(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Annual report of the Indiana State Board of Agriculture"

GE^J 



"i/ lliiiiiiiifnimiliiirililiriiiM'"'*^ LIBRARY 



3 1833 01800 1104 



GENEALOGY 
'r>ll .2 
IN175 
1384 



r«i. 



ft a; 




^- ^, (f&^MJ^ 



MXJ 



Thirty-Fourth Annual Report 



iisrr)i-A.isrA. 



State Board of Agriculture. 



VOLUME XXVI, 1884. 



Inoludlng the Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, 1885; Meetings of 1 
Cattle Breeders, Swine Breeders, "Wool Growers, Cane 
Growers, and Bee Keepers, 1885. 



XO TIEIE GS-O'VEIilSrOR.. 



INDIANAPOLIS: 

WM. B. BtJBFOHD, CONTRACTOR FOR STATE PRINTING AND BINDIKG . 



Lndianapolis, February 3, 1885. 
To His Excellency, Isaac P. Gray, 

Governor of Indiana : 

Sir — In compliance with the Act of the General Assembly, approved February 
17, 1852, we have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Indiana 
State Board of Agriculture for the year ending December 31, 1884, together with 
such matter as is deemed interesting and useful. 

Very respectfully, 

ROBEKT MITCHELL,, President. 
Alex. Heron, Secretary. 



STATE OF INDIANA, i 

Governor's Office. / 

February 3, 1885, received and examined by the Governor. 

February 14, 1885, transmitted to the Secretary of State to be filed and pre- 
served in his office and published according to law, by order of the Commissioners 
of Public Printing and Binding. 

Pierre Gray, 

Private Secretary. 



Filed in this office February 14, 1885. 

W. R. Myers, 

Secretary of State. 



COKTENTS. 



Page. 

Record table 6 

State Industrial Associations (directory, 1885) 7 

Weather record 8-12 

Introductory 13 

Organization of Board 17 

Proceedings March, Executive and State Fair meetings 18 

Proceedings annual meeting of delegates, 1885 . . . • • 43 

Awards of State Fair premiums 99 

Reports of committees on special merits . 135 

Report of State Chemist on commercial fertilizers 200 

Lectures — " The Farmer and Higher Education," by Prof. C. H. Hall, of 

Franklin College 206 

"Farmers' Recreations and Amusements," by Miss Lulu A. 

Davidson, of Montgomery county 210 

" French Agriculture and Breeding of Norman Horses," by Col. 

J, A. Bridgeland, of Wayne county 215 

" The Adulteration of Foods and Medicines," by Dr. John N. 

Hurty, of Indianapolis »....« 219 

" The Fish Interests of Indiana," by Enos B. Reed, Fish Com- 
missioner 224 

'' Fish Culture, Profits of," by I. N. Cotton, of Marion county. . 229 
" The Proper Application of Fertilizers," by F. G. Wiselogel, of 

Indianapolis. . . , 235 

• " Destruction of Crops by Insects," by J. G. Kingsbury, of Indi- 
ana Farmer 239 

" The Value of Birds as Insect Destroyers," by F. M. Noe, of 

Marion county 243 

" Road Paving Material," by Prof. John T. Campbell, of Craw- 

fordsville, Ind 245 

Reports from County and District Agricultural Societies 249 

Tables of officers, premiums, entries, receipts, etc., of Agricultural Societies. 326 

Proceedings Indiana Shorthorn Breeders' Association 339 

Proceedings Indiana Jersey Cattle Breeders' Association 358 

Proceedings Indiana Wool Growers' Association 379 

Proceedings Indiana Swine Breeders' Association 403 

Proceedings Indiana Bee Keepere' Association 423 

Proceedings Indiana Cane Growers' Association 458 

Memoirs of ex-President Dr. A. C. Stevenson . 484 



INDIANA STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, 1884. 



1st 


Distr 


ct- 


2d 


Distri 


ct- 


3d 


Distn 


ct- 


4th 


Distr 


ct- 


5th Distr 


ct- 


6th 


Distr 


ct- 


7th 


Distr 


ct- 


8th 


Distr 


ct^ 


9th 


Distr 


ct- 


10th 


Distr 


ct-^ 


11th iJistr 


ict- 


12th 


Distr 


ict- 


13th 


Distrj 


ct- 


14th 


Distr 


ict- 


]5th 


Distr 


ct- 


16th 


Distr 


ct- 



(Sleeted, by the Delegates from Agricultural Societies.) 

-Egbert Mitchell, Princeton, Gibson county. • 

-Samuel Hargrove, Union, Pike county. 

-J. Q. A. SiEG, Corydon, Harrison county. 

-W. B. Seward, Bloomington, Monroe county. 

-T. W. W. SuNMAN, Spades, Kipley county. 

-Dick Jones, Cohimbus, Bdftholomew county. 

-W. W. Cotteral, New Castle, Henry county. 

-S. W. DuNGAN, Franklin, Johnson county. 

-H. LaToxjrette, Covington, Fountain county. 

-Jasper N. Davidson, Whitesville, Montgomery county. 

-John M. Graham, Muncie, Delaware county. 

-Chas. B. Stuart, Lafayette, Tippecanoe county. 

-John Ratliff, Marion, Grant county. 

-L. B. Custer, Logansport, Cass county. 

-W. A. Banks, Door Village, Laporte county. 

-R. M. Lockhart, Waterloo, Dekalb county. 



OFFICERS FOR, 1884. 



(Elected by the Board of Agriculture.) 

Robert Mitchell President. 

Jasper N. Davidson Vice President. 

Alex. Heron Secretary. 

Sylvester Johnson Treasurer. 

Fielding Beeler General Superintendent. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



Robert Mitchell, President. 
Dick Jones, W. B. Seward, 

John M. Graham, W. W. Cotterai.. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, 




STATE INDUSTRIAL ASSOCIATIONS. 



OPFICEBS FOR THE YEAH 1885. 



HEADQUARTERS IN THE AGRICULTURAL ROOxMS, CORNER OF TENNES6BB 

AND Market streets. 



Indiana State Board of Agricidlure. — President, Hon. K. M. Lockhart, Dekalb 
county ; Secretary, Alex. Heron, Indianapolis, Marion county. Organized May> 
1851. 

Indiana HorticuUxiral Society. — President, Sylvester .Johnson, Irvington, Marion 
county; Secretary, C. M. Hobbs, Bridgeport, Marion county. Organized 1842. 

State Association of Shorthorn Breeders.— 'President, Hon. Eobert Mitchell, Prince- 
ton ; Secretary, Walter J. Quick, Columbus, Ind. Organized May, 1872. 

Indiana Jersey Cattle Breeders Association. — President, W. J. Hasselman, In- 
dianapolis, Marion county ; Secretary, T. A. Lloyd, Indianapolis. Organized 
January, 1883. 

Indiana Swine Breeders Association. — President, D. L. Thomas, Eushville ; Sec- 
retary, AV. E. Jackson, Knightstown. Organized January, 1877. 

Indiana Wool Growers Association. — President, Thomas Nelson, Bloomingdale, 
Parke county ; Secretary, I. J. Farquhar, Trenton, Randolph county. Organized 
October, 1876. 

Indiana Poultry Breeders Association. — President, H. C. G. Bals, Indianapolis 
Marion county ; Secretary, D. H. Jenkins, Indianapolis, Marion county. Organ- 
ized January, 1875. 

Indiana Bee Keepers Association. — President, Jonas Scholl, Connersville, Fayette 
county ; Secretary, F. L. Daugherty, Indianapolis. Organized October, 1879. 

Indiana Cane Growers Association. — President, Dr. A. Furnas, Danville, Hen- 
dricks county ; Secretary, W. L. Anderson, Ladoga, Montgomery county. Organ" 
iaed December, 1882. 

Indiana Tile Makers Association. — President, Robert Thomas, Indianapolis; Sec- 
retary, J. J. W. Billingsley, Marion county. Organized November, 1876. 

Indiana Womens State Industrial Association. — President, Mrs. A. M. Noe, In- 
dianapolis, Marion county ; Secretary, Mrs. M. M. Finch, Indianapolis, Marion 
county. Organized September, 1878. 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLES. 



•MONTHLY MEAN BAROMETER, THERMOMETER, ETC. 



TABLE Showing Monthly Mean Barometer, Thermometer, Relative Humidity ; Maximum 
and Mininmm Temperatures; Prevailing Direction of Wind; number of Clear, Fair 
aad Cloudy Days; average amount of Cloudiness; number of Days on which 0.01 
Inch or more of Bain or Snow Fell; total amount of Precipitation, and number of 
Days on which the Temperature fell beloiv the Freezing Point at Indianapolis, Ind., 
/or each Month of the Year 1884, as Becorded at the United States Signal Office. 



HONTHS. 


-2 
1 




a+3 

il 






1 

.si 

Oh 


1 
1=1 

s 

o 
d 
125 


1 
(=1 

1 

o 
o 


1 
>> 

13 
O 

5 


la 
a a 

Is 
III 

5? 3 g 


odofe 


a ■ 

il 
IS 


If 

m 
111 


^.nnary. . 
February . 
Marcb. . . 
April . . 




30178 
30.050 
30.030 
29.938 
29.946 
29.999 
29.908 
30.024 
30.042 
30.143 
30.121 
30.146 


21.6 
34.7 
41.1 
50.2 
62.1 
73.2 
73.7 
72.3 
71.6 
58.3 
41.5 
29.9 


67.2 

«.i 

63.4 
59.1 
62.0 
64.6 

«. 

60.2 
62.3 
71.3 
77.9 
85. 


56.8 
65.2 
69.5 
80.5 
84.0 
92.8 
90.0 
89.0 
90.3 
87.0 
66.8 
60.7 


-25.0 
-1.6 
5.0 
31.4 
40.6 
54.7 
55.2 
50.2 
44.8 
31.2 
12.3 

-12.3 


sw 

NW 
NW 

SE 
N W 

SW 

s 

NW 
S 
S 

s 
w 

SE 


6 
4 
3 
5 

10 
8 
8 

17 
7 

13 

13 
5 


16 
9 
14 
8 
13 
12 
14 
12 
16 
14 
10 
6 

144 


9 
16 
14 
17 
8 

10 
9 
2 
7 
4 
7 
20 


5.4 
7.4 
6.9 
6.9 
5.0 
5.8 
5.4 
3.6 
4.9 
3.8 
4.2 
7.4 


12 
18 
16 
17 
15 

9 
15 

7 
11 

9 

8 
22 


1.05 
4.73 
3.01 
2.89 
4.80 
4.11 
6.03 
0.46 
3.09 
2.31 
1.46 
6.05 


28 
18 
13 
2 


May. . . . 
June . . . 
Joly. - . . 


■ 




August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
Deeember. 




1 
8 
21 


Annual Means 
Annoal Totals 


30.044 


52.5 


67.6 


77.7 


23.9 


S 


99 


123 


5.6 


159 


3« 


91 





















METEOROLOGICAL TABLES. 



DAILY AND MONTHLY MEAN BAROMETER. 



Table Showing Daily and Monthly Mean Barometer at Indianapolis, Ind., for Each Day 
and Month of the Year 1884, as Recorded at the United States Signal Office. 

Barometer Corrected for Elevation, Temperature and Instrumental Error. 



Date. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


iMar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Deo. 


1 . . . 


29.842 


30.068 


29.619 


29517 


29.736 


30.101 


29.879 


29.975 


29.978 


30.176 


30.030 


30.182 


2. . . 


29.859 


30.118 


29.754 


29.713 


.30.144 


30.048 


29.901 


30.002 


29.967 


.30.131 


30.285 


30.161 


3 . . . 


.30.178 


30.122 


30.181 


30.050 


30.122 


30.015 


29.843 


29.911 


30.036 


30.146 


30.205 


30.001 


i . . . 


30.384 


29.912 


30.277 


29.954 


29.865 


30.006 


29.752 


29.966 


30.142 


30.092 


30.068 


29.965 


5 . . 


30.521 


29.797 


29.954 


29.963 


29.833 


30.009 


29.836 


29.973 


30.135 


29.988 


30.280 


29.911 


6 . . . 


30.508 


29.919 


30.128 


29.970 


29.684 


29.966 


29.998 


29.963 


30.028 


30.042 


30.445 


29.515 


7 . . . 


30.418 


30.179 


30.059 


29.889 


29.788 


29.959 


30.055 


30.004 


29.975 


29.969 


30.277 


30.029 


8. . . 


29.975 


30.146 


29.972 


29.880 


29.976 


29.866 


29.979 


30.214 


29.991 


30.021 


30.255 


30.337 


9. . . 


29.877 


.30.293 


30.283 


29.990 


29.942 


29.641 


29.807 


30.221 


30.015 


30.171 


30.143 


30.318 


10. . . 


29.908 


30.358 


30.109 


30.063 


29.861 


29.786 


29.851 


30.122 


30.021 


30.122 


30.167 


30.180 


11 . . . 


30.204 


30.192 


29.720 


.30.149 


29.887 


29.863 


29.918 


30.053 


.30.077 


30.022 


30 ..305 


30.033 


12 . . 


30.042 


29.901 


30.211 


30.011 


29.895 


29.919 


29.869 


30.057 


30.226 


30.072 


30.245 


30.143 


13. . . 


29.814 


29.831 


30.256 


29.965 


29 831 


30.052 


29.903 


30.124 


30.298 


30.221 


30.183 


30.353 


14. . . 


30.039 


30.299 


30.190 


29.629 


30.038 


30.135 


29.963 


30.137 


30.254 


30.415 


30.229 


29.875 


1-5 .. . 


30.320 


30.466 


30.254 


29.460 


29.912 


30.173 


29.920 


30.100 


30.088 


30.355 


30.189 


30.123 


16. . . 


30 489 


30.214 


30.240 


29.870 


30.017 


30.190 


29.977 


30.056 


29.946 


30.109 


•29.981 


30.154 


17 . . . 


30:268 


29.845 


30.178 


30.098 


29.966 


30.157 


29.973 


30.028 


29.916 


30.038 


.30.100 


30.227 


18. . . 


29.926 


29.862 


30.032 


30.0.35 


29.751 


30.054 


29.931 


30.048 


30.154 


30.14i 


30.169 


30.472 


19 . . 


30.045 


29.661 


29.849 


29.908 


29.714 


29.982 


30.001 


30.071 


30.148 


30.187 


30.162 


30.526 


20. . . 


30.428 


30.244 


30.128 


30.050 


30.002 


30.003 


30.096 


30.020 


30.199 


30.258 


30.145 


30.073 


21. . . 


30.401 


30.165 


30.256 


30.103 


30.032 


30.036 


30.096 


30.003 


30 095 


30.021 


30.188 


29.737 


22. . . 


29.998 


29.988 


30.063 


29.995 


29.936 


30.023 


29.982 


30.033 


29.914 


30.114 


29.946 


30.054 


23. . . 


30.015 


30.151 


29.856 


30.010 


29.967 


29.948 


29.910 


30.059 


29.835 


30.309 


29.851 


30.209 


24. . . 


30.320 


29.9&5 


29.887 


29.967 


30.049 


29.801 


29.918 


.30.112 


29.844 


30.253 


30.204 


30..338 


25. . . 


30.497 


29.906 


29.581 


29.947 


29.973 


29.810 


29.886 


29.980 


,30.178 


30.350 


29.849 


30.508 


26. . . 


30.631 


29.992 


29.823 


29.909 


29.844 


30.082 


29.802 


30.106 


30.105 


30.108 


29.887 


30.448 


27. . . 


30.415 


29.835 


29.911 


29.877 


29.845 


30.139 


29 863 


30.068 


29.922 


30.108 


29.798 


30.187 


28. . . 


30.281 


30.027 


29.586 


30.133 


30.139 


30.169 


29.795 


29.798 


29.802 


30.275 


29.817 


30.183 


29. . . 


30.251 


29.950 


30.131 


30.104 


30.264 


30.074 


29.833 


29.736 


29.955 


.^0.120 


30.045 


30.188 


30. . . 


29.834 




30.343 


29.938 


30.178 


29.966 


29.794 


29.843 


30.0.^7 


30.110 


30.186 


30.019 


31 . . . 


29.837 




30.099 




30.141 




29.812 


29.966 




30.012 




30.063 



MONTHLY MEAN BAROMETER. 



30.178 30.050 



29.938 29.946 



.999 29.908 30.024 ,30.042 



143 30.121 



1.146 



10 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



DAILY AND MONTHLY MEAN TEMPERATURE. 



Table Showing Daily and Monthly Mean Temperature at Indianapolis, Ind.,for each Bay 

and Month of the Year 1884, as Becorded at the United States Signal Office. 

(Fahrenheit.) 



Date. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


9ct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1. . . 


31.2 


30.5 


2..6 


60.6 


67.2 


72.1 


77.7 


76.1 


68.7 


76.0 


52.4 


26.9 


2. . . 


14.7 


41.1 


20.0 


37.1 


53.8 


71.2 


79.1 


78.5 


73.3 


78.9 


46.2 


305 


3. . . 


7.7 


43.5 


14.0 


43.7 


.55.8 


70.8 


78.0 


73.1 


78.9 


76.9 


43.7 


39.2 


4 . . . 


-5.1 


43.9 


18.2 


50.9 


61.8 


71.3 


79 


65.0 


80 2 


77.2 


44.7 


47.9 


5 . . . 


—15.4 


46.0 


26.8 


44.2 


65.9 


70.5 


75.2 


66.0 


79.7 


79.1 


36.0 


55.2 


6. . . 


-6.6 


38.0 


28.8 


44.7 


60.6 


69.6 


68.0 


70.7 


80.7 


69.9 


37.2 


52.0 


7. . . 


7.9 


36.6 


28.5 


43.8 


59.8 


715 


70.8 


69.4 


785 


69.7 


43.9 


43.5 


8. . . 


13.3 


45.2 


28.5 


36.1 


59.8 


68.0 


70.9 


62.9 


81.7 


61.0 


46.2 


38.4 


9. . . 


18.5 


33.7 


25.1 


39.3 


62.0 


69.4 


72.7 


61.6 


79.4 


515 


52.6 


35.2 


10. . . 


28.8 


33.7 


31.1 


41.4 


58.3 


57.8 


72.7 


63.9 


79.7 


55.7 


53.0 


40.1 


11. . . 


17.8 


40.3 


46.7 


44.4 


58.2 


65.0 


75.9 


673 


72.0 


63.0 


42.7 


34.3 


12. . . 


25.9 


52.5 


37.2 


43.8 


63.9 


69.3 


77.8 


71.6 


66.8 


66.7 


42.1 


30.6 


13. . . 


41.2 


34.5 


43.1 


51.1 


58.8 




69.8 


74.2 


65.8 


62.3 


46.9 


28.9 


14. . . 


32.6 


155 


38.3 


62.0 


57.1 


66:7 


71.0 


75.8 


66.6 


53.4 


47.9 


35.0 


15. . . 


24.3 


S.1 


.39.0 


53.9 


62.4 


69.8 


70.0 


76.4 


74.3 


51.7 


46.2 


25.3 


16. . . 


19.8 


37.1 


48.0 


44.2 


55.5 


76.8 


. 70.0 


78.9 


71.3 


54.1 


51.7 


25.0 


17. . . 


28.8 


44.8 


50.1 


52.3 


61.7 


76.4 


655 


75.7 


67.0 


57.9 


44.2 


6.2 


18. . . 




44.8 


52.7 


52.3 


66.3 


79.7 


71.7 


80.0 


63.0 


55.2 


35.1 


-3.6 


19. . . 


235 


44.0 


48.1 


57.5 


60.2 


775 


71.8 


80.9 


64.9 


59 9 


33.1 


1.8 


20. . . 


11.5 


26.9 


43.4 


46.9 


.65.2 


81.1 


70.2 


81.7 


62.1 


63.8 


42.1 


20.4 


21. . . 


12.5 


30.2 


48.3 


43.0 


71.0 


82.6 


• 71.0 


79.8 


62.6 


67.9 


44.3 


29.8 


22. . . 


33.5 


31.0 


56.7 


403 


75.7 


82.7 


76.4 


71.7 


69.9 


48.1 


52.7 


16.2 


23. . . 


30.5 


24.6 


57.6 


415 


73.5 


83.2 


79.1 


71.2 


70.6 


34.0 


34.9 


14.2 


24 . . . 


9.5 


a5.7 


56.3 


51.8 


66.8 


82.3 


76.7 


67.6 


68.3 


42.5 


21.2 


12.2 


25. . . 


12.4 


386 


58.7 


555 


63.6 


72.1 


77.8 


74.2 


64.7 


45.1 


35.3 


9.4 


26. . . 


22.7 


33.8 


50.4 


58.6 


62.3 


67.7 


74.1 


74.0 


68.9 


50.3 


31.9 


13.8 


27. . . 


32.1 


30.2 


55.2 


65.8 


62.6 


70.8 


74.9 


72.0 


70.9 


51.4 


45.9 


30.9 


28. . . 


39.4 


11.4 


56.0 


616 


54.3 


73.4 


73.7 


75.1 


72.3 


43.4 


32.0 


45.1 


29. . . 


41.7 


13.8 


46.0 


65.4 


54.3 


79.1 


74.0 


72.2 


71.2 


44.7 


30.3 


54.3 


30. . . 


49.0 




43.0 


72.1 


60.0 


79.6 


745 


67.0 


75.0 


46.7 


27.6 


57.0 


31 . . . 


34.0 


• • * 


52.4 




66.7 




73.9 


66.0 




51.0 




30.8 



MONTHLY MEAN TEMPERATURE. 



50.2 62.1 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLES. 



11 






■2 5 



1^ 



, O U2 O 



•^saqSiH 



•^soMoq 



•^sanSlH 






s 






i 


<=2 


«2 


=5 


i 


1 


o 


i 


s 


^ 


o 


o 
s 


s 


<= 
S? 


i 






i 


o 


o 
o 


s 


o 
to 






s 


«2 


o 


1 


=2 
55 


S5 






s 






g g g- gi g2 5 



•^S8M0T 



•1saq3iH 



•^S9Ai0r[ 



r-. hsoqSm 



•jsaMoq^ 



<-) ^ 00 t^ HS 22 

C^ ^ ^ l-O lO ^ 



5 g g S S 



s '-? 



s s g 



ia< lO uo 



•>s8q3iH S S 



S5 



g s s 



■jsaAiO'l 



^saqSilI 






•^saAioq 



•^saqSiH 



•^soqSiH 



S ?3 g? ^ S " S? 



g3 S 



lO CO tr 



S ^ 



CO lO CO c^ 



d5 IT- «o 



^saqSm 



•^saqSiH 



•^SOAiOl 



•^saqaiH 



-^f^SSSSSS^! 



S; OT S ^ t^ 
9 ^ " 






s s, s 



1" ^ 



s s 



g g g s s ^ 



. -s a I a g 



lll^l^^^^^o^fi 



12 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



e^l 



i| 



•,,06 8AoqB 
qoiqM uo SylBp }0 jaqmn^ 


'^ 


o> 


& 




OJ 


o 


^ 


■^ 




5? 




«o 






•Saizaajj Aiojaq svm. ajt^ 
-BJacImaj, ninimaij^r aq^ 
qoiqii no s.«Bp jb Jaqmn^ 


§ 


g 


Sg 


1 


2 


w 


s 


^ 


2' 


03 


^ 


8 


s 




•Sai'zaajj Mopq bvm. am% 
-Bjsdniaj; ranuitxBj,t ^Rl 
qaiqAi no sAup jo laqran^ 


5 


?§ 


s 


:? 


S 


g 


t^ 


&: 


§ 


g 


2 


S? 


o 




•saqoui 
— sjnoq aAtjnoasnoo 

fg UI IIBJUIBH iS8}B3Jf) 


^ 




1 


S 


g 


s 


1 


s 


1 


s 


i 


CO 






•aoi;B} 
-iclt09j^ JO janoniB ib^ox 


o 

s 


s? 
g 


s 

5' 




s 

o 


s 

^ 


^ 

?§ 


1 




oo 


i 


s 






•UOlJB^IdlO 

-ajjjoajomjoqbaiio-o 
qoiqAi no s^Bp jo aaqnin^ 


g 


s 


g 


s 


■a 


s 


1 


s 


B 


eg 


3 


2 


2 




'01— 'aiBog— ssaui 
-pno|3 JO janoniB sSBjaAy 


=. 


o 


o 


q 


5 




§ 


q 


=. 


S 


^. 




q 


i 


•s:Ci!(i .tpnoij) JO J8qranj)j 


^ 

'^ 


g 


s 


to 


s 


1 


i 


S 


s 


i 


5 


2 


S 


•9 

.J 


■BKva JIBJ JO laqtnn^ 


s 


s 


s 


2 


1 


s 




^ 


s 


1 


S 


2 


3 


5f 


•s^BQ J8813 JO jaqran^ 


^ 


& 


& 


« 


S6 


g 


s 


S 


s 


§ 


§ 


^ 


g 


C 


•PU!M JO nop 
-oajid 3uiiiBA9j,x IBnuay 


^; 


EC 


I2i 


^ 


^ 






oc 


^ 


i 


S 


CO 


M 


3 


■S98J3 

-9C[— JBdii 9q} Saunp 
9jn^BJ9dai9x mniiiinTj^ 




7 


1 


T 


1 


q 
T 


q 


=2 


=5 


o 
1 


o 
o 

1 


2 


o 

f 


^ 


•S99ja 

-9(1— JBa.C aqj Suunp 
9iti}Bi9(Iin9x ranraixBi\^ 


i 


1 




o 


<=5 


<=■ 
S 






s 


<= 

2 


=. 

s 


<= 
g 


<» 

^ 


§ 


9.\pBj9y; UBajt iBnauy 


in 


1 


i 


2 


S 


3 




i 


s 


5 


F^ 




q 




I -899^390;— 9jn; 
-Biaduiax aB9iv iBnauy 


s 


1 


o 


1 






s 


1 






1 


2 


§ 




1 •S9qoui— 
1 J9i9raoJBa nB9j^ iBnaay 


i 


s 

TO 


i 


1 


i 


i 


i 


^ 


i 


S 


^ 


§ 


^ 




YEAR. 


1 


*i 


1 


i 


1 


1 


, 


i 


§ 


1 


g 


, 


: 


( 



ANNUAL REPORT, 1884, 



We confess to a spirit of pride and enthusiasm in the compi- 
lation of this report, as it demonstrates the steady improve- 
ment and development of our State, and we are more than ever 
convinced that Indiana is the most favored locality for human 
existence, all things considered, on " God's green earth." We 
have all the requisites for prosperity, with the aid of knowledge 
and industry, and in former reports we have shown that it is a 
healthy locality. No other section of country has ever had a 
gathering of fifteen hundred pioneers whose ages ranged from 
70 to 100 years, none having resided in the State less than 40 
years. What better evidence of a healthful climate could be 
presented, or what other State can equal such a showing? 

The geographical position is remarkably favorable, lying as 
it does, in the track of the great thoroughfares from the east to 
the great west, bounded by the great lakes on the north, and 
the Ohio river on the south, it must continue to be on the main 
highway between the seas. It is in the heart of the wheat 
growing region, with the highest record for production, and in 
the center of the corn belt of the United States, and also the 
geographical center of population. 

The timber of the State is remarkable for the quantity and 
quality, the heavy growth of which has somewhat retarded the 
development of its productions compared with prairie land. 

The coal is of superior quality and practically inexhaustible 
in quantity. The stone of fifty square miles in extent is pro- 
nounced unequaled for building purposes, and is now used for 
public buildings in the principal cities of the United States. 

We have given a thorough description of the State as to the 
various resources in the Agricultural Report for 1882, and a 
general description by counties in the annual report for 1883, 
hence will avoid a repetition at this time. 

It will be observed that this report for 1884, extends into 
the following year, as usual, for the reason that all the official 
reports of the Board are presented at the annual meeting of 



14 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

the Delegate Board, which is set by statute law to convene the 
first Tuesday after the first Monday in January of each year; 
hence the business of the 'Board is contained in such reports, 
and could not consistently be compiled for publication until 
they have been properly and officially accepted, which in & 
manner, accounts for the delay in the published reports. 

The time for the Annual Agricultural Convention should be 
changed to l!Tovember of each year. It was fixed thirty-three 
years ago, before the days of railroads, when horseback was 
the principal mode of reaching the capital in the winter, and 
it was then arranged for one trip to answer the Agricultural 
Convention and attend the meeting of the Legislature. 

We call attention to the weather tables in this report, which 
we have kept up for twelve years in succession. They are 
useful for reference, as nowhere else can such tables be found 
in a condensed published form. Perhaps the most remarkable 
feature in this connection at this date of writing (February, '85) 
is the unusual and impressive fact of three severe arctic winters 
in succession. The present one will be remembered as the most 
severe on record; sixteen times below zero. ISuch a succession 
of cold winters has puzzled scientists to account for. The 
winter of 1881 and 1882, which preceded the cold winters re- 
ferred to, was one of the mildest ever known, as the grass and 
wheat continued to grow all winter, and the following season 
produced the extraordinary wheat crop of 47,000,000 bushels in 
Indiana. 

•The proceedings of the annual meeting of the Delegate Con- 
vention, with the valuable essay matter, will be found of unu- 
sual interest. The reports from the agricultural societies of the 
State are of special local interest, and show marked improve- 
ment. 

The proceedings of the State Industrial Associations contin- 
ues to be one of the important features of this report. Thej 
are growing in favor, and more appreciated as the real objecti 
become known. These associations have been fostered and 
encouraged as branches of the Board of Agriculture, until th« 
meetings have outgrown the accommodations of the Board, and 



ANNUAL REPORT. 15 

in one case a larger hall had to be secured for the meeting. 
This will be obviated in the new State House, where commodi- 
ous and comfortable quarters are provided, and are expected to 
be ready for occupancy in two years. The last meeting of these 
associations was held in joint convention, so as to not conflict and 
follow immediately after each other, thus getting the full benefits 
of the agricultural rooms and accommodations, and securing 
railroad tavors that could not be done otherwise ; also, giving 
members interested an opportunity to attend more than one 
meeting without additional expense. For instance, the Short- 
horn Cattle Breeders met on Tuesday forenoon, held sessions 
afternoon, evening and next day forenoon; then the Jersey 
Cattle men took possession, held sessions afternoon, evening 
and next day forenoon, and then the Wool Growers took pos- 
session. These arrangements continued the following week 
with other State associations, and proved to be so very satisfac- 
tory that it is agreed on for the next annual meetings. The 
wisdom of holding separate sessions for each stock interest has 
been demonstrated by the thorough investigations of important 
questions that arise, and the dissemination thereby of useful 
knowledge through the printed Agricultural Reports, which 
could not be so thoroughly accomplished in a meeting of varied 
interests, or in too limited a time to bring out discussion. 

We take pleasure in producing for a frontispiece of this book 
a portrait steel engraving of Dr. Stevenson, the pioneer in 
importing improved cattle in the State, one of the original 
incorporation of the Board of Agriculture ; President of the 
Board for three years, at an early day; always foremost in agri- 
cultural matters; a liberal contributor as essayist; and a repre- 
sentative "Hoosier" at home and abroad. His biography will 
be found at the close of this report, and good reading for young 
people as well as the elderly. 

The Board of Agriculture are much encouraged with the re- 
sult of the last State Fair. It was a success in every particular, 
and professional exhibitors pronounced it second to none any- 
where as an Agricultural exhibition; the full details of which 
are given in the officers reports beginning on page 47. 



16 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



THE BUREAU OF STATISTICS. 

In the sixth annual report from that department ( a volume 
of 513 pages) the system of collating Statistics in an elaborate — 
but condensed form, have been so perfected, that we deem a 
repetition of the figures in this volume as unTiecessary, except in 
a general way to show the estimated gross value of the Agricultural 
products of Indiana for 1884, based upon the statements therein, 
being a synopsis of the principal cereal crops, and the leading 
products of the soil, as may be properly represented under the 
name of "Agricultural Industries." 



Products. 

Wheat 

Corn 

Oats 

Barley 

Rye 

Buckwheat 

Clover hay 

Clover seed 

Timothy hay 

Timothy seed 

Irish Potatoes 

Sweet Potatoes.... 

Flax seed 

Flax straw 

Tobacco 



Acres. 

2,990,811 

3,137,840 

791,343 

11,907 

32,373 

5,382 

908,238 



1,247,099 



87.448 

2,509 

28,166 



2a,592 



Busheh. 

40,531,200 
89,159,719 
23,581,108 
259,106 
. 434,266 
62,251 
1,501,860 tons. \ 
246,042 bush, j 
1,946,342 tons. " 

35,452bu8h. 

5,969,461 bush. 

142,429 bush. 

185,277bush. 

22,575 tons. 

15,592,400 lbs. 



Estimated Value. 

$32,424,960 

35,663,919 

6,601,312 

142,508 

233,346 



9,995,328 

15,616,788 

1,904,781 

3+5;.S65 
1,559,240 



Garden products 4,775,350 

Orchard products (including cider, wine, vinegar) 3,500,000 

Dairy products 11,050,890 

Poultry, eggs and feathers 5,224,943 

Honey and sorghum and maple sugar and molasses 859,081 

Wool, pounds, 4,773,708 995,039 

FARM ANIMALS. 

Horses (increase over 1883) 12,017,440 

Mules (increase over 1883) 200,460 

Cattle (increase over 1883) 2,203,080 

Sheep and lambs (increase over 1883) 34,053 

Hogs 19,679,110 

Total agricultural products ••• - $155,085,663 

Prod ucts of coal mines and quarries 2,500,000 

Manufactured products 163,851,872 

Total value of Indiana products $321,437,535 

Secretary. 



STATE BOARD MEETINGS, 1884. 



ORGANIZATION OF NEW BOARD. 



Agricultural Rooms, ] 

January 10, 1884. / 

On motion of Mr. Jones, the Board was called to order, and 
Mr. Seward appointed chairman. 

On call of the roll all the memberis answered as follows : 
Messrs. Mitchell, Hargrove, Sieg, Seward, Sunman, Jones, 
Cotteral, Dungan, La Tourette, Davidson, Graham, Stuart, 
Ratlift", Custer, Banks and Lockhart. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, the Board took a tive minutes re- 
cess. 

Being called to order by Chairman Seward, on motion of 
Mr. Sunman, the Board then proceeded to the election of offi- 
cers for the ensuing year, which resulted as follows : 

President Robert Mitchell, of Gibson county. 

Vice President Jasper N. Davidson, of Montgomery county. 

Secretary Alex. Heron, of Marion county. 

Treasurer Sylvester Johnson, of Marion county. 

General Superintendent . . . Fielding Beeler, of Marion county. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Dick Jones, of Bartholomew county. 
W. B. Seward, of Monroe county. 
John M. Graham, of Delaware county. 
W. W. Cotteral, of Henry county. 

NoTK— The condensed proceedings of the Board of Agriculture, as herewith presented, 
includes only such matter as may be useful for reference or of general interest. 
2 — AQEICULTUKE. 



18 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, a vote of thanks was tendered to 
tlie ladies for their attendance on the meetings of the Board. 

On motion of Mr. Hargrove, the time of holding the next 
fair was fixed at September 29 to October 4, 1 884. 

Mr. Graham moved that the next meeting of the Board be 
held on the 12th of February next, and that all unfinished bu- 
siness of this meeting be referred to that meeting. Carried. 

On motion of Mr. Stuart, President Mitchell was constituted 
a committee of one to canvass the business houses and hotels 
of the city to ascertain how much they will contribute to the 
contemplated fat cattle show next fall, and report at the Feb- 
ruary meeting. 

On motion of Mr. Custer, it was determined that this Board 
will remain in the Michigan, Ohio and Indiana Agricultural 
and Mechanical Fair Circuit. 

Mr. Seward moved that the proposed contract with the Water 
Works Company be taken up. 

Mr. Lockhart moved to amend by postponing consideration 
of the matter until the February meeting, which was agreed to. 

On motion of Mr. Lockhart, the salaries of members and of- 
ficers were fixed the same as for the preceding year, 1883. 

The Board then adjourned until February r2th. 



MARCH MEETING OF THE BOARD. 



FIRST DAY. 



MORNING SESSION. 

Tuesday, March 4, 1884, 10 a. m. 
Board met, with President Mitchell in the chair. The follow- 
ing members responded to roll call : Messrs. Mitchell, Hargrove, 
Sieg, Sunman, Jones, Cotteral, LaTourette, Davidson, Graham, 
Ratliff, Custer, Banks and Lockhart. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



19 



The minutes ot the last meeting were read, corrected and 
approved. 

The President announced the Superintendents of Depart- 
partments as tollows : 



DEPARTMENT SUPERINTENDENTS. 



Horse Department— Jasper N. Davidson. 

Speed Ring Department — Dick Jones. 

Cattle Department— C. B. Stuart. 

Hog Department — W. A. Banks. 

Sheep Department— T. W. W. Suuman, 

Poultry Department — J. M. Graham. 

Farm and Garden Products Department 
— H. LaTourette 

Horticultural Department — L. B. Cus- 
ter. 

Mechanical Department — Hargrove and 
Cotteral. 



Geology and Natural History — Professor 

John Collett. 
Exhibits on Lower Floor — John Ratliff. 
Exhibits on Upper Floor — 8. W. Dun- 

gan. 
Ladies' Department, Upper P'loor — 

Womans State Fair Association. 
Steam Engines — W. B. Seward, 
Amphitheater — J. Q. A. Sieg. 
Space in Exposition Building — S. W. 

Dungan. 
Gates— R. M. Lockhart. 



COMMITTEES: 

Committee on Reception — Messrs. Mitchell, Lockhart, Dungan and Stuart. 
Committee on Pedigrees — Messrs. Banks, Sunman, Stuart and Jones. 

On motion of Mr. Ratliff, the change of the time of this meet- 
ing, as ordered by the President for certain reasons, from Feb- 
ruary 12th to March 4th, is hereby approved. 

President Mitchell, as Committee on Fat Stock Show, an- 
nounced that he had been soliciting subscriptions for a fat stock 
show, which it is proposed to hold next November. He stated 
that his. efforts in this work had been attended with decided 
success. On motion, the matter was referred to a committee, 
Messrs. Mitchell, Stuart, Sunman and Lockhart, to report to- 
morrow morning. A number of letters were then read from 
various individuals throughout the State, endorsing such a 
move, and offering to give it their hearty support. 

The subject of the contract with the Indianapolis Water 
Works Company, referred at the January meeting, then came 
up, and considerable discussion ensued. On motion of Mr. 
Seward, the Secretary was instructed to contract with the com- 
pany to extend their mains to the Exposition Building. 



20 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

On motion, the President was instructed to appoint a Com- 
mittee on Resolutions, in regard to the death of D. P. Hollo- 
way, an ex-President of the Board, and framer of the law cre- 
ating the Board. Messrs. Seward, Lockbart and Nelson were 
so appointed, and requested to report to-morrow morning. 

On motion of Mr, Lockhart, the President was instructed to 
appoint a member of the Board as "Water Superintendent, to 
be in control of the water during the week of the State Fair. 
The President named Mr. Lockhart to serve in this capacity, 
the General Superintendent to take charge at all other times. 

On motion of Mr. Sunman, Mr. Heron was appointed to rep- 
resent the Board at the Fair Circuit meeting at Toledo, O., 
March 12. This was followed by a general discussion when, on 
motion of Mr. Sunman, the Board adjourned until 2 o'clock 
p. M. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

A communication was received from T. W. W. Sunman, rel- 
ative to premiums on Red Polled cattle, which, on motion, was 
referred to the Committee on Premium List. 

On motion of Mr. Dungan, the General Superintendent was 
authorized to renew the lease on the building owned by the 
Moline Plow Company, and accept propositionsfor other build- 
ings for exhibition purposes. 

On motion of Mr. Lockhart, it was resolved that the General 
Superintendent provide an office for the Superintendent of the 
Mechanical Department in the immediate vicinity of the ma- 
chinery. 

On motion of Mr. Lockhart, various communications, relative 
to specialties for the next State Fair,- were referred to the 
Executive Committee and Secretary. 

Mr. Seward introduced the following, which was adopted: 

Whereas, Various propositions have been made, from time to time, for the 
purchase or exchange of bur Fair Grounds for other locations ; and, 

Whebeas, After due consideration of the propositions that have been made, 
we are of the unamimous opinion that we have nothing to gain, and much to lose, 
by moving to any other grounds ; therefore, 



PROCEEDINGS. 21 

Resolved, That we believe it to be to the best interest of this Board to continue to 
hold our fair at its present location, and that we, at this time, have no intention to 
seek a new location. 

On motion of Mr. Sutiman, the President named the follow- 
ing to serve on the committee appointed to consider the prob- 
able cost and advisability of holding a fat stock show dur- 
ing the coming fall : Messrs. Sunman, Stuart and Lockhart, 
and, by general request, Mr. Mitchell was added to the com- 
mittee. 

The Secretary was instructed to insure the stalls at the Fair 
Grounds at not more than one and a half per cent, premium. 

On motion of Mr. Lockhart, the General Superintendent was 
instructed to remove the old Power Hall Building from the 
Fair Grounds. 

On motion of Mr. Ratlilf, all further repairs in the stalls and 
buildings will be made under the direction of the Executive 
Committee and General Superintendent. 

On motion of Mr, Lockhart, the matter of renting the Fair 
Ground for trotting purposes, was referred to a committee con- 
sisting of the President, Secretary and General Superintend- 
ent. 

On motion of Mr. Lockhart, the Board resolved itself into 
Committee of the Whole on revision of the Premium List, with 
Mr. Davidson in the chair. 

At 6 o'clock p. M., the Committee rose. President Mitchell 
took the chair. The Committee, by Mr. Davidson, reported 
progress, and asked leave to set again. 

On motion, adjourned to meet at 9 o'clock to-morrow morn- 
ing. 



22 BOARD OF AGRICULTURH. 



SECOND DAY. 



morning session. 

Wednesday, March 5, 1884. 

Board met at 9 o'clock pursuant to adjournment, President 
Mitchell in the chair and all the members present. Minutes of 
yesterday's proceedings read, corrected and approved, 

Mr. Lockhart, of the Committee on Water Supply, made 
verbal report, and moved to reconsider the action of the Board 
on yesterday, which was agreed to. He then moved that a 
committee of three be appointed by the President to ascertain 
the conditions and probable cost of water supply by the Water 
Works Company, which was carried, and Messrs, Dungan, 
Seward and Beeler appointed the committee. 

Mr. Stuart, from tfae committee appointed to consider the 
probable receipts and expenditures of the contemplated fat 
stock show, reported as follows : 

Your committee to consider the probable receipts and expenditures connected 
with the holding of a fat stock ehow in this city next winter, respectfully report 
that upon investigation they find the probable expenses will amount to $4,000, 
This will include all expenses for premiums and incidental expenses of running the 
show five days. 

We also find that the subscriptions amount to $1,500. We estimate the receipts 
at $500 to $600, or a total of $2,000 in sight. If now the members of the Board 
will each raise $100 in their respective districts, that will add to the receipts $1,600. 
It will then be necessary to raise an additional sum of $500 by subscriptions. 

Your committee, therefor, would reccommend the holding of the fat stock show 
at the Union Stock Yards, Indianapolis, provided the members^of this Board will 
agree to raise the sum of $100 each in their respective districts; and provided 
further, that Indianapolis shall increase its subscriptions to $2,000, If this can 
not be done, then we would report against the advisability of holding the show this 
year. 

C. B. STUAET, 

For the Committee. 

And asked to be discharged from turther consideration of the 
matter. 



PROCEEDINGS. 23 

On motion of Mr. Davidson, the report was received, and 
the committee discharged. 

On motion of Mr. Sunman, members expressed their views 
as to the probability of raising the sum recommended by the 
committee, in their respective districts. 

A free interchange of opinions followed, after which Mr. 
Sunman moved that members canvass their districts with a 
view to the probability of securing the necessary funds and 
report at some future day, and that if successful the fat stock 
show should be held, and if unsuccessful that it should be 
abandoned. The motion was not carried. 

On motion of Mr. Lockhart, a committee of three was ap- 
pointed to make final report on the matter of fat stock show 
and the advisability of offering premiums on fat stock to be 
shown at the fair. 

The committee appointed is Messrs. Lockhart, Stuart and 
Sunman. 

Mr. Sunman moved that there be an expert judge in each of 
the classes of cattle, sheep and hogs. 

Mr. Stuart moved to amend by making the several experts 
judges in the sweepstakes class of each department, pending 
which considerable discussion was had, and Mr. Stuart's motion 
was withdrawn and the motion of Mr. Sunman was not carried. 

Mr. Stuart then moved that one expert judge for each of the 
classes of live stock (except horses) be appointed, who shall act 
as judges in all the classes including sweepstakes. 

Mr. Jones moved to amend by appointing the Committees on 
awards and making their duties the same as last year, which, 
after some discussion, was withdrawn. 

Mr. Stuart, in support of his motion, then read a letter from 
Mr. Burleigh on the appointment of judges, and also extracts 
from the Breeders' Gazette. 

A lengthy discussion followed, which was participated in by 
nearly all of the members, and the motion was carried. 

Mr. Stuart moved that no animal that has not taken first 
prize in its class will be allowed to compete for the sweepstakes 
prize, which, after much discussion, was not carried. 



24 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

On motion of Mr. Sunman, the Board adjourned to meet at 
2 o'clock p. M. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

Board met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
present. 

Mr. Sunman moved a reconsideration of the vote in the 
matter of the appointment and duties of judges on awards, 
which was ruled out of order. 

Mr. Dungan oifered the following : 

The sweepstakes ring in the Cattle Department on beef breeds shall be judged 
by a practical buyer, a feeder, and a butcher ; two of these to act, and in case they 
can not agree, the deciding vote to be cast by the third judge. These judges shall 
be selected by the Superintendent, who shall arrange to have them present. These 
judges shall not be breeders or owners of thoroughbreds of either of the competing 
breeds in which they are called to judge. 

The matter was discussed by Messrs. .Tones, Dungan, Stuart, 
and others. 

Mr. Lockhart moved the previous question, and the resohi- 
tion was adopted. 

Mr. Lockhart oifered the following, which was adopted: 

Eesolced, That the General Superintendent shall, iu all. cases when the State 
Fair Grounds are rented to any person or jiersons, for any purpose whatever, in- 
corporate in such lease the provision that no liquors of any kind shall be sold by 
them on said grounds while in their possession, and a violation of said provision 
shall be a forfeiture of any and all rights Ihey may have had for the use of said 
grounds. 

Mr. Hargrove offered the following, which was ado]3ted : 

Reaolved, That this State Board extend to the Executive Committee of the Ohio, 
Michigan and Indiana Agricultural and Mechanical Fair Circuit, an invitation to 
hold the next annual meeting of said committee in the city of Indianapolis, in the 
months of December on .January next. 

On motion of Mr. Ratliif, the Board resolved itself into com- 
mittee of the whole, to consider revision of the premium list. 
The President called Mr. Hatliff to the chair. 



PROCEEDINGS. 25 

The President and {Secretary of the Woman's Fair Associa- 
tion being present, and desiring to present certain matters of 
interest in their department, on motion of Mr. Lockhart, the 
committee rose, reported progress and asked leave to sit again, 
which was granted. 

Mrs. Noe, President, and Mrs. Adkinson, Secretary of the 
Woman's Fair Association, then presented the following: 

Gentlemen of the State Board of Agriculture : 

The Executive Board of the Woman's State Fair Association beg leave to sub- 
mit the following: 

At the fair of 1883, a number of articles were exhibited for which no pre- 
miums were offered in the list, and of these articles we would recommend the fol- 
lowing as specially deserving the award of the sums mentioned : 

Painted hi.aque.— First, Mrs. Rowland $2 00 

Second, Miss Alice Eoss 1 00 

DOLI, BODY— Miss Belie Worland $1 00 

In view of the increased interest taken in Art, we suggest' that a larger amount 
of premiums for fine and decorative art would bring out an exhibit that would 
greatly add to the attractions of the fair, and respectfully request the appropri- 
ation of an additional $100.00 in the Woman's Department for that purpose, in- 
creasing the whole amount of premium money offered in that department from 
$800.00 to $900.00. 

MRS. A. M. XOE, President, 

Florence M. Adkin.son, Secrefari/. 

Both of which, on motion of Mr. Lockhart, Avere approved 
and the appropriations made. 

On motiou of Mr. Lockhart, the Board again resolved itself 
into committee of the whole, to consider revision of the pre- 
mium list — Mr. Lockhart in the chair. 

At 5:30 o'clock the committee again rose, reported progress 
and asked leave to sit again. 

President Mitchell resumed the chair. Mr. Lockhart, at his 
request, was excused from further attendance on this meeting. 

Mr. Seward, from the Committee on Water Supply, submitted 



26 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

the following report, and moved that the secretary be author- 
ized to make contract with the Water Works Company in ac- 
cordance therewith. Carried. 

Your committee appointed to inquire into the matter of water supply for the 
Fair Grounds, have made inquiry of the Indianapolis Water Works Company as 
to quantity and cost of same, and find that 1,000,000 gallons will be furnished at a 
cost of $200 per annum. All that is used in excess of this amount will be charged 
for at the rate of 10 cents per 1,000 gallons — less than half a cent per barrel. The 
supply would be equal to 3,000 gallons per day. 

W. B. Seward, for Committee. 

On motion of Mr. Stuart, the superintendents of gate and 
amphitheater were authorized to select and employ gate 
keepers. 

On motion of Mr. Banks, the superintendent of speed wai 
authorized to employ Mr. David Webb, of Covington, as an 
expert judge on speed. 

On motion of Mr. Hargrove, adjourned to 9 o'clock to-mor- 
row morning. 



THIRD DAY. 



morning session. 

Thursday, March 6, 1884. 
Board met pursuant to adjournment. President Mitchell in 
the chair. All the members present. Proceedings of yester- 
day's meeting read, corrected and approved. 

President Mitchell made assignment of committeemen, to be 
furnished by members of the Board, as follows: 

O71 Horses. — Messrs. Mitchell, Hargrove, Jones, Dungan, LaTourette and 
Davidson, one each. 

On Cattle. — Messrs. Mitchell, Dungan and Stuart, one each. 

On Sheep. — Messrs. Sunman, Cotterall, LaTourette, Graham, Ratliff and Banks, 
one each. 



PROCEEDrNGS. 27 

On Hogg. — Meesre. Hargrove, Sunman, Jones, Davidson, Graham and Custer, 
one each. 

On Agricultural Prodtids. — MeRsrs. Graham, Cotteral, Dungan, Ratliff and Cas- 
ter, one each. 

On Machinery and Implements. — Mesfirs. Seward, Jones and Banks, one each. 

Amphitheater.— 3 no. Q. A, Sieg, three men. 

Gate Keepers. — R. M. Lockhart, eight men. 

Mr. Stuart, from the committee appointed to make final re- 
port concerning the proposed fat stock showj and to arrange 
list for premiums on fat stock to be exhibited at the fair of 
1884, made the following report, which was accepted and con- 
curred in: 

Gentlemen — Upon a second and more careful review of the proposition to hold a 
fat stock show this year, your committee finds that there exists throughout the 
State a very strong feeling that such a show should be held. But, owing to the 
depressed condition of the business interests of the State, caused in part by the 
failure of crops last year, and by the recent floods; and, al^o, because of this being 
the year for holding a presidential election, we do not think the Board would be 
justified in attempting to hold the fat stock show. We recognize and appreciate 
the very cordial and substantial support given this Board by the citizens of In- 
dianapolis in their efibrts to raise the fund and provide buildings for the holding 
of the show, and it enables us to say that we can see no possible obstacle in the 
way of holding a fat stock show in 1885. 

R. M. Lockhart, 
T. W. W. Sunman, 
C. B. Stuart, 

Committee. 

The list of fat stock premiums submitted was, after some 
discussion, rejected. 

Mr. Stuart moved that judges on awards be paid $5 per day, 
and expenses allowed, for their services. 

Mr. Custer moved to amend by making the pay $5 per day 
and railroad fare, which was not adopted. 

Mr. Sunman moved to amend by adding hotel fare, to which 
there was no second. 

Mr. Dungan moved to amend by fixing the pay at $3; not 
carried. 

Mr. Stuart moved to amend by fixing the pay at $5, which 
was carried. 



28 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Oil motion of Mr. Banks, the Secretary was directed to fur- 
nish the Department Superintendent with the names of mem- 
bers who are to furnish judg'es in their respective departments. 

On motion of Mr. Stuart, the Board resolved itself into com- 
mittee of the whole to consider the premium list. 

At 12 o'clock M. the committee rose, and President Mitchell 
resumed the chair. Mr. Stuart, of the committee, reported 
progress, and asked leave to sit again, which was granted, and 
the Board adjoarned until 2 o'clock p. m. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

Board met pursuant to adjournment. President Mitchell, in 
the chair. All the members present except Mr. Lockhart. 
Mr. Davidson offered the following : 

Resolved, That the Superintendent's of the Horse, Sheep and Hog Departments 
shall have the power to appoint judges of Sweeptakes and herds in the same manner 
as in the Cattle Department, the President to approve the appointment so made. 

Adopted. 

On motion of Mr. Davidson,' Mr. Mitchell was allowed the 
usual per diem for eight days services in canvassing and solicit- 
ing subscriptions for the proposed Fat Stock Exhibition. 

On motion of Mr. Seward, the Board again resolved itself into 
Committee of the Whole on revision of the premium list, and 
Mr. Seward was called to the chair. 

The committee rose, President Mitchell resumed the chair, 
and called the Board to order. 

Mr. Seward, chairman of the conjmittee of the whole, re- 
ported that the committee had finished its work, and moved 
the adoption of the premium list as revised, which was carried, 
and ordered published. 

President Mitchell introduced Dr. G. B. Northrop, of Clin- 
ton, Conn., who made a short address, showing the importance 
and value of " Arbor Day," and requested that the Board take 
some action in relation to the same. 

Mr. Stuart oft'ered the following, which was adopted : 



PROCEEDINGS. 29 

Resolved, That this Board approve and commend the plan of Arbor Day, as ap- 
pointed by the State Horticultural Society and the State Teachers' Association, and 
advise the farmers of the >State to devote the 11 th day of April, next to both orna- 
mental and economic tree planting. 

On motion of Mr. Stuart, the thanks of the Board were ten- 
dered to Mr. Northrop for his interesting address. 

By their request leave of absence was granted to Messrs. 
Hargrove and Banks. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, all uutinished business was referred 
to the Executive Committee. 

Mr. Sunman moved, that in case any member can not provide 
committeemen as assigned, the superintendent of department 
in which said committeeman was selected to serve, be author- 
ized to appoint such committeeman. Carried. 

The President appointed the following Standing Committees : 

Finance. — The Executive Committee. 
Rules and Regulations. — Dungan and Lockhart. 
Fair Grounds. — Hargrove and Davidson. 
Dnfiaishe^ Business. — Sieg and Ratliff. 
Premium List. — Banks, Stuart and Sunman. 
Credentials. — LaTourtte and Custer. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, Assistant Superintendents of the 
Horse and Cattle Departments are to furnish their own horses, 
and be paid five dollars per day for their services, and Assistant 
Superintendents in other all departments to be paid three dollars 
per day for their services. 

On motion of Mr. Ratliif, the pay to outside gate keepers was 
fixed at three dollars per day, and the pay of gate keepers at 
the amphitheater at two dollars per day. 

On motion of Mr. Cotteral, the General Superintendent was 
instructed to provide and furnish a suitable office room for the 
use of the President during the fair. 

On motion of Mr. Dungan, the Board adjourned to meet at 
the Fair Grounds at 10 o'clock a. m., Monday. September 29, 
1884. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETINGS. 



APRIL SESSION. 



Agricultural Rooms, April 16, 1884. 

Agreeably to call of the President, the Executive Committee 
of the Board of Agriculture met at 10 o'clock a. m. Present, 
Messrs. Mitchell, Jones, Seward, Graham, and Cotteral. On 
motion of Mr. Jones, the owners of Holderness cattle were 
invited to attend the State Fair ; and that quarters be provided 
for them free of charge, in the absence of any premium on that 
class. 

On motion of Mr. Graham, Rule 3, regulating supply wagon& 
of lessees was adopted. 

Mr. Jones presented the following list of premiums on speed, 
which, on motion of Mr. Graham, was adopted, the aggregate 
being the sum appropriated by the Board, and referred to the 
Executive Committee for distribution ; 

Tuesday, Sept. 30, 3 years' old trot, 3 premiums $150 

Tuesday, Sept. 30, 2:37 pace, 3 premiums 150 

Wednesday, Oct. 1, 2:37 trot, 3 premiums 200 

Wednesday, Oct. 1, 3 minute trot, 3 premiums 200 

Thursday, Oct. 2, running race, 3 premiums 150 

Thursday, Oct. 2, free-for-all pace, 3 premiums 300 

Thursday, Oct. 2, 2:30 trot, 3 premiums 250 

Friday, Oct. 3, stallion trot, 3 premiums 150 

Friday, Oct. 3, free-for-all trot, 3 premiums 400 

Friday, Oct. 3, consolation purse for runners 60 

On motion of Mr. Seward, it was ordered that the school 
children of the State be admitted to the State Fair tree, on 
Thursday of fair week, on tickets issued for that purpose. 



PROCEEDINGS. 81 

A committee of citizens representing mechanical and ma- 
chinery interests was present by special invitation, and presented 
matters in connection therewith, which were freely discussed" 
by Mr, Haywood, of the McCormick Harvester Company, and 
others. The result of the conference was a determination on 
the part of exhibiters in this department to co-operate with the 
Board in making the fair a success. 

The committee adjourned to the Fair Ground to investigate 
as to needed improvements, and ordered that the General Super- 
intendent be authorized to make all necessary repairs of the 
floor in main building, and prepare headquarters for the Super- 
intendents of the Mechanical Department. 



AUGUST SESSION. 



Agricultural Rooms, August 12, 1884. 

Tne Executive Committee met, agreeably with the call of the 
President, at 10 o'clock a. m. 

Present, Messrs. Mitchell, Seward and Cotteral; also, Gen- 
eral Superintendent Beeler and S. W. Dungan, of the Board, 
by invitation. 

Minutes of the April meeting ot the Executive Committee 
were read and approved. 

Ordered, That the General Superintendent endeavor to ar- 
range with the Wabash Railway to locate a station east of the 
Fair Grounds for the loading and unloading of exhibition 
stock and machinery. 

On motion of Mr. Seward, two additional sections of cattle 
stalls were ordered to be erected. 

Ordered, That 200 feet of 1| inch hose be purchased by the 
General Superintendent and Mr. Seward for use in the Exposi- 
tion Building. 



82 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Ordered, That Mr. Seward and Superintendent Beeler be au- 
thorized to make inventory and estimate values of the boilers, 
pumps, shafting and pullejs not needed, and dispose of the 
same to best advantage. 

Ordered, That Superintendent Beeler be authorized to erect 
a suitable building for use of the express companies and Super- 
intendents of the Mechanical Department, east of the main Ex- 
position Hall. 

Ordered, That the General Superintendent have the horse and 
cattle stalls, and sheep and hog buildings, coated with hydraulic 
lime wash. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

On motion of Mr. Seward, it was ordered that Prof. S. A. 
King be engaged to make balloon ascensions at the State Fair. 

Ordered, That contracts be entered into with the When Cloth- 
ing Store to advertise the State Fair in manner and extent same 
as in 1883. 

The General Superintendent was authorized to contract with 
the firemen for use of the Fair Grounds on July 4, 1885. 

Ordered, That the Secretary advertise for bids to furnish 
music, and for the sale of privileges at the fair. 

Ordered, That only such shows as have immoral and other 
objectional features be excluded from the Fair Grounds. 



SEPTEMBER SESSION. 



September 22, 1884. 

The Executive Committee met on call of President Mitchell 
at 10 o'clock A. M. 

Present, Messrs. Mitchell, Graham, Jones, Cotteral and Sew- 
ard ; also Messrs. Dungan and Superintendent Beeler. 

Minutes of the meeting of August 12th read and approved. 



PROCEEDINGS. 33 

A committee of citizens requested that the Board extend an 
invitation to Hon. B. F. Butler to be present at the State Fair- 
After some interchange of thought on the subject, Mr. Sew- 
ard moved that the President appoint two of the committee to 
act with- himself as a committee of invitation, and to endeavor 
to secure the attendance of all the present presidential candi- 
dates at the State Fair. Which was adopted, and Messrs. Sew- 
ard and Graham appointed. 

At the solicitation of Mr. W. B. Holtou, of the David Brad- 
ley Manufacturing Company, who wished to send out a large 
number of fair tickets to the friends and customers of the firm, 
a commutation rate was made as follows : 100 and under 200, 
10 per cent.; 200 and under 300, 15 per cent. ; 300 and under 
400, 20 per cent. ; 400 and under 500, 25 per cent. ; 500 and 
over, 50 per cent, off regular rates. 

Ordered, That all musical bands in uniform be admitted to 
the fair free of charge. 

On motion, a premium was authorized on match teams in 
light harness horses. Book 5, as follows : 

Best pair matched horses $20 00 

Second -' " 10 00 

The same having been omitted by inadvertence from the printed 
list. 

The Indianapolis Light Infantry Company offered proposal 
to have an exhibition drill one day of the fair, provided the 
Board of Agriculture will contribute |150 as premium for the 
same. 

The Board declined the proposal, but on motion of Mr. Gra- 
ham, offered a premium of $7^ for the best drilled and uni- 
formed military company for Wednesday of the fair. 

On motion of Mr. Lockhart, the Superintendent of Gates 
was authorized to pass all pioneers over 75 years of age on 
Wednesday. 

Mr. Graham presented the following : 

Whereas, The Illinois and St. Louis Boards of Agriculture- 
3 — Agriculture. 



34 BOARD OP AaRICULTURE. 

have, on accoufit of the disease known as pleuro-pneumonia 
prevailing among cattle, and especially the Jersey breed, pro- 
hibited the exhibition of this breed at their fairs ; and, 

Whereas, Believing it to be our duty to exercise all prac- 
ticable precaution to prevent the spread of said disease, but at 
the same time to encourage the exhibition of all breeds of cat- 
tle ; therefore. 

Resolved, That all cattle will be allowed to compete at the 
Indiana State Fair as usual, but that before entering the 
grounds, they must be subjected to inspection by two veterinary 
surgeons, who shall judge that they are free from disease, and 
safe in this respect to be admitted among other cattle ; and that 
a veterinary surgeon will be provided by the Board for this pur- 
pose, who shall have his office at or near the cattle entrance 
gate for this purpose. 

Which was adopted. 



expositio:n^ grounds. 



FIRST DAY. 



September 29, 1884. 

Board met at 10 o'clock a. m.. President Mitchell in the 
chair. Members present were : Messrs. Hargrove, Secretary 
Seward, Sunman, Graham, Custer, Banks and Lockhart. 

Mr. Banks called attention to the contradiction in herd pre- 
miums on hogs, in books 30 and 31, and the rule at the head 
specifying of what they shall -consist. 

Mr. Sunman moved that the premiums as offered be adhered 
to. 

Mr. Sieg moved to amend by offering a premium for 
herd of hogs, as specified in the rule, of |30 for first and $20 
for second premium. 



PROCEEDINGS. 85 

Mr. Hargrove moved to amend by making the premiums $20 
and $10, which was adopted for both books. 

On motion of Mr. Seward, it was ordered that all who claim 
to be exhibitors be passed through the gates this a. m., and that 
ticket offices be opened at 12 m. 

The Board then took a recess until 2 o'clock p. m. 



September 29, 2 p. m. 

Board met pursuant to adjournment, President Mitchell in 
the chair. All the members present. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, it was decided to supply passes to 
the Department Superintendents, who shall use their discretion 
in issuing them to exhibitors. 

On motion of Mr. Stuart, the Broom Brigade of Capt. Rich- 
ardson will be admitted to the grounds for the purpose of 
making an exhibition, free of charge. 

On motion of Mr. Lockhart, the vote to offer additional pre- 
miums in books 80 and 31 was reconsidered, and it was, after 
some discussion, decided to let the premiums remain as pub- 
lished. 

The Board then adjourned until 9 o'clock to-morrow morn- 
ing. 



SECOND DAY. 



September 30, 1884. 

The Board met, President Mitchell in the chair, and all the 
members present. 

There being no business before the Board, recess was taken 
until 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 



36 BOABI' OF AGRICULTURK. 



THIRD DAY. 



October 1, 1884. 

Board met, President Mitchell in the chair, and all the mem- 
bers present. 

A protest was presented by Cyrus Matler against the exhibit 

by of stallion 4 years old and over, in class-book 2, 

which being informal, was referred back to him for affidavits 
in accordance with the rules regulating protests. 

On motion of Mr, Stuart, Superintendent of Gates Lockhart 
was authorized to exercise his discretion concerning certain ad- 
mission tickets issued in the Mechanical Department, it appear- 
ing that the privilege was being abused. 

The Board then took recess until 2:30 p. m. Meeting at this 
hour, and there being no business to transact, recess was con- 
tinued until 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 



FOURTH DAY. 



October 2, 1884. 

Board met, President Mitchell in the chair and all the mem- 
bers present. 

A communication was received from the i^Jewark Machine 
Company, of Newark, Ohio, presenting a challenge to other 
manufacturers of clover hulling machines, and proposing a 
contest to determine the relative merits of their respective 
machines, to take place during the present State Fair, at such 
time and under such regulations as the State Board of Agri- 
culture may determine, and inclosing a check for $100 to 
defray their portion of the expense thereof. Consideration was 
ffiven the communication. 



PROCEEDINGS. 37 

On motion of Mr. Davidson the proposition was declined, lor 
reasons that space on the grounds being limited, it could not 
well be spared without too much inconvenience to other ex- 
hibitors, and also the danger to life attending such contests, 
and the check be ordered to be returned to the Newark Ma- 
chine Company. 

Mr. Davidson called attention to the matter of an erroneous 
entry of heavy draft team in Book 3, heavy draft grade horses, 
and the award of the premium on same as being contrary to 
the provisions of Rule 6 of the rules governing exhibits, as one 
or both of the horses constituting the team had been entered 
for other premiums, and asking the sense of the Board thereon. 

Mr. Banks moved that the premium be withheld, for the 
reason that the entry had been made in violation of the rules, 
which was carried. 

The Board then took recess until 2:30 p. m. 



Afternoon Session, 2:30 p. m. 
Board met, President Mitchell in the chair. 
There being no business requiring special attention, recess 
was taken until 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 



FIFTH DAY. 



October 3, 1884. 

Board met, President Mitchell in the chair, and all the mem- 
bers present. 

On motion of Mr. Sunman it was ordered that, at the discre- 
tion of Department Superintendents, such exhibitors as were 
intending to make exhibits at other distant fairs, or for other 



88 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

good reason, would be greatly accommodated by an early re- 
moval of their animals or articles from the Fair Grounds, would 
be permitted to do so after 4 o'clock p. m. to-day. 

Mr. Sunman also moved that the Secretary be authorized ta 
issue premium orders and the Treasurer authorized to pa'y the 
eame after 1 o'clock p. m. to-day, which was carried. 

Mr. Jones presented the matter of the races of yesterday, and 
stated that some of the drivers of the horses manifested a dis- 
position to jockey, and render the race uninteresting and un- 
fair to the Board and spectators; and that in view of this he,, 
as supervising member of the speed ring, removed the drivers 
of such horses and substituted other drivers, who won the race; 
that in accordance with the rules of the National Trotting As- 
sociation in such cases, the driver is entitled to a fee for hia 
services, which may be retained from the award due the win- 
ning horse for this purpose, and that he had so ruled, and asking^ 
an expression as to the sense of the Board in the matter. He 
was sustained in his action by prompt consent of the Board. 

On motion of Mr. Stuart, President Mitchell was appointed 
delegate to represent the Board at the meeting of the National 
Stockmen's Association, at Chicago, on the third day of De- 
cember, 1884. 

Mr. Davidson, as Superintendent of the Horse Department,, 
stated that there was reason to think that the entry to which 
award to teams for general purpose, in book four, was made, 
was in violation of the rule that "all double teams must be 
owned by the exhibitor," and moved that the matter be referred 
to the Executive Committee for investigation. Carried. 

On motion of Mr. LaTourette a special award of $25 was 
made to Wm. Sigerson & Soi for the very extensile and taste- 
ful display of grain in stalk and ear, and grasses, made by them,. 
AS grown in Pulaski county, Indiana. 



PROCEEDIKGS. 89 



SIXTH DAY. 



October 4, 1884. 

Board met. President Mitchell in the chair, and all the 
members present. Proceedings of all the previous meetings at 
the Fair Grounds read and approved. 

An appeal from the decision of the judges in awarding only 
first premium in the 2:37 pacing race of. yesterday, was made 
by E. D. Morse, for the reason that as his horse had distanced 
the field he was therefore entitled to the purse ($150), as this 
was in accordance with the rules of the iSTational Trotting As- 
sociation. 

On motion of Mr. Davidson, it was decided that the horse 
distancing the field be allowed first money only. 

A protest was presented by Mart L. Hare against the award 
made in Book 6 to stallion showing three best colts, alleging 
that after a committee, who had acted under instructions from 
the Superintendent of the Horse Department, had made the 
award to the horse and colts of Mr. Sam'l Granger, he, the Su- 
perintendent, had appointed another committee that placed the 
award to another horse and colts. 

Superintendent Davidson made general denial of the allega- 
tions. 

On motion ot Mr. Jones, the action of the Superintendent 
and awarding committee were sustained. 

A communication was received from the International Asso- 
ciation of Fairs and Expositions, soliciting this Board to be- 
come a member thereof, the terms being $10 initiation fee and 
$10 annual dues. 

On motion of Mr. Sunman, that this Board become a mem- 
ber of said Association, the vote was a tie, and the motion was 
laid on the table. 

A communication was received from the Model Clothing 
Company, representing that they had made an extensive and 
fine exhibit of clothing; that no premium was ofi"ered for such 



40 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

exhibit, and asking that some suitable recognition of the same 
be made by the Board. The communication was considered^ 
and in view of the fact that other similar and meritorious ex- 
hibits had been made by other parties, it was, on motion, laid 
upon the table. 

On motion ot Mr. Seward, a diploma was awarded to the 
United States Encaustic Tile Company for the very beautiful 
display and great variety of tiles made, this being a new in- 
dustry in this State, and highly deserving of encouragement. 

On motion of Mr. Bungan, it was ordered that Mr. Seward 
and Secretary Heron be authorized to settle with the Treasurer 
as soon as practicably convenient to him. 

Mr. H. C. Green, one of the judges on poultry, presented the 
matter of exhibit of Wyandotte chickens by A. T. Layton and 
Isaac N. Lane, for which no premium is offered, and repre- 
sented that they were as worthy of a premium as other poultry 
specified in the list. 

Mr. Dungan moved that a premium be allowed same as to 
Plymouth Rocks. Carried. 

On motion of Mr. Cotteral, the varieties of poultry entered 
for exhibit at the fair of 1884, not included in the list, be re- 
ferred for future action of the Board. 

On motion of Mr. Seward, it was ordered that hereafter no 
person be allowed to wear any insignia as members of the 
Board of Agriculture but the members. 

Mr. Davidson called attention to the fact that the mare en- 
tered for premium by Sylvester Johnson, in Book 4, one year 
and under two, by reason of oversight by the committee in 
calling the number of entry, was not exhibited, and recom- 
mended that the stall rent (|2.00) for same be remitted, which 
was consented to. 

By request, Mr. Banks was excused from further attendance 
on the meetings of the Board. 

The minutes were read, and, on motion of Mr. Sunmau, ap- 
proved. 

The Board then adjonrned sine die. 



PROCEKDINGS. 41 



EXEOFTTArK C^OMMITTEE MEETING. 



Agricultural Rooms, November 11, 1884. 

Committee met at 10 o'clock a. m., agreeably with call of the 
President. Present, Messrs. Mitchell, Jones, Seward and Gra- 
ham. Secretary made report of the result of the fair, the gen- 
eral condition of agriculture in this State, the financial condi- 
tion of the Board, and other matters of interest to be. presented 
at the January meeting, which was approved. 

The programme for the January meeting Avas made up, and 
the Secretary directed to invite the following persons to de- 
liver essays at that meeting: Prof. C. H. Hall, of Franklin 
College ; Geo. Finley, of Allegheny Cit}'^, on Fish and Fish 
Ponds; Rev, G. L. Cuitis, of Jeftersonville, on Adulterations 
of Foods and Medicines; Rev, Dr. Fisk, of Greencastle, on Di- 
versified Labor ; Col. J, A. Bridgeland, of Richmond, on The 
Xorman Horse; Jasper N. Davidson, on Farmers' Recreations 
and Amusements : W. B. Seward, on The Autobiography of a 
Plaw. 

Communications were received from the David Bradley 
Manufacturing Company, making suggestions concerning the 
conducting of fairs. From Devereaux Pennington, judge of 
Jersey Cattle Glass, concerning the awards of premiums, and 
from Prof. Robert B. Warder, of Purdue University, concern- 
ing analyses of fertilizers, all of which were referred to the 
Januar}^ meeting. Adjourned until 2 o'clock p. m. 



'1 CLOCK 1'. M. 

Committee niet. Present, President Mitchell, and Messrs. 
Jones, Seward, and Graham. A communication was presented 
from the International Association of Fairs and Exhibitions, 
at St. Louis, Mo., requesting the Indiana State Board of Agri- 
•ulture to become a member of the same. After some discus- 



42 BOARD OF AGKICULTURE. 

sion, Mr. Mitchell was appointed a delegate to attend the meet- 
ing of the association on December 3d, and the matter of becom- 
ing a member was left to his discretion. 

The meeting of the Tri-Fair Circuit, which is to take place 
at the Agricultural Rooms on the third Wednesday of Decem- 
ber next, was brought up. On motion of Mr. Graham, Messrs. 
Lockhart, Seward, Mitchell and Heron were appointed a com- 
mittee to invite the Illinois, St. Louis and Wisconsin Fair Asso- 
ciations to send delegates to the meeting. 

On motion of Mr. Graham, it was ordered to continue to car- 
ry insurance on the Exposition and other buildings on the Fair 
Grounds,' in the sum of $25,000. 

On motion of Mr. Seward, the Indianapolis Light Infantry 
,were allowed $75.00 on account of exhibition drill at the fair. 

On motion of Mr. Graham, the committee adjourned sine die. 



ANNUAL MEETING, 1885. 



Agricultural Rooms, ) 

Tuesday, January 6, 1885, 10:30 a. m. j 

Board met, President Mitchell in the chair. On call of the 
roll of members of the Board proper, the following members 
answered to their names : 



1st Distr 
2d Distr 
3d Distr 
4th Distri 
5th Distr 
€th Distr 
7th Distr 
8th Dis^r 
9th DLstr 
10th Distr 
11 til Distr 
12th Distr: 
13th Distr: 
14th Distri 
15th DIst 
16lh Distr 



ct — Robert Mitchell, Princeton, Gibson county, 
ct — Samuel Hargrove, Union, Pike county, 
ct — J. Q. A. Sieg, Corydon, Harrison county, 
ct — W. B. Seward, Bloom ington, Monroe county, 
ct — T. W. W. Sunman, Spades, Ripley county, 
ct — Dick Jones, Columbus, Bartholomew county. 

ct , , 

ct— S. W. Dungan, Franklin, Johnson county. 

ct — H. LaTourette, Covington, Fountain county. 

ct — Jasper N. Davidson, Whitesville, Montgomery county. 

ct — John M. Graham, Muncie, Delaware county. 

ct — Chas. B. Stnart, Lafayette, Tippecanoe county. 

ct — John Ratliff, Marion, Grant county. 

ct — L. B. Custer, Logansport, Cass county. 

ct — W. A. Banks, Door Village, Laporte county. 

ct — R. M. Lockhart, Waterloo, Dekalb county. 



On call of counties, the following delegates responded 



44 



BOAKD OF AGRICULTURE. 



LIST OF DELEOA-TES. 



Counties. 



Delegates. 



Post Office. 



Bartholomew Ag'l & Indust'l 
Bartholomew Ag'l Society 

Boone 

Cass 

Clark 

Clay 

Clinton 

Dearborn 

Decatur 

Delaware 

Elkhart 

Fulton 

Gibson 

Grant 

Hamilton 

Harrison 

Henry 

Howard 

Huntington 

Jackson 

Jay 

Jennings 

Johnson 

Knox 

Lagrange 

Lake 

Laporte 

Madison 

Marion 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

Noble . . . ■ 

Parke 

Perry 

Pike 

Pulaski 

Putnam 

Ripley 

Rush 

Shelby 

St. Joseph 

Steuben 

Tippecanoe 

Tipton 

Vigo 

Wabash 

Warren 

Warrick 

Washington 

Wayne 

Whitley 



S. M. Glick . . . . 
Dick Jones . . . . 
Jno. "\V. Kise . . . 
L. B. Custer . . . . 

D. F. Willey . . . 
R. S. Hobbs ... 
M.H.Belknap . 
Will O'Brien . . . 
Will Cumback . . 
Jno M. Graham . 
.Joseph Eeppey . . 
N. A. McClung . 
W^m. M. Cock rum 
Hezekiah Steelman 
Geo. W. Wheeler . 
Jno. Q. A. Sieg . 
J. P. Nicholson . 
David Smith . . 
L. T. Bagley . . . 
J. H. Matlock . . 
Jonas Votaw . . 
C. D. Shank . . . 
.John Tilson . . . 
Gerard Re iter . . 
L. L. Wildmau . 
Henry R. Ware . 
John P. Oakes . . 
Wm. Crim .... 
Sylvester .Johnson 
.Jno. F. May . . . 
J. N. Davidson .* 

E. B. Gerber . . . 
R. C. Mc Williams 
Jno. C. Shoemaker 
H. G. Billmeyer . 
.J. B. Agnew . . . 
AV. S. Cox. . . . 
Nicholas Cornett . 
T. W. Hall . . . 
J. L. Carson . . - 
W. O. Jackson . . 
A. W. Hendry . . 
Jno. M. Boggs . . 
W. A. Maze . . . 



James M. Sankey 
Nathaniel Bannister 
•James Goodwine . . 
T. B. Hart .... 
E. W. Shanks . • . 
Joseph C. Ratliff . • 
M. D. Garrison . . 



Columbus. 

Columbus. 

Lebanon. 

Logansport. 

Charlestown. 

Bowling Green. 

Kilmore. 

Lawrenceburg. 

Greensburg. 

Muncie. 

Syracuse. 

Rochester. 

Oakland City. 

Marion. 

Noblesville. 

Corydon. 

New Castle. 

Vermont. 

Huntington. 

Brownstown. 

Portland. 

Vernon 

Franklin. 

Vincennes. 

Walcottville. 

Crown Point. 

Laporte. 

Anderson. 

Irvington. 

Bloomington. 

Whitesville. 

Ligonier. 

Rockville. 

Indianapolis. 

Petersburg. 

Winamac. 

Green Castle. 

Versailles. 

Raleigh. 

Shelbyville. 

South Bend. 

Angola. 

Lafayette. 

Sharpsville. 

Terra Haute. 

Dora. 

West Lebanon. 

Boonville. 

Salem. 

Richmond. 

Columbia City. 



PROOEBDINGS. 



45 



The roll of District Agricultural Societies was next called, 
and the following delegates responded : 



District. 



Acton 

Bridgeton Union 

Eastern Indiana 

Edinburg 

Fountain, Warren and Vermillion. 
Henry, Madison and Delaware . ■ 

Knightstown Union 

Lawrence Township 

Loogootee 

Miami and Fulton 

New Ross 

Northeastern Indiana 

Plainfield Agricultural 

Southeastern Indiana 

Switzerland and Ohio 

Urmyville 

Wayne, Henry and Randolph . . 



Delegates. 



POSTOFPICE. 



J. E. McGaughey . 
Dempsey Seybold. . 
N. B. Newnam . . . 
Jacob Mutz .... 
D. O. Webb .... 
W. H. Keesling . . 
W. H. Jackson . . 
W. B. Flick .... 
Henry J. Johnson . 
N. A.' McClung. - . 
John Lockridge - . 
Jas. N. Chamberlain 
Daniel Cox .... 
W. A. Greer .... 
Jesse W. Stewart . . 
John Tilson .... 
B. B. Beeson . . 



Gallaudet, Marion co. 

Perth, Clay county. 

Kendallyiile. 

Edinburg. 

Covington. 

Mechanicsburg. 

Knightstown. 

Lawrence. 

Loogootee. 

Rochester. 

Mace. 

Waterloo. 

Plainfield. 

Aurora. 

Rising Sun. 

Franklin. 

Dalton. 



The roll of State Industrial Associations was called, and the 
following delegates responded : 



Associations. 


Names. 


POSTOFFICE. 




Women's Industrial 

State Horticultural 

Purdue University 

Short Horn Breeders 

Swine Breeders 


Mrs. A. M. Noe . . . 
Sylvester Johnson . . 
Prof. James H. Smart. 

J. W. Robe 

Dick Jones 

C. T. Nixon 

Mrs. C. Robbins . . . 
Dr. Allen Furnas . . 


Indianapolis. 

Irvington. 

Lafayette. 

Greencastle. 

Columbus. 

New Albany. 

Indianapolis. 

Danville. 




Wool Growers 

Bee Keepers 

Cane Growers 





President Mitchell appointed as Committee on Credentials 
Messrs. Custer, LaTourette, Crim, Cockrum and Newnam. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, the Board adjourned until 1:30 
o'clock, p. M. 



46 BOARD OE' AGRICULTURH. 

PROGRAMME— ANNUAL MEETING. 



TUESDAY, JANUARY 6, 1885. 

Organization of the Convention at 10:30 A. M., by roll call of counties. 

President's address at 1:30 p. m., followed by reports from Officers and Depart- 
ment Superintendents. 

Appointment of joint committees of delegates and members. 

Address by Governor Porter, at 3:00 p. m. 

3:30 o'clock p. M. Address by President J. H. Smart, of Purdue University. 
Subject, "What can our Agricultural College do for the Farmers of our State?" 

4:00 o'clock p. M. Address by Px'ofessor C. H. Hall, of Franklin College. 
Subject, ''The Farmer and Higher Education." 

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 7—8:30 a. m. 

Reports from Committees: Finance, Rules, etc.. Fair Grounds, Premium Liit, 
Geology, and Unfinished Business. Review of business matters. 

1:30 o'clock p. M. Address by Dr. E. W. Fisk, of Greencastle. Subject, 
" Diversified Labor." 

2:30 o'clock p. M. Address by Col. J. A. Bridgeland, of Richmond, Ind. 
Subject, "French Agriculture and Breeding of Norman Horsee." 

3:30 o'clock p. M. Address by W. S. Vannatta, of Fowler, Ind. Subject, 
" Herefords as Grazing Cattle." 

Nominations to fill places of retiring members. 

THURSDAY, JANUARY 8. 

8:30 o'clock a. m. Unfinished business. 

9 o'clock A. M. Address by Prof. John N. Hurty, of Indianapolis. Subject, 
"The Adulteration of Foods and Medicine." 

10 o'clock A. M. Address by Enos B. Reed, of Marion County. Subject, " The 
Fish Interests of Indiana." 

11 o'clock A. M. Address by J. N. Davidson, of Montgomery County. Subject, 
" Farmers' Recreation and Amusements." 

1:30 o'clock p. M. Election of eight members. 

The following carefully prepared papers will be presented subject to the 
pleasure of the Convention, as time will permit: 

" The Proper Application of Fertilizers," by F. G. Wiselogel, of Marion County. 

"Fish Culture, Profits of," by Hon. I. N. Cotton, of Marion County. 

" The Destruction of Oops by Insects," by J. G. Kingsbury, of the Indiana 
Farmer. 

" The Value of Birds as Insect Destroyers," by Fletcher M. Noe, of Marion County. 

Other appropriate Essays are expected. General remarks and discussion will 
be in order, and follow each address ox essay. 



proceedings. 47 

Afteknoon Session, 1:30 o'clock. 

Board met pursuant to adjournment. The President called 
Mr. Davidson to the chair, and delivered to the Convention 
his annual address: 

president's addeess. 

Gentlemen of the Delegate and State Board of Agriculture : 

The swift wings of time brings us to the beginning of another year, and we have 
assembled again to counsel together upon the present condition and future pros- 
pects of the agricultural interests of the State, and, from the experience of the past, 
recommend such measures as may seem necessary to promote the welfare of those 
engaged in the cultivation of the soil. Our State has been blessed with usual 
health, and the crops of 1884 abundant, the wheat crop (one of the largest ever 
produced) being 40,531,200 bushels. 

Corn was of good quality, and amounted to 89,159,799 bushels. The oat crop 
was 23,576,117 bushels, the largest ever produced itf Indiana by 3,000,000 bushels. 
The potato crop reached the immense amount of 5,969,461 bushels. 

As the farmer lives near to Nature, and Nature's God, our hearts go out to 
him in gratitude and thanksgiving for such rich returns to the labor of the hus- 
bandman. 

The financial condition of the Board is about the same as in my last annual 
address. The gross receipts of the State Fair were .§24,429.40, and the gross ex- 
penditures were $20,702.80, so that but a small balance is left over for the current 
expenses. The bonded debt is $40,000, and the interest annually accruing is 
12,400. Thus the prospects of the indebtedness being soon wiped out is not en- 
couraging. Repeated efforts have been made by the Board to get the State to pay 
off the bonded debt, so they could go forward with the great work before it. Our 
grounds are now too small for the accommodation of the large annual exhibitions, 
and to further increase the indebtedness by purchasing more grounds seems to be a 
step that can not be taken under the present condition of affairs, therefore I hope 
this Delegate Board will consider well the indebtedness, and if any action can be 
taken to influence the incoming Legislature to give the Board such relief, as the 
great and growing interest of agriculture should have, then the spirit of the law 
creating the State Agricultural Association can be carried out, and the Board can 
further increase its usefulness in all the various branches of agriculture. These 
great and growing exhibitions can not be maintained and pay off this indebted- 
ness on the State Fair grounds unless the fostering care of the State is extended to 
assist in the work. 

During the last fair it rained three days, and the great political campaign 
then at full height, tended to lessen the receipts, as the people at that time seemed 
to let all business and pleasure go, and stood with bated breath awaiting the result 
of the election. Another discouragement at that time, caused us considerable un- 
daeioees ; the prevalence of pleuro-pneumonia among cattle in the country pre- 



48 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

vented some exhibitors from attending the State Fair, and some that had engaged 
stalls, annulled the contract. A meeting of the Executive Committee was called 
and decided to secure the services of two Veterinary Surgeons to guard against any 
diseased animals entering the Fair Ground. This proved to be very satisfactory, 
and not only every stall was occupied, but additional quarters had to be provided- 

At the close of the fair of 1883, some dissatisfaction was manifested by several 
of the agricultural implement men, which was alluded to in my last annual ad- 
dress, but I am now happy to say that all discontent among that class of exhibitors 
has disappeared, and the best of feeling prevail.*, as evidenced by their grand ex- 
hibit and hearty co-operation at the last State Fair. Many of the manufacturers 
have erected beautiful building for their exhibits, and others are making arrange- 
ments to build, which adds much to the comfort of that class of exhibitors, and 
also a saving to the Board. 

The live stock exhibit was far in advance of any former year, and to accommo- 
date all the exhibitors a large number of additional stalls and pens were built 
after the fair had opened. The imprsvement of live stock is very evident and the 
exhibitor of to-day has to be an expert in preparing his stock for exhibition to be 
.successful in the show ring. 

The system of expfert judging, adopted by the Board can not be said to have 
gi^en entire satisfaction, yet as an experiment it was worthy of a trial, but where 
there is no standard of excellence to be relied upon, I have doubts as to the expert 
system being the best, although it has many advocates among fair managers. The 
new system of committees on awards as adopted by many of the leading fairs of 
the West will probably be generally adopted ; where it has been tried, it gives 
good satisfaction. The new system provides that three competent judges Tje se- 
lected, two to act, in case the two .so acting do not agree, the third man then comes 
in the ring and places his vote with one or the other of the two, his vote being 
strictly confined to the two animals, or articles voted for, by his two associates. In 
my judgment the umpire ought to be the best of the three judges. 

Our ticket system last year gave better satisfaction than heretofore, yet further 
improvement might be made, and I would earnestly recommend that ticket sellers 
and ticket takers at the gates be abolished, as far as possible, and turn stiles adopt- 
ed instead, by so doing much expense would be saved, which would in one or two 
years be equal to the price of the turn stiles. Where complimentaries, carriage 
and other pass tickets are taken, gate-keepers will be necessary. Yet it is great 
wisdom in the management of fairs to have just as few pass tickets out as possible. 



FAT STOCK SHO\\'. 

As the year rolls by and the great live stock exhibitions At Chicago of prime 
fatted cattle of all the various breeds increase, the importance of this State at- 
tempting a fat stock show is more forcibly brought to view. The large cities all 
around us are spending millions to help exposition and fair managers to establish 
all kinds of exhibits, thereby bringing into public notice the capabilities and facili- 
ties for producing and handling the product of the different sections of the coun- 



PROCEEDINGS. 49 

try. A year ago an attempt was made by this Board to get the city of Indianapo- 
lis to assist in bringing into existence an exhibit of the beef product of the State. 
The city, however, gave but little encouragement. 

The proprietors of the Stock-yards and Belt railroad, and commission men 
were very anxious that such an exhibit should be made, and would willingly have 
contributed of their means to assist in starting a fat stock show. At the time the 
effort was made the Ohio valley was submerged in a destroying flood, and the city 
of Indianapolis was responding to the call of the suflering thousands of people 
along the Ohio river with wonderful alacrity. A further canvass of the city was 
abandoned, with the hope that during the winter another effort would be made by 
the Board and citizens of Indianapolis to hold a fat stock show during the fall of 
1885. The Industrial Associations of the State have been actively at work, meeting 
and discussing subjects of special interest. The practical experience of the most 
successful farmers is in this manner annually furnished by these associations to the 
Board for publication in our annual reports, thereby increasing their usefulnesa. 
Cattle breeders, swine breeders, sheep breeders, bee keepers, sorghum growers and 
tile makers all strive to see which can make their meetings the most interesting. 

A word in regard to the use of tiling. Nothing is being done in the State that 
gives such good returns to the farmer as a free use of tile. The public health is 
benefited by its use; the land made more productive and easier of cultivation; it 
can be plowed much earlier in the spring, and I may safely make this assertion, 
that when the farms have been propei'ly drained the productiveness of the soil of 
the State will be largely increased. When tile-draining was first introduced in 
Scotland by the Scotch farmers, the government of Great Britain, seeing the im- 
mense benefit it was in bettering the condition of the lands, loaned money to all 
the farmers of Scotland that would take it, at a very low rate of interest, to un- 
derdrain these lands, with the condition only that when the interest paid had 
equalled the principal the debt was to be cancelled. 

Tile draining leads to better farming, better farming leads to diversified agri- 
culture, and ihe time is now here when the farmers of our State can not but see 
that to continue in sowing all their lauds to wheat will be ruinous to them. 

Europe is the market for our surplus products Great Britain has been, and is 
now, actively at work stimulating the production of wheat in her colonies. India 
five years ago only exported a few million bushels of wheat, but by the fostering 
care of the British government —giving to India the necessary help to bring her 
wheat lands into cultivation and by extending the railroads into that immense ter- 
ritory—India this year will export Jibout forty million bushels of wheat, grown 
upon lands worth less than five dollars per acre, and by labor at an average of 
seven cents per day. But the thought may occur that that country is so far from 
the markets of Europe that the freights for carrying wheat such a long distance 
will favor us to maintain a fair market price in European markets. Steam navi- 
gation and the railroad system bring all the world together, and the steamships of 
Great Britain carrying the products of her factories and manufactured goods to 
India, Egypt and other countries, on their return trips bring back wheat and other 
products of these countries at a nominal price by freight as ballast. 
4— Agriculture. 



50 BOARD OF AaRICTJLTURB. 

Let US compare our lands worth from thirty to sixty dollars per acre; our labor 
from one dollar and fifty cents per day to two dollars during harvest time, and 
with our railroads continually charging higher freight rates during the carrying 
season of the wheat product. Under this condition of facts, is it possible for us to 
compete successfully in the wheat markets of the world? i answer no. Then 
what is best for us to do as an agricultural people? Turn our attention more to 
diversified agriculture by having an equal amount of pasture and stock to that of 
grain. 

The World's Exposition at New Orleans is now open, where the industries of 
many of the nations of the world will come into contact with one another in 
friendly com[>etition. When the public press first announctd that a World's Fair 
was to be held at New Orleans, and that the General Government of the United 
States had appropriated half a million of dollars towards its success, and that the 
money so appropriated was to be distributed pro rata between the States compos- 
ing the Union in order to assist them in making a creditable display at that great 
fair, I felt it to be my duty as President of this Board, and feeling a just pride 
tliat the exhibit of our Indiana agricultural products should fairly represent the 
best products of our State, I took the liberty to call upon our Governor, suggesting 
that an early appointment of Commissioners for our State was very necessary, also 
profTeriug all the help that the oificials of this Board could give in collecting sam- 
ples of our agricultur;il products. This was done before the commencing of our 
fairs. My object being for the officials of this Board to make a call upon all the 
county and district societies of the State to contribute their premium samples of 
grain to be put on exhibition at the World's Fair at New Orleans. 

The first appointments of Commissioners by the Governor was a failure, as they 
both declined to accept the position, and by the time the second appointment was 
made it was too late to secure the premium samples from the counties. However, 
we turned over to the Commissioner all the available specimens of grain that we 
had on exhibition, and the glass jars for exhibition purposes. It is a source of re- 
gret that there was not a larger amount of money at the disposal of the Commis- 
sioner to make a display worthy of our State. 

The finh interest of onr State is attracting much attention, and promises to be- 
come one of the important industries, both pleasant and profitable. There has been a 
large number of fi.sh ponds constructed in the State during the last eighteen months. 
We know of one person with six acres of ponds, who has furnished the stocking 
for 400 artificial ponds, and we hope to have him present at this meeting to en- 
lighten us in regard to this new business. 

In June last a call was made by several of the leading agricultural societies of 
the West to meet at St. Louis for the purpo.se of forming an association of fair and 
exposition managers. Quite a number of delegates, also two representatives from 
the Dominion of Canada, met in St. Louis according to call, and formed an organi- 
zation, having for its objects the discussion of fair management and a uniform sys- 
tem of tickets, advertising, and treatment of exhibitors, and by such action, work 
together for the common good. Another object being, as far as possible, to prevent 
a conflict of time of holding fairs. I feel that great good will grow out of this or- 
ganization, and I earnestly hope that this Board will extend an invitation to that 



PROCEEDINGS. 51 

body to hold the next annual meeting, which will be the 3d of December, at fwme 
point in this State. Many of the leading agricultural societies would be benefited 
by becoming members and sending delegates to these annual gatherings of fair 
managers. 

The Agricultural College at Purdue is still calling for pupils from the ranks 
of the farmers' boye. Since Professor Smart assumed the duties as President of that 
institution, he has been earnest in hie appeals for more students. AVhy is it that 
this, the farmers' school of agriculture, should be so long in filling up to overflow- 
ing? We fear that it is because it is not appreciated by the agricultural commu- 
nity. The exhibit of mechanical work shown at the lust State Fair by the boys in 
that University, was good, and showed great proficiency in workmanship, and it is 
to be hoped that this, the only school in the State that teaches the principles of ag- 
riculture, i^hould be liberally supported by appropriations from the State. 

The State Geological Department, as a brr,ich of the Board of Agriculture, con- 
tributed largely to the success of the fair. The report of the department has given 
the State a reputation abroad, as to the vast resources of coal, stone and other pro- 
ducts, that could not have been accomplished through any other source, much of 
which is due to the untiring energy and perseverance of the State Geologist, Pro- 
fessor John Collett. 

We would also call your attention to the published annual reports from the 
Board of Agriculture. They have received flattering notices from the agricultural 
press, and any suggestions from the delegates, wherein they could be improved, 
will be in order. 

There is, perhaps, no subject of more serious importance than the adulteration 
of food and medicine, and the necessity of putting a check on this growing evil. 
Other States are adopting stringent laws to punish such adulteration, and it would 
be well for some expre-^sion in reference thereto, to emanate from this body. 

There is also a species of fraud being extensively practiced upon the farmers of 
our State, which this delegate body ought to lay before the State Legislature in the 
form of a memorial, and this is to require that all articles manufactured in the 
penitentiaries of this or other States, be branded as such. For example, Tennessee 
is flooding this State with wagons made by convict labor, which are sold as a first 
class wagon. Now is it right that purchasers should thus be Lmpo.sed upon? If 
that wagon was required by law to be branded as penitentiary made, the purchaser 
who buys it would do so with a full knowledge that it was made by convict labor, 
and of course an inferior article. While I would not advocate a special law to 
protect the wagon manufacturers of our State, or to help them to maintain remuner- 
ative prices for their wagons, it is but simple justice to them, and also to the pur- 
chasers of penitentiary made wagons, that they should be branded as such. The 
law ought also to apply to boots and shoes, stoves, and all other articles made by 
convict labor. I repeat, brand them as "penitentiary made." 

To the officers and members of the several industrial associations — I take great 
pleasure in extending the kindest feelings of the Board for your earnest work in 
helping to advance the cause of agriculture. Your persistent labors and earnest 
purposes have overcome all diflficulties. The Ladies' Department at the last State 
Fair spoke for its management in brighter words than I can do, and if efforts are 



52 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

put forth during the coming year, as in the past, nothing short of the entire upper 
floor of the Exposition building will be required for the exhibit in this depart- 
ment. 

The State Board are under great obligations to the managers of the various 
railroads centering at the capital of our State for reduced rates to exhibitors and 
visitors during the fair, and I hope that an effort will be made by the railroad offi- 
cials of the Belt railway to give us a connection with the fair grounds, so that 
stock and hea%y machinery can be unloaded at the grounds, and thereby save 
much annoyance to the exhibitor, and a good return upon the cost of construction 
of the belt extension. 

The press of the city has generally given to the Board a generous support 
during the season preparing for the fair, and, while it may seem to the city press 
that the Board ought to more liberally patronize them in the matter of advertise- 
ments of the fair, it must be kept in view that the fair is in no sense a private affair, 
but for the public good, and that there are several hundred papers in the State 
that would expect an eqtial share in the advertising patronage, and that to adver- 
tise in all the papers of the State would be an expense too great for the Board to 
undertake. The press of the State, outside of the city press, has generally given 
very flattering notices of the State Fair, for which the Board feels very grateful. 

To all the ofiicers and members of the Board — I return my grateful thanks 
for the high honor you have conferred upon me by selecting me to preside over 
your deliberations during the year just closed. Your kind and generous support 
at all times has been appreciated. In my zeal to do all I could for the interests of 
the Board, I sincerely hope that no word has been uttered to wound the feelings of 
any, and when the delegates here assembled cast their votes for men to fill the 
places of those whose terms expire at this session, I most earnestly hope that it will 
be for men who will work for the advancement of the industrial interests of the 
whole State. 

Mr. Lockhart moved that the President's address be referred 
to a committee of three, who shall consider the suggestions 
contained therein, and report to the Convention as soon as 
practicable, which was carried, and the President appointed 
Messers. Lockhart, Reiter, and Xelson as the committee. 



PROCEEDINGS. 53 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



Agricultukal Eooms, December 31, 1884. 
Gentlemen — I have the honor to Bubmit herewith the annual report and 
financial exhibit of the business of the Indiana State Board of Agriculture, for 
the year endine: December 31, 1884. 

FINANCIAL EXHIBIT. 
Total receipts from all sources $35,291 82 

EXPENDITURES. 

General cash orders $16,927 64 - 

Premium cash orders 10,414 30 

827,341 94 
December 31 st, balance on baud 7,949 88 

Total $35,291 82 



ITEMIZED RECEIPTS. 

January, 1884, cash in treasury and interest-bearing notes $9,202 17 

Regular appropriation. State Treasury 1,500 00 

Ground rents, summer season 617 40 

Insurance company, damage by lightning $60 25 

City Treasurer, old bridge claim 100 00 

160 25 

From State Fair, 50-cent admission tickets $16,837 50 

From State Fair, 50-cent exhibitors' tickets 173 50 

From State Fair, 50-cent railroad coupons ],.337 50 

From State Fair, 25-cent admission tickets 1,057 50 

From State Fair, 10-cent admission tickets 614 80 

20,020 80 

Entry fees, speed ring 415 00 

Rents, stalls and pens 935 80 

Sale privileges 2,440 40 

3,791 20 

Total $35,291 82 



54 BOARD OF AGIUCULTURK, 



STATEMENT SliOWING DISTKIBUTION OF EXPENSES. 

GENERAL EXPENS'ES. 

Members' p°r diem $1,621 45 

Salaries Secretary, Treasurer, and General Superintendent . 1,650 16 

Printing and advertising 1,620 03 

Postage and stationery 225 00 

Express, telegrams, litigation 150 48 

Water rents 200 00 

Janitor, hose, tools, etc 353 58 

Insurance 415 92 

Old claims paid 150 00 

Interest accounts 2,400 00 

Total $8,780 62 

CONSTKUCTION AND REPAIRS. 

Lumber $1,589 41 

Lnbnr 1,224 21 

Pipes and machinery 4-'.0 22 

Roofing 118 04 

Hardware 176 46 

Whitewashing 246 00 

Painting and signs 19 51 

Repairing in hall 75 70 

Total 3,899 W 

CURRENT EXPENSES, STATE FAIR. 

Gate keepers $153 00 

Police 818 70 

Ticket sellers 225 85 

Labor, sweepers, etc 441 79 

Awarding committees 508 50 

Assistant superintendents 259 00 

Straw and sawdust 276 41 

Fuel 12 50 

Gas 70 00 

Music 120 40 

Pvibbon 10 50 

Extras and supplies 80 98 

Closets 37 00 

Incidentals 125 10 

Rebates 38 65 

Specialties 493 55 

Woman's department 569 94 

Total 4,241 47 



PROCEEDINGS. 55 

PREMIUM AWARDS. 

Horses, mules, etc $3,376 30 

Cattle 2,877 00 

Sheep 663 00 

Hogs 878 00 

Poultry 316 (0 

Total live stock $8,110 30 

Agriculture, grains, etc 451 00 

Horticulture 964 00 

Geology, natural history 134 00 

Total 1,549 00 

Woman's department. 677 00 

Children's department 78 00 

Total 755 00 

Total amount of premium orders $10,414 30 



RECAPITULATION. 

General expenses. . . . • $8,786 62 

Construction and repairs 3,899 55 

Current expenses, State Fair 4,241 47 

Total $16,927 64 

Premium awards 10,414 30 

Balance in treasury 7,949 88 

Season's operation $35,291 82 

FINANCIAL EXHIBIT. 



STATE FAIR— INCLUSIVE. 

Receipts. 

Admission tickets $19,406 00 

Amphitheater 614 80 

Entry fees, speed ring 415 00 

Rents, stalls and pens . . .- 935 80 

Rent of grounds 617 40 

Sale privileges 2,440 40 

Total $24,429 40 



Ob BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Expenditures. 

Members' per diem ( season; $1,621 4o 

Salaries, Secretary, Treasurer and General Superintendent . 1,650 16 

Printing and advertising 1,620 03 

Postage and stationery 225 00 

Express, telegrams, litigation . ' 150 48 

Current expenses of fair 3,671 53 

Twenty per cent, of construction and repairs 779 91 

Woman's department 569 94 

Premium awards 10,414 30 

Total $20,702 80 

Net profit from State Fair 3,726 60 



Total • $24,429 40 

The above estimate is based on the calculation of 20 per cent, of the cost of im- 
provement, as all of that outlay is for a class of building of permanent character 
to be used for future fairs. The additional 80 per cent, is in the nature of capital 
invested. To add all to this one fair would reduce the net profit to $606.96. 

UABIJLITIES. 

The liabilities of the Board are concentrated in the $40,000 of bonds of the 
Board, bearing 6 per cent, interest, payable semi-annually, and due in three years. 
The necessary improvements made during the last two years, costing $9,604.37, and 
the failure of the last Legislature to appropriate the usual amount of $5,000 for 
interest on the bonded debt, has prevented the redemption of any of the bonds 
during the last two years, as had been intended. There are also about $13,000 of 
non-interest bearing notes, given for as-sessments paid on guarantee bonds of 1873, 
due after the bonded debt is paid. The parties holding such notes refuse to dispose 
of them at a discount, although four years ago they were offered at twenty-five 
cents on the dollar. 

The assets of the Board are the State Fair Ground property lying within the 
city limits, which is variously estimated in value at $125,000 to $200,000. Its high 
value arises from its eligibility as residence sites, and the improbability of it ever 
being separated from the city by steam railroad crossings. 

INSURANCE. 

The amount of insurance on the main hall has been reduced to $25,000, owing 
to the improved fire protection by connection of the water pipes in the building 
with the City Water Works, 100 feet of hose on each floor kept attached and ready 
for use, and the refusal of the insurance companies to lower the rate of premium 
which is now 1} per cent. The risk is divided among sixteen companies. The 
amounts and rates on the other buildings remain the same as repoi-ted one year ago 
(page 64 of published Annual Report). 



PROCEEDINGS. 



57 



The success of the last State Fair surprised those not aware of the inside woric 
to accomplish such result. The business of the office the past year has required 
about 2,500 letters, 1,500 postal cards, 10,000 premium lists and 5,000 circulars. 
The State Fair advertising required 4,000 mounted lithograph posters, 1,000 double 
sheet lithographs, 1,000 3-sheet printed posters, 5,000 single sheet and 10,000 half- 
sheet posters, with more or less advertisements in every newspaper in the State. 
Hence, after due inquiry, we can safely assert we lead all other State Fairs in the 
matter of advertising. 

The State Fair occurring, as it did, near the close aud in the hottest of the 
presidential campaign, with four days of incessant rain at the opening, not showers, 
but floods, such as were never known at the time of an Indiana State Fair, and which 
were preceded by a serious drought of many weeks in a large portion of the State, 
and the great scare at the opening of the fair, caused by the prevalence of pleuro- 
pneumonia among cattle, which kept several exhibitors away after they had en- 
gaged stalls. Considering these drawbacks and discouraging features, it was simply 
marvelous to see such a complete success in every department of the fair, as will 
no doubt be reported by the Department Superintendents. 

Our worthy President has referred to so much that relates to the workings of 
the Bftard that I will avoid any repetition. 

It is a satisfaction to know and report to you that there has not been a case of 
litigation with the aflfairs of the Board for two years past, and not a case of pro- 
test on file, as is usual at the annual meeting. 



Statement of Comparative Entries. 



Division. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


■S83. 


1884. 


Lire Stock .... 
Agricultural . . . 
Horticultural . . 
Textile fabrics . . 


1,229 
419 
169 
523 

2,340 


1,453 
494 
291 
361 


1,347 
392 
260 
34.5 


918 
309 
94 
212 


1,404 
560 
116 
471 


1,419 
625 
159 
906 


1,524 
462 
143 

1,230 


1,.382 
381 
1.30 

1,063 


1,.328 
534 
134 

980 

2,970 


1,476 
4&S 
153 

1,081 


.,566 

2'.4 
1,223 


2,176 
652 
319 

1,500 


Total No. entries 


2.599 


2,344 


1,633 


2,551 


3,109 


3,359 


2,956 


3,193 


3,712 


4,617 



Note.— No entries in the Mechanical Department are included in the above, as there 
were no premiums offered of late years in that department. It was estimated that about 
twenty-five hundred articles were exhibited by five hundred exhibitors. 



Thus is shown that the State Fairs have steadily increased the last five years 
and 935 more entries at the last fair than any one preceding, 610 of which were of 
lire stock. 



58 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



Premiums of the State Fair. 





1883. 


1884. 


Division. 


Entries. 


Offered. 


Awarded. 


Entries. 


Offered. 


Awarded. 




300 
40 
23 
291 
352 
261 

300 

689 

2:M 

1,223 

57 


$1,823 00 

1,575 00 

236 00 

2,974 00 

928 00 

683 00 

360 00 
481 00 
925 00 
798 00 
146 00 


SI ,630 00 

1,575 00 

134 00 

2,304 OU 

856 00 

678 00 

326 00 
433 00 
8a5 00 
628 OU 
132 00 


565 
42 
24 
387 
536 
329 

298 
651 
319 
1,447 
31 


$1,995 00 

2,000 00 

236 00 

3,018 00 

878 00 

663 00 

375 00 
470 00 
1,005 00 
888 00 
162 00 


81,919 00 


Speed 

Jnoks,etc 

Ciittle . . 


1,:^)0 30 

157 00 

2,877 00 


Ho?s 


878 00 




663 (10 


Poultrj' 

Fiirm and garden products . . 
Horticultural products .... 
Ladies' Department . ... 
Geological and Natural History 


316 00 
451 00 
964 00 
755 00 
134 00 



The well organized system of State Industrial Associations continues to be an 
important auxilliary to the Board, and accommodations furnished for the mgptings 
are appreciated, and recognized by votes of thanks, from time to time. 

The railroad companies deserve more than a passing notice for their interest in 
the State Fair; and for the first time in the history of the Board, all the railroads 
centering at this point, with one exception, have agreed to return the delegates 
from this meeting at one-third fare, on certificate of attendance to be furnished 
here during the meeting, by which the party named thereon can purchase a return 
ticket at the Union Depot at the rate as named, and we hope for the same arrange- 
ments for the meetings of the Industrial Associations to take place here in a few 
days. This is the result of persistent effort for several years, to induce a trial of 
such arrangement. As the sending of certificates in advance of the meeting to 
purchase a round trip ticket at reduced rates, from the station whence starting, as 
required heretofore, is not practical, owing to the change of officers of the Agri- 
cultural Societies at this season of the year, and not reported to the Board of 
Agriculture, hence are not reached by the mail matter from this office; and we 
again repeat that for several reasons there should not be any changes of officers of 
the County and District Agricultural Societies, until after this annual meeting as 
fixed by statute law. 

The Street Railway Company is entitled to some acknowledgement for their 
eflTorts in moving the crowd of visitors at the State Fair, and come as near a success 
in that way as could be expected without steam transportation 

The press of the city and State are indinpensable to make a successful fair, and 
as such, are entitled to the thanks of the Board for their aid and encouragement. 

With all the complicated business incident to a State Fair, there has not been a 
single jar or ruffied t«>ne of voice in connection with the office affairs the past year, 
and we close with thanks for favors, and extend kind feelings of regard to each 
and all of my associates. Eespectfully submitted, 

ALEX. HERON, Sicreiary. 



PROCEEDINGS. 59 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



Mr. Presidemf and Gentlemen : 

I herewith submit the following report as Treasurer of the Indiana State Board 
of Agriculture for the year ending December 31, 1884 : 



KECEIPrS. 

Ca«h on hand January 1, 1884 . $7,258 42 

Receipts from sale of tickets 20,020 80 

Receipts from all other sources G,662 fiO 

Total receipts $33,941 82 



DISBtlKSEMENTS. 

Paid on general orders $16,598 95 

Paid on premium orders 10,333 70 

Cash on hand 7,009 17 

Total $33,941 82 



GEOLOGICAL FUND. 

Cash on hand January 1, 1884 $10 05 

Paid State Geologist 10 05 

Your Treasurer also holds a note given for real estate by J. D. Campbell and 
wife, on which there is $1,410.75 balance of principal, and $68.16 interest. 
Re-spectfully submitted. 

Sylvester Johnson, Treamrei: 
January 1, 1885. 

The Secretary's and Treasurer's reports were referred to the 
Committee on Finance. 



60 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



REPORT OF GENERAL SUPERINTENDENT. 



Mr. President and Membezsofthe Indiana State Board of Agriculture. ■ 

I would respectfully report that the business under my charge for the past year 
has been reasonably successful, and that the grounds and buildings are generally 
in good condition. In obedience to the orders of the Board, the lower floor of the 
main building has been thoroughly repaired, by renewing the floor where found 
necessary, and placing new joists between the old ones, over nearly the entire floor. 
New timbers were placed on the sides of the post« supporting the upper floor and 
roof, to add to their strength. 

On account of the arrangement to receive ©ur supply of water, from the City 
Water Works for the buildings and grounds, it became necessary to make an entire 
change in the arrangement of the water pipes in the buildings which w:is done, 
the old pipes being used as far as found in proper condition and size, and new 
when found necessary. Lines of pipe were also laid through the grounds for the 
purpose of supplying engines, etc. This work was all done after consultation with 
Mr. Seward, Superintendent of Machinery, as to proper plans, etc., and much of it 
under his direct supervision. This improvement has been found a good one, and 
I have no doubt it will, in the end, be found a great saving in expense, besides a 
great protection in cat^e of fire, both during fairs and at all times. I would say in 
this connection, that two hundred feet of first class rubber hose has been purchased 
for use in case of fire, one hundred feet for each floor, which are kept constantly at 
hand ready for use. 

Connection with the Water Works renders the boiler and large force pump of 
no further use, and I would recommend their sale as soon as a price at all reason- 
able can be obtained, also the sale of the brick in the building enclosing them. 

On a careful inspection of the roof of the main building, and consulting with 
the President and other members of the Board, and also with several gentlemen 
engaged in the roofing business, it was concluded to be rather too good to throw 
away, but not good enough to pay for thorough repairing, so I had it repaired tem- 
porarily. 

The north half of the roof requires entire renewal. The south half and towers 
may be temporarily repaired to last another season, but I think it would be best to 
renew the entire main roof. The deck roof is in good condition. The southeast 
tower also, as in consequence of a stroke of lightning in July last, it was necessary 
to renew entirely. 

The roof of Power Hall No. 2, a felt roof, required considerable patching and a 
heavy coat of roofing paint; also some repairs on No. I. Both are now in fair con- 
dition. The roof, a shingle one, on the frame building at the west end of the main 
building, used for the exhibition of agricultural productp, is in bad condition and 
needs renewing. A neat, convenient and tasty building was erected east of the 



PROCEEDINGS. 61 

main building, corner Lockhart and Mitchell avenues, combining an office for Su- 
perintendents of Implements and Engines, and Machinery, and a Union Express 
office. This proved to be a great convenience to the officers in charge of these de- 
partments, to exhibitors and the express companies. 

Two building;!, constructed on a plan similar to that of the hog and sheep pens, 
were built for cattle, with a capacity to accommodate forty-eight head. Lumber 
for their construction had been ordered and most of it on the ground, and work 
commenced, when the excitement in regard to pleuro-pneumonia developed into 
quite a panic, and several who had applied for stalls recalled their applications, 
orders aggregating about seventy stalls being countermanded, many advocating the 
idea of abandoning any cattle show at all. 

At this juncture the President called a meeting of the Executive Committee and 
others, for consultation, and it was, as results proved, wisely determined to proceed 
with the show, which resulted in all the stalls, including the new ones, beinj occu- 
pied, excepting a few which had been allotted to horses when it was expected we 
would have a large surplus, and it became necessary to erect some temporary sheds. 

The horse stalls were all occupied, and horses to the number of forty or fifty 
had to be provided for in the city. 

Had it not been for the pleuro-pneumonia excitement, I think we should have 
had from 150 to 200 more cattle on the ground than we had, provided, of course, 
that they could have been crowded onto the ground. 

Of hogs there was a regular avalanche. It looked more like the stock-yards 
under the excitement of a big advance in the hog market than a fair. All the 
regular pens were filled, generally doubly tilled, and a part of the sheep pens, and 
it was necessary to erect a number of temporary pens, and all were filled to over- 
flowing, and every available nook and corner occupied. 

