955 48 

6-A. Immigrant aliens admitted, by classes under the immigration laws and 
country or region of last permanent residence: Year ended June 30, 

1955 49 

6-B. Refugees, displaced persons, and other immigrant aliens admitted to the 
United States, by country or region of birth: Year ended June 30, 

1955 51 

6-C. Maximum visas authorized and immigrant aliens admitted to the 
United States under the Refugee Relief Act of 1953: Years ended 
June 30, 1954 and 1955 52 

7. Annual quotas and quota immigrants admitted: Years ended June 30, 

1951 to 1955 53 

7-A. Quota immigrants admitted, by preferences: Years ended June 30, 1954 

and 1955 54 

8. Immigrant aliens admitted, by country or region of birth and major 

occupation group: Year ended June 30, 1955 55 

9. Immigrant aliens admitted, by country or region of birth, sex, and age: 

Year ended June 30, 1955 57 

10. Immigrant aliens admitted, by race, sex, and age: Year ended June 30, 

1955 58 

10-A. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, by sex, age, 

illiteracy, and major occupation group: Years ended June 30, 1951 

to 1955 59 

10-B. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, by country 

or region of birth, sex, and marital status: Year ended June 30, 1955. 60 

11. Aliens and citizens admitted and departed: Years ended June 30, 1908 

to 1955 61 

12. Inimigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, by State of 

intended future or last permanent residence: Years ended June 30, 
1951 to 1955 62 

12-A. Immigrant aliens admitted, by rural and urban area and city: Years 

ended June 30, 1951 to 1955 63 

13. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, by country 

or region of last or intended future permanent residence: Years ended 
June 30, 1951 to 1955 64 

13-A. Immigrant aliens admitted, by country or region of birth: Years ended 

June 30, 1946 to 1955 65 

14. Emigrant aliens departed, by race, sex, and age: Year ended June 30, 

1955 66 



APPENDIX (Continued) 



Table Page 

14-A. Emigrant aliens departed, by country or region of birth and major 

occupation group: Year ended June 30, 1955 67 

15. Emigrant aliens departed, by country or region of birth, sex, and age: 

Year ended June 30, 1955 69 

16. Nonimmigrant aliens admitted, by classes under the immigration laws 

and country or region of birth: Year ended June 30, 1955 70 

17. Nonimmigrant aliens admitted, by classes under the immigration laws 

and country or region of last permanent residence: Year ended June 

30, 1955 72 

17-A. Agricultural laborers admitted to the United States: Years ended 

June 30, 1950 to 1955 74 

18. Nonimmigrant aliens admitted and nonemigrant aliens departed, by 

country or region of last or intended future permanent residence: 
Years ended June 30, 1951 to 1955 75 

19. Aliens excluded from the United States: Years ended June 30, 1892 

to 1955 77 

20. Aliens excluded from the United States, by cause: Years ended June 30, 

1949 to 1955 78 

21. Aliens excluded, by country or region of birth and cause: Year ended 

June 30, 1955 79 

22. Alien crewmen deserted at United States air and seaports, by nationality 

and flag of carrier: Year ended June 30, 1955 81 

23. Vessels and airplanes inspected, crewmen admitted, and stowaways 

arrived, by regions and districts: Years ended June 30, 1954 and 
1955 82 

24. Aliens deported, by country to which deported and cause: Year ended 

June 30, 1955 83 

24-A. Aliens deported and aliens departing voluntarily: Years ended June 30, 

1892 to 1955 84 

25. Aliens deported, by country to which deported and deportation ex- 

pense: Year ended June 30, 1955 85 

26. Inward movement of aliens and citizens over international land bound- 

aries, by State and port: Year ended June 30, 1955 86 

27. United States citizens returning at land border ports: Years ended June 

30, 1946 to 1955 89 

28. Inward movement of aliens and citizens over international land bound- 

aries: Years ended June 30, 1928 to 1955 90 

29. Principal activities and accomplishments of immigration border patrol, 

by regions and districts: Year ended June 30, 1955 91 

30. Passenger travel between the United States and foreign countries, by 

port of arrival or departure: Year ended June 30, 1955 92 

31. Passengers arrived in the United States from foreign countries, by 

country of embarkation: Year ended June 30, 1955 94 

32. Passengers departed from the United States to foreign countries, by 

country of debarkation: Year ended June 30, 1955 100 

33. Aliens deported, by cause: Years ended June 30, 190S to 1955 106 

34. Pas.senger travel by air and by sea between Puerto Rico and continen- 

tal United States (mainland) and the Virgin Islands: Years ended 
June 30, 1947 to 1955 109 



APPENDIX (Continued) 

Table Page 

35. Passenger travel by air and sea between Hawaii and continental United 

States (mainland) and insular or outlying possessions: Years ended 
June 30, 1947 to 1955 110 

36. Aliens who reported under the Alien Address Program, by States of 

residence: During years 1953 to 1955 Ill 

37. Declarations of intention filed, petitions for naturalization filed, and 

persons naturalized: Years ended June 30, 1907 to 1955 112 

38. Persons naturalized, by general and special naturalization provisions 

and country or region of former allegiance: Year ended June 30, 1955 113 

39. Persons naturalized, by country or region of former allegiance: Years 

ended June 30, 1946 to 1955 114 

40. Persons naturalized, by country or region of former allegiance and 

major occupation group: Year ended June 30, 1955 116 

41. Persons naturalized and petitions for naturalization denied: Years 

ended June 30, 1907 to 1955 118 

42. Persons naturalized, by sex and marital status, with comparative 

percent of total: Years ended June 30, 1947 to 1955 119 

43. Persons naturalized, by sex and age: Years ended June 30, 1947 to 1955 . 120 

44. Persons naturalized, by States and territories of residence: Years ended 

June 30, 1951 to 1955 121 

45. Persons naturalized, by specified countries of former allegiance and by 

rural and urban area and city: Year ended June 30, 1955 122 

46. Persons naturalized, by country or region of birth and year of entry: 

Year ended June 30, 1955 123 

46-A. Persons naturalized, by country or region of birth and country or region 

of former allegiance: Year ended June 30, 1955 125 

47. Persons naturalized, by general and special naturalization provisions : 

Years ended June 30, 1951 to 1955 131 

48. Writs of habeas corpus in exclusion and deportation cases: Years ended 

June 30, 1946 to 1955 132 

49. Prosecutions for immigration and nationality violations: Years ended 

June 30, 1946 to 1955 133 

50. Private bills introduced and laws enacted, 75th Congress to 84th Con- 

gress, First Session 134 

51. Petitions for naturalization denied, by reason: Years ended June 30, 

1951 to 1955 135 

52. Certificates of naturalization revoked, by grounds: Years ended June 

30, 1951 to 1955 136 

53. Persons expatriated, by grounds: Years ended June 30, 1951 to 1955. . . 136 

54. Persons repatriated: Years ended June 30, 1951 to 1955 137 

55. Certificates of derivative citizenship granted, by country or region of 

birth: Years ended June 30, 1954 and 1955 138 



ANNUAL REPORT OF 

JOSEPH M. SWING, COMMISSIONER 

OF IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



FOREWORD 

The Immigration and Naturalization Service made notable ad- 
vances during the fiscal year 1955 in all operational and adminis- 
trative functions. The most outstanding accomplishments were 
tight security along the southwest border and the Service-wide 
reorganization which provided greater over-all efficiency. 

The Service is responsible for the administration and enforce- 
ment of the Immigration and Nationality Act and related statutes, 
and furnishes services of many kinds and in great volume prin- 
cipally to people of foreign birth. The Commissioner of Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization, under the direction of the Attorney Gen- 
eral, is the chief administrative officer for the Service, 

Functionally the work of the Service logically falls into the 
following activities: (1) inspections, which include the examina- 
tion of persons applying for admission or reentry, facilitation of 
the entry of those lawfully admissible and the exclusion of aliens 
found to be inadmissible; (2) enforcing the provisions of the law 
relating to alien registration and administering the benefits pro- 
vided for aliens in the United States; (3) discharging the power 
and duty of the Attorney General to control and guard the borders 
of the United States against the illegal entry of aliens and seeking, 
taking into custody and expelling aliens illegally in the United 
States; (4) nationality, which includes the encouragement, as- 
sistance and facilitation of naturalization of aliens who are eligi- 
ble and the prevention of naturalization of aliens not qualified 
for citizenship; and (5) internal management. 



Report op the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



Inspections 

More people entered the United States through ports of entry 
in fiscal 1955 than ever before in the history of this country. 
Arrivals of citizens and aliens through sea and land ports totaled 
123,859,654. As in past years, border crossings constituted 97 per 
cent of the total arrivals, Canadian border trafl^c having increased 
one per cent and that on the Mexican border seven per cent. 

The all-time high of admissions was about equally divided be- 
tween United States citizens and aliens. The vast majority of 
these first came to the attention of the Immigration and Natural- 
ization Service at coastal seaports and at ports on our two land 
borders. However, 21 ofl^icers continued their examination of and 
determination of admissibility of applicants under the Refugee 
Relief Act in Europe and the Far East and particular attention 
was given to the possibilities inherent in the preinspection and 
en route examination of applicants with the common purpose of 
determining their admissibility before they physically arrive in 
the United States. Preinspection of aircraft was extended from 
Toronto and Winnipeg, Canada, to Montreal and Bermuda. En 
route inspection was inaugurated on vessels of the two major 
steamship lines plying from the Far East coupled with preinspec- 
tion from Honolulu to the mainland. In the succeeding fiscal year 
this Service hopes to broaden preinspection to cover major points 
in the Western Hemisphere around the periphery of the United 
States and to extend en route inspection by inaugurating such 
services on selected vessels in the Atlantic. 

Further implementing President Eisenhower's Message to the 
83rd Congress emphasizing the importance of international travel, 
additional documentary waivers were authorized during the year. 
Resident aliens may make visits to Canada, Mexico, Cuba, the 
Dominican Republic, Bermuda, and the Bahamas for less than 30 
days and return without presenting a visa, reentry permit or 
border crossing card. To further facilitate travel, a waiver of the 
visa requirements has been granted British subjects in Bermuda 
seeking entry into the United States as temporary visitors. A 
similar waiver is contemplated for Cuban visitors upon adoption 
of preinspection in Cuba. In addition, the waiver of passport re- 
quirements for immigrants has been extended to include parents 
of United States citizens and children of citizens and resident 
aliens. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 3 

All actions taken by the Service toward facilitation of inter- 
national travel in no way relaxed safeguards to protect the borders 
of the United States against entry of subversives or criminals. 

Classes of Applicants For Admission 

Citizens. A total of 60,231,890 citizens arrived at ports of entry 
during the year, an increase of 1,881,906. 58,152,049 of the total 
were border crossers. 

Immigrants. Immigration in fiscal 1955 totaled 237,790, a 14 
per cent increase over the previous year when 208,177 immi- 
grants were admitted. The percentile increase is attributable to 
admission of 29,002 immigrants under the Refugee Relief Act 
and a continued rise in nonquota immigration from the Western 
Hemisphere. 

Quota immigration of 82,232 in 1955 reversed the upward 
trend of 1954 and dropped 13 per cent. Quota immigrants ad- 
mitted included 80 per cent nonpreference admissions, 17 per 
cent preference admissions, and 3 percent were admitted as dis- 
placed persons. 

Professional and semi-professional workers constitute a major- 
ity of first preference quota immigrants. Such admissions since 
effective date of the Immigration and Nationality Act include 532 
engineers and 315 physicians. 

Quotas for Northern and Western European countries were 
nearly filled in fiscal 1955. Exceptions were Great Britian, Ire- 
land and Sweden. Mortgaging of quotas affected immigrants born 
in Lithuania, Yugoslavia, Poland and Russia, reducing such quota 
immigrants by half. Estonian and Latvian quotas are mortgaged 
beyond the year 2000. 

Nonquota immigrants totaled 155,558, the highest number since 
1927, nearly double the quota immigration. A substantial major- 
ity of nonquota immigrants came from Western Hemisphere 
countries. 

By close of the fiscal year 29,823 immigrants had been admitted 
under the Refugee Relief Act, which provides for 209,000 special 
quota exempt visas between August 7, 1953 and December 31, 
1956. The largest single group admitted under the Act was Ital- 
ians who are close relatives of United States citizens or resident 
aliens. 

Admissions during 1955 included 30,882 spouses and children 
of United States citizens. Many of these came from foreign points 



4 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

where there are heavy concentrations of United States Armed 
Forces. 

A total of 68,627,764 aliens arrived at ports of entry, an in- 
crease of 3,913,010 over the preceeding- year. 61,611,311 were 
border crossers. 

Visa petitions for first preference quota status, or for non- 
quota or preference quota status of relatives of United States 
citizens or for clergymen totaled 79,962. Approval was given to 
73,231. Principal beneficiaries were close relatives of United States 
citizens. European offices of the Service received 7,988 visa peti- 
tions in behalf of spouses and children of military personnel 
stationed in Europe. 

Nonimmigrants and Resident Aliens. A record high of 620,946 
nonimmigrant alien admissions was noted in 1955. Nonimmi- 
grants include: foreign government officials; temporary visitors 
for business or pleasure ; aliens in transit ; treaty traders and in- 
vestors ; students ; representatives to international organizations ; 
temporary workers and industrial trainees; representatives of 
foreign information media; and exchange aliens. This category 
does not include agricultural laborers, crewmen, and border 
crossers. An all-time high of 401,090 temporary visitors were 
admitted during 1955. Student admissions also continued high, 
and showed an increase of about 2,000 over the preceding fiscal 
year. Most of the new students came from Canada and other 
Western Hemisphere countries. There was, however, a heavy 
sprinkling from Asiatic countries. 

Agricultural Laborers. The Service processed admissions of 
351,191 agricultural laborers during 1955. The bulk of these was 
337,996 Mexican workers ; the remainder came from Canada and 
the British West Indies. 221,709 such laborers were admitted in 
1954. 

Many farmers in the Southwest United States are dependent 
upon migratory labor for their planting and harvesting. To pro- 
vide better service for such agriculturists, means are provided 
by which they can readily recontract Mexican agricultural labor- 
ers who have proven to be satisfactory or skilled. Under this sys- 
tem the farmer is assured of receiving efficient workers. 

Processing has been streamlined at the reception centers. Most 
farmers now favor employment of legally contracted Mexican 
laborers. Use of "braceros" removes the fear that workers will 
be removed from farms at inopportune times. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 5 

The Service undertook a new documentation program for 
braceros to speed processing of these migrant workers. This pro- 
gram, to be carried out in fiscal 1956, is based on issuance of a 
laminated card to braceros whose records contain no derogatory 
information. This card, retained by the worker, indicates he has 
been screened and eliminates much "paper shuffling" when he 
appears at a processing center for primary immigration inspec- 
tion. This program will build a sufficient reservoir of competent, 
tested farm laborers to meet emergent needs, whose freedom from 
any subversive tendencies has been thoroughly investigated and 
established before issuance of the card. 

Crewmen. Inspection of citizen and alien crewmen of United 
States and foreign vessels and airplanes is an important phase 
of Service immigration inspections. Crewmen admissions for 
fiscal 1955 increased to more than 2,250,000, accompanied by a 
21 per cent increase in desertions. The number of arriving car- 
riers also increased, and Service officers inspected 58,477 vessels 
and 113,507 airplanes. 

Resident Aliens. The admission of 61,442 resident aliens return- 
ing from temporary absence abroad set another record in 1955. 
Most of those who departed were abroad less than one year. 
80,252 applications for issuance or continuation of the validity 
of reentry permits were approved to facilitate the return of resi- 
dent aliens. 

Exclusions 

Applicants seeking admission to the United States who have 
been held for proceedings before a Special Inquiry Officer because 
a doubt has arisen as to their admissibility have, in nearly all in- 
stances, received prompt hearings. Thus, delays and inconvenience 
to travelers under such proceedings are held to a minimum. 

In fiscal 1955, despite the over-all increase in international 
travel, the Service was required to conduct fewer exclusion hear- 
ings than in either of the two previous years. The Service con- 
ducted 10,467 exclusion hearings in 1955, and the downward 
trend is expected to continue in the next fiscal year, in line with 
the Service policy to avoid expense and time involved in such 
hearings where other satisfactory disposition of the case can be 
made and the Government's interests protected. 

Accordingly, supervisory officers in the field have been in- 
structed to resolve as many cases of technical admissibility as 



6 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

possible through review of action by inspecting officers or exer- 
cise of discretionarj^ powers. 

Exclusions totaled slightly more than 2,500. More than half 
were natives of Mexico, Exclusions included 89 subversives and 
340 aliens in the criminal, immoral and narcotic categories. 

Detefifion and Parole of Applicants for Admission. Detentions 
of aliens were at the lowest figure in the history of the Service 
at the close of 1955. This was accomplished through a new deten- 
tion policy begun in November 1954, under which only those 
aliens likely to abscond and those whose release would be inimical 
to the national security are detained. Many aliens whose papers 
were not in order were previously detained at Ellis Island and 
other facilities. Under the present policy, most aliens with purely 
technical difficulties are allowed to proceed to their destination 
under "parole." 

Within ten days of the change, the number of aliens in deten- 
tion in New York City dropped to about 25, compared with a 
usual detention population of several hundred. Ellis Island and 
other large facilities were closed. From the inception of the new 
program to the close of the fiscal year more than 200,000 aliens 
entered the United States through the port of New York and only 
16 of these were detained. 

As the fiscal year drew to a close the Service had put into effect, 
and found workable, a humane detention program while main- 
taining positive safeguards and security measures for protection 
of the Government and the public interest. 

Aliens In The United States 

The alien population of the United States has remained at ap- 
proximately 2,300,000 during the past five years. 

Alien Registration. Visas surrendered by newly-arrived immi- 
grants are now forwarded from ports of entry to the immigration 
office supervising the area in which the alien will live. This pre- 
vents delay in issuing alien registration receipt cards, which 
each alien is required by law to have in his possession. 

By designating the alien registration receipt card to serve also 
as a border crossing card the Service simplified its border cross- 
ing procedure. This eliminated all resident alien border crossing 
cards, and resulted in savings in M'ork and expense connected 
with their issuance. 

Alien address reports, required by law each January from all 



Report of the Imm igration and Naturalization Service 




8 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

aliens except those in diplomatic or other special status, totaled 
slightly more than 2,300,000 in fiscal 1955. 

A vigorous public information program was undertaken in late 
1954 to bring the widest possible attention to the 1955 Address 
Report Program. Aid of public information media was sought 
and received. Transit and other private advertising space was 
made available for posters and cards. At the same time plans 
were formulated to capture even greater public attention for the 
program during the next fiscal year. 

Adjustment of Status: Refugee Relief Act of 1953. A steady 
accumulation of applications filed under Section 6 of the Refugee 
Relief Act during fiscal 1954 and 1955 required that concerted 
action be taken to achieve a substantial reduction in the pending 
caseload. Beginning in February 1955, all regions were instructed 
to place emphasis on completing Section 6 applications and to see 
that sufficient personnel was available to meet the needs of this 
program. The procedures for processing and adjudicating Section 
6 applications were reexamined and simplified as a further means 
of facilitating this objective. 

This program has already yielded substantial results. At the 
close of fiscal 1955 the Service had completed 5,243 cases and 
1,954 were pending, compared to 1,027 completed in 1954 and 
3,533 pending. The terminal date for filing applications for ad- 
justment of status under Section 6 of the Refugee Relief Act co- 
incided with the end of the fiscal year (June 30, 1955). In the 
coming fiscal year, the Service will continue its accelerated pro- 
gram, with the objective of finalizing all pending Section 6 cases 
and thereby closing out the Service's responsibility in this field 
of activity. 

Creation of Record of Admission for Permanent Residence. The 
Immigration and Nationality Act permitted creation of a record 
of entry for permanent residence in the cases of certain admis- 
sible aliens otherwise unable to prove lawful admission. Applica- 
tions for such actions have been heavy, and resulted in a continu- 
ing backlog. Processing of these cases was improved at the be- 
ginning of fiscal 1955, with the result that 9,821 applications 
were approved, 577 denied, and a backlog of 6,151 was reduced 
to 4,742. 

Other Adjustment of Status. Under Section 4 of the Displaced 
Persons Act of 1948, as amended, the Service submitted to Con- 
gress 338 cases of displaced persons. All adjustments under this 
provision of law were practically closed when 1,522 displaced per- 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 9 

sons, most of whose applications for adjustment were pending 
end of fiscal 1954, became permanent residents in fiscal 1955. A 
total of 1,089 suspension of deportation cases was submitted to 
Congress and 1,644 aliens became permanent residents under that 
procedure. The status of 295 permanent resident aliens was 
changed to nonimmigrant, and 1,822 nonimmigrants in the United 
States were adjusted to permanent residents. 

The judicial committees of Congress have approved renewal of 
the preexamination procedure which permits aliens eligible for 
admission to the United States except for lack of a visa to pro- 
ceed to Canada in order to obtain such visa and thereafter effect 
a lawful entry into the United States for permanent residence. 
This procedure applies only to aliens who entered the United 
States prior to January 1, 1955, who can readily obtain an immi- 
grant visa either on a quota or nonquota basis and who meet the 
legal requirements for admittance to the United States. It is ex- 
pected that the renewal of this procedure will lessen the volume 
of private bills. 

Prevention of Illegal Entry and Expulsion Process 
The Immigration and Nationality Act provides that the Attor- 
ney General shall have the power and duty to control and guard 
the boundaries and borders of the United States against the il- 
legal entry of aliens. In carrying out these responsibilities and 
enforcing the deportation provisions of the Act, the Service is 
confronted with the problems of combatting the unlawful landing 
of stowaways and the illegal entry of other aliens as well as the 
detection, apprehension, and expulsion of aliens illegally within 
the United States. 

Deportations and voluntary departures totaled less than 250,000 
in 1955 compared with more than 1,100,000 in the preceding year. 
This huge decrease is largely accounted for by a reduction of ap- 
proximately 50 per cent in deportations to Mexico and a drop of 
approximately 80 per cent in voluntary departures to that country 
following the "Special Mobile Force Operation" and tight border 
security. Service ofiicers apprehended 254,096 aliens during fiscal 
1955. 

Ayiti-Smuggling and Stoivaway Operations. Continued progress 
was made during the year in activities seeking to prevent the 
smuggling of aliens into the country and to detect those respon- 
sible for such smuggling. Special attention was given smuggling 
rings whose operations were designed to deliver stowaways to 



10 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



the United States. In addition, efforts were concentrated on the 
development of sources of information and liaison with officials 
in neighboring countries in combatting alien smuggling. 

923 alien smugglers were apprehended in 1955, a decrease of 
almost 50 per cent from the previous year. Traditionally, most 
alien smuggling cases have originated in Mexico — thus, the de- 
crease is obviously the result of having established control of that 
border. There were 415 convictions in smuggling cases developed 
by this Service in the last fiscal year, involving 1,326 aliens. 

Land Border Security O^^erations. For the first time in more 
than ten years, illegal crossing over the Mexican border was 
brought under control. This was accomplished primarily through 
reorganization of the Border Patrol, which resulted in a relatively 
small force, completely mobile, with modern equipment and effec- 
tive methods and able to meet the challenge of tight control of 
the border. A further step that facilitated this accomplishment 
was the centralization in the four regional offices of field opera- 
tions of the Border Patrol. This removed the administrative and 
operational direction of the Border Patrol field units from the 
several districts along the borders and centralized its activities 
under a single officer in each of the four regions. As the result of 
this move, planning, coordination, direction, and supervision of 
the entire southern border is vested in one command instead of 
three. Thus, where movement of personnel and material were 
formerly restricted to three district boundaries in an area where 
there existed a single problem demanding a uniform response, 
now personnel and material are moved where and when needed 
to meet the demands of any situation along the entire border. The 
real benefits of this move are reflected in the enforcement accom- 
plishments of the Service. 

Versatility of the special mobile force, first utilized in the "Spe- 
cial Mobile Force Operation," proved its need on a permanent 
basis in the continuing program to guard and control the border. 
Such a special force at first composed of 206 officers and auxiliary 
personnel was activated March 3, 1955 under a special appropria- 
tion provided by Congress. The basic unit of this special force is a 
highly mobile and self-sufficient squad of 12 men, complete with 
radio equipped automobiles, jeeps, trucks, or buses, and planes 
necessary for a particular assignment. These units, in radio com- 
munication with other units and headquarters, discover illegal 
aliens, apprehend and remove them to assembly points. The basic 
units, when not away from their bases on special assignments. 



Report of the Immigr ation and Naturalization Service 



11 




12 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

function as regular patrol units carrying out patrol activities in 
their assigned areas. 

This special force was divided between the San Francisco and 
San Antonio districts. Based in the two "hot spot" areas of the 
southern border, it is maintained in a continuous state of readi- 
ness for dispatch to any critical area. Authorization was provided 
for the addition of 200 more officers and auxiliary personnel to 
this force bringing its permanent strength to approximately 400. 

The rapidity with which the units can go into operation was 
demonstrated in the National Civil Defense "Operation Alert of 
1955," when 16 units with full equipment and with officers in full 
uniform, were mobilized and in transit to assigned destinations 
within an average time of one hour and 50 minutes after being 
alerted. 

One of the problems inherent in holding a defined line, such as 
the Mexican or Canadian border, is the possibility of "end runs" 
by smugglers and illegal entrants. With the stiffening of line- 
holding operations on both borders, it could be anticipated that 
smugglers in particular would be giving our "ends" considerably 
more attention. 

Both borders terminate at the sea. Special tactics are required 
to prevent the use of the nearby sea approaches as avenues of en- 
try. The shrimping fleet, along our Gulf Coast, with unrestricted 
trips to Mexican coastal waters, presents an ever-present means 
of effecting an illegal entry at innumerable points along the 
United States coast. A similar hazard exists along the Pacific 
Coast, where, in addition to the commercial fishing fleets, there 
are thousands of small pleasure crafts suitable for transporting 
aliens and contraband. 

To meet this situation, one additional patrol boat was placed in 
operation at Brownsville, one in Miami, and three boats were 
purchased for use at San Diego, San Pedro, and at Blaine, Wash- 
ington. 

An integral part of the border security program is an intelli- 
gence organization, established during the year to collect, evalu- 
ate, and disseminate information concerning smuggling and other 
illegal activities. During the last two weeks of the fiscal year, 251 
illegal aliens and 8 smugglers were apprehended in the South- 
west Region alone through information obtained by this organi- 
zation. The importance of this operation is further indicated by 
the fact that 173 aliens of European or other Eastern Hemisphere 
countries were apprehended during 1955 after entry over the 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 13 

Canadian border and twenty smuRpfling cases were broken. Offi- 
cers assigned to intelligence duties also watch for developments 
in the use of fraudulent documents to gain entry to the United 
States or any other violations of the immigration laws. 

The intelligence units also furnish strategic intelligence for 
use in planning future operations. This includes information on 
labor supply and demand, number and intentions of potential il- 
legal entrants in adjacent foreign territories, crop conditions and 
forecasts, and public opinion samplings. 

A new air intelligence center was also set up at El Centro, 
California, to collect and disseminate information relating to il- 
legal aircraft entries across the Mexican border. 

Border fences have proved to be valuable enforcement tools 
opposite heavily populated areas on the Mexican border. It has 
been the experience of the Service that a substantial fence will, 
to a great degree, discourage the illegal entry of aliens, especially 
women and children who attempt to enter near some of our larger 
cities. Fences have been completed at five locations totaling 11.6 
miles; 7.1 miles of additional fencing is under construction at 
two other places and plans are being made to extend this program 
to other strategic locations. By diverting the flow of aliens away 
from the city boundaries to sections where apprehensions can be 
more easily accomplished, the areas can be controlled wuth a mini- 
mum force, thereby freeing oflficers for duty elsewhere. 

Deportation Program 

The Service is engaged in a vigorous program to locate and en- 
force the departure of aliens who entered the United States il- 
legally or who become deportable subsequent to entry. The pr^ 
mary basis upon which actions are initiated are records of the 
Service and well organized search operations. 

Document Control. One of the major sources of information 
leading to the apprehension and institution of deportation pro- 
ceedings against aliens illegally in the United States is the non- 
immigrant document control records maintained by the Service. 
During the year these control records covering the period since 
1947 were forwarded to the Central Office from ports of entry 
where they were previously maintained and the Central Office 
now exercises control over all documented non'mmigrants. Thus, 
for the first time, the Service is enabled to estimate the total num- 
ber of aliens who have overstayed the period of their temporary 
admission. An analysis of these records shows clearly that the 



14 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization S er vice 

maximum number of such aliens who could conceivably be in the 
United States illegally is less than 100,000. The actual number 
is unquestionably considerably less because of a vast number of 
departures and some deaths, and adjustments to permanent resi- 
dence that have not been recorded. This is a realistic figure com- 
pared to the nebulous estimates made at various times which set 
the number of such illegal residents at between 2,000,000 and 
5,000,000. 

The Service has a continuing program of screening nonimmi- 
grant control records to determine the identity of aliens who 
are in illegal status because they have remained longer than the 
period for which admitted. Such cases are assigned for investiga- 
tion looking to enforcement of departure. 

General Searches. Many deportation cases resulted from search 
operations employed to detect illegal entrants without specific 
leads. These operations are carried out in the metropolitan — 
urban areas and seek to apprehend newly arrived illegal aliens 
whose presence would otherwise be undetected. Officers, norm'ally 
without specific leads, search places where illegal aliens may be 
found, seeking their apprehension. Through this means aliens are 
located who have entered the United States illegally or those who, 
though legally admitted, have violated their status and absconded. 
These operations produced excellent results during fiscal 1955. 
In the Los Angeles area search teams, working only during the 
last five months of the year, apprehended 1,600 deportable aliens. 
In the New York area, in particular, the significance of these 
activities was the apprehension of aliens with criminal records 
in other countries. 

"Wetbacks". A large scale task force operation in the South- 
west, working in proximity of the border, accounted for a great 
majority of apprehensions. This "Special Mobile Force Opera- 
tion" began in California in the last few days of fiscal 1954, and 
after the backbone of the wetback invasion was broken in Cali- 
fornia, shifted to south Texas. Mobile task forces were assembled 
and set into action. Light planes were used in locating illegal 
aliens and directing ground teams in jeeps to effect apprehen- 
sions. Transport planes were used to airlift aliens to staging areas 
for prompt return to Mexico. 

Uncounted thousands of aliens departed California of their own 
accord during the operation. When the operation shifted to Texas, 
60,456 aliens returned to Mexico through ports of entry during 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 15 

the first 30 days to avoid arrest. Others simply fled across the 
Rio Grande River. 

These activities were followed by mopping up operations in 
the interior and special mobile force units are continuing to dis- 
cover illegal aliens who have eluded initial sweeps through such 
cities as Spokane, Chicago, Kansas City, and St Louis, which re- 
moved 20,174 illegal Mexican aliens from industrial jobs. 

The volume of apprehensions of Mexican nationals continued 
to decrease following the apprehension and expulsion of large 
numbers of wetbacks and the mass exodus of thousands of others 
who departed of their own accord. Nevertheless, vigorous efforts 
were continued to apprehend those who managed to escape de- 
tection and those who succeeded in their attempts to enter illegal- 
ly or abandoned status after legal entry. By the end of June 1955, 
the rate of apprehensions had dropped to 11 per cent of that of 
June 1954, and 59 per cent of those apprehended were taken into 
custody within 48 hours after crossing the border. 

The so-called "wetback" problem no longer exists. The decline 
in the number of "wetbacks" found in the United States, even 
after concentrated and vigorous enforcement efforts were pur- 
sued throughout the year, reveals that this is no longer, as in the 
past, a problem in border control. The border has been secured. 
To maintain that state of security the Service cannot afford to 
revert to its operational procedures in effect before the past year. 
The prevention of illegal entries, as the major ingredient of bor- 
der control, is more difficult, requires more ingenuity, more men 
and equipment, but is, in the long run, more economical and more 
humane than the expulsion process. 

Anti-Subversive Operations. Sharply increased efforts were di- 
rected towards deportation of subversive aliens during 1955. Top 
priority designation was given those whose presence constituted 
a risk to national security and maximum investigative efforts of 
the Service were concentrated on such cases. Increased emphasis 
was given investigation of cases where even a trace of subversive 
activity, however remote, had occurred within the past ten years. 
These operations led to the institution of deportation proceedings 
against 33 aliens on subversive charges in 1955. 

Screening and increased production reduced the number of sub- 
versive cases pending investigation to 14,770 at the close of 1955 
from a backlog of 22,504 which confronted investigators at the 
beginning of the period. Such investigations are ordinarily diflri- 
cult because of the very nature and character of admissible evi- 



16 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

dence prerequisite to deportation proceedings. The Communist 
Party's underground operations and efforts to conceal activities 
and identities of their members and apparatus have added to ob- 
stacles confronting investigative officers. 

Anti-Criminal Operations. Investigations of cases involving 
racketeers, drug peddlers and other criminals also received max- 
imum efforts during the year. Those cases involving major crim- 
inals also were given the top priority designation to assure speedy 
handling and the staggering backlog of criminal cases was pared 
to workable size by the end of the year. 

The case of a Detroit racketeer who absconded while under 
proceedings illustrates anti-criminal investigative efforts. The 
subject was traced to Cuba. Since it was evident that he would 
attempt reentry, efforts continued in his case. He was identified 
and intercepted while attempting to reenter the United States in 
the guise of another person. 

In another case involving a Chicago gangster, investigation 
established that this person had reentered the United States in 
1929 by falsely claiming United States citizenship after a trip 
to Bimini, British West Indies, with three other gangsters, one 
of whom was the notorious Al Capone. A record of this entry was 
located and deportation proceedings were instituted. 

Visa Fraud and False Document Operations. After border se- 
curity was established and maintained, many inadmissible per- 
sons in Mexico, including non-Mexicans, resorted to fraudulent 
documentation to enter the United States. 

Experienced investigators have been assigned the task of com- 
batting traffic in false birth certificates and other documents used 
to effect entry. Evidence obtained was used in numerous deporta- 
tion proceedings against aliens who had gained entry to the 
United States through use of false documents. 

Detention and Parole 

As in exclusion cases, the only aliens now detained while under 
expulsion proceedings or awaiting deportation are those consid- 
ered likely to abscond or those whose enlargement would be in- 
imical to the public interest. This means that most aliens under 
formal deportation proceedings in 1955 were paroled or placed 
under bond pending disposition of their cases. 

Most aliens on conditional parole or bond are now appearing 
frequently before an officer of the Service to give assurance that 
they are complying with the terms of release. Long experience 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service r? 

indicates that most of these individuals are responsible and will 
abide by the conditions of their release. 

The only sizeable groups of aliens detained in 1955 while 
awaiting return to their own country were Mexicans held in Serv- 
ice camps for a few days while transportation arrangements were 
completed. The total number of aliens detained during the year 
was only 184,000, of which 173,000 were Mexican nationals who 
were detained for extremely brief periods pending their return 
to Mexico. 

Deportations 

Included in the 15,028 deportations for 1955 were 925 expul- 
sions on criminal, immoral or narcotic charges, while an addi- 
tional 82 aliens in those categories departed before deportation 
proceedings were completed. 

In cases where there was evidence of subversive activity, 30 
aliens were deported on subversive grounds, 17 on other grounds, 
and, in addition, 19 departed before deportation proceedings were 
completed. 

Among subversives expelled from the United States are Irving 
Potash and John Williamson, both of whom ranked high in the 
Communist organization and who completed serving sentences 
for conspiracy to advocate the overthrow of the United States 
Government. 

Among persons ordered deported for subversive activities were 
Cedric Belf rage, editor of the "National Guardian" ; Olga Vigod 
Field, a friend and associate of Sam Carr, Soviet espionage agent 
who was deported from the United States; and Vera Hathaway, 
wife of Clarence Hathaway, former editor of the "Daily Worker." 

Deportation Hearings. Considerable progress has been made in 
reducing the pending backlog in deportation hearings — a matter 
which has been of serious concern to the Service for some time. 
At the end of fiscal 1955, a decrease of approximately 40 per cent 
in pending deportation hearings had been accomplished compared 
with fiscal 1954. 

The objective for fiscal 1956 will be a further reduction in the 
backlog in deportation hearings and to make them as nearly cur- 
rent as possible. Along with this it is planned to simplify and 
shorten hearing procedures in deportation cases to effect a reduc- 
tion in the number of special inquiry officers required to do this 
work. 



18 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

The Service also has under consideration certain changes de- 
signed to make deportation hearings as fair and effective as pos- 
sible. One plan is to relieve special inquiry officers from the dual 
role of presenting and evaluating evidence by providing for the 
assignment of an examining officer to represent the Government 
in any contested cases of deportability. At the present time, spe- 
cial inquiry officers are frequently called upon to perform both 
prosecutive and ajudicative functions when hearing deportation 
cases. Another contemplated change will place special inquiry of- 
ficers directly under the supervision of the Chief Special Inquiry 
Officer in the Central Office, who in turn will be responsible only 
to the Commissioner. It is believed that this proposal, by removing 
special inquiry officers from the administrative supervision of 
officers in the field exercising enforcement functions, will solidify 
the independence of the special inquiry officers in their quasi- 
judicial capacities. . 

Stay of Deportation — Physical Persecution. Requests for stay 
of deportation based on claims of physical persecution pursuant 
to section 243(h) of the Immigration and Nationality Act have 
presented the Service with difficult and perplexing problems re- 
quiring solution against a background of troubled world affairs. 
In recognition of this fact and to afford the fullest opportunity 
to each applicant to substantiate his case, the Service devised new 
regulations, which became effective May 19, 1955. The new pro- 
cedures permit the alien to appear before a special inquiry officer 
for examination and to offer testimony and other evidence in sup- 
port of his application. The special inquiry officer thereafter pre- 
pares a recommended decision which is served on the alien and 
to which he may file exceptions. The case is then forwarded to the 
Regional Commissioner who renders a final decision. Thus, the 
advantages to the alien from the amended regulations are : He 
is able to submit his evidence to a quasi-judicial officer of the 
Service and to obtain a determination in his case at a high ad- 
ministrative level. 

In fiscal 1955, the Service received 503 applications under sec- 
tion 243(h). Forty-eight of these were granted, 240 were denied. 

Trainlift. It has been recognized for some time that the tradi- 
tional means of expulsion have failed ; that for aliens apprehended 
in border areas it was not effective to deport them formally or to 
permit voluntary departure at places along the border nearest 
where they had been apprehended. Neither had prosecution in the 
courts served as an effective device for law enforcement where 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 19 

the aliens were not criminal in their basic spirit and purpose. 
Years of experience had demonstrated that aliens coming to this 
country to seek employment and economic advantage would re- 
turn again and again. 

Without question, the kej^note of success in ridding the country 
of wetbacks was the movement of aliens to points distant from the 
place of apprehension, preferably far into the interior of Mexico. 
In this connection, invaluable cooperation and assistance was re- 
ceived from Mexican Government officials, who worked closely 
with officers of this Service at the border and prepared facilities 
to receive thousands of expellees. Once in Mexican territory, the 
aliens were placed aboard special trains and conveyed, under Mex- 
ican escort and at the expense of the Mexican Government, to 
points deep in the interior, where they would be nearer their 
homes and far removed from the temptation to return again to 
the United States as wetbacks. 

Boatlift. As the volume of apprehensions was reduced to a rea- 
sonable figure, another and more effective method of repatriating 
illegal Mexican nationals was conceived and implemented. Mexi- 
can flag vessels are employed in cooperation with the Mexican 
Government to move its nationals from Port Isabel, Texas, to 
Veracruz. 

The first such repatriation voyage began September 3, 1954, 
when the SS EMANCIPATION sailed from Port Isabel. Through 
the end of fiscal 1955 the EMANCIPATION and her sister ship 
VERACRUZ completed 26 trips conveying 800 aliens per trip to 
a point in Mexico 2,000 miles from the California border and more 
than 800 miles from the nearest Texas point. Less than two per 
cent of those returned to Mexico by boatlift have been caught re- 
entering the United States. 

At the end of the year plans were completed to replace the SS 
EMANCIPATION and VERACRUZ with smaller modern motor 
vessels, the MERCURIO and the FRIEDA. 

Airlift. The problem of removing deportable aliens confined to 
mental hospitals was handled by chartered airlift operations dur- 
ing 1955. This was found to be the most humane and speedy 
means of conveying persons in this class to their home countries. 
One special flight left New York with 50 mentally ill aliens aboard 
destined to their homes in Europe and Africa. Flight personnel 
included a psychiatrist, seven male and one female attendants. 
All were employees of mental hospitals and were experienced and 
qualified in the handling of the mentally ill. 



20 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

The cost of the airlift operation was small compared to the cost 
of hospitalization, and it was found that the short duration of the 
trip did much to alleviate travel anxieties which often affect the 
mentally ill in transit. 

On September 18, 1954, the Border Patrol Air Transport Arm, 
on its inaugural flight, transported 50 Mexican aliens from Chi- 
cago, Illinois, to Brownsville, Texas. Since that date it has oper- 
ated continuously, ferrying illegal aliens from interior points in 
the United States to Mexican border points, principally the Mc- 
Allen, Texas, staging area, for trans-shipment to Veracruz by 
boat. During the year 11,459 aliens were thus transported a total 
of 11,487,548 passenger miles. 

It has been proved that the only practical and economical means 
for taking aliens on short notice from sometimes unusual and re- 
mote locations at irregular times has been by Service-operated 
aircraft. Where those transported do not have to be detained un- 
der guard and where arrangements can be made for commercial 
aircraft, commercial carriers are employed. 

At the end of the fiscal year, plans had been formulated provid- 
ing for the air transport arm to convey deportees to the countries 
of their origin throughout the world. These overseas flights, the 
first of their kind in the history of the Service, are scheduled to 
begin in July 1955. 

Unexecuted Orders of Deportation. Difficulties in securing 
travel documents for aliens deportable to the U.S.S.R., Poland, 
Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Hungary, Albania and the mainland of 
China were responsible in large part for a record 10,967 pending 
unexecuted orders of deportation at the end of the year. Deporta- 
tion may never be accomplished in a large number of these cases 
because of inability to obtain travel documents. In 229 of these 
cases the orders of deportation were based on subversive grounds. 

Litigation. The main single basis for litigation under the im- 
migration laws continues to be persistent efforts of illegally resi- 
dent aliens to defeat or delay their deportations. This applies par- 
ticularly to those deportable on subversive or criminal grounds. 

Despite prompt conclusion of administrative hearings, immedi- 
ate deportation frequently cannot be effected because, with all 
preparations for deportation completed, the alien files a court 
action challenging the validity of the deportation order. This may 
take the form of a habeas corpus proceeding, or a suit for review 
and injunctive relief. In many cases, this is but the beginning of a 
long series of judicial maneuvers which may extend through the 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 21 

Supreme Court of the United States. At times, simultaneous 
suits are filed in the district in which the alien resides and in the 
District of Columbia, too; in others, successive suits are filed in 
these jurisdictions. In judicial districts where court dockets are 
already burdened with civil suits, long periods may elapse before 
cases seeking review of deportation orders reach the trial judge. 

Court actions usually involve challenges to the constitutionality 
of the immigration laws, or charges of unfairness in hearings, 
lack of oflficer qualifications or failure to comply with the Admin- 
istrative Procedure Act. A large number also seek judicial review 
of denial of administrative relief, even in some cases where de- 
portability is admitted. In effect, this amounts to an appeal to the 
courts to exercise a discretion which by statute is committed to 
the Attorney General. 

It is possible, though not likely, that the concentration of suits 
in the District of Columbia will be alleviated through a recent 
Supreme Court decision which allows a District Director to be 
named as a defendant in a suit to attack the validity of a deporta- 
tion order. This ruling means that suits may be brought in the 
jurisdiction where the District Director's office is located. 

Nationality 

Fiscal year 1955 was also a record year for nationality matters 
in the Service. More petitions were filed and naturalizations 
granted than in any year since 1945. The uptrend in the number 
of applications filed, which started in 1952, continued to spiral 
upwards. 

Naturalizations during 1955 totaled 209,434. There was a con- 
tinued increase in the number of applications submitted by aliens 
who benefited by the removal of racial restrictions on naturali- 
zation and by the elimination of the declaration of intention as a 
prerequisite for the filing of a petition. The additional factor of 
increased immigration in the post war period caused a correspond- 
ing increase in applications submitted. 

Declaration of Intention. Only 10,855 declarations were filed 
in fiscal 1955. This is an increase of 1,755 as compared with the 
previous year. Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, filing 
of a declaration is optional. In many states a declaration of inten- 
tion is a prerequisite for a license for an alien to practice medicine, 
nursing, dentistry, or other profession. 



22 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

Applications for Naturalization. The Service was confronted 
with a workload of 87,000 applications to file petitions for natural- 
ization at the start of the fiscal year. It was known that this work- 
load would soon be augmented by applications that would accrue 
during the 60-day period preceding the elections of November 2, 
1954, when naturalizations were prohibited. Inactivity of the 
courts during this period gave the Service an opportunity to dis- 
pose of this heavy workload by assisting aliens submitting appli- 
cations to file their petitions. To accomplish this, in July 1954, 
all available personnel, officer and clerical, was assigned to this 
Service-wide program. The achievement of reducing the number 
of pending applications to 49,000 at the end of the calendar year, 
and the filing of more than 100,000 petitions compared to 58,000 
filed during the previous year demonstrated success of the 
operation. 

As the program progressed consideration was given to setting 
aside a day as early as possible after the November elections to 
hold naturalization hearings for those persons who had filed peti- 
tions. November 11, 1954, was the day selected. In cooperation 
with the naturalization courts, civic organizations, local govern- 
ment agencies, and units of the Armed Forces participated in 
naturalization ceremonies on that day in the Nation and through- 
out the territories. More than 55,000 persons were admitted to 
citizenship on that day. 

Twenty -two of these petitioners — a representative group se- 
lected from all sections of the country — were personally received 
by the President on November 9. Friends, relatives, and other 
members of the communities had an unprecedented opportunity 
to participate in the inspiring ceremonies and to witness the final 
step in the naturalization process. 

The facilities of such places as the Polo Grounds in New York 
City, Ebbets Field in Brooklyn, and the Hollywood Bowl in Los 
Angeles were utilized. The USS MISSOURI also formed an in- 
teresting and picturesque background for one such ceremony in 
Bremerton, Washington. Hundreds of patriotic organizations and 
prominent citizens cooperated wholeheartedly for the occasion. 

At the close of the year pending applications had been further 
reduced to 26,368, and the waiting period between date of sub- 
mission of an application to the Service and the filing of a peti- 
tion for naturalization was reduced from an average of nine to 
12 months to an average of two and one-half months. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 23 

930 persons who had lost their United States nationality reac- 
quired citizenship by repatriation. This was about one-third less 
than the number of repatriations in 1954. 

Naturalization of Members of Armed Forces. Naturalization 
of alien members of United States Armed Forces outside the 
United States was authorized by Congress in June 1953. During 
fiscal 1955, Service representatives conducted naturalization pro- 
ceedings in the Azores, Austria, England, France, Africa, Ger- 
many, Korea, Italy, Okinawa, Newfoundland, and the Canal Zone. 
The United States gained 2,539 new citizens through these cere- 
monies, many of which were impressive occasions arranged by 
military authorities in various parts of the world. 

In addition to military naturalizations outside the continental 
limits, there were 9,419 military naturalizations accomplished 
within the United States. Various branches of the Armed Forces 
extended active cooperation to the Service in this activity. 

Naturalization Courts. There are approximately 950 courts ex- 
ercising naturalization jurisdiction. Most of these are state courts. 
The Service has adopted a program designed to encourage filing 
of petitions for naturalization in the larger courts. This concen- 
tration will permit more frequent hearings, resulting in a much 
earlier disposition of cases. 

The larger volume of petitions in these courts will allow the 
holding of meaningful and large-scale ceremonies which will lend 
dignity and solemnity to the acquisition of citizenship. Judges in 
the smaller courts throughout the country are cooperating with 
the Service in this project and many have expressed a desire to 
waive their jurisdiction to naturalize. No changes in naturaliza- 
tion jurisdiction have been made without the approval of the 
courts concerned. 

Derivative Citizenship. The Service has begun a program urg- 
ing parents and others to obtain certificates of citizenship for 
children at the time of their own naturalization. During the fiscal 
year 31,113 applications for certificates of citizenship were filed 
and 15,323 certificates were issued to persons who derived citizen- 
ship through the naturalization of parents. In addition, 7,379 cer- 
tificates were issued to persons born abroad to United States 
citizens. 

Citizenship Services. Under law this Service assists in the pro- 
motion of instruction and training in citizenship responsibilities 
for citizenship candidates. This program includes furnishing 
names of potential candidates for naturalization to public schools 



24 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

to give these persons an opportunity for citizenship training. 
The names of 135,713 newly arrived immigrants were furnished 
the public schools and school officials reported the attendance of 
approximately 120,000 persons in citizenship classes. The Service 
prepares and distributes a Federal Textbook on Citizenship which 
is furnished free to candidates for naturalization enrolled in citi- 
zenship education classes under the supervision of public schools. 
During the year 26 sections of this textbook were revised and re- 
printed. 

In addition to public school classes, home study courses were 
sponsored by 37 state colleges and universities. The enrollment 
in these courses was 9,063. 

The Service continued its cooperation with agencies through- 
out the country engaged in promoting good citizenship. Repre- 
sentatives of the Service participated in many of the ceremonies 
sponsored by these agencies. Throughout the year, emphasis was 
placed upon the value and importance of interested and active 
participation in the affairs of government. 

The manual "Gateway to Citizenship" was revised and reprinted 
during the year. This manual is distributed to naturalization 
judges and to civic, education and patriotic groups interested in 
dignifying and adding to the impressiveness of naturalization 
ceremonies. 

About 200,000 copies of the memento booklet "Welcome to 
U.S.A. Citizenship" were distributed to persons naturalized dur- 
ing the year. 

Nationality Investigations. The concerted Service effort to clear 
naturalization petition backlogs was reflected during the year by 
an increase in investigations completed in naturalization cases. 
Investigations completed in that category totaled 13,181 for 1955 
as compared with 11,382 for 1954. 

The courts denied 4,571 petitions for naturalization in 1955 
compared with a yearly average of 2,244 in the five-year period 
1950-1954. 

Service investigators also inquire into cases involving possible 
revocation of citizenship. They completed 5,346 denaturalization 
investigations during the fiscal year. 

The citizenship of 197 naturalized citizens was revoked. The 
majority of these cases were initiated by the Foreign Service of 
the Department of State on the ground that the naturalized per- 
son took up permanent residence in a foreign country within five 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 25 

years after naturalization. 4,202 persons lost citizenship through 
expatriation. Voting in a foreign political election or plebiscite, 
residence in a foreign state, and naturalization in a foreign state 
accounted for a majority of expatriations. 

Legislation And Litigation 

Five bills affecting laws administered by this Service were 
passed by Congress during fiscal 1955. 

All were passed during the second session of the Eighty-third 
Congress. 

These laws and their general provisions are as follows: 

Public Law 515, approved July 20, 1954, provides that a United 
States citizen who voted in an election or plebiscite held in Japan 
between September 2, 1945, and April 27, 1952, and who there- 
after has committed no act which, had he remained a citizen, 
would have caused expatriation, may regain United States citi- 
zenship merely by taking, within two years, an oath of allegiance 
before a naturalization court or, if abroad, before a consular offi- 
cer. Subversives, deserters from the Armed Forces, and persons 
against whom warrants of deportation are outstanding are ex- 
cluded from the benefits of Public Laiv 515. This legislation ex- 
tends to those who voted in Japan substantially the same benefits 
extended by the Act of August 16, 1951, to those who voted in 
Italy. It will remain in effect until July 20, 1956. 

Public Law 751, amendment to the Refugee Relief Act of 1953, 
provides for reallocation of allotments, removal of requirements 
for certain quarantees required of visa-issuing countries in con- 
nection with readmission of orphans, adjustment of status of 
additional refugees already in the United States, and revision of 
unemployment and housing assurance provisions. 

Public Laivs 770, 772, and 779 — all received approval Septem- 
ber 3, 1954. Public Law 770 provided for the admission in non- 
quota status within one year of up to 385 skilled sheepherders 
destined to permanent employment in the United States. These 
sheepherders were required to meet usual requirements for ad- 
mission except for appropriate quota immigration visas. 

Section 4 of Public Laiv 770 contains a provision waiving cer- 
tain grounds of inadmissibility arising from the conviction, or 
admission of the commission, of a single misdemeanor classifiable 
as a petty offense under 18 U.S.C. 1(3) by reason of punishment 



26 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

actually imposed. This provision modifies section 212(a)(9) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act. 