Heavy rains during the preparation and opening days of the fair seriously in- 
terfered with exhibitors in arranging their displays and greatly retarded the work 
unexpectedly required to be done; but all seemed to appreciate the condition, and 
accepted it without complaint. The rain also added materially to some of the ex- 
penditui'cs, especially straw and sawdust, and lessened considerably tlie receipts 
from sale of privileges. 

Doors have been placed on all the horse stalls. The horse and cattle stalls, hog 
and sheep pens, have all been whitewashed ; also, poultry house inside and out, 
agricultural hall inside, and main building inside, both lower and upper stories. 

The great annual increase in the machinery, implement, and live stock depart- 
ments of the fair should call the attention of its managers to the solving of the 
problem of what shall be done for room to meet their inci-easing requirements, as it 
must be plain to all that there is not sufficient room on the present grounds to 
properly accommodate exhibitors and visitors, and more must be secured by some 
means at no distant day, if the fairs are to continue to increase in interest and 
usefulness in the future as in the past. Lands immediately north of the grounds 
could now be purchased at what is considered by those competent to judge a rea- 
sonable price, and on favorable terms as to time, etc. I take it, however, that un- 
der the present financial outlook, the Board will not be likely to feel like assuming 
any new obligations without due consideration. 



62 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

As a remedy I think it might be well to consider the proposition of holding a 
two weeks' fair, allotting one week to the exhibition of horses and sheep and one 
for cattle and hogs, or reversing, as might be thought best, and having a two 
weeks' show in other departments. This would obviate a great and just complaint 
of exhioitors, that the time of exhibition is too short to justify the expense and 
trouble of preparing for and fitting up their exhibit-s, and would also remedy the 
kck of room for stock, as our stalls will accommodate either cattle or horses, and 
pens answer equally well for sheep or hogs. Should this plan be tried, I believe 
the increase in receipts from privileges would go far towards meeting the necessary 
increase in expense. 

The Exposition building has been rented for the winter by Mr. Jcdin B. Doris, 
proprietor of the great Inter-Ocean Show, for the storage of his fine cages, band 
wagons, chariots, etc., and the general property of his show, excepting live animals, 
at a rental of $375. He also keeps a watchman on duty, for the security of his 
property, who, while looking after that, must necessarily look after ours. 

As itemized statements of my receipts and expenditures are filed with the Sec- 
retary and appear in his report and that of the Treasurer, I deem it unnecessary to 
repeat them. 

I desire to tender my thanks to the members for the uniform kindness and con- 
sideration which has been extended to me, and especially to President Mitchell and 
Secretary Heron, for their advice and cooperation in all matters tending to advance 
the success of the fair. 

Respectfully submitted. Fjelding Beeler, 

General Superintendent. 

Referred to the Committee ou Fair Grounds. 



HORSE DEPARTMENT. 



.TASPER X. DAVIPSON, SUPERINTENDENT. 



Mr. Presidemif, and Members of the State and Delegate Board : 

Gentlkmkn— In compliance with the rule of the State Board, I herewith sub- 
mit the following condensed report of the Horse Department: 

In this department I have the pleasure of stating that the exhibit was unusually 
)ari(»e, exceeding in numbers any exhibit ever made on the State Fair Grounds : 



PROCEEDINGS. 63 

The number of entries in Book 1 35 

The number of entries in Book 2 . . . 32 

The number of entries in Book 3 . 62 

The number of entries in Book 4 100 

The number of entries in Book 5 92 

The number of entries in Book 6 184 

The number of entries in Book 7 20 

The number of entries in Book 8 4 

The number of entries in Book 9 42 

Total number of entries ... 631 

Including 42 for speed and 24 for jacks and mules, against 310 last year, and 314 
two years ago. 

Among the many exhibitofe, the principal were : The Indianapolis Importing 
Co. ; Dillon & Bro., Normal, 111. ; J. B. Ayres, Danvers, 111.; Thomas Roberts, Car- 
mel, Ind. ; Peed & Co., New Castle, Ind. ; Hare & Granger, Fisher's Station, lud. ; 
Door Village Live Stock Importing Association, Door Village, Ind. ; I). Fisher, 
Goodrich, Canada ; W. P. Swaim, Bellmore, Ind. ; and Thomas Levi, Noblesville, 
Indiana. 

"The 279 stalls were occupied, and 40 horses were compelled to find stalls outside 
the enclosure. This was not only a large, bat a very fine display of horses. Never 
before has our own State made so large and fine an exhibit. The high prises paid 
for horses the last two years have brought about these results. 

Importers have been to the best markets in the world to buy the best breeds in 
their several classes, thereby bringing competition very close, and rendering it 
nearly impossible, in many classes, for the judges to make intelligent awards. This 
is especially so in sweepstakes. 

In jacks and mules there were twenty-four entries. Though few iu number, 
the showing was good. The breeding of mules within the State is On the decline, 
or the premiums are insufficient to bring out a fair exhibit. 

The committee in this department worked very hard to make henest awards, 
and succeeded generally in giving satisfaction, although the thermometer marked 
90° in the shade, and the ovei'-crowded condition of ground conspired against all 
concerned. 

The interest manifested by the visitors was at all times during the four days 
unflagging to such an extent that during the after part of the day it was at times 
almost impossible to find space to make the exhibit. Some plan should be adopted 
by the Board to fix a limit for the spectator, which would give the horsemen a bet- 
ter chance to show, and perhaps avoid serious accidents. 

The large increase of entries iu this department renders it apparent that for the 
future the present fair grounds are inadequate for theholding of the State Fair. I 
would suggest that the State Board should lose no time in acquiring more ground 
adjoining, either by lease or purchase. Also, in the Horse Department that two 
should be a collection instead of three, giving the exhibitor a chance to compete 
both single and double ; making an equal display with a less number of horses. 



64 BOARD 0F AGRICULTURE. 

And, further, for the benefit of the Superintendent of the Horse Department, that 
the present headquarters be turned over to the horsemen for sleeping quarters, and 
the old music stand be repaired and furnished with seats for the especial use of the 
Superintendent and his committees. With these recommendations, this report is 
respectfully submitted. 



CATTLE DEPAKTMENT. 



CHARLES B. STUART, SUPERINTENDENT. 



Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

The outlook for a large and excellent exhibit of cattle at the State Fair for 
1884, was unusually bright until the supposed pleuro-pneumonia made its appear- 
ance in the adjoining States. The early action of this Board in providing ample 
safeguards for all cattle exhibited at our fair served, in a measure, to restore the 
confidence of stock owners, and the cattle brought here compared very favorably in 
quality and quantity with any preceding fairs. The breeds were represented as 
follows : 

Short-Horns 53 

Herefords 16 

Polled Aberdeen Angus 33 

Devon oO 

Jersey 61 

Holstein 25 

Ayrshire 24 

Total in 1884 262 

Total in 1883 278 

The writer knows of several other herds of beef cattle, and of dairy cattle, all 
fitted and expecting to compete at our fair, but at the last moment they concluded 
to leave their cattle on their farms, rather than take any risks of bringing them 
in contact with cattle that might have been exposed to the supposed pluro-pneu- 
monia. 

In conformity with the expressed will of the Board, the difierent breeds of cat- 
tle were judged in their classes by single judges. Of course all exhibitors were 
not satisfied, because there were not ribbons sufiicient to go round, but that very 
general satisfaction was given was readily apparent to any one mingling with the 
owners and spectators. 



PROCEEDINGS. 65 

Your Superintendent has only one suggestion to make regarding the judges, 
and that is, the Superintendent of this departm<-nt should in the future have the 
selection of the expert judge, with the concurrence of the President, and the selec- 
tion should not be left to the different members of the Board. It makes no differ- 
ence wheye the judge comes from, but he should be an eipert in the full meaning of 
the term, or the practice of using single judges will certainly fall into disfavor. 
The expert system has been perfectly satisfactory in every case where the judge 
has been an expert. If he is a novice in the business no one is satisfied. 

Where the responsibility is placed on the Superintendent, he is naturally very 
desirous that the best of satisfaction should be given, ^and he will scan the individ- 
ual closely, and, unless thoroughly qualified, he will not be appointed. Not so 
where the members of the Board are directed by the President to select judges for 
diferent breeds of cattle, and where he is practically limited to a person residing 
in his district. The selection of the judge requires an acquaintance not only with 
the party to do the judging, but it especially requires that the person making the 
selection shall huve some acquaintance (and the more the better) with the difiVrent 
breeds of cattle to be judged. It is respectfully suggested to this Board that the 
Superintendent of t^e Cattle Department should always be some one fully acquaint- 
ed with the difTerent breeds of cattle, and that upon him should be placed the 
responsibility of selecting honest, capable and determined judges. And it is 
equally important that the Superintendent should have the privilege of bringing 
judges from a distance, if necessary ; and to that end an allowance should be made 
for the time and the expenses of the judges. To have your liberal premiums 
awarded by incompetent judges is merely a farce, and brings the Association into 
disrepute, and discourages the showing of the best stock. In the sweepstakes rings 
for herds of beef cattle, we had nine herds of very superior cattle. The judges 
were all men of experience, and had the will to tie the ribbons where their honest 
judgment dictated. And while we were pleased that Indiana should have carried 
off the first and second premiums, the judges themselves were greatly surprised 
when they learned that both herds were owned by the same exhibitor. They only 
knew the ownership of two of the herds in the ring, and neither award went to 
these herds. 

Your Superintendent would call attention especially to the services of the ex- 
pert in the Jersey rings, Mr. Pennington, of New Jersey. The different classes to 
be judged were well filled and the competition sharp, yet he patiently examined 
each animal, and his award carried conviction to all observers. 

For another year additional stall room must be provided in order to induce 
exhibitors to attend your fair. Some of the cattle were kept out of doors and 
without shelter for thirty-six hours after arrival, and were shown in the ring be- 
fore they had been under cover. 

The manner of setting apart stalls was quite faulty, and in one case the cattle 
of one exhibitor were scattered in three different places on the grounds. 

There should be some arrangement made for a ring where cattle can be shown. 
The ring should be of ample size to accommodate all the cattle. At the last fair 
it was a source of great annoyance to owners and judges that we had no adequate 

5 — AORICtTLTlTRE. 



66 BOARD OF AGRICULTUKB. 

method of keeping the spectators at such a distance that the cattle could be Betnx to 
good advantage. It is not pleasant, and at all times not possible, to keep the crowd 
back from the cattle and away from the awarding committee. It would also be a 
good plan to provide seats for the judges, as on some days they are at worlt for 
several hours continuously, and in the interim between classes they would find peats 
very acceptable. 

Some changes can be made in the premium list with credit to the Society, and 
with satisfaction to exhibitors. The aged bulls in the dairy breeds should be 
shown with three or five of their get. I think this is being generally adopted at 
the leading fairs. In the herd prizes there should be separate herd prizes for each 
of the dairy breeds. It is imposfsible for any judge to pass intelligently on the 
merits of the diflerent dairy breeds in competition, and greater satisfaction would 
be given if the herd prizes were so divided, that each breed would be by itself. 
This relates only to the dairy breeds. 

The fine exhibit of young beef herds was a credit to the State Fair, a credit to 
the ownt-rs, and of especial interest to the spectators, and properly encouraged, it 
can be made the great show in the4>eef classes, because owners have no hesitation 
in properly fitting cattle under two years of age ; and it is especially designed to 
show the early maturity of the diflerent breeds of caitle, and this is the chief end 
sought to be attained by the modern breeder. If any of the premiums are increased, 
we would call paiticular attention to this prize, and suggest that any increasse made 
would be moni y well expended, and will serve to greatly increase the exhibit in 
that class. 

To the owners and exhibitors of cattle at the fair of 1884, the thanks of the 
Board are tendered, and a cordial invitation extended for 1885. 



SWINE DEPAKTMENT. 



A. BANKS, SUPERINTENDENT. 



As Superintendent of the Swine Department of our late State Fair, I beg leave 
to submit the following report : 

The show of hogs was very large and good, I think the largest and best we have 
ever had. The pens were all filled and we were obliged to erect a number more, 
and also to use some of the sheep pens, but all were accommodated and we did not 
know where we could have put another hog. There was on exhibition from ludi- 
ana,442; Ohio, 127; Illinois, 61; Maryland, 25, and Michigan, 14. Of the differ- 
ent breeds, Poland China first, 314; B.^rkshire second, 153; Chester Whites third, 
110 ; Suffolk fourth, a? ; Victors fifth, 30 ; Essex sixth, 24. In all 670, against 332 
last year and 298 the year before. 



PKOCEBDINGS. 67 

We found our new pens Tery convenient, and the admiration of all. On ac- 
count of the rain and rush on Sunday and Monday, it was thought best not to try 
to clasnify the different breeds, which caused some inconvenience to the jiid^es, but 
we got along very well and did our work as well as possible. The plan of using 
one expert committeeman on Poland Chinas, gave good satisfaction, and enabled 
as to get through with our work on time. The exhibitors were all courteous, whicii 
made our work a pleasure. 



SHEEP DEPARTMENT. 



T. W. W. SUNMAN, SUPERINTENDENT. 



Mr. President — I report as follows: The exhibit at the fair of 1884, in this 
department, was the best it probably ever was. The number of sheep shown was 
not so great as in some years, but the class was far superior to any previous exhi- 
bition. Taking into consideration the drawbacks attending sheep husbandry, it is 
almost a wonder that there are any sheep raised at all ; but luckily for the sheep 
they have fallen into the hands of gentlemen who have more energy and pluck 
than the breeders of any other class of live stock, and are bound to succeed in spite 
of the drawbacks. 

The show of fine wools was fully up to previous years. We are sorry to say, 
however, that Indiana was poorly represented — Ohio, Illinois, and other States 
furnishing the majority. Southdown^ were good and attracted considerable atten- 
tion. They were exhibited by parties from a number of- States. Cotswolds were 
good, but few in number, while some of the other long wools, Leicesters, etc., were 
conspicuous by their absence. 

Shropshires at^^icted attention for the reason that they are a worthy breed, and 
were fine specimens ; but the breed that attracted the most attention was (he 
Oxfords, several yearling ewes being on exhibition that weighed over 300 pounds ; 
one two year old ram weighing 420 pounds. They are a hardy sheep, dark faces, 
good medium wool, and we are told make mutton of a superior quality. 

The expert, or one judge plan, was tried this year in all classes, and the 
decisions seemed to give general satisfaction to the exhibitors and the public. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



POULTRY DEPARTMENT. 



JOHN M. GKAHAM, SUPERINTENDENT. 



As Superintendent of the Poultry Department at our last State Fair I beg leave 
to .submit the following report: There were on exhibition about two hundre<l and 
thirty coops of chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks, consisting of all breeds that 
were enumerated in the poultry list, or nearly so. Some of them were as fine 
chickens as any one would wish to see, and all were good. Some chickens that 
were afflicted with roupe I was compelled to exclude from the exhibition. The 
turkeys were numerous and large, one of them weighing lorty-one pounds, and sev- 
eral thirty pounds and upward. Geese and ducks were shown in good numbers 
and fine quality. Plere let me say that the necessity for larger coops for the accom- 
modation of turkeys and geese was made apparent, as we had to crowd some of 
these larger fowls into the chicken coops, wherein they could not stand erect, and 
thereby doing great injustice to the exhibitors. 

The awards of premiums in this department were made by an expert judge with 
general satisfaction to the exhibitors. 

Poultry raising has grown into a large and highly remunerative business. As 
now conducted it is a business for every day in the year. There is in almost every 
city and town of considerable population in the country one or more establishments 
that make an exclusive business of buying and shipping to the larger cities poultry 
and poultry products, and yet the cry is for more. Indiana appears to be doing 
her share of this production and trade. 

The general statistics for 1882 give the poultry product at $^560,000,000, being 
$72,000,000 greater than the wheat product. Notwithstanding this immense pro- 
duction we import from Canada, France and Germany many millions of dollars 
worth of eggs. 

"The egg crop of this country last year amounted to $475,682,889, being only 

■ $8,992,890 less than the wheat crop, not counting the millions of eggs and chickens 

consumed bv farmers and others, of which no reports are made." — Farmincf World. 



AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 



H. LATOUBETTE, SUPERINTENDENT. 



Ml. Preddeni — As Superintendent of the Agricultural Department, 1 submit 
the following report: 

The exhibits in this department for this year was good, particularly in wheat, 
of which there were over twenty varieties, quite a number being new and, were very 
fine. In corn, also, there was a large and very fine exhibit, the best I have 



PROCEEDINGS. 69 

ever Been at our fair. The display of seeds was in greater variety than usual. 
There was a finer display of Indiana grasses than ever before exhibited. In vege- 
tables there was a larger exhibit and in greater variety than usual. The most 
marked improvement was in potatoes, there being a number of new varieties that 
could not fail to attract the attention of visitors. The display of dairy products 
was quite large ; there were fine samples of both butter and cheese. The apiary 
was also represented with some fine samples of honey. The whole exhibit shows 
that Indiana is up with her sister States in the production of all the grain, seed« 
and vegetables, known to this climate. 



HORTICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 



p. CUSTER, SUPERINTENDENT. 



As Superintendent of the Horticultural Department, it gives me pleasure to be 
able to say that the display in this department was very good, possibly not so large 
ae a few years ago, when the fruit growers were more fortunate in having a full 
crop of apples throughout the State. The past year the fruit crop in the central 
portion of the State was compaiatively short, almost a failure. The first specimens 
came from the north and south sections of the State. 

In the professional list Mr. Fickel, of Cass county, made a very fine display of 
twenty, twelve and six varieties of apples, with pears, quinces, grapes, etc. 

In the amateur class the competition was very close, with over one hundred and 
fifty entries of apples, besides pears, quinces and grapes. Among the grapes, those 
new candidates for public favor, the Prentiss and Niagara, were represented by 
several plates of fine specimens. The show of melons was unusually fine. 

T. A. Peffer, South Bend ; G. W. Graves, Bunker Hill, Miami county ; W. B. 
Flick and Peter Raab, of Marion county ; S. A. Hays, of Elizabethtown, Ohio, 
and J. Hutchison, of Worthington, were the principal exhibitors in the amateur 
class. 

The State Horticultural Society failed to make the exhibition of fruit that was 
expected of them, and which they intended to make until a short time previous to 
the fair, when they abandoned the project entirely. Many of you will remember 
the fine display of fruit made by that society at the fair of 1877, of which its 
President, in his annual address, said : " The result proved entirely satisfactory. 
The display was in every way a success. The exhibition of apples particularly 
fine, and elicited the highest encomiums of a vast multitude of visitors. There can 
scar* ely be a doubt but that this exhibition elicited such an interest among the 
many thousands that witnessed it as will in the future work greatly to the interest 
of horticulture and pomology throughout the State." 



70 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

At the annual meeting of this Board, President Mntz, in his addrees, after hi& 
respects to the press, sajs : " Espt cially will 1 mention the State Hotticultural 
Society, whose members have been present in force, joining with us in making an 
attractive display of horticultural products, and notwithstanding the adverse cir- 
cumstances of a bad fruit seuf^on, made a show of native fruits that would be a 
credit to the State at any fair." 

It is to be regretted that since 1877 the existence of a State Horticultural 
Society has Ijeen entirely unknown at the State Fair. But I may be digressing. 

In the Floral Division the .space was all occupied that could be obtained. The 
contributors arranged their plants so as to produce a very line effect, which added 
much to the attractions of the exhibition. The floral displays made by Messrs. 
Chtiries Reiman & Go. and Berterman Brothers were of wonderful beauty, and a 
very close examination was necessary to enable the committee to decide betjveen 
them. 

Among the amateur exhibitors were Mrs. Frank Williamson, Zionsville ; Mrs. 
Mary B. Dauley, M. C. Stewart, and Ely M. Bronson, of Indianapolis, all of whom, 
made very attractive exhibits. 



MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT. 



SAMUEL HARGROVE, SUPERINTENDEMT. 



Mr. President: 

As Superintendent of the Mechanical Department, I beg leave to submit ihe- 
following report : 

I arrived on the grounds on Friday morning preceding the fair, and found 
things in this department in good shape, the General Superintendent having had 
charge o!' the same up to this lime. 

For the next two days the arrival of machinery and other articles for exhibition 
in this department was immense; and the space allotted to this show was full to 
overflowing. 

Rule 15, as made by the Board, would have been strictly adhered to, had the 
weather permitted; but owing to the constant rain for two days, the time for 
making entries had to be extended until Tuesday evening. 

Both power halls were very much crowded, and we would suggest the building 
of additional halls. 

The building erected for headquarters of this department and express office, wa& 
found to be just the thing needed, and of great convenience both to the Sujierin- 
tendents and exhibitors. 

The ticket system, adopted for exhibitors in this department, was found to work 
admirably, there being no confusion in the distribution, and so far as we could 
learn, no advantage taken in their use, the number of tickets issued being 571. 

It was the general expr&^sion of both exhibitors and visitors, that this was by 
far the best show in this department ever had at this State Fair. 



PROCBBDINGS. 71 



CARRIAGES, WAGONS AND FURNITURE. 



JOHN RATLIFF, SUPERINTENDENT. 



The exhibits in this department were good. The merits of the displays in mj 
department are written up by expert jndges, and their reports embodied in the 
annual report of the Board, and it is, therefore, not the duty of the Superintendent 
of the department to speak of that matter in detail; but it may not be amiss or a 
trespass upon the duties of the experts to state the displays rendered very general 
satisfaction to visitors at the State Fair, as well as reflecting credit to exhibitors. 

The spacing of the hall and assignment of space to exhibitors had been done as 
economically as possible, yet there were a number of exhibitors who applied for 
space after all was taken that was thought to be available. Several articles were 
crowded into nooks and corners ; and arrangements were made with other exhib- 
itors, who surrendered small portions of space which had been assigned them, to 
accommodate those who came in later, and in this way all exhibitors were pro- 
vided for. 

There were displays made from probably one-fourth of the States of the Union. 

The articles, or goods, displayed in the department which were not entitled to 
premiums, by the rules of the Board, should be of the value of $50 to entitle the 
exhibitor to free, or exhibitors' tickets. This rule, in a few cases, may have been 
waived to accommodate exhibitors from other States, or from a distance, who wished 
to exhibit a meritorious machine which, of itself, would not be of the required 
value, but a valuable exhibit to the citizens of our State visiting the State Fair. 
The rulemaking some value the test or criterion by which exhibitors' tickets may 
be issued is undoubtedly a good one, and relieves the Superintendent of embar- 
rassment. In all cases of the display of goods, or a collection of goods, the rule 
has been strictly adhered to, and in no case was space occupied and tickets issued 
aaerely to admit the exhibitor to the fair. 

The ticket system adopted this year was quite an improvement over that of last 
year, being quite a relief to both the Superintendent and exhibitor. I issued 126 
exhibitor's tickets during the week in my department, which, I think, were prob- 
ably all accepted and used in good faith. 

I recently received a letter from a gentleman who stated he had attended every 
State Fair for the last ten years, and had never known such universal satisfaction 
throughout the various departments as at the last one. 

Your vSuperiuti-ndent can not do less than to say, in this connection, that he wa« 
universally treated with courtesy by exhibitors in his department, and that a general 
good feeling prevailed throughout. 



BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. 



WOMAN'S D E P A K T M E N T. 



MRil*. A. M. NOE, PRESIDENT. 



i¥»-. President: 

The year 1878 marked a new departure in the hiatory of the State Board of 
Agriculture, in the organization of a Woman's Department. And as each succeed- 
ing year has come and gone, greater success has crowned our efforts, until whatwas- 
begun in a small portion of the west end of the Exposition Building, has grown 
until one-half of the upper floor has been given to this department. Although 
recognized in 1878 as the AVoman's Department, it still had one of the members of 
the State Board as its Superintendent, and it was not until 1880 that entire control 
was given to the Woman's Board. So marked has been its progress that the proph- 
ecy made in our petition of 1879, viz.: "It will mark a new era in woman's indus- 
trial relations," '"it will be as bread cast upon the waters, to return, not after 
many days, but at once," " and continue returning, increased a thousand fold," has 
more than been fulfilled. And the prediction, that it would make the State Board 
of Agriculture known far and wide as a body of progressive, liberal-minded, 
magnanimous men, whose epitaphs should be written on tablets more lasting than 
marble ; the grateful hearts of the daughters of the State is also verified. 

Since the organization of this department several of the members of the State 
Board have been called from labor to reward, and while memory lasts their names- 
will be honored and revered by the members of the Woman's State Fair Associa- 
tion. To-day Indiana's State Board of Agriculture stands before the world as the 
only one showing this confidence in women. By so doing, it has given them the 
opportunity to prove their ability to carry on such an enterprise, and to bring be- 
fore the public the labor of their hands and brains on an equal footing with that 
of men. The efficacy of the organization has been demonstrated in the display 
made in the Woman's Department of the World's Industrial Exposition at New 
Orleans. In less than two months prior to the time of the opening, it was ena- 
bled to gather a creditable exhibit, and to place it in position before any other 
State in the department allotted to such displays. 

The whole number of entries made in this department for the exhibit of 1884, 
were 1,447, being 224 in excess of the preceding year. These figures, do not, by any 
means, give a correct idea of the number of articles entered, for many of them 
were collections of from three to ten articles under each entry. The amount 
offered as premiums was $900. The amount paid in premiums in the Woman's 
Department was $677, and in the Children's Department $78, making a total of 
$755. Current expenses $569.94. The last exhibit excelled in numbers and ex- 
cellence any former display, the Art Department alone, requiring the erection of 
two additional booths; and if it should continue to increase in the next two years, 
as it has in the past two, it alone will soon require the entire north side of the 
upper floor. The attractions offered in the Old Ladies' Day, Piano Contest; and the 
Young Ladies' Broom Drill, proved very attractive features. In a word, it can truly 
be said, success crowned every effort in this department. 



PROCEEDINGS. 73 

Before closing, it ia but due you, gentlemen of the State Board, and your worthy 
Secretary, that I return to you our sincere thanks for your hearty cooperation 
with us in all our plans, for the confidence reposed in us, for the kindness and 
courtesy extended towards us. With these kindly remembrances of the past, we 
feel assured that whatever the needs of the future may demand, we can come be- 
fore you without fear or trembling and make our requests known, feeling confident 
that we will be received with the same magnanimity that has heretofore been ex- 
tended us. 



GEOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 



DB. R. T. BROWN, SUPEKINTE>fDENT. 



The space assigned to exhibits in the Department of Geology and Natural His- 
tory at the State Fair of 1884, was entirely filled, and yet there were several im- 
portant products of the State, on which premiums were offered, that were not 
represented by any entries— coal, coke, building stone, cement, lime, potters' clay, 
commercial fertilizer, etc., were among them. This was the more remarkable, as in 
several of these lines Indiana stands in the foremost rank. But the premiums 
offered were small; and the articles are heavy and expensive in transportation and 
handling. • 

•In general collections of fossils there were two entries, complete and well ar- 
ranged. 

Two extensive collections of minerals were exhibited.' 

Of Mound-Builders relics two collections were displayed, representing nearly 
all the implements of the Stone Age. 

In natural history we had two entries of mounted birds, quadrupeds and rep- 
tiles, and one entry of the skins of birds, etc., unmounted. 

Two collections of diurnal, and three of nocturnal Lepidoptera (moths) were 
exhibited. These were very extensive collections, and were handsomely mounted 
and arranged. Two miscellaneous collections of insects were on exhibition, mak- 
ing altogether a very fine display in entomology. 

One entry of botanical specimens, and four collections of Indiana wood, were 
displayed. 

Three collections of coins and- medals were entered, bvit only two were exhibited. 

A collection of stamps, and one of miscellaneous curiosities, attracted much 
attention of visitors. 

If I had received earlier notice of my appointment to this superintendency, it is 
probable that I could have greatly enlarged the exhibit, but in that event we 
would have required double the space, which probably could not have been fur- 
nished. 



74 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

AMPHITHEATER. 



JOHN Q. A. SIEG, SUPERINTENDENT. 



Mr. Presiclent — The Superintendent of the ampitheater has not much to report. 
I would say that the seats on Thursday and Friday were crowded to their greatest 
capacity, but I have not the figures of the receipts so as to determine whether they 
were greater than previous years or not; but I do know that on Thursday and Fri- 
day it was entirely filled. , 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

If there were space on the ground, I would recommend the extension of the 
amphitheater, so as to accommodate a greater number of persons and to insure 
greater comfort to those occupying it. As it is, I would recommend the removal 
of the gate at the crossing of the track at tlie west end of the amphitheater to a 
greater distance from it in order to give more open space around the ticket office 
and gate at the entrance of the amphitheater at the west end. And I would 
further recommend that the Superintendent be required to clean out the amphi- 
theater and open the gates at ten o'clock in the morning, which*I think would be 
of great pecuniary advantage to the Board and save much confusion in the man- 
agement of this department. I would further recommend that the Superintendent 
of this department furnish his own police, and that they take charge of this depart- 
ment, and that all other police be required (unless called up6n) to keep out, thus 
giving more room for persons that are willing to pay for their privileges; aifd, 
further, that the Board establish a permanent rule as to who are to have the privi- 
lege of the accommodations of this department without cost. As it is, every per- 
son having a scrap of paper from the Board claims to have the right of free access 
to everything within the enclosure. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 



SPACE IN EXPOSITION BUILDING. 



S. W. DUNGAN, SUPERINTENDENT. 



Mr. President — In compliance with a time-honored custom of our State Board 
of Agriculture we submit the following brief report of our stewardship : 

We were assigned the duties of allotting space to exhibitors on lower floor of 
Exposition building and that part of upper floor not occupied by the Woman's 



FR0CEEDING8. 75 

Department; also, the guporvision of exhibits occupying the east half of upper 
floor. It was with much diffidence that we entered upon our work, it being en- 
tirely new to uf, having had charge of live stock departments since our connection 
with the Board, but with the help of our able assistant, O. B. Gilkey, of the city, 
whose natural adaptation to the work, combined with patience, good humor and 
mechanical skill rendered most valuable aid, we pulled through with a good degree 
of success. 

Many changes were made in location of exhibits from former years, which was 
thought by many to be a material improvement. It certainly contributed toward 
relieving the monotonous appearace of our halls. 

Every foot of available space was taken some three or four days before our fair 
■commenced,' and but for the courtesy and kindness of many exhibitors, who al- 
lowed those who came in at the eleventh hour to edge in on one corner of their 
space, they wonld have been left out; hence the importance of making early appli- 
cations for space. 

As to my departmeat it was chock full, combining both the useful and beauti- 
ful, many of the displays being of the most gorgeous and elaborate character, elic- 
iting the praise and admiration of the thousands Avho thronged our avenues during 
the fair week. 

The special iaerits of these exhibits will be thoroughly noted by expert com- 
mitteemen, selected by the Board to examine and write up for our forthcoming re- 
port, thertfore we deem it improper, at this time, to attempt an allusion to the 
many excellent and meritorious displays in our department. 

We desire to say, before closing, that our new form of exhibitor's tickets "worked 
like a charm," and is certainly a grand improvement over the old system of issuing 
tickets daily. Our exhibitors seemed delighted with the change, and the Board ii 
to be congratulated upon the success of this new feature which saves much val- 
uable time and annoyance, both to exhibitors and department Superintendents. 

The Committee on Credentials made partial verbal report 
and asked for further time, which, on motion of Mr. Jones, was 
granted. 

President Mitchell announced the following standing com- 
mittees: 

On Finance — Of the Board, Messrs. Seward, Jones and Gra- 
ham; of the Delegates, Messrs. Reiter and Cumback. 

Rules and Regulations — Of the Board, Messrs. Lockhart, 
LaTourette and Dungan; of the Delegates, Messrs. Robe, 
Glick and Matlock. 

Fair Grounds — Of the Board, Messrs. Hargrove, Davidson, 
ajid Sieg ; of the Delegates, Messrs. Steelman, Chamberlain, 
and Billmeyer. 



7H BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Premium List — Of the Board, Messrs. Banks, Rati iff, and 
Btuart ; of the Delegates, Messrs. Boggs, McWilliams and Shank. 

Uvjinished Business — Of the Board, Messrs. Sunman and 
Ratlitf ; ot the Delegates, Messrs. Tilson and Reppey. 

Prof. C. H. Hall, of Franklin College, delivered an address 
on "Farmers and Higher Education," which will be found in 
this report. 

On motion of Mr. Cumback, a rising vote of thanks was ten-' 
dered to Prof. Plall for his very interesting address. 

President Smart, of Purdue University, spoke briefly on 
" What can our Agricultural College do for the Farmers of the 
State ?" as follows : 

I did not come here with the intention of diecuasing the subject which has been 
iissigned to me, but rather for the purpose of ah.king you to listen to a substitute, 
our Prof. Webster, who has kindly consented to take my place. Indeed, I think I 
may properly present him and his work as a fair answer to the question, "What 
Can Purdue University do for the Agricultural Interests of the State ?" 

You are aware of the fact that we have converted the larger part of our farm 
into an experimental station, and that we are doing a great deal of field and lab- 
oratory work, in order that we may discover something that may.be of service to 
the farmers of the State. We are experimenting in regard to the use of fertilizers, 
in regard to the rotation of crops and the best methods of seeding. We are also 
performing a great variety of feeding experiments; and the best of all, as I think, 
we are trying to aid in preventing the enormous wastage which occurs to our grains 
and fruits through the ravages of destructive insect?. 

We expect to print bulletins embodying the results of our investigations, in 
large numbers. These will be distributed over the State, and will be placed in the 
hands of farmers and horticulturists; we hope that they will do much good. Two 
or three of these bulletins have already been prepared, some of which I have here 
for distribution. One of these will tell you the results obtained from our experi- 
mental wheat field, in which we experimented on thirty-nine varieties of seed 
wheat. Another was prepared by Prof. Webster, who is to speak to you this after- 
noon. It gives in great detail inform ^tion concerning the Hessian fly, its habits, 
its modes of operation, and the means which may be taken to destroy it. A third, 
prepared by our Prof. Latta, gives you the results of a great variety of experiment* 
in the use of fertilizers. 

I think these bulletins will answer the question, "What can Purdue University 
do for the Agricultural Interes s of the State?" if both Prof. Webster and myself 
should fail to do so. These bulletins will be sent to any address, on application to 
our Registrar. 

I now take pleasure in introducing Prof. Webster to you, who will talk about 
the destructive insects and their work.* 

* The address of Prof. Webster viiU be found elsewhere in this report. 



PROCEEDINGS. 77 

On motion of Mr. Dungan, a rising vote of thanks was ten- 
dered to Prof. Webster for his interesting and valuable address. 

The Committee on Credentials made final report, and the re- 
sult, together with subsequent action of the convention as to 
who should be delegates, is summarized in the roll-call, printed 
at the commencement of these proceedings. 

On motion of Mr. Gerber, the convention adjoured until 8:30 
o'clock to-morrow morning. 



SECOND DAY. 



Wednesday, January 7, 1885, 8:30 a. m. 

Board met, President Mitchell in the chair. Proceedings of 
yesterday's meeting read and approved. 

Mr. Cumback — It has been suggested to me by several mem- 
bers of this Board that it would not be best to postpone the 
election of new members until to-morrow. If it is postponed 
until to-morrow there will be a slim attendance, as a large num- 
ber will return home either to-night or to-morrow. It does 
seem to me that it is important that the election should be held 
while there is a good attendance. As there is no business of 
special importance before the convention this morning, I move 
that the programme be changed so that the nomination of per- 
sons to fill the places of members whose terms expire with this 
meeting be made this forenoon, and the election for the same 
be had this afternoon at 4 o'clock. 

Mr. Mitchell — These annual meetings ar*^ important. The 
object of arranging the programme so as to extend it over 
another day, was to afford more time to the discussion of such 
papers as may be presented. This forms the most valuable and 
interesting part of these meetings. Experience proves that as 
soon as the election of members is had the members disperse. 
This is discouraging to the speakers, and detracts, very natu- 
rally, from the good eff'ect of our meetings. We ought to re- 
main in full meeting the three days allotted in the programme. 



78 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Seward — You have pretty much made my speech. I 
hope the Delegate Board will not make the change contem- 
plated by the motion. Judging from past experience, very few- 
remain after the election. During the full meeting a great 
many questions come up for discussion from which much 
benefit is derived. It is true that it may keep some of the 
delegates longer than they want to stay, and they will go as 
Boon as the business that brings them together has been done. 
The election is not more important than the papers that are 
read, and the discussions that follow. Let us remain the full 
time set for the Convention. I would like to hear from others 
on this subject. 

Mr. Cockrum — I have been favorable to holding the election 
this afternoon, but after giving the subject further thought, 
believe it would not, probably, be best. It will make but little 
difference if it remains over one day longer, as some will go, 
and others will come. I have therefore changed my opinion, 
and think we should hold this election to-morrow morning. 

Mr. Cumback — We should not shape this Convention to suit 
people to-raorrow. We have some who come here and vote for 
their man, and not for the interests of the society at all. We 
should not shape our society to accommodate those people; 
they should come here and stand by the society until we get 
through. 

Mr. TUson — A number of delegates were not here yesterday, 
some of them can not be here until noon to-day, and many are 
now absent on committee duty. For this small number to 
change the time of the election I think unfair. It is best to 
follow the programme and have the election to-morrow. There 
are some who can not be here before noon to-day, possibly not 
until to- light, who are interested in the election. It is crowd- 
ing matters very close to make the nominations this morning 
and the election at 4 o'clock this afternoon. 

Mr, Nelson — I have been in the habit of attending these meet- 
ings for a long time. It has been my experience that as soon 
as the election is over, the delegates go home, leaving much 
important business undone, and very interesting papers have to 



PROCEEDINGS. 79 

be read to empty benches. The election is generally under- 
stood to be to-morrow. Quite a number of delegates who live 
not far away, expect to be here to-morrow, and this is, I think, 
the only change we should make. We will have enough to 
entertain us without going into the election to-day. I would 
be willing to have the election to-morrow morning, but not 
to-day. 

Mr. Cumback — It is desirable to have this election when most 
delegates are present. If the election is after noon to-morrow 
we will have to stay until the night trains, and the result will 
be that you will not have twenty delegates here. The custom 
of the country people is, to come here one day and go home the 
next, and if we wait until to-morrow we won't have them here. 
The elections of this Convention should reflect the agricultural 
interests ot the whole State, and not be subjected to the charge 
of being elected by a few. We can change this programme and 
have the election this afternoon, and then go ahead with the 
programme to-morrow. I hope the motion will prevail. 

Mr. Tilson—Mr. Cumback and myself are agreed on the ques- 
tion of having the greatest number of delegates present, but 
niy opinion is that there will be more here to-morrow than to- 
day. 

A Delegate — There are some six or eight delegates who have 
to go home this evening. Perhaps there are as many here to- 
day as there will be during the meeting, and I would be in favor 
of making the change. 

3Ir. Nelson — In looking over the programme for to-morrow 
morning I find that the persons designated tor duty are resi- 
dents of the city, with the exception of Mr. Davidson. I there- 
fore move to amend by naming 9 o'clock to-morrow morning 
for the election. ISTot carried. 

The motion of Mr. Cumback was then agreed to. 

The President laid before the Convention a draft of an act, 
submitted by the State Veterinary Association, to prevent the 
spread of contagious and infectious diseases. 

Mr. Nelson — This is a move in the right direction. Whether 
this particular bill is the right thing or not I don't know. I 



80 BOARD OF AORICULTUHE. 

am in favor of referring it to a committee for a short time. 1 
therefore move that a committee of three be appointed by the 
chair to consider the bill and report thereon as early as prac- 
ticable, say to-morrow morning. 

The motion was carried, and Messrs. Nelson, Stuart and Duu- 
gan were appointed as the committee. 

Mr. Mitchell — It seems to me that there is a better way to 
reach this object, and that would be to create a chair of Vet- 
erinary Science at Purdue University, and make the Professor 
thereof the State Veterinary Surgeon, with duties as provided 
in the proposed bill. 

Dr. R. T. Brown, Superintendent of the Geological and 
Natural History Department, presented report of exhibits 
therein, which will be found in place with the reports of De- 
partment Superintendents. 

Mr. Stuart, from the Committee on Premium List, reported 
as follows : 

Your Committee on Premium List, having examined the list of the lair of 
1884 and the various reports of the Superintendents of departments, present the 
following report, and respectfully suggest that the changes therein proposed shall 
be adopted. 

First. Substitute the word 'two" lor the word "three" in rule 6, page 9, of 
Premium List, 1884. 

Seeond. In the Horse Department make the premiums and items in Book V the 
same as in Book ill, except the last item in Book III. 

Third. In the Cattle Department dispense with the sweepstakes rings for bull 
and cow in dairy breeds, and add the premiums thereon to the dairy herd prize. 
Give the sum of §150 to each of the dairy breeds in prizes of $100 and $50, the 
constitution of the herds to be by age as now. 

Fourth. In Books XIII, XIV, XV, XVI change the tirst item so as to read 
" Bull three years old and over with three of his get." 

Fifth. In the Hog Department in Book XXX dispense with the last herd pre- 
mium, and dispense with the herd jjremium in Book XXXI, and have a herd 
prize arranged by age, the same as in first clause of Book XXX. 

Signed, W. A. Banks, John Ratlifk, 

E. W. Shank, J. M. Boggs, 

A. C. McWiLi^iAMs, C. B. Stuart. 



PROCEEDING.S. 81 



DISCUSSION. 



Mr. Cumback — As we failed to get an appropriation last , 
year to paj the interest on our bonded debt, I suggest a hori- 
zontal reduction of twenty per cent, of premiums offered, so 
that we may have a surplus in the treasury at the end of the 
year to apply on the debt. The fairs throughout the State 
make a mistake in paying large premiums. I am a new mem- 
ber and want to be careful. People come to the fair more for 
social enjoyment than anything else. I am not sufficiently fa- 
miliar with the premium list to say just what would be best, 
but I think it would be right to make a reduction. 

Mr. Votaw — Mr. Cumback says twenty per cent. This seems 
a little like the tariff" question. I think that it would not be 
wisdom for the State Board to make a general sweep on the 
premium list. It occurs to me that a liberal premium should 
be offered for cattle, sheep and other stock. It will be an in- 
ducement for them to bring out their stock. However, there 
is a certain class that come as an advertisement for manufac- 
tured articles, on which no premium should be allowed. I 
hope this matter will be taken under advisement by the Board, 
and the premiums on herds of cattle will be kept up. 

Mr. Cumback — It does not cost a's much to bring cattle here 
as heavy agricultural machinery. The agricultural men are 
willing to bring their implements and four times as much. 
The same will apply to the cattle men and all other exhibitors. 
Since the premiums have been taken off some things, the ex- 
hibit has increased four fold. It is not the premiums after all, 
therefore I think we have made a mistake in our county fairs, 
and some in our State fairs, in paying out so much for premiums. 

Mir. Votaw — We must, in my judgment, give premiums in 
order to bring out imported horses and cattle. It is different 
from agricultural machinery which is made in our own State. 
I must contend for premiums retained on horses and cattle. I 
think every gentleman who is interested in catrle and horses 
of the best quality, will bear me out in this. 
6— Aqriccxture. 



82 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

• 

Mr. Nelson — I have had some experience and have different 
views regarding these premiums, and I say, without fear of 
successful contradiction, that the high premium is just what 
' has kept up our State fairs. Those men with machinery do 
not care much for premiums; diplomas for meritorious points 
serve their purpose quite as well, but it is different with stock. 
It not only costs much to bring it to the fair, but there is con- 
siderable risk of life or injury, while there is little risk in the 
transportation- of machinery. There may be some of your 
premiums too large and need a proper discrimination, but 
where there is a reduction, it should be made where it does not 
seem to show. If you take twenty per cent, off horses and 
cattle you will not be troubled to find room for all that will 
come. 

31r. Mutz — This delegate meeting is for the purpose of in- 
structing the State Board proper as to the wants and best 
interests of the industries of the State, and it is through the 
expressions of opinions and statements of facts from all parts 
of the State, that the Board is enabled to model the premium 
list so as to meet the apparent best interests. The recommend- 
ations of the delegates should receive more credit. Our Com- 
mittee on Premium List has suggested some amendments and 
the Board proper should heed those suggestions, and as far as 
practicable adopt them. 

On motion of Mr. Quick, the report of the committee was 
referred to the State Board proper. 

Mr. Votaw moved that a committee of three be appointed to 
co-operate with Commissioner Carnahan in enhancing the 
value of the Indiana exhibit at the New Orleans Exposition. 

3h. Nelson — Some allusion was made yesterday to the World's 
Fair at New Orleans, but no opinion was expressed as to the 
Board taking any part with the Commissioner in making the In- 
diana exhibit creditable to the State. I do not think the sub- 
ject was entirely exhausted, and as there is nothing before the 
house I wish to make some inquiry regarding it. 

Mr. Seward — We, with Mr. Nelson, are all aware that the ex- 
hibition at New Orleans is going on. The General Govern- 



PROCEEDINGS. 88 

ment appropriated $5,000 to each of the States for the purpose 
of aiding them in making suitable exhibits of their various re- 
sources. Indiana is a prominent Agricultural State, and it ia 
desirable that this Board should be thoroughly represented 
there. The appointment of a Commissioner for this State to 
the New Orleans exposition is in the hands of the Q-overuor. 
He has made the appointment, but the appointee is in no way 
identified with the Agricultural and Mechanical interests of the 
State. I desire to say that this Board is not in any way respon- 
sible for the exhibit of the State at IS'ew Orleans. I do not 
see why this Board could not have been represented in that ex- 
hibition. Mr. Carnahan, the Commissioner appointed by the 
Governor, has done the best he could within the limited time 
since his appointment, and I do not wish to criticise him. If the 
appointment had been made from this Board, at an early day, 
an exhibit could have been made of which the people of the 
'state would have been proud. But as it is, it is a farce. I am 
astonished at the situation, and not a little ashamed of it. 

Mr. Mitchell — I feel that it is hardly necessary for me to express 
myself on this subject. We have on this Board as competent 
and efficient men as can be found in the State. I did think that 
the Governor would have appointed some one from this Board 
to represent the Agricultural and Mechanical industries of the 
State. Kansas is represented by Mr. Johnson, Ohio by Mr. 
Camberlain, and other States have representatives from their 
Agricultural Boards. Had the appointment been made in due 
season the best samples of grain could have been forwarded to 
]!^ew Orleans, and County Agricultural Societies would have -re- 
sponded to the call for contributions. We were ready to do every- 
thing that we could creditable to ourselves and to the Agricult- 
ural interest of the State, but we were powerless in this matter. 

Mr. Votaw — I think it would be proper for this Delegate 
Board to appoint a Commissioner to co-operate with the Com- 
missioner appointed by the Governor. 

Mr. Cumback — If that can be done it would be very appro- 
priate. Can this Commissioner, if appointed, get any of the 
funds held by the Governor to pay expenses? 



84 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Mitchell — I do not think any one here would be willing 
to accept this position. I am in favor of those who have it in 
hand, to run it the best they can, and for this Board to have 
nothing whatever to do with it at this late day. 

Commissioner Carnahan having been invited to explain to 
the Delegate Board the nature and extent of the exhibit at 
New Orleans, addressed the Convention as follows : 



GENERAL CAKNAHAN'8 REMARKS. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

I was asked, a few days ago, to give you a few minutes' talk regarding the Ex- 
position at New Orleans, and the exhibit of your State there. To get an idea of 
what the State is doing there, it is well to state, first, that the State is divided into 
three departments — Women's Work, Education and State Exhibit proper. The 
Women's Work from this State, as Mrs. Noe, who has been down there, will tell you> 
is not with the State exhibit. The ladies thought they would prefer going into a 
competitive exhibit with the ladies of other States, so they have their display sep- 
arated from the State department. The Educational Department is with the United 
States Educational Department. Both the Women's and Educational Departments 
are in the gallery overlooking the Government and State exhibit. I will give you a 
brief statement of the buildings prepared for the exhibit. There is the main build- 
ing, as it is termed. The ground floor of this covers 33 acres. Running entirely 
around this main building is a gallery 40 feet wide. All of this is devoted to pri- 
vate exhibits. Every foot of available space in that immense building, the largest 
exposition building ever erected, is occupied by exhibitors botli in gallery and 
ground floor. After the time expired for application for exhibit, the Director Gen- 
eral said that over 800 American applications had to be refused for lack of space. 

The United States exhibit includes displays from the different places of indus- 
try, and scientific and educational exhibit by the Government. A vast collection 
of useful articles and curiosities, collected by the United States from all parts of 
the world, are in this collection. There are relics gathered by Lieutenant Greely 
in his visit to the Polar regions. Exhibited in this building, which takes 200 feet 
on either side, are the State exhibits, made up of the agricultural products of the 
different States. Coming next north of this Government exhibit, on the east side of 
the building, is the State of Michigan, next Indiana, then, immediately north, is 
the State of Wisconsin, and went of us a line of the Eastern States. The Eastern 
States, for the most part, make an exhibit of manufactures. Connecticut, imme- 
diately west and across the aisle from Indiana, exhibits all sorts of manufactured 
articles, from wooden nutmegs and hams to steam engines. They exhibit no agri- 
cultural products. Ohio, with an appropriation of $40,000, makes a most admira- 
ble display. They are separated from us by one State. Much of their display is 
fancy work, such as needle work, painting and scenery, put up by the artist. 



PROCEEDINGS. 85 

Michigan and Wisconsin have spent as much in getting up tables and show-cases 
in which to display their products as Indiana has put in all her exhibit. Each of 
those States had large appropriations, in addition to that of the Government, for 
making their display. Nebraska, Kansas, and our Western States, have made 
large and magnificent displays. Minnesota makes the largest part of their display 
in flour. Nebraska has expended almost S20,000 in getting her display ready, and 
it is magnificent. Kansas has paid out a large amount of money ; they received a 
Government appropriation, and the Legislature also made an appropriation, and 
have received a great aid from railroad companies. Nearly all the States, I think, 
with one exception, that of Pennsylvania, made an appropriation for the purpose 
of making their State display. 

On the 25th of September I was commissioned as United States Commissioner 
for Indiana to make our exhibit; it was a late start to get to work, but I went at it 
in earnest, determined to do the best I could. I traveled over the State myself, 
and sent other parties to aid in collecting an exhibit for the State. W^e have col- 
lected from the north, south, east, west and central parts of the State. I have col- 
lected grains both in the straw and threshed, corn in the ear, as well as shelled, 
and I think there in no grass that grows in Indiana, either cultivated or wild, that 
I have not displayed for Indiana at New Orleans. We have a place of forty feet 
by one hundred and seventy feet, and a good location. At the suggestion of your 
Secretary I prepared a chart showing how Indiana's exhibit is arranged, so that 
you might get a better conception of it. The walls of our building are covered 
with pictures of our State Houses, beginning with Corydon, next the State House 
that was torn down to give place for the new one, next one given me by the Com- 
missioners for the new one. I have several pictures representing the Court House, 
Insane Hospital, Blind Asylum, Deaf and Dumb Asylum, Orphans' Home at 
Knightstown and the State Keform School buildings, and some pictures of hand- 
some residences of the State. Some people down there ask me if we have such 
residences as these. I tell them that some of us had got out of log-cnbins, and 
could put up a decent house here and there. I have the principal newspapers of 
the State— received every morning, and kept ou file. The walls are covered with 
pictures of the finest stock we have in the State, including cattle, hogs, sheep, etc. 
We have worked woods, taken from the timber and not painted, which shows the 
quality of the wood. I have some ninety specimen'» of wood, rough and unhewn. 
Next to the wood, we have samples of coal from our State; the largest sample 
weighs over a ton. Some States have brought in coal weighing six, seven or eight 
tons. All other States bringing their coal to the Exposition have it encased with 
strong pieces of timber to keep it from breaking. Indiana is the only one that 
dares take the stays away from the coal, and it stands up as nice as in the mine 
without slacking. Most of the other coal shown as soon as exposed to the climate 
slack and fall away. The headquarters, as provided, we were to pay a thousand 
dollars for; we concluded it would not pay. I went to work and had a large tent 
10x28 feet, with gas pipes running all around. This formed my headquarters. I 
made a platform, raised it six inches, extending three feet outside, entirely around 
the tent. On that I have arranged samples of Indiana building stone. Since return- 
ing home from New Orleans I have received a letter informing me that Georgia was 



Ob BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

contracting for Indiana stone for the building of a new State House at Atlanta. 
By exhibiting this stone at New Orleans it is bringing it into prominence, and will 
give employment to a large number of men in getting it out. 

In the headquarters tent I have furniture of various kinds, all of which are 
from Indiana wood, with the exception of some camp chairs. The excellence of 
the various woods also shows what we are doing in fine household articles. The 
Indiana Encaustic Tile Company is represented, and makes a fine display, which 
attracts a great deal of attention. We have opposite this samples from the Terra 
Cotta Works, located here at Indianapolis We have also crockery and drain tile 
on exhibition, a matter that is to give us prominence in this direction. I have 
also collected models of parents that have been issued to Indiana men, and are be- 
ing manufactured in this State. I have 1,000 square feet of grains and grasses of 
the State. On one wing I have nothing but bearded wheat, on another smooth 
wheat, another oats, another corn. We have another wing entirely for grass, put 
up in handsome shape, which is attracting a great deal of attention ; and another, 
known by the ladies as " Crazy Quilt," and if there is any kind of grass that grows 
in this State not on that wing, I don't know where to find it. The edges of each 
wing are trimmed from leaves of tobacco, and surmounting the entire wing are 
bundles of wheat and oats, bound together as tightly as pbssible. 1 have in one 
case 4x5 feet of plate-glass, containing seed-corn furnished by a seed company at 
Thorntown ; their exhibit is eight varieties of corn. 

We have now for Indiana what is conceded to be the finest display of wheat on 
exhibition, (not the largest, but finest). A California man, with their long 
bunches of wheat, came over and wanted to examine our s])ecimens. He said they 
had more straw, but we had the best wheat. I have cotton and woolen goods man- 
ufactured at Evausville, and graded wheat furnished by the Indianapolis Board of 
Trade. In the center of this display I have a market bulletin board, on Avhich I 
give daily reports from the Indianapolis market, the only bulletin board in the en- 
tire display. I have also specimens of worked wood and woven wire, made by the 
Sedgwick Brothers, of Richmond. The only woven wire in the world made by ma- 
chinery is in Indiana, and is owned by Indiana brothers, farmer boys. Since they 
have put up this wire there, they have been receiving orders almost every day, and 
woven wire is said to be stronger than hand-made wire. Gentlemen, this is what is 
being done at New Orleans. Your manufacturing and agricultural interests, stock 
and general industries of the State are represented. I have done the best I could 
under the circumstances, and I think some of these gentlemen who have visited 
New Orleans will bear me out in the statement. Pennsylvania, an older State and 
greater in wealth than ours, and placed on the same footing as ours so far as legis- 
lative appropriation is concerned, does not come up to Indiana by far; and as to 
our own State, we are adding to it day by day. We have not got all of our exhibit 
in place because we could not get them from the railroad. When I left, ihey had 
4,000 cars on the track which could not get in to be unloaded. I have just received 
a letter from my assistant, that our cars are just beginning to come in. I want you 
gentlemen, wllen you return home, to send to me, here at Indianapolis, samples of 
your premium wheat exhibited at your agricultural meeting last fall, also oats and 
rye, and don't be afraid of sending too much. I am exhibiting these in glass globes 



PROCEEDINGS. 87 

holding a little over a gallon. We are being brought into competition with foreign 
nations, and let ua say to them that, as far as Indiana is concerned, we can show 
along with the States of the nation, and the entire world. 

Mr. Cumback — How much money has been expended in the 
display thus far? 

Ge7i. Carnahan — There was placed at my hands at the outset 
$5,000 with which to make our exhibit ; each State in the 
Union received this amount from the G^eneral Government; 
that amount has all been expended. While I do not complain, 
I want to say you have got to pay for everything south of the 
Ohio river. I sent by express a fine picture, prepared by one 
of the schools here in the city, it would weigh perhaps, frame 
and all, seventy-five pounds, that cost me ^9.50 to get it down 
there. Freights from here to Nashville are reasonable, but 
after that they are high. Every department is hampered be- 
cause they have not means; the managers are doing all they 
can, but the expenses have been enormous in every respect ; a 
man who never shoved a plane in his life wants $3 a day, and 
the same rate in everything else. While such is the case, I 
have done everything in my power to make the expense as 
light as possible. 

Mr. Cumback presented the following : 

Whereas, Other States of the Union have made large appropriations to en- 
able their States to make a creditable exhibition at the World's Fair at New Or- 
leans, therefore, 

Resolved, By the Indiana State Board of Agriculture, that the Legislature of 
the State be requested to at once appropriate ten thousand dollars to be placed at 
the disposal of the Commissioner of Indiana and the representatives from the said 
Board, in order that Indiana may be enabled to make a proper exhibit of our re- 
sources. 

Which was adopted. 

The consideration ot the motion of Mr. Votaw was resumed. 

Mr. Smart — I know something about the cost of this exhibi- 
tion. I spent i$4,700 for making an educational display at 
Philadelphia, and hdd not money enough. I can not see how 
he could do so much as he has done with the money he has 
had. I believe the display will disgrace us if we don't have 
more money. 



88 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Carnahan — I want to say to the gentleman that every 
foot of space allotted to Indiana is filled ; what we want is 
material to replenish and keep the display fresh. 

On motion of Mr. Cumback, President Mitchell, Mr. Votaw 
and Mrs. Noe were appointed the committee 

President Mitchell called Mr. Davidson to the chair, when 
Mr. Lockhart, from the committee to which was referred the 
address of the President, presented the following, which was 
received and adopted : 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the State Delegate Board : 

Your committee to which was referred the address of President Mitchell, has 
had the same under consideration, and beg leave to make the following report on 
the various suggestions made by him to this Delegate Board : 

First. We fully indorse his suggestions as to the propriety of petitioning the 
Legislature to make an appropriation of a sufficient sum of money to pay off the 
entire indebtedness of the State Board of Agriculture, and thereby enable it the 
more fully to carry out the spirit of the law creating it. 

Second. In relation to the appointment of a State Veterinary Surgeon, we be- 
lieve it is the duty of the incoming Legislature to make provision for the appoint- 
ment of such an officer, and would suggest that a chair for that purpose should be 
provided at Purdue University, the recognized head of the agricultural work of the 
great State of Indiana. 

.Third. We have carefully examined the question of selecting Judges at our 
annual fairs, and are of the opinion that what is termed the new system of select- 
ing three judges, two to act and in case of a disagreement the third to be called in 
to decide the award, is preferable to any other system noAV in use. 

Fourth. The use of turnstiles at the fairs would be preferable to any other way 
of admitting persons to the grounds, providing that entrances to the main building 
can be so arranged as to permit their use. 

Fifth. The advisability of holding of a fat-stock show at Indianapolis in the fall 
of 1885, would depend, we think, on the encouragement extended by her citizens in 
furnishing an amount of money sufficient to guarantee the Board against possible 
loss from any cause, as the present financial condition of the country would not 
justify the Slate Board in attempting to hold such a show on any other conditions. 

Sixth. We heartily endorse the idea of the managers of the great fairs of the 
United States and Canada holding meetings for the purposes named in President 
Mitchell's address, and would recommend to this Delegate Board that they extend 
an invitation to the committee to arrange for the holding of their next annual 
meeting in December next at some place in the State of Indiana. 

Seventh. We recommend that a sufficient sum of money be appropriated by the 
Legislature to Purdue University to enable its faculty to carry on that great insti- 
tution of learning in such manner as to make it second to no other institution in 
the United States, organized for the same purpose. 



PROCEEDINGS. 89 

Eighth. We most respectfully recommend to this Delegate Board that they 
make it their individual business to see tUat the annual reports published by the 
State Board of Agriculture each year, are placed in the hands of men in their re- 
spective counties where they will do the most good. 

Ninth, We recommend that our State Legislature pass such laws as will pre- 
vent, as much as possible, the adulteration of food and medicines, and provide 
such penalties for the violation of the law as will serve to deter persons from en- 
gaging in such practices. 

Tenth. We also endorse the idea of compelling all persons that are engaged in 
the manufacture of any kind of goods by the employment of prison labor, to put 
upon their goods such a brand as will enable them to distinguish it from that made 
by free labor. 

Eleventh. We most heartily endorse the suggestion of granting to the Woman's 
Department the entire control of the whole second floor of the Exposition Building, 
believing that they can so manage the exhibits as to make it more interesting than 
it has ever been before. 

Mr. Votaw — I suggest that two from the State Board and 
one from the Delegate Board be appointed to co-operate with 
Gen. Carnahan in making this display. 

Mr. Cumback — I would have one from the State Board, one 
from the Delegate Board, and one for the Women's Depart- 
ment. It is nothing but right that they should have an equal 
chance at this money in order to carry on the display in their 
department. 

Dr. Furnas — Dakota received $40,000 to carry on her display, 
aiid Indiana has sent a Commissioner there with just enough 
to get defeated. I would like for Indiana to make an appro- 
priation of 115,000. 

On motion of Mr. Chamberlain, the convention proceeded to 
nominate candidates for members of the Board proper from the 
5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th districts. The fol- 
lowing named gentlemen were placed in nomination: 

Fifth Dhtrict — W. A. Greer, Dearborn county; T. W. W. Sunman, Eipley 
county. 

Sixth District — Dick Jones, Bartholomew county; Will Cumback, Decatur 
county. 

Seventh District — W. H Keesling, Henry county; J. L. Carson, Shelby county; 
W. — . Jackson, Henry county; E. H. Peed, Henry county; George W. Wheeler, 
Hamilton county ; Nelson Bradley, Hancock county. 



90 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Ninth District — H. LaTourette, Fountain county. 
Tenth District — Jasper N. Davidson, Montgomery county. 
Eleventh District — John M. Graham, Delaware county. 

Twelfth District— Jno. M. Levering, Tippecanoe county ; J. M. Boggfl, Tippeca- 
noe county. 

Thirteenth District — W. A. Maze, Tipton connty ; John Ratliff, Grant county. 

The Board adjourned until 1:30 p. m. 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 

Wednesday, Jan. 7, 1885. 

Board met pursuant to adjournment, President Mitchell in 
the chair. 

J. G. Kingsbury, of the Indiana Farmer, read an interesting 
essay on "The Destruction of Crops by Insects," which will be 
found elsewhere. 

Mr. Cumback moved that the paper be received with thanks 
of the Board, and with the request that it be published in the 
Indiana Farmer. 

Col. J. A. Bridgeland delivered an interesting essay on 
French agriculture and breediug of Norman horses, which was 
listened to with great satisfaction, and accorded a hearty vote 
of thanks. It will be found elsewhere in this report in full. 

Mr. Lockhart, from the Committee on Rules and Regula- 
tions, to which was referred the rules and regulations, reported 
as follows : 

Your committee beg leave to report that we have had the 
same under consideration, and do not see any reason for 
making any changes in the existing Rules of the Board as 
printed in the premium list of the year 1884. 

R. M. Lockhart, Chairman. 

Which was adopted. 

Mr. Johnson submitted the following : 



PROCEEDINGS. 91 

Resolved, That, in view of the great destruction of agricultural and horticul- 
tnral products in our State by injurious insects, and recognizing the importance of 
a knowledge of their origin, habits, and the best means of eradicating them, the 
State ought to have a State Entomologist ; therefore, we ask that the Legislature 
provide by law for the appointment of such an officer, and that adequate means 
be placed at the disposal of the proper authorities for the purpose of defraying 
the necessary expenses of such an officer. 

Adopted. 

F. G. Wiselogel read paper on "Fertilizers and their relation 
to the growing plant," for which a vote of thanks was tender- 
ed by the convention. This paper will be found elsewhere in 
this report. 

Mr. Cumback moved that each Agricultural and Industrial 
Society represented by any one connected therewith in this 
convention, be entitled to one vote in the election now to take 
place for members of the State Board proper, which was agreed 
to, and the names of such representatives were ordered placed 
upon the roll. 

The hour having arrived for the election of eight members to 
fill the places of those whose terms of office expires with this 
meeting of the Board — the convention proceeded to elect, and 
the following named gentlemen were chosen to serve for the 
term of two years next ensuing: • 

From the 5th District — W. A. Greer, of Dearborn Co. 
From the (ith District — Dick. Jones, of Bartholomew Co. 
From the 7th District— E. H. Peed, of Henry Co. 
From the 9th District — H. LaTourette, of Fountain Co. 
From the 10th District — Jasper N. Davidson, of Montgom- 
ery Co. 

From the 11th District — Jno. M. Graham, of Delaware Co. 
From the 12th District — J. M. Boggs, of Tippecanoe Co. 
From the 13th District— John Ratlifi:; of Grant Co. 

On motion of Mr. Dungau, the convention adjourned until 
8.30 o'clock to-morrow morning. 



92 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE, 



THIRD DAY. 



Thursday, Jan. 8, 1885, 8:30, a. m. 

Board met, President Mitchell in the chair. 

Minutes of yesterday's proceedings read and approved. 

3Ir. Jones — Do I understand from the reading of the minutes 
that the resolution passed, recommending the petitioning of 
the Legislature to appropriate $10,000 for the New Orleans Ex- 
position ? 

Several voices — Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jones — Then, at the proper time I will make a motion to 
reconsider that vote. 

Gen. Carnahan — I wish to say in a few words, to emphasize 
what I said yesterday, in regard to the members of the State 
Board of Agriculture here, representing not only this Board but 
various County Agricultural Societies, the importance of your 
doing something in this matter now. I do not come to you beg- 
ging, but I appeal to the pride you have in your county and State. 
Don't go home and say it will do to look after this in three or 
four weeks, but get to work at once. If anything is worth do- 
ing at all, it is well to do it when it is needed. We don't col- 
lect for a demonstration on the 4th day of July, on the 5th or 
6th, that is the point I make. I want those articles sent at 
once, as they have to be in New Orleans before the first day of 
February, or you are cut out. On my own personal applica- 
tion I had the time extended from the 16th of December to 
the 1st of February, in order to get our collection ready. Ship 
all you can to me at this place by freight. Express will cost 
three times as much as freight. I don't care how much yon 
send. I want to advertise Indiana, so they will come or send 
here to buy your wheat, wood, stone, clay and manufactured 
articles, etc. I put all grains up so they can see them and handle 
them. The grain buyers are coming every morning to look at the 



PROCEEDINGS. 93 

bulletin of our grain market. It is better to advertise it inthi8 
way than to put it in sacks. Every man and county shall have 
credit for the exhibit that is made. Gibson county has sent 
down a county exhibit, and it is put up as Gibson county ex- 
hibit, and there is no other county in the United States that 
can beat Gibson county. 

Mr. Lockhart — Would it be worth while to send apples ? 

Gen. Carnahan — Yes, sir. The Horticultural Society is go- 
ing to do all that is possible in that direction. Mr. Johnson 
informed me this morning they were only able to collect two 
barrels. I had made arrangements to make a fine display of 
apples from Indiana, but will close in with a part of that con- 
tract with the addition of the two barrels of Mr. Johnson. 

31r. Johnson — I am in favor of making an exhibition of ap- 
ples at the Exposition, and our society resolved to do so with 
considerable opposition. The Secretary and myself were ap- 
pointed to make the collection. We wrote our letters and sent 
them over the State, and got responses without any encourage- 
ment. We had no encouragement to exhibit at the State Fair, 
and another thing, we had no money, as the Legislature failed 
to give us an appropriation. 

Mr. Custer — Did not our Treasurer report between three and 
four hundred dollars in the treasury a month ago ? 

Mr. Johnson — I do not remember the amount on hands; but 
we have done what we could, and send two barrels of apples. 

Mr. Lockhart — I think I realize the situation of Mr. Carna- 
han. A few years ago there were but few apples in Indiana. 
I made an exhibit of 300 apples at the State Fair from Dekalb 
county. We have got apples now in Dekalb county as good as 
any in Michigan. 

Mr. Hargrove, from the Committee on Fair Grounds, re- 
ported as follows : 

The Committee on Fair Grounds would respectfully submit the following: 
After having examined the Exposition building we found the lower roof on either 
eide of the building to be in very bad repair, and recommend that said portion be 
re-roofed, and, also, that the down spouts on said portion be enlarged, so as to 
freely carry off the water therefrom, and thus avoid damage to the walls, as is now 
the case. 



94 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

We also find that the middle and the two western towers need re-roofing, being 
at present in bad condition, and doing continual damage to the building. 

We further find that the roof of Agricultural Hall is in the same bad condi- 
tion, and recommend that it be reroofed. Also, that the roof of the section of 
horse stalls on the east side of the grounds needs repairs, and recommend that the 
General Superintendent be authorized to make said necessary repairs. 

We further recommend the carrying into effect the recommendations of the 
Superintendent of the Horse Department to remove the old music stand. Also, the 
suggestions ©f the General Superintendent concerning the old boiler house. 

We also recommend the adoption of the suggestions of the Superintendent of 
the amphitheater to rtmove the gate at the west end thereof. 

Further than this, we find the buildings and grounds in good condition, and 
that the management and care of the same by the General Superintendent has 
been entirely satisfactory to your committee. 

Samuel Hargrove, 
Jasper N. Davidson, 
John Q. A. Sieg, 
Hezkkiah Steelbian, 
a. g. b11.lmeyer, 
Jas. N. Chamberlain, 

Committee. 

The report was received and concurred in. 

Mr. Nelson, from the special committee to which was referred 
the draft of an act prepared by the State Veterinary Associa- 
tion, for the prevention and suppression of pleuro-pneumonia 
and other contagious and infectious diseases, reported the 
following: 

Your committee, to which was referred the bill proposed to be submitted to the 
Legislature, in relation to the suppression and prevention of pleuro-pneumonia and 
other infectious diseases common to domestic animals of the equine and bovine 
species, have had the same undt-r consideration, and notwithstanding some im- 
perfections in the bill, your committee has concluded to recommend it as it is, trust- 
ing to the sound judgment of the legislative" committee, to whom it may be submit- 
ted, to rectify such errors as may appear on a more critical examination than we 
have been able to give at this time. We certainly regard it as a move in the right 
direction. 

Mr. Robe offered the following: 

Resolved, By the State and Delegate Board of Agriculture of Indiana, That we 
enter our protest against the order of the French Government of February, 1881^ 
prohibiting the further landing of American salt pork in France, upon the false 
pretense of sanitary cause*', and until a more generous spirit is manifested toward 
08, we demand, through our Congressmen, a proper retaliation. We ask the co-op- 
eration of all the agricultural associations of the United States in this demand. 



PROCEEDINGS. 95 

Mr. Lockhart moved the adoption of the resolution. 

Mr. Jolmson moved to amend by erasing the words " we 
demand through our Congressmen a proper retaliation," and 
substituting therefor " we ask our Congressmen to adopt such 
measures as will tend to remove such restriction." 

J-'resident Mitchell — We can retaliate, but not say retaliate. 
We can exclude their goods as they do ours. If they exclude 
our meats, let us prohibit their imports on the same ground 
that they meet us. However, if the resolution is just as you 
want it, it is before you. 

Mr. Robe — It seems to me that there has been soft words 
enough said already, and we might say just what we mean. I 
am in favor of the resolution. 

The amendment was adopted, and the resolution as amended 
was then adopted. 

Mr. Ratliti:" oftered the following : 

Wherea?, The Indiana State Board of Agriculture is laboring under financial 
embarrassment, owing to its bonded indebtedness; therefore, 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed by the President to lay the 
matter before the General Assembly, by memorial and otherwise, to the end that re- 
lief may be afiordtd and the debt liquidated. 

Mr. Ratliff- — I think when we present these facts to the Leg- 
islature they will have some value. We have an assessment on 
nine hundred and seventy millions of dollars, and perhaps two- 
thirds of the personal property is that of the agricultural pop- 
ulation oi' the State. These are not official iig'ures, but it is 
near that. Forty thousand dollars will liquidate this debt, and 
if that amount can be raised we had better not let it stand. It 
is the duty of the Legislature, as it represents the farming in- 
terests, and perhaps four-fifths of the wealth of our State. I 
think if this is set properly, before the Legislature we will get 
the money. This appropriation we are asking for now is to 
pay interest on the debt. We failed to get this a few years 
ago, and we have been paying the interest out of profits. This 
help asked for is to wipe out the debt so we can run it our- 
selves. If this debt was removed I see nothing in the way for 
a successful continuation. 



96 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Nelson — If this debt was removed I think we can do 
better. We used to do it before this debt was made, and with 
the annual appropriation of $1,500 there will be no trouble at 
all. 

' The resolution was adopted, and President Mitchell named 
as the committee, his successor, President of the Board, and 
Messrs. Crira, Heron, Nelson and Davidson. 

Mr. Enos B. Reed, editor of "The People," read a paper on 
"The Fish Interests of Indiana," which is published in this 
volume. 

On motion of Hendry, the thanks of the Convention were 
tendered to Mr. Reed, and a request made that the paper be 
furnished for publication in the annual report. 

Dr. Jno. IST. Hurty, analytical chemist, read a paper on "Food 
and the Adulteration of some Articles of Diet," which will be 
found in this volume. 

On motion of Mr. Davidson, the thanks of the convention 
were expressed to Dr. Hurty for his highly interesting paper. 

Miss. Lulu A. Davidson, of Montgomery county, read a 
paper on "Farmers' Recreation and Amusements," which will 
be found elsewhere in this report. 

A rising vote of thanks was heartily given to Miss Davidson 
for her essay, on motion of Mr. Seward. 

Mr. Johnson moved to request a copy of the address for pub- 
lication in the Indiana Farmer, deeming its subject matter of 
such value as to justify a widespread circulation. 

Mr. Seward objected for selfish reasons, believing that such 
live matter was just the thing to prevent the appellation of 
"musty" to our* agricultural reports, and he desired that it 
should make its first appearance there. 

The motion of Mr. Johnson was not agreed to. 

Mr. I. N. Cotton read an essay on Fish Culture, its profits, 
etc. This paper will be found elsewhere, and, together with 
the discussions that followed, will be found interesting to those 
in pursuit of knowledge on this subject. 

Mr. Seward, from the Committee on Finance, made report: 



PROCEEDINGS. 97 

Your Committee on Finance, to whom was referred the accounts of the Secre- 
tary and Treasurer, would report that we have examined the same, and have care- 
fully compared the vouchers and receipts on file with the books, and find them all 
correct, W. B. Seward, 

Jno. M. Graham, 
Dick Jones, 
Gerard Reiter, 
Will Cumback, 

CommiUee. 

On motion of Mr. Dungan, the convention then adjourned. 



MEETING OP THE STATE BOARD— (Old Board.) 



2 o'clock p. m. 

Agreeably with call of the President the Board met, President 
Mitchell in the chair, and all the members present. 

On motion, the reading of the minutes of the morning ses- 
sion of the Delegate Board was dispensed with. 

()n motion of Mr. Seward, the Board adjourned sine die. 

The President called a meeting of the new Board instanter. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE NEW -BOARD. 



New Board met. On call of the roll the following members 
responded to their names : Messrs. Mitchell, Hargrove, Sieg, 
Seward, Greer, Jones, Peed, Dungan, LaTourette, Davidson, 
Graham, Boggs, RatlifP, Custer, Banks and Lockhart, being a 
full Board. 

On motion, Mr. Sieg was called to the chair. 
7 — Aqricultcre. 



98 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Seward moved that the Board now proceed to the elec- 
tion of officers, which was agreed to. 

On motion of Mr, Dungan, the election was held by ballot 
without nominations, and resulted as follows: 

President R. M. Lockhart, Waterloo, Dekalb county. 

Vice-President Dick Jones, Columbus, Bartholomew county. 

Secretary Alex. Heron, Indianapolis, Marion county. 

Treasurer Sylvester Johnson, Irvington, Marion county. 

General Superintendent . Fielding Beeler, Indianapolis, Marion county. 

On motion of Mr. Seward, it was agreed that the ballot for 
Executive Committeemen be in the same manner as for the 
above officers, and that the four persons receiving the highest 
vote be declared elected. 

The following members were thus chosen Executive Com- 
mittee : Messrs. Davidson, Mitchell, Dungan and Seward. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, Mr. Mitchell was appointed to con- 
duct the newl}' elected President to the chair. 

President Lockhart addressed the Board in a few appropri- 
ate remarks, and thanked them for the honor conferred. 

On motion of Mr. Ratlitf, the committee appointed to memo- 
rialize the Legislature in relation to the bonded indebtedness 
of the Board, be authorized to also take charge of the matter 
of the appropriation of $10,000 asked of the Legislature to aid 
in the State's exhibit at the World's industrial exhibition at 
ISTew Orleans. 

On motion of Mr. Seward the time for the next meeting of 
the Board was fixed lor February 10, 1885. 

On motion of Mr. Mitchell, the Secretary was authorized to 
pay the annual dues of |10.00, to the International Association 
of Fairs and Expositions — headquarters at St. Louis, Mo. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, all unfinished business was referred 
to the February meeting. 

Mr. Seward moved that the salaries of officers for the ensu- 
ing year be the same as for 1884. Adopted. 

The Board then adjourned. 



INDIANA STATE FAIR. 



PREMIUM AWARDS, 1884. 



HORSES. 



J. N. DAVIDSON, SUPERINTENDENT. 



BOOK I— Heavy Draft 

'Where State is not given Indiana is implied, i 

FRENCH DRAFT. 

Stallion, 4 years and over, Dillon Bros., Normal, 111 $40 

Second, J. G. Graham, Eichland, Rush county 20 

Stallions, 3 years old and under 4. Dillon Bros., Norma], 111 30 

Second, Indianapolis Importing and Breeding Stock Company, Indianap- 
olis 15 

Stallion, 2 years old and under 3, Dillon Bros., Normal, 111 20 

Second, E. D. Morse, Kewana, Fulton county 10 

Stallion, 1 year old and under 2, Dillon Bros., Normal, 111 10 

Second, Indianapolis Importing and Breeding Percheron Stock Company 5 

Mare, 4 years old and over, Dillon Bros , Normal, 111 25 

Second, Indianapolis Importing and Breeding Percheron Stock Company 12 

Mare, 3 years old and under 4, Dillon Bros., Normal, III 20 

Second, Indianapolis Importing and Breeding Percheron Stock Company 10 

Mare, 2 years old and under three, Dillon Bros., Normal, 111 15 

Second, J. E. Ludlow, Irvington, Marion county 7 

Mare, 1 year old and under 2, Dillon Bros 10 

Second, Indianapolis Importing and Breeding Percheron Stock Company 6 



100 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. 



BOOK II— Clydesdale and English Draft. 

Stallion, 4 years old and over, Henry L. Hernly, New Castle $40 

Second, Clark Hosiel, Greensboro, Henry county 20 

Stallion, 3 years old and under 4, Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, 

Laporte county 30 

Second, E. H. & Wm. Peed, New Castle 16 

Stallion, 2 years old and under 3, Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, 

Laporte county 20 

Stallion, 1 year old and under 2, Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, 

Laporte county 10 

Mare, 4 years old and over, Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, Laporte 

county 25 

Second, J. B. Ayers, Danvers, McLain county, 111 12 

Mare, 3 years old and under 4, E. H. & Wm. Peed, New Castle 20 

Second, Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, Laporte county .... 10 
Mare, 2 years old and under 3, Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, La- 
porte county 15 

Mare, 1 year old and under 2, David Fisher, Goodrich, Ontario, Canada. . . 10 

Second, David Fisher, Goodrich, Ontario, Canada 5 

Sucking filley— first premium, E. H. & Wm. Peed, New Castle 8 

Second, Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, Laporte county 4 



BOOK III— Heavy Draft Grade Horses. 

Stallions, 4 years old and over, Dillon Bros., Normal, 111 $30 

Second, David Fisher, Goodrich, Ontario county, Canada 15 

Stallion, 3 years old and under 4, W. F. Christian & Son, Indianapolis ... 20 

Second, David Fisher, Goodrich, Ontario county, Canada 10 

Stallion, 2 years old and under 3, David Fisher, Goodrich, Ontario county, 

Canada 15 

Second, David Fisher, Goodrich, Ontario county, Canada 7 

Stallion, 1 year old and under 2, Abram Smith, Goodrich, Huron county, 

Canada 10 

Second, Charles A. Berry, New Castle 5 

Stallion, sucking colt, R. S. Miles, Raleigh, Kush county 8 

Second, R. S. Miles, Raleigh, Rush county 4 

Mare, 4 years old and ovei-, R. S. Miles, Raleigh, Rush county 20 

Second, J. B. Ayers, Danvers, McLean county, 111 10 

Mare, 3 years old and under 4, R. S. Miles, Raleigh, Rush county 15 

Second, E. H. & Wm. Peed, New Castle 7 

Mare, 2 years old and under 3, E. H. & Wm. Peed, New Castle 12 

Second, J. W. S. Graves, Carmel, Hamilton county 6 

Mare, 1 year old and under 2, David Fisher, Goodrich, Ontario county, Canada. 10 

Second, E. H. & W. Peed, New Castle 5 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 101 

Sucking filley, R. S. Miles, Raleigh, Rush county $8 

Second, R. S. Miles, Raleigh, Rush county 4 

Gelding, 4 years old and over, Francis Gary, Carmel, Hamilton county ... 12 

Gelding, 3 years old and under 4, Albert Jeffries, Westfield, Hamilton county. 10 

Second, Albert Jeffries, Westfield, Hamilton county 5 

Heavy draft team, J. B. Ayers, Danvers, McLean county, 111 20 

Second, A. L. Johnson, Muncie, Delaware county 10 

BOOK IV— General Purpose. 

Stallion, 4 years old and over, Hyatt Bros., Knightstown $40 

Second, Lindley Gilbert, Dublin 20 

Stallion, 3 years old and under 4, Thomas Levi, Noblesville 30 

Second, Joseph R. Williams, Martinsville 15 

Stallion, 2 years old and under 3, Hyatt Bros., Knightstown 20 

Second, Pleasant Almond, Plainfield 10 

Stallion, 1 year old and under 2, J. T. Gray, Star P. O., Rush county .... 10 

Second, Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, Laporte county 5 

Stallion, sucking colt. Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, Laporte county. 8 

Second, S. S. Granger, Fisher Station, Hamilton county 4 

Mare, 4 years old and over. Pleasant Almond, Plainfield 25 

Second, S. S. Granger, Fisher Station, Hamilton county 12 

Mare, 3 years old and under 4, Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, La- 
porte county 20 

Second, W. P. Swaim, Bellmore 10 

Mare, 2 years old and under 3, Sandusky & Stearns, Fairmount, 111 15 

Second, Hyatt Bros., Knightstown 7 

Mare, 1 year old and under 2, Jas. M. Prichard, Jolietville ).0 

Second, Door Prairie Association, Door Prairie, Laporte county 5 

Sucking filley, L. H. M. Brown, Indianapolis 8 

Second, W. P. Swaim, Bellmore 4 

Gelding, 4 years old and over, Levi & Munter, Indianapolis 25 

Second, Lee Forts, Knightstown 12 

Gelding, 3 years old and under 4, H. Jackson, Mooresville 10 

Second, Allen Jackson, Plainfield 5 

Gelding, 2 years old and under 3, J. T. Gray, Star P. O., Rush county .... 8 

Second, Hyatt Bros., Knightstown 4 

Pair geldings or mare, John A. Bridgeland, City 20 

Second, W, D. Wiles, City 10 

BOOK V— Light Harness. 

Stallion, 4 years old and over, James Hazleton, Logansport $30 

Second, S. S. Granger, Fisher Station 15 

Stallion, 3 years old and under 4, S. 8. Granger, Fisher Station 25 

Second, Geo, W. Scott, Haughsville, Marion county .• 12 



102 BOARD OF AGRIGULTDRE. 

Stallion, 2 years old and under 3, D. L. Thomas, Rushville $14 

Second, Thomas Reeves, Columbus 7 

Mare, 4 years old and over, Thomas Levi, Noblesville 15 

Second, Hyatt Bros., Knightstown 7 

Mare, 3 years old and under 4, D. W. Searight, Shelbyville 14 

Second, Plesant Almond, Plainfield 7 

Mare, 2 years old and under 3, D. L. Thomas, Rushville . '. 7 

Second, C. A. Berry, New Castle S 

Geldings, 4 years old and over, C. L. Clancy, Edinburg 15 

Second, Buford & Keeney, Danville ■ 7 

Gelding, 3 years old and under 4, G. C. Bailey, Andersonville 14 

Second, J. H. Steiner, Indianapolis 7 

Gelding, 2 yeare old and under 3, Geo. W. Scott, Haughsville 7 

Second, D. L. Thomas, Rushville 3 

Stallion, gelding or mare, any age, John W. Fort, Indianap^olis 15 

Second, J. H. Steiner, Indianapolis 7 

BOOK VI — iiweepsta/ces on- Horses. 

Stallion of any age, draft, Dillon Bros., Normal, 111 $50 

Stallions of any age, except heavy draft, Thomas Levi, Noblesville 50 

Stallion showing 3 best sucking colts of his get, R, S. Miles, Raleigh, Rush 

county 40 

Mare of any age, draft. Door Prarie Association, Oakwood, Laporte county . 30 
Mare of any age, except heavy di-aft, Sandusky & Stearns, Fairmount, 111 . . 30 
Brood mare with sucking colt at foot, Door Prairie Association, Oakwood, La- 
porte county 40 

Herd of 5, consisting of 1 stallion and 4 mares, heavy draft, to be owned by 

one exhibitor, Dillon Bros., Normal, 111 100 

Second, J. B. Ayers, Danvers, McLean county. 111 50 

Herd of 6, consisting of 1 stallion and 4 mares, except heavy draft, owned by 

one exhibitor, Hyatt Bros., Knightstown lOO 

Second, Samuel S. Granger, Fisher Station 50^ 

BOOK VII— Jacks. 

Jack, 3 years old and over, J. T. Gray, Star postoffice. Rush county $20 

Second, J. R. Hernley, New Castle 10 

Mule, 4 years old and ov^r J. M. Perry, Columbus 12 

Second, Perry TuUy, Plainfield 6 

Mule, 3 years old and under 4, Levi & Munter, Indianapolis 10 

Second, Jas. M. Prichard, Jolietville 5 

Mule, 2 years old and under 3, J. M. Perry, Columbus 8 

Mule, 1 year old and under 2, Thos. Levi, Noblesville 7 

Mule colt, Wm. P. Swaim, Bellmore 6 

Second, Wm. P. Swaim, Bellmore 3- 

Pair mules, 3 year old and over, J. M. Perry, Columbus 20 

Second, Owen Lindley, Paoli, Ind Ifr 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 103 

BOOK VIII- -Sweepstakes on Jacks and Jennets. 

J. R. Hemley, New Castle $20 

Jack showing 3 best colts under 1 year of age, W. P. Swaim, Bellmore ... 20 

BOOK IX— Speed List. 

THREE- YE AR-OIiD TROT — PURSE, $150. 

B. F. Buford, Danville 80 

Second, T. C. vSlieppard, Brookville 50 

Third, David Searight, Shelbyville 20 

2:37 iPACE — PURSE, $150. 

E. D. Morse, Chicago, 111 ...... 80 

2:37 TROT— PURSE, $200. 

Arnold Hanes, Paris, 111 100 

Second, John McGannon, Rockville 75 

Third, Samuel Antrobus, Greensburg 25 

THREE-MINUTE TROT— PURSE, $200. 

U. J. Hammond, Indianapolis 100 

Second, Frank Armstrong, Indianapolis 75 

Third, W. A. Jones, Terre Haute 25 

RUNNING RACE — ONE MILE AND REPEAT — FOUR YEARS OLD AND OVER — PURSE, $150. 

Mrs. Jennie St. Clair, Indianapolis 80 

Second, Greenville Wilson, Waldron 50 

Third, Thomas Levi, Noblesville ... 20 

FREE-FOB-ALL PACE — PURSE, $150. 

Ben. Davis, Indianapolis 75 

Second, E. D. Morse 50 

Third, Geo. Cutsinger 25 

2:30 TROT— PURSE, $250. 

J. R. Brumfield, Terre Haute 125 

Second, W. A. Jones, Terre Haute 75 

Third, D. W. French, Crawfordsville 50 

STALLION TROT— PURSE, $120. 

Samuel Antrobus, Greensburg 60 

Second, John McGannon, Rockville . '. 40 

Third, none. 



104 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



FBEE-FOR-ALL TBOT— PURSE, $135. 

Abiah Haynes, Liston, Ohio $80 

Second, W. J. Hammond, Indianapolis 35 

Third, Ben. Davis, Indianapolis ^ . . . 20 



COSSOLATION PtTRSE OF $50 FOR ALL RUNNERS THAT HAVE NOT WON IN PRE- 
VIOUS RACES. 

W. A. Ck)x, Brightwood $16 65 

Second, Thomas Levi, Noblesville 16 65 

Third, G. Wilson, Shelbyville 16 65 



CATTLE. 



C. B. STUART, SUPERINTENDENT. 



BOOK X— Short Hoi 



rns. 



Bull, 3 years old and over, C. C. Walker, New Madison, Darke county, Ohio . $30 

Second, Thos. Wilhoit, Middletown, Henry county 15 

Bull, 2 years old and under 3, Ezra Swain, Noblesville 25 

Second, Harvey Sandusky, Indianapolis 12 

Ball, 1 year old and under 2, Thomas Wilhoit, Middletown 20 

Second, Thomas Wilhoit, Middletown 10 

Bull calf, Kobert Miller, West Liberty, Iowa 10 

Second, Thomas Wilhoit, Middletown 5 

Cow, 3 years old and over, Kobert Miller, West Liberty, Iowa 30 

Second, Harvey Sandusky, Indianapolis 15 

Cow, 2 years old and under 3, Thomas Wilhoit, Middletown 25 

Second, Kobert Miller, West Liberty, Iowa 12 

Heifer, 1 year old and under 2, Thomas Wilhoit, Middletown 20 

Second, Harvey Sandusky, Indianapolis 10 

Heifer calf, Harvey Sandusky, Indianapolis 10 

Second, Kobert Miller, West Liberty, Iowa 5 

BOOK XI—Here/ords. 

Bulls, 2 years old and under 3, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co $25 

Second, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 12 

Bulls, 1 year old and under 2, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 20 

Second, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 10 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 105 

Bull calf, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co $10 

Second, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 5 

Cow, 3 years old and over, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 30 

Second, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 15 

Cow, 2 years old and under 3, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 25 

Second, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co, 12 

Heifer, 1 year old and under 2, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 20 

Second, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 10 

Heifer calf, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 10 

Second, Indianapolis Blooded Stock Co 5 

BOOK XII-All Polled Breeds. 

Bull, 3 years old and over, Anderson & Findley, Lake Forest, 111 ...... . |30 

Second, Indiana Blooded Stock Co., Indianapolis 15 

Bull, 2 years old and under 3, Indiana Blooded Stock Co., Indianapolis ... 25 

Second, Anderson & Findley, Lake Forest, 111 12 

Bull, 1 year old and under 2, Indiana Blooded Stock Co., Indianapolis ... 20 

Second, Anderson & Findley, Lake Forest, 111 10 

Bull calf, Indiana Blooded Stock Co., Indianapolis 10 

Second, Indiana Blooded Stock Co., Indianapolis 5 

Cow, 3 years old and over, Indiana Blooded Stock Co., Indianapolis 30 

Second, Anderson & Findley, Lake Forest, 111 15 

Cow, 2 years old and under 3, Anderson & Findley, Lake Forest, 111 25 , 

Second, Indiana Blooded Stock Co., Indianapolis 12 

Heifer, 1 year old and under 2, Anderson & Findley, Lake Forest, 111 ... . 20 

Second, Anderson & Findley, Lake Forest, 111 10 

Heifer calf, Anderson & Findley, Lake Forest, 111 10 

Second, Indiana Blooded Stock Co., Indianapolis 5 

BOOK XIII— Jerseys. 

Bull, 3 years old and over, Peter Raab, Indianapolis $30 

Second, W. A. Ketcham, Indianapolis 15 

Bull, 2 years old and under 3, W. E. Higgins, Meltzer, Marion county .... 25 

Second, O. W. Mathews, Irvington 12 

Bull, 1 year old and under 2, W. A. Ketcham, Indianapolis 20 

Second, Garretson Bros., Pendleton 10 

Bull calf, W. A. Ketcham, Indianapolis 10 

Cow, 3 years old and over, Garretson Bros., Pendleton 30 

Second, Garretson Bros., Pendleton 16 

Cow, 2 years old and under 3, W. E. Higgins, Meltzer, Marion county ... 25 

Second, W. A. Ketcham, Indianapolis 12 

Heifer, 1 year old and under 2, W. J. Hasselman, Indianapolis 20 

Second, Garretson Bros., Pendleton 10 

Heifer calf, W. E. Higgins, Meltzer, Marion county 10 

Second, Peter Raab, Indianapolis 5 



106 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

BOOK XIV— Devons. 

Bull, 3 years old and over, Irving York, Casstown, Ohio $30 

Second, Whitmore & Younger, Casstown, Ohio 15 

Bull, 2 years old and under 3, W. E. Higgins, Meltzer 25- 

Second, Irving York, Brock, Ohio 12 

Bull, 1 year old and under 2, J. J. ScarfF& Son, New Carlisle, Ohio 20 

Second, Whitmore & Younger, Casstown, Ohio 10 

Bull calf, Whitmore & Younger, Casstown, Ohio 10 

Second, Whitmore & Younger, Casstown, Ohio 5 

Cow, 3 years old and over, Whitmore & Younger, Casstown, Ohio 30 

Second, J. J. ScarfF«& Son, New Carlisle, Ohio 15 

Cow, 2 years old and under 3, Whitmore & Younger Casstown, Ohio 2t> 

Second, Irvin York, Brock, Ohio 12 

Heifer, 1 year old and under 2, J. J. ScarflTiSc Son, New Carlisle, Ohio .... 20 

Second, Whitmore & Younger, Casstown, Ohio 10 

Heifer calf, Whitmore & Younger, Casstown, Ohio 10 

Second, Irving York, Brock, Ohio 5 

BOOK XV—Ayrshires. 

Bull, 3 years old and over, Wra. Fairweather, Erie, Penn $30 

Bull, 2 years old and under 3, Wm. Fairweather, Erie, Penn 25 

Bull, 1 year old and under 2, Wm. Fairweather, Erie, Penn 20 

Cow, 3 years old and over, Wm. Fairweather, Erie, Penn 30 

Second, Wm. Fairweather, Erie, Penn 15 

Cow, 2 years old and under 3, Wm. Fairweather, Erie, Penn 25 

Heifer, 1 year old and under 2, Wm. Fairweather, Erie, Penn 20 

Second, Wm. Fairweather, Erie, Penn 10 

Heifer calf, Wm. Fairweather, Erie, Penn 10 

BOOK XVI~Holsteins. 

Bull, 3 years old and over, W. O. Jackson, South Bend $30 

Second, J. W.Stilwell& Co., Troy, Ohio 15 

Bull, 2 years old and under 3, W. O. Jackson, South Bend 25 

Bull, 1 year old and under 2, J. W. Stilwell, Troy, Ohio 20 

Bull calf, J. W. Stilwell, Troy, Ohio 10 

Second, W. O. Jackson, South Bend 5 

Cow, 3 years old and over, J. W. Stilwell, Troy, Ohio 30 

Second, J. W. Stilwell, Troy, Ohio . . . 15 

Cow, 2 years old and under 3, W. O. .Jackson, South Bend 25 

Second, J. W\ Stilwell, Troy, Ohio 12 

Heifer, 1 year old and under 2, J. W. Stilwell, Troy, Ohio 20 

Second, J. W. Stilwell, Troy, Ohio 10 

Heifer calf, J. W. Stilwell, Troy, Ohio 10 

Second, W. O. Jackson, South Bend . ' 5 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 107 



BOOK XVII. 

SWEEPSTAKES — BEEF BREEDS OF CATTLE. 

Ball of any age or breed, Thomas Willioit, Middletown $40 

•Cow, any age or breed, Indiana Blooded Stock Company, Indianapolis .... 30 

SWEEPSTAKES — MILK BREEDS OP CATTLE. 

Bull, any age or breed, W. O. Jackson, South Bend 40 

Oow, any age or breed, Garretson Bros., Pendleton 30 

HERDS— BREEDS OF BEEF CATTLE. 

Herd of 5 head, consisting of 1 bull 2 years old and over, 1 cow 3 years old 
and over, 1 heifer 2 years old and under 3, 1 heifer 1 year old and 
under 2, 1 heifer calf under 1 year old, Thomas Wilhoit, Middletx>wn 300 
Second, Thomas Wilhoit, Middletown 100 

HERDS — BREEDS OF BEEF CATTLE. 

Best young herd of beef cattle, to consist of 1 bull and 4 heifers, all under 2 

years of age, Thomas Wilhoit, Middletown 100 

Second, Indiana Blooded Stock Company, Indianapolis- 50 



BOOK XVIII. 



MILK CATTLE— JERSEYS AND AYKSHIRES. 

Herd, consisting of 1 bull 2 years old and over, 1 cow 3 years old and over, 1 
heifer 1 year old and under 2, heifer calf 1 year old, W. E. Higgins, 

Meltzer $200 

Second, Wm. Fairweather, Erie, Pa 75 



HOL.STEINS AND DEVONS 

Herd, consisting of 1 bull 2 years old and over, 1 cow 3 years old and over, 1 
heifer 2 years old and under, 1 heifer 1 year old and under 2, heifer 

calf 1 year old, J. W.Stilwell& Co., Troy, Ohio 200 

Second, W. O. Jackson, South Bend 75 



108 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



SHEEP. 



T. W. W. SUNMAN, SUPERINTENDENT. 



BOOK XIX — Fine Wool Sheep, to include American, Spanish and French Merinos. 

Buck, 2 years old and over, E. Campbell, Pittsfield, Ohio $14 

Second, Cook & Morse, Raymond, Ohio 7^ 

Buck, 1 year old and under 2, Taylor Bros., Waynesville, 111 10 

Second, Taylor Bros., Waynesville, 111 5 

Buck lamb, E. Campbell, Pittsfield, Ohio 8 

Second, E. Campbell, Pittsfield, Ohio 4' 

Ewe, 2 years old and over. Cook & Morse, Raymond, Union county, O. . - . 12 

Second, Taylor Bros., Waynesville, 111 6 

Ewe, 1 year old and under 2, C. M. Fellows, Manchester, Mich 8 

Second, C. M. Fellows, Manchester, Mich 4 

Ewe lamb. Cook & Morse, Raymond, Union county, Ohio 6 

Second, Taylor Bros., Waynesville, 111 3 

Five lambs. Cook & Morse, Raymond. Union county, Ohio 10 

Second, Taylor Bros., Waynesville, 111 5 



BOOK XX — Long Wool Sheep, Cofswolds, Leicester or Lincolns. 

Buck, 2 years old and over, W. D. Privett, Greensburg $14 

Second, T. Morgan, Camargo, 111 7 

Buck, 1 year old and under 2, W. T. Woodford & Son, Paris, Ky 10 

Second, W. D. Privett, Greensburg 5 

Buck lamb, W. T. Woodford & Son, Paris, Bourbon county, Ky ..'... 8 

Second, W. D. Privett, Greensburg 4 

Ewe, 2 years old and over, W, T. Woodford & Son, Paris, Ky 12 

Second, W. D. Privett, Green.sburg 6 

Ewe, 1 year old and under 2, W. T. Woodford & Son, Paris, Ky 8 

Second, W. T. Woodford & Son, Paris, Bourbon county, Ky 4 

Ewe lamb, J. A. Heavenridge, Liberty 6 

Second, W. T. Woodford & Son, Paris, Bourbon county, Ky 3 

Five lambs, J. A. Heavenridge, Liberty 10 

Second, W. T. Woodford & Son, Paris, Ky 6 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 109 



BOOK XXI-Smthdowm. 

Buck, 2 years old and over, J. G. Byers & Son, Simpsonville, Ky $14 

Second, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Jackson county, Mich 7 

Buck, 1 year old and under 2, J. G. Byers & Son, Simpsonville, Ky 10 

Second, J. G. Byers & Son, Simpsonville, Ky 5 

Buck lamb, Uriah Privett, Greensburg, Decatur county 8 

Second, Uriah Privett, Greensburg, Decatur county 4 

Ewe, 2 years old and over, J. G. Byers & Son, Simpsonville, Ky 12 

Second, Uriah Privett, Greensburg G 

Ewe, 1 year old and under 2, J. G. Byers & Son, Simpsooville, Ky 8 

Second, J, G. Byers & Son, Simpsonville, Ky 4 

Ewe lamb, Uriah Privett, Greensburg - , 6 

Second, J. G. Byers & Son, Simpsonville, Ky 3 

Five lames, Uriah Privett, Greensburg, Decatur county 10 

Second, J. G. Byers & Son, Simpsonville, Ky 5 



BOOK XXII — Orfordshires, Shrop^hires and Humpshires. 

Buck, 2 years old and over, E. S. Butler, Ridgeway, Ohio $14 

Second, F. C. Galdsbrough, Easton, Talbot county, Md 7 

Buck, 1 year old and under 3, F. C. Galdsbrough, Easton, Talbot county, Md. 10 

Second, Thompson & Privett, Greensburg 5 

Buck lamb, Thompson & Privett, Greensburg 8 

Second, Thompson & Privett, Greensburg 4 

Ewe, 2 years old and over, Thompson & Privett, Greensburg 12 

Second, Ailen & Son, Archie, Vermillion county. 111 6 

Ewe, 1 year old and under 2, T. F. Galdsbrough, Easton, Talbot county, Md • 8 

Second, Thompson & Privett, Greensburg 4 

Ewe lamb, Thompson & Privett, Greensburg 6 

Second, Allen & Son, Archie, Vermillion county. Ill 3. 

Five lambs, Thompson & Privett, Greensburg 10 

Second, Allen & Son, Archie, Vermillion county. 111 5 



BOOK XXIII— Sweepstakes on Fine Wool Sheep. 

Buck, Cook & Morse, Raymond, Union county, Ohio $20 

Ewe, any age, E. Campbell, Pittsfield, Ohio 20 

Flock, consisting of 1 buck and 2 ewes, 2 years old and under 3 ; 2 ewes, 1 
year old and under 2, and 2 ewea under 1 year old, Cook & Morse, 

Raymond, Ohio 30 

Second, E. Campbell, Pittsfield, Ohio 15 



110 BOARD OF AGRICULTURB. 



BOOK XXIV— Sweepntakes— Long Wool. 

Buck, W. T. Woodford & Sou, Paris, Bourbon county, Ky |20 

Ewe, of any age, W. T. Woodford & Son, Paris, Bourbon county, Ky .... 20 
Flock, consisting of 1 buclc and 2 ewes, 2 years old and under 3; 2 ewes, 1 
year old and under 2, and 2 ewes under 1 year old, W. T. Woodford 

& Son, Paris, Bourbon county, Ky 30 

Second, W. D. Privett, Greensburg 15 

BOOK XX V—Sweepstakes— Middle Wool. 

Buck, E. S. Butler, Ridgeway, Ohio $20 

Ewe, any age, Thompson & Privett, Grcen.sburg 20 

Flock, consisting of 1 buck and 2 ewes, 2 years old and under 3; 2 ewes, 1 
year old and under 2, and 2 ewes under 1 year old, Thompson & 

Privett, Greensburg 30 

Second, Allen & Son, Archie, Vermillion county. 111 15 



HOGS. 



W. A. BANKS, SUPEEINTKNDSNT. 



BOOK XXVI—Berkshires. 

Boar, 2 years old and over, D. W. Todd, Urbana, Ohio $14 

Second, Heck & McCoUey, Waldron 7 

Boar, 1 year old and under 2, Alex. M. Tilford, Bel Air, Md 12 

Second, W. A. Maze, Sharpsville 6 

Boar, under 12 and over 6 months old, I. N. Barker, Thorntown 10 

Second, James Riley, Thorntown 5 

Boar, under 6 months old, Heck & McCoUey, Waldron 6 

Second, I. N. Barker, Thorntown 3 

Sow, 2 years old and over, Heck & McColley, Waldron 14 

Second, D. W. Todd, Urbana, Ohio 7 

Sow, 1 year old and under 2, Alex. Tilford, Bel Air, Md 12 

Second, John Taylor, Waynesville, 111 6 

Sow, under 12 and over 6 months old, Alex. M. Tilford, Bel Air, Md . . . . 10 

Second, John Taylor, Waynesville, 111 5 

Sow, under 6 months old, W. A. Maze, Sharpsville 6 

Second, I. I^. Barker, Thorntown 3 



PREMIUxM AWARDS. Ill 

Five shoat8, under 6 months old, I. N. Barker, Thorntown S12 

Second, Andrew Martin, Muncie 6 

Sow and not less than 5 suckling pigs 12 

Second, Heck & McColIey, Waldron 6 

Pair pigs, under 5 months old. Heck & McColley, Waldron 10 

Second, James Riley, Thorntown 6 

BOOK XXVn— Poland China. 

Boar, 2 years old and over, Davis & Frazier, Mooreland ... $14 

Second, T. M. Eeveal, Clermont 7 

Boar, 1 year old and under 2, Mugg & Hargrove, Centre 12 

Second, Eeveal, Brown & Hinshaw, Rural, Randolph county 6 

Boar, under Vl and over 6 months old, T. M. Reveal, Clermont 10 

Second, Mintz Bros., Mt. Comfort, Hancock county 5 

Boar, under 6 months old, Reveal & Clark, Clermont 6 

Second, Mugg & Segraves, Centre, Howard county 3 

Sow, two years old and over, W. C. Williams & Co., Knightstown 14 

Second, Mugg & Segraves, Centre, Howard county 7 

Sow, 1 year old and under 2, G. M. Helms, McCordsville 12 

Second, W. C. Williams & Co., Knightstown 6 

Sow, under 12 and over 6 months old, Hughes, Cope & Hunter, Brownsburg . 10 

Second, Mintz Bros., Mt. Comfort, Hancock county 5 

Sow, under 6 months old, W. C. Williams & Co., Knightstown 6 

Second, Mugg & Segraves, Centre, Howard county 3 

Five shoats, under 6 months old. Reveal & Clark, Clermont 12 

Second, Mugg & Segraves, Centre, Howard county 6 

Sow and not less than 5 sucking pigs, John Taylor, Waynesville, 111 12 

Second, Webb & W'hitesides, Franklin 6 

Pair pigs, under 6 months old, Reveal & Clark, Clermont 10 

Second, Mugg & Segraves, Centre, Howard county 5 

BOOK XXVIII— Other Large Breeds. 

Boar, 2 years old and over, S. H. Todd, Wakeman, Ohio 14 

Second," H. McCord, McCordsville 7 

Boar, 1 year old and under 2, S. H. Todd, Wakeman, Ohio 12 

Second, R. S. Russell, Zionsville, Boone connty 6 

Boar, under 12 and over 6 months old, S. H. Todd, Wakeman, Ohio 10 

Second, R. S. Russell, Zionsville, Boone county 5 

Boar, under 6 months old, S. H. Todd, W^akeman, Ohio 6 

Second, S. H. Todd, Wakeman, Ohio 3 

Sow, 2 years old and over, H. McCord, McCordsville 14 

Second, S. H. Todd, Wakeman, Ohio 7 

Sow, 1 year old and under two, Geo. F. Davis & Co., Dyer, Lake county . . 12 

Second, S. H. Todd, Wakeman, Ohio 6 



112 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Sow, under 12 and over 6 months old, S. H, Todd, Wakeman, Ohio $10 

Second, R. S. Eussell, Zionsville 6 

Sow, under 6 months old, S. H. Todd, Wakeman, Ohio 6 

Second, S. H. Todd, Wakeman, Ohio 3 

Five shoats, under 6 months old, S. H. Todd, Wakeman, Ohio 12 

Second, S. H. Todd, Wakeman, Ohio 6 

Sow and not less than 5 sucking pigs, Geo. F. Davis & Co., Djer 12 

Second, E. S. Eussell, Zionsville 6 

BOOK XXIX — Suffolk, Essex, their o-osses, and other small breeds, regardless of colm: 

Boar, 2 years old and over, Lou Hinshaw, Greensboro, Henry county .... $14 

Second, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Jackson county, Mich 7 

Boar, 1 year old and under 2, A. C. Green & Co., W^inchester 12 

Second, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Jackson county, Mich 6 

Boar, under 12 and over 6 months, A. C. Green & Co., Winchester 10 

Second, Frank ^Vilson, Jackson, Jackson county, Mich 5 

Boar, under 6 months old, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Jackson county, Mich . . 6 

Second, Lou Hinshaw, Winchester 3 

Sow, 2 years old and over, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Jackson county, Mich . . 14 

Second, Frank Wilson, .Jackson, Jackson county, Mich 7 

Sow, 1 year old and under 2, Frank W^ilsou, Jacks6n, Jackson county, Mich . 12 

Second, A. C. Green, Winchester 6 

Sow, under 12 and over 6 months old, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Mich 10 

Second, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Mich 5 

Sow, under 6 months old, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Mich 6 

Second, John Taylor, Waynesville, 111 3 

Five shoats, under 6 months old, Lou Hinshaw, Greensboro 12 

Second, A. C. Green & Co., Winchester 6 

Sow and not less than 5 sucking pigs, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Mich 12 

Second, John Taylor, Waynesville, 111 6 

BOOK XXX — Sweepstakes on Hogs. (Poland Chinas, Chester Whites, Jersey Reds, 
and all Other Large Breeds.) 

Boar, any age, T. M. Eeveal, Clermont, Marion county $20 

Sow, any age, W. C. Williams & Co., Knightstown 20 

Herd of 1 Boar and 5 Sows of any one Breed., Begardl^ess of Age, Size or Color, All 
Ovmed by One Exhibitor. 

Mugg & Segraves, Centre, Howard county 40 

Second, W. (.'. Wilji.uas *i Co., Knightstown 20 

BOOK XXXI — Sweepstakes. [Berkshires, Essex, Suffolkn and Other Small Breeds. 

Boar, any age, W. A. Mayes, Sharpsville $20 

Sow, any age, Alex. M. Tilford, Bel Air, Md 20 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 118 



POULTRY DEPARTMEI^T. 



J. M. GRAHAM, SUPERINTENDENT. 



BOOK XXXII. 

Pair light Brahma fowls, I. N. Barker, Thorntovvn . $5 

Second, Geo. Kinsley, Shelbyville 2 

Pair light Brahma chiclcB, G. A. Danley, Indianapolis 5 

Second, Geo. Kinsley, Shelbyville 2 

Pair dark Brahma fowls, W. E.Wiirst,Elyria, Ohio 5 

Pair dark Brahma chicks, W. E. Wur.st, Elyria, Ohio 5 

Second, W. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 2 

Pair buff Cochin fowls, W. H. Jones, Liberty, Union county ■ 5 

Second, W. H. Jones, Liberty, Union county 2 

Pair buff Cochin chicks, W. H. Jones, Liberty, Union county 5 

Second, L N. Barker, Thorntown, Boone county 2 

Pair partridge Cochin fowls, Z. S. Krider, Logansport 5 

Second, S.E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 2 

Pair partridge Cochin chicks, Z. S. Krider, Logansport 6 

Second. Edward K. Morris, Indianapolis 2 

Pair white Cochin fowls, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 5 

Pair white Cochin chicks, Frank Hubbard, Knightstown 5 

Second, Frank Hubbard, Knightstown 2^ 

Pair Langshan fowl'*, T. W; Pottage, Indianapolis 3 

Second, T. W. Pottage, Indianapolis 1 

Pair Langshan chicks, S E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio . • 3 

Pair Plymouth Rock fowls, Sid Conger, Shelbyville 5 

Second, Sid Conger, Shelbyville . . 2 

Pair Plymouth Rock chicks, Sid Conger, Shelbyville 5 

Second, Sid Conger, Shelbyville 2 

Pair Leghorn fowls, W. H, Jones, Liberty 3 

Second, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 1 

Pair Leghorn chicks, Estun & Tobin, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Etstun & Tobin, Indianapolis 1 

Pair brown Leghorn fowls, T. AV. Pottage, Indianapolis 3 

Second, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 1 

Pair brown Leghorn chicks, Jerry Carter, White Lick 3 

Second, T. W. Pottage, Indianapolis 1 

Pair black Leghorn chicks, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 3 

8— Agriculture. 



114 BOAKD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Pair W. F. black" Spanish fowls, G. A. Stanton, (ireenwood $S- 

Second, G. A. Stanton, Greenwood 1 

Pair \V. F. black Spanish chicks, G, M. Wells, Greenwood 3 

Second, G. A. Stanton, Greenwood 1 

Pair W. G black Polish fowls, I. N. Barker, Thorntown a 

Second, I. N. Barker, Thorntown 1 

Pair W. C. black Polish chicks, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 3 

Pair bearded W. C. white Polish fowls, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio » 

Pair golden Polish fowls' or chicks, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 3 

Second, W. H. Jones, Liberty . 1 

Pair silver Polish fowls or chicks, S. E. "Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 3 

Pair Hondan fowls, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio. ... 3 

Pair Hondan chicks, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 3 

Second, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 1 

Pair golden Hamburg fowls, G. M. Wells, Greenwood 3 

Second, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 1 

Pair silver Hamburg fowls, Geo. Kinsley, Shelbyville 3 

Pair silver Hamburg chicks, Geo. Kinsley, Shelbyville . . . 3 

Second, W. H. Jones, Liberty 1 

Pair black Hamburg fowls, G. A. Stanton, Greenwood 3 

Second, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 1 

Pair black Hamburg chicks, G. A. Stanton, Greenwood 3 

Second, G. A. Stanton, Greenwood 1 

Pair colored Dorking fowls, S. E. Wur.-t, Elyria, O 3 

Second, G. M. W^ells, Greenwood 1 

Pair colored Dorking chicks, G. M. Wells, Greenwood 3 

Second, G. M. Wells, Greenwood 1 

Pair black-breasted red Game fowls, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 3 

Pair black-breasted red Game chicks, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 3 

Pair yellow duck-wing Game fowls, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 3 

Pair yellow duck-wing Game chicks, S. E. "Wurst, Elyria, O ...... . 3 

Pair Wyandotte chicks, A. T. Layton, Zionsville 5 

Second, Isaac N. Lane, Zionsville 2 

Pair Silver duck-wing Game fowls, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 3 

Pair b. b. red Game Bantam fowls, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 3 

Pair b. b. red Game Bantam clucks, S. E. "Wurst, Elyria, O 3 

Second, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 1 

Pair yellow duck-wing Game Bantam fowls, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 3 

Second, S. E, Wurst, Elyria, O 1 

Pair yellow duck-wing Game Bantam chicks, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O . . . . 3 

Pair golden Seabright Bantam fowls, I. N. Barker, Thorntown 3 

Second, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 1 

Pair golden Seabright Bantam chicks, S. E. "W^urst, Elyria, O 3 

Second, I. N. Barker, Thorntown 1 

Pair silver Seabright Bantam fowls, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 3 

Second, 'W. H. Jones, Liberty 1 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 115 

Pair rose-comb Bantam fowls or chicks, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O $3 

Second, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 1 

Pair bronze turkeys (old birds), T. M. Reveal, Clermont 5 

Second, H. C. G. Bals, Indianapolis 2 

Pair bronze turkeys, hatch of 1884, H. C. G. Bals, Indianapolis 5 

Second, E. Dixon, Carmel 2 

Pair white Holland turkeys (old birds), Edward K. Morris, Indianapolis . . 5 

Second, G. A. Stanton, Greenwood 2 

Pair white Holland turkeys (hatch of 1884), W. A. Ennis, Clermont 3 

Second, G. M. Wells, Greenwood 2 

Pair Embden geese, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 5 

Second, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 2 

Pair Toulouse geese, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 5 

Second, H. C. G. Bals, Indianapolis 2 

Pair Chinese geese, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 5 

Second, Lou Henshaw, Greeusborough, Henry county 2 

Pair wild geese, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 3 

Second, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 1 

Pair Pekin ducks, Geo. Kinsley, Shelbyville 3 

Second, Edward K. Morris, Indianapolis . 1 

Pair Rouen ducks, H. C. G. Bals, Indianapolis 3 

Second, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, Ohio 1 

Pair Aylesbury ducks, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, 3 

Second, S. E. Wurst, Elyria, O 1 

Pair Cayuga ducks, S. E. Wurst, Elyra, O 3 

Second, Lou Henshaw, Greeusborough, Henry county 1 

Heaviest live turkey, T. M. Reveal 5 

Heaviest cock or cockerel, J. S. Kreider, Logansport 3 

Heaviest hen or pullet, G. A. Danley, Indianapolis 2 

Brood chicks under 1 week old, pure breed, G. A. Danley, Indianapolis ... 3 

Pair Wyandotte chicks, A. T. Layton, Zionsville 5 

Second, Isaac N. Lane, Zionsville 2 

Special premium offered by Indiana Farmer Company for best pen of chick- 
ens, Geo. Kinsley, Shelbyville, silver cup 5 



116 BOARD OF AGRICUTjTTTRE. 



AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 



rr. LATOURETTE, SUPERIXTENDENT. 