PnbUc La IV 772 is cited as the "Expatriation Act of 1954." It 
amends section 349(a)(9) of the Immigration and Nationality 
Act by adding as a ground for expatriation, conviction for certain 
subversive criminal acts in violation of Section 2383-5 of Title 
18, United States Code. 

Public Law 779 is a general statute. It provides for amendments 
of various statutes, correction of obsolete references, and like 
matters. 

Private Legislation. A Private Bill Control Unit was placed in 
the Enforcement Division of the Central Office February 9, 1955, 
as part of the reorganization of the Service. This unit has the 
responsibility of coordinating all Service functions relative to 
private legislation from the introduction of the bill to adjustment 
of the alien's status following enactment, or enforcement of de- 
parture following adverse action. 

Private bills for the relief of aliens totaled 3,099 during the 
last fiscal year. Congress enacted 201 such private laws. Only 
1,615 bills were introduced in the preceding fiscal period. Tmely 
reports were submitted to Congress despite the increase of al- 
most 100 per cent in workload. In addition, all administrative 
procedures were completed on pending legislation and, with few 
exceptions, departure was promptly enforced on those aliens 
whose bills met adverse action by Congress. 

The work of investigation on private bill cases is continuing 
in large volume. The number of such investigations completed 
in 1955 was 4,644 compared to 4,167 completed the preceding year. 

Litigation. No noticeable decrease in litigation is noted during 
fiscal 1955. Old-law cases diminished, but as application of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 became more wide- 
spread, its provisions were challenged repeatedly in the courts. 
This trend is expected to continue until a body of judicial inter- 
pretation is built up. 

The Supreme Court calendared thirty-one cases during the year 
in which the Attorney General, the Commissioner, or subordinate 
Service officers were parties. Four of these cases were carried 
over from the preceding term. Certiorari was denied in 13 cases. 
Six cases were argued during the term, three with results favor- 
able to the Government. In a seventh case, an appellate court 
judgment, on motion of the Government, was vacated and the 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 27 

case remanded. Eleven cases were carried over to the 1955-1956 
term. These included five in which review had already been 
granted. The six remaining cases await the Court's decision on 
petitions for certiorari. 

Prosecntio7is. Immigration law violations brought 9,938 cases 
during the fiscal year 1955 along with 530 cases involving nation- 
ality violations. Prosecutions netted 10,359 convictions, an ag- 
gregate imprisonment of 3,445 years, and fines totaling $74,217. 
Ninety-one per cent of the immigration violations were convic- 
tions for illegal entry. 

Heavy fines and imprisonment were imposed in 415 smuggling 
convictions which involved the smuggling of 1,326 aliens into 
the United States. 

Conviction of smugglers was a third less than in the preceding 
fiscal year, and the number of affected aliens dropped from 3,968 
to 1,326. 

This decrease is directly attributable to rigorous control of 
the Mexican border which has made smuggling both more diflft- 
cult and hazardous. Nationality case convictions totaled 487. Of 
these, 473 or 97 per cent were convictions of persons who falsely 
represented themselves as citizens of the United States. 

Internal Management 

Service-wide reorganization was the outstanding administrative 
achievement of the fiscal year 1955. Based on thorough surveys 
four regional offices were established and assumed managerial 
responsibilities over field activities on January 3, 1955. 

The regional offices were given primary responsibility for 
administrative and operational functions of the Service. Conse- 
quently, top Central Oflfice and field administrators have been 
relieved from routine management functions and are giving closer 
personal attention to Service-wide program development and 
policy determinations. Top supervisory officials now make regular 
on-the-scene studies of field operations. 

Principal field ofllice boundaries were realigned and made co- 
extensive with state lines, and twenty-two smaller offices were 
eliminated. Forty-six field offices at strategic locations were au- 
thorized to take final action in numerous matters that were pre- 
viously limited to fifteen locations. Major improvements in service 
to the public as well as in law enforcement responsibilities have 
been realized. 



28 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 




Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 29^ 

Under the regional concept all field operations were decentral- 
ized to the four regional offices. Carefully selected supervisory- 
personnel were sent to those offices to take over operational man- 
agement and administrative management posts. This brought a 
stepped-up operational tempo throughout the Service. Cases, once 
funneled through the Central Office, were decided in the field. 
Activities workloads were reduced, and many areas which showed 
arrearages were cleaned up as purely housekeeping functions were 
taken over by regional administrators. 

Field bispection and Security. The Field Inspection and Secu- 
rity Division was established early in the calendar year 1955. 
The functions of the Inspections Branch of that Division are the 
inspection, analysis, and evaluation of all activities of the Service, 
including programs, procedures and methods of operation. In- 
spection of Service operations on a functional basis is emphasized 
as the best means of attaining internal control. The findings of 
such inspections result in constructive recommendations con- 
cerning the activities, programs and procedures of the Service. 

Officers of this unit inspected 39 field offices of the Service in 
1955. Deficiencies when found were corrected in most instances 
at the time of inspection. The results of these inspections included 
improved efficiency in operations, better use of manpower, more 
reliable statistics, and recognition of ability in employees. 

The Security Branch took immediate steps to insure strict 
compliance with personnel security requirements and regulations 
relating to defense information. It developed plans, policies, and 
procedures necessary to provide personnel, documentary, prop- 
erty, and communication security in all offices of the Service. 
The Security Officer keeps up-to-date plans covering essential 
wartime functions of the Service and acts as liaison with the 
Department of Justice in these matters. 

Plans were made to establish an intelligence branch in 1956 
that will plan and supervise the production and dissemination 
of intelligence within the Service and to other interested govern- 
ment agencies. Highly sensitive operational matters of importance 
to other agencies in the intelligence field will be handled directly 
by liaison with their representatives. This branch will serve as 
a repository for information obtained by present intelligence 
sources of the Service. 



30 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 31^ 

Personnel 

Personnel procedures were greatly simplified under the reor- 
ganization by granting additional authority to field offices, thus 
removing routine personnel functions from the Central and Dis- 
trict offices to the regions. 

Reorganization also meant that an increasing workload could 
be handled by fewer employees. By June 30, 1955, Immigration 
and Naturalization personnel totaled 6,637 employees, compared 
with 7,100 on payrolls at the end of the previous fiscal year. The 
reorganization brought a substantial reduction in the number of 
Central Office employees, many of whom were sent to the field 
to fill critical vacancies. Employees separated were incumbents 
of noncritical positions. 

Greatly increased utilization of "stand-by" time of inspection 
officers was accomplished by forwarding certain paper work to 
remote and relatively inactive inspection points for completion. 
At the same time, in such areas as New York, assembly points 
of inspection forces were moved to main offices. In New York 
approximately 10,000 man hours were made available for adju- 
dicative and other phases of work between November 1, 1954, 
and June 30, 1955. The time of inspection officers was further 
utilized by temporary details to areas of heavy activity from in- 
spection areas where the work is seasonal. 

Recruitment. Direct recuiting programs, frequent examinations 
and rapid processing were employed to fill vacancies. By the end 
of the year all new and all previously vacant Patrol Inspector 
positions had been filled and all but 13 new Naturalization Ex- 
aminer jobs, made possible by reorganizational savings had been 
filled. 

Further effort is contemplated in fiscal 1956 to assure a steady 
flow of applications for vacant posts. The Public Information 
program of the Service was utilized to call attention to employ- 
ment opportunities of the Service, and this activity will be con- 
tinued and stepped up. 

Promotion. An over-all promotion program was initiated dur- 
ing the year. It included appointment of two officer selection 
boards designed to put consideration for promotion on a strictly 
impartial basis at all levels. These boards, through interviews, 
and review of personnel achievement records now supply eligi- 
bility rosters to top supervisory personnel for purposes of pro- 
motion, or filling vacancies. 



32 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 33 

The program includes continuing determination of Service 
needs and standards for advancement so that all employees can 
be aware of promotion opportunities at all times. 

Upgrading of many positions was one of the rewarding benefits 
of reorganization. These included top-ranking Border Patrol jobs 
and Naturalization Examiner jobs throughout the Service. 
Another forward step was the classification of "officer in charge" 
positions in grades commensurate with similar posts in other 
Government agencies. 

Employee Recognitioi}. For the first time the Service joined 
other Bureaus of the Department of Justice in recognizing length 
of service by appropriate certificates and awards. Since it was 
the first time, 818 awards were given. This is approximately five 
times as many as may be expected in future years. 

In keeping with the Government Employees' Incentive Awards 
Act of 1954, the Service awarded three superior accomplishment 
awards, four certificates of merit, and seven cash awards. Pub- 
licity and instruction to encourage participation in the incentive 
awards program will be one of the major objectives in 1956. 

Training 

During fiscal 1955 training activities of the Service were over- 
hauled, and a training school for career officers was established 
at the Central Office. 

The Border Patrol Training School moved to a new and greatly 
improved physical plant during the year. Through arrangements 
with the Army, a temporary site was made available at Fort 
Bliss, Texas, which provided administration facilities, class and 
study rooms, dormitories, dining hall and recreation facilities. 

This school prepares new officers for Border Patrol duties by 
supplying detailed knowledge in the fields of enforcement, im- 
migration and nationality laws, physical training, firearms and 
Spanish. Latest educational methods, including audio-visual aids 
are employed at the school. Instructors are selected from the ranks 
of outstanding Border Patrol officers. Duty as an instructor at 
the school is a temporary assignment, the selected officers being 
continually refreshed in actual field operations and the latest 
techniques. 

All Patrol Inspectors receive class and individual instruction 
in sector programs upon assignment to duty. This instruction 
continues throughout the probationary year. It was designed to 



34 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

afford practical application of fresh knowledge, as well as group 
or individual discussion with seasoned officers concerning on-the- 
job experiences. 

In recognition of the importance of intelligence and the need 
for trained officers functioning in a systematic, uniform manner, 
the first Border Patrol Intelligence Training School was convened 
in El Paso, Texas, on April 7, 1955. Seasoned officers who had 
demonstrated an aptitude for this type of activity were selected 
and attended a course which included organizational structure, 
aims, responsibilities and techniques. 

The Officers Training School for career personnel v/as estab- 
lished in the Central Office in January 1955. Its objective is to 
prepare experienced supervisory officers for greater responsibil- 
ities and to broaden the base of knowledge of men and women 
whose scope of activities in the operational field has been limited. 
The six-week course covers all phases of immigration and nation- 
ality law enforcement and administrative functions of the Service. 

Instructors from supervisory ranks of the Service and from 
other Government agencies present material through lectures, 
case analysis and discussion. The curriculum includes a field trip 
to New York where classes observe inspection of passengers ar- 
riving by steamship and airplane. This trip also demonstrates to 
the classes coordinated operations of this Service, the Coast 
Guard, Customs, and Public Health Service. 

Enrollees for the Officers Training School are selected through 
aptitude tests and recommendations. 

Three sessions of the school were held before close of fiscal 
1955, and 133 officers completed the course. 

At field level, officers are kept current on procedures and tech- 
niques through briefing sessions or discussion. 

Budget 

Programming funds in anticipation of the reorganization and 
special border program, and at the same time avoiding deficit 
financing was a problem solved by temporary funds adjustments. 

The special border program required that funds be temporarily 
diverted from other projects and administered centrally on a 
month-to-month basis during the first eight months of fiscal 1955. 
Reorganization also meant temporary diversion of funds. Through 
appropriate planning and anticipation of eventual savings in other 
areas the items were balanced out during the remainder of the 
year. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 35 

Finance, Procurement, and Property Management 

Fiscal 1955 was a year in which a total reorganization of the 
accounting, procurement, and property management activities was 
accomplished. During this period four completely new offices were 
established, equipped, furnished, and staffed to operate as regional 
offices. All administrative housekeeping functions were removed 
from district offices and relocated in the regional offices. Simul- 
taneously, many Central Office administrative responsibilities 
were delegated to the regional offices. 

Accounting. Accounts from 16 district offices were verified and 
consolidated into four regional accounts; reporting procedures 
were revised to provide greater control over appropriations and 
to improve regional accounting systems; a new procedure was 
designed and established for the payment of uniform allowances, 
and premium compensation under the Federal Employment and 
Fringe Benefits Act. 

Procuremeyit and Property Management. Under proper controls, 
field offices were delegated $5,000 procurement and contract au- 
thority, thus enabling field offices to procure needed supplies and 
services more efficiently and economically. 

Major equipment purchases during the year included three air- 
planes and 220 pieces of automotive equipment. In addition, seven 
airplanes, two communication trucks, and fifteen buses were 
loaned by the Department of Defense for use on the Border. 

Procurement of Office Quarters. In addition to providing 
quarters for the four new regional offices at San Pedro, Cali- 
fornia; Burlington, Vermont; Richmond, Virginia; and St. Paul, 
Minnesota; a long range program to replace and repair Service 
occupied quarters was begun during the year. 

Studies were made and plans prepared for relocating the Cen- 
tral Office in more suitable quarters. Contracts were awarded 
for the construction of a Border Patrol Headquarters Building 
at El Paso and station buildings at Ysleta, Fabens and Presidio, 
Texas and Columbus, New Mexico. 

Specifications were drawn for the erection of office buildings 
at Harlingen, Mercedes, Carizzo Springs, Rio Grande City, Eagle 
Pass and Kingsville, Texas, and surveys were made jointly with 
the Customs Service for construction of long needed new border 
inspection stations that are utilized by both Services. 

In addition, while the larger detention facilities at Ellis Island, 
Boston, San Francisco and San Pedro were closed, smaller quar- 



36 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

ters were established at New York City and Chicago and con- 
tracts awarded for the construction of a detention establishment 
at El Paso, which serves as a collecting center for apprehensions 
in one of the most populated areas adjacent to the Mexican border. 
Plans were also made for a number of other projects to be 
undertaken, including security fences along the Mexican border. 

Financial Statement — Immigration and Naturalization Service 
Fiscal Year 1955 

Net cost of the operation of the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service and the administration of the immigration and natural- 
ization laws 

Appropriation for salaries and expenses $43,781,084 

Reimbursements to the appropriation 1,193,000 

Total funds available $44,974,084 

Amount of available funds not obligated 19,051 

Gross cost of operation $44,955,033 

Less collections other than reimbursements: 

Copying fees $ 21,902 

Fees and permits 4,843,293 

Head tax 236 

Sale of Government property 23,170 

Miscellaneous collections 45,506 

Forfeitures and bonds forfeited 345,252 

Administrative fines 232,125 

Total collections $^,511,484 

Net Cost of operations $39,443,549 



Information and Records Administration 

A new Service records system was placed into operation on 
January 1, 1955. The system provides for one major series of 
Service case files and, for the first time, an index record in the 
Central Office of all case files opened by field offices. 

The files decentralization plan, which was adopted on March 
1, 1950, was completed during the year. All active files relating 
to aliens admitted for permanent residence were decentralized 
from the Central Oflice to field offices having jurisdiction over 
the alien's place of residence. Records relating to individuals are 
therefore more readily available when actions arise. Visas sur- 
rendered by newly arrived immigrants are now forwarded di- 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 37 

rectly from the ports of entry to the districts of residence instead 
of the Central Office. Under this procedure, alien registration 
receipt cards are issued to newly arrived immigrants without 
delay. 

In addition to a centralized index of all aliens admitted for 
permanent residence, an index record is filed in the Central Office 
of each documented nonimmigrant admitted to the United States 
since December 23, 1952. This index is in compliance with section 
290 of the Immigration and Nationality Act which requires a 
central index of aliens admitted to the United States. The cen- 
tralized record serves as a control of nonimmigrants and as the 
basis for initiating action concerning aliens who have overstayed 
the period of their admission. 

A program was placed into operation under which all manifest 
records maintained at ports of entry are being microfilmed, after 
which the original records are destroyed. This microfilming and 
disposal of original manifest records will result in space savings 
at the various ports of entry. 

The flexoline alien index, containing approximately 12,000,000 
names, was microfilmed. The microfilming of this index facilitated 
its use and released approximately 5,255 square feet of floor space. 

During the fiscal year, 38,759 cubic feet of records were trans- 
ferred to the Records Center. Approximately 24,000 cubic feet of 
record and nonrecord material were destroyed under outstanding 
disposal authorizations. 

With the completion of files decentralization, the adoption of 
improved methods and procedures made possible reduction in 
personnel of the reorganized Records Administration and Infor- 
mation Branch. 

This reduced force, in addition to the work outlined above, 
maintains the Service lookout system and the centralized non- 
immigrant document control, the centralization of which released 
officer and clerical personnel in the field offices for other produc- 
tive work. 

Statistics 

Under reorganization, the coding work done in the Central 
Office was decentralized. The work consists of translating data 
from operating documents into numeric symbols and entering 
such symbols on punch cards for tabulations. These tabulations 



38 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

form the basis of the statistical material used by the Service. The 
coding work is now done by immigrant inspectors and others on 
their "stand-by" time, resulting in savings to the Service, 

Work measurement tables and analyses received from field 
offices are summarized, correlated, and analyzed in order to: 
point out arrearages; study the results of programs and proce- 
dures initiated; compare actual figures with estimates; and to 
keep workload and personnel in balance. 

Other studies carried on during the year included estimates 
of the migration of aliens within the United States; yearbook 
articles ; the Annual Report ; estimates of potential naturalization 
in its relation to immigration; and analysis of "length of prison 
terms in relation to violation of immigration laws." 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



39 



TABLE 1. IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES: 
1820 - 1955 



From 1820 to 1867 figures represent alien passengers arrived; 1868 to 1891 inclusive and 1895 to 
1897 inclusive immigrant aliens arrived; 1892 to 1894 inclusive and from 1898 to the present time 
immigrant aliens admitted. 



Year 


Number 

of 
persons 


Year 


Number 

of 
persons 


Year 


Number 

of 
persons 


Year 


Number 

of 
persons 


1820-1955 [7] 


40,413,120 


1851-1860 

1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 

1861-1870 

1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 

1871-1880 

1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 

1881-1890 

1881 
1882 
1883 


2.598.214 


1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 

1891-1900 

1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 

1901-1910 

1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 

1911-1920 

1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 


518,592 
395,346 
334.203 
490.109 
546,889 
444,427 
455.302 

3,687,664 


1921-1930 

1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

1931-1940 

1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 

1941-1950 

1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 

1951 
1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 


4,107,209 


1820 
1821-1830 


8,385 
143.439 


379.466 
371.603 
368.645 
427.833 
200,877 
200,436 
251,306 
123,126 
121,282 
153,640 

2.314.824 


805,228 
309,556 
522,919 
706 , 896 
294,314 
304,488 
335,175 
307,255 
279,678 
241,700 

528,431 


1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1826 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 

1831-1840 


9,127 
6,911 
6,354 
7,912 
10,199 
10,837 
18,875 
27,382 
22,520 
23,322 

599,125 


660.319 
679.663 
439.730 
285.631 
258,536 
343.267 
230.832 
229,299 
311,715 
448,572 

8,795,386 


91.918 
91.985 
176.282 
193.418 
248.120 
318.568 
315,722 
138,840 
352,768 
387,203 

2,812,191 


97,139 
35,576 
23,068 
29,470 
34,956 
36,329 
50,244 
67,895 
82,998 
70,756 

1,035,039 


1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1836 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 

1841-1850 


22,633 

60,482 
58,640 
65,365 
45,374 
76,242 
79.340 
38,914 
68,069 
84,066 

1,713,251 


487,918 

648,743 

857,046 

812,870 

1.026.499 

1.100.735 

1,285.349 

782,870 

751,786 

1,041,570 

5,735,811 


321,350 
404,806 
459,803 
313,339 
227,498 
169,986 
141,857 
138,469 
177,826 
457,257 

5,246,613 


51,776 
28,781 
23,725 
28,551 
38,119 
108,721 
147,292 
170,570 
188.317 
249 . 187 

205,717 
265,520 
170,434 
208,177 
237,790 


1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 


80,289 
104,565 
52,496 
78,615 
114,371 
154,416 
234,968 
226,527 
297,024 
369.980 


878,587 
838,172 
1,197,892 
1,218,480 
326,700 
298,826 
295,403 
110,618 
141,132 
430,001 


669.431 
788.992 
603,322 



[1] Data are for fiscal years ended June 30, except 1820 to 1831 inclusive and 1844 to 1849 inclusive 
fiscal years ended September 30; 1833 to 1842 inclusive and 1851 to 1867 inclusive years ended 
December 31; 1832 covers 15 months ended December 31; 1843 nine months ended September 
30; 1850 fifteen months ended December 31; and 1868 six months ended June 30. 



40 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 2. ALIENS AND CITIZENS ADMITTED AND DEPARTED, 

BY MONTHS: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1954 AND 1955 



(Data exclude travelers bet 
agricultural laborers) 


ween continental United States and its possessions 


border crossers, and 




Aliens admitted 


Aliens departed 


Excess 
(1) 


U. S. Citizens 


Period 


Immi- 
grant 


Non- 
immi- 
grant 


Total 


Emi- 
grant 


Non- 
emi- 
grant 


Total 


Ar- 
rived 


De- 
parted 


Fiscal year 1955 


237,790 


620,946 


858,736 


31,245 


634,555 


665,800 


192,936 


1,171,612 


1,096,146 


July-December, 1954.... 


120,785 


327,447 


448,232 


19,725 


315,445 


335,170 


113,062 


623.361 


482,668 


July 


20,394 
19,036 
19,260 
20,373 
20,752 
20,970 

117,005 


57,224 
60,785 
72,727 
50,060 
41,616 
45,035 

293,499 


77,618 
79,821 
91,987 
70,433 
62,368 
66,005 

410,504 


5,804 
3,739 
3,379 
3,007 
2,044 
1,752 

11,520 


63,214 
57,615 
56,944 
49,247 
42,063 
46,362 

319,110 


69,018 
61,354 
60,323 
52,254 
44,107 
48,114 

330,630 
49,752 
40,991 
52,299 
62,455 
58.547 
66,586 

599,161 


8,600 
18,467 
31,664 
18,179 
18,261 
17,891 

79,874 


113.386 
147,103 
127,129 
89,089 
73,576 
73,078 

548,251 


127,669 




94,171 




74,136 


October 


60,627 




56,175 




69 , 890 


January-June, 1955 


613,478 




17,470 
16,965 
20,611 
18,952 
22,053 
20,954 

208,177 


44,848 
36,135 
46,908 
55,074 
54,323 
56,211 

566,613 


62,318 
53,100 
67,519 
74,026 
76,376 
77,165 

774,790 


1,312 
1,413 
2,107 
2,144 
2,027 
2,517 

30,665 


48,440 
39,578 
50,192 
60,311 
56,520 
64,069 

568,496 


12,566 
12,109 
15,220 
11,571 
17,829 
10,579 

175,629 


69,644 
80.191 
91,868 
90.333 
109.893 
106,322 

1,021.327 


76,763 


February 


85.661 


March 


98.678 


April 


104.666 


May 


107.399 




140,311 


Fiscal year 1954 


971,025 






July-December, 1953.... 


103,209 


306,326 


409,535 


15,403 


302,418 


317,821 


91,714 


567,265 


447,196 


July 

August. 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January-June, 1954 


16,958 
15,310 
15,215 
18,013 
18,985 
18,728 

104,968 


54,495 
55.098 
66,088 
48,753 
38,722 
43,170 

260,287 


71,453 
70,408 
81,303 
66,766 
57,707 
61,898 

365,255 


4,296 
2,398 
2,630 
2,174 
1,755 
2,150 

15,262 


61,324 
54,654 
52,941 
48,172 
41,504 
43,823 

266,078 


65,620 
57,052 
55,571 
50,346 
43,259 
45.973 

281,340 


5,833 
13,356 
25,732 
16,420 
14,448 
15,925 

83.915 


102.987 
125.603 
118,077 
86 , 462 
68.649 
65.487 

454,062 


120,117 
92.341 
70.225 
57.361 
50.816 
56,336 

523,829 




15,800 
14,812 
18,146 
17,643 
19,840 
18,727 


39,338 
31,424 
41,663 
49,496 
48,778 
49,588 


55,138 
46,236 
59,809 
67,139 
68,618 
68,315 


2,730 
1,845 
2 , 545 
2,551 
2,339 
3.252 


42,669 
32,412 
40,637 

48,774 
47,779 
53,807 


45,399 
34,257 
43,182 
51,325 
50.118 
57,059 


9,739 
11,979 
16,627 
15,814 
18,500 
11,256 


60,978 
63,897 
78,521 
75,022 
80,698 
94,946 


65,410 




69,216 


March...._ 

April 


77,855 
87,816 


May 


92,223 


June 


131,309 







(1) Excess of admissions over departures. 

An immigrant is defined in statistics of the Service as an alien admitted for permanent residence, 
or as an addition to the population. 

A nonimmigrant is defined as an alien admitted for temporary residence. Returning resident aliens 
who have once been counted as immigrants are included with nonimmigrants, although the immigration 
laws define such aliens as immigrants. 

An emigrant is defined as an alien leaving the United States after a stay of more than a year or a 
resident alien who is leaving for permanent residence abroad. 

A nonemigrant is defined as an alien leaving the United States after a stay of one year or less or a 
resident alien who is leaving for temporary residence abroad. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



41 



TABLE 2-A. ALIENS AND CITIZENS ARRIVED AND EXAMINED 
AT UNITED STATES PORTS OF ENTRY: 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1954 AND 1955 



Class 


Total 


Aliens 


Citizens 




Year ended June 30, 1955 


Total number 


123,859,654 


63,627,764 


60,231,890 




119,763.360 


61,611,311 


58,152,049 


Canadian 


48,000,554 
71,762.806 
2,257.138 
1,839,156 


24,812,698 

36.798,613 

1,344,890 

671,563 


23,187,856 




34,964,193 


Crewmen 


912.248 


Arrived at seaports 


1,167.593 








Year ended June 30, 1954 


Total number.._ 


118,064,738 


59,714,754 


58,349.984 


Arrived at land borders 


114.456,153 


57,968,104 


56.488,049 


Canadian 


47,571,458 

66,884,695 

1.995,818 

1,612,767 


23,963,853 

34,004,251 

1,143,386 

603,264 


23,607,605 


Mexican 


32,880,444 




852,432 




1,009,503 







42 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 3. ALIENS ADMITTED, 

BY CLASSES UNDER THE IMMIGRATION LAWS: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 

Data exclude travelers between continental United States and its possessions, border en ssers, 
crewmen, and agricultural laborers. 



aliens admitted.. 



Quota Immigrants.. 