BOOK XXXIII— Vegetables. 

Three cauliflowers, John Marvel, Royalton $2 

E^econd, H. T. Adains, Onward, Cass county 1 

Six broccoli, H. T. Ad amp. Onward, Cass county 2 

Second, John Marvel, Royalton 1 

Six vegetable eggs, Daniel Ehvanger & Son, Haughsville 2 

Second, H. T. Adams, Onward, Cass county 1 

Six cucumbers, John Hutchinson, Worthington 2 

Second, Chas. Schoeneman, Indianapolis 1 

Peck white beans, W. H. Hartman, Indianapolis 2 

Second, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 1 

Two quarts lima beans, John Marvel, Royahon 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Half gallon garden peas (dry), J. H. Thomas, Lawrence 2 

Second, John Marvel, Royalton 1 

Half gallon field peas (dry), Frank Wilson, Jackson, Mich 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger.& Son, Haughsville 1 

Half peck peppers for pickling, H. T. Adams, Onward 2 

Second, George S. Dunn, Lawrence 1 

Peck tomatoes, Chas. Schoeneman, Indianapolis 2 

Second, J. Hutchinson, Worthington 1 

Collection tomatoes, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Half dozen ears green sweet corn, J. A. Merryman, Lawrence 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Half peck dry sweet corn, Daniel Elwanger & Sou, Haughsville 2 

Second, J. A. Merryman, Lawrence 1 

Three squashes, any kind, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Three pumpkins, J. A. Merryman, Lawrence 2 

Second, W. H. Hartman, Indianapolis 1 

Three drum-head cabbages, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, H. T. Adams, Onward, Cass county 1 

Three flat Dutch cabbages, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, H. T. Adnms, Onward, Cass county 1 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 117 

Three head cabbages, any kind, John Marvel, Royalton $2 

Second, J. A. Merryman, Lawrence 1 

Dozen stalks celery, J. A. Merryiuan. Lawrence 2 

Second, John Marvel, Royalton 1 

Collection vegetables by one amateur exhibitor, H. T. Adams, Onward, Cass 

county 10 

Collection of vegetables by one professional exhibitor, Daniel Ehvanger &Son, 

Haughsville 10 

Second, J. A. Merryman, Lawrence 5 



BOOK XXXIV— Boot Crops. 

Half bushel turnips, H. T. Adams, Onward ^2 

Second, Chas. Schoeneman, Indianapolis 1 

Dozen parsnips, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, Samuel H. Lane, Whitestown, Boone county 1 

Dozen radishes, John Marvtl, Royalton 2 

Second, J. A. Merryman, Lawrence 1 

Dozen carrots, Chas. Schoeneman, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Dozen roots salsify, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Dozen horse-radish, Chas. Schoeneman, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Half-dozen red beets, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Half dozen turnip beets, Frank Williamson, Zion.sville 2 

Second, Chas. Schoeneman, Indianapolis 1 

Half doztn sugar beets, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Half peck red onions, H. T. Adams, Onward 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Half peck yellow onions, Poke Walker, Harrison, Ohio 2 

Second, H. M. Newhouse, Lawrence 1 

Half peck white onions, Frank Williamson, Zionsville 2 

Second, W. H. Hartman, Indianapolis 1 

Dozen turnip radishes, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, Dan'l Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Dozen long radishes, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Display of onions in variety, quality, H. T. Adams, Onward 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 



118 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



BOOK XXXV— Potatoes. 

Peck White Star, John Marvel, Royalton $2 

Second, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 1 

Peck Dunmon's Seedling, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Second, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 1 

Peck Early Rose, S. H. Hays, Elizabethtown 2 

Second, W. H. Hartman, Indianapolis 1 

Peck Snowflake, H. T. Adams, Onward 2 

Second, S. H. Hays, Elizabethtown 1 

Peck Early Ohio, W. H. Hartman, Indianapolis 2 

Second, S. H. Hays, Elizabethtown 1 

Peck Shaker Russets, H. T. Adams, Onward 2 

Second, S. H. Hays, Elizabethtown 1 

Peck early Vermont, W. H. Hartman, Indianapolis 2 

Second, S. H. Hays, Elizabethtown '. . . 1 

Half bushel sweet potatoes, Charles Shoeneman, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Daniel Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 1 

Peck early potatoes, any kind, S. H. Hays, Elizabethtown 2 

Second, John Marvel, Royalton 1 

Peck late potatoes, any kind, H. T. Adams, Onward ; 2 

Second, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 1 

Peck Beauty of Hebron, Charles Schoeneman, Indianapolis 2 

Second, W. H. Hartman, Indianapolis 1 

Peck Blue Victor, W H. Hartman, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Santford Ennis, Clermont 1 

Peck Burbank seedling, Theo. Watson, Indianapolis 2 

Second, John Marvel, Royalton 1 

Collection Irish potatoes, not less than 5 varieties, W. A. Ennis, Clermont . . 5 

Second, W. H. Hartman, Indianapolis 2 



BOOK XXXVI— Grains and Seeds. 

Half bushel early Dentfield corn, in ear, John Marvel, Royalton $5 

Second, J. A. Heavenridge, Liberty, Union county 2 

Half bushel yellow corn, in ear, J. W. Apple, Oaklanden 5 

Second, James Riley, Thorntown 2 

Half bushel white corn, in ear, J. A. Heavenridge ^ 5 

Second, Geo. Eubank & Bro., Broad Ripple 2 

Half bushel corn, any color, .James Riley, Thorntown 5 

Second, George A. Dunn, Lawrence 2 

Half bushel hominy corn, J. Hutchison, Worthington 2 

Second, Otha Hays, Elizabethtown 1 

Half bushel pop-corn, John Marvel, Royalton .^ 2 

Second, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 1 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 119 

Display and greatest variety of corn, all kinds, not less than one-half gallon 

of each variety, John Marvel, Koyalton $10 

Display and greatest variety of Avheat, all kinds, not less than one-half gallon 

of each variety, James Riley, Thorntown, Boone county 10 

Half bushel white wheat, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Mich 5 

Second, W. A. Ennis, Clermont, Marion county 2 

Half bushel, red wheat, Frank "Wilson, Jackson, Mich 5 

Second, Poke Walker, Harrison, O 2 

Half bushel Spring wheat, Oliver H. Ennis, Clermont 5 

Second, Santford Ennis, Clermont, Marion county 2 

Half bushel rye, Poke Walker, Harrison, O 2 

Half bushel oats, J. A. Heavenridge, Liberty, Union county 2 

Half bushel buckwheat, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Mich 2 

Half bushel barley, James Eiley, Thorntown, Boone Co 2 

Half bushel flax seed, W. A. Ennis, Clermont, Marion county 2 

Half bushel millet seed, John Marvel, Eoyalton 2 

Half bushel timothy seed, Frank Wilson, Jackson, Mich 2 

Half bashel orchard grass seed, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 2 

Half bushel Hungarian grass seed, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 2 

Half bushel Kentucky blue grass seed, John Marvel, Royalton 2 

Half bushel English blue grass seed, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 2 

Half bushel red-top grass seed, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 2 

Half bushel red clover seed, Wm. Sigerson, Winamac, Pulaski county. .... 2 
Half bushel English clover seed, Wm. Sigerson & Son, Winemac, Pulaski 

county 2 

Sample 10 pounds broom corn, A. S. Huls, Traders' Point 2 

Collection of grains and vegetables by any county or local society, Lawrence 

District Fair Association 25 

Second, Pulaski County Society - 12 

BOOK XXXVII— Butter, Cheese and Honey. 

Five packages creamery butter, not less than 25 pounds each, A. Jordan, Indi- 
anapolis $15 

Second, George F. Davis & Co., Dyer, Lake county 8 

Three packages dairy butter, not less than 15 pounds each, A. Jordan, Indian- 
apolis 10 

Second, C. M Coats & Co., Indianapolis 5 

Five factory cheese, not less than 30 pounds each, A. .Jordan, Indianapolis. . 15 

Second, C. M. Coats & Co., Indianapolis 8 

Three dairy cheese, not less than 20 pounds each, A. Jordan, Indianapolis . . 10 

Second, C. M. Coats & Co., Indianapolis 5 

Comb honey in the most marketable shape, not less than 20 pounds, Samuel 

H. Lane, Whitestown, Boone county 4 

Second, Dougherty & McKee, Indianapolis 2 



120 BOARD OF AGRICULTDRE. 

Extracted honey in the most marketable shape, not lees than 20 pounds, 

Samuel H. Lane, Whitestown, Boone county $4 

Second, Dougherty & McKee, Indianapolis 2 

Display of honey, the product of one apiary of the pi-esent year, Samuel H. 

Lane, Whitestown, Boone county 4 

Second, Alfred Cox, Whitelick, Boone county 2 

Display of wax, not less than 10 pounds, Dougherty & McKee, Indianapolis . 2 

Second, Samuel H. Lane, Whitestown, B(jone county 1 

Display of apiarian supplies, Dougherty & McKee, Indianapolis 4 

Apparatus for the manufacture of comb foundation, to include all necessary 

articles for its manufacture, Dougherty & McKee, Indianapolis ... 4 
•Comb foundation for use in the brood chamber, Dougherty & McKee, Indian- 
apolis 2 

domb foundation for surplus honey, Dougherty & McKee, Indianapolis ... 2 

Honey extracter, Alfred Cox, Whitelick, Boone county 2 

Second, Dougherty & McKee, Indianapolis 1 

Honey vinegar, not less than 1 gallon, Samuel H. Lane, Whitestown, Boone 

county 2 

Second, Alfred Cox, Whitelick, Boone county J 

Section for surplus honey, Dougherty & McKee, Indianapolis 2 

Display retail package for extracted honey, Dougherty & McKee, IndianapoliH 2 

Honey cake or cakes, Mrs. Frances A. Cox, Whitelick 2 

Best 2 gallons sorghum syrup, Peter Eaab, Indianapolis 4 

Second, Allen Furnas, Danville 2 

BOOK XXXVIII— Cured MeaU, Groceries, Etc. 

Display of groceries, the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, Indianap- 
olis Diploma 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 



121 



HORTICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 



B. CUSTER, SUPERINTENDENT. 



BOOK XXXIX— Amateur List. 



Twenty varieties? of applet, G. W. Graves, Bunker Hill $15- 

Twelve varieties of applep, G. W. Graves, Bunker Hill 10 

Six varieties of apples, G. W. Graves, Bunker Hill 5- 

Plate Maiden's Blush, G. W. Graves, Bunker Hill 

Plate Smith's Cider, L. C. Trotter, Corydon 

Plate Ben Davis, L. C. Trotter, Corydon, Harrison county 

Plate Kome Beauty, L. C. Trotter, Corydon 

Plate Winesap, G. W. Graves, Bunker Hill 

Plate Rambo, G. W. Graves, Bunker Hill ." 

Plate Yellow Belleflower, R. A. Hays, Elizabethtown 

Plate Fallawater-Tulpehockin, G. W. Graves, Bunker Hill 

Plate Fall Pippin, W. B. Flick, Lawrence 

Plate Clayton, W. B. Flick, Lawrence 

Plate "White Pippin, S. H. Hays, Elizabethtown 

Plate Baldwin, T. A. Pefier, South Bend 

Plate Northern Spy, T. A. Peffer, South Bend 

Plate Vandever Pippin, S. H. Hays, Elizabethtown 

Plate King of Tompkins Co., S. H. Hays, Elizabethtown 



Ten varieties of pears, T. A. Peffer, South Bend 10 

Five varieties of pears, W. B. Flick, Lawrence 5 



Five varieties of grapes, T. A. Peffer, South Bend ... 5 

Three varieties of grapes, T. A. Pefier, SoSth Bend 3 

Five clusters of grapes, any kind, T. A. Peffer, South Bend 2 



QUINCES. 

Show of quincefl, not less than 12 specimens, T. A. Peffer, South Bend 



122 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



DISPLAY OF FRUITS. 

Display of fruits of all kinds, T. A. Pefifer, South Bend $25 

Display of fruit by any county or local society, Lawrence Fair Association, 

Lawrence 25 

Second, St. Joseph Co. Association, South Bend 20 

Three watermelons, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 5 

Second, W. O. Rucker, Jackson, Tipton county 2 

Three nutmeg melons, W. O. Rucker, Jackson, Tipton county 3 

Second, D. Elwanger & Son, Haughsville 2 

Largest striped Gipsy melon, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 2 

Largest Icing melon, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 2 

Collection of melons, all kinds, W. A. Ennis, Clermont 10 



BOOK XL— Professional List. 

APPLES. 

Twenty varieties of apples, M. Fickle, Galveston Diploma and $15 

Twelve varieties of apples, M. Fickle, Galveston Diploma and 10 

Six varieties of apples, M. Fickle, Galveston Diploma and 5 

PEARS. 

Four varieties of autumn pear, M. Fickle, Galveston Diploma and $5 

GRAPES. 

One variety of grapes, 10 clusters, T. S. Hubbard, Fredonia, K Y . Diploma and $2 

QUINCES. 

Collection of quinces, not less than 12 specimens, M. Fickle, Galveston. 

Diploma and $3 

DISPLAY OF FRUITS. 

Display of fruits of all kinds, M. Fickle, Galveston $25 

Collection of nursery stock arranged for exhibition adjoining Floral Hall, 

Albertson & Hobbs, Bridgeport Diploma and $20 

BOOK XLI—Frofessional List. 

General collection of plants, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis $20 

Second, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 10 

Collection of foliage plants, Berterman Bros., Incjianapolis 6 

Second, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 3 

Collection lycopods and ferns, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 6 

Second, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 3 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 125 

Display and variety of climbers, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis $5- 

Second, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis < 2 

Collection begonias, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis ^ 

Second, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 3^ 

Collection cacti, aloes, agaves, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 8 

Second, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 4 

Collection geraniums, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 6 

Second, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 3^ 

Three miotic stands, filled, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 6 

Three hanging baskets filled, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 4 

Second, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 2 

Collection of palms, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 10 

Second, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 5 

Collection alocasias and caladiums, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis. ... 10 

Second, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 5 

Collection cannas, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 6 

Second, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 3 

Arranged wardian case, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 4 

Second, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 2 

Floral display, by any one individual or firm, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianap- 
olis . 20O 

Second, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 100 

Collection loose, cut flowers, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 10 

Display and arrangement cut roses, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 5 

Five funeral designs, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 20 

Second, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 10 

Collection basket designs, not less then five pieces, Chas. Rieman & Co., In- 
dianapolis 20 

Second, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 10 

Collection bouquets, not less than 5, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 10 

Second, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 5 

Newest design in cut flowers, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 25 

Second, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 15 

Newest funeral design, Berterman Bros., Indianapolis 25- 

Second, Chas. Rieman & Co., Indianapolis 15 

BOOK XLII— Amateur Lisi. 

Collection plants, Mrs. Mary B. Danley, Indianapolis $15- 

Second, Mrs. Frank Williamson, Zionsville 7 

Collection begonias, not less than ten varieties, Mrs. Frank Williamson, Zions- 
ville 8- 

Second, Miss M. C. Stewart, Indianapolis 4 

Agave, Mrs. Frank Williamson, Zionsville 2 

Second, Mrs. Mary B. Danley, Indianapolis 1 



124 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

RuBtic stand, filled, Mrs. Mary B. Danley, Indianapolis $1 

Second, Ely M. Bronson, Indianapolis 2 

Niglit blooming cereus, Mrs. Mary B. Danley, Indianapolis 2 

Alocacia, Mrs. Frank Williamson, Zionsville . % 

Second, Mrs. Mary B. Danley, Indianapolis 1 

Canna, Mrs. Frank Williamson, Zionsville 2 

Second, Mrs. Mary B. Danley, Indianapolis 1 

Hanging basket, filled, Ely M. Bronson, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mrs. Mary B. Danley, Indianapolis 1 

Gjllection cut flowers, Mrs. Mary B. Dauley, Indianapolis 8 

Second, Frank Moulton, Indianapolis 4 

Collection cut geraniums, Mrs. Mary B. Danley, Indianapolis 4 

Second, Mrs. M. J. Flick, Lawrence, Marion county 2 

Collection cut roses, Mrs. Mary B. Danley, Indianapolis 8 

Second, Frank Moulton, Indianapolis 4 

Collection cut verbenas, Frank Moulton, Indianapolis 4 

Second, Mrs. Mary B. Danley, Indianapolis 2 

Special premium offered by Berterman Bros., florists, 37 and 43 Massachusetts 
avenue, for best show of plants and cut flowers by an amateur, Mrs. 

Mary B, Danley, Indianapolb, received in plants, seeds and bulbs. . 10 



GEOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 



DE. R. T. BKOWN, SUPERINTENDENT. FLETCHER M. NOE, ASS'T SUPEBINTENDEHT. 



BOOK XLIII. 

General collection of fossils, Dr. A. J. Phinney, Muncie $8 

Second, Fletcher M. Noe, Indianapolis 4 

General collection of minerals, Fletcher M. Noe, Indianapolis 10 

Second, G. K. Greene, New Albany g 

Collection Mound Builders' t^ Stone. Age) implements, Fletcher M. Noe, In- 
dianapolis 10 

Second, Willie Green, New Albany 5 

Collection of stufled and mounted birds, animals and reptiles, illustrating the 

natural history of the State, Fletcher M. Noe, Indianapolis 20 

Second, Ed. Bonge, Cumberland 15 

Collection skinned birds and animals, Fletcher M. Noe, Indianapolis • Diplom»-6 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 125 

Collection diurnal lepidoptera, Fletcher M. Noe, Indianapolis ........ $5 

Second, F. A. Biedenmeister, Indianapolis 2 

Collection nocturnal lepidoptera, F. A. Biedenmeister, Indianapolis 5 

• Second, Fletcher M. Noe, Indianapolis . 2 

Collection insects, Fletcher M. Noe, Indianapolis * . . . 3 

Second, Mary Fairfield, Indianapolis 2 

Collection botanical specimens, Nettie M. Duzan, Indianapolis , . Diploma and 6 
Collection American woods, not less than 25 varieties, Mary F. Fairfield, In- 
dianapolis 10 

Second, Mrs. C. Bobbins, Indianapolis . 5 

•Collection coins and medals, Fletcher M. Noe, Indianapolis 5 

Second, R. D. Eobinson, Indianapolis 2 

Collection of curiosities, to consist of relics of the late war and of historical 

interest, Fletcher M. Noe, Indianapolis 6 



WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT. 



MKS. A. M. NOE, SUPERINTENDENT. 



BOOK XLIV— Old Ladies' Department. 

All-wool coverlet, Mrs. Dr, Abbett, Indianapolis $2 

Cotton coverlet, Mrs. Margaret Kennedy, Shelbyville 2 

Worsted quilt, Mrs. C. Morrison, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mrs. Ann Shopp, New Castle 1 

Calico quit, Mrs. A. M. Kern, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mrs. Nancy Jackson, Knightstown 1 

Rug, Mrs. Woodard, Anderson 2 

Second, Mrs. I. T, Brown, Shelbyville 1 

Counterpane, knit, Mrs. Nancy Jackson, Knightstown 2 

Second, Mrs. J. A. Lemon, Astoria, 111 1 

Pair silk mittens, hand knit, Mrs. H. Gisey, Columbus 2 

Pair silk stockings or socks, hand knit, Mrs. C. Morrison, Indianapolis ... 2 

Pair woolen stockings or socks, hand knit, Mrs. H. Gisey, Columbus 1 

Pair cotton stockings or socks, hand knit, Mrs. H. Gisey, Columbus 1 

Pair linen stockings, hand knit, Mrs. Margaret Kennedy, Shelbyville .... 1 

Hemstitching, Mrs. Wra. Matthews, Arlington 2 

Second, Mrs. Margaret Kennedy, Shelbyville 1 



126 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Pair worsted mittens, fancy knitting, Mrs. L. K. Trickett, Edinburg $2 

Second, Mrs. Johnson, Indianapolis 1 

Table cover, crazy patch, Mrs. L. K. Trickett, Edinburg 2 

Second, Mrs. E. J. Kemper, Milncie 1 

Lace display, hand made, Mrs. H. Gisey, Columbus 3^ 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Kitteuhouse, Indianapolis 2 

Embroidery, display, Mrs. E. J. Kemper, Muncie 2 

Second, Mrs. S. Lee, Indianapolis 1 

Embroidery, silk specimen, Mrs. Cornelia Ellis, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mrs. E. J. Kemper, Muncie . 1 

Embroidery, worsted specimen, Mrs. E. .J. Kemper, Muncie 2 

Second, Mrs. H. Gisey, Columbus 1 

Fancy articles, display, Mrs. Tillie Shera, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mrs. I. T. Brown, Shelbyville 1 

Collection of household relics, Mrs. James Blake, Sr., Indianapolis 3- 

Second, Mrs. S. K. Hoshour, Indianapolis 2 

BOOK XLV— Knitting and Crochet Work. 

Infant's knit or crochet shirt, Mrs. E. B. Kirk, Shelbyville $1 

Infant's knit or crochet socks. Miss Jennie Swift, Connersville 1 

Pair silk mittens, hand knit, Mrs. P. D. Stagg, Greensburg 2 

Pair silk stockings, hand knit, Mrs. P. D. Stagg, Greensburg 2 

Knit or crochet shawl, Mrs. Ella Wills, Lebanon 2 

Knit or crochet hood, Mrs. E. B. Kirk, Shelbyville 1 

Thread crochet baby cap. Miss Mollie Howe, Princeton 1 

Knit or crochet fascinator. Miss Jennie Swift, Connersville 1 

Crochet child's sacque, Mrs. E. B. Kirk, Shelbyville 1 

Crochet cotton tidy. Miss Helen Johnson, South Bend. 1 

Afghan, Mrs. Emma Shellaberger, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Mrs. S. A. Edwards, Cicero 2 

Afghan, infant's, Mrs. P. D. Stagg, Gj^'eensburg 2 

Second, Mrs. S. Groves, Anderson 1 

Display fancy knitting, Clara Dexss, Haughsville 1 

Display crochet buttons, Mrs. M. F. Owens, Indianapolis 2 

Counterpane, crochet, Mrs. M. Posz, Shelbyville 1 

BOOK XL VI— Lace Work. 

Point lace, display, Miss R. C. Alexander, Paris, 111 $5 

Second, Mrs. Dr. Day, Shelbyville 3 

Point lace, specimen, Hattie Hopkins, Columbus 3 

Second, Miss Mollie Gall, Indianapolis 2 

Darning on net, specimen, Miss Annie DeCamp, Shelbyville 2 

Second, Miss Ida James, Indianapolis 1 



PRE.MIIM AWARDS. 127 

Applique lace, specimen, Miss K. C. Alexander, Paris, 111 $2 

Second, Mrs. M. Posz, Slielbyville 1 

Crochet lace, display, Mrs. Lena Eecker, Indianapolis 2 

Knit lace, display, Mrs. Hattie Hopkins, Columbus 2 

Tatting, display, Mrs. P. D. Stagg, Greensburg 2 

Netted guipure lace, display, Miss Mollie Howe, Princeton . . 2 

Macreme lace, display, Susie Martin, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mrs. E. B. Kirk, Shelbyville 1 

Featheredge, specimen, Mrs. Ella Wills, Lebanon 2 



BOOK XL VH—Emhroidenj. 

Embroidery, with linen tioss, Mrs. M. Posz, Shelbyville * $2 

Embroidery, cotton display, Mrs. A. A. Condit, Muncie 2 

Embroidery, silk, child's dress, Mrs. C. B. Muchmore, Shelbyville 2 

Embroidery, cotton, child's dress, Mrs. J. H. Taylor, Indianapolis 2 

Embroidery, napkin set, Mrs. J. Cambern, Rushville 2 

Embroidery, bed set, Mrs. Dr. Stewart, Anderson 2 

Embroidery, handkerchief, Mrs. P. D. Stagg, Greensburg 1 

Embroidery, silk, specimen, Mrs. Stewart, Anderson 2 

. Second, Mrs. J. Cambern, Rushville 1 

Embroidery, silk skirt, Miss Eudora Trickett, Edinburg 2 

Embroidery, silk, infant's shawl, Mrs. Lizzie Cannon, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Miss Jennie Swift, Connersville 1 

Embroidery, skirt, worsted, Mrs. S. Grove, Anderson 2 

Embroidery, table cover, Mrs. James Swart, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Miss .Jennie Swift, Connei-sville 2 

Embroidery, ottoman cover. Miss R. C. Alexander, Paris, 111 2 

Second, Mrs. Ella Wills, Lebanon I 

Embroidery, chair cover, Mrs. Ella Wills, Lebanon 2 

Embroidery, sofa cushion, Mrs. M. Posz, Shelbyville 2 

Second, Mrs. T. E. Griffith, Indianapolis 1 

Embroidery, toilet cushion, Mrs. M. Posz, Shelbville 2 

Second, Mrs. T. E. Griffith, Indianapolis 1 

Embroidery, slippers, made up. Miss .Jennie Swift, Connersville 2 

Embroidery, infant's cloak, Mrs. A. Clark, Indianapolis 2 

Embroidery, applique, white spec, Mrs. C. B. Muchmore, Shelbyville .... 1 

Embroidery applique, colored specimen, Mrs. P. D. Stagg, Shelbyville .... 2 

Second, Miss Mollie Landers, Indianapolis 1 

Embroidery outline, display, Mrs. E. B. Kirk, Shelbyville 2 

Embroidery, Kensington, specimen, Mrs. J. B. Parker, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Miss Mary Rariden, Indianapolis 2 

Embroidery, tapestry, display, Mrs. Van Riper, Evansville 3 

Second, Mrs. C. B. Muchmore, Shelbyville 2 

Embroidery, tapestry, specimen, Mrs. M. Posz, Shelbyville ■ • . . 2 



128 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. 

Embroidery, art in colors, display, Miss Anna M. Snively, Indianapolis . Diploma 

Embroidery, art in colors, specimen, Miss Anna Snively, Indianapolis ... $3 

Second, Mrs. A. G. Selman, Indianapolis 2 

Embroidery, chenille. Miss Kate Sims, Columbns S 

Second, Mrs. M. E. Greenstreet, Indianapolis 2 

Embroidery, arasene, specimen. Miss Fredona Allen, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Miss Eudora Trickett, Edinburg 2 

Embroidery, ribbon, specimen, Mrs. T. E. Griffith, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Mrs. Henry Cilley, Indianapolis 2 

Embroidery, rickrack work, display, Mrs. C. B. Muchmore, Shelbyville ... 1 

Embroidery, fire screen, Mrs. A. B. Gates, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Mrs. A. M. Robertson, Indianapolis 2 

BOOR XL VIII — Sewing — Machine and Hand. 

Machine work, 3 articles, Mrs. W. J. Crisler, Greeusburg $2 

Machine work, shirt, Mrs. Ella Wills, Lebanon 1 

Dress, worsted or silk, Mrs. M. J. Fitch, Indianapolis Diploma and 5 

Second, Mrs. S. Grove, Anderson ■'..... 3 

Ladies' business suit, Mrs. M. J. Fitch, Indianapolis Diploma and 5 

Gents' cloth coat, Mrs. Emma Ross, Indianapolis 5 

Pair pants, Mrs. E. M. Homer, Knightstown 2 

Vest, Mrs. Emma Ross, Indianapolis 1 

Boy's suit, Mrs. E. M. Homer, Knightstown 2 

Quilt, white, hand sewing, Mrs. Ella Wills, Lebanon ' 2 

Quilt, velvet, Mrs. T. E. Griffith, Indianapolis 2 

Quilt, silk, needlework. Miss Vogle, Shelbyville 3 

Second. Mrs. O. B. Gilkey, Indianapolis 2 

Buttonholes, display on different materials, Mrs. Ella Wills, Lebanon .... 2 

Second, Mrs. W. J. Crisler, Greensburg 1 

Hemstitching, specimen, Mr.'^. W. J. Crisler, Greensburg 2 

Drawn work, Mrs. S. Groves, Anderson 2 

Infant's wardrobe, most sensible and neat, Mrs. J, E, Cobb, Indianapolis ... 5 

Pillow shams, Mrs. Lizzie Stout, Indianapolis 2 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 129 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



BOOK XLIX. 

Wax flowers, Mrs. L P. Smock, Anderson $2 

Second, Mrs. C. Morrison, Indianapolis 1 

Wax fruit, Susie E. Martin, Indianapolis 2 

Wax work, ornamental, Mrs. Ella Newman, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Susie E. Martin, Indianapolis 1 

Handkerchief box. Miss Kate Sims, Colnmbus 2 

Second, Miss Jennie Swift, Connersville 1 

Glove box, Mrs. Allen Safunions, Indianapolis 1 

Sea moss collection, Mrs. P. E. Tyner, Greenfield 2 

Skeleton leaves and ferns, Mrs. A. Lloyd, Indianapolis 2 

Fish scale ornaments, Mrs. E. M. Homer, Knightstown 1 

Feather work on cloth, Mrs. A. A. Condit, Muncie 1 

Toilet cushion, not embroidered. Miss Jennie Swift, Connersville 2 

Second, Mrs. F. H. Robinson, Crawfordsville 1 

Sofa cushion, not embroidered, Mrs. Ida Brandenherger, Indianapolis .... 2 

Second, Mrs. E. B. Kirk, Shelbyville 1 

Lamp mats, fancy, Mrs. Lizzie Maples, New Castle 1 

Toilet mats, Mrs. T. E. GrifiBth, Indianapolis 1 

Picture tapestry work, Janet M. Monroe, Indianapolis 2 

Chair stripes, Mrs. Jennie Parr, Crawfordsville 2 

Lamberquin, window or mantel. Miss Susie Todd, Indianapolis 2 

Tidy, not crochet, Mrs. F H. Robinson, Crawfordsville 2 

Second, Mrs. T. L. GriflBs, Connersville 1 

Mineral collection, named, Alice E. Fairfield, Indianapolis 5 

Butterflies, collection, named, Mary F. Fairfield, Indianapolis 3 

Stufled birds, collection, named. Miss Lavinia W^inscott, Cumberland, Marion 

county 8 

Second, Mrs. Je-ssie M. Brayton, Indianapolis 3 

Upholstery work, chair, Mrs. A. M. Noe, Indianapolis 3 

Lauudried shirt, collar and cufls, by a woman not in employ of a laundry, 

Mrs. W. A. Ford, Indianapolis 1 

P^xhibit in silk culture. Miss Neata "Wilson, Russeilville 3 

Second, Mrs. C. Eobbins, Indianapolis 2 

Kindergarten work, Mrs. E. A. Blaker, Indianapolis Diploma 

Ten yards rag carpet, Miss Mary Custer, Indianapolis 2 

Rug, Mrs. Rose Ramsey, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mrs. M. R. Robertson, Indianapolis . . . .• 1 

Fur rugs, Mrs. A. M. Noe, Indianapolis 3 

Orazy patchwork, Mrs. T. L. Downard, Indianapolis 1 

9 — Agriculture. 



130 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



BOOK L—Dry Goods, Millinery, Etc. 

Display hair goods and work, Miss M. Phelan, Indianapolis Diploma 

Wig, made by exhibitor, Miss M. Phelan, Indianapolis . Diploma 



BOOK LI— Decorative Art Work. 

Carved wood work, display, Mrs. Wm. Matthew^, Arlington $3 

Alto relievo work in clay, display. Miss SiHe Ketcham, Indianapolis 3 

Etching on cloth, display. Miss Mary Rariden, Indianapolis 1 

Modeling in clay, display, Mrs. A. E. Ferry, Indianapolis 5 

Second, Miss Sue Ketcham, Indianapolis 3 

Pottery painting limoges, display, Miss Mollie Landers, Indianapolis .... 3 

Second, Miss Sue Ketcham, Indianapolis 2 

Pottery painting limoges, specimen, Mrs. A. E. Ferry, Indianapolis 2 

Pottery painting, bisque, display, Miss Sue Ketcham, Indianapolis 3 

Pottery painting, bisque, specimen, Mrs. A. E. Ferry, Indianapolis 2 

Painting on china, display, Miss Mollie Landers, Indianapolis 5 

Second, Mrs. A. E. Ferry, Indianapolis 3 

Painting on china, specimen, Miss Sue Ketcham, Indianapolis 2 

Etching on china, display, Miss Sue Ketcham, Indianapolis 3 

Painting on tiles, water, display, Miss Soe Ketcham, Indianapolis 5 

Second, Mrs. C. J. Colgan, Indianajwlis 3 

Painting on wood, display. Miss Mary Robinson, Indianapolis 5 

Second, Miss Sophia Dithmer, Indianapolis 3 

Painting on wood, specimen. Miss Mary Robinson, Indianapolis 2 

Painting on silk or satin, display, Miss Mary Rariden, Indianapolis 5 

Second, Miss Lizzie Waldo, Indianapolis , . 3 

Painting on silk or satin, specimen, Miss Libbie Murray, Indianapolis. ... 2 

Painting on velvet, colored, display, Mrs. A. R. Thompson, Indianapolis. . . 3 

Painting on velvet, colored, specimen, Miss Mary R. Heron, Indianapolis . . 2 

Painting on velvet, while, display, Mrs. A. R. Thompson, Indianapolis ... 3 

Painting on velvet, Kensington, display. Miss Sue Ketcham, Indianapolis . . 2 

Painted fan, Miss Bertha E. Clausou, Indianapolis. 2 

Painted toilet set. Miss Mary R. Heron, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mrs. A. R. Thompson, Indianapolis 1 

Painted fancy cards, display, Mrs. Chas. Railsback, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Miss Mary Robinson, Indianapolis 2 

Painted fire screen, Miss Mary Robinson, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Mrs. A. E. Ferry, Indianapolis 2 

Original design for decoration, in oil, Miss Mary Robinson, Indianapolis. . . 3 

Second, Miss Retta Mafthews, Arlington 2 

Original design for decoration, in water colors, Miss Retta Matthews, Arlington 3 

Second, Mrs. C. B. Ingraham, Indianapolis 2 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 131 

Pencil drawings, original display, Miss Mary Kobinson, Indianapolis .... $3 

Second, Miss Mary Rariden, Indianapolis 2 

Painting in pair panels, water colors, Mrs. S. A. Leet, Indianapolis 3 

Painting in pair panels, oil, Miss Mary Robinson, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Miss Martha Gerstner, Indianapolis 2. 

BOOK LII—Art Work. Amateur. 

Crayon drawings, display. Miss A. M. Wiles, Indianapolis $3 

Pastelle painting, display. Miss Edith Fountain, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Mrs. Mary R. Heron, Indianapolis 2 

Painted plaque, display. Miss B. M Jameson, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Miss Mary R. Heron, Indianapolis .^ 2 

Flower painting, in oil, display. Miss Cora B. Campbell, Danville 3 

Second, Miss Mollie Landers, Indianapolis 2 

Flower painting, water colors, display, Miss Lizzie Waldo, Indianapolis ... 3 

Fruit painting in oil. Miss Cora B. Campbell, Danville 3 

Second, Miss Mary R. Heron. Indianapolis 2 

Landscapes in oil, display, Miss Mollie Landers, Indianapolis 7 

Second, ^Irs. H. S. Tucker, Indianapolis 3 

Landscape in oil, specimen, Miss Mary R. Heron, Indianapolis 3 

Portraits in oil, specimen, Mrs. H. S. Tucker, Indianapolis b 

Second, Miss Mary Redmond, Indianapolis 3 

Sketch from nature in oil, Miss Cora B. Campbell, Danville 3 

Second, Miss Cora B. Campbell, Danville 2 

BOOK LIII~Art Worl; Professional. 

Portraits in oil, display, Mrs. C. B. Ingraham, Indianapolis .$10 

Portraits in oil, specimen, Mrs. A. E. Ferry, Indianapolis 5 

Landscapes in oil, display. Miss Sue Ketcham, Indianapolis 8 

Landscapes in oil, specimen, Miss Sue Ketcham 3 

Fruit painting in oil, specimen. Miss Sue Ketcham, Indianapolis 3 

Flower painting in oil, display, Miss Sue Ketcham, Indianapolis 5 

Second, Miss Retta Matthews, Arlington ■ 3 

Flower painting in oil, specimen. Miss Retta Matthews, Arlington 2 

Flower painting, water colors, Miss Sue Ketcham, Indianapolis 5 

Second, Mi-s. S. A. Leet, Indianapolis 3 

Flower painting, water colors, specimen. Miss Matthews, Arlington 2 

Study from life, in oil,-Miss R. Matthews, Arlington 5 

Second, Mrs. A. E. Ferry, Indianapolis 3 

Study from life, water colors, Mrs. A. E. Ferry, Indianapolis 5 

Second, Miss Mollie Landers, Indianapolis 3 

Pastelle painting, specimen, Mrs. J. L. Fletcher, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Mrs. A. R. Thompson, Indianapolis 2 



182 BOARD OF AORICULTURB. 

Plaques, display, Miss K. Matthews, Arlington $3 

Second, Mrs. A. E. Ferry, Indianapolis 2 

Plaque alabaster, Mrs. S. A. Leet, Indianapolis 2 

Crayon drawing, specimen, Miss Matthews, Arlington 3 

Second, Mrs. A. E. Ferry, Indianapolis 2 

Drawings from the antique specimen. Miss Retta Matthews, Arlington ... 2 

BOOK LIV—Tabk Luxuries. 

Butter, 5 pounds, Mrs. M. B. Danley, Indianapolis $3 

Second, Mrs. Harriet Stanton, Greenwood 2 

Honey in comb, 5 pounds, in most marketable shape, Mrs. Lizzie Stout, Indi- 
anapolis 3 

Second, Mrs. W. A, Ford, Indianapolis 2 

Honey extracted, 5 pounds, in most marketable shape, Mrs. Samuel H. Lane, 

Whitestown 3 

Second, Mrs. Lizzie Stout, Indianapolis 2 

Bread, loaf, wheat, yeast, Miss May Johnson, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mrs. E. Brandenburger, Indianapolis 1 

Bread, wheat, salt rising, Mrs. Dr. Swain, Indianapolis . . . 2 

Second, Mrs. M. B. Danley, Indianapolis 1 

Graham bread, yeast, Mrs. M. B. Danley, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mrs. Dr. Swain, Indianapolis 1 

Graham bread, salt rising, Mrs. Dr. Swp.in, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mr.s. M. B. Danley, Indianapolis 1 

Fig cake, Mrs. Wm.Middlesworth, Indianapolis 2 

Layer cake, jelly, Mrs. H. B. Waybright, Greensburg 1 

Layer cake, cocoanut, Mrs. S. Grove, Anderson 1 

Pound cake, Mrs. S. Grove, Anderson 2 

Second, Mrs. Darling, North Inrlianapolis 1 

Fruit cake, Mrs. S. Grove, Anderson 3 

Second, Mrs. A. Pickle, Oaklandon 2 

Chocolate cake. Miss Mary L. Fox, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Mrs. H. L. Thompson, Indianapolis 2 

Crullers, Mrs. A. M. Xoe, Indianapolis 1 

Jellies, collection, Mrs. E. Speer, Greensburg 3 

Second, Mrs. M. J. Flick, Lawrence 2 

Preserves, collection, not less than 1 pint each, Mrs. E. Speer, Greensburg . . 5 

Second, Mrs. A. G. Selman, Indianapolis 3 

Fruit butters, cuUeclion, not less than 1 pint each, Mrs. E. Speer, Greensburg . 3 

Second, Mrs. M. J. Flick, Lawrence 2 

Pickles, mixed, Mrs. A. Sammons, Indianapolis 1 

Pickles, cucumber, Mrs. A. M. Noe, Indianapolis 1 

Canned fruit, collection, not less than 1 pint each, Mrs. S. Hall, Indianapolis . 5 

Second, Mrs. E. Speer, Greensburg 3 



PREMIUM AWARDS. 133 

Maple molasBea, half gallon, Mrs. M. L. Marvel, Royaltoa $1 

Maple sugar, five pounds, Mrs. W. A. Ford, Indianapolis 1 

Tomato catsup, not less than 1 pint, Mrs. Dr. Minich, Indianapolis 1 

BOOK LV— Agricultural, etc. 

Largest display and variety of grain, Mrs. M. B. Danley, Indianapolis ... $-■> 

Largest display and variety of vegetables, Mrs. M. J. Flick, Lawrence . ... 8 

Second, Mrs. M. B. Danley, Indianapolis 4 

Largest display and variety of fruit, Mrs. M, J. Flick, Lawrence 8 

Second, Mrs. M B. Danley, Indianapolis 4 

BOOK LVI—Uhildrem' Department. 

Loaf wheat bread, yeast, L. Weaver, Indianapolis $2 

Second, G. Coburn, Indianapolis 

Pound cake, Ollie Irwin, Indianapolis 

Second, Gertie Darling, North Indianapolis 

Fancy cake, Cora Bugbee, Indianapolis 

Second, M. Fry, Indianapolis 

Jellies, collection, Edith T. Beck, Indianapolis 

Pickles, mixed, Mertie Walters, Indianapolis 

Patchwork, plain, Nellie Price, Indianapolis 

Patchwork, fancy. Pearl Muchmore, Shelby ville 

Handsewing, garment, Anna Posz, Sbelbyville 

Darning on old garment, Mary Kirk, Sbelbyville 

Buttonholes, display, different materials, Mertie Walters, Indianapolis . . . 

Second, M. Ford, Indianapolis 

Embroidery, cotton, Nellie Howe, Princeton 

Second, Anna Posz, Sbelbyville 

Embroidery, darning on net, Lillie Homer, Knightstown 

Embroidery, worsted specimen, Mary Kirk, Sbelbyville 

Second, Anna Posz, Sbelbyville 

Embroidery, silk specimen, Anna Posz, Sbelbyville 

Second, Pearl Muchmore, Sbelbyville 

<Jrochet work, display. Pearl Muchmore, Sbelbyville 

Second, Nellie Contant, Crawfordsville 

Pair knit stockings, Louie Hughel, Anderson 

Pair knit mittens, Louie Hughel, Anderson 

Knit-lace display, Pearl Muchmore, Sbelbyville 

Doll's wardrobe, Pearl Muchmore, Sbelbyville 

Tidy, G. Coburn, Indianapolis 

Second, Lillie Summons, Indianapolis 

Pin-cushion, Henry Brandt, Indianapolis 

Toilet set, Pearl Muchmore, Sbelbyville 2 

Second, Anna Posz, Sbelbyville 1 



134 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, 

Painting, on silk or satin, display, Mary Kirk, Shelbyville $2 

Painting, on wood, display, Mary Ingraliam, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Maud Pierson, Indianapolis 1 

Painted plaques, display, Maud Pierson, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Lillie Weaver, Indianapolis 1 

Pencil drawing, original, Ida B. Martin, Indianapolis 2 

Second, Mary Ingraliam, Indianapolis 1 

Pencil drawing, copy, L. Waldo, Indianapolis 1 

Fret sawing, display, Eddie Homer, Knighstown 2 

Fret sawing, specimen, Eddie Homer, Knightstown 1 

Carved wood-work, display, Eddie Homer, Knightstown 2 

Second, Henry Dithmer, Indianapolis 1 

Woods, collection, named, Walter S. Eollins, Indianapolis 2 

Shells, collection, named, Harry F. Thompson, Indianapolis 1 

Minerals, collection, named, Harry F. Thompson , Indianapolis 2 

Butterflies, collection, named, Joseph Goldstein, Indianapolis 3 

Second, Asa Bloomer, Indianapolis 2 

Insects, collection, named, Garvin L. Payne, Indianapolis 1 

Moths, collection, named, Joseph Goldstein, Indianapolis 2 

Collection of Stamps, Clarence E. Coffin, Indianapolis 1 

Collection of curiosities, Walter S. Robbins, Indianapolis 1 

Collection of old coins, Harry F. Thompson, Indianapolis 2 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE 



ON SPECIAL MERITS OF ARTICLES ENTERED IN BOOK A, 

AND 

Exhibited at the Indiana State Fair for 1884, 
ON WHICH NO PREMIUMS WERE OFFERED, 



Detached Portable Engine, by G. 11. Zschech & Vinton Iron Works, Indianapolu, 
Ind. This is an 85XIO engine, running at high speed ; is very simple and compact 
in construction, and of excellent workmanship. It has a novel form of bed in 
which the material is unusually well distributed to give strength and steadiness to 
the engine without itself being very heavy. The boiler is of the usual locomotive 
style, and of first-class material and workmanship. The engine is so connected to 
the skids as to occupy very little space on the ground, and be conveniently han- 
dled. It was successfully driving one of their pony saw mills. 

Portable Engine, by Springfield Engine and Thresher Co., Springfield, Ohio. This 
Company exhibit a ten-horse power engine, which they claim has some points of 
excellence over others, the more prominent being that it is lighter, and conse- 
quently easier to get about over the country. They also claim that it works steam 
wiih superior economy, requiring less to do a given amount of work, and thereby 
saves fuel. The engine is supplied with the usual pump, worked from the cross- 
head, and also with an independent steam pump of simple construction, which is 
reliable in its action, and furnishes ample means of keeping up a supply of water, 
whether the engine is running or not. All joints are scraped and ground, so that 
no packing is needed, and all parts are made interchangeable, so that any part 
that may be needed to replace a broken or Avorn out piece may be had from the 
shop that will fit and work properly without sending the engine or any part of it 
there. The material and workmanship are good, and it is well mounted on truck 
with wood wheels. 



136 BOAKD or AGRICULTURE. 

Semi-portable Engine, by Deering & Co., IndiatmpoHs. This is a four-liorse power 
engine on skids, which occupies very little space, and has a return flue boiler of the 
usual form. It has the usual connections and fittings of larger engines, and is a 
desirable engine where only a small power is required. 

Shipman Engine, by Thos. Reber, Agent, Louim)iUe, Ky. This is a new and novel 
engine, occupying very little space, and uses coal oil, which is sprayed by a jet of 
steam from the boiler, as fuel. It has a tubular boiler in which the supply of 
water is automatically regulated by means of a copper ball floating in the water^ 
which regulates the supply from the pump. It is supplied with a safety valve, but 
over-pressure in the boiler and waste of fuel are guarded ag*iust by an arrange- 
ment that closes the jet and stops the atomizer when steam pressure is up to 120 
pounds. In the engine two single acting cylinders are used, and steam is admitted 
to them alternately by means of a rocking valve. The motion is kept regular by 
a governor on main shaft. All the working parts are encased, protecting then> 
from dust, and avoiding any danger to careless persons. It is self-oiling and re- 
quires very little attention in running. It is claimed that it is absolutely free 
from danger, either from fire or explosion, and if these claims are well founded, as 
they seem to be, it is peculiarly adapted to use in numberless places where only a 
light power may be needed. 

Portable Engine, by Stillwater Manufacturing and Car Co., J. B. Parker, Agent, In- 
dianapolis. This engine differs from others in general use mainly in the construc- 
tion of the boiler, which has a fire-box and a large, direct flue, 20 to 22 inches in 
diameter, through the lower part of the cylindrical part of the boiler, and the up- 
per part is filled with 2^-inch return flues. It is claimed that this arrangement 
gives better steaming capacity to the boiler, making it easier to raise and maintain 
a head of steam, and adapts it to the use of all kinds of fuel, either coal, wood or 
straw. It is supported on a good truck, the rear axle extending around under the 
fire-box. The engine is a good one in all respects, and is furnished with an inde- 
pendent steam pump, which may be worked by hand when necessary. 

Traction Engine, Peerless, by Geiser Manufacturing Company, Waynesborough, Pa.; 
A. C. Hamilton, Agent, Indianapolk. This engine is stylish and attractive in ap- 
pearance, and has some peculiarities worthy of special notice. The boiler is of the 
usual locomotive style, with open bottom fire-box; but a notable feature in it is 
that it has an attachment to the crown-sheet that retains a quantity of water that 
can not run off' of it in going down grades. This is regarded as a very important 
addition, as any exposure of fire surface not covered with water is at least very in- 
jurious, if not immediately dangerous. The engine is gotten up in the best style 
of workmanship, with all parts made interchangeable. Among noticeable points 
are that the cylinder, with one head, and the steam chest, are cast in one piece, 
leaving only two joints to make. There is also a new device for reversing, using 
only one eccentric. The driving wheels are very large, giving a large surface in 
coniact with the ground ; and, as it is intended to be used also for plowing, two 
additions to the wheels are provided which are readily attached or detached that 
make, when attached, a very wide faced wheel, adapted to pulling heavy loads on 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 137 

soft ground. Spur gearing is used in the compensating gear inRtead of bevel, as is 
usual. A gang of plows intended to be operated by this engine was detained on 
the road, and were not received in time to be exhibited. 

Portable Engine, by Nichols, Shepnrd & Co., Battle Creek, Mich.; W. S. McMilkn, 
Manager, Indianapulis. This engine has a locomotive boiler, with water front and 
bottom to fire-box, and extra lieavy fine sheets, and all made of the best quality of 
iron, with firstc-lass workmanship. Copper thimbles are used at the fine ends in 
the fire-box, which, with the extra thickness of sheet, it is claimed, reduces their 
liability to leak to a minimum, and, consequently, avoids the deterioration that 
takes place so rapidly from corrosion on leaky surfaces. The engine is well con- 
structed of the best material, and is placed on the side of the boiler, on a good bed, 
in a convenient position for handling and caring for. It has a good pump, worked 
from the cross-head, and is provided with all necessary fittings of the best quality. 

Knebel Engine, by Rice, Whitacre & Co., Chicago, III. This is a new style of ver- 
tical engine, very simple in construction, and has few part to look after and keep in 
order. The cylinder is supported on trunnions, on which it vibrates. The piston- 
rod is connected directly to the crank, without the intervention of cross-head or 
connecting rod, and has no eccentric or rod. The admission and exhaust of steam 
is effected by the vibration of the cylinder by means of a valve which is connected 
to lower end of cylinder, which has a curved convex face, which is a segment^of a 
«ircle concentric with the trunnions, and has openings, or ports, through it that 
communicate with either end of the cylinder. A sort of steam-chest has a concave 
face, and makes a joint with the valve, and is held up to its place against it by 
springs, and has a pipe, or opening, through it for admission of steam, while an 
annular opening around the steam pipe allows the passage of exhaust steam. In 
operation, the rotation of the crank vibrates the valve on the end of the cylinder 
until, at the proper time, a port is over the steam pipe, or opening, and steam is 
admitted to one end of the cylinder, at the same time bringing the port of the other 
«nd over the exhaust opening, which movement is alternated between the two sides 
of the piston-head as the crank rotates. 

Tniclion Engine, by the BirdsaU Company, Auburn, N. Y., C. E. Merrifield, Agent, 
Indianapolis. This engine differs from others in many respects. The first to arrest 
attention is the driving wheels, which are large, and made almost entirely of 
wrought iron, being very strong and light ; and a distinctive feature, not found in 
any other, is that there are oj>enings through the tire, or face, which, it is claimed, 
enables it to hold better in slippery mud, wet grass or weeds, without extra attach- 
ment. The entire weight of the boiler i-< supported on springs, which break the 
force of shocks received in going over rough places. The engine is well gotten up, 
and is placed at the extreme forward end of the boiler, and has two steam pipes, 
one taking steam from the forward end, the other from the dome, enabling it to 
get dry steam from one or the other, with water fresh in the boiler, going either up 
or down hills. By a simple arrangement of a single eccentric a reliable reverse 
movement is secured, avoiding the wear and complications of the link. The whole 
rig is well designed, is of good material and workmanship, and as light as is con- 
sistent with the rough, hard service required of it. 



138 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Traction Engine, by Nichols, Shepard & Co., W. S. McMillen, Agent, Indianapolis. 
This engine is handsome in its design and finish, and has many points of merit in 
its arrangement. The boiler is supported on six spiral springs, two on either side 
and two under the fire-box, and is made of only two sheets of iron, double riveted. 
The crown sheet is about four inches lower at the back end, over the fire door, than 
over the flues, and has a fusible plug at the highest point. This slope of the crown 
sheet gives so great a depth of the water at the back end that it will not be likely 
to become bare of water in going down any reasonable grade. The flue sheet is 
half inch thick, and copper thimbles are used at flue ends. It has water front and 
bottom', and both pump and injector are furnished for supplying water. The 
engine is a first-class one in all respects, and uses the Hoag reverse pinion move- 
ment. It is furnished with all necessary fixtures, conveniently placed for use. 
The stack has an improved bonnet that guards very effectually against danger 
from fire. 

Portable Engine, by Springfield Engine and Thresher Coriipany, Springfield, Ohio. 
This is a good engine in all its appointments. It is mounted on a frame, and is 
not supported by the boiler, as is usual. The driving wheels are entirely of 
wrought iron, except the hub, and are so connected to the axle that one or both 
may be fastened to it, and all turn together, as in a locomotive, or either or both 
may be detached, and used as a portable. The forward wheels are pushed by the 
frame from the rear and not by the boiler. Steel springs are used in the compen- 
sating gear, which allows them to yield a little when the wheel strikes an obstruc- 
tion or has unusual strain from any cause, lessening the danger of breaking the 
gearing. The link motion is used for reversing the engine, which has all its parts 
conveniently arranged for handling or being cared for in running. 

Traction Engine, by M. d- J. Rumely, Laporte, Ind. In this engine great care is 
taken to secure the best material and workmanship. The boiler is made of a su- 
perior quality of iron, with a very large dome from which steam is taken through 
a dry pipe, which secures dry steam under all ordinary circumstances. It has 
water front and bottom, and large flues, through which a better draft is secured 
than through smaller ones. The engine is placed well back to give weight over the 
driving wheels. Uses the link for reversing, with an extra long phosphor-bronze 
block, thus securing the best possible wearing properties in this kind of reversing 
rig. Uses the usual cross-head pump for supplying water. The driving wheels 
are large, and are driven by a straight train of gearing, with the usual compen- 
sating gear on counter shaft. The front wheels have an elevated ring or ridge 
around the center to prevent lateral slipping. A good spark arrester guards 
against fire. It is conveniently handled by the engineer, whether at regular work 
or running on the road. As geared it will travel about four miles an hour. 

Tractimi Engine, by Eagle Machine Woi-h, Indianapolis. This company have one 
of their traction engines on exhibition, which is a well-made, light, and yet sub- 
stantial machine, well adapted to the work it is intended to do. The boiler is well 
made of the best quality of iron, with water front and bottom, and is hand-riveted. 
The engine is mounted high on the boiler, getting the band-wheel well up out of 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 139 

the way of the front wheels. It has a novel arrangement for reversing, which is 
effected by means of a spiral feather in the main shaft over which the eccentric 
slips and is revolved by it sufficiently for the purpose. It is easily operated. Water 
is supplied by the usual arrangement of pump under the cylinder. The wheels 
are all iron, the driving wheels having an internal spur wheel attached to lugs from 
their rims, by which they are driven. Has compensating gear. 

Traction Engine, by Northwestern Manufadunng and Oar Co., Stillwater, Minn., J. B. 
Parker, Agent, Indianapolis. This engine is of the same style as their portable in 
all respects, except in having traction attachments. The boiler has a lire-box with 
water bottom and cast iron front, which may be removed to facilitate repairs in 
the fire-box, when needed. It is claimed that the large direct flue and smaller re- 
turn flues gives this boiler the bes-t steaming capacity with any fuel, and enables 
it to burn straw advantageously, which others can not do at all. The engine is 
well constructed, and is diflferent in some of its arrangements from others, the 
most noticeable being the friction clutch, or pulley, by means of which the engine 
may be instantly connected or disconnected from the traction wheels, enabling the 
engine to get under headway after being stopped in a difficult place, and thus 
enable it to move its load, which it might not be able to do otherwise. One of 
these friction pulleys carries a sprocket chain which drives a counter shaft carry- 
ing the compensating gear, and pinions that engage in spur wheels that are fast on 
traction wheels. There is also a novel arrangement of the eccentric for reversing, 
that is claimed to effect all that can be accomplished with the link in a very simple 
manner, and is not afiected by wear as is the link. 

Traction, Engine, by Frick & Co., Waynesboro, Pa. This engine is so well gotten 
up in all respects as to arrest the attention of the most casual observer. The boiler 
is well made of good material, with waterfront and bottom, and has a large heating 
surface for the work it is intended to do. The main frame of the engine consists of 
two wrought iron sills, which extend from the front axle back of rear end far 
enough to support engineer's platform and water-tank. They are not rigidly con- 
nected to the boiler, though the rear end is supported from them by a wrought 
baud passing around under the fire-box. The engine frame is also supported at 
the back end by these sills on vertical plates, which are riveted to them, while the 
forward end rests on the boiler, but is not rigidly connected to it. By the ar- 
rangement of these sills and engine frame, all strains from unequal expansion and 
contraction of boiler and other parts are avoided. Uses the link reverse on en- 
gine, and has an elastic compensating gear in its propelling gearing that serves a- 
valuable purpose in breaking the force of shocks from sudden starting, striking 
obstructions or other cause. 

Traction Engine, by Gaar, Scott <fc Co., Richmond, Ind. This establishment ex- 
hibits one of their traction engines, in which the design, material and workman- 
ship are excellent. The boiler has the water front and bottom, and is well made 
of the best iron. The truck wheels are all iron, the drivers having an internal 
gear wheel, by which they are driven, attached to their rims, relieving the spokes of 
.any strain. A spiral groove or corrugation in the roller on which the guiding chains 



140 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

wind causes them to always wind alike, saving time in taking up slack in guiding, 
and holding it steadily in its course. The engine is compact and convenieat, and 
is claimed to work with the greatest economy, and to devolpe unusual power in the 
field or on the road, being ample to go with its- train through plowed fields or 
rough roads wherever desired. It is also claimed that it will go down any ordinary 
hill with safety to the crown sheet if water is carried flush. For reversing, the 
regular locomotive link motion is used. 

Traction Engine, by Robinson & Co., Richmond, Ind. This firm exhibits their 
traction engine, which has many points of merit. Among these may be noticed 
that it is very readily put out of gear, so as to be moved as a portable by horses 
when necessary. The boiler is supported on springs over the rear axle, which 
break the force of shocks that are so destructive to heavy machines passing 
over rongh places. The regular locomotive link is used for reversing, and the two 
eccentrics are cast together, so that Avhen one is right the other must be. The arm 
of the rock-shaft is one and a half inches above the center of the shaft when the 
valve is on half stroke, by which arrangement it is claimed there is much less 
wear of parts, as the engine is alway.'i run in one direction in doing regular work. 
The general arrangement makes it very convenient to handle, and the material and 
workmanship are superior. 

Model of Jjocomotive Engine, by D. A. Reynold/^, Wavcland, Ind. This is a model 
made of wood by the exhibiter, who is a young farmer, and not a trained me- 
chanic, which ia a very fair representation of a locomotive engine and tender- 
The work was done with a very limited supply of tools, and gives evidence of good 
natural abilities as a mechanic, and shows the direction or bent of his mind. The 
worlc is highly creditable to him. 

O. A. Zschech & Co., and Vinton Iron Work.'<, Indianapolii^. Exhibit three saw 
mills, which they designate as their C, D and E mills respectively. The C aud D 
mills differ only in size and capacity. Their frames, or husks, are made of either 
wood or iron, as desired. The mandrels are of steel, with their collars forged on 
them, which are recessed into their boxes to exclude dust and save oil. The boxes 
are pivoted, and allign themselves without unnecessary friction. The mandrel ex- 
tends outside the main frame far enough to carry the driving pully, and take a 
bearing in a rigid frame that supports the out end of it, so that the tension of the 
belt adds no friction to the journal at the saw. This long mandrel also gives more 
room to the off-bearer. The upper saw mandrel has bearings close on either side of 
its pulley, and an automatic tightener gives any desired tension to its belt, and in- 
stantly takes up any slack made by a hard pull. The friction pulley, for feeding 
or backing, accommodates itself to the face of the pulley it is working against. A 
patented guide enables the sawyer to adjust the lead of the saw with entire safety. 
These mills are furnished with the Zschech head-blocks which set accurately by 
sixteenths up to 2^ inches. No panels are used in these head-blocks to wear and 
make them set uneven, and they are conveniently thrown out of gear for backing 
knees or sawing tapers. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 141 

The " E " mill is made either single or double, and is intended for light power 
and a small force of hands, for wliich purpose it is well adapted. It is furnished 
with a rack and pinion head-block that opens 36 inches, and sets accurately by six- 
teenths. Three men can run this mill successfully. 

They also have an edging table, in which the guide-rail is supported on a cast- 
iron frame, made in a form to secure the greatest strength with the lightest weight. 
It is readily taken apart, for transportation, and set up again, and is furnished 
with counter-shaft for getting up speed, and a gauge for ripping to width. 

They also have a billet saw that is convenient and safe to operate. The sliding 
table can not get off the guides. 

They also exhibit a swing saw, wliich is well and strongly made, and furnished 
with means of being securely hung. The boxes for mandrel in lower end are very 
secure. 

Earjlc Machine. Works, iThdianapoh. Exhibit one of their Pony " C " saw mills, 
which is well designed and well made, of good material. This mill is well 
adapted to do neighborhood sawing with a light power, such as is generally used 
for threshing. It may have a top saw added, and used as a double mill. The 
mandrel runs in self-adjusting boxes, and is very long, with driving pulley outside 
of frame, giving four and a half feet room for off bearer between belt and saw. The 
head-blocks set any thickness by.screw feed, worked by a lever, and are conve- 
niently operated for sawing tapers. The sawyer can, from one position, control the 
engine and feed, and also set the log. 

They also exhibit a set of Meiner head-blocks. These head-blocks have been 
long and favorably known to sawyei^s as being accurate and convenient in setting, 
simple and durable in construction, and filling all the requirements of a first-class 
head-biock in a very satisfactory manner. 

Band Saw Mill, by Sinker, Davis & Co., Indianapolis. This is a large and im- 
proved mill, capable of sawing the largest logs into lumber at the rate of from 
15,000 to 25,000 feet per day, owing to the timber and power used. In this mill 
the objections or obstacles heretofore found in ifsing the band saw for manufactur- 
ing lumber rapidly seem to have been overcome, as was demonstrated on the 
ground during the fair, where it attracted marked attention from visitors gener- 
ally, and from saw mill men especially. The great saving of time and timber, 
which is wasted in chopping for the upper saw mandrel of the circular mill, in 
large logs, and the great saving in all timber by using so thin a saw must soon 
bring this kind of saw into general use, as good timber is rapidly becoming scarce 
and more valuable. It is claimed that this mill will cut six 1-inch boards from 
a flitch 6 5-16 thick. In operation on the fair grounds it cut straight lines and 
very smooth lumber. 

Potts' Hydraulic Brick and Tile Machine, by Vinton Iron Works, Indianapolis. 
This is a new style of brick and tile machine, and differs from others in many im- 
portant particulars, the principal one being in the manner of getting motion and 
presriure to the plunger. This is accomplished by hydraulic pressure, produced by 
» set of three plunger pumps forcing water into a cylinder, where it operates on 



142 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

a piston head just as steam does in the steam engine. After it has made a stroke 
or plunge one way, a valve allows the water to exhaust, or rather leaves it free to 
return to the tank whence it came, and admits it on the other side for the return 
stroke. The plunger that forces out the clay is connected to and is in line with 
the piston, so that the pressure is directly in the line of motion, there being no 
lateral wear or pressure. A quick return of the plunger, after it has made a 
plunge, is produced by adding a piece around the piston that is equivalent to in- 
creasing its size to three-fourths the area of the cylinder, consequently only one- 
fourth as much water is required to fill that end of the cylinder, and the return 
stroke is therefore made in one-fourth the time required for the plunge. The tank 
is conveniently located at the side of the pug mill, and by a cock or valve in the 
pipe connecting it with the pumps, the speed of the mill can be regulated to any 
speed, from one plunge in three minutes to four or five in one minute. The stroke 
of the plunge is readily adjusted to anything under twenty inches. In the pug 
mill the shaft carrying the tempering blades is hung in a long bearing only at the 
top end, and goes no further down than the bottom of the pug mill, which is left 
entirely open for the free passage of the clay into the pressure box. The pug mill 
runs much faster thau the plunger, and their relative speeds may be so regulated 
that any clay will be properly tempered before it gets into the pressure box- 
Another important attachment is a safety valve connected with water pipe that 
will raise before a breaking strain is reached from any cause. 

They also exhibit the Potts' Geared Brick and Tile Mill. In this the pug mill 
is the same as the hydraulic. In working the plunger, power is transmitted by 
gearing to a shaft carrying a large eccentric, with a wide face, that has twenty 
inches throw ; and a rod from the eccentric strap is connected to and drives the 
plunger. On thie eccentric shaft is a pair of 52-inch vertical spur wheels, one on 
either side of eccentric, and a pin tliat has a little play passes throiigli both 
wheels, near their rims and the eccentric, and serves as an evener to equalize the 
strain between the two wheels. The band wheel shaft connects to shaft carrying 
the gearing that drives the eccentric shaft by a clutch coupling, and may be thrown 
out of gear and the pug mill run alone to temper a mill full to begin on, or to 
stop it if obstructions get in. All the gearing and bearings about this mill are up 
out of the dirt, in a convenient position for oiling, none of it being usder the clay. 

They also have a Tile Table on exhibition. This is. an endless belt, made in 
-sections the length of a tile, with adjustable sides that may be moved out or in, to 
suit any sized tile, and are held in place by thumb screws. This belt runs over 
triangular pulleys, tlie axle of the one next the mill being supported by springs 
that bring the holder up to the tile at once, so as not to mar them. At the de- 
livery end the triangle sets the tile on end for removing. A very convenient way 
is provided for raising or lowering the table to the proper height to receive any 
sized tile. 

Disintegrator for Tile Mills, by Clayton and Albert Potts, Indianapolis. This is a 
new machine for preparing clay to be tempered in a brick and tile machine, and 
■consists of a cast cylinder made in two-inch sections with steel cleats cast in their 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS, 143 

faces that break up the clay perfectly and also any stones that may be in it against 
an apron that vibrates to and from the cylinder. The vibrating apron is worked 
by a friction pulley. There is no gearing and no noise. 

Improved Tiffany Tile Machine, by N. Brewer & Co., Tecumseh, Mich. This is an 
"auger" mill with a vertical pug mill, which is claimed to have some important 
points of excellence; a prominent one being that it tempers the clay in a superior 
manner. The clay in passing through the pug mill is cut up and worked by the 
knives in the usual way, when it is received by the auger that forces it out through 
the dies, which, it is claimed, gives it a double working. This is important, as 
good work can not be made of poorly tempered clay. Another claim Ls, that in 
this kind of mill no budge or bracket is needed, for attaching a core piece to, for 
forming the inside of the tiles, which necessarily splits the stream of clay, and 
where clays do not unite or "weld" readily defective work is often done. This 
machine produced beautiful work, is well and strongly made, and seems capable of 
standing any reasonable strain. 

Quaker Brick Machine, by Fletcher & Thomas, Indianapolis. This machine was 
on exhibition, but not having seen it at work, and being unable, after repeated 
calls to get any information about it, can say nothing about it, except that it seems 
to be a mud and sand machine, and in this respect differs from all others on exhi- 
bition. They also had their new Spiral Pug Mill in connection with brick ma- 
chine, but could get no information about it, except the certificates of a number of 
persons who recommend it as doing its work perfectly, dispensing with soak pits, 
and two or three hands that are required with the usual arrangements. 

The Force Feed Brick and Tile Machine, by the Wallace Manufacturing Company 
Frankfort, Ind. In this machine a double screw feed is used, one over the other, 
the upper one is cleared of its clay by an automatic scraper connected to a piston 
which is operated by a crank, and forces the clay into the lower screw, making a 
positive forced feed. The core piece, for forming the inside of the tile, is on the 
end of the lower screw and revolves with it. » 

They also exhibit their Tik Table, which is an endless belt, with rollers length- 
ways on either side of each section, with a belt around each pair that allows the 
tiles to revolve without twisting them out of shape.' 

A.lso their Clay Crusher and Stone Separator. This consists of a pair of chilled 
iron rollers running together, that have spiral grooves, or ribs, pitched either way 
from the center, like right and left hand screws, that works any stones that may be 
in the clay along the roller until it is discharged over the end, while the clay is 
crushed in passing through between the rollers. 

Brick and Tile Machine, by J. W. Penfield, Willoughby, Ohio. This is one of their 
No. 7 machines, which is a very strong, well-made machine, well calculated to 
stand the strains incident to this business. A four-inch steel shaft, that has four 
bearings, carries the knives in the pug mill, the cam that moves the plunger, and 
the wheel that drives them. The cam is used to drive the plunger, as it may be 
made to give a regular and uniform motion to it, and operates against steel fric- 



144 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

tion rollers iu both forward and back movement. The cores for tile are self-center- 
ing, or doweled, and are placed well back, to give the pplit in the stream good room 
for thoroughly uniting. An improved table or carriage, in which the lags are cov- 
ered with wadding, overlaid with flannel, is claimed to be the best yet produced. 

Centennial Brick and Tile Machine, by Frey, Scheckler & Hoover, Bueyrus, Ohio. 
This is an "anger" machine which, it is claimed, is much improved and has ad- 
vantages over others. One of these is that the hopper fur receiving the clay is only 
37 inches high and very convenient for shoveling into. Two augers are used. A 
large propeller on the mill shaft forces the clay forward to near the dies, where it 
is received by a smaller one running in the opposite direction, and at higher speed, 
that has its shaft running through the larger one. It is also claimed that it will 
make larger tiles with the same clay than other mills. It is also capable of run- 
ning two or three streams of small tiles at the same time. The machine is well 
constructed and accessible for repairs, the knives, being connected independently of 
each other, may all be taken off through the hopper and door, and the propellers 
are also readily changed. The perfection in tempering the clay is a very prominent 
characteristic of this mill. 

Eureka Brick and Tile Machine, by Chandler <& Taylor, Indianapolis, Ind. This is 
their latest improved machine, and is made for either horse or steam power. The 
gearing for driving by steam is very heavy, and placed underneath. The shaft 
that carries the tempering knives, and feed and pressure wing, is of four-inch steel. 
On the top of the pug mill case is a substantial hopper-shaped casting, to which 
the bridge-tree, that supports the upper end of the .shaft, is fastened. The peculiar 
manner of lubricating the dies enables them to make very smooth and perfect 
work. The mill is strong, well made, and well proportioned in all its parts, and, 
with proper care, will not disappoint the reasonable expectations of those using it. 

One-horse Power, by Eagle Machine Co., Lancaster, Ohio. This is a light and com- 
pact lever or sweep power, well adapted to use on the farm, or elsewhere, where the 
power of "a single horse is sufficient for the work. It is light and easily moved. 

Exhaust Fans, Pressure Blowers and Ventilators, by Anyett & Smith Manufacturing 
Co., Detroit, Mich. These fans and blowers are essentialiy different from the old 
style of fans that have been in use for a long time, and are believed to be a great 
improvement on them, both in the work done by them, and in saving a large per- 
centage of the power usually required to do a given amount of work. The most 
notable difference between this and other fans is in this having a double discharge, 
BO that the blades, or wings, discharge their load of condensed air twice iu a revo- 
lution, instead of carrying it a full revolution against the pressure before it. They 
are made either double or single for exhausting dust, shavings, or similar material, 
from all kinds of wood-working machines, and for elevating cotton for ginning, 
which it is claimed to do in a superior manner, delivering it so loose and free from 
wads that a gin does much more and better work. The pressure blower, for cupolas 
and forges, has a polished steel disk in the center to which the wings, or buckets, 
are securely riveted on each side. This disk also prevents the currents of air that 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 145 

<;ouie in from either side, to supply tlie blast, from interfering with each other, and 
allows each side to do its own work. They have the double discharge, though the 
form is a little different from the exhaust fan. 

The ventilator is intended to be used wherever it may be desirable to produce a 
current of air for any purpose, such as ventilating mines, hospitals, etc. It will 
force a current of air against a pressure of one-fourth pound to the square inch- 
It may be placed in any position, and piped to any place ; is simple in construction, 
iiind requires very little power to run it. 

Clover Hiiller, by Birdsall Mannfg Co., South Bend, hid. This is an improved 
machine, known as their "iVew Monitor Junior" clover huller. It has a new tail- 
ings elevator, by means of which tailings are .sent directly to the hulling cylinder 
without allowing them to be mixed again with the straw and chafl', as they would 
be if returned to the threshing cylinder as is generally done, and thus having to do 
over again what has once been done. This improvement greatly increases the 
capacity of the machine. The machine has also a re-cleaning attachment that 
may be readily attached or detached from the machine, that cleans the seed per- 
fectly, ready for market. It is provided with an undershot fan and an end-shake 
shoe, having sieves of perforated zinc. The cleaned seed is delivered in one sack 
and the tailings in another. The cylinder is undershot, with an adjustable con- 
cave in three sections, and suitable blanks are provided to put in place of such sec- 
tions with teeth, as may not be needed in threshing dry clover. The hulling is 
<lone with a cylinder and concave that are covered with tempered steel rasps, that 
-tre claimed to do this difficult work in the best possible manner. 

Respectfully submitted, John M. Sew.\rd, Committee. 



1 — Ag R ICr LTITRE. 



Report of Committee 

ON 

Special Merits of Aiiides Entered in Book B, 

AND 

EXHIBITED AT THE INDIANA STATE FAIR FOR 1884, 

On Which No Premiums Were Offered 



Wood Pumps, by Comstock <fc Coon><e, Indianapolis. This firm have on exhibi- 
tion a good display of their wood force and other pumps, which are made of 
carefully selected material and in the besr style of workmanship. They have 
porcelain cyliuder.i, and are non-freezing. By attaching a hose with a small nozzle 
they may be used for many purposes. They also have chain pumps of the most 
approved kinds, furnished with various styles of rubber buttons. 

Fountain Spray Pump, by J. S. Hildebrand, Agent, Indianapolis. This is a chain 
pump that has a small discharge below the platform from which water falls a 
short distance on to a sort of a shelf or table, from which it returns to the bottom 
of the well or cistern in the form of spray, carrying with it the purifying influence 
of the atmosphere. 

Remington Force Pumps, by Remington Agricultural Company, Ilion N. Y., Thorn- 
ton & Darnell, Agents, Indianapolis. These are superior pumps, ad-^pted to all pur- 
poses for which pumps are used. They can never freeze, never need priming, and 
work in the deepest wells. The pump consists of two brass cylinders, with the nec- 
essary valves, placed in the bottom of the well or cistern, and connected by rods 
with a lever or crank at top, by which it is conveniently worked. By attaching 
suitable hose and nozzle they can be made available in putting out fires, sprink- 
ling grounds, washing carriages or windows, etc. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 147 

Force Pumps, by F. E. Myers & Bro., Ashland, Ohio. This is a double-acting 
force pump, simple in construction and very efficient in operation. It is adapted 
to any depth of well, and never need freeze. The valves are easily kept tight, so as 
to hold and force water against very great pressure, and will force it through hose 
sixty feet from the nozzle. These pumps are also made in a form that adapts them 
to use in drilled wells of any depth. Pumps of this character do not seem to be as 
generally appreciated as they should be; they cost but little more than the com- 
mon lift or vsuction pump and would often furnish adequate means of extinguiah- 
ing fires that destroy valuable property before a fire department can get to work, 
and would be especially useful in country places, where help can not often be had 
in time to be of much service in an emergency of this kind. 

B. B. Bouse, IndUmapolis, makes a large display of various machines, tools and 
fixtures in his line: 

Erriesons' Caloric Pumping Engine. This is designed mainly for the purpose 
of pumping or elevating water from wells, cisterns or reservoirs, to upper floors or 
tanks for domestic use. No steam is used, and it can be safely managed by any 
one, as it is not liable to derangement. Gas is better adapted for use as fuel in it, 
though any other kind may be used. 

Sieavi Pumps. He has a variety of these of the best makes and all capacities, 
well adapted to the uses for which they are required. 

Driven Well Supplies and Tools. There is a good display in this line that rep- 
resents the latest improvements. The long experience and genius of the exhibitor 
has enabled him to overcome all the difficulties heretofore met in driving wells, 
and to make improvements in everything pertaining to them, until he is now in 
advance of all his competitors in this business. 

He also has adjustable stocks and dies on exhibition. These are not so clumsy 
as many others, has no guides to carry about and look after, as the bushing can be 
adjusted to any variation in the sizes of pipes. They work easy, and the cuttings 
can not work in and clog or bind the dies. 

Also, a new adjustable pipe wrench, which is an improvement on this much 
improved tool. It is made of steel in the best manner, and will hold pipes, rods, 
or anything of this kind in a very satisfactory manner. 

Also, a great variety of specimens of light drop-forgings, neatly arranged on a 
large card, that were handsomely executed. 

Hand Hoisting Machine, by B. F. Jones, Indianapolis. This is a remarkably 
compact and well designed arrangement of gearing, by which heavy weights may 
be raised by hand powej-, and is especially adapted to handling heavy stone in 
quarries, bridge building or other similar use. The machine possesses great merit 
but is not easily described. 

Ideal Caligraph, by H. T. Conde, Indianapolis. This is claimed to be an im- 
proved type-writing machine which is fast coming into general use, as it furnishes 
a means of very rapid writing that is as legible as any print, and copies as well as 
pen work. 



148 BOARD OF AGRICULTliRE. 

Remington Type Writer, by C. C. Koerner, Indianapolis. Tliis machine has been 
before the public for several years, and, as now improved, is claimed to be a 
superior instrument for the purpose intended. They are compact, simple and 
durable in constructiou, and accurate and noiseless in operation. Various styles, 
of type are furnished as desired. The work copies well, and the art of using it is 
readily acquired by any one. 

Teetor^s Combined Scourer, Polisher, and Brush, by C. H. Walcott, Manufacturer^ 
Indianapolis. It is evident that any dirt or impurity left on the wheat before its 
reduction to flour, must injure it; and that it can not afterwards be removed. This 
machine, it is claimed, does the work of cleaning the wheat in a very perfect man- 
ner, removing all chafl', dust, and fiber by rubbing one grain against another, which 
is done in the scouring chamber. It then passes to the brush machine, which is 
claimed to be the most perfect yet devised, and from which any impurities liberated 
are carried away by a separate air current, leaving the graip with a clean crease, 
and free from fibers at tlie end. 

Also exhibited the Ogborn Wheat Separator, which is a very compact, well-gotten- 
up machine, for use on the farm in cleaning seeds and grain of all kinds. It does 
very perfect work, and occupies very little space. 

Also, a case of Dafour & Co.'s Anchor Brand Bolting Cloths and Orit Gauze, im- 
ported from Switzerland, comprising the finest and best qualities made. 

Also, a iine of Steel Pulleys. This is a^omparatively new material for pulleys, 
and possesses advantages not found in other material used for this purpose, the 
prominent ones being their great strength and lightness. It is also claimed that 
the belt adhesion is 15 per cent, better than on cast iron. These qualities must 
make this a favorite pulley, if it is furnished at reasonable cost. 

Haiid Traversing Machine, by Valentine Poland, Indianapolis. This is a little 
traversing planing machine that is conveniently worked by hand, and may be put 
to many uses in almost any wood-working establishment. It may be used for a 
great variety of work, and executes whatever it does in the very best manner, 
though it is necessarily slow as compared with power machines. 
Respectfully submitted. 

John M. Seward, 

Committee- 



Report of Committee 



Special Mwits of Aiiides Entered in M\ D, 



ON WHICH NO PREMIUMS WERE OFFERED. 



Ru^or Blade Scisfiors, by Joseph N. Qoddard, Agent Indianapolis. This is a new 
style of scissors, made in all sizes and styles to suit the different purposes for which 
they are used, and seem to be the only attempt at improvement of this indispensa- 
ble implement. In this the lower edge is similar to the old style, but has a piece 
connected to its side that forms a slot into which the upper blade passes in cutting. 
The upper blade is a thin piece of steel with a sharp, keen edge connected to what 
may be called a frame by a tenon, imd held in its place by a pet screw. These cut- 
ting parts are readily detached for sharpening, oi- replaced by new ones at little 
expense when needed. They cut remarkably easy, and will go through several 
folds of cloth as easily as the common scissors will a single one, as the operation is 
a "cutting" one and not what is understood as a "shearing" process. They are 
well made, the cutting parts of the best steel well tempered. 

Richmond Star Lavm Mower, by the Dille <£• McGuire Manufaciuring Company, Rich- 
mond, Ind. This is a well designed machine for the purpose intended, and is well 
made. Among the points of excellence claimed for it are, that it will Avork well 
over rough ground or down terraces; that the driving wheel runs on the cut grass, 
not breaking down that that is standing, and that it never slips while cutting. 
Also, that the knives have higher speed and are self-sharpening, and that the 
machine runs lighter and has no side draft. 

Lamps and Attachments, by F. P. Smith & Co., Indianapolis. This firm had a good 
display of lamps and fixtures on exhibition, but called several times without find- 
ing any one to give any particular information about them. 



150 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Safety Gate for Railroad Crossings, by Benj. Atkinson, Indianapolis. This gate is 
lowered by means of a crank, operating a pulley, on which a wire cable winds and 
holds it down until it is released, when it raises itself. An important feature of it 
is, that it is so constructed that there is very little danger of its being prevented 
from working by freezing or sleet. 

Slate and Wood Mantels, Orates, and Fire Places, by Will Terrell, Indianapolis. 
This display consisted of a tine assortment of these goods in great variety of styles, 
from which persons fn want of 'any of them mightexpect to find something to suit, 
whether taste or economy were the dominant influence in making a selection. 

Horse Shoes, by Will Wikoff, Danville, III. This is a splendid display of hand- 
made shoes, handsomely arranged on a card, in a great variety of form?, that adapt 
them to curing or relieving as far as it can be done by shoeing, all the defects of 
the horse's foot, whether natural, or from disease or accident. There is also all 
kinds of shoes needed on horses for different kinds of service from the heavy draft 
horse to the speed ring. These shoes furnish indisputable evidence of the skill of 
the workman making them. 

Horse Shoes, by Maloney Bros., Indianapolis, Ind. This firm exhibits a handsome 
■card of hand-made horse shoes, comprising a great variety of forms intended to 
■cure or relieve the defects or bad habits of the horse's foot. And, also, all kinds 
used on horses in the various kinds of service required of them. The workman- 
ship displayed in making these shoes is of superior character. 

Elevation Flood Gate, by M. E. Scherer, Arcadia, Ind. This is a flood gate so con- 
structed that it may be raised straight up, like a window sash, out of the way of 
■drift of any kind. A hollow, or box post, is placed on either side of the stream, 
that have slots through their inside faces, and wires, that form the gate, pass from 
one post to the other ihrough these slots, and are fastened to blocks inside. These 
blocks move up and down on rollers, and sustain the tension of the wires. A wire 
or other rope is attached to these blocks and passes over pulleys to a windlass, with 
a crank and rachet, on outside of one post, and the gate is raised and lowered by 
means of this windlass, the water having nothing to do with it. 

Post Auger, by J. E. Heavier, Winchester, Ind. This is a cheaply constructed 
auger that bores post holes rapidly, and with little expenditure of power. It con- 
sists of a pair of steel blades, with outlines something like corn cultivator plows, 
which are bent in a sort of screw twist that takes them into the ground without 
much pressure. These are fastened to a forked handle with their points near 
together to enable them to lift out the dirt. , 

Doors, Sash and Blinds, by Cutler & Suvidge Lumber Company, H. T. Bennett, Agent, 
Indianapolis. This is a good display of work in their line, and comprises all styles 
in general use, well made of the best material. 

Dressed Lumber, by Shaffer & McGinnis, Indianapolis. This firm exhibited a lot of 
their siding and flooring, which was dressed in the best style, and were excellent 
samples of first-class building material. 



SPECIAI MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 151 

Doors, Sash, Blinds and Lumber, by M. S. Huey. & Son, Indianapolis. This firm 
had a very fine display of work and material in their line on exhibition. They 
make a specialty of all kinds of fine woods, native and foreign, which they manu- 
facture into doors, mantels, etc., of any style or finish. Their samples of figured 
woods were very fine. 

Encaustic Tiles, Mantel Facings and Decorative Tiles, by U. S. Encaustic Tile Com- 
pany, W. Terrell, Agent, Indianapolis. This is a very large and fine display of the 
wares manufactured by the Encaustic Tile Company, which must be seen to be ap- 
preciated, as it is not easy to describe them. Specimens were laid to represent some 
of the uses for which they are so well adapted, as hearths, floors, etc. These tiles 
are made of various shapes, sizes and colors, and may be laid in an endless variety 
of ornamental designs, and their great hardness makes them practically indestruct- 
ible by wear. 

They also had a good display ©f wood and marbleized slate mantels, and some 
fine specimens of figured woods. 

Harden Hand Grenade, by Fire Extinguisher Company, Chicago, III., A. M. Alexan- 
der, State Agent, Indianapolis. This is a glass globe, or vessel, filled with chemicals 
in fluid form, that when thrown into a fire generates a gas that instantly extin- 
guishes fire that is enveloped in it, as combustion cannot take place in it for want 
of oxygen to sustain it. The material does not injure flesh or fabric of any kind, 
does not deteriorate with age or freeze at any temperature above twenty degrees 
below zero. The grenades are always ready and reliable, are of convenient size 
and form, and may be used by any one. Some tests on the fair grounds demon- 
strated their efficiency and reliability in extinguishing fires in a very satisfactory 
manner. Respectfully submitted, 

John M. Seward, 

Committee^ 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 



T(l WHICH WKRK RBFERKEn 



BOOKS C, E, AND J 



ALL 01 THESK BOOKS EMIiRAl'KD ARTICLES IS THE 



SPECIAL MERIT DEPARTMENT, 



CuLTiVATiNi; Implements. 

Fockler Bros., Ea^t Dubuque, 111. Exhibited the Clipper Press Drill. This being 
a press instrument, it is claimed that all the wheat is drilled the same depth. The 
pressure lever is in reach of the driver. It has a cutter for sowing in sod ground, 
and this also prevents trash from bothering. It is claimed that an average of 7| 
bushels more per acie can he produced by using this drill than bv using any other 
in the market. 

The Avery Planter Company, Peoria, III. Exhibited a force planter. The depth 
is regulated by a lever. This lever not only enables the operator to plant at any 
desired depth but v.ill loqk .the planter out of the ground. It has reversible 
runners, and shoves all trash out of the way. 

Also, the Pitman movement check rower. It works without springs or coge, 
and is therefore a positive movement. 

Also, the Avery tongue cultivator. The operator guides the plow by means of 
a pivoted wheel. It has rod fenders which let the pulverized earth through to the 
corn. 

Also, the tongueless plow, which never falls down, and turns very short by 
means of a castor and a wheel and a balance arch. 

Also, a planter with a drill attachment. The drill is very simple. 



SPECIAI- MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 15-:^ 

The Newark Machine Company, Newark, 0.; Branch Office, Indianapolis, Ind. Ex- 
hibited the Newark drill. The levers are in reach of the driver ; it has a swinging 
foot rest and an adjustable seat to suit any sized man. It has a spring hoe which 
Hies back to its place whenever it strikes an obstruction. 

Also the Monarch fan. This fan is the onlj^ self-bagger in the world, It can 
make four separations at one operation. rThe shoe is supplied with screens in the 
bottom that have an independent motion to that of the shoe. The screens are ad- 
justable up or down to suit the condition of the grain. The shoe also has a pivoted 
tail-board which closes tight against the upper sieve, which prevents the blast from 
carrying out light seeds. This fan can be placed on the ground, as everything fall.** 
into sacks and boxes. 

The Superior Drill Compun;/, Sprivr/Jicld, 0. Exhibited a fertilizer drill with 
force feed on the fertilizer. No cogs are used to change the quantity of grain or 
fertilizer, and the change is made by a very simple device. The hoes are lifted 
from the front, and there are no chains, and couvsequently no tangling. 

Also, the shoe pressure drill. It has a roller, which presses the ground down, 
and the shoe will run through trash. 

Also, the front-lift common plain drill. The hoe pressure can be regulated so- 
the drills will run any desired depth. 

The Seed Drill Regulator Co., Lemont, Center roimfij. Prim. Exhibited the Heed 
Drill Kegulator. It is attached to any drill and regulates the depth of the grain. It is 
claimed to produce from 25 to 75 per cent, more plants than any other drill. It 
rolls the ground and leaves the ridges intact. It is also claimed that the plants 
will have from two to three times the root surface, and correspondingly larger tops 
Mnd consequently will not freeze out. Also, that one-third of seed can be saved, 
and that the draft of the drill is lightened one-third. Also, that by this appliance 
the plant gets more benefit of the fertilizer than by any other drill, and that the 
plant is forced up quicker, and wheat can be sown two weeks later than it ordinarily 
is sown, thus escaping the fly. It is also claimed that there will be no weakly 
[ilants. 

The Weir Plow Co., Monmouth, 111. Represented by their Indianapolis branch 
house. Exhibited a timothy sod breaking plow. This is a superior sod plow, 
light draft, easy handled, and strongly built. Also, the Scotch Clipper Sulky 
I'.reaking Plow. This is a life-size show plow, silver^lated, rosewood tongue, and 
double tree. This plow cost $700. Also, a general pi^jpose 3-horse walking plow^ 
with a wood beam. 

Also, the same, except with a steel beam. Also, a stalk and stubble plow, with 
wood beam. This plow is made of the best of steel. 

Also, a combination steel and chilled 2-horse plow, strongly built, heavy malle- 
able standard and wood beam. The shears are interchangeable, with either steel 
or cast. This plow is intended especially for the Ohio and Indiana trade. Also, 
an iron beam, double shovel, and wood beam, iron shank, and an entire wood 
beam. These are first-class double-shovels, for Indiana and Ohio trade. Also, an 
iron harrow, strongly built, with |-inch square steel teeth. 



154 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Also, a Scotch harrow, with 40 | square steel teeth, wood frame hinged in the 
middle, and is claimed to be the best harrow for the money in the market. Also, 
a three-sectioned harrow with 45 teeth, also | inch. 

Also, a patent reversible tooth harrow, which is made in two or three sections, 
and by reversing the4iitch the teeth are changed from a straight to a slanting posi- 
tion. Also, a-patent three-horse equalizer; light, durable, and a perfect equalizer. 

Also, an adjustable arch iron beam tongueless cultivator, which always stands 
up at the ends when turning. Wood beams furnished if desired. Sixteen thou- 
sand of these cultivators were sold in the year 1884. Also, a stiff arch, two-horee 
walking cultivator, with double-acting spring, and easily handled. 

Also, a combined walking and riding cultivator, built with steel rail, steel arch, 
and iron beam, and is a model combination cultivator. It is easily handled as a 
rider or a walker. Also, an adjustable arch two-horse cultivator, which can be ad- 
justed to suit any width of row. It is excellent for potatoes. 

Also, fifteen or twenty varieties of walking steel plows, both wood and steel 
beam, made of choice material, which this company always use. 

P. P. Mast & Co., Springfield, 0. Exhibited a spring-pressure shoe drill, with 
roller pressure. The roller attachment works independent; the roller always fol- 
lows in the wake of the shoe on account of a castor arrangement. A castor wheel 
in front takes the weight off the tongue. 

Also, a glass feed fertilizer, free from corroding and sticking. All the deposits 
are in view of the operator. 

Also, a spring-pressui-e drill. The pre.s8ure being on the back end of the hoe it 
is not required to be more than one-half as great as it would be otherwise. There 
is a gauge on the hoes to regulate the depth, and all grain is sown an even depth. 

Also, a spring-shovel walking cultivator. It has a front spring to regulate the 
pressure on the beam. This anti-friction spring either puts the pressure on or off 
the beam. It has an adjustable coupling for regulating the space. 

Also, a combined riding and walking cultivator, with spring shovels and plain 
beam. Also, a spring-tooth harrow or cultivator, running any desired depth. 

Also, the Buckeye three and five-hoe wheat drill for sowing in corn. It has a 
roller castor and pin-hoe drill, and spring-hoe attachment for stumpy ground. 

Also, a little two-horse engine for the purpose of exhibiting the goods. 

Hdll & Mustard, Glen Hall, Ind., exhibited a flexible cultivator. It has a direct 
hitch and independent action of beams. The hitch has no connection with the 
tongue, and a short, quick turn can be made without interfering with the action 
of the plows. The hitch also prevents the horse pulling the wheel to the ground. 
It is void of tongue draft and side draft, and is* simply constructed. 

Deere & Mansur, Moline, III., exbibited the Deere wire check rower, with drill 
attachment, and with stalk cutter. 

Also, a one-horse drill, with fertilizer attachment, gotten up in beautiful style. 

Deere & Co., Moline, III., exhibited the Gilpin sulkey plow and a full line of 
John Deere walking breaking plows. Also, the New Matchless riding cultivator 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 155 

and the Queen tougueless cultivator. Also, the Sylvan cultivator, or tongue- 
tongueless, having all the good features of a tongue and a tongueless combined^ 
The tongue is on a swivel and wheels. Also, a direct hitch cultivator, which is 
entirely new. 

The Klinefelter <fe Dillman Company, Joliet, III., exhibited the Crown check-row 
corn planter. The check rower shaft runs under the box, taking hold of the seed 
plates direct, also moving the spoon of the planter by direct action. This imple- 
ment dispenses with the uso of a coil spring. 

Also, the Joliet wire check rower, which attaches to all planters. It is the only 
cam machine. 

The Vandiver Corn Planter Co., Quincy, III., exhibited the Barlow corn planter, 
which claims to be the most accurate drop in the world. The driver can see the 
corn for five hills in advance of the one being dropped at all times. 

The Keystone Manufactm-ing Company, Sterling, III., exhibited the Gait rotary 
planter. It is light and durable. It has a patent lock operated by a lever, which 
also regulates the depth of the runner. Also, the Corban disc harrow, adapted to 
Hod. This harrow will cut obliquely. Also, a pony corn sheller. Also, the pet 
corn sheller. 

The Shatvnee Agricultural Company, Xenia, Ohio, exhibited a hay tedder, which 
agitates the grass for drying, often enabling the farmer to put up hay the same day 
it is cut. Also, the Advance horse hay rake. It has a lock lever, and can be 
operated by a boy. 

Hart, Hitchcock & Co., Peoria, III., exhibited the Union drill. The wheel is six 
inches higher than any other drill ; the tire is one-half inch broader than ordinary 
drills, and it has a spring steel drag bar. This is the first drill which went into the 
market with a seat. All its parts are accommodated to the seat. It has only one 
cog wheel, which runs the grass seeder. The seed cup sits directly on the axle, and 
there is no draft on the horses' necks. Also, a fertilizer attachment, with positive 
force feed, and a break-pin in every feeder to avoid breaking the machine by chok- 
ing. It can be attached to any drill manufactured by this company. 

Jas. Selby & Co., Peoria, III, exhibited the Union corn planter. It has an ad- 
justable rotary plate, and uses only one plate. The slide runs on roller.**, and is 
anti-friction. The dropper and driver are both carried on one axle. The depth is 
regulated by a foot lever, leaving both hands free. It is one of the oldest planters 
in existence, having been in use since 1863. 

The South Bend Chilled Plow Company, So^ith Bend, Ind., exhibited fourteen break 
plows, and a full line of single and double shovels. These plows are cheaply re- 
paired, as the points are in two pieces. They are complete center draft, and have 
a full line of attachments connected by a jointer, which also holds the knife for 
sod. Also, a rolling cutter, the only one adjustable without using a wedge. This 
was a neat and brilliant exhibit. 



156 BOAKD or AGRICULTURE. 

Bucher, Gibbs & Co., Canton, Ohio, exhibited the Imperial breaking plow in six- 
teen specimens. It is manufactured in two sizes. It is' of combined iron and steel. 
All the parts are interchangeable with each other. It has a soft center steel mould, 
and the surface is very hard. The breaking parts are made of malleable iron. 
Also, a sulky attachment for any plow. The weight of the driver lifts the plow 
out of the ground, and the plow is tilted by the driver. 

Bude Bros. Munnfadunrnj Co., Liberty, Ind., exhibited the Improved Indiana 
Eight-hoe Pressure Hoe Castor-wheel Drill. It has a simple device for raising the 
hoes and regulating the pressure, both of which are operated by one lever. The 
seat does not injure the frame. On account of the castor-wheel in front, there is 
no draft on the horses' necks. Uniform depth of the hoes is secured, and there is 
no side lishing. Also, the same drill, plain. Also, a fertilizer drill, the disc of 
whicli causes a positive feed, and the feed is in view. The feed is easily regulated 
by a little lever, in reach of the driver, thus enabling him to distribute the fertilizer 
as he choo.ses, on poor or rich ground. Also, the tongue and tongueless iron culti- 
vator. The wheels are all wrought, the boxing is adjustable. It has a solid steel 
arch and a simple sled for transfering. Also, a one-horse fertilizing drill, the only 
one made in the United States. It has two castor-wheels to regulate its depth ; it 
is chain gear, and has no cogs 

Also, a scractcher for running ahead of the fine hoe drill, or for cultivating 
small corn. It has a device for widening or narrowing to suit the width of the 
row, and it has break-back hoes. 

The Hoosier Drill Co., Richmond, lad., exhibibited the Hdosier Fertilizer Grain 
Drill. It is a positive force feed for grain, grass, and fertilizer. It sows all kinds of 
grain, and fertilizes in any desired quantity, without any change of gear. Also, a 
hoe pressure drill. Also, a runner pressure drill, in which wheels follow after the 
runner and press the dirt over the wheat and leaves an open furrow the same as a hoe 
drill. Also, a douole corn drill, which drills two rows of corn at a time. The 
drills work independently of each other. Also, positive feed three and five hoe 
drills. Also, a plain and fertilizer one-horse corn drill. Also, the Hoosier lock- 
lever hay rake. It has a truss rod under the axle, a traveling fulcrum in the arch 
to shorten the throw of the lever, and is so adjusted that the weight of the driver 
dumps the rake. 

The Brown Manufacturing Co., Zauesvilk, (Jhio, exhibited the Brown Cultivator. 
It is a spring lift, and is furnished with .straight shovels, bull tongues and bar 
shears. 

B. Lean, Man-Afield, Ohio, exhibited a steel harrow. The material in the frame 
is genuine steel. It is channeled, securing elasticity, lightness and strength. The 
teeth are extra quality of steel and diamond-shaped, and have a regular taper from 
the top, and they clean very easy. The teeth are tempered, and will run a long 
time without sharping. The sections are iadependent, and consequently are easily 
adjusted to the ground, and are ea.sily handled. 



SPECIAJ. MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 157 

The C iSpriny Curt Co., EushvUk, Ind., exhibited the Farmers' Friend Harrow. 
It is the only Scotch harrow with handles, and is the only harrow which is so 
arranged that either of the fonr corners of the teeth can be made to cut, hence it is 
ficif sharping. It is easily cleaned, and the handles form a sled to transfer the 
harrow from one place to another. 

Till' Cholkii'ie Corn Planter Co., Crawl Ilarrn. Mirli.^ exhibited a new improved 
drop. Also, a new check rower. 

E. Over, IndkmapoUa, Ind., exhibited Sawyer's two-wheeled road machine. The 
double-tree is attached to tlie side of this machine, ami the side draft is overcome. 
It has a hinge scraper bar, composed of two pieces. The scraper being in two sec- 
tions, it can easily be discharged at diilerent angles, and can be formed into a " V " 
shape, and c=irry the dirt wherever desired, and it will also straddle a rut. 

Also, the Howl and road grader. This is a low-priced grader, being attached to 
a common two-horse wagon. It is reversible by changing two rods, and the 
acraper can be thrown at any angle. Also, a road plow, grader, and ditcher, man- 
ufactured of the best material. The same power will plow and move dirt as in 
other instruments is required to move it. This is superior as a surface grader. It 
cuts to the depth of three feet, and any width from five to fourteen feet. It will 
make one hundred rods of ditch per day, with four or- six horses. The dirt Is 
thrown back from the edge of the ditch in such a manner that it can be crossed 
with any vehicle. It is valuable for cutting hedge-rows, or making levees from three 
to four feet high, and for repairing old post fences. 

Also, a reversible pulverizer and stalk cutter. 

Also, a Preston binder truck, which is strong and durable. 

The David Bradlti; Manujacluriny Company, Chicayo, III, through their branch 
office at Indianapolis, exhibited the celebrated Garden City Clipper plows. They 
are all direct center and light draft. All their steel plows aj-e made of patent soft 
steel, which costs nearly double as much as common steel. They also u.se a patent 
process for chilling iron, which makes it very hard; and also a jiaunl iinoiCf'S for 
tempering steel, which causes it to admit of the finest polish. 

Also, the swing-beam sulky plow, which is light draft and adapted to all soils, 
and is either steel or chilled. Their Western gang plow is made of the same mate- 
rial. Als(j, a very large variety of corn cultivators, and all the combinations for 
cultivators. 

Also, three varieties of sulky hay rakes, both hand and horse ilump. In these 
rakes the best oil-tempered steel is used, and all good points are adopted. Also, 
seven styles of harrows. Also, a full line of one-horse and shovel plows. Al.«o, the 
Bradley mower, which claims simplicity and durability. For smooth fields it has 
a six-foot cut, is for two horses, and is said to run as light as the average four-foot 
<'ut mower. Also, a disc harrow. 

Also, a press drill in two kinds, the Clipper and the Havannah. In one of 
these the spring pressure is on the wheels and runners, and in the other it is on the 
runners. Also, a variety of one-horse wheat drills, two kinds of five hoes and two 
kinds of three hoes. 



158 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Also, three sizes of hand cider mills, a full line of fodder cutting boxes and corn 
shellers; hand or power on either of the above three classes. 

Also, the Campbell cora drill, with a fertilizer attachment. 

Also the Peoria Advance Corn Planters, with check sower attachment and drill 
attachment, and a new patent di.'c attachment for covering corn. 

Also a variety of buggies, carriages, spring wagons, delivery wagons and farm 
wagons. This was the largest exhibit on the ground, and sinjpUcity of construc- 
tion and excellent material characterized the articles. 

E. Over, Indianapolis, exhibited the Iron Flexible Harrow. It is adjustable to 
any width, being composed of two sections. It is a good corn harrow, and folds iip 
for transferring. 

Also a Double "A" triple hinge harrow. Either wing of this harrow raises, so 
as to pass any obstruction. Also a reversible tooth harrow, which is changed from 
a vertical to a slanting tooth harrow by hitching at either end. 

Also a 6ne hoe one-horse wheat drill. The seed boxes are over the teeth, and 
the grain drops straight. The weight of the grain is distributed over the whole 
frame. A patent expander lets the pinion remain washed at all times. 

The Empire Brill Co., Shortsmlle, N. Y., exhibited the Empire Drill. It is a 
positive force feed, and is carried on a taper axle, and has a sheet-iron conductor. 

Gere, Truman, Plait & Co., Oswego, N. Y., exhibited a spring hoe grain drill. 
The machine is thrown out of gear before the hoes leave the ground. It has the 
Davis patent hoe shifter, and is positive force feed. Also a fertilizer drill. Also 
the- Acme corn sheller, which will shell every grain off of the smallest or largest 
ear of corn, and it has a fan cleaner. Also a broadcast seeder, harrow and culti- 
vator combined. Also the Whipple spring tooth harrow and cultivator combined. 
Also the Whipple spring tooth harrow. Al^o the Whipple one-horse spring tooth 
cultivator Also the Whipple two-hoi-se cultivator. The draft of the horse draws 
this cultivator to the ground at all times. Also the Whipple riding cultivator. 
The beam is claimed to be one foot longer than any other, and the teeth are always 
in line. The teeth are set in share-shape, and cut all the ground. 

Hunt & Pray, Indianapolis, Ind., exhibited road plows and a cart. The plows.are 
all of iron, except the shares and mouldboards, which are steel. 

The Long & Aldatler Company, Hamilton, 0., exhibited the Hamilton cultivator. 
It has an adjustable arch, either for plows or cultivators, and is a combined riding 
or walking, tongue or tongueless cultivator. 

Also, the Hamilton spring-tooth rake. 

The Joliet Check Rower Company, Joliet, III., exhibited the Champion check 
rower. It has a cam movement, and is claimed to be more durable and a quicker 
drop than any other. It is well made. Also, a general attachment for all check 
rowers, which has a direct positive movement for the shake bar. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 159 

Meal & Bradley, Indianapolis^, exhibited the Lid a stalk cutter, which has adjust- 
able Kteel blades. Also, the Weir break plow, which is all steel, and has a double 
shin. Also, the Star grain drill. It is thrown in gear by a lever, has break back 
pins, malleable iron clutch tooth, and reversible steel points. 

Also, the same with the teeth all in a line, and a device for regulating the depth 
and for transferring, and two rudder wheels behind. 

Also, an eight-hoe drill It is an under hitch, which relieves the draft from 
the horses' necks. It has reversible hoes, and pressure on the hoes. It has a re- 
versible seat. Everything is handled from the seat. It is force feed, and there is 
no change of gear wheels. 

Also, a fine tooth cultivator. It has semi-circle cog wheels for adjusting the 
width, reversible steel points, and break back pins, and a rudder wheel in front for 
regulating the depth. 

Also, the Mishwaha plow, which is light draft, and intended for two or three 
horses. Any boy can handle it. It turns square corners without leaving the fur- 
row. It is either steel or chilled, right or left handed. 

Also, a full line of hand plows and cultivators. Also, the Ball sulky plow 
and hand plow. It is an all-steel share, revolves on a pivot, does away with a 
joint in the tongue, and is a universal worker. 

Also, a combined cast land side and cast point plow. Also, .the Richmond 
Champion Planter. It has an adjustable seat, which throws the weight of the 
driver on the runners. It is either rigid or limber tongue, and has the shortest 
stroke of any planter. Also, the Kichmond Check Kower. One set of pinions fit 
all machines; it has a patent jack, and it transfers the wire in four ways. The 
wire has a malleable link, and can be opened at any joint. 

Also, the Richmond Champion Grain Drill. It has spring hoes, and no break 
pins, and no chains on the hoes. The seat throws the entire weight off of the 
horses' necks. The' operator can raise any or all the hoes without leaving his 
seat. The fertilizer attachment applies to either old or new drills. Also, the one- 
horse champion drill. The hoes can be raised from the ground by a lever, and it 
has spring hoes. When the hoes are thrown out of the ground, it is out of gear. 
It spreads easily by a crank. 

Also, a one-horse corn drill, with spring hoes and a fertilizer attachment. 

Also, 1 he Thomas hay rake. The weight is direct on the axle, and off the horse's 
neck. This makes it dump easier than any other rake. The teeth are held close 
to the ground by a coiled spring. It has a cleaver attachment on the roller which 
has no equal. Also, the same rake, only a self-dump. Also, Dick's feed cutter. 
The knives are all attached on a fly wheel, which gives it double power. It is 
either with or without slitters for stalks. 

Also, hay tools. The Jfellis harpoon. It has steel tine*, steel bar, a strong 
spring, and a malleable head. Also, a double harpoon, which works without any 
spring. It works with a simple latch. Also, the Nye hay elevator. This instru- 
ment is made of malleable iron, is strong arid durable. It is simple, and is with- 
out springs. Also, knot pulleys. If the rope breaks, it can be tied and used. Also, 
a reversible hay elevator and carrier, which will run over the latch both ways, un- 



160 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

loading in either mow without change of carrier. If the rope is twisted it is cer- 
tain to catch the fork pulley. The rope can be reversed in the carrier without 
getting up to it. This intrunient is of malleable iron material. 

Also, the Climax plows. This is a good variety of general purpose plows, with 
a very thin cutter. Also, Brown's Excelsior corn planter. It has an admirable 
way of regulating the depth by a combination of the seat with the tongue. The 
power is applied on the outside of the dial plate. It has no gearage, and has a 
positive lever motion. 

' Also, the same planter with a drill attachment. Its distance varies from 
twelve to twenty inches. It is very simple, having only one set of gears. Also, 
the same with a check rower, which has a latch in the slot of the fork to prevent 
a miss; no gear, and all levor motion. It is very positive and durable. Also,. 
Brown's Favorite spring cultivator. The spring will raise the gang to the proper 
position, and hold it there without hooking up. It has an adjustable handle coup- 
ling. Also, a steel-beam cultivator. The beam is made of "I" beam steel. It is 
extra strong, and is lighter than an ordinary iron beam. Also, the Universal har- 
vest truck, manufactured by the Ashley Wire Company, -Joliet, 111. This claims to 
be the most complete in use. One man can load alone, and it has the lightest- 
wheel made. Also, the Acme hay ricker and hay raker. The rake is drawn by 
two horses. The rake is carried by trucks, and rakes a swath twelve and one-half 
feet wide. The load is brought up against the ricker head and the horses are then 
taken away and one horse is hitched to the ricker, and the hay is thrown by his 
power on to the rick. It is claimed that with five men and four horses thirty ton& 
of hay can be ricked in a day. Thi-s machine does away with hard labor in hay 
harvesting. 

Also, the Eushford wagon, manufactured by the AVinnona Wagon Company, 
Winnona, Minnesota. By the shape of the skein of this wagon the draft is thrown 
near the shoulder, and thus the draft is lightened. It i? claimed also that the 
general iron work is superior, and the painting is excellent. 

Also, a hay tedder. It is very simple, and it is claimed to be the only one made 
with a fork. The gear is simple, and the power is direct from the wheel, and it 
has double braces on the forks. 

The Beedle & KeUey Co., Troy, Ohio, exhibited the Troy Planter. A lever regu- 
lates the depth of the machine, and by a simple device the tongue is either flexible 
or rigid. It has a drill attachment, a visible dLsc, and it easily plants across the 
end of the field. Also, the Champion Planter, in wnich the plates revolve outside 
of the box. A knocker drops into every hole, and insures the corn to leave the 
plate. It is center coupling. Also, a check sower attachment, which has a positive 
stroke and positive lock. Also, the Troy Champion Eake. The teeth are raised 
vertically so as to leave the trash on the ground. The shaft i.s hinged to the axle, 
and is a foot dump. It is with or without a lock. Also, the same rake with dif- 
ferent style of teeth. The teeth have a three-inch bearing on the axle, and fasten 
with a cap. 

Thonms Meikle & Co., Louisulk, Ky., through Solomoii Beard of Indianapolis, ex- 
hibited a tongueless cultivator. Each horse pulls his half, and very short turns can 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. ,- 161 

be made. It is light and light draft. Double shovel plows can be made out of 
either side. Also, a tongue cultivator with extension arch. Its width is regulated 
by a lever. .\lso, the Mayflower Cultivator, which Is expanding, and is intended 
for gardens and strawberries. Also, the Thomas Meikle Potato Digger. It plows 
the row out and does not cut or bruise the potatoes. It will run any necessary 
depth, and it r'.ucceeds well. Also, a two-horse general purpose plow. Also, a two- 
horse stirring plow. Also, a one-horse garden plow, and a double shovel. 

The Moline Plow Co.,Moline, III., exhibited by Wm. J. Wheeler, Eastern Agent, 
Indianapolis, Ind., exhibited the Flying Dutchman Three-wheeled Sulky Plow. It 
is so constructed as to completely suspend the plow, which is located between the 
wheels and in front of the driver, Avhere its work can be fully seen and controlled 
without eflbrt. The furrow-wheel moves, attached to a swivel plate, the same as a 
front wagon axle, so it can freely turn at a right angle either way, and it is so ad- 
justable as to completely guage both (he depth and width of the furrow. The 
swivel pole obviates all neck and side draft. The draft is about the same as a 
walking plow. Also, the Moline Steel-frame Power-lift Sulky Plow, the features 
of which are the same as in the plow just described. Also, the Western Walking 
Cultivator, with self-lifting springs and automatic hitch attachments for gauging 
the depth of the work, thus accomplishing deep tillage in hard ground independ- 
ent of the oi^erator. Also, the Little Joker Tongueless Cultivator, which readily 
stands up alone and is adapted to new ground-, and is easily worked by boys or in- 
experienced persons. Also, the Imperial Combination Kiding and Walking Culti- 
vator, which is a successful endeavor at a complete tool for cultivating- corn and 
fallow ground. Whethei' carrying the operator or not it is without neck draft. 
.\lso, the Pearl Six-shovel Eiding Cultivator, which carries the operator and is 
designed to work especially well in heavy or fallow ground. 

Also, the Moline Scotch Clipper Plow. It will scour in any soil, and is used in 
sod and stubble ground. Also, the Empress Combination Steel and Chilled Plows, 
adopted to clay and upland soils. 

Also, the Moline rakes, harrows, and scrapers. 

H. P. Dauscher, Hamilton, 0., exhibited a corn drill. No furrowisig is required, 
and' it will plant any kind of grain down to broom-corn seed. It is adjusted at 
three places, can, be thrown out of gear while in motion, and has a light open 
wheel. 

Also, a two;horse planter. In dry weather it follows the rows and in wet 
weather it runs inside of the rows. The cover shoves the clods off and covers the 
corn with moist earth. It is wide in the heel, and also has an adjustable covering 
arrangement. Both seats are adjustable, and the driver's hands are entirely free 
for driving. It has a pressure for hard ground. The check rower is very simple, 
and it is easily changed to drop by hand. 

Also, the Soil Pulverizer, which is made of section wheels. It claims great 
advantage in pulverizing clods. It also packs the ground. It is claimed that after 
using it the ground will not bake. It is light and very durable. 

1 ] — AORTOTT LTHRE. 



162 . BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Evans & Foos Manufactwing Company, Springfield, 0., exhibited a corn 
planter, wliich has a very simple drop — a double-acting lever for hand and foot. 
It is remarkable on account of the absence of springs and triggers. It is complete, 
with drill and check rower attachments. This firm exhibited three planters, all 
gotten up in good order. 

The Sterling Manufacturing Company, Sterling, III, exhibited the Sterling potato 
digger. It has a broad share which runs under the potatoes and throws them out 
without bruising them, and it has bars to sift the dirt out. 

Also, the Sterling hay tedder. It has ejght forks, which are flexible. It has a 
superior spring arrangement. It is very simple, is positive in and out of gear. 
The bearings ai-e all turned and the boxes all bored, and it is very light. 

Also, the Sterling Revolving Rake. It has a single lever, and acts as a self- 
dump. 

The Wm. Anson Wood M. and R. Co., Youngatown, 0., exhibited a hay rake with 
a nine-inch hub, with a friction band connected with a foot lever. It locks by a 
treadle, and a sliding block changes the angle of the teeth. It is very simple. 

The Elkhart Iron Works, Elkhart, Ind., exhibited the Elkhart Sulky Plow Attach- 
ment. It is light draft, turns square corners without backing, the land-wheel is 
never in the furrow, and the furrow-wheel never gets out of the furrow in turning 
corners. It claims greater variety of work and less labor on the team than any 
other. A lock puts direct pressure on the beam, if necessary, and a loose connec- 
tion takes the friction off the bottom of the plow. Its construction is simple, and 
it is easily handled. 

The Economist Plow Co., South Bend, Ind., exhibited the Economist Hand Plow, 
It is light draft, easily handled, and the manufacturers guarantee a saving of two- 
thirds the cost of running any other. It has a reversible point, and is made in both 
chilled and steel, and the combinations are all interchangeable. Also, the Econo- 
mist Sulky Plow. It is the same as the above, with reversible points and shares. 
It also has a revolving land-side, rolling the friction of the land-side on a wheel, it 
turns corners without touching a lever. It has a flexible frame for rough surfaces, 
as ridges and hills. It is of light construction, for it is all of steel and malleable 
iron. It has an absolutely straight hitch for three horses, and is entirely free from 
«ide draft. Also, the Economist general purpose hand-plow, in diflerent combina- 
tions and sizes. 

The J. I Case Flow Company, Racine, Wis., exhibited a center-draft hand steel 
plow. The beam sets in the center and divides the load, reducing the friction on 
the land side and the bottom. It is easy running. Also, a full line of 
steel plows. Also a full line of chilled plows. Also, the Jay Eye See 
sulky plow. This is claimed to be the king of the field. It is made 
entirely of steel, and, having only one lever, it is claimed to be the sim- 
plest, lightest in weight, and most easily handled of any other sulky in . 
use. The colter attaches directly to the axle by positive and adjustable fastening. 
Also, an adjustable harrow, the teeth of which are adjusted by means of a lever to 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 163- 

four different angles without stopping the team, which adapts it to hard or soft 
ground. The bars runs crosswise. Also, the tongue and tongueless cultivator. It 
has an independent hitch, each horse pulling his own bar — an adjustable arch, 
which is automatic when the cultivator is used tongueless. Also, a riding culti- 
vator, in which a foot treadle raises and lowers the beams to clean the cultivator 
or to go over obstructions. The wheel and axle are either steel or wood. 

Kendrick, Robinson & Robinson, Indianapolis, /nd, exhibited a soil pulverizer. It 
is a combination of a roller, a crusher and a harrow. By using this implement 
the seed can be planted soon after the soil is prepared. It will cultivate wheat and 
grass in the spring and does not tear it out of the ground. It will cultivate sod 
ground without tearing up the sod. It will harrow and roll corn at one working. 
It is made of wheels and in sections, and can harrow ground from one to five inchefl 
deep. 

The Oliver Plow Works, South Bend, Ind., exhibited, by H. B. Dickson, Indian- 
apolis, Ind., the Casaday sulky plow. The furrow wheel operates at an angle to 
counteract the friction of the land side. Also, a full line of general purpose plows, 
both steel and chilled. It is claimed that the material of these plows is three 
times as hard as cast iron, and is susceptible of a very high polish. The plows 
were made in excellent style and the display was very elegant. Some of the work 
was inlaid with pearl. A model plow was exhibited which was on exhibition at 
the Centennial Exposition, which is made of nickel and is triple plated with gold. 

The Albion Manufacturing Company, Albion, Mich., exhibited a sulky spring 
tooth harrow and seeder combined. It sowe grain broadcast and harrows it in at 
the same time. The sulky harrow is detachable. These instruments are made so 
they can be sold cheap. Also, tlie sulky corn spring-tooth cultivator. It can be 
made a fallow machine by an attachment. 

The Enu Claire Chilled Plow Company, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, exhibited the Eau 
Claire plow. There were seven plows in the exhibit. It has a patent curved 
standard, which prevents choking in clover or weeds. There is the same curve in 
the jointer. The iron used is Mclntire's crystalized iron, and it gives a superior 
quality for scouring. 

The Mechanicsburg Machine Company, Mechanicsburg, 0., exhibited the Baker 
drill. It has a tubular iron frame, which gives strength and durability. It has a 
spring hoe pressure, which regulates the depth by a lever, and also a zig-zag lever. 
Also, the same with a share-shaped hoe to raise the ground, and the grain is de- 
livered underneath. 

The Indianapolia Ploiv Company, Jndianapoli.i, Ind., exhibited the Indianapolis 
cultivator. The shovels are always in line of ihe draft, and it has a spring lift 
which regulates the depth. 

The Kimberlin Manufacturing Company, Indianapolis, Ind., exhibited the Iron 
Duke harrow. It has a wrought iron frame made of wrought and malleable iron,^ 
forty-eight steel teeth. It is durable, and the frame is adapted for pulverizing. 



164 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Eemiiujtoii Agricultural Company, Jlion, y. Y., exhibited the New Keming- 
ton clipper plow. It is made of steel and carbon metal. It has twelve plowf!, and 
runs light. It has a steel jointer. 

J. E. Sickler, Indianapoll% Ind., exhibited the Sickler sulky plow. Both wheels 
are placed in the furrows, and thev run on smooth, level and hard ground. It al- 
ways lays a smooth farrow. Its construction is very simple. It is so constructed 
that the point of the plow enters the ground first, and the plow slides out of the 
ground, antl it runs light. 

The Odell Check-Rower Company, Fairlmry, 111., exhibited a check-rower. It has 
but seven points of friction, being very simple, is easily handled ; has no side draft, 
and is adjustable to all planters. 

The Farmer.^' Friend Manufacturing Comjmty, Dayton, 0., exhibited the ^'ew 
Monarch drill. It is a power lift, the horses raising the hoes, and the power is 
shifted by a foot treadle. 

I). E. McSherry & Co., Dayton, 0., exhibited a two-horse drill. It is an inde- 
pendent feed, by means of a spiral feed wheel; is easily adjusted and feeds easy. 
Also, a fertilizer drill which is a force feed. Also, a five-hoe drill and a three-hoe 
break pin drill. Also, the McSherry harrow, made under the LaDow patent. It 
is made of revolving discs. It has a continuous bearing, which secures durability. 
The angle of the sections is regulated by a lever. 

Chambord Bros., Fayetterille, 0., exhibited a tile ditching shovel. The shovel is 
adjustable to the handle, and is well braced. It is elliptical in form. 

Win. Dungan, Hocklane, Ind., exhibited the American bag holder. It holds the 
bag open with additional width by means of a hopper, keeps' it straight while fill- 
ing; the weight of the grain is on the bottom of the machine, which keeps it 
steady. It is easily adjusted to the length of the bag. It imitates a hand hold, 
but it is better. It is now exhibited with an improvement, which relieves the bag 
instantly. This is a .simple, cheap, but very useful device, and has for several 
vears been in successful operation. 



LAUNDRY AND DAIKV M.VCHINES AND IMPLEMENT.S, .STOVES AND OTHER DO.MKSTIC 
APPLIANCES. 

Mml & Bradley, Indianapolis, 2nd., exhibited the bent-wood churn, which has a 
simple dash. It will churn quick and is easily cleaned. Also, the Zimmerman 
evaporator and baker, which is an excellent apparatus. 

The Victor Steam Washing Company, Bluffton, Ind., exhibited the Victor washer. 
It washes without any hard labor or any wear and tear of the clothing, the work 
being done by .--team. The machine is strongly made and durable. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 165 

M. T. Bice, Brightwood, Ind., exhibited the Sweepstakes washer and wringer. The 
machine is shut up tight, and tlie steam loosens the dirt, and there is very little 
wear on the clothing. 

The Vermont Farm Machine Co., Bellows Falls, Vt., exhibited the Eureka butter 
worker. It has a plain smooth roller. It gives the butter even pressure through- 
out, without grinding it or injuring the grain. It works rapidly and easily. 

Also, the Davis swing churn. It churns by concussion without the use of pad- 
dles or da.shes, which makes better butter and more of it easier than by dashes. It 
has ventilation without stopping, strains the buttermilk as it is drawn out and 
churns quickly. Also, the Champion creamery, which has round cans, easily 
washed, and the covers are ventilated. The bottoms of the cans are pointed, so as 
to run the sediment out with the skim milk. It also has nickle-plated faucets, and 
a perfect cream line at the bottoms of the cans. The refrigerator is in the lower 
part of the creamer, and it has inlet and outlet pipes for the water. It has double 
walls and a dead-air space, and a thermomister indicating the temperature of the 
water in the creamer. Also, a copper evaporator for liquids. The liquid is intro- 
duced through a regulator in the front end, and comes out syrup or jelly at the 
other end. It has crimps in the bottom, which increase the heating surface fifty 
per cent. 

H. F. Bachelor tt Son, Rock Falls, 111., exhibited the barrel churn, without dash, 
no rim on the inside, and is easily cleaned. It is made of hard wood, has the most 
secure corners, cork packing, held on bj' thumb-screws, and the butter can be turned 
out. Also, a butter color, manufactured by Strickler Bros. & Co., Sterling, 111. 
This liquid for coloring butler claims to be the most natural in use, and it will 
keep in any climate. 

Cornish, Curtis tt Greene, Fort Atkinson, Wis., exhibited the Rectangle Churn. 
It consists of a box hung by diagonally opposite corners. It has no dash board, 
revolves easily, and gives the cream six concussions to each revolution. This 
churn is very popular. 

F. B. Fargo & Co., Lake Mills, Wis., exhibited butter ladles, dairy thermometers, 
milk testers, and butter coloring. This coloring is claimed to be strong, free from 
rancidity, and extensively used. 

Johnson & Bennett, Indianapolis, Lid., exhibited the Missouri Steam Washer. 
The garments are not rubbed, but washed by steam. It is simple and is warranted. 

Perry & Co., Albany, N. Y., exhibited the Argand and Century coal stoves. They 
claim cleanliness and economy and have a full combination of nickle and tile orna- 
ments. Also, the Happy Home and Brighton ranges. Also, an assortment of stoves 
for wood burning. Also, the Lyman gasoline stove. Its generating principle is 
.simple, and it ean be lighted as a gas jet. 

Wihnot, Cassell & Co., Rochester, N. Y., through R. H. Jones, Indianapolis, Ind., 
exhibited the Arnold Automatic Cookery. It consists of a tin vessel for steaming 
vegetables and meats. It is very complete ; it is cheap and greatly improves the 
quality of some articles. 



166 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Pursell & Medsker, Indianapolis, Ind., exhibited the Splendid base heater in square 
and in round style. The top gas escapes; it has a sectional tire pot and the foul 
air is drawn off. Also, the Art Jewel. This stove has a round fire pot and is very 
beautiful. Also, the Banner Franklin^ This is an open-front stove and the heat 
comes out on top. Also, the .Jewel Star, which is a soft coal burner. Also, the 
Venus and Estate, both open grate stoves. Also, the Jewel base heater. This is a 
soft coal burner with a radiating apparatus inside and is very complete. 

Cm-bin & Wall, Indianapolis, Ind., exhibited the Patent ironing table. The 
board attaches to a table; it is adjustable to any table, and it has a solid fastening 
by means of a simple device. It is padded and covered ready for use. 

Seward & Co., Bloomington, Ind., exhibited a sorghum evaporator. It has a self- 
skimming pan, and the metal is extra heavy. 

H. T. Conde, Indianapolis, Ind., exhibited the Favorite washer. It is on the 
washboard principle, and is easily operated. 

Shepley Frey, Acton, Ind., exhibited the Dairy Queen churn. It works by a 
treadle, and is tin lined. 

Also, the Acme creamer, with butter cooler attachment. It uses no ice, the 
butter cooler being entirely surrounded by water except on top. The milk can be 
kept in the coldest weather without freezing. It is a top skim, and therefore no 
sediment is left in the cream, and it has two sets of cones or lids. This is an ad- 
mirable apparatus. 

The Flint Cabinet Creamery Company, Flint, Mich., exhibited Wilson's Cabinet 
Creamery. It has a narrow can with a large cooling surface, and a tin cover which 
retains the condensed steam and prevents it from running back into the cream. 
The water is introduced under the can, and ri.«es, stopping the bottom to the water 
tank. It is cleaned without removing the cans, and the cans are skimmed without 
removing them from the tank. Al.w, Wilson's Barrel churn. The pressure of the 
cover is by a screw and lever, for which rea.son the cask will last longer. Also, the 
New strainer, which strains without cloth or seive, or with both. ^ 

G. M. Custar, Terre Haute, Ind., exhibited Custar's farm gate. It is -imple, 
clieap and durable. It is operated with or without levers. Without levers it can 
be hung on the same po.sts that hold plank or wire. Its bearing is straight down, 
and it can not swag. It is never obstructed by snow or ice, and it has a roller be- 
tween every two slats. It is thoroughly braced, and is easily converted into a 
double-strength gate. It can be made any length or height. 

The U. S. Encaustic Tile Company, Indianapolis, Ind., exhibited a very fine dis- 
play of encaustic majolica tile. 

/. H. Clark & Co., Indianapolis, Ind., exhibited a physician's operating chair 
and reclining chairs. The operating chair is complete, and is for general purposes. 

Wm. Terrell, Indianapolis, Ind., exhibited a line of artistic wood and slate man- 
tels, including eight mantels, some of which which were slate and some carved 
wood, all of them being very fine. Also, tile floors and brass goods. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 167 



III. 
CARKIAGEvS AND BUGGIES. 

The Chicago Metal Felloe Company, Chicago, III., exhibited the Tubular Wrought 
Iron Felloe. This felloe is hollow, and of the best wrought iron. Into this tube 
seasoned hickory is forced, then the tube is bent into the proper shape. The spoke 
is set in, so as to get the whole strength of the wood. Five times the strength of an 
ordinary tire is claimed for this felloe ; it won't wear in the frozen ground or on 
street-car tracks, as the rim of an ordinary wheel wears, and there is no resetting of 
tire. The same company also exhibited a banded hub. 

Helfrich & Danley, Indianapolis, Ind., exhibited a line of carriage?, wagons, etc. 
among which was a spring wagon which does away with a king-bolt and a fifth 
wheel. It also runs over obstacles without binding the gearing, on account of a 
joint in the coupling-pole. Also, the wheels work up and down without tilting the 
bed. Also, the Dal ton Shaft-Coupling. It has a press^anti-ratttler, which is out of 
the way, and a catch holds it while the shaft is placed in position. The pin is 
locked without a tap. Also, a contrivance for adjusting the, seat and locking it. 
Also, a hind spring, hung on a hinge in such a way^^as to eliminate the strain. 
Also, a line of sporting wagons, noted for strength ; one of them hangs very low. 

The Connersville Buggy Company, Connersville, Ind., exhibited a road wagon com- 
petent to stand wear and tear. It has a perfect carriage gearing under it. It is 
very easy to get in and out of it, and is very convenient for business purposes. 
Also, a sewing-machine wagon, the side-bar of which extends in the rear of the axle 
and supports the cross spring. 

The Mlddletown Buggy Company, Middletown, Ohio, exhibited three nice buggies 
in different styles. 

Charles H. Black, Indianapolis, Ind., exiiibited nine buggies and carriages. This 
was the largest display of goods manufactured in the State. Also, the jagger 
wagon, one or two seats, easily adjustable. Also, the Buck wagon, a side-bar, very 
light and convenient. Among the buggies were two very fine park phfetons, fine 
driving wagons and barouches. 

Irdn Bobbins & Co., Indianapolu, Ind., exhibited' one platform panel rockaway, 
with shifting front for four passengers. It has wrought iron gearing, French glass, 
and rich upholstery. One half-platform curtain rockaway. Two extension top 
barouches, one of which was on three springs, and the other on full platform gear- 
ing. One ladies' Victoria phccton, very roomy, richly upholstered, and low wheelB. 

The Columbus Buggy Co., Columbus, 0., exhibited three phietons, one with combi- 
nation spring, one with platform spring, and one with end springs. 
Also, one side-bar buggy, very fine. 



168 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Also, a surry and a carriage and a park wagon for pleasure. Extra qualities- 
are claimed, and the work of this firm is extensively shipped to Europe and other 
foreign countries. 

The David Bradley 3Ianufacturiny Co., Indianapolis, Lid., exhibited ten jobs, in- 
cluding a variety of springs, among which was the MulhoUand spring, which claims 
all the advantages of a side-bar, with its disadvantages overcome. All the wheels 
are dipped in boiling oil. Also, the Stratton jump-seat, which is adjustable to one 
or two seats, and is easily changed. Also, a surrey with the MulhoUand spring. 

Also, a platform spring pha?ton. 

Respectfully submitted by the committee. 

Samuel .J. Tomi.inson.. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 



ON THE SPECIAL MERITS OF 



EXHIBITED AT THE 



XJsnDXA^JSTJ^ STA.TE FJ^X:R, 

SEPTEMBER, 1884. 



SEPARATORS. 

Tke Northwestern Muiiufacluriny d' Car Co., SliUwater, Minnesota, exhibit one 10- 
horse separator, "Minnesota Chief." The leading characteristics of this machine 
are general simplicity of construction, and adaptability to threshing all kinds of 
grain and seeds ready for market. This machine has a separating table, or rack, 
reaching the entire length and width of the machine. It is constrncted of light 
slats running crosswise in the machine, overlapping each other, with openings be- 
tween, so that a complete separation of the grain and chaff from the straw is se- 
cured. The separating table is pivoted to reciprocating crank arms, which im- 
parts to the table an upward and backward movement, thus tossing and agitating 
the straw in such a manner as secures a very complete separation from the grain. 
The capacity of this machine for rapid work is only limited by the amount of 
power and the itaount of grain that can be handled by the men attending it. By a 
change of seives it is adapted to thre.shing flax and timothy seed. It has, also, a 
<lover hulling attachment. 



170 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Robinson & Co., Richmond, Indiana, exhibit one of their ten horse Bonanza Sepa- 
rators. This machine uses riddles of large surface, the width of which is in excess 
of the length of the cj'linder. The straw is carried from the machine by pickers 
extending from the back of the cylinder to the front of the machine, equalizing the 
straw as it passes away from-the machine. It has a patent device for preventing the 
heating of the cylinder journals, and an arrangement for putting on the main belt 
without unlacing it. The throat is peculiarly constructed — affording the cylinder 
an excellent "suck," making the machine easy to feed, and quite free from dust. 
It has patent pickers which work into the straw from above, and to all appearances 
do the work in an admirable manner. It has large riddle surface, and extended 
tailing spout, to which any grain that may be carried or blown over the stacker is 
returned and carried up by the elevator. This machine has clover huUer attach- 
ment. It requires but -a few moments to change for hulling clover, which is done 
by regulating the concave adjuster without stopping the machine. The machine is 
of low speed, and remains steady while in motion without brace or prop. 

Ea(jle Machine Works, Indianapoli.% Indiana, has one of their Oscillator Separa- 
tors on exhibition. By its its construction it is impossible to throw grain from 
cylinder back into the straw. Extended riddles and internal agitators; runs with 
one bf It. Double cylinder used for hulling clover seed, as well as all kinds of grain 
in plain threshing. A little back of the cylinder is arranged a revolving deflector, 
throwing the straw and grain from the cylinder onto the oscillating floor, making a 
draft which takes the dust from the feeder. This oscillating floor is divided into 
four sections, each moved by an ingenious contrivance of cranks, giving them a 
double motion to which is added the aid of carrying or lifting fingers, thus assur- 
ing the passage of the straw from the macliine, and a complete separation from the 
grain. Any amount of straw, either dry or damp, that may pass through the cyl- 
inder can not possibly choke or obstruct i he oscillator, and will always be separated 
from the grain. 

The same firm exhibited one of their Victor grain threshers. This machine ia 
strong, durable, and of large capacity, and on general principles a good machine 

NichoL% Shepherd <fc Co., Battle Creek, Mich., exhibited one of their Vibrator 
separators. This machine has two vibrators, one over the other, hung on suspen- 
sions rods, and have a forward and backward motion in opposite directions. The 
upper vibrator allows the grain to pass through transverse slats onto the lower one. 
The lower shaker extends from under the concave to the riddles, and has a tight 
floor, over which the grain passes to the riddles. The back end of this floor is 
perforated so that the grain is equally distributed over the riddles. . Over the upper 
shaker are six sets of fingers, which are inserted in a transverse bar which is con- 
nected by a leather strap to the frame work. The motion of the shaker gives an 
up and down motion to the fingers. The grain on leaving the cylinder passes to a 
beater, which throws it up on the upper shaker, from whence it is taken up by the 
fingers and so thoroughly shaken as to completely separate the%rain from the 
straw. This machine has clover huller attachment ranking well up among machines 
of that class. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 171 

The Case & Willard Manufacturing Company, of Battle Creek, i^fi'cA., exhibited one 
of their Advance separators. This machine has some points worthy of especial 
note. It embraces a combination of principles somewhat different from any other 
machine on exhibition at the Indiana State Fair this year. The cylinder is 
about one foot nearer the ground than in the average of threshers, thus affording 
the convenience of lower tables. The cylinder has two center supports for the bars. 
The heads are solid. The shaft is of steel, one and three-fourths inches in diame- 
ter. The teeth are made of steel. The sides of the cylinder frame are of iron. 
The separator being wider than the length of cylinder enables all pulleys for belts 
on the cylinder shaft to be on one end. The pulleys for the main belt to the en- 
gine run inside of the yoke and box. This yoke is bolted to the posts. The belts 
which drive the separator are outside of the yoke and box and close to the side of 
the machine. This novel arrangement of the belts, pulling in opposite directions, 
saves a large amount of friction on the bearings and boxes of the cylinder shaft. 
By a simple device botli ends of the concave are raised and lowered at the same 
time by one motion. This machine has folding tables, which are not removed 
when moving the machine from place to place. The cylinder teeth, instead of be- 
ing at right angles with bar, are bent at the shoulder so that they incline back- 
ward, thus tending, it is claimed, to feed easily without bunching or choking. The 
machine is strong, steady and durable, possessing a wonderful capacity for rapid 
and efficient work. 

The Springfield Engine and Thresher Co., of Springfield, , exhibit one of their 
"New Springfield" separators. Thjs is a beautiful machine of superior symmetry 
and workmanship. AVhile upon general principles it has justly merited a place 
among first-class threshers, it has some points worthy of special mention. It has 
straw rakes of positive motion. The rakes are thrown down with the same speed 
as they are thrown up, striking the straw again before it reaches the pan. One- 
half the straw has an upward motion while dne-half has a downward motion, by 
which means the grain is thoroughly sei)arated from the straw. No cog wheels or 
pinions are used on the machine. The concave adjuster is positive both ways. 

Roberts^ & Thorpe, of Three Rivent, Mich., by C. E. Merrifield, Indianapolis, Ind., 
exhibit one of their "Invincible" threshers. This machine is of extra length and 
width, affording a broad surface for separating and cleaning. It is claimed for the 
"Invincible" that it is light running, easily operated and very durable. The 
beater is placed a little in rear oi the cylinder and so near to it that the straw is 
closely combed from it — leaving little chance for straw to choke or wind around 
the cylinder. The alternate motion of sheet iron shaking pans, operated by double 
pitmaus, not only produce a counterbalance, but hurries the separated grain rear- 
ward towards the shoe. This separator is built diverging from the cylinder to the 
discharge end, so that by thus gradually widening the separator a greatly increased 
separating capacity is given. The cylinder is constructed with heavy cast heads 
and wrought iron bars, twelve in number. The concave is made in three sections 
and i8.adjustable from front or rear, and is perforated, the holes distributed in such 
a manner that a large amount of grain passes through and is separated at once. 



172 BOABP OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Ouiser Mannfai-tijiiiKj Co., of Waynesboro, Pa., exhibit one of their separators, 
■'The Guiser." This machine has been on the market for a quarter of a century, 
but from time to time many valuable improvements have been added, nearly all 
of which are patented and belong exclusively to this company. The "Guiser" 
separator is put together without mortices or tenons, being lapped and fastened 
with bolts. When in motion it remains steady without brace or blocks. The chief 
points made on this machine are that it is strong and adapted to all kinds of 
threshing. 

Gacir, Scull <l <Jii , iliclimond, Ind., exhibit one of their New Peerless threshers. 
This is a handsomely ]»ropoi'tioned and well constructed machine, with some new 
features in separating and cleaning. A reserve beater behind the cylinder lifts the 
straw upward instead of downward after it has passed the cylinder, leaving the 
grain an unobstructed passage to the conveyor and riddles without once becoming 
intermingled with the straw at all. Two distinct separations, and using a new 
combined end-shake chaff riddle, outside shake shoe and cleaning riddle. The 
velocity of the straw is checked by the straw lifter, drawn upward and then thrown 
downward and spread evenly upon the first separating rack, from whence it is 
carried upward again in a thin sheet to the second separating rack— all the time 
having a vigorous vibrating motion. It \\^s a secondary separation above the rid- 
dles by which all the trash and short straws are carried overboard, reducing the 
labor for the fan, riddles and elevator very greatly. All parts of the Peerless are 
driven by four belts. It has a clover-huller attachment, and threshes timothy, 
orchard gra,ss, etc. It is claimed for this machine that it is wider in proportion to 
length of cylinder than any other machine made. The machine is strongly put 
together, well braced, and bespeaks great durability. 

Riisaell ct Co., J/a.s.si'/on, O., exhibit one of their New Massilou threshers. This 
is an old machince which its manufacturers have not allowed to fossilize or fall 
out of the line of progress, but have each year ad,ded some new and valuable im- 
provements. It has an ingenious device for separating grain from the straw. As 
soon as the straw and grain pass the cylinder they meet a sudden check at the first 
beater. This stops the mass for an instant, then pounds and beats the straw until 
it is placed on the notched strips of the table, and moves on, first surrendering the 
greater portion of the grain it has protected. The second beater, running at a 
little less speed than the first, in its turn jiounds and whips the straw, compelling 
it to yield another quota of grain, while the " kickers," an original device of this 
company, "kicks up" such a commotion as to separate all grain from the straw 
that perchance may have escaped separation. The cleaning riddles are made of 
wire. This machine is simple and neat, very free from what may be styled 
'' trappy devices.'' 

./. /. Case, Racine, Mich., exhibits one of their Agitator threshers. It is claimed 
ior the Agitator, in a general way, that it is a good and reliable thresher, and, .so 
far as the committee was enabled to determine, its claims are well founded. No 
especial points of merit are advanced by the manufacturer. 



.SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 173 

Frick & Co., Waynesboro, Pa., exhibit their Vibrator thresher. The good quali- 
ties of this machine are of a general character. It:, owners claim for it fast and 
clean work, simplicity and durability. No detailed points of special merit are put 
forward. The owners of this machine seem to direct special attention to the 
achievements of their machine rather than to its modus operandi. 



HARVEST MACHINERY. 

The Minneapolu Harvester WorkK:, of Minneapolis, Minn., exhibit one of their 
Minneapolis Twine Binders. This binder is very .symmetrical in its proportions, 
and strongly put together, being ironed on the corners. The master wheel is very 
strong, has a wide face with malleable iron lugs, laid diagonally across the tire, 
affording great traction power, and tending to prevent the machine from jolting 
when on hard ground. The gearing is simple and strong, securely fastened in an 
iron tie frame. The bearings are long, and the oiling facilities such that the full 
length of the shafts can be lubricated. The reel is run by a detachable chain, and 
always at the same ten.-*ion, whatever the position of the reel. The reel has a broad 
scope vertically or horizontally, and is managed by one lever. The cutter-bar is 
made of iron, running the entire length of the platform. The guards are fastened 
to the bar in a way that the machine will cut within 2^ inches of the ground. The 
grain wheel is of iron, cast in one piece, and runs in an iron sleeve. The back sill 
is of one piece. The driver can change the height of cut without leaving his seat, 
and while the machine is in motion, by means of a lever at his side. The adjust- 
able features of the knotter are such that lost motion can be taken up withfiut re- 
placing the whole knotter. The Minneapolis uses the double packer trip. 

D. M. Osborne dt Co., Auburn, N. Y., exhibit one of their Osborne No. 14 
Twine Binders, which is an improvement over the Osborne No. 11, used in the 
harvests of 1883 and 1884. The special points of merit claimed for this machine 
are lightness of draff, easy management, and durability. The Osborne Binder has 
been so long before the grain-growers of our country that any description of its 
general structure would be superfluous and a waste of time and space. 

The same company also exhibit four difi'erent styles of independent mowers, and 
one independent self-rake reaper. 

Walter A. Wood Mowing and Reapinfj Machine Companij, of Hoosac Falls, N. Y., 
exhibit one Wood's Binder. This machine has no side draft, is light running, well 
balanced, no weight on horses' necks, is easily controlled, all levers convenient to 
driver ; has a light, strong reel, which stops turning when machine is out of gear ; 
has malleable iron guards with steel leger plates; guards secured to iron cutter-bar 
with bolts instead of rivets. The sickle is driven from the end. The gear for the 
drive-wheel is on the outside of the binder attachment. All machinery is in sight 
above the table. The packers are over the grain, and stop while the bundle is 
being bound. The discharge arms lift up, coming down behind the bundle, and 
effectually discharge it. There is attached to this machine a bundle-carrier, that 
places the bundles in winrows. 



174 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

William Deering & Co., of Chicago, III., exhibit one of their Junior Deering Har- 
vesters and Binders. This machine claims special merit for lightness of draft, easy 
adjustment, and being well adapted to handling all kinds and conditions of grain. 

By the same is exhibited a Deering Giant Harvester. This is a large, strong 
binder ; no especial points of merit offered. 

The Plana Manufacturing Co., of Piano, III., have on exhibition one of their 
Piano Harvesters and' Binders. The points of special merit attaching to the Piano 
are light draft, no side draft, tight binding, gearing on outside of master wheel, 
and the reel effectively handled by one lever. 

George E^tertg & Son, of White Water, Mich., liave on exhibit one Esteriy Self- 
Binder. The representatives of this machine are quite modest in their claims of 
Buperiority over all other machines. Its leading points of merit are lightness of 
draft, a good balance, and simplicity of binder. The Esteriy is a beautiful ma- 
chine, strongly built, with unique and simple machinery, having all the essential 
marks of a good general purpose self-binder. 

The Peerless Reaper Co., of Canton, Ohio, exhibit a Peerless Reaper with enclosed 
gearing, Ball, Pitman & Johnson rake. 

Hoover S: Gambol, of Miamishurg, Ohio, exhibit one combined table rake and 
mower, the .Junior-Senior. This machine lias strong merits in its ease of manage- 
ment and lightness of draft. 

By the same, one dropper and mower combined. The strong point of this ma- 
chine is its being well adapted to uneven ground. 

By the game, harvester and binder, Excelsior No. ?,. This machine is easily 
manipulated, and .so constructed that all improvements can be readily attached to 
old machines as well as new. It has a bundle-sizer and bundle-gatherer. 

The Dennett Harvesting Machine Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Hairy F. Ward, 
General Agent, Indianapolis, Ind., have on exhibition one Dennett harvester and 
twine binder. This machine exhibits several points worthy of special note. By 
its siniplicity of structure there is a s.^ving of many pieces of machinery. The 
•cutter bar is made by bolting a flat and angle iron bar together, combining strength 
and durability. The construction of the cutter bar enables the operator to run the 
fiickle very close to the ground. The guards are made of malleable iron, and on 
the face of the guard, where the sickle plays back and forth, there is a steel leger 
plate riveted. The edges of these plates are ground sharp so that when the sickle 
is put in motion it acts like a pair of shears. The guards are bolted to the cutter 
bar, and one can be taken off and another put in its place with little delay or 
trouble. The sickle is raised or lowered by one lever, by the driver, without stop- 
ping the motion of the machine. It will cut stubble from four to twenty-two 
inches in height. The reel is large, and driven by a double sprocket wheel, giving 
it a fast or slow motion, as speed of horses or condition of the grain may require. 
The reel has a vertical and horizontal reciprocating motion, each independent of 
the other, and can easily be put into any position by the use of one lever under 
control of the driver. The master wheel is large and broad. A cast iron sleeve 
runs through both nuts, so as to prevent binding on the shaft or axle. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 175 

Aultman, MUkr & Co., Akron, 0., exhibit tlieir Buckeye Down Binder. This 
binder is low, narrow and light, and easily passed through an ordinary farm gate. 
The raising and lowering of the machine is effected by means of a hand wheel 
directly in front of the driver, and can be accomplished without stopping the team. 
The driver has within easy reach the gear lever, for throwing the entire mechanism 
in and out of gear; the tilting lever, for dropping the points of the guards; the 
reel lever, for moving the reel to any desired position ; the trip adjuster, for regu- 
lating the size of bundles, and the foot lever, enabling the driver to bind the sheaf 
at any moment. The driver can perform any or all of the above operations with- 
out leaving his seat or stopping his team. The binder is automatic and has an ad- 
justable butter. The Buckeye Down Binder, it is claimed, is more especially 
adapted to small farms and hilly land. It is well suited for cutting short wheat. 

By the same: One Buckeye Cord Binder. A.8 the cut grain is discharged from 
the elevator of the harvester it is taken by two arms (driven by cranks) called 
packers. These packers gather the straw into a bundle, which, when it reaches 
the desired size, presses against a trigger with sufficient force to release a catch and 
throw the tying apparatus into gear. The arms from both sides at once close in 
upon the bundle of straw, compressing it tightly, so that at the moment of tying 
there is little tension on the string. By adjusting a set screw the binder can be set 
to bind a bundle of any desired size. The tension can be so altered as to bind as 
tightly as may be wished. When the binder has been set to any desired tension, 
the bundles will be uniform in size and bound alike tightly. 

The Johnson Harvester Co., Batavia, N. Y., exhibit one of their .Johnson harvest- 
ers. This machine can be easily run by two horses. Has improved knotter for 
1885 ; is dispensing with plunger bolt, which disposes with 21 pieces formerly used, 
and doing the same work with 3 pieces. 

Wm. Anson Wood, of Youngsfomn, 0., exhibits one self-rake reaper. The rake is 
run by worm gear. The pitman is counter-balanced ; is run by eccentric, with 4 
pieces of gearing. One lever throws all out of gear by one motion. 

By the same, is exhibited one S. D. Locker's binder. This is a light machine, 
with a very simple binder. Can cut from 2 inches to 14 inches in height, and 5§ 
feet in width, with a 6-foot cutter bar. The elevator is open in the rear, thus pre- 
venting obstructions. 

The Russell Harvesting Jfachine Co., Polo, 111., and Indianapolis, Ind., exhibit one 
of their Russell self-binders. This machine uses a double steel cutter bar, and 
in the binder uses an under compressor, thereby dispensing with ten parts formerly 
used. The weight is 1,140 pounds. 

The St. Paul Harvester Co., St. Paul, Minn., exhibit one of their St. Paul binders. 
The reel is supported at both ends. Has sloping elevator, steep deck ; discharges 
the bundles easily, which it is claimed absolutely prevents the binder from choking 
or clogging. Has short hitch, shifting binder, and does good work in all kinds of 
grain. 



176 liOAKD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Toledo Mower and Reaper Company, Toledo, 0., exhibited their Toledo plat- 
form twine binders. No weight on horses' necks ; loose tongue ; grain controlled 
by a rake instead of reel ; bundles parted before being tied, which parting con- 
tinues until bundle is delivered on the srround. Registers 325 pounds draft while 
at work in the field. 

The McCormick Muaufacturiny Company, Chicago, III., exhibited one of their 
McCormick steel binders. The metal parts of this machine are all made of either 
steel or malleable iron. This machine is light, i.eat, compact and attractive. 
Sloping elevator; adjustable reel. All agents keep full stock of repairs. The 
binding mechanism of this machine is reliable and .simple — cuts ofT the twine 
close to the bundle, making a very durable knot. The .special features of this ma- 
chine sums up as follows : Economy in use of twine ; security of the knot ; cer- 
tainty of binding every sheaf; ability to cut as high or low as may be desired ; even 
balance; lightness of draft; durability, and consequent freedom from liability to 
breakage. 

By the same firm, New Dropper. All lost motion can be taken up at will. 
Reel driven by cog and tumblins shaft. 

By the same, the Deering reaper. Tread extra wide- Rake under easy control 
of operator. No side draft. Weight 700 pounds. 



Tf^e Eureka Mower Company, Utica N. Y., exhibited one of their Eureka mowers. 
Drive wheel of extra size. Direct draft, does away with double gear, pitman at 
right angles with knife. Alway.s in line. Draft of a six-foot mower as light as of 
nn ordinary four-foot cut. Grass not tramped. 

Walter A. Wood Morning and Reaping Machine Company, Hoosac Falls, N. Y., 
exhibit one of their Enclo.?ed (xear Mowers. Very high wheels ; long axle ; cutter- 
bar carried on wheels ; the bearings are easily removed and renewed ; draft direct 
from horses to mower frame ; no weight on horses' necks when at work ; bolts se- 
oured with forked nuts and spring keys. 

William Deering & Co., of Chicago, III., exhibit one of their Deering Giant 
Mowers. Strength, durability, ease of adjustment and lightness of draft embrace its 
strongest points of merit. 

By the same, one Deering Light Mower. This machine is very light, easily ad- 
justed, with either rigid or flexible bar ; cuts very close to the ground without 
necessary obstruction. It has large cutting surface to the sickle. The Deering 
Light Mower is a close, clean cutter. 

The Johnston Harvester Company, Batavia, N. Y,, exhibit one of their Dennett 
Light Iron Mowers. All metal parts are made of either steel or malleable iron ; 
double geared, moving driving shaft at each end ; no crank shaft ; pitman is ad- 
justable in length, so that all wear can be taken up and sections made to center on 
the guards. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 177 

The Curtis Manufacturing Company, Albion, N. Y., exhibit their New Home 
Mower. Front cut, with floating draw-bar, which passes in and out of holes with- 
out cramping the knife, and with same ease as rear-cut mower ; free from pushing, 
bars extending from main frame to wheel of machine tending to lift the trunk from 
the ground in hard cutting. 

The Toledo Platform Twine Binder Manufacturing Company, Toledo, Ohio, exhibit a 
Toledo Mower. A foot lever raises the cutter-bar while turning the machine at 
will of the driver. No weight on horses' necks ; every box a babbit ; carried on 
4wo forty-inch wheels ; flexible bar ; compensating and adjustable pitman. 

The McCormick Manufacturing Company, Chicago, III., exhibit one of their McCor- 
mick No. 2 Mowers. The knife receives power from both wheels, and cuts squarely 
on any turn ; high wheels and broad frame ; pitman connects with knife-head 
without bolts ; center draft ; doubletree so attached as to remove all neck weight ; 
floating cutter-bar ; guards are pointed up while in motion, and lowers or raises 
the cutter-bar ; pitman protected by screen. 

The Piano Manufacturing Company, of Piano, Illinois, exhibit their Neiv Piano 
Mower. This machine has some strong points of special merit. It adjusts itself 
readily to uneven ground. The cutter bar is easily folded up, and carries on 
mower axle. It is light draft. 

CX.OVER HULLERS. 

The Newark Machine Company, Newark, Ohio, exhibits, a Victor Double Huller 
■Clover Machine, A double huller, both cylinders are hulling cylinders. Teeth cor- 
rugated or roughened in both cylinders and concaves. The separation peculiar 
alone to the Victor consists of toothed zentel bars secured by crank shafts at each 
end, performing at one and same operation the carrying out of straw, and separa- 
tion of bolls and seed, and carrying unhulled balls back to the second or hulling 
■cylinder. From the second cylinder the chaft" and seed is thrown out direct into 
the sieves where the seed is partially cleaned, and then deposited in a seed elevator 
•on the outside of the machine, and by it carried to the recleaner where it is fitted 
for market. By the peculiarity of its cylinders and concave this machine — it is 
•claimed — will hull clover when damp or frozen. 

The Birdsell Manufacturing Company, South Bend, Indiana, exhibit their Monitor 
Jtvnior Clover Huller. This machine has an iron bar threshing cylinder, with 
•adjustable concaves. The clover passes from the cylinder bolt where the bolls are 
separated from the straw. The bolls pass down to the lower floor which conveys 
them to the hulling cylinder, which is constructed with steel rasp. The concaves 
are made of steel rasps, and are adjustable so that they can be set to or from the 
huller cylinder. After hulling, the seed is conveyed to the main shoe where it is 
partially cleaned, from there it is conveyed to the recleaning attachment where it 
is cleaned for market. The tailings are conveyed and thrown upon the lower shake 
at the rear end of the machine, which conveys them back to the hulling cylinder, 
thereby throwing the dust to the rear end of the machine. 
1 2 — Agriculture. 



178 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Ashland, Ohio, Manu-facturing Co. exhibit one of their Eureka Clover Hul- 
lers Drops lower concave \>j removing two bolts, and, also, by displacing twa 
bolts the hulling cylinder may be removed. The tailings are emptied directly into 
the hulling cylinder. There are five bucket separators, and no two work alike. 
Both cylinders are driven directly by main belt. 

HAY BAKES. 

The Newark Machine Co., Newark, Ohio, exhibit a Newark Hay Rake. Has drop 
teeth, easily replaced if broken. The shafts or ihills are thoroughly braced ; an 
adjustable lock lever, completely under control of the driver; an overhanging 
cleaner, supported by well-braced posts The weight of driver assists in the dump- 
ing of the rake. 

P. P. Mast & Co., Springfield, Ohio, exhibit their Sulky Hay Rake ; teeth not rigid, 
and very lengthy ; rake made of wrought iron ; fout self-dump, without cog 
gearing. 

J. H. Thomas & Son, Springfield, Ohio, exhibit one Thomas Hay Rake. Iron 
seat rests on axle, and assists in dumping. Brass spring overcoil tooth, causing the 
teeth to slide instead of drag, and avoids breaking them. The teeth are extra, 
length. Hanging-over cleaner, on rollers, for dumping the hay. 

A. W. Coats & Co., Alliance, Ohio, exhibits one Coats Back-Lever Hay Rake. It 
is simple and durable; easily managed by a back lever. The weight of the driver 
dumps the rake. 

The Knowlton Manufacturing Co., Eockford, HI., exhibits one Knowlton Sulky 
Hay Rake; 14-spoke wheels; wooden hub; double land and pipe box; double 
back lever, by means of which the teeth are raised perpendicularly, carrying the 
hay, and tending to avoid dust and trash. 

The Springfield Manufacturing Company, Springfield, 0., exhibits their sulky self- 
dump hay rake. Either wheel is a positive dump. A slight pressure with the 
foot on the chain locks the head to the wheel, and a partial revolution dumps the 
rake. It dumps every time, and any time, and only when desired ; easily balanced ; 
no weight on horse. When used as a self-dump only short lever is used ; long 
lever dumps by hand. Wheels 54 inches in diameter. A truss rod prevents the . 
head from sagging. Drop-tooth rake, independent teeth, turned wrought iron 
axles. 

By the same is exhibited one Springfield foot-dump rake; rapidity and accu- 
racy of motion; rake head under complete control of driver's feet; hands entirely 
free. 

Acme Hay Harvester Company, Peoria, III., exhibits one of their Acme hay rakes ; 
clean work, avoiding trash and old straw. Rakes without rolling and tangling 
straw. Wooden rake, teeth of hickory. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 179 

The Beedle & Kelly Co., Troy, Ohio, exhibits one Troy Champion coil-tooth rake. 
The construction of this rake is a combination of the self-dump and lock-lever 
principles, raises and lowers teeth in a vertical plane leavin» trash on the ground; 
back lever at will of operator ; dumps by shifting the draft ; combines the draft, 
and weight of driver with pressure of peg to throw up the teeth. 

By the same ia exhibited one Drop-tooth Troy Champion hay rake. Teeth fast- 
ened with a cast cap, giving 3f inches bearing on axles, holding teeth at uniform 
distance at point. The teeth have depressions where they pass thx-ough slotted bar 
affording additional spring where the greatest strain comes. 

The Albion Manufictariiig Co. Albhn, iliehigan, exhibit an Albion Sulky Rake. 
Height of drop 36 inches. Adjustable draw iron enabling operator of any weight 
to dump the hay. Clover and timothy seed attachment. 

The Sterling Manufactwing Co., Sterling, Illinois, exhibit one Sterling Revolving 
hay rake, self-dump horse rake. Simple and easily handled. No special points 
advanced. 

David Bradley Manufacturing Co., Indianapolis, Ind., exhibit one of their common 
horse rakes. This is a strong hand, dump-rake made of wood. 

By the same, a one-horse dump rake. No points of merit advanced. 

The Long & Allstatter Manufacturing Co., Hamilton, Ohio, exhibit one of their 
Hamilton hay rakes, steel tooth hand dump; strongest points of merit — superior 
strength and durability. 

The Oreensburg Manufaeluring Co., Oreensburg, Ind., have on exhibition one of 
their Greensburg hay rakes. This rake is a novelty in the line of agricultural 
implements, being the first revolving rake ever made that can be operated by the 
rider of the horse that draws it. A ten-year old boy can ride and do the work. It 
is made of wood, and is simply an improvement on the old fashioned hand turn 
over dump. It is devolved by means of a rope and rollers — one end of the rope 
being carried by the rider. 

The Belcher & Taylor Agricultural Tool Company, Chicopee Falls, Mass., exhibit one 
of their S. R. Nye's National Rake. The teeth are independent in action and self- 
adjustable on uneven surface. By the curving inward of the four end teeth, 
bringing them forward of those in the center, is formed what may be termed a 
"barrel-shaped head," and as the hay works away fi-om the wheels toward the 
center, scattering and roping at the ends is prevented. Each tooth is supported at 
the side by the guide, which operates with the tooth, and is held down by a coiled 
spring within the tooth-holder, causing a yielding i)ressure upon the surface. . A 
slotted treadle, operated by the toe of the driver, partly rotates a rod having an 
€ccentric or cam at each end, which acts upon a weighted pawl (dispensing with all 
springs) and locks the rake-head to the wheels. This forms a dumping arrange- 
ment, positive in action, responding promptly to the light touch of the driver's toe. 
The seat is placed on steel springs. The machine is built of white ash ; fourteen- 
spoke wheels. 



180 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



STRAW-STACKERS. 

Reeves & t'o., Columbus, Ind., exhibit one of their Reeve's Stackers. Self-oscillat- 
ing ; a stem-winder ; does its own swinging about on the straw stack. It has no 
guy-ropes, derricks er props to raise or fasten by hand. Two men will set it up in 
working order in less than one minute, and take it down in the same time. Kope 
is attached to the shifter- wheel, and passes up to the top of the stacker, so that the 
operator has control and can throw it out of gear, move to any part of the stack 
and throw in gear again. The end of the stacker keeps the perpendicular from 
beginning to end, depositing chaff in the center of the stack ; has a safety-latch^ 
and the chaff-drive prevents the chaff" from falling back. It has a cylindrical 
stacker-head, which prevents chaff and straw from falling through the lower end of 
the stacker when elevated. 

Robinson & Co., Richmond, Ind., exhibit one of their Eureka Straw-Stackers- 
Always attached to separator in line, and ready for work. It is light, durable, and 
easy of adjustment. 

C. E. Merrifield & Co., Manufacturers, Indianapolis, exhibit one of their Imperial 
straw stackers. The elevator conveyor raises and lowers with worm gear, securing 
safety in handling without any ratchets and pawl. It is operated by a wire rope 
passing around quarter wheels and winding around a worm-wheel shaft, giving a 
great leverage. It has automatic gear for turning the stacker, which will turn to 
or from the wind without any diminution of speed; has universal coupling in the 
main shaft, thus preventing the gearing from cramping while the stacker is vibra- 
ting or is not yet level ; has shifting bolster blocks for the purpose of latteral brace» 
The stacker turns at right angles, delivering straw in a half-circle r)0 feet in diam- 
eter. It is a light machine. 

S. W. <C- W. J. Ilasselman, Indianapolis, Ind., exhibit one of their Eagle straw 
.stackers; light-mounted stacker, little gearing, strong and simple. One man can 
raise and lower it without assistance. 

Moore & Ball, Manufacturers, Thorntown, Ind., exhibit one of their straw stackers,. 
Little Giant; pivot derrick, dismounted stacker. When in use avoids digging and 
leveling up. Pivoted pulley always in line with separator, while positive derrick 
revolves, thus avoiding any lining up with separator. Carrier supported by goy 
rods and stretcher, holding at three different points, preventing any swinging or 
warping. Automatic, sideboards stationary, and no cog wheels. Weight, 62& 
pounds. Perpendicularity preserved by means of derrick and guy rope. 

HAY FORKS AND RICKERS. 

The Superior Drill Company, Springfield, 0., exhibit their Hall's reversible hay- 
elevator and carrier. This is an absolute reversible hay carrier, reversed by 
weight of the rope. The main lifting wheel and the rope attachment is connected 
with the frame of the carrier by means of a swivel. 



SPECIAL MEKITS OF EXHIBITS. 181 

The Columbus Hay Tool Company, Columbus, 0., exhibit the Imperial horse-hay 
fork. "The only steel fork made." Opens wide, is strong, durable, and easily 
worked. 

By same, one reversible carrier on iron track, supporting hooks, supporting 
tracks. Pulley easily reversed. This company manufactures six varieties of 
carriers. 

The Acme Hay Harvester Company, Peoria, 111., exhibit an Acme Hay Kicker and 
Loader. Light draft in elevating hay ; stacks twenty-four feet high ; only two 
common pulleys ; simple in construction and easily operated. 

Myers, Howard <t- Co., Canton, Ohio, exhibit one of their Hay-Fork and Carriers^ 
Simplicity ; few pieces ; cable carrier. 

The Bro-wer Hay-Fo^-k Company, Crawford sville, Ind., exhibit Reversible Elevator 
and Carrier. Hasps on each side of driveway, without changing the carrier ; 
ropes are reversible while standing on mow floor. 

By same, one Harpoon Fork. Full capacity and completion of mechanism. 

The Sterling Manufacturing Company, Sterling, III., exhibit one Hay-Fork. It 
does away with funnel end registering, pulley, rachet and dogs ; registers with 
great accuracy, despite any shape of rope. 

HAY TEDDEKS. 

The Sterling Manufacturing Company, Sterling, III., exhibit one Sterling Hay 
Tedder. Wrought iron crank-shaft ; flexible forks ; coil on fork, making adjust- 
able spring ; high wheels ; easily operated by hand-lever. 

The Springfield Manufacturing Company, Springfield, Ohio, exhibit one Springfield 
Tedder. Light draft, and no weight on horse's back. The forks alone are tilted, 
which is done by a lever conveniently located to the driver. Each fork-spring or 
tine is made of crucible spring steel, and, being separate, each one can be removed 
or replaced without interfering with the tine on same fork. A sectional malleable 
iron cramp ; turned journals for both cramp and fork ; boxes for each crank ; 
each crank, journal or section can be replaced in case of accident by any means ; 
each wheel drives one-half the forks ; each gear has its relative labor to perform ;. 
wheels, 52 inches in diameter ; weight, 400 pounds. 

The Belcher d' Taylor Manufacturing Company, Chicopee Falls, iV/a.ss., exhibits one 
Bullard Improved Hay Tedder. This claims to be the oldest tedder on the market ; 
has a fork on the outside of each wheel, preventing their running over the spread 
grass. The points of merit of this machine are practically described in the fact 
that it has been in the field twenty-five years. 



182 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



FANNING MILLS. 

Lovett, Pettig & Co., Peru, Ind., exhibit their Peru fanning mill. Operates by 
•eompreesed air. Raises out all light material without blowing out the grain, 
deans and makes three perfect separations at the same time. End shake regu- 
lated by pitman. Enclosed screw box. Improved feed. Very select and durable 
in construction. 

Dickey & Pease, Manufacturers, Racine, Wis., exhibit a Young Giant fan mill, A 
superior cleaner and grader of grain and seed. Neat and small. Light and con- 
venient to handle. 

The Newark Machine Co., Newark, 0. A self bagger or sacker. The shoe is pro- 
vided with screens that have an independent motion, which keeps the sieves clean 
«nd thereby does superior cleaning. The shoe is provided with an elevated tail 
board, and also is pivoted at lower end, and can be adjusted while mill is in opera- 
tion. 

BINDER TRUCKP. 

The Franklin Binder Truck Manufactory, Franklin, Ind., exhibit one of their 
binder trucks. Ease of loading and cheapness are its chief merits. Adapted to 
farm wagons. Is carried on high wheels. 

E. Over, Indvma'polis, Ind., exhibits a binder truck of his own manufacture. 
Ease of loading is one of its principal features. The truck is placed together un- 
^ier the binder, thus avoiding lifting. No strain on binder over rough roads. 



POTATO DIGGERS. 

A. Speer & Co., Pittsburg, Pa., exhibited one potato digger. Operated by horse 
p«wer and has a spoke wheel. 

Soling Manufacturing Co., Sterling, III., exhibit a Sterling potato digger. Long 
«de bars steady the plow. It is claimed to be the standard successful potato digger 



GRAIN SACKERS. . 

Ashley Cooper, Mooresville, Ind., exhibited his Automatic grain sacker and 
lyeigher. It can be set to weigh any amount of any kind of grain. Sack fastens 
on square frame by means of spring. Two sacks are used, and the grain or seed 
is turned from one chute to the other instantly by means of a cut oflf, when the re- 
quired quantity is filled into the sack. The sack frame is adjustable, keeping the 
sack constantly well stretched. The desired weight is reckoned by a toggle joint, 
causing an instantaneous cut-off, thus making the device a self weigher. This 
machioe is neat, light, and portable. Can be easily attached to any separator. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 183 



ARTICLES NOT EXAMINED BY THE COMMITTEE. 

The following entries were made, but, in some instancep, after due diligence of 
your committee, the articles could not be discovered, while in others neither the 
articles nor exhibitors could be found, and consequently the exhibits were not ex- 
amined : 

J. H. Bookwalter & Co., Springfield, O., hay rake. 

Remington Agricultural Company, Hyon, N. Y., hay rake. 

A. G. Barton, Constantine, 111., hay rake. 

Upton Manufacturing Company, Battle Creek, Mich., separator. 

James Buchanan, Indianapolis, Ind., separator. 

Crawfordsville Stacker Company, Crawfordsville, Ind., thresher. 

Marcus Lane, Chicago, 111., fruit gatherer. 

Dorsey Machine Company, Milton, Ind., harvester and binder. 

Rude Bros. Manufacturing Company, Liberty, Ind., hay rake. 

Johnston Harvester Compaay, Chicago, 111., reapers. 

J. H Sciberling & Co., table rake and mower. 

O. H. Camion, Indianapolis, Ind., self-binder. 

Bradley & Co., Syracuse, N. Y., mower. 

Empire Drill Company, .Jackson, Mich., horse hay rake. 

J. M. Stoddard, Dayton, O., hay tedder and mower. 

Gregg & Co., Lawrenceburg, N. Y., mower. 

Springfield Engine Co., Springfield, Ohio, straw stacker. 

The Committee in Special Merit Department experienced some embarrassment 
and confusion in the prosecution of their work. This, in part, was occasioned by 
vague and incomplete entries. The committee would suggest that every article 
plactd on exhibition should have name and place of manufacture recorded in en- 
try book. Another source of confusion was in the neglect of exhibitors to place 
entry cards on their goods. If this rule was observed it would benefit both ex- 
hibitors and the examining committee. The committee desires to express its satis- 
faction and gratification, not only at the large number, but the great variety and 
superior quality of the exhibits in this department, and, also, at the very intelligentr 
prompt and courteous men who represent them. The patience aud kindness of the 
exhibitors of this department justly entitles them to the thanks of the committee- 

Respectfully submitted, 

Isaac G. Tomliksoh- 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE 



SPECIAL MERITS OF ARTICLES ENTERED IN BOOK G, 



ON WHICH 



NO PREMIUMS A^^ERE OFFERED. 



The Scientific Corn and Feed Mill, by Foos Manufacturing Company, Springfield, Ohio. 
This is a well gotten up mill for grinding corn, either with or without the cob, and 
other grains for feed. The grinding surfaces are a hard metal that wears a long 
time, and are self-sharpening by running them backwards ; and when worn out, 
are easily I'eplaced by new ones at little cost. In grinding, the grain is gradually 
reduced to the required fineness in passing through the mill, the heavier breaking 
being done near the shaft, where it has great leverage, and is finished at the outer 
edge by a sort of rubbing process that gives it a sort of soft floury feeling. The 
whole mill is iron, with the frame cast in one piece, furnishing three bearings to 
the shaft that can not get out of line. They are made of different sizes, with some 
special arrangements for diflferent kinds of work. 

Fodder Crusher, by Newark Machine Co., E. L. Williams, Agent, Indianapolis. This 
is an excellent power fodder cutter, that cuts the stalks and passes the cut material 
out between two toothed discs, that chaffs or breaks it up into a finer, softer and 
more edible condition, making a much better feed of it. It is well made, and does 
good work. 

Queen Bee Shelling and Grinding Machine, by Winchester & Partridge Manufactur- 
ing Company, Whitewater, Wis.; Howland & Johnson,. Agents, Indianapolis. This is a 
new combined shelling and grinding machine, that has a novel way of getting 
power to the sheller. The grinding part is worked by a lever, much after the old 
«tyle of feed-mills. The mill is prf)vided with changeable grinding surfaces, that 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. IBS' 

may be readily replaced when worn, and will grind about 100 bushels per day in. 
good shape. The sheller is placed on a platform on the sweep, close to the mill, 
and is driven by a wheel, like a mowing machine driver that rolls on the ground 
and supports the end of the lever, and has an internal gear-wheel cast on its arms; 
a pinion gears into this wheel, that is on the end of a shaft that reaches into the 
sheller and drives it by means of sprocket wheels and chain. It will shell from 20O 
to 300 bushels per day, and may be used independently of the grinding mill, or 
grinding may be done independently of sheller. One heavy or two ordinary horses 
are required to work it. 

Buckeye Feed-Mill and Corn-Sheller, by Canton. Car Company, Canton, Ohio ; How- 
land & Johnson, Agents, Indianapolis. This is a geared mill, running about 30O 
revolutions per minute, intended to be operated by two horses. It is very com- 
pactly arranged, with the master-wheel, to which the sweep is attached, around the 
mill. There is also an arrangement for connecting a tumbling-sJiaft for driving a 
corn-sheller, feed- cutter, wood-saw, or anything else, either while grinding or inde- 
pendently. The grinding-buhrs are easily and cheaply replaced when worn out, as 
they only cost $1.00 per set. It is an excellent mill, and is independently a good 
horse-power for any purpose. 

Geared Corn and Cob Sweep Grinder, by Stover Manufacturing Company, Freeport, 
III. This maybe used as corn and cob crusher, or as a grinder alone; and has 
some peculiarities worthy of note, the main one being, that while the sweep is at- 
tached to the ouler shell and revolves as the team goes around, the inner plate is 
made to revolve in the opposite direction at much higher speed. The frame or 
foundation of this mill is a three-armed casting, with a post in the center, on which 
a spur wheel revolves that carries the inner bnhr. At the proper distance from 
the center on each arm is a chilled stud that carries a pinion or intermediate 
wheel that transmits motion from the master wheel to the center wheel. These in- 
termediate wheels serve a useful purpose in dividing the wear and strain on the 
wheels and frame. Different grinding surfaces are used for grinding very fine. 

The All Right Self-Feed Cutter, Newark Machine Compaiiy, E. L. Williams, Agent,. 
Indianapolis. This is a good hand feed cutter that wil; cut corn tops or any kind 
of straw. The knife is attached to a lever, and the length to which the material is 
cut is regulated by the height the lever is raised, being connected to feed roller by 
ratchet. The iron against which the knife cuts is curved, instead of having square 
corners into which the straw can bunch. 

Feed and Fodder Cutting Boxes, Eagle Machine Company, Lancaster, 0. This is a 
rotary cutter machine intended only for hand power. It has good self-feeding ar- 
rangements, and will probably give good satisfaction to those using it. It is well 
made, of three sizes, and sold at popular prices. 

Stalk Cutter, by Deer & Man^ur Comjxmy, Moline, III. This is a machine for cut- 
ting corn stalks into such lengths in the field, preparatory to plowing, that they 
will not materially interfere with the after cultivation of the crop. This is an im- 



186 BOARD eF AGRICULTURE. 

proved machine for the purpose, and is so arranged that the weight on the knives 
is easily adjusted, giving all, or any part of the weight of the driver and machine 
on the knives as may be required. The head is operated by springs, which gives 
an effective chopping blow of the knives. 

Ten Broeck Corn Shelter, by Hcmland & Johnson, Indianapolis. This is a very good 
«heller of the ordinary make and style, without any special novelty. 

Buckeye Corn Sheller, by Rowland & Johnson, Indianapolis. This sheller is in- 
tended to be run by power, and is geared with reference to being run by the Buck- 
eye mill power. It has a fan and a cob carrier, and will shell 500 bushels per day 
if properly attended to. It is a good one. 

Triumph Feed Steamer, by Rice, Whiteacre & Co., Chicago, III. This is a well de- 
signed apparatus for generating steam in an economical manner for cooking feed 
for stock, or other purpose, where it is used under low pressure. It is a vertical 
boiler with a cast-iron base and dome, and has a row of water tubes around the 
outside of fire space which connect a hollow cast base-ring around the fire, with the 
dome above. The water is supplied from a barrel, or other reservoir, a little ele- 
vated, having a pipe near the bottom connecting it with the water space in the 
boiler. A pipe also connects the dome of boiler with upper part of barrel, giving 
a. pressure of steam on the surface of the water in the barrel equal to the resist- 
ance, which allows it to flow as freely as though there was no steam. The supply 
of water is automatically regulated by a float, connected to a lever that opens or 
closes a valve as required to keep the proper supply. Any kind of fuel may be 
used. 

Feed Cutters, by Belcher & Taylor, Agricultural Tool Co., Chicopee Falls, Mass. This 
company make three entries of feed cutters, which they exhibit and which are all 
well made of the best material, and adapted to the wants of all classes of feeders, 
whether for a few animals or a large number, requiring a power cutter. 

First. The Self Sharpener. This is a heavy machine with knives on a cylin- 
der, made for either hand or power, which, it is claimed, will do nearly double the 
work that most other machines will, and that it is easier sharpened than any other. 
They are made of sizes requiring considerable power, that cut from one to two 
tons per hour, and are used in large stables and paper mills. 

Also, the Lion cutter. This is a machine with two knives attached to a revolv- 
ing frame, making a shear cut against an adjustable hardened bed piece, and will 
cut different lengths. All the working parts are secured in iron sides fastened to 
the frame, which is strengthened by them. All the working parts are securely 
covered to guard against accidents. They are made for both hand and power use. 

Also, the New York cutter. This is a lever machine, with either a straight or 
curved knife, as desired, and gauge plate. It is made of difierent sizes, and is a 
good, well-made, low-priced cutter. 

Dick's Feed Cutters, by Meal & Bradley, Indianapolis. Four of these machines are 
entered and they have some novelties not found in any other. They are intended to 
cat all kinds of feed, from corn stalks with the ear on to fine hay. Two straight 



SPECIAL MERITS OP EXHIBITS. 18T 

knives are used that are attached to the fly-wheel, which runs across the front of 
the machine. There is also an attachment called a splitter placed just before eadi 
knife, which is intended to split and divide the stalks and ears into small pieces as 
they are cut. This splitter consists of a plate on which are two rows of steel 
blades alternating each other, and are set on circles concentric with the wfecel^ 
which split, cut or crush into small pieces corn stalks and ears, or other coarse 
material, but are not needed in cutting hay or straw. It can be adjusted to cat 
from } to 2\ inches in length, and is made of different sizes for use by hand or 
power, or two cranks may be attached to a light power machine for two persons to 
work at. All the working parts are securely covered to prevent accidents.. 

Rein or Check Line Holder, by O. M. Custer, Terre Haute, Ind. This is a Teiy 
simple, cheap and «fficient contrivance for holding check lines, halttr straps, or 
any similar purpose. It consists of two jaws jointed to a plate, in such way that 
they approach each other if moved in one direction, and separate if moved in the 
opposite. The jaws are so rounded as not to injure the material held. It is very 
readily attached to a wagon box, or where needed. The harder the line ia palled 
the tighter it is held ; and is released by simply pulling back. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John M. Sbward^ 

Commi^M^ 



I^EFOI^T OF THE C03VC3VEITXEE 



Special Merits of Unpremiumed Articles, 



ElsTTEIiEID in>3- BOOK! H, 



AND EXHIBITED AT THE 



INDIANA STATE FAIR, SEPTEMBER, 1884. 



WIND ENGINES. 

Flint, Walling & Co., KendaUville, Ind., exhibited the Star Wind Engine. The 
-wheel is known as the solid or rosette pattern, and is strongly braced in front by 
heavy iron braces connected to the arias and to an extension of the main shaft. 
The rims in which the wheel slats are fitted are so interlocked and bolted to the 
arms that they form one continuous rim. The boxes are lined with babbit metal, 
and have self-oiling cups protected by caps. It also has an automatic friction 
brake, that holds the mill still when not at work. It is so nicely balanced that it 
will be run by a very light wind. 

Meal & Bradley, 79 West Washington street, Indianapolis, Ind., exhibit two wind 
engines manufactured by the Iron Monitor Wind Engine Manufacturing Company, 
of Troy, Ohio. These mills are made entirely of iron, and are so constructed that 
the fans open or close to regulate the power or stop the motion of the wheel. They 
are well made and perfectly balanced. 

The American Well Works, Aurora, III., have on exhibition a wind engine, 
hydraulic jetting tool, and a power earth-augur. The wind engine has an adjusta- 
ble stroke that can be lengthened or shortened at will. It has a wrought iron mast 
and side vane. The jetting tool is operated by hydraulic pressure, and in boring 
or drilling a well a greater diameter can be given than the pipe through which it 
operates. The earth-boring augur is very simple and of great capacity. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 189 

The Kirkwood Iron Wind Engine, of Elliott City, Md., on exhibition, has more 
than ordinary wind surface, and, being made entirely of iron, is very strong and 
durable. 

Mast, Foos & Co., Springfield, Ohio, exhibit an iron turbine wheel of very great 
power, differing in construction from all others, and has many points of excellence. 

FABM GATES. 

D. B. Matlock, San Francisco, California, exhibited tlie California Farm Gate, 
patented March 4, 1884, and has many new and novel features. It operates 
vertically, like a window, having weights to counterbalance the Aveight of the gate. 
The gate is raised by the -driver pulling a cord as the team approaches, and is 
latched at two heights — one for ordinary loads, the other for high loads. After the 
team passes through, the gate is unlatched by another cord, and descends gently 
until closed. It is a dur.-jbie, practical gate, easily operated, not affected by snow, 
and is as readily opened by a man on a load of hay as on the ground. The gate 
exhibited was a full-sized farm gate, its practical utility being demonstrated by a 
horse and vehicle driven back and forth through it without halting while the driver 
opened and closed the gate. 

Old/ather & Giandstaff, of Bunker Hill, Ind., exhibit a simple, practical automatic 
gate, very light, and well braced. The gate is made in two sections, opening up- 
ward and backward to either side, by means of rods above ground connected to a 
trip that is sprung when brought in contact with the wheel of a vehicle. This is a 
cheap, serviceable gate, not complicated or liable to get out of order. 

G. M. Custer, Terre Haute, Ind., exhibits a farm gate, very simple and practical. 
It runs on rollers, and is easily opened or closed. 



IRON, WIRE AND PORTABLE FENCES. 

C. I). Shellabarger, Indianapolis, exhibited a machine for making fence of wire 
and wooden slats, and a sample of the fence. The fence is cheap, and has the ap- 
pearance of being serviceable. To attempt a description of the working of the 
■machine would require more space than can be allotted to it in this report. 

Cleveland & Darnell, Indianapolis, exhibited an iron post and barbed wire farm 
fence and grape trellis. This is a cheap, durable fence, very serviceable as to turn- 
ing stock of all kinds, and is quite ornamental. 

Meal tfc Bradley, Indianapolis, exhibited an iron fence manufactured by the 
Champion Iron Fence Company, of Canton, O , that is a very handsome, strong 
and durable fence. Posts are made of four T shaped bars arranged around a cen- 
tral rod. It has a T shaped rail to which the pickets are fastened by malleable 
iron clamps, rendering it thereby easily adjusted to any angle of ground. 



190 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Nelson Faught and B. Miles, of Pittsborough, Ind., exhibited a portable fence of 
wire and wood combined. This fence is built of timber locked together with wire, 
the ends of the timbers placed upon tiles to secure it from dampness, and firmly 
anchored to the ground by a patent anchor. It is a very cheap, serviceable fence. 
They build it in three styles. 

Kiler & King, 14 Virginia Avenue, Indianapolis, Agents for Hanika Iron Fence 
Company, of Spring field , 0., made a very handsome exhibit of plain and ornamental 
iron fence in a great variety of styles. All their fences are so put together as to 
allow for expansion and contraction, a very essential feature in an iron fence. 
The picket is attached to the rail by means of a locking plate, which gives addi- 
tional strength to the rail. 

The Morris Combination Fence Company, 57^ West Washington Street, Indianapolis, 
exhibited a hand machine for making wire and picket fence. The machine work* 
easily and rapidly, and the fence, when made, is light and durable. 

F. Bruneman, Indianapolis, exhibited a good farm or garden fence of picket* 
fastened together with plaited wire. 

E. Over, Indianapolis, exhibited an angle iron fence post that is calculated to 
work a revolution in fence posts. This is a substantial iron post easily driven into 
the ground, and is comparatively inexpensive. v \ 

He also had on exhibition a woven wire gate and iron gate hinge. The gate is 
made of wire woven together in open lattice work, making it cheap, light and orna- 
mental. The hinge is a very simple, cheap iron hinge with rollers. 

Thomas Huston, of Kokomo, Ind., exhibited a fence made of rails fastened to- 
gether with wire. A very serviceable cheap fence, well adapted for turning stocks 

E. Over, Indianapolis, exhibited two post-hole diggers of different patterns. 
Either of them are practical and simple in their operation. 

Cole & Fleming, of Springfield, 0., exhibited a speedy post-hole digger, diflering 
from others in the manner in which it is forced into the ground, being driven in 
by a driving attachment. The dirt is easily and readily discharged. 



CORN STALK CUTTERS. 

David Bradley Manufacturing Co., Indianapolis, exhibit a corn stalk cutter in two 
sizes, for cutting either one or two rows. This cutter has straight knives, high 
wheels, and so arranged as to be easily weighted for wet stalks. 

Geo. W. Brown & Co., Oalesburg, III, exhibited a stalk cutter with wrought iron 
frame. The knife arms are fastened to an iron shaft which revolves in wooden 
rollers that move in circular grooves, thereby allowing the knives to adapt them- 
selves readily to any irregularity in the surface of the ground. 



SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 191 

Avery Planter Company, Peoria, III., exhibit a spiral knife stalk cutter. These 
knives are spiral in form, and run diagonally across and around the cylinder, and 
are so arranged that one or more knives are constantly on the ground, relieving 
the cylinder from any jar or concussion in its revolutions. 

CIDEB MILLS AND PRESSES. 

The Superior Drill Company, of Springfield, 0., exhibited three sizes of hand 
cider mills and presses. These mills and presses are very strongly made. The 
mills have adjustable throat and grinding rollers. The presses are made with iron 
beams and screws. Two tubs and a strainer board are furnished with each press. 

P. P. Mast & Co., Springfield, 0., have two sizes hand cider mills and presses. 
These mills and presses are very similar to the ones exhibited by the Superior 
Drill Company, of the same city. They are well made and of great strength. 

E. Over, Indianapolis, had on exhibition a cider press on a larger scale than 
either of the others and of much greater capacity. It had the appearance of be- 
ing a practical press and easily operated. In connection with it he exhibited a mill 
for either hand or horse power that was a rapid grinder. 

The same party exhibited a stump puller of his own manufacture. It is sim- 
ple, cheap, readily moved on the ground, easily worked and of immense power. 

Also, a set of bob runners, very substantial and well calculated for bearing 
heavy loads. 



In the line of spring, farm and log wagons, the display was very large, and they 
were so uniformly well made and well finished that to attempt to draw comparison 
upon the part of your committee would seem to be out of place. Yet each ex- 
hibitor claimed and each article possessed some distinctive feature peculiarly its 
own. 

Meal & Bradley, Indianapolii, exhibited quite a variety of wagons manufactured 
by the Winona Wagon Company, of Winona, Minn. The distinctive features of 
these wagons are a self-oiling seamless skein, so shaped, it is claimed, that they 
are entirely relieved of side draft in the wheels. 

G. Shaver, 172 a7id 174 East Washington street, Indianapolis, displayed a dandy 
wagon, log wagon and two farm wagons, that, in material, workmanship and style 
of finish, were worthy of consideration. 

Nelson Fuught and B. Miles, of Pittsborough, Ind., exhibited a 2-horse wagon, made 
by Helfrich &. Danley, Indianapolis, with a patent bolster, which allows of the 
standards being easily and speedily removed and the bed taken to pieces. This is 
a novel arrangement, and appears practical. 



192 BOAKD OF AGRICULTURE. 

• David Bradley Manufacturing Company, Indianapolis, made a very creditable dis- 
play of farm, spring and delivery wagons. The farm wagons were supplied witb 
self-oiling cups and extra binding rods to the beds. Their platform, spring or de- 
livery wagon was a very meritorious one, solid, and substantially made. The fel- 
loes were riveted between the spokes, the ribs were cut out of solid board, ironed on. 
both sides with iron corners. All their wagons were well made and well finished. 

Cherry, Morrow & Co., Nashville, Tenn., exhibited three farm wagons that were- 
well made, well finished, with either iron or steel skeins. 

The Studehaher Brothers, of South Bend, Ind., occupied a prominent place, and 
made much the finest displayof wagons on the fair grounds. Their exhibit con- 
sisted of several styles of farm wagons, spring wagons and side-bar buggies. !» 
addition to several styles of wagons finished in the same manner as those regularly- 
turned out of their shops for the trade, they had on exhibition several wagons- 
made and finished purposely for exhibition at the fair, that were artistic speci- 
mens, and did honor to the enterprise of the firm, and were a credit to the skill ot 
their workmen. 

CORN SHELLERS. 

The Eagle Machine Company, TMncaster, Ohio, exhibited a hand or power sheller,, 
that runs light, shells rapidly, and cleans and separates perfectly. 

Gere, Truman, Piatt & Co., New Yorl-, exhibited a very meritorious hand sheller 
runs light, se-jt.«.rates and cleans well. 



ROAD SCRAPERS AND ROAD MACHINERY. 

David Bradley Manufacturing Company, Indianapolis. A thirty-four-inch steeK 
bottom scraper, wood sides and end. A good cheap scraper. 

E. Over, Indianapolis, exhibited ."several different patterns of road scrapers, his- 
object being to meet the demands of the trade both in quality and price. Among 
them was noticed a wheel-dump scraper, that is an excellent machine, easily 
handled and very speedy; the Slusser steel back, wood end scraper, with runners;, 
the Columbus scraper, all steel, without cut or seam — a very desirable scraper; the 
Empire, C and Haslet are good, low priced scrapers ; McLane's scraper is steel and 
wood combined, well braced with rods, making it very strong ; the Victor dump is 
a solid, cheap one-horse scraper. He also exhibits a surface grader that is an ex- 
cellent implement, and very convenient to farmers. 

R. E. Burk, Anderson, Ind., showed a four-wheel road machine, with wrought 
iron axles and steel skeins. The machine is readily adjusted by levers to any 
angle, and is easily dumped. Can not slide sideways. A very meritorious- 
machine. 



\ SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 193 

\ 

me Fleming Manufacturing Company, Fort Wayne, Ind., exhibit the Boss road 
grader and leveler. This is a two-wheel machine, easily handled when at work, 
simplAin construction and direct draft, the tongue being attached to the knife or 
scraper^ An excellent machine. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

J. W. Buchanan, Indianapolis, had on exhibition a very fine looking coal cart. 
It had the appearance of being able to bear an immense load. 

L. D. J^ilsback, Indianapolis, exhibited a double-acting stone force pump, a 
simple, powerful pump, anti-friction stone cylinder, and so constructed that the 
valves may be easily and readily taken out. 

The Indianapolis Pump Company, Indianapolis, exhibit a double-acting pump, 
with rods inside secured from damage by binding or kinking. A good, durable 
pump. 

G. W. Hutton, Indianapolis, exhibited a safety wagon-tip tongue attachment, the 
invention of a lady. This is an iron tip to be placed on the end of wagon tongues, 
with a very simple and ingenious device for locking the neck yoke securely, so that 
it can not possibly slip ofi". It is inexpensive and practical. 

The McCoy Manufacturing Company, Indianapolis, displayed a great variety of 
doubletrees and singletrees. The pecular merit of the.se consist in the clips, which 
are put on the wood cold. Each clip has two spurs, and are attached by a bolt, 
forcing the spurs into the wood, preventing them from slipping or getting loose. 

E. Over, Indianapolis, exhibited a lot of bolster springs. They are substantial 
steel springs, the center resting on the bolster, the ends outward and upward, 
springing the load from the center, whereby they claim the wheels will pass over 
obstructions with greater ease and less jar. 

Whitman Agricultural Company, St. Louis, Mo., exhibit a horse-power hay-yress. 
This is a rebounding plunger press, with steel shafts and bearings, continuous in 
its operation, and very powerful. 

John Fennimore, Orleans, Ind., shows a hay-press that is very simjjle and power- 
ful. One end of the press is filled while the other is being pressed, making it a 
rapid baler. 

M. Henley & Co., Monrovia, Ind., exhibit four nest-boxes. A simple, ingenious 
arrangement, whereby the hen shuts herself in .secure from intruders. They are 
boxes, slatted at the sides for ventilation, with the door attached to the nest, which 
rests upon a spring, so that when the hen takes her position upon the nest her 
weight closes the door. The moment she steps off the nest the door opens, and she 
is at liberty. 

1 3 — Agriculture. 



194 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Monitor Works, Beloit, Wk., exhibited a sample of what they term " Earm- 
less Barb Wire." It is made of two wires, with a revolving spur between tiem at 
regular intervals, instead of the fixed barb, that pricks an animal coming n con- 
tact with it, and rolls without tearing. It is doubtless what it purports :o be, a 
punisher of unruly stock, but does not injure. 

0. W. Bartlow, Omega, Inch, exhibits a combined wheel-trestle and tire-croler. A 
very simple, practical machine for blacksmiths. 

Numerous articles entered in this book I could not find after the most diligent 
search. Many of them were evidently not on the ground, while others may have 
been, and were overlooked. If such was the case, I can but express my regret that 
I failed to discover them. If exhibitors or Superintendents of Departments would 
report to the Entry Clerk as soon as they have their goods in position their exact 
locality, and have it noted on the books, it would materially aid the committees 
and lessen their labors. 

This report is not as comprehensive as it should be, or as I would be glad to 
make it had I fully comprehended what was desired until too late to remedy the 
defect. Many of the articles merited a more elaborate description than I am able 
to give from the meager notes taken at the time. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Giles W. Smith. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE 

\ 

ON 

SPECIAL MERITS OF ARTICLES ENTERED IN BOOK I, 

AND EXHIBITED AT THE 

XlSTTDXJ^l^A. ST.A.TE F.A.11^ FOI?, 1884, 

On Which no Premiums were Offered. 



Aurora Tafel Beer, by August Erhrich, Indianapolis. This was a large and hand- 
some display of bottled beer, in which the bottles were artistically built in the form 
of a pyramid, surmounted with a mammoth boot, represented as overflowing with 
the beverage. This beer is represented as being made on correct principles, and as 
being pure and healthful. 

Challenge Fire Extinguisher, by Marcus Lane, Chicago. This is a fluid, put up in 
cylindrical-shaped bottles, that when thrown, or got onto a fire in any way, in- 
stantly extinguishes it with the gas generated or set free, which excludes or dis- 
places the atmospheres from which oxygen is obtained to support combustion, and 
the fire dies out instantly, as it can not burn a moment without oxygen to support 
it. This fluid does not injure either flesh or fabric when applied to them ; does not 
deteriorate with age, and is not injured by any temperature above 25 degrees below 
zero. The utility of keeping at hand such means of extinguishing incipient fires is 
too apparent to need ai-gument. 

Lightning Cleansing Compound, by A. M. Tyler, Sturges, Mich., Thomas K. Bar- 
rett, Agent, Indianapolis. This is a preparation of Quilya bark, and is a superior 
article for removing dirt, grease, pitch, paint, etc., from fabrics of any kind, or 
from kid gloves or similar material, without injuring them or leaving a dirty ring 
around the spot cleansed. It is easily applied and Batisfactory in its eflfeot. 



196 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

T!ie Lilly Cleaner, by J. L. Olark, Indianapolis. This is claimed to be a verv supe- 
rior article for removing tar, grease, paint, oil or pitch from any kind of cloth, 
perfectly, and without injury to the goods. It is easily applied, and by its use 
articles may often be made presentable that would be otherwise thrown aside in 
consequence of accidents to them. 

Physician's Office Chair, J. H. Clark c£- Co., Indianapolis. This chair has arrange- 
ments for all adjustments that may be required in a reclining chair, and may be 
adjusted at any angle with the patient on it. It is a superior opefating chair, with 
all Nthe advantages of more expensive and complicated chairs, and is the most 
simple, solid and durable of any. 

Book Binding and Stationery, by W. B. Burford, Indianapolis. This is a large and 
handsome display of books in the best styles of bindings, comprising all forms of 
blank books in use, which were tastefully arranged for display. 

Chicago Shoe Store, bij G. L. W. Mack, Proprietor, Indianapolis. Th's was a very 
fine display of goods in this line, comprising the best makes of English and French 
manufacture, as well as a full line of American goods from the best manufacturers, 
in all styles, from the most stylish to the more common for ladies' wear, and from 
a jockey boot, weighing only nine ounces, to the more substantial for men's use. 
This exhibit was notable for the taste displayed in its arrangement, which made it 
a conspicuous and attractive feature of the second floor. 

Orchesfrone, by Lander & Davis, Agents, Indianapolis. This is a musical instru- 
ment which, in general appearance and tone, is much like a reed organ, and re- 
quires a paper web, properly perforated, to produce the music required. No train- 
ing or skill is required to play it. It is gotten up in a style to make it an orna- 
ment to the parlor, or wherever it may be desired to use it. 

Musical Inslruments, by Emil Widschner, Indianapolis. This exhibit consisted of 
three pianos, one organ, and a set of band instruments, which were all of the best 
makes and of superior quality, both in tone and finish. 

Boyal St. John Seving Machine, by E. E. Broim, Agent, Indianapolis. This is one 
of the many good machines claiming to be superior to all others, which has points 
of excellence that make it worthy of careful examination by those wanting a sew- 
ing machine. It is claimed that it does its work perfectly, is easily managed, runs 
light and without noise, and is simple and durable in construction. 

Eldridge Sewing Machine, by W. H. Iddings, Agent, Indianapolis. This appears 
to be an excellent machine, and has some peculiarities not found in others. The 
fly-wheel runs as a loose pulley, if turned backwards, making it impossible to run 
the machine backwards, but is used that way to wind bobbins. It has, also, a self- 
threading tension, and keeps an even pressure all the time with uneven thread. It 
has, also, an adjustable automatic take-up, which is easily regulated for the light- 
est or heaviest work. In threading, the eye of the needle is the only hole to pass 
the thread through. The driving-wheel axle is hung on adjustable centers, and has 
an inside crank. The machine is well made in all respects. 



\ SPECIAL MERITS OF EXHIBITS. 197 

iVeit; Home Sewing Machine, by A. F. Singer, Indianapolis. This seems to be a first 
class machine, and is claimed to possess many points of superiority. Among these 
are, that it runs lighter, has fewer working parts, and being more simple, is easier 
managed by inexperienced persons. It has large space under the arm, giving good 
room for any kind of work, and has a spring tension shuttle that has only one hole 
to thread through, and the tension can be changed without removing the shuttle ; 
that the feed works perfectly with heavy or light goods, and keeps the same length 
of stitch in crossing seams. Has automatic tension that accommodates itself to 
any size of thread, which, when once adjusted, will seldom need attention. The 
workmanship in its manufacture is superior. 

Clothing and Menh Furnishings, by When Clothing Store, Indiana-polls, Ind. This 
was a large and handsomely arranged display of men's, youths', boys' and 
children's clothing and furnishing goods, of all styles and grades of goods, from 
the finest and more fashionable worn by the wealthy, to the plainer and cheaper, 
adapted to the wants and means of those in humbler circumstances. They manu- 
facture their own clothing, and retail it at their store at the same price they sell to 
dealers at wholesale, giving the purchaser of a suit or single garment the retailer's 
usual profit. 

Clothing and 3Ien's Furnishings, by Model Clothing House, Indianapolis, Ind. This 
was a very large and tastefully arranged exhibit of everything in the clothing 
line adapted to the wants and circumstances of persons in any position in life or 
society, from the extra fine, not generally kept by retail clothiers and only pur- 
chased by the wealthy, down in every grade to a suit that is sold for only a dollar 
and a half. These goods were so arranged as to show their qualities to the best 
advantage, and attracted marked attention from visitors. 

Men's Furnishings, by B. R. Parker, Indianapolis. This exhibit consisted of a 
number of men's shirts, made in the best style and of the best material, without 
other special feature to distinguish them than their superior quality and low price. 

Oriental Shirt, by Palace Shirt Store, Indianapolis. This is a new style of shirt 
thai is neither open at front or back. It is well made, being reinforced where 
needed ; is made of good material, and is much more comfortable than the open 
back, as it thoroughly protects the body from the sun. 

Respectfully submitted, 

.John M. Seward, 

Committee. 



ItEFOmO? Ol^ 



Special Merits of Articles Entered in Book K, 



AND EXHIBITED AT THE 



INDIANA STATE FAIR FOR 1884, 



On Which no Prenniums were Offered. 



W. B. Burford, Indianapolis, Ind., made a large exhibition in general lithography^ 
Bhowing many of the various styles of work to which this art is specially applica- 
ble. There seems to be no limit to the possibilities of lithography as a means of 
producing at a minimum of cost, pictures and other works of art, of the very high- 
est degree of merit. The work produced by Mr. Burford is second to none in 
quality, and well deserves the highest commendation. 

Bryant's Business College, Indianapolis, Ind„ made a large and varied exhibition- 
of penmanship, consisting of pen pictures, general penmanship, etc. Specimens of 
rapid writing by a student, Mr. E. J. Heeb, were very fine, and a collection of pen- 
manship by Messrs. Bryant, Hamilton and Heeb, was of very great excellence, 
•howing to what degree of perfection it is possible to attain by system and practice^ 

G. W. HUl & Co., Indianapolis, Ind., made an exhibition of emblems, showing^ 
much skill and taste. This firm is largely engaged in making emblems, regalia, 
etc., for all the various societies having use for such things. It is an old and well 
established firm, and their work must commend them to all interested in the use of 
such goods. 

Drawings from Public Schools. A large exhibition of drawings made by the pu- 
pils of the Indianapolis Public Schools, was very fine, and was an attractive feature 
of the fair. Much of this work, while done by amateurs, showed the skill and 
taste of experts. The latent talent thus brought out in school children, will, ia 
the end, result in producing artists of the highest order. 



SPECIAL MERITS OP EXHIBITS. 



199 



The love for pictures is a part of the nature of every one, and those capable of 
making them have always been held in the highest esteem in all ages of the world's 
history, so that a field for distinction is here open to every one, and judging by the 
specimens on exhibition not a few of those making these works of art, may attain 
an enviable distinction at no distant day. 

Purdue University, at Lafayette, Indiana, made a very creditable exhibition, 
and, as the Agricultural College of the State, was appropriately represented by the 
work of the students, in shop productions and industrial designs, which attracted 
much attention. The management should be proud of the high rank this Institu- 
tion has attained, and the ajrricultural community can not too highly appreciate 
the great advantages there offered to so educate and assist the farmer in reducing 
agriculture to a science. 




COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 



REPOKT OF STATE CHEMIST. 



Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind., Feb. 7, 1885, 

Alex. Heron, Secretary State Board Agriculture : 

Dear Sir — Forty-six samples of fertilizers sent by manufacturers were analyzed 
in 1884, as required by law. The percentages "of soluble and reverted phosphoric 
acid" have been separately reported (as by my predecessor), although this involves 
one more determination for each analysis than the law prescribes. The greater 
part of the analytical work was carefully performed by W. H. Peters, A. G., Assist- 
ant Chemist. 

In computing the valuation of fertilizers, a lower estimate is given for some 
ingredients than in former years. In accordance with mean values estimated by 
State chemists of several of the Middle and Eastern States for the year 1884, 1 have 
allowed 

10 cents per pound for soluble phosphoric acid. 
9 cents per pound for reverted phosphoric acid. 

5 cents per pouud for insoluble phosphoric acid. 
15 cents per pound for ammonia. 

6 cents per pound for potash. 

The retail selling prices of the fertilizers analyzed are not reported to this office ; 
the values above are taken from the most reliable data at hand, but they may not 
accord with market rates in this State. 

Great caution should be used by those who contemplate purchasing, in regard to 
the column of "Estimated Values per Ton," as printed in the following table. It will 
be observed that every pound of soluble phosphoric acid is rated at twice the value 
of insoluble phosphoric acid. The benefits of the latter, in the form of ordinary 
ground bone, are well known. Superphosphate (bone or phosphatic rock, made 
soluble by sulphuric acid) is more expensive, will yield quicker returns, and is 
properly considered more valuable ; but, on the other hand, it is more liable to in- 
jure the crops when applied in excess, while it is also more likely to wash out of 
the soil and be lost, in case of excessive rains. The " Estimated Values " are be- 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 201 

lieved to represent the average cost of fertilizers like the samples analyzed, when 
supplied at retail in commercial centers ; but a sensible man will neither live en- 
tirely on corn-bread because it is cheap, nor on venison because it commands a 
high market value. So, in selecting a fertilizer, the farmer should observe what 
brands supply the soluble (quick-acting) or insoluble (slow-acting) phosphoric 
acid in requisite amounts, with any desired proportions of potash and ammonia. 
^' Ee verted " phosphoric acid is intermediate in properties between the ''soluble " 
and " insoluble." The "potash" reported is soluble in water, and therefore avail- 
able as plant food. "Ammonia " includes the total nitrogen from whatever source. 
Fragments of hoof, hair and even leather scraps yield ammonia when ignited with 
soda-lime in the process of analysis, but these resist decomposition in the soil a 
long time, and therefore are of less actual value to the farmer than ammonium 
salts, nitrate of soda, dried blood, fish scrap and similar materials. The ammonia 
(or nitrogen) of a commercial fertilizer, if drawn from the standard sources, is the 
most expensive ingredient, and purchasers should not waste this by applying it in 
large quantities to fields that still have a fair amount of organic matter. 

A careful study of the analytical table ivill show the character of the samples sent to this 
office. Numbers 103-105 were inadvertantly published last year, with the percent- 
age of fertilizing constituents calculated to the dried substance. The figures given 
below represent the actual percentages in the samples, as received at this office. 
Of course these will vary with any changes in the amount of hygroscopic moisture. 




202 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 






aiqniog qsB:joj 
JO -^aao i8<i 



•Biaorainv 

JO -laao ja<j 



•pi»V oi-ioqd 
-soq'<j a[qnios 



•pioy oijoqd 
-soq<i pa^JSA 
-ay^jo-^uaoaaj 



•pioy 
Dijoqdsoqd aiq 
-riiogjo-^u90J8£ 



JO -^uao aaj 



SSS^S gS^gg SSSSS gS?S5§? 

C<IO^CvlCC« (M(Mi-<<M(M IMcSmcOCM <MC<aMCC0i3 



ss^^s sss;2s ^^58s; ^.ssss. 



coinocq-H TOc<3cNc<ia5 i-a r-( oo eo rH u;C5i:-c-.< 



Ot-r-iOOM tC3>XlT»-00 COO — «0?« t03:iOiO«> 

oo?^,iocc ccoi;^co ato-j;t-;'-H (Nt-^o-'-a; 
*r-J e4i-H e4 r-i i-H ei e*i ei 'caeoco oo-«j<m^'co 



g§S38 5?22SS 8S?8S^ SSSSS 



) ^ t- .-( icin o 



i<uooio mtooooo i-95-ricoo ^or:cao 



Odo'sla 






c c c 



.^.= .5 ria it 60 M bc^ 

6 a ~ ^ i.t^'CS'-P 

Or- r"^ = o o o o o >- 

''I^-S o (- a e c: r^ 






•"=5 = 2 c 






2~s=a 




COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 



■oeJc^oOM c5oioc^irH c^ScoS oioioos Scot-co OOJMO 

ssfass? g?§s??^ ss??;? ??^s§ g;?sg ?;?&«s 



SSSS8 SSSSS 8S8S SS8S SS8S 8888 



t-OOOOoO 



S^ ^:?§2« SSSq? 5SSS3S S8S^ SS2S 

T^ -^ CO!»C^*^CO ^**C^»OCO ^COC0»C COCOr-IC^ "^ N CC CC 



00N<X><M»-1 OOOi--^ lOtONO CC-^C^CC CO(Mt^lO T—-*ir5'^ 

OcocCOTO 0cqO3J->r OOJO^O cqCTi-^us Oc35co^ oaqocj 
asccttJOQo ai-*':ooii-5 -*coooi.o c^t-odt-i coo6t-^t-^ oooooi-i 



tr-i-cc^COM CDUI-^0<0 OOOJOOOO OOiOOiO tCiSQO (MOOr-- 

-<j;cooqOi/5 !>; i?5 .-< c^ 02 oioic^iq (NOJtqcq cq->3;Oc<i '*oq«3C 

cieilM'eO'M r-icOCOCOr-i ci c4cO 'c^c4rH COtMOOcJ NCOiO 



S8SSS SSSSS 8$8S E^SS:S ^888 SSSS 



co^Ht— I,— 100 <X>t--ooooo ^hcooOt— t ceo:) 'OS coirrco O u^oo 

1F-:^IC00 03 1-; 00 MOO 00 OOOt~;M t-_n .OO .MC<t.-j r-J .OS'j; 

I-H.-4 ^)o6t-^ oJoJoiovod oioodo -*q6 o ojodoi oo oJoo' 



o c o o o 

to !* St J i^ 

'S'E'2 =• • 

S fe S: ^ -• 



IipS 



S 'S = eS cs © r '=^ 

=3S;5M2i P2 > c £ ■ ■■ • - o 
cc-^\5^^ woo;;) cCphmPh 



oo-'-' 






.rfc!l 



, --0 

r ratu 



S o'S— ■ 

lis 

. - R 5 • 

= i; . o 
P^o^tf 



:^ ■ S 






r-2 a. ^ 









c5« 



S: 3 c fe S; te o 
So s o o c: a ± = 33 gos-S 



f^»S2 
Kpa ^ 

^'* llii 

<:25ofc< 









3?;«;??? g?^^?§ £;?g^§ q!^^^ S^^S 



204 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Every law is inoperative unless there is some power to enforce it. Whatever 
good our present fertilizer law may have accomplished, it needs revision. Samples 
of fertilizers for analysis are taken by the manufacturers only, and there is no pro- 
vision for official inspection. This requires salaried officers; and to meet the ex- 
pense of fully protecting the consumers, some of the States assess a tax of fifty cents 
per ton on the fertilizers sold. The fees paid by manufacturers in Indiana are 
rather more than ten cents per ton. Our present law should be amended — 

1. To provide for inspection of fertilizers sold ; 

2. To provide for the analysis of a reasonable number of samples furnished 
by farmers ; 

3. To meet the extra expense thus incurred ; and 

4. To conform with such plan of analysis as may be generally adopted in other 
States. 

The primary object of the fertilizer law is to protect the farmer by infoi'ming 
him of the character and value of the goods purchased ; but with no system of 
official inspection, the published results may be very misleading. There is no real 
guarantee that the fertilizers sold conform in composition to the samples analyzed. 

The records for the past year affiard a means of estimating the total quantity of 
commercial fertilizers sold in the State. It will be of interest to compare this 
amount with the annual requirements of the farm ; we may thereby gather some 
profitable lessons for the future. The most costly constituents removed from the 
soil by farming are phosphoric acid, potash, and nitrogen. The latter may be 
obtained indirectly from the atmosphere; but every pound of potash or phosphoric 
acid taken from the soil leaves it permanently just so much poorer, unless an equal 
weight of the same is returned. 

The amounts of phosphoric acid and potash that may be supplied to farmers is 
estimated as follows: The law requires that a label from this office shall be placed 
upon every package of commercial fertilizer offered for sale in the State. Sixty- 
nine thousand such labels were issued during the year ending Sept. 30, 1884. The 
sacks used hold either 100 or 200 pounds each. If, then, we assume that each label 
is attached to a 200-pound package, ten labels would be required for each ton, and 
the tags issued represent 6,900 tons of the various fertilizers. No larger amount 
can be sold in conformity with the law ; while the probability is that some surplus 
tags will remain in the hands of dealers, and less than the estimated amount of 
fertilizers will be sold. Now, by calculating the amouiits of phosphoric acid and 
potash in the whole quantity of each brand whose sale is authorized, we find that 
1,051 tons of phosphoric acid and 65 tons of potash may be supplied during the 
year in our commercial fertilizers, but the estimate is above rather than below the 
truth. 

An estimate of the total quantity of these important constituents drawn from 
the soil annually in the State was also computed, under my direction, by students 
in agriculture. In each case of doubt, the figures were so chosen as to give a result 
below the truth, rather than above it. The aggregate production of wheat, corn, 
oats, rye, barley, buckwheat, hay, potatoes, and tobacco (exclusive of straw) was 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 205 

taken from the census for 1880, and these figures were combined with the known 
composition, to calculate the quantities of phosphoric acid and potash thus re- 
moved from the soil. In like manner, from the total number of horses, cattle, 
swine and sheep, with usual feeding standards, an estimate was formed of the min- 
eral constituents consunjed in the food of these animals. The analytical data, etc., 
were taken from Wolff's tables in Johnson's " How Crops Grow," and fr^m Armsby's 
" Manual of CaJ;tle Feeding." The results are given in the following 

COMPARATIVE TABLE: 

Phosphoric Acid. Potash, 

Drawn from the soil by field crops 35,268 tons 34,689 tons 

Consumed in feed of live stock 52,131 " 87,813 " 

Furnished in commercial fertilizers 1,051 " 6.5 

It must not be understood that these large amounts are lost to the State, for the 
mineral constituents undergo a constant rotation from the soil through the plant 
and animal back to the soil again ; the wheat, corn, hay, etc., are very largely c»n- 
sumed at home, and animals in pasture leave the undigested constituents of their 
food upon the ground. In view of the inevitable loss by export and by drainage, 
we may note the following points : 

1. The present supply of plant food, as furnished to the State in commercial 
fertilizers, is insignificant as compared with the amount i-emoved from the soil in 
field crops. It is probably but a small fraction of that which is exported in grain. 

2. The artificial supply is likewise a very small part of that which is con- 
sumed by live stock. 

3. The potash sold in fertilizers is utterly inadequate to maintain the fertility 
of our soils. In the eager demand for ground bones, the value of potassium com- 
pounds has been almost overlooked. The total annual supply is scarcely one-third 
of the amount clipped with the wool. 

4. The greatest care should be taken to return all barnyard manure to the fields, 
not allowing the liquid portion to drain off into the streams. A. waste of two per 
cent, of the matter discharged by our live stock, would represent all the phosphoric 
acid and thirty times all the potash sold in the State for fertilizing purposes, worth 
some two million dollars. The actual waste is more likely to reacli ten or twenty 
million dollars annually. 

5. Considerable importations of salts from the German potash mines will prob- 
ably be needful within a few years, and may prove advantageous at once. In the 
meanwhile, wood ashes should be applied to worn fields, and when dry leaves are 
burned, the ashes are particularly valuable, and should not be wasted. 

Very respectfully, 

EoBT. B. Warder, 

State Chemist. 



206 BOARD OF AGRICLLTURB. 



THE FARMER AND HIGHER EDUCATION.* 



BY PROF. C. H. HALL, OK FRANKLIN COLLEGE. 



Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Oentlemen: I appreciate the privilege of being per- 
mitted to address so many men before me this afternoon, who represent the farming 
interests of our State. While I have never been a practical farmer, yet, oftentimes 
in my study, when my brain has been wearied with the philosophy of Plato, and 
the beauties of Homer, or meditating on that splendid " March of the Ten Thou- 
sand" and kindred lines of thought, in memory I go back to the days of my boy- 
hood, when, barefooted, I pressed my feet in the soft, mellow, upturned earth and 
heard the blackbirds sing and saw them pluck the long slender worm frcm the 
furrow. As it is my privilege to address you at this hour I come with the thought, 
The Farmer and Higher Education. 

By higher education is meant the education that some of your boys and girls 
are receiving from the colleges and universities of our State and other States. Be- 
yond the shadow of a doubt the Indiana farmer's higher education should^^come 
from the universities and Christian colleges of Indiana. These are of vital im- 
portance and inestimable value to the sons and daughters of our State. Consider 

First. The farmer's attitude toward the higher education. In traveling over our 
State from north to south, and east to west, there is scarcely a neighborhood in 
which you will not find the majority of our farmers in an attitude of practical in- 
difference towards our colleges. The farmer too often feels that the higher educa- 
tion sustains no relationship to himself. It is nece>sary for the man who desires to 
be a doctor, a Governor of our State, or President of the United States, but to him, 
the man who plows and gathers in the grain, this higher education is of no appre- 
ciable value. 

Be it said to the credit of those whom I address this evening that there are 
many who may not be classified thus, and \et there is a multitude of farmers all 
over our State with whom you will have to reason and plead earnestly, if their 
sons are to take a college course, and thus secui-e the advantages of the higher 
schools of learning. To be really educated there must be a well drilled and discip- 
lined mind. No man can claim to be an educated man, no matter how many 
M. D.s, D. D.s or LL. D.s may be attached to his name, if he has not a disciplined 
intellect. He must also be in the possession of knowledge. These two factors— a 
disciplined mind and an accumulated fund of knowledge— mark conspicuously the 
truly educated man. No matter where the discipline and the knowledge are ob- 
tained, whether in the work-shop, or in the counting room, or on the farm, if he 
possesses these two factors he is really an educated man. Another assumption alto- 
gether too prevalenrt among our farmers is that the higher education does not con- 

* Read before the Annual Agricultural Convention January 6, 1885. 



THE FAKMER AND HIGHER EDUCATION. 207 

cern their Bons and daughters as farmers to be. I have looked into the faces of the 
young men gathered into our halls of higher education and have seen there the 
flash of intellect, and there has risen before me a vivid conception of the possibili- 
ties before them, if they may give themselves to the years of toil and culture. 
Here is one who has in him the powers of an orator, a logician, a sculptor, a chem- 
ist, a metaphysician or mechanic. He naturally asks himself : How long shall I 
be in college? I am going back to the farm again, therefore but little of this study 
concerns me. Thus he has caught and reflects the spirit of which we have spoken, 
that the higher education does not concern the farmer's son who expects to farm. 
On what ground does he thus practically exclude from the farm the drilled intel- 
lect and the cultured mind and the sagacious spirit — the best powers of manhood ? 
Is not the farm worthy of such men, and does our country not need such men on 
the farm? 

This question is often .isked the teacher: Why is it that these young men who 
enter the college halls go out any thing but farmers? The answer is brief: Because 
the farmer father gives his stalwart, big-souled son, who intends to farm, no en- 
couragement to seek the higher education that brings him moral and intellectual 
power. And such a son accepts the logic of his sire and only learns its weakness 
when too late to remedy it. 

Another phase of the farmers' attitude toward the higher education is more 
hopeful and prophetic of the future. He does value the higher training for the 
sake of his children who intend to enter the professions. If he has a son who is 
depraved, or one not particularly bright, and who hates all toil, he is inclined to 
send him off" to college that he may become a lawyer, a doctor or a third-rate 
preacher. He recognizes that in all other lines of work, except farming, an educa- 
tion is of real value in obtaining the highest success. And yet for precisely the 
same reasons that the higher education makes the workman more competent in the 
varied walks of life does it make the farmer better qualified to find the best in his 
calling. Consider — 

Second. The farmer's need of a higher education. The farmer is in need of the 
higher education — the disciplined mind and a larger amount of information — as a 
means of self-protection. The farmer in whose brain, in whose heart, in whosi soul, 
are lodged the best possibilities of our civilization and generation, will be able to 
defend himself and his against the sharks and humbugs which so often entangle 
him, when he brings to his farm life the culture of severer thought. What he 
wants is ability disciplined, and knowledge widened, until he is able to measure 
arms, forecast results, and thwart the purposes of his unscrupulous foe. He wants 
to be drilled so that he may be able to meet the drilled intellect of the knave on 
the road, of the scoundrel on the street corner, and of him who enters his parlor to 
court his fair and favorite daughter. 

The farmer needs the drilled intellect and disciplined mind in order to elevate 
his profession and to master the art and science of his vocation. The farmer's oc- 
cupation is both a science and an art, a science in that it has to do with soil and 
seed and reason, an art in that much that he does may be a delight to the eye, a 
stimulus to the imagination and taste. Such a farmer's barn will not be in front 



208 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

of his house, his fence corners will be free from thorn and thicket, his corn rows as 
straight as the eye can run them, and his house will not be as one seen this morn- 
ing from the passing train. It was a well built house, elevated on pillars about 
three feet high. Scarcely a foot of soil was in that yard that had not been turned 
up by the nose of the savory pig. *It was a landscape of niingled mud and mire. 
Such scenes as this science must certainly condemn and the crudest artistic 
taste forbid The farmer, therefore, needs the higher education in order that he 
may develop to the highest degree possible the useful and the beautiful in his own 
vocation. 

Third. The farmer's obligation to support the schools of higher education. If 
I were gifted with the tongue of eloquence I would stand before this audience and 
plead with you, as representing the farmers of Indiana, until there would not be a 
county in our State that would not have a score of young men and young women 
pursuing a course of study in Purdue University ; until half of the students of 
Indiana State University were the lusty sons and fair daughters from the farms of 
our State ; until every Christian college in our commonwealth is thronged with 
eager students, the noblest and truest of whom are the children of Indiana's broad 
acres. It is not enough that the farmer should be satisfied with a hundred and sixty 
acres of land. It is not enough that he should be contented that his fine horses 
and cattle should take the premiums at our fairs. There is more at stake than fat 
sheep, horses and cattle, and while these are valued highly as they deserve to be, 
let each farmer not fail to be loyal to that higher education whose aim is to make 
him a man more competent in all his chosen toil. No man, whether he be a farmer, 
or lawyer, or doctor, or of any other profession, has a right to esteem so lightly 
these powers of the soul — reason, conscience and the will — as the masses of men 
esteem them. The farmer is above his profession. He is larger than his toil, richer 
than his flocks, more beautiful than his herds, more valuable than every possible 
development of his lands. The farmer's own intellectual, moral and spiritual devel- 
opment ai-e concerns of such far-reaching interest that in comparison with himself, 
his lands and his flocks, his houses and his cl'ops, are but as the shadow to the sub- 
stance, the garments to the man. Realizing his own value, recognizing the fact 
that the higher education has to do with that in himself which makes him of su- 
preme value, how can the farmer fail in an appreciation of and loyalty to our insti- 
tutions of higher learning? Speedily may the day come when the youth all over 
our land shall be compelled to subject themselves to a much more rigid course of 
instruction than the few now receive by choice. If the sons and daughters of the 
farmers of our State have not the advantages of a higher education, Avho will be 
responsible in that eternity whither we are all moving, and where mind and con- 
science and heart are measured and not lands and grain? I urge you therefore to 
be loyal and in earnest in the advancement of the higher education, for the good 
of the boys and girls — that they may grow in their mental powers and moral sensi- 
bilities. Then will they bring to your old age the merited joy that life can bring 
— the privilege of seeing your sons and daughters noble and true as you go down 
into the valley whence there is no more return to earth. 

The farmer is under obligation to support the higher education for the sake of 



THE FARMER AND HIGHER EDUCATION. 209 

the perpetuity of our State. There can be no continued enjoyment of freedom and 
liberty, no perpetuity of our nation, that is not based on intelligence and con- 
science—on the enlargement of all the powers of the soul. The flag that floats 
above us, as the symbol of our freedom, ought to be recognized and revered 
in all oar great State from the lake to the river. You glory in the possi- 
bilities of Indiana, in it3 hills and valleys, in its rivers and rocks, in its 
plains and mines; and if j^ou value these resources and possibilities as you 
ought, you will aid with all your ability, and keep ever in your thought 
the advancement of our higher iurtitutions of learning. If you are neglect- 
ful here, in proportion to the neglect you will ever be at the mercy of him who 
seeks not you but yours. But not only intellectual development or power is neces- 
sary in our individual growth. There must also be that subtle something which is 
called character. A man must not only know, but he must be a pawer in the locality 
where he lives. There are three hundred thousand farmers in our State — more 
than they of all the other professions put together. When you remember this fact, 
then will you underst nd that just in proportion as the higher education reaches 
the boys and girls growing up on our farm*, and crystallizes into character, in that 
proportion will there be a rational basis for expecting the continued prosperity, 
virtue and happiness of our Commonwealth. 

This character is built by diicipline and knowledge, and grows in strength in 
proportion as these boys and girls shall have the power and the courage to say, " I 
will," and "I will not," in the interests of our great State, in Ve interests of liberty 
and humanity, in the interests of truth and their own souls. If the men and wo- 
men of our country have spirits loyal and true, if they have trained intellects and 
a character that knows the true value of '■ I luiU," and '^ I will not" if they are 
trained in a comprehensive kuowledgeof the domestic, political, and social problems 
of our time and State, there are not powers enough on this continent to sweep Indi- 
ana from her foundation of civil and religious liberty. 

The farmer, therefore, needs to emphasize to himself the necessity of arousing 
himself, if he does not wi.sh to be left behind in the struggle for the highest and 
noblest in Ats employment. If he does not wish to lose that which is dearest and 
sweetest in his toil and in his talent, he must be among the number to lift up his 
voice, take out his purse and send his sons and daughters to our State Institutions, 
and to the Christian coUoges of our Commonwealth. 



14 — AGRICrtTURE. 



210 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



A FARMER'S RECREATIONS AND AMITSEMENTS.^^ 



BY MISS LULX' A. DAVIDSON, OF :MONTG05rERY COUNTY. 



In fill the discussions relating to agricultural interests in State assemblies and 
farmers' institutes, we have seen no attention given to the subject, of how the 
farmer and his family shall spend their leisure hours. Hours of improvement 
they should surely be. To me, it seems the key to the intellectual progress, and 
hence to the social status and future position of the farming class ; so, let us put 
aside fish, fowl, flocks and herds, and con.«ider what is the proper employment of 
idle time. Poor Eichard's almanac says: "Leisure is the time for doing some- 
thing useful," and especially is this true with those whose labor is largely manual. 
Tired hands do not necessarily make a tired brain, and reading comes first as the best 
recreation. Just here let me explain that I use recreation in the sense of a diver- 
sion, or change from toil, and amu.sement as entertainment for the mind in the 
way of games, etc.; also, that I deal with the farmer exclusively. This may be 
sauce for him, but not for the merchant or professional man. To prove that i-ead- 
ing is a recreation, let me ask if your long evenings thus spent are not restful? 
Now are they, or how can they be made beneficial ? The first step is to keep the 
family well informed ; let them know that other people are "up and doing." For 
this purpose we want at least one county paper, the best one regardless of politics, 
for which we charge $1.50; next we want one paper for general information, a 
daily if possible, but better than none, a weekly, .S1.50. For the children we want 
something ; those boys are to take your places, the girls are to be their helpmates, 
and must be educated ; we touch your plethoric pocket-book for $2. Then the wife 
may want to know something about home management as well as you about the 
farm, give her $1.50. Then you want a magazine which discusses art, science, 
religion, politics, new reforms and all the etcetera, with which the family should 
be acquainted. If they encourage high art and extremely modern notions, why let 
them ; they will all eltvate and instruct ; $4.00 for this (if you are not posted as to 
agencies). This much for the family. Of course, the head of the house has his 
agricultural paper, maybe two ; he can't possibly do without them. Say $2 for 
this ; in all, exclusive of dailies, S12.50. Now that hurts somebody ; of course 
none of you, but your neighboi-s. But look here, don't you feed your hogs all they 
can profitably consume? Are your cattle, sheep or horses ever hungry? To be 
sure each pound of flesh on them has a ca&h value, yet you starve the minds, the 
impulses of your family, and entail an inestimiable loss on generations. Is in- 
tellect, future prosperity and happiness to be weighed in the balance with gold? 
The pursuit of gain when it comes to this can only corrupt. Economy is all right, 
to gain a competency, it must be rigidly observed; but prudent economy does not 

■■'Essay read before the Delegate and State Board of Agriculture. 



A farmer's recreations. 211 

mean starvation of the mind or any of the forces which help to make a perfect be- 
ing. One of those fat hogs will pay the bill, and if necessary put less in the 
stomach and more in the head. There is no limit to newspaper literature if you 
exercise proper judgment and can afford it. If the children run to specialties, fos- 
ter their inclinations — the doctrine of vocations is a good one. For the macljinist, 
take a mechanical gazette, for the musician, a musical publication, etc. Encour- 
ages them to be cranks, you say ? Since this is the age of cranks, let me remind 
you that Fulton and Franklin and Morse would be called cranks if they lived 
now; Joan of Arc was one, Edison is one to-day, and yet all have done great and 
lasting good. To be sure Barkis says : " Nothin's sure but death and taxes,'' and 
fame is a fractious animal in a large field, but let the children enter and catch 
him if they can. 

Next we come to the library. If it is full of stale agricultural reports and 
religious debates as some we know, take the former to the attic, place the latter 
on the top shelf, and educate up to them, teaching Christianity by every day work. 
Begin at the bottom, put in histories first for the children and progressively up to 
concise standard works for adults, interspersed with good biographies and books of 
travel. The next shelf is for poetry and fiction, and we place caution at your 
elbow to make you put in only the best. If you don't, the whole family by dint of 
borrowing and exchanging Avill get hold of the trashy, "Saturday Night" kind, 
and even yellow-back novels. We presume every county has had a boy who tried 
to turn Buffalo Bill. It is said our impulses spring from something within us re- 
sponsive to a call from without, and we are largely dependent on literature for our 
incentives. A good deed will call forth a good one ; then let the tales of bravery 
and valor be of the best. Such books as David Copperfield, Ivanhoe, and our own 
peerless Ben Hur will educate and elevate. Scientific and religious treatises come 
next in order, then the encyclopedias and indispensable dictionary. Compare a 
family thus supplied with one where the tables are primly neat, with only a basket 
of work on them. Which one is first in business and society? Whose childeu are 
most at ease in older company ? W^hose example is most commended, whose advice 
most sought? Litter your house with papers and books. They are fresh and clean 
and will shut out tobacco and other ills attendant. Two young men, rivals in 
business, each recently fitted up a library. One, in accordance with his dignified 
bearing, placed over the entrance the motto, '^ Dum vivimus, vivamus," which as you 
know means " while we live, let us live," and learn, ought to be added. The other, 
a shrewd fellow with an eye to business, in a few days placed over his door on the 
opposite side of the hall, "^Git a plenty when you're a gittin'." Both are to the 
point, and if you follow them, thus getting quality and ijuantity, be assured your 
winter hours of recreation will be u.seful and happy. 