Nonquota Immigrants.- 

Wives of U. S. citizens 

Husbands of U. S. citizens 

Children of U. S. citizens 

Natives of Western Hemisphere countries 

Their spouses 

Their children 

Persons who had been U S citizens 
Ministers of religious denominations 

Their spouses 

Their children 

Employees of U. S. Government abroad, 

spouses and children 

Refugees 

Other nonquota immigrants 



(2) 



their 

U) 



Nonimmigrants.- 



-U) 



Foreign government officials 

Temporary visitors tor business 

Temporary visitors for pleasure 

Transit aliens _ 

Treaty traders and investors 

Students.- 

Representatives to international organizations 

Temporary workers and industrial trainees (3) 

Representatives of foreign information media (3) 

Exchange aliens (S) 

Returning resident aliens (l) 

Other nonimmigrants 



1951 


,952 


1953 


1954 


670,823 


781,602 


656,148 


774,790 


205,717 


265,520 


170,434 


208,177 


156,547 


194.247 


84,175 


94,098 


49.170 


71.273 


86.259 


114,079 


8,685 


16.058 


15,916 


17,145 


822 


793 


3,359 


7.725 


1,955 


2,464 


3,268 


5.819 


34,704 


47,744 


58,985 


78.897 


337 


455 


1,127 


1.119 


233 


209 


987 


510 


39 


32 


104 


427 


376 


338 


244 


263 


129 


96 


69 


57 


228 


146 


74 


65 


_ 


_ 


2 


4 


_ 


_ 




821 


1,662 


2,938 


2.124 


1,227 


465,106 


516,082 


485.714 


566,613 


20,881 


22,267 


24,502 


23,095 


83,995 


86,745 


63,496 


61,029 


230,210 


269,606 


243,219 


292,725 


72,027 


77,899 


67.684 


78,526 


850 


791 


878 


1,023 


7,355 


8.613 


13,533 


25,425 


5,526 


5.137 


6,112 


5.601 






3,021 


(5) 7.479 


- 


- 


174 


504 


_ 


_ 


12.584 


15,260 


44,212 


44,980 


50,397 


55,887 


50 


44 


114 


59 



237,790 



332,394 

71.301 

1.208 

27 . 192 

6.003 

(5)9,760 

575 

16,077 

61,442 

26 



(;) An immigrant is defined in statistics of the Service as an alien admitted for permanent residence, 
or as an addition to the population. A nonimmigrant is defined as an alien admitted for tempo- 
rary residence. Returning resident aliens who have once been counted as immigrants are included 
with nonimmigrants, although the immigration laws define such aliens as immigrants. 

(2) Under the Immigration Act of 1924, this class covered only women who had been U. S. citizens. 

(S) New classes under the provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act. 

U) Refugees admitted under the Refugee Relief Act of 1953. 

(5) Does not include 7,946 agricultural laborers admitted under Section ]01(a)(15)(H), Immigra- 
tion and Nationality Act in 1954 and 13,195 admitted in 1955. 



Re port o f the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



43 



TABLE 4. IMMIGRATION BY COUNTRY, FOR DECADES: 
1820 TO 1955 (1) 

(From 1820 to 1867 figures represent alien passengers arrived; 1868 to 1891 inclusive and 
1895 to 1897 inclusive immigrant aliens arrived; 1892 to 1894 inclusive and from 1898 to present 
time immigrant aliens admitted. Data for years prior to 190G relate to country whence alien 
came; thereafter to country of last permanent residence. Because of changes in boundaries and 
changes in lists of countries, data for certain countries are not comparable throughout.) 



Countries 


1820 


1821 

to 
1830 


1831 

to 
1840 


1841 
to 

1850 


1851 

to 
1860 


1861 

to 
1870 


All countries 


8,385 


143,439 


599,125 


1.713,251 


2,598,214 


2.314,824 


Europe 


7,691 


98,817 


495,688 


1,597,501 


2,452,660 


2.065,270 


Austria-Hungary (2) 

Belgium 


1 

20 

371 

968 

1,782 

268 

360 

3.614 
30 
49 

3 

5 
35 
139 
31 

14 
5 


27 
169 

8,497 

6,761 

14,055 

2,912 

170 

7.942 

20 

50.724 

409 

1,078 

91 

16 

145 

2.477 

3.226 

20 

75 

3 

10 


22 

1,063 

45,575 

152,454 

7,611 

2,667 

185 

65,347 

49 

207.381 

2.253 

1,412 

1.201 

369 

829 

2,125 

4,821 

7 

277 

40 

48 


5.074 
539 

77,262 

434,626 

32.092 

3,712 

1,261 

229 , 979 

16 

780,719 

1,870 

8.251 

13,903 

105 

550 

2.209 

4.644 

59 

551 

79 

82 


4,738 

3,749 

76,358 

951,667 

247,125 

38,331 

6,319 

132.199 

31 

914,119 

9,231 

10.789 

20,931 

1,164 

1,055 

9,298 

25,011 

83 

457 

5 

41,455 


7,800 
6 734 






France 

Germany (2) 

(England.__ 


35.986 
787,468 






Britain (Wales 

(Not specified (3) 

Greece 


4,313 

341,537 

72 


Ireland 




Italy _ 

Netherlands . _ 

Sw°S'i ^4) 

Poland (5) 

Portugal 

Spain 

Switzerland 

Turkey in Europe 

U. S. S. R (6) 

Other Europe 

Asia 


11,725 

9,102 

(71,631 

(37,667 

2,027 

2,658 

6.697 

23.286 

129 

2,512 

8 

64,630 




1 

1 

3 

387 


2 

8 

11,564 


8 
39 

1 

33.424 


35 
36 

11 

62,469 


41,397 
43 

15 

74.720 


64,301 

69 

186 

2 

72 


India 

Japan._ (7) 

Turkey in Asia (8) 

Other Asia 


America 


166,607 


Canada and Newfoundland ...(9) 

Mexico (10) 

West Indies _ 

Central America _ 

South America 


209 
1 

164 
2 
11 

1 
301 


2,277 

4.817 

3,834 

105 

.531 

16 
33.032 


13,624 

6,. 599 

12.301 

44 

856 

54 
69,911 


41.723 
3.271 

13,528 

368 

3,579 

55 
53,144 


59.309 
3,078 

10,660 

449 

1.224 

210 
29,169 


1.53,878 

2.191 

9,046 

95 

1 397 


Africa 


312 




36 


Not specified 


17 969 







See footnotes at end of table. 



44 Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 4. IMMIGRATION BY COUNTRY, FOR DECADES: 

1820 TO 1955 (1) 
(Continued) 



Countries 


1871 

to 
1880 


1881 

to 
1890 


1891 

to 
1900 


1901 

to 
1910 


1911 

to 
1920 


1921 

to 
1930 


All countires 


2,812,191 


5,246,613 


3,687,564 


?, 795,386 


5,735,811 


4,107,209 




2,272,262 


1,737,046 


3,558,978 


3,136,016 


4,376,564 


2,477,853 


Austria ) 

Hungary) 

Belgium 


(2) 


72,969 
7,221 

31,771 

72,206 

718,182 

437,706 

87,564 

6,631 

16,142 

210 

436,871 

55,759 

16,541 

95,323 

115,922 

12,970 

14,082 

11 

5,266 

28,293 

337 

39,284 

1,001 
123.823 


353,719 
20,177 

88,132 

50,464 

1,452,970 

644,680 

149,869 

12,640 

168 

2,308 

655,482 

307,309 

53,701 

176,586 

391,776 

51.806 

16,978 

6,348 

4,419 

81,988 

1 , .562 

213,282 

682 
68,380 


592,707 

18,167 

160 

50,231 

30,770 

505,152 

216,726 

44,188 

10,557 

67 

15,979 

388,416 

651,893 

26,758 

95,015 

226,266 

96,720 

27,508 

12,750 

8,731 

31,179 

3.626 

505,290 

122 
71,236 


2,145,266 

41,635 
39,280 

65,285 

73,379 
341,498 
388,017 
120,469 

17,464 

167,519 
339,065 
2,045,877 
48,262 
190.505 
249,534 

69,149 
53.008 
27,935 
34.922 
79.976 
1,597,306 

665 
243,567 


(453,649 

(442,693 

33,746 

22,533 

3,426 

41,983 

756 

61,897 

143,945 

249,944 

78,357 

13,107 

184,201 

146,181 

1,109, 524 

43,718 

66.395 

95,074 

4,813 

89,732 

13,311 

68,611 

23,091 

54,677 

921,201 

1,888 

8,111 

192,559 


32,868 
30,680 
15,846 


Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 


....(11) 
....(12) 


2,945 
102,194 
32,430 


Finland... 


....(12) 


16,691 
49,610 


Germany 

(England 


(2) 


412,202 
157,420 




159,781 


Britain (Wales 1 


13,012 


(Not specified 

Greece 




51,084 


Ireland 


220,591 


Italy 


455,315 


Netherlands 


26,948 




(4) 


68,531 


Sweden 


(4) 


97,249 


Poland.. 


(5) 


227,734 
29,994 


Rumania 


--(13) 


67,646 
28,958 


Switzerland. 


29,676 


Turkey in Europe 


14,659 


U. S. S. R 


(6) 


61,742 


Yugoslavia.. 


-(11) 


49 , 064 
22,983 


Asia 


97,400 


China 


123,201 
163 
149 
67 
243 

404,044 


61,711 

269 

2.270 

2,220 

1,910 

426.967 


14,799 
68 
25,942 
26,799 
3,628 

38,972 


20,605 
4,713 
129,797 
77,393 
11,059 

361,888 


21.278 
2,082 
83,837 
79,389 
5,973 

1,143,671 


29,907 


India 


1 886 


Japan 

Turkey in Asia 


(7) 


33,462 
19,165 


Other Asia 


12,980 




1,516,716 


Canada and Newfoundland... 


(9) 


383,640 

5,162 

13,957 

157 

1,128 

358 
9,886 
1,028 

790 


393,304 

1.913 

29.042 

404 

2,304 

857 
7,017 
5,5.57 

789 


3.311 

971 

33,066 

549 

1,075 

350 
2.740 
1.225 
14.063 


179,226 

49.642 

107,548 

8.192 

17,280 

7,368 
11,975 

1.049 
33,523 


742,185 

219,004 

123.424 

17,1.59 

41,899 

8,443 
12,348 
1.079 
1,147 


924,515 
459,287 


West Indies 


74,899 




15,769 




42,215 


Other America 


fifii 


31 


Africa 


6.286 




8,299 


Pacific Islands 


427 


Not specified 


Cli) 


228 







See footnotes at end of table. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



45 



TABLE 4. IMMIGRATION BY COUNTRY, FOR DECADES: 

1820 TO 1955 (1) 
(Continued) 



Countries 


1931 

to 
1940 


1941 

to 
1950 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


Total 

136 years 

1820 

to 
1955 


All countries 


528.431 


1,035.039 


205,717 


265.520 


170,434 


208.177 


237,790 


40,413,120 


Europe.— 


(2) 


348.289 


621.704 


149,545 


193.626 


82,352 


92,121 


110,591 


33,874,574 


Albania.. 

Austria. 

Hungary 

Belgium 


2,040 
3,563 
7,861 
4.817 

14.393 

2.559 

506 

2.146 

12,623 

114.058 

21,756 

6,887 

735 

9,119 
13,167 
68,028 
1.192 
2.201 
565 
7.150 
4,740 
17,026 
3.329 
3.871 
3,258 
3.960 
5.512 
737 
1.356 
5,835 
2,361 

15,344 


85 

24.860 

3,469 

12,189 

375 

8,347 

5,393 

212 

2,503 

38,809 

226.578 

112,252 

16,131 

3,209 

8,973 

26,967 

57,661 

361 

683 

820 

14,860 

10,100 

7,571 

7,423 

1,076 

2,898 

10.665 

10.547 

.580 

548 

1,576 

3,983 

31,780 


9,761 
62 

1,802 

1 

88 

1,076 

532 
4,573 
87,755 
12,393 
2,309 
196 

4,459 

3,144 

8,958 

5 

8 

51 

3,062 

2,289 

98 

1,078 

104 

442 

2,022 

1,485 

118 

10 

454 

1,203 

3.921 


1 

23.088 

63 

2,946 

9 

51 

1,152 

7 

500 

4.878 

104,236 

18.539 

3.390 

248 

948 

6.996 

3,526 

11,342 

10 

20 

90 

3,060 

2,354 

235 

953 

34 

481 

1,778 

1,502 

94 

11 

327 

757 

9,328 


1 

2.132 

96 

2.162 

1 

77 

993 

38 

473 

4.137 

27.329 

12,921 

3,416 

302 

1,426 

1,296 

4.304 

8.432 

59 

14 

77 

2,973 

2,234 

136 

1,077 

23 

814 

2,171 

1,796 

62 

25 

580 

775 

8,231 


2,136 

30 

2,263 

27 

1,010 

5 

448 

4,263 

33,098 

12,977 

3,442 

253 

215 

1,154 

4,655 

13,145 

6 

5 

59 

3,595 

2,142 

67 

1.455 

7 

542 

2,172 

1,673 

97 

11 

680 

489 

9,970 


5 

3,404 

83 

1,271 

1 

35 

1.020 

10 

450 

4,127 

29,596 

12,871 

2,642 

248 

166 

6,182 

5,222 

30,272 

23 

12 

61 

3,555 

2,296 

129 

1,293 

25 

802 

1.702 

1.693 

108 

28 

611 

648 

10,935 


2 , 139 

^4, 212, 959 

180,838 


Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark. 


-.(11) 
...(12) 


66,243 
128,638 
345,669 


Estonia.- 

Finland._ 

France 


...(12) 
...(12) 


778 
24,499 
655,785 


Germany 


. (2) 


6,530,543 


(England... 




2,823,144 
765,104 


Britein (Wales. ... 


90 , 850 


(Not specified(3) 


796.496 
459.668 


Ireland 


4,639.926 


Italy _ 


4,849,033 


Latvia. 

Lithuania., 


...(12) 
...(12) 
...(17) 


1,656 
2,943 
1,723 


Netherlands 


284,864 


Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 


(4) 

(5) 


826.270 
422.991 
269.323 




...(13) 


158.214 




176.102 


Sweden._ 


(4) 


1,237,958 
314,376 


Turkey in Eurooe 


156,932 


U. S. S. R 


. (6) 


3,343,9S0 


Yugoslavia... 

Other Europe 


...(11) 


61.015 
43,915 


A8ia._._ 


...(15) 


992,704 


China . 


4,928 
496 

1,948 
328 

7.644 


16,709 

1,761 

1,555 

218 

11.537 


335 
109 
271 

3.203 


263 
123 

3,814 
12 

5,116 


528 
104 

2,579 
13 

5,007 


254 
144 

3,846 
33 

5.693 


568 
194 

4,150 
54 

5.969 


400,830 


India .r. 


12.308 


Japan 

Turkey in Asia 

Other Asia 


(7^ 

(8) 


293 . 806 
205,696 
80,064 









See footnotes at end of table. 



46 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 4. IMMIGRATION BY COUNTRY, FOR DECADES: 

1820 TO 1955 (1) 
(Continued) 





















Total 






1931 


1941 












136 years 


Countries 




to 
1940 


to 
1950 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


1820 

to 
1955 


America ... 


160,037 


354,804 


47,631 


61,049 


77.650 


95,587 


110,436 


5,148,623 


Canada and 




















Newfoundland 


(9) 


108,527 


171,718 


25,880 


33,354 


36 283 


34,873 


32,435 


3,340,271 




(10) 


22,319 


60,589 


6,153 


9,079 


17,183 


30,645 


43,702 


945,606 


West Indies 




15,502 


49,725 


5,902 


6 , 672 


8,628 


8,411 


12.876 


539,186 


Central America 




5,861 


21,665 


2,011 


2,637 


3,016 


3,300 


3,667 


85,450 


South America 




7,803 


21,831 


3,596 


4,591 


5,511 


6,575 


7,654 


171,060 


Other America 


.-(16) 


25 


29,276 


4,089 


4,716 


7,029 


11,783 


10,102 


67.051 






1,750 


7,367 


845 


931 


989 


1,248 


1,203 


38,643 


Australia and New Zealand... 


2,231 


13,805 


490 


545 


742 


845 


932 


71.891 


Pacific Islands.. 


(15) 


780 


5,437 


3,265 


33 


40 


65 


96 


20,081 


Not specified 


(14) 


- 


142 


20 


8 


430 


8,341 


3,597 


266,604 



(1) Data are for fiscal years ended June 30, except 1820 to 1831 inclusive and 1844 to 1849 inclusive 

fiscal years ended September 30; 1833 to 1842 inclusive and 1851 to 1867 inclusive years 
ended December 31; 1832 covers 15 months ended December 31; 1843 nine months ended 
September 30; 1850 fifteen months ended December 31 and 1868 six months ended June 30. 

(2) Data for Austria-Hungary were not reported until 1861. Austria and Hungary have been 

recorded separately since 1905. In the years 1938 to 1945 inclusive Austria was included 
with Germany. 

(3) United Kingdom not specified. In the years 1901 to 1951, included in other Europe. 

(4) From 1820 to 18G8 the figures for Norway and Sweden were combined. 

(5) Poland was recorded as a separate country from 1820 to 1898 and since 1920. Between 1899 

and 1919 Poland was included with Austria-Hungary. Germany, and Russia. 
(G) Since 1931 the Russian Empire has been broken down to European U. S. S. R. and Siberia 
or Asiatic U. S. S. R. 

(7) No record of immigration from Japan until 1861. 

(8) No record of immigration from Turkey in Asia until 1869. 

(9) Prior to 1920 Canada and Newfoundland were recorded as British North America. From 1820 

to 1898 the figures include all British North American possessions. 

(10) No record of immigration from Mexico from 1886 to 1893. 

(11) Bulgaria, Serbia, and Montenegro were first reported in 1899. Bulgaria has been reported 

separately since 1920 and in 1920 also a separate enumeration was made for the Kingdom 
of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Since 1922 the Serb, Croat, and Slovene Kingdom has been 
recorded as Yugoslavia. 

(12) Countries added to the list since the beginning of World War I are theretofore included with 

the countries to which they belonged. Figures are available since 1920 for Czechoslovakia 
and Finland; and since 1924 for Albania, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. 

(13) No record of immigration from Rumania until 1880. 

(14) The figure 33,523 in column headed 1901-1910, includes 32,897 persons returning in 1906 

to their homes in the United States. 

(15) Beginning with the year 1952, Asia includes the Philippines. From 1934 to 1951 the Philippines 

were included in the Pacific Islands. Prior to 1934 the Philippines were recorded in separate 
tables as insular travel. 

(16) Included with countries not specified prior to 1925. 

(17) Figures for Luxembourg are available since 1925. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



47 



TABLE 5. IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED 

AND EMIGRANT ALIENS DEPARTED, BY PORT OR DISTRICT: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 



Port or district 


Immigrant 


Emigrant 




1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


All ports or districts 


205,717 


265,520 


170,434 


208,177 


237,790 


26,174 


21,880 


24,256 


30,665 


31,245 


Atlantic 


154,581 


197,172 


102,347 


117,232 

98,813 

2,730 

556 

737 

71 

92 

188 

108 

48 

51 

336 

10.433 

90 

1.536 

233 

1,210 

3,125 


137,863 


18,001 

14,295 

218 

39 

14 

10 

10 

5 

4 

50 

2,666 

33 

571 

38 

24 

998 


14,998 

12 , 099 

121 

28 
34 

1 

i 

1 

21 
1,960 

31 
357 

26 
304 

667 


18,350 


22,121 

17,195 

283 

78 

199 

2 

26 

38 

6 

6 

4 

52 

2,925 

93 

489 

57 

668 

998 


23 532 






New York, N. Y 


142,903 

3,787 

134 

148 

34 

19 

42 

47 

15 

7 

106 

5,199 

34 

1.563 

42 

501 

10,035 


183.2:i2 

2,968 

337 

620 

25 

103 

178 

33 

6 

21 

134 

6 , 209 

42 

1,838 

98 

1,338 

13,085 


87.483 

2,248 

322 

451 

33 

45 

109 

76 

14 

45 

213 

7.537 

43 

2,651 

94 

983 

2,328 


115,787 

2 , 565 

552 

471 

43 

74 

97 

69 

30 

HI 

843 

13,612 

137 

2,024 

114 

1,334 

2,897 


14,844 
219 
22 
60 

10 
17 

4 

50 
2,111 

90 
476 

35 
412 

607 


20,105 
293 


Philadelphia, Pa. 

Baltimore Md. 


46 
100 


Portland Me 


6 


Newport News, Va 

Norfolk, Va 


14 
28 


Charleston, S.C 

Savannah, Ga. 


5 
12 


Jacksonville, Fla 

Key West, Fla. 


2 


Miami, Fla 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 
Puerto Rico 


2,033 
43 
273 


Virgin Islands 

Other Atlantic 


28 
439 

630 








351 
2 
101 
9,177 
366 
38 

5,274 


335 

2 

166 

12,301 

268 

13 

9 , 068 


405 
4 
171 
1,459 
268 
21 

7,578 


458 
33 
235 
1,651 
392 
356 

10,675 


437 
22 
173 
1,452 
523 
290 

10.904 


180 

2 

17 

636 

155 

8 

1,770 


73 

5 
439 
148 

2 

1,806 


61 

17 

423 

98 

8 

2,044 


49 
5 
43 
724 
94 
83 

3,420 


23 


Pensacola, Fla 

Mobile Ala. 


7 
52 


New Orleans, La 

San Antonio, Tex 

Other Gulf 


380 
83 
85 

2,810 






San Francisco, Calif 


3.841 

15 

382 

294 

742 

54 

28,039 

7,734 


3,178 

26 

3,497 

868 

1,499 

79 
35,451 
10,665 


2,366 
16 
2,520 
1,197 
1,479 

68 
38,613 
19,500 


3,363 
24 

2,870 

1 , 133 

2.597 

80 

608 

282 
39,008 
37,855 


2,727 

32 

2.430 

1,012 

4,081 

115 

507 

608 
34,143 
51,375 


907 
5 
89 
139 
630 

3,893 
1.512 


771 
6 
119 
215 
695 

3,281 
1,128 


778 
22 
218 
359 
667 

4 
2,168 
1,083 


1,326 

7 

283 

220 

1,144 

54 

386 

20 
2,841 
1,265 


881 


Seattle Wash. 


377 


Los Angeles, Calif 


157 

1,106 

49 

232 

19 


Agana, Guam (1) 

Other Pacific (2) 

Alaska 


Canadian Border 


3 407 




847 







(1) Not reported as a separate port before 1954. 

(2) Prior to 1954, included in Seattle and Los Angeles. 



48 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 6. IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED, 

BY CLASSES UNDER THE IMMIGRATION LAWS 

AND COUNTRY OR REGION OF BIRTH: 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1955 



Country 

or 

region of birth 



All countries 

Europe 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia.... 

Denmark 

Estonia.- 

Finland.. 

France.... 

Germany 

Greece.. 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia... 

Lithuania 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Rumania 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom: 

England 

North. Ireland.. 

Scotland. 

Wales 

U. S. S. R 

Yugoslavia.. 

Other Europe.. 

Asia... 

China 

India.. 

Israel 

Japan 

Palestine 

Philippines.. 

Other Asia 

North America 

Canada.. 

Mexico 

West Indies 

Central America.. 
Other 

North America. 

South America 

Africa 

Australia and 

New Zealand_ 

Other countries 

















■ss 












2 










"t 


































.Sf 


r 


.2 








c 






■a 

1 


5 
2 


E 
.E 


1 




•5 
w 


11 


It 


1 
1. 


•s.g 




1 
E 

3 


E 
.E 

3 






1 
1 

s 


1 


1! 