As summer brings so much work on the farm, the idle hours are more limited, 
but none the less enjoyable. There is usually an extra horse which may be driven 
to the postoffice or county seat. If there are errands to do, make it a pleasure in- 
stead of a task. The plowman will ride for recreation, the one who drives much 
will relish a walk. Let quitting time be at a reasonable hour. The body must be 
refreshed for the next day's labor, or else in a week's time there will be lagging and 



212 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

slighting of work. In occasional drives you will see much to encourage yon in this 
course. Your corn looks better than that of neighbor Brown, who works from five 
o'clock in the morning until eight at night, who hires his men to put in every hour, 
except when eating or sleeping. His labor is hard, he turns the farm crank with 
his eyes shut, thinking work is work any way, and does not realize he is knocking 
off profits here and there by unintelligent labor. He plows his corn too deep, lit- 
erally tending it to death. He has a light yield, and can't understand it. His 
family are thin and sickly in the fall, and he has doctor bills to meet. He whistled 
and whittled last winter away, and don't know any better. He has yet to learn that 
moderate and intelligent labor pays. The mother and daughter on their drives 
see blue chickens io Brown's yard where flowers ought to be, the washing just on 
the line at 4 p. M. What did these women do last winter? They knit — mittens, 
stockings and socks, they sewed shirts, aprons and frocks ; and now they won- 
der why your work is done, how you can ride, fish, or swing lazily in the ham- 
mock at even tide. No wood-house, no cistern, but back-breaking tubs, a dasher- 
churn, and rickety stoves at Brown's, and he is but one of hundreds. Fill your 
yard with hammocks, the boys can tie them, with chairs and seats where the family 
can read and swing at will. 

BETWEEN THE CORN-PLANTING AND PLOVIMNG, 

Gather up girls, wife and all, and go fishing ; before harvest have a picnic, and so on 
through the summer vary the programme. In the autumn comes the fairs. The in- 
telligent man attends them to learn and to rest. The family have something to 
exhibit, and are interested in the several departments. The whistler and whittkr 
takes it in as a great show for his benefit. He is the man who patronizes the side 
shows and catch-penny games, if you admit them; he learns more profanity and 
vulgarity, buys more tobacco and beer, goes home no whit the wiser, and thinks 
the association is getting rich. The intelligent man takes his family to the city 
and State fair, or exposition, and with broader views of life they return to the 
home as a rendezvous of rest. 

We have filled the year with recreation which can not all be called amusement 
while all amusement is recreation, and hence is secondary, but no less the proper 
portion of the well-regulated family. Games entertaining to both old and young 
are to be found at the stores at low prices. The time-honored backgammon and 
chess have their place, and legion only names the instructive games for children. 
Authors and Logomachy are always good, especially the latter, for poor spellers. 
Then, on account of their numerous diversions, we admit playing cards, believing^ 
contrary to popular prejudice, that in perversion alone lies the trouble. Because 
they are the gambler's tools, it does not follow that cards contaminate. Because 
we abuse our appetites, the blame should not fall on the inoffensive food. Admit- 
ting, for the sake of argument, that they carry a little extra fascination, it only 
strengthens my belief that the family should be acquainted with them, in order 
that temptations to excess may be curbed at home. Shut them out, and the per- 
verse nature in every breast, which demands self-experience, and will not listen to 



A farmer's recreations. 213 

another's teaching, will drive the boys to hay-mows and vacant rooms. Haven't 
some of you, in boyhood, done this very thing, making a wrong by the deception? 
The proverbial profligacy of preachers' sons comes from just such stringent rules. 
They are a whetstone to the morbid curiosity, which will be gratified. A tight pa- 
rental rein makes an uneasy, restless child, sure to break loose sooner or later. A 
good lesson of self-government may be taught along wiih these games, and the dan- 
gerous fascination will wear out before a boy comee to manhood, just as a child's 
pleasure with a new toy. We have set-n cards admitted in good fauiilies, and have 
never known a case where it caused trouble, and since we are to learn from exam- 
ple, let us profit by it. 

We have disposed of quiet games, and must hastily speak of the rollicking 
blind-man's buff and puss-in-the-corner, so dear to childish hearts. Of course they 
are noisy and boisterous, but a little indulgence will not hurt you. Give the 
family the range of the house a few times each winter for parties, taffy puUings, 
and the like. Do not frown on these pleasures ; give your neighbors' children a 
warm welcome and enter into the sport yourselves. Add ten years to your life by 
being a boy again once in a while. Perchance in just such roguish play you first 
saw the rosy face of the wife who now watches your children with happy eyes. If 
you are bilious and blue, if crops are bad and hogs low, call the family together 
and have a hearty romp and laugh. You will see them growing healthy and 
strong, and the reaction will be better than a doctor's prescription. 

For summer there are the out-door games of croquet, tennis, and base ball. If 
you u.se proper judgment, and know when enough's enough, no moment devoted to 
healthful exercise will ever be wasted. Your pay will come in the li^jht heart and 
willing hands of your own boy, or the lad you may hire. Treated as men, they 
will work like meu. 

Passing over many things with mere suggestions, I want to deal a little with 
generalities. I feel a little out of place here, being conscious that I address n pre- 
sentative men, who I can not believe come from homes illy supplied with the things 
which make life enjoyable and progressive. Yet I would like you to think about 
it and talk it to your neighbors. A^ssist those really unable to procure reading 
matter and they will soon learn to help themselves. It must be an, excellent coun- 
try where you can not find the whistlers and whittlers at every fourth house. 
Doubtless you can think of boys within a mile of you, who spend their evenings at . 
the village store or show, where roughs congregate and spin foul y^.rns. Their sis- 
ters are foremost in the hugging and kissing bees yet held by this class. Follow 
these children home and methinlcs you will stop at neighbor Brown's cottage, where 
the sources of pleasure are vested in two mongrel dogs and a wheezy cat. We have 
in mind a family of sad-eyed, listless children whose educational advantages in the 
way of school have been good, who have been reared in a Christian home, are reg- 
ular attendants at Sunday school and church, and yet are lifeless, aimless and un- 
informed, lacking the vim and ruddy faces of hearty youth. The truth is the 
Christianity stopped with the moral teaching — the moral, mental and physical de- 
velopment have been neglected and the germs of perfect man and womanhood have 
shrunken into a mere shadow. Their reading is canfined to one channel, their 
amusements to the mildest games. Through mistaken kindness, the common laws 



214 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

of health are disobeyed and we find them tender and delicate. You may preach 
and teach, but boys and girls will be boys and girls so long as time lasts. Let your 
frosty frown fall on their natural desires and you nip the strength of will and body. 
A certain amount of pleasure is the birth-right of a hearty child as much as a good 
supply of "creature comforts," then let it be unstinted ; devote every leisure hour 
to the cultivation of mind or muscle. 

Scarcely a month passes that we do not see articles on how to keep boys on the 
farm, harping on the low wages and tedious work of town life. It is not the lighter 
work so much as the various kinds of evening pleasure which draws them to the city. 

TO ERADICATE THIS INCREASING TENDENCY, 

the tap-root of its growth must be struck, by supplying the farm as far as practi- 
cable with what they seek in town. Our city friends have the advantage of us so 
far as amusements and intellectual treats are concerned, and unless there is a visi- 
ble effort at compensation with frequent trips to the city, the wife as well as children 
will rebel at the "heaps of work" and little pleasure. The masculine members of 
the household have the advantage of the others as their frequent business calls, 
serve to keep the confinement from galling. This is not a plea for feminine suprem- 
acy, but equality, and we can't resist jogginjj your memories. 

To illustrate again, allow me to give you a true picture found in our own county. 
Within a stone's throw of each other, live two men, each owning considerable land. 
One of them recently said he made it a point never to hire a man who owned a 
horse or buggy, or anything from which to derive pleasure; that he never allowed 
them to indulge in games, and dictated as to how they should spend their Sundays. 
As a i-esult, his whole farm is in a state of dilapidation, with fences down, gates 
hanging by one hinge, buildings out of repair and a general air of destruction 
about. The labor he secures is that of a mere machine. No sympathy or intelli- 
gence guides the hands which help him. The other man employs men owning 
horses and buggies, believing it an evidence of their own thrift ; he lets them off 
early in the evening, supplies them with various kinds of amusements, and to-day 
has 

ONE OF THE MODEL FARMS 

and residences of Montgomery county. He is prominent in social, business and 
political circles, and his family do him credit. The other man we never knew ex- 
isted until a short time ago. Scores of such examples might be given, and I can 
not feel that I overestimate this great fault of the farmer. 

We hear of an aristocracy of letters, of wealth, of the middle classes, with the 
farmer at the bottom, and unless you wide-awake men inaugurate a reform he is 
likely to stay there. He has the strong body which can support a s^^oug mind, but 
the latter demands nourishment outside of the ordinary education. And school 
life is but the beginning ; there we get the outline which only years of experience 
and study can fill and call the completed life. The somewhat isolated condition of 



FRENCH AGRICULTUKE. 215 

the farmer gives him an opportunity of judging people and things with unbiased 
mind, the source of the little common sense in the world. If this opportunity was 
cultivated and fostered, who shall say the next decade will not chronicle 

AN ARISTOCRACY OF COMMON SENSE. 

A few have already prophesied that the farmers are the future aristocrats, but 
long strides are to be taken ere we fulfill it. The treacherous "jingling of the 
guinea which helps the hurt that honor feels " must be overcome and blinded eyes 
must be opened. The Chatauqua Circle has proved a good thing in cities 
and towns. Would not a similar plan be good for the country? Country churches 
seem to belong to new countries, at any rate the tendency now is for people to flock 
to the numerous villages for worship and general intercourse, making such an idea 
feasible. Can not this circle be extended or this State produce a second Dr. Vin- 
cent, to arrange and perfect a plan for the intellectual advancement of the farmer? 

In conclusion let me say that I have tried to present things as they really exist. 
If I slipped off the subject now and then, remember that that is a woman's way. 
If I failed to properly provide for the farmer and his wife, it is because I believe 
that in providing for the children they will include themselves. 

You who think T dwell on an imaginary evil, and begrudge the time I have 
taken, will begrudge the leisure hours. You have but a misty idea of the immortal 
future and no conception of the chief end and aim of life. 

All right, farmer friends, let these men sleep on; meanwhile let us develop our 
higher and better instincts as an interpietation of God's holy plan. The beginning 
of the twentieth century will find the Rip Van Winkles still asleep, while the 
farmer's craft with progressive crew floats on to a perfect hereafter. 

Whitesville, Ind., December 30, 1884. 



FRENCH AGRICULTURE AND THE BREEDING OF 
NORMAN HORSES.* 



BY COL. J. A. BRIDGLAND, OV RICHMOND, IND., 
Late ConHul of the U. S., at Hfvre, France. 



Mr. President, and Gentlemen of the State Board of Agricidture : 

I have the honor to appear before you to-day, at your request through your 
honorable Secretary, to submit a few remarks upon the subject of French agricul- 
ture and the breeding of Norman horses, and, with your permission, I will add a 
few remarks upon international commerce between the United States and France. 

The new part of France was ceded to Rollo, a leader of a band of Northmen, 

"An address delivered before the Delegate State Board of Agriculture. January 7, 1885. • 



216 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

who had been accustomed to invade and overrun the country, by King Charles, the 
Simple, and became a duchy under the name of Normandy. The Duke of Nor- 
mandy continued to rule the country, and the duchy became one of the most pros- 
•perous and powerful in France. William VI, Duke of Normandy, invaded and 
conquered England in 1066, and became King of that country, while 6till retaining 
his dukedom. His successors in the dukedom were enterprising and powerful 
Princes, and took an active part in the crusades and other warlike enterprises. At 
the same time they encouraged both agriculture and navigation, and the people of 
their sea coast were the most daring and skillful amongst the navigators of that 
time. They conducted an active traffic with foreign countries, and as early as the 
fourteenth century established treaty ports on the coast of Africa, and elsewliere. 
In the sixteenth century they discovered the St. Lawrence river, and occuf)ied its 
shores; and also eetabJished settlements in Brazil and other parts of South Amer- 
ica. This commerce necessarily called for the establishment of seaports in France. 
The last important of these ports was Havre, at the mouth of the Seine, founded by 
Francis, thefirst King of France, about 1535, the previous port of Harfleu, at the month 
of that stream, having become ineligible on account of the filling up of the.«tream by 
alluvium, similar to what has occurred at the mouth of the Mississippi and other 
rivers of its kind. The harbor has ever since been maintained and improved 
at great expenditure of money, and its docks are now more extensive than those of 
any other port except Liverpool, and its commerce equals, if not exceeds, that of any 
French port. During the growth of the commercial property the agricultural in- 
terests of Normandy made corresponding improvrment, this being mainly due to 
the fact thai, unlike England, the land, iuptead of descending always in a body to 
the eldest son, was divided among all the children, until the whole country is 
held in small tracts. This state of things have continued until this day, and now 
nearly the whole of France is owned by occupants of the soil, who thus have the 
greatest interest, as it is to their advantage, to bring and keep the same in the high- 
est state of cultivation and productiveness. The lands are now in better condition 
than they were five hundred years ago, the policy of the farmers being to replace 
the drain upon the soil each year by its equivalent in barn-yard manure. The 
proprietors of land make it an invariable practice in renting to require the tenants 
to be skillful producer- of barn-yai-d fertilizers. Such tenants have but little diffi- 
culty in renting the best lands in Normandy. Many of these lands are occupied 
by the fifth and sixth generation of tenants. 

Three-quarters of all the land in England is owned by lees than 20,000 proprie- 
tors, while three-fourths of all the lands of France are owned by three-fourth* of 
the people, who work them; hence, for seventeen consecutive years, up to the last 
twelve years, the French farmer, with about 40,000,000 of people on a territory but 
little larger than the State of Texas, produced a surplus of wheat, horses, cattle, 
butter ard eggs ; and, in fact, furnishing a very large share of table supplies to 
London. A French farmer on sixty acres of land, with but few fences to keep in 
repair, other than mud fences, that require little or no attention after they are 
made ; although they are about four feet at the base, they take up less than no 
land at all, as they are four feet high and two feet wide on top, and as they are 
universally cultiTated in grass, which is cut and grazed as grass lands are in this 



FRENCH AGRICULTURE. 217 

country, with the addition of a line of trees, mostly Leech. This class of French 
farmers, which are about the average, will have at the end of the year a little 
balance sheet of sales about as follows : 

Six head of cattle, at an average of 1,400 pounds ; 8 head of hog;', at an aver- 
age of 200 pounds ; 400 to 500 chickens, worth 80 cents each.; 700 to 800 pounds of 
butter; 3 to 4 Norman draft colts, where they work mares ( for they do not keep 
their stallions and mares on the same farm ) ; together with their wheat and fruit, 
for there is an orchard on almost every tract of land. Such farm has more monty 
to its credit than the average of our farms with 300 acres. When our people raise 
corn aud hogs and pay taxes on at least one half of a 300-acre farm that is not 
cultivated, our farmer making his land poorer, and the French farmer increasing 
the productive quality of his land every year. The tillers of the French soil un- 
derstand, furthermore, the importance of growing crops adapted to particular 
qualities of land, taking into close consideration climatic influences aud weather 
probabilities. Grapes are grown, as we know, to the highest possible perfection, 
but entirely different in different localities and qualities of soil ; for example, the 
finest Clarets are grown upon very few estates, such as Chateau Margaux, Chateau 
Lafitte, and not many others. The grapes grown in Cognac are worked into 
brandy, known as Cognac brandy. Those grown in Champagne are manufactured 
into Champagne wine, and so on in contiuous crop, until France to-day is the rich- 
est agricultural spot in the world, for in the month of June you may drive hun- 
dreds of miles and feel that you are driving through a succession of parks owned 
by private gentlemen. 

Mr. President, about twenty years ago I observed that the quality of our work 
horses was sadly retrograding, seeing that a mania for trotters was making rajiid 
inroads into the quality of the useful and necessary draft horses, and abi)Ut that 
time I made my first voyage to Europe landing at Liverpool, where I saw the im- 
mense Clydesdales and other- English draft horses that were powerful, but slow in 
motion, and it seemed to me as much oversized as ours were undersized; but when I 
reached Paris, L found there omnibuses on the streets of that magnificent city with 
two Norman horses hauling from twenty to thirty pas.-*engers, at a swinging gait of 
from eight to ten miles an hour, with no brake to be used as we do to stop such a 
load; but this wonderful horse, known as the Norman, at the mere word of his driver 
throws himself back into the harness, with this wonderful load behind him, which 
he stops ms.re readily than our most improved and powerful brakes could do. In 
starting up he is patient, true and kind, and is again soon under headway at his 
former gait. Seeing so m»ny of these horses in Paris at various kind of works, I 
was induced to go down into Normandy and see how they were bred and raised. 1 
found no large estates or ranches, as we would call them, producing these wonder- 
ful animals. On the contrary they were bred by the small farmers heretofore men- 
tioned. It is rarely you find more than half a dozen on any one farm for sale, 
oftener one or two only. They are put to light work by the farmer at from fifteen 
to eighteen months old, and from the time they are two years old do the work of a 
full grown horse. And their capacity for work, endurance, and general adaptability 
to the demands for draft and heavy work is unequaled by any other strain of horses 
wiihin my knowledge. And by close ob.servatioa I am thoroughly convinced that 



218 



BOAKD OF AGRICULTURE. 



they are less liable to the diseases and blemishes of the horse than any others — 
they are rugged and of immense power, the muscular formation amply protecting 
the weaker points, rendering them invaluable for the heavy work of our country, as 
they are able to pull and back great weight. I have owned them that weighed 
1,800 lbs. and could trot a full mile in four minutes. I have some now that I will 
take ten dollars for if they can not haul four people ten miles inside the hour. 
The crossing of these valuable animals with our American mares has been demon- 
strated in Illinois, during the past fifteen years. The truck men of all of our 
Eastern cities have been compelled to go to Illinois for their horses, as well as the 
lumbermen of the North. Indiana, side by side with Illinoi.s, has allowed Eastern 
buyers to pass through for their draft stock when they should have stopped here, 
as freight and expenses would be less. Our farmers would find this a very remunera- 
tive field for their consideration, and by the judicious raising of this class of draft 
horses diversify their labor and add to their wealth much more rapidly than by the 
old channel of wheat, corn and hogs, as the world is now a wheat field. 

The farmer has something else to do beside all the work incidental to the proper 
cultivation of a farm. Let him be as intelligent as he may, diversify his crops as 
he Avill, if, by bad legislation and incompetent representatives abroad, his eflTorts will 
be wasted, as in my last dispatch to the State Department at Washington, No. 245, 
Havre, June 14, 1881, with regard to the prohibition on the part of the French 
Government, will show. I give you a copy of the same, in part, from the records 
of the Consulate at Havre, which applies to international commerce between the 
two countries. We accept almost everything from France. She rejects more 
than 200 articles of American production, including our pork, manufactured cotton 
goods, plated silverware, all kinds of machinery, without fixing any tarifi" whatever, 
but simply prohibition, they alleging that so far as our pork was concerned, that 
it was infected by trichina^, yet not a single case of sickness or death could be found 
from that cause by the Medical Department. 

In the report I refer to I give you the following tables, which are official, show- 
ing the increase of our exportation to France through the port of Havre, during a. 
part of my administration of eight years, and which now, by the action of the 
French Government, is .almost destroyed and wiped out : 



1875. 



1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


489,788 


397,6:35 


482,859 


20,183,500 


29,903,250 


50,038,514 


10,660,845 


23,974,305 


59,683,967 


46,280 


716,889 


829,804 


259,063 


902,456 


8,207,900 



1879. 



Cotton, bales 350,572 

Lard, pounds | 11,444,130 

1 

Salt pork, pounds . . 3,059,090 

Corn, bushels. .... 28,552 

Wheat, bushels. . . . 39.880 

i 



424,064 I 438,244 

44,609,585 j 56,240,267 

66.204,0.30 I &5,931,630 

341,704 I 936,350 

10,858,540 11,312,850 



In view of these figures, France found that the balance of trade had turned 
against her, when, for many years, we had paid her large balances, as much as 
$55,<jOO,000 in one year. The prohibition of salt pork and other articles by France 



THE ADULTERATION OP FOOD. 219 

is unjust, and demands reprisal by our government, and if our State Agricultural 
Association will kindly ask the co-operation of the other like associations of our 
country in demanding our rights through Congress in international commerce, the 
time is not far distant when our substantials will be refused in the ports of France 
and Germany likewise, no longer; should proper reprisais by our country in the 
way of spurious wines, gewgaws, and the thousand and one articles of foreign manu- 
facture, that are better produced at home, be required. In conclusion, Mr. Presi- 
dent, permit me to say that it is in the power of the Agricultural Associations of 
the country to regulate the commerce we hold with foreign nations, and if through 
their various organizations they fail to instruct their Kepresentatives in Congress 
as to the wishes of the great agricultural interests of the country, it will be their 
own fault, and should not complain if all ports abroad are closed against their 
surplus, which they had better not produce unless they can find a foreign market 
for it, as it can not be produced for nothing. France has just revised her tariff, 
discriminating largely against us and in favor of the farmers in Europe, charging 
us twice the duty on wheat of any other country. I ask you gentlemen, re])resent- 
ing as you do the agricultural interest in Indiana, is this right? 
With mv best wishes for the Societv, I will close mv remarks. 



FOOD, AND THE ADULTERATIOI^ OF SOME ARTI- 
CLES OF DIET.* 



BY DR. JOHN N. HURTY, OF INDIANAPOLIS. 



AH mankind take interest in consuming food, desiring in a general way that 
what they eat be clean, pure, and wholesome, yet very few, comparatively, care to 
study and understand the subject. 

What is a food? will be the first question to answer. I think a consideration 
of the causes which compel us to eat will give most light Our bodies wear away 
at every movement, however slight. To merely arise from sitting in a chair in- 
creases the heart's beats several to the minute. Greater exertion increases the 
heart's action still further, until a certain limit is reached. The phenomenon of 
life is also accompanied with heat, which must have continual support. Inasmuch, 
then, as our whole structure and its vital processes must be continually renewed 
and maintained, whatever material subserves that end would be a food. It is as 
essential, in the animal economy, to destroy as to construct, and as both these pro- 
cesses stop upon the withholding of food we infer that they depend upon the same 
cause for support. 

'•'An aadress delivered before the State and Delegate Boards of Agriculture at their 
annual meeting January 8, 1885. 



220 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

It is to be noted that reparative and building material can not alone be termed 
food, for that term must include also all substances necessary to the maintenance 
of vital processes. According to this conception, then, the air we breathe is as 
much a food as the bread we eat. The waier we drink undergoes no digestive pro- 
cess, but is simply absorbed into the body unchanged. It is present in every part, 
yet can hardly be considered a tissue-forming material, being rather a medium for 
carrying building material, and also for carrying away waste. 

Water, however, is a food, as it is necessary to maintain vital processes. 

Some foods are very rich in nutritive qualities, and there are still others that 
increase vital action in a degree far beyond the amount of nutritive material which 
they supply. Some foods are identical with certain structures of the body, and, 
being introduced, may be incorporated with little or no change. Illustrative of 
this class is the mineral matter, necessary for the growth of bony structure, and 
water, the general necessity. 

Some foods are valuable, not bo much because they are very nutritious, but be- 
cause they are easily and quickly changed into the substances of the body; or 
again,- because they act quickly in sustaining the vital functions; such are classed 
as easily digested and assimilated foods. 

Foods are animal and vegetable; is a classification of general character, but 
can not be considered by the chemist, because vegetable and animal matter are 
similar in chemical composition, an indissoluble bond seemingly existing. Plants 
derive their curbon from the air by decomposing carbonic acid gas, which has been 
supplied to the air by the lungs of animals. Mineral matter, water and nitrogen, 
plants derive from mother earth, the nitrogen proceeding from animal sources. 

The animal consumes the plant, and after its material has served to build, re- 
pair and sustain, he gives it to nature to be used over again for plant food. Thus 
there is an unbroken circle in the production of food from difTerent sources. All 
vegetables contain water and mineral matter ; so do meats of all kinds. 

The solid carbon and the gasses hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, make up the 
major composition of foods. 

Flesh has for its base of construction fibrine; vegetables lignine, two substances 
almost exactly alike in chemical composition, subserving like purposes. Albumen 
is found alike in vegetable and animal foods. Thus may be traced the similarities 
of the.se two. 

Most foods require more or less preparation before they are fit to be eaten. 
Cooking is an art as old as history, and yet, although of the greatest importance 
and worthy of the attention of the best minds, comparatively no scientific study 
has been made of it. Cooking is intrusted to that class in society ksown as ser- 
vants, and, as is well known, tiiey do not possess high intelligence. 

The gastrouomic wurld is cognizant of the names of numberless famous cooks, 
but the whole list probably contaias only a very few who had the slightest idea of 
the changts efi'ected by heat on food materials. They only knew heat to be a 
means for the accomplishment of an end, but an intelligent understanding was far 
from them. 

Count Eumford's labors in the art of cooking are well known, and the great 
Liebi^'s studies in the name line are of inestimable worth. 



THE ADULTERATION OF FOOD. 221 

Dr. Mattieu Williams has recently written a work on "The Chemistry of Cook- 
ing," -whicli is very complete, being written with a full knowledge of the subject. 

Mis8 Juliet Corson was the first one to start cooking scliools in this country, 
her course of instruction including, beside emperical formula and the manipula- 
tions necessary to their successful execution, a resume of the chemistry of the 
subject. 

Those who have given little thought will ask, Why does a cook need to know 
anything about the chemistry of cooking? What good will it do them to know 
whether such a substance as albumen exists or not, so they produce the results? 
As ignorant prejudice only would be likely to ask such questions, an answer 
would be a waste of time. 

Innumerable discussions have taken place among scientific men as to the natural 
fowl of man. Too much importance is, perhaps, attached to meat, but it is now 
•generally accepted that a mixed vegetable and animal diet is best. A common 
regetable food, such, for instance, as the potatoe, contains in 1,000 parts 760 of 
water, I'tJO parts of starch, and some mineral salts and albuminous compounds. In 
cooking the starch cells absorb water, and the greater number of them burst, under- 
going also chemical change. This disintegration of the starch cells is preparatory 
and necessary to more important changes. The starch in all vegetable substances 
must undergo a similar change before it can mix with the various fluids developed 
in the mouth and the walls of the alimentary canal. Some of the fluids, such as 
the saliva and pancreatic fluids, change starch into dextrine and then into sugar, 
and this change appears necessary before the carbon and hydrogen can be oxydized. 

Without the preliminary operation of cooking, this change would in all cases be 
imperfect, and often impossible; and the thorough cooking of all starchy foods is 
of )he utmost importance. When this is imperfectly done, the albuminoid envel- 
ope which incloses the starch granule has to be dissolved by the gastric juice, which 
is often diflicult, and even impossible. Much indigestion, probably, arises from <he 
imperfect cooking of starchy foods. The chief constituents of animal food are 
albumen, fibrine, and fat, with juice and mineral salts. The flavor of meat is due 
to osmazone, and some methods of cooking, such as roasting and boiling, appear to 
increase the flavor. Albumen and fibrine form about one-fifth of the meat. The 
lormer always coagulates by heat, and the expansion of the juices tend to separate 
the solid fibers, and this separation depends very much upon the method of cook- 
ing. Albumen is a.s constant a constituent of all animal food, as starch is of veg- 
etable, but these bodies differ greatly in their chemical composition, and in the 
changes which they undergo in digestion. 

Plain cooking is healthiest, and in the long run gives greater enjoyment to the 
sen.se ol taste. High seasoning is pernicious, serving frequently to cover up poor 
quality in foods, and again disguising poor cooking. Its worst eflett is to benumb 
the sense of taste, and unduly stimulate the stomach. Salt, in small quantities, is 
salubrious, but used in excess, scurvy and kindred ills are induced. 

Spiciifi being used largely and liked by many, it is desirable that they be pure 
and unadulterated. In the unground condition, a novice can form a good 
judgment of the quality and freshness of spices, but when pulverized, the very 
elect might be deceived. 



222 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The various priced mustards found upon the market of itself tells the tale of 
sophistication. The fact is, that it is quite impossible to furuish powdered must- 
ard in an acceptable form without slight admixture with some absorbent powder. 
Mustard seed contains besides a fixed oil, much albuminoid matter, which have the 
effect of spoiling the powdered article upon keeping for a short time, unless it be 
dried by admixture with some inert and absorbent powder. Simple drying by heat 
or exposure to air would not do, because that would cause the loss of the volatile 
oil, upon which the mustard depends for its piquancy and flavor. Low grades are 
produced by excessive admixture of absorbent powders, the piquancy being main- 
tained by addition of red pepper, and the color by various coloring agents. The 
absorbent powder used is generally fine and well dried corn flour, while the yellow 
turmeric is used to keep up color. The corn flour is unobjectionable from a health 
standpoint, and turmeric is of itself a condinment highly prized by some ; so these 
sophistications can only be objected to upon the ground of deception. Our pepper is 
made cheap bj^ admixture with ground cocao-nut shells, which furnish a powder in 
appearance quite indistinguishable from ground pepper. Powdered almond shells 
serve to adulterate powdered cinnamon, and ground roasted peas are used for ad- 
mixture with ground allspice and cloves. 

Powdered spices of all kinds are exceedingly liable to deterioration. They all 
depend for their peculiar properties upon volatile matters, which are easily lost, 
upon the powder being kept for some time. I would advise housekeepers to supply 
themselves Avith a small, easily cleaned hand-mill, and grind their own spices, 
thus insuring freshness and freedom from adulteration. 

Our sugars are all pure. I mean by this that they are not adulterated, sophisti- 
cated, these terms implying the addition of foreign matter in order to cheapen. 
The lower grades contain much molasses, which is uncrystallized sugar, and glucose 
in appreciable quantity, also coloring substances, together with dirt particlei?. 
These articles all occur naturally in raw sugar, and according to grade only is 
their removal claimed. Some time since, when grape sugar, dry and white, wa.s 
first made cheaply, from starch and sulphuric acid, it was tried by sugar merchants 
as an adulterant of cane sugars. It promised well, but trial found the impossibility 
of so using it. One of its prominent characteristics is caking or lumping, and it 
was fonnd that when mixed in any proportion with cane sugar, the whole mass 
soon lost its pulverulent form, becoming one solid chunk of dough-like appear- 
ance. This fact unfits it for sugar adulteration, and we need have no fear of it. 
The experiment cost its projectors many thousand dollars, as they were compelled 
to take up the mixture at great expense and supply in its place the true article. 

In days gone by the market afforded but two kinds of molasses — New Orleans 
and sugar-house. New Orleans molasses was simply a dense solution of uncrystal- 
lizable sugar, which was formed in large quantity, owing to the crude and imperfect 
method of sugar making. This was separated by draining the portion that crys- 
tallized, barreled and sold. Sugar-house molasses was of the same chemical nature, 
but was minus the color, flavor and dirt. In the process of refining the raw brown 
sugar, more of the uncrystallizable kind was formed, but this always after color, dirt 
and flavor were removed, and it was this article which, being separated by drain- 
ing from the white crystals, constituted sugar-house molasses. 



THE ADULTERATION OF FOOD. 223 

Jsow the grocer confronts us with such euphonious names for his molasses, as 
golden Jrip, rock-candy drip, royal rock, sugar sirup, pancake sirup, etc. These 
sirups are frequently composed entirely of starch sugar (glucose), the higher priced 
kinds, however, contain varying quantities of cane sugar to impart greater sweet- 
ness. There can be no objections to these articles on the score of health, provided 
they be free from sulphuric acid, plaster paris, etc., and consist of pure starch 
sugar, for then it is identical with the sugar found in all fruits. The excessive use 
of glucose, as also sucrose (cane sugar), produces acidity of the stomach and gastric 
irritation ; so does the excessive eating of fruit, and hence this fact does not inveigh 
against it. Before the now very general introduction of glucose, confectioners' 
waxy candies, like caramels and butterscotch, were produced by adding to the boil- 
ing sugar solution cream of tartar or other harmless acid material; which has the 
effect of transferring crystallized sugar to the uncrystallizable form, and so admit- 
ting of the waxy kind of candies. Now the same end is accomplished by simply 
adding glucose. 

Cream of tartar is the acid tartrate of potassa, and is found as a deposit in wine 
casks- Its use in cooking is confined to baking purposes. Being an acid salt it 
liberates carbonic acid gas from a carbonate, which gas serves to lighten dough. Its 
adulteration is very largely practiced, and frequently mixtures containing not a 
trace of true cream of tartar are sold as such. 

These mixtures consist of terre alba or plaster of paris mixed with tartaric 
acid, and sometimes containing free sulphuric acid. These mixtures are villainous 
and can not help but prove inimical to health. 

The adulterations of lard, butter, milk, cheese, Hour, etc., I have treated at 
length in the report of the State Health Board, and only wish here further to con- 
sider fertilizers, which, although not a food, are very closely related thereto, and 
must be of interest to this body. 

A poor, worthless fertilizer is an imjjosition so gross that it would be hard to 
find words to express an lionest man's oijinion in regard to it. We have, however, 
annually shipped into this State tons and tons of so-Ciilled fertilizers, to spread 
which upon the land is not only a loss of money, time and labor, but probably is 
positively injurious. Our State law, designed to protect against this fraud, is not 
of the least value, but is a disadvantage to all concerned save the dishonest vender. 
The State Chemist faithfully performs his duty, but there is no guarantee that the 
article .sent out is the same as that analyzed. Our feeble and incompetent law, 
then, is full of harm, inasmuch as it not only permits, but, also, because of weak- 
ness, invites the dealer in fertilizers to put out fictitious merchandise. 

We have in this city two fertilizer companies, both well known for their integ- 
rity and honesty of purpose. I refer to E. Rauh & Sons, whose special brand of 
fertilizer is Rauh's Champion Phosphate, and the Indiana Fertilizer Co., of which 
Mr. Wiselogel is Superintendent. To my positive knowledge both these dealers 
have striven nobly to furnish goods in every instance up to the standard, and when 
they otfer them for sale at a living profit, they are told so and .so of Chicago or 
Cincinnati will furnish a fertilizer, bearing the State Chemist's tags, at one-half 
the price. This experience led E. Eauh & Sons to have a series of analyses made 
of this wonderfully cheap, but legally tagged stuff. Samples were carefully col- 



224 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

lected from various eourcea, and in every instance found to be woefully deficient 
Stink there was, always in abundance, but the ammonia, potash, phosphoric acid 
were not. Sand, salt, spent plaster and common earth made up their bulk. ThesS 
facts make it plain that our State fertilizer law should embody a clause requiring 
the State Chemist to possess himself of samples of shipments, at times unknowato 
dealers, and if found deficient to visit a heavy penalty upon the offender. 



THE FISH mTERESTS OF INDIANA.* 



BY ENOS B. REED, EDITOR OF THE PEOPLE. 



Ladie.n and Gentlemen: There may be those before me who take no interest in 
fish or fishing, although I can scarcely conceive this to be the case.' It may be that 
some of you have never ' 

"Baited your hook with a dragon's tail. 
And sat on a rock and bobbed for whale." 

If so you are greatly to be pitied. -0, the luxury of waiting for a bite, aod O, 
the luxury of drawing in a whale — of a bass. I have the reputation of having 
done this to a considerable extent. I am not deserving of it. The largest bass I 
ever caught — "killed" some will hare it — was, if I remember correctly, three 
pounds and a quarter. That was taken with a hard-shell crawfish about two 
inches in length, and a few minutes thereafter I captured its mate with a similar 
crawfish. They were as like as two peas — of course I mean the bass, not the craw- 
fish. 

But if not successful in the literal matter of takiug large bass, I have found that 
compensation which lies back of all misfortune, in the knowledge I have acquired 
concerning the habits and dispositions of fish. For instance, I have learned that 
bass are particularly voracious in rainy weather. An old ballad says: 

" The herring loves the merry moonlight, 
The mackerel loves the wind," 

But the eccentric bass has a decided preference for the splashing rain-drops, and 
delights to sport with them on the surface. Therefore it is I was often seen, cowled 
and enveloped in rubber cloth, silent and solitary, sitting in front of the old mill 
at Broad Ripple, when all other sentient things were seeking shelter from the 
steadiest of summer rains; and upon these occasions I hp.ve strung my heavier 
lines. I have heard of bass being taken out of White river that weighed eight and 
ten pounds. I never saw one of this description; a six-pound bass is about the 
largest I ever saw " with my own eyes " caught in these parts, although I have been 

*Read before the Annual Agricultural Convention, January 8, 1885. 



THE FISH UTTERESTS OF INDIANA. 225' 

informed by truthful fishermem — and who ever knew a fisherman to lie? — that a 
seven-pound bass ia not a rarity in some neighborhoods. I would rather see a. leu- 
pound bass than hear tell of it, though I would not for a moment question either 
tht veracity or voracity of the proverbially truthful fisheiman. 

It was, doubtless, the reputation I bear as a fisherman which procured roe the- 
honor of appearing before you, and knowing myself to be undeserving, at least 
practically, of such a reputation,^ I almost feel myself to be an old fraud who haa- 
honors thrust upon him beyond bis merit; but, then, when one's heart is in it, that 
is half the battle. There are those who can distance me many degrees in fishing 
andin knowledge of fish, perhaps, put me to shame, and yet I never go to Broad 
Ripple but I bring home with me a me&s of fish. No. they are not given to me as a 
general thing ; they are secured with patience and perseverance, and if they are 
small and many to the pound, why, you may say I like small fish best. 

It was, I believe, the Rev. Myron W. Keed, who, once upon a time, said alF 
fishermen were liars. As the reverend gentleman himself is quite a uottd fisherman, 
I can not do such violence to his cloth a.s to believe the assertion unless taken cum 
grano sails. You will certainly be»r roe witne-s that I have not lied concerning aay.- 
prowess as a fisherman. I can not say with the Hon. Sunset Cox, of New York,, 
that I have fished under the shadows of our Sierras in Tahoe, lake and stream ^ 
that I have followed the mountain rivulet Restonica in Corsica, where the waters 
blanch the boulders into dazzling whiteness, and the associations of the vendetta 
and the Bon apartes give a ruddy tinge to the adventure; that I have caught th« 
cod in the Arctic around Cape Nord, under the majestic light of the midnight soa ^. 
that I have angled in the elear running Malaren Saltsjon, which circulates health- 
fully amid the splendid islets of stately Stockholm, and in the Bosphorus, in sight 
of the historic Euxine and the marble palaces and mosques of two continents ; that: 
I have been tossed in shallops along with the jolly fishers of the Bay of Biscay., 
that I have hiid the honor of beholding the pillars near Iskenderoon in the north- 
west corner of the Mediterranean, erected by a grateful people on the spot where 
Jonah was thrown ashore by the whale; and that I have bounded through the- 
league-long rollers on the shores of New Jersey, along with my favorite life-saver*- 
— to see and feel the "^blufish wriggling on the hooks." 

No, I have not thrown a lin« in or at any of these places, but I have cast vaj 
hook in 8alcm Creek, New Jersey, for perch; have angled in Long Island Sonnd;. 
gone for wall-eyed pike in " La Belle" river, have roamed the banks of the Mn»- 
katatak for red-eyes;, have set trofe-lines in the Kentucky for mud-cats; hare 
angled in the two Miamfe with indiflferent success; have helped to set and draw 
the seine in beautiful and storied Wye river, Maryland; have sunned myself ou 
the banks of the Monocaey, awaiting a glorious nibble ; have seintd for minnows- 
beside "Mill creek's marshy marge;" have spent precious hours at Eagle creek;, 
have lingered at DoUarhide; have taken croppies and spotted catfish from SliaQ_ 
non's lake, mullets from Fall creek, and an uncounted variety of fins, from bass to 
dace, from Broad Ripple. O, I have had sport, that let me tell you, even if I have 
never captured eight, ten and' eleveo-poand bass. 

I am not only entbuuiastieallj ioud. of the gentle art, but love to eat my fish- 

16 — AOSICU LTtTKB.. 



226 BOARD OF AGRICULTLRE. 

after I catch them. It was Sam Weller, was it not, who said that " weal pie is 
werry good if you know the young 'oman as makes it." So I say that fish consti- 
tute a most excellent article of food if you know where they were caught and wh<? 
killed them. There is a marked difference between a " boughten " fish and a fish 
one takes himself. To get all the virtues of a fish it must be eattn the day it is 
taken. 

The preferences of most people difter in regard to fish. To me the goggle-eye, 
or red-eye, is the best that swims. Take a goggle-eye about the size of your hand, 
if your hand is not too large, fry it in plenty of lard, steam slightly after being 
done to a turn, unless you like your fish crisped to a chip, which I do not, and if 
there is any better provender for a healthy man I have yet to find it out. Talk of 
your trout and your shad — don't mention them beside properly cooked goggle-eyes. 

" Ye monsters of the bubbling deep 

Your Maker's name upraise — 
Up from the sands, ye codd lings peep. 
And sing the red-eye's praise." 

But, if my memory serves me, I was not invited here to direct how to cook fish, 
nor yet to express my poor opinion as to the best of the catch. I was called to dis- 
cuss the " Fish Interests of Indiana." It would take a longer time than you would 
wish to listen to do justice to this subject, and, as our honorable congressmen do, 
I shall have to ask leave to print if I find that I am becoming too prolix. 

I hold to the grand truth that Indiana has in its rivers and streams as fine fish 
as can be found anywhere under tlie sun, from the much bepraised black bass, whose 
fighting powers are immense, to my favorite red-eye, whose courage oozes out of its 
tail, as Mark Tapley's is said to have done at his finger ends. Judging from the 
following, the Illinois fish hatcheries have not been well attended to by the Fish 
Commissioner of that State : 

"It is announced that 1,000,000 eggs of Loch Lerin trout have been received at 
New York, and will be forwarded immediately to the hatchery at Northville, Mich. 
It occurs to us that if our Fish C'ommi?,siouer Barllett were alive to the interest of 
this great and growing State he would secure a fair share of these spawn for his 
Illinois hatcheries. Mr. Bartlelt appears to have been singularly remiss in his 
official duties of late. We are told that the hatcheries on the Hennepin canal, South 
Fork, Bear Creek, and other noble waters of this State are in a sadly demoralized 
condition, and an invoice of the stores of the fish commission shows that depart- 
ment of our public service in possession of only one drag-net, an eel-speer, and a 
can of cove oysters. It might be well for the Legislature to investigate this branch 
of the State government." 

I am glad to know that the citizens of Indiana to a considerable number are 
turning their attention to the breeding of fish, and that throughout the State there 
are hundreds of ponds for the cultivation thereof. But, the truth is, it is not every 
one who can own a pond and enjoy the luxury of fishing on his own domain. 
Therefore, too great attention to pond fishing is, to my judgment, somewhat of the 

same nature as — 

" The fond credulity 
Of silly fish, which (worldling like) still look 
Upon the bait— but never on the hook." 



THE FISH INTERESTS OF INDIANA. 227 

In a word, that it is most injudicious to pay such attention to pond breeding as 
to neglect a more universal interest. What I desire is for our rivers and streams to 
be well stocked with fish, and the fish protected and preserved from the Vandals 
who seine and dynamite. I do not care how many ponds are set apart for fish cul- 
ture by private individuals, what I would should be first looked after is the good 
of the general public. I want it so that either a poor man or a man well-to-do 
may go out to any of the adjacent streams and secure a good mess of fish for break- 
fast, or any other meal. There is no trouble about those who are able to own 
ponds protecting their fish, but I ask protection also for those who have uo ponds. 
I would protect the fishes in the public streams of our State so that those unblest 
with ponds may, if they so desire, indulge in the gentle art and supply themselves 
with one of the most choice of creature comforts The Good Book says, "Men 
shall not live by bread alone," neither would I desire that they live exclusively on 
fish diet, yet there is no other article of food so nutritious to the stomach and 
stimulating to the brain, and no other in any land the procurement of which afibrds 
such delightful recreation. Even the " brown viking of the fishing smack," who in 
his picturesque red blouse and fur-lined jerkin braves the tempest on his jjrofes- 
sional cruise, dearly loves the dangers and adventures of his life. It is the excite- 
ment that we all love, better even than the dainty repast that follows. A few 
years and the rivers and streams of Indiana, protected from the encroachments of 
fish pirates, will furnish an inexhaustible supply of the best fish in the world 
For I contend that there are no better fish than those which people our waters 
and all that is needed is some measure, or measures, for their protection. Our black 
bass is the favorite of angler and epicure ; it has been the theme of the orator and 
the inspiration of the poet. The red-eye — well, you have already had my opinion 
of that beauty. The croppy, which is known by half a dozen other names, is a 
delightful fish if you eat it very soon after you catch it. No richer fish swims 
than the channel cat, while even the mud cat is not a back-set to a hungry man. 
The sportive sun-fish and the graceful jierch, with the horned chub or dace, are 
splendid fish, and to string a yard or two of the last named is the labor I most de- 
light in. 

It is said that it takes a lazy man to catch fish. I deny it. No lazy man was 
ever renowned as a fisherman. To be a successful fisherman one must be forever 
upon the alert. He must not be caught napping. The slightest motion of a fish, 
although the fish may not be feen, is readily understood by the disciple of old Sir 
Isaac. He must know where to strike — and to strike with a will. It will not be 
inappropos, perhaps, to illustrate this by telling of an experience with the late 
George C. Harding. He had had but little luck that day — he was a better hunter 
than fisherman. My string was heavy with perch, red-eyes, sun-fish and dace; all 
were fish that came to my net — no, I did not use a net. He wanted to know how I 
did it, and I invited him to draw near; "and now," thought I, "I will have a lit- 
tle fun at the expense of this man who is so adroit at poking fun at others." I 
was baiting with craw tails and fishing for small fish in about four to six feet of 
water, up to my hips in rubber boots. I would throw my line in and when I felt 
a bite would say : " George, that is a red-eye." Then I would hook my fish and up 
would come a red-eye. 



228 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Sometimes I would say, "Here, George, is a perch," and up would come a 
wriggling perch. Then, again, "George, here's a da«e," and sure enough the dace 
was hooked. I kept this up for some time, for the fish were biting voraciously. 
George looked on with solemn awe. He said I must be in league wilh some fair 
mermaid, whose assistance was invaluabla But, in fact, to an old stager of the 
hook and line, the peculiar nibble of each variety of fish is generally known, the 
bile of a bass in particular being unlike any other. 

Of late years the German carp has been introduced into this country, and are 
thought a great deal of by those, probably, who have had the least to do with 
them. There were those who fancied we had not a sufficient variety native to our 
waters, but must needs introduce this foreigner, which is said to grow to the pro- 
portions of a good-sized shoat, and very much after the nature of a hog. They 
grow very rapidly, if there is any virtue in that, and it is said that a carp of a year 
or so is fit for the table, if, indeed, a carp is ever fit for the table. They are very 
much of the nature of a buffalo, and we ail know what a buffalo is. Carl Nick- 
Ijaus, in writing of the artificial feeding of the carpi, says: 

" The quantity corresponds to the demand for food by 1,000 pounds of liv^hogs, 
if the greatest possible quantity of flesh and fat is to be produced. 1 was of 
opinion that I must make the standard quantity of albumen the same as that de- 
manded by the hog, and I did this for the purpose of not making it too low, 
remembering the fact that the hog is the most voracious of our domestic animals, 
requiring more food in proportion than any other, and that the rapidity of its 
growth resembles that of the carp." 

I fiud that carp has been sent to Indiana from the fisheries for many years. From 
1879 to 1881 there were four applicants to the Government fisheries who were sup- 
plied with carp. I find that F. M. Churchman, Indianapolis, on December 4, 
1880, received fifty carp; Staunton Churchman, December 28, received twenty-five, 
and E. J. Howland and R. M. Thompson, on November 16, were also favored with 
carp, number not stated. It is estimated that there are at the present time at least 
1,000 ponds in the State, of large and small proportions, devoted to the propaga- 
tion of carp, which probably would be better devoted to the fish native and to the 
manner born. 

There is one thing that may be said in favor of the carp: it can live almost 
•anywhere. It is by no means a dainty fish — almost anything and everything will 
tend to support the life of a carp, and as it is a well-known fact that the acres de- 
voted to fish raising produce four-fold more in dollars and cents than those appro- 
rpriated to agriculture ; and the carp is such a prolific breeder, I do not know but 
Ihat raising of carp would indeed be a profitable business. But then the taste for 
-carp can never be as that for more delicate fish. For my own part, I never tasted 
-carp, and in truth I do not hanker after it — our native fish are good enough for me. 

Our lake front is of such comparatively small dimensions that the troubles 
there between the pond netters arc- hardly of State importance, although everything 
• pertaining to fish culture should be of moment to our growing Slate. Up at 
Michigan they complain of pond netlerp and their depredations. This is a mat- 
ter that will no doubt bear looking into, and if there is that which h wrong it 
should be righted. 



FISH CULTURE — PROFITS OF. 229 

What is most desired now is the best protection to all the rivers and the streams 
of the State. The real fish interests of Indiana are what I most desire to see pre- 
served inviolate, notwithstanding that they have been tampered with and rendered 
well nigh past redemption. 

If the tax-payer only knew it, it would be to his interest to render all the aid 
possible to protect the fishes we have with us, not caring how many of strange var- 
iety may be introduced. Let our streams once be depopulated, and it will take 
hundreds of thousands of dollars to restock them. Do the tax-payers ever think 
of this? A few more years of depredation by the seiners and dynamiters and the 
rivers and streams of Indiana will be as useless as a barren waste. 

But I will not weary you. I will close these desultory remarks with a little 
poem by one whom I knew and loved, T. Buchanan Read. It does not indeed, 
refer to the fish interests of Indiana, but it is a pretty pen picture dear to the 
heart of the amateur fisherman : 

" The angler stands 
Swinging his rod with skillful hands; 
The fly at the end of his gossamer line 
Swings through the sun like a summer moth, 
Till, dropped with a careful precision fine 
It touches the pool beyond the froth. 
A-sudden, the speckled hawk of the brook 
Darts from his covert and seizes the hook. 
Swift spins the reel ; with easy slip 
The line pays out, and the rod like a whip, 
Lithe and arrowy, tapering, slim. 
Is bent to a bow o'er the brooklet's brim, 
Till the trout leaps up in the sun, and flings 
The spray from the flash of his finny wings; 
But he dies wiih the hues of the morning light, 
While his sides with a cluster of stars are bright. 
— The angler in his basket lays 
The constellation — and goes his ways." 



FISH CULTURE, AISTD THE PRO FITS OF IT.* 



BY HON. ISAAC N. COTTON, OF TRADER'S POINT. 



" The past has its uses, but it is no place for a man to live." 
In the past fish culture in the United States has been very limited, both in 
theory and practice, but there seems to be a new day dawning for the fish as an ar- 
ticle of culture for food. The General Government and many of the States have 
Fish Commissioners, but the result of their labor has only commenced to reach the 

*An address delivered before the State and Delegate Boards of Agriculture at their 
annual meeting January 8, 1885. 



230 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. 

masses. They have done much in restocking our lakes and rivers, and in intro 
ducing new species of fish, and we are looking for great results. I have no doubt 
that in the near future the Legislator of the past will bewail himself for the meager- 
nes of the appropriations made for the Fish Commissioners, and especially of 
Indiana. But, sir, I am looking to a different source than the restocking of our 
lakes and streams for the great increase of food fishes, and that source is the pri- 
vate pond. Private enterprise has brought about all the great results that we have 
achieved in regard to clothing and food in this country when properly aided by the 
Government, and I am looking to the National and State Fish Commissioners more 
in the light of an aid to private enterprise than to any great results from them di- 
rect. With our innumerable springs and rivulets, besides the large proportion of 
clay land in which ponds may be easily made and filled with water by the rains 
and wind pump, springs turned into excavated ponds, and our rivulets dammed 
and swarming wilh innumerable carp, then, sir, we shall have fish for breakfast,, 
dinner and supper at our choosing; and the farmers, who have acres of quag and 
marsh land, which have never produced enough to pay the taxes on them, will find 
them the most productive portion of their farm, yielding, as they will, a larger per 
cent, on the capital and labor invested than any tilled land. While we may make 
many mistakes, and meet with many failures, what improvements have we to-day 
that have not come up through mistakes and failures. The wooden moldboard 
plow, as compared with the hardened and polished steel plow of to-day, was a fail- 
ure, but it filled its place in the past ; and that practical experience which we shall 
receive in the next few years in fish culture will be a lesson that we could receive 
in no other way. Then let us not hesitate for fear of failure, but drive on, andsuc- 
cess will be ours. Besides the pecuniary benefit derived from these ponds, the pleas- 
ure and recreation afforded by them will be worth untold millions to us as a people. 
My wife and children never tire in calling up the finny tribe and feeding them, 
and the husband is often found lingering about the ponds. Neighbors by the score 
yea, by the hundreds, have visited my ponds, and the general declaration is that 
" I am going to make a pond," or "Oh that I had a place to make a pond." 

We do not raise hogs, sheep and cattle without great labor and care ; neither 
shall we raise carp without labor, but that labor is very light compared with the 
labor that it takes to raise hogs, sheep and cattle. The very season of the year 
when they need the most care and food, our carp are hibernating in the mud at the 
bottom of our ponds, without either food or care. 

To make carp raising profitable we should feed with as much system as we feed 
our domestic animals. I look upon a carp as I do a pig, or any other domestic 
animal, in that the fiesh will be affected by the nature of the food. The carp 
raised without feeding may be equal to the one that is fed, but we can only raise, 
to a limited extent, without feeding, for we must limit the number, where we do 
not feed, to the size of our pond. 

WHAT FISH SHALL WE RAISE? 

What fish we shall raise will be determined from the stand point of profit, tak- 
ing into consideration the edible quality of the fish, as well as its period of growth. 
We have some fine fish, natives of the lakes and rivers of this country. The bass 



FISH CULTURE — PROFITS OF. 231 

has few equals, and by many thought to have no superior amoung the fresh-water 
fishes; but when you undertake to raise them in your pond, you find the cost too 
great. The food they eat is costly. They are carnivorous, and minnows or fresh 
meat they must have. The value of these overbalance his yield, for we have never 
yet been able to feed to any living creature a food, the price of which per pound 
was equal to the product, and obtain a profit, for the reason that a pound of food 
will not produce a pound of meat, fowl or fish. Then we must feed that which is 
much cheaper than the article we desire to produce. Out of nearlv two hundred 
«pecies of fish, natives of the lakes and rivers of Indiana, who has ever produced 
a pound of fish by cultivation that did not cost fifty cents per pond, or more? I 
admit that we may raise some of these fish in ponds without feeding, but not to 
that extent that will pay interest on the cost of ponds, when the cost is an im- 
portant factor. 

But we have found a foreign fish that seems to fill that want, in the German 
carp, and from my short experience, I believe that I can produce a pound of fish 
from the carp cheaper than I can produce a pound of pork, beef, or mutton. Ac- 
cording to the experiments of hog raisers, it takes thirty bushels of corn to produce 
a hog weighing three hundred pounds, or a bushel of corn will produce ten pounds 
of gross pork, and on an average it takes one acre of land to produce thirty bushels 
of corn, and that gives you a three hundred pound hog each year from your acre 
of corn. 

In three years your acre of corn will produce nine hundred pounds gross of 
pork, which, at five dollars per hundred, amounts to forty-five dollars. Now, take 
your acre pond, and place two thousand minnow carp in it, and at the end of three 
years (allowing twenty -five per cent, loss) you will take fifteen hundred carp, aver- 
aging three pounds each, equal to forty-five hundred pounds, which, at ten cents 
per pound, will be four hundred and fifty dollars. [Or at five cents, same price as 
pork, will yield $225, five times the value of the pork. — Ed.] Deduct one hundred 
dollars for food, and you have three hundred and fifty dollars to compare with your 
forty-five dollars from your acre of corn fed to the hog ; and I am sure that the 
labor to care for the fish will not be greater than the care of the hog. I am satis- 
fied that an acre of water, stocked with carp, will yield its owner a more profitable 
return, without food, than his acre of corn with all his labor. There are many 
things that the carp will eat and thrive upon that would be of little benefit to the 
pig, such as cabbage leaves, lettuce, beet tops, cucumber, potatoe and turnip parings, 
and parsley ; and they will eat anything that your pig will eat. 

EDIBLE (QUALITY. 

There may be some difference of opinion as to the edible quality of the carp, 
all may not relish it, for there is no accounting for tastes, except, perhaps, by its 
cultivation. T have known persons that were good judges of pork, who would dis- 
card the best iamb-chops and disdain to eat an oyster or a water chicken, and 
declare that the sucker was the best fish that floats. We have eaten them to a 
limited extent only, but the family and guests all join in recommending their 
edible qualities, and I think that they will be preferred by the farmer's family, 
taken fresh from the water, to any of the stale fish that they can buy on the mar- 



232 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

ket. Another thing in their favor is their tenaciousness of life. You may take- 
them from the water and let them lay on the ground uniil almost any other tisb 
would be dead, and then place them in the water again and they dart off like an 
arrow. I took a four pound carp from the water at seven o'clock in the morning, 
placed it in a basket, drove twelve miles to the city, exhibited it to many ad- 
mirers, and landed him at the Governor's office at eleven o'clock btill moving his 
gills, after being out of water four hours. 

Kudolph Hessel, Superintendent of Government Pond, has said of the carp: 
"That there is no other fish which will, with proper management, be as advan- 
tageous as the carp. Its frugality in regard to its food, its easy adaptability to all 
waters, in rivers, in lakes and ponds, and even salt water estuaries, its regular 
rapid growth and its value as a food fish are its best recommendations." 

And he further says: "I maintain my assertion that the carp, whether it be 
scale, mirror or leather carp, is one of the most excellent fresh-water fishes, and its 
introduction will be of great value in point of national economy, especially on 
account of the facility of its culture, and the enormous extent to which this may 
be carried on." 

Prof. Baird has said of the carp : " I have great faith in the future of this 
new fish, and am quite well satisfied that within ten years it will constitute a very 
prominent element in the food animals of this country. It is emphatically a 
farmers fish, and may safely be claimed to be among fish what chickens are araong^ 
birdn, and pigs and ruminants are among mammals. Its special merit lies in the 
fact of the ease with which it is kept in very limited enclosures." 

And, notwithstanding the prevailing opinion in this country that they will 
not flourish in waters occupied by other fish, I believe, sir, that in a few years we 
shall find plenty of them in our lakes and rivers. If ponds continue to increase 
throughout the country as they are and will continue to increase, what will become 
of the innumerable carp that hatch each year? for you can hatch enough in a 
quarter-acre pond in one season to stock a hundred-acre pond ; and I ask again,, 
what will become of them? I answer, that they will be turned loose by the thou- 
sands in our lakes and rivers to flourish, notwithstanding the bass and pike. They 
already flourish in European rivers, and why not here? 

Mr. President, I am often asked where and how can I maks a pond. I answer,, 
anywhere that you can make a place to hold water and have the water to fill it and 
keep it filled, either by a spring, creek, branch, rain, or by a pump. One care should 
be to turn off the surplus water iVom heavy rains. There are thousands of worthless 
ravines in this State with springs in them that might be converted into finh ponds 
by building a dam across them and cutting a channel around for the surplus 
water; and there are numerous quags that could be leveled or excavated, and if I 
had no better place I should excavate a pond in some clay land and depend on the 
rainfall to fill it, with the aid of a hand or wind pump. The carp are not so 
choice about the kind or amount of water that many of our native fishes are, and 
there is no doubt that the characteristics of this fish have been brought about by 
its long domestication. I have neither space or time to go into the details of 
pond making. Use your common sense and judgment as you would in other mat- 
ters. In conclusion, let me pay to you, go home and examine your premises and 
you will find a place to make a pond. 



FISH CULTURE — PROFITS OF. 233 

Mr. Hendry — 1 approve very highly of what the paper con- 
tains. It refers to the making of artificial ponds. Some one said 
this morning it vs^as not difficult for every man to make a pond, 
but every farmer can make those ponds ; indeed in the north 
part of the State it is quite difficult. There is a large artificial 
lake in Noble county which is well stocked with fish. It was 
made before the year 1837, while large internal improvements 
were going on in Indiana, and is a feeder to the canal to Fort 
Wa}T3e. In that region of the State we are compelled to build 
ponds, but in the county of Steuben we have a large number of 
lakes occupying the highest ground between Lake- Erie and 
Lake Michigan and Toledo and Chicago. We have in that 
■county, in the square of twenty miles, between seventy-five and 
one hundred ponds and lakes. In many of those lakes and 
ponds they are now introducing fish from other localities. Some 
of the lakes are quite deep, one hundred feet or over. In some 
of the ponds the water can be taken out, and they are introduc- 
ing carp, and in some instances eels. There are many there in- 
terested in fish culture, and many farms adjoining those lakes 
and the streams running from one to the other, make a fine 
means for raising fish. The object of the fish culture there is* 
to advertise their facilities for raising and protecting fish. In 
addition to this we have many natural ponds for introducing 
the carp, which are said be a good fish. The pickerel is a very 
prominent fish with us, and have been taken that measured two 
feet in length. I remember forty years ago a man fishing there 
brought in two large pickerel on his spear at one time; these 
were early times, but it is different now. The law is loose and 
the fish are being somewhat thinned out, but even under the pro- 
tection we have, if the law is enforced, we will have plenty of 
:fish besides those being propagated. 

Mr. Miller of Johnson county, was invited to address the 
convention on the Fish Industry,' and spoke as follows : 

Ladies and Gentlmen — I think that a great many of the essays and publica- 
tions that are being written and published upon the subject of fish culture, are cal- 
•culated to lead the minds of the people wrong. There is an interest in the State 



234 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

that is manifest to raise tish and there is also an interest in the State manifest to 
raise an angle fish, a fish that can not be raised profitably. I will say that I have 
been experimenting with the native fish for some eight years and I have found the 
majority of our native fish not worth cultivating. The best variety of our native 
fish are the carniverous fish that have to live upon animal food and the minnows^ 
It was stated here this morning that the Bass is a fine tish and it is true. Also the 
Ked Eye is a fine fish but practical experience and thought teaches us that we can 
not produce it as an article of food and place it within the reach of all. In con- 
nection with those carniverous fish there has to be a hatching house for the impreg- 
nation and rearing of the young fry. 

Fish culture is not without a record. We have in the United States a commis- 
sion spending thousands of money, which is worse than thrown away; we have 
it to-day, and it is doing us much injury. Men are trying to draw others into the 
idea of placing fish in these filthy streams. Fish twenty miles below Indianapolia 
are not fit to come to the table as an article of food. I ask every intelligent per- 
son in my presence if you have had any of those fish which have been hatched and 
thrown into your rivers that are valuable. It is a failure. I will admit those fish 
grew in the rivers once, but what were the circumstances under which thej' grew? 
I want that we should come down to practical facts. Your streams at an early 
time were bordered with virgin forests, which shaded them and kept the water cool 
and clear; the little brook ran out from the woods and come to fill up the rivers. 
These carniverous fish lived on minnows and became fat, and when you caught and 
used them they were good fish. Now they are scarce and nearly 'worthless. What 
has done this ? It is laid to the fisherman. He is to blame to some degree, but 
there are other causes. The brooks are tiled and various obstructions; sewer 
pipes are laid in our towns and cities conveying filth and impurities into our 
rivers; slaughter houses and privy vaults contribute not a little to the impure con- 
dition of our streams. Think what the river is below this city. I have taken fish 
from the stream by the hundreds and put in my ponds, and found that they were 
not fit to be eaten ; they were full of gasses from the sewers of Indianapolis, and were 
not fit for food. During the dry season of the year the water becomes low and 
muddy, and carniverous fish will not thrive in stagnant and muddy water. Their 
culture in such a stream is a failure, and they will eat one another up. Those fine 
bass rear their young to a certain age and then turn around and eat the ofispring. 
The little perch is also a failure. The pound fish and sword fish and cat may 
be raised, but they are not a success when you put them on the 
market for the rich and poor alike. This is my experience with the native fishes 
of the United States. Now, shall we go on and restock those streams? Some of 
those writing on this subject are doing the cause an injury. We have had croakers 
in all ages. When the Fultz wheat was first introduced there were croakers on 
thai, but we did not cease raising it. The carp can be raised and also other fish can 
be. I have made many experiments and the time is not far distant when there will 
be much discussion on the carp. Some are doubtful as to whether we have the real 
German carp in the United States. I have made several experiments with the 
carp, and I find it is going to take care of itself. The United States Fish Associa- 
tion, that is organized in Philadelphia, has condemned a portion of the carp, which 



FERTILIZERS RELATION TO (GROWING PLANTS. 235 

18 unjust, and friends of this variety are taking its part. There are three varieties 
of carp, the scale carp, the leather carp and the mirror carp, issued to us by the 
Oovernment. I have experimented a good deal with it and find that it will do. 
The leather carp, I think, is about the same as scale carp. The scale carp is the 
original carp, a carp from which all other fish of the carp species have been derived. 
The leather carp and mirror carp are scarce, claiming to be improved carp. This, 
of course, will in time show itself. With these few remarks T will close. I tlfenk 
you for your attention. 

Mr. Seward. This is au interesting subject. I have derived 
much information by reading a small book on this subject by 
Geo. Finley, of Pittsburg. 

A vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. Cotton for his paper, 
and to Mr. Miller for his remarks. 



FERTILIZERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE GROW- 
ING PLANT.* 



G. WISELOGEL, INDIANAPOLIS. 



Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is perhaps presumption on my part to 
offer an article relating to agriculture to the representative agriculturists of the 
great State of Indiana. T will, therefore, only relate the result of a few experi- 
ments made by ourselves and others, the lessons derived from them, and a few 
observations culled from thirteen years' experience as a manufacturer and salesman 
of commercial fertilizers. 

Therefore, let us begin with the land when it is first prepared for the seed, being 
new and rich, because each year's growth of grass, weeds and leaves was left to de- 
cay where it grew, and returning to mother earth, the nitrogen, phosphoric acid, 
potash, etc., it had drawn from her during its lifetime, thus increasing, instead of 
diminishing the store of plant food contained in the soil, it became stronger and 
more prolific after each year's growth of plants had decayed. 



*An address delivered before the State and Delegate Boards of AgricMiUiire ;it their 
mual meeting January 8, 1845. 



236 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The husbandman comes, and after clearing the land of timber, brush, etc., plows 
or digs up the soil, pulverizes it as much as possible preparatory to planting the 
6e€d, the land being rich in plant food, it produces a bountiful crop, amply reward- 
ing him for his labor. This being profitable as well as a necessity, he repeats the 
planting, and removing the crop year after year, without giving the subject even a 
passing thought that he was removing from the store of plant food contained in 
the,6oil of his farm a given quantity of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash, or 
without returning to the soil the constituents of plant food in the way of manure,, 
or other fertilizers. And if this constant drain is kept up without a return being 
made to the soil, it is made poorer and poorer, until finally it will not produce' 
enough to pay for the labor of cultivating it, and he must either do something to re- 
store the land to fertility or abandon the farm. And in order to make the fields- 
productive again, he must return to the soil the plant food of which it has been rob- 
bed — by hauling manure, turning under clover and weeds, or other crops, or by 
applying commercial fertilizers, such as phosphates, ground bone, etc. 

Now the question presents itself, a-s to how it is best to apply this commercial 
fertilizer to obtain the best results, since it is quite expensive, and there being 
nothing like enough manure produced on the farm to compensate for the amount 
of plant food taken away with the grain, hay, and stock that is sold, it is therefore 
important to get the full benefit of the fertilizer. Therefore let us examine what 
this commercial fertilizer is composed of and how it is prepared, so as to be en- 
abled to use it to the best advantage. 

The manuiacturer of fertilizers prepares his fertilizer to suit the soil and crop 
for which it is designed, about as follows: If it is to be used on a clay or com- 
pact soil, for wheat, clover, grass, or any slow-growing plant, he selects bone for 
the phosphoric acid it contains. The clean, hard, dry bone is ground fine, the 
coar&er particles carefully screened out, and this finely-ground bone is placed upon 
the market as raw hone, to be used on wheat, clover, grass, shrubbery, fruit trees,, 
lawns, etc.; or, if the soil be light or sandy, use only on a meadow or on wheat 
after it is up, or any crop that has roots to take up the particles of bone and hold 
them until they are dissolved by the action of the solvents contained in the soil,, 
for a fertilizer is only plant food when in a solvent or dissolved state. The raw 
bone, being hard and flinty, is not readily dissolved. It is therefore necessary to 
hold it near the plant by some agency until it becomes solvent by the elements con- 
tained in the earth, otherwise it may be washed away or leach through the soil 
without giving the plant the nourishment it was designed to do. Therefore it is 
better to applv the raw bone to plants that are already rooted, as the roots will 
catch and ho!d the bone until dissolved. 

Bones that are not dry, or not fit to grind as raw bone, are put into an iron tank 
and steamed under pressure until they become soft; they are then taken out, dried 
and ground in the same manner as the raw bone, and placed on the market a» 
" steamed bone," " bone meal," " dissolved bone," or '" bone dust," to be used and 
applied the same as raw bone, except that it having been steamed, it is much softer 
and a great deal more soluble than the raw bone, it acts much quicker, and in a. 
porous or light soil gives decidedly better results. 



FERTILIZERS — RELATiaN TO GROWING PLANTS. 23T 

The flesh and blood of the animal is dried and ground for the nitrogen or 
ammonia it contain?, and to make an ammouiated phosphate, or any other am- 
moniated brand, the mannfacturer uses ground bone for the phosphoric acid or 
bone phosphate of lime; flesh and blood for the ammonia, adds a certain per 
cent, of potash, saturates the Avhole mass with sulphuric acid, runs it through «• 
mixing machiue, and in a short time it is ready for the market. 

Then, knowing the composition of the fertilizer and the soil upon which it is to 
be used, and the plant we desire to grow, we can, with a reasonable degree of cer- 
tainty, determine which brand or kind of fertilizer it will be best and most profit- 
able to use. Thus, for a light or sandy soil the Steamed Bone, Bone Meal, Bone 
Dust, or kindred brands of the fertilizers offered in this market would do better for 
wheat, or grass to be cut for hay. But if the soil be a stiff" day or its constituent, 
and the plant a shrub or vine, or a meadow used for grazinff, or even wheat, a slow- 
acting, and consequently long-end iiring, fertilizer, such as Raw Bone, would be the^ 
most satisfactorj. 

For all spring crops on any soil, a highly soluble fertilizer, such as Ammoniated 
Phopphates, is undoubtedly the most satisfactory, as it acts quickly and energetically 
on the growing plant, pushes it forward to a vigorous growth, insuring early ma- 
turity and an increased yield. 

Now, a few words about tlie application of fertilizers. I will give you our own. 
experience in this matter, what it leads to, and its logical deduction, and the corn- 
elusions arrived at. Some of these experiments were made on the Sellers farm 
near this city, and others by our customers in different parts of the State. And to 
begin with our first, six years ago, 1 wiU say that after the ground had been care- 
fully prepared for the seed, our rule was to drill about two hundred pounds of bone 
dust to the acre with the wheat at the time of planting, which was the first week 
in September. Our wheat grew finely, too fine in fact, and the fly got into the- 
wheat, and W3 got left. Another field was sown two weeks later, with the same 
amount of fertilizer. The wheat grew finely ; the fly did not hurt it so muchj 
we got big straw, but not the number of bushels we expected to get for the amount 
of straw, and felt that we were cheated, somehow or other, and set to work to dis- 
cover the cause. The next fall we planted the last week in September and first 
week in October, with the same kind and amount of fertilizer. The result was 
much better, but still not enough wheat for the amount of straw. 

It occurred to us that we were raising too much straw and not enough wheat^ 
and unless we could do better the wheat-raising business with expensive fertilizer 
was not very profitable, and must be improved or abandoned. And in analyzing: 
the situation it appeared that we fed our wheat plant too much in the start, by 
giving it all its food for the whole year at once, consequently it gorged itself, grew 
abnormally large for its age ; by the time it began to head out and put on the 
grain its stock of food was well-nigh exhausted, and it required so much to nourisb 
the immen.^e stalk that the head suffered for want of proper food, and the conse- 
quence was a dwarfed head on a large body. It was therefore decided to give the 
grain just about food enough at the time of planting to give it a good start for the 
spring, and then give it its summer rations, thus avoiding the possibility of the fer- 



238 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

tilizer being washed away, as the roots of the plant are there to catch it as it falls, 
whereas in the fall there are no roots or anything to hold it, and much of it is 
washed away and lost to the purpose for which it wa-5 intended. 

We therefore adopted the following mode of applying fertilizer to wheat. It 
has worked well wherever it has been tried, and we recommend it to all our 
patrons : « 

After tlie ground has been prepared and ready for the seed, we sow or drill 
about one hundred pounds of fertilizer with the grain in the fall, about the 15th 
or 20th of October, and as soon as the frost is out, and the ground settled in the 
spring, we go over the wheat lot with a seeder and sow from one hundred and 
fifty to two hundred pounds of fertilizer to the acre, and then go over the whole 
field with a light harrow and break up the hard crust formed by the beating winter 
rains, and the result is, shorter straw, a great deal more wheat, and an earlier 
matured crop. Those who have tried this plan are highly pleased with it, and we 
earnestly recommend it as the true way of applying fertilizer to make wheat grow. 

The same rule applies to corn. We find it best to .soak the seed corn in a tub 
of water over night and just before planting put the fertilizer into a suitable sized 
box, put the soaked corn into it also, mix the two thoroughly together and plant. 
The fertilizer that adheres to the kernel of corn is suflicient for the present. Moles 
and crows don't like it and do not seem to bother it much, and when the corn is 
worked for the last time, that is when it is " laid by," put a good sized handful of 
fertilizer around each hill of corn in a circle of not less than a foot in diameter, 
or sow broadcast 250 lbs. to the acre. The reason for doing so is this: If too much 
fertilizer is put in with the grain at the time of planting, much of it will wash or 
leach away before the plant is ready for it, and what remains will shoot the stalk 
ahead to a great size, and when the time for earing comes, the same trouble arises 
that was cited with the wheat; therefore, if the stalks be not so very large, if the 
proper nourishment can be supplied at the time the sap begins to flow to the ear, 
the ear will grow large instead of the stalk, for then is the time to force the plant ; 
but if the stalk be too large it will consume too much food for its own use at the 
expense of the new member, the ear, ju;t setting. The reason for putting the fer- 
tilizer around the hill instead of into it is to make the roots spread out in quest of 
food, which they will not do if the food is put into the hill. The reason for want- 
ing the I'oots to spread is that the plant will stand much firmer, will endure a 
drouth much better, and have a greater area to draw nourishment from. 

The results of all our experiments and observations point to the fact that it is 
far better to apply the fertilizer in smaller doses and at shorter intervals to all 
growing crops. Judgment must of course be used in this matter, as it is quite im- 
possible to lay down and adopt an iron-clad rule for all crops and conditions. 

Raw bone sown over a pasture or lawn before freezing up in the fall, and the 
sod loosened up with a good harrow iu the spring, gives excellent results. Fruit 
trees while iu blossom, and vines and shrubs, all should receive liberal doses of 
bone dust around the roots, worked into the ground with shovel, hoe or pick. 

For a meadow we recommend the use of ammoniated phosphates. Sow 200 
pounds to the acre as soon as the frost is out and the ground settled enough to bear 



DKSTRUCTION OF CROPS BY INSECTS. 239 

up a team in the spring, and harrow the fertilizer well in. Repeat the operation 
immediately after cutting and removing the first crop. Wherever this process has 
been tried the result has been highly satisfactory. In many instances the yield of 
hay has been doubled, and of a better quality than in neighboring fields not so 
treated. 

A few words more about sowing wheat. One year ago last fall we commenced 
drilling in our wheat on the 17th of October, 1883, drilling five pecks of Mediterra- 
nean wheal to the acre, without fertilizer. The temperature of the earth two 
inches below the surface was forty-flve degrees Fahrenheit. Five acres were put 
in in this manner. Five days later another five acres were put in in a similar 
manner, and ten acres more were finished on the 28th day of the same month. The 
temperature varied from forty -five to forty-two degrees, but in following up the 
drill it was found that the temperature would rise in the newly-disturbed earth 
from 9 o'clock A. M. to 2 o'clock p. m. to forty-eight and fifty degrees, showing the 
tendency of freshly loosened earth to absorb heat, while a smooth, hard surface will 
repel it. All the grains sprouted in seven days. That jilanted first was through 
the ground in eleven days. A hard frost setting in just then, the wheat sown last 
did not appear above ground until spring. Half of the ground was harrowed in 
the spring. It was intended to sow fertilizer on the whole piece in March, but 
through a disobedient farmer it was not done, and that part of the experiment was 
lost. The piece harrowed showed a difference of from three to five degrees of heat 
above that which was not harrowed. The wheat grew a third faster, looked 
healthier and better in every way. It yielded twenty-four and a half bushels per 
acre, while the other gave us but seventeen bushels to the acre. Unfortunately the 
early and late sown wheat became mixed in threshing, so it was impossible to tell 
the difference in the yield of the respective pieces, but it looked on the field as 
though the early sown wheat was a little the best. The soil on which this wheat 
was raised is a light, sandy loam. 

We have sown no wheat for this year, as we intend to make a series of experi- 
ments on corn this season. 



DESTRUCTION OF CROPS BY INSECTS. 



BY J. G. KINGSBURY. 



I might easily have found a more attractive subject. Worms and bugs are not 
pleasant to look at, nor think about, and now that winter has his icy hand upon 
them they seem to have but little interest to us. Out of sight is out of mind, so 
far as the bug family are concerned. But to speak in earnest, there are few sub- 
jects that farmers have a more vital interest in than that of insect depredations. 

"Read before the State Board of Agriculture, at the January meeting. 



:240 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, 

Tbe all engrossing subject of tares is not more important. These little prowlers in 
their numerous clans and myriad hocts, attacking almost every variety of grain, 
fruit and vegetable, levy heavier tributes than the State and nation combined. 

Prof. C. V. Riley, Entomologist to the Department of Agriculture, rates the 
amount of insect ravages to the nation, at hundreds of millions a year, and the 
President of the Missouri Horticultural Society said a few years ago that the loss 
<^ the fruit growers of that State alone, by inflects, was not less than $60,000,000 a 
year. What data he based his estimate upon we do not know, but it is easy to 
figure up several hundreds of thousands lost to our own State yearly by the curcu- 
lio, codling moth, the borers, canker worms, and other tribes in our orchard«<, and 
the Hessian fly, the midge, joint worm, chinch bug, and other pests in our grain 
fields. It is not extravagant to say that fifty per cent, of our apples are rendered 
■ansaleable and well nigh useless by that arch enemy of this most valuable of our 
fruits, the codling moth. The plum, one of the most productive of our orchard fruits, 
:*nd once one of the most profitable, is scarcely grown in our State, and simply be- 
•cause of the destructive ravages of the curcuUo. Ten per cent, would not be an 
anreasonable estimate, one year with another, for the damage done to our wheat 
«rops by the Hessian fly, the army worm, and a score of other enemies to this plant. 

Putting the yield of the State at 40,000,000 bushels and the price at seventy-five 
cents per bushel, this Item alone would show a loss of $3,000,000. The loss to corn 
from chinch bugs, the grub worm, and the new pei^t, the corn root worm, do not yet 
reach such a figure, perhaps, though the damages from these and other insects are 
yearly increasing, while our meadows and clover fields suffer increasing losses by 
grubs and root worms. If we descend t<» less important crops we shall find that in 
the aggregate immense losses are sufTered by the devouring hordt-« of potato bugs, 
cabbage worms, melon bugs, currant worms, squash bugs and vine borers, raspberry 
and strawberry leaf rollers, and other enemies, scale inse<cis, plant lice, mealy bugs, 
slugs, canker worms, tent caterpillars, and many more such pestiferous tribes. 

All these that have been named are reirular standbys. We expect to eee them 
every year, and are not disappointed, but occasionally — and at not very remote pe- 
riods, usually — we are visited in different sections of the State with innumerable 
hosts of chinch bugs, and army worms that sweep whole townships, as a few years 
ago, in Iowa, where the meadows and fields of grain were laid bare by the.se pests, 
as though scorched by tire, over whole counties. We are liable to such incursions 
at any time, and in any section of the State. These hungry hordes of depredators 
make no announcement of their approach. They stand not upon the order of thew 
coming. When they get ready, and all the recruits are in, they move right along 
.double quick, and seldom fail to finish up whatever little job they have in hand, 
with neatness and dispatch. 

Another unpleasant fact in regard to our insect plagnes is that new and strange 
species are constantly appearing. It is not many years since the so-called Colorado 
|)otato beetle came an unheralded stranger among us. More recently the cabbage 
\worm came over from the old country to show us what he could do. The maple bark 
louse has only lately cast in his lot with us, and his work on our shade trees will 
tell of his presence for years to come. In some localities this pest has ruined fruit 
trees as well as maples. Prof. Cook, of Michigaa, describes two new insect enemies 



DESTRUCTION OF CROPS BY INSECTS. 241 

that have attacked the wheat in that State. One hollows out the berry, and the 
other works in the straw just above the joint. The same gentleman, who is an ac- 
complished entomologist, by the way, in the Michigan Agricultural College, gives 
some observations upon a new and very injurious enemy to the apple, which has 
received the disgusting name of apple maggot, that does its work mainly after the 
fruit is gathered in the fall. From past experience we are warranted in expecting 
other troublers of the kind in the years to come. Fruit growers are x-eady to accept 
as their motto. Eternal vigilance is the price of good fruit, and the sentiment is 
scarcely less appi'opriate as applied to grain-growing. But what is to be done 
about it? is the question that involuntarily arises when the subject of insect depre- 
cations is presented. To many it seems a hopeless and useless task to fight these 
tiny foes. A few years ago it did appear useless indeed io enter the combat, but 
science, investigation and experiment have come to the i-escue, and now we have 
effective weapons against nearly all the tribes that have been long enough among 
us to allow of studying their habits and learning their likes and dislikes. By 
means of lime, ashes, tobacco decoctions, Paris green, London purple, hellebore, 
pyrethrum, kerosene emulsions, sulphur, copperas, etc., we may keep most of the 
pests from swarming upon and overwhelming our crops of fruit and grain. 

But the fight is a severe and expensive one where it must be carried on single 
handed, and especially when we fight in the dark, that is without knowing our 
enemy's strength and tactics. And here is the point and purpose of my essay : 

Our farmers and fruit growers need information regarding the insect enemies 
that have been alluded to, and ought to be advised as to the best means of warding 
off their attacks. In other words ihey need the services of a competent entomolo- 
gist to whom they may send any suspicious looking insects for name and remedy, 
if noxious. They need to be informed regarding the insect-eating birds, both native 
and imported. Many of our insectivorous birds, the swallows, for example, are 
supposed to be as fond of bees and other useful insects, as of those that are injuri- 
ous. The Engli.sh .sparrow is believed by the President of our State Horticultural 
Society, who is usually good authority in horticultural matters, to be an insect- 
eating bird, while other authorities assert that this bird eats insects only when grain, 
buds and other vegetable food can not be found. Our farmers need to have this 
and similar questiotis solved, by the investigations of some per.-;on qualified and 
paid for the work. The best remedies for each insect and the best modes of appli- 
cation, amounts required, the descriptions of friendly insects, or those that destroy 
the injurious kinds, and much other information regarding the subject of insect 
economy can best be given by a competent entomologist under pay of the State. 

It may be objected that the employment of an entomologist for Indiana involves 
an unnecessary expense, since we have such an officer in the Department of Ag- 
riculture at WH.shington, and neighboring States have men employed in studying 
up the same insects that are to be found in our State. A legislator of an econom- 
ical turn of mind might ask why not buy the reports of these gentlemen and get all 
the information they have gained, at a merely nominal co.st .■" It is true that tiie Il- 
linois, Ohio, Michigan and Missouri entomological reports might be thus utilized, 
as well as those of the United States Agricultural Department, but we dislike to be 

16 — Agriculture. 



242 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

charged with such pammony as this course would imply. But a stronger objec- 
tion is in the fact that but little advantage would be gained from distributing such 
documents. But a very small proportion of the people would ever see them, and 
especially would this bf^ true of the class most needing the information they 
contain. Farmers, as a rule, pay but little attention to insects or their depreda- 
tions till they are upon their crops and are multiplying and feeding with rapidly 
increasing numbers. Then they want to know what the things are, and what to do 
to destroy or drive them away, and they want to know who to write to to give them 
this all-important information. It is too far to send to Washington. It may be a 
week before a reply would reach them, and in that time great and irreparable 
damage will have been done. They have no right to address the entomologists of 
Illinois or Ohio ; so nothing remains but to write the editor of their agricultural 
paper. He may know what the insect is, and he may not. He will give the best 
advice in the shop, but he is not authority. What is wanted is a competent ento- 
mologist in the employ of the State, to whom any citizen is at liberty to send for 
any desired information regarding insects that may be depredating upon his crops. 
The State can employ such a man, with heatlquarters at Indianapolis, in the rooms 
of the Stale Board, at from S2,000 to §3,000 per year ; or if the smaller of these 
sums seems too high, they may secure the services of the entomological profes8«r at 
Purdue University, for perhaps one-half the amount, allowing him to receive par- 
tial pay as professor in the institution for a stipulated portion of his time. 

It may be regarded as one of the duties of this body to recommend to the Legis- 
lature such laws as they deem important to the agricultural interests of the State. 

At present there is no law on our statute book against insects of any kind. In 
view of such considerations as have been suggested it seems time that we should 
have provision made for appointing a State entomologist, and, in addition to this, 
that some such legislation as that adopted in California should be enacted. In that 
State an act has been passed appointing a State Board of Commissioners in the 
interest of the horticultural industry, with power to act in any proper way to pre- 
vent the importation and propagation of noxious insects. The law allows the peo- 
ple in any section to combine to destroy insect pests, and empowers the majority 
with the right to constrain the minority to join in the battle. 

This Delegate and State Board would do an incalculable service to the agricnl- 
tural interests of the vState if, by their petitions to the Legislature and influence with 
that body, they should secure the passage of some such enactment against the insect 
enemies of our crops of fruit and grain. 



VALUE OF BIRDS AS INSECT DESTROYERS. 24-J 

THE VALUE OF BIRDS AS INSECT DESTROYERS * 



BY PLKTCHER M. NOE. 



Probably few subjects have interested the agriculturist of late years as much as 
the ever important one, as to whether birds are a friend or foe to his growing crops 
and fruit. A great deal has been written both for and against the preservation of 
birds, some writers thinking that the amount of fruit destroyed by them more than 
overbalances any good they may do as insect destroyers, while others hold that the 
amount of fruit destroyed is comparatively small when compared with the amount 
of injurious insects destroyed. 

My own investigations have proved that the latter view is substantially correct 
and especially so with the "i-obin," to whom my investigations have principally 
been directed. Perhaps no bird is better known to the farmer than he, being one 
of our first arrivals in spring, ( many of them reaching here in the early part of 
of March), he is the last to leave in the fall, often remaining until the ground is 
covered with snow before taking his flight southward. In early spring he can be 
seen hopping around over the freshly plowed ground, eagerly watching for any un- 
wary angle worm who has been unfortunate enough to have been exposed to sight 
by the farmer's plow, and from the number of times the brownish black head 
pounces down into the earth it is reasonable to suppose that his breakfast is not a 
poor one. By actual experiment it has been shown that a young robin requires 
consiiderably more than his "own weight" of animal food every day, and during 
the season of rearing their young, the old birds forage almost exclusively on insects 
while it is true that the robin will feed upon seeds and berries when insect food is 
not well obtainable. The following list of insects which I obtained by the careful 
dissection of upwards of thirty robins during the past summer, will show what a 
benefit tiie robin is: The insects noticed were the Corn Worm ( Gortyra Zeal), 
Apple Borer ( Printharia Pomella), Corn Root Worm, Diabrotica Longicornis 
(Say), Ground Beetle, ( Lachnosteuna Quereina), Measuring Worm ( Geometra 
Catenoria), and also the larva; of the well known Cabbage and Sulphur Butterflies. 

The stomach of one adult robin, examined by Clarence M. Weed, of the Michi- 
gan Agricultural College, contained such a striking instance of the beneficial influ- 
ence of the bird that I notice it here. The bird in question was shot between a row 
of cherry trees and raspberry bushes, both in bearing, and but a few rods apart. The 
stomach was almost wholly filled with the injurious larvae of the family anthomyiidae. 
This is the family to which belong the notorious cabbage and radish flies, which in 
many places have stopped the cabbage production, with a consequent loss of thou- 
eands of dollars annually. By actual count there were sixty of these anthomyian 
larvae in the single stomach. Yet many a horticulturist asserts that robins eat no 
insect food in berry seasons. If any one doubts the assertion that robins do BOt 
subsist principally on insects, let them try the experiment of trying to raise a young 

* Read before the Aanual Agrioultural Coarention, Jaaaary 8, 1S35. 



244 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

robin on other than animal food. The bird will usually die on the second or third 
day, but on the other hand, give him plenty of insects, such as moths, beetles, grubs, 
vine worms, chrysolids, and caterpillars, and he will soon grow healthy and strong. 

Mr. Trouvelt, of Medford, Mass., one of the largest growers of silk worms in the 
United States, lost so many worms by the depredations of birds, principally robins, 
that he found it necessary to cover his entire patch (when the worms were fed), 
consisting of over eight acres, with netting to protect them, and even then it Avas 
only by constant watching that they were prevented from breaking through the 
netting. As an experiment, he placed a thousand silk worms on a scrub oak, just 
outside of his grounds, and caused it to be watched. Jn three days the worms were 
all gone. The robins, with the help of a few cat-birds, had eaten every one. Mr. 
Trouvelt, although a loser himself, gave the result of his experiment to show the 
love of the robin for insect food. 

I may well add to the above a list of such birds as are known to be insect de- 
stroyers, in hopes that it may, to some extent, check the almost wholesale destruc- 
tion of our birds, which is going on to such a great extent in our State. A few 
years ago robins, black birds, jays, yellow hammers, orioles, thrushes and cat-birds 
nested within our city in large numbers, but owing to the introduction of the Eng- 
lish sparrow, and to largely increased numbers destroyed by city and farmer boys> 
since the introduction of cheap fire aims, which I might say are an invention of 
late years, these birds ha.ve almost entirely left us, only a few straggling robins 
and blue birds remaining. It may be of interest to note that I have made numer- 
ous inquiries amongst persons gardening in or near the city, and that they have all 
united in saying that their fruit and garden stuff' has suffered more from the at- 
tacks of insects during the past summer than ever before. I am thoroughly con- 
vinced that this is largely due to the almost total extinction of our insectivorous 
birds in and near the city. 

The law passed by our last Legislature prohibiting the killing of nearly all of 
our song birds was well timed and to the point, but it seems usele.ss to have and 
make such a law unless it is enforced. 1 think that if there was a reward of say 
from $1 to S3 offered for each offender arrested and convicted under this law, it 
would have a summary effect upon the promiscuous shooting now indulged in hy 
nearly everybody who has a gun. I know of a number of boys and young men 
in our city, who make it their boast of killing so many robins or so many blue 
birds on each hunting excursion. If such parties as these were made to pay one 
or two good fines they would stop this so-called sport and go into more legitimate 
pursuits. 

The following is a list of birds known to be destroyers of injurious insects : 
Blue bird, robin, cat bird, chipping sparrow, field sparrow, clay-colored sparrow,, 
black- throated bunting, indigo bird, ground robin (chewink), cardinal grosbeak, 
black bird (crow , black bird (cow), black bird (red-winged), bobolink, meadow 
lark, king bird, pewee, cuckoo, night hawk, chimney swallow, sparrow hawk, 
woodpeckers (all kinds), quail, large snipe, plover, prairie chicken, warblers (small 
warbling birds found in spring and summer, usually brightcolorcdj'and martins. 

Indianapoi.is, December, 1884. 



ROAD PAVING MATERIAL. 245 



ROAD PAVING MATERIAL * 



BY JOHN T. CAMPBELL, SUKVEYOR AND CIVIL ENGINEER. 



When we consider the great importance of good roads, and the many things that 
can be made available for paving them, we are almost struck dumb with wonder at 
the meagre use that is made of the fair to good material so lavishly furnished us by 
Nature. So many people have no conception of anything they have not seen done 
— so many people prefer to trudge along over the steep, winding and muddy road 
over which they have once successfully traveled, that it is too often much easier 
for those of broader concejitions and greater enterprise to follow the roads of thtir 
stupid neighbors than to*make the effort and endure the vexation of leading them 
into better paths. Mankind, in the mass, progresses and moves forward much like 
the waters; crowding and jostling each other, moving only because those who are 
ahead are trying to keep out of the way of those who are following, and those who 
are following are trying to keep up with those who are ahead. Thus moving, they 
wander like the running water along the most roundabout courses, making their 
channels more crooked by erosion, until two bends are worn into each other, making 
a "cut off," and by pure, stupid luck, find a shorter road, while apparently trying 
to make a longer one. 

How often have we labored and worried both our teams and ourselves, along a 
muddy road, when near by, and parallel with it, a clever stream had piled up gravel 
in tantalizing heaps. 

Coal slack, coal ashes and coal cinders make fair to good roads. Yet, in many 
parts of the coal belt of the State, the people are pulling through the mud, in 
plain sight of great heaps of that material, sufficient to pave all the roads of their 
neighborhood, and are heard to lament the condition of the roads and the scarcity 
of gravel. 

The best piece of road in Parke county is a section two miles long, going west 
from Rockville, which was the first we built under the present gravel road law. 
Owing to the supposed impossibility of getting gravel, I, as the engineer making 
-the survey and estimate, and afterward superintending the construction, used coal 
slack for the under two-thirds of the paving material, which Ave obtained from the 
Sand ('reek coal mines, two and a half miles northeast of Rockville, and covered' 
this with the upper third of such gravel as we could get. Last winter and spring 
thi^ piece of road was noticeably the least cut into slush by the travel during the 
frequent freezings and thawings, of any of the eight roads then leading from the 
town. The west end of this same road was made of excellent gravel, but with les& 
travel than on the east, or coal slack, end, but it went all to slush and had to be re- 
graveled in the spring. I have forgotten the cost of the coal slack, but remember 

*Read before the Indiana Association of Surveyors and Civil Engineers, at Indianapolis, 
January 21 and 22, 1885. 



•246 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

that it was much cheaper than the poor gravel which was hauled less than half the 
<listance. The Coal Company donated the slack: and the railroad gave favorable 
rates over their road from the mines to town, and from the cars it was re-hauled to 
the road. A team could haul a large wagon-bed heaping full, being two and a 
half or three times the bulk of a common gravel-bed would contain. In this the 
cheapness mainly consisted. 

Charcoal will also make a fair paving material. I will not claim that it is as 
good as good gravel, but it is as good as average, and better than poor gravel. 
Timber is often plenty where good gravel, or any kind, is scarce. In large quan- 
tities it can be made and sold at the pit at three to three and a quarter cents per 
l)ushel. Five to seven yards can be hauled at a load, which about offsets the cost 
of cutting and burning. It absorbs and rapidly evaporates water and moisture, 
tence giving a dry road soon after the rains cease. It should be covered with a 
thin coat of good gravel, to hold it down, from blowing and washing away and 
'from taking fire. 

My experimentfl have been limited to short spaces, and at my own expense, for 
1 could not persuade the Board of Commissioners to risk it as a paving material, 
and there is generally opposition enough to the road built strictly according to 
law, without risking the use of unusual material. As the law now reads, any good 
paving material may be used. But my experiments were very satisfactory. Gil- 
lespie's Manual of Roads and Railroads mentions three roads made entirely of 
•charcoal, and pronounces them eminently successful. 

A bushel of charcoal, when packed, is equal to about one and one-third cubic 
feet. To build a mile of road, one foot deep and twelve feet wide of charcoal will 
require about 48,000 bushels of charcoal which, at three cents per bushel at the 
pit, will cost about $1,470. The average haul in Parke county would not exceed 
one mile. At three dollars per day for teams, it can be hauled one mile for twelve 
-cents per cubic yard, including loading, or $250 per mile. A cheaper, and quite 
.good road might be built of charcoal nine inches deep by ten feet wide, covered 
^ith three inches of gravel. 

The braize, or burnt dirt, which covers the coal pits, is a good paving material, 
and might be used instead of gravel to hold the charcoal down, as before men- 
tioned. 

Charcoal has one merit above all other paving material I know of, that of he- 
being as good after it is ground into a dust as when in lumps; it still maintains 
Its compactness. It also has the merit of admitting more mud without becoming' 
slushy than any other material. 

Before closing I must mention a paving material which has recently come to 
my knowledge. It is the use of common straw to harden and make compact sandy 
roads. This knowledge may be old, but it is new to me. A sand road is as tiresome 
to a team, and as annoying to the traveler, out of sympathy for the team, as mud, 
except in the relative cleanness «f the two. 

Four inches of loose straw spread on a sandy road will, in a few days' travel, 
be ground into the sand, when it will become as firm and compact aa a dry clay 
road. If this is old knowledge, I am quite sure it is not f/ena-al knowledge, for I 
have never seen it used a« a remedy for sandy jjoads. I first observed it last sum- 



ROAD PAVING MATERIAL. 247 

mer, where a woman had emptied a straw bed tick on one of the worst sand roads 
I ever saw. The straw was worn out for bedding purposes, but was just right for 
road purposes, as the finer it is broken up the better. Since that time I have 
observed every bunch of straw which I have seen drop on such a road, and have 
gone to some personal trouble myself to put straw on such roadj, and have watched 
the effect, which has every time been as before stated. Straw has doubtless been 
dropping on sand roads for several hundred years, and it may be that more observ- 
ing people than I, and the people I have always lived among, have been aware of 
its benefits; but if so, why is it not generally used? 

This suggests that it might be used to advantage on new gravel roads where the 
gravel is much mixed with sand, and thereby pack slow. It would give instant 
relief, and would not at all hurt the quality of the gravel. 



:r.e:e>oi^ts 



County and District Agricultural Societies, 

EMBRACING THE 

coisriDiTionsr of .A.C3-Piio-criL,TXJPiE, 

FOR THE YEAR 1884. 

FOLLOWED BY A CONDENSED FINANCIAL EXHIBIT AND NUMBKR OF ENTRIES AND 
PREMIUMS PAID IN TABLE FORM OF ALL THE AGRICULTURAL SOCIE- 
TIES REPORTED, ■WITH A LIST OF THR NAMES AND ADDRESSES 
OP THE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF EACH. 



The following reports are such as required by Statute Law and a CertiJScate 
from the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture, showing that such report has been 
made entitles such Agricultural Society to the license fund from shows, that may 
have accumulated in such County Treasury. See R. S., Sees. 2631, 5269 and 5270. 

The general improvement in these reports from year to year is very gratifying, 
and in accord with the general prosperity and improved condition of the country. 
No failure in fairs reported, but a higher tone in morals as a standard of excellence. 

It is noteworthy to observe the unanimity of opinion as to the immense bene- 
fits derived from drainage. The importance of laws to fence stock in, instead of 
out, and thereby save a large proportion of fencing. And that the present -'dog 
laws," protect the dogs more than the sheep, being a great impediment to wool grow- 
ing. A thorough description of each county is given in our last annual report, 
lience, we here avoid any such repetition. 

Secretary. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 24^ 



ALLEN COUNTY. 

The Northern Indiana Fair Association has existed, as at present constituted,^ 
just three years. The last annual exhibition, September 29, October 1, 2 and 3, 
1884, was indicative of the growth of the society in popularity and wealth, until 
now the management find their association without entangling alliances, without a 
penny of indebtedness, with a surplus in the treasury, handsome exhibitioa 
grounds, and the confidence of their patrons. 

The exhibitions of the Northern Indiana Fair Association have culiivated a 
taste or vspirit for scientific agriculture, fine stock and blooded horses; not alone in 
Allen county, but throughout Northern Indiana, every portion of which Fort 
Wayne's seven great trunk line railroads permeate. In this county, within the 
past two or three years, six or seven extensive stock farms have been established, 
and citizens of this county can boast of Clydesdale and Norman horses, celebrated 
in this country and Great Britain, while the speed department includes a former 
winner of the Derby, and trotting horses of great promise. Our farmers can like- 
wise boast of as iine herds of Short Horns, Jerseys and Galloways as roam any 
pasture. The same spirit has actuated farmers in rearing sheep and swine, while 
their agriculture has, in a like manner, advanced to a degree of excellence. 

Wheat is the great crop in Allen county, and in fact in Northern Indiana, with, 
corn, hay, oats, rye and buckwheat following in the order named. 

Primitively a great portion of the land in this county was low and wet, but a 
thorough system of tile draining and ditching has entirely reclaimed and greatly 
enhanced the value of a vast tract of real estate, and even now an expenditure of 
a large sum of money, running into the thousands, has been ordered by the Circuit 
Court to reclaim and drain a section of low prairie land in this county, and west 
of the city of Fort Wayne. This work is promotive of the general welfare, and is 
destined to make Allen county the first in Indiana in health, wealth and resources. 

The new gravel-road law has provided excellent public highways, and no coun- 
ty in Indiana can boast of finer bridges, neater farms, better crops, and greater fer- 
tility than can Allen county. 

This advancement, as well as the establishment of the American Farmer, a 
monthly magazine, devoted to agriculture and stock raising, can be attributed to 
the spirit kindled at the recurring exhibitions of the Northern Indiana Fair As- 
sociation. W. W. ROCKHILL, 

Secrekmj. 



BARTHOLOMEW COUNTY. 

The Bartholomew County Agricultural Society held no meeting in 1884,. 
having, at the solicitation of the Bartholomew County Agricultural and Indus- 
trial Association, leased its grounds and surrendered its dates for that year to 
them. In doing this, however, we, by agreement with them, relinquished no rights 
we enjoy from the State Board. 



250 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Oar society is well organized and fully equipped for bupiness, and we are ready 
to give a good fair every year, with liberal premiums, and to guarantee the pay- 
ment of premiums in full, whenever the opposing society shall disband or unite 
with us by taking a fair share of our stock. 

RrcHARD Thomas, 

Secretary Bartholomew County ApricuUural Society. 



BARTHOLOMEW COUNTY. 

The quality of the crops in Bartholomew county the last year was much better 
than the year before. A prominent milling firm of Columbus estimates the in- 
crease in quality at 30 per cent. Though the quality is better prices have ranged 
lower, wheat going down to less than 70 cents and corn to 30 cents. Wheat is now 
firm at 70 ctnts and upward, while corn is advancing slowly. Most of the farmers 
who could afford it stored their wheat rather than take 80 cents at threshing time. 
Many have sold, taking much less than 80 cents. There is a home demand for 
more corn and wheat than the farmers of the county can spare. 

There has been quite an improvement in the character of farm buildings in the 
past few years. 

On nearly every road in the county may be seen fine large dwelling houses, in 
contrast with the little old log or frame houses standing near. Also, more conve- 
nient and capacious barn;* are taking the place of the old ones. Many farmers 
have buildings for the sole purpose of storing grain or tools, and every new barn 
is arranged for the use of the modern hay elevators. 

The wire fence is gaining in favor. Those now put up are much more complete 
and substantial than those first constructed 

The farmers who live on the clay lands, and who are able to spare the money, 
do some draining each year. A more systematic method of drainage is pursued — 
many making it a point to sink lines of tile at stated distances in a certain field 
one year, and in another the next, thus making the work complete as they go. 
They favor the use of larger sizes of tile than formerly. 

The question of timber culture is discussed with reference to the West rather 
than here. The rapid decrease of timber is beginning to be felt, however, and the 
land owner that goes to the forest for a stick of timber is more careful in his selec- 
tion. The fine walnut trees of a few years ago are nearly all gone. The poplar is 
fast disappearing, and not one large ash in three is perfectly sound. There are over 
one hundred miles of gravel road in the county, the average rates of toll being 
about 2| cents per mile for two-horse teams. There are only a few miles of free 
gravel roads. 

The Bartholomew County Agricultural and Industrial Assaciation held its sec- 
ond annual fair on the grounds of the Bartholomew County Agricultural Society,, 
■on September 16th to the 20th inclusive. In spite of politics the show was a cred- 
itable one. Show of horses was good, there being 18 entries for heavy draft ; 55 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 251 

general purpose, and 56 light harness; total 129. The show of Short Horns was 
not nearly ro good as in 1883. The Jerseys were most numerous. The show of 
hogs and sheep was about the same. The display of grains, fruits and yegetables 
was excellent. A very useful and attractive feature of the fair was the literary 
and Educational Department. The exhibit of school work was fine" and varied^ 
while the literary exercises created much enthusiasm. Friday was Literary and 
Educational day, and the attendance was immense. This is a feature that should 
not be overlooked by fair associations, for undoubtedly, the boys and girls should 
have a chance. If given a chance, and the educators of the locality look after the 
matter properly, they will make a good showing. 

As liiet year's report included at least a partial description of the county, it will 
not be necessary to repeat it here. 1 shall close by saying that Bartholomew never 
retrogrades in any of her methods of procedure, and I can safely report a general 
advancement in all of her industries. 

S. M. Glick, 
Secretary Barlholomew County Agricultural and Industrial Association, 



BOONE COUNTY. 



The twenty-fifth annual exhibition of the Boone County Stock Agricultural 
Society, was held on the grounds of the society one-half mile north of Lebanon^ 
on the eighteenth, nineteenth, twentieth, twenty-first and twenty-second of August 
1884. 

While the number of entries was not so large as in some other years, still the 
quality of the exhibits compared favorably with those of any former year. 

In the Horse Department, the demand for stalls was so great as to require the 
erection during the fair, of one-third more new ones than had ever been found nec- 
essary before. The exhibits of cattle, hogs and sheep were exceptionally good^ 
The poultry exhibits were very small, almost a failure. The textile fabric depart- 
ment was all that could have beert desired. The failure of the fruit crop caused a 
great falling off from former years in the number of exhibits in this line. Oats,, 
corn, wheat, potatoes, cabbage and the various other farm and garden products 
were well represented. 

The bee keepers of our county had exhibits which challenged competition. 

The Mechanical Department was well filled, the Deering self-binder, with steam 
power, rather taking the lead. 

While there was no effort made to secure an educational exhibit at our fair, our 
county must not be counted behind others on this account, as we have good schools,, 
the average length of which is about six months in each year, and about five hun- 
dred specimens of school work were forwarded to the World's Fair, at New Orleans,, 
through the earnest efforts of our worthy County Superintendent, H. M. Lafollette, 

The management carefully excluded gambling devices, and had the attendance 
and support of the solid element of society. 

The Hon. Robert Mitchell, President of the State Board, was in attendance one 
day, and gave us many words of encouragement. 



252 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The finaacial condition of the society is good, having about eleven hundred 
dollars in the treasury, after paying the premiums in full, and all other expenses. 

John W. Kise, 

Seeietary. 



CASS COUNTY. 



The twelfth annual fair of the Cass County Agricultural Association was held 
at the well-improved and finely-located Fair Grounds, at Logansport, Ind., Sept. 23 
to 27, 1884. The weather, during a portion of the time was bad for faii-s, it rain- 
ing about half of the time, making it very uncomfortable for those compelled to 
attend, and cutting off the attendance nearly one-third. The result was, that the 
receipts were not sufficient to pay the expenditures, and the Association was only 
able to pay seventy-five per Ccut. of the premiums awarded, which was not taken 
by some of the exhibitors in the best humor, although the association had so 
advertised in their premium list, that in the event the receipts were not sufficient 
to pay the expenses and premiums, the amount over the expenses would be applied 
to the payment of the premiums in full. It having been the first year that the 
association had put such a provision in their list, makes the result the more per- 
plexing, and furnishes exhibitors a further excuse for grumbling, but it must be 
said to the credit of a large majority, that while they regretted the inability of the 
Association to pay their premiums in full, were perfectly satisfied to stand their 
proportion of the loss. 

It is a fact, not to be denied, that some persons become exhibitors at fairs, not 
so much to show the quality and excellency of their exhibits, but for the purpose 
of getting the premium oflered, and resort to means that ought not to be resorted 
to fur the purpose of accomplishing that end, and are some times very bitter in their 
denunciation of committees and members of th^ association for their failure to 
receive awards, but it is to be presumed that Cass county has no more of this class 
of persons than others. 

The exhibition was fully up to former years, and the displays in all the depart- 
ments were good, and in many excelled former exhibitions. 

In the Horse, Cattle, Sheep, and Swine Departments the show was first-class, 
embracing many exhibits from other counties, and .some from other States, and to 
the credit of Cass county, it can be truly said that her exhibits in the Live Stock 
Department was equal to those outside, showing conclusively that the. stock raisers 
of this county occupy no .second place, but have now taken a place in the trout rank, 
which was not the case a few years ago, an i this improvement is by general consent 
largely attributable and due to the Agricultural Association with her animal exhi- 
bitions. 

The display in the Mechanical Department was far ahead of any previous year, 
and was {jronounced first-class by machine men from abroad, who are good judges, 
for the reason they see many exhibitions every year. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 253 

In the Ladi^' Department the di-^play was large, not perhaps as large as 
former years, but was shown to a much better advantage, as the Association had 
provided additional cases for the display of ladies' work, and with several exhib- 
itors from other counties with a large number of articles of fine workmanship, 
made the. exhibition in that Department above the average, the lady exhibitors 
from abroad, by the large and fine display of their handiwork, created some ill- 
feeling among our home exhibitors, but, while they lost some of the awards they 
expected to get, they learned somelliing new, and declare they will get even at the 
next fair. 

The grain, vegetable and fruit display was excellent, and attracted the attention 
and admiration of persons attending, and as in this department the products were 
almost exclusively from this county, it shows that while we may be behind our 
neighbors in other respects, that in the products of the soil this county has no 
second place, and that whether it be wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, turnips, apples, 
pear?, grapes, or any other grain, vegetable or root crop, the soil of this county un- 
der tlie care, skill and attention of its owners, can and does produce as good as any 
otl;er county or locality, and it was the remark of many who examined the dis- 
play, that the same would have been a credit to a Slate Fair. 

In the Culinary Department the exhibition was good, fully equal to former 
years. 

The condition of agriculture in Cass county has been steadily improving year 
by year with the clearing of wooded laud and construction of numerous ditches 
and an immense amount of tile drainage. The number of acres now cultivated 
with good yield is fast making this county one of the best in the State. With its 
diversity of soil, very little if any that might be called poor, and with increased 
facilities for cultivation, and with more knowledge gained by reading and com- 
paring notes wiih each other at the County Fair, our farmers are fast pushing Caj^s 
bounty to the front rank. The county is well watered by the Wabash and Eel 
river.-i and by numerous beautiful creeks and rivulets, and the scarcity of water is 
unknown. With the rapid progress made in ditching and tile drainage, it will be 
but a few years until there will be but little land that will not be susceptible of 
cultivation, and that will not produce gond crops when cleared of timber. 

A marked improvement is noticeable throughout the county in the improve- 
ment of farm property, the erection of new dwelling*, many of which would be a 
credit to our towns and cities; the large and commodious barns, the board and wire 
fences, in place of rail fences, log barns and houses, make the farm attractive, and 
show that our farmers are making more than a living. 

In the question of good roads this county has been behind other counties, but 
during the last few years considerable advance has been made, and many miles of 
good turnpikes have been built, and much more will be built in the next few years. 
Farmers living away from a good road to market are beginning to realize the fact 
that the farmer with a good road has a decided advantige. 

The crops of last year were good throughout the county, fully up to the average. 

D. W. ToMLiNSON, Secretary. 



254 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. 



CLAKK COUNTY. 



The twenty-sixth annual fair of the Clark County Agricultural Society was 
held at Charlestown, on September 9th, 10th and llth. The exhibition was un- 
usually good in nearly every department. Horses were fully up to the times in 
general purpose and draft classes. A very singular feature of the present fair, in 
the Horse Department, was, that there were no fast rings made up. The firemiums 
offered for speed were liberal, but were not taken. Usually a large per cent, of 
the premiums paid by the Society is for fast horses. This year was an exception, 
an<l the indications here are that fast horses can be put in the background at fairs 
and not at all interfere with the success of the exhibition. Fast hor?es are not the 
most useful thing to the average farmer, and should not be encouraged by large 
premiums. 

The exhibition of cattle was much better than former years, and showed an in- 
crease of interest in tlie production of better cattle of all breeds. The Holstein 
cattle, lately introduced in this county, are giving fair satisfaction as a milk and 
beef stock combined. The show of hogs and sheep was creditable, and showed that 
they had been bred with care and skill. 

Agricultural products were very fine, and show that our farmers fully under- 
etand how to grow corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, etc., to perfeclion. 

In the Horticultural Departmeat the exhibit was not large, but the specimens 
were good. 

The display of textile fabrics shows that our ladies have attained a high degree 
of skill. Some of the quilts on exhibition showed not only skill in their makers 
but a great deal of patience and perseverence. Some of our ladies have not for- 
gotten the use of the spinning-wheel and hand-loom, as was shown by the display 
of hand-made fabrics. Our women are equal to the very best, too, in their knowl- 
edge of the culinary art, for the fine samples of bread, cake, preserves, jellies, 
canned fruits, etc., could not have been prepared with more practical skill. On the 
whole, the fair was a success, giving pleasure and profit to those who attended. 

The condition of agriculture in this county is fairly prosperous ; some com- 
plaint of dull times and low prices, but there is no abatement in effort on the part 
of farmers ; they seem to be doing more thorough and systematic work in the culti- 
vation of the soil. Nearly every variety of soil may be found in this county. Cat- 
tle raising seems to be receiving more attention in the last few years, and in conse- 
quence more land is sown to grass, and less corn is being cultivated, a course 
which, if it had been adopted forty years ago, would have been much better for 
the preservation of the soil, than raising corn and hogs. Farm buildings in this 
county are of th-e most sul»tautial character, both dwellings and barns, so that 
farming here is a fixed business. 

Agriculture is the leading business of the county, though dairying is carried on 
to a considerable extent. There are numerous manufactories in the county, such 
as boat building, glass works, cement mills, cooper shops, car works, etc., which 
give employment to several thousand men. We have three railroads through the 
county, and the Ohio river along the southeast border. The great citits of the 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 255 

falls lie at our door, affording market for all our products. Also the beet fruit lo- 
cations in the State are found here, especially for peaches, strawberries and rasp- 
berries. The climate is as mild as any in this latitude, and crops are as certain 
as in any location in the State. From the varied quality of our soil, and the 
range in prices, our near proximity to good markets, the healthful ness of location, 
and »ur manufactories, there is no reason why Clark county should not be the be.st 
for agriculture in Southern Indiana. So we say to any who wish to come among 
OS that they need not fear; if they come with industrious hands and a good stock 
of perseverence, they will be successful. 

Dennis F. Wille\, 

Secretary. 



CLAY COUNTY. 



Owing to the destruction of our buildings and fences, by a storm, we were un- 
able to hold our annual fair last year. Our old ofDcefs were continued over. (See 
table of ofBcei's following reports.) 

Our next fair will be held August 31 to September 5, 1885. Every efiort will 
be made to have a successful exhibition. 

Our farmei-s have done well the past year compared with other industries. 
Wheat averaged two-thirds of a crop, corn above an average, oats much above an 
average, small fruits a full crop, large fruits almost an entire failure. A steady 
improvement in the farms of thLs county is noticeable. New and better breeds of 
hogs, sheep and cattle are being introduced 

An interest has at last been awakened among our people on the subject of good 
roads — they are now most wretchedly bad — and we hope to be able in our next 
report to chronicle the buildiug of one or more gravel roads. 

The bane of our agricultural interests in the past has been the fact of our 
county being underlaid with valuable fields of coal. Nearly every other farmer 
contented himself with eking out an existence in the expectation of realizing a 
fortone from the royalty on his coal. These expectations were only realized by a 
very small number, and the majority at least awakened to the fact that their real 
interests lay in the development of the surface, and this has been made apparent 
by the improvement of farms, land being cleared up, swamps drained, buildings 
erected, and the hum of improved agricultural machinery has been heard in all 
parts of the county. 

D. W. Brattin, 

Secretary. 



256 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. 



CLINTON COUNTY. 



The twelfth exhibition was held on the fair grounds about one-half mile south 
of the city of Frankfort, August 25 to 29, 1884. 

The grounds are admirably adapted to the purpose for which they are used, 
there being an abundance of shade, plenty of water, and ample buildings, since the 
erection of the new power hall the past summer. There was a very full display in 
of the finest specimens of imported Clydesdale and Norman horses exhibited that the 
nearly all departments, there being a total of over 2,000 entries. There were some 
State affords ; also, some of the high steppers from the famous Bluegrass region of 
Kentucky, some very fine animals of each breed being owned in this county. The 
exhibition of cattle was all that could be desired so far as quality goes. The only 
breeds shown in the ring, with the exception of a lone individual, were Shorthorns 
and .Jerseys. The latter is not a favorite with the general farmer, who wants some- 
thing more than butler; yet there is generally a lurking fancy manifested by the 
lady visitors at our fairs for the mild-eyed, frail-looking pets. The Shorthorn 
breeders should show more milking animals at our fairs, and try to disabuse the 
public mind of the idea that the Shorthorn is good for nothing but beef, and that 
it generally takes two cows to raise one calf decently. 

In the sheep show many fine animals were exhibited, representing most of the 
improved breeds. The sheep is sadly neglected in this section, farmers generally 
paying so little attention to this meek, unobtrusive inhabitant of the farm yard as 
to scarcely know of the existence of many of the improved breeds. To what ex- 
tent this is to be attributed to the dog law, or want of a dog law, I am not pre- 
pared to say. It seems to make little difference what the nature of the law, the 
dog remains a fixed quantitj'. Every house in the country villages can boast of 
one or more, and generally the owners pay little tax on dog or anything else. 

O; hogs, the Poland Chinas largely predominate with the Berkshires a good sec- 
ond. The .Jersey Reds, with their pendulous ears and razor backs, adorn an occa- 
sional homestead, adding perhaps more of the picturesque than the beautiful to the 
landscape ; but "comparisons are odious." 

The mechanical display was by far the best ever on the grounds. The new 
power hall, with shaft for running machinery, added very materially to the attrac- 
tion in that department. 

Our fair is held too early to furnish as fine a display of agricultural and kin- 
dred products as could be desired, but do not infer from this that empty shelves 
and bare walls prevailed in Agricultural Hall. All the leading cereals wei-e out 
in force, though the corn loosed as though it had laid aside its jacket a few days 
too soon. I think, as far as possible, these shows should be held when farm crops 
are more fully matured — 

" When the frost is on the pumpkin 
And the fodder's is in the shock," 

we could all be in readiness to enjoy more fully our coming together. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 257 

Floral Hall was crowded to its full capacity, with every thing that goes to make- 
up the conveniences and attractions of home. I think, in many instances, the 
awards in this department are far less than they should be, considering the import- 
ant bearing the culture and taste thus^ encouraged exerts over the home life. 

Financially we have no complaint to make. The premiums were all paid in 
full; the improvements, though quite extensive, are all paid for, and a small bal- 
ance left over. The attendance on Thursday was not near what it would have 
been, but for the rain in the morning and forenoon. Friday, also, was wet and 
threatening until midday; otlierwise nothing transpired to militate against a com- 
plete success for the exhibition. 

Our farmers have achieved a reasonable degree of succe-s the past year. Our 
soil being admirably adapted to general agriculture and stock raising, farmers wha 
combine the two systems are generally the most successful. 

Wheat, corn, and gro.ss are the staple crops, oats being grown in small quanti- 
ties and only as a change of stock food Corn is the sole reliance for the grain ration 
for all stock. Eye and barley are almost unknown, and a flax crop the exception, 

As a large part of the wooded district of the county was heavily timbered with 
white oak, a heavy clay soil predominates, and yields good crops of grain and grass 
if well treated, but is very jealous of any neglect. 

Farm methods have undergone a radical change during the last fifteen years. 
At that time scarcely a farm had afield that could be cultivated as a whole. 
Swales, branches, and swamps of elder brush adorned the landscape in disagreeable 
profusion. But with the lielp of the drainage law, and the introduction of tile 
making machinery, the channels of some of the principal sloughs have been deep- 
ened and put in shape to perform tlie office nature designed tliey should ; and while 
like all innovations such improvements were sometimes met by stubborn opposi- 
tion, the example was contagious, and now to see an undrained pond, even in the 
uncultivated lands is the exception, and the uplands, our fathers never dreamed of 
ditching, are being rapidly honey-combed with drain tile. 

Stating it generally, men who have the necessary industry and pluck, can suc- 
ceed possil)ly as well in Clinton county as any portion of the State. 

Of fruits, the apple seems destined to be one of the products of the past, for iu 
spite of tlie very best efforts of owners, orchards are rapidly failing. There is not 
one healthy, thrifty apple orchard in the circuit of my acquaintance. It matters 
not what the nature of the soil or the location. 

" The trail of the serpent is over them all." 

We formerly thought dry gravelly locations best adapted to fruit. But in tho.se 
locations where tlie elevations rise almost to the dignity of hills, and where for- 
merly the finest specimens of appl&s, pears, etc., grew to perfection, now decaying 
trunks, broken branches, and other unmistakable indications of speedy death are 
visible on every hand. To sum up, a majority of the orchards of Clinton county 
are in a. bad way. The culture of small fruits affords a more inviting field, all 
varieties succeeding admirably. 

The timber question and tree planting does not cut much of a figure in the cal- 
1 7 — Agriculture. 



'^58 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, 

culations of land owners in this locality. We have ppent the best part of our 
lives, many of u<, in battling with trees and Ktumps for the possession of enough 
of Nature's domain, from which to wrest a livelihood, consequently trees are generally 
looked upon as an unmitigated nuisance, unless they ean be sold for the cash, and the 
stump treated to a charge of dynamite. The fence question is attracting consider- 
able attention, and the old worm fence " must go." Hedging is not looked upon 
with much favor, the preference being mostly in favor of barbed wire in some of 
its various forms. 

The great cost of fencing out a few head of scrub cattle and hogs is forcing the 
impori^ance of a practical stock law on the attention of farmers generally. The 
cost of maintaining the necessary fences to restrain these animals would more than 
pay for them annually. Lands bring generally enclosed there is very little pas- 
turage on the highways. The "poor widow's cow" we have heard so much about 
is no longer a factor in this qu-^-stion, it being the stock of the r^mall laud owner, 
who attempts to keep more animals than he cares to provide suitable pasturage for 
at home, so turns them out to forage on the highway and his neighbors' crops if 
opportunity offers. It certainly is an evil that should uo longer be tolt-rated, for 
farmers to pay burdensome taxes for grading and graveling our public roads and, 
having incurred the expense of constructing costly open drains to facilitate the 
drainage of their wet lands, to have these improvements marred, injured, and even 
ruined by the tramping and rooting of stock whose owners bear little or none of, 
these expenses. 

Our public schools or in a flourishing condition; neat, comfortable school 
houses are the rule, and are presided over by a corps of competent, intelligent 
teachers. 

Our railroad facilities are excellent, furnishing ample transportation, and en- 
abling dealers to pay the top price for all the products offered for sale. 

In conclusion I extend to your honorable Board and the entire family of farm- 
ers of the State an invitation to attend our next exhibition. 

Myron H. Belknap, 

Secretary. 



DECATUR COUNTY, 

Our county fair was held the last week in August. We had the largest attend- 
:ance we ever hiul, and the fair was regarded as the best since its organization. 

There has been constant progress in the science of agriculture in Decatur 
county; the land is well drained with tile ditches, and the best agricultural im- 
plements are used, so that our farmers are the most prosperous of any class of peo 
pie in the county. 

The principal products are wheat, cattle and hogs. 

There is but little manufacturing in the county. A revolving hay rake is made 
at Greensburg, that is the best for the price in the market, and is rapidly coming 
into use all over the West. Will Cum back, 

IVesident. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. • 259 



DELAWABE COUNTY. 



The Delaware County Agricultural and Mechanical Society held their thirty- 
first annual fair at their beautiful and commodious grounds, one-half mile north 
of the city of Muncie, on August I'ith to 16th inclusive. 

AVhile the time for holding the fair is early in the sef«on, there are some ad- 
vantages that overbalance the disadvantages. Being the first fair held in this por- 
tion of the State, a larger attendance, we think, Ls secured, and there is no conflict 
of datt'S with any other society. The stock and all other articles intended for ex- 
hibition has by this time in the year been put in condition, and is ready to start 
out to other fairs ; and no more central point and one from which good shipping 
rates can be secured, can be found than Muncie, hence many of them come here 
to distribute their stock from this point. 

Farm products are not as well represented so early in the season, yet we have 
always had a very creditable display in that department 

The last exhibition was eminently successful in all the departments, the en- 
tries being more numerous and exhibits of a finer class than ever before. In fact, 
the exhibits of cattle, sheep, horses and hogs was more in tlie nature of a State 
fair than that of a single county. The speed ring was well represented, and waa 
free from the hippodrome that so frequently destroys interest in races. 

The attendance was large, and the receipts ample to pay all premiums in full, 
the expenses of the society, and considerable improvement that became necessary 
to accommodate exhibitors, and aL«io leave $500 to apply on an old indebtedness, 
which is now reduced to such small proportions as to leave no feai-s for the future 
of the society. 

Improvements to the grounds and buildings for the better accommodation of 
spectators and visitors have been made and others are contemplated, as it is now a 
fixed fact that the Delaware County As.sociation is one of the established institu- 
tions of the county ; is worthy the support of her people, which has been and we 
have no doubt will in the future be liberally given. 

The county is a purely agricultural county, and as such is second to none in 
the State. For a few years past much attention has been given to raising and 
breeding fine stock. Many of our citizens are taking special pride therein, and 
we can truthfully boa«t of having some of the finest and beet blooded stock in the 
country. .John T. Wildman, 

Secretary. 



ELKHART COUNTY. 



The year 1884 completes the thirty-third year since the organization of the 
Elkhart County Agricultural Society. Fairs have been held regularly, save about 
seven years of an interruption caused by the War of the Rebellion. 

We commenced this year with apprehensions that on account of the absorbing 
topic of the Presidential election we would be less successful than usual. To 
counterbalance this more than the usual effort was made, by advertisement and 
otherwise, so that we might, at least, have the success of ordinary years. 



260 BOARD OF AGKICULTUllE. 

The weather, that has so much to do with out-door entertainments, was against 
us for two days out of the four, and one of these unfavorable days was the third 
of the fair, which is always that of Qur greatest attendance and consequent re- 
ceipts. It was expected that those wlio were prevented from attending that day, 
would be present the last day, but we were disappointed ; the attendance the last 
day was no more than the same day of other fairs. 

While the numbers pre.^ent were not equal to our wish, the exhibit in several 
essential departments was better than in any previous year, notably the Live Stock, 
the Farm, and Vegetable Departments, and al-o tliat of ladies' fancy and handi- 
work were better than ever shown before. 

Live Slock. Cattle. — In addition to the herds of Durhams and Jerseys usually 
exhibited we had this year a very fine herd of Holsteins, which the growers claim 
to be better tlian any other breed of horned cattle, as they unite the two desirable 
properties of beef and milk. Tho.se on exhibition were indeed good .'^pecimenfi, and 
awakened a great deal of interest. The Durhams exhibit was very good, so too the 
Jer.-eys were numerously represented and found admirers. 

v-iheep. — These were in greater number and better quality than ever before. The 
grades of fine, coarse and medium wool wer^^ all represented. A change has come 
over the sheep-growing interest making almost a revolution. The market has 
turned away fpom long wools and gone back in favor of the Spanish merinos, with 
even the medium wools being in request before the combing wool. The fine large 
growth of coarse wool flocks will, for its meat product, if not for the wool, continue 
to induce the growth of the coarse, large sheep. 

Hogs. — The Poland Chinas seemed to be in the lead, but close following these 
the Berkshire have many admirers, and both breeds w^ere numerously exhibited 
and rt ceived many commendations. 

Horses. — With every,f:irmer and many .specialists this branch of stock growing 
has a great interest. The exhibits were, .in number, kind and quality, entirely 
Bati-factory. The heavy Normans and Clyde.-^dales, the general purpose horse, the 
light stepping roadsters, and the special, standard-bred, fast movers, all were rtpre- 
sented, each having their special admirers. The want of sufficient stabling has 
been and is a serious drawback to this department, although twenty new stablt-s 
were added this season the accommodations are yet quite inadequate to the needs 
of the Society, but we hope, with <.ur surplus, to add new stables next year. 

Wagons and Carriages. This department gave a large show of work from the 
various shops of our county. The workmanship and finish, including neat up- 
holstering, was very commendable, convincing our people that they need not go 
out of our county to supply any need in this line. 

Farm Machinery and Tnifjlements. This department, with machinei-y in motion, 
was a place of great interest to our farmers, and .showed the marked advance made 
by inventors and manufacturers 

The rioral Hall in its combined exhibit of plants, ladies' fancy articles, and 
ehow of wares and nice merchandise, with good exhibits of amateur artistic paint- 
ings and pencil drawing.s, was quite attractive, as shown by the large number of 
pt-ople crowding the hall at all times during the fair. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 261 

The balloon a!=censions, given on the second and fourth days, were very satis- 
factory, and a pleasing thing to witness — given by the society in addition to the 
promised amusements, and acceptably appreciated. 

The crops of the year 1884, of wheat, oats, corn, clover and timothy hay, indeed, 
all kinds of farm and garden products, was more than an average yield. Corn, 
that for the years 1882 and 1883 had proved failures, in consequence of cold sum- 
mers and early fall frosts, this year grew well and fully matured, giving abundant 
yield of this substantial staple. Hay, and, indeed, grasses of all kinds, by reason 
of the wetness of the spring, warm and seasonable rains, was never more abundant, 
and the clear days for curing same was exceedingly fortunate. Add to this the 
genial rains of October, which brought out anew the grass as in June, and gave the 
best of pasturage until snowfall at middle of December. The season, in all of its 
conditions, was never so good. The large products, and the unfavorable conditions 
of money matters, reducd prices of all the cereals. Meats brought a better remu- 
neration, thus showing farmers they must not rely on grain raising alone, but 
must mix in the production of livestock. 

The progress made in better farming, in all its branches, is plainly shown to 
those who attend our fairs from year to year. There is no line of agricultural 
product but what has made marked advance. Particularly is it observable in the 
improved live stock of the whole country. Scarcely a herd of cattle is to be seen in 
our fields but what it is easy to see that there is a decided toning up by the cross of 
Shorthorn, Holstein, or other good breeds. The general horse is also much im- 
proved by the infusion of Norman, Clydesdale, Hambletonian, or other good breeds. 
That this good work may go on, let the agricultural societies be helped and en- 
couraged by the influence of good men and their money help— not grudgingly 
withheld. 

Ticket of Admission. At the organization of our society a commutation ticket, 
commonly called a family ticket, was adopted, admitting the heads of a family and 
all children tliereof under fifteen years old, for the whole fair, at the price of one 
dollar. Although the manag rs of the society liave long since seen that tliis, while 
it brings to the fair great numbers, puts into the treasury but little money where- 
with to make improvements, pay premiums, and defray otlier necessary expenses of 
holding fairs; yet we have not been able to break away from -this unfortunate rule 
and in lieu of it adopt a single admission ticket, because of tlie tlireatening remon- 
strances of farmers that we can only have their presence and help if the family 
ticket be continued. ' 

The financial condition of the society — although the receipts were less than 
they sliould have been — is entirely sound. All liabilities are paid, and a surplus 
of $1,380 left to commence a new year with. 



262 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



FULTON COUNTY. 



Our annual fair was held on September 22d to 27th, without any outside attrac- 
tions and two rainy days. The receipts and entries exceeded those of 1883. The 
property of our society is owned by 310 difTerent stockholders, and is valued at 
$4,000. Each header of a share is furnished with a stockholder's ticket which admita 
all females of the family and all males under sixteen yeai-s of age. Were it not 
for improvements being demanded each year, we would now be out of debt with a 
balance in treasury. To the surprise of all, the campaign had but little eflfect on 
our fair. Crops of all kinds were good, the principal ones raised in this county 
being wheat and corn. Extensive ditches are being constructed in this county, 
and the tax for that purpose proves a hardship just at this time on account of tlie 
low price of farm products. 

Uninclosed commons are becoming very scarce. It is generally conceded that 
it would now be cheaper to fence stock in than to fence it ont. 

A great deal of interest is being manifested in the construction of free gravel 
roads. Any legislation that would assist our people in the construction of free 
roafls would be more satisfactory than granting to corporations the right to con- 
struct toll roads. 

John M. Davi.«, 

Secretary, 



GIBSON COUNTY. 



The Gibson County Agricultural and Horticultural Society held it« thirtieth 
annual fair on the grounds near Princeton, Indiana, September 15th to 20th, inclu- 
sive. To say our exhibition was a success this year would be putting it very mild. 

The people have become fully convince d that there is "none other" than 
the Gibson county fair, and, all things considered, it is "one of the finest" in this 
part of the State. Our exhibitions have been continually improving for the past 
few years, and so long as you can interest the farmer, mechanic, and all others on 
whom the success orj'ailure of such institutions depends, just so long counly fairs 
will be a success, and no longer. In this we have succeeded to a marked degree ; 
hence we never give the least thought to" failure," or poor attendance at our exhi- 
bitions. As we have stated, the success of these fairs is no longer a question. 
Energetic and individual work, together with a thorough system of advertising, 
has placed the exhibitions of Gibson county at the head of like enterprises in 
Southern Indiana, where it will ever remain. This year's exhibition was a most 
successful one, both financially and as regards competition in all classes. The 
weather was very favorable, and the attendance very large. The display in all 
departments was fully 25 per cent, larger than ever before. Never in the history 
of the society has there been such a display in the floral hall, art gallery, agricul- 
tural implements or in stock, and never before has there been such a crowd in 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 263 

attendance, the result of which is due largely to the fact that our society allows no 
gambling, immoral shows or intoxicating liquors on the grounds. The result of 
which is a quiet, peaceable and very instructive gathering, which, of course is bet- 
ter calculated to promote the interests of all industrial pursuits, good morals, and 
humanity generally. 

The principal crops raised in this county are wheat and corn. The manner of 
preparing the soil for wheat shows great improvement over former years, and the 
yield is correspondingly improved. Thorough cultivation of corn by our improved 
machinery has about expelled all fear of failure to produce a good crop during a 
dry season, for as the warm air frequently comes in contact with the fresh plowed 
earth, causing the vajjor in the atmosphere to solidify as it does on the outside of a 
pitcher of cold water, so will the frequent stirring of the soil produce natural irri- 
gation. 

Personal liberty, to the detriment of progression in many respects, appears to 
reign supreme in Gibson county. No attention is given to timber culture. The 
value of our forest trees (like our mothei-s) will only be appreciated when they are 
gone. The board and barbed wire fences are about to be superseded by slats or 
pickets interwoven in smooth wire, the same being considered cheaper and le«s 
barbarous. 

To show that our society stands at the top, the Louisville Southern Exposition 
offered a bronze medal and diploma to the society or State making the best display 
of agricultural and mineral products. Not wishing to be selfish, the Gibson 
County Society competed for the above, and was awarded both prizes by the Expo- 
sition over the States of Kentucky, Alabama and Tennessee, and various county 
societies in our own State. This speaks well for Gibson county. 

S. Vet. Strain, 

Secretary. 



GRANT COUNTY. 



The Grant County Agricultural and Stock Association held its annual fair on 
its grounds, one mile east of Marion, the county-seat, from the 16th to the 20th of 
September last. The show, in the aggregate, was better than usual. The live 
stock department was unusually well tilled. The attendance was not as large as 
on some former occasions, owing to the Presidential campaign and the establish- 
ing of a fair at Fairmount, in the south side of our county. 

Our crop the past season was a full average. Notwithstanding the dry season 
we had a good corn crop, especially on our black lands, which prevail in this 
county. 

The road system in our counfy is reasonably good. We have about fifty miles 
of toll gravel roads, about ninety miles of free gravel roads completed, and about 
fifty miles laid off and in process of construction. A fair quality of gravel can be 
obtained within reasonable distance for constructing roads. 

As timber becomes scarce and of more value, the old rail fence is giving way 



264 . BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

to board and wire fences. Not a great amount of hedge fence in our county. The 
tendency is towards the wire fence. Formerly fences were built to keep stock out 
of the farm, but now the object, as a general rule, is to keep the stock in. A large 
per cent, of stock is not permitted to run at large. 

Ditching is extensively done, and underdraining extensively practiced in our 
county. As we become more experienced in this branch of drainage, we are deep- 
ening the drains and using larger tiling. As a drain four feet deep will cany 
twice the water of one a foot deep and cost the same for tile, it is economy to con- 
struct deep underdrains. 

The condition of agriculture in our county is good. The old and erroneous 
idea that the farmer mvist necessarily be* an "undei-strapper" and ignoramus, is 
fast disappearing, and the farmer is regarded as an important factor by all classes. 

Eapid improvements have been made in building the last few years in both 
town and county. 

D. S. Hog IN, 

Secretary. 



HAMILTON COUNTY. 

It becomes my province under the provisions of law to submit the following as 
the annual report of the Hamilton County Agricultural and Fair Association for 
the year 1884. 

The ."^ixth annual exhibition was held on our grounds, one-half mile west of 
Noblesville, Ind., August 25 to 29, 1884, inclusive. Our fair was a success in every 
particular. The departments were all well filled, the weather was fine, and our 
beautiful grounds were filled to overflowing with our happy and prosperous people. 

Such was the interest manifested by the ladies of our county that our new and 
commodious Fine Art Hall was tilled to overflowing with specimens that will be a 
lasting tribute to the art and industry of the ladies of Hamilton county. 

The di-play of horses and cattle was very fine, especially so was the show of 
Norman and Clydesdale horses. 

The Hog and Sheep Departments were well filled with as fine specimens as are to 
be found anywhere in the State. The poultry show was very good, showing quite 
a number of varieties. The total number of entries in the Live Stock Department 
was the largest ever had in a single year. 

The Agricultural De^jartment was well represented, showing that our farmers 
are taking a liveiy interest in procuring the first and finest varieties, and vieing 
with each other in the production of the same. 

The horticultural display was very creditable, Ijiit not so good as last year. 

Altogether the fair was a good one, and, so far as came to my knowledge, has 
given universal satisfaction ; and we desire to express our thanks to the good people 
of Hamilton and adjoining counties for that generous patronage which enabled us 
to pay our premiums in full, the running expenses, and also for our new hall. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 265 

Hamilton county is situated in central Indiana, and is fast becoming the peer 
of any county in the State. For richness of soil it is one of the leading counties. 
White river courses through it from north to south, throwing out her rich alluvial 
bottoms, thus giving thousands of acres of fine corn land, upon wl\ich our farmers 
produce annually a large amount of corn, and the adjacent warm, sandy uplands 
furnisli a much larger acreage for wheat. Almost all the swamp lands of our 
county have a thorough system of underdrainage, thus leaving but a very small 
per cent, of waste or worthless lands. Our farmers are fully up to the times in 
the Vvay of improved farm machinery, and all other improvements as well. As 
evidence of the prosperity of our people one need but look about him and see fine 
residences, many of them slate-roofed, large and commodious barns, good fencing, 
and a happy and contented people. Our county is developing in stock raising 
rapidly, and to-day can be seen grazing contentedly upon our fertile soil many fine 
herds of cattle. When we look back to twenty years ago and contemplate the 
steady and rapid growth of our county in material wealtli, we can but predict a 
bright future for our people. 

We have at present sixty miles of railroad, 140 miles of free pikes, and still a 
larger amount of toll roads in our county. We have quite a number of tile mills 
running, the proprietors of which are ahle to sell even more than they can manu- 
facture. The worm' fence still lingers as a reminder of the past, but it must soon 
go (having served its time of usefulness) with the log cabin and the duck pond, 
and in its stead will come plank and wire, thus saving to the farmer the very great 
annoyance of keeping the old fence row clean. We have at present quite a large 
amount of plank and wire fencing, perhaps twenty par cent. Our farmers are be- 
ginning to learn the very important fact that they can not afford to waste their 
timber, by making it into rails, when plank and wire are so much cheaper. 

GicoKGE M. Young, 

Secretoru. 



HARRISON COUNTY. 

The twenty-fifth annual fair commenced on the 1st day of September, 1884, and 
continued five days. It was thd most successful fair the county ever held. The 
exhibition, in every department, was very fine, and the attendance unprecedented. 
For information in regard to the number of entries, amount of premiums paid, at- 
tendance, and amount of receipts and disbursements, I would refer to the tabular 
statement presenti-d herewith. And without referring to each industry individ- 
ually, I would say that the progress in every industry, with the exception of sheep 
husbandry, has been entirely satisfactory; and were our sheep properly i:)rotected 
from the ravages of the useless dogs that arc kept and harbored by a class that 
manifest no interest in anything that tends to build up a community, it would re- 
ceive its share of attention. Give us back the law, tag or shoot the dogs, and then 
we can raise sheep at a profit. , 



266 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Harrison county is well adapted to cereals, stock and fruit. The wide bottoms 
along the Ohio river, on our southern border, and on the various streams that 
traverse the county, are among the finest corn lands of the State, and on which this 
year grew one of the finest crops of that cereal that we have ever produced, the 
most of which has already found its way into market at a fair price. 

Our uplands, or table-lands, are among the best wheat-producing lands in the 
Stat*, our best farmers frequently raising on them as much as forty bushels per 
acre of the very best quality of grain. 

Fruits, especially apples and peaches are extensively grown, and so far have been 
very remunerative; also small fruits are grown with considerable profit. But our 
farmers are paying more attention to stock, especially horses, cattle and hogs. In 
horses their attention in turned mostly to heavy draft, the Percheron and Clydes- 
dale, of which we have some very fine animals, the diffusion of whose blood is 
making a marked difference in the appearance and value of the horse product of 
the county. In cattle, we have Shorthorns, Jerrcys and common stock, the latter, 
or a mixture, mostly prevailing, yet we have Fome very nice cattle and some fine 
milkers. One farmer I know who has three cows of common origin from which 
he made forty eight pounds of butter per week, and averaged thirty-six pounds 
per week for the entire year, but then, these were extra good common cows. The 
improvement in hogs has been greater than in any other industry. Berkshire and 
Poland China are the principal breeds; in fact, there is scarcely a hog in the 
county but what it is one or the other or a cross from them. 

Sheep. As I before said, there is not much interest manifested in them, although 
this is one of the best counties in the State for the rearing of sheep. On our 
cheap hill lands along and back from our water courses they ought to be raised 
very profitably, water and grass both being plenty. 

Although Harrison county is one of the oldtst settled counties in the State, the aver- 
age production of grain to the acre is much more than it was twenty years ago, and 
with the building up of manufactories and the opening up of our stone quarries, 
thus creating a better market for our products, we expect to see the farmer stimu- 
lated to still greater efforts. After we have said all that we may in regard to the 
improvement in stock and the advancement in farming, there is yet one thing in 
which Harrison county takes the lead, and that is in furnishing population for 
the vast unsettled domain of the West. Go where you will you will rub against 
a Harrison county man. The roads leading to the West carry them away fall 
and spring by the wagon load ; the railroads carry them away by the hundreds ; 
the Ohio river, with its line of packets, carry them away daily, without in the least 
diminishing the visible supply, and the hiUs and the hollows seem to be as full of 
life as ever. 

John Q. A. Sieg, 

Pi esident. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 267 



HENRY COUNTY. 



Henry county may not be the best, but it is certainly one among the best coun- 
ties in the State. It is about 20 miles square, and contains over 250,000 acres, most 
of which is a very fertile soil. There is but little land in^the county not suscepti- 
ble of tillage. From this fact, perhaps, as much as because of its value in the 
markets, has the disappearance of ths once heavy growth of ^timber been so rapidly 
brought about, until the present timber area is less than one-fifth of the county. 
Black rich loam susceptible of a high cultivation largely predominates. 

There are no large streams, but several of medium size and numerous smaller 
ones, and, with perhaps two exceptions, the land along these streams is tillable 
almost to the water's edge. Some of these streams aflbrd excellent water power, 
especially in the southern part of the county. Many of these sites could be prof- 
itably used for manufacturing. 

There are over 100 miles of railway so traversing the county that no town or 
village', community or neighborhood is to exceed four or six miles from a railway 
station or a grain market. 

No county in the State, perhaps, can boast of better roads, the principal ones 
being toll roads. Gravel is plenty in most parts of the county. Our people like 
the present road law The improved machinery for grading highways so much 
facilitates road working that almost miles of pike ai-e now made with the same 
labor, time and expense formerly required and expended in filling a few " mud 
holes." 

New Caatle, the county seat, is beautifully located on the east bank of Blue 
river, at the crossing of the Indiana, Bloomington & Western, the Panhandle, and 
the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville railroads, 44 miles east of Indianapolis. 
It has a population of 3,000 or moi-e, and is furnished with excellent public build- 
ings, and good churches and schools. Its location is high, and iis drainage excel- 
lent. In the ( haracter of its mercantile buildings it is not excelled and is seldom 
equaled by any of the towns of its class, while many of its private residences 
would do honor to any. In its superior railroad facilities it offers special induce- 
ments to manufacturers and to shippers, and is destined to become a considerable 
manufacturing center. As a distributing point it is not excelled. 

The products of the county consist of corn, wheat and oats principally, with 
suflScient of the oihsr staples to supply the local demand. 

This part of the State sufiered, this year, in many respects, because of the ex- 
tremely dry summer and fall. Wheat Wiis not an average yield, yet the quality 
was excellent. The drouth reduced the corn yield fully 50 per cent.; and for the 
same cause the summer and fall pastures were cut short. The oldest inhabitants 
do not recall a much dryer season. 

Grazing in this county is limited, yet there are good sales of cattle. 

There are some half dozen tile manufacturers in the county, and all report an 
increased demand for tile. Farmers are now draining lands which, a few years 
ago, they did not class or consider as wet, or as needing draining, and farmers are 
learning the value of putting tile deep in the ground. 



268 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



There is no timber culture. The treatment of timber is more nearly that of tim- 
ber destruction. 

The question, "What is the best farm fence?" is yet unsettled, and remains a 
problem to our people. There Ls considerable hedge fence, but none put out during 
the last year. Some barbed wire fencing put up still, but this is growing less in 
favor each year. 

This year has witnessed the erection of many new buildings throughout the 
county. Quite a number of conveniently arranged and substantial farm-houses 
have been built; also, a number of barns. The growing tendency among farmers 
to properly care for and house their stock is noticeable. 

From the .statistics on file I append the following table, to show the per cent, of 
increase or decrease in the products or articles mentioned, comparing the two fiscal 
years 1883-'84. ending June 1st of each year: 

TABLE OF STATISTICS. 





1884. 


Increase 
over 1888. 


Decrease 
from 1883. 




ii 




46,075 

52,166 

4,583 

8,000 

20,299 

14,173 

2,542 

1,075 

429,919 

4,166 

450,843 

46,726 
49,056 


950 

1,527 

728 

' 422 


3,380 

i,203 
1,648 


2 
3 

18 

2 




Acres corn ... 






oq 






Acres blue and other wild grasses . . . 
Acres plow land not cultivated .... 


7 
39 


Rods tile drainage in operation .... 

Bushels clovf r sei. d 

Pounds butter produced 

Number fattened hogs, (light decrease 

in average weight) 

Acres timber land (about same as 1883) 


-61,555 

1,955 

58,046 

2,558 




16 
88 
14 

5 


• • 


1 







The packing firm of Baldwin, Roberts & Co., doing business at Newcastle, have 
killed during the season just ended, 22,995 hogs; average weight, 283 pounds. In 
1883 they killed 17,490; average weight, 267 pounds. »They paid out for labor 
this sea'^on about $8,400, and for hogs, Si2o6,290.57. 

The tweniy-third annual fair of the Henry County Joint Stock Agricultural So- 
ciety was held at New Castle, September 16 to 22, 1884, inclusive. lu many re- 
spects the fair was the best it has ever been. 

The show of horses, consisting of imported or full-blooded draft hor-^e.", heavy 
draft, general purpose horses, farm and match teams, was the best it has been. 

The show of thoroughbred cattle, Shorthorns — recorded, Alderneys and Jerseys, 



COUNTY AND DISTBICT REPORTS. 269 

was excellfnt. The quality of Henry county's hor?es and cattle was well attested 
the following week, by her exhibitors securing a liberal share of the premiuma 
awarded on this class of stock at the State Fair. 

There was a creditable show of hogs, sheep and other livestock. The hogs were 
Poland China and Berkshire mostly ; sheep — Long wools and Downs. 

The display of poultry was not so large as usual, but quality was as good. 
There was a noticeable absence of farming implements and machinery. 

The home manufacturers' display was excellent, and the competition strong. 
The three manufacturers of wagons and buggies of New Castle each deserve special 
notice for their creditable display. 

Fruits and vegetables were not up to their usual standard of exhibit in quan- 
tity ; neither was that of farm products, though both were good for this season. 

The Floral Department, needle work, etc., was quite creditable. Not so many 
articles exhibited, perhaps, but of a finer quality; especially was this true of the 
needle work. 

We think a report from Henry county would not be complete without a notice 
of the exhibit made by the pauper children under the care and direction of the 
Misses Fussell, at Spiceland. Their models in clay, of fruits, animals and build- 
ings, were gems of art and ingenuity. Their specimens of needle work, and card- 
board, canvas and cloth work would compare favorably with those of maturer 
years. Their garments, of hand and machine work, were neatly executed. Qn 
their rugs the cats and dogs seemed to thrive without much eflbrt. Their land- 
scape and other paintings were beniitiful. 

All of this work was done by girls and boys ranging in age from four to twelve 
years. In the Home of the Pauper Children of Henry County we find thirty to 
forty children from two to sixteen years receiving such home care, training and 
discipline, as but few homes can or do give. 

Our Society has made but few improvements this year; however, we have in- 
creased the stall capacity twenty per cent., built two stands after modern style and 
put the. fencing in good condition. The grounds contain only about fifteen acres 
but is pleiisantly and comfortably arranged, plenty of shade and good water, not 
far from center of town and convenient to the railroads. We pay no salaries, ex- 
cept small compensation to Secretary. 

You ask about the dog and stock law. Nine-tenths of our people desire a rigid 
stock law, one that will "fee/) stock in" Such a law will be duly appreciated. 
However, we are not troubled here as in some localities with stock running at 
large. 

The present dog law is again cheating the revenue, and fast increasing the 
death rate among sheep. The Township Trustee is the special custodian of all 
township revenues, including dog revmue. He is interested in obtaining as much 
revenue from as small a levy as possible ; therefore I would suggest (since you ask 
suggestions) that such a modification of the law be asked as will make it the duty 
of the Township Trustee, when he enumerates the school children, to register all 
dogs as to age, sex, breed and color, name of owner or peivon harboring, etc., 
(these were features of the tax law which enaHed distinguishing the dogs), com- 
pare this register with assessor's list and returns to get all on duplicate. Make it 



270 BOABP OF AGRICULTURE. 

legal to put these dogs on tax duplicate at anj time before deliveiy to Treasurer 
for collection. Require Treasurer to make report, on demand of Trustee, each 
month of the dogs returned delinquent in any township, and of the tax on which 
Treasurer has made demand for payment and payment not made After such 
demand and neglect to pay, make it the duty of the Township Trustee, under 
penalty for failurCj to direct the constable or such person as he may appoint to 
make further demand, and on failure to secure said delinquent tax, to then and 
there kill such delinquent dog. You would get the tax or rid the nuisance. This 
would annoy only such people as fail to pay, and who have to be visited anyhow. 
It might also be well to empower Treasurer with authority to kill on refusal to 
pay. There should be a small compensation paid for killing all such dogs. 

Frank M. Millikan, 

Secretary. 



HOWARD COUNTY. 



The Howard County Agriculture Society held its annual fair on its grounds, 
one mile southwest of the city of Kokomo, commencing on the 2tjth day of 
August, and continued four days. The first two days were very rainy, and we had 
a small attendance, but the other two days our people took the usual interest, and 
the fair was a success. 

The entries were up to former years, numbering near 500. We paid our pre- 
miums, which amounted to Sl,096 85. 

The Live Stock Department was especially full. The stalls and pens were all 
occui^ied with stock, not only of our OAvn citizens, but from quite a number of other 
counties. 

This county may be classed among the level counties, and as to fertility and 
arableness will compare favorably with any of the surrounding counties, being 
composed of a black rich loam and easy of cultivation. Nothwithstanding the 
dry season, we had an excellent corn crop, and while the crop was a very fair and 
remunerative one, it was especially so with the corn crop. Fruit is also an im- 
portant crop with us, and a fair yield this season for home consumption and for 
shipping. 

For the past few years this county and city has had a marked spirit of im- 
provement. The log house has almost disappeared, and the frame and brick has 
taken its place. The drainage of our lands has not been neglected. Many public 
ditches have been constructed under the drainage laws of the State. Tile or un- 
der drainage has claimed the attention of the thrifty farmer, and a large per cent, 
of our lands are brought into a high state of cultivation through this and other 
means. We have been taught by experience that our first efforts in underdrain- 
Ing were not thorough. Large tile and deeper drains are found to be necessary 
and far more remunerative. 

We have three railroads passing through our oounty and through the city of 
Kokomo, which furnish us with outlets in almost every direction. We also have 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT ,RBPORTS. 271 

gravel roads extending in almost every direction and tapping all parts of our 
county. We liave an abnndanc© of good gravel and of eas^y access for the con- 
struction of roads. 

Tlie condition of agriculture Is healthly. The old idea, and one wliich was far 
too prevalent, that the farmer was necessarily an ignorant necessity, has been out- 
lived, and he is no longer kept in tlie background. 

John E. Cuklee, 

Secretary 



HUNTINGTON COUNTY. 

The sixteenth annual exhibition of the Huntington County Agricultural As- 
sociation was held on the grounds of the society, near the city limits of the city 
of Huntington, September 16th to 19tb, inclusive, and the succtss of the last fair 
was even more phenomenal than that of any of its predecessors. The association 
has passed that point when there is the least doubt as to the success of its fairs, the 
only object being to make each succeeding one excel the one of ihe last year. This,, 
we are glad to say witliout the least desire to boast, has been the spirit which ha» 
actuated the officers of the organization, and to-day, we boast of as tine exhibitions 
as are givtn at any county fair in the State. 

We ticlieve in well-defined efibrts to secure the cooperation of all the farmers 
and manufacturers of the county, and having them with us, we are perfectly will- 
ing to advertise thoroughly our exhibitions, and we find the plan successful. 

We allow no intoxicating liquors to be sold on our grounds ; no "fakirs" or 
"snaps" are there to "gull" those who come, and in this manner we secure the at- 
tendance and hearty cooperation of the most desirable chuss of people. 

The last exhibition surpassed tlie most sanguine expectations of even the offi- 
cers themselves. The attendance was extraordinary; every premium was prompt- 
ly paid, and paid in full, as is our invariably custom, and notwithstanding this, 
we liave had for the past few years at the close of each exhibition a handsome 
surplus of money. 

The displays in every department were never excelled, and in some instances 
were larger than heretofoi-e. Floral Hall was fiUed to overflowing, and it was found 
necessary to call into requisition other buildings for the use of this department. 
The live stock show was large, and demonstrates the fact that our people are thor- 
oughly in earnest in their endeavors to obtain good stock of every kind; w^ile in 
agricultural and farming implements of all kinds the display was never so large. 

Our crops during the past year were not as good as they have been in former 
years, yet they averaged well. Wheat was nearly an average crop the county 
through, while corn fell somewhat short — the quality was excellent. The severe 
drouth is what dam aged the latter named crop. In apples and the smaller fruits the 
yield was abundant. 

Our county is fast becoming one of the most prosperous in the State, and is 
peopled by an enterprising, intelL'gent class of inhabitants. We have splendid 



272 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

roads, almost every leading one in the county being a free gravel road, and many 
of the cross-roads are also graveled. Out of twelve gravel roads leading into the 
city of Huntington but four are toll roads, and efforts ai-e now being made looking 
to the conversion of two of these into free roads. 

It is the industrious nature of our p?ople, coupled with good roads and sys- 
tematic drainage throughout the county, that is making ours one of the most pros- 
perous and important in the State. 

Leon T. Bagley, 

Secretary. 



JACK.SON COUNTY. 

The Jackson County Agricultural Society held its ninth annual fair at 
Brownstown, July 28 to August 1, 18S4, inclusive, being nearly one month earlier 
than any previous faii-s, and the season being later than usual the exhibit of agri- 
cultural articles were small. The show of live stock, mechanical articles and fine 
arts was equal to j^revious years. The live stock show was the , leading feature of 
the fair, es})ecially the Shorthorn cattle and sheep, there being in both depart- 
ments a much larger number and of better quality than ever before exhibited. 

The fair was a success financially, the receipts being sufficient to pay premiums 
and expenses, witlj a small surplus to apply on indebtedness, which leaves the 
Society in debt less than one hundred dollars. 

No county in the State has better agricultural resources than this one. The 
bottom land along the Driftwood fork of White river and the many smaller streams 
produces large crops of corn, wheat, oats, clover, and grass, corn being the leading 
article. 

Nearly one-fourth of the farming land is a sandy soil, wliich is the very best for 
the growth of watermelons, nutmegs, potatoes, and all the varieties of early vegeta- 
bles. 

There has been a great amount of draining done in this county in the past year, 
both by open ditches and tiling. The most of the open ditches have been made by 
order of the Board of County Commissioners, under the law approved April 21, 
1881. The only objection urged, against that mode of ditching, or rather against 
the law, is that there is too much expense in getting ready to do the work and re- 
ceiving it after completion. The tile put down has given satisfaction, and the 
demand for tile is increasing 

The barbed wire fence is fast taking the place of the old rail and plank fences, 
as it is considered more durable and cheaper. 

This county was once heavily timbered Avith wood of fine quality, which has 
been, and is yet being rapidly worked into lumber, staves and spokes. 

The present dog law is satisfactory. The statistical repoi-ts are sought by our 
best citizens, and are considered useful, but more care sliould be taken by tlie offi- 
cers in gathering statistics. J. H. Matu^ck, ^ 

Secretary. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 273 



JAY COUNTY. 



The thirteenth annual fair of the Jay County Agricultural, Horticultural and 
Industrial Joint Stock Company was held on the company's grounds near 
Portland, September 30 and October 1, 2 and 3, 1884; and while the exhibits and 
attendance were n0t quite as large as last year, yet the fair was a decided success 
financially and in interest. It has always been the custom of our society to 
hold its fairs late in the season, and our experience is that we do not have as large 
an attendance in presidential campaign years as in other years. The peo- 
ple get worn out attending rallies before fair time. In addition to this, the 
two opening days of the fair this year wei*e very rainy and disagreeable, which 
was the worst drawback of all. The company has a beautiful fair grounds of 40 
acres located just outside the corporation limits of the city of Portland. Twenty 
acres are cleai-ed, and the race track is located thereon ; twenty acres are covered 
with a beautiful grove, in which are located the halls, stalls, pens, etc. We are 
justly proud of our grounds, and think there are none finer in the State. We 
have some good buildings, and some that are old. We have a surplus in cash of 
$1,290.64, and expect to spend about $1,000 of it in building new stalls and pens 
before our next fair. In the thirteen years of the company's existence it has never 
paid a dividend to the stockholders, although its fairs have been uniformly success- 
ful, and, with one exception, have left a surplus over expenses. It has been the 
policy of the company to expend all the earnings above expenses in additional 
improvements on the grounds. The only return that the stockholders have on 
their investment Ls a pass for themselves and their families to the fair. 

The exhibits this year were all good in their respective classes. Many of our 
people exhibit regularly every year, and they are gradually improving the quality 
of their exhibits^ Animals and articles that would have ranked well some years 
ago, would hardly pass now. In this way our people are being educated up to a 
higher standard of excellence. The show of horses this year was good, several 
imported ones being among the number. The feeling here seems to be in favor of the 
Clydesdales for draft, as no other imported draft hort-es are yet owned in the county. 
Of horses for light harness and general uses there was a very creditable number. 
In the Cattle Department there was a fine exhibition. Wm. Sharp, of Kichmond, 
Ind., and Wm. T. Bartlett, of Albany, Ind., each had an excellent herd of Short- 
horns on exhibition, but the sweepstakes on Shorthorn bull was carried by C. C. 
Watson, a local exhibitor. There was a fair show of Jerseys. The fancy with 
our people seems to be for Shorthorns and Jerseys, but within the past year the 
Holsteins have begun to appear among us, and promise to divide the honors. Of 
sheep there was a fair number of entries and a very good display. Our society 
requires a pen of three ewes to show for each premium offered on ewes, in all the 
ages and classes, and this brings out a l;u-ge number of sheep. 

The f-how of hogs was good, being confined to the Poland China, Berkt^hire, and 
Suffolk breeds. 

The display of poultry was very fair, and was divided among a large number 
of exhibitors. The Mechanical Department was well filled. 

18 — AORICULTtTRE. 



274 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, 

While the agricultural and horticultural exhibits were good, they were hardlj 
up to former years in some thing?, the long drought during the summer and fall, 
having retarded the growth of many vegetables. Of fancy articles and culinary 
preparations there was seemingly no end, the competition being very spirited. 
Floral Hall was filled to overflowing. The trotting and pacing races were up to 
the average, and seemed to he very attractive to a large portion of the crowd. The 
best of order prevailed, and it was frequently remarked that we never had so civil 
a crowd before. Not a single arrest was made. Games of chance were admitted, 
but the feeling of our people generally is that they should be kept out, and we ex- 
pect to honor that feeling next year. 

The year 1884 has been a prosperous one for the farmers of Jay county in so far 
as the crops raised were concerned, but the depression in prices ha-s made it dis- 
couraging to those* who depended upon the sale of their crops to raise money to 
meet obligations and expenses. The wheat crop -was good, and of excellent qual- 
ity. The corn was good, except on high ground, and was well ripened. Oats were 
short on account of the extremely dry weather. Potatoes not over two- thirds of a 
crop, for .'same reason, but what were raised were of good size and of excellent 
quality. Hay was up to the average and was saved in tine condition, there being 
but little rain during the haying season. 

Our lands in this county are specially adapted to grass, and hay and cattle are 
among our ranking interests. Sheep would be largely raised, if the dogs were all 
dead. The dog law does not bring enough revenue to pay for the sheep killed, and 
in this township alone the fund is over fifteen hundred dollars behind the claims 
for losses. 

Corn is our next best crop after grass, and consequently many hogs are raised. 
Wheat comes next, and in addition to home consumption we export large quanti- 
ties of it. But few oats are raised for shipment, about all being fed at home. 
Barley and rye do well, but are not much raised. 

Potatoes generally do well, and some years many car loads are shipped out to 
find a market. Flax has formerly been largely raised in this county, but for the 
last two or three yeai-s it has not been profitable, and farmers are giving it up. 
Apples and pears do well, but peaches and cherries are not profitable with us. The 
cold winter, a few years ago, greatly injured our orchards, many being killed out- 
right, and trees planted since have not yet come into bearing. Among the small 
fruits, strawberries, raspberries and blackberries do well, but currants and goose- 
berries have been a failure for some years, on account of the worms. Our farmers 
are rapidly replacing their old buildings with new and stylish ones, and the old 
log houses are rapidly becoming a thing of the past. The lands are being speedily 
drained under the present ditch law. A majority of the streams of the county 
are being straightened out and opened up, making good outlets for the tile ditches, 
and before many years all the streams will be so ditched. Tile ditches are boom- 
ing. There are twenty-two tile factories in the county, and they are unable to 
supply the demand for drain tiles. 

No attention is paid to timber culture, as nearly fifty per cent, of our lands are 
yet covered with a heavy growth of forest timber. Nearly all of this timber land 
is fenced and a great deal of it under-brushed and sown to grass. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 275 

There is yet plenty of room in Jay county for more than double her present 
number of inhabitants. The majority of our fences are yet of the old style rails. 
Many are building of boards, some of wire and some of boards and wire com- 
bined. Hedges are few, and are not very satisfactory to tlieir owners. The farm- 
ers are dlscusiug the fence problem, and I notice that the feeling is growing in 
favor of fencing stock in. 

Our roads are being graveled as fast as the law will allow. We now have 87 
miles of free gravel road, and 15 miles of toll gravel road in the county, with more 
in preparation for next year. Every road leading into Portland, the county seat, 
is now a turnpike. 

The majority of our farmers are fully keeping pace with the times in the use of 
improved implements and machinery. They are also awaking to the value of 
manures, and the importance of clover, and proper rotation of crops. Taking all 
in all, the future outlook for the farming interests of Jay county is encouraging. 
With three railroads through the county, insuring good markets, and with the 
numerous turnpikes, enabling the farmers to reach those markets at all seasons of 
the year in spite of rain or mud, there is good reason for us to be encouraged. 

L. L. Gilpin, 

Secretary. 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

Jetierson County Grange Jubilee Agricultural and Mechanical Association held 
their eighth annual meeting and fair on the Driving Park Ground, near Madison, 
September 2, 3, 4 and 5. The fair was one of the most successful ever held in the 
county in the way of exhibits Almost eveiy department was well represented, 
but financially it was a failure to some extent as the proceeds were not sufficient 
to pay the premiums in full, therefore we had to pro rata. 

The cause of the light attendance being the existence of two conflicting ele- 
ments, which we hoped to unite, but it appears that the chasm widens, therefore 
tlie Association findij it hai"d to work against those elements, but we believe that a 
straight forward course in the right will finally triumph, thei-efore we propose to 
work for the building up of the agricultural class by using all the means that we 
can without resorting to anything that we believe a detriment to society, and tends 
to detract from the interest that should be built up among the farmers. 

We therefore do not give any premiums on speed, and will not admit any games 
or catch-penny institutions, for we firmly believe that these things absorb the inter- 
est, and the true object of our meetings would be lost. We hope that we may edu- 
cate ourselves as farmers to realize that all meetings of this kind should be elevat- 
ing to us as a class as well as to community at large. Therefore, I'ather than to 
succeed financially by introducing things that would detract and. had the mind 
from what we wish to fostei", we propose to leave them off, and hope to succeed in 
elevating ourselves to a position worthy of our calling. 

Jefferson county is steadily increasing in its agricultural products; mixed 
farming is almost universally practiced. The stock law is gradually coming into 



276 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

force; every j'ear finds the bounds widening. Improvement in farm buildings is 
very perceptiljle. The farmers generally are practicing a more thorough system of 
cultivation. 

The Horse Department was well represented, especially in general purpose and 
heavy draft, there being quite a number of imported horses in these rings. 

The cattle show was good, and of the finest blood ever exhibited at our meet- 
ings. 

The Hog and Sheej) Department was well filled, and superior to any previous 
fair. 

Floral Hall was not so well filled perhaps as in former years, but the articles 
on exhibition were far superior to any heretofore shown. 

The Flower Department was splendid. The greenhouse erected for that purpose 
was filled with choice collections of pot plants and cut flowers. 

The Mechanical Department was better represented than in former years, but 
still room for improvement, which we hope for in the future. 

The Lecture Department was a failure, as those who had been selected to lecture 
were so situated tliat they could not be with us. We will try and have that part 
well supplied with able hcturers in the future. 

Our next meeting will be held on September 1 to 4, 1885, inclusive. 

We heartily thank those that helped to make this exhibit what it was, and are 
sorry that we were not able to f»ay the premiums in full, and do cordially invite 
them to meet with us in the future, and will promise them to do all we can con- 
sistently to make it a success. Thos. H. Watmngton, 

Secretary. 



JOHNSON COUNTY. 



Owing to delay in selecting a suitable tract of land on which to hold a fair, the 
Johnson County Fair Association did not hold a fair this year, but we expect to 
get our grounds in shape so as to hold a fair in the autumn of 1885. 

This county is largely an agricultural district, and our crops are principally 
corn and wheat, with good markets for both. There are two large starch works in 
this county, which consume large quantities of corn annually; and we have a num- 
ber of the very best flouring mills which aflTord an excellent market for the wheat. 
The corn and wheat crops for this j^ear were up to the usual average, and the now 
growing crop of wheat promises well, but as to the number of acres sown last fall, I 
think it will fall short of previous years. 

Our farmers are in a prosperous condition, with their farms in a high state of 
cultivation. Most of them have fine houses, good fencing, careful drainage, with 
an excellent quality of all kinds of live stock, all of which is conducive to their 
health and prosperity. 

Our cities, towns and villages are steadily going forward, with good morals, in- 
crease in population, and substantial improvements; so we think, summing it all 
up, we have no great reason to complain. D. H. Miller, 

Secretary. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 27T 



KNOX COUNTY. 



The Knox County Agricultural and Mechanical Society held its fourteenth- 
annual fair, near Viucennes, from October 13 to 18, during most auspicious weather. 

The directors, having found by past experience that the building devoted to the 
exhibition of fine arts was totally inadequate, have erected a new and commodious 
structure well suited to that use, and we were all gratified to find it amply filled 
with substantial evidence of the culture and progress toward comfort and elegance 
enjoyed by our people. 

The exhibition was, in all resjiects, a most gratifying success. The receipts ag- 
gregated §10,425.70; expenditures, 1^9,430.52. 

In the item of expenditures is included the cost of constructing improvementSj . 
$3,960.27. Total entries, 2,340. Premiums paid, $3,143.50. 

An analysis of the entries shows that the exhibition of horses was especially- 
large, there being 323 entries, and in this department over $1,200 was paid out in 
premiums. There were 114 entries in the Cattle Department, to which were paid 
$657 in premiums. As an instance of how small industries may grow to take the 
place of former leading interests, it is curious to trace the rise of the poultry busi- 
ness in our county. A few years ago $50 was considered by our managers a large 
amount to appropriate for premiums in this department, while $250 was hardly 
sufficient. At our last fair there were 51 entries of hogs, and they received $126 in 
premiums, while there were 181 entries of poultry, to which were paid $216 in the 
way of premiums. 

There eeems to exist a marked tendency among our exhibitors to show the bes 
of well-known varieties in stock, and agricultural and horticultural products 
rather than to display novelties in blood or species. This tendency crowds oui* exhi- 
bition with the finest specimens produced, but does not as thoroughly as could be 
wished, sliow the advantages of new introductions. 

The necessity for heavier horses, so universally recognized a few years ago, has 
been fully met by the introduction of various strains of Percheron. But an equally 
existing defect in cattle has been only partially remedied. Oar cattle are still too 
distinctly marked into but two classes; the unsightly scrub, and the too high^ 
priced Shorthorn. 

In cereals and other products of the field, there will always appear the great 
variety rendered essential by the diversity of soil, between sandy loam and clay, 
which marks our county, some portions of which require early and others late va- 
rietifs of the same staple; and hence our exhibitions are marked by specimens 
with such adaptability. 

Taken as a whole the year has been one of unusual success to the agriculturist, 
although the low prices prevailing have not made it of such great financial profit- 
Its success has been rather one of improved quality in its products than of pecu- 
niary gain. 

A courage born of success in battling with floods and droughts, has strengthened 
our farmers, and to that extent has enriched them with an energy not heretofore 
felt, and which in the future will assuredly secure a most abundant reward. 

Gerard Keiter,, 

Secretary- 



578 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



LA.GRANGE COUNTY. 

The Lagrange County Agricultural Society held its thirty-second annual exhi- 
bition on the fair grounds at Lagrange, on September 24 to 27, 1 884, inclusive. 
The number of entries were larger than usual, and the exhibition of stock and 
article? competing for premiums was unusually good, e.specially of horses, cattle, 
sheei) and hogs. 

Wool growing is one of the specialties of the farmers of this county. Quite a 
number make a business of raising, buying and feeding sheep for the eastern mar- 
Jcets, and some of our best farmers are now feeding flocks of five hundred each. 
Thousands of sheep are annually shipped from this county to the eastern market?. 

The exhibition of poultry at our last fair deserves special mention. The entries 
in this department were large, and the fowls presented were of the finest and best 
breeds. 

Owing to the drought during the summer the exhibition of agricultural prod- 
ucts was not large, but the specimens were very good. Wheat, corn, oats and grass 
are the leading products of the soil in this county. The wheat crop of 1884 was a 
fair average crop, the yield being about eighteen bushels per acre, as estimated by 
our best farmers. The corn crop, in consequence of the drought during the months 
of July, August and September, was below the average. The yield of oats was 
good. There was also a very good yield of grass, and, the weather being very fair, 
an unu.sual amount of good hay was made, undoudtedly, the greatest number of 
tons ever produced in one year by the county. 

The exhibition in Floral Hall, con^'isting of textile fabrics, fine arts, ttc, was 
very good. In the Horticultural Department the exhibition was small — the fruit 
crop being a partial failure. The usual amount of agricultural implements was 
on exhibition. 

Financially, the exhibition of the vSociety wa^ a partial failure, as it was not 
attended by many people aside from tlie exhibitors. It seems that the people had 
spent their surplus change attending the grand rallies during the political cam- 
paign, and had none to spare for the fair. The weather was very unfavorable 
during the exhibition. 

Isaiah Piatt, 

Secretary. 



LAKE COUNTY. 



The twenty-sixth annual fair was held at the fair grounds in Crown Point' 
on the 7th, 8th, 9th, lOth and 11th days of October, 1884. The fir.st day was so 
wet and unfavorable that few entries were made, but the days following were fine, 
and our people, from all parts of the county, patronized the fair so liberally that 
the attendance exceeded any previous fair. The total receipts were $1,887.54. 
Premiums paid, $I,2()1.00. Total expenses, $396.74, leaving a balance on hand of 
over $300. Financially it has been a success, but we think that it is a great risk 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 27& 

to hold our fair so late in the season. The social features of a fair are more im- 
portant than many think. The meeting of friends and neighbors, and a social 
holiday is one of the chief attractions. To induce this, the fair must be kept free 
from all vicious influences, and made a place for agreeable recreation and 
amusement, and above all it must be an exposition of all the industries of the 
country, especially pertaining to progressive agriculture. 

Horse« formed a prominent feature in our entries, and a lucrative source of in- 
come on many of our farms. The show of horses with us is always good. Nor- 
mans, Clydesdales, Cleveland Bays, trotters and roadsters, all being well repre- 
sented. 

Of cattle, we had Jerseys, Shorthorns, Herefords and a few Holsteins. The 
show of sheep was not as good as usual. Our pens were well filled with hogs — 
Chester Whites, Poland Chinas and Berkshires. 

The Woman's Department, in the Floral Hall, was quite an attraction, and one 
of the best features of the fair. 

The display of agricultural products, both of the farm (with a few exceptions) 
and garden was very ])oor for a county capable as it is of tine varieties and a full 
collection, and this requires more than a passing notice. The premiums for farm 
products should be more liberal. An improved variety of corn, wheat or oats suit- 
able to our climate and conditions, introduced by this agency and brought to the 
notice of our farmers, might be worth thousands of dollars to the great produc- 
ing interest. In the difl'erent varieties of grapes and clover, in a county whose 
chief element of wealth is in our rich pastures and meadow lands, there should be 
every inducement to a full display of all the valuable species known for their 
great value, both for pasture and hay, and in this report, from past experience, we 
would urge the great importance of these matters suggested, and which form the 
business side of all our fairs. 

Poultry is receiving the attention it deserves, and the display was a credit to 
that branch of domestic industry. 

Corn. — We shared with the Northwest in a poor crop in 1883 ; this year it is at 
least 50 per cent, better, having fully matured with a fair yield. 

Oats. — This year's crop will exceed all former years. We shall go up this 
year, we think, to one million bushels. 

Wheat.— W^hat wheat lands we have are excellent and productive; this year's 
crop was very good. 

Eye.— More rye is being sown with a view to stock feed rather than for sale. 

Pastures.— The drouth in summer shortened the grass, but early fall rains made 
it abundant. 

Hay. — The area in grass for hay, we think, is increasing; large crops are raised- 
Stock at Large. — Every one takes care of his own stock; this is common law 
and common sense. 

Flour. — Not wheat enough raised in the county for home demand; tons of 
flour imported and sold here. 

Milk. — Being so near Chicago, this trade is increasing. On some of our lines 
of railroad milk trains are run, and we shall soon in this industry, in some locali- 
ties, rival the famous Fox river region of Illinois. 



■:280 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The mechanical department was not as fully represented as formerly, but agents 
have lately relied more on trials of excellence in the field, and less at our local 
iairs. The aid given by the inventive genius of the age in increasing the produc- 
tive po ver on the farm is one of the marvels of this century, and it is a great 
problem whether this increased production shall be freely distributed among the 
great family of nations, or whether we shall reduce production to our own nation's 
wants, and live within ourselves, isolated from the commerce of the world. The 
■latter seems impossible : It is restriction ; it is retrograding; it is fighting the nine- 
teenth century, and the sooner we recognize these facts, the sooner we recognize 
that we are part of the great brotherhood of man scattered all over the world, and 
adjust oui-selves to these condition8, the better it will be, not only for us, but for 
;*H those who share with us on the vast commercial activity of the world. 

Fences — Barbed wir r; is used more than ever, and any legislation that tends to 
make it dearer is a tax on our industry, and an increased cost to every rod of 
fence on our farms. 

Dogs. — Tax the dogs and save the sheep. 

Road Laws. — Let us have a rest. 

Statistics. — Must have them. Our assessors will learn better how to get them, 
-and our people will in time better appreciate their value. 

Tile Draining— Tiles are made at Hobart and at Crown Point, and their use is 
increa-sing every year. 

Silos — We are watching the result of experiments in ensilage, and this being a 
beef and milk producing county, we expect this system will come into use here. 

Our grounds are owned by the county. A lake of twelve acres forming nearly 
the center of a natural amphitheater, makes it naturally fitted for an agricultural 
fair. 'I'he trotting track forming a circle around this little lake, and kept as it is 
in good order, makes our trials of sjjeed quite showy and interesting Many things 
can be improved on, and some things objectionable thrown aside, and we feel con- 
fident, that the interest can be kept up for a good fair in 18S5. 

Harry P. Hewoili., 

SccieUiry. 



LAPOKTK COUNIY. 



In accordance with custom, and in compliance with the statute of the State, it 
becomes my duty and privilege as Secretary of the Laporte County Agricultural 
Association, to submit our report of the lliirty-third annual fair held in this county. 
This exhibition was held at the County Fair Grounds, near Laporte, September 
:23d to 26th, inclusive, and notwithstanding the rain ihefii-st two days, the fair was 
a complete success in every respect, and one of the most satisfactory ever held in 
the county. More interest than usual was manifested by the people generally, and 
-aa increased feeling of confidence and appreciation of the utility and benefits of 
these annual exhibitions is observed by all, and especially by the business men of 
laporte. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 281 

The third day of the fair the Circuit Court adjourned, our manufacturing estab- 
lishments, banks, stores, and nearly all places of business closed, giving proprie- 
tors and employes an opportunity to spend the day upon the fair grounds. 

The display in all departments was very good. The improved condition and 
number of thoroughbred horses in this county in past few years is marvelous^ 
Some of our horses took premiums in four difl'erent State fairs during the season of 
1884. 

Until recently but little attention has been paid to the improvement of the 
breeds of cattle. Now our county contains a number of choice herds. 

During the past year William O. Orr, one of our most prosperous farmers, im- 
ported one of the choicest herds of Hereforel cattle ever brought to the State, -w-hich 
has been verified by the fact of their taking the first prizes in every county, dis- 
trict and State fair where their owner placed them on exhibition. 

Sheep and hogs are not by any means being neglected, and the bee industry or 
bee culture is receiving considerable attention. An exhibit of silk worms or silk 
cocoons, by Mrs. Allison of this county, created considerable interest, and was quite- 
an attraction. 

The display in the Ladies' Department was grand, and beyond the power of the 
secretary to elescribe or to give any adequate idea of the many choice and magnifi- 
cent specimens of handiwork placed on exhibition by the cultured ladies of La- 
porte county. This display was made more attractive by the taste and skill 
displayed in the arrangement of the articles on exhibition in Fine Art Hall by the 
ladies, and much credit is due them for the interest they have taken to make oar 
annual fairs a success. 

The display of the products of the farm, garden and orchard was not ciuite as 
good as it has been in years past, but was much better than our last exhibition. 

Crops the past season were very good, the condition of agriculture is ])rospei-oue, 
the most approved kind of implements are in demand, while elegant and commo- 
dious residences and barns are taking the place of the old buildings, thereby adding 
to the comfort and convenience of our prosperous farmers. 

The old rail fence is being replaced by board, barbed wire and hedge fences- 
rail timber is becoming scarce; hedges and wire will become the fence of the 
future. 

A markeel improvement has been made in our wagon roads, and could the broad 
tire be substituted on all wagons used for conveying heavy loads, less labor and 
money would be necessary to keep our roads in good condition. 

During the past year the Association has erected a number of good and sub- 
stantial buildings upon the fair grounds, including a wing to Floral Hall 24x50 
feet; a stable for the accommodation of cattle, 28x100 feet, and a building for 
sheep and hogs, 20x100 feet; these buildings being substantially built, placed on 
etone foundations, with good shingle roofs. Our receipts this year were sufiBcient 
to pay for all these improvements, pay all expenses of the fair, including premi- 
ums in full. 

Our grounds and buildings are in good condition, and the Association is in good 
ehape for future exhibitions. Geo. C. Dorland, 

Secretary^ 



282 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



MADISON COUNTY. 

The seventeenth annual fair of the Madison County Joint Stock Agricultural 
Society was held on the 1st day of September, 1884, and continued for four days. 

The showing in hoi-ses was good, both as to numbers and quality, being the 
largest and best ever on the fair grounds. Among the exhibitors worthy of men- 
tion are D. W. Kemp and Silas Jones, Madison county; Powell & Peed, New 
Castle, Ind., each having a very fine showing of thoroughbred imported horses. 
The cattle exhibit was grand, consisting of Shorthorns and Jerseys. All the cattle 
stalls were taken. The sheep display was very fine, as large as usual, and of finer 
quality. All the sheep pens were taken. Among the large exhibitors were C. L. 
Henry, Anderson ; A. W. Groves, New Castle, Ind.; Cook & Morse, Raymonds, 
Ohio. The swine exhibit was fair, but not up to the average of past years; the 
quality very good. The poultry display not as large as past years, but a very fair 
show. 

The fine art display was not up to last year's exhibit, but larger than past years, 
with the exception noted, quite a number of exhibitors from a distance being here 
with exhibits. 

The Agricultural and Horticultural Departments were full to overflowing, 
being the largest display ever had. 

The Speed Department full, and all races passed ofl* in good style. 

All in all, the fair of 1884 was the largest in every sense of the word ever held 
here. 

Our farmers are beginning to take interest in oiir exhibitions, vieing with each 
other as to who can best cultivate his grounds and improve his stock. 

The condition of agriculture in this county will compare favorably with any 
county in the State. There is a great diversity of soil, and all susceptible of a 
high state of cultivation, and all crops known in the State, it is believed can be 
grown here. 

There has been an immense amount of ditching done and tile put down in this 
county in the last few years, which has made land that has been worthless for agri- 
cultural purposes, the best producing land in the county. 

In the matter of roads much interest is now being taken, and quite a number 
of " free pikes " were finished last year. 

Grain growing predominati s, the crops of last year being all fair. Grass grow- 
ing and grazing is on the increase, and is encroaching on the grain growing branch. 
The amount of timothy and clover raised last year was fully up to the average, 
and of the very best quality. 

Fruit and vegetable crop good. 

Our supply of fine timber is fast disappearing. Saw-mills and shipping the 
cause. 

Our supply of stone for building purposes is inexhaustible. 

The next Madison County Fair will be held on September 7, 1885, and con- 
tinue for four days, at the old stand. C. K. McCdllouoh, 

Secretary. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 283^ 



MAEION COUNTY. 

The Marion County Agricultural and Horticultural Society has continued to- 
hold monthly meetings with very gratifying and encouraging results. The attend- 
ance and general interest manifested has very largely inci-eased during the year 
just closing. During six months of the year these meetings are held in the open 
air at the residence of different members in the several townships, so that every 
community may be reached. In November, December, January, February, March 
and April the meetings are held at the State Agricultural Rooms. The out-door 
meetings are held on the picnic plan — the forenoon spent in social intercourse and 
viewing the premises of the host; at noon a luncheon is spread (the united contri- 
bution of the members) ; afternoon is devoted to the regular business. The Octo- 
ber meeting is set apart for a mutual exchange of seeds among the members. Cash 
premiums are awarded on products of agriculture, horticulture, the dairy, farm 
stock, etc., in their appropriate seasons. 

The programme is made up — 

First. Of Reports of Standing Committees on Farm Buildings, Farm Cropa^ 
Farm Stock, Farm Machinery, Orchards, Small Fruits, Gardens, Flowers, the 
Household, Bee Culture, Fish Culture, Entomology, Ornithology, Statistics, etc. 
These committees are required to report as to the comparative condition ; to sug- 
gest improvements to be made ; to give information as to items of general interest 
connected with their respective subjects. 

-Second. Lectures, address, papers, etc. 

The arrangement of this part of the programme is put into the hands of a com- 
mittee, who, we must say, deserves commendation for the very valuable papers and 
entertaining lectures read and delivered to the Society. Among those given may 
be mentioned : Why Boys Leave the Farm, by Rev. O. C. McCulioch ; The Seed 
and Its Germination, by Prof. Coulter; Bread Making, by Mrs. Dr. Swain ; Birds 
and their Usefulness to Horticulture, by M. C. Hobbs; Mistakes of Marion County 
Farmers, by Chas. Howland and I. N. Cotton ; Better Modes of Wheat Culture, by 
J. W. Apple and Benj. Tyner; Duties of W^omen as Mistresses of the Household,^ 
by Mrs. J. G. Adams ; What Good may be Done for a Neighborhood, by Miss 
Richardson; How to Make Home Attractive, by Mrs. M. E. Berger; What to do- 
With Five Acres, by Dr. Johnson ; How to Best Employ Winter Evenings on the 
Farm, by Prof. W. A. Bell ; Wheat Rust— Its Nature and Origin, by Miss L. J- 
Martin; A Course of Reading for Farmers' Families, by Prof. A. C. Shortridge ;^ 
Glimpses on the Rhine, by Mrs. Bolton. 

Third. Discussion of subjects, and miscellaneous business. 

The Society held a joint meeting with the Hendricks County Society in July,, 
at the residence of Daniel Cox, near Cartersburg, w^hich was largely attended by 
the people of that community and a respectable number from this Society. The 
meeting was entertaining and profitable, and we came away with the feeling that it 
■was " good for us to be there." I will clofe with an extract from the annual report 
of the former Secretary of this Society, being in accord with his remarks : 



284 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

" While this Society holds no general fair like those held in other counties, yet 
I still maintain that its monthly meetings, discussions, reports, papers, lectures, 
exhibit?!, and experimental work, are a means of disseminating among the agricul- 
tural masses of the county as much practical and useful knowledge, without mix- 
tare of evil, as any County Society in the State." 

W. B. FiicK, 

Secretarg. 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 

The fifth annual exhibition of the Montgomery County Agricultural Associa- 
tion was nothing but a repetition of former years. The weather, our best friend, 
-was all that could have been asked for, and taken in connection with the immense 
«xhibit, we had everything to induce a very liberal patronage. 

In speaking of our patronage, let me say that jierhaps in no other county in 
the State does the public in general bestow as much interest on their county fair 
as do the people of Montgomery county. You may ask, Why is it so ? There ia 
apparently no other solution to the mystery beyond the fact that they are sure to 
see the bL-st fair in the State. No doubt the reader may think I am placing a very 
iigh estimate upon it. So I am, but not beyond what it justly de.serves. 

We always offt-r liberal premiums and pay them in full (the only guarantee to 
-a. long lived fair), and as a fact the public have not only confidence but a desire to 
patronize. 

Of our exhibit nothing need be said, as all who are in the habit of reading 
these reports will have gleaned from those of former years the fact that the word 
success applies fully to every department ; nor was this behind any of former 
years, but rather more complete. 

I feel that a statement of what showing we have made financially would be in 
■order, hence the following : 

For our grounds (sixty-three acres) we paid S12,572, upon which improvements 
have been placed a{ a cost of 820,000; thus making a total outlay of over §32,000, 
with a capital stock of S14,675. The reader can readily see that $18,000 more 
than the capital stock has been expended. From the success of five exhibitions 
this debt, together with interest, has been almost wiped out, the indebtedntss of 
the association being to-day a little less than §900. Had not the association suf- 
fered a loss of over $1,000 by fire to stalls on which there was no insurance, we . 
"would not have an indebtedness to-day of one dollar, but, to the contrary, would 
Jiave money in the treasury. 

With the coming spring our board intend placing some very substantial im- 
provements on the ground in the shape of a fine grand stand, secretary and treas- 
urer's office, with directors' room attached, and a large agricultural hall. The 
ground will also be laid off with fine graveled drives. 

Vast improvement in the county has been accomplished in the last few years in 
the way of drainage, making what used to be our non-productive land the most 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 285 

valuable and produciive. The county has almost three hundred miles of gravel 
roads, the greater part of which are free. 

My last report failed to find its way into the Agricultural Report of 1883, and 
fearing this may meet a like fate, I will stop here. 

F. L. Snyder, 

Secretary. 



NOBLE COUNTY. 



The Noble County Agricultural Society held its twenty-ninth annual fair on 
the grounds of the Society, at Ligonier, Sepi. 30, Oct. 1, 2 and 3, 1884. This ex- 
hibition was a complete success and has encouraged the management to put forth 
greater efforts in order that the purpose for which these exhibitions are held may 
be accomplished. 

The exhibits in all departments compare favorably with other years; some, 
however, deserve special mention. The first is that of hoi-ses, wliich was full to 
overflowing, there l)eing one hundred and fifty entries, among which were a num- 
ber of imported Clydes^dales and Normans; a splendid exhibit of Hambletonians, 
and many fine farm and road hoi-ses, owned by our thj-ifty farmers throughout the 
county. It is generally conceded that Noble is .second to no county in the State in 
number and value of fine horse?. 

The Catile Department was represented by splendid specimens of Shortorns, 
Jerseys and Holsteins, and some excellent grades with about an average number of 
tntries. Hogs and sheep were fairly represented. Agricultural Hall and Me- 
chanical Department were less than former year.-;, but moderately well represented. 

The Horticultural Department showed a marked improvement. 

The Ladies' Departmtnt was exceedingly fine, as it always is. This department 
has become one of the njost interesting features of our fairs, and shows much im- 
provement from year to year. The ladies deserve much credit for the interest 
taken. Taking everything into consideration, this was one of the most satisfactory 
fairs ever he d by this Society. The attendance was a little below the average, 
caused by the abolishing of the "family ticket," and the adoption of the single 
admission ticket. The finances, howevei*, were all right. Premiums and expenses 
were paid in full, and a portion of last year's deficiency liquidated. The amount 
of premiums paid was §1,947; repairs and running expenses, $580.56, leaving us a 
balance of $233 in the treasury. 

The Society is in excellent working condition. The grounds and improve- 
ments are owned by the organization, and the entire indebtedness is S245. 

The growing of wheat and corn occupies a large share of the farmer's attention, 
although the raising of improved stock is gaining steadily. There is a marked 
improvement in the manner of farming. The care of the soil is receiving more at- 
tention, seed selected more carefully, and the planting and cultivation exe'Uted 
with greater care. In the way of improvements, the march has been steady and 
sure. Comfortable, and in many instances, commodious residences have been or 



286 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

are being erected, while those who are provided for in that re?pect, are building 
great barns or otherwise adding to the comfort and utility of their surroundings. 

Underdraining is receiving more attention each year, and large tracts of low 
lands have'been redeemed and made to grow golden grain instead of willows and 
cat-tails. Our roads are moderately good, but are capable of being made much 
better. 

The opinion of our best farmers is that stock should be fenced in. The tradi- 
tional rail fence still encircles a large number of oul- farms, yet in many instance* 
it has given way to the board and wire. 

The next exhibition of this Society will be held Sept. 29, 30, and Oct. 1 and 2, 
1885. The work is already under way, and many new improvements will be made 
in the way of stalls for horses, cattle, sheep, etc., as well as a new Agricultural 
Hall and other buildings, which will add much to the pleasure and comfort of ex- 
hibitors and visitors. 

J. H. Hoffman, 

Secretary. 



PAEKE COUNTY. 



The Parke County Agricultural Society held its fifth annual fair at Eockville,. 
commencing on the 18th day of August, and ending on the 23d. The attendance 
was fair, and the exhibition good, especially in the live stock departments. The 
entries were: Horses, 192; jacks and mules, 10; cattle, 37; sheep, 23; hogs, 89. 

Crops past season: Corn, average crop, qnality fine; wheat, average crop, qual- 
ity poor; oats, average crop; potatoes, average crop; hay, large yield and Avell se- 
cured. 

Our society, although not quite out of debt, is in a prosperous condition, hav- 
ing dischargt>d an old debt of long standing last year, and will, with reasonable 
patronage at the coming fair, be able to pay all debts. 

A. J. White. 

Secretary^ 



PERRY COUNTY. 



The thirteenth annual fair of the Perry County Agricultural and Mechanical 
Association was held on the Society's grounds near Rome, Ind., on October 6, 7, 8, 
9 and 10, 1884. We have three acres of land that cost $100 per acre. It is a 
beautiful place. 

In the spring of '75 the Floral Hall was blown down. The society built 
another two stories high, 30x60 feet. This year the Floral Hall was well filled, 
especially the Ladies' Department. Their department was equal to any county 
fair in the State. But the other was not up to some other years past, but still it 
was tolerably good. 



COUKXY AND mbTRICT REPORTS. 287 

Peaches iu this county were au entire failure. Potatoes light, 80 to 90 bushels 
tv the acre. Wheat was a small yield, but good quality. Rye and barley but lit- 
tle raised here. Oats good. Corn sufiered from a storm about the time corn was 
full, and later it sufliered more. It would be hard to make an average of Perry 
tounty crops. The bottoms yielded well, but hilly land scarcely anything. Ap- 
ples— ^Some orchards were full, others again had no apples. As to the roads, they 
are passable, and that is all. The rivers and creeks are all well bridged. There 
has been more improvements this year than for several years past. Hay — Tirao- 
thj, redtop and clover grows splendid here, and makes large yields, as well as every 
other product of the soil. 

Perry county would be one of the best grazing counties in the State; plenty of 
water furnished by springs and creeks As to the timber, thei-e is an abundance. 
Oak — black, red and white ; hickory — black and white ; walnut— black and white ; 
locust, etc., and most any kind of timber that is wanted. The timber is being 
wasted fast here by the stave men, and in a short time all the oak will be gone. 

This county has fine sandstone, and several quarries are opened ; also plenty of 
limestone. 

Fencing — Some neighborhoods have no fences, but whnre farmers have fences so 
as to pasture, their oats, wheat and meadow fields are all doing well. 

For financial statement and list of officers see tables appended. 

Walton Wheelee, 

Seoetaiy. 



PIKE COUNTY. 

The fourteenth annual fair of the Pike County Agricultural Society was held on 
the society's grounds, adjoining Pefersburg. It commenced on Monday, September 
1st, and concluded on Saturday, the 6th. The fair was a decided success, finan- 
cially and in every other respect. The entries were largely increased in every de- 
partment, but more especially in the live stock classes, and there was also a marked 
improvement in the quality of the stock on exhibition. The displays iu the horti- 
cultural and agricultural classes were exctptionally good, which speaks well for the 
farmers of our county, showing that they apprc-ciate the fair as an agent iu pro- 
moting the agricultural interests. Our Floral and Art Hall was, as usual, the center 
of attraction, on account of the great varitty and b;-auty of the articles on exhibition, 
produced by the skill and taste of the ladies of Pike. The farm crops in our 
county of every description, this year, were abundant, being much above the aver- 
age for many years. Our wheat crop was unusually large, the grain of excel- 
lent quality, and was saved in .good condition, yet on account of the unusual low 
price realized by the producer, there has been no profit realized by any one, and 
in many cases it has not paid for the labor and expense of raising and delivering 
it to market. Of course this state of things is very unsatisfactory to the farmer. 
It is very clear that the present low price of wheat is caused by over-production, 
not only in the United States, but in India, Egypt, Russia, Australia, and every 



288 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

other wheat-producing country in the world, and as a matter of fact, there is nov 
on hand a much larger supply than will be required, or will be consumed, until 
the next harvest is secured. It is not probable, under these circumstances, th^t 
there will be any advance in the price, at least for some time, and perhaps not for 
years, for the reason that wheat can be raised in Russia and India much cheaper 
than in the United States, on account of the low price of labor in these countries. 
Under these circumstances, would it. not be sound policy for farmers in this conn- 
try to materially reduce the acreage (f wheat? It appears by the reports from the 
Agricultural Bureau at Washington City, that the area in wheat for tliis year Was 
38,500,000 acres. The product of over 13,000,000 acres are in excess of thewante of 
this country, and will have to be sold mainly in Liverpool, in competition with 
the wheat raised by the cheap labor of India and Russia, and this is being done 
now, and the result is a loss to the farmer on every bushel exported. And further, 
the foreign market brings down the home market in the same ratio. Now, if the 
area sown in wheat for 1885 was cut down in the United States to, say 26,000,000 
acres, the home demand would consume the entire crop, and the price-? realized 
would be satisfactory to the farmer, and this 13,000,000 acres, which was formerly 
in wheat, could be cultivated in other grain crops or grasses. 

For instance, we import one-seventh of all the barley used in the United States 
from foreign countries, and further, we pay annually $100,000,000 for foreign 
sugars, and $45,000,000 in duties on the same. Now, as it is no longer a question 
as to the practicability of making sugar profitably from the sorghuoi cane, there 
is no doubt that in the near future this will be an important crop in the North and 
West, and very profitable to the producer. 

Again, the statistics of England, France, Germany, and many other European 
nations show that the increase of cattle, sheep, and hogs does not keep pace with 
the increase in population in those nations, and the result is a constantly increas- 
ing demand, which is mainly supplied by this country. This market for meats and 
live stock in the foreign countries named, and the home consumption, which is 
large and constantly increasij)g, will not likely be glutted by an over supply for 
many years, and the present prices, wliich pay the stock raisers a fair profit, in all 
probability will be maintained. From these facts, I arrive at the conclusion that 
stock raising will be found much more profitable than wheat. 

But the object I had in view in directing attention to the wheat situation, is to 
impress upon our farmers the necessity of producing a greater variety of farm pro- 
ducts for market, and also the importance of studying the statistics as to the amount 
raif-ed and consumed, and the usual market price of all articles that could be suc- 
cessfully cultivated or produced in our State. Then we might to some extent reg- 
ulate production so as to prevent an over supply of any particular article, and by 
these means avoid heavy losses to the producers, without any injury to the consumer. 

There has been less improvements made this year than last, in this county, in 
the item of buildings by the farmers. The cause of this, I think, is the low price 
of grain and other farm products. There has been decidedly more tile draining 
done than in any year pretious to this, and the results are very satisfactory. Noth- 
ing has been done in timber culture in this county, except for shade or ornamental 
purposes. The fencing in of stock does not seem to gain popular favor to any 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 289 

extent, and the result is that many of our farmers are growing OKage orange hedge 
fences, while others are using wire. This is made necessary on account of rail 
timber being very scarce. 

The dog law as it now stands seems to be rather popular, at least with the clase 
who have generally the greatest number of them, for, as a rule, they neither pa/ 
taxes on their dogs or anything else. I am still of the same opinion that the only 
law that will protect the sheep raiser is something similar to the law that was re- 
pealed which required every dog to be registered and a tax paid in advance, and 
a tag on him showing that fact ; all dogs to be killed whose owners failed to com- 
ply with this law. 

The agricultural statistics that are furnished to the township assessors are 
totally unreliable. Correct statistics would be very valuable, not only to the pro- 
ducer but also to the consumer. I regret that I can not report any improvement 
in the condition of our roads, nor is thei'e any probability of any change for the 
better until there is a radical change in the present system of working them. The 
first change that I would suggest would be to have all road improvement done hy 
an ad valorem tax on all property, and this tax to be collected by the county treas- 
urers in cash, and all work and improvements on roads should be, when at all 
practicable, sold to the lowest bidder, plans and specifications being furnished to 
the proper agent or agents to execute the law. That would be a matter for future 
consideration. Further, roads should be changed to run on lines, whenever pos- 
sible. Koads will never be permanent that run through lands so as to injure them, 
which is usually the case. Again, grades should be established on all permanent 
roads. This, with a thorough system by tile and open ditches, with proper outlets^ 
will make much better roads than we now have, and perhaps it is all that we can 
do for years, as we have no gravel and very little stone in our county. 

Since my last report there has been considerable immigration into this county, 
and that of a very desirable character. I think we will gain more rapidly each 
succeeding year both in population an in wealth, when our great natural advant- 
ages, both of soil and mineral wealth, are more generally known. 

Good LET Morgan, 

Secretary. 



POKTER COUNTY. 

The fourteenth annual exhibition of the Porter County Agricultural Society 
was held on their fair ground, adjoining the limits of the city of Valparaiso, Sep- 
tember 16 to 19, 1884, and in all respects was a grand success. 

The weather was very fine, all departments were well represented, and every one 
seemed pleased and satisfied. Each succeeding day added to the numbers, until 
on the last day the ground was crowded with visitors, fully demonstrating the 
necessity of more ground, which has since been purchased. 

The most popular feature of the fair — the horse — had a good representation in 
all classes, from the heavy imported draft, with their grades, down to all purpose, 
and the fine-limbed trotters and runners. 
1 9 — Agriculture. 



290 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Talk about pumpkins and potatoes, as much as we love them, and would 
gladly give them the first place if possible, but are compelled to yield. They will 
not draw like the horse. 

In cattle, the Durhams, Holsteins, Polled Angus, Herefords, Jerseys, and grades, 
were represented. 

In the sheep jjens were but two classes, the fine wools and downs, showing good 
breeding. 

The hog pens were full of pure bred Poland Chinas and Suffolks, good repre- 
sentatives for a State Fair. 

The poultry was not what it should have been in number of entries. 

The most of the stock on exhibition being owned by farmers of our own county 
is evidence of the enterprise of the people. 

Of farm and garden products the number of entries was second only to the 
horse, and the exhibits were very fine. 

The show of fruit was fair, but not quite as large samples as usual. The 
di-ought during .July and August lessened the size somewhat. 

The Art Hall was attractive, being completely filled with specimens of womens' 
handiwork and collections and displays of art. 

The speed ring, that feature of the fair so difficult to harmonize to the satisfac- 
tion of lovers of the turf (and they are many), plainly showed by their actions that 
they thought it Avas good for them to be there. They seemed to be filled to over- 
flowing with pleasure. Even the good, sturdy old farmer stepped more lightly, his 
eyes sparkled ; in fact it was as a shock of electricity to him, starting the very 
blood in his veins to rushing as in youth, and the vast multitude seemingly lost to 
all else around them, their eyes being steadily fixed on the te.-t of speed. 

After all this demonstration of pleasure, talk of leaving out the horse! Can 
we do it? I fear not, until you change human nature. 

Our agricultural interests are principally corn, oats, wheat, grasses, potatoes 
and millet, in acreage of each in order named 

Farmers are learning that it is far better to have le.ss acres in crops well farmed, 
than to hog over large fields for the same number of bushels, alternating their 
crops, using all manure available, and seeding often to clover as a fertilizer. 

Quite an improvement is noticed in our roads since the introduction of graders, 
as tht'y leave the roads in a better condition after working for proper draining. 

Osage hedge, wire, and board fences are mostly used for enclosures. The old 
rail fence is gradually passing away, and will soon be a thing of the past. 

In some sections farmers have learned that it is cheaper to fence stock in, than 
out, and have made such a law, but as yet it is not universal. 

In sections where needed, the laying of tiling is being done as fast as circum- 
stances will admit of it. 

The past season the yield per acre has been better and the quality more perfect 
than for several seasons past, and all that now hinders farmers from being the most 
independent class of laboring men is the exceedingly low price of grain. Notwith- 
standing the reduction in prices the taxes are greater than usual, consequently, 



COUNTY AND DISTBICT REPORTS. 291 

with many, greater economy has been practiced — a little curtailing of expenses 
from luxuries to mere necessities. Perhaps in the end this may be all for the best, 
as it will teach us to estimate the true value of our money. 

E. S. Beach, 

Secretary. 



PUTNAM COUNTY. 



Formerly we had the heaviest timber of the State, and the marketable quality 
of our oak and walnut places us at the head of the list in this respect. Stone of 
first quality for building and lime is abundant, and quarried extensively at Oakalla, 
Putnamville and Limedale. 

Wheat and corn are the leading crops, though timothy is profitably grown. 
Clover is widely sown, but valued chiefly as a fertilizer. 

Attention is being turned to tiling, and the results are, increase in quantity 
and quality of grains. 

Our blue grass is unsurpa-^sed, hence cattle raising is one of the leading indus- 
tries, and success crowns the labor. 

Not so many hogs, as in former years, are found in this county, owing to cholera. 

Sheep, once so favorable. with our farmers, h»ve fallen into disrepute on account 
of the dogs. If the law made each dog, when off his ownei-'s premises, an outlaw, 
and justified any one in killing him, good would result therefrom. 

The south and east part of the county seems best adapted to fruit, but the 
severe winters, together with the unrelenting borer, has sadly depleted our older 
orchards. 

With the scarcity of gravel our roads have not kept pace with the times, but 
under the free gravel road act the abundance of stone is being utilized in building 
macadamized roads, and we have now some one hundred miles of free pike roads; 
also, some sixty miles of toll roads. 

Our county is well provided with schools and churches. Farmers are taking 
great interest in beautifying their homes; also, the large number of comfortable 
and, in many instances, elegant residences which have been built within the last 
two years speak louder than words the profitableness of our farming. Their intel- 
ligence is witnessed by the use of the best improved machinery, thus acquiring 
leisure for mental improvement, better fitting them for the higher plane on which 
the agriculturalist stands to-day ; also, removing much of the drudgery which 
burdened the life of the primitive farmer boy. 

Facilities for transportation are exceptionally good, having three railroads 
crossing from east to west, and one from north to south. 

The rail or worm fence still predominates, hedge and wire generally meeting 
with disapproval. 

There was harvested the past year about 42,000 acres of wheat, but the quality 
was not up to the standard nor the yield so large as common. About the same 
number of acres of corn planted, which made a very good yield. Oats was a 



292 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

splendid crop, though only about 6,000 acres sown. Of grasses, there is 22,000 
acres of timothy, 1,200 acres of clover, and nearly 100,000 acres of blue-gra.s3. 
The timber has dwindled to less than 30 per cent, of the acreage of the county. 
About 30,000 head of hogs fatted the past year. We begun the year 1884, with 
8,00U head of colts and horses, 700 head of mules, 22,000 head of cattle, and about 
the same number of sheep. Putnam county's youthful farmers may take encour- 
agement from the history of the past, as most of our wealthy as well as our lead- 
ing men were and are farmers. 

VV. S. Cox, 

Secieta;-y. 



RUSH COUNTY. 



I herewith pre.sent my report of entries, receipts, expenditures, etc., of our an- 
nual operations for the year 1884. 

And eacli year of our organization the President of the State Board requests for 
general information, the spirit of our progress, as well as the popular will of the 
farming community on several subjects that now seem to demand legislative 
action. 

In my report for your tabular .statement it will readily be seen that our pro- 
gress is upward and onward, and when looking at our receipts and learning that 
three hundred stockholders, with their families, enter our gales free of charge, it is 
plain that our attendance was all that could be desired, and as to exhibition of 
stock, it also shows in all classes a good supply. In hor,-es, there is a growing de- 
mand for the various strains of heavy draft, Avhilst general purpose and flyers have 
each their zealous advocates. 

This being the home of the old Blue Bull — and a marble slab honors his mem- 
ory — his prugeny having made noble records on many tracks, then may we not 
with honest pride see our boys gracefully hold the ribbons? 

There is a place for all strain^, and all were well represented. The entries of 
cattle show brisk competition. The quality of Shorthorns, and Alderney, and Jer- 
seys showing no retrogression. 

Jn hogs, Poland Chinas and Berkshires still have their friends, whilst the 
Chester White come in increased numbers, and the finest of specimens, and are un- 
questionaltly gaining ground in popularity. 

In sheep all breeds were well represented. The low price of wool is forcing a 
tendency to popularize the mutton breeds, and the Downs are taking the lead, par- 
ticularly the Shropshire, many of which were here directly imi^orted, the finest in 
ihe class, and many selling at a high range of prices. 

The Poultry Department was full, and the specimens were fine. The Mechanical 
Department was not so good as formerly. This being ray fourteenth year as Secre- 
tary, I can consjratulate the society in its onward progress by the books, and hope 
it will not be out of place, as I feel it my duty in my retirement to heartily thank 
the different Boards for their support and kindness throughout all these years. 



COUNTY AND DISTKICT REPORTS. 293 

A few words on the topics sup'gested by President Mitchell, of the State Board : 
The fence question is now upon the farmers of Indiana with feeling force, and when 
looking at his surroundings can not but inquire, why is it that our Legislatures do 
not take lessons from our neighboring State?, and remove more than half the burden 
when nine-tenths of the agriculturists ask it at their hands? I fear the true 
answer is, that farmers are an unorganized body, busied by the cares of home, not 
besieging legislative halls to be protected in their God-given rights ; whilst the 
idler and city votes command in boisterous tones a negative action to known 
duties. Farmers say this is humiliating; yes, and until you speak as one man, 
you may suffer and bear not only in this but in many ways, and your keen remind- 
er is twice a year— your tax duplicate tells the tale. Year by year, from every 
available standpoint, the farmer importunes the Legislature for a better protection 
to his sheep. The present dog law is insufficient, and legislators know it. In 
my position I speak the sentiments known to me of the farmer, whose interest I 
am placed to represent, in my humble manner. I in each annual report repeat 
some of their pressing and fair demands, until I am weary of not seeing some 
fruits from those many appeals that go to the Legislature from all parts of 
State. And now I say a word to the farmers: Organize in some shape; make your 
wants known through petition ; speak in thunder tones, and you will be heard — 
without, I fear you will ever bear and wait. 

Comparative Progress. — I give you this in an inferential way. Highly im- 
proved farms here bring from $80 to §100 per acre. Tile drainage is pushed and 
appreciated in every locality. Turnpike roads cover every highway that enters 
Rushville. All cross-roads are being cared for by being graveled. Three railroads 
pass Rushville. Convenient stations in all directions accommodate the outposts. 
All land fenced, and blue-^rass sods the woodlands. Grain mostly corn and wheat. 
An increase in hay annually. Improved stock of all kinds largely enter the com- 
bination, or I may say mixed husbandry. From this picture I trust correct con- 
clusions may be drawn. LoN Link, 

Secretai-y. 



SHELBY COUNTY. 



The annual exhibit for 1884 of the Shelby County Joint Stock Agricultural 
Association was, all things considered, the most propitious in the history of Shelby 
county. The people were in an unusual political agitation, there'was a general 
financial depression, and the weather, as the exhibition approached, was unfavor- 
able, yet in every department there was a full display. During the fair week we 
were required to add to our stabling forty new stalls, having added forty the year 
previous. The Live Stock Department was never so largely represented, and in 
the Department of Agricultural Products it was found that our building capacity 
was quite insufficient. Strong evidences were offered that our farmers are improv- 
ing the breed of their live stock, particularly cattle, hogs and sheep, and are devot- 
ing mental labor, with extra manual force, to the selection of seeds and the tilling 
of crops. The county is purely agricultural, and grazing is not pursued in any 
portion of it beyond the pasturage of the farm stock. 



294 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The turnpike corporations have made Shelby county famous for its good h igb 
ways, and recently valuable improvements have been added in the way of free 
gravel roadsi. The construction of drainage has been unprecedented, the greater 
portion of it having been done under the act creating Cijcnit Court (.'ommissioners 
of Drainage. 

Excepting in a few instances in the city of Shelbyville, the disposition is to 
accept such a fence law as will require stock to be fenced in, and not require a 
larger investment by the people generally in fencing than in live stock. The 
rapid disappearance of timber and the growing pride of the farmer and the city 
home owner have been important factors in securing this impression. The only 
opposition to the full acceptance of the doctrine comes from a few warm political 
friends of the poor man's cow or hog. The County Commissioners have not, by 
order, designated what stock shall be permitted to run at large; so we have a local 
law requiring stock to be fenced in, but, having no penal clause, it has no enforce- 
ment, except for occasional trespasses. 

The wheat crop of Shelby county can be safely estimated at ten per cent, in ad- 
vance of the yield of 1883, while the corn crop is much better in quality and prob- 
ably twenty-five per cent, better in quantity. 

I have had an opportunity recently to observe in abstract form the progress of 
agriculture in this county since the 25th day of October, 1851, when "the citizens 
friendly to agricultural improvement" met at the court house and selected Rev. 
David Whitcomb to preside over the meeting, and David Thacher, then editing 
and publishing the Volunteer, was chosen secretary. A society was formed, and 
November 1, 185], the venerable Judge J. M. Sleeth, for a committee, reported a 
cons^titution, and Thomas A. Hendricks, Martin M. Ray and James Elliott reported 
by-laws. A librarian was one of the officers of the society, and it was made his 
duty to subscribe for all such books and periodicals for the use of members as 
might be ordered, and to keep a register of the receipt and the return of the same 
by members. A committee was required to furnish two columns of agricultural 
matter weekly to the Volunteer, and the librarian ordered to subscribe for The 
Cultivator, $1; The Horticulturalist, $3; The Plow, 50 cents ; The Prairie Farmer, 
$1 ; The Plow, the Loom and the Anvil, $2; Western Horticultural Review, $3 ;. 
Ohio Agriculturalist, $1; Journal of Agriculture, $2; Pennsylvania Farm Jour- 
nal, $1 ; American Farmer, $1 ; Indiana Farmer, $1 ; The Ohio Cultivator, $1. 

On the first Saturday in February, 1852, Governor Wright and W. T. Dennis 
addressed the society. In the musty old volumes where this record is found is a 
list of the premiums offered at the first fair of the pioneer society, and it covers 
less than five and a half pages, written, in the book, eight by ten inches, and com- 
prising farms, crops, horses, jacks and mules, cattle, hogs, sheep, fowls, fruits, 
farming implements, flour and domestic manufactures. In the fii-st is a sensible 
award, though abandoned by modern management : ''The best arranged and culti- 
vated farm, a silver cup worth $10; for second best, Stephen's Farm Book, and a 
diploma." The Farmers' Encyclopoedia, Coleman's European Agriculture, Ameri- 
can Farm Book, silver cups, spoons and butter knives, etc., constituted the premi- 
ums. In 1852 and 1853 these pages show that much annoyance was experienced 
by " huckstering in the vicinity of the fair grounds." The progress of the society 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 295 

during 1853 was reported to the State Board, showing great advancement by the 
*' offering of 188 premiums, of which 12u were awarded, their cost being about 
$400, of which $220 is silverware, and the remainder in books and bound volumes 
of periodicals on agriculture and kindred topics." The score and a half of years 
since these remarkable manifestations of agricultural interest have brought us 
much of which to be proud. We have a ground upon which there are permanent 
improvements of more than $10,000 in value, and the fair of the past season paid 
in cash premiums fully $5,000, and received in entry fees, privileges, at the gates, 
amphitheater, and from stalls, $<j,2S8.66, having paid more money for building 
forty new stalls than all the awards of our brethren of 1853 amounted to. Their 
efforts were laudable and probably more productive of good results than ours of 
this day, considering and comparing the circumstances affecting both. Certain it 
is that we are reaping the harvests of prosperity that have grown from the seeds 
of industry and hardships sown by them. 

L. J. Hackney, 

Secretary, 



STEUBEN COUNTY. 



The Steuben County Agricultural Association can boast of as fine grounds, 
buildings, stables, pens, and sheds for stock as can be found in the State owned by 
a like association. An Agricultural and Floral Hall of large capacity, a Mechanics' 
and Machinery Hall eighty feet in length, with a line shaft the entire length, with 
width to operate machint ry the entire distance, thirty-five acres of even, level land, 
shaded with hickory and oak trees. 

Liberal pi-emiums have at all times been paid, and the association is free from 
debt, with a surplus of near $-500 in the treasury. 

Our last fair was held on the grounds at Angola, October 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 
10th— five days — the first two being devoted to preparations. 

Our horses, as usual, took the lead, and were rr-presented by the best Norman, 
Percherons, Cleveland Bays, and a number of other breeds. Our horsemen devote 
more attention to raising heavy draft horses than others, as they command better 
prices and a readier sale. 

The speed ring was not neglected. The races were warmly contested and ex- 
cited much interest. 

■ Our Cattle Department was fully up to that of former years, the Shorthorns, 
Herefords, Holcsteins, and Jerseys, with a high order of grades, in all degrees of 
perfection. 

Sheep were represented by the Merinos, Leicestershires, Southdowns, and grades 
in great variety, showing that our flock masters are using extra efforts to keep up 
their well-earned reputation in this department. 

No better display of hogs was ever seen in the county, Poland Chinas taking 
the lead, followed by Chester Whites and Jersey Reds. 

Our show of poultry was good, though not as full as heretofore. 



296 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Agricultural Hall was filled to overflowing with grain, potatoes, cabbages, tur- 
nips, pumpkins, tomatoes, honey, apples, pears, quinces, grapes, bread, butter, 
cheese, canned fruits, pickles, preserves and jellies. 

A traction engine, from the works of Nichols & Shepherd, of Battle Creek, 
Mich., demonstrated that the farmer would soon be able to dispense with the horse 
as a beast of burden, and attach the engine to his plow and harvester. 

Our Floral Hall was one profusion of flowers, and needlework of the daintiest 
styles, reflecting the highest credit on the fair hands that executed and the heads 
that planned such delicate work. '^ 

It may truthfully be said that Steuben county is better adapted to the growing 
of grain and grazing than many other sections of the State. Occupying the high- 
est land between Toledo and Chicago, the water from its many lakes and streams 
flowing both into lakes Erie and Michigan. The surface is quite rolling. 

The soil of the northern and western portions of the county is a dark sand and 
gravel, while the eastern and southern portions are a heavier clay loam ; the sur- 
face is so rolling that any surplus water goes at once to the valleys, creeks and 
lakes. 

Apples, pears and grapes do well, also peaches, when the winters are not too 
cold. The smaller fruits are grown in great vai-iety, and of excellent quality. 

Our farmers manifest a laudable ambition to erect convenient houses of the 
more modern style— many of wood and brick, and a few of stone. And the 
farmers' barn is incomplete without a basement, and sheds and stables for the pro- 
tection of stock. 

Tile draining is receiving a large share of attention. Besides two tile works in 
the county, large numbers are shipped here by railroad. 

The culture of timber at present is limited to the care of that not already 
wasted and destroyed. The great demand and liberal prices offered by lumbermen 
for oak, walnut, ash and hickory have denuded very many farihs of timber now 
sadly needed by them, and has enhanced the price of well-timbered land above 
that which is improved. 

The cheapest and best fencing material for the farm that has rail timber is the 
old rail fence ; posts and boards come next. Wire possesses neither the quality of 
cheapness nor eflSciency to recommend it. These facts are attested by all farmers 
who adjoin the railroad where wire is used. Neither sheep nor hogs are stopped 
by it. The lives and usefulness of horses are always endangered by it, and it forms 
only an indiflferent enclosure for cattle — so much so that the Legislature of Michi- 
gan has come to the rescue of the farmer, and forbidden its use along all its lines 
of railroad. 

Our best roads are now constructed of gravel. They are first well drained and 
covered with gravel from four to eight and ten inches in depth. Our roads are all 
free public highways. 

The vexed question of a dog law is an important one, and the last one passed 
by the Legislature possesses such a bundle of crudities that neither the sheep 
breeder nor the dog owner is satisfied with it. Every point in it, if it has any, is 
aimed at the sheep breeder. So much so that he is compelled, in self-defense, to 
adopt the shotgun policy or abandon his flocks. The construction given the law by 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 297 

the Courts compels the owner of sheep destroyed by dogs to go for, say often, into 
«ome other township, and in some cases into a different county from that in which 
his sheep were killed, thus making the dog-tax collector, in one county or township, 
perform duties in another, and then making the sheep owner liable to fine and im- 
prisonment for shooting the worthless cur that loiters about liis yards and fields, 
and feeds on his slaughtered flocks, because he lacks the proof that he is a sheep- 
killing dog. 

The subject of fisli culture is beginning to attract from our farmers a share of 
the attention its importance demands. Located as our county is, on the summit or 
highest land between the two lakes, Erie and Michigan, there are within its 
boundaries over seventy-five lakes and ponds of clear, beautiful, soft water, most 
of them bordered by sandy and gravelly banks, many of them flowing in clear, 
pebbly brooks from one lake into another. 

These lakes and ponds vary in extent from one quarter to six miles, with ever 
varying widths and depths; are supplied by springs, affording to the agriculturist 
an abundant supply of pure water during the greatest droughts. These bodies of 
water abound with great quantities of excellent fish, the pickerel or pike, black 
bass, perch, speckled bass, red eye bass, blue gills, sunfish, sucker or lump fish, 
herring, catfish. Whitefish, German carp and eels are successfully propagated. 
The laws for the protection of fish are rigidly enforced by those interested, and 
they hope by care and attention in the near future to have access to a great variety 
of excellent fish, to say nothing of the sport and pleasant pastime in securing them. 

At the urgent request of our many farmers interested in fish culture, there is 
herewith appended a very correct map of Steuben county, representing the town- 
ships, section lines, the lakes and ponds, with their names, and the streams form- 
ing their connections, the names of our villages and the course of the P'ort Wayne 
branch of the Lake Shore railroad, which will give to parties interested a better 
representation of the location and comparative size of our lakes than can other- 
wise be given. If the same can be published in your forthcoming Agricultural 
Report a cut of the same will be furnished by the undersigned. 

A. W. Hendry, 

President. 



We take pleasure in producing the fol lowing map of Steubeu 
■county, in the extreme northeast portion of the State, and will, 
no doubt, prove of much interest in showing the remarkable 
lake surface of that portion of the State. In no other w^ay can 
the geography of a county be so well described, and we hope 
that this will lead to a map of each county in the future agri- 
■cultural reports, although in a more condensed form. 

Secret A KY. 



300 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



ST. JOSEPH COUNTY. 

The Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan Agricultural Society held its 
third annual fair on the fair grounds between South Bend and Mishawaka, Sep- 
tember •22d to 26th, inclusive. Our assocsation is now a member of the Ohio, 
Michigan and Indiana Tri-State Fair Circuit, which was of great advantage to U8 
in Kccuring a large list of exhibits, both in the Stock and Machinery DepartmenK 
Our attendance, with the exception of one rainy day, was larger than last year. 
The list of entries exceeded that of the fair of 1883. In the Horse and Cattle De- 
partments our show was very tine. Hogs and sheep were well represented. Take 
it altogether we had good reason to be proud of our last fair. The condition of 
agriculture in our county is good. Crojis were fully up to the average. 

C. G. TOWLE, 

Secretary, 



TIPPECANOE COUNTY. 

The Tippecanoe County Agrkultural Association, having for the last sixteen 
years held successful fail's, deemed it expedient to take a rest for one year, there- 
fore, have no report to offer for 1883, except that the organization has been kept 
up, and that we are in working order and expect to hold our fair at the usual time 
this year, viz. : the first week in September. For list of officers see table appended. 

J. M. Deesser, 

Secretary. 



TIPTON COUNTY. 



The past year has added materially to the pro-perity of the industrial interests 
of this thriving county. Its geographical position and general lay of land unite to 
make this a point of interest, and bespeak for it a meritorious history. lis past 
record has been one of continuous growth, but not until of late years has tlie con- 
dition of the county been such as to show what could be accomplished in the way 
of agriculture and horticulture. 

Our present advantage of drainnge has inspired our farmers to a more intelli- 
gent, system of culture than ever undertaken before, and has developed the fact 
that farming is not the dull and unprofitable business that it has been held to be 
hitherto, but to the reverse, the ricli black loam studded with the beautiful forest 
trees — ash, walnut, poplar, oak, hickory, beech and sugar — and underlain with a 
porous strata of productive clay, has become a source of great pleasure to the honest 
and industrious tiller of the soil. 

At the early opening of spring the different nationalities, Irish, German and 
American, were seen busily preparing the soil for the coming crop, and the pride 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 301 

of each was noticed in the deep and straight furrows, the birilding of fences and 
the clearing and breaking up of waste places in old fields, all of which showe'l the 
faith of the tiller in the soil and season and his hopeful prospects of being ble-sed 
with abundance. Seeding came and the gentle rains and penetrating rays of the 
6un soon developed his labors into living green, and the mild and pleasant sum- 
mer crowned his earnest eflbrts with a golden harvest, and as fall made herself 
apparent, the people vied with each other in their exhibits at the county fair. 
Kever was their a finer display since the organization of the county. CompetitioQ 
brought trade from various parts of the State; so great was the interest that every- 
place was occupied before the time had expired for making entries. System 
was fully exemplified and showed the true spirit of the husbandman. 

The stock all showed an increase of interest and was a good index of the steady 
growth of the wealth and general prosperity of an energetic and thrifty people. 
The Ladies' Department displayed great taste and skill in the way it was man- 
aged and work done. Everything was aitistically arranged, and their efforts were 
crowned with success. 

Among the many other interesting features is an association known a« the 
"Franklin County Association," this being organized especiilly for emigrants from 
that county, and its increase in numbers over the past year has a marked signifi- 
cance on the development of our industrial interests. Our commercial relations 
and facilities are among the best, having an east and west and a north and south 
railroad, each leading directly to points of commercial note; these, together with 
twenty-seven and one-half miles of free gravel roads, and contracts having been let 
for the construction of several miles more during the coming year. The di-coveriefr 
in the county have been of a most interesting character; among these relics are the 
tooth of the ma-stodon and the unveiling of the cemetery of the red man, in which 
was found the remains of nineteen distinct personages, together with many of his 
implements of war and pleasure. 

The ensuing year has many promises in store — her winter crops bid fair to 
yield a large increase; there is energy and activity in all branches of business, not- 
withstanding the immediate pressure of hard times, and as we lay down the quill 
for the present we hope to be able to take it up again and graphically portray the 
present year's progress to the gateway of a garner well filled. 

William Barlow, 

Secretary. 



VIGO COUNTY. 



The past year has been the most successful in nearly every respect which the 
Vigo Agricultural Society has experienced since its organization. When the 
Board of Directors for 1884 took chnrge of its aflfairs they found it in debt about 
twenty-five hundred dollars, in addition to which there were quite a number of 
small bills remaining unpaid from the fair of 1883. The lease to the fair grounds, 
granted by the county on September 7, 1867, for a term of twenty years, rent free, 
had but three more years to run, while the failure of the fair for several years had 



802 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

almost discouraged citizens generally from taking the least interest in it. In the 
face of these obstacles the board congratulates itself on its success. The fair com- 
menced on September 8, 1884, and continued throughout the remainder of the 
week. As an exhibition it Avas the largest ever held in Vigo county, and the stock 
was better than that at any previous fair. It Is true the receipts fell short of the 
expenditures, but the deficit will b-:- made up in a very short time, and, with the 
exception of the State Fair, Vigo county expects next year to hold the largest and 
most successful fair in Indiana. During the year we have sold ninety-one shares 
of new stock, at twenty-five dollars each, of which sixty have thus far been paid in. 
By this means the society has reduced its debt to fourteen hundred dollars, and has 
secured the extension of its lease for another term of twenty years. 

The county is rich in its agricultural resources, its soil being adapted to the 
cultivation of all kinds of crops. From the statistical reports of the various Town- 
ship Assessoi-s the following facts are gleaned as to the division of the acreage for 
the year 18S4: 

Acres of winter wheat, 44,755 ; acres of spring wheat, 90 ; acres of upland corn, 
36,848 ; acres of bottom land corn, 12,246 ; acres of oats, 8,515; acres of barley, 79; 
acres of rye, 673; acres of buckwheat, 20; acres of Irish potatoes, 1,120; acres of 
sweet potatoes, 118; acres of melons, 534; acres of tobacco, 6; acres of cabbage, 50; 
acres of beans, 50 ; acres of onionn, 10 ; acres of strawberries, 142 ; acres of timothy, 
14,451; acres of clover, 7,420; acres of blue-grass, 10,292; acres of plow-land not 
cultivated in 1884,5,280; acres cultivated for first time, 1,116; acres of timber, 
37,230. 

There are also in operation in the county 23,380 rods of drain tile, and the work 
of laying now is steadily progressing, and becoming more popular as its value be- 
comes better known. The farmers are, generally speaking, in good financial cir- 
cumstances. 

A number of years ago Eastern capitalists held mortgages here amounting to 
nearly $1,000,000, but these have been reduced to a sum which is comparatively 
insignificant. During the year 1884, however, there has been a general complaint 
of poor crops. The wheat yield was poor, and the quality inferior. Some parties 
reported a yield of from six to ten busliels per acre ; others did not cut at all, 
while a few reported twenty-five bushels per acre. The yield of oats was the best 
ever known in this locality, and the corn was fully up to the average. The fencing 
is in good condition. The roads are improving rapidly. The people recognize the 
value of good gravel roads, and the prospects are that in the near future we will be 
supplied in distance and quality equal to any county in the State. The present 
dog law gives pretty general satisfaction. As to stock running at large there is a 
difierence of opinion. In the city of Terre Haute, with a population of nearly 
40,000, cattle have the freedom of the city, and are allowed to roam at large when 
and where they will. In some townships they are allowed to run at large, while in 
others they are fenced in. 

Of course every person interested in agriculture favors full statistical reports, 
and fully recognizes their value ; but under the existing law it is the next thing to 
an impossibility to gather them. Such work requires care and |»atient work. It 
also requires time. At present the Township Assessors have the task assigned 



COUNTY ANT) DISTRICT REPORTS. 303 

them. They are allowed no compensation for it, and are required to complete all 
their work within t\yo months— something which can not be done and done 
properly. The State could, with advantage to its citizens, afford to make a liberal 
appropriation annually in this direction. 

With four other counties we have formed the Western Indiana Fair Circuit this 
year. Our dates will harmonize, and each will work for the success of all. In this 
manner we expect to increase the number of exhibitors largely, and thereby secure 
a larger number of visitors. 

It is the opinion of this Society that our Legislature should change the law in 
regard to the amount to be paid over as show license. The present one is too loose 
in its provisions, and gives show proprietors an unfair advantage. In a county 
like this a circus will often take away from us $5,000 or $6,000 in a single day, on 
a license of not more than $50, and even with such a small sum to pay will threaten 
to return during fair week at a future time and break the Society. This was done 
recently in one county, and its prevention should be looked after. Circuses are no 
benefit to any community, and where they exhibit they should pay reasonably 
for it. W. TI. DuNCAM, 

Secretary. 

WABASH COUNTY. 

The Wabash County Agricultural Society held its annual fair on its grounds, 
in the city limits of the city of Wabash, fronj the 8th to the llth of September. 

Our show Mas good, especially in the Live Stock Department, the entries num- 
bering 2,0.30. Our receipts were $5,068.05. After paying all expenses, including 
$300 for improvements, wc had on hand $363. 

The crops of our county were over the average. Corn was unusually good, 
especially on the black grounds, which predominate. Taking the entire crop and 
fruits, we have seldom realized a more generous yield. 

Our road system is Avorthy of mention. Some half dozen gravel roads center- 
ing from all parts of our county in the city of W^ abash afford grood trading facil- 
ities to our citizens for tranacting their business. Gravel in abundance and 
easy of access very much facilitates the construction of these roads. 

Our county is blefsed with inexhaustible quantities of stone suitable for build- 
ing purposes. 

As timber becomes scarce and increases in value, the attention of our farmers 
is directed to other methods of fencing than the original rail fence. Hedging as a 
fence is beginning to take the place of the old rails. 

Public ditching has brought most of the level portions of our county into culti- 
vation. Tiling has been successfully carried on in the greater portions of our 
county. 