1 


S.2 

Is 


£1 
"a 3 


I 


237,790 


82,232 


155.558 


18,504 


6,716 


5,662 


92 , 620 


1,654 


87 


307 


29,002 


127,492 
2,228 


76,437 


51,055 
1.192 


12.107 


4,913 


4,067 


1 


1,298 


9 


177 
4 


28,000 


1.036 


530 


47 


47 


_ 


9 


543 


1,117 


1,008 


109 


35 


10 


7 


_ 


6 


_ 


6 


43 


117 


88 


29 


IC 


5 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


10 


1,983 


1,545 


438 


27S 


52 


11 


_ 


12 


_ 


6 


78 


1,321 


1,127 


194 


135 


34 


10 


- 


It 


- 


- 


_ 


229 


191 


38 


8 


9 




- 




- 


- 


21 


619 


504 


115 


65 


35 


4 


- 


4 


_ 


2 


6 


3,411 


2,516 


895 


724 


.50 


44 


1 


•A> 


- 


4 


24 


29,603 


22,61C 


6,993 


5,695 


146 


449 




71 


1 


13 


598 


6,311 


286 


6,025 


538 


572 


165 


_ 


f^ 




3 


4,736 


904 


614 


290 


73 


43 




- 


f 


- 


11 


153 


5,975 


5.912 


63 


26 


6 


3 


_ 


17 


_ 




7 


31,925 


5,461 


26,464 


2,198 


2,7.53 


2,602 


- 


45iJ 


5 


35 


18.382 


425 


293 


132 


24 


11 


1 


- 


6 


- 


1 


89 


384 


232 


152 


14 


13 


1 


_ 


a 


_ 


4 


117 


3,732 


2,912 


820 


185 


90 


23 


- 


14 


2 


17 


484 


2,478 


2.292 


186 


92 


56 


17 


_ 


H 






3 


4,697 


3.77S 


918 


225 


189 


22 


- 


86 


- 


11 


384 


1,366 


402 


964 


175 


2,59 


436 


- 


9(1 


- 


3 


1 




35S 


62S 


73 


65 


4 


_ 


23 


_ 


6 


458 


1,134 


228 


906 


180 


178 


74 


- 


8(1 


1 


32 


9 


1,546 


1,515 


31 


13 


7 


2 


- 


6 




1 




1,670 


1,571 


99 


71 


15 


1 


- 


7 


- 


1 


- 


12,475 


12,080 


395 


136 


30 


10 


_ 


189 


_ 


_ 


16 


1,074 


1,058 


16 


5 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


3,824 


3,721 


103 


27 


6 


5 


- 


58 


- 


1 


_ 


476 


464 


12 


2 


3 




_ 


4 






2 


1,694 


1.269 


425 


79 


50 


1 


- 


31 


- 


9 


255 


2,567 


697 


1,870 


261 


W 


102 


_ 


26 


_ 


6 


1,376 


1,219 


667 


552 


229 


81 


24 


- 


10 


- 


1 


206 


12,131 


3,426 


8,705 


5,496 


838 


1,301 


~ 


60 


1 


85 


866 


2,705 


1,195 


1.510 


909 


125 


292 




3 


_ 


8 


171 


332 


178 


154 


76 


50 


10 


- 


1(1 


- 


7 




471 


339 


132 


44 


43 


22 


_ 


7 


_ 


6 


10 


3,984 


200 


3,784 


2.843 


125 


299 


- 


7 


1 


53 


413 


140 


71 


69 


18 


23 


10 


_ 


3 




- 


15 


1,784 


143 


1,641 


958 


120 


546 


_ 


3 






10 


2,715 


1,300 


1,415 


648 


352 


122 


- 


27 


- 


11 


247 


90,732 


1,072 


89 , 660 


507 


751 


221 


87,277 


261 


73 


20 


95 


23,091 


7 


23,084 


70 


23 


15 


22,565 


27 


4 


10 


1 


50,772 


2 


50.770 


17 


13 


5 


50.672 


10 


1 






12,499 


773 


11.726 


367 


652 


195 


10.273 


197 




7 


2 


8,683 


100 


3,583 


39 


29 


6 


3,484 


24 


- 


1 


- 


687 


190 


497 


14 


34 


- 


283 


3 


68 


2 


92 


5,599 


146 


5,453 


39 


57 


17 


5.319 


11 


1 


6 


1 


1.186 


797 


389 


197 


109 


40 


- 


8 


- 


6 


29 


474 


257 


217 


133 


38 


15 


_ 


13 


_ 


13 


2 


176 


97 


79 


25 


10 


1 


23 


3 


3 


- 


9 



852 
2 
4 

14 

I 
6 
1 

1 
1 

58 
2 
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Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



51 



TABLE 6-B. REFUGEES, DISPLACED PERSONS, AND 

OTHER IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED TO THE UNITED STATES, 

BY COUNTRY OR REGION OF BIRTH: 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1955 





Total 


Ref- 


Dis- 


Other 


Country or region 


immi- 


ugees 


placed 


immi- 


of birth 


grants 


(1) 


persons 

(2) 


grants 


All countries 


237,790 


29,002 


1,093 


207,695 






Europe 


127,492 


28,000 


1,080 


98,412 


Austria 


2,228 


543 


27 


1.658 


Belgium 


1.117 


43 


22 


1,052 


Bulgaria 


117 


10 


13 


94 


Czechoslovakia _ 


1,983 


78 


121 


1,784 


Denmark 


1,321 






1,321 


Estonia 


229 


21 


4 


204 


Finland 


619 


5 


1 


613 


France 


3,411 


24 


34 


3,353 


Germany 


29,603 


598 


164 


28,841 


Greece 


6,311 


4,736 


1 


1.574 


Hungary 


904 


153 


61 


690 


Ireland 


5,975 


7 




5,968 


Italy 


31,925 


18,382 


4 


13.539 


Latvia 


425 


89 


16 


320 


Lithuania 


384 


117 


21 


246 


Netherlands 


3,732 


484 




3,248 


Norway 


2,478 


3 


- 


2,475 


Poland 


4,697 


384 


359 


3,954 


Portugal _ 


1,366 


1 




1.365 


Rumania 


988 


458 


12 


518 


Spain 


1,134 


9 


2 


1,123 


Sweden 


1,546 


- 


40 


1.506 


Switzerland 


1,670 


_ 




1,668 


(England. 


12,475 


16 


5 


12.454 


United (Northern Ireland 


1,074 


- 


- 


1.074 


Kingdom fScotland 


3,824 


- 


1 


3,823 


(Wales 


476 


2 


- 


474 


U. S. S R. 


1,694 


255 


132 


1,307 


Yugoslavia 


2,567 


1,376 


30 


1.161 


Othei Europe 


1,219 


206 


8 


1.005 


Asia 


12,131 


866 


1 


11,264 


China 


2,705 


171 


_ 


2,534 


India _ 


332 




- 


332 


Israel 


471 


10 


1 


460 


Japan 


3.984 


413 


- 


3,571 


Palestine 


140 


15 


- 


125 


Philippines 


1,784 


10 


_ 


1,774 


Other Asia 


2,715 


247 


- 


2,468 


North America 


90,732 


95 


2 


90,635 


Canada 


23,091 


1 


1 


23 , 089 


Mexico 


50,772 






50.772 


West Indies 


12,499 


2 


_ 


12,497 


Cential America _ 


3,683 


- 


- 


3 683 


Other North America 


687 


92 


1 


'594 


South America 


5,599 


1 


_ 


5,598 


Africa... 


1,186 


29 


10 


1,147 


Australia and New Zealand 


474 


2 




472 


Other countries 


176 


9 


- 


167 



(1) Refugees admitted under the Refugee Relief Act of 1953. 

(2) Displaced persons admitted under Section 3(c) of the Displaced Persons Act of June 25, 1948, 

as amended. 



52 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 6C. MAXIMUM VISAS AUTHORIZED AND IMMIGRANT 

ALIENS ADMITTED TO THE UNITED STATES UNDER THE 

REFUGEE RELIEF ACT OF 1953: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1954 AND 1955 



Clan 


Maximum 

visas 
authorized 


Number admitted 


Total 


1954 


1955 


Total number 


(1)209.000 


29,823 


821 


29.002 


German expellees in Western Germany, Berlin or Austria...^. 


55,000 
35,000 

10,000 

2,000 

( 45,000 

( 15,000 

( 15,000 

( 2,000 

( 15,000 

( 

( 2,000 

2,000 
3,000 
2,000 
2,000 
4,000 


2,604 
569 

520 

93 

498 

18,796 

2,275 

2,713 

59 

472 

8 
167 

48 

965 


613 
59 
43 

106 


2.604 
569 


Escapees in NATO countries or in Turkey, Sweden 


Iran or 


520 




93 




498 


Italian relatives of U. S. citizens or alien residents, 
in Italy or Trieste 


residing 


18,183 


Greek refugees in Greece 


2,275 


Greek relatives of U. S. citizens or alien residents, residing in 


2,654 




59 


Dutch relatives of U. S. citizens or alien residents, 
in the Netherlands 


residing 


429 




8 




167 




48 


Palestine refugees in the Near East 


36 




859 









(1) In addition, 5,000 visas were authorized for refugees in the United States adjusting status under 
Section 6 of the Refugee Relief Act of 1953. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



53 



TABLE 7. ANNUAL QUOTAS AND QUOTA IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED: 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 





Annual 
quota 

(i) 


Quota immigrants admitted 




1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 

(*) 


1955 

(S) 


All quota areas 


154,657 
149,667 


156,547 


194,247 


84,175 


94,098 


82,232 


Europe.- 


154,759 


192,754 


82,231 


90.190 


78.926 


Northern and Western Europe 


125,165 


47,026 


73.302 


63,649 


69,267 


62.307 




1.297 

1,175 

3,069 

25,814 

65,361 

100 

17,756 

100 

3,136 

2,364 

3,295 

1,698 

24,502 


991 

1,082 
2,900 
14,637 
15.369 
96 
3,810 
59 
3.102 
2,248 
1,360 
1,372 

107,733 


1,103 

1.183 

2,935 

35.4,'-.3 

20.368 

95 

3,819 

103 

3,032 

2,333 

1,554 

1.324 

119.452 


1,093 

1,124 

2.984 

20,866 

24,219 

89 

4,635 

76 

2,903 

2.259 

1,610 

1,761 

18,582 


1.445 

1,128 

3.044 

28.361 

21.092 

109 

5.169 

79 

3.208 

2.195 

1,803 

1,634 

20,923 


1,068 


Denmark. 


1,129 


Great Britain, Northern Lreland. 


2.903 
23.430 
19.267 




93 


Ireland. 


5,825 




74 


Netherlands 

Norway 


3.020 
2,310 
1.561 


Switzerland. 


1,627 


Southern and Eastern Europe.- 


16,619 


Austria „ 


1,405 
100 

2,859 
115 
566 
308 
865 

5,645 
235 
384 

6,488 
438 
289 
250 
225 

2,697 
933 
700 

(2)2,990 


1,361 

231 

3,870 

2,230 

556 

3,638 

5,079 

4,325 

11,220 

4,568 

45,766 

384 

2,042 

286 

401 

14,019 

7,411 

346 

1,341 


2,236 

330 

5,398 

1,366 

494 

5,621 

7.331 

5.901 

4,999 

3,330 

42,665 

388 

5,184 

256 

374 

15,269 

17,265 

1,045 

1.085 


903 
56 

2,138 
113 
527 
172 
575 

4.970 
224 
258 

4,428 
385 
208 
583 
118 

1,926 
690 
308 

1.560 


1,056 
52 

2,005 
156 
555 
571 
801 

6,042 
203 
311 

4,851 
496 
308 
329 
190 

1,887 
778 
332 

3,286 


923 
83 




1,615 


Estonia 


166 


Finland _ 


496 




267 


Hungary 

Latvia 


528 

5,398 

239 




199 




3,657 


Portugal 


414 




225 


Spain 


201 




129 


U. S. S. R .... 


1.288 


Yugoslavia 


562 


Other Southern and Eastern Europe 

Asia 


234 
2,658 


China - 

Chinese 

India 

Asia Pacific Triangle _ 

Other Asia _ 


100 
105 
100 
100 
2,585 

1,400 
(2) 600 


518 
56 
69 

698 

272 
175 


178 
51 
70 

786 

2.53 
155 


404 
105 
64 

987 

235 
149 


63 

1,348 

120 

21 
1,734 

350 

272 


49 
iS) 1.066 
(3) 116 

1.418 

425 


Oceania 


228 







(1) The annual quota was 154,277 in the fiscal years 1951 and 1952. 

(*) The Philippines are included in Asia; prior to the fiscal year 1952, the Philippines were included 
in the Pacific, or Oceania. 

(S) The 1954 and 1955 figures include 7.191 and 4,325, respectively, quota immigrants who had ad- 
justed their status in the United States, such as by suspension of deportation, by private law, 
or as displaced persons. The 1955 figures on Chinese and India include 1,012 Chinese and 88 
Indians who had adjusted their status during the year. 



54 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 7-A. QUOTA IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED, BY PREFERENCES: 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1954 AND 1955 



Total number.. 



First preference quota: Selected immigrants of special skill or ability.. 

Second preference quota: Parents of U. S. citizens 

Third preference quota: Spouses and children of resident aliens 



Fourth preference quota: Brothers or sisters of U. S. citizens, children over 21 years 
of age, or married, of U. S. citizens 



Nonpreference quota 

Displaced persons admitted under the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, as amended... 

Displaced persons adjusting status under Section 4, Displaced Persons Act of 1948 
as amended - - - 



94,098 


82,232 


2,456 


3,012 


2,783 


2,394 


6,004 


5,425 


1,930 


3,076 


74,843 


65,711 


5,235 


1,093 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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58 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 10. IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED, 

BY RACE, SEX, AND AGE: 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1955 



Sex and age 


Num- 
ber 
ad- 
mitted 


White 


Chinese 


East 
Indian 


Fili- 
pino 


Japa- 
nese 


Kor- 
ean 


Negro 


Pacific 

Is- 
lander 


Number admitted.__ 


237,790 


225,092 


2,628 


233 


1.618 


4,143 


280 


3,695 


101 


Male._ 


112,032 


107,391 


1.261 


172 


443 


708 


67 


1.952 


38 




9,587 

8,783 

6,730 

1,303 

3,104 

4,226 

13,986 

17,625 

14,950 

9,106 

8,492 

6,128 

3,703 

2,065 

1,100 

587 

289 

143 

109 

16 

125,758 


9,218 

8,355 

6,449 

1,258 

2,987 

4,075 

13,505 

16,999 

14,287 

8,603 

8,137 

5,912 

3,496 

1,964 

1,050 

559 

276 

141 

107 

13 

117,701 


54 
116 
46 
3 
17 
19 
39 
90 
188 
204 
143 
106 
129 
56 
30 
13 
5 

2 
1,367 


4 
6 
4 

2 
6 
16 
43 
42 
16 
15 
8 
3 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 

61 


25 

51 

76 

18 

41 

53 

43 

38 

47 

13 

19 

6 

4 

5 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1.175 


176 
130 
40 
1 
12 
12 
57 
59 
44 

30 
32 
23 
11 

6 
4 
1 

3,435 


7 
10 
6 
1 
2 
5 

9 
8 
6 
3 

213 


98 

108 

107 

22 

40 

52 

318 

381 

331 

228 

142 

64 

34 

14 

6 

5 

2 

1,743 


5 


5-9 " 


7 


10 - 14 " 


2 


15 " 




16 - 17 " 


3 


18 - 19 " 


4 


20 - 24 " 


6 


25 - 29 " 


6 


30 - 34 " 


3 


35 - 39 " 




45 - 49 " 


1 


50 - 54 " 


1 


55 - 59 " 




60 - 64 " 


_ 


65 - 69 " 




70 - 74 " 


_ 


75 - 79 " 


_ 


80 years and over._... 


- 


Female 


63 




9,065 

8,342 

6,684 

1,335 

4,187 

8,060 

24,466 

19.921 

13.299 

7.756 

6,823 

5,303 

3,977 

2,710 

1,669 

1,053 

610 

315 

164 

19 


8,682 

7,918 

6.386 

1,298 

4,071 

7,767 

22,233 

17,929 

12,369 

7,243 

6,476 

5,100 

3.855 

2,637 

1,614 

1,034 

601 

309 

164 

15 


42 

107 

32 

1 

24 

76 

290 

308 

135 

118 

98 

49 

36 

25 

15 

6 

3 

2 


3 
9 
5 

1 
1 
12 
10 
8 
5 
4 

1 

1 

1 


22 

55 

80 

11 

29 

37 

211 

256 

223 

98 

75 

41 

24 

7 

2 

2 

1 

1 


196 

121 

48 

6 

12 

101 

1.362 

1,092 

319 

79 

30 

29 

12 

13 

11 

1 

2 

1 


12 
5 

7 

1 

11 
100 
45 
12 
7 
5 
1 
2 
5 


105 

123 

124 

19 

47 

64 

248 

263 

228 

204 

130 

81 

41 

23 

25 

10 

5 

1 

2 


3 


5 - 9 " 


4 


10 - 14 " 


2 


15 " 




16 - 17 " 


2 


18 - 19 " 


3 


20 - 24 " 


10 


25 - 29 " 


18 


30 - 34 " 


5 


35 - 39 " 


2 


40 - 44 " 


5 


45 - 49 " 


2 


50 - 54 " 


6 


55 - 59 " 




60 - 64 " 


1 


65 - 69 " 




70 - 74 " 


_ 


75 - 79 " 


_ 


80 years and over 

Unknown 


- 







Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



59 



TABLE 10-A. IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED AND EMIGRANT 

ALIENS DEPARTED, BY SEX, AGE, ILLITERACY, AND MAJOR 

OCCUPATION GROUP: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 



Sex, age, illiterates, and occupation 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 




205,717 

99,327 

106,390 

934 

44,023 
121,823 
39,871 

1,869 
.9 

15,269 
10,214 
5,493 
14,098 
16,183 
17,858 
7,243 
5,292 
4,972 
5,481 
103,614 

26,174 


265,520 

123.609 
141,911 

871 

64,513 
159,788 
41,219 

2,026 
.8 

16,496 

10,566 

5,968 

16,724 

21.223 

21,092 

9,6.53 

6,418 

6,289 

8,969 

142.122 

21,880 


170,434 


208,177 


237,790 


Sex: 

Male 


73,073 

97,361 

751 

37,016 
110,860 
22 , 558 

995 
.6 

12 . 783 
3,393 
5.02.T 
15.171 
12,257 
14,718 
6,852 
4,390 
1,538 
5,369 

24,256 


95,594 

112,583 

849 

45,105 
135,731 
27,341 

1,009 
.5 

13,817 
3,846 
5,296 
16,018 
15,396 
16.755 
8,096 
5.203 
1,622 
10.061 
112,067 

30,665 


112,032 




125,758 




891 


Age: 


51.829 


16 to 44 years 


156,001 
29,960 


Illiterates: 

Number. (1) 


1,677 

.7 


Major occupation group: 


14.109 




4,446 


Managers, officials, and proprietors, except farm... 
Clerical sales, and kindred workers 


5,114 
18,060 


Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers 


18,867 
15,351 


Private household workers 


11,824 




6,512 




5,486 




17,518 




120,503 


Emigrant aliens departed 


31,245 


Sex: 
Male 


12,843 

13,331 

963 

2,417 
15,422 
8,335 

2,772 
350 

1,954 

1,799 
950 

1,363 
757 

253 

924 

14,213 


10,921 

10.959 

997 

1.918 
12.318 
7.644 

2.328 

263 

1.693 

1,179 

437 

902 

470 

908 

158 

4.099 

9,443 


12,511 
11,745 
1,065 

2,117 
14,905 
7,234 

3,053 
266 

1,798 

1,339 
786 
988 
610 

1,181 

114 

654 

13.467 


16,520 
14,145 
1,168 

2,795 
19,823 
8,047 

3,773 
240 

1,919 

1,428 
738 
987 
714 

1,333 

95 

679 

18,7,59 


17,169 




14,076 


Males per 1,000 females.-- 

Under 16 years 


1,220 
3,073 


16 to 44 years 


20,382 
7,790 


Major occupation group: 

Professional, technical, and kindred workers . 


4,261 




187 


Managers, officials, and proprietors, except farm... 
Clerical, sales, and kindred workers... 


2,169 
1,539 

740 




1,060 


Private household workers 


665 


Service workers, except private household 

Farm laborers and foremen 


1.394 
229 


Laborers, except farm and mine 


573 
18,428 







(J) Immigrants over 16 years of age who are unable to read and understand some lan;juage or dialect. 



60 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



61 



TABLE 11. ALIENS AND CITIZENS ADMITTED iAND DEPARTED: 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1908 TO 1955 





Aliens admitted 


Aliens departed 


U. S. Citizens 


Period 


Immi- 
grant 


Nonimmi- 
grant 


Emi- 
grant 


Nonemi- 
grant 


Arrived 


Departed 


Total, 1908 to 1955 


15,070,354 


10.331,784 


4,765,738 


10,663,639 


17,402,221 


17,092,805 


1908 - 1910 (1) 


2,576,226 


490,741 


823,311 


672.327 


660,811 


342,600 


1911 - 1920 


5,735,811 


1,376.271 


2,146,994 


1.841.163 


1,938,508 


2,517,889 


1911 


878,587 

1, 1971892 
1,218,480 
326,700 
298,826 
295,403 
110,618 
141,132 
430,001 

4,107,209 


151,713 
178,983 
229,335 
184,601 
107,544 
67,922 
67.474 
101,235 
95,889 
191,575 

1,774,881 


295,666 
333,262 
308,190 
303,338 
204,074 
129,765 
66,277 
94,585 
123,522 
288,315 

1,045,076 


222.549 
282.030 
303.734 
330.467 
180,100 
111,042 
80,102 
98,683 
92,709 
139,747 

1,649,702 


269,128 
280,801 
286,604 
286,586 
239,. 579 
121,930 
127 , 420 
72,867 
96,420 
157,173 

3,522,713 


349,472 


1912..... 

1913 

1914 

1915 


353,890 
347,702 
368,797 
172,371 


1916 


110,733 


1917._- 

1918 


126,011 
275,837 


1919 


218,929 


1920... 


194,147 


1921 - 1930... 


3.519,519 


1921 


805,228 
309,556 
522,919 
706,896 
294,314 
304,488 
335,175 
307,255 
279,678 
241,700 

528,431 


172,935 
122,949 
150,487 
172,406 
164,121 
191,618 
202,826 
193,376 
199.649 
204,514 

1,574.071 


247,718 
198,712 
81,450 
76,789 
92,728 
76,992 
73,366 
77,457 
69.203 
50.661 

459.738 


178,313 
146,672 
119,136 
139,956 
132,762 
150.763 
180.142 
196.899 
183,295 
221,764 

1,736,912 


222,712 
243,. 563 
308,471 
301,281 
339,239 
370,757 
378,520 
430,955 
449,955 
477,260 

3,365,432 


271,560 


1922 _ 

1923 


309,477 
270,601 


1924 


277,850 


1925 


324,323 


1926. 

1927... 

1928.... 

1929 


372,480 
369,788 
429,575 
431,842 


1930 


462,023 


1931 - 1940 


3,357.936 


1931 


97,139 
35,576 
23,068 
29,470 
34,9.56 
36,329 
50,244 
67,895 
82,998 
70,756 

1.035,039 


183.540 
139.295 
127.660 
134,434 
144,765 
154,570 
181,640 
184,802 
185,333 
138,032 

2,461,359 


61.882 
103,295 
80,081 
39,771 
38,834 
35,817 
26,736 
25,210 
26,651 
21,461 

156,399 


229,034 
184,362 
163,721 
137,401 
150,216 
157,467 
197,846 
197,404 
174,7.58 
144,703 

2,105,894 


439,897 
,339,262 
305,001 
273,257 
282,515 
318,273 
386,872 
406,999 
354,438 
258,918 

3,223,233 


446,386 


1932. 


380,837 


1933 


338,545 


1934 


262,091 


1935 


272,400 


1936 


311,480 


1937 


390,196 


1938 


397,875 


1939 


333,399 


1940.. ._ 


224,727 


1941 - 1950 


2.880.414 


1941 


51,776 
28,781 
23,725 
28,551 
38,119 
108,721 
147,292 
170,570 
188,317 
249,187 

205,717 
265,520 
170,434 
208,177 
237,790 


100,008 
82,457 
81,117 
113,611 
164,247 
203,469 
366,305 
476,006 
447,272 
426,837 

465,106 

516,082 

485,714 

(2)566.613 

(2)620.946 


17.115 

7.363 

5.107 

5.669 

7.442 

18,143 

22 , 501 

20,875 

24,. 586 

27,598 

26,174 
21.880 
24,256 
30.665 
31,245 


71,362 
67,189 
53,615 
78,740 
85,920 
186.210 
300,921 
427,343 
405,503 
429,091 

446,727 
487,617 
520,246 
568,496 
634,555 


175,935 
118,454 
105,729 
108,444 
175,568 
274.543 
437,690 
542,932 
620,371 
663,567 

760,486 

807,225 

930.874 

1,021.327 

1.171.612 


168,961 


1942. . 


113.216 


1943 


62,403 


1944.. _ 
1945. 


63,525 
103,019 


1946 


230,578 


1947 


451,845 


1948 


478,988 


1949 


552,361 


1950. 


6.55,518 


1951 


667,126 


1952 


814,289 


1953 

1954 


925,861 
971.025 


1955 


1,096,146 







(1) Departure of aliens first recorded in 1908. Departure of U. S. citizens first recorded in 1910. 

(2) Does not include agricultural laborers admitted under Section 101(a) (15) (H), Immigration 

and Nationality Act, of whom there were 7.946 in 1954 and 13.195 in 1955. 



62 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 12. IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED 

AND EMIGRANT ALIENS DEPARTED, 

BY STATE OF INTENDED FUTURE OR LAST PERMANENT RESIDENCE: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 





Immigrant 






Emigrant 






















residence 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


All States 


205,717 


265,520 


170,434 


208,177 


237,790 


26,174 


21,880 


24,256 


30,665 


31,245 




386 


697 


554 


595 


604 


63 


68 


72 


88 


82 




958 


1,269 


1,405 


1,610 


1,580 


121 


129 


98 


179 


115 


Arkansas 


384 


556 


278 


311 


339 


27 


16 


28 


33 


24 


California 


19,588 


26,599 


24,916 


28,667 


33,704 


2,531 


1,926 


2,112 


3,084 


2,513 


Colorado 


1,035 


1,863 


848 


961 


979 


104 


104 


120 


173 


116 


Connectifut 


4,841 


5,212 


3,279 


4,273 


5,222 


341 


253 


355 


390 


459 




828 


453 


270 


268 


281 


28 


14 


34 


30 


28 


District of Columbia 


1,460 


1,865 


1,352 


1,404 


1,322 


2,051 


1,843 


2,492 


2,691 


2.962 


Florida 


2,923 


3,789 


4,405 


5,326 


7,079 


1,106 


831 


985 


1,128 


810 




608 


1,148 


709 


691 


803 


115 


62 


133 


227 


147 


Idaho 


423 


449 


404 


348 


348 


42 


23 


44 


39 


40 


Illinois 


20,562 


20,758 


9,202 


11,669 


14.786 


957 


667 


904 


1,217 


1,260 




2,777 


3,473 


1,818 


2,143 


2,093 


228 


126 


122 


266 


276 




1,639 


2,372 


842 


938 


998 


103 


86 


105 


133 


145 


Kansas 


785 


1,137 


672 


739 


723 


74 


56 


108 


137 


179 




637 


757 


565 


624 


695 


65 


63 


53 


78 


84 


Louisiana 


1,115 


1,729 


1,000 


1,198 


1,131 


379 


227 


232 


387 


274 


Maine 


809 


989 


1,085 


1,273 


1,297 


156 


70 


56 


59 


85 




2,275 


2,321 


1,367 


1,875 


1,844 


280 


189 


285 


331 


436 


Massachusetts 


8,134 


8,741 


6,578 


7,901 


8,817 


956 


659 


757 


995 


1,004 




13,452 


15,489 


10,351 


11,328 


10,448 


863 


596 


537 


962 


943 


Minnesota 


2,710 


3,327 


1,709 


1,765 


1,707 


200 


163 


188 


226 


287 


Mississippi 


500 


444 


303 


322 


359 


60 


47 


90 


158 


83 




1,721 


3,032 


1,363 


1,577 


1,609 


126 


102 


164 


257 


262 


Montana 


663 


869 


450 


418 


524 


67 


38 


42 


43 


43 




1,273 
165 
500 


2,199 
269 
633 


462 
186 
507 


582 
216 
666 


594 
274 
626 


32 
16 
82 


21 

26 
48 


38 
26 
49 


51 
43 

46 


48 


Nevada 


25 


New Hampshire... _ 


63 




10,701 

315 

60,113 

1,069 

595 

7,926 


14,531 
452 

78,212 
1,149 
1,078 

12,145 


7,916 

701 

42,712 

696 

356 

5,082 


9,523 
1,324 

48,757 

773 

394 

6,266 


11,919 
1.521 
55,536 
886 
385 
7,133 


991 
61 
9,380 
90 
31 

464 


711 
49 
7,375 
70 
27 

331 


900 
109 
8,887 
84 
14 
465 


997 

96 

9,960 

172 
42 

586 


1,173 


New Mexico 


53 


New York 


9,797 




166 




34 


Ohio..._ 


688 




720 

1,274 

10,666 

938 


898 
1,775 
13,772 
1,094 


565 
1,334 
6,335 

904 


586 
1,281 
7,829 

951 


647 
1,129 
8,655 
1,111 


78 
116 
742 
111 


66 
119 
500 

85 


77 
98 
616 
101 


126 
151 
767 
108 


129 


Oregon 


142 




790 


Rhode Island 


110 


South Carolina 


371 

487 

656 

5,533 

1,192 

511 

1,740 

3,415 

457 

3,162 

222 

1,003 


537 

784 

876 

8,416 

1,485 

681 

2,157 

4,629 

663 

5,774 

276 

1,697 


340 

225 

568 

14,115 

1,390 
589 

1,228 

3,571 
419 

2,093 
174 

2,241 


342 

241 

661 

27,700 

1,522 

558 
1,375 
3,308 

491 
2,494 

196 
1,917 


451 

243 

664 

35,338 

1,147 
537 

1,343 

3,004 
604 

2,441 
220 

2,091 


33 

12 

115 

557 

60 

90 

188 

357 

50 

260 

14 

1,201 


17 
41 
67 

810 
62 
58 

129 

243 
32 

175 

12 

2,448 


26 
25 
61 

680 
87 
66 

172 

234 
35 

152 

23 

1,115 


32 

23 
118 
940 
115 

61 
236 
458 

71 
228 

18 
1,909 


46 


South Dakota 


26 




127 


Texas 


1,258 


Utah 


133 




68 


Virginia 


241 


Washington 


387 




60 


Wisconsin 


275 


Wyoming 


23 




2,726 







Report o f the Im mig rat i on a nd Naturalizati on Servi ce 

TABLE 12-A. IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED, 

BY RURAL AND URBAN AREA AND CITY (1): 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 



63 



Class of place and city 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


Total 


205,717 


265,520 


170,434 


208,177 


237,790 


j,^^^, 


27,674 


34,936 


21,297 


24,887 


26,223 


Urban 


55.848 


71,954 


52,219 


66,926 


80,324 


City total 


120,740 


154,999 


93,915 


114,188 


128.172 




4,746 
623 
553 

4,289 
345 

1,071 

1,460 

1,237 

221 

14.461 

586 

1.107 

1.927 
403 

7.709 
891 
686 
716 

1.339 
316 

1,669 
45,650 

1,022 
507 

3,048 
609 

4,062 

1.044 
420 
545 
569 
816 

1,676 

983 

13,4.34 

556 


8,583 
682 
755 

3,920 
471 
808 

1 , 865 

1,.3.58 

300 

14,399 

840 

1,059 

2,277 
331 

8,5.39 
891 

1,386 
989 

1,146 
514 

2,686 
59,3.33 

1 . 084 
853 

4.437 
814 

5.453 

1,407 
476 
700 
8.53 
899 

2,088 

2,194 
20,609 

1,,348 
2,283 


7,078 
663 
765 

3,734 
254 
550 

1,3.52 

1,774 
3.59 

6,366 
6.56 
718 

1..541 
341 

6,112 
.587 
566 
381 
743 
349 

1,624 

31,724 

696 

412 

1.4.57 
714 

2,240 
647 
358 
772 

1,123 
919 

1,591 

731 

14,018 

1,328 
1,675 


8,272 
763 
814 

4,443 
364 
834 

1,404 

2,483 
404 

8,288 
467 

1 , 1.32 

2,227 
362 

6.171 
613 
586 
4.52 

1,277 
451 

1,987 

35,612 

782 

509 

1,979 
622 

2,989 
794 
426 
821 

1,863 

1,087 

1,480 

1,011 
20,419 

1,.561 
615 


9,328 


Oakland Calif. 


814 




1,412 




4,668 


BridKcport Conn. .. . . 


507 






Washinjrton D C 


1,322 


Miami, Fla 


3,403 
.585 




10,938 


New Orleans, La. 


645 


Baltimore Md 


1,058 




2,335 


Cambridge, Mass. 


355 


Detroit Mich 


5,676 


Minneapolis, Minn. . 

St. Louis, Mo 

Jersey City, N. J 

Newark, N. J 

Paterson, N. J . . 

ButTalo N Y. 


456 
666 
655 

1,281 
670 

1,678 


Now York, N. Y 


40,144 


Rochester, N. Y. 


1,452 


Cincinnati Ohio 


563 


Cleveland, Ohio. 


2,278 


Portland, Ore. 


548 


Philadelphia, Pa 


2,784 
911 




534 


Houston Tex. 


882 


San Antonio, Tex 


1,886 
703 


Seattle Wash. 


1.2.52 




1,031 




23,819 




1,660 




1.411 







(1) Rural— Population of less than 2,500; Urban- 
lation of 100,000 or over. 



-Population of 2,500 to 99,999; Cities— Popu- 



64 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 13. IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED AND EMIGRANT 

ALIENS DEPARTED, BY COUNTRY OR REGION OF LAST OR 

INTENDED FUTURE PERMANENT RESIDENCE: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 



Country or region 

of last or future 

residence 




Immigrant 






Emigrant 




1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 




205,717 


265,520 


170,434 


208,177 


237,790 


26,174 


21,880 


24,256 


30,665 


31,245 






Europe 


149.545 


193,626 

23,088 

2,946 

9 

51 

1,152 

7 

500 

4,878 

104,236 

6,996 

63 

2,775 

11,342 

10 

20 

3,060 

2,354 

235 

953 

34 

481 

1,778 

1,502 

18,539 

751 

3,390 

248 

11 

327 

1,890 

9,328 


82,352 

2,132 

2,162 

1 

77 

993 

38 

473 

4,137 

27,329 

1,296 

96 

3,393 

8,432 

59 

14 

2,973 

2,234 

136 

1,077 

23 

814 

2,171 

1,796 

12,921 

911 

3,416 

302 

25 

580 

2,341 

8,231 


92,121 


110,591 


11,477 


9,691 
112 
192 

5 

28 

350 

1 

114 

1,172 

1,028 

435 

14 

229 

1,281 

3 

1 

327 

553 

68 

2 
225 
334 
341 

1,884 
71 

258 
35 

143 
77 

225 

2,441 


12.557 
135 
310 
6 
25 
42, 

130 
1,484 
1,491 

621 
23 

367 
1,358 

! 

439 

571 
71 

'1 

291 
376 
380 

2,736 
56 
345 
48 
213 
158 
284 

2,757 
1.5 
237 
267 
701 
43 

5,957 


14.192 

214 

311 

7 

108 

470 

44 

158 

1,937 

1,403 

709 

158 

344 

1.180 

23 

6 

563 

607 

219 

183 

68 

291 

542 

490 

2.824 
92 
420 
42 
193 
168 
418 

4,972 
4.59 
391 
486 

1 . 165 

67 
1,002 
1,402 

7.144 

2 , 463 
1.208 
2,547 

921 
5 

3,248 
485 

451 
„3 


15,617 






Austria 


9,761 

1,802 

1 

88 

1.076 

532 

4,573 

87,7.55 

4,459 

62 

2,592 

8,958 

5 

8 

3,062 

2,289 

98 

1,078 

104 

442 

2,022 

1,485 

12,393 

552 

2,309 

196 

10 

4.54 

1,379 

7,149 


2,136 
2,263 

27 

1,010 

5 

448 

4,263 

33.098 

1,154 

30 

3,685 

13,145 

6 

5 

3 595 

2,142 

67 

1,455 

7 

542 

2,172 

1,673 

12,977 
970 
3,442 
253 
11 
680 
860 

9,970 


3,404 

1,271 

1 

35 

1.020 

10 

450 

4,127 

29,. 596 

6,182 

83 

4,424 

30,272 

23 

12 

3,555 

2,296 

129 

1,293 

25 

802 

1,702 

1,693 

12,871 
798 
2,642 
248 
28 
611 
988 

10,935 


87 

156 

2 

38 

336 

2 

138 

1,019 

1,101 

374 

30 

539 

1,440 

3 

304 
576 
72 
188 
5 
227 
451 
311 

2,882 
173 
465 

78 
140 

64 
276 

2,529 


278 


Belgium . 


407 


Bulgaria 


8 


Czechoslovakia 


131 




478 


Estonia 


53 


Finland 


156 




2,040 




1.808 


Greece 


720 




120 


Ireland 


403 


Italy 


1 179 




92 


Lithuania 


10 




631 




654 


Poland. 


182 




205 




83 


Spain 


394 




579 


Switzerland __ 

United Kingdom: 


509 
3,180 


Northern Ireland- 
Scotland 


93 
429 


Wales.- - 


67 


U. S. S. R. 






240 




311 


Asia 


4,924 




335 
109 
968 
271 
164 
3,228 
2,074 

44,030 


263 

123 

485 

3,814 

34 

1,179 

3,430 

56,458 
33,3.54 
9,079 
6,672 
2.637 
4,716 

4,, 591 
931 

545 
41 


528 
104 
1,344 
2,579 
32 
1,074 
2,570 

72,139 
36,283 
17,183 
8,628 
3,016 
7,029 

5, .511 
989 

742 
470 


254 
144 
1,778 
3,846 
39 
1,234 
2,675 

89,012 
34,873 
30,645 
8,411 
3,300 
11,783 

6 , 575 
1,248 

845 
8,406 


568 
194 
1 , ,525 
4,150 
34 
1,598 
2,866 

102,782 
32,435 
43,702 
12,876 
3,667 
10,102 

7,654 
1,203 

932 


376 
314 
250 
282 
28 
627 
652 

8,199 


223 
210 
228 
506 
53 
521 
700 

6.722 

2', 760 

988 

2,227 

576 

171 

1,984 
317 

456 
269 


694 


India 


520 


Israel 


507 




837 


Palestine 


44 




763 


Other Asia 


1,559 




6.467 






Canada 


25,880 
6,1.53 
5,902 
2,011 
4,084 

3,596 
845 

490 
62 


3,202 

1 , 149 

2,897 

816 

135 

2,817 
393 

497 
262 


1,925 
988 

2,383 
633 
28 

2,180 
363 

352 
90 


2.918 


Mexico 


866 




2,062 


Central America 

Other North America 

South America 


613 

8 

2,922 


Africa 


626 


Australia and 
New Zealand 


401 




288 







Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



65 



TABLE 13-A. IMMIGRANT ALIENS ADMITTED, 
BY COUNTRY OR REGION OF BIRTH: 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1946 TO 1955 



Country or regrion 
of birth 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


1950 


1951 


1952 


19.53 


1954 


1955 


All countries._,. 


108.721 


147.292 


170,570 


188,317 


249.187 


205,717 


265,520 


170,434 


208.177 


237.790 


Europe 


64.877 


96.865 


115.750 


1.38,301 


206.547 


161,177 


202,884 


96,177 


111.227 


127,492 






Austria 


989 

1.770 

36 

1,075 

291 

136 

197 

5,000 

4,010 

57H 

577 

1,387 

3.886 

206 

244 

610 

379 

4,806 

554 

425 

402 

327 

282 

28,763 

1..584 
2.472 
1,495 
1.110 
676 
610 

1.921 


1.997 

2,208 

128 

3,601 

1,166 

184 

6S9 

5 . 808 

14.671 

2 . 056 

1,277 

2.446 

14.557 

340 

554 

2,607 

2.316 

8.156 

636 

558 

302 

1.2.52 

978 

17.889 

1.328 
3.757 
1,071 
2,240 
1.117 
973 

4.098 


2,782 

1,757 

132 

3.86.-. 

1.328 

225 

693 

4.697 

21.365 

1,964 

1,471 

7,651 

15,801 

427 

631 

3.739 

2,687 

8 . 020 

890 

770 

509 

2.022 

1.426 

17.484 

1.940 
5.436 
954 
2.317 
1.190 
1.577 

7.626 


2,363 
1,592 

84 
4.393 
1,305 
1,840 
704 
3,972 

23,844 
1.759 
1,998 
8,585 

11,157 
3,853 
6.691 
3.200 
2 . 563 

23,744 
1,235 
1,043 
503 
2,433 
1.585 

13.589 

2.425 
4.805 
656 
3.907 
1,384 
1,089 

6,355 


3.182 
1.108 
190 
5,528 
1.234 
5.422 
645 
3.519 

31.225 
1.242 
5.098 
6,501 
9,839 

17,494 

11.870 
3 . 148 
2,379 

52.851 
1.075 
3,599 
463 
1,892 
1,728 

8,812 

1,249 
2.983 
393 
10,971 
9,154 
1.753 

4.615 


2,777 
1,238 
231 
3.863 
1,217 
2.073 
646 
3.337 

26.369 
4.447 
4.922 
3.739 
7.348 

10.. 588 
4.028 
3.170 
2.378 

37.484 
1,048 
2,351 
510 
1,427 
1,408 

8,333 

840 

2,950 

368 

11,953 

8,254 
1,880 

5.166 


5.976 
1 . 539 
279 
5.041 
1.345 
1.248 
585 
3.454 

50.283 
7.084 
6.850 
3.796 
9.306 
4.4.59 
3.044 
3.143 
2,481 

33.211 
1,013 
4,915 
.536 
1,478 
1.569 

12,054 

1,031 

4 , 0.=^2 

494 

12.697 

17.223 

2,698 

9.428 


1,862 

1.335 

67 

2.173 

1,278 

158 

614 

3,216 

27.305 

1.603 

803 

4.6.55 

9.701 

294 

314 

3.042 

2,427 

4,395 

1,141 

468 

991 

1 , 750 

1,794 

12,872 

1,240 
4.540 

578 

2.509 
8.029 


2.072 

1.424 

78 

2.235 

1,322 

228 

681 

3.277 

32,935 

2.127 

1.163 

5.232 

15.201 

296 

401 

3.769 

2.420 

5.663 

1.636 

666 

964 

1.811 

1.686 

12,923 

1.306 
4.541 
539 
1.985 
1.432 
1.214 

11.751 


2 228 


Belgium 


1,117 
117 


Czechoslovakia .. 
Denmark 


1.983 

1.321 

229 


Finland 


619 




3.411 


Germany... 

Greece 


29,603 
6 311 




904 


Ireland 


5,975 


Italy 


31 925 




425 




384 


Netherlands 


3,7,32 
2,478 


Poland 


4,697 


Portugal 


1 366 




988 


Spain 


1,134 




1,.546 


Switzerland. 

United Kingdom 

England. 

Northern 
Ireland. 


1,670 

12.475 

1.074 
3.824 


Wales... 

U. S. S. R 


476 
1.694 
2.567 


Other Europe... 
Asia 


1,219 
12,131 


China 


337 
407 

17 
193 
293 

674 

33,125 


1,407 
375 

82 

363 

739 

1.132 

40.295 


3.987 

239 

- 

371 

376 

1.122 

1,531 

42.270 


2,823 
166 

508 

234 

1.068 

1,556 

39,469 


1.494 
1.53 
110 
76 
212 
595 

1,975 

34 . 004 


1,821 
134 
261 
198 
210 
760 

1,782 

35.482 


1.421 
153 
206 

4.517 
156 

1.066 

1.909 

48.092 


1.536 
155 
421 

2.393 
118 

1.160 

2.246 

60.107 


2.770 
308 
515 

3.777 
165 

1.633 

2.583 

77.772 


2 , 705 


India 


332 


Israel (1) 

Japan 


3.984 


Palestine (1) 


140 

1.784 


Other Asia 


2,715 




90,7.32 




18,627 
6.805 
4,876 
2.171 

646 

1 , 755 
1,098 

5,746 
199 


22,008 
7.775 
6.299 
3.470 

743 

2.421 
849 

2.532 
232 


22.612 
8.730 
6,994 
2,884 

1,050 

2,768 
840 

1,110 
206 


21,515 
7.977 
6,518 
2,493 

966 

2.639 
737 

602 
214 


18.043 
6.841 
6,093 
2,151 

876 

2,777 
689 

443 
112 


20.809 
6.372 
5.553 
1,970 

778 

2,724 
700 

390 

78 


28,141 
9.600 
6.723 
2,642 

986 

3.902 
740 

416 
58 


28.967 
18.454 
8.875 
3.056 

755 

4.691 
922 

450 
58 


27.055 
37.4,56 
8.999 
3.488 

774 

5,523 
1,187 

605 
112 


23,091 


Mexico 


50,772 


West Indies 

Central America 
Other North 
America.... 

South America 

Africa 


12,499 
3.683 

687 

5.599 
1.186 


Australia and 

New Zealand 

Other countries.... 


474 
176 



(1) Israel is included in Palestine prior to 1950. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 

TABLE 14. EMIGRANT ALIENS DEPARTED, 

BY RACE, SEX, AND AGE: 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1955 



Sex and ago 


Num- 
ber 
de- 
parted 


White 


Chinese 


East 
Indian 


Fili- 
pino 


Japa- 
nese 


Kor- 
ean 


Negro 


Pacific 

Is- 
lander 


Number departed 


31,245 


27,125 


921 


737 


715 


933 


92 


664 


58 


Male 


17,169 


14,500 


696 


538 


432 


549 


69 


350 


35 


Under 5 years 

5 - 9 " 


428 

598 

483 

74 

195 

375 

2,657 

3,232 

2,588 

1,539 

1,208 

811 

643 

486 

378 

484 

278 

136 

77 

499 

14,076 


386 

.568 

452 

70 

181 

349 

2,398 

2,685 

2,069 

1,200 

976 

686 

516 

425 

321 

379 

231 

108 

58 

442 

12 . 625 


7 
5 
11 
2 
4 

55 

80 

141 

124 

89 

47 

60 

20 

22 

11 

5 

2 

6 

225 


15 

4 

8 

5 
79 
1.56 
120 
60 
41 
14 
12 

1 

3 
11 

199 


3 

5 
6 

6 
9 
30 
52 
57 
45 
42 
28 
35 
21 
16 
51 
11 

1 
12 

283 


10 
9 
3 

2 
3 
41 
110 
80 
60 
42 
27 
15 
11 
11 
38 
28 
21 
13 
25 

384 


2 

1 
6 
23 
23 
8 
2 
1 

1 

1 
1 

23 


5 
2 
3 

3 
46 
110 
92 
41 
15 

4 

1 

4 
2 
3 
2 
3 

314 


2 
3 


10 - 14 " 




15 " 


_ 


Ifi - 17 " 


_ 


18 - 19 " 


_ 


20 - 24 " 


2 


25 - 29 " 


16 


30 - 34 " 


6 


35 - 39 " 


1 


40 - 44 " 


1 


45 - 49 " 


1 


50 - 54 " 


1 


55 - 59 " 




60 - 64 " 


2 


65 - 69 " 




70 - 74 " 


_ 


75 - 79 " 


_ 


80 years and over 


- 


Female 


23 




415 
559 
434 
82 
219 
360 
1,606 
2,316 
1,919 
1,208 
960 
808 
686 
584 
512 
428 
311 
198 
127 
344 


387 

516 

380 

78 

207 

329 

1,401 

2,013 

1 , 702 

1,044 

845 

727 

640 

532 

492 

406 

298 

183 

124 

312 


3 

6 
28 
47 
38 
30 
23 
16 
5 
6 

2 
4 


8 
13 

17 
1 
2 
4 
24 
45 
31 
27 
17 
5 
2 
2 

1 


3 

6 
10 

4 

7 

46 

60 

41 

37 

24 

10 

14 

7 

1 

1 

1 

4 


10 
11 

5 

1 

4 
66 
103 
54 
24 
13 

8 

5 
20 

9 
11 

8 
10 

2 
20 


2 

2 
5 
8 

1 

2 


4 
5 
3 

3 

8 

40 
45 
40 

39 
16 
17 
8 
4 
4 
3 
1 
2 


_ 


5 - 9 " 


1 


10 - 14 " 


1 


15 " 




16 - 17 " 


1 


18 - 19 " 


2 


20 - 24 " 


3 


25 - 29 " 


3 


30 - 34 " 

35 - 39 " 


5 


40 - 44 " 


1 


45 - 49 " . 




50 - 54 " 


2 


55 - 59 " 




60 - 64 " 
65 - 69 " 


1 


70 - 74 " 




75 - 79 " 


1 


80 years and over 

Unknown 


1 







Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 17-A. AGRICULTURAL LABORERS 
ADMITTED TO THE UNITED STATES: 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1950 TO 1955 



Country of last permanent residence 


1950 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1965 


Total number 


122,676 


130.630 


235,316 


192,132 


221,709 


351,191 


Mexico 


116,052 
1,503 

5,121 


115,742 
3,158 

11,730 


223,541 

2,796 

184 

184 

8,611 


178,606 
5,467 

4 
8,055 


213,763 
1,448 

10 
6,488 


337,996 




7,578 


British Guiana 








British West Indies 


5,617 







Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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77 



TABLE 19 ALIENS EXCLUDED FROM THE UNITED STATES: 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1892 TO 1955 



Year 



Total 1892 - 1955 
1892 - 1900 



1895 
1896 



1899 
1900 



1901 - 1910 
1901 



1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 



1911 - 1920 

1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 



Number 
excluded 



22,515 

2,164 
1,053 
1,389 
2,419 
2,799 
1,617 
3,030 
3,798 
4,246 

108,211 

3,516 
4,974 
8,769 
7,994 
11.879 
12,432 
13,064 
10,902 
10,411 
24,270 

178,109 

22,349 
16,057 
19,938 
33,041 
24,111 
18,867 
16,028 
7.297 
8,626 
11,796 



1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1926 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 



1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 



1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 

1951 
1952 
1953 
1964 
1956 



Number 
excluded 



189,307 

13,779 
13.731 
20,619 
30.284 
25.390 
20.550 
19,755 
18.839 
18.127 



68,217 

9.744 
7,064 
5.527 
5.884 
5,558 
7,000 
8,076 




78 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 20. ALIENS EXCLUDED FROM THE UNITED STATES, 

BY CAUSE: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1949 TO 1955 



Cause 


1949 


1950 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


Number excluded _ 


5,541 

402 
31 
31 

4 
13 
37 
22 
32 
22 

7 
18 

33 

4 
207 
160 
217 

4,110 
4 
2 
33 

7 

84 
12 
9 
4 
5 
31 


5,256 

428 
32 
157 

5 
10 
30 
49 
26 
21 

5 
27 

21 

25 
103 
135 
122 

3,926 
2 
3 
12 

56 

4 
14 
8 
6 

28 


5,647 


5,050 


5,647 


3,313 


2,667 




610 
38 
165 

9 
18 
30 
24 
17 
31 

6 
11 

45 

243 
116 
122 
121 

3,963 

2 
1 

1 

14 
1 
3 

15 
2 

39 


534 
29 

148 

7 
14 
35 

9 
23 
19 

8 
17 

22 

10 
41 
115 
74 

3,860 
1 

9 

19 
3 
3 

10 

1 
39 


491 

58 
118 

1 

5 
14 
29 
14 
10 
16 

4 
88 

7 

3 
33 
169 

47 

139 
4,293 

6 
5 

39 

10 

1 
47 


296 

65 

111 

3 

18 
10 
22 

7 
11 

3 
27 

27 

2 

16 

201 

2 

307 
2,125 

2 

32 
3 
3 
4 
2 

14 


206 


Immoral classes 


124 


Subversive or anarchistic 


89 




10 


Mental or physical defectives: 

Idiots and imbeciles (J) 


9 


Insane aliens or had been insane 


13 




10 




9 


Mentally defective aliens 


7 


Chronic alcoholics _ 

Tubercular aliens 


37 


Aliens afflicted with other dangerous, contagious 


26 


Aliens with defect which may affect ability to earn 


2 


Likely to become public charges 


9 


Previously excluded deported, or removed 


187 




15 


Attempted entry without inspection or by false 


356 




1,476 








3 


Contract laborers 






4 


Previously departed from U. S. to avoid service in 
armed forces 


50 




1 


Unable to read (over 16 years of age)...- 


4 
9 


Assisted aliens 


3 


Other 


8 







(1) Cause for exclusion under Immigration Act of February 5, 1917. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



79 



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Pre- 
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2 




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1 


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81 



TABLE 22. ALIEN CREWMEN DESERTED AT UNITED STATES 

AIR AND SEAPORTS, BY NATIONALITY AND FLAG OF CARRIER: 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30. 1955 





Total 








Flag of carrier 


from 


which deserted 








Nationality 

of 

crewmen 


1 

457 
351 

3 
31 
11 

3 

2 

16 
- 

I 

1 

3i 


.2 

a 
a 
Q 

59 

3 

30 

4 

1 
1 

2 

1 

4 
7 

6 


o 

93 
4 

76 
8 

1 
1 

3 


a 

1 

31 
6 

16 
2 

1 
1 

1 
4 


21 
21 


.2 

174 

1 

10 
141 
15 

1 
6 


e 
.2 

1 

373 
38 

2 
4 
208 
37 
25 
4 
1 
10 
16 
2 

4 

1 

3 
16 


1 

c 

2 

78 

1 

3 

2 
56 

: 

5 

1 
7 


1 

289 

20 
12 
2 
5 
1 
15 
8 
162 
2 

6 
6 

1 

9 

1 
4 
6 

3 
26 


a 
.5 

c 

1 

1 

262 
33 

9 
114 
52 
2 
3 

2 
13 
3 

1 

I 

1 
2 

1 
19 


1 

20 
2 

16 
2 


.a 

1 

118 

17 
99 

1 


1 

108 

5 
6 
8 
6 

7 

11 
2 

4 
46 

1 

2 

10 


1 

1 
a 

24 

4 
1 
2 
2 

I 

1 
2 

1 

I 

1 
5 


1 

O 


Number 
deserted 


2,376 


269 


British Empire 


474 
48 
28 
47 
491 
286 
118 
187 
7 
46 
159 
67 
35 

100 
25 
17 
27 

.1 

193 


6 


Finland. _ 


15 




17 




<1? 


Italy 


7 


Netherlands..... 

Norway . 


4 
1 


Poland 


1 


Portugal _ 


1 




15 


Sweden _ 


7 


Yugoslavia 


31 


China 

Israel 


59 
3 


Philippines.... 

Cuba... 


2 
6 


Argentina. 


R 


Honduras 




All other..... 