We have three railroads through our county, giving an outlet in almost any 
direction. 

Agriculture is in a prosperous condition, the diversity of our soil aSording op- 
portunities for a diversity in cultivation. Our rolling lands produce wheat, and 
our low lands corn and grass. Frederich J. Snavelly, 

Secretary. 



304 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



WAERICK COUNTY. 



I take pleasure in making my annual report of one of the oldest organized 
counties in the State. Warrick county was organized in 1813, containing about 
390 square miles, and is bounded on the north by Gibson and Pike, on the east by 
Spencer, south by the Ohio river, and west by Gibson and Vanderburg. The or- 
ganization of the Warrick County Agricultural Society was the result of a meet- 
ing held at Boonville in December, 1856. The first fair was held in 1857, with a 
membership of 117. Since that time the annual fair has been looked forward to 
with great interest by all classes. 

The advantages that have been made manifest by this organization are numer- 
ous, better stock of all kinds being introduced, promotion and encouragement of' 
mechanical arts, the diffusion of improved methods in every branch pertaining to 
the farm, orchard and garden. 

Our society held its annual fair September 23d to •ji7th, under very unfavorable 
circumstances, bad weather being the principal hindrance. Notwithstanding, 
there was a large list of entries in all departments. Never were our halls better 
filled by the finest of articles from thi-i and adjoining counties. 

Oar fair financially, as well as socially was a success. Our grounds are needing 
some repairs, but as our lease is of short duration, they will not be made. 

The organization of a stock company is contemplated in the near future. 

Warrick county has many advantages by reason of the geological, as well as 
geographical position. We venture to say there is not another locality in the 
State where a county is so diversified and adapted to the growth and development 
•of the different agricultural products as this. 

Millions of pounds of tobacco are annually raised here and sold to eastern and 
foreign markets. 

Wheat is another of the main supports, and is a great pillar in our tower of 
wealth, and is a source from which thousands of dollars are annually poured into 
the pocki4s of the farmers. 

Corn is raised less extensively, and the greatest profit is gained by feeding to 
stock, which of late lears has claimed the attention of some of our best- farmers. 

The mineral resources are of many kinds. 

The coal fields, which underlie all parts of our county, are a great source of 
wealth, and along our railroad many mines of profit are being worked. 

Some of the finest timbered land in the State is to be found in this county. 
Yellow poplar, walnut and white oak are of the finest varieties. 

In the grand disjjlay of timber at the Louisville Exposition, Warrick stood 
first, in the lead of any of her si-ter counties. And we can well say that this ex- 
hibit placed the State on an equality with any of her sister Slates. 

The county is well drained by three or four creeks, which empty their waters 
into the Ohio. Hundreds of acres of these low creek bottoms have been drained 
by tileage, which has proved of great wealth to the county. 

Much more might be said in regard to the improvements throughout the 
county in the way of farm buildings, school houses, churches, bridges, etc., which 
speak loudly for the intelligence and prosperity of our farmers. 

S. W. Taylor, Secretary. 



COUNTY AND DltTRICT REPORTS. 305 



WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



The Washington County Agricultural, Horticultural, Mechanical and Indus- 
trial Afisociation held its fourth annual fair on its grounds at Salem, September 8 
to 12, 1884, inclu.Hive; and, as in the preceding year, an adjoining county held its 
fair the same week, presumably aifecting ours to eome extent ; yet we had, all 
things considered, an improvement in exhibition over all our preceding fairs. After 
paying the premiums, $1,862.50, and expenses of fair, we had a surplus of over 
$600 to apply to old claims, improvements, etc., something of a gain over last year. 

Our exhibit in green fruit was very indiflerent, both in number of entries and 
quality, owing to the almost failure of that crop in the county. Our show of 
poultry was not quite so good as the preceding one, especially in number of en- 
tries. There seems to be a lack of interest this year in this class, which we hope 
to be able to correct in the future. Our exhibition of sheep and cattle was quite 
creditable indeed, and would compare favorably with any county in Southern In- 
diana ; while in the exhibit of horses and hogs our show excelled all our previous 
fairs, and would compare favorably with any county fair in tlie State. Their su- 
periority in breed and general good qualities challenged the admiration of all who 
saw them, wliile the number was greatly in excess of all former exhibits. 

Our classes for draft, light harness and general purpose horses were each about 
equally well represented. The judgment expressed by all observers was that 
Wasliington county breeds and shows first rate horses in all classes. 

Our speed rings were fairly well represented, and gave general satisfaction. 
Our free-for-all pace deserves special mention, it being a close contest, taking five 
heats to settle it; finally won by ''Daisy D." in 2:22, the best time ever made on 
our track. 

In this connection I deem it but fair to say that, in my opinion, based upon 
both experience and observation, good speed rings are a necessity as an incident of 
a good fair. There mu.st be some amusements coupled with our shows of stuck and 
general farm products to relieve its monotony. "All work and no play makes Jack 
a dull boy" can well be applied to management of fairs. And what more inno- 
cent amusement can be adopted than the trials of speed of the noble animal, horse, 
and what more entertaining to the average audience at our fairs? Besides, if we 
prvivide them our people spend their money at home to see what otherwise they 
would go away from home to see, at a greater cost. 

Our general agricultural products bear evidence of a continued improvement 
from year to year. The continued and intelligent use of well selected fertilizers 
demonstrates that our farmers and gardeners are becoming educated up to their 
own interests, their increased use becoming greater from year to year. A good 
farmer now will hardly think of sowing a meadow without its use, having realized 
that with it he can count on a set of grass ihe first year with reasonable certainty, 
while under the old mode it was generally a question of doubt as to success, and 
always as to time. 

I forbear a discussion on the general topics suggested in the annual circular of 
the State Board at this time, for the reason that two years ago, in our annua' re- 
20— Ageicultuke. 



306 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

port, I discussed them at some length, and my successor, Mr. W. W. Stevens, in 
the report for last year, entered into a very intelligent, comprehensive and well- 
arranged dii^cussion of the principal topics. I think I may, without egotism, 
commend both these reports to consideration. 

Fred L. Pbow, 
-Secretory. 



WAYNE COUNTY. 



The Wayne County Agricultural and Horticultural Society, in making its ex- 
hibit in September last, was surrounded by very discouraginsr circumstances, which 
operated against its success. The excessive drouth, the political campaign, and the 
length of time since the last exhibition were the principal ones. However, we 
Succeeded beyond our expectations in the numbvr and character of the articles 
competing for premiums, which seems to have e.stablished a fact to the satisfaction 
of a number of our enterprising farmers, whieh I consider of great importance, 
namely, that the effect of the drouth was to a large extent overcome by the exten- 
sive underdraining, not only of wet lands, but of the clay lands of our county. 
There Mere but few fields of wheat or corn that approximated an average crop, ex- 
cept where they were underdrained. From the experience and observation of the 
past season, many of our farmers have come to the conclusion that to counteract 
the effect of wet weather, or of dry weather, they must underdrain their land. 
Timber growing in Wayne county is becoming an object of importance among her 
farmers and horticulturists. Hundreds of acres of land that have had the timber 
cut off, slaughtered I might say, and located in such a way that it can not be con- 
veniently cultivated, is now in fine condition for being planted to timber that 
within the limits of the present generation will become very valuable. A few 
farmers have planted groves of catalpa and other valuable kinds of timber, and are 
protecting them by inclosures. 

Jos. C. Eatliff, 

SecreUiry. 



DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 



LAWS CONCEENING LICENSE FUND. 

In counties throughout this State that have no county agricultural society, and 
where they compose a part of some district agricultural society, the money arising 
from exhibitions mentioned in section 5269 shall be paid over by the county treas- 
urers of their respective counties to the district agricultural society in which said 
county is a part ; Provided, That in counties that compose a part of more than one 
district agricultural society, said money so referred to above, shall be paid equally to 
said district agricultural societies; and that in counties that have money on hand 
from exibitions mentioned in the act to which this is a supplement, and there has 
been application made by the district agricultural societies entitled under this act 
to said money, and refused by the county treasurers, they are required to pay the 
same to said district agricultural societies. (E. S. Sec. 5271.) 



ACTON DISTEICT ASSOCIATION. 

In connection with our statistical report, I submit a report of our last fair, to- 
gether with a crop report of 1884. 

The Acton District Fair Association is composed of the eastern part of Marion, 
northern part of Johnson and north-western part of Shelby counties. Our grounds 
are commodious for stock and a fine half-mile race track adjoining Acton only two 
squares from the depot. Our fair for 1884, was billed for the week of the autum- 
nal equinox, and as the summer was very dry we had an abundance of rain that 
week and of course our fair suffered thereby. But in view of this, all depart- 
ments were running over with exhibits. Live Stock Department was good both in 
quantity and quality. Agriculture fine, especially the display of corn which would 
be hard to excel at any fair. State Fair not excepted. Horticulture slim, on ac- 
count of failure in fruit crop. 

Ladies' Department was well filled with the choicest canned fruit, preserves, 
jellies, bread, cakes, etc , and all the luxuries that farmere' wives make their tables 
fit for any one to enjoy a feast. The fancy work in their hall was a credit to any 



308 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

fair. Mechanical hall was well filled with a fair representation of the labor-sav* 
ing machinerj' of the day. But the people could not come through the rain to see 
our exhibits and we had gone to a great expense in fitting up our grounds, and be- 
lieving that the future success of a fair is to pay all premiums in full, we came out 
badly in debt; but we are going to make an effort to come out successful in 1885, 
believing agricultural fairs are of great benefit to the farming community in the 
way of improving agriculture, live stock, etc. 

The crops in our district are composed chiefly of corn, wheat, oats, potatoes 
timothy and clover. On account of the dry season corn on the upland wa« short; 
black ground up to an average; those that followed a clover crop with corn re- 
ceived a good yield of number one corn. The farmers are turning their attention 
more to clover as a fertilizer than they did some years ago; they find it pays a large 
per cent. Wheat crop averaged about eighteen bushel per acre with the grain good. 
Our principal varieties are the Fultz and Fledges' Prolific; our section is not both- 
ered with the fly to a very great extent ; timothy good ; clover good and those that 
cut their crop for feed harvested it in good shape. Potatoes an average. Oats 
good. Stock raising consists mostly of hogs, farmers believing it pays better to 
make pork out of their corn than to haul it to market. Very few beef cattle 
raised in this section. Not many sheep ; our ground is too level for them to do well 
OD. Stock running at large is almost abolished, which to my opinion is a great im- 
provement over tjie way of every one's stock running on the common pasture. In 
the way of fencing, the farmers are beginning to economize; in way of saving their 
timber, some are using barbed wire and some are growing hedges. 

Our public roads are most all graveled, but a great many of our county roads 
are in the springtime almost impassable. There is considerable underdraining in 
our district, some have their farms thoroughly underdrained and find that it pays 
a large per cent, on the capital invested. 

Improvements in the way of buildings are up to an average. We feel that the 
time is not far distant when ours will be one of the finest farming districts in the 
State. 

G. A. Stanton, 

Secretary. 



BRIDGETON UNION. 



The Bridgeton Union Agricultural Society held their twenty-third annual fair 
at Bridgeton, Parke county, commencing August the 25th, and closing the 30th. 
The show in all of the departments was good, with the exception of Shorthorn 
cattle, which was not what it ought to have been. The show of Jerseys was good. 
The weather the first of the week was very unfavorable. From that cause, and 
there being a large circus show on each side of us on Thursday and Friday, the 
main days of our fair, the receipts were not as laige as they would otherwise 
have been. The society paid all expenses and 75 per cent on a liberal premium 
list. The condition of the agricultural and live stock interest of the district is 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 309 

good, there being quite an interest taken in introducing fine stock and also in 
tile draining. 

Receipts from all sourcep, $1,537.03; general expenses, $416.85; paid on pre- 
miump, $1,033.65 ; leaving a balance, $86.53. 

Dempsey Seybold, 

Seeretanj, 



CAMBRIDGE CITY. 



I herewith have the pleasure of submitting to you my fourteenth annual report. 
Our fair this year was held on the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th and 6th of September. Taking 
all the surroundings into consideration, the fair was a success. Our crops were cut 
short by the drouth, combined with the fact that this was campaign year, served 
to detract the minds of the people fi-om fairs aid other matters of less importance 
than the election of a President. 

The wheat ciop was a large one, above the average in both quantity and 
quality. 

Oats an average yield, while the acreage was short of former years. 

Corn, owing to the drouth, was a short yield, being far below the average, so 
much so in fact, that instead of having a surplus, farmers and others are compelled 
to have corn shipped to them from other points, something unusual for us. 

Potatoes were about a half crop. 

A number of farmers are turning their attention to the cultivation of tobacco, 
with a success that promises, in the near future, to become one among the first crops 
of this s>;ction, the soil here being eminently adapted for a large yield and the pro- 
duction of a superior quality of tobacco, and the price realized making it one of 
the most paying crops for the farmer. 

Our small fruit farmers were the most fortunate, realizing more profits from their 
few acres than many farmers who cultivate large tracts of land, and who disregard the 
cultivation of small fruit. 

The show of cattle was large, the "Shorthorn" being the favorite. 

We had the finest display of horses ever had at any fair in Indiana, each and 
every class being well represented. 

The display of hogs was good, the Poland China being the leaders. 

Sheep were not so well represented, as sheep raising is being neglected, for the 
farmer does not care to invest his money and risk the loss of it by having his 
flocks destroyed by the many worthless dogs, whose use is not to be compared to 
the value of sheep destroyed by them. 

A fine display of poultry was made, over seventy clashes being represented. 

The exhibit in the Floral Department was above the average of other years, 
many of the merchants and citizens exhibiting articles of use, beauty and orna- 
ment. 

Ditching, fertilizing and scientific farming are each year receiving more atten- 
tion. 



SIO BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Fencing is receiving considerable attention, large quantities of barbed-wire be- 
ing used, as the farmer finds he must in some manner protect himself against the 
pernicious habit that many have of allowing their stock to roam at large along the 
highways. * 

A statistical report of the crops can be obtained from the report of the State 
Bureau of Statistics. 

This is quite a shipping point for grain and cattle, Mr. Samuel Frazier has 
shipped over 7,000 hogs and over 2,000 head of cattle, and other shippers have had 
their proportion. M. L. Bowmaster has shipped 125 cars of wheat, and others in 
the grain business an equal amount. 

This is the home of the inventor and owners of the Kimmel Steam Gang Plow, 
the first siiccesrful steam plow ever made, and is attracting the attention of owners 
of large farms, not only of this country but of the Old World. We feel justly 
proud in claiming all this for our county. 

We will hold our fifteenth annual fair during the first week in September, 1885, 
and, with proper encouragement, we see no reason why it should not be one of the 
most successful ever held here. G. W. Shults, 

Secretary. 

DUNKIRK UNION. 

The Dunkirk Union Fair Association held their fifth annual fair on their 
grounds, at Dunkirk, Jay county, August 19, 20, 21 and 22, 1884. The fair was a 
success financially, thf receipts being sufficient to pay our premiums in full. The 
weather was fine and we had a large crowd on Thursday. Our horse show was 
splendid ; cattle, hog and sheep show good; poultry show a little above an average. 
Floral Hall presented a very fine appearance. The Mechanical and Agricultural 
Department was not quite as good as other years. Our speed ring was the best we 
ever had. The races were all full and gave entire satisfaction to all concerned. 
In fact, our fair was a success. 

Dunkirk is an enterprising little town of about one thousand inhabitants, situ- 
ated on the Chicago, St .Louis & Pittsburgh Railroad, near the southwest corner of 
Jay county, and near the lines of Blackford, Randolph and Delaware counties- 
The people of the town and vicinity are full of enterprise, as the improvements in 
the way of gravel roads, tile drainage, and improvement in farm stock will show. 
We have in our town and in a radius of two miles, seven tile factories, all well 
su23ported. All of the main roads running into the town are graveled— a contin- 
uous gravel road from Portland, the county seat, through Dunkirk, to Indiana po 
lis, a distance of ninety miles. The wheat and corn crops last year were an 
average; other crops in proportion. Our farmers have no specialties, but all are 
engaged in mixed farming, our soil being adapted to all the cereals of the north- 
west. This part of Indiana used to bw known as that jjart of the State that used 
no other kind of currency as a npresentative of value but hoop-poles and coon 
skins, but we defy any other part of the State to make a better showing in the way 
of improvements, for the last twenty years, than we can. Taking it all in all, the 
hoop-pole county has come out of the kinks. J. J. Stewart, 

iSecreta7'y. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 311 



EDINBURG UNION. 



The Edinburg Union Agricultural Society held their twenty-fifth annual fair 
on their grounds, August 2Gth to 30th. 

Our fair was a success. The attendance w^as much larger than any previous 
fair for years. Under the new management the Directors are confident of success, 
and think by two or three years more to be able to pay off the entire debt on the 
grounds 

Our crops on the low land this year are somewhat light, while the uplands are 
up to their usual standard, wheat weighing on an average of 68 pounds; corn this 
year was somewhat light. The low prices for wheat and corn make it a very close 
year for the farmers. 

Stock raising is on the increase in this district. Our largest feeder, Mr. Samuel 
Cutsinger, feeds from four to six car loads every winter. Sheep raising is also 
carried on quite extensively. 

Our manufactures are not very extensive. They are principally flour, lum- 
ber, furniture and t-poke factories. Our county is improving every year, and our 
farmers are building neat, substantial houses and barns. The wire fence is be- 
ing used more every year. As our timber is being lessened, we suppose it is only 
a question of time until the Avire fence will take the place of board and rail fences. 

Our fruit crop was nearly an entire failure in this county, and will be small for 
a number of years to come, on account of the trees being so badly winter-killed, 
and the young trees are set back by severe cold spells. A great many new orchards 
are planted each year, but the winter seems to kill a large number of the young 

trees. 

J. A. Thompson, Jr., 

Secretary. 



THE EASTERN INDIANA AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. 

The second annual fair of the Eastern Indiana Agricultural Association was 
held on the grounds of the association at Kendallville, Ind., during the week com- 
mencing October 6th, and continuing five days. The weather was very fine, with 
the exception of Wednesday, which was a very wet and disagreeable day. The ex- 
hibition was very fine in all departments. The Horse Department was very fine, 
with several excellent imported Norman and Clydesdale horses. The display of 
cattle was very good, the favorites being among the Shorthorns and .Jerseys. The 
Sheep and Swine Departments also made excellent showings. The display of 
machinery was all that could be desired. A line shaft 150 feet in length Avas fully 
occupied with agricultural implements, and made a very attractive featur^ of the 
exhibition. 

Agricultural Hall, a new building 60x60, was filled to overflowing with prod- 
ucts of the farm and garden, and was densely packed with admiring visitors. 
Floral Hal], a building 90x90, was filled with a magnificent array of articles prop- 



312 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

erly belonging in this department, and presented a scene of dazzling beauty, which 
the vast throng of visitors viewed with much satisfaction. The track, which was 
in fine order, did not fail to attract the attention of lovers of sport. Hotly con- 
tested trials of speed took place each afternoon. 

Everything considered, the fair of 1884 was a succees. Other improvements are 
needed, and will no doubt engage the attention of the management of the coming 
year. 

The association, although only two years old, is in a pfosperous condition. Sur- 
rounded as we are by one of the most fertile and productive sections of country to 
be found anywhere, we feel that, with prudent management, no fears need be 
apprehended of our future success. The association is composed of nearly two 
hundred stockholders, among whom are farmers, mechanics, and business men of 
all kinds. All premiums have been paid in full. No games of chance were 
allowed on the grounds, and no intoxicating beverages were sold on or near the 
grounds. Little or no drunkenness was observed, no arrests made and no occasion 
for any. At the yearly meeting, December Ist, the old officers were re-elected by 
acclamation. J. S. Conlogue, 

Secretary. 



THE FAIRMOUNT UNION. 

The P^airmount Union Joint Stock Agricultural Association held its first annual 
fair, on their grounds adjacent to the town of Fuirmount, on the 9th, 10th, 11th 
and 12th of September, 1884, and was, in nearly all respects, a complete success. 
In fact, no one went away diss>ati.«fied, and the remark wan frequently heard, " that 
this is a young Stale fair." The organizing of the society was of quick growth, 
commencing early in the spring of 1884. The nect ssary amount of stock ($8,000), 
was a.ssured, and preparations were at onco made to push the matter, that nothing 
should be uudoiie when the time should coiue for the annual fair. The grounds 
comprise thirty acres, alongside the Cincinnati, Wabash & Michigan Railroad, par- 
ticularly suited for the purpose, enough shade for all purposes, and excellent water 
in abundance from three 50 feet wells. 

Our improvementi", in part, consists in one hundred and fifty box and open 
stalls for hor.ses and cattle; sheep and hogpens sufficient, with covers and floors. 
A large Floral Hall, Agricultural Hall and poultry-house. All these improve- 
ments were thought by some to be excessive, but the display at the fair decided the 
case contrary to their views. All deficiencies will be remedied by the time of the 
next exhibition. The track was in fine condition and commented on by old drivers 
as being the best new track within their knowledge. No horses went away lame or 
damaged. 

The fence surrounding the grounds is an open one, the pickets being of pine 
fencing boards, seven and one-half feet long, set three inches apart. This is 
thought to be an improvement over the o'.d tight fence, as it admits free circulation 
of air, stands the wind better, has a n?at appearance, and costs much less money. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 313 

Interested parties all have their notion in regard to making a fair a "financial 
success," 80 far as relates to all games of chance, and things of that kind. This 
matter was disposed of at the commencement by an article of agreement between 
the association and parties of whom the grounds were obtained, making ihem re- 
vert back in case these things are allowed at any time. The good order that pre- 
vailed, together with the hand-'ome dividend that resulted, made all satisfied with 
the agreement. 

The object of the association is to advance— not stand still or go backward. 

The show of live stock was particularly fine. Those obtaining premiums had 
something to work for. 

Floral Hall was full to overflowing, and presented a fine api)earanc€. 

Agricultural Hall was not extensive in its line, but creditable. 

The poultry made a fine showing, and attracted a great deal of attention. 

Our farmers turn their attention principally to the raising of com and wheat, 
and all are more or less interested in the growing of stock, and there appears to be 
an increasing interest in the improvement of the same. Imported and thorough- 
bred animals are getting to be common, and the preceivable advancement made 
within a few years past in the quality is noticed. Hay is now being grown con- 
siderably, with a view of finding a market by shipment. The growing of flax, at 
one time quite extensive in this section, is almost entirely abandoned, but the 
relative prices offered for that product in comparison to other grain may, if con- 
tinued, result in a revival in its growth. The wheat and corn crop this season was 
above an average in amount as well as quality. 

A large amount of land is being reclaimed through a system of drainage. The 
large number of tile factories scattered through this region find ready sale for their 
products,-and is the means of making our most productive lands Hu>^cej.tlble of 
cultivation; and as to health, where ague and malaria once held sway, is known 
no more. Ours is a healthy country. A great amount of dissatisfaction exists in 
regard to the ditch laws. The prevailing opinion is that it takes too much money 
to get under way and complete a ditch under the present state of afl'airs, what a 
smaller amount in a different manner would accomplish. 

As to fencing, we have all kinds. The old-fashioned rail fence predominates, 
but is gradually disappearing. Timber is too valuable to keep them np, and are 
giving way to the hedge, barb-wire and plank. There seems to be a great deal of 
thought and experiment in regard to fencing— a cheap fence, to answer all pur- 
poses, is the object. As a fence is a costly improvement any way they can be con- 
structed, it will eventually result in a " fencing-in-law," as they have in the West- 
ern Statts where prairies abound. 

The free turn-pike system works only tolerably satisfactory here; the opinion 
prevails, better make your roads toll, as the free system virtually means the same. 

As to the future of our county, we look forward with hope. We have the foun- 
dation to build upon— an inexhaustible soil— and the substantial improvements 
being made, in way of buildings, go to show the citizens are generally satistied and 
fixing to stay. The season so far indicates a repetition of our good fortune the 
past year. Wm. C. Winslow, 

Secretary. 



814 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



FOUNTAIN, WAEREN AND VERMILLION. 

The Fountain," Warren and Vermillion Agricultural Association held its twen- 
ty-fifth annual fair at Covington, September 16th to 19th, inclusive, 1884. The 
attendance was larger than ever before, the receipts being $2,700 and the ex- 
penses the same, leaving the society about even. The badge system (we charge 
$1.00 for a family badge) is ruinous, as it is abutted to such an extent that we have 
learned of fifty persons getting admittance on a single badge. 

Our fair is run on strictly temperance principles, and no gambling is allowed 
on the grounds. Our show of stock this year was extra fine — ^we had four herds of 
fina cattle and some very fine horses. Our farmers were in good spirits, as the corn 
crop was larger than it has been for years, in many places uplands producing as high 
as eeventy-fire bushels to the acre. The wheat crop was excellent, the crop on the 
river bottoms, firr a wonder, being a success. This always means abundance for 
this section, as the Wabash is the western boundary of this (Fountain) county, and 
the eastern boundary of Warren and Vermillion. The lower or southern portion 
of this county is rather wet, but the tile industry is booming, and it would he safe 
to say that there has been more ditching done within the last two years in this sec- 
tion of the State than in any other of equal area. The result i^ wonderful, and the" 
farmers claim that they can plow corn in an hour or two after a rain, where they 
formerly waited from two to three days. 

I am also happy to say that the sheep industry is looking up; the dogs were 60 
bad formerly that it was almost impossible to raise sheep with any degree of suc- 
ce.ss The hog crop for 1884 was extra large, immense numbers being shipped to 
Chicago and Indiynnpolis. 

Farmers are buying less land, and paying more attention to getting out of debt 
and making substaniial improvements in the shape of good houses and barns. 

Under the new gravel road law we are building gravel roads, the counties com- 
prising this district being favorably located for a fine article of gravel. Barbed 
wire fencing is coming into general use, as the .scarcity of timber makt-s the old 
reliable rail fence too expensive. New orchards are being set out, and our j^pple 
crop last fall was good. New coal fields are being opened at Yeddo and Silver- 
wood, in the southern part of this county, and very lately a mine has been opened 
at Covington. The vein is not thick, ranging from twenty-seven to thirty-two 
inches, but the coal is tine block. We have had no hog or chicken cholera this 
Reason, and, taken all in all, this has been a bountiful year indeed, the only draw- 
back being the extremely low prices for grain. 

O. P. Lewis, 

Secretary, 



HENRY, MADISON AND DELAWARE. 

The Henry, Madison and Delaware Agricultural Society held their annual fair 
August the 19th,.::0th, 21st and 22d, it being one of the most successful fairs ever 
held at this place. The receipts were largely in excess to any previous fair, as 



COUNTY AND DISTKICT REPORTS. 315 

also the number of entries. The total reduction of our indebtedness approximated 
$600, leaving a debt still standing of $160. Arrangements are being made to im- 
prove and beautify our grounds, and we think we can say that soon we will have 
one of the nicest and best fair grounds in the State. 

E. L. ElxLIOTT, 

Secretary. 



KNIGHTSTOWN UNION AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. 

The fair was one of the most successful ever held here, and was only second to 
the one held in 1883, which was the best ever held by the society. The live stock 
shows were particularly good, and some of the animals very valuable. It it esti- 
mated that the total value of the horses exhibited would alone amount to $-50,000. 
The cattle show was deficient, owing, it is believed, to the extra premiums offered, 
which had the contrary effect to t^e one desired. Other live stock about the same 
as last year. 

The Ladies Department was most excellent, and better than ever. 

Of course the counties of Henry, Rush and Hancock being among the most fer- 
tile and well cultivated in the State, the very best results are expected at these 
fairs, and at this one the people in attendance were not disappointed. We can not 
close without mentioning the fact that this part of the State is eminently fitted for 
textile manufacturing on account of the abundant water power afforded, yet, 
strange to sav, these advantages are not improved. 

T. B. Deem, 

Secretary. 



LAWRENCE DISTRICT. 

The fourth annual fair was held as usual on the third Tuesday of September 
and the remainder of the week. The weather was all that could be desired. The 
show in the stock and all other departments was an improvement over any pre- 
vious exhibition. This was especially so with i-egard to points of excellence, the 
quality of the exhibits ranking high. There appears to be a gradual improve- 
ment on every hand : better bred stock, better varieties of grains, fruits, veget- 
ables, etc., better machinery, better cultivation, better appliances for home, health 
and comfort. The outlook for the future is very encouraging. 

No detailed account of the exhibition will be attempted ; suffice it to say that 
some new features were included thi.s year, among which may be mentioned the 
securing of a natural history collection during the fair. This proved so satisfac- 
tory that it will be continued. The managers have procured for next year one of 
the largest and best exhibits of this kind in the W^est. Experts were used in the 
Sheep and also in the Poultry Departments with satisfactory results. Exhibitors* 
tickets were sold entitling the person named to pass at pleasure during the fair. 
This met with much approval, and will be continued for trial. 



316 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

On account of the increase of the premiums, extra improvement9 and decreased 
attendance the society fell a trifle behind financially this year. Some heavy bank 
failures in the city, together with a deluge of old Beltlerfi' meetings, were the princi- 
pal causes of tlie decreased attendance. As to the condition of agriculture, it can be 
said that it is in much better condition than formerly during financial depressions. 
Farmers are not feo much in debt, and if prices are low, they can hold for better. 
The mai-ch of improvement seems to go steadily on. 

W. B. Flick, 

Secretary, 



LOOGOOTEE DISTRICT. 

The eleventh annual fair was held August 19 to 23, 1884. It was a success in 
every particular. Our ground is situated one mile west of Loogootee, in Daviess 
county, on the Ohio and Mississippi Railro^-d, in a beautiful grove, with plenty of 
water, and a good half mile track. Our fair is composed of the counties of Da- 
viess, Dubois, Martin and Green. The counties are in the south and west part of 
the State. 

We had many entries of horses, and the display was very fine. We have some 
of the finest horses in the country, mostly imported from France, of the Norman 
Btock, and their grades. W^e tiave some native horses that are very fine. All 
classis of horses were fully represented, and the show extra good — much better than 
former years. 

The siiow of cattle was excellent. The best we have are the Shorthorn^, though 
we have some very good native grades. We have the Jerseys, but they are only 
good as milkers, and not the best fur general purposes. 

We have ?ome very fine sheep in the country, though, as a general thing, the 
farmers do not pay much attention to them, as the wool market has been unsettled 
for years, therefore, farmers pay more attention to other stock. 

The hog show was only fair. Not much attention is paid to hogs the last few 
years on account of the cholera, which was so destructive a few years ago. 

There hss not been much improvement in poultry during the last few years. 
We have some fine turkeys. 

The speed ring was well represented, every race being filled, and good time made. 

Agricultural Hail was well filled with improved implements. Floral Hall was 
well filled, and the ladies may feel proud of their exhibition, as it was an improve- 
ment on former years. The horticultural display was not so good as usual, on 
account of the fair being held so early. 

Taking all into consideration, we had a very successful fair. During the last 
three years we have paid all premiums in full, and have now over $1,200 in the 
treasury. One-sixth of our district is level bottom land, one-sixth level table land, 
one-third rolling, one-third hilly. The bottom land is generally sandy loam and 
very productive ; often produces 80 bushels of corn to the acre, and as high as 120 
bushels. The greatest objection to this land is, it overflows, and has at times de- 
stroyed full crops. The level table land is rich and very productive. The crop is 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 317 

divided between wheat and corn. Tlie average of corn to the acre is 38 busliels ; 
the average of wheat is 14. On the rolling land good crops are raised. Wheat 
predominates Corn, oats, rye, clover, tiaiothy and potatoes all do well. Tuese 
rolling lands are btst for the geiieral farmer. The hilly land is well supplied 
with timber, which, when taken ofl' and the land left undisturbed, makes fine 
grazing lands, though it is not fit for culiivation, and would not support a large 
population. We have tine coal fields in this district, many mines being in opera- 
tion, employing over one thousand miners at good wages. We have very fine can- 
nel coal, which is shipped extensively. Geokqe M. Siiaruu, 

Secretanj- 



MIAMI AND FULTON. 

The Miami and Fulton County District Fair Society hpld their second annual 
exhibition on their grounds, near Macy, Miami county, led., on October 1, 2, 3 and 4, 
1884. Our fair, all things con.-'idiered, was a grand succifss. 

In horses our show was quite an improvement over last year. 

Our cattle show wa^ good. 

Sheep and hogs not very extensive in numbers, but the quality was excellent. 

The exhibits in farm products and fruits were remarkably good, considering 
the very dry season we have had. 

The Ladies' Department was more than expected. 

Poultry was very good, but there is not the attention given to it that should be. 

Our wheat crop for tiiis year was very good, making an average of about fifteen 
bushels to the acre of good quality. 

Corn good quality, but crop short, caused by drouth; yield perhaps not more 
than thirty bushels. 

Oats, quality fair ; yield light. 

Potatoes below an average crop. 

Fruit crop, half crop. 

Our farmers are not very well satisfied with present prices of wheat and corn, 
and the acreage of the farmer sown this f;iJl is cousiderably below the average, 
partly on account of low prices and partly on account of dry weather. Much of 
the wheat sown was very late; some as late as the 10th or l^lh of October. 

Feed is plenty, and stock are wintering well. 

Wheat, corn, and hogs have been the farmers' ppecial crops in this district, but 
a change is taking place. More horses, cattle, and sheep are being raised; more 
pasture and hay, and less plowing being the order of the day. 

No commercial fertilizers are being used here yet. Our farmers think that 
clover .sod and barn-yard manure are good enough, with tile drainage and good cul- 
tivation. J. COFFING, 

Secretary. 



318 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



NEW EOSS UNION. 

The New Eors Union Agricultural Association closed its sixth annual fair Au- 
gust 15, 1884, and again we record success. For six consecutive years we have 
held a fair at our grounds, and have never failed to pay our premiuras in full, 
make permanent impi-ovements, and decrease our indebtedness from two to three 
hundred dollars each year. We attribute our success mainly to the facts, first, we 
try to treat our patrons fairly; second, we have as desirable grounds as can be 
found in the State ; third, the country composing our district is of the best. 

The quality of land in this State is usually indicated by the timber it growB. 
Our lands grow principally walnut, poplar, oak and sugar tree. Our people are 
thrifty, intelligent and enterprising. We do not know what it is to make a total 
failure in a crop of any grain grown in this State. 

Stock raising seems to predominate in this district. Shorthorn cattle, Poland 
China hogs, and general purpose horses being the favorites. 

Drainage is receiving considerable attention, with but little attention given as 
to whether the land is flat, or rolling, the idea prevailing that it pays handsomely 
to drain rolling land. 

While our farmers try to keep pace with the times in improvements, etc., the 
present gravel road law has created one "unanimous howl." We pay too much 
for red tape. There seems to be in this vicinity an urgent demand for reform in 
the law. 

In the matter of building and fencing there has been a decided improvement 
in the last few years. In buildings, the frame has the preference, being regarded 
more sightly, healthful, and less expensive. In fencing, the rail fence seems to 
"lord it" over others as yet, but the neat and substantial plank is making a good 
fight for supremacy, while the wire fence grows more into disfavor daily on ac- 
count of its injury to stock. 

In regard to the "dog law," will say that if there is such a law its effects are 
not " visible to the naked eye" in this district. Every dog seems to be a law unto 
himself only. 

Taken as a whole, it may be said of our district that it is making heroic efforts 
to keep step with "Father Time" in his march to perfection. As a consequence, 
with the aid and enterprise of the citizens of our district, we have been able to 
hold six successful fairs, and, relying on them for the support they have given us 
in the past, we announce our seventh annual fair, to begin August 10, 1885. 

n. E. Hadley, 

Secretary. 



N0RTHEA8TEEN INDIANA AGEICULTUEAL ASSOCIATION. 

The Northeastern Indiana Agricultural Association held their thirteenth 
annual fair on their grounds north of Waterloo, September 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26, 
1884. 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 319 

Notwithstanding the protracted rain storm which greeted us on our opening 
day, and continued with little internii.ssion up to Wednesday night, we had the 
largest number of entries e%'er made on our grounds. 

The attendance during the week, however, was very much reduced by the in- 
clement weather, so that practically we had but two days' fair, and those, with 
roads in such bad condition that only about half the usual number of tickets were 
sold. 

The Association this year made strong efforts to present a varied and interest- 
ing programme to its patrons, by dispensing among the usual sources of entertain- 
ment, balloon ascensions, bicycle races, and good music, and we feel that under the 
adverse circumstances the fair of this year was a success. 

The number and quality of exhibits in Floral Hall was unusually good, show- 
ing a marked increase in taste and quantity of production of those articles tending 
to the beautiful in textile fahrics. The exhibit in the Fine Art Department Avas 
unusually good. Total numbt-r of entries in Floral Hall, 501. 

Exhibits in the Mechanical Department were rather less in number than usual, 
but the display was found to be interesting, with a number of new mechanical con- 
trivances in addition to those usually found. Number of entries in this depart- 
ment, 171. 

Agricultural and horticultural products made a much better showing than for 
a number of years; and it is observed that the general supply of such products in 
this district, much exceeds, on an average, that of several years previous. Total 
number of entries reached l,r28. 

The exhibitions of live stock were well sustained, and the parade of premium 
stock was fairly up to the standard. This is the more encouraging from the fact 
that this stock was entirely made up from our own district, and not fiom foreign 
show herds; and is indicative of a growing vigor and pride among our home far- 
mers in the production of blooded stock. This, we believe, is due very largely to 
the comparisons Mnd ideas gained atour annual agricultural fairs, and is a sample 
of the influence they are exerting toward a gradual improvement in all kinds of 
stock. Entries in this department, however, were fewer in number than usual. 

The society completed, previous to the fair, a new and commodious poultry 
house, and were rewarded by the largest and most interesting exhibition of poultry 
ever seen in this district. 

Our Speed Department was well filled, and races as interesting as could be ex- 
pected, considering the heavy condition of the track. 

The permanent improvements made on the grounds during the year, comprise 
the poultry house before alluded to, a new Secretary and Treasurer's office at the 
entrance gate, well fitted and furnished for that purpose, and increased facilities 
for water privileges. The beauty of the grounds has al^o been enhanced by the 
addition of about two hundred shade trees. 

I am pleased to report the affairs of the vSociety in a prosperous condition, with 
the expenses and improvements of the year fully paid, and an indebtedness of only 
$700. 

I append hereto a full statistical report of entries and premiums, receipts and 
disbursement for the year. D. A. Garwood, Secretary. 



820 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. 



PLAINFIELD HOETICULTURAL AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

On September 3d, 4th and 5th this society held its annual fair, after considera- 
ble expense and labor to get the grounds in order. The weather was dry and 
dusty, but the preparations for water was ample, and shade plenty, so that all were 
reasonably well accommodated. The exhibition was better, in most respects, than 
expected (our society being young in the fair enterprise), there being about six 
hundred and seventy entries in the several departments. As well as we can sum- 
marize, the condition of agriculture in our vicinity, it is as follows: 

Wheat below an average crop, quality only fair, with price so low that there has 
been a smaller crop sown this fall than usual. Condition of growing crop at pres- 
ent pretty good. 

Oats crop good. 

Hay abundant, with quite a surplus left over from last year. 

The corn crop matured very nicely, and was housed in good condition. The 
drouth shortened the crop a little, but there is no scarcity of good, sound com in 
this district. 

Hogs have not been very healthy the past season, some cholera prevailing. 

Sheep in good condition. Flocks considerably reduced. 

Cattle in good health, and come into winter in fair flesh, the fall pastures being 
excellent and the weather fine until late in the winter. 

Horses have mostly done well during the year, except that a serious throat dis- 
ease prevailed to some extent during the late autumn. Some cases fatal. 

Poultry has not done as well this season as usual, some disease prevailing, 
hawks and foxes taking a small per cent. 

The practical working of the road law is not giving entire satisfaction. The 
roads have not been much improved for a few years. 

Improvements in building and fencing rather neglected at present, on account 
of the closeness of finances. 

The game law meets with almost universal disapproval. 

As the insects and birds become more and more deleterious to the interests of 
fruit growing, and the price of grain has become so low, there is an increased incli- 
tion on the part of farmers to graze more and plow less. 

Milk dairying is receiving increased attention of late. 

Daniel Cox, 

Wm. H. Mills, President. 

Seoretary. 



. SOUTHEASTERN AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Our fair the past year was held the first week in August, the earliest period we 
have ever tried to hold an exhibition. 

Having been "frozen out" of the Southeastern Indiana Fair Circuit, our Board 
of Directors made the attempt to get-in ahead of our competitor in our own county 



\ COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 321 

\ 

and ahead o^ the county fairs in our vicinity, and in this we fully succeeded, and 
held the best\fair ever had in the district. 

A great mpny things worked against our success, and it was only through the 
almost untiring work of our President, Col. John McGuire, that scored our fair a 
success. 

The almost entire failure of our corn crop, short crop of wheat, a disastrous 
flood, which put some of our grounds thirty feet under water and disheartened 
greatly our many patrons, were among the few things that worked against our easy 
success. 

In attendance and gat« receipts our fair was above the average in our county. 
Contrary to our former usage, we held a purely moral fair, the only one in South- 
eastern Indiana where drinking or gambling was not allowed. In this we think 
we have struck the right course, and the probabilities are that our fair for 1885 
will be carried on in the same way. 

The condition of agriculture in Southeastern Indiana for the past year, may be 
summed up as follows: 

In stock, horses and cattle especially, our part of the State is improving th« 
breeds very fast. 

The crop of corn, the past year, was very poor. Wheat very little better. Hay 
an average crop and of excellent quality. Oats an excellent crop. 

The prospect for 1885 may be said to be about an average — probably a less 
acreage of fall grain sown, on account of exceedingly dry fall, and fears of another 
flood. For list of officers and statement of finances, see tables appended. 

Wii.i, A. Greer, 

Secretary. 



SWITZERLAND AND OHIO COUNTY. 

The thirty-third annual exhibition of the Switzerland and Ohio County Agricul- 
tural Society, held at East Enterprise, Sept. 9th to 12th inclusive, 1884, was, all things 
considered, quite satisfactory, both ns regards the display and attendance. A 
severe drouth was prevailing at the time, water was scarce, and the dust stifling. 
The people were also somewhat depressed in spirit, and were not as lavish in ex- 
penditures as they would have been under more favorable circumstances. Yet the 
receipts were near $.3,000, and, aside from some substantial improvements in build- 
ings, fully met expeuditnres. The society is out of debt with a neat little balance 
in treasury. The entries numbered over 1,100. The horse show and Ladies' De- 
partment were especially fine, with a good show in nearly every class. The so- 
ciety, as heretofore, excluded gamblers, tricksters, and swindlers, rejecting all 
their tempting oflers. Believing that the Society is the better, 

" That noble end?, by noble means obtains, 
Or failing, smiles without such venal gains." 

21 — Ageicxtxtuke. 



322 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. 

This society has elected her officers for the ensuing year, revised her premium 
list, and is getting ready for the fair of 188% Sept. 8th, 9th, lOth and 11th. Her 
aim will be to deserve and achieve success. 



COXDITION 01 AGKICULTTJRE. 

We can make no flattering report either of progress or pro.sperity in agricul- 
tural pursuits. The past season was not propitious for (he farmer. Hay and oata 
were good, tobacco fair, wheat, corn, potatoes, fruit and fall crops generally about 
a half crop. Wheat injured by freezing in late winter or early spring. Other 
crops injured by long c.>ntinued drouth. The partial failure of crops, the exceed- 
ing low price of farm products, together with the general su-pension or stagnation 
of business, contributes to make times dull, money scarce, and all improvements 
or undertakings requiring an expenditure of money, are lagging, and we have very 
little to note in the way of improvements, or new methods in farm business. We think 
there is a tendency on the part of farmers generally, to engage more and more in 
stock raising, although stock in sympathy with other commodities has very mate- 
rially declined in value. Yet it is adjudged the more profitable business for the 
farmer, bo>h in a monetary point of view and also in reclaiming and improving 
the soil. The area of wheat sown last fall was, perhaps, one-third less than usual, 
is looking tolerable well at the present. 

There has been a large emigration from our country westward, during the past 
year. Many are already returning, preferring old Hoosierdom to Kansas, Ne- 
braska, etc. Many are willing to admit the possibility of a better country than 
this, and yet choose to remain and sutler the evils existing here, rather than to fly 
to others they know not of. True, this is not our ideal of a paradise, and yet it is 
a very good country. True, we have an occasional drouth, or flood, our climate 
is changeable, sometimes hot, sometimes cold, but generally quite healthy. Our 
soil is mostly a clay loam and limestone land, some poor, some good, and some 
very good, ranging in price from $10 to §100 per acre. The country afl^ords an 
abundant subsistence for both man and beast, and with ordinary thrift and indus- 
try a good living can be obtained, while the more energetic are accumulating prop- 
erty. We possess many advantages and facilities, such as good markets, good 
society, schools, churches, etc., and we are confident that persons desiring good 
homes, might seek farther and fare much worse. The law requiring stock to be 
kept up is very generally enforced, and gives satisfaction. Any law that would 
lighten the burdens of taxation or prove an incentive to the industries, and gen- 
eral business of the country, would meet our approval. 

In making this report we have tried to avoid uninteresting details or particu- 
lars, and have dealt in generalities, making it a kind of epitome of existing facts 
as beheld from onr standpoint, with all due respect for the opinions of others. 

Wm. H. Madlson. 



COUNTY ANEt. DISTRICT REPORTS. 323 



UEMEYVILLE A6RICULTUEAL ASSOCIATIOK 

The UrmeyvJlIe Agricultural Association held their sixth annual fair com- 
mencing on she 9th of October, being the first fair held under our new organization. 
The exhibit in all departments was much larger than at any former fair, especially 
in the Agricultural and Ladies' Departments. We gave extra premiums on corn • 
also, the Franklin Starch Works gave a large premium, which brought out a larger 
amount, if not better quality, of corn than I ever saw at any fair, State Fair not 
excepted. There was a large increase of entries in the Horticultural Department, 
and there was a decided improvement in the articles exhibited. Our Floral Hall 
was well filled; the articles were both elegant in design and execution, which com- 
bined with a fine collection of beautiful flowers, made the hall a place of great at- 
traction. In this connection, I think fair associations should give liberal pre- 
miums in this department for the purpose of encouraging the ladies who, as a rule, 
are but poorly paid for the time and trouble taken in making the beautiful and 
tasty articles, the exhibition of which does so much towards making our fairs a 
success. Another reason for increasing the premiums in this department is, that 
•the display has a tendency to cultivate a taste for the beautiful, both in art and 
nature, which will certainly have an elevating and humanizing influence on all. 

Bee culture in our county has made a wonderful improvement in the last few 
years. All are now using the improved movable frame hive instead of the old- 
fashioned log gum, and are learning to care for and feed their bees during winter 
when necessary. The exhibit at our fair this year was very good. This indus- 
try should be encouraged at our fairs by giving larger premiums. 

Fish culture is now on a boom in our county. As near as we can learn, there 
are eleven ponds, all stocked with German carp, some of which are now three and 
four years old. 

John Tilson, 

Secreiarj/. 



WAYNE, HENRY AND RANDOLPH. 

The fifth annual fair of this Association was held at Dalton, Wayne county, 
Ind., August 26, 27, 28 and 29, 1884. The number of entries was largely increased 
over former years. The exhibit was good in all departments, except farm imple- 
ments. In this department, handsome diplomas were given, but no cash premiums, 
which no doubt partially accounts for thtir absence, though we do not believe 
manufacturers' properly appreciate the advantages they would derive from exhib- 
iting more extensively in this locality. This Association has never failed to have 
a good show of good horses, and the last display excelled them all, the number of 
entries being 230. We are also happy to note a great improvement in the show of 
thoroughbred cattle. Considering the threatening weather and a " soldiers' re- 
union," the attendance was very large. No charge was made for the admission of 
horses or vehicles, which very materially curtailed the receipts of the fair, and was 



824 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

a mistake^in the management. It is a feature of this fair, that the exhibits are 
mostly made by " amateurs,'' as it were, and not by professional "premium takers," 
thus encouraging general improvement among the producers of this section much 
more than would otherwise be the case. No animal or article is allowed to receive 
more than one first premium. They may enter as often as they choose, but when- 
ever a first premium is awarded, the animal is supposed to have filled its class, and 
has received the highest honor and must stand aside and give othei-s a chance. No 
premiums are paid for speed. No liquors or gambling are permitted, nor can be 
under the present articles of association. We admire fine horses, good movers 
good roadsters, and all that, and premiums are given for the encouragement of 
those qualiiies, but we do not believe that the best interests of agriculture is best 
served by awarding large premiums to "jockeys," and perhaps on ill-shaped or 
blemished animals (the only point in the contest being to " get there,") from which 
competition all but "professionals" are practically excluded. Believing that an 
agricultural fair should afTord facilities for a general exchange and sale of prod- 
ucts, as well as to award premiums on meritorious articles, the association held a 
fltock sale on the last day of its first and second fairs ; also, extended an invitation 
to all legitimate industries to bring of their manufactures, wares, etc., and adver- 
tise the same and sell on the grounds, thus benefiting themselves and making it an 
object financially for people to visit the fair; but those interested have not " caught 
on," to any considerable extent, and the good results hoped for have not been real- 
ized. Mixed farming greatly predominates in this section. The corn crop of 1884 
was considerably below the average, though it is of excellent quality. 

Wheat was good, both as to quantity and quality, but the price (70 ctnts per 
bushel) is below the cost of production. Oats and flax were good. Early potatoes 
were good, but owing to dry weather the yield of late varieties was light. The yield 
of small fruits was good, but the larger kinds, owing to insects and the loss of many 
orchards from freezing, are not very plentiful. 

Plank, wire, and hedge fences are fast taking the place of the old '• worm " fence. 
The fence most in favor at this time is made of both boards and wire, thus avoid- 
ing the danger to stock resulting from the use of wire alone. As to fencing stock 
" out or in," the rule is to fence them out, if possible. There is not much agitation 
of the question. 

There has been some hog cholera iu our section during the past year, and remedy, 
we have none, except preventive, in the way of cleanliness, frequent change of pas- 
ture, change of feed, etc. 

The draining of wet land progresses rapidly, and land is now being drained 
which was once considered good enough without. 

The clearing of timber land still goes on, and the mania for cutting off the 
undergrowth and thinning out for pasture (which must inevitably result in the 
clearing of the land) continues. It is noticeable in such cases, that the grass does 
not do quite as well as vyas exp^-cted. The storms take down some of the best tim- 
ber, and as there is no young growth coming on, the owner soon concludes to clear 
it up. In this way much land will soon be cleared that should not be, and was not 
BO intended by the owners when the shrubbing began. Perhaps it is not wisdom 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT REPORTS. 825 

for each individual to preserve and pay taxes on a very large proportion of timber 
land ; but what is kept should be in such condition as to be of value in after years, 
and to those who are to come after us. 

The roads in Wayne, Henry, and Randolph counties will compare favorably 
with those of any other section of the State, though some localities are sadly defi- 
cient in this respect. Henry county probably has a greater proportion of its roads 
graveled than any other county in Eastern Indiana. Owing to the low prices of 
products, less improvements in the way of buildings have been made than usual. 

B. B. Beeson, 

President. 



326 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



CO 



iz; 

Fm 

O 

w 

I— I 

EH 

W 
»— I 
o 
o 

CO 

t) 

Eh 
i-P 
t3 
O 

(—1 
P^ 

e> 

H 

w 

Fh 
o 

EH 

I— I 
pq 

B 
M 
W 






:|-^« ilsii -gli^l (Soiil 

;l|s| o«i.s| |-s|| c|£5| 

►SWhJK):;! Wk^3So s:p-,5=Zo ZclM^m a,x&M>H3 c^qijHjP* 






^2§ '^.Si 
«~ a =; K c 



c <u o ; 



a 






■ o_C 0: ; 

1:5 2I li=>>. C£a.-i2 ^Sc^^ -, _.- .-:^-fli 

^ - _ . ^a*^ ^--5£'«^ "^Jt^i'S gs'^-*- 

^pih^aa S>st^<i ^^03023^ fc;>:4^^ HiHQC5-i3 fflcnd^^ 



a^^H^ P50-^V3 g^l^^^g ':s'p^H. 



'O'S^E^* '^'^ 



cj^ 






t; c " 



c tc . 3 o 3 a 



Hill liili lllll ?li|i Hiil lull 

PhKjjo S^:r;^H rtoSZo Z^;>Ks: &^ccfc>H:) 'A)A<fyn 






Pi^-^CS^ H^H^ 






<5 3 g ci 

. - o <p - 






■f.<h 









.•-•03 I.S 
°i ~ o s>»o 



gS 3 S '5 
tig S "73 



KtS 5 = 3 






< 



3 C 






i-= = 5 = 
lips 

00 o g 3 



0% ' 

S = ^:^ o 






SI -.2 



a ^r«2 



:-5^ :-s|s 









"-■>-> ^-^a -7:3=5: 






go 00 g 

O c<^ CO 

3 c S ^5 



oQQCPa pt,OC:W33 



3 3 IS c-- 
4J « c 3 2 



'"' S< 3 o 
3 K.- 3 fcu 

^.11 = 1 






EXHIBIT OF AQRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 



327 



^fel.^ 



.-O o o P S c S I 









^ • -^ < 



— ^1 1 



fel^g l-^^-M^ '^o-l-^'i, 









»^Oce .<aQ 






■So >>''' ° 



. e re — y Si 






liilli um mu 



P c 









828 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 







b^ 
















§1? 
.60 6 


s n 


.2 


Hi iiii 














■|-n ■ 






u 

PS 
o 
w 

OQ 


:1:.-:| :;:s;: 


c ■ ■ • 
<6 3^U^ 




croc^-:^ ^e^^S^Sni 


P.6^^^^ 


Q 


< 








mil iiiiii 


mm 


















...... ...... |, 






a 


tn 














12; 






hI 


■mil 


am 


1 

CM 




iMi 




1|«^^«;^ 








^s5<5S2;^ 




















§ ■ ■ -^t 




' ' ' c 


' 








• ■ c 


■I : :! : 


|2 -i^J 




















.2 >..s s 

III? 


.§ . .p=4 • 


<^ ■&<B 


H 






^<l.-|.i 


^-g -s-d - 


5 


c 








111 






c-^i; t. 
















o 


cS 


. g -o^:; 


5^'i1 S'3 


<5 


1 


^!f: 




iilli- 


53 










•2?^=J^2 


•>2g§ = S 


■S oilman 




-S-^a.S-s.b 


pill. 


11.11 ll 




•< 


pa 


6M^ 


I^Jis^ 


^^r^^.'^P^ 



EXHIBIT OP AGRICULTURAL SOCIBTIBS. 829 

t:2J<^r;£3 P'o^S'tr-* O«cq3i50 o-^-^ioio toeooooco 

•IB,0T S?iSS.?5 feSg?§i g8S8SS ffiS5:§i SSlli 



sranioiajj (Bioadg 



•8a09UB(l908II^ 



•/Jjoisju [Bjn;B^ 



•SDuq'Bj ainxax 



.■53s : : s : ; ;g :» :s ; g? 



^B^ %^^^ ■ giSgS "«S2^ 



?S^ S3 :s^ g;SS!S§3 



:sss s ;^§S3 



§s^ss ^ ; : ;| 5^552 gs^g : gggss 



[■BJimnoijjojj co^'*';^;'" o^^MtocS S2s"S SSoJc^SJ 



•IBJn:)[nDu3y 



•lKD;uuqooj\[ 



•qoo^g a.ui |b;ox 



•;fj}ino<i 



•S20H 



S5S2'.55S S'S'l'r!'* osiocDiot- rniMooioi^j coooooom 

3--°;SS" ^"•S;'"?^?^ Si:;2J^?§ °°S^S°° <»«{:;<»« 



:;^2<5fe t-!asg?^ 



g^ssa 



SgS?:8JS? 



5CPC-30--1:- Ot-MOi-t ITJOOOO-^OOO 0>-*eOlr-0 IT) -* — ' r-l -J 



-010 00O.-I 



00O.-IOC 



•d39qg 



■soinjifpaTissioBf 



^SEi 



ooooo3> r-t^iOco*# co:d^ooo lr^c>■^ro^» 
ooioi^(M ^t^SSco^ ?-JNinS§) !§§St-c5 



1- CO 'X ov ifi o?t— lomt- oocor-iai t-— ic<i-* 

COCOirt-3-^ O-.OOOttCO lOi-OO'S'l- CO-*CO«D 



ri?a:ir; fe-t^-*o« 



C^i-Hf— t-Oi COtOCOC 



iMC-.t-'N'^ 



%mm 


^mn^ 


-mm 


C^i-ir-lCOr-i 


S2||g 


• c >> ' 






>, ■ ■ • 


. . . . 












adiana State Board of Agriculture . 
lackford Co. Ag'I, Hort'l & Moch'l As 
ooiie County Stock Agricultural Socie 
iss County Agricultural Association 
lark County Agricultural Association 


iiiton County Agricultural Society . 
earborn County Agricult'l Assoeiatio 
ccatur County Agricultural Society 
ehmare County Ag'I & Mechan '1 Socie 
ayctte Couuty Fair Association. . . 


ulton Co. Joint Stock Ag'I & Mech'l S 
ibson County Hort'l & Ag'I Society 
rant County Ag'I & Stock Association 
aiDilton County Agl & Fair Associat 
arnson County Agricultural Society 


Henry Co. Joint Stock Agricult'l Socie 
Hendricks Co. Hort'l & Ag'I Society . . 
Howard Couuty Agricult'l Association 
Huntington County Agricult'l Society . 
Jackson County Agricultural Society . 


y Co. Ag'I.Hort'l'&Indust'lJ'tSt'k 
tfeisonCo.tirangeJub. A. & M. Ass'n 

nox County Ag'I & Mechan'I Society . 

igrange County Agricultural Society . 

ike County Agrieulturul Society . . . 


m35;qoo 


Oft:=iP.i4 


Ch'J-JSW 


►^-^«J^ 



330 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 







?^38?: 


f:^?:; 


gl-gOJM 


932 
1,426 

1,519 


^^ffi^S 


1 


. 




'max 




a.^oco.« 








o ■ ■ 00 


coo ■ ■ • 




■lO ■ • ■ 






smniina.i<j juioadg 












•snoau'Bi[aosii\r 


S 2 • • 


'■^''m- 


?3S .iSS 


mm- 




•Xjo^stji I'Ban:)'!!^ 




S • 




• • CO • 


: : : : : 










o • • ■'+1 




^^^^'^ 






•s^jy 9ui^ 




'i^^ 






•SOUqTJJ 8|X}X9X 


si 


^1 


SSfc|S&; 


ig ;g •; 


S|g&"= 




IBan^inopjOH 


^l^°s 


gt5gl5^ 


5* .2 . 


^§58^5 




•IBjn^inoijSy 


g|||2 


g^lgis 


11 -IS 


Sgg|S 




•ITJOiuTjqoaj^ 


sg :^§ 


S2SSS 


s^ %n 


?5l2Sg5 










^-^O'v, 


or- oc-ri 


.nwoit- 








•3100^8 9A!T[ I^';ox 


SS"|S 


^S^^S 


StS 'SS 


?^:s^s 








— Oi •t-'NI 


-Tft-OO-H 












•Ai'^ino^ 


"15 -J^-- 














e^Oic^tcr— 


05 'iMt-OO 


i/?o ' — to 


§3;:;S 








•y§0H 












•daoqg 


g^s-^ss 


?3 : ;gs: 


;ss :ss 


C^SSS 






•om^o 


SS'^gS? 


S'^'^SJ? 


gs .ss 


SE^S^ 












g^ : :s 


s:5g^ 








•sainj^puBSJiDTSf 












Si^is 


(M a: 3; r- 1~ 


tCr-l "C^lt- 


§ig| 








•sasaoH 












B • • • • 




• • • B • 


• • • a 






















Associati 
Society 
Society 
Society 
ciety . . 


ciety. . 
tl . . . . 
1 Ass'n 
ety . . 
jciety 




iety . . 
'Society 
Society 
&I. As 
Society 




w 




(B.2"c g'-o 


^!»<-5b 


Ir-i^-:: 






o 
o 


Laporte County AsricultuT 
Madison Co. Joint Stock A 
Marion Co. Ag'l & Horticu 
Monteomery Co Agricultu 
Noble County Agricultural 


Parke County Agricultural 
Perry County Fair A.ssocia 
Perry County Ag'l & Mech 
Pike County Agricultural .- 
Porter County Agrieultura 


Pipley County Agrieultura 
Rush County Agricultural 
Shelby County Joint Stock 
Steuben County Agricultur 
Tipton County Fair Compa 


Vigo County Agricultural 
Wabash County Aericultui 
Warrick County Agricultu 
Washington Co. Ag.. Hor. 


1 





EXHIBIT OF AGRICUCTURAL SOCIETIES. 



331 



o 

■»-H 

o 

m 
o 

+H 

o 



•l^^ox 



stnnioiajj [nioadc 



•8nooaBH3D«ij^ 



•<«ao}3tjj luam^jj 



•s^jy entj §3 






•souqB^ aiUxax 



•IBjnijnopjojj 



•H?jn4(nou3y 



31001S SAII lujox 



•:CJ4inoj 



•eSoH 



• '(M—c — CO 



•S 



■WSO . .CO OCCt-lMin (M .-<(< .t~c 



j-ootecoio 



:s : 



(M <M CM ■* "O 



I•-t-'^^ N 



353 



IM i~cc.-iS .-ic5<b^« 



iSJ:;SiS 






5IMU2 CO .CO-T.OIO 



•daaqg 



•ainiiO 



«> .coccibco 



\n^?^'S SgJfeSs^S s ;s?g:8g 



S0[nj^pnBS5ia 



•sasjog 






■'C -.2 =s 



a -ss 
o .<<— • 

'■5 -"^ §■ 






< - , 



'-'■^•r 3 c o SiS = c 2 
cj'C S"* c'a u C ci 5:5 2 






5.'"' :e"rtS a 



832 



BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. 







•mox 


$10414 
664 
1899 
2214 
486 


i 


2446 
1993 
1749 

705 
2538 
1612 
1897 
1944 


1 


:pi 


1511 
258 

3144 
763 
938 




sranira9J<j jBToadg 


: ;§ :^ : 


;5 : 


• • • • -s 






























QO 


•sno9m:ii8osij5 


1^1^ 




;|s 


: ^ iss-- 


-^ 


;^ss 


ss . 


:^ 


CO 






















1—1 




'■ .... 






■ • 'lO ■ 










^ 




•Xio^siH l^an^Bij 




















< 
< 
























Q 

a. 

CO 


•r)jv eai^ 


'SSS*" 




S^ 


"=> ;?3S5 


CO 


?IS^ 


«o -g 


:s 


h- 1 


•so;jqr^8n;xax 


ga^3?? ; 




:s g :|sg 


s 


ss : 


g?§l 


■3 


•ITjjrmnonJOH 


l^-'sss : 


:~SS ?§ ;^J:;:;: 


^ 


-i- 


--S 


■^ 


O 


•IGjniinouav 


|-i"^ : 


:ss& 


£; ;sgg 


^ 


S|S 


ssg 


:^ 


W 


& 




:gsE=s : 








S§|« 






1— ( 
O 




•li:oinBqooj\T 










• 


CU 


•5loo;saAiiii3;ox 


m^m 


s 


::p 


5^ SS- 


s 


g§i 


gS| g 






% ' — 


'"' 




r-l^.-l 


'"' 




O 








'O 






s 




M 


0(Q 
<1 




•Xj^inoj 


i^^^" 


rH 










' 


•sson 


g5§- 


« 


:i^SS 


s :^|s 


s 


^|S 


|gg 


^ 


P^ 






















P 




•doaqg 


|??|S53 


S; 


:ig3 


is :^ss 


s 


JSS^g 


K^g 


s 


•9in«o 


S^gi- 


i 


■M^a 


s aig 


i 


lis 


g^S 


s 


r^ 






SI 


















•sainjvpuuBJiouf 


gss^s 


o 


;s2s 


: .^^^ 


l§ 


2SS 


"'SS 


Ui 


o 








































<1 




•93SJ0H 


£2SS?3 


g 


S?l 


g .'ggl 


oo 


mfo 


§S| 


3 


w 






S ""■ 


'"' 










•"' 






















w 




• c >> ■ ■ 






^- ■§ • 


i? 


.2^- 


os?>. 




O 


O 


MM 
II ii 


IIPI 

a - S o = 


•Hilt 


•illij 

i c s boa 


m 
m 










ft 


ii 


Hill 




III 




9 

1 



EXHIBIT OF AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 



333 






:s 



0^-J0> 



^83" 



E^5 



^ao e>4->i>t~l:~<M 



2S SS?2;?;q ^ 



CliOO-* 



:t- .o^ M ~eoi-(N 



OCt'^'^l— .— C^CqOt^ Hi'* 



■nooo 



■ Ci oc CO t~ c 






iii 



•^^O c; 



OCI-K ".-H-^.-n^ IC 






CC OO . -}< 



sSg 



•l.^l 






© g cO 
^ c c c o 






« 4) «,.- O 



^11 

5i< 


II 


3*:Ji! 


^O 


•C5^ 


M.t; 






^t: 






c^>? 


s a 










o?w 


p,U 


>,o>. 


Ojj-O 





"S.S c c 
CS « '^ o 






lllll 

Cj3 t. 00 >. 

t^cS « c: 05 



334 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



O 

H 

O 

o 

m 
< 

P 

o 

O 
<1 

Eh 
O 

t— I 

CO 



•I«?0X 


|§? 


1 


1,333 

1,899 
519 

2,300 
843 

1,655 

167 
1,961 
2,101 
7,000 


Wl 




•scanimojj 

IBioadg 


s; 


S 


lO 


•i •« 


•snoaaB[iaosii\[ 


'■O 






s |22 :a ^ : : : 


gS2 




-.iSJO^SIH I'BJn^l'BJ^ 








§5 : :$2 : : .^\ 






•s^iV aui,! 


•2 




s g ;g ;§3 :?^s : 


" •§ 




•soijqw^ aii^xoi 


??8^Sg g'^S^S """S 


s -^ 




•[■Bjn^inox^JOH 


=^33 ; ; s5^|?3| s§s; 


s :a 




•I«jn;inou3v 


SSSSSS SSgSS SEiS 


g:s 




1 'iBoiaBqoajj 


:« ^i^ s •§ • • • -^ 


-:: 




1 

!-Jiao}gaAii ib^ox 




950 

949 
402 
,450 
710 
,167 

124 
,739 
,586 


IliS 








•S.i-\ix\o^ 


s-^-ss'^gg |2e5£i^ '^'-g 


SiSSS 


•SSOQ 


5S2g3 SSSSS S^S? 


|SSS 


•daaqg 


^-£2?2 S^|5S SSS 


gf2SS 


•81«B0 


--iii §-i-l «es 


• s§"^ 


•sajuj^ pun sqouf 


SSS15 : ?3^g^s "53 : 


; s;?ss 


•sasiOH 


mip i^si^ -|| 


: ii2^^ 


fa 
O 

i2; 


Acton District Association 

Bridgeton Union 

Cambridge Citv A. H. and M. Association 
Edinburg Union Agricultural Society . . 
Eastern Indiana Agricultural Association 

Fairtnonnt Union Joint Stock Ap'l Ass'n 
Francesville Agricultural Society . . . 
Kni;;hlstown Union Agricultural Ass'n . 
Lawrence District Fair Association . . 
Loogootee Agricult'l and Mechan'l Ass'n 

Miami and Fulton Co. District Fair Ass'n 
New Ross Agiicultural Association . . . 
Northeastern Indiana Agricultural Ass n 


Switzerland and Ohio Agricult'al Society 
Southea? tern Indiana Agricult'al Society 
Wayne. Henry and Randolph Co. Ag. S'y. 
Xenia Union Agr'al and liort'al Society. 



EXHIBIT OF AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 



335 







nmi 


%r^^% 


gElsg 


R62 
450 
887 
527 
416 


IB! 


1 




•l^^ox 


g... 






'"' '~'"*'^ 




■sasaad 


5§s ■ • • 


n.m^ 


::SS^ 


•K • 'S 


-g|;2 




-xa aaqio nv 


fe • • • 










•ji'Bjjosasuadxa 


s^siii 


IMM 


SiSii 


(M lo o CO oq 


iiS^S 


1 




a 


'^ 


'"' 






•pivj smniraajj 


O r-<<M 




-111 


1 IP 


mm 


•S3la«IT?g 




: :|8 ; 


llii : 


o;|gS 




•sju9ui8Aoaaiai 




:psi 


mnm 


111: 


■^ ^- ! ', 


•sniiDiQ 
P(0 pun s^ue^ 


:|:i: 


: : :^i 


g.:sg 


:ssgr= 




i 




•F^oi 


mr;m 


^rS?5 


si^ii 


imm 


g£P. 




r^- 


-T.CCCCCCO 


IM.^'MeN-S- 




C>J Ot-It-i 




5S?^S2 


iiis§ 


J£g8SS 


^^Bz ■ 


g^|-i 


i 

1 fi 

I 

1 
1 


•S3Djnogj3qio.llV 


s 






•saSaiiAiij 


8 


iijgs 


5|g|S 




gspg 


•saaj ^J^ag 




g^i-s 


-s|g : 


g;igi 


■i :i§i 


•punj 83U80I'J 


.'^ '. . '. 


y ;s ; 


urro • • ■ 


:^.s M 


•" ;£?5 : 


•883^ uoissinipv 


i""^^'" 






iSiSi 

rH r-ICO 


I^I^B 






s ; ■ • 


. Q . >> . 


eg : ; : : 


.>.... 


o SB • 






pa 


Indiana State Board of Agriculture . . . 
Blackford Co. Agr'l, Hort'l and Mech'l Ae 
Boone County Stock Agricultural Society 
Cass County Agricultural Association . 
Clark County Agricultural Association . 


Clinton County AgricuUural Society . . 
Dearborn County Agricultural Assoeiatio 
DecaturCounty Agricultural Society . . 
Delaware County Agr'l and Mech'l Sooiet 
Fayette County Fair Association .... 


Fulton Co. Joint Stock, Agr'l and Mech'l 
Gibson County Hort'l and Agr'l Society 
Grant County Agr'l and Stock Assoeiatio 
Hamiltou County Agr'l and Fair Assoe'n 
Harrison County Agricultural Society . 


Henry County Joint Stock Agr'l Society 
Hendricks County Hort'l and Agr'l Societ 
Howard County Agr'l Association .... 
Huntington County Agr'l Society .... 
Jackson County Agr'l Society 


U<5 . 

"^ '■« 
c 3 o — 

m 

o ^ t< £ 

>-:i-5«i- 


i 

3 

o 
.id 



336 



BOARD OP AGl^ICULTURE. 







siSSi l^i^i sS^iS 


Sills 




•moi 


g-.f «r. 


IMrl eO<M OinOOTlM 


"""" 


•sasaad 


:S" :- : IS 


:§;^: 


sa ;gs 


t 


-xa jaqjo UV 


■g • 








uiB£jos8suadxa 


p .11 lsS3 


ills : 


m :^ : 










Ol ^ 






mil 


t^MiMCO 


._ . .-, ^ 


^ 


M 

P 

a 

i3 


•pii3d;sninim8jjj 




SI :SI 


cJc^Irn'r^' 


•sauBiug 




Si ;r : 


Sill • 


•sijuauiaAOJdaii 


p:: 


COCO^O 


illig 


gill : 










i-l r-, 




PIO pui3 s^uoa 




to • • 


:::.! 


ij-g : 








■ocD-^c^cq 


gggoco 




TB^oi 


^-.'^.-0 




28 "SS g??3:? 


OiC^OJQO • 


gg -12 • 


g 


•saojnogaaq^oilV 






■ ,' . 


(M 


•sa39iiAU<j 


p :ii mnm 


sgss^ 


is:!: 


o 

Si 








T-rHr^ ,-H 




•saa^ /£j:jaa 


|i :3ji 


|;:si 


iSiS^ 


iiil- 


•punj asueDifj 


|^|85 


2 ; 's 


: : .'j^^ 


8^a ;s 




iC l^ (M l- 


.— .,o -^ la c 


tCl^ COi-H 


^QOirai^co 






§S .^.7 




. SI1 •§-. 






•saaj noissimpv 


, I^.oc^Oic. 








ss" •'*'- 












. >. . 






■ ^' ■ 


• • fl ■ • 




::i: 












o 






• •<: 






■'o • 






■ a ■ 


• -.1 • • 




•••tst 






•CCl j^_ 






' S " 






■ ■'Wo 










































nil 

S'-S-Cc 


1 

< 

1 


» > 
a, 




ley County Agr'l Association 
h County Agr'l .Society . . . 
Iby CouutyJointSt'k Agr'l A 
iben County Agr'l Associatio 
ton County Fair Company . 


1 

> 

c 


rrick County Agr'l Society . 
eh. Co. Agr'l, Hort'l, Moch.& 
yne County Agr'l and Hort'l 








c 




iS^ScL, 


WMoQQQrH 


> 


1^1^ II 





EXHIBIT OF 


AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 




, 




gilil 


PSIl 








•IB»ox 










•sasuacixg 


i :S : : 


■ 'o 'S 


O^ • 


s •*"?? 






jaqio IIV 


. . . 








••i!«.>l 


gSg22 


g^gsss 


-i| 


§ -^s 






JO sasaaUxg 










•P!M 


§S5SS 


82g£!S 


£§3 


CC^OO 




s 


siunitaajjj 


«S^'SS- 


■"5^' 


SJi'^2' 


T*5 


P3 






















r-t 


o 


•sauuiBg 


i^ss^ 


3 : :§g 


°i;^ 


i^:^ 


m 


■s^uani 


§ss -s 


•?3 -sg 


sss 


ssss 


^ 




-8A0Jd[ni 


rn' .<N 






O 
























1— 1 




•stHi^tO p[0 


i : :i : 


•5 -s • 


•ss 


2 -§5! 




puB sjuaa 








< 





























o 
o 




•moj, 


ills 




"">1S^ 


. §ses 


m 














< 
< 


•saojnos; 


^S1£S • 


^"^ -^g 


• coo 


iiSs 




«q^0 IIV 


s ^ ■ 






•S338IIAUJ 


li^^i 


:«3 


-IF: 


^i-i 


P^ 


£ 














S 


•?ea^ ^j^ag 


islii 


gS:si 


-S: 


ii:S 


H^ 


rt 












O 
1— 1 

O 


■panil 

93a80I7 


;;:i; 


1 : : :s 


s ;s 




uuiastrapy 


1! 


IIS 


ii.il 


IIS 


P.fei 


< 






'^"" 


(M . .-H 


<M(N 
































.. ^ 


t— 1 








■ • c • • 


>. • • — 




M 






«l« 


^^■'^•^ 


•S ' '< 


XKi'sclJ 


H 

GO 
t— ( 

P 










--<:« 










III! 






! i 


c 

1 






sill 


•M«1 




w 
S 




Sllll 


Jill 






2; 


2^^s^ 


73^ O— 1 


•■s-S&'S 








iiiil 


III! 








_<ec 


5.1w 


p^p^ts^H:;^q 


s^^^ 


Icg^^ 



337 



22 — Agbiculture. 



SHORTHORN BREEDERS. 



The annual meefing of the Indiana Shorthorn Breeders was held in the rooms 
of the State Board of Agriculture, in the city of Indianapolis, January 27 and 28, 
1885. In the absence of the President, Hon. W. W. Thrasher, the Vice-President, 
Hon. Eobert Mitchell, took the chair and called the meeting to order. 

Mr. ,J. W. Kobe, the Secretary, moved that the calling of the roll be dispensed 
with, owing to the extraordinary snow storm and delayed trains. The motion 
was seconded and adopted. 

The morning session was informal and an occasion of social greeting and cor- 
dial hand-shaking, without entering upon any regular routine of business. 

AFTEBNOON SESSION. 

The convention met at 2 o'clock, Vice-President Mitchell in the chair. 
Mr. W. J. Carter, of Westfield, Ind., was appointed to make a short-hand report 
of the proceedings of the meeting. 

Mr. J. A. Thompson, Edinburg, Ind., then read a paper on 

THE EARLY MATURITY OF THE SHORTHORNS AS COMPARED 
WITH OTHER BREEDS, 

The subject assigned me is "Early Maturity of Shorthorns as Compared 
with Other Breeds." 

I realize the fact that I am not as well qualified as many others of this con- 
vention to do this subject justice, not having had the experience in the breeding 
and handling of many of the improved cattle breeds of the country. 

My experience in breeding and handling cattle is confined to Shorthorns, grade 
Shorthorns, so far as the beef breeds are concerned. In my experience in the 
breeding, rearing and feeding cattle, the fact has been fully demonstrated to me 
that the Shorthorn is a very valuable improvement on the common stock of the 
country. His early maturity, rapid growth, greater weight, smaller hhrinkage, 
much larger percentage of dressed beef to live weight in young as well as old ani- 
mals, and beef of a better quality, being better matured and selling for more 



SHORTHORN BREEDERS. 339 

money in market, teml to make the Shorthorns pre-eminently the best early matur- 
ing beef cattle of the country. For some years I have been breeding Shorthorns 
and grade Shorthorns, rearing and feeding them with the common steers of 
the country, all grazed and fed together. I have invariable found the Shorthorns 
and grades far more profitable than the common cattle. More profitable to the 
breeder, the feeder, the shipper and the butcher. To the breeder in having an an- 
imal susceptible of being converted into much more money in much shorter time ; 
to the feeder in having an animal of more rapid growth, greater weight on same 
feed, and an animal that will fatten and mature at a much earlier age than any 
other breed of the country, and when ready for the shipper (at the same age and 
feed as other breeds) will weigh from 30 to f per cent, more and sell in the best 
markets of the country 25 to 30 per cent, higher than the common cattle of the 
country. The shipper having an animal more docile to handle it can be shipped 
more cheaply, being able to put more tons in a car, there is much less shrinkage 
in shipping, and. when in market, the Shorthorn always sells more rapidly and 
brings better profits to the shipper. For the butcher and consumer we have an 
animal better matured at an early age, one that will dress 65 to 75 per cent, net 
beef to live weight, the beef being far superior in every respect to that of the com- 
mon stock ; a nice, well fatted, juicy, tender marbled beef, selling more readily and 
bringing more money. 

My experience in breeding and feeding Shorthorns is, that at thirty months 
old a fairly good Shorthorn steer reasonably well reared, with one season good 
feeding, will weigh from 1,500 to 2,0u0 pounds, while the common stock steer at 
same age with same rearing, and same feeding, will weigh some 1,200 to 1,500 
pounds (and perhaps less), a difference of at least 300 pounds in weight; and when 
you sell you will get at least $1 per 100 pounds more in price in favor of the Short- 
horn, giving you a profit of $30 to $35 against the common stock steer, a very fair 
showing for the early maturing Shorthorn over the common stock of the country. 

I can .see nothing the Shorthorns have to fear from their rivals, other improved 
cattle breeds of the country, to-wit: Angus- Aberdeens, Herefords, Galloways, or 
Holsteins, for where equally well kept the Shorthorns are superior to all other 
breeds; all recognize the fact (and the fat stock show at Chicago has fully con- 
firmed this fact) of the superb beef productiveness at any age of the Shorthorn. 
The claim that he puts in is, "The best beef beasts in the world." This claim is 
based on " early maturity, rapid growth, great weight, small shrinkage, and superb 
carcass." I am fully satisfied that the several fat-stock shows at Chicago, where 
the rival beef breeds of the world have all come in competition (and the very best 
have been there), that I am fully justified in the claim made for the early matur- 
ity of the Shorthorn over all other beef breeds of the countrv. Compare, if you 
please, the Shorthorns with the Angus-Aberdeens and^the Herefords at the fat-stock 
show at Chicago. Take Black Prince, probably the very best Angus-Aberdeen 
bullock ever shown at any fat-stock show, he having been imported from Europe 
at a great expense for the express purpose of competing against the Shorthorns at 
Kansas City and Chicago. When shown at Chicago, in the grand sweepstakes 
ring, in company with Netherwood Jock, and other Polls, with Artless, Prince, 
and Rosy Duke, and other Hereford.--, with Clarence Kirklevington, Charles Ross, 



340 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Swift, and other Shorthorns, the Shorthorn bullock, Clarence Kirklevington (a 
younger, though heavier and better matured animal than the imported Black 
Prince), took the championship premium over all his competitors. This cham- 
pion Shorthorn was shown at three successive fat-stock shows in Chicago, always 
taking the first honors over all other breeds. He was shown first as a yearling, 
weighing at that time 1,620 lbs.; next at two years old, weighing 2,048 lbs.; then at 
three years old, weighing 2,400 lbs., here establishing the superiority of the Short- 
horns for early maturity. 

The grade Shorthorn steer, Charles Ross, the winner of first premium and sweep- 
stakes premium for all grades of all breeds and crosses at Chicago, the past season, 
shows a daily gain of 1.81, while Black Prince shows a daily gain of 1.43; Nether- 
wood Jock (an Augus) shows a daily gain of 1.35, all three years old. Orio, a 
yearling Shorthorn, shows a daily gain of 2.50, while the next best yearling 
slaughtered was a Hereford, Joseph, showing a daily gain of 2.22. We will ta' e 
the yearly gains of the beef breeds shown at Chicago. The, Shorthorn steer, 
"Storm," at two years old weighed 1,515 lbs., at three years old weighed 2,060 lbs., 
a gain of 545 lbs. The champion Shorthorn steer, McMuIlei-, at two years old 
weighed 2,095 lbs., at three years old weighed 2,560 lbs., a gain of 465 lbs. The 
Shorthorn steer Schooler, made a gain last year of 612 lbs., while the Hereford 
steer, Benton's Champion, made a gain of 390 pounds. The Hereford steer Tuck 
made a gain of 485 pounds. Again, take the average weight of two-year-olds shown 
at five successive fat stock shows at Chicago. 

Two-yearold grade Shorthorns average 1.702 lbs.; two-year-old Shorthorns 
average 1,670 lbs.; two-year-old Herefords average 1,577 lbs.; two-year-old Devons 
average 1,113 lbs. 

Early maturing Shorthorn largely ahead in the two-year-old ring. 

Take the one-year-olds shown at Chicago for five successive years : One-year- 
old Shorthorns average 1,382 lbs.; one-year-oW Herefords average 1,225 lbs. Again 
you see the superior early-maturing Shorthorn largely in the lead. 

In all the tests made at the fat stock shows at Chicago competing against the 
very best Angus-Aberdeen, Herefords, Holstein, and Galloways that could be found 
in the country, the Shorthorn has fairly and firmly established his superiority 
over all other breeds of beef cattle for early maturity, rapid growth, superb car- 
cass, and largest percentage of dressed beef to live weight. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Mitchell. Gentlemen, you have listened to Mr. Thompson's very interest- 
ing paper, and now the subject is before you for discussion. Remember that these 
meetings are just what you make them, and that the best work of such meetings 
consists in the free discussion of all subjects submitted for your consideration. 
Let us hear from you. 

Dr. Forsythe. I«will venture to make some suggestions in regard to the methods 
of some of our home breeders which I think deserve criticism. Why is it that 
while we have among us in Indiana, many excellently well-bred young bulls, when- 
ever one of our breeders wants to add a bull to his herd, he thinks it necessary to 



SHORTHORN BREEDERS. 341 

go to Kentucky or Canada or somewhere else to get one? Why indulge, as some 
do, in a prejudice against the Seventeens, than which no better cattle ever lived 
When I went to Kentucky first, many years ago, to get some fine Shorthorn stock, 
Mr. Warfield told me not to get any unless they had some " Seventeen" blood in 
thf-m, and yet, as soon as they got rid of them over there, then there was some- 
thing better. I do not believe in these fancies of some special families, for which 
men will pay extravagant prices. Again, as to color, we induls;e in ridiculous 
fancies and disparage any but all reds, yet in England the record of the prize- 
takers at their shows, proves that red is not there regarded as an essential. I 
should like to see this association condemn thtse strange and unnecessary fancies. 

Judge E. B. Martindale. I do not think that a paper, such as Mr. Thompson's, 
should be passed by the association without a conversational discussion. I think 
the paper is a good one, and seems to me pretty largely made up of the result of 
the Fat Stock exhibition. Of course, that is the best possible way of demonstrat- 
ing and bringing the animal into test. There is one point absolutely not demonstrated 
in the test that I would like to hear discussed, that is, the increase under the same 
food. These animals brought together have not been given the same food, and I 
do not learn from the paper what food they have been fed on. They claim for the 
Hereford breed that it will accumulate flesh far more rapidly than the Shorthorns 
if you confine it to grass alone; upon that I would like to hear some discussion. 
The cross bred Hereford-Angus took the gold medal at the Kansas City show, but 
the prize did not go to the best animal, as afterwards demonstrated. I am preju- 
diced in favor of the Shorthorn, and think the Shorthorn men are in the lead 
They are benefactors to the farming interests of the State of Indiana, and the 
more information they can furnish the better it is for the community. 

J. A. Thompson. In comparison at the Fat Stock Show, Clarence KirklevingJon 
beat anything that came into competition, from one year up 

Jud(je Martindale. Is the increase in weight more from one to two years old or 
from two to three years old? 

Mr. Thompson. The increase is greater on a young animal than on an older one. 

Mr. Mitchell. I served on a committee for that purpose at Chicago; the amount 
of feed and the weights were not correctly kept. The best we could learn there is, 
that the most profit was realized from one to two years old. I would like to know 
how Clarence Kirklevington was fed; he ran far ahead. of his competitors. 

Judge J. S. BuckUs. I would like to say in this connection that the Shorthorn 
men are ahead in Indiana, and in my opinion, it is our fault more than anybody 
else if we do not keep ahead. We don't talk enough or write enough. We should 
infuse more life into the attendance, and those qualified to write essays should 
write them, and by a united eflfort, I think we may be able in a short time to make 
the Shorthorn intere-st in Indiana better than it is. For one, I feel like taking ac- 
tion in reference to these matters. I do not know any better way than for each one 
to feel that the responsibility rests upon his shoulders and lay to work with a will. 
I think we should say something more about the different kinds of feed. 

Judge Martindale. I would like to have the experience of these gentlemen here 
as to how they feed to get the best results. This is the way in which we can get 
useful information on this subject. 



242 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

S. F. Lockridge. It is a very broad subject; it is as broad as the universe, be- 
cause we have cattle scattered all over the world. I am not prepared to stand up 
iiere and say that the Shorthorn cattle are the best beef producing cattle to the 
given amount of food. In America we are not prepared to say much upon that 
subject. Our Fat Stock Show at Chicago is a new institution, but is growing rap- 
idly, and, I trust, in time will give us much information on this subject. In Eng- 
land they know more on this subject than we do. The great Smithfield show and 
some others liave been run for one hundred years. I can not agree altogether with 
Mr. Thompson, that some kinds of cattle shown at Chicago are better than others. 
We do not know how much it costs when you bring the animal into the ring. As 
here, so at Chicago, the results of care and feeding the Shorthorn, Hereford and 
Polled Angus stand out in the different breeds. The flesh on one of those animals 
may have cost twice as much as the others. They can not get reliable facts in feed- 
ing animals to thai point by the pound. They can tell how much they put on in 
twelve months, but as to quality of feed, it has never been brought out very ac- 
-curately. They have a system of feeding at Bow Park which is widely different from 
the way we feed here. They feed turnips, mangel-worzel and clover hay. Here, 
we feed Indian corn cut up in the shock, and some of us grind feed and make a 
kind of mash, which is good feed. Mr. Cxillet, of Illinois, never houses an animal 
until it goes to the shambles. He lets it run out in the open lields and have rough 
fare until two years okl, he then puts it on pasture and gives it all the Indian corn 
it can eat, feeding on this winter and summer. We don't know how much it cost*; 
to put that meat on, but it don't cost as much as at Bow Park, because they were 
housed. There they feed eight months in the year, while we only feed five. I 
feed in the barn, turning out daring the day and keeping them up of nights. I 
grind my corn feed, giving about a peck of meal a day. When I feed my steers shock 
corn I aim to feed one-third of a bushel a day, which is about forty or fifty bushels 
a year, then put them on grass and finish ; it makes fat cattle. It is easier to put 
on fat in summei'than in the winter, as much of this feed necessarily has to go to 
keep up heat in the winter. Where you take the Shorthorn as general purpose 
-cattle, it is the best in the world. The Shorthorns are a good beef-producing ani- 
mal, and possess excellent milking qualities. Fifty or one hundred years ago they 
were the best milkei-s. If they are not so now, it is because we have not taken care 
-of them. They have become acclimated, and breed in almost all quarters of the 
world — in France, Germany, Austrtilia and South America. Taking all these 
-coiLsiderations together, the Shorthorns are the best cattle in the world. I am not 
prepared to say which will put on the most flesh to the given amount of food. 
Some think they are good for the plains, but I am inclined to think that they are 
not as well adapted to that part of the country as some other breeds. "^ 

J. A. Thompson. I would state that I have one thoroughbred steer. Shorthorn, two 
years old, castrated because he was of bad color. The first year I let him run with the 
stock cattle. The second year I fed him, and two years old past he weighed 1,850 
pounds. He is now three years old, and weighs something over a ton. He had 
rough feed the first year, but the second year little extra attention was givcn him. 
I usually feed mill and starch feed. This steer had starch feed and bran. I had a 
three-year-old that I fed two years and was slaughtered here by Mr. Kingan. It 



SHORTHORN BREEDERS. 345 

was the nicest marbled meat I have ever seen. It waf; seven-eighths grade, Short- 
horn. My opinion is that to get first-class marbled beef yon have to feed your 
cattle longer. You can not make good marbled beef short of one year's feeding. 
You can make cheaper beef in the summer by letting them run on blue grass- 
pasture. 

Walter Quick. I am much interested in the reading of this paper. In the last 
Breeders' Gazette I see an article from Mr. Culbertson regarding the award given 
at the late Fat Stock Show, lie went on to say that Clarence Kirklevington was 
not what he was represented to be. At the Pacific Hotel they found the beef of 
poor quality, and the greater portion of the carcass was returned to the butcher 
who sold it to them. The reading of this article makes it of interest to know what 
is best to feed on to make the animal mature properly. Mr. Thompson's essay ha^ 
answered some questions brought out by Mr. Culbertson. In reference to the steer 
spoken of being two years old and weighing 1,800 pounds, the heaviest two-year- 
old ever exhibited at the Fat Stock Show was one that Mr. Pickeral raised, which 
weighed 1,830 pounds, and the heaviest I ever read of at just two years old weighed 
1,856 pounds. 

The following address was then read on the 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 



BY DR. J. ELLIOTT, V. S. 



Mr. President and Gentlemen: The subject which I have been requested to read 
a paper on to-day is Contagious Diseases in Cattle. As this is a class of diseases^ 
for it embraces many which has been causing death and destruction to the bovine 
species of domestic animals, at various times, and different parts of Europe, for 
nearly two hundred years, and in America for nearly ninety, and to give you a 
description of the many diseases which are contagious in the bovine race, it would 
be taking up too much valuable time here to-day; and in order to be as brief as 
possible, I have selected the ones most prevalent and disastrous in this country 
and in Europe, and ones most interesting to the stockraiser at the present time, 
namely : Texas or Splenic Fever, Epizootic, Aptha, or mouth, and foot disease, 
and contagious Pleuro- Pneumonia. 

A disease called splenic apoplexy, having pathological resemblance to our 
Texas fever broke out in England, as far back as 1693, but it was not until 1847, 
that the pathology of the disease was looked into or investigated. It was found ta 
or rather defined to be, extrarasation and congestion of the spleen, occurring sud- 
denly in animals in a plethoric condition, and dependent on blood changes prin- 
cipally amongst ruminants. 

It was in New South Wales the disease was first discovered, and at that time- 
some of the viscera was sent to Liverpool for examination, but, by some mishap, 
was eaten by some hogs belonging to the keeper of the hospital, causing their im- 



344 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

mediate death. In 1849 two men contracted the disease from skinning a heifer, 
and they died. In 1850 it spread into the townships of Liverpool, following the cow 
pastures to the southward. There one man contracted the disease from skinning 
a bullock, and died. Sheep were seized with it and died, as did, also, the shep- 
herds who skinned them. As to the cause of the disease at that time, it was dis- 
covered to "be most deadly and fatal in damp, marshy soil, and lands poorly drained; 
and during hot seasons. It not unfrequently happened that the first appearance 
of the disease was not discovered until several of the aniaials were dead. They 
were seen apparently healthy in the morning, and dead by noon. The symptoms 
first presenting themselves were sudden uneasiness. They were excited, eyes prom- 
inent, colicky pains, urine high colored and tinged with blood, also the feces, back 
arched, very weak, and stood leaning against anything near them ; pulse weak, 
hard, feeble and small; breathing accelerated. The animal soon drops, and is 
seized with convulsive twitchings, froth issued from the nostrils, and death closed 
the scene, the disease lasting from four to twenty-four hours. Post-mortem exam- 
ination revealed the spleen of a deep, dark red color, and swollen to three or four 
times its natural size, weighing from three to four pounds; all the stomach found 
healihy, except the true digestive stomach, which showed a general redness. The 
kidneys were dark colored, and occasionally a considerable quantity of serum 
found in the pericardium. Treatment was not satisfactory, no matter what kind 
pursued. The best preventive measures adopted were low diet, active exercise, 
purgatives, and neutral salts in the water to drink. And to show you the resem- 
blance of this splenic fever or apoplexy of Euro^je has to our Texas fever, we 
will compare it with the outbreaks in this country. 

In 179G there was an outbreak of cattle disease in Pennsylvania, attributed to 
infection from a drove of cattle brought from South Carolina in the month of 
August. There was a weakness of the limbs, inability to stand, and when they fell 
they would tremble and groan violently. Bloody urine was discharged ; bowels 
costive; kidney found, on post-mortem examination, inflamed (but no mention 
made of the spleen or notice taken of it at tliat time). Since that time there has 
been many outbreaks in many of the Southern States, invariably in the summer 
mf)nths. These outbreaks were characterized by weakness of the limbs, constipa- 
tion, bloody urine, drooping of the head, and lopping of the ears. Post-mortem 
revealed the spleen the most conspicuously diseased organ, as was also the kidneys.' 
It would be useless to go on and recite the many outbreaks from that time on, 
but the ones of most note occurred in 18t)6, '67 and '68, when Texas cattle were 
carried into the herd-growing sections of the West. In the stock-yards of Chicago, 
in 1868, 161 animals perished in a few days, 926 in a single township, and 400 on a 
single farm contracted the disease and died, and to Dr. Salmond, of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry, who deserves credit for his deep researches into the history of the 
disease, we are indebted for the appearance of the spleen. He says it was the 
organ, beyond all others, which suffered in Texas fever. He described it in one cow 
as weighing five and three-fourths pounds, and associated with bloody serum in the 
pericardium. In two others it weighed five pounds, and four others between three 
and four pounds. Here is where we get the great resemblance to splenic apoplexy 
in European cattle. 



gHORTHORN BREEDERS. 345 

Dr. Salmond also says he had opportunity of observing the disease in several 
living animals, and noticed the following gymptoms: The sick ones were Aveak 
and staggering in their gait ; pulse feeble; the breathing hurried and panting; 
the evacuations from the bowels were either hard or profuse and watery; the urin- 
ary secretions were either absent or profuse and bloody, and in his post-mortem of 
them, the spleen was enlarged, dark purple, and in some, black kidneys, enlarged 
and congested ; the bladder tilled with bloody urine. 

The medicinal treatment of Texas fever, like all other contagious diseases, is 
very unsatisfactory. There is no medicine we know of which acts as a specific. 
Many have been tried. As constipation is more or less present, especially the third 
stomach; purgatives will be found useful. Occasionally diarrhoea may be present, 
but that may be owing to irritation of the intestines. At the same time the third 
stomach impacted, the gall bladder and ducts connected with it are congested, the 
flow of bile is impeded, which leads to its absorption into the blood vessels and 
some of the wonst features of the disease may be attributed to this mixture of bile 
with the blood. Sulphate magnesia being the most reliable purgative for rumi- 
nants, it may be given in the dose of one pound with four drachms of pulverized 
ginger dissolved in a quart of warm water. Calomel or aloes may be added. From 
their specific action on the liver they will be found useful. 

After all, some cases recover without any treatment, and many will die in spite 
of all remedies. 

Easily digested food should be given, and all dry and indigestible food avoided. 
As some outbreaks in all contagious diseases are milder than others, recovery in 
many cases will take place without treatment. The disease usually pa.sfes unno- 
ticed in the Texas cattle, but is exceedingly fatal in northern animals. Contagion 
takes place through the bowel discharges, and roads, pastures, water courses, etc., 
become efficient bearers of the virus. It is destroyed at once by frosf, and has never 
been satisfactorily demonstrated to be conveyed from one northern animal to an- 
other. Sucking calves and young animals rarely suflPer. 

Epizootic aptha, commonly called mouth and foot disease, is a contagious 
eruptive fever, affecting all warm blooded animals, attacking man under certain 
circumstances, as readily as any of thed')mestic animals. It consists of an inflam- 
matory affection of the mucus membrane and skin, evidenced by the appearance of 
vessicles or small bladders, containing a colorless fluid, on the inside of the mouth, 
around the coronet and in the cleft of the foot, in fact, any part uncovered with 
hair. This disease first appeared in England in the spring of 1839, and spread 
rapidly over England, Scotland and Ireland, and nmained about two year6,'when 
it seemed gradually to wear out, the severity of the disease abating. Since that 
time they have had repeated returns of tiie disease, of a more or less general preva- 
lence. Experiments have been made to test its infectious nature, by saturating 
food with the saliva from infected animals, and feeding it to healthy ones. The 
effects were developed in thirty-six hours, and as railways, cattle sheds, and even 
the clothes of the attendants, are means of infection, hence the necessity of Legis- 
lative interference in preventing the introduction or removing of diseased animals 
from one place to another, when by mixing with healthy ones the disease may be 
carried all over the country. 



346 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

G)ntagious matter is discharged with the saliva also from the vessicles which 
form in the mouth, on the teats and feet. The period of incubation varies from 
twenty -four hours to three or four days; it sets in with a shivering fit, and vessicle 
-eruptions form in the mouth, around the top of the feet, and in the cleft of the foot, 
and, in the females, on the teats. The eruption is first indicated by saliva from the 
mouth, and loss of power in mastication ; the pain is intense and on opening the 
mouth, vessicles are found about the size of a bean; they sometimes congregate in 
patches, and are also found in the lips and cheeks ; in about eighteen hours these 
vessicles burst, and red spots are exposed, from which in some cases unhealthy ul- 
■cers develop. The eruptions on the feet, producing such intense pain, they become 
lame and scarcely able to stand ; and the whole foot may become so inflamed as to 
«nd in suppuration of the hoof. In favorable cases all symptoms of fever subside 
by the fourth day, the appetite is restored, and convalescence well established by 
the .seventh or eighth. But in unfavorable cases, the fever runs high, the ulcera- 
tion spreads, the animal becomes exhausted, the hoofs slough off, the blood becomes 
poisoned, and death occurs about the ninth or tenth day ; in the treatment of this 
disease, if the bowels are torpid, a mild purgative may be given, followed by alter- 
atives, but cleanliness of the feet is indispensable; and the animals removed to a 
dry clean place, the sores dressed with some astringent application, the vessicles in 
the mouth which have been broken should be dressed, and the mouth sponged 
with some astringent. But cleanliness should be strictly observed, and all stables 
and sheds where infected animals have been kept, thoroughly disinfected. 

CONTAGIOU.S PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 

The early history of this disease is involved in considerable obscurity, and it is 
impoesiblejo say at what precise date the disease made its first appearance, but, 
from meagre descriptions handed down to us, there is every reason to believe that 
a malady similar to pleuropneumonia existed within the mountainous regions of 
Europe in 1693. J. C. Wirth, one of the best authorities in his day on cattle 
plagues, says it is certain pleuro-pneumonia manifested itself in the years 1713 
and 1714 in several parts of Switzerland. The constant spread of the disease from 
countries in which it rages to others which, prior to the importation of diseased 
animals, had been free is proven by the fact that it was carried into England by 
affected animals, from Holland, in 1842. Twelve months after the importation of 
those animals the disease spread from England to Scotland. A cow shipped to 
Australia was found to have the disease on landing, but the evil results were con- 
fined to its owner's stock, and further spread of the contagion effectually checked. 
It was introduced into this country by the importation of some cows from Holland, 
I think in 1842, and we have noticed the many outbreaks up to the present time, 
the last one occurring last summer, and there is no mistake of its existence at the 
present time. No disease has given rise to more discussion as to its origin, nature 
and treatment than this, for it has been a source of great loss to the stock raisers 
of Europe and America. 

The name pleuro-pneumonia signifies an affection of the pleura, or covering 
and pneumonia, the lungs, both being implicated. It may be divided into three 



SHORTHORN BREEDERS. 347 

stages. First, the incubative or hatching stage, secondary or middle stage, and the- 
fatal stage. The incubative stage is when the disease is making its way silently 
into the system without any external svmptoms. This we know from the fact that 
animals slaughtered for the market, apparently in good health, and had exhibited 
no symptoms of any disease when killed, have shown considerable disease in one 
or both lungs when dead, and to this difficulty of recognizing the affection in its 
first stage may be ascribed much of the fatality of pleuro-pneumonia, as before 
any means of preventing its spreading, or curing the diseased ones, can be adopted, 
itjla past medical aid, and has acted as a focus of contagion to the rest of the herd. 
This stage may last some days, varying from forty days to two months. In the 
second stage symptoms begin to develop themselves, though at first slight. The 
animal looks dull and dispirited, and rumination is suspended ; a slight shiver or 
shaking, probably a little cough, with slight accelerated breathing ; if a milker, 
the supply of milk is suspended. These will be the only symptoms observed, but 
as the disease advances the cough becomes louder, the pulse is quickened, usually 
numbering from 80 to 100, and the temperature rises, and all the appearance of 
acute fever sets in ; the breathing becomes accelerated, and with each respiration, 
the animal gives a peculiar, low grunt ; the secretions of milk gradually dimin- 
ish from day to day, until entirely suspended. Digestion is now interfered with, 
and constipation, sometimes attended with tympanitis, is present. In the last stage 
the symptoms are distressingly aggravated. The grunt is changed to a loud moan 
of pain; the breathing is laborious ; offensive diarrhrea sets in ; the pulse is almoBt 
imperceptible ; the legs and horns get cold, the abdomen filled with gas, and death 
quickly takes place. In auscultation, or sounding the chest, which is applying the 
ear to the sides of the chest, over the region of the lungs. To do this effectually it 
is necessary to be acquainted with the sounds in the healthy lung. In health, a 
peculiar sound is heard at each respiration. This is called the respiratory mur- 
mur, and is caused by the air passing into the minute structure of the lungs. In 
the secondary stage, or, in fact, when the disease commences, these sounds change, 
and are not heard at all, the lungs becoming impervious to air. Percussion, or 
striking the sides of the chest between the ribs with the ends of the fingers, assists 
us in detecting the lung which has become solid or hepatized. In health, a hollow 
sound is emitted, but when hepatized a sensation is given to the hand as if it had 
struck a solid body. On examination after death the lungs (or oftener one lung) 
are found enormously enlarged — so much so, in some cases, as to fill up the cavity 
of the chest. Upon cutting into the substance of the lung, which in health is light 
and spongy, the cut edges will have a veined or marbled appearance, having 
abscesses of various sizes, filled with pus or matter. The cavity of the chest is 
filled with lymph ; strings of it cover the pleura and that portion of it lining the 
ribs, and extending from one to the other. These are infe( tious as well as con- 
tagious diseases — infectious from having the qualities of infection, the thing which 
taints, poisons or corrupts, communicating it from one to another ; contagious 
from containing or generating contagion that may be communicated by contact 
from poisonous excreted matter or poisonous exhalation, the containing of which 
may be propagated and communicated from one to another. As to the causes of 
those infectious and contagious diseases, all writers on the subject seem to agree^. 



848 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

especiallj those of them vrho have made microscopical examination. They have 
found in the blood a germ, or poison, or organism, in the system of diseased animals, 
called bacteria, which, when conveyed into healthy animals, produces the same 
disease. 

Dr. Greenfield, of London, an eminent writer on this subject says, in the case of 
infective disease, it is natural to look to the process of decomposition — and to seek 
either in the products, or the agents of the decomposition of animal fluids or tis- 
sues, the source of contagion — and further, he says, with regard to the specific 
contagia, the hypotheses most commonly entertained, may be classed into three 
groups. First, that contagion of any specific disease, consists of some constituent 
of the body, possessing the power, when transferred to another animal, of setting 
up a similar disease process. Second, that an organized ferment, produced in the 
disease, is transferred and sets up the vital cliange. Third, that some organs 
having an existence independent of the body, but capable of growing and mul- 
tiplying within it, and by its growth and reproduction gives rise in some way to 
the phenomena of the disease. 

Owing to the length of time this germ of poison is concealed in the system, 
working its way silently, without showing any outward symptoms, can it be won- 
dered at, that the whole herd becomes afiected with the malady before the owner 
is aware of its existence, and as there are no sanitary agents which can be relied 
upon as curatives, hence the necessity of stamping out the disease by the destruc- 
tion of the animals in which it commences, and Congress should not only be called 
upon to make law:^ and devise means of preventing its spreading, but should 
cause the destruction of all herds in which it exists, and make appropriations pay- 
ing the owner a reasonable compensation for the loss sustained. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Mitchell. It is stated in some of the papers that pneumonia can be mitiga- 
ted bv vaccination. 

Dr. Elliolt. There has been instances of this kind, and attended with consid- 
erable success. 

Mr. Mitchell. Then you give it as your opinion that it may be done intelli- 
gently. 

Dr. Elliolt. Taking it in time it may be done. 

W. R. Goodwin, of Kansas City Indicator. There are a number of papers which 
deny that there is pleuro-pneumonia in this country. 

Dr Elliott. It has been in some sections of the country, but we do not have it 
in Indiana. 

3Ir. Hill, of the National Live Stock Journal. You spoke of inoculation just now. 
At the stage it is now in, in this country don't you think it would be the easiest 
way to effectually suppress it, and then keep it out? Is not inoculation only as a 
mitigation, a choice of the two evils, and is not the pulse the quickest indication of 
this disease? 

Dr. Elliott. The best test we know of is percussion, or striking the chest with 
the ends of the fingers. 



SHORTHORN BREEDERS. 349 

Mr. Hill. When a herd is not doing well, would it not be the herder's first 
thing to see if his cattle had fever and send for a professional man? 

Dr. Elliott. If disease breaks out, and we could not account for it, it would be 
important to call in a professional man to make an examination without delay. 
Every stockman should know where the pulse is located. We can find the pulse 
under the angle of the jaw on the t^ubmanillary artery. You can also find the 
artery under the forearm. The normal pulse in cows is 38 to 44, in horses 41 
to 45. In animals affected by the diseases named the pulse often indicated 80 and 
100, even higher. 

Mr. Goodwin. Should not every stockman have a clinical thermometer, and 
know how to use it? 

Dr. Elliott. Yes, they should know the temperature of the mouth. When the 
temperature gets beyond 100 you should call in a professional man. 

Mr. Mitchell. I have a bill, presented from Mr. Frazee, asking that we take 
some steps toward getting a State Veterinarian appointed. W^e should ask every 
member of the Legislature to use their influence toward providing a chair of veter- 
inary science at Purdue University, so that those young men can be skilled in 
animal diseases. The farmers ought to be demanding that this chair of veterinary 
science be filled. We have had some experience already in this so-called pleuro- 
pneumonia, and we want to be informed what the disease is. One of the most im- 
portant things this meeting can do is to get up a resolution indorsing the statement 
of Governor Gray in his inaugural address regarding this disease. 

Mr. Thos. Nelson. I had something to do with the examination of the bill you 
had with you, that was endorsed by the State Board of Agriculture, contt^mplat- 
ing the appoiniment of a Veterinary Surgeon connected with the University and 
to be appointed by the Governor. I like the plan of the appointing power and 
think good results will come from it. I would have this chair located at Purdue 
University. The State Agricultural Board recommends persons for trustees of 
Purdue, but the Governor appoints, and they select instructors for chairs they see 
wise to form. 

Judge Martindalc. 1 warmly advocate the suggestion of the chair— that a 
skilled verterinarian be appointed by the faculty, like the other professors, at Pur- 
due. Our stock-owners should certainly know enough to feel an animal's pulse 
or to use the clinical thermometer, and 1 believe the agricultural students at Pur- 
due should certainly be taught at least the elementary principles of veterinary 
medicine. On the other hand, I do not believe in a State veterinarian. 

Mr. Quick. I concur fully in Judge Martindale's remarks. Having myself 
been a student at Purdue for two years, I can speak feelingly on the necessity for 
such a chair. In that respect our college compares very unfavorably with those 
in our neighboring States, Ohio and Illinois, or even with Colorado. 

Mr. Ooodwin. In the first place, gentlemen, you want a Professor of Veterinary 
Science at Purdue, who will devote his whole time to it. L have raised some cattle 
in Kansas, and while engaged in this business something broke out among our 
Angus cattle; they all began coughing, and in two days all the herd were affected 
by it. I telegrapbed to Dr. Holcomb, and in twenty-four hours the doctor arrived. 
He made a thorough examination and gave it as his opinion that the cattle were 



350 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

affected with the lung worm. Dr. Holcomb makes this a special study, and is 
going night and day on that kind of business. I can assure you, from personal ex- 
perience, that he is doing much good there. When the Texas fever broke out they 
were quarantined and the Governor written to. He checked it at every point and 
kept it from spreading. A man thoroughly skilled in his profession should be kept 
to attend to the wants of the farmers. There are not enough veterinary surgeons 
in the country. Our experience in Kansas, I think, from what I know of this 
work, has been profitable throughout the State. 

The Chair announced as the Committee on Preparation of Programme for the 
Next Annual Meeting the following : Messrs. Aikman, Cooper and Quick. 

Mr. Nelson offered the following resolutions, which were adopted after some 
discussion : 

Resolved, That this convention doe-- hereby endoi-se the course of all live stock 
and agricultural journals that have taken an active part in expressing, through 
their columns, the existence of pleuro-pneumonia and other contagious diseases 
among the cattle of the country, and their able advocacy of the bill passed at the 
last session of Congress, known as the Bureau of Animal Industry, which has 
already proved to be efficient as a step towards the stamping out of said pleuro- 
pneumonia. 

The two others were also adopted without discussion. They read as follows: 

Resolved, That the Shorthorn Breeders of Indiana, in convention assembled, are 
unalterably opposed to the action of the St. Louis convention of cattlemen in their 
advocacy of a so-called national cattle trail, beginning somewhere in Texas and 
running to the British possessions, said trail to be six miles in width its entire 
length, and we hereby instruct our representatives in Congress to use all honorable 
means to defeat the enactment of such a measure. 

Resolved, That this convention indorses the action of the representatives of the 
National Cattle Growers' Convention, Chicago, in withdrawing from the Cattle- 
men's Convention held at St. Louis last fall, as that convention was sectional in its 
character, and had for its object the building up of an entirely Western and South- 
western interest, ignoring the existence of organizations of a central and Eastern 
character, and having for their object the good of cattle breeders of the nation at 
large. 

The chair announced the receipt of a notice from the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture of an agricultural convention at New Orleans, February 10th, and convey- 
ing a cordial invitation from the National Cotton Plantei-s' Association to all agri- 
cultural associations to send delegates, with an earnest recommendation from the 
Commissioner that it be accepted. On motion, the invitation was accepted, and the 
Hon. Eobert Mitchell was appointed the official delegate of the association. 

The remaining gentlemen who were to have presented papers to the meeting 
not having reported, and there being no special business before the meeting, the 
chairman, Mr. Eobert Mitchell, made a warm and earnest address on the 
apathy that seemed to have settled down upon the Shorthorn breeders of Indiana. 
He said : In regard to the indifferent manner in which the Shorthorn breeders 
treat one another, I would like to say a word. I have been a visitor in Kentucky, 
and I would like to see the fraternal feeling exist among us that prevails there. 



SHORTHOKN BREEDERS. 351 

When a breeder goes there in search of stock and one man has not got what you 
want, he does not turn around and try to prejudice you against buying his neigh- 
bor's cattle, but takes you in his buggy and drives you to his neighbor, and tries 
to get you to buy of him. If I have stock to sell and another man is engaged in 
the same business, it is a part of my duty not to allow that party to go away with- 
out buying some of our stock here at home. We should try to build up the Short- 
horn interest in our State, rather than to throw up barriei-s against it. There are 
fifteen or twenty of our Shorthorn breeders not here to-day, who should be taking 
an interest in this meeting. Every farmer should have a pure bred Shorthorn bull, 
or a pure bred bull of some other breed — instead of breeding some scallawag cattle, 
going to market and bringing three to three and a half cents per pound. It is a 
shame on the people of this State to take such cattle to the market of Cincinnati 
and other cities — where it is positively damaging to say that you are from Indiana; 
it lowers the selling value of your cattle. We should try and correct this and go 
to work in earnest and get every man to breed Shorthorn stock, and then where- 
ever they sell the cattle, it will speak for the cattle of the State. 

In 1883, Mr. Brownlee, of Iowa, showed a fine cow at the fat-stock show at 
Chicago, and was successful in taking a first prize over Mr. Miller's heifer. The 
next year I was there, and the very fact of that cow winning that prize, was said 
by a prominent Iowa breeder, to have been worth millions of dollars to the State 
of Iowa. Mr. Moberly, of Kentucky, is going to take his herd to New Orleans, 
and those beef cattle taken there will speak for Kentucky. Mr. Potts is also there 
with fine cattle, which will speak for Illinois ; Mr. H. C. Burleigh is there with one 
of the finest herds of Herefo d cattle ever shown. W^e want to go to work and 
popularize the breed of Shorthorns. The Jersey men hold up to the public gaze 
a cow giving thirty or forty pounds of butter a week. I say now, without the least 
fear of contradiction, that if we were to quit breeding those little infernal bulls in ' 
this State to-day, it would take twenty years to sweep out the evil they have done. 
The .lersey cow will do very well in towns and cities, but those little bulls scattered 
throughout the State, I would like to shoot down as I would a wolf. The Polled 
cattle men are working with a will . These cattle and the Herefords are in the hands 
of good men and making a place, and if the Shorthorn men lie still, as we are do- 
ing now, they will ride right over us and we shall never catch up in the world. 

If you go to Chicago and see the cattle there, you will want to come home and 
see how big you can grow your bullocks. We try to grow too much grain in this 
State, when we should be turning our attention more to the raising of beef. Dr. 
Stevenson, with his 1,800 to 2,0ti0 acres of land, was not making money by harvest- 
ing grain, but he was making his money easily with cattle— as he once said to me, 
" I get along very well with this little bucket of salt." These are my feelings in 
regard to the Shorthorn interest. I have b. en grading some, but I am now aiming 
to have nothing but pure bred cattle, and when I get a good herd I am going to 
push them and get them ahead of evtrylhing else if I can. 

Judge Buckles. We have been neglecting our business too much. We should 
have a few men who are willing to meet our adversaries on any field that may be 
selected; if they beat us to-day let us beat them to-morrow. Another thing is to 
get our agricultural men educated up to raise good stock. The only suggestion to 



352 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

my mind is that you may have as fine a herd of cattle as there is in the State, yet 
you have neighbors around you who don't know the merits of your cattle, they 
can not buy or breed them. The mass of the Indiana farmers should engage at 
sometime, not far distant, in improving their stock. The truth is, Mr. Chairman, 
that in Indiana, a general purpose country, we should plow less and grass more, 
take care of our stock and better save our manure. And I think we should have 
a Shorthorn department in our agricultural paper, and in that we should try to 
convince the farmers that it is right to breed uij. We have stock journals which 
are valuable ; but they don't go into every family, while the agricultural paper 
does. If that paper could contain two columns devoted to live stock it would be 
of much interest. Such a move need not be against the interests of the Live Stock 
Journals. I wish to make another suggestion: that the members of this associa- 
tion make arrangements that each county paper have a live stock department. 
We have such a department in our county paper, which proves to be valuable and 
interesting. I think the Indiana Farmer would be a proper paper in which to 
have tlijs department. This would be the most effective way in which to reach the 
majority of the farmers of the State, and it Avould not be long until we find every 
body that is interested in his stock trying to improve them. 