54 



82 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 23. VESSELS AND AIRPLANES INSPECTED, 

CREWMEN ADMITTED, AND STOWAWAYS ARRIVED, 

BY REGIONS AND DISTRICTS: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1954 AND 1955 (1) 





Vessels and airplanes 
inspected 


Crewmen 
admitted 


Stowaways 
arrived 


Region 
and 


Arrived 


De- 
parted 


Aliens 


Citi- 
zens 


Aliens 




District 


Vessels 


Air- 
planes 


Vessels 
and 
air- 
planes 

(2) 


Citi- 
zens 


1955 

Total number 


58,477 


113,507 


16,056 


1,344,890 


912,248 


421 


25 








18,678 


28,881 


6,102 


567,086 


278,001 


262 


14 








12,059 
5,136 
1,483 

19,487 


5,362 
13,814 
9,705 

42,658 


331 
2,103 
3,668 

5,877 


82,259 
433,784 
51,043 

410,553 


34,226 
219,954 
23,821 

290,455 


10 
72 
180 

100 




New York, N. Y. . 


14 


Buflalo N. Y. 




Southeast Region 








Philadelphia, Pa. 


6,005 
13,482 

12,580 


1,709 
40,949 

19,199 


472 
5,405 

3,314 


167,745 
242,808 

207,725 


67,798 
222,657 

169,068 


41 
59 

6 




Miami Fla 




Northwest Region 






3,196 

754 

8,630 

7,732 


3,961 
3,547 
11,691 

22,769 


22 

809 

2,483 

763 


62.321 
17.579 
127,825 

159,526 


33,046 

9,371 

126,651 

174,724 


6 
53 








Seattle Wash. 




Southwest Region 








San Francisco, Calif. 


5,703 
2,029 

52,878 


13,390 
8.063 
1,316 

102.184 


490 

272 

1 

16.121 


105,299 

54,205 

22 

1,143,386 


150,061 

24,465 

198 

852,432 


24 
29 

332 




San Antonio Tex. 




El Paso, Tex 

1954 

Total number 


59 






St. Albans, Vt. 


6,547 
2,232 
5,158 
1,967 
2,589 
13,181 
1,834 
2,013 
1,064 
7,691 
1,526 
1,881 

4,502 
693 


3,320 
5,561 

12,004 

17 

953 

37,224 
5,269 
2,629 
2,946 

12,683 
134 
4,296 
1,258 
2,651 

11,239 


16 

353 

1,368 

56 

701 

6.236 

2,467 

39 

347 

3,234 

118 

391 

541 
254 


4,009 
54,395 

407,859 
51,785 
69,469 

227,899 
23,224 
13,260 
16,237 

119,223 
29,624 
46,278 

60,154 
19,970 


324 

34,720 

218,730 

28,483 

31,104 

206,457 

4,924 

10,764 

5., 590 

117,100 

66,259 

20,171 

57,500 
.50,306 


7 
78 
16 
52 

78 

2 

9 
19 

^1 
10 
30 






1 


New York, N. Y. 


25 


Philadelphia, Pa 


2 




12 




5 


Buffalo, N. Y. . 




Detroit, Mich. 


_ 


Chicago, 111 






_ 


San Francisco, Calif. 


8 






Kl Paso, Tex. 




Los Angeles Calif. 


5 


Honolulu, T. H 


1 







(1) Each and every arrival or departure of the same vessel or crewman counted separately. 

(2) Separate figures for vessels and airplanes not available. 



Report of the ImmigratiotlAnp^aturauzation^Ser^^ 83 



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84 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 24-A. ALIENS DEPORTED 

AND ALIENS DEPARTING VOLUNTARILY: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1892 TO 1955 









Aliens 






Aliens 


departing 


Period 


Total 


volun- 
tarily 








(1) 


1892 - 1955 


5,664,110 


458,238 


5,205,872 


1892 - 1900 


3,127 


3,127 




1901 - 1910 


11,558 


11,558 


- 


1911 - 1920 


27,912 


27,912 


- 


1921 - 1930 


164,390 


92,157 


72,233 


1921..„. 


4,517 


4,517 


_ 


1922._ ... 


4,345 


4,345 


- 


1923 


3,661 


3,661 


- 


1924.___. 


6,409 


6,409 


- 


1925 _. 


9,495 


9,495 


- 


1926._ . 


10,904 


10,904 


— 


1927. ._. 


26,674 


11,662 


15,012 


1928._ 


31,571 


11,625 


19,946 


1929 


38,796 


12.908 


25.888 


1930 


28,018 


16,631 


11.387 


1931 - 1940 


210,416 


117,086 


93,330 


1931. _. 


29,861 


18,142 


11,719 


1932.._ . 


30,201 


19.426 


10,775 


1933._.._. 


30,212 


19,865 


10,347 


1934._ 


16,889 


8,879 


8,010 


1935._.. . 


16,297 


8,319 


7.978 


1936._ 


17,446 


9,195 


8.251 


1937 _. 


17,617 


8,829 


8,788 


1938 


18,553 


9.275 


9,278 


1939 


17,792 


8.202 


9,590 


1940 _. 


15,548 


6,954 


8,594 


1941 - 1950 


1.581,774 


110,849 


1,470,925 


1941. -... 


10,938 


4,407 


6,531 


1942._ 


10,613 


3,709 


6,904 


1943 


16,154 


4,207 


11.947 


1944.„... 


39,449 


7,179 


32.270 


1945._.._. 


80,760 


11,270 


69,490 


1946._„_. 


116,320 


14,375 


101.945 


1947... _. 


214,543 


18,663 


195.880 


1948 _. 


217.555 


20.371 


197,184 


1949 


296,337 


20.040 


276.297 


1950 


579,105 


6,628 


572.477 


1951 


686,713 


13.544 


673.169 


1953 


723.959 


20.181 


703.778 


1953 


905,236 


19 , 845 


885.391 


1954 


1,101.228 


26,951 


1,074.277 


1955 


247,797 


15,028 


232.769 



(1) Aliens departing voluntarily first recorded in 1927. 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



85 



TABLE 25. ALIENS DEPORTED, 

BY COUNTRY TO WHICH DEPORTED AND DEPORTATION EXPENSE: 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1955 





Total 


Deportation expense borne by: 


Country to which deported 


Immi- 
gration 

and 
Natu- 
raliza- 
tion 
Service 


Other 
Govern- 
ment 
agencies 


Steam- 
ship 
com- 
panies 


Airlines 


Aliens 

de- 
ported 


Aliens 

re- 
shipped 


All countries 


15.028 


13,857 


91 


211 


11 


822 


36 


Europe 


1,076 


726 


3 


124 


_ 


199 


24 


Denmark .... 


21 
30 
15 
81 

135 
20 

216 
38 
64 
73 
75 
22 

196 
16 
74 

290 


14 
23 
10 
69 
78 
19 

139 
24 
36 
45 
50 
13 

144 
11 
51 

188 


2 

1 

7 


5 
2 
1 
3 
11 

20 
11 
20 

14 

5 
17 

3 

39 


1 


1 
2 
4 
6 
36 

57 
3 
2 

15 

10 
4 

34 
5 

20 

49 




Finland.__ 

France „ 

Germany 




Ireland 




Italy 




Netherlands, 




Norway 




Portugal 




Spain 

Sweden 








Yugoslavia 




Other Europe 




A8ia.___ 




China 


19 
29 
2 
6 
32 
58 
76 

13,491 


39 
14 

18 
1 
5 
25 
31 
55 

12.826 


7 
79 


'1 

6 

1 

3 

7 
5 

24 


1 

10 


14 
2 

2 

1 

2 
12 
16 

548 




India.. 




Indonesia 












Pakistan 








Other Asia 




North America 




Canada. _ 


1,074 

11,870 

438 

107 

2 

96 
27 
48 


990 

11,509 

242 

83 

2 

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20 
34 


11 
62 
6 


2 
2 
10 
10 

17 
6 

1 


2 
3 

5 


69 
292 
174 

13 

13 

1 
12 




Mexico 




West Indies 




Central America 




Other North America. _ 




South America ... . 




Africa 













86 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 26. INWARD MOVEMENT OF ALIENS AND CITIZENS 

OVER INTERNATIONAL LAND BOUNDARIES, BY STATE AND PORT: 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1955 



State and port 


All persons crossing (1) 


Total 


Aliens 


Citizens 


All ports „.„ (2) 


119.763,360 


61,611,311 


58,152,049 




48,000,554 


24,812,698 


23,187,856 




Idaho 


386,570 


245,849 


140.721 






290,204 
96,366 

400 


178,254 
67,595 

157 




Porthill 


28 771 


Illinois.. 








Chicago.. 


400 
7,172,622 


157 
4,556,849 


243 


Maine 










159 

2,069,818 

1.068,043 

399,400 

2,418,705 

959,500 

256,997 

12,633,813 


35 

1,401.002 
694,972 
235,502 

1,544,642 
535,175 
145,521 

5,786,234 




Calais 


668 816 


Hou'ton 
Jacls man 
Madawaska 
Van Buren 
Vanceboro 

Michigan 


373,071 
163,898 
874.063 
424,325 
111,476 

6,847,579 


Detioit 
Port Huron 
Sault Ste Mane 

Minnesota 


9,914,807 

2,066,052 

652,954 

2,233,090 


4,417,570 

1,023,418 

345,246 

1,323,254 


5.497,237 

1,042,634 

307,708 

909.836 


Duluth 

Internal onal Falls 

Noyes 

St. Paul 

Montana 


278,186 

931,966 

1,018,369 

4,569 

655,496 


128,668 

521,236 

671,517 

1,833 

425.008 


149,518 

410.730 

346,852 

2,736 

230,488 


Babb 

Chief Mountain 

Cut Bank 

Great Falls 

Havre 

Morgan 

Opheim 

Raymond 

Roosville 

Scobey 

Sweetgrass 

Turner 

Whitetail 

New York 


103,523 
56,654 
5,430 
3,868 
15,062 
13,613 
12,2,59 
66,280 
25,. 598 
13,922 
307,061 
12,338 
19,888 

18,119,344 


57,090 
17,110 

1,977 

982 

11,652 

11,285 

9,325 
48.508 
13,160 
10,838 
217,200 

9,499 
16,382 

8,368.669 


46,433 
39,544 
3,453 
2,886 
3,410 
2,328 
2.934 
17,772 
12,438 
3,084 
89,861 
2,839 
3,506 

9,750,675 


Malone 

Niagara Falls (.-J) 

Ogdonsburg (4) 

Peace Bridge 

Rouses Point 

Syracuse 

Thousand Island Bridge 


1,519,973 

6,473,723 

.584,176 

6,932,911 

1,728,884 

7,276 

872,401 

4,56,340 


985,221 
3,470,285 

422,668 

1,928,902 

1,205,883 

3,505 

352,205 

297,228 


534,752 
3,003,438 

161,508 
5 . 004 . 009 

523,001 
3,771 

520 196 


North Dakota 


159,112 


Portal 

Ohio... 


456,340 
25,104 


297,228 
6,525 


159.112 
18.579 


Cleveland 
Toledo 

Oregon 


11,211 
13,893 

542 


5,929 
596 

143 


5.282 
13.297 

399 


Portland 


542 


143 


399 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



87 



TABLE 26. INWARD MOVEMENT OF ALIENS AND CITIZENS 

OVER INTERNATIONAL LAND BOUNDARIES, BY STATE AND PORT: 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1955 

(Continued) 



State and port 


All persons crossing (1) 


Total 


Aliens 


Citizens 


Canadian Border— Continued 

Vermont 


3,046,957 


1.761,645 


1,285,312 




1,073,574 

1,311,394 

526 , 505 

96,047 

39,437 

3,204,168 


583 , 129 
744,842 
354.538 
54.729 
24.407 

2.031.227 


490,445 




566,552 




171,967 


Richford (5) 


41,318 




15,030 


Washington . 


1.172,941 




32,277 

218,305 

1,603,212 

54,873 

127,126 

128,934 

46,058 

217,695 

272,739 

239 

71,660 

493 

430,240 

317 

318 


11.267 

58,716 

1.045.854 

19,203 

94.610 

88.036 

30.984 

184,362 

170,884 

43 

30,669 

117 

296,319 

163 

149 


21,010 


BellinKham (7) 

Blaine 

Danville . 

Laurier 

Lynden 

Metaline Falls 

Northport 

OroviUe 

Port Angeles 

Seattle 

Spokane 

Surnas 

Tacoma 

Wisconsin 


159,589 

.557.358 

35,670 

32,516 

40 , 898 

15,074 

33,333 

101,856 

196 

40,991 

376 

133,921 

154 

169 


Milwaukee 

Alaska . 


318 
65,790 


149 
9.761 


169 
56,029 


Anchorage 


5,352 
2,433 
4,407 
6,107 
18,282 
29,209 

71.762.806 


221 
176 
1,166 
1,322 
5.398 
1.478 

36.798.613 


5,131 


Fairbanks 

Juneau _ 

Ketchikan 


2,257 
3.241 
4.785 


Skagway 

Tok Junction 


12.884 
27.731 


Mexican Border 


34.964.193 


Arizona 


11,573,551 


6,608.703 


4,964,848 


Douglas (8) 
Nog ales (9) 

California 


3.518,878 
8.054,673 

20,087,530 


1.754,786 
4,8.53,917 

8,447.213 


1,764.092 
3,200.756 

11,640,317 


Andrade 
Calexico 
San DiPgo 
San Pedro 
San Ysidro 
Tecate 


170,471 

6.686,982 

3,353 

14.599 

13.039.683 

172,442 


81,953 

4.347.837 

335 

1.785 

3,913.713 

101.590 


88,518 

2,-339,145 

3,018 

12,814 
9,125,970 

70,852 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 26. INWARD MOVEMENT OF ALIENS AND CITIZENS 

OVER INTERNATIONAL LAND BOUNDARIES, BY STATE AND PORT: 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1955 

(Continued) 



state and port 


All persons crossing (1) 


Total 


Aliens 


Citizens 


Mexican Border — Continued 

New Mexico 


128,400 


55,583 


72,817 




128,400 
39,973,325 


55,583 
21,687,114 


72,817 


Texas.__ 


18,286,211 


Brownsville 

Dallas 

Del Rio 

Eagle Pass 

El Paso (10) 

Hidalgo 

Houston 

Laredo . 

Presidio 

Rio Grande City 

San Antonio 


5,139,970 

643 

1,043,226 

2,150,448 

21,241,002 

3,821,278 

16,387 

5,416,613 

380,047 

724,086 

39,625 


3,124,468 

116 

425,597 

1,293,647 

10,545,377 

2,292,576 

1.758 

3,407,486 

247,031 

346,490 

2,568 


2,015,502 

527 

617,629 

856,801 

10,695,625 

1 , 528 , 702 

14,629 

2,009.127 

133,016 

377,596 

37,057 



(1) Each entry of the same person counted separately. 

(2) Includes arrivals bv aircraft. 

(3) Niagara Falls, N. Y., includes Toronto (Malton Airport), Ontario, Canada. 

(4) Ogdensburg, N. Y., includes Albany, N. Y., and Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 

(5) Richford, Vt., July and August 1954 only. 

(6) St. Albans, Vt., January to June 1955 only. 

(7) Bellingham, Wash., includes Victoria, B. C, Canada. 

(8) Douglas, Arizona, includes Naco, Arizona. 

(9) Nogales, Arizona, includes Lukeville, Arizona, San Luis, Arizona, and Sasabe, Arizona. 
CIO) El Paso, Texas, includes Fabens, Texas, and Ysleta, Texas. 



Report op the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



89 



TABLE 27. UNITED STATES CITIZENS 
RETURNING AT LAND BORDER PORTS: 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1946 TO 1955 



Year ended 
June 30, 


Total 


Former residents 
of- 


Return- 
ing 
from 
overseas 


Canada 


Mexico 


1955 


19,857 
11,824 
9,490 
10.117 
10,784 
11,624 

13.379 
9,401 
9,681 

11,221 


2,263 
2,091 
2.846 
4,012 
.4.303 
3,859 

5,787 
4,946 
5,003 
6,769 


1,7,56 
2,632 
2.088 
2,714 
2,904 
3,816 

3,759 
3,084 
3,037 
2.699 


15,838 


1954 


7,101 


1953 


4,556 


1952 


3,391 


1951 


3.577 


1950 


3,949 


1949 


3,833 


1948 


1,371 


1947 


1,641 


1946 


1,753 







90 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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111 



TABLE 36. ALIENS WHO REPORTED UNDER THE ALIEN 

ADDRESS PROGRAM, BY STATES OF RESIDENCE: 

DURING YEARS 1958 TO 1955 



State of residence 


1953 

a) 


1954 


1955 
(«) 


TotaL_ 


2,348,881 


2.365,811 


2,336,720 


Arkansas 


3,052 
21,447 

2,776 

348,749 

15,838 


3,108 

23,359 

1,800 

363,730 

15,923 


2,695 

29,696 

1,513 

380.091 

17.767 


Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 


69,682 
2,967 
9,979 

29,125 
3.930 


69 , 162 
2.917 
11.172 
34.522 
4.421 


68.613 
3,154 
12,918 
41,580 
4,933 


Idaho _-_ . ... 
Illinois ..._.. J. 


3,908 
139,001 
22,863 
11,603 

7,183 


4.052 
141,175 
24,505 
10,720 

7,315 


3,900 
138 243 




23,566 


Kansas 


12,498 
7,608 


Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts. 


3,432 
6,929 
18,381 
22,251 
128,765 


3,505 

8,412 

18,115 

24,689 

123,374 


3,509 
9,364 
18,218 
21,658 
119.044 


Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 


138,214 
22,304 

1,545 
16,962 

5,190 


141.153 

22.850 

1.597 

17,621 

5,264 


131,1.58 
20,675 

1,589 
17,755 

4,841 


Nebraska 
Nevadi 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey _— 
New Mexico _ 


8,451 
2,914 
10.415 
128,668 
6,728 


8.106 
2,878 
9, 90S 
125,853 
7.414 


7,881 
2,673 
9,556 
105.329 
9,462 


New York 
North Carolina 
North Dakota 
Ohio._ _ 
Oklahoma _ 


532,929 
4.090 
3,324 
95,393 
3,880 


514.569 
4.614 
3.567 
97,212 
4,041 


470 , 582 
4,530 
3,120 
97,324 
3.969 


Oregon 
Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 
South Carolina 
South Dakota 


16,872 
109,409 

19,452 
2,001 
2.049 


17,551 
105,179 

18,712 
2.174 
2.048 


16,181 
114,105 

17,587 
2,198 
1,777 


Tennessee 
Texas. 
Utah.. 
Vermont 
Virginia __ 


3.121 
154,969 
10,289 
7,189 
9,295 


3.436 
167,379 
10,877 

6,943 
11.153 


3,584 
196,477 
10,993 
6,894 
9,157 


Washington 
West \ irginia _ 
Wisconsin 
Wyoming 


44,907 
7,042 

28,006 
2,370 


47,074 
6,996 

27,079 
2,410 


44,980 
6,144 

27,639 
2,404 


Territories and other: 

Alaska 


1,324 

63.366 

3.491 

1.579 

290 

2,823 
6.169 


1,776 
59,912 
3,152 
1,610 
1,388 

3.317 
3.022 




Hawaii 


57 686 


Puerto Rico 

Virijin Islands 


3,414 
1 567 


All other 


1,328 


Outside the United States 




Unknown or not reported 


- 



(i) Figures do not include 77,419 alien address reports in 1953 and 31,396 in 1954 taa wt-re in- 
complete, and 110,250 aliens in 1953 and 114,106 aliens in 1954 who were in the LInited States 
in temporary status. 

(2) In 1955 the count was made at the field offices. A breakdown of aliens in permanent and 
temporary status is not available. 



112 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 37. DECLARATIONS OF INTENTION FILED, 

PETITIONS FOR NATURALIZATION FILED, 

AND PERSONS NATURALIZED: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1907 TO 1955 



Period 


Declara- 
tions 
filed 


Petitions 
filed 


Persons naturalized 


Civilian 


Military 


Total 


1907 - 1955._ 


8,458,479 


7,602,954 


6,582,132 


500,034 


7,082,166 






1907 - 1910 


526,322 


164,036 


111,738 


_ 


111,738 


1911 - 1920 


2,686.909 


1,381,384 


884,672 


244,300 


1,128,972 


1911.. 


189,249 
171,133 
182,095 
214,104 
247,958 
209,204 
440,651 
342,283 
391,156 
299,076 

2,709,014 


74,740 
95,661 
95,380 
124,475 
106.399 
108,767 
130,865 
169,507 
256,858 
218,732 

1,884,277 


56,683 
70,310 
83,561 

104,145 
91,848 
87,831 
88,104 
87,456 
89,023 

125,711 

1,716,979 


63,993 
128,335 
51,972 

56,206 


56.688 


1912 


70 310 


1913 . . . 


83,561 


1914 


104 145 


1915 


91,848 


1916 


87 831 


1917 


88 104 


1918 




1919 


217 358 


1920 


177.683 


1921 - 1930._.._ 


1,773.185 


1921 


303,904 
273,511 
296,636 
424,540 
277,218 
277,539 
258,295 
254,588 
280,645 
62,138 

1,369.479 


195,534 
162,638 
165,168 
177,117 
162,2,58 
172,232 
240,339 
240,321 
255,519 
113,151 

1,637,113 


163,656 
160,979 
137,975 
140,340 
152,457 
146,239 
195,493 
228,006 
224,197 
167,637 

1,498.573 


17,636 
9,468 
7,109 

10,170 

92 

4,311 

5,149 

531 

1,740 

19,891 


181 292 


1922 


170,447 


1923 . ... ... 




1924 


150 510 


1925 


152,457 


1926 


146 331 


1927 


199,804 


1928.. . 


233,155 


1929 


224 728 


1930 


169.377 

1,518,464 


1931 - 1940 






1931 


106,272 
101,345 
83,046 
108,079 
136,524 
148,118 
176,195 
150,673 
155,691 
203,536 

920.284 


145,474 
131,062 
112,629 
117,125 
131,378 
167,127 
165,464 
175,413 
213,413 
278,028 

1,938,066 


140,271 
136,598 
112,368 
110,867 
118,945 
140,784 
162,923 
158,142 
185,175 
232,500 

1,837,229 


3,224 

2 

995 

2,802 

481 
2,053 
3,936 
3.638 
2.760 

149,799 


143,495 


1932 


136,600 


1933 . 


113,363 


1934 


113 669 


1935 


118.945 


1936 


141.265 


1937 : 


164.976 


1938 ... 


162.078 


1939 


188 813 


1940 

1941 - 1950 ___ 


235,260 
1,987,028 


1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 

1951 _-.. 

1952 _ 

1953 _ . 

1954 __ 

1955 ... _ 


224,123 
221,796 
115,664 
42,368 
31,195 
28,787 
37,771 
60,187 
64,866 
93,527 

91,497 
111,461 
23,558 
9,100 
10,855 


277,807 
343,487 
377,125 
325,717 
195,917 
123,864 
88,802 
68,265 
71,044 
66,038 

61,634 
94,086 
98,128 
130,722 
213,508 


275,747 
268,762 
281.459 
392 . 766 
208.707 
134,849 
77,442 
69,080 
64.138 
64,279 

53,741 
87,070 
90,476 
104,086 
197,568 


1,547 
1,602 
37,474 
49,213 
22,695 
15.213 
16,462 
1,070 
2,456 
2,067 

975 
1.585 
1 , 575 
13,745 
11,958 


277,294 
270,364 
318.933 
441.979 
231,402 
150,062 
93,904 
70,150 
66,594 
66,346 

54,716 
88.655 
92.051 
117,831 
209.526 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



113 



TABLE 38. PERSONS NATURALIZED, 

BY GENERAL AND SPECIAL NATURALIZATION PROVISIONS (1) 

AND COUNTRY OR REGION OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE: 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1955 





Total 
number 




Persons naturalized 




Country or region 
of former 
allegiance 


Under 
general 
natural- 
ization 
provisions 


Married 

to 

U.S. 

citizens 


Children 
of U. S. 
citizen 
parents 


Military 


Other 


All countries. 


209,526 


173,954 


20,460 


2,600 


11,958 


554 


Europe.__ 


155,560 


130,405 


14.821 


1,717 


8,342 


275 


Austria... 

Belgium 


3,067 
1.112 

22,974 
149 
5,890 
1,226 
1,773 
872 
3,320 

17,842 
3,785 
4,292 
9,116 

16,128 
3,057 
5,324 
2,979 
2,024 

27,777 
2,502 
2,231 
1 , 152 
1,835 
1,453 
8,627 
3,689 
1,364 

16,000 


2,465 
886 

18,677 

121 

5,352 

948 

1,594 

761 

2,381 

11,503 
2,841 
3,890 
8,138 

12,759 
2,662 
4.977 
2,420 
1,670 

25.926 
2.133 
2.032 
983 
1,603 
1.163 
8,136 
3,191 
1,193 

13.158 


456 
149 

2,817 
17 
325 
124 
42 
67 
635 

3,927 
572 
234 
208 

2,638 
73 
68 
220 
181 
843 
195 
103 
103 
116 
121 
256 
213 
118 

1,687 


67 

14 
186 

27 
13 
20 
11 
63 

537 
59 
20 

110 

140 
48 
24 
34 
21 

105 
95 
7 
4 
18 
12 
20 
50 
10 

293 


77 
59 
1,237 
8 
185 
131 
113 
31 
234 
1,852 
307 
145 
650 
547 
272 
249 
297 
140 
885 
70 
87 
54 
84 
155 
202 
228 
43 

706 


2 
4 




57 








1 






Estonia 


4 


Finland 


2 






Germany 


23 












10 


Italy _- 




Latvia 


2 




g 






Norway 


12 


Poland 




Portugal 


9 




2 






Sweden 


14 






U. S. S. R 


13 


Yugoslavia 


7 






Asia 


156 


China 


3,527 
279 

7,593 
415 
213 

2,686 
301 
986 

32,173 


3,059 
187 

6,669 
303 
175 

1,739 
241 
785 

26,025 


199 
60 

792 
89 
18 

365 
49 

115 

3,274 


133 

7 
38 
4 
4 
97 
1 
9 

511 
392 
48 
46 
25 

21 
7 
51 


111 
25 
27 
19 
15 

423 
10 
76 

2,277 


25 


Israel 

Japan ^ 

Lebanon 


67 


Palestine 

Philippines 


1 

62 






Other Asia 


I 










Canada 


18,151 
10,166 
2,371 
1,485 

1,299 
236 

4,258 


14,331 
8,866 
1,819 
1,009 

941 

150 

3,275 


2,214 
675 
212 
173 

162 

54 
462 


1,185 
560 
286 
246 

164 
24 
445 


29 


Mexico 


17 






Central America 


32 




11 


Africa 


1 


Stateless and misceUaneous 


25 



(;) See also table 47 for detailed figures by naturalization provisions. 