Mr. Mifckell. I used to think I was a good judge of cattle, but by attending the 
fat-stock show at Chicago I learned more there in a day than in a year attending 
fairs. Take two of the best steers you can get, put them on grass, feed them in 
earnest, and you will get the farmers attention and show them the result. You 
don't want to tell them of one you have got at home, but take them right before 
their eyes, and they will want to know how it is done. The mere fact of getting a 
live stock journal is not enough on your part, but that paper must be a good one, 
one that will educate the man in his business. 

Mr. Thompson. As to reading agricultural papers and live stock journals, 
what first induced me to go into the business was reading the Live Stock Journal. 
The best way to get this before the people is to get them interested in live stock- 
After I became a reader of that journal and the Breeders' Gazette I took more 
interest in the Shorthorn business. I hope something may be effected in this way. 

W. D. Cooper. We do much by breeding and showing our stock. If we take 
a few steers and show them it has more influence in improving stock than any 
thing we can do. Whenever I go to the fair I find more attention is given to stock 
than anything else. We should try to push our stock out as much as possible. 
Parties often come ten miles to my house to see my cattle. As to reading agri- 
cultural and live stock journals, some people won't read anything Igit a political 
paper, and we should do everything we can to get them interested in live stock 
literature. 

Judfje Mariindide. I am not in full membership as a Shorthorn breeder, but I 
will nevertheless give the reasons why I am a live stock man. It is because I 
notice cattle raising is a safe and profitable business. Men place money in banks 
— the banks break and they lose their accumulations ; they put it in manufactures, 
and a panic causes a reverse. There is no panic in the cattle business. A panic 
does not stop the growth of the blue grass, nor quell the ardor of the bull. It is 
an interest that is not affected. There have been over productions in wheat and 



SHORTHORN BREEDERS. 353" 

corn, but there has never been an over production in beef. We are becoming, day 
by day, more of a bSef-eating people. There are hundreds of thousands of workers 
in iron, in mines, in various manufacturing industries, and the dense population 
of our cities to be fed, and they demand beef. '• I do not want any veal ; I do not 
want rabbit. I want it understood to-day that the color in my face is due to beef."" 
[Laughter.] * 

The President. You are entitled to be received here as a full-grown Shorthorn 
breeder. 

Mr. MitcheUl strongly urged the utility of, and reported the result of his en- 
deavors to secure a fat stock show at Indianapolis, which would have been under- 
taken last fall, as he believed, had not the Ohio flood sufferers become just then 
an object of sympathy to which all wanted to contribute. After this, of course, he 
had to forego any further collecting of the necessary guarantee fund. 

Mr. Thonipson. I move sir, that the State Board of Agriculture take some steps 
to hold a fat stock show in November, and we guarantee that .Tohnson county will 
have some here. 

Mr. Mitchell. From what I have seen it should be later than at Chicago. Our 
beeves should be here two or three. weeks before Christmas and you can sell them 
for Christmas beeves. If we have the show in November, you would have to take 
them home and wait for the Christmas market. I think Chicago will recind the 
killing of premium cattle so early hereafter. The carcasses of Star Prince and 
Koan Boy spoiled on their hands, owing to warm weather. 

Mr. Thompson. By fixing the time before the Chicago show, it would induce 
them to exhibit at Chicago after showing here first, but I am willing to leave 
this to the State Board of Agriculture to arrange. 

Motion carried. 

Convention adjourned until 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WEDNESDAY — MORNING SESSION. 

The meeting came to order at the call of Vice-President Mitchell, pursuant to 
adjournment. 

The parties who were to have presented papers being still absent, some time 
was taken up with discussion regarding the propriety of joining the National Cat- 
tle Growers' Association, but no definite action was taken. 

Judge Buckles took the floor and spoke some time in favor of his suggestion 
made the day previous, that a column or so of space should be secured in some 
weekly agricultural paper published in Indianapolis, for a Shorthorn department, 
to be edited by the secretary or some other properly qualified person on behalf of 
the society. If it was necessary to pay for such services, he, for his part, was quite 
ready to do his part towards it. The good accomplished by the stock papers he 
was most ready to acknowledge, but, unfortunately, they circulated among men 
who were already breeders and did not reach, or but rarely reached, the general 
farmer. 

23 — Agricitltuee. 



354 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. / 

Mr. Lockridge. Judge Buckles has spoken well as to the necessity of o^v show- 
ing more activity in pushing our own interests. I am not quite sure to wHat extent 
the plan he proposes is feasible, but I know we are moving along in afut, and we 
must get out of it. It is all very well for us to meet once a year and hear a few 
papers read, interesting and instructive though they may be, discuss them a little, 
and then go home again. That may be pleasant enough for us, but it does not 
help our cause among outsiders. This society is the oldest Shorthorn Association 
in the country ; it is actually the parent of the National Association ; but we 
must do some work for the cause or we might as well cease to exist. 

Mr. Mitchell. We want to do like the .Jersey men are doing. If any of you have 
a cow that will give forty one pounds of butter a week, put her up ; this is one 
important thing which is too much overlooked by the Shorthorn men. They breed 
for color and beef altogether, and neglect the milking qualities. We want to get to 
work, and let people know that the Shorthorn is the best breed of cattle in the- 
world, and induce them to bring their cattle out to fairs. The generality of farm- 
ers believe these cattle are taken care of at home, and blanketed, and they can not 
do this. We want to get the steers taken to the county fairs, and show the farmers 
what can be done with the steera. If the members of this Association would take 
an active part at the fairs, all the calves they may grow will find ready sale. 

Mr. Lockridge. Perhaps the members of the Association are not aware that this 
one was the first one ever organized. The National Association sprung from this 
one. After the call, perhaps by Dr. Stevenson, we met here and organized a State 
Association, and out of that call came a call for a National Association, which met 
in this city. That lead the way for others; butafter we have done this, we seem to 
have rather gone back. Our discussions are interesting, but don't grow. We re- 
peat too much, and don't investigate something that is new, by reaching out; and 
the reason is, we are not on the right basis ; we should have something more to do. 
The National Association got in the same rut, and did not know what to do until 
they got hold of the National Herd Book. After that they bought up the Ameri- 
can Herd Books, and consolidated them into one. They have now a live work. 
This Association might, in a less degree, accomplish much more in the boundaries 
of our own State. This Association should have a history of the Shorthorns of this 
State; when first introduced, and who were the first breeders, and have this history 
filed away in the archives of this Association. 

Mr. Mitchell. Every Shorthorn breeder should report his nauie and address to 
this Association. Then let the Secretary notify him of the meeting. I hope some 
one will make a resolution to that effect. 

Mr. Goodwin. It seems to me that Mr. Lockridge has struck the key-note re- 
garding the facts of the case. I suggest that a committee be appointed, to which 
this whole subject may be referred, to carefully consider and place it on some specific 
basis, and do work a little more official. In gathering facts, make them palpable, 
that they may be referred to the next annual meeting. 

Mr. Buckles presented the following resolution, which was seconded by Mr. 
Lockridge, and carried unanimously : 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed, one of whom shall be the presi- 
dent elected for the ensuing year, who shall be ex-officio chairman of said committee. 



SHORTHORN BREEDERS. 355' 

the other four to be appointed at this meeting, whose duty it shall be to inquire 
into the expediency of procuring space in some one of the weekly newspapers of the 
city of Indianapolis for a Shorthorn department in the columns of said paper; also 
to take such steps as Avill secure for the records of this Association a complete 
enumeration of the Shorthorn cattle in Indiana, the name and postoffice address of 
each Shorthorn breeder of the State, and number of his herd; also to consider the 
propriety of the reorganization of this Association upon a more effective and prac- 
tical basis; said committee to report at the next meeting of this Association. 

In connection with the resolution, offered by Judge Buckles, the following com- 
mittee was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Buckles, Nelson, Quick and Lockridge. 

The following resolution, oflered by Secretary Heron, of the State Board, rela- 
tive to the suggestion of Governor Gray, in his inaugural address, regarding the 
suppression of pleuro-pneumonia, was read and adopted. 

Resolved. That this association heartily indorses the suggestion of Governor 
Gray, in his inaugural address, that precautionary measures be taken to prevent 
the spread of pleuro-pneumonia among the cattle in this State, and urge upon the 
General Assembly to take such steps as will prevent the possibility of such a 
calamity. 

Hon. E. S. Frazee, the treasurer of the association, made the following report : 

REPOKT. 

Received of new members $7 00 

Amount on hand 30 00 

Total receipts $.37 00 

Paid Secretary for two years expenses 7 25 

Balance in Treasury $29 75^ 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

The following gentlemen were elected to serve as officers for the ensuing year :. 

President, Hon. Robt. Mitchell ; Vice-President, Hon. S. F. Lockridge ; Sec- 
retary, Walt J. Quick ; Treasurer, Hon. E. S. Frazee. 

Mr. Mitchell. I shall do all I can to advance the interest of the State. I want 
all to work at once and get out of this apathy that seems to have settled down 
upon the Shorthorn breeders. There is not a farmer in this State but should have 
a good grade of cattle instead of those little lantern-jawed, knock-kneed specimens 
which we see. 

Mr. Waller J. Quicfc. 1 am surprised at the selection you have made in 
my absence cfh committee work, and had 1 been present, I should most certainly 
have declined the nomination. I feel that I have not the ability to attend to the 
office of Secretary. It is putting a young member too forward in this work. As 
it is the first time I have attended the asssociation meeting I will be thankful for 
the co-operation of its members in this undertaking. T thank the association for 
the honor conferred. 



356 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Hon. J. N. Sankey. I regret that unavoidable difficulties have prevented me 
from preparing a paper on the subject assigned me. I wish that more- informa- 
tion was had as to the manner in which Shorthorns are maintaining their reputa- 
tion as milkers. We have got to do something to get more record as to their milk- 
ing qualities. I do not know whether it would be best to ofler a premium for this 
or not, but in looking up this record the history h deficient. As Shorthorn breed- 
ers we have got to do something to bring out their milk and butter qualities which 
would be an advantage to this and other states. 

Mr. . What is the penalty for having spurious pedigrees recorded? 

Can one having such a pedigreed animal palmed off on him obtain damages for 
such falsifying? 

Mr. Lockridge. The only way is to notify in the next publication that the 
thing is spurious, but we have no way of punishment. If any have been wronged 
they can have redress through the courts. 

Mr. Mitchell. This is an important question. A part of the duties of the 
Shorthorn breeders Ls to protect themselves from such impostions. If any mem- 
ber of the association has been imposed upon the association should know it. If a 
member sells a calf that is not right he should be published in every journal in 
the land and subject to prosecution under the law. It is right for us to protect 
ourselves. People don't appreciate the idea of pedigree enough. Calves from a 
bull that is pedigreed are worth more than one that is not. 

Mr. Quick. We have had too much paper work in our Association to make a 
live association. I understand the Bee Keepers swarmed here last week, and we 
aurely can have as large a " round up." Let us have a few good, interesting papers, 
and have good lively discussions afterwards. These discussions are what make an 
interesting and profitable meeting. 

The Committee on Programme for next meeting announced their readiness to 
report. They submitted the following : 

1. President's Address— Eobert Mitchell. 

2. What is the Standard of Excellence of Shorthorn Cattle ?—Thos Wilhoit, 
Middletown. 

3. Value of Shorthorns over other Breeds of Cattle— James N. Sankey, Terre 
Haute. 

4. The Necessity and Value of Local Effort — Judge Buckles, Muncie. 

5. History of Shorthorn Cattle in Indiana— J. W. Robe, Greencastle. 

6. Social Relations among Breeders Necessary to Advancement — Dr. N. D. 
Gaddy, Lovett. 

7. Management of Bi-eeding Herds— Spencer R. Quick, Columbus. 

President R. M. Lockhart, of the State Board of Agriculture, was by the chair 
introduced to the Convention, and spoke as follows: "I am not in a condiiion to 
make a speech, but I say gentlemen, we are pleased as a Board to have yuu meet 
in our rooms. These State organizations are great auxiliaries to the State Board 
that we can foster with pride. If you gentlemen will permit me, I will say a few 
words regarding some re.solutionfl, that you recommend that a column be secured 
in some agricultural paper in Indianapolis. I live in the Northeast part of the 



SHORTHORN BREEDERS. 357 

State. Fourteen years ago we organized a Northeastern Indiana Association. At 
that time there was not a single pedigree bull in that county. After we commenced 
holding fairs, a man come from another section of country and showed some fiae 
cattle, and many of our people were induced to buy. A few years ago a herd of 
thirty cattle were brought into our county from Kentucky, represented to have fine 
pedigrees, and quite a number were induced to buy them, and within a year it was 
found to be a fraud. One of our farmers bought one, and paid $1,000 for it. It 
placed the Shorthorn men in rather bad repute. There ai-e a number of as fine 
herds in Northern Indiana as can be found in the State. There are now two or 
thi-ee hundred good Shorthorn cattle in our part of the country. If you could get 
all your cattle men together, representing different breeds, it would be better for 
all concerned. It is an admitted fact that there are more of the Shorthorn breed 
in Indiana than any other. As far as I am concerned, I have not raised any other. 
Cotfvention adjourned sine die. 



MEMBERS OF INDIANA SHORTHORN BREEDERS ASSOCIATION. 

Thomas Wilhoit, IV^iddletown, Henry county ; W. W. Thrasher, Groves, Rush 
county ; Hon. Thos. Nelson, Bloomingdale, Park county ; Hon. E. S. Frazee, Or- 
ange, Eush county; Eobt. Mitchell, Princeton, Gibson county; L. H. Aikman, 
Dana, Vermillion county; Hon. Claud Mathews, Clinton, Vermillion county; Hon. 
S F. Lockridge, Greencastle, Putnam county; J. W. Robe, Greencastle,Putnam coun- 
ty; Hon. Fielding Beeler, Indianapolis, Marion county; Geo. W. King, Edinburgh, 
Johnson county; S. R. Quick & Son, Columbus, Bartholomew county; Henry 
W. Lambert, Columbus, Bartholomew county ; J. P. Forsythe, Franklin, Johnson 
county; J. A. Thompson, Edinburgh, .Johnson county; Elijah Clore, Alamo. Mont- 
gomery county ; W. D. Cooper, Cadiz, Henry county ; John McCaslin & Sons, 
Franklin, .Johnson county; G. VV. Thomas, Homer, Rush county; W.A.Banks, 
Laporte, Laporte county; Dr. N. D. Gaddy, Lovette, Jennings county; Mr. Kins- 
ley, Shelby ville, Shelby county; Judge J. S. Buckles, Muncie, Delaware county; 
T. A. Cotton, Manella, Shelby county; James N. Sankey, Terre Haute, Vigo 
county; Newton Cornell, Goldsmith, Tipton county ; Dr. J Elliott, Indianapolis, 
Marion county; W. E. Yost, Muncie Delaware county; Warren Mason, Wab sh' 
Wabash county; J. G. Bower, Muncie, Delaware county; J W. Harper, La Fon- 
taine, Wabash county; William Beatty, Edinburgh, Johnson eounty ; Samuel 
Purcell, Indianapolis, Marion county; Judge Martindale, Indianapolis, Marion 
county. • 



INDIANA JERSEY CATTLE BREEDERS. 



The third annual meeting of the Indiana Jersey Cattle Breeders' Association 
occurred Tuesday, January 20, 1885, at the rooms of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, President Haughey in the chair. Upon the opening of the meeting the 
President read his annual address, as follows : ^ 

The return of the second anniversary of the Indiana .Jersey Cattle 'Breeders As- 
sociation is to them an event of deep interest, affording an opportunity for the ad- 
vancement of their favorities to a still higher degree of appreciation, not only in 
the eyes of breeders and fanciers, but as well in the esteem of the farmer and dairy- 
man. 

A review of transactions in stock for the past year gives a remarkable showing 
in favor of the Jersey, and they represent about one-third of the entire number of 
pedigreed cattle sold under the auctioneer's hammer. While the average for 188 
was $426 per head, for the season for 1884 the general average was $346, and for 
females alone over |375, showing only a slight decrease from last year, though the 
number disposed of was largely in excess of the preceding year. As compared 
with other breeds the average is about double the sum realized for like numbers. 

These prices can not be styled fancy,' but are rather the outgrowth of a convic- 
tion that has gradually grown upon the people, until the Jersey cow stands pre- 
eminently the "Dairy Queen." Not perhaps, in quantity of milk, but unques- 
tionably in quality ; the product from the churn where Jersey blood predominates, 
commanding tli^ best prices and the readiest market. 

The price in itself does not yet fairly represent the increased profit to be real- 
ized from her, for it is obtained at a far less cost in drawing the milk, caring for 
it, and in less amount of food required. She is the " viultum in parvo." 

Gentlemen, in associating ourselves together, we have done so that we may the 
better promulgate these facts, and introduce to our brethren of Indiana, a better 
and more profitable breed of cattle; demonstrate to them other methods for deriv- 
ing profit from the farm — methods that shall give an increased revenue, and at the 
same time lighten their burdens, open up new fields of thought, brighten farm life, 
and introduce to them one of the most facinating occupations. 

Our soils, naturally fertile, are, from continual cropping with grain, being grad- 
ually depleted, and the returns in consequence precarious. The intelligent hus- 



JERSEY CATTLE BREEDERS. 359 

bandman, looking to his interest, will seek to divert the farm to the production of 
some condensed product readily marketed ; one upon which the transportation 
shall be reduced to the minimum, and at the same time command the maximum. 

The united effort of the members of this organization, properly directed, will 
enhance in value the dairy product of our State more than any other source pos- 
sibly can, and we will do well to discuss ways and means. 

The publication of the proceedings and discussions of this meeting will impart 
information, beget inquiry, and create desire. How, then, shall this newly-born 
wish find development? Only in possession; and it would seem consistent, in order 
to facilitate that end, that a series of sales should be considered and encouraged 
under such restrictions as to inspire confidence and give satisfaction to all breeders 
and purchasers; which Indiana breeders are well qualified to do, having among 
them, scattered over the State, the blood of the most noted families known to the 
Jersey world. We are proud of our Rioter-Alphea, Rioter- Victor-Hugo, Stoke 
Pogis, Pedro, Hazen's Bess, Commassie, Jersey Belle of Scituate, Le Brocq's Prize, 
and Duke 76. 

The Jersey is making rapid progress in public esteem ; she is not only the gen- 
tleman's pet, that furnishes delicious cream and yields the fragrant golden butter 
that adorns his table, but she is the mine from which the dairyman, with skillful 
manipulation, brings forth the beautiful aromatic product that puts gold into his 
purse and brings gladness to his heart. 

The Secretary reported six accessions at the last annual meeting, and a balance 
in the treasury of sufficient amount to meet the expenses of the current year with- 
out any dues being assessed. The report was referred to the Auditing Committee, 
Messrs. Johnson and Garretson. Opportunity was given for the admission of new 
members, when the following names were submitted : Dr. A. Moudy, Greencastle ; 
Alex. C. Furgason, Cumberland ; Peter Raab, Indianapolis; Ellwood Smith, Mt. 
Vernon : Jos. A. Moore, Indianapolis ; Chas. L. Henry, Anderson ; C. W. Fisher, 
Noblesville; A. E. Taylor, Columbus; Dr. H. W. Wiley, Agricultural Department, 
Washington, D C; H. H. Wheatcraft, Southport. 

Essay: "Jersey Cow, her past, present and future," by George Jackson, Beech 
Grove Farm. In the absence of that gentleman, a letter from him to President 
Haughey was read, in which he expressed his regrets that absence from home and 
pressure of business had rendered it impossible for him to prepare the paper. 
Communications from other bodies, a circular letter, and articles of association of 
the " National Cattle Growers' Association, Chicago," were presented, in which the 
I. J. C. B. A. was invited to unite with them. Mr. J. D Connor, Jr., moved the 
papers be submitted to a commmittee of three. Carried. The Chair appointed J. 
D. Connor, Wabash ; Dr. Levi Ritter, Irvington, and Sylvester Johnson, Irvington. 

A communication from the Iowa Jersey Cattle Club relating to the A. J. C. C, 
and asking co-operation of this Association in securing a reduction of registration 
fees in the A. J. C. C. Herd Register. Mr. Hasselman moved it be laid upon the 
table The motion was lost. Dr. Ritter then moved the matter be referred to a 
committee consisting of Messrs. W. J. Hasselman, George Jackson and J. D. Con- 
nor, which carried. Mr. J. D. Connor, Jr., moved the action be reconsidered, the 
foregoing committee consisting of only members of the A. J. C. C. He would move 



360 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

that an equal number of non-members be added to this committee, to be appointed 
by the President. The motion prevailed, and the President added Jos. C. Ratliff, 
J. A. Guannt and Peter Raab. 

Essay: Topic, "Ti sting; its value in the development of the Jersey Cow," J. D. 
'Connor, Wabash; a paper that was attentively listened to. 

Dr. Bitter then introduced Dr. W. H. Wiley, chemist of the Department of Ag- 
riculture, Washington, D. C, who gave an instructive and highly appreciated ad- 
dress, which he was requested to give the Association in writing, to which he con- 
sented. 

Essay: "Inter-breeding; to what extent may it be followed;" a profitable paper, 
by Dr. Ritter, and was followed by one from Prof. A. S. Heath, New York, on " In 
and in-breeding," full of good suggestions to breeders of Jerseys. 

Mr. .Jenkins moved that the portion of the President's address relating to com- 
bination sales be referred to a committee of three. Motion carried, and by 
request the Chair appointed Messrs. D. H. Jenkins, W. J. Hasselman and J. D. 
Connor. 

Moved that when we adjourn we adjourn to meet at 7:30 p. m. 

Committees ordered to report at night session. 

Upon motion adjourned. 

Meeting convened, in pursuance to adjournment, at 7:30 p. m. 

Minutes read and adopted. 

Report of Committee on Communication from National Cattle Association was 
called for. The chairman, Mr. J. D. Connor, Jr., submitted the following: 

" While we recognize the the importance of this movement, and are in sympathy 
with it, we do not, at this time, feel justified in recommending that this Associa- 
tion become an applicant for membership, though it might be advisable at a future 
time." 

Upon motion the report was concurred in and the committee dii^charged. 

Mr. Henry moved the Secretary be instructed to prepare a letter reporting the 
action to the National Cattle Growers' Association. Consented to. 

The committee appointed to report upon the request of the Iowa Jersey Cattle 
Club, asked further time, which was granted. 

The Committee upon Combination Sale also requested further time. Granted, 

Mr. Connor, of Wabash, called the attention of the association to the import- 
ance of giving great care to this matter, that these sales might acquire a high rep- 
utation. 

Mr. Henry, of Anderson, deemed such sales advisable under restrictions and care- 
ful supervision. 

Mr. Ritter moved the matter be left in the hands of the committee that decide 
upon the feasibility of such sale, devise plans for it, and when matured, the Secre- 
tary to submit the report to the members for their consideration. The motion car- 
ried and committee continued. 

Essay: "Judging and Judges of Jersey Cattle," James P. Ross, Wabash. 

Mr. Henry moved a committee of three be appointed to select a list of names 
for expert judges at the fair of 1885. The Chair appointed Messrs. J. D. Connor, 
Jr., T. A. Lloyd, and D. H. Jenkins. 



JEKSEY CATTLE BREEDERS. 361 

Mr. Henry suggested that judges were hard to obtain for county fairs, and 
the advantages arising from care in this matter, he would move that the Secretary 
be requested to correspond with these county fair associations proposing to furnish 
them with lists of names from which to select expert judges. Carried. 

Upon motion, a committee was appointed to prepare a programme for the next 
meeting, whereupon the Chair appointed Messrs. W. J. Hasselman, Judge J. D. 
Connor, and Dr. Levi Ritter. 

Upon motion, proceeded to the election of officers, whereupon the Secretary was 
instructed to cast the ballot as follows: 

President — W. J. Hasselman, Indianapolis. 

Vice President — Dr. Levi Ritter, Irvinglon. 

Board of Managers — Chas. L. Henry, Anderson, Samuel C. McKeen, Terre 
Haute; S. F. Gray, Indianapolis; J. D. Connor, Jr., Wabash. 

To fill the places of those whose terms expired as follows: W. J. Hasselman, 
Samuel C. McKeen, S. F. Gray, and J. D. Connor. 

Moved that the Secretary notify all delinquents to forward dues, and also to 
publish in the Jersey Bulletin a complete list of names of members and officers. 

A communication, presented from Commissioner of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, George D. Loring, requesting the Association to send delegates to the jigri- 
cultural Convention, to be held February 10, 1885, at New Orleans. By consent. 

Theo. P. Haughey, Dr. Levi Ritter, and D. H. Jenkins, were appointed such del- 
egates. 

Presdeu^elect W. J. Hasselman took the chair, returning thanks for the consid- 
eration and compliment in his nomination and election. 

Dr. Levi Ritter, Vice President elect, made remarks eulogizing the Jersey cow, 
and the important part she will yet take as the source of food supply for the 
masses, giving a most wholesome, nutritious diet. 

The essays referred to above will be found in the following pages. 

Upon motion, adjourned. 

Theo. P. Haughey, 

T. A Lloyd, President. 

Secretary. 



TESTING— ITS DEVELOPMENT OF THE JERSEY COW. 



BY J. I>. CONNER, JR., OF WABASH COUNTY. 



Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Indiana Jersey Breeders' Association : 

A few days ago I was somewhat surprised, I might say, by receiving a card 
from our worthy Secretary informing me that the President had assigned to me as 
the subject for an essay, "Testing — Its value in the development of the Jersey 
cow," for the reason that it is one of the most important subjects, and should have 
been assigned to a wiser head, and to one better able than my.self to discuss and 
point out its vast importance to us, who are breeders of that eighth wonder of the 



362 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

world, the Jersey cow. But as all the knowledge and information of this world is 
not possessed by any one person, nor always derived from the most learned, bnt is 
made up of the little picked up here and there, like the great rivers of this coun- 
try, from the silvery threads which go singing and sparkling through our meadows 
and woodlands, bounded by the luxuriant grasses, daisies and buttercups, on which 
the little Jersey is wont to graze, so we must each contribute our mite. 

The cow has been truly described as our second mother, and one that is too 
often neglected and her merits ignored, and until the Jersey cow reached our shores 
and her worth was proven by actual tests, no sympathy was expressed on account 
of the drain on her system, the tisefulness of her life, or the beauty of her form, 
and she was only looked upon as a money-making machine, and it is true that she 
is a money-making machine. The good old cow has paid off more mortgages, and 
paid for more farms than any other known production. She has turned the tide 
of our agricultural prosperity in many parts of the country from a downward to 
an upward and prosperous one, in raising stock, grass and hay. Flowers and 
grass spring from beneath her feet on the most barren soil, but tlie good old cow 
don't stop to enthuse over them, but converts them into good, solid, hard cash, 
through the milking pail, out of which contentment and happiness leap. But 
what is the condition of the high-bre<i milking cow of this country since the Jer- 
sew cow made her appearance? I suppose if I should say she has become one of 
the family, and that her wants are sometimes considered even before the members 
of the family, I would about express the truth. And in the case of the Jersey, 
our friends come to see her, her little calf is permitted to gambol on our j^wns with 
the children, admired by all, and should the little thing perchance, or by design, 
find a soft place to recline in our wife's flower bed, it is undisturbed. 

In order that a correct conclusion may be arrived at, in the discussion of any 
question and in determining the value of any article of machinery or merchan- 
dise, it is necessary, in the first instance, to thoroughly acquaint ourselves with the 
facts in the case, and ascertain for what purpose the article or machine is to be 
used, and then we are in a condition to determine its value. Now, take the Jer- 
sey cow — why was she imported from her flowery island home to this country, and, 
indeed, to every other country in the known world? The answer is, her beauty is 
unrivaled, her disposition perfect, and when her value as abutter cow is discussed, 
all breeders are compelled to take off" their hats and bow their knee to her, as she 
is unsurpassed. As to her beauty, let us take a walk with our friend down through 
the shady grove, to the pasture where she is grazing; we reach the fence, she espies 
us, and up flies her head from the luxuriant clover on which she is feasting, and 
she comes walking leisurely to meet us, possibly in a rich seal-brown cloak, or, 
perhaps, in a silvery gray, or fawn circular; or, perchance, she may have known 
that we were coming, and meets us in a cloak varied in color. Ah ! with what 
grace she approaches us, supporting a beautiful head, on which are perched small 
crumpled horns, the richness of which can only be compared to pure golden amber; 
neck thin and straight, clean cut throat, barrel-hooped, broad and deep at flanks, 
showing great capacity for food, and for the free action of the internal machinery 
for converting the same — in short, profile perfect. She has reached us, and with 
her full placid eyes upon us, how can we refuse her the apple in our pocket? As 



JERSEY CATTLE BREEDERS. 363 

she eats it, we walk around her, and, in stroking lier hair, we are surprised at its 
softness; but when we take hold of her skin, which is as soft and pliable as cham- 
ois skin, the softness is explained; and wlien we behold the udder, which is swung 
under her, and notice the great number and size of the milking veins that cross 
and recross before entering the udder, which seems too large, we are led to believe 
that the goddess of milk and butter, in all her perfection, for the first time, con- 
fronts us. As to her value as a butter cow, upon what is my former statement 
based? Is it on theory? No, indeed; it is on actual test. It is based on the 
amount of butter she will make in a specified time, as compared with the amount 
of butter made in the same time by other breeds of cattle. And I take it that any 
reasonable mind will admit, that if the Jersey cow will make more butter in seven 
days than any cow of any other breed, and that, take them as a family, more of 
them show superior excellence as butter makers, than those of any other family, 
that she is the queen of all, and as such should occupy the throne. And 
that this is true, no one can question, as the reported records of all tests to this 
time will prove. Hence, the value of tests to the Jersey cow. It is true that 
there are cows of other breeds that give more milk, but it is equally true that as a 
good cow, crossed with a good corn-crib, gives good milk; so one gallon of good 
Jersey milk, crossed with about three gallons of good, pure, sparkling spring 
water, gives quantity which equals in quality and richness the milk of these re- 
puted large milkers of certain other breeds; because, as all know, quantity is at 
the expense of ([uality and richness. What has testing done toward the develop- 
ment of the Jer.seycow? It has done everything. It has disclosed and brought 
to the knowledge of the breeder the comparative abilities of certain families as 
butter producers; has disclosed to us the best crosses; has shown what families are 
best to couple together to produce superior butter cows; has led to the investigation 
and analyzation of the elements composing the food which is fed, and has deter- 
mined what kind of food should be given the cow to produce the best results, so that 
economy can be used in feeding. And when you couple this with the fact that the 
American Jersey Cattle Club has preserved for us the record of the breeding of 
thoroughbred Jerseys and has kept it in such a careful and jealous way, that it is 
almost impossible for an error to occur, and permit some presuming miss to creep 
into the register, too much can not be said in commendation of those who have 
taken the pains to test their cows, or have it done, and report the test for our bene- 
fit, and to the A. J. C. C, because the one is imperfect without the other. For, un- 
less after the test is made, we know, beyond any question, the breeding of the 
tested animal, and this we can only know by the recoi-ds of the A. J. C. C, it would 
be impossible to reach that high excellence in breeding, which has characterized 
the breeders of this country and of Canada. 

Like many of you, gentlemen, I have enjoyed the pleasure of visiting the homes 
of, and examining such noted cows as Mary Anne of St. Lambert, and Ida of St. 
Lambert, and their sisters; Eurotas and Bomba, Hazen's Bess, Coomassie and her 
close relations, Fadette of Verna 3d, and Valhalla, and many more of the Signals ; 
Lady Mel 2d, Dandelion, and Favorite of the Elms, and, in fact, representatives of 
almost all the noted families, and I am compi lied to confess that, had I not been 
advised as to the records of these cows, I would, in many cases, have selected cer- 



364 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

tain other cows out of the herds represented, in preference to the above cows. And 
why ? Simply because it is impossible to know from an examination of an animal 
what is her ability to produce butter, but when you test her by the churn and scales, 
and are able to show, as a result of your test, a golden nugget weighing from 14 lbs. 
up to 36 lbs. 12^ oz. in seven days, worth from 50 cents to $1 per pound, you have 
something tangible upon which to base a calculation as to the worth of the cow for 
dairy or breeding purposes. 

A few years ago about $200 would buy one of the best Jersey cows in the United 
States, but to-day we think it is money well spent, if for that amount we can visit 
the homes of a few of the most noted butter-makers, and even look at them ; and 
if, for thai amount, we could purchase a distant relation, we would think, in the 
words of Col. Sellers, "There's millions in it." And, again 1 ask, why is this so, 
but the answer is simple: because the Jersey cow has been tested and has demon- 
etrattd her superior ability to produce butter. 

Does any one suppose for a moment that if the daughters of Stoke Pogis 3d had 
not been tested, that his descendants would have brought such fabulous pricep|? 

Why, gentlemen, about two or three years ago Mr. Komeo H. Stevens offered ub 
Prince of St. Lambert for $125; to-day he stands for service at $100, because his 
sisters have demonstrated their ability to make as high as 36 lbs. 12^ oz. of butter 
in seven days. What would have been the standing of this and other noted animals 
not before mentioned, such as the St. Heliers, the Victor Hugo's Champion of 
America, Columbiad 2d, the Albert- Pansys, the Victors, the Alphea's, and the noted 
Island celebrities, had there been no tests of them and their descendants? All 
would have stood on an equal footing, and the price would have been governed, as 
it was several years ago, by the fancy coloring and fancy points. And, while I 
admire solid colors, with full black points, yet I do not think that it makes any 
difference, when you sit down to milk, whether the cow kicks you over with a white 
and fawu colored leg, or a solid colored one, or whether she slashes you across the 
mouth with a black or a mixed switch, as it hurts just as bad ; nor whether the 
milking machinery is encased in a solid colored or a broken colored covering, pro- 
viding the number of pounds of butter are the same. 

It has been said by some one, that it does not make any difference what kind of 
a tail a cow has, as it is not used as a handle to pump out the milk. But I am not 
certain. It was but a short time ago that when a test of 18 lbs. was reported as 
having been made by a Jersey cow in seven days, that no one believed it; and 
about the time they came to believe even that, tests were reported of from 22 to 25 
lbs., which no one believed except those who were breeding .Jerseys. And when Ida 
of St. Lambert was reported as having made 30 lbs., 2^ oz. of butter in seven days, 
even the Jersey men did not believe it; and when Mary Anne of St. Lambert was 
reported as having made a record of 36 lbs., 12;^ oz. in seven days, all the Jersey 
men arose, as it were, in indignation, and said, "Here, gentlemen, we have stood 
this thing long enough. We have stood by you and tried to convince our friends 
that some one was not lying about this thing, but when you insist on us cramming 
that 36 lb., 12| oz. lie down the throats of our friends, we will have to abandon 
you." But it has been demonstrated beyond any question that the record was, in 
fact, made. And in view of these great strides, is it unreasonable to prophesy that 



JERSEY CATTLE BREEDERS. 365 

when this Jersey iRland phenomenon is tlioroughly understood in all her parts, that 
some ingenious Yankee will discover som'e method of gearing the tail of the cow 
to her milking machinery, and that in turn to a DeLaval Cream Separator, with 
a churn and butter-worker attachment, so that the youngest member of the family 
can, by gently pumping the tail, supply us, on short notice, at the end of the but- 
ter-worker, with all the fresh golden butter that we may want, even to forty pounds 
per week. In which case the pumping quality of the tail may become a very im- 
portant factor. I tell you, Mr. President and gentlemen, you don't know what a 
jewel you possess in this Jersey cow. She is capable of almost anything. Why, 
gentlemen, she is the standard of excellence for comparison, for all other milking 
breed.*; of cattle, and all breeders are attempting to secure a cow that will equal her 
in butter quality, but they have not been able to do it, and never will, as she occu- 
pies a plane of excellence so far beyond and above them that they will never be 
able to reach it; but should any of them perchance approach any ways near her, 
all we have to do is to give her one more quart of feed, which will act as did the 
peg on the head of the fabled enchanted horse, and off she goes, and the scales 
are tipped at forty pounds in seven days. To the Jersey breeders, then, more than 
to the breeders of any other strain of milking cattle, is due the fact that you must 
demonstrate by actual test the butter ability of your cow before she has any stand, 
ing. A few years ago it was thought a great feat for a horse to trot a mile inside 
of three minutes, but what speed has been reached at this time! Maud S. has made 
a record of 2:09|, and Jay-Eye-See 2:10. How was this accomplished? It was 
found, by investigation of the breeding of the horses that made records of 2:30 and 
under, that thirty-five of them were out of daughters of Seely's American Star, 
fifteen of which were sired by Eysdyk's Hambletonian, of Messenger descent, eleven 
by his sons, and two by his grandsons ; and that the daughters of Pilot, Jr , got 
twenty horses in the 2:30 list, and that the best trotters out of the Pilot, Jr., mares. 
were by direct male descent from Rysdyk's Hambletonian. And it was further 
found that when the 2:20 test was applied to sires that had at least two sons or 
daughters with records that were fast, the Hambletonians monopolized nearly 
seventy five per cent, of the honors. From this is it not evident that these two fly- 
ing wonders were not the result of accident, but, on the contrary, could only have 
been produced by the judicious uniting of the best blood, as proven by actual tests 
of speed ; and so in breeding Jersey cattle, is it not absolutely necessary that there 
should be butter tests, coupled with a thorough knowledge of the ancestry, in order 
that the best results may be accomplished? I think no one will deny this. Hence 
I would add, in conclusion, that you, as breeders, owe to your fellow breeder the 
duty of testing your cows and reporting the same, so that they as well as yourselves 
may have the benefit of the knowledge to use in crossing and breeding. And should 
you contribute only a dandelion to this garden of rare flowers, you will have done 
your duty. As you remember that from the lovely though unpretentious pansy has 
sprung some of the richest plants, and, perchance, some one will cut a flower here 
and there, and couple it with some rare plant or shrub found sunning itself near 
the warbling brook of his own meadow, and give to us a flower of such unsurpase- 
ing worth and excellence that the best and rarest of to-day will seem common by 
comparison. 



Si^6 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. 



BUTTER AND ITS ADULTERATIONS. 



HARVEY W. WILEY, 

Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry U. S. Dep't Agr., Washington, D. C. 



Mr. President and Members of the Indiana Jersey Cattle Breeders^ Association : 

Good butter is a mark of a higher civilization. You may find a school house 
on every square mile of land, and church spires may be so numerous in every 
village that they remind you of the masts o'f Liverpool, but if the butter is streaky 
and rancid, full of big lumps of uncrushed salt, and little lakes of curdy brine> 
the community has not yet reached the higher civilization and the, nobler culture. 
Wherever you find sweet, pure butter, there you will find peace, contentment, pros- 
perity and refinement. 

You have kindly asked me to address you on the subject of "Butter," and from 
what I have just said the address might also be called the " History of Civilization 
in America." 

We find the same differences in butter as in men. At the bottom are the pro- 
telarians — the tub and scrap butters of commerce. Then we rise to the middle 
class — the butters of good farmers and their wives, full of solid merit, but without 
pretention. Then the " upper class " is represented by the creamery butter, often 
depending for value more on a name than on any particular merit. Then we 
have the genuine aristocracy butter, with a pedigree and a future, old in lineage 
but fresh in composition. This, of course, is the " Jersey butter." 

Then we have too, the race of shams and dead beats, the oleaginous tramps. 
These are typified by the oleomargarines, the butterines, and all the other substi- 
tutes which try to pass in the world as realities. 

To study the characteristics of all these classes, to describe the properties by 
which they can be isolated and detected, and to point out the way by which the 
real can be separated from the spurious will be the object of thifs address. - 

METHODS OF COLLECTING BUTTITR FOR ANALYSIS. 

Two methods of collection are employed, viz.: (a) purchase in open market, and 
(b) from reliable dairy men. 

It is evident that by the first method it will be easy to arrive at the percentage 
of adulteration, especially when it is considered that these purchases will be made 
in various parts of the country, and under the operation of State laws bearing 
on the manufacture and sale of butter substitutes. 

By the second method, samples will be secured which will give accurate data of 
the composition of genuine butter. 

This research at the present time acquires additional interest from the fact that 
the manufacture of butter substitutes has reached in this country large proportions. 



JERSEY CATTLE BREEDERS. 367 

and seriously affects the intere.-t of that large class of our agricultural people who 
are engaged in the dairy business. Even if the butter substitute be as wholesome 
and palatable as the genuine article, and if it be sold under its proper name, as is, 
indeed, often the case, yet it tends to overrun the market and thns cheapen the 
price of real butter. 



The contents of butter in water varies within wide limits. This is due lo 
many causes, but chiefly depends on the treatment of the butter subsequent to 
churning. It is the practice of some to " work " the butter after churning only 
enough to roughly incorporate the salt. In this way much water and curd are re- 
tained. Others wash the butter well to remove the curd, and thus a butter poor in 
curd and rich in water is obtained. Still others — and this is the proper method — 
wash well to remove the curd and then work well to remove the water. This treat- 
ment produces a butter poor in water and curd. The amount of water which a 
good butter should contain should not exceed 12 per cent. 

In thirty-one butters, as seen by the following table, the highest percentage of 
water is 14.31, and the lowest 7.34. 

Foreign analysts have found in some instances the percentage of water to be 
above 25. It is generally acknowledged by these chemists that 12 per cent, water 
is a just limit, beyond which a good butter ought not to go. 

Perhaps it would be somewhat arbitrary to say that more water than this would 
indicate an intentional adulteration, but manufacturers should not send their pro- 
ducts to market until the water has been reduced to 12 per cent, or less. 

SATUKATION EQUIVALENT. 

The saturation equivalent is the amount of potassium or sodium hydrate neces- 
sary to saponify a given weight of the fat. The fat is prepared for saponification 
by melting, allowing curd, salt, and water to subside, and then filtering. An ap- 
proximate semi-normal solution of the alkali in alcohol is employed for the saponi- 
fication. The alcohol employed should be previously filtered through bone black, 
otherwise the solution will be too highly colored for delicate titration. 

The saturation equivalent is expressed in abstract numbers, obtained by divid- 
ing the molecular weight of the alkali employed by the number of milligrammes 
of it used in saponification. The numbers for the two hydrates thus become the 
same. 

It appears from the table that the saturation equivalent is an almost certain 
test of pure butter. Its range in the analyses made is from 249.5 to 239.8, while in 
the oleomargarine it rises to 284.7. 

SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE FAT ACIDS. 

The best proof of a poor or adulterated butter is in the relative proportion of 
soluble and insoluble acids which it contains. 

A first-class butter fat may have as high as 7 per cent, soluble acid, while the 
average may be placed at 5 per cent. On the other hand, the adulterants used in 



868 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

butter and the substitutes therefor, will be found to contain only 5 per cent., or 
less, of soluble ncid. It may be granted that no unadulterated butter will contain 
less than 4 per cent, soluble acid, while the limit might well be placed at 4.5 per 
<!ent. without excluding any desirable genuine butter. The estimation, therefore, 
of the soluble acid is an argument convincing alike to the chemist and the court 
whenever the purity of butter is called in question. 

In the following table will be found analyses of thirty-six samples of butter, 
oleomargarines and fats used in butter adulteration. Nearly all of these samples 
were bought in the open market. 

Nos. 1708, 1712, 1717 and 1718 were obtained directly from the manufacturers. 

The melting point is given in degrees of the Centegrade scale. To change into 
Fahrenheit scale, multiply by 9-5 and add 32: 



JERSEY CATTLE BREEDERS. 



369 



•:jaao ja^ 
'PPV a[qn[0:jni 


89.55 
88..35 
87.36 
87.86 
87.81 
86.43 
87.80 
87.84 
86.72 
94.80 
95.40 
94.80 
88.02 
87.79 
88.16 
88.01 
88.39 
93.42 
93 65 
8S.U8 
87.54 
8S.71 
88 65 
88.46 
89.26 
87.25 
• 86.82 
88.49 
89.03 
88..35 
87.74 
89.22 
88.57 
88.28 
89.89 
88.58 


'pioy aiqnios 


4,50 
4.49 
4.61 
5.54 
5.12 
5.55 
5.66 
5.14 
6.79 

None. 

None. 

None. 
4..52 
4.40 
4.69 
4.60 
4.60 
.20 
.56 
5 02 
5.10 
4.78 
5.00 
4.97 
4.21 
4.97 
4.44 
4.00 
4.49 
4.68 
5.13 
4.56 
,5.17 
5.18 
3 90 
4.56 


•juaiBAinbg 
aor4iun:ir:g 


CO. t- -M. = ai 00 -f. f- 00 = t-^ 35 ^ 35 -# C-) 31 ,o t~ ^. t- p .n CO 00 t-. p r-J 4- 1- 1- ^. p r-; CO oo 


Sni^jipiiog 




•saaj8a(X 
'taioa Suniajv 


. .«^ .oqoOC^.^.t-:./5ul.cppT^p.CiC.q'N.rac<J(M. .05 .U-../5U^.pi-t-: . .t-;!-: 


•AUjf) ogiaadg 


91250 
91153 
91166 
91235 
91210 
91191 
912.50 
91205 
91102 
89897 
90460 
90360 
91089 
91072 
91209 
91202 
91022 
90188 
90510 
91114 
91123 
91039 
91147 
91149 
91049 
91030 
91060 
90862 
90961 
91083 
91134 
90901 
910!6 
91069. 
90925 
91011 






-4U30 .i^d 

nr<!s 




4.03 
1.64 
3.83 
2.11 
3.63 
1.96 
3.31 
2.81 
6.15 
3.28 
1.96 
2.90 
2.78 
1.42 
3.33 
1.08 
3.00 
2.33 
3.28 
1.52 
5.50 
2.41 
3.05 
1.50 
1.31 


•^aajaa,! 
'auiasBO 


1.118 

.977 
.708 
.553 
.703 
.634 
.620 
.938 
.660 


.087 
.622 
1.230 
.556 
.520 
.492 
.172 
.305 
,5.52 
.532 
.467 
.284 
.507 
.455 
.581 
.677 
.427 
.297 
.719 
.737 
.754 
.784 
.789 


•|U30 .laj 
'J34«A!L 


12.93 
8.98 
10.87 
11.44 
11.68 
11.14 
11.70 
14.51 
9.98 


9..32 
12 54 

8.71 

9..52 

7.34 
10,50 

5.07 
10.-28 

9.30 

8.35 
13.40 
10.20 
14.06 
11.07 
1.3.51 

9.13 
12.92 

9.63 
14.02 
10.28 
12. .53 
11.09 
10.90 
10.61 

9.64 


1 


Light yellow 
Deep 
Lisrht 
V'yd'p " 
Deep " 

Light ;; 

Deep 

Deep " 
Deep 


^1 ^ "'^^^^^^^^^^^w 

2 gtl-S gM-S-M-S UUS. g ?,>> a !» tj U '^U M_i, «_M M 


?:fi'jJ3a.5H2_5j5SK30a>-::ijJ-Ji-:i-5JJ^h4-5 


•aoiJ<i 


gcgs5Si55^«? : ; : : -M'^-mp, :sssssgs§sssg<ss^,ss 






5?; 










I. 


.3 : . ... 


Commercial Creamery . . . 

Iowa Creamery 

Pennsylvania Creamery . . 

Print 

Dairy 

Dairy 

Pennsylvania Creamery . . 

(Jrade Alderney 

.Jersey cow, value 2d .... 


;:|:r:;;;::i;:;i|::;;;;- 


• -£ • CO • • -gp 

. -2^ --•-.--- -g •• -Sg 


Commercial lard 
Commercial oleon 
Jersey cow, value 
Ordinary tub . . 
Alderney print. 
Creamery tub . . 
Tub print. . . . 
Oleomargarine . . 
Oleomargarine . 
Grade dairy . . 
Alderney .... 
Alderney Shortho 
Alderney .... 
Hampton dairy 
Darlington . . . 
\V. H. Spencer's c 
W. H. Spencer's g 
Alderney .... 
Grade Alderney 

Grade 

Alderney .... 
(ir.ade Alderney 
(h-ade .... 
Grade .... 
Alderney .... 
Alderney .... 


•jaqinnj^ 


i=iSiii:o||g^2,^^,^2gg2gggg^^ggg2ggggggg 



24 — Agriculture. 



370 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



CHAEACTEBISTICS OF A GOOD BUTTER. 

Creamery buttei- is more highly valued than that made in a small way, becaase 
the conditions of its manufacture are better understood, the machinery more per- 
fect, and the cream used in better condition. In this way a butter is secured of a 
pleasant color and agreeable flavor. 

In respect to chemical and physical composition, a good butter should present 
the following characteristics, viz: 

1. The percentage of water should not exceed twelve. In most of the samples 
examined it was less. 

2. The percentage of salt may varywithin large limits. In fact, many persons 
prefer butter perfectly fresh, while others like a large amount of salt. It is doubt- 
ful whether the small percentage of salt added ordinarily to butter acts as a pre- 
servative. Its only use seems to be one of taste. Judging from the table, 3 per 
cent, appears to be the amount of salt in American butter, the variation being 
from a minimum of 1.23 per cent, to a maximum of 6.15. The percentage of salt, 
therefore, is not to be much regarded in making our estimate of purity. It would 
probably have to go above 8 per cent, before it could be regarded as an adultera- 
tion. 

CURD. 

3. How much curd can a good butter have? This is a difficult question If 
a butter should have no caseine in it at all, it would be a strong presumption in 
proof of adulteration. If it has too much, its keeping properties are impaired. 
One per cent, of curd cannot be regarded as an excessive quantity. The best but- 
ter, however, should contain less than this amount. On account of the great diffi- 
culty of estimating the percentage of curd, it would not be safe to use common 
fats as adulterants. The specific gravity of butter fat is about 912, water being 
taken at 1,000. On the other hand, tallow and lard have a relative weight of only 
900 or less. This is a slight difference, and yet it is a valuable one when the ques- 
tion of adulteration is raised. But the difierence is so small that only the most 
careful work in determining the specific gravity with strict attention to tempera- 
ture and manipulation, gives it any value. Inasmuch as most of the fats which 
are used as butter surrogates are liquid at 40 degrees C. (104 degrees F.) This 
temperature of determination has been used in the foregoing analyses. 

The numbers given were not obtained by calculation, but by direct comparison 
with distilled water at the same temperature. While this method is not absolutely 
correct, owing to slight differences in the rates of expansion of water and oils, it 
yet gives the comparative difierences, and these are of the greatest importance in 
such analyses. A butter aflbrding a fat whose specific gravity, taken as above, 
falls below 910, would have its genuineness subjected to doubt. 

SATTXRATION EQUIVALENT. 

5. The quantity of alkali required to saponify the fat, is another means of 
judging of the purity of a butter. Butter fat contains an acid (butyric) which has 
a lower molecular weight than the oleic, margaric, and palmic acids, which form 



JERSEY CATTLE BREEDERS. 371 

nearly all of the common butter adulterants By reason of this difference the 
qnanlities of alkali necessary for saponification are different for equal weights of 
batter fate and those of lard, tallow, etc. This difference is strikingly illustrated 
in the table of analyses, and is the most reliable evidence of the purity or impurity 
of the samples under consideration. The manipulation of the analyses being an 
easy one, the determinations of the saturation equivalent is generally the first test 
in determining the genuineness of the butter. If this number should fall under 
250 it would be safe to call the sample genuine butter. 



SOLrBLE ACIDS. 

6. Pure butters have a large percentage of acids soluble in water. The per- 
centage of these acids to the total weight of dried butter fat is about five. In the 
analyses given, this percentage does not fall below 4.49, nor rise above 6, except in 
one case of Jersey butter, made under exceptional conditions. In the butter sub- 
stitutes these acids rarely go above 5 per cent. Their determination, therefore, is 
an almost certain one of the purity of the sample. 

OPTICAL PROPERTIES. 

7. Pure unmelted butter, when viewed through a selenite plate by polarized 
Hght, presents a uniform tint over the whole field of vision. 

On the other hand, butter substitutes give a field of vision of a mottled appear- 
ance. This phenomenon is so marked that, with a little experience, the observer 
will be able to tell a genuine from an artificial butter, with a fair degree of accu- 
lacy. While the examination should never stop with this optical test above, it can 
bo advantageously used as a preliminary step. 

JERSEY BUTTER. 

By consulting the table of analyses, it will be seen that two samples of Jersey 
bntter were examined. Both of these were from the celebrated cow Value 2d, 
oirned by Watts & Seth, Baltimore, Md. 

In the first sample analyzed, viz: No. 1,708 the percentage of soluble acids rises 
to the high figure of 6.79. This is by far greater than in any other butters sub- 
jected to examination. This samjjle was secured from the 25 pounds produced in 
one week while under test. 

In No. 1,712, we have a sample of butter taken from the same cow immediately 
after the test' had been made, and when, it is fair to presume, her system was some- 
what deranged by the severe trial to which it had been stibjected. In this sample 
the percentage of soluble acids was only 4.52. 

In both cases the melting point of the butter fat is remarkably high, and I am 
told that Jersey butter will keep its form in hot weather better than any other 
Tariety. This point, however, could only be determined by examining a much 
larger number of samples. 



372 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

I am anxious to secure a large number of samples of pure Jer.-ey butter, and 
would be under many obligations to the members of this association if they would 
send samples of their butter to me at Washington, care Department of Agriculture. 
By this method, many i^oint'^ in the character of such butter could be determined, 
to the mutual profit of producer and consumer. 

The importance of some such an investigation will be apparent at once to every 
one engagtd in the pro;luclion of butter. The market is now stocked with butter 
of an inferior order, and with butter substitutes. I have nothing to say against 
the wholesomeness of a good oleomargarine. Beef fat is certainly not injurious lo 
health in its natural state, a.nd I see no reason why it should become so during the 
process of manipulation into so-called oleomargarine. It is true that a very un- 
wholesome article might be made, but this we will not fear when proper care and 
cleanliness are exercised by the manufacturer. Since the continued sale of such 
articlts depends on their purity, we have little to fear in the direction of unwhole- 
somenesrs. The real fraud in this case is in the matter of price. Pure bntter is 
forct d into competition with the spurious article, and thus its price is forced down 
to the level of such competition. This is a positive robbery of the dairyman, and 
not a great benefit to the consumer. What you gentlemen should demand is a law, 
supported by a healthy public opinion, requiring all kinds of food to be sold under 
their proper name and description. I have no objection whatever to a dealer ex- 
posing any amount of oleomargarine for sale under its own name. What I do 
object to, is purchasing oleomargarine under the impression that it is genuine 
butter. 

If Jersey butter should prove to have properties which make it more desirable 
for table use than ordinary butter, it is but fair that the maker of it should receive 
the benefit of this superiority. The way to secure such a state of affiurs is to 
show the people the facts of the trade. 

The mere technical analysis of butter could have no possible value for you who 
are practical butter makers, but it acquires a real value when it sets forth' the 
superiority of your butter, and enables you to protect it against counterfeits. 

In this country, where food is so cheap and so abundant, there is no neceFsity 
for adulterating any article of dietary importance. But such adulterations are 
practiced, and will continue to be unless the people are awakened to the magnitude 
of the danger, and the necessity of protection therefrom. 

Hoping that these data may aid in securing such a protection, I desire to thank 
you for your courtesy and attention. 



JERSEY CATTLE BREEDERS. 373 



INTER-BREEDmG— TO WHAT EXTENT MAY IT BE 
FOLLOWED? 



BY DR. LEVI RITTER, OF IRVINGTON, IND. 



The United States possesses advantages of climate, soil, grasses, and grain, that 
have enabled it, even tliis early in its history, to i)ro(luce the finest cattle in the 
world; and we think the Jersey cow has been decidedly improved in quality, 
beauty and value, since her importation into this country. 

The topographical and climatic conditions, and the tVed supplies of the differ- 
ent sections of our country are so unlike, that, in a few generations from the same 
parents, animals selected from diflferent herds will exhibit great physical and con- 
stitutiunal contrast; so that, by crossing the best specimens selected from herds 
bred from t«o hundred to two thousand guiles apart, we are relieved from the 
necessity of inter-breeding, and need not rtsort to it unless it is the best way to 
improve the animal. 

I am sorry that but two weeks notice was given me in which to prepare this 
article; it should have been two years at least. I hope it will be assigned to a 
committee, whose duty it shall be to collect statistics fn.m all the breeders in the 
State, and from time to time report to this body the facts thus gathered and the 
conclui^ions drawn therefrom. 

In tliis paper I can only submit some general reflections upon the laws of pro- 
creation in the animal world. 

It is reasonable to ass^ume that the same general law runs tlirough all animal 
life, and that a practice that proved injurious in one species would produce the 
same effect in all, the intensity being increased as the highest lype of life is ap- 
proached, and diminishing toward the lower. This general law is positively 
denied by the ultra-advocates of inter-breeding. 

One phase of the subject can easily be disposed of; for it is undoubtedly true 
that many breeders have found it financially i^rofitable to carry in-and-in-breeding 
to the fullest extent. This always presents a strong inducement to the fortunate 
owner of a flrst-class cow or bull to make a "corner" on their blood, if I may be 
permitted to use a common expression and practice of purely speculative business. 
This feeling is much stronger in the old world, where so much importance is at- 
tached to family blood, and where breeders so much desire to build up a great 
name for their particular family of cattle. 

The question before us is, does in-and-in-breeding weaken the vital forces and 
ultimately injure the stock? 

It is proper for me to admit that my personal opinion is that inter- breeding 
does tend to weaken the vital forces and injure the progeny. This conclusion was 
reached years ago by studying its effect in the human family. 

Assuming a general law to run through all animal life, we are still much embar- 



'374 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Tassed in determining what weight should be attached to the facts gathered. In 
the human race, incestuous progeny are always the offspring of parents morallyi 
and often physically depraved. On the other hand, the very best and most perfect 
animals are the ones selected for inter-breeding. From such animals, even if it be 
admitted that iu-aud-in-breeding injured the progeny, it would take generations to 
reduce them to a level with the "common herd." 

If we could have the full history of every in-and-in-bred animal, and there are 
thousands of them in this country, and a like history of an equal number of ani- 
mals produced by breeding together the best animals of families as far removed in 
Jdnship as it was possible to find, we would then have the data from which we 
might draw approximately correct conclusions. Such statistics must be gathered, 
if at aU, through societies like this; for otherwise they would not be of sufficient 
•extent to be of any considerable utility. 

Can not our Society start the matter, and provide for a report from all its mem- 
bers upon this as well as upon other important matters connected with Jersey 
breeding and butter production? The statistics of cross-breeding can easily be 
started by sending one of your best cows to the best bull of some other family to be 
found among our members, and then taking the calves to another first-class animal 
of some different family. The cows first bred should then be in-bred, and the re- 
sults compared with the results of the first trial. 

The report of the test should cover all the calves dropped, or it can not be of 
much value. 

Although the fortunate owners of remarkable animals have practiced in-and- 
in-breeding, and built up, very often, thorough family blood, yet we have no com- 
plete history of any of these families. The cows that produce from two to four 
pounds of butter per day, are well advertised, but what of the hundreds of others 
of which we hear nothing? We want the yearly butter yield of these animals as 
well. 

Mary Anne of St. Lambert, 9770, made 838 pound of butter in 310 days; 
Eurotas, No. 2154, 778 pounds in 341 days; Jersey Queen of Barnett, A. H. B. 4201, 
made 8ol pounds in 365 days. That kind of a record is of more value than one of 
four pounds per day for seven days, if the record stops there. 

Mr. J. H. Walker, of Worcester, Mass , has rendered a valuable service by giv- 
ing the butter yield of a number of each of the families represented in his herd. 
But these statistics of inbred cattle should also report as to the vital powers of each 
calf. How many die; of what disease? Is there any scrofula or other constitu- 
tional disorder produced? Are the animals dwarfed or deformed, or is any cross 
disposition or bad temper developed? Do they become so refined that a thunder 
storm will sour the milk in the udder, or that the firing of a gun will diminish the 
secretion for days? Have they a vigor of constitution that enables them to hold 
up all the year, or do they succeed only during the test week, and thereafter remain 
out of repair for the season? 

May it not be a fact, after all, that we could start with even inferior animals, 
-and by using the same care in selecting crosses out of other families, arrive at 
greater results if we only kept the record as carefully, and were as anxious for its 
publication ? 



JERSEY CATTLE BREEDERS. 37& 

Without a healthy, strong animal, a good feeder, of great vital endurance, it is 
impossible to build up much of a creamery. The breeding that leads the most di- 
rectly to these ends is the best, and that which interferes with any one of the con- 
ditions is faulty. 

I believe sheep and poultry breeders find it better to cross flocks. Swine breed- 
era have not attached enough importance to it, but they have not proven that 
scrofula, cholera, and other diseases, so fatal to swine, may not be averted, to some 
degree, at least, by a frequent crossing of families in breeding. It can hardly be 
doubted that, with mankind, incestuous intercourse results in impaired and defect- 
ive offspring. Dr. S. M. Bemis, of Louisville, Ky., by appointment of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association, and after bestowing much time and labor upon the sub- 
ject, in 1858, reported to the society the results of 873 cases of marriage among^ 
blood kin, and of incestuous intercourse where there could be no legal marriag*^. 
They were collected fi-om twenty-five States, with great care, and mostly reported 
by members of that learned body. From such intercourse there resulted 3,942 
children, of whom 1,134 were defective in body. Ten of these cases were between 
brother and sister, or parent and child, resulting in thirty-one children, of whom 
twenty-five were defective in body and mind, ranging from dwarfs and idiots to- 
scrofulous, insane, deaf, dumb, blind, and hideously deformed persons. Six hun- 
dred cases were between persons no nearer of kin than first cousins; 2,778 children 
were produced, of whom only V93 were defective, and these were not so greatly de- 
formed as those of the first class. 

By the then law of Ohio, statistics were gathered upon this subject. Included 
in the above aggregate are reported from that State 155 cases, from which resulted 
1,021 children ; of these, 244 were defective. From the same reports in Ohio were 
taken, at random, and from the same counties from which the others were reported^ 
so as to give a fair average, 125 cases of marriage between parties in no way re- 
lated. Eight hundred and thirty-seven children were produced, of whom only 18 
were defective. 

A like result was believed to exist in other States by the learned reporter of 
these cases. 

A great proportion of the children of these blood relations died young, showing 
diminished vital force. Here, then, is shown a rapid diminution of vital force 
and bodily vigor and beauty, as we approach the most perfect cases of in-and-in- 
breeding. 

Dr. Walshe says: "The mute, the dwarf, and the idiot, are as certainly the re- 
sult of the marriage of blood relations, as sorrow is the offspring of sin." 

But, on the other han3, Dr. Voisin, of Paris, from observation of 1,077 cases in 
the hospitals of that city, concluded that none could be traced to '■ healthy" con- 
sanguineous marriages. But the word "healthy" parents can be made to atone 
for any amount of deformity and disease, for, in any given cases, we have only to- 
assume that the parents had some known or latent predisposition that produced the 
defect, under and by virtue of the general law of atavism. 

Lewis F. Alien, in his valuable work on "American Cattle," while strongly ap- 
proving in-and-in-breeding, feels constrained to say (vid. page 212): " We are 
not an advocate of the practice now except in particular cases, and under peca- 



876 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

liar circumstauces. There is, indeed, no necessity for it, to any extent, as our pop- 
ular breeds of cattle are so widely distributed as to permit advantageous selections 
to be made from various herds for fresh crosses, without running into close rela- 
tions of blood. Yet, two or three direct crosses may be made in successive genera- 
tions, with a choice bull, on his own descendants, even now, to decided advantage." 

We copy the conclusion of this great advocate of in-and-in-breeding to approve 
every word of it, but stopping short at the limitation there stated. Even James C. 
Jones, of Delaware, Ohio, whose strong reasons against in-and-in-breeding Mr. Al- 
len quotes, only to disapprove, would doubtless go this far ; for he admits " that 
many instances can be cited where no bad results have followed where they have 
not been carried too far, but," says he, "I deny that, in any case, such breed- 
ing has been more beneficial than the breeding together of animals of the same 
blood and quality that were not of kin." 

With this conclusion we also concur. 

The testimony of Pierce, the Collings, Bates, the Booth Bros., etc., a great num- 
ber of English and Scotch breeders, has only this value. They were cartful hand- 
lers of stock, and could have taken two scrub animals and developed a reasonably 
good progeny in forty or fifty generations. 

J. H. Walker, than whom there is no more enthusiastic or sagacious Jersey 
breeder in America, is often quoted as possi^ssing extreme views in favor of in-and- 
in breeding. He certainly does believe that "blood will tell," and so do all success- 
ful breeders; but this advice contains his conclusion of the whole matter, as we 
understand him : " Breed to the winner is the rule — the winner that is, not the win- 
ner that is to be." 

Mr. G. E. Morris, in an able addre.=8 delivered before the Illinois Jersey Breed- 
ers Association, and published in the Bulletin of December 17th, uses this language 
which will bear repetition: "Select breeding stock with care, giving' much more 
importance to peculiarly us.ful qualities than to color or any special jjoint, bathing 
our decision-s buth on the appearance of the animtil and the character of the an- 
cestry, avoiding long continued close inbreeding." 

Thomas & Drane, of Clarksville, Tenn., advertise Wossie G802, one of those 
wonderful inbred bulls, tracing fourteen times to St. Helier 45, and five times to 
lanlhe 4562. 

Of the same class is Alphia Star 7487, recently sold by W. J. Hassehnan. His 
blood is almost pure inbred from Saturn 93 and Ehea 166. Mr. Walker's catalogue 
shows numbers of such animals. 

These only illustrate the tendency of the day. Such animals would be very 
valuable for crosses with other of the best families, but it is our opinion that such 
blood should be mixed thenceforward. 

I believe that many of as good animals ae the world has produced are the 
property of members of this association, and I hope that you may build up great 
family names for these best animals, and make fortunes. But a greater achieve- 
ment for this association would be to make Indiana famous for the rigor and 
beauty of our Jersey cows. Let us have the greatest proportional diumber to pro- 
duce 800 lbs. of butter per year, rather than the greatest number that will produce 
four pounds per day for a few days, and be practically useless for two-thirds of the 
year. 



JERSEY CATTLE BREEDING. 377 



m-AND-m BREEDING. 



HEATH. OF NEW YORK. 



Permit me to make a few off-hand statements on the subject of in-and-in breed- 
ing. 

I have not the time at my disposal from my many carfs, obligations and em- 
ployments, to do the subject that justice that your learned association ought to ex- 
pect from an outsider. Could I be present at your grave deliberations to defend 
ray random remarks, I should feel the satisfaction of a reply to criticisms. But as 
you kindly suggest that my statements will find their way into the Jersey Bulletin, 
I feel a degree of assurance that I shall be permitted to reply for myself, should it 
be necessary. And then, as I know that you can, from personal experience as an 
editor and an essayist, appreciate all these circumstances fully, I the more readily 
consent to grant your request. 

I shall, then, be brief, lest I weary your association. 

I am a cosmopolitan, and therefore have less to bias my judgment than those 
of strictly sectarian views. I say this because I desire to bring forward a living, a 
potential, and a long-existing argument against in-and-in breeding. And before I 
refer to, or indicate my example or illustration, I wish to give some degree of re- 
spect, admiration and credit for the subject I desire to use as my first, foremost and 
strongest argument against in-and-in breeding, as it holds equally good in the 
human, as in the comparative animal subjects. 

While I regard the Israelitish people as the grandest association of human be- 
ings unde^ the providence of God Almighty, for the advancement of mankind in 
prosperity, civilization, and successful human advancement, yet I can not disguise 
the fact tly^ the inter and in-and-in marriage of the Jews has entailed upon man- 
kind the most monstrous physical and moral evils the world has ever seen. De- 
creptitude, disease, suflering and premature death have all followed in the conse- 
quent train of human evils. 

You will see that I have laid the foundation of my argument in history and in 
fact. I need not, therefore, state that it is universally admitted that among the 
Jews there is a greater degree of deformity, physical infirmity, and mental pros- 
tration than among any other people of the world, when their favored circum- 
stances are fairly taken into account. 

Then, I say, that similar influences operating upon animals, result in similar 
physical defects and degenerating results. 

One or two, or even several, incestuous cohabitations of animals may not strike 
one as injurious, when we are blinded by a degree of refinement and beauty in the 
offspring. But when we study tlie stamina, strength and constitution of the pro- 
geny in a fair, full and unbiased manner we shall find a surprising degree of de- 
generation. 



S78 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

It is, therefore, desirable to perpetuate the excellencies of domestic animals by 
transferring our upe of remoter wtrains of blood of the same breed. Thus, by 
breeding second, third and fourth cousins together we succeed. 

There are excusing circumstances where the nearest relations may be bred to- 
gether. Thus, to perpetuate a nearly extinct excellence, or family, this is ex- 
cusable, when out-breeding maintains health, stamina, strength and vigor in the 
future progeny. 

It is often desirable to duplicate, or perpetuate, an excellence in near relations. 
This should be done even at the risk of some slight debility, rather than to forever 
lo?e a coveted excellence or quality. This can be compensated for by reaching 
after desirable and saving, or recuperating strength, a little way off from the close 
consanguinity previously used. 

This will probably enable me to assert that rather than lose a desirable quality, 
I would breed the nearest relations of animals together for once, or twice, or even 
thrice. But if I would not be very careful to fortify this desirable quality by ce- 
menting strength, health and vigor, I should not only lose the desired quality, but 
also much more excellence. 

This, probably, will enable me to state that in-and-in breeding, when too long 
persisted in, without ample fortification to maintain the coveted excellence in per- 
fection, must result in depreciation. 

The excellencies of breed is only the sum total of the excellencies of individ- 
uals. And though the breed cati not be so soon injured by the maltreatment of 
individuals, yet it ultimately militates against the purity of the flowing stream of 
the breed; for each animal sends rivulets to the grand stream, and the purity of 
these assures the purity of the grand flowing current of the blood of the breed. 

I only intended this as suggestive, and not by any possibility as in any degree 
exhaustive. 

But, Mr. Secretary Lloyd, you must permit me the expectation that your argu- 
ments, pro and con, will also be published in the Jersey Bulletin, that I may receive 
the instruction on the subject I so much desire from your learned association. 



INDIANA WOOL GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF JANUAEY MEETING, 1885. 



The annual meeting of the Indiana Wool Growers' Association was held in the 
rooms of the State Board of Agriculture, in the city of Indianapolis, .January 29, 
1885, at 1:30 o'clock p. m. 

In the absence of President C. T. Nixon, Vice President Hon. Fielding Beeler 
took the chair. 

Mr. W. J. Carter, of Weatfield, Ind., was appointed to make a stenographic re- 
port of the proceedings for publication. 

Mr. Cal. Darnell called the attention of the Association to the importance of 
a more stringent dog law, and suggested that a commitlee be api^ointed to confer 
with the Legislative Committee on Agriculture regarding the passage of a dog law. 
The bill proposed by the Legislative Committe makes it a county fund instead of 
a township fund, claims must be proved before the County Coram issioner^, the 
Auditor draws an order on the County Treasurer, who i;s to pay the money. After 
the claims for sheep killed are all paid for, instead of turning any surplus money 
to the School Fund it is to be divided, one-half going to the Wool Growers and the 
other half to the School Fund. I move, sir, that a committee be appointed lo con- 
fer with this Legislative Committee on this subject. 

The motion was adopteJ and the following committee was appointed, viz: Dun- 
gan. Nelson, Harkness, Farquhar, Henley, Levering and Howland. 

Messrs. Mitchell and Howland were appointed to extend an invitation to Gov. 
Gray to meet the members of the Association sometime during the session. 

Mr. Duuffan. I understand our records are lost, with all the previous proceed- 
ings of our meetings, and we are without any by-laws and constitution. It is nec- 
essary for us to do something towards making a new record. 

Sea-etary Farquhar. Mr. President, on my return home from our annual meet- 
ing last winter, these records are supposed to have fallen from my pocket during 
the darkness and lost. I have made dilligent search and advertised for them in 
the papers, but never secured their recovery. 



380 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Mitchell. I move that the Secretary be requested to purchase another book 
and complete the record, as near as may be, from the published Agricultural re- 
ports. Carried. 

S. W. Dungan read the following paper on 



COTSWOLD SHEEP. 



THEIR ORIGIN, TOGETHER WITH THEIR ADAPTATION TO THE WANTS OP 
SHEEP-RAISERS OF INDIANA. 



BY S. W. DUNGAN, FRANKLIN, IND. 



Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Indiana Wool Growers' Association : 

Sheep are of very remote origin; in fact, they claim the honor of an antiquity 
coeval with man. We imagine that when the flowers first bloomed and the trees 
first donned their rich foliage, the world was not without this beautiful emblem of 
innocence and purity. Dr. Navin, in his introductory remarks on sheep, uses the 
following beautiful and expressive language: "Abel was a keeper of flocks. It has 
been honorably meniionecl by prophets and seers of old, and lent to the inspiration 
of the songs of bards through a eye e of six thousand years. The lamb has been 
made, and appropriately too, the emblem of meekness and purity. Its blood has 
even flowed as a libation when man would draw very near to commune with God. 
The character of the Savior lo.«es no ray of its lustre when seen through that tri- 
umphant rhapsody: 'Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the 
world.' As the sheep has been honored, so also has the shepherd. From Abel 
down the shepherd's office has been honored by patriarchs, prophets, priests, and 
kings. Abraham, Job, Isaac, .Jacob, and hs son.s, Moses, Jeihro, and David, the 
poet, prophet, warrior, lawgiver, and king, were shepherds. To a company of shep- 
herds, when attending thtir flocks by night, was sent a band of angels from the 
courts of heaven with songs more sweet than ever mortal ears had heard, to an- 
nounce to them the messages intinile love had prepared for the cheerless millions 
of our race. ' Behold I bring you good news, glad tidings of great joj, which shall 
be to all people.'" May I not, with propriety, congratulate my brother-shepherds 
to-day in being engaged in that high and noble avocation, which has divine prece- 
dence and holy origin and sanction? 

Now to the consideration of the subject assigned me. Cotswold Sheep: Their 
Origin, together with their Adaptation to Indiana. 

T have sought help from various sources in order to be able to give a true and 
impartial history of this breed of sheep, and the most satisfactory and complete 
history I have found is from the pen of Henry Stewart, whose work on Sheep Hus- 



WOOL growers' association, 381 

bandry should be ia the possession of every owner of sheep. He says : " This 
breed has become so common in the United States, and has been bred so exten- 
sively without fresh importations of new blood that it may well be adopted as a 
native sheep. Many excellent flocks are now self-sustaining, and under their 
American nativity lose nothing of their original excellence. The Maple Shade 
flock, originally the property of Mr. John D. Wing, of New York, bat some years 
ago divided and now owned by other parties, is one of the many instances of the 
successful acclimatization of this most valuable sheep. The Cotswold has an 
ancient origin or history. It is said to have been introduced into England from 
Spain, by Eleanora, Queen of Henry II., of England, in the 12th century. Although 
there is nothing more than tradition to support this, yet there is some corroboration 
of it in the fact that in Spain there has long existed, and is now, a breed of coarse, 
long-wooled sheep not unlike the original Cotswolds in some respects. It is known, 
however, that in fifty years after this early date the wool of the Cotswold sheep was 
a source of material wealth, and was jealously guarded by law. Three centuries 
after this (in 1467) permission was granted by the English king, Edward IV., as a 
royal favor' to export some of these sheep to Spain. They were originally very 
coarse animals, with thick, heavy fleeces, well adapted to their home upon the 
bleak, exposed Cotswold hills. So valuable and staple a breed could not long re- 
main without improvement. Naturally the sweet, nutritious herbage of the lime- 
stone soil covering these hills favored this improvement, and as the pastures be- 
came enclosed, and agriculture improved in character, the flocks improved with it. 
When the Leicester became the most popular sheep of England it was made to 
assist in this course of improvement of the Cotswolds, It gave io the breed a better 
quality, a smoothness and refinement, and a greater aptitude to fatten, while it did 
not less; n its ancient hardiness of constitution. The modf rn Cotswold is still capa- 
ble of enduring hardships and exposure, and is at home on all sorts of soil. It 
produces a large carcass of excellent mutton and a heavy fleece of valuable comb- 
ing wool, adapted, by its peculiar character, for a cla.ss of goods of wide consump- 
tion, it being in demand for various manufactures from the small matters, such as 
worsted dress braids up to various kinds of cloths for men and women garments. 
The breed is large, and matures at an early age. 

A full grown sheep exhibited- at a Christmas cattle market in England, dressed 
344 lbs. or 80 lbs. per quarter. The weight of the fleece should average. S lbs. for a 
flock of all kinds, and some of our naturalizid flecks surpass this; ii.any ewes have 
shorn 11 lbs. each. The fleece of Champion of England weighed 18 lbs. and the 
fleeces of the ewes of the same flock Aveighed from 11 to 16 lbs. The famous ram 
Golden Fleece, owned by Mr. Wing, of New York, sheared, in 1867, 19 lbs. 4^ oz. 

The description of a well-bred Cotswold is as follows: The face and legs are 
white, but some timt s dashes of brown or gray, derived from the original stock, may 
be found on both face and legs. The head is strong and massive, without horns, 
and having a thick forelock of wool upon the forehead. The neck and forequarters 
are not so square and heavy, nor the brisket so prominent as in the best Leicesters, 
but the hind quarters are square, full, and broad, and the thigh sclid and heavy. 
The back is straight, and broad, and the ribs well sprung, giving a round body; 
the flanks are deep, the legs of moderate length, and the bone not so fine as in the 



882 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Leicester. The general style and appearance is good and attractive, and indicative 
of a vigorous, active and hardy animal, and a prime mutton sheep. They are ac- 
tive and well fitted for gathering a living upon a pasture in which a Leicester 
would hardly thrive. The lambs are active and hardy, and the ewes good mothers. 
The fleece is closer upon the back than that of the Leicester (on this point, Mr. 
Navin and Stewart disagree.) The wool some times reaches a length of nine inches, 
and, although coarse, is soft and mellow. In many of these sheep, the fleece is 
beautifully waved. No breed is more valuable for crossing than this. It has helped 
to establish several permanent and valuable cross breeds — the Oxford Downs and 
the Shropshires in England; a Cotswold Merino in Germany and another of this 
cross which is well under way in this country, and last, though not least, a very 
promising cross-breed, originated on the Beacon Farm, Long Lsland,by Mr. William 
Crozier, called the Beacon Downs. It has, moreover, been used to produce many 
crossbred market sheep in various parts of England, and is extensively used by 
our fiheep-raisers in the production of market lambs. Being capable of adaptation 
to almost any locality, and producing a wool which, both in its pure state and is 
its grades, is of wide availability in the woolen manufacture, it may justly claim 
to be the most valuable sheep we have acquired, and to promise a more extended 
usefulness than any other we at this time possess, or can probably procure. 

Mr. Stewart's work was published eight years ago, and there has been a great 
improvement in this sheep, in quality and quantity of wool, brought about by 
careful and intelligent bretders of England, Canada, and the United States, Had 
Mr. Stewart written his book four years later, we could with pride and pleasure 
have given him much heavier weights in fleeces, and in length of staple than any 
thing he has recorded. I feel no little modesty in saying (as it may savor ot 
egotism) that in 1879, if I remember right, I sold Mr. Farquhar, our present sec- 
retary, a ram, sired by old Gray Prince, that clipped 21 1 pounds at thirteen 
months old, and what was very remarkable, he clipped about the same amount the 
second year, which I presume was about one year's growth, and we have wool on 
exhibition in this room that we clipped from another son of Gray Prince, that 
measures 19} inches, clipped at fourteen months old, the fleece weighing 19 
pounds. Two years ago this coming spring, one whole flock of 180 head of Cots- 
wolds averaged 10} jjounds. This is good, considering the number, but many 
flocks of less number have far surpassed this. It seems almo;-t incredible, when we 
consider the wonderful change wrought by the art and ingenuity of man with 
many breeds of sheep, and perhaps one of the grandest triumphs of genius was ac- 
complished during the seventeenth century in the production of the improved 
Leicester sheep. It has been nearly a century and a half since the old Leicester 
sheeiD fell into the hands of Mr. Eobert Bakewell, of Leicestershire, England. 
They were then large, heavy, coarse animals, having meat of a poor flavor, a long 
and thin carcass, with flat sides, large bones, and thick, rough legs ; were poor 
feeders, and at two or three years old made about one hundred pounds of mutton, 
the wool was long and coarse, and of only moderate value. By a course of breed- 
ing, about which he was very reticent even t© his best friends, and which he kept 
secret from other breeders, he totally changed the character of these sheep, and 
built up a reputation for himself as a successful breeder, which is second to that of 



WOOL GROWEES' ASSOCIATION. 383 

no other in the world. He apparently used any animal wliatever, without refer- 
ence to breed or color; nor did he regard relationship, if he considered those 
coupled together would be most likely to produce the results he wished to attain 
in the off-pring. His ideal sheep was to him precisely what the desired Short- 
horn was to the Colling Brothers, Mr. Bate?, or Mr. Booth, and all these breeders 
gave their whole soul to the attainment of their one single object. Now for the 
resnlt of Mr. Bakewell's labor. He began in 1755; in 1760 his rams were let for 
an annual sum of about $i each. In 1780 he received $50 for the season's use of a 
ram. In 1784 the price was raised to $525. In 1786 one ram was let for $1,575. 
In 1789 he received $6,oOO for the use of three rams, all born at one birth; $10,500 
fors'even others, and 315,750 for the use of the remainder of his flock, making a 
grand total of $32,550 for the let of his rams one season. 

We present these figures to show you what one man can accomplish in money 
and reputHtiou by the careful, intelligent and judicious selection of breeding 
animals. The Southdown sheep were as successfully transformed in the hands of 
Mr. Ellmao. He says when he commenced with them they were of small size, of 
bad shape, being long and thin in the neck, high on the shoulder, low 
behind, high on the loins, down on the rump, the tail low, sharp on the 
back, the ribs flat, narrow in the forequarters, and the only good point they 
had was a good leg. To Mes-rs. Ellraan and Webb, and their successors, belong 
the credit of weeding out all these bad defects, and to-day the Southdown stands 
unrivalled for its beauty and symmetry of form. But you will excuse this digres- 
sion ; I present these thoughts, hoping they may be an incentive to the members of 
our association in the improvement of their flocks. Do not buy a ram because he 
is cheap (the cheapest usually turn out to be the dearest), but have your ideal type 
of sheep, and spare no time, money, or labor to breed up to that type. 

As to the adaptation of the Cotswold sheep to our own State, I will say that 
there are portions of our State, and every other State of our Union, that are not 
adapted to sheep liusbandry. An old saying is that sheep must have a dry foot, or 
disea.se follows. All men who have handled sheep kuo v that the soil most suit- 
able for any kind of sheep is, one that is naturally drained with a sandy loam or 
gravelly soil and subsoil, but as all have not this character of soil, 1 would say 
that any dry land, naturally or artificially drained is adapted to sheep raising, and 
I have only to say in relation to Cotswold sheep, that they will accommodate them- 
selves to, and do well on any soil that other varieties will. 

It is said that Ohio and Western Pennsylvania, with their extensive coal-bear- 
ing formations underlying dry rolling fields, have more sheep than any other State, 
while New York, Illinois, Indiana and Michigan, which cover an extensive deposit 
of lime-stone and sandstone come next on the list. So you see our State is included 
with those adapted to sheep. 

What is often considered a lack of adaptation of domestic animals to certain 
soils and climates is nothing more or less than a lack of good, wholesome, nutri- 
tions food, pure water, and careful attention. Why is it that some men always have 
fat, sleek horses, and their neighbors have poor, lean ones, with the hair turned the 
wrong way? Is it because the lean one.*? are not adapted to the soil and climate? 
No. The one is groomed regularly, well bedded, watered and fed regularly, and, 



384 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

last though not least, treated kindly and humanely; while the other is fed enough 
at one feed to do him a day or two, and watered every other day, and, as a substi- 
tute for grooming, he is treated to the boot-h€el or toe of his master occasionally. 
So it is with the sheep, or any of our domestic animals. I am aware of the fact 
that quite a number of men in Indiana who invested money in Cotswold sheep 
within the past ten years have had bad luck with them, and concluded they were 
delicate creatures aud not adapted to our climate. The CotsAvold's boom reminds 
me very forcibly of the grange movement in our country. Nearly all our farmers 
went into the order, and the great majority went in because it was the fashion, 
without understanding the grand and noble principles of the order; but when they 
found they had to make a small sacrifice of time and money, and that they were 
not getting as much money out of it as they expected, many abandoned the order. 
The trouble was with the people, not the grange, for I am convinced that it is the 
best order ever instituted for the benefit of the farmer and his family. So when 
combing ivool was high and mutton a good price, everybody embarked in Cots- 
wolds. 

Yes, you remember we did not have any other sheep scarcely at our fairs but 
Cotswolds for years, and the result was we " had too much of a good thing," and 
produced more combing wool than our manufacturers could use, and in the mean- 
time fashions changed and women quit wearing alpaca goods, and a little further 
on the tariff was reduced on foreign wool, and many became demoralized and con- 
cluded to abandon the business, and the result is, there are very few good flocks of 
sheep in our State to-day. It is said that history repeats itself; in the early part 
of this century, fine wool sold for $2.50 per pound, and pure-bred Merino rams sold 
from a thousand to two thousand dollars per head, and Merino ewes as high as a 
thousand dollars. In five or six years after this, it is said that these sheep could 
be bought for one dollar a head, but they came up again, and since that time 
Merino rams have sold for five thousand dollars or more. We should not think of 
abandoning any business on account of these temporary depressions and fluctua- 
tions. Hoping that the members of the Indiana Wool Growers' Apsociantion may 
continue to improve their flocks until they are brought to the highfst degree of 
perfection, I respectfully submit this paper. 



Mr. Darnell. I do not want to criticise the paper, but I want to ask Mr. Dun- 
gan if he is or is not a friend of the Cotswold sheep ? 

Mr. Dmigan. I still have about one hundred and fifty Cotswold sheep, and like 
them, although I have other breeds of sheep. I have been experimenting with 
three different breeds of sheep. A year ago this winter I had a number of pure 
Merinos, some fifteen imported Shropshires, and five or six Cotswold, all fed to- 
gether. All those sheep were in good shape when I commenced with them, and in 
still better shape in the spring, and I did not see any difierence as to hardiness, etc. 
It is a confirmation of what I said in my paper, that what is often considered a 
lack of adaptability is a lack of good treatment. I gave those sheep all the clover 
and timothy hay they could eat, and bran and corn mixed. I am pleased, and 



WOOL growers' association. 385 

expect to continue with the Cotswold sheep. What made our combing wool 60 
valuable in the middle of our century. Our al[iaca goods were produced from an 
animal in South America called the ''Alpaca," and no other wool was employed in 
their manufacture but thin. The manufacturers of England conceived the idea 
that the wool of the Cotswold, Lincoln and Leicester could be manufactured into 
alpaca goods, and the United States commenced soon to manufacture goods from 
the same material, and hence this long combing wool came in general favor. Those 
alpaca goods so common as an article of dress among the ladies, were from this 
wool. It has not been long since we imported annually over twenty millionu 
of combing wool, besides the other wool imported here. There was a grand field 
open and everybody went into it, but fashions change and we all know we some- 
times go into extremes. When every farmer goes to rearing the same kind of stock 
we over-do the thing. It reacts, gentlemen; mark what I tell you. Combing wool 
is not as high in the market to-day as when it was in demand btfore, but the time 
is not far distant when the combing wool will be as high as in 1878, 1879 and 1880. 
There was not much demand for this wool, and people quit raising it. In five 
years combing wool will be higher than ever. Alpaca goods are coming in style 
again. Mr. Merritt told us last sj)ring, after he examined this long wool, "don't 
stop raising this; there will be demand for it." 

Mr. Hoivland. Is the Cotswold the best breed for producing long wool ? 
Mr. Dungan. Yes, the Cotswohl, Leicester and Lincoln are all long wool sheep. 
The Lincoln has the finest wool of any. 

Mr. Howland. How about Lincoln sheep, mainly called Bakewell? 
Mr. Dungan. It was in England this sheep was produced, in Leicester, hence 
the name given. 

Mr. Honiand. Was the cress made between the Cotswold and Leicester after 
Bakewell got them? 

Mr. Dungan. No, this was done before. 

Mr. Howland. lias the Cotswold any other blood but Cotswold and Leicester? 
Mr. Dungan. That is a hard question to answer. In all those breeds they use 
difTerent animals that show symmetrical form. Mr. Navin used nothing but Lei- 
cester in making his improvement. Men diflfer on these points. 

Mr. Howland, You don't know just what blood is in the Cotswold. 
Mr. Dungan. Yes, anel many others. The Lincoln is the largest sheep in the 
world. There have been hundreds and hundreds of them brought to this country 
by English breeders, anel soki as pure bred sheep. The sheep we raised were pure. 
Mr. Darnell has the honor of bringing Gray Prince, the grandest sheep ever 
brought to this country. He took the premium at the Centennial Exliibition. I 
am very much pleased with the Shropshire. The Shropshires have much Cotswold 
blood in the face. They produce the original better than all those cross breeds. 

Mr. NelKon. I must say that I have been well entertaineel by the reading of the 
address. 

Mr. Farquhar. W^e'have wintejed the Coti-wold, Southdown and Shropshire breeds^ 
and at clipping time the Cotswold sheared 7J lbs.. Southdown 8 lbs., and Shrop- 
ehire G lb.=. Taking altogether, I think the Cotswold is ihe most profitable sheep to 
keep. I can^not speak of the I^icester, Merino and Lincoln. 
25 — Agkiculture. 



386 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Wiley. What number of sheep would you consider proper for a flock to 
4o well, of the different breeds. 

Mr. Farquhar. I think fifty would be enough, and twenty -five would be better. 

AL; Dungan. As we have commenced giving our experience, it would be of in- 
.terest to hear from all the members, that we may know what kind of sheep are be- 
ing raised in the different neighborhoods, the condition of the sheep, and the feel- 
ing of the people so far as they know regarding the present outlook of sheep hus- 
bandry. 

Mr. Beela'. I learn that about 60 per cent, of the sheep in Texas have been 
destroyed. 

W. R. Goodwin, of (he Kansas City Indicator. The destruction of sheep and cat- 
tle down there is attributed to the storm. The cold weather has extended farther 
4own than ever known before, and the sleet and snow has covered up the grass 
from the sheep. At the Kansas City Live Stock Exchange, we have a market for 
the western trade, and sheep have been selling from 25 cents to $3.00 per head. 
There have been several hundred sold in the last month at 25 cents per head. For 
gome reason the farmei-s are bringing in all the ragtail sheep in the country, and 
there are many of them in Kansas and Missouri. I have been trying to find out 
the cause of this, but I can not tell you why it is. Some think the tariff has some- 
thing to do with it. There is a general skirmish all along the line ; but tliey are 
advised there not to be ra,sh in selling off, but to hold on. My private opinion is, 
they have tried to use the grade too much instead of pure bred sheep. 

Mr. King. The gentleman from Kansas has expressed the condition of affairs 
in our country. We are breeding some high grade sheep ; are now shipping them 
at low prices, after having to f^ed a month or six weeks. The lamb trade i^ 
spoiled. I used to make it very profitable. The last lot of lambs, consisting of 100 
or more, made me no money. The reason of this I can not tell. Men are selling 
their entire flocks and quitting the business. 

Mr. Henley. The part I was most interested in in the last address was the 
-adaptation of the Cotswold sheep to the wool growers of Indiana. The general 
inclination of wool growers and sheep breeders is to get rid of their sheep. I 
think the gentleman from the West struck the key-note when he said we breed too 
carelessly and breed scrubs. I have had some correspondence with parties in Kansas 
and Texas as to the character of their breed of sheep, and they i^ay they have not 
tlie sheep that they want. Low prices cut a large figure. Men will abandon the 
business if it is not profitable. We must import a large amount of wool this year, 
according to statistics. From the destruction of sheep In the United States, the 
importation must be larger than it now is. The general tendency seems to be to 
-get rid of the sheep. Some men are keeping their flocks up pretty well in number.'*, 
while a great majority are cutting down in numbers. Men ai-e not careful about 
breeding, and we are losing in price and quality of mutton and wool. I look upon 
'Sjur State as regards soil and climate as being a State in which sheep may be raised 
profitably. We have much land, low in price, which is well adapted to the raising 
of sheep. I claim that I can take a good flock of Cotswold sheep and make more 
money, even at present prices, by forcing them, producing a large amount of wool 
And heavy carcass, making more money out of sheep than hogs. 



WOOL GROWEBS' ASSOCIATION. 38T 

Mr. Raviah. I have had Kome little experience in raising sheep, and my reason 
for attending this meeting is to hear from others. I have not been as extensively 
engaged in it as some, and have not paid attention to improving the different 
. breeds, thongh I have given that some attention. The last gentleman on the floor 
speaks of people quitting the business*. Ever since I have been in the busineee 1 
have seen people quitting it. You take a man who has an adaptation to the sheep; 
and he will do something with it, notwithstanding the low price of wool. This ie 
one cause, and in many cases it is owing to their inability to manage and take care 
of them and see in the future something that might grow np. The price of Wool 
to-day is not remunerative, but for mutton good sheep would to-day bring 6| to 
7 cents, gross. Our best bullocks seldom do that. Good early lambs are perhaps 
worth 4} to 6^ and 7 cents. It costs less to get sheep than cattle. Poor land 
makes poor sheep. My experience has been that where I have treated them ats I 
should they were as remunerative as any other class of stock that I have handled. 

Air. Darnell. We would like to hear your experience with crosses. 

Mr. Bamah. I bought some Cotswold sheep of Mr. Darnell, and I like them 
very much. Eeally, my favorite sheep had been the Southdown. I bred these 
ewes to an American Merino buck ; from the lambs I tooji all the bucks, and made 
wethers or sold them, keeping the ewes. T am now breeding to the Southdown^ 
from which I get good returns. I had some experience sixteen years ago in crosB- 
ing the Cotswold with the Merino, and got a tine flock of sheep. I am getting back 
to that now. I like the cross very much; I get the size and form, and closenesB 
and fineness of wool ; in other words, it makes .a general purpose sheep for mutton 
and wool ; also, by crossing with the Southdown or Shropshiredown. 

Mr. Robe. I think the folks in our neighborhood are tired of rai^^ing sheep, 
because it is not profitable. My opinion is we can raise wool in Putnam countj 
for twenty-five cents a pound. Last year we got twenty cents, but it did not pay. 
I breed Cotswold grades, [tutting a Merino cross on these Cotswold ewes. The loir 
price is genally laid to the tariff question ; I am sure it affects the price three cent* 
a pound, and this makes many want to go out of the bu-^incss. Large numbere are 
thrown upon the market, which reduces the price of mutton. 

Mr. Henley. Eusliing the sheep on the market in unmarketable conditicm 
makes our prices so low. 

Mr. Wiley. What few flocks have been raised in our neighborhood do not pay. 
Some of my neighbors were highly elated with the Cotswold, but in a few year* 
they were the worst sheep we have. The main reason was putting too many togeth- 
er, and not caring for them. We are now using the Shropshire cross. 

Mr. Yoke. I would have a few sheep on the farm if I did not make anything 
on them, they are better than any other stock for keeping land in order. 

Mr. Tomlin.Hon. Before I began the business of raising sheep I had a certain 
pasture containing many weeds. I had noticed that pastures clean of weeds was 
an indication of a good farmer. Two or three years ago it occurred to me that it 
was sheep that had cleaned a certain farm of weeds This man had nice pasture 
and sheep in them ; so I got some good sheep and put on my pastures and killed 
out the weeds. It is not every man that can raise sheep successfully, but if yon 
see a man who raises fine Shorthorn cattle and horses, you will generally see a fine 



888 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

flock of slieep. There is not so much in the breed, as caring for them and dividing 
them into small flocks ; they will make a greater per cent, of profit than any other 
animal. I cull my sheep very closely, taking out all the rag-tag and bob tails and 
send to the stock yards; every sheep left U in good condition for mutton, and my 
flock is in better condition now than I have ever had them. The trade is dull but 
if you have good sheep you can get almost your own price. They will make you 
more money besides keeping the farm in good condition than any thing else will ; 
they can clean out an old fence row or briar patch better than I can. The price 
of wool is a little off at present, but I never pay any attention to that; the wool 
comes in about the time we pay our taxes and we are always glad to get it. Jt is 
the mutton that I am after and I am running into that stock of sheep. An old 
ewe is not worth more than a dollar, but you can .sell six dollars worth of lambs 
from her. I have been letting my flocks out on the shares ; it makes me from fifty 
to one hundred per cent. I could let out a hundred flocks if I had them. I fur- 
nish the ewes and half of the increase and half of the wool is mine, and the ordinary 
flock is mine the first day of September. 

Mi\ Darnell. You spoke awhile ago of culling your she^p out, selling the worst 
©nes because they would not winter over. 

Mr. Tomlinsov. The last time I culled only six out of fifty or sixty. 1 have 
no thoroughbred Cotswold. I use only grades, breeding to Shropshire bucks. With 
half-bloods and good mutton sheep I make my money. When the bucks get in 
good shape I sell them; the ewes I keep over, some of them weighing 175 pounds 
at two years old next spring. I keep all my sheep in good condition. 

Mr. . Do you have any of those l)ob-tai!8 that sell at 25 cents per 

head? 

J/r. Tomlin.^on. No, sir, I have not. I sold my ragtags for what I could get. 
I sold five or six to a neighbor, and in a little while they were better than mine. 
That convinced me that I had too many, as small flocks do best. 

Mr. Prewitt. I think all the different breeds of sheep are good if put in small 
flocks. I never put more than forty head together. 

Walter J. Quick. W^e are breeding Cotswold and Shropshire, and are convinced 
that they are good mutton sheep as well as wool sheep. We have had very good 
success in selling, yet the Cotswold are not selling quite so well as formerly ; but 
we shall hold on to them. While we have cut our flocks down, we are keeping the 
best and breeding carefully as heretofore. Our grades are mostly Shropshire. We 
should advocate small flocks; I think they are preferable to large ones. We don't 
have more than forty in a flock. In the summer time I think it is very advan- 
tageous to change our flocks from one field to another. Turning them in an old 
field they will clean out old hedge rows an<l briar patches eflfeclually. I want to 
say right here that few flocks get enough salt. I am favorable to this rock salt ; it 
is splendid for stock; it is, perhaps, better than common salt. 

3L: Dunyan. Please give us the method of using it. 

Mr. Quick. It is not necessary to keep it dry ; put in troughs, it makes a brine, 
which is not a good way to salt. If put in troughs it should be under ashed. A 
good way is to cut a hole in a log and put some in there ; the brine will sink away 
in the log, and the sheep will gnaw at it. We also use salt and tar a great deal. 



WOOL growers' association. 389 

We thought the grub was in our sheep, and we used tar; would pour pine tar in 
a trough to the depth of three or four inches, then take salt and sprinkle over this ; 
it would sink down in the tar and make the tar salty. The sheep had free access to 
this all ihe time. We think this is a good thing, but use it only in the summer time. 

Dr. Conkle. My habit of using tar is to bore an inch and a half hole, three 
inches de*^p, in a log and fill it with tar and salt. The sheep would get enough to ' 
keep the fly off. 

Mr. Quick. We have sheds where the sheep can go all the time and have access 
to it. You will find some sheep there all the time. 

Mr. Dungan. Dr. Conkle, what injury would occur from the use of tar if the 
sheep would eat more than the system required? 

Dr. Conkle. No injur/ ; but some would get on the wool and make them look 
unsightly. 

Mr. Ndson. I have given my experience in sheep raising before, and what I 
might say now would be a repetition of that. I keep a small flock of sheep— say 
about two hundred — and keep them in three separate and distinct lots, and am not 
discouraged in the business. I told you, last summer, that I crossed my Cotswold 
ewes with Merino bucks. This I have done, and had good success. 1 have had 
more success with that cross than anything else during the last twenty years. I 
have always used a pure breed buck, as I do with all male animals. I have not 
been sheltering my sheep, with the exception of my buck lambs and aged bucks. 
My lambs are now half blood Merino, and are lively, notwithstanding this bad 
weather. They are playing, no doubt, such a day as this. I have, also, one lot 
that I am going to put ofT as mutton sheep. I grade closely, and turn ofT annually 
as they are in condition for mutton. I sold my wool last year for 21 cents per 
pound. It was a low price, but I am satisfied. They average eight and a half 
pounds to the fleece. I remember, in England, some forty years ago, when rentals, 
even then, were much higher than they are anywhere in this country to day, wool 
was then worth about 16 shillings per stone (which is fourteen pounds in weight), 
or, in our money, 23f cents per pound. The English farmer C(mld do well at that. 
W'e should not talk of being discouraged about sheep raising. I have always bred 
crosses, and I want some one to tell me what should be my next cross, my ewes be- 
ing Cotswold and the buck Merino. I have thought of taking the Shrojishire. 
There is a discouraged feeling in our part of the State in regard to sheep raising. 
They complain that the depression is caused by the tarifi". I am sorry that some in 
our country do not know what tariff-means. I can make money off of sheep. The 
wool comes in a nice time, when money is needed, and is very convenient. I want 
to breed the best of sheep for mutton and heavy fleece. I can keep fifty sheep as 
well as twenty-five, but not one hundred. The selection is half the battle in sheep 
raising. 

Mr. Dungan. W^hat do you feed your sheep? 

Mr. Nelson. I change my fee 1. The only grain I feed is corn, but do not give 
that entirely until about this time of the year. I let them run in the stalk field 
and on blue grass, and eat anything they can get. It is good to change sheep 
around, but I have obviated this by letting them have free range of all my pas- 
ture land— if it is 400 acres, so much the better. 



390 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Beeler, Yoti don't limit them to fifty in a flock ? 

Mr. Nelson. No, I do not. I let them go together, but I have other stock also 
with them. 

Mr. Quick. If we have only one kind of sheep, it is all right ; but if we have 
different kinds of sheep, and bucks and ewes, we have to have different pastures. 
It seems to me we would have diflSculty in that case, but if he only has grades he 
don't experience this difficulty. Of all animals, the sheep is the most delicate and 
particular about food, grass as well as grain. After they run over a pasture a few 
weeks they get tired of it, and they renew their appetite by changing to a fresh 
pasture. 

Mr. Nelson. I don't wish to be understood that I let my bucks run together 
with the rest of my sheep. I never use tar among my sheep in connection with 
Bait. I salt every few days. They require much salt. They will take a little 
every day if they had it. 

Mr. Conner. My experience, when I was actively engaged in breeding sheep, 
was with grade Cotswold, and was similar to that of Mr. Tomlinson. Eegardiug 
the disposition to sell off and quit the business, some fiockmasters said, during the 
pendency of the Converse tariff bill, that they hoped for the restoration of a bet- 
ter condition of tariff rates on foreign wools, that in their opinion the present 
tariff affected the price of wool three or four cents on the pound. I had some cor- 
respondence with thoi^e who were engaged exclusively in the business, and I have 
had some correspondence with the fiockmasters, since the defeat of the Converse bill, 
who expressed themselves as being hopeful, with the intention of hanging on to 
the business, while some seem to think the profit in sheep was not so great at pres- 
ent as in other branches of husbandry. 

Mr. C. A. Howland. I do not attach so much importance to the tariff question, 
as relating to the price of wool, as some others. People make a great blow some- 
times about little things. If there was any profit in keeping sheep when wool wag. 
twenty-five cents per pound three or four years ago, there is profit to-day at twenty 
cents per pound. Everything else has come down in the same ralio. There is no 
good reason to assign for selling off our flocks of sheep ; overproduction is the 
/starting point of this. There has been an overproduction in many things by the 
American people, which often occurs; they enter in it with a zest, giving their 
whole soul to manufacturing implements and raising wool, and out-do any other 
people. This small matter of two cents a pound should not affect the sheep hus- 
bandry. While so many are seeking to get ou! of the sheep business, it is the very 
time for us to step right in, and have a good lot on hands. We will make money 
if we do. I have stejiped out and in again. My advice is to "Stand by your guns,"' 
and in a few years you will make a good thing of sheep raising. 

Mr. Smiley. I can not say much of interest to the Society. I breed a small 
flock ; I have full blood Merino, and also some high-grade Cotswold and Leicester. 
I use Merino buck on my long-wool ewes. My idea is to produce a general pur- 
pose sheep, one that will produce a fair yield of wool and mutton combined. My 
flak last season was half and half divided. My sheep averaged 8| lbs., when 
clipped, for the Merino, and the long-wool a little less than 8 lbs. I would cross 
with Oxfordshire. I use pure buckf. I sold my wool last year at an average of 
twenty-tvro cents per pound. 



WOOL growers' association. 391 

ifr. Aikman. I would rather handle a Shorthorn bull than a sheep. There ia 
no money in them for me at present, owing to the low price of wool. My faiher 
and I were in partnership in the sheep busine■^s. He retired from the farm, and I 
could not attend to all. I preferred hogs and cattle to sheep. If we take the right 
kind of care of them, and the price of wool is ample, there is some money in 
them. 

Mr. Harkness. I breed Cotswold sheep, and am better pleased this year than I 
ever was. I make it a rule to take good care of my sheep. A year ago a manu- 
facturer gave me a little information on the subject of wool. I was not aware that 
wool exposed to the weather was of better qualiiy than " stable " wool. I had a 
different opinion, but he said he would rather buy wool that had been expo^-ed to 
the weather. This winter I am not taking so good care of them, and the wool is 
cleaner and nicer than when keeping them in the stable. I do not keep many 
sheep — say thirty to fifty breeding ewes. My choice is Cotswold. They produce 
more wool and mutton than any other sheep. I sold my wool last spring at 
Knightstown, for 23 cents per pound. My breeding ewes averaged from eleven to 
twelve pounds of wool. I made 60 cents a month per sheep, or $6.00 a year. Sheep 
will pay better with wool at 20 cents a pound and the increase than any stock I 
handle, besides keeping down weeds and briars. 

Mr. Beeler. What reason did they assign for the wool not being so good when 
housed ? 

Mr. Harkness. The fiber was not considered so good. 

Mr. Mitchell. The sheep are being sent to market from our part of the State. 
The farmers are discouraged. When we got 25 and 30 cents a pound for wool, it 
would do very well. I sold last year at 18 cents a pound. I think the best cross 
Mr. Nelson could get would be a Shropshire buck to put with his flock. They are 
a good wool and mutton sheep. There seems to be a pernicious fashion of painting 
sheep up with yellow ochie for fairs. Go where you may, you will find the sheep 
" doctored " up in this way. It is all wrong. I move that a committee be 
appointed to draft resolutions regarding the tariff". 

Mr. Hinvland. I am opposed to such a committee. My opinion is, we can pro- 
duce wool as cheap as anybody else. The present price of wool may seem cheap 
to what it was twenty years ago. During the war it was as high as 40, 50, and even 
60 cents a pound. We can produce wool as cheap as any other country. Our 
pastures are ample, and we need not fear England or Germany, or any of those 
countries of the Old World. I shall vote against the motion. 

Mr. Darnell. I am in favor of Mr. Mitchell's motion, and shall support it. 

Mr. Nelscm. I am a tariff" man. We can not rdiy-e sheep and wool under the 
present tariff". I shall support Mr. Mitchell's motion. I should like to see the 
tariff" restored as it was. 

Mr. Mitchell. I am astonished that those gentlemen will say we can raise wool 
as cheap as in Australia— in that country where land and labor are so cheap. The 
United States Congressmen are our servants, and we should try to have them 
adjust this tariff" question satisfactorily to us. 1 am decidedly in favor of giving 
expression on that question, so our law-makers may know the wishes of the wool 
growers of Indiana, 



392 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Dr. Conkle. I am in favor of asking Congress for protection ; if we do not ask 
we can not receive. We have not come to the time that we can be put down, and 
we must be protected with all our labor, and if we ask protection we will get it. 

3Ir. Howland. It is good to have sheep pastured on the ground; here is where 
a part of the profit comes in, notwithstanding our land is worth from $30 to $40 
an acre. 

The motion prevailed, and the Chair appointed Messrs. Mitchell, Nelson and 
Tomliution as committee on tariff. 

On motion, the following committee was appointed to prepare a programme for 
next meeting, consisting of Messrs. Dungan, Harkness and Nelson. 

A vote of thanks was tendered Secretary Heron of the State Board for his ef- 
forts in securing rates on the various railroads for members attending the conven- 
tion. 

Convention adjourned until 9 o'clock to-morrow. 



FKIDAY MORNING SESSION. 



Convention met at 9 o'clock, President Beeler in the chair. 

The reading of the minutes of the previous session was dispensed with. 

ELECXrOK OF OFFICERS. 

The result of the balloting was : 
President — Hon. Thomas Nelson, Bloomiugdale. 
Vice President — John Tomlinson, Shelbyville. 
Secretary — I. J. Farquhar, Winchester. 
Treasurer — J. L. Thompson, Arcana. 

Mr. Dungan. I regret very much that those persons whose names appear on 
the programme are not here; it often places us in a bad position, as we come here 
to hear tlios* subjects discussed which are full of interest to the wool growers. 

Mr. Levering. I am not well prepared to give my ideas regarding the Shrop- 
shire. I am young in the business, but learning all I can by gathering ideas from 
others. It is a matter pf great importance to know the difierence between the 
Shropshire and Southdown. They are sometimes difficult to distinguish. I want 
some one to write an essay characteristic of the difference, so 1 may know some- 
thing more about them. 

Mr. Hoivland. I should like to have Mr. Dungan give us some knowledge on 
the Shropshire, not the Shropshiredowns. 

Mr. Dungan. I have talked too much in these meetings in former years and 
am trying to quit off a little. I have been a member of this association longer 
than any one present, and feel, and always have felt an interest in the success of 



WOOL growers' association. 393 

this association. In relation to the Shropshire, ray experience is quite limited. I 
have only been keeping Sliropshires two yeare. I imported twelve head of ewes in 
1882 — fine specimens of the Shropshire breed brought from England. If I under- 
stand what produced the original type of the Shropshire, it was a cross of the 
Cotswold on what is called the 'Morfe Common," which derived its name from a 
tract of country comprising about 600,000 acres called the Morfe Common.* This 
breed was a small horned sheep inhabiting that country. Mr. Stewart has given 
us some account of the Shropshire, as old a breed as the Southdown, but never con- 
sidered distinct enough in England to receive a premium until 1842. We have a 
history of the Southdown as far back as in the seventeenth century. . Like all 
other breeds, they have been selecting the best rams to couple with the ewes to 
produce an ideal type combining mutton and wool. The Oxford sheep are pro- 
duced by a cross between the Cotswold and Hampshiredowns, but the character- 
istic of the Cotswold is nearer than the other sheep. The head and general form 
of the Oxford sheep resembles the Cotswold. The Cotswold possesses the power of 
transmitting the good qualities to the offspring. The Oxford sheep is the cross 
on the Cotswold and Hampshire down, and it is a grand sheep, larger than the 
Southdown or Shropshire; in fact, it is the largest of the downs. In relation to its 
adaptation to the wants of the people, I have no doubt but it is one of the b(st, 
yet they do not produce as heavy fleece or carcass as the Cotswold. 

Mr. Nelson. Is this Morfe Common sheep identical with the black-faced sheep? 
Mr. Dungan. It is a black-legged sheep. It was produced in England, instead 
of Scotland. 

Mr. Nelson. My knowledge is limited in that matter. If that sheep is identical 
with the Scotch sheep, there is not much change. I have my doubts as to the true 
origin of the Shropshire sheep, as there would be no down in their mate at all. It 
was quite customary, in raising their early lambs, to select Scotch sheep, Bakewell 
or Leicester, and all become white-faced. This Morfe Common sheep is new to me. 
Mr. Iloviand. I would like to hear a general discussion on the origin 
of the Shropshire sheep. It is something that I am interested in, and I came 
here to learn about it. I am disappointed, in view of the fact that we have not 
come to any definite conclusion regarding the origin of this sheep. I suggest, if 
the committee has not completed the programme, that they continue Mr. Thomp- 
eon as an essayist for next meeting, and ask him to prepare a paper on this subject. 
Mr. Leverincj. I notice quite a number of breeders are favorable to the black- 
faced sheep. I confess that I like the black face the best It is tiie most distinc- 
tive feature between the Southdowss and the Shropshiredowns. Sometimes it is 
difficult to define the features on the Southdowns, Shropshiredowns and Oxford- 
downs. The best feature of the Shropshire is they have thin ears and well set back 
on the neck, and have a bunch of hair between the ears. I should like, as has 
been suggested, that Mr. Thompson, in his address next year, give us the distinctive 
cross of the Shropshire and Hampshiredown sheep. We do not call the Oxford a 
down sheep. Mr. Pruitt thinks it is a cross of the native black sheep, so there 
seems to be a ditTerence of opinion in this respect 

*Thi8 statement refers to England as it was a century ago. 



394 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Dungan. In my record book there is a very valuable note, takeh from an 
address by one of the most prominent men of England. Perhaps it would be per- 
tinent to read it here. 

[The article in question was here introduced and read to the convention, but is 
missing.] 

Mr. Nelson. I am convinced more than ever that the Shropshire breed don't 
come from the black sheep of the northern regions of England. People and stock 
don't spread around there like they do here. The climate is different. The very 
kind named in that article are in the south part of England. 

Mr. Dungan. I will stick close to Mr. Stewart's works. He has done more than 
any man in the United States to investigate the origin of sheep. I am convinced 
when I handle and look at the Shropshire that there is certainly a cross of long 
wool in them. 

Mr. Mitchell. We get the black face from the Southdown. The Southdown is 
the orijjinalor of the black face sheep. Those long horned sheep, accustomed to 
the hills of Scotland, are a hardy variety. They inhabit the hills of that country, 
and are known by the peculiarity of their horns. To my knowledge in the low 
lauds the larger sheep have predominated, but in the Grampian hills the Cheviot 
sheep are there in immense lots. The Southdown has been from time immemorial 
a good shtep in England and Scotland. The Oxford is a more recent oro^s. The 
Hampshire is an older sheep than any. The Oxford and all the downs sprang 
from the Southdown. 

Mr. Dungan. The Oxford is produced from a cross with the Southdown and 
Hampshiredown. 

Mr. Pruitl. The Shropshire has, without doubt, some Southdown blood. 

Mr. Mitchell. These sheep derived their name from the country in which they 
originated. It is the same way with cattle and hogs. Mr. Stewart claims the 
original type of the Shropshire. 

Mr. Dungan. You don't claim the Southdown is older than these other breeds, 
do you ? 

Mr. Mitchell. I think it is. 

Mr. Houiand. I think it would be well to discontinue this discussion and make 
it a subject matter for next meeting. It is a question of great interest as to the 
Shropshire. The origin is of so great a date that we can hardly tell much about 
it, but few authors have written on the subject. If the Shropshire is the best sheep 
we have, we may leave the subject, and let each one make it a duty to study this 
up lor next meeting. 

Mr. Dungan. Do you not think we may commit the same error we did in the 
Cotswold a few years ago? The Shropshire produces a class of wool used perhaps 
more than any other in manufactured goods. If all go into raising this sheep and 
neglecting