114 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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118 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 41. PERSONS NATURALIZED 

AND PETITIONS FOR NATURALIZATION DENIED: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1907 TO 1955 



Period 


Total 


Persona 
natu- 
ralized 


Petition 
denied 


Percent 
denied 


1907 - 1955 


7,508,205 


7,082,166 


426,039 


5.7 


1907 - 1910 


129,440 


111,738 


17,702 


13.7 


1911 - 1920 


1,247,697 


1,128,972 


118,725 


9.5 


1921 - 1930 


1,938,678 


1,773,185 


165,493 


8.5 


1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 


200,273 
199,523 
169,968 
168,834 
168,070 
159,605 
211,750 
245,634 
236,576 
178,445 

1,564,256 


181,292 
170,447 
145 , 084 
150,510 
1.52,457 
146,331 
199,804 
233.155 
224,728 
169,377 

1,518,464 


18,981 
29,076 
24,884 
18,324 
15,613 
13,274 
11,946 
12,479 
11,848 
9,068 

45,792 


9.5 
14.6 
14.6 
10.9 

9.3 


1926.. 


8.3 


1927 


5.6 


1928 


5.1 


1929 


5.0 


1930 . .. 


5.1 


1931 - 1940 


2.9 


1931 

1932 

1933 


151,009 
142,078 
118,066 
114,802 
121,710 
144,389 
169,018 
166,932 
194,443 
241,809 

2,051,842 


143,495 
136,600 
113,363 
113,669 
118,945 
141,265 
164,976 
162,078 
188,813 
235.260 

1,987,028 


7,514 
5,478 
4,703 
1,133 
2.765 
3,124 
4,042 
4,8.54 
5,630 
6,549 

64,814 


5.0 
3.9 
4.0 


1934.. . 


1.0 


1935 

1936. 
1937.. 
1938.. 
1939. 
1940 

1941 - 1950 


2.3 
2.2 
2.4 
2.9 
2.9 
2.7 

3.2 


1941 
1942. 
1943 
1944 
194;-v 
1946 
1947. 
1948 
1949. 
1950 

1951. 

1952 

1953. . 

1954 

1955 


285,063 
278,712 
332,589 
449,276 
241,184 
156,637 
97,857 
73.037 
68,865 
68,622 

57.111 
90,818 
94,351 
119,915 
214,097 


277,294 
270,364 
318,933 
441,979 
231,402 
1,50,062 
93.904 
70,150 
66,. 594 
66 , 346 

54,716 
88,655 
92,051 
117,831 
209 , .526 


7,769 
8,348 
13,656 
7,297 
9,782 
6,575 
3,953 
2,887 
2,271 
2,276 

2.395 
2,163 
2,300 
2,084 
4,571 


2.7 
3.0 
4.1 
1.6 
4.1 
4.2 
4.0 
4.0 
3.3 
3.3 

4.2 
2.4 
2.4 
1.7 
2.1 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



119 



TABLE 42. PERSONS NATURALIZED, BY SEX AND MARITAL STATUS, 

WITH COMPARATIVE PERCENT OF TOTAL: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1947 TO 1955 



Sex 
and 

marital status 


1947 


1948 


1949 


1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 




Number 


Both xeres...^ 


93,904 


70.150 


66.594 


66,346 


54,716 


88.655 


92.051 


117,831 


209,526 


Single 

Married 


19.697 
64,704 

2'.5lb 

52,998 


12.206 

50.518 

5.429 

1.997 

33.147 


9.623 

,50,723 

4.604 

1.644 

27.865 


8,489 

52,025 

4,218 

1.614 

25,745 


5,8,59 

44,333 

3,262 

1,262 

18.711 


8,821 
72,578 
5,450 
1,806 

28,597 


12.127 

72,147 

5.886 

1,891 

34.657 


27,701 
79 , 034 
8,630 
2,466 

54,477 


39,698 
151 303 


Widowed 

Divorced 

Male 


14,470 
4,055 

95,850 


Single 

Married 

Widowed 

Divorced 

Female 


13,567 

35,942 

2,032 

1,457 

40.906 


7,449 

23,200 

1,466 

1.032 

37.003 


6.142 

19.833 

1,089 

801 

38.729 


5,710 

18,345 

921 

769 

40,601 


3,489 

14,100 

615 

507 

36.005 


5.276 

21.791 

896 

634 

60.058 


7.253 

25.777 

926 

701 

57.394 


19,909 

32,061 

1,608 

899 

63,354 


25,548 

65,683 

3,070 

1,549 

113,676 






Single 

Married 


6,130 

28,762 

4,956 

1,058 


4,757 

27.318 

3.963 

965 


3,481 

30,890 

3,515 

843 


2.779 

33.680 

3.297 

845 


2.370 

30.233 

2,647 

7.55 


3 . 545 

50.787 

4.554 

1,172 


4.874 

46.370 

4,960 

1,190 


7,792 

46,973 

7.022 

1,567 


14,150 


Widowed 

Divorced 


11,400 
2.506 




Percent of total 


Ro/i,- sexes 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Single 

Married 

Widowed 

Divorced 

Male 


21.0 
68.9 
7.4 
2.7 

56.4 


17.4 
72.1 

7.7 
2.8 

47.3 


14.4 
76.2 
6.9 
2.5 

41.8 


12.8 
78.4 
6.4 
2.4 

38.8 


10.7 
81.0 
6.0 
2.3 

34.2 


10.0 
81.9 
6.1 
2.0 

32.3 


13.2 
78.4 
6.4 
2.0 

37.6 


23.5 
67.1 
7.3 
2.1 

46.2 


19.0 

72.2 

6.9 

1.9 

45.7 






Single 

Married 


14.4 

38.3 

2.1 

1.6 

43.6 


10.6 

33.1 

2.1 

1.5 

52.7 


9.2 

29.8 

1.6 

1.2 

58.2 


8.6 

27.7 

1.4 

1.1 

61.2 


6.4 

25.8 

1.1 

0.9 

65.8 


6.0 

24.6 

1.0 

0.7 

67.7 


7.9 

28.0 

1.0 

0.7 

62.4 


16.9 

27.2 

1.3 

0.8 

.53.8 


12.2 
31.3 


Widowed 

Divorced 

Female 


1.5 

0.7 

54 3 






Single .. . 


6.6 

30.6 

5.3 

1.1 


6.8 

39.0 

5.6 

1.3 


5.2 

46.4 

5.3 

1.3 


4.2 
50.7 
5.0 
1.3 


4.3 
55.2 
4.9 
1.4 


4.0 
57.3 
5.1 
1.3 


5.3 
50.4 
5.4 
1.3 


6.6 

39.9 

6.0 

1.3 




Married 

Widowed 

Divorced 


40.9 
5.4 
1.2 



120 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 43. PERSONS NATURALIZED, BY SEX AND AGE: 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1947 TO 1955 



Sex and age 


1947 


1948 


1949 


1950 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


Both sexes 


93,904 


70,150 


66,594 


66,346 


54,716 


88,655 


92,051 


117,831 


209,526 






Under 21 years 


544 


476 


987 


1,003 


726 


1,052 


1,206 


3,787 


7,839 


21 - 25 " 


5,495 


2,970 


6,297 


7,742 


6,238 


9,785 


8,927 


14,810 


17,635 


26 - 30 " 


6,627 


3,783 


6,074 


8,570 


8,29.5 


14,7.39 


15,176 


16,290 


27,617 


31 - 35 " 


7,221 


4,131 


4,886 


5,3,55 


4,751 


8,890 


10,722 


11,569 


28.080 


36 - 40 " 


11,205 


7,867 


7,107 


6,535 


5,479 


8,301 


8,956 


8,831 


19.911 


41 - 45 " 


14,091 


11,113 


9,164 


8,144 


6,127 


9,190 


9 , 426 


9,895 


20,464 


46 - 50 " 


13,137 


11,170 


9,198 


8,239 


6,699 


9,790 


9,681 


10,584 


19,693 


51 - 55 " 


11,531 


9,481 


7,822 


6,937 


5,554 


9,090 


8,977 


12,650 


20,369 


56 - 60 " 


9,601 


8,018 


6,441 


5,773 


4,476 


7,337 


7,792 


10,821 




61 - 65 " 


7,347 


5,637 


4,473 


4,298 


3,269 


5,318 


5,658 


8,816 


13)913 


66 - 70 " 


4,260 


3,304 


2,551 


2,289 


1,884 


3,077 


3,306 


5,606 


9,199 


71 - 75 " 


1,953 


1,445 


1,084 


926 


823 


1,374 


1,468 


2,707 


4,103 


Over 75 " 


892 


755 


510 


535 


395 


712 


756 


1,465 


2,770 


Male 


52,998 


33,147 


27,865 


25,745 


18,711 


28,597 


34,657 


54,477 


95,850 






Under 21 years 


406 


257 


433 


371 


282 


405 


496 


2,343 


4,252 


21 - 25 " 


3,032 


711 


1,239 


1,732 


1,019 


1,890 


2,804 


10,133 


9,540 


26 - 30 " 


4,141 


1,094 


1,705 


2,375 


1,835 


3,369 


4,757 


7,295 


10,779 


31 - 35 " 


4,073 


1,569 


1,925 


2,026 


1,510 


2,830 


4,127 


4,622 


12,509 


36 - 40 " 


6,425 


3,672 


3,257 


2,825 


2,003 


3,087 


3,822 


3,908 


9,752 


41 - 45 " 


8,185 


5,625 


4.254 


3,574 


2,387 


3,337 


3,914 


4,187 


10,206 


46 - 50 " 


7,505 


5,679 


4.271 


3,615 


2,868 


3,685 


3,890 


4,294 


8,913 


51 - 55 " 


6,122 


4,535 


3,488 


2,870 


2,192 


3,167 


3,373 


5,129 


8,599 


56 - 60 " 


5,051 


4,098 


2,971 


2,471 


1,779 


2,600 


2,901 


3.997 


7,163 


61 - 65 " 


4,195 


2,981 


2,186 


2,052 


1,356 


2,036 


2,212 


3,710 


5,916 


66 - 70 " 


2,310 


1,737 


1,297 


1,088 


882 


1,253 


1,391 


2,773 


4,561 


71 - 75 " 


1,075 


766 


570 


467 


417 


614 


641 


1,390 


2,246 


Over 75 " 


478 


423 


269 


279 


181 


324 


329 


696 


1,414 


Female... 


40,906 


37,003 


38,729 


40,601 


36,005 


60,058 


57,394 


63,354 


113,676 






Under 21 years 


138 


219 


554 


632 


444 


647 


710 


1,444 


3,587 


21 - 25 " 


2.463 


2 , 259 


5,0,58 


6,010 


5,219 


7,895 


6,123 


4.677 


8,095 


26 - 30 " 


2,486 


2,689 


4,369 


6,195 


6,460 


11,370 


10,419 


8,995 


16,838 


31 - 35 " 


3,148 


2,562 


2,961 


3,329 


3,241 


6,060 


6,595 


6,947 


15.571 


36 - 40 " 


4,780 


4,195 


3 , 850 


3,710 


3,476 


5.214 


5,134 


4,923 


10,1.59 


41 - 45 " 


5,906 


5,488 


4,910 


4,570 


3,740 


5,853 


5,512 


5.708 


10,2.58 


46 - 50 " 


5,632 


5,491 


4,927 


4,624 


3,831 


6,105 


5,791 


6,290 


10,780 


51 - 55 " 


5,409 


4,946 


4,334 


4,067 


3.. 362 


5,923 


5,604 


7,521 


11,770 


56 - 60 " 


4,550 


3,920 


3,470 


3,302 


2,697 


4,737 


4,891 


6,824 


10,770 


61 - 65 " 


3,152 


2,656 


2,287 


2,246 


1,913 


3,282 


3,446 


5,106 


7,997 


66 - 70 " 


1,950 


1,567 


1,254 


1,201 


1,002 


1,824 


1,915 


2,8.33 


4 , 638 


71 - 75 " 


878 


679 


514 


459 


406 


760 


827 


1,317 


1,857 


Over 75 " 


414 


332 


241 


2,56 


214 


388 


427 


769 


1,356 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



121 



TABLE 44. PERSONS NATURALIZED, 

BY STATES AND TERRITORIES OF RESIDENCE: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 



State of residence 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


Total 


54.716 


88,655 


92,061 


117,831 








Alabama . 


126 
283 
52 

7.879 
381 

1,093 
59 

371 
1,276 

126 

93 

2.201 

403 

257 

265 

107 
270 
591 
558 
3,436 

2,763 
545 
86 
451 
136 

170 

55 

252 

2,700 

134 

17,990 

210 

138 

1.386 

234 

278 
2,312 

419 
74 
73 

105 
1,192 
81 
224 
456 

1,032 
112 
515 

58 

78 
512 
57 
36 
25 


231 

387 

108 

12,258 

533 

2,864 
178 
615 

1,524 
553 

156 

2,942 

1,048 

445 

340 

290 
411 
737 
949 
6.593 

5.288 
722 
111 
726 
236 

253 
106 
431 
4,131 
164 

27,120 

359 

108 

2,855 

305 

601 
4,028 
707 
134 
91 

222 
1,989 
162 
258 
712 

1,755 
244 
796 
80 

104 
526 
78 
35 
56 


197 
537 
94 
12,728 
492 

2,941 
102 
497 

1,757 
374 

147 
4,236 
848 
379 
348 

235 

582 

802 

975 

5.768 

4,848 
829 
118 
551 
194 

232 
124 
554 
4,143 
215 

29,780 

292 

148 

2,611 

208 

431 

4,461 

699 

147 

88 

282 
1,641 
207 
301 
770 

1.724 
197 
883 
56 

206 
760 
108 
67 
137 


299 

793 

124 

15.533 

1.170 

3.446 
201 
884 

2,844 
407 

274 

6,396 

1.016 

511 

334 

461 

498 

1,093 

2.016 

8,054 

7,368 
959 
189 
643 
416 

416 
175 
650 
5,436 
229 

31,118 

787 

231 

2.972 

268 

842 
4,657 
958 
170 
216 

202 
2,452 
612 
419 
827 

3,000 
268 
981 
120 

360 
3,143 
163 
150 
81 


574 




621 






California 


36 358 






Connecticut 


6 294 






District of Columbia 


1 152 


Florida 








Idaho.. 








Indiana 


1930 


Iowa 




Kansas 


714 


Kentucky., 








Maine 


992 




Massachusetts 


11 692 


Michigan 




Minnesota 


1 811 


Mississippi 


198 

1,831 

348 

521 
255 
722 
14,164 
353 

61,677 




Montana 

Nebraska 


Nevada 




New Jersey 


New Mexico.— 


New York 


North Carolina 


North Dakota 


286 


Ohio 


7,156 
281 

1,527 

8,767 

1,467 

262 

191 

448 

5.075 

973 

542 

1,133 

2,855 

493 

2,182 

66 

370 
2.741 
168 
104 
415 




Oregon 




Rhode Island., 


South Carolina 


South Dakota 


Tennessee..- 


Texas 


Utah 




Virginia 




West Virginia 


Wisconsin. __ 




Territories and other: 

Alaska.... 


Hawaii 


Puerto Rico 




All other. 





122 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 45. PERSONS NATURALIZED, 

BY SPECIFIED COUNTRIES OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 

AND BY RURAL AND URBAN AREA AND CITY (1): 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1955 



Class of place 
and city 



Total 

Rural 

Urban 

City total 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Oakland, Calif 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif, 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Hartford, Conn 

New Haven, Conn. . 
Washington, D. C... 

Miami, Fla. 

Chicago, 111 

New Orleans, La. 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass. 

Cambridge, Mass 

Fall River, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass. 

Springfield, Mass 

Worcester, Mass 

Detroit, Mich. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

St. Louis, Mo 

Jersey City, N. J 

Newark, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 

Buffalo, N. Y 

New York, N. Y. 

Rochester, N. Y 

Cincinnati, Ohio... 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Portland, Ore 

Philadelphia, Pa. .... 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Scranton, Pa. 

Providence, R. I 

San Antonio, Tex.. . 

Seattle, Wash. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Other cities._ 

U. S. territories and 

possessions 

All others 



52,288 



3,553 
1,141 



Country of former allegiance 



British q^ 
Empire 



6,840 



29 
49 

573 
45 
82 
74 

139 
58 
96 
5,853 
98 
25 

153 
85 

436 
96 
24 



124 
69 

. . 705 



Germany Italy Poland U.S.S.R. Other 



270 
100 

50 
127 
218 

13 

37 
1,397 

27 



14 
19 

201 
48 

142 
41 

107 
51 

103 

3,926 

99 

85 

177 
85 

297 
72 
2 
24 
62 
70 



162 

273 

210 

106 

4,771 

118 

17 

159 

16 

281 

132 

20 

91 

15 

26 

35 

975 



31 
33 

149 

194 

437 

254 

1.53 

95 

1,773 

37 

182 

610 

6 

42 

53 

54 

140 

1,116 

11 

177 

159 

34 

26 

260 

11,393 

181 

85 

499 

24 

496 

194 

25 

61 

19 

33 

208 

1,725 



5,027 



64, 



8,812 
559 
467 

2,885 
598 
606 
516 
593 
560 

4,2.59 
230 
673 

2,752 
57 
375 
426 
100 
488 

1,644 
394 
502 
283 
652 
250 
315 
21.094 
299 
201 

1.551 
334 

1,282 
375 
21 
273 
574 
647 
498 

8,164 



3,118 
529 



(1) Rural — Population of less than 2,500; Urban- 
lation of 100,000 or over. 



Population of 2,500 to 99,999; Cities— Popu- 



Report op the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



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128 



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Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



131 



TABLE 47. PERSONS NATURALIZED, 

BY GENERAL AND SPECIAL NATURALIZATION PROVISIONS: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 



Naturalization provisions 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


Total.- 


54,716 


88,655 


92,051 


117,831 


209,526 




14,864 

39,852 

36,433 

487 
220 

843 
300 

675 

611 

66 

1 

17 

6 

188 
4 

1 


26,920 
61,735 


46,793 
45,258 


86,166 
31,665 


173,964 


Special provisions 


35,572 




58,027 

760 
223 

722 

194 

1.391 

64 

138 
9 
4 
27 
4 

164 

8 


42,088 

150 

429 

192 

1,383 

110 

1 

123 

9 

7 
14 

51 

2 


15,977 

1.208 
120 

74 

61 

627 

10,076 

2,981 
476 

3 
43 

4 

11 

2 
1 


20,460 


Children, including adopted children, of U. S. citizen 

parents 

Former U. S. citizens who lost citizenship by marriage 

Philippine citizens who entered the United States 

prior to May 1, 1934, and have resided continu- 


2,600 
146 

22 


Pereons who served in U. S. armed forces for three 


36 


Persons who served in U. S. armed forces during 
World War I or World War II._.._ 

Persons serving in U. S. armed forces after June 24, 
1950 (In U. S.).„ (2) 

Persons serving in U. S. armed forces after June 24, 
1950 (Overseas) (2) 

Persons who served on certain U. S. vessels 


981 

8,402 

2,539 
206 


Former U. S. citizens who lost citizenship by entering 
the armed forces of foreign countries during World 
War ll._ (1) 

Dual nationals expatriated through entering or serv- 
ing in armed forces of foreign states 


15 

28 


Former U. S. citizens expatriated through expatria- 


8 


Persons who lost citizenship through cancellation of 


42 


Persons misinformed prior to July 1, 1920, regarding 
citizenship status 

Noncitizen natives of Puerto Rico — declaration of 
allegiance 


7 
1 


Persons who entered the United States while under 
16 years of age . . 


62 




3 


Alien veterans of World War I or veterans of allied 
countries 


10 




4 


Persons naturalized under private law 


1 







(i) Prior to December 24, 1952, these persons were repatriated under the provisions 

Nationality Act of 1940, and therefore, were not included in this table. 
(«) Act of June 30, 1953 (P. L. 86). 



Section 323, 



132 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 48. WRITS OF HABEAS CORPUS 

IN EXCLUSION AND DEPORTATION CASES: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1946 TO 1955 



Action taken 


1946 

to 
1955 


1946 

263 

9 
133 
121 

206 
4 


1947 

444 

15 

278 
151 

156 
64 


1948 

306 

29 

175 
102 

160 
48 


1949 

511 

9 

397 
105 

144 
59 


1950 

347 

25 
169 
153 

118 
96 


1951 

394 

56 
260 

78 

47 
57 


1952 
386 


1953 

359 

44 
213 
102 

120 
38 


1954 

391 

20 

289 

82 

115 
23 


1955 


Total Writs of Habeas Corpus 
Disposed of 


3,654 


253 








259 
2,343 
1,052 

90 
508 


30 
253 
103 

60 
67 


22 


Dismissed 


176 


Withdrawn 


55 


Pending end of year 


90 


Involving Exclusion 
Disposed of 


52 


Sustained _ _ 

Dismissed 

Withdrawn 

Pending end of year 

Involving Deportation 


56 
270 
182 

18 
3,146 


4 

1 

259 


6 
19 
39 

15 

380 


3 

26 
19 

12 
258 


6 
38 
15 

16 
452 


8 
48 
40 

21 

251 


3 

27 

27 

13 
337 


16 
32 
19 

8 
319 


7 
21 
10 

11 
321 


3 
17 
3 

17 
368 


4 
38 
10 

18 
201 






Sustained 


203 

2,073 

870 

72 


9 
129 
121 

205 


9 
259 
112 

141 


26 
149 
83 

148 


3 
359 
90 

128 


17 
121 
113 

97 


53 
233 
51 

34 


14 
221 
84 

52 


37 
192 
92 

109 


17 

272 

79 

98 


18 




138 


Withdrawn 


45 


Pending end of year 


72 







Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



133 



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134 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 50. PRIVATE BILLS INTRODUCED AND LAWS ENACTED, 
75TH CONGRESS TO 84TH CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION 



Congress 


Bills 
intro- 
duced 


Laws 
enacted 


84th (First Session) 

83rd 

82nd . , 


2,810 

4,797 

3,669 

2,811 

1,141 

429 

163 

430 

601 

293 


89 

755 
729 


81st 

80th 

79th 

78th 

77th 

76th 


505 
121 
14 
12 
22 
65 


75th 


30 







Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



135 



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136 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 52. CERTIFICATES OF NATURALIZATION REVOKED, 

BY GROUNDS: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 



Grounds 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 




403 


279 


335 


165 








Established permanent residence abroad within five 


384 
3 

3 

2 
11 


275 
1 

2 

1 


327 
2 

- 
6 

- 


150 
5 

1 
5 

4 


177 


Bad moral character 


1 


Misrepresentations and concealments relating to marital 
and family status 


7 


Fraudulent concealment of subversive membership 

Became, within five years after naturalization, members 
of subversive organizations 


4 
8 


Dishonorable discharge following naturalization based 




Miscellaneous grounds 


_ 







TABLE 53. PERSONS EXPATRIATED, BY 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 


GROUNDS: 
1955 




Grounds 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


Total number 


4,443 


3,265 


8,350 


6,938 


4,202 




1,401 

1,084 

836 

565 
228 
147 

69 
73 
40 


1,186 
711 
622 

370 
136 
123 

59 
56 

2 


2,651 
2,657 
1,677 

700 
398 
152 

45 
67 
3 


2,222 
1,557 
1,544 

425 
220 

134 

134 

6 


1,237 


Residence of a naturalized national in a foreign state... 


1,063 
841 


Entering or serving in the armed forces of a foreign 
state 


269 




331 


Taking an oath of allegiance in a foreign state 


233 


Departing from or remaining away from the U. S. to 

avoid training and service in land or naval forces 

Accepting or performing duties under a foreign state 


139 

84 
5 







Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



137 



TABLE 54. PERSONS REPATRIATED: 
YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1951 TO 1955 



Class 


1951 


1952 


1953 


1954 


1955 


Total number 


1,242 


1,406 


2,299 


2,885 


851 


Persons who lost citizenship by serving in the armed 
forces of allies of the United States, and who were 
repatriated under Section 323, Nationality Act of 1940 

Native-born women who lost citizenship through mar- 
riage to aliens and who were repatriated under the 
Act of June 25 1936, as amended 


256 
839 

145 
2 


147 

778 

160 

316 
5 


270 
486 

172 
34 

1,337 


42 

240 

12 
331 

2,260 


416 


Native-born women who lost citizenship through mar- 
riage to aliens and whose marriages terminated: 

Repatriated under Section 317(b) of the National- 
ity Act of 1940 




Repatriated under Section 324(c) of the Immigra- 


269 


Persons who lost citizenship through voting in a political 
election or plebiscite in Italy and were repatriated 
under P. L. lli o( August 16, 1951 _ 




Former U. S. citizens who lost citizenship by voting in 
political elections or plebiscites held in occupied Japan 
(Act of July 20 1954) 


175 


Private law 


1 







138 



Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 



TABLE 55. CERTIFICATES OF DERIVATIVE CITIZENSHIP GRANTED, 

BY COUNTRY OR REGION OF BIRTH: 

YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 1954 AND 1955 



Country or region of birth 


1954 


1965 


All countries 


11,709 


15,823 


Europe 


9,352 


11,499 


Austria 


408 


491 


Belgium 


145 


146 


Bulgaria 


16 


12 


Czechoslovakia 


272 


330 


Denmark 


85 


114 


Estonia 


14 


22 


Finland 


87 


98 


France 


169 


206 


Germany 


1,123 


1,556 


Greece 


131 


203 


Hungary 


269 


310 


Ireland 


159 


206 


Italy 


1,914 


2,303 


Latvia 


38 


86 


Lithuania 


77 


120 


Netherlands. _ 


170 


318 


Norway 


186 


241 


Poland 


826 


1,000 


Portugal 


76 


97 


Rumania 


183 


199 


Spain 


54 


65 


Sweden 


218 


222 


Switzerland 


56 


77 


( England 


( 


861 


United ( Northern Ireland 


(1,244 


58 


Kingdom ( Scotland 


( 


429 


( Wale=i 


( 


33 


U. S. S p. 


1,187 


1,433 


Yugoslavia 


127 


159 


Other Europe 


118 


104 


Asia... 


305 


519 


China 


98 


158 


India _ 


13 


9 


Japan 


6 


16 


Palestine 


37 


45 


Philippmes 


46 


68 


Other Asia 


105 


228 


North America 


1.921 


3,065 


Canada 


1,672 


2,358 


Mexico 


132 


377 


West Indies 


86 


254 


Central Americ? 


23 


62 


Other North America 


8 


14 


South America 


73 


108 


Africa 


22 


70 


Australia and New Zealand 


29 


28 


Other countries 


7 


34 



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